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Electric Railway Journal 

Volume 54 

July to December^ 1919 

McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 

Tenth Avenue at Thirty-sixth Street 
New York City 

Instructions for Use of Index 

This index is essentially a subject index, 
not an index of titles, and articles treating 
a number of different subjects are indexed 
under each of them. In addition, a geo- 
graphical reference is published wherever 
the article relates to any particular railway 
company, or to the state matters of any 
particular state. The geographical method 
of grouping serves to locate in the index 
any article descriptive of practices, condi- 
tions, events, etc., when the searcher knows 
the electric railway, city or state to which 
the article ' applies. Groupings are made 
under the name oi the city in which the main 
office of the cfimpany is located, but an ex- 
ception is made in the case of electrified sec- 
tions of steam railroads, such entries being 
made direct under the name of the railroad. 
City or state affairs appear direct under the 
names of the city or state involved. 

In the subject index, the alphabetical 
method is followed, and if there is a choice 
of two or three keywords the one most gen- 
erally used has been selected, cross refer- 
ences being supplied. Below will be found 

a list of the common keywords used in the 
index to this volume. This list has been sub- 
divided for convenience into thirteen general 
subjects, but the general subject headings, 
shown in capital letters, do not appear in 
the body of the index. As an example, if a 
reader wished to locate an article on power- 
driven tower wagons he would obviously look 
in the list under the general subject "Cars 
and other vehicles," and under this caption, 
only "Service and tower wagons" could 
apply to the article in question. The reader 
would therefore refer to this keyword under 
"S" in the body of the index. 

In addition to the groups of articles cov- 
ered by these headings the papers and re- 
ports from railway associations are grouped 
under the names of the various organiza- 
tions. Proceedings of other societies are 
indexed only in accordance with the subject 
discussed. Short descriptions of machine 
tools appear only under the heading "Repair 
Shop Equipment" and are not indexed alpha- 
betically, because of the wide choice in most 
cases of the proper keyword. 



Accidents (including wreclis) 
Accident claim department 
Safety-first movement 


Car design 

Cars (descriptive) 

Cars, one man 

Motor buses 

Motor cars, gasoline 

Service and tower wagons 

Work and wrecking cars 



Brakes and compressors 



Current collection 

Gears and pinions 






Strikes and arbitrations 

Wage increases 


Fare collection (including 


Fares, analysis of cost 

Fare increases (actual increases) 

Fare increases, reasons for 



Zone fare systems 


-Appraisal of railway property 




Market conditions 
Operating records and costs 
Maintenance records and costs 
Public service and regulative 


Heavy electric traction (general) 
High voltage d.c. railways 


Paints and painting 
Repair shop equipment 
Repair shop practice 
Repair shops 

Tests of materials and equipment 
Welding special methods 


Energy checking devices 
Energy consumption 

Overhead contact system 

Power distribution 

Power stations and equipment 
Substations and equipment 
Third-rail contact system 
Transmission lines 



Carhouses and storage yards 
Power stations and equipment 
Repair shops 

Substations and equipment 
Waiting stations 



Rail joints and bonds 

Special work 


Track construction 




Freight and express 
Operating practice 

Stopping of cars 
Traffic promotion 
Traffic surveys 


Municipal ownership 



No. 1, July 5 1 to 52 

No. 2, July 12 53 to 102 

No. 3, July 19 103 to 150 

No. 4, July 26 151 to 206 

No. 5, Aug. 2 207 to 266 

No. 6, Aug. 9 267 to 308 

No. 7, Aug. 16 309 to 368 

No. 8, Aug. 23 369 to 420 

No. 9, Aug. 30 421 to 462 

No. 10, Sep;. 6 463 to 508 

No. 11, Sep.. 13 509 to 552 

No. 12, Sept. 20 553 to 606 

No. 13, SepL 27 607 to 682 

No. 14, Oct. 4 683 to 704 

No. 15* Oct. 11, (Report 

Number) 1 to 130 

No. 15A, Oct. 11 705 to 742 

No. 16, Oct. 18 743 to 780 

No. 17, Oct. 25 781 to 812 

No. 18, Nov. 1 813 to 848 

No. 19, Nov. 8 849 to 880 

T.T on ( Nov. 8, 15, and 29 I aaa 
No. 20. c n iQ °°1 

I Dec. 6, Dec. 13 ) 

No. 21, Dec. 20 967 to 1028 

No. 22, Dec. 27 1029 to 1070 

*The publishers recommend that this 
Report Number be bound as an appendix 
at the end of the volume, as suggested in 
the notice about binding on page 705 of 
this volume. 

Accident Claim Department : 

— Claim adjuster's views on car operating econ- 
omy [Giltner], 1045 
— Discussed by Pacific Claim Agents Assn., 70 
— Experience with one-man cars [Dixon], 730 
— Psychology of claim adjustments [Handlon], 

Accident Prevention : 

— Comments on accident prevention campaigns 
[Proctor], 724 

— Comments on safety-first movement. 510 

— Co-operation of employees, '281 

— Discussed by A. E. R. C. A., 718 

— Discussed by National Safety Council. 790 

— Human factor in safe operation and mainte- 
nance of rolling stock [PhilUps], 793 

— London's buses [Jackson], *830 

— Methods in Philadelphia discussed liefore 
Federal Electric Railways Commission, r94 

— Nationalization and standardization of acci- 
dent prevention [Reid], 791 

— Phila-delphia Rapid Transit Co., school 
children campaign, *399 

— Safety before and after the war [Schneider], 

— Safety first campaign in Rochester [Mc- 

■ Dougall], 733 
— Safet.v organizations needed by every electric 

railway [Proctor], 793 
— Safety problem discussed by Pacific Claim 

Agents Assn., 69 
Accidents : 

— Comments on, by A, E. R. T, & T. Assn,, r55 
— Co-ordination of safety between transporta- 
tion and equipment departments [Jeffries]. 

— Discussed by A. E. R. C. A„ r83 

- — Electric railway hazards — causes, effects and 

remedies [McDougall], 693 
— Fixed schedule for injured persons other than 

employees [Tynan] . 731 
— Liability limitation advocated. 718 
— Minimized by one man cars [Walker], 163 
— Norwich, Conn., statistics 1917-1918. *281 
— Relation of speed to [Bennett], 733; [ Car- 
penter 1. 733 
— Telephone control system of assistance, '398 

— Accounting for depreciation [Jirgal] , 799 

— Accounting measures to meet business depres- 
sion in the industry [Sailers], r37 

— Clerical work of figuring coasting percentages 
[Johnson], '377 

— Preparation of data in connection with rate 
cases [Bitting], r39 

— Milwaukee zone fare methods, '619 

— Ticket department. Great Britain, London 
County Council [Jackson], '374 

Accounts, Standard Classification: 

— Report of Committee of A, E, R, A, A„ r85 


• — Advantages of continuity [Wright], 387 
— Comments on national campaign, 608 
— Comments on quality advertising, 608 
— Discus,sed by Illinois Elee. Rys. Assn., 159 
— Effect upon reduction of accidents [Wright], 

— For traffic [Buffe], '663 

— National advertisers can help [Boyce], c696 
• — $3,000,000 notes sold over counter in Mil- 
waukee, 734 

Akron, O. : 

— Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co,: 

One day strike causes suspension of local 
union president, 133 
Amalgamated Assn.: 
— Comments on decisions, 609 
— Comments of Mr, Huff on, 44 
— Sixteenth convention, 537 

Anici-ican Association of City Representatives of 
Electric Railways: 

— Constitution and by-laws, 735 

Amei-iean Electric Railwa.v Accountants Assn,: 

— Annual convention, *r85 

American Electric Railway Association : 

— Ainmal convention, *r3, r43 

— Committee of One Hundred, organization, 33; 
Prcigram, 54, 80; Report, r50; Work sum- 
marized. 943 

— Federal Electric Railways Commission (see 
Federal Electric Railways Commission) 

— Increase in dues approved, 1009 

— Income and expense statement, for 1918-1919, 

— Mail pay (see Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion ) 

— Mid-Year meeting: 

Comments on, 1039 

Program, 1050 
— Report of committees, r43 
— Report on federal legislation, r45 
— .Revision of dues. Comments on, 881 
— Status of manufacturers. Comments on, 510 
— Valuation committee report, 333 
American Electric Railway Claims Assn,; 
— Annual convention, *718, r83 
— Comments on efforts to reduce accidents. 705 
American Electric Railwav Engineering Assn,: 
— Annual convention, •rf)9 
— Committee assignments, 738 
— Committee on standards. Meeting, 444 
— Equipment committee, meeting of, 33 
— Standards, Status of [Cram and Brown], 

•507; [Welch], 933; [Chance], 931 
American Electric Railway Manufacturers 

Assn. : 

— Annual convention, r86 
— Association dissolves. r87 

American Electric Railway Transportation & 

Traffic Assn.: 
— Annual convention. •r53 
American Gear Manufacturers Assn. : 
— Semi-annual meeting. *889 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 
— Limitations in steam-turbine design, *933 
— Size of turbo-generator units, 882 
American Light & Traction Co. (see Muskegon, 


American Public Utility Co. (see Grand Rapids, 

American Railroad Assn,: 

— Adopts overhead crossing specifications, 944 
— Flat spots on wheels and worn axle collars 

discussed, 83 
American Rys, (see Philadelphia, Pa.) 
American Society for Testing Materials: 
— Annual meeting, 35 
Anderson, Ind,: 
— Llnion Traction Co.: 

Rehabilitating track joints with an arc 
welder, *S3 

Receiver requested, 700; Receiver denied. 

Appraisal of Railway Property: 

— Comments on. bv A. E. R. A., r44 

— Companies should know value of properties. 

Comments on, 883 
— Diseussed before Federal Electric Railways 

Commission. rlO.3 
— Economics and equity in valuation [Cooke], 


— International Ry.. Buffalo. N. Y.. 90 

. — Inventorying materials and supplies [Yung- 

bluth]. 'SIS 
— Pittsburgh Rys., 400. 436, 1017 
— Principles of valuation stated b,v A, E. R. 

A,. 333 

— Reproduction cost method. Diseussion of. 208 
— Valuation and accruing depreciation [Kealy], 

— Valuation of electric railway properties [Tay- 
lor], 128 

— Valuation to be determined by disinterested 

body [Sidl], rl39 
Argentine : 

— An'rlo-Argentine Tramway, Ltd,: 

Earnings, 453 
Ashes : 

— Handling bv steam conveyor vs. manual labor, 

— Losses due to combustible in refuse, •1006 
Atlanta, Ga. : 

— Georgia Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Considers one man cars, 961 


Auburn, N, Y,: 

— Auburn & S,vracuse Elec. R.R.: 
Pare situation, 546 

Auditing ; 

— Detroit, Mich,, situation, 698 
Aurora, 111.: 

— Aurora. Elgin & Chicago R.R,: 
Receivership, 409 


— Brisbane, Graduated fare system [Badger], 

— Melbourne lines prosperous, 954 

— Melbourne Suburban Railwa,vs electrified, ^903 

— Prineiple of differential wages in awards 

[Pringlel, •c943 
— Zone fare system [Jackson], 434 

Axles : 

— Reclaiming worn motor axle bearings, 505 
— Repairing worn axle collars Vj.v welding, 83 
— Standard design of [Chancel, 933 

Baltimore, Md, : 

— United Rys, & Elec. Co.: 

Car vestibuling, 933 

Fare increase granted, 736 

Wage increase, 407 
— Wa,shington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric 

Revenues jumped 86 per cent, 138 
Bay State Street Ry. (see Boston, Mass,) 
Bearings : 

— Bearing jig for locating dowel pin holes, 390 

— Insunjig prooer fits [Dean], 759 
— Reclaiming worn motor axle bearings, •565 
— Standard design of journals and journal bear- 
ing keys [Chance], 933 
— Standardizations discussed by American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Assn,, •r77 
Beaver Valley Traction Co, (see New Brighton, 

Belgium : 

— Electrification proposals [McCallum], 474 
Berk,shire Street Ry. (.see Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Binghamton, N. Y,: 
— Binghamton Ry.: 

Fare increase barred, 957 
Birmingham, Ala.: 
— Birmingham Rv.. T;t. & Pr, Co,: 

One man cars, 1064 

Wage increase and eight-hour day sought, 

Boston, Mass.: 

— Bay State Street Ry. (see Eastern Massachu- 
setts Street Ry.) 

— Boston Elevated Ry.: 

Boveott and strike follow increase in fare, 

Eight hour day and wage increase grant- 
ed, 190 

Fare situation, *547 

Financial statement for ,Tnne. 397 

Investigation by special commission, 445 

Plans for operation without telephones 
[Danal, '33 

Statement for quarter ending Sept. 30, 733 

Strike of car men, 134 

Ten-<'ent fare, 4.5 ... 
— Comparison of investments in transit facilities 

Philadelphia and Boston. 1001 
— Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry. : 

Commutation ticket, 077 

Declares war on jitneys 593 

Fare collection register. Hearing on, 413 

Fare collection hand register prohibited for 
open ears, 598 

Fare increase, 44 

Monthly tickets, 600 

Program with 100 one-man cars, 733 

Report of operation by Board of Trustees, 

Resumes service in Lawrence, 948, 1056 
Service to cease in Lawrence unless jitney 

curbed. 877 
Strikes threatened, 538 

Transporting shipyard workers at Quincy 
[Conant], •Ol 

— Former Commissioner Eastman testifies, 591 

— Middlesex & Boston Street Ry,; 
Ten-cent fare, .303 

— Motor bus service proposed. 456 

— Policemen's strike. Comments on, 553 

Brakes and Compressors: 

— Causes of brakeshoe wear, *938 

— One man car used by Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Co.. ^786 

— Portable air compressor. ^930 

— Regenerative brakins- with single-phase com- 
mutator motors, *910 

— Standard design of brakeshies, brakeshoe 
heads and keys [Chancel, 931 

— Standardiz.atinn of brakeshoes discussed by 
A. E. R. E. A„ r79 

— Troubles, *340 

Braking: , . , , 

— Transference of load m cars while braking 

[Burke], ^750 
Brazil : 

— Brazihan Traction, Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Income account for 1918, 596 
British Traction Co. (see Great Britain) 
Brockton & Plymouth Street Ry, (see Plymouth, 

Mass, ) 
Brooklyn, N, Y.; 
— Brooklyn City Ry. : 

Extra fare charge abandoned, 963 

Problem of deficit, 951 

Stock, Condition of, 805 
— Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co,: 

Certificates offered, 451 

Eight cent fare recommended by Stone & 

Webster, 843 
Electrically heated oven installed, • i-tb 
One-man cars. Details. *7S4 
Receiver appointed, 138 
Rentals in default, 676 
Situation of security holders, 955 
Strike unhistifiable, 367 
Strike, 395 
Strike settled, 353 
Surface lines segregated, 737 
Transfer case, 876 
Two-cent transfer authorized. 199 

Buffalo, N, Y,: 

— International Ry.: 

Appraisal of railway property, 90 

Fare increase situation, 456. 598 

Court of Appeals decides PubUc Service 

Commission can raise rates. 143 
Public Service Commission grants fare in- 
crease. 876 
Publicity campaign. 36 

Buildings and Structures: 

— Discussed by A. E, B,. E, A,. r78 

. — Standardization of [Cram], 567 

Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communication, r Page in Report Number for Oct. 11. 



[Vol. 54 

Camden, N. J.: , , , , 

, View of the New Jersey zone plan [Bleakly J, 


Capitalization: „, , ■ „ •, 

Discussed before Federal Electric Railways 

Commission, rl02 , , 

■ — Recapitulation, Comments on [Becker], rl26 
Capital Traction Co. (see Washington, D. C.) 

Car Construction: , . ^ i. 
Fabrication of cars in Detroit United shops, 

•863. *920 
— Light weight: 

Tendencies toward, 105 
— Making over open cars for prepayment fare 

collection, '113 
— Standard units, Comments on, 465 
— Steel pilots for all year service, *939 
Car Design : 

■ — Car weight. Comments on, 883 
— Car weight reduced 50 per cent [Dehorel, 

— Changes in Kansas City Safety car design, *998 
— Construction features of Detroit cars, '863; 

— Double-end pay-as-you-pass cars, *83 
— Interchangeable roofs on Detroit cars, *863 
— Italian car design experience, •909 
— London, England, Metropolitan District Rail- 
way's cars, '345 
— Longitudinal seats vs. cross seats. Comments 
on, 423 

— Motor car used for subway operation in 

Madrid, Spain, '21 
— One man cars used by Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

Co,, ^784 
— Spring operated trap door lift, 1046 
— Transference of load when braking [Burke], 


Carhouses and Storage Yards: 
— Chemical fire protection for the car-storage 
yard, ^753 

— ^Protection from fire. Comments on, 815 

— One man: 

Adaptability to zone fare system, 162 
Advocated by Beeler, 538 
Atlanta, Ga., Considered, 961 
Birmingham. Ala., 1064 
Change boards, ^342 

Cl:inn agents e.xperience [Dixon], 720; 

[Winsor). 721 
Cost of maintenance. Comments on, 883 
Davenport, la., earnings in [Roderick], 26 
Details of cars used by Brooklyn Rapid 

Tran.sit Co., '784 
Devices to speed up operation, 308 
Discussed bv Amalgamated Assn., 762; A. 

E. R. T. & T. A., 1:54; Beeler, r, 124; C. 

E. R. A., ^63; 64; Greenland, 67. 68; 

Illinois Elec. Rys. Assn., 160; Iowa Elec. 

Ry. Assn., 762; Jackson, rll7; Kealy, 

r31; Moore, 131; Thirlwall, 233; Walker, 

101, 662; Wells, r36, 983 
Earnnigs in various localities [Wells] 983 
Exprriences in Virginia. ^430 
Greater safety with less labor, 53 
Kansas City : 

Change in design, •998 

Successful [Kealy], r31 
Labor, Comments on, 370 
Los Angeles, Cal,, Advised by commission, 


Mirror for interior view. 348 
Moving picture film to illustrate operation, 

Negro problem solved in Richmond, 842 
Objection answered [Wells], 983 
One hundred ears ordered by Eastern Mas- 
sachusetts Street Ry.. 732 
Operation discussed by A. E. R. T. & T. A., 

Race segregation not found difficult in 

Raleigh. N. C, 877 
San Diego, Cal., Urged by Commission, 961 
Service and jitney competition [Cliflord], 


Solution for many difficulties, 209 
Standardization [Wells], r36 
Standardization, Comments on 743 
Stimulate summer riding, 153 
Terre Haute. Results in [Walker]. 161 

— British Electric Traction Co. cars, description 

of types [Jackson], *lo6 
— Car speed and equipment in Great Britain 

[Jackson], 432 
— Melbourne (Australia) Suburban Railways. 


— Time of passenger interchange on double end 

vs. Peter Witt cars [Sullivan]. •656 
— Types used in Portland. Me., •623 
— (See Work and Wrecking Cars.) 
Carolina Pr. & Lt. Co. (see Raleigh, N. C.) 
■ Central Electric Ry. Assn : 
— Boat trip. 1 
— Pall meeting, ^989, 1039 
— Summer convention, 25 
— Summer cruise, *63 

Central Metropolitan Railway of Madrid (see 

Spain ) . 
Charleston. W. Va. : 
— Charleston Interurban R.R.: 

Fare increase sought, 678, 1393 
Chicago, 111, : 
' — Chicago Elevated Ry.: 

Coasting results [Johnson], '277 

Chemical fire protection for the car-storage 
yard, '753 

Communication to Federal Electric Railways 
Commission, e236 

Chicago, 111. (Continued) : 

— Engineers report on earnings. 1016 

Improved lubrication with changed motor 
axle boxes, •757 

Lines tied up by strike, 249 

Strike settled, •293 

Wage and fare increase situation, 134, 189, 

— Chicago, Milwaultee and St. Paul Ry.: 

Cascade electrification. Comments on, 783, 

Locomotive tested, •827 
Watt-hour meter. Duplex dial, •403 
— Chicago Surface Lines : 

Commission orders reduced rate, 958 
Commission refuses to suspend 7-cent fare, 

Fare increase showing returns, 700 
Lines tied up by strike, 349 
Strike settled. •293 
Valuation filed, 542 

Wage and fare increase situation, 134, 189, 
361, 7.38 

— Fares in Chicago, Cleveland and Philadelphia 

compared [Busby], 795 
— Municipal ownership urged by mayor, 535, 


— Public takes an interest in wage increase, 207 
Cincinnati, O. : 

— Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Co. abandons 
lines, 496 

— Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora Electric 
Street Ry.: 
Cutting down operating expenses [Dehore], 

— Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Elements of franchise [Draper]. 'rlS 
— Ohio Elec. Ry.: 

Awarded judgment, 772 
Circuit Breakers: 
— Erratic setting, 749 
— Open air exhaust, ^487 
Cities Service Co. (see New York City) 
City planning: 

—Effect of fares on discussed by Dr. Whitten, 

Claim adjustment (see Accident Claim Depart- 
Cleveland, O. : 

— Cleveland and Youngstown R.R.: 

Inspected by Cleveland Engineering Society, 

- — Cleveland Railway Co. : 

Arbitration increase dividend, 1018 
Disposal of new issue of stock, 104 
Operating statistics compared with Phila- 
delphia and Milwaukee, 1918, rllO 
Service-at-cost plan. Operation of, 172 
Wage dispute, 38, 85 

Elements in a satisfactory substation build- 
ing [Lloyd], ^833 
— Pares in Chicago. Cleveland and Philadelphia 

compared [Busby], 795 
— Lake Shore Electric Railway System: 

Income statement and operating statistics, 
1917-1918, 543 
— Public Service Commission : 

Comments on railway situation, •383 
— Railway situation discussed by Sect'y Baker, 


— Rapid transit report, '71 

— Transit plans for future traffic, 1013, 1054 


— Arrangements made for coal supply, 768 

— Consumers urged to stock coal, 204 

— Cofiveyor at New Haven Power Station 

[Wood], ^312 
— Economical handling of (Finn.), 1047 
— Plan to combat coal famine. Comments on, 968 
— Prices up, quality dovni [Emery], '396 
Columbia, S. C. ; 

— Columbia Railway, Gas & Elec. Co.: 

Fare and wage increase, 142 

Offers to sell to the city, 946 
Columbus, O. : 

— Columbus Ry., Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Fare increase defeated, 414 

Strike settled, 535 
Commutator Slotter: 
— Device, *347 

— Device for use with double-spindle lathe, •578 
Competition : 

— Are high costs of service likely to develop 

permanent competition [Palmer], r9 
Compressors (see Brakes and Compressors). 
Concrete : 

— Use of fine-grained sand, 760 
Connecticut : 

- — Connecticut Public UtiUties Commission: 
Comments on railway situation, 333 
Report. 592 

Connecticut Co. (see New Haven, Conn.) 

Constabulary : 

— London buses special constabulary [Jaskson], 

Contracts for Joint Use of Track: 

— Obligations discussed by T. & T. Assn., r66 


— Troubles, .341, ^577 
Cost of Living: 
— Changes 1914-1919, 438 
Couplers : 

— Standard design of automatic couplers 

[Chance], 931 
— Swing of radial coupler on curves [Seelar], 

Credit : 

— Discussed before Federal Electric Railways 

Commission, r9T, rll2 
Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co. (see Portland. 



Dallas, Tex.: 
■ — ^Dallas Ry. : 

First surplus under service-at-cost franchise, 

Municipal ownership recommended, 291 
Sei-vice-at-cost plan, Operation, 173, 430, 
713; deficit, 952 

Davenport, la. : 

— Clinton. Davenport & Muscatine Ry. : 

Officials arrested for suspending service, 

— Tri-City Ry. : 

Earnings of safety cars [Roderick], 36 
Fare increase situation, 86, 93, 413 
Strike settled, 352 

Tie nipper for reducing spiking difficulties, 

Denver, Col.: 

— Denver Tramway Co.: 

City to regrant temporary six-cent fare, 139 

Fare collection [Doty], 40 

Fare situation, 95 

Mayor signs six-cent fare ordinance, 871 
Traction issues at special election defeated, 

— Fare situation. Comments on, 781 
— Referendum a failure in deciding fare situa- 
tion, 814 
Depi-eciation : 

— Accounting for depreciation [Jirgal], 799 

• — Accrued depreciation discussed by valuation 

committee. 324 
— Comments by former Commissioner Eastman, 


— Valuation and accruing depreciation [Kealy], 

Des Moines, la.: 

— Des Moines City Ry. : 

Adjuster for gear-case cover springs, *566 

Fare and wage situation, 354 

Open air exhaust for circuit breakers, '487 

Portable rivet heater, ^488 

Reclaiming worn motor axle bearings, '565 

Strike settled, 446 
— Inter-Urban R.v, : 

Car maintenance records facilitate work 
[McMahon], 'lig 

Detroit, Mich.: 

— Bond issue urged, 1054 

— Council upholds Mayor's opposition to service- 

at-eost. 1013 
— Council wishes to negotiate with Detroit 

United Ry.. 951 
— Detroit United Ry. : 

Completing audit. 698 

Construction features of new cars, •863 

Fare increase, 360 

Mechanical aids in handling fares, '317 
Restrained from increasing fare, '736 recommended by Board of 

Street Railway Commissioners, 730 
Shop methods used in building cars, ^921 
— Mayor disagrees with commission, 802 
— Rejects Tayler plan of railway operation, 872 
— Service-at-cost plan for fare arbitration, 84 
— Subway situation, 248, 673, 699 
District of Columbia; 

— District of Columbia Public Utilities Commis- 
sion : 

Comments on railway situation, 331 

Education : 

— University endowment campaigns. Comments 
on, 684 

Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry. (see Boston. 

East St. Louis, 111. : 
— East St. Louis Ry.: 

Fare case valuation, 841 
— Southern Traction Co. : 

Security holders seek redress, 953 
Electrification (see Heavy Electric Traction) 
Empire State R.B. Corp. (see Syracuse, N. Y.) 

Employees : 

— Anti-strike bill killed in Mass., 1014 

— Conductors point-of-view of car operating 

economy [Connely], 1042 
— Conductors to be instructed by traveling 

agents in Los Angeles, Cal., 807 
— Contracts with, discussed at Washington 

hearing, rlOO. 
— Co-operation in zone-fare system, Connecticut 

Co.. 857 

— Co-operation of employee and employer. Com- 
ments on. 684 

— Co-operation of the public, company and the 
men, 105 

— Co-operation with company, London's buses 

[Jackson], •820 
— Courtesy campaign started in Indianapolis, 


— Dispatcher's view of car operation economies 
[Harris], 1044 

— Effort of Twin City Rapid Transit Co. to 
make men citizens, •279 

— Headquarters in Chicago, ^442 

-^How a motorman can help in car operating 
economy [Sunderland!. 1042 

— How the master mechanic looks at car oper- 
ating economy [Seullin], 1044 

— Line seniority to continue in Kansas City 
(Mo.), 257 

— London County Council Tramways shares coal 
saving with car operators, 214 

— Operating department's training school, Loh- 
don's buses [Jackson], ^823 

— Refuse ownership in Reading, Pa., 836 

Abbreviations : *Illustrated, c Communication, r Page in Report Number for Oct. 11. 

July-December, 1919] 


^C?lse„tLuon""i^"mkna.ement discussed by 
-Re^ScS' "^h^on of union contract in 
_Se?tiS a"Snsf union in Los An.eles. 493 
—sirvic-e code in New Brighton.^ Pa., 503 

Street inspeetor [Dana I, .17,- 

-Ti-aininK of welders Comments on, 968 

Wasea extorted under threat. ^07 m t 

—Welfare work, Comments on, by T. & T. 

—W^mln' wkers, on electric railways dis- 
annearins in N'ew Tork City, 838 

-Workin? hours of motormen and conductors 
in Philadelphia [Mitten], crllO 

— (See also Labor) 

Energy Checking- DeviX'es; 

=K':s£uTTn- S Britain and Ireland, .521 

Watt-hour meter. Duplex dial, 'iO^i 

Enererv Consumption: rT„v„ 
—Coasting results on Chicasro Elevated [John- 

— Energy saJhig campaign. Springfield Street 
Ry., 34R , 

Light weight cars [Greenland], 68 

—London County Council Trarawiys shares with 
employees saving in coal due to more effi- 
cient car operation, *314 

— Safety cars [Roderick], 

Energy-Saving Devices: „ ^ , _ . 

—Comments on, by T. & T. 4ssn., r54 


^Bendin? a'nd straightening social work, »569 

Fairmont, W. Va.: 

— Monongahela Valley Tractic 

Fare increase. 144 , . , , 

Heavy freight service o^ a single-track, 
high-speed passenger lii^ r'-'-'-i 

—Car fan used by New Yoik Municipal Ry. 

Corp., ]009 
Fare Box Vaults: 
— Safe for, •758 , 
Fare Collection: . I . 

Boston Mass., Hearing on R(bke register, 413 

— Change boards on one-man crs '343 

Collection and registration o fares discussed 

by T. & T. Assn., r61 

Collection of zone fares [Kummerlin], r68 

— Comments on [Nash], 651 
—Comments on by A. E. R. T,& T. A., r54 
— Comments on improvements, 706 

Denver, Col., Methods [Dot], r40 

— Discussed [Sullivan], '6 5.3^ 

Efficiency of fare box [Suuian], '655 

Fare registering and ticketllssuing devices, 

•669 I 
— Great Britain [Jackson], 43g 

Hand register prohibited for>pen air cars m 

Mass., 598 

Making over open cars for jirepayment fare 

collection, *113 [ 
— Mechanical aids in sortina and wrapping 

used by Detroit United RyJ*317 
— Methods with frequent o&nges in rate 

[Doty], r40 
— Milwaukee. Zone fare collec m. 'eie 
— Newark, N. J., Zone fare, '40 
— Portland, Me., methods, •6! 
— Springfield. Mass., methods. '33 
Systems compared at Wasligton hearings, 


Ticket issuing machine for fare collection, 


— Zone fare scheme in New J^ey, 383 

Pare increases : 1 

— Auburn, N. Y., situation, 5 

— Baltimore, Md., granted, 736 

— Binghamton, N. Y.. barred, ir 

— Boston. Mass.. situation, 44, i, 302. •547 

— Boycott and strike follows f ; increase, 148 

Brooklyn, N. Y., abandons e:'a fare charge, 


— Buffalo, N. Y., situation. 14 

■Charleston. W. Va., sought, (J, 1066 

456, 598. 876 

61, 738, 843, 

Utilities Com- 


— Chicago, 111., situation. 189, 

— Columbia, S. C 143 
— Columbus, 0., defeated. 414 
— Connecticut. Report of Publ 

mission. 593 
— Croydon. England, Effect of 
— Davenport. La., situation. 86 
— Denver, Col., situation, 139. 
— Detroit, Mich., situation, 360 
— St. Louis, Mo., situation, 50 
— England. Leeds [Jackson] 
— Gary, Ind., granted, 875 
— Great Britain, Effect of [Jaclii], 433 
— Great Britain, London CouniCouncil, three 

section penny stage with rifractional fare 

tickets [Jackson], ^370 
— Holland, 80-100 per cent incite during war, 


— Kansas City, Kan.: Arbitra 

— Eight-cent fare, 303 
— Granted by Court, 957 
— Massachusetts situation [Ma^d], 438 
— Milwaukee, Wis.: 

Granted by Wisconsin Rail d Commission, 

Seven cents. 808 
— Muskegon, Mich., service stinded, 363 
— Necessity discussed by Pennsjania Assn., 14 
— Newark, N. J, 

History of recent fare incr|es, 383 

Serven-cent flat rate, 1022 
— New York City situation, 50646, 701, 738 

ackson ] , 
3. 412 
SO. 871 


Fare Increases (Continued) : 
— Norfolk, Va., six-cent fare sought, 301 
— Omaha, Neb., 363 

— Pennsylvania, Court sustains fare increase, 

— Philadelphia, Pa., earnings, 167 
— Pittsburg, Pa., earnings, 165 . 
— Pittsburg, Pa., on basis of valuation, 93 
— Portland, Me., earnings, 166 
— Portland Ore., Urged to save company from 

bankruptcy, 1031 
— Providence, R. I., situation, 413, 703 
— Quincy, 111., seven-cent fare, 96 
— Racine, Wis., fare decision in abeyance, 843 
— Results in several localities, 15 
— Rochester, N. Y., fare decision stands, 737 
— Roslyn, N. Y., situation, 738 
— Saginaw, Mich., voters approve fare increase, 


— St. Joseph, Mo., 1031 

— Sherbrooke, Can., People vote favorably, 677 
— Sought, 776 
— Syracuse, N. Y., 143 
— Value of good service, 1 
— Vancouver, Can., situation, 600 
— Washington, D. C, situation, 142, 736 
— Waverly, N. Y., seven cents granted by P. S. 
C, 197 

— West Virginia, situation, 645 
Fare increases. Reasons for: 
— Assets must be consei"ved [Sailers], r38 
— Comments [Storrs], 176 
— Credit and cost of capital [Sisson], 178 
— More passengers better than too high fares 

[Thomas], c737 
— Politicians try to befog the issue, 510 
— Ten-cent fare. 303 

— Adjustment of charges [Jackson], 436 
— Basis for fares, 15 

— Can service costs be collected from traveUng 

public? [Mortimer], •rl4 
— Comments on [Becker], rl24 
— Comments on fare question [Hedges], •r8 
— Commutation tickets in Pall River, Mass., 677 
— Continuance of 5-cent fare in Philadelphia 

[Mitten], crlll 
— Des Moines, la., situation, 355 
— Effect of changes in fare scheme [Mortimer], 


— Effect of dead capital on, *1001 

— Effect of ten-cent and seven-cent fares dis- 
cussed before Federal Electric Railways 
Commission, 3.39 

— Fare scheme must keep traffic cream, 465 

— Increased fare movement : 

Consumer must pay the cost. Discussed by 
Central Electric Railway Assn.. 65 

— Motor bus fares in London, England [Jack- 
son], '708 

— New York State, Reports from different cities, 


— One dollar weekly pass In Racine, 503 
— Pennsylvania Commission says public must 

understand service versus revenues, 369 
— Philadelphia & Milwaukee situation discussed 
before Federal Electric Railways Commis- 
sion by Mr. Mortimer, rl08 
— Plans suggested before Federal Electric Rail- 
ways Commission. 3.37 
— Political issue in Massachusetts, 769 
— Public pay deficits by taxation [Maeleod], 

— Public Service Railway (see Newark, N. J.) 

— ^Pyschological vs. mathematical means of in- 
creasing receipts. 949 

— Questionnaire of Federal Electric Railways 
Commission, 673 

— Readiness-to-serve system [Nash], ^647 

— Rush-hour vs. oft-liour passenger, c349 

— Sell transportation in small quantities, 389 

— Views on fare question, 960 

— Tickets used b.v British Electric Traction Co. 
increase travel [Jackson]. •155 

— Unit fares discourage short hauls [Jackson], 

— Wage and rate problems inter-dependent, 369 
— Zone fares (see zone fare systems) 
Fares. Analysis of Cost: 
— Comments on [N'ash], 647 

— Comparisons based on insuflJcient data are 

useless, 851 

— Discussion before Federal Electric Railways 

Commission, 163, 165, 338 
— Eight-cent fare recommended for Brooklyn, 

N. Y.. 843 

— Estimates of Wisconsin Railroad Commission, 
891, 893 

— Fares in Chicago, Cleveland and Philadelphia 

compared [Busby], 796 
— Five-cent fare may be possible by reducing 

certain operating costs [ Rifenberick ] , (36 
— Five cents will pay for only a five-cent ride, 


— Flat fare system summarized, 610 
— Flat rate vs. zone fare from city planning 

standpoint, 831 
— Net result of the 5-cent fare [Bibbinsl. *570 
— Phil.Tdelphi,a conditions anal.vzed, '999 
— Pre-war conditions versus today [Doolittle], 


— Public utility rates discussed by National 
Association of Railway and Utilities Com- 
missioners. 826 

— Synchronizing revenues with wage increases 
in Wisconsin, 967 

— Ten cent fare necessary In Pittsburgh, 257 

Federal Electric Railways Commission : 

— Appointment, comments, 103 

— Comments on hearings, rl, 153. 311. 369 

— Communication from Chicago Elevated Rall- 
w,a.vs in regard to electric railways, c236 

— Communication from T. E. Mitten, crlll 

■ — Communication from Thos. A. Edison in re- 
gard to electric railways. c229 

— Correspondence on Washington Testimony, 907 

Federal Electric Railways Commission (Cont.) : 
— Facts that should be brought out [Ainey], 

— Hearings from July 15 to July 18, ^124 
— Hearings. July 17-33, '163 
— Hearings, July 33-25, 238 
— Hciirings, Aug. 11-Aug. 19. 329 
— Hearings, Aug. 13-Aug. 15, '374 
— Hearings, final •r93 
— Oigauization and plans, 20 
— President expresses opinion on hearings be- 
fore, 240 
— Questionnaire, 573 

— Statistics, Distribution of capital stock, 438 
— Statistics on electric railway industry, •181 
— Summary of electric railways case, 284 
Financial : 

— Benefits of a consolidated system not always 

appreciated, 707 
— Cost of financing discussed in Pittsburgh 

valuation report, 437 
— Credit and cost of capital [Sisson], 178 
— Depreciation of electric railway dollar. 868 
— Effect of dead capital on fare. *1001 
— Pair return on railway properties [Bemis], 


— Fmancing problems in New York discussed be- 
fore Federal Electric Railways Commission. 

— Financing under different forms of franchise 

[Erickson], 243 
— First cost. Central Metropolitan Railway of 

Madrid, Spain, 22 
— Income statement of electric railways 1917- 

1918, 181 

— Investment Bankers Association discusses 

railway problems, 797 
— Milwaukee sells $3,600,000 of notes at home, 


— Need for large capital. Comments on, 180 
— Organization and capitalization questionnaire 

of Federal Electric Railways Commission, 


— Purchase of money. Federal Electric Railways 

Commission, ^164 
— Purchase ol one-man cars, car trust certifi- 

eates for [Greenland]. 69 
— Railway securities situation. 171 
— Simplification of corporate structures [Cooke], 


— Shrmkage of the nickel 1913 to 1919 

[Burke]. 513 
— Townspeople as stockholders, 371 
— Watered stock for widows untenable [Ainey], 


Fire Insurance : 

— Philadelphia methods described to Federal 

Electric Railways Commission, r94 
Fire Protective Apparatus: 

— Annunciators for fire sprinkler system, '937 
— Chemical engines on Chicago Elevated, ^763 
— Protecting car storage yai'd. Comments on, 

Fort Wayne, Ind. : 

— Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Co.: 

Foreclosure sale planned, 450 
France : 

— Electrification of railways, 867 

— Electrification proposals [McCallum], 474 

— Midi Ry.: 

Progress on electric Une across the Pyrenees 
mountains [Pahin], ^476 
— Paris Tramways : 

Conditions during war, 486 
Franchises : 

— City and railway partneiship. Different In- 
terests, 311 

— City representation in electric railways 

[Woods], 736 
— Cleveland, O., Comments on, by Secretary 

Baker, 339 

— Compared in Chicago, Cleveland and Philadel- 
phia [Busby], 796 

—Denver, Col., situation, 781 

— Fi-anchise rates are legislative and not con- 
tractual [Chamberlain]. 28 

— Franchise tax waived in Providence, R. I., 702 

— Inflexible franchise bad. Testimony before 
Federal Electric Railw.ays Commis.sion, 284 

— ^License tax. Request remission, 397 

— Michigan law governing, 593 

— Minneapolis franchise draft, 251 

— Norfolk, Va.. offers new franchise, 870 

— Pavement cost and maintenance. Comments 
on [Storrs], 176 

— Service-at-cost : 

Advaiitag:es [Erickson]. 244 
Can service costs be collected from travel- 
ing public [Mortimer], rl4 
Cincinnati francMse [Draper], *rl8 
Cleveland, O., Operation in, 172 
Contracts explained. 174 
Controlled by city but operated service-at- 

eost [Sidlo]. rl39 
Dallas. Tex. Operation In, 173 

First surplus. 1019 
Denver, Col., considered. 139 
Detroit. Mich., situation, 84. 730, 1013 
Economical operation. Comments on 

[Draper], 177 
Federal Electric Railway Commission. 169, 

171, 233 
Minneapolis, 636. 690. 1013 
Montreal franchise [Hutcheson], •r24 
Paducah. Ky. 447 
Pittsburgh, Pa., recommended, 437 
Plan [Culkins], 79 

Questionnaire of Federal Electric Railways 
Commission. .574 

Report on by A. E. R. A. r47 
— Youngstown franchise [Stevens], *r21 
— Seeks new franchise. 248 

— Subsidies recommended by receiver of Rhode 

Island Co., 436 
— Toledo Rys. & Lt. Co., ousted, 801 
— Toledo. O,, Ouster ordinance, 446, 973 

Abbrdtlons: •lUuBtrated. o Communication, r Page In Report Number for Oct. 11. 



[Vol. 54 

Freight and Express: 

— Compensation lor use of foreig-n track dis- 
cussed by A. E. R. T. & T. A., r66 

— Electric railway express discussed by C. E. 
R. A.. 989 , 

— Handling^ the freight business I Stanton], 982 

— Heavy freight service on a single track, high- 
speed passenger line [Cole], •806 

— Interurbau express [NiehoUJ, 993 

— Obstacles to electric express, 996 

— Possibilities of electric railway express serv- 
ice [Munton], 993 

— Possibilities of express business [Vaughn] 99/ 

— Possibilities of electric express service [Star- 
key], 995 


— Cost analysis discussed by American Electric 
Railway Engmeering Assn.. *75 

Gary, Ind. : 

— Gary Street Ry.: 

Double-end pay-as-you-pass cars. *83 

Fare increase granted, 875 
Gasoline vs. Electric Motor for Street Railway 

Service [Storer], r27 
Gears and Pinions : 

— Adjuster for gear-ease springs. '566 
— Gear cases electrically welded, '942 
— Heheal gearing discussed by A. E. R. E. A., 

— Helical gearing for railway motors [Phillips]. 

— Providing proper fit [Dean], 759 
— Putting on motor pinions discussed by Ameri- 
can Gear Manufacturers Assn., •889 
— Reiiitor<-ed su-spension for sheet steel gear 

cases. •1004 
— Troubles, 577 , ^.^ ^ 

General Gas & Elec. Co. (see New York City) 
Georgia Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Atlanta, Ga.) 
Girardville, Pa. : 

-Schuylkill Ry.: . . 

Fare increase approved by commission. 


Grafton, W. Va.: 

— Grafton Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Mav be included in merger, 772 
Properties taken over by Potomac-Edison 

Gas & Pr. Co., 1019. 
Proposal of sale, 409 

— Grafton Traction Co.: 

May be included in merger, 772 

Properties t:iken over by Potomae-Edison 

Gas & Pr. Co., 1019. 
Proposal of sale, 409 

Grade Indicator: 

— Effective homemade indicator [Harte], •933 
Grand Rapids. Mich: 
- — American PubUc Utility Co.: 
Earnings 1918-1919. 451 
Grand Trunk Ry. (see Stratford. Can.) 
Great Britain : 

— British Electric Traction Co. zone fare sys- 
tems [Jackson], •ISS , -on 
— British tramway conditions [Madgen], 439 
— Crovdon, Fare Practice in, •476 
— Edinburgh Corporation Tramways: 

Resourcclulness during coal strike, 1034 
— Energy-saving instruments, practice with. 

— Electrification j.roposals [McCallum], 474 
—Electricity supply bill, 35 
— Fare practice [Jackson], 341 . 
— Glasgow Municipal Tramways: Statistics. 

tr.afBc. revenues, capitaliz.ation, 1918, 'Si 6 
— ^Deeds Zone system in [Jackson], *7, '66 
— Sheffield Corporation Tramways and Motors: 

Results of motor omnibus service, 865 
— West Ham Corporation Tramways: 

Telephone control system, '397 
England (see Great Britain and London) 
Guelph, Can,: 

— Grand River Ry.: . . 

Citizens vote against agreement with city, 


IlUnois Electric Railways Assn.: 

— Summer meeting, 159 

Illinois Traction System (see Peoria, 111.) 


— Assessments of all railways. 42 

— Indiana Public Service Commission: 

Comments on railway situation. 334 
Indiana Rys. & Lt. Co. (see Kokoma, Ind.) 
Indianapolis, Ind. : 
— Indianapolis Street Ry.: 

Courtesy campaign started. 877 

Merger with IniJianapolis Traction & Termi- 
nal Co. approved. 42, 91, 500 

Sept. 1 dividend postponed, 497 
— Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co.: 

Merger with Indianapolis Street Railway 
approved, 91, 500 
Induction Regulator : 
— Experiences with [Wensley], '887 
International Railway (see Buffalo, N. Y.) 
Inter-professional Council : 
— Conference planned, 801 
Interstate Commerce Commission : 
— Hearings on mail pay concluded, 286 
— Mail pay hearings, 1002 
Inventories : 

— Inventorying materials and supplies [Yung- 

bluth], •SIS 
Investment Bankers Association of America: 
— Annual convention. 797 

— Regulating rates [Chamberlain], 28 
Iowa Elec. Ry. Assn.: 
—Committee meeting, 328 
— Midyear meeting, 541, 587, 761 


— Italian car design experience, *909 

— For handling railway equipment, 686 
Japan : 

— Imperial Government Rys.: 

— Electric railway transportation. Practices and 

tendencies [Sano], ^4 

Electrification favored. 516 
Joint Use of Tracks & Terminals: 
— Discussed by A. E R. T. & T. A.. r64 

Heavy Electric Traction: 
- — Advance in Sweden. 225 

— Comparison in America and Europe by French 

Commission. 834 
— Discussed hv N. Y. R.R. Club. 918 
— Electrification of French railways, 857 
— European proposals [McCallum], '474 
— ^Japan, Favored, 515 

— Progress on the Midi Railway across Pyrenees 
mountains [Pahln], •475 , . ,. 

Status of Swiss electrification [Ateliers de 

Construction Oerlikonl. c696 

— Status in Switzerland, 227 

■ — Switzerland, war time progress, 486 

Heaters : 

— Hot blast forced-ventilation heater. '290 

One man car used by Brooklyn Rapid Tran- 
sit Co.. *789 ^. , , 

High-tension Lines (see Power Distribution and 
Transmission Lines) 


Railways and Tramways. DifBeulties during 

war " Interview with H. F. Adams. 215 

Housing Conditions in Leeds, England [Ja<;k- 
son], *7 

Houston. Tex: . ... mirr 
Houston Elec. Co.. Valuation situation. 1017 


— Public Utilities Commission: 

Supreme Court upholds in fare question. 


Kansas : 

— Public Utilities Commission, Permits refund- 
ing of bonded and other indebtedness. 194 

Kansas City. Mo.: . . 

— Court grants 2% cent a mile rate, enjoining 
commission, 957 

— Kansas City. Clay County & St. Joseph Ry,: 
Employees request cancellation of union 
contract, 536 

— Kansas City Rys.: 

Abuse of transfers, 361 
Arbitrators recommend fare increase, 77b 
Changes in safety car design, ^998 
Eight-*nt fare, 303 
Line seniority to continue, 257 
One man car successful [Kealy], r31 
President gives dinner to directors and of- 
ficials, 870 
Prospects greatly improved, 1016 
Service not fares zoned in, 362 
Supreme Court upholds commission. 959 
Ticket situation, 775, 875 , , „ , 
Traffic changes suggested by J. A. Beeier, 

Transfers. Triplicate. •401 

Wage increase sought, 136 
Kokomo, Ind. : 
— Indiana Rys. & Lt. Co.: 

Air-operated tower for line cars. 

Safe for fare box. •758 

Stockroom records and practice, 
— Missouri & Kansas Interurban Ry.: 

Refunding permitted by Kansas 
UtiUties Commission, 194 

Legal (Continued) : 

— Joint use of tracks and terminals discussed by 
A. E. R. T. & T. A.. r64 

— Legal notes, 458, 

— Legislation slow in New York [Choate], 690 
— Massachusetts provides act for investigation 

of electric railways. 250 
— Nebraslta court decides railway must have 

adequate temporary rate pending appraisal. 


— Pennsylvania, Court sustains fare increase, 197 
— Prospective legislation on electric railways in 

Massachusetts, 698 
— Proposed legislation on electric railways, 838 
— .Referendum a failure in deciding economic 

questions, 814 
— Toledo mayor dispossesses Toledo Rys. & 

Lt. Co.. 133 
— Transit legislation to be considered in New 

York, 1055 
Lighting : 

— Detroit cars. •8()4 

— Electric lights to replace oil tail lights, ^939 
— Portable foot-candle meter, ^940 
— Portable utility Ught, •940 
Locomotives : 

— Midi Railway electric locomotives, character- 
istics [Pahin], •476 

— Modern electric loc omotives discussed by N. 
Y. R.R. Clab, 918 

— St. Paul cascade electrification. Comments on. 
782. 815 

London : 

— London buses carry large proportion of Lon- 
don traffic [Beaumont], c727 

— London Count} Council, Zone fare systems 
[Jackson], '210, •2-0 

— London County Council Tramways: 

More passenfers better than too-high farea 
[Thomas], o"'27 

— London Electri- Ry. : 

Coasting reccrds, 526 

— London letter, 34, 247, 490, 697. 729 

— London's tubes and buses [Jackson], *708- 

- — Metropolitan Estrict Ry. : 

Car design, 345 
— St. Paul loconotive tested, •827 
Los Angeles, Cal: 
— Los Angeles R. Corp.: 

Commission idvises one man cars. 959 

Wage increae, 251 
— Pacific Elec. ly. : 

Conductors o be instructed by traveling 
agents, 87 

Improving rounds a proflable investment 
[Elliott], 'ei? 

Normal series resumed, 493 

Substations, Fireproof construction [El- 
liott], 48 

Unusual m(hod for moving two 250-hp. 
boilers [lliott], '123 

Wage inereje, 251 
Louisville. Ky. : 
— Louisville & Iterurban Ry.: 

Reduction c suburban rates, 95 
Lubrication : 

— Improved wit changed motor axle boxes. 




— Comments on [Sidlo], rl30 

— Co-operative welfare vs. collective bargain- 
ing. Comments on [Weston]. 529 

— Discussed before Federal Electric Railways 
Commission. r98. rl03, rl07. rl08 

— Eflect of shortage on maintenance during 
war [Phillips], 19 

— Eight hour day. Comments on. 510 

— Labor aspect discussed before Federal Elec- 
tric Railways Commission. 238 

— Labor's contribution to solution of railway 
problem. 705 

— Organized labor, what it can do, 511 

- — Philadelphia conditions described before Fed- 
eral Electric Railways Commission. r94 

— Statistics on labor and Uving conditions 
[Emery]. •.394 

— Superfluous labor on two man cars 370 

— Union methods discussed before Federal Elec- 
tric Railways Commission, rl07 
(See also Employee) 

Lawrence, Mass. : 

— Railway service restored. 948. 1056 
— Service to be suspended unless jitneys are 
curbed, 877 

Legal : ^ m -r 

— Bill Introduced to abolish Department ol In- 
terior and substitute Department of Pub- 
lic Works, 38 . _, 
— Federal legislation. Report on. American Elec. 
Ry. Assn., r46 


Mahoning & Senango Ry. & Lt. Co. (see 


— Committee oi mail pay meets, 444 

— Compensation Report of American filec. Ry. 

Assn.. r46 
— Hearings on ail pay, 386 

— Mail pay heangs before Interstate Commerce 

Commissioi 1002 
— Postal zone w attacked by Senator Capper, 


— Public Utiliti Commission orders zone fares, 

Maintenance Dieulties During War [Phillips], 

Maintenance Rords and Costs: 
— Cost of one an car maintenance. Comments 
on, 883 

— Estimates ofVisconsin Railroad Commission. 

— Repair shop jrms used in Des Moines [Me- 

Mahon]. 19 
Management : 

—Cooperation ith merchant to develop trans- 
portation, omments on, 969 

— Discussed bire Federal Electric Railways 
Commissio rl06 

— Discouraged ailway official. Comments on 
[ Johnson]c44.3 

— Manager shol mix with ear riders. 153 

— Morale aftecl by adverse conditions [John- 
son], 289 

— Officials aiT'ed in Davenport, la., for sus- 
pending srice, 674 

— Promoting operation of directors and of- 
ficials. Kaas City, Mo.. 870 

— Simplificatio of corporate structures 
[Cooke]. 58 

Market Condits: 

— Aluminum. 1 

— Bond testerf965 

— Carbon bruf outlook promising, 811 
— Car equipmf 811 
— Coal. 964. '26 

— Coal strike iditions on Nov. 8. 811 

— Copper and ass. 50. 306, 506 

— Copper prods advancing. 148 

— Cotton and k. 306 

— Cotton and ste, 506 

— ^Cross arm a pin orders. 604 

— Difficulty osecuring supplies during war 

[Phillips] 9 
— Door and st control market active. 741 
— Effect of ren of steam roads. 879 

Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communication, r Page in 

July-December, 1919] 



Market Coiiditiojis (Continued) : 

— Fare device sales, tiS'Z 

—Glass, 100, (3852, 965, 1026 

— Hand brakes, 96i 

— Heaters, ,50, O.'iO. 741 

— High tension insulators, 306, 366 

— Insulating materials, 148, 840 

- — Iron culvert, 06,5 

— Jacks, Sales increasing, 704 

— Malleable iron delivery uncertain, 741 

— Metals, 51, 149, !J64, 367, 607, 606, 1068 

— Overhead fare recorder, 506 

—Paints and varnishes, 417, 779 

— Pole market fair, 779 

— Brake shoe demand heavy. 779 

- — Power saving devices. Sales, 682 

— "Price at delivery" policy, 604 

— Rails, 100. 366, 604 

— Railway accessories and supplies, 51, 149, 

264, 367, 507, 605 
— Railway motors, 263 
— Rubber covered wire, 879 
— Sanitary hand straps, 417 
— Scrap iron and steel. 879, 965 
— Shop machinery. 460 
— Sleet cutter sales increase, 964 
— Snow plow deliveries thirty days, 846 
— South American, 50 
— Steam-ttirbines, 306 
— Steel pole and tower, 204 
— Steel and iron products, 263 
— Steel, Electrical sheet, 551, 1026 
— Steel situation, 704, 879, 846 
— Ties, 417, 1068 
— Tie tamping tools, 964 
— Tool specialties. 506 
■ — Track brooms. 96,5 
— Track tools, 879, 846, 1026 
— Trolley wire, 1068 

— Uniforms, insignia and equipment. 366 

— Used equipment sales. 604 

— Water wheels, 551 

— Wire and cable, 460 

• — Wood tie reservations, 1068 

Manufacturers : 

— Report on, by American Elec. Ry. Assn., r47 
Massachusetts : 

— Anti-strike bill killed. 1014. 1030 

— Board of trustees report to Federal Electric 

Railways Commission, r96 
— Fares a political issue. 769 
— Fare situation, 311 
— Fare situation [Macleod], 428 
— ^Investigating Commission on electric railways: 

Appointment, 250 

Boston Elevated Ry. investigated. 445 
Electric railway essential, 538 
Report on railway situation. 871 
— Legislative solution of troubles [Macleod], 

— ^Prospective legislation on electric railways, 
698, 838 

— ^Proposed measures against strikes, 873 
— Public Service Commission: 

Public ownership a means of restoring 
credit [Macleod], 437 
— Temporary subsidies favored, 673 
— Wage increase. Effect of, 354 
Master Car Buildens Assn.: 
— Equipment standards of [Chance], 931 
Metal Tickets (see Tickets) 
Michigan : 

— Regulative commission for all public utilities 

provided, 591 
Middlesex & Boston Street Ry, (see Boston, 

Milwaukee. Wis.: 

— Fares increased by Wisconsin Railroad Com- 
mission, 891 

— Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co.: 
Notes sold at home. 734 
Operating statistics compared with Cleve- 
land and Philadelphia 1918, rllO 
Sells direct to investor, 497 

Thermit-welded crossings are long lived, •1008 
Wage increase and eight-hour day sought, 

Weekly pass in Racine. 502 

Zone fare system. *613, 808 
— Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Co.: 

Fare decision, 843, 891 
Minneapolis, Minn.: 
— Minneapolis Street Ry.: 

Accepts franchise, 580 

Franchise defeated, 1013 

Franchise draft, 251 

Service-at-cost defeated by people, 1013 
— Twin City Rapid Transit Co.: 

Educational publicity, *400 

Face plates for straightening and bending 
special work, '559 

Making American citizens, *279 

Serviee-at-cost franchise to be voted on. 536 

Spring switches and crossovers made from 
standard trolley frogs, *566 

Tower trucks and cars, *121 
Missouri & Kansas Interurban Ry. (see Kansas 

City, Mo.) 
Monetary Standard: 

— Described by Prof. Fisher at Washington 

hearing. •381 
Monongahela Valley Traction Co. (see Fairmont, 

W. Va.) 
Montgomery. Ala.: 

— Montgomery Light and Traction Co.: 

Report of receiver, 358 
Montreal, Can.: 
— Montreal Tramways: 

Franchise, Essential features [Hutcheson], 

Statement 1918-1919, 840 
Motor Buses: 

— Baltimore, Results of operation [Palmer], rl2 

— Boston, Mass., Service proposed, 456 

— Carry large proportion of London traffic 

[Beaumont], c727 
— Comments on, 553, 1030 

Motor Buses (Continued) : 
. — Comments on [Walker], 661 
— Competition from motor vehicles [Stone], 979 
— Competition with electric railways [Palmer], 

— Cost of operation compared with electric car 

[StorerJ, r27 
— Effect on electric railways [Storrs], 184 
— Pacts regarding motor-omnibus service, '926 
. — Jitney competition. [Eddy], 691 
— Lawrence, Mass., to be earless unless jitneys 

are curbed, 877 
— Leeds, England, situation [Jackson], "ll 
— London's tubes and buses [Jackson] — I, ♦708; 

II, »816 

— Motor trucks and electric road, [Watts], 980 
— Motor truck competition, [Whiteside], 981 
— New York City, Replace electric cars. 701 
— Opposed by Eastern Massachusetts Street 
Ry., 593 

— Pave the way for the tramway, British Elec- 
tric Traction Co. [Jackson], 157 
— Promotion. Comments on. 814 
— Rail lines vs. buses [Jackson]. 392 
— Results of service in Shellield. Eng., 865 
— Ruled out of Portland, Me.. 360 
— Service and jitney competition [Clifford], r35 
— Toledo, O., Operation during earless peroid, 

— -Truck competition discussed by C. E. R. A., 

Motor Cars. Gasoline: 

— Automobile arranged to operate on steel 

tracks, •976 
Motors : 

— Armature troubles [Dean], 759 

— Commutator slotting device for use with 

double spindle lathe, •578 
— -Drying armatui'es in electrically heated oven. 


— Gasoline vs. electric motor for street rail- 
way service [Storer], r27 

— Improved lubrication with changed motor 
axle boxes, •757 

— Locomotive motor for Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul. ^827 

— Lowering grid resistors to provide increased 
ventilation. ^938 

— Midi Railway across Pyrenees mountains 
[Pahinl. 476 

— Motor Hashing troubles, 577 

— Reclaiming worn armature dust collars, *937 

— Regenerative braking with single phase com- 
mutator motors in Switzerland, ^910 

— Remedies for brush holder and carbon brush 
troubles [Dean], 759 

— Remedies for worn split motor housings 
[Dean], 759 

— Removing armatures from box frame motors, 

— Safety motor starting switch, ^941 
— Standardization of parts discussed by Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Engineering Assn,, r68 
— Test of materials by manufacturers [Dean], 

Moving Picture Films: 

— Illustrating one man ear operation, ^668 
Municipal Ownership: 

— Advocated by governor of Massachusetts 
before Federal Electric Railways Commis- 
sion, *232 

• — Chicago, favored by mayor and committee, 
535, 769 

— Discussed by Public Ownership League of 

America, 895 
— Discussed before Federal Electric Railways 

Commission. 165, 238, 337, r96 
— Investment Bankers Association does not 

favor, 797 
— Is un-American [Bradley], •r53 
— Japan, Tokyo's street railway system [Sano], 


— Massachusetts Street Railway Commission 
opposed to, 871 

- — Means of restoring credit [Macleod] . 427 

— Municipal roads are not independent of eco- 
nomic laws. Comments on. 1031 

■ — New York City, possible development. 967, 

— Ontario Hydro Electric Commission recom- 
mends for Grand Trunk Ry., 491 
— Political platform, 309 

— Recommended before Federal Electric Rail- 
ways Commission. 285, 378 
—Recommended by Dallas (Tex.) Ry., 291 
— Rejected in Detroit. 872 

— Report of National Association of Railway 

and Utilities Commissioners. 824 
— Seattle municipal lines [Murphine]. 897 
— Seattle. Wash.. Profit, 496 

— Situation in San Francisco [O'Shaughnessy] , 

— Windsor. Can., to purchase railways. 873 
Muskegon. Mich.: 

— American Light and Traction Co.: 
Fare situation. 362 


National Association of Railway and Utilities 
Commissioners : 

— Annual convention, 824 

National Safety Council: 

— Americanization, Letter on. 70 

— Annual congress. Oct 1-4. 693 

— Eighth annual safety congress, 790 

— Organizing engineering' section, 908 

Newark, N. J. : 

— Public Service Ry. : 

Publicit.v of zone fare system, ^484 
Decision of War Labor Board, 37 
Flat rates restored, 1022 
History of recent fare increases, 282 
Requests return to fiat rate, 715 

Newark. N, J.: 

— Public Service Ry. (Continued) : 

Statistics, Traffic, revenues, capitalization, 

1918, •.376 
Zone fare loss fl. 500, 000, 1065 
Zone fare collection, 283 

Zone fare system, 268, 545, 599, •637, 

783, 843 , 
Zone fare system approved by Board of 

Public Utility Commissioners, 258 
Zone fare system abolished, 957 
Zone fare system. Obstacles encountered. 

Comments on. 744 
( See also New Jersey ) 
New Brighton, Pa.: 
— Beaver Valley Traction Co.: 

Employees service code. 603 
Successful traffic count, '865 
New Haven. Conn.: 
— Connecticut Co.: 

Comments on zone fare system, 707, 813 
Decision of case against New Haven & 
Hartford R.R.. Travelers Insurance Co. 
& Aetna Life Insurance Co.. 450 
Layout of coal handling equipment [Wood], 

Observations on zone sy.stem by N. J. Board 

of Public Utilit.v Commissioners, 1035 
One man cars. Change boards, •.3-42 
Preparing the public for zone plan. 1032 
Wood block. Relaying [Crandell], '316 
Zone fare system outlined, 807, •852 
Zone fare system protested, 1022 
New Jersey : 

— Boycott zone fare plan. 678 

— Board of Public Utility Commissioners: 

Depreciation of electric railway dollar, 868 
Observations on the Connecticut zone 
system, 1035 
— Refuse return to flat rate, 716 

Traffic checks of non-riders, 132 ^ 
(See also N'ewark, N. J.) 
New York City: 

— Buses replace electric cars, 701 
— Cities Service Co.: 

$100,000,000 second preferred authorized, 

— Citizens committee act on railway problems, 


— Commissioner Nixon offers solution to elec- 
tric railway problem, 292 

— Commissioner to urge merger as means to 
traction settlement, 946 

— Eighth Avenue R.R. : 
Organizing. 414 

Separation from New York Rys.. 139 
— Electric railway situation [Hedges], r6 
— General Gas & Elec. Co. : 
Changes in holding. 357 
— Interborough Rapid Transit Co. : 

Blue lights in subway, Significance of 

[Porr], •579 
City and railway partnership. Comments on, 

Deficits for 1920-1924. 497 
Earnings. July-September 1919, 840 
Financing problems discussed before Fed- 
eral Electric Railways Commission, 234 
No surplus possible until 1922 with 8-eent 

fare, 1058 
Passenger handling records 1918-1919. 775 
Report of Stone & Webster, 358 
Stone & Webster report on earnings, 1016 
$8,473,098 deficit in 1918. 1059 
Strike, 404 

Women workers disappear, 838 

$5,000,000 deficit. 953 
— Manhattan & Queens Traction Co.: 

Fare increases blocked by state supreme 
court. 701 

Fare situation, 546, 738 

Increased fares sought, 603 
— Municipal ownership suggested, 1012 
New York Municipal Ry. Corp. : 

4000 fans ordered for subway cars. 1009 
— New York. New Haven & Hartford R.B.: 

Income statements for 1918, 195 
— New York Rys. : 

Abandonments authorized, 596 

Abolishes transfers pending rehearing, 257 

Receiver recommends transfers be abol- 
ished, 46 

Receivership troubles. 3 

Separation of the Eighth Avenue R.R., 139 

Stone & Webster report on earnings, 1016 

Transfer case, 876 

Transfer order enforced, 301 

Tw^o^-cent transfer charge granted, 56, 94, 

Wage increase. 403 
$106,000,000 security shrinkage, 952 
— Politicians oppose fare increase. Comments 
on, 510 

— Public Service Commission : 

Comments on railway situation, *379 
— Railway representatives and public service 

commissioner confer. 731 
— Third Avenue Ry. : 

Amalgamated Assn.. Statement regarding, 

Transit legislation to be considered 1055 
— Tunnel to Staten Island proposed 803 
— Zone fare system politically barred •SSI 
— Zone f;n-e vs. multi-fares. Comments on. c868 
— 104.403.015 more passengers, 960 
New York Elec. Ry. Assn.: 

— Conference of electric railway executives 688 

• — Dinner. 978 

— Fall meeting. 977 

— Meeting of electric railway executives, 609. 

New York Railroad Club : 

— Annual electrical night meeting, 918 

New York Rys. (see New York City) 

Abbreviations : •Illustrated, c Communication, r Pag-© In Report Number for Oct. 11, 



[Vol. 54 

New York State: . , 
Consistant state policy is necessary [ChoateJ, 

Mayors confer on fares, 540 

Norfolk, Va. : 

— Virerinia By. & Pr. Co. 

Negro problem in relation to one-man cars 
solved, 8i;l 

New franchise offered, 870 

Net revenue declines, 9.54 

Requests fare increase, 301 

Safety cars experience [CallardJ, 
Northern Ohio Traction & Ltg. Co. (see 

Akron, O.) 
Norwich, Conn.: 
— Shore Line Elec. Ry. : . 

Abandonment before superior court 956 

Accident reduction campaig-ns, *2S1 

Making- over open cars for prepayment fare 
collection. *113 

Receivership, 804 , 

Resume sei-vice, 393 

Strike, 135 

Zone fare system described, 'baS 


Oakland, Cal. : 

Oakland & Antioch By.: . 

Afl'airs taken over by San Francisco & 
Sacramento R.R.. 1019 
San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys. : 

Ten day strike, 731 

Reorganization planned, &9t> 

^Promotion operation and dismantUng of an 

electric and steam line [Finger], • 1036 
Ohio Electric By. (see Springfield, O.) 

—Saving in the shop, '582. (see also Lubrica- 
tion ) 
Olean NY* 

Western New York & Pemisylvania Traction 

Strike and rioting, 448 

Omaha, Neb.: „ . 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry. : 

Fare situation. 363 

Nebraska Court grants adequate temporary 

rate pending appraisal, 199 
Skip stops continue, 701 
One-man cai-s (see Cars, One-Man) 

Ontario, Can.: . „ .i, 

Associated Municipalities of Northwestern 

Ontario : 
Organization, 81 
Ontario Hydro-Electric Ry. Assn.: 
— Annual meeting, 593 

Operating Practice: ^ , , ,,,,11 

Advantages of higher schedule speeds [Beeler], 


British Electric Traction Co., characteristic 

features [Jackson], 156 

— Claim adjuster's views on car operating econ- 
omy [Giltner], 1045 

■ — Dispatcher's view of car operation economies 
[Harris], 1044 

— Economies in car operation [Phillips], 1039 

— How the master mechanic looks at car oper- 
ating economy [SeuUin], 1044 

— Human factor in safe operation and main- 
tenance of rolling stock [Phillips], 793 

— Increasing schedule speed of cars [Dehore], 

— London County Council Tramways [Jackson], 

— London tubes and buses — XI [Jackson], '816 
— Questionnaire of Federal Electric Railways 

Commission, 573, 574 
— Schedules, layouts and routing [Beeler], rl32 
— .Superintendent's viewpoint on car-operating 

economics [Snell], 1045 
Operating records and costs: 
—Cutting down operating expenses on a small 

interurban road [Dehore]. •915 
— Discussed by A. E. R. E. A., •r74 
. — Economies in car operation discussed by A. E. 

B. A.. 991 

— Economies in Philadelphia discussed before 
Federal Electric Bailways Commission, r94 

— Estimates of Wisconsin Bailroad Commission, 

— Great Britain, London County Council [Jack- 
son], •37'3 

— Operating engineer frowns upon theoretical 
calculations, (Castig Lioni], c350 

— Pre-war conditions vs, today [Doolittle], r9 

— Statistics of Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., 

— Tower trucks, 133 

Overhead contact system: 

— Double trolley favored in Japan [Sano], '5 

- — Line materials, 417 

— Statistics on cost [Emery], •395 

Overload release for power driven machines, 346 

Pacific Claim Agents Assn.: 
— Annual convention, 69 

Pacific Electric Ry. (see Los Angeles, Cal.) 

Paducah, Ky. : 

— Paducah Traction Co. : 

Franchise, 477 
Paints and Painting: 
— Development in japanning, 443 
— Insulating vaxnish solvent chart, 348 
— Paint Mixer driven by remodelled air drill, 


. — Shop methods used in paint shop, •921 

Passenger Handling Becords: 

— Leeds, England [Jackson], ^12 

— New York City, 960 

— Time of passenger interchange on double end 

vs. Peter Witt cars [SulUvan], •656 
Pavement : 

— Hints on paving [Pindley], 764 

— Kreolite paving blocks and sectional paving 

for railway tracks, ^30 
— Pneumatic tools foi- breaking up pavement, 


—Pneumatic tools for breaking up pavement 

[Burn], *583 
— Public authorities should assume this burden 

[Tinnon], 331 
— Repairs to wood-block paving [Swartz], c588 
— Results with wood-block paving [Buehler], 


— Wood-block paving [Basmussen], c767 
— Wood-block, relaying [Crandell], *316 

Pennsylvania : 

— Public Service Commission : 

Comments on railway situation, 369, ^383 
— Receivership [Ainey]. 391 
Pennsylvania Street Railway Assn.; 
— Annual meeting, 13 

— Traffic studies of the non-riders discussed, 55 
Peoria, 111. : 

— Illinois Traction System: 

Operating costs and revenues, 89 
Philadelphia, Pa.: 
— American Rys. Co.: 

Fare increase earnings. 167 
— Comparison of invesments in transit facilities. 

Philadelphia and Boston, 1001 
— Pares in Chicago, Cleveland and Philadelphia 

compared [Busby], 795 
— Philadelphia Bapid Transit Co,: 

Comparison of fare situation with other 
municipaUties, 851 

Co-operative plan [Mitten], rll4 

Co-operative Welfare Association annual 
picnic, 537 

Correspondence on hearings before Federal 
Electric Railways Commission, 907 

Earnings increased, 537 

Gross revenue and increase 1903 to 1919, 

"L" nearing completion, 403 

Operating statistics compared with Cleve- 
land and Milwaukee. 1918, rllO 

President's transit plan attacked, 950 

Proposal to lease Frankford Elevated, 733 

Safety-first movement, ^399 

Service and fare conditions analyzed, ^999 

Traffic court [Horton], '75 

Wages readjustment, 36, 291 
— Practice described by Mr. Joyce before Federal 
Electric Railways Commission, r94, [Mor- 
timer], rl08 
Pittsburgh, Kan,: 
. — Joplin & Pittsburgh By. : 

Court grants 2 J cent a mile rate, 957 
Pittsburgh, Pa. : 
— Pittsburgh Bys.: 

Appraisals, 409 

Arbitration before War Labor Board, 38 

Court sustains fare increase, 197 

Fare increase earnings, 165 

Fare increase helpful, 735 

Bequests taxes remitted, 397 

Strike situation, 405, 445, 491 

Ten-cent fare necessary, 357, 302 

Valuation, 357, 436, 1017 

Valuation of property as basis for fare 
increase, 93 

Wage increase sought, 136 
— Street railway situation [Babcock], rll6 
— Subway planned, 85 

— Voters recommend loop plan be abandoned, 

Pittsfield, Mass.: 

— Berkshire Street Ry. : 

Receiver appointed, 496 
Plymouth, Mass. : 

— Brockton & Plymouth Street Ry. : 

Building special work with an oxyacetylene 
cutting and weldins outfit [Smith], ^317 


— Pole-pulling jack, ^941 

— Spacing for transmission line [Harte], ^563 

— Steel gain, •346 

— (See also. Transmission Lines) 

Portland, Me. : 

— Cumberland County Power & Light Co.: 
Car mile and ear hour earnings, ^624 
Fare increase earnings, 166 
Zone system, •631 

— Motor buses ruled out, 360 

Portland, Ore, : 

— Portland Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 
Fare increase sought, 776 
Higher fare urged to save from bankruptcy, 

Mr, Strandborg discusses the dollar, 596 
Wage situation, 403, 949 
Power Development : 

— Stimulus given to water power development 
in Sweden. 148 

— Water power development hastened in 
Sweden, 335 

— Discussed by American Electric Railway Engi- 
neering Assn., r71 

— Keeping up the troUey voltage [Place], 27 

Power Distribution : 

— Maintenance of high tension lines [Drabelle], 


— Melbourne (Australia) Suburban Railway, 

— Street and interurban railways [Drabelle], 


— Voltage surveys give information for varying 
station voltage, 976 

Power, Purchase of : . 

— Discussed by American Electric Railway Engi- 
neering Ass'n, •r74 

Power Stations and Equipment: 

— Air blast transformers. Maintenance of, "424 

— Automatic devices, Progress of, 370 

— Coal handling equipment layout at New 
Haven [Wood], •SIS 

— Dead gas pockets for protecting soot-cleaner 
elements, '936 

. — Discussed by American Electric Railway Engi- 
neering Ass'n, r73, 74, 76 

— Economies in Steam generating stations 
[Finn], 1047 

— Evaporating water in steam boilers, chart 
showing cost of, •586 

— Feed water regulator, *036 

— High efficiency of modem steam-turbme 
plants, 933 

. — Limitations in steam-turbine design discussed 

by A. L E. E„ •933 
— Measuring boiler draft conditions, 1008 
— Mechanical overload release for power driven 

machines, '346 
— Melbourne (Australia) Suburban Bailways 

electrified, ^903 
— Neglect of power plant fatal, 209 
— Steam condenser construction, 578 
— Underfeed stoker, automatic cleaning feature, 


— Unusual method for moving two 250-hp, boil- 
ers [Elliott], 133 

Power Transmission : 

— Conditions in Sweden, 226 

Providence, R.I,: 

— Rhode Island Co.: 

Earnings and operating expenses Jan. -June 

1919, 413 
Fare increase hearing, 412 
Public pay subsides, comments on, 426 
Results of higher fare, Washington testi- 
mony, 339 
Service suspended by strike, 191 
Six-cent fare, 702 

Publicity : 

— Accident prevention campaigns advocated, 719 
— Educational publicity of Twin City Bapid 

Transit Co., ^400 
— Effect of cartoons upon public sentiment, 850 
— Inform people through representatives, com- 
ments on, 849 
— International Bailway, 36 

. — Men with the nerve to tell the people the 
facts needed [Hedges], •rS 

— National campaign needed, 464 

— Newspaper most influential [Mullaney], 316 

— Preparing nublic for zone system in Con- 
necticut, ^852 

— Preparing the public for zone plan, 1032 

— Public education of railway facts urged 
[Pardee], *r3 

— Public Service Bailway for zone fares, '484, 

— Bailway utUity a good source [Mullaney], 


— Selling transportation, comments on, c534 
— Speak the speech of the people, comments 
on, 849 

— State facts to public [Ainey], 387 

— Straight-forward pubUcity bring results 

[Fredericks], 938 
— Value and necessity of [Burroughs], r90 
— When and where successful, 367 
— Zone fare system in New Jersey, ^484, ^638 
Publicity Agents: 

— Organize as committee of American Asso., r89 
Public Ownership (see Municipal Ownership) 
Public Ownership League of America: 
— Conference Nov. 15-17, 895 
Public Sendee and Begulative Commissions: 
— Commission co-operating with companies, 13 
— Commissions have failed properly to ad- 
minister the intent of the law [Schadde- 
lee], 340 

— Commission regulation at fault. Discussion 
before Federal Electric Bailways Commis- 
sion, 334, 335 

— Consistent state poUcy is needed [Choate] , 

— Constructive attitude, 798 
— Co-operation of commissions and municipali- 
ties. 688 

— Detroit mayor disagrees with commission, 802 
— Federal Electric Bailways Commission (see 

Federal Electric Bailways Commission) 
— Industrial conference should include electric 

railway industry, 509 
— Local versus state commissions [Eriekson], 


— National Association of Bailway and Utility 
Commissioners. Meeting, 824 

— New York Court of Appeals decides commis- 
sion can raise rates, 143 

— Begulation not a primary obstacle [Ainey], 

— Begulation should be simplified [Rifenberick], 

— Supervisory force, comments on by T. & T. 

Ass'n, r54 

Public Service By, (see Newark, N, J.) 

— Problems of Purchasing agents [Whiteford], 


Purchasing Agents and Storekeepers: 

— Organize as branch of Engineering Ass'n. r87 

Quiney, Til. : 
— Quiney By.: 

Seven-cent fare, 96 

Abbreviations: •Ulustxated. c Communication, r Page in Report Number for Oct. 11. 

July-December, 1919] 




Heat & Pr. Co., Fares 

Bail Joints and Bonds: 

— Bonds lor temporary and permanent track 

oonstruction [McKelway], 'H* 
— Bond troubles, 577 

— Button-head on terminal type [McKelway], 

— Expanded type [McKelway], 'llS 
— Joint without bolts, 'S-iS 

— Soldered bonds lor track bonding- [McKelway], 


— Age and its relation to tracks and cars, com- 
ments on, 71:5 

— Brinell hardness test for girder rails, com- 
ments on, 432 

— Chemical analysis [Cram], 113 

— Composite [Cram], 'llO 

— Composition of [Cram], '111 

— Cutting- rails with a power sawing- machine, 

— Curved rails, use of. Manganese steel in, 54 
— Girder rails, recommended designs [Cram], 

— Girder rail specifications revised (A. S. T. M. 
annual meeting), 34 

• — History and early types [Cram], '106 

— Length increases [Cram], '113 

— Making accurate measurements of railwear 
[Ferguson], •1006. 

— Rehabilitating track joints with an arc 
welder, '83 

— Selection of [Cram], '656 

— Sorbitic method of hardening, 'SD 

— Standardization of [Cram], '109 

— Statistics on selling price [Emery], '395 

— Third rail: Standardization drive, 3 

■ — ^Uses of oxyacetylene cutting and welding out- 
fit [Smith], '317 

Raleigh, N. C. : 

• — Carolina Pr. & Lt. Co. : 

Race Segregation with safety cars, 877 

Racine, Wis. : 

— One dollar a week pass started, 502 

— Wisconsin commission withholds fare in- 

creasfe, 843 
Reading, Pa. : 

— Reading Transit & Lt. Co.: 

Employees refuse ownership, 836 
Receiverships : 

■ — Aurora, Elgin & Chicago, R.R., 409 
— Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., 138 
— Pennsylvania [Ainey], 391 

— United Rys., St Louis, Mo.. 139; Court orders 
liquidation of indebtedness to War Finance 
Corp., 194 

Rehabilitation : 

— How the railways can be rehabilitated 

[Cooke], rl37 
Repair Shops: 

— Commutator slotting device for use with 

double-spindle lathe, •578 
• — Saving oil, •583 

— Stockroom records and practice, *861 

Repair Shop, Material and Equipment: 

— Choice of, comments on, 554 

— Commutator slotter, *347 

— Electrically heated oven, *746 

— Self-centering chuck, ^347 

Repair Shop Practice: 

— Discussion on slack adjusters, meters, wheel 
grinding, etc.. by Iowa Elec. Ry. Ass'n, 761 

— Handy shop carriage for fenders, *Q2,b 

— Maintenance kinks [Dean], 759 

— Maintenance of equipment [Sutherland], 766 

— Portable rivet heater. *488 

— Removing armatures from box frame motors 

Rhode Island: 

— Rhode Island Public Service Commission, com- 
ments on railway situation, 338 
Rhode Island Co. (see Providence, R, I ) 
Rivet Heater: 

— Portable for shop use, •488 

Rochester, N. Y.: 

— New York State Rys.: 

Fare decision stands, 737 
Roslyn, N. Y. : 

— New York & North Shore Traction Co.- 
Fare situation , 738 
Zone fare system established, 501 

Safety car (see Cars, one man) 

Safety-first Movement (see Accident Preventions) 

Saginaw, Mich. : 

— Saginaw Bay City Ry.: 

Voters approve fare increase, 776 
San Diego, Cal.: 
— San Diego Elec Ry. : 

Commission orders zone system and com- 
mends one man cars, 961 

Zone fare system recommended, 501 
St. Louis, Mo. : 
— United Rys. : 

Court orders liquidation of indebtedness to 
War Finance Corp.. 194 

Drag line car for handling track materials. 

Fare increase situation. 503, 599 

Maintenance of air-blast transformers *435 

Metal tokens popular. 961 

Notice of default served. 139 

Power contract upheld. 836 

Receiver's report. 955 

Vice-President re-views finances, 254 

Wage award changed, 769 

Wage increase, 404 

Where the six-cent fare goes, ,3.57 

St. Joseph, Mo,: 
— St. Joseph Ky., Lt., 

Increased, 1U31 
Sandwxeli, Windsor & Amhurstburg Ry. (see 

Windsor, Can.) 
San Fraiicisco, Cal,: 
— Municipal Ry. ; 

Depreciation fund situation, 450 
San Francisco & Sacremento R. R, : 
— Affairs of Oakland & Aulioch Ry. taken over, 


— Street railway situation [O'Shaughnessy ] , 896 
— United l-l. R. : 

Readjustment plan modified. 734 
San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Bys. (see 

Oakland, Cal.) 
Schenectady, N. Y.: 
— Schenectady R.v. : 

Fare situation, 689 
Schuylkill Ry. (see Girard-viUe, Pa.) 

— Glasgow Corporation Tramways: 

Income account, 1918 and 1919, 595 
Seattle, Wash.: 

— Municipal ownership successful, 496 
— Municipal Ry. : 

Financial report. April-June. 1919. 386 

Improvements planned, 1054 

Profits for May, 89 
— Puget Sound Traction, Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Purchased by city, 897 
— Seattle municipal lines [Murphine], 897 
— Tr,action snuation [Hanson], 386 
Service and Tower Wagons: 
— Air-operated tower for line cars, ^794 
— Tower trucks and cars at Minneapolis, *131 
Service-at-cost (see Franchises) 
Sherbrook, Can.: 

— People vote to increase fares, 677 

Shore Line Electric Ry. (see Norwich, Conn.) 


— Annunciators for fire sprinkler system, ^937 
— Blue lights and their significance in New York 

subways [Porr], '579 
— Combined signal and telephone box [Restof- 

ski], '901 
— Effect of electrification, 380 

— England, West Ham Corporation Tramways 

telephone control system, '397 
— Equipment of York (Pa.) Railways increased. 

— -Maintenance, observations on [Nachod] , 442 
— Operating without telephones, Boston elevated 

Railway [Dana], *ZS 
Skip Stops (see Stopping of Cars) 
Southern Traction Co. (see East St. Louis, Ind.) 
Spain : 

— Central Metropolitan Railway of Madrid, sub- 
way nears completion, 'SI 
Special Work : 

— Consti-uction by oxyacetylene process [Smith], 

— Continuous rail crossing, •936 
— Face plates for bending and straightening, 

— Home made high speed trolley frogs, ^943 
— Labor saving tools useful [Findley], 763 
— Screw spike vs. cut spike, Comments on, 969 
— Spring switches and crossovers made from 

standard trolley frogs, 566 
— Switch construction [Smith], '318 
— Tests on holding power of railroad spikes, 


— Thermit-welded crossings are long lived, '1008 
Spokane, Wash.: 

— Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. : 
Court grants wage increase, 539 
Foreclosure, 840 

Springfield. Mass.: 

— Springfield Street Ry. : 

Energ,v saving campaign. '246 
Zone fare system described, *628 

Springfield, O.: 

— Ohio Electric By. : 

Observations and queries on safety car oper- 
ation [Moore], 131 

Standardization : 

— Applying salesmanship to the engineering 

standards, 465 
— Buildings and structures [Cram], 567 
— Cars, one man [Wells], r36 
— Classification of accidents, A.E.R.C.A., 
— Classification of accounts, A.E.R.A.C., 
— Danger of laxuess, comments on, 743 
— Engineering standards discussed by A.E.R.E.A., 


— Engineering standards. Report of A.E.R.A., r47 
— Equipment standards of A.E.R.E.A. [Chance], 

— Equipment standards of Master Car Builders' 

Assn., 931 
— One man cars considered [Kealy], r31 

Wells, r36 

— One man car discussed by Central Electric 

Railway Assn., 64 
— One-man cars. Comments on, 743 
— Present status of engineering association 

standards [Welsh], 932 
— Rails [Cram], '109 
—Report of A. E. R. E. A., r70 
— Use of standards by railways. 3 
— Use of standards may be stimulated [Schrei- 

ber], 34 
— Way matters [Cram], 568 
— Wheels, 568 

— Wheels, rails, bearing, motors and brake shoes 

discussed by A, E. R. E. A., •r77 
Standards of Service: 

— Prewar versus today [DooUttle], rlO 
Staten Island, N. Y.: 

— Tunnel to New York City proposed, 803 
Statistics : 

— Accidents, Shore Line Elec. Co., 1917-1919. 

— Automatio substation operation data on, 
[Cadle]. 980 

— British tramway expenses, 1913-1914 [Mad- 
gen] , 440 


Statistics (Continued) : 

— <Jar equipment increase, 1914-1919. 169 

— Census figures for 1917 show distress. 195 

— Census Report lor 1907-1917. 91 

— Comparison of Philadelphia, Milwaukee and 
Cleveland discussed by Federal Electric Rail- 
ways Commission, rllO 

— Coasting records in Great Britain, 5;20 

— Cost of capital, 1909-1919 [Sisson], 179 

— Distribution of capital stock. 438 

— Electrical equipment and supply parts in- 
crease, 1914-1918, 167 

— Expenses and earnings, 1913 and 1919, com- 
pared [Burke], 513 

— Fare revision and passengers carried, Croydon, 
England [Jackson], •469 

— Income statement of electric railways, 1917- 
1918, 181 

— Monthly statement of electric railways, 40, 
356, 398, 411, 498, 544, 597 

— Preparation of data in connection with rate 
cases [Bitting], r39 

— Presented to Federal Electric Railways Com- 
mission, •ISl 

— Promotion operation and dismantling on Ohio 
line [Finger], •1036 

— Raw material increase, 1913-1919, 168 

— Records show railways plight [Emery], *394 

— Shrinkage of the nickel, 1913 to 1919 
[Burke], 513 

— Traffic returns, Croydon, England [Jackson], 

— Traffic revenues, capitalization of Glasgow 
compared with Public Ser-vice Bailwa.v, ^376 

— Traffic statistics for British Traction Co. for 
1917 [Jackson], •ISS 

— U. S. and German export to Sweden, 1909- 
1913. 148 

Steam Turbines: 

— Limitations in design discussed by A. I. E. E., 


— Underfeed stoker. Automatic cleaning feature, 

Stockrooms : 

— Records and practice, *851 
Stopping of Cars: 

— Comments on by A. E. R. T. & T. A., r54 
— Effect upon economies in car operation 

[Phillips] 1039 
— Omaha, Nebraska, Continue, 701 
Stratford, Can.: 
— Grand Trunk Ry. : 

Government ownership proposed. 491 
Strikes and Arbitrations: 
— Akron. O., 133 
— Boston, Mass.: 

Boycott and strike follow fare increase, 198 

Eight-hour day with increase wage granted. 

Situation, 134 

Strike threatened. 538 
— Brooklyn, N. Y.: 

Settled, 353 

Union recognition, 395 

Unjustifiable, 367 
— Chicago, 111., 349. 393 
— Columbus, O., settled, 535 
— Davenport, la., settled, 352 
— Denver, Col., 139 
— Des Moines, la., settled, 447 
— Discussed before B'ederal Electric Railways 

Commission. rl06 
• — Discussed by Amalgamated Assn., 538 
— Facing a strike [Hedges], r7 
— Newark. N. J., 37 
— New York City, settled. 404 
— Nor-svich, Conn.. 135. 393 
— Oakland. Cal.. Ten day strike, 731 
— Olean, N. Y.. Rioting. 448 
— Pittsburgh, Pa., situation, 405, 445, 491 
— Proposed measures in Massachusetts, 873 
— Pro-vidence, R. I., Ser-vice suspended by strike, 


■ — Public opinion. Effect of. 368 

• — Toronto, Can.. Strike settlement. 191 

— Urbana. 111., 87 

— Windsor, Can., 86, 394 

Subsidies : 

— Comments on State Subsidy, 607 ^ 
— Massachusetts Street Railway Commission ap- 
proves, 871 

— Massachusetts, Temporary subsidies favored, 

— Municipalities lessen assessments. Comments 
on, 849 

— State subsidies for electric railways [Perkins], 

Substations and Equipment : 

— Air-blast Transformers, Maintenance of. *434 

— Automatic substations on New York state 
railways [Cadle]. ^985 

— Automatic substations, permit salvaging of 
copper [Dehorel, ^916 

— Discussed by A. E. R. E. A., r73 

— Experience data of automatic substation opera- 
tion. Comments on. 967 

— Experiences in development of automatic sub- 
stations [Wensley], ^886 

— Fireproof construction [Elliott], 487 

— Melbourne (Austraha) Sviburban Electric 
R.ailwavs. •904 

— Selection of [Drabelle], 765 

— Some elements in a satisfactory substation 
building [Lloyd], •833 

Subways : 

Cleveland. O.: 

— Plans outlined, 1013 

— Detroit, Mich.. Engineers' report. 348 
Proposed, 673, 699 

— Proposed in Cleveland, '71 

Sweden : 

— Electrification work and waterpower develop- 
ment to be hastened, 335 
— Railway development, 327 

— Stimulus given to waterpower development, 
1 '8 

Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communication, r Pape in 



IVol. 54 


— Regenerative braking- with single phase com- 
mutator motors, *910 

— Status of Swiss electrification. 227 

— Status of Swiss electrification [Ateliers de 
Construction Oerlikon], 0-096 

— War time progress in railroad electrification, 

Syracuse, N. Y. : 
— Empire State R. R. Corp.: 
Fare increase. 142 


— Comments on [Bullock]. 186 

— Comments on [Jackson], rl23 

— Relief from taxation [ Rifenbenek] , bb 

Problems before Federal Electric Railway 

Commission, 173 

—Questionnaire of Federal Electric Railways 
Commission. 574 


— Shop methods used in building cars, 931 
Tennessee : 

• — Regulative commission for all public utilities 

provided, 591 

— Valuation terms defined by American Elec. 

Ry. Ass'n, 233 
Terre Haute. Ind.: 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 


One man cars, results of operation. 161 

Tests of Equipment and Material: 

— Brinell hardness test for girder rails, com- 
ments on. 433 

■ — -Manufacturers tests of materials for railway 
motors [Dean]. *3'Z1: comments. 309. 

Third-rail (see Rails, Third-rails) 

Tickets: , . 

— Automatic ticket selling machine, '941 

— Eastern Massachusetts Street Rys.. Monthly 
tickets. 600 

— Identification checks at Youngstown. *3?*' 

— Increase traffic [Bufte], 665 

— Kansas City, Mo., to be used. 875 

— London's buses [Jackson], '818 

— Metal tickets: 

Denver. Col. [Doty], r40 
Popular in St. Louis. 96 

Substitute for multiple coins [McLaughlin], 

Stimulate sale of. c489 
— ^Zone fare ticket forms: 

Brisbane. Au.stralia [Badger], •483 
Connecticut Co., *855 

Croydon. England [Jackson], "469, •470 
Foreign countries [Cusani], '478 
Milwaukee. '616 
Newark. N. J.. ^484, ^643 
New London, Conn.. '687 
Portland, Me.. ^635 
Springfield. Mass.. '630 
• — Zone fare metal tickets in New London. Conn., 


— Selection of [Findley], 763 

— Statistics on selling price [Emery], ^395 

— Tie nipper for reducing spiking difficulties, 

Toledo. O. : 

— Statements by company and city. 837 
— Toledo Rys. & Lt. Co.: 

Cease operation, situation, 801, 837 

Mayor dispossesses company, 133 

Ouster order overruled. 348 

Ouster ordinance suspended, service-at-cost 
plan. 447 

Paving blocks and sectional paving for 
railway tracks, •SO 

Plan suggested for temporary resumption of 
senice. 947 

Resumption of service, situation. 870. •970 

Review of railway situation causing sus- 
pension and finally resumption of service. 

— Toledo Traction Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Bonds called for payment, 1019 
Toronto. Can. : 
— Strike settlement, 191 
Track Construction: 

— Bonds for temporary and permanent track 
construction [McKelway], ^114 

— Clearance in special track work layout, com- 
ments on, 464 

— Cost of recent construction [Storrs], 176 

— Lessen first cost and increase maintenance 
cost, comments on. 555 

— Selection of rails [Cram]. 'o56 

— Solid manganese for heavy traction [Findley], 

— Standard track sub-construction, comments on, 

— Using lever throw-tyiie track switches for 
safety. ^987 

— Way matters discussed by A. E. R. E. A., r80 
Track Maintenance: 

— Discussed b,v Iowa Elec. Ry. Ass'n. 761 

— How to maintain track [Findley]. 763 

— Lessen first cost and increase maintenance 

cost, comments on. 55.5 
— Long track life, comments on [Cooper]. c533 
— Monolithic construction discussed by Illinois 

Electric Railwa.vs Ass'n. 159 
— Removins- track with a small force of laborers 

[Drury]. 906 
— 'War time progress [Tinnon], 220 
Track Regulation : 

— Joint use of discussed bv A. E. R. T. & T. A, 

r64. r66, r67 
— Terms and gaging points discussed by A. E. 

R. E. A.. •r77 
Tractor for freight haulage. '347 


— Code of principles discussed by A. E. R. T. 

& T. A.. r55 
— Conditions in Cleveland, 0., *72 
— Croydon. England [Jackson], ^467 
— Effect of density and regulation upon eco- 
nomies in car operation [Phillips], 1039 
— Regulation, comments on by A. E. R. T. 

& T. A.. r54 
— Rush hour vs. off hour passengers, c349 
— Transporting shipyai'd workers at Quincy by 

"Split shift" plan [Conant], ^62 
Traffic Promotion : 

— Advertising for traffic [Bufte], '663 
— Business follows service [Walker], *660 
— Comments on. 607 

— Co-operation by the public [Beeler], rl23 
— Great Britain [Jackson], 432 
— Higher schedule speeds [Beeler], 658 
— Merchandizing, 391 

— Methods of overcoming jitney competition 
[Eddy], 691 

— Railways must sell their transportation [Jack- 
son), c5.s7 

— Tickets increase rides [Sullivan], ^654 
— Ticket selling campaign in Kansas City, Mo., 

Traffic Sun'c.vs : 

— Comments on. 511 

— Comments on by A. E. R. T. & T. A.. r54 

— Eflect of earless peiiotl in Toledo upon busi- 
ness houses and theatres, 974 

— Methods used by Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
System [Horton], ^75 

— Motor buses in London, England [Jackson], 

— Successful count on the Beaver Valley Trac- 
tion Co., •865 

— Traffic checks of non-riders [Eddy], el33 

— Traffic studies of the non-riders discussed by 
Pennsylvania Street Railways Ass'n., 55 

Transmission Lines: 

— Cap for mounting apparatus on the insulators, 

— Laying out a complete line [Harte], ^561 
— Maintenance of high tension lines [Drabelle], 

— Tinning test for copper wire (A. S. T. M. 

annual meeting), '25 

— Abuse of the transfers in Kansas City, 361 
— Comments on [Sullivan], '655 
— Cost of giving [Storrs], 176 
— Croydon, England, Tickets [Jackson], ^469 
— Discussed by Wisconsin Railroad Commission, 

— Great Britain. London Count.v Council. 
GraJited only with higher fares [Jackson], 

— Kansas City triplicate transfer. •401 
— New York City: 

Abolishes transfers pending rehearing, 357 

Two-cent charge for, 55. 94, 199 

Two-cent order enforced, 301 
New York State Supreme Court to hear 

case for abolishing transfers, 876 
— Portland, Me.. Practice. •634 
— Springfield, Mass.. '(131 
Transportation Department: 

— London County Council Tramways staff. ^213 
Trenton. N. J.: 

— Pennsylvania-New Jersey Ry.: 

Commutator slotting device for use with 
double spindle lathe. ^579 

— Grade crossings and trespassing discussed by 
National Association of Railway and Utili- 
ties Commissioners, 834 

Tri-City Ry.: (see Davenport. la.) 

Trolley Wires (see Overhead Contact Systems) 

Tunnels : 

— New York City to Staten Island proposed, 803 
Turbo-Generators : 

— Sizes possible to build, discussed by A. I. 
E. E.. 882 


United R.R. (see San Francisco. Cal.) 
United Rys. (see St. Louis. Mo.) 
United Rys. & Elec. Co. (see Baltimore. Md.) 
Union Traction Co. of Indiana (see Anderson, 

Urbana. III. : 

— Urbana & Champaign Ry., Gas & Elec. Co.: 
Strike, 87 

Vancouver. Can.: 

— British Columbia Eke. Ry. : 

Fare situation, 600 
Valuation (see Apprai-;ill 
Varnish (see Paints and Painting) 
Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Norfolk, Va. an<» 

Richmond. Va.) 


Wages : 

— Budget basis discussed before Federal Elec- 
tric railways Commission 1100 

— Compared in Chicago, Cleveland and Philadel- 
phia [Busby]. 79i; 

— Compensation for eflj -ient management. 14 

— Depend on rate of production, comments on. 

— Discussed by Amalgamated Assn.. 527 
— Japan [Sano]. 6 

— Low-er for high schciule speeds [Beeler]. 658 
— One man car operate ? [Greenland]. 68 
— Principle of differer(ial wages in awards 
[Pringle]. c943 

Wages (Continued) : 

— Public takes an interest in wage increases, 207 
— Questionnaire of Federal Electric Railways 

Commission, 574 
— Wage and rate problem inter-dependent, 269 
— Wage scales must be on reasonable basis [Par- 
dee] , 2 

— Will wages continue to increase? 152 

Wage Increases : 

— Baltimore, Md., 407 

— Birmingham. Ala., situation, 351 

— Boston, Mass.. 134, x-190 

— Chicago, 111., 134, 189 

— Cleveland. O., 85 

— Columbia. S. C. 142 

— Kansas City, Mo., 136 

— Los Angeles. Cal.. 251 

— Massachusetts: Effect of. 354 

— Milwaukee. Wis., situation, 351 

— New York City, 403 

— Philadelphia. Pa., 36. 291 

— Pitt.sburgh. Pa,. 136 

— Portland. Ore., situation. 403 

Granted, 949 
— St. Louis. Mo.. 404. 769 

— Spokane, Wash., court grants increase. 539 
War Labor Board: 

— Award in case of New Jersey Public Service 

Railway vs. employees. 37 
— Cases settled. 353 
— Dissolved. 353 

— Pittsburgh. Pa., decision in. 39 

Warsaw. Ind. : 

— Winona Interurban Ry. : 

Steel pilots for all year service, ^939 
Washington. D. C: 
— Capital Traction Co.: 

Fare increase granted. 736 

Value for rate making fixed. 543 
— Washington Ry. & Elec Co.: 

Collateral ordered sold. 254 

Fare increase sought, 142 

Fare increase granted. 73(3 

Value for rate making fixed. 543 
— Washington. Virginia Ry.: 

Fare increase granted. 736 
Washington. Baltimore and Annapolis Electric 

R. R. (See Baltimore, Md.) 
Water Power (see Power) 
Wausau. Wis. : 

— Wisconsin Valley Elec. Co.: 

Wood block paving [Rasmussen], c767 
Waverly. N.-Y.: 

— Waverly. Sayre & Athens Traction Co.: 

Fare increase granted by P. S. C, 197 

— Melbourne (Australia) Suburban Railways, 

— Mowing weeds on interurban right-of-way 

[Main], ^569 
— Standardization of way matters [Cram]. 568 
Welding. Special Methods; 
— Arc welding set, '585 
— Building special work [Smith], ^317 
— Electric arc [Unland], ^343 
— Experiences with thermit insert welding 

[Robeson], ^987 
— Recent progress in are welding discussed by 

N. Y. R. R. Club. 919 
— Shop thermit welded crossings are long lived. 


— Use and misuse of arc welding apparatus [Un- 
land]. 756 

— Welding wrought iron and steel [Unland]. 581 
Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction Co. 

(See Olean, N. Y.). 448 
Western Society of Engineers: 
—Meeting Sept. 8. 529 
West Virginia : 

— Governor requests rate truce. 545 

West Virginia Tr. & Elec. Co. (See WheeUng. 

W. Va.) 
■WheeUng. W. Va.: 

— West Virginia Traction & Elec. Co.: 

Receiver appointed. 358 
Wheels : 

— Building up flat spots. 83 

— Standard designs of [Chance]. 933 

— Standardization of [Brown], 568 

— Limiting features In life and performance of 
chilled iron wheels, ^755 

— Terms and gaging points discussed by Ameri- 
can Electric jRailway Engineering Assn.. 

Window Sash Brake Device. '246 
Windsor. Can.: 

— Sandwich. Windsor & Araherstburg Ry.: 

Purchase by municipalities approved. 873 
Strikes, 86. 299 

Winnipeg. Can.: 

— Workers sympathetic strike. 36 
Winona Interurban Ry. (see Warsaw. Ind.) 
Wisconsin : , , 

— Railroad Commission recommends synchron- 
izing revenues with wage increases, 967 
Wisconsin Valley Elec. Co. (see Wausau, Wis.) 
Work and Wrecking Cars; . , 

— Drag line car for handling track materials. 

York. Pa.: 
— York Rys. : 

Signal equipment increased, •120 
Youngstown, O.: 

— Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Franchise, essential features [Stevens]. r21 
Zone fare collection, ^327 

Zone fare systems: 

— Adaptabihty of one man cars, 152 

— America [Jackson], rl20 

— Auditing on London buses [Jackson J. '816 

— Australia [Jackson] . 434 

— Advertise zone boundries. 371 

— Brisbane. Australia [Bade-er]. ^481 ' 

— British Electric Traction Co. [Jackson]. ^104 

Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communication, r Page in Report Number for Oct. 11. 

July-December, 1919J 



Zone Fare Systems (Continued) : 

— Camden's view ol the New Jersey zone plan 

[Bleakly], rl2li 
— Collection at Young'ston, *3'Z7 
— Collection of zone fares [ Kuemmerlein] . r()8 
— Cong-estion reduced [Jackson], 39'.i 
— Comments on operation, 81.'! 
— Croydon, England [Jackson], *466 
— Discussed by I)r. "Whitten, 831 
— Discussed by A. E. R. T. & T. A., r62 
— Discussion of less than five-cent first zone 

fare, P. S. R. A. annual meeting-, 166 
— Effect upon distributing population [Madgen], 


— Future fare system for small cities [Emery], 

— Great Britain [Madgen], 440 
- — Great Britain [Jackson], 4.31 
— Increase postage [Jackson], rll9 
— Kansas City, Mo., service not fares zoned in. 

— Leeds, England, operation in [Jackson], •7.56 
—London County Council [Jackson], ^310, •270 
- — Milwaukee, satisfactory, '615 

System upheld, 808 
— Necessity for [Jackson], 393 

Zone Fare Systems (Continued) : 
— Newark, N. J., 545, '637, 843 

Abolished, 957 

Losses, .11,500,000, 1065 

— New H.-ivcn, Conn.: 
Comments on, 707 

Observations on by N. J, Board of Public 

Utilities Commissioners, 1035 
Opposed bv peoi)le, 1033 
System outlined, 807, •853 
— New Jersey (see Public Service Railway be- 
low ) 

— Obstacles encountered: 

Comments on, 744 

Operation in, 599, 715 

Plan approved, 258 

Situation, 715, 783 

Transfer-less zone fare system, 268 
— Objections [Jackson], 435 
— Politically barred in New York. ^380 
— Portland, Me., described, •621 
— Practice in British cities, 34 
— Preparing- the public for, 1033 
— Pubhcity, '484 

Zone Pare Systems (Continued) ; 

— Public Service Railway of New Jersey: 

Comparison of zone fare rate with fiat rate, 

History, 545, •6,37, 678, 808, 843, 1032 

— Reports on by A. E. R. A., r47 

— Results in Rhode Island, testimony at Wash- 
ington hearing, 339 

— Roslyn, N. Y., 501 

— San Diego, Cal.: 

Ordered by Commission, 961 
Recommended, 501 

— Shore Line Electric Railway system described. 

— Side lights on the zone fare — cong-estion or 

diffu.sion? [Jackson], •376 
— Springfield, Mass., described, •638 
— S.vstem outlined and practice discussed, 610 
— Ticket forms, foreign [Cusani], ^478 
— Zone fare system vs. horizontal fare unit 

increase [Spring], 18 
— Zone fare system vs. multi-fares in New 

York, c868 

— Zone fares for small cities [Jackson], e 1051 
— Zone markings on Shore Line Electric Rail- 
way, ^686 


Ainey, William D. B.: 
— State the facts to the public, 387 
— What the Federal Commission should bring 
out, 389 

Ateliers de Construction Oerlikon. Status of 
Swiss electrification, c696 


Babcoek, E. 'V. Street railway situation in Pitts- 
burgh, rll6 

Badger, J. S. The graduated fare at Brisbane, 
Australia. ^481 

Beaumont, W. Worby. Buses carry large pro- 
portion of London traffic, c'737 

Beeler, John A. : 

— Advantages of higher schedule speeds, ^657 
— What ails the street cars, rl33 
Bemis, Edward W. Fair return on railway prop- 
erties, rl35 

Bennett, H. K. Written discussion on Mr. Car- 
penter's paper. Speed and its relation to 
accidents, 733 

Bibbins, James R, The net result of the 5-cent 
fare, *570 

Bitting, Clarence R. The preparations of data 
vs. connection with rate cases, r39 

Bleakley, E, G. C. Camden's vie-w of the New 
Jersey zone plan, rl36 

Boyce, W. H. National advertisers can help, 

Brown, H. L. The wheel situation, standardi- 
zation of, 568 

Buehler, Walter. Resultis -with -wood block 
pa-ving, e767 

Buffe. F. G. Advertismg for traffic, *m3 

Bullock, Charles J. The taxation of electric 
railways, 186 

Bvu-ke, T. F. Transference of load in cars when 
braking-, *750 

Burke, W. H. The nickel in 1913 and 1919. 

Burr. Walter P. Pneumatic tools for breaking 
up pavement, *583 

Burroughs. W. Dwight. The value and neces- 
sity of publicity, r90 

Busby. L. A. Fares in Chicago, Cleveland and 
Philadelphia compared, 795 

Cadle, C. L. "Automatics" on the New York 
State Railways, '985 

Callard. H. N., Jr. Safety car experience in 
Virginia, ^430 

Carrawa.v. Leake, All electric railway publicity 
agents should be in Atlantic City, c588 

Carpenter, E. C. Speed and its relation to ac- 
cidents, 733 

Castiglioni, F. Why does the operating enfd- 
neer frown upon theoretical calculations. 

Chamberlain. Wm. Regnlating rates in Iowa. 38 
Chance. T. A. Equipment standards of the A. E. 

R. E. A.. 931 
Choate. Joseph K. A consistant state policy is 

needed. 689 

Clifford. C. H. Service and jitney competition, 

Cole. A. B. Hea-yy freight ser-yice on a single- 
track, high-.speed passenger line, •866 

Conant, W. B. Transporting shipyard workers 
at Quincy. '61 

Connely, Charles. A conductor's point of view 
on car-operating economy, 1043 

Cooke, Charles B. Jr. 

— Economies and equity in valuation, 911 

— Simplification of corporate structures, ^858 

Cooke. Morris Llewellyn. How the railways can 

be rehabilitated, rl37 
Cooper. H. S. Long track life, e533 

Cram. R. C: 

— ±>uildings and structures, standardization of, 

— Way matters, standardization of, 568 
— Notes on the history and development of elec- 
tric railway rails, ^106 
— Selection of rails for electric railway service 

Crandell, J. S. Relaying wood block in Bridge- 
port, Conn., •316 

Culkins, W. C. Incentive to efficiency is needed. 

Cusani. Ferdinando C. Typical zone tickets 
from abroad. •479 

Giltner. T. W. A claim adjuster's -views on car 

operatnig economy, 1045 
Greenland, Sam W. One man car operation, 67 


Dana, Edward : 

— Operating without telephones. '33 

— The street inspector as he was and is to be. 

Dean, J, S.: 

— Manufactui-ers' tests of materials for railway 

motors [Dean], •321 
— Railway shop, maintenance kinks, 759 
Dehore, C. T. Cutting down operating expenses 

on a small interurban road, ^915 
Dixon, Alves. A claim agent's experience with 

one-man cars, 730 
Doolittle. F. W. Relationship of items of cost 

under pre-war conditions and today, r9 
Doty, W. A. Fare collection with frequent 

changes in rates, r40 
Draper, Walter A.: 

— A need for incentive for economical operation 
under servipe-at-cost franchise, 177 

— Some elements of the Cincinnati franchise, 

Drabelle, John M.: 

— Keeping the high-tension line in good repair, 

— Power distribution for street and interurban 

railways, 765 
Drury, A. C. Removing- track with a small force 

of laborers. 906 

Eddy. H. C: 

— The street railway outlook, 691 

— Traffic checks of non-riders, cl33 

Edison. Thos. A. Communication to Federal 

Electric Railways Commission in regard to 

electric railways, c239 
Elliott, Clifford A.: 

— Fireproof construction for substations, 487 
— Pacific electric has complete parking program, 

— Using lever throw-type track switches for 

safety, '987 
— Unusual method for mo-ying two 350-hp, 

boilers. *133 
Emery. J. A.: 

— Statistics show railway's plight. 394 
— The future fare system for small cities, ^695 
Erickson. Halford. Financing, state vs. local 
regulations and service-at-cost plan. 343 

Fearnle.v, A. R. Facts regarding motor-omnibus 

ser-yice. ^936 
Ferguson. Alexander D. Making accur,ate 

measurement of railwcar. '1006 
Findley. R. H. Ho-w to maintain track. 763 
Finger, Charles J. History hath its lessons, 


Finn, S. M. Economies in steam-generating sta- 
tions. 1047 

Fredericks, Ernest B, Straightforward publicity 
does bring results, 938 


Handlon, J. H. The psychology of claim adjust- 
ment, 157 

Hanson, Ole. Traction situation in Seattle, 386 
Harris, R, E, A dispatcher's view of car opera- 
tion economies, 1044 
Harte, Charles R, : 

— An effective home made grade indicator, ^933 
— Laying out a power transmission Une, *561 
Hedges. Job E. Men with the nerve to tell the 

people the facts needed, •r5 
Horton, R. H. Methods of observing and an- 
alyzing passenger traffic. '75 
Hutcheson, J. E. Montreal cost-of -service plan. 

Insull. Samuel. Communication to Federal Elec- 
tric Railways Commission in regard to elec- 
tric railways, c336 

Jackson, A. A. Railways must sell their trans- 
portation, c587 
Jackson, Dugald C. Status of the electric rail- 
way, 391 
Jackson, Walter: 
— Foreign fare practice, 431 
— London's tubes and buses, *708. ^816 
— Possible operating economies and sales meth- 
ods. rll7 

— Side lig-hts on the zone fare — congestion or 

diffusion? •376 
— The zone fare in practice. *56 
— The zone fare in practice, Croydon. England. 


— The zone fare in practice, Leeds — Part 1, *7; 
Part II. •56 

— The zone fare in practice. London County 
Council — Part 1. ^310 — Part II, •370 

— The zone fare in practice, the British Elec- 
tric Traction Co., '154 

— Zone fares for small cities, cl051 

Jefteries. Guy K. Co-ordination of safety be- 
tween transportation and equipment de- 
partments, 694 

Jirgal, John. Accounting for depreciation. 799 

Johnson Geo. H.: 

— Morale of executive staff is affected by ad- 
verse conditions. c389 
— The discouraged railway official. c443 
Johnson. H. A. Coasting results on the Chi- 
cago Elevated, •377" 


Kealy, Phillip J.: 

— Safety car scores a success in Kansas City. 

— 'Valuation and accruing depreciation, 530 
Kuemmerlein, George. Jr. Collection of zone 
fares, r68 

Laney, Charles J. Obstacles to electric express 

Lloyd. C. P. Some elements in a satisfactory!,tinn building, •833 

Abbreviations: •TllustratecJ, c Communication, r Pagre in Report Number for Oct. 11. 



[Vol. 54 


Madgen, William L. Some light on British 
tramway eODditions, 439 

Main, Edwin, Mowing- weeds on interurbau 
rig-ht-ol-way, *569 

McCallum, Alexander. European electrifica- 
tion proposals, 474: 

McDoug-all, R. E.: 

• — Electric railway hazards — causes, effects and 
remedies, 693 

• — Org-anization lor public accident prevention 
campaigns, 723 

McLaughlin, J. F.: Metal tickets as a sub- 
stitute for multiple coins, r43 

McKelway, G. H.- 

— Bonds for temporary and permanent track 
construction, *114 

— Soldered bonds for track bonding, '899 

McMahon, C. R. Car maintenance records fa- 
cilitate work, *119 

Macleod, Frederick J. Public ownership may 
be only means of restoring credit, 437 

Moore, F. J. Some observations and queries 
on safety car operation, 131 

Mitten, T. E.: 

— Philadelphia's answer to the traction ques- 
tion, rll4 

—Working hours of motormen and conductors. 

continuance of the 5-cent fare, erlll 
Mortimer, J. D. Can service costs be collected 

from traveling public. *rl4 
Mullany. Bernard J. Getting the right kind 

of publicity. 216 
Munton. C. J. Possibilities of electric railway 

express service, 992 
Murphine. Thomas F. Seattle municipal lines. 



Nachod. Carl P. Some observations on signal 

maintenance, 442 
Nash, L. R. The possibilities in readlness-to- 

serve fare schedules. 647 
Nicholl, H. A. Interurban Express, 993 


O'Shaughnessy, M. M. Street railway situation 
in San Francisco. 896 

Pahin, Lucien A. Progress on the Midi rail- 
wa.v pyrenean electrification. *475 

Palmer. !>. H. Are high costs of ser\nce likely 
to develop permanent competition, "rll 

Pardee. J. H. Wage scales must be on reason- 
able basis, •r2 

Perkins. R. W. State subsidies for the street 
railway companies, '645 

Phillips. Frank R.: 

— Economies in car operation. 1039 

— The human factor in safe operation and 
maintenance of rolling stock, 793 

— The maintenance man's experiences during 
the war. 19 

Phillips W. H. Helical gearing for railway 
motors. '934 

Place, C. W. Keeping up the trolley volt- 
age. 27 

Porr, Edward A. Blue lights and their sig- 
nificance in the New York subways, '579 

Pringle, P. J. The principle of differential 
wages in awards, *c943 

Proctor. C. B.: 

— Why does not every electric railway have a 
safety oi'giinization ? 792 

— Written discussion on Mr. McDougall's paper. 
Organization for public accident preven- 
tion campaign, 734 


Rasmussen, W. C. Wood block paving, c767 
Reid, Harry. Nationalization and standardi- 
zation of accident prevention. 791 
Rostof ski. Harr.v : 

— Combined signal and telephone box, *901 
— Voltage sui-veys give information for varying 

station voltage, '976 
Rifenberick, Robert B. Burdens from which 

we should be relieved. 66 ' 
Robson. W. Tuke. Experiences with Thermit 

insert welding, •1049 
Roderick, T. C. Earnings of the safety 

ear, 26 

Sailers, Earl A. Accounting measures to meet 
business depression in the industry, r37 

Sano, Shiro. Practices and tendencies in 
Japanese electric railway transporta- 
tion. '4 

Schaddelee. Richard. Commissions have failed 
properl.v to administer the intent of the 
law. 240 

Schneider, E. F. Safety before and after the 
war. 791 

Schreiber. Martin. Use of standards. c34 

Seullin Terance. How the Master Mechanic 
looks at car operating economy, 1044 

Seelar. L. F. Swing of radial coupler on 
curves. •489 

Sidlo. Thomas L. Relief for the present trac- 
tion conditions. rl29 

Sisson. F. H. Street railway credit and cost 
of capital. 178 

Smith. Montelle C. Building special work 
with an oxygen-acetylene cutting and weld- 
ing outfit. •SI? 

Snell, O, C. Superintendent's viewpoint on 
car-operating economies. 104.5 

Spring. Edward C. Electric railways from an 
operating standpoint. 17 

Stanton. H. C. Handling the freight business. 

Starkey. J. F. Possibilities of electric express 
service. 99.5 

Stevens. R. P. The Youngstown service-at- 
cost franchise. r21 

Stipall. E. E. Purchasing agents and store- 
keeper urged to attend the Atlantic City 
convention. c589 

Stone. C. I. Competition from motor vehicles, 

Storer. Norman W. Gasoline vs. electric motor 

for street railway service. r27 
Storrs. L. S.: 

— Competition of motor vehicles. 18.5 

— Reasons for railways' present condition. 175 

SulUvan, R. T. The collection of odd street 

railway fares, •053 
Sunderland, John A. How a motorman can 

help in car operating economy. 1043 
Sutherland, John. Maintenance of equipment, 

766 ^ . 

Swartz, A, Repairs to wood block paving, 

Taylor, A. Merritt. The valuation of electric 
railway properties, 128 

Thirlwall, J, C. General observations on Bir- 
ney cars, r33 

Thomas, Theodore B. More passengers better 
than too-high fares, c727 

Tinnon. John B. War-time progress in main- 
tenance of way. 320 

Tynan, L. J. A fixed schedule for Injured per- 
sons other than employees, 721 


Unland. H. L.: 

— Electric arc welding methods, *343 
— Use and misuse of arc welding apparatus, 

— Welding wrought iron and steel. 581 


Vaughn. S. L. Possibilities of express business, 


Walker. E. M.: 

— Business follows service, ^660 
— Safety cars and the results of their opera- 
tion, 161 

Watts. F. W. Motor trucks and electric road. 

Welsh. J. W. Present status of engineering 
association standards. 922 

Wensley. R. J. Some experiences In the de- 
velopment of automatic sub-stations. ^886 

Weston. George. Electric railway policy. .529 

Whiteford. William. Problems of the purchas- 
ing agents. r88 

Wells. Gardner: 

— Standardization of Birney safety car. r3R 
— Some safety car objections answered. 983 
Whiteside. W. J. Motor truck competition. 981 
Winsor. H. G. Written discussion on Mr. 
Dixon's paper. A claim agent's experi- 
ence with one man cars. 721 
Wood. George E. Insuring adequate coal sup- 
ply with the least expenditure. •313 
Woods. Robert P. City representation in elec- 
tric railways. 726 
Wright. T. T. Advertising publicity, 287 

Yungbluth. B. .T. Inventorying materials and 
supplies. '519 

Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Communication, r Page in Report Number for Oct. 11. 


(with biographical notes) 

Adams. H. P 49 

Allen, Horace 99 

Anderson, Walter E 261 

Bailey, R. W '703 

Bauer. John ^1025 

Beach. H. L 262 

Bicknell. M. 49 

Blair. Col. E. J 740 

Blanks. P. H 1067 

Boardman. A. Jay 303 

Bolt, Walter C 203 

Bramlette. John M 778 

Brown. Harry L 48 

Buffe, F. G ^99 

Burr. George L 549 

Butler. Henry O '703 

Callaghan. W. C 416 

Cameron. Bruce *98 

Campbell Gordon '48. 261 

Chamberlain, F. C 365 

Cram, R. C •147 

Crane, C, F 778 

Daly, David 603 

Dana, Edward '364 

Dcmnsey. J, J *S05 

Dillon, Col. T. H 963 

Fas-an. J. F ^505 

Edstrom, Sigfrled J 845 

Fmmons. CD 203 

Estill. G. C •459 

Fitch. Howard F 202 

Flowers. Herbert B 810 

Ford. A. H 778 

Frauenthal. B. W 878 

Gahoury. Arthur ^1067 

Gillette. Maj. Geogre 878 

Gordon. Leroy 739 

Hardy. Frank 1 203 

Harr. Augustus E 365 

Harrsen. H. P 549 

Hedley. Frank •739 

Hill, Otis R 549 

Hunt, Edward J 49 

Ingle, J. P •48 

Jackson. Caleb S 202 

Jackson, Walter 48 

Johnson, C, C 878 

Johnson, Eugene C 98 

TInox. R. R 1067 

Larrabee. Harold D 146. 203 

Leiissler. R. A ^810 

Libbey. Joseph H 202 

Lvons. William L 416 

Merrill, E. D ^146 

Milliken. E. L 878 

Morgan. C. B 778 

Mover. C. C 963 

McCormick. Maurice E. . 146. 845 

Neal. J. Henry 810 

Perkins. Col. A. T *146 

Pierce. Daniel T 963 

Porter. H. Hobart •778 

Ray, William D 263 

Renshaw, Clarence 203 

Rolston, Wilham E ^963 

Root, Oren 680 

Seeley, Garrett T ^740 

Sheehan. Patrick P 878 

Sloan, M. S 262 

Sparks. Ralph M 147 

Steams. Robert B 202 

Stocks. Carl W 262 

Stovcl. Russell W 963 

Stratton. M. G 740 

Sullivan. Patrick F 203 

Sullivan, Richard T ^739 

Paurman, A 778 

Trazzare. J. P 1067 

Von Phul. Wilham •49 

Waldo. Ralph 416 

Ward. Frank D 202 

Waring. George H 263 

Warner. Robert 1, 146, 365 

Warnock. A. W 49 

Walker. Frank B 202 

Wayne. Joseph E 363 

Wellman. Louis W 202 

Wh.arton. J. S. M 261 

White. Louis C 48 

Whitlock. W. L 505 

Willcutt. George B 99 

Witt. John P 261 

(•Indicates Portrait) 


Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Volume 54 Ncw York, Saturday, December 27, 1919 Number 22 

The next issue of this paper will be the annual sta- 
tistical number. The most striking facts that the 
tables will show are that of the cars ordered in the 
United States by city surface lines nearly 75 per cent 
were of the one-man safety type, and that of the motor 
passenger cars ordered by these lines the percentage 
was even higher. The statistical issue will contain a 
suggestive symposium on the electric railway situa- 
tion from a number of points of view. 

Notice About Binding 

THIS issue of the Electric Railway Journal com- 
pletes Vol. 54. There have been twenty-three issues 
which should be included in the bound volume, namely, 
the twenty-two issues which carry the regular serial 
numbers and the report issue of the Daily, published on 
Oct. 11 with the report of the Atlantic City convention. 
The publishers recommend that this report issue, whose 
pages are numbered from 1 to 130, should be bound at 
the end of the volume as a supplement. 

The editors believe that the index to Vol. 54 which 
accompanies this number will prove especially useful 
because more than the usual care has been given to its 
compilation. The system of key words adopted some 
years ago to standardize the terms used in the index has 
been continued and somewhat elaborated. A description 
of the plan followed will be found on page II of the 
index. A large number of subscribers to this paper bind 
their issues at the end of each half-year, and it is a 
plan which could well be followed by all. 

A Decade of Mid-Year 

Meetings of the Association 

THE Cleveland meeting of the American Electric 
Railway Association, to be held on Jan. 8, will be 
the tenth in the series inaugurated in 1910 under the 
presidency of James F. Shaw. The first five of these 
were held in New York but beginning in 1915 a differ- 
ent city has been chosen each year, namely, Washington 
in 1915, Chicago in 1916 and Boston in 1917. They 
were begun because a definite need was felt by the rail- 
way executives for an opportunity to talk over pressing 
problems of the business away from the bustle of the 
annual convention and the distraction of every-day work. 
The conference plan sprang immediately into favor, and 
in due course the conference was made an official meet- 
ing of the association with full legislative powers. 

At first the winter meeting was rather incidental tc 
a group of committee meetings which were called at the 
same time. As the committees were naturally made up 
of leaders of thought and practice in the several depart- 
ments of the industry a representative attendance at 
the conference of all branches of the business was as- 
sured. Gradually, however, the practice of holding these 
various committee meetings at the time of the mid-year 

meeting fell into disuse, the principal reason being the 
general feeling that the work of the affiliated associa- 
tions and of the committees should be started earlier in 
the association year. The present plan by which this 
work is begun soon after the October convention is 
desirable in many ways. Nevertheless, the earlier plan 
has many advantages and we suggest the matter again 
be considered before the 1921 meeting to determine 
whether possibly the circumstances have changed suffi- 
ciently to warrant a return to the older order. 

The Mid- Year Meeting Programs 

Epitomize the Industry's Thought 

AS the mid-year meetings enter their second decade, 
il one's thought naturally turns back to review the 
1910 to 1919 meetings in perspective as they changed in 
character from conference to full-fledged meetings. All 
have related directly to the financial side of the industry, 
and it is instructive to recall that even at the first 
(1910) meeting, emphasis was laid on the declining at- 
tractiveness of the electric railway as an investment 
and on the necessity for higher fares. This led natu- 
rally to studies of the proper rate of return (1911) and 
to proper bases for rates of fare (1912-13). By 1913 
the drive of cities for lower fares had largely subsided, 
but the upward tendency of operating expenses was even 
then so marked as to cause great apprehension, and 
this was seven years ago. The principles of commis- 
sion regulation logically came in for attention in 1914, 
and the 1915 meeting was appropriately held at the 
nation's capital. The great war had then begun, and 
it was not difficult to foresee that very close relations 
between the federal authorities and all industrial and 
transportation enterprises were inevitable, especially if 
we should enter the war. The 1915 meeting was ad- 
dressed by President Wilson, who declared in memorable 
words that if the companies treated their employees 
and the public fairly and if their methods were above 
reproach, they could "pile up profits as high as the 
Rockies, and nobody will be jealous of it." The follow- 
ing two meetings (Chicago and Boston) immediately 
preceded our entry into the European conflict, and were 
given over to valuation, rate of return, regulation, em- 
ployees' welfare and, last but not least, the adaption of 
merchandising principles to the selling of transporta- 
tion. No winter meeting was held in 1918, but last 
March many of our representative men got together to 
confer as to the fundamentals of economical operation 
which had to be applied immediately in view of the 
crisis forced upon them directly by the war and indi- 
rectly by several factors which would have acted ad- 
versely even without the war. These have continued to 
act during 1919. 

The experience of the past ten years has shown mid- 
year meetings to be decidedly worth while, and we ex- 
pect definite progress from that at Cleveland. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 22 

Massachusetts Anti-Strike Bill 
Was in the Right Direction 

SPEAKING of the coal strike in 1902, Theodore 
Roosevelt said : "No man and no group of men may 
so exercise their rights as to deprive the nation of 
the things which are necessary and vital to the com- 
mon life." This sound principle was again emphasized 
recently in several statements issued by President 
Wilson to the striking bituminous miners whose ob- 
stinate tactics threatened for a time to bring serious 
disaster upon the nation, as they had already resulted 
in real discomfort for millions of citizens. 

There can be no gainsaying the statement that a 
strike which ties up the transportation of a great 
community is a strike invested with a public interest, 
and as such it should merit the condemnation of right- 
thinking persons everywhere. For this reason an un- 
usual interest attaches to the draft of an act recently 
recommended to the Massachusetts Legislature by the 
Street Railway Commission, the purpose of the proposed 
legislation being "to secure continuity of service on 
street railways under public control." In brief, this 
bill was an anti-strike measure. It was printed in full 
in the Journal of Nov. 8, page 873, and while it sub- 
sequently failed of passage the issue involved deserves 
serious consideration. 

People no longer question the right of men to combine 
and strike for a lawful purpose, but when in doing so 
the strikers trespass upon other rights which are no 
less sacred, a sharp line must be drawn between the 
liberty of the individual and the interests of the greater 
public. This is peculiarly true in the case of a strike 
on a railway system. Here is involved the distinction 
between the carrying on of public utilities and of a 
private enterprise. 

Presumably, a person enters the service of a public 
utility voluntarily. He may quit that employment 
without hindrance when he chooses to do so. But when 
the public service is interfered with "by concerted 
action, combination or agreement" of employees, as 
the proposed Massachusetts act contemplated, a greater 
issue is at stake. As the United States Supreme 
Court pointed out in passing upon the validity of the 
Adamson law, the right of an employee to leave the 
employment if he desires and by concert of action to 
agree with others to leave, is "necessarily subject to 
limitation when employment is accepted in a business 
charged with a public interest." Also, in the well- 
known Debs case, the Supreme Court sustained the 
action of the lower tribunal which took steps to prevent 
the wrongdoing of one resulting in injury to the gen- 
eral welfare. 

Agitators and supporters of the radical labor point of 
view often are heard to say that proposals to prevent 
strikes have a tendency to create "involuntary serv- 
itude." As a matter of fact, the law which was recom- 
mended in Massachusetts would not restrain a man from 
refusing to work, but it would prevent his stopping 
an important public service by a combination with 

Thinking people of all civilized nations have had 
occasion in the past year to give more than the usual 
amount of serious consideration to the labor situation. 
Apostles of discontent have sown the seeds of dissension 
everywhere, and there seems to be an almost universal 
demand for the highest possible pay for the least pos- 
sible amount of work. It would seem that the average 
workman no longer takes pride in work for itself and 

that he places his pay above all other considerations. 
While this situation in itself is fraught with peril, the 
disturbances are still more threatening when they tend 
to paralyze whole communities in their commercial and 
social activities through strikes on street railway sys- 
tems or in any business alfecting the greater part of 
the public. We believe from recent public utterances 
of candidates for political office and other reasons that 
sentiment is tending toward passage of anti-strike legis- 
lation as regards the kind of properties mentioned, and 
we look upon it as a tendency in the right direction. 

Some More 

Bus Calculations 

IN OUR issue of Nov. 1, we had occasion to analyze 
some recent bus-promotion literature under the title 
of "Bus Facts Versus Bus Fancies." This time we 
are not concerned with the J. Rufus Wallingford 
promises of the private promoter, but with the optimism 
of the municipal officer who confuses utility to the 
public with profit to its civic purse. As an instance, 
we have in mind the estimate of bus costs presented 
to the Board of Estimate and Apportionment, New 
York, on Nov. 21, by Grover A. Whalen, Commissioner 
of Plant and Structure. Mr. Whalen is the official who 
is in charge of the extemporized bus services that are 
now in vogue on nearly a dozen lines, either to replace 
abandoned car lines or to give a more convenient service 
than is possible with the disrupted routes of some of 
the railway companies. Realizing that the present 
scheme of haphazard operation with individually-owned 
buses cannot be continued with safety to the public, 
let alone fairness to the railways, Mr. Whalen has pre- 
sented an estimate for a municipal bus system. 

In figuring that of 100 buses, not more than ninety- 
two would be constantly available, Mr. Whalen is within 
bounds; nor is his estimate of $5,500 for a twenty-six 
or twenty-seven-seat bus unreasonable. It is also 
noteworthy that he has allowed 30 per cent for depre- 
ciation, although a careful bus operator might get up 
to five years effective life. On the other hand, his 
estimate of $10,000 each for "spare parts" and "garage 
equipment" totals only 3.6 per cent of the $550,000 
required for new buses in comparison with an allowance 
of 10 per cent by actual operators of bus systems. A 
i-esponsible bus company, just like a street railway, 
must also be prepared to operate in snowstorms and 
on icy pavement. Hence snow scrapers and sand 
spreaders are a necessity unless the buses are going 
to stay in the garage until the street railways and the 
street cleaning department clear the streets for them. 
Mr. Whalen's estimate makes no allowance for such 
equipment; nor can we find any reference to the service 
vehicles which would be needed for pulling in broken- 
dovni buses, carrying repair parts between the garages, 
handling cash, etc. Unless the "garage" item of $25,- 
000 covers all storage and upkeep structures the omis- 
sion of "land and buildings" indicates that a kindly 
city will place facilities of that nature at the disposal 
of the bus department! This is a typical instance of 
how real costs can be covered up in an undertaking 
where one department can sponge on another. 

In the still more important matter of operating costs, 
we are informed that the total daily charge per bus 
- ill be $17.40, M'hich compares with an actual derived 
average cost of $20 a day for smaller buses in the 
^ame service. As a matter of fact, the cost of operating 
buses of less than the capacity proposed has run as 

December 27, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


high as 35 cents per bus-mile. To secure more than 
seven 5-cent passengers per mile average with a twenty- 
seven-passenger bus in order to break even means that 
the bus services will have to stick to the short-haul, 
dense-traffic sections. In other words, neither the city 
of New York nor any other operator of buses can 
make money at a 5-cent fare unless said operator de- 
liberately robs the electric railway of its only profitable 
traffic. If, on the contrary, the bus services are for 
localities where the street railway is no longer available, 
or accessible, they will undoubtedly be a public benefit 
but a financial loss generally. Our objection is simply 
that our public officials deceive both themselves and 
their citizens when they fail to point out that they are 
embarking on a general philanthropic enterprise, where- 
as some give the impression that there's a lot of money 
in it. The bus is bound to have an ever-wider field 
as highways continue to improve and electric railway 
burdens continue to increase, but let it be understood 
that wherever there is any worth-while density of traffic 
an organized, responsible, 365-days-a-year bus service 
costs more and not less than the modernized electric 

True Economy Must Operate 
from the Bottom Upward 

SEVERAL pages in this issue are devoted to a 
symposium on operating economy which formed an 
important part of the program of the Grand Rapids 
meeting of the Central Electric Railway Association. It 
is worthy of careful study because it gets right down to 
the ground in this matter. There is apt to be a great 
deal of talk about economy without much real saving 
being accomplished unless the co-operation of the ulti- 
mate spenders of a company's money is enlisted. On 
the other hand, without a comprehensive view of the 
matter undue attention to detail may result in a policy 
of "saving at the spigot and wasting at the bunghole." 
The Grand Rapids symposium ought to be helpful in 
guiding the thought of the readers between these two 

The program committee for the C. E. R. A. meeting 
asked F. R. Phillips to outline the field of possible 
electric railway savings preparatory to having the 
details of the many-sided problem presented by repre- 
sentatives of the several component departments. The 
theory of this is ideal, it is the basis of conferences of 
competent advisers which in these days are held before 
any important matters are decided. And it worked out 
very well in this case. To be sure all departments do 
not agree in details. For example, the operating man 
wants more car speed to cut down labor and other costs 
chargeable to him, while the claim agent fears that too 
much speed may cut into the allowance for accident 
claims. Obviously a compromise must be effected here. 
The master mechanic says that the painstaking work of 
the shop men can be "knocked into a cocked hat" by a 
few minutes of reckless operation. Obviously the far- 
reaching effects of carelessness need to be preached to 
the car crews if the mechanical department is to be 
placated. But why multiply illustrations? These indi- 
cate the principle which we have in mind, a principle 
which is being applied increasingly well. We hope that 
maintenance costs will be sensibly decreased as a result 
of the discussion at Grand Rapids. Also, the poly-sided 
symposium plan of program so profitably used there 
might well be used at other meetings and on other 
electric railway topics. 

Municipal Roads Are Not 

Independent of Economic Laws 

DELEGATES to the conference of the Public Owner- 
ship League of America, held recently in Chicago, 
appeared to be a well-satisfied aggregation as they 
adjourned after adopting resolutions in support of the 
principles to which they are all committed. They had 
heard their leaders tell of the growth of sentiment in 
favor of public ownership, and they seemed happy in 
the thought that the dawn of a new era was at hand. 

Two papers were read at that conference in which 
statements were made which tended to show that even 
municipal ownership cannot accomplish the impossible 
— that is, pay all the costs of street railway service out 
of a 5-cent fare. One of these was made by the city 
engineer of San Francisco who had much to do with the 
construction of the municipal line, and the other by the 
chief executive of the Seattle property. Of these two 
roads, the former is one of the oldest, and the latter is 
the largest of our municipal railway undertakings. 

Mr. O'Shaughnessy of San Francisco explained that 
it had been the custom to set aside 18 per cent of the 
gross receipts to cover depreciation and damages. He 
admitted that in order to meet the July expenses it was 
necessary to borrow money from this fund, and he did 
not know whether this practice would be continued. He 
also conceded that "it is much more desirable that the 
returns to the corporation or to the municipality be 
sufficiently high to insure first-class service rather than 
to retain a low fare and allow the service to deteriorate." 

Mr. Murphine of Seattle declared that no amount had 
been set aside for depreciation of the municipal rail- 
way — that the authorities believed rather in spending 
this fund than in allowing it to accumulate. He did 
not think it a proper railway expense under city owner- 
ship and management to care for and maintain that 
portion of the street covered by tracks, and this is not 
being done in San Francisco. This official also admitted 
that municipal ownership alone would not make a nickel 
fare go as far as formerly, saying that it would have 
to be accompanied by relief from franchise obligations 
and by economies in operation. "Relief from all fran- 
chise obligations is imperative," said he, "and under 
public ownership and management there can be no just 
reason why any portion of the nickel fare should be 
taken to pay other than legitimate railway expenses." 

A Massachusetts advocate of public ownership 
recently said : "Even if public ownership be adopted 
we shall have to utilize the service of human beings." 
He might just as truly have said that under public 
ownership a nickel fare would not be found any more 
elastic nor would it have lower expenses to meet either 
for labor or materials. 

These M. O. "fans" are inclined to be very frank 
among themselves. They admit that they cannot work 
miracles. But they do boast that they can furnish local 
transportation for a 5-cent fare "if" — Ah, there's the 
answer! — if they are relieved of non-transportation 
charges such as paving, taxes, etc. — burdens which they 
have been refusing for years to lift from the shoulders 
of those who have been striving to make a success of 
the 5-cent fare under private operation. 

As a recent Massachusetts report stated: "Public 
ownership will not change these facts. All these 
amounts must be met either by the car rider or by the 
taxpayer, whatever be the system of ownership or 
management adopted. Facts exist even when concealed 
by the magic mist of public ownership." 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 22 

Preparing the Public for the Zone Plan 

The Inauguration of the New Method of Charging for Transportation on the Connecticut 

Company's Lines Was Preceded by a Long 
Program of Publicity 

SUPPLEMENTING the general article on the in- 
auguration of the zone plan in Connecticut, printed 
in the Nov. 8 issue of this paper, the officials of 
the Connecticut Company have furnished more detail 
regarding the methods used in preparing the public 
and the employees for the new system. According to 
these men the chief fact by virtue of which the zone 
system was established on the company's 700 miles of 
track without the slightest disturbance from the public 
or material interruption of service was the existence of 
close co-operation between the company and its em- 
ployees, and between the employees and the public. The 
zone system is declared by all of the officers of the com- 
pany to be "an unqualified success." It was inaugurated 
on Nov. 2. Eight days later the company issued a 
statement to the press that the system was a success and 
that, while it was too early to make financial compari- 
sons, the situation was very satisfactory. 

Company Agreeably Surprised as to Revenues 

Since that announcement was made there has been 
a steady improvement, both as to the smoothness of the 
system's operation and in the company's financial con- 
dition. Although the company expected a temporary 
decrease in revenue when the new system, with its 
radical changes in the customs of passengers and crews, 
was established, there was only a single day that showed 
a decrease in revenue as compared to the correspond- 
ing day in the preceding year, that day being the one 
which had to be compared to "armistice day" of 1918, 
when railways throughout the country did holiday busi- 

The co-operation which made possible the successful 
establishment of the new system was not brought about 
in a day. It was the result of a very carefully planned 
educational campaign, designed first of all to inform the 
company's 4500 employees regarding the condition of 
the company, and, secondly, to bring the public to realize 
that the continuance of electric railway service in Con- 
necticut — and anywhere else, for that matter — depended 
entirely on the willingness of the people to pay a fare 
that would enable the company to meet its obligations 
and obtain a return on its investment, so that it might 
provide the improved service made necessary by the 
growth and development of the communities. This 
educational campaign was a success. 

The decision to try the zone system had been under 
consideration for many months before it was put into 
effect, for the company concluded not to make the 
change until the most favorable time came. Mean- 
time the campaign to educate the employees and the 
public as to the necessity of obtaining increased revenue 
was carried on. 

Services of a Newspaper Man Were Secured 

About a year ago President L. S. Storrs decided that 
the time had come when the company should employ 
an expert in publicity. Although it is one of the largest 

electric railway properties in the United States, the 
Connecticut Company had never attempted any definite 
program of education. Mr. Storrs obtained the services 
of a man who had spent his life in the editorial end of 
the newspaper business, and who had, in some degree, 
been a student of street railway problems. The com- 
pany gave him the title of "Executive Assistant," and 
told him that it was largely up to him to work up a 
program and carry it through, subject of course to the 
approval of the president. 

The first work attempted was the education of the 
company's employees. As a beginning, a short bulletin, 
printed on the president's letterhead, was mailed to the 
home address of every employee to emphasize how im- 
portant it was that the company should win the good- 
will of the public. It declared that the officers and the 
employees formed "one big family" which must work 
together, and called on every officer and employee to 
give the company's problems his very best thought. It 
invited suggestions from the men and included a sheet 
bearing the letterhead of the company and the following 
paragraph : 

"I believe the service of The Connecticut Company on 

the Division would be improved if attention were 

given the following matters:" 

An envelope addressed to the president was inclosed 
with this letter so that employees might have every 
facility for sending in their comments. This letter re- 
sulted in several hundred constructive suggestions be- 
ing received by the company, many of which were valu- 

State Commission Inquiry "Aired" the 
Company's Needs 

About the time this circular was sent out an inquiry 
into the condition of the electric railways of the State 
was begun by a special commission appointed by the 
Governor and the General Assembly. The hearings be- 
fore this commission resulted in much publicity about 
the condition of the company, which, because of in- 
creased expenses, had been unable to pay its State taxes 
or to meet various other obligations. These hearings 
focussed public attention on the railways and as it had 
been known that The Connecticut Company, which then 
had a 6-cent fare, was considering a higher fare, there 
was considerable guessing in the newspapers as to what 
the company would do. 

Then came the report of the special commission to 
the General Assembly, and hearings before committees 
of the assembly to which the bills reported by the com- 
mission were referred. Everybody agreed by this time 
that the electric railways of Connecticut needed help, 
but the legislators and other representatives of the 
cities and towns who appeared before the legislative 
committees were unwilling that their particular com- 
munities should be deprived of any of the financial as- 
sistance the railways were required by law td give 
them. The limits to which the Legislature was willing 

Electric Railway 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Vnhinie 54 

New York, Saturday, Julv 5, 1919 

NiiDiher 1 

Central Association Boat 

Trip a Harbinger of Peace 

ONE of the most homogeneous organizations in the 
electric railway industry is the Central Electric 
Railway Association. The railways operating in the 
territory of this association are in a position to profit 
to a rather unusual degree through co-operation, due 
to the fact that their business is in considerable part 
made up of interurban traffic. Their lines radiate and 
interconnect in a remarkable manner, and the interur- 
ban roads themselves and those which do city business 
can greatly' augment their own income by assisting in 
promoting the prosperity of their neighbors. The ter- 
ritory is compact geographically and is closely knit to- 
gether by interurban and steam lines. Moreover a spirit 
of good fellowship permeates the territory which, com- 
bined with the ease of getting about, conduces to making 
the meetings of the association very attractive to the 
members. This applies particularly to the summer 
cruises, which are resumed this week after a wartime 

The cruise this year lasted from Monday to Thursday 
inclusive and short stops were made at points of great 
interest. There was sufficient of a program to form a 
skeleton for the meeting, and the papers and discussions 
were well worth while. However, the principal feature 
was the opportunity furnished for developing personal 
acquaintance, which is greatly needed in these trying 
times if the status of the electric railway is to become 
what it should. 

Other associations may well envy the Central its 
wonderful summer outings and may properly hold it 
responsible for results commensurate with its unusual 
facilities for getting together. 

the decision by the United States Housing Corporation 
to buy cars built according to the "standards" pre- 
pared for it by a war-time committee appointed by the 
Electric Railway War Board. The signing of the ar- 
mistice put an end to the Housing Corporation's plan, 
otherwise fifty cars of this type wou'd have been ordered 
immediately. It is unfortunate that these cars could not 
have been completed, if only to determine their post- 
Vv-ar marketability by actual sales. 

The present acute shortage in electric railway funds 
is having its effect in the line of standardization. For 
example, many roads are buying safety cars to the 
manufacturers' rather than their own specifications. 
They could well follow the same procedure in purchas- 
ing larger cars. It is quite true, however, that it is 
easier to use a standard small car than large ones 
because clearance difficulties and other limiting condi- 
tions do not enter into the calculation. Any road can 
utilize a small car, as far as ability to get it over the 
road goes, whereas each road seems to be hampered 
by "special conditions" with respect to the use of 
large cars. Even with this handicap, however, some of 
the lessons taught by the safety single-truck car develop- 
ment can be applied to their larger contemporaries. 

Standardizing Ships, 

Electric Cars and Other Things 

44/^AN the world be persuaded to buy ships as it 
V> buys automobiles? that is the question." This 
extremely timely query is propounded editorially by a 
New York City daily in a recent number. The ques- 
tion was obviously prompted by the feat performed by 
the Emergency Fleet Corporation on the previous day in 
launching five ships of a combined tonnage of 39,000, 
all within a period of forty-eight minutes. The point 
made Vi'as that if the public will buy ships fabricated 
and assembled by the methods found applicable in war 
time, it will be possible to continue the operation of 
the Hog Island shipyard. Otherwise it may be neces- 
sary to scrap the equipment assembled there at so great 
a cost. 

What is true in the shipbuilding field applies with 
modifications in the construction of electric cars. And, 
it is profitable to note, there was an analogy here in 

There Is Growing Recognition 
of the Value of Good Service 

IT IS REFRESHING and encouraging to read editor- 
ials such as have appeared in many of the metropolitan 
dailies recently on the traction situation. In all 
of the large cities there seems to be a wider reali- 
zation than ever before of the fact that electric rail- 
way companies are not immune to the effects of ordinary 
commercial laws. Everyone knows that the cost of 
labor and materials has gone up, and that in other 
lines of business this has been met by an increase 
in the price of the commodity. This raises the natural 
inquiry, why should the same course not be followed 
with street car fares? 

It is still more satisfactory to find that there is grow- 
ing understanding of the importance to a city of good 
service. This, for example, was the fundamental ar- 
gument in a recent editorial in the Minneapolis Journal, 
reproduced in our issue of June 21. 

The Minneapolis editor insists that service is para- 
mount in any settlement of traction affairs — "more im- 
portant to the individual car rider, and more important 
to a growing city which cannot permit its development 
to be stunted by lack of transportation facilities." He 
contends that if Minneapolis had a 6-cent service, with 
plenty of cars running, with extensions built where 
necessary, while St. Paul struggled with a 5-cent service 
that meant cars crowded and infrequent and no ex- 
tensions, the people of the latter city would not be long 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

in recognizing that their 5-cent bargain is no longer a 
good one. The editorial is an answer to the argument 
that the proposed service-at-cost franchise in Minne- 
apolis will mean a 6-cent or 7-cent fare for Minneapo- 
lis while St. Paul, with a franchise guaranteeing a 
5-cent fare and eighteen years to run, will have an 
unfair advantage. Both cities are served by the Twin 
City Rapid Transit Company which has expressed its 
approval of the pending ordinance. 

The people as a whole also, we believe, are coming 
more and more to realize the value of good service. 
This was one of the strongest arguments which won 
over a majority of the Chicago city council to support 
a service-at-cost franchise some months ago. They 
recognized an increased fai-e as unavoidable and their 
principal differences were on a proper distribution of 
transportation improvements. If the companies had 
been able and willing to guarantee rapid transit facili- 
ties to every ward the popular support of the plan would 
have been more generous. It was really a question of 
making an enlarged elevated and subway system self- 
supporting on a reasonable rate of fare. 

We look for interesting developments in the Minne- 
apolis-St. Paul controversy. We believe the near future 
will show the wisdom of the Minneapolis Jounial's 
argument. Local transportation is a community prob- 
lem in which the interest of the public is even greater 
than that of the owners of the railway utility and the 
public interest can be best advanced by securing ade- 
quate service. A 5-cent fare was never expected to 
bear the burdens of present-day costs, and those com- 
munities which insist on carrying out such a contract 
are biting off their nose to spite their face. Five-cent 
service is better than no service at all, but the financial 
condition of many railway properties is approaching a 
crisis where 5-cent service will probably mean no serv- 
ice or very poor service. A right-thinking public will 
pay the price of good service before it is too late. 

Electric Railway Transportation 
in the Orient 

ACCORDING to the picture sketched by Shiro Sano, 
whose article on electric railway conditions in 
Japan is printed in the present issue, this utility is 
suffering in the Far East from difficulties of the same 
sort as are being encountered in the United States. 
While conditions in the two countries are radically 
different in many ways, it is at least of interest to 
compare them and to draw such conclusions as apply in 
our own country. The fact that the electric railways 
of Japan are compelled to rely for support to an increas- 
ing extent upon another utility indicates that there is 
an unfortunate relation of expenses to fares which must 
be corrected by means of better and more economical 
service and by increase in fares as well. Judged by 
our standards wages in Japan have been very low but 
they are increasing at a rapid rate, greatly aggravating 
this condition. 

The fare-collection scheme used in Tokyo appears 
cumbersome and as not tending to high schedule speed, 
but presumably time saving is not considered so essen- 
tial there as in an American city of the same size. 
Again the wide use of the double trolley in Japan 
strikes us as peculiar. While this scheme has had a 
slight use in the United States it involves very great 
complication in overhead construction, and the improve- 
ments in the track return circuit have largely removed 

the argument in its favor. Municipal ownership and 
operation is having an extensive trial- in several Jap- 
anese cities. In time there should be valuable data 
available as to the success of these experiments. 

Look About You 
Now and Then 

SOMETIMES we marvel that a man in the station 
in life of a public utility manager can allow him- 
self to be so far behind the times in his own business. 
It is lamented that acknowledgment of this- condition 
in our industry is now and then forced upon us by 
elementary questions about things which we thought 
were fully known to all railway operators — things really 
vital from the standpoint of holding dovvm one's job, 
let alone efficiency of management. For example, can 
you imagine a manager in a good sized tovra not know- 
ing even the rudiments of the safety car idea? But it 
is a fact. Would that we had the power to direct such 
managers to spend $50 to proceed to the nearest city 
operating safety cars, there to learn by sight what they 
have failed to absorb from volumes of printed matter 
and hours of discussion. This is a knoclj, but it is 
more than that. There can be no excuse for such neg- 
lect in keeping abreast of the industry on the part of 
a responsible management, and the knock is therefore 
a helpful hint to the delinquents to look about them now 
and then. 

The Forgotten Man 

in the Railway Tangle 

SOME forty years ago a prominent professor of politi- 
cal economy at Yale coined the phrase "forgotten 
man" to describe the individual in the community who 
is often entirely overlooked in a great many civic and 
other government betterment programs. For instance, 
A considers that it would be a fine thing for B if the 
municipality or state should make a grant of money to 
him or otherwise give preference to him over his fellow 
citizens. The plan is enthusiastically approved by B, 
and both arrange to carry out the project. The "forgot- 
ten man" is C, the average citizen, who is not consulted 
in the matter and whose only connection with the affair 
is to pay the cost of carrying out the idea so gener- 
ously conceived by A and so gratefully accepted by B. 

There is a forgotten man, or several representatives 
of that genus, in pretty nearly every traction dispute 
on fares. When an increased fare is proposed to cover 
the increased cost of operation, the municipal authori- 
ties are usually very conspicuous in their denunciation 
of the plan and give out lengthy statements on the hard- 
ship which will result to the populace, and indignant 
citizens write to the daily press in opposition or head 
delegations to protest in municipal councils. Undoubt- 
edly, both the authorities and the citizens (A and B in 
this case") are right in their contention that low fares 
on the local railway system are desirable as a means 
of community development. The trouble is that they 
forget entirely about C, at whose expense they seem to 
expect that this improvement will be maintained. 

A striking illustration of this situation has been 
given in New York City during the past week. The 
New York Railways, after trying for a considerable 
time to accomplish the impossible task of making a 
profit by carrying passengers at less than cost, passed 
into the hands of a receiver, who finds himself in a 
position where he cannot pay the rental of all of the 


July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


leased lines of the company. He has, therefore, an- 
nounced that he will be obliged to turn back the lines 
on Eighth Avenue and Ninth Avenue to their owners. 
This would mean, of course, that transfers would no 
longer be given between these lines and those of the 
New York Railways system of which they formerly con- 
stituted a part, and consequently that some of the car- 
fares in New York City will indirectly be raised. This 
proposed action of the receiver is being vigorously pro- 
tested by the city. "What?" they say, in effect, "Charge 
an additional fare at the points of intersection at which 
formerly transfers were given without charge? This 
is more than a hardship, it is an outrage!" If the 
present transfer law, which, by the way, was passed 
long after the companies received their charter to 
charge 5 cents, does not require transfers between two 
independent lines, these protestors seem to think it 
should be amended to overcome this defect. 

Now, all this is very well, but who is to pay the 
deficit which will be caused if transfers are continued? 
Surely, not the New York Railways. The company is 
insolvent now. Nor is there any reason why the owners 
of the Eighth or Ninth Avenue lines should bear the ex- 
pense. They are looking forward to beginning inde- 
pendent operation under not very cheerful circumstances 
and have already seen the market value of their securi- 
ties suffer a considerable fall because of the financial 
conditions now surrounding electric railway operation. 
The community has certainly no right, legal or other- 
wise, to ask the railway companies or any of them to 
make up deficits from operation. If New York City 
or its citizens want a service, they are rich enough to 
pay for it and they ought to do so. This is the only con- 
clusion which can be drawn from the Eighth and Ninth 
Avenue case. 

A Constructive Suggestion 
on the Use of Standards 

A CONSTRUCTIVE suggestion to assist in the more 
general use of standards is made in a letter con- 
tributed to this issue by Martin Schreiber, chief engi- 
neer Public Service Railway, and a member of both the 
American Electric Railway Engineering Standards 
Committee and of the recently formed American Engi- 
neering Standards Committee. 

In the past there has been a great deal of complaint" 
that while the idea of standards was generally accepted, 
very few railway companies actually employed them. 
Each company accepted the desirability of standards 
in the abstract, but when it came to purchasing equip- 
ment always seemed to find some reason why a modifi- 
cation, more or less important, in the standards should 
be made to suit that company's local conditions. The 
association obviously has no authority to order the use 
of any particular standard, and there the matter has 

The experience during the war in reducing the num- 
ber of patterns in other lines of manufacture, however, 
has been a stimulus toward similar progress with elec- 
tric railways. The suggestion of Mr. Schreiber is that 
the manufacturers agree to refer to the association any 
departures from the standards which they are asked to 
make, and that the appropriate committee of the as- 
sociation should then endeavor to find out the reason 
for the change before the order is actually executed. 
Such a plan involves no sacrifice of personal liberty. 

If the change is a good one the standards committee 
of the association wants to know about it. If it is not 
necessary, the railway company presumably is equally 
anxious to be informed. The industry as a whole has an 
interest in this matter because reductions in cost of 
production will follow the greater use of standards, 
and thus every purchaser will be benefited. 

If the individual customer, after this examination, 
insists upon departing from standards and thus neces- 
sitating, perhaps, the preparation of new patterns or 
the cutting of new rolls, he is entirely within his legal 
rights. But the plan suggested, we think, would head 
off a great many unnecessary changes, and this would 
eventually mean that the price for the standard designs 
or rail sections would be less than that for the non- 
standard. As soon as this condition began to prevail, 
there would be a still further tendency toward the use 
of standards. We hope some steps can be made in the 
direction pointed out by Mr. Schreiber. 

Start a Third 

Rail Standardization Drive 

AN ARTICLE in the June 14 issue of this paper de- 
scribed some of the various types of third rail 
installations which are in use for electric railway opera- 
tion. One cannot fail to be impressed by the large num- 
ber of the different types, and the need for standardiza- 
tion. Climatic conditions and the necessity for protect- 
ing the third rail to prevent accidental contact appear 
to be the chief reasons for the development of most of 
the types. The question of cost is an important con- 
consideration and in a good many cases has proved mis- 
leading. It is a comparatively easy matter to obtain the 
Initial cost as so much per mile of single or double track, 
but this does not form a basis for ascertaining what 
amount will be involved for modifications, renewals and 
disturbances necessary to existing permanent way where 
electrification is undertaken to lines already existing. A 
further and probably the most important item is the 
cost of maintenance, which must be ascertained if a true 
estimate for comparison is to be made. Electric rail- 
ways have practically standardized the equipment for 
their power houses, plants, switchboards, substations, 
cables, etc. These can be ordered to fulfill the require- 
ments from the various manufacturers, but as soon as 
an attempt is made to equip the permanent way with an 
electrical conductor a wide divergence of opinion is 
found with no attempt at standardization. 

To the practical man familiar with the prevailing 
conditions there appears to be no difficulty in starting 
standardization. In such a consideration the weight, 
section, location of the conductor and method of con- 
tact should be the first consideration. The insulation, 
supports, sectionalizing and bonding would follow. The 
many points such as anchoring, expansion joints, clear- 
ances, protection, etc., could be taken up, but would of 
necessity have to be adapted to the various locations and 
conditions to be contended with. 

A standard clearance for third rail installations was 
adopted in 191G, by committees of the American Railway 
Association, the American Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation, and the American Electric Railway Association. 
There is still much work that could be done along this 
line. Such an investigation made by our various electric 
railway association committees appears essential, if any 
advance is to be made in this matter. 



Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Practices and Tendencies 
in Japanese Electric Railway Transportation 

Both Double and Single Trolley Are Used. 
Track Gages Are Far From Standard and 
People Seem to Lean Toward Public Ownership 


El.ectiical Engineer. Tokyo. Japan 

IN 1890 the Tokyo Electric Company imported two 
electric cars from the United States for the purpose 
of dem.onstrating the advantages of electric traction. 
These cars were purchased from the Sprague Electric 
Railway & Motor Company. They were used on the 
grounds of the Third National Exposition, held in Tokyo 
that year, and created a favorable impression. It was, 
however, five years before the experiment produced 
results, although in 1893 the Kyoto Electric Railway 
Company was organized with a capital of $150,000 (300.- 

bined railway and light companies is $152,000,000 of 
which $132..200,000 has been paid in. The annual income 
from railway service totals $15,500,000 not including 
the income from light and power sold by the railway 
companies. The annual car mileage last reported was 
117,120,000, the corresponding number of passengers 
carried being 704,470,000. 

Although most electric railways in Japan are owned 
by private companies, some belong to the municipalities 
and still others to the central government. In the large 

1904 I90( 

1906 1910 1912 

1914 191fc 



1906 1908 





tt) 700 

^ 500 

1904 1906 

1906 1910 191? 
Yea rs 

1914 I91(b 

ri<( )(.;K10S.S 0¥ EI.KCTI-UC RA1LWAY-S in .japan, left, CuMPANIES: center, CAPITALIZATION; RIGHT, MILEAGE 

000 yen i . A 5-mile track in Kyoto was constructed and 
operation began on Feb. 1, 1895. 

In Kyoto one 25-hp. motor was used on each car, the 
car bodies as well as the motors were built in Japan 
and power was supplied from a water-power plant. As an 
electric car was looked upon as a serious accident hazard 
a special runner with a lantern in hand was sent ahead to 
herald its approach. 

The Kyoto Railway was a success from the start, and 
led to the construction of many other lines. To-day, 
according to the latest returns of the Department of 
Communications, there are ninety electric railway com- 
panies in Japan, including sixteen which have lines 
under construction. The total power consumption of 
the railways is not known exactly, as more than one-half 
sell power for lighting and other purposes. The power 
plant capacity is, however, 164,624 kw. The line mile- 
age is 890, the length in single-track equivalent being 
1368 miles. 

Of the 4492 cars in use 4077 are motor cars and 
415 are trailers. The aggregate capital for electric 
railways alone amounts to $15,700,000 of which $14.- 
500.000 has been paid in. The total capital for com- 

cities the tendency seems to be in favor of municipal 
ownership. Of the six largest cities in Japan Tokyo, 
Osaka, Kyoto and Kobe have municipally owned railways 
while those in Yokohama and Nagoya are under private 

Electrification of steam railroads has made very slow 
progress in Japan but is promising for the future. The 
passenger steam railway operating in the outskirts of 
Tokyo has been electrified, but freight is still hauled by 
steam locomotives. The passenger traffic between Tokyo 
and Yokohama is now mainly done by electric power, 
where steam prevailed until a few years ago. The long 
tunnel at Usui has been completely electrified, passenger 
as well as freight trains being hauled by powerful elec- 
tric locomotives. This, however, is the only place where 
real electrification work has been done. 

The development of the electric railway industry in 
Japan can best be seen with the aid of the charts re- 
produced herewith. From these it is evident that rail- 
way enterprises have grown marvellously since 1907, 
due principally to the successful conclusion of the Russo- 
Japanese war and the general prosperity which suc- 
ceeded it. The charts show also that the railway com- 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


panies have increasingly been engaged in ligiiting and 
power business outside their transportation activities. 
This may be explained by the fact that the net earning 
capacity of companies engaged in lighting and power 
supply is much greater than that of those engaged simply 
in transportation work. This point is taken up more 
fully in the following paragraphs. 

As a business proposition the electric railway in Japan 
is not very profitable. The latest returns available show 
that the mean dividend for companies doing a straight 
electric railway business is but 5.6 per cent per annum, 
this being the average for twenty-six companies. The 
corresponding figure for companies doing a combined 
railway, light and power business is 8 per cent, a mean 
value for forty-eight com- 
panies. The return to 
442 companies doing a 
light and power business 
is 9.35 per cent. This ex- 
plains the tendency for 
railway concerns to take 
up lighting business as a 
side issue, particularly as 
a dividend of 5.6 per cent 
is not attractive to Jap- 
anese investors where 
average good concerns in 
other lines pay 10 per 
cent or more. The inter- 


in practice as to gage. The principal railway gages can 
be grouped into three classes, 4 ft. 8i in., 4 ft. 6 in. and 
3 ft. 6 in. Thirty-nine of the present seventy-three 
electric railways in the country have the 3-ft. 6-in. gage, 
twenty-three have standard gage, ten have 4-ft. 6-in. 
gage, the remainder being divided between 2 ft. 6 in 
and 4 ft. 8 in. 

The prevalence of the 3-ft. 6-in. gage is probably due 
to the fact that this is the standard for steam railroads. 
The 4-ft. 6-in. gage owes its existence to local condi- 
tions. For example, in one case an old horse-drawn 
tramway had this obscure gage when it changed over 
its motive power to electricity. To avoid interruption 
to service the old gage was adhered to. 

There are two principal 
plans for charging for 
transportation in Japan, 
one in which the fare has 
some relation to mileage 
and the other in which a 
uniform charge is made 
irrespective of the length 
of ride. For obvious rea- 
sons the suburban and 
interurban railways use 
some kind of a mileage 
plan exclusively, while the 
tendency of the street 
railways is to use uni- 


est paid at bank rates is 6 per cent to 7 per cent on 
fixed deposits in ordinary times, although at present 
the rate is lower due to extraordinary inflation of cur- 
rency incident to the war and the holders of national 
securities receive 6 per cent on paid-in value. 

Double Trolley Is Favored in Japan 

In the early development of electric railways in Japan 
there was a wide difference in opinion as to the system 
to be adopted. The dispute concentrated on the relative 
merits of single-trolley and double-trolley contact sys- 
tems. The general policy of the government at present 
is to permit the use of single trolley on suburban rail- 
ways only, the double trolley being standard for street 
railw^ays. Of six large cities, Tokyo, Yokohama and 
Kobe use double trolley and Osaka, Kyoto and Nagoya 
use single trolley. 

Although the modern tendency is to adopt the stand- 
ard track gage of 4 ft. 8* in. there is a great variety 

form rates. Some large cities, however, still adhere 
to the old system of divisional charges, in which the 
city is divided into a number of sections and a fare is 
charged in each. In Tokyo, Osaka and Kobe the uni- 
form rate is charged, while in Kyoto, Nagoya and 
Yokohama a division rate is the rule. In addition 
there are several kinds of special charges, such as those 
involved in the use of commutation tickets, season 
tickets, discounts for workingmen and students, dis- 
counts for school children, discounts for soldiers, etc. 
As an example of the special charges the practice of the 
Tokyo Street Railway will be given in full. These will be 
given in Japanese money, the yen having a value o 
about 50 cents in American money and the sen being 
worth one-hundredth of the yen. The single ticket is 5 
sen plus a transit tax of 1 sen, making a total of 6 sen. 
Return tickets are sold for 9 sen plus 1 sen tax, a total 
twenty-trip commutation ticket, including transit duty, 
of 10 sen. Soldiers can buy return tickets at 7 sen. A 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

costs yen 0.95, a thirty-trip ticket yen 1.40 and a fifty- 
trip ticket yen 2.50, 

Boys and girls attending middle schools or lower 
schools, properly indentified by school authorities, are 
entitled to purchase a twenty-five-trip ticket, including 
duty, for yen 0.80, and a fifty-trip ticket for yen 1.55. 
Other students and workingmen are entitled to ride on 
a single ticket, including tax, at 4 sen and a return 
ticket at 7 sen. 

This low rate of fare applies only during certain 
periods as follows : March 1 to April 30, 5 to 6.30 a.m. ; 
Oct. 1 to Nov. 15, 5 to 6.30 a.m. ; Nov. 16 to Feb. 28, 5.30 
to 7 a.m. ; May 1 to Sept. 30, 4.30 to 6 a.m. As a prac- 
tical matter all riders during these hours are considered 
as either workingmen or students unless they specifically 
state that they are not. 

Regarding the transit duty of 1 sen, it will be noted 
that this is paid every time a passenger rides except in 
the case of commutation tickets. This duty is not re- 
stricted to street railways but extends to all public 
vehicles in the empire. 

Fare collection in Tokyo is done by means of tickets. 
A passenger on entering the car waits until the conduc- 
tor comes to him to collect the fare. On paying this he 
receives a ticket along with a transfer ticket if he desires 
one. At the transfer station he returns the original 


ticket. On boarding the second car he asks for another 
transfer if he desires one, retaining his first transfer 
as a ticket and surrendering it at the next transfer 
station if he desires to transfer a second time. This is 
continued until he reaches his destination. 

The date is printed on the transfer ticket and by 
means of a special punch having different figures the 
conductor punches the hour of transfer, to even half 
hours, the route number, the name of the transfer sta- 
tion and the destination. 

School children taking advantage of the special dis- 
count are required to change cars at the transfer station 
specified on the ticket cover. Workingmen's and students' 
discounts apply only in the specified hours mentioned 
but there is no specification as to the time when the 
return trip must be taken. With a return ticket two 
passengers may ride at the same time, thus saving 1 sen 
of transit duty. Commutatin tickets are sold both at 
the railway oftice and in the car and need not be used by 
the original buyer. There is no season ticket issued by 
the Tokyo Street Railway. 

$25 Per Month Is a High Wage in Japan 

Wages of motormen and conductors vary somewhat 
with location, but the recent scarcity of men in general 
has tended to raise the standard of wages and to even 
out the inequalities. At present a conductor or motor- 
man in Tokyo and other large cities receives about 30 

yen. per month at the start, increasing up to about 50 yen 
as he acquires experience. In Tokyo a boy above eighteen 
years of age is eligible for work as conductor but 
twenty years is the lower age limit for motor'^ An 
apprentice conductor or motorman receives 5U 3. a per 
diem, and undergoes training for about fifty days before 
he is eligible to serve as a regular employee and to 
receive the 30-yen wage. 

Of late it ha3 been difficult to secure conductors or 
motormen since the great war created an abnormal 
demand for men of all classes, and high wages have been 
paid in other occupations. The present high wages are 
the result of this competition. The sum of $15 per month 
for a young man of eighteen just out of his apprentice- 
ship is a high wage, although the recent inflation o^ 
currency has boosted up the general prices of commodi- 

On one electric railway an attempt has been made to 

employ women as conductors, and with excellent results. 
The proverbial modesty and kindliness of Japanese girls 
are said to do much to promote harmonious relations 
between passengers and conductors. However, this is an 
experiment and it is very doubtful if the practice of 
employing women on cars will prevaiL 

Tokyo Owns Its Street Railway System 

The city railway systems in Tokyo may be consideret' 
typical on account of the importance of the city. Here 
there were at one time three separate street railway com- 
panies, but these were finally combined into one and 
bought by the municipality. The result has been that 
the technical details of the equipment are rather com- 
plicated, as the original companies used different stand- 
ards of cars, rails, generator frequencies, etc. In the city, 
double trolley, with 500 volts direct current, is standard 
and the track gage is 4 ft. 6 in. Grooved girder, tee 
and step rails are used in different parts of the city. 

In general two types of cars are used, the smaller 
being four-wheel cars of 7 tons weight with a maximum 
carrying capacity of forty passengers. The larger ones 
are double-truck cars weighing from 9^ to lOh tons, with 
a capacity of sixty-six passengers. The city ovras 919 
of the small cars and 530 of the larger ones. In Tokyo 
there is a track mileage of 79.8, or 159.2 miles of single 
track, and the power is supplied by a private water- 
power company. 

Besides the street railway owned by the city there is 
a government electric railway entering it and five more 
suburban electric railways terminate in the city. On 
these double trolley is used in the city, and the change 
is made to single trolley at the city line. 

Although the electric railway industry in Japan has 
made marked advance in the past, much is left for the 
future. Electrification of steam railroads is sure to 
come on account of the abundance of water power still 
undeveloped and the increasing difficulty of securing coal. 
High-speed transit in the large cities is of no less impor- 
tance, and there is still a field for interurban and subur- 
ban railways. In Tokyo, for instance, high-speed transit 
is ah acute necessity, and a project is now under con- 
sideration for the construction of an elevated and subway 
system. High-speed electric railway operation between 
Tokyo and Osaka, a distance of 356 miles by the presen'' 
steam route, is contemplated, and application has been 
made to the government for permission to put this proj- 
ect through. 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


The Zone Fare in Practice 


A City that Has Grown Rapidly without Any Aparlment House Development — Efforts Have Been Made 
to Cultivate Off-Peak Traffic — Trackless Trolley and Bus Service Also Conducted but Only as 
Feeders to the Trolley System — Comparative Bus and Trolley Statistics Are Presented 



1EEDS is the great clothing center of England, 
located 185 miles north of London and exactly half- 
— iway to Edinburgh. In addition to the clothing 
industry, which is predominant, Leeds possesses great 
engineering works, a big leather trade and an unusual 
diversity of other manufactures. Coal mines and quar- 
ries are also in the immediate vicinity. In general, the 
best residential district is on high ground in the north, 
while the manufacturing district is in the river valley 
to the south and southwest. 

Since the rise of the manufacturing era, Leeds has 
grown apace, as is clear from the accompanying table of 
population and ratable value: 


181 1 .. 62,534 1891 

1861 207,149 1911 

1871 259,212 1917 

Ratable Value 

1861 £504,885 1891 

1871 759,896 1901 

1881 1,125,852 1917 

* Enlarged city of 21,593 acres. 



Leeds is also in close touch with a number of smaller 
cities and towns which reported the following popula- 
tions in 1911: Guiseley (woolens) 4,925; Rawdon 
(woolens) 3,200; Yeadon (woolens) 7,442; Horsfortli 
(residential) 9,145; Pudsey (weaving) 14,027; Roth- 
well (colliery and residential) 14,279; Shadwell (resi- 
dential) 1,239, and Morley (woolens) 24,285. With 
these and some other communities, the population of the 

Leeds district amounts to approximately 500,000. Fur- 
thermore, traffic from these sources is supplemented by 
business with the city of Bradford (350,000 population) 
9i miles distant. 

Leeds and Its Back-to-Back Houses 

At the risk of wearying the railway reader, it is 
desirable to present some further statistics on the sub- 
ject of housing to emphasize the fact that there is no 
special connection between congestion and the zone-fare 
system. It will be recalled that although Glasgow has 
the cheapest and most frequent tramway service in the 
world, the prevailing type of dwelling is the four or flve- 
story tenement ; while in New York City, with the most 
extensive universal fare existent, the elevator apartment 
house almost invariably follows the opening of rapid 
transit lines — the change of the Brooklyn section from 
small houses to big being especially marked. So, then, 
in examining the housing conditions at Leeds, one is 
struck again by the tremendous influence of habit, for 
Leeds, true to English predilections, has few multi- 
family houses. 

Out of 112,000 houses in the city of Leeds, 76,000 
are of the odd back-to-back brick type that has become 
almost traditional in the Midlands and northern coun- 
ties. Since the common back wall of each pair of houses 
thoroughly eliminates open areas at the rear, satisfac- 
tory ventilation and lighting are considered impossible. 
Hence the construction of such houses was forbidden by 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

the housing and town planning bill passed by Parliament 
in 1909. 

Although the back-to-back house would seem to be 
economical of ground space because of the absence of 
yards, the contrary is the case. In the first place, the 
houses are only two stories high and made for single 
families. In the second place, the blocks are extremely 
narrow, with the result that a most disproportionate 
area of land is taken up by paved streets — and these 
serve largely for laundries, playgrounds and other uses 
incident to the needs of the inhabitants. One curious 
consequence of having so many extremely short blocks 
is the ingenious variation of the names of thorough- 
fares. One often runs across a series in which every 
synonym for a passageway has been exhausted, thus: 
Hunslet street, avenue, terrace, road, mount, lane, 
crescent, grove, hill, parade, promenade, gate, etc.! 

Although further construction of the back-to-back 
house is forbidden, som.e particulars of the several types 

an attic bedroom of 140 sq.ft. One group of such houses 
showed a frontage of 21 ft., a combined depth of 30 ft. 
for two houses, a basement height of 6 'ft. 3 in., a first- 
floor height of 9 ft., a second-floor height of 9 ft. 8 in. 
and a total overall height of 39 ft. 6 in. to the ridge. 

In a statement concerning the housing and town plan- 
ning bill of 1909, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of 
Leeds protested against the summary prohibition of 
back-to-back houses. After quoting the extremely low 
death rate of Leeds in comparison with other British 
cities, despite Leeds being an active manufacturing 
district, the protest went on to say : 

It is presumed that the object of the bill is to secure 
better dwellings for the working classes; but the view 
taken by the corporation is that should the clause prohibit- 
ing the erection of back-to-houses pass into law, the posi- 
tion of the working classes in Leeds, as far as housing 
is concerned, will be worse than it is today. The effect 
of the clause will be to make compulsory the building of 
large tenement dwellings, which, unless there is a great 
change in public opinion, will never be fully occupied, or in 
the alternative will compel the building of through houses 

1^0 r/mos — 

S T R E e T 14- Yards Vi i d e 

S T n c E T 12 Yards Wide 

Street f 2 yards w / o e 

Street /4 Yards W / 

s T a t E T 14 Yards wide 

Street /. Yards Wide 

\ r 

Type 1 Type 2 


Type 3 

used in Leeds, illustrated herewith, may be given as 
a matter of record. 

Type I — The ideal houses are in groups of eight without • 
any forecourt, but with an open space of 15 ft. at the 
end of each block, abutting upon streets not more than 
360 ft. in length and 42 ft. wide. This means a space of 
72 ft. between buildings made up of the street and forecourts. 
In these houses the basement has a coal place and pantry; 
the ground floor a kitchen and scullery, with bath, divided 
into 165 sq.ft. of kitchen and 66 sq.ft. of scullery; the 
second floor, one bedroom of 145 sq.ft. and another of 64 
sq.ft.; the third floor, an attic of 185 sq.ft. The toilet 
facilities are located between each group of eight buildings. 

Type 2 — The second oldest houses are in groups of eight 
with forecourts or gardens 6 ft. deep and with an open space 
of 15 ft. at the end of each group, abutting upon streets 
not more than 360 ft. in length and 36 ft. wide. This 
means a space of 48 ft. between buildings. In these houses 
the basement has a coal place and pantry; the ground 
floor, 176 sq.ft. of kitchen besides the scullery; the second 
floor 176 sq.ft of bedroom besides a bath and toilet; the 
third floor, an attic of 176 sq.ft. and another attic of 48 

Type 3 — ^bout one-half of all the back-to-back houses 
are,' of the latest sort, in a continuous row with forecourts 
or gardens of at least 15 ft. in depth, abutting upon streets 
not more than 360 ft. in length and 36 ft. wide. This 
means a space of 66 ft. between buidings. The basement 
has a wash cellar in addition to the coal and larder sec- 
tions; and the ground floor a living room of 186 sq.ft., a 
scullery of 66 sq.ft. and a bath; the second floor, one bed- 
room of 162 sq.ft. and another of 64 sq.ft.; the third floor. 

only, which will mean occupation by two or more families, 
that being the only way in which the people will be able 
to pay the necessary rent. 

The working classes in the city have a decided aversion 
to tenement houses, which are the only alternative to back- 
to-back houses (on the assumption that each family is to 
occupy a separate dwelling), for it has been found in 
working-class districts the houses are in many cases oc- 
cupied by two or more families, a state of things which is 
conducive neither to morality or public health. 

It is obvious enough from the foregoing that apart- 
ment-house life is not palatable to the Englishman des- 
pite its possibilities in reducing work for the housewife 
and other conveniences like central heating. 

In earlier days the efforts of the Leeds municipality 
v,'ere concentrated on the elimination of slum areas 
(£775,928 for clearance work alone) and the widening 
of streets in the business section. The capital expendi- 
tures for street improvements had run up to £2,500,000 
by 1917. In late times the purchase of land for housing 
projects has been taken up ; by 1917 the city had put up 
fifty-one houses. In 1918, however, war conditions 
made it impossible to put up more than five. The need 
for new buildings is emphasized by the fact that the 
number of vacant houses dropped from 7144 in 1911 to 
462 in 1917. Of course, many of these houses are such 
in name only. 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 

Within the present city limits Leeds has already 
acquired for housing development, on the basis of ten 
to twelve houses to the acre, the following sites : Stan- 
ningley Road, 53^ acres; Hawkesworth, 70 acres, and 
Cross Gates, 831 acres. The real garden city develop- 
ment, however, would be on the south side of the River 
Aire at Middleton, where theie is room on 450 acres 
for more than 5,000 houses and gardens on a plateau 
about 500 ft. high. The City of Leeds already owns 
in this neighborhood a public park of 350 acres, but the 
housing development is dependent upon Parliamentary 
sanction to permit the extension of the city boundaries 

travel is coming later on account of the shorter work- 
day. Engineers now start at 7:30 instead of 6 a. m. 
and the mills are also expected to make 7 a. m. their 
opening hour. Outdoor workers begin at 7 a. m., many 
factories at 7:30 to 8 a. m., and most offices and stores 
at 9 a. m. These changes are going to sharpen the 
morning peak, but this disadvantage may be offset by 
eliminating many of the less-than-cost workmen's cars, 
which must be boarded before 7:45 a. m. to get the half- 
rate fare. 

Besides making frequent traffic checks to determine 
the influence of these important changes, the Leeds 

Type 1 

to include the areas re- 
ferred to. In connection 
with the Middleton develop- 
ment J. B. Hamilton, gen- 
eral manager Leeds City 
Tramway, is already plan- 
ning a right-of-way service 
that will enable workmen 
in Middleton to travel 3 
miles to or from work in 
twelve minutes or less. 
This will give most of the 
residents a clear half hour 
for lunch. In this way, 
the line will get a better 
load factor, and the patrons 
of the line will get more 
pleasure out of their home 
life. The first cars on the 
Leeds City Tramways are 
out at 4:30 a. m., and the 
last cars leave the center 

of the city at 11: 30 p.m. This is half an hour earlier 
than before the coal stringency, which led to a cut of 15 
per cent of the mileage of some lines. Leeds, however, 
developed so many munitions factories that the actual 
total mileage was practically unchanged. The traffic 
characteristics graph, such as that given on page 12 for 
the Headlingley route on Oct. 21, 1918, shows the first 
peak between 5 and 6 a.m. outbound and from 7 to 8 
a.m. inbound, between 12:30 and 2:30 p.m. both ways, 
between 5 and 6 p.m. outbound, between 7 and 8 p.m. 
inbound and again between 7 : 15 and 8 ; 30 p.m. out- 

Roughly, there are three peaks, morning, noon and 
night. As in other British cities, the early workmen's 

Type 3 

prom the old to the new with leeds famous 
back-to-back houses 

Type 2 

tramways management has 
taken up the subject of 
staggering the hours of 
work. The employers are 
agreeable enough, but it is 
harder to convince the em- 
ployees. Many of the lat- 
ter live so close to their 
work that tramway com- 
fort means little to them, 
and they do not care to dis- 
turb the hours of opening 
and closing unless, per- 
chance, they do the disturb- 
ing themselves ! In gen- 
eral, all routes are continu- 
ous through the center of 
the city wherever possible. 
This is shown in detail in 
Table I on page 10, in 
which the through routes 
are bracketed. 
One of the first points to be observed from this table 
is the sizable length of the routes, even when considered 
from the through-routing basis. This shows that there 
is ample open ground accessible, although for topo- 
graphical and industrial reasons the development has 
not been uniform. 

A second point to be observed is the splitting up the 
through services where traffic on opposite sides of the 
center is uneven, such as the division of the Upper 
Wortley service among Killingbeck, Halton and Sea- 
croft, or again supplementing of the Harehills Road 
service from Haddon Place by cars from Beeston. 
Through this division and overlapping of services, the 
actual headways available at the more important traffic 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 54, No. 1 

gathering points are better than the tabulation indicates. 

It is fully realized that the zone fare compels short 
headways, for otherwise the low fare alone wouid not 
attract so great a proportion of short riders. There is 
food for reflection in the fact that one of the first altera- 
tions made in the service by Mr. Hamilton when he came 
to Leeds in 1902 was to substitute a five-minute service 
with single cars for a ten-minute service with trail- 
ers, the response being an immediate jump in short- 
haul traffic. Nor does the operation of the zone fare 
interfere with the economical use of car mileage as 
obtained through turnbacks. For example, on the 
13.62-mile Roundhay Guiseley line, the service to the 
first turnback, Haddon Place, 2 miles out, is two and one- 
half minutes, and to Horsforth, G miles out, five minutes, 
leaving a ten-minute service in the four-mile open 
country run to Guiseley. 

As shown on the route and fare map, the central 
gathering places for the converging routes are near 
the Town Hall and Briggate (Street). The great loading 
point is on Briggate, where the cars arrive about every 
thirty seconds during the rush hours. Here, the open 
or sidewalk queue system has been superseded by some- 
thing more efi'ective, owing to the fortunate circum- 
stance that Briggate is a reasonably wide street. It has 
been found feasible, since the spring of 1918, to use 
railed passage ways divided and marked for the various 
routes. Outgoing cars refuse to accept passengers at 
certain discharge points in the congested district, and 
prospective passengers make use of the stockades at all 
times of the day. Such means have proved most effec- 
tive in avoiding unnecessary and unfair crowding. The 
standard car seats twenty-four below and thirty-six 
above. All passenger interchange, except at heavy load- 
ing points, is on the rear platform only. 

The schedule speed for the system as a whole is 7.72 
m.p.h. with free running speeds of 16 m.p.h. in the 
outer areas. Prior to the coal-saving measures, stops 

As commercial manager of the City of 
Leeds, John Baillie Hamil- 
ton ("JB") holds an unusual posi- 
tion, but one similar in several ways 
to that of city manager, which has 
made considerable headway wherever 
American municipalities try to keep 
business principles and political job- 
bery apart. Mr. Hamilton has been 
general manager of the Leeds City 
Tramways since 1902, coming direct 
from the position of chief assistant at 
Glasgow except for a pleasure-and-business interim in the 
United States. The title of commercial manager became 
added in this way: During 1913, when the public services 
of the city were paralyzed by strikes, the Council of Leeds 
appointed a committee of five to co-ordinate and re-organize 
the work of the several departments affected. To concen- 
trate responsibility, the Council deemed it necessary to 
engage one executive. The office of commercial manager 
was therefore created, and Mr. Hamilton was asked to add 
this to his other responsibilities. One of the most import- 
ant features of the commercial manager's work is the em- 
ployment bureau. All applications for work must be made 
to this bureau, and when a department head needs help 
he must draw upon the list supplied by the bureau. This 
avoids undue pressure on the department head and goes a 
long way toward preventing the creation of easy and need- 
less positions. Mr. Hamilton is also surveyor of highways 
and superintendent of the street-cleaning department. Since 
he is in charge of all highway facilities, he has used his 
tramway experience to save paving charges by transfer- 
ring heavy drayage to electric motor cars where possible — 
a unique situation indeed! During his off-hours, Mr. Ham- 
ilton acts as a consultant on all transport problems and 
specialist in rate cases, valuation proceedings and the like. 

were spaced 540 to 750 ft., but the present range is 660 
to 900 ft. Most of the tweive traffic regulators and 
timekeepers are stationed in the downtown district, as 
the ticket inspectors also handle traffic along the line. 
Telephones are installed about every i-mile for emer- 
gency and general traffic regulation use only. 

How Traction on Tires Works Out 

The Leeds City Tramways offer interesting examples 
of every kind of urban and suburban surface transit. 
From a car route like Hunslet earning 22.04 d. (44 
cents) a car-mile to a motor bus earning only 9.65 d. 
(19.3 cents) one gets nearly the entire range of 
economics in highway transportation. Therefore, the 
experiences of the Leeds lines and the deductions of the 
management should prove of more than usual interest 


.Street Railway:* 


Balm Road 

Cardigan Road 

Dewsbury Road 


Dewsbury Road 

Compton Road 


Woodhouse Stiett. . . . 


Harehills Rood 

Park Gates (Beeston). 

Belle Vue Road 



Domestic Street 

Victoria Read 

Whitehall Road 

Lower Worthy 

Easy Road. 

Upper Wortley . 

Route Length 


in Miles 











2 03 J 

4. 64 




1 87 

4' 48 


2 32 


2, 14 



2 32 








4.' 28 




2 69 






3; 70 












5! 38 







3 05 


3 17 









3!68 1 


9.94 1 



3.68 1 


5.45 1 

9. i3 


3 68 1 


3.33 1 



2.00 1 


1 .89 i 

3. 89 


4.58 1 


5. 14 / 



3. 14 


2.80 I 




Upper Wortley. 


Upper Wortley. 


Stanningley . . . . 









Haddon Place. . 
Harehills Road. 
Lawnswood .... 
Street Lane. . . . 


Chapeltown .... 

* Total single track, approximately 121 miles; double (rack route 
approximately 54 miles. 

Trackless Trolley; 

Farnley 4.01 30 

Guiseley and Otley 3.19 20 

Guiseley and Burley 2.91 .... 40 

Motor Bus: 

Moortonn and Shadwell 2.72 .... 45 

to operators who are worried about the possibilities of 
traction on tires instead of rails. 

One rail-less or trackless-trolley car is operated as an 
extension of the Guiseley line to Otley 2,1 miles distant 
along one road and to Burley 3 miles distant along 
another. Otley has from 10,000 to 12,000 people and 
Burley from 5,000 to 6,000 but the intervening country 
is sparsely settled. In summer this district is a vaca- 
tioning ground to which the tramways carry a heavy 
travel, but for the greater part of the year nothing 
better than a twenty-minute maximum and sixty-minute 
hourly service appears justified. This is indicated by 
the return for the week ended Feb. 8, 1919, when the 
total traffic was only 7,691 passengers for 1,688 bus- 
miles. The maximum fare, which is slightly higher 
than the street-car fare basis is 4d., and the gross earn- 
ings per bus-mile for the week named were 13d. This 
service has now been operated for five years with a 28- 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


passenger vehicle whose driver is assisted by a boy to 
care for the collection of fares. 

The trackless trolley service to Farnley, 4 miles dis- 
tant, is operated directly frovn the center of Leeds, 
although it runs along the Tramway tracks for 1 mile. 
The service on this route varies from twenty to thirty 
minutes. The maximum fare is 3d. For the week 
ended Feb. 8, 1919, 7409 passengers were carried a 
total of 1421 bus-miles, and the earnings were ll.OSd. 
per bus-mile. 

Of still less importance than the trackless trolley 
services is the extension bus line (2} to 3 miles long) to 

concerned, that form of operation cost about 2d. per 
mile more than the trackless trolley. It was justified 
chiefly in localities where the permanence of develop- 
ment was uncertain or where the business fluctuated 
because of market days, holidays, outings, etc. 

Quite recently Mr. Hamilton was one of a board of 
three engineers which carefully considered whether it 
would be preferable to use motor buses at Edinburgh 
or to electrify the cable system. The decision, as noted 
in the article on Edinburgh, in the Electric Railway 
Journal of May 3, 1919, was to electrify, a few buses 
being used only until such time as certain extensions 




Leeds trolley system 

/f auxiliary seri^ices 
Outside connecting lines 
either trolley ordus 

• = 6d 

Where only one emt'lem 
is s/iown i/ie distance is 
measured /rom the center 
of the city. 


Ml DDL ETON • • 



Shadwell. This has no fixed headway, the bus making 
eight round trips between 8 a.m. and 6.30 p.m. to suit 
the convenience of its patrons, the country cottagers. 
For the week ended Feb. 8, 1919, the bus carried 1248 
passengers. The number of bus-miles run was 272, and 
the intake per bus-mile, 9.65d. 

In discussing the reasons for the installation of these 
services, Mr. Hamilton said that he regarded the track- 
less trolley simply as a means, where good roads were 
available, of putting down a tramway on the installment 
plan. Tracks would be justified when the density of 
population reached say 5000 per mile or route, or to 
put it another way, when the traffic warranted a head- 
way of at least ten minutes. As far as the bus was 

could be built. Mr. Hamilton's arguments 
ject were expressed fully in a paper c 
senger Transport" read by him bef^ 
Tramways Association conferenc 
lowing quotations from the par- 
as they also take up the 
opening Mr. Hamilton " 

In many provincial 
to the introduction of 
tral and older parts of ti 
The provision of a reg'u 
center of the city and the \ 
fares, at frequent intervals 
pletely metamorphosed the t. 
parts of the town. ... In . 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 



I I 2 


(S^CiOOOOOOOOOO — — — — ~ — — 

Traffic Receipts per Mile 

with 1895, just shortly after the 
corporation had taken over the 
working of the tramway under- 
taking, the population residing 
in the two central business 
wards of the city has decreased 
in one case by 25 per cent, and 
in the other by 35 per cent., 
while during the same period 
increases from 40 per cent to 60 
per cent have taken place in dis- 
tricts outside the central zone. 

The requirements of the form 
of traction necessary to meet the 
(city) conditions which I have 
outlined must first provide for 
vehicles capable of dealing with 
large variations in the number 
of passengers. . . . One car 
may have practically no passen- 
gers, while the following car 
may have from forty to fifty. 
The size of the vehicles should, 
therefore, be capable of meeting 
the public requirements by hav- 
mg a large carrying capacity. 

The point in the whole matter 
is that if a vehicle with a capac- 
ity of approximately sixty 
(seated) passengers can be pro- 
vided at the same cost as or less 
than a vehicle with a capacity 
of about thirty-four (seated) 
passengers, then even at the less 
busy periods of the day it is 
very likely to pick up more 
passengers, and, at any rate will 

carry them, other things being equal, with greater comfort 
than a smaller vehicle possibly could. 

Worby Beaumont's alternative to the tramcar, viz., the 
motorbus, with its strong smells and its tendency to skid, 
and with the fact that at the rush periods of the day 
every tramcar as at present would be represented by two 
motorbuses, will produce a mental picture to every delegate 
here of the condition of congestion and confusion which 
would occur every day in the central thoroughfares of the 
towns they represent. 

I have said that the carrying capacity of a motorbus is 
only half of a tramcar. ... In inclement and rainy weather 
the effective carrying capacity of the motor bus (open 
tops) is further reduced by fully one-half. Surely if there 
is any obstruction caused by tramcars, the cure proposed — 
that of substituting four buses for one car — is worse than 
the disease. 

Continuing, Mr. Hamilton said that the large bus 
development of London was due to conditions almost 
unique, the streets being too narrow for any kind of 
rail traction. Finally, on the basis of all the figures 
of bus costs then available, Mr. Hamilton calculated 

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Mileage Run 


Note — Passengers per car- 
mile were 13.04 for year 
ended March 31. 1918, as 
compared to 11.61 for pre- 
ceding year. 

o^cy>oooooooooo — — — — — 

CO cool criC5>a^ 0^CT><5>'^O(5iTi<5^cr^'3>^C^G^OC5) 

Passengers • Carried 

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Number of Cars per Hour to City 
14 19 19 14 12 n 18 18 18 17 18 10 20 12 .8 4 

Number of Cars per Hour from Ci+y 

that in Leeds motor-bus operation would cost £137,600 
a year more, leaving a deficit instead of a surplus (for 
relief of the rates) of £61,000. The annual cost per 
seat for motor buses compared with cars in 1912 was 
as £47 to £23. 

One other variety of electric railway operation at 
Leeds remains to be mentioned — inter-operation with 
adjacent undertakings. Perhaps the service to Brad- 
ford, 94 miles distant, is most notable as it represents 
the earliest important attempt to overcome both the 
legal and the physical handicaps of inter-operation. 
Leeds has a gage of 4 ft. 8* in., and Bradford one of 
82 in. less. This made it necessary to devise an axle 
of expanding type so that the same cars could be run 
on both gages. This was successfully operated for five 
years, but owing to the shortage of equipment and the 
greater difficulty of maintaining non-standard appara- 
tus, trucks with expanding axles had to be temporarily- 
discontinued late in 1918. 

It has been observed that the absence of through- 
car service perceptibly injures travel despite the fact 
that the transferring passenger always finds a connect- 
ing car waiting for him. This traffic is quite consider- 
able, 61,395 passengers being carried during the week 
ended Feb. 8, 1919. For the same week, the mileage run 
was 6940 and the earnings 16.30d. per car-mile. The 
service is given in competition with steam trains, which 
lost a large part of their travel when the government 
made a general rate increase of 50 per cent. A through- 
running arrangement is also in force with Wakefield, 
9i miles distant. 

Contents of Later Article 

In the second and concluding part of this descrip- 
tion of the Leeds transportation system an account 
will be given of the fares charged and the labor condi- 
tions, with statistics of operation. The method of ac- 
counting for fares will be described and illustrated with 
reproductions of some of the blanks used. 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Optimism Prevails 
at Pennsylvania Association Meeting 

Pronounced Spirit of Fairness and Helpfulness of Commissioners, In- 
creased Riding Due to Populations Returning to Pre-War 
Normal, and Revenue from Increased Fares Serve as 
Antidotes for War Period Gloom 

IN SESSION when the world's most momentous peace 
document was being signed, the electric railway men 
gathered in the annual meeting of the Pennsylvania 
Street Railway Association at the Penn-Harris Hotel, 
Harrisburg, Pa., on June 27 and 28, seemed to sense 
the beginning of a new order of things in the electric 
railway industry contemporary with the optimism and 
hopefulness for a new order of things in the political 
world. They realized they were rapidly emerging from 
the war conditions and that the outlook for the future, 
as it may be interpreted from the attitude of the public 
and the commissions and from the comparison of operat- 
ing revenues of the last few months with those of a 
year ago, was most encouraging. This meeting of the 
Pennsylvania association was the first regular meeting 
since before the war, the annual meeting of a year ago 
having been simply a small business session at which 
the officers were elected and other essential work done, 
and the members gloried in the renewed interchange 
of ideas and discussion of their respective operating 

Undoubtedly the principal encouragement the mem- 
bers took home with them from the annual meeting of 
this week was contained in the informal address of 
Chairman William D. B. Ainey, of the Pennsylvania 
Public Service Commission. Some of his remarks were 
reiterations of thoughts he had expressed before the 
mid-winter meeting of the American Electric Railway 
Association and before the Chamber of Commerce of 
the United States at its meeting in St. Louis in April. 
But the note of sympathetic approach to the electric 
railway problem, which he has pronounced as the atti- 
tude of the Pennsylvania commission and the one which 
should actuate all public service commissions to render 
helpful assistance, will bear much repetition. He was 
anxious to make clear to the members this spirit of help- 
fulness with which the commission undertook to solve 
the problems of the public utilities which constantly 
come before it. He said that the commission felt that 
the great corporations were as necessary as the air 
we breathe and the food we eat, and considered them 
to be in a sense wards of the commission, though 
of course recognizing the obligation the commission 
holds to the public. In this work the commission has 
carefully refrained from setting itself up as being 
able to operate the properties better than the manage- 
ments, feeling certain that the railway men knew 
better than any member of the commission how to op- 
erate their properties. He wanted to get away from the 
idea that the public utilities commission should occupy 
a position of antagonism toward the railways. The 
commission, he said, was not a court, but an inquisi- 
torial body, before which the railway men were invited 
to come and talk over with the commission their respec- 

tive problems, so that they might be fully appreciated 
and the commission might then act in a manner which 
would be helpful and not in any sense as a judge be- 
fore the court. The aim of the commission was not 
to render a iudgment against any one, but to give a 
decision in each case which would be fair and just to 
every one. The court must weigh the evidence pre- 
sented, but the commission can go beyond this and 
invite information and seek to help in the solution 
of the intricate problems of the utilities. 

Commenting upon the paper on methods of analyzing 
passenger traffic by R. H. Horton, which had just 
previously been read, Mr. Ainey added the important 
thought that traffic studies should not stop with the 
people who do ride on the cars and where they go and 
when, but should also study the courses of the people 
who do not ride. The enormous number of people 
who walk represent to a certain extent potential riders, 
and if data were at hand regarding the movements of 
these people, it might be used as an important guide to 
the company in providing a service which would attract 
their patronage. A large proportion of the walkers 
represents a revenue which belongs to the street rail- 
way companies, and having proper information they 
should go after it. Later in his talk he referred to this 
source of revenue as the unearned increment of the 
electric railway business. 

Complaint Department of the Commission 

In the course of his talk Mr. Ainey referred to the 
manner in which the old Greeks classified all strangers 
and things about which they were unadvised as enemies 
and in a spirit of antagonism, and then referred to 
the great value of keeping the public informed of the 
causes of failures and delays in the service, many 
of which were beyond the control of the company. 
He also told of the informal complaint department of 
the commission and pointed out how he believed this 
to be a proper function of the commission work. The 
pyschology behind this department is really the impor- 
tant thing, for the public in general seems to prefer 
to address its complaints against public utility com- 
panies to the commission rather than the companies, 
since it feels that the commission is a disinterested body 
and therefore inclined to be more fair and responsive. 
This department of the commission serves as a clearing 
house for a great number of complaints, the great ma- 
jority of which are probably inconsequential. These 
are all treated with care, however, and are usually re- 
ferred to the company concerned, thereby giving it 
an opportunity to call upon the complainant and discuss 
the causes of the complaint, this usually resulting in 
a much better understanding between the person and 
the utility. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Taking up the discussion of fares and revenues for 
the utility company, Mr. Ainey said that the commis- 
sion had no objection to or antipathy against any rate 
of fare, whether it be 5 cents, 6, 7, 8 or 10 cents. 
Before granting any particular rate of fare, it was 
simply interested in knowing whether the company 
had gone deep enough into its own problems to know 
that the rate of fare desired was necessary, and then 
whether there wei'e not other elements than the increase 
which might be taken advantage of to produce the re- 
sults without the fare increase. The commission is of 
course duty bound to go into all factors in the interest 
of maintaining a reasonable fare for the riding pub- 
lic and at the same time in the interests of retain- 
ing to a company a large share of its potential passen- 
gers; in other words, to make sure so far as it is able 
that the fare proposed will not react to the detriment 
of the company rather than to its advantage. It is the 
duty of the commission to join with the companies 
in rendering good service, and only as they have ade- 
quate revenues can this end be accomplished. In other 
words, the commission and the companies come to the 
same end in striving to serve the public, for they are 
both interested in the prosperity of the company. The 
hearing of a company in a rate case involves two factoi's, 
the first being the determination of how much additional 
business may be secured by proper service and mer- 
chandising methods, and then how much additional 
revenue must be derived in the way of a fare increase 
in order to bring about the desired revenue. 

Mr. Ainey thought that the minds of the manage- 
ments should be directed toward the fact that a great 
many companies are burdened with intercorporate obli- 
gations and corporate complexities which bring about 
undue overhead expense and that there must some time 
be a lessening of these burdens. 

Mr. Ainey took occasion to break down the barrier 
which he said existed in many operators' minds that it 
was necessary in order to avoid discrimination, to have 
one rate of fare all over a property. He said that there 
was nothing in the law against discrimination, but 
rather unjust discrimination. The zone system of fare 
collection does not necessarily add any burden upon 
the public through its diflferentiation between riders for 
the conditions of length of ride, service, etc. He did not 
expi'ess himself as to the value or effect that would re- 
sult from the use of the zone system, but simply clari- 
fied its legality. 

Compensation for Efficiency 

Mr. Ainey sounded a new note in commission regula- 
tion of utilities when he asked the help of the companies 
to solve the problem of compensation for efficient man- 
agement. He said it was his belief that there was 
something radically wrong in not giving compensation 
or recognition to the well-regulated and operated 
property as compared with the return to the poorly 
managed property. He said there must be some 
formula which will recognize good management and 
bring back an incentive for that. He expressed 
his sympathy with greater return so earned, and 
said that such compensation would make a spur to 
the company to practice economy if it could share 
in the results. The company should not have to strive 
for efficient management with the motive of preserving 
life, but to the end of earning more for the stock- 

holders, provided that the public would likewise benefit 
through such economy and efficiency in operation. 


In his presidential address, Gordon Camobell, presi- 
dent York Railways, referred to the war and the in- 
evitable after-war conditions in this country and abroad. 
He mentioned particularly the effect of these conditions 
on the electric railway industry and the higher cost of 
material and labor. Some companies have received 
power to increase rates, but there are others where 
this permission has not been granted. 

The speaker did not think much could be expected 
from referendums on the rates of fare. It is true, 
people realize that costs have increased, as when they 
pay ten cents to the baker for a loaf of bread which 
they formerly bought for 5 cents. But, he asked, 
would they vote for a higher bread price if they had 
an opportunity, merely because the baker argued that 
the price of wheat was higher, and that without an in- 
crease the ultimate production would decrease and the 
public interest suffer? 

These questions of utility rates, in his opinion, 
should be left to a responsible commission, having in 
mind the ultimate public interest. The wrecking of 
electric railways would be a public disaster. Increases 
in revenue are necessary and can be obtained only 
by increased rates of fare. A 10-cent fare to-day is no 
higher, measured in commodities, than a five-cent fare 
was formerly. Any reduction from the 10-cent fare 
would therefore be a reduction in price. Adjustment 
of fares for the depreciation of currency will bring 
increased revenues, in his opinion. He quoted Pro- 
fessor Fisher on the future trend of prices and pointed 
out that if later prices should decrease, fares could bo 

Continuing, Vie said : 

While open to consider any device or method of reducing 
operating costs, let us not give encouragement to the idea 
that reduced fares can be maintained thereby. This is al- 
ways a popular idea but at this time is rather dangerous. 
New things cost money. They require capital. They are 
experimental, and if time proves that we were on the wrong 
track another "mistake of management" is charged up to us. 
Let us meet the main issue first, that revenues must be 
provided. And if, under commission supervision, satisfactory 
service can be produced for lower fares, let that be fully 
demonstrated first. It is easy to lower fares. And, in 
principle, we believe that the lowest price at which trans- 
portation can be sold profitably is the best price. 

How about fixed charges? It is said that car fares need 
not increase because fixed charges have not increased and 
form so large a part of the cost. But less than one-fourth 
of the receipts are now applicable to fixed charges. Fixed 
charges have increased continually and must continue to 
increase. True, they cannot be reduced, for which reason 
we cannot stand a reduction in revenues, but in order to 
keep pace with the public needs we must buy more cars, 
more power facilities must be provided, paving (imposed on 
us by city ordinances) is continually extending. It now 
requires $2,000 to pay for what could formerly be done for 
$1,000 and rates of interest have increased. These same 
facts apply to depreciation. It will cost more now to re- 
place property when it becomes worn out or obsolete, and 
it behooves us to set aside a greater reserve for deprecia- 

Now, it is true that in readjustments interest on fixed 
investments has not increased, and thereby the holder of 
bonds is a sufferer. His 5 per cent interest will only buy 
half what it formerly did. He has our sympathy, for he 
has provided capital for the development of public utilities 
which the public now enjoy. We cannot argue for an in- 
crease in return to the former investor in bonds, but we 
can say this for him: It is our bounden duty to keep faith 
with him; to see that the interest return he is entitled to 
is assured to him; that his property is not run down and 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal, 


wasted but maintained in a high state of efficiency; that 
ample reserves be provided for contingencies and that his 
property should show earnings, not merely sufficient to 
pay his return but to assure it doubly and to provide a 
fair return to those who have operated the properties in 
the joint interest of the public as users and of the public 
as investors. 

The Proper Basis For Fares 

After referring to the hope of the industry that the 
Federal Commission would be of help in bringing about 
a recognition of the infallible underlying truths of the 
industry, Mr. Campbell discussed methods of proportion- 
ing fares. He referred to the zone plan of the Public 
Service Railway of New Jersey, and gave the theory 
of the zone fare advocates, which was, first, that it is 
more equitable to distribute the cost in proportion to 
distance traveled, and second, that by preserving the 
short-distance riding revenues will be maintained with 
the lower general scale of prices. He thought that ex- 
cept under certain conditions the volume of this short- 
distance riding might be overestimated, and that this 
plan placed the burden of providing the increased reve- 
nues on part instead of all of the riders, though for 
some longer hauls he thought higher fares are in order. 

Besides the short rider, there are two other classes 
of patrons who might be entitled to special consider- 
ation. According to the speaker, they are: 

First, the regular rider, the man who, rain or shine, rides 
twice or even four times a day, bearing his full share of 
the cost of maintaining the service, while there are others 
who only use the cars in rainy weather or when their motor 
car is undergoing repairs, generally on the most crowded 
trips. It does not seem right that this latter class should 
have this service at their command without paying a serv- 
ice charge. Second, the off-peak rider. This plan was 
suggested by the Bay State Company. The arguments in 
favor of would, no doubt, be that it would induce those 
who could do so to ride at other hours than those of heav- 
iest travel and that, when the travel is light, those who 
might otherwise walk would be induced to ride. 

We have thus three conditions which might be considered 
in the theoretical construction of rates for street railway 
transportation. But, are not these only diversions from the 
logical conclusion that the car fare should increase as the 
value of money falls? If this increase could have been 
gradual and in inverse proportion, there would, no doubt, 
have been no disturbance in the normal travel. Unfor- 
tunately, this was not practicable. Unfortunately, relief 
has been delayed too long in some cases and is too timidly 
applied in others, and the results, I fear, will be costly 
reconstruction in many places. 

What The Public Wants 

The speaker thei. referred to the work of the execu- 
tive committee during the year, the coming hearings 
on the question of increased compensation for carrying 
United States mail, and the activity of the legislative 
committee in protecting the companies from the effects 
of ill-advised legislation. Concluding, Mr. Campbell 
said : 

The question is asked. Why are the street railways so 
unpopular? Is it because they have been for a long time 
trying to do something for less than it was worth, the re- 
sults being reflected in the wages and the service? Is it 
because they are tax gatherers — for the street railway col- 
lects from all its passengers a tithe for government taxes, 
another for State taxes, a tithe for city taxes and another 
to pay for paving the city streets? Is it because they make 
no concessions? But the street railways do generally carry 
child ren for half fare, smaller children free, baskets and bun- 
dles without charge, policemen and firemen of the city free, 
and in many cases they have assumed expenses, willingly or 
otherwise, as a concession to public opinion. But are they 
really so unpopular or is this hostility subjective in the 
mind of the propagandist and only objective in the public 

Of course, people generally "knock" the public servant. 
They have to complain of something. We know how it is 

ourselves. We used to complain of the servant at home. 
We don't now, for there is none. Well-intended criticism 
is to be taken seriously, but ordinary grumbling probably 
reflects the momentary frame of mind of the complainant. 
If we give the full service which we honestly believe is the 
public due, striving ever to better it, we can ask the return 
with a clear conscience. 

It is my own belief that the real demand of the public 
is good service, rather than cheap service. The class of 
travel which we have lost came from those who can afford 
the very much higher cost of private automobiles. Possibly, 
before long some will travel in the air with still greater 
elements of cost and risk. Likewise, I am an advocate of 
fair wages and conditions for our employees. 

We have it on no less authority than the President of 
the United States that if we have treated the people from 
whom we are making our profits as they ought to be treated, 
if we treat the employees whom we use in earning these 
profits as they ought to be treated, if our methods of com- 
petition are clear and above reproach, nobody will be jealous 
of our profits. 

Do not understand me as under-estimating the difficulties. 
This is not to be accomplished without combined effort. I 
assume that the street railway men will continue their 
devotion and unremitting effort toward the cause. It has 
been a long and grueling fight with heavy casualties, but 
now that we have reached this point let us see it through. 
What I wish to suggest is renewed courage and confidence 
in the future. 


After the address by President Campbell and the 
reading of the papers by F. R. Phillips and E. C. Spring 
at the first session of the association, Friday afternoon, 
the discussion of the members centered about the sub- 
jects which had been taken up in the papers, abstracts 
of which are published elsewhere in this issue. 

W. E. Boileau, general manager, Scranton Railway, 
told of the task to which his company had been put 
in keeping the cars running during the war period. 
Rails had been taken from the scrap heap and put back 
in the street, and at one time when it was impossible 
to get car wheels, the ones in use became worn so low 
that the gear cases were striking the pavement and 
so the company lowered the pavement. He said that 
the maintenance program which the company had been 
forced to follow during the war would now require 
between $300,000 and $400,000 expenditure within the 
next one or two years to put the property back in 
normal condition. The population of about 280,000 
served by his company had lost over 75,000 people 
during the war. The riding went dovra and down with 
each draft and with the exodus of workmen to other 
places of employment until the company was compelled 
to increase its fare to 6 cents. This was not great 
enough, and as the riding continued to drop off, the 
fare was raised to 8 cents. At this rate of fare the 
revenue become better almost daily and the number 
of riders was coming back and was nearly up to the 
number which had been carried at the 6-cent rate 
when the commission ordered a cash fare of 7 cents 
with four tickets for 25 cents. The increase of riding, 
which had been expected from this decrease in fare, 
had not been realized, and he doubted if the 7-cent 
fare would ever bring sufficient return to make the 
business profitable. With the present rate of fare, 
he said that about 73 per cent of the fares collected 
were tickets, it having been estimated that this would 
go to 90 per cent. The largest percentage of cash 
fares is paid on the lines carrying a high percentage 
of foreigners who do not seem to invest in tickets. In 
the better sections of the city, tickets are used almost 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

exclusively. One line which carries almost entirely 
foreigners collects over 60 per cent cash fares, while 
a line in the better section of the city collects only 
22 per cent cash fares. 

William 0. Hay, general manager, Northampton 
Traction Company, Easton, reported that in 1916 his 
company had increased its fare from 5 cents to 6 cents 
and had been disappointed in the per cent of increase in 
revenue received. A good many of the riders had walk- 
ed rather than pay the increase. On Sept. 23, 1918, 
the company went to a 7 cent fare and since that time 
has been realizing a comfortable return. The people 
have seemed to recover from their soreness and are 
again riding the cars. The results this year have been 
very good and the company now sees its way out of 
the woods, so to speak. He also commented on the fact 
that the company had learned a lot about develop- 
ment of the scrap heap during the war as a means of 
keeping the cars operating, and told how brakeshoes 
had been recovered, scrapped axles refitted, cars robbed 
of parts to keep others going, etc. 

H. G. Morse, of the General Electric Company, and 
W. G. Kaylor, of the Westinghouse Traction Brake 
Company, were called upon by the president and they 
recited some of the severe difficulties which the manu- 
facturers faced in their endeavor to keep the operating 
companies supplied with necessities. 

F. R. Phillips, Pittsburgh Railways, remarked that 
there seemed to be something inseparable between the 
rate of fare and the revenue received. In connection 
with the so-called superimposed fare system of Pitts- 
burgh, whereby there existed a 5 cent inner zone and a 
7 cent outer zone, he reported that there had been a 
traffic increase of about three per cent in the 5 cent 
inner zone, but a decrease in the number of riders in 
the 7 cent zone, with a net revenue very much less 
than that previously derived by the company. In the 
outer zone, it seems that there was formerly a great deal 
of riding from home to the local theatres in the evening, 
and these people complained that it was entirely un- 
just to charge them 7 cents for that ride, whereas 
an equivalent ride in the central district would cost only 
5 cents. This system of fares is about to be abandoned, 
and replaced by a fixed flat fare all over the city of 
7i cents (four tickets for 30 cents) with a 10-cent 
cash fare. The 10-cent cash fare entitles the rider 
to a transfer to ride across the city, it now being neces- 
sary to pay two fares to ride across the city. There is 
thus no increase in the fai-e to the passenger who rides 
across the city, but the new system will bring about a 
2] -cent increase in the central zone and a i-cent in- 
crease in the outer zone. Under the superimposed sys- 
tem, the total net increase in receipts in the 7-cent area 
was 9 to 11 per cent, whereas it should have shown a 40 
per cent increase. Mr. Phillips commented that it was 
very difficult to tell what effect the rate of fare has 
on the amount of riding, since there are a number of ele- 
ments which have a bearing. For instance, he cited 
the fact that at present the industries of Pittsburgh 
are operating at only 62 per cent normal, and he in- 
ferred from this that the amount of riding on the 
cars might likewise be assumed to be about 62 per 

R. B. Hull, general manager, Lancaster County Rail- 
way & Light Company, Lancaster, said that his com- 
pany, by increasing its fare from 5 cents to 6 cents 

and eliminating all unnecessary service, had been able 
to make a good showing and that for May and June of 
this year it had shown a 20 per cent increase in 
revenue over that during the corresponding months of 
last year. 

Less Than Five-Cent First Zone Fare 

C. B. Fairchild, Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, 
was inclined to think that the industry had arrived 
at the time when it must right about face and collect 
from the passenger for what he wanted to buy ; namely, 
so many units of transportation at a proper unit charge. 
He was inclined to believe that this unit charge for 
the first zone should be something less than a nickel. 
He argued that it cost so much to produce this street 
car service, a figure differing with all of the special 
conditions of each locality. The first problem is to de- 
termine what the cost of producing the kind of service 
the public wants, plus a fair return on the investment 
given, is. The company must then derive that amount 
of money in order to produce the service required and 
then the public can arrange to pay the corresponding 
fare in any manner in which it prefers. If the cost of 
paving streets and various other items of cost which 
must now be borne by the car rider, were removed then 
the cost of producing the transportation could be re- 
duced, and it should be the endeavor of the industry 
to bring about a rock bottom basis for figuring trans- 
portation costs. 

Mr. Fairchild remarked that the industry had violat- 
ed every principle of merchandising by continuing from 
the old days to charge 5 cents for a ride, regardless 
of how long or how short a ride the passenger desired 
to purchase. He believes that, like the merchant, the 
railway company must be prepared to sell the cus- 
tomer the size of package he wants, which means that 
he must come to a zone system, and this zone rate 
must be low enough to attract customers. He said 
the industry had overlooked one thing which had made 
European business attractive — the short-haul riders. 
It should be the aim to get onto the cars the people 
who are now walking at the hours when the companies 
are hauling empty seats around, and this means a rate 
of fare less than five cents for the first zone. He 
thought that the bulk of the business which is available 
can be classified as short haul. He also pointed out that 
it would not be necessary to carry as many passengers 
in this country as they must in Europe to realize an 
equivalent return, because of the lower unit fare pre- 
valent there. Referring to the protest of the suburban- 
ites against the zone fare system, he said that he did 
not think their case was well founded and that he did 
not believe they would object strenuously. 

President Campbell took an opposite view of the fare 
situation. To carry a passenger one to two miles for 
something less than 5 cents would be going backward, 
his contention being that the value of the nickel has 
changed so materially that a ride of that distance 
for 5 cents now would be giving more than to give 
an equal ride for half that amount in 1900. He said 
that fares in effect have been cut in half already and 
that instead of looking toward lower fares, the in- 
dustry should be looking toward increased fares, that 
it had been looking too long toward small fares. He 
was inclined to doubt that short-haul traffic would be 
stimulated by the small fare, or if it were stimulated, 
that there would not be sufficient additional riding 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


so that the company would realize an increase in reve- 
nue. He was looking more toward the basis of rides 
for 5 cents which existed twenty years ago as a proper 
readjustment basis for fares at this time. At that 
time the length of ride for 5 cents was in the neighbor- 
hood of 2 miles. Even at that rate of fare, the passenger 
of today would receive more for his money due to the 
infinitely better service, more lines, better cars, etc., 
taking into account all the progress made through 

Thomas A. Wright, vice-president and general mana- 
ger, Wilkes-Barre Railway, told how his company had 
increased its fares from 4 cents to 5, then 6, and later 
to 8 cents, which has finally yielded a satisfactory 
return. His return for May had shown a 47 per cent 
increase over the corresponding month last year and 
the reports showed a steady decrease in the loss of pas- 
sengers. In the population of 250,000 served, there had 
been a decrease of 25,000 to 30,000 people during the 
war who were now gradually coming back, and condi- 
tions were becoming normal. He had just finished his 
testimony before the commission on the rate case of 
his company and the question which was uppermost 
in his mind was as to what the effect will be on the in- 
dustry if a fixed rate of return is generally determined 
upon. Tf that is all that the companies will be allowed to 
earn, h3 Avondered what incentive there would ba from 
the manager down to try for better operation and better 

Mr. Kaylor and A. M. Eicher of the Westinghouse 
Traction Brake Company, upon request, described the 
safety car and told of some of the splendid results 
which are being obtained through its use in several 
cities and presented the evidence which the use of these 
cars furnish, that more frequent service does sell trans- 

At the banquet given by the association on Friday 
evening, Lieut.-Gov. Edward Biddleman, of Pennsyl- 
vania, was the principal speaker. He was followed by 
Chairman Ainey of the public utilities commission, who 
briefly addressed the gathering, and by several of the 
state legislators. The secretary of the association, 
Capt. Henry M. Stine, acted as toastmaster. Mr. Bid- 
dleman said in the course of his remarks that it was 
high time that men in public stations should exercise 
the courage to let industry earn a fair return, whatever 
the cost might be. If an increase of fare becomes nec- 
essary in order to sustain the cost of transportation, 
then it becomes the duty of the officers of the common- 
wealth to approve and support that increase. He said 
they should stand up for what they believe to be to the 
interests of the public whether that is popular for the 
moment or not. 

At the Saturday morning session, after the reading 
of Mr. Horton's paper on "Methods of Observing and 
Analyzing Passenger Trafl[ic" an abstract of which will 
appear in next week's issue, Mr. Boileau stated that 
his company had used two and three-day traffic check 
data very effectively in handling complaints made by 
the merchants' and other associations. 

Mr. Fairchild said that the number of complaints 
of service had been reduced over 80 per cent in the last 
year and a half, due in large part to the data made 
available from traffic studies. His company keeps a 
record of all delays and finds that this record is very 
helpful in explaining to patrons who complain of poor 

service and long delay, by showing them the cause is 
usually one beyond the control of the company. All 
complaints for the Philadelphia Company are handled 
by the welfare and public relations department, which 
is in charge of a vice-president, the office having been 
created with the organization of the department, and a 
transportation superintendent of wide experience pro- 
moted to the place. 

Mr. Spring told of a bulletin board which his com- 
pany has at the interurban station in Allentovra, upon 
which the cause of delays or other information is writ- 
ten for the information of the passengers. He has found 
this to be of greatest value in allaying criticism, for 
when the public is advised of the fact that a parade in 
a certain town has held up the car and there will be 
none for thirty minutes, or given other similar infor- 
mation as to conditions, they then know it is beyond 
the control of the company, and are decidedly more 
content in their wait. 

Election of Officers 

The nominating committee which was appointed by 
President Campbell, reported at the close of the Satur- 
day morning session that it was recommended no change 
be made in the administration of the association and 
that the present officers be re-elected. Upon motion, 
the wishes of the committee were carried out, and the 
officers below re-elected for another year : 

President, Gordon Campbell, president and general 
manager, York Railways Company, York, Pa. 

Vice-President, T. B. Donnelly, claim agent. West 
Penn Railways, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Secretary and treasurer, Henry M. Stine, 211 Locust 
Street, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Electric Railways from an Operating 

Policies and Methods Which Will Aid in Securing 
Better Operating Ratio — Merchandising Prin- 
ciples Applicable in Selling Car Rides 

By Edward C. Spring 

Superintendent of Transportation, Lehigh Valley Transit Company, 
Allentown, Pa. 

MY OPTIMISM and faith in mankind lead me to 
believe that the future of electric railways is as- 
sured, but not without most serious thought and sleep- 
less nights. The department which occupies the most 
prominent position in the field of activities is the oper- 
ating department, and upon it in no small measure de- 
pends the working out of the difficulties in which the 
industry now finds itself. The men at the head of the 
operating department are close to the public they serve, 
and the service they give is vital to the welfare of the 
company and the growth of the community — a relation- 
ship filled with great responsibility and opportunities 
demanding sane and sound judgment. 

The operating department has in its hands two impor- 
tant factors to use in safeguarding the industry ; namely, 
the power to create and the power to save — two factors 
which are essentially vital in the future of our proper- 
ties. These embody the power to create business and 
develop it along the most economical lines, and the 
power to save in all branches of operation in order that 
there shall be no waste. 

* Abstract of paper read before Pennsylvania Street Railway 
Association at Harrisburg. June 27, 1919. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Our employees should be trained in the art of co-op- 
eration. We need men who can think and solve the 
seeming impossible, who will dare to tackle the problems 
that are confronting them. To them we shall look for the 
progress that will make the operating department count 
100 per cent. The employee who takes a personal inter- 
est in his work and feels that the company is his, who 
realizes his individual responsibility, is the man of the 
hour, and he will in turn find his position easier and 
more pleasurable. The more quickly the trainman real- 
izes that his car is one of a chain of stores, and he 
the manager and salesman selling transportation and 
delivering it in the package of service, the sooner will 
he become one of the co-operating parts of the organi- 
zation. To such an employee is encouragement and ap- 
preciation due. 

There is one expenditure in the account of the elec- 
tric railway which brings back no return, and that is 
the element of accident claims. In no better way will 
the efforts of an employee be felt and appreciated by 
the management than in promoting to the limit the 
safety program. The slogan of the electric railway sec- 
tion of the National Safety Council, "One less accident 
for every mile of track in 1919 over 1918," should be 
impressed upon the entire personnel of the organization, 
in order that they shall be on the alert to safeguard 
the company's interest. 

The equipment department, in promoting the inter- 
ests of the company, should see to it that defective roll- 
ing stock is not allowed to go beyond a reasonable 
period before repairs are made. The cost of main- 
tenance can be materially kept down if the defects 
are remedied and repairs made as soon as they are ap- 
parent, and not allowed to go over for the general over- 
haul. Such repairs should always be, if possible, of a per- 
manent character, rather than of a temporary nature. 
The reclaiming of old material should continue to 
receive the attention it has during the war period. 

In the track and roadway department, the adoption 
of standards is strongly urged as a means of promot- 
ing economical maintenance of tracks and roadways. 
This is desirable not only because of the importance it 
has in keeping the stores and stocks down to a minimum., 
but of increasing the general efficiency of the work done. 
Workmen handling the same type of material repeatedly 
become more proficient in making repairs, and not only 
is the work better and more quickly done, but more 
cheaply. Another saving is the time involved, which 
may be minimized by making early repairs. The cen- 
tralization of stores and tools, the reducing of all gangs 
to the lowest possible working force, and the making 
of estimates of cost and proper disposition of cost will 
assist the way department in promoting economy. 

In connection with the work of the superintendent of 
overhead and distribution lines, transmission and tele- 
phone lines should be inspected and all weak places 
where winter weather might cause trouble put into 
shape, for much labor can be eliminated by doing this 
character of work during favorable weather. All over- 
head work done in cold weather is generally over-ex- 
pensive. The centralization of distribution points for 
material and an accurate check of materials on hand 
are great factors in bringing about savings. 

In the transportation department, serious thought 
should be given to traffic studies, and the effect of dis- 
tance, time, stops, skip stops, slow downs, length of 
stops, speed and general operating conditions upon the 

grade of service and cost of operation. Traffic charts 
made at frequent intervals to show the load factors and 
traffic changes are absolutely necessary for good service 
and operation. The car mileage of any system should 
be checked daily so that any increase can instantly be ac- 
counted for. Development of the freight service offers 
other great advantages for increasing the revenues at 
this time of high costs. If made a part of a proper 
organization plan, the interurban railway may be made 
of most effective value in eliminating the middleman's 
profits and reducing the cost of foodstuffs to the con- 

Fares and Increased Revenue 

An electric railway has every right to operate at the 
lowest possible cost, even if it shall neglect maintenance 
for one or two years, but it is a very dangerous habit 
to get into. Probably more properties have been 
wrecked as the result of this policy than from any other 

As a member of the committee appointed by the 
American Electric Railway Association to make a report 
at the Atlantic City convention on the subject of rates 
of fare and methods of collection, it would be unwise 
for me at this time to do more than make a few general 
statements. It is apparent that no company has as yet 
reached a final solution of the rate problem, although re- 
cent developments would tend to indicate that a zone 
plan of operation has many advantages over the so- 
called horizontal fare unit increase. The latter, which 
has been the one most tried out, has not shown the gain 
expected, but in many cases has been accompanied by a 
decrease in revenue. 

Observations have led to the belief that a well defined 
zone system offers the greatest advantage to passengers 
and will retain a larger proportion of the existing travel 
than any other method of increasing the revenue. I am 
a firm believer that transportation is a commodity and 
service is the package in which the conmodity is deliv- 
ered to the customer, and that our business should be 
handled on a commodity basis. If this is true, then the 
zone system is the logical solution of increased revenue. 
The length of the zone and the rate per zone must be 
determined according to the conditions which exist. I do 
not believe that a hard and fast rule can be laid down 
for all cases. A so-called inner zone of 5 cents would 
seem mandatory in the business district, and it seems 
to be the most logical. The inadequate financial results 
from most of the zone systems placed in operation, have 
resulted from inaccurate estimates of travel oh the sys- 
tem. An accurate estimate can only be made from a 
check of each passenger, and the actual length of ride 
of each passenger. 

The greatest difficulty with any zone system is the col- 
lection of fares and their proper registration. The di- 
versified methods in present use on the various systems 
tend to enhance the pockets of the conductors rather 
than the company. The various systems employed in the 
collection of fares on the lines by the zone system prac- 
tically make bookkeepers out of the conductors and form 
a source of annoyance to the passengers, being particu- 
larly bad in congested areas during peak load move- 

I believe that in solving this great problem before 
the industry that it will be possible by acting with wis- 
dom, coolness and firmness to apply a remedy which 
will wholly or in a great part re ""ove the existing evils 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


while leaving the good behind. We must be cautious in 
our movements so that we will not discourage enterprise. 
We do not desire to destroy communities, but we do de- 
sire to put our commodities fully at the service of the 
people on a profitable basis. 

Nothing needs closer attention, nor deserves to be 
treated with more courage, caution and sanity, than the 
relationship of the corporations to the municipalities. 
The law of public opinion in its broadest sense must 
be cultivated and matured in every community. It is 
well to remember that the adoption of what is reason- 
able in the demands of a municipality is the surest 
way to prevent the adoption of what is unreasonable. 
We need in this country a greater number of news- 
papers dedicated to the cause of unbiased truth in 
order that the public mind may not be confused, but so 
molded in public matters by honest and faithful counsel 
that the people at large will realize that the problems 
of the transportation companies are in reality those of 
the community, and that they can best be solved if the 
two will act together. 

The Maintenance Man's Experi- 
ences During the War * 

How the Difficulty of Securing Supplies and the 
Shortage of Labor Affected Street Railway 

By F. R. Phillips 

Superintendent of Equipment, Pittsburgh Railways Company 

EVEN several months prior to the declaration of war 
by our government, and increasingly so thereafter, 
the electric railway industry began to feel its -pinch. 
Huge demands for supplies and munitions of war were 
made upon the industries of this country by the allied 
governments and by our own. These supplies were sim- 
ilar in many respects to the material and supplies used 
in large quantities for the upkeep of street railways. 
For when we speak of steel, we think of rails, wheels, 
axles, shells, guns, bars, bolts, shapes, sheets, etc. When 
copper or brass is referred to we think of coils, brush - 
holders, controllers, trolley wheels, trolley wire, over- 
head material, cartridges, shell casings, etc. The se- 
rious shortage of coal because of the enormous consump- 
tion here and abroad together with the restricted produc- 
tion in foreign countries nearly put an end to street 
car operation in a number of communities. As time 
progressed and our government increased its prepara- 
tions for war, with greater and still greater intensity, 
many manufacturers of street railway apparatus prac- 
tically withdrew from the market, leaving many of us 
in a somewhat precarious position. This forced us into 
the practice of using substitutes and required a, change 
in practice which proved decidedly uneconomical. More- 
over, in order that some semblance of service might be 
maintained, we were compelled to rob some cars to 
keep others in a serviceable condition. 

The Army, Navy and other governmental departments 
made conscientious efforts to relieve the situation, but 
with no practical result. Priority certificates were ad- 
mirable pieces of paper, and a thing much coveted, but 
they rarely earned dividends. Furthermore, the quality 
and workmanship of the supplies and materials which 
were secured were far below normal. 

"Abstract of paper read before Pennsylvania Street Railway 
Association at Harrisburg, June 27, 1919. 

Materials that were welcomed with open arms and 
glad hearts during this period would, prior to the war, 
have been promptly rejected or scrapped. The exigen- 
cies of the situation, however, taught us many lessons 
in reclamation of material, although the line of demar- 
kation between a sensible and a mistaken economical 
practice is still a question of some debate. 

The shortage of material also led many of us to use 
materials and supplies beyond the time usually consid- 
ered economical. Of course, prices increased in leaps 
and bounds and in many instances beyond reason. One 
instance perhaps will suffice to illustrate. A certain class 
of material used in large quantities for the insulation 
of electrical apparatus, prior to the war sold for 90 cents 
a pound. During the most critical period and a time 
when it was most needed, the price was $9.80 a pound. 
This material was not used in quantities for war pur- 
poses and is produced in this country. 

Labor Shortage an Additional Burden 

Companies operating in districts within and contin- 
gent to large manufacturing centers where munitions 
of war were manufactured, even before the war keenly 
felt labor shortage. Manufacturers of munitions in 
their anxiety to serve their country bid against each 
other for the labor supply, and the pace became so hot 
that the poor street railway man soon became an "also 
ran." Many of the trained employees, especially in the 
equipment departments, soon joined the stampede. More- 
over, large numbers of the employees through enlist- 
ments and the draft entered the service of the Army 
and Navy and other branches of governmental work 
and the two combined causes of exodus made serious de- 
creases in the employee rolls of railway companies. 

While the maintenance departments of street railway 
companies draw largely upon the various trades for 
their labor supply, still the work is of a special nature 
and requires special training before the men become 
proficient. It has been estimated that the cost of re- 
placing the average shopman and completing the trans- 
action costs approximately $75 per turnover. One com- 
pany in an effort to maintain its quota of men during 
the period from July 1, 1917 to Dec. 31, 1918, em- 
ployed 3083 men to fill 600 jobs, or an average of five 
men to each job during the eighteen-month period. 
Furthermore, it was not possible to maintain the nec- 
essary quota of men within fifteen per cent. 

Many of the larger companies resorted to the em- 
ployment of women in occupations which had hereto- 
fore been considered of a character beyond the possi- 
bility of performance on the part of the gentler sex. 
Three years ago who would have supposed it possible 
that women would be oiling motors, painting cars, re- 
pairing cars, motors, trucks, controllers or winding 
armatures. It must be said to their credit, for the most 
part, that they performed their tasks nobly and well, 
and in some instances, had it not been for them I fear 
that our very poor showing would have been much 

Under such circustances, it was, of course, impos- 
sible to maintain previous standards and schedules of 
work despite our utmost effort to meet the situation. 
Then the unprecedented weather of the winter of 1918 
added to our difficulties. In certain districts, particu- 
larly in the east and middle west sections, there were 
continued low temperature conditions with repeated 
snow, rain or sleet storms. In my vicinity for fifty-one 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

consecutive days in the winter of 1918, the temperature 
was below zero or it snowed, rained or sleeted, and 
on many of them there was a combination of two of 

Like other public service undertakings, many of the 
municipal departments were operating below normal and 
were unable or at least did not perform their proper 
functions. The streets in many cities were packed with 
snow and ice, and practically the only navigable area 
within the streets was in the railway area. All of the 
traffic was concentrated within the trench cut through 
the snow by scrapers and sweepers. Due to the fact 
that catch basins and other surface drains were closed, 
this trench became the surface drainage system for the 
time being. As one master mechanic very aptly put it 
— "railway motors are not submarines," nor have rail- 
way motors capable of operating continuously in salt 
and acid water yet been designed. The result was an 
avalanche of disabled equipment. 

Many governmental departments (national, state and 
municipal), unfamiliar with the well-nigh insurmount- 
able conditions which we were compelled to meet, 
through various institutions and agencies brought to 
bear all the pressure possible to force us to improve 
the service, and in their earnest efforts to secure what 
they considered proper transportation facilities for mu- 
nition workers, more often than not, imposed conditions 
upon us that only served to add further to the already 
heavy burden. 

But this experience of the war period has served to 
provide a fund of knowledge which will no doubt be in- 
valuable in solving the problems of the future. 

Up Goes Sheffield, Too 

ATA RECENT meeting of the Sheffield (England) 
^Council the following figures were quoted as repre- 
senting present prices for tramway material and those 

quoted four 

years ago: 

Price — 






Tramway rails 








31 . 


Gear wheels 


15 00 



Armature coils 











The cost of timber during the same period has risen 
500 per cent. In 1916 tenders for the construction of 
fifty cars were asked for, and the price quoted was 
$5,840 per car. Recently $14,600 apiece was paid for 
fifty cars of a similar type. 

In consequence of the increase of wages, alterations 
in working hours, higher cost of materials, and addition- 
al capital'expenditures, and allowance for contingencies, 
the estimated increase in expenditure in conducting the 
tramways department will be $744,300 per annum. The 
estimated increase in revenue from the advance in fares 
is $914,900 per annum. 

Some of the Parisian society people are taking a hand 
in strike breaking for the purpose of assisting Paris to 
regain her much needed street transportation service. 
Baron Henry Rothschild has been a chauffeur of an auto- 
bus, making regular trips over a city route, while Count- 
ess Villestrey has been punching tickets in a subway 

Federal Commission Completing- Plans 

THE Washington representative of the Electric 
Railway Journal reports that since the first offi- 
cial hearing of the Federal Electric Railways Commis- 
sion in New York City, June 19, questions of organiza- 
tion and the formulation of plans for its continued work 
have absorbed its attention. There have been confiict- 
ing opinions as to the period of the commission's exist- 
ence, owing to the fact that the President's contingent 
fund, out of which the commission's expenses are to be 
paid, was not made available after June 30. 

Some officials in Washington have thought that the 
commission would be obliged to wind up its work on 
that date. Others, among them the Attorney-General, 
have taken the position that the commission will not 
expire until the President issues the proclamation of 
peace, and that it may continue to function, provided 
the $10,000 set aside at the President's direction for 
its use, can be made secure, in accordance with the 
usual practice of the Treasury Department in such 

The commission, fortified by the opinion of the Attor- 
ney-General, will therefore continue its work and has 
already appointed as its executive secretary Charlton 
Ogburn, formerly examiner of the National War Labor 
Board, in charge of the electric railway section. Mr. 
Ogburn is now appointing his staff and arranging for 
the commission's offices in Washington. 

As heretofore announced, all persons interested in 
the electric railway problem, including state and munic- 
ipal authorities, civic associations, chambers of com- 
merce, boards of trade and electric railways themselves, 
will be given an opportunity to appear before the com- 
mission and testify as to the conditions in their re- 
spective states and communities. 

It is also proposed to issue questionnaires in order 
that the commission may receive a report from all in- 
terested parties unable to appear in person. A force 
of statisticians and accountants will be employed to ex- 
amine the reports made to the commission, and the 
testimony of witnesses will be reviewed and classified. 
The information so secured will form the basis of the 
commission's report to the President. If it is im- 
possible to prepare a complete report prior to the proc- 
lamation of peace, action will be taken for legislation 
necessary to continue the commission until its work be 

The commission has already received a number of 
unofficial requests from interested parties in various 
cities, urging the importance of making a local investi- 
gation of the electric railway situation. Whether the 
commission will be able to heed these requests de- 
pends of course upon the number of communities desir- 
ing particular investigations, the length of the com- 
mission's term of office and the sufficiency of funds 
made available for its use. No decision has as yet been 
reached by the commission with reference to this branch 
of its activities. 

Eugene Meyer, Jr., managing director of the War 
Finance Corporation, whose place on the commission 
has been temporarily filled by Louis B. Wehle, counsel 
of the corporation, is expected to return from Europe 
in the near future and take his place on the commission. 
It is proposed to hold two hearings a week in Washing- 
ton until all those desiring to be heard have had an 
opportunity to present their views and give information 
regarding transportation conditions as they find them. 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 



Subway in Madrid, Spain, Nears Completion 

Present Congested Transportation Conditions in tiie 
Spanish Capital Will Be Greatly Relieved by the Com- 
pletion of the First Line of the New Subway Next Fall 

THE Central Metropolitan Railway of Madrid, 
Spain, will provide a rapid means of transporta- 
tion between the city's most densely populated 
districts, and between these and the principal railway 
stations. Double-track subways will be constructed to 
constitute the main arteries of a network which at some 
date will cover the whole of the capital and its suburbs. 

The capital of Spain has developed rapidly, due to the 
increase in transportation facilities already provided. 
This has caused a spreading out of the population, as the 
inhabitants, trusting- the transportation facilities as to 
future adequacy, have moved away from the centers. 
The network of electrical carlines is, however, inade- 
quate to satisfy the growing needs of the capital. 

Many of the city streets are so narrow as to preclude 
the use of more than a single track. The consequent 
throttling of traffic, added to the tie-up caused by con- 
gestion of vehicles, leads to a service necessarily very 
slow and irregular. This condition cannot be remedied 
by increasing the speed of the vehicles and adding to 
the number of cars, as the difficulties at the crossings 
would make matters worse rather than better. 

On the "Metropolitano" the average speed will be 15.5 
m.p.h., with sufficient capacity to permit a two to three- 
minute headway between trains. These will consist of 
five-car trains, comfortably accommodating 250 persons 
per train. The two-track tunnel has been designed to 
accommodate wide and comfortable cars, which will be 
well lighted. 

Some Details of the Madrid Central-Metropolitano 

The present plan includes the construction of four 
lines to constitute the Central Metropolitano system. 
Line No. 1 will run north and south, from Cuatro Cam- 
inos to Progreso, line No. 2 from Ferraz-Puerta del Sol- 
Calle Alcala to Goya. Line No. 3 the full length of Ser- 
rano Street and line No. 4 from Ferraz-Boulevares-Goya 
to Alcala. 

The total route mileage of this system is about 9. 
The tunnel will be double-track throughout its full length, 
and of solid concrete construction similar to that of the 
Paris subway but in dimensions slightly smaller. The 
stations will be 197 ft. long and built as near the street 








Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 


level as possible to make them easily accessible. The 
maximum grade of this section, which follows the street 
center, is 4 per cent; the curves have a minimum radius 
of 328 ft. 

The construction of the tunnel has advanced continu- 
ously since 1918, in accordance with the plans previously 
made, and at the end of the year the stretch from the 
Puerto del Sol to Cuatro Caminos was completed. At 
the same time the approaches to the stations have been 
under construction as well as the shops at Cuatro Ca- 

At the time of the publication of the last annual re- 
port of the company but a small number of brace beams 
and supports with removal of dirt, were necessary for 
completion. The decorative details for the stations, 
vestibules, kiosks, etc., are now being taken up and 
it is expected that the whole work, tunnel as well as 
superstructure, will be completed before fall. 

Material such as rails, ties, car bodies for the motor 
cars and trailers, trusses for the shops, machinery, etc., 
are being produced in Spain. As regards material of 
foreign manufacture, the copper is being furnished by 
the Standard Underground Cable Company, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., and it is now stored in the shops at Cuatro Caminos. 
Of the twenty-four Westinghouse and Schneider motors, 
one half have already been delivered and the remainder 
are in transit. The operating accessories for the mo- 

tors are from the General Electric Company, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., and the forty-six forward trucks were fur- 
nished by the J. G. Brill Co., Philadelphia, Pa. The 
manufacture of these details was pushed rapidly to pro- 
vide for early operation. 

Assuming that the American manufacturers can make 
shipment on the expected dates, the contractors promise 
to put branch No. 1, from Sol to Cuatro Caminos, in 
operation next October. 

The total cost of the north-to-south branch is 
follows : 


I'nderstructure $ 787,396.57 

Superstructure 188,991.61 

-Mobile material and coaches 316,520.00 

Repair shops 106,482.90 

Formation of the company, making of the plans, 
management, and interest for the second year of 

construction 144,608.92 

Tot3l $1,544,000.00 

The prices given are the same as those which have 
been contracted to be paid for all the additional under- 
ground work in Madrid. 

During the second week in May the Glasgow, Scotland, 
Corporation Tramways made a record for receipts, tak- 
ing in for that week £33,514, which is £161 more than 
the previous record. 


July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Operating Without Telephones 

"Preparedness" Plans Made by Boston Elevated Railway During the Recent 
Strike of Telephone Operators in New England 


Superintendent of Transportation, Boston Elevated Railway ♦ 

THE strike of telephone employees in Boston which 
occurred on April 15, 1919, and lasted approximately 
seven days, immediately raises the question in the minds 
of street railway men as to how a transportation system 
operating 15,000 trips daily and spread over 125 square 
miles and running its 1600 cars 160,000 miles daily 
could carry on its business without aid of the telephone 
upon which it of necessity depends to such a large ex- 
tent in handling its 6300 men, its accidents and delays 
and its executive functions. 

The Boston Elevated rents its telephone system from 
the local telephone company, but except for the pro- 
vision of current to its central switchboard from f^e 
batteries of the public telephone company, its telephone 
system is entirely a self-contained affair, operated by 
its own employees and designed to meet its own re- 
quirements. The central board has 275 connections, of 
which twenty-four lines are directly connected with 
the main exchange of the telephone company. These 
lines were completely out of service during the strike, 
but while there was great concern as to whether the 
power which energizes its local system would be main- 
tained by the telephone company, this complete shut- 
ting down of its plant did not occur, and consequently 
its operation was relatively little affected by the strike 
which paralyzed other industries. 

Of course the failure of public lines leading to its 
switchboards necessitated securing the co-operation 
of the police in the various communities in case of 
serious accidents or delays, and men were stationed 
at police headquarters representing the company. This 
in reality connected the police patrol boxes with the 
company in case of serious trouble. The only real 
problem which the company had to face was that of 
keeping in touch with its operating officials during 
the evening and the night when they were not avail- 
able at their offices. This was accomplished by pro- 
viding automobiles at the five locations where divisional 
headquarters are maintained, and -after the first night 
this plan was found to be reasonably satisfactory to 
meet emergencies and relieved to a large extent the 
concern of the management, although the oflScials were 
handicapped in doing the business that a railway oper- 
ating man necessarily does by telephone from his resi- 

Company's Plans in Case of Total Failure 
OF Telephones 

The object of this article is to outline what further 
arrangements were contemplated had the central branch 
exchange switchboard of the campany been deprived 
of its battery current and the system been entirely 
deprived of telephone service. Such a study is not 
alone dependent upon the occurrence of a strike but 
might very well occur through the destruction by fire 
of the building in which this switchboard was located, 


although under such conditions the results would not 
be so disastrous aS in the case of a strike because the 
public lines would in that condition be available. 

The Boston Elevated Railway has six divisions — four 
operating divisions, one elevated division, and one non- 
operating surface and subway division. When the 
seriousness of the situation became apparent, the trans- 
portation department officials conferred and laid out 
a "time-table of communication" which in some respects 
afforded advantages of communication by messenger 
which even surpassed the teleephone. 

The office of the superintendent of transportation 
was deemed to be the heart of the communication 
system, and from that point a trunk line was planned to 
each of the division headquarters upon which would be 
operated upon a moment's notice a regular headway 
of messengers leaving every five minutes over a defi- 
nitely planned route. These messengers would use in 
each case the quickest available method of transpor- 
tation, which for a certain portion might be walking 
to a subway station; another portion, the rapid transit 
service, and still another portion, an automobile. This 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

would require a definite number of men exactly as a 
car line demands a definite number of cars and crews 
to maintain regularity of service. All concerned would 
know of the exact route, and that verbal or written 
messages could be handed to this conspicuously-marked 
constantly-moving chain of men, at any fixed point 
along the route. 

It was found that after allowing for reasonable 
delays and layovers as well as relief to cover the en- 
tire operating period of the day that the several di- 
visions which are respectively — 4, 3.70, 3.52, 2.16, 2.16 
and 0.25 miles from the office of the superintendent 
of transportation could be maintained with twenty-five 
men and four autos. 

When this had been arranged the backbone of the 
system had been provided, and it was a relatively simple 
matter to arrange local schedules in the divisions to 
tap the trunk line at divisional headquarters. 

In addition it was planned to arrange an automobile 
patrol which would help in the elimination of long 
delays or lost cars, as for instance when a car operated 
on an infrequent line should get out on the line and 
become derailed or disabled and have no means of com- 
munication with the outside world. 

Superintendent's Office Made 
Clearing House 

Much of the success of the plan would have depended 
upon the work done in the office of the superintendent 
of transportation in sorting mail and in classifying 
reports and in promptly and correctly forwarding in- 
formation received. To this end additional help was 
arranged for, but the quickest method of securing re- 
sults here would have been demonstrated by actual 
experience after the plan was in operation. 

While the operation of the system under such 
an arrangement would have taxed the patience of the 
operating officials, it was confidently expected that if 
the word came that the telephone service had "gone" 
there was not so much to fear as might at first be 

Fortunately this did not occur and the officials can 
only feel satisfied at the "prepai'edness" measures, but 
it might have occurred and may actually occur some 
day on some property. 

Tool Holders for Use in Close Quarters 

ANEW LINE of set screw pattern turning tools has 
recently been placed on the market by J. H. Wil- 
liams & Company, with plants at Brooklyn and Buffalo, 
N. Y. These tools are provided with right and left-hand 
offsets and straight shanks. The nose of the holder is 
beveled to permit their use in close quarters. The tools 
are all drop forged with a strong tough grade of steel 
and are submitted after forging to a special heat treat- 
ment. The cutter-holding channel is broached to ac- 
curate size in special machines and provides a rigid seat 
for the cutter. 

The electric cars on all lines in and near the city 
of Tokyo, Japan, carried some 1,450,000 passengers 
during the day of April 1 last. The income from this 
source was 63,136 yen, or $31,568. This is the largest 
amount ever recorded since the operation of this serv- 
ice. The corresponding figure for the same day last 
year showed 120,000 fewer passengers carried. 

A. S. T. M. Shows Strong Spirit 
of Co-operation 

At the Annual Meeting Held in Atlantic City Last 
Week Several Subjects of Interest to 
Electric Railways Were Taken Up 

THE American Society for Testing Materials held its 
22nd annual meeting last week at Atlantic City, N. J. 
The significant development of the meeting was the 
great expansion of co-operative work with other soci- 
eties and with testing and research laboratories. Re- 
newal of vigor in materials study was apparent, not 
only in the unusually strong program of papers pre- 
sented, but also in the announcements of work in prog- 
ress or to be undertaken. 

New policies were fixed by several decisions of vital 
importance which the Executive Committee reported 
to the meeting, though matters of great moment are still 
in abeyance. A definite organizational policy has been 
established, with the first independent headquarters in 
the society's history. C. L. Warwick, long the assistant 
of the late Professor Edgar Marburg, secretary of the 
society since its foundation, has been appointed secre- 
tary-treasurer to succeed him. The society's office will 
no longer be at the University of Pennsylvania, but is 
to be located in the building of the Engineers' Club of 
Philadelphia, 1315 Spruce St., and is to be manned by 
a full-time organization. During the past year the 
society has gone outside the close bounds of its technical 
activities by joining the Engineering Council and by 
participating in the formation of the American Engi- 
neering Standards Committee. Both of these new ac- 
tivities have brought into being very serious problems, 
not yet solved. Furthermore, many demands for taking 
up joint committee work in different technical subjects 
arose after the end of the war, and they led finally to the 
society's entering upon a much broader program of 
co-operation than has prevailed at any previous time 
since its organization. All these matters produced ac- 
tive discussion at the meeting, but in the sessions of the 
society attention to the questions at issue was restricted 
to brief announcements by the chairman, with no dis- 

While these matters were in the foreground of atten- 
tion, notable technical work constituted the essence of 
the meeting. In the matter of steel rails, results were 
reported that give distinct promise of an early advance 
in this difficult subject. A classic group of papers on 
magnetic study of steel quality was presented. Fatigue 
and impact testing were brought into new prominence. 
Several ingenious new testing instruments gave further 
proof of the activity of laboratory investigators. A 
remarkable paper on paints injected new vitality into 
the lagging thought in this subject. 

Girder Rail Specifications Revised 

Sub committee I has had under consideration in co- 
operation with a committee of the American Electric 
Railway Association the question of omitting the drop 
test in the standard specifications for open hearth steel 
girder and high Tee rails, with the intention of sub- 
stituting a ball impression test for this. The previous 
test did not bring out the quality most desired by users 
of girder rails, viz., resistance to wear. Moreover, 
girder rails owing to their irregular section are difficult 
to test in the drop, and their practical use is such that 
the drop test is not considered to be an essential 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


one. To meet the demands of the users of this rail an 
impression test to determine hardness was drawn up in 
co-operation with the A. E. R. A. committee. The 
following are sections relating to this test: 

7. (a) Four representative sections of rail from each 
melt shall be selected by the inspector as test specimens, 
(b) Excess scale on the head of the section shall be care- 
fully removed. 

8. (a) The head of each specimen shall be subjected to 
a pressure of 50 net tons. (100,000 lb.) for a period of 
15 seconds applied through a ball | in. in diameter, (b) 
The average depth of impression obtained on the four 
specimens shall not be more than 3.8 mil., for Class A 
rails nor not more than 3.6 mil. for Class B rails. 

9. If the average of the impression tests from any melt 
fails to conform to the requirements specified in Section 8 
(b) the manufacturer may at his option test each rail from 
such melt by making an impression test on the web as 
described in Section 8 (a). Rails so tested which conform 
to the requirements as to depth of impression specified 
in Section 8 (b) shall be accepted. 

The committee believes it is justified in recommending 
an impression test differing from the standard Brinell 
test for several reasons: First, that the use of the larger 
ball is more convenient in view of the considerable number 
of tests contemplated. (Four from each melt with provi- 
sions for testing possibly every rail.) And the size of the 
specimen; second, that the test is intended to be compara- 
tively simple so far as girder rails are concerned and not ab- 
solute — that is, that the user is not particularly interested 
in the Brinell hardness of the rail; and third, that the pro- 
posed test is in agreement with the present foreign prac- 
tice in tests of girder rails. 

. The proposed revision has been approved by the 
members of the A. E, R. A. committee with which sub- 
committee I has been co-operating, and it is understood 
that this committee will recommend its adoption by the 
American Railway Association at its next meeting. 

New Tinning Test for Copper Wire 

In the specification for tinned soft copper wire pro- 
posed as tentative standard there is included a new 
method for determining the integrity of the tin coating. 
It is based on the view that the tin coating must be 
entire, but should not be thicker than this object neces- 
sitates, as a thick coating will crack when the wire is 
bent or stranded and in any case reduces the conduc- 
tivity of the wire. For these reasons only two cycles of 
dipping in the test solutions are specified — the second 
cycle to make sure that spots which though not bare 
have too thin a coating are detected. The specified 
method is to dip a clean sample of the wire into dilute 
hydrochloric acid ( 1.088) for 1 min., washed, 
wiped dry, and then dipped for 30 sec. into sodium poly- 
sulphide solution ( 1.142), which will blacken bare 
copper; then to repeat this cycle. If these two cycles 
produce any blackening of the wire beyond i in. from 
the cut end, the sample is considered to have failed. 

Other Features of Committee Reports 

A remarkable paper on paints injected new vitality 
into this subject. A flashpoint test worked out for paint 
thinners other than turpentine has, during the past year, 
been found to be accurate also for turpentine, and the 
preservation coatings committee therefore recommended 
its extension to cover all thinners. The same committee 
continued the inspection of test panels erected two years 
ago as a means of determining the best way of prepar- 
ing iron and steel surfaces for painting. No conclu- 
sions will be reported before another year or two of 
exposure, but one well-defined result obtained so far is 
that cleaning a deeply rusted surface with scraper and 
wire brush is an unsatisfactory preparation for paint- 
ing; the panels prepared in this way have failed badly. 

On the other hand, the plates which were painted as 
received from the mill, with mill scale intact and ad- 
herent, are among the best up to date. 

With the presentation of tentative specifications for 
viscosity tests of lubricants, a long contest in com- 
mittee came to an end during the past year. The 
Saybolt instrument was decided on, in spite of the 
objection by various laboratory investigators that it 
does not give "absolute viscosity." 

The method for determining the fusibility of coal 
ash presented by the committee on methods of sampling 
and analysis of coal is one which was formulated by 
A. S. Fieldner and has been used by the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines for several years. It was endorsed in joint 
action with the American Chemical Society. 

C. E. R. A. Cruises on Great Lakes 

Association Charters S.S. "South American" for 
Four-Day Meeting — Safety Cars, Relief for 
Railways and Other Topics Discussed 

THE Central Electric Railway Association celebrated 
the return of the country to a peace basis by hold- 
ing a summer meeting on the Great Lakes, having the 
exclusive use of the large cruising steamer South Amer- 
ican, from Sunday, June 29, to Thursday, July 3, inclu- 
sive. The steamer sailed from Toledo on the morning 
of June 30, touching at Detroit in the afternoon. About 
noon on Tuesday it reached Perry Sound, and later 
made a two-hour stop at Georgian Bay. On Wednesday 
a brief stop at Mackinac Island was made according 
to a report telegraphed from that point, and the schedule 
called for other short stops at Harbor Springs, and 
Benton Harbor early Thursday morning. The cruise 
was to end at Chicago on Thursday afternoon. The 
two-hour stop at Owen Sound which was planned, was 
not made. 

The steamer, which has a capacity of 360 persons, 
had 350 on board, and all were delighted with the trip. 
The sentiment which prevailed was that much credit was 
due John Benhamof the International Register Company, 
and James H. Drew of the Drew Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company, for the fine arrangements and entertain- 
ment for which they were responsible. The newspaper 
men in the party published a small daily under the cap- 
tion Central Daily Spray, which furnished a means of 
communication among the attendants at the meeting 
and also supplied some material of the "lighter vein" 

The program opened with a meeting of the executive 
committee on Monday morning, followed by a business 
session with reports of committees on Monday after- 
noon. On Tuesday morning S. W. Greenland, general 
manager, Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction 
Company, Fort Wayne, Ind., presented a paper on 
"One-Man Car Operation." This paper and the lively 
discussion which followed 'it will be given in a later is- 
sue of the Electric Railway Journal. 

On Wednesday, the formal paper was by Robert Rif en- 
berick, consulting engineer, Detroit (Mich.) United 
Railway, on the subject, "Burdens from Which We 
Should Be Relieved." In his absence it was read by 
Charles L. Henry. 

As this was the first boat trip of the association 
since 1916, it was like a big reunion and the usual 
good fellowship of the C. E. R. A. members was more 
than ever in evidence. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Earningrs of the Safety Car* 

Analysis of Its Possibilities on a Forty-Car Line — 
Approximately Sixty-six Per Cent Return 
on Investment Is Shown 

By T. C. Roderick 

-Assistant General ^Manager', Tri-City Railway, Davenport, la. 

IN a great many cities, mostly through the aid of 
public utility commissions, an increased fare ranging 
f oil 6 cents to 10 cents has been established to meet 
the increased operating costs that prevail at the pres- 
ent time. But the results obtained by increasing fares 
have been far from satisfactory. In some cases the 
relief is only temporary. In other cases the expected 
re^'cf did not materialize. In still other cases, on the 
fir"t favorable showing of the monthly reports, there 
was an immediate demand for a restoration of the old 
rat3 of fare. Again where the relief had been obtained 
by action of political boards, such as city councils or 
city commissions, a change in the political control was 
fo'lowed by an immediate reduction of the fare, and 
t':e constant turmoil has kept the business and the pub- 
lic in such a state of uncertainty that the question of 
service has been almost completely forgotten. 

With all of these discouraging conditions there is 
one ray of hope which not only gives promise of in- 
creased revenue but also gives decreased operating ex- and possibilities of more frequent service with 
greater satisfaction to the riding public. These re- 
su'ts can be obtained by the use of the safety car. 

To show the possibilities of the safety car we will 
apply its costs of operation to the Tri City Railway of 
Iowa. The operating costs per car-mile during the past 
eight months, for the four primary accounts mentioned 
and the possible figures for the safety car follow: 

Present Safety 
Cost Car 

Maiiitenanee of way and structures $0.0208 $0.0125 

Maintenance of equipment .0.574 .0187 

Power 0706 .0353 

Transportation .1120 .0615 

Total $0.2408 $0.1218 

The majority of the cars in Davenport weigh approxi- 
mately 40,000 lb., have four .35-hp. or 40-hp. motors, are 
from 42 ft. to 44 ft. over all with a seating capacity 
of forty passengers and have an average schedule speed 
of 8.87 m.p.h. The weight of the safety car is approxi- 
mately 7 tons with a seating capacity of thirty-two. 

Maintenaiice of Way and Structures. — Without exact 
figures for comparison a reasonable method would seem 
to be a comparison of axle tonnage of each type of 
car over the track, though the hammer blow of the 
heavier car would be more severe than in direct propor- 
tion to its weight. The tonnage per axle of the pres- 
ent car is 5 tons, for the safety car 3^ tons, while the 
ratio of axles per car is two to one. If 50 per cent 
more safety cars were used than of the present equip- 
ment the percentage of axle tonnage would be 522 per 
cent. If we allow 7* per cent for extra cars of the 
present type, the tonnage over the track would be 60 
per cent of the tonnage of the present cars. Applying 
this percentage to the present cost of maintenance of 
way and structures would give us, for the safety car, 60 
per cent of $0.0208 = $0.0125. 

"Abstract of paper read at meeting of Iowa Electric Railway 
Association, Colfax, la.. June 19, 1919. 

Maintmavce of Equipment. — This item is subject to 
a great many variables such as wage scale, grades, 
curvature, condition of track and climate conditions. Re- 
ports from systems that have had these cars in opera- 
tion for three years give cost of maintenance of equip- 
ment for the past twelve months at 1.2 cents on one 
and 1.02 cents on the other. Others give reports vary- 
ing from 15 per cent to 50 per cent saving over previ- 
ous cost of heavier equipment. Reports from Cedar 
Rapids, where they are operating safety cars with two 
men, indicate the saving would be approximately 50 per 
cent of the present cost. Applying this percentage to 
the present of maintenance of equipment would give 
us for the safety car, 50 per cent of $0.0374 = $0.0187. 

Power. — This is an item in which the saving is very 
apparent, due to the light weight of the car and smaller 
number and size of motors. Comparing the kilowatt- 
hours used per car-mile of the safety cars operated in 
Cedar Rapids with the cars operated in Davenport, on 
both of which the kilowatt-hour is metered at the car, 
we find the safety car using 47 per cent of the other 
car. This comparison is made with the line with the 
least grades in Davenport. On an average for the sys- 
tem it would be less. Assuming a power consumption of 
50 per cent present cost we have for the safety car 50 
per cent of $0.0706 = $0.0353. 

Transportation. — The use of one man per car is a 
very apparent saving in the safety car operation. It 
has been customary to give this operator a higher com- 
pensation for the added responsibility, and this rate 
has been usually 10 per cent. At this rate the reduction 
in expenses amounts to 45 per cent. This would make 
the cost for transportation $0.0516. 

The figures for traffic and general would remain the 
same as at present so that on the basis of these assump- 
tions there is a saving per car-mile in operating ex- 
penses of $0.1127 or nearly 48 per cent. 

The safety car, having only 80 per cent of the seating 
capacity of the present equipment, 25 per cent more 
cars would be required to furnish the same number of 
seats. The total car mileage of the Davenport lines 
for 1918 was 2,067,450. The increased car mileage due 
to the decrease in car interval would be 568,586 miles, 
which, at 0.1281 cent per car-mile, would cost $72,872. 

Nearly all systems that have decreased their car 
interval by the introduction of safety cars have shown 
an increase in receipts practically equal to the increased 
mileage. Assuming in this case 50 per cent of the 
car mileage increase we would have a 15 per cent in- 
crease in gross receipts, or $78,495. 


Savings on operating expenses 2,067,450 ear miles at. . $0. 1 1 27 $233,002 
Increased earnings 78,495 

Total increase $311,497 


Increased operating expense $72,872 

Increased annual charge, 15 per cent on $275,000 41,250 

Total increased expenses $ 11 4, 1 22 

Net increased earnings. $197,375 

Fifty safety cars at $6,000 each, would cost $300,000, 
an amount which would be partially offset by the sale 
of forty double-truck cars at possibly $2,500 each. 
Necessary track changes would cost $75,000. The ac- 
count would then stand as above. The annual increase 
in earnings is $3,947.50 per car or nearly 66 per cent of 
the investment. This is exclusive of the saving in 
accidents, which reports from nearly all companies show 
to be very materially reduced. 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Keeping Up the Trolley Voltage* 

Automatic Substations Have Demonstrated Ability 
to Improve Operating Conditions, and 
Possibilities Are Attractive 

By C. W. Place 

Engineer, General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. 

IN ANALYZING many sets of conditions under which 
electric railways have in the past found it advan- 
tageous to use manually operated substations I became 
thoroughly convinced that power can be most continu- 
ously and satisfactorily delivered by having the trans- 
forming device automatically rather than manually 
controlled. The automatic substations can be put where 
they are needed and have capacities proportioned to 
the load in the immediate vicinity instead of having to 
provide for the load plus losses in long feeders. The 
transforming devices need not be bunched to accommo- 
date the operator as to living conditions, or to minimize 
investment in property. 

Railway systems fall into two natural divisions or 
classes as regards the application of automatic control, 
namely, those furnishing interurban service or service 
approaching it in character, and those furnishing city 
service. The advantages of automatic substations for 
interurban service have been fully and properly dis- 
cussed and seem most generally appreciated. In this 
type of service the more infrequent the cars the greater 
will be the proportional saving beyond the labor saving. 

In city service the advantages over manual operation 
multiply in proportion to the density of the traffic and 
the load difference between rush and slack hours. The 
larger the city and the more congested the traffic, the 
greater the advantage of using some type of automatic 
control for the machines and the feeder circuits. 

It seems to me that in the immediate future, due to 
present housing conditions, there will be much agita- 
tion resulting in the development of many real estate 
additions, with a demand for railway service which may 
not promise profit for some years. The only way that 
I can see for the railways to make the necessary ex- 
tensions is by putting in small automatic stations and 
using light-weight, one-man cars. 

All companies must lay out their feeder, transform- 
ing and generating Systems on the basis of the peak 
load, hence anything that increases the peak requires 
additional investment. This is why reduction in weight 
of cars, which must be accelerated most frequently dur- 
ing the peak, is receiving so much attention. Every 
volt drop in potential from power plant to motor repre- 
sents wasted power which must be paid for before re- 
turns on the investment can be realized. Furthermore, 
it is the drop in the return circuit which provokes elec- 
trolysis discussion. Hence any remedy that cuts down 
the loss on the positive side of the complete circuit does 
the same on the negative. 

The maintenance of the trolley voltage cannot be 
divorced from the way in which the power is used 
when supplied. Reference has been made to the effect 
of the peak on the size of equipment all along the line. 
The use of automatic substations improves this peak 
'■ondition immensely and certain modifications in the 
conditions under which the cars are operated would 
allow the substations to help still more. 

•Abstract of paper read at meeting of Towa Electric Railway 
Association, Colfax, la., .lune, 1!), 1919. 

For instance, if the railways could prevail upon the 
state commissions and the public to allow them to 
operate their present heavy cars as express cars, stop- 
ping them only at transfer points until far out into the 
residence district, and to pick up the intermediate, and 
short haul people with one-man cars, stopping anywhere, 
the railways would lower theii' peaks, would require less 
transforming apparatus to handle the same number of 
passengers and would economize the passengers' time. 

There is another phase of the question that everyone 
may not fully appreciate. At present, with commutating 
poles, flash guards, and other safety features on rotary 
converters, the whole limitation of service from a ma- 
chine is dependent upon heating. Less capacity is re- 
quired to deliver a given number of kilowatt-hours from 
a number of machines if the iron losses are removed 
during practically idle periods. For example, the no- 
load losses for a 300-kw. set recently investigated were 
3.33 kw. for the transformer and 8.7 kw. for the rotary; 
while the possible shut-down period was eleven hours 
out of the present eighteen-hour day. 

To return to the general principles involved in this 
matter, voltage between trolley wheel and rail is a 
factor in making the car move and the nearer to normal 
it is the more efiRcient is the operation. As long as volt- 
age is maintained at the car and none of your equip- 
ment up to that point dangerously hot, it is 
undesirable to have any underloaded machines on the 
line. It is desirable, however, to have one or more 
additional machines, as near the load as possible, come 
into the circuit as soon as the voltage really begins to 
go down (not on a momentary dip). When this time 
comes the machine should come in promptly. All of the 
operations of starting up must occur in the proper se- 
quence and as rapidly as possible within the capacity 
of the machine. 

Hand operation can be improved upon considerably 
by fixing the polarity of the machine and hastening its 
building up by exciting the fields at the proper instant. 
Next the rotary comes onto the line by the rapid cutting 
cut of a load-limiting resistance. After the machine is 
on the line this load limiting resistance prevents injury 
to the machine itself by preventing the current from 
building up unduly. The lowering of voltage on the line 
caused by introducing the resistance in turn starts up 
another station in exactly the same way as the first 
machine was started, or the high current itself brings in. 
another machine. At each point it has been considered 
advisable to have a check on the proper completion of one 
operation before the next can occur. 

The load-limiting resistors mentioned have been fur- 
nished a number of times for use on hand-operated 
machines, where it was not considered possible to go 
to the expense of making stations automatic. 

Where the station supplies power over a number of 
feeders the resistance has been split up and part put 
in the machine and part on the individual feeders. 

There are other types of feeder control which involve 
breaking the feeder circuit on the occurrence of trouble 
on the outside circuit. 

Still another phase of this automatic control question 
that is worth consideration is this: Fuel costs money, 
and any energy obtainable without burning something 
means a cut in operating expense. An induction motor 
driven above speed by a waterwheel delivers real energy 
when it is connected to a system on which frequency is 
established and magnetizing current supplied by cue 



Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

or more synchronous machines. There may be possi- 
bilities of utilizing this fact on some alternating current 
circuits. The addition of such source of energy will 
tend to improve voltage conditions and cut down alter- 
nating-current distribution losses just as an automatic 
substation will do on the 600-volt circuit. 

Most railway systems could stand some of these in- 
duction generators as a means of improving the power 
factor. If the effect of the magnetizing current on the 
power factor is too great an automatically-controlled 
synchronous machine can be used to neutralize it. Many 
of these low-head, small automatic stations will be in- 
stalled, and there is no reason why anyone possessing a 
fairly good location should not put in one or more. A 
good location involves banks high enough to give, say. 
about 10 ft. head without flooding valuable bottom lands. 

Regulating" Rates in Iowa* 

Rates Stipulated in Franchise Ordinances Are Not 
Contractual but Legislative in Character, 
and Cities Can Alter Them 

By William Chamberlain 

General Counsel United I^iKht & Railways Company. 
Grand Rapids. Mich. 

HAVING in mind that it lies wholly within the power 
of the Legislature to establish rates of service for 
public utilities and that this power may be exercised by 
it (1) directly either through contract in which it 
reaches an agreement with the utility or by legislative 
act in which it establishes the rate by law and needs to 
bargain with no one (and is subject to no limitations 
save those of the constitution), or (2), indirectly 
through delegation of the same powers to some one or 
more of its minor governing subdivisions, we are in a 
position to examine the situation in Iowa. 

Except as to passenger fares upon railroads, the 
Iowa Legislature has never directly exercised its power 
over rates, but has on the contrary expressly delegated 
this power as to all the ordinary utilities save street 
railways to the cities and towns within which the utili- 
ties operate. This delegation of power is found in Sec- 
tion 725, Code of 1897, as amended. The city power 
to legislate as to rates, however, is not abridged by the 
fact that maximum rates have been fixed in a franchise 
voted upon by the people. Unfortunately, street rail- 
way rates are not covered by Section 725, and the power 
of city councils to increase these rates above the maxi- 
mum provided in the franchise without a vote of the 
people is questioned. The Iowa supreme court has never 
made a decision on this point, nor has any district court, 
so far as I am aware. My own studies of the subject, 
however, which have been quite extensive, have con- 
vinced me that this power does not exist in city coun- 
cils, whether charter cities or those organized either 
under the general law or commission plan law. 

Status of Council's Acts 

The question as to the proper municipal officer or 
body to exercise this rate-m^aking power is not the vital 
question. The vital question now is whether the acts of 
councils in naming maximum rates in franchises are 
to be considered as consummating contracts or are to 
be considered as purely legislative acts of the council. 

♦Abstract of paper presented before Iowa Electric Railway 
Association, Colfax. Iowa, June 18, 1919. 

If contractual in character they are binding upon the 
utility regardless of whether its last dollar is exhausted 
in fulfilling the obligation of its contract; if purely 
legislative in character, that is to say, the initial exer- 
cise by the city of its power to fix rates by law, they 
are subject to attack if by reason of changed conditions 
the rate fails to yield a fair return upon the fair value 
of the property devoted to the public use. 

It is the opinion of those of us who have been en- 
gaged in the rate litigation now before the State and 
Federal Courts that these franchise rates are to be 
considered as purely legislative in character and subject 
to attack as confiscatory under present day conditions, 
while city officials have earnestly contended that fran- 
chise rates are contracts binding upon the company 
but not upon the city. So far we have had no controll- 
ing decision. Judge Wade of the Federal Court has in 
an interlocutory opinion held adversely to us. Judge 
Applegate, one of the most distinguished of the District 
Judges of Iowa, has held with us; while the State Su- 
preme Court, in the case of Town of Williams vs. Iowa 
Falls Electric Company, has very strongly intimated 
if not fairly declared its opinion that our view is the 
correct one. 

Why Franchise Rates Are Legislative 
AND Not Contractual 

Unless it is granted in express terms, cities have no 
legislative power whatever over rates of public utilities, 
and in but few states has this legislative power over 
rates ever been granted to municipalities. It is out of 
this failure of many states to grant to municipalities 
this law-making power over rates, coupled with the fail- 
ure of the legislatures to exercise it directly, that the 
courts of many states have held that cities may have the 
power to contract as an implied power even though no 
express power to contract was granted. 

This rule is so firmly established and supported by 
such an abundance of distinguished authority that were 
it not for Section 725 delegating express legislative 
authority over rates to our cities and towns, our position 
would be clearly untenable. But in Iowa the cities and 
towns have been granted complete legislative authority 
over rates, and that the power to fix rates by law ob- 
viates all necessity of possessing the power to fix them 
by contract admits of no dispute. However, implied 
powers are not to be found to make things more con- 
venient or more desirable; they must be necessary to 
the proper functioning of the city upon a given subject 
or they do not exist. Therefore, we confidently assert 
that while cities and towns in Iowa have complete 
authority to fix rates by law, they do not have power to 
fix them by contract even though the contract be binding 
only upon the utility. Ordinance provisions, therefore, 
must be considered as legislative and treated by the 
courts as such. 

It is perfectly proper for a city council to include 
regulations of rates in the ordinance granting the fran- 
chise and such regulations do not, from the mere fact 
that they are included in the ordinance granting the 
franchise, become contractual in character by reason 
of the acceptance of the franchise. They are legislative 
rate regulations to exactly the same intent and purpose 
as though enacted by the city in a separate and distinct 
ordinance and should be so treated. 

This rule is better for the city, for the utility and for 
the consumer. If it be held by our Supreme Court that 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


the so-called franchise rates are legislative in character 
and thus subject to attack if so low as to be confiscatory 
under present prices, the decision will be welcomed not 
only by the utilities but also by the greater proportion 
of the city councils of the state and by practically all 
the consumers. 

It is a remarkable and gratifying fact that in the 
greater portion of our Iowa cities and towns the city 
officials have responded to the needs of the companies 
with a promptness and fairness unexcelled by any of 
the public utilities commissions. 

Pending the ultimate solution of this problem by the 
decision of our high courts, no utility should accept a 
new franchise in Iowa which is granted in an ordinance 
attempting also to fix rates. If the cities or towns 
desire the rates to be fixed, they themselves should 
establish them by separate ordinance which is the fair, 
just and legal method of proceeding. A number of years 
before the outbreak of the war some of the companies 
I have represented adopted this policy, and many fran- 
chises have been granted throughout Eastern Iowa in 
this manner. It is needless to say that these companies 
have not been troubled during the war with any litiga- 
tion over increased rates, as automatically the councils 
are obliged to increase the rates to keep pace with the 
cost of production and all have willingly done so. It is 
only where the average mayor or councilman feels that 
he may be criticised for his action in relieving the com- 
pany from a contract that he hesitates about meeting 
the situation fairly. 

If this litigation should be decided adversely to the 
companies, then in my opinion no Iowa gas or street 
railway company would be warranted in spending any 
substantial sums for improvements or extensions until 
it has first secured a new franchise drawn upon proper 
lines. No franchise at all would be much superior to a 
so-called contractual franchise, for the reason that the 
Supreme Court of the United States in the late Denver 
water case and again in the late Detroit United Railway 
case has held that even though a utility has no franchise 
at all, those accepting its service must pay a rate which 
will yield a fair return upon the reasonable value of the 
property devoted to the public use. 

I believe that most city councils with a full apprecia- 
tion of the situation would rather accept a surrender 
of an old franchise to which is attached rates so low as 
to bring about the practical insolvency of the company 
and grant a new franchise without rates under the 
Iowa law than face the inevitable outcome of the ruin 
of the utility. If this rate litigation is decided ad- 
versely to the companies, there should be immediate 
effort on the part of all utilities to secure franchises 
without the rate provisions. 

Sorbitic Treatment for Rails 

Can Be Applied to New Rails or Those in Place — 
The Rail Surface Is Hardened by Use 
of This Process 

REFERENCE has been made in these columns to 
the sorbitic method of hardening rail surfaces, de- 
veloped in Great Britain and invented by C.P. Sandsberg. 
When applied at the mill, the heads of the rails, as they 
come from the hot saw at a temperature of about 900 
deg. C, are subject to a blast of air at 15-lb. pressure 
from a series of discharging nozzles. The result of 
this treatment is the formation in the rail head of 
different structures which vary according to their depth 
from the surface, the outer being sorbitic, while pearlite 
without lenticular formation is found in the center of 
the head. Sorbite is the term applied to denote the hard, 

fine granular structure, ob- 
tained without loss of tensile 
strength or elongation, and 
with granules scarcely dis- 
tinguishable with a magnifi- 
cation of 1000 diameters. A 
special feature of the sorbitic 
process is that it need not 
be applied only to new rails, 
but Tails or special work in 
place in the street can be 
treated without disturbing 
the pavement. In fact, extensive orders for the treat- 
ment of rails in situ are being executed for tramways 
in Croydon, Birmingham, Manchester, Bournmouth, 
London, Liverpool and Glasgow. 

On March 13, 1919, through the courtesy of T. B. 
Goodyer, general manager of the Croydon Corporation 
Tramways, a demonstration was arranged for a repre- 
sentative of the Electric Railway Journal by Scholey 
& Company, Westminster, agents for Mr. Sandberg. A 
length of rail was subjected to the flames from a spe- 
cially designed twin or duplex oxy-acetylene blow pipe, 
mounted on a light hand-propelled, geared truck, which 
advanced at the rate of about 1 ft. per minute. The rail 
surface was raised to a red heat and immediately 
quenched by means of water jets, close to and just be- 
hind the blow-pipe nozzles. After the passage of the 
truck, large, freshly-ground cold chisels were applied 
to both treated and untreated portions of the rail. No 
difficulty was experienced in notching the untreated rail, 
but the edges of the chisels were immediately turned 
up or chipped on being applied to the treated portions. 
The speed of the operation may be regulated to suit the 
particular requirements of the case by the use of twin, 
triple, quadruple or fishtail burners. 

diagram of rail, 
showing sections 
from which mi- 
were taken 

A. B. C 




Electric Railway Journal 

VJ. 54, No. 1 

An interesting experiment was carried out two years 
ago on the Leeds Tramways, with the in situ treatment. 
Here a length of rail, heavily corrugated, had the corru- 
gations removed and a portion of the rail was treated. 
So far, the corrugations have not recurred on the treated 
rail although they are fully developed on the untreated 
length. A similar experience is now reported from 
Birmingham so. that the process may have an important 
bearing on the solution of the corrugation problem. 

Ashes — Handling by Steam Conveyor 
Versus Manual Labor 

A CORRESPONDENT who is friendly to the steam- 
jet conveyor plan of handling ashes, calls attention 
to the need for additional information if the compari- 
son contained in the brief article on page 951 of the 
May 17 issue of this paper is to be applicable under 
conditions more general than those described. On re- 
quest of the editors of this paper the American Steam 
Conveyor Corporation has furnished the following addi- 
tional information: 

The steam ash conveyor figures previously given 
were for an installation in the Big Mine of Canada. This 
does not have an ash storage bin, but discharges the 
ashes onto the open prairie, about 140 ft. from the 
boiler house. Farmers frequently come from the sur- 
rounding territory and haul away the ashes for filling 
purposes. As to an item to cover fixed charges on the 
steam conveyor and the ash storage bin, there undoubt- 
edly should be such an item, but an analysis of a num- 
ber of steam conveyor systems which have been in oper- 
ation for several years has shown that the charges are 
quite low when the cost per ton of ash is taken into 

In the charge of manual labor there would be an item 
of $5.50 for carting and no equivalent charge where 
the ashes were handled through the steam conveyor. 
This is due to the fact that in this case the ashes were 
discharged onto a pile far enough away from the boiler 
so that they would not interfere. In the case of the 
manual labor item the ashes were wheeled outside, and 
then loaded onto wagons, which hauled them to a dis- 
tance of 250 ft. from the mine. No steam allowance 
was made in the comparison as the Canada West *Coal 
Company, which operates this mine, burns in its power 


plant a dirty, fine slack which had been stored on the 
open prairie. This is practically refuse coal which 
the company cannot sell, and consequently the charges 
for steam were disregarded. 

Paving: Blocks and Sectional Paving 
for Railway Tracks 

New Type of Construction Along the Tracks of 
the Toledo Railway & Light Company 
Is Giving Satisfaction 

THE accompanying views illustrate several specially 
shaped wood blocks for paving along railway lines. 
One of the illustrations shows alternate rows of 
Kreolite end-lug wood paving blocks and ordinary 
second-hand paving bricks laid alternately. The wood 
blocks were laid about J in. higher than the bricks so 
that the annealing effect of traffic could weld the wood 
over the edges and prevent cobbling of the bricks. This 
method of installation also tends to reduce the noise 
produced by vehicular traffic and as well provides a 
non-slippery surface. The Kreolite blocks are treated 
with 6 lb. of creosote per cubic foot by the Rueping 
process. The end-lug block absorbs all expansion and 
prevents buckling or thrust against the rails. One il- 
lustration shown which is of particular interest is that 
of a pavement which has been in service for six months 
and illustrates how the wood blocks iron out over the 
bricks. It was taken along the Main Street tracks of 
the Toledo Railway «fe Light Company. 

Another illustration shows how the header blocks 
are set in a trench and concreted into position. These 
header blocks serve as a boundary between the railway 
company's and city's paving. They prevent loosening of 
blocks in the city's portion of the pave:Tient which might 
be caused by vibration of the tracks. 

The illustrations showing the sectional paving for 
crossings were also taken on the lines of the Toledo 
Railway & Light Company. The sections are not fast- 
ened down but simply laid in place and can be removed 
bj' two men with crowbars. It is thus not necessary 
to take up all the pavements to repair frogs, as only 
that portion adjacent to the frogs need be removed 
in order to make repairs. 

Of the two intersections shown, one cost $121 and the 
other $129 installed. It is estimated that the cost 


July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 




necessary to install concrete, wood block or brick pave- 
ment at these points would have been slightly more 
than ?100, and these would have had to be renewed 
every time that the crossing needed repair or renewal of 
worn parts. 

The intersection at Cherry and Michigan Streets, 
Toledo, is a 9-in. 125-lb. groove-rail built-up crossing 
and that at Cherry and Huron Streets is a 9-in., 137-lb., 
hard-center crossing. These two intersections cost more 
than if the track had been a 6-in. rail, as it was 
necessary to use additional planking under the sectional 
pavement in order to bring it to the full 9 in. which 
was the rail height. 

These two intersections were installed in March of 
this year and are giving good satisfaction. Inspections 
made at the Cherry and Huron Streets crossing showed 
that all four of the crossing frogs were working. This 
would have destroyed the usual type of paving and 
would have necessitated an expense of from $50 to $100 
to replace it, while with this special construction it has 
not been necessary to disturb the pavement, the expense 
of replacing it has been saved and the annoyance of 
bad crossing conditions, to both pedestrians and vehicles, 
has been avoided. 

The Kreolite blocks used were made by the Jennison- 
Wright Company, Toledo, Ohio. 


,7 T- rail anot Guard „ 

5z x5i Header 
B -ei ^Spjkeol to P l anking 

100 lb. T-rail 

f'T-railanol ^i^^i Header 5i Lug Block Toe 

Guarol\ ^^piked to Plank Ba^e /^'^"ed foPhnkBase 

V X'' ^.'ilUJ '" .Spike Toe Nailing 

^rWFWVMW\'€W^^WW^'^ 1 Block to Plank Base 

100 lb. T-rail 

Lug Rail Block _], j 

x5 Ties InBa/fasi 

„ ., ^ '■ -.^"x 8" Plank inq Spiked 

100 lb. 6 T-rail, furies 
Nose Block' . 

Lug Block.^ 



Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Committee of One Hundred 

Revised List of Those Who Will Present the Case of the Electric 
Railways Before the Federal Electric 
Railways Commission 

of the American Electric 
Railway Association has giv- 

en out a revised and complete 
list of the committee of 100. Their 
names follow. The chairmen of the 
four subcommittees mentioned on 
page 33 are included in this list 
among the vice-chairmen, as with 
the vice-chairmen and the chair- 
men they form the executive com- 
mittee of the committee of 100. 

MILTON E. AILES, Vice-President 

Big-g-s National Bank, Washington. D. C. 
W. R. ALBERGER, Vice-President San 

Franciseo-Oal5land Terminal Railways 

Coraiiany. Oakland. California 
H. M. ATKINSON. Director Georgia Railway 

and Power Company, Atlanta. Georgia 

Bamberger Electric Railroad Company, 

Salt Lake City, Utah 
S. R. BERTRON. Dijector United Gas and 

Electric Engineering Corp.. New York City 
HENRY A. BLAIR. Chairman Board ol 

Directors Chicago Surface Lines, 

Chicag^o. Illinois 
CHARLES BOETTCHETR. Chairman Board of 

Directors Denver Tramway Company, 

Denver, Colorado 
H. G. BRADLEE. President Stone & Webster 

Management Corp., Boston, Massachusetts 
NICHOLAS F. BRADY, President New York 

Ed. son Company, New York City 
FRANK W. BROOKS, President Detroit 

United Railways, Detroit, Michigan 
BRITTON I. BUDD, President Metropolitan 

West Side Elevated Railway Company, 

Chicago, Illinois 
H. M, BYLLESBY, President H. M. Byllesby 

Company. Chicago. Illinois 

E. VV. Clark Management Corporation, 

Philadelphia. Pennsylvania 
B. C. COBB. Vice-President Hodenpyl, Hardy 

aaid Company, New York City 
BARRON G. COLLIER. President Barron G. 

Collier. Inc., New York City 
E. G. CONNETTE, President International 

Railway Company, Buffalo, New Y'ork 
President Columbus Railway, Power and 

Light Company, Columbus, Ohio 
THOMAS A. CROSS. President United 

Railways and Electric Company, 

Baltimore, Maryland 
GERHARD M. DAHL, Vice-President 

Chase National Bank, New York City 
ARTHUR V. DAVIS. President 

Aluminum Company of America, 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Brown Brothers, New York City 
A. C, DINKEY, President Midvale Steel 

Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
HENRY L. DOHERTY, President Henry L. 

Doherty & Company, New York City 
WALLACE B. DONHAM, Vice-President Old 

Co.ony Trust Company, Boston, Mass. 
R. J. DUNHAM. Vice-President Armour and 

Company, Chicago, Ilhnois 

Barron G. Collier, Inc.. New York City 
VAN HORN ELY. President 

American Railways Company. 

Philadelphia. Pennsylvania 
'EDWIN C. FABER. Vice-President Aurora. 

Elgin & Chicago Raih'oad Company. 

Aurora, Illinois 

FideUty National Bank and Trust Com- 
pany, Kansas City, Missouri 
ALLEN B. FORBES. President Harris Forbes 
and Company. New York City 

FRANK R. FORD. Ford. Bacon 

and Davis, New York City 
FRANK W. FRUEAUFP. Henry L. Doherty 

and Company, New York City 
FREDERICK GOFP President Cleveland 

Trust Company, Cleveland, Ohio 
GEORGE DE B, GREEN, Vice-President 

California Railway and Power Company, 

New York City 

Portland Railway, Light and Power Com- 
pany, Portland, Oregon 
E. K. HALL, Vice-President Electric Bond 

and Share Company. New Yorlt City 

Guy E. Tripp 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company. New York City 

John H. Pardee 

President American Electric Railway 
Association. New York City 

A. W. Brady 

President Union Traction Company of 
Indiana, Anderson. Indiana 

Joseph K. Choate 

Vice-President J. C. White Manage- 
ment Association, New York City 

Samuel M. Curwen 

President J. G. Brill Company. Phila- 
delphia. Pennsylvania 

Philip J. Kealy 

President Kansas City Railway Com- 
pany, Kansas City, Missouri 

Thomas N. McCarter 

President Public Service Railway 
Company. Newark. New Jersey 

James H. McGraw 

President McGraw-Hill Company. Inc., 
New York City 

J. D. Mortimer 

President North American Company, 
New York City 

Lucius S. Storrs 

president The Connecticut Company, 
New Haven. Conn. 

H. L. Stuart 

Halsey Stuart Company. Chicago. 111. 

O. B. Wilcox 

Vice-President Bonbright & Company. 
New York City 

0. D. Young 

Vice-President General Electric 
Company. New York City 

W. P. HAM, President 

Washington Railway and Electric 

Company, Washington, D. C. 
GEORGE E. HAMILTON, President Capital 

Traction Company, Washington. D. C. 
C. H. HARVEY. President 

Knoxville Railway and Light Company 

Knoxville. Tennessee 
ANTON G. HODENPYL. Hodenpyl, Hardy 

and Company, New York City 
FR-4.NCIS T. HOMER. President. 

American Cities Company, New York City 
SAMUEL INSULL, Chairman Board of 

Directors Metropolitan West Side Eflevated 

Railway Company, Chicago, Illinois 
A. B, LEACH, President A. B. Leach and 

Company, New York City 
ARTHUR W. LOASBY, President First Trust 

and Deposit Company, Syracuse, New York 
HOMER LORING, Chairman Public Trustees 

Bay State Street Railway System. 

Boston. Massachusetts 
HORACE LOWRY. President Twin City Rapid 

Transit Company. Minneapolis. Minnesota 
A. M. LYNN, President West Penn Railways 

Company. Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania 

RICHARD McCULLOCH, President United 

Railways of St. Louis. St. Louis. Missouri 
WILLIAM B. McKINLEY, President IlUnois 

Traction System. Peoria. Illinois 
SAMUEL McROBERTS. Executive Manager 

National City Bank. New York City 
S. Z. MITCHELL. President Electric Bond and 

Share Company. New York City 
THOMAS E. MITTEN. President Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Company, Philadelphia, 

RANDALL MORGAN. Vice-President United 

Gas Improvement Company, Philadelphia, 

J. K. NEWMAN. Chairman of Executive 

Committee American Cities Company, New 

Orleans, Louisiana 
J. R. NUTT. President Citizens Savings and 

Trust Company. Cleveland, Ohio 
E. H. OUTERBRIDGE. President Pantasote 

Compan.v. New York City 
J. S. PEVEAR President Birmingham 

Railway. Light and Power Company, 

Birmingham, Alabama 
E. W. RICE. Jr.. President General Electric 

Company. New York City 

Columbia Railway. Gas and Electric Co., 

Columbia. South Carolina 

E. N. SANDERSON, Sanderson and Porter, 

New York City 
W. KESLEY SCHOEPF, President Cincinnati 

Traction Company, Cincinnati, Ohio 

J. N. SHANNAHAN. President Newport News 

and Hampton Railway, Gas and Electric 

Co. Hampton. Virginia 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company 

New York City 
PAUL SHOUP. President Pacific Electric 

Railway Company, Los Angeles, California 
CLEMENT C. SMITH, President Wisconsin 

Securities Company, Milwaukee. Wisconsin 

JOHN J. STANLEY, President Cleveland 
Railways Company, Cleveland, Ohio 

R. P. STEVENS. President Mahoning & 
Shenango Railway & Light Company 
New York. N. Y. 


Stone and Webster, Boston, Mass. 

J. J. STORROW, Lee, Higginson and 

Company, Boston, Massachusetts 
J. P. STRICKLAND. President Dallas 

Railway Company, Dallas, Texas 
KNOX TAYLOR. President 

Taylor-Wharton Iron and Steel Company 

High Bridge. New Jersey 
A. W THOMPSON, Federal Manager 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, 

Baltimore. Maryland 
W. B. TUTTLE. First Vice-President 

San Antonio Public Service Company, 

San Antonio. Texas 
T. H. TUTWILER President Memphis Street 

Railway Company. Memphis. Tennessee 


United Railroads of San Francisco, 

San Francisco. California 
' G. W. WATTLES. Vice-President 

Omaha and Council Bluffs Street Railway 

Company. Omaha. Nebraska 
EDWIN S. WEBSTER. Stone & Webster 

Management Corp., Boston, Mass. 
H. H. WESTINGHOUSE, Chairman Board 

Westinghouse Traction Brake Company, 

New York City 

Virginia Railway and Power Company, 

Richmond, Virginia 
JAMES G. WHITE, President J. G. White 

and Company. New York City 

60 Broadway, New York City 
TIMOTHY S. WILLIAMS, President Brooklyn 

Rapid Transit Company. Brooklyn, New 


GEORGE T. WILSON, Vice-President 
Eauitable Life Assurance Company. 
New York City 

J. H. WILSON. President Mobile Light and 
Railroad Company, Mobile, Alabama 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


American Association News 

Committee of One Hundred Meets 

Four Sub-Committees Appointed — Preparing Case 
for Early Presentation 

THE committee of one hundred appointed by the 
American Electric Railway Association to prepare 
the case of the electric railway industry for the presen- 
tation to the Federal Commission, designated by the 
President of the United States, to investigate the elec- 
tric railway situation, held its first meeting in New York 
on June 26. Chairman Tripp presided and in addition to 
the members of the committee Philip H. Gadsden, the 
member of the commission representing the American 
Electric Railway Association, was present. 

Mr. Gadsden stated that the present plan of the 
commission contemplated holding hearings in Washing- 
ton once or twice a week and that it was the present 
purpose not to consider individual cases except in so 
far as they might have bearing on the whole situation. 

As a result of the meeting it was decided to appoint 
four sub-committees, one each on recommendations, 
presentation, finance, and information and service. The 
membership of the sub-committees is as follows: 

Committee on recommendations : O. D. Young (chair- 
man), H. G. Bradlee (vice-chairman), H. M. Byllesby, 
C. M. Clark, Frank W. Frueauff, Samuel Insull, 
Randall Morgan, J. J. Stanley, H. H. Westinghouse, 
E. N. Sanderson. 

Committee on presentation : J. K. Choate (chairman) , 
Philip J. Kealy (vice-chairman), E. K. Hall, A. W. 
Brady, Britton I. Budd, R. P. Stevens, Frank R. Ford, 
Francis T. Homer, J. D. Mortimer, Lucius S. Storrs. 

Committee on information and service: Lucius H. 
Storrs (chairman), W. F. Ham (vice-chairman), 
Francis H. Sisson, W. R. Alberger, Barron G. Collier, 
B. C. Cobb, T. A. Cross, James H. McGraw, J. N. 
Shannahan, Britton I. Budd, T. S. Williams. 

Committee on finance: H. L. Stuart (chairman), 
Thomas N. McCarter (vice-chairman), Samuel M. 
Curwen, Henry L. Doherty, Samuel Insull, A. B. Leach, 
Randall Morgan, E. W. Rice, Jr., Edwin S. Webster. 

Under the direction of the committee of one hun- 
dred, of which Guy E. Tripp is chairman, the Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Association is preparing the case 
of the electric railways, to be presented to the commis- 
sion appointed by the President to investigate the elec- 
tric railway situation. 

It is now probable that a request will be made to 
the commission for a hearing to start in Washington 
on July 14 and to continue until the entire case is 
presented, which it is estimated will take two weeks. 

The corrimittee on presentation, under the chairman- 
ship of J. K. Choate, and the committee on recom- 
mendations under the chairmanship of 0. D. Young, 
will meet on July 7 to give formal approval to the 
tentative program which is already prepared. If this 
program is accepted, the case will be presented under 
three headings: 

1. Present conditions of the industry. 

2. The causes which have led to these conditions. 

3. Suggested avenues of escape. 

The association is endeavoring to present to the com- 

mission an array of witnesses who are thoroughly famil- 
iar with the various phases of electric railway opera- 
tion, finance and economic theories which govern pub- 
lic utilities. The list includes some of the best-known 
men in America — financiers, economists and men thor- 
oughly familiar with public life. It is commandeering 
the services of witnesses wherever the best men can be 
obtained. Chairman Tripp believes that the situation 
is one in which it is the duty of every man interested 
to render what service he can. 

An opportunity is offered for presenting the case of 
the railways in such a way as to impress upon the 
people of the United States the desperate straits in 
which the industry is at present, and the necessity for 
immediate action in the interest of the public, the em- 
ployees and of the owners of these properties. 

Presentation of the case, under Chairman Choate, 
will be in direct charge of a railway attorney of na- 
tional reputation, who has participated in a number of 
investigations along similar lines and who is thoroughly 
familiar with the subject. As far as possible the evi- 
dence will be brought before the commission in a 
sequence which will develop the case from the start to 
the conclusion. 

Among the important evidence to be presented is 
that dealing with the present price level and its prob- 
able maintenance for an indefinite period. It is the 
intention of the committee to show that what was at 
first considered a matter of short duration is in reality 
a condition that is likely to maintain for a long period 
of time. 

All of the various phases of the situation, the causes 
which have led up to them, the various remedies that 
have either been suggested or applied in particular 
situations, are to be brought out. Included is a very 
complete and thorough analysis of the statistics of 
electric railways as developed by the United States 
Census as well as later statistics which have been com- 
piled by the association for that purpose. 

Equipment Committee Holds Busy Session 

AT THE MEETING of the equipment committee of 
the Engineering Association, held in New York 
City on June 26, the chairman, Daniel Durie, Connells- 
ville, Pa., presided, and the others present included 
W. S. Adams, Philadelphia, Pa.; W. W. Brown, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., representing W. G. Gove; R. H. Dalgleish, 
Washington, D. C; E. D. Priest, Schenectady, N. Y.; 
K. A. Simmon, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; N. B. Trist, East Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., and F. A. Vial, Chicago, 111., representing 
G. W. Lyndon. 

The sub-committee appointed to consider the develop- 
ment of check gages and templets for wheels and truck 
parts presented recommendations for wheel mounting, 
a check gage and a rotundity gage for wheels together 
with terms and gaging points for wheels and tracks. 
They also included tables of dimensions for standard 
wheel designs for use on electric railways. 

The sub-committee on standardization of motor parts 
presented a list believed to cover the best possible field 
for standardization and recommended that the parts 
listed be considered in connection with any program for 
future work. The limited time which had been avail- 
able for this work prevented the formulation of definite 
recommendations for standardization. 

The sub-committee appointed to co-operate with the 
National Fire Protective Association in formulating a 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

code for l^OO-vclr car wiring reported that it had been 
co-operating with this association, but at present no 
definite recommendations could be made. 

Committee Meetings of Week 

THIS is a busy time at association headquarters. 
Besides the equipment committee, whose meeting is 
mentioned in a separate paragraph, the committee on 
collection and registration of fares held a meeting 
during this past week. Those in attendance were: W. J. 
Harvie, chairman, E. C. Spring, C. W. Stocks and L. H. 
Palmer. At this meeting the final draft of the report 
was prepared. 

During the coming week committee meetings sched- 
uled include the following: July 7, code of traflSc prin- 
ciples of the T. & T. Association and recommendation 
and presentation of the committee of 100; July 8, termi- 
nal contracts of the T. & T. Association, information 
and service of the committee of 100, and the sub- 
committee on exhibits of the main association; July 9, 
executive committee of the T. & T. Association and fi- 
nance committee of the committee of 100; July 10, 
full meeting of committee of 100: Jub^ 11, sub-com- 
mittee of committee on zone fares. 

"Tramway & Railway World" Discusses 
"Journal's" Glasgow Articles 

A PLEASANT note of gentle raillery against the 
American flat fare and free transfer is sounded 
by the Tramway & Railway World of London, in its 
May 15 review of Walter Jackson's first three articles 
on "The Zone System in Practice." These were the 
Glasgow articles published in the Electric Railway 
Journal for Feb. 22, March 8 and March 29. Among 
other things, it says: 

The native home of the tramway is in a rather confused 
state, and its guardians are looking for some way out of 
the trouble. Tramway managers in the United States are 
nnding that the incomes of their undertakings do not bal- 
ance expenditure, and as Wilkins Micawber testified from 
the depths of experience, that means misery. For a long 
time the cause of the trouble seemed difficult to locate. 

Here, said the American tramway managers, in effect, 
• we have an ideal system for collecting cash; every passen- 
ger, no matter how short the distance he travels, must put 
down his nickel. No fuss, no trouble, no worry in collec- 
tion — it is all so simple a child could collect the 'fares — and 
yet there is the deficit. What is wrong?" 

In the days of their prosperity the tramway managers 
in New \oYk, and beyond, had seen and sniiled at the 
British method of charging and collecting fares. It had 
seemed to them much trouble for very little gain. Cent, 
2-cent, 3-cent, 4-cent, and so on, tickets, with a conductor 
ranging through the car continually collecting coins and 
punching tickets, carrying a ticket bank as long as his 
foi-earm, struck our transatlantic friends as very near'y 
the acme of the ridiculous. They had escaped all that by 
the mere application of common sense at the start — charge 
the passenger 5 cents when he boards the car, and there 
is an end of it. 

The success of British tramway undertakings, which 
carry enormous numbers of passengers at the equivalent of 
a 2-cent fare, has latterly, however, begun to give t' em 
quite an air of respectability in the eyes of United States 
managers, and the zone system of charging fares shares n 
the enhanced repute. After all, for a thickly-populated old 
country zone fares were not altogether to be despised; but, 
of course, for a country like America the uniform charge 
was the more suitable. In that tolerant frame of mind, 
our transatlantic friends arrived at 1914. Then a mysterious' 
disease began to attack all grades and classes of tramway un- 
dertakings. Traffic increased, and receipts mounted up, but 
so also did expenditure, and while the increase in receipts 

slowed down, the additions to expenditure quickened pace. 
Indeed, it seemed as though things were working backwards, 
and that the more traffic there was on a system the worse 
were the financial results. Here was a mystery. At last 
it occurred to someone to ask if every passenger who paid 
a 5-cent fare really defrayed the cost of his ride. Nobody 
knew; short-distance, middling-distance, and long-distance 
passengers were all lumped together, and the only thing 
that remained certain was that cars did not pay the ex- 
penses of their journeys. To avoid bankruptcy, some tram- 
way undertakings have adopted the expedient of putting 
a limit to the 5-cent journey, and making an additional 
charge for any distance beyond. Results have shown im- 
provement, and therefore the question whether or not the 
zone fare system should be adopted in America has become 
a live topic over there. 

Up till about twenty years ago it was a widespread belief 
that the first-class passengers on railways were the chief 
contributors to revenue, though railway officials had long 
known that the case was exactly opposite. The report of 
the Peel commission in 1867 clearly showed that the back- 
bone of railway passenger revenue was the third-class, but 
the superstitious reverence for the first-class survived till 
the last few years of the nineteenth century, when the con- 
dition of railway aff'airs became so critical that inquiry 
into all the facts became an absolute necessity. After that, 
the first-class passenger traffic was recognized as a costly 
form of advertising. 

A similar process has taken place with regard to long- 
distance traffic on the tramways. In the early days the 
through passenger was considered most important by tram- 
way authorities, but the essential quality of a tramway 
system is its adaptability to the needs of the short-distance 
traveler. Experience has shown that the latter is not only 
the largest factor, but also that he pays best for his ride. 
Mr. Jackson brings out the point clearly in his observation 
of the Glasgow tramways. 

Our contemporary concludes its review by referring 
to the problem of auditing and checking the great 
variety of fares required with the zone system, but 
expresses the opinion this is a light task compared with 
that of checking the time limits and other features of 
the American transfer, and says that in this opinion 
"everyone at all familiar with the diflficulties of in- 
spection and the abuses to which the latter gives rise, 
will emphatically agree." 

Letter to the Editors 

How the Use of Standards May 

Be Stimulated 

Public Service Railway 

Newark, N. J., June 30, 1919. 

To the Editors : 

I have read with interest the editorial in your last 
issue about standards. It seems to me that we now 
have a splendid opportunity to make great progress in 
standards. As you say, we have learned a lesson from 
the war, and, besides, the manufacturers are now more 
closely allied with the association than ever before. 

I believe it would be a simple matter, for example, to 
limit all of the rail sections rolled to standard sections 
as designated, say, by the way committee of the associa- 
tion. When an order is placed for a rail of a type other 
than the standards set forth, the manufacturer would at 
once take up the question with the Way Committee, or 
some other authorized agent of the association. Then, 
if there was some good reason to have the extra section 
rolled, the manufacturer would be advised that it was 
O.K. ; otherwise, the manufacturer would refuse to roll 
the rail. Similar arrangements could be made for me- 
chanical and other parts that are standards. 

Martin Schreiber, Chief Engineer. 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Recent Happenings in Great Britain 

Review of Legislation That Is in Prospect — London Traffic Unprece- 
dented — Military Motor Lorries Converted to Passenger Service 

iW)-om Our I'lgnlar Correspondent ) 

The course of legislation affecting 
traction interests in Great Britain con- 
tinued to te of much interest during 
May. Events seem to be now fairly on 
the way toward the state of things 
in which national control, unification 
and co-ordination will take the place of 
individualism. The hope is for greater 
economy and efficiency; the fear is of 
the smothering of individual enterprise 
and the paralysing effect of red tape 
and bureaucracy. 

Government's Bill Modified 

The Ministry of Ways and Com- 
munications bill has at length passed 
through its long period of discussion 
and criticism by a standing committee 
of the House of Commons. It has been 
modified in some respects, chiefly in the 
direction of lessening the autocratic 
powers to be conferred on the new 
minister, and for retaining more Par- 
liamentary control. The minister is 
to act with the help of advisory com- 
mittees, and when he proposes to em- 
bark on new schemes costing more than 
£1,000,000 he must get the sanction of 
Parliament instead of proceeding by 
orders in Council. 

In general, however, the wide powers 
of the Minister are retained for dealing 
with all systems of transportation — 
unifying, co-ordinating and improving 
— but municipally-owned tramways are 
still excluded from the scheme. The 
powers are so wide and general that 
it is not possible to say exactly what 
the minister may do. The bill will 
probably be passed into law during the 
summer or autumn. 

The other leading measure affecting 
traction interests — the electricity sup- 
ply bill — passed its second reading in 
the House of Commons on May 14. As 
it is a long and complex bill and as it 
touches so many interests, its detail 
consideration by a committee is likely 
to be protracted. 

Cheap Electricity the Aim 

The fundamental object of this meas- 
ure is to provide a cheap and abundant 
supply of electricity for all purposes 
throughout the United Kingdom. The 
main organization proposed consists of 
a central controlling body called the 
electricity commissioners and a num- 
ber of district electricity boards. 
The commissioners will act under the 
general direction of Minister of Ways 
and Communications. They will di- 
vide the country into districts, and for 
each district they will constitute a Dis- 
trict electricity board. These boards 
will be composed of representatives of 
local authorities, companies and other 
authorized undertakers, large consum- 
ers and labor. 

The district boards will take over 
all generating stations and main trans- 

mission lines, erect new stations and 
extend and consolidate the whole sys- 
tem of supply on uniform lines. Dis- 
tribution to consumers will remain in 
the hands of the existing authorities, 
municipal or company. Financing is to 
be done locally so far as possible. 

The weak point in the bill is that so 
many of the powers are to be permis- 
sive instead of mandatory. For ex- 
ample, the commissioners "may" set up 
a board for each district. So some dis- 
tricts may have boards and some not. 
Yet one of the essentials for a na- 
tional supply is uniformity. Necessary 
provision is made for technical knowl- 
edge and advice. 

The ideal aimed at is expected to be 
the shutting down of many small sta- 
tions and the substitution therefor of 
a few enormous stations feeding into 
great main transmission lines, from 
which distribution for all purposes will 
take place. The two leading kinds of 
opposition to the scheme promise to be 
those of the municipalities which will be 
shorn of some of their powers, and a 
part at least of the engineering and 
manufacturing interests who object to 
the great powers to be conferred on 
the district boards, and want more free- 
dom and room for private enterprise. 

Crowding on the Underground 

There has been a fierce agitation 
among London members of Parliament 
in connection with the overcrowded 
state of the underground railways and 
the tramcars and the omnibuses and 
also over the subject of the increased 
fares. They have had interviews with 
leading officers of the various under- 
takings, who tried to convince them that 
everything possible was being done to 
overcome the difficulties. They have 
sent deputations to the Local Govern- 
ment Board and to the Board of Trade, 
and these departments have promised 
to do what they can. The upshot of 
the matter is that the transport au- 
thorities cannot help themselves for the 
time being. Plenty of new rolling 
stock is on order to meet the unprece- 
dented demand for accommodation, but 
only now after long waiting does there 
seem to be a prospect of getting some 
new cars delivered. Labor is getting 
more plentiful, but material is still 
scarce. As for cost, it is beyond words. 

It is probably safe to say that no 
fresh capital expenditure incurred in 
present conditions can be remunerative, 
despite increased fares. The first sen- 
sible relief from congestion may not 
come till the autumn or winter, by 
which time London should be consid- 
erably emptied of its present excess of 
temporary population and troop traffic 
should have died down. For the pres- 
ent the local London passengers are as 
the sands of the seashore for multitude; 
they are unprecedented, overwhelming. 

Only the enormous increases in wages 
and other working expenses prevent the 
transportation concerns from being in 
a state of financial prosperity. 

This London transport agitation led 
in the end of May to the Government 
consenting to appoint a select commit- 
tee of the House of Commons to in- 
quire into the subject and propose 
remedies. The committee promptly 
started work in the beginning of June 
before Parliament rose for the Whit- 
suntide recess. The members continued 
hearing evidence during the holiday 
time. In the meanwhile a new phenome- 
non burst upon the eyes of Londoners 
early in June in the shape of a number 
of military motor lorries converted into 
omnibuses by the provision of cross 
seats. They are no longer needed for 
war, and they are being used to allevi- 
ate congestion until more omnibuses of 
the ordinary kind can be built. 
Mr. Stanley Underground Chairman 

A man who is about once more to be 
officially concerned almost more than 
anybody else with London transport 
problems in their underground railway 
and street omnibus aspects is Sir Albert 
Stanley. Owing to persistent ill health 
he has been obliged to relinquish his 
office of President of the Board of 
Trade, and on the last day of May he 
sailed for America in the hope that the 
visit would re-establish his health. Be- 
fore he left he was elected chairman 
of the Underground Electric Railways, 
London, Ltd., and he thus returns to a 
position of even more influence than he 
formerly occupied in connection with 
the associated London transport under- 

Sir Albert was made managing di- 
rector of London underground railway 
systems more than ten years ago. The 
business developed enormously under 
his administrative talent. Then in the 
earlier period of the war he, like a 
number of other capable railway men, 
was induced for the time being to leave 
his own occupation and to join the gov- 
ernment in order to give practical help 
in time of emergency. He was appointed 
President of the Board of Trade, and 
later on in recognition of his services 
in that capacity he received the honor 
of Knighthood. He has carried on his 
work with little external show, but 
with much efficiency. The good wishes 
of all who "know him go with him to 
America, along with the hope for his 
speedy return in restored health to take 
up the great task, now more urgent 
than ever, of developing the railways 
and other undertakings with which he 
is again connected. 

Every effort is being made in this 
country to hasten the renewal of tram- 
way tracks worn out during the war. 
A number of tramway authorities have 
also been in the market lately for addi- 
tional steam and electric plant and 
cars. There is much difficulty and de- 
lay in getting the wheels of production 
into motion again, and that despite the 
fact that there are about 1,000,000 men 
discharged from the army who cannot 
flnd employment. 

News of the Eledric Railways 



Winnipeg Strike Over 

Six Weeks of Disorder, During Most of 
Which City Went Entirely With- 
out Railway Service 

Winnipeg's general sympathetic 
strike of 35,000 workers was called off 
by the strike committee at 11 o'clock 
on the morning of June 26, having 
lasted exactly six weeks, and having 
accomplished practically nothing. The 
account of the trouble in the Electric 
Railway Journal for June 21, page 
1238, traced, briefly the early develop- 
ments of the strike and told of the 
attempt of the strike leaders to tie-up 
completely all industries and public 
utilities in the city. 

The splendid voluntary services of 
the citizens of the city, who resisted 
such a ruthless assault, and who 
saw in it an attempt to establish the 
rule of the soviet in Winnipeg, kept 
all utilities operating, and after the 
third week of the strike employees be- 
gan to drift back to their jobs. The 
City Council of Winnipeg, however, de- 
cided not to take back any emjjloyees 
who refused to sign a pledge express- 
ing complete loyalty to the city, declin- 
ing to join a union affiliated with any 
outside organization, and also refusing 
at all times to go out on a sympathetic 
strike. This applied to the firemen 
and policemen, who went out on strike 
at the call of the strike committee. 
At present all utilities are manned by 
regular staffs, while most of the for- 
mer police and firemen are back on their 
old jobs, having "signed the pledge." 

The ignominious ending of the strike, 
resulting in complete defeat for the 
strikers, has brought about a serious 
split in tne labor ranks. The saner ele- 
ment are dissociating themselves from 
the more radical trades unionists, and 
denunciation of the strike leaders by 
the mass of the workers is general. 

As stated in previous dispatches the 
Winnipeg Electric Railway was ordered 
by the City Council to resume service 
after the strike had been in progress 
four weeks. The company made an ap- 
peal to the men to return, but without 
success. On June 17, however, A. W. 
McLimont, vice-president and general 
manager, issued an ultimatum to the 
effect that employees who did not re- 
port and were not available when re- 
quired to enable the company to re- 
sume service would be replaced by per- 
manent new employees and lose their 
seniority. It was further announced 
that new employees taken into the 
service would not be dismissed to make 
places for any old employees who sub- 
sequently decided to return to duty. 

'This ultimatum expired at 8 a.m., on 
June 19. It resulted in several em- 

ployees returning to work. These, to- 
gether with supervisors and inspectors, 
manned the cars and gave service on 
the principal lines in the city. Fourteen 
cars were operated on June 19, and this 
number was gradually increased up to 
fifty cars by the time the strike was 
called off. Upon "peace" being de- 
clared the company's employees re- 
turned in a body and normal service 
was soon restored. 

On the whole, the strike was a very 
orderly one. On two occasions the 
strikers clashed with the special police, 
but only in the encounter of June 21 
were cars running. In this instance the 
crowd attacked the car, pulled off the 
trolley, smashed every window, and 
tried many times in vain to upset it. 
Unable to do this they piled newspapers 
in the interior and set them on fire. 
Just at this moment a detachment of 
mounted police arrived on the scene, 
the fire was put out, and the car was 
run back to the carhouse. The mounted 
police, stoned by the crowd, retaliated 
with their revolvers. Two of the crowd 
were killed and scores injured. As an 
offshoot of the strike, strike leaders 
face charges of seditious conspiracy. 

The strike was called off by the strike 
committee "unconditionally," but the 
Provincial Government has appointed 
Judge H. A. Robson, a commission to 
inquire into the origin and the whole 
circumstances surrounding the strike. 

Wages Readjusted 

The co-operative plan of the Phila- 
delphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company 
now in effect provides a permanent 
basis of adjusting the wages of the 
employees of the company by averag- 
ing the wage scales of the four cities 
covered by the War Labor Board wage 
award of August, 1918, namely, Chi- 
cago, Cleveland, Detroit and Buffalo. 

The maximum wage paid the Detroit 
trainmen has under the recent settle- 
ment now been advanced to 60 cents 
an hour. The maximum in the cities 
of Chicago, Cleveland and Buffalo is 
48 cents per hour. This produces an 
average maximum of 51 cents an hour 
for the Philadelphia trainmen, viz.: 
First three months, 45 cents an hour; 
next nine months, 48 cents an hour; 
thereafter, 51 cents an hour. 

At a meeting of the transportation 
committee, established under the co- 
operative plan, held on July 1, the above 
wage scale was announced to become 
effective at once. 

The wages of other employees will 
be adjusted according to the provisions 
of the co-operative plan as soon as the 
necessary facts and figures are obtain- 

Publicity Pays in Buffalo 

Marked Change in Attitude of Public 
Toward International Railway Fol- 
lows Publicity Campaign 

There has been a decided change in 
sentiment in Buffalo, N. Y., toward the 
International Railway since the com- 
pany started its publicity campaign 
about two years ago and turned the 
spotlight upon its financial condition 
and its internal affairs. 

Company Establishes Paper 

One of the biggest factors in bring- 
ing about this change in sentiment is 
the publication of the Service Spot 
Light, the editor of which has never 
been publicly announced by the com- 
pany. This little publication is issued 
every Monday morning and is placed in 
the "Take One" boxes which have been 
installed in all of the cars operated in 
the city and on the interurban lines. 

The first and second pages are occu- 
pied every week by an editorial in which 
the company usually takes the position 
that it is being unfairly attacked by 
outside influences and individuals who 
do not understand the real situation in 
the company's internal affairs. In a 
recent issue the Service Spot Light took 
a shot at the Mayor for his recent 
speech before the state conference of 
mayors at Schnectady in which he said 
the company is not playing fair with 
the city; that it promoted the recent 
strike of the company's platform men 
and that it never was sincere in the 
service-at-cost proceedings which have 
since been abandoned. 

Space is given in the little paper for 
brief letters from car riders praising 
or criticising motormen and conductors. 
Letters which give the badge numbers 
of the crew are translated by the com- 
pany so that the names of the crew 
are published. In other space current 
events are listed which should attract 
people and add to travel over the com- 
pany's lines, and considerable space is 
given to facts about the International 
Railway's suburban and freight and ex- 
press service to points along its lines, 
and to jokes. 

Display Advertising a Feature 

Large display advertisements are ap- 
pearing in rural newspapers in locali- 
ties through which the company oper- 
ates cars pointing out why interurban 
fares have been increased and asking 
the public whether or not it is fair to 
criticise the company merely because 
it has raised fares to meet increased 
cost of operation. 

For a time the company's publicity 
department used considerable news- 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


paper advertising space to offset hostile 
newspaper articles, but this form of 
advertising has been discontinued. An- 
other campaign carried articles signed 
by E. G. Connette, president of the 
company. These articles were displayed 
on posters in the car windows and 
swinging signs suspended from the roof 
of the car. Each of these different 
forms of publicity has done its share 
of the work of converting the public, 
according to President Connette. 

Through the medium of the Service 
Spot Light the International is showing 
the car riders how much more it is 
costing to operate the lines than it did 
five years ago; how much more is being 
paid out in wages to all of its em- 
ployees; how much is being paid yearly 
for paving between its tracks while this 
paving is constantly being destroyed by 

heavy trucks and other vehicles not 
owned or operated by the International, 
and how the cars are delayed beyond 
the control of the company's operating 

Very few letters are now received 
criticising the company and its officials. 
For a time when the company was 
under newspaper fire thousands of let- 
ters were received monthly scoring the 
alleged inefficient methods of the com- 
pany. The vote against higher fares, 
almost five to one, also indicated the 
hostile attitude of the general public. 
All this has now apparently been 
changed, and in its place has arisen an 
attitude of helpfulness toward the com- 
pany on the part of its riders through 
a keener appreciation on their part of 
the problems by which the company is 

New Jersey Award Announced 

War Labor Board Makes Public Its Findings but Reserves 
Decision on Important Issue 

The War Labor Board made awards 
on June 26 in the dispute between the 
Public Service Railway and its em- 
ployees, the awards being based, under 
the 1918 agreement for arbitration by 
the board, on the evidence taken at 
Newark since the settlement of the 
strike last March. 

Hours a Problem 

Among the demands of the employees 
was that all runs be made straight 
runs, thus eliminating gaps, and that 
the working day be nine hours for ten 
hours pay, that runs of eight and less 
than nine hours be paid on the basis 
of ten hours work and that runs of 
six and less than eight hours be paid 
on the basis of nine hours work. In 
announcing its ruling on this demand 
the joint chairmen said: 

At this time we are unable to grant the 
demands of the men as made. We do think, 
however, that some revision of the company's 
schedules should be made, if possible, to 
minimize the spread time and provide a full 
day's work for their trainmen. The spread 
time on some of the company's runs is 
now unduly long, and we recognize the 
justice of the men's claim for relief from 
such runs. 

To grant the demand of the men as made 
in Paragraph V (of the employees' claims) 
would mean a radical revision of the com- 
pany's schedules. The company maintains 
that such a revision is entirely impractic- 
able. The company has considerably more 
than 1500 runs of nine hours or over. 

We feel that a more careful study must 
be made before we can pass on this ques- 
tion. The evidence introduced at the hear- 
ings did not give us sufficient information. 
This is a work of painstaking study and 
care, and we are delegating to our electric 
railway examiner, Charlton Ogburn, the 
task of making this study and reporting on 
what revision, if any, can be made in the 
company's schedule toward meeting these 
demands of the men, and would authorize 
him to make a ruling covering the demands 
embodied in paragraph five of the com- 
plainant's petition, after he has ascertained 
to what extent the company's schedules can 
be revised in a manner that is practicable. 
His ruling is to be subject, however, to 
the approval and adoption of the joint 
chairmen as arbitrators and is to be coverea 
by their award. 

The board confined its awards to the 
platform men. The demands of shop- 
men and miscellaneous employees of 

the company were referred back for 
special hearings. 

The other issues before the arbitra- 
tors for the most part related to de- 
tails of the working conditions. In all 
there were twenty-four issues submit- 
ted and on several of them the parties 
were in agreement already. These is- 
sues, however, were incorporated in 
the awards of June 26 at the request 
of the employees. 

The first four demands related to 
union recognition, or rather presup- 
posed recognition of the union by the 
company. On this the board said : 

The employees understood at the hearing, 
that the board would not grant them and 
the demands must be taken as having been 
abandoned by the employees. We rule, 
however, that under the rulings of this 
board, the company must do nothing to 
prevent or discourage its employees from 
becoming a member of a union and must 
in no way discriminate against an employee 
because he is a member of a union. These 
employees made no specific complaint in 
this regard, however, and so far as the 
evidence shows this company gives full right 
to its employees to join a union, and no 
charge or discrimination was made against 
the company in this regard. 

Demands of employees that men be 
selected for snowplow work on basis 
of seniority were denied by the board 
on the ground that "the present prac- 
tice of the company is satisfactory." 

The demand of the men for special 
pay for waiting time was denied be- 
cause "the present practice of the com- 
pany is fair and equitable in paying 
for their waiting time only at the reg- 
ular wage, except where overtime is in- 

The demand of the men for addi- 
tional pay for instructing new men 
was not granted in full, but the board 
did order that all instructors should 
receive 5 cents an hour additional for 
actual platform time in such work. 

The demand that the company pay 
for the meals of crews when they are 
prevented from going to their homes at 
their regular meal time was granted. 
It is said this practice is substantially 
in operation now. 

The demand for stools for motormen 
and conductors was granted, the use of 
the stools, however, to be subject to 
regulation by the company. 

The demand of the men that free 
transportation be extended to em- 
ployees in civilian attire, as well as to 
those in uniform, was granted. The 
board thinks, however, that this prac- 
tice must be safeguarded from abuse 
and suggests that the officers of the 
company meet committee of employees 
and endeavor to agree upon the form 
of free transportation to be adopted. 
If this conference fails to agree, Mr. 
Ogburn, examiner for the board, is to 
make the decision as to the form. 

The demands of the m°rt. embodi^-d 
in Paragraph 15 of their complaint, for 
pay for certain kinds of extra work 
were denied because the matter was 
covered in the findings for increased 
pav made by the board July 31 last. 

Operators of one-man cars are 
awarded 5 cents an hour additional pay. 

The demands of the men relating to 
uniforms were granted, the board hold- 
ing that "the men should have a right 
to buy their uniforms in the open mar- 
ket provided they conform to the speci- 
fications of the company." 

The next demand related to bulletin 
boards at the carhouses and the right of 
the employees to post notices thereon. 
This issue was settled at the time the 
strike was called off, but the board 
was asked to interpret the agreement. 
On this point the board said: 

Our construction is, that the company, 
by giving the men the right to put their 
notice on the company's bulletin boards in 
the carhouses, has complied with the agree- 
ment and that the company has the option 
of saying whether the men may use their 
own bulletin boards or the company's. 

The awards are effective as of May 
1, 1919, and continue until peace is for- 
mally announced by executive procla- 
mation. Should any difference arise 
relative to construction the secretary 
of the board is authorized to appoint 
an examiner, who shall hear such dif- 
ferences and who shall announce his 
decision, from which^an appeal may be 
taken to the arbitrators. 

The men originally demanded a nine- 
hour day with ten hours' pay. The 
National War Labor Board decided on 
other matters, but, as previously stated, 
referred this particular subject back 
to Mr. Ogburn for further investigation 
and report. In the meantime the men 
became dissatisfied with the decision 
and threatened to strike. They then 
demanded an eight-hour day with 65 
cents an hour. Mr. Ogburn on July 2 
passed upon the matter of hours and 
granted the original demand of the 
men for a nine-hour day with ten hours' 
pay. On the afternoon of July 2 the 
state conference board representing the 
employees met President McCarter and 
other officers of the company and both 
sides agreed to accept the findings of 
the War Labor Board. The company 
further agreed to enter into a civil 
contract binding both parties to the 
terms of the award for a period of two 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Cleveland Wages Discussed 

Men There Want Twelve Cents 
More an Hour — City Against 

Problems arising from the demands 
of the conductors and motormen of the 
Cleveland (Ohio) Railway for an in- 
crease of 12 cents an hour in wages 
were discussed at the regular meeting 
of the City Council of Cleveland, Ohio, 
on the evening of June 23. Members 
went on record against interfering in 
negotiations between the company and 
its employees. 

J. J. Stanley, president of the Cleve- 
land Railway, had made a proposal 
which involves a profit-sharing idea 
and this may be discussed at a public 
meeting which was set for the after- 
noon of July 2. Mr. Stanley proposed 
that the men be granted the increase 
asked and at the same time that the 
rate of dividends to stockholders be 
advanced from 6 per cent to 7 per cent. 
Retaining the present rate of fare, he 
suggested that if the receipts then 
failed to take care of the advance in 
wages and the increase in return to 
investors, both the wages of the men 
and the rate of return on the invest- 
ment be reduced, but not below the 
present figures. 

In this connection he advocated the 
removal of the minimum and maximum 
fare limits from the Tayler franchise. 
Council members, however, objected 
to this. They said they would take 
care of any future emergency just as 
on previous occasions. 

A request has been made of Coun- 
cil that operating allowances be in- 
creased from 20 to 23 cents a car-mile 
and that the maintenance allowance 
be raised from 5 cents a car-mile to 
an average of 9 cents annually. 

State Credit and a Public 

Calvin Coolidge, Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, on June 27, sent the follow- 
ing message to the Legislature: 

The situation in relation to the street 
railways of Massachusetts, as pointed out 
in the inaugural address, is one of great 
difficulty. Some of them are not earning 
enough money to meet their expenditures. 
This can have only one result if continued — 
tliat is, the suspension of operations. 

In many localities the operation of street 
railways is a public necessity. It would be 
a great public inconvenience if, on account 
of conditions which it is trusted may be 
temporary, street railways should cease to 
operate or if their operation should be 
greatly impaired. 

This is a condition which exists all over 
the nation and investigation has been 
undertaken by the federal authorities. It 
is hoped that it will he temporary. It is. 
however, very desirable that some emer- 
gency legislation should be provided which 
could be put into operation if the con- 
tingency arises. 

It is, therefore, recommended that pro- 
vision be made for the temporary operation 
of a street railway by a public manager, 
so that such street railway may be under 
the exclusive control of public officers and 
public agents, with authority to fix fares 
subject to revision by the Public Service 
Commission ; and that temporarily for the 
public convenience in order to operate 
street railways hereafter placed under such 
control, provision be made for extending 
the credit of the commonwealth and of the 
cities and towns in which such street rail- 
ways operate. 

Such management should be approved 
and supervised by the Public Service Com- 
mission, and public credit should be ex- 
tended only so far as is necessary to keep 
the roads in operation by taking cars of 
valid operating deficits, for a limited period 
in any event, and only so far as existing 
necessities require, without in any way 
impairing or restricting a further and 
different action in the future, or imposing 
in any event an undue burden upon the 

Pittsburgh Arbitration 

Final Hearing Before the War Labor 
Board on Wages Held in 

Final argument was heard before 
Chairman Basil M. Manly and Frederick 
Judson of the War Labor Board in 
Washington on June 25, on the demand 
of the platform employees of the Pitts- 
burgh (Pa.) Railways for a 12-cent in- 
crease in wages. 

Counsel for the receiver of the rail- 
way showed that increases in wages 
ranging from 65 to 95 per cent have 
been received by the Pittsburgh men 
since 1914. At the present scale a man 
working thirty days a month can earn 
$153, and in twenty-seven days he can 
make $125. It was represented by 
counsel that this constituted a very fa- 
vorable showing as compared with the 
returns from labor in skilled trades. 

In rebuttal counsel for the employees 
attacked the scale of 1914, reached by 
arbitration before Judge Joseph Buf- 
fington, of the United States court of 
Western Pennsylvania. 

The principal argument of counsel 
for the receivers was based upon in- 
ability of the company to pay. Mr. 
Alter for the company declared : 

During the first four months of the cur- 
rent year there was a deficit of $494,707 
without taking into consideration interest 
on bonds, rentals and other items of fixed 
charge. The total deficit for the period was 
$1,. 549,849. 

If the wage increases now asked had 
been in effect during those four months the 
company would have lacked $81,698 of hav- 
ing enough to pay mere operating ex- 
penses and taxes. 

Pittsburgh's experience with fare in- 
creases has not been very encouraging, 
according to Mr. Alter. Neither the 
52-cent fare nor the 5-7 cent area sys- 
tem brought revenues up as much as 
had been expected. The 51-cent fare, 
indeed, did not increase them at all. 
The proposal to institute a universal 
7i-cent fare by tickets, with a 10-cent 
cash rate on Aug. 1 does not offer any 
hope of sufficient increment in revenues 
to provide for any such wage increase 
as the men want, either, Mr. Alter in- 
formed the board. He said further that 
"any present increase in wages can be 
accomplished only by abandonment of 
rehabilitation measures essential to safe 
operation of the lines." 

The finding of the War Labor Board 
will not constitute a final award in 
the case. Under the terms of the 
agreement which ended the four-day 
May strike in Pittsburgh, the finding 
will be subject to review by the United 
States District Court, under which re- 
ceivers are operating the Pittsburgh 
railways. If a decision favoring the 
men is negatived by the court, the em- 
ployees have the right to strike again. 

Engineering Department 

Bill Introduced to Abolish Department 
of Interior and Substitute Depart- 
ment of Public Works 

Far-reaching changes in the execu- 
tive machinery of the federal govern- 
ment are proposed in bills introduced 
in each house of Congress on June 25. 
The federal Department of the Interior 
will become the Department of Public 
Works, if legislation proposed and in- 
dorsed by the National Service Commit- 
tee of the Engineering Council is en- 
acted. The main idea is to assemble 
all engineering activities of the gov- 
ernment in one department. Such bu- 
reaus of the Interior Department as 
are non-engineering in character are 
to be placed under the jurisdiction of 
appropriate departments. Thus, the 
Patent Office is to be placed under the 
Department of Commerce, the Bureau 
of Pensions under the Treasury Depart- 
ment and the Bureau of Education 
under the Department of Labor. 

At the same time engineering bu- 
reaus from other departments are to be 
included in the Department of Public 
Works. Thus, this department is slated 
to absorb the Supervising Architect's 
Office of the Treasury Department, the 
Construction Division, River and Har- 
bor Improvements, Mississippi River 
Commission, and California Debris 
Commission of the War Department; 
the Bureau of Standards and the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey of the Department 
of Commerce, and the Bureau of Public 
Roads and the Forest Service of the 
Department of Agriculture. 

The bill provides that the Secretary 
of Public Works "shall by training and 
experience be qualified to administer 
the affairs of the department and to 
evaluate the technical principles and 
operations involved in the work there- 
of." The measure excepts from the 
foregoing provision the Cabinet officer 
who is at the head of the department 
at the time of the passage of the bill. 
It was introduced in the upper House 
by Senator Wesley L. Jones, of Wash- 
ington, and in the lower House by Rep- 
resentative Frank C. Reavis of Ne- 

Ottawa Men Insist on Wage 

The Ottawa (Ont.) Electric Street 
Railway and its employees who have 
been negotiating for some time past 
over the demand by the men for an in- 
crease in wages, have arrived at a dead- 
lock, and fears were expressed on both 
sides that a tie-up of the railway sys- 
tem was inevitable on July 1 when the 
present agreement expired, unless the 
only solution which they believe fits 
the situation is introduced by the mu- 

The company through its superin- 
tendent. Major F. D. Burpee, explained 
in a lengthy statement that the situa- 
tion of the company financialhr was 
such that it was utterly impossible for 
the increases demanded by the men to 
be granted. 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


The solution sought by both the em- 
ployees and the company was that not- 
withstanding the franchise agreement 
which the company has with the city, 
whereby it is pi'ohibited from charging 
a higher transportation charge for 
passengers than 5 cents straight, the 
city should agree to allow the railway 
to increase its fares, so as to take care 
of the increased expenditure it would 
be called upan to meet should the de- 
mands of its employees be complied 

Wage Case in East St. Louis 

A hearing on the demands of the 
conductors and motormen on the elec- 
tric railways of East St. Louis, 111., 
and neighboring cities for an eight- 
hour day and for a wage increase 
amounting almost to 100 per cent was 
held at East St. Louis, 111., recently 
before Charlton D. Ogburn, examiner 
appointed by the War Labor Board. 

W. H. Sawyer, president of the East 
St. Louis & Suburban Railway, testi- 
fied that it was utterly impossible for 
the company to grant any increase in 
wages under present conditions. He 
declared that prices of the necessaries 
of life are now on the downward trend 
and it was his belief that the wage 
paid by the company was a "living 

The car crews of East St. Louis 
now working under a sliding scale of 
41 to 45 cents an hour, are asking 80 
cents an hour. The employees of the 
intci'urban lines leading out of East 
tjt Lju.s, now receiving 47 cents an 
hour, are asking for 87i cents. Both 
demand an eight-hour day. The com- 
panies involved besides the East St. 
Louis & Suburban Company are the 
East St. Lcuis, Columbia & Waterloo 
Railway and the East St. Louis, Alton 
& Grani.e City Railway. 

Rapid Transit Report Presented 
for Cleveland 

A report on the proposed under- 
ground rapid transit road, prepared by 
R. M. Brinkeroff of Barclay Parsons 
& Clapp, New York, was placed before 
the Rapid Transit Commission of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, on July 2. It is based on 
the needs of a population estimated at 
1,000,000 now, 1,500,000 within the next 
ten years and 2,000,000 within twenty 

Two main arteries, one east and the 
other west, are suggested. A system of 
subway loops is provided in the Public 
Square. For early construction a sub- 
way is suggested under Superior Ave- 
nue to East Twelfth Street to take care 
of the traffic on the Superior, St. Clair 
and Pain Avenue lines. Another sug- 
gestion is that a subway be built under 
On'avio Street to the Central market 
house to take care of traffic on the lines 
southeast and southwest. A digest 
of the report is being prepared for 
publication in the Electric Railway 

News Notes 

Berlin Takss Over Surface Lines. — 

The municipality of Greater Berlin has 
acquired the metropolitan surface lines 
for a consideration of $25,000,000. The 
shareholders were paid off in municipal 
bonds with a premium. 

Employees Reject Wage Proffer. — 
The striking employees of the Toronto 
(Ont.) Railway in mass meeting on 
June 27 voted 1521 to 11 against ac- 
cepting an offer of 48 cents an hour 
made by the Ontario Railway Board, 
which has taken over the line. The men 
demand 55 cents an hour. 

Shamokin Employees on Strike. — The 
employees of the Shamokin & Mount 
Carmel Transit Company, Shamokin, 
Pa., went on strike on June 14 for 
higher wages and shorter hours. The 
men have been receiving 38 cents an 
hour for an eleven-hour day. They ask 
45 cents an hour for a nine-hour day 
and time and a half for overtime. The 
company offered 40 cents an hour for 
a ten-hour day. 

Union Chartered. — The Oklahoma 
Union Railway Employees' Association 
of Tulsa, Okla., has been granted a 
charter by Secretary of State Lyon. 
This is a labor union embracing em- 
ployees of the Oklahoma Union Rail- 
way, which operates an interurban line 
fi'om Tulsa to Keifer and the local sys- 
tems in Tulsa and Sapulpa. It was 
formed some time ago and its recogni- 
tion by the interurban company was 
forced by a strike. The association 
has no capital stock. 

Changes in Yale's Electrical Staff. — 
Prof. C. F. Scott, head of the electrical 
engineering department of Sheffield 
Scientific School at Yale University, 
has announced several appointments of 
assistant professors of electrical engi- 
neering. One of these is L. W. W. 
MoiTow, formerly director of the 
School of Engineering at the Univer- 
sity of Oklahoma. Another is that of 
G. F. Wittig, at one time with West- 
inghouse, Church, Kerr & Company, 
and later at the University of Alabama 
and the University of Pennsylvania. 
Another is H. M. Turner, for several 
years in the electrical engineering de- 
partment of the University of Minne- 

Seattle Men Insistent. — The members 
of the Seattle local of the street rail- 
way men's union have voted to stand 
squarely back of their demands for 
increased wages, taking the position 
that the increase asked is not unrea- 
sonable from the standpoint of the 
present cost of living. Ot ler municipal 
employees have asked increases cf $60 
a month above the maximum rates paid 

in 1915 on the theory that actual living 
costs have increased that much, and 
the railway men will co-operate with 
the other city employees to obtain ad- 
vances. A publicity committee has been 
; i:)point£d to lay the facts before the 
puoiic, in an effort to obtain the co- 
operation of the patrons of the Mu- 
nicipal Railway. 

Arbitration Arranged in Davenport. 
— A strike of motormen and conductors 
of the Tri-City Railway, Davenport, 
Iowa, was averted when the company 
agreed to arbitrate differences with the 
men. The committee representing the 
men and officials of the company de- 
cided that arbitration should be under 
the Rock Island city franchise. This 
grant provides that all differences of 
wage and working conditions shall be 
submitted to a board of three composed 
of one member appointed by the com- 
pany and one by the men, with the third 
selected by the two previously appoint- 
ed. The company originally demanded 
that its ability to pay an increased 
wage be considered. The men are said 
to be willing to postpone arbitration if 
the company will agree to negotiate a 
wage increase over the company offer 
of 46, 48 and 50 cents an hour if a 
7-cent fare is allowed by the Public 
Utilities Commission, and to arbitrate a 
reduction in wages if the 7-cent fare 
is not granted. 

Wage Contract Ordered Extended. — 
P'ederal Judge Martin J. Wade has 
ordered that the contract between the 
Des Moines (Iowa) City Railway and 
its employees be extended for another 
period of six months. Judge Wade's 
opinion was in answer to a petition filed 
by the receivers of the Des Moines City 
Railway. The contract governs work- 
ing conditions, wage scales and methods 
of their adjustments. One clause of the 
contract provides that differences on 
the wage question are to be submitted 
to a board of arbitration and for notice 
of contemplated or requested changes 
in wage scales to be served on either 
party thirty days previous to March 1, 
1919. The employees have made the 
request for higher wages within the 
allotted time so that the next step in 
the controversy will probably be the 
appointment of the arbitration board. 
In the hearing before Judge Wade, Emil 
G. Schmidt, one of the receivers and 
the president of the Des Moines City 
Railway, testified that the company's 
books show a deficit of $23,522 for the 
first five months of 1919. 

Program of Meeting 

Illinois Electric Railways Association 
The Illinois Electric Railways Asso- 
ciation will hold its mid-summer meet- 
ing at the Rockford County Club, 
Rockford, 111., on July 16. The fore- 
noon will be devoted to several inter- 
esting papers. In the afternoon, golf, 
a trip to Camp Gi'ant, swimming, etc., 
v.'ill be provided for the entertainment 
of those attending. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Financial and Corporate 

Operating Rates Up 5.34 Per Cent in March 

The Effect of Increased Wages and Prices for Materials Is Reflected 

in Detailed Accounts 

The operations of electric railways 
for the month of March as reflected 
in the tables compiled by the informa- 
tion bureau of the American Electric 
Railway Association indicate that 
throughout the country there has been 
little if any improvement during the 
month. Increases in operating ex- 
penses continue to outstrip increases in 
revenues and the net return is in con- 
sequence correspondingly diminished. 
For the country as a whole the decline is 
apparently a slower one than has here- 
tofore been registered and this fact 
affords the only possible consolation 
that may be derived from the other- 
wise depressing situation revealed by 
the returns shown in the accompany- 
ing tables. 

In Table I a comparison is made with 
the figures for March, 1918, of fifty-one 
companies, and in Table II the same 
figures are shown on a per car-mile 
basis. Referring to Table I it will be 
seen that the operating revenue in- 
creased 14.71 per cent, a healthy 
growth. This advance, however, is 
more than wiped out by an increase of 
23.47 per cent in the expenses. The 
result is a net revenue from operations 
of 9.08 cents in 1919 as compared with 
9.62 cents in 1918, a decrease of 5.61 
per cent. This of course takes no ac- 
count of taxes or fixed charges, which 
have to come out of this net revenue. 

In 1919 taxes amounted to 2.32 cents 
and fixed charges to 6.81 cents per car- 
mile which when deducted from the net 
revenue of 9.08 cents, leaves a deficit 
from railway operations alone of 0.05 
cents per car-mile as compared with a 
surplus in 1918 of 1.18 cents per car- 
mile. This would seem to indicate 
pretty definitely that in March, 1919, 
electric railway operation by itself 
simply did not pay its own way. How- 
ever, non-operating income and return 
from auxiliary operations amounted 
together to 1.95 cents per car-mile and 
with this help the industry managed to 
keep its nose above water with a net 
income of 1.90 cents per car-mile. In 

1918 the net income was 2.48 cents per 
car-mile so that the 1919 figures indi- 
cate a decrease of 23.9 per cent dur- 
ing the year. 

The operating ratio was 75.23 per 
cent as compared with 69.89 per cent in 

As in the past the returns have 
been classified according to the fol- 
lowing geographic grouping: East- 
ern District — east of the Mississippi 
River and north of the Ohio River. 
Southern District — south of the Ohio 
River and east of the Mississippi River. 
Western District — west of the Missis- 
sippi River. 

Although the South shows actually 
the best return of the three — net income 
in March, 1919, of 2.87 cents per car- 
mile compared with 1.42 cents in the 
East and 1.90 cents in the West — rela- 
tively, it has recently been losing ground 
much more rapidly. Its net revenue from 
operations in March showed a de- 
crease from 1918 of 24.79 per cent 
as compared with a decrease of 
6.07 per cent in the West and an 
actual gain of 1.85 per cent in the East. 
After deducting taxes and fixed charges 
and adding in miscellaneous revenues, 
the South shows a decrease of 61.39 
per cent in its net income while the 
West which comes next in the amount 
of its falling off shows a decrease of 
15.93 per cent and the East a decline 
of 4.05 per cent. To what extent 
weather conditions in 1918 affected the 
returns it is diflficult at this time to say. 

The operating ratio in the South 
jumped from 57.79 in March, 1918, to 
71.80 in March, 1919, while in the East 
it increased from 74.97 to 77.58 and in 
the West from 67.47 to 73.63. 

Table III gives the operating ex- 
penses divided up among the several 
departments while in Table IV the ex- 
penses per car-mile of these depart- 
ments is shown. Sixty-four companies 
are represented and analysis of their 
expenses contributes to a better under- 
standing of the returns in Tables I 
and II. 

The increase in the cost of materials 
throughout the country is reflected 
strongly in the maintenance expenses. 

The rise in the cost of labor is re- 
flected better in the conducting trans- 
portation account. In 1918 this was 
9.56 cents per car-mile and in 1919 it 
had risen to 11.71 cents per car-mile 
an increase of 22.48 per cent. 

This increase in the cost of labor 
and material while extending generally 
throughout the country is more marked 
in the South and West, or at any rate 
it appears so in the tables, probably 
because of the unfavorable weather in 
the East in 1918. The cost of mainte- 
nance of way and structures increased 
56.0 per cent over 1918 in the South, 
rising from 1.75 cents to 2.73 cents per 
car-mile. In the East it rose from 3.11 
cents to 3.67 cents per car-mile, an 
increase of 18.0 per cent, and in the 
West it jumped from 2.02 cents to 3.05 
cents, an increase of 50.99 per cent. 

Maintenance of equipment costs in- 
creased 53.47 per cent in the South, 
42.91 per cent in the West and 31.83 
per cent in the East. The cost per car- 
mile of this account in March, 1919, 
was 2.87 cents in the South, 3.33 cents 
in the West and 4.39 cents in the East. 

The conducting transportation ac- 
count rose from 9.34 cents to 12.19 
cents per car-mile in the South, an in- 
crease of 30.51 per cent. In the West 
the increase in this cost was 14.61 per 
cent and in the East it was 28.54 per 
cent, the amounts per car-mile in 1919 
being 11.06 cents in the West and 12.25 
cents in the East. 

The increase in the cost of power was 
1.42 per cent in the East, 17.86 per cent 
in the West and 122.41 per cent in the 
South. Bad weather conditions in 1918 
in the East which increased the unit 
cost at that time probably accounts for 
the small increase in that section of 
the country in 1919 and the method of 
taking care of power in accounting in 
the South, makes the figure for the in- 
crease in that section unreliable. 

In Tables V and VI the income state- 
ment for March, 1919, of 129 companies 
is shown, both the actual amounts and 
also the amounts per car mile. 

Table VII is a detailed statement of 
the operating expenses for March, 1919, 
of 152 companies, and in Table VIII the 
same statement is shown on a per car- 
mile basis. 

The most interesting of these is 
Table VIII in which the operating ex- 
penses per car-mile are given and 
divided among the main operating de- 
partments, way and structures, equip- 
ment, power, etc. 


■ United States . • East South . . West 

1919 1918 

Operating revenue $10,712,640 $9,393,281 

Operating expenses 8,059,755 6,564,681 

Net operating revenue 2,652,885 2,828,600 

Netrevenuefrom auxiliary operations 120,238 

Taxes 677,385 596,916 

Operating income 2,095,738 2,231,684 

Non-operating cncome 449,539 382,687 

Grossincome 2,545,277 2,614,371 

Deductions from grossincome 1.990,026 1,884,580 

Netincome 555,051 729,791 

Operating ratio 75 23 69 89 

Cax-miksoperated 29,226,103 29,397,146 
























1.430,51 1 













































1 1,993,575 







■ United States . . East ■ South . . West ■ 

Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent 

1919 1918 Increase 1919 1918 Increase 1919 1918 Increase 1919 1918 Increase 

Operating revenue 36.65 31.95 14.71 39.20 34.50 13.6 32.68 29.04 12.53 35.26 30.43 15.8/ 

Operating expenses 27.57 22.33 23.47 30.41 25.87 17.5 23.46 16.78 39.81 25.96 20.53 26.44 

Net operating revenue 9.08 9.62 6.61 8.79 8.63 1.85 9.22 12.26 —24.79 9.30 '9.90 6.07 

Netrevenuefrom auxiliary operations. 0.41 0.86 0.30 0.04 .... 

Taxes 2.32 2.03 14.29 2.13 1.83 16.39 3.37 2.73 23.44 2.26 2.06 9.70 

Operating income 7.17 7.59 6.5S 7.52 6.80 10.59 5.15 9.53 i6.96 7.08 7.84 9.69 

Non-operating income 1.54 1.30 18.46 0.99 1.24 SO. 16 5.32 5.64 5.68 1.22 0.46 166.94 

Grossincome 8.71 8.89 2.02 8.51 8.04 5.85 10.47 15.17 30.99 8.30 8.30 

Deductions from gross income 6.81 6.41 6.24 7.09 6.56 8.08 7.60 7.64 0.55 6.40 6.04 5.96 

Netincome 1.90 2.48 Z3.S9 1.42 1.48 —i.05 2.87 7.53 61.89 1.90 2.26 16.9.3 

Operating ratio 75.23 69.89 7.64 77.58 74.97 3.48 71.80 57.79 24.24 73.63 67.47 9. 12 

Car-miles operated 29.226,103 29,397,146 0.68 12,230,697 1 1,993.575 1.98 2,954,608 2,954,626 14,040,798 14,448,945 2.82 

NOTE — Figures in italic denote decrease. 


. United States . East ■ . South . West . 

1919 1918 1919 1918 1919 1918 1919 1918f 

Operating expenses >[$8,880,713 ^$7,193,519 =$4,230,223 "$3,503,424 $930,126 $664,834 $3,720,365 ''$3,025,261 

Wayandstruetures 1,056,449 790,538 505,587 419,678 111,472 71,778 439,390 299,082 

Equipment 1,202,422 870,918 604,449 450,431 1 17,714 76,110 480,259 344,377 

Power 1,450,173 1,301,743 787,013 762,198 92,542 41,589 570,618 497,956 

Conducting transportation 3,777,927 3,101,449 1,685,659 1,287,155 498,059 382,570 1,594,209 1,431,724 

Traffic 38,549 29,870 19,307 12,589 . 2,721 2,641 16,521 14,640 

General and miscellaneous 1,145,870 1,008,704 544,723 485,843 107,617 90,146 493,530 432,715 

Transportation for investment — Cr 7,276 50 7,176 50 

Car-miles operated 32,257,315 32,435,875 13,759,122 13,509,446 4,085,132 4,094,519 14,413,061 14,831,910 

* NOTE — This table includes the expenses of the fifty-one companies shown in Tables I and II, and in addition thirteen other companies which are not included in 
Tables I and II, because of the fact thatthey do a power andlight business and do notseparatetheirrailway taxes and fixed chargesfrom the taxes and fixed charges of 
their ither business. 

' Includes $2 16,499 undistributed depreciation. -Includes $90,347 undistributed depreciation. 'Includes $83,485 undistributed depreciation. "In- 
cludes $85,530 undistributed depreciation. £ Includes $133,014 undistributed depreciation. " Includes $4,817 undistributed depreciation. 



. United States • East ■ . South . . West . 

Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent 

1919 1918 Increase 1919 1918 Increase 1919 1918 Increase 1919 1918 Increase 

Operating expenses i 27.53 ' 22.18 24.12 ' 30.74 " 25.93 18.55 22.76 16.24 40.15 = 25.81 « 20.40 26.50 

Way and structures 3.28 2.44 33.98 3.67 3.1 1 18.00 2.73 1.75 56.00 3.05 2.02 50.99 

Equipment 3.73 2.68 39.17 4.39 3.33 31.83 2.87 1.87 53.47 3.33 2.33 42 91 

Power 4.49 4.02 1 1.97 5.72 -5.64 1.42 '2.27 ' 1 . 02 122.54 3.96 3.36 17 86 

Conducting transportation 1 1.71 9.56 22.48 12.25 9.53 28.54 '12.19 ' 9.34 30.51 11.06 9.65 14.61 

Traffic 0.12 0.09 33.33 0.14 0.09 55.55 0.07 0.06 16.66 0.11 0.09 22 22 

General and miscellaneous 3.55 3.11 14.15 3.96 3.60 8.33 2.63 2.20 19.55 3.43 2.92 17.46 

Transp. for investment — Cr 0.02 0.05 

Car-miles operated 32,257,315 32,435,875 0.55 13,759,122 13,509,446 1.85 4,085,132 4,094,519 0.S3 14,413,06114,831,910 S.8S 

' Includes 0.67 cents per car-mile undistributed depreciation. - Includes 0.28 cents per car-mile undistributed depreciation. = Includes 0.60 cents per car- 
mile undistributed depreciation. " Includes 0.63 cents per car-mile undistributed depreciation. Includes 0.92 cents per car-mile undistributed depreciation. 
'Includes 0.03 cents per ear-mile undistributed depreciation. 'A number of companies in the South include the cost of power under conducting transportation 
which accounts for the apparent disparity of these figures. 


FOR MARCH, 1919 

United States East South West 

Operating revenue $26,006,594 $17,415,970 $1,419,198 $7,171,426 

Operating expenses 19,505,913 13,200,1 15 1,024,502 5,281,296 

Net operating revenue 6,500,681 4,215,855 394,696 1,890, 13o 

Net revenue :Auxiliarv operations 586,660 280,336 142,488 163,836 

Taxes 1,660,716 1,057,133 143,449 460,134 

Operating income 5,426,625 3,439,058 393,735 1,593,832 

Non-operating income 683,232 309,083 162,390 211,759 

Grossincome 6,109,857 3,748,141 556,125 1,805,591 

Deductions from gross income.. . 5,400,998 3,504,656 355,714 1,540,628 

Netincome 708,859 243,485 200,41 1 264,963 

Operating ratio 75.00 75.79 72.19 73.64 

Car-miles operated 70,878,195 46,192,903 4,195,805 20,489,487 

*|Includes the companies shown in Tables I to IV and others for which the 1918 
figures are not available. 

MARCH. 1919 
United States East South West 

Operating expenses '$20,576,266 '$13,782,866 $1,271,087 '$5,522,313 

Way and structures 2,376,009 1,528,317 153,260 694,432 

Equipment 2,721,559 1,810,903 159,956 750,700 

Power 3,279,832 2,294,963 137,265 847,604 

Conducting transporta- 
tion 9,073,51 1 6,060,039 652,949 2,360,523 

Traflic 84,784 42,849 4,898 37,037 

General and miscellane- 
ous 2,578,837 1.707,082 162,759 708,996 

Transportation for in- 
vestment— Cr 74,507 1,528 12,979 

Car-miles operated 75,131,551 48,068,190 5,368,142 21,695,219 

NOTE — This table includes the expenses of the 129 companies shown in 
Tables V and VI and in addition 23 other companies which are not included in 
Tables V and VI because of the fact that they do a power and light business and do 
not separate their railway taxes and fixed charges from taxes and fixed charges of 
their other business. 

f > Includes $476,401 undistributed depreciation. 'Includes $340,401 undis- 
tributed depreciation. ' Includes $136,000 undistributed depreciation. 


United States East South West 

Operating revenue 36.67 37.70 33.82 35 00 

Operating expenses 27.50 28.58 24.42 25.77 

Net operating revenue 9.17 9.12 9.40 9.23 

Net revenue: Auxiliary operations. . 0.83 0.61 3.39 80 

Taxes 2.34 2.29 3.42 2.25 

Operating income 7.66 7.44 9.37 7.78 

Non-operating income 0.96 0.67 3.87 1.03 

Grossincome 8.62 8.11 13.24 8.81 

Deductions from gross income 7.62 7.58 8.48 7 52 

Netincome 1.00 0.53 4.76 1.29 

Operating ratio 75.00 75.79 72.19 732.4 

Car-mile operated 70,878,195 46,192,903 4,195,805 20,489,487 



United States East South West 

Operating expenses ' 27.38 ' 28.67 23.68 '25.45 

Way and structures 3.16 3.18 2.85 3.20 

Equipment 3.62 3.77 2.98 3.46 

Power 4.37 4.77 2.56 3.90 

Conducting transportation 12.08 12.61 12.17 10.88 

Traffic 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.17 

General and miscellaneous 3.43 3.55 3.03 3.27 

Transportation for investment 

— Cr COS ., 0.06 

Car-miles operated 75,131,551 48,068.190 5,368.142 21.695.219 

' Includes 0.63 cents undistributed depreciation. ' Includes 0.70 cents un- 
distributed depreciation. -'Includes 0.63 cents undistributed depreciation 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Indianapolis Merger Conditionally Approved 

Company Disposed to Reject Changes in Plan Which Have Been 
Suggested by Public Service Commission 

The Indiana Public Service Commis- 
sion handed down an order on June 
28, conditionally approving the merger 
of the Indianapolis Traction & Ter- 
minal Company and the Indianapolis 
Street Railway. After hearing the case 
as reported in the Electric Railway 
Journal of June 21, page 1243, the 
commission submitted a radically modi- 
fied plan of merger. This provided for 
placing the reduced Indianapolis Trac- 
tion & Terminal stock in the hands 
of five trustees, to be selected by the 
commission from fifteen citizens nom- 
inated by the company. Other re- 
quirements were so stringent that the 
committee of stockholders and officers 
of both companies declined to consider 
the proposal of the commission, which 
would have required the calling of an- 
other meeting of the stockholders. The 
commission was informed that the time 
was too short, and that the merger 
already approved by the majority of the 
stockholders should be approved by the 
commission or the company would not 
be in a position to provide necessary 
financing on July 1. The controlling 
part of the order is as follows: 

The merger agreement is hereby ap- 
proved svibject to the following conditions: 

1. That the $2,500,000 of common stock 
of the consolidated company to be issued 
in lieu of $5,000,000 of common stock of the 
Indianapolis Traction «& Terminal Company 
be reduced to the par value of $1,000,000. 

2. That all bonds accumulated or ac- 
cumulating in bond sinking funds shall be 
retired and cancelled. 

3. All payments of interest on bonds in 
jinking fund shall be permanently dis- 

4. No direct payments hito bond sinking 
funds shall be made until Jan. 1. 1923, and 
until Jan. 1. I'.i23. the amounts of such 
direct payments which otherwise would be 
paid into said sinking funds, shall be 
utilized and expended for additions, ex- 
tensions, improvements, equipment or for 
other proper capital expenditures. If such 
direct payments are resumed in 1923, such 
payments into said funds and the disposi- 
tion thereof shall conform to the provisions 
set out in the Sixth paragraph of the agree- 
ment submitted to the commission ; that is 
to say, that said direct payments into said 
sinking funds shall be utilized in the pur- 
chase, retirement and cancellation of the 
bonds of the Indianapolis Street Railway 
and the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal 
Company in the proportions provided in the 
respective trust deeds or mortgages and 
upon such retirement and cancellation, 
bonds of the consolidated company to the 
par value amount of bonds so retired and 
cancelled, shall hnmediately be available 
for additions and extensions. 

Dividend Payments Fixed 

5. The consolidated company shall as- 
sume the complete performance of the 
franchise obligation of each constituent 

6. Until April 7. 1933. no dividends shall 
be paid on the $3,000,000 of preferred stock 
of the consolidated company issue in lieu 
of the $5,000,000 of common stock of the 
Indianapolis Street Railway and no 
dividends shall be paid on the $1,000,000 
of the common stock of the consolidated 
company issued in lieu of tlie $5,000,000 
of the common stock of the Indianapolis 
Traction & Terminal Company while or at 
any time tliere is a failure to comply with 
the francliise conditions or requirements 
of the franchise of either of the constituent 
companies. The Public Service Commis- 
sions of Indiana shall have the right 
and authority to determine when there is 
a failure to comply with or default of such 
franchise requirements. The commission 
will look to tlie city of Indianapolis for 
notice of sucli failure or default. 

7. Whenever any dispute shall arise be- 
tween the consolidated company and the 
city of Indianapolis tlie matter shall be 
referred to the Public Service Commission 
and the consolidated company shall agree 
to abide by the decision of the commission 
with respect to sucli matters with the right 
to appeal, as provided by law. 

Maintenance and Depreciation 
Charges Fixed 

8. Until the further order of the commis- 
sion. 21 per cent of the gross revenues of 
the consolidated company shall be set aside 
in a separate fund to be used for mainte- 
nance and depreciation. This amount, un- 
less otherwise ordered by the commission, 
shall be set aside in cash and shall be 
iiandled separately and with proper ac- 

9. There shall be no redemption or retire- 
ment of tlie preferred stock of the con- 
solidated company before April 7, 1933, or 
before the extended maturity date of any 
bonds, the time of payment of which is 

10. Nothing contained in Paragraph 6 
of tlie agreement submitted or in any of 
its other provisions, shall either expressly 
or impliedly bind the commission in any 
matters of future security regulation. 

11. The consolidated company shall apply 
to tlie commission for authorization and 
approval of all stock and bonds to be issued. 

Tlie commission in no wise guarantees 
tlie payment of any dividends on stocks, 
bonds or otlier securities and the consolida- 
tion and merger lierein conditionally ap- 
proved is a matter entirely independent of 
rates, without any obligation, express or 
implied, on the part of the commission, to 
provide the payment of any interest charges 
or dividends. 

The commission is in no wise bound to 
provide rates which will permit or enable 
dividends or interest charges to be paid on 
the stocks or bonds of the consolidated 
company. Tlie commission reserves to it- 
self the rigiit to fix rates, independent of 
and unaffected by the securities of tlie con- 
solidated company or by its approval of the 
merger and consolidation. 

13. Nothing in tlie commission's approval 
of the merger or the consolidation agree- 
ment shall, in any manner, relieve the con- 
solidated company- from any of the lia- 
bilities, claims or obligations of or against 
either or both the Indianapolis Street Rail- 
way and the Indianapolis Traction & Ter- 
minal Company and the merger agreement 
is approved, subject to the assumption by 
the consolidated company of all the obliga- 
tions, liabiliti»s and claims of or against 
said Indianapolis Street Railway Company 
or the lidianapolis Traction & Terminal 

Acceptance Necessary by Sept. 1 

14. That on or before Sept. 1. 1919, the 
parties to tliis agreement shall file or cans? 
to be filed with the Public Service Com- 
mission, the written acceptances, approvals 
and consents of all parties whose accept- 
ances, approvals and consents are legally 
necessary to the conditions and stipulations 
Iiereinbefore set out. 

It is furtlier ordered, that the consoli- 
dated company shall, without unnecessary 
delay, proceed with the making of exten- 
sions and additions in accordance with the 
franchise requirements. 

pany's revenue during the month was 
$152,692, which was $12,310 more than 
for the corresponding month a year 
ago. Operating expenses also increased, 
but only $3,288, leaving an increase in 
the net revenue from operation, mak- 
ing no allowance for depreciation, of 
$9,071. The net revenue in May, 1919, 
was $44,980. 

Mr. Dicke in his letter accompanying 
the report says in part: 

With respect to the increase in net from 
operation, I want to say for your informa- 
tion that we have not as yet for this year 
increased our maintenance gangs for the 
purpose of doing the usual amount of 
maintenance work during the summer sea- 

Salt Lake Revenues Increase 

In the monthly statement filed by 
Manager H. F. Dicke of the Utah Light 
& Traction Company, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, with the Public Utilities Com- 
mission, it is shown that during May, 
1919, 9314 more revenue passengers 
were carried by the company's cars 
than during the corresponding period 
of May 2 to June 1, inclusive, 1918. 
The total this year was 2,788,535 pas- 
sengers, of whom 43.6 per cent paid 
cash fare of 6 cents each. 

With the increased fares in force by 
the order of the commission, the corn- 

Indiana Assessments Announced 

Under the 1919 assessment of utili- 
ties announced by the State Board of 
Tax Commissioners of Indiana large 
increases have been made over the 1918 
assessments. The assessments may 
not be final, as the various properties 
will have recourse to a rehearing at the 
second session of the tax commission 
to be held in July. 

The assessment of the constituent 
companies of the Indianapolis city rail- 
way system was increased from $7,- 
992,719 to $16,425,010. The Indinap- 
olis Street Railway is increased from 
$5,739,903 to $11,905,080; the Indian- 
apolis Traction & Terminal Company 
from $2,222,190 to $4,448,250; and the 
Broad Ripple Traction Company, a part 
of the Indianapolis system, from $30,- 
625 to $71,680. 

The assessment of the value of the 
railway lines in Indianapolis is nearly 
$500,000 more than the outside figure 
of the tentative valuation placed on the 
traction property by the Public Service 
Commission during the hearing last fall 
on the fare increase matter. 

The assessments for all interurban 
railways of Indiana for the year 1919 
as compared with 1918 are as follows: 

1919 1918 

Union Traction $9,731,522 $3,257,860 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 

Eastern 12,520,448 4,115,443 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati 1,953,651 665,031 

Interstate P. S 2,422,125 66,839 

FortWavne& No. Indiana... . 5,639,075 1,899,722 

Chicago, Lake Shore &S. Bend 3,163,305 856,145 

Louisville & Northern Ry. & Lt. 552,645 184,370 

Beech Grove Traction Co 139,750 30,625 

Central Ind.Ltg Co 97,555 34,265 

Chicago, South Bend & North- 
ern Indiana 3,163,305 995,640 

Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & 

Aurora 174,780 71,886 

Evansville Rys 63,678 316,154 

Evansville S. & N. Ry 648,590 266,195 

Ft. W.& Decatur Tr 224,590 110,345 

Ft. W. &Nw. Ry 821,935 277,937 

Ft. Lick & W. B. St. Ry 26,880 9,240 

Gary Connecting Ry 147,850 49,350 

Gary & Hobart Tr 112,350 32,606 

Gary & Sou. Tr 282,682 85,587 

Gary St. Ry 1,124,330 304,880 

Gary & Valparaiso Ry 281,032 52,580 

Hammond, Whiting & E. Chi. 2,141,240 460,935 

Indiana Rys. & Ltg. Co 1,41 1,510 495,950 

Indiana Utilities Co 23,310 11,160 

Indianapolis & Louisville 937,049 260,449 

Indianapolis, N.C.& East.. . . 1,058,263 363,955 

Lebanon-Thorntown 103.201 40,326 

Ijouisville & Northern 552,645 184,370 

Louisville & Southern 731,948 27,036 

Madison Lt. & Ry 35,900 15,050 

Marion & Bluffton 583,050 199,425 

Muncie & Portland 573,795 196,230 

New Albany St. R. R 332,610 119,585 

OhioElec. Ry 778,518 259,221 

Public Utilities 1,558,320 619,635 

Southern Michigan 169,672 56,484 

Vincennes Tr. Co 115,005 47.545 

Washington St. Ry 30,500 11,925 

Winona Interurban 1,394,685 460,988 

Winona & Warsaw 80,320 27,870 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


News Notes 

Authorize Three- Year Bond Issue. — 

The stockholders of the Nova Scotia 
Tramways & Power Company, Halifax, 
N. S., have authorized an issue of $2,- 
000,000 of three-year 7 per cent gold 
bonds, of which $1,000,000 is to be 
issued presently for improvements sub- 
ject to the ruling of the Public Utilities 

Successor Company Organized. — The 
Pittsburgh, Butler & Harmony Con- 
solidated Railway & Traction Com- 
pany has been incorporated in Delaware 
with a capital of $6,500,000, presum- 
ably as the successor to the Pittsburgh, 
Harmony, Butler & New Castle Rail- 
way, change in control of which was 
noted in the Electric Railway Journal 
for June 28, page 1290. 

Abandonment Hearing Concluded. — 
The Massachusetts Northeastern Street 
Railway, Haverhill, Mass., has peti- 
tioned the New Hampshire Public 
Service Commissioners to close the 
branch of the railroad from Smithtown 
to Salisbury Junction, on the claim that 
travel there does not warrant continua- 
tion from a financial standpoint. Fol- 
lowing a hearing the commission re- 
served decision on 'the appeal of the 

Baltimore Company Again Defers 
Dividend. — The directors of the United 
Railways & Electric Company, Balti- 
more, Md., at their regular meeting on 
June 25 again deferred action on the 
quarterly dividend on the common 
stock. This is the second time this 
year that the board has postponed ac- 
tion. So far, only 1 per cent has been 
distributed to common shareholders this 
year. After the meeting no intimation 
was given as to when the board would 
again take up the dividend question. 

Receiver for Vincennes Company. — 
E. C. Cheobold, Vincennes, Ind., has 
been appointed receiver of the Vin- 
cennes (Ind.) Traction Company by 
Judge A. B. Anderson in the United 
States District Court. The receiver 
was asked in a complaint filed by the 
Mercantile Trust Company, St. Louis, 
Mo., against the Vincennes Traction 
Company and the City Trust Company, 
Vincennes. The allegations in the com- 
plaint were admitted by the defendants 
and consent was given for the appoint- 
ment of a receiver. 

Will Not Sell Collateral Now.— It 
was announced in Chicago, 111., on June 
27 that not only would the Chicago Ele- 
vated Railways be forced to default on 
its $13,600,000 of 6 per cent notes, due 
on July 1, but it would be unable to 
pay even the interest. A. G. Hoyt, New 
York banker, representing the protec- 

tive committee formed on behalf of the 
noteholders, said: "The noteholders 
have a first lien on the collateral securi- 
ties, but they do not propose to fore- 
close immediately, fearing to harm still 
further the elevated companies' credit. 
We shall make a general survey of the 
situation and hope for a fair return for 
the service the properties render." 

Brooklyn Interest Payment Deferred. 
— The directors of the Brooklyn, Queens 
County & Suburban Railroad, the Nas- 
sau Electric Railroad, and the Coney 
Island & Brooklyn Railroad, all includ- 
ed in the system of the Brooklyn (N. 
Y.) Rapid Transit Company, decided to 
defer, temporarily, at least, payment of 
the interest due on July 1 on the bonds 
of those companies. The amount in- 
volved is about $450,000. The mort- 
gage securing these bonds provides 
varying periods of grace before default 
can be declared, and the directors hope 
that before these periods expire condi- 
tions will permit the payment of the 
interest. It was announced that the 
rental by the Brooklyn Heights Rail- 
road to the Brooklyn City Railroad, due 
on July 1, would be paid. 

Abandonment Petition Denied. — The 
Indiana Public Service Commission has 
dismissed the petition of the Central 
Indiana Lighting Company, Columbus, 
Ind., for authority to abandon service 
on its Maple Grove line. The petition 
to discontinue the line was made on the 
assertion that the building of the Nen- 
trup road would result in such loss to 
the company that it could not afford to 
maintain that branch of its service. The 
State tax board later denied authority 
to build the Nentrup road. The" com- 
pany thereupon decided to continue the 
Maple Grove line. Those who favor the 
road being built are not preparing to 
make a test case to determine the con- 
stitutionality of the tax law, under 
which the ruling was made. 

Notice of Sale of Collateral.— The 
Equitable Trust Company, New York, 
N. Y., as ti'ustee for the issue of five- 
year 5 per cent convertible gold bonds 
of the Eastern Power & Light Corpora- 
tion, New York, N. Y., dated March 1, 
1913, has given notice that default hav- 
ing been made in the payment of the 
principal of these bonds and in the pay- 
ment of certain interest due on them, it 
will sell at public auction in New York 
on July 15 the collateral pledged as se- 
curity for these bonds. Included in this 
collateral are 12,482 shares of the com- 
mon stock of the West Virginia Trac- 
tion & Electric Company, 26,000 shares 
of preferred stock of the Reading Tran- 
sit & Light Company, and 73,000 shares 
of the common stock of the Reading 
Transit & Light Company. 

Dallas Results for May. — Earnings 
of the Dallas (Tex.) Railway for the 
twenty months of operation under the 
service-at-cost franchise amounted to 
but slightly more than 4 per cent of the 
agreed property valuation, as against a 
permitted return of 7 per cent. The 
deficit in the permitted return for the 

period is $369,241. The gross earnings 
for May were $194,379 (not including 
interurban terminal receipts). This 
represents an increase of about 48 per 
cent in comparison with last year. The 
railway operating expenses were $165,- 
178, an increase of about 40 per cent 
over last year. The net earnings from 
railway operations were $29,200, and 
from interurban terminal operations 
$4,659, making the total net earnings 
$33,860. This amount is equivalent to 
a rate of return of 4.96 per cent per 
annum on the property value. 

Bond Extensions Approved. — The In- 
diana Public Service Commission, in 
orders issued on June 13 extending 
bond issues of the Union Traction Com- 
pany of Indiana, asserted its jurisdic- 
tion in this field for the first time. 
Members of the commission said that 
the body had never before acted formal- 
ly on utility bond extensions, reserving 
the right merely to pass on new issues. 
The commission approved the exten- 
sion for three years of $4,623,000, par 
value, 5 per cent bonds of the Union 
Traction Company, which expired on 
July 1. The interest rate is to be in- 
creased to 6 per cent and the federal 
tax on the interest coupons up to 2 per 
cent is to be paid by the company. The 
Union Traction Company was also au- 
thorized to extend for three years the 
outstanding 6 per cent bonds of the 
Indianapolis, Newcastle & Eastern 
Traction Company, amounting to $1,- 
200,000, par value. These bonds also 
expired on June 1. A five-year exten- 
sion of the Marion City Railway bonds 
of the Union Traction Company was 
approved. The par value of these 6 per 
cent bonds is $328,000. They expired 
on May 1. 

OfiFering on Sioux City Service Bonds. 
— Halsey, Stuart & Company, Chicago, 
111., and New York, N. Y., are offering 
for subscription at 89 and interest, 
yielding 6.75 per cent, $880,000 of Sioux 
City (la.) Service Company first and 
refunding mortgage sinking fund 5 per 
cent gold bonds dated Jan. 1, 1910, and 
due Jan. 1, 1928. The bonds are se- 
cured by an absolute first mortgage on 
the electric light, power and steam heat 
distribution systems and the electric 
generating and steam heating plant of 
the company, and, upon the retirement 
of $750,000 of first mortgage 5 per cent 
bonds of the Sioux City Traction Com- 
pany, due on July 1, 1919, will also be 
secured by an absolute first mortgage 
upon the entire electric railway prop- 
erty of the company. The present 
issue of refunding bonds will provide 
for the retirement of the electric rail- 
way bonds just mentioned. The mort- 
gage under which the bonds are issued 
creates a sinking fund obligating the 
company to deposit with the trustees 
sums which will aggregate $1,200,000 
at the maturity of the bonds, at least 
half of which must be used in retiring 
first and refunding bonds and the bal- 
ance for permanent extensions and im- 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Traffic and Transportation 

Girardville Case Different 

Increase to Eight-Cent Fare Allowed 
to Road in Mining District with 
Few Short Riders 

The Public Service Commission of 
Pennsylvania has dismissed complaints 
as to increased rates for service on the 
lines of the Schuylkill Railway, Girard- 
ville, Pa., due to the fact that the in- 
<;rease was necessary to meet increased 
operating expenses. In its ruling, re- 
ferred to very briefly in the Electric 
Railway Journal for May 10, page, 
939, the commission said that as an 
emergency measure and for the purpose 
of giving the company what appeared 
to be the necessary relief it would 
grant the application for an 8-cent 
fare, but would refuse that part of 
the application which provided for thir- 
teen tickets for $1 and would order the 
company to sell seven tickets for 50 
cents on cne day's notice until June 1, 
1920. At that time the company is to 
report to the commission the result of 
the experiment. The complaint of the 
Borough of Mahonoy as to the service 
rendered will be disposed of by the 
commission in a separate report. 

The commission says that peculiar 
conditions surrounding the operation of 
the railway place it in a class by it- 
self. It is pointed out by the commis- 
sion that the line is constructed in a 
mountainous country, in some places 
over mines, and that the wear and tear 
on the cars and the condition of the 
surface of the line over which the right- 
of-way runs entails more expense in 
keeping the cars in order and maintain- 
ing the roadbed than is usual. The 
company has no large cities from which 
to draw its patrons, and, while the road 
connects comparatively populous com- 
munities, some of its divisions traverse 
regions that aVe sparsely settled. The 
road has very few short riders to de- 
pend upon. For these reasons the com- 
mission distinguished this company 
from most of the other companies oper- 
ating in the State. 

third-mile zones so that passengers get- 
ting on in the middle of a zone would 
ride to the middle of the next zone 
without being compelled to pay two 
zone fares. He contended that this 
would be fairer to the short distance 
rider and claimed that it would not 
complicate the fare collection system, 
but simply required the conductor to 
change the zone indicator oftener. 

It was Mr. Whitten's opinion that the 
plan suggested by the Public Service 
Railway for fixed one-mile zones would 
make the loading very uneven, as pas- 
sengers would be inclined to walk to 
zone points. This would slow down car 
movement and would have a tendency 
to increase traffic congestion. He said 
tbat the prime function of the electric 
railway was to sei-ve the needs of the 
comparatively short distance rider. The 
steam roads and rapid transit lines 
could if necessary take more of the 
longer hauls. The direct examination 
of Mr. Whitten was concluded late on 
June 26. The hearing was then ad- 
journed until July 1. 

Further Testimony by 

Robert H. Whitten, formerly with 
the Public Service Commission for the 
First District of New York, utility ex- 
pert and technical advisor to the Cleve- 
land City Plan Commission, testified 
further at the hearing in Newark on 
June 26 before the Board of Public 
Utility Commissioners of New Jersey 
in regard to the plan submitted by the 
Public Service Railway for installing 
zone fares. 

Mr. Whitten, who appeared for the 
municipalities, advocated the division of 
the proposed one-mile zones into one- 

Ten-Cent Fares for Bay State 

The public trustees of the Eastern 
Massachusetts Street Railway, Boston, 
Mass., voted to withdraw on July 1 
the 7-cent tickets and tokens from 
the Bay State system. It was an- 
nounced that on and after that date 
the initial fare north and south of 
Boston would be 10 cents, as it has 
been since Jan. 8 for a single cash fare. 
The 7-cent tickets and tokens will be 
redeemed at 7 cents each. 

The public trustees took possession of 
the property on June 1. An estimate of 
the earnings and expenses for the 
month indicates a deficit of approxi- 
mately $300,000. Nothing was earned 
toward interest charges or the princi- 
pal of the State guaranteed bonds. 

Steps have been taken by the public 
trustees substantially to reduce the 
management expenses throughout the 
system. Notwithstanding these eco- 
nomies, neither an 8-cent nor a 9-cent 
fare would produce enough revenue to 
meet the cost of service, as provided 
by law, or even the interest charges, 
which must be met if the company is 
to remain solvent. 

As soon as the cost of service can 
be determined accurately in each of 
the twelve districts under the home 
rule plan of operation and accounting, 
which also goes into effect July 1, the 
fares in these districts will be changed 

It is the intention of the public 
trustees to issue at frequent intervals 
statements showing the receipts and 
expenses of each district. 

Fares Compromised 

Residents Along Monongahela Valley 
Traction Line and Company Settle 
Dispute in Conference 

A compromise agreement has been 
reached between the Monongahela 
Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, 
W. Va., and the special committee ap- 
pointed at a recent mass meeting to 
represent the several hundred residents 
and patrons of the company between 
Parkersburg and Williamstown who 
protested against the application be- 
fore the Public Service Commission for 
a 7-cent flat rate. 

Protests Withdrawn 

This compromise in the form of an 
agreed order has been sent to the com- 
mission and will be filed by this body, 
the protest of the residents being with- 
drawn and the company withdrawing 
application for its requests not in- 
cluded in the compromise agreement. 

The fare from the limits of Williams- 
town, W. Va., over the bridge to Ma- 
rietta, Ohio, is fixed by the compromise 
agreement at 5 cents, as at the present 
time. There are to be four zones be- 
tween Parkersburg and Williamstown 
as at present, the zone limits to be the 
same with one exception. 

The cash fare per zone will be the 
same as that which the Public Service 
Commission determines should be al- 
lowed for the city of Parkersburg, but 
in no case is it to exceed 7 cents. In 
other words, if Parkersburg has a 6- 
cent rate the interurban rate will be 
6 cents. 

Coupon books of fifty or 100 tickets, 
good on both the interurban and city 
lines, are to be sold by the company at 
i cent less per ticket than the cash 
fare charged. Tickets without a time 
limit are to be sold for transportation 
between Parkersburg and Greenmont 
at the same rate as the cash fare 
charged in the city as fixed by the Pub- 
lic Service Commission, but in no case 
for more than 7 cents. School tickets 
between Parkersburg and Greenmont 
and between Williamstown and Central 
are to be sold for 3i cents. School 
tickets are good for any school child 
any day in the school year from 7 a.m. 
to 6 p.m. 

Rates Increase Slightly 

The fare rates as agreed in the com- 
promise are to take effect when any 
new rate allowed by the Public Service 
Commission in the city of Parkersburg 
goes into effect. 

The compromise rates mean that it 
will cost 6 cents more than formerly 
to go to Williamstown or Marietta if 
one travels on a book of tickets and 
if the 7-cent fare should be granted. 
On the other hand, the fare for school 
children is decreased from 5 cents to 
3i cents so that residents on the inter- 
urban might actually save money under 
some conditions. 

The lines of the Monongahela Valley 
Traction Company connect Fairmont 
with Mannington. In extent they cover 
more than 110 miles of road. 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Ten-Cent Fare Announced for Boston 

The State Public Control Act Would Seem to Leave No Other 
Alternative, Trustees Say 

The trustees of the Boston (Mass.) 
Elevated Railway, to meet the deficit 
which has been created by reason of 
the added cost of service, have an- 
nounced that they will establish a 10- 
cent fare on July 10. While the legal 
title to the property is vested in the 
stockholders, the complete control of 
the Boston Elevated Railway has 
passed to public trustees. Stockhold- 
ers have no voice in the management 
and no control over service, receipts or 
expenditures. The trustees serve no 
private interest. 

Public Trustees at Work a Year 

When the railway was turned over to 
the trustees on July 1, 1918, the deficit 
for the preceding six months of private 
management, though no dividends had 
been paid and little attempt made to 
maintain the property, was $570,000. 
In the first month of public control, 
namely, in July, during which the 5- 
cent fare was continued, the deficit, 
augmented by the burdens of dividend 
rental maintenance charges, increased 
cost of supplies and materials, wage in- 
crease and rental of the Dorchester 
Tunnel, was $700,000. The trustees in- 
troduced a 7-cent fare. That fare failed 
to meet the cost of service by about 
$600,000 a month. An 8-cent fare was 
then established. That rate has been in 
force since Dec. 1, 1918. The 8-cent 
fare has also failed to meet the cost of 
service, the net operating cost for six 
months to May 31, 1919, having been 
$1,519,974 in excess of the receipts. 

The statute under which the experi- 
ment in public control was begun pro- 
vides that at the end of the year which 
closed on June 30 accumulated deficits 
should be met by a payment from the 
State Treasury, the amount so paid to 
be assessed upon the cities and towns 
in which the railway is located. Despite 
the general notion that this payment 
of deficits is a contribution by tax pay- 
ers to car riders, the statute makes it a 
loan to be repaid to these communities 
when and as fast as receipts exceed the 
cost of service. The car rider contin- 
ues to carry the entire burden of the 

Nine-Cent Fare Unwise 

Under the statute as quoted, the 
trustees were required to advance the 
fare. A study of receipts and expendi- 
tures convinced the tnistees that it 
would be unwise if not unlawful to ex- 
periment with a 9-cent fare. The aver- 
age cost of carrying a passenger under 
existing conditions, without considera- 
tion of the obligation to repay deficits 
or the outcome of the pending arbitra- 
tion over a further advance in wages, 
exceeds 9 cents. There was also to be 
considered the uncertainty of the effect 
of the higher fare upon net revenue, 

owing to loss of passengers. Under the 
8-cent fare there was in December a 
loss of nearly 15 per cent in travel. 
From natural increase in business and 
from returning patronage that per- 
centage has gradually diminished until 
in May the loss was reduced to 9 per 

The trustees point out that there are 
certain items in the cost of operation 
that have special interest. For in- 
stance, $2,004,000 is annually reserved 
for depreciation. For the eleven months 
ended May 31, 1919, for which com- 
plete figures of operating cost are 
available, the charge amounted to $1,- 
837,000. This reserve is based upon in- 
dependent expert opinion as to what 
should be set aside yearly in order to 
provide for renewals and replacement 
as necessity arises. Applied to the in- 
dividual fare since Dec. 1, 1918, the in- 
creased allowance for depreciation 
amounts to 0.497 cent per passenger. 
In the eleven months $1,243,222 has 
been expended in rental dividends to 
stockholders. These annually aggre- 
gate $1,403,970 as the fixed return upon 
their investment. This applied to in- , 
dividual fare amounts to 0.416 cent 
per passenger during the past six 

The sum of $1,365,636 has been 
paid to the city of Boston in sub- 
way rentals that now represent an an- 
nual charge of $1,491,560, the amount 
having been increased this year by 
$473,000 upon the opening of the Dor- 
chester tunnel. These rentals, in the 
opinion of the trustees, are unjust to 
the car rider. The additional amount 
assumed during the period of the 8- 
cent fare as applied to the individual 
fare has cost 0.183 cent per passen- 
ger. A bill was introduced in the Leg- 
islature to relieve the riders from this 
burden during public control of the 
railway, but it failed of enactment. 
More than $12,272,000 has been spent 
during the eleven months for wages. 
This constitutes 45 per cent of the total 
of fixed charges and operating ex- 
penses. The total wage increase for 
the period was $3,996,883, of which $2,- 
750,000 was due to the award of the 
War Labor Board, the remainder due 
to the increase in going rates of craft 
organizations and to additional serv- 
ice and higher standard of maintenance. 
The increase in wages as applied to the 
individual fare amounted to 1.751 cents 
per passenger in the six months period 
ending May 31. Under present condi- 
tions the trustees declined to grant the 
recent demand of employees for still 
higher wages. In consequence that de- 
mand is now under consideration by the 
War Labor Board before which final 
arguments were made on June 25. 

The sum of $2,312,728 has been ex- 
pended for maintenance and repairs of 
track and repaving of streets, for no 

part of which any provision is made in 
the reserve for depreciation. Increased 
cost from rising prices of supplies and 
materials has been felt most in the 
matter of coal, which, during the period 
named, has advanced in price to such 
an extent as to make an additional out- 
lay of $405,000. When applied to the 
individual fare this amounted to 0.126 
cent per passenger during the six 
months ending May 31. 

In announcing the 10-cent fare the 
trustees after reviewing affairs of the 
year, said: 

Public interest in the service is as Iteen 
as it is in the fare. To imagine that a 
new management, hampered by the de- 
preciable character of the railway, the un- 
precedented war conditions, and the lack 
of capital and income, could promptly bring 
the impaired service to a proper standing, 
gage the cost and fix a fare commensur- 
ate and reasonably cheap, is to imagine 
what commonsense forbids. Realizing 
what their task meant, the trustees laid 
out a program which will cover a term of 
five years. A substantial beginning has 
been made toward the consummation of that 
program bringing with it new cars, new 
track, better trains in subways, larger ac- 
commodations on surface lines, cleanliness 
and ventilation of cars. 

What of the future? "Without being un- 
duly optimistic the trustees believe that 
the cost of the service measured by fares, 
is reaching its highest level ; that gradual 
improvement in service with gradual re- 
duction in fares is to be expected. In brief, 
the trustees are confident that the goal 
which they have had in view — a, service of 
high standard at lowest possible cost — is 
not unattainable. The time within which 
this goal can be reached will depend 
largely upon the promptness with which 
the deficit of the past year is made good 
and upon the relief that the L-egislature 
may give by just and wise legislation. 

Chapter 159, special acts of 1918, 
inaugurated the experiment with public 
control. Private management of the 
Boston Elevated Railway under a char- 
ter permitting not over a 5-cent fare 
under a public policy that imposed 
upon it subway rentals and street im- 
provements, and with rising cost of 
supplies and materials to add the fin- 
ishing touch, had resulted in failure. 

Three courses were open to the Leg- 
islature. It could let the property go 
to ruin, regardless of interrupted serv- 
ice and wasteful cost; it could embark 
upon government ownership and con- 
trol, or it could try out government con- 
trol with private ownership. The last 
plan was adopted. The property in ef- 
fect was leased by the stockholders to 
the State for ten years at a fixed rental 
paid in the form of interest on out- 
standing bonds and dividends on out- 
standing stock. The dividend for the 
first two years was fixed at 5 per cent, 
for the next two years at 5J per cent, 
and thereafter at 6 per cent on par 
value of shares. The capital stock on 
which these dividends are paid com- 
prises common stock amounting at par 
to $23,879,400 and preferred stock 
amounting at par to $3,000,000, an ag- 
gregate of $26,879,400, which, with 
premiums amounting to $2,707,000, 
makes a total investment of $29,586,- 
828. The real dividends therefore are 
for the first two years 4.74 per cent, for 
the next two years 5.15 per cent, and 
thereafter 5.55 per cent on actual cash 

When the trustees took over the rail- 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

way on July 1, 1918, they found a large 
number of cars totally unfit for use, 
much of the remaining rolling stock of 
obsolete type, unclean, and unpainted, 
many miles of track badly worn and 
some unsafe, power plant in part out of 
date, and repair shops inadequate. The 
service was approaching the point of 
collapse. The trustees faced an impera- 
tive need of new capital and an even 
more imperative need of larger rev- 
enue. For capital $2,000,000 was avail- 
able from the proceeds of the preferred 
stock authorized in the act establish- 
ing public control. This was immedi- 
ately applied toward the purchase of 
250 new cars. Fifty center-entrance 
trailers have been received. The deliv- 
ery of the remaining 200 cars, delayed 
by war conditions, is assured within the 
next four months. 

No more capital stock can be issued 
because by law it must be issued at 
par and the market price has been con- 
tinuously below par. No more bonds 
can be lawfully issued because the 
bonds outstanding equal the outstand- 
ing stock and premiums. There was 
one soui'ce of additional capital. This 
was the Cambridge subway. The com- 
pany had been allowed to build and own 
it as an exception to the well-settled 
and sound policy that foi-bids private 

ownership of public highways. Every 
other subway in Boston has been built 
and owned by the public. 

The trustees submitted to the Leg- 
islature a bill to authorize the purchase 
of this subway by the State as agent 
for the communities which the subway 
serves. The price named was less than 
actual cost and far below cost of re- 
placement. The bill required an imme- 
diate lease of the subway to the com- 
pany at a rental sufficient to meet the 
interest on the State loan and to pro- 
vide a sinking fund from which to pay 
eventually the entire purchase price of 
the subway. This bill was passed by 
the Senate, but was rejected by the 
House of Representatives. This was 
peculiarly unfortunate for the reason 
that while the proceeds of the subway 
could only be invested in permanent 
improvements, such investment would 
mean large operating economies. The 
statute establishing public control pro- 
vided that "if on the last day of June, 
1919," it appears that "during the pre- 
ceding three months the income has 
been less than the cost of the service," 
the trustees shall within one month 
thereafter put into effect "a higher 
grade of fare." In consequence the 10- 
cent fare has been announced as best 
suited under existing conditions. 

Receiver Would Abolish Transfers 

Would Charge Three Cents at Ninety-nine Intersection Points 
Where Transfers Are Now Issued Free 

Job E. Hedges, as i-eceiver of the New 
York (N. Y.) Railways, has petitioned 
the Public Service Commission for the 
First District for permission to abol- 
ish ninety-nine free transfer points on 
the system under his management, and 
to establish a charge of 3 cents for 
transfers made at such points. Free 
transfers are now given at 113 points 
on the lines of the New York Railways 
system. Fourteen such free transfer 
points will be left if the commission 
grants the company the relief desired. 
Those remaining are transfers which 
are required by the conditions of mu- 
nicipal consents and franchises. The re- 
mainder were established either by gen- 
eral provisions of the public service 
commissions law or by specific orders 
of the commission. 

The petition of Receiver Hedges al- 
leges that the earnings of the New York 
Railways system show an emergency 
which is likely to disintegi'ate the prop- 
erty entirely unless some relief is af- 
forded at once. The charge for trans- 
fers made at the ninety-nine points 
involved in the petition, according to 
the application, would produce a reve- 
nue approximating $900,000. It is 
stated in the petition that the relief 
thus afforded would only be partially 
what the company needs to meet its 
operating expenses, interest charges, 
etc. It is also alleged that the average 
rate of fare actually received by the 
company for each individual line is 
only a little more than 3 cents. 

At the hearing on June 30 Henry L. 
Stimson, counsel for Mr. Hedges, the 
receiver, led the argument for the ap- 
plication, assisted by James L. Quack- 
enbush, counsel for the New York Rail- 
ways. Corporation Counsel Burr, ap- 
pearing with E. J. Kohler for the city, 
objected to the taking of any testi- 
mony until an up-to-date appraisal of 
the property could be made. 

As Judge Mayer, in the Federal 
Court, has fixed July 8 as the time 
when he will decide whether the Eighth 
Avenue and the Sixth Avenue lines 
shall be turned back to their original 
owners because the New York Railways 
cannot pay the rental charges. Public 
Service Commissioner Nixon announced 
that he wanted the question of whether 
transfers should be abolished settled be- 
fore that date. 

Evidence given by F. T. Wood, assist- 
ant to Frank Hedley, vice-president and 
general manager of the company, was 
to the effect that the abolishment of free 
transfers and the charging of 3 cents 
for them would bring an additional rev- 
enue to the road of $853,981 a year. 

It was stated that rentals now due and 
unpaid to subsidiary lines amount to 
$667,510. If Judge Mayer does not get 
assurance by July 8 that the rentals 
can be paid, it is believed he will sepa- 
rate the Eighth and the Ninth Avenue 
lines from the consolidated system. The 
earnings for the system up to March 
31 were $50,000 short of paying the in- 
terest on the bonds, not to say any- 

thing of the rentals. This interest was 
due on July 1 and will have to be de- 
faulted, Mr. Stimson said. 

It was a desperate situation, Mr. 
Stimson urged, and he declared that im- 
mediate relief was required if the sys- 
tem was to continue service. Under 
the so-called Quimby or Rochester de- 
cision of the Court of Appeals, four- 
teen of the 113 transfer points seemed 
to be without the jurisdiction of Com- 
missioner Nixon, although Mr. Stim- 
son was not sure that the law might be 
construed to take those in as well. 

Corporation Counsel Burr said that 
the city was agreed that there would 
have to be a rock-bottom basis for a re- 
adjustment, but said this could not be 
arrived at until the city had had the 
opportunity to look over the books and 
a new valuation of the property had 
been made. 

Toledo Fares Increased 

The Toledo Railways & Light Com- 
pany, Toledo, Ohio, has increased the 
rate of fare to 6 cents, with 2 cents for 
transfers. Under a decree of the 
United States Courts, the company has 
the right under present conditions to 
fix the rate of fare under which it oper- 
ates, its increase from the old franchise 
rate to 5 cents having been approved. 
This being true, it has the right to 
make the further increase that is nec- 
essary to pay the additional wages just 
granted to the men by the War Labor 

A resolution was introduced in the 
City Council on June 25 to oust the 
company from the use of the streets, as 
it has been operating without a fran- 
chise since 1914. Should this resolu- 
tion prevail, it is said that further ac- 
tion will be taken in the United States 
District Court. 

More than 2000 employees of the To- 
ledo Shipbuilding Company refused to 
submit to the increased fare on the 
evening of June 25, and after an alter- 
cation, two cars were ditched, and sev- 
eral others were stoned., One of the 
cars took fire and the service of the 
fire department was necessary to extin- 
guish the blaze. 

St. Louis Fare Hearing 

The hearing on the United Railways 
fare case scheduled for June 24 at St. 
Louis, Mo., was indefinitely postponed 
by the Public Sei'vice Commission of 
Missouri. Coincident with the announce- 
ment of this postponement City Coun- 
selor Daues of St. Louis issued a state- 
ment saying that the city will wait until 
Oct. 31 before beginning an active fight 
for reinstituting the 5-cent fare at St. 
Louis. Mr. Daues said that the city 
was in favor of giving Rolla Wells, re- 
ceiver appointed by the United States 
District Court, a chance to see whether 
the United Railways could be operated 
profitably under less than a 6-cent fare. 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


News Notes 

Interurban Will Install One-Man 
Cars. — The New Jersey & Pennsylvania 
Traction Company, Trenton, N. J., an- 
nounces that it will shortly install cars 
of the one-man type on some of its divi- 

Increase in Fare in Quincy. — The 

Public Utilities Commission of Illinois 
has issued an order increasing the fare 
of the Quincy (111.) Railway from 5 
cents to 7 cents. Four tickets will be 
sold for 25 cents. 

One-Man Cars for Galesburg. — The 
Public Utilities Commission of Illinois 
has issued an order authorizing the 
Galesburg Railway, Lighting & Power 
Company, Galesburg, 111., to operate 
one-man cars in that city. 

Missouri Interurban Wants Increase. 
— The Southwest Missouri Railroad, 
Webb City, Mo., has applied to the 
Public Service Commission of Missouri 
for permission to increase passenger 
rates between Webb City and Carthage. 

Chicago Railways Rate Hearing Sept. 

2. — The hearing on the appeal of the 
Chicago (111.) Surface Lines in the 7- 
cent fare case, from the denying order 
of the Public Utilities Commission of 
Illinois, has been set for Sept. 2 in San- 
gamon County Circuit Court. 

Increased Fare at Youngstown. — It 

was announced that fares on the Mu- 
nicipal Railway at Youngstown, Ohio, 
controlled by the Mahoning & Shenan- 
go Railway & Light Company, would be 
increased from 5 cents to 6 cents on 
July 1. This will be done under the 
new service-at-cost plan adopted some 
time ago. 

Wants Fare Increase Continued. — 

The Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad 
recently filed a petition with the Public 
Utilities Commission of Illinois asking 
for a continuation of the order which 
granted the company an increase in 
fare from 5 cents to 6 cents on the city 
lines of Elgin and Aurora. The orig- 
inal order expired on July 1, 1919. 

A Courtesy to the Soldiers. — The 
Quincy (111.) Railway, included in the 
system of the Illinois Traction Com- 
pany, considered all men in the uni- 
forms of United States soldiers and 
sailors as the guests of the company 
during Quincy's big welcoming demon- 
stration. Conductors of the company 
were notified not to collect fares from 
the men in uniform. 

Fare Increase Again Refused at 
Warren. — On June 11 the City Council 
of Warren, Ohio, rejected the ordi- 
nance granting the Mahoning & She- 
nango Railway & Light Company a re- 

newal of its franchise for twenty-five 
years and an increased rate of fare. 
This ordinance has been drafted four 
times, passed twice by Council and 
vetoed both times by Mayor Parks. 

One-Man Cars Authorized. — The 

Public Service Commission of Massa- 
chusetts on June 30 approved the pur- 
chase and operation by the Berkshire 
Street Railway, Pittsfield, of seventeen 
one-man safety cars. The commission 
has also approved the construction and 
operation by the Milford, Attleboro & 
Woonsocket Street Railway, Milford, 
of two safety cars operated by one 

I. T. S. to Run Its Own Express 
Business. — The Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem, Peoria, 111., resumed express busi- 
ness over its lines on June 29. The 
Adams Express Company operated over 
the lines of the Illinois Traction System 
until the express companies were con- 
solidated into the American Railway 
Express Company. The Illinois Trac- 
tion System now plans to operate the 
express business and to extend the 
scope of the work. 

Memphis Fares Upheld. — The Su- 
preme Court at Nashville, Tenn., on 
June 28 upheld the legislative act cre- 
ating the Public Utilities Commission 
and the 6-cent fare that commission 
authorized for the Memphis Street Rail- 
way. The 6-cent fare in Memphis is 
already in effect and seems certain to 
remain in full force until an appraisal 
is made and a permanent decision ren- 
dered by the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion. The new fares seem to be work- 
ing well. 

Wants Both Passenger and Freight 
Advance. — The Joplin & Pittsburg 
Railway, Pittsburg, Kan., has applied 
to the Public Service Commission of 
Missouri for an increase in both pas- 
senger and freight rates. The present 
appeal of the company is for an ad- 
vance in passenger rates in Joplin and 
in freight rates between Joplin and 
Pittsburg. Some time ago the com- 
pany was authorized to increase pas- 
senger rates between the city limits of 
Joplin and the Missouri-Kansas state 

One-Man Cars for South Bend. — One- 
man cars may be introduced into South 
Bend., Ind., as a result of a visit made 
to Gary, Ind., by Mayor Carson, City 
Attorney Slick and R. R. Smith, super- 
intendent of the Chicago, South Bend & 
Northern Indiana Traction Company. 
The Mayor and the city attorney were 
favorably impressed with their visit to 
Gary and it is thought that a plan will 
soon be worked out by which one-man 
cars will be placed on the streets of 
Scuth Bend. The safety cars in Gary 
were described and illustrated in an 
article, "Safety Cars in Gary Make 
Jitneys Unprofitable," in this paper for 
May 17, page 967. 

Defeat of Fare Referendum Urged. — 
On June 19 petitions were presented to 

the North Side Impi'ovement Associa- 
tion containing the names of 500 resi- 
dents of the North Side, Columbus, 
Ohio, urging defeat of the proposed 
referendum on the ordinance giving the 
Columbus Railway, Power & Light 
Company an increased rate of fare. The 
directors approved the petitions, which 
urged the association to go on record 
against the proposed referendum. They 
voted to submit the petitions to the 
membership for consideration. 

Smoking Permitted on Elevated Cars. 

— The Chicago City Council believes 
smoking ought to be allowed on the ele- 
vated trains, as it was a year ago, when 
the influenza epidemic caused the 
health department to issue an edict 
against it. By a vote of forty-eight 
yeas to eleven nays the Council on June 
23 adopted resolutions directing the 
health department to set aside the 
order. The elevated system heads can 
restore smoking or not, but if they re- 
fuse to restore it on the Council's reso- 
lution, an ordinance will be passed di- 
recting that it be done, according to 
statements made after the meeting. 

New Rates at Cincinnati. — The Cin- 
cinnati (Ohio) Traction Company an- 
nounced the following rates of fare, to 
take effect on July 1: Adults — Tickets, 
64 cents, strips of six tickets for 39 
cents, cash fares, 7 cents; children un- 
der ten years — tickets, 31 cents; strips 
of four tickets for 13 cents; two chil- 
dren carried for one adult ticket of 61 
cents, cash fare, 4 cents; transfers — 
issued under the present rules; in- 
clined plane passengers — tickets, 3i 
cents; strips of four tickets for 13 
cents, same tickets will be used for in- 
clined plane fares as for tickets; cash 
fare, 4 cents. Arrangements have been 
made for the use of old tickets by add- 
ing the difference in cash. These 
changes have been referred to previ- 
ously very briefly in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal. 

Increases on Elmira Suburban Lines. 

— The Elmira Water, Light & Railroad 
Company, Elmira, N. Y., has filed with 
the Public Service Commission for the 
Second District, a new tariff which it 
proposes as effective on July 20 on the 
Seneca Lake division — Elmira, Elmira 
Heights, Horseheads, Montour Falls 
and Watkins and the towns of Elmira, 
Horseheads, Veteran, Catlin, Catherine 
and Dix. Changes proposed are: One- 
way fares between points Horseheads 
to Watkins, inclusive, established on the 
basis of 3 cents per mile, minimum fare 
5 cents. Increases are effected. The 
new regulation provides for the sale of 
fifty-two-trip monthly commutation 
ticket books for travel between points 
named and at the following prices per 
book: Pine Valley and Elmira, $10.40; 
Pine Valley and Horseheads, $4.68; 
Millport and Elmira, $13.52; Millport 
and Horseheads, $8.32; Millport and 
Montour Falls, $7.03; Montour Falls 
and Watkins, $3.64. Changes in char- 
tered car rates, package rates and 
for checking trunks effect increases. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Personal Mention 

Ingle President specialize on modern operating econo- 

mies, the building up of short-ride zone 
Manager of Keokuk Property Elected fare systems and the co-ordination of 
to Head the Iowa Electric ^us and electric railway service. Dur- 

Railway Association jj^g recent years, Mr. Jackson has given 

At the annual meeting of the Iowa t^ese subjects wide study, both in 
Electric Railway Association held at America and abroad, and his writings 
Colfax, la., on June 18 and 19, J. P. t^ese topics have been of most 
Ingle, manager, Keokuk (la.) Electric stimulating character. Mr. Jackson 
Company, was elected president of the ^^^^y with him m this new work 

association for the ensuing year and ^^^^ wishes of his recent associates 
member of the board of directors for success. 

five years. Mr. Ingle was born at Salis- 

bury, Md., on Oct. 27, 1882, and lived Capt. Harry L. Brown, U. S. A., has 
at Atlanta, Ga., from 1882 to 1906. He returned to the editorial staff of the 
was educated in the public schools of Electric Railway Journal after an 
Atlanta and worked for the Atlanta absence of a year and a half spent in 
Gas Light Company as office boy, bill- the signal service. He was formerly 
ing clerk and bookkeeper from 1897 the Western editorial representative of 
to 1902. From 1902 to 1906 Mr. Ingle the paper, with headquarters in Chi- 
cago, but will now be stationed in the 
New York office. 

George H. Wygant, for the last nine 
and a half years commercial agent of 
the Tampa (Fla.) Electric Company, 
has been transferred by Stone & Web- 
ster to Baton Rouge, La., as manager 
of the Baton Rouge Electric Company, 
which furnishes gas and electric light 
and power, as well as electric railway 
transportation, to the community. 

J. Augustus Hageman has been made 
traffic superintendent of the Trenton & 
Mercer County Traction Corporation, 
Trenton, N. J. The new official 
succeeds Thomas J. Connelly, resigned. 
Mr. Hageman has been connected with 
the company at Trenton for the last 
thirty years and has filled various 
offices with the corporation. Mr. Con- 
nelly will return to Troy, N. Y., to re- 
join the United Traction Company. 

C. Gordon Reel, who retired as vice- 
president and general manager of the 
Kingston (N. Y.) Consolidated Railroad 
in 1911 and later was first deputy su- 
perintendent of highways of the State 
of New York, is now a captain in the 
United States Aviation Service. He 
was navigator of one of the airplanes 
which flew down New York Bay on June 
28 to greet the crews of the NC 4, who 
returned to New York on the Zeppelin 
on that day. 

Louis C. White has been appointed 
counsel to John H. Delaney, new tran- 
sit construction commissioner of New 
York. The transit construction com- 
missioner has taken over all rapid 
transit construction work from the 
former Public Service Commission. Mr. 
White has for ten years past been 
attached to the New York City law 
department, and has during most of 
that time been engaged in the acquisi- 
tion of property for rapid transit and 
water supply purposes, and in the trial 
of suits growing out of rapid transit 
construction contracts. 

J, p. INGLE 

attended the Georgia School of Tech- 
nology, graduating the latter year with 
the degree of Bachelor of Science, Civil 
Engineer. In 1906 he became assistant 
superintendent of the Gas Light Com- 
pany of Columbus, Ga., and in 1908 
superintendent of the gas department 
of the Baton Rouge (La.) Electric Com- 
pany. In 1908 he went to Keokuk, la., 
as superintendent of the gas depart- 
ment of the Keokuk Electric Company, 
becoming general superintendent of the 
company in 1914. From 1915 to date 
he has been manager of this company, 
which does all of the electric railway, 
lighting, power and gas business in 
Keokuk, and also serves several other 
surrounding towns in Iowa and Illinois. 

Mr. Jackson Retires 

Walter Jackson, who has been con- 
nected with the Electric Railway 
Journal for seventeen years succes- 
sively as assistant editor, associate 
editor and as business manager, has 
resigned to enter independent consult- 
ing electric railway work. He will 

Gordon Campbell Re-elected 

President of Companies at York Re- 
elected to Head of Pennsylvania 
Street Railway Association 

Gordon Campbell has been re-elected 
to serve a second term as president of 
the Pennsylvania Street Railway As- 
sociation. His re-election took place at 
the Harrisburg meeting of this associa- 
tion on June 27 and 28. He became a 
member of the executive committee of 
the association in December, 1914, was 
advanced to vice-president in December 
of the following year and continued in 
that position until June, 1918, at which 
time he was elected president. Mr. 
Campbell has been president and gen- 
eral manager of the York Railways and 
the Edison Light & Power Company of 
York, Pa., since January, 1910. He 
graduated as mechanical engineer from 
Stevens Institute in 1886 and entered 
the railway field as a draftsman at the 
Denver shops of the Union Pacific Rail- 
way shortly thereafter. Subsequently 
he became superintendent of the Colfax 
Electric Railway, Denver, purchasing 


agent and master mechanic of the 
North Jersey Street Railway, Newark, 
N. J., general superintendent of the 
railways in Providence, R. I., now op- 
erated by the Rhode Island Company, 
and purchasing agent of the Washing- 
ton Railway & Electric Company, Wash- 
ington, D. C. This was followed by his 
connection in August, 1908, with the 
York Railways as vice-president and 
general manager, that position having 
been retained until he was promoted to 
the presidency of the York Company. 

W. B. Yearance, who for a number of 
years since leaving direct corporate ad- 
ministrative service has been engaged 
in consulting, operating and engineer- 
ing work on many of the important un- 
dertakings for the largest utilities in 
the East, has just been elected by the 
boards of directors of the Eighth and 
Ninth Avenue Railroads, New York, as 
"general manager and chief engineer 
in whole and responsible charge for the 
operation of these properties and the 
administration of their interests." 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway journal 


H. F. Adams has resigned as man- 
ager of the Haarlem (Holland) Electric 
Railway, and is now in this country, 
where he expects to purchase some ap- 
paratus, particularly motors and con- 
verters, for his property. During the 
war it was impossible to get this equip- 
ment, and service had to be cut for that 
reason, and a fuel shortage. After the 
purchase of this equipment Mr. Adams 
intends to remain in this country and 
will make application for American 
citizenship. He believes that vdth the 
signing of peace there will be a revival 
of Dutch electrical enterprises, and pos- 
sibly extension of the existing trunk 
line electrification. Mr. Adams, who is 
a graduate engineer from Delft and 
Carlsruhe, was engaged for some time 
in turbine manufacture in Great Brit- 
ain and then engaged in railway elec- 
trification in Holland. He became con- 
nected with the Haarlem Electric Rail- 
way when it was owned in America, the 
shares being in possession of the Neth- 
erlands Tramway Corporation, New 
York. This was in 1912. Later the 
property was taken over by the Holland 
Railroad System. The line is some 30 
km. in length, double track, and con- 
nects Amsterdam, Haarlem and Zand- 
voort. During rush hours trains of 
two and three cars are run on a ten- 
minute headway. 

A. W. Warnock has resigned as gen- 
eral passenger agent of the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis, 
Minn. The resignation becomes effec- 
tive early in the fall when Mr. War- 
nock plans to go into business for him- 
self. In his fourteen years as head of 
the passenger department of the com- 
pany Mr. Warnock has systematized 
the work and has introduced many inno- 
vations, some of which have been 
adopted for use of systems in other 
cities. His two books, "How to Treat 
the Public" and -"Selling Street Car 
Rides" are text books which every 
Twin City trainman studies. Many 
other systems have also adopted them. 
Along this same line of reducing fric- 
tion between trainmen and the com- 
pany's patrons, Mr. Warnock has deliv- 
ered 150 lectures to Twin City train- 
men. Other notable work by Mr. War- 
nock has been the twelve annual fold- 
ers devoted as much to the Twin Cities 
as to the electric railway lines; the es- 
tablishment of the first electric railway 
publicity bureau on a large scale, and 
the complaint and suggestion bureau. 
Before entering electric railway work 
Mr. Warnock was for three years ad- 
vertising manager of the Northwestern 
Railroad, and for nine years was a 
member of the editorial and advertis- 
ing staffs of the Minneapolis Journal. 
He was one of the organizers of the 
Publicity Club of Minneapolis, which 
was later merged into the Minneapolis 
Civic & Commerce Association, and 
was its first president, from 1907 to 
1909. It was under -his leadership that 
the ornamental street lighting system 
of Minneapolis was conceived and first 
installed on Nicollet Avenue, from 
Washington Avenue to Ninth Street, in 

1908. Mr. Warnock has also been ac- 
tive in civic work. By virtue of his 
unanimous election by the clubs of the 
city as president of the Minneapolis 
Civic Celebration Association Mr. War- 
nock was foremost in planning and 
managing the seven-day outdoor cele- 
brations of the event during the first 
week of July, 1911. 

Mr. von Phul San Francisco 

William von Phul, who has been 
vice-president and general manager of 
the United Railroads of San Francisco 
since 1916, has been elected president 
and general manager of the company 
succeeding as president the late Jesse 
W. Lilienthal. Mr. von Phul was grad- 
uated from Tulane University in 1891 
with the degree B.S., and two years 
later as mechanical engineer. He was 
subsequently employed as general su- 
perintendent of the Louisiana Electric 
Light Company and of the Edison Elec- 


trie Company, New Orleans, until 1902, 
when he became associated with Sai'- 
gent & Lundy, engineers of Chicago. 
He represented that firm as engineer 
in charge of construction for the Cin- 
cinnati Gas & Electric Company, later 
becoming general superintendent of that 
company until 1905, when he was em- 
ployed by Ford, Bacon & Davis. Since 
1907 Mr. von Phul assisted in the firm's 
engineering and operation of the elec- 
tric railway and lighting companies in 
a number of large Southern cities com- 
prised in the American Cities Company, 
including the Birmingham Railway, 
Light & Power Company, Memphis 
Street Railway, Nashville Railway & 
Light Company, Little Rock Railway 
& Electric Company, Houston Lighting 
& Power Company and later the New 
Orleans Railway & Light Company. In 
1912 he became a member of the firm 
of Ford, Bacon & Davis. Mr. von Phul 
is a member of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers and the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, 
and is responsible for a number of im- 
portant inventions which made possible 
the construction, at greatly reduced 

cost, of the large cotton warehouse ter- 
minal which Ford, Bacon & Davis de- 
signed and constructed at New Orleans 
for the Board of Port Commissioners 
of the State of Louisiana. 

M. O. Bicknell, who has recently been 
appointed traffic manager of the Sac- 
ramento Northern Railway, with head- 
quarters at San Francisco, Cal., was 
born at Vincennes, Ind., on March 22, 
18G9. He began railway work in Janu- 
ary, 1888, with the Evansville & Terre 
Haute, at Vincennes, as bill clerk in 
the local freight office. The following 
year he was promoted to agent of the 
same road at Patoka, Ind. In Novem- 
ber, 1891, he went to the Southern Pa- 
cific Company as operator and ticket 
clerk at Deming, N. M., since which he 
has been consecutively traveling freight 
and passenger agent with headquarters 
at El Paso, Tex., until August, 1895; 
general freight and passenger agent of 
the Maricopa & Phoenix at Phoenix, 
Ariz., until January, 1898; superintend- 
ent of the same road until January, 
1902; general freight and passenger 
agent of the Arizona Eastern and 
Southern Pacific until 1907; assistant 
general freight and passenger agent of 
the Southern Pacific, Pacific System, 
with headquarters at Tucson, Ariz.; 
chairman of the Arizona Railway Com- 
mission at Phoenix, Ariz., until 1909; 
chairman of the trans-continental bu- 
reau at San Francisco, Cal., until 1910; 
assistant to the president, Sacramento 
Northern Railway, which position he 
held until his recent appointment. 

Edward J. Hunt, who has been 
western manager of Electric Railway 
Journal, with headquarters at Chi- 
cago, for the last eleven years, sails on 
July 5, for the West Indies, Central and 
South America, Japan and China, in the 
interest of Hitchcock, Lloyd & Com- 
pany, Inc., exporters and importers. 
New York City. His assignment is that 
of studying the trade conditions in the 
various countries, and establishing sell- 
ing connections and creating organ- 
izations to handle the company's 
lines. Among these are machine 
tools and hardware, steam and elec- 
tric railway supplies, central station 
equipment, etc. 

Mr. Hunt's early training was in elec- 
tric railway construction work. He had 
charge of the construction of the third- 
rail on the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago 
Railroad and on the Jackson & Battle 
Creek Railway. He was also in charge 
of building the overhead on the Lansing 
& St. John Railway and on the Sterling, 
Dixon & Eastern Railroad. He joined 
the staff of the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal in 1908, when this paper absorbed 
the Electric Railivay Review. In 1910 
he was placed in charge of the ad- 
vertising in the Chicago territory, and 
held this place until February, 1919, 
when he resigned to take up the for- 
eign work for Hitchcock, Lloyd & Com- 
pany. Mr. Hunt's long experience in 
the selling activities of the electric 
railway field have given him excellent 
training for his present work. 

Manuf adures and the Markets 



South American Traction 
Materials Market 

Some Manufacturers' Agents Report 
Good-Sized Orders, Principally 
for Line Materials 

Some fairly good-sized orders from 
South America for different kinds of 
electric railway material and equip- 
ment, principally line materials, have 
been reported recently by several man- 
ufacturers' agents. From all appear- 
ances the material was for new work 
rather than for maintenance. 

One of the larger exporting houses, 
however, finds the electric railway sup- 
ply business to South America a little 
quiet just at present. Even under nor- 
mal conditions South America is not as 
heavy a purchaser of traction material, 
according to this exporter, as might be 
supposed. The reasons given for this 
condition are the size of the South 
American countries, the great distance 
between cities, and the light passenger 
and heavy freight traffic. 

While the interurban and freight 
work is quiet in South America there 
are indications that the transit systems 
in the larger cities are expanding some- 

Copper and Brass Products 

Sheets, Tubes and Rods Increased 
3 Cents Within a Week— Bonds 
Again Advance 3 Per Cent 

With copper prices well over 18 
cents the latter part of last week, 
prices of copper and brass rods, tubes 
and sheets advanced about 2 cents a 
pound. That brought hot rolled cop- 
per sheets to 27.50 cents and round 
copper rods to 24.25 cents a pound. 
Seamless copper tubing went to 32.00 
cents. An additional increase of 1 cent 
per pound applies to manufactured 
copper and brass products as of July 2. 
Copper was quoted at 19 cents on that 
date with the tendency still upward. 
So within one week there are found 
two advances in copper and brass 
products totaling 3 cents a pound. 

Copper products follow the metal 
upward in price cent for cent, manu- 
facturers say, while brass products 
follow in the ratio of about 4 cent for 
1 cent rise in copper. All rail bonds 
are not sold under the same con- 
ditions; in some cases they follow the 
copper market closely and are sold on 
quotation. Where the discount is ap- 
plied they change in price only on 
about one cent copper changes. The 
discount on these bonds changed on 
June 27 and 28 from 22i to 20 per 

cent, another increase in price of 
slightly over 3 per cent. This makes 
a price increase of 61 per cent within 
three weeks. 

Although there has been reported no 
increase in brass overhead line material 
other than wire, it would not be sur- 
prising to see advances shortly in 
trolley cars, splicers, etc., in the near 
future with the raw metal tending- 

Copper Wire Still Advancing 
in Price 

Volume of Sales Increases and Short- 
ages in Some Kinds and Sizes 
are Already Reported 

Wii-e is steadily increasing in price 
as a result of the almost daily higher 
copper prices. Within the past week 
an advance averaging 1 cent per pound 
was made in most every make of cop- 
per wire. 

Rubber covered wire on Monday 
morning was on a 23-cent base. 
Weatherproof and slow burning was 
quoted from 22 to 23i-cent base. Bare 
wire was 21 to 22i-cent base. 

The volume of wire sales is getting 
larger right along. Wire mills are 
most conspicuous of the copper buying 
interests. Reports of shortages on cer- 
tain sizes of weatherproof, particularly 
No. 10, and flexible armored conductor, 
are coming in from different sections 
of the country. 

A much better market for bare wire 
is reported. Considei-able business is 
coming through from central stations 
for transmission systems. Trolley wire 
is being sold in one mile lots. Sales of 
signal wire, however, have been very 
light of late. 

Foreign inquiries for wire of all 
kinds are coming in in larger numbers, 
although the export ti'ade in American 
wire has grown by leaps and bounds 
during the last three or four years. 

High-Tension Insulator Sales 
Are Not Large 

While there are a number of inquiries 
out for high-tension insulators, actual 
sales, manufacturers report, are be- 
low those of last year and not very 
good. Generally speaking, sales are 
for small quantities. This is to be 
expected as new long lines have been 
very scarce. Considerable work is pro- 
jected, and some is under way. 

Insulator sales consequently are in- 
creasing and, judging from the amount 
of projected work, the prospects for 
future business are bright. Many in- 
nuiries are coming from without the 
United States. 

Time Now Right to Order 
Heater Parts 

Later Purchasing for Fall and Winter 
Requirements May Not Secure Such 
Favorable Terms or Shipments 

With the summer season well under 
way, there are a number of good mar- 
ket reasons why traction companies 
should consider seriously their heating 
needs for the coming fall and winter. 
There is no better time for that than 
right now, manufacturers say, because 
there is no evidence that prices will be 
lower this fall and because deliveries 
can be best obtained by getting in 
orders as early as possible. 

On the other hand, manufacturers 
really feel that circumstances justify 
advancing prices for new electric heat- 
ing equipments and for repair parts 
this fall and winter. The tendency of 
porcelain, resistance elements and iron 
work is upward rather than downward, 
and labr.r cannot be expected to be 
lower this year. 

The early summer season is of course 
the slack season in the manufacture of 
electric heaters, and manufacturers 
have to keep on hand a certain force 
of workmen. The factory cannot build 
up at this time either repair parts or 
complete heaters for stock, in anticipa- 
tion of the fall demand, on account of 
the varied requirements of the different 
railways. Consequently, if ordering is 
put off until September and October 
and pile up all at once, shipments will 
necessarily run up to two or three 

Orders for repair parts placed now, it 
is learned, can be filled and shipped for 
delivery at any time in the fall or win- 
ter, and billed as of that date. Orders 
placed in September can probably be 
shipped in 30 days, while those placed 
in October are liable to require sixty to 
n'.nety days in filling. Stocks of raw 
materials on hand amount to about 20 
per cent of the season's requirements, 
so late orders may have to await until 
these can be replenished. 

The whole tendency of late ordering 
is toward higher costs and longer ship- 
ments. In the past four years pro- 
ducers have absorbed considerable 
amounts of the additional expense, but 
if costs of material go higher they feel 
that these must be passed on to the 
c nsumer in greater proportion than 

Repair parts orders in the past 
two years have been about 10 per cent 
of normal, so evidences point to a much 
larger volume of prdering than hereto- 
fore if traction companies are to put 
and keep in shape their electrical heat- 
ing equipment for this winter. 

July 5, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Rolling Stock 

New Orleans Railway & Light Com- 
pany, New Orleans, La., has started to 
equip cars on its Coliseum line with 
safety doors and steps. When this 
work is finished it is expected to simi- 
larly equip cars of its other lines. 

Tidewater Power Company, Wilming- 
ton, N. C, has received motors and 
trucks necessary for changing two of 
its interurban trail cars into motor 
cars. Shipment of the eight cars, to be 
rented from the Emergency Fleet Cor- 
poration, has been held up on account of 
the delay in delivery of motors, which 
were secured in Boston. 

Recent Incorporations 

Pittsburgh, Butler & Harmony Con- 
solidated Railway & Traction Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Incorporated in Dela- 
aware with a capital stock of $6,500,- 
000, presumably as the successor to the 
Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & New- 
castle Railway, change in control of 
which was noted in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal for June 28, page 1290. 

Power Houses, Shops 
and Buildings 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los An- 
geles, Cal. — Plans have been completed 
by the Pacific Electric Railway for the 

construction of a combined passenger 
and freight station at Harbor Boule- 
vard, San Pedro. The building will be 
190 ft. long and have an average width 
of 30 ft., and will be of brick consti-uc- 
tion. The total expenditure, including 
the rearrangement of trackage neces- 
sary, will be approximately $50,000. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Sealed proposals 
will be received by William S. Twining, 
director, Department of City Transit, 
until July 8 for the following work: 
Contract No. 553. — Station buildings of 
brick, steel and reinforced concrete for 
Frankford Elevated Railway, at the 
southeast corner of Front and York 
Streets, and at the southwest corner of 
Front and Dauphin Streets, including 
the removal of the existing building at 
the southwest corner of Front and Dau- 
phin Streets. Contract No. 554 — Sta- 
tion buildings of brick, steel and rein- 
forced concrete for Frankford Elevated 
Railway, at the northeast and north- 
west corners of Front Street and 
Girard Avenue, including the removal 
of the existing building from the north- 
west corner of Front Street and Girard 
Avenue. Contract No. 555 — Group of 
both contracts 553 and 554 in one. Con- 
tract No. 563 — Steel sash and wood 
closures for the entrance openings of 
the existing station buildings at 4269, 
4270 and 4604 Frankford Avenue and 
southeast corner of Frankford Avenue 
and Margaret Street. Contract No. 113 
— Return piping for steam heating sys- 
tem in basement of City Hall. Con- 
tract for building partitions of wood 
and glass in the offices of the Depart- 
ment on the eleventh and twelfth floors 

of 1211 Chestnut Street. Copies of 
plans and specifications may be ob- 
tained upon deposit of $10, to be re- 
funded upon the return of plans. 

Track and Roadway 

Los Angeles (Cal.) Railway Corpora- 
tion. — The Board of Public Utilities 
has ordered the Los Angeles Railway 
Corporation to install double tracks on 
new Broadway, between Tenth and Pico 
Streets, in order to relieve traffic con- 
gestion. It is estimated that the in- 
stallation of the double tracks, with 
switches, turnouts, etc., will cost about 

Miami (Fla.) Traction Company. — It 

is reported that the Miami Traction 
Company will construct 3 miles of track. 

Susquehanna Traction Company, 
Lock Haven, Pa. — Work has been be- 
gun by the Susquehanna Traction Com- 
pany on the reconstruction of its line 
in Lock Haven. 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana 
Traction Company, Fort Wayne, Ind. — 

Extensive improvements will be made 
by the Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana 
Traction Company of its Broadway line 
between Main Street and the plant of 
the General Electric Company. The 
company will also double track South 
Calhoun Street from Creighton Avenue 
to Pontiac Street. 

St. Louis, Mo. — Resolutions intro- 
duced in the Board of Aldermen of St. 


June 1 8 July 2 

Copper, ingots, cente per lb 1775 19.00 

Copper wire base, cents per lb 20 00 to 20 50 20. 50 to 21 . 

Lead, cents per lb 5 40 5 40 

Nickel, cents per lb 40.00 40.00 

Spelter, cents per lb ;.. 6 90 7.35 

Tin, cents per lb t72.50 70 50 

Aluminum, 98 to 99 per cent, cents per 

lb 33.00 33.00 

t Governmeni price in 25-ton lots or more f.o.b. plant. 



Rubber-covered wire base. New York, 

cents per lb 

Weatherproof wire (100 lb. lots), cents 

per lb.. New York 

Weatherproof wire (100 lb. lots), cents 

per lb., Chicago 

T rails (A. S. C. E. standard), per gross 


T rails (A. S. C. E. standard), 20 to 500 

ton lots, per gross ton 

T rails (A. S. C. E. standard), 500 ton 

lots, per gross ton 
T rail, high (Shanghai), cents per lb. . 
Rails, girder (grooved), cents per lb. . . . 
Wire nails, Pittsburgh, cents por lb ... . 
Railroad spikes, drive, Pittsburgh base, 

cents per lb 

Railroad spikes, screw, Pittsl>urgh base, 

cents per lb 

Tie plates (flat type), cents per lb .... 
Tie plates (brace type), cents per lb . . 
Tie rods, Pittsburgh base, cents per lb. 

Fish plates, cents per lb , 

Angle plates, cents per lb 

Angle bars, cents per lb. . 

Rail bolts and nuts, Pittsburgh base, 

cents per lb . , . 

Steel bars, Pittsburgh, cents per lb . . . 
Sheet iron, black (24 gage), Pittsburgh, 

cents per lb 

Sheet iron, galvanized (24 gage), Pitts- 
burgh, Cvjnts per lb 

Galvanized barbed wire, Pittsburgh, 

f er ta per lb 

June 1 8 

23.25 to 26.00 

25 75 to 26. 50 

$49 Goto $51 00 

$47. 00 to $49 00 

$45. 00 to $47.00 


3 35 






4 35 
2 35 

4 20 


4. 10 

July 2 

25 75 to 26 50 

49 OOto 51.00 

47 00 to 49 00 

45 00 to 47 . 00 

3 , 25 
3 35 

2, 75 


3 90 


4 20 
4 10 


June IS July 2 

Heavy copper, cents per lb 15 OOto 15 50 16 OOto 16 50 

Light copper, cents per lb 12 OOto 12 75 13 OOto 13 50 

Heavy brass, cents per lb 8 50 to 9.25 8 50 to 9 .'^0 

Zinc, cents per lb 5 25 to 5 50 5 25 to 5 75 

Yellow brass, cents per lb 7 50 to 8.00 7 75 to 8 25 

Lead, heavy, cents per lb .• 4. 75 to 4 87^ 4 75 to 4 87 j 

Steel car axles, Chicago, per net ton. . . $23 00 to $24 00 $25 00 to $26 nu 

Old carwheels, Chicago, per gross ton. . $21 00 to $22 00 $22 00 to $22 50 

Steel rails (scrap) , Chicago, per gross ton $18 50 to$19 00 $19 00 to $20 00 

Steelrails (relaying), Chicago, gross ton. $19 50 to$20 00 $20 OOto $21.00 

Machine shop turnings, Chicago, net ton $6.50to $7.00 $7.75to $8.00 


June 18 July 2 

Galvanized wire, ordinary, Pittsburgh, 

cents per lb 3.70 3.70 

Car window glass (single strength) , first 

three brackets, A quality. New York, 

discount t 80% 80% 

Car window glass (single strength, first 
three brackets, B quality) , New York, 

discount 80% 80% 

Car window glass (double strength, all 

sizes AA quality) , New York discount 81% 81% 

Waste, wool (according to grade), cents 

per lb 14 to 17 14 to 17 

Waste, cotton ( 1 00 lb. bale) , cents per lb. 8 to 1 2 J 8 to 1 2 ', 

Asphalt, hot ( 1 50 tons minimum), per ton 


Asphalt, cold ( 1 50 tons minimum, pkgs. 

weighed in, F. O. B. plant, Maurer, 

N. J.), per ton 

Asphalt filler, per ton $30.00 $30.00 

Cement (carload lots), New York, per 

bbl $2,90 $2 90 

Cement (carload lots), Chicago, per bbl. $3 05 $3.05 

Cement (carload lots), Seattle, per bbl. . $3,13 $3.13 

Linseed oil (raw, 5 bbl. lots), New York, 

pergal $1 83 $1.90 

Linseed oil (boiled, 5 bbl. lots), New- 
York, pergal $1 75 $1.92 

White lead (100 lb. keg), New York, 

cents per lb '3 '3 

Turpentine (bbl. lots), New York, .cents _ . . , 

pergal «1.I7 I. OOto 1.03 

t These prices are f. o. b. works, with boxing charges extra. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 1 

Louis by the Tenth Ward Improve- 
ment Association last week ask that 
the city take action toward the estab- 
lishment of loops and passenger wait- 
ing stations for the convenience of per- 
sons using the interstate electric lines 
between St. Louis, Mo., East St. Louis, 
111., and other Illinois points. 

Schenectady (N. Y.) Railway.— The 
Schenectady Railway has been author- 
ized by Governor Smith to use the new 
gateway bridge across the Mohawk 
River. The company plans to double- 
track the new bridge and continue the 
tracks down State Street, cutting off 
the tracks now on Washington Avenue 
and along the Scotia dyke. The cost 
will be about $170,000. 

Canadian Government Railways, 
Brockville, Ont.— The Brockville Public 
Utilities Commission is considering 
equipping the Brockville and Westport 
branch of the Canadian Government 
Railways for electrical operation. The 
line is 45 miles long and serves a farm- 
ing section. 

Waco-Temple Interurban Association, 
Waco, Tex. — The Waco-Temple Inter- 
urban Association has been organized 
at Waco for the purpose of building 
and operating an interurban line be- 
tween Temple and Waco. Officers of 
the association are: 0. A. Ryfle, presi- 
dent and general manager; John F. 
Wright, vice president; J. L. Davidson, 
secretary and treasurer; Alva Bryan 
attorney, all of Waco. A survey of the 
proposed route will be begun at once. 

Richmond & Ashland Railway, Rich- 
mond, Va. — Operation has been begun 
by the Richmond & Ashland Railway 
on the line of the Richmond & Chesa- 
peake Railway, which it recently pur- 

Manitowoc & Northern Traction 
Company, Manitowoc, Wis. — The City 
Council of Manitowoc has ordered the 
Manitowoc & Northern Traction Com- 
pany to extend its lines. 

Trade Notes 

Watson-Stillman Company announces 
that on June 2 it moved its general 
sales and advertising departments from 
Aldene, N. J., to 50 Church Street, New 
York City. 

Walter A. Zelnicker Supply Com- 
pany, St. Louis, Mo., has added 2,000 
sq. ft. to its present office space at 325 
Locust Street, St. Louis, Mo., an in- 
crease of 33S per cent. 

Gold Car Heating & Lighting Com- 
pany announces the receipt of an order 
for electric heaters for the 200 safety 
cars ordered by the Brooklyn (N. Y.) 
Rapid Transit Company. 

Safety Insulated Wire & Cable Com- 
pany, New York City, Le Roy Clark, 
president, announces the appointment 
of Francis E. Donohoe as special agent 
of the company, effective June 1, 1919. 

Indiana Mill & Lumber Company, 
1405 Fisher Building, Chicago, III., has 
announced that it is handling a line of 

Southern white cedar poles in addition 
to its line of hardwood and pine rail- 
road ties, piling, pine and oak timbers. 

Samuel F. Joor, a consulting engi- 
neer of Chicago, has joined the Ameri- 
can Steam Conveyor Corporation, Chi- 
cago, as sales engineer. Mr. Joor has 
had wide experience in the conveyor 
field, at one time being western mana- 
ger and sales engineer of the Jeffrey 
Manufacturing Company and previous 
to that, with the Link Belt Company. 

Eastern Foundry & Machine Com- 
pany, Inc., announces that it is now op- 
erating its new plant at Ambler, Pa. 
The buildings are the modern daylight 
type, and the equipment the most scien- 
tific procurable. With large quantities 
of raw materials always in stock, and 
under the ideal conditions now afforded, 
the company states requirements in 
bronze castings, bushings, chord bars, 
bearings, or specification work, will re- 
ceive prompt and satisfactory fulfill- 

Standard Scientific Company an- 
nounces that the manufacture of Melio- 
rate solderless terminals has been taken 
over by the Standard Scientific Com- 
pany, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 
These terminals were introduced a 
number of years ago by the Meliorate 
Manufacturing Company, which has 
now disposed of its entire rights and 
interests therein to the Standard Scien- 
tific Company, which is expending the 
same care and attention on the product 
as its predecessors. 

Midwest Engine Company of India- 
napolis, Ind., announces the opening of 
four offices in this country in order to 
more fully cope with and meet the 
growing demand for prime movers, 
pumping equipment, etc. Jacksonville, 
Fla., El Paso, Tex., New Orleans, La., 
and New York City are the locations 
selected. D. J. Garrison represents 
the Midwest Engine Company in Flor- 
ida, with offices in the Florida Life 
Building, Jacksonville. Mr. Garrison 
was formerly connected with the Busch- 
Sulzer Brothers Diesel Engine Com- 
pany of St. Louis., Mo., and later 
started a manufacturers' agency at 
Jacksonville, handling miscellaneous 
equipment to shipyards under the name 
of D. J. Garrison & Company. Ches- 
ter B. Loomis is representing the com- 
pany in western Texas, Arizona, New 
Mexico and southern Califoraia, with 
offices at 303 Caples Building, El Paso, 
Tex. Mr. Loomis had a consulting and 
mechanical hydraulic engineering office 
in Los Angeles, Gal., for several years 
before entering the service. B. H. 
Downing is eastern sales manager, with 
offices at 111 Broadway, New York 
City. J. R. Lowe, with offices at 617 
Maison Blanche Building, New Orleans, 
La., represents the company in the 

Blaw-Knox Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 

announces that the sale of its plant 
at Wheatland, Pa., to Sharon interests, 
is in line with its program which was 
outlined some time ago for either the 

removal or sale of the Wheatland plant 
and the building of an extension to its 
plant at Hoboken, Pa., to take care of 
product formerly manufactured at 
Wheatland. This is done for the pur- 
pose of concentrating all of the manu- 
facturing at Hoboken, which was found 
to be the most advantageous point both 
for manufacturing and for shipping fa- 
cilities. About one-half of its new 
plant at Hoboken has been completed, 
and it is anticipated that the entire 
addition will be completed within the 
next few weeks. The combined plants 
at Hoboken now under construction 
will contain about 30 per cent more 
floor space than was available in the 
two separate plants. In addition to the 
foregoing activities the Blaw-Knox 
Company is engaged in the construc- 
tion of a welding plant at Hoboken ad- 
joining its present plant, and will spe- 
cialize in this department on steel mill 
and chemical plant specialties. The 
combined plants at Hoboken will em- 
ploy about 1200 men as against 700 
men who have been employed by the 
company heretofore at Hoboken and 
Wheatland. The manufacturing site of 
the company at Hoboken covers 50 
acres, and in point of shipping facili- 
ties for incoming material and out- 
going product as well as in the matter 
of labor supply is most fortunately 
situated. In order to take care of the 
additional labor required the company 
has purchased 15 acres of additional 
ground on which houses are being 
erected for the use of its workmen. 

New Advertising Literature 

Liberty Manufacturing Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pa.: Catalog "Z" describes 
the operation of turbine cleaners, pneu- 
matic cleaners and other products of 
its factory. 

Mitchell-Rand Manufacturing Com- 
pany, 18 Vesey Street, New York City: 
Form No. 245 — "Discounts on Elec- 
trical Tapes and Webbings," with ref- 
erence to form No. 226, which was 
issued previously. 

Holden & White, Inc., Chicago, 111.: 
Bulletin on Garland ventilators for 
large passenger coaches, showing typi- 
cal installations for either monitor or 
arch roof cars of larger types, and de- 
scribing the Garland blower systems. 

Gilbert & Barker Manufacturing 
Company, Springfield, Mass.: Booklet 
on "Oil Storage Systems," for storing, 
handling and distributing volatile, 
lubricating and paint oils in machine 
shops, power plants and electric rail- 
way oil houses. 

Electric Railway Equipment Com- 
pany, Cincinnati, Ohio: First edition of 
Catalog "F," showing reproductions 
from actual photographs of its combi- 
nation railway and lighting poles in- 
stalled in many cities. It also illus- 
trates these poles supporting General 
Electric Novalux units and luminous 
arc lamps, besides lamp standards, 
lighting brackets and mast arms. 

Electric Railway 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Volume 54 ^, "'['^■jS^Qw York, Saturday, July 12, 1919 Number 2 

Don't ThinIc''of tlie Electric ^' 
Railway in the Past Tense 

ANY tendency, if such exists, to feel or assume that 
the electric railway has done its best work and 
must look forward to early retirement should be em- 
phatically discouraged. The electric railway in which 
the present generation is interested is the railway of 
the future. And the industry is as yet a mere infant 
in point of years as compared with transportation as a 
whole. Just a third of a century covers its whole com- 
mercial career, of which the most useful part is spanned 
by two decades. Thirty years ago the electric rail- 
way had the field to itself, now there is vigorous com- 
petition. But fair competition is the life of every in- 
dustry and it ought to be the life of transportation. Let 
us not forget that Oliver Wendell Holmes said that 
Tvhen the individual becomes retrospective he is showing 
signs of age. Surely this business is not turning gray 
at thirty-three. 

All Means for Helping 

the Industry Must Be Utilized 

THE two topics considered at the Great Lakes cruise 
meeting of the C. E. R. A. are indicative of the 
thinking, and acting, too, of the industry at this time. 
The paper on safety cars aroused lively and continued 
discussion. This was due to the fact that the men who 
are operating the electric railway utilities are looking 
for means to enable them to give an approximation to 
the service which the people demand, knowing that if 
they can do this it will be much easier to secure the 
relief from taxation and fare-limitation burdens which 
they so much need. 

The paper outlining the development which has led to 
the present inequalities in financial and other burdens, 
with the supplement thereto by A. W. Brady, painted 
a rather gloomy picture of the situation from what 
might be termed the "negative" side. This side must 
be considered with a view to securing readjustment, and 
so long as politics plays so important a part in public 
relations as it does to-day, the industry will be under the 
necessity of keeping its case directly before the public. 

The discussion at this meeting once more emphasizes 
the fact that the traction business must be put upon its 
feet by using all of the three available means, namely, 
(1) adjustment of fares to fit the purchasing power of 
money and the quantity and quality of the service; (2) 
adjustment of direct and- indirect taxation in all fair- 
ness to the railway user and non-user, to the security 
holder and the non-security holder; (3) improvement of 
output so that expansion of business will reduce the 
unit cost of furnishing it. 

The industry is shaking itself preparatory to a mighty 
forward move. Realizing the essentiality of electric 
railway transportation the public is, reluctantly but posi- 

tively, recognizing the need for higher fares. The fed- 
eral government has at last provided a mechanism to 
permit the people as a whole to appreciate the nature 
and needs of the business. The interest in the safety 
car reflects the desire of both public and operators for 
better service. These encouraging signs are stimulat- 
ing and presage, to our mind, a general improvement 
in the situation. As the French say: "En avant!" 

One-Man Cars Must 

Be Laborless and Safe 

IT IS a little discouraging in examining the statistics 
of one-man car installations, as presented by S. W. 
Greenland on July 1, at the meeting referred to in 
the preceding editorial, to find that so many of 
these cars have been put into operation without de- 
creasing but rather augmenting the work of the car 
operator. We do not refer, of course, to stub-end 
operation or other lines averaging only two passengers 
per car-mile, but rather to those cases where a speed- 
ing up of the service would bring more dollars to the 
company and more satisfaction to the platform man and 
the public. 

For example, those managers who express satisfac- 
tion because nobody is complaining are uttering a 
merely negative opinion. If they add air brakes to 
their cars, they are taking the first step in higher 
schedule speed, in greater safety inside and outside 
the car and in less work for the operator. If they 
add air-operated doors and steps to their cars, they 
take a second step forward, particularly in reducing 
standing time and in permitting better collection of fare. 
If they take the third step of interlocking all the oper- 
ating appliances of the car, they have attained the high- 
est degree of operating economy, the safest attainable 
schedule speed and the maximum satisfaction to both 
the patron and the platform man. 

Now each step, made individually or collectively, will 
cost money, but wasted platform time also costs money. 
The trouble is that because we think of the expense 
in dollars and of the waste in cents, the real economies 
tend to become obscured. Let us assume, for instance, 
that the car with all the speed-up and safety appliances 
is good for 10 car-miles more a day. Then the faster 
car would earn say $2 a day more if the average 
revenue was only 20 cents per car-mile. More than 
half of this would be sheer profit because the wages in 
both cases would be for hours and not for miles. Even if 
we made a liberal allowance for the extra weight of the 
speed-up equipment and the energy required therefor, 
the surplus would surely run between $1.25 and $1.50 
a day on any line with something better than inter- 
urban schedules. Does it require a knowledge of the 
higher mathematics to figure out how quickly the auto- 
matic apparatus would pay for itself? 


Electric Railway Journali 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

In all this we have said nothing about the reduction 
of the accident expense. Any electric railway surely 
would be willing to pay a good premium per annum 
per car to any casualty company that would be willing 
to accept the risk. Why not then treat part of the 
cost of automatic appliances as if it were an insurance 
premium. It is all very fine to boast that no accidents 
have occurred despite the absence of modern safety 
appliances, but if the accident does come the cost of the 
settlement will depend very largely upon the defendant's 
ability to prove the best and most comprehensive devices 
that its operating conditions justified. The ultimate 
economy of putting safety first is but a matter of dollars 
and cents and common sense. 

The Use of Manganese Steel 

In Curved Rails Is Not Always Economical 

THE use of manganese steel and other alloyed steel 
in special track work, including curves, upon electric 
railways was a rather fixed practice before the steam 
railroads began to take an interest in the subject. 
In fact it took a long time to prove to them that even 
a trial would prove its worth. Once convinced, the steam 
roads have become large users of this material for 
some kinds of work. Meanwhile the electric railways 
had gained considerable experience in comparative wear 
of manganese steel as against bessemer and open-hearth 
steel, especially in curves, and some street railway 
engineers were long ago bold enough to voice the re- 
sults of these experiences, which were to the effect that 
for plain curves the conditions must be exceptionally 
severe to warrant the added expense of the manganese, 
even at the pre-war price differences. Some electric 
railways have found that they could afford to renew 
a curve three times with open-hearth steel for the same 
total expense as was involved in one manganese curve. 
The tendency in the use of expensive manganese curves 
is also toward permitting the curves to remain in 
service long beyond the time when good maintenance 
would call for their removal. 

Similarly it was found that only in certain excep- 
tionally severe locations was it advisable to install the 
excessively expensive manganese special track work. 
The steam roads are beginning to find out the truth 
of this matter also, if the reports of tests on alloyed 
steel rails in service in curves, as recently rendered by 
the committee on rails of the American Railway Engi- 
neering Association, can be taken as a guide. Here, two 
different railroads report that when the high cost is con- 
sidered, the proposition can hardly be considered eco- 
nomical. It is also noted that the manganese rails be- 
come distorted more easily than bessemer or open-hearth 
rails, an observation which confirms electric railway ex- 
perience. In fact, in electric railway service, the dis- 
tortion has been the real cause of removal in several 
instances, rather than direct abrasion. Similarly, in 
special work for steels in many cases so-called soft 
centers (medium-steel or sometimes chromium-steel) will 
serve the purpose better than manganese at less cost. 

The lesson to be learned from these combined ex- 
periences seems tj3 be that a very careful study of con- 
ditions should be made before a decision is had as to 
the advisability of substituting manganese steel in 
curves and other special work, since it will often be 
found that some other alloy-steel or even open-hearth 
steel will eventually prove more economical. 

What the Committee 
of 100 Can Do 

IF THE plans of the American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation and its committee of one hundred in connec- 
tion with the presentation of its case to the Federal 
Electric Railways Commission are carried out, the work 
will be most exhaustive. No such comprehensive review 
as that proposed has probably ever before been made 
of any industry, because parallel conditions in any 
other have not occurred. The investigation and testi- 
mony will necessarily be largely along financial lines 
because the present crisis is a financial one. Neverthe- 
less, the inquiry will necessarily also cover to an ex- 
tended degree questions of engineering, law, social bet- 
terment, government and banking. 

The task which the industry, through the associa- 
tion and its committee of one hundred, has set for itself 
is outlined in the program presented on July 10 by the 
committee on presentation, and published elsewhere in 
this issue. Briefly this program may be divided as 
follows : 

1. To describe the present status of the industry, 

2. To outline the causes which have led up to the 
present condition, 

3. To prove the continuous social need of urban and 
interurban transportation service. 

The duty of supplying the data covered by these three 
divisions belongs to the committee on presentation, 
while that of suggesting means of escape from the 
existing tangle is the work of the committee on recom- 

In a general way the facts covered by the three para- 
graphs given above are known to most men in the in- 
dustry, but they are known only in a general way. In 
consequence the data which the association and its ex- 
perts are collecting ought to be most instructive even to 
men actually engaged in railway service, as it will be 
derived not only from operating sources but from every 
collateral direction. Incidentally, we believe, the in- 
quiry will accomplish a great deal of good in addi- 
tion to proving the need of greater financial return for 
electric railway properties. It should prove the close 
connection between community prosperity and that of 
the local transportation system and the advantages of 
active co-operation between municipal and railway au- 
thorities for the common good. It ought also to ex- 
plode some popular misconceptions about the prevalence 
of water in electric railway capitalization and the profits 
of railway operation. 

From the evidence thus presented by the associa- 
tion it will be the duty of the federal commission to 
make recommendations, and if we assume that the in- 
dustry proves its case in regard to clause (3), i.e., that 
there is a continual social need for urban and interurban 
electric railway transportation the recommendations of 
the federal commission on the presentation of this evi- 
dence wiU have to be constructive. At present railway 
construction is not only at a standstill, it is going back- 
ward, and electric railway credit is dead. The worK 
of the commission, therefore, if its members accept the 
electric railway as a necessity, will be to suggest sucn 
means that a reasonable return will be earned on utility 
capital, not only in the immediate future but at all 
times. In this way only can electric railway credit be 
restored so that urban and interurban properties of the 
country can expand their facilities to accord with the 
community needs. 

Jidy 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


On Editing a 

Technical Journal 

THE editors of this journal are not endowed with 
powers of omniscience. They sometimes wish that 
they could be, to the extent that they might have a 
more all-seeing knowledge of things which are going 
on in the electric railway industry. Possessed of such 
power, the task of editing and producing a paper which 
will best cover all phases of the business would be 
greatly simplified. In the absence of such ability and 
being merely human, the editors must depend upon 
their personal contact with the men in the industry for 
most of the information which is necessary, in order to 
keep in touch with the progress in such a many-sided 

That progress may obtain, it is the chief function 
of a technical or trade publication to gather and dis- 
seminate news and information which principally is of 
interest as a record of progress. In the gathering of 
such matter, the tendencies of the trade activities are 
focused or centralized in the editorial office. From 
this center of information, the editors attempt to select 
articles which will be of interest to the greatest num- 
ber of readers. Incidentally they attempt, from time 
to time, to direct attention upon matters of timely 
interest by comment in these columns. 

The task of issuing a paper of this character fifty- 
two times a year is no light one and the editors wish 
again to remind the readers of the Journal that its 
columns are at all times open to the discussion of timely 
topics. The receipt of communications from the men 
in the field, either for publication or for information 
and use editorially is always appreciated and the editors 
will be glad to have the feeling prevail that the Journal 
aims to be of the utmost possible service to the indi- 
vidual as well as to the industry as a whole. The 
motto of the Journal is "Service." 

Transfer Charge 

Granted in New York 

THE approval of Public Commissioner Nixon of the 
first district. New York, to a charge of 2 cents for 
transfers at 99 points on the surface lines in Manhattan 
is a most encouraging sign of the times. It can hardly 
be said greatly to relieve the situation in which the 
railway systems have been placed by the rising costs of 
labor and materials. But it will bring in some addi- 
tional revenue and, what is more, it will establish a 
precedent for further public recognition of an intoler- 
able situation and encourage the security owners to 
work toward substantial rehabilitation. The form of 
relief granted, a charge for transfers, is that for which 
the companies originally petitioned and is one to which 
the general plan of New York with its distinctive longi- 
tudinal and crosstovra avenues and streets makes it 
better adapted than would be the case with a fan- 
shaped city. 

The opponents of the charge for transfers are loud 
in their complaints of the additional "burdens" placed 
on the traveling public, but have no substitute except 
municipal ovraership. That there is really an additional 
burden, we do not admit. The fare is nominally higher, 
it is true, but actually it is not as high as before the 
war, and the slight additional charge is not a burden 
if recognized as a substitute for the only other courses 
open, namely, dissolution of the New York Railways 

into its constituent elements with a separate fare on 
each, serious deterioration of the service or municipal 
ownership and operation. Of these especially the last 
would be a very onerous burden on the city of New 
York whose large investment in the dual subway agree- 
ment is not only entirely unproductive, but is having 
piled against it a constantly increasing amount of pre- 
ferred charges, simply because the city will not recog- 
nize changed business conditions in its rapid transit 
investments. The 2-cent charge for transfers is the 
first ray of light since the war began on the New York 
Railways situation. 

Take Traffic Checks 
of the Non-Riders 

TRAFFIC studies of the non-riders, as a source of 
data that might show the way to an inauguration 
of service which would attract many of the pedestrians 
to the street cars, was a suggestion made by Chairman 
Ainey of the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission 
at the recent meeting of the Pennsylvania Street Rail- 
ways Association. He referred to these potential riders 
as representing the unearned increment of the electric 
railway business. 

The suggestion offers possibilities. The idea has been 
presented before, but no one has really gone into it ex- 
tensively, so far as we know, since the days of prospect- 
ing new lines. Now that there is a decided trend of 
thought through the industry along the line of selling 
transportation as a merchandising proposition, this idea 
of seeking out new sources of riders may perhaps be 
more feasible. Its value goes hand in hand with the 
ability of a company to supply transportation of a kind 
and quantity and at a price which will induce these 
walkers to ride. That means fast, frequent and fairly 
low-priced service. As Mr. Fairchild well said in the 
discussion, the railway company, like the merchant, must 
be ready to furnish the kind of merchandise that is 
wanted, but the size of package will vary. And when 
one thinks of those requirements, he immediately asso- 
ciates with them, for most municipalities, the safety 

To get a traffic check of a reasonable proportion of the 
walkers offers some difficulties, for it is hardly prac- 
ticable to trail each individual found walking on the 
street. But there are undoubtedly localities in every 
community where there are considerable numbers of 
factory or office employees who walk in a few fairly well 
defined common paths from work to home and thus 
form a movement that a traffic checker may readily 
analyze. Having plotted on a map or chart the various 
main courses of these pedestrians, the cause of the ex- 
cessive walking may be determined and the practica- 
bility of meeting that condition with a suitable service 

It seems logical to assume that at least all persons 
(excluding those who ride in automobiles) who must 
walk in excess of one mile between their home and 
work, may be considered as car riders. And if the traffic 
study shows that there is a large percentage of such 
persons among the walkers, then it should serve as good 
evidence that additional business can be secured and how 
much. Mr. Ainey has done the industry a service in 
emphasizing in the Harrisburg meeting and also in the 
address presented by him at the Chamber of Commerce 
meeting last May the essential merchandizing phase of 
the electric railway industry. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

The Zone Fare in Practice 


Recent Fare Increases of from 50 to 100 Per Cent Have Borne More Heavily on the Clerical than on 
the Working Class — Despite Higher Fares and a Cut in Service, Traffic Fell Off Only 
3.4 Per Cent and Revenue Jumped 23.3 Per Cent Last Year 


IN THE last issue of this paper an account was pub- 
lished of the development of the housing conditions 
and tramway system at Leeds, the important man- 
ufacturing city in the midlands of England. The pur- 
pose of this article is to describe the present tramway 
operating conditions in Leeds and how the tramways 
increased fares 50 per cent and decreased its car mile- 
age more than 4 per cent, yet its decrease in passengers 
carried was less than 3* per cent. The present article 
includes a statement of the local labor conditions in the 

Up to June 10, 1918, a *d. ticket was available for 
general riders to a distance of A mile, while the standard 
penny ticket was good for an average of 2 miles. In 
its day, the ^d. ticket was a great success in getting 



people to ride extremely short distances. It is sig- 
nificant, however, that when experimentally the 4d. rate 
privilege was extended to permit a ride of about i 
mile, it had to be restored to the 4-mile basis because a 
1-mile ride for a id. cut too deeply into the Id. riders. 
This example from Leeds' experience is simply another 
illustration of the opportunity^ which the zone-fare 
principle provides for scientific traffic analysis and 

A 50 TO 100 Per Cent Increase Has Not 
Discouraged Traffic 

For the year ended March 31, 1918, the earnings per 
car-mile were 14.746d. on the basis of i mile for id., 2 
for Id., 2i miles for l^d., 4 miles for 2d. and 6 miles 
for 3d. With the great increase in cost of tramway 
operation, Leeds could no longer afford to give a general 
fare of id. It was therefore necessary to go to the Id. 
fare as a starting point. In making the change, the 
management generally consolidated two of the old id. 

fare stages so as to give about 1 mile for Id. The 
2 miles formerly given for Id. now cost lid. The 
highest regular fare is now lOid. for the 13.62 miles 
between Guiseley (White Cross) and Roundhay. In 
general, fares above Id. have been increased about 50 
per cent. In one sense, the substitution of a Id. for a 
id. fare meant an increase of 100 per cent; but when 
averaged out the increase was less inasmuch as it did 
not effect at all those passengers who rode between i 
and 1 mile. 

The only id. fare that remains now is a ticket good 
before 7.45 a.m. for workmen and at any time for 
children between five and twelve years of age. The 
id. ride for a penny privilege is also granted to children 
up to fifteen years of age in going to and from school. 


The lid. ride is available to children for Id., the 24d. 
ride for 14d. and so on, but no special tickets are used 
in such cases as the conductor simply punches the 
ticket forward for the appropriate additional number 
of stages. 

Special rates for workmen also include afternoon re- 
turn or round-trip tickets up to lOJd. The last repre- 
sents the Guiseley-Roundhay ride previously mentioned. 
Here is a case where a workman pays only lOid. for 
27.24 miles, whereas the ordinary passenger has to pay 
21d. Although the workmen's return half must be used 
the same day, as hereinafter explained, it is obvious 
that the concession, is more than generous. Here, 
again, it may be emphasized to those who associate 
congestion with zone fares and the laborer, that it 
is precisely the workman who has had less-than-cost 
transportation for years. Even though the proportion 
of workmen's fare travel in Leeds is only 10 per cent of 
the total revenue or 17 per cent of the total passenger 
rides, it costs the Leeds system at least £12,000 a year 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Number of 

Route Passengers Cars 

Hunslet (Leeds cars) 61,440 

Hunslot (Wakefield cars) 60,200 

Cardigan Road and Balm Road 134,255 
Dewsbury Road and Beckett 

Street 245,682 

Beeston, Woodliouse, and Belle 

Vue Road 229,915 

Morley and Meanwood 141,109 

Domestic Street and Circular 

Whiteliall Road and Harehills 

I^ower Wf)rtl('>' and lOasy Road. 

Upper Wort lev and llalton. . . . 

Pudsey and St aiininnley 

Leeds and Bradford ( Leeds cars) 

Leeds and Bradford (Bradford 

Rodley and Corn Exchange . . . 
Guiseley, Horsforth, and 


Lawnswood and Street Lane. . 

Farnley (rail-less) 

Otley and Burley (rail-less) . . 
iShadwell Motor Bus 


Miscellaneous receipts 

Conductors' shorts collected. 


Overs 19-18- 

Shorts not charged 1-2- 


Decrease on previous week . . . 
Increase on corresponding week 
last year 

more than the revenue. This 
is in reality a subsidy to one 
class of the population at the 
expense of the rest. 

As is admitted by all, the 
greatest sufferers from war 
are the clerical classes. In 
Leeds, the effect of the in- 
crease in fare was to inter- 
fere appreciably with the rid- 
ing habit of this portion of 
the population. Many shop 
clerks and others who had 
been in the habit of riding 
home for lunch seem to have 
adopted the expedient of 
bringing it with them. More- 
over, it is evident from the 
traffic returns that some of 
the old penny riders are 
walking at least one way be- 
cause they feel that they can- 
not afford to pay Hd. Condi- 
tions of this sort indicate un- 
fair the archaic rate for 
workmen has become. 

Table II herewith shows the 
weekly traffic return for the 
week ended Feb. 8, 1919, com- 
pared with the same period 
of the preceding year. To 
the original figures on Table 
II has been added the con- 
sumption of tickets report 
for the week ended Feb. 9, 
1918, to show how the propor- 
tions of the different classifi- 
cations have been shifted by 
the change in fares. 

In 1918, for the week un- 
der consideration, the most 
popular full-rate ticket was 
the Id. one, amounting to 63 
per cent of the total; in 1919 
it was the lid. ticket, amount- 
ing to 43 per cent of the total. 
What might be defined as "the 
average ride passenger," 
therefore, dropped in numbers 
to the extent of 20 per cent. ====^=== 
The actual drop of passengers overall was only 9 per cent, 
as the number of passengers paying a higher rate 
than lid. was naturally augmented by the advancement 
from the lower-rate classifications. At the same time, it 
is to be observed that the number of maximum ride 
passengers at 7id. was less than at 5d., from which 
it is apparent that even the long rider can cut down on 
his traveling if necessary. 

From the same table it will be noted that the 2d. 
ticket for both one-way and workmen's return use has 
been eliminated. The thought that lay behind this 
was that the passenger who has to travel at least lid. 
worth will not be likely to get off and walk the rest of 
the way in order to save a penny. 

The fiscal year of the Leeds City Tramways ends 
March 31, and as the fare increase did not become 
effective until June 10, 1918, complete comparative re- 
sults are not available. Table II, on page 58, giving the 


Average Receipts per 












. — Total Receipts- 

1919, £ 







1918, £ 













in 1919, 




































, 10 














































2, 105 






















1 1 , 































18-16- 4i 





19 05 

Consumption of Tickets: 

^Week Ended Feb. 

8, 1919— 

Week Ended Feb. 9, 1918 

1 d. 


i d. 


H d- 


1 d. 


2 d. 


H d. 


2i d. 


2 d. 


3 d. 


2i d. 


4 d. 


3 d. 


4i d. 


4 d. 


6 d. 


5 d. 


7J d. 


6 d. 




i d. 



1 d. return 


1 d. 



H d. return 


2 d. 



2i d. return 


3 d. 



3 d. return 


1 d. 




4 d. return 


2 d. 


, P**88 

\ 50,184 


4J d. return 


3 d. 



Through tickets 

l| d. child's 


Through tickets 

3 d. 


Through tickets 

3 d. workmen 


Through tickets 

3 d. exchange 




This represents the number of return tickets issued, beini 


: included twice to get the total passengers. 

statement for the year ended March 31, 1919, however, 
shows an increase of 23.36 per cent in receipts as com- 
pared to the normal increase of 11.7 per cent from April 
1 to June 9, 1918, before the increase in fare. In spite 
of the 50 per cent increase in fares and abolition of 
halfpenny fares, the number of passengers carried 
was only 3.426 per cent less despite a cut of 4.109 per 
cent in mileage. The actual cut in mileage on individual 
lines was much greater than this average indicates, be- 
cause on lines with war industries it was actually nec- 
essary to increase the service. Thus the actual cut on 
the lines of lesser industrial importance was severe 
enough to have a bad influence on the retention of 
short-haul riders, who must have a frequent service re- 
gardless of the rate of fare. The results cited for the 
last fiscal year, however, indicate that traffic will re- 
turn once it is possible to restore the compulsory cuts 
in service. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 



Date .. 
Duty .Vo 








TIma ot 













1 d. 













1 td. 

2 id. 




• Id 









CafhUr'i Inititil 

H'orkmanS Keturn Utter _ 



As previously intimated, no attempt is made to carry 
separate -]d. tickets for workmen and children respect- 
ively, or to have special tickets of higher denomina- 
tions for children only. The workmen's return ticket, 
however, does call for special treatment. The rule in 
connection with these reduced-rate tickets is that they 
must be presented for the return trip on the same 
day as issued. The conductor on getting his waybill 


Increase or 






Total rtceipts £723,022-3-11* 


+ £136,935-15- 

2 +23.364 

Number of miles 





—4. 109 

Number of passen- 

gers carried 


124,519,1 19 



Receipts per mile 




+ 4.221 

+ 28.652 

Average fare paid 

per passenger(d.) 



+ 0.308 


Population served. 
Number of times 



population car- 






Amount paid per 

head of popula- 





+ 23.529 



A comparison of your Punch Register, Tickets, and 
Cash Return shows deficit as under. 

You will please sign and return to Depot Inspector 
immediately, making any explanation you can offer. 

You may see the Way Bills and obtain any ottwr in- 
formation you desire by calling at the Traffic Office, Swine- 
gate, first opportunity during relief. 

It is important you should attend promptly. 

J. B. HAMILTON, General Manager. 

.\ Deficit in Money amounting t 
A Deficii ol Tickets, a 




*Fares increased 50 per cent and jd. fares abolished, June 10, 1918. 
tShortage of rolling stock owing to inability to obtain repair parts and suffi- 
cient labor. 


Leave Depot 


when beginning his 
day's work is ad- 
vised by a rubber- 
stamp initial there- 
on that such initial 
is the one he is to 
punch that day 
when issuing a re- 
turn ticket. The 
conductor who gets 
the ticket in the 
afternoon can see 
at once whether or 
not it is valid. Be- 
fore returning the 
ticket to the pas- 
senger for use as a 
receipt, the second 
conductor cancels it 
against re-use by 
punching to the 
hour and quarter 
hour in the spaces 
provided on the back 
of the ticket. This 
cancellation is made 

with a separate pricker to avoid confusing the count of 
the ball punch, which is employed only in the issuance 
of tickets. In this way no exchange tickets are re- 
quired — an advantage of more importance on a large 
system in simplifying the number of tickets than any 
possible abuse of the return-ticket privilege. 

The general control of the correct use of tickets is 
effected in the customary manner through thirty-six 
ticket inspectors. These men average sixty cars a 
day, the same car being boarded by different men three 
or four times a day. Their visits are always attested 
by the signature of the conductors. The ticket in- 
spectors work nine hours each, but their shifts are so 
arranged that all are on hand during the heavy hours. 
Besides handling their ticket-check duties, these men 
help to correct irregularities in traffic, running time, etc. 

Since the Leeds system gets its tickets from an 
outside printer, the plan of using individual serial num- 
bers for conductors until 10,000 of each kind have been 
exhausted is not followed. Instead, the ticket boxes 
issued daily to the conductors are filled from a common 
stock (kept up three weeks ahead) to the extent that 
traffic fluctuations on the given routes justify. These 
boxes, together with punches and waybills, are for- 
warded to the inspectors at the several depots. The 
waybill, as shovsoi herewith, is divided to cover a full 
day's work, individual journey bills not being consid- 
ered necessary. The depot inspectors issue the boxes 
to conductors as they book on for duty. 

In the matter of cash re- 
turns, a conductor may make 
his turnover either at the 
central cashier's office down- 
town or to his depot inspec- 
tor. In most cases the con- 
ductors hand the returns, in- 
cluding tickets and waybills, 
to the night depot inspec- 
tor, who checks the cash in 
their presence and delivers 
receipts out of his dupli- 

Eoute Xi 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


cate receipt book. Cash does not get into the ticket 
department at all but is forwarded to the cashier at the 
central office. Here it is counted independently, 
checked against the totalized receipts of each depot in- 
spector and tallied against the statements of the ticket 
department. The cashier's office is open from 6 a.m. 
to 9 p.m. In it there are, besides the cashier, three male 
assistants and twelve girls. Two of the assistant cash- 
iers are always on duty during the busy periods. 

In the ticket department there are thirty-seven em- 
ployees, all female except two laborers. Of this num- 
ber twelve take care of ticket boxes and four handle 
the punches. Miscellaneous duties include the prepara- 
tion of the daily and the weekly traffic returns similar 
to those shown in Table I. For 557 conductors 1050 
punches are required. These are supplied by the Bell 
Punch & Ticket Company, London, at a rental of 9s. a 
year each, including upkeep, transportation, etc. It 


. 1913-1914—^ — 1917-1918 . 

Total Cost per 100 Total Cost per 100 

Cost Passengers Cost Passengers 

£ rl. £ d. 

Tickets, ticket boxes and repairs 1,149 294 4,277 0.825 

Punchsealsandhire ofpunchts. 399 102 438 0.085 

Ticket inspectors 2,509 0,643 3,689 0.711 

Ticket-room and punch-room 

staff 1,224 313 2,571 0,494 

Sundries 81 0,921 249 0,048 

Total 5,362 1 373 11,224 2.163 

Per cent of revenue 1.27 1,95 

Their wages are charged against Account No. 3, "Wages 
of Other Traffic Employees." 

The Leeds City Tramways follows the usual British 
practice in the assignment of duties for the platform 
employees, but the management has gone a step far- 
ther for the convenience of the men by printing both 
the "rotation of duties" sheet posted at the depot and 
the more detailed "duty sheet" (see illustration). The 


may be appropriate to say here that punchings are 
counted so seldom that this tedious work does not call 
for all the time of even one girl. The employees re- 
quired at the seven depots in connection with the mis- 
cellaneous transportation and ticket and cash-handling 
duties number fourteen. 

British tramways, which use the uniform system of 
accounting adopted by the Municipal Tramways As- 
sociation, place all charges strictly due to the ticket 
system under Account No. 7, "Ticket Check," covering 
"cost of tickets, conductors' punches, wages of ticket 
inspectors, clerks in punch and ticket office, less deduc- 
tions from receipts from advertisements printed on 
back of tickets." The summary herewith shows the 
exact distribution of expenses under "Ticket Check" 
and the relationship to general revenues. 

"Ticket Check" does not include the cashiers. These 
come under Account No. 1, "Superintendence," since the 
cash would have to be handled in any event. Moreover, 
no account is taken of the depot clerks or inspectors, 
who would also be required under any fare system. 

latter is also printed, route for route, in book form 
for the employee to carry in his pocket. The lists are 
made out for weekdays, Saturdays and Sundays to show 
a man with a given duty (run) number at what times 
and places he is to report. The booklet also contains a 
miniature of the "rotation of duties" sheet, so that on 
and off days and the total hours to be worked in one 
week can be seen at a glance. In addition, a time-point 
board is also put on each car by the first motorman 
of the day. Bundy time recorders are installed a-mile 
from twelve terminals for ringing in and out. 

As stated in the "duty sheet" booklet, the following 
times are granted to motormen and conductors in addi- 
tion to actual time on the car, so as to allow for ex- 
amining the car, reporting at depot or cash office, etc. : 

Fifteen minute s when taking car out of depot. 
Fifteen minutes when taking car into depot. 
Ten minutes when commencing duty on route. 
Ten minutes when finishing.* 
Five minutes when relieved for meals. 
Five minutes when leaving or taking up a car not 
at meal times. 

Before the war fifty-four hours was a normal work- 
ing week, but by arrangement with the men a sixty- 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 



Week ending 










Total Hours. 

Duty. Hour?. 
10 .. \i\ 

Duty. Houri, 
10 .. 

Duty Hours 

Oil Duty 

Du^y. Hours 
1 . . !l 

Duty. Hours. 
1 . . ;i 

Duty. Hours. 
1 . . fl 

Duty. Hours, 

. . !t 


6 . II 

6 1"! 

2 , - M 

13 . ^; 

Off fluty 

10 .. \l\ 

10 , 

6 3 J, 


1,3 . s.i 

on Duly 

6 .. II 

6 ,. 11 

6 .. 11 

6 .11 


2 ..91 

2 . . :t\ 

8 . . lu 

12 . . MJ 

12 . n 

12 . yJ 

Oft i)ut\ 


13 .. 8 .; 

16 .. 1(1 

Off Duty, 

2 . , <) ' 

2 . 0.1 

2 . . 9i 

2 91 


9 lU 

9 .. lOj 

9 . . 91 

16 .. !" 


, 10 

Off Duty. 


. . 9J 


17 .. 9?, 



Off Duty. 

5 .. n; 



9 .. 11! 




Ofi Duty. 

5 . . sj 

5 .12} 

17 .. 9} 


. . 9 ). 

17 .. 9J 


. . 9! 


9 1 

Off Duty 

9 .. \\\ 


. . 1 li 

5 ..9} 

5 .. 9j 

1 ..9 

1 . . 9 

1 .. t)J 

Off Duty. 


.. luj 

14 .. 10) 


.. 101 


. . JO 



hour week has been the rule during the period of man 
shortage. At this writing, negotiations are in hand 
that will seriously modify both working hours and 
wages. The following additional facts may, however, 
be information of value and prove of interest to the 
American operator: 

Platform employees receive uniforms, great coat, 
mackintosh and other outer clothing free. Rest days 
are one in seven. One week's holiday with pay is granted 
after twelve months' service, but during the war if a 
man elected to work during his vacation he received 
double pay. Christmas work also earns double pay, 
but as that holiday is a great home-festival in Eng- 
land a man is at liberty to ask someone else to 
take his run. One and a quarter overtime rate 
is paid for any excess over fifty-eight hours a 

la 9532 


Whiu Crei- 


Carr l^-o 

Uft'J Lam 






S 2 





Carr Un« 


H..1I Ljuie 

= 11 

H»|i Lan* 









Dr 7210 

amwrm on. lA 

week. Spare conductors or extras are guaranteed five 
and one-half days work out of a six-day week. 

As for spreads for any class of platform men — 
when the spread does not exceed twelve hours, a margin 
or off-duty period of three hours is agreed upon with no 
deduction for meal time. On all duties exceeding a 
twelve-hour spread and up to fifteen hours, a margin of 
two hours is allowed. On all duties exceeding a fifteen- 
hour spread a margin of one hour is allowed. On all 
duties exceeding twelve hours, a half hour is deducted 
for meal time. 

Conductors start at 5id. an hour, advance to 5|d. 
after six months and then to 6d. and 6Jd. in the follow- 
ing two years. If advanced to the position 
of motorman, they receive 7d. an hour for 
the first six months, 71 d. for the following 
year and Tid. thereafter. These 
figures are independent of the 
war bonus of 30s. a week, 

N n 1 H 1 3 1 a 

Ha 8313 









FliU L -' 


Fn!] Lane 




J Boer 


Wood Pc 



f:m.<n'r^l J'tg f p t ; 

re Bc 








P M 






P M, 














TJ 6416 

(Ho»*lc til 



OlMCOif S jmefical Ptf . C6.X/U 





' 2 

• e^ 

1 Bo&r 

Read , 

)< = ! 

Byron . 





a .ill 








July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


so that the actual earnings an hour are practically 
double th& rates given. Platform men who have served 
seven years wear a chevron and receive an additional 
shilling a week. Platform instructors receive 3d. an 
hour extra while teaching. 

Women conductors begin at the same rate as men 
but are not advanced at the same rate. Their war bonus 
is 24s. a week. With regard to the matter of retaining 
women in the service, Mr. Hamilton points out that 
this rests largely with the employees themselves. The 
women are full-fledged members of the union, and they 
see no reason why they should make way for men unless 
they have failed to make good themselves. One woman 
conductor said: "My man was a conductor. He went 
into the army, leaving me with two children, and I took 


Ticket Inspector's Report / 


Ullo Na 


Ufi Cu 


his place. I arri sorry to say that he'll never come back. 
I wouldn't think it unfair if I had to give up this job 
to a tramwayman who did come back, but I wouldn't 
care to give it up to anybody else. I like the work and 
I need the money." 

Good Food Conduces to Good Work 

Strangely enough, it was not until women conductors 
were employed in large numbers that the management 
found it highly desirable to see that employees got 
plenty of nourishing food. Whereas the men always 
brought or purchased solid nutriment, the women were 
inclined to get along on a cup of tea and a cream puff 
with dire results to themselves and the duty sheets. 
The management consequently arranged to oifer first- 
class meals at a first cost of 7d. (since increased to 
9d. and lOd. because of rise in food prices) . The 
Corporation of Leeds furnishes the necessary equipment 
and labor without charge: The- food is so good and so 
well cooked that it is regularly furnished to the officers 
mess. The officers pay a few pence more to get coffee, 
cheese or other extras. 

Beside these meals at the central office and depot, 
fully-cooked meals are sent out hot to four mess-rooms 
at other depots. Men on early runs are also supplied 
at nominal cost with hot soup purchased from the na- 
tional kitchens. Leeds, to be sure, is not the first elec- 
tric railway to supply meals at or below cost, but the 
Leeds management also realizes that nothing but the 
best will do. If other executives would eat the same 
meals as the rank and file, there might be less grumbling 
about the ungrateful platform man. 

A British contemporary states that in one of the in- 
dustrial districts of Manchester a crowd on two succes- 
sive nights recently stopped the tram cars to call atten- 
tion to the insufficient supply of liquid refreshment in 
the local public houses. The nucleus of the crowds con- 
sisted of workingmen who were disgusted at the fre- 
quent display of "No Beer" signs. 

Transporting Shipyard Workers 
at Quincy 

Bay State Street Railway Is Handling Throngs at 
Fore River Shipyard in Spite of Impracti- 
cability of Using "Split-Shift" Plan 

By W. B. Conant 

Concord Junction, Mass. 

THE Fore River shipyards of the Bethlehem Steel 
Corporation are located on Weymouth Fore 
River, in the city of Quincy, Mass., 4 miles more or less 
from the outer limits of Boston. From 12,000 to 15,000 
workers are employed at the yards. About 50 per cent 
of the working force come from distances which neces- 
sitate the use of public transportation facilities. A 
large number live in Boston and in the suburbs to the 
north of the city. These use the Boston Elevated lines 
as far as the junction with the Bay State system at 
Neponset Bridge, which is about 4 miles from the plant. 

When the war broke out the shipbuilding company 
employed about 3,000 persons. Of these the Bay State 
Street Railway, which is the only line reaching the 
works, was called upon to carry 1000 to 1100. The cars 
ran between the plant and the central square in Quincy 
over a single-track road, which was totally inadequate 
to handle the additional load. From Quincy Square, 
the half-way point, the route in the direction of Boston, 
via Neponset Bridge, was also limited to a single track 
on the bridge. The condition of the roadbed and the 
rolling stock of this railway, which has for some time 
been in the hands of a receiver, made the task of hand- 
ling the workers one of great difficulty. 

With the entrance of the United States into the war, 
the plant at Fore River increased its force rapidly, and 


it was apparent that a constructive plan of some magni- 
tude would have to be worked out in order to meet the 
transportation situation. A contract was entered in- 
to between the railway, the Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion, agent for the federal government, and the City 
of Quincy for the financing of the construction of a 
double, track, and the widening of the street between the 
plant and Quincy Square, a distance of 1^ miles ; for the 
construction of a double-track loop at the shipbuilding 
plant, with a prepayment inclosure; for the construction 
of a loop at the square; for the building of a new sub- 
station, and for the double-tracking of the line on the 
Neponset River Bridge and the establishment of a pre- 
payment station at Neponset where the Bay State sys- 
tem joins the Boston Elevated system. The company 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

agreed to repay the funds advanced on the basis of fares 
collected at the terminal. 

About the middle of January, 1918, the double track 
and loop at the works were first used, and within a month 
the daily traffic had increased about 2000 arrivals and 
2400 departures. At this time all departments of the 
works opened at 7 a.m. and closed at 4.30 p.m., except 
that many workmen worked overtime, until 6 p.m. The 
night force came to work at 6 p.m. and left at 6 a.m. 
The number of employees increased rapidly, so that on 
April 22 the opening- and closing hours were so changed 
as to spread over an hour morning and night. The 
change provided that certain departments opened at 
7 a.m. and closed at 5 p.m., while others opened at 8 
and closed at 6. The night shift began work at 6 p.m. 
and left at 5.30 a.m. On Saturdays, the hours were 
from 7 a.m. to 12 m. and 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. It Was hoped 

ington that it was impossible properly to handle the 
traffic with but one opening and one closing hour. 

The joint shop committee of the shipbuilding Com- 
pany, however, issued a circular letter to the employees 
in which the co-operation of the men was solicited. 
They were asked to take early cars for the works in the 
morning, to avoid later congestion which had resulted 
in about 20 per cent of the employees being late to work; 
to buy tickets in advance so as to aid ticket sellers and 
conductors, and to make way quickly in boarding cars 
and in moving inside the works gates. 

A card index was made up of the places of residence 
of the employees, showing whether they came by trolley, 
jitney or private conveyance, or walked to and from 
work. Each rider was assigned to his proper car by the 
proper routing. The loop at the works, which was of 
two tracks separated by ordinary spacing, was spread 


that this "split-shift" plan would help to relieve the 
congestion at the times of peak load. 

In the meantime a new rescheduling and rerouting 
of lines had been effected in Quincy to improve the rush- 
hour conditions. A new through double-track route 
from Neponset Bridge had been opened, and a special 
depot car service had been established between the plant 
and the New Haven Railroad station at Quincy. 

"Split-Shift" Plan of Operation Had 
TO Be Advanced 

Unfortunately the "split-shift" plan was strenuously 
objected to by the employees, who deplored the loss of 
the daylight hour in the evening, "when they wished 
to work in their war gardens." The men, too, were 
dissatisfied because they believed that the difficulty could 
be met in some other way. On two occasions a strike 
was narrowly averted from this cause. The shipbuilding 
management, moreover, held that the plan caused loss 
of efficiency through one crew having to wait for the 
coming of another in the morning, and because tasks 
could not be completed in the late afternoon after a part 
of the men had left. The departments so overlapped 
that it was impossible to make up separate groups of 
workers without a loss in efficiency and co-operation 
which was estimated to be equivalent to 6000 to 8000 
man-hours daily. It was thus seen to be very desirable 
to return to the old system of one shift, and the plan 
was abandoned on Aug. 19, 1918, after about four 
months of use, although transportation experts from 
the Emergency Fleet Corporation had reported to Wash- 

so as to form a double loading space, with 8 ft. of space 
between tracks. A total of about sixty trips morning 
and evening through the loop was thus made possible. 
Of these cars, forty are now moved in fifteen minutes. 
A portion of the outgoing cars had previously started 
from a street area with no prepayment facilities, result- 
ing in a great loss of revenue to the road. These cars 
were brought inside a second prepayment inclosure near 
the main office by means of other tracks. Four cash turn- 
stiles and six ticket entrances were provided at the 
works loop, and three ticket booths were opened in the 
yard from which eight women of the Bay State, Boston 
Elevated and New Haven sold tickets every noon and 
evening. The cost of this service was borne by the 
shipbuilding company. 

One of the main reasons for the successful working 
of the "Quincy plan" is the readiness with which the 
shipyard workers have adapted themselves to the situa- 
tion. They have recognized the fact, as shown them by 
the joint shop committee, that it is best to subordinate 
personal conveniences to the general good, with the re- 
sult that all are better served than otherwise would be 
possible. In addition, the improved power situation 
brought about the presence of the new substation; the 
addition of thirty-seven new cars of the double-truck 
type and large capacity operated in trains, and the 
double-tracking of the principal routes to the yard and 
on the hridge have relieved a situation which govern- 
ment experts, and indeed the officials of the railway, 
had despaired of, with the single opening and closing 
system in effect. 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


C. E. R. A. Cruises on Great Lakes 

At Meetings Held on Board S.S. "South American," Discussion 
Centers Around Safety Car and Relief for Electric 
Railway from Illegitimate Burdens 

AS LAST WEEK'S issue of this paper went to 
J-\ press the Central Electric Railway Association 
X X. was concluding its summer cruise from Toledo to 
Chicago via Perry Sound, Mackinac Island, Harbor 
Springs, Macatawa and Benton Harbor. Three hundred 
and sixty persons made up the party and every pos- 
sible provision was made for their comfort, entertain- 
ment and instruction by the committee of arrangement. 
This comprised S. D. Hutchins, Westinghouse Traction 
Brake Company, chairman ; John Benham, International 
Register Company, secretary; James H. Drew, Drew 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, in charge of enter- 
tainment; F. R. Coates, Toledo Railways and Light 
Company; H. A. Nicholl, Union Traction Company of 
Indiana; L. G. Parker, Cleveland Frog and Crossing 
Company, and H. E. Rasmussen, Indianapolis Electric 
Supply Company. Dr. R. C. Harpster, Toledo Railways 
and Light Company, served as ship's surgeon. 

A humorous daily, The Central Daily Spray, was is- 
sued during the cruise under the direction of H. H. 
Norris and.L. C. Paul of the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal staff, with the assistance of other present and 
former newspaper men in the party and of L. E. Early- 
wine, assistant secretary of the association. This served 
to supplement the formal program and also served to 
encourage informality and good-fellowship. 

An interesting feature of the meeting was the pres- 
entation to C. L. Henry, Indianapolis and Cincinnati 
Traction Company, and F. D. Carpenter, Western Ohio 
Railway, of traveling bags, in recognition of their long 
and fruitful service to the association. Mr. Henry cele- 
brated his seventieth birthday anniversary and Mr. Car- 
penter his sixty-ninth, on July 1. In responding to ad- 
dresses of felicitation the former said that the "Cen- 
tral" is the best association in the country, and the lat- 
ter dwelt upon the changes which have occurred in the 
industry during the time of his connection with it. 

One-Man Car Operation Had the 
Floor Tuesday Afternoon 

A paper on "One-Man Car Operation" was presented 
by S. W. Greenland, general manager Fort Wayne and 
Northern Indiana Traction Company, on July 1. The 
paper is abstracted elsewhere in this issue. In intro- 
ducing Mr. Greenland President J. F. Collins, vice- 
president Michigan Railways, said that two subjects of 
great importance today are one-man cars and higher 
fares. He said, however, that one-man cars alone can- 
not run a railway and that that which is needed most 
is organization and co-operation. The employees must 
be educated and this fact is just as important as the 
increased fare and the one-man car. In connection 
with the paper Mr. Greenland said that his company 
is planning a line extension on which only one-man 
cars are to be used. The track for this will prob- 
ably be made lighter than the usual type to take 
advantage of the light weight of the cars. It is expected 
that by fall all of the eighty-five cars in Fort Wayne 

will be equipped for one-man operation. He said that 
his company had not found the use of safety devices 
necessary, but their use might be warranted if neces- 
sary to "sell the idea" to public and employees. 

The discussion was opened by a communication pre- 
pared by F. J. Moore, general superintendent Ohio 
Electric Railway, and read by L. A. Mitchell, Union 
Traction Company of Indiana. This will be abstracted 
in a later issue. 

The next speaker was E. M. Walker, general man- 
ager Terre Haute lines, Terre Haute, Indianapolis and 
Eastern Traction Company. He outlined the experience 
at Terre Haute as covered in the article in the issue 
of this paper for June 28, copies of which were dis- 
tributed at the meeting. In that city the people want 

the whole property put on a safety-car basis. Mr. 
Walker expressed his disbelief in the advisability of 
using converted cars; both public and employees want 
something better than this. He favors light cars, which, 
he said, will prove durable with proper care. To illus- 
trate the truth of the principle that "service increases 
business" Mr. Walker cited the experience in Terre 
Haute where the replacing of four cars on ten-minute 
headway by six cars on six-minute headway brought 
in $35 of additional revenue per day. 

In reply to a query Mr. Walker said that the safety 
cars are adaptable to zone fare collection with the aid 
of a fare box. For example, on a two-zone line pas- 
sengers boarding in the first zone would pay one fare 
upon entering, those leaving in the second zone would 
pay one fare upon leaving, these being the only collec- 
tions necessary. 

W. S. Rodger, Detroit United Railway, said that his 
company is using one-man converted cars in several 
small cities on its system. 

J. M. Bosenbury, Illinois Traction System, traced 

The Central Daily Spray 

Issued for the^ Good of the Lakefarcrs 

On Board S. S. South American Sailing Toledo-Chicago, June 30-JuIy 3, 1919 

SoE.e\7ner3 East of iUchiEran June 50, 191S 




On behalf of the officers and com- 
.T.ittemen of the C.E.R.A., V'ELCOI.E, 
THRICE v:elC0ME to our p srap etet ic( i s 
tlnat spelled right?) meetin? place . 
This reservoir of scintillit ing rit 
■vili each di-V be filled to overflo.7- 
ing for the dciectation of you South 
Amerikaners on your first post-uar 
cruise. After President Colline.Sec- 
ritary and Chairrrian Hutch- 
ins have had their say(very briefly, 
Dind you) the entire r^raainin^ sirace 
(if there io any) rill be taken up 
with comments on the appearance of 
the members, sly rerr.arlc3 as to their 
personal characteristi cs , syeculation' 
as to the'"axe6 they have to grind" 
and other not likely to offend, 
Frank' That's ue all over llabie. 
There will be no advertisements, 
Heavens, No ! I ! ! 

Vol . 1 1 , 
Nc. 1. 



Kind friends through the SPRAY 

Ve v/elcome you today 

I'ay everything -Te do and cay 

Be pleasin' 
Our good ship's staunch and true 
There's lots of food for you 
And entertainment too 
The speeches are but fe?? 
So -.That more could \7e do 
I? J.F.C. 

Is Starkey.the sweet singer of 
Sandusky, on board? If so pipe us 
a tune, Joe, and .Te v;ill join In 
the chorus . 

To fill In the morning and 
take a reasonable amount of 
space in the jrrogram.the E^tecutive 
Comn:itteeT.e_t at 10 ^Bv-S r e^cial _ 



Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

briefly the story of the modern safety car. His com- 
pany had been operating cars with one man since 1892, 
but in 1911 it became apparent that something must 
be done to produce a car especially suited to one-man 
operation. A car was designed, which, however, the local 
city authorities did not consider safe, but they agreed 
to permit its use if operation were duly safeguarded. 
The Westinghouse Air Brake Company was asked to co- 
operate. Cars weighing, at first 32,000 lb., later 16,500 
lb., were placed in operation in 1913, and orders were 
later placed for a total of sixty-two Bimey cars. Mr. 
Bosenbury's experience has been that the cities demand 
the use of safety appliances. 

Safety Car Lends Itself Readily 
TO Standardization 

Following Mr. Bosenbury, the general principles of 
the safety car were explained by Carl H. Beck, Westing- 
house Traction Brake Company. Of course, said he, 
this car is an innovation in street railway practice or 
it would not be up for discussion at this time. It is 
suitable for use in cities of any size. Standardization 
has been an essential but "ticklish" element in connec- 
tion with its development. The new car contains so 
many new elements that there was an excellent oppor- 
tunity for standardizing in the construction of the car 
unit and in its operation. As a result the car has 
been standardized to a remarkable extent and Mr. Beck 
expressed the hope that the standardization will be 
maintained. In approaching the subject on the basis 
of standardizing the car unit it is necessary that the 
best possible obtainable unit be put on the city streets 
as the car must be "sold" to so many interests. Other- 
wise all that is possible cannot be secured from it. 

Mr. Beck pointed out that the "safety" car is not the 
"one-man" car. It is the safest unit used in any 
form of transportation to-day. It is necessary to prove 
to commissions that this is the case. For safety it is 
essential that the motorman should "perform some con- 
scious act" to keep the car in operation, that otherwise 
the automatic apparatus shall bring it to a stop. After 
going into some detail of the equipment of the car, 
which has been covered in earlier issues of this paper, 
the speaker said that the public and the employees must 
share in the benefits if the new type of car is to suc- 
ceed. If they do the result is sure. The matter of 
weight of car is secondary, but all of the benefit is lost 
without standardization. The operating men simply 
must get together with regard to it. 

Walter Jackson Gives Results of 
Observations at Home and Abroad 

The safety car and related topics were next taken 
up by Walter Jackson, formerly business manager 
Electric Railway Journal, who explained that he had 
visited safety car installations as rapidly as they had 
been made. It would seem unnecessary to argue nowa- 
days regarding the benefits to be derived from its use, 
but there are heard certain notes of dissonance which 
indicate that operators have not all grasped its real 
meaning. Referring to Spokane he said that in this city 
previous to the coming of the safety car, the cars in use 
were exceedingly heavy. This was typical of the liking 
of the industry for heavy cars at that time. The im- 
portance of developing the riding habit was not then 
realized. With the development of safety appliances it 
was possible to produce with the small car the same 

effects as with the long car. All of these devices save 
time and the small car sometimes yields more seats 
per unit of time than the large ones. 

Mr. Jackson said that in Spokane the large cars, 
when operated by one man, made a low schedule speed. 
They could, in some cases, make only one trip during 
the "peak" whereas the small cars could make two. It 
is, he said, very important to automatize the operation 
of the car, without which he considered the car as of 
the "stone age" of electric railway operation. Mr. Jack- 
son urged increase of business as an essential feature 
of safety-car operation, reduction of expenses being far 
from the whole story. Jitney and automobile competi- 
tion have brought real competition into the business. 
A rider in an automobile is like the lion who has 
tasted human flesh, he wants more. In England even 
municipally-owned lines cannot secure protection from 
bus lines, and the only remedy is the giving of service 
of a quality that the jitney cannot match. 

The speaker deplored the tendency to increase weights 
of safety cars, pointing out that it is not now necessary 
to use the same materials as entered into car construc- 
tion ten years ago, as better materials have been de- 
velepod. The question is then not how much heavier 
the car should be, but rather how much better it can 
be built. Increased weight means greater energy con- 
sumption, and energy is very expensive now. Mr. Jack- 
son said further that remodeled cars are not safe. 
It certainly strengthens the case of a railway, on the 
occurrence of an accident, if a railway can say that it 
has the best obtainable equipment. 

In conclusion Mr. Jackson discussed the fare situa- 
tion. Why, said he, have fare increases failed to 
produce the desired effect? His answer was that the em- 
phasis is in the wrong place; it should be on increase in 
service. On one property where a 6-cent fare prevails, 
safety cars were introduced with a 50 per cent service 
increase. The result is 50 per cent more traffic. In Eng- 
land fares have been increased more than in this coun- 
try and with better success, due to the wide development 
of short-haul traffic. The inhabitants of the two coun- 
tries are not substantially different, and Americans will 
ride for a few blocks if service is increased and the 
zone fare system introduced. In Aberdeen 25 per cent 
of the passengers ride but 0.6 mile. In Reading short- 
haul traffic is still further developed. In a certain 
town in this country the flat fare is 5 cents, but the 
railway is operated by a merchant as a side line and 
he sells tickets at Si cents each in quantity. Such 
reduction develops traffic. 

A. W. Brady Sounds a Note 
of Encouragement 

On Wednesday C. L. Henry read for R. F. Rifenberick, 
Detroit United Railway, a paper on "Burdens from 
Which We Should Be Relieved." This also is abstracted 
elsewhere this week. The discussion on this paper was 
opened by a communication sent by Arthur W. Brady, 
Union Traction Company of Indiana, and read by L. E. 
Gould, Economy Electric Devices Company. Mr. Brady 
said that Mr. Rifenberick had set forth clearly and 
forcibly a number of factors which enter into the elec- 
tric railway problem, but are often overlooked or receive 
insufficient weight even by electric railway men. The 
fundamental difficulty, he said, with the relations be- 
tween the electric railways and other public utilities 
on the one hand and the public on the other is mentioned 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


at the beginning of the paper. Every student of utility 
problems knows that "the consumer pays the cost," but 
there is a large part of the public, including many of 
its leaders, who do not know or realize the effect of this 
principle. The people applaud the imposition of undue 
taxes, the return of excessive verdicts, the encourage- 
ment of unrestricted jitney competition, the establish- 
ment of unwrise regulations, and other similar measures, 
as attacks on that vv^hich the common people hate above 
almost all else — monopoly. They fail to see that every 
unfair burden cast on a utility must be paid for. Pay- 
ment may be made by increased rates, by reduced, or in- 
sufficient service, or by the checking of development 
essential to the growth and prosperity of the country; 
yet payment is always made. Even though the utility 
may seem at the time to be the payor, ultimately, it is 
the public itself that foots the bill. This is true even 
though the utility be pushed to the wall, for the effects 
of a mistaken or unjust policy in the treatment of the 
utilities are likely to be felt for years after the origi- 
nal sufferers have disappeared from the boards. 

That "the Consumer Must Pay the Cost" Is 
Increasingly Recognized 

In the times there are some signs to encourage the 
electric railway man, in spite of the unwillingness mani- 
fested by the voting public in some important cases to 
assume any part of the burdens cast on electric railways 
by the war. There are other indications, however, of 
the drift of the public mind which carry hope. The 
increasing of railroad, express, telephone and telegraph 
rates by the federal government has opened the eyes of 
many who once saw not. These increases were neces- 
sary to meet advancing costs, as was announced by 
the government as the reason for them. What the gov- 
ernment was forced to do, it recommended to the state and 
municipal authorities of the country that the privately 
operated utilities be permitted to do. Commissions have 
very generally adopted these recommendations to a greater 
or lesser extent. The public has, as a rule, recognized the 
fairness of the action taken, and accepted uncomplain- 
ingly these increases as necessary. It can safely be 
asserted that never before has a greater proportion 
of the American people recognized the principle that the 
consumer must pay the cost, and that if the cost be 
not paid in rates the consumer nevertheless must pay 
in some other way. It is the duty and the interest 
of every man connected directly or indirectly with the 
electric railway industry to see that this elementary yet 
often overlooked truth is so well known by the public 
that it will be acted on as a matter of course by their 
chosen representatives. 

Following the reading of Mr. Brady's letter, W. S. 
Rodger, Detroit United Railway, stated that on Aug. 
14 of this year all electric railways in Michigan re- 
porting earnings of less than $8,000 a mile will be 
permitted to charge 2h cents a mile. When the earn- 
ings reach $10,000 a mile the rates must be reduced 
to 2 cents a mile. The rate for children will be li 
cents a mile and baggage will be carried free. The new 
rates will be under the jurisdiction of the new Public 
Utilities Commission of Michigan. 

R. N. Hemming, Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana 
Traction Company, then announced that from Sept. 29 
to Oct. 1 the electric railway sessions of the National 
Safety Council will be held at Cleveland, Ohio, and 
urged a representative attendance. 

The business of the convention was purposely lim- 
ited in order that all might thoroughly enjoy the trip. 
A short meeting of the executive committee was held 
on Monday morning at which time the handling of mail 
on interurban cars was discussed and a meeting was 
called to be held at Indianapolis within a few days to 
decide upon a general plan to be presented at Wash- 
ington. Interurban freight and motor truck compe- 
tition was also taken up. At a business session on 
Monday afternoon the applications of eight new supply 
members were accepted. This brings the total supply 
membership to 151, the largest by two in the history 
of the association. On motion of Harry Reid, presi- 
dent Interstate Public Service Company, it was decided 
to send A. L. Neereamer, secretary of the association, 
as a delegate of the association to the Atlantic City con- 
vention of the American Electric Railway Association 
in October. 

Social Features Keep Everybody Happy 

The social program was ably handled so that none 
ever found time hanging heavily with nothing to do. 
Each evening an entertainment was held in the "grand 
salon." The program included moving pictures, story 
telling, vocal music, community singing, sleight-of-hand, 
a mock wedding, a lecture on some of the American 
battles of the great war, and local talent exhibited in 
various ways. The entertainment was over at ten each 
evening following which a dance was held in the ball- 
room. Moving pictures were also taken on the boat 
and at the various stopping places. An open air, wire- 
enclosed playground provided amusement for the many 
"kiddies" aboard. 

The opportunity to visit a number of points of his- 
toric interest was appreciated by the party. The town 
of Parry Sound, Ontario, was inspected briefly on Tues- 
day. On Wednesday morning a three-hour stop was 
made at Mackinac Island, and most of the members 
of the party visited historic and other interesting points 
on the island such as old Fort Mackinac, Sugar Loaf 
Rock, Arch Rock, etc., and otherwise passed the time 
in purchasing curios and other trinkets for the folks at 

Two hours were spent at Harbor Springs, Mich., on 
Wednesday afternoon and a short stop was made at 
Macatawa, Mich., early Thursday morning. Benton 
Harbor was reached about 11 a. m". and here special 
interurban cars from Indiana, Ohio and Michigan met 
those who wished to reach home for the Fourth. At 
IMacatawa Mr. Collins' private car was in waiting and 
took a large party, via Holland, Grand Rapids and Battle 
Creek, to Jackson, whence its members scattered in all 
directions. Many continued on to Chicago and the trip 
officially ended at the Municipal Pier about 4.30 p.m. 
on Thursday, July 3. 

All in attendance agreed in extending congratulations 
to the committees in charge of the arrangements, par- 
ticularly to Messrs. Hutchins, Benham and Drew on 
whom fell the heaviest responsibilities of the cruise and 
entertainment, to Chas. L. Henry, chairman of the pro- 
gram committee, and to Secretary A. L. Neereamer. 

The steamship South America proved to be well 
adapted to the purposes of the C. E. R. A. cruise. There 
was sufficient reserve in capacity to prevent crowding, 
and captain, steward and purser and their subordinates 
vied with each other to insure the comfort of the pas- 
sengers. Fortunately the weather was such that the 
voyage was unmarred by cases of sea-sickness. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

Burdens from Which We Should 
Be Relieved* 

Five-Cent Fare Should Be Retained Until All 
Possible Operating Cost Reduction 
Has Been Achieved 

By Robert B. Rifenberick 

Consulting- Engineer, Detroit (Michigan) United Railway 

THE present-day electric railway industry is of re- 
cent origin, and has improved so rapidly in the 
science of its art, that only lately has time and oppor- 
tunity afforded or necessity required a careful analyti- 
cal study of its cost of service, and of the elements 
that constitute such cost. This study has been brought 
to a scientific, logical and economical conclusion, but 
for political reasons government officials have not as 
yet wholly availed themselves of such conclusion. Un- 
der these circumstances it is very probable that in 
many instances the consumer of such service did not 
and is not now paying in full the cost of service re- 
ceived. This fact, however, in no sense impairs the 
logic of the axiom : "The consumer pays the cost." 

If the electrical railway industry is to be kept off 
the rocks of complete financial disaster (and it appears 
to be the aim of some politicians and newspapers to 
put it there) it is up to every member of the C. E. R. A., 
to every employee of all the utilities of which the 
industry is composed and also of all our allied industries 
to acquire this knowledge, then to impart it to the 
public without any further waste of time. 

The most economic basis of fare applies to the single 
coin, and as our national government has not as yet pro- 
duced a single coin of greater value than its 5-cent and 
less value than its 10-cent coin, we should use every en- 
deavor to continue as long as financially possible the 
5-cent coin as the basis of a single fare. To permit 
this, relief from the numerous unjust burdens to which 
the industry as a whole is now encumbered must be 

Regulation Should Be Simplified 

Electric railway utilities should be relieved from 
the burden of being subject to and regulated by the 
numerous regulative bodies which now have super- 
vision over their various functions. Such diversified reg- 
ulation with the ^heterogeneous burdens imposed is 
necessarily expensive, and for this largely unnecessary 
expense the patrons pay the cost. As a natural public 
utility monopoly the industry should properly be reason- 
ably controlled, but such control should be judicial to 
pass upon complaints concerning the reasonableness 
and adequacy of rates, passenger and traffic, and to pre- 
scribe a uniform system of accounts. The executive 
and administrative duties of operation should rest 
in the management of the properties, subject only to 
such judicial rulings as above prescribed. 

The promiscuous, conflicting and excessively burden- 
some regulation under which \ many electric railway 
utility properties are being operated today, seriously 
restricts the natural development and resources of these 
properties and is in fact, and in some instances deliber- 
ately, forcing them onto the rocks of bankruptcy. 

Electric railway utilities should be relieved of the 
numerous political investigations, surveys and appraisals 

•Abstract of paper read at meeting- of Central Electric Railway 
Association, S. S. "South American," on Great Lakes Cruise, July 
2. 1919. 

of their property to which many of them have been 
subjected. To my own knowledge one electric railway 
utility has in the past ten years been compelled to ex- 
pend over $500,000 and the city in which it operates 
has spent more than $200,000 for such purposes to 
no end whatsoever to date. The game of making this 
utility the stepping-stone to public office has been going 
on for twenty-five years, during all of which time the 
utility has continued to render to its patrons the best 
service the management could devise under such irritat- 
ing and adverse conditions. 

Taxation Needs Adjustment to Insure 
Fairness to All 

Electric railway utilities should be relieved from the 
burden of all taxes, state, county, city and national, 
except possibly the usual taxes on such property of the 
utility as is devoted exclusively to furnishing service 
to its patrons, namely, real estate and personal property 
other than foundations for tracks, and paving in public 
streets and thoroughfares. In the days of the horst' 
railway the burden of paving in and adjoining its 
tracks was imposed wholly on the utility. There was 
some logical reason for this because the horses of the 
company were, supposedly at least, the greatest users 
of such paving. However, then as to-day the best 
paving of the street was generally in the car tracks, 
which naturally drew the vehicle-using public to the 
use of the tracks. Thus an unjust burden was imposed 
on the patrons of the utility in paving requirements, 
which to have been equitable, should at least have been 
apportioned between the general public and the street 
railway car rider. 

To-day there is no reason for the continued imposi- 
tion of this burden on the patrons of the utility. 
Furthermore, vehicles other than electric railway cars 
should be absolutely prohibited from the use of the 
tracks, and such use by these other vehicles should 
be at their own risk and damage liability. 

Electric railway utilities should be relieved from 
the burden of paying for damages to vehicles, and 
for injury to persons occupying them, caused by 
collision with their cars, because these cars have an 
absolutely fixed line of travel on which they have the 
right of way. If the utilities, in case of a collision be- 
tween a vehicle and its car, would bring suit against the 
owner of such vehicle for damage to their property, and 
the court would render judgment for such damage, 
these unnecessary collisions would very soon disappear. 

Other tax burdens from which the patrons of the 
utility should be relieved, that are wholly in the nature 
of exclusively class taxation, are franchise, gross income 
and license taxes, which penalize the patron for re- 
quiring electric railway utility transportation. 

Another serious, unjust and expensive burden from 
which the utility patron should be relieved is that of 
free transportation of policemen, firemen and other 
public officials. Further, street lighting, sprinkling 
and street cleaning should not further continue to be a 
burden on the utility patron, exclusively as such, but 
the cost of these should also be paid from the general 

Electric railway utilities should be relieved of the 
burden of building extensions in advance of such exten- 
sions being self-sustaining. They should be relieved 
of the burden of such limited term grants, the existence 
of which by their very nature require the accumulation 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


of a large amortization fund, paid by its patrons, 
during such limited term, to protect its investment 
at the end of such term. They should be relieved of the 
burden of carrying the mails without just recompense 
for the service rendered. 

Should Present Fares Include Provision For 
Ultimate Purchase op Utility? 

Another penalty imposed on the user of electric rail 
way transportation from which he should be relieved, is 
that of requiring him to pay a profit to the city for the 
privilege of being transported by the utility. That effi- 
cient and prudent utility management should be re- 
warded is a good economic policy for the consumer; but 
bj' what law of economics can it be sanely reasoned that 
A, B and C should pay enough for transportation to 
the electric railway utility, so that at some future time 
D, E, F and the rest of the alphabet should own such 
utility? Wherein lies the reason for placing such an un- 
just burden on the present generation? Each generation 
m.ust take care of its own social, political and economi- 
cal problems as they arise, but no present generation 
should shift such burden onto a future generation or 
relieve, at its own expense, a future generation from 
the problem that rightly belongs to it to solve. 

Electric railway utilities should be relieved from the 
burden of competition, whether from competing lines, 
jitneys, motor buses, or otherwise, to the end that its 
patron shall not be required to pay an iota more for his 
transportation than is economically necessary. If this 
statement is unsound, the proposition that a public utili- 
ty is natural monopoly is also unsound. It seems only 
necessary to bring into review the operating and finan- 
cial methods of a day long since passed, to prove the 
logic for, and necessity of, a public utility being recog- 
nized as a natural monopoly and being protected as 
such for the economical benefit of the user of its service. 

The electric railway utility should and must be re- 
lieved of the burden of the political and newspaper 
hazard that so often causes the utility increased operat- 
ing and capital expenses, for which its patrons must 
pay. This hazard is wholly unnecessary and unjust. 

Summary and Conclusions 

I have endeavored to outline the principal burdens 
from which the electric railway industry must be re- 
lieved if any successful attempt is to be made to main- 
tain the 5-cent coin as the single unit of fare. It is a 
grave question whether the removal only of the burdens 
outlined, including any which may have been omitted, 
will make possible the use and continuation of the 5-cent 
fare, but the experiment is well worth a trial. 

Should such trial prove that still further revenue 
is necessary, then must come a charge for a transfer, 
with this transfer charge increasing, if necessary, until 
it reaches a practical maximum ; and finally before get- 
ting away from the 5-cent fare, should come a more 
restricted zone in which this rate of fare would apply. 

In closing I would emphasize the fact that the re- 
pressing burdens herein outlined, have made it im- 
possible for the electric railway utilities to obtain capi- 
tal for the improvements and extensions so urgently 
needed to render the service required, or properly to 
maintain their existing properties. The limit of oppres- 
sion is reached. A reaction must set in that will pro- 
vide such just and reasonable rates of fare as will enable 
the utilities to exist and perform their functions to their 

patrons; otherwise such of our utilities as are not al- 
ready in the hands of receivers, will speedily land there 
to the irreparable damage, not only to the owner of 
and investors in these properties, but to the patrons of 
the service. 

One-Man Car Operation* 

The Author Gives Recent Data Showing That the 
Light-Weight Car with One Operator 
Is a Demonstrated Success 

By Sam W. Greenland 

General Manager, Ft. Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction 
Company, Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

THERE are 102 cities and towns in this country and 
Canada where 1164 one-man cars of all descrip- 
tions are being used. This number has increased 
rapidly during the past two years on account of the 
conditions through which our industry has passed. Un- 
doubtedly the one-man car is at least one of the good 
things coming to the industry out of this experience. 

The development of the art has brought us the pre- 
payment type of car, the light-weight motor, the fare 
box, the low or stepless car and the elimination of the 
conductor. If with these are combined the light-weight 
car-body and truck construction, we have the modern 
one-man car. This development has proceeded step by 

There seems to be no limit to the use of the one-man 
car, so far as the population of a community is con- 
cerned. Probably the smallest community in which this 
type of car is being used at present is Columbus, Ind., 
where five cars are serving a population of 3000. The 
largest city in which it is being used extensively is 
Spokane, Wash., where eighty-five cars are operated 
to serve a population of 135,000. 

The one-man car is not a "cure-all," or a car that can 
be operated under absolutely all conditions. There are, 
however, lines in almost every community where its 
use will improve service. 

Local conditions exist with all companies, which at 
times we feel cannot be changed, but in reality a number 
of these can be changed. For example, the problem of 
flagging railroad crossings can be solved in a number 
of cases by the electric railway companies paying one- 
half of the steam railroad companies' expenses for flag- 
men. In some cases, the operator of the one-man car 
can do his own flagging, say at railroad crossings where 
the use is infrequent by the steam railroad. 

While we all look upon the one-man car as being new, 
the following companies have been operating one-man 
cars for more than ten years: East St. Louis & Sub- 
urban Railway, Beaver Falls Traction Company, Hat- 
tiesburg Traction Company, Owensburg City Railroad, 
and Salina Street Railway. 

These companies, of course, have not had the latest 
type of one-man car, but have been operating the regu- 
lar single-truck car, designed in such a way that the 
entire operation is in charge of one man. On an aver- 
age ninety-eight companies in the country have op- 
erated one-man cars about three years, so that the 
specially designed and built one-man car has surely 
passed the trial or test period. 

There are in service as one-man-operated cars the 

♦Abstract of paper read at meeting of Central Electric Railway 
Association, S.S. "Soutli American," on Great Lakes cruise, July 
1, 1919. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

converted car, the Birney car, and other one-man de- 
signed cars. In the converted car, the saving is in the 
operators' wages. In the Birney car, the saving is in 
the reduction of power consumed as well as operators' 
wages. In the other t^pe of one-man cars, the savings 
are the same as in the Birney cars and in addition to 
these savings, the comfort and convenience of the pas- 
sengers are very much improved. 

In the above comparison it is assumed that the con- 
verted cars are equipped with platform doors, which 
have reduced the number of boarding and alighting 

Energy Is Saved in Proportion to Weight 

Power consumption has, of course, been one of the 
principal items considered in the designing of the latest 
type of cars. This consumption varies, naturally, with 
the weight of the car. Some information has been ob- 
tained in a typical Middle West city, where several 
types of single-truck cars are being operated, the en- 
ergy consumption being taken at the car and including 
only that used for motors and compressors. The read- 
ings obtained were as follows: 

of car, lb. 

Number and 
capacity of motors 
2—40 hp. 
2 — 25 hp. 
2—25 hp. 

per car-mile 

The average reduction in power consumption by all 
companies using the Birney type of car in the country, 
was 51.2 per cent. On the converted type of car, the 
power consumption remains the same as when the car 
was operated by two men. In some cases, this consump- 
tion has been increased, as cars have been equipped with 
air brakes in order further to reduce the work of the 

Most Companies Pay Higher Wages 

The rate of pay to trainmen for the operation of one- 
man cars varies throughout the country. A number 
of companies do not pay any additional amount for one- 
man operation; other companies pay an additional 
amount per hour ranging from two to ten cents. Some 
con.panies have found it advisable to place this matter 
on a percentage basis ranging from 10 to 30 per cent 
of the existing rate. This is governed entirely by local 
conditions, but inasmuch as additional duties are as- 
signed to the operator som.e increase in pay should be 
granted. Furthermore, it is necessary to have operators 
of a higher grade on the one-man cars, if they are to 
Ix" operated properly. 

In many instances it appears that a conductor de- 
velops into a m.ore efficient one-man-car operator than 
a motorman because he has had the general experience 
of dealing with the public, making change and issuing 
transfers. It is therefore only necessary for him to 
learn physically to operate the car. The motorman has 
much more to learn. This, of course, does not hold good 
in all cases. 

Schedules Can Be Improved with One-Man Cars 

With the placing in service of one-man cars it has 
been necessary in many instances to revise the schedules. 
According to reports from ninety-four companies, sixty- 
four have not increased the number of cars operated, 
while twenty have done so. Of the companies making 
increases in their schedules, the increase has averaged 
fifty per cent. Some of the increases, however, have 

been much greater, and in a number of cases reductions 
in running time of 15 to 20 minutes have resulted. 
It is undoubtedly necessary in most cases to increase 
schedules and furnish more frequent service if the full 
advantage of the car is to be realized. During these 
days, when the automobile is so generally used, more 
frequent service will to a certain extent be justified, 
because the operation of the one-man car so materially 
reduces the operating expense. This frequent service 
will assist very considerably in meeting "jitney" com- 
petition and in some cases it has been known entirely 
to eliminate it. 

Reports from forty-three companies show they have 
had an increase in earnings from the operation of one- 
man cars, while thirty-five companies report that their 
earnings have not been affected either way by such 
operation. It seems to be invariably true that where 
the converted cars have been used there has been very 
little, if any, increase in earnings. The greatest in- 
creases in earnings are snown where the new type of 
car has been placed in service. This is not surprising 
v/hen one considers the viewpoint of the public. In 
most cases the cars that have been converted still re- 
tain the same general appearance, with the undesirable 
longitudinal seats and high steps. Practically all that 
has been done has been to install additional doors and, 
possibly, air brakes. With the new type of car the public 
is immediately impressed by the low step, cross seats 
and other items of improvement. While this may be 
a purely psychological effect, the increase in earnings 
surely justifies the adoption of the new rather than 
the converted type of car. 

One illustration of increased earnings where the new 
design of car has been installed is in the Central West, 
where a population of 20,000 is being served by eight 
regular cars with a daily mileage of 135 miles per car. 
Formerly this system operated with the same number 
of cars on the same schedule, the cars being of the con- 
verted type with longitudinal seats and platforms pro- 
tected by doors manually operated. During the five 
months from Jan. 1 to June 1, 1919, the earnings were 
$40,980, or 25.3 cents per car-mile. For the same 
period in 1918 the earnings were $25,522, or 18.5 cents 
per car-mile. The increase is $15,458, or 60.6 per cent, 
the greater portion of which is, in the opinion of the 
operators of this property, due to the one-man cars of 
new design. Similar reports have been received from 
other communities. 

It should not be understood that increased earnings 
will be shown immediately when the new cars are placed 
in service, as there are a number of improvements that 
must be installed on a system where the service is 
frequent if the public is to be better served and all 
of the advantages realized. The following changes 
and improvements appear to be necessary prior to the 
placing in service of this type of car: (1) An educa- 
tional campaign for the benefit of the public. (2) 
Training of the operators. (3) The adoption of the 
simplest form of transfer possible. (4) The provision 
of change racks for the operators, where fares are 
other than five cents. (5) The installation of auto- 
matic blocks instead of hand-operated blocks for pro- 
tection on single track. (6) The installation of electric 
track switches. 

In considering the question of accidents from the 
operation of one-man cars, the relative values of the 
data depend entirely upon the classes of equipment 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


operated previously. When the platforms have been 
protected by doors in the past, the reduction in accident 
expense has not been material. With the loading and 
unloading of passengers under the supervision of one 
man, the operator should be able to reduce to the mini- 
mum the boarding, alighting and platform accidents. 
Collisions with automobiles and other vehicular traffic 
have been somevi^hat reduced because the lighter car is 
under excellent, control. The employment of a better 
class of operators, as previously referred to, will ma- 
terially reduce collision accidents. 

As to cost of maintenance, both on cars and track, 
the little information available is largely an estimate 
on the part of the officials of the operating companies. 
However, with the reduction in weight there undoubt- 
edly will be less track maintenance. Apparently no 
operating company has attempted to construct its track 
for the special operation of the lighter cars. This un- 
doubtedly will be done in the extending of present 
tracks and in rebuilding. The one-man car has come 
to stay and changes in the design of track construction 
will follow. 

Cars Can Now Be Purchased on Car Trust 

In the total of 102 companies now operating the 1164 
one-man cars, there are in service 620 converted cars, 
443 Birney cars and 111 other one-man cars, so that 
more than 50 per cent of the present cars operated 
are of the converted type. This undoubtedly is due in 
many cases to the inability of the operating companies 
to secure new cars. Arrangements have been made by 
the car builders whereby the new type of car can be 
purchased on car trust certificates, with an initial pay- 
ment of 25 per cent. These certificates run for three 
to five years, the unpaid portion of the certificates bear- 
ing interest at 6 or 7 per cent. There is available 
at the present time, therefore, a plan which permits 
of the purchase of these safety cars on a fairly liberal 

The weight of the one-man car has probably been dis- 
cussed more than any other phase of this subject and it 
is interesting to note that the newly designed car was 
built, in some instances, with a total weight of ,10,000 
lb. The standard Birney car to-day, I am advised, 
weighs 13,500 lb. 

On specifications which have been recently prepared 
by one of the larger eastern companies for one-man 
cars, the weight has been placed at 16,000 lb. From 
the experience we have had on our system, where 
twenty-five of these newer type of cars have been op- 
erated, it is our opinion that a reasonable weight for 
a car of this type would be approximately 18,000 lb. 
The manufacturers who furnish the motors state that 
this is the maximum weight to be handled by their 
present design of motor. This weight permits of a 
sufficiently large platform to provide both entrance 
and exit doors at the front ; provides for a double floor, 
comfortable, reasonably wide seats, and an aisle of 
ample width. All of these items are of great impor- 
tance for the convenience of passengers. 

While it undoubtedly will require more power to oper- 
ate this car, weighing 350 lb. more than the present 
standard, the difference will not be serious when the 
question of the public's comfort and convenience is con- 
sidered. Therefore in designing standards it may be 
necessaory to have cars of two weights. 

Pacific Claim Agents Hold Large 

Automobile Accidents and Analysis of Human 
Nature in Making Claims Demand Prin- 
cipal Attention of the Association 

RESUMING pre-war activities, about 100 members 
.of the Pacific Claim Agents' Association met at 
the Hotel Oakland, Oakland, Cal., on June 19 to 
21 for the tenth annual convention of that body. The 
three-day meeting was presided over by President H. G. 
Winsor, Tacoma Railway & Power Company, Tacoma, 
Wash. By way of diversion from the business meetings 
the members were entertained with luncheons at the 
Hotels Oakland and Claremont and a dinner at Canyon 
Inn, a theater party, a street car ride over the scenic 
route in San Francisco, an automobile ride to Canyon 
Inn and another over Sky Line Boulevard in San 

The first paper read at the Thursday afternoon session 
was by J. H. Handlon, claim agent United Railroads of 
San Francisco, on "The Psychology of Claim Adjust- 
ment," an abstract of which will appear in an early 
issue. At this session a paper by F. J. Lonergan, at- 
torney Portland Railway, Light & Power Company, on 
"The Claimant, the Claim Department and the Physician 
and Surgeon," was read. This was followed by two 
papers on "Motor Vehicle Accident Investigation and 
Adjustment," by S. A. Bishop, claim agent Pacific Elec- 
tric Railway, Los Angeles, and by V. Laursen, solicitor 
British Columbia Electric Railway, Ltd., Vancouver. 

More Safety Must Be Taught 
"The Safety Problem" from the viewpoint of the com- 
panies and of the public was presented respectively in 
papers by Thomas G. Aston, claim agent Washington 
Water Power Company, Spokane, Wash., and Police 
Lieut. H. S. Lewis, in charge of the police traffic bureau 
of Portland, Ore., and occupied the attention of the mem- 
bers on Friday morning. A written discussion of these 
papers was presented by Charles A. Blackburn, claim 
agent Butte (Mont.) Electric Railway. In his paper 
Mr. Lewis remarked that, speaking generally, he had 
found the owner of an insured automobile to be more 
careless or indifferent in his handling of motor vehicles 
than the uninsured, for he feels that if an accident oc- 
curs the insurance company will pay the bill, and it is 
therefore no concern of his. After much study and in- 
vestigation of the subject of automobile accidents Mr. 
Lewis said he was convinced that every city should estab- 
lish a board of examiners for automobile drivers, and re- 
frain from issuing certificates until the applicants had 
sho\vn proficiency in handling the wheel and brakes, 
passed a reasonable eye test, and demonstrated a thor- 
ough knowledge of traffic laws. He believed this to be 
the foundation of any plan for the prevention of acci- 
dents. His conclusion from much study of this question 
was that traffic bureaus should be established in every 
city for the purpose of handling and solving the prob- 
lems of traffic only. The members of the bureau should 
be specialists in their subject and should meet from 
time to time with members of the traffic bureaus of 
other cities, in convention, or otherwise, in order that 
the very best results might be obtained through the 
interchange of ideas and viewpoints. 

In his written discussion of the safety problem Mr. 
Blackburn lamented that our great nation, leader in 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

practically everything pertaining to the sciences and 
industry, is suffering annually the economic loss incident 
upon 14,000,000 casualties, while the public is so apa- 
thetic that disciplinary measures, coercion, if you please 
rather than education, have been found to be most effec- 
tive in dealing with this tragic condition. He said the 
trend of modern safety work as applied to the public, 
as well as to the employer, was in that direction. He 
called attention to how ineffective education had been 
among automobile owners, how strenuously individual 
owners and automobile clubs have objected to traffic reg- 
ulations, and how prone they are to disregard and 
violate not only the moral obligations resting upon them 
to avoid careless practices but also the statutes and 
ordinances enacted by the authorities. 

Nevertheless, the educational work must be persist- 
ently and methodically continued. But more must be 
done. The co-operation of the public must be sought, 
and a corrective education promoted. Every accident 
should serve as an object lesson and should be used as 
a text in training employees and the public. In no sort 
of industrial work, and particularly in electric railway 
operations, can the employment of men who are person- 
ally incapacitated for the work, who become negligent 
due to laziness or thoughtlessness, indifference, because 
of the monotony of their calling, or because of willful 
negligence, be continued. 

The responsibility of the railway management, he 
pointed out, does not end with the bare instructions and 
admonitions to the men to practice the safety-first prin- 
ciples. A man must be shown the correct way to work, 
and then by frequent inspection and careful observation, 
the management must see to it that the correct method 
is followed. The men must be made to understand that 
they must maintain a certain standard of efficiency in 
the matter of accident prevention, as well as in other 
matters, and this is about the only way to answer the 
question of how to keep the employees interested in the 
safety-first work. The end sought should be to have all 
•employees so imbued with the safety movement that the 
careful workman will insist upon his co-worker being 
careful and will report him (turn him in) for careless- 
ness just as he now turns in a report concerning a 
defective machine or appliance. The fear, now quite 
general among workmen, that if they do this they will 
be considered by their fellow workmen as a "snitch" or 
"stool pigeon," must be overcome, not alone by appeal- 
ing to pride and self-interest, but also through fair 
treatment and consideration, and by making an honest 
effort to correct improper efforts by other than dis- 
ciplinary measures. 

Office Suggestions — Benefits of Association 

On Friday afternoon, Thomas A. Cole, claim agent, 
Los Angeles Railway Corporation, read a paper on "Of- 
fice Kinks in Claim Departments," in which he called 
attention to the great desirability of settling as many 
claims as possible in the company's claim offices, saying 
that in that manner one man could dispose of more 
cases or make more settlements in one week than a field 
man could make in one month. He also thought that it 
was important that the offices of the claim department 
should be attractively furnished. He could not agree 
with the old-time idea that it was necessary to impress 
claimants with the poverty of the company by having 
dilapidated chairs, bare floors and bare walls with which 
to receive them. On the contrary, he felt that the of- 

fices should be so equipped and furnished that they 
would impressi the claimant with the comfort, attention 
and courtesy of the place, and indicate to him that the 
department was run in a business-like manner, and that 
the company had abundant resources for defense. 

At this session a paper was also read by Frank D. Oak- 
ley, attorney Tacoma Railway & Power Company, on 
"How to Handle Fraudulent Claims and Actions Having 
No Merit." This session was closed by a paper by Secre- 
tary B. F. Boynton on "Benefits of the Pacific Claim 
Agents' Association," in which he reviewed at quite 
some length the accomplishments of the association and 
the benefits derived by its membership from its activi- 
ties. By way of emphasizing the great importance of 
the safety work of the association, Mr. Boynton quoted 
some figures showing the tremendous toll of life taken 
through accidents in this country. He said that during 
the nineteen months of our participation in the war, 
while there were 56,227 American troops killed on the 
field of battle and in the various ways pertaining to wai 
activities, there were killed in peaceful America, where 
we have plenty, with no uprisings, 126,654 through ac- 
cidents. In other words, 70,427 more people were killed 
by accident in peaceful America in various ways than 
were killed in the great war, and also, during that samb 
period more than 2,000,000 people were injured suf- 
ficiently severely so that a record was made of the case. 
This meant that there were 220 people killed or injured 
every day, or one every twenty-two seconds. 

The Saturday morning session of the association was 
devoted to an open discussion of "Claim Department 
Problems," and this discussion was led by A. M. Lee, 
claim agent Northern Pacific Railway Company, Seattle. 

Officers Elected 

The following officers were elected: President, W. H. 
Moore, claim agent San Diego (Cal.) Electric Railway; 
first vice-president, Charles A. Blackburn, claim agent 
Butte (Mont.) Electric Railway, and secretary-treas- 
urer, B. F. Boynton, claim agent Portland Railway, 
Light & Power Company, Portland, Ore. 

Americanization — What Is It? 

The National Safety Council recently sent out a letter 
on Americanization, which is suggestive for the electric 
railways which are taking, or will take, an active part 
in this important movement. The letter says, in part: 

Americanization is not simply conducting classes in Eng- 
lish for foreigners, or even putting them through the 
ceremony of naturalization. It is much more than that. 

Americanization means accepting the immigrant as a 
brother, and in the spirit of brotherhood, helping him to 
understand us, our traditions, ideals, standards and insti- 
tutions. It is an effort to establish contacts and to provide 
facilities whereby he may more easily adjust humself to 
his new environment and become an integral part of our 
nation. The alien comes to our shores with great expecta- 
tions of enjoying the benefits and privileges of a free man 
in a free country. Americanization aims to help him share 
those benefits, and to fit him for his responsibilities and 
duties as a citizen. The final purpose of every Ameri- 
canizing influence is to instill in his heart a love for Amer- 
ica, so that he will desire always to remain here and serve 
the country of his adoption loyally, and in the whole meas- 
ure of his power. 

It is just as important for Americans to understand the 
peoples who come to them from foreign lands as it is for 
those peoples to understand us. All these foreigners who 
have chosen to live and labor under our flag bring more 
than hands with which to toil. They bring personal quali- 
ties, traditions, customs, ideals, new points of view, expe- 
rience in other forms of social organization, many of which 
may become valuable contributions to American culture, - 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Cleveland Rapid Transit Report 

No Rapid Transit Recommended Now — Downtown Surface 
Car Subways to Relieve Congestion — Unification of Street 
Car and Ultimate Rapid Transit a Necessary Step in Financing 

Tracks fot>e extended over / 
the new Huron-Lorain Vhducf 

THE report to the Rapid Transit Commission of 
the City of Cleveland on a rapid transit system 
which has been in course of preparation by Bar- 
clay Parsons & Klapp, consulting engineers, and di- 
rectly in charge of H. M. Brinckerhoff, since September, 
1918, was made public last week. The general object 
of the report is d3fined as being primarily to suggest 
a means of relief for the pres- 
ent street railway, vehicle and 
pedestrian congestion in the 
center of the city, and second- 
arily so to plan this relief as 
to form a logical nucleus for 
the development of a rapid 
transit system for the city as 
it may grow in the future. 

As the result of their 
study, the engineers arrived 
at conclusions which may be 
summed up in the following 
ten recommendations : 

1. A definite plan should be 
decided upon under which the 
city rapid transit line may be 
built as part of or co-ordi- 
nated with the city controlled 
surface lines, in order to elim- 
inate the duplication of in- 
vestment which would result 
from building competing lines 
and secure to the traveling- 
public the greatest variety of 
routes and transfer privileges 
with the lowest practicable 

2. The first step toward 
rapid transit and one which is now warranted should 
be the construction of subway loops in the center of 
the city in order to place the surface cars under ground 
and relieve the congestion in this district. 

3. All sections of the subway should be designed of 
such a size as to accommodate full-sized rapid transit 
and interurban cars and so located that they may be- 
■come part of rapid transit routes. 

4. A system of subway loops in the public square 
should be provided and constructed in sections as re- 
quired to relieve the most crowded streets, such as 
Ontario, Euclid and West Superior avenues. 

5. These subway loops in the public square should be 
so connected as to permit of turning cars at this point 
and also of running them through, since both methods 
of operation on the surface lines will be necessary for 
the best results, especially up to the time when through 
rapid transit can be established. A general typical 
diagram illustrating how this may be done is shown in 
Fig. 1. 

6. The initial rapid transit line should consist of a 
central through route east and west, passing under the 
public square and planned to collect passengers from 

intersecting and branch lines of surface and other cars 
by transfers, so as to concentrate a traflfic of sufficient 
density to support a train service at frequent intervals. 
Provision for this rapid transit track is made as shown 
in Fig. 5. This main trunk line east and west should 
be arranged to receive branch lines to radiate southeast 
and southwest as the city development may require. 




FIG. 1. 


7. Arrangements should be made for turning back 
special surface tripper service short of the public square 
in order to induce passengers to walk outward from the 
districts in returning home at night, rather than in- 
ward toward a central point. This system, of subsidiary 
loops can be developed in connection with the subway 
when the through trunk line becomes overcrowded. The 
idea should be to maintain and increase capacity and 
speed of service to and through the main delivery dis- 
trict and handle the surplus by surface cars from the 
edges of the district. The most practicable arrange- 
ment will be a progressive shifting of the long-haul 
travel to rapid transit routes and the handling of short 
haul by surface cars. 

8. Efforts should be made to provide further routes 
from the east to the west sides by bridges, and thus 
keep out of the central district the passengers who wish 
to cross the city. 

9. Streets especially adapted to vehicle traffic across 
the city should be developed to facilitate the diversion 
of this kind of traffic from the congested area. By this 
means the necessity for part of the extensive subway 
construction may be postponed. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

10. The building of subways should be limited to the 
congested business districts, and other cheaper forms 
of rapid transit such as open cuts, elevated lines, or 
the use of steam and suburban railway rights of way 
should be resorted to whenever possible, since by such 
economy the development of rapid transit lines to the 
greatest number of outlying districts would be possible 
in the shortest time. 

In brief, the general scheme recommended for reliev- 
ing the situation in Cleveland is first to alleviate the 
extreme congestion which is now present at the public 
square, by in effect making the square a two-surface 
level, and operating some of the car lines in subway 

As the traffic grows, one after another of these 
loops can be put under ground and the cars thereby re- 

report does not include any estimate of the expendi- 
ture which would be required to construct the exten- 
sions to the rapid transit systems (beyond the subway 
portion), and which in effect will be necessary before 
a transportation which may be classed as rapid transit 
will be possible. The subway construction indicated 
above is shown in the heavy lines of Fig. 2 exclusive of 
the loops, which are shown in Figs. 1 and 5. 

Population Study 
After considering in some detail the conditions sur- 
rounding Cleveland favorable to its commercial grovvd;h, 
the engineers arrived at the conclusion that the present 
population of approximately 1,000,000 people will reach 
1,500,000 by 1930, and 2,000,000 not later than 1940. 





„ Llcva-ted or open cut or Steam or 

InlerurtJCJn n.K, right of way 

Union Terminal Go's Shaker Heigh^sLine 

K ^ 


moved from the congestion on the surface, and then 
when the total traffic warrants, this underground sys- 
tem through the central district may be connected up 
with a rapid transit subway extending east and west 
parallel to the lake. 

The cost of carrying out the plan, involving the con- 
struction of the subway loops in the public square, and 
the connecting subways to 22nd Street on Euclid Ave- 
nue, 9th Street on East Superior, the Market House on 
Ontario Street and the high level bridge on West Su- 
perior Street is estimated to be between $14,000,000 and 
$15,000,000, figuring costs at the present prices. The 

In arriving at the proper location for a rapid transit 
line, the engineers made an exhaustive study of the dis- 
tribution of the present population of the city and en- 
deavored to learn what the probable future distribution 
would be. 

For this study, data were collected showing the 
density of population for each quarter-square-mile 
area of the city and suburbs, the grouping of factory 
employees about and within walking distance of their 
employinent, the number of building permits issued in 
each of the natural sections of the city in the years 
1910 to 1918, etc. The analysis of these data led to 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Kailway Journal 


the conclusion that the further development of the city 
must be looked for by a filling-up process of the vacant 
spaces between the various outlying residential groups 
along the lines of transportation, this depending largely 
on the development of rapid transit facilities. These 
residential groups and the delivery districts are so 
located as clearly to indicate that the logical initial rapid 
transit line should be laid out along Euclid Avenue on 
the east side and Detroit Avenue on the west side. 

Traffic Conditions 

Along with the growth in population, the total pas- 
sengers carried by the street railway company has ad- 
vanced rapidly, and in fact has practically doubled since 
1907. In that year the total passengers carried were 
188,192,508, whereas in 1917 there were 398,358,894. 
The number of fares collected per capita for 1910 
was about 285, and this had increased to 326 in 1917. 
Of the revenue passengers about 36 per cent transfer to 
other lines. From the general characteristics of the 
Cleveland traffic, the engineers conclude that the num- 

5,580 Passengers Transfer 
to West Side Lines at 
Public Square 

Loading Scale 

1000 7000 5000 
1 1 1 1 

Distance Scale- Mil« 

z >A W \ \ 




Summary of Length of Passenger Rides 

Average hauL 

Annual aa 

Per Cent 

of 1918 

of Total 


















ber of rides per capita will have reached from 350 to 
360 rides per annum when the estimated 1930 popula- 
tion is reached. This would result in the necessity 
to handle 525,000,000 to 540,000,000 revenue rides per 
annum. With a population of 2,000,000 and 370 rides 
per capita, there would be 740,000,000 revenue rides. 

It is pointed out that with a population in Cleveland 
now approxi- 
mately at the 
million mark, it 
compares about 
equally with the 
which existed 
when the first 
rapid transit 
lines were in- 
stalled in Chi- 






3,017 miles 

c a g 

The general 
character of the 
street railway 
traffic of Cleve- 
land is into the 
central business 
district from 
the various 
residential dis- 
tricts and to 
and from the 
factories, much 
of the latter 
p a s s i n g 
through the central business district. The traffic 
to the central district is essentially radial, coming 
from east, west and south. The travel to the factories, 
however, was found to be largely of a crosstovra char- 
acter. Of this riding, a complete traffic check giving 
the origin and destination of passengers on ten of 
the principal lines of the city, and a special check 
on two crosstown lines, together with a classifica- 
tion of the transfers collected on the entire city sys- 
tem for a twenty-four hour period, reveals the fact that 
the average haul on the principal lines of Cleveland, 
such as Euclid, St. Clair and Detroit, is noticeably long. 
The report indicated this to be as high as on the prin- 
cipal surface lines in Chicago. The percentage of the 
passengers riding three or more miles is also as high 
and in most cases higher than either Detroit or Chicago. 
The Detroit Avenue line, for instance, with an average 
haul of 3184 miles per passenger carries over 46 per 
cent of its passengers 3 miles or more, and over 22 per 
cept 5 miles or more. The Euclid Avenue line with an 
average haul of 3.017 miles per passenger, carries over 
45 per cent of the passengers in excess of 3 miles. The 
St. Clair Avenue line with an average haul of 3.122 
miles per passenger carries over 44 per cent of its 
passengers more than 3 miles. 

The average haul on the ten lines checked was 2.53 
miles per passenger. Estimating the haul on the re- 
maining lines by observation and from the city's and 
company's records, the engineers found the average 
haul on all lines in the city systems to be 2.48 miles 
per passenger. The average passenger journey, includ- 
ing the average distance ridden on transfers, for which 
an average fare of 5.30 cents is collected is about 3.113 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No, 2 

miles. This compares with 4.16 miles in Chicago on the 
surface lines for 5 cents. 

These Cleveland lines are only eight or nine miles in 
length, while on lines of similar length in Chicago the 
average haul is found to be from 2.7 to 2.9 miles per 
passenger. The Chicago lines, however, have a much 
higher proportion of transfer passengers, which makes 
the passenger journey longer. 

The density of traffic on the Cleveland street car lines 
is relatively light compared to other cities such as De- 
troit and Chicago. Thus the Euclid Avenue lines in 
1917 carried 2,628,000 total passengers per mile of 
single track, as against 4,640,000 passengers for Wood- 
v/ard Avenue in Detroit and 3.230,000 for Halsted 
Street in Chicago. It is pointed out, however, that the 
density of traffic on Euclid Avenue is low because it 
has been intentionally reduced by routing car lines over 
adjacent streets, in order to facilitate surface car opera- 


tion and overcome the increasing delays from vehicle 
and other interference. The engineers conclude, from 
this condition, that by revising the process and feeding 
into Euclid Avenue a system of cars from St. Clair 
and Superior and other lines, the density of traffic on 
this thoroughfare could be increased sufficiently to pro- 
duce the traffic density necessary for the support of a 
rapid transit line. 

Analyzing the result of the 24-hour check on transfers, 
the engineers found that for the entire system 272.336 
passengers used the privilege of the transfer, and of 
these, 79,458 transferred at the Public Square. This 
represented 29 per cent of the total for the city. Of 
the balance, 137,141, or 50 per cent of the total trans- 
ferred to and from the two cross-town lines, 55th and 
105th Streets at various intersections with other lines. 
The remaining 21 per cent were distributed in relatively 
small groups at the various street-car transfer points 
throughout the city. The heaviest transfer outside the 
public square at a single intersection of surface lines 
was found to be at St. Clair Avenue and 55th Street, 
where 6139 passengers transferred on the day checked. 

The transfers at the public square are found to be 
broken up into a great diversity of routes, with the 
heaviest transfer movement from the Detroit and Clif- 

ton lines to the Euclid Avenue line and from the West 
25th and Loraine lines to Euclid Avenue, St. Clair 
and Superior. The transfer at the public square is 
therefore seen to be principally a matter of convenience 
in distributing passengers to various destinations from 
the central point. The diversity of destination of pas- 
sengers on each line makes through routing from one 
side of the city to the other very difficult. For even if 
cars were run through from Euclid to Detroit, or from 
St. Clair to Lorain, there would still be a large pro- 
portion of passengers on these cars who would transfer 
to other diverging routes at the public square. 

Financing the Project 

Sizing up the practicability of a rapid transit system 
for Cleveland, the engineers point out that the difficulty 
which is most apparent in the whole problem is the 
question of cost. On account of the radiating character 
of the city's thoroughfares and the large number of 
directions in which the residential section can and prob- 
ably will extend, a system of rapid transit to serve the 
city best, must give the greatest diversity of routes 
into the residential sections, but financial considerations 
demand that the mileage must be reduced to a minimum 
consistent with adequate service. The concentration 
upon a few rapid transit lines of a large part of the 
passengers, with frequent transfer connections to dis- 
tributing surface lines, seems to offer the most prac- 
ticable solution in providing Cleveland with any rapid 
transit at an early date. The expense of attempting to 
reach all these outlying residential districts from the 
heart of the city by subway or elevated lines would be 
so great as to seriously delay the materialization of 
these facilities. If the existing street-car system, the 
suburban lines, and parts of the rights of way and other 
facilities of the Union Terminal Company are utilized 
in combination with city-built sections of subway in 
the business district, adequate service and most eco- 
nomical operating cost will be produced with the mini- 
mum investment. 

These considerations led the engineers to the con- 
clusion that a through line extending from the city 
limits at Laltewood, on or parallel to Detroit Avenue, 
passing through the public square and out Euclid Ave- 
nue a suitable distance east, appears to be the initial 
step in the development of rapid transit. The capacity 
of a two-track rapid transit line of this character with 
train operation would accommodate for many years east 
and west long-haul business, and would be capable of 
handling transfers from the north and south and other 
divergent lines. Additional rapid transit lines, as in- 
dicated in Fig. 2, would then evidently form part of 
later developments of the transportation system. 

Speaking of the initial subway construction consist- 
ing of loops under the public square, the engineers point 
to the difficulty which arises that while the construction 
of subways in this part of the city for use of surface 
cars would be very efliective in facilitating the move- 
ment of traffic of all classes and greatly relieving the 
congestion on the surface at that point, now, it will 
nevertheless not produce sufficient revenue to cover the 
charges on the new investment, although a material 
saving would be effected in the cost of operation. In 
another part of the report, however, it is stated that 
the advantages of such a plan to the public, should be 
so apparent that it should be willing to provide the 
necessary funds through bond issue to make this con- 
struction possible. 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Methods of 
Observing and Analyzing Passenger Traffic 

The Merits of Several Methods of Obtaining Data Are Pointed Out, 
Together with Helpful Advice on How to Use Traffic Study Data 


Traffic Engineer, Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 

TRAFFIC ANALYSIS has perhaps for its prime 
object the elimination of wasted effort. It should 
always lead to better service by having the cars on 
the streets when and where the people need them. A 
few of the points the traffic analyst looks for are: 

1. Fitting the Service to the Traffic. — Too often a 
solid schedule is continued longer than necessary after 
the morning rush and is started earlier than necessary 
before the evening rush. 

2. More Efficient Routing. — Combinations of routes 
are sometimes possible, to make one car do the work 
of two. A through routing often makes a remarkable 
decrease in operating expenses. 

3. Decrease in- Running Time. — Increasing the 
schedule speed with the consequent decrease in running 
time is one of the most effective methods of securing 
economy of operation, and it also results in one of 
the greatest benefits to the traveling public. A factor 
in speeding up schedules is the elimination of unneces- 
sary stops. 

4. Turn-Back Points. — No more cars should be 
scheduled to the end of a line than the traffic justifies. 
Herein lies one of the greatest sources of wasted effort. 
The proper turn-back points can be easily determined 
by means of a simple traffic count and this information 
is useful in meeting the inevitable complaint arising 
from the few passengers located near the end of the 

5. Regulation of Vehicular Traffic. — A knowledge 
of the characteristics of vehicular traffic leads to co- 
operation on the part of the city authorities in securing 
better regulation of this traffic so as to reduce inter- 
ference with street car traffic. Proper regulation of 
vehicular traffic usually results in speeding up all classes 
of traffic. 

6. Development of the Community. — A constantly 
checked industrial survey of the community is most 
essential to efficient street railway management. This 
not only tells the changing traffic requirements as to 
sections of the city but leads to great possibilities in 
building up short distance riding. 

Traffic analysis may be broadly divided into field 
work or observations, office work or compilations, and 
drawing conclusions or deductions. 

Some of the methods employed in field work are 
as follows: 

By using conductors and thus avoiding the expense 
of observers, some very excellent records often result, 
but when such work is in progress there should be 
an inspector or street superintendent on the line to 
remind the conductors of their duty, as it is sometimes 
found that if no such reminder is given they will be 

•Abstiact of paper read at meeting of the Pennsylvania Street 
Railway Association, Harrisburg, Pa., June 27 and 28, 1919. 

back to the carhouse in the evening with the blank 
form just as blank as it was handed to them in the 
morning, and when reminded by the carhouse clerk 
that a traffic slip should be turned in they will proceed 
then and there to fill it out. Naturally the data given 
are far from accurate. 

If inspired with the proper interest conductors can 
give very good information as to the maximum load 
on each half-trip. They should be supplied with a 
form that calls for a notation of the greatest number 
of passengers on the car at any one time on each one- 
way trip. This information is most useful in schedul- 
ing, as will be explained later. 

A similar form might be used asking the conductors 
to count the load at any given point or any series of 
given points. In this case even more particular atten- 
tion must be paid to the work and the conductors 
reminded of their duty when approaching the point 
of observation. 

In the same manner register readings may be ob- 
tained. From the register readings and the load on 
the car, deductions may be made concerning "local 
traffic" or "short riders." 

Street Corner Observations 

The work by trained observers usually produces the 
best results. We have found the trainman excellent 
for this class of work and he rapidly becomes quite 
expert in counting passengers. 

In the ordinary street corner observation, an ob- 
server is stationed at the corner to note the passengers 
boarding and leaving each car, and the passengers on 
the car when leaving. The instructions given the ob- 
server are to note the destination sign, block or car 
number, and the time, while the car is approaching and 
before it comes to a stop. The passengers waiting to 
board the car will sometimes form a compact knot of 
people and thus may be counted before the car comes 
to a full stop. Then a check may be made of the alight- 
ing passengers, and during the last few seconds the 
car is at the corner the observer is able to walk along- 
side and count the number of passengers on board. 
We have found that after about a week's work a man 
will be sufficiently expert so that his data may be used 
for work requiring considerable accuracy. 

On and Off Counts 

On the riding count, or "on and off" check as it is 
sometimes termed, an observer boards the car at the 
starting terminal and rides the entire trip, counting 
the number of passengers that board or leave the car 
at each stop. This is one of the most satisfactory 
methods of making a general check on a line, as it will 
include the maximum load on the trip, the point at 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 54, No. 2 

which the maximum load occurs, whether too many cars 
are operated to the extreme outer terminal, whether 
a turn-back point is feasible, and nearly every varia- 
tion of the traffic. We have found it possible to use 
the same form on this count as on the street corner 
observations, by writing in the names of the stops in 
the block number, direction, and destination sign 
columns. The work of observers is comparatively 
simple and requires no detailed explanation. 

Identification Ticket Count 

There have been a few attempts to count the pas- 
sengers by means of identification tickets; that is to 
tag each passenger and thus determine the point at 
which he entered and at which he left the car. For 
this purpose two observers are used; one placed at 
the entrance of the car and the other at the exit. The 
man at the entrance hands to each passenger entering 
a ticket which indicates either the exact point at which 
the passenger boarded the car or, if the line has been 
previously divided into traffic sections or zones, the 
traffic section in which he boarded the car. When the 
passenger alights the slip is taken up by the observer 
at the exit and the point or traffic section at which 
he left the car is indicated thereon. There have been 
very successful counts made by this method, one in 
particular on an elevated railway in which more than 
99 per cent of the passengers retained the slips and 
turned them over in good order to the observer. This 
count should give all of the data obtained in the "on 
and off" count previously described, and in addition 
should show the exact origin and destination of pas- 
sengers on the line observed, giving an indication of 
the amount of short-haul riding and at which part of 
the line it takes place. 

Origin and Destination Count 

Efforts have been made in several cities to take a 
complete origin and destination count. The method, 
which is a further refinement of the identification 
ticket count, is to give the passenger a slip indi- 
cating his point of origin on the line, this slip to 
be later collected by another observer who asks the 
passenger to what point he is destined, not only the 
point on the line observed but, if he intends to transfer, 
to what line and to what point he is going on the line 
to which he transfers. There have been some very good 
results obtained by this method, and also some which 
are very much open to question, but it is so complicated 
and so susceptible to error that it is very doubtful if 
results would be secured which were accurate enough 
to form a basis for the consideration of any very im- 
portant matter. 

Check on Running Time 

There have been few systematic checks on running 
time, but on the Philadelphia Rapid Transit system 
we have just completed a very thorough check along 
the following lines: 

The check was based on the relation between stops 
per mile, the length of stop and the possible schedule 
speed of the car. This point will be discussed more 
fully later. Observers were sent out with stop watches 
and forms calling for the information indicated in the 
following paragraph: 

In the first column headed "street" the stops were 
listed. At each stop the number of passengers board- 

ing and leaving the car was noted in the column 
marked "B" and "L," and the column "O" was used 
for noting at frequent intervals the number of pas- 
sengers on the car. Under the heading "stops" the 
length of stop as determined by the stop watch is en- 
tered in the proper column ; passenger stops under "P" ; 
stops caused by vehicular traffic under "T"; stops 
caused by car ahead under "C" ; and stops for safety 
under "S." Under the heading "slows" a checkmark 
was made whenever the car slowed down. The check 
was made in the "T" column for slow-downs caused by 
vehicular traffic, in the column "C" when caused by 
car ahead, and in the "S" column when slow-downs are 
made for safety such as passing an intersecting street 
where ordinarily no stop is made. There is also a 
column for recording the actual time at each stop and 
the running time between that and the last stop. 

These observations have been made on every eighth 
car on two different days, or the equivalent of every 
fourth car in service. When the field work described 
was completed the car with the heaviest loads was 
selected and on this car at a later date we placed a 
crew to make the same observations as before, but 
the car was operated by an expert motormari under 
instructions to operate at the highest possible speed 
between time points and to wait at each time point and 
leave on the scheduled time. He was cautioned to obey 
all rules of the company and give due regard to safety, 
this being done to place a practical check on the 
theoretical, and knowing that the theoretical speed 
should never exceed that which this expert actually 
makes on such a test run. 

Analysis of Transfers 

Much can be learned through the analysis of the 
transfers used. The transfer is usually granted in lieu 
of a direct line, and situations may very easily develop 
where it is wise to sort out the transfers and deter- 
mine the number used at each point and the direction 
of the traffic, so as to be sure the transfer is the most 
economical manner of handling the various streams 
of traffic. 

Industrial Surveys 

As a matter of general information and to keep in 
touch with the conditions in the community, the traffic 
man may often find it advisable to take certain large 
manufacturing plants or business houses and plot on 
a map the address of each of the employees of such 
institution. We are now engaged on this work in 
Philadelphia for several large institutions and for the 
purpose have divided a map of the city into square- 
mile sections. Then with the aid of a street guide, we 
have listed alphabetically all of the streets, showing 
the house numbers on each street falling in each square- 
mile section. Thus, in using the card index of the plant, 
a reference to this directory will show immediately in 
which section the employee lives. We expect that three 
men should be able to plot about 2500 names a day. 

We have occasionally found it advisable to treat peti- 
tions received from associations, etc., in the same man- 
ner and have secured some surprising results, as we 
have sometimes found that a large percentage of the 
signers would be adversely affected by the change they 
were requesting. 

Where there are groups of industrial plants, a study 
of the opening and closing hours and the number of 

July 12, lyiy 

Electric Railway Journal 


employees on each shift rewards one with much valu- 
able information. 

A study of population in connection with the built- 
up section of the city usually gives very interesting 
results. It is important that in a system of consider- 
able size one be advised not only of the growth of the 
city but the direction of that growth. These studies 
can be conducted through maps, either by spotting the 
population, which is the most common method, or plot- 
ting in different colors the different character of build- 
ings in the city and showing the growth of different 
sections in recent years. 

Office Work. 

In the field work as described, we have accumulated 
certain information as observed by conductors or ob- 
servers on the street showing the maximum load, the 
load at any one point or at a series of points. These 
observations are usually taken for schedule purposes 
as a measure of the service and traffic. Therefore, 
the most convenient method in which these statistics 
may be accumulated is to list them and show for each 
point of observation, in the order that the cars are 
operated, the load at that point. To make the data 
more comprehensible they should then be summarized 
by half hours, and it is strongly recommended that 
these half-hour periods be determined at the starting 

car at two points A and B, the reading at B being 
less, the register reading at A should show the number 
of passengers boarding in the district between A and 
B. The difference added to the load at A and sub- 
tracting therefrom the load at B will show the number 
of passengers leaving within this area. If the distance 
between the two points is not too long; that is, if it 
is a distance in which one would expect that few, if 
any, people would make their total ride within two 
points, an estimate of the passengers riding through 
may be made as follows: 

From the load at A subtract the passengers leaving 
as determined above, or from the load at B subtract 
the passengers boarding. This should give a fairly cor- 
rect figure. 

There are a great variety of methods which are 
used in the compilation of the "on and off" counts, 
depending largely upon the purpose for which the 
count was taken; that is, what particular question was 
to be answered. The more general method is to first 
accumulate the data on each observation sheet; that 
is, starting at the beginning of the line to determine 
the net of the passengers boarding or leaving the car 
at each stop, then take the algebraic sum of this net 
and it will show the number of passengers on the car 
at each stop. These data are then compiled into one 
statement, which as a rule should show the stops down 


" 50 









^ -TO TAL 













S f 

S 'i 
p 5 per 
FIG. 3 

n i I 

12 IJ 


FIG. 2 



terminal of the line; that is the final sheet should show 
for the half-hour ending at 7 :30 a.m. the number of 
cars leaving the terminal, the total load and the aver- 
age per car load on those same cars at the various 
points observed. The advantage of this may be more 
readily seen by considering the results in the case of 
the maximum load observations. The summary will 
then show that cars leaving the terminal in a certain 
half-hour will be required to lift a total load of such 
an amount regardless of the time they arrive at the 
maximum load point, which is really not an essential 
matter when considering service. What we first desire 
to know is how many people we are required to lift 
and at what time the cars should leave the terminal 
to lift them. Then we can get into the finer points 
as to where they are to be lifted and to what point 
they are to be carried. 

Register readings are usually observed for deter- 
mining the local traffic in a certain district or the 
passengers riding through a certain district. The com- 
pilation in the office should be a fairly simple matter 
with the application of a few formulas as follows: 
Having observed the register reading and load on the 

the left hand side of the sheet and the results for each 
separate trip placed in a column by itself and in 
chronological order. This, then, may be totalled across 
the sheet by rush-hour periods or for the total day 
as may be desired. 

A typical chart is sometimes developed from these 
data illustrating the conditions of the evening rush 
period, averaged to represent one car. The stops are 
laid off along the bottom to scale, and the number of 
passengers are laid off on the upright scale. The chart 
when completed shows the number of passengers on the 
car at every point on the line. The area of the figure 
inclosed by the line and the horizontal axis shows the 
total passenger mileage. 

The chart as so far described has been criticised 
in that it does not show the interchange of passengers 
at different points along the line; that is, that at a 
transfer point, for instance, all of the passengers on 
the car might leave and an entirely new group of equal 
number board, and the chart would show no record of 
this transaction whatever. This has been obviated by 
drawing at right angles to the horizontal axis a line 
showing to scale the number of passengers boarding 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

the car at each stop, the boarding passengers being 
drawn above the horizontal axis and the leaving pas- 
sengers below. 

If, in the study being made, it is more important to 
consider this interchange of passengers, a chart similar 
to that shown in Fig. 1 may be used. In this case, the 
accumulated total of the passengers boarding the car 
at each stop is plotted, and similarly, the passengers 
leaving. The vertical distance between the two lines 
thus formed represents the passengers on the car. It 
will be observed that it more or less obscures the im- 
portant point of maximum load and is only recom- 
mended for use where the interchange of passengers 
is a very important factor. 

On important work the data of the passengers-on-car 
curve and of the passengers-boarding and pasengers- 
leaving curve may be combined as shown in Fig. 2. 
The objection to this latter chart is the large amount 
of work required for its compilation and the fact that 
it is apt to be complicated. 

With the origin and destination and identification 
check counts a great mass of detailed office work 
is necessary. It has been found that the Hollerith card 
sorting machines give much help. In the case of these 
counts there is a multitude of slips showing the 
origin and destination of each passenger; these data 
are transferred to Hollerith cards and indicated on 
those cards by means of holes punched in them, for 
which purpose special machines are provided. The 
Hollerith mechanism will then sort the cards out in 
almost any combination which may be desired. 

The final point to be covered is the running time 
check. In the field data we obtained the number of 
passengers boarding and leaving the car at each stop 
and the length of all stops in seconds. I wish to point 
out that in the running-time check as laid out you 
have with it an "on and off" check, since this is one 
of the most essential points observed. The first step 
in working out these data is to divide the line into 
zones or sections which may be those zones or sections 
formed by the present time points or others formed 
by points arbitrarily placed. The traffic conditions, 
that is, the conditions pertaining to vehicular as well 
as passenger traffic, should be the same throughout 
the zone. 

Then it is desired to accumulate the observed 
data for each zone. The form used is laid out 
to care for one trip and is, in fact, a summation of 
the observed data for each time point on that trip; 
that is, it shows the total number of stops, the total 
slow-downs and the total seconds stopped for each class 
of stop, with such derived data as stops per mile, slow- 
downs per mile, speed, etc. These data are then trans- 
ferred to another form so that the totals shovra on the 
previous form for an entire daj^'s record for a cer- 
tain time point appear on this sheet. Since the total 
number of passengers boarding and leaving has a direct 
effect upon the number of stops and the length of 
stops, we can then note from the data upon this general 
form the fluctuations and the time at which they take 

In a community in which there is any vehicular 
congestion or large numbers of passengers carried, it 
is a mistake to continue the same running time through- 
out the entire day, and these data will show conclusively 
the periods of the day at which more time is needed 
than at others. These periods are then located and 

a summation made of the most important points ; that 
is, the total number of stops, the total length of time 
stopped, and the number of slow-downs. It was not 
attempted to measure the length of time consumed in 
slowing down because it was not deemed practical to 
make an observation of this, and it was thought to be 
valueless unless the speed before and after slowing 
down could also be determined. Therefore, we have 
assumed three traffic slow-downs or two safety slows 
(that is, a slow-down at intersecting streets where no 
stop is made) equal to one stop. For instance, if we 
have a time zone in which there are five stops, three 
traffic slow-downs and two safety^ slows, we would have 
what we term seven equivalent stops. This is one of 
the basic factors in the derivation of the proper run- 
ning time for this particular zone. The other is the 
average length of stops. The total time stopped divided 
by the total number of stops (that is, actual stops and 
not equivalent stops) shows the average length of stop. 
Fig. 3 has been developed by a tedious process from 
the motor characteristics chart for the motor equip- 
ment in use and should be fairly correct for almost 
any 20-ton car in city service. From this chart with 
the stops per mile and average length of stop as pre- 
viously determined, we arrive at the average scheduled 
speed for this particular zone, and with that the proper 
running time. 

If we were to take this as the final result we would 
many times make grievous errors, for those intangible 
points of the human equation must be given exceed- 
ingly careful consideration. Therefore, taking the 
maximum conditions which might hold forth in this 
particular zone, that is, assuming that the car would 
be required to make every stop and each of a length 
of time equal to that found by observation, and slow 
down at all points required for safety, a second figure 
as to the scheduled speed under these conditions is de- 
termined from Fig. 3. This figure should be almost 
as much too low as the first figure might be too high. 
Then pick out the maximum trip under actual condi- 
tions and, in a similar manner determine the theoretical 
running time under those conditions and compare it 
with the actual observed. Then average the running 
time for all trips observed in the period under con- 
sideration, and finally, analyze the work of the expert 
motorman on his test run and compare the theoretical 
running time under the conditions of the test run with 
the actual observed. 

Thus we have six different figures for consideration: 

(1) the theoretical time under average conditions, 

(2) theoretical time under maximum conditions, (3) 
actual time under maximum conditions, (4) the aver- 
age actual time, (5) the theoretical time for expert 
motorman on test run, and (6) the actual time of the 
expert motorman. 

With these six figures, good judgment should easily 
determine a proper running time which can be made 
with safety and proper operation of the equipment. 

The first motor-bus ever used in Tokyo, Japan, has 
just been introduced. The bus weighs 1^ tons and has 
accommodation for sixteen seated passengers. It is 
capable of developing a speed as high as 12 m.p.h., 
which is the regulation limit in the city. A fare equiva- 
lent to 5 cents is collected for each section of the ride. 
It is proposed to order 150 more of this type of bus 
if it proves satisfactory. 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Incentive to Efficiency Is Needed 

Fixing of Rigid Rate of Return Limits Value of 
Service-at-Cost Franchises 

By W. C. Culkins 

Director of Street Railroads, Cincinnati, Oliio 

THE service-at-cost plan of electric railway fran- 
chise pre-supposes a desire upon the part of the 
municipal government to provide adequate street car 
service to its people at the lowest rate of fare com- 
mensurate with such service. The basic principle of 
such grants is that the city shall determine the char- 
acter of the service, and that the company may charge 
such rate of fare as will provide a sufficient revenue 
to cover operating expenses, taxes and an agreed return 
upon the investment of the company. 

Such an arrangement is so obviously fair that it has 
appealed strongly to both governmental and utility 
officials as a solution of the perplexing electric railway 
problem. But panaceas often carry their own dangers 
because they are unable to justify the miraculous re- 
sults expected, and practical values which really exist 
are disregarded in the disappointments which follow. 
If the service-at-cost plan is to be adopted as generally 
as tendencies now indicate, it might be well to con- 
sider its inherent weaknesses in connection with its 
method of application. 

The first and most important of these is that the 
fixing of a definite and rigid return on the investment 
destroys all incentive for the officers of the company 
to exercise efficiency and introduce economies in the 
operation of the property. Stockholders think in terms 
of dividends, and as long as these are produced at the 
maximum officials need have no fear of removal. Carlyle 
has said "Every man is as lazy as he dare be," and 
electric railway executives are no exception to this rule. 
There may be a very natural tendency to yield to ex- 
orbitant demands of employees, to be listless in making 
purchases, and in general to pass the buck to the city 
authorities in the matter of service requirements. 
Thus the city will be deprived of the keen cooperation 
of the trained and experienced executives of the com- 
pany, which is so necessary to the successful operation 
of this plan. 

A second difficulty, perhaps depending largely upon 
the first, is that while it seems a very simple process 
to have fares rise indefinitely with the cost of service 
there is a third party to be considered. This is the 
short-haul rider, who has the option of walking; and 
also, if fares become sufficiently high, the long-haul 
rider, who may elect to pay even more for his trans- 
portation by some other means than endure the in- 
convenience of rush-hour service at what he may re- 
gard as an unreasonable rate of fare. 

Experience has already shown that there is a point 
at which the economic law of diminishing returns be- 
gins to operate, and increases of fares no longer pro- 
duce corresponding increases in gross revenue. Inas- 
much as the fetish of the nickel has so strongly im- 
pressed the American mind, the danger becomes greater 
as the rate of fare rises above this standard, out of 
all proportion to the operation of the economic law as it 
applies to the price of other commodities besides trans- 

If the success of the service-at-cost plan is to be 
measured by the extent of the departure of fares from 
the pre-war standards, then it obviously calls for the 

closest cooperation of governmental and traction offi- 
cials in the introduction of the highest efficiency in 
operation that fares may be kept to the lowest point 
consistent with good service. It is equally obvious that 
if a rigid rate of return tends to retard such coopera- 
tion, the opportunity to earn an additional reward 
would bring about the desired results. 

In the Cincinnati franchise a provision is included 
by which higher fares will always work to the financial 
disadvantage of the company. Whenever fares are 
higher than 6 cents, all of the surplus remaining after 
the payment of operating expenses, taxes and a fixed 
return to the company, is paid into a reserve fund 
toward the reduction of fares. When fares are 6 cents, 
however, the company is permitted to retain 20 per 
cent of such surplus in addition to its fixed return. 
When fares are reduced to 51 cents, the company re- 
tains 30 per cent of the surplus ; and when fares are 
5 cents or lower, 45 per cent of the surplus. The re- 
mainder, in each case, goes to the reserve fund. 

It is believed that this provision is so simple and 
easily understood that were the officials of a company 
to fail in putting forth the desired joint effort, there 
Vvould be little difficulty in arousing the interest of the 
stockholders who were thus being deprived of the op- 
portunity for increased dividends. 

The danger that this incentive may be abused and 
that the company will seek to reduce expenses by im- 
pairment of service is obviated by other provisions of 
the ordinance, through which the city has reserved to 
itself the complete and final determination as to the 
character and the quantity of service to be supplied. 

The Cincinnati ordinance has been in effect only 
since last October, and the "surplus" thus far has been 
a minus quantity. Fares were advanced to 6i cents 
on July 1, and it is now hoped that this will be the 
maximum. The attitude of the company during this 
period has appeared to justify fully the wisdom of the 
incentive provision in the ordinance. 

To Arrange for Convention Transportation 

THE transportation committee of the American 
Electric Railway Association, under L. E. Gould, 
Economy Electric Devices Company, master of trans- 
portation, and Clarence Sprague, General Electric Com- 
pany, chairman, is now well organized. Regional 
chairmen have been appointed as follows : New England, 
R. M. Sparks, Boston, Mass.; New York State (exclusive 
of New York City), W. H. Collins, Gloversville, N. Y. ; 
New York City, Bertram Berry, New York ; New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland, N. D. Bolen, 
Newark, N. J. ; District of Columbia, Kentucky, Virginia 
and West Virginia, H. S. Newton, Fairmount, W. Va. ; 
Indiana, Ohio and Michigan, E. J. Smith, Detroit, Mich.; 
North and South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, 
W. H. Glenn. Atlanta, Ga. ; Tennessee, Mississippi 
and Alabama, F. W. Hoover, Chattanooga, Tenn. ; Texas, 
Oklahoma, Arkansas and Louisiana, L. C. Bradley, Hous- 
ton, Tex. ; Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico, F. W. 
Hild, Denver, Colo.; Illinois and Wisconsin, H. J. 
Kenfield, Chicago, 111. ; Minnesota, North and South 
Dakota, Iowa and Manitoba, J. J. Caufield, Minneapolis, 
Minn. ; Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska, J. R. Harrigan, 
Kansas City, Mo. ; Montana, Idaho, Utah and British 
Columbia, W. G. Murrin, Vancouver, B. C. ; California, 
Oregon and Washington, W. R. Alberger, Oakland, Cal. ; 
Eastern Canada, Patrick Dubee, Montreal. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 54, No. 2 

Outline of Plan Adopted for Presenting Case of Electric Railways 
Before the President's Commission 

Statement in Behalf of Association 

Statement in Behalf of Committee of One Hundred 

The Present State of the Industry 
A. — Physical: 

Statistics based on census reports showing: 

(a) Miles of line 

(b) Miles of track 

(c) Number of cars 

(d) Employees 

(e) Power consumed 

(f) Riding habit 

These statistics will include a comparison between the 
different census years so as to bring out the retardation in 
the extension of lines. 

In addition — (h) Abandonments 

B. — Financial — 

(a) The balance sheet of the industry, in a form as 
nearly similar to the balance sheet of an ordinary 
company as it can be made, comparative for census 

(b) The income account of the industry. Comparative 
for census years 

(c) Record of receiverships 

(d) Distribution of the securities among general public, 
savings, trust companies, etc. 

(e) Shrinkage of security market values 

(f) Yearly capital requirements of electric railways — 

(1) Refunding operations 

(2) New capital 

(g) Relation to condition of banking and trust com- 
panies and the general financial structure of the 

Causes for the Present State of the Industry 

A. — Not caused by inefficient management: 

(a) Evolution of the modern electric railway in the 

matter of apparatus, methods and practice. 

(b) Economic development of the industry 

B. — Decline in the purchasing power of the nickel : 

(a) General 

(b) As affecting these elements of the cost of the 

(1) The cost of capital 

(a) Destruction of electric railway credit 
lb) High interest rates on securities 
(c) Failure of market for stock 

(2) The cost of operation: 
(a) The cost of labor 

(6) The cost of fuel, copper and lumber 
(c) Cost of other materials 

(3) The cost of taxes 

(a) Increase in normal taxes 

(6) Imposition of additional taxes 

(4) Replacements 

C. Elements of the cost of service 

D. Increased value for fare demanded by and given to 

patrons and communities — 

(a) Extension of lines in unroprofitable territories 

(b) Inauguration and extension of transfer system 

(c) Improvement in character of track and equipment 

(d) Imposts (paving, grading, bridge construction, 
franchise taxes, etc.) levied by communities 

(e) Use of money obtained from railway taxes to pro- 
vide right of way for competition 

(f) Varying cost of operation in different communities 

E. — Competition of motor vehicles: 

(a) The private automobile 

(D) I'ne Jitney 

(c) The motor truck 

F. — Increased physical difficulties of operation in cities: 

(a) Traffic congestion and its effect on schedules, acci- 
dent accounts, etc. 

G. — Restrictions put upon operation economies by authori- 


(a) Limitation of speed 

(b) Veto upon skip stop 

(c) Requirements as to stopping places 

(d) Limitations on use of one-man cars 

(e) Limitations on short-routing of cars 

(f) As to proper traffic regulation 

Social Need for Electric Railways 

A. — The continuing need for urban and interurban electric 
railways : 

(a) Effect of service on the growth of cities 

(b) Effect of service on the growth of rural communi- 

(c) Effect of service on growth of industry and com- 
mercial business 

(d) Effect of service on social and living conditions 

Defects in Regulation 

(Applicable to cases where state authorities have 

A. — Failure of commissions of their own initiative to pro- 

tect the railways 

B. — Long time to consider and act on cases 

C. — Suspension of filed schedules for lengthy periods 

D. — Impossibility of accurately forecasting revenues and 


E. — Regulation should be automatic 

F. — Defective jurisdiction of some commissions 


A. — Fundamentals : 

(a) Electric railways in Great Britain 

(b) Independent business men's viewpoint 

(c) Duty of government to electric railways 

(d) State regulation through commissions rather than 
local regulation; this does not prevent a proper 
degree of local control over service. 

B. — Public co-operation: 

(a) Mutuality of interest 

(b) Theory of principal and agent 

(c) Relationship of car-rider and tax-payer 

C. — Flexible fares based upon the cost of the service: 

(a) Value upon which return should be allowed 

(b) Rate of return 

(c) Franchises 

(d) Service at cost agreements 

(e) Profit sharing agreements 

(f) Incentive to efficient and economical management. 

D. — Methods of adjusting revenues to meet expenses: 

(a) Increase of fares through 

1. Zone system 

2. Flat rate 

3. Charges for transfers 

(b) Decrease in expenses through 

1. Elimination of unprofitable lines 

2. Protection from competition 

3. Elimination of special taxes 

4. Elimination of all imposts (paving, etc.) 

5. Participation of property owners, in cost of 
constructing and operating extension 

6. Employment of operating economies (one-man 
cars, turn-back, skip stop, et cetera) 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Committee of One Hundred Ready for Hearings 

At Meeting of Committee on Thursday, Plans Were Announced for Presenting the Railway Case Before 
the Federal Commission at Hearings to Be Begun in Washington Next Tuesday — Plea Made 
for Holding Some of the Sessions in Cities in the Central West 

AN ENTHUSIASTIC meeting of the Committee of 
One Hundred, appointed recently by President 
■L X. Pardee of the American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, to take charge of the presentation of the case 
of the electric railways before the recently appointed 
Federal Electric Railways Commission, was held in one 
of the rooms of the Engineering Societies' Building, 
New York, on the morning of Thursday, July 10. There 
was a representative attendance. 

Gen. Guy E. Tripp opened the meeting shortly after 
10 o'clock and announced that the sub-committees ap- 
pointed at the previous meeting of the committee had 
been organized and had prepared reports for submis- 
tion to the full committee. He then called upon Joseph 
K. Choate, chairman of the committee on presentation, 
to give the plans adopted by that committee and ap- 
proved by the executive committee for presenting the 
case of the electric railvv^ays to the commission. The 
plan, which Mr. Choate said was tentative, covered the 
points which the electric railways hoped to prove to the 
commission. The plan is published on the opposite page. 

Reports of Subcommittees 

In continuation, Mr. Choate explained that the com- 
mittee was collecting data and would arrange with dif- 
ferent witnesses to present testimony on the points 
mentioned in the program. He added that Bentley W. 
Warren of Boston had been selected by the committee 
as its general counsel and that Thomas Conway, Jr., 
Ph.D., of the Wharton School of Finance, Philadelphia, 
would assist in the presentation of the case. Tuesday, 
July 15, has been designated by the commission 
as the date of the first hearing, and it was understood 
that the hearings will be held in the hearing room of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission in Washington and 
will be continued each day until the case is closed. The 
plan of holding continuous hearings has been adopted 
for the purpose of reaching an early decision in the 

Mr. Choate said that the program as given covered 
only the line of testimony for which the association 
was responsible. He added that he understood the Com- 
mission did not expect to take up cases presented in in- 
dividual cities but only the broad aspects of the ([uestion. 

Upon motion, the report of the committee on presen- 
tation was accepted. 

On being asked to present the report of the committee 
on recommendations, O. D. Young, vice-president Gen- 
eral Electric Company and chairman of the committee 
on recommendations, said that the committee obviously 
could not present a detailed report of its recommenda- 
tions until after the testimony had been presented. 

B. C. Cobb, New York, then reported for the com- 
mittee on information and service. He explained that 
the committee expected, among other things, to report 
the sessions adequately and to prepare daily abstracts 
of the most important data presented for the benefit of 
the press and others interested, and that copies of these 
daily abstracts would be mailed to all railway companies. 

Samuel Insull suggested that it would be very desir- 
able to have some of the meetings of the Commission 
held in the Central West, if that were possible, and 
the chairman was authorized to appoint a committee 
to confer with the commission to learn whether this 
could be done. 

H. L. Stuart, of Halsey, Stuart & Co., chairman of 
the committee on finance, then made a verbal report 
on the expenses of preparing and presenting the case 
of the electric railways and urged that the committee 
receive the support of all electric railway companies, 
the manufacturing interests, and others concerned with 
the prosperity of the electric railways. 

Mr. Insull then suggested that other groups of public 
utility organizations be invited to co-operate in the 
presentation of the electric railway case. He thought 
that the fundamentals in the electric railway case ap- 
plied to the gas, water, electric light, and power in- 
dustries. The plan was approved by other speakers, 
and on motion was adopted. 

Good Attendance at Hearings Desired 

In conclusion. General Tripp urged all members to 
assist the committee by suggestions and to attend as 
many of the hearings before ^he Commission as possible. 

The committee then adjourned to meet in Washington 
at the first hearing and will meet each day until the 
Association's case is complete. Association headquar- 
ters will advise all electric railway companies of the 
dates set for the hearings and urge executives to attend 
as many of the hearings as possible, it being important 
that the industry manifest through its representation 
at the hearings its interest in and support of the 
work of the commission. 

Hydro-Electric Development Plans 

THIRTY-THREE municipalities covering a territory 
about 75 miles in length with tovras extending from 
Southampton to Wingham and across to Mildmay, organ- 
ized as The Associated Municipalities of Northwestern 
Ontario at a meeting called at Port Elgin by the local 
Board of Trade on May 8. 

The principal object in view is to secure electric power 
for the district included from the Provincial Hydro- 
Electric Commission. A resolution was adopted request- 
ing the commission to proceed at once with the develop- 
ment of power on the Sapgeen River and that the south- 
ern portion of the territory should be at once supplied 
from Eugenia Falls. The meeting also strongly favored 
the electrifying of the railroads and radial construction 
to serve the district. 

The following officers were elected: Chairman, H. H. 
Stevens, Port Elgin ; vice-chairman. Mayor Gurney, 
Wingham; secretary -treasurer, E. Roy Sales, Port El- 
gin; executive committee, W. J. Greer, Wingham; J. J. 
Hunter, Kincardine; Reave Steele, Paisley; Fred Lip- 
pert, Walkerton; J. A. Constantine, Ripley; R. Johnson, 
Lucknow, and A. McLean. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54. No. 2 

Rehabilitating: Track Joints with an 
Arc Welder 

Union Traction Company of Indiana Builds Up 
Joints in Paved Streets by Reversing Joint 
Bars and Inserting Plate Under Joint 

THE accompanying photographs show the method 
used by the Union Traction Company of Indiana, 
for repairing in paved streets track joints which have 
become badly worn and out of surface. The first 
illustration shows the joint before any work had been 
performed. It will be noticed that in addition to the bad 
rail joint the working of the rail ends has loosened 
the paving. In the second view the bricks have been 
removed and the joint bars are shown to be worn 
under the head of the rail so as to leave a space of about 
J in. between the rail head and the bar. This makes 
it impossible to tighten these bars successfully. 

The bars, which are continuous joints, are therefore 
removed, the base is sheared off and the bars are re- 
placed with the base under the head of the rail as shown 
in the third illustration. Two bolts are used to draw 
the bars tightly under the rail. The rail is then 
loosened from the ties and a steel plate, 1 in. thick, 

the joint is ground to a smooth surface to remove 
any possibility of pounding. The last illustration shows 
the joint after the brick has been relaid and, the 
grinding done. 

This method of rehabilitating joints obviates the 
necessity of bonding and has been employed on 6-in. and 
7-in. rail with very satisfactory results. Joints of 
this type have been in use on interurban track for a 
year and a half and are still in excellent condition. 
The cost of the work has varied from $6 to $9 per 
joint, depending on the condition of the ties, whether 
or not the joints were laid opposite, and how badly 
the rail ends were split or broken. 

EuiMing Up Flat Spots on Wheels and Re- 
pairing Worn Axle Collars by Welding 

IN THE DISCUSSION which took place following 
the presentation of the report on "Welding Truck 
Side Frames, Bolsters and Arch Bars," at the June con- 
vention of Section III, American Railroad Association, 
mention was made of the great saving which results 
from building up the collars on axles and filling in flat 
spots on cast steel and rolled steel wheels by welding. 

1. A bad joint before re- 

2. Paving removed show- 
ing wear on joint bars. 

3. Bars are inverted and 
welded to head and base of 
rail, and steel plate is 
welded on base. 

4. Rehabilitated joint af- 
ter building up and grinding. 


6 in. wide (for a rail base of 5 in.) and 24 in. long, 
is placed under the base extending from tie to tie. The 
ties are adzed for a good bearing surface if they are 
sound, otherwise new ones are installed. The entire 
joint is brought to a good surface, thoroughly tamped, 
and the bolts drawn as tightly as possible. 

An electric arc welder is used to weld the joint bars 
to the head of the rail, using as a shoulder the portion 
of the base that was not sheared off. The lower part 
of the splice bar is welded to the base of the rail, which 
in turn is welded to the 1-in. plate on which it rests. 
A soft grade of welding steel is used for this purpose. 
At most of these joints the head of the rail is more 
or less cupped, in which case this is filled with hard 
steel by the same welder. After relaying the paving, 

In connection with the building up of axle collars it 
was stated that where the collars are built up sim- 
ply to prevent excessive lateral movement, the welding 
process does not materially affect the strength of the 
axle. Several prominent railway men stated that they 
had reclaimed many axles by building up the collars, 
and that with the prices of axles as they are to-day such 
a process is a source of great saving. 

Railway officials also spoke of the satisfactory re- 
sults they were obtaining in building up flat spots on 
wheels by electric welding and stated that if the flat 
spots are properly cleaned off and cut in around the 
edges before the weld is made, rather than applying the 
metal direct to the top, no trouble is experienced with 
with the electric welding process. Mr. Dickson, master 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


mechanic Oregon Electric Railroad, said that his com- 
pany has been welding flat spots successfully by the 
electric process. He finds the best material to use for 
filling-in to be cuttings from steel-tired wheels. Some 
diflRculty was experienced when other material was used. 

Double-End Pay-a£-You-Pass Cars 
fqr Gary 

TEN double-end Peter Witt cars were recently de- 
livered to the Gary (Ind. ) Street Railway. The 
bodies are mounted on Brill 77-E-l trucks. As was ex- 
plained in detail in previous issues of this paper, the 
design provides for the handling of large crowds during 
rush hours and for preventing delays in loading as 
well as for getting the passengers away from the con- 
gested points very quickly. As the conductor is sta- 
tioned in the center of the car body the entire front 
half of the car serves as a loading platform. Only those 
passengers who pass the conductor to get to the rear 
of the car pay their fares upon entering. Those in the 
front section do not pay until they have reached their 


The new equipment is constructed for double-end 
operation with entrance doors located at diagonally op- 
posite corners. Exit doors are provided on both sides 
of the car at the center, one set of these being locked 
when the other set is in operation. The space directly 
in front of the doors is provided with hinged seats 
which can be raised out of the way when the doors are in 
use. The side construction of the car body is of semi- 
steel with plate-girder construction. The girder con- 
sists of a steel plate riveted at the bottom to the angle- 
steel sidesill and at the top to a flat-bar steel belt rail. 
The side posts are of T-section and the letter panel is 
of pressed steel. In addition to the angle sidesill the 
underframe is constructed of commercial steel shapes 

Two special features of these cars are the Brill 
Renitent side posts and the automatically placed win- 
dow screens. This post is made up of a casing of spring 
brass attached to the T-section side post by means of 
clips fastened to the casings and fitted into the stirrups 
riveted to the post. The casing offers elastic resistance 
to, the pressure of the sash and makes the contact wa- 

tertight, preventing warping of the sash. The sas'i 
may be removed without tools, is interchangeable be- 
tween windows and when raised will not drop suddenly 
if released. 

An iron wire screen of 2-in. diamond mesh is fitted to 
the bottom rail of each sash and when windows are shut 
the screens are inclosed in pockets formed between the 
outer steel sheathing and the inner finish below the 
belt. By this arrangement when the sashes are raised 
the window screens attached to them are drawn up and 
automatically close the window. 

A signal light gives the indication to the motorman 
when the center doors are closed and the car may be 
started without danger of accidents. 

Some of the general dimensions of the car are : 

Length over all 48 ft. 1 in. 

Extreme width 8 ft. 4 in. 

Height from rail to top of roof 10 ft. 8j in. 

Width of center door opening 5 ft. 6 in. 

Seating capacity 51 passen^rrs 

Truck wheelbase 5 ft. 4 in. 

Truck centers 22 ft. 3? in. 

Diameter of wheels 26 in. 

The electrical equipment furnished with these cars 
consists of GE-258 motors and GE-K-12 control. The 


motorman's door signal and the door and step operating 
mechanism is furnished by the National Pneumatic 
Company. The Ohio Brass Company's trolley base and 
trolley retriever is used, and the heating equipment is 
of the Consolidated Car Heating Company's type. The 
cars were built by the G. C. Kuhlman Car Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Theory and Practice in Electric Welding 

In the London Electrician for May 28, 1919, H. S. 
Marquand describes some power sets for the supply of 
energy for arc welding and makes a brief comparison 
between direct and alternating-current processes. He 
states that the direct-current process should be used 
where possible but that the alternating-current system 
is satisfactory where proper skill in the operation is 

In a previous article in the May 2 issue Mr. Marquand 
gave information relating particularly to wire welding. 
The preparation of the work, regulation of the current 
and the power necessary for making resistance welds 
was described. 

News of the Eledric Railways 



Progress in Detroit 

Agreement to Study Service-at-Cost 
Plan — Preparing for Fare 

At a recent meeting of Mayor Cou- 
zens, the Street Railway Commission 
and the City Council of Detroit, Mich., 
the Council agreed to study the Tayler 
plan as it is in effect in Cleveland, and 
then discuss a plan for the city of 
Detroit with executives of New York 
rapid transit lines. This conference 
with the New York experts has been 
arranged for July 18 at Detroit. 

Mayor Still Favors Competition 

Mayor Couzens did not oppose the 
plans as decided upon, although he is 
apparently still in favor of a bond issue 
to build subways under downtown 
streets and obtain trackage to operate 
in connection with them. The Mayor's 
explanation that he meant that the 
Council had surrendered to the com- 
pany "in the interest of peace and har- 
mony" and not that he considered that 
they had received any political or 
monetary consideration when he made 
the charge that the Council had sold 
out "body and soul," was accepted by 
all parties concerned. The Mayor's 
contention that no rapid transit system 
should be planned until its future re- 
lation to the surface lines had been 
determined was backed by extracts 
read from the report of Barclay Par- 
sons & Klapp. 

In the Mayor's opinion the subway 
system itself could not be self-support- 
ing. A unified system of transporta- 
tion combining subway, surface and 
overhead systems was necessary to 
provide satisfactory service and prove 
a financial success. 

He also set forth that it would not 
be possible for the city under its pres- 
ent charter to finance both the con- 
struction of rapid transit lines and 
the purchase of the surface systems. 

Commission Against Competition 

Various members of the Council 
agreed fully with Abner E. Larned 
when he stated that the Street Railway 
Commission, of which he is president, 
believed it proper to enter into a part- 
nership agreement with the existing 
company. He said the commission did 
not favor the piecemeal construction 
of competing lines. 

At a special meeting of the Council 
on July 3 William H. Maybury, former 
commissioner of public works, was 
chosen by the Council to represent the 
city on the board of three arbitrators 
to determine the justice of the claim 
of the railway of the necessity for a 
6-cent fare. Councilman Lodge ar- 

gued that little time remained before 
July 10, the date set by Judge Marsch- 
ner's court order, in answer to conten- 
tion by some of the members of the 
Council that the Detroit United Rail- 
way should appoint its member of the 
board first. The Mayor has not yet ap- 
proved the appointment of Mr. Maybury. 

The Detroit United Railway has an- 
nounced the appointment of John J. 
Stanley, president of the Cleveland 
Railway, as arbitrator for the com- 
pany, and at Mr. Stanley's suggestion 
the names of several men have been 
proposed from whom the third member 
may be selected. None of the men 
named, however, appears to meet whol- 
ly with the approval of the members 
of the Detroit City Council. 

Two accountants will be appointed 
by Corporation Counsel Clarence E. 
Wilcox, to make daily examination of 
the railway's books and I'eport to the 
city's arbitrator. The company's fig- 
ures will be furnished to the company's 
arbitrator for the same purpose. 

Wage Adjustment Near 
at Wheeling 

The wage disagreement between the 
Wheeling Traction Company and the 
West Virginia Traction & Electric 
Company and their employees has been 
partially settled, according to an official 
announcement. The annual wage scale 
has been signed by both factions for 
the electricians and firemen without 
the assistance of the arbitration board. 

The wage scale of the platform men 
and the engineers is still unsigned, but 
it is anticipated that an agreement will 
likely be reached between the com- 
panies and the union within the next 
few days. The scale for the inside 
electricians has not as yet been signed. 
The scale signed affecting the two 
crafts gives the men a substantial in- 
crease and more satisfactory working 
conditions. The water tenders receive 
an advance from $4.15 to $4.65 a day of 
eight hours; ash wheel and coal passers 
from $3.36 to $3.80; firemen from $3.56 
to $4.10. Thus far an effort to agree 
upon the third member of the arbitra- 
tion committee has been unavailing. 

The old wage scale of all the crafts 
affiliated with the railway workers' 
union involved in the disagreement ex- 
pired on May 1, last, followed by a 
one-day strike. The men returned to 
work after they and the officials of the 
companies had agreed upon placing the 
disagreement in the hands of an arbi- 
tration board composed of three mem- 
bers. For the past several weeks both 
sides have suggested a number of men 
as the third arbitrator, but no selection 
has been agreed upon. 

Pittsburgh Plans Subway 

$6,000,000 Appropriated at Election for 
Constructing Loop for Surface 
Cars in Downtown Section 

The voters of Pittsburgh, Pa., on 
July 8 authorized a $6,000,000 bond 
issue for the construction of a down- 
town subway loop. 

The money for the loop subway, 
which has long been talked about, 
therefore is now available. Just 
what the city will do with the fund is 
not certain. The question submitted 
to the voters did not specify particu- 
lars of construction, except that the 
tube is be located in the two downtown 
wards and be built to specifications to 
be drawn up by the Mayor and Council 
by ordinance. 

Double-Track Loop Line 

Tentative plans prepared by city en- 
gineers and used in the campaign pre- 
ceding the special election, provide for 
construction of an underground loop 
approximately IV2 miles long. This is 
planned as a downtown terminal for 
a majority of the surface lines of the 
Pittsburgh Railways, to which it is 
proposed to lease the tube. 

The subway, according to the ten- 
tative plans, is to be double-tracked, 
traffic to be in the same direction on 
both tracks, every car using it to make 
the whole loop. Four portals are 
planned, at which surface cars will 
pass in and out, and six loading plat- 
forms. It is not planned at first to 
route cars from the northside section 
to the city through the subway. 

While the whole project is based 
upon the assumption that the subway 
will be leased to the Pittsburgh Rail- 
ways, no agreement has been entered 
into with that company as yet, and as 
far as is known its officials have not 
been approachable in the matter. The 
lines of the company are being oper- 
ated by receivers now. 

Construction to Start Soon 

While it appears the city plans 
the subway terminal as a start toward 
a more extensive underground traction 
system, it has been put forward pri- 
marily as a means of relief from con- 
gestion in downtoviTi Pittsburgh. Con- 
struction is expected to start within 
sixty days. 

With the subway bond item, there 
were presented to the voters at the 
special election six other improvement 
items, the whole issue totaling $22,000,- 
000. All were approved. Most of this 
sum will be spent in street widening 
and bridge building, with the same 
aim as actuated the initiation of the 
subway proposal — relief of congestion. 

July 12, 1919 Electric Railway Journal 

Twelve-Cent Wage Advance in Cleveland 

Short Strike Ends with Full Compliance with Men's Demands and 
Arbitration of Company's Main Counter Demand 

Motormen and conductors of the 
Cleveland (Ohio) Railway walked out 
at 4 a.m., on July 6, because their 
demand for an increase of 12 cents an 
hour in wages was not granted when 
they thought it should be. They had 
threatened to strike some time before. 
The final decision was made when the 
company's officials refused on the pre- 
vious afternoon to yield unless the City 
Council granted the company the right 
to pay stockholders an additional 1 per 
cent on their holdings, as requested 
when the question of an advance for 
the men was presented. 

Company Prepared to Operate 

The company sent out a number of 
cars Sunday morning manned by dis- 
patchers and inspectors, but quickly 
withdrew them on account of lack of 
police protection. 

J. J. Stanley, president of the com- 
pany, afterward informed the city au- 
thorities that 600 men were ready to 
man cars on the morning of July 7 if 
the police department would furnish 
two officers for each car. Mayor Harry 
L. Davis said the police department did 
not have a sufficient number of men to 
do this. He insisted that the company 
should operate cars and allow its claims 
to be considered later on. 

An advertisement appeared in the 
newspapers Sunday morning asking for 
men and women as motormen and con- 
ductors. The wage scale offered was 
49 cents for the first three months, 52 
cents for the next nine months and 54 
cents thereafter. This is an increase 
of 6 cents an hour over the scale that 
has been in efi'ect. It is said that the 
number of responses to the advertise- 
ment was very satisfactory. 

Council Seeks Solution 

The Council sat as a commission of 
the whole on the afternoon of July 5 
for the purpose of devising some means 
of averting the strike. It was decided 
to make an additional appropriation to 
the operating expense to cover the in- 
crease of 12 cents an hour for the 
motormen and conductors and other em- 
ployees, but the request for an addi- 
tional 3 cents per car-mile for the main- 
tenance fund and for a 1 per cent in- 
crease in the return on the investment 
was refused. Mayor Davis approved 
the refusal to pay a higher return than 
6 per cent on the value of the property 
as fixed in the Tayler grant, under 
which the company operates. The com- 
pany then refused the appropriation 
for increased wages. 

President Fred F. Telschow, secre- 
tary W. M. Rea and Business Agent 
Fred J. Schultz, representing the men, 
met President Stanley on the afternoon 
of July 5, but after the conference an- 
nounced that no conclusion had been 
reached. Mr. Stanley made the same 
announcement and added that he had 

instructed George L. Radcliffe, general 
manager, to operate all the cars he 
could the following day. 

The resolution adopted by Council, 
giving an additional appropriation for 
the employees, contained a condition 
that 1 cent per car-mile instead of 3 
cents should be added to the mainte- 
nance allowance. In the discussion of 
this amendment, members of Council 
suggested that the request for an addi- 
tional 1 per cent return on the invest- 
ment be submitted to a vote of the 
electroate. Mr. Stanley informed Coun- 
cil that he would not agree to this 
unless the question of an advance of 
12 cents in wages for the motormen 
and conductors be submitted to a vote 
at the same time. He expressed the 
opinion that the advance in wages and 
the extra 1 per cent dividend could be 
paid from the receipts under the present 
rate of fare, which is 5 cents and 1 
cent for transfers. He said, however, 
that if wages went any higher than the 
12-cent advance, the present fare would 
not be sufficient. An offer of an ad- 
vance of 6 cents an hour was made to 
the men, with the stipulation that if 
this was accepted the demand for an 
additional 1 per cent return to stock- 
holders would be dropped. The men 
refused this offer. They stated that 
they would accept nothing less than a 
12-cent raise. 

On July 6 the rate of fare was re- 
duced from straight 5 cents and a 1- 
cent charge for transfers to eleven 
tickets for 50 cents. This followed a 
demand made by Street Railway Com- 
missioner Fielder Sanders, although 
Mr. Stanley informed Mr. Sanders that 
the reduction in fare seemed unwise 
when everything pointed to an increase 
in fare to 6 cents becoming necessary 
within a few months, if all the demands 
made upon the company were granted. 
The interest fund is now more than 
$700,000, and this sum, according to the 
Tayler franchise, marks the point 
where the rate shall be reduced. Ex- 
isting conditions point in the other di- 
rection, but the company concluded to 
follow the agreement. 

Settlement Reached 

At a conference of representatives of 
the company, the Chamber of Commerce 
and the City Council, on the afternoon 
of July 7, Mayor Davis proposed that 
the demand for an additional 1 per cent 
in dividends be submitted to arbitra- 
tion. Mr. Stanley said that if the city 
would promise to make an effort to 
pay the additional dividend, he would 
grant the demands of the men for an 
increase at once and then, if the divi- 
dends were not increased within a 
reasonable time, he would reduce the 
wages 6 cents an hour. The members 
of the Council refused to entertain the 
Mayor's proposition. 

A settlement of the strike was 


reached on the night of July 7 in time 
to put the owl cars into operation 
shortly after midnight. Operation on 
full schedule was begun on the morn- 
ing of July 8. 

The agreement was reached at a spe- 
cial meeting of the City Council, at 
which Mr. Stanley and other officers of 
the railway. Street Railway Commis- 
sioner Fielder Sanders, Mayor Harry 
L. Davis, President Paul L. Feiss of 
the Chamber of Commerce and officers 
of the local branch of the Amalgamated 
Association were present. The terms of 
the agreement are: 

That the company shall grant the men 
an increase of 12 cents an hour in wages, 
as had been demanded ; the contract to 
continue for one year from June 1. 

That the company shall receive an in- 
crease in the operating allowance of 3 J 
cents per car-mile ; and increase of 2 cents 
in the maintenance allowance ; that the 
war-time emergency amendment to the 
Tayler grant providing that the maximum 
rate of fare shall be 6 cents with 1 cent 
for transfers be made a permanent part 
of the franchise, and that the demand for 
an increase of 1 per cent in dividends to 
stockholders be submitted to arbitration. 

The agreement was brought aboitt 
through correspondence between the 
company and Mayor Davis and between 
the company and President Feiss of 
the Chamber of Commerce. Members 
of Council changed their minds in re- 
spect to the suggestion of Mayor Davis 
that the matter of additional dividends 
be arbitrated. 

Wages under the 12-cent advance will 
now be 55 cents an hour for the first 
three months, 58 cents for the next nine 
months and 60 cents thereafter. 

The Chamber of Commerce officials 
suggested arbitration of the wage ques- 
tion on the ground that their contract 
provided for arbitration of all differ- 
ences, but the executive committee of 
the local branch of the union refused, 
advancing the old excuse that there was 
nothing to arbitrate. 

Mr. Stanley yielded his contention for 
the removal of the maximum fare limit 
fi'om the franchise and accepted the 
extension from 4 cents and 1 cent for 
transfers, as provided in the original 
franchise, to the war-time maximum of 
6 cents and 1 cent for transfers. 

$960,000 Wage Increase 

The increase for the motormen and 
conductors will entail an additional 
expenditure of about $960,000, while a 
proportionate increase for the other 
employees will require about $500,000 
more. The present rate of fare of 
eleven tickets for 50 cents will prevail 
until the interest fund drops below 
$300,000, when it will again go to 5 
cents with 1 cent for transfers. It is 
believed this will occur within a few 
months, with the increased expendi- 
tures, dating from June 1. 

Interurban cars were run to the city 
limits only during the strike. An agree- 
ment, apparently, was reached between 
the city and interurban men that no 
cars should be operated on the city 
tracks. Some of the interurban roads 
arranged to transport their passengers 
within the city in buses. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

Tri-City Strike Averted 

Company at Davenport and Employees 
Reach Agreement Based on Action 
in Pending Fare Cases 

After nearly two months of negotia- 
tions the Tri-City Railway, Davenport, 
la., has averted a threatened strike of 
425 trainmen and shopmen by granting 
an inci-ease in wages, a nine-hour day 
and giving the men the right to open 
up the wage question on Aug. 1, if an 
increase in fare is granted on the com- 
pany's Iowa and Illinois lines by that 
time. The settlement was reached 
without arbitration after the company 
and the men had appointed arbitrators 
and were ready to submit their argu- 
ments to the findings of a board. 

A Fifty-Cent Maximum 

The new scale is 46, 48 and 50 cents 
an hour, retroactive to June 1, the 
date when the old contract expired. 
The men have been working during 
the war on a scale of 36, 38 and 40 
cents. The war-time scale superseded 
the contract scale existing at that 
time, which specified 28, 29 and 33 
cents an hour. 

If a 7-cent fare is granted, either 
party can ask for a revision of the 
wage scale on Aug. 1. Should a 6-cent 
fare go into force prior to Aug. 1, the 
scale will be 42, 44 and 46 cents, with 
either party having the right to ask 
for a revision as in the 7-cent clause. 
If this new scale is fixed after Aug. 
1 it is to be retroactive to that date. 

If no increase in fare is granted the 
scale is to drop to 36, 38 and 40 cents 
an hour, with the provision that either 
party can ask a wage revision at any 
time. Time and a half will be paid 
for overtime. This is the agreement 
for Davenport, 111., and the Clinton, 
Davenport and Muscatine interurban 

In the city of Muscatine, where one- 
man cars are in operation, a scale of 
43, 45 and 47 cents goes into eff'ect 
at once, retroactive to June 1. If a 
6-cent fare is granted in Muscatine the 
trainmen get 39, 41 and 43 cents, and 
if no increased fare is given wages 
will drop to 35, 36 and 37 cents. Sepa- 
rate contracts were entered into with 
the Amalgamated Association, meaning 
that if diff'erent fares are granted on 
the Iowa and Illinois lines the rate of 
pay to the men will be different. 

Sixty-two Cents Asked Originally 

In their original demands the men 
asked for a scale of 58, 60 and 62 
cents an hour. Negotiations were 
opened on May 5. The company and 
the men reached a practical agreement 
on all questions except wages within 
a few weeks. Both sides wished to 
arbitrate that question, but the men 
demanded that the company arbitrate 
according to their stipulations and 
passed a strike vote when the company 
officials demurred. The company then 
agreed to the men's stand to avert a 
tie-up in Davenport, la.. Rock Island, 
Moline, East Moline and Silvis, 111. 

Richard Schaddelee, Grand Rapids, 
Mich., vice-president, was then ap- 
pointed the company's representative 
on the arbitration board and the men 
chose Mayor Robert McNutt of Musca- 

When the case was all ready to go 
before the arbitration board, with the 
provision that these two men were to 
select a third in case they could not 
agree, the company officials, with their 
fare increase at stake both in Iowa and 
Illinois, decided to accede to the de- 
mands of the employees and signed 
with the union. The union agreement 
and its stipulations were publicly an- 
nounced on June 29. 

Another Strike in Windsor 

Failure to Approve Fare Increase 
Results in Suspension of Service 
in Canadian Cities 

The by-laws to authorize the Sand- 
wich, Windsor & Amhurstburg Rail- 
way, Windsor, Ont., to charge higher 
fares was defeated by a large majority 
in the vote in Windsor and Walker- 
ville on July 5. The defeat of the 
measure was attributed by company 
officials to the attitude taken by Sir 
Adam Beck, chairman of the Ontario 
Power Commission, who in opposing 
the measure contended that the grant 
of a higher fare by the voters would 
enhance the value of the franchise held 
by the company. It was evident that 
the defeat of the measure for increased 
fares could result in nothing other than 
a second tie-up of transportation in 
the territory served by the railway, as 
the company was unable to meet the 
demands of its employees without the 
right to collect higher fares. 

The strike which went into effect on 
July 7 again tied up the lines in the 
border towns. The original demands 
of the men have been increased to 50 
and 60 cents an hour, depending upon 
the length of service. 

The Council of Windsor will notify 
the Ontario Municipal Railway Board 
that the border municipalities are with- 
out railway service. Mayor Winter of 
Windsor is quoted as saying that fur- 
ther dickering with the company and 
the men is useless, as evidenced by the 
results of the attempts to settle the 
former strike when service was sus- 
pended for eleven days. 

It is believed that the railway board 
will ask the Council to grant an in- 
crease in fare for six months, and that 
this action could be approved by the 
Council without approval by the elec- 
tors, regardless of the large majority 
vote cast against the fare-increase 
measure by the electors at the election 
on July 5. 

No statement has been made by the 
railway officials as to what action vnW 
be taken in case the railway board 
takes over the lines, but the officers of 
the railway have said emphatically 
that the cars will remain in the car- 
houses until the employees return to 
their duties. 

Working for Relief 

Attempts Before State Legislature to 
Ease Electric Railway Burdens 
in Massachusetts 

The committee on street railways of 
the Massachusetts Legislature has been 
at work lately on measures for the re- 
lief of the financial situation in which 
the companies, generally, find them- 
selves, and is about to introduce two 
measures into the Senate for considera- 
tion during the present session. 

One of these will provide that elec- 
tric railways not under public control 
are to be relieved of all present taxes, 
except those on real estate, and in place 
of these taxes to substitute a tax of 6 
per cent no the net income. 

The second measure provides that 
changes in fare by electric railways 
shall be effective pending a decision of 
the Public Service Commission as to 
their propriety. 

The committee endeavored to intro- 
duce into the House a measure provid- 
ing for the purchase by the State of the 
Cambridge subway from the Boston 
Elevated Railway at a price not to 
exceed . $8,000,000; but it is a question 
whether this particular legislation can 
again be brought up at this session, in 
view of its having received adverse 
action in the lower branch. The failure 
of this bill a few weeks ago was a 
serious blow to the hopes of the trus- 
tees of the Boston company to post- 
pone, if not to avoid, the increase of 
the fare unit to 10 cents, which became 
effective on July 10. 

The Worcester Consolidated Street 
Railway and the Springfield Street 
Railway have appealed to the Public 
Service Commission to revise the 
amounts of taxes assessed them for 
street repairs in various municipalities, 
claiming that in nearly every case the 
assessments exceed the municipal ex- 
penditures on the streets concerned. 

Official Statement of Jersey 

Thomas N. McCarter, president of 
the Public Service Railway, Newark, 
N. J., on July 2 issued the following 
statement in regard to the settlement 
of the differences of the company with 
its employees, to which reference was 
made in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal for July 5. 

At a conference of representatives of the 
employees of Public Service Railway with 
myself and other officers of the company, 
held in the company's offices to-day, an 
agreement was reached which will save the 
liublic the inconveniences and business dis- 
turbances that would result from a strike. 
The recent award of the National War 
Labor Board including the supplementary 
decision filed by Charlton Ogburn to-day 
was accepted by both sides and the men 
were informed that in the interest of 
stability and with their promise of full co- 
operation in operation and a feeling of re- 
sponsibility on their part for its success, 
the company would agree to enter into a 
simple contract for a period of two years 
with its employees, members of the 
Amalgamated Association, for the mainten- 
ance of the wage scale and working con- 
ditions provided for by the award of the 
National War Labor Board. The men 
promised the heartiest co-operation on their 
part and agreed to submit a form of con- 
tract to be signed. 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Reserve Engineers' Travel- 
ing Expenses 

National Service Committee of Engi- 
neering Council Ready to Help 
Secure Legislation if Needed 

An account was published on page 
1105 of the issue of this paper for June 
7 of the efforts being- made by the 
National Service Committee of the 
Engineering Council in Washington in 
connection with the discharge of engi- 
neers enrolled in the Reserve Corps at 
points other than those in which they 
were enrolled. The case was cited ot 
some twenty-five or thirty engineers 
who entered the service while residing 
in the Philippines and of several who 
enlisted from Alaska, who were dis- 
charged in the United States, most of 
them in the eastern part. Further in- 
vestigation disclosed the fact that there 
were some 800 engineer officers who 
were deprived of mileage payment to 
their first stations under the present 
act. The correspondence between the 
National Service Committee of Engi- 
neering Council and the War Depart- 
ment mentioned in the previous article 
showed that the latter recognizes the 
situation but is powerless, under the 
existing law, to apply any general 

In a recent statement, the National 
Service Committee says it is will- 
ing to see what can be done in the 
way of legislation, but adds that it is 
obvious that Congress cannot be ex- 
pected to take the time to correct the 
situation if those in whose benefit it 
is proposed are too indifferent to relate 
the facts as they know them. It there- 
fore urges that any engineering officers 
who have had similar experience com- 
municate promptly with the committee, 
whose headquarters are in the Mc- 
Lachlan Building, Washington, D. C. 

$500,000 for Betterments 

The City Council of Seattle, Wash., 
recently passed ordinances appropriat- 
ing $500,000 for betterments and ex- 
tensions of the Seattle Municipal Rail- 
way, the appropriation being a loan 
from the general and electric railway 
funds to enable the railway department 
to start work immediately on a number 
of important improvements. One of 
the most important of these works to 
be undertaken at once is the double- 
track line on Avalon Way, West 
Seattle, to cost $60,000. This will pro- 
vide a direct route to that suburb on a 
much easier grade, and will eliminate 
the trestle approach on the West 
Alaska Street hill. 

Another item is $57,000 for tie-in 
tracks at East Union and Madrona. 
East Union will be double-tracked from 
Twenty-ninth Avenue to Thirty-fourth 
Avenue, allowing the residences of the 
Madrona district direct route to the 
city without transfer, and eliminating 
2 miles of travel over the present route. 

An item of $49,800 is allowed for 
rerouting on Leary Avenue, to avoid 
several dangerous turns. Tie-tracks 
will be provided to the Fifteenth Ave- 

nue, West Bridge, to cost $30,000. The 
existing tracks on the bridge will be 
connected with the former traction 
lines on Forty-seventh Avenue. Other 
items include $26,000 for double tracks 
on West Sixty-fifth, Twenty-eighth 
Northwest, and Twenty-fourth North- 
west; construction of tracks on Third 
Avenue, from Stewart to Pine Streets, 
to cost $18,650; and numerous other 
minor improvements, designed to fa- 
cilitate operation. 

Toledo Company Ordered 
Off Streets 

The City Council of Toledo, Ohio, has 
passed an ordinance ordering the Tole- 
do Railways & Light Company, a sub- 
sidiary of the Cities Service Company, to 
vacate the streets over which the rail- 
way lines of the company operate by 
Aug. 1, this action affecting only the 
railway department of the company, 
and not in any way interfering with the 
operations of the electric light and 
power or gas departments. 

The passing of this ordinance fol- 
lowed the action of the Toledo Railways 
& Light Company in increasing fares 
from 5 cents and 1 cent for transfers 
to 6 cents and 2 cents for transfers. 
This increase was rendered necessary 
by the award of the Federal War Labor 
Board increasing wages of employees 
of the railway department of the 
Toledo Railways & Light Company. 

Through the Toledo Traction, Light 
& Power Company, the Toledo Railways 
& Light Company is an operating sub- 
sidiary of the Cities Service Company, 
but it is stated at the offices of Henry L. 
Doherty & Company that this action 
by the Toledo City Council will not be 
detrimental in any way to the income 
of the Toledo Traction, Light & Power 
Company, or of the Cities Service Com- 
pany. For some time the railway de- 
partment at Toledo has furnished trans- 
portation facilities to the city of Toledo 
and suburbs at a loss. 

Power Plant Rehabilitation 

Immediate steps to rehabilitate the 
Anderson power plant of the Union 
Traction Company of Indiana so that 
adequate and regular service can be 
given to the cities along the line were 
ordered on June 13 by the Public Serv- 
ice Commission of Indiana. 

The order is the result of a complaint 
filed with the commission by a number 
of prominent business firms of Marion. 
It was pointed out in the complaint 
that the franchise with the company 
called for hourly sei'vice through the 
city and that the company was giving 
only two or three-hour service and at 
times there were breaks of four or five 
hours in service. The Marion business 
men said the poor service was caused 
by the power plant at Anderson. 

The commission ordered an investiga- 
tion of the plant by the engineering 
department of the commission, which 
filed a report saying that the basic 
difficulty lies in the Anderson plant and 
was caused by deferred maintenance. 

Dispute Over Hours Results 
in Strike 

Railway Service Suspended on Illinois 
Traction Lines in Urbana and 

Railway service of the Urbana & 
Champaign Railway, Gas & Electric 
Company has been partially tied up 
since July 3. It seems that part of the 
employees were aflfiliated with the 
Amalgamated Association and part 
with a brotherhood. It is said that 
the union men were dissatisfied with 
the hours, claiming that the nine-hour 
day was agreed upon by the company 
last September, when the lines were 
tied up by a strike for about three 
days. The men say that they returned 
to work in September as a patriotic 
duty in time of war, with the under- 
standing that the day would be short- 
ened to nine hours. This, they say, 
has not been done. There is no diffi- 
culty regarding wages. The men who 
belonged to the brotherhood interpret 
the matter differently and did not 

Suggests Settlement by Vote 

George M. Mattis, vice-president 
and treasurer of the Illinois Traction 
System, of which the Urbana & Cham- 
paign Railway, Gas & Electric Com- 
pany is a part, says that as the union 
men demand a nine-hour day and the 
brotherhood favors another set of hours 
the only fair way to settle the matter 
is to determine just how many hours 
should constitute a day's work. The 
company proposed, in writing, on 
March 20, 1919, that a vote be taken 
of all employees. It renewed this pro- 
posal on June 28. To both of these 
offers the union men turned a deaf ear, 
maintaining that the nine-hour day was 
promised as soon as the war period 
was over, and that they conceded a 
point in returning to work in the 

The union employees have also de- 
manded the return to the service of 
the company of four men who had been 
discharged. Mr. Mattis, in his pub- 
lished statement, says that only two 
men have been discharged and that 
the company has stated all the time 
to the union that the officers of the 
company are willing to arbitrate the 
dismissal of these men on request in 
writing to the company that the cases 
be arbitrated. With reference to wages 
Mr. Mattis says that the rates paid in 
Champaign-Urbana are the same as 
those paid in Danville, Decatur and 
Galesburg and higher than those paid 
in Bloomington, Springfield and Quincy. 

Loyal Men Refuse to Join Strikers 

The brotherhood was organized early 
in 1919, chiefly by older employees of 
the company. Members of the brother- 
hood prefer the long runs and the split 
runs rather than work nine hours 
straight. They are abiding by their 
contract and are at work, but are too 
few in numbers to keep all the cars 
running on anything like schedule. The 
strike had not been settled at 7 o'clock 
p.m., July 7. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

Cincinnati Employees Reject 

The tenns of the new agreement be- 
tween the Cincinnati Traction Company 
and its employees were rejected by the 
street railway employees' union at a 
recent meeting. 

Platform men are asking a 2-cent- 
an-hour increase, with an eight-hour 
day and time and a half for overtime. 
The old agreement provided for 44, 
46 and 48 cents an hour for motormen 
and conductors, with time and one-third 
for overtime. 

Carhouse men who have joined the 
union are also asking for an increase. 
They formerly were paid a sliding 
scale, but were allowed 42* cents an 
hour by the War Labor Board. 

W. Kesley Schoepf, president of the 
company, accepted most of the pro- 
posals of the union, but stated that the 
company does not agree to the increase 
of 2 cents an hour in the wage of train- 
men from the maximum of 48 cents 
fixed by the War Labor Board last 
November, as the company does not be- 
lieve conditions have changed so as to 
warrant an increase. The company 
proposes to continue the War Labor 
Board award to miscellaneous em- 
ployees, except to car washers, curve 
cleaners and watchmen, whose rates 
it holds were fixed too high. 

The possibility of a strike is remote, 
since the old agreement provides that 
if the company and the union fail to 
arrive at a satisfactory agreement by 
June 30, thirty days grace shall be 
granted for a settlement by arbiti'ation. 

Strike Ended in Vancouver 

The men on the British Columbia 
Electric Railway's Vancouver city lines 
resumed work on June 30 after a strike 
of twenty-five days. They quit work in 
sympathy with the general strike in 
Vancouver and Winnipeg. 

The men went back, although the 
general strike in Vancouver had not 
yet been called off but was collapsing. 
Following telegrams from the inter- 
national ordering the men back to work 
in accordance with their agreement, a 
meeting was held on June 25 which was 
addressed by union leaders and by W. 
G. Murrin, assistant general manager 
of the railway. It was then decided to 
take a ballot. The vote showed a ma- 
jority of forty-five in favor of resum- 
ing work out of a total of 750. 

The New Westminster city lines and 
the Central Park and Burnaby Lake 
interurban lines, all of which came 
under the New Westminster local, were 
hot in operation from June 18 to June 
23. The New Westminster trades and 
labor council declared a general strike 
on the arrest of the strike leaders in 
Winnipeg, and although the street and 
intenirban railway men voted 70 per 
cent to stay at work, they were forced 
out. On June 23, however, of their 
own volition, they decided to go back 
to work. Station agents and despatch- 
ers on the Fraser Valley and Lulu 
Island lines were involved in this phase 

of the strike and the company reduced 
its passenger service by one train a day 
on the Fraser Valley line and discon- 
tinued most of its freight service. The 
trainmen on these lines are members of 
the railroad brotherhoods and did not 

New Franchise Planned for 

An ordinance outlining a twenty- 
year franchise has been drawn up by 
legal representatives of the South Cov- 
ington & Cincinnati Street Railway, 
Covington, Ky., and was read at a re- 
cent meeting of the City Commis- 
sioners. The new measure, pattenied 
largely after a similar ordinance en- 
acted in Cincinnati, proposes a service- 
at-cost system with a sliding scale of 

Increases or decreases in fares are 
to be made on a half-cent basis, de- 
pendent on the operation cost and the 
condition of the reserve fund, which 
shall be $50,000 at the minimum. Three 
appraisers are to ascertain the physical 
valuation of the company's property in 
Kenton County. 

The twenty-year franchise is to re- 
place the perpetual franchise which the 
company purposes to surrendei-. The 
changes in fares must be approved by 
Ludlow and Cincinnati before the or- 
dinance becomes effective. 

News Notes 

Strike in Ottawa. — The employees of 
the Ottawa (Ont.) Electric Railway 
went on strike on July 2. A board of 
conciliation is sitting on the dispute 
and on June 30 a request was made to 
the men by the chairman, Darcy Scott, 
to withhold drastic action until the 
award was made, but it was refused. 

Petition for Higher Salaries — Twenty 
employees of the Rapid Transit Com- 
mission of Cincinnati, Ohio, signed a 
petition lately asking for an increase 
in salary. Chief Engineer Frank Krug, 
Assistant Chief Engineer Fi-ank 
Raschig and Chief Clerk E. E. Hum- 
phries were the only members who did 
not sign. 

Strike of Linemen Settled.— The 

strike of linemen in the employ of the 
Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Trac- 
tion Company, Fort Wayne, Ind., has 
been settled on a basis of an increase 
in wages of 10 per cent, effective from 
July 1 for all linemen, groundmen and 
truck drivers, with an additional in- 
crease of 5 per cent for linemen only, 
effective from Aug. 1. 

Union Recognition Made an Issue. — 
Conductors and motormen in the em- 
ploy of the Oklahoma Union Railway, 
which owns and operates an interurban 
line from Tulsa to Keifer and the local 

railways in Tulsa and Sapulpa, formed 
a union recently and struck to enforce 
their demands for recognition of the 
union. They won their point after be- 
ing out a few days. Service on the in- 
terurban and on the local lines was 
badly crippled until the settlement, 
when all men went back to work and 
all cars were started running on sched- 
ule. No question of wages or shorter 
hours was involved. 

Elevated Damaged by Fire. — A fire 
said to have been caused by an electri- 
cal short-circuit consumed five passen- 
ger coaches of the Third Avenue ele- 
vated line of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company, New York, N. Y., at 
the South Ferry terminal on the after- 
noon of July 2, damaged the front of 
the Staten Island ferry house, endan- 
gered hundreds of persons, and resulted 
in the injury of a half dozen firemen 
called to fight the flames. The fire 
forced a suspension of ferry service to 
Staten Island. The elevated structure 
was charred for a distance of about 
300 ft. north of the ferry house. At 
one time the structure, the front of 
the ferry house and the four coaches 
were a mass of flames. 

Program of Meeting 

Illinois Electric Railways Association 

The mid-summer meeting and outing 
of the Illinois Electric Railways Asso- 
ciation will be held at the Rockford 
Country Club, Rockford, 111., on July 16. 
Through the courtesy of R. A. Moore, 
general manager of the Aurora, Plain- 
field & Joliet Railway, an invitation has 
been extended to join the members from 
Joliet on Mr. Moore's private car "Lou- 
isiana" on Tuesday evening, traveling 
over the properties of several of the 
member companies, and arriving in 
Rockford on Tuesday night. Lunch will 
be served aboard the car. Those who 
do not go on Tuesday night can take a 
special car on the Illinois Central train 
Wednesday morning, and will be met 
at Rockford by a special car for the 
Country Club. 

The convention will assemble at 10.30 
a.m. Three papers will be presented 
and discussed. They are as follows: 

"Safety Cars and the Results of 
Their Operation," by E. M. Walker, 
general manager of the Terre Haute 
& Western Railway. 

"Track Maintenance," by John B. 
Tinnon, engineer of maintenance of 
way of the Chicago & Joliet Electric 

"Public Utility Life Insurance," by 
Bernard J. Mullaney, director of the 
Illinois Committee on Public Utility 

Dinner will be served at the Country 
Club, following which those who de- 
sire may enter a golf tournament, the 
winner to receive a cup offered by the 
president of the association. This will 
be a handicap tournament. For those 
who do not play golf, a specially con- 
ducted automobile trip to and through 
Camp Grant has been arranged. 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Financial and Corporate 

had at the beginning. Under existing cir- 
cumstances, it is only fair that the court 
should co-operate with the commission in 
an endeavor to work out the problem under 
tl)e changed conditions and to study the 
exact situation as it shall develop before 
coming to a final oijinion. 

I. T. S. Costs Heavy 

Higher Rates Give Increased Revenues, 
but Expenses Rise at 
Greater Rate 

While general increases were author- 
ized in electric railway, lighting and 
heating rates of the Illinois Traction 
System, Peoria, 111., during the calendar 
year 1918, these were insufficient to off- 
set the advanced operating costs. As a 
result the net income for 1918 was only 
$413,744 as compared to $1,172,153 in 
the preceding year. 

YEARS 1917 AND 1918 

. 1918 , . 1917 . 

Per Per 

Amount Cent Amount Cent 

I nt er ur b an 

lines $4,740,079 31.1 $4,609,898 32 8 

Citylines 3,351,256 21.9 3,198,056 22.8 

Gas 1,282,104 8.4 1,035,169 7.4 

Electric 4,887,743 32.0 4,295,501 30 6 

Heat 412,779 2.7 383,092 2.7 

Water 15,636 0.1 15,151 0.1 

Miscellaneous 571,406 3.8 504,004 3.6 

Total' gross 

revenues, $15,261,003 100.0 $14,040,870 100.0 
Operating ex- 
penses and 

taxes 10,966,998 71 9 9,149,176 65.1 

Gross in- 
come.. $4,294,005 28.1 $4,891,694 34.9 
Interest o n 

bonds, etc... 3,880,261 25.4 3,719,541 26.5 

Netincome. $413,744 2.7 $1,172,153 8.4 

In spite of the so-called "lightless 
nights" and the influenza epidemics, the 
gross revenues of the various subsidi- 
aries in the system increased $1,220,133, 
or 8.7 per cent. Each department con- 
tributed to the result, the increase for 
the interurban railway lines being 
$130,183 or 2.8 per cent and that for 
the city lines $153,200 or 4.8 per cent. 
These gains compare with 15.4 per cent 
and 2.8 per cent respectively for 1917 
over 1916. 

The total increase in operating ex- 
penses and taxes, which materially ex- 
ceeded the gain in revenues, was $1,- 
817,822 or 19.9 per cent. Of this ad- 
vance in expenses a total of $1,505,675 
was made up as follows: Wages, $700,- 
086; steam coal, $545,636; materials 
and supplies, $142,425, and $117,527 for 
gas coal and oil. Had it not been for 
the company's direct control of consid- 
erable coal tonnage on its interurban 
lines, the expense for steam and gas 
coal would have been further materially 

The effect of the revenue and ex- 
pense changes upon the gross income 
for 1918 was a loss of $597,689 or 12.2 
per cent below the 1917 figure. The 
fixed charges increased, and the result 
was the big decline in net income above 
noted. Detailed figures for the last two 
years are given in the accompanying 

The utmost effort was made by the 

management early in the year to secure 
an adjustment in rates necessary to 
provide revenue which would harmonize 
with the greatly increased operating 
expenses. On the interurban lines an 
increase of 25 per cent in joint freight 
rates became effective June 25, fol- 
lowed by an increase of 25 per cent in 
local freight rates on intrastate and 
interstate traffic, effective Aug. 3 and 
Nov. 1 respectively. On Nov. 15 an 
increase of 50 per cent in intrastate 
passenger fares became effective, and 
on Dec. 19 the Interstate Commerce 
Commission issued an order authoriz- 
ing a corresponding increase in inter- 
state fares, effective early in 1919. 

Segregation Decision Put Off 

Court Says Commission Decision in 
New York Transfer Case Changes 
Complexion of Affairs 

Judge Mayer in the United States 
District Court in New York City on 
July 8, after listening for more than an 
hour to numerous lawyers representing 
various interests at a hearing on the 
motion made some days ago to separate 
the Eighth and the Ninth Avenue Rail- 
road lines from the New York Railways 
because of default in rental, announced 
that he thought further consideration 
was called for under existing circum- 
stances and he accordingly adjourned 
both cases. 

In the case of the Ninth Avenue line. 
Receiver Job E. Hedges had suggested 
that inasmuch as the amount due it was 
less than $100,000, that amount be paid 
over at once in order to avoid separa- 
tion, and as the problem was compara- 
tively simple as regards that company, 
Judge Mayer adjourned the further 
hearing until Aug. 28. The amount due 
to the Eighth Avenue company is con- 
siderably larger and the situation is 
somewhat complicated by the fact that 
it owns some $3,000,000 worth of real 
estate. Judge Mayer said that he 
thought it would be desirable to have 
some further conferences respecting 
that company and he adjourned the 
hearing to July 11. 

In making this announcement. Judge 
Mayer said that the whole situation 
had been changed since the motion for 
separation has been made owing to the 
decision announced by Public Service 
Commissioner Nixon, permitting the 
charging of 2 cents for transfers at 
ninety-nine points in the system. This 
decision is referred to at length else- 
where in this issue. The court said: 

Commissionpr Nixon, in miking this de- 
cision, has not only co-operated with the 
court in a very serious problem, but he 
has in my opinion rendered a very distinct 
service by the promptness of his decision. 
Without in any manner commenting iii)on 
the course pursued by his predecessors, the 
fact remains that, although voluminous 
testimony was taken in similar proceed- 
ii^!?s no decision wps rendered and that at 
the end no one knew more than they 

Seattle's May Profit $5,301 

Superintendent of Municipal Railway 
There Points Out Wherein Service 
Has Been Bettered 

According to a report filed by Super- 
intendent Thomas F. Murphine, the 
Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Railway 
during the month of May showed 
greatly increased service and a large 
gain in revenues compared with the 
corresponding month of May of last 

The city operated during May, 1919, 
a total of 148,758 car-hours, or 33,225 
more car-hours than in May a year 
ago, or 4153 eight-hour days of serv- 
ice more than was provided in May, 
1918. The figures include the com- 
bined lines of the Puget Sound Trac- 
tion, Light & Power Company, and 
the Municipal divisions "A" and "C." 
The report also shows that 260,347 
more car-miles were operated last 
month than in May of last year by 
both railway systems. The revenues 
from all sources for May of this year 
totaled $439,932, a gain of $18,680 
over April of this year, and an in- 
crease of $66,637 over May of last year. 

Operating Expenses Higher 

Operating expenses are shown to be 
considerably higher, due to increased 
wages in the car shops, payment of 
time and a half overtime, and to an 
increase, in some instances, in service. 
The report claims a net profit of $5,301 
for the month. The letter of Mr. Mur- 
phine containing a summary of the 
report follows in part: 

The recapitulation of the financial state- 
ment of railway operating expenses and 
revenues for May, 1919, shows the rev- 
enues from all sources for said month to 
be $439,932, a gain of $18,680 over the 
month of April, 1919, and an increase of 
$68,637 over May, 1918 Known operating 
expenses are shown to be $354,458, as com- 
pared with $331,242.32 in April. 

This increase in expense is due to an 
mcrease of wages in the car shops, the 
payment of time and one-half for over- 
time (which was not in effect in April) and 
to an increase, in some instances, in serv- 
ice. However, there is shown a gain or 
profit for the month of May of $85,473. 
Prom this amount we have deducted an 
Item of $66 260, being the interest on out- 
standing bonds, and an item of $6,911, be- 
ing the maximum amount payable when 
called for as industrial insurance ; also an 
Item of $7,000 to pay this month's share of 
damage claims. Depreciation is more than 
offset this month by extraordinary expendi- 
tures in the way of maintenance. 

These various items deducted from the 
gam would leave a net profit of $5,301. 

It will be noted that the statement shows 
that we operated during this month a total 
of 148,758 car-hours, or 33,225 more car- 
hours than were operated in May, 1918, by 
the combined lines of the Puget Sound 
Traction. Light & Power Company and the 
Municipal Street Railway, Divisions "A" 
and "C." 

It is also shown that we operated 260.347 
more car-miles than in the corresponding 
month of last year by both railway sys- 

These figures show the increased service 
that the people of the city are now getting 
over the operation of last year. 

Wages piid to employees this month 
totaled $103,779 more than was paid in 
May, 1918. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

$33,040,795 Buffalo Valuation 

Arbitration Board Fixes Upon This Amount as Fair Basis for 

Rate Purposes 

The board of arbitration appointed 
by the International Railway, Buffalo, 
N. Y., and the municipal authorities 
to determine the valuation of the com- 
pany's property within the city, filed 
its report with E. G. Connette, presi- 
dent of the company, on July 3. The 
pi-operty is held to be worth $33,040,- 
795. The report of the appraisers is 
not binding on either party, however, 
as the arbitration proceeding which 
was expected to lead to an agreement 
between the city and the company for 
municipal control of service was aban- 
doned by the city after Governor Smith 
had vetoed the enabling act. 

Final Report a Compromise 

If the New York State Court of 
Appeals decides on July 15 that the 
Public Service Commission has power 
to fix fares in Buff'alo regardless of the 
company's franchise, the International 
Railway will probably use the report of 
the board of appraisers as a basis for 
raising fares from 5 cents to 7 or 8 

The final report of the arbiters is 
a compromise between the $44,000,000 
valuation sought by the company and 
a valuation of $22,000,000 sought by 
the city. James E. Allison, the com- 
pany's member of the board, would add 
$1,825,000 for going value, making a 
total of $34,965,795. Orson E. Yeager, 
the umpire, agreed with Professor Al- 
bert S. Richey, the city's member of 
the board, in opposition to the going 
value figured by Mr. Allison. 

The arbiters allowed the claim of 
the company for superseded property. 
Such property was defined by them as 
property that has become obsolete and 
discarded through progress in inven- 
tions and the arts or has become inade- 
quate or otherwise rendered useless 
before the termination of its useful life. 
The board found that $2,764,125 should 
be allowed for this item and he in- 
cluded in the valuation entitled to a 
return until such time as it may be 
amortized out of future earnings. 

Many Deferred Renevi^als 

No allowance was made by the board 
for depreciation of the company's prop- 
erty. The members think, however, 
that the company should be required 
to place all parts of its property in a 
condition of proper operating efficiency, 
such necessary renewals to be paid out 
of earnings, but without diminution of 
a proper return on the valuation found. 

Much evidence was submitted to the 
arbitration board to the effect that there 
is at present a considerable amount of 
deferred renewals, principally in the 
form of track and pavement. The re- 
port says in part: 

This is a condition in which many elec- 
tric railways are found at the present time, 
in general due to the inability of the com- 
panies to secure proper materials and labor 
during the past year or two. and also to 
the fact that many companies on account 

of rapidly increasing prices and fixed fares, 
with a falling off of traffic due to war con- 
ditions and automobile competition, have not 
been able to make such renewals after 
paying for operating expenses, ordinary 
maintenance and taxes. 

Explaining the allowance for pro- 
motion and consolidation, the arbitra- 
tors say: 

In the history of exx-ry property of the 
character of the one under consideration 
there have beennumerous special costswhich 
have been incurred for promotion and con- 
solidation. These costs are often met by 
the giving of securities or by consideration 
in the price at which securities are taken 
Ijy promoters and organizers. This portion of 
the expense, which is an actual expense to 
the corporation, is not usually traceable 
in the books on account of the nature of 
its payment, and even if it were it would 
be impossible to take as a figure in de- 
termining a rate base the sometimes fanci- 
ful amount of securities obtained as a re- 
ward for promotion. It is, therefore, nec- 
essary in this case, as in nearly all of them, 
to assigri arbitrarily an amount which in 
the opinion of the board should cover these 
outlays. In this case we believe $1,250,00U 
to be a proper allowance for these costs. 

A summary of the items entering 

into the value of the property, as fixed 

by the arbiters, is as follows: 

Physical value stipulated by city and 

company $22,356,736 

Capital additions, real estate 300,000 

Capital additions, new line 1 7,000 

Omissions and contingencies 768,994 

Engineering and superintendence during 

construction 613,354 

Injuries and damage during construction. 1 67,976 
Legalexpendituresduringconstruction. . 93,419 
Administrative and miscellaneous ex- 
penses during construction 1 76,768 

Taxes during construction 1 04,293 

Interest during construction 737,947 

Superseded property 2,764, 1 25 

Cash working capital (in addition tostore 

and supplies) 284,026 

Physical value, including overheads. . . $28,384,638 

Promotion and consolidation costs $1 ,250,000 

Cost of assembling capital 567,693 

Capitalization of initial risk, including 

going value 2,838,464 

Total finding of majority of board $33,040,795 

.Addition in Mr. .^.Uison's opinion to cover 

initial deficit or "going value" $ 1 ,925,000 

Total with Mr. .Allison's addition $34,965,795 

As soon as the New York State 
Court of Appeals hands down its de- 
cision with respect to the right of the 
Public Service Commission to intervene 
in local traction matters and fix an 
adequate rate of fare despite the pro- 
visions and restrictions of local fran- 
chises, the company will apply for an 
investigation into local conditions so 
that a higher rate of fare can be fixed. 

Case Before St. Louis Special 
Master Closed 

The hearing in the case of John W. 
Seaman, New York, a holder of pre- 
ferred stock of the United Railways, 
St. Louis, Mo., against directors of the 
company for their discharge and for 
recovery from them of funds alleged 
to have been wasted through power 
contracts, mill tax litigation and other 
means, before Special Master Lamm at 
St. Louis came to an end at the close 
of the week of June 23 after several 
of the directors had testified in their 
own defense. 

The directors who took the witness 

stand were Frank O. Watts, Murray 
Carleton, Alanson C. Brown, A. L. 
Shapleigh and Henry S. Priest, who 
was formerly general counsel for the 
railway. Mr. Priest, who has been act- 
ing as counsel for himself and the other 
directors during the hearings, asked 
each of the directors the following 
question in regard to the passage by 
the board on July 9, 1918, of a resolu- 
tion declining to accept the resignation 
of Bruce Cameron, superintendent of 
transportation, following his indictment 
in connection with the referendum pe- 
titions theft: 

What knowledge or information had you 
at the time that Mr. McCulloch or Mr. 
Cameron had any part in the theft? 

Each director replied that he had 
none. Mr. Shapleigh went on to say- 
that Mr. McCulloch had told him he 
knew nothing of the theft. 

Collateral Securing St. Louis Loan 
Being Sold 

Attorneys representing the various 
interests involved in the suit for a 
receiver and an accounting against the 
United Railways, St. Louis, Mo., ap- 
peared before Special Master Lamm 
on June 30 to discuss the application 
of the receiver and the directors of the 
railway for permission to issue re- 
ceiver's certificates in sufficient amount 
to take up the loan of $2,500,000 made 
to the United Railways by the War 
Finance Corporation. As a result of 
the failure of the attorneys present to 
agree on any essential point, the Special 
Master postponed the hearing until 
July 10 to give the attorneys time to 
study the situation. 

The application for permission to 
issue the certificates was made by 
Charles W. Bates, attorney for the 
receiver. The directors of the railway 
joined in this request, but differed with 
the attorney for the receiver on details. 
Mr. Bates' plan was for the issue of 
general receiver's certificates. Henry 
S. Priest, representing the directors 
and attorneys for other interests, said 
these would not be subscribed, as in- 
vestors would not have the confidence 
that they represented an actual lien 
against the property. Mr. Priest sug- 
gested one-year notes secured by the 
Union Depot bonds. He said these 
could be marketed easily. This plan 
was objected to by counsel for the Leed 
Mining Company, one of the intervenors 
in the receivership suit. 

The War Finance Corporation loan 
became due on June 1. It has not been 
paid. It is secured by $3,485,000 of the 
Union Depot Railway bonds deposited 
with the War Finance Corporation. 
Of this collateral $800,000 in bonds al- 
ready has been sold by the War Finance 
Corporation. The principal purpose of 
the hearing was to lay plans for pre- 
venting further sale of these securities. 
Insisting that the matter be settled 
quickly, Attorney Priest said that the 
War Finance Corporation was becom- 
ing very impatient. Special Master 
Lamm then urged the lawyers to act 
with dispatch. 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Ten- Year Traffic Increase 
51.9 Per Cent 

Previous Census Figures Supplemented 
by Capitalization and Traffic 

Director Samuel L. Rogers, of the 
Bureau of the Census, Department of 
Commerce, has issued the following 
statement, supplementing- that of April 
21, in regard to electric railways in 
the United States : 

over 1907: those of the East North 
Central States, 2,712,624,699; increase, 
68.7 per cent; of the New England 
States, 1,242,076,786; increase, 41.9 per 
cent: of the West Nox'th Central States, 
902,368,927: increase, 46.6 per cent; of 
the South Atlantic States, 747,561,816; 
increase, 53.2 per cent: of the Pacific 
States, 707,310,819; increase, 45 per 
cent: of the West South Central States, 
313,203,554, increase, 62 per cent: of 
the East South Central States, 292,- 
004,689; increase, 32.2 per cent: and 



Investments in securities and non- 
operating property 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central 

West North Central. 

South Atlantic 

East South Central 

West South Central 



Net capitalization per mile of track. 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central 

West North Central 

South Atlantic 

East South Central 

West South Central 



* A minus sign ( — ) denotes decrease, 
t Not including real-estate mortgages 



































1 18,166,868 











1 1 1,233 

















1 12,013 











































21 .5 
























52 1 

91 .9 





— 4 



1917, $7,197,895; 1 9 1 2, $6,097,245: and 1 907, $4,059,805. 

The total capitalization of the elec- 
tric railways, street and interurban, 
for the year 1917 was $5,525,025,923, 
representing an increase of 46.4 per cent 
over 1907; and deducting investments in 
securities and non-operating property, 
the net capitalization was $4,882,764,- 
201, as compared with $4,243,317,727 
in 1912 and $3,400,107,899 in 1907, 
representing an increase of 15.1 per 
cent for the period 1912-1917 and of 
24.8 per cent for the period 1907-1912, 
the rate of increase for the decade be- 
ing 43.6 per cent. 

The net capitalization per mile of 
track was $111,233 in 1917, as com- 
pared with $104,930 in 1912 and $100,- 
495 in 1907. The roads of the Middle 
Atlantic States, New York, New Jer- 
sey, and Pennsylvania, taken as a 
group, showed the heaviest net capitali- 
.zation per mile of track, namely, $167,- 
942 in 1917 and $140,724 in 1907; and 
those of the New England States the 
lowest, $64,474 in 1917 and $54,724 in 
1907. The South Atlantic States aver- 
aged $130,144 in 1917; the Pacific 
States, $125,596; the East South Cen- 
tral, $97,518; the West South Central, 
$95,695; the West North Central, $94,- 
848; the East North Central, $88,163; 
and the Mountain States, $71,987. 

For the United States the total num- 
ber of revenue passengers was 11,304,- 
660,462 in 1917, 9,545,554,667 in 1912, 
and 7.441, 114, .508 in 1907, representing 
an increase of 51.9 per cent for the dec- 
ade. The roads of the Middle Atlantic 
States carried 4,225,287,044 revenue 
passengers, an increase of 48.8 per cent 

of the Mountain States, 162,222,128; 
increase over 1907, 43.2 per cent. 

The average number of revenue pas- 
sengers per mile of track (based on 
total track mileage, including sidings) 
was 252,323 in 1917 and 216,522 in 
1907; the average number per passen- 

Merger at Indianapolis 

Commission Modifies Its Original Order 
and Companies Involved Arrange 
to Carry Out Plan 

Following the order handed down by 
the Indiana Public Service Commis- 
sion on June 28 conditionally approv- 
ing the merger of the Indianapolis 
Traction & Terminal Company and In- 
dianapolis Street Railway, as reported 
in the Electric Railway Journal of 
July 5, page 42, an appeal was made 
to the commission to modify its order 
so that the consolidation could take 
place at once without calling a further 
meeting of the stockholders. 

First Commission Approval 

Under the terms of the order of the 
commission issued June 28 the merger 
petition was approved subject to four- 
teen conditions to be accepted by the 
parties involved on or before Sept. 1, 
1919. Several of the conditions, how- 
ever, would have required the amend- 
ment of the original consolidation 
agreement as submitted to the stock- 
holders. This could not have been ac- 
complished by July 1. In issuing the 
original order the commission contem- 
plated that the merger could be made 
effective at once and the conditions met 
by the consolidated company. The at- 
torneys for the two companies, how- 
ever, showed that it would be impos- 
sible to reduce the stock of the Indian- 
apolis Traction & Terminal Company 
below the amount of $2,500,000 pro- 
vided in the merger agreement without 
the consent of the trustee, and the sus- 
pension of sinking fund payments 
would also have to be referred to the 
trustee for the bondholders. 


Per Cent of Increase 

Traffic 1917 

Passengers carried 14,506,914,573 

Revenue 11^304,660,462 

Transfer 3,021,137,935 

Free 181,116,176 

Revenue passengers by divisions: 

New England 1,242,076.786 

Middle Atlantic. 4,225,287,044 

East North Central 2,712,624,699 

West North Central 902,368,927 

South Atlantic 747,561,816 

East South Central 292,004.689 

West South Central 313,203,554 

Mountain 162,222,128 

Pacific 707,310,819 

.\verage number of revenue pas- 
sengers : 

Per mile of track (all tracks) .. . 252,323 

Per mile of running track 260,868 

Per passengar car-mile ' 5.41 

Per passenger oar-hour 53.69 

Per mile of track (all tracks) 
by divisions: 

New England 223,468 

Middle Atlantic 400,322 

East North Central 2 1 4,346 

West North Central 246, 1 84 

South Atlantic 228,064 

East South Central 201,355 

West South Central 186,162 

Manhattan 127,877 

Pacific 150,824 

(I) A minus sign ( — ) denotes decrease. 




7,441,1 14,508 

875,1 15,527 
1 13,304,063 







41 ,9 


21 . 2 





20. 1 
36. 1 
48 . 2 

198,536 179,546 

349,867 321,520 

183,142 155,789 

254,081 245,432 

208,193 212,699 

208,947 207,466 

196,730 229,831 

153,104 188,404 

172,790 160,951 
(2) Figures not available. 

ger-car-mile, 5.4 in 1917 and 4.7 in 
1907; and the average number per pas- 
senger-car-hour, 53.7 in 1917 and 43.1 
in 1907. Details appear in the tables 

The commission thereupon issued an 
order superseding its order of June 28. 
The modified order issued by the Public 
Service Commission on June 30, takes 
the place of the order issued Saturday. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

In the first order were fourteen points 
or conditions, precedent to approval of 
the merger. In the modified order 
there are ten conditions precedent, 
which were complied with at once by 
the constituent companies, and several 
additional conditions which are to be 
complied with by specified times in the 
future by the consolidated company. 

Of the conditions to be complied with 
by the consolidated company in the 
future, one requires that on or before 
Aug. 1, 1919, there shall be surren- 
dered to the consolidated company $1,- 
500,000 of the $2,500,000 stock to be 
issued in exchange for the $5,000,000 
stock of the Indianapolis Traction & 
Terminal Company. This would bring 
the amount down to $1,000,000, which 
the commission decreed in its first or- 
der. It was contended by the merger 
advocates that the trustee for the 
bonds of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis 
& Eastern Traction Company, with 
which is deposited the Indianapolis 
Traction & Terminal Company stock, 
would have to consent to the reduction 
to $1,000,000. The trustee had con- 
sented to a reduction to $2,500,000, as 
provided in the merger agreement, and 
the articles of consolidation provide for 
the $2,500,000. 

In the condition requiring a reduc- 
tion of $1,500,000, it is provided that 
if the Public Service Commission 
should find the value of the property 
as of July 1, 1919, to be in excess of 
all the stocks and bonds of the consol- 
idated company, then "additional stock 
to the amount of such excess value may 
be reissued." 

Must Meet All Conditions by Sept. 1 

All other conditions not precedent to 
the merger are to be met by Sept. 1, 
1919, the chief one being that the con- 
sent of the trustees of the bondholders 
would have to be obtained in connec- 
tion with the suspension of sinking 
fund payments until Jan. 1, 1923, and 
eliminating the payment of interest on 
bonds already in the sinking fund. 

After the order was issued the com- 
pany filed acceptance with the commis- 
sion, and articles of incorporation of 
the new consolidated Indianapolis 
Street Railway were filed with the Sec- 
retary of State. 

The members of the new board of 
directors named in the merger agree- 
ment to serve until the next annual 
meeting of the company are: Dr. Henry 
Jameson, chairman; Charles H. Becker, 
Walter J. Ball, W. T. Durbin, R. K. 
Willman, C. Thomson, J. A. McGowan, 
John J. Appel and Robert I. Todd. The 
directors met on July 2 and elected 
Robert I. Todd president of the new 
consolidated company, and J. A. Mc- 
Gowan, auditor of the Indianapolis 
Traction & Terminal Company, secre- 
tary and treasurer of the new company. 

As soon as the final order of the com- 
mission had been issued and accepted 
by the company, payment was made of 
bond interest on the Indianapolis Street 
Railway bonds. This payment had been 
been deferred at the first of the year. 

News Notes 

Deferred Dividend Paid. — The divi- 
dend of 3 per cent on the preferred 
stock of the Virginia Railway & Power 
Company, Richmond, Va., declared on 
Dec. 20, 1918, payment on which was 
deferred, will be paid on July 20. 

Another Road Sold for Junk. — The 

Stoughton & Randolph Street Railway, 
Randolph, Mass., has been sold to a 
Chelsea junk dealer for $12,000, and 
work on removing the rails and ties 
will soon be started. 

Mr. Budd a Middle West Director. — 
Britton I. Budd, president of the Chi- 
cago (111.) Elevated Railways, has 
been elected a director of the Middle 
West Utilities Corporation, succeeding 
Fi-ancis S. Peabody, resigned. 

Company Accepts Offer from City. — 
The mortgagees of the defunct London 
& Lake Erie Traction Company have 
accepted an offer of $25,000 from the 
city of St. Thomas, Ont., for all of the 
property of the company in the city, 
including carhouses, freight house, etc. 

Compensation Fixed for Hudson & 
Manhattan Road. — Director-General of 
Railroads Hines on July 1 signed rail- 
road contracts with the Hudson & Man- 
hattan Railroad, operating under the 
Hudson River between New York and 
New Jersey, fixing the annual compen- 
sation by the government for that sys- 
tem at $3,003,362. 

Application for Receiver Heard. — 

Argument on the application for a re- 
ceiver for the Rock Island (111.) South- 
ern Traction Company has been heard 
by the Master in Chancery of Knox 
County, 111. The Continental Trust & 
Savings Bank, Chicago, representing 
the holders of bonds, is the complain- 

Two- Year Notes Ready for Pay- 
ment. — H. M. Byllesby & Company, 
Chicago, 111., operating managers, an- 
nounce that the $450,000 of 6 per cent 
gold notes of the Arkansas Valley Rail- 
Avay, Light & Power Company, Pueblo, 
Col., which matured on July 1, 1919, 
are payable at the office of the Con- 
tinental & Commercial Trust & Sav- 
ings Bank, Chicago. 

Amount of Outstanding Bonds Re- 
duced. — The amount of first and re- 
funding mortgage 5 per cent bonds of 
the Kentucky Traction & Terminal 
Company, Lexington. Ky., due on Feb. 
1, 1951, "has been reduced from $2,892,- 
000 to $2,342,000. $550,000 of the bonds 
having been retired and cancelled by 
operation of the sinking fund as of 
June 5, 1919. 

Would Abandon New York City 
Lines. — The New York City Interbor- 
ough Railway, whose lines are now 

operated as a part of the Third Avenue 
Railway System, has applied to the 
Public Service Commission for the First 
District of New York for permission to 
abandon parts of unused or little used 
lines in the borough of the Bronx. Com- 
missioner Nixon has fixed July 24 as 
the time for a hearing upon the appli- 
cations involved. The proposals to 
abandon have already had the approval 
of the directors of the company. 

Court Confirms Rsceiver's Authoriza- 
tion. — The United States Circuit Court 
of Appeals has aflSrmed Judge Julius 
M. Mayer's order authorizing Lindley 
M. Garrison, receiver of the Brooklyn 
(N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company to is- 
sue receiver's certificates for $20,000,- 
000. The Appellate Court, however, 
modified the order which made the cer- 
tificates a lien superior to that of the 
first - refunding gold mortgage of the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company by 
maintaining the lien of that mortgage 

St. Louis Payments Authorized. — 
Federal Judge Dyer, on the recom- 
mendation of Special Master Henry 
Lamm in the so-called Seaman suit 
against the United Railways, St. Louis, 
Mo., has authorized Rolla Wells, re- 
ceiver of the company, to pay out of 
the revenue of the company certain in- 
come, license and mill taxes due the 
city of St. Louis under franchise ordi- 
nances. Judge Dyer also authorized 
payment of the unpaid coupons of the 
St. Louis Transit Company's bonds and 
the continuance of various depositaries 
for this purpose. The payment of 
these coupons had been strongly ob- 
jected to by attorney for the nlaintiff 
in the John W. Seaman receivership 

Commission Administers Quietus. — 

The Illinois Public Utilities Commis- 
sion on its own motion has directed 
the Chicago, Fox Lake & Northern 
Electric Railway to cease selling its 
one-year 7 per cent notes and to de- 
sist from transacting any further busi- 
ness in Illinois. The company was 
granted a certificate of convenience 
and necessity on July 28, 1916, to oper- 
ate a suspended monotvpe railway be- 
tween Palatine and the Wisconsin State 
line. On April 17, 1918, the commis- 
sion denied an application for a certi- 
ficate of convenience and necessity to 
construct the mono-railway over a 
specified route between Palatine and 
the Wisconsin State line, and denied 
authority to issue capital stock in the 
amount of $2,500 and bonds in the 
amount of $5,680,300. The commission 
held that while some preliminary work 
had been done in connection with the 
laying out of the line and the securing 
of the right-of-way, outside of about 
one hour's work done in July, 1918, no 
work for the actual construction of the 
railroad, as proposed, was done until 
October, 1918, and that the company 
has not exercised its right conferred 
by the certificate of convenience and 
necessity granted under date of July 
28, 1916. within the two-vear neriod 
and that the certificate authorizing the 
road is null and void. 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Traffic and Transportation 

Tri-City Company's Appeal 

Iowa and Illinois Railway in Receiver's 
Hand Except for Aid from 
Holding Company 

By making the concession to its em- 
ployees noted on page 86 in this issue, 
the Tri-City Railway, Davenport, la., 
Jiopes to secure the active support of 
all its employees and the public in the 
petition for higher fares, although the 
fare case is backed by strong argu- 
ments in the failure of the company's 
lovfa lines to pay operating expenses 
and in the great decrease in revenue 
compared with cost of operation in 

The petition of the company for in- 
creased fares was presented to the 
Public Service Commission of Illinois 
nine months ago. No decision has yet 
been rendered. The company has been 
placed in the embarrassing situation of 
not being able to ask an increase on 
the Iowa side until it was informed 
of the finding of the Illinois commis- 

The officials felt that they could not 
ask a 7-cent fare in Iowa if the Illinois 
board turned down its petition. It also 
believed that the company could not 
hope to get a 7-cent fare in Davenport 
if the Illinois commission awarded only 
6 cents on the lines in Illinois. It 
had to wait until the Illinois board 
returned a verdict so that, if an in- 
creased rate were granted, the same 
rate could be asked in Iowa. 

It was at first believed that the rate 
in Iowa would be determined by a 
special election in Davenport. The 
company's attorneys, however, found 
in the Davenport franchise a provision 
which enables the City Council to 
change the passenger fare. Officials 
of the Tri-City Railway then presented 
their case in preliminary form before 
the Council of Davenport, notifying 
that body that it would ask in Daven- 
port the same rate that the Public Util- 
ity Commission of Illinois granted. 

Company Makes Statement 

The Illinois commission, however, 
has as yet made no decision, so the 
railway company has its hands tied, 
waiting for word from Springfield. 

On June 20 the company, in a state- 
ment from J. G. Huntoon, vice-presi- 
dent and general manager, called the 
Illinois board's attention to its embar- 
rassing situation, reviewed its labor 
trouble, emphasized for the commis- 
sion's benefit the fact that the fare sit- 
uation was holding up a settlement of 
its labor trouble, and stated that its 
financial condition demanded an imme- 
diate increase in revenue if the com- 
pany v/as to be kept out of the hands 
of a receiver. In conclusion the com- 

pany made an earnest plea for a speedy 

decision of the case. In this statement 

Mr. Huntoon said: 

Had these companies (Tri-City Railway 
of Iowa, Tri-City Railway of Illinois, and 
Moline, Rock Island & Eastern Traction 
Company) not been allied with a strong 
holding company organization (United 
Light & Railways Company), which has 
been able and so far willing to finance 
their need for new capital, to give them 
the advantage of holding company con- 
tracts at more favorable prices for mate- 
rials than would have been posssible under 
unit management, and to provide the best 
of management for their operation, they 
severally would have long since been com- 
pelled to resort to the bankruptcy courts 
for relief. 

The company closed its appeal with 
the request of a prompt decision to 
enable it to put into eff'ect at once 
"such street car fares as will enable 
us, in your judgment ... to realize 
an income sufficient to enable us to 
pay our legitimate operating expenses 
. . . plus a proper reserve for de- 
preciation and a reasonable return 
upon the fair value of our properties." 

The statement was accompanied by 
an exhibit showing the financial con- 
dition of the companies. 

Seven-Cent Fare Predicted for 

The predictions of William L. Sause, 
Street Railway Commissioner, are to 
the eff'ect that the fare of the lines of 
the Mahoning & Shenango Railway and 
Transit Company at Youngstown, Ohio, 
will go to 7 cents on Aug. 1, under the 
recently enacted service-at-cost grant. 
On June 1 the stabilizing fund, which 
is the barometer for the rate of fare, 
dropped below the required $50,000 and 
the rate of fare was automatically in- 
creased to 6 cents and nine tickets for 
50 cents. The increase in operating 
expense from 22 cents to 27 cents a 
car-mile, recently granted, was retro- 
active to May 1 and the allowance for 
May was $14,853 more than it would 
otherwise have been. 

The operating report for May shows 
receipts of $117,238. Deductions for 
operating and maintenance were $104,- 
978, leaving a balance of $12,259. This 
amount was transferred to the stabil- 
izing fund. From this fund was de- 
ducted $32,796, used in paying return 
on capital and taxes, leaving $47,070. 

Under the 27 cents per car-mile the 
company operated during May at a 
deficit of $424 and under the 5-cent 
maintenance allowance there was a 
deficit of $703, making a total deficit 
of $1,127. These figures show the 
reason for Mr. Sause's prediction that 
another increase in the rate of fare 
will have to be made. Reports show 
that operation is costing more than the 
allowances, even as advanced, and the 
income, which is guaranteed, must be 
enough to prevent deficits. 

Fare Contest Expected 

strong Opposition Before Commission 
to Ten-Cent Cash Fare in Pitts- 
burgh Seems Certain 

Physical valuation of the properties 
of the Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways, 
looked forward to for more than a year 
as a possible basis for final adjustment 
of the tangle in which that unfortunate 
corporation finds itself, probably will 
be a leading factor in the contest ovei 
the fare increase announced recently 
by the receivers, when the protest of 
the representatives of the city is heard 
by the members of the Public Service 
Commission within the next two weeks. 

Engineers Now Making Valuation 

Five engineers have been engaged in 
making physical valuation of the Pitts- 
burgh traction lines ever since the com- 
promise agreement reached between 
the city and the company early in 1918 
when the fare was advanced to 5% 
cents. On July 7 Chairman W. D. B. 
Ainey, of the Public Service Commis- 
sion, announced that the commission 
expected to complete its task in time to 
report before the new fare increase 

This announcement was received 
with great interest by holders of the 
securities of the Pittsburgh Railways, 
who regard it as presaging the next 
step in the development of a way out 
of the company's difficulties. All in- 
terests involved have been marking 
time, practically, since the properties 
were turned over to the receivers, it 
being desirable, of course, before at- 
tempting to proceed with the reorgani- 
zation of the company to have a valua- 
tion as a guide. 

The appointment of the valuation 
commission, comprising two represen- 
tatives of the company, two of the city 
and the surrounding boroughs, and one 
of the Public Service Commission, was 
one of the items of the 1918 compro- 
mise agreement, it being understood 
that the value set upon the properties 
should constitute the basis of future 
tariff changes. Its existence probably 
has contributed fortuitously to an ear- 
lier final adjustment of the company's 
difficulties, as it was well along with 
its work when the federal court named 

Ten-Cent Cash Fare Proposed 

The fare increase, which is to be con- 
tested before the Public Service Com- 
mission, is from the present 5 and 7- 
cent rate to a straight IV2 cent fare by 
ticket and a 10-cent cash fare, effective 
on Aug. 1. A detailed account of the 
announcement made by the company 
with respect to the establishment of the 
new fare tariff was published in the 
issue of the Electric Railway Journal 
of June 28, page 1293. 

A slight extension of the transfer 
privilege will accompany the proposed 
new fare. Rebate slips will be attached 
to tickets sold under the new rates and 
given to payers of cash fares. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

Two Cents for Transfers in New York 

Commissioner Nixon Hopes Companies Will Relinquish Long-Term 
Franchise and City Consent to Flexible Fare 

Public Service Commissioner Lewis 
Nixon announced, on July 7, that he 
would issue an order r^ranting Job E. 
Hedges, as receiver of the New York 
Railways, authority to charge 2 cents 
for transfers at ninety-nine of the 113 
points of the railway system through- 
out the city of New York where trans- 
fers heretofore have been given free. 
Receiver Hedges had asked for authority 
to charge 3 cents for such transfers. 
Commissioner Nixon announced his de- 
cision, as follows: 

The receiver who makes this appli- 
cation is an arm of the Federal Court. He 
has appeared before this commission, stat- 
ing in substance that if some immediate 
relief is not granted he will be compelled 
to disintegrate the lines under his control. 
Such a course, if possible, should be 
avoided. Having in mind the interests ot 
the city and its taxpayers, the commission 
has resolved to grant the receiver tempo- 
rarily a measure of the relief which he 
seeks. It has determined to empower him 
to charge 2 cents for transfers at points 
where he is legally entitled to charge for 

This relief, as stated, is temporary. The 
order will continue in force for one year. 
That will enable the city in the meantime 
to make the necessary appraisals. If at 
the end of six months the city is not satis- 
fied with the appraisal of the receiver, it is 
authorized to apply to have this proceeding 
reopened. This hearing, therefore, is ad- 
journed to July 7, 1920. This order is made 
upon condition that the lines of this com- 
pany are not disintegrated. If they are 
disintegrated by order of Judge Mayer, 
this commission will make such further 
order as the situation demands. Counsel 
for the respective parties will agree upon 
the form of the order. 

Later Commissioner Nixon issued a 
statement in which he reviewed the 
finances of the New York Railways at 
length, and the necessity for the ap- 
pointment of a receiver. He said: 

This case concerns the application of 
tlie receiver of the New York Railways 
Company to charge 3 cents for transfers 
at all intersections of lines where there 
are no specific requirements by local fran- 
chise to furnish free transfers. It is 
really a continuation of the application of 
the New York Railways in April, 1917, 
Case No. 2212, where the company asked 
for a charge of 2 cents for transfers. Dur- 
ing the pendency of the application the 
Court of Appeals decided in the Quimby 
case that the Legislature had not given the 
commission power to increase street rail- 
way charges above those fixed by local 

In line with this decision, the commis- 
sion held in the Third Avenue Railway 
case. No. 2211, also an application for a 
charge of 2 cents for transfers, that Its 
power to grant the desired relief was 
limited by local franchise provisions, which 
fixed the maximum single fare at 5 cents, 
and pointed out that relief must be sought 
from the city as represented by the Board 
of Estimate and Apportionment. Follow- 
ing this declaration, the New York Rail- 
ways did not pursue its application in 
Case No. 2212, but turned to the city for 
a modification of the franchise restrictions. 
Wlien the city did not act upon the applica- 
tion, the company again turned to the com- 
mission, which body as then constituted 
went out of office before action was 

The case of the company was pre- 
sented to the commission as a matter 
of great emei'gency, and it was so con- 
sidered by the commission. The prop- 
erty has been operated by a receiver 
since March 20, 1919, and there is a 
motion before Judge Julius M. Mayer 
in the United States District Court 
for the Southern District of New York 
to separate some of the leased lines 
on account of default in the payment 

of rent. The case was presented by 
counsel of the receiver fro n the stand- 
point that if no financial rel ef was 
granted the court would authorize the 
separation of the property, but that 
with relief the present system may be 

Commissioner Nixon pointed out that 
the greater portion of the case befor? 
Judge Mayer had been presented on th3 
basis of operating results for the six 
months endfd March 31, 1919, and he 
said that for these six months the 
operating income above operating ex- 
penses and taxes, exclusive of any al- 
lowance for reserves, amounted to 
$200,000 in round figures, and that, ac- 
cordingly, the earning power of the 
company at present fares had been set 
at about $400,000 a year. He con- 

Testimony was presented showing that a 
3 -cent charge for transfers would bring a 
maximum additional revenue of $900,000 
a year, so that if the application be granted 
the company would have available a total 
income al>ove operating expenses and taxes 
of about $1,300,000 a year. This would be 
far from being an adequate return on the 
investment. It would not even be sufii- 
cient to pay rents on the leased properties, 
but would enable the receiver to pay the 
rentals on the most important lines and 
thus keep the heart of the present New 
York Railways system together. 

Counsel for the receiver believes that if 
only the least profitable lines were now 
cut off from tlie system the owners would 
finally be comjielled to accept a substantial 
reduction in their present rentals and the 
properties could ultimately be brought back 
into the system with greatly reduced rent 
charges. The present operating condition 
of the company was so presented that 
conclusions might Ije misleading. While 
tlie income above operating expenses and 
taxes for the six months ended March 31, 
1919, amounted to only $200,000, this does 
not properly show a present earning power 
of only $400,000 a year. Stating the op- 
erating results separately by months, it 
appears that the low return of only $200,- 
000 for six months was due to the very 
e.Kceptional months of October, November 
and December, when traffic was demoral- 
ized on account of the influenza. 

The commissioner stated that in Jan- 
uary operating conditions began to im- 
prove and in March, the last of the six 
months period, the net earnings above 
operating expenses and taxes amounted 
to $109,238, or over 50 per cent of the 
total for the entire six months. For 
April, he said, the net earnings were 
$188,865, for May the gross receipts 
were about $34,000 greater than for 
April, while in June they were about 
$5,000 less. Figures for operating ex- 
penses and taxes for these two months, 
he said, were not available, but if they 
were in the same proportion as for April 
the net earnings above operating ex- 
penses would be about the same as for 
April. Mr. Nixon then said: 

April is considered a typical or average 
month of the year. Its gross receipts are 
not the greatest of the year, but about 
normal, as are the expenses. If. then, the 
.\pril results for this year be taken as 
reijresenting what may reasonably be ex- 
pected during the next year, we have re- 
sultant net earnings in excess of $400,000 
per year. On the other hand, the commis- 
sion realizes that maintenance of the 
property has probably not been adequate 
because of lack of resources, that there 
has been no allowance for reserves, which 
should properly be made, and that huge 
present obligations exist that must be paid. 
The commission is thoroughly convinced 
that in spite of the great improvements in 

operating conditions since the beginning of 
the year the company is not now earning 
and is not likely to earn a fair return upon 
its investment, if indeed it will hereafter 
be able to earn even rentals on leased 
lines. The commission, after careful con- 
sideration of all the facts, has decided to 
grant conditionally a charge of 2 cents for 

Average Return Not 6 Pe.i Cent 

Commissioner Nixon said that on the 
basis of the return to the State Tax 
Commission it is shown that the aver- 
age return since the reorganization of 
the company in 1912 has been under 6 
per cent, and during the last year has 
been far below fixed charges. The com- 
missioner said in closing: 

The case, however, is not a simple one 
in spite of the company's financial diffi- 
culties. I believe that, except where there 
are specific requirements for free trans- 
fers at intersections of two lines, the com- 
mission possesses ample authority to deal 
with transfers as may seem reasonable 
under the circumstances, and I am now 
acting according to this view. 

My decision is this : I shall allow a 
cliarge of 2 cents for transfers at all 
lioints e.xcept where free transfers are now 
legally required. But this permission shall 
extend only to July 7, 1920, and is further 
conditioned upon the entire New York 
Railways system being kept together as 
at present constituted. Under ordinary 
circumstances I should consider a charge 
for transfers as wholly unreasonable, re- 
sulting in gross discrimination between dif- 
ferent classes of passengers and different 
parts of the city and in establishing a dis- 
jointed system of rates. 

But in the present case the choice is 
between an unreasonable system of rates 
and dissolution of tlie service. Which of 
these evils will cause the greater incon- 
venience to the public? The answer, to my 
mind, is clear, and I therefore seek to 
maintain the unity of the present system 
at the cost of a very unsatisifactory method 
of charging for service. 

Move to Gain Time 

The charge for transfers becomes rea- 
sonable only because it would be more un- 
reasonable to permit th? collapse of the 
service. My thought in limiting the in- 
crease to one year is in part to await fur- 
ther traffic development, but chiefly to 
make possible a satisfactory permanent 
settlement between the companies and the 

The present franchise under which the 
company operates is unreasonable in two 
respects : first, restrictions on fare, and, 
second, the permanent or long-time rights 
granted in the streets. Neither restriction 
nor privilege is justifiable. Both should go, 
the one with the other. My desire in 
granting temporary relief is to obtain suffi- 
cient time to get these adjustments. 

I hope that the city may be prevailed 
upon to consent to a flexible fare, while 
the company or the various financial In- 
terests will, in turn, give up their long- 
time or permanent rights to the streets. 
If these two things be accomplished it 
would then not be difficult to determine 
the value of the property and to fix rea- 
sonable rates. The city would then have 
the way clear for any transportation policy 
that may seem reasonable in the future, 
while the company would have safeguarded 
its investment. But unless the two things 
be accomplished there can be no final sat- 
isfactory settlement. In the end the charge 
for transfers would prove unsatisfactory 
and probably unworkable. It is justified 
only as a financial makeshift to gain time 
for settlement along proper lines. 

Mayor Hylan immediately announced 
that he was opposed to abolishing the 
transfers in any part of the city, as 
that would mean an increase in fare 
and would place additional burdens on 
the people. In consequence it is ex- 
pected that the city through Counsel 
Burr will seek to obtain a restraining 
order from the courts in a test case 
to determine whether Mr. Nixon has 
the right to allow a charge for trans- 
fers. It is said that Mr. Burr will 
contend that the city has not been given 
ample opportunity to prove that a 
charge for transfers is unnecessary. 

Juhj 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


It was announced on July 9 that taken with him the papers in the Brook- 

the order of Mr. Nixon, authorizing a 
charge for transfers, would not be for- 
mally entered for a day or two. Mr. 
Nixon left the city on July 8 on a two 
weeks' vacation and is said to have 

lyn Rapid Transit rate case. He is 
quoted as saying that he intended to 
study the situation carefully and might 
be prepared to make a decision with 
respect to Brooklyn within a week. 

Denver Sorely Tried 

Enforced Fare Reduction, Court Decision on Commission Jurisdiction, 
Reduction in Wages, Strike and Other Complications 

A decision by the Supreme Court of 
Colorado rendered on July 7 on re- 
hearing reaffirms the court's foriner 
decision in the case of the city of Den- 
ver against the Mountain States Tele- 
phone & Telegraph Company giving 
jurisdiction over the utilities in the 
home rule cities in that State to the 
municipal authorities. As in January 
last, when the original decision was 
rendered, the court on July 7 held that 
the sole power to regulate rates is 
vested in the people and that in home 
rule cities the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion has no jurisdiction. 

Five-Cent Fares Restored 

The 6-cent fare ordinance in Denver 
was repealed effective on July 5, re- 
ducing the fare on the lines of the 
Denver Tramway to 5 cents. On July 
7 the tramway announced a reduction 
in service, abandoning entirely or par- 
: tially eight lines, installing stub line 
service on six others and cutting the 
schedules materially on twelve addi- 
tional lines. Only eight or nine lines 
are unaffected by the service reduction. 

The railway also notified the em- 
ployees that the 1917 wage scale would 
be effective from July 8, trainmen's 
rate being 30 cents the first year, 32 
cents the second year and 34 cents 

On Monday night, July 7, the City 
Council passed on first reading an ordi- 
nance allowing jitneys to operate at a 
5-cent fare on prescribed routes and 
schedules for a period of ninety days. 
This measure cannot become a law until 
the week ended July 19. 

At midnight on July 7 the employees 
voted 976 to 2 to strike at 4 a.m. on 
Tuesday, July 8. In consequence, on 
July 10 nothing but mail cars and milk 
cars were operating in the city. The 
interurban cars are being operated by 
union men to the city limits as no fare 
or wage reduction was made on the in- 

Jitneys Operating Without License 
On July 8 the Mayor authorized the 
jitneys to operate without schedules 
on certain routes for a 5-cent fare. 
About 370 dollar jitney licenses had 
been taken out up to July 19. The 
Mayor the same morning stated that 
the electric railway was no longer 
necessary to the city, and that motor 
buses would give adequate service per- 
manently for a 5-cent fare. Business 
men report 50 per cent losses in local 

The tramway adjustment committee 
of fifty-five citizens, which was ap- 

pointed in January by the Mayor and 
which recently recommended service-at- 
cost operation, met on July 8 to work 
out a solution of the problem on the 
basis of their previously-advocated set- 
tlement plan, referred to in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal for June 14, 
page 1183. The Mayor on July 10 in- 
timated that he would not oppose an 
initiated petition for a 6 or 7-cent fare 
to be referred to the people if the com- 
pany would pay the expenses of the 
special election. 

The company has made repeated at- 
tempts to operate cars with company 
officials and supervisors, but it was 
blocked by the strikers although there 
was no violence. F. W. Hild, general 
manager of the railway, has announced 
that no professional strike breakers 
will be imported at present to operate 
the cars. He is advertising for men, 
but is offering only the 1917 wage scale. 
More than 1200 out of 1400 employees 
are on strike from every department of 
the railway except the power house and 
the general offices. 

Men Make New Demands 
The jitney service is inadequate and 
the unlicensed jitneys are charging 10 
cents to 31.50 to haul passengers. 

On July 9 local union No. 746 pre- 
sented a contract to the company pro- 
viding for a closed shop and a 60, 65, 
70-cent wage scale for trainmen with 
proportionate increases for all other 
employees. No action was taken on this 
by the management. 

The Mayor charges collusion on the 
strike between the strikers and the com- 
pany. This the management denies 
flatly, stating the strike to be the in- 
evitable and prophesied consequence of 
the Mayor carrying out his election 
platform promising a 5-cent fare. 

Five Cents for a Month 

The Grand Rapids (Mich.) Railway 
returned to a 5-cent fare on July 1 for 
an experimental period of one month. 
That the company would do this was 
noted previously in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal. The conditions under 
which operation will be carried out for 
July are reviewed in a letter of Benja- 
min H. Hanchett, president of the com- 
pany, to the City Commission. In this 
letter Mr. Hanchett said : 

In accordance with the understanding 
at a meeting of your lionorable body held 
on June 12, when this company agreed to 
put into effect, for the month of .July, the 
5-cent fare, and discontinue the 6-cent fare, 
as authorized by the ordinance passed Nov, 
4, 1918, orders have been issued to the 
conductors to begin collection of a S-cent 

fare on July 1, and to continue during the 
month of July, to test out the question 
whether the earnings of the company on 
this rate of fare will be sufficient to care 
for the operating and other necessary ex- 

Notices have also been placed in ali 
the cars, as requested by your resolution, 
passed on June HI and the public has Ijeen 
advised through the newspapers that the 
5-eent fare raif would be in effect for the 
month of July as above. 

This company will furnisli from its 
cashier's office a sworn statement of the 
car earnings daily, compared with the same 
week of the previous year, that is. the 
days of the week will be used in compari- 
sons, and also a schedule of all cars oper- 
ated on the various lines from 6 o'clock in 
the morning until the last car at night. 
Both of these statements will be sent*to the 
City Manager for the information of the 
special committee having the matter in 
hand, and also for the information of any 
of the commissioners who may be inter- 
ested in knowing how the 5-cent fare is 
working, as compared with last year. These 
statements of the car earnings will show 
the percentages of increase for each day 
in the month of July, 

The company will be willing to have a 
daily inspection of the earnings as well as 
the car service reports and will co-operate 
to this end in any way it may suit the 
pleasure of your honorable body. 

Louisville Suburban Rates 

Reduced rates on all lines of the 
Louisville & Interurban Railway, Louis- 
ville, Ky., will go into effect on Aug. 1. 
This action is the result of an agree- 
ment between the railway and the Sub- 
urban Protective Association reached 
before the State Railroad Commission 
at a joint meeting on June 24. 

Under the new agreement, single- 
trip fares on the five Beargrass lines 
will be computed on the basis of 2i 
cents a mile; on the Lagrange and 
Shelbyville lines fares will be charged 
at the rate of 21 cents a mile. Round- 
trip tickets from all points where such 
tariffs have been arranged will be sold 
by conductors on all cars without extra 
charge to passengers. 

In the future, twenty-trip commuters' 
books will be sold at the rate of 2 cents 
a mile, except where book fares average 
more than the round-trip fare. In such 
a case the lowest fare will prevail. 
Commuters' books for the full month 
on the Lagrange and Shelbyville lines 
will contain sixty-two tickets instead of 
fifty-four, allowing for Sunday travel 
on these books in the future. 

A minimum fare of 6 cents will be 
charged on all lines. The minimum 
fare heretofore has been 5 cents. 

Books for school children on all lines 
will contain forty-trip tickets and will 
be sold at the same rate as prevailed 
prior to the tariff changes July 1, 1918. 
Recently, these books for school chil- 
dren contained forty-six tickets, which 
had to be used during the month in 
which the book was purchased. The 
forty-trip ticket books may be used dur- 
ing any month of the school year, and 
unused tickets are redeemable. 

The new fare scheme, as announced 
by Chairman Finn, of the commission, 
shows large reductions over the scale 
of cash fares now in existence. The 
reduction on the Beargrass lines will 
amount to 161 per cent; on the La- 
grange and Shelbyville roads 8J per 
cent. On all lines the commuters' book 
rates will be lowered approximately 25 
per cent. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

In order that a check may be kept 
on operations under the new schedule 
of fares, the railway will make a 
monthly report to the State Commis- 
sion. The figures thus forwarded will 
be compared with corresponding months 
of 1917 and 1918. The revised rates 
could not be put into effect on July 1 
because of the many new ticket forms 
which will of necessity have to be 

Jitney Regulation Proposed for 
Kansas City 

The City Council of Kansas City, 
Mo., is considering ordinances for the 
regulation of jitney traffic. There are 
this summer fully 800 jitneys on Kan- 
sas City streets, of which about forty 
are large buses. The jitney drivers 
have an organization which from time 
to time has promised co-operation in 
such regulation as will provide the 
public with more regular and reliable 
service, and with protection against the 
many hazards involved in the operation 
of jitneys. So far, however, the chief 
activity of the organization has been to 
fight ordinances for regulation. 

A regulatory ordinance was passed 
by the lower house of the City Council 
on June 30, which required bonds, 
limited the parking privileges, and 
otherwise curtailed the liberties the jit- 
ney operators have enjoyed. Another 
ordinance has been introduced in the 
Council, which will be heard soon, re- 
quiring jitneys to maintain scheduled 
runs all day, and extend their service 
further into the suburbs. 

Jitney organization men say that 
they have not been able to secure 
bonds, the requirements of private com- 
panies for bonding being prohibitive. 
As an alternative, there is talk of some 
form of mutual insurance among the 
local owners themselves. 

Stockholders Asked to Aid in Fare 

Out in Columbus, Ohio, the voters 
are to be asked on Aug. 12 to approve 
the ordinance passed by the City Coun- 
cil granting an increase in fare from 
eight tickets for 25 cents to six tickets 
for 25 cents. As part of its campaign 
in behalf of the increase the company 
will put to a practical trial the sug- 
gestion made in an editorial in the 
Electric Railway Journal of June 
28 by appealing to its stockholders in 
Columbus for help. The letter to the 
owners of the securities of the com- 
pany, signed by P. V. Burington, secre- 
tary, follows: 

An increase in rate of fare is of vital 
importance to all stockholders of the com- 

The City Council has passed an 
ordinance g-ranting an increase from eight 
ticlcets for 25 cents to six tickets for 25 

Before becoming effective a referendum 
vote of the people is to be had at the 
primary election to be held on Aug. 12, 

WTiether the ordinance shall be sustained 
or defeated, is largely up to you and your 
efforts with other fair-minded citizens in 
voting to sustain the ordinance. 

Tlie need of an increase to maintain the 
service properly and protect the company 
is beyond question, and though small, the 
proposed increase will help. 

Be sure to place the importance of voting 
right in this matter plainly before all 
voters with whom you may be associated 
or come in contact. 

You can do much between now and 
Aug. 12 to secure this measure of relief 
liy personal touch with voters. 

' If convenient, I would be glad to hear 
from you in this matter. 

Court Sustains Fare Emergency 

The Supreme Court of Wisconsin has 
reversed the judgment of the lower 
court in the La Crosse case in which 
Judge Stevens held that an emergency 
did not exist in establishing a 6-cent 
fare on the lines of the Wisconsin Rail- 
way, Light & Power Company in that 
city. The court said: 

In the instant case the petition was 
broad enough to cover a proceeding for 
emergency relief in due course under sec- 
tion 1797-12, statutes. It is clear from 
the record that the commission had juris- 
diction to proceed, and that all parties in- 
terested were before the court and a full 
and exhaustive hearing had, and the hear- 
ing covered all issues in the matter and 
the procedure was tlie same as in other 
cases where a general rate hearing is had 
li,-l'ore the commission. There was ample 
credible evidence in the record to show 
tliat the income was not sufficient to pay 
a reasonable return on the investment after 
allowing 3 per cent depreciation. It is un- 
necessary to go into a discussion of the 
facts and figures in the record, which are 
very voluminous and which appear to have 
been carefully considered by the commis- 

Treating: the order as an order in due 
course under section 1797-12, it cannot be 
said that it was either unlawful or un- 

The issues involved in this case were 
reviewed at length in the Electric 
Railway Journal for April 12, page 
759. As explained at that time the 
Wisconsin Railroad Commission had on 
Sept. 12, 1918, granted a 6-cent fare in 
La Crosse upon the ground that an 
emergency existed because the old rate 
was insufficient to cover operating ex- 
penses, taxes and a 7i per cent return 
on the property value. Judge Stevens 
on March 21 held, however, that the 
grant of a higher fare was unlawful 
because no emergency existed within the 
meaning of the law. His general argu- 
ment was that a utility has no right to 
an emergency rate that would maintain 
its normal rate of income, and that the 
fact that a utility has set aside a sub- 
stantial surplus was one of much weight 
in determining whether an emergency 
exists. It is this decision that is now 

Seven Cents in Quincy 

The Quincy (111.) Railway, included 
in the Illinois Traction system, has been 
authorized by the Public Service Com- 
mission of Illinois to increase rates in 
Quincy. The company has made a con- 
tract to secure power from the Missis- 
sippi River Power Company at Quincy. 
The commission held in this matter that 
it would not be necessary for the exist- 
ing power station or equipment to re- 
tain the service until such time as an 
opportunity may arise to dispose of it 
to advantage, and in case of disposition 
it must be presumed that some sacrifice 
will have to be made on the part of the 
Railway, particularly as to the costs of 

the foundations, connections and other 
appurtenances which would be unsale- 
able in the case of the removal of the 
equipment. The issues on this point 
were whether the cost of the power 
station equipment should be included or 
excluded in the value of the property. 

It appeared to the commission that 
the change constituted an economic 
good for many reasons; that it enabled 
the utilization of water power that 
would otherwise go to waste, thus re- 
sulting in the conservation of fuel. If the 
value of the power station building and 
equipment were entirely excluded from 
the initiation of this improvement and 
the operating expenses determined 
solely upon the cost of the purchased 
energy then it is obvious that no in- 
centive would exist for the develop- 
ment of a project of this character. 

In this case the commission will con- 
sider the cost of the power plant and 
equipment depreciated to date as con- 
tributing to the value of the property 
and in giving consideration to the 
equity of the rates for railway service 
will consider that a sufficient amount 
must be allowed to amortize property 
over a reasonable period of time, while 
at the same time giving the public a 
portion of the benefits that will accrue 
from this improvement; and it would 
appear that ten years would be ample 
time to effect the amortization. The 
rates authorized until Dec. 31, 1919, 
are as follows: 

For single continuous passage between 
any two points: 

Cash fare 7 cents 

Four tickets 25 cents 

School children's tickets — good be- 
tween school hours — forty-ticket 
book $1 

Each Division on Its Own Basis 

The trustees of the Eastern Massa- 
chusetts Street Railway, Boston, Mass., 
on July 1 made effective a new system 
— -known as the "home rule" system — 
by which they plan to determine the 
fare rate on each of the twelve divisions 
of the road. 

Under the new plan the manager of 
each division is held responsible for the 
service provided on his division. He is 
to be in charge of accounts, assisted 
by a clerical force entirely independent 
of the main office; of complaints and 
maintenance of service. At frequent 
intervals the district managers are to 
issue statements showing receipts and 
expenditures, in order that patrons in 
the respective districts may know the 
operating costs. On these figures will 
be based the fare rates for the differ- 
ent lines. 

The trustees took possession of the 
property on June 1. An estimate of the 
earnings and expenses for the previous 
month under the old system of man- 
agement indicated a deficit of $300,000. 
Nothing was earned toward the in- 
terest charges or the principal of the 
State-guaranteed bonds. 

The twelve divisions of the road are 
in Chelsea, Lynn, Salem, Gloucester, 
Lowell, Lawrence, Haverhill, Hyde 
Park, Quincy, Brockton, Taunton and 
Fall River. 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Joukwal 


News Notes 

Press-ntirig- Valuatiin Testimony. — 
The League of Municipalities of New 
Jersey is now engaged in presenting 
its case with respect to the valuation 
of the property of the Public Service 
Railway, New Jersey, for rate-making 
purposes in connection with the plan 
suggested by the company for the pro- 
posed zone-fare system. 

Six-Cent Fare Sustained. — The Rail- 
road Commission of Wisconsin has 
handed down a decision denying the 
petition of the city of Sheboygan to 
reduce to 5 cents the 6-cent fare re- 
cently ordered, and also denying the 
application of the Eastern Wisconsin 
Electric Company to make the rate 
permanent that was ordered as an 
emergency measure. The commission 
held that the conditions at present do 
not warrant the re-establishment of 
the 5-cent fare at this time. 

Wage Increase for Municipal Em- 
ployees. — Wage increases for platform 
men, track and office employees of the 
San Francisco (Cal) Municipal Rail- 
way have been approved by the Board 
of Public Works and sent to the Board 
of Supervisors with recommendation 
that the ordinances fixing the deprecia- 
tion and accident funds be amended. It 
is asked that the depreciation fund 
be decreased from 14 to 12 per cent 
and the accident fund from 4 to 3 per 
cent to take care of the proposed wage 

Zones for Worcester. — The Worces- 
ter (Mass.) Telegram of June 30 said: 
"Plans are being considered by of- 
ficials of the Worcester Consolidated 
Street Railway for establishing a 5- 
cent fare in a general zone which would 
include parts of Worcester in what 
might be termed the central section of 
the city and a 10-cent fare for the re- 
mainder or outlying districts. In con- 
nection with the above plan the com- 
pany officials are also giving considera- 
tion to the establishment of shorter 
zones in the suburban lines with a re- 
duction in fare." 

Free Rider a Poser. — The finance 
committee of the City Council of Seat- 
tle, Wash., has asked Corporation 
Counsel Meier for an opinion on the 
question of whether the city's police- 
men and firemen can be compelled to 
pay fare on the cars of the Seattle & 
Rainier Valley Railway. The company 
has called the attention of the Council 
to the new tariff granted by the Public 
Service Commission which makes no 
provision for carrying policemen and 
firemen free, but the finance committee 
is under the impression that the com- 
pany's franchise provides that these 
employees shall be carried without 

Fare on Suburban Line Increased. 

—The fare on the Westerville line of 
the Columbus Railway, Power & Light 
Company, Columbus, Ohio, has been 
increased from 5h cents to 6 cents per 
zone. This makes the total fare be- 
tween Columbus and Westerville and 
return 42 cents, as a city ticket must 
be used for fare within the city. There 
are three zones on the line. The fran- 
chise under which the company now 
operates provides for service at cost. 
Before it was adopted, the round-trip 
fare from Westerville to the center of 
Columbus was 25 cents. 

Another Ten-Cent Road.— The Mid- 
dlesex & Boston Street Railway, New- 
tonville, Mass., has again filed with the 
Public Service Commission a schedule of 
fares, effective on Aug. 1, which puts 
the system practically on a 10-cent 
fare basis. All present 8-cent lines go 
to 10 cents, as do all but routes "B," 
"D," and "E" of the 7-cent lines. The 
three sections remaining unchanged 
are certain lines through NevHon, Wal- 
tham, Waverly and Watertovra. Free 
transfer privilege will be eliminated 
under the schedule as filed, which pro- 
poses a charge of 3 cents for each trans- 
fer issued. 

Two Sevens Replace Two Fives. — 
The present fare on the Corry & Colum- 
bus Traction Company's line between 
Corry and Columbus, Pa., is 10 cents, 
namely, two 5-cent fares. It is pro- 
posed, after July 20, to charge 14 
cents, namely two 7-cent fares, with 
eight tickets for 50 cents. If there is 
no opposition on the part of the public 
to the increase and the results under 
the increased fare justify, the road will 
be continued in operation, at the rates 
named. Otherwise another increase 
will be requested. If the road can not 
in some way be made to pay, the own- 
ers are prepared to shut it dovsm. 

Wants Six-Cent Fare Continued. — 
Extension indefinitely of authorization 
for a 6-cent fare is asked by the East 
St. Louis (111.) Railway in a petition 
filed with the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion of Illinois on June 25. On the ap- 
plication of the company for a 7-cent 
fare a year ago the commission au- 
thorized a 6-cent fare until July 31, 
1919. The petition now filed points out 
that the 6-cent fare was allowed last 
year after the trainmen had been 
awarded an increase in wages and that 
these employees are now demanding an 
additional increase in wages of about 
100 per cent. A decision on the wage 
demand by the War Labor Board is 
now awaited. 

Patrons to Decide Skip-Stop Matter. 
— The skip-stop system in Dallas, Tex., 
has been abolished on July 1 for a 
period of three months, during which 
time the old svstem will be tested and 
patrons will have an opportunity to 
compare the two svstems. At the end 
of the three months it is planned to 
have a referendum in which the rail- 
way patrons will express their choice. 
The railway promises to abide bv the 
result. The Dallas Railway will keep 
close check of the cars on the various 
lines during the three months test 

period. The office of the Supervisor of 
Public Utilities of Dallas has also made 
arrangements to check all the lines of 
the city to see that the service is kept 
up to the proper standard. 

Safety Cars for Galesburg.— The 
Public Utilities Commission of Illinois 
has passed an order authorizing the 
Galesburg Railway, Lighting & Power 
Company, included in the Illinois Trac- 
tion System, to operate one-man cars 
in the city of Galesburg, provided that 
such cars shall not be operated across 
railroad crossings unless flagged over 
the crossings after the car has come 
to a full stop and a conductor or flag- 
man has proceeded ahead to view the 
crossing, the motorman remaining in 
control of the car. The order of the 
commission is to apply only to cars 
especially modeled and equipped with 
safety appliances for one-man opera- 
tion. Specifications and descriptions of 
the proposed type of cars are to be 
filed with the commission for its ap- 

Service to Be Resumed in Hastings. 

— Thomas J. Goodwin, president of the 
village of Hastings-on-Hudson, an- 
nounced on July 2 that electric rail- 
way service from Yonkers to the center 
of Hastings will probably be resumed 
soon. The formal consent of the Board 
of Trustees of the village, giving the 
Yonkers Railroad a new franchise, has 
been filed in White Plains with the 
County Clerk. The new franchise will 
permit the cars from Yonkers to con- 
tinue to the corner of Main Street and 
Warburton Avenue, instead of stopping 
at the village line, as they have done 
since the old franchise expired. The 
Uniontown branch, however, in the 
northern end of the village, which has 
torn up its track, will be discontinued. 
The discontinuance of service in Hast- 
ings was referred to in the Electric 
Railway Journal for May 10, page 

Illinois Traction Increasing Facilities. 

— New schedules were placed in effect 
bv the Illinois Traction System, Peoria, 
111., on July 6. On the lines between 
Peoria and Bloomington and Blooming- 
ton and Decatur the service has been 
almost doubled, giving an hourlv serv- 
ice between these cities most of the day 
as compared to practically a two-hour 
schedule previously. Few chanees will 
be made on the Peoria-Springfield-St. 
Louis line, as sei-vice on this division 
was maintained at a high level during 
most of the war period. Two parlor 
cars will leave Peoria every dav for 
Snringfield and St, Louis. Traffic on 
the various divisions of the Illinois 
Traction System is reported to be in- 
creasing. The company, itself, re- 
sumed the handling of ex^^ress June 
29. The new department will be known 
as the Illinois Traction Exnress Com- 
nanv. It will be in charp-e of C. F. 
Handshy, assistant general manager. 
No express has been handled over this 
system since the Adams Extiress Com- 
pany was absorbed by the American 
Railway Exm-ess Company. The com- 
pany renorts a heavy tonnage of coal 
this summer. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 54, No. 2 

Personal Mention 

New Engineer for Pacific 

Eugene C. Johnson Made New Chief 
Engineer for the Pacific Electric 
Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Eugene C. Johnson, who has served 
in the capacity of assistant chief engi- 
neer in charge of maintenance of way 
and structures of the Pacific Railway 
System in Southern California since 
the vear 1911, was recently appointed 
chief engineer, vice George E. Pills- 
bury, who retired on account of ill 
health. The position of assistant chief 
engineer has been abolished. 

Mr. Johnson becomes the active en- 
gineering head of the system in this 
new position, having jurisdiction over 
all track, paving, bonding, signal, 
bridge and structure manitenance, as 
well as all new construction, together 
with full charge of the valuation re- 
port of the company's entire properties 
as directed by the California State 
Railroad Commission during the year 
1912. The jurisdiction of his new du- 
ties covers a trackage of 1092 miles. 

Mr. Johnson was born on July 16, 
1881, at Des Moines, la., and was edu- 
cated in the public schools at Minne- 
apolis, Minn. Later he took a pre- 
paratory course in civil engineering at 
Armour Institute of Technology of 
Chicago, 111., and upon graduation 
from the Armour Institute he entered 
Cornell University. In 1905 he was 
graduated from Cornell University 
with the degree of civil engineer. 
In 1905 he was engaged as assistant 
engineer of the Buffalo Terminal 
Division of the Delaware, Lackawanna 
& Western Railroad. In 1906 he ac- 
cepted the position of terminal en- 
gineer of the Western Pacific Rail- 
road at San Francisco. During his 
work for the last-mentioned company 
Mr. Johnson had more or less to do 
with the Southern Pacific construction 
work of the Bay Shore Cut-off. 

In 1908 Mr. Johnson was recom- 
mended to the Los Angeles Pacific 
Company to handle the construction of 
two large and difficult tunnels for the 
Los Angeles Pacific Company's lines 
in the city of Los Angeles, these being 
known as an extension of the Hill 
Street line to afford a more accessable 
route for penetrating the Hollywood 
district. Upon the completion of this 
tunnel construction in 1909, Mr. John- 
son took charge of the Arizona Eastern 
Railroad's construction of its Gila Can- 
yon Cut-off line, one of the most diffi- 
cult pieces of construction the South- 
ern Pacific had ever undertaken in 

After the completion of this work 
Mr. Johnson was appointed chief engi- 
neer of the Los Angeles Pacific Com- 
pany. This was in 1910. He then 
continued with that company until the 

consolidation of the local and inter- 
urban lines at Los Angeles in 1911 as 
the Pacific Electric System. Since then 
he has had charge of maintenance of 
way and structures of the Pacific 
Electric Railway with the title of as- 
sistant chief engineer. 

Mr. Cameron Resigns 

Retires As Superintendent of Transpor- 
tation at St. Louis, After Nineteen 

Years of Service 
Bruce Cameron, superintendent of 
transportation of the United Railways, 
St. Louis, Mo., has handed his resigna- 
tion to receiver Rolla Wells. In trans- 
mitting his resignation Mr. Cameron 
said in part: 

In July. ] !(] S. immediately after the ac- 
tion of the Grand Jury which indicted me, 
1 directed a letter to the board of directors 
of the United Railways telling them I had 
no conned ion whatever with the theft of 


llie referendum petitions and did not see 
how I could be indicted upon tlie testimony 
of a man named Jackson, who confessed 
that he did the deed himself, and that I 
did not wish to embarrass the board in any 
way whatever and if they thought it was 
best for the railway for me to discontinue 
my services with the company to consider 
that as my resignation, effective at their 

The board did not accept the resignation 
and I have been continued as superin- 
tendent of transportation ever since. 

Recent developments have caused a great 
deal of unpleasant newspaper comment, 
and I am quite sure you are in an un- 
enviable position, hence I do not wish to 
embarrass you in the least and you may 
consider this as my resignation as super- 
intendent of transportation of the United 
Railways to take effect at your pleasure. 

I want to repeat, I had no connection 
with the referendum petitions in any way 
and future developments will prove this 

May I ask that you, the public which 
you represent, as well as the stockholders 
of the company, reserve your personal 
opinions until this unfortunate muddle has 
been cleared up or my innocence established 
in the courts? 

I have dealt honestly with every one of 
the many problems coming to my depart- 
ment, and, in doing so, have, no doubt, made 
some enemies. My work has necessarily 
kept me on the job all of the time and Mrs. 
Cameron has passed through a year of 
un.iust and unfair criticism leveled at me, 
but her faith supports her, as she knows 
it will come out all right in the end. If 
at any time you wish to consult with me 
I am at your service. 

Bruce Cameron was bom on a farm 

in Missouri in 1877. After attending 
public and high schools of Nevada, Mo., 
he took a course at Fort Worth College, 
Fort Worth, Texas. His first business 
adventure was in the asphalt business 
at Dougherty, I. T. In 1900 he went 
to St. Louis and was employed by the 
St. Louis Transit Company in the en- 
ginering department. Later he was as- 
signed to the operating department, 
where he has been continuously since 
that time. 

As head of the transportation depart- 
ment of the United Railways it fell to 
Mr. Cameron to employ, instnict, train, 
discipline and commend the men who 
actually run the cars, also the superin- 
tendents, supervisors, clerks, dispatch- 
ers, switchmen, car sweepers and curve 
cleaners. In the department of which 
he had charge there are at present ap- 
proximately 3400 efficient, loyal, capable 
rnd honest men and women, many of 
whom have shared in establishing a 
record of accident reductions for the 
last eighteen months, the present ratio 
being twenty-five accidents to 1,000,000 
passengers carried. Mr. Cameron per- 
sonally gave the property the very best 
that was in him. In fact he worked for 
the company from fifteen to twenty- 
four hours a day for nineteen years 
with only one vacation. Mr. Cameron 
has had several opportunities to better 
his condition vdthin the last two years. 
At present he is taking a much needed 
vacation. He has not made any definite 
plans for the future. 

George Kidd, general manager of the 
British Columbia Electric Railway, 
Vancouver, B. C, who left for England 
on April 12 in connection with affairs 
of the company, expects to return to 
Vancouver by Aug. 1. 

H. O. Buder, assistant superintendent 
of transportation of the United Rail- 
ways, St. Louis, Mo., has temporarily 
been given the duties of superintendent 
of transportation of the company fol- 
lowing the recent resignation of Bruce 

R. V. Rose has been appointed su- 
perintendent of the Niagara Junction 
Electric Railway, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
He succeeds Joseph McSweeney, who 
has been appointed head of the wel- 
fare department of the newlv-consoli- 
dated Niagara Falls Power Company. 

CoL George Alan Green, who as chief 
engineer and superintendent of the Fifth 
Avenue Coach Company, New York, 
N. Y., operating the buses on Fifth 
Avenue in that city, is largely respon- 
sible for the steady improvement and 
progress of the company, has been ele- 
vated by the board of directors to be 
general manager of the company. Col- 
onel Green recently returned to the 
company after active service in France 
in the British Tank Corps. 

James Watt, Pittsfield, Mass., has 
been appointed superintendent of 
equipment of the Hudson Valley Rail- 
way, Glens Falls, N. Y., succeeding 
George C. Murray, who resigned to 
return to Mexico City where he was 
employed previously. Mr. Watt has 
been with the Third Avenue Railway, 
New York, and the Public Service 
Railway of New Jersey. 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Lieut. Walter A. Neeley, formerly 
superintendent of the New Jersey & 
Pennsylvania Traction Company, Tren- 
ton, N. J., has received his discharge 
from the army after spending nearly 
two years overseas. He received 
severe wounds about the arms and body 
in the battle of the Argonne Forest 
and still has one of his wounded arms 
bandaged. Lieutenant Neely was a 
member of the old New Jersey National 
Guard for many years. He resigned from 
the railroad to enter the army. He will 
probably resume his old position with 
the New Jersey & Pennslyvania Trac- 
tion Company when he recovers entirely 
from his wounds. 

Horace E. Allen has been appointed 
general superintendent of the Saginaw- 
Bay City Railway, Saginaw, Mich., 
which includes the local railway sys- 
tems in both Saginaw and Bay City, 
and in addition operates an interurban 
line from Saginaw to Bay City. The 
Northeastern division of the Michigan 
Railway, of which Mr. Allen is also in 
charge, operates through cars from 
Bay City and Saginaw to Flint and 
Detroit. Mr. Allen was formerly as- 
sistant general manager of the Spring- 
field (111.) Consolidated Railway. Be- 
fore that he was with the Michigan 
Railway. After completing the course 
in electrical engineering at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology Mr. 
Allen accepted a position with the West- 
inghouse Company at East Pittsburgh 
and in 1910 became connected with the 
Toledo Railways & Light Company, 
serving with that company for six 

George B. Willcutt, secretary of the 
United Railroads, San Francisco, Cal., 
and its oldest employee in point of con- 
tinuous service, has been made vice- 
president and secretary of the company. 
Mr. Willcutt is a native of San Fran- 
cisco, in which city he received his early 
training and prepared for the Univer- 
sity of California. While in college he 
majored in chemistry and after gradua- 
tion in 1879 taught the subject at the 
University of California for three years. 
Leaving his professorship to take up 
mining, he was an early associate of 
John Hays Hammond and Henry But- 
ters. His father, J. L. Willcutt, was 
at that time general manager of the 
Market Street Cable Railroad, San 
Francisco, and in 1886 Mr. Willcutt 
joined this company as assistant to the 
general manager. In 1893 there was a 
consolidation of fourteen or fifteen of 
the small horse car and cable railways 
of San Francisco into the Market Street 
Railway Company and J. L. Willcutt was 
made secretary and comptroller, with 
his son as his assistant. In 1900 George 
B. Willcutt succeeded his father, who 
wished to retire from active life, and 
since that time has held the position of 
secretary and comptroller, being re- 
elected to the same office in 1902, when 
the United Railroads of San Francisco 
was formed. He has been a directo" 
of the company since 1907 and is con- 
sidered perhaps the highest authority 
on the history of street railways in 
San Francisco. He has an intimate ac- 

quaintance with the many changes that 
have occurred during the past two dec- 
ades and his service to the company is 
of inestimable value on this account 

Mr. Buffe Made Manager 

Former Assistant to President at Kan- 
sas City Succeeds Mr. Gibson — 
Other Departmental Changes 

F. G. Buffe, connected with the Kan- 
sas City (Mo.) Railways since August, 
1917, has been appointed general man- 
ager of the company, effective from 
July 1. Mr. Buffe had been acting in 
this capacity since the resignation of 
James E. Gibson, who had been general 
manager since the reorganization of the 

Following the appointment of Mr. 
Buffe, readjustments were made in the 
personnel, with the end in view of 
closer co-ordination and a reduction in 
the channels through which reports 
reach the officers of the company. Mr. 
Buffe had been assistant to the Presi- 
dent P. J. Kealy for more than eighteen 


A. E. Harvey, who has been super- 
intendent of ways and structures, has 
been appointed chief engineer, in 
charge of ways and structures, and 
the electrical distribution system is 
added to his responsibilities. He will 
report to the general manager. 

S. H. Grauten, electrical engineer, 
will report to Mr. Harvey. 

H. W. Smith, now assistant super- 
intendent of ways and structures, be- 
comes engineer with this subject in 

In the shop department George J. 
Smith, superintendent, will have the 
assistance of Henry S. Day, equipment 
engineer. Mr. Day will have particu- 
lar charge of details of inspection, 
maintenance and division repairs. 

W. C. Harrington, formerly super- 
intendent of equipment, will be super- 
visor of division repairs. Mr. Harring- 
ton will report direct to the equipment 

Mr. Buffe, the new general manager 
of the Kansas City Railways, was born 
on Sept. 5, 1881. He was graduated from 

Illinois Wesleyan University, Blooming- 
ton, 111., and did newspaper work in 
Denver, Col., and Peoria, 111. He was 
formerly managing editor of the Peoria 
Heruld-T yanscript . In 1909 he became 
connected with the Illinois Traction 
System, as manager of the department 
of publicity which he installed. Later 
he served as special representative for 
H. E. Chubbuck, vice-president execu- 
tive of that company, in connection 
with franchise and public service com- 
mission work. Mr. Buffe entered the 
service of the Kansas City Railways 
in August, 1917, for work in connec- 
tion with labor matters, and also 
served in the educational work of the 
utilities of the State of Missouri on 
the relations of these companies to the 
public. He was made assistant to 
President P. J. Kealy on Jan. 1, 1918. 
Upon the resignation recently of James 
E. Gibson as general manager, Mr. 
Buffe was made acting general man- 

Mr. Day is a new man in the Kansas 
City Railways organization. After 
service with the Boston (Mass.) Elev- 
ated Railway, Mr. Day spent several 
years with the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company, specializ- 
ing on railway equipment. He had 
charge of all electrical equipment in 
connection with the electrification of 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad, and was in complete charge of 
the shops, inspection and maintenance 
work for this company. He has re- 
cently returned from France, where he 
served as captain of engineers. He 
also served with Sanderson & Porter, 
New York, N. Y., on valuation work. 

C. C. Bullock has been appointed su- 
perintendent, of transportation of 
Shreveport (La.) Railways to succeed 
J. W. Robertson, who resigned to ac- 
cept a similar position with the Shef- 
field (Ala.) Company, operating the 
railway in Sheffield. Mr. Bullock en- 
tered electi-ic railway work as a con- 
ductor with the company in 1910. Some 
years later he became night dispatch- 
er, serving in this position during the 
winter months, and as assistant sec- 
retary for the local baseball club dur- 
ing baseball season in summer months. 


John F. Merriam, seventy-one years 
of age, died on July 1 at his home in 
St. Joseph, Mo. About 1870 Mr. Mer- 
riam acquired an interest in the Citi- 
zen's Street Railway which operated 
on South Eleventh Street, St. Joseph. 
He served as superintendent of the 
line. The franchise of the company 
was purchased in 1888 by the People's 
Electric Railway and Mr. Merriam re- 
tired from railway work to devote him- 
self to banking and traveling. 

Manufadures and the Markets 



Rail Inquiries Continue 
Favorable Showing 

Under Curtailed Production, Rush of 
Orders from Railroads Would 
Lengthen Shipments 

Conditions in the rail mills are be- 
coming better. Better orders for rails 
are coming in from domestic consum- 
ers, but the principal increase in orders 
is from abroad. Inquiries, too, are 
in larger volume, not only in number 
of orders, but also in size of order. 

The recent government order for 
200,000 tons of rails has had little 
effect on rolling mills. The order was 
so split up among producers that it 
resulted in merely a mouthful per mill 
compared with normal orders. There 
seems to be no foundation to the 
rumored further order on the govern- 
ment's account for 300,000 tons of rails 
at this time. Manufacturers state that 
the withholding of the rail orders 
causes more injury to railroads than it 
does to the rail mills. This, of course, 
is true of the electric railways as well. 

Immediate Shipments Now 
Mills are operating at between 40 
and 50 per cent of capacity, producers 
state. No stocks of rails can be made 
up in advance of the ordering, which 
manufacturers feel sure will soon come 
in, because of the number of different 
sections required by the various types 
of railways. It is expected that when 
ordering does start in it will be in large 
volume and for a great part all at once. 
At that time shipments will be ex- 
tended to long periods. For the pres- 
ent, shipments can be made immediate- 
ly. All orders are about completed. 

Export orders are looking up. The 
British mills have capacity well below 
demand and are not in a way to pro- 
duce rails to compete in price or deliv- 
ery with American rails. Manufac- 
turers of steel products in Great Brit- 
ain are studying American methods of 
production with a view to the adoption 
of measures that will reduce the pres- 
ent high costs of British manufacture. 
Glasgow has recently purchased 5000 
tons of street railway rails from Amer- 
ica. The lowest British offer was given 
at £19 Is. 3d. per ton. The reported 
American quotation of £17 9s. is be- 
lieved to be too low, but it was under 
£19. Great Britain has done little 
electric railway work in five years, and 
her rail condition is seriously in need 
of care. 

Japan is reported in the market for 
5000 tons of rails, although she only 
recently purchased 30,000 tons. France 
is in need of 5000 tons of rails and 

a like tonnage of other steel, while 
Spain is inquiring for axles, wheels 
and other equipment. Brazil also is 
extending railroads. These are merely 
indications or rail activity, and ex- 
pected further export orders will have 
their effect on the already curtailed 
rail mill production and shipments. 

Prices are holding firm for domestic 
consumption at the rate suggested the 
latter part of April, but thei'e is a 
tendency upward with other steel 

Fare Box Inquiries on the 

Buying of New Boxes and for Changes 
Expected When Commissions 
Grant Relief 

Many inquiries are in the field and 
several orders for small numbers of 
fare boxes are in manufacturers' 
hands. Traction companies in many 
cases feel that the period of higher 
fares is drawing closer, and they are 
getting information on new fare boxes 
and* the work necessary to equip pres- 
ent boxes to handle different coins in 
advance of this change. Many of the 
inquiries concern applications of metal 

Actual buying of this equipment is 
being put off, it is stated, owing to un- 
certainty about the possibility of get- 
ting the desired increase in fare or 
doubt as to the permanency of any 
higher fare that might be obtained just 
now. Too long holding off of ordering, 
manufacturers say, will result in con- 
gestion of manufacturing conditions 
and shipments and will hold up deliver- 
ies for some time. There are lots of 
orders ready to come through, they say, 
and when relief is assured the railways 
will release them in considerable num- 

No recent change in prices has been 
reported. The tendency, sales represen- 
tatives state, is upward, along with 
other railway material. 

It is expected that charge for trans- 
fers, such as it seems is about to go 
through for the New York Railways 
Company, will not require fare box 
changes, as it can be made merely a 
matter of the issue of a transfer by the 
conductor and the receipt by him of the 

Crossarms Higher 

Price increases have just gone into 
effect, although at this vsrriting the 
amount of increase is not available. It 
will probably be in the nature of a 10 
to 15 per cent rise. Stocks are in quan- 
tity to make good deliveries. 

No Price Drop in Glass 

Curtailed Production and Increasing 
Domestic and Foreign Demand Will 
Probably Keep Stocks Low 

The market for window glass has 
increased considerably in the last few 
weeks. In the agreement whereby one- 
half of the factories should work from 
December to the latter part of May 
and the other half from August to 
December, there is a belief among the 
trade that present consumption and 
that expected in the fall and winter, 
will so reduce stocks that longer pe- 
riods of production could have been 

Probably two-thirds of the year's 
production is already in storage. Man- 
ufacturers have a large part of this 
in stock, although dealers and jobbers 
are fast taking on large stocks for 
their own use. Jobbers' stocks, however,, 
it is stated, are not yet in sufficient 
quantity to meet all demands. 

Manufacturers can make immediate 
deliveries on most common grades of 
window glass, although there is one 
instance where no deliveries under 
thirty days can be made. Carload lots 
have been set down at sixty days. For 
some of the thicker sizes, around 22. 
to 29 ounces, deliveries are running 
from three to six months. This is be- 
cause of the heavy automobile top de- 
mand which the glass factories cannot 
supply in a short time with their pres- 
ent capacity. 

Prices on window glass have been 
holding firm for some time and no in- 
timation has been given by manufac- 
turers that there will be any reduction 
this year. For single strength, first 
three brackets, A and B quality, New 
York discount still holds at 80 per 
cent, while double strength, all sizes, 
AA quality, has an 81 per cent. New 
York discount. 

Although fall production will start 
up in August, present building de- 
mands, both domestic and foreign, deal- 
ers state, will take a large proportion 
of the window glass stock and produc- 
tion. The export demand in particular 
is in creasing to a great extent. The 
glass factories of France and Belgium 
are not yet in a position to supply the 
needs of those countries and, according 
to present indications, will not be for 
a long time, so that stocks in this coun- 
try naturally will be drawn upon to 
a large degree to fill their require- 
ments. The result to domestic consum- 
ers, it is stated by the trade, will be 
longer deliveries and, if stocks get 
much smaller, possible higher prices. 

July 12, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Copper and Brass Products Hold- 
ing Firm for the Present 

Copper continues its advance, and at 
this writing is quoted at 20 cents a 
pound spot delivery. Copper and brass 
products which went up a cent a week 
ago have not undergone any further 
advance, although such advances are 
not expected. 

No increase has been noted in the 
price of commutator bars nor field and 
armature coils during the recent ascent 
of copper, but it is likely that price 
changes in this class of maintenance 
equipment will follow. Among orders 
for armature coils there is found one 
for about $80,000 in the New York 

Rolling Stock 

Delta Light & Traction Company, 
Greenville, Miss., has purchased two 
cars for early delivery. 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway, 
Wichita, Kan., expects to equip its lim- 
ited cars with heavier type motors to 
cut down the running time between 
Wichita and Hutchinson. Additional 
standard freight cars will also be 
needed by this company. 

Georgia Railway & Power Company, 
Atlanta, Ga., has ordered from the 
American Car Company for October de- 
livery fifteen new cars, seating 51 peo- 
ple each, with center-entrance doors 
opening very little above street level. 
These will be the first cars of this type 
to be seen in Atlanta, though they al- 
ready have been tried in a number of 
other cities and have proved vei-y suc- 
cessful. The new cars will be turtle- 
back, like the latest pay-as-you-enter 
cars built in Atlanta. They will have 
steel sides and steel reinforced timber 
underframing. They will be double 
ended, with nq bulkhead at either end 
and no difference of level between plat- 
form space and car floor. The motor- 
man will have his own enclosure shut 
off from the rest of the car. The cost 
of these new cars is given as $9,000 
each delivered. 

San Francisco - Oakland Terminal 
Railways, Oakland, Cal., recently placed 
upon its lines a new street car which 
was built in its own shops from mate- 
rial bought in Oakland. It is knovra as 
double end drop platform with monitor 
roof and is divided into two compart- 
ments, one compartment for smoking, 
occupying about one-third of the car. 
The seats are transverse reversible and 
of spring rattan. Its length is forty- 
eight feet, width nine feet, and has 
large commodious platforms. The 
framing of the car is steel throughout, 
with the exception of the roof, which is 
wood and steel combined. The latest 
system of lighting is installed, with 
opal shades. The interior of the car is 
finished in Spanish cedar, natural fin- 
ish. The car seats fifty-two people and 
operates on the College Avenue line. 
The directors have authorized the build- 
ing of seventeen additional cars similar 
in all respects to this one. 

Recent Incorporations 

Sistersville & New Martinsville 
Traction Company, Sistersville, W. Va. 

— The Sistersville & New Martinsville 
Traction Company and the West Vir- 
ginia Power Company have been incor- 
porated with a capital stock of $500,- 
000 as successor companies to the 
Union Traction Company and the Sis- 
tersville Electric Light & Power Com- 
pany. The extension of the road above 
New Martinsville to Clarington or 
Moundsville is contemplated. Impor- 
tant improvements are also being- 
worked out for Paden Park, which will 
make it one of the most popular and 
convenient pleasure resorts in that part 
of the Ohio Valley. Incorporators: R. 
Broadwater, W. J. McCoy, Nell Burns, 
W. R. Reitz and E. C. King, all of Sis- 


Little Rock, Ark. — L. Garrott has 
asked the City Council of Little Rock 
for an extension of his franchise to 
construct a line from Little Rock to 
Hot Springs. 

Miami, Fla. — The Dade County Com- 
missioners have granted a thirty-year 
franchise to the Miami Beach Electric 
Company to operate a street car line 
over the causeway. It is stipulated 
that within four months after the com- 
pletion of the causeway tracks tut. 
company shall have constructed anJ 
i-eady for operation a line extending 
from the eastern terminus of the cause- 
way to Miami Avenue, and that within 
a year it shall have completed and 
ready for operation a belt line at the 

Track and Roadway 

Wichita Railroad & Light Company, 
Wichita, Kan. — The Wichita Railroad 
& Light Company has ordered 12,000 
new ties to be used th^s year on streets 
to be paved. 

Frankford & Shelbyville Traction 
Company, Shelbyville, Ky. — L. C. Lash- 
met, secretary and engineer of Wadell 
and Sons, engineers of New York and 
Kansas City, who will construct the 
Frankfort-Shelbyville electric line, has 
arrived in Louisville to begin work. 
The last connecting link has been sur- 
veyed and it is planned to begin con- 
struction work so as to have it com- 
pleted January 1, 1920. It was thought 
that a new bridge over the Kentucky 
River at Frankfort would be necessary 
but the present plan is to use the bridge 
now in service over that stream. 
(Mar. 8, '19.) 

Springfield, 111. — It is proposed to 
construct an electric line between 
Springfield and Rushville, via Peters- 
burg and Chandlersville. John Rosen- 

wienkyle, 2145 North Racine Avenue, 
Chicago, is reported interested. 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway. — 
Work will be begun soon by the city of 
Boston and the Boston Elevated Rail- 
way on the paving of Tremont Street 
from Berkeley and Dover Streets to 
Northampton Street. The city vntt 
spend $152,000 on the work and the 
Boston Elevated will spend $104,000 for 
its part of the work. New tracks will 
also be laid by the Boston Elevated 
Railway on this section. 

Norwood, Canton & Sharon Street 
Railway, Sharon, Mass. — A stock com- 
pany is being organized by F. A. 
Prince, of Dennet & Prince, Boston, to 
operate the Noi-wood, Canton & Sharon 
Street Railway. It is planned to have 
the road in operation by Aug. 1. 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. 
Joseph Railway, Kansas City, Mo. — 
Right-of-way has been obtained and 
construction will be begun soon by the 
Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 
Railway on its proposed extension from 
Excelsior Springs to Richmond, about 
18 miles. 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways. — Work 
will soon be begun by the Pittsburgh 
Railways on the double-tracking of its 
line on Chartiers Avenue, Sheraden, 
at a cost of $103,614. 

Power Houses, Shops 
and Buildings 

East St. Louis & Suburban Railway, 
East St. Louis, 111.— The East St. Louis 
& Suburban Railway is in the market 
for a 60-cycle turbine, switchboard and 
other electrical equipment to replace 
material destroyed and damaged by an 

St. Joseph Railway, Light, Heat & 
Power Company, St. Joseph, Mo. — Im- 
provements and additions to the plant 
of the St. Joseph Railway, Light, 
Heat & Power Company planned 
for the year 1919 will amount to $1,- 
250,000. The plans include the instal- 
lation of three additional 10,000 kw. 
generators with their boilers and ac- 
cessories, the installation of one 10,000- 
kw. turbogenerator with condensers, 
pumps, switchboard, boiler, stacks and 
other necessary equipment. Heavy 
expenditures are planned for next year 
as well. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, N. Y. — Bids for the eonstniction 
of eleven stations on the Pelham Bay 
Park branch of the Seventh Avenue- 
Lexington Avenue rapid transit line 
have been asked for by Transit Con- 
struction Commissioner John H. De- 
laney. The bids are to be opened on 
Julv 24, and work is to be completed 
within six months after the contracts 
are awarded. The steel work for the 
Pelham Bay Park branch of the city- 
owned rapid transit system is already 
beino: erected, and will be ready for 
station finish within two months. All 
of the stations are located above 
ground, and it is estimated the work 
will cost $650,000. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 2 

Trade Notes 

E. T. Causer has recently resigned as 
works manager of the R. D. Nuttall 
Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Holden & White Inc., Chicago, an- 
nounce that the National Railway Ap- 
pliance Company of New York, will 
handle the sale of jewel forced ventila- 
tion heating systems and Holden & 
White electric heaters in the New Eng- 
land, Eastern and Southern states. 

Mr. Dennis' Title — A note in this 
column on June 28 referred to the title 
of Charles H. Dennis, while with the 
Railway Audit & Inspection Company, 
as "general superintendent of employ- 
ment." This paper is in receipt of a 
card indicating that his complete title 
was "superintendent of inspection and 

Federal Electric Products Corpora- 
tion, 52 Broadway, New York City, an- 
nounces that the corporate name of the 
Federal Electric Company has been 
changed to Federal Electric Products 
Corporation, and the business will here- 
after be conducted under that name. 
Benjamin Blum, heretofore managing 
director of the Federal Electric Com- 
pany, has been elected secretary of the 
Federal Electric Products Corporation, 
and will be in charge of the company's 
business with the same duties as here- 
tofore exercised. 

Harrison Safety Boiler Works, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., announces that the Monash 
line of pressure reducing valves and 
pump governors, formerly manufac- 
tured and sold by the Monash-Younker 
Company, of New York and Chicago, 
has been acquired by the Harrison 
Safety Boiler Works of Philadelphia. 
The purchase includes a stock of manu- 
factured parts and valves, drawings, 
patterns, trade mark and good-will. The 
Harrison Safety Boiler Works will man- 
ufacture and market the valves under 
the trade name "Cochrane-Monash," 
and will supply repair parts for valves 
now in use. 

Allied Machinery Company of Amer- 
ica has increased its capital stock to 
$5,000,000. This was made necessary 
by the decision of the American Inter- 
national Corporation to group all of its 
machinery export selling subsidiaries 
under one head. All shares of the Al- 
lied Machinery Company will, as be- 
fore, be owned by the American Inter- 
national Corporation. J. W. Hook will 
continue as president and F. A. Monroe, 
S. T. Henry and T. G. Nee have been 
elected vice-presidents. Mr. Monroe is 
in charge of the administrative affairs 
of the company. Mr. Henry is in 
charge of sales and advertising and Mr. 
Nee is at present in Japan devoting his 
attention to the affairs of the company 
there. R. P. Redier is general sales 
manager of the company, vdth head- 
quarters at Paris. 

Henderson - Mockenhaupt Company, 
Chicago, has been organized to act as 
sales representatives for manufacturers 

of electric material. A. F. Henderson, 
president of the company, was former- 
ly secretary and general sales manager 
of the Electrical Material Company; B. 
J. Mockenhaupt, secretary and treas- 
urer of the new company, was formerly 
vice-president of the W. P. Crockett 
Company. Among the lines being 
handled by the Henderson-Mockenhaupt 
Company are those of the Independent 
Lamp & Wire Company, Electric Rail- 
way Equipment Company, National 
PJnameling & Manufacturing Company, 
and Rattan Manufacturing Company. 
A. C. Perrin, formerly railway and 
mine specialist for the Electrical Ma- 
terial Company, is also associated with 
the Henderson-Mockenhaupt Company. 

National Railway Appliance Com- 
pany, New York City, has just com- 
pleted arrangements with Holden & 
White, Inc., Chicago, 111., whereby they 
are prepared to offer in the Eastern 
and Southern States a new line of car 
heaters of various types. These include 
the Jewel hot-blast forced-ventilation 
stove and a complete line of electric 
heaters. The stoves are made by the 
Detroit Stove Works and the motor and 
blower are located below the fire box. 
A new tjT)e of construction has been 
introduced into the electric heaters. 
These are made by the Cutler-Ham- 
mer Manufacturing Company and in- 
clude a nicrome resistance ribbon wound 
on a mica center strap. This is in- 
cased in mica insulation and mounted 
on a metal bar bound with sheet metal 
in such a way as completely to sheath 
the unit. 

Col. Douglas I. McKay has been 
elected president of the Pulverized Fuel 
Equipment Corporation of 30 Church 
Street, New York, to succeed John E. 
Muhlfeld, who retires to return to con- 
sulting engineering practice. Since 
July, 1917, Colonel McKay has been en- 
gaged in war work and supply, where 
he had supervision over the purchasing 
operations of the several supply corps 
of the War Department, including the 
Ordnance Department, Quartermaster's 
Corps, Medical Corps, Corps of Engi- 
neers and Signal Corps. Colonel McKay 
is a graduate of West Point and a for- 
mer police commissioner of New York 
City. Upon resignation of the com- 
missionership he became assistant to 
the president of J. G. White & Com- 
pany, Inc., and two years later was 
elected vice-president and director, 
which position he held at the time he 
entered the service. 

Park-Union Foreign Banking Corpo- 
ration formally opened its doors for 
business on June 1, at 56 Wall Street, 
New York City, for the development 
of foreign markets. The new inter- 
national bank has been in the process 
of organization since March, when it 
"was incorporated under the laws of 
New York State, with a capital of 
$2,000,000 and surplus of $250,000. 
These figures, however will be in- 
creased as occasion demands. For the 
present the activities of the Park- 
Union wiW be devoted particularly to 
the promotion of American interests in 

the far Eastern field, says Dr. C. A. 
Holder, its president. Branches have 
been established in Yokohama and 
Shanghai, and negotiations are under 
way for offices in other important 
world centers. Offices in the United 
States have been located on the Pacific 
coast at San Francisco and Seattle. 

Ohio Electric & Controller Company, 
5900 Maurice Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio, 

announces it has appointed as its rep- 
resentatives, the following firms: The 
Iron & Steel Equipment Company, 1502 
First National Bank Building, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; Williams, Beasley Company, 
343 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, 
111.; Linn 0. Morrow, 707 Franklin 
Trust Building, Philadelphia, Pa.; J. 
W. Dopp & Company, 18 Columbia 
Street, Detroit, Mich.; Kelly, Powell, 
Ltd., 403 McArthur Building, Winni- 
peg, Canada; Wonham, Bates & Goode, 
Inc., Dominion Express Building, Mont- 
real, Canada; Shook & Fletcher Sup- 
ply Company, Birmingham, Ala. For 
export business the following repre- 
sentatives have been appointed: Won- 
ham, Bates & Goode, Inc., 17 Battery 
Place, New York, London, Paris, Ha- 
vana and Rio de Janeiro; Mitsui & 
Company, 65 Broadway, New York, 
Japan, China, Philippine Islands and 
Honolulu; Gustav Neilson A/S, Chris- 
tiania, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. 

New Advertising Literature 

Napier Saw Works, Inc., Springfield, 

Mass.: Form 60 on Napier band saw 
machines and hack saw machines. 

Trumbull Waste Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Manayunk, Philadelphia, Pa.: 
Booklet on "Tampico" and how to use 
it in journal box packing. 

Universal Packing & Service Com- 
pany, Railway Exchange,- Chicago, 111.: 
Double sheet on "Spring Journal Box 

Electric Arc Cutting & Welding Com- 
pany, Newark, N. J.: Booklet on 
"Portable Alternating Current Appa- 
ratus for Cutting and Welding Metals." 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa.: Folder 
on the "FFI Electric Locomotive" — the 
4800-hp., single 4-0 three-phase freight 

Electric Service Supplies Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa.: Bulletin No. 157 il- 
lustrates and describes the "Golden 
Glow" demountable mirror unit for re- 
placing 18 in. X 9 in. metal reflectors. 

Thompson-Starrett Company, New 
York: Two finely printed brochures. 
One contains views and short descrip- 
tions of some of the important build- 
ings erected by the company. The 
other is a copy of an article which ap- 
peared in Scribner's Magazine for No- 
vember, 1918, written by Col. W. A. 
Starrett, and describes the construction 
of the city of Nitro, W. Va., at a cost 
of $50,000,000. This construction in- 
cluded the erection of 3000 individual 

Electric Railway 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Volume 54: Ncw York, Saturday, July 19, 1919 Number^ 

Cutting Service Is 

a Dangerous Economy 

DESPERATE diseases often need desperate reme- 
dies, but the medicine ought not be powerful enough 
to kill the patient. A few drops of "Cut Service Mix- 
ture" if well shaken before taken may enable the patient, 
Mr. Car Earnings, to hobble along; but a drop too much 
and he will never travel again. Whenever we read that 
this or that railway is going to run cars every twenty 
minutes instead of every ten and inaugurate a little cur- 
few of its own by stopping owl service, we pray sincerely 
that it will not kill the riding habit. Any measure of that 
nature is a sad sort of economy. We may not be able 
to make every car-hour pay with a 5-cent or even a 7-cent 
fare, but with too deep a cut in service we can bring 
even the present profitable hours to the wrong side of 
the ledger. Another factor in cutting down service, par- 
ticularly night service, is the loss of good-will at a period 
when good-will is needed more than ever. The traffic 
which the steam railroads are driving off to-day will 
have to come back — it has no remedy — but a lot of the 
traffic which an electric railway drives olf can stay at 
home or walk. 

Off Again, On Again, 
In Denver 

PITY the poor traction manager! Developments in 
Denver in the past year remind a person of one 
of those up-and-down rides at Coney Island or the 
adventures of our old friend "off again, on again, 

The news columns of the JOURNAL have recorded the 
vicissitudes of the Denver Tramway Company — the 
struggle under a 5-cent fare; the move upward to 6 
cents and then to 7 cents; the quick slump downward 
to 6 cents, and then back to its former place in the 

5- cent class. When the people of that city approved a 

6- cent rate last September, Denver stood forth as an 
exceptional community because there were few instances 
where the car riders voluntarily assumed a share in 
the growing burdens of the transportation company. 
But the idea that it is a popular move on the part of 
politicians to bait the corporation will not down ; and 
they were not long in forcing lower fares. The action 
of the Mayor in giving free rein to jitneys was a 
sample of what the company management has to contend 
with. It did not seem to matter that business houses 
reported a loss of 50 per cent in trade. It is perhaps 
just as well, however, that the public should have had 
an opportunity of experiencing what it is to live in 
a "trolleyless" town. 

Later reports indicate that the people of Denver 
have learned that a railway is really a necessity. They 
found they could not get along without the cars and 
that the jitney in many ways was a "fair-weather 

friend." It is now announced that a 6-cent fare will be 
restored as quickly as possible, and that a cost-of-serv- 
ice plan will probably be adopted. Meanwhile the train- 
men have had the War Labor Board scale of wages 
restored, with prospects of a further increase later on. 
We sympathise with the Denver Tramway management 
and trust that the experimental stage with lower fares 
is past for ever. Perhaps the people and the politicians 
have learned something in the past few months. 

The Federal Hearings Are 
At Last Under Way 

THE hearings on the electric railway situation begun 
'n Washington on Tuesday, we hope, mark the 
turning point in a most anomalous situation. Properties 
organized to provide an essential service for the public 
are being prevented from furnishing that service and 
are being driven into bankruptcy because the war has 
changed the status of values. Profiteering, or the use 
of the peculiar conditions brought on by the world's 
confiict to extort unusual and unfair gains from others, 
a practice rightly condemned both morally and legally, 
is being brazingly followed in many cities to compel 
the electric railway companies to furnish transportation 
at a loss. The unity in aims which should exist between 
the electric railway companies and the communities 
which they serve, as regards the provision of the 
proper transportation facilities on tracks already in 
existence and the construction of new lines into sections 
needing such facilities, has disappeared. 

The fact that the President has appointed the present 
commission shows that he recognizes the seriousness of 
the situation. Just what the commission can do and 
will recommend remains yet, of course, to be determined. 
But the electric railways at last have an opportunity to 
put before a national commission evidence of an im- 
pending disaster which is nation-wide and to impress 
on a governmental body the necessity of doing what is 
possible to avoid the threatened debacle. 

The hearings during the early part of this week 
show that the American Electric Railway Association 
has a well-prepared case, in spite of the short time 
available since the announcement of the appointment 
of the commission to collect and collate the facts. It 
will work under this disadvantage as regards statistics 
of past years that many of the factors which increase 
railway operating expenses are of comparatively recent 
date, while the latest government figures for the elec- 
tric railways of the country are for the year ended 
June 30, 1917. It will be necessary, therefore, as the 
association expects to do, to prove by witnesses not 
only what has happened, but what the present condition 
of the electric railways is and what the immediate 
future has in store unless remedial action is taken. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

The evidence being presented at Washington is of 
great educational value not only to those for whose use 
it has been primarily compiled but also for the railway 
men in attendance. There was a good representation of 
operators at the early sessions this week, but there 
should have been more. We realize that with conditions 
as they are at present it is hard for a manager to get 
away from his property for any great length of time. 
But there has never been an electric railway rate case 
in which the testimony has been so extended and of 
such a high order, and a trip to Washington for a 
day or more by any railway man, operator or investor 
who can get away will be well worth while, not only 
for the individual benefit to be derived but to indicate 
to the com.mission the vital interest which the industry 
is feeling in the hearings and their outcome. 

New Capital Cannot Be Coerced, 
Whatever Is Done to Old 

IS CAPITAL entitled to a higher emolument when 
the present return is no longer sufficient to attract 
investors? This is the interesting question arising 
from the recent labor difficulties of the Cleveland Rail- 
way Company, wherein the employees were granted their 
wage demands and the request for increase in the stock 
dividend rate from 6 to 7 per cent was left subject 
to arbitration. President Stanley has set a great many 
persons to thinking over his proposal. Officials of the 
Chamber of Commerce in Cleveland have expressed the 
opinion that his demands on behalf of the stockholders 
are entitled to consideration. 

When the late Judge Tayler wrote the Cleveland 
ordinance in 1908 he foresaw that prices would not be 
constant and wisely arranged that the rate of fare 
should fluctuate with the cost of service. One defect 
in the franchise provisions — which did not become em- 
barrassing until some years later — was the fixing of a 
maximum in the schedule of fares. This was tem- 
porarily cured in a recent amendment to the ordinance 
by raising the maximum rate of fare. Recent events, 
however, have proved the contentions of the manage- 
ment that the franchise will never be satisfactory while 
a maximum rate is fixed in the schedule. In this par- 
ticular the Boston trustee plan and the Cincinnati 
franchise have an evident advantage. 

But the framers of the Cleveland ordinance — an 
admirable document in many ways — would have done 
well to incorporate in its provisions, as well, a sliding 
scale for the return on new securities. Cost of capital 
fluctuates as it does for labor and materials, and while 
it is important to assure an adequate return on securi- 
ties already outstanding, it is no less essential that the 
franchise guarantee the market price on future issues 
of bonds and stock so that when new capital is needed 
for transportation improvements it will find the utility 
company as good a customer as any competitor. The 
people who insist on improved transportation facilities 
should appreciate this as readily as the company officials. 
When a million dollars is required and the company's 
new issue of stock will not sell at par the amount that 
can be raised is lessened to just the extent that a 
premium has to be paid. 

The Cleveland car strike .was as much a strike of 
capital as it was of labor. Money will not work on 
unattractive terms any more than the platform men 
will do so, and when the latter can gain their point 
by showing that other industries offer a better wage, 

the investor should get an attentive ear from the public 
by his threat of going elsewhere to find kindlier treat- 

It might be contended that there is little element of 
risk in the investment in Cleveland Railway Company 
stock because the good faith of the municipality is in- 
volved in the keeping of its written agreement. It is 
perhaps true that securities are safest when protected 
by service-at-cost provisions in a grant, but the fact 
remains that the Cleveland Railway stock has been 
selling below par while many other securities, apparently 
no more sound, attract a higher price. 

Interest from bonds and dividends from stock help 
many a family to meet the cost of living, and if their 
holdings have depreciated to such an extent that the 
future is jeopardized it would seem only the part of 
equity to give a fair hearing to their petition for 
relief. Capital once invested may have no choice but 
to remain where it is. But no railway in a growing 
city can stand still. It must make extensions and 
improvements, and these means additions to its capital 
account. And this new capital will not be forthcoming 
unless the conditions are right. It can be as coy as 
labor. A community such as Cleveland will not suffer 
by establishing such a precedent as that proposed and 
by acquiring a reputation of being liberal to capital 
and labor alike. The outcome of arbitration proceedings 
in this unique "strike of capital" will be awaited with 

Conserving the Technical Lessons 
Taught by the War 

ON JUNE 25 bills were introduced in Congress with 
the intent to consolidate the governmental depart- 
ments having to do with technical matters. The situa- 
tion was covered in a news item on page 38 of the 
issue of this paper for July 5. Whether these bills 
become law or not, the fact that they were introduced 
suggests the need for capitalizing the successful efforts 
put forth during the war to increase the productive 
efficiency of the country's industrial plants and utilities. 

The war has taught many vital lessons. Among other 
things we are learning that science and the scientific 
spirit in the broad sense are fundamental if we are 
to make ends meet in the future, that investigation 
and analysis are the foundation of national prosperity. 
Our wonderful country is so bountiful in supplying 
raw materials, and we have such a capacity for getting 
results somehow in spite of obstacles, that we have not 
always appreciated the necessity for conservation and 
effective utilization of our resources. 

There are, of course, many instrumentalities at 
work along scientific lines, some doing research work 
themselves, some utilizing and applying the work of 
others. Great industrial establishments have their 
development departments; the government has its 
Bureau of Standards and many other scientific bureaus; 
there is the National Research Council; college and 
university laboratories are almost numberless, etc. It 
would seem, however, as if there is -need for co-ordina- 
tion of all of this machinery. In fact, one important 
lesson of the war will have been lost if such co-or- 
dination is not brought about promptly. Could not 
the national technical societies, including the American 
Electric Railway Association and its satellites, get this 
movement started? The most immediately practical 
plan for doing so would be to memorialize Congress as 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


to the importance of creating some agency, or utilizing 
some existing one, to study the problem and prepare 
a plan for its solution. If a governmental engineering 
department is erected, such agitation would help it. 
If not, the agitation might lead to constructive legis- 
lation of some other kind. 

There Is an Equilateral 
Triangle of Obligation 

THE fundamental object in electric railway opera- 
tion is now recognized as service, something which 
can be secured only by co-operative action among the 
three factors in electric railway operation, namely, the 
public, the company and the men. In the old days the 
interests of each of these three were "considered opposed 
to those of the others. It was thought that the public 
would gain most when it got as much out of the 
company in the way of taxes and other imposts as it 
could and at the same time paid a minimum fare, while 
the object of the company was to give as little service 
as it might for the revenue received. In the same 
way, it was believed to be in the company's interest 
to pay its men the lowest possible wage, while the men, 
it was thought, could most profit by forcing the company 
either by strike or otherwise continually to advance 
their wages. 

Actually, the real interests of all are identical. Thus 
the city will most benefit if it permits the company 
to earn a reasonable return on the investment made and 
the company will gain most if it gives as good a 
service as it is able to do for the fare paid. In like 
manner, the employees should receive a wage equal to 
that which they could earn in any outside industry 
calling for the exercise of an equal amount of skill, 
while the company can best profit if it pays such a wage. 
Finally, to complete the triangle of mutual dependence 
and co-operation, the employees can best serve their 
own interests if they co-operate with the company in 
giving the public as good a service as is warranted by 
the fare charged. If these mutual obligations were gen- 
erally accepted, strikes and the payment of inadequate 
wages and fares would disappear. 

Strikes are an economic waste, and while they or 
the payment of inadequate wages may seem at times 
to be of advantage respectively to the men or the 
company, yet if the ability of the railway to give good 
service is thereby impaired the results to both are 
unfortunate. In the same way, an inadequate fare will 
retard the proper development of the utility and too 
high a fare will injure the growth of the community 
which it serves, so that in either way the interests of 
both company and community suffer. 

Co-operation and a unity of purpose among the three 
elements of society, the wage earner, the investor and 
the public, should take the place of that antagonism 
which is now being recognized as detrimental to the 
best interests of all. Some advance has already been 
made in establishing this principle of co-operation be- 
tween the companies and the men, and the public 
should be brought in closer touch with the practical 
workings of our public utility properties, the first duty 
of which is to give service to the public. It is only 
through co-operation, under a cost-of-service plan, 
among the wage earner, the investor and the general 
public, that the transportation problem can be success- 
fully solved. 

Cars Should Be Still 

Lighter Not Heavier 

NOW that the war is- over and the metal market has 
become more normal, the builder of street railway 
cars will be able to get the higher-grade steels and other 
light-weight materials like aluminum alloys, that have 
been almost unobtainable. It is a matter for congrat- 
ulation that this is the case because of recent tendencies 
to ask for heavier rather than lighter safety cars. 

It is a fact that in a number of placesi, the safety car 
has been obliged to carry loads much greater than con- 
templated, and, in some instances weakness of struc- 
tural members has also been a factor. The easiest way, 
seemingly, is to make these parts, heavier. But this is 
not the easiest way in reality because the safety car is 
practically a unit for which certain motors, compressors, 
etc., have been especially designed on the basis that the 
weight would not exceed 15,000 to 16,000 lb. If we ex- 
ceed this weight, we disturb the entire balance. Greater 
weight will in turn demand heavier and more costly 
equipment throughout, while the power will jump back, 
considering the present increase in fuel cost, to where 
it was with the old time car that broke the backs of so 
many street railways. 

Actually thei easiest way of meeting this situation is 
to put into the construction of a street car better metal 
than ever before. This has become practicable now not 
only because of the better condition of the metal market, 
and the release of tools for making special shapes, but 
also by the standardization of the safety car itself. No 
car builder could be asked to keep special alloys on hand 
if only a fraction of the non-standard cars ordered would 
make use of such steels. With the quantity production 
of cars, the builder will feel at greater liberty to make 
use of the same high-grade metals and special light- 
weight materials as the automobile builder. We agree, 
for example, with the suggestion of J. M. Bosenbury 
of the Illinois Traction System, that serious attention be 
given to vanadium steel. This steel is far superior to 
ordinary steel in withstanding shocks and stresses in- 
cident to city railway operation. Put into a truck, it 
would give say 25 per cent increase in strength with no 
increase over the weight of the first safety car trucks. 
For sheathing, ingot iron (or coppered steel) is also an 
excellent material because of its greater resistance to 
corrosion. Furthermore, if this sheathing is covered 
with the cork-like balsa wood, and the latter in turn 
lined with a little veneer, the safety car will approach 
more closely the ideal of the noiseless car for all climates 
in addition to being much easier to heat when used in 
cold climates. 

But no matter how anxious the railway car builder 
may be to take advantage of these special materials, 
he can do little without the co-operation of the customers 
who must be willing to buy the best possible combination 
available even if they are tempted to ask for something 
just a bit different or cheaper here or there. 

The car builder may also have to charge more money 
for special steels than for ordinary commercial steel, 
but the operator will be justified in paying this higher 
price because of the many savings that he will be able 
to retain in other directions. In the long run, both the 
manufacturers and the operators will benefit because the 
very life of both depends upon the continued ability to 
conduct electric railway transportation cheaper and 
better than any other means of carrying people in 
public vehicles. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

Notes on the History and Development of 
Electric Railway Rails 

The Author Takes Up the Practical and Theoretical Considerations 
Which Are Gradually Leading to Rail Standardization and Simplification 

By R. C. cram 

Engineer Surface Roadway, Brooklyn Rapid Transit System 

IN SOME of the previous articles on way department 
matters the writer has discussed such features as 
subsoil, foundation, ballast and ties in their relation 
to track construction. The most important subject of 
rails is now taken up with considerable hesitation, in 
view of the vast amount of discussion already given to 
it. But no series of articles on way department matters 
would be complete without some mention of the rails, 
because they represent the fundamental part of the 
physical equipment of the great electric railway in- 
dustry and are the direct cause of the creation of way 
departments. In the main, this article treats of the 
early history and development of street railway rails. 

engineer may now be heard giving thanks for the 
breathing spell which the development of light-weight 
cars has caused. There is a movement toward making 
the cars suit the track instead of the long-continued 
reverse order of trying to make the track fit the ever- 
increasing weight of cars. 

Early History of Rails 

Rails were first used in the coal mines of England. 
According to Fred Bland, they were originally of planks 
or timber and the first record of their use is dated 1576. 
The word "tram," from which are derived the words 
tramway and tramrail, originally was the local name 

The rail has been the subject of more study than any 
or all other parts of the track, and its development 
represents the general progress in the development of 
the railroad. In recent years progress in rails has 
tended to keep somewhat behind the advances made 
in equipment. Car and engine-weights have increased 
so rapidly that it has been almost impossible physically 
to keep up to date with suitable rail sections, even 
when finance permitted. This is particularly true of 
rails laid in paved streets, and the street railway track 

for a coal wagon in the collieries at Newcastle. Since 
the rails were to facilitate the movement of the "trams," 
the rails were associated with them as tramrails or 

The first rolled rails were pieces of iron straps 
laid on longitudinal parallel stone or wooden sills or 
stringers. They were held in place by spikes driven 
into the wooden stringers or into wooden plugs set 
in holes drilled in the stone sills.' The rails were about 
i in. thick, 2 in. wide and 15 ft. long. All of the early 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


steam road rails used in this country were imported 
from England. Some of the very early types are shown 
in the drawing reproduced on page 108. 

The street railway is distinctly an American idea 
and the first use of rails and flanged wheels in streets 
is credited to this country. 

The New York & Haarlem Railroad, built in 1832, 
was the first street railway ever built. It was not a 
financial success at first and the opposition to the early 
street railways was quite similar to the opposition that 



e. t 

SOMEJ EARLY TYPES OF RAILS (From Willard's "Maintenance 
of Way and Structure") 

a, b, c, earliest types, d, first T-rail. e, U-shaped rail of 1834. 
f, pear-shaped rail. 

appeared, many years later, against the construction 
of electric street railways. In both cases, this great 
factor in community life and development had to fight 
great odds for its birthright. How singular it is that 
to-day it is still fighting for even a bare existence, 
and against even greater odds! 

Strap or stringer rails were used by the steam roads 
and by the early horse tramways in this country up to 
about 1840, when the T-rail began to be used as a sub- 
stitute by steam roads because the increasing engine 
weights caused the rails to turn up at the ends. This 
by the way, was the beginning of our troubles with 
joints. The first rail approximating a T-rail was in- 
vented in America, in 1830, by Robert L. Stevens. 

The period between 1840 and 1850 marks the parting 
of the ways between the steam railroad and the street 
railway or tramway. The latter continued to use strap 
rails or flat tram stringer rails from the first real 
development period of 1852-1855 until the advent of 
the electrical development period, about 1890. Mean- 
while, steam roads had progressed far in the use and 
development of the T-rail under the far-reaching in- 
fluence of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 

The electrification of street railways, .by the use of 
heavier equipment, virtually forced the tramways to 
develop and use other rails, just as the steam roads 
had to do many years before. However, street traffic 
and pavements tended to cause the development of the 
tram-rail idea from the flat tram or stringer-rail to 
the 4i-in., 6-in. and later to 7-in. and 9-in. tram and 
groove girder rails. The 9-in. tram girder, or Phila- 
delphia rail, was designed by William Wharton, Jr. 
in 1890 although the general features were proposed by 
Jos. Quinn, of the Wharton Company about two years 
earlier. The tram part of the rail was distinctly a con- 
cession to, and continuation of, the use of rails by 
wagons in streets even though the cars had come to use 
flanged wheels entirely. A few railways went to the 
steam roads for their designs and developed the deep 6- 
in., 7-in. and even 8-in. and 9-in. "high-T" rails or plain 
girder rails, as they are more properly designated. The 
depth was, like that of the tram girders, largely to 
provide paving accommodations. 

There were several peculiar rail^|j|||ppments at that 
time which may now seem absurd flWrrney had consider- 
able vogue. One of them, the "Lewis and Fowler" box 
girder may still be found in sidings and in little-used 
or abandoned track in a few of our large cities. Some 
of these early sections are shown in an accompanying 
figure. It is of interest to note that the modem cross- 
sections of manganese rails used in crossings in special 
work have several features (particularly the double- 
web) in common with the Lewis and Fowler section, and 
the use of a rather similar double-web for modem 
heavy T-rails has been suggested by Gustave Ljnden- 
thal in his paper read before the New York Railroad 
Club on May 21, 1915. 

As noted in a preceding paragraph, rails were first 
designed to carry wagon wheels having flat tires. Some of 
the rails had an upturned flange which acted as a guard 
in keeping the flat tires upon the track and presented 
the appearance of equaWegged angle-iron bars. A 
sample of this kind of construction was until recently 
found in the colliery at Coalbrookdale, England. It was 
built in 1767 and was, when dismantled, probably the 
oldest tramway in existence. It was taken up only a 
year or two ago. 

The advent of the flanged wheel, an American in- 
vention, created the need for flangeways. These were 
provided for in American tram rails by raising a part of 
the section to form the "head," as the running surface 
is called. Such a rail was known as a steprail or side- 
bearing tram rail. Another reason for raising the 
head was to keep the bearing surface above the general 
level of the pavement, thus avoiding trouble from 
accumulation of dirt, snow and ice. The center-bear- 

Head Angle 
r-30' '-■ 

Back or 

Outside 01 


of Web-- 

WBB: Sometimes 
called "Heck' 

of Web 

Top of Base 
'.tor Flange) 
'\ Fillet---. 
13° E \ 

\c-646SLIIiE- Usually about 

■ below Top of Head Edge of 

' '■'-,-Gage Side of 
A ; Head 

-y'^ Depth of 
■■■■ Head 
, , y''-- Depth of 
\ '.. Groove 
\ ' Top of Tram 
or Lip 
Top of Tram 
Underside cf 

A, B, C. D are small Fillets 
E , F, &, H are Fishing Angles 
Dash Line of Tram Indicales 
"the Portion of Groove Girder 
Rails Originally called 1he 

Entire Base often called the Foot 
n " '• " " Flange 

'cf Base 


ing stringer rail and the later center-bearing girder 
rail were distinctly designed with that point in view. 
This rail also kept the loose paving stones of cobble 
and similar pavements, then prevalent, from interfering- 
with the path of the wheel. The center-bearing rail 
became objectionable to teamsters in the large cities 
and it was legislated out of existence by the State of 
New York in 1892. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

The idea of placing the flange on the rail, instead of 
on the wheel, as it was in the early days was revived 
by C. B. Voynow in a paper read before the American 
Street and Interurban Railway Engineering Association 
in 1908. While Mr. Voynow presented an ingenious 
exposition of the subject, the practical impossibility 
of changing the entire street railway track system, 
to say nothing of finance, prevented any serious con- 
sideration of the scheme. Mr. Voynow's proposed rail 
section is reproduced on page 109. 

The introduction of the groove in the stringer rail 
was probably the earliest means of providing room for 
the wheel flanges. It is understood that its invention 
in 1852 is credited to M. Loubat, a French engineer 
who was interested in American street railways. Fred 

Bland, in his paper on tramway track\ states that with 
the exception of one or two of the earliest street 
railways, the English street railways have rigidly ad- 
hered to the groove rail and the use of any other form 
is now prohibited by the Board of Trade, which has 
jurisdiction in such matters. Incidentally, the better 
pavements which prevailed in England in the early days 
permitted a wide use of the groove rail. 

The first girder guard rail similar to section "D" on 
this page was rolled in Birmingham, Ala., at a little 
mill with which A. J. Moxham, later president of the 
Lorain Steel Company, was connected. This was prior 

'Journal of Permanent Way Institution, Inc., of Great Britain, 
Dec. 1918, page 113, abstract In Electric Railway Journal, Dec. 
L'8, 1918, page 1144. 

|< 3i 


A — Side-bearing stringer rail. B — Center-bearing stringer rail. C — Stringer guard rail. D — One of the first girder guard rails 
(1883). A similar design was first rolled in Birmingham, Ala., prior to that date. E — Early center-bearing rail (1888), "butter- 
fly" section. F — C. A. Richard's girder section (1885). G — Early girder guard rail, "bulb" section (1885). H — One of the earliest 
girder guards, having a base similar to modern sections. About 1889. I — Center-bearing girder rail. About 1889. J — Angle chair 
support for "bulb" section. K — Verv earlv full-groove girder rail, patented 1883. Used in Washington, D. C, about 1889. This 
design was originated in England. L — Duplex composite section, about 1891. These parts were held together in cast-iron chairs ; 
the chairs in turn were held to gage by tie rods. The chairs rested on the soil or were embedded in concrete. M — Lewis and 
Powler box girder, or double-webbed rail. About 1890. 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


to 1880. In 1883 the Johnson Company rolled the guard 
"D." The early girders had no bases at first, and were 
generally held in some form of chairs. Even when the 
"bulb" began to appear as a sort of base the chair 
still prevailed and when the shallow girders having 
bases came forth, they also were carried on cast-iron 
chairs to provide for paving depth. A very low girder, 
about 4 in. high, was rolled by the Cambria Steel Com- 
pany in 1877. 

When we come to the full-groove girders, Washington 
and Cincinnati both claim priority of use, but the Wash- 
ington design, im- 
ported from Eng- 
land, seems to have 
the preference. It 
certainly was pat- 
ented in this coun- 
try in 1883, with 
later patents in 

The grooved gir- 
der was an out- 
growth of the tram 
girder, being form- 
ed at first by sim- 
ply changing the 
rolls so as to bend 
the tram upward to 

form the groove. 
It was first develop- 
ed in England as 
a means of better- 
ing paving condi- 
tions near the gage 
line, to offset the 
ruts which tend to 
form as a result of heavy wagon traffic. Its increased 
use in America has followed the general betterment of 
paving conditions. Right here a digression may be made 
to note that the wagon makers are wiseacres. Original- 
ly, it is believed the rail gage was made the stand- 
ard gage of 4 ft. 8i in. because it was wagon gage also, 
and wagons were first used on rails. However that may 
be, the writer has observed that in cities where the gage 
of the tracks is 5 ft. 2 in., the wagon gage is the same, 
and that in all cities the wagons generally will readily 
follow in- the tracks whatever the gage may be. We can 
be thankful that the steel-tired era for wagons is passing 
in favor of the rubber-tired automobile truck, which 
generally will transport far heavier loads with com- 
paratively little damage to most track pavements. 

Far Too Many Rail Sections Are in Use 

In the early days of electric operation, and dovra 
to a very recent period, each street railway engineer 
had his own ideas on rail design which resulted in a 
multiplicity of sections. In some cases franchises also 
permitted city engineers to specify what sections 
should be used and these engineers also exercised their 
"ability to design" in multiplying the number of sec- 
tions. The result of all this is realized more fully when 
we remember that the manufacturers have catalogued 
over 400 different sections. On page 106 are shown a 
half hundred different sections which have been used 
on one large property alone. 

The Massachusetts Street Railway Association con- 
sidered the matter of standard rails as long ago as 


1892 when George W. Mansfield suggested six standard 
rails in a paper read before that body at its annual con- 
vention. The subject was also discussed before the 
American Street Railway Association in 1892, in a 
paper by John F. Ostrom entitled "Is a Standard Rail- 
Head Possible?" Those papers influenced the width 
of head and some other features to a considerable 
degree. Then followed a long interval of independent 
or "personal" designing and it has taken about twenty- 
three years for the industry actually to settle upon six 
standard girder rails. 

About 1907, the committee on way matters of the 
American Electric Railway Engineering Association 
commenced the study of rail sections with the view 
to standardization. It was not until 1913 that the work 
reached a conclusion and the association succeed- 
ed in adopting two standard groove girder and two 
girder guard rails to match. Similarly two plain girder 
(high-T) rails were adopted and a series of low T-rails 
("standard section rails") were settled upon. The lat- 
ter are all American Railway Engineering Association 

It will be noted that the tram girder was dropped 
entirely, but there recently has been an attempt in some 
quarters to revive it. (See article in Electric Railway 
Journal for Dec. 1, 1917, page 997.) While two depths 
of groove girders were adopted, a 7-in. and a 9-in., the 
writer believes that the 9-in. section has been used but 
little, as the tendency has been toward a very general 
adoption of the 7-in. depth, which seems to meet all 

Martin Schreiber discussed these standard rails in 
an interesting article which appeared in the issue of 
this paper for April 11, 1914, page 812, giving a histori- 
cal resume of the work of the way committee on the 
subject of standard girder rails. 

At first considerable objection was made to the new 

early track construction in boston with 
electrically welded chairs 

standard groove girder sections on account of their in- 
creased weights. The writer has held, however, that the 
increase was warranted by the requirements of good de- 
sign and observations covering over four years of com- 
parative performance of 105-lb. and 122-lb. groove gir- 
ders has confirmed this view. Weight well distributed 
gives that very desirable factor of stability which is an 
essential, particularly in connection with electric rail- 
ways in view of "deferred maintenance" which in many 
cases has meant no maintenance whatever until the cars 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 54, No. 3 

would no longer stay on the rails. The presence of pave- 
ment often causes needed maintenance work to be "defer- 
red." Under such conditions an 80-lb. rail, for instance, 
will give a track of fair riding qualities when it would be 
almost impossible to run a car safely over a 60-lb rail. 
It is quite obvious that for a given car weight and service 
there is a limit below which we should not go in selecting 
rails. As between 60-lb. and 80-lb. sections, the latter 
will require far less maintenance under the same traf- 
fic; so much so that the difference in first cost is more 
than made up in lesser maintenance expense. In more 
than one instance a difference of 20 lb. in the weight of 
rail prevailing on a railway has decided the question 
as to whether a banking firm would finance new enter- 
prises on old roads. 

(b) Outline of tread, (c) Top fillet of head, (d) Side 
of head, (e) Depth of groove, (f ) Width and angle of 
groove, (g) Tractive contact and electrical contact. 

2. Vertical Stability: (a) Depth of section, (b) Lo- 
cation of web. (c) Width of base. 

^. Permanency of Joints: (a) Depth of section, (b) 
Outline for splicing, (c) Electrical bonding. 

4. Horizontal Stability: (a) Location of web. (b) 
Thickness of web. (c) Fillets at web. (d) Width of 
base, (e) Width of tram, (f ) Depth of section. 

5. Distribution of Loads on Foundation: (a) Width 
of base, (b) Depth of section. 

6. Accommodation for Paving : (a) Depth of section 
(b) Tram of rail. 

7. Accommodation for Vehicular Traffic: (a) Dis- 

Left — 90-lb. low T-rail ; center — 80-lb. low T-rail ; right — 7-in., 80-lb. plain girder (high T-rail) 

In spite of the ap- 
parent simplicity of 
outline, there are a 
large number of fac- 
tors which have an 
influence upon gir- 
der-rail design. Rails 
for use in paved 
streets present sev- 
eral added features 
which are not requir- 
ed in standard sec- 
tion (low-T) rails. 
While some of the 
general requisites of 
design were outlined 
by earlier commit- 
tees, it remained for 
the 1911 way com- 
mittee to present an analysis of section or design, which 
is a landmark in such committee work. That analysis 
presents a reason for every feature of a groove girder 

The more general principles which control design of 
girder rails are: (1) Performance of existing sections 
in use with the view of retaining the good features 
and eliminating defects. (2) Redistribution of metal to 
give maximum strength at critical points. (3) Use of 
an outline of section and distribution of metal which 
will permit ease of rolling without sacrifice of essential 
characteristics. (4) Possibility of combining all the 
features that are necessary in a standard. 

The analysis of section must consider the following 
items : 

1. Accommodation for Wheels: (a) Width of head. 

L — ^. J 

Left — 100-lb. low T-rail ; right — 7- 

tance of tram below 
head. (b) Width 
and thickness of 
tram, (c) Width of 

8. Life in Service : 

(a) Depth of head. 

(b) Depth of groove. 

(c) Thickness of 
tram, (d) Possible 
life of substructure, 
(e) Thickness of 

9. Weight: (a) 
Economical distribu- 
tion of metal. 

10. Manufacture: 
(a) Distribution of 
metal for rolling. 

(b) Various angles and fillet details. 

From the foregoing it is evident that the design of 
a girder rail is far from being a matter of rule of 
thumb and should only be undertaken after the most 
careful investigation of available sections, of which 
there are now far too many. 

Composite Rails 

The fact that head wear usually determines the life 
of the rail and a loss of not over 20 per cent of the total 
amount of metal in the rail will cause its renewal has led 
to numerous attempts by inventors to devise some form 
of composite or renewable-head rails. A few of these 
sections are shown on page 111. The latest of these, 
the "Romapac" or continuous rail has been tested in 
service in Chicago. When the writer last saw it the de- 

association t-rail standards 

in., 91-lb. plain girder (high T-rail) 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


fects in the scheme were becoming very noticeable and 
there does not seem to be much chance of its being given 
further consideration. The scheme is by far the most 
practical of the many renewable head designs which have 
appeared. The head section is "crimped" cold onto the 
base section by an ingenious machine and a similar 
machine is designed to remove worn heads. The Chicago 
test seems to have proved that the idea is fallacious in 
that the renewable feature introduces other conditions, 
not found in connection with the use of ordinary rails. 

and specifications were generally accepted without ques- 
tion. Nevertheless, the subjects of specifications and 
the need for them were discussed in a paper read before 
the American Street Railway Association at its meeting 
in Cleveland in 1892. The tendency in manufacture to 
put tonnage output ahead of quality led the railways into 
the field of specifications with beneficial results and both 
the American Railway Engineering Association and the 
American Electric Railway Engineering Association 
now have standard specifications for rails in their man- 

From left to right — 7 -in., 122-lb. rail; 9-in., 134-lb. rail; 7-in., 140-lb. guard rail; 9-in., 152-lb. guard rail 

which far outweigh whatever advantage may attach to 
the proposition. 

Composition of Rails 

Early stringer rails were made of iron, some of them 
being cast to shape. About 1860, Bessemer steel came 
into use and held sway until about 1903, when the open- 
hearth steel process began to supersede it and there is 
but a very small tonnage of Bessemer now produced in 
this country as compared with open hearth. In 1913 
the tonnage of Bessemer was only one-third that of 

uals. The specifications of the latter association cover 
girder rails only. For low T-rails, the specifications of 
the American Railway Engineering Association or of 
the American Society for Testing Materials are largely 
used. The American Society for Testing Materials also 
approved the electric railway association specifications. 

Aside from iron, which constitutes approximately 98 
per cent of the metal, the five most important ele- 
ments in rail-steel are carbon, manganese, phosphorus, 
silicon and sulphur. Steel containing these elements 
with carbon predominating is called carbon-steel. Car- 

A — A. E. SmitVi's proposed compound rail. B — James Keaton's proposed com- HAVING THE RENEW ABLE- 
pound rail. C — Bartheld's proposed compound rail HEAD FEATURE 

open-hearth and in 1918 about one-fifth. This change 
has been largely due to the increasing scarcity of low- 
phosphorus ores suitable for the Bessemer process. Fur- 
thermore, the chemistry and quality of open-hearth 
steel is said to be under better control than in the 
Bessemer process, which tends to production of more 
reliable steel. 

Neither the steam nor the electric railways paid much 
attention to the composition of rail steel until within the 
last ten or fifteen years and the manufacturers' analyses 

bon has the quality of adding hardness to the steel, but 
too much of it tends to make steel brittle. Early Besse- 
mer rails were low in this element, while recent rails 
contain three times as much as did the early rails. (See 
comparative analyses in Table I). The increase has 
been made in order to obtain greater wearing qualities. 
Another reason for the increase in carbon, in girder 
rails at least, was the desire to overcome the corruga- 
tion evil. Here it may be said that no very marked 
effect has been discovered. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

An increase in carbon content for street railway rails 
as a means of increasing resistance to wear was sug- 
gested by A. J. Moxham in his paper on Rails read 
before the American Street Railway Association at its 
annual meeting in 1898. The late Dr. F. S. Pearson 
had also experimented along the same lines about that 
time when he was connected with the old West End 
Street Railway of Boston. Mr. Moxham's experiments 
were conducted in Brooklyn and a study of the condi- 
tion of the experimental rails, including some of Dr. 
Pearson's rails, as found late in 1917 appeared in the 
issue of this journal for Jan. 26, 1918. 

In recent years several special alloy-steels have been 
used in experiments with rails with the view of produc- 
ing such qualities as high resistance to shock, high 
elastic limit and great resistance to wear. The alloys 
used principally are manganese, titanium, nickel, chro- 
mium and vanadium. In England, a rail having a high 
percentage of silicon, called the Sandberg rail, has been 
used with a large degree of success. As a general prop- 
osition alloy-steel rails are very expensive and of doubt- 
ful value. The addition of ferro-titanium, however, has 
become a fixed practice on the part of many electric 
railways. It has been called "rail insurance" and its 
addition to the steel tends to overcome impurities and 
prevent segregation. On this page is a reproduction of 
a sulphur print of a titanium-treated groove-girder 
rail. In exceptional cases manganese-steel rails have 
proven of value in sharp curves, having extremely heavy 
wear. Similarly, experiments with manganese and 
other alloy-steel rails in steam road curves have led to 
widely different opinions as to the ultimate economy, 
with the weight of the evidence somewhat against them. 
Incidentally, in carbon-steel girder guard rails, it has 
been found desirable to keep the carbon within the limits 
of the class A analysis (0.60 to 0.75 per cent carbon) 
of the American Electric Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion specifications in order to render the rails more suit- 
able for bending to the sharp radii of street railway 
curves. The specifications of the same association cover- 
ing materials for use in manufacture of special track 
work definitely provide the Class A analysis. Even this 
degree of hardness gives the special work manufac- 
turers considerable trouble. 

Length of Rails Has Gradually Increased 
It has been stated that early strap rails were about 
15 ft. long. Some of the early cast iron rails of this 
type were as short as 5 ft. Think of that! Twelve 
times as many joints as would be needed for a modern 
girder rail. The desire to reduce joint troubles as much 
as possible, by eliminating the sources, mainly has been 
responsible for the increase in length of rails. For 
many years 30 ft. was the standard length on both steam 
and street railways. Experiments with welded joints 
in street work undoubtedly contributed to the increase 
from the 30 ft. to the 62 ft. length which is now the 


Bessemer Open-Hearth 

Steel, and Open-Hearth Steel, 

Prior to Bessemer, Since 1 91 0, Am. El. Ry. Asso. 
Approximate 1898, I898-I9I0, Class A, Class B, 

Periods Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent 

Carbon 0.280 0.59 0.60-0.75 0.70-0.85 

Silicon 0.026 0.056 0.20 0.20 

Phosphorus 0.106 0.097 0.04 Not over 0.04 Not over 

Sulphur 0.066 0.059 See Note See Note 

Manganese 0.790 0.830 0.60-0.90 0.60-0.90 

NOTE — Sulphur runs undei 
0.05 per cent in basic open- 
hearth pig iron. 

standard for street railway rails. The necessity of pro- 
viding for expansion is not present where rails are 
buried in pavements. This was proven by Moxham's 
experiments. (See his paper, "Experiments on the 
Expansion of Continuous Rails," in the 1892 Proceed- 
ings of American Street Railway Association.) 

In open tracks on both steam and electric railways 
the practice is confined principally to the use of 33-ft. 
lengths as standard because of the necessity for provi- 
sion against expansion and contraction of the steel 
with changes in 
However, 6 - f t . 
rails have been 
used in some cases 
on interurban 
roads in open 
tracks without any 
particular trouble 
and with no spe- 
cial provision for 
expansion and con- 
traction by means 
of slip joints. There 
is probably no very 
good reason why 
45-ft. lengths could 
not be used on most 
electric railways, 

in view of the fact that European railroads use lengths 
up to 59 ft., and 45-ft. lengths are standard on steam 
roads in England. 

Mill equipment has probably had more influence than 
any other factor in keeping rail lengths at the 33-ft. 
standard because comparatively few mills could roll 
longer rails without considerable change in equipment. 
The question of shipping and handling has also entered 
but electric railways have little trouble on this score. 
Some manufacturers have claimed that it is impossible 
to give as good a surface finish to long rails as to 
short rails, but electric railway use of long rails has not 
indicated that this is true, unless the tendency of long 
girder groove rails to corrugate may be taken as an indi- 
cation. Besides, long plain girder rails (high-T) sel- 
dom, if ever, suffer from corrugation. Of course, recog- 
nition must be given to the point that the factor which 
ultimately limits the length of rail in open tracks is the 
maximum expansion spacing which can be safely used 
at the joints. 


In his annual report. President John D. Ryan of the 
Montana Power Company, says that aside from the 
completion of the Holter development and some sub- 
stations and transmission lines under way at the be- 
ginning of the year, very little new construction was 
done. For the purpose of supplying the development 
with additional power outlet a new 100,000-volt stan- 
dard bridge type underhung transmission line was 
constructed from Holter to the East Helena switching 
station, thirty-one miles. By means of a complete 
arrangement of air-brake switches this line offords 
duplicate service from Holter to the Butte and Great 
Falls districts, and also a direct feeder line from Holter 
to the Milwaukee Railway at Josephine, and allows for 
many combinations of transmission in case of line 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Making Over Open Cars for 
Repayment Fare Collection 

Shore Line Electric Railway Is Rehabilitating 
Rolling Stock Not Suited to Modern 
Methods of Collecting Fares 

THE Shore Line Electric Railway, Norwich, Conn., 
has found it desirable to remodel fifteen open cars 
primarily to simplify the problem of fare collection. At 
first it was thought that all that would be necessary 
would be to sheath the sides, provide sash and cut aisles 
down the center, in order to accomplish the work at a 
minimum of cost. It was found, however, that a more 
thorough overhauling would be necessary and the result 
is as seen in the accompanying illustrations. About a 
dozen of the cars are now completed and a number have 
been in operation, very satisfactorily, for some months. 

Some of the cars were provided with stationary sash, 
the remainder with sliding sash. The cost of the work 
in the latter case was about $1,250 per car, in the other 
case slightly less. No changes were made in the equip- 
ment of the cars. 

The first step was to build out the lower portion of 
the side posts so that i-in. poplar sheathing could be ap- 
plied in a vertical plane. On this No. 16 gage sheet 
steel was screwed, steel strips about 2 in. wide being 
used to cover the joints. In the cars with stationary 
sash the sash were held in place by means of screwed 
vertical strips ; for 
sliding sash the side 
posts were built out 
in the manner shown 
in the illustrations. 
The car dashers were 
not disturbed but a 
stool was fitted on the 
top of each to furnish 
a sill for the vestibule 
sash. To provide ven- 
tilation with the cars 
closed in, the old fixed 
sash in the monitor 
were taken out and 
mounted on pivots so 
that they could be 


Meanwhile the bulkheads were removed. To stiffen 
the body ends against racking sidewise flat steel car- 
lines 2 in. wide and i in. thick, curved to conform to 
the archways were bolted over the archways, one to 

The seating arrangement decided upon was a combina- 
tion of cross and longitudinal seats, Hale & Kilbum 
"Walkover" seats being used for the former. In what 
was originally a fifteen-bench open car this arrangement 
permitted the use of seven cross seats on each side and 
two 7-ft. longitudinal seats at each end. 

To support the outside end of the cross seat the 
seat panel was blocked out in the manner clearly visible 
in the foreground in the car interior view. The old 
sheet-steel panels were allowed to remain. The seat- 
ing arrangement provides an aisle 22J in. wide. Fold- 
ing steps and doors, with operating mechanism, were 
purchased from the Wason Manufacturing Company, 
which also furnished the window sash. 

The canvas curtains used in the open car were re- 
tained, so that they serve as shades in all seasons and 
as storm protectors when the sash are removed as they 
are in summer. When the sash are out a heavy screen, 
18 in. wide, is attached to the car side from end to end. 

The above covers the principal items in the remodel- 
ing, others of which, such as the sliding curtains pro- 
vided behind the motorman, can be noticed in the illus- 
trations. The weight 
of the remodeled car 
is approximately 39,- 
0001b. Allofthiswork 
was carried out under 
the direction of John 
Mellor, master me- 
chanic of the railway 

The remodeling of 
these cars is part of 
the general program 
of making the equip- 
ment available for 
modern fare collec- 
tion, and to decrease 
the accident hazard to 
the lowest limit. 




Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

Bonds for 

Temporary and Permanent Track Construction 

In This Article the Author Takes Up Various Types 
of Rail Bonds and Discusses Their Advantages 
and Disadvantages from a Practical Standpoint 


Engineer of Distribution, Brooklyn Rapid Transit System 

THE most common types of bonds are those in which 
the terminals are driven into or expanded in holes 
drilled or punched in a portion of the rail, usually the 
web but sometimes either the head or the foot. The 
earliest bonds were of this type and there has never 
been a time when any other type of bond has been more 
generally used. 

The title "expanded terminal" bonds does not apply 
to all of these bonds, as in many of them there is no 
change in the shape of the terminal, but the close contact 
is obtained by driving into holes already drilled in the 

of channel pins and pieces of old trolley wire. Holes 
are drilled in the web of the rail, the diameter of the 
holes varying from i in. to 2 in., depending upon the 
size of the conductor to be used with the channel pins. 
The diameter of the cylindrical portion of the pins 
should be 1/32 in. greater than that of the hole so as 
to insure sufficient contact and also provide a good grip 
on the wire. The wire is placed in the hole in the rail 
and also in the groove of the channel pin, and the latter 
is then driven into the hole with a hammer. To keep 
the pins from rusting and to improve the contact with 


■ { 



Fig. 1 — Channel pin for temporary bonding. Fig. 2 — Soft steel bonding caps. Left, regular cap for end connection. Right, cross- 
connecting cap for through wires. Fig. 3 — Copper bonding sleeve and attachment. Fig. 4 — Tools for installing copper bonding 
sleeves. Top. drift punch. Center, driving tool. Bottom, Upsetting tool. 

rail. The terminals are tapered and can be wedged 
tightly in the hole when driven home. 

The latter type of bond is seldom used except for 
temporary work as it will not maintain the close con- 
tact and high conductivity of the true expanded terminal 
bonds. For service where the bonds will be needed for 
only a comparatively short time or on sidings where 
the main return circuit will not be affected and where 
a few high-resistance joints will not materially increase 
the total drop in voltage, these bonds furnish a cheap 
and fairly efficient means of connecting the abutting 
rails electrically. 

The cheapest temporary bonding is done by the use 

the conductor and the rail the soft steel of the channel 
pins should be copper plated by the manufacturer. 

Another but very similar type of bond uses what is 
called a bonding cap instead of the channel pin. This, 
too, is slipped onto the end of the conductor and placed" 
in a hole which has been drilled in the rail. The cap 
is made of soft steel with a groove extending almost 
through the top to permit of its being squeezed tightly 
against the conductor and the rail. Its diameter is 1/32" 
in. greater than that of the hole to insure a tight fit 
between the cap and the sides of the hole. Caps used' 
for cross-bonding have the hole for the conductor ex- 
tending entirely through them so that the wire can be^ 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


run through and connect to one or more rails while 
making connections between two others. 

Another type of connection, very similar to the cross- 
connecting cap, but made of another metal and installed 
in a different way, is the copper bonding sleeve. This 
is shaped as shown in an accompanying illustration and, 
like the bonding cap and the channel pin, is finished with 
1/32 in. greater outside diameter than the hole into 
which it fits. Owing to the softer metal of which this 
sleeve is made more care is needed in installing it than 
where steel terminals are used. To install it a hole is 
first drilled in the rail and then any burrs that may 
have been formed around the edge of the hole are 
smoothed off by driving a drift punch into the hole from 
the side where the wire is to enter. The next operations 
are to place the wire in the sleeve, insert the end in the 
hole in the rail, and then drive them home with a special 
driving tool which is slotted for about half of its length 
so as not to interfere with the bonding wire. When 
driven home the sleeve is clinched with an upsetting tool. 
This tool has a hole in the end into which the wire can 
enter but not the bonding sleeve. The result is that 
when hammered in, the projecting end of the sleeve is 
rolled back, forming a button or shoulder against the 

There is still another type of bond which is used for 
temporary work, which has the terminals attached to 


the conductor so that the bonds do not have to be made 
up each time that they are installed. This bond is called 
a removable mine bond and is made up of a piece of 
stranded wire 22 in. to 28 in. long soldered into tapered 
steel terminals, the terminals having slots in the top 
in which the wire can lie and be safe from the blows of 
the hammer during installation. The terminals are long 
enough to project well through the web of the rail so 
that they can be easily knocked out with blows from a 
hammer as well as being driven in by the same means. 

Expanded Type Bonds Should Be Used for Long 
Life and Permanent Construction 

All of the foregoing types of bonds, however, should 
be considered as of value for temporary work only, and 
when bonds are to be installed with the hope of their 
remaining in good condition as long as the track, some 
other type should be used. The forms most generally 
used for permanent work are the solid terminal com- 
pressed type or the hollow terminal pin expanded type, 
the former being in more general use. 

The hollow terminal bond is easily installed without 
the use of any heavy tools and for that reason is pre- 

ferred by many companies. Another reason, for its be- 
ing in favor, especially on electrified steam roads, or on 
high-speed lines where traffic delays must be avoided, is 
that there is no compressor or other equipment necessary 
for its installation, which would project above and be at- 
tached to the rail head, and which would require removal 
before the cars can pass. Another advantage of the 
hollow terminal bond is that it can be installed entirely 



from one side of the rail, which is of great value as it 
requires that the paving on only one side be opened 
up and it also makes possible the bonding of joints on 
curves or at other points where guard rail, which would 
prevent the use of a compressor, is used. 

With the hollow terminal bonds the only tools needed 
for installation, after the holes have been drilled or 
punched and perhaps reamed, are a heavy hammer, 
weighing preferably about 3 lb. ; a taper punch, and the 
little drift pins for plugging up the holes in the bonds. 
Sometimes a driving tool, to receive the larger end of 
the taper punch and protect it from the blows of the 
hammer, is also carried. This adds to the amount of 
the equipment to be carried around but prevents hard- 
ened steel pieces of the taper punch from being chipped 
off when the punch is struck. 

The approved method of installing the bonds, after 
the holes have been prepared, is to insert the terminal 
into the hole and then drive the tapered punch entirely 
through the hole in the terminal, this punch having first 
been greased or oiled. This punch not only prepares 
the way for the drift pin which is to follow and insures 
its being driven straight, but also expands the hole in 
the terminals in., the punch being that much greater 
in diameter than the hole. The pressure between the 
terminal and the rail is still further increased, a moment 
later, by the 
driving in of the 
drift pin, which 
forces the cop- 
per out another 

32 in- 

While the 
above is the ap- 
proved method it 
is not the ordi- 
nary one, as it 
requires the use 
of too many dif- 
ferent tools to 
be followed out 
rily conscientious 



carefully, unless more than ordina- 
bonders are employed or the men 
are carefully watched. A job that will look just as good 
and which, in many cases, will be just as good, can be 
dene with fewer tools and less labor, so that to the ordi- 
nary man there is no use in going to the extra trouble. 

116 Electric Railway Journal FoZ. 54, No. 3 

To install bonds in the simplified way, the terminals 
are merely pushed into the holes, perhaps tapped with 
the hammer to make sure that they have gone all of the 
way home, and then the drift pins are driven in, ex- 
panding the terminal by J in. at one operation. When 
this is done, very often the pin will not be driven in 
straight, and on other occasions, not being lubricated, 
it will tear the copper. However, while the railway com- 
pany is the loser if the latter method is used, the men 
are gainers as they do not have to carry around any tools 
other than the hammer and a pocketfull of drift pins. 
No grease, punch, or driving tool is needed. Greasing 
the punch is a messy job which the men do not like and 
the punches are liable to be lost, this being especially 
true where the men are working on bridges or elevated 
structures without floors. When the punch is driven 
through the terminal, unless care is taken, it will not 
be caught but will drop down between the ties and never 
be recovered again. 

For the installation of compressed bonds less equip- 
ment is needed, the compressor being the only tool re- 
quired, but this is so bulky as to weigh many times 
more than all of the tools used with the hollow terminal 
bonds. Bond compressors are made in sizes ranging 
from 25 lb. for use with the very small sizes of T-rail, 

up to 156 lb. which is needed to handle the large girder 
rails of 9-in. size. Hydraulic compressors often exceed 
200 lb. in weight. Some of the compressors on the 
market are fitted with leveling or adjusting screws by 
which the vertical distance from the point of the plunger 
to the top of the rail can be altered and the compressor 
can rest on the rail directly over the bond hole. The 
point of the plunger will then be directly opposite the 
center of the terminal. This refinement, however, is 
really unnecessary and, if the bond holes have not been 
drilled at exactly the right height, something which often 
happens, the point will not compress the terminal at 
the exact point it should, unless the screws are turned 
again. This proceeding takes time, especially if the 
wrench is not handy, which it seldom is, and as a result 
the change in height is seldom made, as the class of men 
generally employed as bonders usually are none too care- 
ful in doing their work. 

The ordinary way is not to make use of the screws 
but to remove them, if the compressor is fitted with 
them, and then not to attempt to place the center of the 
compressor directly over the hole but rather slightly to 
one side of it, thus when inclined, the jaws will cover the 

terminal and the point of the compressor will be at the 
right height. This height can be easily altered by slid- 
ing the compressor a short distance, one way or tho. 
other, along the head of the rail. 

When making a comparison of the efficiency of the 
solid-terminal compressed bond with the hollow-terminal 
pin expanded bond, the claim has been made that the 
surface of the terminal of the latter type is everywhere 
brought into more intimate contact with the side of the 
hole than is the case with the compressed bond. The 
reason given for this is that the pressure from the pin 
is exerted equally at all points through the hole while 
the compressor is effective merely at and near the edges 
of the hole, and so hardens the copper that there is very 
little outward pressure at the center of the hole. When 
the copper in the terminals is sufficiently soft, however, 
and that is almost always the case, this trouble is not 
experienced in practice. Results of laboratory tests 
where, of course, greater care than that exercised in 
the field is taken, seem to indicate that the compressed 
bond has slightly less contact resistance than the pin- 
driven one. The difference in resistance of the two 
types, however, is so small as to be negligible for all 
practical work if the bonds are installed with the same 
care in the field as in the laboratory. That this is not 


done is certain, and it is the writer's belief that it 
is easier to deviate from the correct practice when in- 
stalling the hollow terminal bonds than when the solid 
terminal type is used. 

Button-Head on Terminal Gives Greater 
Contact Area and Seals Cracks 

The compressor forms a "button" on the end of the 
terminal which not only gives a little more contact area 
by pressing against the web of the rail, but also seals 
any cracks that there might be between the terminal 
and the sides of the hole, thereby preventing the en- 
trance of moisture which would form rust and soon 
greatly increase the contact resistance. To form this 
button properly the compressed terminal should be ap- 
proximately I in. longer than the thickness of the rail 
web, or about i in. longer than that required for a 
properly fitting hollow-terminal bond in the same hole. 

It was formerly the custom to taper the bond termi- 
nals instead of machining them, but the present prac- 
tice is to make them perfectly cylindrical and to machine 
them. The latter practice is much to be preferred, as 
the finished terminal can be made a very close fit in the 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


hole and yet there can be no danger of its not going all 
of the way through the hole. The most troublesome 
form of bond was the old tapered-terminal type, one 
end of which would easily enter the hole while the other 
end would be too large, thus forming a shoulder just 
before the bond was all the way home. The tapered 
terminal also left too much rope at the small end which 
'had to be filled up with compressed copper. 

Compressed bonds have been used both in the base 
of all types of rail and in the tram of girder rails. 
Those compressed into the tram of the rails are now 
very seldom used although at one time they were in- 
stalled quite extensively. They were made in compar- 
atively short lengths and their installation required the 
disturbance of very little pavement. It did necessitate, 
however, the use of a special punch for making the hole 
in the rail and a special compressor for expanding the 
terminals in the holes so made. 

For bonding under the base of the rail, special com- 
pressors and punches are needed of different types from 
those employed when the bonds are placed in the tram 
of girder rails. These bonds are still used and in much 
larger quantities than those in the tram of the rails. 
Their use, however, is confined mostly to third-rails in- 
stead of running rails. The bonds are made of ribbons 
in the form of a "U," the loop hanging down under the 
rail. On account of the angle of the base of the rail 
ordinary terminals cannot be compressed satisfactorily, 
as much more of the button would be made on the lower 
edge of the terminal than on the upper. To avoid this 
the terminals are beveled as shown in the illustration. 

For installation on rails imbedded in concrete such 
bonds would have no flexibility, as they as well as the 
rails would be fixed firmly in the concrete. In 
such a situation, however, little flexibility would be 
needed, but on the other hand it would be almost im- 
possible to get at the bonds in order to make any repairs 
to them. The U-bonds have been used under the base 
of the rails in open track and have given fairly good 
service there although interfered with more or less by 
the ballast. It is impossible to install the bonds in rail 
already laid in concrete, and the best way, both there 
and in open track, is to bond the rails before they are 
laid and then line up a long section of rail at one time. 

Bonds for Installation in Head op Rail 

There are two types of expanded terminal bonds that 
have been designed to be installed in the head of the 
rail. In attaching the bonds, holes are drilled only part 
way through the head of the rail and then the bond ter- 
minals are driven into the holes with a hammer, com- 
pletely filling them. 

In an older type of not more than 250,000 sec- 
tion two holes, each i in. in diameter and 4 in. depth, are 
drilled li in. apart in the head of the rail and close to 
its end. An annular groove or a series of threads is 
then cut in each hole, either by revolving a tool with cut- 
ting teeth in the hole and swinging it slightly so as to 
make the teeth cut the groove, or by tapping the hole 
so as to form the threads. 

Any burrs around the edge of the hole are then re- 
moved by lightly driving in a blunting punch. After 
this the terminals, which are J-r in. longer than the 
depth of the holes, are inserted and then driven in with 
a hammer. The first blows are light ones but more 
force is used to complete the operation. Directly over 
each terminal is a boss which receives the hammer blows 

and these blows are continued until the bosses are flat- 
tened out and until that portion of the terminal con- 
necting the studs has been hammered down somewhat. 
By that time the soft copper in the studs has flowed into 
the threads or ring in the sides of the hole so that it is 
practically impossible to remove the bond after it has 
been installed, and the close fitting ring of copper ef- 
fectually seals the hole against the entrance of moisture 
that would cause the contact to deteriorate. 

The use of two terminals gives an unusually large 
contact surface at each end of the bond, especially so 
since the stud makes contact with the bottom as well as 
the cylindrical surface of the hole. 

Another advantage in the use of two terminals is that 
each prevents any twisting strain from reaching the 
other, thereby help- 
ing to keep the studs 
tight in the holes. 
The wires lead 
straight down out of 
the terminals so that 
there is a minimum 
of danger of wire 
breakage due to ver- 
tical movement of 
the rails, while the 
U-shaped loop is well 
designed to with- 
stand stresses coming from other directions. These 
precautions are necessary, however, as the extended 
length of the bonds is ordinarily only 7 in., too short 
for track which has not a fairly good foundation and 
which is not well maintained. 

Another type of expanded terminal bond which is ap- 
plied to the rail head is shown in the illustration on 
this page. This has only one stud at each terminal. 
To provide greater contact area than that in a hole 
drilled with the ordinary twist drill, a special milling 
cutter is used. This cuts an annular hole in the rail f 
in. in diameter and I in. deep and leaves a i-in. pin in 
the center of the hole. The stud of the bond is hollow 
to fit over this pin and into the groove surrounding 
it. The bond terminal is fitted into the hole and then 
expanded by blows from a hammer as is done in in- 
stalling the twin terminal bond. The contact area is 
provided by the three sides of the annular groove. 


Survey of Pole Lines 

A letter has been sent to member companies of the 
National Electric Light Association by William C. L. 
Eglin, chairman of the committee on safety rules and 
accident prevention, calling to their attention the sur- 
vey of existing pole lines throughout the United States 
and Canada, which the committee's engineers are con- 
ducting jointly with those of the Bureau of Standards. 

The survey is being made to determine for future 
aerial line construction the effect of the loading require- 
ments proposed in the new issue of the National Elec- 
tric Safety Code. It will be conducted, so far as possible 
through the geographic sections of the N. E. L. A., and 
it is expected that the work will be sufficiently well or- 
ganized so that each company to be visited will be 
notified in advance. 

Each company is requested to be prepared to desig- 
nate immediately the lines to be surveyed in order that 
all possible speed will be made. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 


July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Car Maintenance Records Facilitate Work 

Simple, Accurate and Adequate Records Enable the Responsible Heads of Car Maintenance 
Departments to Supervise the Work Intelligently 


Master Mechanic, Des Moines (Iowa) City Railway 

THE Inter-Urban Railway of Des Moines, Iowa, has 
one main shop, where all cars are sent for heavy 
repairs, such as changing wheels, armatureS|, paint- 
ing, etc., two city operating carhouses, and one interur- 
ban operating carhouse where all inspections and run- 
ning repairs are made. Cars receive a general inspection 
on a mileage basis with 900 miles between inspections; 
this work, of course, is being done at the operating car- 
houses. The record of mileage is kept at the main shop, 
and as cars are due for inspection the operating car- 
house foremen are notified. The accompanying illustra- 
tions show several forms which are being used for 
following and recording this work. 

The "Daily Report of Car Repair Shop" form is made 
out daily and shows all cars in the shop for repairs, 
also cars not "OK" for service at the end of a day's 
work. Checks can be made of these sheets to locate 
cars in shops for repairs, also cars not "OK" for service 
at the end of a day's work. Comparison can be made of 
these sheets to locate cars that come to the shop too 

The form "Daily Report of Changes in Trucks" is 
filled out by shop foremen when wheels, axles, arma- 
tures, gears, pinions, etc., are changed. From this re- 
port the information needed to get the proper mile- 
age, etc., is transferred to the respective cards shown 
in the accompanying illustrations. 

The "Armature Record" tag is attached to all arma- 
tures removed from cars, and stays with the armature 
until it is completely repaired and tested "OK". The 
record is then transferred to a book kept by the arma- 
ture-room foreman for future reference. 

One of the most important of all our records is the 
blank called "Trainmen's Report of Condition of Car." 
This report is turned in daily by every car crew that 
puts a car in the carhouse. One blank report is put 
in a box provided on the car, nightly, by the man who 
takes the register readings. The first crew to take out 
the car signs up on the blank and leaves it with the car 
for the next crew, while the crew putting the car in 
the carhouse at night takes the report from the box 

and turns it over to the carhouse foreman. It is compul- 
sory that all crews handling the car sign the report, re- 
gardless of whether there are any defects on the car 
or not. Reports are examined by the carhouse foreman, 
and when the defects are repaired he signs the reports 
and sends them to the master mechanic's office for exam- 
ination and filing. We have found these reports to be 
valuable to the claim department in settlement of claims 
where defects to cars were claimed, as reports quite 
often show that the train crew had reported the car 
in good condition on the date of an accident. 

The form "Daily Car Damage" is made out daily and 
sent to the superintendent of transportation. This lists 
all damage done to a car, such as broken glass, fenders, 
steps, collisions, or anything where the crew may be 
responsible for the damage. With the proper follow-up 
system, this damage can be kept at the lowest point. 

The "Car Assignment" form is sent to the main shop 
from operating carhouses, showing where all cars are 
running. One blank is used for regular runs and one 
for tripper runs. From our sheet showing the mileage 
of each particular run, the individual car-mileage is 
added till it totals 900. 

The form "Cars Due for Inspection" is sent daily 
from the main shop to the different operating carhouse 
foremen. It shows the cars due for inspection on the 
following day. When cars are inspected the form is 
returned to the main shop with any notes under "Re- 
marks" to show why cars listed opposite were not 

The "Daily Inspection Record of a Car" form is filled 
out as to car number, date and operating carhouse, 
by the foreman and put on all cars due for inspection 
on that date. As the different men repair and inspect 
the equipment they sign their names opposite the parts 
listed. Reports are checked by the foreman at the end 
of the day and then are sent to the main shop for 

The form "Daily Report of Car Failures" is made out 
daily by the operating carhouse foreman, and sent to 
the main shop. All cars pulled off the line for any 






Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

defect are listed on this form. At the main shop these 
are transferred to the form shown as "Record of Car 
Failures," there being one of these blanks for each 
car, and by reference to them all the failures made by 
any particular car can be seen at a glance. It also 
shows the lines the car was on, and the motorman and 
conductor loinning the car at the time, thus giving a 
chance to check up and find out whether the fault lies 
with the car or the crew. 

From the "Daily Report of Car Failures" the form 
"Daily Report of Equipment Failures" is also made up. 
This shows at the end of the month the total number 
of failures and the exact number from any particular 
cause. On a large sheet similar information is shown 
for the full year. 

A record is also kept showing the number of cars 
turned in for defects by each individual motorman, 
who are all listed by badge numbers. This information 
is also taken from the "Daily Report of Car Failures" 

Increased Sig^naling on the 
York (Pa.) Railways 

The Use of the Tracks Signaled by Other Railway 
Lines Necessitates a Special Layout 

THE York (Pa.) Railways has recently increased its 
equipment of Nachod automatic signals by install- 
ing a block of two signals involving novel features 
required by the track layout. 

Referring to the accompanying diagram, the block to 
be protected is on West College Avenue from South 
George Street to the College turnout, and is used both 
ways by the North York-Princess Street line with 
fifteen minutes headway. At College turnout the layout 
is standard, with signal B near the switch point and 
facing toward the turnout. Trolley contactors 3 and 4 
are located on the siding as shown, 3 being ordinarily 
used as a signal setting contactor, and 4 as a clearing 
contactor, though they are both of the "directional" 
type and function selectively to set or clear the signals 
according to the direction of the car. The signal A 
at the other end of the block faces north on South 
George Street. 

It is necessary that North York-Princess Street cars 
set the block A-B on South George Street before pass- 
ing into the single track; and it is this condition that 
causes the special layout. Of the double track on 
South George the southbound is also used by two other 
lines that do not use the block A-B; these being the 
South George-Jackson line with fifteen-minute head- 
way, and the Red Lion-Windsor line with hourly service 
increased to half-hourly morning and evening. Thus 
any contactor placed on the south-bound track on South 

N ^ 


2 W/res 

West College Ave. 


George would be traversed also by the two lines just 
mentioned. The trolley contactor for setting the 
signals, located at point 1, is therefore of the "current 
selective" type. North York-Princess cars will use two 
or more points of power on the controller while passing 
the contactor, which will set the signals, while the other 
cars mentioned will drift under it and not affect the 
signals. Neither will these motormen observe the indi- 

The clearing contactor for signal A would be placed 
on the crossover were it not for the fact that the cross- 
over, as well as the north- 
bound track, is used also 
by the Prospect cars with 
30-minute headway. It is 
therefore placed at the 
point 2 on the single track 
curve and connected "uni- 
directionally" to clear only, 
it being inert when trav- 
ersed westward by the en- 
tering car. The arrows on 
the plan show the direction 
of cars. 

The signals are of the 
permissive variety, known 
as type CD. When the block 
is taken from one end, say 
B, the signal A governing 
opposing movements goes 
to "Stop", signal B show- 
ing permissive to allow fol- 
lowing movements through the block, while signal A at 
stop prevents opposing movements until the block is 
again vacant. This protection of a number of cars in 
the block is accomplished by a counter in the signal 

The trolley contactors in the overhead are connected 
as directional and uni-directional and are of the shunt 
type, while the current selective contactors are of the 
series type. All of them are without moving parts 
and make a soft wiping contact with the flanges of the 
trolley wheel. The signals (as shown in the accompany- 
ing halftone) are in cast-iron cases mounted on re- 
versible iron brackets offset from the pole. They give 
indications by combined lights and disks simultaneously 
displayed, and have three positions. The signal relay, 
including magnet coils, contacts and resistances, is im- 
mersed in a tank of oil forming the lower part of the 
case. A junction box lower on the pole gives con- 
venient access to the circuits for fusing, testing and for 
manual control. The signal itself may be lowered to 
the ground without disconnecting the cable. Two line 
wires through the block connect the signals. 


The National Board of Fire Underwriters has issued 
for members of the National Safety Council a special 
edition of the list of appliances inspected for accident 
hazards. Copies may be secured either from the under- 
writers or the safety council, with offices in Chicago, 111. 


The Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company is re- 
building its cars for pre-payment operation. One hun- 
dred and forty-nine cars had been changed up to May 1, 
and others will be altered as they come into the shop 
for overhauling. The cars are single-ended. 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Rai-lway Journal 


Tower Trucks and Cars at Minneapolis 

The Twin City Company Has Built Four Auto Towers and Four Tower Cars, 
Which Handle All of the Emergency Work in 
Minneapolis and St. Paul 

IN THE MAINTENANCE and construction of more 
than 450 miles of overhead system the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis, uses four 
automobile tower trucks and four tower cars, half of 
them in Minneapolis and half in St. Paul. Although 
the tower equipment used on various railway systems 
is similar, this equipment is of particular interest in 
some details because it is standard throughout and be- 
cause it was all built by the company. 

The four automobile tower trucks are each equipped 
with a 2-ton commercial chassis. Trucks 1, 2 and 3 are 
each equipped with 35-hp. engines while truck 4 has a 
45-hp. engine and weighs about 2000 lb. more than 
the three other trucks. The towers are built of wood, 
fir being used in most parts, steel being used only as 
bracing* in the platform and for the sliding surface of 
the removable section. The vertical members are 3-in. 
X 3-in., cross-braced by i-in. x 3-in. members in the low- 
er section and by 14-in. x 3-in. members in the upper 
section. The framework is bolted together with f-in. 
carriage bolts. The truck body has an over-all length of 
16 ft. 10 in. About 7ft. at the rear end of this is taken 
up by the tower. The over-all width of the truck is 6 ft. 
The tower when lowered stands 12 ft. If in. high from 
the ground and can be raised to a height of 12 ft. 71 in. 
The height lowered is limited by the low overhead 
clearance of some viaducts under which the trucks 
must pass. The tower platform measures 10 ft. x 
3 ft. in. with an overhang of 5 ft. llh in. 

Main Features of Towers 

One of the main features of the towers is that they 
are designed for complete rotation at the base. The 
reason for this is the desire for greater stability than 
usually results with rotation of the platform only. 
The radius of rotation is 2 ft. 10 in. and the station- 
ary surface is a 3-in. x 3-in. x i-in. angle ring, the 

bearing surface of the tower corners being steel plates. 
The tower is revolved by hand and is held in position 
by cam levers. It is also raised and lowered by hand, 
an eight-tooth sprocket on the crank operating a forty- 
tooth sprocket on the drum axis by means of a No. 
55 Jeffrey detachable chain. This operation is easily 
accomplished by one man. Details of the tower equip- 
ment are shown in the accompanying illustrations. 

A supply of tools and small equipment is carried in 
boxes at the back of the truck while ropes, tackle, larger 
equipment, 500 ft. of span wire and 200 ft. of trolley 
wire are hung conveniently on hooks on the sides of 
the toAver. Signals are transmitted to the driver by a 
gong located on the tower. The cab is entirely inclosed 
for cold or inclement weather, although windows on all 
sides can be lowered when desirable. The trucks are 
equipped with 4-in. single tiros in front and 4-in. dual 
tires in the rear. These tires give an average of 10,000 


miles. The trucks weigh stripped from 6500 to 7100 lb. 
and the crew comprises three men. 

Car Towers Similar to Those on Trucks 

The towers for the cars are veiy similar in construc- 
tion to those used on the trucks. The vertical members 
are the same but the cross-bracing is I in. x 3 in. in 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

the lower section and the same in the upper section. 
While the auto tower measures about 4 ft. square the 
tower on the cars is about 4 ft. wide by 6 ft. long. This 
tower also is not quite as high, either lowered or 
raised, as is the auto tower and has a little greater 
overhang. The rotation feature on these towers is 
the same as that already described, the radius of rota- 
tion in this case, however, being 3 ft. 9 in. The ar- 
rangement for lowering and raising these towers is sim- 
ilar, with the exception that one tower is equipped 
with a three-cylinder air motor for air operation. 

The capacity for tools on the cars is more extensive 
than on the trucks. On one side of the cab is a work 
bench with vise, etc., 
and on the other a 
series of pockets or 
bins containing all 
kinds of small sup- 
plies. The cars are 
also equipped with 
a reel of approxi- 
mately 1 mile of trol- 
ley wire mounted on 
a rack or wench 
equipped with a 

The tower cars 
were built entirely 
by the company. The 
trucks are standard 
Twin City equipped 
with 4 GE-57 motors 
geared for a speed 
of 45 m.p.h. By 
means of a series- 
multiple switch the 
four motors can be 
operated on a series 
in the city and when 
stringing trolley wire 
giving a speed of about 
4 m.p.h. on the first 
notch of series. The con- 
trol is General Electric 
K-14. The floor fram- 
ing is 4-in. x 6-in. yellow 
pine reinforced by 6-in. 
pine channels for the 
side sills. The flooring 
is 2-in. pine. The length 


the width 7 ft. 8 in., the cab is 10 ft. long and the 
height from top of rail to top of cab is 11 ft. 4 in. 

On construction work the tjFolley wire is strung alive 
and furnishes energy to the motors of the car by a 
unique device as shown. The end of the reel is attached 

to the live overhead 
at the starting point. 
By means of a hook 
over the trolley 
wheel an auxiliary 
wheel is suspended 
and the new wire 
being strung passes 
through this wheel 
and over a roller on 
the front of the low- 
er platform. Thus 
the energy for oper- 
ation is furnished 
through the new 
wire being tak- 
en from the reel. 
Four men with this 
equipment can take 
down and reel up 1 
mile of old trolley 
wire and string the 
same amount of new 
wire in four hours. 

The auto-towers 
are used on emergen- 
cy repair work and 
for small maintain- 
ance and construc- 
tion, as they can be 
located beside the 
track with no inter- 
ruption to traffic. 
The cars, however, 
are generally used on 
any work of over two 
spans in length and 
where traffic is light. 

This equipment has 
proved of great assis- 
tance in carrying on the 
maintenance work of the 
system and its operating 
cost has been very low, 
as is shown by the fol- 


Fig. 2, the Twin City auto tower truck and its equipment: Fig. 3, stringing live trolley wire from which the car is operated; 

Fig. 4, the Twin City tower car and its equipment 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


The average cost to operate the tower trucks per 
registered mile for the years 1917 and 1918 has been: 

Truck 1 0.1413 cent per mile 

Truck 2 0.1576 cent per mile 

Truck 3 0.1098 cent per mile 

Truck 4 0.2069 cent per mile 

These figures include all expense such as gasolene, 
lubricating oil, tires, insurance, painting and general 

Unusual Method for Moving 
Two 250-Hp. Boilers 

Pacific Electric Plan of Moving Two Boilers From 
the Vineyard Power Plant to a New Plant 
Located at Torrance Is Described 

By Clifford A. Elliott 

Cost ^Engineer, Maintenance of Way Department, Pacific Electric 
Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. 

IN AN article in the Electric Railway Journal for 
March 22, 1919, covering the removal and reinstalla- 
tion of a power-plant smokestack, mention was made of 
the intended removal of two 250-hp. Stirling boilers 
from this company's Vineyard power plant to a new 
power plant at Torrance constructed to serve the car 
shops under erection at that point. When the occasion 
arose for the removal of these boilers it was at first 
thought to be impossible to remove each one complete, 
as each consists of four 24-in. drums with numerous 
3-in. connecting tubes. The cutting of the tubes con- 
necting the four drums was considered and it was 
estimated that it would cost approximately $3,000 to 
remove them and to weld them in place. A contractor 
however, successfully carried out this work without 
dismantling the boilers, with considerable saving in 
time and expense. 

In carrying out this work each boiler was first re- 
leased from its permanent position on the brick founda- 
tion, and the bolts used to hold the steel frames in place 

were removed. The rear end was then elevated to 
the same level as the front, and after cribbing had been 
set up the boiler was moved on rollers across the steam 
mains, but without touching them, and over additional 
cribbing to a point opposite the door. This door was 
in the side of a concrete wall of the power plant, and 
it was necessary to enlarge it to 4 ft. jamb by 101 ft. 
high. A donkey engine located on a flat car outside 
the power plant was used to tow the boiler by means 
of a cable line. Planking was placed on top of the 
cribbing as a surface for the rollers. The maximum 
height of the cribbing units was lOi ft. When the boiler 
had been brought to a point opposite the door it was 
lowered by removing the sectional units of the cribbing. 
It was then turned at right angles to the door, and 
moved on rollers and skids outside the building. Here 
it was again moved by means of rollers up an impro- 
vised timber incline over an 8*-ft. retaining wall onto 
a steel flat car which transported it to Torrance. Four 
flat cars were necessary to handle the two boilers 
and equipment. One car was used for each boiler, a 
third car for valves, door fronts and miscellaneous 
parts and the fourth for the breeching, donkey engine 
and hoisting equipment. 

Safety Cars and Advertising 

IN A PAPER on the safety car recently delivered be- 
fore the Arkansas Utilities Association, A. L. Faber, 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, said: 
"The safety cars enable the railways to offer a service 
that will benefit the entire population of the community. 
The interrelation between full cars and th*! retail 
business of the city is perfectly definite. It is practi- 
cally as much to the interest of the merchant to have 
efficient and sufficiently frequent service as to the street 

"Advertising of schedules and service conditions is, 
therefore, a very important factor, and since the in- 
terests are parallel, a booklet could be printed with 
representation of both the merchants and the railway 
in which the schedules and similar information can 
be given by the one and the sales message by the other. 
This booklet would represent the interests of the entire 
community and its cost would be very small to the 
railway company. 

"With the application of the safety car, a broader 
advertising policy and such relief in fares as the indi- 
vidual properties require, the street railway interests 
have some hope of operating for the benefit of all 

Be Wreckless — Not Reckless 

The National Safety Council, electric railway sec- 
tion, uses the above phrase in summarizing the causes 
of car wrecks. The causes listed are: Insufficient 
headway, conversation with motormen, taking curve too 
fast, slick rails, not signaling at crossing, improper 
testing of equipment, unreported defects and misunder- 
stood orders. 


The Electric Railway Section of the National Safety 
Council announces the appointment of J. H. Mallon, 
safety engineer. Metropolitan West Side Elevated Rail- 
way, Chicago, as chairman of its bulletin committee. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

Photo hii llnnix Ik liirnnj. Wdsliinfituii. I). ('. 

Left to Rigiit: Louis B. Wehle. lepresenting Eugene Meyer, Jr., of the War Finance Corporation; Dr. Royal Meeker, commis- 
sioner of stati.'itics of tlie Department of Labor ; Edwin F. Sweet, Assistant Secretary of Commerce and vice-chairman of the com- 
mission ; Cliai-les E, Ehnquist, president and general solicitor of the National Association of Railway & Utility Commissioners, 
who is cliairman of the commission ; standing. Charlton Ogburn, executive secretary of the commission ; Philip H. Gadsden, chair- 
man of the committee on readjustinent of the American Electric Railway Association ; Charles W. Beall, member of the firm of 
Harris Forbes & Company, New Yorli. Absent. George L. Baiter, Mayor of Portland, Oregon ; W. D. Mahon, president of the 
Amalgamated Association" of Street & Electric Railway Employees of America, Detroit, Mich. 

Federal Hearings Commence 

President Pardee and Chairman Tripp Open the Railway 
Case at Washington — Extended Statistics Presented on 
Status of Industry — Other Witnesses Give Testimony 

THE first session in Washington of the long-ex- 
pected federal inquiry into the status of the elec- 
tric railways of the country was held on Tuesday, 
July 15. One prior hearing was held in New York on June 
19, when ex-President William H. Taft was the principal 
witness. Since that time the committee of one hundred 
has been organized to prepare and present the electric 
railway case, and this was the first meeting at which 
this committee was represented. The hearings were 
held in the large audience room on the twelfth floor 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission Building at 
Eighteenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W., 

Chairman Elmquist opened the session on Tuesday 
morning, shortly after 10 o'clock. The commissioners 
in attendance, besides himself, were Messrs. Sweet, 
Meeker, Wehle, Beall and Gadsden. Those absent were 
Commissioner Mahon and the representative of the 
American Cities League of Mayors, Mayor Baker of 
Portland, Ore. Charlton Ogburn, council of the com- 
mission was also in attendance. 

The presentation of the case of the association and 
of the committee of one hundred was in charge of Presi- 
dent Pardee, Chairman Tripp, Counsel Bentley W. War- 
ren, Secretary Burritt, J. W. Welsh, and H. C. Clark. 
Others from the industry, or the committee of one hun- 
dred in attendance at the first day's session included 
S. M. Curwen, W. M. Coleman, W. J. Clark, Barron G. 
Collier, E. J. Dickson, W. C. Ely, Van Horn Ely, F. W. 

Frueauff, Edwin Gruehl, W. F. Ham, G. E. Hamilton, 
J, H. Hanna, C. S. Kimball, J. B. Lackey, Randall Mor- 
gan, E. J. Murphy and J. H. Stephens. 

Abstract of Mr. Pardee's Statement 
Chairman Elmquist in opening the meeting first 
asked Mr. Pardee to explain the position of the electric 
railways. In his address Mr. Pardee said in part: 

We are before your commission because a crisis has been 
reached in the conduct of this very important and essential 
enterprise. We are no longer able, under existing condi- 
tions, to continue in the performance of the functions which 
the electric railways are designed to perform. It is no 
longer a question of what return shall be allowed to the 
owners, it is a question as to what service, if any, shall be 
rendered to the public. 

Owing to the complete system of control and regulation 
exerted over us by the public authorities, which both pre- 
scribe our service and control our rates, we are unable to 
readjust ourselves to changing conditions as every other 
industry, not so hampered, is readjusting itself. We realize 
fully that your commission is without power to take per- 
emptory action, or directly to put into effect any recom- 
mendations which you may make. You, however, bear the 
commission of the President of the United States; you 
were appointed at the joint suggestion of the Secretaries 
of Commerce and of Labor. Your conclusions and recom- 
mendations will have the confidence of the people and will 
carry with them the weight that must always be attached 
to the wishes and conclusions of the National Administra- 
tion. Your appointment of the electric railway industry 
affords an opportunity of presenting to the public, whose 
representatives you are, a true picture of the state into 
which it has fallen through no fault of its own. 

There are two major phases of the situation which we 
now face. The first is that there has never been a proper 

Electric Railway Journal 


Juhj 19, 1919 

conception either on the part of the owners of these prop- 
erties, nor on the part of the public, as to the factors 
which should govern the service to be rendered or the fares 
to be charged by electric railways. This situation, which 
existed before the war, is entirely unconnected with the 
changes wrought by the war, but is one of the fundamental 
reasons why the war has helped to bring disaster upon us. 

The second phase was the direct result of the war. The 
government took control of our labor — it raised the wages 
of our employees in many cases as much as 100 per cent; 
it took command of our fuel supply, and fixed the prices 
which we were compelled to pay for coal; it fixed the 
price of every commodity that entered into the maintenance 
and operation of electric railways; in a vast number of 
cases it prescribed the service which we were to perform, 
and called upon us companies for construction involving 
many millions of dollars. In fact, there was not a phase 
of electric railway operation in which the government did 
not interfere, with the result that the cost of operating our 
roads was very greatly and materially increased. To 
assist us in bearing these burdens it did nothing. 

We are not here to claim that this action of the govern- 
ment was not entirely necessary and entirely proper, or 
that it exclusively affected our industry. But we do say 
that its effect upon the railways of the country was the 
more pronounced and the more disastrous because, alone 
of all the industries affected, the public utilities were unable 
to apply the obvious remedy — an increase on their own 
volition in the price of their product to meet the increase 
in its cost thus forced upon them. These two phases of 
the situation we propose to lay before you in detail. 

The association which I represent and the committee of 
one hundred, to which it has intrusted the presentation of 
its case before your commission, do not intend to impress 
upon you in detail their own views as to the remedies which 
should be applied to the cure of the situation. We do 
believe, however, that there are two fundamental ideas 
which will inevitably force themselves upon you for your 
consideration. The first of these is that the co-operation 
of the public is a sine qua non to the stabilizing of electric 
railvyay conditions; that there must be impressed upon the 
public a new conception of the relations between the com- 
munities and the public utilities which serve them; that 
the antagonism which has heretofore prevailed is disastrous 
to both interests, and that only when the public and the 
companies work together to secure efficiency and economy 
in operation can the desired service be furnished at "a 
reasonable price. 

The second is that in order to provide through the em- 
ployment of private capital proper transportation facilities 
for cities and for rural districts the basis of compensation 
must be so determined as to provide an assured return and 
a rate of fare so flexible as readily and automatically to 
adjust itself to the cost of providing the service. 

Mr. Warren Outlines Case 

At the conclusion of Mr. Pardee's address Bentley 
W. Warren, counsel for the committee of one hundred, 
outlined the case of the electric railways. He said that 
a very severe condition was confronting the industry 
and that the railways would endeavor to place before 
the commission statistics showing this condition and 
the possible remedies which might be supplied. He 
mentioned as an illustration of the situation that in 
Massachusetts, his own state, where there was an in- 
vestment in electric railways of almost a quarter of 
a billion dollars and gross receipts last year of approxi- 
mately $45,000,000, the deficit over operating expenses 
and fixed charges during 1918 was somewhat more than 

Abstract of Address of General Tripp 

Mr. Warren was followed by General Tripp, who 
spoke as chairman of the committee of one hundred. 
General Tripp said in part: 

We are here not simply to give you the views of investors 
who have already suffered a great loss and who are threat- 
ened with ■ still greater loss, but also, as manufacturers, 
bankers and insurance men, to present this case in its very 
broadest aspects and as representing the business and 
industrial elements of the nation affected by an industry in 

which some $6,000,000,000 are invested, which has a reve- 
nue of $730,000,000 and which is in danger of complete 
collapse and dissolution. It jeopardizes more than the 
interests of those immediately connected with it. Its effect 
will be a real cause for alarm on the part of insurance 
companies, bankers, trust companies and other fiduciary 
institutions which in good faith and with then sound busi- 
ness judgment have invested savings intrusted to their 
care in the bonds and other securities of electric railways, 
and it certainly would be a matter of serious concern to 
manufacturers who find in the electric railways a cus- 
tomer for nearly $200,000,000 annually of their product. 

The appointment of this commission is evidence that the 
extremely critical situation in which the industry finds 
itself is also a matter of concern to the federal government, 
and I take it the concern of the government arises not 
wholly nor perhaps primarily out of any particular con- 
sideration for the railways themselves, but rather that its 
effect upon the general business fabric of the country, to 
which I have briefly alluded, is the uppermost factor which 
led to your appointment; and, consistent with that, there 
are represented upon your commission the Treasury Depart- 
ment, the Department of Commerce and the Department 
of Labor. 

The Treasury Department is interested because an indus- 
try, which requires each normal year new capital to the ex- 
tent of some $200,000,000 and whose refunding operations 
require even a larger sum, cannot indefinitely remain in 
such a condition as the electric railways are now in with- 
out having an adverse effect upon the financial system of 
the country. 

The Department of Labor is concerned because the ques- 
tion of wages and of working conditions and of employment 
are involved, not only as it directly affects railway com- 
panies but also as it affects the manufacturing, companies 
which supply the materials and apparatus used by the 

The Department of Commerce is concerned because, to 
an extent seldom realized until strikes or other circum- 
stances cause an abandonment of service, the business and 
commercial life of the country is closely bound up with the 
system of transportation afforded by electric railways. 

The appointment of your commission furnishes the first 
opportunity for the electric railways to present their case 
as a national problem. The present methods of regulation 
and control of electric railways have failed. It needs no 
argument to prove that. The mere fact that a whole in- 
dustry, covering the entire United States and operating 
under different local conditions — the mere fact that such 
an industry as a whole is on the verge of bankruptcy at 
I time when unregulated industries are at the height of 
prosperity speaks tor itself. 

Present Methods Not Sufficiently Elastic 

The present methods of regulation and control are en- 
tirely too inelastic to respond to the stress of changing 
conditions and have not permitted the adjustment of the 
price of the product to meet the cost of the product. Any 
method of regulation which does not permit the application 
of that simple rule will always be a failure. No doubt 
this is a fundamental truth which every one recognizes, 
but in the case of electric railways there has been intro- 
duced a psychological factor which has hindered the ad- 
justment of the electric railway problem. The old system 
of contracts between communities and private companies, 
whereby the companies agreed for certain fixed fares to 
do certain fixed service, has resulted in the popular belief, 
which it has been hitherto impossible to eradicate, that 
furnishing street railway transportation through the me- 
dium of private enterprise amounts to giving away public 
privileges to private individuals who have realized enormous 

The relations between the municipality and the electric 
railway cannot be satisfactorily fixed upon relations of a 
simple contract such as might exist between two indi- 
viduals. I entirely subscribe to the theory of state control 
and regulation of these utilities; and, that theory having 
been admitted, it is impossible for the parties to stand 
in simple contractual relations, and the idea should be 
entirely eradicated from the public mind and the proper 
conception of the functions of an electric railway be sub- 
stituted. This concept I believe to be that the electric 
railways are acting as agents for the public in furnishing 
transportation to the public, and for that service they 
should receive an adequate and just return upon the money 
invested in such service on terms capable of prompt adjust- 
ment to meet changing conditions of operation and of 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

The electric railway industry is faced at this moment 
with three alternatives and the issue will come immediately: 

(1) Municipal ownership. 

(2) Private ownership and operation resting on a sound 
fundamental basis of regulation and control. 

(3) Absolute disappearance of the service. 

In some cases the service has already disappeared and 
the rails have been taken up, but it is unthinkable that in 
the larger communities this alternative is possible except 
perhaps in part. Therefore the real issue comes between 
municipal ownership and private ownership. From the 
purely selfish standpoint of investors I have no doubt a 
great sigh of relief would go up if municipalities should 
purchase the electric railways at a fair valuation. But the 
experience of governmental operation of those utilities, the 
operations of which are of more or less a complex character, 
has not been reassuring, and I believe a great majority of 
the people of the country believe in private ownership and 
operation under proper regulations and control. 

At the conclusion of General Tripp's address, Mr. 
Elmquist asked how long the railways would require 
to present their evidence. Mr. Warren replied that 
it would take about ten days. Chairman Elmquist then 
announced that the commission would sit daily from 10 
a.m. to 1 p.m. and from 2 p.m. to 5 p.m., but that it 
would not sit on Saturdays, unless a special announce- 
ment was made to that effect. 

Mr. Welch Presents Statistics 

The greater part of the sessions on Tuesday was de- 
voted to the presentation of statistics of the electric 
railway industry by J. W. Welsh, statistician. A num- 
ber of the charts presented by Mr. Welsh will be repro- 
duced in the next issue of this paper. 

W. J. Clark Testifies on Early Conditions 

During the latter part of Tuesday afternoon W. J. 
Clark, of the General Electric Company, took the stand 
and described some of the early electric railway condi- 
tions. He said that in the latter part of the decade be- 
tween 1880 and 1890 he became interested in a small 
street railway company at Derby, Conn. This road was 
equipped by him and his associates with the Van Depoele 
electric system. It was expected that the cars, motors, 
generators, etc., then provided would be good for serv- 
ice for 20 years or more. Instead, before 1896, the 
company had changed its car bodies three times and its 
motors five times and had built its third power station. 
This rapid obsolescence had caused large development 
expenses. Much of the so-called "water" in electric 
railway capitalization, in his opinion, represents actual 
cash investments of this kind. Mr. Clark believed that 
electric railways would survive if relief was afforded 
to them and that much of the traffic now lost to auto- 
mobiles would come back again. He said that one rea- 
son why the Thomson-Houston Electric Company had 
acquired the Van Depoele electric railway patents in 
1888 was that its leading officials had come to the con- 
clusion at that time that the field for electric lighting 
apparatus was about saturated because most of the 
cities in New England had then purchased arc light- 
ing outfits. In the same way, many manufacturers of 
electric railway apparatus had thought in 1896 that but 
little remained to be done because most of the roads 
at that time had purchased equipment. He cited prices 
to show that the early electric railway equipment, al- 
though inefficient, was costly, yet the lines thus equipped 
had been a great benefit to the communities served and 
had been the nuclii from which large systems had 

General Tripp Discusses Finances 

Testimony relative to the financial condition of the 
electric railway industry offered by General Tripp oc- 
cupied the bulk of the time in the Wednesday proceed- 
ings. Asked to define the tendency in the electric rail- 
way world today, General Tripp said: "It is more than 
a tendency; it is a rapid progress toward bankruptcy." 

He gave as the main cause for this condition the 
decreased purchasing power of the dollar and said that 
the railway companies were unable to meet this depre- 
ciation because of the taxes fixed by franchise regula- 
tions and the ideas of the general public relative to a 
fixed standard fare. 

To show that overcapitalization, or "watered stock," 
was not the cause, he cited the case of the New York 
Railways, now in the hands of a receiver. The system 
when consolidated in 1911 was capitalized at less than 
its appraisal value and at that time was considered as 
established on an absolutely safe basis. In connection 
with this illustration General Tripp remarked. "We have 
all been living in a fool's paradise." He further said 
that a business which cannot increase its revenues 
under any conditions is not on a sound basis and that 
street railway credit can not be restored as long as the 
present relations exist between the companies and the 
communities they serve. 

As a general proposition General Trip approved the 
action of the National War Labor Board in raising 
wages since the wage earner had little or no margin to 
sustain himself with under depreciated currency con- 
ditions. In answer to a question from the commission 
he said that as he saw it no relief could be expected 
from lowered wages. The financial problem would 
have to be solved by the public and the railways. 

There Must Be a New Order of Things 

Questioned by the commission as to possible solutions 
General Tripp said that a new scheme of relationship 
must be devised and that the solution, whatever it is, 
must eliminate the fixed income problem which the rail- 
ways now face. This led to an extended discussion of 
the service-at-cost method of operation. General Tripp 
told the commission that it was his personal opinion 
that the easiest and fairest way of reaching a basis 
for calculating earnings was by studying the security 
issues of a company, determining from the history of 
these issues just what sum of money entered into the 
investment cost. He said that he felt that investment 
cost thus arrived at was more easily understood than 
a cost based on physical value, reproduction cost or 
other method involving the use of many technical and 
little understood terms. Other questions by the com- 
mission brought up the matters of paving costs, general 
taxes, effect of raising fares and the jitney. Relative 
to a reduction of taxes General Tripp said that this 
would help but would not solve the problem as long as 
the present inelasticity of income prevails. In answer 
to a question, General Tripp told the commission that 
he felt that the investigation should be directed toward 
a study of the fundamental difficulties common to all 
companies rather than the difficulties of individual com- 
pany and that local illustrations of conditions might be 
used only where they pointed a general moral. He 
also expressed belief that a strong recommendation by 
the commission in the way of fundamental methods 
would do much towards assisting in the solution of the 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


Utility Securities Are Not Salable, Says Invest- 
ment Banker 

Following General Tripp, H. L. Stuart, president 
of Halsey, Stuart & Company, investment bankers, 
Chicago, took the stand. Mr. Stuart said that in the 
past his company had done a large business in elec- 
tric railway securities and that these securities had 
been sold to insurance companies, banks, trustees and 
individual investors. He said that for some time street 
railway bonds had been regarded with distrust by 
investors and that during the last two years their 
sale had been practically impossible. Street railway 
stock had ceased to be regarded as a safe investment 
some years previous to this. He said that the forma- 
tion of public utility commissions in a number of states 
several years ago for a time had increased utility se- 
curity sales, as it was thought the action of these com- 
missions would be to increase the safety of utiHty 

In answer to a question by the commission Mr. 
Stuart said that very large amounts of utility securi- 
ties are held by the ultimate investor. He cited the 
case of the Kansas City Railways' small bond issues 
stating that thousands of $100 bonds had been sold. It 
is Mr. Stuart's opinion that some form of cost-of-serv- 
ice plan is best and that the indeterminate permit is 
much better than the fixed period franchise. Like 
General Tripp, Mr. Stuart thinks that the solution lies 
between the railways and the public. From the invest- 
ment banker's standpoint Mr. Stuart said that he felt 
that the commission is the court of last resort. 

Mr. Hurley's Letter 

After the completion of Mr. Stuart's testimony, Bent- 
ley W. Warren, council for the American Electric Rail- 
way Association, read into the records a letter from 
Edward N. Hurley, chairman of the United States 
Shipping Board. Mr. Hurley pointed out that the 
rapid development of this country had been due in 
large part to the construction of transportation facili- 
ties and that adequate and efficient electric railway 
facilities are just as essential to the proper develop- 
ment welfare and prosperity of our cities as the trans- 
continental trunk lines are to the country at large. He 
said that the railways should be freely accorded the 
right to establish such rates as are necessary to meet 
operating costs and yield a reasonable return on the 
capital invested. In referring to the need for urban 
transportation he said : 

With the whole world endeavoring to improve its trans- 
portation services both on land and sea and spending mil- 
lions of dollars experimenting on transportation in the air, 
it is most important to the future prosperity and comfort 
of our people that the street railways be placed in a position 
where first-class service will be given the public at a just 
cost under the supervision of broad-minded, sound commis- 
sions. If state and national governments are to determine 
what is a fair street railway wage scale, then they should 
also assume the responsibility of determining and establish- 
ing what is an adequate street railway fare, and they should 
Vi^illingly, when the facts are presented, meet the new con- 
ditions by authorizing street railway companies to increase 
their fares. 

It is clear that every electric railway company should be 
freely accorded the right to establish such rates as are 
necessary to meet operating costs, including maintenance 
and depreciation and a reasonable return on the capital in- 
vested. If they are to be denied this right, it is perfectly 
clear that no additional capital can be safely invested in 
electric railway securities, that our electric railways will 
be unable to meet their obligations to the public and their 
security holders. 

As soon as the American public and the street railway 
corporations of this country are brought to a settled under- 
standing of what constitutes fairness in their mutual rela- 
tions, your problem will be solved. Capital already legiti- 
mately invested in public service will be safeguarded, the 
credit of our legitimate electric railway companies will be 
restored, new capital will be available to them as required 
for the development and expansion of their facilities to 
meet the requirements of the public, and the public will 
enjoy efficient, safe service. 

In conclusion Mr. Hurley said: "The true value of 
an electric railway property is the legitimate cost in- 
curred in establishing and developing its business and 
any method of valuation which disregards this prin- 
ciple is not fair." 

Service Has Been Impaired 

That service has been impaired was the testimony 
of Henry G. Bradlee, of the Stone & Webster Corpora- 
tion. Mr. Bradlee exhibited several charts showing the 
amount of capital required by several different types 
of industry and pointed out that the electric railways 
had been "living off their fat" as it were, for very little 
maintenance work has been done and few extensions 
have been built during the last few years. He stated 
that the street railway companies now need between 
$600,000,000 and $700,000,000 each year for new exten- 
sions and improvements. In addition to this, they need 
between $300,000,000 and $350,000,000 annually for re- 
funding outstanding securities, thus bringing the total 
financial needs to something like $1,000,000,000 a year. 

The question of new capital, to Mr. Bradlee's mind, 
was the crux of the whole railway situation. He pointed 
out there were only two ways to get this money, either 
through municipal ownership or through the estab- 
lishment of some plan so that the private investor will 
feel reasonably safe in buying railway securities. 

As illustrative of the increase in costs during recent 
years Mr. Bradlee presented the following interesting 
data pertaining to three of the Stone & Webster prop- 
erties : 

1919 OVER 1913 

Houston Northern Texas El Paso 

Electric Traction Electric 

Item Company Company Railway 

Maintenance of Way and Structures 76 63.0 47 

Maintenance of Equipment 58 83.5 61 ' 

Conducting Transportation 50 57.5 90 

Miscellaneous 32 7.4 27 

Total cost of operation 48.4 45.0 65.3 

The figures are for the years ended April 30, 1919, 
and April, 1913. The 1913 cost figures were arrived 
at by taking the 1919 items and multiplying them by 
the unit costs prevailing in 1913. The high cost of 
conducting transportation increase for the last property 
as compared with the others is due to the fact that 
fuel for the first two is still being purchased on a 
pre-war contract while for the last property current 
fuel prices are being paid. 

When asked relative to the distribution of their se- 
curities, Mr. Bradlee stated that they were very widely 
held. He said the Stone & Webster properties were 
all operating under the old fashioned form of franchise. 
He stated that the fixed-period franchise is objection- 
able because the difficulty of securing new capital in- 
creases as the expiration time of the franchise ap- 
proaches. When questioned by the commission as to 
the trend in the power situation, Mr. Bradlee said that 
it would be more economical to have fewer and larger 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

plants than we now have. Just how far this can be 
carried is a matter difficult of determination, however. 

The commission also asked Mr. Bradlee relative to the 
possibilities of the Ford gasoline car and the motor 
bus. Speaking of the first, Mr. Bradlee said that Mr. 
Ford as yet "had an idea, not a car," and with regard 
to the motor bus said that his company is operating 
motor buses in a number of places as feeders to their 
railway lines. He believes that in general the cost of 
transportation is greater with the buses than over the 
rails and sees no chance for them except in special 
cases where they run through sparsely settled com- 

Program of Future Hearings Announced 

Announcement was made at the close of Thursday's 
hearing by Chairman Elmquist that upon the com- 
pletion of the railway testimony adjournment would be 
taken until Aug. 4. On that date Secretary Baker and 
a group of economists will begin testifying. On the 
completion of their testimony, another adjournment 
will be taken until Aug. 11 when the mayors of vari- 
ous large cities, including New York, San Francisco, 
Boston, Buff'alo, New Orleans, Seattle, Detroit, Chicago, 
Cleveland and others, will begin testifying. Members 
of various commissions also will be heard with this 

Dean Cooley and Others Testify 
On Thursday 

With the resumption of hearings on Thursday morn- 
ing W. J. Clark, of the General Electric Company, was 
again called to the stand to testify relative to the early 
history of electric railways. Counsel brought out the 
point that early experimental work was done at the 
expense of the electric railways and constitutes a part 
of the just investment. Mr. Clark compared American 
and foreign electric railways and discussed the causes of 
public prejudice at request of the commission. The 
commission at this point took a recess to permit a photo- 
graph of the commission being taken. 

After the recess Dean Mortimer E. Cooley, of the 
University of Michigan, was called to testify as to the 
elements entering street railway costs. The balance 
of the forenoon and a considerable part of the after- 
noon session were occupied by Dean Cooley, who was 
questioned at great length by the commission on depre- 
ciation, obsolescence and maintenance costs, and what 
should be done to improve the electric railway situa- 
tion. Dean Cooley said that it would take a generation 
to educate the public properly, which belief is needed 
now. He considered higher fares a palliative only. Every 
public utility needs a surplus fund, a surge tank, to 
take care of fluctuations. In regard to municipal owner- 
ship. Dean Cooley said he did not believe it would be a 
success but would be the best way of educating the 
public. "Municipal ownership is beautiful as an ideal 
but worthless as a practical thing," said he. 

In answer to a question from one of the commission 
as to what should then be done, Dean Cooley said: 
"I recommend that street railways have the right to 
charge fares that would permit them to meet their 
operating expenses, keep up their service, and maintain 
their properties intact." He indicated that the present 
fares should be at least 50 per cent higher, and sug- 
gested the removal of some of the taxes now borne by 
street railways and exemption from the obligation to 
maintain the paving between the car tracks. 

At the conclusion of Dean Cooley's testimony, Counsel 
Warren read into the record a statement from A. Mer- 
ritt Taylor, president Philadelphia & Westchester Trac- 
tion Company and formerly manager, division of 
?iousing and transportation. United States Shipping 
Board. This statement will be found below. 

W. D. George, one of the receivers of the Pittsburgh 
Railways, was then called to testify as to the effect of 
zone fares and the effect of increased fares in Pitts- 
burgh. . As a real estate man by profession rather 
than a railway man, Mr. George was questioned by the 
commission at great length relative to the matter of 
public sentiment and interest in the electric industry 
as against the methods dictated by clear-cut business 
methods. Mr. George expressed himself as being op- 
posed to zone fares on the ground that they are inimical 
to the best development of a community. 

Further particulars of the sessions on Thursday and 
an account of the following sessions up to the press 
date of the issue of July 26 will be published in that 

The Valuation of Electric Railway 

By a. Merritt Taylor 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

AN ELECTRIC railway company engaged in a 
legitimate constructive enterprise is entitled to 
charge rates for service which will yield a profitable 
return on the true cost of establishing and developing 
its property and business. Anything short of this 
means confiscation of money invested in public service. 

In order that exact justice shall be accorded all parties 
at interest, an electric railway property must be valued 
at the true legitimate cost of its establishment and 
development up to the date when the valuation is made. 

If, in the early stages of development, the net results 
of operation produce a return which is short of the 
amount required duly to compensate the owners of 
capital invested in the property for its use during such 
period, and to provide for normal depreciation and 
obsolescence, such shortage plus accrued interest on 
accumulated portion of just return withheld from in- 
vestors must necessarily be considered to be a part of 
the cost of the development of the property and its 
business, and be included as an element of value. 

If an electric railway property be valued (as is pro- 
posed by impractical theorists) at its cost less deprecia- 
tion and obsolescence, or at what would be the cost of 
reproducing it less depreciation and obsolescence in 
instances where the net revenue has been insufficient 
to yield a return on the capital invested therein duly 
compensatory for the service performed and the risks 
assumed, and or where the net revenue has been in- 
sufficient to provide for depreciation and obsolescence 
in addition to yielding a just return upon the capital, 
such valuation is unjustifiable and rates based thereon 
are confiscatory. 

An electric railway enterprise is entitled to charge 
such rates as are required to protect the capital 
legitimately invested therein and to yield to the owners 
of such capital a cumulative return which will ade- 
quately compensate them for its use, for the risks 
assumed and the service performed, and which are 
required properly to meet cumulative depreciation and 

* statement filed with Federal Electric Railways Commission 
and read at Washington, July 17, 1919. 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


obsolescence, to invite corporate initiative and to' main- 
tain the credit and ability of the enterprise to procure 
such additional capital as is required from time to 
time for the purpose of expanding its facilities for 
public service. 

Capital will not be available for electric railway re- 
quirements in states and municipalities where there be 
question as to whether electric railway companies will 
be prevented by regulatory authorities from establish- 
ing rates required to yield an inviting cumulative re- 
turn on the capital invested therein. This fact must 
be recognized and steps must be promptly taken to 
remove the grounds for reasonable doubt in the prem- 
ises. Nothing short of a clear and common under- 
standing of how valuations of electric railway properties 
m.ade for rate-making purposes shall be arrived at, and 
of what elements must be regarded in the fixation of 
rates, will enable the electric railway enterprises to 
raise the capital which is required to meet their obliga- 
tions and expand their facilities as required for public 

There is a serious and inherent risk which confronts 
every investor who invests in electric railway con- 
structive enterprises, namely, the risk that such enter- 
prise will not yield a just return on the capital invested 
therein at any rate which its customers would be willing 
to pay for the service. In such instances where the 
rates are so high as to invoke the law of diminishing 
return, the management of the enterprise will neces- 
sarily have to decrease rates to such a basis as will 
yield the maximum net return, and the investor, in the 
absence of public assistance, will necessarily have to 
accept a lesser return on his capital unless through 
development of business the shortage can be made up 
and paid in later years. 

How Shall Maximum Net Return on Investment 
Be Secured? 

Many electric railway companies which are rendering 
essential service are now confronted with the fact that 
there is no rate of fare which will enable them to 
continue eificient operation of their properties and which 
will yield to them a return sufficient to meet the new 
level of operating and renewal costs resultant from the 
war, onerous conditions and charges imposed upon them 
by municipal, state and government authority, and to 
pay a just return on the capital invested in their prop- 
erties. In such instances the credit of the electric 
railway company is impaired; it can raise no money 
with which to provide the additional facilities which are 
required from time to time for the service of the public 
in a growing community, and the public must augment 
its net revenue in one way or another to an extent 
sufficient to enable it to maintain its credit and meet 
its just obligations, or, be deprived of essential service. 
There are many electric railways which will be com- 
pletely abandoned with the resultant incalculable loss 
to the communities which they serve unless their credit 
be promptly restored and maintained through public 

It is quite possible that the city of Canton, China, 
may have greatly improved transportation facilities in 
the near future. The city wall is in process of being 
torn down and a corporation with a liberal capital has 
been proposed to develop an electric tramway on the 
improved streets which will be built after the removal 
of the wall. 

Denver Situation Clearing 

City to Re-Grant Temporary Six-Cent Fare — Strike 
Ended — Service-at-Cost Plan Likely to 
Be Basis of Settlement 

DENVER'S transportation troubles which came to a 
climax on July 8, as was noted in last week's issue 
of this paper, when 1200 employees of the Denver 
Tramway Company went out on strike after the an- 
nouncement of a wage reduction, have been temporarily 
settled after an interruption of service lasting nearly 
four days. Within that period the Mayor and City 
Council of Denver agreed to re-enact the 6-cent fare 
ordinance which they had repealed the week before, the 
notion of jitney buses as a means of transportation 
was buried beneath overwhelming popular disapproval, 
and arrangements were made between city and company 
for a permanent settlement of the street railway situa- 
tion on the basis of "service-at-cost." The employees 
presented demands during the walk-out for a closed 
shop, a 60, 6i and 70-cent scale for trainmen, and pro- 
portionate increases for all other unionized employees 
in the company. They went back to work at the 43, 
46 and 48-cent scale, waiving the closed shop demand 
and leaving increased wages to settlement by arbitra- 
tion within the next six months. 

Approximately 625 jitneys were in operation the sec- 
ond day of the strike. The congestion caused on down- 
town streets, the terrific increase in accidents, the 
lack of schedules and failure of the jits to operate to 
the outlying districts of the city, coupled with the fact 
that scores of drivers disregarded the 5-cent limit and 
charged from 10 cents to $1.50, disgusted the public 
with jitney buses long before the strike was ended. 
The "jit" is dead in Denver; whoever tries to resurrect 
it will meet with violent opposition from the people who 

The loss to the merchants of the city has not been 
estimated, but a thorough canvass of the retail houses 
discloses that 50 per cent is a conservative estimate of 
the loss of business during the strike. One department 
store lost $10,000 a day; a retail shoe store lost $800 
a day and the downtown grocery and meat and drug 
stores had practically no business at all. The legiti- 
mate and vaudeville theaters suffered only a slight loss 
in their business, apparently because they drew all the 
tourist trade from hotels, but movies reported almost a 
total loss of business, especially in the afternoons. The 
working people of the city lost as high as one-fourth 
day's wages because of their inability to get to work 
on time. 

The advertisement of the strike outside the city un- 
questionably did tremendous damage to Denver's tourist 
business ; the full effect has not yet been felt. 

There was no violence whatever during the strike 
owing to its peculiar nature, otherwise the loss to busi- 
ness men and workers would undoubtedly have been 
much greater. 

The most unusual feature of the strike was the fact 
that the sympathies of the company were with the men, 
the management acknowledging that the men could not 
meet 1919 living expenses with 1917 wages. Advertise- 
ments for men to replace the strikers were placed in 
the newspapers, but only the reduced wage scale was 
offered and no professional strike-breakers were im- 
ported. Daily attempts were made to operate cars by 
company officials, who were good-naturedly but prompt- 


Electric Railway Journal '• 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

ly pulled off the cars by the strikers. The mayor 
charged that the company and the strikers were in col- 
lusion because of this aspect of the strike, apparently 
not realizing that the importation of strike-breakers 
by the company would have led to an outbreak of the 
Winnipeg and Seattle sort. 

In spite of the patent failure of the jitneys to meet 
the situation, the mayor issued a statement during the 
second day of the strike in which he declared that the 
tramway had been proven no longer necessary as a 
transportation system for Denver, and that the jitneys 
would supply all needs. He stated that it was "a great 
victory for the people" and declared the city would 
immediately spend $3,000,000 in equipping jitney bus 
lines as a permanent substitute for the street railway. 

Twenty-four hours after this statement was pub- 
lished, the mayor and the city council had agreed to 
revoke every jitney bus license, kill the jitney bill then 
before the council," re-enact the 6-cent fare ordinance 
for a period of 90 days, and before the end of that 
period to put before the people for their approval a 
service-at-cost plan based upon the recommendations 
of the Tramway Adjustment Committee of fifty-five, 
appointed by former Mayor W. F. R. Mills. 

Service Quickly Restored 

With this agreement between city and company com- 
pleted, General Manager F. W. Hild went into a series 
of conferences with the union officials. The union men 
finally agreed to go back to work at the old wage scale 
of 43, 46 and 48 cents and submit the demand for a 
22-cent increase to arbitration. This submission will 
be made at some indeterminate date in the future, the 
men allowing a maximum of six months' time so that 
the company and city can secure a permanent solution 
of the transportation problem in the meantime. 

Cars reappeared on the streets of Denver in time for 
the evening rush hour Friday, July 11, and were the 
signal for a mild repetition of the jubilant scenes on 
the downtown streets when the world war ended. 

This was the first street car strike in the history of 
Denver. Strikes have been threatened several times in 
the last two years, but in each instance General Man- 
ager Hild has succeeded in averting them. On this oc- 
casion both the company and the men went on a strike. 
The 5-cent fare will be in effect during the time 
required to pass the 6-cent fare ordinance. July 12 the 
tramway put out petitions for an initiated 6-cent fare 
ordinance, and the required signatures of 4500 qualified 
electors were secured in about the time that would be 
necessary for that number of citizens to write their 
names. Final passage of the ordinance will probably 
be made by the City Council on July 28. 

The 6-cent fare will be effective for 90 days, or until 
the passage by the people of the permanent solution. 

Conferences looking toward the drafting of a "serv- 
ice-at-cost" ordinance began this week. Tramway em- 
ployees, as well as city and company's officials, will 
probably be represented at these meetings. The work 
should be completed within thirty days, inasmuch as the 
special election must be called sixty days before it is 
held. The city will bear the expense of the election. 

Service-at-Cost Plan Resurrected 

The foundation material upon which the various 
parties interested will build the permanent arrange- 
ments between city and tramway is the report of the 
committee of fifty-five citizens already mentioned and 

appointed by a number of civic, labor, commercial and 
improvement associations last January at the request 
of a former mayor. This committee took an active 
part in the 'settlement of the strike. Its report, which 
was filed with the city just before the present mayor 
took office and subsequently pigeonholed, embodies the 
conclusions reached after a thorough investigation of 
the transportation problem in Denver and other cities. 

The report, after pointing out that the committee's 
investigation of the tramway finances leaves no doubt 
as to the necessity of relief, goes on to say that all 
manner of suggested solutions were analyzed and dis- 
cussed, including the zone system, flat increases in 
fares, a proposal that the city be required by general 
tax levy to make up the deficit required for the efficient 
operation of the system as it would have to do if the 
city owned the lines, municipal ownership, the service- 
at-cost plan, and removal of extraordinary tax bur- 
dens and creation of new sources of revenue. In gen- 
eral, the service-at-cost plan is favored for the follow- 
ing reasons: 

The service-at-cost plan provides that the car riders of 
the city shall pay only the actual expenses incurred in 
operating and maintaining the system. 

It provides that the municipality, not the company, shall 
control the service given the public, the extensions that shall 
be made and the additions to service. 

It virtually takes control of the street railway system out 
of the hands of the board of directors of the company and 
places it in the hands of the municipality. 

It establishes a fair value of the property. 

It allows the company to earn no more than a fair return 
on only that value, no matter how many stocks and bonds 
may have been issued against the property. 

It provides an automatic decrease or increase in fares 
according to the cost of operating the system. 

It provides for non-political, expert management of the 
technical operation of the system. 

It encourages those in charge of operation to consider 
economy in purchase and efficiency in use; in some cities 
bonuses are allowed in this connection to stimulate extra 

It provides for a depreciation fund sufficient to guarantee 
the replacement of old tracks, old cars and worn out equip- 
ment and buildings with new, modern facilities, that will 
render better service to the public, and places the disposi- 
tion of the money for such improvements in the hands of 
the municipality. 

It provides for the purchase of the property by the city 
at a fair valuation at any time the public may decide to 
substitute municipal ownership for municipal control and 

The service-at-cost plan gives the city all the advantages 
that might come from municipal ownership; yet does not 
burden the taxpayers with investment of the city's money 
in the property at this time, and in the committee's opinion 
coincidentally avoids nearly all other disadvantages of mu- 
nicipal ownership. 

The committee defined "cost-of-service" as including: 

1. Cost of wages and compensation to employees. 

2. Cost of materials used in the operation of the system. 

3. Cost of depreciation and renewals of the property as it 
wears out. 

4. Cost of taxes. 

5. Cost of money invested in the property (reasonable re- 
turn upon the stipulated fair value of the system). 

6. Cost of such incidental expenditures as are authorized 
under the rulings and uniform system of accounting of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission of the United States. 

The Board of Control constitutes one of the most 
important features of the committee's plan, and in the 
eyes of tramway officials is such a radical departure 
from present methods that it cannot be considered 
favorably by the ovraers of the property. The wide 
powers of this board include control of the quality and 
quantity of service, of capital expenditures, of the scale 
of fares, of the depreciation and renewal funds, etc 

July 19, 1919 

Electric Railway Journal 


The board consists of three members, two appointed 
by the mayor of the city and one by the company. 

As a basis for its plan, the committee adopted the 
evaluation of the property made by the Public Utilities 
Commission the previous year, v^^hich for both city and 
interurban lines vi^as $23,674,100 as compared with the 
company's valuation of $26,772,888. The committee 
allowed, upon the recommendation of Professor Ketch- 
um, L. R. Nash of Boston, and Charlton Ogburn of 
the National War Labor Board, a depreciation and 
renewal fund of $500,000 per annum, which is the 
amount authorized by the public utilities commission. 

On the rate of return the report recommends 7 per 
cent with a bonus when the fare is 6 cents or less. A 
sliding scale of fares is provided, with a fare control 
fund varying between the limits of $500,000 and $100,- 
000 which acts to determine the time of changing 
from one fare schedule to another. 

Comments of Manager Hild 

General Manager Hild of the tramway considers the 
committee's service-at-cost plan a classic in its field, 
even though all its provisions do not meet with his un- 
qualified approval. He says: "From the standpoint 
of the tramway company there are three main objec- 
tions to the plan as recommended by the Committee of 

"First, the valuation is too low. We still feel that 
we were in a better position to judge the valuation than 
anyone else and we believe that the valuation of the 
committee misses the mark by about $4,000,000. 

"Second, the rate of return allowed in the plan, we 
feel, is rather low for attracting capital into the enter- 

"In the third place, the board of control feature can- 
not possibly be acceptable to the men who have money 
invested in the company. It is proposed that the power 
of administration be given to men whose appointments 
come from outside the company altogether. It is not 
natural for the tramway investors to be satisfied with 
having someone who is not connected with the enter- 
prise tell them what must be done. 

"There are many admirable features to the plan, 
however. I believe that under the service-at-cost plan 
the company would be able to start out with a 6-cent fare 
and very soon bring it down to 5^ cents at most." 

Status of Daylight Saving 

President Wilson has personally come to the support 
of the advocates of retaining the daylight-saving legis- 
lation. He has vetoed the agricultural appropriation 
bill containing the repeal of this legislation, making 
public a statement in which he says that he foresees 
a great economic loss from such repeal. Following 
the action of the President, which was taken in Wash- 
ington on July 12, the House of Representatives on 
July 14 refused by a vote of 247 to 135 to pass the 
agricultural appropriation bill over his veto. This 
refusal by the House resulted in taking from the Senate 
the opportunity to attempt to repass the bill. Notwith- 
standing the President's veto of the legislation and the 
refusal of the House of Representatives to pass it over 
his veto, conferences are being held in Washington be- 
tween members of the House and the Senate in an at- 
tempt to pass the legislation by force, under a proposed 
new ruling, as new legislation or by indefinitely hold- 
ing up the agricultural appropriation bill. 

Some Observations and Queries on 
Safety Car Operation* 

By F. J. MooEE 

Superintendent Ohio Electric Railway, Spring-field, Ohio 

WHILE all electric railway men will not agree that 
one-man car operation is the panacea for our ills, 
all will agree that revenues must be increased without 
a corresponding increase in expenses if we expect to 
continue business. City fares have generally, although 
not universally, been increased with a view to meeting 
the increased cost of operation in this way. I have 
in mind a city of 60,000 population where the fare was 
increased, first from the rate of six tickets for a quarter 
to a straight five-cent fare, then to a six-cent fare. The 
first increase produced a considerable increase in reve- 
nue, but the effect of the second was not so good. In 
other cities, where the fares were increased without an 
improvement in service by a reduction in headway, the 
result has been unsatisfactory. This has been due to the 
loss of short-haul business to a large extent. It is at 
this point that the one-man car is of service in fur- 
nishing the opportunity for shortening headways, thus 
appealing to municipal authorities and the public, and 
developing the riding habit. The combination of a 
higher fare and increased riding gives a better pros- 
pect that the electric railway will be able to stay in 

To illustrate the possibilities with one-man car oper- 
ation, I shall cite a city of 15,000 population where 
seven-minute service is given at an average speed of 12 
m.p.h. The rolling stock consists of single-truck cars 
weighing from 6 to 8 tons. Some of the cars are of 
the rebuilt type with small platforms. There is one 
grade of 7i per cent about 600 ft. long on the line, and 
in the last eight years there have been no accidents due 
to cars getting away. 

In this city the cash fare is 5 cents, but thirty- 
three composition disks, good for one ride each, are 
sold for $1. No transfers are issued, but passengers 
are transferred from car to car at the transfer points. 
Approximately 2,000,000 passengers are handled per 
year. Service is given from 5:30 a.m. to 10:30 p.m. 
with an owl car on each line until 1 a.m., the fare for 
owl service being 10 cents. Conductors do not sell 
tickets, v/hich are sold at local stores at the rate of 
three for 10 cents. This line is operating at a very 
satisfactory operating ratio, and there is a noticeable 
tendency to short riding. I observed that many pas- 
sengers did not ride more than three or four blocks. 

The importance of reducing headway is seen when the 
growth of the use of the automobile is considered. In 
Ohio, in 1913, 165,000 automobile licenses were issued; 
in 1917 the num.ber was 346,262, and in 1919, up to the 
present time, 500,160 licenses have been issued. At the 
same time on checking up a number of city car 
schedules for properties serving populations from 25,- 
000 to 100,000, I find that the same headway is in use 
in 1919 as in 1913. 

In conclusion I wish to list a number of questions 
which are of interest in studying the one-man car 
situation in any locality, as follows: (1) What was the 
determining factor that led to the adoption of the one- car? (2) If an advertising campaign was con- 

*Abstract of contribution to discussion of Sam W Greeland's 
C. E. R. A. paper on safety-car operation. See issue of thi^ 
paper for July 12. * 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 54, No. 3 

ducted, how long before the inauguration of service was 
it begun? (3) What criticisms have come from tha 
public and the local council after operation has com- 
menced? (4) Were any changes in schedule made on 
one-man car lines? C5) What provisions were made for 
railroad crossings? (6) How do the safety-cars handle 
rush-hour traffic? (7) Were any changes made in re- 
port slips or accounting methods from earlier practice 
to relieve operators of unnecessary duties? (8) Has 
it been found possible to adopt a zone system of fare 
collection on these cars? (9) How and when are trans- 
fers issued? (10) How have the Birney cars stood 
up under operation? Will this type of car be long- 
lived? What are the maintenance costs on these cars? 
(11) Is it desirable to use two trolley poles on the car 
so that the operator can change ends without leaving 
the car at terminals? 

American Association News 

Last Week's Committee Meetings 

The week ending July 12 was a busy one at the Amer- 
ican Association headquarters in New York City. The 
"doings" of the committees are summarized below. 

The committee on code of traffic principles of the 
Transportation & Traffic Association met on July 7 
and put its report into final shape for presentation to 
the executive committee which met later in the week. 
H. B. Flowers, chairman, and A. Gaboury were in at- 

The committee on joint use of tracks and terminal 
facilities, of the same association, met on July 8, for the 
same purpose. Those present were: Frank Wert, rep- 
resenting chairman R. T. Sullivan; H. W. Clapp, mem- 
ber, and W. H. Collins, sponsor. 

The exhibit committee of the American Association 
met on July 8 and passed upon a number of applica- 
tions for space and considered other details of its 

The executive committee of the T. & T. Association 
met on July 9 for the purpose of finally passing upon 
the several committee reports which were presented 
by the chairmen of the several committees. Each re- 
port was considered in detail and a number of sugges- 
tions were incorporated. A tentative list of names of 
men to be invited to lead discussion of the various 
reports was also presented and approved. Those in at- 
tendance were: L. C. Bradley, president; W. H. Col- 
lins, first vice-president; L. H. Palmer, third vice- 
president ; E. B. Burritt, secretary ; W. J. Harvie, chair- 
man of committee on collection and registration of 
fares; H. B. Flowers, chairman of committee on code 
of traffic principles; Frank Wert, representing R. T. 
Sullivan, chairman of committee on joint use of tracks 
and terminal facilities, and H. W. Clapp member of the 
last-named committee. 

The arrangement of the formal program of the con- 
vention was discussed and the following tentative ar- 
rangements were agreed upon as covering the reports 
and discussion of each subject: Oct. 6, code of traffic 
principles; Oct. 7, one-man car operation; Oct. 8, col- 
lection and registration of fares; Oct. 9, joint use of 
tracks and terminal facilities and election of officers. 
The committee adjourned to meet again at the call of 
the chairman. 

The committee on zone systems, met on July 15 and 

went over the reports submitted by the sub-committee. 
A tentative form of final report was agreed upon in- 
cluding a terminology for several different types of 
zone systems. Those present were W. H. Sawyer, Col- 
umbus, Ohio, chairman; Thomas Conway, Jr., Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; R. M. Feustel, Fort Wayne, Ind.; James 
F. Hamilton, Rochester, N. Y.; Walter Jackson, New 
York City; L. H. Palmer, Baltimore, Md.; A. S. Richey, 
Worcester, Mass.; R. P. Stevens, Youngstown, Ohio, 
and C. L. S. Tingley, Philadelphia, Pa. 

"Meralco" Welcomes New "G. M." 

The Manila joint company section began its second 
half hundred meetings on May 6, with 175 members 
in attendance. The gathering took the form of a 
welcome to the new general manager of the Manila 
Electric Railroad & Light Company, R. W. Spofford, 
and no papers were presented. Mr. Spofford 
expressed great interest in the prosperity of the sec- 
tion and told of the excellent reputation which it holds 
in the United States. Dr. H. D. Kneedler, company 
surgeon, also received an ovation in recognition of his 
vvar-time service in Siberia. J. C. Rockwell, vice-presi- 
dent of the company, introduced as "grand-daddy," ex- 
tended a welcome on behalf of the company to the new 
manager, reinforcing the opening address of the presi- 
dent of the section, C. H. Van Hoven. 

Letter to the Editors 

Traffic Checks of Non-Riders 

Board of Public Utility Commissioners 

Newark, N. J., July 16, 1919. 

To THE Editors: 

I was much interested in reading the editorial in the 
issue of July 12 on the subject of taking traffic checks 
of non-riders. 

The writer has carried out this idea in connection 
with several traffic surveys which have been made under 
his direction, and it has been surprising to find, in 
many instances, the number of people that are walking 
simply because they are not provided with service or, 
if service is available, it is so circuitous that they pre- 
fer walking over a more direct route. This applies 
particularly, but by no means exclusively, to manufac- 
turing communities where large numbers of workers 
have frequently been found to be walking long dis- 
tances to and from their places of employment, doubt- 
less not for the purpose of saving the fare but rather 
in order to save time. Many companies appear to over- 
look the fact that the average traveler wishes primarily 
to reach his or her destination as quickly as possible 
and is willing to pay a reasonable fare for such trans- 
portation rather than walk. 

It is not difficult to determine, or at least closely esti- 
mate, the number of walkers, the general territory 
where their journey originates and their approximate 
destination. Familiarity with the territory under con- 
sideration and the intelligent placing of observers for 
a few days will soon tell the story. 

More attention to this matter on the part of operat- 
ing officials will undoubtedly result to the mutual 
advantage of both the community being served and the^ 
utility furnishing the service. H. C. Eddy, 

Traffic Engineer. 

News of the Eledric Railways 



A Great Fuss Over Nothing 

High-Handed Tactics of Union Official 
Deprive Akron of Railway 
Service for Day 

One result of Akron's shortest and 
most inexcusable electric railw^ay 
"v/alk-out" has been the suspension 
from office of George Trahern, the 
president of the local union, who or- 
dered the walk-out at 5 a.m. on July 
12, without public warning. A second 
result is that the employees, who 
walked out without even knowing what 
it was all about, have prepared an 
apology to the public of Akron for dis- 
rupting railway service in Akron. 

No Intimation op Trouble 

■ A. C. Blinn, manager of the Northern 
Ohio Traction & Light Company, was 
informed at 5:30 a.m. on July 12 that 
the men would not take out the cars. 
No previous intimation had been given 
of any difficulty. No conferences had 
been held. No strike vote had been 
taken. No consultation had been held 
with the Amalgamated Association of- 
ficers. And most important of all no 
warning had been issued to the public. 
Mr. Blinn got in touch promptly with 
the president of the local union, 
George Trahern. That gentleman re- 
fused to discuss matters over the tele- 
phone. Mr. Blinn in a statement later 
declared that when he spoke in behalf 
of the public's right to service the 
local agent replied: "What do you care 
about the public? They voted down 
your 6-cent fare. The public can go 
to hell for all of me." 

Mr. Blinn then telephoned W. D. 
Mahon, president of the Amalgamated, 
at Detroit. He in turn wired the sec- 
retary of the local divison to put the 
men back to work by 4 p.m. or "the 
laws of the association will be strictly 
enforced." This, of course, meant a 
suspension of the local charter. 

Mayor Myers and President Gilletly 
of the Central Labor Union, who held 
that Mr. Trahern's order was unwar- 
ranted, set things in motion for im- 
mediate arbitration, but President 
Mahon's telegram settled matters tem- 

40,000 Workers Walk 

The 40,000 or so workers in Akron's 
great rubber plants either walked to 
work or rode in trucks. 

It turned out eventually that a mid- 
night meeting for the purpose of elect- 
ing delegates to a convention in Chi- 
cago had not finished business and Mr. 
Trahern decided to hold another meet- 
ing at 10 a.m., the men meantime to 
take "a day off." Later in the day Tra- 
hern added that the company was not 

furnishing the men with suitable city 
directories, and decided to take this 
and one or two other minor grievances 
up at this meeting. 

Mr. Blinn in a public statement de- 
clared that the men's action was con- 
trary to the spirit of their contract 
with the company and that none of the 
complaints made by Mr. Trahern had 
any just foundation. He added that 
regardless of the merits of these minor 
questions the method taken to settle 
such complaints was unwarranted and 
without precedent in his long railroad 

Wage Arbitration Suggested 

A committee representing the Nor- 
folk and Portsmouth divisions of the 
organized conductors and motormen of 
the Virginia Railway & Power Com- 
pany, in a letter to the company on 
July 7, withdrew their request for 
recognition of a "closed shop" union, 
and asked that the company go into 
conference or arbitrate their demand 
for increased wages and other ques- 
tions, treating with them as members 
of an "open shop" union. 

In reply to this the company, in a 
letter signed by T. Norman Jones, 
assistant manager, declared its willing- 
ness to confer with the men on the 
open shop basis, but suggested that a 
conference or arbitration over the 
matter of increased wages would be 
useless until the company were per- 
mitted to increase its fares. In the 
event of a 6-cent fare, according to Mr. 
Jones' letter, the c;mpany will fix a 
wage scale of from 41 to 45 cents. 
If arbitration is in sisted on, the com- 
pany will agree to City Manager Ash- 
burner as a third arbitrator, as sug- 
gested by the carm n's committee. 

New Jersey Agreement Signed 

The two-year a ,i - -ment between the 
Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J., 
and the Amalgamated Association cov- 
ering wage and working conditions was 
signed on July 9 by President McCarter 
of the railway and by the union officers. 

The agreement establishes a day of 
nine hours with pay for ten hours. Over- 
time, under the contract, is to be paid 
at a rate of time and a half for all time 
outside the regular day except the time 
consumed in completing a nine-hour 
run. Meetings will be held by the nine 
local unions in the State, at which the 
revised agreements will be read. 

The terms of the award of the War 
Labor Board in the New Jersey case 
and the conditions of the settlement 
subsequently agreed to between the 
company and the men were reviewed in 
the Electric Railway Journal for 
July 5, page 37. 

Mayor Signs Dispossess 

Toledo Company Preparing to Comply 
With Measure Ordering It off 
Streets on Aug. 1 

Mayor Cornell Schreiber on July 11 
signed an ordinance which, in effect, is 
an order to the Toledo Railways & 
Light Company, Toledo, Ohio, to cease 
operation on July 30. The ordinance 
had been passed by the City Council 
about a week before. It was referred 
to in the Electric Railway Journal 
for July 12, page 87. 

Preparing to Dismantle Road 

For several days the company has 
been preparing to obey the order. All 
improvement work has been stopped, 
and the men engaged on it were dis- 
charged. Other preparations have been 
made for dismantling the road. 

Frank R. Coates, president, is quoted 
as saying that the ordinance will be 
obeyed to the letter. S