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Full text of "Electric railway journal"

654 




10 - 53001-1 



Electric, Railway Journal 



Volume 57 

January to June, 1921 



McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 

Tenth Avenue at Thirty-sixth Street 

New York City 




Instructions for Use of Index 



This index is essentially a subject index, 
not an index of titles, and articles treating 
a number of different subjects are indexed 
under each of them. In addition, a geo- 
graphical reference is published wherever 
the article relates to any particular railway 
company, or to the state matters of any 
particular state. The geographical method of 
grouping serves to locate in the index any 
article descriptive of practices, conditions, 
events, etc., when the searcher knows the 
electric railway, city or state to which the 
article applies. Groupings are made under 
the name of the city in whi -h the main office 
of the company is located, but an exception 
is made in the case of electrified sections of 
steam railroads, such entries being made 
direct under the name of the railroad. City 
or state affairs appear direct under the names 
of the city or state involved. 

In the subject index, the alphabetical 
method is followed, and if there is a choice 
of two or three keywords the one most gen- 
erally used has been selected, cross references 
being supplied. Below will be found -a list of 
the common keywords used in the index to 



this volume. This list has been subdivided 
for convenience into thirteen general subjects, 
but the general subject headings, shown in 
capital letters, do not appear in the body of 
the index unless, like "employees," they ap- 
pear also in small type. As an example of 
how to use the index, if a reader wishes 
to locate an article on special trackwork he 
would obviously look in the list under the 
general subject Track and under this caption, 
only special trackwork could apply to the 
article in question. The reader would there- 
fore refer to this keyword under S in the 
body of the index. 

In addition to the groups of articles cov- 
ered by these headings the papers and reports 
from railway associations are grouped under 
the names of the various organizations. Pro- 
ceedings of other associations and societies 
are indexed in general only in accordance 
with the subject discussed. Short descrip- 
tions of machine tools appear only under the 
heading "Repair shop equipment" and are not 
indexed alphabetically, because of the fact 
that there is a wide choice in most cases of 
the proper keyword to be used. 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF KEYWORDS 



ACCIDENTS AND ACCIDENT 

PREVENTION 
Accidents (including wrecks) 
Safety first 

CARS AND OTHER -VEHICLES 

Car design 

Cars 

Locomotives 
Motor buses 
Motor cars. Gasoline 
Motor trucks 

Service and tower wagons 

Trackless trolley 

Work and wrecking cars 

CAR EQUIPMENT 

Axles 
Bearings 

Brakes and compressors 
Controllers and wiring 
Couplers and bumpers 
Current collection 
Gears and pinions 
Motors 

Seats and windows 

Trucks 

Wheels 

EMPLOYEES 

Employees 
Labor 

Strikes and arbitrations 

Wage decreases 
Wage increases 
Wages 

FARES 
Fare collection (including 

apparatus) 
Fare decreases 
Fare increases 
Fare increases denied 
Fare increases sought 
Fares 

Tickets and tokens 
Traffic investigations 



Traffic stimulation 
Transfers 

FINANCIAL, LEGAL AND 
STATISTICS 
Abandoned lines 
Accounting 

Appraisal of railway property 

Financial 

Franchises 

Insurance 

Legal 

Legislation for railways 
Market conditions 
Operating records and costs 
Public service and regulative 

commissions 
Service at cost 
Statistics 
Taxes 

HEAVY ELECTRIC 
TRACTION 
Heavy electric traction (general) 
Locomotives 
Single-phase railways 

MAINTENANCE OF 
EQUIPMENT 
Inspection of cars 
Insulating materials 
Lubrication 
Maintenance practice 
Metals 

Repair shop practice 
Repair shops and equipment 
Stores 

Tests of materials and equipment 
Welding 

POWER 

Cable 

Energy checking devices 
Energy consumption 
Fuel 

Overhead contact system 
Power distribution 
Power generation 



Power stations and equipment 
Substations and equipment 
.Switchboards and equipment 

STRUCTURES 
Bridges and culverts 
Carhouses and storage yards 
Power stations and equipment 
Repair shops and equipment 
Substations and equipment 
Terminals 
Waiting stations 

TRACK 

Pavements 

Rail joints and bonds 
Rails 

.Special trackwork 
Ties 

Track construction 
Track maintenance 

TRAFFIC AND TRANSPOR- 
TATION 
Freight and express 
Interurban railways 
Merchandising transportation 
Publicity 

Public, Relations with 
Schedules and timetables 
.Signals 

Traffic investigations 
Traffic regulation 
Traffic stimulation 
Transportation, Metropolitan 

MISCELLANEOUS 
Electrolysis 
Engineers 
Highways 
Management 
Municipal ownership 
Railways (General) 
Research 
Snow removal 
Standardization 
Subways 



INDEX TO VOLUME 57 



January 1 1 to 66 

January 8 67 to 112 

January 15 113 to 164 

January 22 165 to 206 

January 29 207 to 250 

February 5 251 to 292 

February 12 293 to 340 

February 19 341 to 390 

February 26 391 to 430 

March 5 431 to 474 

March 12 475 to 514 

March 19 515 to 580 

March 26 581 to 624 

April 2 625 to 666 

April 9 667 to 708 

April 16 709 to 756 

April 23 757 to 798 

April 30 799 to 838 

May 7 839 to 882 

May 14 883 to 922 

May 21 923 to 978 

May 28 979 to 1022 

June 4 1023 to 1064 

June 11 1065 to 1110 

June 18 1111 to 1154 

June 25 1155 to 1192 



Abandoned lines : . ■ 

— Bowling Green. Ky,. 005. 
— Brooklyn, 195. 

— Massachusetts investigation of, 463, 694. 

696; Comments on. 667. 
— Miami, Fla.. 1013. 
— ^Necessity of, Comments on. 476. 
— Norwalk. Ohio, 699. 

— Providence & Danielson Ry, regretted, 379. 

— Statistics of, 43.' 

Accident prevention (See Safety first). 

Accidents: 

— Automobile, 58. 

— Automobile in Cal.. 300. 

— Car jumps bridge, •377. 

— Colhsions, Head on: Ferndale, Md., *1007: 

Shelton, Conn., •463., 
— Collisions, Eoebling, N. J., '1051; Long Island 

R.R., '377. 
— ^Derailment, New York City. •1051. 
— Derailments. Recording of, •714. 
— ^Experience decreases, 467. 

— Fare collection increases [Manager], c689. 

— Faulty switchboard construction [Best],- 643. 

— Reduced by employees co-operation, 46, 

— Short circuit kinks third rail, 371. 

— Short skirts decrease, 701. 

— Steel cars protection to passengers. [Brinck- 

erhoff), •605, 
— Trail car in Pittsburgh, Pa. 97. 
— Wheel breaks on P. R.R., '89. 
Accounting: 

— British revision, 850. 

— Data for repair shops competition. '533. 
— I. C. C. system, Questions and answers, 

1055. 1099, 1145. 1183. 
— Maintenance costs [Palmer), '715. 
— Purposes of [E. A. W.l. 893. 
Advertising (see also Publicity): 
— Car card, St. Louis contract, 836, 
Africa : 

— South African Railways: 

Tenders asked, 707. 
Air brakes (see Brakes and compressors). 
Akron. Ohio: 

— Goodyear Heights Motor Bus Line: 

History and features of. ^1165; Comments 
on. 1155. 
— Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co.: 

Car house at Massillon. •685. 

Financial plans. 829. 1054. 

Franchise situation. 501. 784. 

Interurban zone fares ^315. 

Publishes effect of valuation on fare. 155 

Service at cost rejected. 416. 

Wage reduction controversy. 867. 906. 
Albany. Ala.: 

— North Alabama Traction Co.: 

Wage reduction. 743. 
Albany, N'. Y.: 
— .Titney situation. 790. 834. 
— United Traction Co.: 

Financial and intercorporate difficulties. 
382. 

Libel suit against newspaper. 503 

Strike. 381. .'!33 375. 502 564. 613 694 

1009. 1050. 
Ten cent fare denied. 344. 
Wage reduction announced. 335. 



Alton. Granite & St. Lou s Traction Co. (sec 
East Si. Louis 111. I. 

American Cities oo. (see New Yoi'k City). 

American Engineering Council (see under Fed- 
erated Amerx'an Engineering Societies). 

American Electric Railway Accountants' Assn.: 

— Committee personnel. 330. 

American Electric Railway Assn.: 

— ^Accounts, Shortage in. 497, 563, 690; Com- 
ments on. 515. 

— Annual convention : 

Exhibit question. Comments on. 668. 711. 
Location, 903; Comments on. 883. 

— Bureau of Information and Service: 
Activities, 93, 333, 457. 497. 
Advertising section. 497, 648. 903; Com- 
ments on, 883. 1138. 

— Bylaws amended, 313. 

— Committee activities : 
Car design. 863. 

Commitee of one hundred. 49. 1093. 

Convention. 690. 

Executive committee, 316. 776. 

Fuel supply. 1046. 

Joint utilit.v. 333. 

Valuation. 608. 
— Committee personnel, 188, 
— Company section activities: 

Camden, N. J., 333, 435. 649, 833; Com- 
ments on, 308, 

Chicago Elevated R.R.. 649. 

Connecticut Co.. 563. 954. '1003. 1046. 

Hampton, Va.. reorganization. 49 
— Gavel presented to P. H. Gadsden. 373. 
— Midwinter convention: 

Address on National finance [Weeks], 371. 

Discussion missed. Comments on, 343. 

Papers, 397, 313, 

Program, 145, 331. 
— National Electric Railwa.v Day. 778. 831. 

863. •951; Comments on. 757. 933. 
— Reorganization, 776; Comments on, 757, 
American Electric Railway Claims Assn.: 
— Annual convention. Subjects, 372. 
— Committee activities: 

Claims statistics. 649. 

Safety, 649, 903. 
— Committee personnel, 230. 

American Electric Railway Engineering Assn.; 

— Committee activities: 

Buildings and Structures, 456, 739, 

Comments on, 114 

Equipment, 147, 648, 904, 1138. 

Executive committee, 457. 

Heavy traction 373 961, ' ' 

Power distribution, 330. _ ■ 

Power generation. 904. ' ' " 

Purcha.se and stores. 831. ' 

Way. 458. 690, 1004. • 

— Committe personnel, 147, 

American Electric Railway .Transportation ^nd 

Traffic Assn.: 
— Committee activities: 

Executive. 649. 

Express & freight traffic promotion. 457. 
Merchandising transportation. 414. 1005. 
Safety. 333, 649, 903. 

Schedule. Economics of, 374, 1138; Com- 
ments on, 800, 
— Committee personnel, 189. 
American Institute of Eleo. Engineers: 
— Chicago section meets with Western Society 

of Engineers. 1173. 
— Connecticut section organized. 833. 
— Midwinter convention: 

Cable rating 401; Comments on, 391, 

Papers. 364. 
American Railway Association: 
— 'Standards. Changes in. 347. 
American Railway Engineering Assn.: 
— Annual convention, 631; Comments on, 583. 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 
— Nominations, 1040. 
Anderson. Ind. : 

— Union Traction Co. of Indiana: 
Air hoist [Hester]. •1134. 
Fare increa.se. 60. 
Fare decrease by tickets. 110.3. 
Interurban service increased, 385, 

Appraisal of railway property: 

— Chicago Elevated Ry,, 341. 

— Company records of property assist. Com- 
ments on. 1067. 

— Connecticut method [Knowlton], '947, •985; 
Comments on, 980, 

— Earning power as basis advocated, 748, 786; 
Comments on, 759. 

— Effect on fare; Akron. O.. 155; General prin- 
ciples [Knowlton], 947. 

— Erie, Pa., 918. 

— Galveston. Texas. 571; [Gillette], c689. 

— Grand Rapids, Mich,, 419. 

— Inventor.v omissions (Van Hagan], 891. 

— Knoxville. Tenn.. 970. 

— Lvnchburg, Va, 913. 

— ^Public Service Ry., Newark. N. J.. 747, 767; 

Comments on, 758; Checking. 1101. 
— New Jersey act. Protested. 94; Amended. 748. 
— New York basis, 786 
— New York State [Brown], 601. 
— Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry.. 971. 
— Present value rejected in Texas, 571, 
— Reading. Pa., 153, 
— Replacement value. 3.31. 
— Richmond value announced 740. 
— St. Louis, 101, 380, 
— St. Paul valuation protested 56, 
— V-iliie of service applied, 767; Comments on, 
758. 



Appraisal of railway property (Continued): 
— Variable pri<.'es of materials. •:v56, 
— Working capital in valuations [Wilcox]. 141. 
Arbitration (see Strikes and Arbitration). 
Arkansas : 

— Home rule adopted. 415 

— Public Service Commission: ' ' 

Abolition controversy, 149, 
— (Taxes of utilities [Public Relations Com,], 

106, 

Arkansas Valley Railroad. Light & Power Co. 

(see Pu<'blo. Col.) 
Ashtabula. Ohio: 
— Ashtabula Rapid Transit Co: 

Municipal ownership urged. 908. 
Ashville. N. C: 
— Ashville Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Fare application dismissed. 970. 
Association of Electric Railway Men: 
— Mansfield, Ohio, meeting, •537; Comments 

on, 581. 
Atlanta, Ga.: 

— Georgia Railway & Power Co.: 

Trucks rebuilt, •944. 

Wages increased. 194 
Attleboro. Mass. : 
— Interstate Consolidated R.R.: 

Car jumps track. ^377. 
Aurora. 111.: 

— Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R,B, : 

Au.'tomatic substation experience [John- 
son], 600. 

Car cleaning by spraying, 1093. 
Avistralia: 

— Transmission material sought 665. 

^Electrification plans, 83; [Zehme], 438: 

[Palme], •644. 
— Vienna railways' difficulties. 1037. 

—Standards, M. C. B. 347. 



B 



Baltimore. Md : ' . " 

— United Railways & Electric Co.: ■ " '. ■ 

Annual report. 1053. 

Budget system [Emmons]. 49. ~ "' 

Bus operation, 1059. , ■ • 

Loading platforms. 845. 

Power to be purchased. 331. 

Safet.v first alphabet. 336. 

Single door safety . car unsatisfactory 
[Palmer], cl005. 
Bangor, Me.: 

— Bangor Ry. & Elee. Co.: 

Annual report. 698. ' 
Bearings (see also Lubrication): 
— Babbitted : 

Press for, ^1136. 

Temperature effect on. 543, 

Uniform thickness obtained. 939. 
— Ball bearings: 

Currents. Pitting caused [Angstrom]. ^941. 

Journal boxes. ^957 

Maintenance [Krouse]. 559. 
— Bi-ass Grinding. •938. 

^-iJigs for, •738. ' ' ■ 

— Motor bearings expanded [Krombach]. •958. 

— ^Oil boxes enlarged. ^861. 

— Soft metal limitations. 89. 

— Stethoscopic inspection. 1090. 

Beaver Valley Traction Co. (see New Brighton. 

Pa.) 
Belgiuni^ 

— Electrification projects. 33. 
— Rehabilitating railwa.vs. 1184. 
Berlin (see under German.v). 
Birmingham. Ala: 

— Birmingham Ry.. Lt. & Pr. Co.: ' 

Fare increase. 60. 104. 

Fare increase sought. 1148. 
— Jitney situation, 876, 1016. 1148. 
Blue Hill Street Ry. (see Boston. Mass.). ' 
Boston, Mass.: 

— Blue Hill Street Ry.: 

Rehabilitation sought. 506. 
— Boston Elevated Ry.: 

Annual report, 197. 430. 

April report, 1056. 

Biennial report, 839; Comments on. .SOI 
Bus operation sought. 610; Granted, 749. 
Carhouse changes. 743. 
Pares affect traffic. 911). 
Fare report. 783. 

Fare decrease in Everett and Maiden. 574. 

750; Medford and Somerville, 833. 1015. 
Fare reductions in suburbs, Comments on, 

1066, 

Library co-operation, 804. 
Schedules and working agreement. 659 
Shops proposed, ^555. 
Storage yard. 1007. 

Storm and fire disastrous. 415. 439. •460. 
513. 

Trusteeship constitutional. 500. 
Trusteeship law investigation. 744, 833. 
908. 1008. 

Trouble wagons and garages [Dana], *4S5, 
Waige reduction plans. 869: Comments on, 
840. 

— Car development in. 689. 

— Doi'chester riipid tr;insit progrnni, .376, .567. 



Abbreviations : *Illu.strate<l. c Communications. 
READ THE INSTRTTCTTONS AT THE BEGTNNINC OF THE INDEX 



IV 



INDEX 



[Vol. 57 



Boston, Mass. (Continued I: 
— Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry. : 
Fare reduction, 1057. 
Pare situation [Storrs]. •14. 
Histor.v of one-man cars [Stearns], 112.5. 
Manajrers transferred. 1188. 
One man cars, S85. 1167: Safety devices 
[Bolt], 117.5: Open cars remodeled, 
•111)7. 

Rii.il bender, •809. '1045. 
Rehabilitating- track. *809. 
Report of eig-hteen montlis. 329. 
Revere seeks fare decrease, 423 
Trusteeship law investlg^ation, 744, 823, 

908. 1008. 
Waffc reduction proposed. 461. 6.54. 742; 

Arbitration. 820 869: Results. 963. 
Wag-e reduction volunteered, 779. 
— Transportation area planned 191. 

Boulder, Col.: 

— Western Light & Power Co.: 
Fare increase. 243. 

Bowline: Green. K.v. : 

— -Railway abandoned. 905. 

Brakes and compressors : 

— Brake rod testing. '1124. 

— Braking power [Murphy], 938. 

— Charting conditions of air-brake equipment 

[Lewis! . *53,5. 
— Electric brakes save in Germany [Engineer], 

cl48. 

— Equalized brake.? [Murphy] . •935, 

— Forces in brake rigging [Murphy]. *nfi. 

•547: Comments on. 1J.'>, 
— Forces on bell cranks [Murphy], •729. 
— Hand brake. New type. 1136. 
— Hand brake riggings [Murphy]. ^351. 
— (Pistol travel and shoe clearance [Murphy]. 

•1119: Comments on 1112. 
— Portable compressor. •130. *14.3 

Brazil : 

— Central Railway to electrify. 891. 
— PauHsta Railway electrification, 35 *8h0: 
[Cooper], ^1075: [Bearce], •1079. 

Bridgeport Conn.; 

— kJitnev hearing. 1179, 

— Bus-Trolley system iiroposed. 510. 

— Transportation report. 384. 

Bridges and ctilverts : 

— Inspectors of bride-cs and buildings. Duties 

of [ George 1. 135 
— Raising 50-ton culvert [Crouse]. '733 

Brill J. G Company: 
— (Annual report. 389. 

Brockton, Mass.: 

— Eastern Massachu.setts Street Rv. Co.: 

Fare situation [Storrsl. "IS." 
— 'Municipal ownership proposed. 501. 

Brooklvn N Y.: 

— Brooklyn City .H.R, : 

Abandons another line 195 

riouble fare approved. 200. 334. 

February report 872. 

Officers re-elected, 15-1. 

Stains described, by Porter. 98. 
— Brooklvn Companies: 

Semi-annual report. 505. 
— Brooklvn Rapid Transit Co. : 

Tlouble fare sustained 877. 

Fare increase proposed. 157. 

Receiversip report. 331. 382. 

Ser\-ice resumed on another line. 830. 

Wage decrease proposed. 1143. 

Zones increased. 573. 
Budget system fsee under Financial!. 
Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co. (see Erie, Pa.) 
Buffalo. N. v.; 
— Buffalo & Depew Ry.: 

Rehabilitation planned. 1100 

Sale authorized. 614. 
— Jnternational Rv. : 

Annua) report 505. 

Co-operative Assn. formed. 907. 

Customs agent's overtime pay bv rail- 
way 157. 

Jan -Mar. report. 1012. 

Reorganization completed 464. 

T^ppair shop layout and practice. •1115. 

Wage reduction, 741. 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific R.R.: 
— Maintenance on. ^217. 



Cable duct. Painting-. •862. 
Cable: 

— Standardization work started. 456 
— Temperature effects [A. I. E E.]. 401- Com- 
ments on 391. 

Calgary. Alberta. Canada: 
— Ca'e-ar.v Municipal Rv : 

History and methods. •887. 

Repair shops, •887. 

California : 

— Attto transportation a utility. 864. 

• — Bus operation by railways opposed 1058 

— Commission forms auto department. 1147. 

— Commission found efficient, 907. 

— Legislative relief for railways proposed. 191. 

— Legislation reviewed 1094. 

— Securities authorized 828. 

— Stag-e regulation. 1187. 

— (Tax increase for utilities proposed. 464: 
Passed, 570. 

California Electric Railway Assn.: 
— Annual meeting. 1090. 



Camden, N. J : 

— Public Service Ry.: 

Co-operation succeeds, ^434: Comments on, 
431. 

Stock to public and employees. 1093. 
• — West Jerae;' & Seashore R.R.: 
Annual report. 54. 

Canada : 

— .Hydro radial plans, 101, 567, 693, 962. 

Canadian Electric Railway Assn.: 

— Annual meeting, 263; Comments on. 294. 

Canadian Railway Club: 
— Montreal meeting-. 403. 

Capital Traction Co. (see Washing-ton. D. C.) 
Car cards (see Publicity and Advertising). 

Car design: 

— London, Features of Metropolitan District 

cars in. ^855. 
— N'ew York Municipal Ry , •lOS?, 
— Prize for ideal not granted in London. 565. 
— Safety car. Discussion on. 127. 309, 370. 489. 

509. 642, 735 850, 961. 1005. 1092: 

Comments on. 477. 
— Steel cars for safety of passeng:ers [Brincker- 

hoft], ^605. 
— ^Steep grades in San Francisco. •229. 
— iSubway cars for London. ^441. 

Carhouses and storage yards: 

— Automatic equipment. Comments on possible 

future, 69, 
— Boston carhou.ses. 743. 
— ^Boston. Storage yard. 1007. 
— Massilon carhouse. •685. 



(see Raleigh. 



Co. converts old 



Ark.. •1133. 



Carolina Power & Light Co. 
N. C.) 

Cars (see also Car design) : 

— (Color. Value of. ^558. 

— Construction. M. C. B. Standards. 347 

— Development in Boston. 689. 

— Hudson & Manhattan R.R.. •lOSO. 

— One-man (see also Cars. Safety) : 

Advantages and disadvantages [N. Y. E. 
R. A I. 641. 1125. 

Connecticut Co. remodels single truck cars. 
•956. 

Crossing regulations in Mass.. 106. 617 
Davenport. la . 1142 

Eastern Mass. Street Ry., 385, 1167: Safety 

devices [Bolt], 1175. 
Hartford approves. 915. 
History of. in Mass, [Stearnsl. 1125. 
Interurban service with [Dehore]. ^982: 

Comments on. 979. 
Madison design. 679. 
Massachusetts approves, 916. 
Operation desirable [Howard] 647. 
Opposed in Massachusetts. 505: Missouri. 

325: Pennsylvania, 610: California. 

1058. 

Rear exit double truck. •OlO. 
Remodeling cars for ^361: [Chalmers], 

1126: Boston. Mass., ^1167. 
Remodeling. Comments on factors affecting. 

925. 

Sacramento. Cal.. 653. 1058. 

Success in Wisconsin. 645. 

Svracuse. N Y.. 661. 

Washington. D. C. 783. 

Washington Water Pr. 
types to 386. 

Youjigstown. Ohio. 106. 
— Rebuilding in Little Rock. 
— -Rebuilding in Rochester. N. Y., •994. Com- 
ments on. 1024. 
— Rebuilding versus replacement. Comments on 

1024. 

— Rebuilt cars in Winnipeg. Can, •.398. 
— 'Remodeling for one man operation. Comments 
on. 925. 

— Safety (see also Cars, One-man): 
Ball bearing journal boxes ^957 
Boosting in Los Angeles. Cal.. ^815. 
Canadian construction. 370. 
Chicago, 111.. 418. 

Design changes suggested *127. *489. 509: 
[N. Y. E. R. A".]. 642: [Krou.se], c961; 
[Palmer]. cl005: Comments on. 477. 
^development of [Burke]. 1129 
Discussed by N. E. Rv. Club. 374, 
Ligiht weight advantageous [HeuTings]. 
c369. 

Longitudinal seats tried 509 

Madison. Wis.. ^489: Comments on, 477. 

Mechanical sander •366, ^687. 

Name objected to [Arnold]. 646. 

Progress of fBrown]. 177. 

■Res'ilts fn Waukegan. 111,. 174. 

^'^view of changes in design. *127. 

Sis-nal tail lights, ^899. 

Standard t-ype endors'^d [Heulings], c369. 

850: [Thirlwalll. 735: [Gove], c1 092 
Successful in Levis Countv fWevman] 266. 
Successful in Kokomo [Dehore]. 179. 
Success, Reasons for [^'f-^'^unel , 26.5. 
Trains vs. safety cars. 173. 
Two doors versus one door. 370. •489: 
rPalmerl. cl005: [Walker]. cll72: 
Comments on. 477. 
— Statistics of purchases. 37. 
— Three truck, two man train [Wayl 'ISl, 
— Trailer cars in Washington. D. C. •lOS. 
— 'Trailers in New Jersey. '319. 
— Train operation in Kansas Citv Mo.. 813. 
— Trains for interurban road. *1026. 
— Switzerland, New motor cars and trailers. 



370. 

-United Railroads 



•1174. 



Cartoons (see Publicity, Car cards and posters 1. 
Cash wagon in Memphis, •1043. 

Cedar Falls. Iowa : 

— Waterloo. Cedar Falls & Northern Ry.: 
Fare controvers.v. 1148. 



Central Electric Railway Accountants Assn.: 
— Annual meeting-, 373. 

Central Electric Railway Assn.: 
— Annual meeting. 465. 
— Committees. 863. 

— Future of: Comments on. 431. 446 
— Summer meeting: 

Poster. ^1043. 

Program, 1097, 1143, 

Charlotte, N. C: 

— Southern Public Utilities Co.: 

Rock crusher economical, •950. 

Charlottsville, Va.: 
— Charlottsville & Albermarle Ry.: 
Annual report, ^657. 

Chattanooga, Tenn.: 

— -Chattanooga Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Painting thoroughly pays, 9.34. 

Provision for double tracks. 954. 

Signal maintenance. .562. 

Washing cars with air and water. •9.59. 

Chesapeake-Western .Railway: 
— Gasoline motor car, '407. 

Chicago. 111.: 

— ^City-railway controversy. 152. 278. 418 908. 
— Chicago Elevated Ry. : 

Fare made permanent. 241. 

Fare situation [Storrsl. ^13. 

Leather mats on composition floors. *.521. 

Report for 1913-1920. 241. 

Securities. 241. 

Third rail gaging device [Burnham]. *559. 

Traffic checks [Feron]. 592. 
■ — Chicago Motoi- Bus Co : 

Reorganization completed. 419. 
— Chicago Surface Lines: 

Fare situation [Storrsl. ^13. 

Franchises cancelled, 322. 

New color for cars Reasons, ^558. 

Repair shop economies. ^927. 

Safety cars adopted. 418. 

Scrvii-e order 156. 

Wheels. Testing for flange contour. •714. 
— Pavement costs. 440. 
— -Northwestern Elevated Railroad: 

St. Paul R.R. electrifica:ion. ^637. 

Short circuit kinks third rail. 371 . 
— Standard Gas & Elec. Co.: 

Annual report. 422. 

Customer-ownership securities. 28.3. 
— Traction committee report, 150; Comments 

on. 167. 

— Traffic control proposed, 701. 

— Transportation district plans. 150. 238. 609. 

742. 1142: Comments on, 167: Defeated. 

1179. 

Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul R.R.: 

— Deer Lodge Shop practice. '5S3. 

— Locomotive illustrated ^739. 

— Rail bonding. Air-operated drilling, •186. 

— Snow fighting [Sears], 138. 

Cincinnati & Dayton Tr, Co. (see Hamilton. 
Ohio I . 

Cincinnati. Ohio: 

— ^Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tr. Co.; 

Bondholders status. 828. 
— 'Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

Bond issue proposed, 102. 

Budget plan [Culkins], c48. 

Credit from Cincinnati Street Ry.. 1100. 

Directorate changes. 614. 

Fare ituation [Storrs]. •ll: 157. 385, 427. 
467, 791, 1057, 1104, 1148, 1186. 

Financial reorganization. 504. 968. 

Franchise revision plans, 1139, 1186. 

Jan. -Apr. report. 968. 

Improvements required. 1057. 

Power plant men strike, 1052, 1178. 

Service at cost explained, 423; Attacked, 
692. 

Wage reduction. 1006. 
— Director resigns. 704. 

— Cincinnati. Milford & Blanchester Tr. Co.: 

One man cars for interurban service. [De- 
hore]. ^982: Comments on. 979. 
— Service in [Culkins]. c322. 
Cities' Service Co. (see New York City). 

Citizens Traction Co. (see Oil City. Pa.): 
Cleaner. Light portable suction. ^142. 

Cleveland. Ohio: 

— Cleveland. Columbus & Southwestern Ry.: 

Officers elected. 283. 

Wage reduction announced. 825. 
— Cleveland Railway: 

Annual report, 569. 

Fare situation [Storrs]. ^14. 

Financial plans, 193, 2.39. 465. 

Lakewood fare controversy, •200, 617, 701 

March report. 873. 

Salaries reduced 194, 279. 

Service decreased, 510. 

Track construction costs [Clark]. 554. 

Wage reductions for track laborers, 97; 
Comments on, 165. 

Wage reduction proposed. 280. 694. 743: 
In effect. 779: Comments on, 761. 
— Interurban's fare increased. 573. 
— Service at cost franchise amended [N"ashl.28. 

Cleveland Painesville & Eastern R.R. Co. (see 

Willoughby. Ohio). 
Coal (see Fuels). 

Columbus. Ohio : 

— ^Columbus Railway, Power & Light Co.: 

Franchise readjustment. Bill for. 238. 657. 
Increased fare continued. 700. 749. 
Interurban purchase suggested. 331 
Suit for mismanagement. 828. 1012. 
Wage scale cQptinued, 740. 



Abbreviations : *Illustrated. c Communications. 
READ THE INSTRITCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



January -June, 1921] 



INDEX 



V 



Committees' fmietioiis. Comments on defining, 
1113. 

Commoiiweiilth Pr. Ry. & Lt. Co. (see Grand 

Rapids. Mich.). 
Community Tiaetion Co. (see Toledo. Ohio). 
Concrete. Cold weather practice, 144. 

Connecticut : 

— Jitney regulation, '.M'l. 1103. 

— ^Legislation urged by Commission. 95; Com- 
menis on. ii4; Enacied. 1141. 

— One man cars opposed by labor. 563. 

— iPublic Utilities Commission, History and 
lunctioii, ''ilO. 

— Railway ojierating buses proposed. 59; Per- 
mitted, 1102. 

— Relief urged u./ governor, 96; Enacted, 1141. 

— Tax payment plan proposed, 964. 

— Valuation o£ railways in iKnowlton], *947, 
•985; Comments on, 980. 

Connecticut Co. (see New Haven, Conn.). 
Controllers and wiring: 

— Broached shafts. Steel sleeves for, *738 
— <Remodeling for one man operation, *956. 
— Trackless trolley controller. 'IISS. 
Cooperstown. N. Y.: 

— Southern New York Pr. & Ry. Corp.: 

Wages decreased. 1140. 

Copper (see under Metals). 
Couplers and butiipers : 

— lAutomatic coupler, 555. 

Creosote (see under Power distribution, Poles) 
Cuba : 

— Havana Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co. purchases power 

equipment, 1168. 
— Hershey Cuban Railway electrification. 35. 

Culverts (see Bridges and culverts). 
Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co. (see Portland. 
Me. I . 

Cumberland Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Raleigh. N C). 

Current collection : 
— Third rail: 

Gaging device for [Burnham], *559. 
— Trackless trolley system, •1158. 



D 

Dallas. Texas: 

- — Dallas Railway: 

Annual report. 380. 

Bonus plan abandoned. 118(i. 

Children's day at the State Fair. *0'3. 

Fare situation, 468. 76'2, 1016, 1186. 

Guide booklet for trainmen. 410. 

Reclaiming special trackworic. 861. 

Report for 38 months. 196. 

Service at cost proposed. 196. 233, 1051. 
— ^Forfeit bond for intcrurbans refused. 236 
— Service at cost franchise amended [Naslii. 28. 

Davenport. Iowa : 

— City-railway controversy. 286, 509. 654. 742. 
1142. 

— Jitney situation. 286. 790. 
— .Tri City Railway: 

Fare increase sought. 750. 

One-man cars planned. 1142. 

Politics force fare case to court. 509. 

Wage controversy, 654. 742. 779. 1142. 

Union controversy, 742. 779. 

Dayton. Ohio: 

— Dayton. Springfield & Xeiiia Ry.: 

Car insurance. 691. 
- — Railways losing, 913. 

Denver. Col.: 

— Denver Tramways : 

Bondholders organizing, 785. 

Fare controversy. 387. 468. 573. 

Receiver named. 56. 

Reorganizing after strike. 683. 
— Service at cost rejected [Kash] 26. 
Depreciation (see Anjiraisal of railway property) . 

Des Moines. Iowa : 

— Cit.v-railway controversy. 1049 1096. 
— Des Moines City Ry : 

Arbitration of wages. 1094. 

Automatic substations in electrolysis miti- 
gation [Shepardl. *805. 

Equipment seized for payment. 969. 1096. 

Fare increase insufficient. 467. 

Service reduced. 104 9 
— Jitney situation 833. 1096 
— Service at cost franchise amended [Nash]. 29. 

Detroit. Mich.: 

— City-railway controversy. 50. .51. 97, 151. 

325. 377. 378. 462. 500. 653. 743. 1139. 
— Detroit Motorbus Co.: 

Report and methods ^765. 
- — Detroit Municipal Street Railway: 

Bonds disposed of. 1182. 

Expen.ses charged to other departments. 
1182. 

Extensions continue. 326. 783. 
March report. 699. 

Municipal ownership precedent. Comments 

on. 1111. 
Service to start 152: Started. 277. 
Purchase of D. U. R. lines proposed. 462. 
Piirch,Tsc of uncompleted track. .564. 
— Detroit United Railway: 

Administrative committee in charge, ]09t. 
Dav to dav lines controversy. 780. 965. 

1094. 11.39. 
Fare reduction proposed. 971. 1102 1139. 
Port Huron fare increase denied. 970. 
Service at cost proposed 192. 2.38. 415. 

612. 653: Defeated. 653. 743. 
Stock dividend. 1012. 

Wage reduction situation 52. 94. 236 149 
779. 82:i 808 905; Agreement. 965. 
— Jitne.v situation. 1148. 



Dubuque, Iowa : 

— Dubuque Electric Co.: 

Fare reduction, 1102. 

Wage reduction. 1102. 

Duluth. Minn.: 

— City-railway controversy, 287. 
— Duluth Street Railway : 

Fare controversy, 59. 105. 

Franchise changes. 866. 

Improvement pi'ogram, 1095. 

Securities stolen, 325. 

Service at cost considered, 609. 



E 



Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry. (see Boston. 

Mass.. and Brockton. Mass. ) . 
Eastern Pennsylvania Rys. (see Pottsville, Pa.). 
Easton. Pa.: 

— ^Northhampton Traction Co.: 
Foreclosure sale. 1100. 

East St. Louis, 111.: 

— Alton Granite & St. Louis Tr. Co.: 

Improvement appropriation, 1009. 
— East St. Louis Railway: 

Annual report, 657. 

Increased fare made permanent 156. 
— East St. Louis & Suburban Ry.: 

Annual report. 698. 

Fare rate upheld. 833. 

Insurance rates reduced, ^397. 

Wage reduction. 907. 
— St Louis & East St. Louis Elec. Ry.: 

Tax suit lost. 910. 

Electrification (see Heavy electric traction). 
Electrolysis : 

— Automatic substation in mitigation [Shep- 
ardl. '805. 

Currents. Effect on ball bearing.s [Ang- 
strom]. ^941. 
— Legal phases referred to 1001. 
— Mitigation by three- wire system [Smith]. 

•584; Comments on. 581. 

Emplo.vees (see also Labor, Strikes and Ar- 
bitrations, Wages) : 

— Accidents reduced by co-operation, 46. 

— Advice for advancement. 909. 

— Apprenticeship system. 686. 

— Attitude towards work. Comments on. 582. 

— Conductors opportunit.v to Improve public 
relations. Comments on. 07. 

— Car operation from motorman's standpoint 
[Johnson], c413. 

— Co-operative Assn.. Buffalo. N. Y.. 907. 

— Co-operation campaign Beaver Valle.v. Pa.. 
•221: [Boyce]. •lOSS. ^1162. 

— Courtcs.v essential of serv;ee. 816. 

— Educating. 594. 

— Educating for courtes,v. Comments on. 1113. 
— Education of linemen [Bleeh]. 591. 593. 
— Efficiency in shop. Comments on. 709. 
— Employment organization. Comments on. 710 
— Electric railways not under Railroad Labor 
Board. 80. 

— Emplo.vment bureau and instruction at 

Camden. N. J.. 435. 
— Fare changes affect morale. Comments on. 

1024. 

— Follow up work discussed, 590. 
— Hours increased voluntarily. 151 ; Comments 
on. 166. 

— Inspector's instructions Camden N. .7.. 4.37. 
— Intensive training of after strike. 683. 
— Labor efficiency points, 238. 
— Labor supply on Pacific Coast. 61 1 . 
— Linemen, training of [Blechl, 591. 593. 
— Ma.ster mechanic's efBcienc.v, *1041. 
— ^Periodical re-examination^ Comments on, 
840 

— Portable instruction board. •1176, 

— .Railroa(3 labor board reduces wao-ns. 1094, 

— Responsibility [Atkinson]. e691 : [Ark- 

wright]. 771; Comments on. 800 
— Thrift. Comments on advantages. 253. 
— Women for conductors and ticket agents. 64.3, 

79.3; Comments on eliminating. 9.S0. 

Energy cheeking devices: 

— Favored bv N. E, Rv, Club. 374. 

— ^Saving on P. R, T.. '355. 

Energ.v consumption : 

— Sup'^rpower zone estim.ates *9.5.5. 

— Trailers ver.sus motor cars. 168. 

Engineers : 

— Advice to [Hedleyl. 930; Comments on. 801. 
— Association advantages. Comments on. 1025, 
— British engineers to be honored. 814. 
— Condemnation proceedings. Problems in 

[Hartel, ♦851 
. — Conservation advocated. Comments on. 2. 
— Electric railways need. Cfimments on 68, 165. 

1023; [Lambcrtl, di ;1- 
— 'Equipment engineers. Comments on function 

of. 517. 
— Greatest living, 765. 

— Opinions unpreiiidiced. '"'omments on, 295, 
— Training for railways. Comments on. 801. 

England (see Great Britain). 

Erie Pa.: 

— Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co.: 
Valuation announced. 913. 

Evansvlllc. Ind. ; 

— Evansville & Ohio Valley Rv.: 

Rockport service curt.'iilcd. 328 

— Southern Indiana Gas & Elec. Lt. Co.: 
City-railwa.v controversy. 693. 



Everett. Wash.; 

— Interurban Motors Co.: 

Limited bus service. 1059. 

Express (see Freight and express). 
Extension paid for by manuiaclurcr. 1168. 



F 



Fairmount. W. Va.: 

— Monongahela Power & Railway Co.: 

Siocu issue lo piibin.'. j.oli. 1144. 
— Monongahela Valley Traction Co.: 

Annual report. 872. 

Cotirtesy advocated. 618. 

Locomotive characteristics. •901. 

Name ciianged, 910. 

Fare collection (see also Tickets ,iiid tokens): 

— Affects accidents [Manager], c689. 

— Automatic registers for B. R T. 368. 

— Change maker, New universal, 88. 

— Exiict fare publicity. 1015. 

— N'ew coin would increase expense. Comments 

on, 342. 
— ^Pay-leave, Comments on. 113. 
— Pay-leave plan proposed in Providence. 424. 
— ^Ticket sales. Increasing [Crall]. 494. 
— Zone system on Akron intcrurbans *215. 
— Zone s.vstem on one man interurban cars 

[Dehore]. *982. 

Fare decreases; 

— Boston Elevated Ry.. 574. 

— Dubuque, Iowa, 1102. 

— ^Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry., 1057. 

— Effect of in Toledo, 323. 

— EvereU, Mass . 750. 

— Glasgow. 875. 

— Indianapolis, Ind., 1058, 1102. 

— Keokuk. la.. 915. 

— Maiden. Mass. 750. 

— Medford. Mass.. 832. 1015. 

— (Proposed for ; 

Detroit. Mich.. 971 1102 118,, 

Fort Wavne. Ind., 972. 

Fort Worth. Tex.. 384. 

Revere. Mass.. 423 
— Somerville. Mass.. lOlB. 
— Union Traction Co.. 1103. 

Fare increases; 

— Albany N. Y.. 244. 

— Bamberger Elec. R.R.. 791. 

— Birmingham. Ala.. 60. 104. 

— Boulder. Col. 243. 

— Brooklyn. N. Y.. 200. 573 

— ^Cleveland. Intcrurbans In. 573. 

— Denver. Col.. 537. 

— East St. Louis. 111.. Permanent. iS«. 

— Effect of (see under Fares). 

— ^History of [Storrs]. •ll. 

— Indianapolis. Ind.. 59. 789. 

— Ithaca. N. Y.. 618. 

— Jacksonville. Fla.. 157, 423 

— Lakewood. Ohio. 617. 

— Los Angeles. Cal.. 1058 1103. 

— ^Louisville. Ky.. 386. 424. 

— New Jersey. Fast line. 1014. 

— New York. Westchester & Boston Ry.. 333. 

— Norfolk Va.. 1058. 

— Pensacola, Fla.. 157. 

— 'Peoria. 111., 200. 

— Poughkeepsie N. Y . 791. 

— Publicity aids. 914. 

— Salt Lake & Utah R R.. 659. 

— ^San Antonio. Tex.. 750. 

— Santa Cruz. Cal.. 156. 

— Seattle, Wa.sh.. 58. 

— Statistics of. 287. 

— Syracuse. N. Y.. 789. 

— Trenton. N. J., 1185. 

— Union Traction Co. of Indiana, fto 

— ^Vienna. Austria. 1038. 

— Voluntary in Lakewood. Ohio. 617. , 

— Worcester. Mass.. .384. 

Fare inerea!i;\s denied: | 

— Albany, N. V 244 

— (Cincinnati Ohio. 467 791. 

— 'Dallas. Texas 1016. 

— .Tersey Central Traction Co.. 971. 

— Louisville Kv.. 244. ' 

— Newark. N, J , 1015, 

— ^Port Huron, Mich.. 970. 

— ^Raleigh. N C, 243. 

— Trenton. N, J,. 964. 1185. 

— Wa.shington. D. C. 104. 

Fare increases sought: 

— Birmingham. Ala.. 1148. 

— Brooklvn N. Y. 157 

— D.allas. Texas. 468 792. 

— ^Davenport, la.. 750. 

— Denver. Col, 386 468. 

— 'Galveston. Texas. 970. 

— Indianapolis. Ind.. 574 

— Knoxville, Tenn., 157. 

— Lafavette. Ind 469. 

— Montgomery. Ala.. 1014 

— New Jersey 791. H"'-, 917 1147 

— Richmond. Va.. 1187. 

— St. Louis. Mo,, 1049 

— San Jose. Cal.. 105. 

— Spokane. Wash.. 105 616 618 790 

— 'Trenton. N. J.. 751, 916. 

— Trenton N. J,. N. J & Penn , Tr, Co.. 10l>8. 
— Worcester. Mass.. 244. 

Fares: 

— Boston situation, 782. 
— Cedar Falls. la., situation. 1148. 
— Changes affect conductors' morale, Commeiitu 
on. 1024. 

— Cincinnati. Ohio, situation TStor"-sl 157 
385. 427. 467. 791, 1057. 1104.' 114S ' ' 

— Citv franchise cannot limit fare. 750- Com- 
ments on. 709. 7(J1 ; Cited. 792. 



Abbreviations: '"Illustrated, c Communications. 
RE.A.D THE TNRTRTJCTTON.S AT THE BEGINNTNG OF THE INDEX" 



VI 



INDEX 



[Vol. 57 



Fares (Continued ) : 

— Confiscatory franchise rate not upheld. 790. 
— Depreciation allowance. Comments on. 801. 
— Effect of : 

Beaver Valley Tr. Co., •670. 

Boston, Mass,, 916, 

Five cent. •670: Comments on. GOT 

Louisville. Ky.. 968. 

Short haul traffic [Roberts], •SOti. 9.55. 
Philadelphia, Pa., 103. 
Toledo, Ohio. 333. 
Traffic. •895: Comments on, '294. 
Valuation, 155: [Knowlton], 947. 
Washing^ton. D. C. 383. 
— Emergency fare denied. New Jersey, 904, 
1015. 

— E::'ess charge for cash on interurbans dis- 
cussed by C. E. R. A.. 448 

— factors determining: [Saw.yer). 677. 

— Five cent fare compared, 837. 

— 'Five cent. Effect of, ♦670: Comments on. 667. 

— Five cent fare for short rides. Comments on, 
1006. 

— Flat fares iireferred. 834. 
— Free rides sug-g-ested, 58. 

— Industrial depression. Comments on effect of. 
351. 

— ^lowa "two cent" law confiscatory, 104. 

— Intrastate fares adjusted by I. C. C. 789: 

Attacked, 973 
— Map showing- status Jan,, 1931 [Storrs] •lO. 
— Methods in the U. S. [Storrs]. '11. 
— New York City fares. Comments fill. 
— Pcrm;inerit rate soug"ht, Omaha, Neb., 971. 
— Phil.ulclphi.t Analysis of. 507. 
— Rates in Anicrii'an i:'ities. Comments on, 636. 
— Rffercridum Icfality auestioned 467. 
— ^-Reviewed [Gad,sden]. 315. 
— Telephone competition. 673. 
— Tendencies. Comments on. 1. 
— Tokens or sinple coin. Comments on 637 
— 'Valuation and operatijiiT expenses affect 

[Knowlton]. 947: Comments on. 980. 
— Weekly passes. 343, 646. 
— Wisconsin lower than avrraffe, 199. 
— Zone systems [Storrs], *11. 
— Zone system in San Diejo. Cal., 875. 

Federated American Engineering Societies: 
— American Engineering' Council : 
December meeting-, 36. 

Industrial waste elimination. 630, 1091: 
Comments on 637. 1066. 

Syraetise meeting-. 36.5. 
— Headciuarters established. 685. 
— Hoover resigns. 778. 



Federal Electric Railways Commission Report: 
— Comments on by Commissioners [Sweet], 171: 

[Wehlel. 357: rMahon].317: [Beall].487. 
— Distribution of. 778. 
— (Endorsement by A. E. R. A.: 

Discussion on. 334, 371. 

Proposed [Gadsden]. 146: Comments on. 
308 353 

Resolutions. .314: Comments on. 343 
— Quotations from 5 69. 115. 167. 309, 353. 
396 343 393 433 477. r)17. 583. 637. 
669, 711 761 801 841, 585, 935, 981, 
1035, 1067." 1113, 1157. 

Feeders (see Cables and Powr Distribut -on I . 
Fifth Ave. Coach Co. I see New York City I . 
Files, Acid sharpening:. 367 

Fi'inneial : 

— Bonds. Municipal vs. private. 589. 
— Budget system : 

Apportioning of. Comments on. 885. 

Baltimore, Md., plan, 49. 

Cincinnati i^lan [Culkijis] c48. 
' Rochester & Syracuse R.R. [Grouse]. '802: 

Comments on, 799. 
— California .aecurities authorized, 838, 
— Capital must be attracted [Cooper], c413. 
— Cleveland Railway plans. 193. 339. 465. 
— Ciimparison of surface and rapid transit 

operation. 1053. 
— Credit of railways growing. 746 
— C"stomer ownership securities: 

Interstate Public Service Co.. 6.57. 

Bvllesby Co., 383. 

Camden, N. J. 1093. 

Fai'rmonnt. W Vn foil, n'- 

Local financing [Way] 
on. 393. 
; New Jersey, 1056. 
' Portland Ore,, 505, 615 
, — -r-.onrec'ation allowances, 456. 

Tiiffipuities due to regulation [Gadsden]. 137. 

— Eouipment trust bonds offered. 154. 
_ "^-tonsion pa-d for by mT-"if act'-rer l)hs. 
Factors affecting credit [Gadsden, by Bozell]. 

Federal ElectrV Railway Commission Report 

[Beam. 487. 
— Foreclosure statistics. 4.3 

— German difficulties 413 „ „ rr. 

— Imnrovements from earnings on P. K. 1.. 
1,177. 

— Internation Ry. reorganized 464. 

Investors. Comments on small 165. 

Keene N. H. Re.'anitali7ation plans 

— Limitations of utiliMes IHnrlev]. 85' 

iLosses to be amortized m Tennessee 

Milwaukee, Wis.. Stock increase 1100 

Mortgage bonds for railways 4;Shrader] 

Comments on. 393 
— Municipal aid suggested [Traylor]. 

Comments on. 393 

^iition's problems [Weeks] 371 

Northern Ohio Tr. & LI. Co. plans 839. 

— n.itiook for future opiomtstic, 173. 
— Parsimony, Comments on limit of 635. p., 
— (Bailwav matnrities in 1931 101. _ 
— Railwav problem ' discussed, 397: Comments 

on 293 „„„ 
— Railway. History of [Fogarty], 398. 



304: Comments 



463. 

5. 
301: 
307: 



Financial (Continued) : 

— Railways compared with other business 

[Gadsden], 315. 
— Readjustment of securities [Cobb]. 373. 
— Receiverships : 

Maumee Valley Ry. & Lt. Co., 100. 

Ohio Electric Ry . 340. 431. 

South Carolina Lt.. Pr. & Rys., 465. 

Statistics. 43, 

Toledo & Western R.R„ 101. 
— 'Refunding problem Comments on. 69. 
— Reports indicate improvement. Camments on. 

934. 

— Scrip dividend by Cities' Service Co.. 1183. 

— ^Seattle's situation. 194. 

— Securities market. Planning. 1098. 

— Stability of railways [Todd], 445. 

— Stabilizing, Comments on. 3. 

— Stock issue advantageous [Corey], 306: 

Comments on, 393. 
— Surety bonds. Avoiding transfer of. 770. 
— Taxation (see Taxes) 

— Thrift campaign for employees. Comments on. 
353. 

— Thrift campaign should aid utilities. Com 

ments on ll3. 
— Transportation affects real estate. 567. 
— ^United Electric Rys.. 381. 
— TTiiited Railroads plan reorganization. .55. 
— 'Working capital in valuations [Wilcox]. 141. 

Findlav Ohio: 

— Toledo Bowling Green & Southern Traction 
Co.: 

Service at cost in effect 834: Upheld, 1006 
Fire insurance (see also Insurance): 
— Railway losses in 1930. 

Flooring : 

— Leather mats on composition floor. *531. 
Florida^: 

— Municipal road praised 1050 

— Utility commission bill opposed, 835, 

Fonda. Johnstown 4 Glovei-sville R R. (see 
Glovers-ville, N. Y.) . 

Fort Wayne. Ind : 

— Cost-plus system proposed. 833, 

— Indiana Service Corp.: 

Fare controversy. 915. 973. 

Interurban s<*rv''^o ipcvo^i^e^j 385. 

Track construction. '688. 

Foi-t Worth, Texas: 
— Northern Texas Traction Co.: 
Fare controversy. 199. 384. 
France : 

— Atiprenticeship system. 686. 
— Electrification projects. 33. 833. 
— Paris franchise. 847: Comments on 840. 
— Railwa.v development and plans [Dobson & 
Wynne]. 1069. 

Franchises (see also Service at cost): 
— Charter change sought by British CoUinibi.-i 

Electric Ry.. 380. 
— Cincinnati. Ohio, plans. 1139, 1186. 
— Contract differentiated. 750: Comments on. 
709. 

— 'Clearness of. Comments on. 667. 
— Columbus abrogation unlikely, 657. 
— Indiana indeterminate bill. 565 
— Indianapolis Street Rv sv-r^nders. ll-il 
— Paris. Incentives in 847: Comments on, 840. 
— Perpetual Terminating proposed for Colum- 
bus. O.. 338. 
— Principles outlined, 503. 740. 
— Revision poss'bi'5*'es [Barhitel. 1137: Com- 
ments on. 115.5. 

Freight and express: 
— Container system : 

Advantages [Bonner], 319. 
Economics by [Wenn], 330. 
N. Y. Central R.R.. 904. 
— Co-operation necessary, '763: Comments on. 
757. 

— Discussion by C. E. R. A., 448 
— ^Farmers indorse railway. Comments on. 395. 
— Freight railway for New York proposed, 

— 'Interurban possibilities. Comments on 4. 
— Merchandise traffic on C. N. S. & M. R.R.. 
396. 

— ^Motor truck vs. railwa.ys [Titcombl. 81: 
(N. Y. E R. A.]. 641: Comments on. 581. 
— Selling service. Discussion [N. Y. E. R. A.]. 
640. 

— Terminal in Erie, Pa., *141. 
— Terminal for T H. I. & E T. Co. •1171, 
— Terminal proposed for Indianapolis. .33.3. 556. 

971. 
Fuel: 

— Coal (see a'so Market conditions) : 
Control of proposed. 348. 
Demand. Comments on factors affecting. 
933. 

T'egulation sought. 16.3. 
Superpower zone use, 9.5.5. 
Supply and demand, 1046. 
Uniformitv of demand desired. Comments 
on. 933. 



Galveston. Texas: 
— Ga've.ston Electric Co : 

T^cro increase sought 970. 
Valuation 571: [Gillette]. c689. 



General Electric Co.: 
— 'Annual report. 707. 

Georgia Ry. & Power Co. (see Atlanta, Ga,). 
Germany: 

— Electrification of railroads [Zehme]. 438. 

— Experimental drive for rapid transit. •858. 

— Guard rail. Renewable lip for, •404, 

— Industrial socialization, 313. 

— 'Railway development improving [Dobson & 

Wynne]. 1069. 
— Railway financial difficulties. 413. 
— ^Tokens of various materials. 143. 
— Trackless trolleys in, 849. 

Grand Rapids, Mich : 

— Commonwealth Pr.. Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Annual report. 698. 
— Grand Rapids Ry: 

January report, 433, 

Service at cost trial, 335, 

Valuation completed. 419. 

Wage reduction. 909. 

Grand Trunk Railway: 

— Electrification London to Wingham proposed. 
459. 

Great Britain ; 

— Edinburgh tower wagon, '861, 

— Electrification reviewed. 31. 773; [Dobson 

& Wynne]. 1069. 
— Glasgow fares reduced. 875. 
— Labor situalion. 498, 650, 1048. 
— Letters from. 50. 376. 498. 650 865. 1048. 

— London : 

London Count.v Couni'il: 

Car prize not granted 56.5. 
Co-operates with Omnibus Co., 575. 
London General Omnibus Co.: 
Illustrated booklets. *337. 
Large capacity bus, 408: Comments on, 
.391. 

Metropolitan District Ry. car equipment. 
•855. 

Motor buses. Comments on. 760. 
London Underground illec. Rys.: 

Organization. ^679. 

Posters, ^19. •90, •337. "817. 
Safety publicity •411. 
Subway cars. New designs. *441. 
Work shops. 695. 
— Trackless trolleys in, '77. 444. 778. 865. 
1161 . 

— 'Wage inquiry. 498: Court. 650. 
Greenville. Texas : 
— Trackless trolley proposed. 



781. 



Gloversville. N. Y.: 

— Fonda. Johnstown & Gloversville R.R. 

Wage reduction, 1008. 
Green Ba.v, Wis,: 
— Wisconsin Public Service Co.: 

Relief from paving favored. 499. 
creensboro, N. C: 

— ^Novth Carolina Public S rvice Co.: 

Suspension proposed 1098. 
Grounding block. Magiietie 1045. 



H 



r-a ges : 

'Boston Elevated Ry. 



and pinions: 
■on puller, •1039. 



[Danal. '484. 



Hamilton, Ohio: 

— Cincinnati & Dayton Tr, Co.: 
Wages decreased, 1178, 

Hartford Conn.: 

— Jitney situation. 10.5. 

— One man cars approved. 915. 

Heaters : 

— Coil winding machine, *1040. 

Heavy electric traction (s"e also Locomotives) : 
— Advantages of electrification: 

American and foreign Comments on. 476. 

N E. L. A. Com., 1086. 

Norfolk & Western [A. R. E. A.]. 631. 

Providence engineers discuss. 734. 
— "American Committee" proposed to study. 

Comments on. 393: [Sprague]. 1084: Com- 
ments on. 1065. 
— Austrian locomotive rpalme], •644. 
— Austria ]ilans electrification, 8.3. 
— ^Brazil : 

Central Railway. 891. 

Paulista Railway, '859: [Cooper] •1075: 
[Bearce]. '1079. 
— British situation 773. 

— Direct current 3000-volt in Brazil [Cooper]. 

•1075: [Bearce]. 1079. 
— Direct current. 4000-volt iti Italy [Dobson 

& Wynne] ^1069. 
— Economic necessity [Armstrong] 453. 
— Electrification commission proposed 

[Sprague]. 1084: Comm-n's on 393 106.=; 
— 'Electrification in Central Europe [Zehme]. 

438 

— Electrification in Quebec Can., urged. 444. 
— European development [Dobson & Wynne]. 
•1069. 

— Foreign nroiects reviewed, .31. 
— France. Progress, 833. 

— Grand Trunk Ry., Electriflca"on or portion 

proposed. 459. 
— Inductive interference, Eliminating 'A R. E. 

A.]. 6.33. 

— Italian comtnission to inspect American. 566. 
783. 

— ^Maintenance on B. A. & P.. *317 
— Proposed for Staten Island lines. 233. 
— St. Paul R.R. electriflcat-on near Chicago. 
•637. 

— Swiss locomotives. '725. 



Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Communicatior^.s. 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



January-June, 1921 J 



INDEX 



VII 



Highways: 

— Fees for service advocated [Bennett], 1043. 
High wood. III. : 

— Chicaero, North Sliore & Milwaukee R.B. : 
Annual report, 911. 
Automatic substations [Jones], •.595. 
Courtesy a requisite, 816. 
Merchandise traffic rules. 396 
Record outlined. 783. 
Safety cars in Waukeffan. 111.. 174. 
Secretary of Navy entertained, •907. 

Holland : 

— Electrification of railroads [Zehme], 439. 

Holyoke, Mass. : 

— Holyoke Street Ry.: 

Auto service increase soug-ht. 970. 
Houston. Texas ; 

— Service at cost rejected [Nash], 27. 
Hudson & Manhattan R.R. (see New York City). 
Humidity. Automatic control of in shops, 93. 

Hung-ary : 

— Budapest street cars. 837. 



I 

Illinois : 

— Commission approves one man cars. 156. 
— Commission revision proposed, 867. 1016, 

1049, 1143. 1179. 
— Commission in Chicago fares [Wilkerson], 

309. 

— Joint Utilities convention, 589. 

— ^Public ownership bills. 37S. 

- — Public Utility Information Com. Activities 

reviewed, 814. 
— Railways statement, 785. 

India : 

— Gasoline propelled trains in India. 144. 
Indiana : 

— Banks advertise utilities. 697. 

— 'Farmers iadorse electric freight. Comments 

on. 395. 
— Merger of interurbans. 338. 
— ^Public Sexvice Commission. History and 

work. '354. 

— Public Utility Assn.: 
Activities. 783. 

Meeting, 181: Comments on 166. 
— Super-power plant proposed, 494. 

Indiana Railways and Light Co. (see Kokomo, 
Ind.) . 

Indiana Service Corporation (see Fort Wayne. 
Ind.) . 

Indianapolis. Ind : 

— Indianapolis Street Ry. : 

Fare situation, 59, 651, 789, 1058. 1103. 

Franchise surrender, 965. 1141 

Freight terminal suggested, 333. 566: 
Financing, 971. 

Railway Day demonstration, •953. 

Rerouting planned. 1103. 
— Interstate Public Service : 

Ii^dianapolis-Louisville -development. 618, 
♦1036: Comments on. 1034. 

Merger planned. 383. 338: Authorized. 506. 

Power distribution. •1169. 

Stock sold to public. 657. 
— Interurban's charge in citv. 60. 
— Jitney situation. 1016. 1058. 
— Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Tr. Co.: 

.Annual report llJ-6 

Freight terminal. ^1171. 

Inductive interference : 

— Practice for eliminating [A. R, E. A 1. 6.33 
Innovations frequently desirable. Comments on. 
68. 

Inspection of cars : 

— iPeriod determined on energy basis. '355. 
— Records. Simple, •1044. 

Insulating materials : 

— Projjerties of [Litchfield], 719. 

— Testing [Dean], ^931. 

— Varnish 1043. 

Insurance (see also Fire insurance): 

— New policy for cars. 691. 

— Rates reduced in East St. Louis. 111., 3"^' , 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co. (see New York 
City) . 

International Assn.. New organization planned. 

338: Meeting. 647. 
International Ry. (see Buffalo. N. Y.). 
International Street & Interurban Railway Assn. 

reorganization plans. .53. 
Interstate Commerce Commission : 
— -Accounting system. Questions and answers. 

1055. 1099. 1145. 1183. 
— Electrics ask rate adjustment. 660. 
Interstate Consolidated R.R. (.see Attlebnro 

Mass.) . 

Interstate Public Service Co. (see Indinnapolis. 
Ind.). 

Interurban Motors Co. (see Everett. Wash.). 

Interurban railways : 
— Cars for limited trains. ^1036. 
— Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee record, 
783 

— Defined by U. S. Railroad Labor Board, 86 
— Development of. •1036: Comments on 1034. 
— Fare adjustment asked of I. C. C 660. 
— Fares should exceed city fare. Comments on. 
759. 

— Indianapolis-Louisville. 618. •lOSe: Com- 
ments on. 1034. 

— 'Need attention [Schade]. c333 

— Northeastern Okl.Thomn F R . **^-i3. 

— One ma,n cars economical [Dehorel. ^983: 
Comments on. 979. 



Interurban railways (Continued) : 
— Possibilities. Comments on. 4. 
— St. Louis-Kansas City project, 866. 
— ^Service brings business. Comments on, 637, 
1034. 

— Texas seeks control of, 617 
— Zone fares in Akron, O., ^315. 

Iowa : 

— Court of public service proposed, 613. 
— Franchise rate valid, 751. 
— One man cars opposed by labor, 565, 
— Railway legislation proposed, 94, 
— Rate cases decided. 790. 

— -iTwo cent fare law ruled confiscatory, 104. 

Iowa Electric Railway Assn.: 

— Annual meeting announced. 1096. 

Italy: 

— Commission inspects American electrifications. 

566. 783. 
— Electrification extensions. 35. 
— Electrification of railroads [ZehmeJ 439. 
— Railway development [Dot>son & Wynne], 

•1069. 

Ithaca, N. Y.: 
— Ithaca Traction Corp ; 
Fare increase. 618. 



J 



Jackson, Mich.: 
— 'Michigan Rys.: 

Wage reduction. 1053, 1097. 
Jacksonville. Florida: 
— Jacksonville Traction Co.: 

Fare Increase. 156, 433. 

Short skirts decrease accidents, 701, 

Japan : 

— ^Railway extensions proposed. 388. 

Jersey Central Traction Co. (see Keyport. N. J.). 

K 



Kansas : 

— Industrial Court judges disagree, 337. 
— Interurbans seek I, C. C adjustment, 060. 
— Utilities commission re-established, 780: Com- 
ments on. 759. 

Kansas City. Mo.: 

— JiiJiey situation. 617, 700, 914. 1104: Com- 
ments on. 1033, 
— Kansas City, Clay County & St, Joseph Ry, : 

Publicity aids fare increase, 914: Com- 
ments on, 884. 
— Kansas City-Northwestern R.R.: 

Electrification proposed, 613. 
— Kansas City Ry. : 

Annual report. 615. 

Employees' loyalty to Kealv. •338. 

Experience decreases accidents. 467. 

Labor reduction. 910 

Near side stops on trial 437. 

Truck cleaning vat. •Sl^l. 

Train operation. 813. 
— 'Service at cost franchise amended [Nash], 38. 

Keene, N. H. : 

— Keene Electric Ry.: 

Re-capitalization proposed. 463. 

Kenosha, Wis.: 

— Wisconsin Gas & Electric Co.: 

Weekly pass inaugurated. 343, 646. 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. (see Lexing- 
ton. Kj'.). 

Keokuk. Iowa : 
— Keokuk Electric Co. : 
Fare reduced. 915. 

Keyport. N. J.: 

— Jersey Central Traction Co.: 
Fare increase denied, 971 

Knoxville, Tenn.: 

— Knoxville Ry. & Lt. Co.; 

Fare increase sought. 157. 970. 

Valuation, 788, 970. 

Kokomo. Ind, : 

— Indiana Rys. & Lt. Co.. 

Inventory required, 1011. 

Service with safety cars [Dehore] ^179. 



L 



Labor (see also EmpIo.vees) : 

— Coal miners strike in Great Brit.nin. 1048. 

— T^uty of unions. 1179 

— Transportation act. Tests for .Tdiustments 

[Emery], 76. 
— Unions may be sued in Mass.. 964. 

Lafayette, Ind : 

— Lafayette Service Co.: 

Fare increase sought. 469. 

Receivership removed. 830. 
— Northern Indiana Gas & Electric Co.: 

Abandonment proposed. 1013. 

L"gal : 

— Condemnation proceedings [Harte]. ^851. 
— Notes. 703. 

— Private company's fixed fare contract over- 
ruled. 433. 

Lce-islation for railways: 
— '"'alifornia. 191. 1094. 

— Conn. Chamber of Commerce favors 613. 



I :' f 7 

Legislation for railways (Continued): 
— Connecticut. 59. 95, 467, 793. 973. 1102. 
1141, 

— Governors' attitude in several states, 377. 
— Iowa jitney bill, 567, \ ' 

— Iowa, proposed for, 94, 
— Minnesota, 835: Comments on 885. ' 
— Outlook for railways, comments on. 3; ' , 
— Paving relief in South Bend, Wash., 565. 

Levis. Que.. Canada: 
— Levis County By. : 

Fire damage, 439, '460, 

Safety cars successful [Weyman]^ 266. 

Lexington, Ky.: 

— Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co.: 

Portable instruction board. *1176. 
Library co-operation, 804, 

Little Rock, Ark,: 

— Little Rock Ry. & Elec. Co. 

Rebuilt cars. •IISS. 

Vending machines on cars, ^774. 

Living costs: 

— Variations in. 483: [Layng]. ^638; 739. 

1043. •ll.Sl. 
— Retail price changes. 810. 

Locomotives : 

— 'American, Swiss discusses. 857. 
— Austrian types [Palme]. ^644. 
— Brazil, 3,000 volt '859: [Cooper], •1075: 

[Bearce], '1079, 
— Characteristics of, '860 

— Cost of steam and electrics in Switzerland, 
406. 

— Inspection and repair. C, M. & St. P.. *5S3. 
— ^Monongahela Valley Tr. Co.. '901. 
— Northwestern Elevated R.R., '637. 
— Operating cost of electrics on B., A. & P., 
•317. 

— Pacific Electric Ry , •727. 

— Purchase of in 1930, 37. 

— Steam. Improvements in [Basford]. 1036. 

— Steam vs. electric [A.R.E.A.]. 633. 

— ^Storage battery and trolley combination. •494. 

— Swiss types. ^735. 

— Vibrations due to side rods. 87. 

— 'Youngstown & Suburban Ry.. ^959. 

London (see under Great Britain). 

London. Ont.. Canada: 

— Electrification of Grand Trunk branches 

urged, 336, 
— London Street Ry, : 

Annual report, 420 

Wage adjustment, 1051. 
Long Island R.R. (see New York City). 

Los Angeles, Cal.: 

— Los Angeles Railway: 

Accident reduction [Jeffrey], 996. 

Auto emergency truck, 5.50, 

Cash fare increase, 1058, 110.3. 

Main office location. *1009. 

Transfer system, 574. 
— Pacific Electric Ry. : 

Accidents due to autos. 300. 

Bus operation opposed, 1058. 

Carhouse fire, 837, 

Freiglil business [Titcomb], 81. 

Locomotives, *737. 

Motor buses as feeders. 1014. 

Sanding bag. *1004. 

Track oiling. •1004 

Transportation increasing. 56. 
— Safet.v zone plan extended. '1149. 
— Terminal improvements, 868: Railroads ob- 
ject, 1008, 

Louisiana : 

— Municipal ownership proposed. 909. • 
Louisville. Ky. : 

— City-railway controversy. 300. 344, 285, 386. 

434. 468, 509, 574, 617, 749. 972. 
— Interurbans merging, 383. 
— Louisville Railway: 

Advertises fare increase. '410. 

Annual report. 788. 

April report, 968. 

Fare situation. 300, 344, 385, 386. 424, 
468. 509. 574. 617. 749. 973. 

Relief sought through San Antonio case. 
833. 

Steel trolley wire unsatisfactory [Millerl. 
553. 

Stockholders' meeting. 464. 
Wages increased, 418. 

Lubrication : 

— Turbine oil purification. S13. 
Lynchburg. Va. : 

— L,vnchburg Traction & Light Co.: 
Valuation completed. 913 



M 

Madison. Wis. : ■ 
— Madison Railway: 

Car parts. Wear record. .537. 

Extension contract, 1168, 

Inspection records, '1044, 

Safety car. Double door type. '489: Com- 
ments on, 477, 

Maintenance practice: 
— Auto habit obiecled to. 1173, 
— ^Rutte, Anaconda & Pacific R,R,, •317. 
— Car parts Wear record. 537, 
— '^ost accounting [Palmer], ^715, 
— Costs on a car weight basis [Thirlwall]. 
c830. 

— 'discussion of. 590: Comments on, 581. 

- 'Efficiency urged. Comments on, :516 

- "'ispection. Comments on value, 839. 

— -Life of cars. Comments on, 113, ■ 



Abbreviations: * niustrated. c Communications. 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BE(7INISfINCT OF THE INDEX 



VIII 



INDEX 



IVol. 57 



Maintenance practice (Contnnied): 
— Master mechanic's efficiency, •1041. 
— OSIotorman's viewpoint [Johnson], crU.'i. 
— Motors, Repair of. •540 
— Pole lines. Comments on, 29t5. 
— Publications on. 563. 

Reclamation. Comments on limitations, 841. 

— ^Safety cars affect [Gove], 1128. 
— Spray painting machine, 'lOSO. 
— Washing- cars. Air and water, •9d9. 

Management: „ 
— ^Attitude toward employees. Comments on, 4<o. 
— Auto habit disadvantageous, 1172. 
— Co-operation successful at Camden, N. J., 

•434; Comments on. 431. 
— Executive's duties. Comments on. 68. 
— Inspiration reciuired. Comments on, 800. 
— Labor efficiency points. 238. 
— London Underground organization. •670. 
— Results count. Comments on. 1065. 

Manchester. N. H.: 

— Manchester Street Ry : 

Wage reduction proposed, 459. 

Marietta, Ohio : 

— ^Trial operation for costs. 781. 

Market conditions: 

— Aluminum, 338. 

— Armature coils, 205. 

— Asphalt, 836. 

— Brake shoes, 64, 248. 754. 

— Brass, 1020. 

— Brushes. Carbon, 391, 1062. 

— Business in general. 162. 

— Canadian eciuipment manufacture. 755. 

, — Cars. 1062. 

— Cement. 796. 

— Circuit breakers. 1062. 

Coal, 65, 110. 438, 579. 796. 920. 1152. 

— Conduit. Fiber, 578. 

— Conduit, Iron. 797 

— .Copper, 163, 349, 578. 665. 1030. 

— Cord, Trolley and bell, 65, 836, 976. 

— Crossarms, 163, 290, 513. 754, 1152, 1190. 

— Culverts, 881. 

— Curtains, 797. 

— Export goods, 339, 754. 

— Fare boxes and registers. 65. 921. 

— Fenders and wheel guards. 162. 

— Fire brick. 977. 

— Fuses, 162, 1153. 

— Gear eases, 110, 204. 633. 

— Gears and pinions. 920. 

— German competition. 755. 1190. 

— Glass. Window. 163, 707. 

— Headlights. 1109. 

— Heaters. Repair parts. 349. 

— Insulatiiiji materials, 339, 388, 706, 1153. 

— Insulators J lightension. 162, 512. 

— Iron c,-istni(^s, :!38. 

— Iron M.i'l.;;l,|.' 1191. 

— Lainiis K;iil«;i\'. 1062. 

— Li;;htiiiiip .iiii-irrs. 2(14. 348, 389. 706. 

— Line niatiiial 65, 110, 111, 163. .339. 388. 

578. 754, 1152. 
— Lubricants, 249. 

— Metal. N. Y. Metal Market. 111. 291. 473, 

665, 881. 1063 
— Motors. 64. 976. 
— Paint materials. 204. 622. 
— Poles, Steel. 473. 836. 
— Poles, Wood. 163 439. 513 755. 
— Price tendencies, 390, 338, 428, 664. 
— Rail bonds. 880. 
— Rails. 578, 1020. 

— 'R.ailwav eciuipment. Second-hand. 796. 

— Railway material. 111 291. 389. 473. 655. 

881. 1020, 1063, 1108; Foreign, 622. 
— Resistance grids, 110. 
— Seating material. 205, 622. 
— Sign.ils, 204. 

— Special trackwork. 248. 706, 1063. 

— Steam flow meters. 796 

— St,=.e\ 389 512. 754. 1153. 1190. 

— Steel Indicator of industry. 472. 

— Steel scran. 622. 836, 1153. 1190. 

— Ties. 64. 388. 439 473. 797. 1191. 

— Towers. Steel. 1021. 

— Track material. 64. 664. 

— Track tools. 664. 1190. 

— Trade situation. 600. 

— Tread material. 976. 

— .Trolley wheels. 428. 

— Turnstiles. 880 

— W.Tste, Cotton 64. 472, 1152. 

— Wheels, ear, 204. 1109. 

— Wire. 290. 291. 623. 837. 880, 1109. 

— Wiring supplies. 110. 977. 

Massachusetts : 

— -Abandoned lines. Commission investigates. 

463. 694. 696: Comments on, 667, 
— One-man cars at crossinc-s 106. 617. 
— One-man cars opposed by labor. 565; Upheld, 

91 6. 

■ — ^Public control bill investigation. 744, 823, 
908. 1008. 

— Tax exemptions extended. 1013: Comments 

on, 981. 
— Unions may be sued 964. 
Maumee '^'alley Rys. & Lt. Co. (see Toledo, 
Ohio). 

Meadville, Pa.: 

— Northwestern Penn. Ry.: 

Inter\irban freight terminal at Erie. •141. 

Memphis. Tenn.: 

— Memphis Street Ry.: 

Cash wagon. '104,3. 

f^ommuta'or sIotti"f *11,31. 

Income situation. 787. 
— Service at cost features [Nash]. 24. 

Merchandising transportation (see also Publicity. 

Traffic stimulation 1 : 
— Car cards. Comments on. 396. 
— Discussed by C. E. R. A.. 446. 



Merchandising transportation (Continued): 
— Emvlopees' co-operation [Boyee]. *1033, *1163 
— Factors affecting [Boyce]. '1033. 
— Fares and short-haul traffic [Roberts], *896, 
955. 

— Long vs. short rides. Comments on, 476. 
— London Underground posters, •19, ^90, •323, 
•816. 

— Personal contact with public [Norviel], 493. 

— Popular fare in Nelson, V:tn.. ^895. 

— Sales manager, Comments on, 1, 67. 

— .Service to the public [Brown], 493. 

— Trainmen essential [Barnes], 451. 

— Zone fares an incentive [Jackson], cl48. 

Metals : 

— Copper, Hardening. 143: Peculiarities of, 405. 
— High-speed tool steel. 140. 

— Steel, Characteristics by magnetic analysis, 93. 



Mexico : 

— Mexican Tramways: 

Financial plans, 1184. 

Miami, Fla.: 
— ^Miami Traction Co.: 

Abandons lines, 1013. 
— Miami Beach Electric Co.: 

Sale to city proposed. 964. 

Miami. Okla.: 

— Northeastern Oklahoma R.R.: 

Construction and equipment. *843. 

Michigan Central Ralroad: 
— Automatic motor generator set. •405. 
Michigan Railways (see Jackson, Mich.). 

Milwaukee. Wisconsin : 
— Joint use of tracks ordered, 385. 
— Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co. (see also 
Raofne, Wis . ) . 

Railroad shelter. ^508. 

Pare situation [Storrs]. ^15. 

Non-rush hour service reduced. 334. 

Premium wage plan [Lucas], '539, ♦647. 

Rerouting suggested, 791. 

Service at cost proposed, 379; approved, 
741, 

Stock increase authorized, 1100. 
Three truck, two-man train [Way], ^131. 
— Service at cost approved, 741. 

Minneapolis, Minn.: 

Valuation sought, 969. 
— Service at cost reiected [Nash], 36. 
— Twin City Rapid Transit Co.: 

-Annual report, 871. 

Railway Day demonstration, •951. 

Statute to founder, •663. 

Minnesota : 

— Commissixins duties extended. 825; Comments 
on. 885. 

— State regulation of railways proposed, 233. 
Missouri : 

— Interurbans seek I. C. C. .adjustment. 660. 

— One-man cars opposed, .325. 

— St. Louis-Kansas City project, 866. 

Monongahela Power & Railway Co. (see Fair- 
mount. W. "Va.). 

Monongahela Valley Traction Co. (see Fair- 
mount, W. Va.). 

Monterey. Cal.: 

— ^Monterey & Pacific Grove Ry.: 
Financial difficulties, 8.30. 

Montgomery. Ala. : 

— Montgomery Light & Traction Co.: 
Fare increase sought. 1014. 

Montreal. Quebec, Canada: 
— Montreal Tramways : 

Service at cost results [Hutcheson]. 264; 

•775. 

Motor buses: 

— California permits. 864. 
— Detroit Motorbus Co.: 

Report and methods. '765. 
— -Developing new territor.v in Akron, Ohio. 

•1165: Comments on 1155. 
— Fees should depend on service [Bennett]. 

1042 

— Farming territory, Comments on superiority 
for. 295 

— -Gasoline substitute. Tests on, 88. 
— Jitney situation : ' 

Albany. N. Y.. 790. 824. 

Birmingham. Ala.. 876. 1016. 1148. 

Bridgeport, Conn.. 1179. 

Connecticut. 467. 792. 972, 1103. 

Davenport. la.. 286, 790. 

Des Moines, la.. 833. 

Detroit. Mich.. 1148. 

General. 440. 

Hartford. Conn.. 105. 

Indianapolis. Ind.. 1016 

Kansas City. Mo.. 617. 
Comments on. 1034. 

Muskegon. Mich.. 833. 

Newark. N. J.. 385. 

New .Jersev, 701. 1186, 

P,aterson. N, J.. 423. 510. 

Richmond Va.. .566. 

Seattle. Wa.sh.. 698. 1014. 

Toledo, Ohio, 701. 832 1015. 1105. 1187. 

l.Tnemployment affects Comments on, 801. 

TTnjust competition [Pratt], cll73, 

Wisconsin. 1102, 

Youngstown. Ohio. 792. 
— Limited interurban service 1059. 
— London. 408: Comments on. 391, 760. 
— New York City proposes for Broadway. 6.53 
— Railway compared with. 693. 
— Railway operation opposed in Cal.. 1058. 
— Stage regulations in Cal.. 1187. 
— Supplementary to railways; 

Advocated in Conn.. 59. 

Akron. Ohio. •1165: Comments on. 1155 



Motor buses: 

— Supplementary to railways (Continued) : 
Baltimore. Increase urged, 1059. 
Boston 'L" seeks, 610; Granted, 749. 
Connecticut Co. plans. 1179. 
Connecticut permits, 1103. 
Holvoke Mass.. 970. 
Los Angeles, Cal,. 1014. 1058. 
San Francisco, Cal., 185. 
San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys., 
•1173. 

Value of [Gadsden by BozelU. 9. 
— Terminal at Tacoma, Wash., 617. 
— Utah permits, 832. 
— Washington stage regulations, 1105. 

Motor cars. Gasoline: 

— Chesapeake-Western Ry. uses. '407. 

— St. Louis. Mo., trial, 891, 

— Trains in India, 144. 

Motor trucks: 

— Competition with railways. 448. 
— Freight by. Compared with railway [Tit- 
comb] . 81. 
— ^Freight competition [N'.Y.E.R.A.] , 641. 
— Trucking difficulties. Comments on, 710. 

Motors : 

— Armature bands loosening. *523. 

— Armature dipping and baking, •1116. 

— Armature shaft replacements. "927. 

— Broom drive with carbon pile resistor. *496. 

— Commutator. Oil protection for, 818. 

— Commutator slotting. •IISI. 

— Enlarging oil bo.xes, •SOI. 

— ^Housings. "Through -bolt" type. 737. 

— Repairs and connections, •540. 

— Ventilation choked, 737. 

— Westchester Electric R.R.: 

Zone system continued. 791. 



Mt. Vernon. N. Y.: 

Moving pictures ( see under Publicity ) . 

Moving platforms: 

— Proposed for New York, •124. 

Municipal ownership: 

— Chicago plan by Commission on Local Trans- 
portation. 150. 

— Detroit, Mich.. Comments on. 1111. 

— Detroit. Mich.; Expenses 1183. 

— Disadvantages [Wehle], 260; Comments on. 
636. 

— Florida road improves. 1050. 
— Iowa bill favoring. 567. 

— New York City. Staten Island successful. 501. 
— Port Arthur. Out., Can.. History, ^479. 
— Proposed for : 

A.shtabula. Ohio. 908. 

Brockton Mass.. 501. 

Louisiana, 909, 

New Orleans, La.. 611. 

Tulsa. Okla.. With private operation. 1006. 
— San Francisco comparison. 697. 87.3; 

[O'Shaughnessy]. c831. 
— Situation in Ohio. 781. 
— Trend towards. 604. 
— Unsuccessful [Hurley]. 857. 

Muskegon. Mich.: 

— Muskegon Traction & Lighting Co.: 
Jitney purchase proposed. 833. 



1058. 

roo. 914, 1104: 



N 



Napa. Cal.: 

— San Francisco. Napa & Calistoga Ry.: 
Mare Island Locomotive. '858. 

Nashville, Tenn.: 
— ^Nashville Ry. & Lt. Co.: 
Annual report. 698. 

National Electric Light Association: 
— Annual convention, 1085, 1123: Comments on. 
1111. 

National Electrical Safety Code: 
— Discussion of rules noted. 955. 

Nelson. B. C. Canada: 
— Nelson Municipal Ry.: 
Selling rides. ^895. 

Newark. N. J.: 

— Public Service Corporation of N. J.: 

Customer ownership stock. 1056. 
— Public Service R.R.: 

Fare increase on fast line, 1014. 
— Public Service Ry. : 

Annual report. 656. 

Bus injunction refused. 385. 

Collision. Roebling N. J.. ^1051. 

Fare Situation [Storrsl. ^18. ' . „, „ 

Fare increase sought, 660. 791. 87o. 917, 
1015. 1147. 

Inspectors of bridges and buildings [George] 
135. 

Trailer cars. *319. 

Valuation announced. 747: Checking, 1101. 

Voluntary increase in hours. 151; Com- 
ments on, 166. 

Wage reduction proposed, 1097; Accept- 
ed. 1181. 
— Traffic study. ^394. 

New Bedford. Mass.: 
— Union Street Ry.: 

Annual report, 1098. 

New Brighton. Pa.: 
— Beaver Valley Traction Co.: 
Annual report. 1098. 

Co-operation of employees, Securing. *231. 

[Bovcel. ^1033. ^1163 
Fares ' Five-cent zones. •670; Comments 

on. 667. 
Wage decrease proposed. 1140. 



Abbreviations : *Illustrated. c Communications. 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



January-June, 1921J 



INDEX 



IX 



Newburgh, N. Y.: 
— Orang^e County Traction Co.: 
Wage reduction, 740. 

New England Street Railway Club. : 
— Annual meeting, 604. 
— ^February meeting. 374. 

— ^Hartford meeting joint with Connecticut Co. 
section, 954, •1003, 1040. 

New Haven. Conn.: 
— jConneeticut Co.: 

Accident, Head-on collision at Shelton, •40'-. 

Bridgeport situation (see Bridgeport, Conn.) 

Bus operation planned. 1179. 

Cars remodeled for one-man type, •956. 

Fare .situation (Storrsl, '15. 

Cost of operating in 1900 and 1919, 955. 

Earnings and expenses, 506. 

Hartford approves one-man cars, 915. 

Jitneys opposed, 1103. 

Legislation proposed by 'Crtilities Commis- 
sion, 95. 

Return to N. Y., N. H. & H. E.R, urged, 
871. 

Snow-sweepers from open cars. '495. 
Valuation details [Knowlton], '947, •985; 
Comments on, 980. 

New Jersey : 

— Commission controversy, 53, 333, 379, 417, 
610. 

— Emergency rates denied, 964. 
—Industrial Court proposed, 502. 
— Jitney situation, 1180. 
— Jitneys under commission, 701. 
— Valuation act protested by commissioners, 
94; Amended, 748. 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Corp.: 
(See Trenton, N. J.) 

New Orleans, la. : 

— Orleans-Kenner Interurbaii Elec. Ry.: 

Extension planned, 908. 
— City-railway controversy, 42, 195, 336, 421, 
468, 567, 651, 693. 741. 792, 033, 866, 
917. 1006, 1095, 1103, 1178. 
— New Orleans Railway & Light Co.: 
Bankers confer, .380. 
City desires to audit book, 283. 
Pare rate maintained, 792, 832, 866, 917, 
1103. 

Fare situation [Storrs]. 14; 51. 
Municipal ownership proposed, 611, 
Rerouting proposed, ,33.3. 
Wage reduction, 906. 966. 
Reorganization plans proposed, 1051. 

New York Central R R. : 

— ^Publicity by timetables, •410. 

New York City (see also Brooklyn, N. Y.) : 
— American Cities Company: 

Financial improvement. 154. 
— Buses proposed for Broadway, 653. 
— Cities' Service Co.: 

Dividends in scrip. 1183. 
— Fifth Ave. Coach Co. : 

Annual report, 100, 
— Five cent fares, Comments on deficit, 1111, 
— (Jovernor's transit plans, '379, 386, 376, 391, 

417, 461, 566, 609, 653, 698, 1010; Com- 
ments on, 668, 
— Hudson & Manhattan R.R.: 

Annual report, 103. 

Cars for, *1086. 

Traffic in 1930, Comments on, 1156. 
— Interborough R,apid Transit Co.: 
Dec. report, 383. 
July-Mar. report, 968, 
November report, 154, 

Turbine operating data [Reynolds], '945. 

Pare increase needed Comments on, 167. 

Interest payment. 154. 

Wage decrease proposed, 1178. 
— Long Island R.R.: 

Collision of local and express, •377. 

Traffic m 1920, Comments on, 1156. 
— Moving platform proposed for erosstown 

lines, ^134, 
— New York Cit.v companies : 

Jan, -Mar, report. 338. 

Securit.v Holders' Assn.. 913. 

Semianniial report of commission, 614. 
— New York & Harlem R.R.: 

One-man cars. Saving by, 641. 
— New York Municipal Ry.: 

Cars purchased. 65. 

Car details. *1087. 
— New York-New Jersey harbor freight pro- 
posal. ^338. 
— New York Rys.: 

Receiver's report. .570. 

Welding broken switch casting [McGregor], 
•139. 

— ^New York, Westchester & Boston Ry, : 

Pare increase. Court upholds, 333, 
— ^North American Co, : 

Annual report, 696, 
— ^Queens Borough subway changes, 835. 
— Second Avenue R,R,: 

One-man cars from open type. •361; [Chal- 
mers], 1136. 
— Staten Island: 

Electrification of railroads proposed, 332, 

Municipal operation successful. 501. 

Rapid Transit bill passed. 964. 

Trackless trolIc,v specifications. 1003. 
— Surface cars. Elimination predicted, 236, 
— Third Avenue Elevated R,R.: 

Derailment. •lOBl . 
— Traction problem. Comments on Governor's 

report 309. 

— Transit situation reviewed [Met?,.], 811; Cora- 

m(;nta on, 799, 
— Transit Commission controversy, 834, 1007. 
— Unified system suggested, 3.34. 

New York Electric R.-iilway Assn.: 
— Annual meeting. •1140, 

— March meeting, 601, 040; Comments on, 581. 



New Yoi-k Railroad Club: 
— Second annual dinner, 76, 

New York State: 

— Cars for women proposed, 387. 

— Governor proposes railway aid. Comments 

on, 253. 
— ^Paving costs reduced, 908. 

— Revision of Public Service Commission Law 

suggested, 334; Criticism, 336. 
— Taxation in [Rumeny and Hopson], 1136. 
— ^Valuation. Basis of, 786, 
— Valuation in [Brown], 601. 

New York S at" ,H,a,ilways (see Rochester and 
Syracuse, N. Y.). 

Norfolk Va.: 

— Virginia R.v. & Pr Co.: 
Faro increase, 1058. 

Nortli Alabama Traction Co. (see Albany. Ala.). 

Northampton Traction Co, (see Easton, Pa.). 

North Carolina Public Service Co. (see Greens- 
boro. N. C). 

Northeastern Oklahoma R.R. (see Miami. 
Okla.). 

Northern Indiana Gas & Electric Co. (see Lafay- 
ette, Ind.). 

Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co. (see Akron. Ohio) 
North"rn Texas Traction Co. (see Fort Worth, 
Tex.). 

N'orwalk, Ohio : 

— Sandusky, Norwalk & Mansfield Elec. Ry.: 
Service discontinued. 699. 

Norway : 

— Electric railway proposed, 633. 
— Railway development in [Dobson & Wynne], 
•1069. 

Northwestern Elevated R.R. rsee Chicago. 111.1. 
Northwestern Pennsylvania Rv. (see Meadville, 
Pa.) . 

Norwich, Conn,: 

— Shore Line Electric Ry.: 

Division of proposed, 463. 



o 

Oakland Cal, : 

— San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys,: 

Advertises value of transportation. •SIS. 

Bus service starts. •1173. 

Employees' ,aid in accident reduction, 46. 
— San Francisco & Sacramento R.R.: 

Maintenance cost accounting [Palmer], 
•715. 

— iSan Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys.: 
Railwa.v Day demonstration, •953. 

Ocean City, N. J. 

— Ocean City Elec. R.v. : 

Municipal operation, 016, 

Ohio: 

— Interurbans propose wage reductions, 907. 
— Reorganization bill. Effect on Utilities Com.. 
740. 

Ohio Electric Ry. (see Springfiekl, Ohio). 

Oil City. Pa : 

— Citizens' Traction Co.: 

Voluntar.v wage reduction, 1140. 

Oklahoma Utilities Assn.: 
— Annual convention, 6.36. 

Om,aha. Neb.: 

— Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry.: 

Financial difficulties. 696, 

Permanent fare sought 971. 

Skip-stop advantages. 1185. 
One man cars (see Cars, One man). 

Operating records and costs- 

— Beaver Valley Tr. Co. •670. 

— One man cars [Govel. 1138. 

— One-man cars for interurban service [Dc- 

hore], '983: Comments on, 979, 
— Safety vs, double-truck cars. 367. 
Orange Count.v Tr,Tction Co. (see Newburgh, 
N. Y.). 

Orleans-Kenner Interurban Elec. R.v. (see New 
Orleans, La.). 

Ottawa, Ont., Canada: 

— Municipal ownership defeated, 103. 

Ottumwa. Iowa: 

— Ottumwa Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

C\<\- ra'lwa.v controversy, 751, 1185. 

Rehearing on fare case. 435. 

Overhead contact system: 

— Hinders clearing of wreckage on P. K.R.. ^89. 
— Poles, concrete setting: 

Moving. ^144. 
— Poles (see under power distribution). 
— St"'l wire unsatisfactory [Miller], 55.3. 
— Tr.icliless trolley system. ^1158. 



P 



Paducah, K.v.: 

— Service at cost features [Nash], 36. 

Paterson. N. J,: 

— Jitney situation, 433. 510. 

— Traffic investigation by J. A. Beelcr. 33, ^454. 
Pacific Electric Ry. (see Los Angeles. Cal). 
Pacific Gas & Electric Co. (see Sacrmacnto. 
Cal.). 

Painting (see Repair shop practice). 
Pavements : 

— Brick pavement rehabilitated, 400. 



Pavements (Continued): 

— Concrete mixer for repairs [Stratton], •SSI. 

— Cost reduced m New York, 908. 

— Costs of maintenance, 440. 

— Evaluating [Knowlton]. '993. 

— J^reserving track. Comments on, 351. 

— Removal of. Machine for. •960. 

— Repair of concrete [Mills], 545. 

Pcnns.vlvania : 

— Commission policies, 180. 
— One-man cars opposed, 610. 

Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Co. (see Youngs- 

tovn. Ohio). 
Pennsylvania Railroad: 
— Wreck on Paoli electrification, ^89. 
Penns.vlvania Street Ry. Assn.: 
— Annual meeting. 905; Comments on. 1157. 

Pensacola, Fla,: 
— Pensacola Electric Co.: 
Pare increase, 157. 

Peoria, 111,: 

— Peoria Railway : 

Fare increa,3ed, 300. 

Philadelphia. Pa.: 

— E. W. Clark management: 

Annual report. 698. 
— Philadelphia Hapid Transit Co.: 

Advertises finances. 916. 

Annual report, 465. 

Back pa,v for employees, 338. 

Co-operative management celebrated. 613, 

Co-operative Welfare Assn. meeting, 191. 

December report, 340. 

Energy checking devices save, "SSS. 

Pare increase. Effect of, 103. 

Fare register order. 1003. 

Pare situation. [Storrs]. ♦14. 

Feb. -Mar. report, 874. 

Pranklord "L" operation proposed, 651 

741. 1009. 
Improvements fmm earnings. 1177. 
January report, 507. 

Leases. Juri.-idietion of commission. 911. 
Rent.al case appealed. 381. 
Safety-first publicity for children, '41) . 
Ten-year report. 507. 

Wage reductions, 867; Comments on. 840. 
Pittsburgh, Pa.: 

— Pittsburgh & Beaver Street Railway: 

Annual report. 1098. 
— Pittsburgh Railwavs. 9" 

Trail car accident, 97, 153. 

Commutators, Oil protestor for, 818. 

Re-organization proposed. 198 910 967 
1100, 1177: Comm-nts on 935, 
— Pittsburgh Harmony, Butler & New Castle 

Ry. : 

Wage reduction. 1009. 
— West Penn Rys.: 

Wages reduced, 908. 
Poles (see under Power distribution). 

Pin° Bluff. Ark.: 

— Pine Bluff (Company: 

Utility advertising. ^816. 

Port Arthur. Ont.: 
— Fare increase bill prepared. 701. 
— Port Arthur Municipal R.v. : 
History and operation. *478. 

Portland. Me.: 

— Cumberland County Power & Light Co.: 
Annual report. 698. 
Fare situation [Storrs]. •I?. 

Portland. Ore, : 

— Portland Ry,. Lt. & Pr. Co.: 
Annual report, 698. 

Bonds offered to public, 505 615 *745 
Pare situation [Storrs], 15. 
Improvement plans. 1010. 
Repair shop notes. *353. 
■ Tickler" car publicity, •92. 
Safety campaign. 60, 508. 

Portsmouth. Va.: 

— Traction board appointed bv citv manager 
98. . . ^ , 

Posters (see under Publicity, Car cards and 
posters ) . 

Pottsville, Pa.: 

— Eastern Penns.vlvania Railways: 

Railway day demonstration, ^953. 

Poughkeepsie. N. Y. : 

— Poughkeepsie & 'Wappingers Falls Ry.: 
Fare increase. 791. 

Track construction [Stratton], •344. 

Power distribution : 

— Cable pipe under river. ^862. 

— Cable rating. Discussed by A. I. C, C, 401; 
Comments on. 391. 

— Evaluating in units [Knowlton]. •985; Com- 
ments on, 980, 

— Feeder costs [Knowlton]. •985. 

— Indianapolis-Louisville system. •1169. 

— Poles, Concrete: 

Cant hook for. ^714. 

— Poles. Steel : 

Testing of, 84. 

Repair costs cut, •SOO. 

— Poles. Preserving: 

Creosote. Loss by evaporation 497 
Effect of, 126: Comments on. 341. 
Puncturing before impregnation. •5(i0 
Value of, ^400, 

— Poles. Repairing with concrete, •loic; 

— Pole support on retaining wall, *737. 

— Railways selling power. Comments on, 393. 

— Superpower. Estimated use. •955. 

— Three-wire system [Smith], ^584. 

— Wire and cable stanilardization, 403, 



Abbreviations: ♦Illustrated, c Communications. 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



X 



INDEX 



[Vol. 57 



[Reyn- 



Power reneratioa: 

— Baltimore. Md.. railway to purchase, 331. 
— Boiler operation. 900. 

— Cost analysis essential. Comments on ^S>Z. 
— Improvements in [N E. L. A. Cora.]. IXZ^; 

Comments on, 1111. 
— Indiana. Consolidation proposed, 494. 
— St. Lawrence project, 374. 
— Super-power plans. 452. 
— Turbine operating- data. 30.000 Kw. 

olds]. '945. 
— Water power. Low-head. 513. 
— Water power plans in Northwest. 65~. 

Power stations and eauipment (see also Switch- 
boards and equipment): 

— Boiler inspectors meeting-, 688. 

— Circuit breakers. Motion pictures of. 3b4 

— Condensers, Spring- supports for [Reynolds], 
♦ 945 

^Electrical apparatus manufactured in larg-e 

sizes. 76. 
— Flue gas recorders, 142, *687. 
— Improvements in [N. E. L. A. Com ), ll'--: 

Comments on, 1111. 
— Steam separator. Centrifugal, *819, 
— Stirling boiler. Improvements in, *900 
— Turbine oil purification, 813. 
— Unit idea for station design [Lee], 73, 

Providence, R. I. : 

— Providence and Danielson Ry,: 

Abandonment regretted. 379. 
— Rhode Island Co. : 

Annual report, 504, 

Pare situation [Storrs], '17, 

Notes auctioned, 102. 

Pay-leave plan proposed. 424, 

Reorganizes as United Electric Rys,. 240. 
— Rhode Island Suburban Ry.: 

Reorganization plans, 195, 969. 

Foreclosure sales ordered. 969, 
— United Elec. Rys.: 

Directorate. 913. 

Financial plans, 381. 

Organization, 240, 572. 

Publicity: „„ . • ^nrr 

— ^Bureau of information, A.E R.A.. service. 497. 

648. 903: Comments on. 883. 
— Car cards and posters: 

London Underground posters, '19, '90, 
•227, '816, •817. 

Merchandising transportation. Comments 
on, 296, 

Value of fares, *9. 
— (Controversial type undesirable. Comments on 

1112. 

— Fare increases advertised, •324. •410. 914, 
1049. Comments on, 884. 

— Financing requires [Gadsden], 137, 

— Franchise revision poss ble by [Barhitel, 
1127: Comments on. 11-^5, 

— Illustrated booklets of London Co,, •2.7, 

— Lig-hting advantageous. 411, 

— Locomotive bell effective, 1029, 

— Moving pictures as a means. Comments by 
industry, 90. 

— National Electric Ry. Day, 757, 80,?, •O.il: 
Comments on, 923. 

— Newspaper advertising [McLimontl, ■-()7. 

— New York Central uses timetables. •410. 

— Railway advertises city, 226. 

— Railway requirements. Comments on. 67. 

— Safety car campaign, •SIS. 

— Safety-first for children, •411. 

— Stock sale to customers, '1144, 

— "Tickler" car in Portland, Ore,, •92. 

— Transit matters in Phila., 916. 

— Transportation value. •.SIS. 

— Utihtv information committees, W.irk dis- 
cussed, 1138. 

— Western Electric aids, ^333, 

Public ownership (see Municipal ownership). 

Public, Relations with : 

— Analysis [MeLimont], 267. 

— Arkansas committee publishes tax informa- 
tion, 106, 

— Auto habit injures. 1172. 

— Banks advertise utilities, 697. 

— Boulder, CoL. City co-operation, 243, 

— Oartoon of bad relations, ^91, 

— -Conductor's names displayed, 702. 

— Conductor's opportunity to improve. Com- 
ments on, 67. 

— Co-operation featured at Camden. N. J., 436. 

— Co-operation of employees [Boyee]. *10.33. 
•1162. 

— Co-operation sought by pamphlets. 508. 

— Courtesy aids business. 618. 

— Dallas (Tex.) Railway aids city on Chil- 
dren's Day at State Fair, ^92. 

— Educating employees. Comments on, 1113. 

— Educating the public [Hall], 182. 

— Education essential for [Wilkerson], 309. 

— Employees attitude [Arkwright] 771: Com- 
ments on. 800 

— Essential for credit, Thorough understanding 
and confidence are [Gadsden, b.v Bozell], 6. 

— Five-cent fares, •670. 

— Fundamentals of [Hall], 182: Comments on, 
166, 

— Guide for Dallas trainmen. 410. 
— ^Importance of publications, 227. 
— Indiana committee activities. Comments on, 
166, 

— -Local financing an aid [Way], 304: Com- 
ments on. 293. 

— Public and utilities have same Interest 
[Henry]. 181. 

— Public must understand railways. Comments 
on, 293, 

— Railway leaders Improve [Wehle]. 259. 

— Referendum of U, S. Chamber of Commerce. 

Comments on, 207. 
— Scientific viewpoint. Comments on, 392. 
— Service to and enlightening of public 

[Higgins]. 954. 
— Smile, Advantages of [May], cl047. 



Public, Relations with (Continued) : 

— ^Speakers value. Comments on, 251, 

— Trainmen in public contact [Barnes], 451. 

- — Utility advertising in Pine Bluff, •815. 

— Utilities essential [Insull]. 182. 

— Value of the railway. 379. 

Public Representatives of Urban Transit : 
— Cleveland meeting. 261. 

Public service and regulative commissions: 

— Arkansas adopts home-rule. 149. 415. 

— Calif ornia commission investigated. 907. 

— California establishes auto department. 1147. 

— (California stage regulations. 1187 

— Connecticut commission urges legislation for 

railways. 95. 114. 
— Connecticut, History and function of. ^210. 
— Florida chang-es opposed, 825. 
— Functions of [ Wilker,son] , 309. 
— ^Illinois plans changes. 867, 1016, 1049. 
— Indiana commission attacked, 378. 
— Indiana franchi.se provisions, 565, 
— Indiana, History and work, ^254, 
— Industrial Court proposed for New Jersey, 

502. 

— Intrastate fares adjusted by I.C.C . 789, At- 
tacked, 972. 

— Iowa court proposed, 612. 

— Kansas Court judges disagree. 237. 

— Kansas restores utilities commission. 780: 
Comments on. 759. 

— Kansas Court. Revision proposed. 326. 

— Massachusetts on abandoned lines. 463, 694. 
696: Comments on, 667, 

— Minnesota revision, 233, 825: Comments on. 
885. 

— National versus state rule, 417, 334, 
— New Jersey controversy, 53, 379. 417. 610. 
— New Jersey commissioners powerless on val- 
uation. 94. 

— New York. Changes proposed. 234; Criticism 
of, 326. 

— New York Commission reviews situation of 

railways. 192. 
— Ohio. Change proposed. 740, 
— Pennsylvania policies [Ainey], 180, 
— -State regrulatlon endorsed by governors. 234. 
— Transit commission of New York: Injunction 

denied city, 1007. 
— Wisconsin, Revision proposed, 378. 781. 

Public Service Corp. of N. J, (see Newark, 
N. J.). 

Public Service R.R. (see Newark. N. J.). 
Public Service Ry. (see Camden. N. J., aid 
Newark. N. J.). 

Pueblo. Col.: 

—Arkansas Vall-?y R.R.. Lt. & Pr. Co.: 
Flood damage, 1097, 1180, 

Purchases : 

— Specifications require knowledge of material. 
Comments on. 711, 



Quebec, Canada: 

— Electrification of railroads proposed, 444. 



R 



Racine, Wis.: 

— Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt Co.: 
Weekly pass, 646. 

Rail joints and bonds: 

— Bonding. Air operated drills for. *186. 
— Bond testers. Portable [McKelwa.v]. •525. 
— Detachable rail bond, 'IS?. 
— Files acid sharpened, .367, 

— Inspection of rail bonding [TMcKelway] , 113. 
— 'Welded bonds. Discussion, 539, 
— Welded plates [Stratton], ^344. 
— Welding in Massachusetts, *809. 
Railroad electrification (see Heavy electric trac- 
tion ) . 

Railroads. Steam : 

— Statistical report. 144. 

Ralls : 

— Benders for. ^809. •11145. 
— Corrugations, Cause of [Wichert], 1135. 
— Corrugations. Measurement and removal, 437. 
— Creepage prevention. 561. 
— Foreig-n rail sections [Bland], el48. 
— Guard rail. Renewable lip for, 404, 
— Magnetic analyzer for. 93. 
— Repaired with old plates. ^1176. 
— Specifications and tests discussed [Gennet], 
898. 

H&ilwSiys * 

— History and future of electric [Sprague], 
997: Comments on. 979. 

— ^Problems to be solved [Gadsden, by Bo- 
zell], 6. 

— Progress in 1920. 80. 

— Statistics of. 47. 

Railway Supply Manufacturer's Assn.: 
— Exhibit omitted for June. Comments on. 
515. 

Raleigh. N, C: 

— Carolina Power & Light Co.: 

Fare Increase denied, 243. 
— Cumberland Ry. & Pr, Co : 

Financial outlook favorable, 155. 

Reading. Pa.: 

— ^Reading Transit & Light Co.: 

Valuation completed, 153. 
Receiverships (see under Financial). 



Repair shop practice : 

— Arrangement. Comments on. 341. 

— Buffalo. N. Y., •1113. 

— Cost competition on N. Y. State Rys.. •523. 
— Chicago Surface Lines. *927, 
— Commutator slotting. •1131,, 
— Efficiency of employees. Comments on. 709. 
— Engineers may solve problems [Lambert], 
cll37. 

— Expanding motor bearings [Krombach], ^958. 

— Hospital simile. 544. 

— Improvements in. Comments on. 515. 

— Locomotive inspection and repair. C. M. & 
St. P.. ^533. 

— Neatness. Comments on. 341. 

— Painting cars economically, 934. 

— Painting safety cars [Krouse], 737. 

— Painting, spray gun practice. 901. 

— Piece work successful [Lucas]. ^528. •647: 
Comments on, 516. 

— Reducing costs [ Bosenbury ] , .557. 

— Replacement versus rebuilding cars. Com- 
ments on, 1024. 

— Savings in Buffalo, N, Y., 1117. 

— Utica kinks, •1039. 

Repair shops and equipment (see also Stores) : 
— ^Air hoist. Inexpensive [Hester], *11.34. 
— Bearing jigs, •738. 

— Boston Elevated proposes new shops. *5.55. 

— Buffalo. N, Y„ •Ills. 

— Calgary. Alberta. Can.. *887. 

— Car cleaning by spraying. 1093. 

— Car wheels turned in small lathos. 819. 

— Electric drills. Maintenance of [Connell]. 544. 

— Electric hammer drill, •14.3. 

— Glue, Data on various types, 143. 

— Hose couplings. Pneumatic, ^142, 

— ^Lye vat for cleaning trucks [Day], '551. 

— Portable electric tools. ^88. 

— Scrap pile. Comments on value, 343, 

— Portland devices for econom.v. ^353. 

— Shop call system. •366. 

— Threading tool. New type. *368. 

— Wire brush attachment for air drill. •lOOl. 

Research : 

— ^Library co-operation In Boston. 804. 
Rhode Island Co. (see* Providence. R. I ). 
Richmond. Va. : 

— Virginia Railw.-iy & Power Co. : 
Fare increase sought, 1187 
FrancMse principles. 50.3, 740, 905. 
Jitney situation, 566. 
Profit sharing plan withdrawn. 499. 
Railway day demonstration. ^951. 
Trackless Ti-o"ey for. "'1132. '"1158: Com- 
ments on. 1156. 

Rochester. N. Y.: 

— New York State Ry.: 

Annual report. 787. 

Automobile substation report, 804, 

Cars remodeled, ^994: Comments on, 1024. 

Repair shops. Cost competition, ^523, 

Repair .shop kinks, •1039. 

Union freight terminal, •762. 

Wage reduction arbitration, 693, 781 966 
1177 

— Service at cost features [Nash], 24-, 
Rochester & Syracuse P,.R, (see Svracuse, 
N. Y.). 

Rockford, 111.: 

— Rockford City Traction Co.: 
Wages reduced. 194. 

Rockport, Ind. : 

— Service curtailed, 328. 



St. Louis & East St. Louis Elec. Ry. (see East 
St, Louis. 111.). 

St. Louis, Mo.: 

— Rapid Transit i.lans, *70. 

— Transit planning commission on blig-hted dis- 
tricts. Comments on, 1025, 
— United Railwiys: 

Advertising contracts, 826. 

Annual report. 967. 

Fare increase sought. 1049. 

Fire destroys cars, 111. •149. 

Publicity aids fare increase. 1049. 

Quarterly report, 331, 

Receivership controversy, 463. 

Valuation, 101, 380. 

Wage agreement, 1140. 

St. Paul, Minn.: 

— Fare increase postponed, 105. 

— Sf-rvice at cost rejected [Nash]. 26. 

— St. Paul City Ry.: 

Valuation iirotested. 56. 

Sacramento, Cal,: 

— ^Pacific Gas & Elec. Co, : 

Commission's recommendations. 833. 

One-man cars allowed, 653: Prohibited. 
r058. 

Safety cars (see Cars. Safety). 
Safety first: 

— Accident prevention [Mayne-Reade] , 268- 

r Money]. 268. 
— Advertising in Pine Bluff. Ark.. *815. 
— Alphabet. 226. 

— Bonus plan in Dallas abandoned, 1186. 
— Campaign results in Los Angeles, Cal. [Jef- 
frey], 996. 

— Employees encouraged by personal appeal, 
•221 

— Grade crossing- signs in Conn, ^212 
— National Electric Safety Code. 955 
— Portland. Oregon campaign. ^60. 508 



Abbreviations : ' Illustrated, c Communications. 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



January -June, 1921] 



INDEX 



XI 



Safety first (Continued) : 

— Obedience to rules essential. 412 

— Publicity among- children. •411 

— Traffic regnilations, 369 

— Wait for car to stop. London, *411 

Safety zones in Los Ang-eles. Cal.. *1149. 

Salt Lake City, Utah: 
— Bamberg-er Electric R.R. : 

Annual report, 114fi. 

Fare increase, 791 
— Salt Lake & Utah R.R.: 

Fare increase. 6,59 
— Utah-Idaho Central R.R : 

Annual report. 872 
— Utah Lig-ht & Traction Co.: 

Wage conference, 74.3, 867 

Wage decrease, 1142. 

San Antonio, Texas: 

— San Antonio Public Sei-vice Co.: 

Cities contract not valid, 7,t0 Comments 
on. 761 

Fare controversy, 7.50: Comments on. 709 

San Diego, Cal. : 

— San Diego Electric Ry. : 
Annu,al report, 87!i. 
Fare situation. fStorrsI. 18 
Sanding device. Foot operated. *.366 

Sandusky. Norwalk & Mansfield Elec. Ry. (see 
Norwalk. Ohio). 

San Francisco. Cal.: 

— San Francisco Municipal Ry.: 

Additional buses purchased. 18,5 
Annual report. 697, 87.3 : [O'Shaughnessvl . 
c821 

Center entrance car tried. *229 

Development FO'Shaughnessy 1 , 488 

Seal replaces lettering. 1092 
— United Railroads: 

Annual report. 697. S7.3 

Cars. New, •1174 

Frogs repaired. •929 

Reorganization. 55. 420 

Trolley pole supports on wall. •7-37 
— Western Pacific Ry.: 

Purchases Sacramento Northern. 504 
San Francisco. Napa & Calistoga Ry. (see 
Napa. Cal . ) 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rv. (see Oak- 
land. Cal.) 

San Francisco & Sacramento R.R. (see Oak- 
land. Cal.) 

San Jose. Cal. : 

— ^Peninsular Railway: 

Fare increase sought. 105 

Santa Cruz, Cal.: 
— Union Traction Co.: 
Fare increase. 156 

Schedules and timetables: 
— Boston. Mass. Trip diagr.im. 659 
— Data for revising IKnnpcyne], 1171, 
- — Decreasing turnover Comments on, .34.3 
— Fare receipts expedite in Camden. N. J.. *'3", 
— Higher schedule speeds desirable (Blair J. 40.3 
— Safety cars loading [Thirlwall]. 735 
— 'Schedule revision for economy. Comments on. 
431 

Schenectady. N. Y. : 
— Schenectady Railway: 

Annual report. 787 

Wage reduction proposed. 693 

Seranton. Pa : 

— Seranton. Montrose & Binghamton R.R.: 

Wag-e controversy. Strike. 9(35 
Scrap indicative of progress. Comments on. 113 
Seats and windows: 

— Folding type seats in N. Y. Municipal Rv. 

cars. ^1087 
— Pneumatic seat for motorman. ^818 

Seattle, Wash. : 

— Jitney situation. 698. 1014 
— Seattle Municipal Ry. : 

Aid from tax._<s suggested. 2,3,3 

Annual report. 1011 

April report. 1056 

Deferred maintenance increases costs. 237 
Fare increase. 58. 200 

Financial difficulties. ,375. 380: Solution. 
780: Plans. 1146. 

January repo;-t. 571 

March report. 830 

One man rear-exit cars. ^940 

Permanent improvements urged 5,3 

Purchase controversy, 279. 324 416 ^459. 
499. 564. 010. 653. 784. 906. 

Self-sustaininar, Should be. 194 
— Subway proposed. 701 
Second Avenue Ry (.see New York City). 

Service and tower wagons: 

— Auto emergency, •.5,50 

— Boston elevated Ry. (D.ni.-ri, ^484 

— Tash wagon in Memphis. *104.3. 

— Remov.able tower. '861 

— Truck crane. ^738 

— Two wheel trailer truck. *414 

Service at cost (see also Franchises) : 
— Advantages [Gadsden, by Bozell]. 8 
— Akron re.iects. 416 

— Cincinnati Director denies fare increase. 467 

— Cincinnati franchise attacked. 692 

— Contrast of "cost-plus." Comments on. 393 

— Encourages cooperation [Mahonl 317 

— Explained to Cincinnati riders. 423 

— Findlay. Ohio. 834. 1006 

— Port Wayne. Ind., 823 



Service at cost (Continued) : 
— Franchises amended [Nash]. 38 
— Franchises considered [Nash]. 37 
— Grand Rapids. Mich. 335 

— Incentives discnssed [Nash). 29; [Barker]. 

40(); Comments on. 840 
— Milwaukee. Wis.. 741 

— Montreal. Results [Hutcheson]. 364; ^775 
— New York Commission coun.sels care, 193 
— Proposed for : 

Dallas, Texas. 333, 1051 

Detroit. 193. 338. 415. 613. 653; Defeated. 
653. 743 

Duluth. Minn.. 609 

Milwaukee. Wis.. 379 
— Rejected franchises [Nash]. 26 
— Review of [Nash]. 33 
— Toledo. 193. 277 
— Transit representatives discuss. 361 

Shops : 

— Humidit.v. Automatic control of, 9,3 
Shore Line Electric Ry. (see Norwich. Conn.) 

Shreveport. La. : 
— Shreveport Traction Co.: 
Fare controversy. 467 

Signals : 

— Combined with track switch. ^738 
— Maintenance in Chattanooga. 563 
— -Tail lights on safety cars. *899 

Single phase railways: 

— Austria [Palme 1. 644 

— Mare Island locomotive, ^858 

Skip-sto)) (see Stopping of cars). 

Snow removal: 

— Costs in Montreal. ^368 

— Electric drive aids on C. M. & St. P.. [Sears I. 
138 

— Equipment used in Winnipeg-. *,367 
— Municipal metliods referred to. ,399 
— Sweepers from open cars, *495 

South Bend, Wash.: 
— Willapa Electric Co. : 
Paving relief. 565 
South Carolina Lt.. Pr. & Rys. Co. (see Spar- 

tansburg. S. C). 
Southern Indiana Gas & Elec. Lt. Co. (S'C 

Evansville. Ind. ) . 
Southern New York Pr. & Ry. Corp. (see 

Cooperstown. N. Y. ) . 
Southern Public Utilities Co. (see Charlotte, 

N. C.) 

Southwestern Electrical and Gas Assn.: 
— Annual convention. 1031 

Spartansburg. S. C: 

— South Carolina Lt.. Pr. & Rys. Co. : 
Receivership. 46,5 

Special (traekwork: 
— Electric track switches. 1042 
— Frogs repaired in place. *939 
— Reclaiming cast steel mate. ^861 
— Renewal of in Washington. D. C. [Goucher], 
•712 

— Switch casting reclaimed by welding. Mc- 
Gregor]. ^139 
— ^Welding frog. *561 

Spokane. Wash.: 

— Consolidation of railways urged. ^187 
— -Spokane & Eastern Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Fare increa.se sought. 105. 616. 618 
— Spokane Traction Co : 

Fare increase sought. 790 
— Washington Water Power Co. : 

Fare i«crease sought. 616. 618. 790 

One man cars only. 386 

Spain : 

— Electrification possibilities. 34 

Springfield. Mass.: 

— Springfield Street Ry.: 

Fare situation [Storrs]. '17 

Springfield. Mo.: 

— Springfield Traction Co.: 

Repairing rails with old plates. •1176. 

Springfield. Ohio.: 
— Ohio Electric Ry.: 

Collateral sold. 284 

Dissolution proposed. 1184. 

Feb. report, 1054 

Receivership. 240. 431 
Standard Gas & Elec. Co. (see Chicago. III.) 

Standardization : 

— American Engineering Standards Com.: 

Annual report. 734; Comments on. 709 
— Cables. Start made. 456 

— Safety car discussion. 'IS?. 369. 370. 489. 

509. 642. 735. 850. 961. 1005. 1092. 1172; 

Comments on 477. 
— Encouraged b.v government. 1036 
— Support deserved [Sehreiber]. c830 

Statistics : 

— Automatic substations. 176 

— Automatic substations on C. N. S. & M.. 

[Jones]. ^595 
— Baltimore operation. 1054 
— Boston Elevated Ry. operation. 839 
— Bus operation in Akron. Ohio Hh"). 
— Cleveland. Ry.. Operation. 569 
— Fare analysis in Philadelphia. 507 
— Fare increases. 387 

— iFares in American cities. Comments on. 636 
— Fare situation in many cities [Storrs]. 'll 
— Fifth Ave. Coach Co. report. 100 
— Foreclosures. 4,3 



Statistics (Continued): 

— Hudson & Manhattan R.R. report. 102 

— Living costs. 483 

— Maturities. Electric railways in 1931. 101 
— New York city companies. 338 
— Operation of 127 city and interurban r.iil- 
ways. 746 

— Philadelphia Rapid Transit operation. 465. 
874 

— Public Service Ry. operation. 656 

— Railways in U. S.. 47 

— Receiverships. 43 

— Repair shop economy. 1117. 

— Rolling stock ordered in 1930, 37 

— San Francisco. Cal. operation. 697: [O'Shau- 

nessy]. c831 
— Securities of Chicago Elevated Ry.. 241 
— Steam railroad report. 144 

— Suburban traffic in N. Y.. Comments on. 1156. 
— ^Surface and rapid transit operation compared. 
1053 

— Track construction. 40 

— Track abandoned or service suspensions. 4,3 

— Trailer car economy in Wash.. D. C. 170 

— Twin City operation. 871 

— Valuation data. Reading. Pa., 153 

— Vancouver operation. 872 

— Wages on steam railroads. 774 

— Zone .system in San Diego, Cal.. 875 

Steel (.see Metals). 

Steps: 

— Counterbalanced folding. '818 

S'opping of ears: 

— Skip-stop in Omaha. 1185. 

Stores : 

— Numbering parts prevents errors [McM;ihonl 
533 

— Welding decreases necessary investment. Com- 
ments on. 477 

Strikes anjj arbitrations: 

— Albany strike. 381. 333. 375. 502. 564. 612. 

694. 1009. 1050 
— Arbitrations rather than strikes. Comments 

on. 883 

— Cincinnati power plant men str ke, 1052 1178. 

— Reorganizing after strike. 68.3 

— Strike. Seranton. M. & B. R.R.. 965 

— Wage arbitrations: 

Akron, Ohio, 906 

Cincinnati & Davton Tr, Co.. 1178. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 694 

Davenport. la.. 1142. 

Des Moines. Jowa. 1094 

Eastern Massachu.setts Street Rv,. 869 963 
Newburgh, N. Y.. 740 
New York State Svs.. 781. 966 1177. 
Salt Lake City. Utah 1142. 
Wheeling. W. Va.. 1139. 
Willoughby. Ohio. 1139. 
— Wage arbitration outline [E. A. W.]. 481 

Structural material. Plymetl. 1091. 

Substations and eouipment (see also Power sta- 
tions and equipment) : 
— 'Automatic : 

Advantages of. 17,5: Comments on. 207 

Experience on A. E. & C. [Johnson]. 600 

Interstate Public Service Co.. 1161. 

Motor-generator set. '405 

Operation on C. N, S, & M. [Jones]. *595: 
Comments on. 583 

Operation discussed. .592 

Reliability. 804 

Switzerland. •eSl 

Table of. 176 
— Brazil. Motor generator sets [Bearce]. ^1079 
— Circuit breaker. R^closing- type satisfactory. 

940 

— Cost of eouipment [Knowlton]. *950 

— Interstate Pub'ic Service Co. stations. '1169. 

Subways : 

— Cars for London. '441 
— St. Louis plans for. ^70 
— Seattle. Proposed for. 701 

Sweden : 

— Electrification of railroads [Zehmel. 439 
— Railway development [Dobson & Wynne 1. 
1069 

— Stockholm-Gothenburg R.R. to be electrified. 
185 

Switzerland : 

— 'Basel atitomatic substation. ^681. 
— ^Electrification of railroads [Zehme]. 440 
— Electrification progress. ,34 
— ^Geneva. Motor cars and tr.ailers. ^270 
— Locomotives. Representative types •72.5 
— ^Railway development in [Dobson & W.vnne]. 
•1069 

— Rhaetian Railway steam and electric opera- 
tion. 406 

— St Gotthard electrification progress. 412 

Switchboards and equipment: 

— Circuit breaker handle protector. '818 

— Circuit breaker. Safety switch. 6,36 

— Hazard of faulty construction [Bert], 643 

— Kilovolt-ampere meter. '1136. 

— Meters, direct current. •SIS 

Syracuse, N. Y : 

— New York State Rys.: 

Fare increase. 199. 789 

One man cars adopted. 661 
— Roc'liester & S.vraeuse R.R.: 

Budget system [Grouse]. *802: Comment,? 
on, 799 

Raising culvert, '733, 
— -Syracuse & Suburban R.v, : 

Service ordered restored, 464 

Suspension t.'ireatened, 54 , 



Abbreviations: ♦Illustrated, c Communications 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BBaiNNING OF THE INDEX 



XII 



INDEX 



[Vol. 57 



T 

Tacoma. Wash.; 

— Bus terminal, til". 

— Tacoma Railway & Power Co.: 

Advertises city's advantages, 326. 

Co-operation sought. 508. 

Extensions impossible. 868. 

Tampa. Fla.: 

— Tampa Electric Co.: 

Free-ranee law costly. 833. 
Taunton, Mass.: 

— Abandonment of municipal lines proposed, 
328. 

Taxes : 

— Buses to reduce ta.xes, Comments on, 39:2. 

— Deferred payment plan proposed, 964. 

— fniiease in California proposed, 464. 

— fntang-ible property status. 910. 

— 'Massaehiiselts extends exemptions, 101:2: 

Comments on, 981. 
— New York taxes discussed [N. Y. E. R. A.J. 

11-26. 

— Paving relief in California proposed, 109.j. 
— Proposed taxes. Comments on, 839. 
— Taxes for municipal expenses affect all. Com- 
ments on 432. 
— Utility taxes. 9(12. 

Telephone interference factor not standardized. 

Comments on, 475. 
Tennessee : 

— Amortization of loss allowed, 55. 
Terminals : 

- — Bus terminal in Tacoma, 617. 
— ^Freight, Erie, Pa., 141. 
— Fi-eieht for T. H. I. & E. T. Co.. 'll?!. 
— Freight terminal plaujied for Indianapolis. 
5(i6. 

— Freight at Rochester, N. Y., •763. 
— Harbor-freight railway proposed. *228. 
— Los Angeles, Cal.. 868. 1008. 
— Washington Baltimore & Annapolis Hy.. 566. 
•859.' 

Terre Haute. Ind.: 

— Mayor praises railway, OM; Comments on, 
309. 

— Terre Haute Traction & Light Co.: 

Signals combined with trade switch, •738. 

Tests of material and equipment: 

— Air-brakes. Charting conditions of [Lewis], 
535. 

— Bond-testers, Portable [McKelwayl, '535. 
— Insulating materials [Litchfield], 719; 

[Dean I, •931. 
— Magiieti<' analyzer for steel rails. 9.3. 
— Materi.ils Comments on knowledge of. 711. 
— Poles. Suggestions for iron tubular. 84. 
— Rails value of tests [Gennet], 898. 
— Specifications of M.C.B. and A.R.A., 349. 

Texas : 

— Interurbans, State control sought, 617. 

— Utilities bill unsatisfactory, 653. 

Texas Electric Ry. (see Dallas. Tex.). 

Third Ave. Elevated R.R. (see New York City). 

Tickets and tokens: 

— Sing;le coin, Comments on, 636. 

— Sorting from coins. '1116. 

— Tokens of various materials in Germany, 143. 
Ties: 

— Pence posts of old ties, 1045. 
— Perforating before impregnating. 819. 
— Renewals and average life, '901. 
Tokens (se? Tickets and tokens!. 
Toledo. Bowling Green & Southern Traction Co. 
(see Findlay. Ohio). 

Toledo. Ohio. : 

— Communit.v Traction Co.: 

April report 1013, 

Contract difficulties, 611. 

Deficit reported, 501. 

Pare reduction, effect of. 333. 

May report, 1144. 

February report. 615. 

Financial problems, 693, 745, 908. 

Interitrban contracts. 657. 

March report. 787. 

Routing changes contemplated, 468,, 

Service at cost started, 377. 

Wage reduction. 1008. 1095. 
— .Titney situation. 701. 833, 1015. 1105, 1187. 
— ^Maumee Valley Railways & Lt. Co.: 

Receiver appointed, 100. 
— Service at cost features [Nash], 35, 
— ^Service at cost plans. 53. 98, 193. 337. 
— Toledo Rys. & Lt. Co.: 

Community Traction Co. takes over rail- 
ways, 330. 
— Toledo & Western R.R. : 

Receiver appointed. 101. 

Toronto. Ont.. Canada: 

— Hydro Commission purchase approved by rate 

payers. 101. 
— Hydro-radial plans. 963. 1180. 
— Transportation Commission: 

Cars ordered. 880. 

Improvement plans. 1147. 

Railway questionnaire. 230. 
Track abandoned (see Abandoned lines) ; 
Track construction: 

— Evaluating [Knowlton]. *991: Comments on. 
980. 

— Fort Wayne. Ind.. '688. 
— Foundation [Cram]. 31. 

— Labor saving devices [Clark]. 554: Discus- 
sion. 591 . 
— Paterson. N. J.. 333. ^454. 
— Plow. Improvised on work ear [Mills]. ^546. 
— Pneumatic wrenches for track bolts. 639. 
— Reducing costs. Comments on 165. 
— Resilient track in Wausau, Wis.. *733 
— Rock crusher economical. *950. 
— Standards, speeifieations, etc. [A. R. E. A ]. 



Track construction (Continued): 

— Steel ties in Poughkeepsie [Stratlon], •344. 

— Statistics for 1930, 40. 

— Suggestions for [Cram], 30. 

— ^Tools aid [Cram], 32. 

— -Wood preservation. Comments on, 351. 

Traffic regulation: 
—■"Safety rules, 369. 

— Vehicular, Comments on routing, 635, 

Traffic investigations: 
— Beaver Valley Tr. Co., '670. 
— Continual checks [Feron], 592. 
— Discussion of. 590. 

— Economic results. Comments on, 625, 
— Newark. N. J.. •394. 

— Observations necessary [Kappeyne], 1171. 
— Trailers effect of on schedules, *319. 

Traffic stimulation: 
— Discussion by C. E. R. A. 448. 
— Efficient service required [Weedonl. 492. 
— Factors affecting. Comments on, 294. 
— Industrial depression. Comments on effect of, 
351. 

— Transit representatives discuss, 261. 
Trackless trolleys: 

— Demonstration planned. 846: Success, •1133. 

— Double deck car for, •78. 

— England favors for extensions, 444. 

— Field of [Jackson], cl89. 

— German situation. 849. 

— Great Britain. •77. 444. 778, 865, 1161. 

— Leeds. Great Britain preparing for, 778, 

— New York City specifies 1003. 

- — Pi-oposed for Greenville, Tex,, 781. 

— Richmond, Va., '1133: Features of, '1158: 

Comments on, 1156. 
— iRoad conditions [Engineer], e274. 
— 'Success in Bradford and Keighley, Great 

Britain, *77. 
— York. Great Britain adopts. 1161. 
Track measuring device. ^186. 
Track mower for weeds, *1045. 

Track maintenance: 

— ^Air compressor. Portable, •130. *143. 
— Factors affecting cost [Cram]. 1047. 
— Labor savers [Stratton], •519. 
— Mower for weeds. '1045. 
— Oilers' buckets. •1004. 

— Old track in good condition [Whitlock]. ^187. 

— Hails repaired with old plates, '1176. 

— Rehabilitating in Massachusetts, ^809. 

— Sanding by hand *1004. 

— Suggestions on. 856. 

— Track life. Comments on, 517, 

Transfers : 

— Los Angeles, Ry. new system, 574, 
Transportation, Metropolitan : 

— lAdequate fares required. Comments on, 167. 
— Blighted districts and fare change. Comments 

on, 1034. 
— ^Boston -Dorchester program. .376. 
— Boston. Extensions proposed 191. 
— Chicago freight problems, 1000. 
— Platforms. Moving proposed. ^124. 
— Rapid transit in relation to trunk line roads 

[Arnold]. 1000. 
— Rapid transit plans for St. Louis. ^70. 
— Suburban traffic on electric roads. Comments 

on. 433. 

— Surface ears. End in New York predicted, 23f 
— Surface trunk lines. Comments on. 710. 
— Tractor drive in Berlin, ^8,58, 

Trenton, N. J.: 

— New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Co. : 

Fare increase sought. 1058. 
— Trenton & Mercer County Tr. Corp. : 

Fare situation. 509, 751, 916, 965. 1185. 

Painting safety cars [Krouse]. 7.37. 

Safety ear with longitudinal seats, 509. 

Traffic recommendations, 334. 

Valuation check. 1101. 

Trucks: 

— Cleaning for overhaul [Day]. •BSl. 
— Rebttilding in Atlanta, Ga.. '944, 

Tulsa. Okla.: 

— -Municipal construction proposed. 1006. 
Two-cent coin, Hearing on. 2.33. 
Twin City Rapid Transit Co, (.see Minneapoli' 
Minn. ) . 



u 



Union Street Railway (see New Bedford Mass.). 
Union Traction Co. (.see Santa Cruz. Cal.). 
Union Traction Co. of Indiana (see Anderson, 
Ind.) , 

United Electric Railways (see Providence. R. I.) . 
United Railroads (see San Francisco. Cal.). 
United Railways fsee St. Louis. Mo.). 
United Railways & Electric Co. (sec Baltimore. 
Md.). 

U. S Chamber of Commerce: 

— Annual meeting. 857. 

— Delegates from A. E. R. A.. 690. 

— TTtilities considered. 833. 

— Referendi'Ui and recommendations for rail- 
ways 314: Comments on. 307. 

— Referendum endor.sPraent : 

Discussion on. 334, 371. 
Proposed [Gadsden]. 146: Comments on. 
308 353. 

Resolutions of A. E. R. A. on. .314: Com- 
ments on. 342 
L'nited Traction Co. (see Alban.v. N. Y.). 

Utah: 

— Assessed valuations for 1920 103. 
— lAuto stage line permitted. 8.33. 
— Electric railway industry. 618. 



Utah-Idaho Central R.R. (see Salt Lake City). 
Utah Lt. & Traction Co. (see Salt Lake City, 
Utah ) . 

Utility development arrested [Hurley], 856, 



V 



Valuation (se Appraisal of railway property). 

Vancouver, B. C, Can.: 

— British Columbia Electric Ry. : 

Annual report, 873. 

Franchise requirements, 783. 

New charter sought, 380. 

Power suspension. Cause, 98. 

Tree grows around wire. ^144. 

Wheel repairing and re-tiring, '275. 
Vending device for street cars, •774. 
Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Richmond & Nor- 
folk, Va,), 



w 



Wage decreases : 

— Albany. Ala.. 743. 

— Albany, N, Y„ 335. 

— Boston. Mass.. 654, 869. 

— Buftalo. N. Y., 741, 

— Cincinnati & Dayton Tr, Co,, 1178. 

— Cincinnati, Ohio. 1006. 

— Cleveland. Columbus & Southwestern Ry.. 835. 
— Cleveland. Ohio, 97, 379, 779; Comments on, 
761. 

— Cooperstowu, N. Y., 1140. 
— Davenport, Iowa, 654, 1142. 
— Detroit, Mich.. 905. 965. 
— Dubuque. Iowa, 1103. 
— East St. Louis. 111.. 907. 

— Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry., 779, 963. 

— ^Effect on fares. Comments on, 583. 

— Grand Rapids, Mich,, 909. 

— Gloversville, N. Y., 1008. 

— Installment plan. Comments on. 840, 

— Jackson, Mich,, 1053, 1097. 

— Newburgh, N. Y., 740. 

— New Orleans. La.. 966. 

— New York State Rys., 1177. 

— Philadelphia. 867; Comments on. 840. 

— Proposed for: 

Akron. Ohio. 867. 906, 

Brooklyn, N. Y., 1143. 

Cleveland, 380. 

Detroit. Mich.. 53, 94, 149, 236, 779, 833. 
868. 905. 

Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry., 461. 
742. 

Interborouph Rapid Transit Co., 1178, 

Manchester. N. H.. 459, 

Newark. N. J., 1097. 

New Brighton. Pa.. 1140. 

New Orleans. La., 906. 

New York State Rys., 693, 781, 966. 

Ohio interurbans. 907. 

Salt Lake City 867. 

Schenectady. N. Y., 693. 

Youngstown. Ohio, 826, 1049, 
— Rockford. 111., 194, 
— Salt Lake City. Utah, 1143. 
— Toledo. Ohio. 1008. 1095. 

— IT. S. Railroad Labor Boarrl decision, 1094. 

— Voluntary. Newark. N. J.. 1181. 

— Voluntary. Oil City. Pa. 1140. 

— ^Voluntary. P.. 'H.. B & N. C. Ry.. 1009. 

— West Pcnn .Rvs.. 908. 

— Willoughby. Ohio. 11.39. 

— 'Youngstown. Ohio. 1104. 

Wage increases: 

— Atlanta. Ga.. 194. 

— Louisville. Ky.. 418. 

W.'iges : 

— ^Agreements without strikes and arbitrations. 

Comments on. 883. 
— Arbitration outline [E. A. W.], 481. 
— Buffalo rates. 741. 
— Great Britain inquiiw. 498. 650. 
— Incentives in Paris franchise, 849; Comments 

on. 840. 

— Industrial depression. Comments on effect of, 
351. 

— living costs and [Layng], •638, 739. 
— Premium wage plan. •647. 

— Premium work [Lucas], *528, *647: Com- 
ments on, 516. 

— 'Reductions, Comments on factors affecting. 
433. 

— St. Louis. Mo., agreement. 1140. 
— Steam railroads. Increases, 774. 
— ^Tendencies [Gadsden, by Bozell], 9; Com- 
ments on. 4, 669. 

Waiting stations: 

— Loading platforms in Baltimore. Md.. •845. 
— Loading platforms. Permanent type in Wash- 
ington. '85. 
— Milwaukee. Wis., shelter. '508. 
Washing cars with air and water, '959, 

Washington : 

— Refunding proposed. 282. 
— Stage regulations. 1105. 

Washington D. C: 
— Capital Traction Co.: 
Annual report .3.30. 

Consolidation favored. 466. 696. 1100. 
Fare situation [Storrs], ^14. 
One man cars 783. 

Special trackwork renewal [GoueherJ, 
•713. 

— Fare rate continued. 659. 
— Loading platform. Permanent ^85. 
— Railway merger urged, 696, 1100: Reported' 
arranged, 969. 



Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Communications. 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



January-June, 1921] 



INDEX 



XIII 



Washiiig-ton, D. C. (Continued) : 

— Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elec. R.R. : 

Head-on collision, 'llO?. 

Terminal opened, 566, *859. 
— Washing-ton Ry, & Elec. Co,: 

Annual report, 283. 

Brake rod testing-, •1124. 

Fare increase denied, 104. 

Pare situation [Storrs], *14. 

Merg:er proposed, 466, 096, 1100. 

Two car trains. Economy by, '168. 
Washing-ton Water Power Co, (see Spokane. 
Wash,) . 

Waste, Industrial : 

— Investig-ation by F. A. E. S., 6.30: Comments 
on, 637: Report, 1091: Comments on, 1066, 
Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry. (see 
Cedar Palls, Iowa), 

Waukegan, 111.: 

— Safety car operation, 174. 

Wausau, Wis. : 

— 'Wisconsin "Valley Elec'vi'^ Co.: 
Track construction, *723. 

Welding : 

— Arc-welding machine. 563. 

— Arc welding on railway properties [Candy], 
•131. 

— Are welding- switch casting [McGregor], 'ISg. 
— Economy in stores account. Comments on, 
477. 

— Efficiency and application, 537, 

— Electrode holders, 'aos. 

— Ground block. Magnetic, 104. 

— Ground clamp, '738. 

— Oxyaoetylene. Characteristics of, 1134. 

— Reclamation, Buffalo, N. Y., •1116. 

— Reclamation, Comments on limit, 841, 

— Resistance are welder. *1003. 

— Special trackwork. •SOI. 

— Track maintenance by [Stratton], *519. 

— 'Wheel flanges. Discussion, 537. 

— Wheels, 860. 



Westchester Electric R.R. (see Mt. Vernon, 
N. Y.). 

Western Light & Power Co. (see Boulder, 
Col.). 

Western Pacific Ry. (see San Francisco, Cal.). 

Westinghouse Air Brake Co. : 
— -Annual report. 707. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co.: 
— -Annual report, 977. 

West Jersey & Seashore R,R, (see Camden, 
N. J.). 

West Penn Rys. (see Pittsburgh, Pa.). 

Wheelmg W. Va.: 

— Wheeling Public Service Corp.; 

Controlling interest sold. 1183. 

Siispinsiim (if service proposed. 74.5. 
— WhecIinK- Traction Co.: 

Fares adjusted by I. C. C, 789: Attacked, 
973, 

Wages maintained by arbitration, 1139. 
Wheels : 

— Flange contour testing, *714. 

— Repairing and re-tiring. ^375. 

— Standard of M. C. B. and A. R. A., 350. 

— Turning in sm.all lathe. 819. 

— Welding flanges. Discussion, 537. 

— Welding in Terre Haute. 860. 

Willapa Electric Co. (see South Bend, Wash.). 

Willoughby. Ohio: 

— Cleveland. Paines\'ille & Eastern R.R.: 
Wage decrease by arbitration, 1139. 

Winnipeg. Man.. Can.; 
— City-railway fare controversy, 749. 
— Winnipeg Electric Railway : 
Annual report, 410. 

Mitigating electrolysis [Smith], •584' 

Comments on, 581. 
Rebuilt cars, •398. 
Snow condition, •728. 
Wage contract renewed, 963. 



Wisconsin : 

— Commission revision proposed, 781. 
— Pares lower than U. S. average. 199. 
— Jitney regailation bill vetoed. 1103. 
Wisconsin Gas & Electric Co. (see Kenosha, 
Wis.). 

Wisconsin Electrical Assn.: 
— Annual meeting, 645. 

Wisconsin Public Service Co. (see Green Bay, 
Wis.). 

Wisconsin Valley Electric Co. (see Wausau, 
Wis.) . 

Wood : 

— Dry kilns. Construction, 140. 
— Poles (see Power distribution). 

Worcester. Mass. : 

— -Worcester Consolidated Street Ry.: 
Fare increase sought, 344. 
Fare increase. 384. 
Flat fare proposed. 834. 
Fare situation [Storrsl. •IS. 

Work and wrecking cars : 

— Useful cars [Stratton], *530, 



Youngstown, Ohio: 

— Jitneys restricted, 703. 

— ^Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Co.: 

Wage reduction proposed. 1049. 

Wage reduction. 1104. 
— Service at cost features [Nash]. 23. 
— Youngstown Municipal R.V.; 

One man cars for heavy traffic 106. 

Wage reduction proposed, 826, 1049. 

Wage reduction. 1104. 
— Youngstown & Suburban Ry.: 

Locomotive described. *959. 



Zone fare systems (see Fares). 



Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Communications. 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



AlV 



INDEX 



[Vol. 57 



AUTHOR INDEX 



Adams, H. H.: 

— Chicaro safety cars proposed, 173, 
Ainey, W. D. B.: 

— Pennsylvania commission policies. 180, 
Arkwrig^ht, Preston, S, : 
— Don't hate your customers, 771, 
Armstrong, A, H.: 

— 'Electrification an economic necessity, 4.>.'j. 
Arnold. Bion J,; 

— The relation of steam roads to rapid-transit 

development, 1000, 
Arnold, B, W.: 

— Why not the one-man car? 646. 
Angstrom, Hilding: 

— Destructive effect of current on ball bearings 

of electric cars, *941, 
Atkinson. H, M.: 

— Co-operation and responsibility, e691. 



B 



Barhite, John A, : 

— Legral status of railways, 1127, 
Barker, Harry: 

— Novel base for incentive, 406. 
Barnes, James P. : 

— Sincerity, service and salesmanship, 4,50. 

Basford. George M.: 

— Vitalizing locomotives, 1036, 

Beall, Chailes W.: 

— The report from a financial standpoint, 487, 
Bellinger, P. W, : 

— Maintenance on the B,, A. & P., '217. 

Bennett. William J. : 

— Financing highways, 1042, 

Bert. Roscoe M.: 

— Hazard of faulty switchboard construction, 
643. 

Blair, D. E. : 

— Some engineering features of trarawav o))cra- 

tion, 403. 
Bland, Fred : 

— More about foreign rail sections, cl48. 
Blech, Theodore: 

— ^Graduating "Mike" as a lineman in three 

months, ,'593. 
Bolt, W. C: 

— Safety devices on Bay State cars, 1175, 
Bonner, C, J.: 

— Container system for freight, 218, 
Bosenbury, J. M.: 

— Comments on reducing shop costs, 557, 
Boyce W, H.: 

— Merchandising transportation, '1033, niiVJ, 
Bozell, Harold V.: 

— Ask the car rider (Interview with P H. 

Gadsden), 6, 
Brinckerhoff, Frank M,: 

— Safety of passengers in steel cars, '605. 
Brown. Harry L.: 

— Progress of the one-man safety car, 177. 
Brown. L, M,: 

— Traffic from an operating viewpoint, 49:i. 
Brown L. R, : 

— Freight co-operation at Rochester '762 
— Special franchise valuation, 601, 
Burke. W. H,: 

— Development of the safety car, 1129, 

Burnham, W, A.: 

— Third rail gaging device, •559, 



Candy A. M.: 

— Arc welding on railway properties. •121. 
Chalmers. Charles E.: 

— One-man service on Second Ave. R.R.. 1126. 
Cherry, T, C. : 

— Address to N, Y. E. R. A , 1125. 
Clark. Charles H,: 

— Labor saving devices ni the way department 

o54. , 
Cobb, B. C: 

— A car rider's reply, 272. 
Collier, Barron : 

— 'Discussion on P, E. R. C. and U, S, C of C 
reports, 271, 

Connell, E. L.: 

— Maintenance of portable electric drills. 544. 
Cooper. H. S.: 

— Capital must be attracted to electric railway 
industry, c413. 

Cooper. S. B.: 

— The Paulista Railway and the Westinghouse 
locomotives, •107,5. 

Corey, Chester: 

— Financing a public utility by sale of stock 
306: Comments on 293. 

Crall, J. H,: 

— How to increase ticket sales, 494. 



Cram, R. C: 

— Maintenance cost on a car-weight basis, 
cl047, 

— When we build our tracks, 21. 
Crawford, Norman McD,; 

— Discussion on F, E, R. C. and U. S. of C, 

reports, 271, 
Crouse. D, E,; 

— Budget system which produces results, •802 
— Raising a 500 ton concrete culvert, ^733, 
Culkins, W, C: 

— Budget plan in Cincinnati, c48. 
— Service in Cincinnati, c322. 



Dana Edward: 

— -Replacing horses with motors and trui-ks. 

•484. 
Day. Henry S, : 

— Cleaning trucks for overhaul, •551. 
Dean. John S,: 

— Maintenance work on electric railway motors, 
♦540. 

— Testing insulating materials, •931, 
Dehore, C. T, : 

— One man ears for interurban service, •982, 
— Real service in a city of 30,000, ^179. 
Dob.son. J. v.: 

— Railway electrificatioii m Europe I with F. 
E. Wynne), '1069. 



"Engineer" : 

— Maintenance cost on a car-weight basis, c820. 
— Points of difference between American and 

German railway practice. cl48. 
— Problems ahead for trolley bus. c279. 
Emery James A.: 

— Transportation combinations and the public 

interest, 76. 
Emmons. C, D,; 

— Railway president favors budget system. 49. 



Feron M. J.; 

— Making continual traffic checks, 592. 
Fogarty. James F,: 

— Previous methods of railway financing, 298, 



Gadsden, P, H.: 

— Ask the car rider (Interview by Bozell), 6, 
— (Fares and future credit, 315, 
— F. E. R. C, Report, Recommends endorse- 
ment, 146. 
— Financial outlook, optimistic, 172. 
— Financing public service. 137. 
Gennet. C. W. Jr. : 
— Steel rails. 898. 
George, E . E . : 

— Labor bureau statistics are weighted, c739. 
George. Howard H. : 

— Duties of bridge and building inspectors, 135. 
Gillette, H, P, : 

— "Present value" in Galveston case, c689, 
Goucher, E. P.: 

— Large special trackwork renewal. ^712. 
Gove, W. G. : 

— One-man car in its present relation to operat- 
ing and maintenance costs. 1128. 
— Stick to safety-ear design standards. cl092. 



H 

Hall. E. K.: 

— Educating the public. 182 
Hanna, J, H.: 

— Advantages measured by cost, c90 
Harte, Charles tt. : 

— The engineer and eminent domain, '851 
Haynes, Paul P.: 

— Utilit.v situation in Indiana, 181 
Hedley, Frank : 
— Advice to engineers, 930 
Helton, Walter R.: 

— Introducing the employee to the job and fol- 
lowing him up, 594 
Hester J, E.: 

— An inexpensive air hoist, •11.34. 
Heulings, W. H.. Jr.: 

— No reason to change standard Birney safety 

car design, 850 
— Safety car design, e369 
Higgins. Richard T, : 

— Discusses endorsement of reports of P. E, 

R. C. and U. S. C. C. 325 
— Public desires service, 954 
Hopson, H. C: 
— ^New York taxes, 1127, 



Howard, R, M,: 

— One man operation is very desirable, 647 
Hutcheson, J. E. 

— Service at cost, Montreal, 264 
Hurley, Edward N.: 

— Arrested development of public utilities, 856 



Insull, Martin J.: 

— Utilities necessary, 182 



Jackson, Walter: 

— The field of the trackless trolley, cl89 
— The selling idea in zone fares, el48 
Jeffrey, J. G.: 

— Accomplishments of a safety bureau, 996 
Johnson. John: 

— Car operation from the motorman's stand- 
point, c413 
Johnson. H. A : 

— Results of safety ear operation in Waukegan. 
111., 174 
.lohnson. S. E. : 

— A, E, & C. Automatic substation experience,. 
600 

Jones. Charles H.: 

— Advantages of automatic railway substations,. 
175. 

— Checking upon automatic substation '595 



Kappeyne. J.: 

— What traffic observations are needed. 1171. 
Knowlton, Archer E.: 

— Railway valuation in Connecticut, ^947, *985' 
Krombach, H, J.: 

— Expanding railway motor bearings *958 
Krouse. Herbert E.: 

— Economical painting for sefety cars, 737. 
— Maintainmg Ijall bearings. 559 
— Mechanical Sanders for safety cars, ^687 
— Suggested changes in safety car design, c961 



Lambei't, Myles B.: 

— Get the young engineer while the getting is- 

good. ell37. 
Layng. John P.: 

— Living costs and wages, •628, 739 
Lee, Lotus R. : 

— Unit idea in power station design, ^73 
Lewis, Kenneth R, 

— Charting conditions of air-brake equipment,, 
•535 

Litchfield, Norman : 

— Electrical insulating materials, 719 

Lowry, Horace: 

— Discus,ses endorsement of reports of P, E. 

R C. and U, S, C. C, 235, 
Lucas, J. H. : 

— Premium wage plan in Milwaukee shops,. 
•539, •647. 



M 



Mayne-Reade, R.: 

— Accident prevention. 268. 

McCune, J. C: 

— Safety car successful. 365. 
McGregor, A.: 

— Broken switch casting reclaimed by electric 

are welding, •139. 
McKelway, G. H,; 
— Portable bond testers, •525. 
— The inspection of rail bonding. 119, 
McLimont, A, W. : 

Publicity and public relations, 267. 
McMahon. C. R.: 
— 'System prevents mistakes. 532. 
Mahon, W, D.: 

— Service at cost means co-operation, 317. 
Managrer: 

— 'Accident reduction - versus excessive concen- 
tration upon fare collection, c689. 
May, I, A.: 

— A smile and credit, el047, 
Metz. Herman A.: 
— New York transit reviewed. 811. 
Miller. Frank H. : 

— Steel trolley shortens trolley wheel life, 553 _ 
Mills. R, C: 

- — Concrete paving repair by novel method, •545- 
Montgomery. Dudley : 

— The Madison design of one-man car, 679, 

Morley, H, B. : 

— Accident preventions, 268, 

Mortimer, James D,: 

— Railway financing, 297. 



Abbreviations: '*IUustrate(3. c Communications. 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



January -June, 1921] 



INDEX 



XV 



Murphy, H. M. P.: 

— Detf rminine forces in brake rig-g-ing. •547. 
— Determination of forces on eccentric levers 

and bell cranks. •72!l. 
— Equalized brakes and braking^ power, ♦OS.^. 
— Piston travel and shoe clearances, 'llig. 
— Standard hand brake riggingrs, 
— The force action of brake rigg-ing, 'lie. 



N 



flash. L. R.: 

— Outlook for service-at-cost franchises, 23, 
Norviel. P. D.: 

— The need for personal effort, 493, 



O'Shaug'hnessy, M. M.: 

— San Francisco's Municipal Railway. 488, 



Palme. Arthur: 

— Electric locomotives for the Austrian State 

Railways. •644. 
Palmer. E. A.: 

— Maintenance cost aecountinp. •71.5. 
Palmer, L, H.: 

— Baltimore wants separate entrances and exits 

on one-man cars, el005, 
Pratt, E. J.: 

— Railways should be protected against unjust 
competition, ell73. 



Ravert, G, W. : 

— Trolley freight service will pay, 78. 
Reynolds. Herbert B.: 

— Data of new interborough turbine, *945, 
Roberts, Edward A,: 

— Fares and short-haul traffic, •896, 955. 



"Safety Car Fan": 

— Advantages of light weight, e369. 
Sawyer, W. H.: 

— Street railway rate tariff, 677. 



Schade, J. C: 

— -Interurbans need more attention, c332. 
Schreiber, Martin : 

— National standardization movement deserves 

support, c820. 
Sears. E.: 

— Fighting snow on the Milwaukee, 138, 
Shepard, E, R.: 

— iThe automatic substation in electrolysis 

mitigation, '805. 
Shrader F. K.: 

— ^Present mortgage requirements. 301 ; Com- 
ments on, 293. 
Smith. W. Nelson : 

— Electrolysis mitigation iTi Winnipeg. '584. 
Sprague. Frank J.: 

— Recommends electrification commission, 1084. 
— Retrospect and prospect. 997. 
Stanley, John J. : 

— Discussion on F. E. R. C. and U. S. C. of C. 

reports. 273. 
Stearns. R. B. : 

— History of one-man cars in Mass., 1125. 
Storrs, Lucius S.: 

— Our national fare experiment, •ll. 
Stratton, A, J.: 

— Track construction in Poughkeepsie. ^344. 
— Track labor savers for small railway. ^518. 
Strickland. J. F.: 

— Discussion on F. E. R. C. and U. S. C. of C, 

Reports. 271. 
Sweet. Edwin F.: 

— Underlying principles of public service. 171. 



Thirlwall. J. C. : 

— Maintenance cost on a car-weight basis. c820. 
— Why alter the standard safety -car design? 
735. 

Thompson. A. W. : 

— Discusses endorsement of report of .F E. 
R. C. and U. S. C. of C. 224. 

Thorne. Wray T. :. 

— Trains versus safety cars. 173. 

Titcomb. H. B.: 

— 'The bus and the trolley, 81. 
.Todd, Robert I.: 
, — Address to C. E, R. A.. 44.5, 

Traylor. Melvin A.: 

— Municipal aid in railway financing. 307; ■ 

Comments on. 293. 
Tripp. Guy E. : 

— Discusses endorsement of reports of F. E. 
R. C. and U. S. C. of C. 224. 



Van Hagan. Leslie P.: 

— Omissions in inventories, 891. 

Van Zandt, A. D. B.: 

— "First catch the hare." e90. 



w 



Walker, E, M.: 

— Single entrance satisfactory in Tene Haute. 

C1172. 
Way. S. B.: 

— Home town financing. 304; Comments on 293. 
— Milwaukee's three-truck, two-man train de- 
clared successful. •131. 
W.. E. A.: 

— Engineer vs. auditor in cost keeping. 893. 
— Preparing for a wage arbitration, 481. 
Weedon. Bert ; 

— The functions of a traffic department. 492. 
Weeks. John W.: 

— Address at the mid-winter dinner, A. E. R. 

A., 371. 
Wehle. Louis B. : 

— Will the electric railw:iy industry respond 
to the vision of its present day leaders 
259. 

Wehman. H. E.: 

— Safety ears, Successful, 266. 

Wenn, F. W.: 

— ^Advantages of containers iji freight traffic, 
220. 

Whitlock, W. L.: 

— Twent.v-two year old track in good condi- 
tion. '187. 
Whittaker, C. C: 
— ^Electrification studies, 734. 
Wi chert. A.: 

— New theory of rail corrugation, 1135. 
Wilcox. Delos F.: 

— Working capital in valuations. 141. 
Wilkerson. James H.: 

— Public opinion and utility problems. 309. . 
Wynne. F. E. : 

— Railway electrification in Europe (with J. V. 
Dobson), •1069. 



Zebme. E. C: 

— Electrification in Central Europe, 438. 



Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Communication. 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 



XVI 



INDEX 



PERSONAL INDEX 



(with biographical notes) 



Anderson. Georg-e B ' , '387 

Andrews. Lincoln C 5 ■ ■ ■ 919 

Appel. L. H .0. ...... . 1019 

Armstrong, E. E .' ): . '.t S. .' 631 

Arnold, Georg-e B 470 



p Matthews. E. L. . 

* Meade, Richard W 

Miller, Dr. E. W. 
Miller, F. W. ... 

Feiker F M •97.5 Montgomery. M. T 

Fitzgeiald. Edward T 919 Mudgett. O. D. 

Foote, F. S *1189 



B 



Bailey-Stokes. H : 471 

Baldwin. Nelson A 63 

Bailer. Morris J 63 

Barnard. Georg-e M 794 

Baxter. Amos R *336 

Beall. J.'ick '1150 

Beason, Ross .t11 

Bell. Thomas K 303 

Bibbins James R Ti'iO 

Blake. Henry W •160 

Blinii. Alfred C '470 

Bower Ivan 1189 

Brooks, Frank W "loei. 1151 

Brown. George N 389 

Brown. Nelson H 663 

Brundige. Harvey W 1188 

Bryan. Walter E 109 

Bucher, E. R 1060 

Bump, M. P. 'lloO 

Butler, Frank L •303 



Cadle, Charles L 'lOS 

Cady. Herbert E 1106 

Calder. D. G 1188 

Callaghan. Patrick -77 

Campbell. Jamos D 918 

Cann. Wilfred E '337 

Carmichael, D. C 1060 

Chappelle, C. C 1107 

Cleaves. Benjamin P 663 

Coddine. H. W 63 

Connor. Edward C 1151 

Converse. Janet 879 

Cooper. John C 919 

Cox. George M 289 

Crane. Seott S 108 

Crawford. Karl B .-,11 

Crecelius, Lawrence P '303 



Gale. G. Gordon *336 

Garman, Harry O -'"iSo 

George, Howard H *63 

Gordon, Frederick D •lOS 

Graham, Edward M '387 

Grumlich, E, L 471 

Grauten, S. H •lOlS 

Griffith. Franklin T 1150 

Gustafson. Major Robert K 436 



H 



Hackel. Charles 347 

Hald^man. Georere H 63 

Handshey. C. F •lei 

Hardin. Harry G 663 

Harkness. LeRoy T '795 

Harris. Charles A ^436 

Harris. G. H *577 

Harris, James W *794 

Hawkins, Carl L 109 

Haynes, Paul P 576 

Hedley, Fi-ank 930 

Herwig, Frantz 389 

Headland, H, C 705 

Hood, William 914 



Jones, C. E. 



.1060 



K 



King-.sbury. Howard T 1189 

Krombaeh. Harry J 63 

Kubu. Joseph S 1060 

Kuertz. William J ^794 



Ong-. J. R 

O'Ryan. Major-Gen. John 
Osborne. Harry V. 
Otis, Harold A 



Paterson. A. B 

Pattison. Hug-h 
Phillips. Victor B. 

Pence. Harry E 

Pierson. P. W 

Potter. Mark W 

Prenderg-ast. Wdliam A. 



Pulliam, J. P 

Reynolds. A. L 

Riddle. Samuel 

Rifenberick, .Robert E-. 
Rowell. Chester M 
Ryder. E. C. . . 



Scott. Nathaniel J 
Seeligsberg^. L. W. 
Seely. Garrett -T. . 
Semple, Oliver C. . 
Shartel. John W. 
Skelding. A. B.. . . 
Skirving. H. R. ... 
Spragrue. Frank J. . 
Stevenson. Harry C 
Stickle, Ralph .... 
Strunk. Walter C. . 
Surg-uy. Henry . . . 
Swartz, Albert .... 
Sweet. Harrison S. . 



Dana. Edward *631 

Davis, William J .336 

Devlin, Frank R 879 

Donaldson, W, B 389 

Douglas. Maurice 794 

Dow. Ale.x '1061 

Downs. Lawrence A '705 

Dudley. Samuel W '288 

Dunham. William R., Jr •753 



Lazenby, Paul A 97.5 

Lee, William S •878 

Lewis, D. K ^436 

Lewis. E. W 1106 

Lewis. Kenneth R 109 

Libby. J. H 347 

Lindars. Frederick W 919 

Litchfield. Norman '753 

Livers. John L ^63 

Lockwood. Major R. J •109 

Luellan. R. E 1189 



Treacy. John J.. 
Turner. Daniel L. 



Vandeiiburg. Spencer S 
Van Vrauken. F. H 



M 



Eicks. Edward F ^974 

Ellis R. L 663 

Ely. Van Horn 159 

Enright. Joseph M •471 

Eseh. John J 630 

Evanson. C. H , , ] 1060 



McAloney. W. H '919 

McAnen.v. George '795 

McCardle, John 794, 918 

McCray, L, H 1107 

McGili, T. Juhan •IISS 

Mclntyre. Malcolm 1061 

Madden. John H 919 

Marshall. Edward C 919 



Wallace, Lawrence W 

Weber, R, L 

Whiteford, William 
Whitsell, John . . . 

Willcox. O. B 

Wilson. Frank H. . 
Witherspoon. H. W 
Wood. William O 
Woodruff. Leslie B 
Woolum. J. B. 
Wyatt. Richard H. 



(*Indicates Portrait) 



Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

HENRY W. BLAKE and HAROLD V. BOZELL. Editors HENRY H. NORRIS. Managing Editor 
HARRY L.BROWN, Western Editor N. A.BOWERS.Pacific Coast Editor H.S.KNOWLTON.New England Editor C.W.SQUIER, Associate Editor C.W.STOCKS. Associate Editor 
DONALD F.HINE. Editorial Repicscntative A. D. KNOX.Editorial Rcr)resenliitive GEORGE BUSHFIELD. Editorial Representative 

G.J.MACMURRAY.News Editor W.R. ANDERSON.Asslstant News Editor 



Volume 57 



New Yt^fl^, ,^§atirr4a^ January 1, 1921 




Number 1 



Happy New Year ! 

Have Faith in Your Industry ! 

IT IS with very best wishes for the New Year that the 
Electric Railway Journal sends forth this first 
issue of 1921 dated Jan. 1, which will not happen again for 
six years, or in 1927. We wish a Happy New Year to the 
various companies and men associated with the com- 
panies and we see every reason to believe that the year 
will turn out to be a prosperous one. There is an 
undercurrent of optimism which cannot be mistaken. 
The railways are on the up grade and going strong. 

In saying what we have we do not overlook the diffi- 
culties ahead, the problems to be solved. But difficulties 
and problems are always with us. Life would be 
monotonous if they were absent. It is merely that they 
are different ones in 1921 from those which have gone 
before and been long since overcome or solved success- 
fully. We comment later on some specific present-day 
conditions. What we would emphasize here is that if 
there is one who is discouraged on account of present 
troubles as he sees them, if there is one in the railway 
industry who has lost faith in its future, let him give 
place to one whose faith and enthusiasm will allow him 
to conquer the problems which confront him. Optimism, 
ability and hard work will accomplish wonders. The 
electric railway industry is the industry which the men 
in it make it. If it is successful, they are to be thanked ; 
if it suffers reverses, introspection is at least necessary 
to see if they are not responsible. 

As we have said before, we have faith in the men of 
the industry. To those who doubt we would say: 
Have faith in the industry — or get out ! 
Happy New Year! 



reasonable net earnings. Nevertheless, the time will 
come, if the country gets permanently on a less expen- 
sive scale of living, when fares will become less. Right 
here is a suggestion for the city where service at cost 
is being considered. In those cities which are on a 
service-at-cost basis this change will come about auto- 
matically and promptly without the necessity of extended 
hearings or any further readjustment of franchise 
relations, whereas this may not be the case in those , 
localities where the company is permitted by franchise 
to charge a specified rate. 

The experience of the past few years, hard as it has 
been, has had at least certain advantages to the rail- 
ways. Not the least of these has been a general realiza- 
tion of factors in operating expenses which previously 
had been overlooked in many cases. This knowledge 
will be of value in any readjustment of fare necessary 
during the coming yeai-s. Railway companies now know 
that in order to keep their property intact they must 
consistently set aside from their earnings from 3J to 4 
per cent of the value of their renewable property each 
year as depreciation reserve. The lesson, though a dear 
one, may be worth all that it has cost. 



Tendencies in Fares 

and Fare Collections 

WE HOPE that during the coming year progress 
will be made in determining the best basis for 
fares and methods for their collection. The trend during 
the past year has undoubtedly been toward an increased 
flat fare, but the satisfaction given by the zone system 
where it has been tried, on about ten properties, shows 
that it also has claims for consideration. The most 
serious objection to its use remains in finding a con- 
venient method of collecting the fare so as to prevent 
over-riding. Where with a flat fare tickets are sold at 
a reduced rate, the tendency is very clearly toward the 
use of metal tokens, and in all cases the fare box, either 
locked or registering, is growing in popularity. 

In spite of reductions in the price of food and some 
other commodities, the time has not yet come when 
electric railway fares can be reduced. Labor and coal, 
the largest items in the operating expense account, are 
still as high as ever. Moreover, a great deal of rehabili- 
tation will have to be done if the properties are to give 
the service which the people want, and they can be 
rehabilitated only if their credit is re-established by 



Conduct Your Business 

as If You Had a Competitor 

WE HOPE to see during the next twelve months 
more effort made toward merchandising trans- 
portation than ever before. Electric railway companies 
can no longer think that they can develop the maximum 
traffic possible on their lines simply by running cars. 
Necessity riding will come, it is true, without being 
sought, but this class of riding is small compared with 
that possible if a vigorous effort is made to obtain more. 

The means for merchandising transportation are 
multifarious. They include many things which a large 
number of electric railway companies have already done 
and are doing every day, such as providing attractive 
cars, having them promptly at the points where they are 
needed, operating them at the speeds and over the 
routes desired by the majority of patrons, etc. ; in other 
words, giving good service. Such a policy will win many 
passengers, just as the sale of reliable goods in a store 
will win many customers to the owner of that store, but 
few merchants would be satisfied with this as the sole 
inducement to attract buyers. Wide-awake merchants 
feel that they are not good salesmen if they do not strive 
continuously to impress upon the public the good quality 
and reasonableness in price of the goods they have for 
sale as well as the high grade of service to customers 
which they aijn to provide. 

Much of this effort on the part of the merchant un- 
doubtedly comes because he realizes that he has com- 
petition in his business, and much of the lack of cor- 
responding effort by the average railway man arises 
from the belief that he has no competition. This is the 
reason for the injunction at the head of these remarks, 



2 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



i.e., "Conduct Your Business as If You Had a Competi- 
tor." Actually, of course, as the committee on mer- 
chandising transportation pointed out in its report at 
the last Atlantic City convention, every electric railway 
has competition of a very active kind. This comes not 
only from the public and private automobiles but, more 
important in most cases than either, from the sidewalk. 
The railway company must do as a merchant would do 
when he sees business which he wants going to a com- 
petitor. He studies the inducements offered by the com- 
petitor, the automobile or the sidewalk, and how many 
persons are patronizing them and how the company can 
best meet this competition with the service which it 
supplies. 

This is what we hope the electric railway companies 
will do in increasing ratio during the coming year. We 
hope that each large company, and as many small com- 
panies as can do so, will add to its organization a "sales 
manager," whose chief duty will be to increase the sales 
of the company by every legitimate means. We expect 
to say more about the need of such an official in suc- 
ceeding issues of this paper, but mention the point now 
because we consider it an important one. Such an offi- 
cial, as we visualize his duties, would have little to do 
with the details of the direct operation of the lines. His 
principal job would be to increase sales, though this 
would of course include advising the superintendent of 
transportation of the changes needed to make the service 
more popular. 



Engineers Getting Together 
and Pushing Conservation 

NEv'ER since engineering attained large proportions 
have engineers pulled together as they have during 
the past year or two. Undoubtedly the war helped to 
bring this about, but it is also the outcome of united 
effort, begun well before the war, to bring the engineer 
out of his shell and make him an influence in civic 
affairs. The engineers are numerous enough and well 
enough trained to warrant them in exerting a potent 
influence in the affairs of the country. They are begin- 
ning to realize this, and during 1920 they effected a 
federation of their national societies so that they can 
function as a unit when such functioning is desirable. 

The engineers are getting together in other ways 
also. They are breaking down the barriers which have 
separated them into distinctive groups of civil, mechani- 
cal, railroad, marine and a hundred other types of 
engineers and are holding joint meetings for the dis- 
cussion of topics of joint or general interest. This is 
noticeable in the gatherings of the sections of the na- 
tional associations, which seemingly in most cases are 
now joint meetings. This is in the direction of economy 
of time and the promotion of fraternal feeling. 

A large part of the thought of engineers is now being 
given to conservation. As a people we are extremely 
wasteful of our resources. We have so much that we 
have little incentive to save. There is only one factor 
that we, speaking for our country as a whole, under- 
stand, namely, high prices. When prices are high con- 
servation is favored. Engineers are different from the 
rank and file of the people, however, for their profession 
is founded upon economy. An engineer is simply a per- 
son who builds or operates something more economically 
than other people. But the voice of the engineer has not 
been heard in the land nor in the Halls of Congress. It 
has been confined to his own circle, consisting of these 



who essentially agree with him. He has produced 
wonderful results in his special line and has laid the 
foundation for the prosperity of the country. And the 
country knows it. But as for influencing general con- 
servation, that is another story. 

It would not be fair to the engineering and scientific 
bureaus of the government, such as the Bureau of Mines, 
the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Standards, as 
well as the Departments of Commerce and the Interior, 
to give the impression that their efforts at conservation 
are not appreciated. This is far from the case. They 
are doing a great work. A remarkable example is the 
super-power survey now being made for the Depart- 
ment of the Interior by W. S. Murray. Here is an 
instance in which the power resources of the country's 
most congested industrial district are being compre- 
hensively studied with a view to giving it a more eco- 
nomical and reliable supply of power. • This is one of 
the achievements of 1920. The data for the report are 
now practically complete and the report will be ready 
within a few months. This super-power survey has 
enough of the spectacular in it to attract general atten- 
tion, and at the same time it appears to be meeting 
with the approval of many of the power interests. Let 
us hope that the survey work will be fruitful in bring- 
ing about a saner use of our power resources. 

This idea of conservation is behind a considerable 
number of engineering developments of large or small 
scope. It has given an impetus, for example, to the 
interest in using pulverized fuel in power plants. There 
has accumulated a vast store of fuel waste which was 
considered economically unreclaimable. In powdered 
form it now becomes available in competition with 
bituminous coal at present prices. Aside from the use 
of waste fuels, there is much interest in the pulverized 
firing of coal in competition with stokers. The whole 
matter was considered important enough by the Amer- 
ican Electric Railway Engineering Association to cause 
it to be made the basis of a special report at the 1920 
convention, and it will undoubtedly come up for discus- 
sion again from time to time. 

In the line of conservation also, but conservation of 
labor and line material rather than fuel, is the auto- 
matic substation. This has made steady progress dur- 
ing the past year and the outlook for 1921 is promising. 
In fact, as finances permit, a general switching over to 
automatic control seems inevitable. There are still many 
technical problems in this field to be solved, but wonder- 
ful progress has been made. 

One of the biggest fields for the engineer in the con- 
servation movement is in heavy traction. On account 
of the unsettled state of our railroads during and since 
the war they have not been able to give the subject much 
attention, but they must do so soon. In the meantime 
Europe and other foreign sections are going ahead, im- 
pelled by the critical fuel situation and the prevalence 
of water power in many parts. The situation abroad 
is covered rather fully in an article elsewhere in this 
issue. 

Finally, we must not forget the slogan "Do it me- 
chanically." In spite of the excellent progress made in 
the development of tools for indoor and outdoor work, 
much more can be done. As R. C. Cram says in his 
review of the track situation in this issue, there are 
certain operations in that field that have resisted effort 
to substitute machinery for hand labor. The same is 
true in other departments. There is need for good 
engineering at this point. 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



3 



A Financial Program 
for 1921 

THE electric railway industry today, backed by the 
reports of the Federal Electric Railways Commis- 
sion and of the public utilities committee of the Chamber 
of Commerce of the United States as being an essential 
industry, still finds itself with financial problems of no 
mean magnitude ahead. It is reassuring, however, to 
see, in the face of the great industrial depression of 
the past few weeks, the continued usefulness of the rail- 
ways, as evidenced by the traffic, and also the apparent 
success which the industry as a whole has eventually 
had in gaining fai'es which are at least commensurate 
with the cost of rendering service. But the test of the 
success will probably come in 1921, for there is now to 
be considered more than the immediate problem of 
merely paying the cost of service, which has been the 
chief trouble in the past four or five years. We refer 
by this to the problems of really stabilizing the finances 
of the industry, of refinancing many railway security 
issues and of taking care of deficiencies in earnings 
and in maintenance and, in many cases, of actual deple- 
tion of property which have occurred during this period, 
as is so well analyzed by L. S. Storrs in this issue. 

"Restoration of credit" is a phrase worn almost 
threadbare in the railway industry today. "Educate the 
Public" is in the same category, though we certainly 
urge no cessation of effort in response to either of these 
sayings. But we must examine what the industry, as an 
industry, can do; what can railway managements and 
directorates do? 

We suggest a careful study of that part of the inter- 
view with President Gadsden, printed in this issue, in 
which he recommends a financial program for the indus- 
try. There are many men in the industry who agree 
with his recommendations as to simplification of finan- 
cial structures, and we see every reason to support these 
suggestions. We refer to a recasting of the financial 
structure so that the total amount of capital securities 
issued, expressed in terms of par value, equals the value 
of the property. It must be realized, as some in finan- 
cial circles and in positions to have an influence in 
formulating the policies of the companies have not yet 
fully realized, that the electric railway is a public utility, 
regulated by the public, and that therefore the financial 
structures necessary and desirable in the early days of 
the industry, and probably still necessary and desirable 
in private and unregulated competitive business, may 
not now be the best to have in this industry. 

A reference to the statistics on receiverships and fore- 
closures which are given elsewhere in this issue will 
show two things, as pointed out in the introductory 
remarks preceding the tables: First, that there have 
been fewer receiverships in 1920 than might have been 
expected in the race to overtake expenses with income, 
and that the total money involved is relatively small; 
and, second, that most of the receiverships which have 
ended in 1920 have ended through more or less drastic 
financial reorganizations or else through complete aban- 
donment or junking of the property. It is both pertinent 
and wise to consider at this time, too, that there are 
several companies not in receivers' hands and not under 
foreclosure which are, however, in default of some pay- 
ments of fixed charges which are more or less serious. 
This list has its encouraging feature in the indication 
that security holders see conditions growing better and 
prefer to let the companies regain their stability with- 
out outside interference, and we believe this to be a 
legitimate attitude. But the situation as a whole today. 



while showing every indication of returning to a healthy 
condition, is thus shown to be one with its dangers. The 
year 1921, some have said, is crucial. 

What is needed to meet unprecedented conditions are 
unprecedented methods, methods certainly which are 
based on fundamental economics, and also which recog- 
nize the human factor, the psychology and knowledge 
of the public served. The power lies with the directors 
of the various companies. The managements, who are 
closer to public opinion and whose whole energy, atten- 
tion and devotion are centered in the individual proper- 
ties, in contrast to the average director, who is inter- 
ested in many properties and is forced to look chiefly 
at the financial statement for his knowledge of any 
individual property, must have the courage to bring 
constructive measures to the attention of their boards. 

We are glad that "Electric Railway Financing" is to 
be the topic at the mid-year conference of the associa- 
tion. It is to be hoped that, as a result of the discussion 
at Chicago, definite measures will be outlined for rail- 
way men themselves to do toward restoration of electric 
railway credit. 



Constructive Legislation 

Should Be a Feature of 1921 

IT IS with more interest than usual that we approach 
the legislative season of 1921, when some forty Legis- 
latures out of the forty-eight will be in session and 
when also the National Congress is busy with a legis- 
lative program that is all but staggering. From the 
standpoint of public utilities, and especially from the 
standpoint of electric railways, more intelligent legis- 
lation than ever before should be expected. 

Past years have seen too much of popularly encour- 
aged anti-utility or utility-restrictive legislation. They 
have also seen too many legitimate and constructive 
pieces of legislation affecting utilities fail to gain public 
approval, being passed without a general education of 
the public, although with full and open discussion in 
the legislative chambers. This year the people have 
before them the results of two complete and unbiased 
investigations of the electric railway industry. No 
industry has ever before been subjected to such analyti- 
cal scrutiny or had the opportunity to benefit from the 
results thereof. It is, therefore, with a feeling that 
the public and the legislators are both better informed 
than heretofore that the legislative season is approached 
with optimism. If the public is not so familiar with 
some facts as we would wish we have largely ourselves 
to blame. 

Another aspect of this situation is that in many 
states constructive utility legislation is an avowed pur- 
pose of incoming administrations and of reconvening 
legislatures. Unfortunately this is not universally true : 
in some states the utilities are still the football of 
politics. But, by and large, there is a desire to remove 
such restrictions and make such advances in legislative 
enactment as may be necessary to encourage utility 
development to meet the needs of the communities. 

There will doubtless be some attention paid to the 
laws governing public utility commissions. Some of 
these have come under legislative fire for the first time 
because they have been courageous enough to do their 
duty in the face of shortsighted public opinion and 
demagogic political pressure. It is to be sincerely 
hoped that any and all legislation in this line will be 
of a nature to strengthen the commissions and to raise 
them to a position where they can more than ever com- 
mand public esteem and confidence. 



4 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Electric railway men have their own work to do in 
this legislative program. Better than any others they 
know what is required and what is good or bad. Is it 
not the more bold and courageous thing to do to assist 
openly in formulating constructive legislation which 
will react in the development of better public service 
and at the same time better public confidence? 



Labor and Wages 
During 1921 

WITH the cost of living promising to be less during 
the coming twelve months and with unemployment 
in other industries increasing, the wage question for 
electric railways must be fairly met during 1921. Ac- 
cording to statistics compiled by Professor Richey from 
a number of street railways there has been an average 
incre^ise of 25 per cent during the year which has passed 
in the hourly street railway wages paid in the section 
east of the Mississippi River. Based on an index figure 
of 100 for 1913, the figure in December, 1919, was 186 
and in December, 1920, it was 232. The peak was 
reached in September, 1920, when the December figure 
of 232 was attained. While the compilation is based 
largely, as we understand it, upon city properties, the 
figures probably are not very far from being representa- 
tive of the industry as a whole, though to get the average 
wages per hour an allowance would have to be made for 
the way in which the wages were loaded; that is, the 
allowances made for overtime, making out reports, etc. 

In changing their wage schedules it is obvious that 
electric railway companies cannot follow the course open 
to manufacturers when operation ceases to be profitable, 
namely, to shut down for a week or a month, then re- 
engage a staff. We believe, however, that when the 
proper time comes for a readjustment the men as a 
whole will meet the companies in the matter of wages 
in a broadminded way, recognizing its reason in lower 
living costs. But we also want to point out very dis- 
tinctly that lower labor costs may be obtained in other 
ways than by reducing the maximum rate per hour. 

One of these ways is to modify the loadings on the 
wage scale to which reference has already been made. 
Another method is to extend the period before the 
highest rate is paid. We believe the present period of 
one or two years, as established by the War Labor 
Board, is entirely too short, both as a matter of justice 
to the men and as a rating for eflflciency in operation. 
It often takes a year or more for a man really to decide 
whether he likes the railway business and is fitted for 
it. It is hardly fair for such a man and for the man 
who takes up railroading as a stop gap between other 
lines of work when his own trade is dull to be able 
within a year or two to be put on a par, as to wages, 
with the men of longer training. Five years is a fairer 
period. A man who has worked that time with satis- 
faction to himself and to the company may be regarded 
practically as a fixture, and such a man is worth more 
to the company. 

More extended use of the one-man car offers another 
means of maintaining high wages, while reducing oper- 
ating expenses. The opposition of organized labor to 
this car is growing less, if we take as a criterion the 
acceptance by the men of the Eastern Massachusetts 
Street Railway of the decision in favor of these cars 
rendered on Nov. 8 by the Massachusetts Department of 
Public Utilities. In this connection it is well for any 
wage schedule to define the usual bonus for one-man car 
operation in percentage of the basic scale rather than 



in cents per car-hour, so as to simplify such changes as 
may be necessary from time to time by making them 
refer directly to the basic rates. 

We see also in the coming year a better grade of 
employee seeking engagement in electric railway work. 
In the past, before the hectic period in industrial pro- 
duction during the war, electric railway employment 
appealed to men who wanted continuous service, in sea- 
son and out of season, and who were not afraid to work. 
During the war, many good railway employees left 
because of the high wages paid in other industries. But 
those who stayed on now realize that theirs was the 
wiser course. Steady work at regular pay is far better 
in the long run than a somewhat higher hourly rate in 
a job which may stop any day, and no one realizes this 
more now than the motormen and conductors who have 
stuck to their positions during the past few years. 



The Interurbans Require 
Greater Attention 

INTERURBAN development has been practically at a 
standstill during the year just closed. The reason 
for this situation is of course the inability of the com- 
panies to finance new capital issues. Despite further 
fare increases during the year on a great many inter- 
urban properties, advances in operating expenses have 
nearly kept pace with them, so that the year is closing 
with little financial improvement over that prevailing 
Jan. 1, 1920. 

To this general condition the competition of the 
private automobile, the motor bus and motor truck have 
contributed an increasing pressure. While we thor- 
oughly doubt the likelihood of the motor bus or motor 
truck supplanting the electric interurban in any far- 
reaching way, yet the immediate effect is serious, for 
the advent of this new, much advei'tised, much over- 
rated form of transportation has brought a formidable 
doubt into the mind of the investor as to whether 
his money may be invested safely and wisely in the 
electric interurban. This, then, would seem to be a 
temporary condition which may be remedied as time 
affords experience on what the limitations of the 
automotive vehicles are, on how better to meet this 
competition and on how to "sell" electric interurban 
transportation. 

We feel that these things indicate that the inter- 
urban situation is moi-e difficult than has been generally 
realized, judging from the scant attention given during 
the year to exclusively interurban problems. Little 
effort has been devoted to detail and searching studies 
looking to the betterment of operating practices and 
coincident economy. Hence we feel that the year 1921 
must see more attention given to the interurban prob- 
lems in association activities and in the thinking of 
the industry generally. 

Looking into 1921, it seems to us that certain desir- 
able lines of activity are apparent from an analysis 
of conditions that prevailed in 1920. The new year 
should be made to bring changes — changes looking 
toward improved earnings and decreased expenses. 
For example, there is opportunity for great improve- 
ment in the system of fare collection, judging by the 
experience of the several companies that have installed 
a zone check system of identifying passengers and 
checking turn-in. There is much to be done in the 
way of schedule revision to make the service more 
nearly fit the traffic available. This applies to both 
freight and passenger service and implies in one case 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



5 



the substitution of every-other-day instead of every-day 
shipment of l.c.l. matter from way stations where 
there is not adequate business to justify the handling 
of a car a day for that station, and in the other case, 
the arrangement of departure time of cars to fit traffic, 
without regard to the position of the hands of the clock. 
There is much saving to be accomplished by the appli- 
cation of energy saving devices which in most cases 
can be counted upon to finance themselves through 
the savings made at the coal pile. There is also a 
splendid opportunity to apply principles of merchandis- 
ing to the sale of interurban transportation. 

Again, there is the possibility of increasing fares. 
On some properties a further increase is justified and 
could wisely be asked and inaugurated. However, on 
many others, if one is to judge by the experience the 
steam roads are now having with traffic dropping off, 
undoubtedly due in large part (at least as far as the 
non-necessity riders are concerned) to the heavy fare 
increase, it may be well to be very cautious about 
increasing fares above the present level. 

All these suggestions thus far may be put into prac- 
tice without requiring new money. There are many other 
things that can be done to great advantage if the 
general condition of the money market and position 
of the individual company is such as to make possible 
the necessary financing. For example, a further 
standardization of equipment and provision of other 
facilities for an expansion of interchange service be- 
tween properties offer a field for increasing earnings, 
particularly in the Middle West. This would improve 
passenger traffic and open the way for a very substan- 
tial increase in the amount of high-rate package freight 
carried. Even if it is impractical to undertake the 
handling of carload freight in a large way there is an 
enormous amount of this l.c.l. business which the inter- 
urbans can secure by virtue of superior service. In case 
after case it is lack of facilities to handle the volume 
of business that would be offered, that is turning this 
business to the steam roads and more recently to the 
motor truck companies. And the latter are likely to 
develop into formidable competitors unless the electric 
railways go after this business in a big way and expand 
facilities to handle it in a big way. In this connection, 
there is also the possibility of employing motor trucks 
as feeders of l.c.l. business to the interurban line, the 
railway company either owning such truck lines or 
co-operating with separate companies owning them. 

One of the projects that 
would be of enormous value 
to most interurban lines is 
the building of new en- 
trances into large terminals 
to avoid running over pub- 
lic streets. Unfortunately 
this usually involves enor- 
mous capital expenditures, 
yet there are two or three 
cases where such a project 
is awaiting only more 
favorable material and 
labor prices. High-speed 
service has produced a 
marked increase in passen- 
ger traffic on one important 
road. This service was an- 
ticipated by improvements 
to roadbed and the pur- 
chase of cars. Another and 



very important economy of which advantage may be 
taken is that afforded by the automatic substation. The 
labor saving, power saving and better voltage regula- 
tion made possible warrant serious consideration being 
given this means of reducing the cost of energy. 

As to the outlook for the building of new interurban 
lines, it is entirely possible that the expected reduction 
in material and labor costs will start a number of new 
projects. The proposed line between Dallas and Wichita 
Falls, Tex., is practically assured under improved 
general economic conditions. There are also a number 
of other lines proposed in the Middle Wtest as sub- 
stantial extensions to present systems which may be 
expected to materialize with return of conditions more 
favorable to such work. It is also a fact that serious 
consideration will be and should be given to the use of 
the motor bus in many locations needing new trans- 
portation lines. For it is in matter of first cost that 
the motor bus line has its principal advantage over 
the electric interurban. The possibility of expanding 
present systems by this means can well be studied by 
interurban managements, which will thus co-ordinate 
the motor bus with the railway rather than permit 
it to become a competitor. 

From these various aspects it seems that the year 
1921 should be a very active one in the interurban 
field, particularly so because of the many things within 
reach to be done and the inactivity of the past year. 



I 



Quotation from the ^ 
Federal Electric Railways 
Commission Report 

'THHE electric railway furnishing transportation 
upon rails is an essential public utility and should 
have the sympathetic understanding and co-operation 
of the public if it is to continue to perform a useful 
public service. 

The experience of seventy-five years, the unanimous 
opinion of expert witnesses, and of those who are stu- 
dents of transportation problems, and the assumption of 
the necessity for tracks iDy inventors working to improve 
the methods of street transportation alike demonstrate 
the fundamental and permanently essential nature of 
the railway — and to the present time of the electric 
railway — as the most nearly adequate, reliable and 
satisfactory system available for transporting the 
maximum number of people through the streets of our 
cities with the least interference with the use of these 
streets for other purposes of public ways. 



Annual Statistical Compilations Show 
Improved Conditions During 1920 

N THIS issue will be found the annual compilations 
showing in detail all new rolling stock ordered, track 
extensions, track reconstructed or rebuilt, together with 
comparative figures for the past ten years. There are 
also tables showing track abandoned and ripped up as 
well as track on which service has been entirely sus- 
pended without removing the track. 

It appears from the summaries of cars ordered that 
conditions in the industry are somewhat better than a 
year ago inasmuch as the number of cars ordered is 
approximately 50 per cent greater than in 1919. The 
same conclusions can be reached from the table of 
companies that have gone into the hands of receivers 
during 1920. The number is materially less than in the 
previous year and the amount of securities is like- 

wise smaller inasmuch as 

the number of large com- 
panies involved is less. 

Taken as a whole, condi- 
tions seem to be somewhat 
improved for the manufac- 
turer. This is no doubt due 
to the results of the several 
fare increases which are 
gradually restoring the pur- 
chasing power of railways 
to about the condition that 
should have existed during 
the war period. With the 
decrease now impending in 
the cost of supplies and the 
better conditions existing 
in the labor market an opti- 
mistic view is taken that 
1921 purchases should ex- 
1^ ceed those of the past year. 



6 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Ask the Car Rider 

President Gadsden Says the Outstanding Problems of the Industry Must Be Eventually Answered to 
Satisfy the Car Rider — The Uppermost Problem of the Industry Is to Rectify the Credit of 
the Railways — This Is an Inside Problem with the Public Co-operating — There Is No 
Time Like the Present to Do Whatever Housecleaning Is Necessary in the Industry 

By Harold F. Bozell 



■K 



, SK the car rider.' How would that do for a slogan 
to test the answer as to what to do in the 
various problems facing the electric railway?" 
said Philip H. Gadsden, president of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Association, as he was discussing the out- 
standing problems confronting the industry and what 
the industry itself could do to solve these problems. 

Mr. Gadsden was sitting at 
his desk in the United Gas 
Improvement Company Build- 
ing in Philadelphia, where he 
directs the public relations 
work of a large group of pub- 
lic utilities. And good public 
relations are uppermost in his 
mind as the real rock bottom 
solution of most public utility 
problems of the day. 

He is a straight and fear- 
less thinker — and doer — this 
new president of the associa- 
tion. He is wrapped up in his 
work and is fully conscious of 
both the responsibilities and 
the opportunities of his new 
position as representative head 
of one of the country's great- 
est industries. He is anxious 
to do what he can to effect 
progress in the electric rail- 
way business and he tries 
clearly to outline the difficul- 
ties ahead. One is impressed 
with his desire to face all 

problems and facts as they are and not to dodge an issue 
because it may be unpleasant or distasteful. He had a 
great opportunity to test public and group opinion when 
he served on the Federal Electric Railways Commission, 
which he was instrumental in forming and for which the 
industry owes him its gratitude, and he is acting with 
that experience as a background. 

He wants the railways to win public confidence, which 
after all is the basis of the credit so badly needed. 

It is a pleasure to talk to him and gain his inspira- 
tion. 

"The car rider will usually have the correct answer, 
in simple language, to many questions which confront 
us," he continued. "Ask the car rider, for instance, if 
he wants to pay for paving between the tracks. Ask 
the car rider what sort of service he wants, and if he 
is Willing to pay for it. It really is a pretty good test 
of our own conclusions to try to predict what the car 
rider's answer will be to most of the problems confront- 
ing the industry today." 




Philip H. 

President Amei-iean Elec 



"What do you consider the uppermost problem of the 
industry to be, Mr. Gadsden? What are the things 
which the industry itself can do so that it may better 
perform its functions?" 

"Restoration of credit is, of course, the uppermost 
problem that we have in front of us today. We must 
approach this problem squarely. It appears now that 
the work of getting a recog- 
nition by electric railway 
men themselves of the part 
the industry itself must play 
in this restoration of credit 
will prove to be even harder 
than the restoration of credit 
once the recognition is given. 
But the men in the industry 
must realize, 100 per cent, 
that it is largely an inside 
problem. 

"Electric railway men must 
recognize that they and they 
primarily have to do whatever 
necessity demands in order 
to rectify this credit situation. 
Much of what has to be done 
may not be liked by some peo- 
ple, but this much is certain: 
It is absolutely essential that 
present investment be stabil- 
ized before it is possible to 
invite or induce new capital to 
come in and there are certain 
economic principles with which 
it is necessary to comply be- 
fore this can be accomplished. Railway men must get 
down to brass tacks, study economics and the car rider's 
mind, and do the necessary things no matter how dis- 
tasteful they may be." 

"You regard it as an internal problem then, and not 
one to be passed on to the public?" 
"Yes." 

"Have you any suggestions as to the actual road which 
the industry must travel in order to restore this credit?" 

The Industry Should Announce Its Stand 

"For one thing, it must be recognized that not only 
is it an internal problem but that it is a problem for the 
industry, as an industry, to do. There is such an inter- 
relation existing between the various electric railway 
properties that it is not a problem for individual action 
here and there over the country, but it is a problem 
for the industry as a whole, in so far as general prin- 
ciples are concerned. 

"The program which I favor very much would be to 



, Gadsden 

trie Railway Association 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



have the industry state in a formal way, make a public 
announcement, that it accepts in principle the report 
of the Federal Electric Railways Commission and also 
the report of the public utilities committee of the 
United States Chamber of Commerce. 

"The industry should announce that it 
recognizes the principles laid down in these 
reports as voicing the best informed opinion 
of the public as in the interests of restoring 
the credit of the industry. The people, 
through two disinterested bodies, have ex- 
pressed their conclusions and they deserve, 
and will demand, to know where the rail- 
ways stand. 

"I think this would be an excellent move for the 
American Electric Railway Association to make. As 
representing the industry as a whole, the association 
could make the announcement mentioned above and say 
that the railways of the country are prepared to go 
along that line of action if the public itself is willing 
to do likewise. 

"Naturally, each locality has its special problems and 
must work out the details of the case in view of the 
particular conditions surrounding that case. But, 
broadly considered, it is a problem for the whole indus- 
try, and the industry must be treated as a whole. I 
repeat that it must not be forgotten that each and every 
electric railway suffers from the wrongdoings and mis- 
takes or weaknesses of other railways and investors 
quite generally refuse to put their money in particular 
railways until the stability of the whole field has been 
established. From this line of argument I dravv' my 
conclusion that we must do it as an industry, and prob- 
ably through the association as the mouthpiece of the 
industry. Therefore, it will be very helpful if the asso- 
ciation itself would come out with a formal statement 
along these lines." 

"Wasn't a great opportunity, psychologically, just 
passed at the convention at Atlantic City, when such 
an action might well have been taken? It would have 
been a dramatic move, surely." 

"Personally, I think that is true. Some of my best 
friends disagree with it, but that merely emphasizes 
what I said before that one problem which we must 
work out within the industry by ourselves is to gain an 
appreciation of our own opportunities and duties in 
this connection, to realize that it is our own problem and 
that we must, as an industry, state the platform on 
which we stand." 

"How can the industry now best place this report 
before the public, and incidentally before itself?" 

"The association's publicity committee is working 
on that now, and I have some ideas which we are for- 
mulating and which contemplate playing up in brief 
form and in some attractive way the conclusions and 
outstanding points in the analysis of the Federal Elec- 
tric Railways Commission report and having this widely 
distributed over the country in railway offices, on car 
cards, and for use in various publications. We must 
use every means, of course. The details will be worked 
out by the committee." 

"Mr. Gadsden, you have mentioned from time to time 
the suggestion that it would be wise for electric railways 
to modify their financial structures in such a way that 
the capitalization equals the oflRcially approved or deter- 
mined valuation. Won't you state your views on this 



concretely, and indicate how it would help solve this 
credit situation?" 

"To answer that, let me first call attention to some 
provisions of any service-at-cost arrangement from 
whose study we may profit. You know I favor that 
form of contract. Now, to my mind there are two 
features to 'service at cost' from the standpoint of the 
restoration of credit. These are: First, that there is 
an official valuation of the property; and, second, a re- 
adjustment of securities of the property to conform to 
the valuation so found. This is an essential under such 
a form of contract, for as a rule these contracts guar- 
antee a certain fixed dividend on outstanding stock. The 
limited experience which we have had with 'service at 
cost' tends strongly to show that this process has been 
largely instrumental in restoring public confidence in 
securities so readjusted, and to show further, and this, 
to my mind, is the greatest result, that there has been 
a building up of a local market for the kind of securi- 
ties mentioned. 

Opportunity for Executive Foresight 

"If this is a correct statement of facts it seems very 
clear that the nearer the electric railways as an industry 
can conform their own financial set-ups to those prin- 
ciples the greater chance will they have of restoring 
the credit of the industry and building up a local demand 
for traction securities. 

"Of course all of us realize the many diffi- 
culties in the way of bringing this about, but 
my own judgment is that the railway execu- 
tive who is far-seeing enough to realize this 
situation and take advantage of it is going 
to place his property in a much more whole- 
some and healthy condition than one who 
does not. 

"Certainly the electric railways today have nothing to 
fear from fair valuation of their property. Taking 
whatever basis of determining fair value is finally 
agreed upon, it is impossible to make a valuation with- 
out recognizing the real intrinsic worth of the public 
utility and of arriving at a valuation which is fair to 
all concerned. We all know that in many cases the 
value, when found, equals and sometimes exceeds the 
capitalization. But whether it does or not, I believe 
the principle is a sound one to follow. The car rider 
can understand it, for one thing. 

"There are many good men in the industry who do 
not agree with this viewpoint, but from the contact with 
all sorts of opinions which it was possible for me to 
gain in my experience on the Federal Electric Railways 
Commission I am thoroughly convinced that this would 
be a most healthy program for the railways to follow. 
It is one of the things which the railways themselves 
can do, and which if forced upon them from the out- 
side will react only to the great detriment of electric 
railways in the further destruction of electric railway 
credit. 

"With reference to the necessary new capital required 
from year to year to provide the extensions of the rail- 
way facilities demanded by the growth of our various 
communities, I think it ought to be impressed upon the 
public that unless the conditions and restrictions now 
imposed upon us, and which are largely responsible for 
our present want of credit, are removed there is very 



8 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



great clanger that whether the American public wants 
it or not the electric railways will be forced into the 
hands of municipalities, for the reason that if cond' 
tions are such that private capital will not go back into 
the industry public credit must. The issue to my 
mind, therefore, is squarely made: 

"If the American public, as there can be no 
doubt, are opposed to the municipalization of 
their public utilities, and especially of their 
traction systems, it is incumbent upon them 
to co-operate with the railway executives in 
doing whatever must be done to make invest- 
ment in electric railway securities attractive 
to the private investor. We have been talking 
about steps which should be taken by railway 
executives to restore the confidence of the 
public. This is one thing which the public, it 
seems to me, can and niust do. 

"What do you think of the application or the use of 
non-par value stock as an answer to the problem of 
restoring the credit or stabilizing the finances of the 
electric railway industry today?" 

"I think it offers a very satisfactory and equitable 
solution of a most difficult and vexing problem. Stock is, 
of course, nothing more nor less than a right to share 
in the earnings of a company, and it appears to me that 
our corporate industries, and certainly our public utili- 
ties, would be in much better shape if the stock were 
issued on a non-par value basis. Every one is fully pro- 
tected; the return is allowed upon the actual property in 
the service of the public; the fixed charges of interest 
on bonds, which would of necessity be conservatively 
floated, would be recognized by all and the non-par 
value stock would gain its earnings in proportion to 
the service rendered by the electric railway and the 
efficiency with which that service was rendered. 

"In this discussion I wish it to be understood that I 
am convinced that the question of bonus stock or so- 
called overcapitalization has been greatly exaggerated 
in the public mind and that whatever bonus stock was 
issued was necessary in the promotion days. That does 
not eliminate, however, the vulnerable feature today, 
and we should recognize that fact. 

"There are two ways of sti-engthening the basic 
financial structure. One of these is to adjust the securi- 
ties until their par value equals the valuation of the 
property, and the other, and I believe much more prefer- 
able way, is to change to non-par value stock. 

"I am very hopeful that the industry will face this 
problem squarely, realizing that it is an internal prob- 
lem, and that the financial structures of the various 
companies will be made simple enough for the car riders 
to understand. Understand me, I favor no change in 
the total return on account of any shift in par value; 
that is determined by the actual valuation of the prop- 
erty. I am not criticising, but rather upholding, the 
corporate organizations and financial structures as they 
have had to be built in the past. But to meet present- 
day conditions and present-day public policy some 
change is desirable in the capital structure of some 
of our companies." 

"There is another question which seems to be preying 
upon the minds of the public in many places, and that 
is the one of underlying leases. It has been used by 
political demagogues so often that a discussion of it is 
pertinent, at least." 



"That, it appears to me, is merely another question 
of inside-the-house cleaning. The public isn't interested 
at all fundamentally in what our arrangements are with 
each other, so long as it realizes that all it is paying is 
a fair return on the fair valuation. But I think we must 
realize that the time has come when the public will 
insist upon paying only a fair return on a fair valuation 
and that we must make our own arrangements with 
each other, so that we can exist individually and col- 
lectively on that basis. Naturally, fixed leases made a 
good many years ago are points of attack for politicians, 
v/hether they have any effect on the actual rate of fare 
paid by the car rider or not, but what the car rider 
will insist upon is that they do not have any such 
effect. His attitude is : 'What's your total property 
worth? What does my ride cost, with a fair profit to 
you? Eight cents? Ten cents? Well, take my dime 
and divide it any way you want to.' " 

"To refer again to the service-at-cost franchise prin- 
ciple which you mentioned, its adoption was one of the 
recommendations of the Federal Electric Railways Com- 
mission, was it not?" 

Service-at-Cost Advantages 

"Yes, it was suggested as a fair solution, and I see 
many advantages to that form of contract. There are 
places, of course, where difficulties have been found with 
the particular form of contract made and none of the 
service-at-cost franchises is perfect in providing a real 
incentive to management. That problem must yet be 
worked out. But at bottom there is real incentive to 
the owners. 

"I think the following is a fair statement: capital is 
fluid, in other words, it flows to attractive conditions, 
and if the cost of money is, say, 8 per cent and this is 
sufficiently protected in the terms of a service-at-cost 
franchise and backed by public opinion, there should 
really be no necessary added incentive to induce capital 
to go into an electric railway operating under such a 
franchise. Service-at-cost franchises recognize that the 
electric railway business is an investment business and 
not a speculative business any longer. But I do think 
there should be some incentive to better management 
and I am hopeful that there will be a real way found 
to include this satisfactorily in such transactions in the 
future. 

"Still, as to management, it appears to me that there 
should be no reason to doubt that there will be good 
service. Just consider the general manager; his profes- 
sional reputation rests upon the results he obtains; he 
is compared with managers in other communities; a 
certain morale is thus created which is worth more 
than any monetary reward. 

"As a matter of fact, I believe that the 
morale in public utility business is extraor- 
dinarily high, and in the electric railway 
business this is specially true. I often com- 
pare it to the morale of a good military force. 
Certainly during the past trying years elec- 
tric railway managements have measured up 
to the highest standard of public duty. 

"But I must admit that a solution satisfactory to all 
with reference to the proper recognition of good man- 
agement under service-at-cost franchises has not yet 
been found." 

"There are two other points of interest to railways 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



9 



today, Mr. Gadsden, that it would be profitable to have 
you say a word on if you will. These are labor condi- 
tions and the place of the motor bus. One question with 
reference to the former is the wage scale. Certain cuts 
in wages have already been made in other industries and 
what is the future on the railways?" 

"Well, we must first recognize that we can't expect to 
lower the wage scale until a reduction in living costs 
has become a fact — so that the electric railway man on 
any new scale can live as well as he can now. In other 
words, the method of determination of satisfactory 
wages will be somewhat on the basis of their determi- 
nation during the war when living conditions were 
taken into account. 

"With reference to the cuts which have been made in 
other industries, I interpret this as meaning that labor 
in industries which are not public utilities prefer to 
work at a partly reduced compensation rather than to 
run the risk of having the industry close down entirely. 
We must recognize the fact that public utility labor 
does not have this fear, for it knows it is in a business 
which must continue to run and it would fight reduc- 
tions to the limit. 

Wage Scales and Collective Bargaining 

"I do see a way in the future, however, when living 
conditions have lowered sufficiently to make it possible 
for railways to get help at lower wages, and this is 
already beginning to be the case; what I have in mind 
is to make no change in the agreement with the men 
now on the railways, but to take on new men at lower 
rates, leaving the higher rates for men of long service 
and greater ability. I notice that the Electric Rail- 
way Journal has proposed this plan editorially as a 
solution, and I think it is a wise one. I think it is 
a solution which should appeal to labor as well as to 
the railways as the easiest means of going back down 
the scale as the general price level recedes." 

"And as to organized labor or the open shop?" 
"Well, all I can do is to give my opinion as a result 
of my own individual experiences, but I think there is 
no doubt of the fact that every one i^ecognizes the right 
of labor to organize today or, expressed in another way, 
the right of collective bargaining. If that is the case, 
and the men on a given property decide to get together, 
I believe there is greater harmony and unquestionably 
greater efficiency, as a matter of practice, if the men 
all go in or all stay out. In other words, let the repre- 
sentatives of the men represent all the men rather than 
having various groups continually coming to the man- 
agement. The men are better in one organization and 
rot broken into groups. This is another inside-the- 
family arrangement, with the family in this case in the 

rank and file of 

the men them- 
selves. But man- 
agers and execu- 
tives of properties 
should reserve the 
right in the first 
instance to en- 
gage men either 
in an organiza- 
tion or out of it. 

"One of the 
points empha- 
sized by the com- 
mission in its re- 



1 HAVE PURCHASED 
FIVE SUBWAY TICKETS 
TOR 
TWENTY 
TIVE. 
CtNTS 




HOW McOABE HAS PICTURED HIS CAR RIl^ER CHARACTER, 
WITH A QUESTION HE CAN'T ANSWER 



port is the necessity of working out some plan by 
which harmonious relations can be maintained between 
the managements and the men, and strikes thereby 
avoided, as one of the essentials to the restoration of 
the credit of the industry. I think we cannot empha- 
size the point too strongly. The investor naturally 
hesitates to invest his money in an industry which is 
subject to recurring interruptions of service growing 
out of controversies, over either wages or service, be- 
tween the management and the men. 

"Therefore, in the highest interests of the property 
itself, a serious effort should be made to arrive at some 
satisfactory relation within the industry. But I feel 
that the details of the problem of how to work out 
relations between labor and management are for each 
individual property to work out to fit its conditions, 
though we may be able to arrive at some fundamental 
conceptions common to all." 

"And what of the railways and the motor bus?" 

"I can't see any answer to this question 
except that the railways themselves must 
adopt and use the motor bus in its correct 
economic sphere. It may sometimes mean run- 
ning motor buses at a loss, but it is better to 
run them at a small loss than to be forced to 
run cars on rails at a higher loss. The motor 
bus certainly has a field as a feeder, as an 
auxiliary service, and probably in the han- 
dling of peak loads where it does not pay to 
install extra trackage. Competition, un- 
regulated or regulated, will bring no good to 
either system of transportation." ^ 

"You are optimistic as to the future?" 

"One cannot study the electric railway situation and 
feel otherwise. As has been pointed out so many times, 
the electric railways are an absolute essential of com- 
munity life. The testimony before the commission 
proved conclusively that their usefulness to their respec- 
tive communities had increased rather than diminished, 
notwithstanding the extraordinary development of the 
automobile. 

"As a rule, the electric railways have succeeded, at 
last, in securing rates of fare fairly commensurate 
with the service they are rendering. If we can suc- 
ceed in maintaining these rates of fare, in the face of 
the prospect of a general decline in the cost of labor 
and material, the outlook for electric railways is 
very encouraging. While industry generally is slowing 
down, the experience of the past has shown that the 
business of the electric railways is affected but little 

by industrial de- 
pression. This in 
the past has made 
electric railway 
securities favorite 
investments o n 
the part of the 
public, and, in my 
judgment, we are 
again approach- 
ing the period 
when our securi- 
ties will be sought 
after by prudent 
careful investors." 



fVHICH EMTITLE5 HE: 
TO "RiDHl ON^ 




ONE HUliDI^ED AM UE 5 
FORTWErtHTr tvve:. 
cehts, how con iT 

BE. DOnt 
PROFIT 




"THE COLONEI. 



Janicary 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



11 



Our National Fare Experiment 

How the Industry Has Tried to Meet the Problem of Continuing Adequate Service Without Imposing 
Burdensome Rates — Ever-Increasing Costs Have Kept One Lap Ahead of Fares — The Industry 
Has Delayed Fare Increases and Has Tried Zone Systems to Minimize Demands on Public's 
Pocketbook — Now that Fares Begin to Be Commensurate with Cost, Large 
Cumulative Deficit of Recent Years Is a Problem 



By Lucius S. Storrs 

President the Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn. 
Past-President American Electric Railway Association 



DURING the past five or six years all industry has 
had to meet unforeseen and unprecedented con- 
ditions, as every one knows. Private business 
has met these conditions in various ways, but usually 
according to practices which were not different from its 
ordinary ones ; that is, the usual law of competition and 
supply and demand was allowed to hold sway. Some 
business enterprises, which had never before been sub- 
jected to regulation, have had to conform to certain 
government restrictions and rules, and in some cases 
even to turn over operation, or at least direction, to 
government agencies. 

Through all this period the public utilities, and 
especially the electric railways, have had even more diffi- 
culty in keeping their business in successful operation. 
This statement, of course, is not novel either to electric 
railway men or to users of electric railway service. But 
in these new conditions there has been a continual 
struggle to keep properties alive and in operation, and 
the character of this struggle, viewed from the 
knowledge of today, appears to be a gigantic experiment 
in street railway fares from which the industry and the 
public may both learn some lessons. From this state- 
ment it is not to be inferred that the experiment is at 
an end and that final conclusions may be drawn, but 
rather that it is well to take stock of the fare develop- 
ment since 1914-15 to see where the industry is headed. 

In this study there is no idea of duplicating the 
various fare studies and fare reports which have been 
made from time to time by the Electric Railway 
-Journal and the American Electric Railway Association. 
Rather, it is the purpose to take a broad view of the 
subject as reflected by these various reports. Since 
1914-15 the news columns of the Electric Railway 
Journal, for example, have carried item after item of 
"Fare Increase Sought," "Fare Increase Granted," "Six 
Cents in Smithville," "Seven Cents in Jamestown," 
"Another Increase Needed," "Eight Cents in Brown- 
burg," "Ten-Cent Fare Granted in .Jonesboro," and so 
on. From time to time the American Electric Railway 
Association has issued lists showing the fares in the 
leading cities. The last such list depicting the fare 
situation in all cities over 25,000 population, as of 
approximately five weeks ago, was published by the 
Association in Aera for December. This information, 
brought up to the date of this article, is shown graph- 
ically on an accompanying map of the United States, 
which has been prepared by the Electric Railway 
Journal. It gives a beautiful and telling story of the 
present fare situation in the country. Just a glance at 
the map indicates the variety of results which have been 
arrived at in this vast and nationwide experiment to 
solve the fare question. Practically every city indicated 



on the map has had a change in the unit rate of fare 
or fare system since 1914-15. 

The premise upon which this article is based is that 
in 1914-15 there existed in this country throughout the 
electric railway industry a more or less standardized flat 
fare system of five cents for all urban rides. Usually 
free transfers were given — the so-called universal trans- 
fer system, in other words. Whether this was a situa- 
tion which, upon complete and unbiased, social and 
scientific analysis, was the best that could be devised or 
was the most equitable to all interests involved need not 
enter into this discussion. There are some who believe 
that a distance tarilT, such as is in vogue in many 
foreign countries, should have been in existence in this 
country at that time. There are some who believe that, 
even on a flat fare basis, it would have been possible 
to furnish transportation at less than 5 cents per pas- 
senger. But there are many operators who have had to 
furnish the service and many financial men who have 
tried to provide the wherewithal for proper growth of 
facilities who know or believe that, taken the United 
States over, the electric railway industry was not paying 
all expenses, making all necessary maintenance and 
depreciation charges and giving an adequate return to 
the capital which had made the industry possible on the 
5-cent fare basis. Labor in the industry was admittedly, 
as viewed from facts now known, paid none too well. As 
has been stated by one public service commissioner, the 
public wanted a service at a price which demanded cheap 
labor and it got it. 

But be these conditions as they were, debatable though 
they may be, the facts remain that at the beginning of 
the economic upheaval caused by the great war the 
electric railways of the country were operating and 
giving fair service, in many places wonderful service, 
for 5 cents. The story of constantly increasing costs in 
materials, of constant readjustments of labor contracts 
and of constantly rising costs of operation in general is 
not new. Nor is it giving any information to repeat 
the story of the continuous fare increases and adjust- 
ments with which every one is familiar in a hazy or 
general way. But, viewing the history of the whole 
industry from the knowledge of today, there is one fact 
that seems certain. As a nationwide average there has 
been a time lag of fare increases behind increases in 
operating costs which has caused a deficit to be created, 
and this deficit is one of the factors to be considered by 
railways and commissions in adjusting conditions of 
today and for the future. 

But most important to note, from the standpoint of 
the public at least, and most gratifying to those who 
would have faith in the future of the industry, is to 
realize the attitude of those responsible for railway 



12 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 




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January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



13 



operation in this gradual increase in rates. To the 
writer's mind, the weighted, national average situation 
shows that the railways have been most moderate in the 
fare increases requested. It is apparent that the follow- 
ing factors have been in the minds of railway men 
responsible: That the service must be kept up for the 
benefit of the public at all costs; that inescapable 
increases of costs were upon the railways ; that whatever 
fare increases were necessary to meet these increases in 
costs should be as moderate as possible so that the public, 
which had to pay the bill, would be burdened as little as 
possible. As a result, the average situation has shown 
that the fare advance has been too moderate for the best 
interests of all; too moderate especially for the best 
interests of the public, as a matter of fact. To state 
it in other words, the average railway management has 
naturally desired to have income overtake outgo, but has 
made increases in fare barely adequate to make this pos- 
sible, figured on the most favorable basis, and no sooner 
has the increase been put into effect than costs have 
taken another jump and the condition was as bad as 
before. Then, too, the anticipated falling off in riding 
has occurred in a greater or less degree, following fare 
increases. To say this in another way, every one 
realizes that 100 per cent of the riders will not ride at 
any increase in fare — some will walk or use other means, 
private or public, depending upon conditions. 

As explained more in detail later on, the result of all 
this has been a partial, and sometimes complete, dis- 
regard of a return to the actual money invested in the 
various properties through non-payment of interest and 
dividends. In other words, the owners of the various 
properties have contributed the physical property itself 
to a continuous service to the public without any 
immediate return. It does not pay to refuse, ostrich 
like, to face the fact that a part of the public — the 
politicians in the lead — claim that this is only a fair 
repayment of the traditional excessive profits supposed 
to have been made by former promoters and owners of 
traction properties. The industry must make it known 
that today's owners have made this contribution to the 
continued service to the public, with a purpose which 
has been socially patriotic. 

Two criticisms might be made of railway manage- 
ments in this connection. 

One of these is that the managements, realizing, as 
most of them must have done, that at the time of each 



increase of fare the increase in cost had not ended and 
that the fai-e increase would prove insufficient only too 
soon, have lacked the courage to present their cases for 
increases that would really be effective. From the 
standpoint of the public, as is known to be the case now, 
this would have been the better thing to do, for the 
railways would have been in a position to extend and 
develop the service which the public desired and 
demanded. The other possible criticism is that the rail- 
way managements did not have the salesmanship to gain 
the increases which they knew to be necessary. There is 
no doubt that the electric railway as an industry has 
not had a sales attitude, but rather a service and 
operating attitude. 

It is more generous, however, and probably more 
nearly correct, to believe that the managements have, in 
each case, felt that they were doing the best thing to 
keep the fare increase at the lowest possible figure in 
the hope that the peak had been reached and that the 
property would be successful under the new rate. 

In other industries increases were made by leaps and 
jumps of from 100 to 250 per cent in case after case. 
In only a few instances have electric railways taken the 
full jump at once from the former fare to a fare which 
was felt to be really adequate and effective. 

To make plain the points which have been made above, 
it is believed worth while to mention the history of a 
few of the individual experiments which have been made. 
There have been two general sorts of attempts. One of 
these has been the gradual increase of fiat fares, retain- 
ing the old limits, which were usually on the 5-cent basis. 
The other has been through the application of a distance 
tariff, under which the passenger pays for the actual 
distance of the ride, or through a lessening of the dis- 
tance of the initial fare zone. Most of the latter experi- 
ments have been made in New England. The cases 
which are here quoted are selected at random, so to 
speak, and merely to show the various kinds and per- 
centages of fare changes which have been made. There 
is no "typical" case which can be cited. They all differ. 

Chicago, 111. 

In Chicago, where the company waited some time for 
its increase and where the situation was almost as 
complicated politically as it is in New York, the man- 
agement did have the courage to ask at the first for a 
rate of fare which seemed to be fully commensurate with 



DETAILED DATA TO ACCOMPANY ZONAL AREA DIAGRAMS ON PAGE 12 



New Haven — Popu'ation 162,519* 



Fig. 1 

Fig. 2 

Fig. 3 
Fig. 4 



Area zone I 4 .66sq.mi. 

Area zones 1 and 2 12. 19 sq. mi. 

Area zones 1 to 3 22.08 sq. mi. 

Area zones 1 to 4 31 . 97 sq. mi. 

Area zone 1 2 ,24 sq. mi. 

Area zones 1 and 2 8. 50 stj. mi. 

Area zones 1 to 3 15,95 sq. mi. 

Area zones 1 to 4 28.00 sq. mi. 

Area zone 1 18, 13 sq. mi. 

Area zones 1 and 2 41 . 43 sq. mi. 



Area 



26, 48 sq. mi. 



Brockton — Population 66, 1 38 



Fig. I 



Fig. 
Fig. 



Fig. 4 



Area zone 1 

Area zones 1 and 2 

Area 

Area zone 1 

Area zones 1 and 2 

Area zone 1 




Present fare 10c. flat. Fig. 4. 
Commutation books f 01 sub- 
urban riders for trips in 5 
sub nban zones or more from 
tiaffic centers are sold. 



Present fare 10c. cash, 14 tickets 
for $1 (To traffic center only). 



Present fare 7c. in city zone and 
6c. in outside zones. 



Worcester — ^Population 179,754 
Fig. I Area 39,54 sq. mi. 1 

Fig. 2 Area zone 1 36.92 sq. mi. J 

Area zones 1 and 2 72.65 sq. mi. J 

Providence — -Population 237,595 
Fig. I Area 44 , 00 si|. mi. 1 

Fig. 2 Area 17,94 sq. mi. ( Present fare 6c. in cacli zone. 

Fig. 3 Area zone I 12 ,87 sq. mi. i 

Area zones I and 2 44.50 sq. mi. J 
"•Population figures are from the 1920 census report. 



San Diego — Population 74,683 
Fig. I Area zone I 1.65 
Area zones 1 and 2 12.50 

Springfield — Population 129,563 
Fig. 1 Area 58.71 
Fig. 2 Area zone I 15.87 
Area zones 1 and 2 62 . 1 5 



Newark — Population 414,216 



Fig. 1 



Fig. 2 

Milwaukee 



Area zone 1 
Area zones 1 and 2 
Area zones 1 and 3 
Area zones 1 and 4 
Area 



2.38 
8.55 
22 20 
31 .00 
59.00 



■Population 457,147 
Milwaukee and vicinity: 

Area zone 1 26. 00 

Area zones 1 and 2 42.00 
Area zones 1 and 3 62.00 
Milwaukee alone: 

Area 25 40 

Portland — Population 69,272 
Fig. 1 Area zone I 17.00 
Area zones 1 and 2 49.98 
Fig. 2 Area zone 1 15 .23 

Area zones 1 and 2 32 ,32 
Fig. 3 Area zone 1 4,19 
Area zones 1 and 2 15 91 
Area zones 1 and 3 26.62 
Area zones 1 and 4 49.94 



mi. 
mi. 
mi. 



mi. 
mi. 
mi. 
mi. 
mi. 



mi. 
mi. 
mi. 



mi. 
mi. 
mi. 
mi. 
mi. 
mi. 
mi. 



5c. in each zone, 4 tickets for 
30c., good in two zones. 



■ Present fare 7c. in each zone. 



Present fare 7c. flat, Ic. trans- 
fer charge. 



I Present fare 7c. in zone 1 , 
8 tickets for 50c., 3c. in 
outer zones. 



Present fare 10c. cash or 8c. 
ticket, for ride through 3 
zones or less, 



« 



14 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



cost. This was later cut down by the commission, but 
soon increased to the present fare of 8 cents on the 
surface lines. The rapid transit, or elevated, lines have 
another story to tell, but they have finally arrived at 
10 cents, with a ticket rate of four for 35 cents. The 
following tables show the changes made in Chicago : 



Chicago Surface Lines 

Cash Ticket 

Fare, Fare, 

Date in Effect Cents Cents 

5 

,,,□,„ 7 f Ten for 65 or 

Aug. 7, 1919 7 ^ Fifty for $3.00 

Dec. 27, 1919 6 None 

.July 1, 1920 8 None 

Chicago Elevated Lines 

Cash Fare, 

Date in Effect Cents 

5 

Nov. 21, 1918 6 

Aug. 7, 1919 8 

Feb. 1, 1920 8 

Aug. 4, 1920 10 



Children'K 
Fare, 
Cents 



Tayler plan was inaugurated fare changes as indicated 
in the accompanying table have taken place : 

. Adult . Net 

Cash Ticket Transfer 

Fare, Fare, Charge, 

Date in Effect Cents Cents Cents 

March 1, 1910 3 Five for 15 1 

June 1, 1911 3 Five for 15 None 

Sept. 1,1914 3 Five for 15 1 

Dec. 15, 1917 4 Three for 10 None 

Dec. 26, 1917 4 Three for 10 1 

April 3,1918 4 Seven for 25 None 

April 10,1918 4 Seven for 25 1 

Aug. 4,1918 5 Seven for 25 1 

July 5,1919 5 Eleven for 50 1 

Dec. 15, 1919 5 Six for 25 1 

May 10, 1920 5 Five for 25 1 

Nov. 14, 1920 6 Nine for 50 1 



Cincinnati, Ohio 

Perhaps the most exaggerated example of the moderate 
fare changes, as costs go up and down, is found in Cin- 
cinnati, where the people and the company have agreed 
on a service-at-cost basis of operation. In a way it is 
typical of the point which it is desired to make. With- 
out criticising the conditions of the contract, the facts 
may be stated that a slight increase in fare is allowed 
at the end of a three-month trial of one fare system, if 
that one has not paid enough to keep a certain check 
fund up to a specified amount. On this basis Cincinnati 
started its service-at-cost operation in August, 1918, 
with a cash fare of 5 cents and a ticket rate of five for 
25 cents. Since then the following table tells the story 
of fare changes in Cincinnati: 



Ticket Fare, BOStOn, MaSS. 

Cents 

Boston, Mass., as is well known, is now operated under 

a board of trustees representing the state. Since at- 

Four for 35 tcmpts have been made to meet rising costs by increas- 
ing fares the following changes have been made : 





Cash 


School 


Exchange Ticket in 




Fare, 


Ticket, 


Chelsea with Bay 


Date in Effect 


Cents 


Cents 


State, Cents 




5 


None 


3 


.Vug, 1, 1918 


7 


None 


None 


Dec. 1,1918. 


8 


None 


None 


Jan. 1, 1919 


8 


Ten for 50 


None 


July 10, 1919 


10 


Ten for 50 


None 




Washington, 


D. C. 





Washington, D. C, presents an unusual case, in that 
there are two competitive companies, with entirely dif- 
ferent systems. In order to protect the service of 
each of the two independent companies they have had 
to be considered together in adjustment of fares. Start- 
ing with a 5-cent cash fare, with six tickets for 25 cents, 
increases have been made as shown herewith: 



Children Under Ten 

. Adults Years 

Cash Cash 

Fare. Ticket Fare, Fare, Ticket Fare, 

Date in Effect Cents Cents Cents Cents 

1896 to Dec. 31, 1918 5 Five for 25 3 Two for 5 

Jan. 1,1919 6 Six for 33 3 Four for 1 1 

Apr 1, 1919.. . ■ 6 Five for 30 3 None 

July 1,1919 7 Six for 39 4 Four for 13 

Oct 1,1919.. . 7 Seven for 35 4 Fourforl3 

June 1,1920 8 Two for 15 4 Four for 13 

Sept. 1,1920 8 Five for 40 4 Five for 20 

Dec. 1, 1920 9 Two for 17 or 

Six for 51 



It is most important to point out, in connection with 
the Cincinnati experience, that one of the efforts made 
to keep the cost of service from going up was that the 
Director of Street Railways, W. C. Culkins, ordered the 
local company to reduce the service. 

New Orleans, La. 

In October, 1918, as the result of the War Labor 
Board's increase in wages the 5-cent flat fare was 
increased to 6 cents, and again on Oct. 21, 1920, fares 
were increased, this time to 8 cents as the result of 
further wage advances to the employees. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Cleveland is the first "service-at-cost" city and since 
the adoption of the Tayler plan in 1910 there have been 
various fare changes. Some one remarked recently that 
the Cleveland public continued to ride in as great num- 
bers at high fares as at low fares and the rejoinder was 
that "the Cleveland public is trained to railway service 
the same way that it is trained to general merchandise 
purchasing; it is merely in the habit of getting on the 
car and asking the conductor 'how much.' " Since the 



Cash Ticket Company Net Transfer Charges 
Fare, Fare, Transfer Inter-Company 
Date in Effect Cents Cents Charge, Cents Transfers 

5 Six for 25 Nothing No transfers 

Nov. 1, 1918 5 None Nothing No transfers 

Jan. 15, 1919 5 None Nothing Free Inter-Company 

transfers at thirteen 
points 

June 1, 1919 5 2 Free 

Nov. 1, 1919 7 Four for 25 Nothing Inter-Company trans- 
Dec. 13,1919 7 Four for 25 Nothing Abolished 

May 1,1920.. 8 Four for 30 Nothing 2 cents 



Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia is another example of fare increase, 
which has its own characteristics. Starting with a 
5-cent fare, to which was added a 3-cent exchange 
ticket, or transfer for many of the transfer passengers, 
the management has held to the theory of a basic 5-cent 
fare even up to the present. The same story of increas- 
ing costs has to be told there too. These were met in 
Philadelphia by a great increase in riding and by the 
same devotion of the property or capital to the service 
of the public without adequate return. But finally even 
Philadelphia conditions could no longer allow continued 
operation without fare increase — the last wage increase 
which had been awarded to the men had to go unpaid — 
and various schemes were put forth. The management de- 
sired a 5-cent fare with no transfers, which would have 
been one sort of experiment ; the Public Service Commis- 
sion decided that this would be discriminatory against 
many riders and ordered the company to put into force, 
temporarily, as another experiment, a 7-cent rate with 
four tickets for 25 cents where the former 5-cent rate 
had been in effect, and to continue to sell the 3-cent 
exchange tickets as usual. 



Jaymary 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



15 



Portland, Ore. 

On June 15, 1918, the former 5-cent fare, with free 
transfers, was changed to 6 cents cash with tickets in 
lots of five for 30 cents and fifty for $2.75. Transfers 
between city and interurban cars were eliminated in 
December, 1918. On June 15, 1920, the cash fare was 
raised to 8 cents and all reduced rate tickets abolished. 



In order to present more graphically, and possibly 
more forcibly, the condition of many of the flat fare 
cities at the present stage of the development there are 
shown in accompanying illustrations outline maps of 
several of these cities, with information to show the 
area served for the flat fare, the population of the cor- 
porate city according to the 1920 census figures, and the 
fare system in force. These maps are all shown to the 
same scale in order to make the graphic illustration as 
forceful as possible. These were first published in the 
Electric Railway Journal Aug. 5, 1916, accompany- 
ing an article by D. J. McGrath, and were later pub- 
lished in "Street Railway Fares," Jackson and McGrath. 

The Connecticut Company 

Of the other type of fare experiments which have 
been made, namely, the distance-tariff schemes, the 
writer's own company, the Connecticut Company, is one 
example. It is also an example of flat fare changes, both 
before and after the zone system experiments. Starting 
with a 5-cent fare, the first change was made in October, 
1917, when a rate of 6 cents was established on the old 

5- cent limits. By 1919 this was proving to be inade- 
quate and, to avoid any increase on the initial fare, the 
fare for the short distance rider, a zone system was 
devised in which zones were laid out of from 1.5 miles at 
and near urban centers to 0.8 miles in suburban and 
interurban territory. Taking New Haven as a typical 
city under this system, there is shown in an accompany- 
ing diagram the outline maps of the various zones under 
this system, which was installed Nov. 2, 1919. In fact, 
the various schemes are shown in a series of maps. 
Fig. 4 shows the former 5- and 6-cent city areas. Fig. 2 
shows the zones with their areas under the first zone 
system. Under the first zone system the minimum and 
initial fare was 6 cents, for which a passenger could ride 
two zones or less. An additional charge of 2 cents per 
zone was made after the first two zones. Seventeen 

6- cent zone tickets were sold for a dollar. Transfers 
were issued to allow any passenger to continue his ride 
for the same charge as if he had stayed on the original 
car. The traffic center was a zone dividing point in both 
the first and second zone schemes. As has already been 
related by the Electric Railway Journal, this system 
allowed some increase in revenue, enough to pay operat- 
ing expenses and some fixed charges, but not all, by any 
means. It was later modified by what the Connecticut 
commission hoped would prove to be an improvement. 
Fig. 2 shows New Haven under the equal-length zone 
system installed by the commission on May 9, 1920. 
Under this zone system the cash fare was 3 cents per 
zone, with a minimum fare of 6 cents. A fifty-zone 
ticket was sold for $1, the minimum amount punched in 
this case being three zones, or 6 cents. There was also 
a calendar month commutation ticket sold at 1.75 cents 
per zone for suburban riders traveling five zones or more 
from the traffic centers of certain sized cities. These 
commutation tickets were non-transferable and were not 
good on Sundays and holidays. Under this system, also, 
transfers were issued to allow any passenger to continue 



his ride for the same charge as if he had stayed on the 
original car. This experiment did not provide as much 
revenue, comparatively, as the first zone system and was 
abandoned on Aug. 8, 1920, for a fourth change, from 
the old 5-cent system, as shown in Fig. 3. In this case 
a smaller area than the old 5-cent area was put on a 
7-cent basis and a 6-cent area about 2 miles long placed 
outside of this. Suburban lines were put on a basis of 
6 cents for 2-mile zones. This presented difficulties in 
two ways — it neither provided the necessary revenue 
nor was satisfactory to the public. Finally, on Nov. 1, 
1920, a return was made to the old 5-cent areas with a 
10-cent fare and commutation tickets under same con- 
ditions as before at 2^ cents per mile. Its effect cannot 
yet be correctly analyzed, for it has been in effect but 
two months, months that have suffered the general indus- 
trial depression. It is only fair to state, however, that 
from the standpoint of company revenue this system 
seems to be proving satisfactory. As compared with 
the corresponding periods of previous years, the increase 
in fare has not proved so objectionable to the public as 
might have been anticipated, for the number of pas- 
sengers carried has decreased but slightly. Estimates 
in Connecticut are complicated by the jitney problem. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Milwaukee has the distinction of establishing in 1914 
the first central area zone system with zones outside of 
the central area having a zone rate of less than 5 cents. 

In December, 1913, the unit cash fare for a ride was 
5 cents, with twelve tickets for 50 cents, and with free 
transfers within the one-fare area of Milwaukee, which 
corresponded approximately to the city limits. On Jan. 
18, 1914, a central area zone system was made effective. 
The limits established at that time are in effect today, 
although changes have been made in the base fares 
both in the central area and in the interurban 
zones. These changes are shown in the following table : 



-Central Area- 



June 
July 
Nov. 
Feb. 
June 



Cash 

Fare, Ticket Fare, 
Effective Cents Cents 
18,1914... 5 Six for 25, twelve for 50, 
twenty-five for $1 
5 Six for 25, twelve for 50, 

twenty-five for $1 
5 Six for 25, twelve for 50, 

twenty-five for $1 
5 None 
5 None 
7 Six for 35 or 18 for $ I 
7 Six for 35 or nine for 50 
7 Eight for 50 



Date 
Jan. 

Nov. 19, 1914. 
Jan. 30, 1915. 



Suburban and 
Interurban Zones 
Cash Min. No. 
Fare, Fare, of 
Cents Cents Zones 

2 5 2 



Suburban 
Ticket Rate. 
Cents 



Thirty for 50 



1918. 
3, 1918. 

2, 1919. 

3, 1920. 
7, 1920. 



Thirty 
Thirty 
Thirty 



for 50 
for 50 
for 60 



Twenty for 60 
Twenty for 60 
Twenty for 60 



Brockton, Mass. 

Brockton, Mass., is taken as a typical illustration of 
the zone system of fares established on the Bay State 
System. Prior to October, 1917, there was a central 
area with 5 cents as the unit of fare and with free 
transfers. On lines extending beyond the central area 
boundary additional 5-cent zones existed. There were 
likewise overlaps from the center of the city area and 
extended transfer privileges and reduced rate tickets at 
varying rates. On Oct. 15, 1917, the rate of fare in the 
suburban and interurban zones was increased to 6 cents. 

On June 24, 1918, an entirely new zone system 
(Brockton, Fig. 1) was established. This plan called for 
a central city zone in which the unit rate of fare was 
6 cents cash with free universal transfers, and outlying- 
zones having a base rate of 2 cents each and a minimum 
fare of 6 cents for three zones or less. Several forms of 
reduced rate tickets were .sold — namely, six for 30 cents 




3U FFALO 



CLEVELAND 



ST. LOUIS 



Diagrams Showing Relative Areas of Several Cities Which Operate on a Flat Fare Base 

The population and present fare status of the cities shown here are given at the bottom of the 
page facing this illustration. The concentric circles on these maps are at mile intervals 

(These maps are to the same scale as those on page 12.) 



Jannary 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



17 



and six for 25 cents from the limits of the central zone 
to the traffic center, without transfer privilege. The 
latter form of ticket was for off peak travel and good 
only from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Mondays to Fridays inclusive, 
while the six for 30 cents tickets were good at all times. 
Two additional tickets of similar nature were sold from 
points in the first outer zone to the traffic center, namely, 
seven for 50 cents and four for 25 cents. 

On Jan. 8, 1919, the above described central zone was 
abolished as such and the entire area of the first outside 
zone included in the central city zone area. (See Brock- 
ton, Fig. 2.) In the interurban territory two of the 
former 2-cent mileage zones were combined and the base 
rate per zone was made 5 cents. The unit fare, however, 
either in the central area or the interurban zones, was 
10 cents cash, or reduced rate tickets good for a single 
zone ride were sold in lots of five for 35 cents. On July 
1, 1919, the five for 35 cents reduced rate ticket was 
abolished. On Nov. 23, 1919, a new ticket rate was 
established from the limits of the central area to the 
traffic center. These tickets were sold in lots of sixteen 
for $1 and carried no transfer privileges whatever. 

On Sept. 15, 1920, all free transfers were withdrawn, 
making the 10-cent cash fare good only to the traffic 
center. At the same time the reduced rate ticket was 
increased to f oiirteen for $1 and new outer limits estab- 
lished at what was practically the former 6-cent city 
area. (See Brockton, Fig. 3.) On Dec. 1, 1920, the 
ticket limits were again extended to the limits of the 
10-cent city zone. (See Fig. 4.) 

Portland, Me. 

In Portland, Me., prior to Aug. 1, 1918, the fare limits 
consisted of a number of 5-cent zones of various lengths 
with a number of overlaps. (See Portland, Fig. 1.) 

On Aug. 2, 1918, the Portland Railroad, with the ap- 
proval of the Maine Public Utilities Commission, 
established the initial zone system having a central 
area varying in radius from 3 to 4.5 miles from the 
central point of the city. Outside of this area was a 
series of zones varying in length from 1 to 3 miles. The 
fare in the central zone was 6 cents with free transfers 
except on three lines which operated entirely within the 
central zone and through the business or short-haul 
territory. On these the unit rate of fare was 5 cents 
with a 1 cent charge for a transfer. The rate of fare in 
the outside "copper" zones was 2 cents for short zones 
and 4 cents for zones about 2 miles in length with a 
minimum of 6 cents. (See Portland, Fig. 2.) 

On March 2, 1919, the former inner zone was divided 
into three fare zones, making the unit rate of fare per 
zone 2 cents with tickets or 3 cents if paid in cash, with 
a minimum cash fare of 10 cents or 6 cents with tickets 
for three zones or less. Tickets were sold in lots of 
fifteen for 30 cents. Passengers paying cash were en- 
titled to rebate checks equal to the difference between 
the cash fare and the ticket fare, which were redeemable 
at reasonably convenient points but not later than the 
close of the day following date .of issue. 



Effective June 15, 1919, without change in zone 
limits the 6 cents with ticket or 10 cents cash fares with 
rebate were changed to 7 cents with ticket and 9 cents 
cash without rebate. On Aug. 1, 1920, the rates were 
further increased to 8 cents with ticket or 10 cents cash. 

Providence, R. I. 

In Providence the Rhode Island Company on May 5, 
1918, established a zone system with a 5-cent central 
area and with 2-cent mile zones outside. (See Provi- 
dence, Fig. 2.) This zone system proved inadequate as 
a revenue producer and was difficult of collection inas- 
much as it was necessary to use duplex or tear checks.) 

On Oct. 23, 1918, the system was revised with 5-cent 
zones (see Providence, Fig. 3) and for collection pur- 
poses the Rooke register was again put into use. This 
plan proved to have a greater earning capacity and if 
it had not been that the increase in cost of service out- 
stripped the gain in revenue this scheme would in all 
probability have been in effect today, but due to the 
need of greater revenues the fare in each zone was 
changed on Sept. 28, 1919, to 6 cents. 

Springfield, Mass. 

Another city that has tried a zone system with a cen- 
tral area is Springfield, Mass. Prior to May 1, 1918, 
a uniform fare of 5 cents with free transfers was in 
effect. (See Springfield, Fig. 1.) 

On May 1, 1918, the first zone system vras established. 
(See Springfield, Fig. 2.) Under this plan the unit rate 
of fare was 5 cents in the inner and first outer zone. 
The inner zone had an average radius of about 2.5 miles, 
while the distance across the first outside zone varied 
from 2 to 4.2 miles. There were two classes of reduced 
rate tickets: one, from any point in the Springfield inner 
zone to a point five miles out, sold in lots of six for 40 
cents ; the second was six tickets for 50 cents which were 
good between points in the inner and first outer zone. 
In the Westfield division outside of the Springfield city 
limits the rate of fare was 2 cents per mile, except in 
Westfield, where the minimum fare was 6 cents. 

On Sept. 16, 1918, the cash fare in the two Springfield 
zones was increased to 6 cents. The six tickets for 40 
cents were increased to 45 cents and the six tickets for 
50 cents increased to seven for 65 cents. In the West- 
field division the zone rate was increased to 2.5 cents 
per mile but no change was made in the zone locations 
or the minimum fare in Westfield. 

On Oct. 19, 1919, the present rates of fare were es- 
tablished. This change made the fare 7 cents in each 
of the two Springfield zones. The former six for 45 
cents tickets were increased to eleven for $1 and the 
seven for 65 cents to nine for $1. 

In the Westfield division the mileage zone rate was 
increased to 3 cents with a 7-cent minimum fare or ten 
tickets for 65 cents. The mileage zones on the Palmer 
division were rearranged by making one zone out of each 
two adjacent zones and the rate of fare was increased to 
7 cents per zone. 



DETAILED DATA TO ACCOMPANY FLAT FARE CITY AREAS ON PAGE 16 



Cleveland. Ohio 
Pop. — 769,836* 
Area — 46 sq.mi. 
Fare — 6c., 9 tickets for 50c. 

St. Louls, Mo. 
Pop. — 772,897. 
Area — 56 .sq.mi. 
Fare — 7c. flat. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 
Pop. — 401,247. 
Area — 58 sq.mi. 
Fare — 9c., six tickets 51c. 
Two tickets 17c. 



Chicago, III. 
Pop.— 2,701,705. 
Area — 182 sq.mi. 
Fare — Surface line 8c. flat. 
Elevated lOc, four 
tickets 35c. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pop.— 1,823,158. 
Area — 91 sq.mi. 
Fare — 7c., four tickets 25c. 
3c. transfers at many points. 



♦Population figures are from 
tlie 1920 census report. 



Buffalo, N. Y. 
Pop: — 506,775. 
Area — 38 sq.mi. 
Fare — 7c., four tickets 25c. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Pop. — 508,410. 
Area — 40 sq.mi. 
Faie — 5c. flat. 

Boston, Mass. 
Pop.— 748,060. 
Area — 81 sq.mi. 
Fare — 10c. flat. 



Detroit, Mich, 
Pop. — 993,739. 
Area — 58 sq.mi. 
Fare — 6c., nine tickets 50c. 

Baltimore, Md. 
Pop. — 733.826. 
Area — 50 sq.mi. 
Fare — 7c. flat. 

Washington, D. C. 
Pop. — 437,571. 
Area — 48 sq.mi. 
Fare — 8c., four tickets 30c. 



18 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Worcester, Mass. 

The Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Railway, 
operating in Worcester and vicinity, had prior to July 1, 
1918, a central area 5-cent zone system with the subur- 
ban and interurban zones of varying lengths. (See 
Worcester, Fig. 1.) Many overlaps also were in effect 
both from urban points to interurban points and in the 
interurban zones. 

On July 1, 1918, the rate of fare in all zones outside 
of the urban central zone was changed to 6 cents. On 
Aug. 1 of the same year the unit rate of fare in the 
Worcester urban area was also made 6 cents. The 
third change was made on April 18, 1919, when the unit 
rate of fare in each zone, city and interurban, was 
changed to 7 cents with ten tickets for 65 cents and 33 a 
per cent increase in all reduced rate tickets. No alter- 
ation in the length of zones was made in any of these 
fare changes. 

On Nov. 30, 1919, the system was rezoned (see 
Worcester, Fig. 2) and the unit rate of fare reduced to 
5 cents per zone, with a traffic center established at 
Worcester City Hall. All reduced rate tickets except 
pupils' tickets were abolished as well as free transfers 
in the Worcester urban territory. 

On Jan. 4, 1920, the unit rate of fare within the 
Worcester city limits was increased from 5 to 6 cents, 
with no change in zone limits or rate of fare on outside 
lines. On March 7, 1920, a further increase to the 
present rates of fare was made. This made the unit rate 
of fare within Worcester city limits 7 cents per zone 
•and 6 cents in the outside zones. 

Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J- 

Another example of a zone system tried and aban- 
doned is that of the Public Service Railway of New 
Jersey. An even more drastic zone system was put into 
effect there (Sept. 14, 1919), as indicated by the accom- 
panying analytical maps of Newark, which may be 
considered typical. The first of these shows the former 
and present flat fare areas. Before trying a zone sys- 
tem the Public Service Railway had first added a 1-cent 
transfer charge to the 5-cent fare and later changed to 
a 7-cent fare with a 1-cent transfer, which rate was 
lowered for a time to 6 cents and 1 cent for transfer, but 
almost immediately returned to 7 cents with 1-cent 
transfer. 

The zone map shown there is not exactly correct, 
except when considered from the standpoint of the 
traffic center. This method of drawing the map was 
the only one practicable, however, for it does give some 
comparison with the other places where zone systems 
have been tried. In this case each line, no matter what 
its source or route, without relation to any traffic center, 
was laid off in equal length zones and a straight distance 
tariff put into effect. The charge per zone was 2 cents, 
except that the charge for the first zone was 3 cents; 
no transfers were issued, but "continuous trip" checks 
were issued in some cases. On Nov. 15, 1919, the so- 
called "five and one" plan proposed by the Public Utili- 
ties Commission supiprseded the "three and two" plan. 
Under the new plan the rates were 5 cents for the 
initial ride on any car, which, however, entitled the pas- 
senger to ride two zones or less, with 1 cent for each 
additional zone ridden. A charge of 1 cent was made 
for a transfer to obviate the necessity for a passenger 
to pay the initial 5 cents on the line to which he trans- 
ferred. The system finally proved ineffective, however, 
for reasons hard to analyze. The complete story of this 



and most of the other attempts being reviewed here 
have already been told by the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal and will not be repeated except in review. Suffice 
it to say that the next step was to return (Dec. 7, 1919,) 
to the flat rate of fare, which is 7 cents, with a 1-cent 
transfer, the same that was in effect previous to the 
inauguration of the "three and two" system. 

San Diego, Cal. 

In San Diego a two-zone system with a 5-cent fare 
in each zone became effective on Jan. 1, 1920, supersed- 
ing a 5-cent flat fare with free transfers. By this plan 
the city is divided into an inner and outer zone and the 
cash fare for a ride from the outer zone to any point 
in the inner zone or, in fact, across the inner zone to a 
point on the opposite side of the city in the outer zone, 
becomes 10 cents. Free transfer privileges are retained 
to connecting lines in either the inner or outer zones. 
Reduced rate tickets are sold in lots of four for 30 cents 
and monthly tickets good for purchaser only at the rate 
of 6.5 cents per ride. These tickets bear the same trans- 
fer privilege as cash fares. 



From the review of fares, thus analyzed by the cities 
chosen, it appears that there is no known method of 
assessing fares upon the riding public that has not been 
tried in this national experiment. Some methods never 
heard of before have also been tried, as is evident. 

Although it involves, possibly, a repetition of some 
statements earlier in this article, it should be pointed 
out that there is definite and conclusive showing that the 
managers of the various properties have done everything 
in their power to keep the cost of service to the car 
rider down absolutely to the lowest minimum possible; 
this in an effort not only to benefit the community by a 
low rate of fare but hopefully in regard to a continued 
use of the cars by low base rate. It should also be 
repeated that these fares have failed, at least in the 
earlier stages, to catch up with the increasing costs. , 
This review also indicates, therefore, as was stated in 
another way earlier in the article, that the courageous 
and proper thing for the managements to have done 
would have been, early in the stage of increasing costs, 
to have placed the rate of fare at a high enough point 
to cover all these increases and to have recognized the 
fact that a declining number of passengers might be 
expected with radical increases in individual rates. Had 
this been done there is no question but that the industry 
would have benefited and the communities themselves 
would have been better served by thoroughly maintained 
properties, properties which would expand better to 
meet the needs of the communities than has been the 
case with this cautious effort to increase the revenues. 

As to the future, he would indeed be an optimist who 
would predict the outcome. Some years ago the 
managers of properties might have been sufficiently 
optimistic to try this prediction, but in view of the past 
condition and the continuing need for increasing and 
ever increasing the grosa income to meet payrolls, which 
are still advancing, no management would at the present 
time hazard an estimate of what the future may develop. 
It is doubtless true that costs will no longer advance and 
relatively few increases in rates from the present 
standard will be needed except such as are necessary to 
produce an income in excess of operating costs to meet 
the actual necessary return to the owners of the 
property. 

It is also true that there is another aspect to this 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



19 



problem in respect to future reduction in rates. Due to 
the history of the industry as related above there has 
been created a dehciency in earnings in all cases, and an 
actual inroad into capital in many others, which the 
various propei'ties have suffered in the past six years. 
There has been an accumulated deficit and a decrease in 
maintenance which must be met and the property 
brought to a high standard of maintenance and credit 
before it will be possible seriously to consider any rate 
reduction whatever. That this fact is already recognized 
by the public as represented by the public service com- 
missions has been indicated in the recent decision of the 
Public Utilities Commission of Tennessee on the applica- 
tion of the Nashville Gas & Heating Company for 
increased rates, decided Nov. 30, 1920.* In this case the 
commission found that the company had suffered a 
deficiency in earnings and an impairment of main- 
tenance due to inadequate rates. It determined this 
deficiency in earnings to be $118,000 and authorized the 
company to charge such rates as would be necessary to 
make the necessary return upon capital at present, which 
was set at from 62 to 7 2 per cent, and also to amortize 
this deficiency at the rate of $1,000 per month. The 
company was further authorized and ordered to 
"reinforce its service in the outlying residential dis- 
tricts . . . with its first available earnings over and 
above the 6i per cent on the investment and the amount 
hereinbefore set out with which to amortize its losses 
since July 1, 1919, and that the company shall not pay 
dividends on any of its stock until this work be com- 
pleted." It appears that this attitude is an appreciation 
of one of the points which this article has intended 
to emphasize, namely, that the utilities, and certainly 
the electric railways, have conscientiously continued 
to give the best possible service to the public, generally 
at rates which have failed to pay the full cost, and that 
consequently there has accumulated a deficit which must 
be made up before the railways can again be of greatest 
service to the communities and certainly before it will 
be possible to consider rate reductions. 

It is incumbent upon the managers of the industry to 



*This decision is revii wcil on page 63, this issue. — Eds. 



impiess upon the public the fact that undue caution has 
been the fundamental basis of all the rate advances in 
the past, and it is hoped that this contribution to the 
problem will assist in impressing upon the public the 
fact that none of the efforts to increase rates has at any 
time shown a sufficiently courageous attitude by the men 
charged with developing the service and sustaining the 
property and the corporation producing the service. 

Another purpose of this article has been to show the 
experimental nature of the various fare changes that 
have taken place. It appears that this experiment has 
not ended. Where the industry is going as to fare 
systems and fare policies is also difficult to predict. It 
has been said that the trend is toward 10 cents. There 
is, of course, much to support this view, if a curve of 
fare changes is plotted, perhaps. But it appears that the 
industry can well consider the facts as they exist today. 
These facts, it appears, are that the public has been 
educated by the industry and by its own investigations 
into the matter to believe that costs of furnishing elec- 
tric railway service differ in various cities in different 
parts of the country under the varying conditions which 
exist in these cities. Public opinion, density of popula- 
tion, riding habit, topography, living costs and the 
numerous other items which the industry has often 
talked of must be taken into consideration, and the 
public knows this. It is therefore very doubtful if any 
given fare, such as the former five cents, ever becomes 
so universally applicable as was that charge. Whether 
zone systems will prove practicable in the United States 
is not yet known. It is certain, however, that the final 
standardization of fare system for any community can 
be arrived at only after an intermediate period, during 
which the rate of fare shall be high enough to absorb 
the accumulated deficits of the past few years. 

One conclusion which can be drawn from the experi- 
ment seems to be that the railways are in the habit of 
studying the matter in detail and that there is hope 
of arriving at a system of fares in America which will 
ultimately pay for the service, prove satisfactory to the 
riding public and allow the properties to grow to supply 
the transportation needs of the communities. 




THE IRONJHORSE 

Yes, JoKn, but think u/hat a lot hecosts 
lo jecd !! 



DEARER BOOKING. 





Zip & Pep: "Yes, John, but just look what 

we've got to pay for our tickcts' ' 




flOUNO'AND OOUNDtMt MULBtRS' 6USM 
.GtS C»*1'S0 PBiCti AWO f*fi£SC"*SlNa COSTS- 



THE BRITISH ALSO HAVE HAD FARE TROUin.ES 
The London Underground thus tells the story to tlie public 



20 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



When We Build Our Tracks 

The Track Is the Vital Part of a Railway — Some of the Details Which Should Have Consideration in 
Connection with Track Construction Are Discussed — Some "Don'ts" Are Suggested 
for Study When Track Designs Are Being Prepared 

By R. C. Cram 

Engineer Surface Roadway Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



THE Federal Electric Railways Commission re- 
cently handed down a report emphasizing the fact 
that the electric railway is an essential utility 
which is and has been of great service in the develop- 
ment not only of the cities but also of the country as a 
whole. It is very desirable that the railways themselves 
shall fully realize the importance of the word "rail-way," 
because we are apt to forget that the rail is an essential 
part of the track and that the track is the fundamental 
part of the railway. The Public Utilities Commission 
of Connecticut made the following pointed statement in 
a recent decision : "From an analysis of the history and 
development of street railways the commission is led to 
the conclusion that even though the motive power may 
change, as it has in the past, the essential features of a 
street rail way will remain. For more than seventy-five 
years street railways have operated along a predeter- 
mined course, on rails or tracks, with every new form of 
motive power." (There is a temptation at this point to 
turn aside and comment upon the situation which has 
largely resulted from operation at a predetermined rate 
of fare since the fare question is behind most of our 
present track troubles.) 

First, We Must Decide Whether All of Our 
Track Is Worth While 

No one except a jitney devotee will question the fact 
that the tracks are needed, but before we undertake to 
overcome the handicaps which have prevented adequate 
track reconstruction programs we should determine 
whether we really need all the trackage which we now 
have. There are many systems which are consolidations 
of lines which were formerly in competition and it has 
required a war condition to render evident the over- 
tracked state which may be found in numerous instances. 
Diminishing revenue revealed a number of situations 
where lines closely paralleling one another were not 
paying. They would have been seen not to have paid 
their keep if they had been operated as separate units 
instead of parts of a large system. 

Consequently the beginning of the era of reconstruc- 
tion and rehabilitation which is about to open should find 
us engaged in a study of our maps, population and 
riding statistics, and all the other aids incident to the 
process of reaching a decision as to what trackage 
should be definitely abandoned, sold as junk and written 
olT the books. The tendency to hang on to unprofitable 
lines must first be overcome if we are to consider our 
industry as being subject to the same economic laws as 
those which control other industries. We should bear in 
mind that our paving obligations alone have reached 
such proportions that they may be large enough in some 
cases to turn a line from an asset into a liability. Inci- 
dentally a study should also be made of the gains which 
may be made by rerouting of lines which will naturally 



follow any curtailment in track facilities. We have 
ample evidence that re-routing has often been a great 
aid in speeding up traffic and in increasing business. 

Track Work Is Five Years Behind Schedule 

It is everywhere apparent that the reconstruction and 
the rehabilitation of tracks have been held back by the 
general lack of adequate revenue which has prevailed 
during and since the war. Little new construction was 
going forward in the years immediately preceding the 
war and, aside from war trackage, very little new mile- 
age has been built for several years past. It is needless 
here to state the causes for the lack of revenue, but the 
"no funds" condition always puts a stop to expansion of 
electric railway facilities and leads to radical curtail- 
ments in recon.struction and maintenance programs. 
With. such conditions prevailing over a long period the 
way engineers have been forced to devote their efforts 
toward keeping up tracks which in normal times would 
be considered as fit only for the scrap pile. 

In track work it has not been so much a question of 
the degree of maintenance, but rather one of any main- 
tenance whatever. With labor at a premium ; with mate- 
rial costs high and going higher, the problem has been 
that of finding the means to do the* patch-plus-a-patch 
sort of work to which most systems have been reduced. 
When a reasonable amount of track is not reconstructed 
yearly the general standard of track condition lowers 
perceptibly, and second-hand rail and ties which might 
be used in further patch-work become as scarce as new 
materials. Some of us have even been forced to take up 
tracks to secure materials for repairs in other quarters. 

Most electric railways are at least five years behind 
in their renewal or reconstruction programs, and tracks 
all over the country are in a general state of disrepair 
which is costly in rolling stock maintenance, in power 
consumption and in slow schedules. Fortunately there 
seems to be a rift in the clouds of financial depression 
which have so long hung over the industry and increased 
revenues have resulted from the fare increases granted 
by a reluctant or indifferent public. While a large part 
of these increases is consumed in increased pay-rolls and 
fuel costs, it seems that there should be some part of the 
added funds which can be devoted to the track and it 
should be remembered that the track is a vital part of 
the railway. Without the track, we cannot run cars. 
With poor track we cannot run cars safely and economi- 
cally. If there be any money available, it is safe then 
to assume that a company will spend as much as possible 
this year upon the track and will start the work as soon 
as the frost is out of the ground rather than sometime 
after June 30. Let the calendar year begin to control 
the track expenditure as one means of lessening the cost 
of the work. 

Perhaps the opportunity for an ideal rehabilitation 



January 1, 1921 



1 X ^"-f^ 

Electric Railway Journal ' 



21 



such as Chicago developed in 1908 may not be present, 
but we can apply some of the Chicago methods of attack 
and adjust our plans to our present-day needs. With 
this in mind our first duty is to make a careful survey of 
the several types of track found on the system with the 
view of determining age, car traffic and general condi- 
tion. From this we may make up a table or budget 
indicating where we should rebuild and where we should 
overhaul. The data in the table should be grouped to 
indicate the desirable order of work not only for the 
current year but also for several years in advance, as it 
will be almost impossible to overcome a five-year handi- 
cap within any one season. It goes without saying that 
such tables should also show estimated costs for each 
item, with group totals. Most estimates of this char- 
acter are also required to show the division of the ex- 
pense between the capital and maintenance accounts. 

Another table or group of tables containing the same 
items of work but made to show the quantities of rails, 
ties, joints and paving materials will also be found very 
helpful in case the program should be adopted. It is 
usually unwise to make them up before the adoption of 
a program, since managements have a habit of changing 
and rearranging almost any schedule submitted. 

In making studies for budgets of this sort it may be 
advisable to set aside some of our prevailing notions 
that we know all about our track systems and to make 
an analysis of the several types of track in service. 
Sketches should be made of these and designated by 
type numbers or letters. The percentage of each type 
in use should be determined. The tracks should be dug 
up in spots occasionally and the condition of the ties, 
rail bases and rail fastenings studied. An attempt 
should be made to compare the relative lives of the dif- 
ferent types in the. light of traffic conditions. Some- 
times it may be found that older types of track are 
giving better service than some of the more modern 
types. Such a condition, if found, should be the basis 
for a search into the causes. Having determined upon 
the latter, the obvious step is to apply ourselves to the 
modifications in design which will remedy the con- 
ditions. 

Things to Avoid in Track Rehabilitation 

In connection with the preparation of track designs 
some "don'ts" may be in order. Do not play too hard 
at the game of "follow the leader." It is all very well 
to follow standards, but it does not always pay to assume 
that some particular track construction standard as 
developed on one system will be suitable on some other 
system. Do not forget that our association standards 
represent the best thought and a wide experience, and 
that they can be followed with assurance of their worth, 
if properly selected and correctly applied. Incidentally 
a study of the way committee reports on proper founda- 
tion for tracks in paved streets, to be found in the 1914 
and 1915 Proceedings, will be of assistance in rounding 
up all the factors which should have attention when 
track designs are under discussion. 

Do not expect to get something for nothing. We 
cannot afford to build too lightly in an effort at cheap- 
ness by reducing first cost. We must consider that a 
track should have a long life. A life of thirty years is 
quite possible, with modern rails and pavements, as an 
average. Such track cannot be built cheaply in these 
times but we should not try to stretch the available bud- 
get beyond the elastic limit of substantial construction. 
It is better to shorten the program a mile now than to 



spend its cost in after years in excessive maintenance. 

Do not design a track structure on the basis of a 
safety-car loading, unless satisfied that no other cars 
will every be run over it. No one knows whether the 
safety-car is here to stay, in its present light-weight 
form. Most properties still run much heavier cars and 
will continue to do so for years to come. The history 
of track construction reveals the fact that our early 
tracks were built too light. They were usually designed 
against loads produced by electrified horse-cars weigh- 
ing about the same as our present safety cars. These 
tracks, and particularly the rails, did not withstand the 
ravages of corrosion, distortion due to undermining 
of track, increase in car weights and increase in oper- 
ating schedules. 

Do not forget that while track pavements are not 
strictly a part of the track structure the service which 
a track pavement will give is largely dependent upon the 
character of the track construction. The best pavement 
in the world will not overcome faulty track design and 
much of the criticism which is hurled at us today by 
civic authorities comes from defective track pavements. 

Good Paving Is a Paying Proposition 

Efforts at lessening the track paving tax burden have 
been nullified very often by the paving conditions found 
in our tracks. Whether or not these are the result of 
improper selection of pavement, poor track, lack of 
funds or whatnot makes no difference to our critics. 
Hence our earnest efforts must be directed toward prov- 
ing that good track pavements can be constructed and 
that such pavements are no more costly to maintain in 
tracks than elsewhere under equal traffic conditions. In 
this connection, the writer believes that much could be 
attained if arrangement were made to secure the co- 
operation of the American Society of Municipal Im- 
provements with our own Engineering Association for 
the purpose of jointly studying paving materials and 
standards which would be mutually satisfactory. 

If we are ever to get even a measure of relief from the 
paving burden, we must use our publicity to the utmost. 
It should be convincingly shown to the public that the 
costs for track pavements, when required by franchise, 
are really tax assessments. All legal opinion supports 
this view and we should let the people know that their 
fares must pay these taxes. One way of doing this is 
to let our investors know it also by changing our ac- 
counting methods so that pavement costs will be entered 
as "Taxes : Paving." These costs are now hidden away 
in Account No. 10 Paving, operating expense details. 

From the paving at the top to the foundation at the 
bottom of the track is an inverse order in which to 
consider the track structure. However, there is little 
doubt that we have looked at the track too long from the 
top downward. So, another "don't" brings us to the 
track foundation where really we should have started. 

Do not forget that the foundation of the track is the 
most important feature. The best of rails, ties and 
pavements may easily be ruined, or prevented from 
functioning properly, if the subsoil under the track has 
not received the attention it should have had when the 
designs were prepared. The soil upon which we lay our 
tracks should be studied just as carefully as though we 
intended to erect an office building upon it. It should 
be analyzed and the track foundation should be built 
with th>e view of not overloading the soil. Even in the 
same city, we often find sections where the soils are 
radically different and the ballast features of the track 



9'> 



Electric Railway Journal 



design must be changed accordingly. Drainage plays 
a big part in the treatment of subsoils and the neglect 
to provide it has caused more track and pavement fail- 
ures than any other agency. Surface drainage is an 
item which should receive consideration. The installa- 
tion of track drains aids in overcoming underdrainage 
troubles by preventing infiltration of surface water. 

The Subsoil Should Not Be Overlooked 

The character of the subsoil and the treatment re- 
quired to render it stable, will be a determining factor 
in settling the question of the need for ballast. The 
subsoil may be very stable and of a self-draining nature, 
in which case the placing of ballast of stone or concrete 
may be unnecessary, but statistics have shown that fully 
90 per cent of the mileage of tracks in streets is now 
ballasted with crushed stone or gravel predominating. 

The kind of ties and general form of the track super- 
structure will also have an influence upon the ballast 
question. If some form of steel tie structure is to be 
used, the ballast will necessarily take the form of con- 
crete. The writer has observed that the tendency in the 
past has been to skimp on the amount of concrete used 
in such cases and when the Carnegie type of steel tie 
was used, the ties were spaced too widely. In using 
such construction recently it was found advisable to 
space the ties 3 ft. on centers and to place 6 in. of con- 
crete under them with no change in level of the concrete 
between the ties. Before the concrete was laid on the 
unstable soil found in this case, it was necessary to roll 
broken concrete and asphalt into the trench to a depth 
of 4 in. Five years' service has disclosed no track 
troubles of moment with this construction. Some of our 
earlier uses of these ties had disclosed the need for 
more concrete and closer tie spacing. Similarly, the use 
of other forms of steel ties should have careful study so 
that we may be sure we are not building too light. We 
must not expect either the tie or the concrete to do work 
beyond its capacity. 

Meanwhile, the wood tie is not going out of date, even 
if its price has increased. The adherence to its use is 
partly due to the uncertainty of the performance of 
substitute tie construction. It is also due to the fact 
that most of us know how to lay wood-tie track and we 
also know that good wood ties will last indefinitely in 
well-drained, well-paved tracks. It is also much easier 
to get good track built under traffic with wood ties, and 
many of us cannot put track out of service long enough 
to cure concrete as it should be cured when it is used 
for the track structure itself. 

Wide Range of Standard Rails Available 

In selecting rails, the effort should be made to use 
association standard rails to the fullest extent. There 
are now nine standard rails available. These are 80, 90 
and 100-lb. standard section (80-lb. A. S. C. E. and 90 
and 100-lb. A. R. A. "A") rails; 7-in. and 9-in. girder 
grooved; 7-in. and 9-in. girder guards to match; and 
two plain girder rails, 7-in. 80-lb. and 7-in. 91-lb. These 
r.ine rails should give the widest range of selection to 
suit almost any condition. It may be noted here that 
the writer believes that the 7-in. depth of rail is the 
predominating one used for tangent tracks and the 9-in. 
depth is being relegated to the obsolete class. With the 
passing of the old-style 8-in. granite paving block and 
the betterment of rail joints, the arguments formerly 
applied to bolster up the use of the 9-in. rail have fallen 
rather flat. Chicago continues with it because ordi- 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



nances stipulate that it shall be used. Philadelphia 
probably sticks to it because old-style, deep granite 
paving blocks are still found there in abundance. Fur- 
thermore, the saving in weight in favor of the 7-in. rail 
can be applied toward increasing the amount of track 
obtained for a given tonnage. 

In regard to joints, so much has been said about the 
tendency towards the use of the welded joint of some 
kind that it is hardly necessary to call attention to its 
increasing use. It is believed that some form of welded 
joint is an essential to first-class permanent track con- 
struction in paved streets. 

Track pavement selection is seldom within the sole 
province of the railway company. City engineers have 
their say, and the railways usually have to install what- 
ever pavement the city deems expedient. Many com- 
panies have been forced to install unsuitable track 
pavements for this reason and to take the blame for 
their poor condition as well. Such conditions call for 
greater efforts toward co-operation with city engineers 
for the purpose of securing pavements which are mu- 
tually satisfactory. The principal two questions to be 
decided in connection with track pavements are: (1) 
Is the track suitable to receive the pavement, and (2) is 
the pavement one suited to the track and street traffic. 

Labor-Saving Devices Need Further Development 

The intensive use of tools and machinery designed to 
save labor should be continued and even extended in 
quarters where we have thought that machinery which 
would replace manual labor could not be devised. The 
track construction and reconstruction task has proved 
a fertile field for the installation of machinery, and 
surprising results have been attained in keeping costs 
down despite the rising labor costs. 

There are a few features of track work which have 
withstood efforts to introduce mechanical in place of 
manual methods. The difficulties which now seem to 
prevent further progress in "doing it mechanically" 
should be the object of renewed attack and the writer 
believes that we will see notable developments along 
such lines during the next year or two. Meanwhile, our 
manual methods may need overhauling and a careful 
study of methods of doing particular parts of the work 
will often disclose exceptional savings which can be 
made through what appear to be slight changes in de- 
tails. 

There has been some tendency toward a relaxation in 
the rigidity of our specifications for materials. We 
have often been forced to accept inferior quality in order 
to keep work going. This may have led us to consider 
that the inferior article is good enough; especially when 
the price of inferior articles has been higher than the 
price of the best ought to be. 

It is now time to take up the matter of material 
specifications with a view to a speedy return to a more 
rigid adherence to their requirements. So with the 
minor tools used in trackwork, we should realize more 
than ever that tools of poor quality are wasteful of 
very costly labor. Track chisels, picks and bars should 
be made of the most durable material obtainable. 
Shovels of extremely long wearing material are now 
available and present labor costs warrant their use more 
than ever. It now costs about $5.50 per day to work a 
shovel, whether the latter costs one dollar or two. 

Moreover, having secured good tools, we should use 
every precaution to see that they are properly used and 
that they are kept in a good state of repair. 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



^3 



Outlook for Service-at-Cost Franchises 



By L. R. Nash 



Public Relations Manager Stone & Webster, Inc. 
Boston, Mass. 



TWO years ago the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal 
gave to its readers an 
outline of the origin and de- 
velopment of service-at-cost 
franchises in the electric rail- 
way field. During the two 
years since passed there have 
been noteworthy additions to 
the list of service-at-cost 
cities and there is a substan- 
tial number of other cities in 
which service at cost is under 
consideration. On the other 
hand, experiences with earlier 
franchises of this form have 

developed certain shortcom- 

ings and criticisms which 

have in part been responsible for the rejection of the 
service-at-cost plan in several cases. All these facts 
should be fairly faced and analyzed before unqualified 
approval can be extended to this method of settling 
the complicated and pressing financial problems which 
have become particularly acute in the past two years 
of electric railway history. 

During this period the Federal Electric Railways 
Commission made an exhaustive study of the electric 
railway situation and presented a report to the President 
recommending service at cost as one of the most promis- 
ing steps to be taken. This recommendation, made after 
a most thorough investigation of this particular phase 
of the subject, is entitled to very great weight, and 
indicates that, in the judgment of this commission, any 
defects so far observed are not insurmountable. 

It is the purpose of this article briefly to summarize 
the significant features of the new service-at-cost 
grants which have become effective, those which are 
under discussion and those Avhich have failed of adop- 
tion, with particular reference to the reasons for the 
failures. Reference will also be made to certain 
criticisms of the service-at-cost program— all to the end 
that the advantages, disadvantages and practicable 
modifications of this method of operation may be 
clearly comprehended and our future activities in this 
direction shaped accordingly. 

Effective New Franchises 

YOUNGSTOWN 

This franchise, which became effective in January, 
1919, runs for a term of twenty-five years. In order 
to remain in full effect it must be extended at intervals 
of ten years. In general it is patterned after the 
Cleveland grant, having allowances on a car-mile basis 
for operating expense and for maintenance, repairs and 
renewals. In this respect it has departed from recent 
practice which has come to look upon such allowances as 
cumbersome and as having few practical advantages. 

The franchise provides for a commissioner to super- 



THE AUTHOR gives an extended review of the 
service-at-cost franchises adopted during the past 
two years, as well as those rejected and the 
changes made in those modified during this 
period. He concludes with a discussion of the 
arguments against this form of franchise. For 
the most part, these center about the question 
of incentive for economical operation, and 
Mr. Nash finds most recent service-at-cost fran- 
chises include such a clause. In conclusion he 
cites such a provision in a rejected franchise 
which aimed to overcome objections raised to 
the usual form of this clause. The article is a 
supplement to the exhaustive one fiom Mr. 
Nash in the issue of Jan. 4, 1919. 



vise street railway operations 
and act as adviser to the City 
Council, which retains general 
jurisdiction over important 
proceedings including regula- 
tion of service, ordering of 
extensions, financing, etc. 
With respect to capital value 
and the return thereon, the 
program departs somewhat 
from the Cleveland standard 
in that it allows a fixed return 
of 7 per cent upon an initial 
capital value of $3,900,000, 
plus working capital and the 
fare stabilizing fund, but adds 
^^^^^^^^^^^1=^^^^^^;^^^^ the actual interest and divi- 
dend requirements upon secu- 
rities sold for additions and improvements, all of which 
are issued under the specific direction and approval of 
the city and added to capital value at par whether or not 
sold at that price. 

Extensions and improvements to the property are 
handled in the conventional way, with the limitation 
that no expenditures for such purposes can be required 
by the city when they will impair the present or future 
ability of the property to earn the authorized return, or 
if required financing is impracticable. 

The balance of the company's revenues, after operat- 
ing and up-keep allowances are deducted, is deposited in 
a fare stabilizing fund, from which taxes and the return 
on the investment are withdrawn. For the purposes of 
fare regulation the lower and upper limits of this fund 
are placed at $50,000 and $150,000, respectively, these 
limits acting as automatic indicators of the requirement 
for increased or decreased fare. The conventional 
program of fare steps is provided, ranging from 3 cents 
to 9 cents cash, with 1 cent additional for transfers in 
all cases and with reductions for tickets purchased in 
quantities. When either end of the initial schedule of 
fare steps is approached, additional steps are provided 
for, consistent in their effects upon revenues with the 
steps initially established. 

The city is given the right to purchase at any time on 
six months' notice, the purchase price being the then 
capital value with the usual adjustments for reserves, 
current assets, liabilities, etc. As the Youngstown street 
railway system is a part of the property of the 
Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Company, doing 
also a lighting business in Youngstown and railway and 
lighting business in other localities, it was the desire of 
the city that the property affected by this franchise be 
separated from the balance of the system if the neces- 
sary corporate arrangements could be effected. To this 
end the city purchase terms provide that, if a new rail- 
way company is promptly organized to take over the 
property affected by this franchise, the price at the 
time of purchase should be increased to 10 per cent in 
excess of that otherwise due. 



24 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



In order to secure stability both of investment and 
service, which could not be assured if the franchise 
approached termination without plans for future opera- 
tion, the stipulation is set up tha£ when the unexpired 
life of the grant or any renewal thereof is less than 
fifteen years the company may amortize its entire capital 
value during the remaining period of the grant on a 
7 per cent sinking fund basis and increase its fares to 
take care of the amortization requirements. If at any 
time during this remaining period the city should see 
fit to grant a renewal, the accumulation in the amortiza- 
tion fund may be used for extensions and improvements 
or to retire outstanding securities. During any 
amortization period the company is not required to 
extend its property, but may do so upon its own 
responsibility. 

Ihe grant contains a novel provision with respect 
to penalties for violation of requirements under the 
franchise as interpreted by an arbitration board. If the 
company refuses to abide by an arbitration decision, 
the arbitration board may, as in the case of the Cleve- 
land grant, reduce the authorized return on the capital 
value by an amount not exceeding 1 per cent. Offsetting 
this there is the added provision that, if the city fails to 
carry out any arbitration requirements, the return to 
the company may be increased upon the order of the 
arbitration board by not more than 1 per cent. The 
grant contains the usual arbitration clause covering the 
settlement of a wide range of disputes, and also con- 
tinues the obligation of paving repairs and renewals 
contained in prior franchises, which obligation has been 
curtailed or omitted in a number of recent franchises 
of this form. 

Operations under this grant began with a cash fare of 
5 cents, plus 1 cent for transfers, an operating allow- 
ance of 22 cents per motor car-mile and a corresponding 
maintenance and renewal allowance of 8 cents per car- 
mile. Under the operations of the franchise, fares and 
allowances have already been repeatedly increased to 
take care of increasing operating costs. 

Memphis 

Effective April 1, 1920, the Memphis Street Railway 
began operations under a service-at-cost plan embody- 
ing features not theretofore employed. The program 
involves no change in the company's franchise, but, in 
response to the company's application to the Public 
Utilities Commission for an increase in fares, the com- 
mission, after determining the value of the company's 
property, prescribed a service-at-cost plan of operation 
under its own supervision instead of the usual local 
control, to the end that the company might always render 
service satisfactory to the city with fares automatically 
adjusted to the cost of such service without recurrent 
formal appearances before the commission. 

The commission established the conventional fare 
index fund with lower and upper limits of $60,000 and 
$200,000, respectively, and a schedule of fares ranging 
from 5 cents to 8 cents with i-cent steps, the range to 
be extended when either upper or lower limit has been 
approached. Except in emergencies, fares are to be 
changed only on any Jan. 1 and July 1, if the fare 
stabilizing fund has reached either the upper or lower 
limit and has moved toward such limit during two pre- 
ceding months. 

The cost of service includes a 7^ per cent return upon 
the established value of the property unless the fare 



index fund is thereby reduced below the lower limit, in 
which case the return may be reduced to not less than 
62 per cent. If the tund is exhausted at any time, money 
for the minimum return or other purposes may be 
borrowed, to be later made up with interest from 
increased revenues. 

The commission established a flexible provision for 
depreciation annuity, under which the normal annual 
appropriation is 3 per cent of the property value. If, 
however, the accumulated reserve exceeds $500,000, the 
annuity is reduced to 2 per cent; if the accumulated 
reserve falls below $300,000, the annuity is increased to 
4 per cent. 

Another unusual feature is the setting up of a 
standard of service, determined by the commission, 
adequately to take care of local requirements. This 
standard is expressed in car-miles per revenue passenger, 
the upper and lower limits being fixed at 0.185 and 
0.155 respectively. 

In establishing a value for the Memphis railway 
property the commission was liberal in its recognition 
of development cost, cost of financing and other overhead 
charges often given scant consideration, so that, while 
the percentage of authorized return is not as liberal as 
appears in some recent settlements, the dollars available 
for investors are not unreasonably low. 

In its administration of operations in Memphis the 
Utilities Commission has recently found it expedient 
to appoint a local agent. This agent performs sub- 
stantially the functions of the supervisor, appointed 
under most service-at-cost grants as the representative 
of the city. 

Rochester 

A new franchise was gi-anted to the Rochester lines 
of the New York State Railways, effective Aug. 1, 1920, 
for a term of ten years, with provisions for renewal 
after the expiration of nine years. Supervision of opera- 
tions under this franchise is in the hands of a Commis- 
sioner of Railways, who has exceptional authority in all 
matters having to do with the service or property. He 
is limited with respect to extensions that may be ordered 
because of the short life of the grant, which states in 
dollars the limits by years permitted after the first 
five years. 

The usual fare stabilizing fund is provided with lower 
and upper limits of $200,000 and $500,000, respectively. 
The automatic fare schedule also contains the usual 
steps, the initial rate being 7 cents cash, 6J cents 
tickets. The rate of return varies with the rate of fare, 
being 6 per cent for a cash fare of 7 cents or more, and 
grading upward to 8 per cent, if a 3-cent cash fare 
should ever be reached. 

If it is necessary to borrow money at an actual cost 
in excess of the base allowance of 6 per cent, the excess 
over this rate is charged as an operating expense. 

Accruals for depreciation are at the rate of 2 per cent 
per annum on the capital value, but the accumulated 
reserve is limited to $600,000. 

Arbitration is provided for, and each party to the 
agreement bears one-half the cost of arbitration pro- 
ceedings from its own funds. 

The company reserves to itself exclusive control over 
its corporate affairs, selection of officers, employees, etc., 
and is authorized to arrange "supplemental transporta- 
tion" if it appears in the interests of the city. One-man 
cars are also specifically permitted. No provision is 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



25 



made for city purchase. The initial capital value was 
temporarily placed at $17,500,000, but is later to be 
determined by agreement or arbitration. 

Toledo 

After many years of bitter controversy over the 
street railway situation in Toledo, the city and the 
Toledo Railways & Light Company have finally agreed 
upon operation under a service-at-cost grant which now 
awaits only the formal acceptance of the company before 
going into effect. The same problem of separating rail- 
way property and operations from other activities of the 
company arose as in the case of Youngstown and was 
solved in Toledo by the organization of the Community 
Traction Company, which will be a subsidiary of the 
present combined company. 

The grant provides for transportation service by rail 
"or otherwise" for a term of twenty-five years, with 
renewal, lease and purchase features. The general 
responsibility for operations rests with the City Council, 
although the grant provides for a Board of Control of 
three members appointed by the Mayor, to act without 
compensation, as advisers to the City Council and to the 
commissioner. The commissioner has immediate charge 
of the street railway service and acts as technical adviser 
to the Board of Control and the City Council. The city 
also has at least one member on the traction company's 
board of directors, but if the common stock of the com- 
pany owned by the eity bears a sufficient proportion to 
the total capital value, the city's representation on the 
board may be increased. The company votes the issued 
common stock until it has been acquired by the city. 

The capitalization scheme of the newly organized 
Community Traction Company is of interest. Initially 
it will issue $8,000,000 of bonds covering existing rail- 
way property, plus $2,000,000 of preferred stock to pro- 
vide working capital, a fare stabilizing fund and funds 
for rehabilitating and rearranging the existing property. 
There is provided in addition $10,000,000 par value of 
common stock, all to be initially held in trust, but 
ultimately to be acquired, in part at least, by the city 
under conditions later described. The capital value for 
rate purposes includes only the initial bonds and pre- 
ferred stock and such additions thereto as are necessary 
to take care of extensions and improvements to the 
property. It is intended that through future financing 
the preferred stock issue shall be increased to not less 
than 40 per cent nor more than 60 per cent of the 
capital value. 

The cost of service, as defined by the franchise, 
includes expenses of operation; an accrual to be 
determined by the Street Railway Commissioner for 
maintenance, repairs and renewals, the amount not 
necessarily being uniform from year to year or from 
month to month; taxes and public charges of all kinds, 
including income taxes and interest on floating debt; a 
depreciation annuity of not less than one-half of 1 per 
cent nor more than li per cent of the capital, with an 
accumulated reserve of less than 4 per cent of the 
capital value; a sinking fund of 2i per cent of the 
capital value, but not accumulating to more than 20 per 
cent, and return to investors, including interest at 6 per 
cent on the bonded indebtedness and dividends at 8 per 
cent on the preferred stock. 

All the above items of cost are cumulative. With the 
exception of interest and dividends, they are taken 
directly from operating revenues. Monthly balances are 



deposited in the fare stabilizing fund, from which 
returns to investors only are taken. The fare stabiliz- 
ing fund has lower and upper limits of $300,000 and 
$500,000 initially, but ultimately they will become 3 per 
cent and 5 per cent, respectively, of the capital value. 

The original fare schedule contains fourteen steps 
lying between 5 cents and 7 cents cash, with reduced 
ticket rates and a 1-cent charge for transfers under all 
rates. This schedule may be extended up and down 
without limit to meet wider ranges in cost than pro- 
vided for by the original steps. The initial cash fare 
will be 6 cents. 

The City Council, the Board of Control or the com- 
pany may propose extensions which the company is 
required to make if the necessary financing can be 
reasonably accomplished and the present or future 
ability of the company to earn the authorized income is 
not thereby impaired. Where new property elements 
take the place of old, only the excess cost of the new 
elements over the cost of the old elements at the time 
of the replacement is added to capital value. By this 
arrangement the capital value is not increased in con- 
nection with replacements by any increase in general 
price levels. 

The 2i per cent sinking fund included in the cost of 
service is used to retire outstanding bonds up to 20 per 
cent of the total capital value. As these bonds are 
retired an equal par value of common stock is released 
to the city, but without any corresponding reduction in 
capital value. To that extent the city has an increasing 
ownership in the property, but limited to 20 per cent, 
except for amortization features referred to below. 

The city may, on six months' notice, purchase the 
property of the company at any time at the then capital 
value plus premiums on outstanding bonds (4 per cent) 
and preferred stock (8 per cent), less common stock 
issued to the city, and with the usual adjustments for 
reserves, etc. 

The city may also, after a favorable referendum vote, 
lease and operate the property of the company, paying 
all taxes and public charges and 8 per cent return upon 
the entire capital value less bonds and preferred stock 
retired. The city must also, under such lease, accrue 4 
per cent of the capital value in place of the prescribed 
bond sinking fund for amortization purposes. When, 
under such lease, the city has retired not only the 
remaining outstanding bonds but also the entire pre- 
ferred stock, it may take over the property without 
further capital payments. The city may also elect, when 
the salvage value of the property only remains in out- 
standing securities, to continue the lease indefinitely by 
extending the franchise from time to time and paying 
into the amortization fund only such amounts as are 
necessary to bring new property elements down to their 
salvage value. 

The company, under such lease, may build extensions 
to the property, but it is not required to do so. If the 
city terminates a lease at any time and returns the 
property to the company there must be a franchise 
extension if necessary to give the company a ten-year 
period of operation, in which it may amortize all 
remaining outstanding securities, charging the neces- 
sary higher fare for that purpose. At the end of such 
period the property reverts to the city without payment 
other than adjustments. 

If the city elects neither to lease nor to purchase, and 
the franchise term comes to less than fifteen years' 



26 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



balance, the company is authorized to increase its fares 
sufficiently to amortize the outstanding securities 
uniformly during the period. Additions which the com- 
pany may make to the property during this period with 
the approval of -the city may be amortized during the 
balance of the grant, but no such additions shall be 
required. 

When, at the final expiration of the grant, ail 
securities outstanding have been retired, the system 
becomes the property of the city. If an offer of renewal 
or extension of the franchise is rejected by the company 
the privilege of amortization does not apply until fifteen 
years from the end of the extension offered. 

It will be recalled that Toledo has made various 
unsuccessful efforts to purchase the local railway 
property, but has encountered insuperable obstacles. It 
should be pointed out that the present franchise provides 
not for service at cost but service at cost plus an install- 
ment of the purchase price of the property, and so the 
car riders under the operation of this grant will neces- 
sarily pay a part of the cost of service belonging to 
future years. If the desire for municipal ownership 
should disappear under peaceful and satisfactory opera- 
tions under this franchise, and extensions thereof, 
rather than purchase or lease should be made, the city's 
interest in the property would be limited to 20 per cent 
and "the amortization burden of the present generation 
of car riders would not be serious. Under the lease pro- 
visions or in case of failure to renew the grant, however, 
the cost of service might increase to a burdensome 
extent. Other than for this feature of the franchise, it 
holds prom.ise of a successful solution of long-standing 
difficulties. 

Paducah 

The reference to service-at-cost settlements effected 
during the past two years would not be complete without 
mention of a franchise involving some service-at-cost 
features which became effective in Paducah, Ky., on 
Oct. 1, 1919. In negotiating this franchise it was found 
expedient to avoid many of the complications contained 
in the usual service-at-cost grants if reasonably satisfac- 
tory adjustments of fai-es could otherwise be secured. 
The new franchise, therefore, simply provides for annual 
adjustments of fares to meet existing cost of service, as 
shown by the experiences of the preceding year, but 
without definitely determining a fixed value of the 
property or the return which should be allowed thereon. 

Rejected Franchises 

Attention should now be directed to certain service- 
at-cost plans of operation which have been drafted in 
substantially complete form by agreement between 
interests representing the cities and their street rail- 
ways, but which have finally been rejected. These 
rejected agreements are referred to because they embody 
features which may be of interest or assistance in con- 
nection with future drafts of this kind. 

Denver 

Early in the war period the Denver Tramway Com- 
pany found itself in need of additional revenue which 
was not adequately provided after recourse to various 
public authorities. A committee of representative 
citizens was finally appointed to investigate the situation 
and report to the Mayor as to the best solution of fhe 



dil?iculties. This committee, after thorough and 
impartial investigation, reported that a service-at-cost 
plan of operation under the existing franchise was 
desirable. An agreement of this kind was accordingly 
prepared embodying service-at-cost features not 
radically different from those recently encountered, 
among which the following may be mentioned: 

Supervision is lodged in a Board of Control consist- 
ing of three members, two representing the city and 
county of Denver and one the company. The normal 
rate of return allowed (after a preliminary lower rate) 
is 7 per cent, with a graded bonus for efficient opera- 
tion, fixed by the rate of fare in effect. The maximum 
bonus is 1 per cent, applying only when the fare is less 
than 5 cents; at 5 cents the bonus is three-quarters of 
1 per cent ; at 6 cents, one-quarter of 1 per cent, and 
at higher fares, nothing. Accruals for depreciation were 
fixed at $450,000 per annum instead of the usual per- 
centage on the property value. The fare stabilizing 
fund has lower and upper limits of $100,000 and $500,- 
000, respectively, with an unlimited schedule of fares in 
half-cent steps, with free transfers. 

The company is freed from franchise taxes, bridge 
rentals and paving costs and repairs. The original 
recommendation of the committee that no free trans- 
portation of any kind be granted was not embodied in 
the franchise. The conventional arrangements for 
arbitration and city purchase were also included. 

This agreement, together with another simpler one for 
fare regulation proposed as an alternative, was rejected 
by referendum vote in October, 1919, by the very narrow 
margin of 235 votes out of a possible voting list of 
nearly 100,000. The rejection was apparently based not 
on the program itself, although the valuation agreed 
upon was criticised, but upon any rearrangement which 
would not place some restrictions upon fares. 

Minneapolis 

Early in 1919 a service-at-cost plan of operation was 
drafted for the City Council of Minneapolis as a solution 
of existing fare deficiencies. The program was 
approved by the Council, but was strongly opposed by 
the Mayor, and was finally defeated by referendum in 
December, 1919. 

The general program does not depart substantially 
from the usual provisions of such grants. The 
authorized rate of return upon a $24,000,000 value was 
7 per cent, the return on additions to be at cost plus 1 
per cent, unless the city should undertake to guarantee 
this cost rate. The allowance for maintenance, repairs 
and renewals was 21 per cent of the capital value, plus 
9 per cent of the annual revenue. The fare stabilizing 
fund had lower and upper limits -of $150,000 and 
$500,000,' respectively, and the schedule of fares showed 
the unusually large difference of 1 cent between steps. 
City purchase at the capital value and purchase by a 
licensee at a 10 per cent higher amount were included. 
The requirements for paving, cleaning, watering and 
oiling of streets could be waived by the city if excessive 
fares resulted therefrom. 

St. Paul 

The Twin City Rapid Transit Company had the same 
difficulties with an inadequate revenue in St. Paul as in 
Minneapolis and undertook negotiations to remedy the 
situation at about the same time. A service-at-cost 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



27 



draft was presented by the company to the city embody- 
ing provisions not radically different from those recom- 
mended in Minneapolis. This proposition was never 
accepted by the City Council, which, on the contrary, 
proposed a regulatory program wholly unsatisfactory to 
the company. Obviously the two main divisions of the 
Twin City system could not be operated under sub- 
stantially different fare and service regulations without 
embarrassing complications, and these were considered 
in St. Paul after the rejection of the Minneapolis 
ptogram. 

Houston 

After exhausting other efforts to secure increased 
fares, the Houston Electric Company early in 1920 
secured an injunction through the federal court against 
a 5-cent fare ordinance. In connection with the court 
proceedings, the value of the property was determined as 
well as the fair return and allowances for depreciation. 
These matters having been established, the city and the 
company undertook to agree upon a new franchise on a 
service-at-cost basis which would settle future fare and 
service problems. The final agreement between city 
officials and company officials, which also had the 
approval of an advisory board of citizens, was embodied 
in a franchise draft which the City Commission voted 
to submit to referendum without prior passage or 
indorsement. The indorsement was withheld because 
some opposition developed among the city officials to a 
few provisions of the draft, including the specified rate 
of return. The company felt that complete co-operation 
was necessary for the successful functioning of the pro- 
posed settlement, and, because of the lack of unanimous 
support, it requested that the draft be withdrawn from 
referendum until such time as complete co-operation 
might be secured. 

The service-at-cost draft, as agreed upon, embodied 
some interesting features. It covered service by street 
railway or "other method of transportation." The 
Board of Control, which was to have jurisdiction over 
operations under the franchise, was composed of four 
regular members, two appointed by the city (one of 
whom must be the Mayor) and two appointed by the 
company. If these four were unable to agree upon pro- 
cedure in any matter, a fifth member was selected to sit 
and decide with respect to this particular matter. 

A return of 8 per cent upon the capital value was 
stipulated for at least seven years of the thirty-year 
term. A supplementary return was provided as an 
incentive for efficient operation not exceeding 1 per cent, 
which was authorized when a 5-cent fare became effec- 
tive. The highest fare at which the incentive applied 
was 7 cents cash when the incentive was one-fifth of 1 
per cent. 

The fare regulating fund had a normal initial amount 
of $250,000, to be increased from time to time with the 
development of the property and its business. The 
maximum and minimum amounts of this fund — the 
points at which changes are automatically required — 
were 40 per cent above and 40 per cent below the normal, 
respectively. Changes in the fare were to be made 
quarterly when the fare regulating fund indicated the 
necessity. 

The depreciation accruals were intended to accumulate 
by annuities not exceeding 4 ' per cent of the depreciable 
property value, a total reserve lying between 8 and 10 
ner cent of such value. 



Franchises Under Coniideration 

In addition to the above cities in which definite steps 
have been taken to bring about service-at-cost operation, 
a number of other cities have given the subject con- 
siderable attention as a solution of problems resulting 
from inadequate fares and service. In some cases this 
solution has been rejected, while in others it is still 
under investigation. A brief mention only of these 
cities, with the significant developments, is permissible 
herein. 

Indianapolis 

Early in 1920 the Indiana Public Service Commission, 
at the request of the city, undertook to draft a service- 
at-cost plan to solve fare difficulties. This general plan 
was approved by the company, but, after extended 
negotiations, the city recently withdrew its application 
to the Public Service Commission to settle the matter 
on this basis because of a feeling that, due to its lack 
of an incentive for efficient operation, the conventional 
service-at-cost program did not offer a satisfactory 
solution. 

Buffalo 

In 1919 this city undertook to settle its controversy 
with the International Railway Company by a service-at- 
cost plan. Enabling legislation agreed upon between 
the city and the company was, however, vetoed by the 
Governor, following a protest from the Public Service 
Commission. The Mayor of Buffalo not long ago 
revived his interest in this form of settlement, but 
nothing has so far been accomplished. 

Detroit 

Detroit, in 1919, after years of controversy quite 
similar to those which Cleveland and Toledo have expe- 
rienced, received from its Board of Street Railway 
Commissioners a report recommending service-at-cost 
operation. Although this report was indorsed by the 
business interests of the city, it was strenuously opposed 
by the Mayor, and ultimately rejected by the city in 
favor of a municipal ownership program. 

Lima 

During the past year service-at-cost has been proposed 
for the lines of the Ohio Electric Railway in Lima. The 
proposition was opposed by a citizens' committee, and 
no action has yet been taken thereon by the City Council. 

New Orleans 

The receiver of the New Orleans Railway & Light 
Company recently proposed a program of this form for 
settling the fare and wage controversies which have 
been pressing in New Orleans. This suggestion was 
indorsed by special masters who served in a wage con- 
troversy, but no definite action has resulted. 

Syracuse 

The New York State Railways proposed service-at- 
cost for its lines in Syracuse similar to the plan adopted 
for the part of its system located in Rochester. A 
valuation of the property was made by a committee, but 
the whole program was finally rejected by the City 
Council in November, 1920, apparently because of the 
higher fares which would probably be necessary there- 
under, it being alleged that the proposed valuation was 
excessive. 



28 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Louisville 

The officials of the Louisville (Ky.) Traction Company 
suggested in July, 1920, that its inadequate fares be 
taken care of automatically under a service-at-cost 
agreement. The City Council rejected the suggestion, 
but the matter has recently been reopened by the Mayor. 

Pittsburgh 

In 1919 a report on the value of the railway property 
in Pittsburgh (Pa.) was made by a joint board, and 
the proposition that a service-at-cost agreement be 
entered into was indorsed by the Allied Board of Trade. 
Following this action, the Mayor, in April 1920, pro- 
posed negotiations looking to such a settlement, but 
definite results are still lacking. 

Akron 

More favorable developments are in prospect for the 
lines of the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company 
operating in Akron. The general terms of a service-at- 
cost settlement have been informally agreed upon 
between the City Council and the company. The tenta- 
tive agreement provides for a return of 7 per cent when 
fares are 6 cents or higher, and a supplementary return 
of one-quarter of 1 per cent for each step in the fare 
schedule lower than 6 cents, the steps being i cent each. 
An additional return is allowed to take care of any 
higher actual cost of future borrowed funds. A sinking 
fund is provided to amortize the capital value if the 
franchise comes to within ten years of expiration with- 
out being renewed. The city waives its right to assess- 
ments for new paving, although the company undertakes 
to keep existing paving in repair. If extensions to the 
system are needed and the company is unable to procure 
the necessary funds the city may finance them and get 
the same return thereon as is allowed to the company. 
The company is authorized to operate an auxiliary bus 
service if it appears to be a desirable substitute for 
track extensions into outlying territory. The city may 
purchase or lease upon a year's notice. 

Norfolk 

In 1919 service-at-cost was proposed for the railway 
lines in Norfolk (Va.) by the City Manager, and the city 
has gone on record as favoring liberal treatment of all 
industries which are located therein. No definite action 
with reference to the railway has been taken, although a 
recent report of the consulting engineers retained by the 
city to investigate the local situation strongly advises a 
settlement embodying service-at-cost features. The 
matter will doubtless have further attention in the 
near future. 

Grand Rapids 

The franchise of the railway lines in Grand Rapids 
(Mich.) expires in 1921. A valuation of the property 
is now being made and the draft of a new franchise con- 
taining service-at-cost features is in progress. 

St. John 

An interesting plan for the operation of the public 
utilities in St. John (N. B.), including the street rail- 
way, was proposed in 1919 by a special commission 
appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. Under 
the proposed plan a basic return of 7 per cent is sug- 
gested, this rate to be increased by 0.1 per cent for each 
1 per cent, by which the average rate is reduced below 



that existing in the first six months of 1919, and the 
basic return may be reduced similarly for any necessary 
increases in rates, but not below 6 per cent, nor are 
increases effective above 9 per cent. The rate of return 
is to be adjusted semi-annually. Control of the com- 
pany's affairs is to be vested in seven directors, four 
chosen by the company and three appointed by the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council. Sale to the province 
is provided for at the capital value plus 10 per cent. 
The proposed depreciation provision is such as to accu- 
mulate and maintain a reserve amounting to 7 per cent 
of the capital value. No action on the proposed agree- 
ment has been reported. 

New York 

In his latest annual report to the Legislature of New 
York, Commissioner Nixon of the First District recom- 
mended the adoption of service at cost as the best solu- 
tion of the acute traction problems of the New York 
city systems. An unsuccessful attempt was also made 
in 1920 to pass legislation in New York permitting any 
city to adopt service at cost for its local railway system. 

Old Franchises Amended 

In addition to the new and proposed service-at-cost 
franchises above outlined, it may be of passing interest 
to note changes which have been made in certain of the 
older grants that have previously been fully described. 

Cleveland 

On May 1, 1919, the Cleveland franchise was extended 
for a period of ten years, making its expiration date 
1944 instead of 1934. This was in accordance with the 
original provisions of the grant under which, without 
such extension, the powers of regulation vested in the 
city would have been suspended. In 1919, also, the rail- 
way called for arbitration proceedings in an endeavor to 
increase the authorized rate of return from 6 per cent 
to 7 per cent. This increase was approved by the 
arbitration board, but failed of ratification by referen- 
dum vote and has not become effective. 

Dallas 

In 1919 the Dallas (Tex.) franchise, of the service-at- 
cost form with a maximum fare limitation, was found to 
be yielding wholly inadequate revenues. Upon presenta- 
tion of the facts to the City Commission the fare limita- 
tion was increased in 1920 from 5 cents to 6 cents. It is 
now being contended by the company that this limitation 
should be removed, as the actual cost of service is 
approaching 8 cents. The city so far has not shown any 
disposition wholly to remove the present limitation. 

Kansas City 

Operation in Kansas City (Mo.) under a franchise 
providing for division of possible profits with a 5-cent 
fare instead of service at actual cost proved so unsuc- 
cessful under war emergency conditions that the fare 
limitations were removed by order of the Public Service 
Commission. In spite of this relief the company has 
been placed in the hands of receivers. The local 
Chamber of Commerce has undertaken an investigation 
of the situation with a view to working out a permanent 
solution. It has recommended a service-at-cost plan 
under which the rate of return would be 6 per cent, plus 
a supplementary incentive depending upon the rate of 
fare. Elimination of requirements for street paving, 
cleaning, etc., was also recommended. 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



29 



Des Moines 

The franchise under which the city of Des Moines, 
Iowa, has been operating for a number of years, having 
serviee-at-cost features but with fare limitations, also 
proved unsatisfactory and receivership followed. In an 
effort to work out a new settlement Des Moines has 
recently had an appraisal made of the property for use 
in a real service-at-cost agreement. The ideas regard- 
ing valuation and other features of such settlement 
which have so far been advanced by the city have not 
been at all acceptable to the company, and no prompt 
settlement of the controversy is in prospect. 

In all of the above cases it appears that difficulties 
have occurred on account of the fare limitations. To 
the extent that such limitations have been insisted upon 
by the city, results unsatisfactory alike to the railways 
and the communities have followed. Fare limitations 
within the range of reasonable requirements are notice- 
ably absent from the proposed new grants, indicating 
that the cities are prepared to meet the cost of the 
service which, in the exercise of their rights, they pre- 
scribe for their own accommodation, regardless of what 
the necessary rate of fare may be. 

Summary 

A review of the foregoing outlines of action with 
respect to service at cost, taken or under consideration 
during the past two years in something over twenty 
cities, discloses some features of interest. Out of seven 
carefully developed and complete service-at-cost plans 
four were put into effect during this period, two were 
rejected upon being submitted to popular vote and one 
was withdrawn by the company before final action. Of 
the two rejected franchises, one had the hearty indorse- 
ment of the business interests and the city administra- 
tion and was rejected by an exceedingly small margin, 
apparently on account of the fear of radical increases in 
fares. The other rejection was largely the result of pro- 
nounced opposition on the part of the Mayor. In neither 
case was the opposition based upon specific criticisms of 
fundamental principles of the program. 

Of the dozen cities in which less complete considera- 
tion has been given to service-at-cost operation, there 
have been three cases of definite rejection. Of these 
three rejections, one was based wholly upon political 
grounds and was against the recommendations of an 
investigating commission and of business men generally. 
Another was apparently due to unwillingness to accept 
the probable higher cost of transportation which the 
program involved. Only in the third case of rejection 
was there any criticism of the principles upon which 
service at cost is based. In Indianapolis, after inves- 
tigation of service-at-cost operations in other cities by 
the chairman of the State commission and other 
interested officials, it was agreed that none of the plans 
in operation or proposed provided adequate insurance 
against inefficient operation because of the lack of 
incentive for efficiency so far developed. 

Because of the specific rejection of one service-at-cost 
plan on the grounds of lack of suitable incentive to effi- 
cient operation, and criticisms to the same effect from a 
number of other sources, it appears appropriate to give 
some consideration to this phase of the subject. Clearly 
if, as claimed, the result of service-at-cost operation is 
that the properties are managed without proper regard 
to reasonable limitations in wages and salaries, to the 



procuring of necessary supplies at lowest obtainable 
market prices and to the utilization of labor, materials 
and appliances in accordance with the best modern prac- 
tice, a serious defect exists, and if this defect cannot be 
corrected, service at cost may not be wholly acceptable 
as a solution of our railway problems. If, on the other 
hand, a study of actual service-at-cost results shows that 
inefficiency has not been in evidence or that suitable 
incentives to prevent it are available, then this alleged 
defect need not be considered as vital. 

In the report of the Federal Electric Railways Com- 
mission the following reference to service at cost 
appears : 

Generally speaking, the main criticism of this form of 
contract is that it tends toward inefficiency and uneconomic 
operation; that it contains no provision for the control of 
strikes or uninterrupted service, and that labor and man- 
agement may co-operatively increase the cost of operation 
to the point where the public may be unduly burdened. 

After further discussion of the subject, the commis- 
sion decided that the criticisms are "more theoretical 
than real," and its general conclusion with reference to 
the matter is stated in the following language: 

We strongly recommend the principles of the service-at- 
cost contract, not as the only solution but as one means of 
solving a very difficult problem. 

As opposed to this strong recommendation, considera- 
tion should be given to statements made in connection 
with the Indianapolis investigation referred to herewith. 
In its motion for withdrawal of the application to the 
Public Service Commission for the development of a 
service-at-cost plan fur Indianapolis the city said : 

We have been unable to find or agree upon any plan of 
operation on the basis of service at cost which would furnish 
the incentive of private ownership in an operation of serv- 
ice at cost. The result of our investigations generally has 
been to raise a most serious question and doubt as to the 
wisdom of the service-at-cost plan. The inevitable tend- 
ency seems to be for the operator or company readily to 
accept increased cost of operation with the view that it can 
be passed on to the public by higher fares. Such a course 
results only in adding to the burden of the public. 

E. C. Lewis, chairman of the Indiana commission, in 
an address delivered at a i-ecent meeting of the National 
Municipal League in Indianapolis, made the following 
statement with reference to the outcome of an investi- 
gation of actual service-at-cost results which he and 
attorneys representing the city and the railway company 
had made : 

I fear that service at cost simply means that the lid is 
taken off. It is possible that some time in the future some 
workable plan incorporating incentive for efficiency and 
initiative will be worked out. While the commission does not 
pass finally on service at cost, nevertheless it seems to most 
of us to run contrary to human nature, which, at least in 
business, requires opportunities of a struggle for gain. 
Psychologically, the blocking out of rates which shall apply 
if operating expenses increase threatens to become an open 
invitation for laxity. 

At the same meeting in Indianapolis Fielder Sanders, 
Street Railroad Commissioner under the Cleveland fran- 
chise, expressed contrary views, contending that, because 
of the unparalleled period of operation under this grant 
and the entire lack of special incentive for efficient 
operation, Cleveland should be the best possible test of 
alleged extravagance. Logically, Mr. Sanders holds, the 
test of efficiency is the rate of fare in effect to cover the 
cost of service. The Cleveland fare has been consist- 
ently as low as or lower than that in other cities of 
similar size in which fares have admittedly covered the 
cost of service. It has been at times contended that 



30 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



the fare in effect in Cleveland did not cover the entire 
cost of service, but, as far as operating costs and pro- 
visions for current upkeep of the property are concerned, 
such criticisms would not hold, at least during the past 
few years. 

Experience in other cities has been comparatively 
brief, but, as far as it goes, there have been no reported 
charges of extravagant operation in any case with the 
possible exception of Cincinnati. In connection with the 
Indianapolis investigation, it was pointed out that fares 
in Cincinnati had rapidly risen to a point much higher 
than in Indianapolis, but only by inference could it be 
held that inefficiency in Cincinnati was alleged. Care- 
ful comparative studies have clearly shown that operat- 
ing conditions in Cincinnati are decidedly unfavorable 
and necessarily involve high costs. Published reports 
indicate that the operations of the Cincinnati railway 
have had uniformly careful attention and the closest 
scrutiny from both city and company officials. The 
inference is, therefore, fairly drawn that the menace of 
inefficiency due to lack of incentive is, as stated by the 
Federal Electric Railways Commission, "more theoret- 
ical than real." 

Trend Toward Incentive Features 

Notwithstanding this conclusion, a noticeable number 
of new franchises have included incentive features. Of 
the four complete programs which became effective dur- 
ing the past two years one contained a provision for 
increased rate of return when low fares were maintained. 
Of the three complete drafts which were either rejected 
or withdrawn, two contained similar incentive clauses. 
Among the other cities in which service at cost has been 
discussed at least two of the tentative programs included 
incentive features. This indicates a fairly definite feel- 
ing that incentive is desirable, and there is undoubted 
truth in the contention that the hope of reward is con- 
ducive to increased alertness. The whole history of 
business activities is corroborative of this view. It has 
been claimed by certain critics of service at cost that an 
incentive provision converts it into a cost-plus proposi- 
tion. If such were the result, the purpose of such a pro- 
vision would be defeated and it should be abandoned. 
The real purpose of an incentive clause is so to increase 
efficiency of operation that the investors may share in 
the resultant saving in service cost and fares may also 
be reduced below those prevailing without such 
incentive. 

An examination of the incentive clauses so far pro- 
vided discloses very few which are directly effective 
under present conditions. The operating bonus included 
in the Montreal grant undoubtedly encourages careful 
operation and will continue to do so unless the annual 
allowances are so closely adjusted by the Tramways 
Commission as ultimately to discourage the hope of 
obtaining the bonus. In other franchises the incentive 
is based upon the rate of fare on the assumption that 
more economical operation will produce lower fares, 
which, in turn, will yield a higher return for the 
investors. Recent increases in operating costs have 
necessitated fares so high that no supplementary 
returns have been available, and unless or until operat- 
ing costs are substantially reduced the effectiveness of 
established incentive provisions will be negligible. 

It has been pointed out that, under widely varying 
costs of service, the incentive provision really operates 
as a penalty, because, when operating costs are high. 



money costs are correspondingly high, whereas inves- 
tors should have a higher return instead of the lower 
one which is actually available under the operation of the 
established incentive provisions. And the reverse of 
this proposition is equally true, i.e., that when operating 
costs and money rates are low the supplementary return 
may not be needed adequately to compensate the 
investors in the enterprise. 

It appears, therefore, that some different form of 
incentive should be devised if an incentive is really 
desirable. In connection with one of the recently 
rejected service-at-cost plans an interesting provision 
was drafted which appears to have some merit. It was 
rejected in part because of its obvious complications. 
This incentive provision was based upon the assumption 
that railway costs of service increase substantially in 
proportion to costs in other productive industries, and 
that if some measure of such other costs can be 
established the relation between the two costs might be 
made the basis of a supplementary return to electric 
railway owners. The difficulties of establishing a 
measure of general costs in industry are obvious. The 
most logical basis appears to be the weighted average 
wholesale price of commodities as represented by the 
index numbers regularly determined by the United 
States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Before the recent 
war this index number was fixed at 100. At that time a 
5-cent fare was practically universal on electric railways, 
and no one will contend that such a fare was unreason- 
ably profitable. The ratio between the wholesale index 
number in 1914 and the prevailing cash fare in cents 
was 20 to 1. Since 1914 the wholesale index number has 
increased more than 100 per cent. Only a negligible 
number of street railway fares, if any, have increased 
in proportion. The lower the fares could be kept in 
proportion to this index number the more efficient rail- 
way operation would appear to be. If, for example, with 
a wholesale index number of 210, which is not far from 
that now prevailing, a 7-cent fare is maintained, a ratio 
of 30 to 1 exists instead of 20 to 1, which prevailed 
before the war. In the proposed draft on this basis, 
above referred to, a supplementary return of 1 per cent 
was authorized when the ratio of wholesale index 
number to average fare was 20 to 1, or lower. It 
became zero with a ratio of 30 to 1, or higher, and was 
uniformily variable for the ten steps between these two 
limits. 

The complications of an incentive provision of this 
particular form may be prohibitive, but if a workable 
and readily understood incentive plan embodying the 
principles stated could be developed it would appear to 
have advantages in logic and effectiveness over any of 
the incentives so far offered. 

In the absence of an effective feature of this kind 
service at cost has so far been generally successful in 
maintaining good service and credit and in avoiding 
receiverships and local controversies, which are detri- 
mental to communities as well as railways. The delays 
incident to prolonged investigations by public service 
commissions or other regulatory authorities or court pro- 
ceedings have also been avoided. This feature alone may 
more than offset any slight disadvantages otherwise 
accruing to service-at-cost cities. It is not clear that such 
disadvantages should be substantially greater under 
service-at-cost operation than under equally effective but 
less prompt regulation on the part of public service 
commissions. 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



31 



Status of Heavy Traction Abroad 

In All Countries Where Coal Is Scarce, and Especially Where Water Power Is Plentiful, Active Planning 
for Railway Electrification Is Under Way — Switzerland and Italy Are Naturally Among the 
Leaders, but France and Other European Countries, with Great Britain and Her 

Colonies, Are Not Far Behind 



THE world electrification situation is not favorable 
for statistical analysis because the most interest- 
ing phases are still in the future and subject to 
much modification. At the same time the annual sta- 
tistical issue of the Electric Railway Journal is an 
appropriate place in which to set down some of the 
plans which are being made and to point out the 
tendencies which these plans show. This article repre- 
sents an attempt to do these things, although it is not 
intended to be comprehensive or exhaustive. It doe.^ 
not mention many electrifications which may seem to 
'iome to be important and it does not treat the situations 
in the several countries in a uniform fashion. 

The article does, however, draw from a number of 
Hutnoritative sources some of the latest information 
available as to the planning of the several countries 
which will profit greatly by electrification. Probably 
by the end of this year there will be much to record 
of the ways in which these plans are being carried to 
fulfillment. 



Great Britain and the Colonies 

Electrification Has Made Some Progress and Plans Are 
Being Made, but Much Depends Upon the Status 
of the Railways Still Undetermined 

DOWN to the present time there are in all thirteen 
examples of conversion of steam railways in England 
to electric traction. This is apart from the London 
"tube" railways which were built as electric lines. Out 
of the thirteen, four are small undertakings which may 
be passed over by naming them, the East London Rail- 
way, the Hammersmith & City Railway, the Mersey 
Railway and the Morecombe & Heysham branch of the 
Midland Railway. 

Coming to more important undertakings, it may be 
noted generally that the conversion was carried out to 
enable the lines to cope more successfully with heavy 
passenger traffic and to develop more of it in extra 
suburban areas. As regards parts of the lines in 
London which are underground, there was also the great 
advantage of getting rid of the fumes from steam loco- 
motives. The result has been that traffic has grown so 
that sometimes it is almost overwhelming on certain 
routes. Electric traction is largely confined to pas- 
senger service. On those lines which also give freight 
service steam locomotives are still used. 

London Was a Pioneer in Heavy Traction 

The first two steam railways in London to be con- 
verted for electric operation were the Metropolitan 
District and the Metropolitan Railways. Both began 
electric working in 1905. The former has a route length 
of about 27 miles, but with its connections over which it 
runs the length is 41 miles, or more than 80 miles of 
track. This railway runs underground east and west 
through the heart of London, with several branches in 



the western suburbs. In the East End it joins onto the 
Tilbury & Southend Railway, and its central section also 
forms part of the Inner Circle, the rest of which is 
owned by the Metropolitan Railway. A third-rail, posi- 
tive conductor carries current at 600 volts, and a fourth 
rail, also insulated from earth, forms the return. Auto- 
matic interlocking signaling, supplemented by automatic 
train stops, permits a train service with less than two- 
minute headway to be given during the busy hours. 
Where the traffic is heaviest there is unfortunately only 
double track. With certain exceptions, all trains are on 
the multiple-unit system. About 240 motor cars and a 
like number of trailers are owned, each of the former 
being equipped with two 200-hp. motors. In addition, 
the company has six electric locomotives, each having four 
motors of 240-hp. capacity each. These locomotives are 
used for hauling over the company's lines through trains 
for Southend, 40 miles away on the coast. Steam loco- 
motives take these trains when beyond the District 
Company's area. 

Steam Roads Gradually Adopting Electric Traction 

The Metropolitan Railway owns the northern half of 
the Inner Circle and a main line with branches stretch- 
ing out northwestward into the country. Only the lines 
in and near London have been electrified, the route 
length so treated extending to 26 miles, giving 59 miles 
of single track. The electric equipment is the same as 
that of the District Railway. There are some 160 motor 
cars and 250 trailers, each of the former having four 
200-hp. motors. For some of the longer trips electric 
locomotives are used to haul ordinary railway rolling 
stock. The company owns twenty such locomotives, and 
each is fitted with four 200-hp. motors. 

Electric traction began on one of the suburban lines of 
the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway about the 
end of 1909, and it was gradually extended to the other 
suburban lines until the war put a stop to further work. 
Some 22 miles of route, involving 70 miles of track, are 
operating electrically. This is the only example in 
England, apart from the short Morecombe line already 
mentioned, of single-phase traction. The voltage used 
is 6,700 and the frequency 25 cycles per second. Over- 
head contact construction is, of course, used. 

The second of the big railway companies running out 
of London to adopt electric traction for its suburban 
service was the London & North Western, its first elec- 
tric section starting in 1914. It took over and converted 
the North London Railway (steam), which serves the city 
and the region north of the metropolis and connects with 
the North Western's main line. This railway built two 
additional tracks electrically equipped alongside its main 
line all the way to Watford, some 20 miles out, and 
began an expensive widening involving additional tun- 
nels in North London to bring the electric service right 
into its London terminus at Euston. The last-men- 
tioned work, tied up by the war, is not yet completed. 



32 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



The Baker Street & Waterloo Railway Company in 
1917 extended its tube railway northward to a junction 
with the North Western near Willesden, and through 
electric trains are run from it on to Watford. When the 
scheme is complete North Western suburban passengers 
will have a choice of three routes into or out of London. 
The electric zone extends to 41 miles of route with 80 
miles of track. The equipment is similar to the other 
underground railways, and multiple-unit trains are run 
throughout. 

The last electrification scheme carried out in the 
London area was that of the suburban lines of the 
London & South Western Railway. The first section 
began working electrically in 1915, and despite difficul- 
ties arising out of the war the work of conversion was 
continued until all the routes for a distance of more than 
10 miles out of the metropolis were equipped. The 
length of route so dealt with is 49 miles, involving 150 
miles of track. Unlike most of the electric railways in 
the district, this one uses no fourth rail negative con- 
ductor, the track rails forming the return. The unit 
train consists of three coaches — heavy compartment roll- 
ing stock with cross-seats as on the steam lines. The 
horsepower of the motors per train is about 1,100. 
When required, two units are coupled to make a six-car 
train. About 300 ordinary steam railway carriages 
have been converted for the electric service. It should 
be understood that only some of the numerous tracks on 
the main line out of Waterloo terminus have been elec- 
trified, the long-distance steam trains running over the 
others. 

Some Electrification Away from London 

There are only two important examples of steam rail- 
way electrification in the provinces, one being parts of 
the system of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway and 
the other the Newcastle suburban and Tyneside lines of 
the North Eastern Railway. In regard to the former, 
the start was made by the opening for electric service in 
1904 of the main line from Liverpool to Southport. This 
was the first example in the country of something like a 
main electric railway with stations at considerable dis- 
tances apart and consequent high speeds. It is on the 
ordinary third-rail, 600-volt, direct-current system and 
multiple-unit trains are used throughout. Several 
branch lines were afteinvard electrified, and more 
recently the railway made a new departure by equipping 
its Manchester-Bury section, comprising some 27 miles 
of track, with protected side-contact third-rail conductor 
carrying direct current at 1,200 volts. This is the first 
thing of the sort in England and it has proved highly 
satisfactory. In all about 60 miles of route, or 120 miles 
of track, of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway is 
working electrically. The motors aggregate 800 hp. per 
motor car, and some 200 motor and trail cars are in use. 

The Newcastle local lines of the North Eastern Rail- 
way were electrified in 1904, and have a route length of 
35 miles, with 82 miles of track. The usual third-rail 
system is employed. The multiple-unit trains have in all 
about seventy motor cars (each with two 150-hp. 
motors) and sixty trail cars. 

The North Eastern Railway in 1915 electrified its 
Shildon to Newport (Middlesbrough) mineral railway, 
19 miles long, with overhead contact conductors and 
1,500 volts direct current. Electric locomotives are used 
for hauling the coal trains from the mines down to the 
port and bringing them back empty. This is the only 
example of the kind in England. 



In regard to plans for the future, there is no prospect 
of any railway in Great Britain carrying out any elec- 
trification until the status of the railways is defined. At 
present they are still under government control and 
their finances are not healthy. The control is to come to 
an end in August next and what will be the conditions 
after that it is hard to say. Large sums are in dispute 
between the companies and the government under 
various war agreements as to guaranteed receipts, main- 
tenance, etc. No capital can be raised for railway pur- 
poses until the future is clearer. Besides that, the high 
cost of equipment at present favors delay. 

Looking forward, the directors of the London, 
Brighton & South Coast Railway have submitted for the 
approval of the Minister of Transport a complete scheme 
for the electrification of the great bulk of their "system, 
including the main line to Brighton. The single-phase 
system will be used as on the existing electric lines of 
the same company. Developments on other railways are 
likely to be carried out on the direct-current system at 
1,500 volts, as recommended by the Ministry's advisory 
committee. The North Eastern Railway directors a 
year or more ago approved in principle the conversion 
of their main line between York and Newcastle, a dis- 
tance of 80 miles, and of a loop between Northallerton 
and Stockton-on-Tees, 31 miles long. The York-New- 
castle part is specially important, because the east coast 
expresses between London and Scotland travel over it, 
and to preserve if not improve the speed of these trains 
the electric locomotives will have to be capable of making 
60 or 70 m.p.h. 

The London & South Western Railway announced not 
long ago that its project of further electrification is 
hung up pending better times. The proposal is to extend 
electric traction as far out as Guildford on the main line 
and to convert also various country branch lines. This 
involves 45 miles of route, or 100 miles of track, in addi- 
tion to the lines already electrified. 

The Midland Railway is under an obligation to elec- 
trify its Tilbury and Southend section, some 40 miles 
long, but there are no immediate prospects. The Great 
Eastern Railway directors have spoken for years of the 
necessity of converting their London suburban lines, 
some of which carry probably the heaviest steam train 
passenger traffic in the world. A proposal is being made 
for the development of a great water power among the 
mountains of Scotland. Should this come about, it 
would probably lead to the electrification of the Highland 
Railway from Perth to Inverness. A possible develop- 
ment of a great tidal water power on the estuary of the 
River Severn, just suggested by the Ministry of Trans- 
port, might lead to considerable railway electrification. 

British Dominions Looking to Electric Traction 

The most important railway electrification work in 
the British dominions overseas is the conversion of the 
whole suburban railway system of Melbourne, Australia. 
These railways belong to the state, and so in spite of 
difficulties arising out of the war the work was gradually 
pushed forward. The first section began running elec- 
trically in 1919, and when all is complete the track 
mileage working electrically will be 335, mostly double- 
track, but in some places four and six-track. Direct 
current at 1,500 volts is used on overhead wire 
conductors, and multiple-unit trains are operated. 

The other notable electrification is that of the Mount 
Royal tunnel lines in Canada, with which the readers of 
the Electric Railway Journal are familiar. 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



33 



As to the future, the biggest thing in immediate pros- 
pect is the electrification of the South African State 
Railways. A beginning is to be made with the Cape 
Town-Simons Town suburban line and the section of the 
Natal main line from Durban to Pietermaritzburg. It 
is proposed to use direct current at 3,000 volts. The 
former line does a suburban passenger business, while 
the latter carries main-line traffic, both passenger and 
freight. Both have already reached their capacity under 
steam traction. The estimated cost of conversion and 
complete equipment of the Cape Town-Simons Town 
line, including a power station, is £1,269,000, while for 
the Natal line, including power station, locomotives, etc., 
the figure is £2,033,000. 

Contracts have also been let for an electric railway 
8 miles long, mostly in tunnel, through the mountains 
in the South Island of New Zealand. The line will con- 
nect the existing steam railways east and west of the 
mountain range. Direct current at 1,500 volts with 
overhead conductors will be used. The ruling gradient 
is 1 in 33, and the highest point on the line is 2,400 ft. 
above sea level. 

France Planning Big Coal Saving by 
Electrification 

Three of the Large Railway Systems Will Proceed to Adopt 
New Motive Power as Soon as Governmental and 
Financial Restrictions Are Removed 

THE necessity for electrification of railways in 
France, while not as pressing as in some other 
European countries, is nevertheless receiving careful 
attention by the government and the Midi, Orleans 
and Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean railway systems. Util- 
ization of water power, with consequent coal saving, 
is the primary purpose in the electrification. The 
whole matter is under consideration by a committee 
bearing the title "Comite d'etudes pour electrification 
des reseaux d'interet general." This contains repre- 
sentatives of the six large railway systems of the 
country and of related industries. 

Government Anxious to Conserve 
Power Resources 

The electrification committee comprises two sub- 
committees, one of which was commissioned to study 
the plans submitted by the Midi, Orleans and P-L-M 
Railways, the other being especially charged to study 
electric traction systems in service with special refer- 
ence to standardizing on a single system if possible. 
The latter sub-committee studied operating systems in 
Switzerland, Italy and the United States. Its complete 
report has not as yet become available, but what is 
understood to be its substance appeared in the Jour- 
nal Officiel in 1919. The preference appears to be 
for high-voltage direct current for a unified system 
for France, with 50-cycle transmission. 

Among other considerations leading to the prefer- 
ence for this particular variety of current and voltage 
were the fear by the government of inductive inter- 
ference between railway and intelligence-transmission 
lines, and desire for ability to use third rail and rotary 
converters, thus limiting the available voltage. It is 
interesting to note that the French preferences in 
these particulars coincide with those of their British 
confreres. 

The electrification situation in France was depicted 
by M. Parodi, chief engineer of electric service of the 



Compagnie d'Orleans in an article in the January, 1920, 
issue of the Revne Generale des Chemins de fer et des 
Tramways. He said that the wealth of the country 
in hydraulic resources, about 8,000,000 hp., will be 
developed as rapidly as possible. In 1913 the coal con- 
sumption was 66,000,000 tons while the production 
was less than two-thirds this amount. Of the total 
consumption the railways use nearly 8,000,000 tons. 
In a dozen years the deficit will probably be from 40,- 
000,000 to 45,000,000 tons including the consumption 
in Alsace-Lorraine and the normal increase in require- 
ments. By 1932 the railway consumption might reach 
13,000,000 tons. The electrification of 5,100 miles 
of line, including the 93 miles already electrified by 
the Midi Railway, will reduce the coal consumption 
by more than 2,000,000 tons. 

Large Electrification Mileages in View 

The electrification projects which are in part now 
being carried out comprise the following : 

The Midi system proposes to electrify 1,865 miles, 
constituting the whole of the system excepting the 
lines in the level regions around Bordeaux and Cette 
and the branches of these lines. 

The Orleans system proposes also 1,865 miles of 
electrification in the Central Massis, from Chateau- 
roux to Montauban, from Limoges to Gannat, and 
from Clermont to Tulle, with branches. 

The Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean system proposes to 
electrify 1,367 miles commencing with the lines from 
Nimes to Langdome, from Culoz to Modane, from Lyons 
to- Geneva, including the heavy-traffic lines from Lyons 
to Marseilles, from Marseilles to Vintimille, from 
Tarascon to Cette, etc. 

During the latter part of 1920 plans for considerable 
electrification have received governmental sanction and 
the Midi Railway is reported to have placed contracts 
for hydraulic machinery and electric locomotives, while 
the Orleans Company is understood to have plans for 
the immediate carrying out of its program, beginning 
with the Paris terminal. Power for the Paris end of 
the system will be secured from the Paris super-power 
system, while the company will produce its own power 
hydraulically in its mountainous sections where power 
will probably also be available for sale. 

Belgium Is a Logical Field for Electrification 

This Small Country Provides a Field for a Vast Interurban 
Passenger System Plus One Permitting the Handling 
of Large Quantities of Freight 

THE scheme for the electrification of the State 
Railways of Belgium is not so far advanced as 
some reports during the past year seemed to indicate. 
The fact is that the Belgian government is being 
advised by a small committee of railway engineers 
who are preparing a preliminary scheme which 
will be submitted to the commission appointed by the 
Belgian Government to report on the electrification of 
the railways. The commission consists of manufac- 
turers, bankers, heads of railway departments and mem- 
bers of the various Belgian ministries, and it also 
includes French and British engineers. The president 
of the commission is Baron Ancion, and Sir Philip 
Dawson, so well known as a consulting electric railway 
engineer in England, is one of the vice-presidents. 
Many meetings have been held and reports made, and 
at present the commission is waiting for the preliminary 



34 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



report above referred to from the committee of engi- 
neers. No electrification contracts will be let mean- 
while. 

However, Belgian railways ought to be electrified 
promptly, for the reasons listed by Sir Philip in his 
Liege address abstracted in the issue of this paper for 
Dec. 4, 1920, page 1151. He said in this connection: 
"As to Belgium, in view of its relatively small area, its 
dense population, its frugal and industrious people, its 
well-developed metallurgical and other industries, its 
excellent railroad systems and its fuel resources, its 
railways can be compared with a vast suburban system. 
If there is a case where a complete electrification would 
be justified, that case presents itself in Belgium. Here 
it is necessary to study fundamentally the electrification 
of the entire system, in such a way that the sections 
which are to be electt'ified now will form a homogeneous 
part of the whole from the points of view both of trac- 
tion and distribution. Such a study will be costly, but 
when millions of francs are involved it seems worth the 
investment of some hundreds of thousands of francs so 
as to insure the obtaining of the best possible financial 
results." 

In an article appearing recently in I'Echo de la 
Bourse, Brussels, an outline of a plan for the partial 
electrification of the State Railways is given. It com- 
prises three phases: (1) Complete electrification of the 
Brussels-Antwerp line; (2) electrification of the Luxem- 
bourg line and connections; (3) electrification of vari- 
ous trunk lines radiating from Brussels. For this work 
direct current is favored, but a decision as to voltage, 
1,500 or 3,000, had not been reached at the time the 
article was written. 



Electrification Largely Prospective in Spain 

Several Excellent Opportunities for Conservation, However, 
Are Recognized — People Wakening to Necessity 
for Conserving Fuel 

THE heavy traction field in Spain is practically un- 
touched. There are, however, several prospective 
electrifications and the people are wakening to the 
necessity for increasing track capacity and conserving 
fuel. One of the most imminent electrifications is that 
of the Pajares grade on the Norte Railway in the north 
of Spain. This line connects the north coast at Gijon 
and the coal mines on the north slope of the mountains 
with the inland cities. The line in question is one 
about 39 miles long and on a grade which is 2 per cent 
over a large part. The line is very crooked and has 
many tunnels, with a maximum length of 2 miles. It is 
single track and the light rolling stock and light track 
construction make it very difficult to operate freight 
trains of any considerable weight; in fact, the maxi- 
mum train with two locomotives is 600 metric tons. It 
is hoped by the electrification of this grade to make a 
very great increase in the capacity. 

Another very important project is that of the Las 
Arenas Railway at Bilbao, an important seaport. This 
is a meter-gage railway, but has fairly heavy suburban 
traffic. It will probably be electrified in the near future. 
The railway will probably use 1,500 volts direct current, 
as against 3,000 volts for the Norte. The next most 
active prospects are at Barcelona, where there are sev- 
eral railways that are considering electrification seri- 
ously. 

There is an abundance of water power in the north 
of Spain, especially at Barcelona, where there are 



several transmission lines with a considerable amount 
of power available. Barcelona is an up-to-date city and 
very wide awake. The inhabitants are known as the 
Yankees of Spain. There are one or two short electric 
railways there at this time, and others will soon follow. 

The high cost of coal will greatly accelerate railway 
electrification in Spain, as well as in the other countries 
of Europe. The financial situation, however, is very 
much better, since the rate of exchange for Spain is so 
much better than in France and some of the other 
countries. 

The railways of Spain seem to be, for many years at 
least, doomed to the use of very light trains, owing to 
the weak, almost flimsy, drawbar and buffer construc- 
tion, as well as to the low permissible wheel loads. The 
cross ties in the track are spaced so far apart that the 
very light load of 15 tons per axle is scarcely permissible, 
even though an 80-lb. rail is used. The drawbars are 
being gradually strengthened, but it will be many years 
before they are able to handle as much as 20 tons pull. 



Switzerland Is the Focus of Electrification 

Interest 

Interest Centers in Lucerne-Chiasso Line, Which Includes 
St. Gotthard Tunnel, Now in Electric Operation — 
Federal Railways Have Comprehensive Program 

IN OTHER countries there is much discussion of elec- 
trification ; in Switzerland there is "something doing." 
During the past few months (since July 1) operation 
through the St. Gotthard tunnel has been by electric 
locomotives, power being drawn from the Lake Ritom 
hydro-electric plant in which four 12,000-hp. generator 
units produce power at 15,000 volts. This is part of a 
general program adopted over two years ago. 

This country is one in which general railway electrifi- 
cation is a virtual necessity. The country depends upon 
its neighbors for coal, which now commands a prohibi- 
tive price, while it has abundant water power. Ordi- 
narily about 600,000 tons of coal is required per annum 
by the railways, which can be entirely saved by the 
development of but a fraction of the available 3,000,000 
hp. of water power. Fortunately the Swiss franc is 
worth in exchange nearly its par value so that the finan- 
cial aspect of electrification work is not unfavorable. 

A large part of the railway mileage of Switzerland 
(about 2,800 miles) is owned and operated by the federal 
government. After long study, and experience with 
both single-phase and three-phase, the Federal Railways 
in 1916 adopted 15-cycle, 15,000-volt single phase as 
standard, although three-phase will be retained on the 
Simplon tunnel line on account of its connection with 
the Italian lines on which three-phase is standard. The 
Federal Railways have adopted a program of electrifi- 
cation in three stages. The first includes 700 miles most 
favorably located for the purpose, with a corresponding 
hydraulic development of 76,000 hp. This will reduce 
the coal consumption by one-half. The second includes 
about 375 miles of light-traflSc lines which are also 
favorably located, while the third includes the remainder 
which is left for future consideration. 

To return to the St. Gotthard line; a section of the 
line from Lucerne to Chiasso, a distance of 140 miles. 
The tunnel is in electric operation, and the section from 
Erstfeld to Bellinzona is practically complete. On this 
section are grades up to 2.7 per cent. The Bellinzona- 
Chiasso section, connecting with the Italian lines, should 



January I, 1921 ElbctricRailwayJournal 35 



be finished during 1921, and shortly thereafter the Erst- 
feld-Lucerne section. 

During the war 33 miles of line between Brigue and 
Sion was temporarily equipped with three-phase, on 
account of the availability of power from the Simplon. 
It will later be made single-phase. The nearly 20 miles 
from Berne to Thun was also electrified with single- 
phase in 1918. 

The Ritom power plant is of interest on account of 
the high head under which the Pelton impulse water 
wheels operate, over 2,600 ft. The depth of Lake Ritom 
has been increased by a 23-ft. dam, and the conduit 
draws off the water 100 ft. below the dam crest. The 
available storage capacity is estimated at 900,000,000 
cu.ft., more or less. 

The St. Gotthard line will also be supplied with power 
from a plant, now building, at Amsteg, just north of the 
tunnel. This is located on the Reuss River, but there 
will be only a small water storage capacity. The Amsteg 
and Ritom plants will be operated in conjunction, utiliz- 
ing the different capacity characteristics of the two. 
The Amsteg plant will run continuously, utilizing the 
full capacity of the river. The Ritom plant will care for 
peak loads, and will in general be shut down in summer 
to allow the lake to fill. 



Latin America Not Idle 

Electrification Work Is Actually Under Way in Brazil 
and Cuba — Direct Current Is Employed 
in Both Cases 

TWO interesting high-voltage direct current elec- 
trifications are being carried out at present in 
Brazil and Cuba; the former a part of the Paulista 
Railway between Jundiahy and Campinas, the latter the 
Hershey Cuban Railway on the north coast of the island 
between Matanzas and Havana. 

On the Brazilian road 3,000 volts will be used on the 
contact line. Ten 100-ton freight and six 120-ton pas- 
senger locomotives will be installed at once on the 28 
miles of route now being electrified. This is a double- 
track line and the single-track equivalent in the electri- 
fied zone is 76 miles. 

The locomotives to be furnished by the General Elec- 
tric Company are similar in general construction to 
those in use on the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway, 
but with the regenerative feature. The Westinghouse 
locomotives differ somewhat in wheel arrangement, but 
essentially they are of the same general type. 

The Brazilian railway officials are looking forward 
with keen anticipation to the arrival of the new motive 
power which they believe will find operating conditions 
congenial on this high-class, well-maintained road. 

On the Hershey Cuban Railway the voltage will be 
only 1,200, but overhead contact construction will be 
used. Electric locomotives will be used for freight 
service, and seven 60-ton machines will furnish the 
initial equipment. Multiple-unit cars will be employed 
in the passenger service. This electrification will ulti- 
mately involve a single-track equivalent mileage of 80. 

The power distribution equipment of the Hershey 
Cuban Railway is of interest in that for the outlying 
substations automatic control will be used. 

Considerable popular interest attaches to the Hershey 
Cuban Railway in the fact that the owner is the well- 
known chocolate manufacturer, and a considerable part 
of its business consists in transporting sugar cane to 
Hershey Centrale, an important sugar center. 



Italy Clings to Three-Phase 

Although Not Oblivious to Developments in Other Systems, 
This Country Will Extend Electrification Along 
Established Lines to Avoid Delays 

ITALY has for many years pursued a consistent 
policy of electrification, although the actual mileage 
of line electrically equipped is not great, say 280 
miles out of a total of 8,500. However, a considerable 
program has been laid out, both for the state and private 
railways, and much construction is actually under way. 
The government offers subsidies to private companies 
for the construction of railways, with extra allowances 
if the lines are electrified. The subsidies have recently 
been increased to render them more attractive, as those 
previously offered were not stimulating expansion to 
the extent desired. Provision is made by which the 
state can take over the permanent way and structures 
of the subsidized railways under conditions which are 
entirely fair. On the new lines now under construction 
or projected about two-fifths of the mileage will be 
equipped for electrical operation. 

The Italian State Railways have long favored three- 
phase locomotives, operating at 16 cycles, a very low fre- 
quency. The latest type of locomotive was commissioned 
during the war and gave a good account of itself. A 
summary of the features of this type was given in the 
issue of the Electric Railway Journal for Aug. 4, 
1917, page 189. Eighteen of this type of locomotive 
were purchased. The locomotive is designed for four 
speeds up to 62 m.p.h. The four-speed arrangement 
was selected to provide the low speed necessary on 
certain parts of the lines over which the machines had to 
operate and to minimize the rheostatic losses in passing 
from speed to speed. 

For power supply the railways depend largely upon 
the power plants of the cities near the electrified lines. 
The situation is complicated by the low frequency of the 
railway power, the industrial frequency being 42 cycles. 
Where a power plant furnishes railway power it must 
have extra generators, which are sometimes mounted 
on the same shafts as the industrial machines. Fre- 
quency changers are apparently not used. Experiments 
will be conducted by the State Railways with 42-cycle 
current for use on the locomotives and also with the 
high-voltage direct current. 

However, the program will be carried out as planned 
using three-phase and it is understood that 1,200 miles 
of line or more will be electrified in the near future. 

The plan for electrification, as presented by the Rail- 
way Administration to the Minister of Public Works, 
was reported by Vice-Consul James J. Murphy, Jr., 
from Genoa, and printed in Commerce Reports for Sept. 
3, 1920, page 1098. 

It covers four groups as follows: 

1. Lines to be electrified at once by the Railway 
Administration: Ovada to Sampierdarena, Genoa to 
Spezia, Florence to Pistoia to Bologna, Bologna to 
Faenza to Florence, Orte to Foligno, Rome to Naples 
with branches Carano to Nettuno and Piperno to Ter- 
rarina, Naples to Avezzano to Sulmona, Naples to 
Salerno to Gragnano, Savona to Altare to San Guiseppe, 
Brenner to Verona, Trieste to Piedirolde with branch 
Prevancina to Aidustera, Chiasso to Monza to Milan. 
The length of the above totals nearly 830 miles. 

2. Lines to be electrified as above but in the second 
period : Ales.sandria to Ovada, Spezia to Pisa, Spezia to 
Parma, Florence to Orte to Rome. Foligno to Falconara 



36 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol, 57, No. 1 



to Faenza, Sulmona to Pescara to Falconara, Cesa to 
Mondovi to Forsano to Trofarello, Trieste to Monfalcone 
with branch to Nabresina Operina, Milan to Voghera. 
Total length of these lines, nearly 700 miles. 

3. Lines on which new systems of electric traction 
will be tried: Rome to Anzio, Rome to Tivoli (3-phase 
with industrial frequency) ; Messina to Catania (high- 
voltage direct current) ; Cagliari to Monteponi (stand- 
ard-voltage direct current). The combined length of 
these lines is about 160 miles. 

4. Lines which will be electrified under private man- 
agement : Savona to Ventimiglia, Turin to Venice, Milan 
to Bologna to Padua, Bologna to Vernona, Mestre to 
Primolano to Trent, Florence to Pisa, Benevento to 
Salerno, Benevento to Foggia, Salerno to Battipaglia 
to Paola, Mestre to Portogruaro to Monfalcone. The 
lines have a total length of about 1,080 miles. 

The grand total of all of the above lines is nearly 
2,770 miles. 

The plan comprehends that the lines south of the 
Pisa-Florence-Faenza line in the first and second groups 
will comprise power plants that can be operated at a 
frequency higher than 16 cycles in case the Rome-Anzio 
experiment with industrial frequency is a success. 



American Engineering Council 
at Work 

Active Steps Taken to Assume Work that Was 
Started by Engineering Council — Non-Mem- 
ber Societies Will Be Asked to Co-operate 

HERBERT HOOVER, president of the Federated 
American Engineering Societies, presided at the 
executive board meeting of the American Engineering 
Council of that organization, held in New York on 
Friday, Dec. 17. Every one of the twenty-four members 
of the council was present with the exception of A. M. 
Greene. 

The president appointed the following standing com- 
mittees : 

Procedure 
Calvert Townley, chairman 
Herbert Hoover, ex officio J. Parke Channing 
W. E. Rolfe L. W. Wallace 

D. S. Kimball L. P. Alford 

Constitution and By-Laws 
W. B. Powell, chairman 
C. F. Scott D. S. Kimball 

PUBUCITY AND PUBLICATIONS 

L. P. Alford, chairman 
H. W. Buck H. E. Howe 

Membership and Representation 
J. F. Oberlin, chairman 
L. W. Wallace A. S. Dwight 

Finance 
William McClellan, chairman 

E. Ludlow C. Townley 

L. W. Wallace, ex officio 

Public Affairs 
J. Parke Channing, chairman 
Fred J. Miller L. B. Stillwell 

In. discussing the program of the council immediately 
ahead, Mr. Hoover stated that he had called engineers 
together in various cities he had visited lately and that 
he found that the general desire of engineers every- 
where was to join in the federation movement, but 
that the general trend was for territorial organization, 
as distinguished from national organization. One of 
the stumbling blocks in the way of these territorial 



organizations joining the national organizations was 
the question of dues. Another complexity was that 
individuals hold memberships in more than one society. 
This question was discussed and referred to a special 
committee, which will include the six district delegates. 

As a step forward in co-ordinating various inter- 
society activities already established, the necessary 
action was taken to make it possible for certain of 
the activities of Engineering Council to be taken over 
by the new organization. As soon as the United 
Engineering Societies have passed officially upon the 
proposed action of Engineering Council to transfer and 
continue the work of Engineering Council's committees 
which have not yet completed their work the president 
will appoint the necessary committees of American 
Engineering Council to take over this work. At the 
meeting of Engineering Council held in Washington, 
there was harmony of all the member societies in 
Engineering Council to this end. In this connection, 
action was taken to amend the by-laws so that members 
of committees can be selected from societies other than 
those at present members of the federation. Civil 
engineers and engineers in other bodies not at present 
affiliated with the Federated American Engineering 
Societies can, because of this action, co-operate in the 
committee work. 

The four so-called founder societies in addition have 
been associated in a common employment service and 
American Engineering Council has offered to take over 
this service as a part of its function. 

American Engineering Council voted not to affiliate 
with the United States Chamber of Commerce, but it 
expressed its desire to co-operate with the Chamber at 
any time and give advice on any question that may 
arise. It was the thought of the meeting that the 
council could make its best contribution to the public 
by acting independently. 

The council authorized the appropriation of $1,000 
as an initial fund to carry on publicity work, and 
the committee on publicity and publications was given 
authority to set up a board of engineering editors. 

A special committee reported on candidates for per- 
manent executive secretary of the organization, but no 
final action was taken at the meeting. 

There was a general feeling expressed that the meet- 
ings of the board should be held at different centers, 
and the place of the next meeting, which will be held 
Feb. 11, was left to the discretion of the president. 



Safety Car Recommended to English 
Tramway Managers 

To ENGLISH tramway managers the Electric Rail- 
way and Tramway Journal of Nov. 12, 1920, 
recommends for earnest consideration J. C. Thirlwall's 
article on the safety car which appeared in the ELECTRIC 
Railway Journal of Oct. 2, 1920. It points out the 
fact that in spite of the distinct success and popularity 
in this country of one-man cars not a single British 
system has considered their adoption even as a partial 
solution of operating difficulties. Their backwardness 
in failing to realize the economies resulting from their 
lightness and one-man operation can be attributed, per- 
haps, to their ultra-conservatism. However, it cannot 
be overlooked that circumstances which are necessary 
for the success of the safety car may not be existent 
in England yet and their wide use here does not give 
proof of their permanent utility. 



I 



Janiuiry 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



37 



New Rolling Stock Ordered in 1920 

Approximately 50 per Cent More Cars Ordered than During the Year Previous — Safety Cars Still Repre- 
sent the Largest Proportion of the Total, 113 Companies Ordering 1,699 Safety Cars — Both 
Urban and Interurban Passenger Cars Increase by Large Percentages — 
Freight and Express Cars Nearly Treble 



THE statistics in the following tables regarding 
new cars and locomotives ordered during 1920 by 
the electric railway companies of the United States 
and Canada indicate the need on many lines for addi- 
tional equipment to care for existing traffic. A step was 
made last year to acquire additional rolling stock. In 
1919 the new rolling stock ordered was 2,447 cars. The 
results this year show a much more promising future, 
since the new cars and locomotives ordered have reached 
a total of 3,598 cars, which is 1,151 more than last year, 
or a percentage increase of 47.5 per cent. 

The main reason for this large increase in car orders 
is due to the more extensive use of the one-man car. 
Many companies, and especially is this true west of 
the Mississippi River, are supplanting their equipment 
with these lighter cars, which are less expensive to 
operate and to maintain. Although many companies 
which had previously ordered one-man cars enlarged 



TABLE I— NEW ROLLING STOCK ORDERED SINCE 1907 



(907 
1908 



1910 
1911 
1912 
2 1913 
§1914 
> 1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 

































































































































































s< 


:»fery Cars 

ty Service not Saf 

■horn 1 r^hnrt f\On\/ir(? 


?fy Cars " 








c, 

L ....... /r> 


























1000 



6000 



7000 



2000 3000 4000 5000 
To+al Rolling Stock 

NEW CARS AND LOCOMOTIVES ORDERED BY TEARS 
In this chart the division by city and Interurban cars is not 
made prior to 1916. 

their equipment by the purchase of more, the number 
of new companies ordering them is very noticeable. 
The number of companies this year which invested 
in this type of car is 113. 

These 113 companies, which are approximately 13.5 
per cent of all those in the United States and Canada, 
purchased 1,699 one-man cars. This is quite a gain 
over last year and may be assumed to prove the fact 
that the light weight one-man car has been able to com- 
pete with the jitney. As is shown in the chart accom- 
panying this article, the light weight one-man cars were 
practically unknown until 1916, when only 187 of these 
cars were ordered. The number ordered during 1920 is 
nearly ten times as many as in 1916. Most of the one- 
man cars were ordei-ed in the United States, only thirty 
of the total being ordered by Canadian companies. The 
types of cars are divided into motor or trailer, two-man 
passenger, city or interurban, and freight and express 
cars, city or interurban, besides the one-man cars. Of 
the total number the latter occupy the most prominent 
position, with a total of 1,699 cars, or approximately 
47.5 per cent of all the cars ordered during the past 
year. While the percentage of one-man cars to the 



Year City 

1907 3,483 

1908 2,208 

1909 2,537 

1910 3,571 

1911 2,884 

1912 4,531 

1913 3,820 

1914 2,147 

1915 2,072 

1916 3,046 

1917 1,998 

1918 1,842 

1919 2,129 

1920 2,889 



Cars 


Freight and 


Electrio 


Interurban 


Miso Cars 


Locomotives 


1,327 


1,406 


(a) 


727 


176 


(a) 


1,245 


1,175 


(a) 


990 


820 


(a) 


626 


605 


(a) 


783 


687 


(ra) 


547 


1,147 


(a) 


384 


479 


(a) 


336 


374 


ia) 


374 


491 


31 


185 


223 


49 


255 


278 


44 


128 


172 


18 
17 


227 


465 



Total 
6,216 
3,111 
4,957 
5,381 
4,015 
6,001 
5,514 
3,010 
2,782 
3.942 
2.455 
2,419 
2,447 
3,598 



( i) Included in "Freight and Miacellaneous Cars." 

total is 9 per cent less than in 1919, this fact does not 
characterize the growth as much as the actual increase 
of 316 cars. 

In order to show the progress of the industry at a 
glance a table has been prepared showing the rolling 
stock ordered each year since 1907, divided into four 
types of cars: passenger cars, city or interurban; 
freight, express and miscellaneous cars, and electric 
locomotives. In this table passenger cars for operation 
in subway and on elevated structures have been taken 
as city passenger cars. The miscellaneous cars include 
service cars, as snow plows, sweepers, work cars, etc. 

Due to the large increase in safety cars, which all 
come under the head of city passenger cars, an increase 
of 39 per cent will be noted in this column. At the 
same time the total of each of the other types of cars 
has likewise increased except in the use of the electric 
locomotives. 

The electrification of steam railroads was at a stand- 
still during 1920. An indication of this was the fact 
that only seventeen new electric locomotives were 
ordered during the year, and further, that these were 
mostly ordered by electric railways for switching 
purposes or the haulage of freight cars. 

In the gathering of the data for this article question- 
naires were sent to about 785 electric railway companies 
in the United States and replies were received from 
about 91 per cent of them. The remaining 9 per cent 
are small companies. 



TABLE II— SPECIAL COMPARISONS OF NEW ROLLING 
STOCK ORDERED 

1920 1919 1918 1917 191b 

.N'umber of railways reporting new cars 172 160 140 182 250 

Total number of cars 3,581 2,429 2,375 2,406 3,91 1 

City Service; 

Number of safety cars 1,699 1,383 644 280 187 

Number of two-man passenger motor cars*. . . 847 635 1,068 1,316 2,731 

Nu 1 ber of passenger trailers 343 111 130 402 128 

Service cars 104 31 (a) (a) (a) 

Total city service cars 2,993 2,160 1,842 1,998 3,046 

Interurban Service: 

Number of two-man passenger motor cars. .. . 195 96 200 158 303 

Number of passenger trailers 32 32 55 27 71 

Number of freight and express cars 361 141 (u) (a) (a) 

Total interurban service cars 588 269 255 185 374 

Number of electric locomotives 17 18 44 49 31 

Number of cars and electric locomotives built 

n railway companies' shops 166 165 89 28! 445 

*Inolude3 motor and trailer oars for s ubway and elevated in New York City • 
(a) Not a vailable. 



38 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



New England District 

Connecticut: 

Bristol & Plainville Tramway Co . 
Connecticut Co. ( New Haven) .... 

Danbury & Bethel St. Ry 

Maine: 



TABLE III— ROLLING STOCK ORDERED DURING 1920 



>h3 



° 3 °'S 



3 Passenger 
20 Safety 

30 Safety 

6 Safety 

4 Safety 



Androscoggis & Kennebec Ry. 
Co., Lewiston 



Biddeford & Saco R.R. Co 

Cumberland County Pwr. & Lt. 
Co., Portland 

Knox County Electric Co., Rock- 
land 

Massachusetts : 

Berlcshire St. Ry. Co., Pittsfield.. . 



Boston Elevated Railway Co. 



Boston & Worcester St. Ry 

Brockton & Plymouth St. Ry. Co . 
City of Attleboro 



■{ 



Eastern Mass. St. Ry. Co.. . 

Northarao' on St. Ry. . . , . . 
Springfield St. Ry. Co 

New Hampshire: 

Laconia St. Ry. Co 

Rhode Island : 

Newport & Providence Ry. Co. . . 
Vermont: 

Barre & Montpelier Trac. & Pwr. 
Co 



3 Safety 
10 Passenger 
* 2 Snow plow 
2 Safety 
8 Safety 
Snow plow 
Snow swpr. 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 

1 2 Safety 

30 Passenger 

65 Passenger 

75 Passenger 

80 Safety 

2 Snow plow 

2 Snow swpr. 
*1 Line car 

I Safety 

3 Safety 

1 Safety 
50 Safety 

29 Snow swpr. 

2 Snow swpr. 
1 Safety 



2 Safety 
2 Safety 



2 Safety 



I 

10 
*5I 
6 
6 

40 
3 

12 
I 



Safety 
Safety 
Passenger 
Snow swpr. 
Safety 
Safety 
Safety 
Safety 
Snow swpr. 



1 7 Safety 



North of the Ohio and East of the IN 

District of Columbia: 

Washington & ( 'Id Dcjmi nion Py . ^ 1 Passenger 
Illinois: 

Aurora, Plainfield & .Joliet Ry . . . . 

Chicago Surface Lines ( 

Decatur Ry. & Lt. Co 

Illinois Traction Co. (Peoria) .... 
Pekiu Municipal Ry. Co 

Rockford & Interurban Ry. Co. . '' 

Springfield Consolidated Ry. Co. 

Indiana : 

Gary & Hobart Traction Co 

Indiana Rys. & Lt. Co. (Kokomo) ■ 

Indiana Service Corportion (Fort 
Wayne) 

Interstate Public Service Co ! 

Public Utilities Co. (Evansville) . . 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & East- 
ern Trac. Co 

Winona Interurban Ry. Co. (War- 
saw) 

Maryland : 

Cumberland & Westernport Ry. 
(Frostburg) 

United Rys. & Elec. Co. of Balti- 
more ' 

Michigan: 

City of Detroit Municipal Ry 

Detroit LTnited Rys 

Escanaba Trac. Co 

Grand Rapids Ry. Co 

Michigan Railroad Co. (.Jackson) 
Michigan Rys. Co. (Kalamazoo). . 
Michigan United Rys. Co. (Jack- 
son) 

Muskfgon Trac. & Lt. Co '. 

Saginaw Bay City Ry. Co 

New Jersey : 

Pennsylvania — New Jersey Ry. 
Co. (T enton) 



Public Service Ry.Corp. (Newark) < 

Salem & Pennsgrove Trac. Co. . . . 
Trenton & Mercer County Trac. 
Co 

* Built in companies' own shops. 



39' 


0" 


c 


M 


28' 


0" 




M 


27' 


10" 


Q 


M 


28' 


Oi" 


c 


M 


39' 


0'' 


c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


45' 


0" 




M 


25' 


0" 


C & I 


M 


28' 


0" 




M 


28' 


0" 




M 


30' 


0" 


I 


M 


24' 


10" 


c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


T 


49' 


9" 


c 


M 


43' 


0" 


I 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


48' 


n" 


c 


M 


46' 


i\" 


c 


M 


48' 


i\" 


c 


M 


28' 


% 


c 


IVi 


42' 




c 


M 


39' 


0" 


c 


M 


36' 


6" 


c 


M 


27' 


10" 


c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


27' 


10" 


c 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 






c 


M 






c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


'M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


Jissippi River 




40' 


0" 


I 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


47' 


6" 


c 


T 


28' 


3" 


c 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


28' 


Oi" 


c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 






c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 



Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


Safety 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


Passenger 


45' 


0" 


I 


T 


Work 


24' 


0" 


I 


T 


Freight 


40' 


0" 


I 


T 


Passenger 


62' 


0" 


I 


M 


Passenger 


50' 


0" 


I 


T 


Freight 


42' 


1" 


I 


T 


Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


Safety 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


Freight 


36' 


0" 


I 


T 



1 Bag. & exp. 
100 Passenger 
33 Safety 



41' 8" 
46' 10" 

28' or' 



I M 

C T 
C M 



25 


Safety 


27' 


10" 


c 


M 


12 


Safety 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


1 


Freight 


50' 


0" 


I 


M 


2 


Passenger 


45' 


0" 


I 


M 


1 


Snow swpr. 


28' 


6" 


I 


M 


19 


Safety 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


20 


Freight 


50' 


0" 


I 


M 


8 


Safety 


27' 


9r' 


c 


M 


20 


Safety 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


6 


Safety 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


8 
20 


Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


Safety 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


1 


Sweeper 






c 


M 



7 Safety 


35' 4" 


C 


M 


200 Safety 


27' 10" 


C 


M 


too Passenger 


49' 9" 


C 


T 


1 5 .Snow swpr. 


30' 6" 


C&I 


M 


1 5 .Snow plow 


40' 8" 


C & I 


M 


6 Safety 


28" or' 


C 


M 


40 Safety 


28' or' 


C 


M 


t Rebuilt. 


t Second hand. 







New York: 

Binghamton Ry. Co 

City of New York Municipal Ry. . 
Empire State Railway Co 

Hudson Valley I Railway Co. 

(Glens Falls) 

Manhattan Bridge 3c. Line 

New York Central R.R 

New York Municipal Ry. Corp. . 
Orange County Trac. Co. (fjew- 

burgh) 

Petdsskill Lt. &R.R. Co 

Poughkeepsie & Wappingers Falls 

Ry 

Rochester, Lockport & Buffalo 

R.R. Corp 

Westchester St. R.R. Co. (White 

Plains) 

Ohio: 

Cleveland Railway Co 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion 
Elec. Co 

Dayton & Troy Electric Ry. Co. . . 

Lake Shore Electric Ry. (Cleve- 
land) 



Northern Ohio Trac. & Lt. Co. 
(Akron) 



Ohio Service Co. (Coshocton) .. . . . 
Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Co. 

(Young.stown) 

Southeastern Ohio Ry. Co. 

(Zanesville) 

Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Ry. 

Co 

Pennsylvania : 

Beaver Valley Trac. Co 

Chambersburg, Greencastle & 
Waynesboro St. Ry 

Conestoga Trac. Co. (Lancaster) . . 

Eastern Pennsylvania Rys.(Potts- 
ville) 

Ephrata & Lebanon St. Ry. Co . . . 

HarrLsburg Railways Co 

Her.shey Transit Co 

Indiana County St. Ry. Co. (In- 
diana) 

Northumberland County Ry. 
(Sunbury) 

Pittsburgh Rys. Co ^ 

Reading Transit & Lt. Co 

Sbamokin & Mt. Carmel Transit 
Co 

State Belt Transit Co. (Pen Argyl) 

Susquehanna Trac. Co. (Lock 
Haven) 

Tarentum, Breckenridge & Butler 

Ry 

Trenton, Bristol & Phila. St. Ry. 
Co... . 

Warren Street Railway 

Westmoreland County Ry. (Pitts- 
burgh) 

West Fenn Railways 

Wilkes-Barre Ry. Co 

Woodlawn & Southern St. Ry. Co. 

York Railways 

Wisconsin : 

Beloit Traction Co 

Janesville Traction Co 

Madison Railways Co 



Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co. . 



Wisconsin Public Service Co. 

(Green Bay) 

Wisconsin Valley Elec. Co. (Wau- 

sau) 



1 Safety 



Passenger 

Passenger 

Safety 

Express 

Safety 

Passenger 

Express 

Snow swpr. 

Passenger 



3 Passenger 



4 

25 
25 
12 
1 

2 
2 
I 
I 



Safety 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Safety 

Dump 

Safety 
Passenger 
Safety 
Snow swpr. 



1 Safety 



Safety 
Safety 
Passenger 
Snow swpr. 

Safety 

Express 

Dump 

Passenger 

.Safety 

Passenger 

Swpr. 



2 


Safety 


5 


Safety 


8 


Safety 


f 40 


Safety 


100 


One man 


*2 


Express 


*2 


Express 


4 


Dump. 


8 


Dump 


4 


Dump. 


*6 


Work 


8 


Other types 


6 


Safety 


4 


Safety 



O 



1 1 n 


Passenger 




u 




M 


28 


Safety- 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


( \ 


Safety 


27' 


10" 


c 


M 


\ 3 


Passenger 


53' 


7" 


I 


M 


2 


Passenger 


50' 


0" 


I 


M 


2 


Passenger 


44' 


6" 


c 


M 


15 


Passenger 


69' 


5" 


I 


M 


200 


Passenger 


67' 


0" 


c 


M 


3 


Safety 


28 


or 


c 


. M 


f 7 


Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


4 


Safety 


27' 


9r' 


c 


M 


7 


bafety 


27 


10 


c 


M 


r 1 

/ 


Express 






I 


M 




Snow plow 






c 


JM 





oaiety 


27 


1 


c 


iVJ 


f 50 


Passenger 


52' 


5r' 


c 


M 


1 50 


P assenger 


49' 


2" 


Q 


T 


5 


Freight 


42' 


0" 


I 


M 


8 


Passenger 


62' 


5" 


I 


M 


( 


Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 




Freight 


55' 


0" 


I 


T 


25 


Passenger 


50' 


01" 


c 


M 


1 31 


Passenger 


50' 


Oi" 


I 


M 


, 10 


Passenger 


46' 


8f" 


c 


T 


1 20 


Passenger 


55' 


11" 


r 


M 




Safety 


28' 


ay 


c 


M 


11 


Snow swpr. 


28' 


2" 


c 


M 




Safety 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


/ 10 


Passenger 


52' 


lU" 


I 


M 


I 12 


Safety 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


1 


Passenger 


48' 


2" 


I 


M 


1 


Freight 


58' 


0" 


I 


M 



27' 


10" 


c 


M 


48' 


0" 


I 


M 


45' 


0" 


I 


M 


30' 


0" 


c 


M 


41' 


8" 


I 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


47' 


0" 


I 


M 


50' 


0" 


I 


M 


28' 


3" 


c 


M 


41' 


8" 


I 


■ M 


44' 


5" 


I 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


45' 


0" 


c 


T 


45' 


0" 


c 


M 


27' 


10" 


c 


M 


40' 


6" 


c 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


47' 


0" 


I 


M 


27' 


9r' 


c 


M 


28' 


3" 


c 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


41' 


8" 


I 


M 






c 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


59' 


0" 


I 


M 


20' 


0" 


I 


T 


48' 


0" 


I 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


45' 


0" 


I 


M 


29' 


0" 


c 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


30' 


0" 


c 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


45' 


0" 


c 


M 


50' 


0" 


I 


M 


50' 


0" 


I 


T 


40' 


6" 


C&I 


M 


40' 


6" 


C&I 


T 


21' 


6" 


C & I 


T 






C&I 


T 






C & I 


T 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


28' 


or' 


c 


M 



South of the Ohio and East of the Mississippi River 

Alabama : 

Alabama Pwr. Co. (Birmingham) . 
Mobile Lt. & R R. Co 



Montgomery Lt. & Trac. Co. . . 
Tuscaloosa Ry. & Utilities Co.. 



4 

2 

10 
10 
*1 



Safety 
Safety 
Safety 
Safety 
Passenger 



28' 


or' 


C 


M 


28' 


or' 


C 


M 


27' 


9r' 


C 


M 


28' 


0" 


C 


M 


22' 


6" 







January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



39 



TABLE III— ROLLING STOCK ORDERED DURING 1920— CONTINUED 



Florida : 

Municipal Railways of St. Peters- 
burg 

Tampa Electric Co 

Georgia : 

Athens Ry. & Elec. Co 

Atlanta Northern Ry. Co 

Columbus Railroad Co 

Georgia Ry. & Pwr. Co 

North Carolina: 

Tidewater Power Co. (Wilmington) 
South Carolina: 
Southern Public Utilities Co. (An- 
derson) 

Virginia: 

Danville Trac. & Pwr. Co 

Virginia Ry. & Pwr. Co. (Rich- 
mond) 

West Virginia: 

Monongahela Valley Trac Co. J 
(Fairmont) ( 



0) aJ 



Freight 
Passenger 
1 Safety 
50 Passenger 



51 

[ * I 



Work 



15 Safety 



Safety 
Snow Swpr. 
Passenger 



I Passenger 



6 Safety 
15 Safety 



2 Passenger 



27' 95' 
27' 9V 



43' 7" 



1^ 



ft Sofp+v 


27' 


Oi" 




M 


8 Safety 


28' 


ov 


C 


M 


5 Safety 


28' 


ov 


c 


M 


4 Passenger 


50' 


6" 


I 


M 


9 Safety 


28' 


01" 


c 


M 


23 Passenger 


44' 


6" 


c 


M 


1 Safety 


28' 


OV 


c 


M 


6 Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


2 Passenger 


37' 


0" 


c 


M 


50 Safety 


28' 




c 


M 


8 Safety 


28' 


9V 


c 


M 


3 *Freight 


30' 


0" 


I 


M 



12 


Safety 


28' 


0" 


C 


M 


22 


Safety 


28' 


0" - 


C 


M 


1 


Passenger 


29' 


0" 


C 


M 


102 


Safety 


28' 


01" 


C 


M 


26 


Passenger 


47' 


0" 


I 


M 


16 


Passenger 


47' 


' 


I 


T 


6 


Safety 


28' 


ov 


c 


M 


25 


Safety 


28' 


ov 


c 


M 


2 


Passenger 


58' 


0" 


I 


M 


* 1 


Passenger 


35' 


0" 


I 


M 


25 


Safety 


28' OV 


c 


M 


*I8 


Passenger 


48' 


6" 


c 


M 


* 5 


Passenger 


40' 


8" 


I 


M 


22 


Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


15 


Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


4 


Safety 


27' 


91" 


c 


M 


6 


Safety 


28' 


OV 


c 


M 


1 


Safety 






c 


M 


20 


Safety 


28' 


OV 


c 


M 


8 


Safety 


28' 


OV 


c 


M 


8 

*3 


Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


Passenger 


40' 


8" 


c 


M 


8 


Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 



West of the Mississippi River 

California: 

Fresno Traction Co 

Los Angeles Railway Co 

Municipal Ry. of San Franc sco. . . 

Pacific Elec. Ry. (Los Angeles .... 

Pacific Gas & Elec. Co. (Sacra- 
mento) 

San Diego Electric Railway Co . . . 

San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga 
Railway I 

SanFrancisco-Oakland Terra. Rys. J 

San Jose Railroads 

Stockton Electric Railroad Co. . . . 

Colorado: 

Arkansas Valley Railway, Light 
& Power Co. (Pueblo) 

Iowa: 

Iowa Ry. & Lt. Co. (Cedar Rapids) 
Iowa Southern Utilities Co. 

(Centerville) 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern 

Ry. Co 

Kansas: 

Topeka Railway Co 

Louisiana: 

Baton Rouge Electric Co 

Shreveport Railways Co 

Minnesota: 

Wisconsin Railway, L^ght & 
Power Co. (Winona) 

Missouri: 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. / * I 
Joseph Ry. Co I 3 

United Railways of .St. Louis 

Nebraska: 

Lincoln Traction Co 

Omaha & Council Bluff St. Ry. . . . 

Omaha, Lincoln, & Beatrice Rail- 
way Co 

North Dakota: 

Grand Forks St. Railway Co 

Northern States Power Co. (Fargo) 

Oklahoma: 

Pittsburgh County Railway Co. 
(McAlester) 

Oregon : 

Oregon & California Railroad 

(.Salem) 

Pacific Pwr. & Lt. Co. (Astoria).. . 

Southern Pacific Co. (Portland) ... \ 

South Dakota: 

Sioux Falls Traction System 

Texas: 

Austin Street Railway Co 

Dallas Railway Co 

El Paso Electric Railway Co 

Houston Electric Co 

Northern Texas Traction Co, / 

(F rt W rth) I 

San Antonio Public Service Co. . . 
Texas Electric Ry. Co. (Dallas) . . . 

* Built in companies' own shops. 



42' 


0" 


I 


M 


51' 


5" 


I 


M 


28' 


OV 


C 


M 


45' 


0" 


•C 


M 


50' 


6" 


C 


M 


40' 


0" 


c 


M 


28' 


Oh" 


c 


M 


28' 


Oh" 


c 


M 


29' 


0" 


c 


M 


42' 


0" 


c 


M 


30' 


0" 


c 


M 



M 



4 


Safety 


28' 


OV 


c 


M 


1 


Safety 


28' 


OV 


c 


M 


4 


Safety 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 


6 


Passenger 


55' 


10" 


I 


M 


6 


Passenger 


55' 


10" 


I 


T 


3 


Safety 


28' 


OV 


c 


M 


10 


Safety 


28' 


OV 


c 


M 


50 


.Safety 


28' 


ov 


c 


M 


10 


.Safety 


28' 


ov 


c 


M 


15 


.Safety 


28' 


Oi" 


c 


M 


4 


Passenger 


52' 


0" 


I 


M 


35 


Safety 


28' 


01" 


c 


M 


15 


S.-ifety 


28' 


oy 


G 


M 


4 


Passenger 


56' 


0" 


I 





Rebuilt, t Second hand. 



Utah: 

Bamberger Electric R. R.*. 



6 

3 
1 

5 
1 
I 

10 
50 
100 



Salt Lake & Utah Railroad Co. 
Utah-Idaho Central R. R. Co. 
Washington: 

Pacific Northwest Tract'on Co.. . . 14 
Puget .Sound Power & Light Co. 

(Bellingham) 8 

Canada: 

Brantford Municipal Ry., (Ont) . . 2 

Grand River Railway Co. (Ont.).. I ^ 

Hydro-Electric Power Commis- I 1 2 

sion (Ont.) ) 6 

I 2 

Lake Erie & Northern Railway j 3 

Co., (Ont.) 1 I 

.Sherbrooke Ry. & Pwr. Co. (Que.) . 2 

Southern Canada Power (jo I 

Toronto Civic Railway (Ont.) .... 25 

T ronto Suburban Railway (Ont.) 2 

Winnipeg Electric Ry. Co., (Man.) 6 



Eh 

Passenger 
Passenger 
Express 
Express 
Freight, Box 
Freight, Gondola 41 
Freight 



Freight 
Safety 



Safety 

Passenger 

Express 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

.Snow Swpr. 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Safety 

Safety 

Safety 

Express 

Snow Swpr. 



Over-all 


Length 


City orln- 
terurban 


Motor or 
Trailer 


58' 


0" 


T 
1 


M 


58' 


0" 


J 


'T 


58' 


0' 


J 


M 


42' 


0" 


T 
1 


1 


36' 


10?" 


I 


i 


41' 91" 


T 
I 


1 


46' 2}'' 


T 

L 


T 


41' 


0" 


T 
i 


ivi 


28' 


01" 


c 


M 


32' 


0" 


C 


M 


61' 


6" 


I 


M 


61' 


6" 


I 


M 


36' 





c 


M 


33' 


0" 


c 


M 


33' 


0" 


c 


T 


33' 


0" 


c 


M 


61' 


8" 


I 


M 


61' 


8" 


I 


T 


30' 


0" 


c 


M 


28' 


Oi" 


c 


M 


28' 


0\" 


c 


M 


52' 


0" 


I 


M 


28' 


0" 


c 


M 



ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES 

Number 

New England District: 

Rutland Railway, Light & Power Co 1 

North of the Ohio and East of the Mississippi River: 

M etropoUtan West Side Elev. Ry. Co. (III.) 2 

Albany Southern Railroad Co. (N. Y.) 1 

Brooklyn Riipid Transit Co. (N. Y.) I 

Youngstovvn & Suburbjin Railway Co. (Ohio) 1 

Monongahela Valley Traction Co I 

Wa^h'ng^on & Old Dominion Ry 1 

West of the Mississippi River: 

Bambereer Electric R R. Co 1 

Pacific Electric Railwav 2 

Tidewater Southern Railway (Cal.) 1 

Salt Lake & Utah Railroad Co (Utah) 3 

Canada: 

Grand River Railway Co 1 

Lake Erie & Northern Railway Co 1 



Weight 
Tons, 



50 
45 



Length 
Over All, 
Ft. In. 



60 
60 



37 
46 
35 

34 
34 

42 



4 

6 
6 

6 
4i 



31 2i 



36 
36 



A more detailed description of the cars ordered during 
the last five years is found in Table II. Referring to 
this table it will be noted that the railways are ap- 
proaching the same number of cars as were purchased in 
1916, when 3,900 cars were ordered. The rolling stock 
built by electric railways in their own shops has also 
held its own this year, having increased by only one car. 
The companies which built a large part of their own 
cars this year were the United Railways of St. Louis, 
which built 51 motor passenger cars, and the Chicago 
Surface Lines, which equaled St. Louis by constructing 
the same number, except that they were trailer cars. 

Among the larger orders for cars this year were 

TABLE IV— RECAPITULATION OF CARS AND LOCOMOTIVES 
ORDERED— 1920 



63 



3 S .? 
t-v o-a go o S.a)<5«*ec 



So ° 
2 



E- O O 



Number of companies reporting. . 
Total cars and electric locomo- 

t ives ordered 

City Service: 

Safety cars 

r, / Motor.. 

Passenger cars \ Trailer. 

Service cars 

Total city cars 

Interurban Service: 

r, / Motor 

Passenger cars | .p^^i,^^ 

Express and freight cars 

To al interurban cars 

Electric locomotives 

Number of companies ordering 
safety ears 



20 


85 


15 


45 


165 


9 


1 


175 


449 


1,937 


161 


927 


3,474 


74 


50 


3,598 


246 


852 


128 


443 


1,669 


30 




1,699 


184 


448 


25 


126 


783 


14 


50 


847 


1 


336 






337 


6 




343 


15 


78 




3 


96 


8 




104 


446 


1,714 


153 


572 


2,885 


58 


50 


2,993 


1 


125 


5 


54 


185 


10 




195 




4 




27 


31 


1 




32 


i 


87 


3 


267 


358 


3 




361 


2 


217 


8 


348 


574 


14 




588 


1 


7 




7 


15 


2 




17 


15 


51 


1 1 


32 


109 


4 




113 



40 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



200 steel motor cars for the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Subway System. The first 100 of these were ordered 
in May and the second 100 in December, 1920. The 
Public Service Corporation of New Jersey placed an 
order for 200 safety cars and 100 trailer passenger cars 
49 ft. 9 in. long. The Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Company ordered 100 motor cars, 45 ft. long, that 
can be operated either by one or two men. In Baltimore 
the United Railways & Electric Company ordered 100 
passenger trailer cars. The use of the trailer car seems 
to be increasing rapidly. Besides the two orders already 
mentioned, the Cleveland Railway ordered fifty motor 
and fifty trailer passenger cars. 

Table I shows the details of the rolling stock ordered 
by the individual companies. The companies are alpha- 
betically arranged by states and the states are grouped 
into districts. The cars ordered by the companies listed 
under the territory "North of the Ohio and East of the 
Mississippi River" were by far the greatest, the number 
being 1,947 cars, which is 54 per cent of the total rolling 
stock ordered. 



All cars are specified as to the service for which they 
are intended. No attempt has been made to give details 
as to construction other than the over-all length. Most 
of the cars are either of semi-steel or all-steel construc- 
tion. The day of the wooden car is past, except for 
freight, express or service cars. 

It is practically impossible to receive replies from 
all electric railway companies when a definite date is 
set for publication. Answers to questionnaires were 
received from more than 700 railway companies and 
have been supplemented by notes previously published. 

Through the courtesy and co-operation of the car 
builders it has been possible to check these figures fur- 
nished by the railway companies, and in some cases 
where the companies have failed to report the figures 
as furnished by the car manufacturers have been used. 
Hence it is believed that few cases of cars built during 
the year have been missed. 

The Electric Railway Journal wishes to thank all 
those who co-operated in making possible the publica- 
tion of this information. 



Track Extensions and Reconstruction 

One Hundred and Sixty-five Urban and Interurban Railway Companies Report on Track Construction — 
87 Built 185 Miles of Extensions and 131 Companies Reconstructed 361 Miles of Track During 
Past Year — Only 9 Miles of Steam Road Were Electrified — More New Track Was Built, 
But Less Track Was Reconstructed than Last Year 



THE outlook for the electric railways in the future 
seems to be very favorable if the figures showing 
track extensions and track rebuilt by the com- 
panies during 1920 may be taken as any indication. In 

1919 the track extensions were the lowest that had ever 
been encountered for at least fourteen years, as the 
summary "Comparison of Track Construction" illus- 
trates. The number of miles of track extensions during 

1920 was 185.48, and although this does not approach 
very closely the figure of 1918 it is at least a step in 
that direction. This new track represents an increase 
over 1919 of 36 miles in the urban and interurban lines, 
or an increase of 25.6 per cent. 

The fact that the electrified steam railroads con- 
structed very little track compared with last year makes 
the comparison of the total seem worse. According to 
all reports that can be found, the track that was ex- 
tended by the electrified steam lines was less than 10 
miles, while in 1919 for the same item 287 miles were 
reported. 

Of the total mileage of track extensions constructed 
by city or interurban electric railways nearly one-third 
was built in New York City, the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company having extended its subway mileage 
by 38.84 miles, while its competitor, the New York 
Municipal Railway Corporation, was building 14 miles 
of new track. 

The track rebuilt has not come up to the total of last 
year, but this figure has not deviated enough from 1919 
to mention the difference. The price of rails was so high 
that the electric railways have not replaced any track 
except where it was absolutely necessary to do so. Both 
the extensions and the rebuilt track seem to show that 
it has been the policy not to extend or rebuild any track 
unless required by city paving contracts or where abso- 
lutely necessary on account of traflSc conditions. 



1000 

l&OO 

IfoOO 

ifi 1400 


-\ioo 

2^1000 

i 800 

u 

fcOO 
L 

I- 400 
COO 



Total New Electric Mileage 



Urban and Interurban Lines ■ ' 



Difference is Electrified 
Steam Line. 



m 



m 



1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 m 1913 1914 1915 1916 1911 1918 1919 1920 

THIS CHART .SHOWS MILES OF NEW TRACK BUILT 
EACH YEAR SINCE 1907 

In the accompanying table is given the single-track 
mileage built by urban and interurban railways during 
1920. This table was prepared from questionnaires 
which were sent to approximately 800 companies and 
which were returned by more than 700. The majority 



COMPARISON OF TRACK CONSTRUCTION 



Year 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 
(a) 



No. of 

Cos. 

(a) 
157 
160 
217 
223 
171 
181 
163 
136 
104 
121 

80 

73 

87 

Not available. 



Extensfons • 



Urban Interurban 
Track Track 
(a-) (a) 
1,174.5 
774.7 
1.204.8 
1,105.0 
869.4 
974.9 
716.5 
596.0 

115.40 240.90 
251.10 125.60 

216.41 97.41 
110.90 29.67 
145.69 30.87 



Electrified 
Steam Lines 



84.00 
112.40 
192.40 
86.50 
80.80 
119.00 
229.00 
448.20 
388.00 
66.00 
275.70 
287.60 
8.92 



Total 

1,880.00 

1,258.50 
887.16 

1,397.20 

1,191.50 
950.20 

1,093.90 
946.40 

1,044.20 
744.30 
442.70 
589.53 
428.17 
185.48 



Track 
RebuUt 

(o) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(a) 

(o) 

(a) 
375.40 
155.43 
390.64 
361.77 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



41 



TRACK EXTENSIONS AND TRACK REBUILT DURING 1920 



New England District 

Connecticut: Extensions 

The Connecticut Co. (New Haven) 0.46 

Maine: 

.Androscoggin & Kennebec Rv. Co. (Lewiston) 0. 00 

Bangor Railway & Electric Co 0.00 

Cumberland County Ry . & Lt. Co. (Portland) . 00 

Fairfield & Shawmut Railway 0.00 

Knox County Electric Co. (Rockland) 0.00 

Somerset Traction Co. (Skowhegan) . 00 

Massachusetts : 

Boston Elevated Railway Co 0.30 

Brockton & Plymouth St. Ry. Co 0.00 

Massachusetts N rtheastern St. Ry. Co O.OO 

Springfield Street Railway Co 6 . 92 

Li nion street H ail way 0.01 

Worcester Consohdated St. Ry. Co 0.41 

Rhode Island : 

The Rhode Island Co. (Providence) . 00 

Vermont : 

Rutland Railway Light & Power Co 0.50 



RebuUt 
5.07 

1.90 
5.00 
4.21 
0.25 
6.00 
1.00 



18.30 
4.00 
6.00 
5.09 
0.39 
3.90 



3.16 



0. 12 



North of Ohio and East of the Mississippi River 

District of Columbia : 

Capital Traction Co 0.00 1.74 

City & Suburban Railway Co 0.00 0.27 

Wa.shington <fe Old Donninion Ry 0.10 1 . 00 

Washington Railway & Electric Co 0.00 1.33 

Illinois: 

Alton, Granite & St. Louis Trac. Co 0.00 1.63 

Au ora, Plainfield & Joliet R. R. Co 0.00 1.00 

Calumet & So. Chicago Railway Co 0.00 0.01 

ChicagoCity Railway Co 0.00 0.06 

Chicago Elevated Railways . 00 1 . 44 

Chicago & Interurban Trac. Co . 00 . 80 

Chicago* Johet Electric Railway Co 0.00 2.03 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R. R. (Highwood) 0.00 1.83 

Chicago Railways Company 0.92 2 . 06 

East St. Louis Railway Co 0.00 2 .37 

East St. Louis & Suburban Railway Co . 00 1.87 

Evanston Railway Co . 00 2 . 50 

Fox & Illinois Union Railway (Aui ora) 0.00 0.17 

Hammond, Whiting & E. Chicago Ry. Co 0.00 2.00 

Indiana: 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Ind. Ry. Co 0.50 .38 

Indiana Railways & Light Co. (Kokomo) 0.19 . 00 

Indiana Service Corporation (Fort Wayne) 1 . 00 1.42 

Interstate Public Service Co. (Indianapolis) 3 . 33 . 00 

Public Utilities Co. (Evansville) . 00 2.50 

Union Traction Co. of Indiana (Anderson) . 62 1.34 

Maryland : 

United Railways & Light Co. of Baltimore 3.50 " 13 .50 

Michigan : 

Grand Rapids Railway Co 04 170 

N^6w Jersey* 

Trenton & Mercer County Trac. Co 1.10 31 

New Yorlc : 

Black River Traction Co. (Watertown) . 00 0.25 

Brooklyn City Railroad Co 0.00 0.08 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. (S rf ace Lines) 0.00 .97 

Bufifalo & Lake Erie Traction Co . 53 1.01 

Cortland County Traction Co 0.00 0.49 

Elmira Water, Light & R. R. Co 0.00 1.00 

Emp re State Railroad Corporation 0.00 .50 

HudsonValleyRy. Co. (Glen? Fall'-) " " '" 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co 38.84 0.00 

International Railway (Buffalo) 0.25 2.60 

NewYorkMunicipalRy.Corpn.( Subway) 14.00 0.00 

New York State Railways 1.02 3.77 

New York, Westchester & Boston Railway Co 1.63 .00 

Ogdensburg Street Railway Co . 00 0.50 

Poughkeepsie & Wappingers Falls Ry. Co . 00 1.36 

Waverley, Sayre & Athens Traction Co 0. 00 0.74 

Ohio: 

Cincinnati Traction Co 1.15 3.64 

Dayton & Troy Electric Railway Co, 0.23 .42 

Ohio Traction Co 07 2 88 

Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Co. (Youngstown) 0.00 3.06 

Richland PubUc Service Co . 00 1 . 00 

Springfield Railway Co 0.00 1.00 

Toledo, Bow.ing Green & Southern Traction Co . 00 20 . 00 

Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Railway Co 0.00 10.00 

Toledo Railways & Light Co 2 . 00 . 00 

Youngstown Municipal Railway 0.00 0.76 

Pennsylvania : 

Altoona & Logan Valley Electric Ry. Co 0.51 .55 

Blue Ridge Traction Co. ( Danville) 6.80 0.00 

Conestoga Traction Co. (Lancaster) . 00 0.75 

Eastern Pennsylvania Railways Co. (Pottsville) . 00 1 . 00 

Frankf ord, Tacony & Holmesburg St. Ry . Co. (Phila.) . 00 3.00 

Harrisburg Railways Co 0.61 0.66 

Hershey Transit Co 0.00 15.00 

Indiana County Street Ry. Co 0.00 15.00 

North Branch Transit Co 0.15 0.55 

Pittsburgh Railways Co 0.00 25.32 

Reading Transit & Light Co 0.00 0.99 

Trenton, Bristol & Pbiladelphia St. Ry. Co . 00 1 . 00 

West Chester Street 1 lailway Co 0.00 1.00 

West t enn K aitway s . 00 2 . 00 

Wilkes-Barre Railw ay Co . 50 . 00 

York Railways Co 0.00 2.30 

Wisconsin : 

Madison Railways Co 0.82 0.00 

Milwaukee Electrii; Railway & Light Co 3.48 6.75 

Wisconsin Valley Electric Cfo 0. 92 1 . 00 



South of the Ohio and East of the Mississippi River 

Alabama: Extensions Rebuilt 

Birmingham Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co 1.31 0.00 

Florida: 

Tampa Electric Co 0.22 0.00 

Georgia : 

Georgia Railway & Power Co (Atlanta) 0.84 2.59 

North Carolina: 

Durham Traction Co 0.22 0.84 

Raleigh Street Railway Co 0.23 0.00 

South Carolina: 

Charleston Consolidated Ry. & Ltg. Co 0.24 2.00 

Tennessee: 

Memphis Street Railway Co 0.33 2.60 

Nashville Railway & Light Co 0.00 3 . 00 

Virginia : 

Danville Traction & Power Co 0.29 0.73 

Newport News & Hampton Railway, Gas & Electric Co 0.00 0.95 

Virginia Railway & Power Co. (Richmond) 1 . 95 2 . 58 

West Virginia : 

Charleston Interurban Railroad Co 1.50 1.00 

Monongahela Valley Traction Co. (Fairmont) 0.60 0.79 

Ohio Valley Electric Railway Co. (Huntington) 0.00 0.71 

Wheeling Traction Co . 00 0.32 



West of the Mississippi River 

Arkansas: 

Fort Smith Light & Traction Co . 00 . SO 

California : 

Humbolt Transit Co. (Eureka) .44 . 00 

Los Angeles Railway Corporation 4.75 . 00 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co. (Sacramento) . 00 1 . 00 

Petaluma & Santa Rosa R. R. Co 0.25 0.00 

Sacramento Northern Railroad 2.07 0.00 

San ' rancisco, Napa & CaUstoga Railway Co 2 . 00 . 00 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways 1.12 . 50 

Visalia Electric Railroad Co. (Exeter) 0.00 1.50 

Colorado: 

Arkansas Valley Ry.,Lt.& Power Co. (Pueblo) 0.00 2.50 

Denver & Intermountain Railroad Co 0. 00 0. 85 

Denver Tramway Co 0.45 4.54 

Iowa: 

Albia Light &Ry. Co 0.00 0.94 

Clinton, Davenport & Muscatine Railway Co 0.50 0.00 

Mississippi Valley Electric Co. (Iowa City) . 00 . 68 

Tri-City Railway Co 0.11 . 62 

Kansas : 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Ry. Co. (Wichita) 4 .00 . 00 

Kansas City, Leavenworth & Western Ry. Co . 00 4 .00 

Minnesota: 

Duluth Street Railway Co 1.99 3.24 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. (Minneapolis) 1 4 . 07 1.18 

Wisconsin Ry., Lt. & Power Co. (Winona) 0. 85 65 

Missouri : 

City Light & Traction Co. (SedaUa) 1.50 0.00 

Kansas City, Lawrence &Topeka El. R.R. Co 0.00 3.50 

Kansas City Railways Co 3.53 3.15 

fet Joseph ailway Light Heat & Power Co 0.00 3.10 

United Railways (Sompany of St. Louis 0.15 22 .87 

Nebraska : 

Lincohi Traction Co 0.00 0.94 

Omaha & Council Bluffs St. Ry. Co 1.00 1.50 

Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Ry. Co. (Lincoln) 0.19 38 

North Dakota : 

Capitol Street Car Line . 00 0.50 

Northern States Power Co. (Fargo) 00 , 68 

Oklahoma : 

Chickasha Street Railway Co 0.50 0.00 

Enid City Railway Co 0.00 .53 

Oregon : 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co . 00 1.10 

South Dakota: 

Sioux Falls Traction System .33 . 00 

Texas : 

Dallas Railway Co 3.60 3 .60 

Galveston Electric Co 0. 00 1 . 00 

Northern Texas Traction Co 4.W 142 

Utah: 

Utah-Idaho Central R. R Co . .00 4 50 

Washington : 

Gray's Harbor Railway & Light Co 0.00 1.04 

North Coast Power Co. (Vancouver) ; 0.00 0.50 

Puget Sound International Ry. & Power Co. (Everett) .27 00 

Puget Sound Power & Light Co. (Bellingham) .36 . 00 

Seattle Municipal Street Railway 1 . 87 . 00 

Seattle cfe Rainier Valley Railway Co 0.00 0.38 

Washington Water Power Co. (Vancouver) 0.00 50 



Canada 

British Columbia El. Ry. Co., Ltd 2 04 . 00 

Cape Breton Electric Co., Ltd 0.34 24 

Grand River Railway 5.69 .00 

Kitchener & Waterloo Street Railway 0.91 0.00 

Levis County Railway 0.00 2 .00 

London & Port Stanley Railway 3.20 . 00 

Montreal Tramways Co 154 6.65 



42 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Canada (Continued) 

Extensions Rebuilt 

Moose Jaw Electric Railway Co., Ltd 1.00 4.00 

New Brunswick Power Co 1 . 00 1.75 

Nova Scotia Tramways & Power Co., Ltd 1.12 . GO 

Peterboro Radial Railway 0.00 0.45 

Quebec Railway, Light & Power Co .58 .00 

Regina Municipal Railway (Spurtrack) ,26 0.00 

Sarnia Street Railway Co., Ltd 0.00 1.00 

Saskatoon Municipal Railway 0.57 0.00 

Sherbrooke Railway & Power Co 1.14 . 00 

Toronto Civic Railway 0.94 0.00 

Winnipeg Electric Railway Co 0.61 2.08 



SUMMARY OF TRACK CONSTRUCTION— 1920 



12 Z CO & 

Track Extensions 
Urban and Interurban Lines: 

Number of companies.. . 5 30 11 25 71 16 

Miles of track; 

Urban 8.09 75.62 5.39 37.96 127.06 18.63 

HInterurban 0.50 12.54 2.34 11.08 26.46 4.41 

Total track extended.. 8.59 88.16 7.73 49.04 

Track Reconstruction 
Urban and Interurban Lines: 

Number of companies. . . 15 63 12 33 123 8. 131 



"3 



87 



145,69 
30.87 



153.52 23 04 176 56 



123 

Miles of track: 

Urban 42 58 1 1 4 . 35 1 6 04 55 06 227 64 

Interurban 21.81 73.23 2.00 18.52 115.56 



246 21 
115 56 



18 18 

Total track rebuilt.. . . 64.39 187 58 18.04 73.58 343.59 18.18 361.77 

of these companies reported no extensions or rebuilt 
track except the usual maintenance. There were 87 
companies which reported a total of 185.48 miles ex- 
tended, 78.5 per cent of which was built as city track 
and 16.7 per cent was built as interurban track. The 
remaining 4.8 per cent covers the electrified steam 
railroad which was extended. 

The statistics in this main table are reported for 
individual companies which have been arranged by 
states, which in turn have been geographically arranged 
into five districts. As the greater proportion of the 
companies are in the district "North of the Ohio and 
East of the Mississippi River" it is not unusual that this 
district should be first in the amount of track extended 
or rebuilt, both urban and interurban. Again, as last 
year. New York State has the largest number of miles 
of track extended, with 54.02 miles city track and 2.60 
interurban, or a total of 56.62 miles. The larger propor- 
tion of this mileage, amounting to 52.84 miles, is in 
New York subways. Only about 6.7 per cent of the total 
was extended by all the other companies in the state. 
Minnesota ranks next to New York, with 15.11 miles of 



ELECTRIFIED STEAM I INES 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. (yard at Cedar 
Hill and New Haven ) 



Extensions Rebuilt 



8 92 



00 



extensions. The largest track extension by any com- 
pany other than the New York subways was reported in 
Minnesota by the Twin City Rapid Transit Company, 
with a city extension of 13.28 miles. Only three other 
companies reported four or more miles of track exten- 
sions. 

The largest amount of track rebuilt in any state was 
in Pennsylvania, where fourteen companies recon- 
structed 69.12 miles. Ohio was next, with 42.76 miles. 
The two states having the largest mileage rebuilt come 
in the same geographical section, thereby making this 
section, which is the same one referred to as being the 
first in track extensions, the banner district in track 
rebuilt. 



The largest amount of track rebuilt by any one com- 
pany during the year was by the Pittsburgh Railways 
Company, with 19.77 miles of city track and 5.55 miles 
of interurban track. Other companies reconstructing 
mileage above the average were United Railways & 
Electric Company of Baltimore, Boston Elevated Rail- 
way, United Railways of St. Louis, and the Toledo, Bowl- 
ing Green & Southern Traction Company, with 13.50, 
18.50, 22.87 and 20 miles respectively. There were four 
other companies which rebuilt more than 10 miles. 

The only electrification of steam railroads that can be 
accounted for is 8.92 miles of new track constructed by 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford in and around 
the new classification yards at Cedar Hill, Conn., and 
in other yards at New Haven, Conn. 

Fifteen companies from Canada, or about one-fifth 
of the total companies reporting extensions, constructed 
new track consisting of 21 miles, or about 12 per cent of 
the total. 

An attempt has been made to determine the plans of 
the electric railways for the coming year, and as far as 
can be estimated from their replies they expect to 
construct in new track about 65 miles, and intend to 
rebuild at least 340 miles. 



Professor Sheldon's Memory Honored 

ON NOV. 17 impressive exercises in memory of 
the late Prof. Samuel Sheldon were held in New 
York at the Engineering Societies' Building. Addresses 
were made by Dr. A. E. Kennelly, professor of electrical 
engineering Harvard University and Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology; W. N. Dickinson, president 
New York Electrical Society; W. H. Nichols, chairman 
board of trustees Brooklyn Polytechnic Insititute; T. C. 
Martin, secretary National Electric Light Association, 
and Dr. C. 0. Mailloux, consulting engineer. 

The work done as a teacher and engineer by Dr. Shel- 
don during the more than thirty years of his connection 
with the B. P. L was discussed by several speakers, and 
tributes were paid to his excellence in these fields as 
well as to his friendly qualities. A plan for a permanent 
memorial was outlined, a committee to this end with Mr. 
Martin as chairman having already been formed. This 
committee has since met and made provision for a gen- 
eral appeal for funds. One subscription of $1,000 was 
announced. 



Street Railway Problem in New Orleans 

IN A recent issue of the Association of Commerce 
News Bulletin, New Orleans, La., Leigh Carroll, chair- 
man Civic Bureau New Orleans Association of Com- 
merce, presents a statement on "The Street Railway 
Problem or Situation in New Orleans." 

Mr. Carroll starts with the statement that "New 
Orleans needs a new railway system!" and then goes 
on to analyze the present inadequacies of service in New 
Orleans. He points out the limitations under which the 
locil railways have been forced to operate for the past 
several years and shows the antiquated provisions of 
the franchises, the inadequate rate and other deficiencies 
of authority or opportunity for the railway really to 
serve the community. 

He concludes by stating that the time is at hand when 
New Orleans must "get busy," for the whole community 
is suffering because adequate transportation facilities 
have not been allowed to develop. 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



43 



Electric Railway Receiverships 

Fewer Receiverships Occurred in 1920 than in Preceding Year — Only Two Large Urban Properties Are 
Added to the List of Bankrupts — Higher Fares and Business Prosperity Save Many from 
Such Serious Difficulties for the Time Being — Large Abandonments 
of Unprofitable Track and Service Are Indicated 



A SLIGHTLY happier year for the street railways 
as a whole is indicated for the year 1920 by a 
smaller addition to the total number of receiver- 
ships reported, as compared with the previous year. The 
stimulated condition of business as a whole, resulting in 
increased patronage for the traction companies, together 



The tables do not include certain companies that were 
sold at foreclosure for reorganization purposes only 
without the intervention of a receiver. So far as known 
there are three companies in this class, namely, the Kan- 
sas City- Western Railway ; the Oakland, Antioch and East- 
ern Railway and the Norfolk & Bristol Street Railway. 



TABLE I— RECORD OF ELECTRIC RAILWAY RECEIVERSHIPS 

Number Miles of 

of Single Track Outstanding Securities 

Year Companies Involved Stock Bonds 

1909 22 558.00 $29,962,200 $22,325,000 

1910 II 696.61 12,629,400 75,490,735 

1911 19 518.90 29,533,450 38,973,293 

1912 26 373.58 20,410,700 11,133,800 

1913 18 342.84 31,006,900 47,272,200 

1914 10 362.39 35,562,550 19,050,460 

1915 27 1,152.10 40,298,050 39,372,375 

1916 15 359.26 14,476,600 10,849,200 

1917 21 1,177.32 33,918,725 33,778,400 

1918 29 2,017.61 92,130,388 163,257,102 

1919 48 3,781.12 221,259,354 312,915,104 

1920 16 992.11 25 313,655 68 860 575 



TABLE II— RECORD OF ELECTRIC RAILWAY FORECLOSURE SALES 



Year 
1909.. 
1910 . 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 
1914. . 
1915. . 
1916. . 
1917. . 
1918 . 
1919.. 
1920. . 
(i) Not available 



Number 


Miles of 








of 


Track 


Outstanding 


Securities 


Receiver's 


Companies 


Involved 


Stock 


Bonds 


Certificates 


21 


488.00 


$22,265,700 


$21,174,000 


(a) 


22 


724.36 


19,106,613 


26,374,075 


(a) 


25 


660.72 


91,354,800 


1 15,092,750 


(a) 


18 


267. 18 


14,197,300 


10,685,250 


(a) 


17 


302.28 


15,243,700 


19,094,500 


(a) 


1 1 


181 .26 


26,239,700 


44,094,241 


(.a) 


19 


308.31 


30,508,817 


16.759,997 


(a) 


19 


430. 14 


13,895,400 


22,702,300 


(a) 


26 


745 19 


27,281.900 


27,313,045 


in) 


23 


524.22 


37,740,325 


20,149,384 


<n) 


28 


2,625.48 


83,893,400 


75,736,738 


$42,300 


11 


224.20 


6 182,400 


9,315 528 


52 000 



with the generally increased rates of fare, saved many 
companies from bankruptcy during the year just passed. 
It should be noted further, that the drastic conditions of 
war times succeeded in either wiping out or causing the 
complete re-organization of many of the weaker com- 
panies so that as a whole the industry was in a stronger 
position in 1920. However, there are no cases reported 
of receivers being discharged without foreclosure or 
re-organization, all the companies reported as being in 
receivership on Dec. 31, 1919, either remaining under 



An interesting feature of the year just passed is the 
continuation of the process of dismemberment of some 
of the very large companies, which in the early days of 
the industry drew a number of the smaller independent 
lines together into unified operating systems either 
by stock control or long-term leases. It has been the 
customary and generally accepted belief that such 
mergers would result in increased net earnings by means 
of greater operating efficiency and the elimination of 
duplicated management expenses and competing service. 



TABLE III — ELECTRIC RAILWAY RECEIVERSHIPS — 1920 
(Listed alphabetically by States) 

Miles 

Denver (Col.) Tramways 227.45 

Pensacola (Fla. ) Electric Co 21.70 

Caldwell (Id.) Traction Co li.40 

Alton (111.) Granite & St. Louis Traction Co 62.00 

Kansas City (Mo.) Railways 311.50 

Richmond Lt. & R.R. Co. (Staten Island, N. Y.) 32.05 

Staten Island ( N. Y. ) Midland Ry 28.68 

Shore Line Electric R.R. (White Plains, N. Y.) 1.46 

Westchester St. R.R. of White Plains, N. Y 20.98 

Western New. York & Penn. Trac. Co. (Glean, N. Y. ) . . . . 100.00 

Ashtabula (O.) Rapid Transit Co 5.50 

Cleveland, Alliance & Mahoning- Valley R.R. (Ravenna, O.). 46.00 

Cleveland & Erie Ry. (Girard, Pa.) 30.00 

Rhode Island Suburban Ry. (Providence) 75.39 

Bryan (Tex.) & College Interurban Ry 7.75 

Barre & Montpelier (Vt.) Trac. & Power Co 10.25 

Total for 1920 (16 Cos.) 992.11 



the jurisdiction of the courts or else undergoing some 
drastic reorganization. 

During 1920, sixteen additional companies passed 
into the hands of receivers, while ten were sold at 
foreclosure, re-organized, or wholly abandoned as an 
aftermath of the receivership. The mileage of the com- 
panies newly involved in receiverships is 992.11, only two 
large companies, the Kansas City Railways with 311.50 
miles and the Denver Tramways with 227.45 miles, being 
included, whereas in 1919 a number of important systems 
were included, such as the Rhode Island Company, New 
York Railways, United Railways of St. Louis, and New 
Orleans Railway & Light Company. 



TABLE IV— ABANDONMENTS— ENTIRE— 1920 
(Includes only companies whose e tire traction property has been dismantled oi 
permanently abandoned and not likely to lesume operations) 

Miles Stock Bonds 

Colorado Sprirgs. (Col.) , Cripple Creek 

District Ry. (r ite lie Div ) 18.50 (h)2, 000,000 ('-)2,827,878 

Durango (Colo.) Ry. & Realty Co 2.50 (<i) Ut) 

BlueHillSt.Ry. (Canton, Mass.) 19.50 300,000 250,000 

Norwood, Canton & Sharon (Mass.) St. 

Ry 6.20 (n) (o) 

Plymouth (Mass.) & Sandwich St. Ry. . . 6 . 40 151 ,800 None 

INorfolk&BiiitolSt. Ry. (I'oxboro) .. 21.74 200 000 189 000 

Cduaibus (Miss.) Ry. Lt. & Power Co . ( )6.80 ( ) ( ) 

SouthernRy.&Lt. Co. (Natchez, Miss.) (.) 6. 00 () () 

N. Y.& North Shore Trac. Co. (Roslyn) . 38 . 12 979,350 800,000 

Penn Ce V, ral Ry I o (,Iohnstown) . . . . 7 50 250,000 

Cincinnati (O.) & Columbus Trac. Co.. , . 53.00 («) (a) 

CumberlandRy. Co. (CarUsle,Pa.) 11.00 350,000 404,700 

i-rovidence (R. I.) & DanielsonRy. (£■)... 38 00 1,000,000 600,000 

SeaViewR.R. (Wakefield, R.I.) 20.90 700,000 600,000 

Greenville (Tex ) Ry .y ' c Co 8 00 300 000 300,000 

Longview (Tex.) & Junction St.Ry 1 . 00 (a) (a) 

Mineral Hts. St. Ry. (Greenville,Tex.) . . 2 . 75 (a) (aj 

Total for 1920 (16 companies) 267.91 6,231,150 5,971 578 

(a) Not available. 

(6) Covers capitalization of entire property. 

(c) Line between North Scituate, R. I., and EastKillingly already dismantled, 
balance will be torn up unless saved by local communities. 

(d) Railway department only is abandoned. C^ompany still cor tinues fight and 
power business. 

The failure of the merger, when failure has resulted, 
may be ascribed to various causes, but it is certain that 
part of the trouble has been due to including in such 
mergers, many weak lines operating through territory 
where the traffic was never sufficient to justify operation 
as a paying proposition. This dismemberment feature 
is noted in such companies as the New York Railways, 
which in 1919 returned to the original owners the Eighth 



44 



Electric Railway 



Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



TABLE V— ELECTRIC RAILWAY RECEIVERSHIPS AND FORECLOSURES AS OF DEC. 3), 1920 

— ■ — ■ — Outstanding Securities — ■ — — - 

Miles of 



New England District 
Connecticut 



Maine 



Massachusetts 



New Hampshire 



Rhode Island 



Rhode Island Suburban Ry. (Providence, R. I i. 



Vermont 



Barre i 



S mmary 



Year of 


Single 








Receiv- 


Track 


Capital 


Funded 


Receivers' 


ership 


Involved 


Stock 


Debt 


Certificates 


1917 


1 6 


00 


$320,000 


$588,500 


$60,000 


1918 


48 


00 


785,000 


961,000 


None 


1919 


74 


17 


1,000,000 


6,700,000 


None 


, 1915 


49 


.93 


1,000,000 


1,746,250 


None 


1918 


6, 


.40 


151,800 


None 


None 


1919 


1 9 


70 


300,000 


250,000 


2,000 


1919 


22 


00 


250,000 


260,000 


None 


1917 


42 


.33 


(0 


707,000 


20,000 


1917 


22. 


20 


(6) 


996,800 


None 


1919 


101 


,15 


9,685,500 


1,662,000 


None 


. 1919 


289. 


93 


0,000, UOO 


n nnn nnn 
9,UUU,UUU 


None 


, 1920 


75 


39 


5 000 000 


4 708 000 


Nona 


1918 


9, 


00 


100,800 


100,000 


22,323 


1920 


to. 


25 


(k) 2,337,000 


(/t) 1,986,300 


None 


1 1 COS. 


842. 


54 


$21,343,100 


$22,71 1,500 


$107,323 


1 COS. 


ni. 


6S 


250,000 


260,000 


3,000 


2 COS. 


85. 


64 


7,337,000 


6,694,300 


2 c s. 


25. 


90 


4.51,800 


250,000 


e,ooo 


12 COS. 


760 


.65 


28,478,300 


29,415,800 


102,323 



Net changes and corrections 

Receiverships added during 1920. 



North of the Ohio and East of the Mississippi River 

Illinois 

Chicago (III.) & Oak Park Elevated R.R 1911 20.97 10,000,000 

Chicago, Aurora (111.) & De Kalb R.R 1916 30.20 950,000 

Galesburg & Western R.R. (Rock Island) (a) 1919 16.00 500,000 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago (Wheaton) R.R 1919 168.00 6,200,000 

Alton (III.) Granite & St. Louis Traction Co 1920 62.00 3,189,000 

Indiana 

Winona Interurban Ry. Co. (Warsaw) 1916 70.00 750,000 

Beech Grove (Ind.) Traction Co 1917 3.90 150,000 

Vincenne.s (Ind.) Traction Co 1919 7 50 350,000 

Michigan 

Marquette City & Presque Isle (Mich.) Ry. (d) 1912 b.OO 200,000 

New Jersey 

.\orth Jersey Rapid Transit Co. (Hohokus) 1912 18.00 800,000 

.\tlantic City (N. J.) & Shore R.R. Co 1915 49.89 1,000,000 

Monmouth County Elec. Co. (Red Bank) (rf) 1916 18.50 350,000 

New York 

.Second Ave. R.R. (New York City) 1908 30.02 1.862,000 

Rochester (N. Y.) Corning & Elmira Trac. Co. (;).. . 1912 ()')6.00 271,000 

Buffalo (N. Y.) & Lake Erie Traction Co. h, 1915 168.00 7,500,000 

Hornell (N. Y.) Traction Co. (rf) 1917 10.90 117,900 

Manhattan & Queens Trac. Co. (Long Isl. City) 1917 21 .20 (.r 20 000 

Binghamton (N. Y.) Ry. Co 1918 49.74 978,995 

Buffalo (N. Y.) & Depew Ry 1918 13.59 305,000 

Penn Yan (N. Y.) & Lake Shore Ry 1918 8 .50 94,000 

Brooklyn(N.Y.) Rapid Transit Co 1 918(Holding Co.) (0 87,788,268 

New York Consolidated Ry 1918 141.68 18,900,000 

New York Mun cipal Ry. Corp 1918 67 .82 2,000,000 

Surface Lines: 

Brooklyn Heights R.R 1919 36.60 2,000,000 

Brooklyn, (Jucen's County & Suburban R.R 1919 61.92 2,000,000 

Nassau Electric Ry 1919 144.39 15,000,000 

Coney Island & Brooklyn Ry 1919 59.53 2,983,900 

Interboro Consolidated Corp 1919 (Holding Co.) 50,403,634 

NewYork(N.Y.) Railways Co 1919 lp)97.72 (;i 22 081 760 

Richmond Lt. & R.R. Co. (Staten Island) 1920 32.05 (/) 1,932,000 

Staten Island (N. Y.) Midland Ry. Co 1920 28.68 1,000,000 

Western New York & Penn. Trac. Co. (Olean) 1 920 1 00 . 00 1 599 355 

Westchester St. R.R. of White Plains 1920 20.98 700,000 

Shore Line Elec. R.R. (White Plains) 1920 1.46 50,000 

Ohio 

Sandusky, Norwalk (O.) & Mansfield Elec. Ry 1912 33.00 600,000 

Cincinnati (O.) , Lawrenceburg & Aurora Elec. St. Ry. 1913 3 1 . 89 808,900 

Interurban Ry. & Terminal Co. (Cincinnati) 1914 41.03 3,500,000 

Plymouth & Shelby Trac. Co. (d) 1917 6.97 200,000 

Ohio River Elec. Ry. (Pomeroy) 1919 12.70 300,000 

Springfield (O.) Term. Ry. & Power Co. (a) 1919 33.00 350,000 

(Jleveland, Alhance & Mahoning Valley R.R 1920 46.00 1,100.000 

Ashtabula (O.) Rapid Transit Co 1920 5.50 500,000 

Pennsylvania 

Philadelphia & Easton Elec. Ry. (Doylestown) ..... 1 9 1 2 3 1 . 00 6 1 2,600 

Sunbury (Pa.) & Susquehanna Ry. (d) 1913 9.20 600,000 

North Branch Transit Co (Bloomsburg) (d) 1915 30.00 500,000 

Buffalo & Lackawanna Trac. Co. (Erie) 1918 8 . 80 55,000 

Cumberland Ry. Co. (Carlisle) (a) 1918 11.00 350,000 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) RaUways 1918 605.25 21,726,750 

Scranton (Pa.) & Binghamton Ry. (d) 1918 50.00 6,000,000 

Philadelphia (Pa.) Rys. Co 1919 16.00 400,000 

Penn. Central Ry. Co. (Johnstown) ( i) 1919 7.50 250,000 

Northampton Traction Co. (Easton) 1919 21.00 500,000 

Northampton, Easton (Pa.) & Wash. Trac. Co 1919 17.80 1,250,000 

Cleveland & Erie Ry. (Girard) 1920 30.00 300,000 

Summary 

Total 1/1/20 44COS. 2,379. 17 $138,317,549 

Net changes and o^^^eotions 81.82 S,850,5H 

Receiverships added during 1920 9 cos. 326.67 10,370,355 

Less those sold or reorganized during 1 920 i cos. 6.760 1,150,000 

Net receiverships 12/31/20 49 cos. 2 556.52 144,387,360 



6,537,000 
427,500 
521,000 
8,371,000 
3,000,000 



2,343 700 
100,000 
235,000 



100,000 



800,000 
950,000 
500,000 



5,631,000 
1,000,000 
7,066,000 
150,000 
'x;2 196 000 
2,390,000 
350,000 
100,000 
U) 126,107,477 
22,967,000 
60,000,000 

(n)8,242,174 
(«) 9,256,7 10 
(!i) 20,787,1 15 
(n)6,223,298 
67,825,000 
(p) 53, 122,483 
(/) 1,482,000 
1,000,000 
2,492,000 
168,000 
None 



600,000 
750,000 

1,650,000 
200,000 
315,000 
250,000 

1,100,000 
382,000 



91 1,000 
640,000 
532,500 
1,000,000 
404,700 
41,579,500 
4,100,000 
400,000 

"i, 009,666 

739,000 
1,000,000 

$288,415,735 
616,000 
10,624,000 
1,176,700 
297,348,035 



1,645,000 

None 
None 
None 
None 



None 
None 
50,000 



None 



None 
None 
17,500 



3,140,000 

None 
960,000 
25,000 
None 
40,000 
60,000 
6 000 
18,000,000 
5,000,000 
13,000,000 

None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
34 800 
None 



None 
None 
49,000 

None 
None 
None 
None 



None 
None 
None 
None 
None 
None 

None 

■ " ■ 5,666 

None 
None 

$24,245,500 

297,000 
34,800 



23,983,300 



and Ninth Avenue lines, and 
in 1920, the Fourth Avenue 
line (New York & Harlem 
Railroad). The Rhode Island 
Company has turned back sev- 
eral leased properties, and the 
Shore Line Electric Railway 
of Connecticut has done the 
same. In the last named case, 
the receiver is now operating 
only 74 miles out of an orig- 
inal system of 246 miles, the 
balance having been returned 
to the original owners or 
abandoned. In some instances, 
the lines so severed from the 
bankrupt company are being 
operated successfully as indi- 
vidual units. In other case& 
after spasmodic attempts at 
operation, they have gone to- 
the scrap dealer. 

The tabulation of receiver- 
ships does not portray the 
entire situation in its full 
seriousness, as there are a 
number of companies whose 
bond interest is in default, 
and which are only permitted 
to continue without the inter- 
vention of a receivership due 
to the leniency of the bond- 
holders or other creditors who 
have faith in a better future. 

The statistics are presented 
in the usual way. Tables I 
and II give a summary of re- 
ceiverships and foreclosures, 
respectively, by years from 
1909 to date. The table of 
foreclosures includes all those 
companies which have been 
entirely reorganized or sold 
to the junk dealer, whether 
through actual process of 
foreclosure by the court or 
otherwise. The figures for 
1919 do not in all cases agree 
with those published a year 
ago in the ELECTRIC RAILWAY 
Journal of Jan. 3, 1920, due 
to additional and corrected 
information which has been 
received during this past year. 

Table III is a separate list 
of the 1920 receiverships 
given to bring out these items 
more clearly than is done in 
the general tabulation. They 
will be found included in 
greater detail in Table IV. 
which shows the existing con- 
ditions, including all proper- 
ties in receiver's hands at any 
time during 1920 as far as 
could be determined. Every 
effort has been made to get 
these statistics confirmed by 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



45 



correspondence with the companies in question, but miles of track, $250,000 capital stock and $260,000 bonds, 
where replies could not be obtained the data have been This record shows that after adding the new receiver- 
taken from financial papers and other sources believed ships occurring during the year, and deducting the com- 
to be reliable. panies foreclosed, reorganized or wholly abandoned, there 

In some cases, additional or corrected information remain in receivership at the close of the year 91 com- 
has been received concerning the figures published a panies with 5,330.25 miles of track, representing about 
year ago in the Electric Railway Journal. To 11 per cent of the total street railway mileage of the 

bring the statistics up to date, a line showing net United States. So far as has been learned, there are no 

changes has been added to the summaries for each group Canadian companies in receivership, 

as well as in the recapitula- ' 

tion summary in Table V. table v— electric railway receiverships and foreclosures as of dec. 3I, 1920 

Two companies not here- continued 

tofore included have been Miles of Outstanding securities 

added, namely, the Charlotte Year of Sngie ^ , ^ ^ 

/■KT ^\ T. -im -i/-. Receiv- Track Capital Funded Receivers' 

(N. C.) Rapid Transit Co. ership involved Stock Debt Certificates 

with 2 miles of track and $75,- South of the Ohio and East of the Mississippi River 

000 capital stock, and the gj^^'lf "ham (Ala.) T dewater Ry 1919 32,80 $325,000 $1,500,000 $12,000 

Brockton & Plymouth (Mass.) Birmingham (Ala.) Ry. Lt. & Power Co 1919 154.96 (r)4,230,000 (r)8.820,000 353,000 

oj. J. Tj -1 r< -j-i. nn Montgomery (Ala.) Lt. & Traction Co 1919 38.00 (A:)2,000,000 (4)1,430,000 (/i;)250,000 

btreet Railway Co. with 22 North Alabama Traction Co. (Albany) (d) 1919 7.63 75,000 225,000 ......... 

Florida 

===================== Jacksonville (Fla.) Traction Co 1919 64.10 1.500,000 (j/)2,034,500 65,000 

NOTES Pensacola (Fla.) Electric Co 1920 21.70 iA)l, 100,000 (Ai/j 1,789,900 (/O 25 000 

(a) Sold at foreclosure during 1 920. atyTsuburban Ry. Co. (Brunswick) 1919 9.50 1 00,000 1 94,000 Non. 

(i) still in receivership but leased to Savannah (Ga.) Elec. Co 1919 57.72 (i)3,500,000 (fry) 6,074,376 None 

Newport County Electric Co Figure 

given in funded debt column includes Mississippi 

proportion of capital stock appUcable Jackson (Miss.) Lt. & Trac. Co 1919 13.50 (*) 1,600,000 (/t)9l5,000 None 

to electric railway, 

(e) Property is beirg disembered and re- North Carolina 

organized without foreclosure sale, Charlotte (N. C.) Rapid Transit Co. (u) 1918 2.00 75,000 None None 

but under receiver. „ 

Tetiticssee 

id) Included in last years' report. No in- ■, -n mm no An c nnn nnn <, nnr. 

formation available as to present M^mphis (Term.) St Ry . . . 9 9 130.40 5.000,000 ,,8.164,000 None 

status. Chattanooga (Tenn.) Ry. & Lt. Co. (m) 1919 68.43 (4)5.000,000 (02,790,000 None 

(e) Reported as sold by foreclosure during West Virginia 

1920, without formal receivership Morgantown (W. Va.) & Wheeling Trac. Co. (s) 1916 («)27.00 345,000 ' 500,000 214,000 

proceedings. Grafton (W. Va.) Lt. & Power Co 1917 7.00 («)400,000 «)300,000 None 

(/) Figures represent railway securities West Va. Traction & Elec. Co. (Wheeling) (a) 1919 39.00 1,869,600 4,762,000 None 

only. Estimated to be 67.4 per cent So. Morgantown (W. Va.) Trac. Co. (a) 1919 6.00 36,000 None None 

of total. Sunim ry 

(ff) Property is being dismembered and Total I / 1 /20 . . 14 cos. 567.48 «25,980,600 $40,500,004 $270,000 

sold, but not under formal foreclosure Net changes and c rrections cos. 9.« , ."'^"^ V^oa'di 

, proceediriBS Receiverships added during 1920 1 cos. 21.70 1,100,000 1,789,900 25,000 

• i' J Ti u Less tho^e sold or reorganized during 1920. . : 3 s. i7.00 1,980, , 00 lt,~Hi>,0(iU 

(A) Figures include Hamburg Railway Net receiverships 1 2/31 /20 13 cos. 532.74 25,175,000 34,737,280 715,000 

Company $750,000 First Mortgage i- , / , , 

Bond.s due Nov. 1926 on 17.70 miles West of the Mississippi River 

track for which separate receiver was 

appointed Aug. 31, 1920. Arizona 

(i) Included in that cf the Atlantic Shore Tucson (Ariz.) Rapid Transit Co 1919 4 .35 500.000 114,800 None 

I^^'l^^y Colorado 

(;) This Company secured right of way but Denver (Col.) & Interurban R.R. (d) 1918 44.43 101,500 1.079.000 None 

built no track. Colorado Springs (Col.) & Cripple Creek R.R. (o) .. . 1919 78.80 (4)2 000 000 (4)2 827 878 (4)50 000 

(k) Securities include total property. Rail- Denver >CJ., Tramways 1920 227.45 6,156 300 19,388,025 None 

way cannot be separated. ^ 

(0 Figures given are for total amount of _ ,, „ ,tj s ,. o mm ii An -it:n nnn 

B. R. T. securities in the hands of the Caldwell (Id.) Traction Co 1920 1 1 . 40 250,000 None None 

public, including also those of lessor Iowa 

3 by\he''B!R.T?""*''' '^^^ Des Moines (la.) City Ry. Co 1918 94.00 1,305.000 5.981,000 10.000 

(m) Receivership Umited to Chattanooga Kansas 

Railway lines only. Southwestern Interurban Ry. (Winfield) 1919 25.00 150,000 None None 

(») Includes certificates of indebtedness 

heldbyB.R.T. Louisiana 

(o) Figures given cover steam and elec- New Orleans (La.) Ry. & Lt. Co 1919 222.12 (4)30,199,050 (4)38,481,000 (4)750,000 

elicttic'^'Tt'" if T?"'' rted "r't' Minnesota 

Lls^'^May 17J920?andlineTs^partly St. Paul Southern Ry. Co. (Hastings) (d) 1918 17.54 658,225 425,400 40,000 

dismantled. Missouri 

(p) Excludes track and securities of three Kansas City (Mo.) Outer Belt Elec. R.R. (d) 1912 () None 1,298,000 100,000 

leased and controlled companies which Kansas City, Ozark & Southern Ry. (Ava) (d) 1913 15 .00 300,000 None 

have been returned to their owners for Kansas City (Mo ) , Lawrence & Topeka R.R 1919 12 00 250,000 400,000 None 

independent operation; viz : Eighth United Railways Co. of St. Louis (Mo.) 1919 460 90 41,296,000 52,603,000 3,177,000 

Avenue R.R.; Ninth Ave. R.R., and Missouri Electric R.R. (St. Louis) 1919 19 06 1,000,000 700,000 None 

(Fourth Avenue lines ) Kansas City (Mo.) Railways 1920 31 1.50 (w) 100,000 30,364,350. None 

(9) Total f securi.ies outstanding for Oregon 

combined property. Southern Oregon Traction Co. (Medford) (d) 1918 8.19 150,000 150,000 

(r) Railway securities shown, estimated at Texas 

,\ A ■ , , -c A Corpus Christi (Tex.) Ry. & Lt. Co 1919 9.75 (7)1,694 507 14 539 

(«) But three miles of road 13 electrified, Greenville (Tex.) Ry. & Lt Co. (a) 1919 8 00 300,000 300,000 None 

the balance being operated by steam. Bryan (Tex.) & College Interurban Ry 1920 7 75 (u) (u) (u) 

Figures shown are for the entire prop- A 

erty. Summary 

(0 Figures given are for railway property Total1/I/20 15 cos. 1,002.26 $78,210,975 $104,470,078 $3,063,61! 

onlv y I I' y Net changes and corrections 3 78 /, "W 1,484.507 1,077,928 

, , . , ,. ., , , Receiverships added during 1920 4 cos. 558 10 6,506,300 49,752,375 

(u) No inlormation available. Less tho^e sold or re .rganized during 1 920 2 s H i. SO S,Hoii,iioO S,l'r,H7R f,i),000 

(d) Has no track built. Net receiverships 1 2/3 1 /20 17 cos. 1.480.34 82.416,275 152,579,082 4,091,539 

(w) St ck has no par value. Nominal value RECAPITULATION 

^f^,!"' , . , r. . t * Total 1/1/20 84 cos. 4,791.45 $263,852,224 $456,097,317 $27,686,434 

(x) No bonds issued. Cost of construction Net changes and corrections 2 cos. V,^-":,Hi I,;':". 117 1,197 928 

»in"nnn ■ ^ * ^''''''[''''^ 'JP''^' '•■"''if • Receiverships added during 1 920 16 cos. 992.1! 25,313,655 68,860,575 59,800 

$^0,000 in stock subsc ption rights. Less thoie sold or reorga- ized during 1 920 lies. SO lil.H'iOO ;>,:l.^,r,7fl r,'! oiio 

(U) Includes notes and bank loans. Net receiverships 12/31/20 91 cos. 5,330.25 280,456,935 514,080,197 28,892,162 



46 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



The list of entire companies abandoned and junked 
is about the same in number and character as last year, 
but the number of companies reporting partial abandon- 

TABLE VI— ABANDONMENTS— PARTIAL— 1920 



Miles 
0.95 



64.66 
0. 16 

17 

1 60 

93 

1 .03 
0,16 
0. 17 
4.72 
2.00 
1 .60 
0.50 
3.00 
0.90 

13.00 
3.30 
4.00 
0. 13 
0.44 
8,25 
63 
0.39 
0.50 

28 
3.02 
4 00 
0.64 
3 00 
5.00 
1 .00 
0.50 
1 .34 
1.40 

1 03 



(Includes all pieces of track, sidings, yards, etc., permanently 
abandoned — Companies arranged alphabetically by States) 

Humboldt Transit Co. (Eureka, Cal.) 

T.r.s AnL'i lcs (Cal.) Ry 

Peninsula Ry. Co. (San Jose, Cal.), (spur track) 

Point Loma Ry. (San Diego, Cal.) 

Sacramento-Northern Rys., Cal. (spurs and sidings) 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys. (Cal.) 

San .Jose (Cal.) R.R 

Denver & Intermountain R.R. (Col.) 

Denver (Col.) Tramways _ 

Connecticut Co. (New Haven, Conn.) (sidings) 

Shore Line Electric R.R. (Norwich, Conn.), (between New Haven and 
New London) 

Tampa (Fla.) Electric Co 

Georgia Ry. & Power Co. (Atlanta, Ga.) 

Savannah (Ga.) Electric Co 

Alton (111.) Granite & St. Louis Trac. Co 

Chicago (111.) Railways 

East St. Louis (III.) & Suburban Ry 

Indiana Service Corp. (Ft. Wayne) : . . 

Interurban Ry. (Des Moines, la.) 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Ry. (Wichita, Kan.) 

Manhattan City (Kan.) & Interurban Ry 

SaHna (Kan.) St. Ry 

Southeastern Interurban Ry. (Winfneld, Kan.) 

United Railways & Electric Co. (Baltimore, Md.) 

Berkshire St. Ry. .(Pittsfield, Mass.) 

Massachusetts Northeastern St. Ry. (Haverhill) 

Medway & Dedham St. Ry. (Westwood, Mass.) 

Grand Rapids (Mich.) Ry. Co 

Wisconsin Ry., Lt. & Power Co. (Winona, Minn.) 

City Light & Traction Co. (SedaUa, Mo.) 

Kansas City (Mo.) Railways 

New York State Rys 

Ogdensburg (N. Y.) St. Ry 

Orange County Traction Co. (Newburgh, N. Y.) 

Waverly (N. Y.) Sayre & Athena Trac. Co 

Reno (Nev.) Tractio ' Co 

Toledo (O.) Rys, & Lt. Co 

Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Trac, Co, (Findlay, O.) 

Bartlesville (Okla.) Interurban Ry 

Chickasha (Okla.) St, Ry 

Guthrie (Okla,) Ry. Co 

Portland (Ore.) Railway, Light & Power Co 

Northwestern Pennsylvania Ry.(Meadville, Pa.) 

Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways 

Shamokin & Mt. Carmel (Pa.) Transit Co 

El Paso (Tex.) Rv. Co 0.15 

Virginia Ry. & Power Co. (Norfolk Div.) 6 . 00 

Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Rv 0.29 

Tacoma (Wash.) Ry. & Pwr. Co 08 

Monongahela Vallev Trac. Co. (Fairmont, W. Va.) 0.20 

Milwaukee (Wis,) Elee, Rv, & Lt, Co 0,65 

New Brunswick Power Co, (St. John, N. B.) 0.25 

Grand River Ry. (Gait, Ont.) 2,00 

Montreal Tramways (Que,) 0,96 

Winnipeg Electric Ry, (B. C) 1.24 

British Columbia Electric Ry. Co. (Vancouver) 2.24 

Total for 1920 .56 Cos. 1 160,68 

TABLE VII— SUSPENSIONS OF SERVICE 1920 
(Includes miles of track on which companies have ceased to operate, but which 
have not been permanently abandoned or ripped up,) 

Miles 

Douglas (Ariz ) Traction & Lt. Co 10 00 

San Diego (Cal ) Electric Ry 4.96 

Miami (Fla ) Traction Co 5 00 

Indiana Service Corp, (Ft, Wayne, Ind.) 8 64 

Androscoggin & Kennebec Ry. (Lewiston, Me.) 8 , 00 

United Railways & Electric Co, (Baltimore, Md,) 4 30 

Berkshire St, Rv, (Pittsfield, Mass,) 19 , 53 

Boston (Ma^^s,) Elevated Ry 8 . 00 

Eastern Massachhsetts St. Ry. System: 

Line between Wakefield & Lynn 2.32 

Line between E.Tst & South Weymouth 3. 49 

Line between Wilson's Corner and Andover Sq 1 , 39 

Line between Mann's Corner and Assinippi 1 . 07 

Line between Hyde Park and Dedham 3 ,15 

Line between Linden and Cliftondale 1.58 

Line between Saugus and CUftondale 86 

Gloucester Div (all lines) 22 ,49 

Wollaston loop (Quincy Div.) 2 27 

Lincoln .Ave., Haverhill 91 

Milford (Mass ) Attleboro & Woonsocket St. Ry 3 80 

Kansas City (Mo.) Railways 2.51 

Jersey Central Traction Co. (Keyport, N.J.) 2 , OB 

Point Pleasant (N, J,) Traction Co. (Entire line) 3 . 72 

Trenton, Lakewood (N. J.) & Seacoast R.R 3. 00 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Co 30.00 

Ocean Ave. and Rogers Ave. lines from Flatbush Ave. and Rogers St. to 

Eastern District Ferry. 
Church Ave. line from Church and Reckaway Aves. to 39th St. Ferry. 
Park Avenue line from Broadway to Sands St. (entire line) . 
Metropohtan Ave. line from Dry Harbor Ave. to Jamaica, also from 

Flushing Ave. to East River. 
Wyckoff Ave. line from Myrtle Ave. to Flushing (entire line) . 
Ralph Ave. Shuttle from Ralph Ave. and St. Johns Place to Church Ave. 

Westchester St. R. R. (White Plains, N. Y.) 1.12 

Goldsboro (N. C.) Electric Rv. (Entire line) 5 . 00 

Pennsylvania & Ohio Trac. Co. (Ashtabula, O.) 2,00 

Springfield (O.) Terminal Ry. & Power Co. (Entire line) 28. 00 

Toledo (O.) Rys. & Lt. Co 0,75 

Longview (Tex ) <fe Junction Ry. (entire line) 1 .00 

Walla Walla (Wash.) Valley Ry 3 . 60 

Totalfor 1920 (22 C(8.) 194.46 



ments and suspensions is much greater. It is evident 
that there has been a determined effort to eliminate 
unprofitable track and service, in order to preserve in- 
vestments threatened by shrinkage of net earnings. 

The largest individual abandonment reported is that 
of the Shore Line Electric Railway of Connecticut, which 
has abandoned 64 miles of track between New Haven 
and New London. Eight miles of this has already been 
torn up. It is now reported that some efforts are being 
made by certain communities along these abandoned 
routes to arrange for restoring service. 

The trustees operating the Eastern Massachusetts 
Street Railway, formerly the Bay State system, have 
continued their policy of suspension of service on lines 
where the traffic would not support operation at any 
reasonable rate of fare. The largest portion of this 
system which ceased operation was the entire Gloucester 
Division, involving 22 miles of track. In some com- 
munities in Eastern Massachusetts operation has only 
been continued by means of local subsidies. The trustees 
have also practically eliminated jitney competition by 
the straightforward expedient of giving the local 
authorities the option of properly regulating the jit- 
neys or giving up the street car service, and in several 
instances have given the citizens a trial of jitney service 
without street cars. This single experiment has gen- 
erally demonstrated without question the inability of 
the jitneys adequately to provide for the transportation 
requirements of the community. 

Altogether, the financial situation of the electric rail- 
ways during 1920 may be said to have been a little 
better than during the two years immediately preceding, 
but it is still far from being even moderately satis- 
factory, and many companies are still running so close 
to the danger of bankruptcy that it is a question whether 
they can survive the business depression which the 
country as a whole is now experiencing. 



Securing Co-operation of Trainmen 
in Accident Reduction 

WR. ALBERGER, vice-president and general man- 
, ager San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways, 
recently addressed a letter to the motormen and con- 
ductors on his property giving them a report of the 
accident situation for the first nine months of 1920 
as c-ompared with the same period of 1919. By means 
of tables and comments he showed that the accidents 
over which the motormen and conductors had control 
had decreased in number this year by thirty-seven, and 
he expressed the thanks of the management for this 
showing. He said that whereas in 1919 there was an 
accident for every 30,319 passengers, in 1920 there was 
one for every 31,212 passengers. For ten months, 
including October, 1920, $110,039 had been expended for 
injuries to persons and damage to property, settlements 
by the claim agent or in lawsuits, as compared with 
$40,942 for the preceding year. These costs were 3.5 
per cent of the operating expenses in 1920 as compared 
with less than 1.8 per cent in 1919. 



Trackless Trolley in Richmond 

FURTHER details are available in regard to the pro- 
posed trackless trolley system in Richmond, Va., 
mentioned on page 1167 of the issue of this paper for 
Dec. 4. A trial bus, seating thirty persons, will be 
tested out by the Virginia Railway & Power Company 
on Floyd Avenue. If successful other lines will be built. 



January 1, 1921 ElectricRailwayJournal 47 



Electric Railway Statistics 

Figures Are Given by States and Districts of the Number of Electric Railway Companies Operating, with 
the Miles of Single Track and the Amount and the Type of All the 
Rolling Stock Owned by Them 



STATISTICS of the miles of track and types of roll- 
ing stock of the electric railway companies in the 
United States have been compiled from the August, 
1920, "Electric Railway Directory" of the McGraw-Hill 
Company and are given in the accompanying table. This 
information was gathered for the directory in June and 
July of this year and may be said to represent the sta- 
tistics of the electric railways about July 1, 1920. This 
date corresponds to that of a similar table for last year, 
published on page 56 of this paper for Jan. 3, 1920. 

In the compiling of this table every effort has been 
made to prevent duplication. This was difficult in some 
cases, where both the holding and operating company 
had submitted figures covering the same mileage and 
equipment. The mileage is single track equivalent for 
all the city and interurban companies, but for the elec- 
trified steam railroads their route mileage (aggregating 
1,734 miles) was taken. The difference here repre- 
sents a difference in practice in reporting mileage fol- 
lowed by the steam and electric railways. With the 
rolling stock, the passenger and freight cars are sub- 
divided into motor and trailer. Service cars are non- 
revenue cars, such as work cars, snow plows, etc. "Other 
cars" consist of funeral, sleeping, dining and other 
miscellaneous cars which cannot be accurately classified. 

If the totals of 1920 are compared with those of 1919 
a decrease of ten in the total number of companies will 
be noticed. This decrease represents the companies 
which have ceased operation. The miles of track show 
a decrease of 236 from 47,941 miles in 1919 to 47,705 
miles in 1920, while the total rolling stock shows an 
increase of 643 cars from 104,945 in 1919 to 105,588 
cars in 1920. The differences in the reports of individual 
companies to account for these changes can be traced, 
but owing to probable variations in the methods followed 
by the companies in reporting, the numerical differences 
mentioned above are not very significant. Many com- 
panies use the terms "express cars," "freight cars" and 
"service cars" as interchangeable terms. 

A short explanation should be made as to the inclusion 
and exclusion from the table of the freight cars of 
certain roads. As the primary purpose of the table 
as regards cars is to give the number in regular elec- 
tric passenger and freight service, in cases where a 
company engaged extensively in interchange and had 
a large number of freight cars in comparison to its 
passenger cars, the freight cars have, as a rule, been 
omitted. This step was taken in the case of 1,422 
trailer freight cars of the Northwestern Pacific Rail- 
road Company, 2,405 trailer freight cars of the Fort 
Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railroad, and 2,809 
trailer freight cars of the Long Island Railroad. The 
3,000 "other" cars reported by the Chicago Tunnel Com- 
pany were also omitted. The table includes the 1,171 
freight trailers of the Pacific Electric Railway, 510 coal 
cars of the St. Louis & Bellevue Electric Railway for 
transporting coal over a line about 17.63 miles long, and 
910 freight cars of the Illinois Traction Company. 

This year, as will be noticed, an attempt has been 
made to separate the "other cars" into the subdivisions 



STATISTICS OF ELECTRIC RAILWAY COMPANIES IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



Passenger 
Cars 



State 



New England 
States 

Connecticut.. . . 

Maine 

Massachusetts. 
New Hampshire 
Rhode Island. . 
^'ernlont 



.•2H 



1,425.83 
519.71 

2,887.28 
250.95 
422.97 
103.13 



8 S 
S 



Freight and 
Express Cars 



1,869 
538 

6,41 1 
290 

1,082 
127 



10 
271 



59 



108 

5 

14 
I 

4 
4 



95 
29 
216 
1 

34 
10 



22 
80 
1 I 
1 

69 
9 



24 

99 
911 

20 
174 

I 1 



258 
95 
125 
14 
5 
3 





78 


5.609.87 


9,317 


438 


136 


385 


192 


1,239 


500 


Eastern 




















States: 




















PJelaware 


2 


158.80 


225 


98 




4 


1 


28 


4 


D. of Columbia 


8 


413.30 


1,124 


263 


' 7 


22 


41 


57 


38 


Maryland 


12 


707.70 


2,050 


59 


14 


3 


48 


24 


89 


New Jer.sey . . . . 


23 


1,591.78 


3,171 


2 


2 


20 


5 


318 


46 


New York 


84 


5,772.34 


17,762 


1,893 


158 


160 


43 


1,083 


1,176 


Pennsylvania. . 


101 


4.306.69 


7,419 


129 


4 


109 


115 


619 


1,575 


Virginia 


12 


440.43 


775 


60 


3 


16 


29 


59 


6 


W. Virginia. . . . 


18 


670.76 


632 


23 


13 


29 


4 


4; 


59 


Total 


260 


14,061.80 


33,158 


2,527 


201 


363 


286 


2,230 


2,993 


Central 




















States: 






















55 


3,737.83 


5,815 


740 


53 


15 


1,967 


138 


316 


Indiana 


30 


2,420 03 


1,867 


64 


9 


61 


439 


100 


336 


Iowa 


23 


946.49 


941 


60 


36 


18 


400 


53 


182 


Kentucky 


7 


455.60 


1,013 


22 




12 


27 


43 


21 


Michigan 


24 


1,787.00 


2,792 


70 


'20 


47 


332 


119 


321 


Minnesota 


12 


735.33 


1,377 


14 


1 


2 




16 


105 


Missouri 


22 


1,166.80 


2,667 


174 


3 


12 


■ 15 


110 


69 


Ohio 


59 


4,190,82 


5,165 


542 


28 


132 


332 


520 


458 




16 


767.98 


902 


112 


2 






21 


407 



Total 248 16,207.88 22,539 1,798 152 299 3,512 1,120 2,215 

Southern 
States: 

Alabama 

-Arkansas 

Florida 

Georgia 

Louisiana 

Mississippi .... 
North Carolina 
South Carolina 
Tennessee 



Total. 



Western 
States: 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Kansas 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Mexico. . . 
North Dakota 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

South Dakota 

Texas 

Utah 

Washington.. . . 
Wyoming 



12 


361.98 


427 


89 


1 


5 


2 


27 


141 


10 


128.80 


240 


10 




4 




2 


26 


10 


218.75 


305 


1 1 




7 


'21 


14 


1 1 


12 


487.71 


677 


43 


' ' i 


3 


22 


47 


29 


9 


322.66 


654 


51 




8 


1 


106 


9 


7 


97.87 


116 


2 


" 2 








23 


11 


302.62 


323 


13 


18 


"6 


i77 


' 1 1 


1 1 


4 


147.27 


187 


27 








5 


18 


II 


453.99 


741 


100 


' ' i 


' ' i 


"2 


46 


41 


86 


2,521.65 


3,670 


346 


23 


34 


225 


258 


309 


4 


54.20 


52 


1 








2 




35 


3,322.03 


3,661 


317 


'68 


■33 


1,648 


502 


iio 


14 


483.94 


444 


145 


8 


6 


171 


43 


40 


3 


102.20 


37 






6 


26 




2 


14 


, 515.05 


369 


'45 


"2 


17 


88 


26 


27 


7 


856.56 


119 


26 


89 




5 


15 




4 


301.96 


583 


20 


1 






6 


50 


2 


10.80 


9 














2 


10.95 


16 














4 


27.08 


37 


'24 




"2 




■5 




16 


331.32 


292 


11 


'3 


2 


'42 


19 


'64 


8 


696.18 


731 


93 


24 


8 


477 


129 


35 


3 


25.85 


33 


4 








1 


3 


22 


1,021.62 


1,297 


136 


"i 


'19 


' 9 


79 


62 


5 


448.12 


214 


40 


17 


2 


73 


3 


219 


14 


1,073.86 


1,129 


51 


26 


39 


687 


46 


146 


2 


22.00 


15 


5 










4 


159 


9,303.72 


9,038 


918 


239 


134 


3,226 


876 


792 


831 


47,704.92 


77,722 


6,027 


751 


1,215 


7,441 


5,723 


6,809 


841 


47,941.45 


79,355 


4,447 


869 


866 


5.622 


3,672 10.114 



Total 

Total U. S. 
1920 

Total U. S. 
1919 

Total rolling stock, 1 920 105.588 Total rolling stock, 1919 104,945 

mentioned above. Therefore, while the "other" cars 
have decreased by 3,305 cars, the service, freight and 
express cars have increased. 

In the compilation of this year's table and its com- 
parison with that of last year a few errors, slight in 
magnitude, were found in the 1919 table. In the com- 
parative figures for the two years given above these 
errors have been corrected in the 1919 statistics. 



48 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Letters to the Editors 



Budget Plan in Cincinnati 

Office of Director of Street Railroads 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Dec. 28, 192U. 

To the Editors: 

The article by Mr. Flint in the current issue of the 
Elec Ric Railway Journal is timely. The budget plan 
of control under the Cincinnati franchise has had two 
years of trial under the most severe test that could 
be experienced. Up to the time of its inauguration the 
Cincinnati Traction Company had not adopted the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission's system of accounting and 
it was installed simultaneously with the budget. 

This of course involved great difficulty in obtaining 
data from past experience upon which to forecast the 
probable requirement for the next year. In addition 
there were sharp fluctuations in the prices of labor and 
materials and a change in the public works program of 
the city necessitated track construction on a number of 
streets not under consideration at the time of the prep- 
aration of the budget. 

The company opposed the plan in the preparation of 
the ordinance and at no time had much sympathy with 
it. I think, however, the officers tried to gather the 
information as efficiently as possible considering the 
fact that the experience was new. In spite of these 
difficulties, I am confident that the results fully warrant 
the conclusion that the method is not only feasible but 
far more satisfactory and more easily understood by 
the public than that of the "car-mile allowance" plan. 

The Cincinnati plan provides that forty-five days 
before the end of the year the company shall submit to 
the Director of Street Railroads "an estimate of gross 
receipts and budget of operating expenses for the en- 
suing calendar year, including the expenses of perform- 
ing its corporate obligations and maintaining its cor- 
porate organization, setting forth an estimate of the 
total to be expended in the ensuing year under each of 
the general accounts as provided by the uniform system 
of accounts for electric railways prescribed by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, provided, however, that 
during the year additional expenditures for such operat- 
ing expenses may be made upon the approval of the 
Director of Street Railroads of supplementary estimate 
or estimates." 

It will be seen that the budget applies to operating 
expenses only, since the other deductions are either 
specifically set forth in the ordinance or are passed 
upon separately by the Director of Street Railroads, to 
whom must be submitted the question of all issues of 
new securities and authority for capital expenditures. 

To meet unforeseen contingencies, the supplementary 
allowance is provided, and in addition the Director of 
Street Railroads may authorize transfers from one ac- 
count to the other. This gives the budget the necessary 
flexibility provided by monthly budgets. 

The Director of Street Railroads must approve or 
disapprove the budget in ten days. This period is 
entirely too short, but provision is regarded as direc- 
tory and not mandatory. Should he disapprove and the 



company fail to agree the matter may be determined 
by arbitration. 

Although the sums fixed in the budget are by general 
accounts only, the full detail of the primary accounts is 
furnished and, under the ordinance, the Director of 
Street Railroads maintains a continuous audit and has 
the right to object to the purpose of any voucher. The 
authority, however, is far from being so complete as 
that of the Boston trustees. The city has no control 
over the personnel of the officials of the company. Some 
details of the actual experiences under the budget plan 
will point out the factor affecting it and the actual 
results. 

In the year 1919 the actual expenses for way and 
structures were $111,861.10, or 24.13 per cent, more 
than the original budget, which was due to street im- 
provements requiring reconstruction of tracks, not con- 
templated at the time the original budget was fixed. 
In April, 1919, a supplementary amount of $80,812, 
or 17.43 per cent, was authorized, and during the latter 
part of the year an amount of $73,000, or 15.75 per 
cent, was transferred to way and structures from the 
accounts "conducting transportation" and "traffic." The 
city's street improvement program was not completed. 
This left a balance of $41,950.90 unexpended for way 
and structures, which was 9.05 per cent of the original 
budget and 6.79 per cent of the revised estimate. 

Equipment expenses increased $29,140.82, or 5.89 per 
cent, over the budget, principally due to increases in 
wages of shop employees during the year. 

Power expenses were $52,663.29, or 6.19 per cent, 
more than the budget, attributable to increased cost of 
fuel and the use of an inferior quality, this situation 
growing out of the coal miners' strike. 

The expenses under "conducting transportation" 
were $53,513.02, or 1.91 per cent, less than the budget, 
due in part to the introduction of large cars in place 
of small ones. During the latter part of the year an 
amount of $6,600, or 2.37 per cent, was transferred to 
way and structures, so that the account "conducting 
transportation" showed a net increase of $12,486, or 
0.46 per cent over the original budget. 

Traffic expenses were $8,570.75, or 69.68 per cent, less 
than the budget, of which $7,000, or 56.91 per cent, 
was transferred to way and structures. 

General and miscellaneous expenses increased 5.89 
per cent over the original budget, owing to increases 
in salaries of office employees, cost of printing tickets 
and injuries and damages. 

The total operating expenses for the year were $158,- 
582.73, or 3.12 per cent, more than the budget. Deduct- 
ing the additional amount of $80,812, authorized in the 
early part of the year for track construction, leaves 
$77,770.73, or 1.53 per cent, over the original budget 
and 1.51 per cent over the revised estimate. 

For the first nine months of 1920 way and structures 
expenses were $38,197.69, or 9.44 per cent, less than 
the budget. This amount will probably be reduced dur- 
ing the remaining months of the year, as there are 
several large pieces of track under reconstruction. 

Equipment expenses increased $90,805.83, or 20,70 
per cent, of which $67,642.35, or 15.42 per cent, is for 
depreciation of new cars and $7,500, or 1,71 per cent, 
for increases in wages of shop employees, which were 
not taken into consideration when the original budget 
was fixed. This leaves an increase of $15,663.48, or 
3.57 per cent. 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



49 



Power expenses were $162,041.89, or 22.38 per cent 
high, principally due to the increased cost of coal and 
increased consumption owing to the receipt of inferior 
quality purchased from companies other than those de- 
livering coal under contract. 

Conducting transportation increased $208,856.71, or 
9.96 per cent, of which $135,000, or 6.44 per cent, is 
attributable to the increase in wages granted employees, 
effective July 1, 1920, which could not be foreseen in 
1919. This leaves an increase of $73,856.71, or 3.52 
per cent. 

Traffic expenses decreased $1,706.82, or 22.99 per cent, 
principally due to a decrease in advertising. 

General expenses were $1,298.70, or 0.33 per cent, 
more than the budget, the excess consisting of various 
small amounts. 

The total operating expenses for the nine months of 
1920 increased $427,598.62, or 10.60 per cent, over the 
original budget. Taking into consideration the items 
enumerated above reduces this amount to $97,317.68, or 
2.39 per cent. 

It is therefore evident that under normal economic 
conditions an annual forecast within 3 per cent of the 
actual could be attained even in the absence of very 
complete data as to past performances. With the ex- 
perience that each succeeding budget will aflford this 
variation should be materially improved. 

W. C. CuLKiNS, Director. 



Railway President Favors Budget System 

The United Railways & Electric Company 
OF Baltimore 

Baltimore, Md., Dec. 29, 1920. 

To the Editors : 

I have read with much interest the article by Mr. 
Flint appearing in the Dec. 25 issue of the Electric 
Railway Journal on the budget system. This article 
interests me particularly because I established this 
system on the Boston Elevated when general manager of 
that property. The system was originally used by the 
writer when general manager of the Chicago, South 
Bend & Northern Indiana Railway and later on the 
Boston & Worcester Street Railway. It is now in use by 
the United Railways & Electric Company of Baltimore. 

Our procedure is as follows: On or before the 
twentieth of a given month the actual figures for the 
succeeding month of the preceding year are given to 
the heads of departments. On or before the twenty-fifth 
of the month the department heads submit to the auditor 
their estimated requirements for the coming month. 
The auditor, in consultation with the president, works 
up the controlling sheet, estimating as nearly as possible 
the revenue expected to be obtained. They then estimate 
such expenditures as they feel can be allowed, meeting, 
if possible, the estimates of the department heads, but 
requiring that these estimates be cut if necessary to 
meet the income. 

At an officers' meeting held prior to the first of the 
month, the estimates and allowances are distributed to 
the several heads of departments, and the question 
of the allowances is discussed. About the fifteenth of 
the month department heads are expected to check up 
their expenditures to determine whether the allowances 
are being conformed to. At the same time the receipts 
are checked up, and if it is found that these are not 
likely to reach the original estimates a further cut in 



the budget allowances is made and department heads 
are expected to meet this during the balance of the 
month. 

After working under this system for the past ten 
years we feel that it is a great help in working out the 
financial problems of a company. 

C. D. Emmons, President. 



Association News 



Committee of 100 Members Appointed 

GENERAL GUY E. TRIPP, chairman of the Com- 
mittee of One Hundred, has announced the personnel 
of the executive committee of the Committee of One 
Hundred, as follows: 

H. L. Stuart, Halsey Stuart & Company, Chicago, 111. 
Randal Morgan, vice-president United Gas Improvement 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa. • ^ 

Arthur W. Brady, president Union Traction Company ot 
Indiana, Anderson, Ind. . 

Thomas N. McCarter, president Public Service Railway 
Company, Newark, N. J. 

Colonel Philip J. Kealy, president Kansas City Railways 
Company, Kansas City, Mo. , , 

S. M. Curwen, president J. G. Brdl Company, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. . , ^ T i. 

P. H. Gadsden, vice-president United Gas Improvement 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

0. B. Willcox, vice-president Bonbright & Company, New 
York, N. Y. 

Barron Collier, president Barron G. Collier, Inc., New 
York, N. Y. 

Lucius S. Storrs, president The Connecticut Company, 
New Haven, Conn. 

Francis H. Sisson, vice-president Guaranty Trust Com- 
pany, New Yoi-k, N. Y. 

D. Young, vice-president General Electric Company, 
New York, N. Y. 

J. K. Choate, vice-president the J. G. White Management 
Corporation, New York, N. Y. 

J. H. Pardee, president the J. G. White Management Cor- 
poration, New York, N. Y. 

James D. Mortimer, North American Company, New 
York, N. Y. 

Britton 1. Budd, president Metropolitan West Side Ele- 
vated Railway, Chicago, 111. 

James H. McGraw, president the McGraw-Hill Company, 
Inc., New York. N. Y. 

Guy E. Tripp, chairman board of directors Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y., 
chairman. 



Section in Virginia Reorganized 

AT A MEETING held on Dec. 17 the employees of 
x \ the Newport News & Hampton Railway, Gas & 
Electric Company reorganized their company section, 
and judging from the large and enthusiastic turnout 
they intend to make it a big thing on the Peninsula. 
J. N. Shannahan, president of the company, explained 
the purposes of the organization, and H. W. Cox, secre- 
tary of the Industrial Y. M. C. A., spoke on welfare 
work. 

E. M. Braxton, attorney for the company, also ad- 
dressed the section, treating of the employee as the 
point of contact with the public and the results accruing 
from the impressions made at this point. 

The following officers were then elected: President, 
E. C. Kelly; vice-president, H. C. McAllister; secretary, 
J. W. Howard, and treasurei', H. W. Daughtry. 



50 



Electric Railway Jouri«jai. 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Recent Happenings in Great Britain 

Tramway Situation Critical, with Men Demanding Wage Advances 
and Limit About Reached in Fare Increases 

From Our Regular Correspo7ident 

The details given in a report to the British Joint Industrial Council for the 
Tramway Industry, an abstract of which is included in this letter, show that the 
industry is in quite as perilous a condition as was the American electric railway 
industry not long ago. In the face of the new demand for higher wages, the 
ominous thing is that in many cases it is believed the critical point has been 
reached, in that further increases of fares will not produce increased revenue. 
It is not surprising that the tramway companies withdrew from all further 
negotiations, and that the municipalities refused arbitration. They simply say 
that they can not pay more. The tramway-operating municipalities have the 
rates (local taxes) to fall back upon as a last resort, but the companies have no 
such resource. They are also in many cases suffering from Government delay 
in granting them authority to increase their statutory maximum fares. Such 
increase, as indicated above, is often only a forlorn hope. 



NO settlement has been reached 
in regard to the demand from 
the tramway workers of Great 
Britain for a further increase of 
wages of 12s. a week. A month ago 
I mentioned that when the claim orig- 
inally came before the National Joint 
Industrial Council for the Tramway 
Industry the representatives of the 
tramway companies withdrew from 
the Council on the ground that they 
were unable to pay any further in- 
crease. The representatives of the mu- 
nicipal tramway undertakings and of 
the employees decided to continue 
negotiations and that their secretaries 
should carry out an investigation re- 
garding wages, the cost of living, and 
the financial position of the under- 
takings. The report by the secretaries 
was issued on Nov. 13. It revealed a 
serious state of affairs. To a ques- 
tionnaire sent out, eight-one municipal 
tramway authorities employing 47,273 
men replied. On Oct. 1, when the cost 
of living had risen 164 per cent above 
the pre-war scale, the increases of 
wages which had been granted 
amounted to: Drivers, 132 per cent; 
conductors, 147 per cent; car repairers, 
140 per cent; car cleaners, 163 per cent. 
The working week had been reduced 
from sixty hours to forty-eight hours. 

Earnings Per Car Mile Increase 
As to receipts per car mile, in 1913- 
14, forty-seven undertakings earned 
not more than lid. per mile run. In 
1919-20 there were sixty-one under- 
takings which earned not less than 18d. 
per car mile. In September and Octo- 
ber, 1920, no undertaking earned less 
than 15id. per car mile and only 
seventeen earned less than 20d. per car 
mile. Nothwithstanding the increase in 
receipts, the expenses had gone up so 
much that the tramway industry of the 
whole country was being carried on at 
at loss of at least £1,556,000 during the 
last financial year. 

The application now made for in- 
creased wages would involve a further 
wages charge of about £1,481,000, equal 
to 1.59d. per car mile. Taking the cur- 
rent financial year, the estimated loss 



on working was £3,310,000, and with 
the additional charge now demanded the 
loss would be £4,793,000. The actual 
revenue at present was 3.55d. per car 
mile less than the expenditure, and with 
the new demand it would be 5.14d. This 
was a condition of affairs under which 
no industry could survive. Out of 
ninety-eight local authorities working 
tramways, down to Oct. 26 twenty-five 
had applied to the Ministry of Trans- 
port for orders to increase their statu- 
tory maximum charges. 

This report came before the Joint 
Council on Nov. 17. The employers' 
representatives were of the opinion that 
whatever increased fares might be 
charged no increased revenue would 
result as the economic limit had been 
reached. They therefore declared that 
they were unable to accede to the wage 
application or any part of it. The trade 
union representatives then proposed 
arbitration and the meeting was ad- 
journed to allow the opinion of all mu- 
nicipal tramway authorities to be taken 
on the proposal. 

The Joint Council met again on Dec. 
7, when all negotiation broke down. 
It was reported, as the result of the 
referendum, that the majority of the 
municipal tramway authorities in the 
country would not consent to submit 
the wage claim to arbitration because if 
any advance in wages was granted by 
an arbitrator they could not afford to 
pay it. No local authority was in 
favor of the advance, though a minority 
of them would have agreed to arbitra- 
tion. As soon as this result was an- 
nounced, the meeting of the Council 
broke up. 

At the time of writing the prospect 
is that there will be no general tram- 
way strike, as it has been made abun- 
dantly clear that strike or no strike the 
concession cannot be granted, for the 
money for the purpose does not exist. 
The municipal undertakings do not in- 
tend to give advances which would have 
to be charged on the rates (local taxes), 
and the companies have no funds for 
the purpose. It is something gained 
that a dead-end has at last been reached, 
and if the employers now stand firm in 



their present position there will be no 
further increases of wages. 

An impudent attempt by Edinburgh 
tramway employees to dictate to the 
management has failed. The men put 
an embargo on passengers standing in 
the cars, basing their action on an old 
regulation of the horse-car days. Their 
object evidently was to require the use 
of more cars and more men. The Town 
Council, which owns and works the 
tramways, stood firm and threatened 
the men with dismissal. The public 
were put to great inconvenience during 
the rush hours. As the men had not 
submitted any grievance for considera- 
tion by the Joint Industrial Council for 
the industry, the Town Council resigned 
from that organization. 

Men Take Arbitrary Stand 

On Nov. 15, following the dismissal 
of several men who persisted in refus- 
ing to allow passengers to stand, the 
employees went out on strike. On the 
following day the manager was able to 
run a limited service, and on Nov. 17 
the strikers returned to work. In doing 
so they acted on the advice of the local 
trades council. In this they showed 
wisdom, as the Town Council and the 
management were absolutely firm and 
were prepared to engage as many new 
men as necessary. Applicants for the 
jobs were plentiful. 

Mr. Pick and Mr. Shave, of the Lon- 
don General Omnibus Company, in their 
paper on motor omnibus working and 
possibilities, presented at the recent 
congress of the American Electric Rail- 
way Association, referred to the fact 
that a new and enlarged type of omni- 
bus was about to be tried in London. 
The first of these vehicles was put on 
the streets during November for trial 
and demonstration trips. This "S type" 
'bus is 24 ft. 7 in. long, 12 ft. 3 in. high, 
7 ft. 1 in. wide, and has a wheel base 
of 14 ft. 11 in. The engine is similar 
to that used on existing omnibuses. It 
develops 34 hp. when running at 1,000 
r.p.m. The important point is that the 
body has been designed to seat fifty- 
seven passengers — twenty-nine inside 
and twenty-eight on the roof — thus 
rivalling a tramcar in capacity. The 
previous type seated forty-six, and the 
one before that thirty-four. The weight 
unloaded is slightly increased, but the 
body is only 2 ft. 2 in. longer than that 
of the forty-six-seater. 

Omnibus Bill Lost 

Disaster has once more overtaken the 
efforts of the London County Council 
to get Parliamentary powers to run 
omnibuses. The bill for this purpose 
was passed by the House of Commons, 
but when the bill came before a commit- 
tee of the House of Lords in the latter 
part of November the London General 
Omnibus Company renewed its deter- 
mined opposition to the matter and con- 
tended that if there was any need for 
the proposed omnibus services they 
would supply it. The Lords' com- 
mittee declined to sanction the proposal 
in the bill. 



News of the Elednc Railways 

FINANCIAL AND CORPORATE • TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 

PERSONAL MENTION 



Reply on Lease First 

Detroit United Railway Indicates City 
Must Answer that Proposal Before 
Sale Is Discussed 

In reply to the communication from 
the officials of the city of Detroit, Mich., 
asking the Detroit United Railway to 
name a price at which it would sell 
certain of its lines to the city, Elliott 
G. Stevenson, attorney for the company, 
replied that until the city officials deal 
with the proposition which the com- 
pany has already submitted, namely, 
that of leasing the entire system, the 
company did not care to enter into any 
further negotiations. 

Service-at-Cost Plan Vote 

The statement is repeated that the 
company will not enter into any agree- 
ment that would either directly or re- 
motely recognize the claimed right of 
the city to proceed to acquire a mu- 
nicipal railway system under the pro- 
ceedings culminating in the election of 
April 5. The company could not be so 
inconsistent as to enter into negotia- 
tions to sell the city part of the lines 
while challenging the validity of the 
proceedings and the right of the city 
to proceed to acquire a municipal 
system. 

It is the purpose of the company to 
submit to the electors of the city at 
the approaching April election an ini- 
tiated ordinance providing for a so- 
called service-at-cost operation of the 
street railway system under municipal 
supervision and regulation along the 
lines of the ordinance submitted accord- 
ing to the requirements of the City 
Charter, nearly a year ago to the Cor- 
poration Counsel for approval as to 
form. 

The railway, Mr. Stevenson states, is 
most anxious to reach a solution of the 
difficulties that prevent the public hav- 
ing adequate transportation, but it has 
exhausted everything that could be 
thought of with a view to bringing 
about that result. 

Company Operating at Loss 

If the lease proposal is rejected there 
remains nothing for the company to 
do but to submit an ordinance to the 
people for ratification that will finally 
settle the question and insure the peo- 
ple the kind of service they need and 
are entitled to. 

Mr. Stevenson states that inasmuch 
as the commission has had auditors in 
its office for more than six months with 
the company's consent checking re- 
ceipts and expenditures on account of 
operation, etc., the commission has 
probably been advised as to the fact 
that the operations of the company's 



city system are being conducted at a 
loss. This situation influences the com- 
pany to say that no proposition will be 
taken up other than the one submitted 
at the present time. If that is not 
accepted, the company will, it is stated, 
be compelled to take the other step 
indicated, and in the meantime ask the 
Court to fix in the pending proceed- 
ings before Judge Jayne an increased 
I'ate of fare — probably 6 cents with 1 
cent for a transfer — to enable the com- 
pany to operate without loss. Exist- 
ing conditions impel the company to 
have the negotiations that are now 
pending brought to an early conclusion. 

In reply the Street Railway Commis- 
sion has repeated the request that the 
Detroit United Railway put a price on 
the lines which the city would take over. 
The company maintains that no dif- 



THIS ordinance was adopted by the 
Commission Council in lieu of the 
cost-plus plan recommended by 
the Special Masters, in order to enable 
the company to meet the demands of 
the striking employees and to provide 
funds needed by the company to meet 
increase in operating expenses caused 
by higher taxes and advances in the 
cost of fuel. 

The Council approved the increase 
for a period of six months, during which 
time it was recommended that the re- 
ceiver of the company would formulate 
some plan of action for his future 
guidance. 

One movement to repeal the measure 
has just received a solar plexus blow. 
This was a suit brought in the Civil 
District Court by certain taxpayers of 
the city to enjoin the Commission Coun- 
cil from authorizing collection of the 
8-cent fare. An injunction had been 
issued by Judge Foster, of the Federal 
Court, to prevent any interference with 
the receiver in the 8-cent fare. Counsel 
for the taxpayers maintained that the 
action was not against the receiver but 
against the Commission Council, which 
was, he alleged, without authority to 
grant the increase, as the franchises of 
the several companies embraced in the 



ferent answer can be given to this re- 
quest than was given at first. 

Following the refusal of the com- 
pany to set a price at which it would 
sell these lines, and the letter to the 
Street Railway Commission saying that 
the company was losing money, a letter 
was sent to the heads of the unions 
announcing the company's intentions to 
reduce wages of the platform men, 
effective on Jan. 1. 

As was indicated in the Electric 
Railway Journal for Dec. 25, this 
proposal was rejected at a business 
meeting of the membership of the three 
locals and copy of the resolution 
adopted was placed in the hands of 
E. J. Burdick, assistant general mana- 
ger for the Detroit United Railway, by 
Carey Furgeson, business agent for 
Local 26. 



New Orleans Railway & Light Com- 
pany specifically fixed the rate of fare 
at 5 cents. 

Judge Fred D. King, of the Civil Dis- 
trict Court, in refusing to interfere 
with the order of Federal Judge Foster 
declared that the comity existing be- 
tween the State Court and the Federal 
Court required him to respect the in- 
junction issued by Judge Foster pre- 
venting interference with the collection 
of an 8-cent fare. In deciding the 
case. Judge King declared the essential 
grounds for the nullity of the 8-cent 
fare ordinance were decided adversely 
to the taxpayers by the State Supreme 
Court in a similar suit brought by Black 
and others against the railways when 
the fare was increased from 5 cent to 
6 cents. In this case. Judge King said, 
the higher court held that the tax- 
payers, not having been parties to the 
contract between the city and the rail- 
ways, had no legal interest in the mat- 
ter and, as taxpayers, had no right to 
interfere or bring the suit. 

Counsel for the taxpayei-s declared, 
after the decision, that he would make 
application for a re-hearing and if this 
were refused, an appeal would be taken 
to the State Supreme Court. 

Another movement looking to the 



New Orleans Strives for Permanent Settlement 

Eight-Cent Fare Will Be Effective Until Next April- 
Announcement of Policy Expected Jan. 15 

Opponents of the increased fare in New Orleans, La., are busily engaged in 
an effort to have the ordinance granting the increase repealed and the old rate 
of fare re-established. The attacks on the measure are annoying, but they have 
little prospect of success. The ordinance as adopted by the Commission Council 
authorized the company to increase fares from 6 cents to 8 cents. It will not 
expire until April 22, 1921. At that time the fare will automatically go back 
to the old rate of 6 cents, and the workmen's wages back to the old scale. 



52 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No: 1 



repeal of the ordinance was by referen- 
dum. This campaign was very energet- 
ically pursued by a number of influen- 
tial gentlemen, taxpayers of this city, 
one of whom was formerly president 
pro tem of the Senate. The law under 
which they sought to repeal the ordi- 
nance required the sworn affidavits for 
repeal of 30 per cent of the registered 
voters of the city. Under the present 
registration this practically amounted 
to an election almost, as they will be 
required to get the petitions of at least 
25,000 voters. 

They have obtained, so far, by the 
hardest kind of woi'k and a most stren- 
uous campaign, only 20,000 petitions, so 
that they still lack .5,000 votes of the 
goal. 

The Commissioner of Public Utilities 
of the newly elected Council declares 
that he is studying the situation with 
the view of settling the railway matter, 
but is not yet ready to express his 
views. The Association of Commerce 
has also taken the matter up and is 
about to adopt general rates to guide 
it in its deliberations and to map out a 
plan of procedure. 

The New Orleans Thnes-Picayuiie, in 
a long editorial, urges the new city ad- 
ministration to get to work quickly on 
some plan that will solve the railway 
matter. It maijitains the time for 
action is short and that it is distinctly 
to the interest of New Orleans to see 
that the following ends are obtained: 

1. The railway in the hands of a man- 
agement possessed of the public's confidence. 

2. The public paying a fare which it is 
convinced is no more than the costs of wise 
operation and sound capital make nec- 
essary. 

3. The corporation earning a legitimate 
return upon a capitalization which the com- 
munity knows is likewise legitimate. 

4. The employees content with their 
work and wage and assured of permanent 
positions. 

It is said the receiver is working 
diligently with the operating manage- 
ment of the company toward the de- 
sired end but that no announcement of 
policy wall be made before Jan. 1.5. The 
complaint is made that the 8-cent fare 
which was expected to yield $1,500,000 
annually will not show a greater rev- 
enue than $1,300,000. The loss of rev- 
enue from short hauls has exceeded 
expectations. 



Reorganization of International 
Association 

The International Street & Inter- 
urban Railway Association, with head- 
quarters at Brussels, has just issued a 
circular explaining that certain objec- 
tions had been raised to the proposed 
reorganization of the association. The 
reorganization proposed was to dissolve 
the association and then immediately 
reorganize it with a membership con- 
fined to countries which participated 
on the allied side or were neutral dur- 
ing the recent war. 

The objections which were raised to 
this plan were that such a procedure 
would be illegal under the Belgian law 
unless a referendum was taken of all 
of the former members of the associa- 
tion. To this point the officers of the 
association reply that a general statute 



authorizing such action is now under 
consideration in the Belgian parlia- 
ment and the proposed action will be 
taken after the passage of this act. 

Although the association has lost 
many members, particularly in Russia, 
its membership now numbers 250. The 
association had hoped to hold a meet- 
ing in Brussels this year, but the plan 
had to be abandoned because of the 
difficulties of traveling for those resid- 
ing at a distance from Belgium. 

Toledo Candidates Narrowed 

Only Three Names Remain in the Race 
for Railway Commissionership — 
Railway Man Considered 

The board of sinking fund commis- 
sioners of the city of Toledo, Ohio, is 
considering at present several names as 
possible appointees to the board of di- 
rectors of the new Community Traction 
Company, one of the members of which 
is to be selected by that body to rep- 
resent the city. 

Under the provision of the service-at- 
cost ordinance for retiring bonds of the 
company common stock is issued to the 
city as each unit of bonds is retired. 
As it acquires common stock ownership 
of the railway the city will be repre- 
sented on the board of directors. The 
membership of the board is five at pres- 
ent. Four of these members will be 
company representatives. 

Commissioner's Salary Probably 
$10,000 

It is thought the sinking fund com- 
missioners will name one of their own 
number or a member of the board of 
control. At the meeting on Dec. 28 the 
board decided to ask Mayor Cornell 
Schreiber for a legal opinion on the 
duties and qualifications of the man to 
be appointed. 

The sinking fund commissioners are 
Edward Kirschner, vice-president of the 
Ohio Savings Bank & Trust Company; 
Rollin H. Scribner, manager of the in- 
vestment department of Secor, Bell & 
Beckwith; W. Lockwood Lamb, cashier 
of the National Bank of Commerce; and 
Johnston Thurstin, attorney. 

Mr. Thurstin was a member of a 
street railway commission which at one 
time drafted a community ownership 
solution for the settlement of the trac- 
tion problem. 

At a meeting of the street railway 
board of control last Monday it was de- 
cided that a practical street railway 
man would probably be the choice of 
the board for transpox'tation commis- 
sioner. It was also decided that his 
salary would probably be $10,000 a 
year. The selection has narrowed down 
to about three of the dozen or more ap- 
plicants. The appointment will prob- 
ably be announced about the middle of 
January, members of the board de- 
clared. 

It is thought now that the legal work 
of separating the railway property of 
the Toledo Railways & Light Company, 
from all of the company's many other 
interests will be completed so that the 
transfer to the new system of operation 
may be made about Feb. 1. 



Wage Conference Planned 

Full and Frank Discussion of Reduc- 
tion of Trainmen's Pay Planned 
at Detroit 

A communication sent to the officials 
of the Detroit (Mich.) United Railway 
after W. D. Mahon, international presi- 
dent of the amalgamated, had conferred 
with executives of the union on the pro- 
posed reduction of approximately 20 
per cent in the wages of the platform 
men, signified that the men were will- 
ing to meet the company officials to 
discuss the subject. Their refusal to 
accept the lowered scale of pay was 
repeated. 

Men Question Reduction in Costs 

In the letter in answer to the Detroit 
United Railway's request that the men 
meet the company to discuss the wage 
question further, it was stated that 
members of the union were fully in- 
formed as to the facts when they voted 
against accepting the proposed cut in 
wages. The comments of E. J. Burdick, 
assistant general manager of the rail- 
way, relative to living costs and street 
railway men's wages during the war 
period are questioned by the men. 

The company maintains it is unfair 
that car ridei's while submitting them- 
selves to cuts in wages and working- 
hours should be asked to pay an in- 
crease in the rate of fare in order that 
the motormen and conductors alone 
should be gainers. Moreover, the com- 
pany has been quite seriously affected 
by the changed economic conditions. 

Exception is taken to the company's 
statement that prices of food stuff, 
clothing, shoes and household furnish- 
ings have fallen to such an extent that 
present necessities can be met with a 
decreased wage scale. The men claim 
that the present scale is required as a 
minimum. 

The company states that salaries of 
the executive officers have been volun- 
tarily reduced, effective the first of 
the new year. At a meeting of the 
heads of the departments it was de- 
cided that salaries and wages all 
along the line are to be decreased. The 
public has been informed of the steps 
being taken to reduce the wage scale 
of conductors and motormen through- 
out the system to a level more in hor- 
mony with not only the decrease in liv- 
ing cost but comparative with the wage 
scales being adopted in other fields of 
labor. 

Amicable Arrangement Expected 

The company expresses the hope that 
the employees will, after thoughtful de- 
liberation, realize that it is only proper 
that they, too, cheerfully accept a re- 
duction in the wage scale because such 
reduction is inevitable under existing 
conditions. 

Willingness to meet and discuss any 
subject that is of interest to the men 
and the company is expressed by the 
men. It was repeated that they were 
ready for a full and frank discussion 
of the matter. 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



53 



Removal of New Jersey Commis- 
sioners Sustained 

Ousting- of the Board of Public 
Utility Commissioners by Governor 
Edwards of New Jersey for "miscon- 
duct and neglect of duty" was upheld 
on Dec. 27 by the Supreme Court in an 
opinion handed down at Trenton. The 
decision overruled a demurrer filed by 
the board. It upholds the constitution- 
ality of the section of the public utili- 
ties law giving the Governor power to 
remove from office upon charges and 
holds that in conducting the proceed- 
ings provided by law the Governor is 
not bound to observe any particular 
form so long as the proceedings are 
substantially in compliance with the 
statute. 

The practical effect of the decision, 
unless reversed on appeal, is to re- 
move from office President John W. 
Slocum, Andrew Gaul, George F. 
Wright and Harry L. Knight, who have 
continued to exercise the functions of 
public utility commissioners notwith- 
standing their removal from office by 
the Governor, whose appointment of 
new commissioners has not been acted 
vipon by the Senate. 

Immediately upon receiving word 
from Trenton that the Supreme Court 
had upheld the Governor Josiah 
Stryker, of Lindabury, Depue & Faulks, 
who represented the utilities commis- 
sioners in the ouster proceedings, 
stated that an appeal would be taken 
to the Court of Errors and Appeals. 

The nominees of the Governor for the 
new board are: James A. Hamill, of 
Jersey City; Treadwell Cleveland, of 
Newark; former State Senator James 
A. C. Johnson, of Englewood; State 
Highway Commissioner Walter F. 
Whittemore, of Newton, and Arthur A. 
Quinn, of Perth Amboy, president of 
the State Federation of Labor. 



Permanent Reconstruction Urged 

In a letter to the City Council, D. 
W. Henderson, superintendent of the 
Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Railway, 
makes an urgent plea for the perma- 
nent reconstruction of the paving on 
First Avenue and First Avenue South 
and the rebuilding of the railway 
tracks at an estimated cost of $350,- 
000. Mr. Henderson declared that 
operation of the municipal lines over 
the street between Pine Street and 
Atlantic Street was virtually impos- 
sible, owing to the destructive effect of 
the bad tracks on the rolling stock. 

Mr. Henderson advised that tempo- 
rary repairs to improve the tracks 
would cost $21,225, if made now, and 
would have to be done over again in 
two or three years, unless the entire 
street was repaved and new tracks 
laid. It was pointed out that the cost 
of repairs and financial loss to rolling 
stock due to breaking of truck frames 
on sagging rail joints, and injuiy to 
the whole cars from the constant jar- 
ring was excessive. Mr. Henderson's 
letter was referred to the streets and 
sewers and utilities committees. 



News Notes 



Miami a Prospective Buyer. — The 
Miami (Fla.) Traction Company is pre- 
paring to sell all its railway equipment 
to the city. The company has not oper- 
ated its lines since Oct. 19, when a fire 
occurred which destroyed the carhouse 
and all the cars. The company operates 
5 miles of single track. It has a capital 
stock of $250,000. 

Gretna-Algiers Men Return to Work. 
— -The platform men of the South New 
Orleans Light & Traction Company, 
New Orleans, La., who struck recently 
for a wage inci'ease voluntarily re- 
turned to work on Dec. 24 at the old 
wage scale of $96 a month. A new 
agreement was entered into between 
the men and the representatives of the 
union whereby the old pay scale will 
obtain until Dec. 24, 1922, unless in the 
meantime the Jefferson officials au- 
thorize the railway to increase its fare. 
In that event the wage demands of the 
men will be adjusted. The company's 
petition for an advance in fares was 
rejected recently by the police jury of 
Jefferson Parish. 

Charges Quashed. — Charges pending 
against Julius Caesar Jackson, Edgar 
C. Kerwin and William Ems, former 
employees of the United Railways, St. 
Louis, Mo., in connection with the loss 
of United Railways referendum peti- 
tions in June, 1918, have been nolle 
pressed by Assistant Circuit Attorney 
F. E. Williams at St. Louis. The cases 
were dropped by the Circuit Attorney's 
office because of the ruling of the Cir- 
cuit Court at Springfield, Mo., during 
the trials of Richard McCulloch and 
Bruce Cameron to the effect that the 
referendum petitions had no value, 
hence could not be the objects of lar- 
ceny. It had been anticipated that 
these cases would be dismissed. 

Municipal Undertaking in Greenville. 
-Citizens of Greenville, Tex., in a ref- 
erendum election on Dec. 18 voted to 
retain the city railway system and to 
operate it under municipal ownership. 
The property had been purchased by 
the city and there had been much agi- 
tation over the question of a munic- 
ipally-owned automobile bus line to 
take the place of the railway. It was 
proposed to junk the line and equip- 
ment of the traction company and sell 
it for whatever it would bring and then 
to invest the proceeds in an automo- 
bile bus line, but the bus line propo- 
sition was rejected in the referendum 
and the railway will be retained. 
Greenville is the only city in Texas 
which owns its railway system. 

Paving Question an Issue in Aber- 
deen. — Permission granted to the Grays 
Harbor Railway & Light Company, 



Aberdeen, Wash., to use planking in- 
stead of paving certain street trackage 
in the city has been withdrawn by the 
City Council, following protests by 
property owners on Curtis Street, who 
contend that the company should stand 
street improvement expenses exacted 
of individual tax payers. The matter 
has been before the Council on two 
occasions. The latest development is a 
resolution adopted by the Chamber of 
Commerce, asking the city to re-issue 
the permit on the siround that the ex- 
pense of regulation paving would prove 
a hardship on the company in its pres- 
ent financial condition. When asked to 
pave Curtis Street trackage to conform 
to other streets the railway filed a 
demurrer, alleging that the profits of 
the company for the past year had been 
small, and that the work could not be 
afforded. 

Shopmen and Other Mechanics Seek 
Increase. — Col. A. T. Perkins, general 
manager under the receiver of the 
United Railways, St. Louis, Mo., has 
filed a number of exhibits with the 
Missouri Public Service Commission 
tending to show that the company is 
now paying its shopmen, electrical 
workers, painters, cai'penters, bridge 
and structural iron workers, as high 
wages as the average paid in St. Louis. 
The employees enumerated are seeking' 
an increase in wages of 45 per cent. 
All the rates requested are based on 
an eight-hour day with double pay for 
overtime and a half day off Saturday. 
The electrical workers are now working- 
on a twelve-hour basis. Sixty cents 
an hour is the lowest rate asked and 
$1 an hour is the highest. A former 
order of the court permits the State 
Public Service Commission to act as 
a board of arbitration in wage dis- 
putes. It is on the assumption that 
they will act in this case that the peti- 
tions have been filed. 

Children "Kidded" in Vancouver. — 

The children of the office employees of 
the British Columbia Electric Railway, 
Vancouver, B. C, jammed the head of- 
fice building of the company on the 
afternoon of Dec. 18 at the second 
Christmas entertainment held by the 
office employees' association of the 
company. Santa Claus arrived through 
the chimney and, with the help of Mrs. 
George Kidd, wife of the general man- 
ager of the company, distributed pres- 
ents to every one of the 300 youngsters 
who filled the fourth floor of the build- 
ing. There were four Christmas tx'ees 
laden with presents. A fund of $350 
V7as raised by popular subscription 
from the office staff, to which the man- 
agement of the company contributed 
generously. Then a committee bought 
presents for every child whose name 
was obtainable. Taking an active part 
in the festival also were George Kidd, 
general manager; W. G. Murrin, as- 
sistant general manager, other com- 
pany officials and Mrs. Murrin. The 
festivities for the day were concluded 
with a dance for the older members of 
the official family of the company, 
including the employees. 



54 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Financial and Corporate 



Big Gain in Net Income 

West Jersey & Seashore Railroad 
Changes from Deficit of $85,000 in 
1918 to a Profit of $10,000 in 1919 

The financial report of the West 
Jersey & Seashore Railroad for the 
year ended Dec. 31, 1919, showed a re- 
markable increase in all items. The 
revenue from the operation of the rail- 
way was $11,971,021. This in com- 
parison with $10,599,543 in 1918 showed 
an increase of $1,371,478, or 12.9 per 
cent. Railway operating expenses in- 



creased to $11,145,020. This was an in- 
crease of $1,039,160, or 10.3 per cent, 
over 1918. In 1919 the net operating 
revenue was $826,001, which, in com- 
parison with $493,683 in 1918, shows 
an increase of more than 67 per cent 
With this increase in net operating 
revenue, the taxes being increased only 
about 19 per cent, the operating income 
for 1919 increased to $245,968, or more 
than thirty-three times as much as in 
1918. 

The net income transferred to profit 
and loss, according to the income 



INCOME STATEMENT OF THE FEDERAL OPERATION OF WEST JERSEY & SEASHORE 

RAILROAD 

Percentage 
Change 

Year ended Deo. 3 1 1919 1918 Over 1918 

Revenue from transportation $11,712,816 $10,398,401 +12 6 

Revenue from other railway operations 258,203 201,142 +28 4 



Total railway revenue $11,971,021 $10,599,543 +12 9 

Way and structures $2,314,978 $2,511,140 —7 8 

Equipment 2,443,484 1,920,826 +27 2 

Traffic 98,811 91,905 +7 5 

Conducting transportation 5,961,368 5,284,564 +12 8 

Miscellaneous operations 66,676 58,526 +13 9 

General 260,165 238,912 +8 9 

Transportation for investment — credit 462 13 



Total railway operating expenses $11,I45,&20 $10,105,860 +10 3 



Net operating revenue $826,001 $493,683 +67 3 

Taxes assignable to railway operations $578,874 $483,383 +19 7 

Uncollectable railway revenues 1,139 3,159 — 63 3 



Expenses assignable to railway operations $580,033 $486,542 +19 2 



r- Operating income $245,968 $7;141 +33 40 

Deductions from gross income : 

j. Net hire of equipment — Dr. balance $94,558 $32,799 +188 2 

Net joint facility rents — Dr. balance 156,805 143,262 -1-9.5 

Net miscellaneous income — credit 1 6,354 83,55 1 — 80 .3 

Total deductions from gross income $235,009 $92,510 +153 9 

Net income transferred to profit and loss $10,958 *$85,369 +112 7 

♦Deficit 



INCO.ME .ST.\TEMENT OF WE.ST JERSEY A SEASHORE RAILROAD 




Year ended Dec. 31 


1919 


1918 


Percentage 
Change 
Over 1918 


Compensation accrued under federal control for possession, use, 
and control of property of this company 


$952,682 
259,751 


$952,682 
137,509 


+ 88^9 


Gross income 

Deductions from gross income 


$1,212,433 
513,574 


$1,090,191 
403,471 


+ 12.2 
+ 27.5 




$698,859 


$686,720 


+ 1.8 


Disposition of net income 


$675,982 


$673,308 


+ 0.4 


Balance transferred to profit andl oss 


$22,877 


$13,412 


+ 70,6 


Total amount to credit of profit and loss 


$408,977 


$375,938 


+ 8.8 



STATISTICAL IXFORMATIUX — WEST JERSEY & .SEASHORE RAILROAD 



Year ended Dec. 31 

Miles of single track 

Train miles; 

In passenger service 

By freight service 

Total revenue mileage run 

Revenue passengers carried 

Passenger revenue 

Passenger revenue percent of total operating revenue. 

Passenger revenue per miles of line 

Average revenue per passenger ( cents) 

Average miles each passenger was carried 

.Average number of passengers per car-mile 

Statistics per train mile: 

Operating revenue 

Operating expenses 

Net operating revenue (cents) 

Number of passengers 

Train miles per revenue passenger 

■Operating ratio (per cent) 



1919 



1918 



Percentage 

Change 
Over 1918 



361 . 18 


361 . 18 






3,129,331 


3,017,431 


+ 3 


7 


474,060 


604,542 


—21 


6 


3,603,391 


3,621,973 




5 


14,762,658 


14,603,466 


+ 1 


1 


$7,563,634 


$6,464,198 


+ 17 





63 18 


60 99 


+ 22 


$20,941 


$17,897 


+ 17 





512 


44 3 


+ 15 


5 


26.70 


25. 13 


+ 6 


2 


29 


31 


—6 


5 


$3.32 


$2.93 


+ 13 


3 


$3. 10 


$2.79 


+ 11 


1 


22 9 


13.6 


+ 68 


3 


4. 10 


4.03 


+ 1 


7 


0.244 


0.248 


— 1 


6 


93.2 


95.4 


—2 


2 



statement of the federal operation, was 
changed from a deficit of $85,369 to % 
profit of $10,958, or a betterment by 
112 per cent. 

As previously mentioned, the West 
Jersey & Seashore Railroad was under 
federal control and the annual compen- 
sation paid for the possession, use ana 
control of the property was $952,682. 
This sum, together with other corporate 
income, gave a gross income for 1919 of 
$1,212,433, or an increase over 1918 of 
12.2 per cent. The net income, accord- 
ing to the income statement of the 
West Jersey & Seashore Railroad wao 
$698,859, an increase of only 1.8 per 
cent. This increase allowed a balance 
of $22,877 to be transferred to profit 
and loss for 1919. In 1918 only $13,412 
was transferred, so an increase of 70.6 
per cent was registered in 1919 in com- 
parison with 1918. 

14,762,658 Revenue Passengers 
The total revenue passengers carried 
in 1919 were 14,762,658, or an increase 
of 1.1 per cent over 1918. The passen- 
ger revenue increased by 17 per cent, 
the revenue for 1919 being $7,563,634. 
This increase in revenue was due to the 
fact that the average revenue per pas- 
senger increased from 44.3 cents in 1918 
to 51.2 cents in 1919. This was an in- 
crease of 6.9 cents, or 15.5 per cent. 



Suburban Line Threatens to 
Suspend 

The Syracuse & Suburban Railway, 
which operates between the town of 
Manlius and the city of Syracuse, N. 
Y., will cease to operate unless some- 
thing is done to reduce operating ex- 
penses and overcome burdensome fran- 
chise obligations. 

C. Loomis Allen, vice-president of the 
road, consulted recently with John J. 
Stanley, Cleveland, the president of the 
company, about the situation. Subse- 
quently he said the fate of the Syra- 
cuse & Suburban Railway was up to 
the people. 

Letters telling of the tenative plans 
to suspend operations were forwarded 
to the town and village officers of Man- 
lius, Fayetteville and Dewitt, stations 
on the suburban line, which supply the 
chief sources of revenue. 

Various suggestions have been made 

by village officials and by citizens of 

the city of Syracuse, among them one 

to the effect that the salaries of the 

officers of the road be reduced. Mr. 

Allen said: 

The matter is in the hands of the people. 
It is very simple. We are very barely 
earning our taxes and cannot increase our 
revenues. Fares are too high now. The 
only solution is to reduce expenses and the 
only way to do that is to get relief from 
burdensome franchise obligations and oper- 
ating costs. 

It has been intimated that bus line 
service will be established between the 
towns and city if the railway service 
is suspended. Mr. Allen stated that 
the company would voice no opposition 
to such action. 

Included in the system of the Syra- 
cuse & Suburban Railroad are 18.5 
miles of line. 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



55 



$34,674,000 Cut in Capitalization t^.'^T^f °5 properties, a l. 

^ ' ' *^ Black, for the company, fixed $60,090,- 

Financial Readjustment Without Foreclosure Approved by Commis- ^93 as the reproduction cost new of the 

sion to Permit United Railroads to Meet Its Obligations properties as against the comna^^ion's 

* appraisal of $51,856,218, a dirterence oi 

An order signed by the California Railroad Commission on Dec. 22 approved $8,234,675. Against the commission's 

the reorganization plan for the United Railroads, San Francisco, Cal., proposed appraisal of reproduction cost new, less 

by the committee named to study the affairs of the railway. If the plan is ''X"'tverb?2/o^l^5^^f ^d^'fference^'^f 

carried out the present outstanding bonds, notes and stocks will be reduced from 765^234 The commission 's^figure of 

$82,190,600 to $47,516,000, or $34,674,000. The indebtedness will be reduced $3oi806',514, historical cost new, is 

from $39,242,000 to $15,366,000, or $23,876,000. The capital stock will be $5,023,878 less than Mr. Black's figure 

reduced from $42,948,600 to $32,130,000, or $10,798,600. The annual interest under the same heading, 

charges will be reduced from approximately $1,815,000 to $820,300, or $994,700. These differences are due to the use 

of different unit prices and to direct 

THE plan which has met with the railway operating revenues of $7,510,- and overhead allowances. All apprais- 
approval of all but holders of 894; operating expenses $5,031,683, giv- als are as of June 30, 1920. In estimat- 
$603,000 of bonds, or 99.199 per ing a net operating revenue of $2,479,- ing the reproduction cost new both the 
cent of the security holders, calls for 210. Deduction of taxes amounting to commission and the company assumed 
taking over of the United Railroads by $408,000 left $2,071,210, as operating in- a three-year construction period and 
the Market Street Railway and the come. In 1919 the operating income applied to the inventoi'y what they re- 
issuance by the Market Street Railway was $2,054,397, the taxes amounting to garded as average prices for the three- 
of the following securities : $468,800. The 1919 operating revenue year period ending June 30, 1920. In 

^ — was $8,629,347; operating expense, arriving at the historical cost effect 

5% bonds due Sept. 1, 1924 $10,166,000 $6,106,149; net operating revenue, was given by the commission to the 

II p?ior p^r^'fefll^ce 'stock': ; ! i ! llifsolooo $2,523,197. prices prevailing at the time the prop- 

«% preferred stock 5,000,000 Both the United Railroads' engineers erties were built, in so far as such 

Co^monlllV^'^. 10:700:000 the commission's engineers filed an prices were available. 

$47,516,000 Losses Allowed to Be Amortized 

The primary reason for the reorgani- 
zation is given by the Railroad Commis- Decision in Valuation and Rate Case of Gas Company Contains 
sion in its review of the plan as in- Many Important Points 

ability by the United Railroads "to pay 

matured bonded indebtedness and in- Losses amounting to $118,000 in the operation of the Nashville Gas & Heat- 

terest on outstanding indebtedness." ing Company since July 1, 1919, are permitted by the Tennessee Public Utilities 

The bonded and note indebtedness of Commission to be amortized over a period of ten years and a fair return under 

the United Railroads is as follows: present conditions is fixed by the commission at not to exceed 11 per cent and 

Amount not less than &h per cent on the value of the property devoted to the public use. 

^ X,, ^ „ '^^A^^nntni^ Those are among some of the Outstanding features of a decision rendered recently 

Market St. Cable Co. 6s $1,800,000 

The Omnibus Cable Co. 6s. . . . 2,000,000 m a gas rate case of more than passing mterest. 
Ferry and Cliff House Co. 6s. . . 400,000 

M^irket^st ^Ry ^Co ^5s ::: 6:64i:ooo NOTHER feature of the opinion is upon a value reached alone by such 
United R. R. 4s...'...:::::::: 23:500:000 /A the attention directed by the com- method would be prohibitory. On the 
Gou-lf sf' R^R^ Co ■ 5s ::::::: : "^45:000 ^mission to the fact that for every other hand, the company should not be 
'- $1 that the consumer pays to the com- made to bear the burden of too low a 

Tot||. $35,577,000 ^^^^ during 1921 the city of valuation based upon an estimate of its 

.Seven per cent $1,925,000 Nashville will get approximately 12 original cost less depreciation, as a re- 

'Mve^per'^cent::::::::::::::::: 1,000:000 cents and the company 88 cents. The turn upon a value reached alone by 

'- '■ commission points out that this is a such a method might prove confiscatory. 

'^ota.l $3,665,000 flatter over which it has no control, but No dividends have been paid by the 

Total bonds 5ind notes $39,242,000 that SO long as the city demands and col- company since its reorganization in 

lects these amounts as taxes the commis- 1912; neither has the company earned 

The bonds of the San Francisco Elec- sion can under the law only allow them interest on its bonded indebtedness of 

trie Railways, $191,000, will be paid for to be charged to operating expenses. $2,000,000 since that date. Interest on 

in cash according to the reorganization This, of course, results in the payment the bonds for the period mentioned was 

plan, as will also the bonds of the being made indirectly by the consumer. $833,333 and net earnings for the period 

Gough Street Railroad, amounting to The rates for gas as fixed under the $722,862, making the deficit $110,471. 

$45,000. The $6,641,000 of Market order are $1.90 gross per 1,000 cu.ft. The company is directed to reinforce 

Street Railway 5 per cent bonds will and $1.80 net, the net rate to apply only its service in the outlying residential 

remain outstanding. to the patron who pays his bill within districts so as to furnish an adequate 

There are $23,500,000 of 4 per cent ten business days after the bill is and even fiow of gas at all times, with 

United Railroads bonds outstanding, rendered. its first available earnings over and 

Under the reorganization plan, the Experts made three estimates of the above the 62 per cent return per annum 

holders of these bonds will receive 15 value of the property of the company, on the investment and the amount set 

per cent in Market Street Railway 5 These were $2,508,665 as historical cost out with which to amortize its losses 

per cent bonds, 50 per cent in prior pref- less depreciation, $3,569,990 as cost to since July 1, 1919, and is to pay no 

erence stock, 5 per cent in preferred reproduce new less depreciation based dividends until this work is finished, 

stock, 10 per cent in second preferred upon average prices for 1915-1919, and The company is directed to establish 

stock and 20 per cent in common stock. $4,655,380 as the cost to reproduce new and maintain a depreciation or renewal 

The holders of United Railroads less depreciation based upon present and replacement reserve, said reserve 

notes and stock totaling $46,613,600, prices. The value as fixed by the com- to be credited each month with t'tr of 1 

will receive of Market Street Railway mission is $2,650,000. per cent of the value of the depreciable 

Company $3,625,000 preferred stock. On this point the commission says property of the company as of April 

$2,550,000 second preferred stock and that the public should not be made to 1, 1920, plus such amounts as have been 

$6,000,000 common stock. bear the entire burden of the abnor- or may be added and minus such 

The commission points out that in mally inflated present day prices of both amounts as have been or may be de- 

1918, the United Railroads reported labor and material as a rate of return ducted after April 1, 1920. 



56 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Receiver in Denver 

Ernest Stenger, Successor to Mr. Hild 
as Operating Head of Tramway, 
Named Under Court's Direction 

On application of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company 
made Dec. 24 Ernest Stenger, president, 
was appointed receiver for the Denver 
(Col.) Tramway by Judge Lewis of 
the Federal court. The application 
was premised on an overdue account 
of the Westinghouse Company for $13,- 
.577 incurred for materials and supplies 
furnished the tramway, which was un- 
able to pay. 

The application for the receiver sets 
out that the company has overdue and 
unpaid bond and note interest aggregat- 
ing $346,800; deliquent and unpaid taxes 
ir Denver County of approximately 
.$95,000; unpaid and overdue accounts 
for materials and supplies in a sum in 
excess of $150,000, and in addition has 
no funds with which to meet taxes, ap- 
proximately $300,000, payable in 1921; 
that the operating expenses, due 
largely to increases in wages of em- 
ployees and costs of materials, during 
the year 1919 were more than 100 per 
cent greater than prior to the war and 
that wage increases alone were more 
than $1,000,000 a year greater than 
before the war, while the fare increase 
had been only 20 per cent, with the re- 
sult that for the year 1920 the com- 
pany's net earnings were less than half 
the fixed charges on the property. 

As a result of these conditions the 
earnings for the year 1920 will be less 
than 3 per cent on the valuation of 
the property as found by the Public 
Utilities Commission of the State of 
Colorado and approved by a committee 
of fifty-five representative citizens of 
Denver. On account of the company's 
inability to obtain higher fares the con- 
tinued operation of the properties as a 
unit and the rendition of proper service 
to the public is seriously threatened 
and crippled and the financial situation 
and conditions are such that the appli- 
cant company felt a receiver should be 
appointed so that the court may fully 
administer the property and funds of 
the company. 

Receiver Stenger made no comments 
on his appointment or the future poli- 
cies of the company other than to say 
that for the present there will be no 
material changes in either the per- 
sonnel of the company or in the com- 
pensation and wages paid. 



100,000,000 Passengers 
During 1920 

One hundred million passengers will 
have been carried over the lines of the 
Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, 
Cal., at the close of the year 1920, 
according to estimate given out by H. 
B. Titcomb, vice-president of the inter- 
urban company. This estimate, Mr. 
Titcomb states, is based on the actual 
volume of traffic that has been handled 
during the first ten months of the cur- 
rent year, and will constitute for the 
year 1920 the greatest volume of busi- 



ness handled in the history of the com- 
pany. The highest previous mark was 
made in 1913. In that year 83,000,000 
passengers were carried. 

While reflective to a degree of the 
greatest increase that has been made 
in the population of Southern Cali- 
fornia, Mr. Titcomb points out that 
comparative figures of the past few 
years cannot be taken as a true index 
of increases in population. This, he ex- 
plains, is due largely to the advent of 
the automobile, which has made heavy 
inroads on electric railway transporta- 
tion. 

The Pacific Electric, it is pointed out, 
up to and including the year 1913, 
showed a steady and consistent increase 
in volume of traflSc handled. Beginning 
with the year 1914, however, the popu- 
larity of the automobile brought about 
a deci-ease in both urban and interurban 
railway traffic which continued until, 
for the year 1918, the volume carried 
over the interurban company's system 
had dropped to a total of ' 77,500,000 
passengers. 

Mr. Titcomb states that the figures of 
the current year are perhaps more tnily 
indicative that the peak in automobile 
transportation has been reached. He is 
of the opinion that rising costs of auto- 
mobiles and of gasoline have been so 
greatly out of proportion to such in- 
creases as have come about in electric 
railway fares that he is firmly of the 
belief that electric railways will have 
little hereafter to fear in obtaining 
their just proportion of the increased 
travel. 



Financial 
News Notes 



St. Paul Valuation Protested 

Exception to the valuation of $11,- 
000,000 placed on the property of the 
St. Paul (Minn.) City Railway and filed 
with the City Council by E. W. Bemis 
is taken by President Horace Lowry, 
of the Twin City Lines, of which the 
St. Paul line is a subsidiary. The com- 
pany has been paying taxes on a valua- 
tion of $16,000,000. Mr. Lowry made a 
statement as follows: 

The Bemis report is apparently very 
carefully prepared, but from the company's 
standpoint we are unable to agree that the 
principles are fair which he has used in 
arriving at his figures. Our valuation of 
the property is pretty well expressed by the 
fact that for several years we have, with- 
out protest, paid taxes on a valuation in 
excess of $16,000,000. It is needless to 
say that if we figured the property to be 
worth less money we would have contested 
paying taxes on this valuation, even to the 
extent of going into the court. 

We have not at hand the full details of 
Dr. Bemis' report, which are promised at 
an early date, but as we interpret it the 
net result of this report is that the com- 
pany is not at this time even earning the 
return on the low valuation of $11,000,000, 
which he has placed on the property, and 
that the company cannot be expected to 
make any extensions or undertake any 
reconstruction or paving until conditions 
are changed through a readjustment of the 
rate of fare. 

Dr. Bemis feels that a few more weeks 
should elapse in order to analyze the earn- 
ings and expenses under the present 6-cent 
fare and at that time proposes to re-open 
the entire question and states that at that 
time he will make a definite recommenda- 
tion as to the rate of fare and return on 
the investment. 

At that time the entire question will be 
re-opened and our company will be pre- 
pared to present to the St. Paul City Coun- 
cil its valuation of the property. We be- 
lieve we can establish a value materially 
in excess of that proposed by Dr. Bemis. 



Sale of Real Estate Postponed. — Sale 
of the real estate of the New York (N. 
Y.) Railways under foreclosure of the 
first real estate and refunding mort- 
gage, has been postponed until Feb. 2, 
1921, to await action in the United 
States District Court. 

Vermont Company to Increase Stock. 

— The Burlington Traction Company, 
Burlington, Vt., has voted to increase 
its capital stock from $200,000 to $400,- 
000. The company has filed with the 
Secretary of State a certificate certi- 
fying that the additional will consist 
of 2,000 shares of a par value of $100 
each. 

Sale for Taxes Threatened. — Harvey 
P. Cole, collector of taxes for the town 
of Williamstown, has announced that 
property owned by the Berkshire Street 
Railway at Williamstown, Mass., will 
be off"ered for sale at public auction on 
Jan. 8, for the purpose of obtaining 
payment of taxes owed the town by the 
company. The amount is $1,216, cover- 
ing a period of three years. 

Change in Tax Basis Suggested. — 

One of the measures of relief under 
consideration by Congress for exten- 
sion to the Washington Railway & 
Electric Company and other lines in the 
District of Columbia is the placing of a 
tax on the net earnings of the railways 
instead of on the gross earnings as at 
present. This, it is estimated, would 
relieve the Washington Railway & Elec- 
tric Company of $300,000 in charges. 

Equipment Notes for One Car. — The 
Department of Public Utilities of Mass- 
achusetts has authorized the receiver of 
the Brockton & Plymouth Street Rail- 
way, Plymouth, Mass., to issue thirty- 
six notes aggregating $6,360 for the 
purpose of purchasing a one-man car 
under a conditional sale contract, the 
notes to mature at monthly intervals 
and to be in addition to a cash payment 
already made in connection with the 
purchase. 

Receiver in Raleigh. — J. R. Baggett, 
Wilmington, N. C, has been appointed 
temporary receiver of the Cumberland 
Railway & Power Company, Raleigh, 
N. C. After a meeting with the direc- 
tors of the company Mr. Baggett issued 
a statement to the effect that with 
co-operation on the part of officers, di- 
rectors and bondholders the outlook was 
good for placing the properties on a 
paying basis. 

Plum Island Line to Be Abandoned. — 

Operation of the Plum Island division 
of the Massachusetts Northeastern 
Street Railway, Haverhill, Mass., will 
be suspended at once, it is announced, 
and the tracks taken up. The line con- 
nects Newburyport and the island and 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



57 



is the only means of communication for 
the large number of cottagers who 
spend the summer at the island. It has 
not paid expenses for some time. 

A $1,500,000 Tax Levy Proposed. — 
A bill recently introduced in the City 
Council of Seattle, Wash., by Council- 
man Carroll, provides for an annual 
tax levy of not to exceed $1,500,000 to 
aid in the maintenance and operation 
of the Seattle Municipal Railway. It 
provides for submission of the question 
to the voters at the general election 
on March 8. The bill was referred to 
the committee of the whole. 

Losing $2,000 a Day.— The United 
Traction Company, Albany, N. Y., is 
now operating at a loss of $2,000 a 
day, according to a recent statement 
by the company. The deficit for the 
eleven months ending Nov. 30 is more 
than $371,000, and the accumulated 
deficit to that date amounts to nearly 
$700,000. The company some time ago 
applied to the Public Service Commis- 
sion for the Second District for author- 
ity to raise its fare from 7 cents to 
10 cents. 

Webster-Putnam Service to Stop. — 
The Webster-Dudley Chamber of Com- 
merce has received a letter from the 
Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street 
Railway and the Connecticut Company 
stating that the lines between the towns 
of Webster and Putnam are not to be 
continued. Both companies claim that 
the present income on lines in the ter- 
ritory adjacent to Putnam is not pro- 
ducing enough revenue to pay wages of 
operation. 

Local Lines at Findley Appraised at 
$206,493. — The city system of the To- 
ledo, Bowling Green & Southern Trac- 
tion Company at Findlay, Ohio, is worth 
$206,493, according to a report filed by 
appraisers of the State Public Utilities 
Commission. The appraisers report will 
be used in drafting a service-at-cost 
franchise to supplant the present fran- 
chise, under which the company claims 
it is losing money. An application to 
discontinue service is now pending be- 
fore the utilities commission. 

How One Municipal Line Makes a 
Showing. — Through the charging of in- 
adequate fares on the so-called Civic 
Lines, the city of Toronto, Ont., has 
been responsible for annual deficits 
ranging from $78,000 to $146,000, 
Thomas Bradshaw, ex-finance commis- 
sioner of Toronto, told the Chartered 
Accountants' Students' Association of 
Ontario. These deficits have been 
charged up against the general tax 
rate. In addition, the city has failed 
to provide for depreciation or taxes on 
the property. 

Mayor Approves Mr. Feustel's Re- 
tention. — Mayor Moore of Philadelphia, 
Pa., has signed a contract with Robert 
M. Feustel, for services in preparing 
and presenting before the Public Serv- 
ice Commission the city's case in the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 
valuation proceedings. Mr. Feustel was 
engaged by the Department of City 
Transit as the city's representative in 



checking up the inventory and valua- 
tion of the i-ailway property. Refer- 
enc to the appointment was made in 
the Electric Railway Journal for Oct. 
9, page 738. 

Bonds Extended with Increase in In- 
terest. — The Department of Public 
Utilities of Massachusetts has approved 
the extension of maturity date for five 
years from Jan. 3, 1921, of the $115,000 
twenty-year first mortgage 5 per cent 
gold coupon bonds assumed by the 
Worcester Consolidated Street Railway 
from the Worcester & Clinton Street 
Railway. The interest rate is increased 
to 7 per cent. The existing financial 
conditions pi'evented refunding by a 
new issue, and the increase in the inter- 
est rate is necessary to secure the con- 
sent of noteholders to the extension. 

New Hampshire Town Votes to Buy 
Road. — The citizens of Hampton, N. H., 
have voted to purchase the Exeter, 
Hampton & Amesbui-y Street Railway, 
at a cost not to exceed $80,000, with the 
understanding that if the road failed to 
pay expenses the town of Exeter would 
make an annual contribution of $2,500 
for a term of five years. The x'oad con- 
nects Hampton with Exeter, Hampton 
Falls, Hampton Beach and Smithtown 
in N. H., and Amesbury, Mass., oper- 
ation being over about 20 miles of 
track. It was built in 1897. 

Unscrambling Impossible. — State 
Public Utilities Commissioner Joseph 
W. Alsop, in an address at Hartford 
on Dec. 20, said that the "unscrambling 
of the Connecticut Company is impos- 
sible under the trusteeship plan." He 
said that the company did an entirely 
intrastate business, but was virtually 
not under the control of the State be- 
cause of its management by federal 
trustees. He stated $40,000,000 in stock 
certificates was represented in the Con- 
necticut Company and it would be im- 
possible under the trusteeship for the 
trustees to sell the road. 

Hyde Park Bill Passed by House. — 
The Massachusetts House has passed 
to be engrossed a bill authorizing the 
Boston Elevated Railway to begin oper- 
ation at once on the Eastern Massa- 
chusetts Street Railway lines in Hyde 
Park. The bill provides a payment of 
$30,000 by the city of Boston to the 
Boston Elevated Railway in order that 
tracks approaching Hyde Park Avenue 
may be put in satisfactory condition, 
and the city also guarantees to make up 
any deficit in operating expenses on the 
new line. The city has been ready to 
pay this money for months, but was un- 
able to do so because of irregularities 
in a bill passed in the regular session. 
These irregularities are corrected in 
the new bill. 

Decrease Reported in Spokane in No- 
vember. — Despite the fact that 72,044 
more passengers were carried by the 
Washington Water Power Company on 
its city lines in Spokane, Wash., in 
November, 1920, than in the same 
month of 1919, the net revenue de- 
clined practically $5,000 according to 
the report made to Mayor Fleming. 
The gross receipts increased from $55,- 



$86,886 to $90,531 while operating ex- 
penses increased from $55,156 to $62,- 
147. The income with the operation 
charges deducted was $28,383 last 
month as against $31,729 in the same 
month last year. Taxes and replace- 
ment reserve last month were $21,- 
272 as compared with $19,724. The 
net earnings last month were $7,111 
and in November, 1919, $12,005. 

Standard Traction Absorbed. — The 

Dallas (Tex.) Railway efi'ective on Dec. 
1, took over the Standard Traction 
Company, which had been operating in 
the Mount Auburn and Parkview addi- 
tions to the city, connecting with the 
lines of the Dallas Railway, to which 
transfers were issued. Under the new 
arrangement through service will be- 
operated fi'oni the business district on 
both lines with new one-man cars. 
Twelve of the new cars will be used and 
a 7i minute schedule will be main- 
tained. The Standard Traction Com- 
pany agreed to turn over to the Dallas 
Railway its property and bonus of $30,- 
000 cash offered for the construction of 
a line to the two additions via Lindsley 
Avenue. The Dallas Railway has ac- 
cepted this offer contingent on the city 
granting a new franchise. The pro- 
posed line would cost about $100,000. 

Rental Case to Be Appealed. — Berne 
H. Evans, counsel for the Public Serv- 
ice Commission of Pennsylvania has an- 
nounced that the commission would join 
with the city and business associations 
in an appeal to the Supreme Court from: 
the decision x'endered by the Superior 
Court in the case of the rentals of the 
underlying companies included in the 
system of the Philadelphia Rapid Tran- 
sit Company. The Superior Court set 
aside an order of the Public Service 
Commission which required the under- 
lying companies to reply to the com- 
plaint that the rentals they received 
from the Philadelphia Rapid Tiansit 
Company were "excessive and unjust." 
The Public Service Commission, it was 
announced, will defend the right of the 
commission to regulate rentals that 
have a direct bearing on the rate of 
fare exacted from the public by the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. 

Court to Fix Priority of Liens. — In 

the United States court at Savannah- 
Judge Beverly D. Evans heard the in- 
tervention of the city of Brunswick, 
Ga., in the case of the Columbia Trust 
Company vs. the City & Suburban Rail- 
way, under which the railway at Bruns- 
wick was placed in the hands of a 
receiver about a year ago. The inter- 
vention was for the purpose of having 
the railway's pro rata part of paving- 
costs on streets occupied by its tracks 
declared a lien on its property. After 
a short hearing on the intervention 
Judge Evans announced that he would 
take the matter under advisement and 
render his decision later. There was 
a general discussion of the affairs of 
the railway, which has been operated 
at a loss. Various suggestions were 
made to solve the question so that there 
might be no necessity for scrapping 
the system. 



58 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 







• 


Traffi 


c and Trail 


[sportation 



Autos Killed 7,969 

Deaths Resulting from Automobile Ac- 
cidents in Territory Registered by 
Census Shows Increase 

A total of 3,808 persons were killed 
in automobile accidents or died as a 
result of such accidents in sixty-six of 
the larger cities of the country in 1919, 
according to a compilation recently 
made public by the Bureau of the Cen- 
sus, Department of Commerce, Wash- 
ington, D. C. The total number of 
deaths resulting from automobile acci- 
dents throughout the territory regis- 
tered by the Census Bureau, represent- 
ing about 80 per cent of the population 
of the United States, was 7,969. The 
rate per 100,000 of population in the 
registration area has not been deter- 
mined, but the rate for the sixty-six 
cities is placed at 14.1. 

Alarming Increase Shown 

The Census Bureau's statement points 
out that this death rate of 14.1 for the 
cities represents an increase over that 
for every year since 1915, when the rate 
was 8.0 per 100,000, and an increase of 
245 in the total number of deaths over 
1918. It declares that the number of 
persons killed each year in automobile 
accidents has reached alarming propor- 
tions, and urges that prompt measures 
be taken to protect pedestrians from 
reckless motorists. The following sug- 
gestions are made for reducing the 
number of accidents: 

1 \t street crossings the erection of 
curised safety islands, which, at the most 
dangerous spots, should be very close 
together. 

2 Construction of additional crossings 
in the middle of blocks, where automobiles 
can approach from only two directions. 

3. Demonstration of great skill m driv- 
ing each machine before granting a driver s 
license for that machine. 

4. Reduction of the speed limit, espe- 
cially at crossings. . 

5. Fine, revoking of license, and impris- 
onment, each to have its place as an acl^ual 
penalty." 

Referring to the increase in the num- 
ber of fatalities, the bureau's statement 
says: 

Each year the death rates from auto- 
mobile accidents are higher than the rates 
of the previous year. Each year it becomes 
more and more dangerous for a person to 
walk the streets. The reason usually given, 
and probably the correct one, is that the 
number of automobiles in use is constantly 
increasing. How then shall this ever in- 
creasing danger be lessened? The obvious 
remedy is to improve constantly the traffic 
regulations to keep pace with the ever in- 
creasing number of automobiles. 

Stricter Regulation Needed 

This call for better and better traffic 
regulations is not a fanciful one. Everyone 
is familiar with the necessity for slow and 
orderly progress when a crowd emerges 
from a circus tent and, similarly, auto- 
mobile traffic must be slowed down and 
controlled until it becomes safe. 

The 1919 rates for Kansas City, Mo.. San 
Antonio and Cleveland — all much lower 
than for 1918 — furnish a ray of hope that 
we are finally waking up. 

The tendency of some writers to exon- 
erate automobile drivers and to place the 



blame of accidents upon pedestrians indi- 
cates lack of a full comprehension of the 
jiroblems involved. 

The teaching of caution is admirable and 
in time pedestrians will undoubtedly be- 
come more and more careful, but there will 
always be on our streets the person who 
misjudged the speed of an approaching 
automobile and becoming confused knows 
not which way to go ; there will always be 
the child who has not yet acquired the 
ultra-cautious habit, and there will always 
be old people who cannot hear and see so 
well as they used to and who are not so 
keen and active as they once were. The 
preaching of more caution to these people 
will never be sufficient. They must be pro- 
tected bv additional safeguards, and city 
governments which will continue to make 
their traffic regulations more and more 
rigid till they can point to low death rates 
from automo"biIe accidents will deserve the 
commendation of all thoughtful people. 

Youngstown's Rate 28.5 Per 100,000 

Youngstown, Ohio, heads the list of 
sixty-six cities in the automobile death 
rate with 28.5 per 100,000, but shows 
a decrease from the previous year, 
when the rate was 31.9. Richmond, Va., 
had the lowest rate with 5.9, but showed 
a slight increase over 1918, when it was 
5.4. New York had the largest total 
number of deaths with 780, an increase 
of 89 over the previous year and more 
than double the number in 1915. New 
York's automobile death rate was 14 
per 100,000 persons. Chicago's total 
deaths numbered 328, an increase of 37, 
with a death rate of 12.3. 

Statistics compiled by the bureau for 
other cities of 250,000 or more popula- 
tion follow: 

Philadelphia total 191, decrease 35, rate 
1116; Detroit 139. increase 14, rate 14.4; 
Cleveland 126 decrease 42, rate 16.0; St. 
Louis 105, increase 12, rate 13,7 ; Boston 
125 increase 17, rate 16,8; Baltimore 106, 
increase 4, rate 14,6; Pittsburgh 94, de- 
crease 11, rate 16,1 ; Los Angeles 119, in- 
crease 28. rate 21,1 ; San Francisco 8o, in- 
crease 11. rate 16.9 ; Buffalo 68. decrease 22, 
rate 13.6; Milwaukee 60, increase 12, rate 
13.2; Washington 58, increase 4, rate 13.4; 
Newark 82, increase 20, rate 20,0 ; Cin- 
cinnati 67, increase 8, rate 16.7 ; New 
Orlean.5 36, increase 8, rate 9,4; Minneap- 
olis 38, decrease 5, rate 10.1 ; Kansas City, 
Mo 42, decrease 22, rate 13.1 ; Seattle aO, 
increase 10, rate 16.0; Indianapolis 26. de- 
crease 1, rate 8.4 ; Jersey City 40, increase 
10 rate 13,5 ; Rochester 32. increase i, 
rate 1".9 ; Portland. Ore.. 31, no change, 
rate 12 1; Denver 41. decrease 2, rate 16.1. 



Five Cents a Mile 

The Public Service Commission for 
the Second District has authorized the 
Southern New York Power & Railway 
Corporation, Cooper stown, N. Y., to file 
a new passenger tariff, effective on five 
days' notice, establishing cash, ticket 
and mileage fares at rates not exceed- 
ing 5 cents a mile for travel between 
Mohawk and Oneonta, excepting in 
Oneonta. If the company discontinues 
the sale of mileage books now in use or 
increases the mileage rate, outstanding 
mileage books will be redeemed if pre- 
sented for redemption before the ex- 
piration of the book. The increase au- 
thorized is for one year or until another 
order by the commission makes the rate 
inoperative. 



Seattle Increase Soon 

Municipal Railway Will Raise Token 
Rates on Jan. 8- — One Councilman 
Proposes Free Rides 

Token fares on the lines of the 
Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Railway will 
be increased from 61 cents to 83 cents 
on Jan. 8 by the terms of an ordinance 
recently passed by the City Council. 
The new rates provide a cash fare of 
10 cents as at present; token fares, 8i 
cents or three for 25 cents, six for 50 
cents and twelve for $1. Fares for 
school children remain at the present 
rate: single cash fare, 3 cents; cash 
fare for two children, 5 cents; school 
tickets, ten for 25 cents, or 21 cents 
each. Former service men under juris- 
diction of the Federal Board for Voca- 
tional Training will pay the same rates 
as school children. 

Passengers who pay cash, tokens, or 
school-ticket fares will be entitled to 
transfer privileges, except that trans- 
fers will be issued to the Seattle & 
Ranier Valley Railway only upon pay- 
ment of the cash fare of 10 cents. An 
additional fare will be charged on the 
Highland Park and Lake Burien line 
operated by the city for transportation 
to points outside the city limits, accord- 
ing to D. W. Henderson, superintendent 
of the municipal railway system. 

Mr. Henderson estimates that the in- 
creased fares will bring the municipal 
system to a point where there will be 
a surplus of $230,000 at the end of 
1921. The estimate is based on the 
assumption that the average number 
of passengers a month in 1921 under 
the increased fare will be 7,366,634, 
the average number which rode on the 
car lines in August, September and 
October of this year. 

Free Rides Suggested 

A proposal will shortly be submitted 
to the City Council by Councilman 
Oliver T. Erickson, chairman of the 
judiciary committee, providing for the 
establishment of a 2J-cent or 3-cent 
fare on the Seattle Municipal Rail- 
way and for the eventual doing away 
with fares entirely. Mr. Erickson has 
asked the Corporation Counsel to pre- 
pare an amendment to the city charter 
to put his plan in operation. 

Mr. Erickson says the fare would in- 
clude not more than Ih cents to be set 
aside in an extension and depreciation 
reserve fund for extensions and track 
and equipment purposes, to be expended 
by the Council. All other costs of oper- 
ation and maintenance would be paid 
from the general fund, increasing the 
general tax levy about 2 per cent. 
With the retirement of all outstand 
ing bonds and debts, the collection ot 
this fare would be discontinued, and 
all costs of construction, operating and 
maintenance paid from the general 
fund. Mr. Erickson has long been in- 
terested in municipal ownership of the 
traction system. He believes that the 
time is approaching when the payment 
of fares on municipal transportation 
systems must go the way of tolls on 
roads and bridges. 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



59 



One Cent for Transfers in Indianapolis 

Commission Grants Railway an Additional Charge for Trial Period — 
Company Looks for $150,000 Increase in Revenue 

The Indianapolis (Ind.) Street Railway on Dec. 20 began charging 1 cent for 
each transfer, in accordance with an order of the State Public Service Commis- 
sion issued on Dec. 18. The 1-cent transfer charge was authorized by the com- 
mission for a trial period of seventy-one days. In its order the commission 
intimated that, if the results of operation under the new plan proved unsatis- 
factory, further relief would be forthcoming. The basic nickel fare was retained 
as being in the best interest of the community. The company had applied for a 
2-cent transfer charge and for an increase in the amounts paid it for the 
use of the city tracks and for terminal facilities by the interurbans entering 
Indianapolis. Hearings on the original and supplementary petitions were held 
by the commission, as reported in the issue for Dec. 18, page 1262. It is 
estimated by the commission that the 1-cent transfer charge will add $182,000 
a year to the revenues of the company. The company's estimate is approxi- 
mately $150,000. 



IN granting the 1-cent charge the 
commission stated that it sought the 
most equitable method of relieving 
the company. With reference to its 
policy toward the city and the railway, 
it said: 

The company, from the standpoint of its 
financial organization and fixed charges, is 
on a safe and sound basis. For more than 
two years the company has been very 
closely regulated by this commission. 
Methods of operation have been changed at 
the direction of the commission. Economies 
and efficiencies have been effected and 
adopted. Under orders of this commission, 
great improvement in service has been 
made. New equipment has been added, and 
the service of the company greatly im- 
proved. Needed extensions of lines have 
been made at the request of this commis- 
sion. For more than two years this com- 
pany has made every effort to conform to 
its obligations as an agency of public 
service. * ♦ * The citizens of Indianap- 
olis, by the economies and management of 
the company, have been saved millions of 
dollars in street car fares as compared to 
the citizens of the large number of other 
similar sized cities in the United States. 
Commission Backs Railway 

In view of all this the commission 
desires to emphasize the fact that during 
the period of its jurisdiction it intends to 
stand behind this company to the full ex- 
tent of the commission's power to maintain 
the solvency and credit of the company and 
to protect its property and interests, pro- 
vided that the company continues to ex- 
ercise its best efforts to meet the legitimate 
demands of the public. 

The commission also finds it desirable to 
state to the city that its legitimate needs 
may be taken care of. The commission will 
recognize, and in revenues provide for, cur- 
rent market rates for money so demanded 
lor public use. * * * 

The responsibility having been placed on 
the commission by mandate, the commis- 
sion may not sit idly by if unwarranted 
demands are made either in the matter of 
extensions and improvements or rates for 
money. * * * 

The commission states that it has 
accepted for its guidance for emer- 
gency purposes, "the broad latitude or 
value between $14,000,000 and $16,- 
000,000." In submitting, in 1920, a 
service-at-cost proposal, the city of In- 
•dianapolis offered to agree, for such 
purposes, to a value of $15,000,000. On 
a 7 per cent basis, $15,000,000 valuation 
would have called for fixed charges of 
$1,050,000, as compared with $989,380. 
In its proposal for service at cost the 
city included as a part of the cost of 
service a return on the value of the 
property put to public use. The 
commission, therefore considers itself 
"amply assured that no unfair burden 



is placed on the public served if recog- 
nized as valid and justified the listed 
$989,360 of fixed charges for 1921." 

After reviewing the results obtained 
by the railway under the basic nickel 
fare, the commission continues: 

Having accomplished these remarkable 
results, it is not wisdom for the utility, 
city, or the commission to depart from such 
policies. It may be that a 2-cent transfer, 
or even a higher basic fare will be proven 
to be necessary, but the commission is of 
the opinion that, especially under this inter- 
locutory order, the possibilities of the 1-cent 
transfer sliould be ascertained in a brief 
experimental period extending through Jan- 
uary and February. It is possible that new 
conditions affecting both operating costs 
and revenues may be more clearly discerned 
and understood early in the year 1921. 

The commission, in the order issued 
on Dec. 18, does not pass on the sup- 
plementary petition which raised the 
question as to whether the interurban 
companies are paying enough to the 
local company for power, track rental 
and terminal facilities. It found this 
question too complicated and the evi- 
dence too incomplete to pass upon at 
this time. It is intimated that a tech- 
nical investigation may be ordered by 
the commission. The commission found 
that the local freight terminal facilities 
were inadequate, and has ordered the 
Indianapolis Street Railway to submit 
on or before Feb. 1, next, plans for im- 
provements to be carried out by itself 
or the interurban companies. 



Another Vote on Duluth Fare 

By a vote of three to two the Council 
of Duluth, Minn., on Dec. 24 adopted a 
resolution authorizing a special election 
to be held on Feb. 3, when the citizens 
will again vote on an ordinance to grant 
the Duluth Street Railway a 6-cent fare. 
The proposed ordinance provides that it 
will be inopei-ative after two years from 
its adoption by the people, and may be 
terminated after one year. In brief, it 
provides for a 6-cent fare, for continu- 
ation of the present wage schedule of 
the railway's employees, for an im- 
proved service schedule and for the 
company to make such street improve- 
ments, as are in the opinion of the City 
Council found necessary. 

The City Council also adopted a reso- 



lution placing the entire burden of the 
election and its incidental expenses 
upon the company and requiring the 
latter to deposit a check for $4,000 with, 
the City Treasurer before Dec. 30 as a 
guarantee. The expenses of the election 
were estimated at $3,500. 

The Council recently decided to force 
the railway to improve its service under 
sections nine and eleven of its fran- 
chise, which provide the city with power 
to regulate operation and management 
of the lines and to prescribe the number 
of cars which shall operate over any 
line. City Attorney John E. Samuelson 
had previously advised the Council that 
the company's complaint that it could 
give no better service on a 5-cent fare 
was not a valid excuse and that the 
company should fulfill its contract. 



Railway Should Operate Buses, 
Says Connecticut Official 

Operation by the Connecticut Com- 
pany, of buses to supplement its trol- 
ley service was advocated by Lieuten- 
ant-Governor Clifford B. Wilson of 
Connecticut in an address at a recent 
meeting of the Get-Together Club of 
Hartford. The Lieutenant Governor, 
who is also Mayor of Bridgeport, de- 
clared that in time motor buses might 
replace the present electric railway sys- 
tem, but that, since the transportation 
business is monopolistic by nature, de- 
velopment of the bus idea should be un- 
dertaken by the railway. 

It was pointed out at the meeting 
that the incoming Legislature would 
be called upon to abolish the state tax 
on gross receipts, paving taxes and 
the bridge taxes. Harrison B. Free- 
man, receiver of the Hartford & Spring- 
field Street Railway, stated that a 10- 
cent fare was "about the limit" and 
that it was inadvisable to raise the 
rate above that point. 

Public Utilities Commissioner Joseph 
W. Alsop told the gathering that the 
Connecticut Company's system cannot 
be split up as long as the company is in 
control of ti-ustees appointed by a Fed- 
eral court. In pointing out the status 
of the company, Commissioner Alsop 
said that the company did an entirely 
intra-state business but was virtually 
not under the control of the state be- 
cause of its management by the trustees. 

Lieutenant Governor Wilson summed 
up his remedies for the state's trans- 
portation situation as follows: 

1. Retain the corporate entity of the 
trolley company. " 

,.K^ep your transportation system mo- 
'•ontrot ^'''^ proper regulation and 

motor^ buses."''' company to operate 

tr-^u h'^K period of transition from the 
trolley to the motor bus be gradual as it 
IS inevitable. 

^'^^"^'f exi-ierience of each community 
S'stem° destiny of its transportation 

wholf state.' ''"'"^ 

7. Let suburban lines be actually what 
they were intended to be, namely, com- 
petitors of steam roads, placing them on a 
mileage basis if necessary. 

8 Readjust the system of state taxation 
;md permit the towns to assess along with 
(>tlu-r property an equal proportion of the 
imrdeiis of the town in which the physical 
properties of the company are located 



60 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Safety Preached in Schools 

The public school safety campaign 
is again on in Portland, Ore., under the 
direction of the National Safety Coun- 
cil. Co-operating in this work is the 
Portland Railway, Light & Power 
Company, which has heartily approved 
of the methods and plans of Portland's 
public schools in the campaign for the 
conservation of human life. 

Much has been said regarding the 
efficient manner in which the pupils 
liave been instructed in "safety first" 
(luring- the past ten years in that city, 
but a departure was instituted this year 



by putting into each school a traffic- 
accident chart illustrated in the accom- 
panying engraving. This chart is pre- 
sented to the school by the "prominent" 
citizen giving the lecture on safety 
with the admonition to the pupils to 
"keep the slate clean." 

The chart is provided with circles in 
which red discs will be placed whenever 
there is an accident to a school child. 
These red discs are the size of the 
circles and will be printed with the 
name of the school to which the un- 
fortunate pupil belonged and the date 
of the accident. The discs will be sent 
out from the office of the superintend- 
ent of schools vdth instructions to paste 
them on the chart. The school whose 
name appears on the disc will attach 
it in the circles reserved for that 
school, otherwise it would be pasted 
below. Information of a safety nature 
appears in the chart. 



Much interest is manifested by prin- 
cipals and pupils to "keep the slate 
clean" and the psychological effect upon 
the child, as he examines the chart 
daily, is a constant reminder to him. 

This chart was produced under the 
direction of Harry P. Coffin, manager 
of the public safety section of the Na- 
tional Safety Council, Oregon Division. 



Seven Cents in Birmingham 

Acting on the petition of Lee C. 
Bradley, receiver of the Birmingham 
Railway, Light & Power Company, 
Birmingham, Ala., the State Public 



Service Commission on Dec. 22 author- 
ized an increase in fare to 7 cents on 
the Birmingham lines beginning Jan. 1. 

The increase in fares was vigorously 
I'esisted by the City Commission. J. 
Ellis Brown, Commissioner of Public 
Utilities of the city of Birmingham, 
stated, following the announcement of 
the decision, that the city will ask for 
a reduction of fare to 6 cents. 

Under the terms of the commission's 
order the 7-cent fare was granted for 
a period of one year. The petition of 
the receiver asked for the increase as 
an emergency measure. He showed at 
a hearing before the Public Service 
Commission on Dec. 21, that the com- 
pany had been largely increased under 
the receivership. 

The city of Birmingham maintained 
that the company was not entitled to 
the increase as a matter of "right." It 
showed that the receiver had "in- 



herited" a number of debts when he 
took over the property, and niaintained 
that while he had largely increased the 
indebtedness, the money expended had 
been used for capital investments. The 
city maintained that the 6-cent fare, 
which has been in effect for about a 
year, would give a proper return on the 
investment and claimed that the debts- 
for what the city claimed were capital 
investments, should be paid by the own- 
ers of the property. 

Immediately following the announce- 
ment of the decision granting the com- 
pany the right to charge a 7-cent fare, 
J. S. Pevear, general manager of the 
company, stated that everything was iii' 
readiness to put the increased rate in 
effect. The only formality necessary 
was an order of Judge W. I. Grubb. 

Estimates by city officials place the- 
aded revenue, which will result from 
the increase, at $300,000 per year. 



Inter urban Decision Deferred 

In awarding the 1-cent transfer 
charge to the Indianapolis Street Rail- 
way, the Public Service Commission of" 
Indiana has authorized the Union Trac- 
tion Company of Indiana to increase the 
fare between Indianapolis and Broad- 
ripple from 5 to 10 cents. Fares for 
rides between the down-town district 
and Forty-sixth Street, which is over- 
the tracks owned by the Indianapolis 
Street Railway, -will remain at 5 cents,, 
and from Forty-sixth Street to Broad- 
ripple (over tracks owned by the Union 
Traction Company) the fare will also 
remain at 5 cents. Tickets -wall be sold 
at six for 50 cents. This order is effec- 
tive Jan. 1. Petitions of the interurban 
companies for increased fares -within 
the city were continued by the commis- 
sion to provide time for readjustment 
of contract relations with the city. 

The commission finds that the prac- 
tice of the interurban companies in 
charging a city fare of 5 cents while 
at the same time interurban passengers 
are charged a fare of 3 cents a mile 
in the case of regular passengers and' 
1.78 cents a mile in the case of com- 
muters, is discriminatory in favor of ' 
the city passenger. The commission 
also holds that the evidence does not 
disclose any essential difference in 
transportation over mileage -within and' 
without the city which could be ex- 
pected to be reflected in the rate, and' 
that therefore the discrimination can- 
not be removed by reducing the inter-- 
urban fare within the city. 

The commission states that the 5-cent 
fare has been charged because of a 
franchise agreement with the city of 
Indianapolis which is still in force. 
Because of the fact that the interurban 
companies have not surrendered their 
franchises as provided by law the com- 
mission holds that its jurisdiction is 
debatable. Therefore the commission 
believes that these interurban compa- 
nies should go to the city officials and 
endeavor to have the provisions of their 
franchise changed so as to permit of 
the charging of a higher-fare.- 



PORTLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

Traffic Accident Chart 

1920-1921 

SAFETY FIRST! STOP! LOOK! LISTEN! 

Lei us put the Axe in iccideiils by Keeping this Slate Clean 

RcillC^lllIjfr ^ in a circle l)elow represents an 

accident to a j)U|>il of the sehool indicated thereon 

HoUaday School 

oooo 

All Other Schools 




Let no Red Blot mar this Escutcheun 
OLmtvc ihc ruli'^ ibr your ^iicly. fVevrr cn»s> tin- sircet bofore lookin*: lM»tii \va\5 and tlu-ii tn\\\ at rejjuJar era 
Avoid jumping on nio\ ing strct-t can or liitiliiji;: <m anlonioliili -. 
Playinp on unroped strtx-I^ mav caUM' \oii an ar< idi-nl. 

REMEMBER llial an ounce of forctiic/u^fil i- «..rlli several |Hnnid> "I Mdi-laiilial n-r. l. 

He is frt'r friim lUiUfivr ii lio. tn'ii ivlicn mi/c. i> on his nunrd. — CVRl'S 
TRAFFIC-ACCIDENT CHART FOR USE IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



■January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



61 



fransportation 
News Notes 



Parents Asked to Warn Children. — 
The Duluth (Minn.) Street Railway is 
conducting- an advertising campaign in 
the local newspapers to educate the 
public against coasting accidents. The 
ads call attention to the fact that coast- 
ing accidents have already occurred 
and that narrow escapes are reported 
daily. Parents are asked to warn 
their children against coasting across 
car tracks. 

Wants More in Ithaca. — The Ithaca 
(N. Y.) Traction Company has applied 
to the Public Service Commission, Sec- 
ond District, for authority to charge a 
fare of 10 cents in all municipalities in 
which it operates, effective on short 
notice. The company submits state- 
ments and alleges that the present 
7-cent fare is insufficient to yield rea- 
sonable compensation for the service 
rendered. 

Must Charge 5 Cents. — Judge J. B. 
Hutcheson has denied a motion of coun- 
sel for the Georgia Railway & Power 
Company, Atlanta, Ga., for a writ of 
supersedeas to allow the company to 
raise its fare from 5 cents to 7 cents 
on its line in Decatur. Some time ago 
Judge Hutcheson enjoined the company 
from charging a 7-cent fare and giving 
passengers 2-cent rebate receipts, as is 
being done in College Pai'k under the 
terms of a supei'sedeas issued by Judge 
Pendleton. 

Central Association Reissues Tariffs. 
— The Central Electric Traffic Associa- 
tion is reissuing theatrical baggage 
tariffs with additional rules and change 
of rates. Joint passenger tariffs in In- 
diana are also being reissued to conform 
to change in rates, later to be followed 
by reissuance of passenger tariffs in 
Ohio; and after the reissuance of these 
tariffs, the interstate passenger tariffs 
will be reissued to conform to recent 
rate raises which have been general all 
over the country. It is planned to 
reissue the Central Electric Railway 
equipment register early in 1921. Joint 
local storage tariffs will shortly be re- 
issued also. 

Ten Cents in Vancouver. — The Wash- 
ington Public Service Commission has 
authorized the North Coast Power Com- 
pany, Vancouver, to put into effect a 
10-cent fare on its Vancouver city 
lines with commutation books of eleven 
tickets for $1. The fare has been 7 
cents. In promulgating the order the 
commission took occasion to review the 
general situation with respect tp street 
railway companies, pointing out that 
companies everywhere are in a bad way 
financially, "due principally to the com- 
petition of automobiles, both private 
and for hire, and the only method by 



which the companies can secure a suffi- 
cient return to justify their continued 
existence is through increased fares." 

Delays Final Action on Parking. — • 
The new traffic ordinance for Chicago, 
111., in which it was proposed wholly to 
prohibit all parking of vehicles on any 
of the streets in the "Loop" district be- 
tween the hours of 7 a.m. and 6: 30 p.m., 
has been tabled. The bill was recently 
passed by the City Council. Later 
Mayor Thompson referred it back to 
the Council and asked for its recon- 
sidei-ation. The Council referred it 
back to the committee on local trans- 
portation, where it originated. This is 
considered to have virtually killed the 
bill. Pending final settlement of the 
parking problem the present ordinance 
which limits parking to a 30-minute pe- 
riod will be enforced by the chief of 
police. At the end of the month he 
will report to the committee on the 
advisability of re-passing the proposed 
no-parking ordinance. 

Service Restored Pending Fare De- 
cision. — Normal street car service has 
been re-established in the cities of 
Syracuse and Utica by the New York 
State Railways. Mayor Harry H. Farmer 
of Syracuse and Mayor James K. 
O'Connor of Utica made application to 
the Public Service Commission, Sec- 
ond District, for a restoration of service, 
which was granted in each case. The 
company resumed old schedules and 
took back all of the men recently re- 
lieved from duty, pending action by the 
commission on the application for a 10- 
cent fare in both Syracuse and Utica. 
The company is charging 6 cents in 
both cities. It claims this rate to be 
inadequate. The service was curtailed 
because of the refusal of the municipal- 
ities to allow the railway to increase 
the rate. The Common Council of 
Syracuse recently rejected a plan for 
the drafting of a service-at-cost ordi- 
nance for the Syracuse lines. 

Eight Cents in Auburn. — The Public 
Service Commission, Second District, 
has authorized the Auburn & Syracuse 
Electric Railroad, Auburn, N. Y., to 
charge until Dec. 31, 1921, an 8-cent 
fare in Auburn, a 10-cent fare between 
Auburn and the Soule Cemetery, and 
between Auburn and the South Street 
on its Owasco Lake line, with transfer 
privileges; and outside of the city 
limits on the Soule Cemetery, South 
Street or Owasco Lake lines, 5 cents. 
The increase asked for was based 
chiefly on increased wages. Employees 
demanded an increase last spring. A 
four days' strike followed. An arbitra- 
tion award gave a 15-cent an hour in- 
crease to conductors and motoi-men, and 
inci'eases ranging from 18 to 23 per 
cent to other employees, thereby adding 
about $90,000 to the operating expenses 
of the company and $60,000 to the oper- 
ating expenses of the city system. The 
Auburn city authorities waived a fran- 
chise restriction until Dec. 21, 1921. 

Passing Stalled Car Legal. — The or- 
dinance of the city of Raleigh, N. C, 
regulating traffic passing stationary 
street cars does not affect a car stand- 



ing still in the middle of the block or 
at places other than those designated 
for the receiving or discharging of pas- 
sengers, according to a recent ruling of 
Municipal Judge Harris. Judge Harris 
held that an automobile or any other 
vehicle may pass a stationary car in 
the middle of a block without an infrac- 
tion of the law. The ruling came in 
the midst of the trial of a motorist 
charged with reckless and careless 
driving in colliding with a mot'orman. 
The evidence showed that the street 
car was stationary in the middle of a 
block just behind a work car. The de- 
fendant drove his machine to a point 
opposite the electric car and struck 
the motorman shortly before his auto- 
mobile stopped. The defendant : con- 
tended that the motorman stepped in 
the way and that the accident was due 
to the motorman's carelessness. 

Seven-Cent Fare Approved. — Judge 
J. C. Hutcheson of the United States 
District Court for the Southern District 
of Texas has approved the report and 
findings of the master in chancery in 
the case of the Galveston (Texas) 
Electric Company versus the city of 
Galveston, in which the traction com- 
pany sought authority to increase its 
fare from 5 cents to 7 cents. The 
company contended the 5-cent rate was 
confiscatory. Judge Henry J. Dannen- 
baum was appointed special master and 
held hearings and conducted thorough 
investigations in Galveston to deter- 
mine the pi'operty valuation, rate of re- 
turn, fair depreciation, maintenance 
costs and other factors to be consid- 
ered in fixing a fair rate of return. The 
master in his report recommended the 
granting of a 7-cent fare for the Gal- 
veston lines. The court has enjoined 
the city authorities from interfering 
with the collection of the higher rate. 
The company will shortly begin negotia- 
tions with the city looking to the di'aw- 
ing up of a new franchise. 

Dairymen Want System Improved. — 
Every electric and steam railroad in the 
state of Ohio is a defendant in the 
complaint brought by the Ohio Dairy 
Products Association before the Public 
Utilities Commission on Dec. 16. The 
association asks that the roads be com- 
pelled to adopt a uniform receipt or 
waybill systenr in the transportation of 
milk cans. The particular item of com- 
plaint has to do with the "ticket sys- 
tem" in use by the roads for identifying 
the cans. It is declared that the stubs 
of the tickets on the empty cans to be 
returned are frequently lost or washed 
off, resulting in loss of the can. In 
many other instances it is complained, 
all tickets on a shipment are tied to a 
single can, causing confusion, so that 
no record can be kept or had of any 
shipment. In consequence no proof of 
claim can be made showing either de- 
livery to the carrier by the shipper or 
failure to receive shipment by the con- 
signee. It is asked that the carriers 
issue a uniform receipt or waybill 
which will enable identification of cans 
and sureness of shipment and dis- 
tribution. 



62 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



Personal Mention 



Resumes Law Practice 

O. B. Willcox Will Have Office in New 
York — Resigns from Bonbright & 
Company 

0. B. Willcox retires as vice-presi- 
dent of Bonbright & Company, Inc., 
New York, N. Y., on Jan. 1 to resume 
the general practice of law, in which he 
was previously engaged. He will have 
offices in connection with Messrs. 
Choate, Larocque & Mitchell, at 40 Wall 
Street, New York. It is understood, 
however, that Mr. Willcox will still 
represent Bonbright & Company in 
many matters. 

Mr. Willcox has been closely identi- 
fied with the electric railway industry 
in many ways during the past few 
years, not only through his connection 
as director of a number of utility, in- 
dustrial and financial companies, but 
also as a member and a vice-chairman 
of the Committee of One Hundred of the 
American Electric Railway Association 
since the organization of that commit- 
tee in June, 1919. 

He is also a member of the board of 
governors of the Investment Bankers 
Association of America and for several 
years past has been the chairman of its 
committee on public service securities. 
In these capacities and through his 
reports, addresses and articles in the 
financial and technical papers on public 
utility topics, he has done a great deal 
to develop a proper understanding of 
the function of the regulation of util- 
ities and in bringing about co-operation 
between investment bankers, public util- 
ities and regulating officials. 

Mr. Willcox is a graduate of the law 
department of the University of Michi- 
gan and practiced law in Detroit and 
later in Colorado with notable success. 
He came to New York about ten years 
ago, and since that time has been an 
active executive of Bonbright & Com- 
pany, Inc. 



Promotion for Mr. Krombach 

Harry J. Krombach, who has been 
foreman of the electrical repair depart- 
ment of the Third Avenue Railway, 
New York City, for the past twelve 
years, has been advanced to the position 
of general foreman of shops for that 
company. 

Mr. Krombach began his railroad ex- 
perience in 1896 with the Nassau Elec- 
tric Railroad, a subsidiary of the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, and 
worked in the shops of that company 
until 3900. He then entered the employ 
of the Boston Elevated Railway at the 
time it was equipping its first cars for 
electric train operation. In 1902 Mr. 
Krombach began service with the Man- 
hattan Elevated Railroad, New York. 
Two years later he joined the Jersey 



Central Traction Company, Keyport, N. 
J. After serving with that road in 
various capacities for four years, he be- 
came connected with the Third Avenue 
Railway. For several years he has been 
in charge of all electrical repair work. 



"Johnny" Livers Again 

This Time Mr. Livers Becomes Presi- 
dent of the Charlottesville & 
Albemarle Railway 

John L. Livers, who has been vice- 
president and general manager of the 
Charlottesville & Albemarle Railway, 
Charlottesville, Va., since 1912, has 
been elected president of the company 
to succeed Norman James, who has 
resigned to become chairman of the 
board of directors. Henry L. Duer has 




"JOHNNY" LIVERS 



been made vice-president of the com- 
pany. Custis L. Carter, general super- 
intendent, has been promoted to general 
manager, while Kirby Snider, manager 
of the new business department, has 
been made general superintendent. 

Patrons of the Charlottesville line as 
well as the stockholders of the com- 
pany agree that Mr. Livers' promotion 
has been well earned. Charlottesville, 
from the portliest "Colonel" to the 
tiniest picaninny, welcomes the oppor- 
tunity to congratulate him. For the 
past eight years it has been congratu- 
lating itself on Mr. Livers' presence 
in its midst. 

"Johnny" Livers has put Charlottes- 
ville, a city of 7,000 souls, on the map 
by giving it a real railway. Just how 
"real" this railway is from the view- 
point of the car riders may be judged 
from the fact that it operates the year 
'round at a five-minute headway and a 
nickel fare. As for the stockholders, 
their opinion of their "G. M." is not 
hard to guess when one is told that 
during the past year the railway has 



paid dividends of 7 per cent on its pre- 
ferred and of 3 per cent on its common 
stock, besides setting aside a consider- 
able amount for depreciation reserve 
and surplus. 

"Johnny" Livers was born in Gettys- 
burg, Pa., in 1878. Starting as a line- 
man at the age of eighteen he worked 
for several years in various phases of 
construction work. He then entered the 
operating and contracting field, and 
during a period of twelve years con- 
structed more than 100 electric light 
and power plants. In 1912 he took 
charge of the Charlottesville property. 
An account of Mr. Livers' operating 
methods was published in the issue of 
Sept. 22, 1917, page 485. 



Changes in Interurban Personnel 

Harry E. Pence, president of the 
Pence Automobile Company, has been 
elected president of the Minneapolis, 
Northfield & Southern Railway, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. Former President J. H. 
Ellison is chairman of the board. W. 
R. Stephens, formerly of the "Omaha" 
road and of late sales manager for the 
Pence Company, is assistant to the 
president. Mr. Pence is president of 
the Minneapolis Automobile Trade 
Association, is a director in the Lin- 
coln National Bank, is member of a 
company erecting office buildings, and 
is a progressive citizen generally. 

New equipment has been bought for 
the Minneapolis, Northfield & Southern 
Railway and eventually the line will be 
electrified. It is now gaso-electric and 
has steam engines for switch work. 



H. R. Skirving in New York 

H. R. Skirving has been appointed 
auditor of the Eighth Avenue Railroad, 
New York City. Mr. Skirving served 
as auditor of the London & Lake Erie 
Railway, London, Ont., from 1906 to 
1912. He then joined the Otsego & 
Herkimer Railroad, Cooperstown, N. Y., 
as auditor. The Otsego & Herkimer 
Railroad changed its name in 1916 to 
the Southern New York Power & Rail- 
way Corporation, and in the following 
year acquired the Southern New York 
Power Company, a merger of several 
small lighting properties in that section 
of the State. Mr. Skirving served as 
treasurer of both companies until 
Dec. 15 last. 



G. T. Seely, President 

Garrett T. Seely, vice-president and 
general manager of the Pennsylvania- 
Ohio Electric Company, has been 
elected president of The Youngstown 
Municipal Railway, a subsidiary of the 
Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Company, 
which operates the city railway lines 
of Youngstown, Ohio, under a service- 
at-cost arrangement. Mr. Seely suc- 
ceeds as president of the Youngstown 
company R. P. Stevens, who resigned 
as president to be able to devote more 
time to his duties as president of the 
Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Company 
and associate companies. Mr. Stevens 
remains a director of the Youngstown 
Municipal Railway. 



January 1, 1921 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



Promotions on Public Service Railway 

H. H. George Appointed Engineer Maintenance of Way — H. W. Cod- 
ding Made Distribution Engineer — Others Step Up 

A number of promotions of interest have recently taken place in the engineer- 
ing department of the Public Service Railway of New Jersey. Under the new 
plan Howard H. George, assistant engineer, becomes engineer maintenance of 
way. Martin White continues as superintendent maintenance of way. H. W. 
Codding, engineer of the distribution department, is advanced to distribution 
engineer. George H. Haldeman is promoted to assistant engineer maintenance 
of way, while Nelson A. Baldwin is made special work engineer. Morris J. 
Bailer becomes estimating enginer, while Leslie B. Woodruff is appointed con- 
struction engineer. B. W. Pierson, formerly secretary to Richard E. Danforth, 
vice-president and general manager, is made executive assistant to Mr. Dan- 
Eorth. Alfred H. Nelson is promoted to chief clerk in the engineering department. 



HOWARD H. GEORGE, appointed 
engineer maintenance of way, 
is a graduate in civil engineering 
of the University of Pennsylvania, class 
of 1907. He began his practical ex 
perience early in the summer of 1906 
as resident engineer in charge of the 
construction of a suburban railway ex- 
tension for the Public Service Corpo- 
ration, and remained in charge of that 
work during his last year at college. 
Upon the completion of the project in 
1907, he was transferred to headquar- 
ters at Newark, where he served as a 
field engineer until 1909. At that time 
he was appointed division engineer of 
the Southern Division of the company's 
property, taking in all the lines radiat- 
ing from Camden. In 1911 he was pro- 
moted to the position of assistant engi- 
neer and again transferred to Newark. 
He served in this capacity until May, 
1917, during which time he was in 
charge of estimating and engineering- 
cost accounting work, and also had 
supervision over bridge design and 
erection. 

As an officer of the Engineer Officers' 
Reserve Corps, Mr. George, then a first 
lieutenant, was called to active duty on 
May 8, 1917. After three months in 
training camps at Fort Meyer and else- 
where he was promoted to the rank of 
captain and assigned to the 305th Engi- 
neers, 80th Division. He served with 
this unit in command of Company E 
until April, 1918, when he was trans- 
ferred to the 55th Engineers, a broad 
gage railroad construction regiment. 
In the latter unit he commanded Com- 
pany A, serving with that outfit in 
France until the end of November, 1918. 
During part of this time he was in 
charge of building construction on the 
Chateaureux Storage Depot project. 
Shortly after the signing of the Araiis- 
tice he was transferred to Le Havre 
on special duty with the Base Section 
Engineers and made engineer in charge 
of railroad construction. The signing 
of the Armistice having halted all con- 
struction work in the A. E. F., Captain 
George was among the first officers re- 
turned to the States. He landed in 
Hoboken the latter part of January, 
1919, at which time, at his own request, 
he was honorably discharged from the 
military service. 

He returned to his former poistion as 
assistant engineer with the Public Serv- 



ice Railway in February, 1919, continu- 
ing in that capacity until his recent 
appointed as engineer maintenance 
of way. He is a member of the Ameri- 
can Society of Civil Engineer, and is 
also a new member of the Committee 
on Way Matters of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association. 
Mr. George is known to many members 
of the industry through his frequent 
contributions to the Electric Railway 
Journal 

H. W. Codding is a graduate of the 




H, H. GEORGE 



electrical engineering department of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
class of 1912. He entered the employ 
of the Public Service Railway in July, 
1912, as a cadet engineer. He served 
in the mechanical, transportation, track 
and distribution departments of the 
railway and in the production depart- 
ment of the Public Service Electric 
Company, and was finally promoted to 
engineer in the distribution department 
of the railway, where he served until 
December, 1917. From December, 1917, 
to January, 1919, he was employed as 
assistant to the chief electrical engi- 
neer of the New York Edison Company, 
returning to Public Service Railway on 
the latter date as engineer in the dis- 
tribution department. By his recent 
promotion Mr. Codding becomes dis- 
tribution engineer. 

George H. Haldeman, appointed as- 
sistant engineer maintenance of way, 
is a graduate of the Newark Technical 



63 



:hool, class of 1904. He has been em- 

oyed in various capacities in the engi- 
neering department of the railway since 
1903. He has held the position of office 
engineer from 1908 until the time of 
his appointment to his present position. 
Prior to his connection with the Public 
Service Railway he was employed on 
municipal and city survey work by a 
firm of surveyors in the city of Newark, 
and also worked on special track layout 
with the New York Switch & Crossing 
Company, with headquarters in the city 
of Hoboken, N. J. 

Nelson A. Baldwin, promoted to spe- 
cial work engineer, was graduated from 
Barringer High School, Newark, N. J., 
in 1909. Before joining Public Service 
Railway he was employed with a 
Newark firm of surveyors, and at the 
same time attended classes in the 
Newark Technical School. Later he 
completed a course in surveying at Co- 
lumbia University. His connection with 
the Public Service Railway dates from 
September, 1912. During the past eight 
years he has served as draftsman and 
as engineer on design of special work. 

Morris J. Bailer, who is made esti- 
mating engineer, is a graduate of the 
civil engineering department of New 
York University, class of 1909. Fol- 
lowing his graduation he was employed 
by Terry & Tench on miscellaneous de- 
sign work. In 1910 he entered the serv- 
ice of Juragua Iron & Steel Company, 
a subsidiary of the Bethlehem Steel 
Company, at Juragua, Cuba, 'where he 
was employed as assistant engineer on 
preliminary surveys for a proposed rail- 
road. He joined the Public Service 
Railway in November, 1910, and has 
served successively as draftsman, in- 
strument-man and engineer with the 
Public Service. 

In the past two or three years Mr. 
Bailer has been in charge of the pi-epa- 
ration of detailed cost report analyses 
and in the compilation of detailed esti- 
mates of track construction and re- 
construction work of all kinds. During 
a portion of the time covered by the 
war period he served with the United 
States Bureau of Standards at Wash- 
ington, where he was assigned to draw 
up for the Government reports on va- 
rious phases of electric railway trans- 
portation. 

Leslie B. Woodruff, promoted to con- 
struction engineer, was a student in 
mechanical engineering at the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, class of 1903. Dur- 
ing the summer months from 1896-1903, 
he served as foreman of construction 
with the United States Light House 
Service on the Great Lakes. He en- 
tered the employ of the Public Service 
Corporation in December, 1903, as a 
student, spending most of his time in 
the shops. Two years later he became 
associated with the engineering depart- 
ment as an inspector on building 
construction. In April, 1910, he was 
appointed division engineer, which posi- 
tion he held up to the time of his. 
appointment as construction engineer. 
He is an associate member of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers. 



Manufadures and the Markets 

DISCUSSIONS OF MARKET AND TRADE CONDITIONS FOR THE MANUFACTURER. 

SALESMAN AND PURCHASING AGENT 
ROLLING STOCK PURCHASES BUSINESS ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Year's Buying Has Not Been Heavy 

Traction Interests Have Been Purchasing Only for Immediate Neces- 
sities in Most Cases, but Outlook for 1921 Is Much 
Better — Stocks Generally Plentiful 



The year just passed has been a. hard 
one for the traction purchasing agent. 
On his side of it he has been hampered 
by a shortage of funds which has i-e- 
quired that he purchase only at the last 
minute, in the long run of cases, and 
then only for his immediate needs. 

On the other side the manufacturer 
of traction supplies has been hampered 
by production conditions that have vir- 
tually been unprecedented in extent. 
High prices, low supplies of coal and 
raw materials, freight handlers' strikes, 
freight tie-ups and congestion, car short- 
age, labor shortage and inefficiency — 
all these coupled with a phenomenal 
demand on the part of the electrical 
industry as a whole over the first half 
of the year made it very difficult to 
supply traction companies on short no- 
tice with many items of their needs. 
At the same time there were of course 
many items of electric railway main- 
tenance on which quick deliveries could 
be secured because buying was not very 
heavy and was in small amounts, and 
also because certain small stocks were 
available. 

With heavy price reductions in tex- 
tile, leather and some few other lines 
there has been anticipation from some 
quarters of a price reduction in sup- 
plies for traction companies. In gen- 
eral these reductions have appeared 
only in instances where articles are 
made for the most part from cotton, 
iron and copper and show relatively 
little labor cost. 

Few extensions have been made in 
the past year, but during that time 
many companies have been granted fare 
increases which should permit them to 
make these much-needed extensions in 
the near future. The traction interests 
are behind in their new work and fre- 
quently so in their maintenance and 
repairs, so it would seem that the com- 
ing year should see a great deal of 
buying. 



Short Supply of Track Material 
Greater Part of Year 

During the first three-quarters of the 
year deliveries on track supplies such 
as spikes, bolts and nuts steadily length- 
ened under a steady pressure of 
demand. Foreign competitive buying 
aided in piling up a large volume of 
unfilled orders, especially on bolts. By 
the first of September, when the scar- 
city had about reached its height, de- 



liveries of standard railroad spikes 
averaged two to three months and track 
bolts three to four months. From then 
on the situation eased up under slack- 
ening demand and canceled orders, un- 
til by the end of the year shipments 
were being made almost from stock in 
some cases and as long as six weeks on 
bolts and four weeks on spikes in others. 
Prices followed an upward trend as a 
result of high fuel, labor and material 
costs, but have gradually declined in 
the last quarter. Prospects for con- 
sumption of track material in large 
quantities by railroads next spring are 
held to be excellent. 



Normal Orders for Brake Shoes 

Orders for brake shoes from electric 
railways were held close to actual re- 
quirements and the expected increase 
in buying from steam railroads fol- 
lowing their rate increases did not ma- 
terialize in the volume that was antici- 
pated. Nevertheless, buying on the 
whole during the year was about nor- 
mal. Raw material stocks were re- 
duced to lower levels than usual as 
shipments of coal, coke and pig iron 
were slow and irregular for a consid- 
erable period. Customers' needs were 
well taken care of, however, as de- 
liveries of standard shoes for the most 
part were made from stock. The 
standardization movement, reducing 
the number of patterns carried virtually 
to four styles, aided in this. Orders on 
behalf of new rolling stock were a 
negligible factor in the demand. 



Demand for Wood Ties Not Up 
to Standard 

Consumption of railroad ties does not 
seem to have been up to the standard 
of other years as buying for the most 
part has been for replacements only. 
Steam railroads did not enter the mar- 
ket as heavily as was expected the last 
four months of the year. Stocks of 
ties at the camps were maintained at 
good levels, but car shortages for long 
periods curtailed the supply and made 
shipments uncertain. An influx of 
Douglas fir ties is noted in the East 
and Middle West to supplant oak ties 
cut along the right of way, as the lat- 
ter were rather high in cost and un- 
certain in supply. One factor which 
served to curtail the supply of ties 
was the higher prices which timber 
owners obtained for trees cut into 



board lumber, while another was a 
shortage of labor at certain times due 
to higher wages paid workmen for cut- 
ting this same board lumber. Pros- 
pects for good demand in 1921 are 
thought to be excellent as the normal 
consumption of ties necessary to keep 
roadbeds in good repair, according to 
the United States Forest Service, is 
100,000,000 to 125,000,000 annually. 
For the past several years buying has 
fallen considerably below this figure 
owing to financial conditions. 



Demand for Railway Motors 
Slackens in Last Half 

Sales of railway motors were very 
gratifying during the first half of 1920, 
the bulk of the demand, of course, being 
for motors of the safety-car type in 
about the proportion of three to one. 
During the last six months, however, 
quietness has been the prevailing fea- 
ture of the market. Inability to obtain 
control equipment and a shortage of 
gears, insulating material and various 
small parts were the chief factors im- 
peding deliveries, which ranged around 
three to four months for moderate 
orders of safety-car motors and six to 
eight months for large types early in 
the year. These figures gradually im- 
proved under the slackening market to 
about forty-five to sixty days for the 
safety-car motors and a month longer 
for heavier types. Raw material, while 
much easier as to supply, has remained 
high in price and consequently prices 
have not changed since a slight in- 
crease by manufacturers of safety-car 
equipment last February. 



Waste Supply Curtailed by Textile 
Mill Shutdowns 

Good demand and the curtailed pro- 
duction of textile mills were respon- 
sible for short supplies of cotton and 
wool waste over a large part of the 
year. Many New England mills cut 
production to four and even three days 
per week and some even closed down 
entirely. This naturally reduced the 
supply of waste, which is a by-product 
of textile mills, so that stocks were 
very low over a long period. 

The price trend of waste was still 
upward the middle of the year, when 
advances of 2 cents per pound on cot- 
ton and 1 cent on wool waste brought 
the price to 9 to 16 cents for cotton col- 
ored, 12 J to 18 cents for cotton white 
and 16 to 25 cents for wool waste. 
Prospects of a shortage were removed, 
however, when demand dropped to al- 
most nothing the latter part of the 
year. At the same time price decreases 
were made in view of the lower raw 



January 1, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



65 



material cost, spot cotton being quoted 
at 14i cents now in New York. Quota- 
tions recently wei-e 7i to 12 cents per 
pound for cotton waste colored and 
lOi to 14 cents for white in 100-lb. 
bales. 



Slump in Strong Demand for 
Trolley and Bell Cord 

Demand for trolley and bell cord in 
1920 compares very favorably with 
other years as until comparatively re- 
cently the supply of this material was 
not as large as the demand. A dis- 
tinct tendency has been noted to re- 
place leather material with braided 
cotton bell cord. Demand for sash cord 
from the building trade the early part 
of the year was partly responsible for 
prevailing low stocks until the first 
of November. Deliveries during this 
period ranged in the neighborhood of 
one to two months. 

The supply of cotton at no time oc- 
casioned any great trouble except as 
shipments were delayed by freight tie- 
ups. Prices advanced somewhat in the 
spring, at which time quotations ranged 
from $.97 to $1.10 per pound according 
tc grade and manufacturer. Following 
the lower cost of raw cotton, however, 
quoted now at 14.50 cents New York, 
trolley and bell cord prices have fallen 
to a range of 66 to 85 cents per pound. 
Demand at present is light in charac- 
ter and the supply plentiful for all 
needs. 



Malleable Castings Now Available 

The supply of malleable castings has 
been one of the plague spots in the pro- 
duction of electric railway supplies 
through a great part of the past year. 
Foundries which some of the time were 
forced to operate at as low a capacity 
as 50 per cent, due to labor shortage, 
were utterly unable to supply the de- 
mand and had to refuse many orders. 
Prevailing long deliveries in many 
items in the supply branch of the elec- 
tric railway industry can be traced 
largely to this circumstance. Manu- 
facturers were very often forced to 
use substitutes perhaps higher in price 
or less efficient. The shortage of coal 
was another factor in bringing about 
the extreme long delivery of eight 
months on heavy castings and ten 
weeks on light malleable castings. The 
latter half of the year, as labor became 
more plentiful and transportation eased 
up and permitted supplies of coal and 
raw material to come through, the sit- 
uation grew better. Deliveries have 
been steadily improving, but are still 
far from all that is desired. Prices 
have remained steady. 



Good Volume of Business for Fare 
Boxes and Registers 

The growing use of metal tokens and 
an increasing tendency to count fares 
instead of passengers on street car 
lines resulted in excellent sales of fare 
boxes, demand being well ahead of 1919 
in this respect. Buying of fai-e reg- 
isters was also good, but does not pre- 



sent such a uniform increase over a 
year ago, for some manufacturers re- 
port the biggest year of any in sales, 
while others have met only an average 
normal demand. Raw material diffi- 
culties were experienced by producers, 
especially in obtaining steel and mal- 
leable castings. Fare registers were 
in better shape as to shipment, as a 
level of three months' stock was main- 
tained on standard types, though de- 
livery of some ranged as long as four 
months. Fare boxes, however, could 
not be shipped from stock, as by mid- 
summer back orders for a period of 
three months had piled up. Prices 
have been fairly stable, with some 
slight increases being made about the 
middle of the year by some companies 
that had not taken this step to meet 
rising material costs in 1919. 



Pole and Hardware Sales Good 

For the first nine months of the year 
railways at a distance from lumber re- 
gions had trouble getting wood poles 
and crossarms. Pins were a little 
easier. Demand was dropping off by 
midsummer, but even then shipments 
were by no means certain. They had 
been virtually impossible from the mills, 
where stocks were in good shape. But 
jobbers' stocks were low because of car 
shortage. In the woods labor was short 
in the winter and spring, and weather 
conditions and transportation were 
such as to hamper seriously the deliv- 
ery of poles. Production during the 
present winter is expected to be better 
than that of last year. 

Car movement improved in the late 
summer and fall and poles and arms 
are moving in good shape now from 
pretty good stocks. Buying has been 
good for maintenance purposes, and 
this condition should continue because 
of the general policy of keeping pur- 
chases dovra to present needs. 

For steel towers the foreign demand 
has kept up, while domestic has been 
light. Shipments run from about four 
to seven months. 

Line hardware buying opened up well 
in the spring and continued at a good 
rate right through the year, mostly, 
however, for near-by demands only. 
While stocks started in good condition, 
they soon petered out when strikes in 
the steel mills and car shortage cut 
down production in May and June. 
These stocks were still short when 
winter set in. 



High-Tension Porcelain Hard 
to Get 

Shipments of high-tension insulators, 
bushings, etc., are still ruling long, 
from three to eight months being 
quoted, depending on type and voltage. 
This has been probably the hardest bit 
of supply material for electric railways 
to lay hands on for the whole year. 
Demand for domestic uses has in gen- 
eral been good all year and when it 
has dropped off the foreign demand has 
held up well. All this has had its 
effect upon the production of high-ten- 
sion porcelain for traction use. There 



has not been so much buying for new 
extensions but rather for maintenance 
work. 

Early in the year production was off 
as much as 40 per cent in some in- 
stances because of the inability to get 
labor for the kilns, its inefficiency and 
its independence. Unsatisfactory pro- 
duction resulted and prices went up. 
Also malleables were short. These con- 
ditions have since been rectified to an 
extent, but shipments have not short- 
ened very much. 



Steam Coal Prices Decline 

Supply Greater Than Demand with 
Many Industries Shut Down — 
Speculation Is Past 

"The coal market is saturated," de- 
clared an official of one of the large 
Middle Western coal sales companies 
last week. The poorer grades of steam 
coal have dropped from $2 to 83 cents 
a ton in the Central West, while the 
better grades that have sold at from $7 
to $8 are now going begging at from 
$3.50 to $4. In some cases coal that 
sold at from $8 to $10 a few months ago 
is now going at $3 per ton. 

"There is a greater supply than de- 
mand," said George W. Reed, vice- 
president of the Peabody Coal Company, 
in a public statement last week. "In- 
dustries have shut down all over the 
country. They have no further use for 
fuel. Conditions are beginning to re- 
adjust themselves. I would say that the 
drop in the price of coal is simply an 
indication of business getting down to 
normal competitive prices." 

The indications in the entire Middle 
Western territory are that the wild 
speculation of the last few months is 
past and that the coal industry is 
settling dovm on a normal basis with 
no danger of shortage except in a 
few spots where transportation may 
be hindered if severe winter weather 
should develop suddenly. 



100 More Cars for N. Y. Municipal 
Railway 

The New York (N. Y.) Municipal 
Railway, through an order signed the 
first part of this week, is authorized by 
the Public Service Commission to pur- 
chase 100 additional steel subway cars 
for use on the Municipal Railway lines. 
The order will go to the Pressed Steel 
Car Company at a price said to be 
$36,410 each. The cars are a duplicate 
in constraction to the previous order 
of 100 cars placed with the Pressed 
Steel Car Company last May. These 
were equipped with Westinghouse type 
A. M. U. E. air brakes, Westinghouse 
type A. B. F. control and General Elec- 
tric type 248-A motors. Seating ca- 
pacity is about ninety persons. It is 
expected that the new cars will be ready 
for delivery in 18 months. This latest 
order makes the ninth lot of 100 cars 
of this type that have been ordered by 
the company. About 600 of these had 
been delivered up to Oct. 1 last, on 
which date the first of the seventh lot 
of 100 cars were to be delivered. 



66 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 1 



. 

Rolling Stock 



The London (England) County Coun- 
cil has contracted for 125 new tramcars. 
There were separate bids by British 
manufacturers for the bodies, trucks, 
electrical equipment and magnetic 
brakes, which bring the total cost to 
approximately £4,300 per car, or at 
present exchange rates about $15,050. 
This is said to set a record price for 
cars of this type in England. In 1910 
the cost of a similar car was £880. The 
cars will be of the eight-wheel bogie 
type, double decked, with roof seats 
enclosed, and a total seating capacity 
of about eighty people. Delivery is to 
begin in forty-two weeks from the date 
of order. 

United Railways Company of St. 
Louis, Mo., through Colonel A. T. Per- 
kins, manager under the receiver, will 
request permission from Judge Lamm 
to buy fifty more cars of the large 777 
type in the near future. Fifty cars of 
this type are being made in the com- 
pany's shop, three are in operation and 
sixteen more will be completed about 
Jan. 1. It is expected that all will be 
in operation by March 1. 



Power Houses, Shops 
and Buildings 



Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, 
Gal. — Construction on the new Pacific 
Electric depot at Wilmington is under 
way. The structure will cover a space 
24 ft. X 60 ft. It will consist of two 
waiting rooms, ticket office and express 
room. 

Union Traction Company, Nashville, 
Tenn. — The City Council of Gallatin is 
negotiating with the Union Traction 
Company, Nashville, for furnishing 
power to the city of Gallatin, Tenn., 
for lighting and motive power. The 
contracts will call for erecting a line 
from Nashville to Gallatin over the 
right-of-way of the Union Traction 
Company, operating an interurban rail- 
way between the two cities. A sub- 
station will be erected between the two 
cities. The present power plant of the 
city of Gallatin is inadequate to meet 
the growing demands for lighting, but 
will be retained for use in emergencies. 



Track and Roadway 



Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, New York, N. Y. — Construction 
of the Queensboro subway will be 
started within the next few months 
and according to the transit commis- 
sioner the work will be rushed to com- 
pletion. This extension will be an im- 
provement over the shuttle system in 
operation between Grand Central and 
Times Square. Under the proposed 
new scheme passengers from Queens 
en route north and south on the west 
side will remain on the trains to 
Seventh Avenue and Times Square. 



Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Railway. 

— D. W. Henderson, superintendent of 
the Seattle Municipal Railway, has rec- 
ommended to Mayor Hugh M. Caldwell 
and the City Council the undertaking 
in 1921 of ten municipal railway ex- 
tensions and betterments, estimated to 
cost between $543,713 and $583,853. 
The proposed improvements affect 
Ballard, the Green Lake and Univer- 
sity districts. First Hill, Rainier Valley, 
Georgetown and the waterfront dis- 
trict toward Georgetown. Mr. Hender- 
son states that all the improvements 
are absolutely necessary. He urges 
that the necessary steps be taken to 
issue bonds to secure money for the 
extensions. In addition, the sum of 
$20,000 will be required to purchase 
feed wire. 

Toronto, Ont. — The recommendations 
of the Board of Control that the Trans- 
portation Commission be empowered to 
expend $500,000 on additional car lines 
in Ward 7 was referred back by the 
City Council. 

Toronto, Ont. — Mayor Church pro- 
posed to the City Council that the 
Board of Control report on a by-law 
to provide street railway accommoda- 
tion for West Toronto. 

Hydro-Electric Power Commission, 
Ottawa, Ont. — Surveys are being made 
by the engineers of the Hydro-Electric 
Power Commission with a view to con- 
structing an extension of the railway 
lines along Ottawa Street, Erie Street 
and Parent Avenue, Windsor. Applica- 
tion will be made to the Ontario Legis- 
lature at its next session for permission 
to issue $1,000,000 of bonds for this 
purpose. 



Trade Notes 



The Worthington Pump & Machinery 
Corporation, 115 Broadway, New York 
City, is receiving bids for the erection 
of a one-story, 50 ft. x 75 ft. addition 
to its plant at St. Bernard, Ohio. 

The Absolute Con-tac-tor Company, 
Chicago, has moved its factory from 
2003-2005 Larrabee Street to larger 
quarters at 4056-4058 Armitage Ave- 
nue. The offices of the company re- 
main at 127 North Dearborn Street. 

The Lincoln Revolving Transformer 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio, recently or- 
ganized by J. C. Lincoln, president of 
the Lincoln Electric Company, to manu- 
facture a revolving type of tranformer 
developed by Mr. Lincoln, has estab- 
lished a plant at 2400 Woodland Ave- 
nue. 

British Export Register Out. — The 

export register of the Federation of 
British Industries has been published 
by that federation, 39 St. James Street, 
London, S. W. Among the 650 pages 
are given the federation's constitution, 
aims, etc., list of members with their 
manufactures classified, and advertise- 
ments. 

The O. M. Edwards Company, Inc., 
Syracuse, N. Y., manufacturer of Avin- 
dow fixtures, platform trap doors, etc., 



announces the appointment of C. A. 
Eggert, who for a number of years was 
connected with the sales department of 
the Consolidated Car Heating Company, 
as sales manager for the central dis- 
trict, with offices at 1425 Edison Build- 
ing, Chicago, 111. 

The C. & G. Cooper Company, Mount 
Vernon, Ohio, engine builder, has made 
a number of changes in its organiza- 
tion during the year. At the regular 
meeting held in June the following 
officers were elected: B. B. Williams, 
president and general manager; F. H. 
Thomas, vice-president in charge of 
sales; Mr. Taylor, secretary in charge 
of production, and W. L. Daney, treas- 
urer. The company reports an increas- 
ing volume of business. 

The Chase-Shawmut Company, New- 
buryport, Mass., announces the appoint- 
ment of H. C. Moran, Keystone Build- 
ing, Pittsburgh, Pa., as district repre- 
sentative for the following territory: 
Western Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky 
and West Virginia. The Engineering 
Equipment Company, 1011 Chestnut 
Street, Philadelphia, Pa., has also been 
appointed district representative for 
eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and 
Maryland. 

Charles Lyman Rand, secretary and 
chief chemist of the Mitchell-Rand 
Manufacturing Company, New York, 
manufacturer of electrical insulation, 
has relinquished his duties as factory 
superintendent to devote his entire time 
to important research work in the 
chemical and allied fields for his com- 
pany. He will be succeeded as factory 
superintendent by Joseph T. Lawrence, 
chemical engineer, formerly associated 
with E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Com- 
pany. 



New Advertising Literature 



Oilers. — The Eagle Manufacturing 
Company, Wellsburg, W. Va., has issued 
catolog No. 20, covering its different 
types of oilers. 

Electrical Instruments. — The Burton- 
Rogers Company, 755 Boylston Street, 
Boston, Mass., sales department for the 
Hoyt electrical instruments, has issued 
a catalog of Hoyt electrical instruments, 
including dashboard, miniature switch- 
board, large switchboard and portable 
instruments. 

Small Turbo - Generator Sets. — The 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, 
N. Y., has published bulletin No. 42,- 
OlOA, which supersedes bulletin No. 
42,010, describing and illustrating the 
small Curtis steam-turbine generating 
sets. These generating sets have a ca- 
pacity of 100 kw. to 300 kw. and are 
mounted on a common base with tur- 
bine and gearing. 

Power Plant Specialties. — The Plant 
Engineering & Equipment Company, 
192 Broadway, New York City, has 
issued a twenty-page catalog covering 
its "Peeco" specialties, including steam 
traps, separators, strainers, regulating 
devices, blowers, meters, etc. 



Electric Railway Journal 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

HENRY W. BLAKE and HAROLD V. BOZEIX. Editors HENRY H. NORRIS, Managing Editor 
HARRY L.BROWN, Western Editor N.A.BOWERS.Paclflc Coast Editor H.S.KNOWLTON.New England Editor C.W.SQUIER. Associate Editor C.W.STOCKS. Associate Editor 
DONALD F.mNE, Editorial Repiesentative A.D.KNOX.Edltorial Representative GEORGE BUSHPIELD, Editorial Representative 

G.J.MACMUKRAY.News Editor W.R.ANDESasON.Assistant News Editor 



Volume 57 



New York, Saturday, January 8, 1921 



Number 2 



Fare Changes and 

Conductors' Morale 

THE maintenance of good public relations is'desirable, ■ 
for many reasons, but one to which attentioTi has 
not often been directed is that of the effect of good 
public relations on the morale of the operating force. 
In those cities where the management and the company 
are generally considered to be doing the right thing 
and the railway system is regarded with pride by the 
community it is but natural that the operating force 
should reflect this condition by taking a pride in its 
work. Where the contrary is true, however, it is 
obvious that the operating force will respond also to 
this situation, particularly as the men on the cars are 
the recipients of the greater part of the complaints. 

For this reason sources of irritation in the service 
which are not matters of principle should be avoided 
wherever possible. 

One common cause for complaint with zone systems 
on an intercommunity line where the zones are on a dis- 
tance basis is to have the fare limit occur at a point 
across which there is at times much over-riding in one 
direction or the other for a few hundred feet or so. 
Discontent is more apt to be enhanced in a case of this 
kind, of course, where there has been a recent change 
in fares. In such cases it will usually be found desira- 
ble for the company so to place its zone limits that they 
fall as far as possible between community limits rather 
than within them. If this is done it obviates discrim- 
ination of passengers that live close to the zone line, 
adds very much to the maintenance of good public 
relations with the inhabitants of that district and is 
likely to increase car revenues. 

Suggestions as to what constitute such causes of 
irritation can often be obtained to advantage directly 
from the men themselves. They are the ones who 
receive the complaints and can often give a new fare 
plan or even an old fare plan both destructive and con- 
structive criticism. 



Have You an Adequate 

Program of Publicity? 

PUBLICITY, or advertising as it might more properly 
be called, is a natural and accepted feature of ordi- 
nary business. It has been a feature of the electric 
railway business, but there is a continuous complaint, 
m.ay it be said, that the industry is not "getting any- 
where" fast enough with the present program. There 
is a call for more education of the public. 

Passing for the present the question of national pub- 
licity, what is being done by the various companies 
locally? Some are carrying on most successful work in 
this line and the "copy" produced is often most attrac- 
tive and carries suggestions for use elsewhere. The 
Electric Railway Journal is trying to reproduce as 
much of the good material as it can. 

There are two suggestions which might be made as 



criteria for the coming year, both of which are in use 
by some companies. 

One of these is the suggestion that each railway spend 
for advertising that revenue which it receives from 
advertising, from car cards, station posters, etc. It is 
a legitimate business expenditure, as necessary with 
electric railways as with other lines of commercial and 
industrial activity. The electric railway business is a 
selling business. Over 12,000,000,000 individual sales 
are made each year, which should amount in 1921 to 
approximately $750,000,000. Any other industry with 
such a business would advertise ! 

The other suggestion is that publicity and information 
material be so worded that it will leave a question 
in the mind of the reader, a question of such a nature 
that he sees that the subject affects his own interests 
and he will want to answer it. One criticism of much 
railway publicity matter now is that it is too much like 
spoon feeding, too much of mere information, all matter 
of fact, sealed and delivered. Excite the reader's curi- 
osity! Excite his own self-interest! Ask him ques- 
tions! President Gadsden strikes a good note with his 
"Ask the Car Rider" slogan, which can well be capital- 
ized in advertising to the riding public. 

Above all, ha;ve a plan, study the other fellow's work, 
exchange information and use advertising to sell your 
product — transportation. 



Get a Sales Manager 

and Put Him to Work 

AS the foregoing figures commence to permeate 
Jx one's consciousness, there is also the inclination to 
ask what other business with 12,000,000,000 sales 
annually, or with a gross sales income of $750,000,000, 
has no sales management? How some real salesmen 
would jump at an opportunity where there are already 
billions of purchasers and where there are other billions 
of potential customers in the pedestrians, auto riders, 
stay-at-homes, etc. ! 

Many companies have done a good deal, when operat- 
ing and financial problems were temporarily not too 
pressing, to "merchandise transportation," but usually 
this has been only when other problems didn't press. 
This work has devolved, from time to time, on the 
superintendent of transportation, on the public relations 
representative, or some one else temporarily available. 

What is needed is a sales manager. 

A sales manager is primarily, and solely, a sales- 
man and an organizer of salesmen. He ought to have 
no other duties than to sell rides and to "sell" the 
idea of the value of a ride. He ought to be a salesman 
who has been taught the railway game; a salesman 
first, a railway man second. Most often, railways try 
to train a railway man to be a salesman. If he has a 
salesman's instinct, all right, but usually he remains an 
operator. 

Moral : Get a sales manager and sell more rides. 



68 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



Sloughing Off Detail 

in Administrative Work 

EVERY man who has any executive responsibility 
finds his time taken up with two distinct types of 
duties; one covering the broad general principles of 
his business, the other details largely of a clerical 
nature. In spite of resolve to the contrary, duties of 
the second type are apt to take a disproportionate 
share of attention, partly because they are more tangi- 
ble and seem to be closer at hand, and partly because 
it is for most people easier to work with the hands 
than the head. But executives are paid to work with the 
head rather than the hands, and if they are to be 
permanently successful they must turn over to others 
all duties that the others can perform. 

This line of thought has been suggested by editorial 
calls upon hundreds of electric railway executives, 
from foremen up. Possibly it is too much to say that 
most of these men are being hampered by too close 
attention to detail, but certainly many are. And their 
departments as well as properties as a whole reflect 
the influence of undue absorption of the executives in 
things rather than ideas. 

If manufacturers used for any purpose material un- 
necessarily expensive, the wastefulness of the practice 
would be obvious. The same principle holds, of course, 
in the personnel of an organization, although it may 
perhaps not be so easily detected. One factor in the 
efficient conduct of every business, therefore, is so to 
assign the work that expensive men will not be engaged 
on things which others at lower salaries can do just 
as well. Another advantage of this plan is that it will 
usually develop the assistants to take positions of 
greater responsibility as time goes on. 



Nothing Venture, 
Nothing Win 

THE carefree way in which the London County 
Council Tramways, and later the London General 
Omnibus Company, could announce so far reaching a 
change as a reduced off-peak fare, or one good from 
10 a.m. to 4 p.m., in the largest city of the world calls 
for admiration at their courage quite regardless of the 
economic value of an experiment that has been in force 
since May, 1920, on the entire tramway system, and 
since Sept. 27, 1920, on the motor bus lines. With all 
the enterprise that is associated with the adjective 
"American" the railway industry as a whole has often 
been most timid about adopting innovations which later 
proved their worth. 

Thus even the youngest electric railway men today 
can recall the general belief that there was no better 
way of collecting fares than that of having a conductor 
work his way through the car while the then open rear 
platform remained unguarded. Many had suggested 
pay-as-you-enter before MacDonald and Ross, but it 
remained for them as daring operators to prove that the 
public would appreciate its superiority. This is history 
known to all. Less known is the fact that W. S. Twining, 
then chief engineer of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Company and now Philadelphia's Director of City Tran- 
sit, designed a pay-leave car as early as 1907 (see Street 
Railway Journal, Jan. 18, 1908). Apparently the idea 
made no appeal to the then Philadelphia management, 
nor did the average operator believe that it would be as 
practicable or desirable to get the fare after the ride 
was taken rather than before. It conjured up in his 



mind visions of people leaving cars en masse during a 
blockade and refusing to pay any fare even after a long 
ride. 

Mr. Twining was simply ahead of the group imagi- 
nation of his day, for after Peter Witt, as Street Railway 
Commissioner of Cleveland, had persuaded the Cleveland 
Electric Railway in 1911 to try several types of pay- 
leave cars, the idea took hold and made good in a large 
number of cities. The honest belief of many operators 
that their patrons would be unalterably opposed to 
modern one-man car operation is too fresh in memory 
to require recalling. 

Knowledge of these incidents in the history of the 
industry should drive groundless fears out of the heart 
of the operator who wants to try something new in the 
way of equipment or fares practice. He may rest as- 
sured that if his idea holds something of worth to his 
patrons they will put up with the inconvenience involved 
in the change, provided always that his plan and motives 
receive due publicity. 



Do the Electric Railways 

Need Any More Technical Graduates? 

AT THIS time of the year the prospective five 
^ thousand graduates, more or less, of a hundred 
technical schools are beginning to wonder what they 
are going to do after commencement. Already the 
manufacturing and some other industries are planning 
to send representatives to the colleges to explain to the 
young men, and young women too in some cases, the 
attractions of their several fields of activity. The elec- 
tric railways will not be so represented. This is partly 
because there is no central organization for the electric 
railways which takes up matters of this kind, and in- 
dividual railways do not need enough men to warrant 
them in going to the expense of sending "scouts" to the 
colleges. It is doubtful, also, if the value of a technical 
education applied to the right kind of an individual is 
appreciated as much by the railways as in manufactur- 
ing. Possibly the value is actually higher in the latter 
field, but this ought not to be so. 

At any rate, the manufacturers and a few others 
will get the choice of the educational crop and the rail- 
ways will take what is left, including, however, those 
young men who have heard the "caH of the rail" and 
will insist on going into transportation work in spite 
of lack of invitation and even, if necessary, of opposi- 
tion. Luckily, this number is considerable. 

There are many excellent opportunities for technical 
graduates in the electric railway and related fields. 
The whole business is founded upon civil, mechanical 
and electrical engineering. Of course, the focus of 
interest has shifted somewhat in recent years from 
track, power plant and line to fares, schedules, accident 
reduction, etc. But fundamentally transportation is a 
proposition of moving people and goods from one point 
to another with a maximum of speed, economy and 
safety. As long as this is so the business will need 
engineers. 

Furthermore, the principles underlying engineering 
have application far outside the engineering divisions 
of the field and engineers are making themselves use- 
ful in the transportation, purchasing, accounting and 
other departments. They are especially useful in the 
making of appraisals, either in the railway organiza- 
tion or without, a phase of the work which is bound to 
become more and more important. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



69 



It is too bad that some systematic way has not been 
provided by which the electric railway field can be ex- 
plained to engineering students. Some schools have 
courses in transportation engineering, which serve an 
excellent purpose, but they need to be supplemented by 
talks from competent railway executives or their repre- 
sentatives. This would seem to be a line of work for 
the American Electric Railway Association and Amer- 
ican Railway Association to take up on behalf of their 
respective clienteles. 



Refunding Is a Problem in the Face of 

Present Tax Exemptions and Income Tax Laws 

ONE of the big financial problems in the electric 
railway field during 1921 is how bond issues matur- 
ing this year will be refunded. The topic is one which 
is to be considered at length at the mid-year meeting 
of the American Electric Railway Association and the 
thought here is not to anticipate the subject as pre- 
sented at that meeting but to give a few figures to 
emphasize the importance of the topic to the electric 
railways and the communities which they serve. 

According to the census report in 1917, there was 
in that year outstanding in funded debt $3,068,377,167 
on which the annual interest paid was $110,506,977. If 
twenty years is assumed as the average life for these 
bonds, those maturing each year would aggregate about 
$150,000,000; this average would be reduced to about 
$100,000,000 if a thirty-year average life of bond was 
assumed. Actually, the figures would not be quite so 
large as these, since the companies in the hands of 
receivers may be considered as being relieved of the 
necessity of caring for their maturing issues. Prac- 
tically 15 per cent of the funded debt of the electric 
railways mentioned above was issued by companies now 
in receivers' hands. 

It is obvious that all refunding issues of bonds 
issued now will have to carry interest rates much higher, 
to make them sell at par, than those bonds whose place 
they take. Most of the earlier bonds were put out 
at a time when the common interest rate for the 
average utility bond was 5 per cent. Some of the longer 
seasoned issues bore only 4 per cent interest. Now, 
when government bonds with many tax exemption 
features sell on a basis of from 5.20 per cent for the 
longest term to 6.40 per cent for the 1928 maturity, 
it is easy to see that electric 
railway bonds will have to 
carry a considerably higher 
rate. Another difficulty 
which utilities will meet in 
endeavoring to sell their 
bonds is that under the 
present income tax law sur- 
taxes, the purchase of any 
securities which are not 
tax exempt is practically 
out of the question for 
those with large incomes. 
It has been determined, for 
instance, that a man with 
$100,000 taxable income 
can pay only 68.08 for a 5 
per cent bond to have it net 
him 5 per cent, while a man 
with a taxable income of 
$300,000 can pay only 26.51 



for the same bond to get a 5 per cent net yield. Hence, 
a considerable market which formerly existed for public 
utility bonds has now been practically cut off. This 
emphasizes the necessity for electric railway companies 
to develop local markets for their securities. 

It is to be hoped that in any modification of the 
income tax effected by Congress this handicap will in 
some way be overcome, but, until that is done, even 
electric railways with a good income and "credit re- 
established" will have difficulty in selling bonds except 
at a high rate of interest. This means that many 
conceptions by the public of what constitutes a "reason- 
able rate of return" on the value of electric railway 
property will have to undergo modification. 



No. 8 



Quotation from the 
Federal Electric Railways 
Commission Report 

WHILE the electric railway industry is essentially 
local, it has certain national characteristics. Its 
difficulties cannot be regarded simply as the isolated 
problem of a local system repeated hundreds of times 
all over the country in varied forms and degrees, each 
problem being independent of all the others. On the 
contrary, .... a local traction system .... is ... . in- 
separably connected with all of the others, .... The 
close industrial and financial interdependence of the 
hundreds of physically unrelated local traction systems, 
the millions of dollars of capital placed by thousands of 
investors in plants which manufacture electric traction 
equipment and the five billions of electric traction 
bonds and stocks to be found scattered all over the 
country in banks, insurance company reserves and in 
private investment translate the many local problems 
into a national problem. 



Anticipate the Automotive Age 
in Your Building Plans 

THERE is so much more hindsight than foresight 
in this world that we may be pardoned for making 
a suggestion that may seem a little premature today, 
namely: Try to make sure that the shop or storage 
plant you plan today will not have to be reconstructed 
at great expense to care for a corps of automotive 
vehicles. By the latter we do not mean merely the 
gasoline utility trucks, of which electric railways 
already operate hundreds, but we also would make pro- 
vision for future motor buses and freight-carrying 
motor trucks. 

This does not imply that electric railways should 
forthwith arrange for the special equipment that goes 
with gasoline operation. What is suggested is that due 
consideration be given to the character of cellarage, 
foundation and partition walls, flooring, etc., for two 
purposes : First, that of easy rearrangement of spaces ; 
second, that of better protection against fire and freez- 
ing than is required in a purely electric installation. 
Furthermore, whether gasoline or trackless trolley buses 
are in the offing, it will be well to consider what clear- 
ances in height and width should be allowed — a matter 
that may cost little yet save much — and also what 
conveniences are required to make easier the inspection 
and repair of equipment. Probably a study of layouts 
in the larger, high-grade garages and of the practices 
of the New York and Chicago motor bus companies 
would prove helpful in this respect. 

Neither would it be a bad plan to see what local 

garage storage and main- 
tenance facilities could be 
used without going to the 
expense of putting up a lot 
of gasoline equipment build- 
ings. An electric railway 
equipment structure is nec- 
essarily special and has to 
be built at the railway's ex- 
pense, even if only a dozen 
cars are to be housed. A 
few score automotive equip- 
ments, on the contrary, if 
scattered about the system, 
might be cared for most ad- 
vantageously by large public 
garages if the electric rail- 
way management secures 
the wholesale rental and re- 
pair rates to which a big, 
steady customer is entitled. 



70 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



St. Louis Plans Rapid Transit 

Two Independent Reports for the Development of High-Speed Service and for the Relief of Metropolitan 
Congestion — Subways for Surface Cars Are a Feature of Each Plan — A Direct- 
Payment Plan of Charging One Cent Extra on Each Fare Is 
Suggested as a Means of Financing 



TWO independent plans presented last fall in St. 
Louis deal with the future rapid transit develop- 
ment which is felt to be necessary in that city. 
One of these plans is a report on a "Proposed 
Rapid Transit System for the City of St. Louis by the 
Department of Public Utilities of the City," James A. 
Hooke, director; C. E. Smith, consulting engineer. The 
other plan is in the form of a preliminary report by the 
City Plan Commission of St. Louis, Mo., which is mak- 
ing an all-inclusive study of a general city plan for St. 
Louis and is proceeding on the basis of making pre- 
liminary special studies on each phase of the plan. This 
present rapid transit report is, therefore, one of these 
preliminary special studies. The latter report does not 
discuss the financial side of providing the rapid transit 
facilities, but refers to what it calls the "interesting 
discussion and proposal for financing rapid transit con- 
struction," which forms a part of the Department of 
Public Utilities' proposed system. 

Naturally, all preliminary plans, such as both of 
these are, are subject to material modification before a 
system is in actual existence and operation. The studies, 
in the present stage, however, afford an opportunity to 
analyze and appreciate some of the difficulties of laying 
out a rapid transit system where none now exists, and 
also some of the possibilities where present rapid facili- 
ties offer no limitations to a comprehensive scheme. 

The Public Utilities Department Plan 

Considering the plans in the order in which they 
were presented to the city, the plan of the Department 
of Public Utilities apparently looks further into the 
future than the preliminary plan prepared by the City 
Plan Commission. Both studies are based upon the 
same traffic investigation figures, namely, those made by 
the City Plan Commission. 

The Public Utilities plan mentions three principal 
means of separating automobiles and street cars: (1) 
By improving paved streets for the exclusive use of 
automobiles and concentrating the street cars in the 
fewest possible streets consistent with good service; 
(2) by widening streets containing street cars, more 
particularly where these streets are paved for heavy 
automobile traffic ; ( 3 ) by placing street cars in under- 
ground subways in the congested business districts and 
providing subways and elevated lines for rapid transit 
trains between the business and residential districts. 

This report points out that there has been no real 
extension to the system for the past fifteen years, dur- 
ing which the city has increased about 25 per cent in 
population and the suburban communities have increased 
more than that. Accordingly this plan includes not 
only' a bettering of the present transit facilities but also 
the necessary growth to handle the increased population 
and its modified geographical distribution. 

The proposed development has six phases, the first of 
which is an immediate procedure, the five others fol- 




RAPID transit arteries PROPOSED BY CITY 

plan commission 



lowing gradually but simultaneously. The first develop- 
ment is an immediate rerouting to expedite movement 
of cars and give better service. The details of this are 
largely of local interest and follow in principle rerouting 
studies made in other urban centers. It is interesting 
to note, however, that the proposed rerouting would 
make it possible to remove about 35 miles of single 
track of the present system, and the abandonment of 
this trackage would make possible the construction of 
about 15 miles of double-track extension with the money 
that would be spent in renewal of abandoned tracks. 

The other developments are : Extension of radial and 
crosstown lines; subways for surface cars in congested 
districts; rapid transit subways and elevated lines; 
downtown stations for steam railroad suburban trains, 
and subway loops for Illinois interurban cars. The 
extensions of surface lines include both additions to 
radial lines and construction of some new crosstown 
lines, totaling approximately 65 miles of double-track 
extensions in the preliminary estimate. 

The recommendations for subways for surface cars in 
the congested districts and the development of rapid 
transit subways and elevated lines are clearly indicated 
by the accompanying map. A total of 10 miles of surface 
car subways is shown on the plan, about 3 miles of 
which it is recommended be provided within the next 
five years. After the completion of the rerouting and 
the surface car subways, a total of about 95 miles of 
single track surface lines could be taken up. 

It will be noted that the rapid transit plan contem- 
plates double track in most of the mileage, but suggests 
three tracks to provide express service in the direction 
of heavy travel in some parts of the system. No dif- 
ferentiation is made between elevated and subway rapid 
transit lines as this is impracticable at the present time. 
Ornamental reinforced concrete viaducts are recom- 
mended for whatever elevated lines are built. 

The estimated cost of three-track subways is $6,000,000 
per mile and three-track elevated $1,500,000 per mile. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



71 



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One of the elements of this transit development plan 
is the continued use of suburban steam railroads rather 
than surface or rapid transit electric cars. Those who 
are familiar with St. Louis will appreciate, however, 
that the present Union Station is too far removed from 
the business center to be useful as a commuter station. 
A double benefit would therefore be derived by build- 
ing a separate station for trunk line suburban traffic in 
that this will be brought close to the business center and 
at the same time the elimination of the suburban trains 
from the Union Station would increase its capacity for 
handling through trains. Naturally, future electrifica- 
tion of the suburban trains and the area occupied by the 
Union Station is anticipated. 

As indicated by the plan, it is contemplated to bring 
the interurban railways entering St. Louis across the 
river from Illinois onto an interurban loop which will 
be principally underground. 

This report points out that the system of surface lines 
and rapid transit lines should be operated as one, similar 
to the Boston Elevated Railway, remarking on this point 
as follows: 

It is not possible for St. Louis to have such a rapid 
transit system unless it be operated as a part of a surface 
system. If each were operated separately the rapid transit 
system would experience great difficulty in securing 
enough traffic to pay expenses except at high fares. The 
resulting decrease in travel on the surface lines would 
make necessary an increase in fares to pay their expense. 
By operating them as one, with universal free transfers, 
the surface lines become able to give the rapid transit lines 
the necessary density of travel and the service and cost 
of operating the surface lines can be reduced as passengers 
are turned over to the rapid transit lines. 

Financial Plans 

It is estimated that the total cost, not including the 
suburban railroad station nor the interurban subways, 
would be somewhere in the vicinity of $200,000,000. 
Naturally, this could not be spent at once, nor could it 
be provided at once. A direct payment plan is recom- 
mended to finance the construction contemplated in the 



DOWNTOWN RAPID TRANSIT LOOPS PROPOSED BY 
CITY' PLAN COMMISSION 

plan. By direct payment plan is meant the collection of 
one cent with each street car fare and the application of 
this money to the construction of the system. In the 
beginning it is stated that this amount, one cent, would 
have to be added to whatever other fare might be con- 



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■ Subway for Surface- 
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urban Cars 

■ Traci<s for Suburban 
Railroad Trains 



DEPARTMENT OP PUBLIC UTILITIES PLAN FOR RAPID TRANSIT DEVELOPMENT 



72 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



sidered necessary, but as various improvements become 
effective, it is predicted that the charge would be partly 
and perhaps wholly offset by decreased cost of opera- 
tion, with the ultimate result that the fare on the rapid 
transit system would be no higher, and probably con- 
siderably lower, than if the facilities had not been 
provided. 

From the traffic studies made in St. Louis it is esti- 
mated that the sums given below would be available for 
rapid transit construction. This table contemplates an 
increase of 2 J per cent each year to the number of fares 
collected in the preceding year, which estimate is ap- 
parently borne out by past experience. 



Total to Date 

Year Amount Each Year Without Interest 

1920 $3,000,000 

1925 3,394,225 $16,163,311 

1930 3,840,254 34,450,402 

1935 4,344,894 55,140,676 

1940 4,915,848 78,549,818 

1945 5,561,830 105,035,110 

1950 6,292,701. 135,000,788 

1955 7,119,613 168,904,203 

I960 8,055 188 207.262,801 

1965 9,113,707 247.662,036 

1970 10,311,324 299,764,273 



On the above basis there will be provided in the next 
twenty-five years about $100,000,000. Mr. Smith esti- 
mates that the rate of increase will be greater and that 
one cent will amount to $200,000,000 in less than forty 
years, and in the meantime construction could start im- 
mediately and proceed at the rate of $3,000,000 for the 
first year, $3,500,000 per year by the second year, etc. 

Three methods of financing by bonds are suggested 
as alternates: (a) City to raise the money for the sale 
of bonds to be paid off in twenty years according to the 
present practice; (b) city to raise the money by the sale 
of bonds and create a sinking fund to pay them off in 
thirty to fifty years; (c) private company to raise the 
money by the sale of bonds and create a sinking fund to 
repay them in fifty years. An extended analysis of the 
working of each of these three schemes is given. 

It is recommended that the city proceed immediately 
upon a program which would contemplate some such 
construction as outlined, and it is stated that the city 
has the necessary legal authority to proceed with the 
program outlined without any change in the city charter 
or the state constitution. It is further stated that the 
ownership of the rapid transit facilities should be held 
in the city. They should be operated by the city if 
municipal ownership and operation comes to pass, other- 
wise their use should be permitted in the same manner 
as the streets which they supplant under such conditions 
as seem appropriate. 

The Plan of the City Plan Commission 

The report of the City Plan Commission is of course 
similar in character to that of the Public Utilities 
Department in that it quotes the traffic study and shows 
the limitations of the present system. It is accompanied 
by some very illuminating maps showing graphically 
the results of the traflfic studies and also picturing 
regions not now reached by any satisfactory transporta- 
tion service. It also shows the proposed car lines and 
isochronal zones for present and proposed routing. 

The physical difficulties peculiar to St. Louis on ac- 
count of the elliptical shape of the city, with the business 
district located at the extreme outer edge, are empha- 
sized. The commission states that present tendencies 
with respect to the distribution of population seem to 



indicate that these diflficulties are becoming more pro- 
nounced than ever before. 

The City Plan Commission recommends that a rerout- 
ing *of street car lines producing more direct service will 
meet the present needs of the city without the construc- 
tion of rapid transit lines. St. Louis is a sprawling city 
and needs a greater intensity of development within the 
intermediate central areas before rapid transit facilities 
will be justified. Eventually St. Louis will need rapid 
transit facilities, though that day may be ten or twenty- 
five years hence. The commission therefore recommends 
in anticipation of this time and in order to relieve one of 
the more acute transit conditions of today in the con- 
gested business district that there be a subway con- 
structed for surface lines, which subway may be so 
designed as later to form a part of a comprehensive 
subway system for rapid transit services. 

There seems to be no difficulty, according to the com- 
mission, of locating satisfactorily at this time the neces- 
sary rapid transit lines of the city. Following out this 
thought, the commission laid out a proposed rapid tran- 
sit scheme, which is shown in an accompanying "map, 
the details of the downtown or congested district part 
of the map being shown in a separate drawing. It will 
be noted that the area covered by the City Plan Com- 
mission map is much greater than that covered by the 
part of the map of the Public Utilities Department. 

The City Plan Commission report also calls attention 
to the fact that the development must be gradual and 
that the first step is an immediate rerouting of some of 
the present surface lines. Even this move is divided 
into three steps, a primary and immediate rerouting, 
secondary rerouting of transit lines, and a third or final 
step giving the complete rerouting of surface cars and 
the installation of subway routes in the business dis- 
trict. There is considerable discussion of the theory of 
loops, particularly subway loops for all surface cars, in 
the report. It is estimated that the initial short loop 
subway for surface car operation would cost about $17,- 
000,000, and the complete rapid transit scheme including 
the downtown rapid transit loop and route to the various 
parts of the city as shown on the map would cost 
$80,000,000, making a total of $97,000,000 for all of the 
construction for rapid transit purposes and for remov- 
ing practically all of the surface cars from the surface 
of the streets in the business districts. 

It is planned that there will be no contact of the two 
systems, namely, the subway for surface cars and the 
distinctive rapid transit system, except that the systems 
may be operated in common. The two systems would 
operate in separate streets, so that they would both be 
as near the surface as possible. 

Under the final plan it is estimated that there will be 
a possible abandonment of 66.97 miles of single-track 
surface and the construction of about 33.45 miles of new 
single track (exclusive of track in subways). Exten- 
sion of existing lines amounting to 62.67 miles of double- 
track construction is also proposed. 



As a result of a year's experience, the American Engi- 
neering standards committee has completely redrafted 
its rules of procedure. Copies of the revised rules can 
be obtaine'd by addressing the committee at 29 West 
Thirty-ninth Street, New York City. The rules are 
brief and are confined to definitions of the several types 
of co-operating bodies and to the ways in which the 
committee functions in the development of a standard. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



73 



Unit Idea in Power Station Design 

The Author Shows How the Unit Principle, Which Has Produced Good Results in Equipment Construc- 
tion, Can Be Fruitfully Applied to Generating Plants as a Whole — The Plan Described 
Differs from the Designs Which Have Usually Been Known as Unit Designs 
in that a Unit Is Considered as Complete in Every Part 

By LOUIS R. LEE 

Chief Engineer E. W. Clark & Company Management Corporation, Columbus, Ohio 



UNIT power plants, as designed and built by this 
company, are the outgrowth of experience gained 
in the operation and construction of steam plants 
over a long period of years. Also as operators of steam 
power plants we have become familiar with the common 
run of limitations of old and new plants built according 
to the cut-and-dried method. These limitations consist 
largely of high generation costs and the difficulty of 
making extensions at reasonable unit cost. Within their 
scope these experiences have not been materially differ- 
ent from those met by other utility operators. 

The steam power plant for the generation of electric 
current has necessarily experienced a great many 
changes in the past twenty years due to the improve- 
ments in the equipment offered for this class of service. 
However, the equipment now offered by various manu- 
facturers has reached a similarity in design which shows 
that a certain standard of development has been reached, 
and it is now not so likely to undergo radical change. 

We must expect and hope, of course, that there will 
be detailed improvements in the make-up of various 
kinds of equipment. Some of these changes will be 
called for due to change in natural conditions, others 
due to characteristics of electrical load which must be 
carried, etc. However, we have today a much better 
line of equipment to select from than formerly, all of 
which can be purchased in a variety of sizes without 
much change in the efficiency, quality or general make- 
up of the piece of equipment itself. It is possible today 
to purchase turbines of from 7,500-kw. to 35,000-kw. 
capacity that do not differ materially in economy, operat- 
ing characteristics, shape and general make-up. 

We may even extend this generalization to unit first 
cost. The same truth may be told about other lines of 
equipment, the difference being only in degree, accord- 
ing to the nature of the service for which the equipment 
is used. To date, however, no such result has been 
secured for plants as a whole, but it seems to the 
writer that the time is ripe for such application. 

Why Not Standardize the Power Plant? 

Progress has been made in standardization of equip- 
ment. We now need to secure similar benefits in power- 
plant assembly. Not much general progress has been 
made toward getting away from the idea that the plant 
must be a complete structure built especially for each 
particular locality. In other words, the design of plants 
has not kept pace with the design of equipment which 
has been used in the plants. 

Standardization of assembly and general simplicity in 
arrangements are both badly needed. In some directions 
progress is being made. For example, it is becoming 
more or less apparent that we are going to arrive some- 
where in the standardization of the use and application 
of electric current for all localities. For example, we 



have fewer frequencies than we used to have, there 
being practically only one standard for new plants, that 
is, 60 cycles. Other frequencies are used only where 
necessary to conform to existing conditions. Anything 
othei than three phase 'and single phase is considerecl 
freakish. Much in the same way voltages are approach- 
ing uniform standards, and like improvement along 
other lines of standardization could be cited. There- 
fore, it is becoming more and more possible, feasible and 
practicable to look upon any and all electric power plants 
as simply sources of supply for so much electrical 
energy, the essential aim of the plant being to produce 
electrical energy at the lowest possible cost, reliability 
and continuity of service being accepted as a matter of 
course as among the prime requisites in all power plants. 

The Term "Unit" Is Applied to Other Than 
Prime Movers or Boilers 

In the unit design which this company has evolved the 
principal essential is that a plant is built up of units 
which are complete in every part and will operate and 
function as units, furnishing some fractional part of the 
total requirements of the power plant. 

A power plant may be divided into several parts, 
depending somewhat upon the service given, but the 
plant as a whole naturally falls into two divisions, the 
first being the part which generates steam and the 
second that which generates electrical energy by the use 
of this steam. In other words, we have the boiler plant 
and the turbine plant. The turbine, with condenser, 
must be the principal unit of the turbine plant, with 
other units taking care of circulating water, air washing, 
electrical connections and other lesser units required 
for the complete functioning of this turbine plant. 
In the boiler plant there are boiler, economizer, furnace 
and draft equipment, as the greater unit with the lesser 
units that take care of coal supply, ash removal, feed- 
water supply and so on. 

In unit plants so far built the term "unit" has usually 
been applied to the plant as a whole. Thus a 75,000-kw. 
plant made up of three 25,000-kw. turbines would be 
styled a three-unit plant, a certain number of boilers, 
auxiliaries and a turbine being one unit. In our plan 
the scheme is different, in that the "units" are indepen- 
dent of each other, but may be used collectively to 
accomplish some desired result. Thus we have boiler 
units, turbine units, coal supply units, and so on, each 
unit being a complete entity in itself with minimum 
interconnection with the plant as a whole. Similar prog- 
ress in the design of automobiles may be cited. The 
engine, change gears and electrical equipment are now 
a unit on the modern car; the chassis, the frame and the 
rear axle are other distinct units which may be separated 
with minimum effort from the car as a whole for pur- 
poses such as repairs. 



74 



ELECTRIC Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



In the "unit power plant" design referred to 
the size of the individual units will vary according 
to the forecast of the ultimate size of the whole 
plant, but otherwise their characteristics will remain 
unchanged. The essential features of the designs of 
the different units are the same, and the benefits 
of standardization and design of details are achieved 
and made use of in a small plant as in a large 
one. Also there is in the small plant, and in the large 
one as well, a minimum investment involved in inter- 
connection, in assembly and in total space required for 
the equipment. 

Fixed Charges Can Be Kept Down by 
Careful Planning 

One of the greatest burdens of the steam plant are 
fixed charges which result from a large investment, this 
investment having grown up gradually due to a chain of 
circumstances which result in a very large fixed charge 
made up of interest on the investment, taxes, insurance 
and depreciation. It would only be fair to say, of course, 
that up to this time much loss has been experienced due 
to change in design and improvement in the art. How- 
ever, a great deal of unnecessary investment has been 
caused by lack of comprehensive plans ; by too much 
tacking on the auxiliaries, piping, by-passes and other 
agents for interconnection of auxiliary equipment to 
provide for freak operating schedules. The result of 
this lack of clean-cut simplicity in design in power plants 
has been that repair costs have been high, reliability 
has been endangered and the economies have not been 
as high as they should have been if the equipment had 
been properly installed. 

Much has been accomplished in recent years in the 
operation of mills and various manufacturing operations 
under scientific management. Not a little of the gain 
has been secured by planning systems, in other words 
maintenance work has been systematically taken care of 
under a planning scheme. The unit power-plant plan 
lends itself wonderfully well to a planning scheme. For 
example, the boiler units, made up of draft, stoker, 
boiler, economizer and feed-water equipment, can be 
repaired, inspected and thoroughly overhauled in a 
single operation by a comparatively small crew of men. 
As all of this work is done with the entire unit shut 
down, isolated from the rest of the plant and in no way 
endangering the reliability of service, these repairs can 
be made at minimum cost with convenience to the 
operators and to the operation of the station as a whole. 
This same holds true of any unit in the plant, including 
the turbine, the coal handling and other features. 

Our plan is designed to insure low labor cost. In 
accordance with it the plant is made up of a number of 
units of predetermined size, any one of which will 
function as a fractional part of the plant as a whole. 
Thus, there is a minimum expenditure involved in 
interconnecting the units with each other, and in pro- 
viding housing for the units. All units are so arranged 
that practically all operation can be taken care of from 
one floor level and all repairs can be taken care of with 
■minimum interference with other units which remain in 
operation. 

There are also many collateral advantages that result 
from building up a plant of complete units. As improve- 
ments in equipment are brought out by manufacturers, 
the new units which may be added to the plant can 
embody these improvements without interfering with or 
curtailing the full value obtained from the existing 



equipment. In plants with which we have had expe- 
rience it has sometimes not been thought feasible to 
take advantage, from time to time, of improvements in 
equipment due to the fact that this would make it neces- 
sary to make radical changes in the arrangement of 
the equipment already installed. The unit idea has 
enabled us to get around many of these difficulties. It 
has also been possible to make more compact assembly 
of equipment, making important savings in building 
space. Practically every feature employed in unit power- 
plant design has been used in one or more plants, 
although there are many improvements in the latest 
designs that have not all been made use of in the same 
plant. 

The unit design lends itself to rapid construction 
and allows taking advantage of many of the benefits in 
construction methods which heretofore have only been 
secured in the manufacturing plants. Also, standardiza- 
tion of assembly of equipment simplifies operation, 
requiring less study on the part of the operators of the 
arrangement of the station, because with all units of 
each class similarly constructed it is only necessary for 
an operator to understand the operation of a single unit 
of each class to tinderstand the operation of the plant as 
a whole. 

Any one who has had long experience in steam-plant 
operation appreciates that a great deal of the unlooked- 
for expense in steam-plant operation has come from 
expensive repairs which have been called for due to 
special arrangement, the repairs having to be made in a 
very short space of time. Furthermore, curtailment of 
output has frequently been caused by the necessity of 
shutting down certain parts of the whole plant in order 
to make repairs to individual pieces of equipment. The 
plant that is built up as a complete structure rather 
than as a group of complete units will be subject to 
much interruption of service, high maintenance cost and 
general unsatisfactory operation. This is illustrated 
by the fact that individual electric-motor drive owes 
much of its merit and popularity to the fact that it 
makes units of the machines to which it is applied. 

Site Should Not Exert Too Great an Influence 

Special conditions, such as real estate limitations, 
have called for extraordinary effort in design along 
some lines, but in many cases the limitations which 
existed have been accepted too complacently and allowed 
to influence the great investment in the plant as a whole, 
with very bad effect on economy in the long run. 
Limitations peculiar to a locality should receive care- ' 
ful study before they are allowed to increase unit invest- 
ment costs. Fixed charges run on for all time and no 
amount of engineering talent can reduce the fixed-charge 
part of the total power cost except by increasing the load 
factor of the plant. After the initial investment is made 
the total will always be increasing if the plan which has 
generally been followed up to this time is continued; in 
other words, if a plant after being built is constantly 
receiving additions in the way of piping, auxiliary 
equipment, small changes in buildings, etc. On the 
other hand, if the plant is laid out in a simple, clear-cut 
manner, and if changes are made only as additional 
capacity is needed, each part of the plant being 
originally built at minimum cost, the fixed-charge bur- 
den then on the output will be a minimum. 

Under present conditions the fuel item of power-plant 
operating cost is a very large one, and much thought 
must be given to the boiler plant to insure that all 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



75 



available heat generated by expensive fuel is used to 
the very best advantage. However, it is probable that 
fuel costs are now as high as they will be for a number 
of years and most localities have probably experienced 
their maximum fuel costs. But even with these high 
fuel costs, fuel economies have been emphasized too 
much and total investment too 
little. If we would have mini- 
mum total generating cost we 
must have low investment per 
unit of capacity. 

Every power plant problem 
has in it certain distinctive ele- 



(f) Good quality of labor should be available, or there 
should be sufficient and satisfactory space where labor quar- 
ters may be built. 

(g) Space for adequate fuel storage, and expansion for 
future requirements. 

(h) In general plant should be located as near center of 
distribution as possible while meeting the conditions given 

above. 

3. I nvefit ntent : 

(a) Low first cost and low unit cost, beginning 
with initial installation. 

(b) Low real estate cost now, with reasonable 
assurance that values will never be excessive. 

(c) Possible thermal efficiency to be balanced 
against investment and total over-all unit generation 
costs to determine character and completeness. 

(d) Design to permit 
operation of all equip- 
ment at highest pos- 
sible load factor, mini- 
mum spare parts or 
idle equipment. 

(e) Future exten- 




ments or features which if considered in their logical 
order will help considerably in solving the problem. 
The following outline is offered as such a check on the 
investment and operating conditions: 

L Demand: 

(a.) Present requirements expressed by maximum demand 
and load factor, daily and seasonal. 

(b) Prospective demand within a period of three years. 

(c) Prospective demand within a period of ten years or 
more. 

2. Location: 

(a) Railroad or shipping facilities. 

(b) Good water supply. 

(c) Low freight rate on fuel. 

(d) Earth that will allow permanent foundations to be 
constructed at reasonable cost. 

(e) Freedom from floods or other natural disturbances. 



VERTICAL, SECTION 
OF A 
POWER PLANT 
DESIGNED 
ACCORDING 
TO TrtE 
UNIT SYSTEM 



sions taken care of by design and plans with least invest- 
ment possible in building or other material provision for 
such extensions. 
4. Fuel Supply: 

(a) Value of fuel or waste heat available, to be deter- 
mined by unit cost per kilowatt-hour of output, giving due 
consideration to probable boiler capacity that it may be 
practicable to obtain. 



76 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



(b) Supply should be permanent and not liable to seasonal 
shortage. 

(c) Some fuels may generally fill these requirements but 
have other peculiarities or disadvantages. 

5. Labor: 

(a) Design that will permit use of least number of men 
and of least highly skilled men, while giving uniformly 
satisfactory results. 

(b) One-level operation with controls centralized or 
grouped, enabling labor to produce best performance with 
least effort. 

(c) All equipment of like nature similarly arranged, en- 
abling all operators to have clear understanding of plant 
requirements. 

(d) Accessibility of chief requisite, facilitating inspection 
and maintenance. 

(e) Good working conditions, considering light, ventila- 
tion, temperature, sanitation, transportation, facilities or 
proximity to good living quarters. 

6. Supervision: 

(a) Complete complement of indicating and recording in- 
struments to give ready check and record of performance. 

(b) Facilities should be such that unit quantities of fuel, 
steam and electrical energy may be obtained, recorded and 
be available for comparison and checking at all times. 

(c) Facilities to be provided for keeping plant records, 
storing supplies, tools and repair parts. 

(d) Plant must have best possible means of communicat- 
ing with distributing centers and of communicating or sig- 
naling within plant. 

While every item in the above outline deserves care- 
ful consideration, it is believed that there are some 
which are generally overlooked or their importance 
minimized. For example, referring to 1, "Demand," the 
future for, say, ten years is either ignored or too much 
emphasized, often resulting in poor ultimate layout or 
a carrying of much idle investment. The future must 
be considered, but should be taken care of as far as 
possible by design rather than by material investment. 

Fuel is only cheap when its use results in cheap power 
and allows a minimum investment in boiler plant. We 
should not be concerned over thermal efficiency so much 
as plant efficiency, which takes into consideration fixed 
charges as well as the operating costs. For example, 
a certain boiler installation when operating at 175 
per cent of boiler rating may have a very high efficiency, 
but if the boiler cannot be pushed to at least twice this 
rating and still maintain a good efficiency for boiler 
plant as a whole then the layout is undesirable by the 
amount it may fall short of some such result. 



Some Very Large Electrical Apparatus 

IN ITS annual review of engineering accomplishments 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
this year mentions several pieces of electrical equipment 
as the largest of their several kinds. 

For example, at the Colfax power station of the 
Cheswick Power Company, a subsidiary of the Duquesne 
Light Company, a 60,000-kw., 60-cycle, triple-element 
turbine unit was started on Dec. 18. This is the second 
unit of this type which has been put in operation. Again, 
a 32,500-kva., 25-cycle, 150-r.p.m. vertical water-wheel 
generator was also put in commission at Niagara Falls, 
one of the group of three units there which are the 
largest in the world. 

For the Colfax plant the company also supplied a 
record-breaking transformer. This is a single-phase, 
oil-insulated, water-cooled transformer of 23,600-kva. 
capacity. It transforms 60-cycle current from 12,000 
to 132,000 volts. There are also under construction in 
the shops a group of seven 12,000/220,000-volt, 60-cycle 
transformers of 16,667-kva. capacity for the highest 
commercial voltage yet adopted for power transmission. 
They are for the Pacific Gas & Electric Company. 



To the Philadelphia Electric Company two 1,750-kva. 
induction-type regulators were supplied for use on the 
low-tension side of the transformers supplying the two' 
66,000-voIt tie lines between the Schuylkill and Chester 
power plants of this company. 

The review refers also to a new face-plate type of 
voltage regulator which has been devised to perform the 
same service as that furnished by the vibrating relay 
type of regulator. 



1,750 at Dinner of New York Railroad Club 

THE second annual dinner of the New York Railroad 
Club was held at the Hotel Com.modore Thursday 
evening, Dec. 16, and there was an attendance of more 
than 1,750 members and guests. An introductory ad- 
dress was made by John A. Droege, general superin- 
tendent of the New York Division of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad, who has recently been 
elected president of the club. The toastmaster of the 
evening was William G. Besler, president of the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey. The principal address of the 
evening was made by James A. Emery, counsel of the 
National Industrial Council, who presented a paper on 
"Transportation Combinations and the Public Interest." 
The principal theme of Mr. Emery's address was con- 
tained in the questions, Do our modern industrial 
societies possess adequate powers of self-defence? and 
Are the people of the United States powerless to restrain 
a combination of those voluntarily engaged in the public 
service within the limits of social safety or must they 
submit to the unrestricted exercise of its collective 
power even though it imperils their social structure? 
He discussed the matter of national labor boards of 
adjustment and in concluding submitted four tests which 
appeared to him to determine whether the purpose of 
Congress as stated in the transportation act is being 
executed and the supreme interests of the public pro- 
tected. The tests are: 

1. No mode of adjustment or agreement should 
receive approval that does not assure a review, partici- 
pated in by representatives of the public, of every 
serious controversy or negotiation. Any proposal to 
establish relations between carriers and their employees 
the purpose or effect of which is to eliminate review or 
supervision by the representatives of the public should 
be rejected. 

2. No form of adjustment or agreement is in con- 
formity with the purpose of Congress nor should be 
approved by the board that does not equally recognize 
and protect the rights of employment, adjustments and 
representations of unorganized employees of the roads. 

3. No form of adjustment or agreement should be 
approved that does not safeguard the efficient and con- 
tinuous operation of train service. To this end each 
road should be considered as the unit of operation and 
self-interest, management and men stimulated to the 
cultivation of personal relations by continuous contact 
between executives and employees, that each man may 
find in the road which he serves the prompt means of 
protecting his interests and the opportunity of advance- 
ment through merit. 

4. Since the public interests require the assurance of 
uninterrupted service, the board should ask the carriers 
and their employees, in whatever form agreement be- 
tween the respective roads and their employees take, to 
accept without strikes or lockouts the ultimate decision 
of the board upon any question within its jurisdiction. 



I 



January 8, 1921 ElectricRailwayJournal 77 



Trackless Trolley in Two British Cities 

Bradford, with Three Routes in Operation, Is Planning Three More — The Buses Are Used as Feeders for 

the Trolley System — A Double-Deck Trackless Trolley Bus Has Just Been Put in Service 

Keighley, After Five Years' Experience, Has Added to Its Equipment 
and Now Has Nine Buses in Service 



A REVIVAL of interest in the trackless trolley is 
apparent in this country, although it is not clear 
. whether this interest is sufficiently deep-seated to 
lead to the construction of many roads of this type in the 
early future or not. For our experience with the track- 
less trolley we must go to Europe, for there, as in the 
case of the motor bus, much more has been done than 
in this country. The chief reasons are fourfold: The 
early advent abroad of smooth paving, the larger pro- 
portion of narrow and curved streets in the older city 
districts, the difficulty of securing right of way for 
tracks under British laws and the higher price of gaso- 
line. Yet, in spite of these favorable conditions, the 
development in Europe has not been large, though with 
the increasing cost of gasoline the advantages of the 
trackless trolley become greater. 

One of the largest trackless trolley installations in 
England is in Bradford, where both track and trackless 
electric operation are under one management, the mu- 
nicipality. For the fiscal year ended March 31, 1919, 
the Bradford Corporation Tramways earned a traffic 
revenue of £456,818 from the cars and of £15,121 from 
the trackless trolley buses. As to capital charges and 
operating expense, R. H. Wilkinson, general manager, 
made the following comparison before the 1919 Confer- 
ence of the Municipal Tramways Association: 



TABLE I— COMPARISON OF CAR AND TRACKLESS BUS ON VEHICLE- 
MILE BASIS IN PENCE PER MILE 

Fixed charges 2 675 for car and I . 50 for Bus or 43 . 9% less 

Operating expense.. 16 542 for car and 1 1 .97 for Bus or 27.6% less 

Total charges 1 9 . 2 1 7 for car and 1 3 . 47 for Bus or 29 8 % less 

Comparison of Car and Trackle^ss Bus per Passenger Carried in Pence per Mile 

Fixed charges . 1 8 for car and 0.16 for bus or 1 1 % less 

Operating expense. . 1.11 for car and 128 for bus or 16.4% more 

Total charges. ..... 1 . 29 for car and 1 . 44 for bus or 1 1 . 6% more 

It will be apparent from Mr, Wilkinson's comparison 
that the superiority of the trolley car is due chiefly to 
its greater capacity. The present bus is a twenty-nine- 
seat single-decker weighing 5 long tons (11,200 lb.), 
which limitation is due to roadway rules. Mr. Wilkinson 
has lately designed a fifty-one-seater, including smoking 
compartment, for which he is seeking approval. Should 
the new design be acceptable to the authorities, he will 
have a bus approaching more nearly the capacity of his 
double-deck cars and perhaps less costly per passenger 
carried on the basis of overhead and operating costs 
combined. 

Although only three trackless routes are shown on 
the accompanying map of Bradford as in operation, 
plans are in prospect for three more. The character- 
istics of present and future lines can readily be judged 
from the map as well as from the comparative revenues 
of tram and bus. One route (Frizinghall) starts from 
the city center at the Midland Railway station, sand- 
wiched by two trolley lines for about one-half of its 
length of 2.6 miles. Its earnings were 10. 6d. (21.2 
cents) per mile. The second route (Okenshaw), 1.6 



miles long, is obviously a suburban feeder which ties in 
with two trolley routes just 4 miles from-the center of 
the city. This route earned 10.8d. (21.6 cents) per 
mile. The third route, 4.7 miles long, is a cross-town 
service which ties in with half a dozen radial trolley 
lines at points 1.5 to nearly 2 miles from the center of 
Bradford. This line earned 10.88d. (21.76 cents) per 
mile. 

The three new lines would comprise a second cross- 
town line, a tie between two trolley terminals and an 



PRESENT AND PROPOSED TRAMWAY AND TRACKLESS 
TROLLEY LINES, BRADFORD, ENGLAND 

extension to an existing trolley line. From this, it is 
clear that the trackless trolley development at Bradford 
is along the lines to be expected in supplementing an 
existing tramway service with either the trackless 
trolley or the gasoline motor bus to take care of light- 
traffic routes. Although the Bradford Corporation 
Tramways operates gasoline motor trucks for municipal 
utility purposes, it has not acquired any gasoline pas- 
senger vehicles, perhaps because it has not arranged to 
serve conditions where the traffic routes might be sub- 
ject to change. 

Inasmuch as the gross earnings per car-mile were 
22.257d. (44.514 cents), compared with less than half 
that figure on the trackless routes, we need not be 
astonished to find that the fares on the trackless trolley 




-Tramways of the Bradford Corporation. 

Proposed Tramway Extensions. 

-Tramways of other Authorities. 

-Boundary of the City of Bradford. 

-Rail less Trolley Routes. 
-Proposed Railless Trolley Routes. 



78 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



routes are somewhat higher, as indicated in the accom- 
panying Table II. 



TABLE II— COMPARISON OF CHARGES IN BRADFORD 

Average Distance 
for Same Fare 



Average Distance for Stated Fares on Car on Bus 

I . 66 miles workman's Id. special-hour rate 155 miles 

No Id. fare .70 mile 

1 . 66 miles regular I . 5d. fare I 55 mile-s 

2 . 48 miles regular 2 . 5d. fare 2 . 00 miles 

3 .52 miles regular 3 , Od. fare ; 2 .64 miles 

4.14 miles regular 4 . Od. fare 3 .34 miles 

5 . 09 miles regular 4 5d. fa'e 4.85miles 

6 . 96 miles regular 6 . Od. f re 



The average fare charged per mile on cars was 
0.868d. (1.736 cents) and on the trackless trolley buses 
1.078d. ^2.156 cents). The figures of trackless trolley 
service by the Bradford Corporation Tramways are 
arranged in accordance with the standard system of 



trolley, on the other hand, had to pay a road upkeep 
charge of only 0..374d. per vehicle-mile, whereas each 
car operated was assessed 1.289d. per car-mile for 
general repairs and maintenance of permanent way. 
In this last instance the trackless trolley has to pay 
approximately half as much per seat as the car. 

From a vehicle maintenance standpoint, the car had 
the better of the comparison, averaging 2.678d. per mile 
against 3.201d. per mile against the newer and half as 
large trackless trolley bus. The energy consumption 
of the bus was 1.509 kw.-hr. per mile compared with 
2.717 kw.-hr. for the bigger cars. Considering also that 
the trackless trolley buses must have averaged a smaller 
number of stops per mile and that they were not 
operated over the busiest and steepest streets, it is 
reasonable to assume that for Bradford paving condi- 
tions they would require almost twice as much energy 




Half Longitudinal Section through Top and Bottom 5aloons 

accounting used by British municipal railways, so that 
comparisons with Bradford's cars can be made in a 
number of items showing the following: 

On a vehicle basis, wages of platform men appear to 
be practically alike, the trackless bus averaging 4.415d. 
per mile against 4.312d. on the larger cars. Cleaning 
and oiling a trackless bus is apparently less costly per 
vehicle than a car, the relative figures being 0.399d. and 
0.794d. Fire insurance is no greater than for the 
electric car, but the accident and compensation insur- 
ance item of 0.045d. per mile is double that for the car 
(0.233d), probably because any trackless vehicle is a 
bit of a vagabond. 

The relative maintenance charges for the electrical 
equipment of line are 0.041d. for the trackless trolley 
and 0.267d. for the double-track car routes, a difference 
which can be ascribed to the fact that a trackless trolley 
requires a return circuit as well as a contact wire and 
some special features here and there. The trackless 





S 0-6 

Cross Section 



Outline of Double-Deck Tram Car, 
showing comparative Size 



DOUBLE-DECK TRACKLESS TROLLEY BUS IN 
EXPERIMENTAL SERVICE IN BRADFORD 

per seat if single-deck bus remains pitted against 
double-deck car. This would not be true if double- 
deck trackless buses succeed. However, a com- 
parison of the twenty-nine-seat bus at 1.509 kw.-hr. 
with a thirty-two-thirty-five-seat safety car aver- 
aging 1 kw.-hr. per mile indicates that a substan- 
tially higher energy consumption must be reckoned with 
on the part of a trackless trolley bus even though its 
weight per seat is below that of the lightest American 
trolley car. 

Cost of Gasoline Operation Higher 

Mr. Wilkinson's new double-deck trackless trolley 
bus is the first to be built of that type so far 
as is known. It is diflScult, therefore, to make an exact 
comparison with the double-decker thirty-seven-seat 
gasoline bus as used extensively at Sheffield. However, 
the operating cost of the Sheffield bus averaged 17.896d. 
for the year ended March 31, 1919, compared with the 
11.970d. operating cost of the twenty-nine-seat track- 
less trolley bus at Bradford as previously detailed. For 
the same period, the operating cost of the fifty-two buses 
at Birmingham averaged 18.944d. per bus-mile. The 
Edinburgh Corporation Tramways expect a thirty-two- 
seat single-deck bus to cost 20.75d. per mile, but this 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



7,1 



makes allowance for the higher wages that will prevail 
in 1920 as compared with 1918-1919. In any event, the 
extraordinarily high price of motor fuel in England (89 
cents per gallon in March, 1920, and 1.10 cents in Octo- 
ber, 1920) is putting the trackless trolley in a more 
advantageous position wherever there is enough traffic 
for something better than hourly or half hourly head- 
ways. 

In the case of the 5.1-mile Tees-Side Rail-less Traction 
System, opened as recently as Nov. 8, 1919, the track- 
less trolley won out over the gasoline bus because of its 
lower power and upkeep costs, while it won out over the 
track trolley because the intended average headway of 
15 minutes (30 to 7.5 minutes) did not warrant a con- 
struction cost of £12,500 to £15,000 per mile of single 
tangent track compared with the pre-war price of £4,500. 
This Tees-Side installation is worth mentioning because 
it is for conditions that in this country have hitherto 
led to the construction of highway trolley lines, neces- 
sarily of single-track construction and therefore none 
too adaptable to sudden accretions of traffic. 

Trackless Trolley Costs Have Risen Less Than 
Bus Costs 

Another British enthusiast for the trackless trolley is 
Harry Webber, general manager Keighley Corporation 
Tramways. On March 19, 1915, after five years of gaso- 




a typical, trackless trolley bus 

line motor bus operation, he inaugurated a trackless 
trolley system comprising nine vehicles running over 
8? miles of route in rather hilly country. At that time 
gasoline cost but 2d. per mile for a thirty-eight to forty- 
seat double-deck bus, while power for the twenty-eight- 
seat electric single-decker which replaced it cost one- 
half as much. An operation of 100,000 miles per an- 
num was sufficient in power saving alone to cover inter- 
est and depreciation on the electrical overhead equip- 
ment. Owing to the uneven torque and the greater 
weight of the gasoline bus, the tire upkeep of the 
gasoline bus had cost practically four times as much as 
that of the electric bus, according to Mr. Webber. 

Perhaps the most interesting fact is that although the 
electric buses were smaller, their greater cleanliness, 
smoother running and better lighting increased the pas- 
senger earnings from 24 cents to 28 cents per mile. 



Trolley Freight Service Will Pay 

Why It Can Successfully Compete with Steam Railroads and 
Motor Trucks — Practical Hints on Operation Are 
Given — Selection of Freight Manager 
Most Important Step 

By G. W. Ravert 

General Freight Agent Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company , 

THE emphasis placed upon the importance of the 
development of the electric street railway as a 
freight carrier, at the recent convention, should be very 
significant to all electric railway companies which are 
not operating a freight service. Pages and pages 
have been written on this subject, but its real impor- 
tance, its financial possibilities and the principles 
underlying its management are not widely known and 
recognized. This is evident from the following quota- 
tion from the address of Mr. Graham, vice-president 
of the Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Company: 

In long-distance movements of heavy tonnage they [the 
electric railways] are surpassed by the steam roads; in 
short-distance transit of less than carload lots, up to 100 
miles, they cannot compete with the motor trucks. 

In short hauls up to 15 miles the electric street 
railway pays homage to and will gladly surrender such 
business to the motor truck, but in movements of heavy 
tonnage or less-than-carload lots, ranging from 20 to 
200 miles, neither motor truck, steam road nor any 
other land carrier can successfully compete with the 
electric street railway from the standpoints of economy, 
reliability, dispatch and financial return. 

The possibilities of the electric railway as a freight 
carrier are very great, yet it is a curious fact that 
this valuable form of transportation has hardly passed 
beyond the experimental stage. This condition is 
largely due to the shortage of managers capable of 
directing such traffic and the lack of competent counsel 
along freight lines, thus preventing the trolley freight 
from assuming its proper status. The general man- 
agers of the roads too often are completely absorbed 
in the passenger service, unconsciously letting a verita- 
ble gold mine lie unnoticed in their own back yards. 

Most of the writers on this subject advocate the 
application of railroad principles. This was a good 
policy while the business was in its infancy, as every 
one realized the value of standardization, but now that 
the electric railway is emerging from the general class 
of freight carriers and stepping into a class by itself, 
it is absolutely natural and necessary that it should 
adopt methods and principles peculiar to its condition. 

Economically, the advantages of the trolley freight 
service transcend those of the passenger service, yet it 
does not in any way interfere with such service. Finan- 
cially, it is a better investment than the passenger 
service, for the reason that a carload of passengers 
represents from $5 to $10 in receipts, while a carload of 
freight, at a lower operating cost, represents from $50 
to $75 in receipts. A striking example that the steam 
roads, old-time express companies and motor trucks are 
not considered successful competitors financially is 
shown by the fact that many large firms having their 
own motor trucks know from accurate cost records that 
it is cheaper to ship via trolley freight. The railroads 
are slower, express companies are more expensive and 
not so efficient, and the motor truck is essentially a 
fair-weather carrier and its rates are high. The trolley 
freight runs rain or shine, and, excepting in rare cases, 
all through the heavy winter storms, and delivers to 



80 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



more points convenient to consignees than any other 
carrier. In fact, its possibilities in this direction are 
unlimited. Ultimately goods will be delivered directly 
to the consignee's place of business. 

Needs of Business Described 

By far the most important first step in the promo- 
tion or expansion of the trolley freight is the selection 
of the freight manager. He should be a practical man, 
possessed of sound common sense and must be able to 
deal with men who work with their hands. He should 
be one who could go out and sell a service, not rates, 
as is the case with many freight-transportation com- 
panies. For example, a freight manager well known to 
the writer put forth the argument that trolley freight 
rates should be about 10 per cent lower than those of 
the steam roads in order to secure business. He also 
made a practice of encouraging his company to settle 
freight claims in favor of his shippers, as an induce- 
ment. This reminds one of the old-time cut-throat 
methods, and the disastrous effects it has on the busi- 
ness can be readily appreciated. In reality, the rates 
should be from 10 to 15 per cent higher than on the 
steam roads, in view of the more prompt and efficient 
service given, and all classes lower than fourth should 
be eliminated. Rules reducing the second and third- 
class rate should also be removed. This can be con- 
sistently done by taking an exception to the official 
classification, provided the business is based upon the 
rules and laws set forth by the steam road official 
classification. 

An adequate terminal consisting of inbound and out- 
bound platforms, together with a team yard, within easy 
reach of the big shippers, so built and located as to 
permit its keeping pace with the expansion of the busi- 
ness, is another prime essential. Two or three freight 
cars (according to local conditions) are all that are 
necessary at the start. These cars will pay out of their 
earnings for all additional equipment as it is needed by 
the ever-growing business. Here again, the manager 
proves a valuable asset. If he is not getting 100 per 
cent of use out of his equipment before shouting for 
more, he is wasting money. 

It is advisable, of course, to use equipment especially 
adapted to freight traffic. Cars should be of modern 
type, built specially for interurban freight service and 
capable of hauling one or more trailers. Of course, 
many roads are operating with abandoned passenger 
cars, revamped, and are making money, but the time 
lost in the repair shop and the lower standard of effi- 
ciency cut their net profit considerably. Such cars 
are too small and ungainly, sacrificing strength for mis- 
placed economy, and as they naturally are of all sizes 
and shapes, they do not permit a standardizing con- 
dition. 

Reliable and adequate records are a strict essential 
in any business, but in the freight business they are 
a vital necessity. Probably most transit companies 
fail to realize the possibilities of the freight through 
their lack of reliable cost records. Briefly, the follow- 
ing outline covers most of the essentials and gives 
an accurate method of checking freight from the re- 
ceivers into the freight cars. This plan cuts down 
claims to a negligible minimum and at the same time 
insures despatch. 

A modern rating and billing system is of first im- 
portance, that is to say, each shipment must be covered 
by a waybill which should accompany the goods to its 



destination. Most roads have their bills made out by 
hand, using copying pencils and carbons, each biller 
rating his own bills. Many errors and subsequent loss 
of time and efficiency result from this practice. A spe- 
cial rate clerk doing rating exclusively can accomplish 
more work efficiently and accurately than by the former 
diffused method. At the inbound office, the procedure is 
somewhat similar. The goods should be checked from 
the cars against the bills received from the point of 
origin. 

Aside from these salient points the rest of the office 
work can be governed by any modern standard method. 
It is of the utmost importance that proper cost records 
be kept and that a proper distribution of charges for 
maintenance and operation be made, in order that the 
freight is not charged with a host of unwarranted 
accruals. 

These facts and suggestions are merely a few of the 
high lights in the proved advantages and possibilities 
of electric trolley freight, and, springing as they do 
from the comparatively short career of trolley freight, 
hold a promise of an unlimited future for this system 
of freight transportation. 



Some Aspects of Electric Railway 
Progress in 1920 

WD. BEARCE, of the railway and traction engi- 
. neering department. General Electric Company, 
has prepared an analysis of that company's experience 
in connection with railway work in 1920. He states that 
the most notable activity has been in connection with 
the safety car, automatic substations and steam railroad 
electrification. 

As to automatic control, the 2,000-kw. motor-gener- 
ator set with complete automatic control furnished for 
the Detroit River tunnel electrification has been in 
operation for several months. This is the largest unit 
yet operated automatically in railway service. A notable 
order for automatic equipment was that for eight 
1,000-kw. control equipments and transformers for the 
1,500-volt, direct-current substations of the Victorian 
Railways at Melbourne, Australia. In New Zealand 
the 300-kw. automatic substation ordered last year was 
put in operation on the Christ Church Tramways and 
this company has ordered two more. 

The company's electrification work in the United 
States has been confined to the Milwaukee extension, 
for which five gearless locomotives were furnished. 
Outside of the United States work on the electrification 
of the Paulista Railway in Brazil and the electrification 
work , for the Montreal Harbor Commission are well 
under way. In addition to the Paulista Railway elec- 
trification, another important project in South America 
is the equipping of the Santa Catharina lines in Brazil 
for 1,500-volt operation with multiple-unit cars. About 
50 miles of these lines are being equipped for such 
service. 

In a bulletin on automatic station control equipment 
recently issued by the General Electric Company, the 
following features of automatic stations are summa- 
rized: Minimum operating personnel required, better 
protection provided, maintenance cost reduced, distri- 
bution pressure improved, feeder loss decreased, standby 
loss decreased, electrolysis mitigated, insurance in- 
creased, reliability increased, development of small 
power sites made feasible. 



ianimry 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



81 



The Bus and the Trolley 

The Author Takes Issue with the Statement of the Motor Truck Manufacturer that the Electric Rail- 
ways Cannot Hope to Compete with the Steam Railways and Motor Trucks in the Transporta- 
tion of Freight — He Bases His Conclusions on the Situation in Southern California, 
Where the Conditions Are Most Favorable to the Operation of Motor Trucks 



By H. B. TITCOMB 

Vice-President Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, Cal. 



I HAVE read the edi- 
torial in your issue of 
Nov. 6 under the cap- 
tion "Shall We Turn the 
Freight Business Over to 
Motor Trucks?" as well 
as the statement of George 
M. Graham, vice-president 
of the Pierce-Arrow Motor 
Car Company, in his ad- 
dress before the American 
Electric Railway Associa- 
tion, that electric railways 
should not figure too hope- 
fully on freight revenue, 
as they cannot success- 
fully compete with steam 
railways and motortrucks. 

I most emphatically take 
issue with Mr. Graham's 
statement. If there is any 
place in the United States 
where conditions are fav- 
orable to the successful 
operation of motor trucks 
in competition with rail 
lines it is in southern Cal- 
ifornia, where there are 
more miles of paved high- 
ways than there are in 
any other state in the 

Union with the possible exception of New York State. 

Good roads are essential, and it is proper that they 
should be built, but it was never intended by the tax- 
payers of any state that these good roads should be 
turned over to any individual or group of individuals 
for private gain, yet the anti-corporation feeling of 
the public has been used as a cloak to build up under 
this subsidy plan a competitive system that is not 
just and is out of line with the American spirit of 
fair play. Every industry, every public utility and 
every form of business must be remunerative within 
itself ; otherwise it should not exist. Any such facility 
that cannot be made self-sustaining must not, under 
any stretch of the imagination, be subsidized out of 
general taxation. Such socialistic tendencies are not in 
line with the American spirit and should not be tolerated 
by the American people. 

Why Bus Development Has Taken Place 

Mr. Graham also says : "The motor bus can never 
eliminate the trolley." With this I agree, but I cannot 
agree with his further statement that "the public is 
eager to use the bus." The American public has come 



To the Trade 



to use buses simply for 
two reasons: (1) Preju- 
dice against corporations 
in general and the railroad 
corporations in particular, 
and (2) the inability of 
some railroads to give 
service to developing com- 
munities. 

As to the first reason, 
the experience of the trav- 
eling public with the cor- 
porations that control the 
motor bus lines has been 
to show that after all the 
rail line corporations were 
not as grasping and as 
dictatorial as had been 
pictured. 

As to the second reason, 
financial difficulties have 
been responsible for lack 
of development on the part 
of electric railway trans- 
portation companies. The 
people have had an idea 
that the coffers of these 
companies were of un- 
fathomable depth and that 
money could always be ob- 
tained for the development 
of railroad facilities. Pyramided prices of labor and ma- 
terials and reluctance on the part of politicians and soap 
box orators to recognize the necessity for higher fares 
have in many cases kept conscientious railroad commis- 
sions from doing the fair and reasonable thing that jus- 
tice demanded. In other words, the general thought seems 
to have been that if these corporations were impover- 
ished they could give better service. But the effect 
of this policy has simply been to drive money into 
more remunerative lines. To a great extent, however, 
this is being overcome. I believe I am not too optimistic 
in saying that the pendulum is swinging back, and I 
believe there is a bright future for the electric trans- 
portation concerns of the country. 

The motor bus will not become a thing of the past. 
It is performing a service that is necessary in many 
cases, but it cannot supplant the electric or steam lines. 
It can be made an adjunct to such lines on a business- 
like and remunerative basis. The railroads can no 
longer play the "dog in the manger," and where com- 
munities develop and warrant the establishment of serv- 
ice, these transportation companies must extend their 
rail lines or put in feeders that will reach the nearest 



WE are frequently requested by our customers to 
forward their orders by truck. It is immaterial 
to us how the goods go forward, as our responsi- 
bility ends when we get the carrier's receipt. There is, 
however, a condition surrounding truck shipments to 
which we wish to call your particular attention. 

Since the beginning of the war, and the resultant delays 
in railroad freight deliveries, there have come into existence 
a multitude of trucks for freight haulage between interur- 
ban points. The people operating a great many of these 
trucks are absolutely irresponsible financially. Freight is 
intrusted to them without any guarantee whatever that 
it will ever be delivered at destination, or, if short, that 
any claim will be paid. A great many of these people have 
only a small equity in their trucks. If a serious shortage 
should occur it would be utterly impossible to collect the 
claim, owing to the carrier's lack of tangible assets. 

In view of the above facts we wish to impress on our 
trade that we ship by truck only when so instructed by our 
customer, and that our responsibility ceases absolutely 
when we secure the carrier's receipt for the shipment in 
good order. When shortages occur we will not assume the 
claims for the customer. He must make his own settle- 
ment with the carrier. 

This is no reflection whatever on the many reputable 
companies operating freight trucks, but is intended as a 
warning to protect both our customers and ourselves against 
loss through irresponsible carriers. 

Be sure that your carrier is responsible before you in- 
trust your goods to him. 

— Notice wliich a Los Angeles heavy hard- 
ware concern sent out to its customers. 



82 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



point of existing rail transportation and, by a system 
of through fares and tickets, give the people depend- 
able and positive service that can be properly regulated 
by governing bodies. This can be accomplished by 
contracts with bus concerns or the formation of bus 
corporations to operate in conjunction with existing 
transportation lines. 

The Pacific Electric Railway started handling freight 
in a small way more as an accommodation to its patrons 
than with any idea that the business would prove 
remunerative, but as conditions changed and the public 
became acquainted with the service we were able to 
render the demand for it became more general and 
our freight revenue has shown a steady increase. 

The Pacific Electric system radiates from Los 
Angeles, the longest interurban line being approxi- 
mately 70 miles. We have a roadway mileage of 615, 
but, as there are certain points where our old franchises 
did not contemplate the handling of freight, we have 
a freight road mileage of 519, and we find that the 
revenue derived from the transportation of freight today 
is equal to approximately 24 per cent of our total 
revenue. 

What Railways and Buses Pay for Roadway 

The Pacific Electric Railway is typical of the better 
class of interurban railroads of the United States. It 
has come out of the war period with its tracks, its 
equipment and its service in better shape than any 
other interurban railroad, barring none. We have the 
highest skill that can be obtained in railroad manage- 
ment, and our operating personnel, from the section 
foremen through the train service and all departments, 
is of high class, with good esprit de corps, better feel- 
ing and higher efficiency than any similar transportation 
company in the country. But this has been accom- 
plished by the optimism of the financial backers of this 
splendid property. Through this war period and through 
the competitive period brought about by the advent of 
the automobile they have stood by this property, know- 
ing that it would ultimately realize the dreams of its 
founders, although there is an accumulated deficit of 
upward of $11,000,000 loaned to this company to tide 
it over. The public should know and should appreciate 
this in order that it may bear with us in the readjust- 
ment that is necessary to "get on our feet" again. 

Our property is worth far in excess of the $70,000,000 
on which we are trying to pay interest. The following 
figures may be of interest : 



FINANCIAL REPORT OF PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY, FOR TEN 
MONTHS ENDED OCT. 31, 1920 

Gross operating income $12,630,000 

Operating expense; 

Way and structures $1,241,000 or 9 . 1 per cent of gross income 

Equipment 1,596.000 or 1 2 , 6 per cent of gross income 

Power 1,430.000 of 1 1 . 3 per cent of gross income 

Conducting transportation 3,783,000 or 29 9 per cent of gross income 

Traffic 133,000 or 1.0 per cent of gross income 

Auditing expense, store, supplies, 

damages, etc 1,046,000 or 8 . 2 per cent of gross income 

Summary: 

Wages $6,205,000 or 48 . per cent of gross income 

Material charges 3,024,000 or 23 9 per cent of gross income 

Depreciation and taxes 742,000 or 5 9 per cent of gross income 

Interest on bonds and borrowed 
money, and other miscellane- 

ius deductions 3,487,000 or 27 , 5 per cent of gross income 

These figures show that maintenance of way of our 
tracks, bridges, private rights-of-way, etc., eliminating 
all rolling equipment, building, stations, power stations, 
overhead equipment, trestles, etc., is $958,000. This is 



7.5 per cent of the gross income. Our state taxes are 
5.25 per cent of our gross income. 

We have invested approximately $45,000,000 in 
private rights-of-way, paving, bridges, trestles, culverts, 
switches, ballast, fences, etc., not including rolling stock, 
buildings of all description, electrical equipment of all 
description, etc. Six per cent on this amount is $2,700,- 
000 and on the basis of a $15,000,000 income this sum 
would represent 18 per cent of our gross income. If 
to this percentage the percentage for maintenance, 7.5 
per cent, and for taxes, 5.25 per cent, is added, a total 
of 30.75 per cent of the gross income is required to 
furnish a roadway on which to operate. 

As against this we knew that the ordinary auto 
truck or interurban bus must do upward of $30 a day 
in business, or $10,000 annually, or it cannot operate 
and live. We further know that the personal property 
tax on each of these buses, its license and the per- 
centage of any gross that may be turned over to the 
state does not total more than 3 per cent, or $300 a 
year. 

This leaves a difference of 27.75 per cent, which 
is the subsidy that is being given these trucks that 
are using our highways for profit and destroying the 
value of the electric and steam railroads of this country. 
It is no wonder they can make the short hauls and 
deliver from business house to business house more 
cheaply than the freight can be handled by a rail line. 
But the answer is that it cannot be done if no subsidy 
of the extent indicated is paid. 

Since May 1, 1917, a California statute has required 
new truck lines to secure a certificate of public con- 
venience and necessity from the State Railroad Com- 
mission before service can be established, and at the 
present time there are operating in competition with the 
Pacific Electric Railway thirty-five common carriers by 
truck, operating 130 trucks and trailers. We estimate 
the revenue they deflect from this company approx- 
imates $300,000 per year. There are also numerous 
"contract" carriers which are not required to file their 
rate schedules with the commission and we estimate that 
they deflect an additional $100,000 per year. 

As I have already said, the taxpayers did not con- 
template that $40,000,000 of the state's money should be 
put into roads for the pecuniary benefit of individuals 
or for those who use such investment for their private 
gain, with the resultant destruction of our highways. 

Our State Highway Commission is greatly alarmed 
at the deterioration of these splendid highways. Our 
cities are demanding that the damage done to the streets 
and highways within their limits be maintained out 
of the fund accumulated through the automobile licenses. 
Our state officers are greatly perturbed over the lack 
of revenue that should come to the state from the 
gross income that should be earned by the rail corpora- 
tions. Millions of dollars would pour into the state 
treasury were it possible to tax these automobiles 5i 
per cent of their gross revenue and let it go to the 
state, as exacted from the rail lines. Some system to 
accomplish this must be devised. 

Legislation Recommended 

Summarizing, we do not ask for anything unreason- 
able, but we do say : 

1. We advocate the repeal of Section 498 of the Cali- 
fornia Civil Code, which relates to the paving of por- 
tions of street occupied by tracks, which would leave 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



83 



the question of paving to municipalities and the 
electric railways operating therein. It goes without 
saying that the day when these rail transportation com- 
panies should maintain their paving is past. 

2. We feel that an indeterminate franchise act which 
would repeal the existing cumbersome statutes should 
be passed by our state legislature. This would lend 
financial stability to the companies and allow them to 
proceed with improvements that otherwise will not be 
undertaken where the conditions of succeeding fran- 
chises may be so exacting as not to warrant the expendi- 
ture of large sums. 

3. We want a fair and reasonable tax on automobile 
carriers using the highways for commercial purposes, 
also an amount which would be equivalent to the per- 
centage of gross receipts paid by the rail carriers. 

4. The jitney law should be amended so that it will 
require jitney operators to obtain permits from local 
authorities before applying to the Railroad Commission 
for a certificate of necessity and convenience. 

5. "Contract" carriers should be placed under the 
jurisdiction of the Railroad Commission, and all auto- 
mobile cariers should be required to make full and com- 
plete reports of their operations to the commission, 
as is done by the railroad companies. 

6. Urban auto carriers should come under the juris- 
diction of the State Railroad Commission, particularly 
where they operate in competition with interurban sys- 
tems of transportation. 

Motor Trucks Suitable Only as Feeders 

I do not share the views of the Graham reference 
to the relative merits of the bus and the electric railway 
for freight haulage. The electric railway does, and 
will continue to, handle the bulk of short-haul freight 
movement. The future will see trucks as feeders 
to haul freight to central points, thence to be trans- 
ported to cities by trolley or steam lines. The 
cost of unloading from trucks and loading onto the 
trolley freight car, etc., will be more than offset 'by 
the higher operating cost per ton-mile of such auto 
trucks, if we add to the present high operating cost 
of such trucks approximately 25 per cent, which is a 
just amount as taxes and interest on investment in 
the roads that they are destroying. This at first glance 
may seem large, but if any stretch of the state high- 
ways, which have cost as high as $20,000 a mile, is 
examined and note is made of the destruction, as well 
as of the comparatively small amount of auto travel 
which they have carried, it will not be far wrong 
to say that the damage to these roads will probably 
reach the astounding figure of one cent a ton-mile. 

Mr. Graham would lead us to believe that for such 
factories, farms, mills, stores and warehouses as are 
located directly along the lines of rail transportation the 
railway companies handle only a very small amount 
of the total freight moved. If he had collected a few 
statistics he would have found that the great movement 
of freight goes to and from the great wholesale busi- 
ness houses and factories that have necessarily located 
on the lines of these transportation companies simply 
as a matter of economy and business prudence in 
providing facilities that will give them the quickest, 
mgst dependable and most economical method of doing 
business. 

The haulage of freight has become a very great 



revenue producer for the Pacific Electric and other rail- 
roads and will grow, provided the trucks are obliged 
to charge for their service in proportion to their costs 
and the damage they do to public property. 

San Pedro-Los Angeles Service 
Mostly Electric 

Eighty-five per cent of the freight moved from Los 
Angeles Harbor to Los Angeles is done by the electric 
line and not by truck, as many seem to believe. The 
present highway is not congested; it could take four 
times the truck business it now handles, but the ship- 
ping public knows that the facilities cannot be provided 
alongside a ship that would adequately take care of the 
great strings of auto trucks that would be required 
to handle the freight carried by one of the large ocean- 
going vessels that dock at our far famed harbor. 

I firmly believe that freight haulage is a big prob- 
lem for the electric railroads. Profits ofi business 
houses are made by the volume that they handle, and 
large volume can be handled only in large units. Where 
the average car can handle 25 to 30 tons of merchandise 
and 50 to 55 tons of grain in a unit, it is hard to con- 
ceive of motor trucks supplanting them. We also know 
that every first-class and far-seeing business concern 
is locating its facilities, especially at wholesale points, 
along railroad lines and building its warehouses and 
supply depots at such points as can economically handle 
this volume of traffic. 

It is a common daily occurrence on the Pacific Electric 
Railway to move 100 cars of freight from San Pedro 
with about 25 tons to the car, or a total of 2,500 tons. 
If this business was done instead by motor trucks 
with from 3 to 5 tons capacity, or an average of 4 tons, 
600 automobiles would be required to take care of one 
day's business and operating in but one direction. Such 
an idea is preposterous. It will never be done. 

An interesting side-light on this situation is thrown 
by the notice, which is reproduced on page 81. This 
notice was sent to all of its customers by a Los Angeles 
heavy hardware concern and is of interest. 



Austria Planning Electric Railways 

NEWS has recently reached this country that the 
plans for the electrification of about half the rail- 
way lines in Austria have been approved. The project 
covers approximately 400 miles of railway, mostly in 
mountainous country, and will cost about 5,000,000,000 
crowns. The reason for the sudden undertaking of the 
work projected more than twenty years ago was the 
breaking up of the old Austria, which was compar- 
atively rich in coal. The present Austria finds itself 
almost without coal. To reduce its dependence on out- 
side countries for coal, the development of potential 
water power and railway electrification offer the only 
solution. 

A conservative estimate places the saving through 
the employment of electricity at 7 per cent of the 
total outlay, because much equipment for haulin*' 
the coal from the Czech frontier 420 miles to the 
Austrian Alpine roads will no longer be necessary. The 
development of about 76,000 hp. of water power will be 
required for the first undertaking of 400 miles of line. 
Later it is proposed to electrify an additional 680 miles 
of lines, which will necessitate other developments 
totaling approximately 150,000 hydraulic horsepower. 



84 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



Getting the Best Results with 
Steel Poles 

Manufacturer Makes Suggestions to Users Which Show 
How Special Requirements Sometimes Cause Unnec- 
essarily High Cost — Some Practical Hints on 
Pole Testing Are Also Given 

IT IS highly desirable that the users of a manufactured 
product appreciate fully the relation of manufactur- 
ing processes and characteristic qualities of materials 
to the finished article which they procure from the 
manufacturer. To this end such publications as the 
issue of the " 'National' Bulletin," of the National Tube 
Company, dated 1921, is very useful. A few sugges- 
tions from this bulletin are given below. 

This company has developed a grade of mild steel 
that has proved in service especially adapted to the 
manufacture of welded tubular holes. The average 
composition of this bessemer steel is carbon 0.07 per 
cent, manganese 0.35 per cent, sulphur 0.045 per cent, 
phosphorus 0.1 per cent. The variations permitted 
are: Not more than 0.09 per cent carbon, 0.065 per cent 
sulphur, 0.11 per cent phosphorus; while for the man- 
ganese the range is from 0.3 to 0.6 per cent. 

Regarding Pole Testing 

The company states that while something may be 
gained from any test that will show the ultimate 
strength of a pole, some tests, such for example as the 
deflection test, are practically useless. Users some- 
times claim that flexibility is of advantage in practice, 
although the specifications contain a clause limiting 
the deflection of the steel poles to less than is permitted 
for other materials. In any event the deflection can 
be calculated with great accuracy. 

In contrast with the doubtful usefulness of the de- 
flection test is the effective drop test, which determines 
whether the joints have been properly and securely as- 
sembled. Sectional poles are usually dropped, butt 
down, three times from a height of 6 ft., on a solid 
hardwood block supported by a rigid base. 

Another practical test is the pulling or pushing test 
applied in the direction of the pole length. In this 
test short-jointed sections on several poles are cut out 
and tried in a testing machine. Tests have shown that 
many joints will carry, without slipping, substantially 
a push or pull nearly equal to the load the smaller pipe 
in itself would withstand. 

The steel used for National poles has a minimum 
elastic limit of 30,000 lb. and the test for yield point 
is carried out at 10 per cent below that value. The 
set under this load is measured. Another and quite 
common flexural test is made when poles are inspected. 
It is carried out after the manner usually employed in 
determining the elastic modulus of the material. In 
this test both load and the corresponding flexure (or 
deflection) are recorded. It is usually made at the 
rather high stress of 18,000 lb. per square inch. This 
is two-thirds of the stress which is used for maximum 
load. 

All Poles Should Not Take Same Set 

Many specifications have been drawn up requiring 
poles of widely differing lengths and diameters to stand 
the same deflection, commonly 6 in. Now, a pole 22 
ft. long made of 13-in. and 12-in. pipe should not be 



deflected more than about 1 in., while a pole 39 ft. long 
of 4-in., 3-in. and 2i-in. pipe should be deflected about 
18 in. when tested for deflection. It is evident that 
a constant figure like 6 in. for deflection may be much 
too large in one case and too small in another. A de- 
flection of 6 in. is about right for a pole 31 ft. long, 
of 6-in., 5-in. and 4-in. pipe. 

Some framers of specifications have attempted to 
overcome the difficulty by reducing the limit of deflec- 
tion to 3 in. and some to 14 in. Against such practice it 
is proper to urge that H in. would not strain a pole 39 
ft. long, of 4-in., 3-in. and 24-in. pipe sufficiently for the 
test to give any indication of the quality of the pole. 
It is more rational to use such load as will produce 
about a constant stress in the material and then to fix 
the deflection limit to correspond. 

Tubular steel poles are designed for a certain max- 
imum load which may be applied without producing ap- 
preciable permanent distortion. The load to be applied 
should not produce a fiber stress above the yield point, 
say not over 90 per cent of that for safety. After 
such loads are applied there usually remains a small 
fraction as a permanent set, which some specifications 
have limited to a constant figure, such as 1 in, or i in. 
This constant figure is as inappropriate for set as a con- 
stant figure is inappropriate for deflection. 

Tests have shown that the set on first loading seldom 
reaches 10 per cent of the distortion produced by that 
load. The practical difficulties of making the tests and 
measures impose a limit to such measures, which for 
commercial testing of poles is usually agreed on as 
i in. of permanent set. Thus a pole which is deflected 
5 in. on test should not show a permanent set exceeding 
i in., but a pole that is deflected 15 in. on test may show 
a set of I2 in. without exceeding rational limits. 

The length of the sections of a pole has but little 
effect on strength, stiffness or weight. As long as the 
size and thickness of pipe remain unchanged, the 
strength, stiffness and weight do not change by more 
than approximately 6 per cent. 

Special Manufacturing Processes Increase Cost 

The use of odd sizes, thicknesses and weights should 
be avoided as it involves special production, delay and 
increased cost. Considerations of strength, stiffness, 
etc., at times suggest the advisability of such combina- 
tions as 44-in. in 5-in. pipe, but such combinations 
necessitate assembling in a machine capable of forcing 
the smaller into the larger pipe. A forcing machine of 
this kind is expensive to change and such joints should 
be used only where it will be possible to order a large 
number of poles identical in dimensions, unless the use 
warrants paying the extra assembling costs when only a 
few are made at one time. 

When only a few poles are ordered, it is better to use 
such sizes and thicknesses as will allow the insertion of 
the smaller pipe to be made by hand, say at least i in. 
difference in diameter between the outside diameter 
of the inserted pipe and the inside diameter of the 
larger pipe. The difference should never be less than A 
in. unless the quantity justifies the use of the forcing 
equipment, say when 1,000 or more identical poles are 
to be made and shipped at one time. 

Sometimes considerations of strength, stiffness and 
limit of least thickness lead to the choice of sizes of 
pipe that entail great reductions at the joints. These 
require heavy swaging before assembling. After the 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



85 



poles are assembled, there is great risk of injury to 
the smaller sections in transit or erection. It is fre- 
quently possible to obtain an equal or even a slightly 
greater strength by the use of larger and thinner pipe 
for the upper section, and to do this without increas- 
ing the total weight appreciably. 

To protect the poles near the ground line where dete- 
rioration is most rapid, a dog guard may be applied. 
This is made of a piece of larger and thicker pipe put 
over the pole from the butt end and swaged and shrunk 
on so that one-third of the length will be below and 
two-thirds above the ground line. These guards are 
applied at red heat. While cooling they shrink tightly. 
They at least double the life of a pole of extra-heavy 
type and frequently triple the life of a pole of standard 
type. Dog guards are usually made 2 ft. long. 

Permanent Loading Platforms 
in Washington 

Wooden Structures, Which Have Proved the Usefulness 
of Loading Platforms in Congested District, Being 
Replaced by Permanent Type — Construction 
Conforms to Street Paving 

THE highway authorities in the District of Columbia 
have begun conversion of the wooden loading plat- 
forms used for the past two years to a permanent 
concrete form. The loading platforms in Washington, 
which were installed in 1918, following the recommenda- 
tions of John A. Beeler, have given excellent satisfaction 
from a traffic standpoint. A description of these plat- 
forms, with illustrations, was given in the Electric 
Railway Journal, May 4, 1918, pages 848 and 849. 
At the same time an analysis of the skip-stop or re- 
arranged stops in the downtown districts was given. 
On July 13, 1918, page 64, was given an account of the 
results obtained in the way of speeding up traffic 
following the installation of these loading platforms. 




COMPLETEli LOADING I'LATFORM ON i-'O U KTEENTI£ 
STREET, SHOWING LIGHTING STANDARDS 
SIMILAR TO STREET LIGHTING UNITS 



The principle of the loading platform has now become 
so firmly established as a part of Washington practice 
that the highway authorities have decided to eliminate 
the wooden platforms and install a more artistic and 
permanent form. The first pair of platforms converted 
are about 6 ft. x 96 ft. over all. They are built with a 
6 in. x 20 in. granite curb set in the asphalt pavement 
in the form shown in the diagram. Within the curb a 
cinder fill is rolled directly on top of the old asphalt and 
this is topped with about 2V to 3 in. of surface asphalt- 
ing similar to the standard paving material used in the 
District of Columbia. 

The lighting of each platform is by two pedestal 
lamps surmounted by standard series lighting unit and 




86 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 




STYLE OP WOODEN PLATFORM ORIGINALLY INSTALLED 
IN 1918, NOW BEING REPLACED BY CONCRETE 
PLATFORMS 

with a special low-voltage lamp to light the red bulls- 
eyes in the base. The three bullseyes in the base of the 
lamp are lighted by a single lamp centered on the axis 
of the post supplied with current at low voltage from 
the lighting circuit of the nearby alley. It was con- 
sidered dangerous to have this lower lamp one of the 
high-voltage series lights similar to that used on the 
top of the post and for the regular street lighting units. 
It was argued that the bullseyes might become broken 
and some one poke in through the open buUseye with 
an umbrella or metal rod and break the high-voltage 
series lamp, with possibly serious results to himself 
through electrical shock. 

The base of the lighting unit is a standard octagonal 
post with red bullseye lenses on three of the eight faces. 
At the end nearest to approaching traffic the lenses are 
on three faces toward approaching traffic. On the far 



"Rail Line 



k^j^-Z>' Radius 



'6"x20"6nc^nife Curb '-Q), 



\ 96' 1 

3 Rzd Bullseyes Plan . 1 

ricpin^ .Asphalf Topping K -Granifz 



Asphalt ^ 
Paving, o 





Y Curb 



)-<J- ■ -q Cc 



Base of Paving 



Section A -A 

PLAN AND SECTION SHOWING CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 
OF NEW PERMANENT LOADING PLATFORM 



end of each platform the lenses are on the three faces 
most distant from the track. This arrangement offers 
marker lights to guide an approaching motorist at the 
near end of the platform and a marker by which he may 
gage a turn if he wishes to circle about the far end. 
In other words, as Mr. Hadley, electrical engineer of 
the district, puts it, "the motorist is guided by a red 
light from any angle of legal approach." A somewhat 
similar problem was solved elsewhere in the district by 
using red bullseyes in five of the eight sides on a lamp 
on an island of safety at an irregular crossing where 



numerous possible angles of approach had to be guarded. 

The material improvement in appearance of the load- 
ing platforms as compared vdth the old wooden 
structures is obvious from the two illustrations showing 
conditions before and after conversion. 



What Is an Interurban? 

The United States Railroad Labor Board Sets Forth Its 
Characteristics in Lengthy Decision — Board Rules 
Adversely on Point of Jurisdiction in View 
of These Characteristics 

A SHORT reference to the decision of the United 
States Railroad Labor Board handed down on Dec. 
18 discussing the meaning of the term "interurban" 
as contained in Section 300 of the transportation act 
of 1920 was published on page 1297 of the issue of 
this paper for Dec. 25. The full text of the decision 
shows that the board made an interesting analysis of 
what characterizes an interurban railway before ren- 
dering its opinion. The case came before it through 
appeals from employees on various electric railways 
asking the board to hear their grievances. The peti- 
tioners represented sixteen unions in all and the re- 
spondents were the following eleven railways: 

Spokane & Eastern Railway & Power Company (Inland 
Empire Railroad), Inter Urban Railway, Fort Dodge, Des 
Momes & Southern Railroad, Piedmont & Northern Rail- 
way, Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Railroad, Pacific 
Electric Railway, Denver & Interurban Railroad, Hudson & 
Manhattan Railroad, Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend 
Railway, New York, Westchester & Boston Railway and 
Washington & Old Dominion Railway. 

In reciting the reasons for the case before it the board 
said : 

Representatives of employees on the electric railways 
named herein have brought before the Labor Board for 
consideration and determination disputes between these rail- 
ways and certain of their employees. All the organizations 
which are petitioners do not have a dispute with every 
respondent railway, but each petitioner has a dispute with 
one or more of the respondents and each respondent has a 
dispute with one or more of the petitioners. The railway 
representatives having questioned the Labor Board's juris- 
diction, this decision is upon that question solely. 

The ground upon which jurisdiction is questioned is that 
these railways are interurban electric railways not operat- 
ing as a part of a general steam railroad system of trans- 
portation, and that they are therefore excepted from Section 
300 of the transportation act, 1920, Sub-section 1 of which 
is as follows: 

"1. The term 'carrier' includes any express company, 
sleeping car company, and any carrier by railroad, subiect 
to the interstate commerce act, except a street, interurban 
or suburban electric railway not operating as a part of a 
general steam railroad system of transportation." 

It is clear that Congress intended to exclude certain kinds 
of transportation facilities from the jurisdiction of the 
Labor Board. So far as the railways here in question are 
concerned, if they either are not interurbans or are operated 
as a part of a general steam railroad system of transporta- 
tion, then they are not excluded and remain within the 
Labor Board's jurisdiction. 

The eleven railways divide themselves, roughly speaking, 
into two groups. In one are the Hudson & Manhattan 
Railroad, the New York, Westchester & Boston Railway and 
the Denver & Intexnrban Railroad, which do almost exclu- 
sively a passenger business. In the other group are the 
eight remaining railways, which, in addition to a passenger 
service, do a more or less extensive freight interchange 
business with steam trunk lines, carry mail and express, 
and, in general, perform the same public service as steam 
lines. In each group are roads which operate equipment 
jointly with steam trunk lines. They range in size of road 
operation from the Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Railroad 
with 20 miles of road to the Pacific Electric Railway with 
600 miles. Several are interstate in their operation. 

While no two railroads are exactly alike, they are gen- 
erally similar as to method of operation and character of 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



87 



employment, except for the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, 
whose equipment and operation are similar to that of the 
Interborough and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Companies 
of New York. There are also certain other features char- 
acterizing one or more of the railways which, being empha- 
sized by the petitioners to prove that particular railways are 
within the jurisdiction of the Labor Board, deserve care- 
ful consideration. Such consideration will obviate the 
necessity of presenting in detail the facts about each rail- 
way. The points to consider are as follows: 

1. That this or that railway is physically an interstate 
property. 

2. That it performs the principal functions of a steam 
railroad. 

3. That its charter permits it to operate either by steam 
or by electricity. 

4. That it has at some time in the past operated by steam. 

5. That to a certain extent it operates jointly with a 
steam trunk line certain equipment and makes certain joint 
use of track. 

6. That its stock is entirely or partially owned by a steam 
trunk line. 

7. That it does a considerable interstate business. 

8. That it has received a fi-eight increase from the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission under ex parte 74. 

The board then considered these points seriatim, after 
noting that none of the correspondents is under the 
same operating management as any general steam rail- 
road system, and that certain court decisions had 
already declared that the Spokane & Inland Empire 
Railroad and the Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern 
Railroad were "interurban" roads. This analysis of 
the eight points showed that none of them was con- 
trolling in deciding that a road was not an "interurban" 
railway. In connection with points 5, 6 and 7, the 
board also declared its understanding of the words in 
Section 300 "a part of a general steam railroad system 
of transportation." This phrase means, it says, oper- 
ating as an integral part of such a system and under 
unified control. If there is a physical connection and a 
common control and the lines are used together as one 
general system, the act would cover and include such a 
road. But when there is separate control and manage- 
ment, mere contiguity at points of connection or even 
some common officials would not be a decisive test. If 
the road is under such separate control that its offi- 
cials can manage its own business, make its own con- 
tracts and regulate its own affairs it is not a part of 
another. 

Ways in Which Electric Railways Are 
Excluded from Act 

The board points out that interurban electric rail- 
ways are excluded from the provisions of the trans- 
portation act under three heads, namely: 

(a) In all matters pertaining to federal control, 
namely, Section 204-A, "reimbursement for deficits," 
and Section 209-A, "guarantee to carriers," the exclu- 
sion covers an "interurban electric railway which has 
as its principal source of operating revenue ui'ban, 
suburban or interurban passenger traffic, or sale of 
power, heat and light, or both." 

(b) In Section 1, Sub-section 22, forbidding exten- 
sion and further construction without authority from 
the Interstate Commerce Commission; in Section 20-A, 
requiring the assent of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission to the issuance of securities, and in Section 
300, giving the Labor Board jurisdiction, the excep- 
tion is "a street, interurban or suburban electric 
railway not operating as a part of a general steam 
railroad system of transportation." 

(c) In Section 15-A, dealing with rates, are excluded 
"interurban electric railways, unless operated as a part 



of a general steam railroad system of transportation 
or engaged in the general transportation of freight." 

The phraseology used in these paragraphs, the opin- 
ion points out, differs to some extent, but the same 
language is used in Section 20-A and in Section 300, 
and the board points out that under Section 20-A the 
Interstate Commerce Commission has not felt itself 
warranted in assuming jurisdiction over the issuance of 
securities by interurban roads, including some of those 
concerned with the present case. The board also points 
out, as a practical matter, that the granting by the 
Labor Board of a wage increase without corresponding 
authority to the Interstate Commerce Commission to 
raise rates would result in serious complications, that 
the Labor Board and the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission were clearly intended to be interdependent in 
this matter and that such intention would be nullified 
if the Labor Board assumed jurisdiction where the 
Interstate Commerce Commission was without it. 

In conclusion, the board, in declaring that it has no 

jurisdiction over the respondents, says: 

It is plain that Congress has dealt in discriminating 
language with interurban electric railways throughout the 
interstate commerce act and the transportation act, 1920, 
and has consistently treated them differently from steam 
lines. Congress has done this because there is a material 
difference, generally speaking, between steam and electric 
roads in the matter of equipment, nature of service and 
standards of employment. With a few exceptions, one ser- 
vice is general, the other is local. The difficulty is that a 
few electric railways have developed far beyond the orig- 
inal idea of an interurban. They have now come to rival 
many steam lines in service and size. And still the defini- 
tion of what is an interurban has likewise broadened, not 
only by popular conception, but by legal, statutory and ex- 
ecutive decree, so that the Pacific Electric Railway, operat- 
ing upward of 600 miles of road; the Fort Dodge, Des 
Moines & Southei'n Railroad, owning 2,400 box and coal 
cars, and the Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad, crossing- 
state lines and operating passenger and freight trains, are 
all judicially labeled "interurban." It is difficult, if not 
impossible, to get away from this definition. 



Vibration Due to Electric Locomotive 
Side Rods 

IN AN article in le Genie Civil for Dec. 11, 1920, 
attention is directed to the critical velocity of locomo- 
tives of the side-rod type. While the importance of 
the development of the gearless drive is recognized in 
the article, the fact is pointed out that for some time 
to come the greater number of locomotives equipped 
with one or two large motors coupled by means of 
cranks and connecting rods with the driving axles must 
be reckoned with. Examples of this drive are found in 
the Simplon, the Loetschberg and the St. Gotthard 
locomotives. 

There is for each locomotive a critical speed at which 
injurious vibrations will be set up, and this is calculable 
from the mechanics of the oscillating parts. This 
article gives the method of analysis used by W. Rum- 
mer and the results of experiments made by K. E. 
Miiller. 

From the experiments made it appears that resonance 
(the condition for the occurrence of vibration) developed 
in the following locomotives at the respective speeds 
given: Valteilina, type 38 of 1906, 40 m.p.h.; Milan- 
Varese, type 1-C-l of 1912, 48i m.p.h.; Loetschberg, 
type 1-E-l of 1913, 25 J m.p.h.; Silesia, type 2-D-l of 
1917, 25 m.p.h. When vibration actually occurred on 
these locomotives conditions were changed so as to 
eliminate it. 



88 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



New Line of Electric Drills and Grinders 

THE Wodack Electric Tool Corporation of Chicago, 
111., is manufacturing a new line of electric drills, 
hammers and grinders. Its portable drill is motor 
driven, using either alternating or direct current, which 
is automatically shut off when not in use. This is 
brought about by the use of current contacts actuated 
through a spring lever in the handle, which is released 
as soon as the pressure of the operator's grip is removed, 
much in the same manner as with the dead man's handle 
used with railway controllers. Wodack drills are made 
in six sizes, in., ils in., f in., i in., | in. and I in. 




PORTABLE ELECTRIC DRILL AND GRINDER 



In addition to drills the company is manufactur- 
ing a portable grinder equipped with the same style 
of current control. These grinders are made in three 
sizes depending on the wheel capacity: 3 in. x i in; 
4 in. X 1 in., and 8 in. x 1 in. The motors used with 
both types of tools are made of high grade aluminum 
and are equipped with SKF ball bearings throughout. 
The manufacturers claim to have developed a very 
rugged motor which will stand severe overloading and 
their guarantee includes repairs and rewinding of mo- 
tors free of charge should they burn out for any reason 
within one year from the date of purchase. 



Gasoline Substitute for Motor Vehicles 

IN A RECENT issue of Engineering, London, G. J. 
Shave gives the results of experiments on omnibuses 
carried out by the London General Omnibus Company, 
Ltd., using benzole-alcohol for fuel. The purpose of 
these tests, he states, was to find a suitable substitute 
for gasoline. Benzole and gasoline contain about the 
same number of B.t.u.'s per gallon, but gasoline has the 
higher calorific value per pound. Alcohol by itself has 
about half the heating value of either of the other 
fuels. Compared with gasoline, both benzole and 
alcohol are slow-burning fuels, and consequently engine 
design must be modified to suit them. In the first 
place, compression had to be increased in proportion 
to the slowness of the burning of the mixture and 
within the limits of the detonating temperature of the 
fuel and air mixture. 

Elaborate bench tests, made on a standard bus engine 
with various mixtures of fuel and different carburetor 
settings, showed that the 50 per cent mixture of benzole 
and alcohol with 123 lb. compression gave the best 



results. The whole series of tests showed that the 
greater the percentage of alcohol the higher are the 
possible thermal efficiencies for the same compression, 
and that higher efficiencies are possible due to the allow- 
able increase in compression. However, at low throttle 
openings, with accompanying low compression, the econ- 
omy was very poor. The importance of thoroughly 
vaporizing the mixture by heating cannot be over- 
emphasized. 

Due to the presence of water in the alcohol and to 
its being more volatile than gasoline, some trouble was 
experienced in starting the motors. An unexpected 
difficulty arose when, after a bus had been running 
about a month, the fuel tank and lines were found to 
have been badly corroded by the benzole. Also a thick 
tar-like deposit was found on the valve head and in the 
intake manifold. After the elimination of some of the 
preliminary difficulties the experiments were successful. 



Universal Change Maker 

THE advent of the odd-cent fare and the use of metal 
tickets selling at fractional cent rates have greatly 
complicated the work of the conductor in making change. 
The usual form of change malcer ejects but one coin at 
a time, hence with a 6-cent rate of fare in force, it is 
necessary for the conductor to operate the device four 
times to eject four pennies in making change for a 
dime. An improvement on this style of change maker 
provided for ejecting the four pennies at one operation. 
This was satisfactory as long as fare remained con- 
stant. However, the frequency with which the rate of 
fare has changed on many properties has made a fur- 
ther refinement in the change maker highly desirable. 

Working along this line, the Johnson Fare Box Com- 
pany, Chicago, has placed on the market a new universal 
change maker that is adjustable; that is, any barrel 
may be readily adjusted to eject from one to five coins, 
or one to six tickets, at one operation. Only a screw- 
driver is needed to change the adjustment. This ar- 
rangement does away with the necessity of discarding a 
change maker should a new rate of fare require the 
ejection of a different number of coins or tickets. 

The flexibility of the device is further enhanced by 
the unit construction employed. Each barrel is complete 
in itself and may be used separately or as one unit of 
a group made up with whatever number of units are 
needed to meet local conditions or a conductor's notions. 
Barrels are designed to handle dimes, nickels, pennies, 
and metal tickets of two denominations. 

The framework and slides are made up of 18 per cent 
nickel silver, which is exceptionally rigid and will not 
corrode or tarnish. All parts not subject to wear are 
made of aero metal to provide increased mechanical 
strength with light weight. 



A new preparation, known as "Meno" Rust Remover 
and Cleanser, has recently been placed on the market by 
Peter A. Frasse & Company, New York, N. Y. It 
is a scientific combination and blending of certain chemi- 
cal ingredients, which in combination produces an elec- 
trochemical action that rapidly loosens and dissolves 
rust, corrosion, grease, oil, dirt, carbon, paint or any 
other foreign substance adhering to the metal. Not 
only are the above virtues claimed by its manufacturer 
but also that its action automatically ceases when con- 
tact between the cleanser and the metal is established. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



89 



Soft Metal Bearings 

Compositions Containing a Large Percentage of Lead Wear 
Rapidly, Are Easily Distorted Under Pressure and Do 
Not Transmit Heat Readily — Practical Limitation 
of Lead for Car Bearings 15 per Cent 

DISCUSSING the properties resulting from different 
bearing compositions, W. K. Frank, in the Railway 
Mechanical Engineer, says that bearing metals are 
essentially a mixture, the components of which are 
distinctly different in hardness. In these metals the 
softer crystals are abraded faster and develop into 
depressions, allowing the harder ones to stand above 
them and support the load. These softer crystals also 
perform the function of allowing the bearing to be 
plastic to a limited degree, since fitting is more or less 
an approximation. As wear is an attendant evil of 
motion, it is preferable that the bearing wear rather 
than the shaft, since it is less costly and more easily 
replaced. 

Compositions containing as high as 30 per cent lead 
find limited application because of their high plasticity 
and consequent distortion. They answer well the re- 
quirement of protecting the shaft, but do not, on the 
other hand transmit heat readily. They show rapid 




THIS FREIGHT WRECK ON THE P. R. R. WAS DISTURBING 
TO THE OVERHEAD 



wear, as is evident to any one who has examined a pile 
of scrapped railroad car bearings. The high lead bear- 
ings can readily be disinguished from the moderately 
leaded ones by the extent to which the axle collar has 
worn into the ends of the bearings of the two classes. 
High-lead mixtures were originally designed to replace 
the babbitt-lined railroad car bearings, but do not 
possess sufficient plasticity to accomplish this and are 
used with babbitt linings. Because of this lining they 
seldom come in contact with any part of the journal, 
excepting the collar, and their length of service is de- 
termined by the life of the lining, distortion of the back 
and collar wear. 

Mr. Frank also says that as far back as 1892 Dr. 
Dudley of the Pennsylvania Railroad determined the 
practical limitation of lead content for car bearings to 
be in the neighborhood of 15 per cent. Later work on 
this subject has not altered the conclusions he reached 
in this respect, and it may be of interest to note that 
twenty-seven years later a table of railroad specifications 
shows the net average content of lead to be 15 per cent 



and that of tin to be 8 per cent. It should be remem- 
bered, however, that while the 12A per cent lead and 
15 per cent lead alloys wore more slowly than phos- 
phor-bronze in railroad car bearings, this is not con- 
clusive proof that the lead is in itself a wear-retarding 
element. Lead furnishes the means of allowing the 
bronze to conform more readily to varying alignment 
and, by preventing localized pressures, reduces wear. 
Under comparatively low pressures and absence of 
impact, but with changing alignment of car axles, the 
15 per cent lead alloy shows superiority, whereas under 
high pressures and impact the phosphor-bronze shows 
slower wear. A comparison between the pressures of 
car axles of 325 lb. per square inch and that of 3,500 
lb. per square inch encountered in rolling mill practice 
shows why such alloys are unsuitable for the latter 
condition. 



Moving Day for Catenaries 

WHEN a wheel broke on an eastbound freight train 
on the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
recently, about a thousand yards west of Wayne Station 
in the Broad Street-Paoli electrification zone, twenty- 
three loaded coal cars were scattered over the four 
tracks. The services of four cranes, two at each end of 




BUT THE OVERHEAD, AT THAT, SUFFERED LESS 
THAN THE RAILS 



the MTeckage, were required for thirteen hours before 
one track could be restored to service. 

The work of removing the entangled wreckage was 
somewhat impeded by the 11,000-volt overhead contact 
system, as it was necessary to raise large cars within a 
very limited headroom. However, two of the four tracks 
were cleared from the overhead obstruction as shown in 
the illustrations. The wreck occurred at a sharp bend in 
the right-of-way. The messenger cables were detached 
from the cross catenary suspensions at the insulators 
and the contact wires with their messengers were 
allowed to straighten out, thus reducing the tension in 
this part of the system and at the same time grouping 
all four of the contact wires over two of the four tracks. 
This resulted in increased working space on one side of 
the right-of-way without appreciably reducing the head- 
room on the other side. 

A peculiar freak of this wreck was the fact that the 
relatively delicate electric equipment was scarcely 
damaged, while heavy steel rails were torn completely 
free from the crossties. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY PUBLICITY 

Devoted to How to Tell the Story 



More Comment on Railway Movie 

Advantages Measured by Cost 

The Capital Traction Company 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 23, 1920. 

To the Editors : 

I have read with much interest the editorial sugges- 
tion in your issue of Sept. 25, and also the comments 
made by the Journal and in various letters which have 
been published since that time by prominent men. 

No one nowadays questions the value and necessity 
of bringing before the people the real situation of the 
street railway business. My own thought is that while 
all of the various publicity methods and policies are 
good, the most important thing is to make sure that 
the public knows all the facts in relation to the opera- 
tion of the properties. 

I do not feel competent to make a statement on the 
value of publicity through the movies, but believe that 
specific local problems could very advantageously be 
covered in this way if the expense is not too great. 

J. H. Hanna, Vice-President. 



ting them made and having them shown are entirely 
different propositions. 

It should not be forgotten that in nearly all com- 
munities motion picture houses operate under municipal 
licenses, and it takes no stretching of the imagination 
to realize that any group of picture places will prove 
gun shy for fear of offending the municipal authorities 
and, as a result, jeopardizing their rights to operate. 
This I know to have been the experience not more than 
a million miles from here. 

All this is aside from the very debatable question 
if people want to be instructed when they go to be 
entertained. A. D. B. VAN Zandt, 

Publicity Agent. 



"First, Catch the Hare" 

Detroit United Railway 

Detroit, Dec. 23, 1920. 

To the Editors: 

Assuming for the moment that film publicity would 
be an excellent vehicle of expression for street railways, 
comes the problem of how are the pictures, when made, 
going to be displayed? 

First, catch the hare. It is not by any means certain 
the houses will show them in the form you desire. Get- 



Attractive Posters from London 

THE London Underground Railway system was the 
pioneer company to use traffic posters on a large 
scale, and the pamphlets, posters and other traflfic liter- 
ature issued by this company still represent the high 
mark in electric railway publications of this kind. Re- 
productions have been published in previous issues of 
this paper of a number of the posters, pages from the 
t\-aflfic pamphlets and other publications of the company 
to illustrate the wide variety issued, and the accompany- 
ing illustrations show six typical posters recently pub- 
lished. The three reproduced on this page belong to 
what is known as the "character" group. That is to say, 
they represent individuals supposed to be characteristic 
of the underground stations whose names appear on 
the posters. The three posters on the opposite page are 
of a different nature and represent characteristic scenes 
of resorts reached by motor, tram or underground, 
all three systems being operated in conjunction. 




PETTICOAT LANE 



iJQNOON CHARACTERS 




THE LONDON UNDERGROUND USES THESE NOVEL "CHARACTER" POSTERS 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



91 



How Bad Relations May Be Promoted 



iicANT BE 



IN THIS department of the£/ec- 
tric Railway Journal many articles 
have been published on how to 
promote good relations between a 
utility and the public. The accom- 
panying reproduction shows how 
bad relations between a utility and 
the public which it serves may be 
developed through what was evi- 
dently an unfortunate selection by 
a cartoonist of a subject to illustrate 
a good editorial idea. The cartoon 
IS from the Washington (D. C.) 
Tim-~s for Sunday, Dec. 5. 

The picture shows the "stock 
owner" and each official of an electric 
railway company, from president 
to platform man, as being indif- 
ferent to the comfort of the public. 
The "stock owner," a corpulent and 
plutocratic man, throws this duty 
on the president, saying, "I can't 
be bothered." The president re- 
peats the same message to the 
general manager, and so on down 
the line. Finally, the conductor 
refuses to help an old lady with a 
child upon the car. 

The text of the editorial accom- 
panying the cartoon bears no evi- 
dence that the editor considers the 
attitude illustrated in the picture is 
characteristic of the average electric 
railway. It urges efficiency, atten- 
tion to duty and individual respon- 
sibility upon every member of every 
business organization — a very good 
message. Nevertheless, the reader 
who only glances at the page might 
easily gather the conclusion that, 
in the opinion of the editor, the 
scene pictured is characteristic of '''ntuon 
electric railways. 

During the last four or five years utilities 
have had to contend against many difficul- 
ties in the way of high prices of all supplies 
used by them — conditions brought about 
by the war. These conditions may be con- 
sidered as unavoidable, being worldwide. 
It is most important for newspapers and 
cartoonists not to make the work of utility 
rehabilitation more difficult by exciting un- 
warranted prejudice. We hope that the 
next time Mr. McCay wants to use an 




Cartoon from Washington "Times" shotving 
"I can't be bothered." 

n cftpyriohted 1920, International Feature Service, Inc. 
Britain Rights Reserved. Reprinted tsy Permission. 

electric railway simile to illustrate an edi- 
torial on organization he will give a pleas- 
anter expression to the officials and have 
them repeating to each other some such ex- 
pression as "the public be pleased." The 
caption for such a cartoon might be the open- 
ing words of the code of principles adopted 
by the American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion in 1914: "The first obligation of public 
utilities engaged in transportation'.is service 
to the public." 



Here is another suggestion as to 
how Mr. McCay might have made 
his picture of an electric railway 
organization more true to life. It is 
in connection with his portraiture of 
the "stock owner." Statistics of the 
proportion of electric railway securi- 
ties held by men, women, estates, 
savings banks, insurance companies, 
charitable institutions and the like 
for the entire country are not avail- 
able, but they have been compiled 
in a few cases, as in Brooklyn. The 
recent report by Stone 8s Webster 
on the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
System gives these figures for that 
property, and there is no reason to 
believe that the percentage in 
that case would vary greatly from 
the percentage on other property. 
The figures given in that report 
cover the ownership of all of the 
securities of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit System, including the 
securities of the Brooklyn City 
Railroad and the Prospect Park 
fit Coney Island Railroad, leased 
lines. 

Of the total of 23,985 holders 
of these securities, 7,247 were 
women and estates, and 2,034 were 
fiduciary and philanthropical insti- 
tutions of the type mentioned. A 
laler report of the Brooklyn City 
Railroad shows that of its 1,472 
stockholders more than a half were 
women and of the remainder more 
than 28 per cent were adminis- 
trators, executives, guardians, life 
insurance companies, charitable in- 
stitutions and colleges 

Our suggestion to Mr. McCay, 
then, in his next picture of a railway 
organization, is to substitute as a typical 
stock owner, for the plutocratic looking 
man in the upper right-hand corner, the old 
lady now shown at the bottom of the group. 

Here is still another idea for Mr. McCay. 
In his next cartoon, let him show how 
important the railways are to the social and 
business life of the community. Then let 
him point out the lesson that, for this 
reason, the authorities should adopt a 
constructive policy in dealing v^ith them 



Greatt 




LEATHERHEAD 

BY MCrrOR-BUS 




ATTKACTI VIO ( 'OI.ORBD POSTERS OF RESORTS REACHED BY LONDON UNDERGROUND 



92 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



Gaining Public Confidence 

CO-OPERATION with the city authorities to accom- 
plish a real idea in creating good will for the rail- 
way company and at the same time performing a service 
to the community is one of the recent accomplishments 
of Dan Fisher, assistant to the president of the Dallas 
(Tex.) Railway Company. Mayor Wozencraft of 
Dallas conceived the idea of having a children's day at 
the Great Fair, at which every child in Texas should be 
invited as the Mayor's guest, and Dan Fisher saw an 
opportunity to do something big for the community in 




DAN FISHER AND THE .AIAYOR AS ENTERTAIXERS 



this connection. How he accomplished it is indicated by 
the following editorial, which appeared the day after 
Children's Day: 

Pin a medal on Dan Fisher. Hand a bouquet to Mayor 
Frank W. Wozencraft! 

The boys and girls agree that Children's Day at the 
Texas State Fair was an unqualified success and that for 
the pleasure it afforded them they owe a debt of gratitude 
to these two. 

The conception of a children's day on which every child 
in Texas should be invited as the Mayor's guest, free street 
car tickets furnished, free everything, almost, is one of the 
biggest ideas that the Mayor has ever sponsored. 

And no more able lieutenant to carry out the details 
could have been found than Dan Fisher. Fisher went from 
town to town in North Texas passing out the free tickets 
and telling the glad news through the public schools, and 
where he couldn't go, he sent. 




We doubt that ever before in one gathering have so 
many children come together. 

From information since obtained, it appears that there 
were 150,000 children attending the fair that day, a 
large part of them being carried upon the lines of the 
Dallas Railway. Private automobiles, buses and trucks 
were also pressed into service. The handling of such 
a great crowd, particularly children, was something 
which probably never before had been done by a state 
railway in the United States in a city the size of Dallas, 
at least. 

The spirit with which Mr. Fisher entered into the 
proposition is indicated by the accompanying photo- 
graph, where he and Mayor Wozencraft are surrounded 
by some of the children they made happy. 



A "Tickler" for the Public 

WHEN an efficiency engineer wants to speed things 
up a bit and make the organization "get a hump" 
on, he sends out a "tickler." W. B. Strandborg, pub- 
licity man of the Portland Railway, Light & Power Com- 
pany, Portland, Ore., has adopted that same idea and 
put it on wheels, and the company is now operating a 
"Trolley Tickler on Wheels," over all the streets in the 
congested down-town district during the busy hours of 
the day. 

The car is a converted one-man car and is completely 
smothered and surrounded by cute and gaudy banners, 
signs, cards, etc. Some of them are slogans to arouse 
interest in the educational campaign of the National 
Safety Council, some had to do with early Christmas 
shopping in the Christmas season, and others relate to 
"Service Suggestions" to help speed up service through 
co-operation on the part of the traveling public. 

There are two large banners, one on each side along 
the body of the car, reading: "Don't Park Too Near 
Car Tracks," and "Help Us Give Safe and Dependable 
Service." 

There are sixteen smaller signs covering the car win- 
dows and a set of four smaller cards appear on each 
end of the car. The accompanying illustrations show 
both sides of this trolley "tickler" and the ingeniously 
worded signs which are used. Of timely Christmas in- 
terest were the four dash sign cards on early shopping. 
These cards are to be changed from time to time. 

The "tickler" attracted widespread attention and in- 
terest from the start and the company plans to keep it 
in permanent operation. The banners and cards are 
on cream-colored oil cloth with black and red lettering 
and can be read from a considerable distance. 




TROLLEY TICKLERS ON WHEELS ARE EFFECTIVE IN I'oRTLAND, ORE. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



93 



Determining Physical Characteristics of 
Steel Rails by Magnetic Analysis 

THROUGH the efforts of several steel experts who 
recognized the great practical value and immense 
possibilities of magnetic testing to the metallurgical 
industry, an apparatus has been perfected and placed 
on the market which enables one to establish the rela- 
tion between the magnetic and mechanical properties of 
called the Burrows magnetic analyzer, is now obtainable 
steel and detec t imperfections. Such an, apparatus 
from Holz & Company, New York. 

The principle on which this analysis is based is that 
there is but one set of mechanical conditions correspond- 
ing to every set of magnetic characteristics. There are 
two separate analyses made, one using a magnetoscope, 
which gives information about the composition and 
mechanical and heat treatment of the specimen, but does 
not give any indication of the existence of flaws, and 
the other, the defectoscope, which determines whether 
non-uniformities exist, but does not indicate whether or 
not a specimen is hard or soft. The analyzer consists 
of a magnetizing solenoid wound on a brass tube, inside 
of which is a test-coil unit conforming as nearly as 
possible to the section of the specimen. The unit con- 
sists of two coils of fine wire having an equal number of 
turns and connected with ballistic effects opposed. This 
outfit, which surrounds the specimen, is driven at a 
constant speed along it and whether used to analyze 
quantitatively or to detect imperfections depends on the 
connections and circuits, for which two separate control 
boxes are furnished. 

Magnetic surveys and analyses, it is claimed, will 
furnish information impossible to secure by any other 
means of testing. The fact that materials can be tested 
without destruction is of prime importance, and it is 
this feature of magnetic analysis which makes it pos- 
sible to find in advance those rails which, after injury 
under straightening presses, would develop in service 
a complete interior transverse fissure. It is also sug- 
gested that this test would eliminate the occasional 
defective rail before it leaves the mill or is put in the 
track. 

Automatic Control of Humidity in Shops 

THE United States Forest Products Laboratory has 
developed a plan for conditioning the air in shops, 
particularly for woodworking shops, although it is 
applicable elsewhere. 

The apparatus consists of a small cabinet, or chamber, 
through which the air is drawn as often as it needs to 
be conditioned. The conditioning chamber contains 
water sprays whose temperature is kept constant by a 
mixing valve. These sprays suck in the air by their 
own action, cool it to the temperature at which it should 
be saturated and give it all the moisture that it can 
hold. 

As the air leaves the chamber it is heated to room 
temperature by coils, whose steam supply is controlled 
by a thermostat located in the outlet. Thus, when the 
air is drawn into the chamber, it may be too hot or 
too cold, too moist or too dry, but the apparatus auto- 
matically humidifies or dehumidifies it and brings it to 
the correct temperature before allowing it to pass again 
into the room. Both in the storage rooms, where the 
air needs conditioning very infrequently, and in the 
workrooms, where it is completely changed every ten 
minutes, the recording instruments show that the atmos- 



pheric conditions have varied to only a slight extent 
throughout a three-year period. 

Drawings of the apparatus and further details con- 
cerning its installation and operation may be had on 
application to the laboratory at Madison, Wis. 



Association News 



Transportation to the Mid-Year Conference 

ARRANGEMENTS are under way by the committee 
. on transportation for special Pullmans to the 
Chicago conference on Feb. 10. 

The committee believes it possible to arrange for 
special cars from Detroit, St. Louis, New York, Bos- 
ton, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Indian- 
apolis. R. B. Fisher, chairman of the committee, has 
made the following assignments: D. W. Smith is to 
canvass Detroit and vicinity; Col. A. T. Perkins and 
F. 0. Grayson, St. Louis and the southwest; C. R. Elli- 
cott, New York City ; A. F. Walker, New England, and 
if the proposed trip from Boston to Chicago via Mon- 
treal is undertaken, Montreal as well; Paul Wilson, 
Cleveland, Buffalo, Toledo and intermediate points ; 
A. H. Englund, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, and R. B. 
Fisher, Peoria, Columbus, Louisville, Indianapolis, Cin- 
cinnati, Evaiisville, etc. 

All those planning to attend the conference are urged 
to get in touch with the men assigned to their home ter- 
ritory with the view to joining with others and making 
special reservations possible. 



December Reports Available 

THE following special reports and compilations 
have been prepared by the Bureau of Information 
and Service during the last month: 

Record of All Increases in Rates of Fare in Cities of 
25,000 Population and Over from 1917 to Date. — This 
compilation shows all fare increases that have occurred 
classified by calendar years in each of these cities. 

Trackless Trolleys. — Summary of replies to associa- 
tion's questionnaire sent to foreign companies, describ- 
ing types of equipment, operating conditions and costs. 

Analysis of Agreements with Trainmen. — This covers 
a number of the larger electric railway companies and 
is a comparison of the working conditions relating to 
hours of labor, extra compensation paid under various 
circumstances and limitations in the making of sched- 
ules and time tables. 

Owl or Night Car Service. — Based on replies to ques- 
tionnaire, showing rates of fare, frequency of service, 
percentage of system included, and comparative finan- 
cial results. 

List of Cities Having Increased Rates of Fare as of 
Jan. 1, 1921, Summarized on the Basis of the Cash 
Rate of Fare. 

In addition to the above, the bulletins on trainmen's 
wages and cost of living have been brought up to date 
by means of supplements. 

Any of the above compilations will be forwarded to 
member companies upon request. 



News of the Eledric Railways 

FINANCIAL AND CORPORATE • TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 

PERSONAL MENTION 



Wage Discussion in Detroit 

Trainmen Continue Negotiations — 
Officers and Other Employees 
Reduced Jan. 1 

The first of the series of conferences 
between the officers of the Detroit 
(Mich.) United Railway and its plat- 
form employees to consider the com- 
pany's proposed reduction in wages was 
held in the company's offices on Dec. 28. 
It has been intimated that arbitration 
on the disputed points and a referendum 
vote of the men on the wage question 
would be acceptable. Further confer- 
ences will be held. 

In a letter signed by officials of Divi- 
sions 90, 111 and 26 and the Monroe 
Branch of Division 26 of the Amalga- 
mated Association the request is made 
that the company adhere to the terms 
of the wage contract. The division 
associations have specific contracts with 
the company covering the question of 
wages. These do not expire until May 
1, 1921. This fact is pointed out in the 
letter to the company. It is also con- 
tended that after the men agreed to the 
wage settlement in May, 1919, covering 
that year, the cost of living kept in- 
creasing with the result that the wages 
agreed to, in a short time after their 
acceptance, were not sufficient to meet 
the cost of living during the remainder 
of the year. The men claim that they 
lived up to their contracts with the 
company while suffering losses to them- 
selves and families and now appeal to 
the company to carry out its part of the 
agreement. 

Replying to the company's intima- 
tion that the subject has not been fully 
submitted to the men employed by the 
company, it is stated that the represen- 
tatives would be willing to prepare a 
circular clearly explaining the proposi- 
tions the company has made and the 
replies that have been made by the 
committee, and submit them to a refer- 
endum vote of the membership of the 
divisions and to abide by the majority 
vote. 

Relative to arbitration of the matter, 
it is stated that the existing agreements 
provide how disputes shall be arbi- 
trated. The only question is whether 
the company has the right to set aside 
the wi-itten contracts that exist. That 
question the committee members are 
willing to arbitrate. 

Quick Adjustment Necessary 

The Detroit United Railway states 
that, fully alive to the conditions in 
which the company finds itself, execu- 
tive officers, heads of departments and 
workers within the departments are co- 
operating to practice every economy 
possible. They have accepted decided 



reductions in salaries and wages be- 
ginning Jan. 1. The conferences with 
representatives of the several organiza- 
tions of motormen and conductors have 
been arranged with the same end in 
view, that increases granted to meet the 
growing costs of living may be volun- 
tarily relinquished in part and to such 
an amount as to have a material bear- 
ing in permitting the company to con- 
tinue without cessation of its service to 
the public, it is stated that any adjust- 
ment other than a speedy one would be 
detrimental to the community. 



Railway Legislation Likely 
in Iowa 

The Legislature of Iowa meets dur- 
ing the present month for its biennial 
session. It is expected that the law- 
makers will take notice of the present 
difficulties existing between Iowa mu- 
nicipalities and electric railways. At 
present there are known to be at least 
four railway measures which will be 
introduced in the General Assembly. 

Officials of the Iowa League of Mu- 
nicipalities announce that their organ- 
ization is interested in at least three 
such bills. One of these measures dele- 
gates to cities the right to fix rates 
of fare in traction franchises. This bill 
will be introduced only in the event 
that the decision in the Ottumwa street 
railway case is reaffirmed when it 
comes up for hearing late this month. 

Another measure will prepare for 
permissive legislation allowing cities at 
their own election to relieve traction 
companies from paying for paving be- 
tween tracks. 

Still another bill will cover the jitney 
question and would allow cities the 
right to grant franchises to bus com- 
panies under which the companies 
would be assured of contract protection 
over a period of years. It is frankly 
admitted by the backers of this meas- 
ure that it is a club to hold over the 
electric railways. At the present time 
companies operating bus lines are given 
no assurance of protection. 

Backers of a fourth bill propose that 
electric railway extensions be financed 
by special assessments against the 
property in the territory to be bene- 
fited. The theory back of both this 
bill and the one which would require 
the property owners to pay for the pav- 
ing between the tracks in front of his 
property is that the general taxpayer 
should' not be assessed for neighbor- 
hood improvements, but that the prop- 
erty owner who is benefited should 
share the expense. The tendency of 
late years has been to relieve the gen- 
eral taxpayer of expense which covers 
benefits of a local character. 



Valuation Act Protested 

New Jersey Commissioners Recom- 
mend Recent Law Be Amended to 
Give It Review Power 

The annual report of the Board of 
Public Utility Commissioners of New 
Jersey, a summary of which was made 
public on Dec. 29, refers to the in- 
creases in fares recently proposed by 
the Public Service Railway and in this 
connection discusses the act passed by 
the Legislature of this year providing 
for the selection by the Governor, State 
Treasurer and State Comptroller of a 
firm of engineers to value the propert»y 
of the electric railways. 

Limitations of Board 

The report states that, as the act 
requires it to accept the report of the 
engineers as to the value of the prop- 
erty in any rate proceeding, the board 
will be powerless to exercise any inde- 
pendent judgment as to the value. It 
cannot give consideration to the esti- 
mates of value, exhibits and testimony 
submitted by experts employed by the 
board, the associated municipalities and 
the company. The board recommends 
that the law be amended so it may give 
due consideration to the engineers' re- 
port and other information helpful in 
arriving at the value of the property. 

During the year, owing to the diffi- 
culty of obtaining coal on contract de- 
liveries; its high cost; the expiration of 
contracts for oil, and the inability to re- 
new contracts except at greatly in- 
creased prices, all the gas companies 
in the State have been adversely af- 
fected. Companies whose bonded in- 
debtedness is less than the fair values 
cf their properties have been unable to 
meet operating costs and fixed charges. 

The question with respect to such 
companies has not been what rate will 
meet operating costs, provide for de- 
preciation and pay a reasonable return 
on the fair value of the property; but 
what rate, if any, can be fixed which 
will enable the utility to continue to 
supply service at a price commensurate 
with its worth. 

Expediting Loading Successful 

The inauguration of a system where- 
by tickets or cash receipts are sold dur- 
ing the afternoon rush hours at two 
ferry terminals of the Public Service 
Railway, thereby speeding the loading 
of cars, has improved service, and the 
same method recently adopted at sev- 
eral heavy points in Newark, the board 
states, bids fair to be successful. 

During the year approximately 150 
one-man cars have been put in opera- 
tion by the Public Service Railway and 
forty by the Trenton & Mercer County 
Traction Corporation. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



95 



Many Suggestions for Relief of Electric Railways 

Public Utilities Commission of Connecticut Presents to Legislature Constructive Document Recommend- 
ing Aid to Railroads and Corporate Reform — Federal Report Quoted 



The Public Utilities Commission of 
Connecticut on Jan. 5 sent to the Gen- 
eral Assembly a report of its inquiry 
into the electric railway conditions 
under an act of the 1919 session in 
which it makes many suggestions for 
legislation to relieve these companies. 

An outstanding recommendation is 
that the Attorney-General be authorized 
to ask the federal court to vacate a 
judgment against the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad by which 
the Connecticut Company was taken 
from the railroad and placed in the 
hands of federal trustees. The electric 
railways might then be returned to the 
New Haven road, as it is a Connecticut 
company, doing a state business solely, 
and have the corporate stock and con- 
trol vested where it was before. 

Corporate Reform Urged 

Suggestions for corporation and man- 
agerial reforms include: Division of the 
system into well-defined operation 
parts under competent managers; sepa- 
ration of operating revenues and 
expenses of each division; greater 
attention to routing of cars and main- 
tenance of schedules; supply auxiliary 
motor vehicles in chartered territory; 
increase the number of one-man cars 
in urban service; closer attention to 
heating and sanitary conditions in cars; 
greater publicity in operating and 
financial conditions; closer touch with 
local conditions; closer co-operation 
with city officials; quicker movement 
of cars; obtain co-operation and not 
antagonism of the public; stricter ob- 
servance of courtesy; prompt correction 
of defects and annoyances. 

Recommendations for legislative con- 
sideration include plans for relief to 
the companies from statutory obligation 
on paving, bridge maintenance, etc., to 
a considerable extent; relief from high- 
way bridge construction and mainte- 
nance; extension of time in which to 
pay taxes due to the State; authorizing 
municipalities to subsidize local lines, 
etc.; to operate motor vehicles. 

It is recommended that jitneys be 
declared common cari-iers and regulated 
as such, and that municipalities be 
vested with jurisdiction over jitney 
routes, schedule and supervision. 

Recognition is given in the report 
to the work of the Federal Electric 
Railways Commission, and the opinion 
is expressed by the commission that 
the benefit of that investigation and 
report should not be overlooked in the 
report made by that commission. The 
Connecticut Commission then quoted 
certain conclusions and statements by 
the federal body believed to be applic- 
able to the situation in Connecticut. 
One such statement was to the effect 
that "the electric railway furnishing 
transportation upon rails is an essen- 



tial public utility and should have the 
sympathetic understanding and co-oper- 
ation of the public if it is to continue 
to perform a useful public service." 
The Connecticut Commission then 
quoted from the federal report in re- 
gard to credit, the distance tai-ifi' or 
zone system and jitney bus competition. 

The commission did not deem it expe- 
dient at this time and in its report 
officially to decree its concluded fair 
value "of the companies' property for 
rate making purposes, based upon the 
diff'erent valuations or indices of value 
submitted, other than to state that such 
valuation as of this date would un- 
doubtedly equal or exceed the minimum 
figures submitted, after making due 
allowance for depreciation. The follow- 
ing table shows the valuations obtained 
by the commission for the Connecticut 
Company's owned and leased lines: 



cised, will enable it to return g-i'adually to a 
sound, healthy and efficient operating con- 
dition. 

The commission does not favor or recom- 
mend at this time g-overnment or municipal 
ownership, particularly in view of the com- 
plications that would now be involved in 
bringing- about such a result. 

The commission does not recommend the 
so-called "service-at-cost" plan, advocated 
by some railway experts and others as 
being the sole and only reasonable policy 
for' the benefit of the people and the salva- 
tion of the electric railway industry. This 
plan contemplates a rate which will pro- 
duce sufficient I'evenue to pay all operating, 
fixed and overhead charges and a guaran- 
teed return on the value of the property. 
It makes dividends a fixed charge, thereby 
increasing the absolute obligations of the 
company. 

Theoretically, private ownership and op- 
eration of a public utility, with public reg- 
ulation, is on the service-at-cost plan, but 
practically, when a utility company, through 
unavoidable circumstances, mismanagement, 
or other cause, is unable, with a reasonable 
rate, to obtain sufficient revenue to pay its 
operating expenses, taxes, and a fair return 
on the value of the property, the investors 
in the enterprise must stand the burden 
of the reverses. Possibly it is unfair to 
make invested capital stand all the burden. 



Valuation, 
1910-1914 

Connecticut Company owned lines $36,13.5,897 

Connecticut Railway & Lighting Company 

lines leased to Connecticut Company 15,781,829 



Connecticut Company owned and leased lines .. $51,917,726 



Valuation, 

1919 
$65,044,614 

28.407,292 



$93,451,907 



Historical 
Cost, 1919 
$41,011,815 

19,741,537 



$60,753,352 



The commission said in part: 

The success of any utility company de- 
pends largely upon the character, efficiency 
and progressiveness of its corporate man- 
iigement. It is necessary that the company, 
through its officers, should obtain and 
retain and merit the confidence and good- 
will of the pviblic. If this valuable and 
essential, asset is lacking the corporate 
management should immediately become 
exei-cised, and scrutinize its own conduct, 
and overcome the defect as fai' as possible, 
even if necessary to change the personnel 
of such management to effect such result. 

From numerous public hearings and in- 
vestigations had, pertaining to Connecticut 
("■ompany matters, the commission is led to 
the conclusion that the general public does 
not possess that degree of confidence in the 
officers and managerial policies of the com- 
pany which best results require. We say 
this without intending to cast undue asper- 
s'ons upon any of the officei-s of the com- 
pany, but as a statement of existing condi- 
tions, affecting the public welfare. 

The lines of the Connecticut Company 
are divided into operating divisions, eacli 
in charge of a manager or superintendent 
who reports to the vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the company. Local man- 
agers and superintendents are given but 
limited authority over the operation of 
their respective divisions. Many matters 
other than those of minor importance, and 
which should be decided promptly in order 
to accommodate the public and render effi- 
cient service, must be referred to the gen- 
eral manager or other superior officer at 
the central office in New Haven. We be- 
lieve this condition should be remedied, 
and that local managers or superintendents 
should be given greater authority and held 
responsible for the proper conduct of busi- 
ness in their respective territories, as far 
as operation is concerned. 

Owing to economic conditions and a 
series of events extending down from its 
early organization and development to the 
present time the electric railway industry 
in Connecticut, metaphorically speaking, has 
become and is a very sick patient, and it is 
not expected that the remedies adminis- 
tered at this time will immediately trans- 
form the patient into a sound, healthy and 
prosperous being. • We believe, however, 
that its weakened vitality is sufficiently 
strong to respond to curative remedies, and, 
when such remedies are administered, that 
its own recuperative forces, wisely exer- 



but it would be equally unfaii' to guaran- 
tee a fixed return on the capital or value 
of the property and make the public bear 
all the burdens of business reverses which 
might, in a measure, be due to corporate 
ei'rors of extravagance. 

A guaranteed return has a tendency to 
lessen the incentive on the part of the offi- 
cers of the company for improvement and 
greater efficiency. Any policy, which im- 
mediately transposes a near bankrvipt con- 
cern into a 6 or 8 per cent dividend-paying 
business, must of necessity increase the 
rates to the pviblic. 

We believe that electric railway service 
is a public necessity, and in the rendition 
of such service for the benefit of the pi:blic 
the company should be relieved of all un- 
necessary burdens, destructive competition, 
and too heavy taxation, which ultimately 
the car-riders have to bear. As a neces- 
sary industry, relieved as far as possible 
of public burdens and unfair competition, 
it should be self-sustaining from its traffic 
revenues, and present an inviting field for 
new capital required for extensions and 
betterments. 

Certain corporate and managerial re- 
forms can be effected without special legis- 
lative enactment, and we have, therefore, 
divided this subject into two groups. 

Suggestions as to reforms contained 

in the commission's recommendations 

follow: 

1. (Applicable to the Connecticut Com- 
pany). Divide the company's entire system 
into a suitable number of specifically de- 
fined operating divisions (not more and 
preferably less than the present number 
of divisions), each in charge of a competent 
manager. 

2. CJive each division manager author- 
ity and full power to act on all matters 
pertaining to the efficient operation of cars, 
and hold him responsible for the successful 
operation of his division. 

3. Keep the accounts pertaining to op- 
erating revenues and expenses of each divi- 
sion separate. 

4. Give greater attention to the routing 
of cars and maintenance of schedules. 

5. Obtain accurate information relative 
to non-paying lines and (provided legisla- 
tive authority is granted) substitute and 
develop motor -vehicle service wherever anis 
whenever practical on such lines ; also 
supply auxiliary motor-vehicle service in 
chartered territory when necessary. 



96 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



6. Increase the number of one-man cars 
for urban service. 

7. Give closer attention to heating, ven- 
tilating and sanitary conditions of cars. 

8. Give greater and constant publicity to 
the operating and financial conditions of 
the company. 

9. Keep in close touch with local condi- 
tions and requirements, and try to obtain 
the co-operation and not the antagonism of 
the public. 

10. Endeavor to obtain closer co-opera- 
tion of city offlcials in relieving congestion, 
and for the more expeditious movement 
of cars. 

11. Enforce strict observance of courtesy 
on the part of employees to the company's 
patrons. 

12. Promptly investigate and correct 
minor defects and annoyances affecting the 
comfort and spirit of co-operation of the 
traveling public. 

13. Always bear In mind the fact that 
the rendition of street railway service is 
primarily for the benefit of the public, 
rather than for the profit of the stockhold- 
ers or to satisfy the demands of employees 
when detrimental to economical and efficient 
operation. 

Recommendations for legislation con- 
tained in the commission's report 
follow: 

1. That street railway companies be re- 
lieved from present statutory obligations 
of paving, surfacing and maintaining pub- 
lic highways used in street railway opera- 
tion, excepting that portion of the highway 
next to and within 8 in. alongside of eacli 
rail. 

2. That street railway companies be re- 
lieved from contributing toward the expense 
of construction and maintenance of high- 
way bridges over which their tracks cross, 
excepting that portion of the expense in- 
volved in the company's own construction 
and maintenance, wliich shall be paid for in 
full by the company. 

3. That payment of present unpaid taxes 
due to the state from street railway com- 
panies be extended over a term of yeais 
without interest, and that all future assess- 
ment of taxes against street i-ailway com- 
panies be levied on net operating income, 
obtained under honest, efficient and eco- 
nomical management, instead of on gross 
revenue as at present. 

4. That street railway companies be per- 
mitted to abandon non-paying lines or por- 
tions of lines, subject to tlie appi-oval of 
the Public Utilities Commission after public 
hearing. 

5. That municipalities be authorized to 
enter into contracts of guaranty with street 
railway companies, affecting gross or net 
operating revenues ; also to subsidize or 
otherwise take over the control and opera- 
tion of non-paying lines of street railways 
within their respective corporate limits. 

6. That street railway companies be per- 
mitted and authorized to operate automobile 
buses or other form of approved street 
transportation, through and along high- 
ways over which they operate street rail- 
way service, either as substitute for or 
auxiliary to such service ; also to operate 
such buses or other approved form of trans- 
portation over and along adjacent and ad- 
ditional highways and routes, vipon finding 
by the Public Utilities Commission, after 
public hearing, that public convenience 
and necessity require such operation and 
form of public service ; the operation of 
such buses in all cases to be common car- 
riei'S and subject to the regulation and 
supei'vision of the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion and the laws pertaining to motor 
vehicles and drivers of pviblic service cars. 

7. That jitneys, so called, and all public 
service motor vehicles (excepting legally 
defined taxicabs), transporting passengers 
for pay, be declared common carriers and, 
in addition to the requirements of the gen- 
eral motor vehicle laws, shall be svibject to 
public regulation as follows : 

(a) All drivers of jitneys and public 
service automobiles shall first obtain an 
operator's license therefor from the com- 
missioner of motor vehicles, who shall con- 
tinue to prescribe the requirements of and 
have full jurisdiction over the qualification 
of such drivers, with full power to suspend 
or revoke such license at any time for 
cause shown. 

(b) All public service motor vehicles 
transporting passengers for hire shall con- 
tinue to be subject to inspection and ap- 
pi-oval by and conform to the requirements 
of the commissioner of motor vehicles, and 
shall be limited in number of passengers 
carried at any one time to the number 
prescribed by said commissioner. 

(c) Giving to municipalities original ju- 
risdiction to regulate all public motor 
vehicles operated within their corporate 
limits, as to public convenience and neces- 
sity for such operation, routes, schedules, 
rates and amount of service required on 



any route, together with such other public 
regulation and traffic requirements as may 
be deemed proper ; provided, however, that 
any party aggrieved by any rule, order or 
requirement prescribed by a municipality, 
pertaining to public convenience and neces- 
sity, routes, schedules, rates or amount of 
service, shall have the right to appeal 
therefrom within thirty days thereof to the 
Public Utilities Commission, and the Public 
Utilities Commission on all matters so com- 
ing before it on appeal shall hear the 
case de novo and shall have full and com- 
plete jurisdiction therein. 

(d) All public service motor vehicles 
lendering interurban service on through 
routes from one city or town to another 
shall be under public regulation within the 



exclusive jurisdiction of the Public Utilities 
Commission as to public convenience and 
necessity, rates, schedules and routes. 

Nothing in the act to be construed as 
giving the municipality jurisdiction over 
routes, rates, service or schedules of public 
service automobiles or buses operated Tpy 
street railway companies. 

8. That the Attorney-General, acting for 
and in behalf of the State of Connecticut, 
be authorized to take such action as may 
be deemed necessary to bring about a ter- 
mination of federal control of the Con- 
necticut Company, and have the capital 
stock, property and corporate control and 
management of said company returned to 
and reinvested in the owner or owners 
thereof. 



Temporary Aid Suggested by Governor 

Chief Executive of Connecticut Urges Remission of Bridge and 
Paving Charges and Regulation of Jitneys 

Governor Everett J. Lake of Connecticut in his inaugural message to the 
General Assembly on Jan. 5 recommended that temporary aid be extended to the 
electric railv^^ays in the State by relieving them in part or in full from the duty 
of contributing to the cost of maintaining bridges used by their cars and from 
bearing the burden of street improvements in thoroughfares occupied by their 
tracks. The Governor is an engineer. He has, perhaps, on this account had 
opportunities for the study of the railw^ay problem not ordinarily possible to 
executives coming from other walks of life. 



THE Governor said that he was 
of the opinion that financial aid 
could not constitutionally be given 
to the electric railways. Besides recom- 
mending temporary relief in regard to 
the remission of pavement and bridge 
expenses, he urged that the Public 
Utilities Commission be authorized to 
supervise jitney buses instead of hav- 
ing these vehicles regulated by the 
cities. Legislation to enable the electric 
railway to operate motor buses also 
was recommended by him. 

Railway Situation Acute 

In that pai't of his address dealing 
with the electric railways the Governor 
said : 

The electric railway situation in the 
State is acute and demands your early 
attention. The situation is one which con- 
cerns not only those of you who come 
from the centers of population, but it is 
of vital importance to every section of the 
State and to the tax-paying public as a 
whole. 

Some of the electric railway systems have 
been abandoned, others are being continued 
in operation under the supervision of the 
state courts, and one is being operated by 
trustees appointed by the United States 
court. Few, if any, have paid any divi- 
dends to their stockholders in recent years 
and, indeed, it is a vital question as to 
whether they can under present economic 
conditions continue even to exist and 
operate. 

Fares have been increased after investi- 
gation by and with the permission of the 
Public Utilities Commission, but still the 
receipts have not kept pace with the in- 
creased expense of operation, regardless of 
the costs imposed upon such companies 
under existing laws for taxes, for contribu- 
tions to paving, for bridges and for other 
public improvements. 

This condition exists not only in Connec- 
ticut but in every other State, and the sub- 
ject has been extensively investigated by 
various independent associations, state com- 
missions and federal agencies. 

The last Connecticut General Assembly 
directed the Public Utilities Commission to 
make a full investigation of the situation 
in this State and report its conclusions 
and recommendations to your body. At 
the earliest moment after you consider 
them together with the other sources of 
information I have mentioned, give the sub- 
ject thorough investigation, and determine 
what measures are necessary for relief. 

Governor His Own Investigator 
My owTi investigation leads me to recom- 
mend the following : 

1. I am strongly of the opinion that finan- 
cial aid, whether temporary or otherwise, 
cannot constitutionally be extended to 
electric railway companies from the public 



treasuries, either from state funds or from 
those of municipalities or communities 
served by them. 

2. I recommend that electric railways be 
relieved in part or in full, for a limited 
period, from the duty now imposed by 
statute of contributing to the cost of street 
im]irovements. This should not, however, 
include the releasing of such companies 
from the obligations of replacing such 
portions of the pavement as are taken up 
in repairing or constructing their own prop- 
erty by the companies themselves. 

3. The present contribution required of 
such companies to the cost of highway 
bridges over which their tracks pass may 
fairly be cancelled in whole or in part. 

4. Until it has been convincingly shown 
that the motor bus or jitney as a trans- 
portation medium can fully and at all times 
fill the place of the electric car, running on 
defined tracks throughout the congested 
sections of population in the State, and that 
it can do so with the same measure of 
safety to its passengers and to other users 
of the highway, I believe it to be your 
duty to see that the present electric rail- 
way service is rendered possible, and to 
prevent by all reasonable methods any in- 
terruption of such service. This entails the 
regulation of the public motor bus, its 
routes of travel, and the inclusion of it 
among other classes of common carriers 
with similar duties and responsibilities. 
Regulation of this sort by separate mu- 
nicipalities, each acting independently and 
each case involving local questions aside 
from the main issue, has provoked exas- 
perating delays and precipitated a crisis 
in many communities, and has, I believe, 
been satisfactory to no one. "This super- 
vision and regulation should be given to 
the Public Utilities Commission, and a 
finding from this commission of public con- 
venience and necessity should be a neces- 
sary prerequisite for the operation of any 
public service motor vehicle upon any route 
of travel. 

5. Any additional legislation deemed 
necessary to enable the electric railway to 
operate motor bus lines, and particularly 
as connecting links with or feeders to their 
regularly maintained lines, should be en- 
acted. 

6. Believing as I do, that many of the 
troubles of the electric railway are due to 
the abnormal economic conditions of the 
present time and that more normal con- 
ditions will prevail in the not very distant 
future. I recommend that the various meas- 
ures of relief be. in so far as possible, of a 
temporary rather than a permanent nature. 

Railway a Monopoly 

7. Costly experience has taught that 
the public is better and more economically 
served in the public utilities under well 
regulated monopolies than under irrespon- 
sible competition ; and this. I believe, holds 
true with our transportation situation, 

8. You should bear continually in mind 
that this investigation and the desired ineas- 
ures of relief have for their prime object, 
not to further the financial interests of 
either electric railway owners or jitney 
proprietors but to promote the public wel- 
fare and to assure by fair means ample 
transportation facilities. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



97 



Detroit Case Before Supreme Court 

Detroit United Railway and City Present Arguments Before Highest 
Tribunal to Establish Their Respective Rights 

The case of the Detroit (Mich.) United Railway, to stop the construction of 
municipal lines in Detroit, was scheduled to open on Jan. 3 before the United 
States Supreme Court in Washington with Charles Evans Hughes and Elliott 
G. Stevenson representing the Detroit United Railway and Clarence E. Wilcox, 
Corporation Counsel, and Alfred Lucking, special counsel, appearing for the 
city. 



j^CCORDING to a statement by Mr. 
A\ Stevenson before leaving for 
-^Washington, victory for the De- 
troit United Railway in the pending 
suit would put an end to the construc- 
tion of a municipal system under the 
present Couzens plan. If the suit is 
won by the city, and the city proceeds 
under the present plan as approved by 
the voters last April, it is contended 
that chaos will result during the time 
the Detroit United Railway tears up its 
tracks on streets whei-e franchises 
have expired, and while new lines are 
being constructed by the city. 

Case Set for Jan. 3 

City street railway officials contend 
that the hearing before the Supreme 
Court represents the last stand of the 
Detroit United Railway against the 
construction of the municipal lines 
voted last April. An injunction sought 
in the District Court by the company 
immediately after the election was de- 
nied by Federal Judge Tuttle. When 
a temporary injunction was sought 
from the Supreme Court, the court ad- 
vanced the hearing of the appeal to 
Jan. 3. 

In discussing the bearing of the out- 
come of the case on the street railway 
situation in Detroit Mr. Stevenson ex- 
plained that it may have a very impor- 
tant bearing on the situation, and it 
. may have no bearing but to turn the 
whole subject and controversy back to 
the local and state courts for determi- 
nation. 

The attack made by the railway had 
for its principal object the amendment 
of the municipal ownership proposition 
adopted last April, upon the ground 
that this adoption was brought about 
by the electors being imposed upon as 
to what was involved in the proposition 
submitted. 

Increased Transportation Proposed 

The proposal, according to Mr. Stev- 
enson, was to increase tranportation 
facilities for passengers in Detroit, not 
to destroy the most important part of 
those existing, and replace them with 
similar tracks and equipment at greatly 
increased cost. The methods employed 
in obtaining the adoption of the propo- 
sition, the railway contended, were such 
that they rendered the proceedings in- 
valid. 

This question ordinarily would be 
held to be a local or state question and 
not a federal question, but counsel for 
the railway claimed that in other re- 
spects the rights of the company, guar- 



anteed under the federal constitution, 
were invaded. Moreover, it associated 
with the claim the alleged invalidity of 
the submission of the proposition pre- 
senting the local or state question re- 
ferred to. This it had a right to do if 
there was, in fact, a federal question 
also involved and this even though in 
the end the federal question might be 
decided against the company. 

The city has contended from the be- 
ginning, Mr. Stevenson stated, that 
there was no federal constitutional 
question involved in the suit commenced 
by the company in the federal court 
and, although Judge Tuttle held that 
the company's allegations were suffi- 
cient to confer jurisdiction on the fed- 
eral courts, the city counsel in the 
Supreme Court still are insisting that 
there was no jurisdiction in the federal 
court to pass upon the question pre- 
sented. 

Issue Complicated 

It will thus readily be seen that if 
the city's contention as to the lack of 
jurisdiction of the federal court shall 
be sustained, the other questions, par- 
ticularly the question of the alleged 
invalidity of the municipal ownership 
proceedings, will not be decided, but 
vfiW be left for the state courts to de- 
cide. If, on the other hand, the com- 
pany's contention with reference to the 
jurisdiction of the federal courts shall 
be sustained, the Supreme Court will 
proceed to decide the other questions 
presented and the decision of the court 
in that event will be of very great im- 
portance, Mr. Stevenson states, in de- 
termining the relative rights of the 
company and the city with reference 
to the cessation or continued operation 
of the existing street railway. 

The first question that will then have 
to be considered and the question upon 
which depends the determination as to 
whether any rights of the company will 
be involved in carrying out the munic- 
ipal ownership plans is this: "Has the 
company now the right to continue to 
operate its system on the streets when 
franchises have expired?" The Denver 
water case and the Kronk ordinance 
case are cited as involving similar 
questions. 

According to Mr. Stevenson, the De- 
troit United Railway is not contending 
that it has any perpetual or other 
rights except the right conferred with 
the duty referred to; that duty is to 
continue to occupy the streets and oper- 
ate its service until such time as the 
city has made lawful provision for the 
transportation needs of the public being 



met, and it claims that the time has not 
come when they can require the com- 
pany to discontinue its service and 
vacate the street it occupies, no other 
provision for the public need having- 
been lawfully provided. 



Wages Cut in Cleveland 

Pay of Track Laborers Reduced Twenty 
per Cent — Cut for Shopmen 
Announced 

A general i-eduction of 20 per cent in 
the wages of track laborers, effective on 
Jan. 1, has been announced by John J. 
Stanley, president of the Cleveland 
(Ohio) Railway. There are now about 
200 track laborers in the maintenance 
of way department who have been get- 
ting 50 cents an hour. Hereafter they 
will receive but 40 cents an hour. Be- 
fore the war the wage was 26 cents an 
hour. During the summer the number 
of employees of the maintenance of way 
department runs as high as 1,500 men. 

A reduction of approximately 15 per 
cent in the pay of shop department em- 
ployees of the company has also been 
announced for Feb. 1. John J. Stanley, 
president of the company, said: 

This reduction in wages is a forerunner 
of wliat we expect to do to trainmen's 
wag-es when our agreement with the local 
of the Amalgamated Association of Street 
& Electric Railway Employees expires on 
May 1. 

Trainmen in Cleveland now receive 
70 cents an hour for the first three 
months, 73 cents for the next nine 
months and 75 cents an hour after the 
first year of service. 

The contract with the union can be 
opened by either party on April 1. Mr. 
Stanley, it is expected, will serve his 
formal demand for a reduction in wages 
of the trainmen about that time. 

The maximum rate of fare allowed by 
the Tayler service-at-cost franchise, 
namely, 6 cents cash or nine tickets for 
fifty cents, with a 1-cent charge for 
transfers, has been in effect in Cleve- 
land ever since the middle of November. 

The reduction in wages is due to the 
fact that receipts under the maximum 
rate have not come up to expectations. 
The directors are dubious as to the com- 
pany's ability to maintain the present 
service and pay the present wage at the 
maximum rate of fare. 



Three Killed and Fifty Injured in 
Trail Car Accident 

Three persons were killed and more 
than fifty injured on Dec. 27 in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., when a trail car of the 
Pittsburgh Railways broke from the 
pilot car, dashed four squares down a 
steep grade and crashed into another 
car ascending the grade. The accident 
occurred in Forbes Street, when the 
coupler broke. 

The passengers were thrown into a 
heap in the center of the car and many 
were trampled in the mad i-ush of those 
uninjured to escape from the car. The 
passengers in the car following the 
trailer were thrown to the floor by the 
impact and many were cut. 



98 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



Brooklyn Lines Reviewed 

Manager of Surface Properties Deplores 
Attitude of Local Administration — 
Fare Increases Planned 

In a statement to the board of di- 
rectors sent to the stockholders on 
Dec. 31 H. Hobart Porter, vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the 
Brooklyn City Railroad, reviews the 
condition of the property as well as 
the situation of the electric railway 
industry generally in the United States. 

Five-Cent Fare Confiscatory 

He asserts that a fair return on the 
Brooklyn City lines is impossible at a 
5-cent fare and that "under existing 
conditions the sole hope of the stock- 
holders must be that their property 
may be preserved until such time as 
the transportation problems of the city 
shall be taken up and considered by 
fair-minded men to the end that the 
people of the city may have a well- 
developed transportation system which 
can continuously provide for their 
needs." 

Mr. Porter states that the electric 
transportation systems of the city of 
New York have been confronted not 
only by the problems which have seri- 
ously embarrassed the operations of 
electric railway companies all over the 
United States but also by special dif- 
ficulties due to the attitude of the 
municipal administration which, he 
adds, has steadfastly refused to co- 
operate to solve these problems. He 
contrasts the position of the New York 
municipal authorities with that of other 
cities whose co-operative attitude, he 
declares, has resulted in increased fares 
being granted in almost every impor- 
tant city in the country. 

Many Queries from Stockholders 

Supplementing his statement to the 
directors Mr. Porter said that it was 
made necessary by the many inquiries 
which the officials of the company were 
receiving from the stockholders, who 
were unable to understand why this 
property, always considered one of the 
most conservatively capitalized public 
utilities in the United States, with a 
record of paying dividends for many 
years, should, since the termination of 
the lease with the Brooklyn Heights 
Railroad, have failed to make any dis- 
tribution to the stockholders. 

It is being constantly pointed out 
to the management of the Brooklyn 
City Railroad by these stockholders, 
Mr. Porter continued, that the stock 
had been purchased as a safe and con- 
servative investment for women, trus- 
tees and estates and that the failure 
to pay dividends was working great 
hardships. Mr. Porter pointed out 
that out of approximately 1,500 stock- 
holders one-half were women and that 
in addition much stock was held by 
trustees, administrators, guardians, 
life insurance companies, charitable in- 
stitutions and colleges. As a matter 
of fact, Mr. Porter said, approximately 
two-thirds of the stock of the company 
is so held, the remaining third being 



divided between individuals and other 
corporations. 

Ml-. Porter says that the fiscal year 
of public utilities companies in New 
York State ends on June 30, and that 
it will not be possible until after June 
30, 1921, to make a report which will 
show the results of independent oper- 
ation of the Brooklyn City Railroad for 
a full year. 

The company has recently announced 
its intention to collect a second 5-cent 
fare on other lines than the Flatbush 
Avenue branch, but it is explained that 
the Mayor in the public press has given 
instructions for new and further liti- 
gation, the only apparent possible ob- 
ject of which, in view of the decision 
referred to by Mr. Porter, is to cause 
further delay, embarrassment and ex- 
pense to the company. 

Brooklyn City Railroad 
Operated Separately 

The receivership of the Brooklyn 
Heights Railroad resulted in breaches 
in certain covenants of the lease under 
which the Brooklyn City Railroad was 
operated and in consequence Judge 
Mayer, in the United States District 
Court, ordered the receiver of the 
Brooklyn Heights Raih'oad to return 
the Brooklyn City Railroad's property 
to it on Oct. 19, 1919, since which time 
the Brooklyn City Railroad has been 
operated under the direction of its own 
officials. 



Mr. Milner Represents City 
on New Traction Board 

William L. Milner, author of the 
cost-of-service ordinance at Toledo, 
Ohio, has been appointed by the board 
of sinking fund commissioners to sei-ve 
on the board of directors of the Com- 
munity Traction Company, which will 
begin to function as soon as the new 
ordinance is legally put into operation. 

The board is composed of five mem- 
bers, four of whom will represent the 
Toledo Railways & Light Company, to 
which concern the bonds of the Com- 
munity Traction Company are to be 
issued. 

Mr. Milner will represent the city, 
which will gradually acquire an equity 
in the property of the Community Trac- 
tion Company, through the issuance of 
paid-up common stock to it at the 
retirement of any of the bonds through 
the sinking fund which is made up of 
a certain portion of the income from 
railway operation. 

It is understood that officials of the 
company would welcome the addition of 
several such members of the board to 
give more public interest to the oper- 
ation of the lines and to create a larger 
degree of liaison between the company 
and the people of the community. 
Action to increase the membership may 
be proposed at a later date. 

Several more applications for ap- 
pointment to the office of street railway 
commissioner have been received by the 
street railway board of control. It is 
understood that the choice vdll be made 
in the next two weeks. 



Suspension of Service Explained 

The British Columbia Electric Rail- 
way, Vancouver, B. C, experienced a 
shutdown of four to ten minutes on 
its light and power system and twenty 
minutes on its railway system on Dec. 
20. The shutdown extended over the 
entire Vancouver district on both 
the British Columbia Electric Railway 
lines and Western Power Company 
lines, tied in together. Small boys 
throwing stones broke some insulators 
which caused the trouble. The suspen- 
sion occurred at 2 o'clock in the after- 
noon while the streets were filled with 
Christmas shoppers. The short cir- 
cuiting of high tension lines caused a 
surge on to the other circuits and re- 
sulted in the interruption. 

In order to explain the situation to 
the public the railway took space in the 
newspapers to offer a reward of $100 
for the arrest and conviction of the per- 
sons causing the damage. One of the 
advertisements follows: 

Why the Power Went Off 

The British Columbia Electric Railway 
regrets the shutdown of electric power on 
it.s and the Western Power Company's 
wliole system yesterday afternoon. 

The cause was the mischievous breaking 
of ten insulators on high-tension poles in 
North Vancouver by boys, according to the 
evidence available. 

As a result, light and power circuits were 
out four or more minutes, depending upon 
the district, and the railway lines up to 
twenty minutes. 

Such willful destruction of electrical appa- 
ratus, on which the life of the community 
depends, is punishable under the criminal 
code, because the cessation of electric cur- 
renij for a moment is liable to cause death 
(in hospitals), injury to person and loss 
and destruction of property. 

We take this opportunity to acquaint the 
public of the circumstances surrounding 
this case, in order that they may co-operate 
in safeguarding the public service and pre- 
venting any recurrence of such criminal 
interference with the sei-vice on which the 
l ommunity relies. 



Traction Board Appointed at 
Portsmouth 

A "traction board" for the informa- 
tion, advice and guidance of the city 
manager in his handling of matters 
affecting the local railway is the latest 
move on the part of the city govern- 
ment of Portsmouth, Va. 

When Gen. J. P. Jervey, U. S. A., 
went to Portsmouth as city manager a 
few months ago he was favorably im- 
pressed with the operation of the city 
utilities commission of Norfolk across 
the Elizabeth River, and the "traction 
board" jusf named is the result of his 
observation of the operations of the 
commission in Norfolk. The board ap- 
pointed by the city manager is com- 
posed of J. Davis Reed, director of 
public safety, as chairman; W. L. Davis, 
superintendent of the water depart- 
ment, and John C. Neimeyer, commis- 
sioner of the revenue of the city of 
Portsmouth, with M. E. Haugh of the 
office of the city engineer as secretary. 

It will be the duty of the board to 
study the traction situation in Ports- 
mouth, employ a competent engineer if 
deemed expedient, to make recommenda- 
tions for the betterment of the service, 
to receive and consider suggestions 
from the public, to hear complaints 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway journal 



99 



concerning service rendered and to re- 
port to the city manager its findings, 
conclusions and recommendation for 
the guidance of the city manager in his 
associations with the members of the 
City Council. 

The personnel of this "traction board" 
is of an unusually high type. The ap- 
pointment of the members by the city 
manager is heartily approved by the 
citizens. The board began to function 
on Jan. 1. 



News Notes 



To Supplant Weekly Bulletins. — Byl- 
lesby Monthly News is the name of a 
new publication issued by H. M. Byl- 
lesby & Company, Chicago, 111. This 
monthly pamphlet will contain all the 
news of the preceding month which 
appeared in the weekly bulletins. It 
will be confined to four pages. This 
publication is issued primarily for the 
information of all holders of securities 
of the companies controlled by the 
Byllesby interests. 

Offer Made to City.— The Monterey & 
Pacific Grove Street Railway has of- 
fered its properties to the city of Mon- 
terey, Cal. A written proposal in the 
form of an option gives the city the 
privilege of purchasing the road pro- 
vided the purchaser shall assume the 
outstanding indebtedness of the com- 
pany and compensate the stockholders 
for their holdings. 

Motor Buses for Suburban Traffic. — 
The City Electric Company, which op- 
erates the railway system in Albu- 
querque, N. M., has announced that 
motor bus service will be put into effect 
during this month in order to relieve 
suburban traffic. The buses will be 
operated strictly on a fixed schedule 
and will route just the same as the 
street cars. 

Lease to City Proposed. — A contract 
has been sent to the city authorities at 
Elwood, Ind., by the Union Traction 
Company, offering to rent the Ninth 
Street and Twenty-eight Street tracks 
in Elwood and to provide a car to en- 
able the city to operate to the tin plate 
and glass factories. The city has been 
without local railway service for the 
past year. 

Civic Organizations Urge Purchase of 
Railway. — Fifteen civic organizations 
in San Francisco, Cal., have written the 
Mayor within a week, according to the 
San Francisco Municipal Record of 
Dec. 23, urging action on amendment 
30, which was carried on the November 
ballot. This amendment, described in 
the Electric Railway Journal of Nov. 
6, page 983, is an enabling act which 
provides a method whereby the city 
could purchase the system of the United 
Railroads after that action is approved 



by popular vote on the plans advanced 
by the city. 

Another Motor Bus Failure. — The 
Lambeth Motor Bus Company, organ- 
ized after the failure of the London 
& Lake Erie Radial Railway to provide 
service between Lambeth and London, 
Ont., has gone into voluntary liquida- 
tion. The motor bus used was a thirty- 
two-passenger body on a 3i-ton chassis. 
In winter, however, it was frequently 
necessary to suspend the bus service 
and carry passengers in a horse-drawn 
sleigh. Fares were raised to a point 
much higher than the old radial tariffs 
and a considerable portion of Lambeth's 
population removed to London. The 
bus service was entirely too unreliable 
for them. 

Improvement in Quality of Appli- 
cants. — J. B. Hayner, superintendent of 
employment of the Los Angeles (Cal.) 
Railway, reports that for several weeks 
past there has been noticed a very great 
daily improvement in the class of ap- 
plicants. George Baker Anderson, man- 
ager of service of the company, writing 
in Two Bells, said: "The employment 
offices, once filled daily by groups of 
men, many of whom wei'e most appar- 
ently not fitted for service on the 
street cars, are now occupied by men 
numbering among them some of the 
finest specimens of humanity that one 
would care to see — men physically 
strong, alert, ambitious, and frequently 
well educated — many of them gentle- 
men in every sense of the word." 

A Plea for Public Utilities.— H. M. 
Addinsell, a member of the Public Utili- 
ties Securities Committee of the Invest- 
ment Bankers' Association, has recently 
contributed an article to the American 
Review of Reviews, entitled "Why the 
Utilities Are the People's Business." 
In this account he tells of the over- 
whelming duties and responsibilities of 
the utility agency and describes the at- 
titude of the average person toward 
public service in general. Mr. Addin- 
sell spoke along this same line in New 
London on Sept. 15, when he addressed 
the annual convention of the Associa- 
tion of Edison Illuminating Company. 
Reference was made to this speech in 
the Electric Railway Journal for 
Dec. 18. 

Mutual Aid Pays Christmas Dividend. 

— Members of the Traction & Power 
Mutual Aid Association, composed of 
employees of the Utah Light & Trac- 
tion Company, the Utah Power & Light 
Company and the Phoenix Utility Com- 
pany, Salt Lake City, Utah, recently 
held their annual meeting and elected 
the officers for the coming year. Dur- 
ing the year the association paid death 
claims amounting to $2,300, and sick- 
ness, accident and refund claims to 
members totaling $3,520. A surplus 
amounting to $4,085 was divided among 
the 615 members of the association and 
was pro rated according to length of 
membership. The employees who were 
members in good standing of the 
mutual aid association throughout the 
past year each received a Christmas 
dividend of $7.20. 



Programs of Meetings 



Iowa Engineering Society 

The annual meeting of the Iowa En- 
gineering Society will be held at the 
Chamberlain Hotel in Des Moines on 
Jan. 18-20. There will be an exhibit 
of apparatus in connection with the 
meeting. 



Conference on Highway Traffic 
Regulation 

A national conference on highway 
traffic regulation will be held at the 
Hotel Washington, Washington, D. C, 
on Monday, Jan. 10, at 10 a.m. The 
meeting is the outcome of the discus- 
sion on the proposed national traflnc 
law considered at the meeting of the 
National Traffic Officers Association at 
San Francisco last summer. 

In addition to the fifteen associations 
which met recently at Cleveland and 
issued the call for the Washington con- 
ference, representatives have been ap- 
pointed or are being appointed by such 
important interests as the American 
Association of State Highway Officials, 
Council of National Defense, Federal 
Highway Council, National Automobile 
Underwriters' Conference, National Con- 
ference of Commissioners on Uniform 
State Laws, National Highway Traffic 
Association, Society of Automotive En- 
gineers, and U. S. Chamber of Com- 
merce (attending unofficial! -'- 

S. J. Williams, secretary and chief 
engineer of the National Safety Coun- 
cil, Chicago, is assistant secretary of 
the National Conference on Highway 
Traffic Regulations. 



Indiana Public Utility Association 

Philip H. Gadsden, president of the 
American Electric Railway Association, 
will be one of the speakers at the an- 
nual meeting of the Indiana Public Util- 
ity Association in Indianapolis on Jan. 
13. The session will be the first ever 
held in all branches of the industry. 
Plans for it are being made by a 
committee headed by Hai-ry Reid, presi- 
dent of the Interstate Public Service 
Company. 

Charles L. Henry, president of the 
Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction 
Company, is president of the Indiana 
Public Utility Association. He will 
preside at all the sessions, including 
luncheon and dinner meetings in the 
Riley room of the Claypool, and a gen- 
eral session in the Assembly Hall. In 
announcing the date for the meeting 
Mr. Henry said: 

We are adopting a new idea by planning 
to have our sessions semi-public. We can- 
not, of course, hold public meetings within 
the time and space available, but we are 
asking all utility company operators who 
attend to bring with them representative 
men from their respective communities. 
We hope to have the list of guests include 
leaders in public thought from all parts of 
the State, such as newspaper editors, city 
and county officials, bankers and business 
men generally. The public utility indus- 
try is the people's business. It is part of 
our task, therefore, to accommodate our- 
selves to the public wish. On the other 
hand, we feel that the public should know 
our problems and understand our difficul- 
ties. 



100 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



Financial and Corporate 



America's Biggest Bus 
Company 

Income from Operation of Fifth Avenue 
Coach Company, New York, De- 
creased $90,581 

The annual report of the Fifth Ave- 
nue Coach Company, New York, Amer- 
ica's biggest and oldest motor-bus 
system, shows that the company is still 
getting on with its 10-cent flat fai'e 
despite large increases paid for wages 
and gasoline. The operating expenses 
per bus-mile, exclusive of taxes, rose 
from 29.03 cents in the year ended 
June 30, 1919, to 35.54 cents in the 
following year, and inclusive of taxes 
the corresponding costs were 35.05 
cents and 40.2 cents. This was offset 
partly by improvements in short-rout- 
ing and other schedule features which 
raised the operating income from 46.28 
cents to 49.50 cents — an extraordinary 
record for the last decade of this com- 
pany. However, the difference between 
revenue and total operating expenses 
per bus-mile declined from 11.23 cents 
to 9.3 cents. 

The following comparison is drawn 

fi'om the preliminary synopsis issued 

by the Public Service Commission of 

the First District of New York. 

(a) The rule of the company concerning: 
depreciation of eqiiiiiment, as filed with the 
commission, provides for a charge to ex- 
pense from Jan. 1, 1919. "equal to 9.17 
cents per bus-mile, which is estimated to 
be sufficient and necessary to cover such 
wear and tear and obsolescence and inad- 
equacy as may occur on all equipment." 
The basis includes the non-i-evenue miles 
(39,698). The amount reserved after de- 
ducting the cost of repairs comprises $186,- 
304 for depreciation of equipment, $16,686 



for buildings and $10,019 for shop tools 
and machinery. 

(b) Reported as "depreciation of tires" 
is based on the "bus-tire mileage" at the 
guaranteed tire cost per mile, credit being 
made . for tires which exceed the guaran- 
teed mileage and for scrap. 

(c) For payment of claims the company 
charges expenses (and credits reserve) at 
the I'ate of 1 cent per bus-m:le. Payments 
in current year exceeded this allowance l)y 
$40,234, which was drawn from the reserve. 

(d) Includes balance on unamortized cost 
of equipment retired during year, obsolete 
bus parts scrapped, loss on sale of se- 
curities, depreciation of vehicle equipment 
and buildings, etc., and other debits, and 
credits, such as adjustment of Federal taxes, 
bad debts collected, etc. 

The company employed as of June, 
1920, 400 conductors, 382 drivers and 
412 "others," a total of 1,194. Total 
salaries and wages were $2,049,682, an 
increase of $528,702 over the preceding 
years. During the year four persons 
were killed and forty-seven injured. 



"Save with a Smile" 

"Save with a Smile" is the name of 
a pamphlet issued by H. M. Byllesby & 
Company, Chicago, 111., as a further 
effort on the part of the company to 
promote thrift and economy. In this 
booklet of fifteen pages are contained 
quotations of Abraham Lincoln, Ben- 
jamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and 
others on the principles of saving and 
accumulating money. An interesting- 
account on the subject of investment is 
given accompanied by a chart which 
shows the minimum amount of money 
one can possess at the end of one to 
twenty-five years if a certain amount 
of income is saved and invested to yield 
7 per cent. The appeal is to "Save 
With a Smile." 



OPERATIVE STATISTICS OF FIFTH AVENUE COACH COMPANY 



Number of revenue buees 

Round trips made during tlie year 

Revenue bus-hours (including 6,084 special) 

Revenue bus-miles (active 8,592,277; idle, 166,216; private hire, 37,702). 
Number passengers carried at \0 cents 



1920 

271 
569,132 
1,105,935 
8,796,195 
42,552,709 



1919 

279 
513.416 
1,01 1,939 
8,087,127 
36,488,447 



1920 

Per Bus-Mile 
(Cents) 



1919 
Per Bus-Mile 



Total 



(Cent?) 



Total 



Receipt from fares 

Rent from livery service 

.Advertising and miscellaneous 

Total revenue from operation 

Maintenance in) : 
Superintendence, ($75,376; stiop expenses, $27,006) 

Repairs (bus bodies and chassis, $383,276) 

Tires (b) 

Depreciation (reserved) 

Total maintenance 

Conducting transportation 

Accidents and damages (c) 

Traffic Advertising 

General and miscellaneous 



Total operating e.Npenses. 
Taxes 



Total revenue deductions. 
Income from operations 



Non-operating income (rent, $26,500, interest $23,948) 

Gross income applicable to corporate and lapsed properties. 
Income deductions (interest, $8,91 7 and rent) 

Net income for year 

■Surplus adjustments — net deduction (<i) 



48 


37 


$4,255,271 


45 


12 


$3,648,845 





33 


28,710 





66 


53,659 


0. 


80 


69,970 





50 


40,194 


49 


50 


$4,353,950 


46 


28 


$3,742,697 


1 


17 


J 102,383 





77 


$b2 421 


4 


61 


406,239 


3 


71 


299,626 





98 


86,065 





95 


76,596 


2 


42 


213,008 


1 


02 


82,503 


9 


18 


$807,694 


6 


45 


$521,146 


23 


23 


$2,043,894 


19 


68 


$1,591,640 


1 


35 


118,656 


1 


28 


103,682 





16 


13,908 





11 


8,767 


1 


62 


142,340 


1 


62 


122,360 


35 


54 


$3,126,493 


29 


03 


$2,347,594 


4 


66 


409,726 


6 


02 


486,790 


40 


20 


$3,536,218 


35 


05 


$2,834,384 


9 


30 


$817,732 


II 


23 


$908,313 








$50,448 


$41,408 



$949,721 
105,763 

$843,959 
228,061 



Net increase in corporate surplus. 



$868,180 
85,052 

$783,128 
144,322 



$638,806 $615,898 



Receiver for Maumee Line 

Appointment Made Following Investi- 
gation of Committee Repre- 
senting Bondholders 

Following an investigation by the 
bondholders' committee of the affairs 
of the Maumee Valley Railways & 
Light Company, Raleigh D. Mills, assist- 
ant cashier of the Home Savings 
Bank, Toledo, was made receiver for 
that electric railway by Judge Brough 
in Common Pleas Court at Toledo, Ohio, 
during the week ended Jan. 1. 

Verdict of $1,675,000 Sought 

A verdict of $1,675,000 is also sought 
against the Toledo Railways & Light 
Company and other stockholders of the 
railroad. It is charged that there are 
unpaid stock subscriptions and that 
stockholders have double liability in 
some cases. 

The suit was filed in the name of 
Ella Van Deusen, a creditor of the com- 
pany. The case goes back into the his- 
tory connected with the consolidation of 
the old Toledo & Maumee Railway and 
the Toledo, Waterville & Southern Rail- 
way when the two lines, capitalized 
at less than $325,000, were merged 
into a company with a capitalization of 
51,000,000. 

Attorneys Barton Smith and Rufus 
H. Baker, who are fighting the Toledo 
Railways & Light Company, in the 
present case, were attorney and presi- 
dent respectively of the company which 
brought about the consolidation in 1902. 
They repudiate the legal steps taken by 
their own board at that time. 

The claim of the plaintiff in the 
action is based upon the first mortgage 
bonds of the old Toledo & Maumee Rail- 
way, of which there are $300,000 out- 
standing. They became due and pay- 
able on March 1, 1920, but were not 
met at that time. 

A bondholders' committee was 
formed with Marion M. Miller, presi- 
dent of the Home Savings Bank, To- 
ledo, as chairman. C. L. Reynolds, of 
the First National Bank; J. D. Biggers, 
of the Owens Bottle Company; Fred- 
erick W. Stevens, Ann Arbor, Mich.; 
and Geoi-ge B. Storer, deceased, late of 
the Standard Steel Tube Company, were 
appointed members of the committee. 

Rolling Stock Rented 

The line owns only three cars. The 
rest are rented from the Toledo Rail- 
ways & Light Company at $5 each a 
day. Power is secured from the Toledo 
Railways & Light Company, and the 
Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern 
Traction Company. 

Although higher rates and fares were 
put into effect nearly a year ago the 
Toledo Railways & Light Company has 
lost money on the operation of the road 
for that time. 

The road connects Toledo, Maumee 
and Perrysburg. Included in the sys- 
tem are 23.21 miles of track. Frank R. 
Coates, president of the Toledo Rail- 
ways & Light Company, is president 
of the Maumee Valley Railways & 
Light Company. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



101 



$207,617,530 in Maturities 

Sixty-eight per Cent of Grand Total of $305,110,350 of Utility 
Maturities in 1921 Fall to Electric Railways 



( 



Public utility securities falling- due for payment during 1921 aggregate $305,- 
110,350 against $196,296,800 in 1920 and $261,887,600 in 1919, according to the 
Wall Street Jdurval. This unusually large amount is due in a great measure 
to the fact that many issues maturing in 1920 were extended because of the 
tight money market and unfavorable conditions for financing public utility 
corporations. Of the grand total for all the utilities the amount maturing in 
the electric railway field is $207,617,530. 



THE heaviest maturities in the 
railway fie^d are in New York 
City. Among- these issues are 
Interborough Rapid Transit three-year 
7 per cent notes amounting to $39,199,- 
000, due Sept. 1, 1921, Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit three-year 7 per cent notes for 
$57,230,000, due July 1, and Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company $18,000,000 
two-year 6 per cent receivers' certifi- 
cates, due Aug. 1, 1921. 

Below is given in detail as compiled 
by Dow, Jones & Company, the various 
electric railway issues of more than 
$200,000 maturing in 1921 in the order 
of their date: 



JaniLdfii 

East St. L ik. Suburban conv 7 

Little Rock Ry. & E, l-yr. notes. . 7 

Mid. West Util. ser. D notes 6 

Pueblo Traction & Ltg. 1st 5 

Rockland, Thorn. & Camd. St. Ry 4 

Peoples Railroad 1st 5 

Dallas Electric 5-yr. notes 6 

Pensaeola Electric 2-yT. notes 7 

Oklahoma, Railway sec. notes. , , . 7 

Decatur Trac. & Elec 1st 5 

Bristol County St. Ry. 1st 5 

Winnipeg Elec. Ry. 2-yr. notes.. . . 6 

Total 

Fe' ruary 

St. Louis & Suburban Ry. cons. . . 5 

Un. Rys. & Elec. of Bait., notes.. . 5 

United Ry. Investm't 4-yr. notes . 5 

Wis.-Minn. Lt. & P. l-yr, notes.. . 7 

Fitchbarg & L. St. Ry. cons 4.1 

Connecticut Co. prov. debents. ... 5 



Total. 



March 

Rhode Island Co. 5-yr. notes 5 

.•\mer. Gas. & Elec. 3-yr. notes. ... 6 

Public Service of Nor., 111., deb, . , 6 

Oklahoma Ry. Series F notes 8 

Com'nw'th Pub. Ser. 2-yr. notes... 6 

Charles City West'n Ry. notes. ... 7 



Total. 



A pril 

Wilkes Barre & Wyo. V. Trac. 1st. 5 

Birmingham R. L. & P. ext. notes 6 

Interurban Railway 1st 5 

Manchester Trac, Lt. & P., 1st. . . 5 

Everett Railway & Electric 1st 5 

Portland Light & Power 1st 4^ 

Rapid Tr. St. Ry., Newark 1st 5 

Total 

May 

Evansville Electric Ry. 1st 4 

Tol., Bowl. Green & So. Trac. 1st. 5 

Detroit & N'western Ry. 1st A] 

Columbus, Del, & Marion R.R. 1st 5 

West End Street Ry. 1st 5 

Kansas Cit.v Rys. 3-yr. A notes. . . 7 

Monongahela V'al.Trac. l-yr. notes 7 

Total 

June 

Puget Sd. T., Lt. & Pr. 3-yr notes 7 

Ohio Cities Gas ser. cv. notes 7 

Chattanooga Ry. & Lt. l-yr. notes 6 

Chi., No. Shore & Milw. R.R. nts, 7 



Total. 



./ uly 

Brooklyn Rap. Transit 3-yr. notes.. 7 

Consolidated Rv, & Power 1st 5 

Hartford & Springfield St. Ry. 1st. 5 

Dover, Somer. & Roch. St. Ry 5 

Virginia Rwy. & Power notes 6 



Total. 



$2,1 16,000 
1,000,000 
1,000,000 
990,000 
800,000 
750,000 
750,000 
500,000 
450,000 
212,000 
200,000 
750,000 

$9,518,000 



2,000,000 
1,222,000 
1,000,000 
600,000 
300,000 
250,000 

$5,372,000 



1,662,000 
1,390,000 
1,000,000 
375,000 
300,000 
240,000 

$4,697,000 



$1,500,000 
1.200,000 
1,160,000 
914,000 
825,000 
500,000 
500,000 

$6,599,000 



$1,200,000 
1,003,500 
855,000 
289,000 
225,000 
7,750,000 
2,000,000 

$13,322,500 



$14,601,000 
2,000,000 
750,000 
260,000 

$17,611,000 



$57,230,000 
1,401,000 
600,000 
300,000 
200,000 

$59,731,000 



Au list 

B. R. T. 2-yr. receiver's ctfs 6 

.4m. Power & Lt. 10-yr. notes 6 

Lindell Railway extended 1st 4,; 

Detroit & Flint Railway cons 5 

Salt Luke & Utali R.R. notes 7 

Iowa Ry, & Light 2-yr. notes 6 



Total 

Septern' er 

Interborough R, T. 3-yr. notes. , 
Elgin, Aurora & Sou. Trac. cons. 
Aurora, Elgin & C. 3-yr. notes. , 
Mid. West Util. Series E notes. . 
Standard Gas & E. 3-yr. notes. , 
South Car. Lt., P. & Rys. notes. 



Total. 



Oct '' er 

( )ttumwa Traction & Light 1st. , , . 
Hager.stown & Fr. Ry. l-yr. notes. 



Total 

November 

Western Ohio Railway 1st 5 

Columbus, B. L, & N. Traction, , 5 

Trumbull Public .Service notes 7 

Seattle Railway I. st 5 

Standard Gas & E. 2-yr. notes 7 



Total 

December 

Toledo Tr., L. & P. 2-yr. notes 7 

Portland Ry.. L. & P. ser. notes. , , 7 

Wheeling Traction p, m. notes 7 

.Mass. N. E. St. Ry. l-yr. notes 8 

Tf.tal 



$18,000,000 
2,200,000 
1,500,000 
1,400,000 
562,500 
731,500 

$24,394,000 



$39,199,000 
1,546,000 
1,219,000 
800,000 
710,000 
650,000 

$44,124,000 



262,500 
1,050,000 

$1,312,500 



$2,500,000 
1,243,000 
1,200,000 
335,000 
4,349,000 

$9,627,000 



$10,000,000 
500,000 
309,530 
230,000 



$11, 039,530 



Public utihty bonds and notes maturing in: 



.Tanuary . 
February. . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

.Se tember. 
October. . . . 
November. 
December. . 



Total electric railway maturities. . . 
Grand total public utihty issues 



maturing in 1921. 



$9,518,000 
5,372,000 
4,967,000 
6,599,000 
13.322,500 
17,61 1.000 
59,731,000 
24.394,000 
44,124,000 
1,312,500 
9,627,000 
1 1,039,530 

$207,617,530 

$305. no, 350 



Receivers Appointed for the 
Toledo & Western Railroad 

Harry A. Dunn, assistant trust officer 
of the Ohio Savings Bank & Trust Com- 
pany, Toledo, and J. Franklin Johnson 
have been named receivers of the 
Toledo & Western Railroad, Toledo, 
Ohio, by Federal Judge John M. Killits, 
on complaint of Henry L. Doherty & 
Company. 

The bill of complaint charged that 
the interurban owed $324,902 to the 
Doherty interests. A part of this 
amount was a loan from the Toledo 
Railways & Light Company, and the 
remainder from Henry L. Doherty & 
Company, direct. It was also alleged 
that many suits were pending in court 
against the company. 

The main line of the company runs 
west from Toledo to Pioneer and with 
a branch to Adrian, Mich. The prin- 
cipal business of the company is 
handling freight. Many manufacturing 



plants would be deprived of facilities 
if service were stopped and the line 
f-bandoned. 

There are $2,500,000 of bonds out- 
standing against the property. Interest 
on these bonds is in default. 

During the six months' period the 
receivers are instructed to keep the line 
in operation, marshal the liens, and test 
the condition of the road. After that 
period the property may be turned 
over to the bondholders, the principal 
creditors, or junked. 

J. Franklin Johnson, one of the re- 
ceivers, has been general manager of 
the road for the last eight months. 



St. Louis Valuation Between 
$50,000,000 and $60,000,000 

Word reached St. Louis, Mo., on Jan. 
4 that the valuation of all the physical 
properties of the United Railways, St. 
Louis, including subsidiary and county 
lines, has been fixed by the Missouri 
Public Service Commission's experts at 
a figure between $50,000,000 and $60,- 
000,000. 

The valuation figures were arrived at 
after nearly two years' work by engi- 
neers of the commission, going over all 
the lines in St. Louis and verifying the 
findings from the company's books. 
The results are now being tabulated, 
but will probably not be ready to give 
out in detail for several weeks. 

The fixing of the valuation at be- 
tween $50,000,000 and $60,000,000 ends 
all chance of reduction of fare in St. 
Louis. The present 7-cent fare is based 
on an arbitrary valuation of $50,000,- 
000 fixed by the commission several 
months ago. The valuation arrived at 
by the commission is based on the ac- 
tual cost of property and not on its 
present or replacement value. 



Purchase Deal Approved by 
Toronto Ratepayers 

By a vote of 28,609 to 1,864, the rate- 
payers of Toronto, Ont., decided in 
favor of the purchase by the Hydro 
Commission of the Toronto and Niagara 
power and radial railway interests con- 
trolled by Sir William MacKenzie. De- 
tails of this purchase, known locally 
as the "$32,000,000 cleanup deal," were 
published in the Electrio Railway 
Journal for Dec. 11, page 1209. 

The necessary agreements are now 
being prepared and it is hoped to have 
them ready for execution upon the r-e- 
turn of Sir Adam Beck from England, 
on Jan. 21. Application will then be 
made to the Ontario Legislatui-e for the 
necessary legislation validating the va- 
rious agreements. The negotiations 
were in progress for a period of more 
than two years. 

On Jan. 1 the ratepayers of Guelph, 
Ont., by a majority of 680 voted in 
favor of turning over to the Hydro- 
Electric Power Commission the opera- 
tion and management of the municipal 
electric railway system. The commis- 
sion will take possession on April 1 
next. 



102 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



Assessed Valuations Reduced 
Slightly 

The assessed valuations of electric 
railways in the State of Utah, for the 
year 1920, have been announced. Of 
the intercounty electric railways the 
Utah Lig:ht & Traction Company has 
the largest assessed valuation per mile, 
exceeding in this respect some of the 
big steam lines. The board of equal- 
ization values it at $49,093 per mile, a 
reduction from $49,445 a year ago. The 
total valuation of the company's sys- 
tem is $4,.570,590, compared with 
$4,619,210 a year ago. 

Of the interurbans, the Bamberger 
Electric has by far the highest valu- 
ation per mile, $42,492, compared with 
$40,124 a year ago. The total figures 
are $1,567,554, compared with $1,476,- 
185 a year ago. The Salt Lake & Utah 
is valued at $30,349 a mile for its main 
line, and $24,339 a mile for its branch, 
the figures comparing with $29,973 and 
$23,654 a year ago. The total assessed 
valuation is $2,225,470 this year and 
$2,194,425. The Utah-Idaho Central is 
valued at $23,841 a mile and pays taxes 
on $2,560,070, the figures comparing 
with $21,179 a mile in 1919, and a total 
valuation of $2,863,312. 



Cincinnati Traction Would Issue 
$3,750,000 of Notes 

Approval of an issue of $3,750,000 of 
7 per cent three-year collateral trust 
gold bonds is sought in a communica- 
tion from the officers of the Cincinnati 
(Ohio) Traction Company to W. C. 
Culkins, Director of Street Railroads. 

Approval of Mr. Culkins is required 
under the terms of the amended fran- 
chise under which the company is 
operating. The approval of the State 
Public Utilities Commission also must 
be obtained before the securities can be 
marketed. 

The letter explains that of the amount 
sought $2,250,000 is to be issued as of 
Jan. 1, 1920, and is to replace tempo- 
rary notes issued as of that date. The 
remaining $992,000 is intended for im 
provements to be undertaken next year. 
These will include the extension of the 
Warsaw Avenue line to Covedale, re- 
modeling carhouses, relaying of track 
on streets to be improved by the city, 
and other bettei-ments to the lines of 
the Cincinnati Traction Company. 



Trust Company. The interest on these 
notes has been defaulted since March 
1, 1919. 

After the Rhode Island Company 
went into the hands of receivers the 
collateral for the notes was deposited 
with the United Traction stockholders' 
committee by permission of the Superior 
Court, to be held subject to the develop- 
ments of a reorganization. If the trac- 
tion properties are taken over by the 
United Electric Railways under the 
terms of the existing reorganization 
agreement, each $1,000 note will be se- 
cured by approximately 10 1-3 shares 
of stock of the United Electric 
Railway. 



Traction Notes Fetch Ten Cents 
on the Dollar 

Five per cent five-year collateral 
trust notes of the Rhode Island Com- 
pany, Providence, R. I., to the face 
value of $72,000, were sold on Dec. 29 
by G. L. & H. J. Gross at a public auc- 
tion for $7,200, or 10 cents on the dollar. 
The purchaser was Benjamin R. Jack- 
son, for the Providence Banking Com- 
pany. 

The notes were part of an issue of 
$1,662,000 issued by the Rhode Island 
Company, March 1, 1916, against 20,- 
783 shares of United Traction & Elec- 
tric Company stock deposited under a 



3,500,000 Fewer Passengers in 
Philadelphia at 7-Cent Fare 

The total number of riders on Phil- 
adelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company 
cars last month, with the 7-cent fare 
in effect, was 3,500,000 less than the 
number in December, 1919, at the 5- 
cent rate, according to W. C. Dunbar, 
vice-president of the company. 

Mr. Dunbar also says that the sale 
of tickets at four for a quarter made 
the company's revenue last month ex- 
ceed that of December, 1919, by $657,- 
.589. 



Seven per Cent Increase in Oper- 
ating Income of Tubes 

The Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, 
under federal operation, had a remark- 
able increase in net income. In 1918 
the net income was in fact a deficit of 
more than $40,000, while in 1919 the 
same item was $122,300, an increase 
over 1918 of 400 per cent. The total 
railway revenue for 1919 increased 
$1,052,296 or 20.7 per cent over 1918. 

At the same time, the total operating 
expenses increased $868,545 or 33.6 per 
cent. Net operating revenue for 1919 
was $2,680,628, an increase of $183,751 
or 7.4 per cent. The remaining items, 
such as taxes, non-operating income 
and deductions, were very nearly the 
same during the two years so that the 
increase in net income was $163,122, 
making a net income for 1919 of $122,- 
300, since 1918 was a deficit. 

With only 20 miles of single track, 
the number of revenue car miles 
amounted to more than 9,275,000. The 
number of revenue passengers carried 
was 94,102,461. The operating ratio 
changed from 50.8 in 1918 to 56.3 in 
1919, an increase of 5.5 per cent in one 
year. 

The company operates under the 
Hudson River from both uptown and 
downtown New York to New Jersey. 



INCOME STATEMENT— HliDSON & MANHATTAN RAILROAD 

Year Ended Dec. 31: 1919 1918 

Revenue from transportation $5,747,298 $4,715,120 

Revenue from other railway operations 383,420 363,302 

Total railway revenue $6,130,718 $5,078,422 

Maintenance of way and structure 518,821 392,986 

Maintenance of equipment 433,851 266,574 

Power 818,750 729,075 

Transportation 1,468,173 995,490 

Traffic 715 

General miscellaneous .• 210,495 196,705 

Total railway operating expenses $3,450,090 $2,581,545 

Net operating revenue $2,680,628 $2,496,877 

Taxes assignable to railway operations 369,278 342,767 

Operating income $2,311,350 $2,154,110 

Net income from Hudson Terminal building 781,738 795,179 

Net income from other real estate 30,487 20,840 

Total operating income $3,123,575 $2,970,129 

Non-operating income 101,252 96,861 

Gross income $3,224,827 $3,066,990 

Deductions from gross income: 

Interest on car purchase agreements $9,033 $17,467 

Interest on real estate mortgages 43,215 43,795 

Rental tracks, yards and terminals 62,050 79,480 

Amortization of debt discount and expense 39,795 39,795 

Miscellaneous deductions 139,899 98,740 

Bond interest on N. Y. and J. 5's, first mortgage 4^'s, and first 

Uen and refunding 5's , 2,168,535 2,168,535 

Appropriation to reserve for contingencies 640,000 660,000 

Total deductions from gross income $3,102,527 $3,107,812 

Net income transferred to profit and loss $122,300 *$40,822 

* Deficit 

STATISTICAL INFORMATION— HUD.SON & MANHATTAN RAILROAD 

Year Ended Dec. 31: 1919 1918 

MUes of road 8.5 8.5 

Miles of single track 20.028 18.757 

Number of revenue car-miles operated 9,275,286 8,510,430 

Number of passengers carried 94,102,461 79,964,372 

Statistics per car-mile: 

Passenger revenue (cents) 62 .0 55 .4 

Gross railroad operating revenue (cents) 66.1 59.7 

Operating expenses (cents) 37.2 30.3 

Net operating revenue (cents) 28 . 9 29.3 

Number of passengers 10.15 9.4 

Car-miles per revenue passenger 0.098 0.106 

Statistics per mile of road: 

Passenger revenue $676,153 $554,720 

Operating expenses $405,893 $303,711 

Net railroad operating revenue $315,368 $293,750 

Number of passengers 1 1,070,877 9,407,573 

Passenger revenue per passenger (cents) 6.1 5.9 

Ratio of operating expenses to total operating revenues, per cent. 56.27 50.83 

Ratio of operating expenses and taxe? to total operating revenues, 

percent 62,30 57.58 



Percentage 
Change 
21 .9 
5.5 

20.7 
32.0 
62.8 
12.3 
47,5 

7 

33 6 

7 4 

7,7 

7 3 

— 1.7 
46.3 

5.2 
4.5 

5.1 

—48.3 

— 1.3 
—21 .9 

4i .7 



3.0 
2 
400.0 



Percentage 
Change 

'(>'.k 
9.0 
17 7 

11.8 
10.8 
22.6 

— 1.5 
8.0 

— 7.5 

21.9 

33.6 
7.4 

17.7 
4.1 
5.44 

4.72 



Jmm'iy 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



103 



Municipal Ownership Voted Down 

On Jan. 3 the property owners of 
Ottawa, Ont., voted on a by-law to pur- 
chase the Ottawa Electric Railway at 
the expiration of its franchise in Au- 
gust, 1923. The proposition was de- 
feated by a vote of nearly two to one. 
The company has had a proposal of 
service-at-cost before the city for the 
past year, but because of the opinion 
held by the Councillors that the people 
desired municipal ownership it has not 
yet been seriously considered. Now 
that the wishes of the citizens as to 
municipal ownership have been defi-' 
nitely expressed it is probable that a 
new contract based on a flexible fare 
may result. 



Financial 
News Notes 

Increase for Purchase Purposes Au- 
thorized. — The Chicago & Joliet Elec- 
tric Railway, Joliet, 111., has been au- 
thorized to issue $1,350,000 of preferred 
stock and $5,000,000 of bonds by the 
Illinois Public Utility Commission. The 
company has also 'been authorized to 
purchase the Chicago & Desplaines Val- 
ley Electric Company. 

Syracuse Suburban Suspends. — The 

Syracuse & Suburban Electric Railroad 
suspended operations on Jan. 1. The 
road runs from Syracuse, to Fayette- 
ville and Manlius. It has been op- 
erating at a loss for some time. Pas- 
sengers were taken care of by means of 
a temporary motor bus service and with 
the help of the New York Central. 

$983,000 Loss by Pacific Electric— 
The Pacific Electric Railway, Los An- 
geles, Gal., has announced that its 
losses for the year ended Dec. 31, 1920, 
will be approximately $983,000. The 
company states that the increase in its 
freight and passenger rates as recently 
granted have not been effective long 
enough to show definite gains, but that 
it is anticipated that with these in- 
creased rates operative during the year 
1921 the lines will show some profits 
during this year. 

Thirty Per Cent Reduction in Force 
at Lowell. — At a brief meeting of the 
Home Rule committee in Lowell, Mass., 
recently, Manager Thomas Lees of the 
local division of the Eastern Massa- 
chusetts Street Railway stated that 
about 30 per cent of the operators of 
cars in the city at the present time 
were laid off because of the general in- 
dustrial depression. He furthermore 
said that the revenue of the district 
for the month of December would be 
under what was taken in in November, 
and that November was under October. 

A Conspectus of Indexes. — Albert S. 
Richey, electric railway engineer, Wor- 
cester, Mass., has published on a card 



of pocket size twelve of the standard 
index numbers, such as Bradstreet 
(wholesale commodities) Dun, U. S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics (retail food), 
street railway wages, copper, steel 
rails, U. S. bank clearances, etc. The 
figures are grouped in five columns 
showing respectively 1913 average, peak 
for the current year, year ago, month 
ago, and current. An explanation on 
the back of the card tells the way in 
which these figures are compiled. It 
is Professor Richey's expectation to 
publish these figures each month. 

Indiana Interurban Leased. — The Gary 
& Valparaiso Railway, owning and 
operating 12 miles of interurban rail- 
way between Valparaiso and Chester- 
ton in Porter County, Ind., has recently 
leased for twenty years the interurban 
railway of the Gary Connecting Rail- 
road extending from Woodville Junc- 
tion in Porter County west 16 miles to 
Broadway in Gary, Ind. At Woodville 
Junction the leased railway connects 
with the Gary & Valparaiso Railway, 
and at Broadway in Gary with the 
Gary Street Railway. Under the lease, 
the Gary & Valparaiso Railway will 
operate and maintain the entire 16 
miles of interurban railway, paying a 
rental to the Gary Connecting Railroad. 

Employees Buy Stock. — The cam- 
paign started by the Rutland Railway, 
Light & Power Company, Rutland, Vt., 
on Oct. 4 for the sale of its 7 per cent 
cumulative preferred stock to consum- 
ers and employees has just closed. This 
sale presented the first opportunity in 
the history of the company for the 
acquisition of that company's stock by 
consumers and company employees. Ths 
sale was conducted entirely by an or- 
ganization composed of approximately 
125 of the latter. During the period 
the campaign was in force a total num- 
ber of 422 shares were sold, 233 shares 
being for cash and 189 on a monthly 
saving investment plan. 

Power Commission Reports Increase 
in Railway Earnings. — A statement 
issued by the Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario respecting the 
Windsor and Essex County electric rail- 
ways, which were taken over from the 
Detroit United Railway, claims that 
during the first seven months of oper- 
ation by the commission wage advances 
were granted to employees and surplus 
revenue increased over the previous cor- 
responding period. The revenue of the 
corresponding seven months of 1918 
was $194,123; 1919, $225,268; and 1920, 
$296,373. Extra coal costs in an emer- 
gency steam plant, operated during a 
Niagara power shortage, amounted to 
$27,000, while wages were increased 25 
per cent at the outset and later an ad- 
ditional 10 per cent. After providing 
$49,986 for interest and $11,346 for the 
sinking fund, the net surplus was $22,- 
335. 

$2,134,000 of Notes Offered.— Halsey, 
Stuart & Company and A. B. Leach & 
Company, Inc., New York, N. Y., are 
offering for subscription at 95.25 and 
interest, yielding about 81 per cent, 
$2,134,000 of twenty-year 8 per cent 



secured gold notes. Series "B." The 
Middle West Utilities Company through 
its subsidiary companies operates in 
the following fifteen states: Illinois, 
Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, 
Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, 
New York, Oklahoma, Tennessee, 
Texas, Vermont, Virginia and Wiscon- 
sin. The company's subsidiaries serve 
496 communities, having a combined 
estimated population of 1,317,200. On 
Oct. 31, 1920, electric customers num- 
bered 221,881, gas 54,784, water 24,778, 
a total of 301,443 customers for these 
services alone. Several railway lines 
are included in the properties that are 
controlled. 

New Bedford Company Takes Over 
Line. — The trustees of the Eastern 
Massachusetts Street Railway, Boston, 
Mass., have voted to recommend to the 
directors a sale of the so-called Sassa- 
quin line to the Union Street Railway, 
New Bedford, for a price agreed upon. 
The line runs between Lunds Corner 
and the Freetovra line. It will take 
some time to obtain favorable action on 
the part of various interests involved 
and to coinplete the details of the con- 
veyance. Meanwhile, the Union Street 
Railway company will operate the line 
by permission of the Eastern Massa- 
chusetts Street Railway. H. H. Crapo, 
president of the Union Street Railway, 
explains: "If and when the conveyance 
is completed the Union company will 
commence to rehabilitate the property 
and to operate the line in substantially 
the same way it has been operated dur- 
ing the past year. The Union company 
has taken on this burden of service 
without anticipation of present profit 
and with the knowledge that the exist- 
ing rates of fare are barely sufficient 
to cover the operating expenses." 

Committee Reports Against Purchase 
Offer.— A special committee appointed' 
to consider the offer of purchase made 
by the Western Pacific Railroad to the 
Sacramento (Cal.) Northern Railway- 
has recommended against the stockhold- 
ers of the electric line accepting the 
offer. Miles Standish headed the com- 
mittee of inquiry. He reported that 
"the Western Pacific price is inadequate 
and we are unable to get any better 
offer." The committee feels that by 
careful management the road will pay 
interest on its Class A, B, C and D 
bonds and also will provide sufficient 
funds for improvement and betterment. 
The Sacramento Northern Railway has 
$5,205,497 of 5 per cent bonds outstand- 
ing, in four classifications, and $4,474,- 
607 in stock outstanding. The A and B 
bonds are paying interest, but the C 
bonds will not pay interest until July 
1, 1922, and the D bonds .July 1, 1927. 
Maturity on all bonds is twenty years 
from issue, which was 1917. The West- 
ern Pacific, it was explained, proposed 
to issue as against these bonds, at 80 
per cent of their par value, paying 5 
per cent, first mortgage bonds, inatur- 
ing March 1, 1946. To absorb the stock 
the Western Pacific proposed a payment 
of $26.50 a share on first preferred. 
$12.50 on second preferred and $5 oi:i 
common, the par value being $100. 



104 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



Traffic and Transportation 



Further Relief Denied 

Commission Refuses to Authorize 
Straight 8-Cent Fare in District of 
Columbia — Mr. Ham Dissatisfied 

An application of the Washington 
Railway & Electric Company, Wash- 
ington, D. C, for an increase in fare 
to 8 cents straight has been denied by 
the Public Utilities Commission of the 
District of Columbia. The commission 
■directs the Washington Railway & 
Electric Company and the Capital Trac- 
tion Company to continue the pi'esent 
rate of 8 cents cash, or four fare tokens 
for 30 cents. That rate is to prevail 
until April 1 next. In addition, the 
price of intercompany transfers has 
been reduced from 2 cents to 1 cent. 

Tax Reform Urged 

Owing to the inequality of earning 
power between the two local railway 
companies a rate of fare which will 
allow the Washington Railway & Elec- 
tric Company a retui'n of 6 per cent on 
its valuation makes possible a consid- 
erably higher return to the Capital 
Traction Company. The new order of 
the commission is to apply until April 1 
only, in the hope that before that date 
Congress will have enacted the pro- 
posed law relieving the companies of 
the 4 per cent tax on gross earnings 
and substituting a tax on net revenue 
in excess of 6 per cent on the value 
of the property. Referring to the com- 
panies' operations for the past six 
months the commission says: 

Tlie evidence presented by the petitioners 
at these hearings shows that in the six 
months' pei'iod that has elapsed since the 
present rate ot fare was tlxed by the commis- 
sion, beginning .May 1, 1920, the net income 
of the companies available for return 
amounted to $510.4S;t, which amount has 
been verified by the commission's account- 
ants. Included in the operation of the com- 
panies for this period, howevei', are several 
items of major renewals and i-eplacements 
of tracks, totaling $22.5.696 charged to op- 
erating expenses, approximately one-third 
of which, the companies state, is later to 
be transferred to capital accounts, repre- 
senting improvement and betterment to 
track and roadway. For the purpose of this 
discussion one-third of this amount should 
be added to the net income of the com- 
panies during the past six months. 

The commission takes issue with the 
interpretation being placed by the two 
companies of the rules laid down by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission in the 
manner of handling renewals and re- 
placements of track. On this point its 
order says: 

The testimony of representatives of both 
the Washington Railway & Electric Com- 
pany and the Capital Traction Company 
shows that they are attempting to follow 
the rules laid down by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission in the manner of treat- 
ing renewals and replacements of track 
and roadway. These two companies, how- 
ever, place different Interpretations on those 
rules, the former apparently capitalizing 
less than the proper amount, while the 
latter is capitalizing more than the proper 
amount. It is the intention of the com- 
mission to formulate definite rules to govern 
such cases, but it is not prepared at this 
time to announce the proper procedure. 



It also appears from the evidence that 
deductions have been made by the peti- 
foners since .July 1, 1920, of approximately 
$3,7.50 per month for tlie purpose of paying 
the federal income tax. Several of the 
state public utility commissions have re- 
cently questioned the propriety of charging 
the federal income tax as a part of operat- 
ing expenses. This commission concurs in 
the opinion that the federal income tax 
law contemplates that the burden shall be 
imposed on the corporation and paid out 
of its net pi-oflts and not passed on to the 
public. 

William F, Ham, president of the 
Washington Railway & Electric Com- 
pany, expressed disappointment at the 
decision of the Public Utilities Com- 
mission. The order, he said, would re- 
duce the rate of return to a point where 
no utility can prosper and which is 
unfair to those who have invested in 
the securities of the company. Mr. Ham 
says that it will make it practically 
impossible to attract new capital for 
necessary extensions and betterments. 
He called attention to the fact that the 
reduction in the price of inter-company 
transfers, of itself, means a loss of 
$18,000 a year. He regards the deci- 
sion, however, as bringing nearer the 
merger of the capital's two street rail- 
way systems. 

The commission points out that recent 
purchases of coal have been made at 
a price only 72 cents a ton in advance 
of the contract price. 



Court Holds Iowa "Two-Cent" 
Law Confiscatory 

Judge Martin J. Wade of the United 
States District Court this week handed 
down a decision branding the Iowa 2- 
cent fare law as confiscatory and there- 
fore in contravention of the Federal 
Constitution. His ruling came upon 
action brought by five electric railways 
operating within the State. 

The plaintiffs in the case were the 
Mason City & Clear Lake Railroad, the 
Cedar Rapids & Marion Railroad, the 
Clinton, Davenport & Muscatine Rail- 
road, the Iowa Railway & Light Com- 
pany and the Southern Iowa Utilities 
Company. In 1918 these companies in- 
stituted an action against the Iowa 
Railroad Commission and the Attomey- 
General of the State and were granted 
a temporary injunction. During the 
war period their lines were not taken 
over by the government and for a time 
were compelled to operate in accord- 
ance with the Iowa law. 

F. F. Faville, recently elected to the 
Supreme Court of Iowa, was appointed 
a special master in chancery to con- 
sider the case. His recommendations 
were the basis for Judge Wade's ruling. 
Judge Wade retains jurisdiction in the 
action, with full power to modify or 
dissolve the injunction at any future 
date upon showing by the Railroad 
Commission that the 2-cent fare law 
has ceased to be confiscatory. 



Birmingham Rates Effective 

Seven-cent Fare Placed in Operation — 
Commission Commends Receiver 
for Improving Service 

A formal order of the Alabama Pub- 
lic Service Commission granting the 
Birmingham Railway, Light & Power 
Company the right to charge a 7-cent 
fare in Birmingham and on its subur- 
ban lines was announced on Dec. 29. 
The commission retains jurisdiction of 
the case and recites that the granting 
of the 7-cent fare is without prejudice 
to any other rates which may be fixed 
by the commission later, when reports 
of the operations of the company, as 
required by the order, are received. The 
order includes the lines of the Birming- 
ham-Tidewater Railway and the Bir- 
mingham-Edgewood Electric Railway, 
both of which are owned by the Bir- 
mingham Railway, Light & Power Com- 
pany. The new rates took effect Jan. 1. 

In its order the commission declares 
that it will give careful consideration 
to any agreement for a reorganization 
of the Birmingham Railway, Light & 
Power Company which may be made 
between the receiver and officials of the 
company and the city officials of Bir- 
mingham. The order also requires the 
continuation of the sale of school tick- 
ets and family ticket books on certain 
01 cue longer lines. 

Quality of Service Commended 

The commission commends the re- 
ceiver for the quality of service main- 
tained in spite of financial difficulties. 
Its order said in part: 

Thi' increase of 1 cent in the railway 
fare operated to increase the gross revenue 
from all departments approximately 7i per 
cent, and therefore increased the cost to 
tlie public by only that percentage. The 
inciease now applied foi' would approx- 
imately double that percentage and amount 
to approximately 15 per cent total increase 
to the public for all services performed 
by the utilities involved. 

Immediately following the increase of the 
railway fare to 6 cents twenty-five safety 
cars were bought and new motor sets pur- 
chased for installation on the cai-s on hand. 
Tlie railway shops have since been operated 
to their capacity. The new cars were 
placed in operation in January, 1920. The 
old cars thereby released were put through 
the shop as I'apidly as its capacity would 
permit, and thereafter placed in operation 
on one line after another, and this process 
lias continued without interruption until 
nearly all of the motor equipment has been 
put in good condition. Later nine prac- 
tically new trailer cars were purchased 
and are in operation. Recently fifteen 
additional safety cars have been purchased 
and put in operation. As a result there 
has been a constantly increasing improve- 
ment in railway service since the fare was 
increased to 6 cents. Our investigation 
convinces us that the existing service is, 
with one or two exceptions, of a high 
standard and that improvement is still in 
progress. 

We find that the property as a whole had, 
during the receivership, earned slightly less 
than its taxes, bond interest and sinking 
fund obligations. The cash conditions of 
the receivership estate has reached an acute 
stage that demands relief. We recognize, 
too, that there are unusual burdens resting- 
upon the street railways of the Birming- 
ham district in these particulars: (a) The 
average hauls are long; (b) the traffic is 
unbalanced on most of the lines; (c) rail- 
road crossings are numerous ; (d) the com- 
petition from jitneys and private automo- 
biles has been excessive. 

The facts stated above are established 
by the undisputed evidence in the case. 
Upon the whole we are convinced that the 
property has been managed with a high 
degree of efficiency and economy, and that 
the railway departments have been fur- 
nishing service below the true cost. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



105 



Would Charge 10 Cents 

San Jose Companies File Applications 
for Increased Fares, Alleging Big 
Deficits in Past Year 

Declaring that for the last nine 
months its operation has resulted in a 
loss of $235,645 the Peninsular Rail- 
way, San Jose, Cal., has applied 
to the State Railroad Commission for 
authority to increase passenger fares. 
The company seeks to increase its 6- 
cent and 8-cent fares to 10 cents and 
the charge for school children's 46-ride 
commutation fares from $1.85 to $2.22. 
It also proposes the sale of tokens, 
good for an unlimited time and trans- 
ferable, for 7 cents each. These tokens 
will be honored for transportation 
within any 10-cent fare zone. They 
must be purchased five or more at a 
time. The company's rules and regu- 
lations governing the issuance and ac- 
ceptance of street transfers are not to 
be changed. 

Nine Months' Loss $235,645 
According to a financial statement 
filed with the application, for the nine 
months ending Sept. 30, 1920, the 
company's operating revenue totaled 
$265,370; non-operating revenue, $27,- 
418, a total of $292,789. Operating 
expenses amounted to $248,996; taxes 
and depreciation to $21,968; fixed 
charges and miscellaneous debits $257,- 
469. With the expenses totaling $528,- 
434 the company points out that its 
net loss for the period amounted to 
$235,645. 

The San Jose Railroads, which also 
furnishes service in San Jose, also ap- 
plied for authority to increase its fares, 
claiming that in the nine months end- 
ing Sept. 30, 1920, it had sustained a 
loss of $89,432. A 10-cent fare is pro- 
posed for all lines now charging 6 cents 
and 12-cent and 18-cent fares are pro- 
posed in place of the 10- and 15-cent 
fares now being collected on certain 
lines. The 15- and 20-cent fares are to 
be increased to 18 and 24 cents, respec- 
tively, according to the plan of the 
company. 

The sale of tokens at 7 cents each, 
transferable and good until used, is 
also provided for in the company's pro- 
posed schedule. It is likev»ise proposed 
to sell thirty-ride family commutation 
tickets between any two stations the 
one-way fare of which is 12 cents or 
more for twenty times the one-way 
fare. Under the proposed new sched- 
ule school children's forty-six-ride 
tickets will be increased in cost from 
$1.85 to $2.22. The $2.70 ticket for 
school children will be i-educed to $2.63 
and the $3.60 ticket to $3.48. 



tinue until the early part of this year, 
when he would recommend further 
action based on what revenue will be 
necessary to enable the company to 
earn a fair return and to finance its 
paving and other extensions. 

The company, according to the re- 
port, is earning a 6.6 per cent return 
on an actual valuation of $11,000,000. 
The outlay for paving and extensions 
to be made by the company is estimated 
at $2,000,000. 

Mr. Bemis suggested that some of the 
needed revenue might be obtained from 
the depreciation fund and that the bal- 
ance be obtained by a note from the com- 
pany to the city, giving the city a lien, 
equal to the amount of paving, on the 
company. In his report Mr. Bemis in- 
dicated that the neutral zone should be 
continued, and also advocated the skip- 
stop, providing the stops were at proper 
distances apart and properly located. 



No Increase Now in St. Paul 

The City Council of St. Paul, Minn., 
has taken steps which will postpone 
for a month at least an increase in 
fare by the St. Paul City Railway, a 
subsidiary of the Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company, from 6 cents to 7 
cents. The Council has approved the 
report of E. W. Bemis, utility expert, 
who suggested that the 6-cent fare con- 



Asks More in Spokane 

That the Spokane & Eastern Railway 
& Power Company on its Spokane city 
lines during the first ten months of 
1920 sustained losses in operation, in- 
cluding taxes but not interest, of $76,- 
492 is asserted by F. E. Connors, vice- 
president and general manager, in a 
petition filed recently with the Public 
Service Commission of the State of 
Washington asking that fares be in- 
creased from 6 cents to 8 cents. The 
operating loss while the road, then the 
Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad, was 
in the hands of Mr. Connors as receiver 
is stated in the present petition to have 
been $250. 

The large increase in the deficit is 
credited to the added expense of op- 
eration and the necessity of adding 
improvements required to rehabilitate 
the system. Prior to the present own- 
ership, it is stated that the road had 
been allowed to deteriorate because of 
the inability to earn enough money 
to keep it up in proper shape. Further 
large expenditures will be necessary to 
keep the property in good condition. 
The funds for this purpose cannot be 
had unless an increase in fares is 
granted. 

Like the Washington Water Power 
Company, the Spokane & Eastern Rail- 
way & Power Company is confronted 
with a request from its carmen for a 
shorter working day. Platform men of 
other Northwestern cities are working 
shorter hours, but in this as in the mat- 
ter of keeping up the property the 
railway is handicapped by a lack of 
money which can only be supplied by 
increased fares. The petition also states 
that higher fares are in vogue in other 
Northwestern cities. The petition, which 
was filed by Graves, Kizer & Graves, 
attorneys for the company, seeks to 
reopen the old fare case heard April, 
1919, when the fare was raised from 
5 to 6 cents. 

The city legal department on Dec. 23 
filed with the Public Service Commis- 
sion a formal protest against permit- 
ting the company to reopen the old 
fare increase case. 



Bus Regulation Asked 

Council Committee Urges that Restric- 
tions Be Placed on Operation of 
Jitneys in Hartford 

A report has been submitted to the 
City Council of Hartford, Conn., by the 
special committee of that body which 
has been investigating the railway- 
jitney situati on in Hartford. The com- 
miteee urges that the present bus com- 
petition be removed. It contends that, 
if steps are taken by the city authorities 
to aid the railway through regulation 
of the jitneys, the city has the right 
to insist upon improved service and 
the payment of deferred maintenance 
charges. 

The committee's report follows: 

Your committee, while recognizing tlie 
popularity of tlie jitneys witli a large num- 
ber of our citizens, feels strongly that the 
continued prosperity and development of 
our city is absolutely dependent upon a 
permanent, responsible and efflcient trans- 
liortation system. While the service fur- 
nished by the Connecticut Company may be 
inadequate at certain hours, we believe that 
the great majority of our citizens can only 
lie transported by means of the trolleys 
with any degree of regularity and efficiency 
especially in the winter months. 

Railway Called Essential 

We cannot fail to recognize that lar°e 
sections of our city have been built up be- 
cause of their proximity to trolley lines • 
that the trolley company has made large' 
permanent local investments in its tracks' 
buildings and equipment, and under its 
charter and franchi.se obligation can be 
compelled to furnish continuous service 
I-irovided it secures sufficient revenue to be 
able to operate. From our conferences with 
ofhcials of the trolley company we are sat- 
isfied that because of the present high costs 
ot operation and equipment it will be im- 
possible for the company to continue opera- 
tion unless the jitney competition is re- 
stricted. Prom such information as we 
have received from the officials your com- 
mittee is satisfied that even in the city of 
Hartford and with the 10-cent fare " the 
Jocal lines will not receive sufficient revenue 
to more than break even between receipts 
and actual operating costs, provided the 
Connecticut Company pays its Hartford 
taxes, its percentage of gross receipts and 
meets its obligations in the matter of paving 
the portion of the city streets on which its 
lines are located. This does not include 
repairs to trackage, which in certain parts 
ot the City are grievously needed 

If on the other hand, the present jitnev 
competition is removed and the trolley re- 
ceives sufficient revenue, the city has the 
right to insist upon improved service and 
the payment of deferred maintenance 
charges In the case of Wethersfield Ave- 
nue and Windsor Avenue paving for ex- 
ample. It has been impossible for the citv 
to insist on the performance of this work 
as the company had no funds which could 

borrow^'them. '""^ '^"'"""^'^ '^"""^ "^^ 

The six new routes designated in the 
proposed amendment to the ordinance for 
the most part are parallel and would be in 
direct competition to the trolley lines Thev 
avoid Main Street between Charter Oak 
Avenue and the tunnel, but provide for the 
operation of jitneys through such narrow 
? '■?n'^^ congested streets as Prospect 

I'est J t?,''.^; so con- 

gested that they are now receiving special 
consideration from the police board with a 
vie-w to further restriction of traffic. 



Council Cancels Duluth 
Referendum 

The City Council of Duluth, Minn,, 
on Jan. 3 rescinded its action calling 
a special referendum for Feb. 3 to place 
a proposition for a 6-cent fare 
again before the people. The Council 
decided on Dec. 24 to call a referendum 
election providing the expenses of the 
same should be borne by the Duluth 
Street Railway, but changed its mind 



106 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



when representatives of the Federated 
Trades and Labor Assembly charged 
that the Council would be violating the 
corrupt practices act if it conducted an 
election the expenses of which were 
paid by a private corporation. Herbert 
Warren, general manager of the com- 
pany, has announced that the railway 
is operating at a loss and that the cost 
of operation must be curtailed or the 
fare raised. The voters have twice re- 
jected a proposal to allow the company 
to raise its fare. 



Arkansas Bureau Busy 

A. G. Whidden, Manager of the Public 
Relations Section, Waging an Active 
Campaign of Education 

An active campaign is being waged 
by the recently created Public Relations 
Section of the Arkansas Utilities Asso 
ciation to inform the people regarding' 
the public service corpoi-ations oper- 
ating within the State. A. G. Whidden, 
manager of the Public Relations Sec- 
tion, is using for this purpose paid 
advertisements in the newspapers of 
Pine Bluff, Fort Smith and other cities. 
He is also issuing a series of bulletins 
discussing the utility question, in which 
he emphasizes the essential nature of 
electric railways and other utilities. 

In discussing the present status of 
Arkansas utilities recently, Mr. Whid- 
den said that the principal trouble with 
public utilities throughout the country 
today is that they have been so starved 
by lack of adequate compensation that 
their plants have run down, and many 
are unable to meet demands made upon 
them. 

Lesson Costly for Public 

Utility operators could see coming- 
just such trouble as some communities 
are experiencing, and tried to avert it 
by appealing to the public and to city 
councils for fair and equitable rates, so 
that the high operating expenses could 
be met, and new generators, trans- 
formers and other machinery pui'chased, 
said Mr. Whidden. These appeals were 
not heeded. The people, unfamiliar with 
operating costs, did not appreciate the 
situation, nor realize how the public 
would be affected. So, today, both the 
public and the utilities are paying the 
penalty. Mr. Widden continued: 

The utilities are partly respon.sihle for 
tlie situation because of their failure to use 
advertising space in the newspapers to 
inform the public concerning constantly in- 
creasing costs of operation. They realize 
this now. and. having confidence in the fair- 
ness of the public, plan fo present their case 
to the people through newspaper advertise- 
ments, and other mediums of publicity. 

Of course there will be some to contend 
this is no time to increase rates, but those 
utilities that have been starved for years 
must have some relief if they and the com- 
munities they serve are not to suffer more 
than they have. 

Those manufacturers and others who ad- 
vanced prices to meet higher costs of pro- 
duction can afford to say, "This is no time 
to advance rates." They have had their 
necessary increases, and with decreasing 
production costs, probably mav reduce rates 
or prices. But the utilities are in a differ- 
ent position. They have not had advances 
proportionate to higher costs and every- 
thing they use — labor, fuel, material — has 
gone up. The result is they are just about 
starved out and their efficiency impaired. 
They must have relief in the way of ade- 



quate rates if they are to survive and pro- 
vide the service necessary to continuous 
development of the community. 

Under the caption, "Public Utilities 

Pay One-Fifth of Taxes," one of the 

"ads" sent out by Mr. Whidden says: 

Public utility companies pay 20 per cent 
of all taxes collected in Arkansas ! 

This surprising fact is shown by the 193 9 
assessments. The total valuation of all 
property was ?588,161,065. Of this amount 
the utilities reiiresenled one-fifth, oi- 
.$11 ."^1,656.474 

Consider what this means : All lumber 
mills, all mines, all factories, all buildings 
of whatsoever nature, all improved and un- 
improved land — everything in the state, 
except public service companies, paid only 
.$4 in taxes for every $1 paid by the public 
utilities. 

On the basis of .33 mills — state, county, 
city and special levies in Little Rock — tlie 
utilities of Arkansas paid in taxes last year 
$3,816,663. 

On the same basis, all other property in 
the state paid only $15,592,652. 

The utilities actually paid more than 
S3. 816, 663, because they are subject to 
ta.Kes not levied against other projierty 
owners — such taxes as pole, corporation, 
franchise, and other special levies. 

If all the utilities in Arkansas were 
forced out of business by reason of inade- 
quate rates or unjust legislation the people 
of Arkansas not only would be deprived of 
the comfort, convenience, protection, pleas- 
ure and profit provided by the operation of 
the light, telephone, water, gas and railway 
companies, but the rate of taxation would 
have to be increased to make up the four 
million the utilities pay toward public im- 
provements, governmental expense and 
schools. 



Crossing Regulations Laid Down 

Operation of one-man cars on thor- 
oughfares crossing steam railroads at 
grade is prohibited in proposed regu- 
lations issued recently by the Massa- 
chusetts Department of Public Utilities. 
Exceptions are made to grade crossings 
at which all train movements are pro- 
tected by the railroad crew or where a 
gateman is employed. 

Justice John C. Crosby of the State 
Supreme Court has ruled against the 
petition of certain employees of the 
Eastern Massachusetts Street Rail- 
way for an injunction to restrain 
the public trustees from the oper- 
ation of one-man cars. A de- 
murrer to the petition was filed by the 
company, in which it was pointed out 
that the Department of Public Utilities 
has decreed that the one-man cars are 
not a menace to public safety as claimed 
by the petitioners. This demurrer was 
sustained by the court. 

The new rules governing the opera- 
tion of the cars over grade crossings 
are the result of several months' study 
by the inspection bureau of the com- 
mission. They demand, in Regulation 
1, that every street railway car on ap- 
proaching a grade crossing shall be 
brought to a full stop 100 ft. from 
the railroad tracks. This stop, it is 
stated, shall be for the purpose of ascer- 
taining whether or not the machinery 
of the car is in perfect condition for 
emergency handling. 

The car thereafter must be worked 
slowly to the railroad tracks and again 
brought to a stop. The operator may 
not then proceed until he has ascer- 
tained that the way is clear and that 
there is no danger of a train approach- 
ing from either direction. This last 
stop, it is provided, shall not be deemed 
necessary where train movements are 
protected by train crews. , 



Another of the new regulations pro- 
vides that at all crossings where no 
gateman or flag tender is employed, 
unless it be one where movements are 
protected by train crews, the conduc- 
tor must leave his car, walk ahead to 
the tracks and stand there until his 
car has passed over. 

A fourth regulation provides that at 
all grade crossings there shall be in- 
stalled a trolley guard so arranged 
that if the trolley leaves the wire it 
may be caught by the guard. 



Birney Cars Installed on Lines of 
Heavy Traffic 

Birney safety car operation was 
started on one of the lines of the 
Youngstown (Ohio) Municipal Rail- 
way on Jan. 1. The line selected for 
the first use of this type of equipment 
in the Ohio city, the Wilson Avenue 
and East Youngstown line, serves a 
large residential section with heavy 
industrial traffic morning and evening 
in the city. It has met with consider- 
able automobile competition. Hereto- 
fore the base schedule for this line 
has provided a ten-minute headway 
with a five-minute headway during the 
morning and evening peak load periods. 

With the safety car in use the all- 
day service has been placed on a five- 
minute headway with the peak load 
service on a two-and-a-half minute 
headway, the additional morning and 
evening service being supplied by the 
old style of cars alternating with the 
safety cars. 

Twelve Birney cars have been as- 
signed to the line, ten being required 
by the base schedule and two being 
spares. Including this service forty- 
four safety cars are in service on the 
lines of the Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric 
Company and associated companies in 
Youngstown, Ohio, and New Castle 
and Sharon, Pa. 

The new service in Youngstown is 
of special interest because of the prob- 
lem that is presented in the use of 
safety cars for the heavy and concen- 
trated industrial traffic and the effect 
of the frequent service on the automo- 
bile competition. 



Transit Problem Discussed 

C. I. Brooks, chairman, committee on 
transportation, Miami, Fla., recently 
submitted the findings of that commit- 
tee before the Rotary Club. In summing 
up the transportation problem in Miami 
he stressed the importance of the motor 
vehicle. In this connection he spoke of 
the parking practice in Miami and 
suggested a parking plan such as is 
carried out in Cleveland, Ohio. On the 
street railway subject he declared that 
the people would have an opportunity 
to express their choice between the 
trolleys and the jitneys. He believed 
that buses were not a dependable sys- 
tem of transportation, but that a street 
railway system should be in operation 
which would give not only transporta- 
tion advantages but would also mean 
the development of city property. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



107 



Transportation 
News Notes 



Seven Cents in Columbus. — The Co- 
lumbus (Ga.) Railroad has raised its 
fare from 5 cents to 7 cents under the 
terms of an order issued by the State 
Railroad Commission. Fifteen tickets 
are sold for $1. Thirty school tickets 
are sold for $1. 

Ten Cents Asked in Ardmore. — The 
Ardmore (Okla.) Railway has applied 
to the Oklahoma Corporation Commis- 
sion for authority to charge a 10-cent 
cash fare on its Ardmore lines. This is 
the first city electric line in the stats 
to ask for a 10-c?nt fare on its city 
system. 

Would Raise Zone Rates.— The Val- 
ley Railways, Lemoyne, Pa., has noti- 
fied the State Public Service Commis- 
sion of its intention to raise its fare 
from 7 cents to 8 cents in each zone. 
In October, 1918, the fares were in- 
creased from 5 cents to 7 cents. The 
railway operates between Lemoyne, 
Carlisle and other points in the Cum- 
berland Valley. 

Oklahoma Interurban in Operation. — 
The Northeast Oklahoma Railroad, Mi- 
ami, Okla., has been completed and 
has begun operation. The road, which 
is twenty-three miles in length, will 
serve the towns of Miami, North Miami, 
Commerce, Cardin, Picher, and Century, 
Okla. J. F. Robinson is president. The 
other officials are: W. H. Trapp, vice- 
president; H. B. Cobban, secretary- 
treasurer and general manager; and 
H. M. Myers, auditor. 

Six Cents in Victoria. — A 6-cent cash 
fare is now being charged by the Brit- 
ish Columbia Electric Railway, Van- 
couver, B. C, on its lines in Victoria. 
Six tickets are sold for 35 cents, and 
ten school tickets for 25 cents. Uni- 
versal free transfers are retained. The 
fare was formerly 5 cents cash, five 
tickets for 25 cents. The railway sev- 
eral months ago applied to the city 
authorities for permission to charge a 
6-cent fare, later amending its petition 
to ask a rate of 7 cents. 

Ten Cents in Framingham. — By au- 
thority of the Massachusetts Depart- 
ment of Public Utilities the Boston 
& Worcester Street Railway, Framing- 
ham, has raised its cash fare from 7 
cents to 10 cents on several of its lines. 
The new rate schedule substitutes a 
5-cent cash fare for certain 4-cent tick- 
ets and abolishes the fifty-trip ticket 
between Overbrook and Chestnut Hill, 
formerly sold for $6.75. There is no 
change in the length of fare zones. 
It is estimated that under the new rates 
the railway will receive $30,000 addi- 
tional revenue annually. The company 
had a deficit of $58,624 for the first 
ten months of 1920, and for the past 



two years has failed to earn operating 
expenses, taxes and interest. 

"Safety First" in Los Angeles. — 

Carrying the message of "safety first" 
to 5,000 school children of Los Angeles, 
Cal., every week the Los Angeles 
Railway and the Pacific Electric Rail- 
way are at present co-operating in a 
cnmpaign against accidents of all kinds. 
The railways are employing H. H. Mat- 
thieson, safety engineer, to speak be- 
fore the school children and to present 
a "safety first" motion picture film. 
The work is being conducted with the 
approval of the Los Angeles school 
board and under the direction of the 
superintendent of schools. The film 
shows how accidents happen and how 
they can be eliminated by eliminating 
carelessness. It preaches the safe way 
as the right way and covers all classes 
of accidents. 

A Unique New Year's Greeting. — At 
the suggestion of W. H. Boyce, general 
manager of the Beaver Valley Trac- 
tion Company and the Pittsburgh & 
Beaver Street Railway, New Bri5:htDn, 
Pa., the operating- force of these com- 
panies adopted a unique method of 
wishing the car riders a "Happy New 
Year." Their "card" took the form of 
an open letter published in the New 
Brighton newspapers as a paid adver- 
tisement. Over the signatures of all 
the employees of the companies the let- 
ter read: "We wish our public a merry, 
merry Christmas and a very happy 
New Year. We have tried to do our 
duty during the year passing out now; 
and we look forward to 1921, hoping 
that our work and service will continue 
fully to meet your approval." 

Fares Up on "Panhandle" Lines. — 
The City Railway, a subsidiary of 
the West Virginia Utilities Company, 
Wheeling, W. Va., has been authorized 
by the State Public Utilities Commis- 
sion to raise its rates as follows: for 
passengers within the city from 5 to 
8 cents, six tickets are to be sold for 
40 cents and school tickets at one-half 
the regular fare. The former express 
rates were: up to fifty pounds, 10 cents; 
from fifty-one to 100 pounds, 25 cents. 
The new rates are: up to ten pounds, 
12 cents; from ten to twenty-five 
pounds, 24 cents; from twenty-five to 
100 pounds, 30 cents; for each addi- 
tional 100 pounds, 12 cents. The rates 
'charged in the interurban line of the 
Wheeling Traction Company also were 
increased by 63 cents between Wheel- 
ing and Moundsville. The rates be- 
tween intermediate points were in- 
creased proportionately. The express 
rates are graduated from 18 cents for 
one pound, to 30 cents for 100 pounds. 

Seven Cents in Fort Smith. — The 
Fort Smith Light & Traction Company, 
Fort Smith, Ark., has raised its fare 
from 6 cents to 7 cents. Children be- 
tween the ages of five and twelve years 
are carried for 4 cents each. The new 
rate was made permanent by the State 
Corporation Commission unless other- 
wise ordered. The 7-cent fare went in- 
to effect automatically after thirty days' 
public notice, as required by the 



state law. A conference was held 
at which representatives of labor 
unions, civic organizations and city 
officials were present and the mat- 
ter was fully discussed. At the con- 
clusion of the meeting a resolution was 
adopted that no protest should be filed 
with the Corporation Commission 
against the 7-cent fare; therefore the 
rate automatically went into effect. 
The management took the public into 
its confidence and gave it full informa- 
tion regarding the railway's operating 
and financial problems. 



New 
Publications 



Engineering Electricity 

By Ralph G. Hudson. i:in pages, illus- 
trated. John Wiley & Sons. New York, 
N'. Y. 

This book, written primarily for stu- 
dents specializing in branches of engi- 
neering other than electrical, contains a 
brief and concise exposition of the fun- 
damental principles and the customary 
applications of electricity and inagnet- 
ism. Enough descriptive matter is in- 
cluded to provide material for a mental 
picture of electrical devices. Theories 
are developed with the aid of mathe- 
matics where exposition would be long 
and involved. 

The Discovery of Electromagnetism 

Published for the Oersted committee at 
the expense of the Belgian State by Absalon 
Larsen, Copenhagen, 19 20. 

The Belgians celebrated during last 
year the centennial of the discovery of 
the relation between electricity and 
magnetism, announced by Prof. J. C. 
Oersted on July 21, 1820. In connec- 
tion with this celebration there has 
been published a pamphlet containing 
a resume of the facts attendant upon 
this great discovery, and giving re- 
prints in the original languages from a 
number of articles commenting upon 
the discovery, published in scientific 
journals at the time of its announce- 
ment. 

Coal, Iron and the War. A Study in 

Industrialism, Past and Future 

By Edwin C. Eckel, late Major of Engi- 
neers, United States Army. 375 pages 
Henry Holt & Co., New York, N. Y. 

This treatise is the result of a study 
of the working of economic laws relat- 
ing to the production, distribution and 
utilization of these basic elements of 
the nation's wealth. It is not in any 
sense technical, but is based on numer- 
ous data, and goes to show how world 
peace is intimately involved with eco- 
nomic and industrial conditions. The 
book furnishes a stimulus to thought, 
and in view of the dependence of the 
electric railway business on coal and 
iron it might well be carefully read 
and studied by progressive managers 
and engineers. 



108 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol 57, No. 2 



Personal Mention 



Governor Picks Mr. Cadle 

Chief Engineer of the New York State 
Railways Appointed Superintend- 
ent of Public Works 

Public service has borrowed from the 
electric railway industry one of its 
most able executives in the person of 
Charles L. Cadle, chief engineer of the 
New York State Railways, who has 
just entered the cabinet of Governor 
Nathan L. Miller of New York, as 
Superintendent of Public Works. Mr. 
Cadle's appointment was among the first 
to be announced by Governor Miller, 
who took office on Jan. 1. As Superin- 
tendent of Public Works he will have 
charge of many state improvements, 
the most important of which is the 
Barge Canal. 

The news of Mr. Cadle's appointment 




«'. I'Ai >i.i-; 



has been taken as an evidence that the 
new Republican administration intends 
to co-operate with business interests in 
working out a constructive program of 
relief for the state's utilities, including 
electric railways. The new Governor 
has already intimated that public utili- 
ties are to receive consideration at his 
hands. It is expected that any reason- 
able claim which either the utilities or 
private business will put forth will 
receive attention. 

Mr. Cadle has long been identified 
with the New York State Railways, 
which, in addition to operating inter- 
urban lines, owns the city systems in 
Rochester, Syracuse and Utica, first as 
electrical engineer and more recently 
af, chief engineer. He went to Roches- 
ter about thirteen years ago from 
Cleveland, Ohio, where he had been for 
two years general manager of the Elec- 
tric Railway Improvement Company. 
For about a year previous to that time 
he was employed in the power depart- 
ment of the Cleveland Railway. For 
several years he served as electrical 
engineer of the Rochester lines and 



v/as then promoted to chief engineer of 
those lines. He subsequently became 
chief engineer of the entire system of 
the New York State Railways. For a 
number of years Mr. Cadle has made his 
headquarters in Rochester. 

Association work has for years been 
of vital interest to Mr. Cadle. He has 
been a member of the power distribu- 
tion committee of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association, 
serving for several years as chairman, 
and has also served on the executive 
board of the Engineering Association. 
He was a meinber of the American 
Association committee to confer with 
the Bureau of Standards on the elec- 
trical safety code in 1915 and 1916, 
and was later made chairman of the 
committee of the Engineering Associa- 
tion to confer with the bureau on that 
subject. At the Atlantic City con- 
vention last October he was elected 
first vice-president of the Engineering- 
Association. 



S. S. Crane Feted 

Scott S. Crane, general manager of 
the Altoona & Logan Valley Electric 
Railway, Altoona, Pa., was recently 
tendered a dinner by the employees of 
the system, the occasion being the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of Mr. Crane's 
connection with the company. When 
Mr. and Mrs. Crane appeared at the 
railway's office in answer to a telephone 
message they found more than 1.50 
employees gathered around the banquet 
table, two places being reserved for the 
guest of honor and his wife. Mr. Crane 
was presented with a phonograph and 
100 records, the gift of his fellow work- 
ers, and with an autograph album con- 
taining the name of every employee 
of the company. Mrs. Crane was pre- 
sented with three large bouquets. Com- 
menting editorially upon the event, the 
Altoona Mirror said: 

"It was a fine tribute to Mr. Crane, 
personally and in his capacity as the 
general manager of the trolley lines. 
It shows that he has not only the con- 
fidence and co-operation of the men who 
work under him but that he also has 
their esteem and affection. Such mani- 
festations of good feeling between em- 
ployer and employee have been all too 
rare in recent years in many lines of 
human activity, although it has existed 
in the Logan Valley family. 

"Mr. Crane is entirely worthy of the 
honor which the men and their families 
paid him last night. He has always 
applied the Golden Rule to his dealings 
with his subordinates, and that is a 
policy that invariably wins. When 
other executives have experienced 
trouble he has been rewarded with 
service, and the local public has been 
the real beneficiary." 



O. D. Mudgett Promoted 

Made General Manager of the Andros- 
coggin Electric Company, Suc- 
ceeding F. D. Gordon 

Electric railway men of the New 
England section have recently been 
congratulating Frederick D. Gordon, 
formerly general manager of the 
Androscoggin Electric Company, Lewis- 
ton, Me., upon his appointment as gen- 
eral manager of the Cumberland 
County Power & Light Company, Port- 
land. Brief mention of Mr. Gordon's 
appointment was made in a recent is- 
sue. Following the resignation of Mr. 
Gordon from the Lewiston company 
several promotions have taken place 
in that organization, the chief one 
being that of 0. D. Mudgett, who has 
been made general manager to succeed 
Mr. Gordon. 

As general manager of the Cumber- 
land County Power & Light Company 
Mr. Gordon will have charge of a prop- 
erty capitalized at more than $2,000,- 
000 and serving a population of 100,- 
000 persons. The railway department 
of the company opetates 106 miles -of 




F. D, GORDON 



track, including a number of interurban 
lines. Mr. Gordon succeeds A. H. 
Ford, who resigned in the fall of 1919. 
Since the resignation of Mr. Ford the 
company has been without a general 
manager, the heads of the several de- 
partments having supervision of the 
work. 

O. D. Mudgett, who succeeds Mr. 
Gordon at Lewiston, joined the Andros- 
coggin Electric Company about ten 
years ago. He is a native of Gilman- 
ton, N. H. After obtaining his early 
education in that city he studied elec- 
trical engineering at the New Hamp- 
shire State College. Following his 
graduation from that institution he 
went to East Pittsburgh, Pa., where he 
entered the employ of the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany. He was later transferred to Bos- 
ton, where his work consisted of com- 
mercial engineering. He then joined 
the Belfast Gas & Electric Company, 
Belfast, Me. A few years later he 
entered the employ of the Lewiston 
companj-, serving continuously with 
that organization up to the present. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



109 



Mr. Lewis in Buffalo 

Kenneth R. Lewis, formerly general 
car inspector of the Hudson & Man- 
hattan Railroad, New York, N. Y., has 
assumed the duties of engineer of equip- 
ment of the International Railway, 
Buffalo, N. Y. The position of engineer 
of equipment is a newly created one. 
Mr. Lewis will co-operate with J. W. 
Hulme, superintendent of equipment, 
in supervising- the maintenance of the 
railway's rolling stock. His work will 
consist largely in the standardization 
of parts and in the handling of tests of 
all materials used in the upkeep and 
equipment of the cars. 

Mr. Lewis is a native of Washing- 
ton, D. C, where he was born in 1888. 
He obtained his education in the Wash- 
ington grammar schools and the Mc- 
Kinley Manual Training School. He 
has since specialized in electrical engi- 
neering and has completed several 
courses on that subject. He began his 
railway experience with the Washing- 
ton & Old Dominion Railway in the 
fall of 1906. In the following year he 
joined the New York Central Railroad, 
serving as an inspector of locomotives 
in the electrified zone. In 1908 Mr. 
Lewis accepted a position with the Hud- 
son & Manhattan Railroad, and, 
after serving in various positions, he 
was promoted to general car inspector. 



Interurban Officials Promoted 

Lawrence Meservie has been ap- 
pointed a division superintendent of 
the Monongahela Valley Traction 
Company, Fairmont, W. Va. Mr. Mes- 
ervie will have charge of the interur- 
ban lines entering Fairmont and of a 
portion of the city system. The creation 
of the new position and the appoint- 
ment of Mr. Meservie resulted from a 
substantial increase in interurban 
traffic. Mr. Meservie has for many 
years been a trainman on the interur- 
ban lines. 

Theodore E. Fitzpatrick has been 
made an assistant superintendent of 
transportation of the company. Mr. 
Fitzpatrick will assist Carl B. Johnson, 
superintendent of transportation, and 
will co-operate with A. I. Horton, who 
is also an assistant to Mr. Johnson. 
Mr. Fitzpatrick has been in the employ 
of the railway since 1903. In his new 
position he will supervise the regula- 
tion of traffic on all city routes, as well 
as on a number of interurban lines. 



J. W. Walker has been appointed su- 
perintendent of the Traction Light & 
Power Company, a subsidiary of the 
Union Traction Company of Indiana, 
Anderson, Ind. Mr. Walker succeeds 
J. B. Shaedel, who resigned recently. 
He is a graduate of Purdue University 
and was formerly in the employ of the 
United States Steel Corporation at 
Gary, Ind. 

T. H. Ceperley, who for the past 
twelve years has been chief operating 
engineer of power and substations of 
the Albany Southern Railroad, Albany, 
N. Y., has resigned on account of ill 



health and expects to spend the winter 
in the South. Mr. Ceperley will re-enter 
the electrical field in the spring. He was 
formerly connected with the Newburgh 
Light, Heat & Power Company, as chief 
engineer of the Newburgh plant, and 
prior to that with the Fonda, Johns- 
town & Gloversville Railroad. 



Changes in St. Louis 

Major K. J. Lockwood Made Assistant 
Manager of the United Railways in 
Charge of Purchases 

To secure an increase in operating- 
efficiency, Rolla Wells, receiver of the 
United Railways, St. Louis, Mo., has 
somewhat reorganized the company's 
executive personnel. Major Richard J. 
Lockwood has been appointed assistant 
manager. Major Lockwood will report 
to Colonel A. T. Perkins, general man- 
ager, relieving him of many duties, and 
thus enabling him to give his attention 
to more important matters. Questions 
pertaining to supplies and purchases 




MAJOR R. J. LOCKWOOD 



will come under Major Lockwood's di- 
rect supervision. 

The responsibilities of Walter E. 
Bryan, superintendent of power, and 
C. L. Hawkins, engineer maintenance of 
way, have also been extended by Colo- 
nel Perkins. The general manager has 
himself absorbed the duties formerly 
performed by the chief engineer. 

Major Lockwood, the new assistant 
manager, is a newcomer in the electric 
railway field, most of his experience 
having been in steam railroading. He 
was born in St. Louis thirty-eight years 
ago. Shortly following his graduation 
from the engineering department of 
Washington University, St. Louis, in 
1904, he entered engineering and con- 
struction work. After holding engi- 
neering and executive positions with 
several roads he became vice-president 
and general manager of two subsidiary 
lines of the "Frisco" system in 
Louisiana. He later served as vice- 
president and manager of the Appa- 
lachicola Railroad in Florida. 

During the war Major Lockwood 



served with Colonel Perkins, who com- 
manded the Division of Combat Rail- 
ways in France. He rose from a pri- 
vate in the officers' training camp at 
Fort Oglethorpe through the grades of 
second lieutenant and captain of Field 
Artillery, captain and major of Engi- 
neers and finally and until the signing 
of the armistice was made chief engi- 
neer of the Division of Light Rail- 
ways and Roads, A. E. F. In the mean- 
time he was in the thick of things in 
the Chateau Thierry, St. Mihiel and 
other engagements. 

Walter E. Bryan, superintendent of 
power, was born in St. Louis on Oct. 
21, 188.5. Graduating from Washing- 
ton University in 1907 with the de- 
gree of B. S. in electrical engineering 
he entered the power department of 
the local railway system. After serv- 
ing for a time as draftsman he was ap- 
pointed electrical foreman in charge, 
under the superintendent of power sta- 
tions, of substations and electrical work 
in the power department. In August, 

1910, he left the company to become 
an electrical engineer for the United 
States Incandescent Lamp Company, 
but in March, 1911, he returned to the 
United Railways. In the following year 
he became assistant superintendent of 
power stations. Later in the same year 
he was promoted to superintendent. 

Carl L. Hawkins, engineer mainte- 
nance of way, is also a Missourian by 
birth. After completing a course in 
electrical engineering at Washington 
University, he was employed by a firm 
of contractors on railroad construction 
work in Florida. Shortly thereafter he 
returned North and entered the service 
of the United Railways as an engineer 
in the track department. He was made 
chief engineer of that department in 

1911, subsequently being promoted to 
engineer maintenance of way. 



Charle.s A. Pohl has been appointed 
chief engineer of the Niagara Gorge 
Railroad, Niagara Falls, N. Y. Mr. Pohl 
is a member of the firm of Bogart & 
Pohl, civil and consulting engineers. 
New York City. 

M. H. Pitman has been appointed 
service superintendent of Georgia Rail- 
way & Power Company, Atlanta, Ga. In 
this capacity Mr. Pitman has charge 
of the gas shops, the gas repair shop, 
and the gas meter shop, in addition 
to the electric and steam meter de- 
partment. He has been connected with 
the company for a number of years. 

Frederick E. Nelson has joined the 
Twin City Rapid Transit Company, 
Minneapolis, Minn., as publicity repre- 
sentative. Mr. Nelson has been ap- 
pointed acting general passenger agent 
of the Twin City lines during the tem- 
porary absence of W. O. Clure, who is 
now recovering from injuries received 
several weeks ago in an accident. Mr. 
Nelson is a newspaper man by pro- 
fession and at one time or another was 
connected with several papers in the 
Pacific Northwest. Since his discharge 
from military service he has served on 
the Minneapolis Journal and more lately 
on the Minneapolis News. 



Manufadures and the Markets 

DISCUSSIONS OF MARKET AND TRADE CONDITIONS FOR THE MANUFACTURER. 

SALESMAN AND PURCHASING AGENT 
ROLLING STOCK PURCHASES BUSINESS ANNOUNCEMENTS 



Prices of Overhead Trolley 
Line Material Decline 

Lower Raw Material Cost a Large 
Factor — Demand Rather Light and 
Deliveries Favorable 

With the copper market continuing 
on its downward march in an apparent 
attempt to set new low price records 
recently, the expected decline in over- 
head trolley line material has come 
about. At this writing electrolytic cop- 
per can be purchased as low as 12: 50 
cents per pound delivered, though large 
producers are nominally asking 13 cents 
over the/ first quarter. 

Several of the large manufacturers of 
trolley line material reduced their 
prices on January 3, the reduction in 
two instances averaging 5 per cent on 
the whole line of ears, crossings, 
splicers, hangers, etc. In a third case 
the price drop amounted to about 15 
per cent on the same date. Another 
large manufacturer has not announced 
any price change as yet. 

Demand for this class of supplies on 
the whole is rather light, though in 
some instances good sales are reported, 
on behalf of maintenance work of 
course. Deliveries are favorable and 
range from 10 days up to an extreme 
period of thi*ee or four weeks. 



Wiring Supply Prices Lower 

Pipe, Loom, Armored Cable and Fittings 
Reduced with Lower Steel and 
Cotton Costs 

Just before the year closed important 
revisions downward were made on 
several items of wiring supplies. The 
first of the independent mills making 
merchant pipe, closely related to rigid 
conduit, dropped its price to corporation 
level on Dec. 31, and was followed by 
other mills early in January. That was 
the final step to bring the independent 
steel market to corporation levels, 
thereby leaving only one steel market. 
Stocks are generally pretty well built 
up but in some sections quite spotty. 

Steel strip for flexible armored con- 
ductor dropped about 20 per cent late 
in December so that manufacturers now 
are quoting price reductions of around 
$15 per 1,000 ft. of No. 14 two wire. 
Stocks are large on certain makes with 
rather low jobbers' prices resulting. 
Conductor bushings, etc., are also lower, 
smaller sizes about 33 per cent and 
larger sizes 8 per cent. 

Non-metallic flexible conduit prices 
are oflf about 30 per cent, the discounts 
changing 15 points. Cotton material 
entering into the make-up of loom is 
quoted as much as 50 per cent lower in 
some instances. Stocks are heavy. 



Rubber-covered wire prices while low 
are apparently holding, from $8.25 to 
$8.75 being a good ruling price in New 
York City for large lots of No. 14. 
Weatherproof, No. 14, in 250-lb. lots is 
quoted at from 27 to 29 cents in New 
York City. 



Long Deliveries of Railway 
Type Resistance Grids 

Demand Is Large and No Stocks Exist 
Either With Manufacturers or 
Railways — Prices Firm 

Current buying of resistance grids 
on the part of electric traction compa- 
nies is heavy and the supply poor. An 
analysis of individual orders, it is 
stated, shows that electric lines are 
buying close to their requirements but 
nevertheless the total demand is large. 
For one thing railway stocks of re- 
serve grids are known to be low. With 
cold weather at hand street car lines 
are loath to face the possibility of 
heavy snows with consequent burnouts 
and breakage of resistance grids with- 
out having a fair stock to make re- 
placements. 

Stocks Expected to Be Better 

Unfortunately deliveries of grids are 
running long and rush orders have 
scant chance of meeting with imme- 
diate attention. In fact one of the 
largest manufacturers is apportioning 
deliveries on a percentage basis. In 
view of this condition electric railways 
are probably anticipating their needs 
more than would otherwise be the case. 
Stocks of railway type grids virtually 
do not exist with manufacturers now, 
in spite of the fact that one of the lat- 
ter had as high as 100,000 in stock re- 
cently. Deliveries vary greatly ac- 
cording to the particular grid desired, 
but range as long as three or four 
months at present and in isolated in- 
stances orders have been unfilled as 
long as seven months. It is expected 
that within the next three or four 
months, however, stocks will be well 
built up in spite of the fact that a good 
running volume of business is antici- 
pated right along. 

The chief problem with which pro- 
ducers have had to contend has been 
to obtain grey iron castings. The sup- 
ply is now improving slightly though 
it is still far from normal. Prices have 
undergone no change. It is pointed 
out that the large rejections and losses 
through breakage on grids constitute 
an excessive overhead, and this com- 
bined with the undiminished cost of 
castings and other material, manufac- 
turers say, precludes lower prices for 
some time to come. 



No General Drop in Gear 
Case Prices 

One Manufacturer Lowers Price of 
Sheet Steel Product but No 
Reductions by Others 

Although one of the large manufac- 
turers of gear cases reduced the price 
of sheet steel cases about seven per 
cent on Jan. 3, this drop has not been 
followed by a similar action on the part 
of other producers, so far as can be 
learned. 

Steel mills have lowered sheet steel 
prices appreciably within the past 
month but seemingly the chief reasons 
why this reduction has not been passed 
on to gear case consumers are current 
stocks of high priced material pur- 
chased some time ago and high labor 
costs. These two factors, according to 
a leading producer, are sufficient to 
prevent any price decreases on its prod- 
uct for nearly three months to come. 

Orders are holding up fairly well, 
in some instances a slightly lessened 
demand being noted recently, but on 
the whole the total volume of gear case 
business seems to compare well with 
former years. Deliveries, however, are 
running longer than usual, especially on 
malleable cases. The latter have under- 
gone no price change and lower quota- 
tions are not expected while the raw 
material remains so high in price and 
uncertain as to supply. 



Short Supply of Coal in 1920 

Scarcity Due to Coal Miners' and Rail- 
road Strikes, Car Shortage and 
Foreign Buying 

One of the chief difficulties with 
which public utilities and manufactur- 
ers had to contend during 1920 was an 
insufficient and irregular supply of 
fuel. An extraordinary and long con- 
tinued chain of circumstances was to 
blame for this scarcity. 

Following the coal miners' strike in 
November, 1919, surplus stocks were 
reduced to a comparatively low point. 
Then, starting with the first of the 
new year, a car shortage prevailed that 
lasted through the greater part of the 
year and seriously hampered eff'orts of 
producers to move coal. A wage in- 
crease of 27 per cent to coal miners 
went into effect on April 1, thus in- 
creasing the cost of production. Early 
in the same month occurred the out- 
law switchmen's strike on the railroads, 
and this completed the demoralization 
of freight transportation. As large 
consumers were unable to obtain enough 
coal on contract delivery they entered 
the open market for deliveries almost- 
at any price. 



January 8, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



111 



Successful foreign buyina- competi- 
tion further shortened supplies, and as 
a result speculation and manipulation 
served to send coal prices skyward. In 
midsummer utilities paid as high as 
?16.50 to $23 per ton for coal at New 
York. At times many of the street 
railways were on the verge of closing 
down for lack of coal. Herculean ef- 
forts on the part of all concerned and 
heroic measures that were adopted pre- 
vented this, however. Among the lat- 
ter were orders from the Interstate 
Commerce Commission virtually embar- 
going exports of coal, granting regional 
priorities to districts such as New 
England that were hardest hit, reserv- 
ing the preferential use of open-top 
cars for shipment of coal, and giving 
the use of assigned cars to public utili- 
ties. These measures, coupled with a 
gradual improvement in transportation, 
relieved the situation the latter part 
of the year. Prices have recently been 
on the downgrade and early in Decem- 
ber the last of the preferential car 
orders was rescinded. 



Copper Market at Lowest Prices 
in Six Years 

Further reductions in the copper 
market bring the producers' prices 
down to 13 cents a pound, delivered, for 
first quarter, outside market prices to 
12.50 cents and certain small producers' 
to 12.75 cents. At the same time there 
have been both good sales made at 
these prices and increased inquiries. 

The latest development, however, is 
the possibility that large copper pro- 
ducers will withhold heavy tonnages 
from the market in an endeavor to keep 
the market from going to still lower 
levels. The price now is said to be 



lower t'lan that at which most com- 
panies can produce, although at least 
one producer is known still to be below 
these prices on his costs. Not since 
before the war has the metal sold at 
such low figures as are now ruling. 



Easier Prices of Pole Line 
Hardware 

Following the decline in steel prices 
during the past month, manufacturers 
of pole line hardware have been gradu- 
ally lowering their quotations to con- 
form to reduced raw material costs. 
Furthermore, slackening demand and 
the overcoming of prevailing long de- 
liveries as winter approached have 
aided to ease the pi'ice situation. One 
of the leading manufacturers reduced 
the price of pole line hardware between 
10 and 15 per cent the first of Decem- 
ber. Another manufacturer followed 
suit with a drop in price of 15 per cent 
the middle of the month. A third has 
just recently announced a price decrease 
amounting to about 5 per cent. 

Back orders have just about been 
caught up with now, although surplus 
stocks have not accumulated in any 
great volume. Some items are occasion- 
ally shipped from stock and delivery of 
the remainder ranges up to 2 or 3 weeks. 



Sixteen Cars Destroyed by Fire 
in St. Louis 

A fire which started at 7.25 p.m. on 
Jan. 3 in the Debaliviere carhouse of 
the United Railways, St. Louis, Mo., 
destroyed sixteen cars, damaged seven- 
teen more cars and four trailers and 
left one section of the building in ruins. 
The damage is estimated by Receiver 
Rolla Wells to be $200,000 to the equip- 



ment, and $50,000 to the building. The 
loss is partially covered by insurance. 
All cars of five lines of the United Rail- 
ways are housed at the Debaliviere car- 
house when not in service. About 100 
cars and trailers were in the carhouse 
and yards when the fire started. Of 
the cars damaged, seveji motor cars and 
four trailers were seriously impaired 
and ten cars were slightly damaged. 

By drafting cars from other car- 
houses and from the repair shops the 
schedules on all lines were maintained 
the following day. Colonel A. T. Per- 
kins, general manager for the receiver, 
said the loss would not seriously affect 
the service although it largely offset 
the gain of thirty-seven cars recently 
put into service as part of fifty au- 
thorized by the public service com- 
mission. To replace the cars that were 
destroyed will entail considerable ex- 
pense as many of them were of older 
types and cost less than half the pres- 
ent selling price of modern type cars. 

Origin of the fire was undetermined 
on Jan. 4, but it was thought the con- 
flagration started in a car standing 
in the center of the southeast corner 
of the carhouse. 



Rolling Stock 



Galesburg (III.) Railway, Lighting & 
Power Company has received ten new 
safety cars for service on its lines. 

Brantford Municipal Railway, Brant- 
ford, Ont., Canada, has purchased and 
put into operation two one-man cars 
formerly operated on a Connecticut rail- 
way which went into insolvency. 

W. S. Twining, City Transit Director, 
Philadelphia, Pa., has called for bids 



NEW YORK METAL MARKET PRICES 



OLD METAL PRICES— NEW YORK 



Copper ingots, cents per lb 

Copper wire base, cents per lb 

Lead, cents per lb 

Nickel, cents per lb 

Zinc, cents per lb 

Tin, cents per lb 

.^luminiim, 98 to 99 per cent, cents per lb. 



Dec. 1, 

Dec. I, 1920 Jan. 5, 1921 Heavy copper, cents per lb lO.SOto 

nn n 7r * it nn Light copper, cents per lb 8.50to 

.t nn , r Heavy brass, cents per lb 6 50 to 

'Tji Zinc, old scrap, cents per lb 3.25 to 

A in Yellow brass, cents per lb 4 .50 to 

'♦^00 Lead, heavy, cents per lb 4.00 to 

^ Steel oar axles, Chicago, pet net ton 20. 00 to 

„ iQ 7n Old car wheels, Chicago, per gross ton. . . 32 .00 to 

Steel rails (-hort) Chicago, per gross ton. 1 9. 00 to 

Steel rails (reroUing) , Chicago, gross ton. . 20 . 00 to 

Machine shop turnings, Chicago, net ton. 7 50 to 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY MATERIAL PRICES 



1920 
11.00 
9.00 
7 00 
3.50 
5.00 
4.50 
21.00 
33.00 
20.00 
21 .00 
8.00 



Ja-i 5, 1921 



10 .00 to 
8 .00 to 
6 . 00 to 
3 . 00 to 
4 . 00 to 
3 .50 to 
1 7 . 00 to 
2 1 . 00 to 
16.50 to 
1 7 . 00 to 
6 00 to 



10.50 
8.25 



50 
25 
50 
3.75 
18.00 
22.00 

17 00 

18 00 
6.50 



Dec. 1, 1920 

Rubber-covered wire base. New York, 

cents per lb 23.00 

Weatherproof wire base, New York, cents 

per lb 22 . 00 

Standard Bessemer Steel Rails, per gross 

ton 45. 00 to 55.00 

Standard open hearth rails, per gross ton . . 47 . 00 to 57 . 00 
T-rail, high (Shanghai), per gross ton, 

f.o.b. mill 73.00 

Rails, girder (grooved), per gross ton, 

f.o.b. mill 88.00 

Wire nails, Pittsburgh, cents per lb 3 . 25 to 4.25 

Railroad spikes, drive, Pittsburgh base, 

cents per lb 3.25 to 4.25 

Tie plates (flat type), cents per lb 3.00 to 3.75 

Tie plates (brace type) , cents per lb 3.00 to 3 .75 

Tie rods, Pittsburgh base, cents per lb. . . 6.00 to 6.50 

Fish plates, cents per lb 3 .25 to 4 .25 

Angle bars, cents per lb 3.25 to 4.25 

Rail bolts and nuts, Pittsburgh base, 

cents per lb 6. 00 to 7.00 

Steel bars, Pittsburgh, cents per lb 2. 35 to 3.00 

Sheet iron, black (24 gage), Pittsburgh, 

cents per lb 4 . 20 to 5 .35 

Sheet iron, galvanized (24 gage), Pitts- 
burgh, cents per lb 5 .25 to 6.55 

Galvanized barbed wire, Pittsburgh, 

centFppflb 4. 10 to 4.85 



J;ui. 5, 1921 

18 00 

19.00 to 20 00 

45 00 to 51 .00 
47.00 to 53.00 

73.00 

88.00 
3.25 

3.65 to 4 00 
2.75 
2.75 
6.00 
2.75 
2.75 

5.50 
2 35 

4 20 

5 25 
4 10 



Dec. 1, 1920 

Galvanized wire, ordinary, Pittsburgh, 

cents per lb 3 .95 to 4 45 

Car window glass (single strength), first 

three brackets, A quality. New York, 

discount* 77% 

Car window glass (single strength), first 

three brackets, B quality. New York, 

discount 77% 

Car window glass (double strength, all 

sizes, A quality) , New York, discount. . . 79% 
Waste, wool (according to grade), cents 

per lb 15 to 21 

Waste cotton ( 1 00 lb. bale) , cents per lb.. 1 5 to 1 75 
Asphalt, hot (150 tons minimum), per 

ton delivered 40 . 00 

Asphalt, cold (150 tons minimum, pkgs. 

weighed in), per ton 36.00 

Asphalt, filler, per ton 36 00 

Cement, New York, per bbl 4 90 

Linseed oil (raw, 5 bbl. lots). New York, 

per gal .85 

Linseed oil (boiled, 5 bbl. lots), New York, 

Eergal .87 
ite lead (100 lb. keg). New York, 

cents per lb 14 25 

Turpentine (bbl. lots) , New York, per gal. . 95 

* These prices are f.o.b. works, with boxing charges extra. 



Jan. 5, 1921 
3.95 

77% 

77% 

79% 

13 to 19 
1 1 to 1 5 

40 00 

36.00 
36.00 
4.50 

.83 

85 

14 00 
.75 



112 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 2 



on 100 steel passenger cars for the 
Frankford Elevated Railway, which, it 
is expected, will be operated under lease 
by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Com- 
pany. Bids will be opened on Jan. 25. 

The City of New York has ordered 
forty-three more safety cars from the 
J. G. Brill Company. This order fol- 
lows one placed with the same company 
about the middle of October for twenty- 
eight safety cars, at a cost of $7,050 
each, on behalf of the Staten Island 
Midland Railway, which resumed op- 
eration under the city on Dec. 1. The 
new cars will be apportioned on the 
Staten Island and Williamsburg Bridge 
lines. 

The Detroit (Mich.) Municipal Rail- 
way has received the first of the 25 
safety cars ordered by the Detroit 
street railway commission for use on 
the new municipal lines. The remain- 
ing cars are expected to arrive at the 
rate of two each day. The cars will 
be stored temporarily at the upper end 
of Montclair Ave., until the first car 
barn is completed. Plans for the latter 
are under way but actual construction 
has not started. The Peter Witt type 
of double-truck car for use on the heavy 
traffic streets has been discussed and 
it is probable that an order for one of 
these cars will be placed shortly. A 
car of the Peter Witt type capable of 
carrying 56 passengers is on exhibition 
in Cadillac Square. 



Track and Roadway 



Columbus, Delaware & Marion Elec- 
tric Company, Columbus, Ohio. — Upon 
the application of the Columbus, Dela- 
ware & Marion Electric Company, 
Judge E. B. Kinkead of the local courts 
has granted a temporary restraining 
order against the Ohio Highway Com- 
mission from proceeding with the im- 
provement of North High Street, a 
distance of about two miles. The com- 
plainant alleged that the estimate on 
the improvement is $380,490, which is 
excessive and that its share of the im- 
provement will cost $127,000. It is 
further alleged that this is the wrong- 
time for the award of the contract. It is 
also claimed that under its franchise 
the traction company has the right to 
remove its tracks to the center of the 
street within a reasonable time and that 
the state highway commission, by let- 
ting the road contract is endeavoring 
to rush the company in this work. 



Power Houses, Shops 
and Buildings 



Monongahela Valley Traction Com- 
pany, Morgantown, W. Va. — The Mo- 
nongahela Valley Traction Company 
has ordered 25 miles of steel towers 
from the Blaw-Knox Company. The 
shop work is now under way on these 
towers. 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Company, Milwaukee, Wis. — The first 



generating unit of the Lakeside plant 
of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Company is in service. This new 
plant, the ultimate capacity of which 
is 200,000 kw., will give the Milwaukee 
district ample electric power supply. 

Bamberger Electric Railroad, Salt 
Lake City, Utah. — Since the necessary 
steps have been taken to give Kays- 
ville a depot on the Bamberger Electric 
Railroad the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion of Utah has dismissed the petition 
of that city for an order directing the 
railroad company to construct the 
depot. 

Jamestown (N. Y.) Street Railway. — 

The office building and part of the West 
Third Street carhouse of the Jamestown 
Street Railway was destroyed by fire 
on Dec. 26. A. N. Broadhead, presi- 
dent of the company, estimated the loss 
at $50,000. The structure was a frame 
building erected in 1886. All of the 
company's tickets and records were in 
steel vaults and were saved. 

1 ' 

Trade Notes \ 



The Brenner Manufacturing Com- 
pany, 19 Gray Avenue, Utica, N. Y., 

manufacturer of air compressors, etc., 
has filed notice of increase of capital 
stock from $250,000 to $500,000. 

The Tubular Woven Fabric Company, 
Pawtucket, R. I., will open a Pittsburgh 
office in charge of Gray Jones, for- 
merly of the Cutler-Hammer Company. 
This"is effective Jan. 1, 1921. 

The American Insulating Machinery 
Company, Fairhill and Huntingdon 
Streets, Philadelphia, has filed notice of 
increase in capital stock from $50,000 
to $200,000. 

Electric Plant at Evans Bay, New 
Zealand.— The City Council of Welling- 
ton, New Zealand, contemplates a num- 
ber of improvements, among which are 
the erection of an electric power sta- 
tion, tramway extensions, new car 
sheds and cars, to cost about £664,887. 

The John E. Thropp's Sons, Lewis 
Street, Trenton, N. J., has acquired 
property in the vicinity of Fair Street 
for future extensions. The company 
manufacturers mechanical stokers, etc. 

The Louisville Electrical Manufac- 
turing Company, 660 South Second 
Street, Louisville, Ky., is planning to 
erect a new plant, 60 ft. x 150 ft., for 
the manufacture of portable electric 
tools. 

The Automatic Reclosing Circuit 
Breaker Company, Columbus, Ohio, an- 
nounces the appointment of the W. D. 
Hammer Company, 508 Traction Ter- 
minal Building, Indianapolis, Ind., as its 
representative in the State of Indiana 
and western Kentucky. 

The American Blower Company, 141 
Broadway, New York City, manufac- 
turer of mechanical draft equipment, 
fans, motors, etc., has increased its 
capital stock from $1,500,000 to $3,750,- 
000. The company has plants at Green 
Island, N. Y., and Detroit, Mich. 



The Line Material Company, South 
Milwaukee, Wis., through Vice-Presi- 
dent L. E. Hendee, announces that the 
recent fire which wiped out the office 
did not halt the company's operations. 
All vital records were found intact in 
the safes, while the operating plant was 
undamaged. 

The Power Plant Engineering Com- 
pany, Seattle, Wash., has been incor- 
porated and offices have been estab- 
lished in the L. C. Smith Building. The 
company is composed of engineers 
experienced in power-plant installation 
and operation, and it is in a position 
to contract for, design and install all 
power equipment. It also has the ex- 
clusive agency for the Santmyer pow- 
dered coal equipment. W. J. Santmyer 
is president, R. S. Whaley is vice-presi- 
dent, and A. E. Maclnnis is secretary- 
treasurer. 

Garnet Blocksidge, railway depart- 
ment, Philadelphia office of the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, has resigned to become sales 
engineer, London office of the Westing- 
house International Company. After 
graduating from the Virginia Poly- 
technic Institute in 1906, Mr. Blocksidge 
joined the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company as a graduate 
student, and remained at East Pitts- 
burgh until 1912, when he was trans- 
ferred to the Baltimore office as 
salesman in the railway and light 
department. 

The Black & Decker Manufacturing 
Company, Towson Heights, Md., has 
established a new branch office at 303 
Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa., in charge 
of W. D. Royer, formerly sales engineer 
of the Robbins Electric Company, Pitts- 
burgh. This office will be the head- 
quarters for the Black & Decker sales 
force in western New York, western 
Pennsylvania and the northwestern part 
of West Virginia. A service station has 
also been established at the same 
address. 



New Advertising Literature 



Car Seats.— The J. G. Brill Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa., has issued bulletin 
No. 247, describing and illustrating- 
"Brill Non-Reversible Seats." 

Welding. — Metal & Thermit Corpo- 
ration, 120 Broadway, New York City, 
has issued pamphlet No. 39, an illus- 
trated booklet on "Thermit Insert Rail 
Weld." 

Fire Extinguisher. — Foamite Fire- 
foam Company, 200 Fifth Avenue, New 
York City, has issued a pamphlet 
describing its new "All Weather," 
Model A, 2J-gal., non-freezing fire 
extinguisher. 

Water Heaters. — Ross Heater & 
Manufacturing Company, Inc., Buffalo, 
N. Y., manufacturer of heaters for 
boiler feed, etc., has issued catalog F, 
a thirty-nine-page booklet illustrating 
and describing various types of heat- 
ers, condensers, expansion joints, cool- 
ers and airjector pumps. 



Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railivay Review 

HENBY W. BLAKE and HAROLD V. BOZELL, Editors HENBT H. NORBIS, Managing Editor 
HARRY L.BROWN, Western Editor N.A.BOWERS.Paclflc Coast Editor H.S.KNOWLTON, New England Editor C.W.SQUIER. Associate Editor C.W.STOCKS, Associate Editor 
DONALD F.HINE.Editorial Representative A. D.KNOX, Editorial Ucprescntative GEORGE BUSHFIELD. Editorial Representative 

O.J.MACMURRAY,News Editor W.B.ANDBRSON.Asslstant News Editor 



Volume 57 



New York, Saturday, January 15, 1921 



Number 3 



Pay-Leave Fare Collection 

Appeals to Safety Engineer 

STILL another advocate of the pay-leave plan of fare 
collection so .successfully used on various electric 
railways has come to the front. It is none other than 
the local director of the National Safety Council in 
Kansas City, Mo., who is at present urging the aban- 
donment of the Beeler plan of handling cars in the 
downtown districts of that city. 

While we are not going to take sides with him in the 
question of handling traffic, we do feel that this is an 
opportune time for many electric railway operators to 
consider strongly that, by the pay-leave plan on out- 
bound trips and the pay-enter plan on inbound trips, 
they can materially increase the track capacity and 
they will greatly benefit their patrons in enabling them 
to reach their destinations and homes more rapidly 
than when both directions of travel are handled strictly 
on the pay-enter plan. 



Another Debt the Industry 
May Owe to Franklin 

NEXT week is national Thrift Week, which begins on 
Jan. 17, Benjamin Franklin's birthday. The plan 
has received the approval of a number of national or- 
ganizations, and the Governor of New York State 
has just issued a proclamation asking all citizens to 
observe the week in honor of Franklin, not by ceasing 
work, but by following his precepts on thrift; in fact, 
a movement is on foot to have each year a thrift week 
beginning on Jan. 17. 

A campaign in favor of thrift can well be encouraged 
in this country, not on the theory that Americans have 
become greater spenders than formerly, but because a 
great deal of property was destroyed during the war 
and, broadly speaking, that amount will have to be re- 
placed by savings before the credit and financial struc- 
ture of the world will become normal again. The sub- 
ject also is one closely related to the prosperity of the 
electric railways and the service which they can render 
to the public, because of the needs which the utilities 
have for additional funds each year to take care of their 
maturing obligations. Moreover, as was shown last 
week, this money will have to come largely from small 
investors, because with the present income tax laws, 
individuals and estates with large incomes are seriously 
penalized if they hold securities other than those which 
are tax exempt. The extent of this demand for invest- 
ment funds by electric railways is indicated by a table 
of electric railway securities maturing during 1921, 
published in the Wall Street Journal last week. This 
table was included in the last issue of this paper and 
gave a total for electric railway bonds and notes matur- 
ing during 1921 of $207,617,530. Even if most of the 
savings from thrift campaigns do not go directly into 
utilities they will help their refinancing if they add to 
the amount of investment capital of the country. 



Thrift campaigns should not be considered in any 
' ' -■'^ way to be antagonistic to campaigns ui'ging people to 
relieve unemployment by purchasing articles. Money 
saved and invested is expended just as truly as if spent 
for luxuries, and its expenditure keeps employed an 
equal number of men. But there is this difference: It 
is .spent for something productive and thus tends still 
further to increase the national wealth. Even purveyors 
of luxuries benefit from a thrift campaign, because ulti- 
mately it results in a larger group of possible buyers of 
the articles which they provide. 

Many people do not realize how rapidly money repro- 
duces itself, but in the thrift campaign for war savings 
stamps and others which have been conducted many 
interesting facts have been developed. Thus, it has been 
declared that if $7,000 and its proceeds had been kept 
continuously invested at 6 per cent from the time of the 
settlement of Jamestown until now the sum would 
be equal at the present day to the entire national wealth 
of this country, public and private. It will be remem- 
bered that Benjamin Franklin bequeathed a sum of 
money each to Boston and Philadelphia which was to 
be put at compound interest and then, with the accumu- 
lation, be put to the service of the public at the end of 
a century. While the actual amounts accumulated fell 
short of his calculations, the citizens of both cities are 
today enjoying the benefits of his forehandedness. If 
the memory and maxims of Benjamin Franklin will 
encourage efforts of this generation to thrift it may 
constitute another contribution by him to the electrical 
industry comparable with that which established the 
identity of lightning and electricity. 



The Scrap Pile 

an Index of Progress 

REPRESENTATIVE of this paper asked one of the 
electric railway visitors from abroad last fall what 
most impressed him in regard to the operating practice 
of electric railway companies in this country. The 
visitor, who had made an extensive tour of inspection 
of different electric railway properties, promptly replied : 
"The size of their scrap piles." He then explained that 
he spoke both literally and figuratively and that what he 
had in mind was the amount of apparatus and equipment 
discarded as unfit for use by electric railway companies. 
Some of this was literally thrown on the scrap pile, but 
all was disposed of as scrap. In view of the more frugal 
practice observed by electric railway companies on the 
other side of the Atlantic, such a policy appeared to 
him to be almost criminal waste. 

Much of this scrapping of material, in the opinion of 
the speaker, was due to lack of proper maintenance. 
Cars, for instance, would be used up in one-half or one- 
third of the time they would last abroad, principally 
because proper attention had not been paid to keeping 
up the paint and varnish and other protection. Still 
other cars which were in good condition would be 



I 

114 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 3 



discarded because "they were out of fashion." Equip- 
ment parts would be thrown on the scrap heap because 
no one seemed to think it worth while to rescue them, 
and so on down the list. 

The fault of waste is one which is often charged 
against America, but is the practice just mentioned 
really waste? In fact, are not the enterprise and I'eal 
efficiency and economy of our railway managements 
often gaged directly rather than inversely by the size 
of their "scrap heap"? 

It may at first sight, for instance, seem wasteful to 
neglect the maintenance of a car body, but if there were 
perfect maintenance, car bodies would last indefinitely 
except for those destroyed by collisions. Yet car design 
is a progressive science, and if the physical life of a 
car body is longer or very much longer than its life as 
dictated by the existing status of car design, no great 
good is obtained. 

Of course, the same principle applies to equipment 
parts and apparatus. There are doubtless instances 
where both have been scrapped too soon, but we believe 
the number of instances is far larger where they have 
been scrapped too late. This is especially the case with 
complete apparatus and equipment. On too many roads 
obsolete motors have been kept in operation long after 
they should have been thrown on the scrap pile because 
of their high maintenance cost and inefficiency. The 
wise manager is the one who knows the best time to 
throvv' away equipment and then acts upon his 
convictions. Some years ago this paper suggested as a 
slogan embodying the above principle the phrase, "Don't 
Build Cars to Last Forever." If cars are not built to 
last forever, obviously they and their component parts 
must be discarded some time. 



Engineers' Program for 1921 Activities 
Promises Hard but Effective Work 

THE members of the Engineering Association look 
to the subject committee each year to scan the field 
so closely as to permit the drawing up of a program 
which is comprehensive and interesting. The planning 
of this program is really one of the most important jobs 
of the association year. When it has been approved by 
the association and revised by the executive committee 
it forms a rather rigid guide for the committee work. 
The presumption that the topics selected are the most 
important ones for study is a fair one on the part of 
the committee members. They assume that if they 
carry out the assignments made to them they are doing 
their best work for the association. The list of 1921 
assignments was printed in the Dec. 25 issue of this 
paper, page 1296, and its several sections ought to be 
studied carefully by the specialists in the respective 
fields. 

In examining critically a list like this, one naturally 
takes the point of view of the committee members, who 
must do the assigned work and prepare acceptable re- 
ports. One asks, in this connection, is the work neces- 
sary and will it be inspiring? Most committee work is 
necessarily tedious; in fact one of its purposes is to 
relieve the industry as a whole from the task of col- 
lecting and digesting data, and similar duties. Hence 
it is natural to expect that the preparation of a report 
will be more or less of a "grind." But there should be 
some inspiration in it, too, if the best results are to be 
had. From these standpoints the 1921 assignments 
appear to be satisfactory. The numbers of topics in 



the several groups are not large, and in each there is at 
least one highly attractive topic. For example, the 
building and structures committee is to work on a shop 
layout; the equipment committee is to report on the 
life of wearing parts and related topics; the heavy trac- 
tion committee is to compare the operation of locomotive 
and multiple-unit train operation; the power distribu- 
tion committee will study wear of overhead contact 
conductors; the power generation committee will bring 
up to date the subject of the automatic substation, and 
the committee on way matters will consider substitutes 
for wood ties. There is also a new committee on appren- 
tice systems which ought to stir up something at the 
next convention. 

As the committees take up their work, it is appropri- 
ate that attention should be directed to the principles 
outlined above. The committees will need the co-opera- 
tion of the entire industry in their researches. If the 
commissions which have been given to the committees 
are faithfully carried out, the 1921 convention of the 
Engineering Association will set a new high mark for 
excellence. 



Connecticut Starts to Apply 

Federal Commission Findings 

THE special report of the Connecticut Commission on 
the electric railway situation in Connecticut, of 
which an extended abstract was presented last week, 
shows that the commission has spared no effort to bring 
out the facts of the case and to apply to the local con- 
ditions the financial features of the recommendations of 
the Federal Electric Railways Commission. The com- 
mission has struck two ways. In its functions of secur- 
ing for the public adequate service at reasonable rates, 
it admonishes the company in no uncertain terms. More 
strongly perhaps, it speaks to the public, or Legislature, 
in telling it what it must do in order to assure itself of 
the service at rates which it desires to pay and also in 
order adequately to pay for the service, provide for a 
return on the investment and assure credit upon which 
extensions and improvements may be based. Above all, 
it urges a spirit of co-operation, understanding and fair 
play. 

An outstanding suggestion is to the federal court, 
to the effect that it restore the Connecticut Company to 
the New Haven road, which had originally created the 
property in a desire to link together in an economical 
operating unit the various transportation agencies of 
southern New England. That the community has not 
gained by this disintegration seems apparent to the com- 
mission. 

To the company the commission recommends the sound 
policy of operation by independent divisions under com- 
petent local managers who have the necessary authority. 
It suggests the use of motor vehicles as substitute trans- 
portation on non-paying lines and as auxiliary to exist- 
ing lines. It recommends increased publicity and sug- 
gests certain service improvements, which are probably 
sincerely desired by the company as well, as soon as its 
funds can support them. 

To the public, the commission urges the abolition of 
many taxes and imposts, now proving a burden and 
reflected in poorer service and higher rates to the 
public. It suggests that legislation be enacted allowing 
the abandonment of unprofitable lines and permitting 
the railway company to operate motor vehicles. And 
most important, in this State of much jitney experience. 



January 15, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



115 



it suggests that jitneys be made common carriers, sub- 
ject to the control of the commission, except for certain 
safety and license rules of the State's motor vehicle 
department. 

While the company's management may not care for 
some of the inferences and direct statements in the 
report and while the public may be slow to recognize 
the correctness of some of the admonitions directed its 
way, yet the report gives an impression of sound com- 
mon sense. One is particularly struck by what might be 
called the commission's outstanding sanity in the ques- 
tion of valuation. While details of methods employed 
must be awaited before competent comments may be 
made, the logic of the commission in arriving at a con- 
clusion at a cost of $10,000 as compared with a minimum 
estimated expense of $100,000 if the usual method has 
been followed seems unassailable, provided, of course, 
that an essentially correct result has been obtained. 

Connecticut's new engineer-lawyer Governor, E. J. 
Lake, in an independent message, has closely paralleled 
the suggestions of the commission, in principle if not in 
detail. 

It is, of course, too early to predict the form of any 
actual legislation which will result, but these recom- 
mendations in Connecticut, where electric railway and 
jitney troubles are serious, indicate both that there is 
action pointing toward constructive utility legislation, 
as has been anticipated in these columns, and that the 
report of the Federal Electric Railways Commission is 
taking effect in concrete form. 



considerations of brake-rigging calculations. Articles 
which are to follow will apply these to the most common 
types of brake rigging found on electric cars. These 
calculations are presented in a manner that can be 
readily understood by the average car repairman and 
should prove of educational value to the men most closely 
connected with the work if this information is made 
available to them. On account of the differences in car 
construction and weight there can be no fixed standard 
as to levers, but foremen and their assistants should be 
interested in informing themselves as to methods of 
making easy calculations. A little study and analysis 
will show many minor details in maintaining foundation 
brake rigging which would, if neglected, lead to serious 
accidents, or at least to a decrease in the efficiency of 
the braking equipment. 



Educating the 

Man on the Job 

TO GET the maximum efficiency from the men 
directly responsible for electric car maintenance 
requires that these men have a general knowledge of 
the functions which the various parts of the equipment 
are expected to perform and of the methods used in 
calculating and checking dimensions and adjustments. 
Most brake repair men will immediately concede the 
advantage of having the same shoe pressure on each 
pair of wheels during the braking period. In practice 
they find unequal shoe wear occurring continually, but if 
asked to check up their equipment and determine the 
pressure they are actually getting, few could do it. Such 
questions as the relation which unequal shoe clearance, 
excessive piston travel and high leverage bear to the fre- 
quency with which inspec- 
tion and adjustment must ^ ^=1— — ii^=Bi3i5s 
be made will be better ap- 
preciated if the men can 
follow out some of the fun- 
damental calculations of 
brake - rigging design on 
their own equipment. At 
first thought this problem 
may appear rather difficult, 
but a little consideration 
shows that in reality it is 
very simple and can be 
readily understood without 
the use of complicated 
mathematical formulas. 

An article in this issue, 
which is the first of a series 
by H. M. P. Murphy, takes 
up some of the elemental 



Quotation from the ^o. 3 

Federal Electric Railways 
Commission Report 

ELECTRIC railways were not conservatively fi- 
nanced in their early years, and have not since made 
good their overcapitalization, except to a limited ex- 
tent, otherwise than through the process of bankruptcy 
and reorganization. In the early days the promoters 
of electric railway properties believed that the long- 
term franchises with a 5-cent fare would be permanently 
profitable. Large sums of money were required to de- 
velop the business. In many cases the promoters is- 
sued bonus stock to represent money, service or prop- 
erty and added nothing to the value of the plant. As a 
result of this practice, there are many cases where the 
existing capitalization exceeds the investment in the 
plant or the value thereof, and there has been neglect 
to amortize this excess capitalization. 



Customers' Notions Sometimes 
Make Supplies Cost More 

THE contention of the standardization "fans" is 
that non-standard equipment will in the end cost 
more. If a reasonable number of companies adopt 
association standards this will prove true. There is a 
real drift or movement now in this direction. An ele- 
ment in the situation is the willingness of purchasers 
to suppress their desire for individuality for the good 
of the treasury. 

Time was when every designer of electric railway 
apparatus wanted his designs to be different, thus 
stamping his individuality and personality upon his 
work. Not being quite satisfied with what he found 
ready to his hand, he got up something which he thought 
a little better. This of course was a special product 
for which his employer had to pay extra. This condition 
prevailed from a trolley hanger to a power plant. 

This craving for individuality was opposed to manu- 
facturing economy, often because the offender was not 
familiar with manufacturing processes. The present 
committee make-up of the Engineering Association, 
with railway and supply engineers on the same footing, 
is having an excellent effect, among others, in educating 
operating men as to these processes. 

In last week's issue of this paper an article was 
printed which emphasized the above-mentioned point, 
but with regard to steel poles. It gave the manufactur- 
er's point of view as to this important product. The 
careful reader was undoubtedly impressed by the 

fact that many considera- 
tions enter into the selection 
of details of design of steel 
poles, and other things, 
which are apt to be over- 
looked altogether. Presum- 
ably the salesman points 
these out when specifica- 
tions are handed to him, 
but the salesman is hardly 
in a position to dictate or 
even urge a change in spec- 
ifications when he is com- 
peting for an order. It is 
really up to the purchaser 
to know what he wants, and 
he ought to want what can 
be had most economically. 
In other words, the less 
njsj notional he is the better. 



116 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 3 



The Force Action of Brake Riggings 

Most Common Forms of Levers Used in the Brake Rigging of Electric Cars Are Described and the 
Fundamental Laws of Leverage Are Worked Out and Applied to Practical Installations — By 
Solving Several Problems Involving the Forces Acting at the Various Points of 
Levers Those Interested Can Become More Familiar with the Subject 



By H. M. p. murphy 



ELABORATE and costly experiments have been made to 
secure braking efficiency, braking power has been cal- 
culated to a nicety and everything possible has been done 
to insure proper installation of brake equipment, yet the 
results obtained ultimately depend on the thoroughness 
with which adjustments are made and the mechanical re- 
lations maintained. The most careful designing may be 
upset by such small items as the position of a brake lever, 
wrongly applied or missing cotter pins, holes worn oblong 
in brake levers, excessively worn brake lever pins or 
wrongly applied levers. Proper maintenance requires that 
careful attention be given to checking brake leverage, and 
foremen and their assistants should be posted on easy 
methods of making calculations. With this object in 
mind the editors of this paper have arranged for a series of 
articles on brake rigging design and calculation, the first 
of which is published herewith. The studies presented 
will be given in as simple and fundamental a manner as 
possible so that the whole subject may be more fully 
understood by the men actually doing the work. H. M. P. 
Murphy, the author, has had a long and varied experience 
in the calculation, installation and operation of braking 
systems with the pioneer company on brakes, the 
Westinghouse Air Brake Company, and the information 
which he presents should be of value to the mechanical 
departments of electric railways. 



IN ALL brake systems 
economy and other prac- 
tical considerations re- 
quire that the force exerted 
by the brake-cylinder piston, 
or other source of power, be 
multiplied many times before 
being delivered to the brake 
shoes. Consequently the most 
important parts of any brake 
rigging are the devices which 
do the multiplying work and 
which are ordinarily simple 
levers or their equivalents. 
In dealing with this subject 
one of the fundamental re- 
quirements that must always 
be fulfilled in any satisfac- 
tory design is that each lever 
shall have only three inde- 
pendent parallel forces acting 
on it at the same time. If an 
attempt be made to cause 
four or more independent 

forces to act on a lever at the same time perfect equal- 
ization is no longer possible in practice and can only be 
obtained in part by the use of springs. On this account, 
and because the use of such devices offers no advantage 
whatever, the three-point lever has become the universal 
.standard and is the only one that will be discussed here, 
although the same fundamental principles are applicable 
to all types of levers. 

Definition of a Lever 

Whenever the generally accepted term "lever" is used 
it refers to a rigid bar, either straight or curved, which 
is so designed that it may be acted upon by three parallel 
forces in such a way as to produce a balance between 
them and to cause them to bear any desired relation to 
each other. 

There are two kinds of three-point levers, namely, 
"straight line" and "eccentric." These will be taken up 
and described. The most common form of lever is a flat 
steel or iron bar, with three holes drilled in it in the 
same straight line, as shown in Fig. 1, the forces being 
transmitted by pins run through the holes and fastened 
in the jaws of rods or brackets. This type of lever is 
called the "straight-line" lever. At times a slight modi- 
fication of the straight-line type of lever is employed, 
as illustrated in Fig. 2, one of the end holes being re- 
placed by a semicircular notch or a curved bearing 
surface, as indicated. With this type a hooked jaw or 
a slotted head transmits the force to the end thus de- 
signed, instead of through a pin, as in the case shown 
in Fig. 1. Occasionally levers of the .straight-line form 
are bent into various shapes in order to clear some ob- 
struction. Such a lever is shown in Fig. 3. 



The eccentric form of lever 
differs from the straight-line 
type only in that the three 
pin holes or bearing points 
are not in the same line, as 
illustrated in Fig. 4. This 
type of lever is not generally 
desirable from a practical 
point of view and should 
never be used when it is at 
all possible to avoid it. The 
object of bending a lever in 
this way is to provide clear- 
ance where necessary. 

The simple principles or 
physical laws which govern 
the action of all levers, and 
similar force-multiplying de- 
vices, are in reality self-evi- 
dent facts and therefore re- 
quire no elaborate proof. 
Before stating these laws in 
' ' ~ a broad sense it will, how- 
ever, be well to illustrate 
them by aid of a few elementary examples: Thus in 
Fig. 5 let a straight-line lever be suspended at the 
middle point by a cord passing over a pulley and sup- 
pose that the weight of the lever itself is neglected; 
then if a 100-lb weight be hung at one end, 20 in. from 
the central point, the lever will be balanced if another 
100-lb. weight be hung on the opposite end at the same 
distance from the center end if two 100-lb. weights be 
attached to the cord. 

Again, suppose that a 100-lb. weight is suspended on 
a lever, as in the previous case, at 20 in. from the cen- 
tral point. Now the lever may be perfectly balanced, 
as shown in Fig. 6, by hanging two 100-lb. weights on 
the opposite end at 10 in. from the central point (i.e., at 
one-half of the single weight distance from the central 
point) and by attaching three 100-lb. weights to the 
cord. 

As another example, suppose that a 100-lb. weight is 
suspended on a lever, as in the preceding cases, at 20 in. 
from the central point. Now the lever may be perfectly 
balanced, as shown in Fig. 7, by hanging four 100-lb. 
weights on the opposite end at 5 in. from the central 
point { i.e., at one-fourth of the single weight distance 
from the central point) and by attaching five 100-lb. 
weights to the cord. 

In any of these examples it is equally true that the 
same weights or forces will remain in balance if the 
lever be swung about the central point at any angle; 
thus, the same relations between the weights indicated 
in Fig. 6 will be maintained if the lever be swung at 
the angle shown in Fig. 8, the weights all acting ver- 
tically; that is, in parallel lines. 

By an inspection of Figs. 5 to 8 it is seen that the two 



January 15, 1921 Electric Railway JOURNAL 117 



end forces acting on a lever are always exerted in the 
same direction, which is opposite to that of the central 
force. The examples illustrated also show that the 
middle force is always equal to the sum of the two end 
forces. Thus in Fig. 6 the middle force is 300 lb., 
which is equal to the sum of the two end forces of 200 
and 100 lb. respectively, and either end force is equal to 
the middle force minus the other end force. Thus in 
Fig. 7 the force acting on the short arm is 400 lb., which 
is equal to the middle force of 500 lb. minus the other 
end force of 100 lb., or, the force acting on the long arm 
is 100 lb., which is equal to the central force of 500 lb. 
minus the opposite end force of 400 lb. 

A Fulcrum is Defined 

In dealing with levers of any type or with other 
force-multiplying devices, such as locomotive bell cranks, 
it is customary to consider one of the three points or pin 
centers as the center about which the lever turns. A 
point thus considered is called the fulcrum. It is often 
thought that the fulcrum should be a fixed point, but 
this idea is entirely wrong. On the contrary, it should 
be emphasized that no matter what may be the duty of 



also seen that the given law applies, for 200 X 10 = 
2,000, which is equal to 100 X 20 = 2,000; also, by 
considering the right-hand point of the lever as the 
fulcrum it is seen that the same law again applies, for 
200 X 30 = 6,000, which is equal to 300 X 20 = 6,000. 

Forces Developed by Straight-Line Levers 

In order to obtain a direct method for determining 
the forces developed by any straight-line lever it is 
apparent that the law may be given as follows : If any 
one of the three points of a lever be considered as the 
fulcrum and if either one of the forces acting at the two 
other points be multiplied by its own lever arm and this 
product be divided by the lever arm of the second force 
the result obtained will be equal to the second force. 

This method may be illustrated by Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 8. 
For example, consider the lever shown in Fig. 7 and 
suppose that the right-hand point is assumed to be the 
fulcrum. Then by multiplying the left-hand force, 400 lb., 
by its lever arm, 25 in., and dividing the product, 10,000, 
by the lever arm, 20 in., of the middle force the result 
is seen to be equal to 500 lb., the middle force. Simi- 
larly, if the middle force of 500 lb. be multiplied by its 




■i'i.i 




Fig. 2 





Fig. It 



Fig. 3 



COMMON TYPES OP THREE-POINT LEVERS 
Fig. 1 — Straight-line type of lever. Fig. 2 — Straight-line type with hooked jaw. Fig. 3 — Straight -line type bent 
to provide clearance. Fig-. 4 — Eccentric type of lever. 



a lever or whether it has a fixed center or not any one 
of the three points (or pin centers) may be considered 
as the fulcrum. By remembering this important fact 
the problems of figuring leverage is reduced to one of 
extreme simplicity, and, as will be shown later, one 
single rule may be used for finding the forces acting on 
any lever. 

In the case of any straight-line lever the distance 
between the point of application of ^ force and the point 
considered as the fulcrum is called the lever arm of the 
force in question. When any one of the three points of 
a lever is considered as a fulcrum the forces acting 
at the two other points are so related to each other and 
to their lever arms that the product obtained by multi- 
plying either force by its own lever arm is always equal 
to the other force m-ultiplied by its lever arm. Figs. 
5, 6, 7 and 8 illustrate this. For example, in Fig. 6 or 
Fig. 8 consider the left-hand point of the lever as the 
fulcrum. Then by applying the law in question it is seen 
that the product obtained by multiplying the middle 
force, 300 lb., by its lever arm, 10 in., is 3,000, which is 
equal to the product of the right-hand end force, 100 lb., 
by its lever arm, 30 in.; or, in the same figures, consider 
the middle point of the lever as the fulcrum, then it is 



lever arm, 20 in., and if this product, 10,000, be divided 
by the lever arm, 25 in., of the left-hand force the 
result is seen to be equal to 400 lb. ; that is, the left-hand 
force. Again, suppose that the middle point be con- 
sidered as the fulcrum. Then if the right-hand force of 
100 lb. be multiplied by its lever arm, 20 in., and if this 
product, 2,000, be divided by the lever arm, 5 in., of the 
left-hand force the result is seen to be equal to 400 lb. ; 
that is, the left-hand force. Consequently it is clear 
that the truth of the law, or principle, under considera- 
tion holds for any case whatever, and, therefore, that 
in order to compute the forces acting on any three-point 
lever it is merely necessary to remember this law, which, 
for convenience, will be called the "leverage rule" and 
which may be restated in the following concise form: 
When the force applied at one point of a lever is known 
and it is desired to find the force developed at {i.e., act- 
ing at) either one of the two other points consider the 
third {i.e., remaining) point as the fulcrum. Then the 
desired force may be found by multiplying the known 
force by its own lever arm and by dividing this product 
by the lever arm of the desired force. 

The lever point (or pin center), which is to be con- 
sidered as the fulcrum in any specified case, is, of course. 



118 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 3 



the point at which neither the known nor the desired 
forces act; that is, in order properly to select the "ful- 
crum" note the points of application of the known and 
desired forces. Then the third or remaining point 
should be considered as the fulcrum. 

Examples of the Leverage Rule 

To illustrate the use of the leverage rule consider a 
lever of the type and size shown in Fig. 9. Suppose that 
a force of 3,000 lb. is applied at the lower end point 
as indicated and let it be required to find the force 
developed at the middle point. Consider the upper end 
point as the fulcrum. Then by the rule, which for sim- 



As a further example of this method of calculation 
consider a lever of the type and size shown in Fig. 10. 
Suppose that a force of 6,000 lb. is applied at the middle 
point, as indicated, and let it be required to find the 
force developed at the upper end point. To solve this 
problem consider the lower end point as the fulcrum and 
then, by the mathematical expression previously given: 

The desired force = 

(the known force) X (the lever arm of the known force) 



the lever arm of the desired force 



The upper end force = 



6,000 X 12 
32 



2,250 lb. 



K 20 ' 




—'J!-'- >1 



Fig. 5 




Fig. 7 



3000 Lbs. 




Fin. 9 





Fig.C 



Fig. 8 




6000 Lbs, 



Fiq.lG 



10,000 Lbs, " 




Fig. 11 



DIAGRAMS ILLUSTRATING LAWS OF LEVERAGE 



Fig. 5 — Lever suspended at middle point. 
Fig. 6 — Lever suspended at point with 
weight distances of ends in ratio of 1 to 2. 



Fig. 7 — Lever suspended at point with 
weiglit distances of ends in ratio of 1 to 4. 
Fig. S — Lever swung through an angle. 



COMMON FORMS OF BRAKE LEVERS 

Fig. 9 — Live cylinder lever. 
Fig. 10 — Dead cylinder lever. 
Fig. 11 — Brake hanger lever. 



plicity may be expressed in the following mathematical 
form : 

The desired force = 
(the known force) 



Also to find the force developed at the lower end point 
consider the upper end point as the fulcrum. Then by 
applying the rule. 



(the lever arm of the known force) 



The lower end force = 



the lever arm of the desired force 

As in this case the middle force is the desired force 
and the lower end force is the known force, and also 
as the lower end force = 3,000 lb., the lever arm of the 
lower end force = 25 in. and the lever arm of the middle 
force = 15 in., the mathematical calculation is obtained 
from: 

3,000 X 25 



6,000 X 20 
32 



= 3,750 lb. 



The middle force 



1 5 



= 5,000 lb. 



In the same manner the force developed at the upper 
end point may be found by considering the middle point 
as the fulcrum, thus: 

3,000 X 10 

The upper end force = = 2,000 lb. 

Now as a check on these computations the two end 
forces added together must be exactly equal to the 
middle force. This is seen to be the case, for 3,000 -|- 
2,000 = 5,000. 



Now as a check on these computations the two end 
forces added together must be exactly equal to the 
middle force. This is seen to be the case, for 2,250 -|- 
3,750 = 6,000. 

A still different but similar application of this may 
be had by considering a lever of the type and size shovra 
in Fig. 11. Suppose that a force of 10,000 lb. is applied 
at the lower end point, as indicated, and let it be re- 
quired to find the force developed at the upper end point. 

Consider the middle point as the fulcrum. Then by 
applying the mathematical rule previously given: 



The upper end force — 



10.000 X 8 
20 



4,000 lb. 



Also to find the force developed at the middle point 
consider the upper end point as the fulcrum. Then : 

10,000 X 28 



The middle force 



20 



= 14,000 lb. 



Now as a check on these computations the two end 



January 15, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



119 



forces added together must be exactly equal to the 
middle force. This is seen to be the case, for 10,000 -(- 
4,000 = 14,000. 

Important Facts Connected with the 
Use of the Leverage Rule 

The important facts which have been illustrated by 
the preceding examples may be summarized as follows: 
First, any one of the three points or pin centers of a 
lever may be considered as the fulcrum whether there 
is a fixed point or not; second, in the computation of 
one of the two unknown forces acting on a lever the 
point at which the other unknown force acts must be 
considered as the fulcrum, and, third, each of the un- 
known forces acting on a lever may be found by aid of 
the "leverage rule," providing that the point considered 



as the fulcrum is properly selected in each case and that 
the lever arms of the desired and known forces are cor- 
rectly measured in accordance with the fact that for 
straight-line levers the lever arm of any force is the 
distance between the point of application of the force 
and the point considered as the fulcrum. 

It is now evident that by remembering the simple but 
general "leverage rule" and the true significance of the 
terms "lever arm" and "fulcrum" the forces developed 
in any standard form of brake rigging may be easily 
computed, for all of such systems are composed of a 
series of simple levers connected by suitable means, such 
as tie rods, etc., for transmitting the forces concerned. 
The usual method of procedure employed in the solution 
of brake rigging leverage problems will be fully ex- 
plained in the following articles. 



The Inspection of Rail Bonding 

Inspectors Must Make Certain that AH Joints Are Bonded, that Proper Types of Bonds Are Used, that 
Rails Are in Proper Condition for Bonding and that the Work Is Done Satisfactorily 
— Analysis of the Methods to Be Employed to Achieve the Desired Results 

By G. H. McKELWAY 

Engineer of Distribution Brooklyn (N. Y. ) Rapid Transit Company 



NO MATTER how good a rail bond may be 
immediately after installation, there is no type 
that can be relied upon to remain in good con- 
dition indefinitely. It is therefore important that they 
be inspected and tested periodically in order that those 
that deteriorate may be removed and be replaced with 
good ones. Some railway companies, particularly those 
whose tracks are laid and bonded by contractors, have 
inspectors on the work during the time of installation 
to see that the bonds are applied properly and also have 
tests of the bonds made as soon as they are installed. 
Where concealed bonds are being installed by contract 
such inspectors are often needed to make certain that 
the bonds are installed at all. Even if the contractors in 
charge of the work are entirely honest and furnish 
enough bonds for all joints, yet the men whose duty 
it is actually to install the bonds may not put all of 
them in, either through careles-sness, laziness or dis- 
honesty. 

The first duty, and the most obvious one, of such an 
mspector therefore is to see that all of the joints are 
bonded. The next is to see that the proper type and 
length of bond is used, and then to make sure that all 
bonds are applied in such a manner as to make good 
contact with the rail and to insure that they will 
i-emain in good condition as long as possible. 

First the rail should be properly prepared to receive 
the bond terminal. If expanded terminal bonds are to 
be employed holes of the proper size should be drilled 
in the rail at the proper height and the right distance 
apart. The height of the hole may seem unimportant, 
but if it is not in just the right place the bonds may be 
pinched between the splice plate and the web of the 
rail where the bonds are installed under the plates. 
At best there is very little room for the bonds under 
many of the plates, and a slight variation in the location 
of the bond may easily place it where the joint plate will 
squeeze it when the bolts are drawn up tight. The 



holes themselves should be drilled with well-sharpened 
bits so that the metal will be cut out cleanly and not 
torn out raggedly so as to leave burrs in the hole. 

The question as to whether or not any lubricant 
should be used when making the holes is still an open 
one, although it has been debated for many years. The 
consensus of opinion seems to be that it is safe to use 
a lubricant if proper precautions are taken to insure 
its removal after the drilling has been finished. But 
the supporters of the use of a lubricant are divided as to 
whether plain water, soda water or oil should be used. 

Moisture Will Cause Rust 

The objection to the use of water is that any moisture 
left in the hole will cause rust, which is an insulator. 
The contact between the terminal and the sides of the 
hole is imperfect and the resistance is increased not only 
pd the point where the original rusting occurred but 
utlimately at other points to which the corrosion may 
extend. Oil is also an insulator, but it is claimed that 
all but a very thin film of it will be pushed out of the 
hole when the bond terminal is inserted and expanded. 
The excess oil, however, when driven out of the hole 
will gather around the edges and will stay between the 
head and button of the terminal and the web of the rail, 
thus reducing the conductance between those parts. To 
make a really good job all of the water or oil should be 
wiped off before the bonds are installed and this is 
too much to expect from the ordinary class of bonding 
labor in the field, so that the safest way is to drill the 
holes dry. 

Not only must the inspector be on guard against any 
moisture that might be introduced into the hole during 
the act of drilling, but precautions should be taken to 
make certain that no dampness from the atmosphere or 
from any other source may enter later. To this end no 
bonding should be done during rainy weather, and even 
on clear days the bonds should be installed in the holes 



120 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 3 



as soon as possible after the latter have been drilled. 
When holes are drilled on one day and the bonds are 
not installed until the next it is sometimes the practice 
to plug the holes with paper to exclude the dampness. 
This is better than nothing, but the best plan is to run 
a reamer through the holes the next morning, taking 
off only enough metal from the sides of the holes to be 
sure of removing any corrosion that may be present. 

After the terminals have been placed in the holes the 
inspector should satisfy himself that they have been 
sufficiently expanded. With tubular terminals there is 
little to watch except to see that the taper punch is 
used in accordance with the instructions and that the 
drift pins are driven home. In the installation of com- 
pressed terminal bonds the compressors must be in good 
condition, well greased, and with screw threads, pins or 
cups unbroken and well centered in the bond terminals, 
and sufficient force must be exerted by the bonders to 
make sure that the bonds are well compressed. Where 
hydraulic compressors are used it is much easier to 
obtain satisfactory compression than with the screw 
type, as the former do not require the bonders to 
exert as much strength in their operation as do the 
latter. 

The screw compressors ar§ generally used on all but 
large jobs because of their low first cost and lighter 
weight. If the screw compressors are well made and 
operated they can turn out as satisfactory work as the 
hydraulic type and will compress just as much. That 
this is true will surprise many persons, but it was 
proved by a competitive test made by a large railway 
company a few years ago. The saying of Archimedes, 
that given a lever long enough he could move the world, 
can be adapted to the screw type of compressor. By 
using a long enough wrench and particularly if a ratchet 
wrench is used, so that it can be made to take hold of 
the screw at the angle best suited for the application of 
power by the men operating it, sufficient power can be 
supplied to give any compression needed. In fact, that 
can be furnished by two husky men on the end of the 
ordinary wrench if they are only willing to work hard. 

Polishing Insures Good Contact 

Another point that is always recommended but which 
is seldom carried out in practice is the polishing of the 
bond terminals with emery cloth before they are 
installed in the holes. This polishing is to make sure of 
good contact between a clean, bright terminal and the 
clean sides of the hole. Mercury amalgam is occasion- 
ally used to make a still better contact, but, although 
there is a very slight improvement in the contact resist- 
ance at the beginning, this is only temporary and the 
contact cannot be relied on permanently to improve the 
bonding. 

Where soldered bonds are installed the inspector 
should see that the portion of the rail to be covered by 
the terminal has been carefully polished, that the 
terminals are placed on the polished portions of the rail 
and not partly on the smooth and partly on the rough 
metal and that the rail and the terminal are sufficiently 
heated before the solder is applied to them. The rail 
should be tinned before the bond is clamped in place, 
and this cannot be done well unless the blow torch has 
been playing on it for some time. It is easy to heat the 
tenninal thoroughly after it has been put in place, but 
owing to the much greater amount of metal in the rail 
and the ease with which the heat is conducted away 
from the point where it is applied there is always danger 



that the solder will adhere closely to the terminal but 
not to the rail and that a poor job will result. 

With the various types of welded bonds the same 
precautions must be taken as with soldered bonds except 
that there is no necessity for preheating the rail. When 
a welding car is used, after the welding has been begun 
it is only necessary to see that the proper pressure is 
applied to the bond and that the current is kept on 
for the right length of time. When the bonds are 
applied by the arc-weld process the operation is not so 
mechanical and the type and length of the arc, as well 
as the method of depositing the molten metal, must be 
watched. 

When special work is to be bonded with cable 
jumpers not only the connections between the terminals 
and the rail should be inspected but also the connections 
between the various wires and between the bonding 
wires and the sections of bonds running to individual 
pieces of the special track work as well. The inspector 
should make sure that the splices in these wires are not 
only well wrapped but also carefully soldered, for unless 
the work is carefully supervised there will be attempts 
to make some if not all of these connections with "dry 
splices," using no solder at all. 

Tesiing Follows Inspection 

After the installation of the bonds has been com- 
pleted tests should be made to insure that they have 
been put on properly and are fulfilling the requirements 
specified. With the welded and soldered bonds these 
tests are often made by purely mechanical means, the 
terminals of the bonds are kicked or struck a light blow 
with a hammer to see that they cannot be easily knocked 
off. A variation of this method is to slip a bar through 
the loop of the bond and to use that as a lever in an 
attempt to pry the bond from the rail. In order that 
enough but not too much strain may be thrown on the 
bond it is well to specify the length of the bar to be 
used and to have the pull exerted at the specified height 
through a spring balance to measure the amount of the 
force applied. It is also customary with some companies 
to pull off a certain percentage of the bondjs and 
examine the terminals to see the extent of the contact 
made between them and the rails. These few bonds 
are taken at random and therefore are supposed to 
represent the average conditions of the whole lot of 
bonds that are installed. 

Mechanical testing will serve no good purpose with 
the expanded terminal bonds, and although visual 
inspection will show a few things, such as whether or 
not the compressor was properly centered on the bond, 
whether the button was formed properly, and whether 
any splitting of the terminal took place, yet that is 
about all, and there is no way, except by testing elec- 
trically, to make certain as to the quality of the con- 
tact made. As was mentioned by the writer in a 
previous article, it is extremely doubtful whether elec- 
trical tests of recently completed bonding are of any 
value except to show up bonds that have been very 
poorly installed or to locate joints where no bonds at all 
have been placed. The contact resistance between the 
joint plates and the webs of the rails is so low when 
the tracks have just been laid and until a film of rust 
has had time to form between them that a much greater 
proportion of the current is at first carried by the 
plates than is the case later, and therefore the bonds 
appear to be in better condition than they really are. 
Later tests, however, will produce the desired results. 



January 15, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



121 



Arc Welding on Railway Properties 

The Convenience and Economy Resulting from Electric Welding Are Now Recognized Quite Universally 
by All Railways — New Uses and Practices Are Coming to Light Continually — Some Impor- 
tant Details of the Science of Electric Welding and the Results Obtained Are 
Related — New Applications for Arc Welding Are Also Pointed Out 

By a. M. CANDY 

Westinghouse Electric «S: Manufacturing Company, Pittsbuigh, Pa. 



THREE views of three different truck frames which 
are entirely welded, no rivets being used in their 
construction, are shown in Fig. 1. This is a 
practice now being used to a certain extent by the 
Government Electric Railways of Sydney, Australia. 
The journal boxes used with these trucks are also made 
up completely by welding. Another interesting use of 
arc welding on this property is in making gear cases, 
as pictured in Fig 2. It 
will be observed that not 
only is the shell of the 
gear case welded but also 
the reinforcing strips on 
the sides. The latter are 
welded by what is known 
as the plug welding 
method, wherein metal is 
deposited in small holes 
drilled through the outer 
plate. These places can be 




identified by the rough approximately circular spots 
at various locations over these reinforcing plates. A 
somewhat similar method of welding gear cases is used 
by some of the large manufacturers here. 

Fig. 3 shows the bottom of a welded steel transformer 
tank, which is a good illustration of a welding job that 
can be done more satisfactorily by the arc process than 
by the gas process for the following reason : If the 
gas flame is played against the center of the Z-bars in 
order to bring them to a welding temperatui-e for weld- 
ing the bracing strips the bars will become so badly 
heated that they will buckle up in the center, making it 
practically impossible to do a satisfactory job. In the 
case of the arc process the arc heat is so concentrated 
and the weld can be made so rapidly that the entire 
joints between the Z-bars and the bracing strips can be 
made without throwing the Z-bars out of alignment 
appreciably. This close-up view of the bottom seam 

'Abstract of address made before Association of Railway Men, 
Mansfield, Ohio, Dec. 7, 1920. 



shows how uniformly a good operator can put down the 
deposited metal. Incidentally, this entire case was 
welded by an operator who had been using the oxy- 
acetylene welding process for years, but who had only 
two weeks' training previous to building this particular 
arc-welded tank. 

Fig. 4 shows the method used by one of the pressed 
steel car builders for attaching the felt lining for the 

inside of a car body. The 
positive side of the weld- 
ing circuit is attached to 
the car body and the 
operator, using a pair of 
pliers connected to the 
negative side of the circuit, 
grips finishing nails in the 
pliers so that he can touch 
the head of each nail 
against the side of the 
car sheeting, drawing an 




arc. He then pushes the nail into the molten metal thus 
formed and releases the pliers, leaving the nail attached 
to the plate as indicated. The felt lining is then pressed 
down over these nails, after which sm.all circular disks 
of tin, such as are used for fastening tar paper roofing, 
are pressed down over the nails. After this has 
been done the nails are clinched over to hold the 
lining in position. 

In Fig. 5 is illustrated a very neat and satisfactory 
way of building up the worn surfaces of a standard 
coupler knuckle. A number of steam railroads are 
following this practice. 

Experience in Welding Undersize Motor Shafts 

If undersize motor shafts are reclaimed by welding 
and turning down to proper size it would appear fi'om 
superficial observations that this practice is satisfactory. 
However, if the shaft is cut through the deposited sec- 
tion, as illustrated by Fig. 6, and the section is ground, 
polished and etched it will be found that the deposited 




FIG. 1 — all-welded street RAILWAY TRUCK USED BY THE GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS, SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA 



122 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 3 














12 



13 



r 



!4 



I Deposiis 

I Shori Arc ^''^ 



I We/dina We/c/inq 





15 





Good We/al ' Poor Wsic/ \(^\ 



Fig:. 2 — Method of welding gear cases used by Sydney, Australia, 
electric railways. 

Fig. 3 — Bottom welding on a steel transformer tank, where arc 
welding sui-pas.ses gas welding. 

Fig. 4 — AVelding finishing nails head-on to car sizing for at- 
taching felt lining. 

Fig. — Manner of reclaiming worn coupler head by arc welding. 

Fig. 6 — Section through built-up armature shaft, showing blow- 
holes and change in crystalline structure. 

Fig. 7 — Two views of car wheel on which tlje flange has been 
built in thirds by welding. 

Fig. 8 — Cutting cast iron (left) and steel plate (right) by 
means of the electric arc, using the graphite electrode process. 

Fig. 9 — Arc welded bond tested for strength. Right-hand 
terminal indicates thorough weld resulting from weld made with 
rail positive and electrode negative. 



Fig. 10 — Appearance of rail surface from which arc-welded 
nond has been sheared. Weld was made with rail negative and 
electiode positive. 

Fig. 11 — The depth of crater and the overlap of deposited metal 
form an index of the depth of penetration of the weld. 

Fig. 12 — Two welds on cast steel; left-hand weld was made 
with metallic electrode, whereas right-hand weld was made Wiith 
graphite electrode process. 

Fig. 13 — Polished and etched section through metal deposited 
by using a short arc. 

Fig. 14 — Polished and etched section through metal deposited 
by using a long arc. 

Fig. 15 — Surface appearance of welds made with short arc 
(left) and with long arc (right). 

Fig. 16 — Section through two welds, showing effect of current 
value. Too low current was used in right-hand piece. 



January 15, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal, 



123 



metal, which is practically pure iron in cast form, con- 
tains a certain amount of blowholes. Furthermore, the 
heat of the arc and of the deposited metal has raised the 
temperature of the shaft metal adjacent thereto to a 
sufficiently high value so that when it is cooled rapidly 
the crystalline structure is changed. This metal is 
chilled rapidly both by heat which is conducted into the 
central portion of the steel shafting, which is at a rela- 
tive low temperature, and by radiation through the 
deposited metal to the air. The result is a chilled section 
of steel shafting which is relatively brittle. A sub- 
sequent heat treatment will bring back all of the shaft 
material to its original crystalline structure, but no 
amount of heat treatment will change the characteristics 
of the deposited metal by any very appreciable degree, 
due to the fact that it is cast material and contains prac- 
tically no carbon. 

Tapered Fits Are Built Up Economically 

For these reasons we do not ordinarily recommend 
building up of heat-treated steel shafting at points 
where severe strains take place. There are cases, how- 
ever, where this is entirely permissible ; for example, in 
building up the tapered fit for a gear pinion or the 
threaded end of a shaft for re-turning to accommodate 
a nut for securing the pinion. We have also used this 
process for extending some shafts used on cranes in 
our own shops with very good results. However, there 
are cases where the severe vibration and alternating 
stresses set up in the shaft will make it absolutely in- 
advisable to apply the welding process. 

Fig. 7 illustrates a built-up flange and bore of a 
car wheel. Approximately one-third of the flange was 
left in its original state, another third at the right 
was welded and then turned down, after which the 
left-hand third was built up and left as finished from the 
welding operation. The reverse side of this same wheel 
is also shown in Fig. 7. By the discoloration seen in 
the lower right hand one-third portion of the wheel it 
is obvious that the heat of the welding arc and the 
deposited metal have changed the structure of the wheel 
materials. The use of this practice is therefore of very 
questionable value, especially where high speed service 
is encountered. For city service, however, I believe this 
practice would prove satisfactory and if properly 
handled would be often found more enomical than the 
use of a new wheel or turning the wheels down to re- 
establish the proper contour. 

The welding of small cast-iron sections presents special 
problems. The deposited metal is soft, as is also the 
cast iron, but the metal at the zone of union between the 
cast iron and the deposit, representing a skin of approx- 
imately :'k to in. in thickness, will be very hard. This 
is because the pure iron deposited by the metallic elec- 
trode absorbs some of the free carbon, known as 
graphitic carbon, from the cast iron and is chilled due 
to the heat flow into the cast iron and also radiation to 
the air. This therefore forms a shell of high carbon 
cast steel which is very hard and can only be eliminated 
by either preheating the cast iron before the welding 
work is done or else annealing the casting after the 
welding is finished. Where the material can be finished 
by grinding it is unnecesary to get rid of the hard 
zone. But if machine work must be done in the region 
of the zone of fusion it is necessary to have this hard 
shell eliminated. 

The electric arc can be used effectively for cutting 
purposes. Fig. 8 shows two samples of cutting by the 



graphite electrode process. The sample at the left is 
a piece of cast iron li in. thick, which was cut for a 
length of approximately 10 in. in three minutes, using 
a current of 400 amp. This is at the rate of I62 ft. per 
hour. The sample at the right is a piece of steel plate 
1 in. thick which was cut using a 400 amp current, the 
length of the cut being approximately 13 in. It was 
made in three minutes, or at the rate of 213. ft. per hour. 

Fig. 9 shows a test sample of electrically welded rail 
bond, the weld having been made with the bond con- 
nected as the negative electrode and the rail as positive. 
The sections of rails which were available were not 
sufficiently large to permit welding the bond in its 
proper position on the side of the head, and therefore 
it was welded on the face of the head. This bond was 
tested for strength in an Olsen testing machine by 
gripping the two pieces of rail in the jaws of the 
machine. The test results are as follows: 

One of the twin cables pulled out of each terminal at 
1,350 lb. The left-hand copper terminal was then given 
a shearing stress by compressing it, the compressing 
pressure being 11,200 lb., when it commenced to shear 
from the deposited metal. The deposited material of 
the right-hand terminal was sheared from the rail by 
a pressure of 34,000 lb. By observing the light portion 
shown on the head of the rail it is evident that a very 
good job of welding was secured, giving a very thorough 
fusion. 

Fig. 10 shows the results obtained using the welding 
polarity obtained by making the rail negative and the 
electrode positive, as in ordinary service where welding 
current is obtained from the overhead trolley wire 
working through a resistance to the electrode. These 
samples were also pulled in the Olsen machine and given 
a shearing test with the following results: 

The cables pulled out of the terminals at 5,520 lb. 
The weld metal sheared from the left-hand rail section 
at a pressure of 29,580 lb., and from the right-hand rail 
section at 17,400 lb. The "spotty" appearance of the 
weld surface from which the bond has been sheared 
indicates that the fusion of the metals was not complete. 
This appearance in Fig. 10 is compared with that in 
Fig. 9. 

How TO Inspect a Weld 

Fig. 11 shows the results obtained when making a 
deposit upon a strip of steel plate by using a v^s-in. 
diameter electrode and a current of 350 amp. This also 
shows how the depth of the penetration of the deposited 
metal, indicated by the section of the two center pieces, 
can be judged from the depth of the crater appearing 
both in the right-hand piece and at the three places on 
the left-hand piece. By observing these characteristics, 
together with the overlap of the deposited metal at its 
edges, the operator can very readily judge the satisfac- 
toriness of the deposit relative to a weld of desirable 
strength. 

Fig. 12 illustrates polished and etched sections 
through welds made in a steel casting, that at the left 
having been made using a i-in. diameter metallic elec- 
trode and 400 amp., whereas the right-hand weld was 
made using the graphite electrode process. The same 
metallic electrode material was used as filler metal and 
the same current in both cases. When using large 
metallic electrodes or the graphite electrode process 
the operator is very likely to have a considerable amount 
of slag inclusion, as indicated by the sections. There- 
fore we do not ordinarily recommend these processes 



124 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 3 



except where the speed of doing the work is of more 
importance than strength of the weld. In the case of 
the left-hand metallic electrode weld the metal was 
deposited at the rate of approximately 3;^ lb. per hour, 
whereas in the right-hand weld made by the gi'aphite 
electrode process the metal was deposited at the rate of 
approximately 3.43 lb. per hour. The size of the parts 




PIG. 17 — GRAPHS COMPARING RESULTS WITH AND WITH- 
OUT REACTOR. AT TOP, NO REACTOR IN CIRCUIT 
AT BOTTOM, REACTOR USED 



can be judged from the rule, which is shown immediately 
above the pieces. 

For test purposes a 14-lb. deposit approximately 4 in. 
wide, 2 in. thick and 12 in. long made on a piece of i-in. 
steel by using h-in. diameter electrode and 160 amp. 
of current was made. This was ground, polished and 
etched and it could then be seen that very little slag or 
oxide inclusions were present. Therefore where a weld 
of maximum strength is desired we usually recommend 
the use of smaller size electrodes, namely, si' to A in. in 
diameter maximum, and a current of from 160 amp. for 
the smaller to 225 amp. for the larger electrode. 

Test samples in the shape of a small shaft with a 
threaded head at each end were then turned up from 
the metal in the 14-lb. deposit. The tests on these pieces 
of solid deposited metal showed the following char- 
acteristics : 

Ultimate tensile strength, 58,225 lb. for one piece and 
56,075 lb. for another, the yield point being 35,875 lb.; 
elastic limit 29,000 lb., per cent elongation in 2 in., 16 
for one and 18 for the other; per cent reduction of 
area, 23.4 for one and 27.8 for the other. 

Length of Arc and Proper Current Value 

Fig. 13 shows a polished and etched section through a 
deposit made with I in., 22-volt arc on a piece of 1-in. x 
1-in. steel. The depth of penetration of the deposited 
metal and the concentration of this material are evident. 
Fig. 14 shows a similarly prepared section through a 
deposit made with a long arc. In the case of the long 
arc the air drafts which are always present cause the 
arc to play about over the surface of the work, scatter- 
ing the metal around and causing a great deal of 
porosity. It will be observed in Fig. 14 that the 
deposited metal has not penetrated into the steel piece to 
any extent and that it is scattered over a considerable 
area. Fig. 15 shows the plan view of these same two 
pieces, showing the metal deposited by the short arc at 
the left to be very smooth and relatively free from 
porosity and oxidation, whereas the metal deposited by 



the long arc at the right is very porous, poor material 
and is scattered over a considerable area. 

Fig. 16 illustrates the importance of using a suffi- 
ciently high current to obtain good fusion between the 
deposited metal and the part being welded. The sample 
at the right was made with too low a current value, so 
that the deposited metal pulled away from the surface 
very readily, as indicated at the top edge. The left-hand 
sample was made with a sufficiently high current. When 
tested it broke through the center of the weld, where it 
would be expected to break, owing to the fact that the 
entire section was machined down to a uniform thick- 
ness. The deposited metal is cast material and hence 
would break before the parts welded, which were mild 
rolled steel. 

The use of a reactor or inductance coil in each metallic 
electrode circuit is recommended. The advantages of 
the reactor are that it makes it easier for the operator 
to strike his arc and also gives the arc additional stabil- 
ity. This is of especial value if the steel upon which the 
operator must do his welding work contains foreign 
matter, such as grease, absorbed gas, rust or other 
foreign substances, which under the heat of the arc will 
form gas, tending to blowholes in the molten metal. The 
electromagnetic energy stored in this reactor gives the 
arc additional stability. When the operator strikes his 
arc the reactor keeps the current from building up to 
such a high value as to cause the electrode to stick or 
freeze to the work. 

In Fig. 17 is shown in curve form the result of using 
a reactor. The upper curve was taken with a welding 
circuit having no reactor connected therein. Below is 
illustrated the effect of the reactance in the same weld- 
ing circuit, without changing any other conditions except 
connecting in the reactor in series with the welding 
resistance. 

Moving Platforms for Crosstown 
Lines 

Consulting Engineers Outline a Solution of the Crosstown 
Traffic Problem by Using Moving Platforms Propelled 
by the Electric Carrier System — Details of the 
Proposed Platforms Are Given 

AT THE meeting on Nov. 17 of the New York section 
x\. of the American Society of Civil Engineers L. B. 
Stillwell of the firm of Stillwell & Putnam, consulting 
engineers, presented a paper briefly describing a mov- 
ing platform to handle crosstown traffic on Fourteenth, 
Forty-second and Fifty-seventh streets. Since the pub- 
lication of the abstract of this paper in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Nov. 27, 1920, on page 1102, more 
detailed information has become available about the 
design and the means of propulsion of the moving plat- 
form. 

As early as May 15, 1902, moving platforms were 
proposed to the former Rapid Transit Commission by 
the then Commissioner of Bridges, Gustav Lindenthal, 
W'ho wished to install such equipment on the Brooklyn 
Bridge. The Public Service Commission, however, hav- 
ing succeeded the Rapid Transit Commission, declined 
to approve Gustav Lindenthal's plan. Several times since 
propositions to install moving platform subways on the 
more important crosstown routes have been laid before 
the traction companies and the Public Service Commis- 
sion, only to meet with an unyielding opposition. Now 
further public efforts have been induced by the inade- 
quacy of the shuttle train service in the Forty-second 



January 15, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



■ 125 



Street subway, and certain legislative changes in the 
Public Service Commission afford an opportunity which 
will permit serious consideration of a method offering a 
solution for the relief of congested crosstown traffic. 

In the report on this subject by the engineers recom- 
mending the new plan the success of previously pro- 
posed methods where the platform is carried on i-ollers, 
mounted on shafts which are driven by stationary mo- 
tors, is doubted because of inherent mechanical diffi- 
culties. The electric carrier system of propulsion will 
permit the use of platforms mounted on car trucks, 
which will effect a material reduction in the cost of 
construction, operation and maintenance, and also of 
the space required. The distinguishing characteristic 
of this system is the method of propulsion. Instead 
of a complete motor being mounted upon the car and 
transmitting mechanical power therefrom through gears 
to the wheel, or driving carrier wheels on which the 
platform moves, the three-phase induction motor of the 
squirrel-cage type is used. These parts are separated, 
that corresponding to the stationary or primary element 
of the motor being straightened out into sections about 
5 ft. long and placed midway between the rails in the 
roadbed, while that corresponding to the revolving ele- 
ment, also straightened out, forms a continuous short- 
circuited secondary mounted on the bottom of the car. 
The primaiy elements, when energized with three-phase 
current by induction, magnetize the short-circuited sec- 
ondary which extends continuously along the bottom of 
the car. The result is that the force created between 
the induced secondary current and the shifting field of 
the primary propels the car. 

The scheme proposed is to use three platforms of 
27 in., 27 in. and 57 in. width, respectively, moving 
at 3, 6 and 9 m.p.h. The high-speed platform carries 
seats for two persons spaced at 3-ft. intervals. It is 
proposed to use identical construction for the electrical 
elements on the three platforms, the different speeds 
being- secured by operating the intermediate platform 
at double the frequency of the low-speed platform, and 
the high-speed platform at three times the frequency 
of the low-speed platform. All conductors and windings 
carrying power will be imbedded in the roadbed and 



apart. Each primary element will produce a pull equiva- 
lent to a li to 2-hp. motor. The secondary, consisting 
of copper punchings imbedded in the lamination, is con- 
tinuous except for a i in. break between cars. 

The power supply will be produced by a motor gen- 
erator set, in which a single motor will drive three gen- 
erators mounted on a single shaft. The generators will 




/^-0"C.■fvC.ofP/ns 



/igasofe floor/ng 
/aid ofer chan-crrc^ or 
other corru<7crf^d /rje/a/si 



'Chan-arch 



C/earancs 
/tpprox.^" 




Seconcfary E/ement 



Primary Element 
Secondary piemen t 

PLAN AND LONGITUDINAL SECTION SHOWIN'' 
MOVIXG PL.-VTFORM DESIGN 

produce three-phase alternating current at 10, 20 and 
no cycles respectively or some multiple of these fre- 
quencies. As the speed of the different platforms de- 
pends on the frequency of the three-phase current 
applied to the primary, it is clear that any platform may 
be operated at a lower speed by changing the frequency 
supplied to it, in case it should be desired to shut down 
one platform and operate the other two, or in case one 
platfoi-m only is to be operated. During periods of 
light traffic some such 
method of modified 
operation may be de- 
sirable. The cars pro- 
posed for the system 
for the 3 m.p.h. and 



-- 2-9 

<-■■ - Stationary Plattbrm ■■- 



pLj" ^ ^Lj" >U . 

• P/atfbrm Rate of - ->}<- - Platform Raie of - - -><- - 
Travel' 3 Mi. per Hour \ Travel' 6 Mi. per Hour j 






-Platform Rori~? of Travel: 9 Mi. per Hour > 




CROSS SECTION OF SUBWAY SHOWING ASSEMBLY OF PLATFORMS 



thoroughly protected and insulated against damage by 
water in a manner to make accidental contact and danger 
very remote. The current will be carried at relatively 
high potential to transformers located at points along 
the system and thence by cables in ducts to the primary 
element between the rails. The primary element, as 
explained, is not continuous, but will be installed at 
intervals in sections about 5 ft. long. In the case of 
the 8 m.p.h. platform the primaries will be approxi- 
mately 400 ft. apart, in the case of 6 m.p.h. platforms 
200 ft. and in the case of the 9 m.p.h. platform 60 ft. 



6 m.p.h. elements will be about 12 ft. long and 28 in. 
wide, constructed from channels which support a 
pressed-steel platform covered with li-in. agasote, giv- 
ing a light and non-slippery surface. Each car is sup- 
ported by a pair of wheels and coupled at the rear by 
a kingpin to a similar pair of wheels on the car imme- 
diately following. The two slower-speed elements run 
on a track of 18-in. gage, while the gage of the track for 
its 9 m.p.h. platform is 82 in. Axle friction on curves 
will be minimized by the use of roller bearings 
for the wheels. Friction and wear can still further 



126 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol 57, No. 3 



be reduced by keeping the track well greased on curves 
and on tangents, since magnetic pull and not the adhe- 
sion of the wheels to the track is used for propulsion. 
TJie resulting low rail and wheel wear will reduce the 
extent of the adjustments required to maintain the 
standard air gap, but such adjustments can easily be 
made when necessary. 

The high-speed platform overlaps the medium-speed 
platform, which, in turn, overlaps the low-speed plat- 
form. This difference in elevation is secured by the use 
nf 8-in., 7-in. and 6-in. wheels on the high, medium 
and low-speed platforms respectively. The overhanging 
edge of each platform is covei'ed with a non-slip tread 
to prevent accidents to passengers while passing from 
one platform to another. Posts on the low-speed and 
intermediate platforms are provided as supports to as- 
sist the less alert passengers in progressing from one 
platform to another. The third platform has a passage- 
way 21 in. wide besides the seats, which occupy 36 in. 
of the width. 

The application of the electric carrier system to the 
Forty-second Street loop would require three platforms, 
each appro.ximately 10,100 ft. long. The seating capac- 
ity of the 9-mile platform would be 31,680 passengers 
per hour in each direction. The weight per seat for all 
three elements would be roughly 375 lb., while that of 
a loaded subway train is approximately 1,800 lb. per 
passenger. About 350 kw. would be necessary for its 
operation and about 3,000,000 kw-hr. per year. Al- 
though, electrically, the air gap of ir in. used is far 
from ideal, the increased losses due to a low power 
factor are inconsiderable compared with the small 
amount of power required for its operation. The esti- 
mated initial cost of this project for equipment and 
its installation, exclusive of excavation, is about 
$750,000.. 

An electric carrier system installed as a demonstra- 
tion plant near Paterson was in successful operation 
for several years and its use is now being contemplated 
for postal service in several large cities. 



Preserve the Pole Line 

Analysis of Pole Preservative Methods in Indiana Shows 
Ample Justification for Their Use — Data Upon Which 
This Analysis Is Based Were Secured 
from 100 Utilities 

PRESERVATIVES for wooden poles, preservative 
treatments and all that pertains thereto are subjects 
of prime importance to electric railway distribution 
engineers and administrative officials. While very few 
pole lines constructed of treated poles have reached the 
replacement stage, any information that sheds light 
upon the subject is worth investigating. In a recent 
publication of the Engineering Experiment Station of 
Purdue University Prof. R. V. Achatz has set forth the 
results of a study which he made with particular refer- 
ence to the needs of executives responsible for the con- 
struction policies of public utilities. Data for this study 
were obtained from about 100 electric railway, steam 
railroad, telephone, telegraph and electric power com- 
panies operating in the State of Indiana. The estimated 
annual requirements of these companies are about 40,000 
poles. From 60 to 70 per cent of those now being set 
are given some kind of preservative treatment. Prac- 
tically all of the well-known forms of pole treatment are 
being used. 

Some timbers decay rapidly when exposed to the 



weather, while others are affected to an almost negligible 
extent. Most pole decay occurs at the ground line and 
the rapidity with which decay progresses depends 
greatly on the character of the soil and the climate. It 
is obvious, therefore, that no one preservative or method 
of treatment is best for all purposes. The choice of 
preservative should depend upon the conditions of 
service, as well as upon the method of application and 
the price. 

To provide effective protection from decay the wood 
preservative must have strong germicidal properties ; it 
must have penetrative ability; it must not evaporate, 
and it must not be soluble in water. Preservatives 
obtained by the distillation of coal tar possess these 
qualities and have come into wide use. Dead oil of coal 
tar or creosote oil and the higher boiling oils, known 
as carbolineums, are the most satisfactory preservatives. 
Coal tar itself should not be used, as it has little value as 
a preservative, and "mixed creosote oils" — that is, those 
preservatives containing undistilled products — are not 
recommended. 

In Indiana the commonly used treatments are the 
brush and the open-tank. Poles of less durable woods 
treated by the pressure tank process are as yet expen- 
sive for this reason and have not come up to the present 
time into general use. 

An analysis of the economic side of pole preservation 
shows that under average conditions an increase of 
life of about two years will justify brush treatment, 
three and one-half years open-tank dipping treatment in 
hot creosote, and seven and one-half years hot and cold- 
bath open-tank treatment. The results of the inspec- 
rions made in various parts of Indiana indicate that an 
increase in life greater than that necessary to justify 
treatment will be secured if the treatment be properly 
given. In most cases where treatment has failed to 
protect the poles from decay the failure can be traced to 
improper treatment or to causes which the treatment 
itself could not control. 

By far the greater number of poles in service at the 
present time have been set without preservative treat- 
ment. As the poles on the older lines are now nearing 
the end of their life much interest has arisen in the 
problem of deferring replacement. It is possible to do 
this to a certain extent by reinforcement and by treat- 
ment in place. The most common form of reinforce- 
ment is that of setting a creosoted stub alongside the 
weakened pole and binding the two together by wire. 
Another method used where decay has not progressed 
too far is to excavate the earth from around the pole, 
clear away the diseased wood and apply a brush treat- 
ment. Concrete reinforcement has been applied to some 
extent, but on account of cost can be recommended only 
where the cost of replacement is very large. 



Report on Lubricants 

A REPORT of the inquiry committee on lubricants 
and lubrication, made under the direction of the 
Department of Scientific and Industrial Reasearch in 
England, has just been published. This report contains 
the results of a research made to determine the relation 
between viscosity of lubricants and the load on a bear- 
ing and the action of lubricants at high temperatures 
as applied to commercial methods of oil testing. Copies 
of this report may be obtained directly by addressing 
H. M. Stationery Office at Imperial House, Kingsway, 
London. 



January 15, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



127 



Trend of Safety Car Construction 

A Review of Some of the More Recent Changes in Safety Car Design Points Toward the Development 
of a Type with Increased Capacity, Greater Comfort and Convenience and Additional Safety 
— Changes During the Past Year Have Been Directed Principally Toward Increasing 
the Strength of Various Structural Parts 




ONE-MAN c a r 
I operation has 
proved both 
satisfactory and eco- 
nomical for light and 
average service re- 
quirements. For lines 
where traffic is very 
dense a larger unit is 
needed. There is still 
a very commendable 
desire on the part of 
both operators and 
manufacturers to im- 
prove safety car con- 
struction and to en- 
large the field of its 
usefulness. In the re- 
port of the committee 

on safety car operation, presented to the American Elec- 
tric Railway Transportation & Traffic Association at its 
convention held in Atlantic City last October, conclu- 
sions were given as to the limitations of the safety car 
based on answers from member companies received to a 
questionnaire. This report states that half the com- 
panies that sent in information and are operating safety 
cars report changes and departures from specifications 
of the standard Bimey safety car. The principal 
changes consist of : 

1. Use of heavier and better riding trucks. 

2. 24-in. cast steel wheels replaced by 26-in. steel 
wheels. 

3. Specially designed rubber cushions installed in the 
truck suspension bolts to reduce noise. 

4. Larger motors used for propelling the car. 

5. Larger compressors used, 

6. Air piping located inside of car to prevent freezing. 

7. Brake levers and chains provided with safety jaws. 

8. Additional heaters installed in place of the eight 
used as standard, one of these being a cab heater. 

9. Seating arrangement changed. 

10. Wider seats and wider aisle used. 

11. Wooden-slat seats replaced by full rattan covered 
or upholstered seats. 

12. Fenders used in place of life guards. 

13. Voltage push buttons without exposed metal parts 
used instead of buttons with exposed parts. 

14. Platform arrangement revised to facilitate load- 
ing and passenger movement. 

15. Maximum step height reduced by using ramp 
platform. 

16. Double floor used. 

17. Structural strength of underframe increased. 

18. Pla.tform strengthened. 

19. Heavier bumpers and stronger dash used. 

20. Heavier materials used for roof and sides. 

21. Headlining added for interior ceiling to improve 
appearance and add warmth in winter. 



SAFETY CARS ARE A FAMILIAR SIGHT IN NEW HAVEN 



22. Lining added 
between the floor and 
window sill along 
sides and dash. 

23. S'torm sashes 
added. 

It will be noted from 
this list of changes 
that the more impor- 
tant ones have to do 
with increasing the 
strength of various 
structural parts, in- 
creasing the facility 
for boarding and 
alighting passengers, 
providing a seating 
arrangement to meet 
local conditions and 
providing more heating capacity and a more heat-resist- 
ing body construction in places where severe winter 
weather is encountered, the standard safety car having 
been developed for climatic conditions prevailing in the 
south. The changes have increased the weight of the 
car somewhat, but have undoubtedly resulted in a 
stronger construction and one which will withstand 
severe operating conditions more satisfactorily. 

Changes in Car Construction 

The present trend of safety car design can best be 
studied by considering some of the changes from the 
standard type of construction that have been made by 
various railways in an endeavor to meet operating con- 
ditions as they exist on their individual properties. In 
this analysis the changes which have been made and 
those which are being advocated by railway engineers as 
desirable can be grouped under five headings : ( 1 ) 
Changes necessary for strengthening construction; 
(2) changes for providing greater comfort and con- 
venience to passengers as the use of wider and more 
comfortable seats, easier riding trucks and the reduction 
of step height; (3) changes found desirable for winter 
operation in cold climates, such as the use of lining, 
double floors, storm sash, an increased number of heaters 
and larger diameter steel wheels ; (4) changes to provide 
greater safety to passengers, such as rearrangement of 
platform lights to illuminate steps, use of safety panels 
for switches and fuses, improvements in brake rigging, 
removal of circuit breakers from car vestibule, removal 
of foot valve from motorman's control; (5) changes 
which appear desirable in order to provide increased 
capacity and facilities for handling crowds on heavy 
traffic routes, such as the use of larger cars with longer 
platforms, double doors, platform railing, longitudinal 
seats at ends and a wider aisle. 

From the standpoint of construction there appears to 
be rather a general feeling among the officials of rail- 
way operating companies that the first safety cars were 



128 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 3 



built of too light construction, that to date the idea of 
maintaining the standard type of construction first 
advanced has received too great considei'ation by the 
builders and that there are essential a number of 
changes and refinements. The use of a stronger con- 
struction which seems advisable may necessitate the 




INCREASED SAFETY IS PROVIDED BY IXSTAl^LIXC AT.I> 
SWITCHES AXD FUSES IX A SAFETY PAXEI^ 



addition of slightly more weight, but perhaps the addi- 
tional strength can be obtained through the use of better 
materials. 

In this connection the remarks made by P. J. Kealy at 
the meeting of the Transportation & Traffic Association 
in Atlantic City Oct. 7, 1919, are of interest. In speak- 
ing of the changes made in the Kansas City safety cars, 
he said that he considered that the radical innovation 
with respect to the reduction of weight in safety car 
construction as carried out had produced a rather flimsy 
type of construction for severe operating conditions. As 
a result of this feeling many of the cars furnished dur- 
ing the past two years have had substantial changes 
made in the type of construction. This is probably best 
evidenced by the increase in weight of cars now being 
furnished, which is in the neighborhood of 16,000 lb., 
while the first safety cars weighed but 12,000 lb. In 
Kansas City the last order for safety cars required the 
strengthening of some of the structural members by 
the use of buffet plates and additional cross bracings. 
In the 200 cars furnished for the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company a new type of truck of stronger con- 
struction with friction bearings was furnished. The 
vestibule construction was stiffened and a heavier 
bumper construction used. Other roads have required 
similar changes from the first type of standard con- 
struction. 

Providing Greater Comfort and Convenience 
FOR Passengers 

The merchandising consideration of providing greater 
comfort and convenience for passengers is one which 
apparently warrants a deviation from standard construc- 



tion. Changes which have been made and others which 
are advocated consist in the use of wider seats and a 
change from the standard wooden-slat-seat construction 
to a cushioned type ; the use of easier riding trucks, and 
a reduction of step height to encourage more riding and 
to prove an added attraction apparently equal to that of 
frequent and fast service. In the Kansas City cars the 
distance of the first step above the rail is reduced from 
16 in. to 14 in. by placing the wheel housings under the 
seats and by using a very slight ramp in the floor of 
the front platform. The inside seating arrangement 
was altered by the use of longitudinal seats at the 
entrance in an endeavor to help eliminate congestion, 
and stanchions for the use of standing passengers were 
placed in front of the longitudinal seats. Cushioned 
seats were also used, as Kansas City officials felt that 
the traveling public in that city had been educated to 
the use of this type of seat and it was easier to fit the 
car to the public than to expect the public to accommodate 
itself to certain changes in car design. Their experience 
was that the public would not walk back through a long 
narrow aisle and they considered the idea of the original 
seating arrangement of the safety car as directly 
counter to the latest development in seating design of 
the last ten years, which provided a loading well. 

Changes Found Necessary to Meet Severe 
Winter Conditions 

The standard safety car as originally designed was 
I'or service on the Stone & Webster lines in Texas and 
other Southern railway properties. For service in cold 
climates and locations subject to severe winter conditions 
experience has already demonstrated the necessity of 
equipping certain cars with both side and head lining. 
The use of storm sash and double floors also has 
appeared essential, as well as an increase in the number 
of heaters, and pei'haps the employment of cross-seat 
heaters to give a better distribution of heat, as was 
first used in Brooklyn for these cars. On this latter road 
ten cross-seat heaters and two truss-plank heaters were 
used per car. The truss-plank heaters were installed 
under the motorman's seat to act as cab heaters for the 
operator. There is no doubt that the cross-seat type of 
heater is the most popular with the traveling public and 
Brooklyn officials felt that by specifying this type for 
their cars they would help to make safety cars more 
popular with passengers. 

Some of the changes found necessary in the safety 
cars used at Levis, Que., in order to provide for severe 




SEATING AKRAXGEMEXT FOR SIXGLE-END SAFETY CAR 
AS USED IN KANSAS CITY 



winter conditions as they exist there, are of interest as 
indicating what may be necessary in cars operating in 
northern climates. The principal differences from the 
usual standard features of car construction are: 
(1) Double lining throughout; (2) double floor; 
(3) storm windows or sashes on all windows; (4) ven- 
tilators capable of being closed as required; (5) all 
vestibule windows permanently flxed except center 



January 15, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



129 



window, being drop sash; (6) air equipment especially 
installed with proper amount of radiating pipe to pre- 
vent freezing of air and moisture accumulation from the 
cold; (7) operating motors with covers for closing up 
of the ventilating ducts in winter to prevent snow 
accumulation; (8) the use of 26-in. wheels to give a 
maximum clearance on account of high centers caused 
by snow and ice, and (9) the use of twelve heaters per 
car instead of the standard number. An article describ- 
ing these cars published in the April 3, 1920, issue of the 
Electric Railway Journal, page 699, gives other 
interesting information regarding changes which were 
incorporated in these cars and results from their opera- 
tion during the severe winter of 1919-20. 

Providing Greater Safety for the Traveling Public 

The name "safety car" is now generally accepted as 
designating this type of one-man car and a determined 
effort should be made to increase its safety features 
wherever possible in order that the traveling public may 
be more thoroughly convinced that this type of car is in 
reality safer than the ordinary two-man car. 

In reviewing the answers to the questionnaire sent 
out by the committee on safety car operation of the 
American Electric Railway Association it appears that 
the majority of accidents which have happened are due 
to the operator devoting his attention to passengers 
while making change or issuing transfers while the car 
is in motion. The use of the foot valve in connection 
with the car operating equipment, while a great con- 
venience to the operator, is looked upon with suspicion 
by some managements as encouraging the operator 
toward other duties which detract from the proper 
operation of his equipment. 

With the present standard location of equipment, the 
circuit breaker is located inside the front vestibule. 
Whenever overload conditions occur the blowing of this 
circuit breaker alarms the passengers, and in cases of 
crowded conditions injury is liable to result. On other 
types of equipment it has long been considered essential 
to place all circuit breaking mechanism underneath the 
car and remove all danger from serious results of this 
character to a location remote from passengers. The 
changing of the present location of the circuit breaker 
has been considered in several instances as offering a 
field for improvem.ent. 

To prevent the lights in the body of the car from 
interfering with the view of the motorman during hours 




Seating Capacity 55 
Standing « ._£5(Comfortab(e) 
Total 60 Passengers 

a proposed seating arrangement for double-end 
safety car with double doors 

of darkness a curtain is provided which is drawn around 
the back and right side of him. The lights to the right 
of the operator are also equipped with shades" for this 
purpose. It has been suggested that a better arrange- 
ment of lights could be provided, so as to provide not 
only for less interference with the view of the motorman 
but also to provide illumination of the step when the 
door is opened. 



The use of a safety panel for all switches and fuses 
in the light, buzzer, compressor, register and heater cir- 
cuits as first used on the cars of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company is also an additional feature of safety 
worthy of consideration, as is also the use of push 
buttons without exposed metal parts, as was suggested 
in the first part of this article. 

Improvements in brake rigging connections by the 
use of box-type jaws have been furnished for cars of 
operating companies controlled by the Second District 
Public Sei'vice Commission of the State of New York. 
In his report to the commission regarding this feature, 




frequent service with safety cars has increased 
travel and made them a success 

Charles R. Barnes, then chief of the division of electric 
railways for the commission, reported that there were 
at least thirteen points in the braking system where if 
a bolt broke or became loose and dropped out it would 
disable the entire braking system for both air and hand 
operation. His recommendation was that the braking 
system should be improved by the use of box-type jaws 
at all points where members were connected with clevis 
and bolts, and this, it is understood, is being required by 
all cars controlled by the Second Di.strict Public Service 
Commission. 

A Larger Car Is Being Advocated 
for Some Localities 

Where safety cars have been used in large cities, such 
as Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston, etc., their 
use has been confined in most instances to routes having 
light traflic characteristics. Where existing headways 
are three minutes or less and where traffic is so heavy at 
times even during off-peak periods that car-carrying 
capacity is a controlling factor, the usefulness of the 
standard safety car is restricted, because of its smaller 
carrying capacity and the fact that no improvement in 
earnings may be expected from improved headway. The 
use of the safety car has produced such marked econo- 
mies in communities with less severe service character- 
istics that these economies have led to a desire to try to 
adapt the safety car if possible to crowded conditions. 
This has already led in a small way to the tentative use 
of larger double-track cars with one-man safety features. 

There is without doubt a growing tendency toward 
increasing the capacity and facilities for handling 
crowds and heavier traffic with one-man operated cars. 
The question as to whether one man can satisfactorily 
handle this increased traffic is still debatable and there 
is strong opposition from certain quarters regarding its 
feasibility. This problem of whether such a car can be 



130 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 3 



handled satisfactorily by one man will have to be 
worked out by actual trials in service. In addition to 
providing a car with increased seating capacity, designs 
for such a car will include longer platforms, the use of 
double doors for entrance and exit of passengers, the 
employment of platform railings to separate incoming 
from outgoing passengers, the use of longitudinal seats 
at the ends of the car body to provide ample space for 
passenger movement and for standing passengers and 
the use of a wider aisle so that passengers can move in 
and out of their seats with greater freedom. Double 
doors for cars with provisions for separating incoming 
and outgoing passengers have been built and are in 
operation in several cities in this country. The 
desirability of using double doors has come largely from 
the endeavor to make the safety car serve for rush 
hour conditions and lines with heavy traiBc character- 
istics. 

Where large groups of people board and alight at 
one point there is undoubtedly an annoyance to the 
passengers boarding in their having to wait until the 
leaving passengers are all discharged before they can 
get on. Some of the principal arguments used against 
the adoption of double doors for a one-man operated car 
are that one man cannot satisfactorily handle the two 
streams of traffic and that as soon as passengers cease 
getting off those waiting to board will use the exit door 
in order to gain access. With the two openings, there is 
also danger that passengers may slip in without paying 
their fare. Such radical changes in design as this are 
also considered as a setback to the standardization. The 
cost of such a car would be increased and its weight per 
passenger seated would unquestionably be more. 

As an example of a one-man car of somewhat greater 
proportions and seating capacity than that of the 
standard Birney car, the Three Rivers Traction Com- 
pany of Three Rivers, Que., has recently added four cars 
to its equipment with general dimensions as follows : 



Length of body ' 21ft. 

Length of front vestibule 6 ft. 2 in. 

Length of rear vestibule ■! ft. 

Lengtli over bumpers 32 ft. 2 in. 

"Width of car bumper 8 ft. 6 in. 

Seating capacity 36 persons 



The front vestibule of this car is made extra long and 
the step opening is extra v;ide to facilitate entrance and 
exit. Separate openings are also provided for entrance 
and exit and each opening has an individual folding door 
and step operated by a National Pneumatic Company 
door-engine. These are so arranged that the motorman 
can operate them singly if desired. 

A proposed type of car having these characteristics 
was described in the Electric Railway Journal for 
Sept. 18, 1920, page 549. The principal idea of this 
design was to make available the great economic 
advantages of the safety car to properties operating in 
large cities and having extremely heavy traffic condi- 
tions. Other operating engineers are also making 
studies for a type of car built along these general lines. 

The desirability of a separate entrance and exit is not 
confined to the idea of developing a larger car for con- 
gested traffic conditions as is evidenced by their use at 
the present time in small-sized cities. In Mason City, 
Iowa, and Madison, Wis., the introduction of the double 
door came about through a desire to reduce length of 
stops and to avoid annoyance to boarding passengers by 
compelling them to wait until all have alighted. Never- 
theless, it is noteworthy that safety car operators in 



much larger cities have expressed themselves as content 
with the standard platform and doorway arrangements. 

The safety car, embodying as it does the most decided 
step ever taken toward standardization, has caused some 
rather sharp conflicts between the users and manufac- 
turers. The advantages of standardization cannot be 
doubted. However, in insisting on rigid adherence to 
standards, there should be no stifling of sound 
development in the improvement of the safety 
car or any of its equipment. Many worthy changes 
have already been introduced since this type of 
car was brought out, and it would be unreasonable 
to expect that other still important changes should 
not be incorporated. The most general feeling in regard 
to standardization on this particular car seems to be that 
the present general dimensions of length, width, height 
and general capacity are satisfactory. With the 
improvement in strengthening construction that is 
advocated the standardization of the body construction 
would be pretty generally adopted for local service. The 
finishings and the car-seating arrangement, etc., should 
be left to individual operating companies. 



Portable Air Compressor 

A FLEXIBLE and economical compressor outfit 
which can be moved to the point of distribution has 
recently been placed on the market by the Chicago 
Pneumatic Tool Company. The feature of portability 
results in the elimination of line losses and expensive 
piping systems. Where air is used at a great distance 
from the compressor and where temporary piping is 
laid which is subject to much abuse, the line losses are 
very high. The economy effected by the elimination of 




PORTABLE ELECTRIC-DRIVEN AIR-COMPRESSOR UNIT 



these losses far more than offsets the difference in 
efficiency between one large unit and several smaller 
ones, not to mention the saving in time, trouble and 
expense of laying pipe lines. 

This rugged and simple compressor of the horizontal 
single-stage type is totally inclosed. It is hopper water- 
cooled and driven by an electric motor through herring- 
bone gears. The complete outfit, consisting of 
compressor, air reservoir, motor and starter, is mounted 
on a substantial car readily adjustable to suit any track 
gage commonly found. Although this outfit is primarily 
designed for the mining industry, its usefulness is not 
confined to that field. It is possible to make it portable 
on almost any system so that a supply of air would be 
available for pneumatic tools. It is made in capac- 
ities of 147, 218 and 314 cu.ft. of free air per minute. 



JanvAiry 15, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



131 



Milwaukee's Three-Truck, Two-Man Train 

Declared Successful* 

General Plan of Construction of This Unique Equipment, Operated on Combined Urban and Interurban 
Property, Is Described and Other Experiences in Various Train Operation Related — Some 
of the Advantages Are Economy in Platform Labor and Increased Flexibility 
Over Single-End Trains Both in Service and at Carhouses 



ByS. B. WAY' 

Vice-President and General Manager Milwaukee (Wis.) Electric Railway & Light Company 




MILWAUKEE'S THREE-TRUCK, TWO-MAN TRAIN BUILT FROM TWO OLD DOUBLE-TRUCK CARS 



FOR a number of years electric railways have 
found it very difficult to obtain capital for new 
construction. Managements faced with the neces- 
sity of effecting every operating economy possible 
without a reduction in the quantity of service, and 
unable to spend money for new equipment, even though 
operating economies would certainly result, have found 
this necessity truly the mother of invention. The prob- 
lems to be solved were: (1) To run more service 
through sections already congested to apparent capac- 
ity; (2) to do this with fewer trainmen; (3) to do this 
with smaller expenditures for power and for main- 
tenance of tracks and cars; that is, to reduce the car 
weight per unit of capacity; (4) and finally, and this 
is controlling, to do the job without spending any money. 

This problem had to be faced in 1917 to 1920, when 
equipment prices were advancing from twice to three 
times the values obtaining at any time in forty years. 
The problem, of course, has not been completely solved. 
Various attempts have been made with varying results. 
Perhaps a brief review of the experiments made over 
the course of several years in Milwaukee will be of 
interest. 

The Milwaukee system is a combined urban and 
interurban property. In the operation of its interurban 
system the company has for many years operated 
interurban cars in trains, always, however, concentrat- 
ing the power in one unit and employing two, three 
and even four plain trailers for the remaining units 
in each train. 

In 1912, incident to a general plan of revamping and 
modernizing its old urban equipment, advantage was 
taken of the opportunity to regroup the motors on cer- 

•Abstract of paper read before joint meeting of A. I. E. E. and 
W. S. E., Chicago, Dec. 17, 1920. 



tain cars, making such cars capable of pulling trailers 
and at the same time avoiding the necessity for purchas- 
ing as much motor equipment as would have been neces- 
sary had all cars been re-equipped with motors. The 
experience on the interurban system naturally suggested 
that, in constructing trains, the second car should be 
a plain trailer and be pulled behind a suitable motor. 
During the years 1912 and 1913 all but seventy-two 
of .the company's older types of cars were thoroughly 
overhauled and re-equipped, and fifty-four of these cars 
were stripped of motors, controllers, ■ trolleys, etc., ; and 
arranged with detachable couplers and suitable light 
wiring and air connection, to permit them to be oper- 
ated as trailers. As the system and all of the single-car 
units were arranged for double-end operation, it was 
necessary to make certain special track arrangements 
for the operation of these single-end trains around loops. 
These loops were generally placed some distance short 
of the ends of the lines upon which the trains were 
scheduled, resulting in short-route operation of the two- 
car trains. 

Experience with these fifty-four trains developed, of 
course, some economy in platform labor, but cost of 
loops and the lack of flexibility of the single-end trains, 
both on the system and in the car stations, deterred the 
management from extending train operation for some 
time thereafter. In the light of more recent experience 
it is difficult to understand why the cars were entirely 
stripped of motors and power wiring, controllers and 
trolleys and a less convenient and more expensive method 
of operation chosen. It would have been somewhat 
cheaper to arrange these same cars for double-end oper- 
ation in two-car trains, thus making them available for 
use anywhere on the system with equal flexibility with 
the single-car units. 



132 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 3 



No further progress was 
made in the development of 
train operation in Milwau- 
kee until about 1916, when 
the company undertook to 
build in its own shops fifty 
new cars of the center- 
entrance and exit and front- 
end exit type. These cars 
were equipped with two 
motors, maximum-traction 
trucks and multiple - unit 
control, with a view of oper- 
ating in two- or three-car 
trains. In choosing these 
cars the advantage of 
double-end operation of the 
trains was recognized, al- 
though considerable addi- 
tional expense was incurred in arranging the cars for 
both single-unit operation and train operation, which 
might have been saved by arranging them for train 
operation only. These cars operated in trains afforded 
further economy in the use of labor. The last of these 
cars were placed in service at the, beginning of the year 
1918. 

The demonstrated advantages of double-end train 
operation, of course, suggested the idea of coupling 
up existing equipment where possible to achieve fur- 
ther economy in the use of platform labor. The com- 
pany had a certain number of old cars more or less 
modernized which were equipped with two motors each. 
The controllers, standard on the property, are readily 
capable of handling four motors. The next development 
involved merely putting pairs of these cars together 
with permanent coupling, rearranging the wiring and 
carrying it through on the permanent coupling bar, 
stripping each car of one trolley and one set of air 
and electric controls and removing one air compressor. 
Cars so put together operated perfectly as double-end 
two-car trains. 

While this development was going on, war conditions 
were rapidly advancing the cost of labor and material 
and platform labor was becoming extremely scarce, 
even though wages were rapidly advanced. Seventy-two 
of the oldest cars owned by the company and which 
had been excluded from the original program of recon- 
struction and modez-nizing had by this time become 
sorely in need of general overhauling if they were to 
be kept longer in service. Under ordinary circum- 
stances it is probable that these cars, on account of 




SFECIALLY CONSTRUCTED CENTER TRUCK HAVING 
INSIDE JOURNALS FOR USE ON 
THREE-TRUCK TRAIN 



their extreme age, would 
have been scheduled for re- 
tirement from service. Un- 
der war conditions this 
treatment was of course 
out of the question. The 
problem presented was how 
to treat these cars, incident 
to the necessary repair and 
reconstruction, so as to de- 
rive the maximum benefit 
from the expenditure. It 
was reasoned that if double- 
end, two-car trains operated 
by thr«e men were advan- 
tageous, as compared with 
single-unit operation with 
two men per car, a two-car 
train arranged to be han- 
dled by one conductor would be even more advantageous. 
This point was emphasized by two considerations, 
namely: (1) Scarcity and high cost of platform labor; 
(2) difficulty of making tripper runs attractive to men 
without payment of excessive bonus time.. i 

Construction of the Three-Truck Train 

To handle a two-car train with one conductor in city 
service requires, of course, that the passengers be 
allowed to pass freely from one car to the other while 
the cars are in motion and rounding curves, etc. This 
requires the careful articulation of the cars and the 
elimination of all possible motion and displacement of 
the two car bodies at the point of connection. It also 
requires the location of the conductor at a point to 
control the admission of all passengers and the exit 
of all passengers from the rear car. This became 
virtually the same problem as that of the location of 
the conductor in a large center-entrance car. All of 
these requirements pointed to the connection of the two 
cars with minimum amount of space at the adjacent 
platforms and the support at that point of a single 
truck. 

In adapting these old cars to these conditions it was 
necessary to support the old car bodies in substantially 
the same manner as they had been previously carried 
upon individual trucks, namely, at the car body bolsters. 
This was accomplished by placing under each car an 
auxiliary steel underframe beginning at the outer truck 
bolster and continuing through to the point of joining 
the two car bodies together. By suitable design, this 
steel underframe carries the weight of the car at the 

, - Doors • 




FLOOR PLAN OF CENTER PLATFORMS 



January 15, 1921 



Electric Railway Journal 



133 





3 



Girder Plan 



.'3 



[p- o ol_ 



3» 



Girder Connection oi+ Train End Bod^ Bols+ers 
Section B-B 



Ves+ibule Cross-Framing a+ Train Cen+er 
Section A-A 




^'Girdzr Bearfng of 
Train End Truck 



Girder Side Elevoition 

DRAWING OF SPECIAL GIRDER T'SED TENDER EACH CAR IX THREE-TRUCK TRAIN 



Girder Bearing at '; 
Train Cenfer Truck 



old car body bolster, provides adequate support for a 
greatly enlarged platform and transmits the load to 
the center truck, where a kind of ball and socket joint 
arrangement on the ends of the two main auxiliary 
girders permits both to rest and pivot on the center- 
truck kingpin and bolster. 

The enlarged platforms were desired in order to pro- 
vide space for the larger number of passengers to be 
handled and to accommodate the heating equipment. 
The platforms were connected by overlapping steel 
plates attached to the platforms, and arranged to per- 
mit the necessary joint movement on curves. The 
vestibules were connected by diaphragm. The motors 
of the cars were regrouped on the outer trucks, giving 
the train the same motor power as cars possessed when 
individually operated, and, accordingly, the same speed 
and power when arranged as a train. 

In the actual reconstruction of these old cars into 
three-truck trains it was found possible to increase the 
combined seating capacity from 84 to 106 in summer 
and from 80 to 102 in winter, and the standing capacity 
an even greater percentage. The old car bodies were 
greatly strengthened by the use of the steel underframes. 
There were recovered from each pair of cars two trol- 
leys, two sets of air and electric control, one air com- 
pressor, two standard trucks, besides various minor 



equipment, such as destination signs and headlights. 
And notwithstanding the addition of the third truck, 
new steel underframes and enlarged platforms, the 
total weight of the finished train is only slightly more 
than the combined weight of the individual cars. 

On account of the exposure of the center truck, par- 
ticularly on curves, it was found desirable to reduce the 
lateral dimensions of the truck and necessary clearance 
to a minimum. This was accomplished by building a 
special truck having inside journal boxes. A picture 
of this truck is reproduced herewith. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of the 
Three-Truck Train 

Experience has shown that these three-truck units 
have the following advantages: 

1. Utilization of old obsolete equipment in a manner 
making it entirely acceptable for rush-hour service and 
for other special service, as well as for regular service 
on very heavy lines where the traffic justifies the opera- 
tion of units of this size. 

2. Economy in platform labor. 

3. Adaptability for operation as either straight pay- 
as-you-enter or as a combination pay-enter and pay- 
leave system. 

4. Better control of distribution of passenger load. 




CENTER PLATFORMS, LOOKING FORWARD, SHOWING 
PLATFORM SEATS AND PASSAGEWAY 
BETWEEN CARS 



CENTER PLATFORMS, LOOKING BACKWARD, SHOWING 
ARRANGEMENT OP STANCHIONS AND LOCATION 
OF HEATER 



134 



Electric Railway Journal 



Vol. 57, No. 3 



The disadvantages of the these units are: 

1. Difficulty of locating the trolley stand so as to 
be accessible to the conductor and yet avoid frequent 
leaving the wire on curves. Where electric switches 
are not operated, the preferable location of the trolley 
is over the rear truck. On a system operating single- 
car units and electric switches it is necessary to employ 
a special swiveling trolley which in practice follows the 
wire substantially as well as the standard trolley 
mounted over the car truck. It requires, however, to 
be equipped with two ropes in order to handle it 
around the diaphragm connection between the cars. 

2. Slowness in loading, as compared with single-car 
units. The same objection, however, would apply to 
increasing the size of single cars. In Milwaukee oper- 
ation this disadvantage is of no moment, as street fare 
collectors are employed at all congested corners to facil- 
itate operation of all types of trains and single-car 
units during the rush hour. 

In the particular case of reconstructed old cars into 
three-car trains these general results were achieved: 

1. The winter seating capacity was increased from 
40 per car to 102 per train, or 27.5 per cent. 

2. The weight per seated passenger was reduced 
from 913 lb. to 735 lb., or 19.4 per cent. 

3. Rush-hour capacity (as determined by standards 
of the Wisconsin Railroad Commission) per trainman 
increased from 30 passengers before reconstruction to 
76 passengers, or 153 per cent. 

4. Rush-hour capacity per trainman increased 31 per 
cent, as compared with largest two-car, three-man trains 
operating at same service standard with fifty-eight pas- 
sengers per man. 

5. Power consumption per passenger under rush-hour 
capacity reduced 26.6 per cent as compared with the 
same cars operated singly before reconstruction. 

6. The net cost of providing the increased rush-hour 
capacity did not exceed $72 per passenger, or less than 
one-half the cost per passenger of purchasing the cheap- 
est character of new equipment. 

In general the train has proved satisfactory in oper- 
ating characteristics. Thirty-three of these trains are 




SPECIAL STEEL GIRDER UNDERFRAME CONSTRUCTED 
. „ UNDER EACH CAR TO PROVIDE MAIN SUPPORT 
FROM CENTER TRUCK TO EITHER END TRUCK 



now in service, the first one having been operated four- 
teen months. The passengers accepted the trains with- 
out comment or notice. They have attracted no special 
attention from the local public or the press. The trains 
keep their place on the road and do not get behind 
schedule to as great an extent as three-man trains. 

With three-man trains the passengers show a prefer- 
ence for the first car in the ratio of about eight to five. 
With the three-truck train there appears to be no prefer- 
ence shown, but this may in part be accounted for by 



the fact that the conductor has an opportunity to control 
the distribution of the load. 

The gross cost of converting the old cars into three- 
truck trains, including thorough overhauling and repair 
of old bodies and trucks and enclosing the old semi- 
open platforms, averaged about $3,000 per pair. The 
conservative value of the equipment recovered is more 
than $900. The net cost of converting these very old 



COMPARATIVE CLEARANCE DIAGRAMS OF THREE-TRUCK 
TRAIN AND ORDINARY TW^O-CAR TRAIN ON CURVES 

and obsolete and rather small cars into attractive trains 
which are economical and satisfactory for operation for 
many years to come is returned through direct saving 
in platform labor alone in less than one year. 

No careful study has been made to disclose the fur- 
ther economies which might be achieved in constructing 
three-truck trains entirely from new materials. It is 
certain, however, that substantial gains would be pos- 
sible in respect to weight, power consumption and first 
cost as compared with providing the same capacity in 
single cars or in two-car trains of the multiple-unit 
type. The cost of a three-truck train should not exceed 
the cost of a motor car and trailer of equivalent carry- 
ing capacity but requiring three men to operate. 

General Conclusions 

Experience in train operation on surface lines leads 
to the following general conclusions : 

1. A comparatively large number of trains may be 
operated advantageously on any fairly large urban 
system. The maximum number that may be so oper- 
ated depends on local conditions, but in general may be 



Total cars owned 600 

Total cars scheduled maximum rush hour 566 

Total cars scheduled maximum non-rush hour 254 

Total single cars 336