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Electric Railway Journal 

2 (aH <» 

Volume 58 

July to December, 1921 

McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 

Tenth Avenue at Thirty-sixth Street 

New York City 


Instructions for Use of Index 

This index is essentially a subject index, 
not an index of titles, and articles treating 
a number of different subjects are indexed 
under each of them. In addition, a geo- 
graphical reference' is published wherever 
the article relates to any particular railway 
company, or to the state matters of any 
particular state. The geographical method of 
grouping serves to locate in the index any 
article descriptive of practices, conditions, 
events, etc., when the searcher knows the 
electric railway, city or state to which the 
article applies. Groupings are made under 
the name of the city in which the main office 
of the company is located, but an exception 
is made in the case of electrified sections of 
steam railroads, such entries being made 
direct under the name of the railroad. City 
or state affairs appear under the names of the 
city or state involved. 

In the subject index, the alphabetical 
method is followed, and if there is a choice 
of two or three keywords the one most; gen- 
erally used has been selected, cross references 
being supplied. Below will be found a list of 
the common keywords used in the index to 

this volume. This list has been subdivided 
for convenience into thirteen general subjects, 
but the general subject headings, shown in 
capital letters, do not appear in the body of 
the index unless, like "employees," they ap- 
pear also in small type. As an example of 
how to use the index, if a reader wishes 
to locate an article on special trackwork he 
would obviously look in the list under the 
general subject Track and under this caption, 
only special trackwork could apply to the 
article in question. The reader would there- 
fore refer to this keyword under S in the 
body of the index. 

In addition to the groups of articles cov- 
ered by these headings the papers and reports 
from railway associations are grouped under 
the names of the various organizations. Pro- 
ceedings of other associations and societies 
are indexed in general only in accordance 
with the subject discussed. Short descrip- 
tions of machine tools appear only under the 
heading "Repair shop equipment" and are not 
indexed alphabetically, because of the fact 
that there is a wide choice in most cases of 
the proper keywprd to be used. 



Accident claim department 
Accidents (including wrecks) 
Safety first 


Cars (including car design) 


Motor buses 

Motor cars. Gasoline 

Motor trucks 

Service and tower wagons 

Trackless trolley 

Work and wrecking cars 


Brakes and compressors 
Current collection 
Electrical equipment 

Gears and pinions 



Wheels and axles 


Strikes and arbitrations 
Wage decreases 

Wages and working agreements 

Fare collection (including 

Fare decreases 
Fare increases 
Fare increases sought 

Tickets and tokens 
Traffic investigations 
Traffic stimulation 

Abandoning of lines 

Appraisal of railway property 





Legislation for railways 
Market conditions 
Operating records and costs 
Public service and regulative 

Service at cost 

Heavy ^electric traction (general) 

Insulating materials 
Maintenance practice 

Repair shop practice 
Repair shops and equipment 

Tests of materials and equipment 

Energy checking devices 
Energy consumption 

Overhead contact system 

Power distribution 

Power generation 

Power stations and equipment 

Substations and equipment 

Switchboards and equipment 

Carhouses and storage yards 
Power stations and equipment 
Repair shops and equipment 
Substations and equipment 
Waiting stations 



Rail joints and bonds 

Special trackwork 

Track construction 
Track maintenance 

Freight and express 
Interurban railways 
Merchandising transportation 

Public, Relations with 
Schedules and timetables 

Stopping of cars 
Traffic investigations 
Traffic regulation 
Traffic stimulation 
Transportation, Metropolitan 

Living costs 
Municipal ownership 
Railways (general) 
Snow removal 



T » -. 1 . . O 




uly 9 








1 1 Q 



t„i. t on 



1 Q1 



August 13 




August 20 



O A A 



O A A 


CI J. 1 o 

September 6 




September 1U 



ACi A 


September 17 

A etc 



A £0 


September 24 



C A f\ 


October 1 




/~\ „ J. „ 1, „ „ O 



October 15 



/ ZZ 

/~\ 4- „ 1-. ... , . OO 



October 29 




....... 807 



November 12 












December 10 




December 17 







December 31 





Abandoning of lines: 

— Bridgeton & Mlllville Tr. Co. line, 220 

— Causes and bus solution. Comments on, 2 

— Dallas, Texas: Short line in, 298 

— Des Moines, Iowa; 218, *237 

— Indiana. Columbus & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany proposes, 754. 880. 1127 

— -Los Angeles, Washington line, 118 

— Manistee, Mich., service suspended. 410. 1002 

— Municipal consent required, 220 

— Niagara Falls. N. Y., 536 

— Ocean Shore R.R. branches, 219 

—Saginaw-Bay City Railway, 296. *323. 1044 

• — 'Wisconsin bill permitting is vetoed. 149 

Abilene. Texas: 

— Abilene Street Railway: 

Operation to be resumed, 298 

Accident claim department: 

— Co-operation of other departments needed 

[Connell], 525 
— Employees' claims, Collecting [Bishop], 873 
— Exaggerating claimants [Lonergan], 874 
— Function of [Reynolds]. 735 
— Investigations, Conducting of [Green], 737 
— Letter investigation advocated [Robinson], 

739; Discussion [A. E. R. C. A.]. 736 
— Middle West claim agents organize. 792 
— Psychology in adjusting claims [Butterworth] , 

740: Discussion [A. E. R. C. A.]. 736 
— Publicity in litigated cases [Moore], 792 
— Statistics important [Handlon]. 656 
Accident prevention (see Safety first) 
Accidents : 

— Automobile accidents in Rochester. N. Y. 

[Quigley], 606 
— Cable car runs away, *1157 
— Cost of settlements, 1117, 1148. 
— Decreasing number of, 823 
— Interurban cars crash, *1086 
— Mule injured. Fault of owner., 216 
— New York City in 1920. 376 
— One-man cars reduce [Ashton], 875 
— Perfect score on Pacific Electric. 419 
— Public pays for, 333 
— Rear-end collision, *919 

— Record in Chicago [Kelker], *244; Comments 
on, 229 

— Safety cars decrease [A. E. R. A. Com.]. 619 

— Subway accident in Paris. *838 

— Train jumps track in Springfield. Mass., 414 

—Wisconsin cars overturned, '765 


— Adapting for particular uses [Hopson], 705; 
Discussion. 698 

— Aid in solution of railways' troubles [Web- 
ster], 695 

— Calculating machine. 944 

— Construction costs [Davis], 703; Discussion 
[A. E. R. A. A.l. 698 

— Freight [A. E. R. A. A. Com.], 651; Discus- 
sion, 653 

— I. C. C. system, Questions and answers. 30, 

175; A. E. R. A. A. Report 696 
— Light and power consumers [Eaton], 408 
— Motor utilities, System proposed for. 878 
— Power crsts at delivery point [Hagan], 409 
— Perpetual inventory advocated [May], *398 
— Railway cost [ Bowman 1, 700; Discussion 

[A, E. R. A. A.l, 697 
— Stores [A. E. R. E. A. and A. E. R. A. A 
Com.,]. 631: Discussion. 697 

Adrian. Michigan : 

— Adrian Street Railway: 

Discontinuance proposed, 295 

Advertising (see also Merchandising transporta- 
tion and Publicity): 

— Buses in New York State, 1052 

— Interurbans' methods [ Observer"], *505 

Akron, Ohio : 

— Living costs, 51 

— Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co.: 

Car house and storage facilities, *852 

City appraisal, 416 

"Civility" campaign, 755 

Preferred stock offer. 181 

Motor buse's ordered. 565; Extension re- 
quested, 1092 

Reducing maintenance costs [See], '684 

Trolley bus proposed, 184 

Wage arbitration. 51, 68. 179. 216 
Albany. N. Y.: 

— Interurbans resume service to, 413 
— Jitney situation, 261, 413, 456, 665. 717, 

— United Traction Co.: 
Annual report. 29 

Commission approves one-man cars, 845 
Eight-cent fare sought, 1009 
Election significance, 920 
January-June report, 337 
Service resumption, 144. 531 
Strike, Court statement on. 868 
Strike declared off. 961; Cost of, 1005 
Strikers appeal contempt judgment. 563 
Troy fare controversy, 1090 1132 
Alton, 111.: 

— Jitneys restrained. 338 

Ama'gamated Association of Street & Electric 

Railway Employees of America : 
— Annual convention, 556 
Amarillo, Texas: 

— City ownership recommended, 878 

American Association of Traveling Passenger 

Agents : 
— Annual convention. 791 
American Cities Co. i see New York City) 
American Engineering Council (see Federated 

American Engineering Societies) 
American Electric Railway Accountants' Assn.: 
— Annual convention: 

Papers and proceedings, 608. 695-707 

Program. 330. 410 
— Committee activities: 

Economics of schedules. 649 

Executive, 695 

Freight accounting, 651 

Standard classification of accounts. 175, 

Stores accounting. 174, 631: Discussion. 

— Officers elected. 699 

American Electric Railway Association: 

— "Aera." Advisory committee report on. 612 

— "Aera." Status of [Gadsden], 609 

— Annual convention : 

Discussion urged, 425, 464 

Entertainment, 449 

Hall, *250 

Papers and proceedings. 580-655; Com- 
ments on. 577 

Program. 106. 328: Comments on. 541 

Transportation arrangements. 528 
— Bureau of Information and Service: 

Advertising section, 66 

Bulletins available, 66, 834 

Report on. 614 

Traffic ratios, 220 
— Bus companies not admitted to membership, 

612: Comments on, 577 
— Committee activities: 

Company sections, 106. 622 

Co-operation of manufacturers, 1040 

Electrolysis, 175. 616 

Entertainment, 330, 369, 623 

Executive, 143. 249. 611, 657. 836, 1039; 
Comments on. 231 

Mail pay, 613; Comments on. 763 

Membership, 1040 

Merchandising transportation, 106 

Mid-year dinner, 915. 1152 

National relations, 617 

National Utility Associations. 212, 622 

Nominating. 330, 369. 528. 615 

One hundred, 622 

Publicity. 614, 1039 

Reorganization, 105, 612; Comments on, 

81, 230 
Resolutions. 621 
Safety ear. 213. 619 
Special dinner. 1040 

Trackless transportation, 24. 174, 616, 1082 

Valuation, 369, 618: Comments on, 672 
— Committee personnel. 958 
— Company section activities: 

Chicago Elevated R.R.. 66. 1082 

Connecticut Company. 1082 

Public Service Railway, 1120 

Rhode Island Co., 24 
— Defaulting bookkeeper, 369 
— 'Midyear conference: 

Indianapolis chosen, Comments on. 1015 

Program. 1152 

Transportation committee. 1 120 
— Officers elected. *613, *615; Comments on, 

— Reorganization : 

Discussion on [Dana]. 362: [Sawyer]. 363: 
[Mortimer], 365: [Cram], 365; [Storrs]. 
402; [Coatesl. 444: [Shannahan], 523: 
[Shoup], 523; Comments on, 579 

— Secretary selected, 106; Comments on, 79 

— Secretary-Treasurer's report, 610 

American Electric Railway Claims Association : 

— Annual convention : 

Papers and proceedings, 586, 605, 735 
Program, 329 

— Officers elected, 586, 735. 737 

American Electric Railway Engineering Assn: 

— American Committee on Electrification pro- 
posed. Comments on, 578 

■ — Annual convention : 

Papers and proceedings, 594. 024 
Program, 328 

— Committee activities: 

Apprentice systems. 625 

Buildings and structures, 66, 637 

Equipment, 640 

Executive, 642, 1120 

Heavy electric traction. 106. 626 

Power distribution. 24, 631, 1082 

Power generation, 628 

Purchases and stores, 631, Discussion, 697 
Standards, 528; Comments on. 541 
Subjects. 369; Comments on. 672 
Unification of car design. 639 
Way. "634 

— Committee personnel, 960: Comments on. 978 

— Officers. Nominated, 213: Elected, 642 

— Reorganization proposed [Gove], 624; Com- 
ments on. 671 

American Electric Railway Transportation and 
Traffic Association: 

— Annual convention : 

Papers and proceedings, 587, 589, 603, 605, 

606, 607. 643 
Program, 329 

— Christmas cards to committee members, 1152 

— Committee activities: 

Executive, 143, 643, 792 
Merchandising transportation, 644 
Personnel and training of transportation 

employees 653. 
Safety work, 648 
Subjects, 369 
Traffic regulations, 647 

— Committee personnel. 1040 

— Officers elected. *643, 655 

— Reorganization proposed [Stevens], 643; Com- 
ments on, 671 
Americanization : 

— Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R. work. 

American Railway Association : 
— Mechanical Division meeting postponed in- 
definitely, 368 
— Scrap classification, 383 

American Railways Company (see Philadelphia. 

American Society for Municipal Improvements: 

— Annual meeting. 830 

American Society for Testing Materials: 

— Annual meeting, 103, 175; Comments on, 80' 

Anderson, Indiana: 

— Union Traction Company of Indiana : 
Armature repair records. "783 
Field coils. Repairing [Hester], *14 
Wages decreased, 215 

Watt-hour meters on cars [Luollen], *728 
Appleton, Wisconsin : 

— Wisconsin Traction. Light. Heat, & Power Co.: 
Fare increase. 115 

Appraisal of railway property: 

— Basis and return on [King], 104 

— Capitalization versus amortization. 95; Com- 
ments on, 80 

— Grand Rapids, Mich.. 1083 

— Method attacked. Indianapolis. Ind., 377 

— Kokomo, Indiana values, 881 

— New Orleans situation, 152 

— Ohio valuations increased. 415 

— Oklahoma properties, 664 

— Ottawa, Ontario. 1006 

— Pacific Electric Railway, 568 

— Public Service Ry., 73. 95, 109. 113; Com- 
ments. 80 

— Renewal and depreciation allowed. 989 
— Reproduction value increased by War. 995 
— St. Louis. Missouri, 797, 966 
— Special circumstances in Connecticut [Hop- 
son], c443 

— Toronto arbitration, 532, 567, 713. 1006, 

— "Yardstick" method [A. E. R. A. Com.], 618; 

Comments on, 672 
Arbitration (see Strikes and arbitration) 
Arkansas Light & Power Co. (see Pine Bluff. 

Arkansas ) 
Association of Electric Railway Men: 
— Akron. Ohio meeting. 23; Comments on. 2 
Athol. Massachusetts: 

— Northern Massachusetts Street Railway: 

Freight operation. *41 

Receiver sought, 1129 
Atlanta. Georgia: 
— Georgia Railway & Power Co.; 

Discontinue service to Camp Gordon. 715: 
Government denies claim, 880 

Emergency truck, *734 

Frog repairs. *15 

Interurban fare increase sought, 420; De- 
nied, 716 

Miniature distribution system. *43."> 

Rebate on College Park fares. 1130 

Remodeling cars for P. A.Y. E.. *101 

Universal tie ji'ate. *98 
Atlantic City. New Jersey: 
— Atlantic City & Shore Railroad: 

Receiver discharged. 70 
Attleboro. Massachusetts: 
— Attleboro Branch Railroad: 

Freight operation. "41 
— Interstate Consolidated Street Railway: 

Freight operation, *41 

Abbreviations: "Illustrated. c Communications. 



[Vol. 58 

Auburn, New York : 

— Auburn & Syracuse Electric Railroad: 

Fare schtau.e reduced, 1051 

Wage decrease, 531 
Augusta, Georgia: 

— Augusta-Aiken Railway & Electric Corp.: 

Pare increase sanctioned, 34; Refused, 421 
Aurora, Illinois: 

— Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R.R.: 
Foreclosure sale planned, 1087 
Fox River line. Discontinuance proposed, 

964, 1044 
Future in Elgin, 964, 1044 
Interurban service declared inadequate. 716, 


Loading platform for refuse, *5 
Newspaper coupons attract traffic ["Ob- 
server"], *505 
Wage contract, 145 

— Bus petition allowed, 716 

Australia : 

— Rail standard. "825 

— Railway progress, 155, 462 


- — Vienna, Curves of tramway development 

[Ertel], *199 
— Vienna's trackless trolley [Jackson], 1027 
Automobiles (see also Motor buses) 
— Accidents in Rochester N. Y. [Quigley], 606 
— Automobile, Use for on railway property 

[Dana], c52; [Whitney], 1038: Comments 
on, 39 

— Vehicles in New York, 971 
Axles (see Wheels and Axles) 


Baltimore, Maryland: 

— Baltimore Transit Company : 

Bus, New Type installed, *778 
— United Railways & Electric Co.: 

Fare extension sought, 1049 

Hose bridges carried in trailer [Hughes], 

Loops necessary for trail cars [Palmer], 

New type safety cars [Palmer], *400 
Safety car changes [Palmer], c96 
September report, 844 
Trail cars [Palmer], *891 
Wage decrease proposed, 1005; Agreement, 

Welded joints [Wysor], *170 
Bamberger Electric Railroad (see Salt Lake 

City. Utah) 
Battle Creek, Michigan: 

— Railway favored, 1130; Comments on. 1098 
Bearings (see also Lubrication): 
— Babbitted : 

Tests on [Perry], *905 
— Ball and roller bearings: 

Carrying capacity of, 1078 

Economies from [Porter], 288 

Sen-ice results of [Perry], *905 

Tests on [Perry], *905 
— Bronze. Repairing in Montreal, *193 
— End play in armature, taking up. 693 
— Lubrication of [Morrow], *674 ;' [Treat ] , 914 
— Vacuum oiler. *781 

Beaver Valley Traction Co. (see New Brighton. 

Berlin (see Germany) 

Berkshire Street Railway (see Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Binghamton, New York: 
— Binghamton Railway: 

Automobile safety hints. *987 

Bond agreement changed. 454 
Birmingham. Alabama: 

— Birmingham Railway. Light & Power Co.: 

Fare increase sought. 114; In effect. 259: 
Appealed. 339. 413 

Semi-Centenary week, 971 
— City-railway controversy. 339.413 
— Norwood Street By.: 

Franchise sought, 27 
Bloomington, Illinois: 
— Interurban bus service, 801 
Bonds (see Financial) 
Boston Massachusetts: 
— Boston Elevated Railway: 

Annual report. 533 Comments on, 268 

Deficit eliminated, 1127 

Expenses. Division of. 533 

Fare decrease in Everett & Maiden [Dana], 

Five cent fares extended. 259, 419. 666. 
800. 925 

Freight operation. *41 

Interlocking installation, 48 

.Tnlv report. 533 

Maiden cars withdrawn. 844 

Mutual insurance form '"' by officials. 254 

Telephone announcing', 27 

Three year report. 148 
— Boston & Worcester Street Railway: 

Freight operation. *41 

Motor shaft welded. *1073 

Wages decreased. 1155 
— Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway: 

"Boycott" in Hyde Park. 750. 925 

Jan.-June report. 181 

Jitneys withdrawn in several districts. 969 

July-Sept, report. 841 

Lowell. Mass.. No fare decrease. 1053 

Pension svstem I.15K 

Readjustment planned 880 

Rotary snow and ice digger, *1077 
— Election results 1126 
— Jitney permit. Temporary. 843. 925 
— "No accident" week. 420 
Brakes and compressors: 

— Brake shoes, etc. [A.E.R.E.A. Com.]. 640: 

Discussion. 641 
— Brake slack adjuster. *289 
— Compressor. Belt driven, »694 

Brakes and compressors (Continued) : 

— Compressor piston clearances. [Footel, 445 

— Double capacity for grades, 782 

— Freezing of air systems, 23 

— Heat due to brakes, eft'_et of, 362 

— High power staff brake, *555 

— Jig for rebabbitting connecting rods, *274 

— Locomotive brakes for Paulista Railway, 823 

— Lubrication of [Morrow], *674 

— Reclaiming air compressors, 23 

— Slack adjuster construction, *447 

Brazil : 

— Paulista Railway: 

Brake equipment for, 828 
Bridgeport. Connecticut (s?e also New Haven. 

Conn., Connecticut Company) : 
— Election as indicative of traction situation 

877, Comments on 849 
— Jitney situation, 419, 456 
Bridgeton, New Jersey: 
- — Bridgeton & Millville Traction Co.: 

Abandonment of some lines, 220 

Fare increases. 34 
Brill J. G. Company: 
— Canadian company formed, 462 
British Columbia Electric Railway (see Van- 
couver, B C. Can.) 
Brooklyn. New York: 
— Brooklyn City Railroad: 

Annual report. 297 

Courtesy of employees required [Morgan], 

Schedule and traffic records [Morgan], '499 
— Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Employees thrift accounts assured. 416 
Financial acts of. Hearing of N. Y. T. 

Com., 1043 
Headwaygraph principles [Roberts], 440 
Hose assembling apparatus, '367 
Raising track, Unusual method [Cram], 

Security holders status, 798 
Wage decrease, 177 Comments on, 157 
Brunswick. Georgia: 
— Brunswick & Interurban Railwav: 

Organizing to succeed City & Suburban Ry.. 
455. 710 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company (see 

Erie. Pa 1 
Buffalo, New York : 
— Buffalo-Lackawanna Traction Co.: 

Fare increase. 150 
— Electrification plans reouested. 796.918 
— Erie County Traction Company: 

Seven-cent zon»s authorized. 882 
— International Railwav: 

Citv-railwav controversy. 534 711 802 

837. 919. 1132 11 33 
Fare inquiry, 534. 1132 
Impregnating field co'Is, *1078 
Jan -Sept, report. 841 
Program for 1921. 71 
Safetv-first. campaign. 755 
Trackless trolley proposed. 257, 719 
Wages decreased, 218 
Buses (see Motor buses or Trackless trolWsl 
Business revival. Business press can aid [Mo- 
Grawl. 835: 988 

! Comments on 764' 
1036. 1149 

'B"« Transportation 
Communications on. 

70. 180 

California, State of: 
— Bus regulation limitations 1090 
— Bus operation, *319. 883 
— Commission's Annual report. 1153 
— f/ ei?nt " oarryinK trucks. Regulation 
— Motor utility accounting proposed 
—Railroads challenge King tax bill 
Camden. New Jersey: 
— Jitney regulation'. 1132 
— Public Service Railwav: 

Freight service. 340 

"Pull together" campaign. 260 
— West Jersey & Seashore Railroad: 

Annual report. 257 
Canada. Dominion of: 

— Hydro-radial hearings concluded. 178: Report 

against, 292 
— Report of railways. 418 
Cape Girardeau. Missouri: 

— Cape Girardeau-Jackson Interurban Railway: 

Paving fund proposal, 218 
Car cards (see Publicity and Advertising) 
Car design (see Cars) 
Carhouses and storage yards: 
— Akron. Ohio improves *852 
— Features in Salt Lake Citv. *347 
— Tinp^ track in Akron. Ohio. *852 
Carolina Power & Light Co. (see Raleigh. North 

Carolina ) 
Cars (including Car design) : 
— Bond testing [McKelway], *82 
—Center entrance, interurban. *6 
— Changes for right hand operation [Murrinl. 


— Compartments for second and third class. *8 
— Cushions to ab c orb jar. Comments on. 305 
— Design features affect transportation sale 

[Litchfieidl. *491 
— Double-deck in Edinburgh, *12 
— Double-truck, double-end motor. Design data 

[A. E. R. E. A. Com]. 639 
— Elevated in Hamburg [Mattersdorff 1 . »929 
— E'evated in Philadelphia Pa., *1063 
— freight and express in Mass.. *41 
— 'Freight Interurban, *3 
— Interurban : 

Designs. *6 

Direct current replaces sing'e phase. *543 
Steel construction in Germany. 169 
Texas Elec. Ry.. 247 

— Metal ceiling for head lining. 

— Multiple-unit versus trailers. * 


Abbreviations : * Illustrated, c Communications. 

Cars (including Car design) Continued) : 

— One-man (see also Cars, Safety) : 

Accidents decreased by [Ashton], 875 

Cedar Rapids, 100 per cent, 864 

Double truck, one or two-man operation. 

299; [Mullett], 620, »933 
Five-cent fare maintained in Tampa, 338 
Massachusetts Commission approves. 846 
New Hampshire Commission approves, 1092 
New York Commission approves. 845 
Operation of justified, Comments on, 723 
Opposed in Illinois, 537 
Proposed for Vancouver, B. C. 536 
Saving by in Iowa, *727 
Springs for light loads, '97 
Strike against, F. J. & G. R. R., 145 
Wages increased by. Comments on, 1138 
Zone checks by machine. '953 

— Purchase of. through car trusts [Curwen], 

— Remodeling for P. A. Y. E. features. "101 
— Safety (see also Cars, One-man): 

Approved by Milwaukee Safety Com.. 570 

Comparative cost with motor bus and trol- 
ley bus [Simmon]. *394: [Stocks]. *514: 
[Thirlwall], «546: [Andrews], 769: 
[Stocks], 771 

Detroit Municipal Ry„ »160 

Double entrance in Baltimore [Palmer], 
•400: [Eddy], c732 

Experience with in Pennsylvania [ Smith ] , 

Extensive use of, 117; [A. E, R. A. Com.], 

Objected to in Milwaukee. 299. 570 

Operating results in Oakland. 314 

Publicity before using. "955 

Savings by [Thirlwall]. 784 

Special features of Milwaukee. Wis.. 299 : 

[Mullett], 620 *933 
Standard versus variations [Palmer], c96 
Texas Electric Railway builds. '693 
Trailers not competing, Comments on, 932 
Win approval in Waterloo, Iowa [Welsh], 


— Single-truck cars for Finland, *1074 
— Smoking and passenger car, *6 
— Trackless type: 

Brill make, *550 

Packard car tried in Detroit. *359 

"TroIIicar." St. Louis Car Co., *1035 
— Trailers in Baltimore [Palmer]. *891 
— Trailers not competitive with safety can. 

Comments on. 932 
— Trailers with control in Washington. *43 
— Weights, Effect on springs [Seelerl, 275 
— Weight of one man, double truck car parts, 


Cartoons (see Publicity, Car cards and posters). 

Cedar Rapids. Iowa: 

— Bus Petition rejected. 381 

— Cedar Rapids & Marion City Ry.: 

One-man operation, 864 
Central Electric Railway Accountants' Assn.: 
— Forty-first meeting, 408 
Central Electric Railway Association: 
— Committee activities: 

Freight claim prevention, Report, 54 

Standards, Report. 53 
— Engineering Council: 

Meetings. 699, 957 

Personnel, 915 

Plans for, 54; Comments on, 40 
Youngstown meeting, 957; Comments on, 


— Resolutions on death of Wm. Bloss, 143 
— Summer meeting, *53 
Charleston. W. Va.: 
■ — Charleston-Dunbar Traction Co.: 
Officers elected, 180 
Road sold, 31 
— Charleston Interurban Railway: 
Consolidation with C.-D. Tr. 

Charlotte, North Carolina: 
— Southern Public Utilities Co.: 

Coiled springs added on one-man cars. 
Safety contests success, 1161 
Charlottesville, Va. : 
— Charlottesville & Albemarle Ry.: 
Good will. Increasing. 802 
Selling transportation, 718 
Chattanooga, Tenn.: 
— Chattanooga Railway & Light Co.: 
Air sander. *16 

Creosote plant ■ successful, •101 
Chicago, Illinois: 

— Accident record [Kelker], *244 
— Aldermen's report on traction. 67 
— Bridge construction interrupts service, 1001, 

— Clroago Elevated Railway: 

Fare decrease sought, 572, 1002 
Gates. Positive stop. •1145 
January-August report. 1006 
January-September report. 1002 
New station required raising tracks. 902 
Station agents decreased, *772 
Traffic during bridge displacement, •1113 
— Chicago & Interurban Traction Co.: 

Substation destroyed by lightning. '450 

Chicago & Northwestern Elevated Railroad: 

Stations attractive. *1146 
Chicago Surface Lines: 

Alterations for pageant, *89 
Car and bus speeds, 1035 
Fare decrease sought. 459. 573. 717, 755, 
882. 935, 970, 989. 1035, 1050; Com- 
ments on. 977 
Fare Disposition of. 1005 
Fare jurisdiction by state. 970 
Five-cent fare ordered. 970: Restrained. 

1009. 1050. 1083: Comments on. 977 
Pageant exhibits, *360 
Posters, Colored. *62. *553 
Loop rerouting proposed. *938 
Skip-stop signs on poles, 683 
"Traction Topics," 1117 

Co. planned. 


J idy-December, 1921] 



Chicago. 111. (Continued): 

— City-railway controversy, 28. 67, 107. 176. 
572, 843, 989, 1009, 1035. 1050, 1083, 

— Safety Council work, 331; [Budd], 605 
— Subways and transportation. Comments on, 

— Utilities, Progress by, 293 

Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway (see Jojiet, 

III.) . " ' ', I 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway (see 

Michigan City, Ind.) 
Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad 

(see High wood. 111.) 
Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway (see Ottawa, 


— Electrification. Contract awarded. 576, 670 
— Electrification program, *991 
China : 

— Railway materials. Purchase rules, 1135 
Cincinnati & Dayton Traction Co. (see Hamil- 
ton, Ohio) 
Cincinnati, Ohio: 

— Cincinnati & Hamilton Electric Street Ry.: 

Foreclosure decree, 968 
— Cincinnati, Lawrenceburg & Aurora Electric 

Street Railroad : 

Containers for freight. *949 
— Cincinnati, Milford & Blanchester Traction Co.: 

Sale negotiations to Ford. 753 
— Cincinnati Traction Co.: 

August-September report. 754 

Fare situations, 33. 109. 152, 183. 223. 
420, 665. 754 

Franchise tax. Elimination sought. 969: 
Exemption for 1922. 1156 

Incline reported safe. 69 

Loan by Cincinnati Street Ry.. 181 

Ordinance opposed, 33 

Power house men wages fixed. 145 

Power system modernized, '1099 

School tickets. 718 

Ticket plan changed, 882 

Traffic decreases 
— Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Traction Co: 

Abandonment of certain interurban lines 
sought, 754; Opposition, 880. 1127 
— Interurban Railway & Terminal Company : 

Abandonment of two lines sought, 1089 
— Jitney situation. 537 

— Report of Director of Street Railways. 67 

— Subway project, Abandonment proposed, 794 

— Taxicabs soliciting forbidden, 381 

— West End Terminal Railway: 
Plans for. 1002 

Circuit breakers (see Electrical equipment) 

Citizens Traction Company (see Oil City, Pa.) 

Claim department (see Accident claim depart- 

Cleveland, Ohio: 

— Cleveland Railway: 
Accident cost, 1117 
Automatic substations [Bale], 58 
Concrete breaker, *327 

Extension financed by owners effected. 537 

Fare experiment. Low rate 32. *130, 222; 
Failure, 261; Comments on. 119 

Financial difficulties. 453, 537, 1159 

June report, 220 

November report, 1160 

October report, 1046 

Overhead construction kinks, '687 
— Lake Shore Electric Ry: 

Newspaper advertising ["Observer"]. *505 
— Railroad terminal disapproved. 377 
— Street Railway Commissioner's report. 1154 
Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern R.R. Co. (see 

Willoughby. Ohio) 
Clinton, Davenport & Muscatine Railway (see 

Davenport, Iowa) 
Coal (see Fuels) 
Coin counter, Simple. *209 
Columbia. South Carolina: 

— Columbia Railway, Gas & Electric Company : 

Discontinuance of certain lines sought, 1050 
Columbus, Ohio : 

— Columbus, Delaware & Marion Electric Co.: 

Bond issue, 70 

Defrauders discovered, 840 

Track relocation opposed. 293 
— Columbus Railway, Power & Light Co.: 

Extension. Difficulties over. 293 

Improvement work of, 750 

Management suit, 714, 963 

Unemployment discussed, 795 
— Jitney regulation, 801 
— Motor bus service, 1052 
Common carrier. Comments on, duties of. 158 
Commonwealth Power, Railway & Light Co. (see 

Grand Rapids, Mich.) : 
Community Traction Co. (see Toledo, Ohio) 
Connecticut Co. (see New Haven, Conn.) 
Connecticut, State of: 

— Regulations for jitneys. 50, 74. 75, 113, "151. 
184. 223, 262, 301, 380. 419, 757: Com- 
ments on, 40, 158 

Connecticut Valley Street Railway (see Green- 
field, Mass.) 

Controllers (see Electrical equipment for cars) 

Convention papers. Comments on types. 1 

Corpus Christi, Texas: 

—Corpus Christi Railway & Light Company : 

Five cent ticket fare, 970 
Corrosion (see also Electrolysis) : 
— Gases from locomotives cause [Scott], '1079 
— Soil corrosion : 

Cast iron and other metals in alkaline soils 
[Smith and Shipley]. 911 

Example of [Smith], c52 

Tests on, 909 
Covington. Kentucky: 

— South Covington & Cincinnati Street Railway: 

Dixie terminal opened. *865 

Wage decrease proposed, 178; Accepted, 216 
Crane. Crawling tractor type, 446 
Creosote (see Ties) 

Crocker-Wheeler Co. sells Canadian plant, 423 
Crossings, Grade (see Safety first) 
Crowded cars in Italy. *90 

— Cienfuegos, Palmira & Cruces Electric Railway 
& Power Co.: 

Suit for breach of contract, 298 
— Havana Electric Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Annual reoprt. 336 

Maintenance difficulties, 171 
— Havana, Subway proposed 
— Hershey Cuban Railway Cars, *6 
Cumberland County Power & Light Co. (see 

Portland, Maine) 
Cumberland. Maryland : 
— Cumberland Electric Railway: 

Merger with power company proposed, 922 
Cumberland Railway & Power Co. (see Raleigh, 

North Carolina ) 
Current collection : 
■ — Plow testing, »139 
— Third rail system on N. P. R.R., 743 
— Trackless trolley shoe, *550; [Jackson], *859 
— Trackless trolley wheels, '1025 
— Trolley stand, Roller bearing, 733 
— Trolley wheels versus shoes. Discussion [C. E. 

R. A.]. 957 


Dallas. Texas: 

— Dallas Railway : 

Abandons short line, 298 

Co-operative discussion, 757 

Fare rate continued, 73 

Improvement program, 1158 

Hints to trainmen, 711 

July report, 663 

October report, 1008 

Publicity campaign through employees, 957 

Traffic regulation, 259 

Wages decreased, 293 
- — Texas Electric Railway: 

Interurban cars for, *247 

Safety cars built by, *693 

Stock increase. 337 

Wages decreased. 961 

Weed cutter, «448 
Danbury, Connecticut: 
— Danbury & Bethel Street Railway: 

Buses to West Danbury. 381. '516, 556, 
Davenport, Iowa: 

— Clinton, Davenport |& Muscatine Railway: 

Monthly commutation scheme in Muscatine 
758. 883 
— Tri City Railway: 

Fare decrease sought, 883 

Maintenance practice, 527 

One-man car controversy. 537 

One-man car operation, *727 

Power plant accidents, 752 

September report, 876 

Transfer, Punching eliminated. *1147; 
Comments on. 1137 
Dayton, Ohio: 
— Dayton Street Railway: 

Strike settled, 178 
— Jitney situation, 450, 1091 
— Peoples Street Railway : 

Strike settled. 178 
— Railway difficulties. 450 
Decatur, Illinois : 
— Jitney situation. 927 
Delaware & Hudson R.R. : 
— Trolley lines report, 29 

Delaware Lackawanna & Western Railroad: 
— Electrification postponed, 424, 1135 
Denver, Colorado : 
— Denver & Interurban Railroad : 

Electrifying to Union Station, 109 

Receiver discharged, 149 
— Denver Tramways : 

Fare controversy, 570 

Strike, Report on. 793 

Wages decreased. 293 
Depreciation (see Appraisal of railway prop- 
erty or Financial) 
Des Moines. Iowa: 

— Bus Association offers service, 150, 372, 530; 

Comments on. 1017 
— Bus regulatory ordinance. 1153 
■ — City-railway controversy, 107, 144. *237, 

•283, 372. 411. 530. 658, 709. 748, 961. 

1001, 1033. Comments on. 267, 931, 

978, 1017 
— Des Moines City Railway: 

Franchise, Features. 749, 1033; Approved. 

Service resumed. Temporary, 372, 311: 
Permanent, 793. 1033, Comments on. 

Suspension proposed. 107. 144; In effect, 
218 *237. *283 325 311. 372, 411. 
530, 563. 657. 658: [Lewis], 791 

Wage decrease, 108 
Detroit, Michigan: 
— Detroit Bus Co.: 

Annual report. 418 

Operation of, 341 
— Detroit Municipal Railway : 

Bus operation contemplated. 1161 

Cars of. *159 

Construction work praised. 838 

Extensions opened. 371. 795 

Operating arrangements with D. U. R.. 1041. 

1086. 1125 
Overhead construction features. *159 
Policies indorsed. 876 
Power from Canada proposed. 450 
Salesmanship talks to employees [Bigelow], 

•1111. 1143 
September report. 798 
Stops. Warning signs for, *693 
Svstem layout. *123 
Tower truck. *680 

Track construction, *121: Comments on, 

Detroit, Michigan : 

— Detroit Municipal Ry. (Continued) : 

Trolley buses proposed. 37: Specifications, 
320; Bids, 334; Trial, *359. •522, •1025 
Wages not to be discussed, 450 
Winch truck, »910 
■ — Detroit United Railway i 

City purchase of lines controversy, 69, 109. 
146, 176. 251, 294, 452, 529. 662, 712, 
751, 876. 918. 964. 1001, 104x 
Fare decrease, 32 
Financial situation, 295, 713 
Ford village controversy, 562 
Interurban fare controversy, 536 
Operating arrangements with city. 1041, 

1086, 1125 
Publicity department unchanged, '67 
Schedule changes, 338 
Stock dividend refused. 1045 
Stock issue denied, 418 
Valuation question, 1045 
— Elevated railway proposed, 562 
— Transportation of future, 331 
Door mechanisms (see Fixtures) 
Dubuque, Iowa: 

-Dubuque Electric Company : 
New franchise, 



Duluth, Minnesota: 
— Duluth Street Railway: 

Fare controversy, 381, 456. 1050 
Dynamite, Non-freezing type, 1076 

Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry. (see Boston, 

Eastern Pennsylvania Railways (see Pottsville, 

East Liverpool, Ohio: 

— State and interstate fares must be equal, 1092 
East St. Louis, Illinois: 
— East St. Louis & Suburban Railway: 
Deficit advertised, 664 

Wage reduction proposed, 28, 179, 964: 
Award, 1042. 
Eighth Avenue Railroad (see New York City.) 
Electrical equipment for cars (except Motors): 
— Arrangement to reduce maintenance. 348 
— Circuit breaker. Hinged handle, *734 
— Circuit breaker testing. '139 
"Electrical Review" purchased by McGraw-Hill, 

Electric Short Line Ry. (see Minneapolis, .Minn.) 
Electrification (see Heavy electric traction) 
Electrolysis: ...:,>:.. 
— American Committee on: • 

Report, 175, 726. 913; [A. E. R, A. Com.], 
616 : , ; ^.;iU3 ..i.;:o?jO 

— Corrosion of cables, 442 

— Interconnection of track crossing, Detroit, 391 
— Measurement of earth currents, [MeCollum], 

•809; Comments on, . 807 ...... 

— Three wire distribution in Wilmington, Del. 

[Way], *307; Comments on, 306 
— Three-wire system in Winnipeg, 839 
— Three-wire system. Track voltage of [Smith], 

El Paso, Texas: 
— El Paso Electric Railway: 

Service, An example of [Lemmon], 442; 
Comments on, 425 
Emergency bus system (see New York City) 
Employees (see also Labor, Strikes and Arbi- 
trations, Wages) : 
—Activities in Kansas City, 254 
— Apprentice systems [A. E. R. E. A. Com.]. 


— Bonus awarded in Los Angeles, 917. 1155 
— "Business as Conductor," Comments on, 120 
— Bus operators admitted to Amalgamated, 556; 

Comments on, 673 
— Car cards to be submitted by. 957 
— Claims of. Handling [Bishop], 873 
— Company publications: 

Kansas City, Mo., 796. *879 

Philadelphia. Pa.. »955 
— Compensation in Utah, 839 
— Confidence will aid transportation [Kelsay], 


— Courtesy requisite to transportation sales 

TMorgan], *499 
■ — Direct salesmen of transportation [Barnes], 


— Director from, Louisville, Ky., 1158 

— Dispatching principles for the individual. 

Comments on, 889 
—Educate to teach public [Wickwire], 599 
— Employment status. June, 132 
— Housing plans of I. R. T., 375 
—Instruction. Claim department co-operation 

[Connell], 525; [Thomas], 524 
— Mutual benefit association [Anderson], 1118 
— Pension system on E. M. S. R., 1155 
— Personnel work [Bovcel, 19, [A. E. R. T. & 

T. A. Com.]. 653; Discussion, 654 
— Picnic of P. R. T.. »955 
— Profit sharing plan [MeCahill], 18 
— Rules. Dialogue on observance of, 878 
— Salesmanship, Talks on [Bigelow], 1111. 


— Selection of [Norris], 607 

— -Seniority for safety car operators. 1162 

— Service hints, 711 

— Street calling required in Minneapolis. 919 
— 'Strikers status, 868 

— Thrift accounts assured by B. R. T., 416 
— Trainmen's bonus in Los Angeles, Cal„ 917 
— Turnover statistics, *731, *993 
— Unemployment conference, Comments on, 541 • 

Recommendations. 660. 686 
— Wage possibilities [Todd, by Bozelll. 1018 
— Workmen's compensation in New York [Oti<l 


Energy checking devices: 

— Installation of and saving by [Lnellen], ^728 
- — Records and savings by [Wood], '081 

Abbreviations : 'Illustrated, c Communications. 



[Vol. 58 


Energy consumption: 

— Hamburg Elevated Railway [ Mattersdori ] , 

- — Reducing- by checking [Wood], •681; 

[Luellen], '728 
— Saving by proposed Superpower System, 819 
Engineers : 

— Executive leadership by. Comments on, 763 
— Field of. 381 

— Marshal Foch honored as, 1081 
England ( see Great Britain ) 

Erie County Traction Company (see Buffalo. 

N. Y.) 
Erie. Pennsylvania: 

— Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company : 

Fare controversy. 802 
Express (see Freight and express) 
Eureka, California: 
— Humboldt Transit Co.: 

City votes to purchase, 149; Taken over, 
Europe : 

— Electrification plans. 352 

Fairmount, West Virginia: 

— Monongahela Power & Railway Co.: 

Coal properties sold. 966 

Stock sales, 295 

Switching locomotive built, *246 

Wages decreased, 68 
Fare collection (see also Tickets and tokens) 
— Adjustable change carrier. *448 
— Bus system in Gloucester, Mass.. •773 
— Change making fare box. '401 
— Com and ticket sorter, •1073 
— Featherweight gates in New York, *940 
■ — Gate collection in Everett, Mass. [Dana], *47 
— Prepayment and postpayment [A. E. R. E. 

A. Com.], 637 
—Transfers. Punching eliminated. *1147; Com 

ments on, 1137 
— Weekly passes (see Fares) 
— Zone checks by machine. *953 
Fare decreases : 

— Boston Elevated extends five-cent lines 

419. 666, 800 
— Cincinnati. Ohio, 183, 223, 754 
— Cleveland, Short haul, '130 
— Detroit, Mich., 32 
— Everett & Maiden [Dana], *47 
— Five cent experiment in Connecticut, 844, 

883, 885, 924, 970, 1011, 1051, 1133 
— Five-cent fare trial in Houston, Texas. 1010 
— Methods of. Comments on, 119 
— Monthly pass in Joliet. 111., 1051 
— Pronosed for: 

Chicago, Illinois, 459. 572, 717, 843, 925. 
970, 989, 1002. 1009; Comments on, 977 

Connecticut Co. 665. 759, 837, 883 

Davenport, Iowa, 883 

San Antonio, Texas, 1011, 1054 

Seattle, Washington, 750, 758. 881 

Syracuse, N. Y.. 666 
— Round trip on Oregon Elec. Ry., 260 
— Tickets in Corpus Christi. Texas, 970 
— Transfer elimination. Comments on. 1137 
— Washington. D. C, 223. 456 
Fare increases: 
— Augusta, Georgia. 34 
— Birmingham, Alabama, 259. 339 
— Buffalo interurbans. 150. 882 
— Denied : 

Augusta-Aiken Ry., 421 

Lynchburg, Virginia, 299 

Minneapolis, Minn., 457 

Omaha. Nebraska. 452 

San Jose, California, 1049 

Utica. N. Y., 535 
— Duluth, Minn.. 381 
— Helena, Montana. 925 
— Jackson. Mich., 459 
— Knoxville, Tenn., 33. 73. 152 
— Memphis. Tenn., 339 
— Minneapolis. Minnesota, 341, 380 
— Nashville Tenn. 153 
— Newark N. J.. Transfers. 223, 755 
■ — Revenue from [Kappeyne], *954 
— Salt Lake & Utah R.R., 185 
— Spokane. Wash.. 32 
— Toledo. Ohio. 301, 536 
— Toronto, Ontario, Can., 666 
— 'Winnipeg, Man.. Can., 222 
— Wisconsin Tr., Lt., Ht. & Pr. Co. 115 
Fare increases sought: 
— 'Albany, N Y.. 1009 
— Birmingham, Alabama. 114 
— Georgia interurban, 420 
— Helena, Mont.. 537 
— Indianapolis. Ind.. 224. 1117 
— Los Angeles. Cal.. 184. 380. 1010 
— Minneapolis, Minn.. 33, 223 
— Mobile. Alabama. 565 

— Newark. N. J.. 73. 95. 109. 113, 260. 339. 

458. 534, 573. 717, 793, 843, 1091. 1131 
— Raleigh, N. C, 34. 802, 1010 
— St. Paul, Minn., 29. 33. 259. 457. 802. 882. 


— Southern Pacific Co., 73 
— Troy New York. 1090. 1132 
— Trenton. N. J., 667: Denied. 718 
Fares : 

— Bargain sale of [Boyee], *353 

— "Boycott" started aga'nst, 750. 925 

— Canadian city rates. 927 

— Disposition of, on Chicago Surface Lines, 

— Distance variation desired [Todd, by Bozell]. 

— Effect of changes: 

Everett & Maiden [Dana], *47 

Louisville, Kv.. 455 

Michigan United Rvs . 224 

Portland. Oregon. 185 

Youngstown. Ohio. *1104 
— Effect on wages [Green! . 732 
— Element affecting rider [Dahl], 239 

Fares (Continued) : 

— Emergency proved in N. J., 73 

—Factors analyzed [Ashfield], 312 

— Franchise not binding, '1091 

— Hamburg practice [ Mattersdorf ] , 979 

— Increases and changes [Gruhl], 595 

— Indiana policy. 1092 

— Interstate, Increased by I. C. C, «1091 

— Low fares not incentive to riding, 844 

— Low rate for short haul, 32. '130, 222; 

Failure, 261 
— Monthly commutation tickets. 758, 883 
— Rates based on value of service [Tingley], 


— Rates not fixed by vote. Comments on, 158 
— Relative increases [Burke], *94 
— Revenue increase from increased rates [Kap- 
peyne], *954 
— Review ordered in Wisconsin, 885 
— School tickets in Cincinnati, 718 
— Six cents predominates in Ohio. 261 
— State, Must equal interstate, 1092 
— 'Study of just fare, Comments on, 119 
— Three cent advocated in Seattle, 114. 457; 

Comments on. 81 ; Opposed, 716 
— Weekly pass: 

Wisconsin results [Jackson], *203, Com- 
ments on. 191. 1015 
Youngstown adopts, 534, *899; Comments 

on, 890. 1015 
Youngstown results. *1104; Comments on, 

—Wholesale prices, *1104; Comments on, 1098 
— Wisconsin cities. 767 
— Zone system : 

Popular in San Diego, Cal., 921 

Proposed for Los Angeles, Cal., 756 

Zurich abandons, *416 
Federal Electric Railways, Commission Report: 
— Analysis by D. F. Wilcox, 341 
Federal Light & Traction Company (see New 

York City) 
Federated American Engineering Societies: 
— American Engineering Council: 

Waste elimination report, 173; Comments 
on. 157 

Feeders (see Cables and Power distribution) 
Fiber. Strength of, 135 
Financial : 

—Analysis of railways' difficulties [Gadsden], 
581; [Frothingham] . 584; Comments on, 

■ — Assessment of landowners for construction 

[Wehle], 552 
— Blue-sky bills opposed, 256 
— 'Bond issue. Service at cost aids. 1046 
— Bonds maturing in January, 1159 
— Bonds versus stocks, 29 

— Car purchases through car trusts [Curwen], 

— Contract for engineering advice abrogated by 

commission, 73 
— Customer ownership securities: 

Advantages [Addinsell], 593 

Aid in moulding public opinion [Grimsby], 

Employee purchasers and agents, 321; Com- 
ments on. 306 

Partial payment plan in New Jersey, 921 

Plan used in Norfolk, Va.. *198 

Preferred stock in Akron. O., 181 

Preferred stock sale in Milwaukee. *110; 
Comments on, 191 

Public-ownership advantageous [Ayles- 
worth], 791 

Sale and value of [Weeks], 65 
— Cycle for railways improving [Todd, by 

Bozell], 1018 
— Default of traction bonds. 922 
— Depreciation reserve fund opposed. 31 
— Discount, Amortization of [Peirce], 872; 

Comments on. 931 
— Dividends. Comments on psychology due to. 


— Dividends paid in stock, 663 

— Earnings of railways [C. & F. Chron.], 70, 
147; Comments on, 39 

— Extension aided by owners benefited, 537 

— Foreclosures: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R.R., plans, 1087 
Decree entered for C. & H. S. R., 968 
Grafton property sold, 754, 923 
Pittsburgh Rys., West End lines, 148, 221; 

Opposed. 298 
Second Av. R. R.. New York City. 336 
U. T. & E. Co. Providence, R. I., 31 

— Holding company. Weakness of [Frothing- 
ham], 584; Comments on. 577 

— Investment, Railways as [Babson & Hill], 

— Junior securities : 

Advantages of [Newman], 582 
Advocated, 29: Comments on. 191 
Marketing difficulties [Peirce]. 872; Com- 
ments on. 931 
North American Co. plan, 110, 376; Com- 
ments on, 191 
— Leadership by executives needed. Comments 
on, 463 

— Market for securities [Addinsell], 592 

— Money. Increased cost of [Gruhl], 595 

— New York railways. 962, 1003. 1043. *1065 

— Operating revenue for 72 railways. *1047 

— Problems of railways [Perry], 788 

— Public utility bonds advocated, 72 

— Railway credit [Gadsden], 17. 18 

— Railways difficulties in medical terms 

[Barnes], 786 
— Readjustment in New York City [N. Y. T. 

C], 557; Comments on, 579 
— Receiverships : 

Discharged. Atlantic City, 70 
Discharged. Denver & Interurban R.R.. 149 
D'scharged. Rhode Island Co.. 418. 454 
Discharged. West Virginia Tr. & Elee. Co.. 

Proposed for Norton. Taunton & Attle- 
boro Street Ry., 149 


— Receiverships (Continued) : 

Saginaw-Bay City Railway, 296 
Sought for I. R. T.. 376, 415, 455, Com- 
ments on, 345 
— Renewal and depreciation allowances of vari- 
ous companies. 989 
— Reorganization of Toledo Ry. & Lt. Co., 567 
— Simple plan essential [Frothingham], 584 
— Taxation (see Taxes) 
— Tax exempt securities : 

Constitutional amendment against. Intro- 
duced, 1084; Comments on, 851, 1015, 

Public utilities. Effect on [Gadsden], 212; 
[Addinsell], 593: Remarks on, 250; Re- 
port on [A. E. R. A. Com.], 622; Com- 
ments on, 191, 851, 1015, 1057 
— Unsecured creditors wiped out in reorganiza- 
tion, 567 

— Utility securities. Status of [Addinsell], 831; 

Comments on, 851 

— American cars purchased, '1074 
Fires : 

— Quenched by baking soda, 47 
—Underwriters' laboratories and work [Mul- 

daur] 594 

— Air sanders, '16 
— Door and step control, *433 
— Door guides welded to plate, '954, 1079 
— Drawbars marked to prevent theft, '693 
— Factors in sale of transportation [Litchfield], 

— Life guard, *209 

— Springs, Coiled type on one man cars. '97 

— Springs for easy riding [Seelar], 275 

— Springs, Hardening, •102, 290 

— Steps. Folding, »1078 

Foch honored by engineers, 1081 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R.R. (see 

Gloversville, N. Y.) 
Foreclosures (see Financial) 

Fort Madison. Iowa (see under Iowa City, Iowa) 

Fort Wayne, Indiana: 

— Indiana Service Corporation: 

Improvement program. 216 

Interline traffic ["Observer"], '505 

Limited service extension, 260 

Wages decreased, 453, 564 
Fort Wayne, Van Wert & Lima Traction Com- 
pany (see Springfield, Ohio) 
Fort Worth, Texas: 
— Northern Texas Traction Co.: 

Accident to mule. 216 

Ball bearings, Economy from [Porter], 288 
Pit jack. «168 

— Bus lines aided by government, 768 
— Midi Railway purchases equipment, 303, 423. 

— Paris subway accident, *838 

— Railway electrification planned, 189, 1042 

— Railway strike, 1035 

Franchises (see also Service at cost) : 

— Contracts discussed, 332 

— Human element affects [Frothingham], 584; 
Comments on, 557 

— Indeterminate permits [Newman], 582; In- 
dorsed [Todd], 589 

Freight and express : 

— Accounting [A. E. R. A. A. Com.], 651: Dis- 
cussion. 653 

— Advertising for. by interurbans ["Observer"], 

— Claim prevention [C. E. R. A.], 54; Com- 
ments on. 119 

— Container system : 

Cincinnati road uses, '949 

— Camden-Trenton service, 340 

— Costs in Massachusetts. 41 

— Delivery to door, '133; Comments on, 120 

— Developing interurban business. *3 

— 'Discontinued in Philadelphia. 845 

— Facilities and methods in Mass.. '41 

— Merchandise delivery proposed [Barnes]* 998 

— Milk handling record, 996 

— Motor truckers aid trolleys, 41 

— Railways as freight distributers, *242; Com- 
ments on, 229 

— Subway transportation in New York, Pro- 
posal, 710 

— Supplementing steam trunk lines [Bibbins] 

591; [O'Toole], 878 
— Terminals for, *41 
— Trucks regulated in California, 969 
Fresno. California: 
— Fresno Traction Co.: 

Franchise grant presented, 215. 331. 1158 

Wages decreased. 1155 

— Coal (see also Market conditions) : 
Consumption by users, 201 
Costs in New York City, 1115 
Labor situation, Comments on. 724 
Production cost and effect on business. 

Comments on. 229 
Property sold by railways, 966 
Pulverized [Savage], 172, 629 
Pulverized anthracite, Burning of [Rau] 


Purchase advised, 143. 227 

Treating dirty coal, 245 
— Oil supplanting coal, 25. 214 
— Petroleum : 

Situation of industry, 245 

Galesburg. Illinois: 

— Galesburg Railway, Lighting & Power Com- 

Franchise sought, 1157 
Gallipolis, Ohio : 

— GaUipolis & Northern Traction Co.: 
Gasoline rail car, 927 

Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Communications. 

July -December, 1921] 



Galveston, Texas: 

— Galveston Electric Co. : 

Fare controversy, 836 
Gary, Indiana: 
— Gary Street Railway: 

Local financing, 321; Comments on, 30t3 
Gear and pinions: 

— Helical gears [Phillips & Holy], *22; Com- 
ments on, 1 
— Helical gear, Tooth contour of, '168 
— Lubrication of [Morrow], '674 
— Manufacturer's Assn. meets. 656 
— Shrinking pinions on, 23 

Georgia Railway & Power Co. (see Atlanta, 

Georgia, State of: 

— Utility information bureau formed. 65 


— Berlin : 

Eight-ride ticket. *143 

Railway situation [Eichel], *814; 881 
— Cologne, Curves of tramway development 

[Ertel], *199 
— Hamburg Elevated Railway: 

Changes and statistics [Mattersdorff ] , *979 
— Hamburg's trackless trolleys [Schiemann], 


— Interurban cars. Steel, 169 

— Railway situation, *358 

— Single phase electrification favored, 14 

Glens Falls, N. Y. : 

— Hudson Valley Railway : 

Annual report, 29 
Gloucester, Mass.: 
— Motor bus transportation, *773 
Gloversville, N. Y.: 

— Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad; 

Strike, One-man cars, 145 
Grafton, W. Va.: 
— Grafton Light & Power Co.: 

Property sold, 754, 923 
— Tygarts Valley Traction Co.: 

Customer-ownership stock. 923 
Grand Rapids. Mich. : 

— Commonwealth Power, Railway & Light Co.: 

Annual report. 1006 
— Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Muskegon Ry.: 

Auto competition. 339. 884 

Rental in Muskegon raised, 664 
— Grand Rapids Railway: 

Franchise proposals, 333, 563, 1083 
— Jitney situation, 420, 1083, 1130 
— United Light & Railways Co.: 

Securities, sales methods [Weeks]. 65 
Great Britain: 

— Bradford trackless trolleys [Jackson]. *859: 

Comments on 851 
— Cardiff (Wales) buses lose. 971 
— Coal strike and effect. 25. 241 
— Edinburgh Corporation Tramways : 
Cars and buses, *13, '51 
Overhead construction started, *827 
— Glasgow Corporation Tramways : 

Annual report, 214, 219 
— Leeds City Tramways reports deficit, 916 
— Leeds, Trackless trolleys in [Jackson], *859; 

Comments on. 851; Front-drive bus. 1036 
— Letters from, 25, 214, 370, 561. 916. 1000 
— Liverpool installs daylight color light sig- 
nals. 1150 
— London : 

London County Council Tramways: 

Annual report, 214 
London General Omnibus Company: 
Motor coach features, 827 
New service planned, 183 
London Underground Railway: 

Lighting subway connections, 399 
Posters, etc., *137. *506 
Metropolitan District Railway: 

Trip-cock testing, *829 
Metropolitan Railway 

Automatic stop on signal, 432 
Locomotive reconstruction, 694 
Railways' report. 111 
Subway construction proposed. 996 
— Railroad labor problems. Handling, .366 
— Railway electrification standards report, 826 
— Tees-side trackless trolley system [Jackson], 

—York trolley buses, 772: [Jackson], *1027 
Greenfield, Massachusetts: 
—Connecticut Valley Street Railway: 

Bus operating costs, 777 

Freight operation, *41 

Receiver sought, 1129 
Greenville, Texas: 

— Municipal buses for transportation, 069 


Hagerstown, Maryland: 

— Hagerstown & Frederick Railway: 

Rerouting requested by patrons, 1091 
Hamilton, Ohio: 

- — Cincinnati & Dayton Traction Co.: 

Interurban crash, "1086 
Harbirshaw Electric Cable Co.. receivership 


Hartford & Springfield Street Railway (see Ware- 
house Point, Conn.) 
Haverhill, Massachusetts : 

— Massachusetts Northeastern Street Railway: 

One man cars approved, 845 

Wages decreased, 293 
Headwaygraphs in Brooklyn, [Roberts], *440 
Heavy electric traction (see also Locomotives) : 
— American practice an influence abroad. 855 
— Australian extension. 462 

— Buffalo, N. Y., requests plans for. 796. 018 

— Chilean order, 576. 670, *991 . 

— Committee report on [A. E. R. E. A Com ] 

626; Discussion of. 627 
— Considered on Pacific Coast. 144 
— Definition of needed ["Engineer. H.E.T." ] . 


Heavy electric traction (Continued) : 

— Direct current, 1,500 volts, recommended for 

Holland, 761; [Martinet], 988 
— Direct current 3,000 volts for Chile, 576, *991 
— Direct currejit recommended for England, 826 
— Extensions planned, World survey of, 351 
— Factors affecting, 84 
— France plans, 1042 

— Heating by electric boilers [Rosenberger] , 

•206; *829 
— Holland [Martinet], 988 
— Jamaica proposes, 100 
— Madagascar plans, 669 

— Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean Co. proposes, 189 

— Saving on N.&W.. 238 

— Single phase system : 

Germany endorses, 14 
Sweden extends, 14 

• — Spanish contract, 1055 

— Standardization report in England, 826 

— Superpower survey, proposes, *819; Com- 
ments on, 808 

—Switzerland, Status of [Huber], *988 

— Three-phase extension in Italy [Huldschiner] . 

Helena, Montana: 

, — Helena Light & Railway Company : 

Fare increase sought, 537; Granted, 925 
Highways : 

— Legislation before Congress, 108 
— Research on, 174 
High wood, Illinois: 

— Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R.: 

Advertising for traffic ["Observer"], *505 

Americanization work, *332 

Christmas greetings, *1116 

Delivery of merchandise in Chicago, '133; 
Comments on, 120 

Safety record, 238. 718 

Wages decreased, 69 

— Direct current, 1500 volts recommended, 761; 

[Martinet], 988 
Holyoke, Massachusetts: 
— Holyoke Street Railway: 

Chieopee fare question, 1162 

Freight operation, *41 
Housing, Relation to traffic [Ertel], *199 
Houston, Texas : 
— Houston Electric Company: 

Fare controversy, 969, 1010 

Service at cost proposed, 145. 333. 563; 
Defeated, 662; New franchise. 838: De- 
feated 969; New proposal, 1044, 1083 
Hudson Valley Railway (see Glens Falls, N. Y.) 
Humboldt Transit Company (see Eureka, Cal.) 
Huntington, West Virginia: 
■ — Ohio Valley Electric Railway: 

Extension financing difficult, 711 

Pump house for power plant, *387; Com- 
ments on. 385 

Illinois Electric Railways Association : 

Annual meeting, 746 
Illinois Public Utility Information Com. work, 

332, 1064, 1092 
Illinois, State of: 
— Bus petition refused, 758 
— Regulation of motor vehicles. 184. 747 
— Utility legislation. Comments on; 39 
Illinois Traction System (see Peoria, 111.) 
India : 

— Electric railway development, 1013 
— Electric railway project, 847 
— Northwestern Railway electrification factors, 

Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Traction Company 

(see Cincinnati. Ohio) 
Indiana Electric Corp. (see Indianapolis, Ind.) 
Indianapolis. Indiana: 
— Belt railway proposed, llfil 
— City railway controversy, 108, 292; Comments 
on, 386 

— Freight handling plans. 334 

— Indiana Electric Corporation : 

Merger of utilities sought, 295, 377, 415. 

569. 965. 1048 
Valuation figures attacked. 377. 415 

— Indianapolis Street Railway: 

Fare situation, 108, 224, 667, 970, 1117; 

Comments on. 386 
Paving question, 879, 1084 
Rerouting financially impossible, 150 
Wages decreased, 215 

— Interstate Public Service Company : 
Bond selling difficult. 1127 
Freight facilities and business. *3 
Purchases Connersville, Ind., company, 1007 
Through service attracts traffic ["Ob- 
server"], *505 
Wages decreased. 215 

— Jitney situation, 150. 379. 970, 1084. 1132: 
Comments on. 386 

— Loading platforms. *1147 

— Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Co.: 

Wages decreased. 215 
Indiana Ptiblie Utility Association: 

Indiana University to entertain, 1119 

Indiana Railways and Light Company (see 

Kokomo. Ind.) 
Indiana Service Corporation (see Ft. Wayne, Ind.) 
Indiana, State of: 

— Rate reduction not probable. 1092 

— Utility merger proposed, 295, 377, 415: 

Denied 569; Rehearing sought, 905 
Information bureaus of utilities (see Public, 

Relations^ with) 
Insulating materials: 
— Fiber. Strength of, 135 
— Specifications for [A.S.T.M.]. 103 
— Testing of [Dean], 85; Comments on, 79 

— Mutual company formed, 254 

(see New York 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co. 

Internationale Strassenbahn und 

Verein : . 
■ — -First convention, 66, 358 
International Railway Association : 
— Meeting planned, 1119 
International Railway (see Buffalo, N. Y.) 
Interstate Commerce Commission (see Public 

service and regulative commissions) 
Interstate Consolidated Street Railway (see Attle- 

boro, Mass. 

Interstate Public Service Company (see Indian- 
apolis, Ind.) 
Interurban cars (see Cars, Interurban) 
Interurban railways : 

— Advertising for traffic ["Observer"], *505 
— Automatic substations instead of single phase, 

— Bridge for Canadian railways proposed, 1157 

— Car designs, *6 

— Freight business. Developing, *3 

— Limited service extension in Ohio, 260 

— Limited service from Milwaukee, 412 

— Time table arrangement, *394 

— Traffic possibilities, Comments on advertising 

for, 465 
Iowa City. Iowa : 

— Mississippi Valley Electric Company : 

Five-cent fare success in Ft. Madison, 420 

Iowa Electric Railway Association: 

— Meets with Iowa section N.E.L.A.. 65. 104, 

— Mid-year meeting: 

Papers and discussion; 527 

Program, 369, 410 

— Crowded cars. *90 

— Trackless trolley, for army use, 1026 
— Valtellina Railway extension [Huldschiner], 

— Valtellina Railway locomotive rheostat, 439 

Jackson, Michigan: 
— Michigan Railroad: 

Auto competition from Saginaw, 667 

Fare increase, 459 

Holland-Macatawa fares, 845 

Interurban fare controversy, 373 
— Michigan United Railways: 

Discontinuance threatened in Landing. 
Mich., 378 

Fare decrease unsuccessful, 224 

Interest defaulted, 922 

Paving relief urged, 658 
Jacksonville, Florida : 
— Jacksonville Traction Company: 

Relief from city assessments sought, 800 

Wages reduced, 179 
Jamaica : 

— Electrification proposed, 100, 265 

Jamaica. New York: 

— Bus operation from Flushing, 883 

Jamestown, New York : 

— Jamestown Street Railway: 

Payment on gross earnings necessary, 919 

Wages decreased, 1155 
Japan : 

— Electric railways planned. 37„ 265, 343, 806, 
975. 1136 

Hydro-electric development, 669 
Jersey City, New Jersey: 
— United Railways Investment Company: 

Reorganization considered, 1047 
Jitneys (see Motor buses) 

Johnstown & Somerset Railway (see Somerset, 

Joliet. Illinois: 

— Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway: 
Monthly pass, 1051 
Wages decreased, 69 


Kansas City, Missouri : 

— Jitney regulations, 261, 419, 573, 1131 
— Kansas City Railways: 

American Legion convention, 796, *879 

Employees activities. 254. 750 

Fare increase request withdrawn. 843 

Freight distributing to Westport, *242; 

Comments on, 229 
Receivership progress, 219 
Rerouting, 380: Difficulties in Kansas City 

Kansas, 1049 
Service improvements [Buffe], *475 
Tax reduction urged. 70 
Universal loop. *725 
Kenosha, Wisconsin : 

— Weekly pass [Jackson], *203; Comments on, 

Kentucky, State of: 

— Buses extend traction, 152 

— Utility Association meets. 874, 994 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. (see Lax- 

ington, Ky.) 
Kentucky Utilities Company (see Somerset, Ky.) 
Knoxville, Tennessee: 
— Knoxville Railway & Light Co.: 

Engineering advice contract abrogated bv 

commission. 73 
Fare increase, 33, 73. 152 
Kokomo, Indiana: 

— Indiana Railways and Light Company: 
Value of, 881 

Labor (see also Employees) : 

— Railroads in Great Britain, Methods, of han- 
dling. 366 

— Railroad strike threatened. Comments on. 724^ 
— Readjustment situation. Comments on, 723 

Abbreviations: ""Illustrated. c Communications. 



[Vol. 58 

Labor (Continued) : 

— -Right to organize, 1044 

— Unemployment conference, 660, 686; Com- 
ments on, 541 
Lafayette, Indiana: 
— Railway to be rebuilt, 752 
— Rehabilitation plan fails. 298 
Lake Shore Electric Railway (see Cleveland, 


— Accident to mule in Texas, 216 
— Fare ease to Supreme Court, 837 
— Legal notes, 186, 263, 803, 1163 
Legislation for railways: 
— Illinois measures. Comments on, 39 
— National [A. E. R. A. Com.], 617 
— Service at cost in Wisconsin, 146 
— Track abandonment bill vetoed. 149 
Lexington, Kentucky: 

— Kentucky Traction & Terminal Company: 

Fares decreased, 1162 

— Indirect in London subways, 399 
Lima. Ohio: 

— Western Ohio Railway: 

Receivership sought, 1008 
Lincoln. Nebraska: 
— Jitney situation, 664 
— Lincoln Traction Company: 

Eight cent fare continued. 183 

Passenger decrease, 1132 
Little Rock, Arkansas: 

— Little Rock Railway & Light Company: 
Crossing, Permanent brick, *16 
City to appraise, 220, 379 
Fare controversy, 379 
Metal ceiling for head lining, 96 
Living costs: 
— Akron, Ohio, 51 
— Fares compared to [Burke], '94 
— Retail price of food. Changes, 442, 1071 
— Utility services. Percent for, 202 
— Wage reductions by industries, 361 
Loading platforms (see Waiting stations) 

— Brake equipment for Paulista Ry., 828 
— Exporting of. 887 

— Features of electric. Comments on data on, 

■ — Metropolitan Railway of London reconstruc- 
ting, 694 

— N'. Y. Municipal Ry., Features, *141 
— Production in 1919 

— Single-phase for Swiss Federal Railways. 825 
— Steam versus electric. 84 

— Switching, Built by operating company, *246 
— Three phase type, 439; [Huldschiner], 816 
— Tidewater Southern Ry., Features, *326 
— Water rheostat, New type, 439 
London, Ontario. Can.: 
— London Street Railway: 

Paving dispute. 712 
London (see Great Britain) 
Long Island Railroad (see New York City) 
Los Angeles. California: 
— Los Angeles Railway: 

Abandonment of Washington line permitted. 

Bonus award, 917, 1155 

Fare increase sought. 184. 380 

Maps of danger points. 184 

Safety compared with courtesy. 420 

Safety first teaching by fairy tales, 757 

Seniority for safety car operators. Sepa- 
rate, 1162 

Substation relief. 1112 

Wages decreased. 659, 709 
— Pacific Electric Railway: 

Abandonment of lines sought. 257. 455 

Bus competition hearing, 1052 

Fare increase sought, 380. 1010 

Hollywood tunnel proposed. 68 

Improvement program, 795 

Long Beach service proposed, 419 

Safety score. Perfect. 419 

Shaving exhaust system, *869 

Valuation, 568, 1153 

Wages decreased. 659. 709 

Waiting station as advertisement, '996 

Zone system proposed. 756 
— Safety tunnel. '870 
— Terminal rehearing, 26 
Louisville. Kentucky: 

— Citv-railway controversy. 152. 183. 259. 800, 

883. 1132 
— Louisville & Interurban Railroad: 

Milk handling record, 996 
— Louisville Railway: 

Accident reduction. Prizes for. *131 

Bank publicity for. *136 

Dividends of service. *135 

Employee as director. 1158 

Exhibit at state fair. *956 

Fare increase. Effect of. 455. 754 

Jan. -Sept. report, 1008, 1087 

Safety work. Co-operative. 997 

Wages decreased. 840. 877 

Weekly pass considered, 924 
Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Com- 
pany (see New Albany. Ind.) 
Lubrication : 

— Effect on maintenance [Treat]. 914; Com- 
ments on. 889 

— Properties and application of lubricants 
[Morrow], *674 

— Uses of and precautions [Treat], 914 

— Vacuum oiler. *781 

Lynchburg. Virginia: 

— Lynchburg Traction & Light Co.: 
Fare increase denied, 299 



— Electrification plans. 669 
Mail pay: 

— Committee report on [A. E. R. A.], 613: 
Comments on, 763 

Mail pay (Continued) : 
— Postmaster-General reports, 1071. 
Maine, State of: 
— Regulation of jitneys. 261 
Maintenance practice: 
— Crossings, Permanent brick, *16 
— Graphic records aid, *1139 
— Influence on car rider [McWhirter], *489 
— Lubrication influences [Treat], 914; Com- 
ments on, 889 
— Montreal methods. *193; Comments on, 192 
— Systematic advocated [Dean], *278 
Management : 

— Business common sense needed [Gadsden], 

— City operation planned in Meridian, Miss., 961 
— Contract condemned in Columbus, Ohio, 714 
— Department heads. Service through [Boyce], 

— Engineering training for. Comments on, 763 
- — -Function of with respect to regulation [Pel- 

lissier], 784 
— Individual dispatching. Comments on, 889 
— Relationship to men [ Barnes 1, 480 
— 'Sales ability of [Goodwin], *466; Comments 

on, 578 

— Value of knowing public officials, Comments 
on. 119 

Manhattan & Queens Traction Co. (see New 
York City) 

Manila Electric Company (see Philippine 

Manistee, Michigan : 

— Manistee Railway: 

Financial difficulties, 335 

Franchise forfeited, 1002 

Service suspended, 416, 667, 799 

Marion, Indiana: 

— Marion & Bluff ton Traction Co.: 

Wages decreased, 178 
Market conditions: 
— Brake shoes, 78 
— Brushes, Carbon, 930 
- — Building situation, 303 

— Business, General, 265. 721; [McGraw], 835. 

929. 988. 1055 
— Car company. Foreclosure sought, 888 
— Car seats. 36 

— Cement, 117, 189, 343. 539. 761 
— Coal, 189, 227, 343, 423, 670, 722, 806, 847. 

— Coil winding machines, 36 
— Conduit. 575 

— Copper. 461, 669, 721, 806. 930, 1096. 1165 

— Cord. 761 

— Cotton, 540 

- — Cross arms. 423 

— Electrification materials as reparations. 1165 

— European business [Sawtelle], 887 

— Exports, Comments on effect of exchange. 

— Fenders, 1135 
— Freight cars, 265. 1165 
—Frogs. 265 
— Gear cases. 539 
—German rehabilitation. 887. 1055 
— Heaters. 384 

- — Insulating materials, 721, 1165 

— Insulators, 156, 227. 761. 888 

— Iron. Malleable, 929 

— Jacks, 36 

— Lamps, 227 

— Lightning arresters, 37 

— Line hardware. 156, 462, 1096 

— Locomotives, 887 

— Lubricants, 77 

— Metal market, 37, 227 

- — Motor repair parts, 461 

—Motors. 155. 847 

— Poles. Steel. 155 

— Poles, Wood. 189. 423, 761, 1096 

— Rails, etc., 190, 805 

— Railway materials, 37, 383 575, 722: Ex- 
port, 37: Brazil, 575 
— Resistors, 1055 
— Shop tools. 36, 540 

— Steel, 77. 539. 721 975; Sheets 722. 1013 

— Storage batteries, 343 

— Tariff on electrical goods, 77 

— Tool handles. 77 

— Track material, 117 

— Track tools, 36 

— Trade situation. 117 

— Ventilators, 36 

— Wages, General Electric Co.. 888 
— Westinghouse Company buys Seattle plant, 

— Wire. 189. 265, 424 
— Wiring materials. 117 

Market Street Railway (see San Francisco, Cal.) 
Marquette. Michigan: 

- — Marquette Citv & Presque Isle Railway: 

Financial difficulties, 1007 
Maryland. State of : 
— -Bus situation [Whitman], 790 
— Safety campaign, 300 

Massachusetts Northeastern Street Railway (see 
Haverhill. Mass.) 

Massachusetts, State of: 

— Transportation cost investigation. 564 

Memphis. Tennessee: 

— Memphis Street Ry. : 

Fares. Tickets discontinued. 339 
Public informed. 919 
Receivership may be ended. 336 
Track rebuilt on old ties *97 
Wage decrease proposed. 144 

Merchandising transportation (see also Pub- 
licity. Traffic stimulation) : 

— Advertising advantages of railway. 718 

—Advertising by interurbans ["Observer"]. 

— Advertising principles [Boyce]. *167. *353 
— Adverting. Trend of [Soulesl. 748 
— 'Bargain sale of street car rides [Boyce], 

— 'Buses as a factor, Comments on. *514 

— Car design features a factor [Litchfield], *491 

Merchandising transportation (Continued) : 
— Car equipment a factor [McWhirter], •489' 
— C. E. R. A. Committee report, 61; Discussion, 
55. 104 

— Chicago pageant exhibits, *360 
— Competition versus legal battles [Putnam], 

— Courtesy of employees affects [Morgan], *49& 
— Creating the desire to ride [Emery], c827; 

Comments on, 890 
— Department heads, Service through [Boyce], 


— Education [A. E. R. T. & T. A. Com.], 644; 

Discussion, 645 
— Elements necessary [Brown], *61; [Weedon], 


— Employees, Relationship of [Barnes], 480 
— Employees should be satisfied [Kelsay], 64 
— Employees, Talks to IBigelow], •1111, 1143 
— Inspiring employees, 421 

— Lessons from other industries, Comments on. 
880. 1058 

— Mechanical man's part [Gunn], 104 
— Necessity of. Comments on, 463, 578 
— Sales manager. Value of [Goodwin], '466; 

Comments on, 578 
— Sales practice [Warren], 985; ["Observer"]. 


— Service as an aid [Buffe], *475 

—Service before advertising [Emery], c827; 

Comments on, 890 
— Service meets competition [Rodgers], 63 
— Speed and frequency of cars a factor [Mor- 
gan], *499 
— Stations helpful, «1146 

— Track maintenance a factor [Dunham], '484 
— Value of "good talker." Comments on, 425 
— Weekly pass in Youngstown, *899 
Meridian. Mississippi: 
— Meridian Light & Railway Company: 

City operation planned, 961 
Metals : 

— Aluminum, Machining of, 448 
— Cadmium-copper trolley wire, 277 
— Iron : 

Cast iron. Corrosion in alkaline soils 
[Smith and Shipley], 911 

— Steel : 

Case hardening. Features of, 242 
Molybdenum steel, Properties of, 910 
Specifications for [A. S. T. M.]. 103. 174 
Titanium-treated, 248 

Miami. Florida: 

— Miami Traction Company : 

Future of, 796; Comments on, 192; City to 
purchase. 920 

Michigan City, Indiana: 

— Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway: 

Shop economies, *692 
Michigan Railroad (see Jackson, Michigan) 
Michigan United Railways (see Jackson, Mich.) 
Middlesex & Boston Street Railway (see New- 

tonville. Mass.) 
Milford. Massachusetts : 

— Milford, Attleboro & Woonsocket Street Ry.: 

Freight operation, *41 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin : 

— Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co.: 
Extension without paving costs, 375 
Historical celebration, *27 
Limited interurban service, 412 
One man or two man safety cars, 299; 

[Mullet], 620. '933 
Rerouting plans, 757, 1054 
Service-at-eost proposed, 146, 253 
Snow-fighting equipment, *857 
Stock sale, •110; Comments on. 191 

— One man car controversy, 299; Approved bj 
Safety Com., 570, 845 

Minneapolis, Minnesota: 

— Electric Short Line Railway: 
Wages decreased. 794 

— Minneapolis, Anoka & Cuyuma Range Ry. : 
Local passengers must be carried, 970 

— Minneapolis, Northfleld & Southern Railway: 
Electrification proposed, 27 

— Minneapolis Street Railway: 

Co-operation of city sought, 710 

Fare hearing, 223; Increase allowed, 341. 

380: Prevented, 457. 536 
Street calling practice, 919 
Valuation sought, 33, 183 ,. 

— Twin City Rapid Transit Company: :'- 
Fair crowds provided for. 457 8 
Financial plans, 149 

Mutual benefit association [Anderson] 

Mississippi Valley Electric Company (see Iowa. 

City. Iowa) 
Mobile, Alabama: 

— Mobile Light & Railroad Company: 

Wages dependent on fare. 565 
Monongahela Power & Railway Co. (see Fair- 
mount. W. Va.) 
Montgomery, Alabama: 
— Montgomery Light & Traction Co.: 

Receiver resigns. 219 
Montreal, Quebec, Can : 
— Montreal Tramways : 

Annual report, 417. 664 

Betterments in 1921. 1087 

Bond issue, 1046. 1087 

Capital question, 71 

Shop economies. *193: Comments on 192 
Wage decrease proposed. 177, 217 252 
294, 334, 566 

— Subway proposed, 711 

Motor buses: 

— Accounting system proposed in California 878 

— Advantages over trolley car [Pearson], 866 

— Allv or competitor of railway [Gluck], 856 

— Baltimore installs new type, *778 

— California, report on, 883 

— Columbus Ohio service, 1052 

— Comparative cost with safety ear, and trolley 
bus [Simmon]. *394: [Stocks], - »517- 
[Thirlwall], »546: [Andrews], 769 : 
[Stocks], 771 

Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Communications. 

July-December, 1921] 



Motor buses (Continued): < ■ 
— Competing buses refused certificate, 758 
— Competition by, in Great Britain feared, 916 
— Competition situation, Discussion [I. E. R. 
A.], 747 

— Features of Oil City bus, »318 
— Flushing-Jamaica, N. Y. line, 883 
— France aids interurban lines, 768 
— Future of. Comments on, 764 
— Gloucester, Mass.. Transportation by, *773 
— Great Britain uses, 370 
— Illinois grants petition, 716, 8-44 
— Interurban service from Bloomington, 111., 

— Jitney situation: 

Albany, N. Y., 261, 413, 456, 665. 717, 

Alton, 111, 338 

Boston, Mass., 843, 844, 925. 969 
Bridgeport, Conn., 419, 456 
Burdens proposed. 17 
Camden, N. J., 1132 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 537 

Connecticut, 50, 74. 75, 113. *151, 184, 
223, 262, 301, 380, 419, 456, 75~7 ; Com- 
ments on, 40, 158 

Circumventing orders. Comments on, 345 

Columbus, Ohio, 801. 1052 

Dayton. Ohio, 450. 1091 

Decatur, 111., 927 

Des M'oines, Iowa, 107, 144, 150. 218. *237. 

*283, 325. 792, 1153; Comments on, 267 
"Free" buses illegal, 1132 
Grand Rapids, 420, 1130 
Grand Rapids interurbans object. 339. 884 
Indianapolis, Ind., 150, 379, 970, 1084, 

1132; Comments on, 386 
Kansas City. Mo., 261, 419, 573, 1131 
Lincoln, Neb, 564 
Los Angeles, Cal., 1052 
Muncie, Ind., 339, 801. 927 
Muskegon, Mich.. 1048. 1130 
Newark, N. J„ 261. 719, 789. 884 
New Jersey, 789, 1051. 1162 
Newport News, Va„ 716 
Oklahoma, 375, 537 
Pasadena, Cal., 373 
Richmond, Va., 1005 
Rockford, 111, 333. 884 

Saginaw. Mich., 296, 323. 373, 453, 530. 
659, 667 

Seattle, Wash.. 224, 260, 373. 412, 457. 

571. 664, 666, 716. 926. 971, 1010. 1011 

1093. 1131 
Sioux City. Iowa. 222 
Spokane. Wash., 300 
Springfield. Mo.. 570 
Street cars compared, 333 
Tacoma, Wash., 759. 801 
Toledo, Ohio, 150. 381, 659. 1005. 1052 
Transportation monopoly. Comments on, 


Tulsa, Okla., 457 
, Weekly pass affects. "1104 
Wheeling, W. Va., 261. 380 
— Long road test. 864 

— Necessity in transportation field [Jackson], 

— New York applicants, 884 

— New York City, Proposed extension. 566 

— New York City starts new route, *114 

— Operating at loss, Cardiff. Wales. 971 

— Operating costs in California. *319 

— Operators admitted by Amalgamated, 556: 

Comments on. 673 
— Regulation of. Discussion [N. A. R. U. C.j. 


— Regulation of. State: 
California, 1090 

Connecticut, 50, 74, 75, 113. *151. 184. 

262. 301. 380; Comments on 40, 158 
Illinois. 184 
Maine. 261 

Maryland [Whitman], 790 
Nebraska. 1130 
New Jersey [Osborne], 789 
Ohio, 224, 340 

Washington, 184; [Koykendall], 789 

West Virginia, 666 
— Replace trolleys on Niagara line, 536 
— Republic Truck Co. to build. 138 
— Roads provided by railways, 1092 
— Rubber spring blocks, *141 
— Safety necessary, Comments on. 464 
— Service extension in London. 183 
— Supplementary to railways: 

Akron, Ohio, 565 

Applying .to abandoned lines. Comments on, 

Coal saving in early morning, »51: Com- 
ments on, 1017 

Conn. Co., 75. 113, *151. 757. 801: Un- 
profitable, 879 

Cost comparisons [Jackson], *315 

Cost of operation, 777 

Danbury, Conn., 381, *516, 556, 1121 

Data on. 319 

Edinburgh bus. *12 

European observations [Sawtellel. 887 

Interurban extension, 757. 885 

Oakland. Cal.. 340 

Owl service. Comments on. 1017 

Oil City. Pa.. «318 

Reasons for, Comments on, 2, •514; 

[Todd, by Bozell], 1018 
Rockford. 111.. 884 
Springfield, Mo., 570 
Toronto establishes route. *867 
Tulsa, Okla.. plans. 218 
— Test, Long road, 864 

— Transportation. Comments on "Bus Trans- 
portation." 704; Discussed, 1036, 1149 

— Underslung body in New York City, *202 

— Urban transportation by: 
Gloucester. Mass.. •773 
Saginaw. Mich., 796 

Motor cars, Gasoline: 

— Adopted by N. Y.. N. H. & H. R.R.. 749 
— Gallipolis, Ohio, purchases, 927 
Motor, Polyphase commutating. 732 

— Armature dipping and baking. 525 
— Armature repair records. *783 
— Construction of [Dean], *427 
— Field coils. Flow method of impregnating, 

— Field coils, Reinsulating and repairing [Hes- 
ter], *14 
— Field jumpers. Wrapping of. 893 
— Leads to car body, Installing, *1148 
— Shaft repaired by welding, *1073 
— Temperatures, with and without trailers 

[Woods], *395 
— Testing detail parts [Dean], *427 
Motor trucks: 

— California regulates freight-carrying, 969 
— Freight haulage in New England, 311 
— Merchandise, Hauling for railways. *133 
— Speed and weight allowances. 358 
— Trolley freight aided by, "41 
Moving pictures (see under Publicity) 
Muncie, Ind.: 

— Jitney situation. 339, 801. 927 

Municipal ownership: 

— Advantage to Seattle in future. 919 

— City participation in utility affairs [Prender- 
gast], 710 

— Eureka, Cal., authorizes, 149 

— Financing methods, Comments on, 192 

— Miami, Fla., to purchase railway, 920 

— New York City denied. 1157 

— Private operation proposed for New York 
City [N. Y. T. C], 557; Comments on. 579 

— Private ownership preferred by Utility Com- 
missioners, 871 

— Proposed for: 

Amarillo. Texas, 878 
Washington, D. C, 68 

— Proprietary capacity of municipality, 876 

— Review of [Gruhl], 595 

— Tendency away from [Todd, by BozellL 1018 
— Toronto, Ont., takes over railway, 411 
— Trackless trolley in Staten Island, *689 
Muskegon, Mich. : 

— Muskegon Light & Traction Co.: 

Suspension of service allowed. 1048 

—Vote in favor of railway. 1130; Comments 
on. 1098 


Nashville, Tennessee : 

— Nashville Interurban Railway: 

Extension by buses, 757. 885 
— Nashville, Railway & Light Company: 

Fare increase, 153 
— Traffic survey, 566 

National Association of Railway & Utility 

Commissioners : 
— Annual meeting: 

Papers and proceedings, 696, 708. 787- 

791, 871 
Program. 449 
— Private ownership of utilities recommended. 

National Safety Council: 
— Annual convention : 

Papers and proceedings. 655, 744, 745. 785 

Place, 369 

Program, 449 
Nebraska, State of : 
— Regulation of motor buses, 1130 
New Albany, Indiana: 

— Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting 
Company : 

Ten-cent fare unreasonable, 1049 
Newark, New Jersey; 

— Jitney situation, 261, 719. 789, 884, 1162 
— Public Service Corporation: 

Additional customer-ow'neirship stock of- 
fered. 921 
Stock offering successful, 376 
— Public Service Railway: 

Fare controversy 73. 95. 109. 113. 260. 
339, 458, 534, 573, 717. 755. 793, 843. 
883, 992. 925, 1050. 1091, 1131 
Eight-cent fare, 922, 925, 1050, 1131 
June report, 220 
Motor buses proposed, 69 
September report, 880, 922 
Transfer charge, 223 

Valuation argument, 95, 109, 112; Com- 
ments on, 80 
New Brighton. Pennsylvania : 
— Beaver . Valley Traction Co.: 

Police instructions, 393 

Publicity of [Boyce], «131. *166. '353 

Wages decreased, 179 

Zone checks on one man cars, *953 
New Brunswick Power Co. (see St. Johns. 

N. B., Can.) 
New England Street Railway Club: 
— Annual outing, 146, 210 
— Committee personnel. 24 
— December meeting. 1038, 1081 
— October meeting. 784 
New Hampshire, State of: 
— One-man cars indorsed. 1092 
New Haven, Connecticut: 
— Connecticut Company: 

Accounting forms [May], *398 

Annual outing, 176 

Annual report, 297 

Bridgeport fares decreased, 924, 970, 1051 

Bus routes. 75 »151, 757, 801; Un- 
profitable, 879 

Fare decrease sought. 665. 759. 837. 883 

Fare decrease unlikely. 531 

Fare reduction trial, 844, 883. 885, 924. 
970. 1011 

Financial status, 798, 927 

Hartford fare question, 925, 1126 

Jan. -Nov. report, 1128 

New Haven, Conn.: 

— Connecticut Company (Continued): 

Return to "JNew Haven" favored. 1088; 

Comments on, 1098 
Track labor costs [Wilson], *438 
Wage arbitration, 661, 751, 794 
— Shore Line Traction Company ; 

Operation of New Haven-Chester line. 
1047. 1127 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction Co (see 

Trenton, N. J.) 
New Jersey, State of: 
— Jitney situation, 789, 1051 
— Regulation of Buses [Osborne], 789 
— Transit Commission proposed, 1124 
— Utilities Association meets, 998 
— Utility law questioned, 224 
New Orleans, Louisiana: 

— City-railway controversy, 67, 108 152 176 
256, 293, 335, 371, 412. 529] 749! 

o.>o, yl7, 9oo 
— Information on utilities sought 1042 
— New Orleans Railway & Light Co.: 

Financial proposals, 26, 1006 
Newport News, Virginia- 
— Jitney situation, 716 
Newport, Rhode Island: 
— Newport & Fall River Street Railway 

Reorganization plans, 568 
Newtonville, Massachusetts: 
— Middlesex & Boston Street Railway 

Wages decreased, 414 
New York City (see also Brooklyn NY)- 
— Accidents in 1920, 376 •*■•>. 
— Bus proposal, *566 
— City to examine transit plan 1156 
—Commuters. Traffic due to [Turner] 1151 
— Coal cost statistics, 1115 aA 
— Eighth Avenue Railroad- 

Drawbars marked, »693 

Property suit, 377 

Re «897 Sh ° P reconstructe d [Westlake]. 
— Emergency Bus System: 

Grand Concourse route *114 

Suit against operation.' 18.3 

Underslung omnibus *202 

sna s^ U 2 e oi P oliti cal candidates. 711 
™ j -,^- 77: Comments on, 849 
— Federal Light & Traction Co ■ 

-.Readjustment planned. 1159, 
— Fifth Avenue Coach Co.- 

Generosity to wounded soldiers. 153 

Operating costs, 1123 
— Freight in subways. Proposal of 710 
— Interborough Rapid Transit Company 

Annual report, 799 

City suit on construction costs 218 

i e nn^ r3 n 0b,ect t0 hearing of N. Y. T C 
1003; Comments on, 977 

?£I 1 t?, end «. u «- s .tion, 1003; Comments on 977 
Featherweight pressure gates *940 

1003 s •To n 6 S 5 lered by N ' Y - T - C " 962, 

Housing plans, 375 

Financial organization, 1003 

Notes extended, 257 

Rear end collision, *919 

Receivership sought. 376. 415. 455; Com- 
ments on, 345 

Stock and bond values, *1065 

Transit situation [Harkness], 403- Com- 
ments on, 385 

Wage decrease proposed, 107 

Wage decrease. 177; Comments on 157 
— Long Island Railroad: ' 

Slg 399 system for expediting train service. 

Single phase railway veterans [Jones] «907 
— Manhattan & Queens Traction Co • 

Operation profitable, 181 
— Municipal line denied. 1157 
— New York Municipal Railway: 

City suit on construction costs 218 

Freight locomotive *141 
— New York & North Shore Traction Co : 

City desires to operate. 181 
— New York Railways: 

Wage reduction, 254 
— New York. Westchester & Boston Railway 

Annual report. 297 
— North American Co. : 

Financing plans, 110. 376: Comments on. 

— Ocean Electric Railway • 

Rockaway jitney illegal. 572 
— Police traffic regulations [O'Brian], 603 
— Power costs. 1156 

— Railway history and tendencies [Harkness] 

403: Comments on. 385 
— Railway financial statistics, *1065 1122 
— Rapid transit in [Ridgway] 833 
— Rerouting proposed [Turner], «1109- Com- 
ments on, 1097 
— Second Avenue Railroad: 

Foreclosure ordered, 336 

Wood-working shop, *1075 
— Staggered hours proposed, Comments on. 1138 
— Staten Island: 

Trackless trolley extension proposed 752 

Trackless trolley operation. *689- Com- 
ments on. 850 
— Staten Island Midland Railway: 

December-June report. 147 

Report for year [Whalen], 1124; Com- 
ments on, 1097 
— Subway bids asked, 847, 930 
— Third Avenue Railway: 

Annual report, 968 

"Commendations." 138 
— Traffic conditions. *941; [Turner], 1097. 1151 
— Transit Commission: 

City to examine plan of, 1156 

Hearings planned, 661. 752. 877: Begun. 
917. *941, 962. 1003, 1043. *1065, 1080. 
1085. mOO. 1115. 1122, 1156; Com- 
ments on, 977. 1057, 1097 

Abbreviations : 'Illustrated, c Communications. 



[Vol. 58 

New York City: 

— Transit Commission (Continued): 

Preliminary report, 557; Comments on. 579, 

808; Criticized, 1085; [Williams], 1080 
Problem of [Harknessl. 403; Comments on, 


Traffic analysis, 824 

Traffic expert, 1085 

Transit program, 1126 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: 
— Annual report on trolleys, 297 
— Losses by sale of Rhode Island trolleys, 1159 
— Motor car adopted. 749 

— Return of trolleys favored. 1088; Comments 
on, 1098 

New York & Stamford Railway (see Port Ches- 
ter, N. Y.) 
New York, State of: 

— Assessment of landowners for construction 

[Wehle], 552 
— Bus applications, 884 

— Interurbans plan bridge to Canada, 1157 

— Railway Buffalo to Wellsville proposed, 1157 

— Utica fare ease, 535; Comments on. 4(54 

— Workmen's compensation [Otis], 912 

New York State Railways (see Rochester and 

Syracuse, N. Y.) 
Niagara Falls. N. Y.: 
— Niagara Gorge Railway: 

Buses supplant trolley, 536 
Bus service to Youngstown proposed. 719 
Right-of-way offered for power rights. 711 
Niagara. St. Catherines & Toronto Railway 

(see St. Catherines Out. Can.) 
Norfolk, Va. : 

— Security sales to customers, *198 
— Service-at-cost discussion. 215. 300 
Norfolk & Western Railway: 
— Savings by electrification. 238 
Norristown. Pa. : 

— Philadelphia & Western Railway: 
Cars, '6 

North American Co. (see New York City) 
Northern Massachusetts Street Railway (see 

Athol, Mass.) 
Northern Texas Traction Co. (see Fort Worth. 


Northwestern Pacific Railroad (see San Fran- 
cisco, Cal.) 
Norton. Mass.: 

— Norton, Taunton & Attleboro Street Railway: 

Financial difficulties, 252 
Norwalk, Ohio: 

— Plymouth & Shelby Traction Co.: 

Foreclosure sale ordered, 715. 965 
— Sandusky. Norwalk & Mansfield Electric Ry.: 

Foreclosure sale, 965. 1048 

Portion may be operated. 1048 
Norwich, Conn.: 
— Shore Line Electric Railway: 

January-September report. 1008 

New Haven section sold. 841 

Restoration of New Haven section planned. 
663. 1047 

September report. 841 
Norwood Street Railway (see Birmingham. Ala ) 


Oakland. Cal.: 

— San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railway: 

Bus operation, 340 

Financial reorganization. 219 

Safety car operation. 314 

Segregation problem. 1007 

Track construction table. 730 

Wages decreased 179. 294 
Ocean Electric Railway (see New York City) 
Ocean Shore Railroad (see San Francisco. Cal.) 
Ohio Electric Railway (see Springfield, Ohio) 
Ohio River Electric Railway & Power Co. (see 

Pomeroy. Ohio) 
Ohio. State of: 
— Bus law in effect. 224. 340 
— Ohio Public Service Co.: 

Consolidation details. 921 
— Public Utility Information Committee: 

Successful work 920 
— Railroads tax value increased. 415 
— Six-cent fares predominant. 261 
Ohio Valley Electric Railway (see Huntington. 

W. Va.) 
Oil City. Pa.: 
— Citizens Traction Co.: 

Buses and routes. *318 
Oklahoma. State of: 

— Depreciation reserve fund opposed. 31 
— Jitney regulation sought. 375. 537 
— Traction property values. 664 
Olean. N. Y.: 

— Olean. Bradford & Salamanca Railway: 

Merger and reorganization. 567 753. 1159 

— Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction 

Reorganization planned. 567. 753 
Omaha, Neb.: 

— Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway: 
Cars duplicated by Brazil, 659 
Claim department's work [Connell]. 525 
Oven for armature coils [Norene]. 442 
Wage decrease advised. 452; Announced. 
565: Accented. 711 

Omnibuses (see Motor buses) 

One-man cars (see Cars. One-man) 

Ontario. Canada: 

— Temiskaming & Northern Ontario Railway 
Company : 

Electrification proposed. 1125 
Operating records and costs: 

— Accounting Service costs [Bowman], 700; 

Discussion [A. E R. A. A.]. 697 
— Boston Elevated Railway, 533 
— Buses and railway in Des Moines. 287 
— Buses and safety cars compared [ Simmon 1. 
•394: [Stocks]. *517: [Thirlwall], '546: 
[Andrews], 769: [Stocks], 771 
— Buses, California. *319 

— Buses compared with shuttle cars [Jackson], 

Operating records and costs (Continued) : 
— Buses, Greenfield, Mass., 777 
— Freight costs in Mass., 41 

— Increase of costs since 1912; Comments on, 


— Maintenance records, •278, 1139 
— Massachusetts investigating, 564 
— Motor buses. Supplementary service. 777 
— Power-saving recorders. Follow up [Wood], 

— Salt Lake City, 347 

— Trackless trolleys, 859, 1024. 1027 

— Trucks and tractors for freight. *133 

Oregon Electric Railway (see Portland, Ore.) 

Ottawa, 111.: 

— Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway: 

Direct solicitation aids traffic ["Observer"]. 

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: 
— Ottawa Electric Railway: 

Valuation for city, 149, 1006 

Vote on future of, 1126 
Overhead contact system : 
— Cadmium-copper trolley wire, 277 
— Construction, Discussion of A. E. R. E. A.. 


— Construction for trackless trolley, '689 
— Eliminating half the poles, *687 
— Features of D. M. Ry. construction *159 
— Maintenance improved by graphic records, 

— Movable with track, *687 
— Poles (see Poles) 

— Preventing corrosion [Scott], *1079 
— Strain ear, '327 

— Trackless trolley loops and junctions [Jack- 
son], «1027 

—Trolley wire, Gaging for renewal [M'oKelway], 

■ — Trolley wire qualities. Discussion of A. E. R. 
E. A.. 633, c827 

— Worn trolley wire, Relation of area and diam- 
eter [McKelway], 904 

Pacific Claim Agents' Association : 
— Annual convention : 

Elections. 449 

Papers, 656, 792, 873-875 

Subjects. 60 
Pacific Electric Ry. (see Los Angeles, Cal.) 
Pacific Gas & Electric Company (see Sacramento. 

Pacific Railway Club: 

— Annual electric railway night. 410. 743 
Painting (see Repair shop practice) 
Parks : 

— Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. plans an- 
other, 292 
Pasadena, California: 
— Jitney situation, 373 

Patent Office situation, Comments on, 1097 

—Asphalt. Cutting device for, '291 

— Brick standardization. *994; Comments, 978 

— Compressed concrete in Detroit. •121 

— Specifications proposed [A. 6. M. I.]. 830: 

Comments on, 807 
Pennsylvania Electric Association: 
— Annual convention, 212 

Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Co. (see Youngs- 
town, Ohio) 
Pennsylvania, State of: 

— Commission History and work of, *163 
Pennsylvania Street Railway Assn.: 
— Annual meeting, 17 

Peoples Street Railway (see Dayton, Ohio) 

Peoria. Illinois: 

— Illinois Traction System : 

Advertising for traffic ["Observer"]. *505 

Financial plans, 841 

Letter writing contest. '374 

Transmission line construction. '1070 

Maintenance improved by graphic records. 
— Peoria Railway: 

Safety cars proposed. 537 

Safety car publicity. *955 
— Transportation growth, *33 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 
— American Railways : 

Condenser pump house at Kenova. W Va.. 
•387; Comments on. 385 

Three-wire distribution in Wilmington 
[Way], *307; Comments on. 306 
— Bridge to Camden, 994 
— Frankford Elevated Railway: 

Cars for. *1063 

Operation by P. R. T. proposed, 250. 840. 

— Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.: 
Annual report. 182 

Burning pulverized authracite coal [Raul, 

Frankford elevated lease question, 250. 840, 

Freight service to be discontinued, 845 
Jan. -Aug. report, 663 
Jan. -Oct. report. 968 
Park planned. Burd Home. 292 
Picnic commemorated, •955 
Rental question reviewed. 71 
Status of Mr. Mitten asked. 530 
Ware reduction suggested. 412: In effect, 

Philadelphia & West Chester Traction Co. (see 

Upper Darby, Pa.) 
Philadelphia & Western Ry. (see Norristown. 


Philippine Islands: 

— Manila Electric Company: 

Equipment of, *357 
Pine Bluff. Arkansas: 
— Arkansas Light & Power Co.: 

Transmission line, 33,000 volt. 14 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania : 
— Pittsburgh Railways : 

Car riding decreases, 754 

Foreclosure of West End lines granted, 148. 

221 ; Opposed. 298 
Reorganization. Plan proposed, 180, 418. 
798, 967, 1086, 1126; Comments on, 

Wage decrease, 69, 145 

— Traffic, Automobile [McGunnegle & Mont- 
gomery], 21 

— West Penn Railways : 

Freight business with Pittsburgh Rys., 420 
Kingwood company purchased, 1006 
Wages decreased, 413 

Pittsfield, Massachusetts : 

— Berkshire Street Railway: 
Annual report, 297 
Wages decreased, 752 

Plattsburgh, New York : 

— Plattsburgh Traction Co.: 
Annual report, 29 

Poles : 

— Digging holes and setting by machines, *159 
Politics : 

— Traction situation indicated by. 877. 920. 

964, 1126, Comments on, 849 
Pomeroy, Ohio : 

— Ohio River Electric Railway & Power Com- 

Franchise sustained by vote, 964 
Port Chester, New York : 
— New York & Stamford Railway: 

Annual report, 297 
Portland, Oregon : 
— Oregon Electric Railway : 

Round trip fares decreased, 260 
— Portland Railway, Light & Power Co.: 

Door guides welded to plates, *954 

Fare change. Effect of, 185 

Financial changes. 663 

Laborers wages decreased, 564 

Machines for reclaiming controller seg- 
ments, *909 

Maintenance investigation, 108. 252. 414 

Safety first results. 971 

Steps, Folding, »1078 

Truck for oxyacetylene equipment. '1148 
— Southern Pacific Co.: 

Rate advance suspended, 73 
Posters (see Publicity. Car cards and posters) 
Potomac Electric Company (see Washington 
D. C.) 

Pottsville. Pennsylvania : 

- — City starts removing tracks. 255 

— Eastern Pennsylvania Railways: 

Stockholders organize, S42 
Poughkeepsie, New York : 
— Bus terminal improvements planned. 1053 
Power distribution: 

—Augur boring and pole setting truck, '903 
— Cables : 

Corrosion in St. Louis. 442 
— Coal by rail versus electrical transmission, 


— Committee report on [A. E. R. E. A. Com.]. 

631, Discussion of 632 
— Feeders. Automatic protection [Butcher], 57; 

[Bale]. 58: [Jones], 60 
— Maintenance improved by graphic records. 


— Maintaining overhead line [Gates], 655 
— Miniature system layout, *435 
— Substations in Cincinnati, '1099 
— Three-wire distribution for electrolysis miti- 
gation [Way], *307; Comments on, 306 
— Transmission line, 33.000 volt, 14 
— Transmission line in Illinois, *1070 
Power generation : 
—Costs in New York, 1115, 1156 
— .Economies suggested. Comments on, 267 
— Hydro-electric development permits. 824 
. — Oil supplanting coal in Great Britain, 25, 214 
— Production in U, S.. *205 

— Steam production [A. E. R. E. A. Com.]. 

628 ; Discussion, 629 
— Steam, knowledge of limited, <1072 
— Superpower zone proposed: 

Report, *819. Comments on, 808 
Power stations and equipment: 
— Boiler performance for pulverized authracite. 

[Raul. *945 
— Circular crane for storage bunker. *357 
— Dam reconstruction. 566 
— Energy purchased or generated. *1099 
- — Fan drive by polyphase commutating motor. 


— Hydro-electric plants in Switzerland. 1014 
— Powdered fuel. Use of [Savage], 172, 629 
— Pumphouse for condensing water, *387; Com- 
ments on, 385 
— Turbo generators on test. 303 
— Turbo-generator record, 829 
— Vacuum trap. *906 

— Wilmington, Delaware, plant. *232: Com- 
ments on. 267 

Private ownership of utilities recommended by 
N. A. R. & U. C. 871 

Prosperity due to co-operation [Atkinson], 990 

Providence. Rhode Island: 

— 'Rhode Island Company: 
Freight operations, *41 
Receivers discharged. 418. 454 
Rental payment ordered. 70 

— United Electric Railway: 

Financial difficulties. 713 

— United Traction & Electric Co.: 
Foreclosure sale. 31 

Publicity : 

— Advertising. Comments on psychology of, 849 
— Advertising principles TBoyce]. *167 
— A. E. R A Commmittee report 614 
— Bank aid in Louisville. 136 
— Car cards and posters: 

Chicago Surface Lines posters »62. *553 
Chrismas greetings on C. N. S. & M.. *1116 
London Underground's. *137. *506 
"Traction Tonics" of Chicago Surface 
Lines, *1117 

Abbreviations : "Illustrated, c Communications. 

July-December, 1921] 



Publicity (Continued): 

— "Commendations" of Third Ave. Ry., 138 
— Cost of private automobile. Comments oil, 850 
— Discussion of [A. E. R. A.], 642 
— Employees to submit advertisements, 957 
— Exhibits at Chicago pageant. *360 
— Expense justifiable, Comments on, 1016 
— Extremes must be avoided, 136 
— Good will main object. Comments on, 386 
— Growth in Peoria, *33 
— Industrial publishing course, (159 
— Information to Memphis public, 919 
— Introducing weekly pass, 665 
— Joint railway advertising advocated [Schade]. 

— Letter writing contest, *374 
— Mother Hubbard, New, «137 
— Motion pictures as a means: 

Utilized by I. T. S. ["Observer"], *505 

Utilized by N. E. L. A., Comments on, 345 
— Safety car advertised, *955 
— Schedule changes. Comments on, 542 
— Soliciting and advertising for freight and 

passenger traffic ["Observer"]. *505 
— Stock sale in Milwaukee. *110 
— Stores aid [Boyce], '353 
— Track, an advertisement, [Dunham], *484 
— Weekly pass in Youngstown, Ohio, '899 
Public Relations with : 
— Citizens' help [Casey], 18 
— "Civility" campaign in Akron, Ohio, 755 
— Co-operation essential [Arkwright], 137 
— Courtesies to increase good will, 802 
— Dividends of servicer *138 
— Employees instructions, *926 
— Factors in improving [K. A. P. U.], 997 
— "Ifs" for good .will [Boyce], 355 
— Literature for public. Effect in Salt Lake 

City, 350 
— Newspaper attitude. 1064. 1116 
— "No smoking allowed" dialogue. 878 
— Prosperity due to co-operative attitude. 990 
— "Pull together" campaign, Camden. N. J., 260 
— 'Sales department toi improve [Gotodwln], 


— Service, An example of [Lemmon], 442: 

Comments on, 425 
— Service improves, Kansas City, Mo. [Buffe]. 


- — Service, The soul of [Rodgers], 875 
■ — Street calling in Minneapolis, 919 
— Trainmen's names, Placards with. 802 
— Utility information bureaus : 
Georgia forms, 65 

Chicago progress. 293 
History and work, 1064 
Franchise contracts, 332 
Ohio, Talks to civic bodies, 920 
— Value of public favor, 420 
— Winning support and confidence, [Myers], 210 
Public service and regulative commissions: 
— Attitude towards railways [Aineyl. 18 
— Bus situation discussed [N. A. R. U. C.]. 789 
— Comparison to trustees in Mass. [Dana], 587 
— Constructive leadership in Connecticut. Com- 
ments on. 230 
— Interstate Commerce Commission : 

Accounting questions and answers 30. 174 
Interstate and intrastate rates. Rulin§, .«n, 

- — Jitney regulation in Connecticut, 50, 74, 113: 

Comments on, 40, 158 
— New Jersey law questioned. 224 
— Pennsylvania, History and Work. *163 
— Reason in regulation [Perry], 787 
— Regulation discussed [N. A. R. & U. G.J. 708 
— Regulation. Fundamentals of [Carr], 211 
— Rental inquiry opposed by Penn. court, 71 
—State regulation contrasted with serviee-at- 

cost rWayl. 589 
— Wisconsin. History and work of. *765 
Public Service Ry. (see Camden. N. J., and 

Newark. N. J. 
Public Utilities Association of West Virginia: 
— Annual convention. 786 

— Industrial course in. 659 

— Material specifications. Comments on. 724 
— Principles to be followed rPellissierl . 784 
^-Standards for purchasing [Doyle], 604 


Racine. Wis.: 

— Weekly pass [Jackson]. «203; Comments on. 

191. 1015 
Rail joints and bonds : 
— Bond testing cars [McKelway], *82 
— Expansion joints in Hamburg [Mattersdorft ] 


— Interconnection of track crossings: 

Detroit, 391 
— Special track work bonding. *121 
— Splice bar for girder rail. *733 
— Welded joints in Baltimore [Wysor]. *170 
— Welding joints [Price], 636 
— Welded joints on D. M. R., *121 

— Australian standard. *825 

— Drop and impression tests [Speller and Fark 

ell], 636 
— Slipping wheels. Effect of. 362 
— Titanium-treated. Service tests. 248 
Railways : 

— Place in railroad emergency. Comments on 

— Relation to community [Casey]. 18 
— Relation to industrial efficiency [Hoover], 

— Status of industry [Todd, by Bozell], 1018 
— Va'ue of in future [Lambert], 554 
Raleigh. N. C.r 

- — Carolina Power & Light Co.: 

Fare increase sought, 34, 802. 1010 
Receiverships (see Financial) 
Rectifiers (see Substations and equipment) 

Regulation. Fundamentals of [Carr], 211 
Rehabilitated lines : 

— Abilene Street Railway to be operated, 298 
— Nassau Elec. R.R., 31 
Repair shop practice: 

— Advantages of railway men'g meetings. Com- 
ments on, 2 

— Compressor piston clearances [Foote], 445 

— Economy in [See], '684 

— Machines, Comments on need for, 426 

— Painting: 

Economical limits, Comments on. 673 
Economies in Vancouver [Murrin]. »11 
Economy in [See], *684 
Spraying. *782 

— Minimum handling of equipment. Comments 
on, 890 

— Reclaiming, Comments on excessive. 426 
— Repair records. Armature. '783 
— Washing in circulating water prevented. *688 
Repair shops and equipment (see also Stores) : 
— Air compressors. Belt-driven. *694 
—Air drill. Portable. '780 
■ — -Aluminum, Machining of. 448 
— Arrangement for economies [Dean], *279 
— Beautifying waste ground. Comments on, 642 
— Controller segments. Reclaiming, *909 
— Crane, crawling tractor type. 446 
— Crane limit switch. *908 
— Features in Salt Lake City. *347 
— Field coil impregnating. *1078 
— Field coil repairs [Hester], '14 
— Glue stains. Removal of, 243 
— Hamburg shop layout [Mattersdorft], *979 
— Horizontal boring, drilling and milling ma- 
chine. «694 

— Hose dismantling and assembling machine. 

•326, «367 
— Interstate Public Service Co. shops. *3 
—Loading platform for refuse. *5 
— Montreal, Que., Features of. *193: Comments 

on, 192 

— Motor starters, Safety and protective. 907 
— Newark shops of Rochester & Syracuse R.R . 

— Nutloek. Fin type, »248 

— Oven for armature coils. Portable [Norene], 

— Pit jack, U68 
— Pneumatic scoop. «446 
— Quenching cracks. Causes of, 908 
— Reducing costs [See], *684 
— Reclamation shop and work, *98 
— Remodeling in New York City [Westlake]. 
• «897 

— Shaving exhaust system. *869 

— Spring. Hardening outfit, *102. 290 

— Tapping machine. Automatic. *906 

— Tension machine for armature banding. '692 

— Test box. Convenient form of *291 

— Trolley transveyor system. *207 

— Truck for oxyacetylene equipment, *1148 

— Typical shops [A. E. R. E. A. Com.]. '637 

— Winnipeg shops rebuilt, *i37 

— Wood-working shop arrangement. *1075 

Rhode Island Company (see Providence. R. I.) 

Richmond. Va.: 

— Virginia Railway & Power Co.: 
Dam reconstruction, 566 
Jitney situation, 1005 
Safety cars permitted. 883 
Trackless trolley proposal. 1005. 1042 
Trackless trolley statistics. 1024 
Wage conference proposed. 563: Conditions 
unchanged, 752 

Rochester, N. Y. : 

— Automobile accidents [Quigley]. 606 
— New York State Railways: 

Annual report. *1128 

Spring hardening outfit, *102, 290 

Supply truck, *240 

Trackless trolley proposed, 838 
Rochester & Syracuse R.R. (see Syracuse. N. Y.) 
Rockford. 111.: 
— Jitney situation, 333. 884 
— Rockford & Interurban Railway: 

Bus operation. 884 

St. Augustine, Florida: 

—City-railway propositions. 927 

St. Catherines. Ontario. Can. 

— Niagara, St. Catherines & Toronto Railway: 

Municipal purchase recommended, 1129 
St. John, New Brunswick. Can.: 
— New Brunswick Power Co.: 

Wage strike, 217 
St. Joseph. Missouri: 

— St. Joseph Railway, Light. Heat & Power 

Valuation case not carried up. 533 
St. Louis. Missouri: 
— Rapid transit system proposed. 750 
■ — Trackless trolley proposed. 529 
— United Railways: 

Accident costs, 333 

Bond issue underwritten, 181 

Cable corrosion, 442 

Jefferson City fare extended. 925 

Statement of conditions, 956. 966 

Suits against receivers. 297 

Valuation testimony. 797. 966 

Wage reduction announced. 566 
St. Paul, Minnesota: 
— St. Paul City Railway: 

Fare controversy, 33. 2;>9. 4a7. 802. 882, 
926, 1161 
. Valuation sought. 29. 33 
Sacramento. California: 
— Pacific Gas & Electric Co.: 

Fare question City's choice. 1090 
— Sacramento Northern Railroad: 

Annual report, 416 

Sale to Western Pacific sought. 454: Auth- 
orized, 797 
Safety cars (see Cars. Safety) 

296, *323, 


Safety first (see also Accidents) : 

— 'Accident prevention work of Penn. Com.. *163 

— Accident reduction campaign, •131 

— Automobile circular of hints. *987 

— Boston's "No accident" week, 420 

— 'Buffalo campaign. 755 

— Campaign suggestions of A. E. R. A., 66 
— Chicago Council, Work of, 331: [Budd], 605 
— Constructive method of educating 1 [Roadifer], 

— Contest of Southern Public Utilities Co., 1161 

— Continuous safety drive [Budd], 605 

— Co-operative employees, 997 

— Extent of work [A. E. R. T. & T. Com ], 

648, Discussion. 648 
— Floats aid Baltimore campaign. 300 
— Gates, Positive stop crossing. •1145 
— Grade crossings. Hazard off and protecting 

signs for [Messenger], 744 
— Life guard. Spring operated. *209 
— Maps of danger points, 184 
— Precautions on overhead lines [Gates], 665 
— Record on C. N. S. & M„ 238, 718 
— Results in Portland, Oregon, 971 
— School campaign in San Francisco, Cal., 925 
— Teaching by fairy tales. 757 
Saginaw. Michigan: 

— Bus offer, 373, 709, 755: 790, 1044 

— Jitney situation, 296, 323, 373, 453, 530, 

659, 667, 1004 
— Saginaw-Bay City Railway: 

Service resumption desired. 876, 918, 1004: 
Voted against. 1044 

Suspension and receivership, 
373, 453. 530, 659, 709 
Salt Lake City, Utah: 
— Bamberger Electric Railroad: 

Compensation payment ordered, 
— Interurban terminal planned, 374 
— Salt Lake & Utah Railroad: 

Fare increase granted, 185 

Rate discrimination charged. 115, 300 
— Utah Light & Traction Co.: 

History and features. '347 

Rehabilitation program, 217 
San Antonio. Texas: 

— San Antonio Public Service Company: 

Fare reduction proposed, 1010, 1054 

Flood damage, 530 
San Diego, California: 
— San Diego Electric Railway: 

Bonds authorized, 923 

Jan. -Aug. report, 920 

Jan. -Mar. report, 257 
Sanding devices (see Fixtures) 
Sandusky, Norwalk & Mansfield Electric Rail- 
way (see Norwalk, Ohio) 
San Francisco, California: 
— Cable car runs away, *1157 
— Market Street Railway: 

City purchase proposed, 218, 532 1007 

Cutting device for asphalt pavement *291 

Labor turnover statistics, «993 

Power plow and derrick. «208 

Substation [ Woodbridge] . «269 

Terminal traffic, *49, 545 

Valuation of, 1153 

Wages decreased, 414 
— Northwestern Pacific Railroad: 

Third rail system. Construction of 743 
— Ocean Shore Railroad: 

Abandons two lines, 219 
— Rerouting relieves congestion, *49 
— Safety first educational campaign 925 
— Ban Francisco Municipal Railway 

Annual report, 147, 417 

City must pay cost of moving conduit, 876 

Extensions proposed. 662; Cost data, 761 

Market Street traffic, «49 

Presidio terminus. '950 
— Southern Pacific Company: 

Interurban electrification urged 658 
— Subway proposed. 1084 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railway (see 

Oakland, Cal.) 
San Jose, California: 
— San Jose Railroads: 

Fare increase denied. 1049 
Saugus. Massachusetts : 
—Bus company enlarges operation, 340 
Savannah, Georgia : 

— Savannah Electric & Power Company: 

Bond offer. 713 
— Savannah Electric Company: 

Reorganization plan. 182 336 713 
Schedules and time tables : 
— Car and bus speeds in Chicago. Ill 1035 
— Connecting lines listed, *394 
— Economics of [A. E. R. A. A. Com ] 649- 

Discussion. 650 
— Illuminated time table, 205 
— Keeping cars on time [Whitney], 1038' 

[Bolt], 1039: Discussion. 1081 
— Loop to avoid congestion. «725 
— Routes and schedules in Salt Lake City *347 
— Speed and frequency affect transportation 

sale [Morgan], *499 
—Speed, increased in Kansas City, Mo. [Buffe] 


— Sta »^ er s d nours Proposed for New York City. 

Schenectady, New York: 

— Schenectady Railway: 

One man car question 845 
Wage arbitration. 414. 562, 658 

Scranton, Pennsylvania: 

— Scranton. Montrose & Binghamton Railway 

Service resumption, 145 
Seattle. Washington: 
— Bus terminal. 340 

— Jitney situation, 224. 260 373 41" 
571. 664. 666 716 926 071 
1011. 1093. 11.31 ' 

— N °1133 nPetitiVe ^ uses favore f | - 885, 
— Seattle Municipal Railway: 
August report. 664 



Abbreviations: *Illustratecl. c Communications. 



[Vol. 58 

Seattle. Washington : 

, — Seattle Municipal Railway (Continued) : 
Bus purchase bill vetoed, 801 
Pare decrease proposed, 750, 758, 881, 1161 
Financial difficulties 29. 181; Comments 

on, 81, 713; 750, 881 
General funds not available lor operation, 

840, 1121 
Greasing and cleaning tracks, '140 
Improvements proposed, 71, 750, [Witt] 

1041, 1125; Comments on, 1137 
July report, 376 
May report, 70 

Purchase contract controversy, 108, 715, 

Three-cent fare. Advocated. 114, 457: 
Comments on, 81; Opposed, 716 

Transportation investigation. 750, 795, 

Wage reduction proposed. 334; Adjusted. 

— Seattle & Rainier Valley Railroad: 

Wage agreement, 1084 
— Trackless trolleys proposed, 374. 1024 
Service and tower wagons: 

— Autos useful [Dana], c52; Comments on, 39 
— Electric truck for line repairs, '277: [Me- 

Kelway], "944 
— Emergency truck in Atlanta, Ga., *734 
— Hose bridges carried in trailer [Hughes], 


— Supply truck, *240 
— Tower truck for Detroit. '680 
— Truck attachments for boring and pole hoist- 
ing, *903 
— Winch truck, '910 
Service as basis of rates [Tingley], 998 
Service at cost : 

— Bonds easily sold in Montreal. 1046 
— Contrasted with state regulation [Way], 689 
— Des Moines, Iowa, franchise features. 749. 

— Incentives proposed [Newman], 582 
— Modifications in Cincinnati suggested, 67 
— Norfolk's proposed franchise. 216 
— Proposed for: 

Des Moines, Iowa, 709 

Fresno. California, 215 

Houston. Texas, 145, 333. 563; Defeated. 
662: New franchise. 838; Defeated, 969; 
New proposal, 1044. 1083 
Milwaukee. Wis.. 146. 253 
Norfolk, Virginia, 215 
Vancouver. B. C, Can., 217 
— Rejected in Vancouver, B. C, 374 
— Review of [Gruhl], 595 
— Successful in Cleveland [Sanders], 1154 
— Trusteeship in Massachusetts [Dana], 687 
Service index. Comments on. 346, 426 
Shore Line Electric Railway (see Norwich, 

Shore Line Traction Co. (see New Haven. Conn.) 

Shreveport, Louisiana: 

— Shreveport Traction Co.: 

Fare controversy, 113 

One man cars permitted, 844 

— Automatic stop with, 432 

— Daylight color light, Liverpool, 1150 

— Interlocking control, 48 

— Maintenance improved by graphic records, 

— Power operated, 368 
— Train movements accelerated. 399 
Signs combined with strain insulators. 142 
Single-phase railways in long service [Jones], 

Sioux City, Iowa: 
— Jitneys ruled out. 222 
Skip-stop (see stopping of cars) 
Snow removal : 

—Equipment for, in Milwaukee *857 

— Problem discussed [A S. M. C. Com.], 699 

— Rotary ice digger. »1077 

— Tractors effective. *857 

Soil corrosion (see Corrosion) 

Somerset, Kentucky: 

— Kentucky Utilities Company: 

Operation resumed, 455 
Somerset. Pennsylvania: 
— Johnstown & Somerset Railway: 

Bond issue. 454 
South Africa: 
— Johannesburg : 

Electric truck as tower wagon, *277 
South America : 
— Electrification progress, 351 
South Bend, Indiana: 

— Chicago. South Bend & Northern Indiana 

Bus competition with, 801 
— Jitney situation. 1053 

South Carolina Light. Power & Railways Co. 

(see Spartansburg. S. C.l 
Southern Covington & Cincinnati Street Railway, 

(see Covington, Ky.) 
Southern Pacific Co. (see Portland, Ore., & San 

Francisco, Cal.) 
Southern Public Utilities Co. (see Charlotte, 

N. C.) 
Spade, Air driven, *446 
Spain : 

— Cataluna Tramways of Barcelona: 

Motor cars for. *6 
— Electrification contract, 1055 
— Railway planned. 1096 
Spartanburg South Carolina: 

— South Carolina Light, Power & Railways Co. : 

Interest defaulted. 220. 455 
Special traekwork: 
— Bolted type [Rust], 525 
— Built up type in Salt Lake City, 347 
— Changes for right hand operation [Murrin], 


— Construction and bonding on D. M. R.. '121 
— Engineering data IA. E. R. C. A. Com], 

— Frog repairs. *15 

Special Hackwork (Continued) : 
— Frogs with acute angles by welding, '910 
— Loops necessary for trail cars [Palmer], 891 
— Loop, Universal type in Kansas City. Mo., 

•725 . 
— Prices of, since 1900, '691 
— Repairing by shims and welding [Smith], 


Spokane, Washington: 

■ — City-railway controversy, 32, 75, 300 
— Spokane & Eastern Railway & Power Co.: 

Fare increase granted, 32, 75 
— Washington Water Power Co. : 

Abandonment of certain lines sought, 298 

Abandons Lidgerwood line. 569 

Fare increase, 32, 75 

One man ears decrease accidents [Ashton], 

Springfield, Illinois: 

—Springfield Consolidated Railway: 

Placards with trainmen's names. 802 
Springfield, Massachusetts: 
— Springfield Street Railway: 

Energy saving [Wood], *681 

Freight operation, *41 

Train jumps track, 414 
Springfield, Missouri: 
— Jitney situation, 570 
— Springfield Traction Company: 

Jitney rights acquired. 670 
Springfield, Ohio : 

— Fort Wayne. Van Wert & Lima Traction 
Company : 

Time table arrangement. *394 
— Ohio Electric Railway: 

Disintegrates, 182, 295 
Foreclosure desired, 71 
Jan. -July report. 664 

Jig for rebabbitting connecting rods, *274 

Newspaper sympathetic, 1116 

Portable substation with collapsible con- 
struction [Foote], *169 
— Springfield Railway: 

Financial difficulties. 754 
— Springfield Terminal Railway & Power Co.: 

Claims against, Status of fixed, 533 

Reorganization, 1045 
Springs (see Fixtures) 
Standardization : 

— C. E. R. A. Committee report, 63 

— Paving bricks, »994: Comments on, 978 

— Pipe flanges and fittings. Committee on, 958 

— Railway electrification in Great Britain, 826 

— Screwed fittings. 1120 

- — Secretaries of national bodies confer. 66 
— Standards proposed, 732 
— Value of. Comments on. 541 
— Work of A. E. R. E. A. [Gove], 624; Com- 
ments on. 671 
Staten Island Midland Railway (see New York 


— Automobile accidents in Rochester, N. Y. 

[Quigley], 606 
— Accidents. Cost of, 1148 
— Accidents in Chicago [Kelker], '244 
— Claim department important [Handlon], 656 
— Coal consumption, 201 
— Coal costs in New York City, 1115 
— Default of traction bonds. 922 
— Earnings of railways [C. & F. Chron], 70. 


— Freight operation in Mass., 41 

— German railway conditions, '358 

— Labor turnover on a railway. *731. *993 

— New York railways. *944, *1065 

— Operation : 

Boston Elevated Railway. 148 

Hamburg Elevated Railway [Matters- 
dorff], *979 

Havana. Cuba, 336 

London's railways. Ill 

Motor buses in California, 319 

Revenue of 72 railways. *1047 

Rochester. New York, 1128 

Safety cars in Oakland. 314 

Salt Lake City, 347 

San Diego Electric Ry.. 257 

Trackless trolleys, 1024; [Jackson], 859. 

Zurich, Switzerland, '417 
— Power generated in U. S., *205 
— Railways in India and Ceylon, 1013 
— Railways operating motor buses. 319 
— Safety cars decrease accidents [A. E. R. A. 

Com.], 619 
—Service in 20 cities [Dahl]. 239 
— Track construction in United States. 730 
— Traffic due to weekly passes, *1104 
— Traffic in New York. *941. 1151 
— Traffic on 154 railways. 220 
■ — Truck operation for freight. 133 
— Wage decreases. 995 
— Wire production proposed. 575 
— Steps (see Fixtures) 
Stockton. California: 
— Tidewater Southern Railway: 

Locomotive features. *326 
Stone & Webster: 
— Seventeen year report 
Stopping of cars: 
— Automatic and interlocks. 48 
— Indicators with advertising space [Eichel], 


— Po'es painted as warning for, *693 
— Trip-cock testing in London. *829 
— Skip-stop: 

S ; gns used in Chicago. 683 

Pasting signs on poles [Mc Kelway], 1076 
Stores : 

— Accounting [A. E. R. A. A. & A. E. R. E. 

A. Com.], 631; Discussion. 697 
— Scran classification, 383 
Storm damage: 

— Flood. San Antonio, Texas. 530 

— Tampa. Florida, 839 

Strikes and arbitrations: 

— Coal strike in Great Britain. 25. 241 

Strikes and arbitrations (Continued) : 

— Cost of strike in Albany, 1005 

— French railway strike, 1035 

— One man car protest. F. J. & G. R. R., 145 

— Picketing lawful, 1084 

— Strike condemned, Report on Denver strike. 


— Strike prevention proposed, Comments on, 

— Strikers status. 868 
— Wage arbitrations: 

Akron, Ohio, 51, 68, 179, 216 

Cincinnati powerhouse men, 145 

Connecticut Company, 661, 751. 794 

Des Moines, Iowa. 108 

Living costs in Akron, O., 51 

Newtonville, Mass., 414 

Schenectady. New York. 414. 562, 658 
^V<i££6 strikes* 

Albany, N. Y., 531, 563, 868, 961. 1005 

Dayton, Ohio. 178 

St. John, N. B.. Can., 217 

Scranton, Montrose & Binghamton Ry.. 

Syracuse & Suburban R.R.. 252, 294 
Substations and equipment: 
— Automatic : 

Cincinnati installs, '1099 

City service [Butcher], 58; [Bale], 58 

Cleveland system [Bale], 58 

Discussed by C. E. R. A„ 53; [Butcher]. 

•56; [Bale]. 58; [Jones]. 60 
Features of [A. E. R. E. A. Com.], 628; 

Discussion, 630 
Feeders in cities [Butcher], 57; [Bale], 


Fort Wayne 1200-volt station [Butcher], 

Motor generator control [Butcher], 66 
Single phase replaced by. '543 
Single unit stations in Cincinnati, '1099 
Two unit stations [Butcher], *56; [Bale], 
59; [Jones] 60 
— Features in San Francisco [Woodbridge], 

— Grounds, Comments on beautifying, 542 
— Motor generator moved for emergency, 1112 
— Motor-generators constructed from engine- 
driven machines [Smith], *91 
— Lightning destroys, '450 

— Portable with collapsible construction 

[Foote], '169 
— Rectifiers for [Milliken], »779 
— Rectifiers in France. 669 
— Standardize on 1500 kw. units, '1099 
Subways : 

— Abandonment in Cincinnati recommended, 794 
— Elevated roads compared with [Ridgway], 


— Freight handling in New York proposal, 710 
— London proposal to aid unemployment, 996 
— Proposed for Montreal, 711 
— Proposed for St. Louis. Mo., 750 
Superpower zone. Report on (see Power gen- 
eration ) 
Switchboards and equipment: 
— Circuit breaker, Oil, 246 
— Circuit breakers. Removable unit type. 207 
— Substation. Details [Woodbridge], *269 

— Electrification status, [Huber], *988 

— Hydro electric development, 1014 

— Locomotives for Swiss Federal Railways, 825 

— Steam heating electric trains [Rosenberger] . 

•206. «829 
— Zurich abandons zones, *417 
— Zurich. Annual report, *417, 1007 
Syracuse, New York : 
— Empire State Railways: 

Wage controversy, 146, 179 
— New York State Railways: 

City-railway controversy. 925, 927, 1011 

Five cent fare sought. 115, 666 

May-August report, 568 

Utica fare increase denied, 534: Comment* 
on. 404 
— Rochester & Syracuse R.R. 

Shopi notes, Newark, N. Y., *99 

Wage controversy, 146. 179. 215 
— Syracuse & Suburban Railroad: 

Strike, Wage situation, 252, 294 

Tacoma, Washington : 

— Jitney situation, 159. 801 

— Tacoma Railway & Light Co.: 

Extension controversy. 251 
Tampa. Florida: 
—Tampa Electric Company: 

One man cars maintain five-cent fare. 338 

Storm damage. 839 1 
Tsxes ■ 

— California bill challenged, 70, 180 

— Federal income tax unjust in Cleveland 

[Sanders], 1154 
— Franchise. Elimination of, sought in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio 969: Allowed for 1922, 1156 
— Illinois motor vehicle license, 184 
— National. Revision of. 1007; [Haig], 1068 
— Paving costs assumed by property ownen. 

— Paving relief in Jackson urged, 658 

— proposed changes. Comments on. 191 

— Railroads provide bus roads, 1092 

— Reduction urged in Kansas City, Mo., 70 

— Segregation of utilities urged [Gadsden], 

212; Remarks on, 260; Comments on, 191, 


— Tax-exempt securities (see Financial) 
Telephoning by "carrier currents" on power 

wire. *1032 
Terminals : 

— Bus. Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1053 

— Commuters do not require [Turner], 1151 

— Freight in Massachusetts. *41 

— Interurbans in Salt Lake City, 374 

— Los Angeles situation, 26 

Abbreviations : 'Illustrated, c Communications. 

July-December, 1921] 



Terminals (Continued): 
■ — Pageant facilities in Chicago, *80 
— Railways as freight distributors [Bibbina], 

— San Francisco, Cal., Presidio terminus, '950 

— Traffic routing in San Francisco, '49, *545 

— Tunnel crossing, *870 

— Two levels at Cincinnati, Ohio, *865 

Terre Haute. Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 

Co. (see Indianapolis, Ind.l 
Test box. Convenient, *291 
Tests of material and equipment: 
— Circuit breakers. Calibration, '139 
— insulation testing [Dean], 85; Comments 
on. 79 

— Miniature distribution layout, *435 

— Motors during construction [Dean], *427 

— Plows, Overload testing, *139 

— Steel rails, Drop and impression tests [Speller 

and Farkell], 636 
— Voltage tests at 1,000,000 volts, 781 
Texas Electric Railway (see Dallas. Texas) 
Third Avenue Railway (see New York City) 
Tickets and tokens : 
— Berlin's e'ght-ride ticket. *143 
— Coin and ticket sorter, '1073 
— Coin counter. '209 

Tidewater Southern Ry. (see Stockton, Cal.) 

— Creosoted and set in concrete. Success, *97 
— Creosote plant in Chattanooga, *101 
— Growth and milling of [George], '1059 1 
— Pre-treatment of, *782 

— Standard specifications, Conference, 708, 873 
— Substitute. Necessary properties of [Ferned- 

ing], 635 
— Supply of. Comments on, 1058 
Tokens (see tickets and tokens) 
Toledo. Ohio: 

— Community Traction Co.: 

August report, 664 

Fares increased. 301. 536 

Fare increase postponed. 666 

July report, 335 

June report, 112 

November report. 1008. 1159 

October report, 880. 968 

Power cost controversy, 178, 333 

Prospects, 413, 1159 

September report. 753 
— Jitney situation, 150. 381. 659, 1005. 1052 
— Toledo Bus Transportation Company: 

Incorporates, 885, 1052 
— Toledo Railway & Light Company: 

Reorganization, 418, 533, 567, 664 
— Toledo & Western Railroad: 

Cars, Light weight desired. 1005 

Abandonment of part of line desired, 569 
— Topeka Railway: 

Wages decreased, 453 
Toronto. Ontario, Can.: 
— Rail gage. Non-standard retained. 84 
— Toronto Civic Railway: 

Fare rate. 378 
— Toronto Railway : 

Annual report. 923 

City purchase, 337. 411, 460, 532, 567. 

713. 1006 
Fare increase. 666 
Sale of old rolling stock. 761 
Valuation arbitrators, 152; Hearings. 532, 

567, 713, 1006, 1045 
Bus routes established, '867, 1053 
Track abandoned (see Abandoned lines) 
Track construction : 

— Accounting methods [Davis], 703; DIscui- 

sion [A. E. R. A. A.]. 698 
— Cement mixtures. Accelerating setting of. 869 
— Changes in Chicago for pageant, *89 
— Drainage on D. M. R., *121 
— Dynamite, Non-freezing, 1076 
— Features of D. M. R., *121; Comments on, 


— tLabor costs [Wilsonl. *438 

— Labor savers in Detroit, *121 

— Mechanical ties in Gary. Ind.. *321 

— Practice in United States. 730 

— Raising track [Cram]. *895 

— Recommendations on TA. E. R. E. A. Com ], 

•634; Discussion 6.35 
— Odd gage retained in Toronto. 84 
— Power plow and derrick. *208 
— Rebuilding track on old ties, *97 
— Specifications proposed [A. S. M. I.], 830; 

Comments on, 807 
— Tie plate. Universal, *98 
Trackless trolleys: 

— Adaptability of in York. England. 772 

— Automatic foot control. *863 

— Brill development. »551. *863 

— British installations [Jackson], *859. »1027 

— Cars (see Cars, Trackless type) 

— Comparative cost with motor bus and safety 
cars [Simmon], «394; [Stocks], *517; 
[Thirlwall], »546; [Andrews], 769; 
[Stocks], 771 

— Cost data from Bradford and Leeds [Jack- 
son], *859; Comments on. 851 

— Cost data from New York trial, Comments 
on, 850 

— Cost data from Tees-side and York [Jaek- 
sonl, 1027 

— Detroit, Mich., Specifications, 320; Trial. 
•359. *522 

— Evolution of, not revolution [Wheelwright] 

— Front-drive in Leeds. England. 1030 

— Hamburg's experience [Schiemannl, 1023 

— Increasing traffic by, Comments on, *514 

— Italian militarv lines. 1026 

— Operating statistics. 1024 

— Opposed in Buffalo. 259. 719 

— Packard type tried in Detroit, *359 

— Proposed for: 

Akron. Ohio. 185 

Rochester. N. Y.. 838 

St. Louis Missouri. 529 

Seattle, Wash., 374. 1024 

111., *938 
York City 





Trackless trolleys (Continued) : 
— Richmond, Virginia, situation, 1005, 1042 
— Staten Island. N. Y., extension proposed, 752 
— Staten Island installation, *689; Comments 
on, 850 

— "Trollicar" of St. Louis Car Co.. *1025 
— Vienna's installation [Jackson], 1027 
Track maintenance: 
— Concrete breaker. *327 
— Construction kinks [Smith], 527 
— Crane, Crawling tractor type, 446 
— Factor in sale of transportation [Dunham], 

— Greasing and cleaning tracks, *140 
— Pneumatic scoop, *446 

— Prolonging life of car parts. Comments oo. 


— 'Retracking or buses [Jackson], *315 
— Weed cutter in Texas, *448 
— Weed killers, Use of, 524 
Traffic investigations: 

— Aid to transportation sales [Morgan], *499 
— Guide advertising by, Comments on, 465 
— -Headwaygraphs for [Roberts], *440 
- — Nashville, Tennessee, 566 
— New York City, 824, '941 
— Report on 154 railways. 220 
— Rerouting proposed for Chicago. 
- — 'Rerouting proposed for New 

[Turner], *1109; Comments, 
— Topographical limitation in Pittsburgh 

Gunnegle & Montgomery], 21 
— Traffic density units, Comments on, 346. 
— Weekly pass, Effect of, *1104 
Traffic regulation: 

— Bridge replacefent arrangements. *1113 
— Double traffic for convention. '951 
— Inspectors aid. *49 

■ — -Organiiza<tion and methods in New 

[O'Brian], 603 
— Principles [A. E. R. A. T. Com ], 647 
— Safety zone. Purpose of [Rudd], c52 
— Service improvement, Kansas City, 

[Buffe], .»475 
— Staggered hours proposed for New York City, 

Comments on, 1138 
— Suggestions by A. S. M. I. Com., 830 
— Terminal traffic in San Francisco, •47, '545 
— Vehicular congestion. Suggestions for aiding 

[Barnes], 998 
Traffic stimulation : 

— 'Elements affecting riding [Dahl], 239 
— Using tracks, 100%. 554 
— Weekly pass in Youngstown. Ohio, *1104 
Transfers (see Fare collection) 
Transportation, Metropolitan : 
— Berlin situation [Eichel], »814 
— Buses versus trolley [Pearson], 866 
■ — Commuters in New York City [Turner], 1151 
— Fares. Factors affecting [Ashfield], 312 
— 'Effect of garden sites, Comments on, 465 
— Manufacturer interested in railways [Wick- 
wire], 599 

— Monopoly and jitneys, Comments on, 305 
— Monopoly essential [Todd, by Bozell], 1018; 

[Bradlee], 1036 
— New York City situation [Harkness]. 403; 

Comments on, 385 
— Population and rides per inhabitant [Ertel], 


■ — Rapid transit systems [Ridgway], 833 
— Relation between traffic and housing [Ertel]) 

— Traffic in New York. *941 
Transportation superintendent: 
— Value of "good talker," Comments on. 425 
Trenton, New Jersey: 

— New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction Co.: 
Consolidation disapproved. 568 
Fare increase sought, 667. 718 
Reports deficit since 1913. 112 
Wages decreased, 145 

Tri-City Railway (see Davenport, Iowa) 

Trinidad, Colorado: 

- — -Trinidad Electric Transmission. Railway & 
Gas Company: 
Abandonment of part of lines proposed, 
Troy, New York : 
— Troy & New England Railway: 

Annual report, 29 
— United Traction Company (see Albany, N. Y.) 
Trucks : 

— Archbar. light weight, *933 

— 'Bolster repaired by welding, *1074 

— Pressed steel welded, *12 

— Rebuild ; ng, *193 

Tulsa. Oklahoma: 

— Jitney situation. 457 

— Tulsa Street Railway: 

Supplementary bus service planned. 218 

Twin City Rapid Transit Company (see Minne- 
apolis, Minn.) 

Tygarts Valley Traction Company (see Graf- 
ton, W. Va.) 


Underwriters laboratories and their work [Mul- 

daur], 594 
Unemployment (see Employees and Labor) 
Um'on Traction Co. of Indiana (see Anderson, 


United Electric Railway (see Providence. R. I.) 

United Light & Railways Co. (see Grand 
Rapids, Mieh.) 

United Railways Investment Company (see Jer- 
sey Citv. N. J.) 

United Railways (see St. Louis. Mo.) 

United States Chamber of Commerce: 

— -Transportation committee. 178 

United Traction Co. (see Albany. N. Y.) 

United Traction & Electric Co. (see Providence, 
R. I.) 

Upper Darby. Pennsylvania: 
— Philadelphia & West Chester Traction Co.: 
Center entrance cars for, *Q 

Utah Light & Traction Co. (see Salt Lake City. 

Utah. State of: 

— Rate discrimination charged, 115, 300 
Utica. New York: 

— New York State Railways ( see Syracuse. 
N. Y.) 

Utility information bureaus (see Public. Rela- 
tions with) 

Valuation (see Appraisal of railway property) 

Vancouver, British Columbia, Can.: 

— British Columbia Electric Railway: 

Changing from left to right hand opera- 
tion [Murrin]. *894 
Coin and ticket sorter, '1073 
Crossover changes. 531; [Murrin], *894 
One man ears proposed, 536 
Paint shops economies [Murrin], '11 
Service at cost franchise sought, 217; Re- 
jected, 374 
Wage reduction proposed. 1005, 1125 

— City-railway controversy, 566 

Vincennes, Indiana : 

— Vincennes Traction Company: 
Foreclosure sale ordered. 258 
Reorganization plans. 1088 

Virginia Railway & Power Company (see Rich- 
mond and Norfolk. Virginia) 




294. 334. 

Wage decreases : 
— Akron, Ohio. 68. 179. 216 
■ — Anderson. Indiana. 215 
—Auburn. N. Y., 531 

— Average for August and September. 995 
— Baltimore Maryland. 1083 
— Beaver Valley Traction Co.. 179 
— Brooklyn. N. Y.. 177 
— Buffalo, N. Y.. 218 

■ — Chicago North Shore & Milwaukee R. R.. 
— Connecticut Company. 751. 794 
—Covington, Kentucky, 216 
— Dallas, Texas. 293 
■ — Dayton, Ohio, 178 
- — Denver. Colorado, 293 
— Des Moines, Iowa. 108 

— East St. Louis & Suburban Ry., 179. 1042 
- — Fort Wayne, Indiana. 453. 564 
— Haverhill. Mass., 293 
— Indianapolis, Indiana, 215 
— Industries listed, 361 
- — Jacksonville, Fla.. 179 
— Joliet. Illinois. 69 
— Los Angeles. California. 659. 709 
— Louisville, Kentucky, 840, 877 
— Marion & Bluffton Tr. Co.. 178 
— Minneapolis, Minn.. E. S. L. R.. 794 
— Monongahe'a Power & Railway Co.. 68 
— Montreal. Quebec. 294 

— New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Co.. 145 
— Newtonville, Mass.. 414 
— New York City, 177. 254 
— Notice insufficient in St. Louis. 566 
— Omaha, Nebraska, 565 
—Philadelphia. Pa.. 562 
— Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania, 69. 145 
— Pittsfield, Mass., 752 
— Portland. Oregon. 564 
— Proposed for : 

Baltimore. Maryland. 1005, 1083 

Covington. Ky.. 178 

East St. Louis & Suburban Ry., 28, 

Peterborough Rapid Transit. 107 
Memphis. Tenn., 144 
Montreal, Quebec, 177. 217. 

Seattle, Wash., 334 
Syracuse suburbans. 146, 179 
Vancouver. B. C. 1005, 1125 
— Readjustment without rancor. Comments on. 

— St. John, N. B., Can., 217 
— San Francisco, Cal., 414 
— San Francisco-Oakland Ter. Rys.. 1*9. 
— Seranton. Montrose & Binghamton Ry., 
— Seattle, Washington, 374 
— Seattle & Rainier Valley R.R.. 
— Springfield. Ohio. 754 
— Syracuse interurbans 179. 215 
— Texas EWtric Ry.. 961 
— Tcpeka. Kansas, 453 
— West Penn Rys., 413 
— Wheeling, West Virginia. 374 
Wages and working agreements: 
— Arbiters maintain. Schenectady. N. Y. 

Average increase in four years [Grulill. oVo 

— Dependent on fares. 565 

— Future of [Todd, by Bozell]. 1018 

— Improvements increase, Comments on, 11J8 

— Relation to fares [ Green 1 732 

— Work commensurate with wages. Comments 

on. 79. 157; TBoyce], c 171 
Waiting stations (see also Terminals) : 
• — Advertisement presented. '996 , 
— Attractive stations of C. & N. E. R.R.. '1146 
— Agents decreased in Chicago. *772 .„ , A 

— Gates. Featherweight pressure in N. Y.. *94U 
— Loading platforms in Indianapolis. *1147 
— Raising elevated tracks for. in Chicago. 
— Telephone announcers on trial. 27 
Warehouse Point. Connecticut: 
— Hartford & Springfield Street Railway: 

Freight operation. * x \ 

Report for Oct.. 1918. to May. 1921. 
Warsaw. Indiana: 
— Winona Interurban Railway: 

Featuring localities in advertisement* 
[Schadel. «513 
Washington. District of Columbia: 
— Bus routes authorized. 340; Opposition to 

new routes, 909 






Abbreviations : "Illustrated, c Communications. 



[Vol. 58 

Washington, D. C. (Continued I : 
— Capital Traction Company 

Cement mixtures, Accelerating settings of, 

One-man car trial, 1132 
— Fare controversy, 150, 223. 456 
— Half fare for children urged. 800 
— Municipal ownership proposed. 68 
— Potomac Electric Company : 

Valuation case, 995, 1089 
— Railway merger, Legislation for. 337. 753 
— Token fare decreased, 223; Unsatisfactory. 


— Washington Railway & Electric Co.: 

■Depreciation controversy, 1089 

Plow and circuit breaker testing. *139 

Reclamation department. *98 

Traffic decrease, 716 

Trailers with controllers. *433 
Washington, State of: 

— Auto transportation act applied. 184; [Koy- 

kendall], 790 
Washington Water Power Co. (see Spokane. 

Waste elimination: 

— Discussion of by R. R. Div. A. S. M\ E.. 748 
— Report of F. A. E. S.. 173. 915: Comments 

on. 157 
Waterloo. Iowa: 

— Waterloo. Cedar Falls & Northern Railway: 

Financial plans. 376 
Weed cutter in Texas. *448 
Welding : 

— Eye protection. 10 

— Frog repairs, '15 

— Frogs with acute angles. '910 

— Gas outfit. Portable. *99 

— Reclamation work in Washington. D. C , 98 
—Seam-welding rail joints. [Wysor] '170 
— Thermit, Mixing necessary, 446 
— Thermit, New molding material. 367 
— Variable voltage motor-generator set. *140 
Westchester Street Railroad (see White Plains 
New York) 

West End Terminal Railway (see Cincinnati. 
Ohio ) 

Western New York & Pennsyvania Traction 
Company (see Olean. N Y I 

Western Pacific Railroad : 

— Purchase of Sacramento Northern R.R., 454. 


West Jersey & Seashore R.R. (see Camden. 

N. J.) 
West Orange: 

— West Orange Municipal Bus System: 

Deficit reported, 834 
West Penn Railways I see Pittsburgh, Pa.) 
West Virginia, State of 
— Bus petition rejected, 666 
Wheeling. West Virginia : 
— Bus company seeks permit, 801, 1092 
— Jitney situation, 261 
— Wheeling Public Service Corporation : 

Bus competition withdrawn. 380 
—Wheeling Traction Company: 

Intrastate rates by I. C. C, 378 

Wages decreased. 374 
Wheels and axles: 

— Axle failures caused by rough machining 

[Norton]. 908 
— Excessive braking, Effect on, 362 
— Rolled finish on axles '692 
— Storage and loading platforms. '193 
— Stresses in steel car wheels. 142 
— Wheel contours [A. E. R. E. A. Com.]. 640 
White Plains, New York: 
— -Westchester Street Railroad : 

Annual report. 297 
Wichita Falls. Texas: 
— Wichita Falls Traction Company: 

Decreasing accidents. 823 
Wilmington, Delaware: 

— Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Com- 

Financial difficulties. 879 

Power plant changes. *232; Comments on. 

Three-wire distribution [Way], *307; Com- 
ments on. 306 
Winnipeg. Manitoba. Can.: 
— Manitoba Power Company 

Bond issue. 921 

Hydro-electric power plant. 529 
— Winnipeg Electric Railway: 

Cadmium-copper trolley wire, 277 

Winnipeg, Manitoba. Can, : 

— Winnipeg Electric Railway (Continued) : 

Elements affecting riding [Dahl], 239 

Fare increase, 222 

Motor-generator sets rebuilt [Smith], *91 

Repair shops rebuilt [Smith]. '437 

"Service" slogan adopted. *926 

Three wire system for electrolysis mitiga- 
tion, 839 

Track voltage on [Smith], 555 
Winona Interurban Railway (see Warsaw, Ind.). 
Wisconsin, State of: 

— Commission's history and work. '765 

— Rate reveiew requested, 885 

— Track abandonment bill vetoed, 149 

Wisconsin Traction, Light. Heat & Power Co 

(see Appleton. Wis.) 
Wood (see also Poles and Ties) 
— Air seasoning investigation, 209 
—By-products from [George], *1059 
Worcester, Massachusetts: 
— Worcester Consolidated Street Railway: 

Energy saving [Wood], *681 

Freight operation, *41 
Work and wrecking cars: 
— Combination car, '348 
— Pavement cutting device. '291 
— Piow car and derrick. *208 
— Snow plows (see Snow removal) 

York, Pennsylvania: 

— York Railways : 

Automatic substations instead of single 
phase. *543 

Youngstown, Ohio: 

— Pennsylvania-Ohio E'eetrie Co.: 

Interstate fare increased by I. C. C. "1091 
Safety car experience [Smith], '20 

— Youngstown Municipal Railway: 

Physical property improved. 965 
Routing and fare collection changes, 1051 
Weekly pass analysis, *1104; Comments on, 

Weekly pass trial, 534, 665. «899: Com- 
ments on. 890. 1015 

Abbreviations: * Illustrated. c Communications. 



Adair, Frank 1054 

Anderson, Clark G *226 

Andrews. Brigadier-General Lincoln C....' 846 

Anderson. F. A 1134 

Armstrong, Robert D 460 

Arnold, E 539 

Atwood. William W 804 


Bange. C. M 422 

Barker, Ernest C 422 

Baxter, C. A 225 

Bewsey, L C . . 460 

Bigelow. B. R *973 

Blake. George H 720 

Bleecher, John S 1095 

Bliss, Zenas W 574 

Bowen. C. K 1164 

Brendel. Wallace W ...1054 

Brewer. Joseph A 302 

Brown. Nelson H '574 

Buchanan. C. B *574 

Buckley. A. W 264 

Buckman, H. H 22j5 

Butler, E. R . . igg 


Cadby. John N 887 

Chandler. C. Murphy 460 

Cooley. Mortimer E 720 

Collins. C. C 42° 

Collins, John C 382 

Cooper. H. S . »538 

Coryell, A. B 460 

Couzens, H. H *928 

Cox, Frederick, I *23 

Crowley. R. J 342 


Daggett, Captain George F 225 

Dalton, H. E 1094 

Dame, Frank L *188 

Davies. C. E 35 

DeCamp. H C - 302 

Dittrick. Alva R 668 

Duffy. C. Nesbitt 668 


Edgar, Charles L 539 


Fallon, B. J 76 

Fmlay. W. F.. Jr. 154. 1164 

(with biographical notes) 

Fisher, E. L 226 

Fisher, Dan 760 

Flad, Edward 461 

Flood. Henry, Jr 225 

Fountain, H. A 668 


Gaiman. H. 1095 

Gerry. M. H 887 

Gerehart. Thomas 720 

Gest. Frank 382 

Goff F. H 187 

Graham. George C 303 

Greene. Prof. Arthur M 342 


Haight. Judge Thomas H. G 846 

Harris F. H 422 

Harvell. John E »668 

Harvey, D. W *928 

Hasbrouck, H. C 804 

Haw. Elmer P 575 

Herring-ton. L. B 1164 

Hill. Arthur D 460 

Hill, W. V 76' 

Hines. Joseph P 1134 

Hodges, A. LeRov 116 

Holland. Judge William M "1094 

Hukill. Edmund L 422 

Huntoon. J. G »226 


Irelan, Carl D 575 


Jackson. Carl D «804 


Karr, Frank 1164 

Kealy. Col. Philip J : 1134 

Klauder. Louis T 225 


Launey, Reuel 155 

Lee. Lewis H 188 


MacMillan. E. A 35 

McKibben. L. Don 382 

McKinley. William B 225 

Maver. Judge Julius M 668 

Mead. W. J *1134 

Morgan, Clinton E *886 

Murphy, Ernest A 1164 

Murray, William S 22o 


Nash, Robert A 1164 

Nichols. F. E 264 


Oakley, Frank D *760 

O'Dohoghue, Francis J 154 


Phillips, J. G 264 

Plimpton, R. E 1094 

Pontius, D. W *720 

Potter, Albert E *760 


Raush. M. S 1012 

Reynolds. A. L 760 

Rifenberick, Robert B 225 

Roderick. T. C '226 

Ross, H. E 973 


Smith, Daniel W '187 

Smith. F. E 538 

Smith, R. J *226 

Starr, Linton K 116 

Stotesbury, Edward T 35 

Sundmaker, J. H *342 

Sweatt, L. P., Jr *382 


Titcomb, H, B. *53<< 

Torrens, W. J 846 


Vanneman, Charles R . . 538 

Van Ness, L. G 264 


Wakelee. Edmund W 720 

Walker. E. M *973 

Ware. Herbert 303 

Welsh. J. W *116 

Whalen, Charles E 154 

Williams. Harry S 302 

Wi'son. Paul E *1134 

Wilson. P. Ney *886 

Wolff. S. E 929 

^♦Indicates Portrait) 

July-December, 1921] 




Addinsell, H. M. : 

— Considerations affecting the market lor street 

railway securities, 592 
— Status of electric railway, ligrht and power 

securities, 831 
Ainey, W. D. B. : 
— Railway's problems, 18 
Allen, K L.: 

— Features of overhead construction, Discussion, 


Anderson, Frederick A,: 

— Results of mutual benefit association, 1118 
Andrews, H. L.: 

— Bus and car costs compared, 769 
Arkwright, P. S.: 
— Speaking of noses, 137 
Ashfield, Lord : 

— The problem of the fare, 312 
Ashton, Thomas G. A.: 

— 'Effect of the one-man ear on traffic hazard. 

Atkinson, H. M.: 

— Prosperity a co-operative game, 990 
Aylesworth. M. H.: 

—Customer-ownership of utilities, 791 




Babson, Roger W.: 

— Street railways as an investment [With O. 

W. Hill], + 601 
Bale. Lawrence D.: 

— Automatic substations in Cleveland, 58 
Barnes, James P.: 

— "Bus Transportation" dismissed. cll49 
— Pressing' problems of public utilities. 786 
— Relationship between management and men. 

a traffic factor, *450 
— Safety car operation, 620 

— The outlook for the electric railway industry. 

Beeler. John A. : 

— Increasing' speed, Discussion, 650 
Bibbins, J. R.: 

— Terminal service possibilities of the electric 

railways. t591 
Bigelow. B. R. : 

— Selling' the employee on salesmanship. *1111, 

Bishop, S. A.: 

— Handling- employees' claims, 873 
Bolt, W. C: 

— Keeping cars on time, 1039 
Bowman, John H. : 
— Electric railway cost accounting, 
Boyce, W. H.: 

— Merchandising transportation, 

— Practical personnel work. 19 

— Wages commensurate with work done. cl71 

Bozell, Harold V.: 

— Railways' financial cvele has come I Interview 

with Todd), 1018 
Bradlee. Henry G.: 

— Opinion on "Bus Transportation." cl03ti 
Brown, Harry L.: 

— The sales work of electric railways, *61 
Bryan, W. E. 

—Automatic substations, Discussion. 630 
Budd. Britton I: 

— Make your safety drive continuous, +605 
Buffe, F. G. : 

— Greater operating efficiency enables 
merchandising of the service. *475 
Burke. Walter H.: 
— Street railway rates, *94 
Butcher, C. A.: 

— Automatic substation progress. *56 
Butterwortb, Louis H. : 

— Constructive argument as opposed to destruc- 
tive contentions in accident investigations 
and adjustment, +740 

Carr. Harvey S.: 

— Regulation of public utilities, 211 
Casey, Daniel. N. : 

— The electric railway and the community 18 
Coates, F. R.: 

■ — -Reorganization of A. E. R. A., c444 
Connell, H. J.: 

— The relation of the claim department to other 

departments, 525 
Cope, H. W.: 

— Apprentice systems for railways, 626 
Cram. R. C: 

— Reorganization of A. E. R. A.. c365 
— Unusual method of raising track. *895 
Curwen, S. M,: 

— Car purchases may be financed through car 
trusts. +590 

Dahl. C. H. D.: 

— Measuring service to the public. 239 
Dana. Edward: 

— Auto use need not be abused. c52 
— "Bus Transportation" discussed. cll49 


— Five and ten-cent Boston fares. *47 

— Reorganization of A. E. R. A.. e362 

— Service-af-cost contract franchise and slate 

regulation, +587 
Davis. W. L. 

— Construction accounting. +703 

— Stores accounting. Discussion, 697 

Dean, John S.: 

— Systematic maintenance good investment. *278 
• — Testing insulating materials. *85 
— Testing railway motor detail parts, *427 
Denman, B. J.: 

— "Bus Transportation" discussed, el 149 
Dinneen, George F.: 

— Electric railway cost accounting, Uiacuoaion. 

Doyle, H, B.: 

— Correct method of purchasing railway supplies. 

Dunham, William R., Jr.: 

— The track department as a factor in the sale 
of transportation, *484 

Eaton, F. E.: 

— -Handling of light and power consumers 

accounts, 408 
Eaton. R. W.: 

— Joint crossing specifications, Discussion, 632 
Eddy, H. C: 

— Baltimore^' new type safety car, c733 
Eichel, Eugene: 

— Railway situation in Berlin, '814 
Emery, J. A. : 

— What merchandising means. c827 
Emmons. C. D.: 

— "Bus Transportation" discussed. *1149 

"Engineer, Heavy Electric Traction": 

- — Need of definition for heavy electric traction 

suggested, c443 
Ertel, Arthur: 

— Traffic and housing in large cities, *199 

Farkell. G. C: 

— Drops and impression tests of steel rails [With 

F. M. Speller], -636 
Farrell, A. M.: 

— Bus competition in Illinois, Discussion, 747 

Ferneding, T. A.: 

— Substitute ties. 635 

Fisher, F. E.: 

— Bus competition in Illinois, Discussion, 747 
Fitzgerald. T.: 

— "Biis Transportation" discussed, cll49 
Foote, F. J.: 

— Air compressor piston clearances. 445 
— Portable substation with collapsible construc- 
tion. *169 
Foster. S. L. 

— Qualities of trolley wire. Discussion, 633 

Frothingham, Francis E.: 

— The basis of financial recuperation, 584 

Gadsden, Philip H.: 

— Address to Penn. Stieet Ry. Assn.. 17. 18 
— 'How taxation affects public utilities. 212 
— Presidential address to A. E. R. A.. +609 
— Put business common sense into electric rail- 
way managing, +581 
Gates. A. B.: 

— Care in construction and maintenance of over- 
head lines. 655 
George. Howard H.: 

— From tree to the finished stick, *1059. 
Glover. M. W.: 

— Electric railway cost accounting. Discussion. 

Gluck. Sinclair: 

— Automotive industry appraisal of traction men. 

Goodwin, William L: 

— Merchandising transportation, Discussion, 645 
— Wanted, A transportation sales manager. *468 
Gould, H. M. : 

— Catenary construction. Discussion. 633 
Gove W. G.: 

— Address to A. E. R. E. A-. t624 
Green. Alfred A.: 

— The five-cent fare as it affects the electric 

railway employee. 732 
Green. R. C: 

— Conducting accident investigations. 737 
Grimsley. A. H.: 

■ — Customer-ownerships securities, 787 
Gmhl. Edwin: 

— The traction industry today and four years 

ago. +595 
Gunn. E. B.: 

— The mechanical man as a salesman, 104 


Hagan, J. S.: 

— Power costs at point of delivery on inter 
urban electric railways, 409 

Haig, Robert M.: 

— -Some aspects of the revenue act of 1921, 

Handlon, J. H.: 

— Importance of claim department statistics, 656 
Harkness. LeRoy T.: 

— Transit tendencies in New York City. 403 
Hester, J. E.: 

■ — Using lye to remove old insulation, *14 
Hill. Olin W.: 

— Street railways as an investment [With R 

W. Babson], 601 
Holv G H F * 

— The helical gear [with W. H. Phillips]. *22 
Hoover. Herbert : 

— Relation of the electric railway industry to 

industrial efficiency, "580 
Hopson, H. C. 

— Adaptation of routine accounting renun.» io 
particular uses, +705 

• — Making valuations under special circum- 
stances. c443 

Huber, Dr. E.: 

— Electrification in Switzerland, *988 
Hughes, Adrian Jr.: 

— Hose bridges carried in trailer, *241 
Huldschiner, E.: 

— Valtellina Railway is extended. *816 

Jackson. Walter: 

— Bus or retraek?. *315 

— Railways must take up buses now, c523 
— The weekly $1 pass in Wisconsin. *203 
— Trackless trolleys at work abroad. *859. 

Jones. Charles H. : 
— Automatic substations, 60 
Jones. C. R.: 

— A single phase veteran. *907 


Kappeyne. J. : 

— Revenue increases from increased rates. *954 
Kelker. R. F.. Jr : 

— Accident record shows improvement. *244 

Kelsay. Guy H. : 

— The satisfied employee, 64 

King. L. B.: 

— Valuation and rate of return, 104 
Kovkendall. E. V.: 

— Regulation of buses in Washington. 789 


Lambert. M. B.: 

— The electric railway, track and all. 
Leeming. John: 

— Employee selection. Discussion. 654 

Lemmon. H. A.: 

— What is service?. 442 

Lewis. D wight N: 

— Des Moines transportation situation. 791 
Litchfield, Norman: 

— The car as a transportation salesman. *491 
Lloyd C. F.: 

■ — -Automatic Substations, Discussion, 630 
Lloyd, M. G.: 

— Joint crossing specifications. Discussion. 63'.: 

Lonergan. F. J.: 

— The genteel faker. 874 

Luellen. R. E : 

— The human side of energy saving. *728 



Manz M. W.: 

— Span length in overhead construction. 

cussion, 632 
Martinet. J. J. W. Van Loenen : 
— Electrification in Holland, 988 
Mattersdorff , Tag. Wilhelm : 

— Ten years of the Hamburg Elevated Railway, 

May, I, A.: 

— Perpetual inventory as a part of accountants' 

record. *398 
McCahill, C. B.: 

— Profit sharing on P. H. B. & N. C. Ry., 18 
McCollum. Burton: 

— Measurement of earth currents. '809 
McGraw. James H. : 

— What business papers can do to speed the 

revival of business, +835 
McGunnegle, C. K.: 

— What automobile traffic means to Pittsburgh 

[with M. T. Montgomery], 21 
McKelway. G. H.: 
— -Bond testing cars, *83 
— Electric trucks for line repairs. "944 
— Gaging trolley wire for renewal. 904 
— Pasting skip-stop signs on poles. 1076. 
McWhirter. J. S.: 

— Relation of the equipment man to the sale 

of transportation. *489 
Messenger. R. S.: 

— Railroad crossings and crossing signs. 744 
Milliken. J. H.: 

- — Rectifier substations developed abroad. *779 

Abbreviations: *Illustrated. fPortrait. c. Communications. 




[Vol. 58 

Montgomery, M. T. : 

— What automobile traffic means to Pittsburgh 

[with C. K. McGunnegrle], 21 
Moore, W. H.: 

— Publicity in litigated eases, 792 
Morgan, Clinton E.: 

— Making transportation serve — and sell, *499 
Morrow, L. W. W.: 

— The lubrication of rolling stock, *674 
Mortimer, James D. : 

— Reorganization of A. E. R. A., c365 
Muldaur, George B.: 

— The underwriters' laboratories and its work, 

Mullet, H. A.: 

— Safety car operation in Milwaukee, C20 
Murrin, W. G. : 

— Changing from left to right hand operation. 

— Introducing economies in the paint shop, *11 
Myers, George L. : 

— Winning public support and confidence, 210 


Newman, J. K. : 

— The future of street railway financing, 682 
Norene, O. A.: 

— Small oven proves useful, *142 
Norris, Henry H.: 

— Heavy electric traction, Discussion. 627 

— Picking men for jobs in the transportation 

department, f607 
Norton. Arthur: 

— Rough machining cause of axle failures, 908 

Rau, O. M.: 

— Burning pulverized anthracite mine waste 

Reid, Harry: 

— Service will increase transportation. Discus- 
sion, C46 
Reynolds, John J. :_ 
— Address to A. E. R. C. A., t735 
Rice, C. G.: 

— Transportation allied with claim work, Dis- 
cussion, 648 
Ridgway, Robert : 

— Subways for city transportation, 833 

Roadifer, Laura M.: 

- — Eject the Grundys, 745 

Roberts, A. A.: 

— Automatic train registering, *440 
Robinson, Walter E. 

— Method of handling accidents and claims. t739 
Rodgers, W. S.: 

— Competition and co-operation, 63 
Rogers, W. H.: 
— The soul of service. 875 
Rosenbergcr, William A.: 

— Steam-heating electric trains in Switzerland 

Rosevear, M. B.: 

— Joint crossing specifications, Discussion, 632 
Roosevelt, G. H. 

— Automatic substations. Discussion. 630 
Rudd. E. Irvine; 

— Traffic regulation has its difficulties. c52 
Rust. T. E. : 

— Track maintenance in Waterloo, Iowa 

Sproul Thomas: 

—Joint crossing specifications. Discussion, 632 
Staples, Horace A.: 

— Discussion on trolley wire, 633, c827 
Stevens, R. P.: 

— Address to A. E. R. T & T, T643 

Stocks, C. W.; 

— The bus transportation field, *517 
— Why the figures differ, 771 
Storrs, L. S.: 

— Reorganization of A. E. R. A.. c402 

Thirlwall, J. C: 

— Improvements in electric railway equipment, 

— The urban transportation field analyzed. *546 
Thomas, W. P.: 

— Student trainmen given claims work, 524 
Tingley, C. L. S.: 

— The relation of rates to service, 999 
Todd, Robert I.: 

— Indeterminate franchise indorsed. t589 

— Railways' financial cycle has come (Interview 

by Bozell), t-1018 
Treat, Dean : 

— Electric railway lubrication, 914 
Turner, Daniel L. : 

— New Jersey commuter in New York subway, 

— Rerouting in Manhattan, '1109 



O'Brian, John O.: 

— Police traffic regulations of New York City. 

"Observer" : 

— Des Moines rides buses and walks. *283 

— Soliciting and advertising for freight and 

passenger traffic. *505 
— We can help ourselves through helping others, 

Osborne, Harry V. 

■ — Jitney situation in New Jersey. Discussion 

[N. A. R. U. C], 789 
Otis. Stanley, L. : 

— Workmen's compensation in New York. 912 
O'Toolc, J. L.: 

— Co-operative electric and steam freight hand 
ling. 878 

Palmer L. H. : 

— Baltimore's new trail cars, *891 

— Baltimore's new type safety cars. '400 

— Why Baltimore departed from the standard 

car, c96 
Pearson Gardner W. : 

— Are the trolleys the only practical system of 

transportation? 866 
Peirce, Cyrus: 

— Amortization of discount on new securities. 

Pellissier, George E.: 

— What the railway company recjiires and what 

it should buy. 784 
Pendergast, William A.: 

— City participation in utility, ownership. 710 
Perry, Charles T.: 

— Some service results of ball bearings. *905 
Perry, James A.: 

— Appeal for reason in utility regulation, 787 
Phillips. W. H.: 

— The helical gear [with G. H. F. Holy]. *22 
Porter. J. T. : 

— Economies from use of ball bearings. 288 
Prather. R. V.: 

— Bus competition in Illinois, 747 
Price. E. C. 

— Welding joints. Discussion. 636 
Putnam. Frank: 

— Competitive merchandising necessary. c444 

Quigley. J. M.: 

— Traffic regulations and safety work. t606 

Sanders, Fielder: 

— Service-at-cost idea sound, 1154 
Sargent, F. W.: 

- — Brake shoes, brake heads etc., 641 
Savage, H. D.: 

— Burning pulverized coal. 629 

— The use of powdered fuel under steam 

boilers, 172 
Sawtelle, E. S.: 

— European business poor. 887 
Sawyer. W. H.: 

— Reorganization of A. E. R. A., e363 
Schade, J. C: 

— Railways could profitably undertake joint 

advertising campaigns, *513 
Schiemann, Max: 

— Six years of trackless trolleys. 1023 

Scofield. E. H.: 

— Stoker experiments. 629 

Scott. L. E. : 

— Preventing overhead corrosion. *1079 
See. Pierre V. C: 

— How the equipment man can aid in reducing 

costs, »684 
Seelar. L. F. : 

— Springs for easy riding cars. 275 
Shannahan, J. N.: 

— Reorganization of A. E. R. A.. c523 
Shipley. J. W. : 

— Self-corrosion of cast iron and other metals 
in alkaline soils (with W. N. Smith). 911 
Shoup. Paul; 

— Reorganization of A. E. R. A., c523 
Simmon. Karl F.: 

—The field of the trolley bus. "394 
Smith. Clinton D.: 

— Experience with the one-man car, *20 
Smith. R. J.: 

— Inspiring employees to merchandising trans- 
portation service, 421 

— Track maintenance and construction kinke. 

Smith. W. Nelson: 

— Railway motor-generators in Winnipeg rebuilt, 

— Repair shops rebuilt in Winnipeg. *4.i7 

— Self-corrosion, not stray current electrolysis 

at Selkirk, Manitoba.. e52 
— Self -corrosion of cast iron and other metals 

in alkaline soils (with J W. Shipley). 911 
- — Track voltage with three-wire system. 'c555 
Soules. E. E. : 6 
— The trend in advertising the electric railway. 


Speller. F. M. : 

— Drop and impression tests of st^el rails [with 
G. C. Farkell], 636 

Walker, E. M.: 

— Salesmanship. Discussion, 646 
Waller, E. P.: 
— Apprentice systems. 626 
Warren, Frank H.: 

— How can salesmanship be applied in th 

street railway business?, 985 
Way, A. P.: 

— Three-wire railway distribution in Wilmington, 

Way, S. B.: 

— Contrasted advantages of serviee-at-cost con- 
tract franchises and state regulation, t589 
Webster, F. E.: 

— Address to A. E. R. A. A., t695 
Weedon . Bert : 

- — Merchandising transportation, 64 
Weeks, H. E.: 

—Sale of securities by utilities, 65 
Wehle, Louis B.: 

— Taxation for railway construction. 562 
Welsh, James W.: 
— Annual convention issue, c555 
Welsh, M. A.: 

• — -Transportation in Waterloo, Iowa. 624 
West. Edward A.: 

— "Bus Transportation" discussed. C1150 
Westlake. C. P.: 

— Providing a repair shop with little money. 


Wheelwright, Thomas: 

— Trolley bus an evolution, not revolution, 710 
Whitman, E. B.: 

— Bus situation in Maryland [Whitman], 790 
Whitney. Howard F.: 

— Troubles of keeping cars on time, 1038 
Wickwire, E. F.: 

— The interest of the manufacture^- In the 
electric railway industry, 599 

Williams. T. S. : 

— Commissions tentative plan criticized. 1080 

Wilson. P. Ney: 

— Track labor costs. *438 

Wilson. Robert L.: 

— Employee selection. Discussion, 654 
Witt, Peter: 

— Seattles' transportation needs, 1041, 1125 
Wood. C. Verner, Jr.: 

— Follow-up system for power saving, '681 
Woodbridge. J. E.: 

— Downtown substation in San Francisco, *269 
Woods. G. M.: 

— Tendency in train operation, •395 
Wysor. W. W.: 

— Successful use of welded joints in Baltimore. 

Yost. C. E.: 

— Construction accounting. Discussion, 698 

Abbreviations : * Illustrated. fPortrait. c Communications. 

Electric Railway Journal 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

HENRY W. BLAKE and HAROLD V. BOZELL, Editors HENRY H. NORRIS, Managing Editor 

HARRY L.BROWN, Western Editor N.A.BOWERS.Paciflc Coast Editor H.S.KNOWLTON.New England Editor C.W.SQUIER.AssocijteJjUitlr C.W. STOCKS. Associate Editor 
DONALD F. HI NE, Editorial Representative A.D.KNOX.Editorlal Representative GEORGE BUSHFIEILD. Editorial Representative, 

G. J. MACMURRA Y.News Editor 


Volume 58 

New York, Saturday, July 2, 1921 


Number 1 

Why the Helical Gear 

Interests Master Mechanics 

EQUIPMENT men and others who attended the 
recent Harrisburg meeting of the Pennsylvania 
Street Railway Association were the recipients of much 
information regarding helical gear design and opera- 
tion in the paper by Messrs. Phillips and Holy. Unfor- 
tunately the paper came near the end of a busy session, 
and there was no time available for discussion. Further, 
the paper was of a technical character and only those 
who were conversant with the subject would have been 
capable of discussing it even if there had been a chance. 
The paper is, therefore, printed in extended abstract 
in this issue of the Electric Railway Journal and 
the points which were raised in it can very properly be 
discussed in these columns so that equipment men gen- 
erally may benefit. 

The helical gear is attracting attention for three or 
perhaps four reasons: The chief one is that operating 
men expect to obtain longer life from their gearing. 
Helical gearing promises quieter running as compared 
with the spur gear now most generally used, hence 
will be better for the public ; the reduction in tooth 
vibration which its use insures will lower maintenance 
cost, which will please the railway management, and it 
is a technical development in equipment design and 
construction, thus affording 1 stimulating engineering 
problems to the alert superintendent of equipment. 

The gearing is a part of the propelling machinery 
of the electric railway car that has been difficult to 
change to meet advances in technical information. In- 
terchangeability, regardless of age, is a practically 
essential feature here. The present contours of spur 
gear teeth were laid out many years ago in the light 
of the best information then available, and they have 
proved reasonably satisfactory. Once fixed, however, 
practically no change has taken place. However, 
the material in both gears and pinions has been won- 
derfully improved, so that the spur gear can now be 
considered well nigh perfect except for defects inherent 
first in even a perfect tooth, if such is possible, and, 
second, in the actual present standard tooth, which is 
a compromise among conflicting conditions complicated 
by impracticability of making radical changes. 

As the authors pointed out in the paper, the advent 
of the helical tooth in electric railway gearing permits 
gear manufacturers to cut loose from existing contours 
and to introduce improvements which they will be glad 
to apply on spur gears if they have the opportunity. In 
the helical gear they are not hampered by the necessity 
for interchangeability with existing equipment, and 
they can, therefore, while gaining the advantages of 
the helical form of tooth, add to them the virtues of a 
new design of contour. This design aims to give in- 
creased strength and better wearing qualities, with 
greater rolling and less sliding action. 

The alacrity with which master mechanics have un- 
dertaken experiments with helical gears shows that 

they appreciate the defects of thg spup-'gear. The prin- 
cipal defect is that it produces vibration as the teeth 
are stressed in succession. Each tooth is of course 
deflected as it comes into action, returning to normal 
position with respect to its anchorage as it goes out 
of action, its maximum deflection occurring when it is 
carrying the load alone. That this vibration causes 
losses was explained in an article by G. W. Reming- 
ton in the issue of this paper for Aug. 17, 1918, page 
288. A flexible mounting of the gear was proposed to 
overcome the difficulty following the same general line 
as that in some designs for electric locomotives. The 
helical drive accomplishes much the same purpose, 
in a cheaper and simpler manner and in addition as- 
sures a more nearly uniform transfer of load from 
tooth to tooth. These gears are used in some other 
machinery besides that of electric traction drive and 
the experience thus gained outside of this field will be 
useful within it. 

It would be helpful to have some instructive facts 
as to helical gears brought out at the meeting of 
the Engineering Association at Atlantic City next Oc- 
tober. That will furnish an excellent occasion for ask- 
ing questions of manufacturers and users, as to recent 
experience with the large number of helical gears which 
have been in use during the past few years. 

What Characterizes a 

Good Convention Paper? 

ELECTRIC railway men spend in the aggregate a 
large number of man-hours at conventions annu- 
ally. They naturally want to get something for their 
effort, and as their employers are the ones who largely 
"foot the bil's" the latter expect a reasonable return on 
their investment. These facts ought to be weighed 
carefully by committees responsible for the programs 
of meetings. A look forward to the fall and later 
conventions and one backward in review over those of 
the past year or so may well be taken, so that the 
lessons of the past may be helpful in the plans of the 
future. This is the more important because some con- 
vention programs have been somewhat disappointing 
when the actual results have been compared with the 
ideal. This remark naturally raises the question : 
"What is an ideal program and an ideal paper for a 
convention?" Here are some suggestions along this 
line : 

Obviously a program as a whole and the units com- 
posing it must be adapted to the needs of the audience. 
There are at least three such needs, aside from that 
for good fellowship and general inspiration. First, the 
association which is in conference needs a general view 
of the outstanding questions of its industry. This is 
necessary so that intelligent interest in managerial 
questions should be possessed by the staff generally. 
Second, the men in convention can profit by non- 
technical accounts of the outstanding things that 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 5b, No. 1 

are being done by the specialists. Third, the special- 
ists themselves ought to have their own respective 
questions discussed in ways to make them better 
specialists. This means sectional or group meetings. 

As to the first point mentioned, any man who has 
attended conventions at all has heard enough good ad- 
dresses which were full of "perspective" to know when 
a speaker is generalizing too much, beating around the 
bush, or rambling from the subject altogether. He 
is therefore apt to be critical when he feels that his 
time is being wasted. It is up to a program commit- 
tee so to co-operate with an invited speaker that the 
latter will know what he is expected to cover. This 
is only fair both to the speaker and to the audience. 
A little tact will accomplish much here. 

The second suggestion above is prompted by the fact 
that valuable papers on highly technical subjects often 
lack some degree of perfect success in delivery be- 
cause presented, in the prepared form, before the wrong 
audience. Before a selected group, such as the spe- 
cialists mentioned, a paper of this kind would produce 
exactly the result desired. 

Convention programs in the electric railway field are 
good, many are excellent. These suggestions are made 
in the belief that they can be made even better by 
still more careful planning. 

Bus or Bust — 

A Possible Contingency 

IN LAST week's issue the Connecticut Company was 
reported as another electric railway about to operate 
motor buses. This company, which recently received 
the necessary legislative authority, announced that 
motor bus service will be established on some long- 
needed extensions and for cross-route connections, that 
is, as supplementary and complementary service to the 
trolley system. In some communities there exists a 
feeling that the trolley has had its day and that, be- 
cause this is a motor age, transportation should be 
by that agency alone. But it can easily be proved that 
for routes of fair traffic density, on an equal basis 
of seat-miles furnished, the trolley car is the more 
economical in operating costs including fixed charges, 
as well as taking less space in the streets. With lower 
density of traffic, the bus will often prove the more 

Of course, economy per mile operated is not the only 
standard on which to judge service. Transportation 
has its commercial as well as its financial characteris- 
tics. If the rider demands a particular service and is 
willing to pay for it on a basis which will provide 
a fair return on the investment and an allowance for 
maintaining at all times the integrity of the invest- 
ment, it is but reasonable to expect that such a form 
of service will be provided. If buses are demanded, 
their service in some cases may have to overlap, at 
least in part, existing rail service, but in the interest 
of economical operation this duplication should be kept 
to a minimum by a co-ordination of both operations 
under one management. Obviously this unified opera- 
tion should be under the direction of the railway man- 
agement as the most experienced and capable agency 
for this work. In other words, if the bus is demanded 
to supply a real transportation need and the community 
is prepared to support it, the railway company should 
be prepared to furnish the service. Otherwise it may 
become a case of "Bus or Bust." 

Abandoned Lines Result 
from Faulty Diagnosis 

A DECREASE of 623 miles of track in operation as 
against 167 miles of new extensions during 1920 
is one of the indications that many electric railways 
were built in territories whose growth in traffic and 
revenue have been insufficient to keep pace with the 
rising cost of operation. There are probably many other 
miles of track being operated at great loss in similar 
localities. Whatever the reason for this — increased pri- 
vate automobile travel, failure to obtain increased fares, 
or whatnot — this well known condition exists. But 
while the financial condition of the individual railways 
which have discontinued service may be improved, what 
of the welfare of the communities served? In many of 
them the whole development was based on the trans- 
portation service, now defunct. 

In order to maintain transportation service to such 
communities subsidies from the general fund of munic- 
ipalities have been suggested and sometimes tried, but 
this seems questionable, at least until the operating com- 
pany has properly studied, prescribed and tried all pos- 
sible cures in the way of suitable operating economies. 
Among other things, these economies mean that lighter 
• weight cars with lighter equipment may be substituted, 
that speed be increased, that one-man operation be tried, 
and that service be confined to less than eighteen hours 
per day. 

Even then, the railway, having done everything 
within its power to demonstrate that the route has not 
an earning capacity sufficient to maintain rail service, 
can logically resort to the same means of transpor- 
tation services that will be taken up by individual oper- 
ators the moment cars are withdrawn. This means that 
rail-less traction can often be substituted where the 
highways are built so that they will stand such traffic. 

Certainly, any company prior to the actual discon- 
tinuance of service should give careful consideration 
to the possibilities of this form of transportation and 
should not give up a f anchise on a given route until 
it has been proved conclusively that the territory cannot 
support any regular means of transportation at all. The 
advantages of such action on the part of the company 
are almost too self-evident to require repetition — main- 
tenance of the integrity of one universal transportation 
system, retention of public confidence and good will, 
prevention of jeopardizing other parts of the system, 
etc. It is good business to make a careful business 
diagnosis and to seek every remedy available to cure the 
apparent ills. 

A Model for 

Operating Men's Meetings 

A GOOD example of the value of conventions among 
electric railway men is afforded in the gatherings 
of the mechanical men of Pennsylvania, Ohio and West 
Virginia, one of their meetings being covered in this 
issue. Their sessions begin promptly; they get right 
down to business, and they stick strictly to it through- 
out the meeting. Their procedure is largely informal as 
is also their organization, but the information brought 
out in answering questions raised and in exchanging 
experience is invaluable. There is a noticeable absence 
of lost motion and waste of time. A manager makes no 
mistake in sending his master mechanic to them. The 
success of these meetings has demonstrated that similar 
meetings could very profitably be provided in other sec- 
tions of the country. 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 

Developing a Freight Business 

Extensive Improvements of Indianapolis-Louisville Line Include New Freight Equipment and Overnight 
Freight Service — Interesting Layout of New Shops Under Construction Is Treated — 
Method of Financing Betterments Is Explained 

4N ACCOUNT of the passenger equipment of the 
l\ Interstate Public Service Company, operating a 
JL JL high-speed interurban electric railway between 
Indianapolis & Louisville, was published in the issue of 
this paper for June 4. The company also does a consid- 
erable freight business and during the last year has in- 
creased its facilities for handling freight by the pur- 
chase of twenty new box cars and two electric locomo- 

In the main, these box cars are a copy of the standard 
Pennsylvania Railroad box car with a few alterations 
to meet the operating conditions of the electric line 
and to conform to certain standards adopted in the 
Central Electric Railway Association territory. They 
are 37 ft. 2J in. long over the end sills, but the square 
end used by the steam railways was replaced by a round 
end, built on a 5-ft. radius to meet the standard C. E. 

elude six motor merchandise cars, two locomotives, 
thirty box cars and twelve flat cars. Three of the motor 
merchandise cars have been rebuilt so that they are 
capable of pulling as many as twelve box cars. At the 
present time it is unnecessary to run trains of more 
than five or six cars, and a four-car train is the limit 
that may be hauled through the streets of Louisville or 
Indianapolis, according to ordinance in the latter and an 
order of the Board of Works in the former. The loco- 
motives, of course, are capable of handling longer trains. 
They are used very largely in hauling gravel and cement. 

Having prepared itself with these facilities, the com- 
pany, on Feb. 17, inaugurated an overnight freight 
service between any two points on the system. This 
resulted almost immediately in a pronounced increase in 
the tonnage offered to the company. Prior to this time 
all freight had been handled by local trains, making 

Interstate Freight Train Showing Locomotive Hauling Four op the New Standard Box Cars, 
the Overhead and Transmission Line Construction Is Also Shown 

R. A. drawbar requirements, so that the length of the 
car over bumpers is 42 ft. 41 in. These rounding ends 
increase the capacity of the standard Pennsylvania car 
by about 140 cu.ft. They are 39 ft. 4 in. long inside and 
7 ft. 9 in. wide and 7 ft. 4 in. high. The roof is of plain 
arch construction, built with 3-in. tongue and grooved 
pine, a layer of 7-in. felt paper and covered with No. 8 
duck, instead of the wood roof used by the steam roads. 
The standard MCB arch-bar freight truck is used, but 
it is stiffened by tying the ends of the side frames 
together at both ends of the truck with a bar bolted 
on the pedestal bolts of the arch bars. The hand-brake 
wheels are installed on the ends of the cars instead of 
on top, so that a brakeman will not need to get on top 
of the car where he might come in contact with the 

These cars weigh 33,400 lb. and have a capacity of 
50,000 lb. The Interstate company has standardized on 
this design of box car. 

One of the two locomotives purchased by the company 
is a 37a-ton machine equipped with four Westinghouse 
75-hp. 318 motors and St. Louis trucks. The other loco- 
motive is a new 25-ton engine equipped with four 50-hp. 
GE-57 motors and St. Louis trucks. 

With these new purchases of freight equipment, the 
total facilities for handling freight business now in- 

about forty-eight-hour deliveries. The regular freight 
schedule now includes the following: 

A through freight train from Louisville to Indian- 
apolis leaves Louisville daily at 5 p.m. This runs local 
as far north as Columbus, Ind., and picks up freight at 
all stations for points north of Columbus. At Columbus 
a car is set off and the remainder of the train proceeds 
without stopping, except for making delivery, and ar- 
rives at Indianapolis about 8 a.m. The car set off at 
Columbus leaves there at 10: 30 a.m. and runs to Indian- 
apolis, serving local points intervening, in picking up 
northbound shipments. Southbound a local train leaves 
Indianapolis at 11:30 a.m. and runs as far south as 
Columbus, serving Greenwood, Edinburgh and other 
local stations, and pulling one trail car for Columbus 
and one for Seymour. A through train which leaves 
Indianapolis at 5 p.m. then picks up the Seymour car 
at Columbus, and usually a car from Columbus for 
Louisville, and frequently a third trail car for Louis- 
ville from either Indianapolis or some way station, and 
goes on through. A daily milk train is also run, leaving 
Columbus at 12:30 a.m. and proceeding to Indianapolis. 
On the return trip this train handles empty cans and 
local freight. In addition there are two local freight 
trains which operate between some of the smaller cities 
and way stations. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 58, No. 1 

In 1920 the Interstate company handled more than 
100 carloads of canned goods from one canning factory. 
It earned more than $60,000 gross revenue in hauling 
cement into Louisville from a plant about 15 miles out, 
one of the locomotives being kept busy on this work. 
A revenue of $6,000 was earned in hauling logs from 
Charleston and Scottsburg to Caruthersville. The Union 
Starch & Refining Company, at Edinburgh and the Bush 
Milling Company at Seymour were also heavy shippers 
over the electric line. Nearly $20,000 of revenue was 
earned from hauling milk. Arrangements have been 
completed with the small fruit growers for handling 
a very considerable quantity of strawberries and other 
berries from New Albany to Indianapolis, for which a 
rate of 70 cents a hundred is earned. Approximately 50 
per cent of the freight business handled by the Inter- 
state is made up of carload shipments. 

Under the direction of Bert Weedon, general freight 
and passenger agent, a thorough canvass is continually 
made of the territory served in order to keep advised 
of any business available, to place the services of the 

sentatives of the traffic department are engaged at other 
points on the 117-mile road. 

For interstate business, the freight tariff of the Inter- 
state company follows the same classifications and the 
same scale of rates as used by the competing steam lines. 
For intrastate traffic the rates are the same except that 
the electric line did not apply for the last 7 per cent 
increase in freight rates awarded to the steam noads. 
The competition which the Interstate company must 
meet is the Louisville Division of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, which has a direct line running between Indian- 
apolis and Louisville. 

With increasing traffic and additional equipment to 
be maintained, the mechanical department has been 
somewhat handicapped in its work for lack of shop 
facilities. It has been unable to do any rebuilding of 
old equipment or much work other than strictly main- 
tenance. In view of this, plans have been completed 
and work recently begun on a new shop at Scottsburg, 
Ind., a town of 1,200 population located 83 miles from 
Indianapolis and 34 miles from Louisville. At the pres- 



To be built 

Lake formerly used for 
boiler and condensing 
water for dismantled 
power station 


■J Shallow pits for truck overhaul and 

V -dismanTling -. motor removal, installation, etc. 

HOUSE * ■ 

-Conn to \ OLD BOILER Roon (Now carpenter 

■Penn.R R. 



West Elevation 

North Elevation 

Layout of New Shop to Be Built by the Interstate Public Service Company at Scottsburg, Ind. 

company before the shipper and also to enable the com- 
pany to plan in advance to handle it. Every local agent 
is expected to keep in touch with his territory, including 
the condition of crops from time to time, so that the 
transportation requirements may be estimated. In 
planning to handle the shipment of fruit, every farmer 
in the berry and melon territory was solicited and in- 
formation secured as to the size of his crop and where 
he intended to ship, so that the company could plan to 
meet his requirements. At all times the closest co- 
operation between the transportation department and 
the traffic department is maintained and this has been 
a very important factor in the expansion of the freight 
business handled by the company. This applies equally 
well to the passenger business, for the company has 
been enjoying a very considerable revenue from special 
trains. The traffic department is not the only sales 
organization for the services of the company, for it is 
a frequent occurrence for the superintendent of trans- 
portation, L. M. Brown, to go out and contract for some 
special service, or send one of his assistants located at 
various points along the line to do so, when the repre- 

ent time small shops at Scottsburg, Columbus and 
Greenwood are in use, but the plan contemplates the 
centralization of all shop work at the new Scottsburg 
shop and utilization of the other shops for light inspec- 
tion work and car storage, and likewise the present 
Scottsburg shop. 

In an accompanying drawing the complete layout of 
the shop and track facilities at Scottsburg as planned 
by H. H. Buckman, master mechanic, may be seen. It 
will be noted that the main overhaul shop, machine 
shop, armature room, forge shop, store room, etc., are 
to be located in a building which is to be built as an 
extension to the present shop building. The offices of 
the master mechanic will remain where they are now 
in the present shop, although there will be a balcony 
office for the general foreman in the new building. The 
main overhauling shop will be served by ten tracks, 
whereby ten large cars may be simultaneously shopped. 
A row of pillars extending across the center of this 
space divides it into two portions which will be served 
by a 30-ton 75-ft. span cab-operated traveling crane 
and a 20-ton 67-ft. span floor-operated traveling crane. 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Standard Interstate Box Car 
View showing- rounded end and tie 
bar connecting the side frames of the 

None of the tracks will have pits except for shallow 
ones at the inner ends of the tracks to aid the truck 
overhaul work. The scheme of handling overhaul will 
be to pick up the entire car body with the large crane, 
roll the trucks forward from underneath it, and lower 
the body onto horses or shop trucks. Any portion of 
the truck can then 
be picked up with 
the smaller crane 
and delivered to any 
machine in the entire 
shop, the runway of 
this crane extending 
from the wall of the 
present shop to the 
opposite end of the 
new building, 195 ft. 
The efficiency of this 
layout can be readily 
appreciated by a 
study of the accom- 
panying floor plan 
showing the various 
machine locations. It 
was originally 
planned to build a 
new carpenter and 
paint shop to the 
south of and adja- 
cent to the machine 
and overhaul shop 
already described. More recently, however, the Scotts- 
burg power house belonging to the company was dis- 
mantled, and it was decided that with some remodeling 
this building, which is only a few hundred feet 
away from the present shop building, could be util- 
ized for this purpose. A 33-ft. addition will be 
built on the front end and three tracks built in what 
was formerly the engine room and two in the old boiler 
room. The wall separating these two rooms will be left 
in place and will serve to separate the paint shop from 
the carpenter shop, permitting the maintenance of 
higher temperatures in the paint shop and keeping it 
free from the dust of the wood shop. The old boiler 
room will be filled in to bring the floor level of the car- 
penter shop up even with that in the engine room or 
paint shop. Various wood-working machines will be 
located in the carpenter shop as shown. A basement 
will be built under a portion of the carpenter shop and 
the heating plant for the building installed therein. 
The present coal bunkers used for receiving coal for 
the power plant will be used for storage of coal for 
shop uses. The track extending along the east side of 
the power plant runs over these bunkers on a trestle, 
so that coal may be unloaded from bottom dump cars, 
and connects to the south with the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, so that coal may be received direct in carload lots. 

The use of the old power house for a portion of the 
shop will involve a slight increase in the amount of 
shifting of equipment required in the various shop 
operations, but it will make a material saving in build- 
ing construction costs, as well as obtain further use of 
the investment in the power-house building. 

In maintaining the 108 passenger cars, fifty freight 
cars and nine service cars owned by the company the 
regular routine work calls for the shopping of 124 cars 
annually. As it is planned to do considerable rebuilding 
work in addition to this, the construction work on the 

new shop is being pushed to completion, the contract 
having been let about April 1. 

Coincident with the improvements already mentioned, 
the company made important changes in its power sys- 
tem including the shutting down of two stations, the 
building of 54.6 miles of new 33,000-volt transmission 
lines and the rebuilding of 58.25 miles of existing trans- 
mission lines for higher voltage, the erection of six new 
substations and the re-equipment of others, etc. An 
account of this work was published in the issue of this 
paper for June 25. 

Question will quite naturally arise in the mind of any 
interurban operator as to how this extensive improve- 
ment program of the Interstate company was financed. 
This may be answered briefly by stating that it was 
done in good part through the activity of the company 
in selling its stock to its own customers. In order to 
purchase the new rolling stock, a subsidiary company 
known as the Interstate Car Trust Equipment Company 
was organized. Except for $50,000, the new cars were 
purchased entirely through the sale of the 6 per cent 
preferred stock of this company. This $50,000 repre- 
sented the income from the sale of the common stock 
of the equipment company to the Interstate Public Serv- 
ice Company, for which the latter obtained the money 
through the sale of Interstate Public Service Company's 
7 per cent prior lien preferred stock. The latter was 
sold along with about $200,000 more of the same stock 
to the public of Indiana. There was also a bond issue 
during 1920 of $400,000, which was backed up by addi- 
tions to the plant account during the year amounting 
to over $800,000. 

Refuse Loading Platform Saves Labor 

BY BUILDING a platform with an incline at one end 
and high enough so that a wheelbarrow may be 
dumped over the side of a gondola car considerable 
saving in labor has been made in connection with the 
disposal of refuse at the Wheaton, 111., shops of the 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad. Formerly the ref - 
use was wheeled in a barrow and placed on the ground 
in the shop yard. It was then necessary to rehandle 
it to put it in the refuse car for disposal. By means 

Platform Built to Avoid Rehandling or Refuse 

of this platform this second handling is entirely dis- 
pensed with. The refuse car, which is a small single- 
truck car used entirely for this purpose, is spotted 
beside the platform and the refuse dumped in it as it 
accumulates. The gondola was away being dumped 
when the accompanying picture was taken. 

July 2, 1921 



Some Recent Interurban Car Designs 

While Very Few Interurban Cars Are Being Constructed at This Time, the Accompanying Information 
Regarding Four Types Recently Ordered Will Indicate the 
Trend of Practice in This Field 

THE following facts regarding recent 
interurban cars relate to several types 
which have been built by the J. G. Brill 
Company. The data will be of interest in con- 
nection with the descriptions of the rapid- 
transit urban cars contained in articles in 
the June 11 issue. 

Twelve all-steel, center-entrance motor cars 
were delivered to the Cataluna Tramways of 
Barcelona, Spain, last year. These have a cen- 
tral platform, which divides the car into two 
compartments, one for second-class and the 
other for third-class passengers. Partitions 
separate the second-class compartment from 
the central platform and from the other part 
of the car. There is no partition between the 
third-class compartment and the platform, but 
an arrangement of vertical and horizontal pipe 
railings is used to direct the incoming and out- 
going passengers. 

These cars are mounted on Brill 27-M. C. B. 
high-speed interurban trucks and the bodies 
are substantial. The underframing is of steel, 
with side sill angles 5 in. x 4 in. x 3 in., extend- 
ing the full length of the car body without 
interruption at the central platform. Sub-side 
sills of 3J-in. x 3-in. x 1-in. angles extend from 
each side of the central platform to the end. 
There are two 5-in., llj-lb. channel center sills 
and also crossings of 4-in., 5i-lb. channels 
securely riveted and gusseted to the side-sill 
angles and channel center sills. 

In the upper framing the main side posts 
between windows are of two U-in. x 2-in. x 
is-in. tees, with inside and outside steel cover 
plates, while the intermediate posts between 
the two lower sash of each window are of H- 
in. x 2-in. x A-in. strips encased in wood. The corner 
posts and the posts of the central platform are a com- 
bination of H-in. x 2-in. x A-in. tees and an angle 2 in. 
x li x i in., with suitable steel cover plates. The sides 
are covered below the windows with aVin. steel sheath- 
ing riveted to the underside of the angle side sill and 
also to the belt rail, side and corner posts. Attached to 
the top of each side post and supporting the plain arched 
type of roof are pressed steel U-shaped carlines, fitted 
with a wooden strip for the attachment of the roof 

Barcelona Car — Three Single Sash in the Vestibl;les Drop into Pockets 

The single upper sash of each double window is sta- 
tionary and fitted with opalescent glass. The lower two 
sash are arranged to raise. In the end vestibule the 
sash drop into pockets behind the dasher. A motor- 
man's cab is partitioned off at diagonal right corners 
of the car. These have swinging doors to the motor- 
man's right, for entrance and exit, and another at his 
back, making the cab accessible from inside the car. 
As the side door is glazed in the upper panel, it is pro- 
vided with a pantasote curtain. A stirrup-type step is 
installed below for the use of the motorman. 

Plan and Seating Arrangement of the Hershet Cuban Railway Car 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

The side doors at the central platform for entrance 
and exit are manually operated by levers located at the 
conductor's position. Each door slides into a pocket 
next to the central platform post and is separately oper- 
ated in conjunction with a sliding step. A feature of 
the door and step mechanism is that the doors cannot be 
opened until the sliding step is fully out, thus eliminat- 
ing the possibility of step accidents. A single sliding 
door is located in the partition between the second-class 
compartment and the central platform, which separates 
this compartment from the rest of the car in a rather 
exclusive manner. 

In the second-class compartment four reversible-back 
transverse seats on each side of the aisle and a semi- 
circular seat against the front vestibule provide seating 
accommodations for twenty passengers. All reversible 
seats in this compartment are of the Brill "Winner" 
type, with spring cushions upholstered with rattan. The 
interior of the second-class compartment is furnished in 
mahogany. The third-class compartment is equipped 
with slat seats. There are five reversible-back Brill 
"Winner" type seats on each side of the aisle and a lon- 
gitudinal seat for five passengers on each side next the 
central platform, together with a circular seat for four 
passengers against the vestibule. In all, this provides 
seating accommodations for thirty-four third-class 
passengers and gives a total seating capacity for the car 
of fifty-four. By the use of the longitudinal seats next 
the central platform in the third-class compartment the 
placing of vertical and horizontal pipe railings is per- 
mitted. This arrangement also provides additional 
standing space when traffic is heavy. 

The ceilings are of agasote and below the windows 
hardwood sheathing is used painted to conform to the 
interior finish of each compartment. These cars are 
equipped for multiple-unit operation and have panto- 
graph-type trolleys. 

Motor Cars for the Philadelphia & West 
Chester Traction Company 

Ten cars of another center-entrance all-steel motor 
type were put into commission by the Philadelphia & 
West Chester Traction Company. The roofs of these 
cars are of the plain arch type, of A-in. poplar roof 
boards covered with No. 8 canvas. The center entrance 
is provided with sliding doors of two sections, each 
sliding back into the body of the car. The doors, 
together with the single folding step, are operated by 
pneumatic mechanism controlled from the conductor's 
position on the center platform. The National Pneu- 
matic Company's equipment is used for this purpose. 

On each side of the center platform and on each side 
of the car there is a stationary longitudinal seat for two 
passengers. There is also a stationary seat for two per- 
sons against the vestibule window to the left of the 
motorman. A hinged longitudinal folding seat of cherry 
slats, when in use, extends across the doors on the closed 
side of the center platform. The reversible seats in the 
car body are also of the "Winner" type, upholstered in 
twill-woven rattan. 

The side windows are fitted with double sash, the 
lower portions of which raise, and the upper sash, each 
extending across the width of two lower sash, are sta- 
tionary. The three vestibule windows at each end drop 
into pockets and those in the center and at the right are 
provided with suitable sash racks which permit the sash 
to be held at various heights. The interior finish of the 
car is cherry, and the ceilings are of agasote, painted 

and decorated in accordance with the standard of the 

At diagonally opposite right-hand corners of the car 
body a motorman's cab is installed, entrance to which 
is made through a single swinging door to the motor- 
man's left or the one to his right. 

The underframe construction consists of angle side 
sills, 5 in. x 3 i in. x & in.; crossings of 4-in., 5i-\h. chan- 
nels securely gusseted to the side-sill angles and center 
stringers of 6-in., lOA-lb. channels. The side posts of 
the upper framing are of H-in. x 2-in. x A-in. tees, 
extending from the side sill angles to the top rail and 
securely riveted to No. 14 pressed steel U-shaped car- 
lines. Side sheathing and letterboards are &-in. steel. 
Some of the principal dimensions are given in Table I. 


Length of car body over vestibule 46 ft. 3 In. 

Length of center platform 6 ft. 9 In. 

Width of car body over post 8 ft. 7 In. 

Height from rail to top of floor 3 ft. 8 In. 

Height from top of floor over trolley pole 8 ft. 9 i In. 

Seating capacity 57 

Weight complete 57,160 lb. 

Type of truck Brill 27-M.C.B.-2X 

Wheelbase 6 ft. 

Track gage . .. 5 ft. 2i in. 

Diameter of wheels S3 in. 

Journals 4J in. x 8 in., M.C.B. 

Equipment for Electrified Hershey 
Cuban Railway 

Hershey Central, where the vast plantation of the 
well-known Hershey chocolate and cocoa interests is 
located, is situated in Havana Province, midway be- 
tween Havana and Matanzas on the north coast of Cuba. 
For several years the surrounding district has been 
served by the Hershey Cuban Railway, a 35-mile steam 
line which is now in the process of electrification and ex- 
tension. With the completion of the electrification of this 
line, it is intended to maintain the service between 
Havana and Matanzas, a distance of 56 miles, for the 
transportation of sugar, local freight and express, as 
well as a multiple-unit train service on an hourly head- 
way schedule. Including all spurs, sidings and exten- 
sions this railway will have some 80 miles of track when 
the proposed extensions are completed. 

Accompanying illustrations show the type of car to be 
used, ten of which were ordered from this company. 
The cars have steel underframes consisting of side 
sills with 4-in. x 4-in. x rk-in. angles the full length of 
the body, to which sVin. steel side sheathing is fastened, 
extending from the under side of the side-sill angle to 
the belt rail. The center stringers consist of two 6-in.,, 
10i-lb. channels extending from buffer to buffer. Cross- 
ings are of 4-in., 51-lb. channels which are securely 
gusseted to the side sill angles and the channel center 
stringers. The upper structure is principally of wood 
with body and vestibule posts of oak. Ash and yellow 
pine are used for the other members. 

The closed vestibule on each end is constructed with 
two windows and a swing-type train door. The windows 
have double sash, the top sash being stationary and the- 
lower sash arranged to drop. Sash racks are included 
to permit holding the drop vestibule sash at any desired 
distance. The upper sash of the swing train door is 
fitted with double sash, the top one of which is station- 
ary and the lower arranged to drop. There is also a 
swing door on each side of the platform. A hinged trap 
door folds up against the end of the car body when this 
door is open. Triple steps are provided on each side of 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Plan of Car for Barcelona, Spain 

the platform. The height from the rail to the top of the 
first step is 14 in. and each of the other steps is 12 in. 
high. All vestibule sash and door channels are of 
mahogany. The top sash in the side windows are sta- 
tionary and extend across the space of the two lower 
sash, which are arranged to raise. The upper side sash 
and ventilator sash are glazed with green opalescent 

The roof is of the monitor deck type extending over 
the hoods in steam coach style. The roof boards are of 
poplar and after being given a thick coat of paint, its 
entire length is covered with No. 8 canvas. 

As will be noticed from the illustration, in addition to 

the two trolley poles and bases there is also mounted on 
the roof a pantograph type of trolley, and in order that 
the roof may properly support this equipment, it is 
strengthened with concealed steel rafters, which are so 
placed that they will relieve the strain of the trolley 
equipment. Inside the car body the floor is of the chan- 
arched type, filled in with flexolith painted in red to 
conform to the appearance of the inside finish. Below 
the belt rail on each side, the car is sheathed with aga- 
sote. The ceilings are also of agasote. Mahogany is 
also used for the inside finish, which is quite plain, con- 
forming to what is known as "sanitary finish." No 
advertising moldings are used in the construction. 

No. 1 — Third-Class Compartment in a Barcelona Car. No. 2 — Second-Class Compartment of Center-Entrance Car for 
Barcelona. No. 3 — All-Steel Center-Entrance Motor Car for Barcelona ' ' 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

A continuous iron basket rack is placed above the 
windows on each side of the car for the storage of 
miscellaneous packages which the passengers may have. 
The seats are of the reversible-back "Winner" type, 
including pressed steel pedestals, wall and aisle plates. 
The aisle plate is capped with mahogany arm rests. In 
each of the four corners of the car body there is a small 
longitudinal seat. All seats are upholstered with twill- 
woven rattan. 

In one corner of the body is a saloon, next to which 
is an alcove for a water cooler. At diagonal corners on 
each platform a motorman's cab is partitioned off. 

The trucks are of the Brill 27-M.C.B.-2X type 
with 6-ft. wheelbase and 
6-ft. 3-in. side-frame cen- 
ters. The trucks are con- 
structed for standard-gage 
track. They are constructed 
with soli d-f o r g e d side 
frames and are equipped 
with 4i-in. x 8-in. journals 
of the M. C. B. type. The 
weight of the car and trucks 
complete is 64,280 lb. 

Philadelphia & Western 

A 56-ft. all-steel passen- 
ger car has been purchased 
by the Philadelphia & West- 

at each end of the car body. These bulkheads are con- 
structed with suitable pockets to take the sliding doors. 

The seats, of the reversible "Winner" type, are 
40 in. long. Eighteen transverse seats upholstered in 
twill-woven rattan are placed in the main passenger 
compartment and eight of the same type in the smoking 
compartment. These seats have arm rests of an inter- 
urban and steam car design and are also equipped with 
single automatic foot rests which move into position 
with the reversing of the seat-back. Between the seats 
the aisle is 26i in. wide. On the center platform back 
against the partition are four folding wood slat seats, 
providing additional accommodations for eight persons. 

The seating capacity of the 
passenger compartment is 
thirty-six, the smoking com- 
partment sixteen, making a 
total of sixty persons. 

The interior finish, in- 
cluding doors, moldings, 
etc., is of mahogany, and 
agasote is used for the in- 
side lining below the win- 
dow sills and also for the 
ceilings. At the center- 
entrance door no steps are 
provided as the car is con- 
structed so that the floor 
will come flush with the sta- 
tion platforms of the rail- 

At Top, Interior of the Philadelphia & Western Railway's New Car. At Bottom, Passenger and Smoking Car of 

the Philadelphia & Western Railway 

era Railway. The roof is of the plain arched type and 
is constructed of yellow poplar securely bolted to the 
pressed steel carlines and covered with No. 8 cotton duck. 

The lower sash of the side windows are arranged to 
raise and are fitted with grooves with the "Renitent" 
all-metal post casings. The two windows in each vesti- 
bule have stationary sash. With the exception of the 
one in the center of each vestibule all doors are of the 
sliding type and are pneumatically operated. Steel bulk- 
heads are placed on each side of the center platform and 

table ii— dimensions of all-steel, passenger and 
smoking motor car for philadelphia & 
western railway 

Length of body over bumpers 5« ft 

Length over corner posts 44 ft 31 In. 

Width of car body over posts. . 10 ft. I In. 

Height from rail to top of roof 12 ft. 91 In. 

Height from rail to top of floor 4 ft. 91 In. 

Truck centers HSV ,n m ' 

Post centers 2 ft. 10 In. 

Center door opening 3ft 6iin. 

Type of truck Brill 27-M.C.B.-B 

Wheelbase of truck 6 rt B in. 

Diameter of rolled steel wheels 34 in 

Journals 5 x 9 in. M.C.B. 

way company. This car is equipped with Westinghouse 
A. M. M. air brakes and General Electric 263-A type 
motors and control. The weight completely equipped is 
78,480 lb. Some of the principal dimensions of the car 
are given in Table II. 

Protecting Eyes of Electric Welders 

A DEVICE developed by an employee of the Market 
Street Railway of San Francisco affords pro- 
tection for the eyes of an electric welder without the 
use of the usual metal head dress. It consists of a 
board slotted near one end for the insertion of colored 
glasses which are held in place by a clamp. The opera- 
tor holds the board in the proper position with his 
left hand, while his right hand manipulates the weld- 
ing tool. In locations where an assistant would other- 
wise be required, with this device a single operator 
can safely carry on the welding operation because he 
has an unobstructed view in all directions. The board 
hangs from a strap around the operator's neck. 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Introducing Economies in the Paint Shop 

Cost of Painting Freight Cars Cut in Two by Use of a Painting Machine and a Saving of 40 per Cent 
Obtained in Cost of Painting Passenger Cars Through Simplifying the Method 
and Reducing the Labor Necessary 

By W. G. Murrin 

Assistant General Manager British Columbia Electric Railway, Vancouver 

r'F^HE use of efficient methods in the paint shop 
1 1 speeds up work and yields economies that are most 
JL essential in these times of high prices. The ex- 
perience of the British Columbia Electric Railway and 
the methods by which the costs of painting equipment 
were cut in half should prove interesting to those re- 
sponsible for this work on other systems. 

On the mainland division of the property, comprising 
144 miles of city and 158 miles of interurban tracks, 
the mechanical department has the care of 250 city 
cars, seventy-three interurban passenger and express 
cars, thirteen locomotives, more than 400 standard 
freight cars and a number of service and construction 
units, making altogether 805 cars. These cars are 
maintained in four carhouses and one freight repair 
yard, with the general shops located in the carhouse at 
Prior Street, Vancouver. Painting is done to freight 
equipment at the "rep. track," in New Westminster, 
which is the center of the interurban systems, and to 
all other equipment in the paint shops at Vancouver, 
which have a capacity of six cars. 

Cost of Painting Passenger Equipment 
Decreased 50 per Cent 

Up to the middle of 1915, when the effects of the 
great war, combined with the peak of the jitney craze, 
brought the railway revenue down to the lowest point 
in the last ten years, passenger cars were painted about 
every two years, the whole car being repainted, as 
outlined in the schedule below. The need for stringent 
economy led the master mechanic and paint shop force 
to study the work more closely, as a result of which 
they developed a method of treating the cars which prac- 
tically cut the cost of ordinary periodical painting in 
two. It was found that while cars require revarnishing 
comparatively often, the groundwork remains in good 
condition for about ten years, and so, until the varnish 
begins to show signs of peeling off, it can be used as 
a ground and need not be entirely removed at each time 
of painting. 

Since the method was changed, six consecutive wage 
increases have brought the cost back to what it was 
under the old method, but in view of this the actual 
saving is the more noticeable. The old method used for 
passenger cars with city equipment was as follows: 
(1) Washing; (2) varnish removed where necessary; 
(3) sandpapering, puttying up nail holes, joints, etc., 
where repairs had been made and priming over new 
work; (4) two coats of body color; (5) lettering and 
striping put on; (6) two coats of varnish; (7) painting 
trucks, ironwork, etc. The average cost of this work 
per city car was about $28 for material and $46 for 
labor, making a total of $74. In some cases the cost 
reached $85 or more. Interurban cars were propor- 
tionately higher. 

The method was simplified in the revision as follows: 
After washing, the body is sandpapered where neces- 

sary, such as around repairs, over scratches or where 
the varnish shows cracks; new work is primed. The 
light color is given one coat and the dark color touched 
up where necessary to an even base for the next coat, 
with one coat over new work. Then, after retouching 

Spray Machine Used for Painting Cars at Vancouver 

of the gold-leaf work where required, one full coat of 
dark color is applied, with "cutting in" around the let- 
tering and striping with a fine brush. Then follow the 
usual coats of rubbing and finishing varnish. The cost 
of this method averaged at first about $16 for material 
and $28 for labor, a total of $44. The interior painting 
was not materially altered, except to substitute paint 
for varnish in some places, particularly where the 
original natural finish was becoming discolored from 
age or the action of the weather. 

The color standards for city equipment are: Red 
roof ; dark green on fascia, corner posts, dash, sides 
below belt rail and vestibule ceilings ; light corn color 
for window posts; light red on sash, doors, vestibule 
wainscots, trussplanks, etc., and seat frames ; drop black 
on moldings, and black asphaltum for trucks and iron- 

For interurban cars, the corn color is replaced with 
dark green, with a little striping of vermilion on 
moldings. Locomotives have Pullman green, with yel- 
low lettering instead of gold leaf. 

To show the effect of rising labor rates, the following 
comparison is interesting: 







$16 65 

$26. 10 

$42 75 


14 70 

30 75 

45 45 


1 5 00 

32 60 




35 25 

50 90 


20 00 

42 25 

62 25 


20 30 


73 90 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

Had the old method been still in use the last figure 
would have been about $125 per car. The saving, there- 
fore, has been more than 40 per cent. 

As most of the freight equipment was purchased in 
1912 and 1913, repainting on an extensive sca'e was not 
begun till early in 1919. In July of that year a Dunn 
type-AA painting machine was purchased, with a capac- 
ity of 10 gal. The saving effected by this machine was 
such that it was paid for before twelve box cars had 
been completed. 

Freight Equipment Painted with Machine 
at Less than Half the Cost 

To paint and letter a 40-ft. box car by ordinary means 
required eight to twelve hours for lettering and about 
thirty-six hours for painting, practically all of this work 
being done by a first-class freight-car painter. The 
average cost for material was $18.50 and labor $27, a 
total of $45.50 per car. The standard color is green, 
with lettering in white lead put on with stencils. About 
6 gal. of mixed green, 1 gal. of red roof paint and one- 
half pint of white lead were used to a car. 

After a few cars had been done with the machine and 
the men had acquired experience in operating it, it was 
found that better work was being done with a gallon 
and a half less paint per car. The average time for 
applying the green paint on all four sides was about 
two hours ; one hour was plenty for the roof, and the 
time for lettering was about eight hours. The machine 
does not require a regular painter and can be operated 
by a brush hand. The actual cost of the first twenty- 
four box cars done with the machine was $14.55 for 
material and $6.80 for labor, a total of $21.35 per car. 
The saving is therefore about 51 per cent. 

The accompanying photograph shows the machine in 
operation, and an idea of the rapidity with which the 
work is done can be obtained from the fact that while 
the photographer was changing plates and taking three 
exposures the end and portion of the side shown was 
sprayed. The paint is laid on in two coats, the amount 
to a coat being determined by the distance from the 
surface at which the nozzle is held. Rough spots, cracks, 
nail holes, etc., are penetrated more thoroughly than can 
be done with the brush, and the finish is all that could 
be desired. At first some difficulty was found from the 
spray being carried by air currents, till all the sur- 
rounding "scenery" was being painted, as well as the 
operator, but experience has enabled the reduction of 
this trouble to a negligible amount. As already stated, 
the actual amount of paint used is less than with the 
brush. A flat car will require about i gal. of paint and 
a quarter of a pint of lead. One hour is required with 
the machine and four and a half hours for stenciling, 
the total cost being about $8. 

The machine is operated by compressed air at 60 lb. 
pressure, supplied from a pipe line through a feed 
valve, with outlets convenient to the painting track. 
In order to avoid clogging of valves and atomizer it is 
better to clean out the machine after using, so the work 
is arranged so as to keep the machine in operation all 
day, a sufficient number of cars being done at a time, 
thus reducing the extra labor for cleaning the machine 
to a minimum per car. 

The success attained in painting cars has suggested 
the use of the machine for painting shelters and other 
structures along the right-of-way, such as telephone 
booths. This will probably be tried during the present 

Electrification at Edinburgh 

Gasoline Motor Buses and Electric Railway Cars Replace 
Cable Operation — The Choice Was Determined by 
Traffic, Power and Price Conditions 

THE Electric Railway Journal of Oct. 2, 1920, 
contained some interesting comparisons of electric 
car and gasoline motor bus costs presented by R. S. 
Pilcher, tramways manager Edinburgh Corporation 
Tramways. The Edinburgh problem is that of super- 
seding the cable system by a combination of electric 
railway and motor bus routes which will give the city 
the most effective transportation at lowest over-all cost. 
The installation of buses was begun in 1919 on some of 
the northern cable routes, where the track was in the 
worst condition. In a report made to the Municipal 
Council on April 2, 1921, Mr. Pilcher goes into detail 
concerning future work. This report is abstracted 

Carhouse, Shop, Line and Track Estimates 

Mr. Pilcher first explains what has been done in the 
way of installing electric cars and buses, and to care for 
the electric cars he recommends a forty-car addition to 

Sample Rebuilt Double-Deck Car, Showing Vestibuling 
and Open Portions of Upper Deck 

the Leith carhouse at a cost of £23,953 (about $96,000 
at $4 to the pound) and alterations at the Shrubhill 
shops for the pit accommodation, etc., of thirty cars at 
a cost of £9,466 (about $37,900). 

For all of the first section, except Leith Walk, span 
construction, including the use of rosettes, is recom- 
mended. The width, 69 ft., of Leith Walk, however, 
suggests the use of center-pole construction in harmony 
with the construction already in use on the absorbed 
Leith Tramways. These poles would be used also for 
lighting fixtures, the existing lighting standards being 
replaced. The estimated cost of 4.3 miles overhead line, 
including section boxes, is placed at £19,989 ($80,000). 

Although the rails on this section weigh only 83 lb. 
per yard, while the latest British practice calls for 105 
lb. and more, Mr. Pilcher recommends their retention, 
provided the rail joints are in good condition, and that 
these joints be bonded and welded. The cost of this 
work for 3.4 miles of route is placed at £1,600 ($6,400) 
a mile. It is noted that the use of the Dicker electric 
weld on 1,550 yd. of track on this route was very suc- 
cessful, despite the worn condition of the rails, and that 
the cost of entirely renewing the track would be £27,000 
($108,000) per mile of route. 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 

In view of the fact that the penny or short-haul riders 
of Edinburgh constitute 25 per cent of the traffic, it is 
not desirable, says Mr. Pilcher, to have a double-deck 
car seating more than sixty passengers and over 31 ft. 
long, as a larger car would have too many stops to per- 
mit a satisfactory rate of speed. For suburban traffic, 
a larger car can be considered when the time comes. 
Because of the climatic conditions, the upper decks of all 
cars should be covered, but open seats for four passen- 
gers could be left at each end. The ventilator windows 
should be arranged to open horizontally instead of ver- 
tically to insure better ventilation. Not only would Mr. 
Pilcher finish the lower saloon in teak but he also sug- 
gests the rather novel (in Great Britain) installation of 
upholstered cushions and back rests of leather or leather 
substitute, the usual practice being along less comfort- 
able lines. 

Another departure from current practice would be the 
spacious platforms — these being 6 ft. 1 in. long — in- 
closed vestibules and front exits with folding gates and 
steps operated by the motorman. These front exits are 
intended only for use at terminals and busy stopping 

The bodies would be mounted on single trucks of long 
wheelbase, the journal boxes being fitted with links to 
give a certain amount of play to the axle when rounding 
curves. Two trucks of this type and with a 7 ft. 6 in. 
wheelbase are already in use on the Leith electric lines. 
Two distinct brakes are suggested: (1) Ordinary hand 
wheelbrake with Ackley attachment; (2) magnetic track 
brake operated from car motors acting as generators. 
An additional power track brake would be used in later 
operation of steeper lines. 

Rebuilt Double-Deck, Double-Truck Cars 
Will Also Be Used 

Where possible, Mr. Pilcher recommends the recon- 
struction of top-cover cable cars at a cost of about 

Pressed Steel Welded Motor Truck with Interpole Motors 
for Edinburgh Cars 

£300 ($1,200) each to the style illustrated. These cars 
also happen to be exceptionally light. A trial has 
already been made of refitting the existing cable trucks 
for electric traction. The wheels have been increased 
from 22 in. to 24 in. diameter, stronger axles have been 
installed, the spring suspension has been altered and the 
journals have been equipped with roller bearings. The 
cars have been equipped with two 27-hp. interpole, self- 
ventilated motors. The illustration on page 12 shows 
this car. 

The electrical and mechanical equipment of this 
sample car weighs only 7,668 lb. compared with 13,492 
lb. for that of the like equipment on an electric car of 
the Slateford route. The sample car complete weighs 
18,928 lb., which is 5,216 lb. less than the single-truck 
electric cars on the Leith Lines. The motors used are 
stated to be of the safety car type. Tests of the sample 
car show a maximum running speed of 17.5 m.p.h. 
when operating on the level and 11.5 m.p.h. on a 5 per 
cent grade. 

To operate the first section forty-seven cars will be 
required. Mr. Pilcher suggests that bids be asked for 

Edinburgh Corporation Motor Bus Climbing the Mound, the First Cable Route in Edinburgh to be Abandonee). 
Scott Monument and Princess Street in the Background 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

sixteen new cars and that thirty-one of the existing 
cable cars be converted. The cost is estimated as 
follows : 

16 car bodies at £1,500 each £24,000 ($96,000) 

31 cable cars with new top covers, to be converted, 

£300 each 9,300 ($ 37,200) 

45 electrical and mechanical equipments at £1,400 

eich 63,000 ($252,000) 

£96,300 ($385,290) 

The third item includes new trucks for sixteen cars 
and altered trucks for thirty-one cars. 

On certain other routes the motor bus is considered 
more suitable so long as the present prohibitive prices 
of track continue. In conclu sion, Mr. Pilcher summa- 
rizes the chief reasons why electrification should be 
proceeded with as soon as sufficient power is available, 
namely, greater reliability of service, through running 
to the neighboring city of Leith and lower over-all cost 
than the cable system, despite additional capital re- 

Germany Sticks to Single Phase 

Federal Railway Administration Has Never, Even Tempo- 
rarily, Considered Any Other System — Sweden Is 
Extending Its Single Phase Lines 

ACCORDING to the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung 
. for May 14, the German Federal Railway Adminis- 
tration has denied that it is considering any system 
other than the single-phase for its railway electrifica- 
tion. Commenting on a contributed article in the issue 
of this paper for March 5 in a statement which is re- 
ported to be official, the Zeitung says, in part: "The 
German Federal Railway Administration has always 
considered the single-phase system as the only one pos- 
sible for its main lines and has never, not even tempo- 
rarily, considered any other. A similar stand was taken 
previously by the individual state administrations. All 
existing federal main lines are a.-c. operated, and only 
this system will be used for any new lines. Hence, any 
international congress is not necessary. Last February 
there was a meeting of representatives of the federal 
lines and those of private lines, but its only purpose was 
to solve the question of current supply." 

Sweden is also extending its single-phase lines. Ac- 
cording to F. Overholm, chief electrical engineer, Swed- 
ish State Railways, there were in Sweden in May of 
this year 260 miles of electrified railroads, of which 240 
were single phase and 20 were direct current, and the 
extensions during the remainder of this year, all single 
phase, will amount to 140 miles. 

don, Brinkley and Cotton Plant. The Arkansas Light 
& Power Company will generate the electricity at its 
plants at Pine Bluff and Picron, from which lines 
extend to other communities. The Arkansas Light & 
Power Company also operates stations at Russellville. 

New High- Voltage Line in Arkansas 

THE Arkansas Light & Power Company of Pine 
Bluff has started work on the construction of a 
33,000-volt line from its substation at Stuttgart to the 
substation of the Arkansas Utility Company at Claren- 
don, a distance of 20 miles. The line will cost $60,000 
and is being built by William Crooks, engineer and con- 
tractor. No. 0000 steel aluminum strand will be used 
with R. Thomas & Sons No. 3,058 insulators and 
Moloney transformers. White cedar poles are to be 
used, except where the line crosses the White River. 
The 1,000-ft. span across this stream will be suspended 
from two 90-ft. steel towers. It is expected that the 
work will be completed by July 15. The Arkansas 
Utility Company will distribute the electricity at Claren- 


Using Lye to Remove Old Insulation 

In Reinsulating and Repairing Old-Type Field Coils an 
Indiana Railway Facilitates the Removal of Old 
Insulation and Tearing Down Coils By 
Use of Lye 

By J. E. Hester 

Master Mechanic Union Traction Company of Indiana. 
Anderson, Ind. 

THE Union Traction Company of Indiana has twenty 
quadruple equipments of Westinghouse No. 85 
motors in service. This type of motor has wire-wound 
field coils and, due to insulation breakdowns, it has been 
found necessary to tear them down and reinsulate them 
a number of times during the twenty years of their active 

service. In this work soaking 
the field coils in a strong solu- 
tion of lye for several days 
has been found to loosen the 
eld baked insulation, which can 
then be readily removed. After 
the insulation has been taken 
off the wires, the coils are al- 
lowed to dry and are again 
reinsulated by hand, with the 
aid of a type of rack shown in 
the accompanying illustration. 
The work of reinsulating the 
coils is necessarily done by 
hand and a laborer can insu- 
late two of these coils a day. 

In re-forming the coils the 
wire is first given a coat of 
linen tape and the wires are 
then reassembled by hand in 
as nearly their original shape 
as possible, after which a coat 
of cotton tape is applied. The 
coils are then dipped and 
baked, after which they are 
put into a forming press to restore them to their 
original shape. 

The forming press is a homemade affair, constructed 
of second-hand material found on the property. The 
base consists of a 20-in., 70-lb. steel I-beam, to one end 
of which an air cylinder is fastened. To operate this 
press it was necessary to have a piston travel of 231 in., 
and in order to obtain this long travel two 12-in. air- 
brake cylinders were welded together. The form used 
for reshaping the coils is made of cast iron and bolted 
to the opposite end of the I-beam. It is connected to the 
air cylinder by the 1-in. x 6-in. pressure bar with a 
ratio of 2 to 1. Air for operating the mechanism is 
secured from a convenient air-testing bench, and a 
pressure of 100 lb. per square inch is used. 

After the coils have been properly formed they are 
again put in the baking oven and given another baking, 
as the previous baking was only preliminary and the 
coils were but partly baked. After this final baking, 
additional insulation is applied and the leads are soldered 
in place. By this method it is found that the coils are 
restored to their original condition for a very small cost 
as compared with that of new coils. 

Vertical Rack for Use in 
Reinsulating Field Coils 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Two Views Showing Actual Appearance of Atlanta's Thermit Weld Platform 

Building Frogs in Atlanta 

Experience Shows that a Good Welding Platform Is Most 
Essential to Insure the Careful Align- 
ment of Parts 

FOR more than a year now the Georgia Railway & 
Power Company, Atlanta, Ga., has been building 
crossovers and frogs by the Thermit process in cases 
where one or two frogs have gone to pieces in a cross- 
ing the rest of which is apparently good for several 
years. The company reports that there has been uni- 
form satisfaction in this work. Records indicate that, 
in the case of the welding of frogs, the cost has been 
about one-third of the cost of a new frog ordered es- 
pecially to take the place of the one which had given out. 

The first requirement, however, to make good frogs 
is that there shall be a good platform upon which to 
build them, so that the various parts which are to be 
welded together will be aligned accurately and held in 
place rigidly while the welding is being done. Accord- 
ingly, the ways and structures department, under the 
direction of C. A. Smith, superintendent of roadway, 
has constructed a special platform, housed under a roof, 
for this purpose. An accompanying drawing indicates 
the details of this platform, with the type of clamp 
used also shown. It is seen that this is constructed by 
the use of old rails imbedded in concrete and the plat- 
form gives excellent satisfaction. Accompanying pho- 

tographs show the platform installed and a rail on it 
ready for welding. 

Another illustration shows the entire installation 
with the roofing for protection against weather. 

Entire Welding Installation with Roofing for Protection 
Against Weather 

Section A-A 

Details of Thermit Weld Platform Constructed of Rail and Concrete in Atlanta 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

New Brick Crossing in Little Rock 

Maintaining Brick Crossings 

IN MANY cities brick paving is used between the car 
tracks, and where this kind of paving is used with 
T-rails and the track is crossed by heavy vehicular 
traffic the usual result is a wearing away of the bricks 
next to the rail until such a state is reached that auto- 
mobilists swear at the street railway company. If the 
pavement is maintained satisfactorily, the cost is ex- 
ceedingly high. 

In Little Rock, Ark., this trouble has been an ever- 
present annoyance to the railway management, but a 

Standard paving 
brick • 

Standard paving 
brick .' 

Old T-Rail with One Flange Cut Off, Installed as 
Protection on Brick Crossing 

satisfactory scheme has now been devised so that in 
the future such crossings, when once repaired, will stay 
that way. 

Old lengths of T-rail have had one flange cut off by 
an oxyacetylene torch, so that they may be set in the 
pavement on the ties with a H-in. spacing between the 
edges of the wheel rail and the guard rail thus installed, 
leaving this li in. as a fiangeway. An accompanying 
sketch shows the relative arrangement of the two rails. 
Standard brick is then laid directly against this inside 
guard rail as well as the outside rail, so that the finished 
crossing is absolutely level and smooth except for the 
l*-in. fiangeway space which remains. This provides 

a very satisfactory crossing for vehicular traffic, and 
the one installation which has so far been made in 
Little Rock indicates no tendency toward deterioration 
at all. 

The change has been so noticeable that there have 
been many freely offered commendations of the railway 
company for its efforts in this direction. 

Accompanying photographs show the typical crossing 
before treatment and the crossing which has been built 
as described herewith. 

Effective Air Sander 

PARTLY, at least, as a result of the recommendations 
of its safety committee, the Chattanooga Railway & 
Light Company has been equipping its cars with air 
sanders. In arriving at a decision as to the type of 
sanders to use the company paid particular atten- 
tion to a study of how to keep the sand always dry. 
Previous experience had indicated that sand boxes 
under the car or under the front seat and resting on 
the floor were very 
apt to have the sand 
in them made wet by 
water thrown off by 
the wheels. The ac- 
companying illustra- 
tion shows the sand 
box finally decided 
upon and now being 
installed upon the 
cars of this company. 
This sand box is 
metal, shaped very 
much like a con- 
troller box, and is 
mounted about 5 in. 
or 6 in. above the 
floor of the platform. 
The usual air pipe 
leads to the box at 
the bottom and a 
flexible coiled wire 
sand pipe about 2 in. 
in diameter carries 
the sand to the point 

in front of one wheel where it is desired. Experience 
so far with this installation has proved that the sand is 
always dry, and the company is satisfied with this 
installation. In some cases there has not been enough 
room to place the sand box on the rear or bulkhead side 
of the platform and it has been necessary to mount it at 
the left of the controller. This necessitates, of course, a 
much longer sand pipe from the box to the discharge 
point above the rail, in some cases making a pipe as long 
as 4 ft. or 5 ft., but this apparently has not diminished 
the effectiveness of sand delivery as needed. 

New Type Sand Box Installed 
at Chattanooga 

Old Brick Crossing Which Jarred Vehicular Traffic 

The May issue of the Monthly Labor Review, pub- 
lished by the United States Department of Labor, is 
devoted very largely to the publication of statistics of 
wages and hours of labor in the different industries, 
among them the steam railroad industry and the elec- 
tric railway industry. The steam railroad statistics are 
based on figures compiled by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission and the Bureau of Railway Economics. 
The electric railway figures show wages paid on a 
number of properties on Dec. 31, 1920, and are from 
the Motorman and Conductor. 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Pennsylvania Association at the State Capital 

Pertinent Addresses Were Presented by Philip H. Gadsden; W. D. B. Ainey, Chairman, and Dr. F. H. 
Snow, Engineering Department of the State Commission; T. L. Montgomery, State Librarian, and 
D. N. Casey, Field Director State Chamber of Commerce — President T. B. Donnelly Re-elected 

THE Pennsylvania Street Railway 
Association held its annual meet- 
ing on June 16 and 17 at the 
P'enn-Harris Hotel, Harrisburg. The 
topics considered included an address by 
Philip H. Gadsden, president American 
Electric Railway Association, and 
papers covering personnel work, public 
relations, one-man cars, street railway 
history, helical gearing, automobile 
hazards and snow removal. 

In his opening remarks President 
T. B. Donnelly, claim agent West Penn 
Railways, pointed out the complication 
of electric railway operation imposed 
by the automobile from the standpoints 
both of competition and accident 
hazard. He also paid a tribute to the 
association for the service rendered to 
its members in assisting them in solving 
their common problems. 

Philip H. Gadsden Speaks 

Mr. Donnelly then introduced P. H. 
Gadsden, president American Electric 
Railway Association, who outlined the 
electric railway situation and suggested 
four remedies for present ills. First, 
he said, the real trouble is not 
inadequacy of rates, but lies deeper 
than that, although that is a factor. 
The "heavy hand of regulation" has 
been laid on the transportation and 
other utility business as on no other. 
Prices in other lines ran riot, and while 
high prices were secured in other indus- 
tries the utilities languished financially. 
During the war electric railways, at a 
loss, carried highly paid workers to 
plants operating at a high profit. They 
should not be expected to sell their 
goods below cost. 

The financial plight of the electric 
railways is due, in part, to the devotion 
of managers to giving good service to 
the neglect of the commercial and 
financial sides of the business, whereas 
in other activities executives give large 
attention to the selling end. Thus the 
5-cent fare, inaugurated largely for 
historical reasons, was allowed to stand 
because the economics of transportation 
production did not receive proper at- 
tention. It was assumed that an unlim- 
ited quantity of the product could be 
sold at a fixed price, in defiance of eco- 
nomic laws. Obviously some kind of 
"metered service" must be furnished, 
such as is supplied under a zone-fare 

From now on the commercial instinct 
and class consciousness must be de- 
veloped, we must "go to some school of 
salesmanship." The industry has 
"arrived," it has become stabilized; the 
war taught that electric railway trans- 
portation is essential and lies at the 
basis of industry. Now electric rail- 
way credit must be re-established, not 
by individual properties but as a whole, 

because the investing public has lost 
confidence in this field for investment. 
This is made more difficult by the ease 
with which municipalities can issue tax- 
exempt securities, which to persons of 
large income are more attractive than 
any securities which can be put out by 
electric railways at much higher rates 
of interest. 

The result of all this is that railways 
cannot make needed repairs. The pub- 
lic then becomes irritated with the 
resulting unsatisfactory service and is 
inclined to consider municipal owner- 
ship as the way out. Thus while 
political policies of government are 
opposed to such ownership, the fiscal 
policies favor it. As much municipal 
expenditure is for unproductive enter- 
prises, if municipalities can borrow 
money for public use with tax-exempt 
securities, much of the country's capital 
will be deflected from utility as well as 
industrial enterprises. 

Among things that can be done to 
restore electric railway credit the 
following may be mentioned: 

1. The real value of the properties 
should be definitely and officially estab- 

2. A system of rate regulation 
should be established under which the 
rates shall be flexible and quickly 
responsive to changing conditions; pre- 
sumably some kind of a service-at-cost 

3. Closer fundamental relations 
between the railway management and 
the public and employees must be 

4. Publicity, in the large sense, must 
be persistently used to cultivate a 
personal touch with the car rider. This 
will be assisted by the campaign to be 
launched on July 8 by the Committee 
of One Hundred of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Association. 

Papers by Messrs. Casey and 
Boyce Read 

Daniel N. Casey, field director Penn- 
sylvania State Chamber of Commerce, 
followed Mr. Gadsden with a paper on 
"The Street Railway and the Commu- 
nity." A paper prepared by W. H. 
Boyce on "Personnel Work" was then 
read by Secretary Henry M. Stine, in 
the author's absence. Both of these 
papers are abstracted elsewhere in this 

The reading of the above listed 
papers was followed by a brief general 
discussion, during which such points as 
the following were brought out: There 
is no one solution for all electric rail- 
way problems. For instance, the mere 
raising of rates of fare may defeat its 
own purpose by decreasing patronage. 
Obviously the purpose is to choose a 
rate commensurate with the service and 

with due regard to the convenience of 
the passenger in paying his fare. Im- 
provement will be the reward of 
thorough analysis. Again, valuation 
procedure has yet to be put on a per- 
manent basis to prevent a continual 
l-eappearance of the question. In the 
practical determination of value an 
element always considered is earning 
power, and this is inevitable. Great 
emphasis was laid on the fundamental 
necessity for getting capital from 
those to be benefited by the facilities 
for which it is to be spent. The future 
financing of extensions in particular 
should take this form. In many cases 
the assistance of municipal credit, 
which attracts money at lower interest 
rates, will have to be sought. This 
does not, however, involve municipal 
ownership. In addition a poi'tion of the 
future financing of the railways must 
be drawn from earnings. 

It was also suggested that many 
properties might benefit by a campaign 
of "cleaning your own house." For 
example, some railways may have cut 
service too far in their desire to meet 
expenses, and cases were mentioned 
where an increase in car-miles had 
brought more patronage. 

Jitney Problem to Be Studied 

At the close of the discussion on the 
morning session papers C. L. S. Tingley, 
vice-president American Railways, 
called attention to the importance of 
studying the jitney problem for the 
purpose of insuring operating condi- 
tions which are equitable to all con- 
cerned. He applied the well-known 
phrase "Eventually, why not now" to 
the burdens which the buses must 
ultimately carry and he pointed out 
that their situation is similar to that of 
the electric railways during their 
development period. People were then 
so glad to get street railway service 
that they imposed few burdens on this 
promising transportation system. Later, 
however, the burdens became increas- 
ingly serious. Such burdens the jitney 
business cannot continue to sidestep 

On Mr. Tingley's motion a committee 
to study and report on this subject was 
authorized. President Donnelly, in due 
course, announced the following ap- 
pointments: Mr. Tingley, Douglas Ford, 
superintendent North Branch Transit 
Company, and Thomas Newhall, pres- 
ident Philadelphia & Western Railway. 

Friday Morning Session 

The first paper read at the morning 
session on June 17 had for its topic the 
one-man car. It was read by the 
author, C. D. Smith, superintendent 
Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Company. 
The paper is abstracted elsewhere. This 

18 Electric Railway Journal Vol. 58, No. 1 

was followed by a talk by Dr. Thomas 
L. Montgomery, State Librarian of 
Pennsylvania, who, with the aid of lan- 
tern slides, traced the development of 
transportation from primitive times to 
the early days of the electric railway. 
His purpose was to furnish a historical 
background for an appreciation of 
modern transportation facilities. 

The next speaker was C. K. McGun- 
negle, who read a paper entitled 
"Changes Necessitated in Operation 
Owing to the Automobile Hazard," 
written by M. T. Montgomery and him- 
self, both of whom are assistants to the 
general manager of the Pittsburgh 
Railways. This paper is abstracted on 
another page. 

The discussion on the above papers 
brought out the difficulty of comparing 
the maintenance costs of cars of differ- 
ent types and ages and the importance 
of standardizing on the parts of car 
equipment, track details, etc., especially 
those requiring frequent renewal. A 
digest of the discussion on the one- 
man cars, which was a feature of the 
Lake George convention of the New 
York Electric Railway Convention, held 
during the preceding week, was also 

The final paper read was by W. H. 
Phillips, manager engineering depart- 
ment, R. D. Nuttall Company, on helical 
gearing. This was of a technical char- 
acter and special lantern slides were 
shown to illustrate the characteristics 
and action of different types of gear 
teeth. An abstract of this paper also 
appears in this issue. 

On motion of the nominating com- 
mittee the following were re-elected to 
serve for the coming year: President, 
T. B. Donnelly, West Penn Railways; 
vice-president, C. B. Fairchild, Jr., Phil- 
adelphia Rapid Transit Company; 
secretary and treasurer, Henry M. 
Stine, Harrisburg, Pa.; members of 
executive committee, C. L. S. Tingley, 
American Railways; Gordon Campbell, 
York Railways; F. B. Musser, Harris- 
burg Railways; Thomas Cooper, West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing 

A committee of manufacturer mem- 
bers was also appointed to enlarge the 
membership among supply men. The 
secretary was also instructed to send 
the greetings of the association to F. B. 
Musser, president Harrisburg Railways, 
who was in Edinburgh, Scotland, at the 
time of the meeting. 

Notable Speakers at Banquet 
The annual dinner of the association 
was held at the Penn-Harris on Thurs- 
day evening, with Mr. Tingley as toast- 
master. He first called upon C. B. 
McCahill, president Pittsburgh, Har- 
mony, Butler & New Castle Railway, 
to tell of the profit-sharing plan in 
operation on the latter's two properties 
operating in the Pittsburgh region. Mr. 
McCahill explained that a fourth of 
the companies' common stock is lodged 
with a trust company in a trust fund, 
the dividends being divided among the 
employees who have been a year or 
more in the railway service. Three out 
of seven of the directors of each of the 

companies are elected annually by the 
employees, and they have proved help- 
ful in suggestions and in spreading the 
facts regarding operation among the 
men. A group insurance plan is also in 
operation, supplementing the required 
"Workmen's Compensation," and old- 
age pensions are in contemplation. The 
men like the scheme, they receive a 
substantial return, they are reasonable 
regarding wage adjustments and they 
endeavor to keep down the payroll and 
other expenses. 

Dr. F. Herbert Snow, chief of the 
department of engineering, Public Ser- 
vice Commission of Pennsylvania, was 
the next speaker. He emphasized the 
principles of democracy, applying 
them to the regulation of public ser- 
vice, and deplored the efforts which had 
been made to abolish the public service 
commissions. These, he urged, are 
doing an essential work, and, while the 
legislation behind them may need some 
revision from time to time, the basis 
of their functioning is sound. 

Mr. Gadsden then spoke, supple- 
menting his addi - ess of the afternoon. 
He said that he had not intended to 
paint a gloomy picture in depicting the 
difficulties of public utility financing, 
for the industry is now seeing better 
days. The average fare has been 
increased by 50 per cent, and while this 
is much less than increases in materials 
and labor it is something. Expenses 
are decreasing, so that, with the co- 
operation of the commissions and the 
public, the long-deferred return to 
utility owners and bondholders ought 
to materialize. Electric railways have 
now "rounded the turn" and their con- 
dition is far different from that dis- 
closed in the hearings of 1919 before 
the Federal Electric Railways Commis- 

Hon. W. D. B. Ainey, chairman of the 

THE electric railway has been 
maligned and misrepresented, but 
it has persisted because it is a public 
necessity. Not long ago it was quite 
popular to condemn transportation 
systems, and there was a time when 
many deserved censure. Those days 
are done. Most street railway men now 
realize that they owe something to the 
communities in which they operate and 
to the men who aid them in functioning, 
as well as to the investors. 

The community must have the street 
car and the street car must have the 
community. Their interests are mutual. 
The street railway, like the school and 
the church, serves the entire com- 
munity. The banker who drives to his 
office in an automobile is able to serve 
a public ten times as large as he could 
serve otherwise because of the street 
railway. The clerks can work in the 
city, where wages are high, and live in 

*Abstract of paper read before Pennsyl- 
vania Street Railway Association, Harris- 
burg, Pa., June 16, 1921. 

Pennsylvania commission, followed Mr. 
Gadsden. He expressed on behalf of 
his colleagues and himself a sympa- 
thetic interest in the solution of public 
utility problems. The commission has 
desired that equitable rates be provided 
for, but has been handicapped by con- 
tracts entered into by the electric rail- 
ways when the eventual inadequacy of 
a 5-cent fare was not realized. More- 
over, the commission has to operate 
within the provisions of the public serv- 
ice company law, which gives no juris- 
diction over securities unless requested 
by the utilities. 

Mr. Ainey credited the railway men 
with the exercise of initiative, which 
led to the solution of their problems. 
He felt confident now, as he had before, 
that the difficult problems ahead will 
be solved. The commission will co- 
operate with them and, as was indicated 
by the "Wilkinsburg decision," the legal 
rights of the utilities will be recognized. 
However, the commission will be em- 
barrassed in its work in placing values 
upon utility property until some legal 
definition of "valuation" is agreed upon. 
All interests involved should strive to 
this end. Furthermore, too much 
dependence must not be placed upon 
law, for after all the appeal must even- 
tually be made to enlightened public 
opinion, to the "heart basis" of con- 
stitutional rights. The local problems, 
also, are interwoven with national ones, 
necessitating a general public interest 
in their solution. 

In closing, Mr. Ainey impressed on 
his hearers the fallacy of thinking of 
laws and political majorities in terms 
of the mass. After all, the operation 
of a law affects the individual primarily. 
While enacted by the majority, it lays 
its hand on the minority, whose rights 
are just as sacred as those of the 

the suburbs, where rents are compara- 
tively low. Real estate values in the 
business districts are much higher 
because the cars bring to town thou- 
sands of people who could not do 
business there otherwise. Suburban 
property is more valuable because the 
cars make it accessible to the city. 
Residential property is increased in 
value because it is located near a car 
line. Even if a man always walks or 
always drives in his motor he derives 
a dollars-and-cents benefit from the 
street railway. The community has a 
big stake in the success of the traction 
company. It must see that there is an 
orderly development of this as well as 
its other democratic institutions. 

Electric Railway Service Is 

The street railway industry is the 
most important in any community be- 
cause it makes all other industries pos- 
sible. Take away the means of trans- 
porting the workman to and from the 

The Electric Railway and the Community* 

By Daniel N. Casey 

Director Field Service Bureau Pennsylvania State Chamber 
of Commerce, Harrisburg, Pa. 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


factories and the factories cease to 
function. So the manufacturer and his 
employees have an interest in the trol- 
ley lines. 

Moreover, there is a social side of 
the local transportation, not only in 
that it produces a commingling of the 
various community factors, so essential 
to co-operative development and suc- 
cess, but if the transportation be not 
reasonably comfortable and adequate 
the impression upon the minds of the 
workmen may be the reverse of that 
which is highly to be desired in this 
period of stress. Although the treat- 
ment of the problem is primarily local, 
its scope is national because it is es- 
sential to the highly efficient industrial 
productivity through which the nation 
must carry out its program of recon- 

How the Citizens Can Help 

Both the store and the street car 
company must sell service; each is es- 
sential to the other and both are insti- 
tutions integral to our community fab- 
ric. To promote the interests of the 
street car company, which in the end 
will help his business and aid in the 
constructive development of his com- 
munity, the merchant can protest when 
drastic ordinances are proposed, when 
vehicular traffic is unjustly favored, 
when undue regulation of trolley com- 
panies is considered and when unfair 
advantage is taken of the street rail- 

The citizen's work is most effective 
when it is united with that of others. 
Nearly every chamber of commerce has 
a transportation committee, which 
might well give heed to the street rail- 
way problem in general and to special 
problems as they arise. This commit- 
tee should be advised of those points 
by the individual citizen as he learns 
of them and he should be prepared to 
assist the committee in its investiga- 
tion and reports. 

Last winter the Pennsylvania State 
Chamber of Commerce took a referen- 
dum among its membership as to 
whether the Public Service Commission 
should be granted increased authority 
to suspend rates pending a hearing. It 
was the opinion of the majority of the 
membership who answered this referen- 
dum that such authority should not be 
granted, and therefore our legislative 
bureau protested against the proposal. 
The bill was subsequently defeated. 
The voice of the State had spoken. It 
said that the utilities should not be 
further hampered. 

The Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States appointed a committee 
on public utilities with regard to local 
transportation. The recommendations 
of this committee, submitted to the 
membership of the national chamber 
for referendum, were approved almost 
unanimously. The approval indicates 
that the broad-minded business man 
realizes the imperative necessity of 
retaining the vitalization and private 
ownership of street railway companies. 
These referendum results and the en- 
thusiastic co-operation of many com- 

munities with the transportation com- 
panies show that the keen business man 
appreciates the problem and realizes 
that prosperity for one institution in 
the community aids toward prosperity 
for all. Very seldom now is there a 
disposition on the part of the public 
to cavil at the trolley company merely 
because it is a corporation. There is 
a better spirit and a heartier desire to 

In nearly every instance the street 
railway has laid its cards on the table. 
It is here, a definite institution in our 

communities. It may have erred in 
the past, but let us not forget the 
pioneers who stretched the rods of 
steel into country formerly untapped 
and brought conveniences and comforts 
to the doors of those who seldom knew 
them and who forged communities to- 
gether into a closer relationship. They 
have made us more American. Our 
work is with the railway of today in 
the constant developing of the twen- 
tieth century American city, and their 
work is with us for this common pur- 

Practical Personnel Work* 

By W. H. Boyce 

General Manager Beaver Valley Traction Company, New Brighton, Pa. 

A DOZEN men engaged in personnel 
work would give as many defini- 
tions of this work. Tead and Metcalf 
define personnel administration as "the 
direction and co-ordination of the 
human relations of any organization 
with a view to getting the maximum 
necessary production with a minimum 
of effort and friction and with proper 
regard for the general well being of 
the workers." 

Until recently no attention was given 
to the personnel of an organization. A 
foreman, superintendent or other offi- 
cial in charge was held to be the 
"whole works." If there was success, 
it was due to the foreman; if there 
v/as failure, it was his fault, as his 
superior held him responsible. The loss 
to industry through incompetence of 
foremen has been great. Later, the 
idea developed that employees have a 
share in success or failure and that 
all are necessary. That, in embryo, is 
"personnel." Personnel is a science, the 
fundamentals of which are possessed 
in some degree by all. 

In this paper I shall deal with per- 
sonnel along its applied lines, with 
frequent reference to methods tried and 
proved in a small organization, but ap- 
plicable in part to a property of any 
size. The administration of personnel 
work on a small property is the gen- 
eral manager's responsibility. On prop- 
erties large enough to warrant the or- 
ganization of a personnel department, 
the head of that department should be 
a member of the president's staff. 

What Personnel Work Is 

To me personnel work has meant: 
(1) Realization of the needs, a well- 
charted purpose and definite plans for 
progress; (2) selection of employees 
and fitting them into proper positions; 

(3) keeping the employees satisfied; 

(4) determination, from results, of cor- 
rectness of purpose, plans and selec- 
tion; (5) weeding out, changing about, 
building up; (6) analysis of everything 
having to do with the previously de- 
termined needs, plans and purposes. 

While on a small property the per- 
sonnel is the general manager's re- 
sponsibility, it does not follow that he 

♦Abstract of paper read before Pennsyl- 
vania Street Railway Association, Harris- 
burg, Pa., June 16, 1921. 

is personally to do all the work. He 
must gather about him a group of 
trained assistants to carry out the 

The general manager must realize 
that it is not he who is in daily touch 
with the public but rather the train- 
men; that trainmen, barnmen and shop- 
men have more to do with the actual 
selling of transportation than he has. 

Getting the Employee Started Right 

Personnel work begins with the visit 
of the applicant for employment. The 
man in charge of that department must 
have had a wide experience; must know 
that even in declining employment to 
the applicant he has an opportunity to 
make a good impression for the com- 
pany. He should proceed to select his 
men on the basis of physical qualifica- 
tions, intelligence, education, tempera- 
mental requisites, appearance, char- 
acter, common sense, practicality and 
general personality. 

It is the duty of the man in charge 
of employment to explain to the ap- 
plicant the character of work to which 
he will be assigned, the hours of work, 
the rate of pay, the chances for ad- 
vancement, the policy of the company 
toward the public and its employees, 
and the methods used in keeping a 
check upon and record of the actions 
of employees. 

He "sells the job" to the applicant 
by creating an interest in it. An ex- 
treme case where this was not done 
was the following: On a certain rail- 
road the president sent for an em- 
ployee who had been in the service and 
engaged on one job for thirty-five 
years, to award him a cash prize and 
to compliment him on his continuous 
service. In answer to a question as to 
his duties, the workmen said that 
when a train came into the station 
he went along each side and tapped the 
wheels with a hammer. Asked by the 
president why he did this, he replied: 
"I'm darned if I know." The man had 
been drawing wages for thirty-five 
years without knowing what he was 
really paid for. 

After the applicant has been accepted 
he is placed under the direction of a 
foreman or instructor, who has been 
properly trained as to his attitude to- 
ward the new employee. Instructors, 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

especially those for trainmen, should 
realize that the greenhorn is in the 
same position as they were in when 
they entered the company's employ. 

Developing Morale in the 

Personnel work develops an organiza- 
tion whose members have more than 
the wage-drawing habit. Its essentials 
are: (1) Careful selection; (2) proper 
instruction; (3) continual satisfaction; 
(4) consideration; (5) absolute justice 
to all; (6) placed responsibility; (7) 
supervision, continual instruction and 
job education; (8) supervisory and 
managerial vision. 

On our property we have an em- 
ployees' service code, which has been 
freely distributed publicly, and has pro- 
duced good results. Our rate of labor 
turnover is small, and our list of appli- 
cants for trainmen positions exceeds 50 
per cent of the number employed. Every 
employee planning to leave our service 

is first interviewed by the employment 
supervisor. If he is dissatisfied, an 
effort is made to remove the cause and 
to retain him in our employ. Our 
promotions are from within the organ- 
ization, according to a charted promo- 
tion plan. Employees are additionally 
trained in their promotion lines. Since 
December, 1920, we have had but one 
trainman resign and were compelled to 
discharge but one, and that for dis- 

Through bulletins, letters to the homes 
of the men and talks we show them 
that their welfare and the company's 
welfare are so closely allied that they 
cannot afford not to be on the alert 
for the company's interest. We trust 
our employees and they trust us. We 
know them; they know us. Finally, it 
may be said that success is assured 
through applied personnel only when 
the proper attitude toward the employee 
is maintained from the head of the or- 
ganization down. 

Experience with the One-Man Car* 

By Clinton D. Smith 

General Superintendent Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Company, Youngstown, Ohio 

THE purposes of this paper are to 
point out the economies that have 
resulted from the operation of thirty- 
two Birney one-man cars upon 'the 
property of the Pennsylvania-Ohio Elec- 
tric Company and to indicate the poten- 
tial savings which are being realized 
from time to time. This type of car 
is being operated upon the New Castle 
and Sharon, Pa., lines of the property, 

in Youngstown and Sharon. Attention 
is directed to the fact that on practi- 
cally every street upon which the Birney 
cars operate the clearance is approx- 
imately 6 in. between the car and an 
automobile parked along the curb line. 
This fact is worth consideration in con- 
nection with the reduction in the 
number of accidents which has resulted 
from the use of the one-man car. 

cured, in the way of passengers carried 
and revenue received, are shown in the 
accompanying charts. In Fig. 1 data, 
are given for the East Hill line, Sharon,, 
from April 1, 1919, to March 31, 1921. 
A 7-cent fare was in effect in 1919 1 
and up to Dec. 12, 1920. A 10-cent cash 
fare, with six tickets for 50 cents, be- 
came effective Dec. 12, 1920. Twenty 
cars were placed in operation on this 
line on April 21, 1920. For comparison^ 
the results with the Valley line, Sharon, 
operated with two-man cars, are given 
in Fig. 2. This shows passengers and 
revenue from April 1, 1919, to March 
31, 1921. The conditions in respect to 
fare are the same as those pertaining 
to Fig. 1. 

The results of the safety-car opera- 
tion show that in every instance dur- 
ing the first five months of 1921 a pe- 
riod of industrial depression, there has 
been an increase in paid passengers 
upon lines operated with one-man cars, 
whereas on the line in which the head- 
way has remained unchanged and has 
continued to be operated with two-man 
cars there has been a decrease. 

Relative to equipment expense, a spe- 
cial investigation showed that for the 
safety cars this is approximately 2i 
cents per car-mile, including inspection. 
As to power consumption, special tests 
showed that the one-man safety cars 
on one of the lines were consuming 1.26 
kw.-hr. per car-mile for propulsion or 
1.54 kw.-hr., including heating. These 
figures include all overhead losses. 

In regard to the one-man car as a 
means of selling transportation, it is 
obvious that every manufacturer of or 

-Data for East Hill Line, Sharon, Pa., Equipped 
with Safety Cars 

£ 8000 
I 1000 
I 6000 
e l 30,000 
&l 20.000 
§1 10,000 
■6 90,000 
£ 80000 

.Revenue 1919-1920 

W — 

* 1 Ltf£ 

Paid Z-~_3Z-^-±-ia20 

Fig. 2 — Data for Valley Line, Sharon, Pa., Operated 
with Two-Man Cars 

and in addition twelve cars are in serv- 
ice on one of the lines of the Youngs- 
town (Ohio) Municipal Railway, a sub- 
sidiary of the company. These cities, 
from the industrial standpoint, are 
chiefly notable for their steel mills. 
They have populations respectively of 
50,000, 20,000 and 135,000. 

Introducing the One-Man Cars 

The larger number of Birney cars 
used by this company are operated in 
New Castle, the car-mileage of the line 
using the cars being 71 per cent of the 
total New Castle District mileage. In 
New Castle there are some extraordi- 
nary features in connection with the use 
of the one-man car which do not exist 

♦Abstract of paper read before Pennsyl- 
vania Street Railway Association, Harris- 
burg, Pa., June 17, 1921. 

In introducing the Birney cars in 
New Castle the company had to recog- 
nize: (1) that schedules were in effect 
that provided beyond question adequate 
service and that gave employment to 
seventy-six men on regular runs; (2) 
that the average length of ride was 
less than 1J miles and the maximum 
continuous ride was approximately 2 
miles; (3) that there were severe 
grades on all lines, with a maximum 
of 9 per cent. 

The first five cars were placed in 
operation in September, 1919, and pro- 
vided a six-minute service where for- 
merly a ten-minute service had been fur- 
nished, increasing the seating capacity 
by 84 per cent. Twenty-five additional 
cars were ordered and their use was 
gradually brought about in New Castle 
and Sharon. Some of the results .se- 

dealer in a marketable product must 
study and apply the principles of sales- 
manship if he is to have large sales. 
This applies not only to the sale of com- 
modities in general, but also to the 
sale of transportation. 

Although there are many factors in- 
volved in merchandising transportation, 
frequency of service is a fundamental 
one inasmuch as it has the greatest ef- 
fect on increasing the riding habit. 

As to advertising transportation, our 
company has, since the initial news- 
paper campaign to introduce the safety 
cars, used the backs of the transfers 
for advertising. For example, in New 
Castle the following is printed: "New 
Castle — 50,000 population — served by 
Birney safety cars — frequent riding 
permits better service." In the She- 
nango Valley district we use the follow- - 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


ing: "Birney safety cars provide fre- 
quent service — frequent use permits 
better service." 

The persistent use of the term 
"safety" in connection with the Birney 
cars has had much to do with the in- 
crease in the riding habit. The use 
of this term places an obligation upon 
the railways operating the cars and 
upon the manufacturers of the cars to 
adopt any improved equipment which 
will add to their general safety, making 
them as far as possible accident proof. 

Making the Safety Car Safer 

We have made three improvements of 
the cars used by our company with the 
idea of increased safety and economy. 
As some severe grades have to be en- 
countered on the property, we are now 
installing Peacock brake drums on the 
staffs of the hand brakes on all safety 
cars. This will permit the hand brakes 
to be used not only for emergency pur- 
poses but also will make them service- 
able. The second improvement has 
been the installation of safety features 
on the brake rigging to prevent acci- 
dents due to failure at that point. The 
third is the installation upon all cars 

of the Lintern mechanical foot sander. 
This replaces at each end of the car one 
of the sand boxes formerly operated by 
air. It is operated by a pedal and 
guarantees the supply of sand whenever 
the supply in the box controlled by 
air has been exhausted. 

A Car that Attracts Riders 

Summarizing the features of the one- 
man car in respect to the sale of trans- 
portation, the following appeal to us 
is important: (1) The economical 
operation of the car permits more fre- 
quent headway; (2) the car, being the 
last word in modern mechanical elec- 
trical equipment, appeals to the people 
in the same manner as the modern de- 
partment store and encourages the fre- 
quent use of the car; (3) appreciation 
of the fact that the car is fully equipped 
with safety devices tends to increase 
the number of rides per capita. 

Finally as to accidents with the 
safety cars as compared with two-man 
cars our analysis indicates conclusively 
that there are fewer accidents with the 
safety cars. There has been a practi- 
cal elimination of boarding and alight- 
ing accidents. 

What Automobile Traffic Means to Pittsburgh* 

By C. K. McGunnegle and M. T. Montgomery 

Assistants to the General Manager Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways 

PITTSBURGH'S narrow streets, 
steep grades and sharp turns are 
but the result of normal community 
growth without any conception of a 
definite plan. The result today is that 
the automobile traffic on these streets 
seriously interferes with the operation 
of street cars and presents a difficult 
problem for solution. 

The central business district, known 
as "The Point," is extremely small, for, 
including street and alley space and 
wharves on the two rivers, it covers but 
218 acres. Of this area the streets and 
alleys take up 63 acres and the railroad 
terminals 30 acres, leaving but 125 
acres for commercial use. This area is 
but 30 per cent of the total as against 
an average for other cities of about 40 
per cent. Traffic congestion is invited 
by the very arrangement of the streets, 
for practically none of them is con- 
tinuous across the central business dis- 
trict. Many are on steep grades. Only 
one street is wide enough to permit two 
lines of vehicles between the car tracks 
and the curb. 

Freight houses of the steam roads 
are so located on the North and South 
Sides and in the city itself that all 
trucking from one to the other must 
pass over the most congested city 
streets or take the long way round 
two sides of the triangle. As far back 
as 1910 vehicular congestion became so 
serious on the two main north and south 
streets, Wood and Smithfield, that the 
Pittsburgh Railways and the city of 
Pittsburgh entered into an agreement 
whereby the space occupied by one 
track on each of these streets was given 

♦Abstract of paper read before Pennsyl- 
vania Street Railway Association, Harris- 
burg, Pa., June 17, 1921. 

over entirely to vehicular traffic. In 
1918 the one-way traffic movement was 
extended to take in Penn and Liberty 
Avenues between the city and Thirty- 
second Street. However, the increase 
in the number of automotive vehicles is 
fast overcoming the relief at first ex- 

In 1915 there were 131,000 automo- 
biles registered in Pennsylvania. In 
1920 there were 600,000, of which num- 
ber 50,000 came from Pittsburgh. In 
July, 1917, a count, made between 7 
a.m. and 6 p.m., of the number of 
vehicles entering and leaving the cen- 
tral business district, showed approxi- 
mately 47,500. A similar count made 
in October, 1920, indicated the total had 
increased to 60,519. Into this mass of 
vehicular traffic sixty-one routes of 
trolley cars are run by the Pittsburgh 
Railways system. 

The cars vary in size from those of 
the single-truck type, taking up 216 
sq.ft. of street space, to the double- 
truck type which take up 428 sq.ft. A 
street car rider occupies about 4.5 sq.ft. 
of street space. Ford automobiles 
occupy 60.5 sq.ft. and Packards and 
the larger types of touring cars occupy 
94 sq.ft., while trucks occupy from 132 
to 190 sq.ft. Actual counts have estab- 
lished the fact that but 2.5 people, in- 
cluding the driver, form the average 
passenger load in Pittsburgh for pleas- 
ure cars. It follows, therefore, that 
an automobile passenger takes up con- 
siderably more street room than the 
car rider. 

The difficulty in enforcing traffic and 
parking regulations has been a most 
serious drawback. Pittsburgh streets 
are so narrow that any form of 
vehicle stopped at the curb throws all 

moving vehicles onto the car tracks. 
The resulting congestion recently be- 
came so serious that City Council passed 
new parking regulations whereby ma- 
chines are permitted to stand for thirty- 
minute periods only and then only in 
certain districts. Parking is not per- 
mitted on any business street between 
4:30 and 6 p.m. Enforcement of thcs? 
regulations has been of material benefit, 
although a broken-down automobilt, 
until it can be removed, will still cause 
the old-time congestion. 

Topography Invites Congestion 

The topography of the country limits 
the number of highways interconnect- 
ing the surrounding towns. Almost 
all of these carry car tracks and for 
years the railway has maintained many 
of the miles of paved roads in this 
district. Naturally, all kinds of vehicu- 
lar traffic is attracted to these roads 
and the cars, though miles outside the 
city limits, are subject to more or less 
interference. Road improvement goes 
on from year to year by state and 
county authorities and some relief will 
eventually be had, but it will not be 
noticeable until drivers are educated 
away from the old routes and until more 
and better roads are completed. 

Prior to 1918 cars on this system 
were operated on the pay-as-you-enter 
system for both inbound and outbound 
trips. During 1918 general congestion 
became so serious that something had 
to be done to get cars through the 
terminal district with less delay. It 
was decided to retain the pay-as-you- 
enter collection on inbound trips and 
change to the pay-as-you-leave system 
for the outbound trips. Checks show 
that the loading time had been reduced 
to about one-third. This manner of 
fare collection has some disadvantages, 
but delays incidental to fare collection 
occur at outlying points where conges- 
tion is slight and delays incidental 
thereto are reduced to a minimum. 

Loading Platforms and Mid-Block 
Stops Save Time 

During the last year or two safety 
zones have been established at many 
points in the city and six loading plat- 
forms have been erected. The city 
should build additional platforms 
throughout the congested area, since 
their worth on the narrow streets has 
been proved. 

Mid-block stops have also been used 
to facilitate getting cars through the 
congested area. At other points where 
the near side stop is retained there are 
"First Car," "Second Car," "Third 
Car" signs marking stopping places. 
Multiple loading and unloading have 
been found to save much time, particu- 
larly during the rush hours or in the 
handling of large gatherings at other 

The automobile, from the traffic point 
of view, has done the street railway 
much injury. However, there is one 
point in its favor and that is, it is a 
fast moving unit and will not cause 
delays if there is enough street room for 
it to keep moving. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

The Helical Gear* 

By W. H. Phillips 

R. D. Nuttall Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

and G. H. F. Holy 

Westingtiouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

THE problem of the designing en- 
gineer in the field of gearing is the 
transmission of heavier torques at 
higher speeds with lighter weight 
equipment and less deterioration. The 
progress that has been made in the 
line of gearing may be outlined as: (1) 
Improvement in materials; (2) applica- 
tion of heat treatment; (3) develop- 
ment of flexible gears; (4) develop- 
ment in the method of forming teeth, 
rotary-cut, hobbed, planed, blocked-out 
and ground; (5) application of helical 

In electric railway service in cities 

Where large capacity equipments are 
involved, such as locomotives and mul- 
tiple-unit cars for terminal electrifica- 
tion on trunk lines, the flexible gear 
has been used to soften or dampen the 
vibratory action of the gearing due to 
the phenomenon mentioned and also to 
other causes. In city service this would 
be too expensive, although there are 
cases of interurban service where it 
could be used with advantage. 

The helical gear overcomes inherent 
gear vibration by eliminating the so- 
called "stepping over" action. The op- 
eration of this type of gear can best 

action from the tip of the tooth to the 
root is one of sliding and rolling. The 
percentage of rolling action can be pre- 
determined, within reasonable limits, 
and the teeth can be designed to give a 
maximum percentage of rolling. 

As a result of this rolling contact 
across the face there will be at any 
time (after the tooth has come into 
full mesh) tip, pitch line and base con- 
tact. This tends to maintain the orig- 
inal tooth form. In the case of the 
spur gear it is in contact across the 
face first at the tip and then progres- 
sively from the pitch line to the base. 
From the design of the involute form 
of tooth, there is pure rolling at the 
pitch line, while at the tip and the 
base there are sliding and rolling. The 
tendency is thus to greater wear at tip 


Fig. 1 — Tooth 2 just entering contact. 

Fig. 2 — Tooth 2 in contact near center of face. 

Fig. 3 — Tooth 2 just leaving contact. 

Figs. 4 to 6 — Positions of reverse face of gear for tooth posi- 

tions shown in Figs. 1 to 3 respectively. The "A" face of Figs. 4 
to 6 shows the following in of the helixes across the face, the "K" 
face shown in Figs. 1 to 3, being in advance of "A" as regards 
the helix. 

the pinion used in spur gear operation 
has from thirteen to sixteen teeth. In 
such a pinion for part of the time but 
one tooth is in contact with the cor- 
responding gear tooth. It picks up its 
load across its entire face suddenly. It 
may be considered as a beam fixed at 
its root and loaded as a cantilever by 
the motor torque. The sudden load 
application produces two deflections, 
varying with the loading. Spur-tooth 
contact under load is unavoidably ac- 
companied by shock and vibration. 

•Abstract of paper read before Pennsyl- 
vania Street Railway Association, Harris- 
burg, Pa., June 17, 1921. 

be realized by thinking of it as made 
up of a number of thin spur gears 
twisted on the shaft with respect to 
each other. Helical gears transmit 
practically average motor effort with 
properly maintained bearings. The 
gears tend to wear evenly over the full 
tooth length, thus preserving the orig- 
inal tooth form. 

The contact from the tip of the 
tooth to the root and across the face is 
the property inherent in helical gear- 
ing which produces the smoothness of 
gear action. The action of engagement 
from one side of the tooth to the other 
is practically one of pure rolling. The 

and base. As the gear wears it is 
continually destroying the original 
tooth form. 

As to helix angles, values from 5 deg. 
up to 20 deg. have been tried in all 
classes of railway service. From the 
results of service data an angle of 
7 h deg. was prepared to meet all re- 
quirements, both for new and existing 
equipment. An angle that would pro- 
vide approximately 13 per cent end 
thrust seemed desirable to give a cush- 
ioning effect. 

The end thrust from a gear with 
7i-deg. helix angle produces sufficient 
thrust to reduce the lateral movement 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


of the rotating element and provides 
a cushioning effect on the bearing when 
there is lateral movement. An oil film 
is thus maintained. 

Most helical gears and pinions have 
a right-hand helix on the pinion and 
a left-hand helix on the gear. There is 
no particular virtue in this arrangement 
except for standardization. Where 
maintenance conditions make it desir- 
able to reverse the gears this can be 
done without difficulty. 

It has been felt for some time that 
the tooth form in general use in rail- 
way gearing is unsatisfactory. No 
improvements were suggested or con- 
sidered, however, as a change would 
introduce two standards. With the in- 
troduction of the helical gear the full 
advantage of the latest developments 
in tooth form could be utilized. 

With this condition in mind the tooth 
form adopted with the helical gear is 
of the so-called "long and short ad- 
dendum type." This has the following 
advantages over the old form: (1) In- 
creased strength; (2) greater rolling- 
action; (3) more metal from root of 
tooth to bore of pinion. 

The angle of approach is much 
smaller than the angle of recession in 
the new tooth, which tends to smoother 
tooth action. The new tooth is sub- 
stantially stronger at the base, to the 
extent of from two to two and one-half 
times. Further, the rolling action of 
the new tooth varies from 55 to 70 
per cent pure rolling, whereas the old 
14i-deg. tooth gives approximately 40 
per cent rolling in the involute zone. 
This is an increase of nearly 50 per 
cent rolling contact. A study of recent 
spur gear design has brought out sev- 
eral different types of long-and-short- 
addendum teeth. These all have specific 
advantages over the old form of spur 
gearing and are being given consider- 
able publicity. 

Accurate Tooth Form Possible 

The helical gear is manufactured by 
the generating process, the tool being 
a ground hob and the cutting edges 
being- of rack form. This method of 
tooth generation insures a high de- 
gree of accuracy. 

Comparative tests made on the effi- 
ciency of helical and spur gearing 
showed a slightly higher efficiency for 
the spur gear, the difference between 
them being so small as to be considered 

Obviously when vibration can be re- 
duced the over-all efficiency of helical 
gearing will be much greater than that 
of spur gearing. 

Extensive applications of helical 
gearing in electric railway service have 
been made with motors of from 250 hp. 
down to 25 hp. The gearing involved 
ranged from 2 diametral pitch to 4i, 
and from 53 in. face to 3 1 in., with 
ratios of 25:48 to 13:74 inclusive. It 
has also been applied in several sizes 
on electric locomotives. 

In most cases the helical gearing in 
electric railway service has been in 
operation from one to two and one-half 
years. The trial installation service 
mileage is approaching 400,000 with a 

minimum of approximately 150,000. 
Records show that in service helical 
gear operation reduces motor main- 
tenance, increases gear life, and re- 
duces gear noise and vibration. The 
lateral wear on motor and axle bear- 
ings is no greater than in spur gear 

With 20,000 to 25,000 helical gears 
and pinions manufactured to date, and 
with the increasing demand for them 
in initial installations and in changing 
over old equipment, it is obvious that 
the helical gear is with us and will help 
to solve the problem of quiet, efficient, 
long-life transmission. 

Equipment Men Discuss Problems 

Information Brought Out of Value to Men Engaged in Car Mainte- 
nance — Reclaiming Worn Air Compressors, Causes of Freezing 
in Piping, Experience with Ball Bearings, Etc., Discussed 

GATHERING forty-eight strong at 
Akron on June 8, 1921, the Asso- 
ciation of Electric Railway Men, 
comprising the equipment men of Ohio, 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia, joined 
in their usual informal round-table dis- 
cussion of rolling-stock maintenance 
matters. The discussion was led off 
by a paper on the maintenance of air- 
brake equipment by J. F. Craig of the 
Westinghouse Air Brake Company. Mr. 
Craig described the essential details of 
the various types of air brake equip- 
ment as used in city, interurban, sub- 
way, elevated and electric locomotive 

In the discussions that followed this 
paper it was brought out that there 
is a small amount of leakage at the 
power valve or foot valve used on safety 
cars. This leakage is most noticeable 
when the doors are open and the brakes 
are applied, as the operator at this 
time keeps his hand on the controller 
handle or his foot on the foot valve. 

In reply to a question as to the prac- 
tice of his company in reclaiming worn 
air-compressor cylinders, Mr. Craig said 
that it is rebushing cylinders and then 
reboring them to standard sizes. P. V. 
C. See of Akron said that his company 
is doing this work in an ordinary engine 
lathe. The necessary bushings are 
bought with rough bores and are 
finished after they have been pressed 
into position. I. E. Church of Pitts- 
burgh said his company is using bush- 
ings with four feet, which are used to 
bolt the castings to the lathe face- 
plate for turning and finishing. This 
scheme has advantages in making it 
easier to set up the casting in the lathe 
and results in better boring. 

Discussion regarding the types of 
air-compressor rings used brought out 
the fact that three rings of the snap 
type are now usually used. The ring 
near the end of the piston acts as a 
wiper and keeps the oil from getting 
into the air. Mr. Craig explained a 
method of checking air-compressor per- 
formance by use of an orifice testing- 
device with a standard-size tank. The 
time necessary to raise the pressure 
from point to point is taken, with the 
compressor removed from the car. The 
general opinion was that it is more sat- 
isfactory to remove compressors for 
testing and that uniform voltage is 
essential; otherwise the speed of pump- 
ing will vary. 

Discussion of remedies used to pre- 
vent freezing of the air system brought 

out that a generous quantity of radiat- 
ing pipe is of great assistance. Some 
companies have used anti-freeze de- 
vices with good results. Mr. Church 
described measures used by his com- 
pany with success, which included the 
installation of piping having a diminish- 
ing size at each elbow from the reser- 
voir to the first tank and from the 
second tank to the train line. The sizes 
gradually diminished from 11 in. down 
to I in. On some of the newer cars 
the size of piping used is diminished 
from 2 in. to I in. in the direction of 
flow. In general, freezing is due to 
insufficient drainage or "pockets" in the 
piping. This led to a discussion as to 
the best location for the air intake. 
Some representatives felt that the 
strainers clog up to a greater degree 
when located inside the car than when 
underneath, and a case was cited where 
the strainer was found to be stopped 
with a kind of felt mat which probably 
came from the plush seats. In regard 
to the location of the strainer on the 
car roof, it was explained that this in- 
volves an additional length of pipe with 
greater possibility of leaking. Mr. De- 
laney of the General Electric Company 
said that his company is recommending 
putting the strainer inside the car as 
the greatest difficulty had been expe- 
rienced from the dust when installed 
underneath. He said that the G. E. 
type of strainer should be cleaned about 
once in six months. 

Elimination of Keyways in 
Armature Shafts 

In the discussion as to the necessity 
for using keys to hold pinions in posi- 
tion, the general opinion seemed to be 
that satisfactory results could be ob- 
tained without keys. A. B. Creelman 
of the Youngstown Municipal Railway 
said that his company has done away 
with keys in the pinions and so far 
has never had a loose one. Others said 
they had been following this practice 
with good results. This led to a dis- 
cussion as to proper methods of install- 
ing pinions. In general most railways 
seem to be using the hot water method 
of heating pinions before they are in- 
stalled. J. L. Crouse of the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany said that the Norfolk & Western 
Railway is shrinking pinions on by 
using gas heat, as it is impossible to 
get a sufficiently high temperature with 
hot water. They are removed in the 
same way. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. I 

Experience with the use of ball bear- 
ings was varied. Some expressed the 
opinion that they have proved very 
satisfactory, while others had found 
them unsatisfactory. It was pointed out 
that a new type of roller bearing which 
is adjustable has been recently brought 
out by the Gurney Company for elec- 
tric railway use which eliminates the 
necessity for shrinking the race on the 
shaft. This has proved a particular 
source of difficulty in previous types. 

There was considerable discussion in 
regard to the cause of side wear on 
brushes, and it seemed to be quite gen- 
erally agreed that this was due to 
dirt principally. G. F. Randolph and 
P. D. Manbeck of the National Carbon 
Company said that to a certain extent 
this wear could be eliminated by us- 
ing close-fitting brushes which would 
assist in keeping out the dirt which 
starts the wear. Mr. Creelman said 
his company is getting much less side 
wear on the brushes on cars operated 
on paved streets than on equipment with 
no paving. He said that he was con- 
vinced that the cause of this side wear 
is dust, as he is averaging 8,000 miles 
per brush in ventilated motors and 12,- 
000 miles in closed motors. 

In the discussion on methods of clean- 
ing cars, one master mechanic stated 
that ONC cleaner, when diluted one 
part to seven or eight parts of water, 
will still bleach the enamel, where Mo- 
dock cleaner will not bleach but will 

darken the enamel somewhat. Another 
master mechanic said that he is getting 
twice the life with Old Dutch enamel 
than he obtained with flat colors and 
that he is using clear water and a 
little soap for cleaning this. Another 
member suggested that he has been very 
successful in brightening dull enamel 
by using an ammonia solution one part 
to about eight or ten parts of water 
followed immediately with clear water. 

The association was entertained at 
luncheon at the Portage Hotel by the 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Com- 
pany, after which the members made 
an inspection trip to the company's 

Rail-less Transportation to Be 
Taken Up by New England 

THE New England Street Railway 
Club has appointed a committee on 
one-man car, trackless trolley and 
motor bus operation. This committee 
is to study the possibilities of each form 
of transportation as it affects New Eng- 
land, and report at the February, 1922, 
meeting of the club. The personnel of 
the committee follows: Louis Pellissier, 
Holyoke, chairman; W. J. Flickinger, 
New Haven; H. F. Fritch, Eastern 
Massachusetts Street Railway; John 
Lindall, H. B. Potter, and H. W. Putney, 
Boston Elevated Railway; and Albert 
S. Richey, Worcester, Mass. 

meeting the early part of July, at which 
time the report for presentation will 
be prepared. 

Committee of 100 Postpones 

THE Committee of One Hundred 
of the American Electric Railway 
Association has decided to postpone the 
banquet scheduled to be held in New 
York on July 8, the reason being the 
impossibility of obtaining the speakers 
desired. The event will be held some 
time in the fall, when it is expected 
that an interesting program can be 

Association Takes Up Study of 
Trackless Transportation 

ON June 24 the newly appointed 
American Association committee 
on trackless transportation, of which H. 
B. Flowers, United Railways & Electric 
Company, is chairman, met at associ- 
ation headquarters to organize and dis- 
cuss how the general subject of rail- 
less transportation could best be 
presented at the coming convention. 
The other members of the committee 
present were C. B. Buchanan, Virginia 
Railway & Power Company; Edward 
Dana, Boston Elevated Railway; C. J. 
McPherson, J. G. Brill Company; R. 
W. Meade, formerly with Detroit Motor- 
bus Company, and W. H. Burke, proxy 
for C. W. Kellogg, Stone & Webster 
Management Corporation. Absent mem- 

bers were G. A. Green, Fifth Avenue 
Coach Company; H. L. Howell, National 
Railway & Appliance Company; A. W. 
McLimont, Winnipeg Electric Railway; 
H. A. Muilett, the Milwaukee Electric- 
Railway & Light Company; Albert S. 
Richey, Worcester, Mass., and E. B. 
Whitman, Public Service Commission, 
Baltimore, Md. 

A discussion brought out that about 
the only way in which something con- 
crete could be put before the October 
meeting would be for sub-committees 
to handle different phases of the subject 
and then to collate these reports into 
one for the committee as a whole. 

The report as planned will have a 
preamble on the field of the motor bus 
and a discussion as to the trackless 
trolley installation at Richmond, cover- 
ing mechanical features, costs, and 
passenger loading limitations. General 
information as to the type of bus, costs 
of operation, depreciation, etc., will be 
shown for different operating motor bus 
companies. Similar statistics will be 
given for foreign systems as well as 
for those in Canada. An analysis will 
be attached as to what might be a fair 
differential for fares as between bus 
and rail cars. The report will also in- 
clude an article on the desirability of 
a unified transportation system from 
the public service commission viewpoint. 

The committee hopes to hold another 

Committee on Reorganization 
to Meet 

meeting of the committee on reor- 
ganization to be held in New York on 
July 8. At this meeting the commit- 
tee expects to determine the changes 
in the constitution of the association 
necessary to carry out the reorganiza- 
tion plans under consideration and, if 
possible, to have its recommendations 
as to necessary changes in the organi- 
zation in definite form. Members who 
have suggestions which they desire to 
have considered by the committee should 
forward them to President Gadsden, if 
possible, before this meeting. 

Two-Day Session of Power 
Distribution Committee 

THE power distribution committee 
of the Engineering Association held 
a two-day meeting at the association 
headquarters, New York City, June 16 
and 17. Various reports of the sub- 
committees appointed on the seven sub- 
jects were presented and final decisions 
were reached regarding the reports of 
the committees to be presented at the 
October convention. Those present 
were Charles R. Harte, the Connecticut 
Company, chairman; C. C. Beck, Ohio 
Brass Company; Ralph W. Eaton, 
public service engineer, Providence, 
R. I.; H. H. Febrey, American Steel & 
Wire Company; C. A. Harrington, 
Pennsylvania Ohio Electric Company; 
C. H. Jones, Metropolitan West Side 
Elevated Railway, Chicago; F. McVit- 
tio, New York State Railways; M. D. 
Rosevear, Public Service Railway of 
New Jersey; W. Schaake, Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, 
and F. J. White, the Okonite Company. 

Rhode Island Men Have Annual 

ON SATURDAY, May 21, the Rhode 
Island Company section held its 
fourth and most successful annual out- 
ing at the Warwick Club, Warwick, 
R. I., with an attendance of over 100 
members. A program of sports was the 
feature of the afternoon, after which 
the members partook of a Rhode Island 
clam dinner. The outing was under 
the direct supervision of William B. 
Spencer of the transportation depart- 
ment and eight assistants from other 

On June 9 the last monthly meeting 
of the section for the current year was 
held. Superintendent Rounds of the 
Broad Street carhouse gave a talk on 
the duties of a carhouse superintendent. 
He stated that one of his duties was to 
provide enough service, but not too 
much, by means of trippers and extras. 
He said that he keeps informed of the 
riding on the various lines by encour- 
aging the platform men to give him 
this information. 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Recent Happenings in Great Britain 

Prospects Better for Settling Miners' Strike — Tramways Burn Coal 
— Many Roads Inconvenienced 

(From Our Regular Correspo7ident) 

At the time of writing there are good prospects of an early settlement of the 
coal miners' strike which has been running its disastrous course since the be- 
ginning of April. Renewed negotiations between the mine owners and the 
miners' representatives are promising. On the other hand there is serious 
trouble in the engineering trade and in the cotton industry over wage reduc- 
tions. Meanwhile, through the general dislocation caused by the coal strike 
the number of unemployed in the country has risen to about 2,000,000. 

Several by-products of the strike are 
of interest in the traction field. Per- 
haps the most significant, as regards 
the future, is the substitution of fuel 
oil for coal in the power stations. This 
substitution has been carried out in 
many places in the country. One of the 
earliest changes of the kind was 
adopted by the London underground 
railways at their generating station at 
Chelsea. This is the largest purely trac- 
tion station in the country. The large 
stocks of coal in hand were becoming 
exhausted and though some foreign 
coal was arriving by sea there was diffi- 
culty in getting it discharged owing to 
an embargo by the transport workers 
against handling imported coal. They 
thought it would help the cause of the 

In the ordinary way the Chelsea sta- 
tion needs to have fifty-two of its big 
water-tube boilers at work during the 
rush hours. The job was put in hand 
and was completed in about ten days 
of adapting the sixteen of the boilers 
for oil firing. This did away with the 
consumption of about 320 tons of coal 
a day. The oil is pumped from tank 
barges which bring it into the river 
creek beside the power station. The 
experiment has been successful and 
should necessity arise more boilers will 
be converted. The landing of foreign 
coal, however, went on, either through 
the defection of transport trade union- 
ists or through the employment of 
volunteers. The remaining trouble 
about the matter is that the coal from 
the continent of Europe is frequently 
of very poor quality for steam-raising 

In a number of places in the country 
full tramway services have been main- 
tained by adapting power station fur- 
naces for oil burning, and in some cases 
where services had been restricted the 
advent of oil has enabled every required 
car to be put on the road. Hull was the 
first place to change over completely. 
Leeds and Newcastle municipal stations 
followed. (What about the tale of 
carrying coals to Newcastle now?) The 
Carville station of Newcastle Electric 
Supply Company has to a considei-able 
extent been changed to oil burning. 
This is one of the biggest power stations 
in the country and supplies power for 
all sorts of purposes, including trac- 
tion on the North Eastern Railway 
local lines. In quite a number of other 
towns the change is being carried out, 
while in still others experiments are 
being made. At the power station of 

the London County Council Tramways 
everything has been made ready for 
effecting the change if necessary, but at 
the time of writing sufficient foreign 
coal has been available. Part of the 
auxiliary plant, however, is now oil- 

It has been found that at the present 
prices of coal and of fuel oil, and taking 
into account the relative calorific values 
of the two fuels, the oil is actually 
cheaper than the coal. Moreover, the 
supplies of oil are abundant and evi- 
dently easily obtainable. The cost of 
converting a furnace for the pm-pose 
of burning oil is small. It will thus be 
seen that unless there comes a very 
radical change in the relative prices 
of oil and coal there is little prospect 
of any reconversion of furnaces to coal 
burning. Thus once again the miners 
have been cutting off their noses to 
spite their faces. The whole situation 
is no doubt of deep interest to the 
great petroleum corporations of the 
United States and Mexico, especially 
when it is coupled with the announce- 
ment made in the end of May that all 
new ships of the British Navy will be 

A really Gilbertian situation arose 
during the month of May in connection 
with the London County Council Tram- 
ways. With the object of supporting 
the coal miners in their strike, the ex- 
ecutives of the trade unions of steam 
railway men and of general transport 
workers issued orders prohibiting their 
members from handling or transporting 
coal brought in from abroad. It should 
be clearly understood that the British 
Government did not arrange for this 
importation of coal for the purpose of 
breaking the strike, but solely in oi-der 
to keep essential public services and 
domestic supplies going. None of the 
imported coal goes to manufacturing 

To a very great extent the members 
of these trade unions ignored the or- 
ders of their executives and unloaded 
and transported the coal freely. Where 
they refused they were suspended from 
employment and plenty of volunteers 
were available to take their places. The 
threat of a general strike against this 
arrangement was futile; the rank and 
file would not agree. At the power 
station of the London County Council 
Tramways at Greenwich, however, the 
cranemen refused to unload the foreign 
coal from the ships bringing it in. 
They were suspended and volunteers 
took their places. (Volunteers are easily 

secured when hundreds of thousands 
of people are out of employment owing 
to the miners' strike.) 

Then a number of employees in the 
station — some skilled and some un- 
skilled — went on strike as a protest 
against the suspension of the cranemen. 
Apparently they did not see that if the 
cranemen had been successful in pre- 
venting the landing of coal the em- 
ployment of the other workers in the 
station would be gone. These men's 
places were also filled. 

The pig-headedness of the unions' 
executives concerned was noxt further 
demonstrated by their taking a tallot 
of all the London County Council tram- 
way employees on the question of strik- 
ing in sympathy with the power sta- 
tion employees. The ballot was duly 
taken but the trade union executive 
refused to publish the figures of the 
votes recorded. It is know*.-, however, 
that there was a very large majority 
against striking; apparently it was so 
large that the executives were afraid 
to make it known. Over the country it 
is safe to say that the enthusiasm for 
strikes is dying. The grim realities of 
the industrial and economic situation 
have been borne in on the rank and 

During May there was in many towns 
in England a gradual reduction of tram- 
way services owing to the scarcity of 
coal. The London underground rail- 
ways made various cuts for the same 
reason, despite the partial adoption of 
oil fuel already noted. A turn m affairs 
began, however, early in June. The 
transport workers and railwaymen's 
unions, realizing that their embargo on 
the unloading and transport of coal was 
futile, withdrew the prohibition notices 
to their members, and coal was there- 
after handled freely. Larger supplies 
began to arrive from abroad. Partly on 
this account and partly because of the 
conversion of more steam locomotives 
to oil burning, the main line railways 
began to increase their services which 
had been so much restricted, and im- 
provements also commenced in some of 
the reduced tramway services. 

In the end of May the oil-importing 
companies reduced the price of petrol 
by 6d. per gallon, bringing the cost 
down to about 3s. retail. The reasons 
assigned are that prices have recently 
fallen in America owing to production 
overtaking demand, that the rate of 
exchange has improved, and that 
freight rates are easier. The reduction 
is specially welcome to motor omnibus 
undertakings, particularly to the Lon- 
don General Omnibus Company, which 
is the greatest consumer of petrol for 
traction purposes in the country. That 
company, instead of having to restrict 
its services like the tramways, has been 
extending them. It has also added a 
series of one-day towns by motor chars- 
a-bancs through rural districts around 
London. A whole day's outing includ- 
ing luncheon and tea costs only 21s. On 
Whitmonday the company set up a new 
record, even for that holiday. By all 
its services it carried about 3,000,000 

News of the Ele&ric Railways 



Los Angeles Terminal Station 
Rehearing Resumed 

The case of the four large railroads 
entering Los Angeles proceeding with 
the construction of a union terminal 
depot on the Plaza site as recommended 
by the commission engineers was re- 
opened on June 16 in Los Angeles be- 
fore President H. W. Brundige and 
Commissioners H. D. Loveland, H. 
Stanley Benedict and Erving Martin. 
A review of this ruling of the commis- 
sion was given in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal, issue of May 7, page 

In asking for a rehearing of the case 
the companies affected have taken the 
stand that in instructing the various 
corporations to establish jointly this 
passenger terminal the commission was 
taking property without due compen- 
sation, and that its action, therefore, 
was not valid. 

The companies further contend that 
the problem of establishing a union 
passenger terminal in Los Angeles, 
affects three transcontinental railroad 
lines, and is therefore an issue which 
only can properly be passed on by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission. The 
companies opposing this order of the 
commission consist of the Southern 
Pacific, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Railway, the Los Angeles and Salt 
Lake Railroad, and the Pacific Electric 

Commission's Authority Defended 

The city of Los Angeles has secured 
the services of Max Thelan, former 
president of the State Railroad Com- 
mission, to assist its city attorney to 
argue against the reconsideration of 
this issue by the commission or its 
transfer to the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. The right of the Railroad 
Commission to issue an order relating 
to a terminal depot in Los Angeles will 
also be championed by Hugh Gordon, 
attorney for the commission. In oppos- 
ing the application of the railroads, the 
city attorney and special counsel, 
Thelan, take the stand that the com- 
mission has the power to make the rail- 
roads comply with its order. 

In answer to this position, it is the 
contention of the attorneys of the rail- 
roads that any such power, if ever 
possessed by the commission, was re- 
moved from that body by the passage 
by Congress of 1920 of the Esch-Cum- 
mings act, a law governing railroad 
transportation and establishing the 
status of the railroads following the 
turning back of the corporations to 
private control after the war. In the 
event that the commission refuses to 
grant a rehearing of the case, it is ex- 
pected that the companies will go before 
the State Supreme Court and there ask 
for a writ of review. Pending a deci- 

sion on this petition for a rehearing of 
the entire case, it is understood, that 
the opponents of the commission's order 
will not appoint representative engi- 
neers to a common committee for the 
purpose of working out the details of 
a union passenger terminal. This com- 
mittee of engineers was authorized by 
the railroad commission at the time the 
original decision was handed down on 
April 26, 1921. 

At this hearing on June 16 motions 
were made to strike out all reference 
to the Pacific Electric Railway in con- 
nection with the proposed union ter- 
minal, and to vacate the terminal order 
until such time as unquestionable juris- 
diction can be established. Frank Karr, 
attorney for the Pacific Electric lines, 
suggested that the company which he 
represents be taken entirely out of the 
proceedings except in the matter of 
Aliso Street grade crossings. The com- 
panies all laid stress on the fact that 
they are anxious to proceed at once with 
such grade crossing elimination as be- 
longs to each individual railroad, and 
desire to divorce the Plaza terminal 
question from grade-crossing elimina- 

Tax-Exempt Securities a Menace 

Representative McFadden of Pennsyl- 
vania, chairman of the committee on 
banking and currency, told the House on 
June 23 that the subject of tax free 
securities was one of the most vital 
now before Congress. He is the author 
of the resolution providing for a con- 
stitutional amendment making it pos- 
sible for the United States to levy an 
income tax on the interest received 
from investments in state and municipal 
securities. He considers exemption 
from taxation of the income from secur- 
ities of this kind as an offense against 
economic law, social justice and the 
American spirit of fair play. 

Mr. McFadden says that such opposi- 
tion as exists to the elimination of tax 
exemption arises for the most part 
from an exaggerated idea of its advan- 
tages to the borrower. According to Mr. 
McFadden loss in tax revenue by the 
issuance of tax-free securities is appal- 
ling. He says that the railways and 
public utilities, accustomed to look to 
the wealthy investor for leadership in 
meeting their needs for funds, have had 
to go afield and establish new channels 
not yet adequate to their needs. 

So far as action at Washington is 
concerned Congress appears to be mark- 
ing time on the revision of the revenue 
act pending some disposition of the 
tariff measure in the House. Those 
close to affairs expect to see some 
speeding up, however, for it is generally 
agreed that the country is getting im- 
patient and wants action. 

City Makes Counter Proposal 
to Security Holders 

A tentative proposal on the part of 
the city to the security holders of the 
New Orleans Railway & Light Com- 
pany was submitted to the Commission 
Council on June 22 by Commissioner of 
Finance Murphy. It is reported that 
a majority of the Commission Council 
has agreed to the plan outlined. Fur- 
ther consideration of it went over, how- 
ever, until the next meeting of the 
Commission Council. 

Plan Intended as Substitute 

The plan is intended as a substitute 
to the program outlined recently by 
Commissioner Maloney of Public Utili- 
ties, suggesting the employment of en- 
gineering and utility experts. Briefly, 
it recognizes the justice of the valua- 
tion of $44,700,000 placed upon the 
property by the Citizens' Advisory 
Committee of Forty and admits that 
any appeal to prospective investors 
will be useless without recognition of 
this valuation. It acknowledges that 
$5,000,000 of new money will be re- 
quired during the year following the 
reorganization of the company, and 
that thereafter $2,000,000 a year will 
be required for five years. It directs 
that the company shall be domiciled in 
New Orleans with its affairs controlled 
by residents- of New Orleans. 

On the purely financial side there 
would be provision for a return of 8 
per cent for the present on new money, 
with any sum earned beyond $3,000,000 
during the first year retained as sur- 
plus reserve. To the holders of present 
securities outstanding would go no 
more than 6.14 per cent, if earned. 
Further, the municipality would have 
authority to readjust the rate of al- 
lowable return, with an option in per- 
petuity on the property, at the base 
valuation of $44,700,000 plus any new 
money invested, not counting the sur- 
plus of earnings. The city is also to 
hold an option at 107 a share on the 
common stock, which is to be reduced to 

Reduction in Fare Rates 

As part of the agreement the cor- 
poration upon the discharge of the re- 
ceiver is to consent to reduction in 
rates and fare upon completion of the 
reorganization, which is to be effective 
by Oct. 15, 1921, and not later than 
Dec. 31. These reductions in rates 
would be as follows: 

A 7-cent fare; not more than $1.30 
per 1,000 cu.ft. for gas; no increase in 
the schedule of electric rates. 

All the rates just mentioned would 
continue until Jan. 1, 1923, unless con- 
ditions favor a lower basis of rates, in 
which event the rates would be further 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


C. C. Chappelle, who has been act- 
ing for security holders in the company, 
had this to say: 

All I can do under any circumstances is 
to see what can be done with the proposal 
in the investment market. I can only act 
as a connecting link between the city and 
the investor. But I should feel in duty 
bound to make every possible effort to 
carry through to success any proposition 
which in my judgment has a reasonable 
possibility of being sold to the investors. 

I will say frankly, however, that it is 
a step forward to bring a positive program 
before the public for discussion and for 
official action. Out of it a solution may 
come ; nothing could come from inaction. 

trades. These were dressed in the uni- 
forms of their occupation and carried 
the tools pertaining thereto. 

The company representation in the 
parade was very effective and was 
highly commented upon along the route 
of the march. 

Railway Participates in City's 
Diamond Jubilee Celebration 

Various stages in the development of 
the city of Milwaukee and of its in- 
dustries were depicted in a historical 
parade and pageant in Milwaukee on 
June 18 in connection with the Diamond 
Jubilee of the city. The pageant was 
participated in by the Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway & Light Company, which 
was represented both as a corporation 
and through the medium of its Em- 
ployees' Mutual Benefit Association. It 

Electrification of Dan Patch Line 
Being Considered 

The Minneapolis, Northfield & 
Southern Railway, formerly known as 
the Dan Patch line, has under way a 
project for electrification by overhead 
trolley. E. P. Burch, engineer, is mak- 
ing a careful survey of the whole sub- 
ject. No date is suggested for taking 
up the project as the report is not yet 

The company now has five GE-205 
gas-electric engines and three steam 
locomotives. One locomotive car is a 
private car, but the regular equipment 
has a combination baggage, smoker and 
coach, carrying ninety-four persons. 
Each of these cars is capable of hauling 
a trailer seating 104 persons. The ques - 

Part of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company's Section op 
Municipal Parade Commemorating City's Diamond Jubilee 

was planned to show the development 
of the industry and to have a fairly 
representative body of employees march 
in the parade. 

The company had in line an early 
type horse-drawn street car followed 
by the latest type electric car. The 
horse car was driven by one of the 
company's veteran employees, George 
Kuemmerlein, Sr., the father of the 
present superintendent of transporta- 
tion. Mr. Kuemmerlein, Sr., had been 
in active continuous service of the com- 
pany and its predecessors for thirty- 
seven years. The horse car was last 
in use in 1885. It seats fourteen, and 
was in great contrast to the latest type 
of electric car, seating fifty-two and 
equipped with the latest safety and 
pneumatic devices. 

The two cars were followed by the 
color bearers and band of the Em- 
ployees' Association and then in the 
order given by a body of veteran com- 
pany employees, a majority of whom 
had seen over twenty years of service; 
a body of trainmen, members of the 
Women's Auxiliary of the Employees' 
Association and finally in rows of eight 
representatives of the various depart- 
ments of the company arranged by 

tion to be determined is whether more 
of these motors are to be bought or the 
line electrified and the present equip- 
ment converted. 

This company has just announced 
that it will operate from the present 
terminus at Northfield into Faribault, 
Minn., over the Chicago Great Western. 
The company now has 60 miles of track, 
the main line from the city terminus in 
Minneapolis to Northfield b&ing 47 
miles. Through its connection at Fari- 
bault the management expects to make 
direct freight connections into Kansas 

Another plan in embryo is the con- 
struction of a freight yard terminal at 
Robinsdale, surburb of Minneapolis, to 
cost $26,000. The company recently 
was reorganized and the new plans are 
the result. By construction of 6 miles 
of track the company will reach Rob- 
binsdale, where it will connect with the 
Great Northern and the Soo lines. 

Michigan Interurbans Crash. — Two 

interurban trains of the Detroit United 
Railway crashed between Chelsea and 
Ann Arbor, Mich., recently and as a 
result live people are reported to have 
been killed. 

Telephone Announcers Tried in 
Boston Subway 

The Boston (Mass.) Elevated Rail- 
way is experimenting at the Park 
Street Subway Station with telephonic 
announcers manufactured by the Loud 
Speaking Telephone Corporation. A 
set of five speaking trumpets, all elec- 
trically connected, has been installed on 
the north-bound platform, and plugs 
for the connection of the transmitting 
apparatus are located at various con- 
venient points throughout the station. 

The platform attendant, or starter, 
carries the transmitter about with him, 
plugging-in at any convenient socket 
when he desires to make announce- 
ments. He uses this equipment for an- 
nouncing the destination of cars, the 
berths at which the various cars will 
stop in the station and for warning per- 
sons boarding the cars to let the pas- 
sengers off first. In this way, by the 
distribution of the speaking trumpets 
the entire length of the platform, one 
man can keep a large and constantly 
shifting crowd informed. 

The apparatus appears to have a 
special usefulness in times of emer- 
gency, when cars are delayed, or some 
accident requires rerouting or any other 
change in normal operation. At such 
times the natural impatience of pas- 
sengers hinders the work of the plat- 
form man as everyone crowds around 
him trying to ask individual questions. 
With this equipment he can retire to 
an inclosed booth and keep repeating 
all necessary announcements, which re- 
sults in equal service for all. 

A number of officials of the Boston 
Elevated have witnessed demonstra- 
tions, and are reported to have been 
much pleased. If the present experi- 
ment proves successful it is not unlikely 
that the use of this apparatus will be 
extended to other stations on the sub- 
way and rapid transit lines. It has 
been suggested that when an open 
drawbridge on the main tunnel and 
elevated line causes a blockade, a fre- 
quent and unavoidable annoyance on 
this system, these announcers at 
various stations along the route could 
be used to inform the waiting passen- 
gers as to the cause of the delay and 
its probable duration. 

New Road Seeks Franchise 

Application for a thirty-year fran- 
chise for the construction and operation 
of a single-track railway has been filed 
with the City Commission of Birming- 
ham, Ala., by the Norwood Street Rail- 
way. An ordinance granting the fran- 
chise and authorizing the construction 
was attached to the application and is 
now being considered by the commis- 

The proposed line will start at the 
end of the present Norwood line of the 
Birmingham Railway, Light & Power 
Company and will make a loop through 
the Norwood Boulevard development 
of the Birmingham Realty Company. 

Construction of the road will cost 
approximately $500,000, it was an- 
nounced by officials of the Birmingham 


Electric Railway Journal 

Realty Company. It will be built by 
the Realty Company through the Nor- 
wood Street Railway, a holding com- 
pany, and eventually will be transfered 
to the Birmingham Railway, Light & 
Power Company. 

The proposed ordinance granting the 
franchise and authorizing the line also 
authorizes the transfer of the road to 
the Birmingham Company. It provides 
that plans and specifications must be 
placed in the hands of the city engi- 
neer in four months from the adoption 
•of the ordinance and the road must be 
ready in one year. The Norwood bus 
line, which has been operated by a hold- 
ing company, will be discontinued when 
the new car line is completed. 

\[\ Chicago Renews Attacks 
on Its Utilities 

Evidently stirred to resentment by 
the loss of its pet measures in the 
Illinois Legislature, the city adminis- 
tration of Chicago has begun hostile ac- 
tion against the Chicago Surface Lines. 
Notice has been served on the compa- 
nies to show before the Illinois Com- 
merce Commission on July 13 why the 
present skip stop system for cars should 
not be abandoned. The city has also 
filed suit for $3,500,000 against the 
Chicago Railways for money said to be 
due under an "implied contract." 
Mayor Thompson sent a special message 
to the City Council asking that an 
appropriation be increased for the pur- 
pose of continuing the fight against the 
surface and elevated railways for reduc- 
tion of rates. 

The suit against the Chicago Rail- 
ways was for the city's share of the 
net receipts called for by the 1907 
ordinance. Payments were tendered to 
the city when due but were refused 
because the city" lawyers feared that by 
accepting these amounts they would 
acknowledge the existence of the 1907 
ordinances. The city claims that these 
ordinances were abrogated when the 
companies permitted the utilities com- 
mission to increase their rates of fare 
above the 5-cent basis. The money is 
now claimed as compensation for use of 
streets, and the city is hoping for a 
decision which will turn over the cash 
without prejudicing its pending litiga- 
tion against the companies. 

Special Counsel Cleveland stated that 
he is preparing to ask the new Illinois 
Commerce Commission to re-open the 
rate and valuation cases of the sur- 
face and elevated companies. 

Court Asked to Decide When a 
Board of Arbitration Is an 
Arbitration Board 

Whether the 250 conductors and 
motormen of the East St. Louis & Sub- 
urban Railway, East St. Louis, 111., will 
accept a cut of 19 cents an hour, effec- 
tive on July 1, was scheduled for con- 
sideration at a meeting on June 29. 

Notice of the cut was posted by 
President W. H. Sawyer, following the 
granting of a temporary injunction by 

Judge English of the United States 
District Court restraining a board of 
arbitration from continuing to consider 
the wage question after the company's 
representative on the board had re- 

The court held that the resigna- 
tion of C. E. Smith, a consulting engi- 
neer, practically ended the legal exist- 
ence of the board. The resignation was 
due to the pressure of other business 

President Sawyer offered to appoint 
a new member for the formation of a 
new board of arbitration, but this offer 
was rejected by the union (Amalga- 
mated) which sent for one of the inter- 
national officers who has arrived for the 
meeting June 29. 

The motormen and conductors now 
get 70 cents an hour, fiat. The cut 
brings the pay down to 46 cents an hour 
the first three months, 49 for the fol- 
lowing nine months and 51 cents after 
the first year of service. It is the rate 
that was established by the War Labor 
Board in 1919, and was in effect until 
April of last year. 

News Notes 

Property of Railway Burns. — Dighton 
Rock Park, built several years ago for 
amusement purposes by the Eastern 
Massachusetts Street Railway, was 
destroyed by fire on June 15. The park 
was located between Taunton and Fall 
River. The buildings in the park cost 
$60,000 when erected, thirty-six years 

Utility Commission Proposed in 
Louisiana.— The Constitutional Conven- 
tion has written into the new organic 
law of the State of Louisiana a section 
changing the Railroad Commission to 
the Louisiana Public Service Commis- 
sion. The commission, composed of 
three members, is empowered to super- 
vise, regulate and control all railroads, 
street railways and interurban rail- 
roads, gas, electric light, heat and 
power and other public utilities and to 
fix the rates. 

Foreign Countries Will Participate. — 

Another step has been taken by way 
of preparation for the International Ex- 
position to be held in Portland, Ore., in 
1925. The Senate has passed a bill 
authorizing the President to invite 
foreign countries to participate in the 
exposition. The exposition is intended 
to celebrate the completion of the trans- 
continental and Pacific highways, the 
centennial of the invention of the 
electro-magnet and to exemplify the 
development of hydro-electric energy. 

Union Paper Praises Mr. Arkwright. 

— The Union Leader, under date of May 
21, has reprinted an article which ap- 
peared in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal of April 23, entitled "Don't Hate 

Your Customers," by Preston S.. Ark- 
wright, president of the Georgia Raill- 
way & Power Company, Atlanta, Gat 
The article is characterized as a comi- 
mon-sense talk made by the president; 
of a progressive street railway. Fur- 
ther comment is made: "It is rare to) 
find a railway president who has suchi 
a keen grasp of operating detail as to> 
portray the importance of the occupa- 
tion and the trials, difficulties and opv 
portunities of motormen and conductors 
in the practical manner in which he 1 
presents them." 

Released From $1,000,000 Bond.— 
The Dallas (Tex.) Railway has been re- 
leased from its $1,000,000 improvement 
bond, made when it accepted the fran- 
chise in 1917 after extended negotia- 
tions between the city and the Strick- 
land-Hobson interests. Release from 
this bond was voted by the City Com- 
mission on June 8 when it was shown 
by the company that it had carried out 
all pledges made in connection with the 
granting of the new franchise. 

Recommends Subway and Elevated 
Line. — The annual report of Charles S. 
Butts, engineer of the Department of 
Public Utilities, St. Louis, proposes a 
subway for the Hodiamont line from 
Union Market to Spring Avenue with 
elevated tracks from Spring to Maple 
Avenue as a step toward the establish- 
ment of a better rapid transit system.. 
In the opinion of the engineer the entire 
project would cost no more than $3,000,- 
000. The report also suggests plans 
for the expeditious handling of passen- 
gers by the United Railways during 
the evening rush hours. 

Improvements Held Up in Seattle. — 
In discussing the need of paving on 
certain business streets in Seattle, 
which has been held up on account of 
the necessity of new car tracks and 
rails, superintendent D. W. Henderson 
of the Municipal Railways said: "If 
the Municipal Railway had all the 
money that the jitney buses took from 
us in the last year, we would be able 
to pave First Avenue now. The jitneys 
are taking $300,000 or more a year 
from the railway revenues. If we 
had that money, the $325,000 First 
Avenue work could be financed. 

Jitney Petition Denied.— The Public 
Utilities Commission of the State of 
Connecticut has denied the application 
of two operators to run automotive 
vehicles between Hartford and Man- 
chester, a distance of 10 miles. The 
commission finds the existing transpor- 
tation facilities of the trolley and steam 
road adequate to supply transportation 
requirements, except for about two peak 
hours each day, when auxiliary service 
would be a convenience. The applicant 
did not desire a certificate for this 
limited service. The commission pre- 
pared a lengthy decision covering the 
general controlling principles of com- 
petition, comfort, speed, general public 
requirements, permanency and continu- 
ity of service, etc. This is the first de- 
cision by the commission regarding 
public service motor vehicles to be made 
under the act of 1921 placing these 
vehicles under commission regulation. 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


-. rminin n imiii rr 

Financial and Corporate 

Importance of Adequate Junior 
Financing Urged 

The bulletin of the Investment Bank- 
ers Association of America for May 28 
contains the interim report of the sub- 
committee on electric securities pre- 
sented by Lucien H. Tyng, vice-presi- 
dent of W. S. Barstow & Company, Inc., 
on the "Importance of Adequate Junior 
Financing." Mr. Tyng says that it has 
been found true of all classes of public 
service companies that too much of 
their financing has been done by sales 
of bonds. 

A table which is included in the re- 
port prepared from figures by the 
Commercial & Financial Chronicle war- 
rants, Mr. Tyng says, very careful 
study and consideration by everyone in 
the business of handling securities of 
public service companies. A company 
cannot create and sell bonds of the 
highest class unless a proper propor- 
tion of the financing is done by the 
sale of stock. 

According to Mr. Tyng the best class 
of bonds should not exceed 60 per cent 
of the total value of the property of 
the company including intangibles, and 
It would be better for every class of 
security holders if the bonds were not 
in excess of 50 per cent of such value. 
This would leave 50 per cent to be 
raised by the sale of stocks which might 
be divided into 25 per cent preferred 
stock and 25 per cent common stock. 

The interim report by Mr. Tyng is 
particularly significant in view of the 
discussion which was aroused at Chi- 
cago last February at the meeting of 
the American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, at which financial topics were 
considered, among them "Present Mort- 
gage Requirements," presented by F. K. 
Shrader of Halsey Stuart & Company, 

It is the opinion of Mr. Tyng that a 
determined effort is being made by all 
public utility managers at the present 
time to bring a number of the points 
made in his thesis constantly to the at- 
tention of the Public Service Commis- 
sions, so that the commissions will 
appreciate the necessity of companies 
being allowed to earn an amount suffi- 
cient to pay dividends that will encour- 
age more stock investments. 

He said that one reason why invest- 
ment bankers had been reluctant to 

handle stocks is that in the past stocks 
were issued in excess of the amount of 
values represented. This, however, has 
not been so since the Public Service 
Commissions have had control of the 
situation and this question is removed 
entirely by the practice which has 
fortunately now been adopted in so 
many states, namely, issuing no-par 

Constitutionality of Revaluation 
Law Questioned 

E. W. Bemis has been chosen to rep- 
resent the City Council of St. Paul, 
Minn., as expert in the hearings before 
the Minnesota Railroad & Warehouse 
Commission upon the application of 
the St. Paul City Railway for increased 
fares, requiring a new valuation of 
the property. The cost for the expert 
testimony is to be added by the street 
railway to the cost on which fares are 

In the case of the Minneapolis Street 
Railway, the Council has no idea of 
employing a revaluation expert now, 
although Robert M. Feustal, New York, 
submitted his credentials. The city 
legal department plans to contest the 
constitutionality of the revaluation law 
at the outset by a motion to have the 
proceedings before the commission dis- 
missed on the ground that it has no 
jurisdiction. This will enable a quick 
appeal, or the city may continue to 
submit its testimony on the revaluation 
of the railway property under protest 
until the constitutionality of the law is 
passed upon by the courts. 

D. & H. Trolleys Do Not Meet 
the Cost of Service 

According to the annual report of the 
Delaware & Hudson Company for the 
year ended Dec. 31, 1920, its four allied 
trolley lines failed collectively to meet 
the cost of service. All of the roads 
failed to earn anywhere near the same 
net income as during the previous year. 

The report contains a review of the 
fare situation on each of its allied 
lines. The accompanying statement 
prepared from this review shows tne 
actual condition of the financial opera- 
tions for the year as compared with 


Revenues Net 

All Operating Operating 

Sources Expenses Revenue 

United Traction Co., Albany, 1920 $3,253,973 $3,149,206 $104,767 

1919 2,848,871 2,525,880 312,991 

Per cent change 14 22 24.18 3.67 

Hudson Valley Railway, 1920 1,099,072 986,998 112,074 

1919 971,426 815,903 155,523 

Per cent change 13.14 20.97 2.98 

Pittsburgh Traction Co., 1920 33,122 29,625 3,497 

1919 37,991 26,349 11,642 

Per cent change 12.29 12.43 70.00 

Troy & New England Ry., 1920 39,442 44,397 i,965 

1919 36,429 35,589 840 

Per cent change 8.27 24 72 690.00 

Italics denote decrease. 


6 78 

207. a 
5k. 11 

Seattle $987,568 Behind 

City Still Struggling With Problem of 
Meeting Interest and Debt Amorti- 
zation Charges 

According to figures contained in the 
memorandum financial statement of the 
city of Seattle, as of June 1, 1921, 
submitted by City Comptroller Harry 
W. Carroll, the municipal railway 
lines operated for the year at a total 
loss of $987,568. The total operating 
expenses of the system are placed at 
$4,908,122, to which are added deprecia- 
tion amounting to $677,178, and deduc- 
tions from the gross income of $865,- 
660, covering interest on general and 
revenue bonds, amortization of dis- 
count on revenue bonds and miscella- 
neous interest, bringing the grand total 
of expenses to $6,450,960. 

Operating revenues are given as 
$5,410,764, of which amount $5,283,658 
was derived from passenger car serv- 
ice. Miscellaneous revenues are placed 
at $52,628, bringing the grand total of 
all revenues to $5,463,392, this leaving 
a total net loss for the year of $987,568. 

In the profit and loss account, aside 
from the net loss above quoted, are 
losses of $3,559 caused by minor adjust- 
ments, expenses, charges, etc., and 
losses of $256,670 caused by delayed 
losses which accrued in prior periods, 
the largest item in this category being 
$174,216 for losses on ways and struc- 
tures retired from service. 

Accrual Basis of Accounting 

Establishing a system of setting 
aside each month's share of the bond 
interest and redemption charges accru- 
ing, the City Council utilities commit- 
tee finds that the municipal railway 
must make up $425,625 for these two 
items. Against these charges, the rail- 
way had $218,740 cash balance on hand, 
after deducting outstanding warrants, 
leaving $206,884 to be made up. 

The next interest payment on the 
$15,000,000 of bonds taken by Stone & 
Webster in payment of the lines is due 
on Sept. 1, but the money should be set 
aside in August to permit of its de- 
livery in New York by that date, ac- 
cording to Chairman Erickson. The 
first redemption installment on the 
$15,000,000 bonds paid as the purchase 
price of the Stone & Webster lines will 
be due next March 1, the sum $833,000 
likewise to be set aside thirty days 
earlier. Chairman Erickson said: 

The amount of interest charges accrued 
is $213,208, and as the cash on hand ex- 
ceeds that total we expect to have the 
interest money on hand in ample time to 
meet the Sept. 1 installment. Whether we 
will be able to make up the next eight 
months the $212,416 accrued for redemp- 
tion, but not set aside, is still uncertain. 
We may b"e able to do it without going on 
a warrant basis, as we did last February, 
when we set aside all receipts until we had 
enough to meet the interest charges. 

New Issue of Bonds Offered. — Coffin 
& Burr, Inc., Boston, Mass., are offering 
at 845 and interest to yield 71 per cent 
$2,500,000 first mortgage lien and re- 
funding gold bonds of the Alabama 
Power Company, Birmingham, Ala.. The 
notes are dated June 1, 1921, and are 
due June 1, 1951. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 58, No. 1 

Answers to Accounting Questions 

Final Installment of Questions and Tentative Answers Under the 
Uniform System of Accounts for Electric Railways 

The final installment of the tentative answers to questions raised in connection 
with the uniform system of accounts, prescribed by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, recently made public, appears in this issue. These answers have 
been approved by the Committee on Standard Classification of Accounts of the 
American Electric Railway Accountants' Association, but as they have not 
received the formal approval of the Interstate Commerce Commission it should 
be understood that the decisions do not represent its final conclusions and that 
they are subject to such revision as may be thought proper before final promul- 
gation in the accounting bulletins of the commission. 

THE case numbers covered below 
are from A-616 to A-626, and 
from B-102 to B-109, with certain 
omissions. The omitted numbers rep- 
resent cases which either are not of 
sufficient importance to justify publica- 
tion or involve questions upon which a 
definite conclusion has not been reached. 

Q. (A-616). To what account should 
be charged the value of material lost in 
transit between a 1 storeroom and a 
power plant, or between a station and 
the storeroom ? 

A. Loss of company material while 
in transit on carrier's own line is 
chargeable to account 77, "Loss and 

Q. (A-617). An employee whose 
pay is chargeable to account 63, "Su- 
perintendence of transportation," uses 
his own automobile in performance of 
his duties, the carrier assuming the 
cost of repairs and supplies for opera- 
tion. To what accounts should these 
expenses be charged ? 

A. The cost of repairs assumed by 
the carrier shall be charged to account 
38, "Vehicles and horses," and the cost 
of supplies to account 96, "Garage and 
stable expenses." 

Q. (4-619, b) Postal letter carriers 
are transported on basis of a monthly 
rate fixed by contract with postal au- 
thorities. To what revenue account 
should the receipts be credited? 

A. To account 101. "Passenger 

Q. (4-620, a). The franchise of a 
street railway company requires it to 
keep in good order and repair the pav- 
ing between and adjoining its rails. 
The municipality bore the cost of the 
original paving, and the railway com- 
pany carries nothing in its property 
accounts with respect to such coat. 
The municipality later replaced the 
paving with an improved kind, and 
charged the railway company the cost 
of the improved paving in the paving 
strip. What is the proper accounting? 

A. In the absence of a reserve to 
provide for replacement such portion of 
the cost of the new pavement as may 
properly be considered as applicable to 
the betterment should be charged to 
road and equipment account 511, "Pav- 
ing," and the remainder, including the 
cost of removing the old paving to ac- 
count 10, "Paving," in operating ex- 
penses. (See Cases 42 and 194 of Ac- 
counting Bulletin 14.) 

Q. (A-620, b). The purchase price 
of a street railway property, includ- 
ing its unexpired franchise, exceeds the 

appraised value of the physical prop- 
erty. The original franchise was free. 
What is the proper accounting for the 
excess payment? 

A. The entire amount paid shall be 
charged to road and equipment account 
527, "Cost of road purchased," for dis- 
tribution as provided in the text of that 
account. In the distribution the amount 
paid in excess of the appraised value 
of the physical property shall be in- 
cluded in account 545, "Franchises," if 
the franchise may be regarded as the 
consideration for the excess payment 
and has an unexpired life of more than 
a year; and shall be amortized by 
monthly charges to account 91, "Amor- 
tization of franchises," as provided in 
the text of that account. Otherwise, the 
full amount of purchase price shall be 
distributed to the appropriate primary 
road and equipment accounts exclu- 
sive of account 545. 

Q. (A-620, c). A street railway com- 
pany incidentally furnishes steam 
power to an ice plant, charging there- 
for the estimated actual cost of fuel, 
water and labor and an arbitrary 
amount for use of boiler. What is the 
proper accounting for revenues and ex- 

A. The amounts received shall be 
credited to revenue account 118, 
"Power." The expenses shall be al- 
lowed to remain in the operating ex- 
pense accounts appropriate for the 
carrier's own operations. 

Q. (A-621). To what account should 
be charged the cost of testing meters 
used for measuring electric power fur- 
nished by a power company to the car- 
rier's substation? These meters are 
owned two-thirds by the carrier and 
one-third by the power company. 

A. Assuming that the carrier's pro- 
portion of the cost of the meters is 
carried in account 543, "Substation 
equipment," the expense of testing 
shall be charged to account 48, "Sub- 
station equipment." 

Q. (A-622). Amounts billed against 
a carrier for work performed include 
cost of employees liability insurance. 
To what account should the payments 
be charged? 

A. If the cost of work is chargeable 
to operating expenses, the insurance 
premiums paid shall be charged to ac- 
count 93, "Insurance." (See Case 893, 
Accounting Bulletin 14.) 

Q. (A-623). A carrier sells for $390 
certain poles which were charged to 
the property account at $400, and with 
respect to which there is $40 in the 

reserve for depreciation. To what ac- 
count should be credited the $30 repre- 
senting the difference between the sale 
price and the ledger value less accrued 

A. The adjustment of the estimated 
depreciation previously charged to op- 
erating expenses and the actual depre- 
ciation as determined at the time of 
retirement shall be included in the ac- 
count in operating expenses appropriate 
for the cost of repairs to the property 
before retirement, which, in this case, 
is account 20, "Poles and fixtures." 

Q. (A-625). To what account should 
be charged the pay of section men for 
time used in cleaning and sanding stock 

A. To account 67, "Miscellaneous 

car-service expenses." 

Q. (A-626). To what account should 
be charged amounts paid to employees 
for personal property damage while on 
duty such as the breaking of eye 
glasses, the damaging of uniform, etc.? 

A. To account 92, "Injuries and 

Q. (B-102). To what account should 
be charged the cost of rubber boots car- 
ried on wrecking tool car as a part of 
service equipment? 

A. To account 78, "Other transpor- 
tation expenses." 

Q. (B-103-1). A carrier is reim- 
bursed by a realty company for the cost 
of grading a street. What is the ac- 

A. The entire cost of the grading 
shall be charged to account 504, "Grad- 
ing." The amount contributed by the 
realty company shall be credited to ac- 
count 305, "Donations." 

Q. (5-103-6). A carrier changing 
from the cable system to the overhead 
trolley system, and from narrow to 
standard gage track, removes a portion 
of the cable system. How should it ac- 
count for the cost of removing the cable 
structure, and for the cost of the new 

A. The book value of the portions of 
cable railway removed shall be credited 
to the appropriate road and equipment 
accounts and charged, less salvage, to 
the appropriate operating expense ac- 
counts. The cost of removing such 
cable railway parts shall also be 
charged to operating expenses. The 
cost of installing the electric railway 
track shall be charged to the appropri- 
ate road and equipment accounts. 

Q. (£-106). To what account should 
be charged the cost of handling sand 
for use in sand boxes of motor cars ? 

A. To account 11, "Cleaning and 
sanding track." 

Q. (5-107). To what account should 
be charged payments to a contractor 
for removing ashes from power sta- 
tion boiler room during a scarcity of 
regular help? 

A. To account 52, "Power plant em- 

Q. (5-109). To what account should 
be charged expense of maintaining 
small portable buildings used by flag- 
men at grade crossings? 

A. To account 24, "Buildings, fix- 
tures and grounds." 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Interurban Merger Rumored 

A consolidation of the Charleston- 
Dunbar Traction Company and the 
Charleston (W. Va.) Interurban Rail- 
road may result from the sale of the 
Dunbar line to Isaac Lowenstein. Mr. 
Lowenstein purchased the road for 
other parties. 

Fred M. Staunton, vice-president of 
the Charleston Interurban Railroad, 
said that negotiations are pending re- 
garding the future of the Dunbar line, 
but was not prepared to admit that 
any definite plans have been consum- 
mated. Former Governor W. A. Mac- 
Corkle, president of the Charleston 
Interurban Railroad, said that he was 
not in a position to give any informa- 
tion concerning plans for the merger. 

Mr. Lowenstein, the purchaser of the 
Dunbar line, is president of the Char- 
leston National Bank. He took over 
the property from Fred. Paul Grosscup, 
candidate for the Republican nomina- 
tion for Governor in the last primary 
election. The deal is said to have in- 
volved $400,000. 

Roads at Providence Sold 
at Foreclosure 

The properties of the United Trac- 
tion & Electric Company, Providence, 
R. I., were sold under foreclosure at 
Providence on June 24. The roads in- 
cluded were the Union Railroad, the 
Pawtucket Street Railway, the Rhode 
Island Railway, the Pawtuxet Valley 
Street Railway and the Cumberland 
Street Railway. 

They were bid in by Charles H. W. 
Mandeville, secretary of the joint re- 
organization committee, which has in 
its hands practically all of the out- 
standing securities of the companies 
liquidated. It is expected that the joint 
reorganization committee consisting of 
Colonel Samuel P. Colt, Stephen O. 
Metcalfe and Michael F. Dooley will 
assign the roads to the United Electric 
Railways as the successor company and 
that the owners of the stocks and 
bonds of the companies going into the 
reorganization will receive in exchange 
the securities of the United Electric 
Railways in accordance with the re- 
organization plan referred to at length 
in the Electric Railway Journal for 
Feb. 19, 1921, page 381. 

until this depreciation reserve fund was 

The utility operators expressed them- 
selves as in favor of regulation of their 
rates and matters affecting their serv- 
ice to the public, but declared unani- 
mously that if a corporation commis- 
sion or any other governmental body 
were empowered to direct the manage- 
ment of the company or to tie up its 
funds in such a manner as they could 
not be used in the business, they would 
be unable to finance a single improve- 

The testimony of John W. Shartel, 
vice-president and general manager of 
the Oklahoma Railway, the largest 
electric railway system in the State, 
was typical. He said that his company 
has not been able to declare dividends 
for several years but has used all its 
surplus and net earnings in taking care 
of depreciation of the property and in 
putting in new improvements. 

In the opinion of Mr. Shartel the 
proposed order would probably tie up 
about $200,000 of the funds of his com- 
pany which otherwise would be put 
back into the property for improve- 
ment. He also declared that when he 
went to borrow money to build or ex- 
tend interurbans or improve his city 
lines the banker would flatly refuse to 
make the loans. 

Utilities Oppose Depreciation 
Reserve Fund 

The proposal of the Corporation 
Commission of Oklahoma to require 
all public service corporations in the 
State to set aside a depreciation reserve 
fund met with united opposition from 
the owners and managers of public 
utilities, at a hearing before the com- 
mission on June 21. The commission 
reserved decision. 

The hearing was on proposed order 
No. 168 to compel each utility and other 
public service corporation to set aside 
a cash fund to cover depreciation of its 
property and prohibit it from paying 
out in excess of 6 per cent dividends 

Interest Payment Planned 

Frank Hedley, president and general 
manager of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company, New York, N. Y., 
announced on June 27 that the com- 
pany would be able to pay the in- 
terest on the Interborough Rapid Tran- 
sit 5 per cent bonds and the rental on 
the Manhattan Railway, both due July 
1, provided earnings are maintained on 
a fairly normal basis. 

Public Service Net Increases in May. 
- — The Public Service Railway, Newark, 
N. J., reports a net income of $65,816 
for May, 1921, compared with $55,099 
for May 1920. There were 38,456,479 
passengers carried during the month. 
Of this number 31,285,489 were revenue 
passengers and 7,170,990 were transfer 

Interborough $189,152 Behind.— The 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 
New York, N. Y., failed by $189,152 dur- 
ing May, 1921, to meet the cost of serv- 
ice. In May a year ago the company 
showed a surplus of $26,152. The net 
corporate deficit for the eleven months 
ended May 31 is $3,997,003 against a 
deficit of $1,953,664 for the same period 
of 1920 and compares with the twelve 
months' deficit of June, 1919, which 
was $3,810,340. 

Service Discontinued. — The Eastern 
Massachusetts Street Railway sus- 
pended service on June 13 on the 
Woburn-Billerica line in accordance 
with a notice given out that jitney 
service would have to be withdrawn if 
operation of cars was to continue. 
The railway has provided for the needs 
of school children. The action of the 
company is not understood by the 
Mayor of Woburn, who stated that ha 
had vetoed all jitney licenses in an 
effort to retain the railway service. 

Abandoned Line Runs Again. — The 

Nassau Electric Railroad, a part of the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit System, began 
operating the Ocean Avenue line on 
June 25 after a suspension of almost a 
year. The line runs between Bergen 
Street and Sheepshead Bay. Receiver 
Garrison has announced that the reve- 
nue would at least pay operating ex- 
penses from June 25 to Sept. 1, the 
vacation season when travel to the 
shore is heavy. The receiver reserves 
the right to discontinue service after 
Sept. 1. 

Carhouse Property Sold. — The largest 
single piece of property in the down- 
town district of Long Beach, Cal., 
owned by the Pacific Electric Railway, 
was sold recently to H. E. Ware, a 
capitalist and investor of Long Beach 
for $125,000. The property, located on 
the northeast corner of American Ave- 
nue and Fifth Street, was used as a car- 
house and freight depot by the railway. 

Refunding Proceeding Completed. — 
Kidder, Peabody & Company, Boston, 
Mass., and Charles H. Dilman & Com- 
pany, Inc., Portland, Me., recently of- 
fered for subscription at 100 and in- 
terest $600,000 of five-year collateral 
trust 8 per cent bonds of the Cumber- 
land County Power & Light Company, 
Portland, which does the entire electric 
light, power and street railway busi- 
ness in Portland, Me., and vicinity. The 
new bonds are issued to retire $614,000 
of 7 per cent notes which matured on 
June 1. 

Master Commissioner Appointed. — 

Richard Swing, Cincinnati, was ap- 
pointed master commissioner with in- 
creased authority to determine the as- 
sets and liabilities of the old Cincin- 
nati & Columbus Traction Company by 
Judge Stanley C. Roettinger of the 
Hamilton County Common Pleas Court 
during the week ended June 11. Mr. 
Swing will determine what assessment, 
if any, should be levied against stock- 
holders, who are said not to have paid 
in full for their stock. He was appointed 
in a similar capacity about a year ago, 
but lacked sufficient authority to probe 
deeply enough into the affairs of the 
company and Judge Roettinger's ap- 
pointment gives Mr. Swing the neces- 
sary authority to take testimony from 
claimants and stockholders. When the 
old Cincinnati & Columbus Traction 
Company failed, one of the largest 
creditors was the Union Savings Bank 
& Trust Company, Cincinnati, a bond- 
holder for $300,000. Stockholders of 
the company objected to the bank's 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

Fare Five Cents 

Detroit Back to Old Rate, but Charges 
One Cent for Transfer — Tem- 
porary Arrangement 

A new 5-cent rate of fare and 1 cent 
for transfer within the present one- 
fare zone went into effect on the De- 
troit (Mich.) United Lines on June 19. 
The City Council on recommendation 
of Mayor Couzens accepted the counter 
proposal made by the company after 
the city's plan of a 6-cent fare and 
ten tickets for 50 cents had been con- 
sidered by the company and rejected. 

In response to the Mayor's verbal 
request that the company begin to 
operate service in the one-fare zone on 
the fare schedule proposed by the city 
A. F. Edwards, vice-president of the 
Detroit United Railway, replied in a 
letter to the Mayor that the company 
did not believe the city's proposal would 
serve either the city's or the company's 
purpose. He stated that if the com- 
pany is to try operation with a 5-cent 
paid fare, a 5-cent cash fare must be 
tried in place of the tickets suggested 
by the city. The proposal was made 
without prejudice to the rights of any 
or all parties and was subject to the 
one consideration that the company's 
and city's accountants should, with all 
due diligence, agree on a system of ac- 
counting acceptable to both parties. 
Under the agreement approved by the 
Council, the transfer charge will cover 
a transfer ride over the same routes 
as were previously in force. 

No Change in General Transfer 

The very same transfer ride that 
could be obtained on the payment of a 
single fare will continue to be given 
for the 5-cent cash fare and the cent 
for a transfer. On the so-called double 
transfer routes the one transfer will 
serve the purpose. The 1-cent charge 
for transfers is not to apply on the so- 
called intermediate transfers, namely, 
where a person requires two transfers 
to reach his destination. In that case 
the charge is only 1 cent. 

The new fare arrangement will not 
affect the city's attitude toward the 
redemption of rebate slips attached to 
strips of tickets sold by the company 
since June 9, 1920, according to Cor- 
poration Counsel Wilcox. 

While the plan has not been in effect 
long enough to determine whether or 
not the company can operate success- 
fully on a 5-cent fare, figures prepared 
by the city's auditors and presented to 
the Council show that the new fare 
rates will save about $1,000,000 a year 
for car riders and will give the Detroit 
United Railway about $180,000 more 
revenue than the city's proposal. It is 
Gtated that between 25 and 30 per cent 
of the riders now get transfers and 
will have to pay the 6-cent fare to ride 

to their destination. According to fig- 
ures presented by the Mayor, the De- 
troit United Railway will earn ap- 
proximately $200,000 a month above 
operating expenses under the new fare 

The agreement can be terminated at 
will by either party. 

Both John J. Stanley, president of 
the company, and Fielder Sanders, City 
Street Railway Commissioner, believe 
that the experiment may result in 
thousands of additional car riders daily 
in the territory affected. 

Low Fare Experiment 

Cleveland Planning to Sell Two Tickets 
for Five Cents Good Down-town 
—Riding Off 11 per Cent 

An experiment to determine whether 
an extremely low rate of fare will stim- 
ulate short haul car riders is to be made 
in Cleveland starting in July. The 
Cleveland Railway has asked the City 
Council to approve a plan for charging 
only a 2i-cent fare for riders in the 
tlown-town business sections of the city 
instead of 6 cents plus 1 cent for a 
transfer, which is the prevailing rate 
for the entire city. 

The street railway committee of the 
City Council has already assented to 
the scheme as have also the directors 
of the railway. The City Council is ex- 
pected to approve the change before it 
adjourns for its summer vacation. 

The experiment is being attempted 
because ever since last December there 
has been a steady decline in the number 
of riders in Cleveland, until at present 
the reduction in the number of riders 
over last year amounts to 11 per cent. 

The experiment is not a test of a 
zone system, railway officials point out, 
because it will merely take in the down- 
town section. As described by Paul 
Wilson, assistant secretary of the com- 
pany, the experiment is being made for 
these reasons: 

We want to learn whether this low rate 
of fare will revive and increase the car 
riding habit of Cleveland ; second, whether 
it will thereby increase our receipts, and 
third, whether it will aid in eliminating 
pedestrian congestion in the down-town 
section. We'd rather have jammed street 
cars than jammed sidewalks. 

Under the new rate of fare for the 
down-town section, two tickets will be 
sold for a nickel or four for a dime. No 
transfers will be given in connection 
with these tickets. The easterly limit 
of the low fare zone will be East Twen- 
tieth Street, the southeasterly East 
Fourteenth Street, and the westerly 
limits the east approach of the new 
high level bridge. The territory cover- 
ing the low fare zone is a little more 
than a square mile in extent. v 

Cleveland is admirably suited to the 
experiment, because town-bound cars, 
that is, those headed toward the Public 
Square, are pay-enters, while out-bound 
cars or those headed away from the 
Square, are pay-leave variety. 

Operation of the lines in May was 
conducted at a net loss of $38,000 which 
caused a drop of $22,000 in the com- 
pany's interest fund, the fare barometer. 

Eight Cents in Spokane 

City Commission Resents Ruling by 
State Body and Threatens to Turn 
Jitneys Loose 

The Department of Public Works of 
the State of Washington on June 14 
issued an order granting the request 
of the two Spokane railways, the Wash- 
ington Water Power Company and the 
Spokane & Eastern Railway & Power 
Company for an increase in fares from 
6 cents to 8 cents for a continuous one- 
way passage. 

Immediately the city authorities who 
have been opposing the raise of rates 
proceeded to put into execution their 
threat that they would let loose the 
flood of jitneys which they have held 
in check for the last several years. 

There is unquestionably a strong 
popular resentment against the rail- 
ways seeking an advance now: How- 
ever, an effort is being made to effect 
some sort of a compromise between the 
railways and the city. 

On June 16 a delegation from the 
Chamber of Commerce protested before 
the City Commissioners against the re- 
turn of the jitney to Spokane streets. 

The trainmen retaliated by threaten- 
ing not to run any cars. They were 
counseled, however, by the officers of 
their companies not to do anything 
that might further complicate matters. 

The whole matter now rests on the 
efforts of the Spokane business men 
who are trying to bring about a settle- 
ment before the jitney situation reaches 
a condition which must be disastrous 
both from the standpoint of Spokane 
and that of the railways. 

The Board of Public Works is a de- 
partment of the state government 
under the new administrative code of 
the state which has succeeded the for- 
mer Public Service Commission. 

The following tabulation gives the 
income statement for the Washington 
Water Power Company for 1920, based 
on the fares in effect during that year, 
and at the proposed 8-cent fare had 
the proper charges been made for elec- 
trical energy used in operating cars: 

Based on Based on 

6-cent fare 8-cent fare 

6-mill 12-mill 

power power 

Operating- revenues 

(gross) $1,085,345 $1,364,480 

Operating expenses.. 699,419 789,904 

Depreciation (retire- 
ment expense).... 152,955 152,955 

Taxes 78,814 78,814 

Total deductions from 

revenue $ 931,188 $1,021,673 

Operating income 

(available for inter- 

„ es t) 154,155 342,805 

Rate base 4,500,000 4,500,000 

Rate of return 3.43% 7.63% 

The commission says that the Wash- 
ington Water Power Company has 
shown by the evidence to have actually 
lost money during 1916 and 1918 and to 

July 2, 1921 Electric Railway Journal 33 

have earned less than 1 per cent in 
1917 and to have earned approximately 
3i per cent in 1919 and 1920, and the 
Spokane & Eastern Railway & Power 
Company has actually lost money dur- 
ing all of these years. 

The commission estimates that the 
8-cent fare will enable the Spokane & 
Eastern Railway & Power Company to 
earn $113,605 more in the next twelve 
months than it earned in 1920, result- 
ing in an allowance over operating ex- 
penses and taxes of $6,306 to apply 
toward its depreciation reserve, but pro- 
viding nothing for interest upon its in- 

In disposing of the contention of the 
city that the roads should consolidate 
the commission said that a physical 
consolidation was possible and un- 
doubtedly some saving in operating ex- 
penses could be accomplished thereby, 
but there are legal and financial rea- 
sons why a consolidation cannot be ef- 
fected within such time as will avoid 
the increase of rates now necessary. 

President Huntington of the Water 
Power Company said in part: 

If the Spokane public will read carefully 
the full text of the decision of the State 
Department of Public Works in the street 
railway fare case, we believe that it will 
not approve of the intention expressed by 
representatives of the city government of 
turning jitneys loose. 

We believe that the public wants efficient 
railway service and is willing to pay the 
reasonable cost of providing it. For years 
before the war, when cost of labor, ma- 
terial and taxes were far below present 
levels, the railways earned little more than 
the bare cost of keeping them going 

The railway property of the Washington 
Water Power Company is one of the most 
economically operated properties of its 
kind in the country. No other property 
of its size in the country operates entirely 
with one-man cars. The saving from this 
practice alone is more than $300,000 a year 
If we operated with two-man cars we 
should have had to ask the Department of 
Public Works for a 10-cent fare at least. 
The public benefits directly, and in large 
measure, by such economies, and the com- 
pany is entitled to consideration for the 
efficiency it has shown. 

Six Cents in Knoxville 

The Tennessee Railroad & Public 
Utilities Commission has issued an 
order allowing the Knoxville Railway & 
Light Company, Knoxville, Tenn., to 
charge a 6-cent fare effective July 3. 
The original application of the Knox- 
ville Company was for a 7-cent fare and 
a 2-cent transfer charge. This was 
denied, the commission holding that the 
company had not set up sufficient rea- 
son for such an advance. 

Referendum Threatened 
in Cincinnati 

Members of a citizens' committee 
have begun to circulate petitions in an 
effort to bring about a referendum 
election to prevent the recent railway 
ordinance passed by the Council of 
Cincinnati, Ohio, from going into effect. 
Under the amended ordinance, as 
passed by the City Council, the Cin- 
cinnati (Ohio) Traction Company is 
compelled to reduce fares one-half cent 
on Aug. 1. If the citizens' committee 
should obtain 10,000 signatures of 
voters to the petitions and file the peti- 
tions with the Board of Elections before 

July 14, the ordinance can not go into 
effect. The committee in explaining the 
motive for circulating the petitions said 
that the amended street railway ordi- 
nance did not insure any permanent 
lowering of the rates of fares. 

Emergency Rates Asked 

Minneapolis and St. Paul Railways Seek 
Temporary Increases Pending Final 
Adjustment of Valuation 

The Minneapolis Street Railway and 
the St. Paul City Railway on June 22 
filed with the Minnesota Railroad & 
Warehouse Commission applications for 
new valuations for the two lines. They 
were in printed form and covered de- 
tails of finance and service. 

In the case of Duluth an application 
already has been filed for an emer- 
gency increase in rate of fare from 5 
to 7 cents and four tickets for 25 cents. 
The hearing was set for June 28 as to 
justification for the new rate. In the 
case of Minneapolis an existing ordi- 
nance permits the railway to increase 
its rate from 6 cents to 7 cents or four 
tickets for a quarter, or if it wants a 
higher rate it may go right to the state 
commission. In an application soon to 
be filed the St. Paul City Railway will 
ask an emergency rate of fare. The 
present ordinance there, allowing a 
6-cent rate, which now prevails, does 
not contain any feature like the Minne- 
apolis grant providing for an automatic- 

In St. Paul taxes are being paid on 
about $16,000,000 of property and in 
Minneapolis a tax on about $21,000,000, 
which amounts do not include all items 
to enter into the valuation. The valua- 
tions to be obtained will be a basis for 
the permanent rate of fare. Experts 
will be retained by both cities, but the 
company will pay the bill in each case. 

Inasmuch as thirty days is allowed 
before hearing on a petition it would 
be Aug. 1 before the emergency rate, 
if allowed, will take effect in St. Paul. 


(From Peoria Star, Oct. 13, 1920) 

Motormen and Conductors Elated 
Over Increase of Pay 20 Years 
Ago to $11 and $13. 

Twenty years ago, as noted in the 
files of The Star, the Central Railway 
Co. posted notices in the car barns, 
announcing an increase in the pay of 
conductors and motormen of $1 a 
week. This brought their pay up to 
$11 and $13 a week, depending on the 
length of service, which, it is stated, 
caused much satisfaction among the 

1900 1920 Increase 

Wages 18!4c per hr 59c per hr 218% 

Fares 5 cents 7'/, cents 50% 

Street Car Fares Have Not Increased in 
Proportion to Wages and Other 
Operating Expenses 

Peoria Railway Co. 

At that time the 7-cent fare would be 
put in Minneapolis also, making the 
fares uniform in the two cities. 

Except for an extension and con- 
struction now under way in Minneapolis 
the company expects to do no more 
work in 1921, notwithstanding $1,000,- 
000 of intertrack paving and $600,000 
more extensions have been ordered. 

The companies desire the temporary 
rates to be effective until such time 
as the Railroad & Warehouse Commis- 
sion may definitely determine the value 
of the property involved, at which time 
the company hopes that the commis- 
sion will establish an equitable rate of 
fare assuring a reasonable return on 
the fair value of the properties. 

It is pointed out that this is particu- 
larly important in view of the fact that 
both Minneapolis and St. Paul are ask- 
ing for large capital expenditures, and 
until the commission has definitely fixed 
the value of the property it will be im- 
possible to secure the needed money to 
make the improvements demanded. Ac- 
cording to the Twin City Rapid Tran- 
sit Company, which controls the Min- 
neapolis and St. Paul lines, the one idea 
of the railway h to be placed in a posi- 
tion where it can furnish adequate serv- 
ice at cost and have its credit estab- 
lished so that it can secure the needed 
money to keep pace with these growing 

Peoria Now and Twenty 
Years Ago 

The story of Peoria's transportation 
growth and progress is told in the 
May issue of the Peorian, the offi- 
cial publication of the Peoria Associa- 
tion of Commerce. The old mule car 
was replaced in 1889 by the electric 
car which started the modern electric 
improvements on the Illinois Traction 
system. The accompanying announce- 
ments from the same publication give 
some important facts about Peoria in 
the twenty years of its development. 

How the Story of Peoria's Transportation Growth Is Told by the Peoria 
Chamber of Commerce 


Electric Railway 
— and Progress 

Railroads are built with the object in view of 
serving some prosperous territory. 

If the men who promote such a commercial car- 
rier operate freight and passenger trains on frequent 
schedule, the terminal points benefit. 

Peoria is so situated on the Illinois Traction Sys- 

The northern point of the largest electric railway 
in the world, Peoria, taps the richest commercial and 
natural resource field in the state. 

All Peorians have an equal advantage in partaking 
of the opportunities the Traction presents in Illinois. 

Traction System 

(McKinley Lines) 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

Circuit Court of Appeals Sanc- 
tions Higher Fare 

A recent decision in the United 
States Circuit Court of Appeals au- 
thorizes the Augusta-Aiken Railway 
& Electric Corporation, Augusta, Ga., 
to put into effect a 10-cent fare and 
further enjoins the Railroad Commis- 
sion from interfering with the collec- 
tion of that fare. 

The company a few months ago ap- 
plied to the commission to increase its 
fare from 7 cents to 10 cents. After 
the commission had denied the request 
the company instituted injunctions in 
the Federal Court. The case was 
heard by three judges. The principal 
contention of the railway was that a 
fair return upon the value of the prop- 
erty could not be made at the 7-cent 
rate of fare. 

Renews Petition for Increased 

The Carolina Power & Light Com- 
pany, Raleigh, N. C, has renewed its 
petition before the Corporation Com- 
mission for an 8-cent cash fare with 
four tickets for 30 cents. At a recent 
hearing the company claimed $11,373 
net earnings for the first four months 
of this year, which, it was stated, was 
insufficient to pay interest on bonds 
and dividend on a plant valued at 
$828,741. This case was continued 
from last January, when the commis- 
sion ordered the city of Raleigh to 
show cause, on May 1, why the rate 
should not be advanced. The present 
rate is 7 cents, with four tickets for 
25 cents. 

Commission Rules on Cumberland 
County Fares 

Announcement was made by the 
State Public Utility Commission that 
the Bridgeton & Millville Traction Com- 
pany, operating in Cumberland County, 
N. J., had been allowed an increase in 
fare, from 6 cents per zone to 7 cents 
per zone, in Bridgeton and between 
Bridgeton and Millville; 7 cents per 
zone on the Bridgeton- Port Norris line 
between Bridgeton and Newport. The 
board allowed a charge of 8 cents per 
zone on what was characterized as the 
"non-paying" part of the system, south 
of Newport, between Newport and 
Bivalve. The rate to school children 
may be increased to 1% cents a mile by 
the company. 

The freight rates allowed by the 
board were 25 cents for the first 100 
lb. or fraction of this weight, and 10 
cents for each additional 100 lb. Where 
$1.60 per ton is now charged by the 
concern, $1.80 per ton was allowed by 
the board. 

Wants Higher Fares. — The Athens 
Railway & Electric Corporation, Athens, 
Ga., plans to petition the State Railroad 
Commission for a 10-cent fare. The 
present rate is 6 cents. 

| Transportation | 
News Notes | 

Interurban Rates Advanced. — The 

Pacific Northwest Traction Company 
has announced increased rates amount- 
ing to 4 cents on each commutation 
book ticket issued on its electric inter- 
urban line between Seattle and the 
Everett city limits. Only book rates 
are affected by the increase. 

Two-Cent Advance in Fares. — The 
Corporation Commission of North Caro- 
lina recently permitted the Salisbury & 
Spencer Railway, operating in Concord, 
to increase its rates from 8 to 10 cents. 
The company is controlled by the North 
Carolina Public Service Company and 
would have had to abandon service had 
the commission refused the petition. 

Four Cents a Mile Authorized. — 
Judge Louis FitzHenry, in the United 
States Court, has granted authority to 
the Galesburg & Kewanee Electric 
Railway, operating between Kewanee, 
111., and Galva, 111., to increase its pas- 
senger fare to 4 cents a mile. The dis- 
tance between the two cities is 8 miles 
and the fare is now 32 cents instead of 
28 cents. 

Commission Orders Summer Rates. — 

The Public Service Commission recently 
issued an order directing the United 
Railways & Electric Company, Balti- 
more, Md., to put into effect a single 
fare between city points and River View 
Park after 1 p.m. on Satui'days, Sun- 
days and holidays and after 7 p.m. on 
other days. The ruling is to continue 
until Sept. 18. 

Seven-Cent Rate Continues. — The 
Missouri Public Service Commission re- 
cently extended the 7-cent fare on the 
lines of the United Railways, St. Louis. 
The 7-cent rate was allowed some time 
ago and the time is extended until Dec. 
31, 1921. This extension is permitted 
on the showing of the receivers' finan- 
cial report for the first four months of 
this year. 

Bus Route Planned. — Applications to 
operate motor buses have been filed 
with the California Railroad Commis- 
sion by the San Francisco-Oakland 
Terminal Railways and the Napa-Soda 
Springs Bus Company. The key-route 
system is planning to operate a route 
from Fortieth Street, Oakland, to Mont- 
clair. The other route now being 
planned is between the cities of Napa 
and Soda Springs. 

A Privilege for the Blind. — For the 
accommodation of the blind, Supt. 
Gaboury of the Montreal Tramways 
has given out notice that passes will 
be issued authorizing a blind person 
and his guide to ride for one fare. Ac- 
cordingly, conductors will accept one 
cash fare in payment of passage of 
two such people. The pass will be 
printed in both the French and English 

Hearing on Fare Matter Scheduled. — 

Exceptions have been taken to the 
ruling filed recently by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission to the effect 
that the fare over the Daisy Line be- 
tween Louisville and New Albany be 
reduced to 8 cents. The case will be 
argued before the entire Commission 
cn July 14, and until that time the com- 
pany will collect the regular 10-cent 
straight fare. 

Court Upholds Railway. — Federal 
authority recently sustained the right 
of the Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Rail- 
way, Ottawa, 111., to charge 10 cents 
for rides within the city of Ottawa. 
This decision rules out the petition of 
the city asking the Federal court to 
prohibit the company from charging 
10 cents for rides which start and ter- 
minate in the limits of Ottawa. The 
company is also permitted to charge 
3.6 cents per mile for passenger traffic. 

Responsibility Fixed for Long Island 
Wreck. — The Interstate Commerce 
Commission deals at length in its sum- 
mary of accident investigation reports 
for January, February and March, 
1921, with the side collision between 
two passenger trains on the electrified 
Atlantic Avenue branch of the Long 
Island Railroad, near Autumn Avenue. 
The accident occurred on Feb. 13. It 
resulted in the injury of twenty-three 
passengers and one employee. The 
commission says the accident was 
caused by the failure of a motorman 
properly to observe and be governed 
by signal indications. 

Anti One-Man Car Legislation Fails. 
— Efforts at Tallahassee to legislate 
Tampa's one-man cars — and those in 
St. Petersburg and other cities too, for 
that matter — out of business were 
finally frustrated by the tacking on of 
an amendment to the second section 
which practically kills the bill as ef- 
fectually as striking out the enacting 
clause. The amendment has stuck 
through the final two readings in the 
House, despite efforts to knock it off, 
ar.d on the final reading the bill was 
passed and sent to the Senate, where 
it is confidently expected it will either 
die in committee or pass as it stands. 
The amendment exempts from provi- 
sions of the act those cars specifically 
designed for operation by one person 
and known as "one-man cars," 

Increased Rates Announced. — In- 
creased passenger fares have been an- 
nounced by the management of the 
Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid 
Railway, Kingsville, Ont. One-way 
fare has been advanced from 2.5 cents 
a mile to 2.75 cents a mile; round-trip 
fare from 2.25 cents a mile to 2.47 cents 
a mile; monthly commutation books 
from 0.81 cents a mile to 1 cent a mile. 
In commenting on these changes A. 
Eastman, vice-president and general 
manager, said: "Only that we have en- 
joyed a splendid patronage and that 
operating expenses have been kept 
down to the lowest possible point con- 
sistent with safety this company 
would not have been able to continue 
operation during the past three years.'" 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


W. I. Boyer has recently been 
appointed secretary and treasurer of 
the Hot Springs (Ark.) Railway. He 
is stepping into the place formerly 
occupied by W. E. Johnson. 

Journal Editor to Aid in Prepara- 
tion of Business Paper Course 

Henry H. Norris, managing editor 
of the Electric Railway Journal, has 
been delegated by the New York Busi- 
ness Publishers' Association to assist 
in the preparation of a course of in- 
struction for present and prospective 
employees in the field of business 
papers The association has contracted 
with the Business Training Corporation 
of New York City to administer this 
course and Mr. Norris' first duty will 
be to supervise the preparation of text 
material. In this work he will have 
the assistance of a co-operative group 
of from thirty to fifty leaders in the 
business papers field. In the fall 
groups of students will be organized 
among the several publishing organiza- 
tions and these groups are to be led 
by experts in the publishing field with 
whom Mr. Norris will co-operate dur- 
ing the initial period of the work. This 
new work will not interfere with Mr. 
Norris' connection with the Electric 
Railway Journal except that it will 
require a portion of his time for a few 

E. A. MacMillan, formerly superin- 
tendent of the Stroudsburg (Pa.) Trac- 
tion Company, and but recently returned 
from imprisonment in Soviet Russia, 
following his service with the British 
Railway Mission to Siberia, has been 
appointed assistant superintendent to 
the Atlantic City & Shore Railroad, 
Atlantic City, N. J. 

Edward T. Stotesbury, who was long 
chairman of the board of the Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Company, has ac- 
cepted the chairmanship of the Commit- 
tee on Finance of the Sesqui-Centennial 
Association of Philadelphia, to which 
he was recently appointed by Mayor 
Moore. His associates on the commit- 
tee are: John Wanamaker, John H. 
Mason, Ellis A. Gimbel, and Mrs. 
Arthur H. Lea. 

Fred B. Johnson, who recently re- 
tired from the Indiana Public Service 
Commission, has added his name to the 
list of those who, after severing their 
connections with the commission, im- 
mediately took up the practice of util- 
ity law. In an announcement Mr. John- 
son states that although he will en- 
gage in a general practice he will spe- 
cialize in utility matters. He states 
that in connection with Jesse I. Miller, 
of Washington, he will handle all mat- 
ters before federal departments and 
bureaus in Washington, more particu- 
larly in connection with federal taxa- 
tion questions. 

Frank B. Musser, president of the 
Harrisburg (Pa.) Railways, is now in 
Edinburgh, Scotland, attending the con- 
vention of the International Rotary 
Club as the official delegate of his local 

club, of which he is vice-president. He 
sailed from this country on June 1. At 
the close of the convention he will take 
advantage of the opportunity to tour 
France and Belgium. His plans were 
to return to the United States about 
July 15. His friends among the rail- 
way men who attended the annual meet- 
ing of the Pennsylvania Street Railway 
Association, which met recently in Har- 
risburg, missed his joviality at the ses- 
sions. To remind him that he was not 
forgotten, the secretary of the asso- 
ciation was instructed to cable him the 
greetings and best wishes of the 

John H. Moran, general auditor of 
the Boston Elevated Railway, was called 
to Rochester, N. Y., recently in the 
capacity of adviser to the arbitration 
board, whose duty it was to settle the 
controversy between New York State 
Railways and its employees in Utica, 
Rochester, Syracuse and surrounding 
cities who are members of the Amal- 
gamated Association. The arbitration 
board was composed of Judge Arthur 
Sutherland of Rochester, an impartial 
member; B. E. Tilton, vice-president of 
the company, and James H. Vahey, 
Amalgamated counsel, representing the 
company and the Amalgamated Asso- 
ciation respectively. As announced on 
June 18 the arbitration board reduced 
the wages approximately 111 per cent, 
with a maximum hourly rate for the 
trainmen of 53 cents. 

C. E. Davies has been appointed by 
the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers as managing editor of the 
society's publication to succeed the late 
L. G. French, who was both editor and 
manager. Mr. Davies was graduated 
from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Insti- 
tute with the degree of M. E., and for 
several years afterward specialized in 
industrial management work. He be- 
came associated with the Smith-Pre- 
mier works of the Remington Type- 
writer Company, Syracuse, N. Y., in 
1914. During the war Mr. Davies was 
in the Ordinance Department at the 
Frankford Arsenal. Mr. Davies joined 
the editorial staff of the society in 
March, 1920, as associate editor of 
Mechanical Engineering and assistant 
secretary in charge of meetings and 
publicity. The society thus secured to 
assist on its publication and to help 
with its meetings one especially trained 
in large diversified business undertak- 

R. M. MacLetchie, comptroller of the 
Alabama Power Company, Birming- 
ham, Ala., has recently taken over the 
duties of treasurer of the property 
formerly discharged by R. A. Mitchell, 
who was vice-president as well. As 
comptroller and treasurer Mr. Mac- 
Letchie will have complete supervision 
of all finances and accounting of the 

John I. Fistus, who had been asso- 
ciated with the transportation depart- 
ment at the main office of the Penn- 
sylvania-Ohio Electric Company in 
Youngstown, died on May 15. 

Joseph F. Devender, for twenty-eight 
years in the employ of the Brooklyn 
(N. Y.) Rapid Transit Company, is 
dead. Mr. Devender served in many 
capacities with the company, ranging 
from helper to general foreman in the 
line department, which position he held 
at the time of his death. 

Michael J. Duffy, a veteran of forty 
years' service with the street car lines 
of Boston, died suddenly at his home in 
Roxbury, Mass., April 28. Starting in 
as a conductor on the horse-car lines 
he rose through the ranks, until at the 
time of his death he was assistant 
superintendent of Division 2 of the 
Boston Elevated Railway. His funeral 
was attended by officials of the com- 
pany and by several hundred fellow 
employees and friends. 

Will H. Bloss, manager steam rail- 
road sales of the Ohio Brass Com- 
pany, Mansfield, Ohio, died at his home 
in Mansfield on June 22. Mr. Bloss was 
born on April 4, 1869. After receiving 
bis engineering training at the Indiana 
University he started his career in 
railroad work. At one time he was 
division engineer on the Santa Fe Rail- 
road and later he held a position as 
chief engineer of the Indiana Union 
Traction Company. He went to the 
Ohio Brass Company in November, 
1906, from the Buda Company of Chi- 
cago and was district sales manager in 
some of the Central States until about 
a year ago. From that time he had 
devoted his effort to electrification de- 
velopment and other steam railroad 

Lieutenant Daniel Sylvester, head of 
the traffic squad of the San Francisco 
Folice Department, died on May 16. 
He was recognized nationally as an au- 
thority on traffic matters and was 
elected president of the National Traf- 
fic Officers' Association which con- 
vened at the Civic Auditorium in San 
Francisco last August. The convention 
came to San Francisco as a result of 
his efforts. To Mr. Sylvester belongs 
credit for many of the nation's traffic and since taking charge of the 
San Francisco traffic squad he had ac- 
complished more in that direction than 
any other one man. In an effort to stir 
up interest in the larger cities of the 
country in a national and uniform law 
governing traffic in all of the states of 
the nation, Mr. Sylvester toured the 
country last year and visited forty- 
eight cities. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

Manufactures and the Markets 


Prompt Deliveries of Heavy 
Track and Shop Tools 

Prices Are Thought to Have Touched 
Bottom but Buying Continues 
Very Light 

Excellent deliveries are quoted by 
manufacturers at the present time on 
heavy tools used on the roadbed and in 
shops, such as rail benders, rail saws, 
track drills, car movers, wheel presses, 
punches, shears, lathes, etc. Despite 
the present low level of production in 
this field producers are generally pre- 
pared to make immediate shipments on 
material that does not have to be made 
to specification. Where a product re- 
quires special manufacturing, work can 
be started as soon as orders are re- 
ceived, for back-order files have long 
since ceased to exist. 

Substantial stocks of raw material 
are reported on hand which are gradu- 
ally being made up into finished prod- 
ucts of which a fairly large supply is 
also reported. Plants have either re- 
duced their number of workmen or are 
running on part time, with operation 
ranging from about 25 to 40 per cent 
of capacity. 

Manufacturers in this line apparently 
do not expect much improvement in 
business before the fall montfhs. Lower 
labor costs may aid the steam railroad 
business somewhat as this class of buy- 
ing has been even proportionately worse 
than electric railway demand. Steam 
roads have been so cramped financially, 
manufacturers state, that their buying 
of shop and track tools has been almost 
nil, whereas some of the electric roads 
have purchased up to about 25 per cent 
of their normal requirements. 

Prices on track material such as rail 
saws, rail benders, track gages and 
levels, car replacers, etc., are said to 
have dropped about 20 per cent since 
the first of the year and are about 40 
per cent below peak prices. Quotations 
on standard heavy shop products are 
down from about 10 to 20 per cent 
since the first of the year, and on 
special products selling prices are about 
20 per cent below last year's quota- 
tions. The general view of manufac- 
turers is that prices have about reached 
their bottom level. 

Market for Car Ventilators Not 
Very Active 

Demand for car ventilators is light — 
in line with slack buying of new rolling 
stock on the part of electric railways. 
The outlook for future business is said 
to be fairly good, but not much hope 
of a reaction from the present dullness 
is held out before this fall. One of the 
newcomers among manufacturers of 
railway ventilating equipment reports 

that because of the present condition of 
railroad buying the company has drifted 
into the building ventilation line, where 
its product is equally applicable and is 
meeting with good success. 

Stocks in some instances are not 
carried where ventilators are a special 
product, but in others a fair surplus 
supply is held. Deliveries are generally 
very prompt although production is 
down to about 50 per cent of capacity. 
Working forces have been cut in half 
in some instances, too. Prices in this 
field were not advanced in line with 
many other products, it is stated, and 
therefore quotations at present are only 
about 5 to 10 per cent lower than last 

Quiet Market for Car Seats 

Demand for Repair Seatings Is 
Inactive, Too — Rattan Prices Down 
25 to 30 per Cent 

Activity in the car seat market at 
present is confined to the production of 
old orders and little else. Buying of 
new seats is very light; there has been 
some business emanating from St. 
Louis, Detroit and Canada in line with 
buying of cars there, but the general 
situation is dull. Even the repair mar- 
ket is inactive and producers are well 
stocked with rattan material as a 

At this same time last year there 
was about six times as much business 
going through as there is at present, 
one producer reports. Steam railroads 
are not placing orders either, the export 
market is lifeless, and the motor-bus 
seat trade, which started to come to the 
front rapidly, has fallen way off. Some 
hope is placed in the inauguration of 
lower labor costs on steam roads as the 
turning point for better demand from 
that quarter. In this connection the 
item of high labor cost is probably the 
one factor that shows up the electric 
railway market more than any other, 
it is stated. 

Production of car seat manufacturers 
is down low because it follows actual 
buying pretty closely. Stocks of fin- 
ished seats are not carried, but cus- 
tomers' requirements as to delivery can 
be well met at the present time. Orders 
are filled in from two to four weeks 
depending upon their size. 

Prices have come down considerably, 
a large seat manufacturer dropping the 
price on rattan, for instance, about 20 
per cent the first of June. This makes 
a total reduction of between 25 and 30 
per cent from the peak on that product. 
Slat seats are said to be close to bottom 
because the lumber market is well 

Leather has receded considerably too, 
but imitation leather has been coming 
to the front on the grounds of price. 

Railway Buying of Jacks 
Is Light 

Prices Are Down 20 to 25 per Cent 
and Production Is at One-Quarter 
of Capacity 

Railway buying of lifting jacks has 
been limited this year, manufacturers 
report, and bids fair to remain so for 
the balance of 1921. Electric railways 
have purchased nothing at all in this 
line, some producers state, while others 
have received a small amount of busi- 
ness. Orders for the most part are not 
large individually and very often cover 
emergency requirements. Steam rail- 
road buying has figured even to a less 
extent in the market. Unfavorable 
labor and financial conditions and the 
smaller volume of material to haul on 
transportation lines and in the auto- 
mobile-truck field too have all aided 
in reducing sales of jacks. In general 
it is not expected that the balance of 
this year will record a very great in- 
crease in demand. 

Prices on jacks used by railways are 
down from 20 to 25 per cent from the 
peak. This drop has been aided by a 
cut in wages amounting to 20 per cent 
in some instances. Raw material has 
also receded, in fact it is stated that 
this item is not expected to go enough 
below its present level to justify fur- 
ther lowering of prices. The main thing 
that would aid in bringing about addi- 
tional lower costs on jacks, it is said, 
is greater production, for at the pres- 
ent time the industry is down to about 
25 per cent of capacity operation. This 
decreased output of course entails big- 
ger overhead expenses. 

Raw material stocks in the field have 
been large in some cases but are being 
worked off without being replaced with 
new material, in view of present con- 
ditions. Fairly large stocks of the 
finished product are held in compari- 
son with current buying, so that in 
general immediate shipments can be 
made. In view of the limited produc- 
tion, however, sudden orders for cer- 
tain jacks occasionally exhaust the sup- 
ply and then a delay of some weeks 
may occur before the stock is replen- 

Strong Buying of Armature 
and Coil Winding Machines 

Their Increasing Use Accounted For by 
the Elimination of Stocking Several 
Different Types of Armatures 

Good buying of armature and coil 
winding machines is reported at pres- 
ent. Demand seems to be well dis- 
tributed and is coming not only from 
railways in this country but also in 
good volume from foreign countries. 
The basis of this business, the amount 
of which seems rather surprising in 
view of general market conditions, is 
said to be the desire of railways to 
lower costs through doing away with 
the need of stocking complete arma- 
ture and field coils. In some instances 
it has been found necessary to stock a 
dozen or more different types of these 

July 2, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


where various motors are used. With 
the use of these machines only certain 
frames need be carried in stock as they 
can be made up as quickly as needed. 

As this product is more or less of a 
specialty prices have not receded to any 
great extent, a drop of about 5 per 
cent from the peak having 1 been made. 
Production is well up at present with 
deliveries being made promptly, or in 
about ten days to two weeks. 

Exports of Railway Material in 
First Quarter of 1921 

Railway cars and parts with a total 
value of $15,073,000 rank twenty-third 
out of a list of the 100 chief exports of 
this country during the first quarter 
of 1921, according to the foreign com- 
merce department of the U. S. Cham- 
ber of Commerce. Steel rails with a 
total value of $10,552,000 are thirty- 
first, railway switches, frogs, splice 
bars, etc., totaling $3,336,000, are sev- 
enty-first; bolts, nuts, rivets, etc., fol- 
low in seventy-fifth place with a valua- 
tion of $2,987,000; railroad ties are 
ninety-seventh with a value of $1,926,- 
000, and electric switches, in ninety- 
eighth place with a value of $1,890,000, 
are the last railway item listed. 

Comparison is also made on a few of 
the items that can be figured on a 
poundage basis, with the volume of 
exports in the first quarter of 1920. 
On this basis exports of steel rails 
increased from 28,529,000 lb. in the 
first three months of 1920 to 37,465,000 
lb. in 1921, and bolts, nuts, etc., from 
20,210,000 lb. to 30,937,000 lb. Like- 
wise, exports of railroad ties in the 
first quarter jumped from a total of 
700,000 ties in 1920 to 1,300,000 ties 
this year. 

Good Stocks of Car-Type 
Lightning Arresters 

Lightning arrester sales, so far as the 
car-type are concerned, have been dis- 
appointing thus far, manufacturers re- 
port. This of course is a direct result 
of the light buying of new cars by 
electric railways. In anticipation of 
the usual seasonal volume of business 
in this line producers generally stocked 
up on car-type arresters, so that de- 
liveries there are immediate. Central 
station buying is fairly good at present, 
however, though not up to the standard 
of last year, which was also below par. 

On large types deliveries can be 
made in from two to eight weeks, the 
lower range being for arresters gen- 
erally used and the longer delivery for 
highly special products. Stocks of the 
finished product on this type are not 
carried, but a good supply of parts is 
reported on hand ready to assemble. 
Prices are down 10 per cent, this drop 
being made earlier in the year. 

New Electric Railways in Japan 

The Mushashi Electric Tramway 
Company, recently organized, according 
to the Japan Advertiser, will construct 
and operate a new electric railway from 
Tokyo to Yokohama, running approxi- 
mately 1J miles inland from the pres- 
ent railroad. The company will also 
furnish electricity to the villages along 
the route. Plans are being made, 
according to a translation from the 
Nagoya Shimbun, for the construction 
of a railroad between Nagoya and 
Yamada, a distance of 61 miles. Power 
is to be supplied by the Ibugawa Elec- 
tric Power Company. Another line 30 
miles long, around the Chita Peninsula, 
is planned by a company to be capital- 

ized at 4 000,000 to 5,000,000 yen. A 
translation from the Osaka Mainichi 
Shimbun reports a project for the con- 
struction of an electric railway between 
Nagoya and Gifu. It is proposed to 
construct a double-track line paralleling 
the present steam railway, at a cost of 
about 7,000,000 yen. 

Rolling Stock 

The United Railways & Electric Company, 
Baltimore, Mil., is expecting to buy twenty 
gasoline motor buses. 

Detroit (Mich.) Municipal Railway is 

considering the use of trackless trolleys as 
feeders to be used in conjunction with the 
regulation municipal ownership cars. Speci- 
fications and prices for furnishing fifty of 
the new type cars will be asked. If bids 
sufficiently attractive to justify the pur- 
chase of the trackless cars are received by 
the commission that type of car will prob- 
ably be used on some of the lines in the 
less congested districts. It is the belief of 
the commission that the cars can be manu- 
factured in Detroit. The approximate cost 
is estimated at $7,000 each, and the main- 
tenance is placed at 18 cents per mile as 
against 40 cents per mile for motor buses. 

Track and Roadway 

Indiana Service Corporation, Fort Wayne, 

Ind., owing to poor business conditions, has 
postponed for about a year building an 
extension to the proposed big truck plant 
which is to be erected just east of Fort 
Wayne, Ind., by the International Harvester 
Company. But the Greater Fort Wayne 
Development Company — a million dollar 
concern — which was formed among Fort 
Wayne business men to build homes, etc., 
is going ahead with plans already formed 
for putting in streets for the plant. One 
of the things which the development com- 
pany is pushing right along is the exten- 
sion of the car lines of the Indiana Service 
Corporation to the plant. Recently a re- 
monstrance was filed by residents of Pon- 
tiac Street against the double tracking of 
that street, so another route to the plant 
east of the city is being considered. 

Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Railway may 
resume work on an extension in East Mar- 
ginal Way and First Avenue South, sus- 


June 1, 1921 July 1, 1921 

Copper ingots, cents per lb 13.25 12. 87 J- 13. 00 

Copper wire base, cents per lb 15.00-15.25 15.00 -15.25 

Lead, cents per lb 5.00 4.40 

Nickel, cents per lb 41.00 41 00 

Zinc, cents per lb 5 .20 4.75 

Tin, cents per lb 31.50 29 1 2i 

Aluminum, 98 to 99 per cent, cents per lb 28.00 28.00 


June 1, 1921 

Rubber-covered wire base, New York, 

cents per lb 

Weatherproof wire base, New York, cents 

per lb 

Standard Bessemer Steel Rails, per gross 


Standard open hearth railB, per gross ton . . 
T-rail, high (Shanghai), per gross ton, 

f.o.b. mill 

Rails, girder (grooved), per gross ton, 

f.o.b. mill 

Wire nails, Pittsburgh, cents per lb 

Railroad spikes, drive, Pittsburgh base, 

cents per lb 

Tie plates (flat type), cents per lb 

Tie plates (brace type), cents per lb 

Tie rods, Pittsburgh base, cents per lb. . . 

Fish plates, cents per lb 

Angle bars, cents per lb 

Rail bolts and nuts, Pittsburgh base, 

cents per lb 

Steel bars, Pittsburgh, cents per lb 

Sheet iron, black (24 gage), Pittsburgh, 

cents per lb 

Sheet iron, galvanized (24 gage), Pitts- 
burgh, cents per lb 

Galvanized barbed wire, Pittsburgh, 

cents per lb 

Heavy copper, cents per lb 

Light copper, cents per lb 

Heavy brass, cents per lb 

Zinc, old scrap, cents per lb 

Yellow brass, cents per lb 

Lead, heavy, cents per lb 

Steel ear axles, Chicago, pe> net ton 

Old car wheels, Chicago, per gross ton. . . 
Steel rails (short) Chicago, per gross ton . 
Steel rails (rerolling), Chicago, gross ton.. 
Machine shop turnings, Chicago, net ton. 

10.75 to 
8.25 to 
5 25 to 
2 . 50 to 
4.00 to 
4 . 25 to 
14 . 50 to 
1 3 . 50 to 
14 . 00 to 
13 50 to 
3.50 to 

II .00 

5 50 


June 1, 1921 


July 1 


45 00 
47 00 








. 10 


June 1, 1921 

Galvanized wire, ordinary, Pittsburgh, 

cents per lb 3 70 

Car window glass (single strength), first 

three brackets, A quality, New York, 

discount* 82% 

Car window glass (single strength), first 

three brackets, B quality, New York, 

discount 82% 

Car window glass (double strength, all 

sizes, A quality) , New York, discount. . . 83% 

Waste, wool. centB per lb 1 1 to 1 7 

Waste, cotton (100 lb. bale), cents per lb. 

White 9.00 to 14.00 

Crbred 6. 50 to 12.00 

Asphalt, hot (150 tons minimum), per 

ton delivered 33.00 1o 35.00 

Asphalt, cold (150 tons minimum, pkgs. 

weighed in) , per ton 33 .00 to 36.00 

ABphalt, filler, per ton 36 .00 

Cement, New York, per bbl 3.20 

Linseed oil (raw, 5 bbl. lots), New York, 

per gal .78 

Linseed oil (boiled, 5 bbl lots), New York, 

per gal .80 

White lead (100 lb. keg), New York, 

cents per lb .13 

Turpentine (bbl. lots) , New York, per gal. . 65 

* These prices are f.o.b works, with boning charges extra. 

July I, 
9.50 to 
7.25 to 
4.75 to 
2 . 50 to 
4 00 to 
3 . 50 to 
13.00 to 
1 3 00 to 

1 2 00 to 

1 3 00 to 
3 . 50 to 


Ju'y 1, 1921 

82 Jo 


10 to 17 

8.50 tc 1 1 .00 
6.00 to 8 50 

33.00 to 35.00 

33 .00 to 36 .00 
36 00 






Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 1 

pended some time ago after expenditure of 
$27,000. This was forecast when Superin- 
tendent of Municipal Railways D. W. Hen- 
derson was asked by Oliver T. Erickson, 
chairman of the Council utilities committee, 
to furnish an estimate of cost of complet- 
ing the work. The line would give a direct 
route for South Park cars,' now routed 
through Georgetown. 

Utah Light & Traction Company, Salt 
Lake City, Utah, as a result of a reduction 
in the wages of its employees now has at 
its disposal $125,000 for needed repairs to 
paved streets, track and for overhauling 

Power Houses, Shops 
and Buildings 

[Tnion Traction Company, Anderson, Ind., 

lost a substation at Maxwell, Ind., by fire 
during a recent electrical storm. 

Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn., 

will hereafter be furnished with power for 
the operation of its cars in Derby, Ansonia 
and Shelton from the Derby Gas & Electric 
Company. Formerly current was generated 
by the Connecticut Company's own plant in 

Professional Note 

J. O. G. Gibbons and C. E. Brown have 
formed a partnership under the name of 
Gibbons & Brown, consulting engineers 
specializing on power plants and industrial 
problems, with offices in the Ordway Build- 
ing, Newark, N. J. Mr. Gibbons was 
formerly with Westinghouse, Church, Kerr 
& Company and is now engaged in private 
practice. For the past four years Mr. 
Brown has been a United States ordnance 

Trade Notes 

The Hi-Voltage Equipment Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio, has developed a new type 
of lightning arrestor for outdoor mounting. 

The Black & Decker Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Towson Heights, Baltimore. Md„ has 

recently placed on the market a portable 
electric grinder. 

The Walter Motor Truck Company, 227 
West Sixty-first Street, New York City, has 

developed a new line of electric road trucks 
ot from 1,500 lb. to 7-ton capacity. 

The Independent Pneumatic Tool Com- 
pany. Chicago. 111., has put on the market 
the "Thor" electric drill stand for convert- 
ing portable electric drills to drill presses. 

The Esterline-Angus Company. Indian- 
apolis, Ind., has brought out a graphic 
alternating current ohm-meter for record- 
ing the resistance of liquids, the concen- 
tration of solutions, etc. 

The United States Steel Products Com- 
pany, which handles the export business of 
the U. S. Steel Corporation, has taken an 
order for $400,000 of steel rails it is stated, 
from the Toronto (Canada) Transportation 

The .American Insulated Wire & Cable 
Company, Chicago, manufacturer of "Amer-* 
ican Brand" weatherproof and bare copper 
wire and cables, contemplates building a rod 
mill when building conditions are more 

The Benjamin Electric Manufacturing 
Company, Chicago, has recently placed on 
the market its type RR threaded fixtures 
tor heavy-duty service which are especially 
adapted for use in railroad shops and vards 
and large industrial plants. 

The Adapti Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 

announces that it has purchased outright 
the property and buildings formerly oc- 
cupied by the Cleveland Refrigerator 'Com- 
pany at East Seventy-second Street and 
Oakwood Avenue, Cleveland, where opera- 
tions will begin about July 15. 

The Whitman Electric Manufacturing 
Company, Whitman, Mass., has completed 
two new kilns of its own with large Sager 
capacity. The company is getting out a 
line of porcelain specialties — rosettes, re- 
ceptacles, etc. — and is in a position to make 
shipments on special porcelain material. 

John A. Koebling's Sons Company, Tren- 
ton, NT. J., is considering the construction of 
a new building for its copper wire and elec- 
trical galvanizing department. Plans at pres- 
ent are in a preliminary stage and no 
definite time is set for the completion of 
the work, the company announces. 

The Arrow Tool & Manufacturing Com- 
pany is the new name for the Arrow Tool 
Company, 200 Cannon Street, Bridgeport, 
Conn., manufacturer of tools of all descrip- 
tions. The company will continue as in 
the past to manufacture tools, dies and 
special machinery with no change in man- 

Belden Manuf acturing Company, Chi- 
cago, 111., manufacturer of electrical wires 
and cables, has issued bulletin No. 1, dated 
June 1, of the "Belden Bulletin." This 
bulletin will hereafter be issued to the 
trade monthly and will contain current net 
prices of the company's jiroducts. Bulletin 
No. 1 covers rubber-covered wires and lamp 

Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, 
Milwaukee, Wis., during the first three 
months of this year billed sales amounting 
to $7,656,218 as against $6,320,597 for the 
same period in 1920. Net profits after 
provision for federal taxes amounted to 
$774,189. Unfilled orders on hand March 
31, 1921, aggregated $12,943,633, compared 
with $19,442,791 last year. 

The Safety Car Heating & Lighting 
Company, New York City, held a meeting 
of its board of directors on June 15 at 
which time the following officers were 
elected : W. L. Con well, president ; J. A. 
Dixon, R. Parmly and James P. Soper, 
vice-presidents ; C. W. Walton, secretary 
and treasurer ; William Stewart, assistant 
secretary and assistant treasurer. 

The Industrial Protective Company, Day- 
ton, Ohio, of which W. R. McLean was 
president, was dissolved as of June 30, and 
the Dayton office discontinued. With H. A. 
Fishleigh, Mr. McLean has organized the 
Fishleigh-McLean Secret Service Bureau, 
with offices at 720 Nicholas Building, To- 
ledo, Ohio, which firm will continue the 
services heretofore supplied by its prede- 

The Elliott Company, Jeanette, Pa., an- 
nounces additions to its sales organization 
as follows: R. H. Schmidt has been as- 
signed to the St. Louis district office, W. E. 
Widau to the Cleveland office and R. S. 
Bellman to the Philadelphia district office. 
In addition to the Elliott company's prod- 
ucts they will also handle those of the 
Lagonda Manufacturing Company, Spring- 
field, Ohio, and the Liberty Manufacturing 
Company, Pittsburgh. 

The International Register Company, 
Chicago, 111., through its sales agent the 
Electric Service Supplies Company, has 
leased 112 International portable hand reg- 
isters to the Third Avenue Railway Com- 
pany, New York City. These registers are 
attached to the fare box and used as an 
additional check on fares. About 250 of 
them were also placed with the Public 
Service Railway Company, Newark. N. J., 
earlier this year, for use on its safety cars. 

Empire Engineering & Supply Company 

about trebled its capacity for making 
switchboards and panelboards when it 
moved into its new factory at Twentieth 
Street and Fourth Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
in May. The new building is 100 ft. x 160 
ft., only one story in height but so con- 
structed that two or three stories may be 
added as needed. The company reports a 
satisfactory volume of business in these 
types of boards with the shops running 
almost full time. 

The Royal Indemnity Company, 84 Will- 
iam Street, Xew York City, after having 
worked for some months on a form of 
policy for the insurance of electric motors, 
etc., early this year received approval from 
the insurance authorities in New York 
State of the form of a policy which would 
indemnify for the electrical and mechanical 
breakdown of motors, generators, trans- 
formers, regulators and other electrical 
apparatus. The company guarantees the 
repair bills directly incidental to such 

The Triumph Electric Company, Cincin- 
nati, manufacturer of motors and gener- 
ators, announces the removal of its Chi- 
cago office from 628 West Lake Street to 
2814-16 Wentworth Avenue, where it has 
more soacious quarters. W. R. Bonham is 
manager of this office. The company has 
also moved its New York office, of which 
T. W. Kloman is manager, from 80 Cort- 
landt Street to the Knickerbocker Building, 
Forty-second Street and Broadway. The 
Wood & Lane Company, St. Louis, repre- 

sentative of the company, is now estab- 
lished at 1016 Market Street, St. Louis, 
where it has large warehouse facilities and 
carries ample stocks of the various lines. 

The Stoker Manufacturers' Association at 
its summer meetings, held in Stockbridge, 
Mass., June 14 to 16, elected the following 
officers : President, Maxwell Alpern, vice- 
president American Engineering Company, 
Philadelphia ; vice-president, S. A. Arm- 
strong, vice-president Underfeed Stoker 
Company of America, Detroit ; treasurer, 
Richard D. Hatton, vice-president Laclede- 
Christy Company, St. Louis ; secretary, J. 

G. Worker, vice-president Phoenix Manu- 
facturing Company, Eau Claire, Wis. These 
officers, with the addition of R. Sanford 
Riley, retiring president, and A. G. Pratt, 
of Babcock & Wilcox Company, make up 
the executive committee. 

William Aldrich, who has recently been 
in charge of the Southern territory of the 
Metal & Thermit Corporation, New York, 
has been transferred to its Western terri- 
tory. From 1899 to 1908 Mr. Aldrich was 
associated intermittently with the Milwau- 
kee Electric Railway & Light Company, 
Milwaukee, W r is. In 1909 he joined the for- 
mer Goldschmidt Thermit Company, since 
when he has traveled in every State in this 
country, also in Canada, West Indies, Cen- 
tral America, Panama and the tropics in 
the interest of Thermit. Mr. Aldrich will 
travel extensively in the far Western States 
and will make his headquarters at the new 
South San Francisco office of the Metal & 
Thermit Corporation. William H. Moore, 
who until recently was assigned to the Chi- 
cago territory, now has charge of the 
Southern territory. 

The Link-Belt Company, 910 South Mich- 
igan Avenue, Chicago, according to an an- 
nouncement made by Charles Piez, presi- 
dent, has acquired all of the capital stock 
of the H. W. Caldwell & Son Company. 
At the same time Frank C. Caldwell has 
been elected director of the Link-Belt Com- 
pany. Thus two experienced companies in 
the conveyor field have joined forces, with 
the result that the Link-Belt Company has 
added two lines, "Hellicord" conveyors and 
power-transmission machinery, to its line 
of manufactures. While the plant of the 

H. W. Caldwell & Son Company will con- 
tinue to operate under separate corporate 
existence and under its present name, the 
joint facilities of the two companies and the 
broader avenues of distribution possessed 
by the Link-Belt Company should prove of 
distinct advantage to the customers of 
both, says Mr. Piez. There will be no 
modification of the policies of the Caldwell 
plant, no impairment of its service and no 
change in its product. The plant manage- 
ment will remain substantially the same as 
at present. 

New Advertising Literature 

Unaftow Engines. — Bulletin No. 29 re- 
cently issued by the Ridgway Dynamo & 
Engine Company, Ridgway, Pa., describes 
its unaflow engines. 

Steam Tables — The W T heeler Condenser 
& Engineering Company, Carteret, N. J., 
has published the sixth edition of "Steam 
Tables for Condenser Work." 

Electric Glue Pot. — "Glue Pot Service" 
is the title of a pamphlet issued by the 
Automatic Electric Heater Company, War- 
ren, Pa., covering its electric glue pots. 

Mill-Type Motors. — General Electric 
Company has issued bulletin No. 48121. 1A, 
superseding bulletin No. 41821.1, entitled 
"Direct-Current Mill-Type Motors, type MD 

Alternating - Current Engine - Type Gen- 
erators. — This is the title of the fifteen- 
page, illustrated bulletin No. 1115 supersed- 
ing No. 1098 issued by Allis-Chalmers 
Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Electrical Porcelain. — "Standard Electri- 
cal Porcelain is the title of a new catalog 
recently issued by the R. Thomas & Sons 
Company, East Liverpool, Ohio, covering 
its porcelain products. 

Wood Stave Pipe. — The Redwood Manu- 
facturers Company, Hobart Building, San 
Francisco, Cal., has issued catalog X, June 
1921, "A Handbook of Information for 
Hydraulic Engineers Relating to Remco 
Redwood Pipe." 

Buffers and Grinders. — The Valley Elec- 
tric Company, 3157 South Kingshighway, 
St. Louis, Mo., has issued a circular de- 
scribing and giving net trade prices on its 
complete line of portable electric buffers 
and grinders which it has just recently 

Electric Railway Journal 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

HENRY W. BLAKE and HAROLD V. BOZELL. Editors HENRY H. NORRIS. Managing Editor 

HARRY L.BROWN. Western Editor N A. BOWERS, Pacific Coast Editor H.S.KNOWLT ON.New England Editor C.W.SgUlEB.Assoc iate Edi tor C.W. STOCKS. AssociaU Editor 
DONALD F.H3NE, Editorial Representative A.D.KNOX.Editorial Representative GEORGE BUSHFIJHjEClSJSBfiSWJepresentative 

G.J. MACMUBBAY. News Editor 

Volume 58 

New York, Saturday, July 9, 192ty g j U[ ^ 

Number. 2 

The Golden Mean 

in the Use of Autos 

THE USE of autos instead of street cars by railway 
officials in inspecting their properties has been 
criticised once or twice in these columns by managers 
who believe that thereby many faults of the transpor- 
tation force escape detection. Mr. Dana, in a communi- 
cation in this issue, points out very properly that the 
automobile is a necessary tool under modern conditions 
to annihilate time and distance in the efficient conduct 
of a large urban property, and his remedy is for the 
manager to see that this tool is used only for the pur- 
pose for which it is intended. 

This is undoubtedly the correct answer. In nearly 
all questions on which men differ there is a golden 
mean. The Western manager whose letter published 
in these columns began the discussion called atten- 
tion to a real evil. The best place for an official to 
watch the performance of the trainmen and to determine 
the effect of track maintenance on car operation is on 
the car itself. Hence, if an electric railway official 
uses his own cars so far as he can to travel from one 
point to another on his system he not only uses his 
time spent in traveling in the performance of his duties, 
but he gets better acquainted with the operating force. 
But there are times when speed in getting from one 
point on the system to another is essential, and here the 
faster vehicle is desirable. The Western manager admits 
that there are instances of this kind. He protests only 
against the automobile "habit," through which he says 
the company is in danger of losing the services of a 
once efficient official. 

Stability of Earning Power 

of Electric Railways Shown 

ONE of the claims often made, and properly, in the 
past for electric railways as an investment was 
that their earnings are not as greatly affected as are 
many other industries by adverse industrial conditions. 
During the past few years electric railways have rather 
been ignored by the average investor, who has been 
attracted by the more alluring industrials, "war brides," 
oil companies and shipping companies. During the past 
twelve months, and especially the past six months, how- 
ever, some of these latter companies have fallen into 
hard times. The export business has decreased due to 
high exchange and other reasons and domestic demand 
has become much less, so that dividends have been sus- 
pended and both gross and net have decreased. 

A table published in the department "Financial and 
Corporate" in this issue shows how the electric rail- 
ways have fared during this period. The list is not 
a selected one, being all of the railways in a list pub- 
lished weekly in the Commercial and Financial Chronicle 
of public utilities which report monthly earnings to that 
paper. Of this list of thirty companies, only three show 
decreases in gross earnings for this year to date as 

compared with last year to^^ate. Qfyz decreases for 
the companies mentioned aTeifnfnc^ while notable in- 
creases are recorded for the other properties reporting, 
especially the larger companies. All figures are quoted 
irrespective of mileage, but it is not believed that any 
of the companies outside of the two subway companies 
in New York have added materially to the miles of 
track operated by them during the year in which com- 
parison is made. The showing is a notable one of the 
stability of earning power of electric railways. 

What Happened 
in Illinois 

THE Illinois Legislature has adjourned, leaving a 
record that, if not creditable for measures adopted, 
is at least complimentary for the bills killed. The prin- 
cipal measures fostered by the Governor and Chicago's 
Mayor, in line with election campaign pledges, were one 
that would create a transportation district as a means 
of bringing about people's ownership and a 5-cent fare 
and another designed to abolish the public utilities com- 
mission and create home rule. What happened was 
somewhat of a surprise, as there developed in the last 
few days of the legislative session a sentiment in the 
state which finally resulted in a clean-cut repudiation 
of the plans of the administration. 

The transportation district bill, which had been so 
worded that the referendum vote on it would have come 
at the time of the next Chicago mayoralty election and 
thus again made the traction situation the election issue, 
was killed altogether. The public utilities regulation 
bill was finally passed, but not until more than sixty 
amendments had so disfigured it that the original meas- 
ure could scarcely be recognized. The home rule fea- 
ture is virtually eliminated. But the bill does abolish 
the present commission, and in that sense only does it 
carry out the Governor's promise. But even then the 
new law as amended makes a better statute than the old 
one from the standpoint of the utilities. The new statute 
practically continues the old one with these changes: 
The Illinois Public Utilities Commission, with five mem- 
bers at $5,000 each, is abolished and the Illinois Com- 
merce Commission (I. C. C), with seven members at 
$7,000 and eight assistant commissioners at $5,000, is 
created. There is a provision that a petition originat- 
ing with the voters (not the City Council) and signed 
by 25 per cent of the registered legal voters will bring 
about a popular vote on whether the local utilities shall 
be subject to local instead of commission regulation. If 
home rule is established in any city, the order of appeal 
from orders of the Council shall be first in the county in 
which the complaint originates. Some of the positions 
of the commission have been removed from under civil 
service requirements. By a separate bill the annual 
appropriation for the commission was increased by 
$500,000. There may be other provisions contained in 
the mass of amendments jammed through at the last 
minute that are not yet assimilated. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 58, No. 2 

Upon analysis, none of these provisions appears dan- 
gerous to the utilities. An increase in the size of the 
commission has often been thought desirable as a 
means of speeding up its work. The likelihood of secur- 
ing a petition for home rule vote, signed by 25 per cent 
of the registered voters of a city, seems decidedly 
remote. In Chicago, for example, this would mean the 
names of more than 200,000 voters on the petition, and 
if that many people were sufficiently aroused against 
a utility to sign such a petition it would seemingly indi- 
cate that there was something radically wrong and a 
change ought to be made. Furthermore, since it is pro- 
vided that appeal from a local order shall be made to 
the commission, this would seem to forestall any great 
value in having home rule and to strengthen the posi- 
tion of the commission. 

So, while the new law does increase the patronage to 
be distributed by the Governor, no particular damage 
has been done the righteous cause of the utilities, and 
since the legislators have determined, in spite of the 
influence of a most pernicious and powerful political 
machine, not to take those steps that would keep the 
public service companies in politics and uncertainty, the 
fears for their future welfare in Illinois will be largely 

Central Electric Railway Association 
Provides for Better Engineering 

HOLDING its summer meeting under ideal sur- 
roundings, the Central Electric Railway Associa- 
tion not only enjoyed to the fullest measure its 
delightful cruise on the Great Lakes but also set up a 
record of worth-while accomplishments. Of particular 
importance was the plan, approved subject to detailed 
development, providing for separate meetings of the 
engineering members. For several years there has 
been an agitation in the association for some scheme 
that would permit the engineers to gather by them- 
selves, free from the restraint of the bosses' presence, 
for the purpose of exchanging ideas and experiences on 
common problems. The plan devised is quite different 
from any heretofore discussed and whether it will work 
out satisfactorily remains to be seen. At any rate the 
association is to be congratulated for taking steps to 
provide these much desired and potentially valuable 
meetings, and if the present plan does not work out 
it can be revised. Its success as always depends upon 
the willingness of individuals to work. 

One weakness common to much association work has 
been recognized and guarded against by providing an 
engineering council whose duty it is to lay down a 
program each year for the work of the sectional meet- 
ings. The latter will therefore meet for a definite 
purpose and will know toward what end it is work- 
ing. However, this definite assignment of duty should 
not preclude the possibility of having free round-table 
discussion on any point brought up by any member, 
for this was the primary reason for seeking these 
separate meetings. There is some doubt whether the 
grouping of equipment, electrical and track men to- 
gether in the same meetings will be as fruitful of 
results as are the meetings held in Pennsylvania and 
Ohio for the equipment men exclusively. On the other 
hand, there will be opportunity to discuss and work 
out the various technical questions of mutual or inter- 
departmental interest. In any event the plan laid out by 
the association is a step in the right direction and will 

serve to make the association of greater interest and 
usefulness to the engineers and the operating men and 
finally to the companies. 

What It Means to Classify 

the Jitney as a Common Carrier 

PUBLIC carriers have exercised their calling for the 
last 2,000 years or longer, and the rights of the 
public to establish routes and exercise some sort of 
supervision as to their maintenance and to prevent dis- 
crimination in charges has been recognized for a very 
long period. In fact, it is difficult to imagine a com- 
mon carrier service without the acceptance by the car- 
rier of certain definite responsibilities to the public, 
along the lines at least of the maintenance of a schedule 
so far as it can be done and a uniformity in chargea 
for the transportation supplied. The recognition of the 
right of the authorities to exercise such regulation is 
second nature to the railway men, but hardly so to the 
average jitney operator, who wants to enjoy the privi- 
leges of the common carrier but to avoid all of its duties 
and responsibilities. 

While the thinking men among the motor bus operators 
favored and even urged the passage of regulating legis- 
lation, yet it is easy to understand the attitude created 
in the minds of many jitney operators in Connecticut 
by the passage of a law at the last legislative session 
recognizing the public aspects of the service being 
given by the jitneys in that state and putting the jit- 
neys under the control of the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion. This law goes into effect July 15 and the com- 
mission has now issued certain regulations under it. 

Under the new law proposed routes may be estab- 
lished only when proof is established of their con- 
venience and necessity. The first decision on an appli- 
cation of this kind has just been rendered and in it the 
Public Utilities Commission of the state outlines its 
policy. Some of the controlling factors were held to be : 
(1) The general public good and the general public 
requirements rather than individual convenience; (2) 
essentiality of existing street railways; (3) stability, 
permanency and continuity of existing service; (4) 
protection of existing franchises from competition. 
When a commission stands for such a policy and is 
ready to protect existing franchises, not only for trolley 
lines but for steam roads, against competition that is 
piratical, there can be no reason for the transportation 
companies, the public or the municipalities served to 
feel that they are not going to get a square deal. 

The railways, however, must not only be willing but 
must demonstrate that they can adequately serve the 
territory allotted. Of course the answer or governing 
index is the attitude of the public. To have the index 
favorable means that the trolley companies must do 
some real merchandising — they must put out the kind 
of service that will satisfy the people after it has been 
produced. In some cases running time can be cut, or 
better headways provided so as to lessen overcrowding. 
At least an attempt should be made to indicate to the 
public that its welfare is being considered. Then, too, 
the trolley company can add complementary bus service 
as feeders to existing rail lines serving territory now 
tapped by the jitneys, but nevertheless competing to a 
large extent with the trolley lines. 

Undoubtedly transportation of the future will be a 
unified system that will utilize both trackways and high- 
ways according to their respective economic spheres. 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Trolley Freight and Motor-Truck Customers 

The Trolley Freight Systems of the Springfield-Worcester-Boston Area Hold Their Own Through Adverse 
Times Because of Reliability, Frequency of Service and Low Cost — 
Healthy Growth Attained Despite Drawbacks 

Two Motor Cars in Electric Freight Train 

IT IS well known that the electric railways in the 
older, more settled parts of the United States, par- 
ticularly New England, were not built with the 
idea of carrying anything but passengers. When they 
did undertake freight and express carriage they found 
it necessary to overcome both franchise and physical 
obstacles. The lack of properly equipped and located 
freight houses and of unimpeded track facilities proved 
an especially severe handicap. Therefore, it is no 
wonder that more than one Eastern road made but a 
half-hearted attempt and then quit this field. More 
recently the advent of the motor truck has put a 
further damper on such efforts. 

The very truth of these statements lends all the 
more interest to the work of a group of electric rail- 
ways which has succeeded in attaining a healthy growth 
despite the drawbacks of partial operation over city 
streets and in a district where good roads and short 
runs give the motor truck many advantages. This 
service is given in western Massachusetts and adjacent 
districts of Connecticut and Rhode Island shown on 
the accompanying map, through the co-operation of 
the following electric railways, practically all of which 
are of the combined city and highway trolley type: 

1. Springfield Street Railway 

2. Worcester Consolidated Street Railway 

3. Interstate Consolidated Street Railway 

4. Milford, Attleboro & Woonsocket Street Railway 

5. Attleboro Branch Railroad 

6. Boston & Worcester Street Railway 

7. Holyoke Street Railway 

8. Connecticut Valley Street Railway 

9. Northern Massachusetts Street Railway 

10. Hartford & Springfield Street Railway 

11. The Rhode Island Company 

12. Boston Elevated Railway 

Of the foregoing lines, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are under 
one management, with R. E. Cosgrove as general traffic 

agent; lines 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 grant running rights 
to the service conducted by Mr. Cosgrove; lines 8 and 
9 are under the direction of Leon Bolster, assistant 
to vice-president and general manager, while line 6, 
Boston & Worcester Street Railway, carries on a freight 
and express business under the direction of F. 0. Lewis, 
general freight and passenger agent, including running 
rights into Boston Elevated Railway, line 12. The 
Boston & Worcester cars also may run over the other 
trackage of the system, but ordinarily the through 
service is Springfield-Worcester-Boston, as noted here- 
inafter, aside from the service between Worcester and 

Extent and Character of Service 

The distance between Springfield and Worcester is 
55 miles and between Worcester and Boston 44 miles, 
so that the direct east-west service may be described 
as usually 100 miles, and the transfer service, Spring- 
field to Providence, via Worcester, as 121 miles. The 
Springfield-Boston through service was not inaugurated 
until Feb. 1, 1921. This extension of direct carriage 
has stimulated business because of the elimination 
of transfer and rebilling at Worcester. About two- 
thirds of this class of traffic is from Boston West-bound. 

For this through business single cars or two-car 
trains are run every night. Cars leaving Boston at 
5 p.m. reach Springfield in time for the 7 a.m. store 
delivery the following day, the cars actually reach- 
ing the freight house about 3 a.m. At the Springfield 
end it is now customary to close the receipt of freight 
at 5 p.m., leave at 8 : 30 p.m. and reach Boston between 
11 a.m. and 12 noon the next day, but arrangements 
are under way to assure a 7 a.m. delivery in Boston. 

As to the service between Springfield and Worcester, 
trolley freight in each direction leaves regularly at 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

9 : 30 a.m. for afternoon distribution and at 8 : 30 p.m. 
for early morning distribution the following day. 
Since Feb. 1, 1921, a trailer has been added to the 
night car, because business has increased in spite of 
the fact that in this district the month of January, 
1921, was the worst, industrially, in many years. This 
increase began before the industrial depression, owing 
to dissatisfaction with the rates and service of the 
steam railroads. 

Two cars a day are run between Worcester and 
Providence to take freight transferred from Springfield. 
The connections are such as to permit delivery on 
this 121-mile run within twenty-four hours. 

Motor Truck and Express Men Are Good Customers 
and Business Solicitors as Well 

Paradoxical as it may appear, the best business 
solicitors for the trolley freight service are the motor 
truckers in this district. These operators solicit motor- 
truck shipments for New York and other distant points, 
but request that the shipper use the trolley freight as 

far going south and west as Springfield, 145 miles 
from New York! The explanation of this paradox of 
electric railway for short haul and motor truck for 
long haul is simple. Those motor truckers, who have 
survived through the lean months that have followed 
the war fever and steam railroad embargoes, realize 
that they cannot compete in rates with the frequent- 
service trolley for such runs as Boston-Worcester, 44 
miles, and Worcester-Springfield, 55 miles. Nor is 
their advantage in speed of any importance against 
the over-night delivery mentioned. On the other hana, 
the steam railroads are still most uncertain in their 
handling of less-than-carload freight. Hence a ship- 
per who is willing to pay extra for speed will engage 
a motor trucker. The latter makes a flat over-all rate, 
including that portion of the trip via trolley. The rate 
charged to the customer is approximately first class or 
express, but that which the truckman pays over the 
electric railway part of the run may be third or fourth 
class or some extremely low commodity rate. Thus 
the motor-truck operator is sure of a slear profit for 

Roof - cover with 5-ply 
felt and gravel 

Wheel guards 
of iron poles filled 
with concrete 

Ramp ' 

Plan and Cross-Section of Bond Street Freight Station at Springfield, Mass. 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


possibly one-third of the run, which profit gives him 
a working margin to permit quoting an over-all rate 
of, say, 1 cent a mile per 100 lb. 

With the great let-down in the demand for goods 
of any and every description, the motor trucker is no 
longer able to secure full loads and top prices. Aside 
from this, he has to meet the competition of furniture 
movers and others who take a good load one way and 
in their eagerness to return with a load underbid 
the concern which is trying to conduct a regular 
common carrier business. On the whole, therefore, the 
electric railways in this combination have no fear 
at all of the motor truck. Indeed, they are prepared to 
and do give space in their freight houses to motor 
truckers because of the business which they solicit for 
shipment by electric railway in its originating or final 

The old-time expressmen in Springfield and Worces- 
ter are also good solicitors for electric express. 
As in the case of the motor truckmen, their advertise- 
ments, which read "Direct Service to ," etc., are 

to be taken with several saline grains, as they are 
glad to make use of the electric railway freight facil- 
ities for remarkably short distances. In fact, the 
most experienced operator at Springfield does not 
hanker for motor trucking in retail delivery for dis- 
tances beyond 8 miles if his light trucks can radiate 
from railway stations. These operators were among 
the first users of motor trucks, but unlike the irre- 
sponsible individuals who entered motor haulage during 
the war, they are used to keeping books and know 
just what they can afford to charge for their services. 
The use of the electric railway by such operators to 
the extent of free space in the freight house and special 
cars (as at Worcester) is evidence on the relative cost 
of haulage by truck and electric of more importance 
than a ton of statistics. 

A more difficult problem for the electric railway 
freight agent is that of securing the business of whole- 
sale firms who look upon the operation of motor trucks 
carrying their names from an advertising standpoint 
as well as from a delivery standpoint. In many cases 
the advertising argument prevails even when it is 
admitted that the electric railway, or the electric rail- 
way plus local motor truck short haul, would be cheaper 
than the through service and would be fast enough for 
all regular operations. In several cases the shipper has 
given up motor trucking with his own fleet, either pur- 
chasing the services of motor truckers at a saving to 

Front of the Original Springfield Freight House 

himself or making use of the electric railway where 
convenient. It goes without saying that much private- 
firm trucking is wasteful because of the comparatively 
small loading, so that it is only a question of time as 
to when the novelty feature will wear off and make 
way for clear economics. 

It would hardly be profitable to list the variety of 
business done by trolley freight in this district, but 
some of the more unusual operations may be mentioned. 
For example, the jewelry manufacturers of the "Attle- 
boros" in Massachusetts use trolley freight for direct 
shipments from factory to pier at Providence, Rhode 
Island. Again, there is the carriage of blooded horses 
and prize cattle from fair grounds to fair grounds as 
a proof of prompt and careful transportation service. 

As shown on the map, the electric lines reach a 
number of towns that have no direct steam railroad 
service. This condition has developed considerable 
business in the switching of steam freight cars. Boston 
& Albany cars are taken at Palmer for Brimfield and 
other points to Southbridge, while New Haven Rail- 
road cars are taken at Southbridge for Charlton City 
and Charlton. 

An example of the highly economical service pos- 
sible through electric freight is afforded in the case 
of the Holyoke Street Railway. Early in 1921 the 
management of the Holyoke system outbid a con- 

Electric Locomotive and Cars at Southbridge, Mass. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

Teamway in Bond Street Terminal — Interior of the Bond 

Electric Cars and Motor 

tractor who uses motor trucks for the business of 
supplying trap rock and gravel for the bridge under 
construction over the Connecticut River at Springfield. 
The rock comes from the Holyoke company's quar- 
ries at the foot of Mount Tom, 11 miles from the 
point of use, whereas competitive quarries are at West- 
field, only 7i miles distant via the Boston & Albany 
Railway and the public highway. The gravel from 
the Holyoke system is taken at South Hadley, 13 miles 
away, which is about the same distance as the com- 
petitor's pit at North Wilbraham. 

The contractor was using 5-ton trucks carrying 6 
to 10 tons of rock, whereas the cars illustrated carry 
24 tons of rock or 18 cu.yd. of sand. It is estimated 
that 3,500 carloads of material will be required for 
this job. In spite of the surplus of idle motor trucks 
in this territory, the trucks could not possibly meet 
the cost of transport possible with the trolley. This 
is clear from the fact that the entire haul costs but 
$1 per ton of rock or per cubic yard of sand. 

Rates Are Attractive Yet Sensible 

Generally speaking, the electric railway rates in this 
district were higher than steam railroad on the first, 
second and third-class categories. The electric rail- 
ways took earlier increases parallel with steam railroad 
increases up to 20 per cent over pre-war rates. How- 
ever, they have not followed the 40 per cent increase 
made by steam railroads in March, 1920, except in 
part for hauls in excess of 20 miles. The electric 
rates have always been lower than motor trucks could 
possibly meet, except in special services like carriage 
of household goods, for which the railway properly 
charges double rates and which are particularly suited 

Street Terminal. The Width of the Platform Between 
Trucks Is Only Fifty Feet 

for the motor trucks because of the desirability of 
minimum rehandling. It has already been pointed out 
that experienced motor truckers doing a common car- 
rier business are' glad to make use of the trolley freight 
as a source of revenue to themselves. 

Milk is one item that has always enjoyed an excep- 
tionally low rate. The Springfield company charges 
only I cent per quart on a 26-mile haul for delivery 
to a Springfield creamery. In warm weather one ad- 
vantage of milk carriage by trolley is that it arrives as 
milk and not as butter. Byproducts of milk also enjoy 
exceptionally favorable rates. It may be mentioned 
here that several years ago Mr. Cosgrove made the 
fertile suggestion that through the aid of trolley 
freight it would be practicable to establish municipal 
milk and coal stations, which would help to reduce the 
cost of living through the reduction of haulage expense 
and the elimination of duplicate or overlapping com- 
petitive routes. In his opinion, the time is coming 
when the present waste in goods carriage — particularly 
as regards trucking in cities — will have to go. 

The trolley companies are popular with the shippers, 
not only because of more frequent service but also 
because of greater liberality in credits, weekly credits 
being the rule in contrast with the two-day limit of 
the steam railroads. Naturally, the electric railway 
group is also more closely identified with the local 
interests of the territory. 


Outside of the cities, the Springfield and Worcester 
systems are of the usual country trolley type, namely, 
single track with sidings. As is the case in Worcester 
today, freight cars entering Springfield formerly had 

Two Types of Rolling Stock Used 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Two Views of the Worcester Freight Terminal. The Freight Houses of the Springfield and B. & W. Face 

Each Other on Opposite Sides of a Broad Team way 

to come in and go out over the main travel-ways of 
the passenger cars. In 1920, however, the Springfield 
Street Railway built within that city 4 miles of single 
track with five turnouts. For the time being, this 
track is being used exclusively for uninterrupted en- 
trance and exit of freight cars. 

The Boston & Worcester Street Railway is somewhat 
better situated as regards the through run and the 
Worcester end. It is constructed as a high-speed, 
double-track line on reservation for 20 miles in the 
center of the public highway and on an absolutely 
private right-of-way for another 14 miles. Thus it 
has 34 miles of clear track out of 44. The 2 miles 
in Worcester do not constitute a handicap because 
they do not extend into the business center, but at 
the Boston end it is necessary to operate over 8 miles 
of city streets, although some of the track is on reserva- 
tion. The running time for the 44 miles between 
Worcester and Boston is two and one-half hours, but 
the schedule allows for three hours. 

The Holyoke and Providence connections of this 
group also lack the advantage of direct right-of-way 
entrance into the cities. Nevertheless, they hold their 
own with any kind of competition; all the more so 
since the establishment of through connections with 
the Holyoke and Boston & Worcester companies for 
shipments from Springfield and Worcester or vice versa. 

As shown in an accompanying halftone, the Worces- 
ter freight houses of the Springfield and Boston & 
Worcester companies face each other from opposite 
sides of a broad team and truck way. Vehicles bring- 
ing or carrying off goods simply back up against 
the platforms and are loaded or unloaded with an 
astonishingly small amount of trucking, since the 
longitudinal design of these buildings makes it pos- 
sible to bring the teams and trucks very close to the 

"center of gravity" of the load to be transferred. The 
general scheme of the larger houses is illustrated also 
by the accompanying plan of the Bond Street build- 
ing at Springfield. This house was altered to its 
present purpose in June, 1919. It has a covered team- 
way into which a dozen motor trucks can back at one 
time against the freight platform. This platform is 
only 50 ft. wide, so that it is an easy matter to trans- 
fer freight to or from the cars, which are set out, 
according to their destination, on two tracks on the 
opposite side of the platform. Both tracks can be 
loaded or unloaded simultaneously by making use of 
the doorways of the cars on the inner track. Much 
of the freight is moved no further than the width of 
the platform and possibly the first track, the rest 
being stacked in sections reserved for different destina- 
tions on the system. This building succeeded a most 
inconvenient structure which could handle only three 
or four wagons at a time. 

Another halftone shows a typical intermediate sta- 
tion where there is a regular agent. At points of 
lesser importance store agents are engaged for $2.50 
to $10 a week fees to take care of any business. No 
agents are employed on a commission basis, nor is there 
any solicitation staff as yet outside of the volunteer 
work of the motor trucker and expressman. 

Rolling Stock and Staff 

The cars used in freight and express service by 
the Springfield-Worcester companies comprise thirty- 
two motor cars, three trail box cars, two dump cars 
and two trailers for trap rock, sand and gravel busi- 
ness, eight double-truck freight cars for lumber, etc., 
and three electric locomotives, used chiefly for hauling 
steam freight cars. The latest standard motor car 
weighs 55,000 lb., has four 65-hp. motors and can 

Two TYPICAL Intermediate Electric Freight Stations 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

carry 60,000 lb., the average less-than-carload loading 
being 40,000 lb. These cars are equipped throughout 
with M. C. B. couplers, improved air brakes, etc. Cars 
for carrying perishable goods are heated electrically 
— a strong argument for securing that kind of traffic 
in winter, aside from the greater winter reliability 
of the electric railway. 

Economy in man-power with trolley freight service 
is attained not only through the greater capacity of 
the individual cars but also in train operation. A two- 
car and even a three-car train has but one motorman 
and one messenger. Usually, one car in a train is a 
sealed car for some one consignee or terminal. The 
messengers do a certain amount of de'ivery to store 
doors. As a rule, Springfield-Worcester crews cover 
all of the system served — approximately 290 miles 
single track in freight service — except that Boston & 
Worcester crews take charge during the run between 
those two cities. 

For taking on steam cars at Palmer no extra crew 

Turners Fal_ls_ 
Greenfield (f^v^v •'' 

/ /Millers 

D Winchendon 

-®— Reporrmg stations 

—°- Non- reporting stations 

Colonial line to/ j \Dj/erlmeto 

New YorkV / W River 

Joy line to , ; 
/lew York './>>/ 

Map Showing Boston-Worcester-Springfield 
Freight System 

is required. On the Attleboro Branch Railroad 
switching is done with crews borrowed from the pas- 
senger department. 

Economy in the use of labor is essential as the men 
are paid on the minimum nine-hour day basis at 65 
cents an hour with overtime, earning a bonus of one 
hour for lunch. On the Springfield- Worcester system 
the line-up of freight-express employees is as follows: 

Springfield Consolidated 

Freight handlers 3 5 

Messengers 11 10 

Motormen 1! 10 

Foremen 1 2 

Milford, A. & W. 
(agent does work) 

(agent is foreman) 

Messengers, like the motormen, get 65 cents an 
hour; freight handlers, 51 cents; foremen, $38.57 for 
a six-day week. The first car goes out at 7 : 30 a.m. 
from Springfield, the last at 11:30 a.m. Crew labor 
does most of the loading. The gross revenue from 
freight and express so far as the Springfield-Worcester 
lines (exclusive of Boston & Worcester Street Railway) 
is concerned has been as follows: 

1920 $318,135 

1019 264,681 or $53,454 less toan 1920 

1918 246,150 or 18, 53 1 less than 1 9 1 9 

1917 220,210 or 25,940 less than 1 9 1 8 

1920 97,925 ahead of 1917 

Business in 1920 would have shown a larger increase 
over 1919 except for the extreme blizzard of February, 
when the freight equipment was impressed to fight 
snow. In the lesser snowstorms of Feb. 22, 1921, 
the motor trucks deserted, with the result that Feb. 
23 was a banner day for the electric railway. 

General Costs of Springfield-Worcester Lines 

During the year 1920 the Springfield-Worcester lines 
operated 398,700 freight car-miles for $288,539, or 
72.37 cents per car-mile. On the basis of $318,135 
gross earnings, the gross earnings per car-mile were 
79.79 cents, leaving a net revenue of 7.42 cents per 
car-mile. The operating ratio was 90.7 per cent. The 
departmental charges are given below. 

table showing analysis of cost of freight operation 

Per Cent 
of Freight 

Item Rev. Note 

Maintenance of way $29,159 9.17 Thus charge is the proportion 

which freight earnings bear 
to passenger earnings, al- 
though only one-third of 
trackage is used for freignt. 
Maintenance of equipment. . . 16,058 5.05 Amount actually spent on 

upkeep of freight, equipment. 

Power 27,872 8 .76 This works out, at 7 cents per 

car-mile. Tests show less 
than 3 kw.-hr. per c.-m. 
Springfield power costs 1 . 1 
cent per kw.-hr. at substa- 
tion and Worcester 1.5 

Conducting transportation.. . . 183,756 57 .76 Amount actually paid and 

includes $60,992 for station 
employees and $4,296 for 
station expenses. 

Traffic (advertising, etc.) 5,826 1 83 

General expenses 25,869 8.13 

Total expenses $288,539 90.70 

Net operating revenue $29,597 9.30 

Taxes $4,295 and interest on 

investment $22,587 $27,512 Interest on investment! in- 
Surplus $2,285 eludes estimated car-mile 

proportion, although freight 
equipment avoids operation, 
over expensive special work 
in cities. 

When 1920 results are considered, it is to be borne 
in mind that not only was the freight equipment used 
to fight snow to keep the lines open for passenger 
service, but that the cost of snow-fighting was assessed 
against the freight department on a pro rata basis. 

With regard to the general degree of care shown 
in the transportation of goods by trolley freight, the 
following figures on losses due to damage to goods in 
transit in percentage of gross revenue is of interest: 

Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent. 

1920 0.59 1919 0.5S 1918 1.38 

1917 76 1916 0.37 1915 0.29 

1914 0.24 

Exclusive of the Boston & Worcester Street Railway, there were carried in 1920' 
approximately 262,000 tons, with an average gross earning of $1.20 per ton. 

The Boston & Worcester Street Railway 

The present rolling stock of this high-speed line 
between Boston and Worcester consists of twelve 45-ft. 
motor cars and eight 40-ft. trailers, all equipped with 
M. C. B. radial draw-bars, automatic air brakes and 
GE-263-A motors (on Brill arch-bar trucks) geared 
for heavy loads rather than speed. As noted earlier, 
the run of 44 miles is made in two and one-half to three 
hours. There are few intermediate stops. 

This standardized freight equipment succeeds mis- 
cellaneous stock that could not make good for the 
specialized needs of freight service. Trains of one 
motor car and two trailers have been run frequently 
and tests have been made with trains of two motors and 
two trailers. 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


The company's business has increased steadily, even 
through the flood period of unrestricted motor truck- 
ing, as indicated by the following comparison: 

1916 gross earnings w ere 75 per cent above 1915 

1917 gross earnings were 35 per cent above 1916 

1918 gross earnings were 22 per cent above 1917 

1919 gross earnings were 40 per cent above 1918 

1920 gross earnings broke even with 1919 instead of going ahead because the 
freight and express equipment was used for snow-fighting during February and 
Ma"ch, 1920. Motor trucks ran over the company's reservation as soon as it 
began clearing the snow away. 

Because of the extraordinary conditions of 1920, Mr. 
Lewis suggests the following analysis of 1919 opera- 
tions as giving a truer picture than 1920: 


Gross income $233,810 

Less payment of $25, 1 90 to Boston Elevated Railway and 
of $10,186 to Worcester Consolidated Street Railway 
and $1,242 special expense for trucks used during 

Boston Elevated strike in Julv, 1919 36,618 



Conductors and motormen $35,550 

Freight station and miscellaneous expenses 69,882 

Transportation expenses 67 

Station expenses 9,656 

General expenses 260 

Loss and damages (equal to 1.46% of gross revenue) .... 3,426 

Superintendence and solicitation 1.542 

Printing and stationery 2,141 

Advertising 65 

Maintenance of equipment 6,643 

Maintenance of buildings 40 

Insurance 840 

Power and trackage 1,695 

Total $131,807 

Net $65,385 

Total freight handled, tons 68. 1 42 

Total freight ton-miles 1,705,817 

Total freight car-miles (of which 53,371 were trailer) 259.228 

Average gross revenue per ton $3.43 

Average net revenue, per ton 96 

Gross revenue per ton-mile 0.137 

Cost per ton per mile .098 

Gross revenue per car per mile 0. 902 

Cost per car per mile .649 

New revenue per car per mile 0.253 

Net revenue per mile of road 1580 

Miles of line operated 41 30 

When the foregoing surplus figure is contrasted with 
that of the Springfield-Worcester lines, it is well to 
bear in mind that the latter have been assessed for 
track and power expenses on a different basis. Thus, 
the combined way and power charge for 398,700 car- 
miles was $57,031, whereas the Worcester Consoli- 
dated operation of 259,228 car-miles is assessed only 
$1,695 for the same items. The item "General 
expenses" is another which shows a great difference 
in the freight accounting practices of these properties. 

Baking Soda Quenches Fire 

AN EXTRAORDINARY case of spontaneous combus- 
J~\ tion occurred in an embankment fill on the Cleve- 
land & Eastern Traction Company's lines at Chardon, 
Ohio. The effective method employed to extinguish it 
was outlined in the Black Diamond recently by J. A. 
Thomas, the consulting fire engineer. The fill was 
formerly a pine trestle, about 300 ft. long and 30 ft. 
deep, which was later filled in with 200 cars of cinders, 
containing more or less combustible. A top dressing 
of about fifty cars of furnace slag practically sealed the 
embankment. The fill, fired from spontaneous combus- 
tion, became a mass of fire after it had been burning 
about six months. It was then arranged immediately 
to extinguish the fire with plain baking soda and water. 
After the soda solution had been pumped into the burn- 
ing fill for about two days the fire was finally extin- 
guished throughout the embankment. Had plain water 
been used enough would probably have been necessary 
to have washed the entire fill down into the valley. 

Five and Ten-Cent Boston Fares 

Account Given of How the Two Rates of Fare Are Collected 
in Everett and Maiden Divisions of Boston Elevated 
Railway — Flan Has Met with General Approval 

By Edward Dana 

G«neral Manager Boston Elevated Railway 

THE trustees of the Boston Elevated Railway have 
recently placed in operation a local fare of 5 cents 
for riders in the cities of Maiden and Everett. This 
fare does not include the privilege of a free transfer 
and is entirely separate and distinct from the 10-cent 
fare for traffic from these two cities to the center of 
Boston or any other point upon the Elevated system, 
which comprises some 535 miles of surface railway and 
elevated railways. 

The present article is written for the purpose of 
explaining the facts in order that a correct understand- 
ing may be had of what the plan involves. 

In view of the fact that local conditions absolutely 
govern the application of a rate of fare on a street rail- 

Commuters Going Cityward. View at 8 a.m. on Everett 
Station Platform 

way, the mere statement of the unit of fare in a city in 
terms of United States currency means nothing for pur- 
poses of comparison with another city unless all factors 
are considered in both localities. One cannot compare 
the tax rate of cities in New England, Florida or Cali- 
fornia and secure advantage from doing so without 
taking into consideration at the same time the different 
factors and conditions. This same thing is true on 
fares. When people compare on the basis of difference 
in cents, it is indicative of the superficial manner in 
which conclusions are arrived at. Even men in this 
industry have not been free from such comparisons. 

The cities of Maiden and Everett are typical of such 
Massachusetts communities. While certain areas are 
given over to industrial activity, they are essentially 
residential, with well-defined centers near which are 
located substantial local stores, theaters, etc. They 
occupy an area of approximately 8J square miles lying 
in the area from 3 miles to 6 miles from the center 
of Boston. 

The combined population is 89,000, and as the centers 
of the two cities are only II miles apart from a trans- 
portation standpoint they occupy a single section of 
territory tributary to the end of the main line of the 
elevated at the Everett Terminal and are really one city. 

All of the surface lines operated in these cities run 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

to the Everett Terminal, there being no through routes 
to Boston. At this terminal passengers change to the 
elevated trains. There are 32 miles of track in the 
streets of these cities and eight regular routes are 
operated, the average length of route being 3 miles. 
In the course of a day 5,100 miles are operated by 
795 trips on these eight routes. 

The total volume of traffic handled per day amounted 
to 63,000 in both directions. Of this amount 55,000 
was so-called tidal traffic, or in other words Boston 
bound traffic, and the balance local rides within the 
district. When the fare advanced to 10 cents, un- 
doubtedly the greatest proportion of loss of riders 
occurred in this local travel where people had formerly 
ridden for relatively short distances to points of con- 
centration within these cities. 

How the Fares Are Collected 

The plan adopted contemplated an entire physical 
separation of the collection of the fares for through 
traffic from local traffic. On the trip inbound, or in 

Map Showing Routes in Malden and Everett — Distances 
Shown Are from Scollat Square, Boston 

the direction of Boston, the pay-leave plan is used. 
Local passengers, or those leaving the car before it 
enters the inclosure at the Everett station, drop 5 cents 
in the conductor's fare box as they leave the car. 
Through passengers to Boston leave the surface car 
after it has stopped at the Everett station platform 
and drop 10 cents in the station collector's fare box. 
On the outbound trip the only fares which have to be 
collected on the surface cars are the local fares, be- 
cause the outbound through passengers paid their 
fares at the intown stations of the Elevated and entered 
the car within the Everett prepayment inclosure. 

With this physical separation of passengers paying 
different rates of fare it was a simple matter to place 
in effect any fare that might be decided upon for the 
local rides. It was decided to experiment with 5 cents 
because of the convenience and the incentive for local 
rides to be increased. Conductors on the cars today 
have the collection of only local fares. 

The plan has been in operation some weeks and 
while in one section a jitney is operated which pro- 

vides a frequent service, nevertheless the increase 
in local rides has been somewhat over 80 per cent. 
It is anticipated that the jitney situation will be worked 
out satisfactorily as there has come an appreciation 
by the public that the jitney and the street car cannot 
thrive in competition. The popularity of the 5-cent 
fare for local rides has resulted in a constant increase 
which undoubtedly has had a noticeable effect on the 
jitney patronage. A careful survey of the traffic secured 
locally disclosed the fact that the average length of haul 
for all of the present 5-cent riders is exactly 1 mile, 
and this, of course, makes it very apparent why a large 
percentage of this traffic was lost when the fare ad- 
vanced to 10 cents. 

The introduction of this plan has met with general 
approval on the part of the community as well as the 
officials of these cities. There seems to have come an 
appreciation that an honest effort has been made to 
make the service more useful at no increased expense, 
and it has brought out from many quarters the belief 
that an equitable situation now exists ; in other words, 
that the 10-cent fare for the long-haul rapid transit 
ride under present conditions is necessary and just 
and that the relatively short haul, for which the 10 
cents is manifestly so high that the people can walk 
instead of ride, is being taken care of in a fair way 
by the reduced fare for these rides. 

The result of the experiment will determine as to 
the advisability of applying the same plan further upon 
the elevated system for similar rides. Already a fur- 
ther experiment has been authorized for the cities of 
Medford and a portion of Somerville and for the dis- 
trict across the harbor in East Boston. It has been 
estimated that if the local traffic can be increased 100 
per cent no discrimination exists as no additional 
burden is thrown upon the 10-cent car riders of the 
system and that consequently the system could be made 
more useful for a great many millions of people in the 
course of a year. If this plan were in successful opera- 
tion on the system as a whole and the amount of money 
secured was the same from twice as many people for 
the 5-cent fare as for the reduced number of people for 
the 10-cent fare, the amount of increased travel would 
restore practically all the passengers shown to have 
been lost when the flat fare advanced to 10 cents. 

New Interlocking Installation on 
Boston Elevated 

IN CONNECTION with a recently completed extension 
of its rapid transit lines from Sullivan Square, 
Charleston, to a temporary station in Everett, the Bos- 
ton Elevated Railway has installed a new electro-pneu- 
matic interlocking plant with alternating-current con- 
trol. The machine, described in the Railway Signal 
Engineer, is so designed that a total of 159 functions is 
controlled from seventy-four working levers, requiring 
a space of 17 ft. 3 in. The principal features of the 
interlocking installation include semi-automatic control 
of all main track signals, automatic stops at all signals 
governing movements in normal direction of traffic on 
the main tracks, section locking, sectional route locking, 
approach locking for all main line signals governing 
entrance of trains into interlocking, illuminated track 
diagrams, light indicators on all switch levers to show 
whether the track section in which the switch is 
located is occupied or unoccupied, and an intercommuni- 
cating system between the various signal towers. 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


San Francisco Rerouting Effective 

Rush-Hour Conditions on Market Street Lines of Municipal Railway and Market Street Railway Became 
Such that Relief Was Necessary — This Ferry Terminal Holds the World's 
Record in Its Class for Traffic Density 

MARKET STREET is the main thoroughfare of 
San Francisco and car lines extend on this 
street from the Ferry Terminal to Twin Peaks 
Tunnel, running through the principal retail shopping 
district. The population of the municipalities on the 
other side of the Bay of San Francisco is about equal 
to that of San Francisco, and it is said that more people 
pass through the Ferry Terminal than through any 
similar terminal in the world. The car lines of heaviest 
travel to and from the Ferry Terminal operate on 
Market Street for a greater or less distance. The 
shortest distance before turning out is one-half mile 
from the Ferry Terminal, and from there the lines 
diverge at intervals until the last line leaves Market 
Street at a point more than 3 miles from 1 the terminal. 

Most of the patrons of the ferries use the street rail- 
ways in order to reach the commercial center contiguous 
to Market Street or the outlying districts served by 
the lines terminating on Market Street, and the resi- 
dents of San Francisco use the lines from the outlying 
districts to reach the commercial center on or near 
Market Street or to reach the Ferry Terminal. Both 
the Market Street Railway and the Municipal Railway 
operate cars on this street and four tracks are laid the 
entire distance of more than 3 miles, terminating in 
three concentric loops at the Ferry Terminal. 

The greatest demands on the street railway facilities 
are made between 5 and 6 p.m., at which time the 
patrons and clerks of the mercantile establishments 
and the occupants of the office buildings are leaving the 
business center for their homes in various parts of San 
Francisco or for the Ferry Terminal. The major move- 
ment at this time is outbound to the residential sections 
of San Francisco and in the opposite direction from the 
travel toward the ferries. Most of this outbound traf- 
fic originates on Market Street in the mile commencing 
about one-half mile from the Ferry Terminal. 

Joint Use of Street Causes Complications 

Since the construction of the two outside tracks by 
the Municipal Railway and the operation of the munici- 
pal cars on the street various attempts have been made 
to relieve the traffic congestion and to reduce the danger 
of accidents. The most recent change has been to turn 
back some of the Market Street Railway cars during 
the rush hours, by diverting them to Mission Street 
on the upper half mile of greatest traffic, thus keeping 
them off of lower Market Street. This results in an 
increase of headway between cars and gives more time 
for loading the rush-hour crowd. 

Traffic counts made on lower Market Street since this 
rerouting show that the Market Street cars of the 
Market Street Railway are now carrying about 26,000 
passengers from the business section to the outlying 
districts in the hour between 5 and 6 p.m. During this 
time 188 cars operate on a nineteen-second headway on 
lower Market Street, branching out at six points on to 
eleven lines to serve as many sections of the city; 
twenty-two inbound cars are diverted to Mission Street 
at Sixth Street, returning to Market Street as outbound 
cars at Fourth Street, and eighteen cars on Eddy Street 

are turned back at the Market Street intersection, trans- 
ferring passengers to and from other cars on Market 
Street instead of continuing through Market Street to 
the ferry as at other hours of the day. 

In this same hour the Municipal Railway operates 
an average of 101 cars around the ferry loops. These 
cars operate on headways ranging from two and one- 
half to four minutes on each of the six lines (which 
branch out from Market Street at three points to serve 
different districts), or, taken collectively, on a thirty- 
six-second headway. If all cars operated on two tracks 
the headway would be only twelve and one-half seconds 
on the lower half mile. Passenger counts made at the 
peak of the rush indicate that the average loads carried 
by municipal cars range from 115 passengers per car 

Traffic Conditions at Third and Market Streets, 
San Francisco 

on the "D" line to 145 per car on the "J" and "K" lines. 
Taken together, the six municipal lines carry a total 
of 10,000 to 12,000 passengers from lower Market Street 
during the hour from 5 to 6 in the evening. 

The accompanying sketch, prepared by the Municipal 
Railway, shows diagrammatically the operation of the 
cars on lower Market Street. The relative number of 
cars on the different sections is shown by the width 
of the band. The actual number for the ninety minutes 
of heavy traffic is shown in figures. 

Inspectors Expedite Traffic 

It would be impossible to handle so many cars with 
any regularity without the aid of inspectors. Com- 
mencing at 4 p.m. five inspectors for the Market Street 
Railway, located at four points of dense traffic, devote 
their attention to spacing the inbound cars, so that 
they may arrive at the Ferry Terminal and leave out- 
bound at proper intervals. This force is increased at 
5 p.m. to seven inspectors and two inspectors acting as 
flagmen, at eight locations, who work the outbound 
cars. The work of these inspectors, together with the 
increased headway made by looping twenty-two cars at 
some distance from the Ferry Terminal, has reduced 
the maximum delay from ten to three minutes. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2. 

All cars are of the P. A. Y. E. type. Normally the 
front end is used for exit only, but during this rush 
hour street collectors are used at the front ends of both 
Municipal Railway and Market Street Railway cars in 
order to speed up loading. Thirteen collectors are on 
duty for the Market Street Railway and probably in- 
crease the average load by forty passengers. 

The clearance between the cars on the inner and outer 
tracks is a factor in the situation. The tracks are 
11 ft. § in. between centers, which gives a clearance of 
only 1 ft. 4 in. between grab handles, window sills, etc., 

Schedule of Car Operations on Market Street, San Francisco. 
During Rush Hours: 4.30 to 6 p.m. 

when the largest cars are passing. Passengers waiting 
to board the cars of the Market Street Railway on the 
inner track stand in this narrow space, while the munic- 
ipal cars are passing on the outer track. There is 
also the serious predicament of a person caught stand- 
ing on this "devil strip" when cars are moving in the 
same direction on the inner and outer track and the 
platform of the car on the inner track is so crowded 
that passengers are standing on the steps and thus 
occupy a considerable portion of the 1-ft. 4-in. space. 

The difficulty and danger incurred by passengers in 
crossing the line of team and automobile traffic and 
then crossing the track of the Municipal Railway hinders 
and slows down the loading of the cars of the Market 
Street Railway, especially since so little space is avail- 
able for standing between the car lines, and many 
people hesitate to take this risk. If a patron, desiring 
to board a car of the Market Street Railway, does not do 
so very promptly, the municipal cars moving on the 
outside track cut off access to the cars on the inner 
track until the latter have proceeded, and it is neces- 
sary to wait for the next car. In order to maintain 
headway, it is imperative that the Market Street Rail- 
way cars limit their stops for loading passengers to 
the shortest possible time, due to the large number of 
cars operating at such short intervals on Market Street 
and the vehicular traffic to be taken care of at the 
numerous cross streets. 

The Market Street Railway cars with longitudinal 
seats are found to be particularly well adapted to the 
traffic of the rush hours on Market Street. These cars 
handle a volume of business that would never be pos- 
sible without the 6-ft. aisle down the center of the car, 
which a seat arrangement of this kind affords. More- 
over, the ready access which this arrangement provides 
to the ample standing room inside the car is a factor 
of special importance on lower Market Street because 

it aids rapid loading. Anything which decreases the 
length of stops is regarded as of primary importance 
in improving the service, because officials of the Market 
Street Railway point out that the complaints are much 
less likely to come from failure to obtain a seat than 
from delays in the schedule. The twenty new cars; 
recently added to the Market Street Railway equipment 
have the seats in the inside section built longitudinally. 

Regulations for Jitneys 

Text Given of Connecticut Rules, Which Go Into Effect July 
15 — Jitneys Made Common Carriers, Under Jurisdiction 
of Public Utilities Commission 

UNDER Chapter 77 of the Public Acts of 1921, whichi 
takes effect July 15, 1921, all jitneys operating in 
the State of Connecticut are made common carriers and 
subject to the jurisdiction of the Public Utilities Com- 
mission. The term "jitney" as denned by the act 
includes any public service motor vehicle operated upon 
any street or highway in such manner as to afford a 
means of transportation similar to that afforded by a 
street railway company, by indiscriminately receiving or 
discharging passengers or by running on a regular 
route or any portion thereof or between fixed termini. 

In order that there may be some consistency as to> 
the operation of these vehicles where allowed by a 
certificate of convenience and necessity, rules have been 
established, subject to changes as the commission may 
subsequently find necessary. 

These rules provide that certificates to operate can 
be revoked for violation of traffic ordinances or state 
laws regarding the operation of motor vehicles and that 
ownership certificates of operation are not transferable 
without the approval of the commission. Operators are' 
required to display destination and route signs on the 
fronts of cars. These signs must have letters not less 
than 2 in. nor more than 3 in. in height and must be 
illuminated at night. Vehicles having a seating capacity 
of ten or more must permanently display on each outer 
side a notice stating the seating capacity. The letters 
used are required to be 24 in. high. 

Jitneys certified to operate must reasonably maintain 
the prescribed schedule and must post in a conspicuous 
place inside of each car a time table of the entire service 
prescribed, together with the rates of fare. This ser- 
vice cannot be reduced without the approval of the 
commission nor is any deviation from the route specified 
allowed except in case of emergency. All cases of in- 
terruption of the service, as required by certificate, for 
a period of twenty-four hours must be reported to the 
commission, together with the cause. In case of sus- 
pension of service for a period of five days the certificate 
of operation is automatically revoked unless the operator 
is excused for cause by the commission. 

Jitneys can be operated only at a speed consistent 
with safety, depending on congestion of street traffic, 
danger of intersecting streets, curves, street railway 
crossings or other conditions requiring extra caution. 
In suburban service the speed may be greater than that 
maintained in urban territory, but must not exceed 
20 m.p.h. for vehicles having a seating capacity of ten 
or more passengers, nor more than 30 m.p.h. for all 
other vehicles. Before crossing tracks of steam rail- 
roads at grade jitney operators must carefully observe 
warning signs and proceed over the tracks with due 

All cars must be equipped with a speed indicator. 

/uly 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Owners or operators are not allowed to solicit passengers 
by outcry or other noise, nor can an operator collect 
fares, make change, take on or discharge passengers 
while his vehicle is in motion. Passengers are to be 
received or discharged at the curb, when it is accessible, 
and at no other place. 

Operators are not allowed to smoke while on duty, 
nor to transport any dangerous, explosive or inflam- 
mable substance except fuel for the locomotion of the 
•car, and this fuel must be carried in the tank provided. 
Articles left in the cars by passengers must be reported 
to the commission, if they remain unclaimed for a 
period of more than twenty-four hours, with informa- 
tion as to where such articles may be recovered. 

All cars must be maintained in a neat and sanitary 
condition and be lighted on the inside at night. The 
commission's memorandum certificate or at least a 
certified copy thereof must be posted in a conspicuous 
place in every vehicle. 

Living Costs Drop in Akron 

Brief Compiled for Use in Arbitration of Wages by the 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company Shows 
Comparison Between 1920 and 1921 

BETWEEN April, 1920, and April, 1921, the buying 
power of the dollar so increased in Akron, Ohio, 
that a salary of $1,420 in 1921 was equivalent to a 
salary of $2,000 in 1920. These figures are shown in 
a compilation made of living costs in Akron, Canton, 
Massillon and Dover by the Northern Ohio Traction & 
Tight Company and submitted in arbitration proceed- 
ings on the wage question. 

The company first shows the principal commodities 
in the family budget, with the United States Labor 

APRIL, 1921 

U.' S. Labor Bureau 

Distribution Under Akron Conditions, 

Apportion- April, 1921 

ment, Reduction, 

Food Per Cent Amount Per Cent Amount 

Food 43 $860.00 31 275 $591 25 

Shelter 18 360.00 27 03 236 77 

Clothing and dry goods 13 260.00 37 012 189 73 

Light and heat 6 120 .00 12 11 105 46 

iSundries 20 400.00 25 74 297 04 

Total 100 $2,000 00 *28.99 $1,420.25 

* Average, 

Bureau apportionment, and the percentage of decrease 
with the corresponding increase in the buying power 
of the dollar. It then shows how the reductions are 
applied to a $2,000 family budget. (See table.) 

Figures on food were obtained from local dealers 
whose names are given in a list. To obtain figures 
•on clothing was somewhat more difficult, due to changes 
in grades, but percentage figures were obtained in a 
number of cases. They show that in women's clothing 
hosiery prices declined 31.43 per cent, underwear 36.55 
per cent, silks 35.75 per cent, woolens 42.55 per cent. 
The decline in women's suits, dresses and skirts aver- 
aged 33.09 per cent. The average decline in dry goods 
was 43.68 per cent. Shoes declined from 26.88 per 
•cent to 66.88 per cent during the year and the reduc- 
tions were greater in men's than in women's shoes. 

The figures on shelter or rentals relate particularly 
to the territory and districts in which trainmen in the 
employ of the company reside and in general apply to 
houses ranging from $20 to $35 a month. The report 
points out, however, that this .reduction does not apply 

to those who own their homes or are buying homes on 
the monthly installment plan. For these families shelter 
costs have, in fact, slightly increased, as taxes are 
somewhat higher than a year ago, due to an increase 
in the assessed valuation. The percentage, however, 
when applied to the total shelter cost is not material 
in fixing final living costs. Room rentals have declined 
in about the same proportion as house rentals. 

Electric and gas rates have neither declined nor ad- 
vanced during the year, but coal prices have dropped 
from an average of $9 per ton to an average of $7.91 
per ton, making a decrease of 12.11 per cent. 

Under sundries, furniture, drugs, kitchen utensils, 
face powders, soaps, etc., were considered among other 
articles of family use. On these the report says : 
"Drugs and furniture were on the increase prior to 
April, 1920. Following that came a decrease of 20 
per cent in drugs and a 10 per cent decrease in fur- 
niture. A 20 per cent additional decrease was noted 
after January, 1921. Kitchen utensils showed a de- 
crease of 10 per cent to 25 per cent, and soap 20 per cent. 
The general average decline in sundries from April 
30, 1920, to April 30, 1921, is 25.74 per cent." 

In its conclusions the report states that from present 
forecast wholesale prices will tend downward for most 
of the remaining months of 1921, although unquestion- 
ably at a slower rate than heretofore, and "normalcy" 
should be reached by Jan. 1, 1922. Continued price 
declines are being reflected daily in food, clothing and 
sundries. House rents at present do not give any 
evidence of further reduction, and it is quite probable 
that the present level will continue until housing facil- 
ities are increased. Coal prices are not expected to 
show any material decline for some time. 

The report is accompanied by a series of charts and 
tables relating to local prices. 

Bus Substitute for Early Cars 

TO SAVE coal the Edinburgh Tramways, which is 
a municipal enterprise, has discontinued the oper- 
ation of cars on certain routes in the very early morn- 
ing hours and has substituted therefor motor buses. 

Bus Used by Edinburgh Tramways in Early Morning 
Hours to Save Coal 

The accompanying engraving shows one of the tram- 
way department buses at the Newhaven fish market 
near Edinburgh. As shown, the bus is a single decker 
with inclosed rear platform. It carries seats for thirty- 
one passengers. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

Traffic Regulation Has Its Difficulties 

Public Utilities Commission 
State of Connecticut 

Hartford, June 23, 1921. 

To the Editors: 

On page 1149 of the issue of June 18 is shown a 
photograph of a safety zone in Los Angeles. The text 
says that the entrance to this safety zone is up at the 
corner, but, contrary to the practice of safety, I notice 
that one man is stepping over the chain and a lady is 
walking between automobiles and around the end of 
the zone instead of entering the zone at the point of 
entry- The disregard of the safety zone limits by 
pedestrians makes it very hard for the police author- 
ities to make proper rules regulating movement of 
motor vehicles. E. Irvine Rudd, 

Chief Engineer. 

Self-Corrosion, Not Stray Current Electrolysis, 
at Selkirk, Manitoba 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, June 24, 1921. 

To the Editors : 

In the Electric Railway Journal for March 26, 
1921, the writer's article "Electrolysis Mitigation in 
Winnipeg" contained a reference to the self-corrosive 
action of the so-called alkaline soils of western Canada 
on cast-iron pipe. Recently some conspicuous examples 
of such self-corrosion were found on the water supply 
system of the hospital at Selkirk, Manitoba, at points 
and under conditions quite outside any possible path of 
stray current from railway or other power circuits. The 
pipe affected was a 6-in. water main and the active cause 
was undoubtedly the alkaline salts in the soil. 

The self-corrosion discovered corroborates the result 
of laboratory experiments conducted by the writer. 

Similar laboratory experiments were reported in 
1914 by E. H. Scofield, power engineer of the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company of Minneapolis, in the Electric 
Railway Journal, including an account of the perfor- 
ation of a 4-in. cast-iron pipe by soil corrosion in a Da- 
kota town where there had never been a trolley system, 
and showing a photograph of the pipe. At that time it 
seemed that most of the experts on electrolysis investi- 
gation were so bent on tracing the cause of pipe corro- 
sion to stray current wherever there was an electric 
railway which could possibly be blamed for it, that 
Mr. Scofield's presentation did not appear to make much 
of an impression. However, the subject of the corro- 
sion of iron has in the meantime been continuously 
studied by competent electro-chemists both in and out 
of the metallurgical industries, and the results of their 
work have become better known to public utility engi- 
neers. The evidence now gathered from Selkirk, Mani- 
toba, is further proof, if any more proof be needed by 
engineers having even a little electro-chemical knowl- 
edge, that self-corrosion must hereafter be taken into 
account independently of stray-current electrolysis. 

The time has now arrived when managers of electric 
railway properties about to employ experts for investi- 
gating electrolysis situations should insist upon the col- 
laboration of competent electro-chemists with the elec- 

trical engineers and physicists, who have hitherto 
chiefly composed the body of experts from which such 
talent is usually drawn. Electrolysis experts will do 
well to recognize two things — first, that the electrolysis 
problem is fundamentally one involving electro-chemis- 
try as well as physics, in order to evaluate the possibil- 
ity of self-corrosion, instead of neglecting it, and sec- 
ondly, that henceforth it will be possible, by means of 
testing equipment recently developed, to ascertain 
whether a pipe is really positive to the surrounding 
earth at the point of corrosion, before following the 
time-honored outdoor sport of chasing the deadly stray 
current to its lair. 

Apart from all electrolysis controversies, the evidence 
mentioned will be of widespread value to the engineer- 
ing profession in tending to dispel the traditional con- 
viction that cast-iron pipe underground can be regarded 
as practically indestructible. W. Nelson Smith, 

Consulting Electrical Engineer. 

Auto Use Need Not Be Abused 

Boston Elevated Railway 

Boston, July 5, 1921. 

To the Editors: 

I note in your issue of June 25, page 1172, an article 
contributed by a manager of a Western property on the 
"Street Railway 'Auto Superintendent,' " and I cannot 
refrain from passing a few remarks on the subject. 

If I remember rightly, when urban transportation 
was provided by horse cars, trackmasters, division 
superintendents, general superintendents and the like 
were provided with horses and buggies. If that was so, 
then the reference to having "the street railway super- 
intendent frisk past the street car" as not being an 
example of good business applied in a relative way in 
those days when the superintendent drove past a horse 
car in a light buggy. While in this era of flying ma- 
chines and motor vehicles there is danger of automobiles 
belonging to officials being misused, even in the days of 
horse cars a similar situation existed as complained of. 

But the fact remains that the abuse of materials or 
facilities provided for officials or employees to perform 
their work more efficiently of necessity requires a check- 
ing up system and a knowledge of whether they are mis- 
used or not. In addition, there is another factor just as 
important, and that is the spirit of co-operation through- 
out the organization — of pulling together to make the 
property successful and efficient. In other words, the 
mental attitude of subordinates of the type mentioned, 
and if this esprit de corps is right the danger feared by 
the manager in the article is rather remote, or at least 
confined to isolated cases. 

An automobile is a necessary tool under modern con- 
ditions to annihilate time and distance in the efficient 
conduct of a large urban property, and it is the duty of 
the management to see that it is used for the purpose 
for which it is intended. Edward Dana, 

General Manager. 

The trustees of Princeton University have planned to 
enlarge its School of Engineering, giving courses in 
civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical en- 
gineering, chemical engineering and mining engineer- 
ing. These courses will extend over four years, at the 
end of which time the bachelor's degree will be given*. 
A fifth year will be required for an engineering degree. 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


C. E. R. A. Meets Aboard Ship 

Real Accomplishment Marks Meeting, Intermingled with a Delightful Cruise on the Great Lakes — Auto- 
matic Substations, Merchandising Transportation, Freight Claim Reductions and 
Separate Engineering Organization Discussed 


UNDER ideal weather con- 
ditions, the Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association 
held its summer meeting aboard 
the S.S. South American, on a 
six-day cruise in Lakes Michi- 
gan, Huron and Erie. And de- 
spite the complete freedom from 
care and the abandon to pleas- 
ure and scenery and good fel- 
lowship, the three business ses- 
sions held were outstanding for 
the interest shown, the free dis- 
cussion and the accomplishment. 
These meetings were devoted to 
papers and discussions on auto- 
matic substations, merchandis- 
ing transportation, reduction of 
freight claims, organization of 
an engineering section of the 
association, and other commit- 
tee reports. The total attend- 
ance on the cruise numbered 
314, of whom 164 made the en- 
tire trip starting from Chicago, 
and 150 others boarded the ship 
at Toledo and Detroit. There seemed to 
be unanimous agreement that it was 
the best gathering the association had 
ever had and many began before it 
ended to plan for a similar outing next 

In the absence of President A. C. 
Blinn, who at the last minute was 
forced to stay home by unexpected 
developments in Akron, Samuel W. 
Greenland, first vice-president, presided 
at the various sessions. The first busi- 
ness session was held on June 29 and 
was devoted to the consideration of 
automatic substations. A paper by 
C. A. Butcher, followed by written dis- 
cussion by Lawrence D. Bale and 
Charles H. Jones, appears in abstract 
elsewhere in this issue. In his absence 
Mr. Jones' paper was read by C. M. 
Davis, General Electric Company. Con- 
cluding Mr. Jones' written discussion, 
Mr. Davis went on to say that there was 
a fundamental difference in the method 
of control as followed by the two princi- 
pal manufacturing companies. The one 
described by Mr. Butcher imitates hand 
operation while the other forces the 
machine to come up to speed with cor- 
rect polarity through the use of a 
separate exciter. He said he agreed 
with Mr. Butcher that the single unit 
station is more desirable, though he 
could appreciate that there might be 
some instances in which a two-unit 
station would be advisable, though the 
use of any larger number than two was 
extremely questionable. He referred 
briefly to the possibility that it may be 
desirable to superimpose a remote con- 
trol on the present complete automatic 
control for use in city service as a 
means of giving a centrally located load 
dispatcher control of individual feeders 
as well as whole stations. The pos- 

the power were lost in resist- 
ance inserted in the circuits 
or in the resistance of the cop- 
per circuits where the load is 
shifted to another station. He 
urged the railway men to co- 
operate with the manufacturers 
in working out the problems in- 
volved in the application of 
automatic control, as this would 
hasten the simplification and 
lower the cost of the control 

A special session of the asso- 
ciation was called on the morn- 
ing of June 29 for the purpose 
of disposing of various commit- 
tee reports. The first to be 
heard was that of the commit- 
tee on standards, of which H. 
H. Buckman, Scottsburg, Ind., is 

Report of Standardization 
and Bureau of Standards 

sibility of a fire or serious accident L Rail Bonds _ Qn account of thg 
giving rise to the necessity quickly to many typeg produced b the manufac . 
cut out a section of the trolley explains turerg whjch are protected b pa tents 

and on account of the differences of 

South American/' with the C. E. R. A. Aboard, 
in the "Soo" Locks 

the need for such a scheme. He pre- 
dicted that this remote control would 
become a feature of automatic sub- 
station power supply in city service. 

Victor E. Thelin, Chicago Surface 
Lines, gave it as his personal opinion 
that the present automatic substation 
equipment is too elaborate, requiring 
so large an investment that it takes 
too long a time to realize a saving. He 
contended that further development 
must simplify the equipment and pare 
down the cost so that there will be 
greater appeal to the purchasers. He 
spoke briefly of an experimental instal- 
lation of automatic reclosing circuit 
breakers in a substation otherwise 
manually operated and said that so far 
very good results had been obtained in 
cutting off the feeder altogether under 
overload conditions, rather than to have 
resistance inserted in the circuits at 
such a time. He believed that it was 
better to place dependence on the capac- 
ity of adjacent stations to carry the 
overload in case one feeder should trip 

Mr. Davis explained that the use of 
limiting resistance in each feeder cir- 
cuit in Des Moines virtually acted in 
this manner, for as the voltage is low- 
ered at one station, the load is auto- 
matically shifted to other adjacent 
stations without killing altogether the 
feeder involved in an overload condi- 
tion. This leaves adequate power on 
the line to keep the cars going while 
the trouble is being cleared. 

Mr. Thelin then suggested that when- 
ever resistance is put into circuits it 
means that power is lost. Mr. Butcher 
asked what difference it made whether 

opinion of the consumers as to the effi- 
ciency of the various types and methods 
of application and the difference in 
capacity required even on any one prop- 
erty, your committee finds that it would 
be impracticable to recommend or use 
a standard rail bond. 

2. Telephones. — Owing to lack of 
information on this subject and absence 
of members of this committee convers- 
ant with the subject, your committee 
begs for further time to investigate and 

3. Rolling Stock. — Your committee 
after considerable discussion agreed 
that standard city and interurban cars 
are desirable, but on account of vary- 
ing local conditions on different proper- 
ties, it finds that it would be imprac- 
ticable to recommend any particular 

Referring to equipment for both city 
and interurban cars, your committee 
begs to call to your attention that equip- 
ment parts have already been stand- 
ardized to a great extent. 

4. Car-Stop Signs. — Your committee 
begs to call to your attention that a re- 
port with samples of standard car-stop 
signs was presented at the meeting held 
in Toledo on May 26, 1910, at which 
time it was decided not to adopt a 
standard car-stop sign. However, your 
committee will be glad to again submit 
samples or designs of a standard car- 
stop sign if the committee is again in- 
structed to do so and is informed how 
and where such a sign is to be installed. 

New Subjects. — Your committee 
recommends that the following subjects 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. Z 

should be taken up and worked out and 
that they be given instructions to do so. 

1. Revision of standard signal lines 
and trailer light connector is necessary. 
June 25-26, 1914. 

2. Additions and changes to train 
signal system adopted June 26, 1914. 

3. Controlling dimensions of passen- 
ger and freight cars used in inter- 

4. Standard length of air hose. 

5. Assembly and details of air piping 
on draw bars. 

6. Standard location of classification 
and tail light brackets. 

7. Standard lamps and sockets for 
railway use. 

8. Standard design of trolley re- 
triever and catcher. 

9. Controlling dimensions of rolled 
steel wheels, not including standard 
contour of flange and tread. 

The report was signed by H. H. 
Buckman, P. V. C. See, J. W. Osborn, 
John Zoll and M. F. Skouden, com- 

Separate Engineering Organization 

The committee which has been study- 
ing- the best plan of developing some 
form of organization by which the engi- 
neering personnel of the association 
would have an adequate medium for the 
interchange of common ideas and ex- 
perience made its report. The report 
was read by Secretary Earlywine, the 
members of the committee being Myles 
B. Lambert, Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company, chairman; P. 
V. C. See, Akron, Ohio; Harry Reid, 
Indianapolis, Ind.; Guy H. Kelsay, 
Elyria, Ohio, and J. W. Osborne, Le- 
banon, Ind., all of whom were present. 
As developed in the committee report 
and in the discussion which followed, 
the plan of organization is in substance 
as follows: 

There is to be organized as a sub- 
sidiary of the Central Electric Railway 
Association an engineering council 
with four local engineering sections 
known as the Akron, Toledo, Dayton 
.and Indianapolis Sections. Each sec- 
tion is to be headed by a director with 
six additional members to comprise the 
local executive board. The engineering 
council will consist of the director of 
each local section, two members of the 
executive committee, and a chairman 
who is to be the second vice-president 
of the association. 

The local sections are intended to 
embrace all engineering branches of 
the industry. Each local section will 
arrange matters of discussion that will 
be of joint interest to the other sections 
or simply of local interest. Each sec 
tion is to hold three meetings a year 
and at the annual meeting of the main 
association a half day is to be allotted 
to a general meeting of the engineering 
council, as a part of the regular pro- 
gram. At this time general engineer- 
ing matters will be discussed, papers 
read, and any reports of the engineer- 
ing council submitted for the approval 
of the association. 

The plan of operation contemplates 

that at the beginning of the fiscal 
year the engineering council will pre- 
pare and submit to the local sections 
a program of subjects on which infor- 
mation, studies or reports are desired. 
It is to be the duty of the chairman of 
the engineering council to follow up the 
work assigned to these local sections, 
to insure execution of the assignment. 
All reports of an engineering nature 
are to be referred to the engineering 
council for approval before they are 
submitted to the main association. The 
same subject may be assigned to all 
four sections for study and individual 
report, the engineering council then 
acting to derive from these a final 
report for submission to the association. 
In addition to the assignment made, 
each local section is to be free to dis- 
cuss other matters of interest or to 
initiate studies leading to recommenda- 
tions to the engineering council and 
thence to the association. The stand- 
ards committee of the association is 
continued for the present, but it is 
anticipated that the engineering council 
will function along this line and ulti- 
mately take the place of the standards 
committee. The president of the asso- 
ciation, however, will be authorized to 
appoint an independent committee to 
study and report on any subject of a 
general engineering character, where 
this seems desirable. 

The purpose expressed, of dividing 
the territory into four sections, was to 
keep to a minimum the amount of 
traveling and hence the amount of 
time off the property involved, and also 
to keep the size of the gathering small 
so that it could take on the nature of 
an informal round-table discussion. The 
reason for making these sections em- 
brace all branches of engineering was 
that many of their problems are inter- 
related and furthermore, that the small 
informal groups would give an opportu- 
nity for frank discussion of inter- 
departmental differences and tend to 
eliminate the common jealousies which 
exist. It was also thought that the 
existence of four parallel sections 
might result in some healthy competi- 
tion which would be fruitful of accom- 

As to the place of the manufacturers' 
representatives at these sectional meet- 
ings, Mr. Lambert explained that, all 
things considered, it had been deemed 
advisable that they should attend these 
sectional meetings only upon invitation. 
Whenever any particular subject is up 
for discussion, those manufacturers 
who are directly interested will be fore- 
warned and invited to attend the meet- 
ing, prepared with data and information 
to take active part in the meeting. 

The committee report was discussed 
favorably by the members of the com- 
mittee and by R. J. Custer, Columbus, 
Ind.; F. H. Miller, Louisville, Ky.; H. A. 
Nicholl, Anderson, Ind.; S. D. Hutchins, 
Columbus, Ohio; C. L. Henry, Indian- 
apolis, Ind., and F. D. Carpenter, Lima, 
Ohio. Mr. Henry expressed his belief 
that such an organization could be ar- 
ranged without material change in the 
present constitution. He expressed the 

thought that the engineering council 
would probably either function as the 
standards committee or embrace the 
purview of the standards committee. 
He thought the plan was a good one 
except that it still embodied the old 
difficulty of getting men to do the work, 
and he emphasized the necessity to put 
behind the report the determination to 
put it through to success. 

Mr. Carpenter said he thought the 
reason for much of the non-attendance 
at committee meetings was because the 
men were not properly backed up by 
their managements and urged to attend 
and give attention to their duty. He 
explained that no employee of the West- 
ern Ohio Railway is permitted to ac- 
cept a committee assignment until this 
is approved by himself, but with this 
approval the map knows that he has 
the support of his superiors and there- 
fore does his part. He recommended 
the same procedure to other companies. 

Walter H. Evans, Tool Steel Gear 
Company, Chicago, urged the company 
to take good care of the subordinate 
equipment men and also emphasized the 
importance of not only getting the 
young college-trained men while the 
getting is good, but also to get good 
men without any particular technical 
training and bring them up in the shop. 
He lamented the passing of some of 
the outstanding equipment men, because 
there is no one coming along competent 
to fill their places. 

After full discussion, the report of 
the committee was adopted and the 
president requested to appoint the en- 
gineering council as outlined in the 
report and direct it to work out the 
details for carrying out the organiza- 
tion planned by the committee and to 
report at the annual meeting in Jan- 
uary. This resolution included the 
provision that the present standards 
committee should be continued and 
should work with the engineering coun- 
cil to be appointed, until the final de- 
tails of the plan are worked out and 
such report accepted. 

Report of Freight Claim Prevention 

The freight claim prevention commit- 
tee of the subsidiary traffic association, 
headed by S. A. Greenland, Fort Wayne, 
Ind., was then called upon for a report. 
The other members of the committee 
are C. 0. Sullivan, W. S. Whitney, N. 
Rumney, F. D. Norviel and J. H. Pound. 
This committee was appointed to look 
into the possibility of reducing freight 
claims, having in mind the very good 
results obtained along this line by the 
American Railway Association and the 
American Railway Express Company. 
The committee reached the conclusion 
that this was more than a traffic prop- 
osition and required the co-operation 
of all departments, and for that reason 
submitted the proposition to the main 
association for approval. The commit- 
tee recommended that each general 
manager hold a meeting of company 
officials to formulate plans for working 
out the following suggestions: 

It is proposed that on each property 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


a committee be appointed consisting of 
the best informed men in the service, 
whose duty it will be to make careful 
study of things that can be done to 
improve the service, to advise and in- 
struct fellow workmen, particularly new 
men; to distribute literature issued by 
the company or the association, and to 
see that employees are notified of 
meetings of committees and secure 
their attendance. For the first meeting 
of these committees on the various 
roads, each committeeman is to be re- 
quested to give in writing his opinion 
of the proper way to handle the par- 
ticular line of work in which he is 
engaged and to offer suggestions that 
will improve the method now in effect. 
The best of these letters is to be 
selected by the chairman and sent to the 
secretary of the association, where, 
from all such letters received, the best 
will be selected and published for the 
benefit of all association lines. 

It is also proposed that pamphlets 
be got out by the freight claim pre- 

mittees already organized on his prop- 

C. S. Keever, Anderson, Ind., added 
that the seventy agents of the Union 
Traction Company had been called to- 
gether in several meetings this year and 
instructed on the proper marking and 
handling of shipments, and the method 
of keeping record on the waybill of any 
irregularities. As a result of this cam- 
paign, he said that the company has 
had only ten claims this year of over 
$10. James P. Barnes, Louisville, also 
expressed the danger of any outside 
force endeavoring to secure a good 
etprit de corps in any organization 
which was unable to do this for itself. 
This opposition resulted in the report 
being referred back to the executive 
committee, where it was later adopted, 

In discussing the report, S. W. Green- 
land emphasized the desirability of tak- 
ing steps to reduce claim expenditures, 
by giving some figures developed by 
the secretary as the result of a ques- 

was led off by J. F. Ohmer of the 
Ohmer Fare Register Company, who 
said that all the points raised were 
mighty good, but who admonished the 
members of the association to "go home 
and do it." Myles Lambert of the 
Westinghouse company also raised the 
question, "Will you go back home and 
do it?" Mr. Lambert said that the 
best thing he had heard was a master 
mechanic (E. B. Gunn) tell how to sell 

C. L. Henry said that the fundamental 
fact is that if railways can't sell rides 
they can't stay in business. With refer- 
ence to "going home and doing it," the 
thing that bothered him was how to do 
it. He recounted his experience in 
bringing his power plant up to date, 
and said that similar steps must be 
taken in an engineering way throughout 
each entire property, but he pointed out 
that it was easier to do it with physical 
things than with men. His advice was 
for everybody to work day in and day 
out, everywhere and all the time. 
Speaking particularly to interurban 
men, he expressed his belief to be as 
strong as ever in the full success of the 
interurban. As to the bus, it is here 
to stay, he said, and it must be used 
intelligently in this problem of mer- 
chandising transportation. 

A. Swartz of Toledo said he thought 
the railway industry should let the 
public know its business. He advised 
against even thinking about lower 
fares at the present time, but it was 
brought out in later discussion that 
lower fare suggestions which have been 
made applied only to restricted areas, 
as a means of inducing short-haul 
traffic or of lowering city wide fares. 
Mr. Schwartz emphasized that the 
advertising work of the railways should 
be positive in its nature. 

Mr. Lambert, speaking a second time, 
said that it is merely an economic law 
which dertermines the rate of fare and 
that it is the railways' duty to interpret 
this economic law and the resulting rate 
of fare, and this was what required 
sales ability. There are two conditions 
of fares which result in failure of rail- 
way companies: One of these is an 
unprofitable rate of fare, too low to pay 
expenses; the other is a rate which is 
beyond the reach of the average con- 
sumer, and this reduces the gross 
revenue. Some place between is an 
economic balance which, coupled with 
rigid economy of operation, means 

The question of local securities sales 
was brought up and Harry Reid of the 
Interstate Public Service Company said 
that he started a year ago to sell pre- 
ferred stock to friends and customers 
of the company and over $600,000 worth 
had been sold to more than 1,700 sep- 
arate individuals. Mr. Henry pointed 
out the enviable position of the Lan- 
caster (Pa.) Railway, where all stocks 
and bonds were owned in Lancaster 
County. In further discussion of the 
question of low fares and jitney com- 
petition, H. V. Bozell, editor Electric 
Railway Journal, quoted a leading 
public utilities commissioner who 

Back to the Good Old Horse Days 
Proving that railway men are not particular about the form of motive power so 
long as it affords transportation. The driver, George Radcliffe. Cleveland, and these 
six other "indians" would not permit a shortage of autos to interfere with a tour of 
Sault Sainte Marie, when the ship stopped there for two hours. 

vention committee with suggestions 
covering subjects and topics for the 
use of the local committees at their 
meetings in order to furnish topics of 
interest and secure similar work by all 
committees. It is also suggested that 
the question of loss and damage be not 
made the only feature of these meet- 
ings, but rather that the object of the 
movement be to improve service as well, 
which will automatically reduce the loss 
and damage. 

The committee also requested the as- 
sociation to set aside an allowance of 
$250 to cover necessary expense of 
issuing circulars and pamphlets for use 
in conjunction with the work in hand. 

While other members favored the 
adoption of the report and urged co- 
operation in carrying it out, H. A. 
Nicholl, general manager Union Trac- 
tion Company of Indiana, Anderson, 
failed to see the need for it so far as 
his company was concerned and took 
exception to the idea of having instruc- 
tions come into his organization from 
outside sources. He explained briefly 
the excellent results which had been 
obtained along the line of reducing 
freight claims through the work of com- 

tionnaire sent to all of the member 
companies. Of thirty-four companies 
who responded, it was found that in 
1920 the total amount paid out in 
freight claims was $142,744. He said 
that by virtue of its "Right- Way Cam- 
paign" the American Express Company 
had decreased the claims in January 
this year as compared to the same 
month last year by 12 per cent, in 
February by 31 per cent, March, 38 
per cent, and April, 69 per cent. For 
the first four months of this year a re- 
duction in claims of 58 per cent as 
compared to the same period last year 
has been realized. Mr. Greenland 
gave these figures to indicate the pos- 
sibilities in reducing this form of drain 
upon the companies' earnings. 

The Thursday afternoon session was 
devoted to the subject of merchandising 
transportation. The meeting was 
started by the report of the committee 
on this subject, which is given elsewhere 
and was followed by some prepared dis- 
cussions, abstracts of some of which are 
given following the committee report. 
This was followed by open discussion 
from the floor. 

The general discussion which followed 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

pointed out his very difficult problem 
in telling inhabitants of certain cities 
that they would have to pay 8 cents or 
10 cents to ride from their homes to 
town, even though there were motor 
buses ready to carry them the same 
distance for 5 cents. While this com- 
missioner said it would be necessary to 
do this in many cases, still it was a 
difficult problem for one in public life. 
Mr. Bozell called attention to a talk to 
trainmen given by P. S. Arkwright, 
president of the Georgia Railway & 
Power Company, Atlanta, Ga., (see 
Electric Railway Journal, April 23, 
1921, page 771) as being one example 
of "how to do it" in training employees. 
Mr. Barnes, in closing the discussion, 

commended the spirit of the associa- 
tion's discussion of the merchandising 
transportation question. He gave a 
brief reference to an experiment which 
he has just started in Louisville in the 
nature of a combined contest, safety 
campaign and closer co-operation 
between the trainmen and executives, 
the result of which is apparently most 
satisfactory. The experiment has been 
going on for such a short time, how- 
ever, that he did not wish to draw any 
definite conclusions therefrom at this 
time. On motion the association con- 
tinued the committee, requesting it to 
report again in January. 

Abstracts of papers and discussions 
presented follow herewith. 

Automatic Substation Progress 

By C. A. Butcher 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 

REFERENCE to an automatic rail- 
way substation brings to the minds 
of some the small type used on inter- 
urban systems, and to others it means 
the large type of single or multiple-unit 
stations of larger capacity used for 
city service. Naturally the experiments 
in automatic substation operation were 
first carried out on a smaller and more 
isolated equipment. These experiments 
proved successful and applications were 
soon made to much larger machines. 
The largest at the present time are in 
the four stations on the property of the 
Cleveland (Ohio) Railway. Here three 
stations are now in operation, each con- 
sisting of two 1,500-kw., 60-cycle units 
in parallel operation. In all kinds of 
railway service there are at present 
approximately 100 automatically equip- 
ped substations in service. Approx- 
imately 200 equipments have been sold 
for the automatic operation of various 
types of substation equipment. 

[Editor's Note. — Mr. Butcher next 
explained the application of the auto- 
matic control principle, as developed 
by his company, with reference to the 
synchronous converter. This has been 

covered in some detail in articles in the 
issues of this paper for April 13, 1918, 
pages 705 and 707; May 17, 1919, page 
948; the combined issue for Nov. 8 to 
Dec. 13, 1919, page 886; Jan. 31, 1920, 
page 259; March 27, 1920, page 654; 
Sept. 18, 1920, page 533. An extended 
further article will be published in an 
early issue. The balance of Mr. 
Butcher's paper was taken up with dis- 
cussion of special applications of auto- 
matic control and concluded with the 
general summary of the present inter- 
esting problems in this field, substan- 
tially as below.] 

Control of Motor Generator Sets 

Motor-generator sets are controlled 
in a fashion very similar to the plan 
used with rotary converters with the 
exception, of course, that it is not neces- 
sary to correct polarity. The stations 
equipped with motor-generator sets 
start up upon the indication from a 
contact-making voltmeter connected 
between trolley and rail. Transition 
from a.c. starting to running voltage 
is effected by the operation of relays 
responsive to various indications of 
synchronism. The generator end 
of the set may act as the exciter 
for the synchronous motor or a 
direct-connected exciter may be 
used. In any case, the field of 

the exciter is usually directly con- 
nected to the generator end or the 
exciter end of the set. In applying 
reduced voltage to the winding of the 
synchi'onous motor for starting, alter- 
nating current of the frequency of slip 
is induced in the field winding. Since 
this field winding is directly connected 
to the exciter, the alternating current 
induced in this winding will flow 
through its armature. This alternating 
current opposes any tendency of the 
direct-current armature to build up its 
voltage. As stated, since this induced 
current is of the frequency of slip, it 
obviously falls to zero when the motor 
reaches synchronous speed. There then 
being no opposition to prevent the 
exciter from building up its voltage, it 
builds up in a perfectly normal way, 
and in doing so builds up a normal field 
current in the rotating field of the syn- 
chronous motor. 

There are three distinct indications 
of synchronism: The first is the falling 
of the starting current to a minimum 
value. When starting voltage is applied 
there is at first a rush of current from 
the alternating-current line. This de- 
creases in value as the motor increases 
in speed and reaches a minimum when 
the rotor has reached synchronous 
speed. An accelerating relay actuated 
from a current transformer may be 
used to indicate the attainment of 
synchronous speed. A second indication 
of synchronism is the attainment of 
normal machine voltage. A voltage 
relay can be so calibrated as to close 
its contacts at normal machine voltage. 
A third is the attainment of normal 
field current. A series relay in the 
shunt-field circuit of the motor can be 
adjusted to close its contacts under 
normal field current. Any one or a 
number of these relays in combination 
may be used to operate such relays as 
will effect the transition from the 
alternating current starting to the run- 
ning position. The generator is con- 
nected to the bus in a manner very 
similar to that described for synchro- 
nous converters. The protective feat- 
ures provided are complete and very 
similar to those provided for synchro- 
nous converter stations. 

The old type of motor-started con- 
verters are being successfully operated 

Elevation of Semi-Outdoor Automatic Substation 

July 9, 1921 



automatically. There are now in opera- 
tion a half-dozen of these old-type 
machines and they are giving service 
equivalent to that of the modern type 
converter. The method of operation is: 
The motor is first started. An accel- 
erating relay in the motor circuit in- 
dicates approximate synchronous speed 
when the converter is connected directly 
to the full voltage taps of the power 
transformers through limiting reactors 
which pull the converter into step. The 
polarized motor relay is used to effect 
the transition as described for alter- 
nating current self-starting converters. 

Substations With Two or More Units 

The control for stations equipped 
with two or more units is so designed 
that after load exceeding a given value 
has been maintained for a predeter- 
mined period of time on one machine 
another is started and automatically 
connected to the load. This feature is 
provided by means of a temperature 
relay which operates to close its con- 
tacts after the first machine has 
reached a given operating temperature. 
Under conditions of light load, the 
machines are cut out in the reverse 
order of starting. Switches are pro- 
vided for making any machine the first 
to start. In case of failure of one 
machine to go into service, an auxiliary 
contact on the motor-operated timing 
relay closes to start the second machine 
after the lapse of 11 minutes. The first 
is definitely locked out of service. A 
signal connected with the lockout relay 
may be used to indicate the failure. 
Until the lockout relay has been reset 
by hand, the second unit continues to 
function in the place of the first, the 
station starting up and shutting down 
on demand. 

A 1,200-Volt Station 

One very interesting application of 
automatic switching has been made to a 
1,200-volt direct-current substation on 
the line of the Fort Wayne & Decatur 
Traction Company at Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. This line has but one sub- 
station and the cars are run into the 
Fort Wayne Terminal on the city line 

at 600 volts direct current. The station 
is started by means of a series relay in 
the trolley circuit at the junction point 
of the two trolley systems. When the 
substation is idle, these trolleys are tied 
together through an electrically op- 
erated contactor. 

For example, a car leaving the 600- 
volt section and crossing to the 1,200- 
volt section draws current through a 
series relay, the contacts of which are 
closed and the relays of the substation 
are thus energized over pilot wires to 
effect the starting of the substation. 
The 600-volt and 1,200-volt sections are 
tied together until the machine has 
come up to full voltage. At this point, 
the running contactors, in closing, effect 
the opening of the contactor which 
bridges the two trolley sections. This 
contactor is interlocked so that in its 
open position it effects the closing of 
the contactors of the substation, thus 
applying full 1,200 volts to the trolley 
section. The machine shuts down by 
the action of the timing relay in the 
manner described. It is thus seen that 
in case of failure of the substation to 
start, the cars can still operate from the 
600-volt supply, though obviously at 
reduced speed. In case the substation 
shuts down, a car laying over at the 
end of the line can restart it by draw- 
ing current through the series relay 
from the 600-volt section. 

A novel feature of the 1,200-volt 
switching equipment controlling two 
machines in series is that but one con- 
trol equipment is required for the sta- 
tion. The only duplication in equip- 
ment is the starting panel for the 
second machine. The starting con- 
tactor for the "high" machine is the 
first to close. Through the medium of 
an accelerating relay, after the first 
machine has reached synchronous speed, 
the starting contactor for the "low" 
machine is closed. The "low" machine 
acts permanently as an exciter for the 
"high" machine. Therefore, the scheme 
described for correcting the polarity of 
one machine automatically serves to 
establish correct polarity on the "high" 
machine, after the "low" machine has 
been corrected. 

The transition from starting to run- 
ning takes place simultaneously on both 
machines. The current limiting feature 
on the direct-current side is between 
the two machines rather than on the 
negative or positive side of the system. 
This is so that under no condition will 
greater than a 600-volt strain be im- 
posed on the insulation of the devices 
used. A 1,200-volt contactor mounted 
on marble panel serves to disconnect 
the 1,200-volt side of the machine from 
the trolley circuit. These machines 
happen to have a rather poor starting 
characteristic and it is therefore neces- 
sary to use a relatively high starting 
voltage. For this reason the synchro- 
nizing torque on the starting voltage is 
very high, making it difficult to effect 
correction of polarity by field reversal. 
As in other cases where this trouble 
w r as encountered, the difficulty was 
overcome by paralleling the fields in 
the reverse position. Under parallel 
conditions never more than one field 
reversal is required to establish correct 

Direct-Current Feeders for 
City Service 
We have felt since the beginning, and 
have more or less definitely established 
the fact, that the current-limiting re- 
sistance type of feeder in city service 
is not very desirable because only in 
the event of short-circuit is it desired 
to open a feeder circuit. If, due to con- 
gestion of cars, the feeder section is 
overloaded, it is obviously desirable to 
hold that section at as near full voltage 
as possible to clear the congestion 
quickly. To insert resistance and 
further lower the voltage under these 
conditions only aggravates the conges- 

With this idea in mind there has 
been brought out a type of feeder 
equipment which eliminates this cur- 
rent limiting resistance. The feeder is 
so designed that it will not trip on a 
legitimate overload, but only in case of 
a short circuit. This is accomplished 
by means of a device which differen- 
tiates between a normal and an abrupt 
rise in load. The breaker, once opened 

Plan View op Semi-Outdoor Automatic Substation 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

Rotary Converter and Automatic Control Apparatus in Sub- 
station of York (Pa.) Railways 

View in Two-Unit Automatic Substation of Cleveland 
(Ohio) Railway 

by this device, recloses only when the 
external resistance in the feeder cir- 
cuit has risen to or above a normal pre- 
determined value. In effect the device 
comprises a Wheatstone bridge ar- 
rangement which measures the ex- 
ternal resistance of the circuit and 
operates a relay to effect the reclos- 
ing when the short circuit has cleared. 

Inasmuch as the current-limiting re- 
sistance is retained in the machine 
circuit, the machine is protected from 
simultaneous overload on enough feed- 
ers from the station to cause overload 
on the machine. Retaining the current- 
limiting- resistance in the machine cir- 
cuit also makes possible rapid restora- 
tion of service on the system after a 
total "outage." In such a case, one 
machine starts up probably before a 
number of others and as it is the first 
machine in service on the system 
attempts to pull the total load. But 
for the limiting resistance, service 
would again be interrupted due to over- 
load. By hanging onto the load 
through the current-limiting resist- 
ance for a short time, this machine 
permits others to come into operation 
very rapidly to bring about complete 
restoration of service. 

The type of feeder described has 
proved very satisfactory. It will be 
applied to the three 1,500-kw. automatic 
substations now being built for the 
Cincinnati Traction Company. A device 
very similar to this is now being 
installed and will soon be in service 
on an automatic equipment designed to 
control a 1,000-kw. synchronous con- 
verter operating an Edison three-wire 
system in Milwaukee. 

Substations in City Service 

The application of automatic sub- 
stations to city properties presents a 
very interesting problem. City traction 
lines are usually made up of a series 
of extensions and additions. As the 
lines were extended, it was necessary to 
install feeders in order to maintain the 
required voltage. Then as the system 
grew and more cars were added it was 
necessary gradually to add to the 
power-plant capacity. As a result, a 
great number of street railway power 

and distribution systems are today fre- 
quently pointed out to the public as 
striking examples of inefficiency. In 
addition to heavy losses in positive and 
negative feeders, much trouble and 
litigation has resulted from electrolysis. 
In fact many cities have passed ordi- 
nances which limit the voltage drop in 
the rail. To overcome this condition it 
is necessary to install large amounts of 
additional negative feeders as well as 
extensive bonding between rails and 
subterranean structures. 

Conditions in many cities have been 
bettered by converting power plants 
from direct current to alternating cur- 
rent generation with direct current 
supplied to the system from substa- 
tions. In order to cut down operating 
expenses, the tendency has been to 
build substations of large capacity near 
the load center. This is, of course, a 
decided advantage over distribution 
from a power plant which, of necessity, 
is located near adequate water and coal 
supply and perhaps a mile or more 
from the true load center. However, 
the conditions of electrolysis are only 
slightly improved and great quantities 
of feeder copper are still required. 

The progress of generation is cer- 
tainly in the direction of large central- 
ized power plants. This is in line with 
the conservation of our natural re- 
sources and a plan to link these large 
plants to trans-continental transmission 
lines. Such development naturally 
means greater efficiency of power gen- 
eration and distribution with a natural 
result of cheaper power. 

It should not be the business of a 
railway company to manufacture power. 
Its real business is to sell transporta- 
tion. Each man in that organization 
should be in a position to concentrate 
his efforts on the real object at hand. 
Why should he be worried or burdened 
with the trials of a relatively small and 
inefficient power plant? Would it not be 
better to buy power from the central 
station, direct current to be supplied 
from substations so located over the 
system as to give the greatest advan- 
tage? If the railway operates the 
central station or vice versa, the condi- 
tions really remain the same. 

Automatic substations eliminate the 
item of attendance and therefore make 
it possible to operate a great many 
stations with but little thought of that 
item. By dividing the system into 
small blocks, each to be supplied from a 
substation located at the load center of 
the block, we do away with the neces- 
sity of a great amount of feeder copper. 
In addition we mitigate electrolysis by 
reducing the voltage drop in the rail 
to a very small and harmless value. 
The scrap value of the reclaimed 
copper, in a great many cases, goes far 
toward financing the improvements. 

The annual return is represented by 
the saving of copper and generation 
losses and power saving realized by 
virtue of the improved average trolley 
voltage. Improved trolley voltage 
makes possible a greater leeway in the 
schedule or permits a speeding up of 
the schedule, which in turn means 
greater returns from more frequent 
service. It may be possible to save 
platform labor by taking a car out of 
the number which are now required to 
maintain a given headway. 

The labor situation on a great many 
properties has reached the point where 
the men have gone on strikes and tied 
the property up for weeks and months 
at a time. Automatic substations, by 
the elimination of the human element, 
and by virtue of a complete complement 
of protective devices, not only give a 
high order of service but give it with 
economy and satisfaction. 

Discussion on Automatic 

By Lawrence D. Bale 

Engineer Substations Cleveland (Ohio) 

The first of the problems involved 
in the use of automatic substations 
in metropolitan service relates to the 
decision of the capacity and number of 
units to install per station. The solu- 
tion of this question involves several 
problems in itself. The area or zone 
to be supplied by a station, which also 
fixes the capacity, is generally deter- 
mined primarily by the investment 
necessary in feeder, and the annual 
charges, together with the losses occur- 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


ring in the feeder layout. There are 
also several other considerations to be 
taken into account which often influence 
the problem radically. The most im- 
portant among these are land values, 
building cost and restrictions, reserve 
equipment, alternating-current and 
direct-current feeders, and, above all, 
a system that will be conducive to a 
high degree of reliability of service. 

With low land values, building cost 
and load densities which are en- 
countered generally in small cities, 
sparsely settled areas or suburban dis- 
tricts of large cities there is no doubt 
a number of single-unit automatic sub- 
stations will answer the requirements 
admirably. On the other hand, with 
relatively high current densities to con- 
tend with, and where the cost of land 
and building is high, the multiple-unit 
stations give the most economical lay- 
out, taking every item into considera- 
tion. This has proved to be the case in 

On metropolitan systems, where con- 
tinuity of service is one of the ruling 
factors, it is necessary to provide a 
large reserve capacity with the initial 
investments in equipment and distribu- 
tion system. Where the multiple-unit 
station proves the most efficient and 
economical type to install, the factor of 
service insurance is further increased by 
reason of the scheme of automatic 
sequence operation which is included. 
The question of duplication of a.c. lines 
to a substation is also an important one 
from the standpoint of service insur- 
ance, for upon a system where disrup- 
tion of service from "station outs" due 
to a.c. power line failures is at all 
prevalent high-class service cannot be 
maintained. Therefore, where the capac- 
ity of the station, in other words, its 
importance, will justify the expendi- 
ture for duplicate a.c. lines, which is 
the case with a two-unit installation of 
relatively large capacity, further insur- 
ance against service interruption is 

City Systems Are Different 
The operation of automatically con- 
trolled equipment upon city systems is, 
of necessity, quite different from that 
found upon the average interurban 
system. In city service the frequent 
starting and stopping common to the 
interurban substation is impossible, for 
with all stations upon the systems 
arranged to feed into the general net- 
work of feeders and with a very low 
resistance between stations each and 
every machine in service will tend to 
assume its proportion of the system's 
load. This tends to keep equipment in 
service when there is really no neces- 
sity for it, resulting in a lowering of 
the all-day station conversion efficiency. 
The two-unit station has an advantage 
in this connection in that the two units 
will operate to capacity during the 
morning and evening peak, while dur- 
ing the remainder of the day one unit 
will be shut down. 

To overcome this feature of machines 
tending to remain in operation when 
not required, F. C. Chambers arranged 
the automatic substation of the Des 

Moines City Railway to operate at dif- 
ferent voltage, ranging from 600 to 650 
volts. The voltage adjustment which is 
based upon peak-load conditions enables 
the station with the lower voltages to 
shut down as the curve of the peak load 
descends, this arrangement, in conjunc- 
tion with the manipulation of high- 
tension lines to the lower voltage sta- 
stion, apparently working satisfactorily. 

To operate successfully a large city 
system consisting of a number of auto- 
matic substations, together with numer- 
ous heavy feeders, the general feeling 
is that some form of remote control 
superimposed upon that of the sub- 
station automatic control should be util- 
ized. Through this system machines 
may be controlled, load transferred, 
and, in fact, all of the operations neces- 
sary in a substation on an important 
property performed. It is not intended 
to have the remote control take prec- 
edence over the automatic control in any 
case during normal operation, but dur- 
ing emergencies full control of the 
system may be attained by this means. 

Regarding Resistance in 
Feeder Circuits 

Referring to the section of Mr. 
Butcher's paper in which he discusses 
d.c. feeders for city service, this par- 
ticular phase of the subject of auto- 
matizing the power supply of a large 
city system presents, as he intimates, 
one of the most troublesome problems 
of the whole question. Since an out- 
going d.c. feeder may be subjected to a 
variety of troubles or conditions, it 
seems almost beyond reason to expect 
automatic equipment to function and be 
depended upon to handle properly each 
of the conditions that may arise. When 
a feeder is subjected to overload either 
from the extraordinary movement of 
cars or load from an adjacent plant 
that may be in trouble the feeder most 
certainly must not be disconnected from 
the station bus nor have the impressed 
potential lowered by the cutting in of 
resistance. When this feeder becomes 
grounded, generally by the breaking of 
a trolley wire, the proper handling of 
it will depend upon the policy of the 
operating company. On some systems 
it is customary to discontinue service 
on a grounded feeder until such time as 
the ground is removed, the time in- 
volved depending generally upon the 
efficiency of the line department trouble 
system, which may mean in some cases 
a considerable delay in the movement 
of cars. Upon other of the larger 
properties the policy is to burn off 
grounds, so that the movement of the 
cars may be subjected to the least delay. 
This measure is adopted on properties 
where a premium is placed upon con- 
tinuity of service, as in Cleveland. 

It is therefore seen that where a 
property wishes to maintain station bus 
potential on an overloaded feeder and 
also to burn off grounds neither of the 
two present methods of handling over- 
loaded and faulty feeders automatically 
meets with both requirements, for the 
scheme of cutting resistance in on an 
overloaded feeder is not desired. On the 
other hand, this method may be utilized 

successfully in burning off grounds, 
while with the new method of feeder 
control mentioned by Mr. Butcher an 
overloaded feeder will not be opened nor 
its potential disturbed as far as the 
control is concerned, but a grounded 
feeder will open and remain so until 
such time as the ground is removed. 

The presence of a number of outgoing 
tie feeders in an automatic substation 
under the present method of control 
constitutes a possible danger of dis- 
ruption of service by causing the sta- 
tion bus potential to be lowered at a 
most inopportune time, or, worse still, 
by causing the rotaries to be discon- 
nected from the bus entirely, by reason 
of the possible overload that may be 
transferred from one station to another 
thrcugh a number of feeders of low 
ohmic resistance, in the event of the 
failure of an adjacent plant under peak- 
load conditions. 

Mr. Butcher states that in the event 
of the failure of a machine to connect 
with the load in one and a half minutes 
the machine is definitely locked out and 
remains so until the lockout relay has 
been reset by hand. In the Cleveland 
installation the sequence has been so 
arranged that, in the event of the fail- 
ure of the machine to connect with the 
station load within the prescribed time, 
the first unit is locked out or shut down 
and the second machine is started in its 
place. However, when the second unit 
is connected to the station bus the first 
unit automatically unlocks and is then 
again made available for service upon 
demand. This feature is of particular 
value, for while it is true that if there 
is something radically wrong with the 
machine that failed, the unit will be 
locked out against further service. On 
the other hand, if the difficulty is of 
a minor nature, as, for example, a poor 
interlock contact, the possibility of the 
unit performing satisfactorily upon the 
occasion of the second starting is good. 

Another very important feature is 
the starting of the second unit from the 
first upon the occasion of one machine 
being suddenly subjected to extremely 
heavy overload, causing the current- 
limiting resistance to be inserted in the 
machine circuit by the opening of the 
resistance shunting contactors. The 
second unit is normally started from 
the first by means of a thermal relay. 
This relay closes its contacts after the 
first machine has reached capacity load 
for a period of about fifteen minutes. 
To overcome the necessity of waiting 
for this relay to function under emer- 
gency or heavy overload conditions as 
mentioned above, the sequence scheme 
has been so arranged that when the 
resistance shunting contactor in the 
first rotary circuit opens, due to over- 
load, the control circuit is established, 
starting the second unit after the lapse 
of one and a half minutes, thus 
promptly securing the assistance of the 
second unit in carrying the overload. 

Cleveland Experience Satisfactory 
While it is true that my observations 
cover but a relatively short period of 
time, the first station in Cleveland 
having been placed in full automatic 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

operation upon Dec. 15, 1920, judging 
from observations up to the present, 
there is no reason why the power re- 
quirements of any system cannot be 
met satisfactorily and economically by 
utilization of automatically controlled 
equipment. It must be understood that 
there will necessarily be variations of 
control features upon every new system 
by reason of different operating con- 
ditions to be met, but with the engi- 
neering talent of those men now heading 
the automatic control divisions of the 
principal companies interested in this 
field, with the inclination of the en- 
gineer in charge of the property to 
co-operate, the limitations of automatic 
control in railway traction power supply 
are not in sight. 

The stations of the Cleveland Rail- 
way are, I believe, the first case on 
record of the adaptation of the auto- 
matically controlled substations to a 
large city system. These installations 
also enjoy the distinction of being the 
first two-unit automatic stations of 
large capacities to be constructed. 
Therefore, the majority of the work in 
connection with the planning of the lay- 
out and the scheme of control has been 
of a pioneer nature. The results have 
been exceedingly gratifying, for aside 
from the d.c. feeder control scheme com- 
paratively few changes have been found 
necessary. Some of these changes 
necessitated the redesign, addition or 
rearrangement of relays, but the 
majority were accomplished by chang- 
ing circuit connections. 

In the first installation it was found 
that by reason of a combination of 
conditions that could be set up by 
unusual occurrences in operation (either 
conditions not contemplated, or expe- 
rienced but not corrected) it was pos- 
sible to lock out a rotary, or, in extreme 
instances, both rotaries. As fast as 
these conditions were recognized pro- 
visions have been made or are under way 
to prevent their recurrence. When these 
changes are complete protection of 
these equipments will be had against 
every possible contingency and will give 
to the automatic stations, as planned in 
■Cleveland, the maximum degree of con- 
tinuity of service. 

There have been several demonstra- 
tions on the Cleveland property illus- 
trating the reliability of the automatic 
equipment as to its emergency stand-by 
features which I know will interest the 
operating engineer. In Cleveland, after 
1:30 a.m., with but the early morning 
service in operation, together with 
shifting of cars in yards, etc., the load 
upon the system averages about 7,000 
amp. It is customary to handle this 
load from 1:30 a.m. to 4 a.m. from 
a centrally located, manually operated 
substation, this plant being the only 
source of power for the entire system 
during that period. Upon three occa- 
sions the source of energy to the system 
has been interrupted by the opening of 
the a.c. power supply to this station, 
leaving the entire system without 
power. This occurrence immediately 
caused the voltage relay in the one 
substation (existing at that time) to 

operate, starting the first rotary and 
connecting it to the station bus, pick- 
ing up the entire system load, this 
being accomplished in approximately 
thirty-eight seconds. This station, of 
course, inserted resistance in the 
machine circuits and held on to the 
load until the manually operated station 
was again in service, after which the 
automatic station ran for a period of 
fifteen minutes and then shut down. It 
is thus seen that the presence of auto- 
matic equipment upon the system will 
restore service almost immediately in 
the event of an outage. 

Discussion on Automatic 

By Charles H. Jones 

Electrical Engineer Chicago, North Shore & 
Milwaukee Railroad 

The steps through which it is neces- 
sary to go in starting up a rotary 
converter and putting it on the direct- 
current bus are few and easily per- 
formed and the ways used to do this 
mechanically may vary in detail, but 
the methods used by the two manu- 
facturers have proved to be satisfactory 
in service. In fact, better results are 
obtained by the mechanical method than 
by the manual method, due to the 
elimination of the uncertain human 
element over which we have very little 
control, especially in case of emergency 
operation, and substitution of a mechan- 
ical device which will function in a 
certain predetermined sequence of steps 
regardless of whether they are per- 
formed under normal or adverse con- 

After the machine is put on the line 
and is handling the load we are face to 
face with a condition of machine pro- 
tection which is a great deal different 
with automatic than with manual 
operation. In the manually operated 
station the procedure was to take the 
machine off the line in case of any 
trouble or severe overload and leave it 
to the judgment of the operator 
whether or not the machine should be 
put back on the line. This cannot be 
done in the automatic station, so that 
a new line of trouble-differentiating 
equipment had to be developed which 
would replace the judgment of man. 
From my experience it appears to me 
that in solving this problem there are 
possibilities of overdoing the protec- 
tion and loading up of the automatic 
substation with a lot of devices which 
may in theory be a good thing but in 
actual practice will be detrimental. 
Looking back over many years of expe- 
rience with hand-operated stations, I 
believe I am safe in saying that the 
failures of line and equipment have 
been comparatively few, and I think we 
can safely use this as a basis for 
anticipating trouble. My suggestion is 
that we should not try to protect 
against every conceivable failure, but 
that we should take care of the common 
ones and supplement this with some 
sort of remote indicator to inform a 
centrally located attendant, after lock- 
ing out the station, of any unusual 
trouble. A remote indication is desir- 

able where a few stations are auto- 
matic and essential on a large inter- 
connected system. The cost would be 
comparatively small and the benefits 
large. The advantage would be great 
to have a recording ammeter for each 
station at a central location which could 
be watched by a load dispatcher. Such 
a system would offer a possibility of 
general car service supervision as well 
as power supervision. 

The above suggestion is right in 
line with station inspection, which is of 
great importance and will require care- 
ful study. There is considerable differ- 
ence of opinion among operators of 
automatic stations today about the 
proper frequency of inspection. Prac- 
tice varies from daily to every two 
weeks. Personally, I think that fre- 
quent inspection will be the most eco- 
nomical in the long run. Where an 
inspector has good facilities for getting 
from one station to another he could 
easily care for from four to six 
stations on a daily inspection basis. 

Single vs. Multiple Unit Stations 

The question of multiple-unit stations 
has been raised in Mr. Butcher's paper. 
Experience has shown it to be prac- 
ticable, but its desirability is another 
question. Among the savings to be 
made with automatic stations are reduc- 
tion of operating labor and the elimina- 
tion of d.c. line losses. Where a station 
has several machines and a large output 
per day, the cost of operation per kilo- 
watt-hour becomes very small and may 
be less than the carrying charges on 
automatic equipment. The greater the 
number of machines in a station the 
larger the feeding area, with a corre- 
sponding increase in line loss over the 
loss which would accrue in the same 
area with more than one station. To 
be sure, increasing the number of sta- 
tions by using a number of one- 
machine stations instead of a fewer 
number of multiple-machine stations 
will increase the initial cost due to 
land, building and transmission line 
cost, but there will also be a reduction 
in the distribution copper required. 
However, ample leeway will have to be 
provided in the distribution system to 
handle an adjacent station load in case 
of emergency. 

Mention is made in the paper about 
the benefits to be derived in electrolysis 
mitigation by use of automatic stations. 
It seems to me that this is another 
very good argument for single-unit 
stations as the feeding area is con- 
siderably smaller. Since the advent of 
the automatic substation has com- 
pletely revolutionized power distribu- 
tion engineering, the question of single 
and multiple-unit stations cannot be 
answered in a general way, but the 
problem must be carefully studied at 
each location under consideration and a 
balance between all advantages and 
disadvantages arrived at. 

Resistance in the Feeder Circuits 

In the average railway substation the 
ratio between peak and average load 
during the heaviest hour is about 2 to 
1, so that under normal conditions we 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


have very heavy swings. The com- 
bined feeder capacity is generally con- 
siderably greater than the machine 
capacity. There is of course consider- 
able diversity of load between the 
various feeders, though at times the 
swing on any one of the feeders may 
tax the machine. If there is no limit- 
ing resistance on the feeders, the 
swings in load may act to keep part 
of the machine resistance in circuit a 
considerable portion of the time, which 
will penalize all sections from the 
station. If some limiting resistance is 
used on the feeders, the penalizing 
takes place only on the section produc- 
ing the overload condition. In the past, 
feeders have been provided with limit- 

FOR the successful merchandising of 
any product three major divisions 
may be recognized: 

First — Raw material : The raw materials 
of transportation are, of course, the general 
layout of the system, the provision of suit- 
able rolling stock, track and power facili- 
ties, carhouse and shop equipment, etc., all 
of which is assumed to be complete and 

Second — Manufacture: Given the proper 
raw materials, the working up of a satis- 
factory commodity for sale must be carried 
out by an efficient, well organized and 
properly trained manufacturing force, 
which in the case of a railroad company 
rendering transportation service is com- 
posed of the operating and maintenance 
departments, whose production schedule is 
fundamentally the properly planned sched- 
ules for operating trains suitable for trans- 
portation conditions and maintaining equip- 
ments, roadway and other facilities, to- 
gether with the necessary supervisory force 
to assure that these schedules are main- 
tained and corrected from time to time to 
serve the changing needs of the community. 

Third — Sales : The sales organization of 
a transportation company should follow the 
same general lines as the sales organiza- 
tion of other successful corporations. Gen- 
eral policies and methods of salesmanship 
must be determined and laid down by the 
head of the concern, general manager, or 
other appropriate officer. Department or 
division managers, or superintendents, will 
follow the general policies laid down by the 
head of the organization, applying them to 
the local conditions of their respective divi- 
sions or departments. The traffic super- 
visors would direct the transportation on 
the streets, and from the carhouses, and 
from the dispatcher's office. The motormen 
and conductors on the cars constitute the 
sales force in direct contact with our cus- 
tomers, the public, corresponding in the 
department store to the clerk at the counter, 
who actually handles the detailed transac- 
tion of sales. 

The degree of public satisfaction and 
service rendered will depend almost 
entirely upon the manner in which the 
transaction of final sale is handled by 
the motorman and conductor on each 
car in the system. To a large extent, 
if not entirely, the attitude of the em- 
ployee toward the public will reflect the 
attitude of the corporation officials to- 
ward the employee. Employees who 
are courteously and considerately 
treated will in general reflect this 
treatment in their attitude to the pub- 
lic. Courteous and considerate treat- 
ment on the part of a salesman in his 
dealing with a customer will produce 
that without which no railway or any 
other business organization can exist, 
namely, "good will." 

No sales force can function properly 
without adequate instruction and train- 
ing in detailed technic of its work. 

ing resistance, equipped with a thermo- 
stat to open the feeder circuit on 
excessive heating. The capacity of the 
resistance was set at a rather low 
figure, so that an undesirable interrup- 
tion to service might take place. With 
the application of an automatic reclos- 
ing breaker which would absolutely 
keep the feeder open on a short, I 
believe the capacity of the load-limiting 
resistance could be increased and the 
thermostatic control of the feeder open- 
ing set either very high or eliminated 
altogether. This would be a compro- 
mise between the two extremes of re- 
sistance and no resistance on feeders 
and I believe this would be a desirable 

Motormen should be properly and rig- 
orously instructed in the handling of 
equipment and made to realize that 
the most economical method of opera- 
tion, including maximum coasting and 
smooth stopping by proper application 
of air, is also the most comfortable 
operation for passengers. 

The training of conductors should be 
along the lines of courteous but firm 
application of the rules of the company, 
care with regard to the collection of 
fares, issuing of transfers, calling of 
streets and the value of the voice with 
a smile. The training of platform men, 
particularly those already in the serv- 
ice, should be in full recognition of the 
fact that men engaged in the trans- 
portation business, as in any other 
business, honestly and sincerely desire 
to know the best means by which to 
perform their work in the most satis- 
factory manner. 

Your committee believes that it is 
good policy for the platform men of 
the railway companies to be sufficiently 
informed as to the affairs of their com- 
pany to be able to discuss intelligently 
with their acquaintances and with 
strangers the position of the company, 
not only with regard to its finances but 
as to the necessity for its rules and 
regulations. Rules and regulations 
founded on good principles of operation 
are not weakened by explanation or dis- 
cussion but are on the contrary made 
better and more lasting in their effect. 

All cases of complaint and suggestion 
regarding rules and regulations or 
other matters of operation are worthy 
of careful consideration and whenever 
possible direct reply should be made to 
the person making the complaint or 
suggestion, indicating either its adop- 
tion or the reasons for not complying 
with the suggestion. 

Men selected for traffic supervisors 
should receive special attention and in- 
struction in matters of general opera- 
tion and should be encouraged to cor- 
rect mistakes detected in the operation 
by individuals, rather than by com- 
plaint to the superintendent's office. 

To the end of improving the technic 
of the entire organization frequent 
meetings of supervisors or inspectors 
for instruction and discussion should be 

held. This particular means may well 
be extended to occasional meetings of 
the trainmen and in all such meetings 
the utmost freedom of discussion should 
prevail. In all such meetings, as well 
as in interdepartmental relations, a 
spirit of complete frankness must pre- 
vail if the best results are to be ob- 
tained. The day of secret meetings 
and confidential memoranda is past. 
No corporation, particularly no public 
service corporation, whose affairs are 
a matter of public interest and whose 
dealings should be an open book can 
successfully operate on any basis other 
than all cards on the table, face up, 
with employees and public. Where 
this policy is carried out in a public 
service organization the policies and 
ideals of the management will be re- 
flected throughout the organization and 
the prime requisite of the successful 
manufacturer of transportation is sum- 
marized in two conclusions; first, a 
policy looking toward the rendering of 
the best possible service in all respects, 
and, second, complete frankness regard- 
ing all matters of policy and operation 
with employees and the public. 

The report was signed by James P. 
Barnes, chairman; E. M. Walker and 
H. C. DeCamp. 

The Sales Work of Electric 

By Harry L. Brown 

Western Editor Electric Railway Journai, 

At the last meeting of this associa- 
tion, held at Indianapolis, W. L. 
Goodwin gave an interesting talk about 
merchandising transportation and made 
the assertion that the street railway 
company is the only concern engaged in 
a large way in selling something to the 
public that does not have a sales man- 
ager. This is true, but the business is 
unique in another way. It is the only 
large enterprise in which the personnel 
employed in producing the commodity 
is also the sales force. This dual 
nature of the duties of trainmen is one 
of the circumstances that makes it 
difficult for a street railway company 
to meet its patrons with the proper 
sales spirit. The men have for years 
had impressed on them the necessity to 
get the cars over the road on time, to 
get the money and register it, etc., not to 
mention the sundry other duties. Un- 
doubtedly those duties involved in the 
production side of the business are of 
first importance, for without a good 
product the best salesman on earth will 
have a hard row to hoe. Nevertheless, 
it may safely be said that much more 
attention may profitably be directed 
toward preparing the trainmen to carry 
out their duties as salesmen and con- 
stant representatives of the company. 

What, then, are the strictly mer- 
chandising methods and sales activities 
that a street railway or interurban can 
employ to improve its business, assum- 
ing the service to have all the elements 
that go to make it good? The follow- 
ing list is suggestive and I shall discuss 
some of the points briefly; other points 
need no elaboration. 

Report of Committee on Merchandising Transportation 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

A. Activities to Create Traffic 
1: Sell the ride for the lowest possible 
sum commensurate with proper earnings. 

2. Advertise attractions and points of 
interest on or near the system. 

3. Advertise the weaknesses of the com- 
petitor by pointing to the corresponding 
merits of electric railway service. 

, B. Activities to Engender General 
Good Will 

4. Keep telling the people of service 
improvements, in public addresses and 
through the. newspapers. 

5. Maintain an open-door policy and a 
friendly, willing, sincere attitude toward 
the public. 

6. Go the limit in the endeavor to com- 
ply with the wishes of the public author- 
ities ; in fact, anticipate their wishes if 

7. Adopt the man-to-man plan of talk- 
ing things over with those who represent 
the public in dealing with the company, 
and avoid a belligerent attitude and main- 
tain a conciliatory one. 

C. Activities to Peease Customers 
Already Secured 

8. Make good salesmen of the trainmen. 

9. Keep the cars clean and bright. 

1. The local transportation business 
is obviously destined to be one of the 
nature of the 5 and 10 cent stores — 
a tremendous volume of business at an 
exceedingly low unit profit. Selling the 
ride for a low fare is now assuming 
unusual and increasing importance be- 
cause several things resulting from 
changing business conditions are con- 
spiring to increase rapidly and to in- 
tensify the competition to be met by 
the electric railways. The first cost of 
automobile vehicles and the cost of 
gasoline, oil and tires have undergone 
substantial reductions, and the bottom 
has probably not yet been reached. 
Couple with this the fact that many 
men are out of work and that the 

Artistic Colored Posters Are Now Used 
in Chicago 

second hand car market is flooded with 
good cars at an unusually low price, 
and it is not hard to understand the 
important increase in the number of 
these automotive competitors all over 
the country. 

The problem must be attacked not 
only by encouraging just legal restric- 
tions but mainly on the basis of 
attempting to meet that competition 
with competitive sales methods. A high 
rate of fare is an invitation to jitneys 
to start or remain in business. A low 
rate of fare acts as a deterrent to them 
to start and it also provides about the 
most effective means of offsetting their 

Aside from the competitive aspect, 
there is no need to dwell on the advan- 
tages of a low fare as a means of induc- 
ing greater riding, though it is to be 
expected that the resulting increase in 
number of riders will not always be 
sufficiently large to produce an increase 
in the gross revenue. There is another 
aspect of this short-ride consideration, 
however, which is worthy of attention. 
The jitney is usually a short-haul 
carrier, particularly if left to its own 
devices. Consequently, anything the 
street railway company can do to 
attract the short-haul riders to the 
street car strikes a telling blow. So it 
may be that where a system-wide re- 
duction in fare cannot be justified, the 
establishment of a low rate for the cen- 
tral district will suffice to meet the 
competitive aspects of the business. 
Such experiments are now being made 
in Boston, Cleveland, etc. 

But while the merchandising aspect 
of the low rate of fare is important, 
it is perhaps transcended in importance 
just now by the prospect of increasing 
competition. For this reason, if no 
other, it is my personal view that the 
electric railway companies will do well 
to take such steps as will make it pos- 
sible to produce a ride for a smaller 
fare than the average now in force. In 
other words, the cost of operation 
should be brought down so that the 
fares may logically be reduced. Some 
of this reduced cost can be secured 
through a reasonable reduction in the 
rate of wages, keeping in mind that 
electric railway trainmen should be con- 
sidered, in the future if not in the past, 
as skilled labor. More reduction can be 
secured by checking up on the practices 
of every department with a view to 
eliminating any waste and producing 
better efficiency all along the line. If 
the desired results are not obtainable 
through this process and by virture of 
lowering costs of materials and sup- 
plies, then (and perhaps anyway) the 
industry must face the necessity te 
make some radical departures from 
present operating practices — perhaps a 
gi-eat expansion of one-man operation 
both on safety cars and on present 
double-track cars, or something else 
having an equally important effect on 
the operating ratio, and making pos- 
sible lower fares. 

The company that has no jitneys now 
can thank its lucky stars, but it will 
make the most of that advantage if it 

recognizes the potential danger and 
meets that competition before it begins 
— meets it with low fares and in other 

2. This means of creating traffic by 
advertising attractions and points of 
interest is well illustrated by the 
accompanying samples of the work that 
is being done along this line this 
season by the Chicago Surface Lines. 
This form of merchandising rides is 
quite generally used and its value is 
seemingly well recognized, but more 
can be done. 

3. As to how to advertise, the street 
car or interurban has many advantages 
not possessed by the automotive vehicle 
— at least to date — upon which the rail- 
ways could base good advertising copy 
designed to set people thinking. For 
example, let the street railway adver- 
tise its organized responsibility, the 
financial protection it affords in case of 
accident, the reliability of the service, 
the comfort of the ride, absence of the 
indecency of crowded jitneys, the cour- 
tesy and trustworthiness of employees 
and the protection they afford passen- 
gers, absence of wild and reckless 
drivers, frequent inspection of the 
equipment to insure safe operation, etc. 
This kind of advertising can very well 
be carried on in the newspapers as well 
as in the cars. It should not point out 
directly the weaknesses of the competi- 
tor, but by pointing out significantly 
the advantages of the electric railway, 



Now Open! the new 


on the 

at Roosevelt Road 

Thousands of people go 
to Europe to visit ex- 
hibits greatly inferior. 

FREE !- Uuus.-Sat.-Sun. 
Other days 2St admission. 

The Zoo and the Field Museum Make 
Good Advertising Copt 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


the inference will be obvious and the 
point will strike home without offense. 
Then, too, it should be remembered 
that in this business, as in any other, 
it is the persistent advertiser, the one 
who keeps plugging away and telling 
his story over and over in as many 
ways as he can, who derives the real 
value of his advertising expense. 

8. Making good salesmen of the train- 
men is the particular phase of the prob- 
lem of merchandising transportation 
that is dealt with in the. very able 
report of the committee headed by Mr. 
Barnes, and which forms a sequence of 
his particularly valuable paper pre- 
sented before this association at its last 
meeting. I will take time for just a 
suggestion or two along this line, to 
supplement what is contained in this 
committee report. 

Would it not be well to do more along 
the line of injecting the spirit of con- 
test into the training? Give a worth- 
while prize to the trainmen who gives 
the best account of himself along these 
lines. Something along the line of the 
politeness campaign conducted on a 
daily prize basis by the Chicago 
Tribune for the general public over a 
period of several weeks and attracting 
a great deal of attention and newspaper 
comments from remote cities is what 
I have in mind. This would put the 
trainmen "on their toes" on this phase 
of their work, and it would also create 
a good deal of public interest and favor- 
able newspaper comment. 

This would also put new interest in 
the work for a time, and, as a means of 
overcoming the humdrum and affording 
a variation from the "continual lectur- 
ing" which the trainmen on many prop- 
erties undergo, is a good thing. Too 
often, the line of talk given to trainmen 
holds up some inducement for better 
work, some half-promise, the fulfillment 
of which is so remote as to offer no in- 
spiration for renewed vigor, if indeed 
it does not actually react to discount 
the sincerity of the speaker. An ex- 
ample of this is the suggestion often 
made that if the expenditures involved 
in accidents were reduced through more 
careful operation, this money would be 
available for increased wages. This 
may be said in sincerity, but with the 
average company there " are so many 
places, ahead of increasing the payroll, 
for any possible spare money, that the 
likelihood of any increase in wages be- 
cause of a lowering of the accident 
account is very remote. 

Is There Need for a Sales Manager? 

From the above incomplete outline of 
the strictly sales work that may be 
profitably undertaken by the average 
electric railway company, does it not 
seem that there might really be a place 
in the organization for a sales manager, 
as suggested by Mr. Goodwin? Here 
are presented quite an array of activ- 
ities that are only incidentally part of 
the duties of any of the present depart- 
ment heads, and which at best are 
handled as more or less of a side issue 
by the general manager, whose time is 
so thoroughly occupied with matters 

more pressing than these merchandis- 
ing considerations. The average street 
railway company does not have any one 
whose primary duty it is to concentrate 
a good deal of effort on the upbuilding 
of the company's good will and the 
expansion of its business. I am in- 
clined to believe that a sales manager 
with the proper personality and view- 
point, and having specifically in charge 
the sales work of the company along 
the lines indicated herein, would make 
a very valuable addition to most street 
railway organizations, his duties even 
including the conduct of a sales school 
through which the student trainmen 
would pass after completing their train- 
ing under the operating department. 

Competition and Co-operation 

By W. S. Rodgers 

General Traffic Manager Detroit 
United Railway 

Merchandising of traffic by electric 
lines is a feature of our business 
which calls for stronger efforts at 
present than we have put forth dur- 
ing the past few years, as the picking 
is thinner and the competition more 
keen. We are confronted with chang- 
ing methods of transportation which 
must be reckoned with, such as jitneys 
in the cities, buses in the country and 
trucks handling the short-haul freight. 
Added to these new forms of competi- 
tion, we find the steam roads now fight- 
ing for the short-haul traffic which they 
scorned during wartimes. 

In order to curb the wildcat motor 
truck and bus competition, we must 
continue to exert our efforts toward se- 
curing the enactment of regulatory 
laws to stabilize the various forms of 
automobile lines of transportation. This 
can be accomplished by proper publicity 
methods showing the injustice of cities 
permitting jitneys to run on the streets 
over which car lines are operated and 
competing with established lines of 
transportation by operating at their 
pleasure, charging what they will and 
not contributing in the same proportion 
as the car lines to the upkeep of the 
streets and in taxes. 

The same method should be followed 
in dealing with the auto bus and truck 
competition on the country highways. 
We must show the state and county 
officials as well as those who are paying 
the expense of building and maintain- 
ing the highways the damage that is 
being done to them by the constant use 
of the roads by heavy vehicles which 
are deriving a valuable revenue from 
the handling of freight and passengers 
without paying their just proportion of 
the cost of furnishing the right of way 
needed for their operation. We must, 
however, recognize this class of compe- 
tition and it must be met by supplying 
the class of service that will defeat it 
or keep it at a minimum. 

Our equipment is more comfortable 
than the average jitney or bus and, if 
we can furnish frequent service and 
seats to passengers, I believe the loss of 
traffic to that class of competition will 
be greatly lessened. I am of the opin- 
ion that the ultimate end of the truck 

competition for distances over twenty 
or thirty miles will be by co-operation 
between the trucks and the electric 
lines to the extent of the former per- 
forming the pick-up and delivery serv- 
ice in the terminals and the latter han- 
dling the freight over the road, as it is. 
obvious that the railway can perform 
the service of hauling much cheaper 
than the trucks and the most economi- 
cal method of transportation is bound 
to prevail in the end. 

Our lines started negotiations a year 
ago with representatives of the truck 
companies formerly operating between 
Toledo and Detroit with the idea of 
working out such an arrangement, but 
the proposition was dropped when the 
industrial depression began because the 
trucks were forced to cease all opera- 
tions on account of the absence of busi- 

The question arises as to whether or 
not we are using all the means at our 
command for the purpose of advertis- 
ing our wares. We sell the advertising 
space inside our cars and use very little 
of it ourselves. The front end space 
which is open to the whole community 
through which the cars travel goes un- 
used to a very large extent. These are 
valuable mediums for setting forth our 
advantages and should be kept busy at 
all times in telling the public the at- 
tractive features of the service we are 
furnishing in a plain and interesting 

Through car service over connecting- 
lines giving long distance service with- 
out the transfer of cars for both pas- 
sengers and freight is one of the surest 
and easiest ways of attracting business, 
especially the long-haul traffic, to elec- 
tric lines and this is the class of traffic 
we must especially cater to, if the auto- 
mobiles are to continue making inroads 
into the short-haul business. 

Another class of traffic to cultivate is. 
that which can be handled in conjunc- 
tion with the steam roads. The old 
time hostile attitude displayed by these 
lines toward the electric line industry 
shows signs of disappearing and we 
should do everything in our power to 
cultivate through arrangements with 
the steam roads and the joint handling 
of both classes of traffic. 

To succeed in selling our wares we 
must give the best service that is pos- 
sible to furnish, as service is the foun- 
dation on which all of our efforts to 
sell are based and is what counts for 
the most in the long run. Service in 
its full sense includes suitable accom- 
modations in the form of stations, 
equipment, proper schedules and cour- 
teous employees. Too much emphasis 
cannot be placed on the necessity of 
educating the platform men, who are 
our final salesmen, as well as every one 
else from the president to the office boy 
and laborer, of the reward of the virtue 
of a pleasant smile and civil treatment 
to all with whom they come in contact. 

We must instill in the minds of all 
that every one connected in any capac- 
ity with the operation of the railroad 
is selling transportation directly or in- 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

We should be keen to study the re- 
quirements of our patrons and endeavor 
to the best of our ability to supply the 
kind of service they require even though 
it means the rearrangement of sched- 
ules and working conditions. We 
should also study the business policies 
of our competitors with a view of meet- 
ing them and not allowing them to 
eclipse us by more advanced methods or 
by supplying the public in a manner 
that we ourselves should do. It is very 
helpful in ascertaining what our compe- 
tition is, to create a habit among all of 
our force of reporting to the proper 
officer any new service of our competi- 
tors which they find commencing oper- 
ations and any suggestions of a gen- 
eral character for the improvement of 
the service which may occur to them. 
Too often such communications are re- 
ceived and filed away without even be- 
ing acknowledged. This is the wrong 
course if we are to encourage co-opera- 
tion from the force. Every idea pre- 
sented should be considered and adopted 
or declined on its merits and an expla- 
nation given to the one offering the idea 
if it is deemed inadvisable to adopt it. 

The Satisfied Employee 

By Guy H. Kelsay 

Superintendent of Power and Shops, Cleve- 
land, Southwestern & Columbus Railway, 
Elyria, Ohio 

Would you select the agency for 
an article if you knew that the or- 
ganization of selling and manufactur- 
ing forces was poorly managed and 
backed by a loose, irresponsible cor- 
poration; if the departments in the 
company were selfish and jealous; 
where the spirit of the individual 
worker has been crushed to such an 
extent that he has no interest or pride 
in the finished article? Of course you 
would not, because it is not possible 
for a firm to put out a good article 
under such circumstances. 

The key to a fulfillment of the ideas 
of Mr. Barnes and the committee is 
certainly supplied by an interested and 
satisfied employee. A man cannot work 
as a machine and have the spirit that 
is necessary to be a part of a success- 
ful organization. Your committee has 
very plainly stated that the time of 
"secret dealings" is over, and we must 
take each other into our confidence, and 
the employees to the last man should 
know and be interested in the multitude 
of affairs of the company other than 
the exact line along which he is spend- 
ing most of his time so he may consist- 
ently be an enthusiastic supporter and 
advocate of the spirit of good will 
between his company and the public. 

We should not fail to realize that an 
opinion freely expressed by an em- 
ployee among his neighbors will carry 
more weight than weeks of pleading 
from the officers of the company 
through the channels that they must 
use to reach the patron. A very definite 
illustration recently came to my atten- 
tion. A workman complained and 
criticised the company because he was 
not furnished material and help to 
renew and repair the particular part of 

equipment in which he was interested. 
In response to an explanation to this 
employee that the company earnings 
were not sufficient to meet all its 
needs, a very prompt reply was re- 
ceived, "Why I saw in the paper where 
the company's earnings last year were 

hundred thousand dollars over 

the previous year." It was true that 
the report of the board of directors did 
appear in the daily paper giving the 
increase of gross earnings but failed to 
convey with equal force the much 
greater increase of operating expenses. 

It is certainly our duty to censor the 
articles tnat go to the public and equally 
important that the employee gets a 
true impression of the facts. All our 
troubles are caused by a lack of know- 
ing the facts, and if we "think out loud" 
or "lay the cards face up" every one 
will know that we do business that way 
and the matter of confidence and 
straight dealing in our own organiza- 
tion and with the public will be an 
established fact and patrons will soon 
be receiving bits of plain facts from 
our interested and satisfied employees. 
It takes a very big individual not to be 
selfish, egotistical or jealous to some 
little degree. The committee calls to 
our attention the importance of frank- 
ness in meetings and inter-depart- 
mental conferences. All parties to such 
gatherings must certainly be free to 
listen and exchange ideas without a 
trace of selfish or jealous rivalry. 

Meetings with employees have often 
been conducted by individuals who 
were not qualified to obtain and main- 
tain a free and interested discussion 
from workmen of all ranks, and these 
result in a frozen spirit. Suggestions 
from an employee may be ridiculed or 
ignored and this develops in him a dis- 
like for such meetings. 

We will sell our transportation just 
in proportion as we sell the idea to 
our employees who are our salesmen. 
We have all some time in our expe- 
rience had to deal with a co-worker who 
liked, or thought it his duty, to call to 
the attention of the superintendent or 
manager the other fellow's shortcom- 
ings or small department matters rather 
than to be big enough to take the mat- 
ter up direct in the right manner with 
the department. As long as individuals 
with this sort of spirit are in an organ- 
ization the highest success is not 
realized. It is natural for one to like 
to do what is right but not so natural 
to want to do it because he is "jacked 
up by the boss." 

Much has been said and written dur- 
ing the past five or six years to justify 
the terrific costs of transportation, and 
much has been talked and written dur- 
ing the past year to soothe our own 
feelings and the financial interests 
back of our properties, that we are 
nearing the "promised land" of lower 
operating costs and that we are to 
receive just recognition of the impor- 
tance and necessity of adequate fares 
from the public and sanction from com- 
missions. One of the "lower operating 
costs" is labor, but the reduction of 
wages to the average employee can- 

not be other than disappointing, even 
though the increased wage that has 
been paid was justified in the main 
by the increased cost of necessities 
which are now coming down in price. 
But many employees in all classes of 
service have meanwhile unconsciously 
changed their standard of living, which 
makes it only the harder to see the 
justice of wage reduction, so it will be 
incumbent upon the managements to be 
most untiring in their efforts to handle 
this delicate subject in order to main- 
tain the maximum of loyalty and whole- 
hearted support from the employees. 

There must be a freer exchange of 
ideas between men who know and 
there must be a freer acceptance of 
ideas by men who do not know. The 
managements of properties must dele- 
gate their engineering matters to men 
who know engineering, their traffic 
matters to men who are students of 
traffic, and their equipment mainte- 
nance to men professional in their line, 
and all must work together with a 
corps of boosting and loyal workers, 
loyal because they believe in the 
policies of the company they are work- 
ing for. Then we will sell our trans- 

Merchandising Transportation 

By Bert Weedon 

Traffic Manager Indianapolis & Louisville 
Traction Railway Company, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

The great transportation systems in 
our large cities, serving millions of 
people daily, are indeed important 
factors in the growth and welfare of 
the cities served. Cities may be likened 
to human beings, in that the transpor- 
tation system of a city is as important 
to the life of that city as the arteries 
are to life in a human body. 

Cities, as a whole, apparently do not 
realize or consider the importance of 
their transportation systems. Unfair 
treatment by city government of the 
city's transportation facilities not only 
affect adversely the transportation facil- 
ities, but also affect adversely the 
citizens of that city. The report of the 
committee deals with this subject on 
the basis of "merchandising any other 

In a general way this is true, but let 
us look into the subject from this view- 
point. Is there a manufacturing concern 
in Chicago, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Cleve- 
land, Louisville or Indianapolis that car- 
ries the heavy investment for produc- 
ing its product as do the transportation 
companies of these cities? How often 
does the manufacturer turn his capital ? 
How often does the transportation com- 
pany turn its capital? In the average 
manufacturer's business, and the aver- 
age transportation company's business, 
what is the difference in the relative 
ratio of net profit? But let us not en- 
large on existing conditions more than 
to bring ourselves to realize the im- 
portance of the work in hand. 

Selling our product, whether it be 
city street car transportation or inter- 
urban transportation, is perhaps one of 

July 9, 1921 Electric Railway Journal 65 

the most, if not the most, important 
part of our work. 

The training of employees in this 
work is surely very essential to the 
success of any property. From the pick 
and shovel to the president's office re- 
quires more gray matter than we real- 
ize. The committee reports that co- 
operation and co-ordination of all de- 
partments is important. This is abso- 
lutely necessary. General policies and 
sales methods should be determined by 
the executive in charge of this work. 
Extreme care and rare judgment should 
be exercised in determining these poli- 
cies. To educate men to carry out these 
general policies costs vast sums of 
money each year. 

It has been very truly said that the 
transportation company is largely 
judged by its platform men. The con- 
ductor and motorman are the salesmen 
who meet the public face to face. Do 
we realize the importance of personal 
contact with these men ? Do we know 
their trials and difficulties? Are we 
giving these men the support they 
should have in order that they may de- 
liver to us the success we demand ? 

Every man connected with a trans- 
portation company is a public servant; 
and when new men are placed on our 
pay rolls, they should be educated care- 
fully in their duties, to the end that 
they may deliver to the public the serv- 
ice they demand. 

The question is asked, How shall this 
be done? There are many theories of- 
fered, and many are worthy of con- 
sideration. The report of the commit- 
tee covers this subject conclusively. 

The matter of publicity is also an 

IN THE beginning the financing of 
public utilities was cared for by pub- 
lic-spirited citizens. Gradually control 
passed into the hands of bankers, 
located in the financial centers, or 
clients whom the bankers were able to 
interest. As long as the utilities were 
controlled locally the personal contact 
of the owners with the customers did 
;much to prevent misunderstanding. 

When customer ownership of securi- 
ties marketed by the utilities was first 
advocated it met with considerable op- 
position from the investment bankers, 
who rightly felt that the utilities owed 
them something for carrying them 
through the development period. The 
opposite is now true. 

The high cost of money has done 
much to promote customer ownership 
of securities. High rates for money 
are more important to utilities than to 
enterprises where money is turned more 
frequently. Their financing is made 
difficult also by the tax exemption 
feature of government and municipal 

•Abstract of a paper read before joint 
meeting of the Iowa Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation and Iowa Section, N.E.L A., Spirit 
Lake,' Iowa, June 23, 1921. 

important factor. The transportation 
systems of the entire country are suf- 
fering from a lack of honest, straight- 
forward publicity. Tell the public the 
truth. Does the public know the efforts 
that are being made to create and main- 
tain the service they demand? Does 
the public know the cost of such serv- 
ice? Does the public realize that, be- 
cause of adverse legislation, both by 
states and cities, the average investor 
refuses to buy public utility securities? 
Does the public know that petty politi- 
cians use the transportation facilities of 
their cities and states as food to stir up 
hatred and animosity? Do we realize 
that we have all of these problems to 
meet, and if so, how are we meeting 
them? Publicity and lots of it is neces- 
sary. Let the people know our troubles. 
Impress upon them the importance of 
their transportation system and of their 
duty to this system. How long can any 
great city exist without transportation? 

Let us look well into our organiza- 
tion. Is it a real organization? Does 
the head of every department have his 
duties clearly outlined? Are the de- 
partments co-operating properly? Are 
the employees in each department being 
properly trained and educated to carry 
out their portion of the programs? Are 
we making future heads of departments 
in our own organizations? Are we en- 
deavoring to fit our whole organization 
to meet the public squarely and fairly 
in the discussion of policies and rules 
which affect the public? 

Further discussion on the Merchan- 
dising Transportation report will ap- 
pear in an early issue. 

securities. The Wall Street Journal 
recently estimated that there are $14,- 
000,000,000 of tax-exempt securities in 
the country, exempting $700,000,000 of 
income from our greatest direct tax. 

The United Light & Railways Com- 
pany operates seventeen companies 
serving 600,000 people in over fifty 
cities and towns. Some time ago the 
company decided to offer its securities 
to employees and the public and the 
board of directors offered for sale 
$2,000,000 of 7 per cent preferred stock 
at par. The stock was offered to the 
employees either for cash or on the 
installment plan. An employee was 
allowed 25 cents per share for each year 
he had been in the company's employ. 
If he was ill from six days to six 
months during the nineteen-months 
period of making payments his pay- 
ments were made by the company and 
if he died a fully paid certificate was 
issued to a designated person. 

The stock was offered to the public 
through employees only at par for cash 
or on the installment plan. 

The employees of each of the large 
companies were organized into teams of 

ten each to compete in the sale of the 
stock to the public, and the cities were 
divided into districts to be assigned to 
the teams. After the team organiza- 
tions had been maintained for about 
three months a separate securities 
department of the company was organ- 
ized. The manager of each operating 
company was made responsible to the 
manager of the securities department 
for the sale of securities by his com- 
pany. The department selected from 
the employees who had made the best 
record a corps of salesmen who were 
put permanently on the department 
payroll. The team organization was 
abandoned, but the company continued 
to pay a bonus of $2 per share sold. 

Our experience shows that the aver- 
age original sale is three shares. A 
map on which a tack indicates each sale 
demonstrates that where one sale is 
made others follow in the same vicinity. 

The better knowledge of the affairs 
of the company secured by the employee 
who becomes a stockholder and sales- 
man and the customer who becomes a 
stockholder is a great asset to the com- 
pany. It is necessary, however, that 
a company protect the investment of 
investors in its securities, otherwise 
ill will is bound to result. 

Another Utility Information 
Bureau Formed 

ON JUNE 15 the Georgia State 
Utility Information Bureau was 
formed in the interests of the com- 
panies in that State. L. K. Starr, 
formerly assistant city editor of the 
Atlanta (Ga.) Journal, was elected as 
the director. George T. Smith, Augusta- 
Aiken Railway & Electric Company, is 
chairman of the bureau. 

On June 17 Labert St. Clair, director 
of the American Association's advertis- 
ing section, met informally with the 
bureau and others interested in the 
railways in the southeast for a con- 
ference. The purpose of this confer- 
ence was to show how the advertising 
section could materially aid these com- 
panies in their campaigns. It also 
gave Mr. St. Clair first-hand informa- 
tion as to some of the problems con- 
fronting the traction industry in this 
part of the country. W. P. Strandborg, 
publicity department, Portland (Ore.) 
Railway, Light & Power Company, and 
an officer of the Associated Advertising 
Clubs of the World, also attended the 
meeting. He spoke of the desirability 
of having a utility section in the Asso- 
ciated Advertising Clubs. 

Among those who attended the con- 
ference, which was held at the offices 
of the Georgia Railway, Light & Power 
Company, were L. LeMay, Memphis 
(Tenn.) Street Railway; P. S. Ark- 
wright, Georgia Railway & Power Com- 
pany; W. J. Baldwin, New Orleans 
(La.) Railway & Light Company; C. R. 
Winston, Virginia Railway & Power 
Company; George T. Smith, Augusta 
(Ga.) Aiken Railway & Electric Com- 
pany, and E. C. Stothart, Charleston 
(S. C.) Consolidated Railway, Gas & 
Electric Company. 

Sale of Securities by Utilities* 

By H. E. Weeks 

General Manager Securities Department, United Light & Railways Company, 

Davenport, Iowa 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

First Convention of the New 
International Association 

THE first convention of the new 
Internationale Strassenbahn und 
Kleinbahn Verein took place in Vienna 
May 29 to June 3. It will be remem- 
bered that this association, comprising 
the companies and individuals of sev- 
eral Central European countries, was 
formed six months ago for the purpose 
cf an exchange of experiences. The 
new association in no way intends to 
be in opposition to the Union Interna- 
tionale, and a connection between the 
two is maintained by a number of mem- 
bers, like those in Holland, Norway, 
Sweden and Denmark, which are also 
members of the Union Internationale. 
The meeting in Vienna was attended 
by delegates from the countries as 
well as from Rumania and Jugo- 
slavonia. At the conclusion of the 
meeting these officers were elected: 

President, Ludwig Spangler, man- 
ager of the Vienna Municipal Tram- 
ways; vice-president, Dr. Frederick 
Wussow, president of the Association 
of German Tramways and Interurban 
and Privately Owned Railways; secre- 
tary, Dr. Arthur Ertel, Vienna; execu- 
tive committee: For Germany, Max 
Drager, Berlin; Mr. Lowit, Manheim; 
Otto Hubrjch, Essen; for Denmark, 
Kai Norregaard, Copenhagen; for Hol- 
land, Mr. Van Putten, Amsterdam; 
for Norway, Jorgen F. S. Barth, Chris- 
tiania; for Sweden, Einar Hultman, 
Malmo; for Switzerland, Hermann 
Geiser, Schaffhausen ; for Hungary, 
Wilhelm van Ghatel and Mr. Von 
Sztrokay, Budapest; for Czecho-Slova- 
kia, Oscar Hausmann, Gablonz. 

Standards Secretaries Meet 

A CONFERENCE was recently held 
in London of secretaries of the 
national standardizing bodies. The 
conference had for its object the in- 
terchange of experience and the fur- 
therance of co-operation among the sev- 
eral national bodies in their work of 
industrial and engineering standard- 
ization. Arrangements were perfected 
for closer co-operation between the 
national standardizing bodies and the 
International Chamber of Commerce, 
which was to give special consideration 
to standardization at its convention 
scheduled to be held in London during 
the week of June 27. Belgium, Canada, 
Great Britain, Norway, Switzerland 
and the United States were represented 
at the conference. 

Association Meeting 

Pacific Claim Agents' Association 
At the last annual meeting of the 
Pacific Claim Agents' Association it 
was decided that the twelfth annual 
convention of the association be held 
at Butte, Mont., on Aug. 18, 19 and 20, 
1921, provided these dates were satis- 
factory to the membership. At the 
executive committee meeting the fol- 
lowing subjects were assigned: 

"New and Recent Improvements in Car 
Construction Designed with the Object of 

Eliminating Accidents," H. C. Winsor, 
superintendent of investigations and ad- 
justments, Tacoma Railway and Power 
Company. Tacoma, Wash. 

"The Importance of Claims Department 
Statistics and What Statistics Are of Most 
Value," J. H. Handlon. claim agent. U. R. R. 
of San Francisco, San Francisco, Cal. 

"The Value of Moving Pictures as a 
Means of Exposing Malingerers and Fraud- 
ulent Claimants," C. M. McRoberts, gen- 
eral claim agent, Los Angeles Railway Cor- 
poration, Los Angeles, Cal. 

"The Modern Trend of Workmen's Com- 
pensation Laws and the Effect that Such 
Laws Have upon Employees Who Have 
Minor Accidents," P. O. Solon, claims at- 
torney, San Francisco-Oakland Terminal 
Railways. Oakland, Cal. 

"Publicity in Connection with Accidents, 
Claims and Litigated Cases," W. H. Moore, 
claim agent, San Diego Electric R.ailway, 
San Diego, Cal. 

"The One-Man Car and its Effects on 
the Traffic Hazard," Thomas G. Ashton, 
X'laim agent, Washington Water Power 
Company, Spokane, Wash. 

"Co-operation with the Public in Acci- 
dent Prevention Work," B. F. Boynton, 
claim agent, Portland Railway, Light & 
Power Company, Portland, Ore. 

"The Doctrines in Law of Contributory 
Negligence and Last Chance Doctrine as. 
now Applied to Accident Cases," Fred F. 
Furman, attorney, Butte Electric Railway, 
Butte, Mont. 

"The Genteel Fakir," F. J. Lonergan, at- 
torney, Portland Railway, Light & Power 
Company. Portland, Ore. 

"Methods of Collecting from Owners of 
Foreign Vehicles Who Have Injured Com- 
pany Employees While They Were at 
Work. Policies Pursued by Member Com- 
panies in Handling Claims of Employees 
Injured While Not at Work," S. A. Bishop, 
general claim agent, Pacific Electric Rail- 
way, Los Angeles. Cal. 

"Methods of Following up Claimants and 
Witnesses to Accidents," J. W. Grace, 
claim agent, Sacramento Northern Rail- 
way, Sacramento, Cal. 

"How Can the Personnel Department of 
a Company When Hiring and Training 
Employees Assist in the Prevention of Acci- 
dents," J. S. Mills, superintendent of per- 
sonnel, San Francisco-Oakland Terminal 
Railways, Oakland, Cal. 

"Suggested Legislation Governing Grade 
Crossing Accidents and Other Methods of 
Preventing Such Accidents," A. M. Lee, 
claim agent. Northern Pacific Railway, 
Seattle, Wash. 

Safety Campaign Suggestions 

THE American Association's adver- 
tising section of information and 
service has just issued an illustrated 
twenty-page pamphlet on safety cam- 
paign suggestions. The booklet shows 
how electric railways working through 
employees, the general public, school 
children, motor car drivers and others, 
can prevent accidents and save money 
not only to the railways but especially 
to themselves. More than 200 slogans 
and catch lines for car cards, blotters, 
posters and advertisements are given 
for the benefit of the electric railway 
official who has to write advertising 
copy. As one official puts it: "It is 
one thing to plan a safety campaign 
and start the ball rolling, but to make 
it successful — to make the dreams 
come true — calls for 95 per cent per- 

buildings and structures committee. 
This report was also put into final form 
for submission to the general commit- 

A draft of the probable nature of 
the joint report on the subject of wood 
preservation was presented by the 
chairman of that sub-committee and 
was thoroughly discussed. All reports, 
will be put into final form as soon as 
possible for submitting to the various 
members of the committee. 

Final Touches Put on Buildings 
and Structures Commit- 
tee Report 

THE buildings and structures com- 
mittee of the Engineering Associa- 
tion held a meeting at the Emerson 
Hotel, Baltimore, Md., June 13 and 14. 
Those present were D. E. Crouse, 
Rochester & Syracuse Railroad, chair- 
man; N. E. Drexler, Newport News & 
Hampton Railway, Gas & Electric 
Company, and J. R. McKay, Indiana 
Service Corporation. The chairman of 
the sub-committee on design of a 
typical shop presented his report and 
explained the details of the several con- 
ferences which have been held with the 
equipment committee. This report was 
reviewed and prepared for final submis- 
sion to the other members of the build- 
ings and structures committee. The 
sub-committee on equipment for pre- 
payment and postpayment of fares sub- 
mitted a report which represented the 
views of Mr. Hughes of the Transporta- 
tion and Traffic Association and of the 

Chicago Elevated Section Holds 
Final Session 

HM. CRUNDEN, special agent 
• Illinois Bell Telephone Company,, 
was the principal speaker at the last 
meeting of company section No. 6, held 
by the Chicago Elevated Railroads on 
June 21. The warm weather kept down 
the attendance to eighty. Mr. Crun- 
den, in an illustrated talk on "The 
Progress of the Bell Telephone Com- 
pany," outlined the steps in the train- 
ing of its switchboard operators. He 
also elaborated on the complexities of 
the modern switchboard and described 
the methods of combating sleet storms. 
High tribute was given to employees 
of utility companies because of the 
efforts they always put forth to serve 
and please the public. 

New Monthly Bulletins Available 

THE following reports and compila- 
tions are available to member com- 
panies upon request: 

Summarized Income Statement and 
Operating Statistics of 60 Companies- 
Motor Bus Operating Costs. 
Some Franchise Requirements. 
Fare Reductions and Causes. 
Cost of Living Studies. 
Wage Reductions and Causes. 
Supplement to Fare Bulletin. 
Supplement to Compilation on Jitney 

Supplement to Compilation on One- 
Man-Car Legislation. 

News of the Elednc Railways 



Unified and Concentrated Control 
Essential to Success 

The members of the committee of 
Aldermen from Chicago who recently 
made a tour of large cities in the West 
presented their report to the local 
transportation committee of the City 
Council on June 30. They gave a brief 
resume of conditions in Kansas City, 
Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, 
Portland, Ore.; Seattle, Vancouver, 
Minneapolis and St. Paul. 

Their conclusions were as follows: 

1. The present method of private owner- 
ship and operation qualified by public regu- 
lation has resulted in a division of control 
among numerous governmental and private 
agencies, and has led to confusion, waste- 
ful litigation and ultimate disaster, as 
evidenced by the experience of Kansas City 
and Denver. 

2. The operation of the street railway 
lines by the municipality in San Francisco 
has proved satisfactory to the people of 
that city. 

3. The acquisition and operation of the 
street railways in Seattle has not proved 

4. Rates of fare are necessarily deter- 
mined by the character of service rendered, 
quality of management and the cost of 
financing, and the lowest rate of fare com- 
patible with the best service can be secured 
only by the most efficient management and 
the most economical financing. 

5. The most efficient management can be 
had only by unifying and concentrating 
control and management of the street rail- 
ways, and the most economical financing 
by the issuance of securities that will ab- 
solutely assure payment of principal and 

$200,000 Allowed for Inquiry 

On recommendation of the committee, 
Chairman Schwartz decided, to appoint 
a sub-committee to make a study of 
the traction bills which failed of pass- 
age in the last Legislature and to en- 
gage legal counsel to decide on a course 
of action for the coming special session 
of the Legislature. 

The City Council failed to allow 
Mayor Thompson's requested, appro- 
priation of $315,000 to prosecute cases 
against the transportation and tele- 
phone companies, but did allow $200,- 
000 for this purpose. 

Publicity Department Continued 

Electric Railway Service, issued 
by the Detroit (Mich.) United Rail- 
way, suspended publication with the 
issue of June 17, and while no definite 
announcements have been made, the 
company will continue its publicity 
department. A. D. B. "Van Zandt, the 
company's publicity agent, and C. A. 
Drummond, associate editor of the 
paper, will devote their time to impor- 
tant matters which have developed in 
their department. 

As noted previously in the Electric 
Railway Journal, changed business 
conditions resulting in reduced rev- 
enues with the necessary correspond- 
ing reductions in expenditures and the 
practice of every economy possible are 

among the reasons given for suspend- 
ing the publication. Among these 
economies is the saving in printing 

Franchise Modifications 

Former Cincinnati Director Points Out 
Weaknesses Discovered by Him 
in Local Grant 

Drastic changes in the service-at-cost 
franchise governing the operation of 
the railway system were urged by 
William C. Culkins, former Director of 
Street Railways at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 
his annual report for 1920. 

While Mr. Culkins gave his support 
to the service-at-cost plan as being 
sound of principle, he urged modifica- 
tions in the ordinance which would give 
the city more power and a better 
method of enforcing its orders. 

Forfeiture Clause Assailed 
The forfeiture clause in all railway 
franchises was assailed by the former 
street railway director. He asserted 
that a very weak point of this clause 
was that in order to gain a forfeiture 
of franchise the operation of cars would 
have to stop. 

Mr. Culkins also urged that the Rapid 
Transit Commissioners work out a sys- 
tem linking up the surface lines with 
the proposed transit loop. Mr. Culkins 
said that a new grant could be made 
for the full period that the present 
franchise has to run. 

Mr. Culkins advocated a larger re- 
serve fund for the Cincinnati Traction 
Company. In the fixing of fares, Mr. 
Culkins said the city should have the 
right to make the rate sufficient to 
cover the cost of service, instead of 
being restricted by fixed grades. Con- 
versely Mr. Culkins said there also 
should be a provision whereby the city 
and company might at any time agree 
to withhold an increase in fares if 
economic conditions warranted, despite 
the technical requirements of the or- 

Furthermore Mr. Culkins said the 
expense of the street railway commis- 
sioner's office should be paid out of the 
operating expense, with ample allow- 
ances for the employment of all the ex- 
perts and other assistance. 

Either in connection with the ordi- 
nance revision or otherwise steps should 
be taken at once for the proper unifi- 
cation of the rapid transit system with 
the surface lines. Mr. Culkins also 
recommends in his report that the 
Rapid Transit Commission make a 
study of the development of a system 
of motor trucks or trackless trolley 
feeders to connect with the stations of 
the proposed system and such laterals 
as might in that event be found de- 

Nothing Tangible Accomplished 
in New Orleans 

It was generally believed that the 
railway settlement plan of Commis- 
sioner of Finance Murphy of New Or- 
leans, submitted some days ago and 
indorsed by the Association of Com- 
merce and the representative business 
men of New Orleans, would receive 
favorable consideration at the meeting 
of the Commission Council on June 28 
or that the discussion might be followed 
by the adoption of some such plan of 
action in a modified form. To the 
surprise of not a few, however, noth- 
ing tangible was accomplished. Mayor 
McShane lectured the members of the 
Commission Council who differed with 
him in the stand which he anticipated 
they were about to take on the Mur- 
phy plan. 

It was finally decided to reopen the 
question, de novo. This will delay 
action on the matter. 

The citizens' advisory committee of 
forty, which was appointed by Judge 
Foster, whose report was turned down 
when submitted to the Commission 
Council, has been invited to confer 
with the Council again and help the 
Mayor and the Council arrive at some 
practical, satisfactory and enduring plan 
of action. The anti-8-cent fare com- 
mittee and other bodies were included 
in the invitation. 

Hearings Less Stormy 

Commissioner of Public Utilities Ma- 
loney, at the conclusion of the session, 
said that "the public utility mess ap- 
pears to be in a worse state than ever." 
He failed to see where the Council could 
get anywhere so long as such tactics 
were pursued. 

Federal Judge Henry D. Clayton has 
agreed to set July 8 as the date for 
hearing the petition of the railway to 
make permanent the injunction granted 
several months ago by Judge Clayton, 
restraining the city from interfering 
with the collection of 8-cent fares by the 

The conference held on July 1 be- 
tween the City Commissioners and the 
representatives of the committee of 
forty and the civic and commercial 
organizations of the city resulted in 
the adoption of a resolution providing 
that a committee of one from each of 
the organizations present meet the 
Commission Council on July 7, for the 
purpose of helping shape some definite 
plan of action. 

Expressions of opinion from these 
various bodies disclosed no pronounced 
feeling unfavorable to the valuation 
placed upon the public utilities property 
by the committee of forty appointed by 
Judge Foster. The proceedings were 
unlike the stormy scenes that enlivened 
last Tuesday's meeting. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2: 

Arbitration Board Award Less 
Than Company's Proposal 

Wages have been fixed by the arbi- 
tration board for the trainmen in the 
employ of the Northern Ohio Traction 
& Light Company, Akron, Ohio. The 
decision was rendered on June 30. The 
new rates are to continue from May 1, 
1921, for one year. Rates of pay for 
the various classes of service are as 
shown in table below. 

All regularly scheduled runs are to 
be as near ten hours as possible and 
not more than 10 per cent of regular 
schedule runs are to exceed ten hours 
and thirty minutes, and no run is to be 
scheduled in excess of 12s hours. 
Nothing contained in the award is to 
affect the present working conditions as 
to layover time. The maximum number 
of hours which any motorman or con- 
ductor may be called upon to work in 
any calendar day of twenty-four hours, 
are to be as fixed by statute of the 
State of Ohio. Any motorman or con- 


Consisting of motormen, conductors and train- 
men of the A. B. C. Division, Canton-Akron Di- 
vision, Canton, New Philadelphia and Uhrichs- 
ville Division, and Akron, Kent & Ravenna 

First year's service 48 cents an hour 

Second year's service 50 cents an hour 

Third year's service and thereafter 53 cents an hour 

Consisting of motormen, conductors and train- 
men of the Akron, Barberton & Wadsworth Di- 

First year's service 44 cents an hour 

Second year's service 46 cents an hour 

Third year's service and thereafter 49 cents an hour 

Consisting of motormen, conductors and train- 
men of the Akron City, Canton City and Mas- 
sillon City. 

First year's service 43 cents an hour 

Second year's service 45 cents an hour 

Third year's service and thereafter 48 cents an hour 

ductor working a regularly scheduled 
run of less than eight hours is to be 
paid for nine hours. 

Other points made in the ruling are 
as follows: 

Whenever any schedule may be improved 
by shortening the hours and bettering the 
runs, without curtailment of the service 
demanded by the public, the association 
shall have the right to have such changes 
made in such schedule. 

The merit and demerit plan of discipline 
now in force on the A. B. C. and A. K. R. 
Division shall be continued to Jan. 1, 1922. 
with the understanding that all lines under 
the Northern Ohio Traction & Light adopt 
the merit and demerit svstem on or before 
Jan. 1. 1922. Should they fail to adopt 
same, then the merit and demerit system 
shall be inoperative on all lines. 

The matter of the renewal of the 
wage contract between the men and 
the company came up for settlement 
about April 1. No agreement was 
reached relative to the wages and on 
May 1 the company put into effect a 
reduction of 15 cents an hour. This 
was followed by a seven-day strike 
after the men had refused to submit to 

An offer from the International 
Amalgamated Association was followed 
by the men agreeing to return to work 
at a 15-cent reduction with the under- 
standing that the question of wages 
and the number of working hours, 
together with the merit and demerit 

system, be submitted to arbitration. 
The company appointed Charles Currie 
as its arbitrator, the men selected E. L. 
Crawford, East Liverpool, to represent 
them and the Governor of the State 
selected F. S. Harmon as the third man 
or referee. 

Under the reduction of 15 cents an 
hour from the scale then in effect which 
was suggested by the company, the 
wages in cents per hour would have 
been as follows: 

City Suburban Interurban 

Lines Lines Lines 

First year 44 45 50 

Second year 47 48 52 

Thereafter 50 51 55 

This offer of the company proposed 
that 3 cents an hour additional over 
the city scale be paid for the operation 
of one-man city cars. 

Muddling Through in Washington 

Municipal ownership of the electric 
railways in the District of Columbia 
is advocated in a bill which has been 
reported favorably to the District of 
Columbia committee of the House of 
Representatives. The favorable report 
comes from a subcommittee of the Dis- 
trict committee. The municipal owner- 
ship bill had a margin of only one vote 
in the subcommittee. 

The subcommittee has initial jurisdic- 
tion over bills affecting electric railway 
traffic. Various other bills pending be- 
fore the subcommittee were reported to 
the full committee without recommen- 
dation. Among these bills was the 
Woods measure which proposes to levy 
an excess profits tax on the earnings of 
the Washington Railway & Electric- 
Company and the Capital Traction Com- 
pany after a fair return on their valua- 
tion has been allowed. 

The subcommittee took no action on 
the bill now before the Senate which 
proposes to give the Potomac Electric 
Power Company the right to merge 
with the electric railway companies. 

Col. Charles W. Kutz, chairman of 
the public utilities commission of the 
District of Columbia, has announced a 
public hearing for July 14 to consider 
rates of fare. In that connection 
William F. Ham, president of the Wash- 
ington Railway & Electric Company, 
declared that he would ask for a zone 
system of fares if the commission 
should reduce the present rates. 

Eight-Cent Wage Reduction. — Repre- 
sentatives of the Monongahela Power & 
Railway Company, Clarksburg, W. Va., 
and representatives of the Amalga- 
mated Association have reached an 
agreement on the wage scale for the 
coming year. The men have accepted 
an 8-cent reduction on the hour. The 
scale that formerly existed was from 
51 to 62 cents an hour for work in the 
city, while that signed ranges from 43 
to 54 cents. The old scale for inter- 
urban work ranged from 51 to 63 cents 
an hour, while that signed fixes rates at 
43 to 55 cents. 

Railroad Commission Recom- 
mends Improvements 

For relief to Pacific Electric Rail- 
way's traffic problems in handling its 
Hollywood local service to and from 
Los Angeles, a tunnel outlet westerly 
from the Pacific Electric Hill Street 
Terminal to Figueroa Street, was rec- 
ommended on June 15 to the State 
Railroad Commission by its chief engi- 
neer, Richard Sachse. His recommen- 
dation was the result of an investiga- 
tion conducted by him in conjunction 
with the Chief Engineerr H. S. Osborne, 
Jr., of the Los Angeles Board of Public 
Utilities. The report of the engineers 
was submitted at a hearing in Los An- 
geles before the Commission, consist- 
ing of Commissioners Brundige, Love- 
land and Benedict. 

The investigation of passenger serv- 
ice to Hollywood was ordered by the 
commission last April following con- 
ferences of civic bodies with the rail- 

Two plans for the tunnel outlet from 
the Pacific Electric Hill Street Ter- 
minal were suggested by Engineer 
Sachse. One is for a tunnel from the 
station coming to grade at Figueroa 
Street, estimated to cost $725,000, in- 
cluding necessary changes in the Hill 
Street station. The other plan is to 
continue the tunnel under Figueroa 
Street, to come to grade near First 
Street and Lake Shore Avenue, but do 
not include the cost of the right of way 
for the tunnel. The engineers report 
embodied further additional recom- 
mendations to solve the Hollywood 
traffic problem. 

O. A. Smith, general passenger agent 
of the Pacific Electric Lines, submited 
to the commission a plan for a zone 
system for Hollywood, with a scale of 
fares that would bring an adequate re- 
turn to the company. 

E. O. Edgerton, former president of 
the Railroad Commission, represented 
the Los Angeles Railway Corporation's 
interests at the hearing, and expressed 
the opinion that the transportation 
problem in Los Angeles had resolved 
itself into a question of what sort of 
service the public is willing to pay for, 
as at present the 6-cent fare prevails on 
the Pacific Electric Lines, while the Los 
Angeles Railway lines have recently 
been allowed a 5-cent token fare or a 
6-cent fare on straight rides. 

The Los Angeles Railway Corpora- 
tion went on record as being radically 
opposed to the extension of its lines 
into Hollywood, branding them as "du- 
plication of service." 

The hearing closed with the chief 
engineer of the utilities board recom- 
mending that the commission bring 
about an arrangement whereby city 
buses be placed in operation to and 
from Griffith Park to meet the Los 
Angeles Railway cars at First Street 
and Vermont Avenue, carrying passen- 
gers in proposed municipally operated 
buses to and from the park, fares to 
be paid either on the buses or on the 
cars, and transfer from one to the other 
to be recognized. 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Difference Over Methods 

Detroit United's Proposal to City for 
Taking Over Lines Now and Pay- 
ing Later Is Rejected 

City officials of Detroit, Mich., have 
rejected the last proposal for taking 
over the lines of the Detroit United 
Railway, whose purchase was approved 
by the voters last April. The sugges- 
tion of the Detroit United Railway was 
that the city take over the lines im- 
mediately and then arbitrate the price 
to be paid. 

In a letter to the secretary of the 
Street Railway Commission, A. F. 
Edwards, vice president of the Detroit 
United Railway, suggested that the city 
pay $1,600,000 to the Guaranty Trust 
Company, New York, trustee, upon tak- 
ing over the day-to-day lines, or as an 
alternative take possession on paying 
to the trustee the value placed upon 
the property by the city appraisers, 
which is approximately $1,400,000, with 
the agreement that the whole price be 
arbitrated promptly under the terms 
of the agreement, and that the city 
make upon completion of the arbitra- 
tion such additional payment, if any, 
as may be required. 

Mayor Couzens stated that if the pro- 
posal went to the arbitrators a lower 
price might be asked by the city than 
that which had been offered the com- 
pany. The city's offer was withdrawn. 

The price first fixed by the city ap- 
praisers on the day-to-day lines under 
consideration was $1,339,998. Approxi- 
mately 30 miles of lines are included 
in the thirteen pieces of construction. 
The company figures the original cost 
of these lines as $1,965,942. 

No prolonged delay is expected in 
the matter of arbitration. The com- 
pany has named Prof. Henry E. Riggs 
as its arbitrator and the city has named 
William H. Maybury as its representa- 
tive. Professor Riggs and Mr. May- 
bury represented the company and the 
city respectively in arbitrating the 
price paid by the city in taking over 
the Harper Avenue line. 

Joseph S. Goodwin, general manager 
of the Detroit Municipal Railway, has 
been asked by the commission to out- 
line the best way of tying in the lines 
already constructed by the city with 
the Detroit United Railway day-to-day 
lines, and the Fort Street and Wood- 
ward Avenue lines on which franchises 
have expired and which the city plans 
to take over if the action meets with 
the approval of the voters at the next 

Wages Reduced in Joliet 

The Chicago & Joliet Electric Rail- 
way, Joliet, 111., has induced its em- 
ployees to accept a reduction in wages 
of 5 cents an hour for all who work on 
an hourly basis, and $12 a month for 
all who are employed on a monthly 
basis. The new scale for trainmen on 
the Joliet city lines is 51 cents for the 
first three months, 53 cents for the next 
nine months, and 55 cents an hour there- 
after. On the suburban line from Joliet 

to Lockport, the wage is 57 cents an 
hour and on the main interurban line, 
60 cents an hour. The contract signed 
with the men is on the open-shop basis, 
and time and one-half for overtime is 

The traffic of the company for the 
first six months of the year was ap- 
proximately 11 per cent less than for 
the corresponding period last year. A 
motor bus line in competition with the 
Chicago end of the interurban railway 
has been ordered by the Illinois Public 
Utilities Commission to cease operation. 
The bus company having failed to com- 
ply with this order, the interurban made 
a further complaint to the utilities com- 
mission, which referred the matter to 
the attorney-general's office, which is 
expected to take some action. The bus 
company has no certificate of conven- 
ience and necessity. 

North Shore Reduces Wages 

The trainmen of the Chicago, North 
Shore & Milwaukee Railroad have 
agreed to a reduction in wages effective 
from June 16, which brings the new 
wage scale down 10 cents an hour on 
each of the steps, except that the maxi- 
mum rate is reduced only 9 cents an 
hour. The new scale is 67 cents an 
hour for the first three months, 68 cents 
for the next three months, 70 cents for 
the next three months and 73 cents 
thereafter. The wages of all other em- 
ployees have been reduced in proportion 
to the cut in the pay of the trainmen. 

Incline Reported to Be Safe 

Following an examination, with tests 
of the mechanism of the Mt. Adams 
Inclined Plane, Bert L. Baldwin, City 
Engineer, reported to William Jerome 
Kuertz, Director of Street Railways, 
that the structure was in safe operation 
for cars of the Cincinnati (Ohio) Trac- 
tion Company. Operation of the plane 
was suspended some time ago by order 
of the street railway director when an 
accident took place at the Lock Street 
end. In his report Mr. Baldwin said 
the use of the incline for double-truck 
cars was safe in his estimation. 

Wages Reduced in Pittsburgh 

Effective on Friday, July 1, wages of 
platform men on the Pittsburgh (Pa.) 
Railways were reduced from 64, 68 and 
70 cents an hour to 54, 58 and 60 cents 
an hour. This cut amounts to about $1 
a day, or 15 per cent, and makes the 
wages the same as of May 1, 1920, 

Negotiations between the receivers of 
the Pittsburgh Railways and the wage 
scale committee of the trainmen are be- 
ing continued. A conference of the 
receivers and the committee was set 
for July 5, but on that day the wage 
scale committee of the employees failed 
to meet with the receivers. 

The receivers in a statement issued 
during the week ended July 2 declared 
that should arbitration be resorted to 
and a smaller wage cut be fixed or the 
arbitrators rule against a reduction of 
wages, the railway will pay back to the 
men any amount due them. 

Public Service May Run Jitneys 
as Feeders 

If the demand for the service is 
found to be inviting the Public Service 
Railway, Newark, N. J., may establish 
jitney routes as feeders to its trolley 
lines. This statement is attributed to 
Thomas N. McCarter, president of the 
company. Nothing definite, however, 
has as yet been decided. Mr. McCarter 
is quoted to the effect that the plan 
has not advanced far enough to dis- 
cuss the financial arrangements, but 
that if the company does take on bus 
operation the new branch of its trans- 
portation business will be financed in 
such a manner that there will be no 

Wage Cut in Nashville. — A wage re- 
duction of 3 cents to 7 cents an hour for 
all trainmen of the Nashville Railway 
Light Company, Nashville, Tenn., has 
been announced by E. C. Edgar, vice- 
president and general manager. The 
rate of pay of 45 cents to 55 cents an 
hour has been reduced to 38 cents to 
48 cents, a maximum reduction of 15 
per cent. 

More Bus Lines Planned. — The Board 
of Estimate of New York City has 
voted to authorize Grover A. Whalen, 
Commissioner of Plant and Structures, 
to put in operation a bus line from 
Eighth Avenue and 155th Street to 
the Dyckman Street ferry landing. The 
board also authorized bus lines from 
Fifth Avenue and 110th Street to Mos- 
holu Parkway and from the Fort Lee 
ferry landing to Mosholu Parkway. 

City Stipulates Settlement Terms. — 

The City Council of Des Moines, la., on 
June 27 pigeonholed indefinitely three 
ordinances proposed to place the Des 
Moines City Railway on a footing where 
it could be financed until a new fran- 
chise is negotiated and through Mayor 
Barton, served notice on the company 
that it must reduce fares substantially 
before buses will be eliminated from 
car line streets, and must bring in a 
complete, detailed franchise proposal 
before any franchise action will be 

City Must Restore Tracks. — The 

controversy between city officials of 
Lafayette, Ind., and the Terre Haute, 
Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany was settled temporarily at least 
by Judge Ferdinand A. Geiger in Fed- 
eral Court on June 23. Judge Geiger 
entered an order giving the city three 
days to replace the 15 ft. of track 
which was removed by the city. This 
will enable the railway to operate its 
cars by way of Kossuth Street to the 
interurban station. He also gave the 
city thirty days in which to restore 
2,000 ft. of tracks in Main Street. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

Nearly All Companies Reported in 
"Chronicle" Show Increase in 
Gross Over Last Year 

The statistics in the accompanying 
table are from the Commercial and 
Financial Chronicle for June 25 and 
give the gross earnings of the electric 
railway companies reported in the 
regular weekly list of public utilities 
for which the Chronicle ' publishes 
monthly figures. All of the electric 
railway properties listed in that de- 
partment were included except those 
whose monthly earnings are less than 
$100,000, or where the company sup- 
plies a combined utility service and the 
greater part of the earnings comes 
from electric lighting and power. 


Period Current Previous 

Ended Year Year 

Brooklyn City R.R.. . March $2,664,937 $2,401,385 

Coney Island & Bklvn March 576.989 529,209 

Nassau Elect.. Bklvn.. March 1,113,119 1,450,105 

New York Consol March 5,316,987 5.085,766 

Bklyn. Qu. Co.&Sub. March 428,462 418,154 

Chattanooga Rv. & Lt. April 447,313 432,639 
Cumberland Co. (Me.) 

P. & L April 1.058.719 940.752 

Duluth-SuperiorTrac. Mas- 756,624 809,054 

East St. Louis & Sub.. April 1,375.619 1,338,745 

Georgia Lt. P. & Rys. . April 577,234 564,879 

Harrisburg Railways.. April 560.964 563,016 

Hudson & Manhattan. May 4.343.186 3.468,496 

Illinois Traction \pril 7,450,003 6,751,171 

Interboro Rap. Tran. 

(total svs.) May 23,675,145 22,986,332 

Lake Shore Elec. Ry. . April 816.064 995,044 

Nashville Rv. A- Light. April 1,283.37 1 1,220,313 
Newp. N. & H. Rv. G. 

& E April 1,1 12.164 1.030.043 

N.Y.& Queens Co.... March 279,856 233.556 

N. Y. Railways Maid, 2,260,010 1,793,018 

Eighth Avenue, N. V . .March 277,737 163.592 

Phila. Rap. Transit. . . May 17,987,696 15,475,733 
Port. (Ore.) Rv. L. & 

P. Co April 3,399,221 2.958,907 

Porto Rico Railways.. March 340,885 316,951 
Reading Trans. & Lt. 

Sys April 963,174 946.793 

Third Avenue System. April 4,310,722 3.499,666 

Twin City Rap. Trans. April 4,717.181 4,135,037 

Virginia Ry. & Power April 3,419,192 3,111,072 

Winnipeg Elect. Ry.. . March 1,487.578 1,400,625 

Reduction in Taxes Urged 

The Chamber of Commerce, of Kan- 
sas City, Mo., in extensive resolutions 
urging reduction in taxes for the Kan- 
sas City Railways, points to the dis- 
tinction between a public utility of this 
kind and an ordinary business enter- 
prise. The resolutions make plain the 
fact that street railways can be turned 
to no other use than that for which 
they were built, while most other busi- 
nesses can turn the property to other 
than the original uses. 

The resolutions constitute a clear 
and complete picture of the value and 
relation to a community of its street 
railway system. They further demon- 
strate that taxes should be reduced 
because of the reduced value of the 
property as reflected in the selling 
price of the securities. 

It is the opinion of the Chamber of 
Commerce that a valuation based on 
about the lowest permissible percent- 
age of market value of its outstanding 

securities is the maximum basis of 
taxation in the public interest under 
the present emergency conditions; that 
the maximum measure of relief by re- 
duction of taxes of all kinds, even to 
the extent of complete remission of 
them, for the time being, if that were 
possible, would be for the best inter- 
ests of the public, and that increased 
taxes must be reflected in increased 
fares if good service is to be con- 

In conclusion it is resolved that a 
copy of the resolution be sent to each 
member of the State Board of Equali- 
zation, and that the members of that 
body be urged, for the sake of the best 
interests of the people of Kansas City, 
to give serious consideration to the 
conditions and propositions set forth 
by the Chamber of Commerce, and to 
grant the fullest measure of relief 
within their powers. 

Receiver of Atlantic City Road 

A. J. Purinton has been discharged 
as receiver of the Atlantic City & 
Shore Railroad, Atlantic City, N. J., on 
application in the United States Dis- 
trict Court before Judge Rellstab. The 
company was placed in the hands of 
Judge C. L. Cole as receiver on Nov. 
26, 1915. Mr. Purinton succeeded Mr. 
Cole as receiver on June 9, 1919 The 
appointment of a receiver followed in- 
roads made into the receipts of the 
company when fleets of jitneys started 
to operate on Atlantic Avenue, Atlantic 
City, occupied by the railway. It is 
alleged the company lost $84,000 in the 
first eight months in competition with 
the jitneys. Subsequently the city 
ruled the jitneys off the main thorough- 
fare, shunting them to Pacific Avenue, 
which parallels Atlantic Avenue. That 
aided the railway, but it is said the 
principal factor in restoring the credit 
of the company has been the fact that 
for more than a year the company has 
been operating most successfully under 
a 7-cent fare. 

California Railroads to Challenge 
Validity of King Tax Bill 

Announcement has been made that 
the Southern Pacific Company and 
Santa Fe Line would file a suit in the 
Federal Court to test the validity of 
the King tax bill,, which was passed dur- 
ing the last Legislative session of the 
State of California, increasing the state 
tax rate on the gross receipts of steam 
railroads and electric railways from 
5i to 7i per cent. As an aftermath 
of the announcement of the Southern 
Pacific officials of its intent to file suit, 
the State Board of Equalization on 
June 14 announced that it would deny 
the protest of the Southern Pacific and 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe against 
the use of the 7 per cent rate. 

It was declared in a statement issued 
by the board through its secretary, M. 
D. Lack, that the proposed suit will be 
a legal test of the method, or the so- 
called Seavey formula, used to deter- 
mine tax rates on corporations. In the 
event the railroads were successful in 
their attack on the King bill, the re- 
ductions in tax rates would necessitate 
an ad valorem of 22 to 25 cents per 
$100 on general property to make up 
the deficit, the statement said. 

The passage of the King tax bill was 
reviewed in the Electric Railway 
Journal of March 5, 1921, page 464. 

$39,403 Surplus in Seattle in May 

The Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Rail- 
way showed a surplus of $39,403 for 
May. The number of passengers car- 
ried was 8,202,955, compared with 10,- 
838,603 in May, 1920. Car miles de- 
creased from 1,341,380 in May, 1920, to 
1,285,153 in May, 1921. Cost of opera- 
tion per car mile in May, 1921, was 28 
cents, and per car hour $2.58, as against 
31 cents and $2.77, respectively, last 

Total revenues for the month were 
$530,148, and total operating costs 
$361,927. The revenues exceeded the 
operating costs by $168,221. Out of 
this sum $128,818 has been set aside 
for interest and depreciation funds. 

New Issue of Bonds Offered 

The Columbus, Delaware & Marion 
Electric Company, Columbus, Ohio, 
will immediately float a bond issue to 
the amount of $500,000 under a new 
general mortgage to secure $1,822,000 
of 8 per cent bonds covering all the 
property owned by the company. This 
mortgage was recorded at Marion, 
Ohio, on May 17. The first and re- 
funding mortgage securing the 5 per 
cent gold bonds due 1937 is closed so 
far as additional bonds in the hands 
of the public are concerned, as no 
bonds can be issued except as they 
may be deposited as security for the 
new general mortgage or issued for 
the purpose of refunding the present 
divisional bonds which are now out- 

Rhode Island Receivers Will 
Pay $1,000,000 

Justice Tanner of the Superior 
Court in a recent decree ordered the 
receivers of the Rhode Island Company 
to pay $1,000,000 to Cornelius S. 
Sweetland, receiver of the United 
Traction & Electric Company. This is 
a reimbursement sum for the use of 
the properties of the Union Railroad, 
Pawtucket Street Railway and the 
Rhode Island Suburban Railway since 
the operation under the receivership. 
The United Traction & Electric Com- 
pany owned all the capital stock of 
these companies. A decree of the 
court provided a payment on the part 
of the Rhode Island receivers, for the 
use of these properties a sum to be 
determined by Richard E. Lyman, 
master in chancery. 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway journal 


Neither an Electric Company 
Nor an Electric Railway 
Among Them 

The Wall Street Journal in its issue 
of June 30 lists sixty-two of the more 
important companies that have ceased 
paying dividends since the first of the 
year, giving the capital outstanding 
and losses to security holders based 
on the last or usual dividend rate. 
The total capital outstanding of the 
companies is $978,366,953, exclusive of 
stock having no par value, while the 
dividend payments omitted total $23,- 
040,897. In this long list there is 
neither an electric company nor an 
electric railway. 

Desire to Foreclose Ohio 
Electric Railway 

The Fidelity Trust Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., trustee under the mort- 
gage securing the second and general 
5 per cent bonds of the Ohio Electric 
Railway, has filed an intervening peti- 
tion in the case of the railway in the 
Federal Court at Toledo, Ohio, asking 
for the- sale of practically all of the 
property to satisfy its obligations of 
$5,000,000 under the mortgage secur- 
ing the bonds. 

The bonds were issued on June 2, 
1913, against all of the property 
owned by the company. They bore 
interest at 5 per cent, payable semi- 
annually. Failure to pay interest 
within ninety days constituted default 
under terms of the mortgage accord- 
ing to the petition. 

The clauses in the trust agreement 
describing the property covered indi- 
cate all of the system from Zanes- 
ville through Columbus and Springfield 
to Toledo. 

Receiver B. J. Jones, Columbus, 
asked recently for the partition of the 
Ohio Electric system into its subsid- 
iary lines. 

The city of Columbus intervened to 
protect a claim due on a lien on the 
property within the city limits there. 
Clarence P. Steiner also filed to protect 
a damage judgement of $600 against 
the company. 

The court has issued no orders in 
the matter yet. 

Sufficient Revenue Not Provided 
by Present Fare 

The International Railway, Buffalo, 
N. Y., recently outlined its pro- 
gram and policy of 1921. The six 
months' report, January-June, 1921, 
now in course of preparation will show, 
according to President H. G. Tulley, 
that the company will do little more 
this year than meet its fixed charges 
after providing in its operating ex- 
penses the full annual allowance of 
$1,016,000 for depreciation and renew- 
als, in accordance with the Public 
Service Commission formula. 

Industrial depression has been felt 
very much in Buffalo. This is noted 
in the traffic handled on the lines of 
the International Railway. It is 
estimated that 1,300,000 fewer passen- 

gers are being carried a month than 
during the first six months of 1920. 

The statement of the company says 
in part: 

The program of repaying, undertaken by 
agreement with the city of Buffalo and 
other municipalities, requires during this 
year the rebuilding of more than 20 miles 
of track construction, of which 13 miles is 
entirely new and the remainder rebuilt to 
conform with city paving requirements. 
This, with 50 miles of trolley wire renewals, 
complete overhauling of more than 300 cars 
and other necessary improvements and 
additions to property, will require a total 
expenditure approximating $2,000,000. 

$1,330,000 for Improvements 

In an ordinance drafted by T. J. L. 
Kennedy, first assistant corporation 
counsel, for the public utilities com- 
mittee of the City Council, provision 
is made for eight street railway exten- 
sions, the purchase of fifty additional 
cars for the Seattle Municipal Railway 
and the acquisition of all the railway 
properties of the Western Washington 
Power Company within the city limits. 

The proposed ordinance has been pre- 
pared on recommendations from the 
railway department. It is intended to 
cover the betterments now contem- 
plated by General Superintendent D. W. 
Henderson and the Council. The esti- 
mated cost of the proposed improve- 
ments has been placed at $1,330,000. 
The Council would be authorized to is- 
sue and sell negotiable bonds to that 

The Western Washington Power 
Company line referred to is the Green- 
wood Avenue line, 2.28 miles in length, 
operated by the city since Jan. 1, 1920, 
on an agreement with the owners that 
when a bond issue was called, it would 
be purchased at the Council's ap- 

Montreal Tramways Loses 

The Montreal (Que.) Tramways was 
unsuccessful on June 28 in two appeals 
before the Court of Appeal which was 
asked to sanction the addition of $534,- 
055 and $243,596 to the capital of $36,- 
286,295 upon which the company has a 
right, under the existing contract with 
the city, to exact a revenue of 6 per 
cent per annum. 

The first appeal was from a decision 
of the late president of the Public Serv- 
ice Commission of Quebec, dismissing 
the company's appeal from a ruling of 
the Montreal Tramways Commission, 
rendered on Aug. 25, 1919, deducting 
the sum of $534,055 from the capital on 
which the appellant has a right to 6 
per cent interest. 

In the second appeal, the tramways 
protested against judgment dismissing 
an appeal to the president of the Public 
Service Commission from a decision of 
the Tramways Commission which re- 
fused to add to the capital upon which 
the company has a right to 6 per cent 
interest, the sum of $243,516. 

Under the statute covering the Pub- 
lic Service Commission, appeals lie to 
the Court of Appeal only on questions 
of jurisdiction and questions of law. In 
this case, therefore, the finding of the 
fact was accepted without question. 

No Rights Over Rentals 

Pennsylvania Court, in Significant Rul- 
ing, Opposes Inquiry Into Rental 
Payments Under Leases 

The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania 
on July 1 denied the right of the Pub- 
lic Service Commission to inquire into 
the reasonableness of the approximate 
$10,000,000 annual rentals paid to un- 
derlying companies by the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company. 

In an opinion written by Justice 
Alexander Simpson, Jr., the court, in 
essence, declares that what a public 
utility such as the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit does with the money it receives 
by way of "reasonable return for 
the service it furnishes" is no concern 
of the Public Service Commission or the 

If the Philadelphia Rapid Transit, 
from the rates which it is authorized 
to collect, is rot able to pay its fixed 
charges (of which the rentals are a 
part), and at the same time maintain 
or extend its service and facilities, that 
also is no concern of the commission 
or the public, says the court. 

The opinion proceeds to point out 
that the underlying companies are not 
"operating" companies and that they do 
not render "service" or "make or collect 
rates," and consequently are not amen- 
able to the commission. Says the 
opinion further: 

No contract made by a public utility is 
subject to a direct attack and revision, 
unless it is in itself a rate contract ; and 
no contract may be indirectly reviewed in 
such cases, unless it has some' relation to 
one or more of the elements to be con- 
sidered in revising the rate * * * Fixed 
charges for franchises and assets long since 
acquired and now entitled to be retained 
only by continuing the payments provided 
in the lease thereof are not among those 
elements * * * 

Besides, neither the commission nor the 
public has anything to do with the disposi- 
tion of the rates which the utility is author- 
ized to collect nor is it any concern of 
either that the sum total thereof may not be 
sufficient to enable the operating company 
to pay its fixed charges and maintain or 
extend its service and facilities. The com- 
pany is entitled to receive a reasonable 
return for the service it furnishes, and no 
more ; the public is entitled to receive an 
adequate return for the reasonable rates 
it pays, and no more. 

Beyond making sure of these two things, 
the statute does not vest a g'reater power 
in the commission, so far as the matter 
under consideration is concerned. It has 
ample authority to see that its orders, as 
to service and facilities are fully complied 
with by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Company, if the effect of so doing is that 
the latter's stockholders receive no return 
on their investment, because of the neces- 
sity for compliance with the terms of the 
leases, this concerns them alone, and not 
the complainants or the public. 

Moreover, if the statutes give to the 
commission the power to reduce these 
rentals, it may also increase them, a con- 
clusion which would be a great surprise to 
everybody and against which, if decreed, 
these interveners would be among the first 
to complain. As the matter now is, the law 
gives neither right, and hence the com- 
mission should at once have halted this 
attempt to induce it to exceed its 
powers. * * * 

It follows that appellee was right in 
objecting to interveners' attempt to subject 
the rentals to the jurisdiction of the com- 
mission, but was wrong in supposing the 
remedy for its error in not dismissing the 
intervening complaints was by appeal. 

The decre« of the Superior Court is re- 
versed, the appeal from the order of the 
Public Service Commission is quashed and 
the record is remitted to that body for 
further proceedings according to law. 

Counsel for the underlying companies say 
their contention has been upheld. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

Important Pamphlet Issued by 

To stimulate the interest of investors 
it. securities of public service corpora- 
tions and to help the continued develop- 
ment of the utility industry as of vital 
importance to the material welfare of 
the people, the National City Company, 
New York, N. Y., recently issued a 
booklet, "The Giant Energy," which 
presents the public utilities of today as 
an attractive field for the discriminat- 
ing buyer of high-grade, carefully in- 
vestigated securities. In an interesting 
and novel way "The Giant Energy" 
tells the story of electric light and 
pcwer development and in illustrations 
of household articles electrically oper- 
ated, generating stations, powerful loco- 
motives hauling long trains over the 
"Rockies" and Cascades the impressive 
record of progress in this industry is 
shown. The booklet will encourage the 
man with funds for investment to give 
careful consideration to the fundamen- 
tal soundness of the business which 
stands behind public utility bonds. In 
conclusion the pamphlet says: 

Before the war public utility securities 
issued by corporations of undoubted strength 
and based on sound values and earning 
power were sold on a basis to yield around 

5 to 5i per cent. Now with largely in- 
creased values and increased demand for 
output the same class of securities can be 
bought on a basis to yield from 6$ to 8 per 
cent. Discriminating investors are now 
analyzing the public utility situation and 
buying well-secured bonds. Such analyses 
should pay investors through strong se- 
curity and liberal return from well-selected 
public utility issues. 


News Notes 

Railway Changes Name. — The Dur- 
ham (N. C.) Traction Company, organ- 
ized and operating since 1901, certified 
with the Secretary of State about a 
month ago to a change in name to the 
Durham Public Service Company. 

Preferred Dividend Passed. — The di- 
rectors of the Duluth-Superior Traction 
Company, Duluth, Minn., have passed 
the preferred dividend of 1 per cent. 
The company has been paying its pre- 
ferred dividend since January, 1901. 
The payment of the company's com- 
mon stock dividend was stopped in 
October, 1918. 

Municipal Line at Tacoma Still Be- 
hind. — According to a report filed by 
City Comptroller John M. Roberts of 
Tacoma, Wash., the municipal railway 
there lost $2,334 in cash in May, and 
has a total deficit, after inclusion of all 
charges for interest, taxes and depre- 
ciation, of $5,724. Receipts were $8,069 
and expenses $10,404. 

Recently Sold Property Reorganized. 
— The Sunbury & Selinsgrove Electric 
Street Railway, Sunbury, Pa., a part 
of the system known as the Sunbury 

6 Susquehanna Railway, was recently 
reorganized with a cash capital of 
$120,000 and a bond issue of $230,000. 

The property was sold at receiver's sale 
a few months ago. 

Protective Committee for Seventh 
Avenue Holders. — A protective commit- 
tee to represent the holders of the first 
consolidated mortgage 5 per cent gold 
bonds of the Broadway & Seventh 
Avenue Railroad, New York, N. Y., has 
been formed with the Metropolitan 
Trust Company as depositary. The 
committee is headed by Harold B. 
Thorne, vice-president of the Metro- 
politan Trust Company. 

Traffic Increases in 1920. — According 
to the fifteenth annual report of the 
Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Sacra- 
mento, CaL, 1920 was a peak year for 
the railway system. There were 15,- 
770,295 passengers carried, a gain of 
1,690,923 over 1919. Jitney competi- 
tion had spent itself on account of local 
enactments and the railway showed a 
remarkable gain in business in contrast 
to 1914, when jitney competition greatly 
diminished the company's revenue. 

Operating Arrangement to Be Re- 
newed. — The Dallas (Tex.) Railway will 
again take over the line of the Stand- 
ard Traction Company, now serving 
Mount Auburn and Parkview additions 
to the city of Dallas on the East. The 
lines of the Standard Traction Com- 
pany are now being operated by George 
P. Dunlap as receiver under orders is- 
sued by the District Court of Dallas 
County. Final details of the agree- 
ment between the companies remain to 
be worked out. 

Messrs. Milner and Nicklett, Direc- 
tors. — At a meeting of the board of 
directors of the Community Traction 
Company, Toledo, Ohio, recently, A. P. 
Nicklett, secretary, auditor, and pur- 
chasing agent of the company, was 
elected a director. The board also 
elected W. L. Milner, formerly chair- 
man of the commission which drafted 
the cost-of-service ordinance, a mem- 
ber to represent the public interest in 
the company. From time to time addi- 
tional directors shall be elected to rep- 
resent the city. 

Settlement Proposal Made. — A pro- 
posal which may solve the railway prob- 
lem in Lafayette and West Lafayette, 
Ind., has been made to the city by 
Clarence H. Geist, president of the 
Northern Indiana Gas & Electric Com- 
pany. The gas company has an option 
on the railway and offers to exercise 
the option if the citizens will raise 
$100,000 to help finance the project. 
The gas company would turn the rail- 
way over to the Terre Haute, Indian- 
apolis & Eastern Traction Company for 
operation. Regulation of th'e jitney 
traffic also is asked. 

Right to Abandon Service Denied. — 
The City Council of Sheridan has de- 
nied the application of the Sheridan 
(Wyo.) Railway for permission to 
abandon service in Montana and Sum- 
mer Streets. The Council acted in ac- 
cordance with public petitions and re- 
monstrances against the suspension. 
General Manager Jones has stated that 
the suspension did not depend upon a 

paving problem, but was one of econ- 
omy in operation as it could be shown 
that the entire city system was a non- 
paying proposition. He said that he 
would take the matter before the Pub- 
lic Service Commission and if relief 
were denied to him he would resort 
to the courts. 

Reorganization Cost $434,400.— While 

declaring that certain charges and dis- 
bursements in the reorganization plan 
of the United Railroads, San Francisco 
CaL, appeared to be excessive, the Rail- 
road Commission in a decision on June 
27, held that it was without jurisdic- 
tion to pass upon the expenditure, as 
the funds to be used were not subject 
to the commission's control. The re- 
organization expenditure aggregates 
$434,400. This sum has been accumu- 
lated out of net earnings, made pos- 
sible by non-payment of interest on 
bonds. In this way, the commission 
points out, the bondholders are really 
standing the cost. 

Reorganization Plan About Ready. — 

Talk has been renewed recently of the 
coming reorganization of the San Fran- 
cisco-Oakland Terminal Railways, Oak- 
land, CaL The San Francisco Bulletin 
of June 23 said: "The definite informa- 
tion as to the details of reorganization 
and refinancing were not obtainable, 
but it was admitted that such a move 
was under way. President Alberger 
said that the directors have been meet- 
ing with San Francisco financiers three 
times a week for the past six months 
and that while the plans are practically 
adopted the company is not yet ready to 
make the details public." 

Railway Extends Notes. — The hold- 
ers of the $750,000 of one-year 6 per 
cent notes of the Chattanooga Railway 
& Light Company, Chattanooga, Tenn., 
which matured on June 1 are offered a 
new one-year 8 per cent note in ex- 
change for their maturing notes. In all 
other respects except rate of interest 
and maturity the new notes will be 
identical with the present ones. The 
notes will be secured by deposit of $682,- 
000 Chattanooga Railway & Light Com- 
pany's first and refunding mortgage 5 
per cent gold bonds and $389,000 Look- 
out Mountain Railway's first mortgage 
6 per cent gold bonds. 

Brooklyn Employees Buy Bonds.. — 
Approximately 1,000 employees of the 
surface lines of the Brooklyn (N. Y.) 
Rapid Transit Company have joined 
the National Thrift System and sub- 
scribed for nearly $100,000 in bonds. 
The drive was started on May 10. The 
employees of the rapid transit lines will 
be solicited during the current month. 
G. L. Terhune, who directed the cam- 
paign, expressed his appreciation for 
the men's co-operation. The Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Monthly in commenting 
on the bond movement said that Mr. 
Terhune's talks on the value of system- 
atic saving were directly in line with 
the campaign now under way for power 
saving: "Saving power, saving mate- 
rial, saving money — the three made a 
well-rounded thrift campaign of vital 
interest to every one at the meetings." 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Six Cents in Knoxville 

Original Application Denied — Commis- 
sion Abrogates Contract for Engi- 
neering Advice 

The Tennessee Railroad & Public 
Utilities Commission recently issued 
an order allowing the Knoxville Rail- 
way & Light Company, Knoxville, 
Tenn., to charge a 6-cent fare, effective 
July 3. The original application of 
the company was for a 7-cent fare and 
a 2-cent transfer charge. As noted 
in the Electric Railway Journal for 
July 2, this was denied, the commission 
holding that the company had not set 
up sufficient reason for such an ad- 

The commission also abrogated the 
contract between the Knoxville Rail- 
way and the American Cities Company 
by which heretofore the Knoxville 
company has been paying 3 per cent of 
its gross income to the American 
Cities Company for operating and 
engineering advice. The commission 
held that the practice at present in 
existence of the company's paying to 
another corporation any percentage of 
its gross receipts for operating and en- 
gineering advice shall be discontinued 
on June 30, 1921. 

The company was also directed in 
the order to furnish light and power to 
all consumers at standard rates thereby 
eliminating the discrimination which 
appears in contract rates. There prob- 
ably will be later hearings before the 
commission to adjust these rates. The 
order of the commission in part fol- 

That the company may from and after 
midnight of July 3, charge a maximum fare 
on its railway system of 6 cents for each 
continuous ride upon the same car between 
any two points upon the railway lines ot 
the Knoxville Railway & Light Company, 
where 5 cents or less is now being charged, 
and the Knoxville Railway & Light Com- 
pany shall give transfers without charge, 
the use- of such transfers to be governed 
by conditions in effect prior to this order. 

The Knoxville Railway & Light Company 
shall on or before Aug. 1, 1921. file with 
this commission a standard schedule of 
electric light and power rates. 

All bills rendered for electric light and 
power consumed during the month of July, 
1921. and billed on or after Aug. 1, 1921, 
shall be billed at the rate set forth in the 
standard schedule of rates filed with the 
commission. In other words, rates for elec- 
tric light and power shall remain as at 
present, except in those cases, whether un- 
der contract or not where service is being 
rendered at more or less than standard 
rates, the rates to said customers being 
served at more or less than standard rates 
shall be decreased or increased to conform 
to standard rates. 

The company shall furnish to the com- 
mission at as early date as possible a 
statement showing in detail the cost of 
the appraisal of this property, segregating 
these costs as between engineers and their 
assistants, employed by the Knoxville Rail- 
way & Light Company and the engineers 
and assistants representing the Tennessee 
Railroad & Public Utilities Commission. 
After the receipt of this report by the 
commission such an order will be entered 
as to the disposition if these costs as may 
later be determined by the commission. 

The object of this order is to place the 
operations of the Railway & Light Company 
on a service-at-cost basis, so that the 
patrons of the company shall pay for serv- 
ice only such rates as will provide suffi- 

cient funds to pay all operating expenses 
and take care of an adequate amount of 
renewals and replacements and render a 
reasonable return on the investment. 

The commission reserves the right to 
amend or modify this order from time to 
time in the future as the necessities of the 
case may demand. 

Accounts of the Knoxville valuation 
were given in the Electric Railway 
Journal for May 21, 1921, page 970, 
and Dec. 25, 1920, page 1302. 

Six-Cent Rate to Be Continued 
One Year 

The 6-cent fare for the Dallas (Tex.) 
Railway has been continued in effect 
under an ordinance passed by the City 
Commission of Dallas. While the 
traction company will accept the new 
fare ordinance, according to Richard 
Meriwether, vice-president and general 
manager, the terms are somewhat dis- 
appointing and the company has not 
been granted just what it had asked 
for. The traction company had sought 
a continuance of the 6-cent fare for 
an indefinite period, leaving the city 
to revoke it at any time the commis- 
sioner might see fit. However, as 
adopted the fare ordinance continues 
the 6-cent fare for a period of twelve 
months and makes no provision for its 
continuation beyond that date. 

According to Mr. Meriwether, the 
company will not be able to rehabil- 
itate its finances within one year, 
especially when there is no guarantee 
of income after one year. The company 
will accept the new fare ordinance, 
however, Mr. Meriwether said, with a 
desire to co-operate with the city and 
do everything possible to improve the 
street car service. Reference to the 
company's application for a continua- 
tion of the 6-cent rate was made in 
the Electric Railway Journal for 
June 25. 

Commission Suspends Rate 

In an order recently issued, the Ore- 
gon Public Service Commission sus- 
pended until Oct. 1 operation of the 
new tarilfs increasing the fares on the 
lines of the Southern Pacific Company 
in Salem, Eugene and West Linn. The 
commission announces that an investi- 
gation would be prosecuted to deter- 
mine the reasonableness of the rates 
included in the proposed new schedules. 
The Salem company and the West Linn 
company propose to increase single-ride 
fares from 5 to 8 cents, while the 
Eugene company, in addition to asking 
an advance from 5 to 8 cents on its 
city lines, sought to raise the rates 
between Eugene and Springfield from 
10 to 16 cents. The new tariffs would 
have become operative July 1, had not 
the order been issued. The application 
for increased rates was filed with the 
commission several months ago, the 
companies claiming at that time a 7 
per cent return on the investment. 

Emergency Proved 

Court Holds New Jersey Company Was 
Justified in Seeking Ten-Cent Rate 
— Difference Over Emergency 

Holding that the increase in its rate 
of fare from 7 cents to 10 cents sought 
by the Public Service Railway was in 
a large measure justified, the New 
Jersey Supreme Court on July 1 handed 
down an opinion setting aside the deci- 
sion of the Board of Public Utility 
Commissioners denying the increase. 
The court also remanded the case back 
to the commission for further con- 
sideration "in order that it may fix a 
just and reasonable rate based on the 
evidence in this particular proceeding." 

The increase to 10 cents was asked as 
an emergency rate, but the commission 
in denying the application held that the 
emergency was gradually passing with 
the improvement in economic condi- 
tions. Justice Bergen, who wrote the 
opinion by the court, maintained that 
the railway was entitled to sufficient 
revenue to relieve its straitened finan- 
cial condition. The opinion says: 

We think the evidence shows conclusively 
that a considerable part, at least, is just 
and reasonable, and that the major part 
is required to pay the cost of operation 
and maintenance, and that, without addi- 
tional income to make required repairs, 
they cannot be made, thereby endangering 
the lives of passengers. 

A rate which does not provide for the 
depreciation fund imposed by the board, 
nor for the operating expenses of the utility 
company, is not, in our judgment, a just 
and reasonable pate, which the statute con- 
templates. The evidence clearly shows that 
the present rate under existing conditions 
will bankrupt the company as well as en- 
danger the lives of its passengers for want 
of funds to make imperative repairs. To 
require a maintenance fund to be carried, 
and at the same time refuse an income to 
provide it, is, to say the least, a peculiar 
exercise of discretion under our statute re- 
lating to the power of fixing rates. 

The board treats the situation as an 
emergency that soon will pass. . To call 
this situation an emergency and to refuse 
relief for that reason is giving a meaning 
to the word emergency which neither our 
statute nor adjudged cases warrants. Why 
an increased tax, enhanced cost of labor, 
of operation and of necessary repairs should 
be called an emergency is not apparent to 
us, either from the evidence, or conditions 
of which we can take judicial notice, nor, as 
the board did. can we assume that other 
conditions will shortly exist. 

Assuming the estimate of the board is 
correct, there will be a deficit of $400,000 
if the service is to be efficient and safe for 
the public use. without taking into account 
the losses for 1918, 1919 and 1920, amount- 
ing to more than $1,600,000. If this be 
called an emergency it is one that needs 
prompt relief, and ought not to be post- 
poned until the board has reached a result 
in another case involving the fixing of a 
just and reasonable rate based on valuation. 
The prosecutor is entitled to cost of opera- 
tion and fair return on capital invested, 
under the statute, and to have its rights 
determined on the case made by it in this 

Counsel for the railway, in a brief 
filed on July 5 with the Board of Public 
Utility Commissioners in the valuation 
case, maintained that a 10-cent fare is 
the lowest that the company can charge 
to meet operating expenses, taxes, re- 
placements and pay a return on its 
stock. The company places the value 
of its property for rate-making pur- 
poses at $200,898,906. This is nearly 
$76,000,000 higher than the valuation 
fixed by Ford, Bacon & Davis, acting 
for the state valuation commission. 
The brief is considered one of the most 
complete ever filed in a rate-making 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

Jitney Competition Not Favored 

Connecticut Commission Believes in Protection of Existing Transpor- 
tation Franchises from Unfair Competition 

The Public Utilities Commission of Connecticut has denied the application of 
W. A. Perrett and Christopher Glenney, brought under chapter 77 of the Public- 
Acts of 1921 for a certificate of public convenience and necessity for operation 
of jitneys in competition with the trolleys and steam railroad between Hartford 
and Manchester, about 10 miles distant. Under the provision of this act jitneys 
are named common carriers and become subject to commission jurisdiction on 
and after July 15, 1921. The act also provides that no one shall operate a 
jitney until the owner has obtained a certificate from the Public Utilities 
Commission that public convenience and necessity require its operation. 

SEVERAL hundred cases were 
brought before the commission dur- 
ing the month of June. The first 
case heard involved many issues applic- 
able to other cases and in the decision 
the commission outlines the general 
principles controlling their action, 
although some of the principles do not 
pertain specifically to this case. 

Jitney Fare Lowest 

The rates of fare between Hartford 
and Manchester are 33 cents for the 
steam railroad, 20 cents on the trolley 
by use of a ticket, or 30 cents cash with 
a free transfer in each case, as compared 
to a 15-cent fare on the jitney without 
transfer to other lines. 

The existing transportation facilities, 
the commission found, were capable of 
handling all the passenger traffic be- 
tween Hartford and Manchester, al- 
though the record of rush hour service 
on the trolleys prior to the advent of 
the jitneys did show some overcrowd- 
ing. The present record, however, 
shows many vacant trolley seats and 
many trolley cars operated at a loss. 

The question of public convenience 
and necessity as between competing 
jitneys and street railway service over 
the same route is clearly raised. The 
street railway is operated under a 
franchise granted by the state, and it 
has been the legislative policy of the 
state to protect such franchises and re- 
fuse competing franchises in the orig- 
inal franchise territory so long as such 
territory is being reasonably and ade- 
quately served under the original grant. 

Adequate Service the Criterion 

A certificate of public convenience 
and necessity for jitney operation, the 
commission says, is in the nature of a 
franchise, but without the correspond- 
ing obligations of permanency and con- 
tinuity of service on the part of the re- 
cipient that is imposed upon the chart- 
ered utility companies. The granting 
of a certificate for jitney operation in- 
volves to a limited extent the same 
principles as a legislative grant to a 
proposed street railway in competition 
with already existing franchises. Such 
a competitive franchise should not be 
granted if the existing franchised com- 
pany is willing and capable of giving 
adequate service at reasonable rates. 

There then arises the question as to 
what extent the different forms of 
transportation, the speed, the rates of 
fare on the jitneys, affect the adequacy 

of service and the fulfillment of the re- 
quirements of public convenience and 
necessity by the street railway com- 
pany. At the hearings it was not 
claimed that there was greater or even 
equal comfort riding in a jitney bus 
compared to a trolley car. It was 
shown, however, that the jitney made 
quicker time and charged a lower rate 
of fare. The speed, however, with jit- 
neys, the commission holds, having a 
seating capacity of twelve or more 
passengers is not materially greater 
than the speed of the trolley car. 

The tendency of jitney fares will un- 
doubtedly be upward when a scientific- 
count is kept of operating revenues and 
expenses, while the tendency in trolley 
fares should be downward, particularly 
for short haul passengers. The controll- 
ing influences should be the general 
public good and the general public re- 
quirements rather than individual con- 
venience and the desire to engage in 

It is not disputed that the street 
railways are absolutely essential, 
neither was it claimed that jitneys 
could supply the entire service required. 

In cases where the operation of jit- 
ney service would result in the discon- 
tinuance and abandonment of the trol- 
ley service otherwise possible to exist, 
the commission will be inclined to re- 
fuse a certificate of public convenience 
and necessity until the substitute serv- 
ice shows more stability and perma- 
nency than at present. Even when a 
part of the proposed jitney route is 
through territory not otherwise served, 
if this route as a whole is competing 
with and destructive of trolley service, 
the application should be denied, pro- 
vided the street railway company is 
capable and willing to supply adequate 
service. It would be highly desirable 
to have connecting jitney service in such 
unserved territory. 

However, where the traffic demands 
have outgrown the capacity of existing 
transportation facilities or where there 
is no other form of transportation there 
can be no question but that public con- 
venience and necessity would require 
additional or supplementary jitney 

The public good requires permanency 
and continuity of service, which cannot 
be reasonably guaranteed by the nu- 
merous applicants for certificates to 
operate jitneys. If such operation 
proves to be unremunerative and im- 
practicable it may be discontinued at 

any time by the holder of the certifi- 
cate, but in the meantime the trolley 
may be driven into bankrutpcy, dis- 
mantled and the general public de- 
prived of all forms of transportation. 

To substantiate this argument the 
policy of the Pennsylvania Public Serv- 
ice Commission is quoted in the case 
of the Commonwealth Transportation 
Company, which wanted to operate mo- 
tor vehicles in competition with the 
trolleys in Scranton. 

Certificate of Service Over Given 

Where an existing or proposed jitney 
route parallels the tracks of a steam 
railroad company, and in thus compet- 
ing with the service rendered by that 
company, but on account of the limited 
number of trains, public convenience 
and necessity require jitney operation, 
consideration should be given to grant- 
ing the certificate, to location of ter- 
mini, and fixing of schedules. Jitney 
operation as a rule is without certain 
facilities, but this fact should not 
authorize the operators to utilize the 
station and station grounds of their 
competitors to run a schedule coincident 
with their train schedule. 

The commission is of the opinion 
where a single person, association or 
corporation is capable, willing and 
equipped to supply the entire necessary 
service over a given route that it is 
for the interest of the public as well 
as for proper public regulation to grant 
a certificate to any person, association 
or corporation for the entire necessary 
service over a route rather than to 
issue certificates to the several differ- 
ent applicants thereby distributing the 
service, complicating the schedules, and 
dividing the responsibility. 

For the rendition of good utility 
service, the party supplying the service 
must receive a fair financial return and 
also be protected against unnecessary 
destructive competition. If no one ap- 
plicant is capable or willing to sup- 
ply the entire service, it then becomes 
necessary, of course, to grant a suffi- 
cient number of certificates to supply 
the necessary service. 

Selection of Applicants 

Where several parties apply for a 
certificate over the same route each of 
which is capable, willing and equipped 
to supply the entire necessary service 
on that route, it becomes the task of 
the commission to determine the party 
who in its opinion would supply and 
maintain such service. 

The commission in determining or se- 
lecting such a party will take into con- 
sideration the financial responsibility, 
the past record of the applicant and 
his employees, the rendition of jitney 
service, the type and general mainte- 
nance of equipment, and so far as may 
be expressed, the public sentiment of 
the people in the community or terri- 
tory to be served. Public sentiment is 
important to the extent of affording 
good will, which is essential for the suc- 
cessful operation and conduct of any 
public utility. 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


City Firm in Stand Against 

The committee of citizens which at- 
tempted to bring about a settlement 
of the fare controversy between the two 
street car systems of Spokane and the 
City Commissioners failed to get the 
commissioners to concede anything 
although they secured from the railway 
people the promise of a 7-cent fare with 
five tickets for 35 cents. The city com- 
missioners over the protests of a large 
number of citizens have issued permits 
to 62 jitneys to cover some ten routes, 
this being in retaliation for the 8-cent 
fare authorized by the State Commis- 
sion to be charged by the electric rail- 
ways. Only a partial service can be 
maintained at present. The case was 
viewed in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal for July 2. 

Many opinions have been expressed 
condemning the action of the city 
authorities. D. L. Huntington, presi- 
dent of the Washington Water Power 
Company, sent a statement to his em - 
ployees in which he reviewed the fare 
controversy, the offer of the company 
and the flat refusal by the city. He 
also quoted the public statement of tha 
Chamber of Commerce in which it is 
said that "the car lines have shown a 
disposition to be fair and meet every 
reasonable suggestion." 

More Bus Routes Planned 

At the hearing to grant certificates 
for convenience and necessity for the 
operation of independent motor bus 
routes held in Waterbury on June 30 
the Connecticut Company announced 
its readiness to operate two supple- 
mental bus routes to serve territories 
not now reached by trolley service. The 
fare on these bus routes will be the 
same as if they were served by rail serv- 
ice. Free transfers will be inter- 

Hearings were also held during the 
week at New Haven, Norwalk and 
Stamford, but only in Waterbury does 
the railway believe that motor bus 
service is essential to the transporta- 
tion needs of the community. 

President Storrs said that it was 
only by having the sole right to do 
business that the railway company 
could give the best service. Chief of 
Police P. H. Smith of New Haven 
recommended that if the jitneys were 
allowed to operate they be barred from 
the center of the city. 

Paul Russo, a real estate operator, 
who had a land development in the ter- 
ritory formerly served by the Shore 
Line Eailway, favored barring jitneys 
where the Connecticut Company ren- 
dered adequate service. He pointed 
out that while the people complained 
of the Shore Line service, the minute 
the service was halted they demanded 
its restoration. 

Vice-President E. G. Buckland of 
the New Haven Railroad opposed the 
operation of suburban motor bus routes 
to Hartford, Derby and Bridgeport and 
immediate points. 

Transportation | 
News Notes 

Bus Service Started. — The Delaware 
Rapid Transit Company has started a 
new motor-bus line connecting Dela- 
ware City, Del., with Wilmington. 
Hourly trips are made. 

Zone Fare Raised. — The new 10-cent 
zone rate is in effect on the Milford, 
Attleboro & Woonsocket Street Rail- 
way's line which connects with the 
Rhode Island Company's line in Woon- 
socket. The old rate was 7 cents for 
single fares. Strip books are provided, 
giving thirteen trips for $1. 

Rules in Favor of Railway. — The City 
Commission of Trenton, N. J., has de- 
feated the resolution introduced by 
Mayor Donnelly calling for the estab- 
lishment of a jitney line on the streets 
of Trenton. The commission declared 
that jitneys would injure the traction 
company by decreasing its revenue. 

Wins Fare Suit.— The Paducah (Ky.) 
Railway will continue to collect a 10-cent 
fare as the result of a recent decision 
of Federal Judge Walter Evans, making 
permanent an injunction against the 
city, which sought to hold the fare at 
6 cents. The city, however, may re- 
duce the fare after the franchise ex- 
pires in October, 1921, if an examina- 
tion of its earnings shows the 10-cent 
fare is excessive. 

One-Man Cars in Cleveland. — The 
Cleveland (Ohio) Railway began oper- 
ating forty-two of its standard double- 
truck cars with one man about June 1. 
These cars are being run on some out- 
lying lines and on one cross-town line 
where the traffic is light. Because of 
the high number of stops per mile on 
this cross-town line, the average sched- 
ule speed is only about 5 m.p.h., and the 
service as provided with one man on 
a car has been satisfactory. 

May Solve Traffic Troubes. — One step 
looking toward the solution of the traf- 
fic problem in Newark was reached re- 
cently in the form of a tentative ordi- 
nance which will be introduced at the 
City Commission's meeting. This or- 
dinance is the result of the efforts of 
Director Brennan, Traffic Captain Mc- 
Reil and a special committee of busi- 
ness men. The new traffic code will put 
an end to all-day parking which is con- 
sidered the cause of the street conges- 
tion and subsequent interruption of 

Automobiles Lead in Fatal Accidents. 
Deaths resulting from automobile acci- 
dents in California for the last three 
years, and for the first four months of 
1921, totaled 2,305, as compared with 
1,472 persons killed in all other vehicles, 
including steam and electric railroads 
and street railways, according to figures 
made public on June 24, 1921, by L. E. 
Rodd, State Registrar and Director of 
the Bureau of Vital Statistics. The 

deaths from automobile accidents for 
the past three years and the first four 
months of 1921, were as follows: 1918, 
559; 1919, 685; 1920, 804; 1921, 257. 

P. A. Y. E. on All Lines. — To establish 
a uniform system of collecting fares 
on all cars of the Cincinnati (Ohio) 
Traction Company, William Jerome 
Kuertz, Director of Street Railways, 
has announced the "pay-as-you-enter" 
system will be extended to all lines. 
The present system of paying when 
leaving the cars, in vogue on certain 
lines, has caused considerable confusion, 
Mr. Kuertz announced. It also has 
caused delays at the end of the routes 
and has multiplied the worries of the 
conductors. Before any final determi- 
nation will be made, however, Mr. 
Kuertz said, the question will be taken 
up at a conference with the traction 

Fare Issue Before U. S. Court.— The 

Galveston fare fight will be carried to 
the United States Supreme Court. An 
order granting an appeal to the High- 
est Tribunal has been filed in the United 
States Court at Galveston. The suit is 
styled Galveston Electric Company vs. 
The City of Galveston. The railway is 
seeking relief from what is declared to 
be a confiscatory fare charge. An in- 
junction against enforcement of a city 
ordinance prohibiting the collection of 
more than 5 cents as car fare is sought 
by the railway, which recently lost its 
fight in the United States District Court 
for the Southern District of Texas at 
Houston when Judge J. C. Hutcheson 
held that the 5-cent fare order is not 
confiscatory, but that the earnings of 
the railway under the 5-cent fare are 
adequate. In holding the 5-cent fare 
adequate Judge Hutcheson overruled the 
master in chancery, Judge J. 0. Danne- 

Increased Rates Approved. — An in- 
crease in fare from 5 to 7 cents in each 
of the zones of the Burlington County 
Transit Company, operating between 
Moorestown and Burlington, N. J., has 
been sanctioned by the Public Utility 
Commission. Rates for school children 
heretofore in effect are continued. Chil- 
dren under five years when accom- 
panied by an adult paying fare will be 
carried free. Children over five years 
must pay full fare. Inauguration of 
the increased fare is subject to im- 
proved service, especially on the branch 
between Borton's Landing bridge and 
Moorestown. Small dividends had been 
paid during the past three years, but 
these had been paid from earnings ac- 
cumulated during previous years. The 
board said that this company had never 
been able properly to maintain its prop- 
erty, and in 1910, owing to inability to 
pay interest, the road was sold at re- 
ceiver's sale, the bondholders purchas- 
ing the property for $120,000. It was 
testified for the board that the prop- 
erty was worth the amount of bonds 
paid for it, which at that time had a 
face value of $400,000. The company 
also submitted an appraisal of its prop- 
erty showing original cost of $343,004. 
and reproduction cost of $530,911. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

S. S. Colvin is the successor of R. 
Kingseed as electrical engineer, master 
mechanic and engineer of overhead con- 
struction of the Tiffin, Fostoria & East- 
ern Electric Railway, Tiffin, Ohio. 

Wilfred E. Ervin is now connected 
with the Trenton, Bristol & Philadel- 
phia Street Railway, Philadelphia, Pa., 
as secretary. J. Elliott Newlin was 
previously with the railway in this ca- 

J. L. DuVall is the successor of John 
P. Dake, master mechanic of the Sioux 
Falls (S. D.) Traction Company and 
L. S. Smith has become engineer of 
maintenance of way following the res- 
ignation of William Adams. 

A. F. Jones was recently appointed 
general freight and passenger agent of 
the Columbus, Delaware & Marion Elec- 
tric Company, Columbus, Ohio. George 
H. Dusler formerly held this position 
with the company. 

J. Edgar Reed has recently been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Shamokin 
& Mt. Carmel Transit Company, Mt. 
Carmel, Pa. A. Howard Thomas, Jr., 
formerly superintendent and purchas- 
ing agent, is no longer connected with 
the company. 

T. A. Darrow was recently appointed 
superintendent of the Northeast Okla- 
homa Railroad, Miami, Okla., as the 
successor to E. M. Tanner. L. M. 
Greene is no longer connected with the 
company as master mechanic, E. M. 
Applegate having been selected for this 

I). G. Callihan has been promoted 
from superintendent and purchasing- 
agent to general manager of the Web- 
ster, Monessen, Belle Vernon & Fay- 
ette City Street Railway and the West- 
side Electric Street Railway, Charleroi, 
Pa. The roads were formerly managed 
by the president, C. F. Thompson. 

W. Y. Hill, manager of the California 
Electric Railway Association, has been 
appointed representative at Washing- 
ton of the joint tax committee of the 
American Electric Railway Association, 
American Gas Association and the Na- 
tional Electric Light Association, ac- 
cording to announcement made by 
Philip H. Gadsden, chairman of the 
committee. Mr. Hill is well known 
because of his active participation in 
association affairs. During the war he 
was assistant manager of the Amer- 
ican Electric Railway War Board and 
before that was Washington represen- 
tative of the California Electric Rail- 
way Association. When the War Board 
was disbanded, Mr. Hill was placed in 
charge of the Washington office of the 
A. E. R. A. under the committee of 
national relations. Owing, however, 
to the urgency of his duties with the 
California association he resigned in 
May, 1919, to return to the Pacific 

F. Hoffman has succeeded J. Morton 
as auditor of the City Railway Com- 
pany, Dayton, Ohio. 

W. F. West has resigned as master 
mechanic of the Newport (R. I.) County 
Electric Company. At present the po- 
sition is still vacant. 

Mr. Fallon Promoted Again 

As General Manager of the Chicago 
Elevated He Relieves President Budd 
of Many Responsibilities 

For the second time within a period 
a little longer than a year Bernard J. 
Fallon, assistant general manager of 
the Chicago Elevated Railways, has 
received promotion. He has just been 
made general manager and his duties 

B. J. Fallon 

and responsibilities have been broad- 
ened so as to relieve President Britton 
I. Budd of a large share of the responsi- 
bilities of operating the elevated rail- 
ways, the fast interurban roads and 
other electric railway properties. 

Mr. Fallon held, until his promotion 
to assistant general manager in April, 
1920, the position of engineer mainte- 
nance of way. His operating experience 
with the Chicago Elevated Railroad has 
extended over a period of fourteen 
years. In June, 1907, he was appointed 
engineer maintenance of way of the 
old Metropolitan West Side Elevated 
Railroad. After two years in this 
capacity he was made assistant general 
manager of the same road under Brit- 
ton I. Budd, then general manager. 
When the several elevated railways of 
Chicago were consolidated and Mr. Budd 
became president of the combined sys- 
tem in 1911, Mr. Fallon was made en- 
gineer maintenance of way, with juris- 
diction over all these combined prop- 
erties. Some time later his authority 
was extended to include the Chicago, 
North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad, 
the operation of which had been taken 
over by Mr. Budd for the Insull inter- 

Mr. Fallon was born on Aug. 10, 1880, 
at Rutland, 111. His experience and 
training for his work with the elevated 
systems were gained largely in the 
steam railroad field. After receiving 
a B. S. Degree from La Salle Institute, 
Chicago, in 1898, he became a rodman 
with the Burlington Railroad. During 
the following eight years he held the 
position of assistant engineer, division 
engineer and finally engineer of track 
elevation in Chicago. Since his connec- 
tion with the elevated systems he has 
served on the American Electric Rail- 
way Engineering Association way com- 
mittee. He is a member and a director 
of the Chicago Engineers Club and a 
member of the Western Society of En- 

As was previously stated, the more 
intimate details of operation will now 
fall on Mr. Fallon. That he is well 
qualified to shoulder these additional 
burdens and make an eminent success 
as an operator, one needs but examine 
his past record of efficiency and of rapid 


George J. Foran, manager of the con- 
denser department of the Worthington 
Pump & Machinery Corporation and 
the associated companies of the Inter- 
national Steam Pump Company, since 
1901, died on May 12. During the 
war Mr. Foran was a member of the 
committee on condensing apparatus of 
the United States Shipping Board and 
War Industries Board and also chair- 
man of the American Engineering 
Service Committee of Engineering 

Edward Payson Shaw is dead. Mr. 
Shaw was well known in electric rail- 
way circles, more particularly in 
Massachusetts. He was one of the first 
to become convinced of the practical 
use of electricity and made large in- 
vestments in electric plants. He 
equipped with electricity the Haverhill, 
Merrimack & Amesbury Railway. An- 
other road in which Mr. Shaw and mem- 
bers of the Shaw family were interested 
was the Boston & Worcester Street 
Railway. In recent years he had con- 
fined his activities largely to real 
estate developments. All through his 
active business career Mr. Shaw re- 
tained his interests in politics and 
served the state of Massachusetts in 
many capacities, among them treasurer 
of the Commonwealth. He was born in 
Newburyport in 1841 and was educated 
in the public schools there and at the 
academy at London, N. H. He went 
into business at an early age and soon 
became interested in various transporta- 
tion undertakings. Mr. Shaw is sur- 
vived by two sons. James F. Shaw and 
Samuel J. Shaw, and by several 
daughters. His son James F. Shaw, 
now in the banking business in New 
York, is a former president of the 
American Electric Railway Association. 

July 9, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Manufactures and the Markets 


Steel Companies Again 
Reduce Steel Rates 

Lead of Bethlehem Company on July 5 
Followed by Other Independents 
and by Corporation on July 6 

Effective July 5, the Bethlehem Steel 
Company has further reduced its steel 
products in amounts varying: from $4 
a ton to $10 a ton. The change in bars 
is from 2.10 cents to 1.90 cents; plates 
and structural shapes, 2.20 cents to 
2.00 cents; sheet bar, $39 to $35; billets, 
4x4, $37 to $33; slabs, $38 to $34; 
blue annealed sheets, 2.85 cents to 2.65 
cents; black sheets, 3.75 cents to 3.50 
cents; galvanized sheets, 4.75 cents to 
4.50 cents; tin plate, $6.25 to $5.75. 
The former price change was on April 
13. Previously the Bethlehem company 
had announced a 15 per cent reduction 
in wage scales and a 10 per cent re 
duction in salaries of employees, effec- 
tive July 16. 

E. G. Grace, president of the com- 
pany, in his announcement declares 
that present manufacturing costs do not 
in any sense warrant reductions, but 
that his company desires to contribute 
even more than its full share to re- 
establish conditions in the steel trade 
on what may be regarded as a normal 
basis. He attributes the increase in 
freight rates as the largest factor in 
increasing the cost of manufacturing- 
steel products, with materials and 
labor as the cost factors next in im- 

These reductions wei-e followed by 
most other independent steel producers 
early in the week, and on July 6 the 
United States Steel Corporation an- 
nounced a similar reduction in its prod- 
ucts. Judge Gary also announced the 
abrogation of the so-called basic or over- 
time day, which in effect is a lowering 
of wage scales about 15 per cent on 
those men working twelve hours a day, 
effective July 16. 

Hickory Tool Handles Cut 
15 to 20 per Cent 

Manufacturers of wooden tool han- 
dles just recently reduced prices on 
hickory an average of about 15 to 20 
per cent, the cheaper grades of wood 
being reduced the most. Ash handles 
were also cut about 10 per cent, it is 
stated. Some producers put these de- 
creases in effect as early as the first 
of last month, others not until within 
the past two or three weeks. 

The market during the first half of 
this year has held a very quiet course 
and at present there is not much ac- 
tivity with steam or electric roads 
either here or abroad, as consumers 
have been fairly well stocked up since 
last year. Some producers expect a 

change for the better this fall; others 
can see nothing ahead until next 
spring. Dealers and jobbers are buy- 
ing from hand to mouth and have light 
stocks on the whole. Producers of 
wooden handles have fairly good stocks 
as supplies dumped on them by can- 
cellations have not been worked off. 
Consequently, immediate shipments can 
be made. The best grade of hickory 
wood, however, is becoming scarce, it 
is stated, partly because the automo- 
bile industry has for long been mak- 
ing such inroads on the supply. Pro- 
duction is down low; about 25 per cent 
of normal capacity would probably be 
a representative figure. 

Strong Volume of Lubri- 
cation Buying 

Unlimited Supply Available as Stocks 
of Crude Oil Are Large — Prices 
Down 45 per Cent 

Buying of lubricants by electric rail- 
ways holds up very well according to 
producers. Steam railroad demand has 
been flat for a long time, for with 
slack general business conditions fewer 
cars are operated, but electric traction 
companies must, of course, maintain 
their service even at a loss. 

The supply of lubricating oils and 
greases is better now than virtually 
any time since the war. Producers' 
stocks are large and crude oil has piled 
up at refineries to such an extent that 
it has been necessary to take a loss to 
move stocks. Some of this surplus will 
now find an outlet through the automo- 
bile trade, which has been expanding 
ever since the opening of summer and 
now shapes up as a strong market, es- 
pecially for fuel oil. In the fall this 
business will naturally fall off again, 
but electric railway demand is expected 
to hold its own. Traction companies 
are buying close to their requirements 
and, as usual, are not stocking ahead, 
but the low point of decreased revenue 
from depression in the industrial cen- 
ters has been passed and from now on 
summer travel to vacation resorts and 
to the amusement parks will make itself 

Price is the only point upon which 
consumers have hesitated and this has 
been felt to some extent where re- 
newals of contracts for lubrication on a 
mileage basis have been made, but in 
general no more difficulty than usual has 
been experienced in renewing con- 
tracts. Prices of oil are well down, the 
average general reduction from peak 
quotations on railway lubricants being 
about 45 per cent. As recently as the 
middle of June one of the largest pro- 
ducers reduced prices 20 per cent and 
on June 28 another made a cut of about 
10 per cent. 

Tariffs on Electrical Goods 
Provided in New Bill 

Wire, Poles, Ties, Insulating Materials, 
Brushes, Axles, Wheels and Metals 
Among Items Affected 

The Fordney tariff bill, designed to 
afford full protection to American in- 
dustries, was formally reported into the 
House of Representatives on June 28. 
It is thought that under this measure 
duties will be in the neighborhood of 
30 per cent higher than under the exist- 
ing tariff. Splitting of duties is com- 
mon and the American valuation plan 
is the basis of lists. Paragraphs refer- 
ring to the electrical industry are 
printed below: 

Mica, unmanufactured or rough-trim- 
med only, 6 cents per pound and 17 
per cent ad valorem; cut or trimmed, 
splittings, plates, built-up mica and all 
manufactures of mica or of which mica 
is the component material of chief 
value, 12 cents per pound and 17 per 
cent ad valorem ; ground mica, 6 cents 
per pound and 20 per cent ad valorem. 

Carbons and electrodes of whatever 
material composed and wholly and 
partly manufactured, for producing 
electric arc light; electrodes of carbon 
or graphite for electric furnace or elec- 
trolytic purposes: brushes for electric 
motors, generators, etc.; plates, rods 
and other forms for making into 
brushes; other wares not especially pro- 
vided for, 35 per cent ad valorem. 

Incandescent electric light bulbs and 
lamps, with or without filament, 35 per 
cent ad valorem. 

Storage batteries and parts and 
materials, 30 per cent ad valorem. 

Anti-friction balls and rollers for ball 
and roller bearings, and parts, 35 per 
cent ad valorem. 

Aluminum, scrap and alloys in crude 
form, 5 cents per pound; in plates, 
sheets, bars, etc., 9 cents. 

Copper wire not coated nor covered 
and also tin-coated, 1J cents per pound; 
in rolls, rods or sheets, 2J cents; seam- 
less tubing, 7 cents; brazed tubing, 11 
cents; brass wire, rods, sheets, etc., 4 
cents per pound; seamless tubing, 8 

Telephone, light, power or railway 
poles of cedar or other woods, and rail- 
road ties, 10 per cent ad valorem. 

Asbestos paper and millboard of 
long-fiber asbestos and electrical papers 
not exceeding 0.05 in. thick, 8 cents 
per pound; of other, asbestos fibers, 11 
cents; sheets and plates not exceeding 
1 in. thick, 1 cent per square foot, up 
to 2h cents for over J-in. thickness. 

Electrical insulators and other ar- 
ticles wholly or partly or in chief value 
of shellac, copal or synthetic phenolic 
resin, not especially provided for, 30 
per cent ad valorem. 

Portland, Roman and other hydraulic 
cement in barrels, etc., takes 5 cents 
per 100 pounds; in bulk, 4 cents; other 
cement not specifically provided for 
takes 17 per cent ad valorem. 

Axles and parts thereof, axle bars, 
etc., valued at not move than 6 cents 
per pound, six-tenths of 1 cent 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 2 

per pound. Wheels for railway pur- 
poses and parts thereof, of iron or 
steel or steel-tired, 1 cent per pound. 
Axles attached to wheels take wheel 

Railway fish plates or splice bars 
made of iron or steel, 1 cent per pound; 
all other railway bars of iron or steel, 
T-rails and punched iron or steel, 
flat rails, 7/40 cent per pound. 

Brake Shoe Prices Again Down 

Little change is evident in the market 
for brake shoes in so far as demand 
is concerned. Buying continues light, 
with railways ordering close to their 
requirements and not stocking far 
ahead. Replacement buying by steam 
roads is especially slack because fewer 
freight cars are being operated owing 
to the low volume of business. 

Prices are again down, one of the 
leading producers having reduced quo- 
tations $2 per ton on July 1, a cut of 
about 31 per cent. This is the third 
decrease to be made this year, the first, 
of $6 per ton on Jan. 1, amounting to 
about 8i per cent. The second de- 
crease, made on April 1, was also $6 
per ton. 

Manufacturers' stocks at present are 
not extra large, but the moderate sur- 
plus supply of the finished product is 
sufficient to provide immediate ship- 
ments. The large number of cars now 
in urgent need of repairs in this coun- 
try, it is stated, is sufficient guarantee 
that brake shoe business is bound to 

miiiiiiini:nim:nni!iin:inir:nni:!!:::iii:ii [irmuurnnin! 

Rolling Stock 

The Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Railway 

will obtain fifty additional cars if the or- 
dinance which has been drafted by the As- 
sistant Corporation Counsel of Seattle for 
the public utilities committee of the City 
Council goes through. 

Track and Roadway 

Alabama Power Company, Birmingham, 

Ala., has been formally granted a permit 
for the construction of a dam and power 
plant on the Coosa River near Verbena. 
The first work to be done will he the build- 
ing of six miles of railroad from Verbena 
to the river. The project will cost approx- 
imately $7,000,000. This undertaking was 
referred to in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal for April 2. 1921. 

Sacramento Northern Railroad, Sacra- 
mento, Cal., may be included in an im- 
provement program contemplated by the 
Western Pacific Railroad. The railroad has 
under consideration the extension of the 
electric line from its Chico terminal to Red 
Bluff according to J. P. Quigley, superin- 
tendent of transportation. With the pur- 
chase of the electric line the Western Pa- 
cific plans extensions to penetrate to 
points that promise to be good feeders 
to the big line. 

San Erancisco (Cal.) Municipal Railway 
will extend its line to the Sunset District. 
Three possible routes have been suggested. 
One extension would run from the Market 
Street Twin Peaks line along Seventh 
Avenue to Judah Street. The second would 
be from Duboce Avenue and Market Street 
to the ocean, using a tunnel 3.400 ft. long 
with a connection at Duboce Avenue with 
the Market and Twin Peaks tunnel line. 
The third possible route would be on Judah 
Street from the ocean to Auguello Boule- 

Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Company 

will resume service on Aug. 1 over the East 
End line betwe-en Ferry and Lumber 

Streets. This announcement was made re- 
cently by Walter Draper, vice-president of 
the company. The line was abandoned 
several months ago in order to make a fill 
of 9 feet of ground. The city was com- 
pelled to condemn property on the south 
side of the street and raise houses on the 
other. When this section is completed a 
maximum fill of five feel will be started 
on another section between Corbin and 
Strader Streets. 

Oklahoma Union Railway. Tulsa, Okla., 
may help in the construction of an inter- 
urban terminal with a belt line around the 
city. While a definite route for this line 
was not proposed the Sand Springs Rail- 
way and Oklahoma Union Railway's lines 
could be utilized for this purpose by build- 
ing a connection from the Oklahoma Union 
Railway's tracks at Fourth Street and Elgin 
Avenue with the Sand Springs line on East 
Archer Street. 

Chambersburg & Shippensburg Electric 
Railway, Shippensburg, Pa., will extend its 
system to the Western Maryland Railway's 

Houston, Bay Shore & Texas City Inter- 
urban Railway, which proposes to build 
and operate an electric interurban line from 
Houston along the bay shore to Texas 
City, near Galveston, has purchased from 
the Pittsburgh Steel Company 54 miles of 
85 lb. rails for delivery in Houston. Grad- 
ing work on the first unit of the line, which 
will extend from the city of Houston to the 
San Jacinto Battlefield on San Jacinto 
River, a distance of about 18 miles, is well 
under way. according to Ed. Kennedy, pres- 

Power Houses, Shops 
and Buildings 

New York Central Railroad. New York, 

N. Y., is considering the building of a new 
power house at its locomotive repair shop 
in Solvay. 

Oklahoma Railway, Oklahoma City, Okla.. 

will start work on its new $150,0011 terminal 
station not later than March 1, 1922. This 
announcement was recently made by John 
W. Shartel. vice-president and general 
manager of the company. 

Columbus. Delaware & Marion Electric 
Company. Marion, Ohio, has just com- 
pleted a new power plant at Scioto. This 
plant consists of three Babcock & Wilcox 
boilers, 866 hp. each with Westinghouse 
underfeed stokers and condenser. This 
project was referred to in the Electric 
Railway Journal for March 19, 1921. 

Professional Note 

C. I>. Parker & Company, Inc., investment 
bankers and controlling managers of cen- 
tral station properties at Amesbury, Palmer, 
Plymouth. Franklin. Great Harrington, 
Marion and Provincetown, Mass.. and else- 
where, have moved from 67 Milk Street, 
Boston, to a remodeled six-story office 
building at 150 Congress Street, in the 
heart of that city's banking district. 

Trade Notes 

The Ksterline-Angus Company, Indian- 
anapolis. Ind., has developed a graphic 
kva. meter. 

The Hi-Voltage Equipment Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio, has developed a new type 
of lightning arrester for outdoor mounting. 

The Black & Decker Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Towson Heights, Baltimore, Md., has 
recently placed on the market a portable 
electric grinder. 

The Railway Track^York Company, 
Philadelphia, has placed on the market a 
new "Ajax" resistance-type arc welder. 

The Rome VYire Company, Rome, N. Y., 
has developed a "superservice" cord for 
portable electric tools, etc. 

The Hazard Manufacturing Company, 
YVilkes-Barre, Pa., has put on the market 
its new "spiralweave" cables for portable 
light and power service. 

The Knight Engineering & Sales Com- 
pany, Eos Angeles, has placed on the mar- 
ket its new "One-Hand-Y" electric drill. 

Edward 3. Ronan, representative of the 
Gold Car Heating & Lighting Company, 

died at his home in Brooklyn, N. Y., on 
July 3. Mr. Ronan had been connected 
with the company for a period of twenty- 
one years. 

The Diamond Holfast Rubber Company, 
33 Auburn Street, Atlanta, Ga., manufac- 
turer of friction tape, has purchased a site 
of eleven acres for its proposed new factory 
for the manufacture of its "Diamond Hol- 
fast 2-plex" insulating tape. 

The A. H. Petersen Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Milwaukee, manufacturer of tools and 
dies, etc., announces that it has discon- 
tinued this department and will turn over 
its entire plant to the manufacture of "Hole 
Shooter" portable electric drills and other 
automotive devices. 

The Quasi-Arc Weldtrode Company, Inc., 
Atlantic Avenue and Warwick Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., announces that since July 
1 it has been in its new quarters at 114 
Hudson Avenue, Peekskill, N. Y. In the 
new location the company has not only 
much better shipping facilities than before 
but also better arrangements and machin- 
ery for the manufacture of its "weldtrodes." 
The new works will also be completely 
equipped for the manufacture of all arc- 
welding accessories and for the building of 
the entire line of welding apparatus, in- 
cluding controllers (for both alternating 
and direct current) and welding generators. 

The Standard Safety Equipment Com- 
pany, 1(>8 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 
has been organized to manufacture and dis- 
tribute electrical and mechanical safety 
equipment and supplies, embracing gloves, 
linemen's blankets, first-aid cases, etc. C. 
A. Kingsbury and L. W. Dickson, both 
formerly with F. A. Hardy & Company, 
are respectively president and secretary. 
F. L. Hurlbutt, for the last ten years 
safety engineer of E. I. du Pont de Nemours 
& Company, is treasurer and in addition will 
have charge of all service work. A. U. 
Barnes of the Hardy company has been ap- 
pointed Eastern manager with offices in the 
Clinton Building, Newark, N. J. There is 
also a Detroit office at 414 West Grand 
River in charge of O. L. Smith. A Cleve- 
land connection and stockroom is under con- 
sideration. In addition to safety supplies 
the company will market a full line of 
welding equipment. "Standardize for 
safety" has been taken by the company for 
a slogan. 

New Advertising Literature 

Temperature Control. — The Fulton Com- 
pany, Knoxville, Tenn., has issued two 
folders on its "Sylphon" temperature reg- 

Pressure Regulator. — The Fisher Gover- 
nor Company, Marshalltown, Iowa, has is- 
sued Bulletin No. 210 on its series 90 pres- 
sure regulators. 

Temperature Regulator Chart. — A "Tem- 
perature Regulator Chart, or Engineering- 
Data Sheet," has been copyrighted by the 
Fulton Company, Knoxville, Tenn., for use 
in figuring tank regulators. 

Export Trade Directory. — The American 
Exporter, 370 7th Avenue, New York City, 
has just published the 1921-22 — the seventh 
edition — of the "Export Trade Directory." 
There are 1,036 pages in the book. 

Insulating Tape. — The Diamond Holfast 
Rubber Company, 33 Auburn Avenue, At- 
lanta, Ga., is distributing a leaflet covering 
the "Diamond-Holfast" two-plex insulating 
tape recently placed on the market. 

Air Purifying Apparatus — "Carrier Air 
Washers and Humidifiers" is the title of 
catalog No. 480, recently issued by the 
Carrier Air Conditioning Company, Buffalo, 
covering its air washers, generator coolers 
and other apparatus. 

Stoker Coal Crusher. — The Jones auto- 
matic coal crusher for use on Jones 
standard stokers has been put on the mar- 
ket by the Under-Feed Stoker Company 
of America, 721 Book Building. Detroit, and 
a descriptive leaflet concerning it has been 

Electric Specialties. — The G & W Elec- 
tric Specialty Company, 7440-52 South 
Chicago Avenue, Chicago, manufacturer of 
electrical specialties, has issued catalog 11, 
containing bulletin No. 211, covering its 
pot heads and accessories and bulletin 212, 
describing its underground boxes. 

Eire Protection. — The Oil Conservation 
Engineering Company, Wade Building, 
Cleveland, is distributing a pamphlet de- 
scribing the 10-gal. "Oceco" chemical en- 
gine recently developed by the company. 
The engine is designed particularly for use 
in electric power stations, transformers, re- 
lay and stor"°'e-battery stations. 

Electric Railway Journal 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

HENRY W. BLAKE ind HAROLD V. BOZELL, Editors HENBY H. NORMS, Managing EdJJor' , 

DARBY L.BROWN, Western Editor N. A. BOWERS, Pacific Coast Editor H.S.KNOWLTON.New England Editor C. W.SQUIER. Aitotfate Editor" 
DONALD F. HI NE. Editorial Representative A, D.KNOX, Editorial Representative OEOBOE BUSHFIHLB. Editorial ~ 

O.J. MACMUBBAY, News Editor ' S 


Associate Editor 

Volume 58 

New York, Saturday, July 16, 1921 N \>V 
— , 5 

dXP, If 

Number , 3 

A Secretary 

or Proved Ability 

THE association is to be congratulated upon the 
recommendation which its reorganization committee 
has made with reference to a permanent secretary to 
succeed E. B. Burritt, who resigned last March. J. W. 
Welsh, whom the committee has recommended to the 
executive committee and who will doubtless be appointed 
by that committee, already has the confidence of the 
entire membership of the association and has shown 
himself amply able to perform the duties which will 
devolve upon him. 

As special engineer to the association, Mr. Welsh 
already had made his work felt in the association's 
activities, and when President Gadsden asked him to 
undertake, quite suddenly it will be remembered, the 
work of secretary, Mr. Welsh stepped into the breach 
and, in this rather trying position as acting secretary, 
has acquitted himself so admirably and has shown so 
satisfactorily his complete fitness for the permanent 
secretaryship that he was the only logical candidate 
out of a multitude of suggestions to be considered for 
the place. 

The Electric Railway Journal is sure that the 
association headquarters activities are in good hands 
and congratulates both Mr. Welsh and the association 
upon the new relationship, which will probably be 
arranged at the next meeting of the executive committee. 

Get Work Commensurate 
with Wages Paid 

THE news columns of nearly every recent issue of 
this paper have recorded wage decreases on elec- 
tric railways in almost every part of the country, but 
probably few of them have been equal in percentage 
to the demonstrated reduction in cost of living which 
has occurred since the peak of prices in the early part 
of 1920. Undoubtedly wages on electric railways are 
still due for a further decrease, but in this readjust- 
ment, an opportunity is offered to put the wages on a 
different basis than that which existed in most com- 
panies before the war. Reference is made particu- 
larly to companies which used to have a high labor 

Statistics of the present rate of turnover on the aver- 
age electric railway property are not available, but it 
is safe to say that generally it is much lower than six 
or seven years ago. It is also a matter of observation 
that the physical and mental and other standards which 
go to make up a desirable trainman are being exhibited 
in a higher degree than before the war. All of this 
helps toward efficient transportation, and, in the last 
analysis, toward economical operation. The higher 
wages paid on one-man cars tends also along these 

The future wage for motormen and conductors should 
be sufficient to attract men of a high grade permanently 

to the service and not simply te take it as a stop gap 
between better paid industries. The companies should 
cut loose from the unskilled labor theory and should 
make employment on the platform attractive to the kind 
of men who can give economical service from every 
viewpoint. The public has got away from the 5-cent 
flat fare and will expect good service, regardless of the 
rate of fare. The companies will not be allowed to 
earn more than a fair return, and in their own inter- 
est as well as in that of the public, the most certain 
way of supplying good service should be followed. This 
is to pay good wages and get in return from their 
men faithful and efficient work, commensurate with 
the wage paid. 

How Manufacturers Safeguard 
Their Products 

THE attention which manufacturers give to the test- 
ing of the raw materials which enter into the 
apparatus supplied to electric railways and the extensive 
precautions that they take in testing such material are 
amply illustrated in the article by John S. Dean on 
testing insulating material, the second and concluding 
part of which is published in this issue. In reading 
these articles one cannot but be impressed by the large 
variety of insulating materials which are used in the 
construction of railway apparatus. In the selection of 
such materials it is most essential to take into consider- 
ation the operating conditions, which are extremely 
severe for electric railway equipment. High tempera- 
tures are encountered, the trolley voltage is most vari- 
able and line surges are frequent. The equipment is 
exposed to considerable moisture, dust and dirt, and is 
subjected to severe mechanical strain, as well as exces- 
sive vibration and frequent abuse by rough handling. 
Ruggedness in construction is as essential as high 
dielectric strength. 

The proposed tentative methods of testing insulating 
varnishes which were included in the report of com- 
mittee D-9 on electrical insulating materials for the 
American Society for Testing Materials at its recent 
meeting follow along the line outlined by Mr. Dean for 
the testing of liquid insulating material. The tests 
given are intended for varnishes which are applied by 
brushing, dipping or spraying, in order to provide high 
electrical insulation. The dipping of coils and even 
complete armatures by electric railways has increased 
considerably during the past two years, and the reduc- 
tion of troubles which has resulted has shown the great 
advantages to be obtained. Those who have had experi- 
ence in dipping and baking processes have found water 
absorbing tests and endurance tests to be most desir- 
able. Another important consideration which directly 
affects the time that cars are withheld from service is 
the time necessary for drying. Tests for determining 
insulating compounds which will have a short period 
for drying and at the same time possess the necessary 
dielectric strength and other insulating properties are 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

of interest. Aside from the essential characteristics 
that are necessary for insulating materials, this descrip- 
tion of the method and apparatus used by a prominent 
manufacturer for determining these characteristics 
should give those interested a broader conception of the 
,care used to safeguard the various products which they 

Capitalize — 

or Amortize? 

THE brief which sets forth the arguments of the 
Public Service Railway in support of its valuation 
is one of the most interesting documents in this line 
which has appeared for some time. It is thorough, 
it is out of the ordinary, it is legal, and it has touches 
of appreciation of the lack of conception of the railway 
problem by the usual citizen. 

But there are two or three points with reference to 
which questions of best valuation policy — or public 
policy, perhaps — may well be raised. 

One of these is the advisability at this time, if ever, 
of arguing in favor of unit prices on a particular date. 
This is admittedly in line with the association's valua- 
tion committee recommendation, but that makes it all 
the more important that this question be examined with 
due care and consideration. Prices of many articles 
are admittedly going down, and while pre-war value 
will probably never be realized, the public conscious- 
ness cannot but carry the feeling that it is the future 
return upon the value of the property which is of most 
importance. Legally, present value — present-day value 
— has much to support it. Any modification of that to 
certain trend conditions or estimated future conditions 
can of course be supported only as a question of public 
policy, but that is worth considering seriously when 
companies are presenting final arguments on definite 

Another point which it will be most interesting to 
have determined, as mentioned editorially in these 
columns under a discussion of the Ford, Bacon & Davis 
valuation of this same property ( see Electric Railway 
Journal, April 23, 1921, page 758) is that of capitaliz- 
ing the "power contract." As the brief states, every 
witness testified as to the value of this contract to 
the railway company. The question it will be interest- 
ing to have decided by a court, if possible, is whether 
the value of such a contract should be reflected by an 
increased legitimate capitalization or rather by an in- 
creased rate of return in recognition of the good man- 
agement which is evident in thus obtaining power at 
a lower rate than the railway company could realize 
under its own operation. 

The third, and perhaps most important, point from 
the standpoint of policy is the question as to whether 
certain sums of money, admittedly invested and in- 
vested legitimately, should be added to capital or 
should be set up as a fund to be amortized. Reference 
here is to consolidation value — again possibly a ques- 
tion of good management rather than either capitaliza- 
tion or amortization sums — superseded property and 
certain other elements of value which, in any private 
business, would be amortized as early as possible. This 
is not an argument in favor of eliminating such amounts 
from consideration on the theory that they should have 
been amortized out of excessive dividends in the past ; 
there probably were no excessive dividends, and there 
certainly is no basis to assume them without positive 

evidence of them. This is rather a suggestion of much 
better public policy to set up such expenditures as 
amortizable funds so that they may be eliminated from 
the perpetual charge upon the community. This may 
not be the best for the market value of the securities 
at the instant, but it is apparently the best business 
in the long run. There is also the question as to whether 
or not there is much more probability of having such 
sums allowed in their entirety when set up as amor- 
tizable funds than when added to capital. Virtually, of 
course, when it is probably impossible to earn enough 
to pay a return on the allowed valuation and to pay off 
installments on amortizable funds the fund to be amor- 
tized is added to capital for the length of time it still 
exists in the accounts of the company. The same end 
is realized, then, in a manner which has much to sup- 
port it as being a more logical plan to present to the 
public, one which will appeal more to men in other 
lines of business who are accustomed to write obsolete 
equipment off of their property accounts and one which, 
to repeat for emphasis, is better public policy. Legally, 
either may be correct. To amortize where possible 
seems better business. 

Material Testing 

Specifications Are Important 

SOME of the advantages to be obtained by the adop- 
tion of standards of materials were given briefly 
at the last meeting of the Society for Testing Materials 
by George S. Webster, the retiring president. The list 
follows: (1) Ease in specifying the quality of the ma- 
terial required; (2) ease in testing materials delivered 
under the specifications through the use of standard 
methods; (3) ease in obtaining standard products; (4) 
an effective means for minimizing controversies over 
purchases of materials, and (5) a feeling of security 
that the materials used are satisfactory as a result of 
the knowledge of how the standard specifications are 
formulated and that they reflect the latest knowledge 
and experience. 

For a number of years this paper has abstracted the 
discussion on specifications of interest to electric rail- 
way engineers at meetings of the American Society for 
Testing Materials, and an account of the action taken 
by the society at the recent meeting at Asbury Park 
appears on another page. The importance of testing 
the various materials used by electric railways is being 
given increased consideration by those responsible, and 
the American Society for Testing Materials has long 
been considered as foremost in formulating specifica- 
tions for this particular branch of engineering. This 
year the society achieved a remarkable performance — 
probably without precedence in its history — by dealing 
with more than 150 specifications. Of these seventy-one 
were new, being presented for the first time and adopted 
as tentative standards, while sixty-three were revised. 
Others were advanced from tentative to standard rank. 
Some forty steel specifications were disposed of in bulk 
by a single ballot. The flatness of this procedure was 
relieved somewhat in the closing session by an animated 
discussion over chilled-iron car wheels. This discussion 
brought out the desirability of chemical limits for car 
wheels and for making wheels safer by requirements 
more severe than those set up by the Master Car Build- 
ers and the American Railroad Association as well as 
those with which the committee on cast iron of the 
American Society for Testing Materials was content. 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


The method of procedure for the various committee re- 
ports and the care used in the adoption of specifications 
by the society are shown in the specifications of concrete 
which are now being formulated. 

At last week's meeting the preliminary report was 
made public and in the form now written it will be cir- 
culated among the members of five contributing socie- 
ties — which means about 16,000 engineers. This report 
will be a subject for discussion among those engineers 
and their committees during this year, and the com- 
mittee of the American Society for Testing Materials 
will then proceed to the writing of the final specifica- 
tions with due consideration of the various points 
brought out in discussion. 

A number of the standing committees of the Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Association are now co-operating 
with committees from the American Society for Testing 
Materials toward bringing into agreement similar speci- 
fications, therefore the work of the society accomplished 
this year is given added interest to electric railway men. 

Reorganization Committee 

Suggests Constructive Program 

AS INDICATED on another page of this issue, the 
. special reorganization committee appointed by 
President Gadsden to make recommendations to the 
executive committee with reference to the reorganiza- 
tion of association headquarters and any other modifi- 
cations of existing activities or rules of the association 
which it thought advisable now has its report in the 
hands of the executive committee in practically final 
form. In order, however, that there shall be "open 
covenants openly arrived at," the committee is making 
public the gist of its recommendations to the executive 
committee before the meeting of the latter committee 
in order that it may have the benefit of comments from 
the field with reference to the recommendations made 
by the reorganization committee. 

The recommendations are constructive. They are all 
an effort to make the association's activities more use- 
ful to the membership — the only reason for the exist- 
ence of the association. It is recognized that the as- 
sociation is a voluntary organization and all that is 
done is to modify the machinery so that, judged from 
past experience, it will run more effectively. That 
considerable revision of the constitution was advis- 
able is not unexpected. The revisions, however, are 
not radical, but only provide those things which lead- 
ing opinion in the industry have felt for some time 
were either necessary or advisable. 

The fact that the executive committee will meet 
monthly if the recommendation is adopted will of itself 
mean more virility in the association and more active 
interest in the conduct of its affairs by its officers. 
That membership modification should be made so as to 
allow in special cases admission of trackless transporta- 
tion systems and to allow management companies, con- 
sulting engineers, investment bankers, etc., to assume a 
formal place in the association is a logical develop- 
ment. Provision for regular standing committees with 
obligation of monthly progress reports should also 
tend to add life to the association activities. 

Of the questions recommended to the executive com- 
mittee for its own consideration, those concerning co- 
operation with the various sectional railway associa- 
tions, those having to do with an adequate geographical 

distribution of the executive committee and other com- 
mittee meetings, as well as geographical representation 
on all the committees, and the one regarding admission 
of municipally owned or operated railways deserve 
consideration by the membership at large. All but the 
last speak for themselves. On this question there is 
bound to be considerable honest divergence of opinion, 
some of which has already developed, but the question 
has been raised and must be met squarely and settled. 
The editors of this paper believe that the association 
and the industry would benefit by permitting such 
municipalities as desired, when they operate their own 
railways, to enter the association and discuss problems 
in which all railways are mutually interested. The 
editors of this paper do not believe that the American 
public is so organized at present as to be able effi- 
ciently to operate transportation systems, but where 
municipalities have taken over the responsibility, it is 
to the interest of the entire electric railway industry 
that the municipalities understand all the problems 
which they have assumed. Furthermore, it is only by 
sitting down at the same table with experienced trans- 
portation men that municipal officers will be able fully 
to appreciate the magnitude of what they have under- 
taken. But on this question the executive committee 
deserves especially to have advice from the industry. It 
is probable that the final discussion on this point will 
not be conducted until after prolonged, and, it is to be 
hoped, intelligent, debate at Atlantic City in October. 

As a whole the report means progress. That the final 
action be word for word in line with the recommenda- 
tion of the committee is immaterial. A frank discus- 
sion of the questions which have been raised and 
action by the association on them is in itself worth 
while and the association will be better for it in the end. 

Covering Up 

Their Deficiencies 

SEATTLE continues to go behind in the operation of 
its municipal railway. The fact sticks out like a 
sore thumb, for Seattle is at present on the cash-and- 
carry basis. Explanations may tend to mitigate the 
feelings aroused by the fact that things are bad with 
the road from the standpoint of earnings, but excuses 
don't remove the evidence. Every month new explana- 
tions for the poor showing have to be thought up. This 
has taxed the ingenuity and strength of the representa- 
tives of the city, but they have not run out of ideas 
entirely. Thus Councilman Erickson has hit upon the 
clever scheme of overcoming this need for establishing 
the monthly alibi by charging a 3-cent fare on the 
lines and meeting out of general taxation the difference 
between the receipts of the road and the cost of opera- 

Apparently, Seattle cannot and will not pay more for 
fare, so that the avenue of escape is closed which that 
procedure might open. If car riders won't pay more, 
then let them pay less. The psychology behind the idea 
is correct from the standpoint of good politics. And 
with the railway supported by the tax rolls the sky of 
course would be the limit on expenditures. The plan 
would seem to be so palpably absurd as to preclude its 
adoption, but then there is no telling to what lengths 
a community will go in continuing to fool itself that 
municipalized its railway in spite of the preponderance 
of evidence against such undertaking. 

82 Electric Railway Journal Vol. 58, No. 3 

Bond Testing Cars 

To Test Bonds at a Faster Rate than Can Be Done with Hand Bond Testers and to 
Provide Automatic Permanent Records of the Test a Car Containing 
the Necessary Instruments Is Most Convenient 

By G. H. McKelway 

Engineer of Distribution Brooklyn (N. Y. ) Rapid Transit Company 

WHEN a car is used for bond testing it is neces- 
sary to insulate the front and rear trucks, or 
front and rear wheels in a single-truck car, 
from each other. With a single-truck car the truck 
must be cut and insulation inserted between the two 
sections. Much better results in maintaining the car, 
although not in testing the bonds, will be obtained from 
a double-truck than a single-truck car as the cutting 
of the frame weakens the latter and permits the two 
ends to sag. 

Either a motor-generator set is necessary to supply 
the current for the test at a low voltage or a resistance 
to reduce the voltage of the current from the trolley 
wire or third rail sufficiently to permit of its being 
used in the test. The motor-generator set or resistance 
should be large enough to supply 800 to 1,000 amp. at 
5 volts, although so large a current will seldom be 
needed and the avei'age amount will be only about one- 
half of the maximum capacity. 

In addition to the motor-generator set there should 
be in the test car a table upon which all of the testing 
instruments can be mounted and grouped so that they 
can be conveniently read by a single operator. The 
instruments should comprise an ammeter and two milli- 
voltmeters, together with apparatus for protecting the 
latter in the case of bad joints which might otherwise 
throw a high voltage across them and burn them out. 
The ammeter measures the current supplied to the test 
circuit by the motor-generator, while the voltmeters 
indicate the drop across the joints as the car passes 
over them, one voltmeter being in position to measure 
the drop across the joints in one rail of the track and 
the other being similarly placed in regard to the other 

The voltmeter circuits are continued to the track 
through brushes which rub on the rails and which are 
spaced 4 or 5 ft. apart so that they will always be cer- 
tain to span the joints no matter how long they may be. 
It is very difficult to pick out and record the locations 
of all of the bad joints by this method, even when the 
car is moving quite slowly, especially if the poorly 
bonded ones are close together. With the car moving 
at a speed of only 5 m.p.h. and with all rails fully 
30 ft. long, the contacts will pass over one joint in each 
rail every four seconds. If the joints happen to be 
staggered, one voltmeter or the other will be swinging 
every two seconds. When a line of bad track is being 
tested the open joints come so frequently that it is 
almost impossible for the locations of all of them to 
be recorded unless the car is stopped occasionally to 
allow the observer time to catch up. If this is done it 
will "drag" the cars behind it and spoil their running 

One way of directly marking bad joints, not so per- 
manent as with the hammer and chisel, but which lasts 
long enough to permit the bonders to find the joints, 
and which does not require stopping the car, is by 
squirting a little white paint on the rail, tie or pave- 

ment as the car passes along. Most of the cars now in 
use are equipped with recording instruments. The 
record shows the condition of the bonds and indicates 
the moment that the bond is passed over. These cars 
are known as "autographic" bond testing cars and are 
the invention of A. B. Herrick. Their equipment, how- 
ever, is so complicated that a perpetual inducement is 
offered to change some of the details in an effort toward 
greater simplicity or less troublesome maintenance. A 
short time ago the writer asked another railway engi- 
neer if there was not a "Herrick" test car on his line. 
The reply was that it was a Herrick car when first 
bought, but did not look much like one now. In fact, 
all of the cars that the writer has seen or heard of 
appear to differ considerably among themselves, 
although the general principles on which they operate 
are the same. 

Autographic Records 

On the autographic cars the record is made on a long 
roll of paper which is unrolled and carried across the 
table, a small motor furnishing the power for operating 
the drive. The strip of paper is 11 in. in width, and 
as it passes five pens, two for each rail and one for 
marking locations, make continuous marks upon it. 
Two of the pens merely mark the zero lines, indicating 
where the millivoltmeter lines would be if there was 
no drop in the rail, while two others are for the purpose 
of locating open joints, which is done by the pen mov- 
ing from side to side whenever the voltage across the 
joint is so high as to make the relay, which protects the 
voltmeter, operate a cut-out. The fifth pen, for mark- 
ing locations, is moved through a switch closed by the 
operator or his assistant whenever the car gets oppo- 
site some point, for instance a house or trolley pole, 
which will serve as a permanent location for the start- 
ing point of measurements to give the exact location 
of the bad points in its vicinity. On one window on 
each side of the car and directly opposite the seat of 
the operator is painted a plain, vertical stripe. When 
the object whose location is to be recorded is covered 
by the stripe the operator presses a key and the pen, 
which has been making a straight line down the center 
of the paper as it moves past, makes a jog. This jog 
is given a number by means of a numbering stamp, 
the numbers of which increase by one each time it is 
used and so numbers the pen jogs consecutively. A 
sheet of paper already numbered is used to record the 
house or pole number, or name of intersecting street 
or something else that will definitely mark the location 
of the car at the time that the pen moved. Where the 
bonds in the track under test are in good condition the 
location points need be taken only occasionally, but the 
worse the track the closer they should become, and with 
bad track 400 or 500 ft. apart is a good spacing dis- 

A toothed wheel revolving in the center of the 
table punctures the paper at intervals, each space be- 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


tween the holes being equivalent to 10 ft. on the track. 
At each tenth hole an additional hole is punched about 
one-quarter of an inch outside of the center so that the 
100-ft. lengths are easily counted and it is not neces- 
sary to count all of the dots representing 10 ft., but 
only those to the nearest 100-ft. mark. 

As the car moves along, the current in the track and 
the current from the motor-generator set cause the volt- 
meter needles to deflect a certain amount, which is com- 
paratively constant, and which shows the difference of 
potential between the two brushes on a piece of un- 
broken rail. The current in the rails due to the opera- 
tion of the cars may be either added to or subtracted 
from that produced by the motor-generator set and 
occasionally the latter should be cut out, by opening 
the switch, in order to see in what direction the current 
in the rails is flowing and its value. 

Record Paper Motor Driven 

In addition to the generator which is used for 
supplying a heavy current at a very low voltage there is 
also a smaller one supplying current at about thirty 
volts, which current is used for the paper drive and also, 

Interior Arrangement and Location 

after passing through a make-and-break device of some 
sort, and through condensers, is used in recording the 
difference of potential between the brushes on the rail. 
One side of this circuit is connected to the voltmeter 
needles which swing over the paper and also over con- 
tacts which are underneath the paper. Between the 
ends of the needles and the contacts below sparks are 
drawn which puncture the paper, each needle making a 
dotted line of little holes which are burnt in the paper 
and which show every swing of the needle and its 
amount except in those cases where the drop is so great 
that the relays have to act to protect the instruments. 
In those cases the little holes will run up to a peak at 
the point where the relay cuts out, and on the pen line 
underneath the peak and near the edge of the paper 
will be found a sharp jog, showing that the joint is 

Although some cars have been operated with only 
two men, a motorman and an operator, yet such an 
arrangement throws so much work on the latter that, 
as a rule, it will pay to use at least one more man in 
order to pick out and record the locations on the sepa- 
rate sheets of paper while the operator stamps the cor- 
responding numbers on the record at the points shown 
by the movement of the pen. In addition to marking the 
locations on the record the operator will make use of 

other stamps reading "special work," "railway cross- 
ing," etc., in order to explain the sudden throws of the 
voltmeter needles not attributable to bad bonds. He 
also stamps "right rail" or "left rail" and "inbound" 
or "outbound," as the case may be, on the record occa- 
sionally so that there will be no mistake in reading the 
record later and, from time to time, he opens the gen- 
erator circuit and tests the direction of the flow of 
current in the rails. This should always be done when 
there is reason to believe that its direction has changed 
as, for instance, just after passing a point where return 
wires or tracks are expected to lead the current to a 
power or substation, and at fairly frequent intervals 

The voltmeters are supplied with two scales, one 
giving a reading about twice as high as the other. By 
making use of the proper scale and regulating the out- 
put of the motor-generator it will always be possible 
to get the record on a fairly large scale and yet not 
have "opens" shown where they should not appear, 
whatever may be the weight of the rails and the condi- 
tion of the joints. 

After the record has been made that portion of the 

of Apparatus in Bond Testing Car 

paper containing it is cut off from the rest of the roll 
and gone over to be put in permanent condition for 
filing and to have the locations of the bad bonds placed 
in more convenient form for handling and carrying 
about in the field, so that the poor joints can receive 
attention as soon as possible. 

The first step is to mark at each of the numbers what 
that number is supposed to indicate, as then no time 
is lost by having to refer to the separate sheets, which 
need be kept no longer as all of the information is then 
on the large roll. These locations can be written on 
with pen and ink, although the neatest way is to type- 
write them at the proper points. Then, having deter- 
mined on the maximum resistance of the joint expressed 
in terms of feet of continuous rail that can pass as 
good, find all of the joints the resistance of which was 
higher than that amount and mark them for rebonding. 
If only the "opens" are to be considered as bad the task 
is comparatively easy, as it is necessary only to follow 
the two pen lines and mark down those places where 
the jogs in the line show that the voltmeters had been 
cut out of circuit. Where the bonding is to be kept in 
better condition and joints of a lower resistance are to 
be rebonded the curves made by the arcs from the volt- 
meter pointers must be closely followed, and whenever 
the height of a peak exceeds the predetermined ratio 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

between that of the joint and the uncut rail the loca- 
tion must be marked for rebonding. 

Some of the papers used for these autographic rec- 
ords are chemically coated so that the minute burns in 
it show up black and can be readily seen, but such 
paper is more difficult to puncture than the plain paper 
and often cannot be obtained. Another method of 
blackening the holes is, after the record has been made, 
to paint the underside of the paper along the general 
lines of the curves with ink or thin water color paint 
so that some of the color will pass through the holes 
and show on the upper surface of the paper. This takes 
additional time and is not reliable as the color does not 
always come through. Probably the best method of 
following the curves is to pass the record before a light 
and have the light shine through the little holes. This 
can be done either by holding the record up in front of 
a window or, better still, by passing it over a box in 
which is contained an incandescent lamp or lamps. 

Tabulating Records for Foremen 

In order accurately to locate the bad joints for the 
bonders, their locations are generally copied on sheets 
of paper, which are given to the foreman in charge. A 
well-planned sheet of this type is printed with spaces 
to be filled in, giving at the top the name of the street, 
the streets between which the test was made and the 
date of the test. Below are columns in which to locate 
the joint as a certain number of feet in a given direc- 
tion from an easily found point; the direction of traffic 
on the track, if there is more than one track on the 
street; whether on the right or left rail of that track; 
the date repairs were made, and the type of bond used 
in making the repairs. By the use of such a sheet not 
only does the bonding foreman receive all of the infor- 
mation that he requires but, when he returns the sheet 
after finishing the work, the office has a complete record 
of all of the bad joints and when and how they were 

The records made by the testing car should be valu- 
able, not only at the time of making the test, to point 
out the bad bonds, but also as legal evidence in case of 
any suit brought on account of the alleged defective 
condition of the bonding. The writer has found, how- 
ever, an unwillingness on the part of several lawyers 
to make use of the records in such cases, as they feared 
that the height of the peaks of the curves would be 
misunderstood by the non-technical members of the 
jury, who would not be able to understand that what 
appeared to them to be very sudden sharp rise in 
potential would, in fact, be only a very few millivolts 
and therefore negligible in considering the question 
before the court. It would seem, however, that such 
records could be used very effectively in some cases if 
the curves were carefully explained, in a manner that 
all could understand, by some one who knew just what 
the records showed and could bring out those points to 
the best advantage. 

During this year the Grosse Berliner Strassenbahn, 
the tramway system in Berlin, celebrates the fiftieth 
anniversary of its founding. Long operated by a private 
corporation, the system has recently been taken over by 
the municipality and consolidated with the other sur- 
face lines in Greater Berlin, so that it now serves all 
parts of that district, which embraces about 5,000,000 
inhabitants. The property itself consists of 1,250 km. 
(800 miles) of track. 

Factors Affecting Electrification 

COMMENTING upon the elaborate analysis of elec- 
trification conditions on the Northwestern Railway 
of India, which has been running in its columns for 
some time, the Railway Engineer, London, calls atten- 
tion editorially to some of the points that have been 
brought out. These illustrate the importance of a 
knowledge both of electrical engineering and of rail- 
way working in making a decision on the electrification 

The editorial states that the author of the 
article in question shows that for the same adhesion 
weight electric locomotives can be designed to develop 
two or even three times the power of the heaviest 
steam locomotive in India. By articulating the design, 
the number of driving axles could be multiplied indefi- 
nitely with the same permissible axle weight and it 
would be possible to put a 3,000-hp. electric locomotive 
on the Northwestern which could run anywhere where 
two coupled or doubled engines of the 0-6-0 standard 
type can now run and would be capable of hauling loads 
five times as heavy. 

The large number of heavy grades on the North- 
western are an extremely important factor in the elec- 
trification problem. The present and previous articles 
show that electrification will pay on many lines with 
heavy grades where for the same traffic on the level it 
would be out of the question. On a 4 per cent grade 
the electric locomotives can do at least 40 per cent 
more work than a steam locomotive with the same ex- 
penditure in energy. To this must be added the econ- 
omy resulting from regenerative working, which also 
saves rail and brakeshoe wear. It is said by the engi- 
neers that on the Giovi tunnel line near Genoa the 
rail saving was enough to pay the whole interest on 
the cost of power station and transmission line. The 
enormous increase in the cost of coal and repairs has 
more than offset the increased cost of electrical appa- 
ratus, and the Railway Engineer expresses the belief 
that it will be found by those engineers who have the 
time to make a really accurate study of the conditions 
obtaining today on many lines that the changed condi- 
tions often make electrification worth much more 
serious consideration than before the war. As for the 
capital outlay, the difficulties here are apt to be less- 
ened when the directors are really convinced of the 
savings which can be effected through the application 
of electricity to heavy traction. 

Toronto Retains Odd Gage 

CONTRARY to what was popularly expected, accord- 
ing to the Canadian Engineer, the 4-ft. 11-in. gage 
at present existing on the lines of the Toronto Railway, 
Pacific Railway and the MacKenzie Radials, with the 
exception of the Metropolitan, will be retained by the 
Toronto Transportation Commission when it co-ordinates 
and rehabilitates the several systems within the city. 
The Commission felt that a change of gage, the esti- 
mated cost of which had been figured at $1,500,000, 
showed no immediate advantage and would be likely to 
increase the operating difficulties until the work was 
completed. One point which swayed the Commission in 
reaching its decision was that outside systems will not 
be able to get running rights over Toronto tracks, as. 
their cars would be of the wrong gage. It is said this 
was why the odd gage was originally chosen for the 
Toronto system. 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Testing Insulating Materials — II 

Aging and Weather Tests Are Important to the Users of Railway Insulating Materials as 
They Show What Life Can Reasonably Be Expected and the 
Deteriorating Effects that Result 

By John S. Dean 

Railway Motor Engineering Department, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 

It Is Essential That Specimens for the Dielectric Test Are Properly Treated 

IN AN article published in the May 21 issue of the 
Electric Railway Journal some strength and 
dielectric tests of treated and untreated insulating 
materials were described. In the following, attention 
will be given to tests showing the effects of heat, acids, 
oil, weather, etc., on treated materials, together with 
various essential tests on composite materials. 

Aging Test of Flexibility 

To determine the ability of a varnish to retain its 
flexibility under the action of continued heat such as 
is found in a railway motor in service, the only appa- 
ratus required is a suitable baking oven fitted with a 
high-reading thermometer or an indicating or record- 
ing pyrometer. Test specimens consist of strips of 
sample cloth cut 6 in. x 3 in. which are given several 
dippings of the varnish to be tested. A space is left 
untreated at the top of the samples to record the test 

Four samples are prepared and placed in an oven 
which is maintained at a temperature of 100 deg. C. 
The samples are removed one at the end of 100 hours, 
the second at the end of 200 hours, the third at the end 
of 250 hours and the fourth at the end of 300 hours. 

These samples are then tested by folding or bending 
over rods of different diameters and noting the smallest 
diameter around which they may be formed without 

A test specimen which after baking 300 hours at 100 
deg. C. and allowed to cool to room temperature can 
be folded and creased without showing any indications 
of cracking is considered very satisfactory. 

In the operation of railway motors, due to careless 

and in some cases too frequent oiling of the bearings, 
excess oil finds its way inside the motor frames. In 
this connection it is important that the varnish used 
for insulating purposes should not be affected by this 
oil, and to this end it is advisable to use an oil-proof 
grade of varnish. To make an oil-proof test samples of 
cloth are prepared similar to those used in connection 
with the aging test, and after being thoroughly baked 
they are placed in a mineral-oil bath, which is held at 
a temperature of approximately 60 deg. C. for several 
days. If the varnish on the treated sample shows no 
signs of softening or becoming tacky, this is an indica- 
tion that it is proof against the action of the oil. A 
similar test can be quickly made on the baked treated 
samples of cloth by rubbing them with oily waste. 
Under these conditions, if the varnish is oil-proof, it 
will not soften and cannot be rubbed off the surface 
of the cloth. The acid, alkali and salt-water test is 
made on insulating varnishes used in treating coils, 
etc., to determine ability to withstand their action. 

Tests for Oil, Acid, Alkali and Salt Water 

To make the test a large rectangular glass jar is 
fitted with a wood rack and a number of metal test 
rods and a testing circuit with a light in series is 
arranged. Test specimens consist of l-in. round steel 
rods 12 in. long, well rounded at the lower end, which 
are given a uniform coating of varnish 2i mils thick 
baked on the entire surface to within several inches 
of the top of the test rod. In preparing these test 
specimens the bare rods are first thoroughly cleaned 
and dipped in the sample of varnish and baked. This 
operation is repeated not less than three times, and 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

sometimes more, depending upon the fluidity of the 
varnish in order to get the desired 24 mils thickness of 
film which is specified for this test. The treated test 
rods are then placed in the rack which insulates indi- 
vidual rods and are suspended in the acid, alkali or 
salt-water solution contained in the glass jar. During 

Paints and Varnishes Are Subjected To Actual 
Weathering Tests 

the first four hours of the test an alternating current 
from a 110-volt circuit with a light in series is applied 
every fifteen minutes through the terminals one of 
which is connected to the liquid solution and the other 
is applied to the individual test rods for a short in- 
terval of time to locate any breakdowns. After this 
set of short-time readings is taken similar tests are 
made each morning and evening until the insulation 
breaks down or the test has run its specified time limit. 
In connection with these tests either a saturated acid, 
alkaline or salt-water solution is used, depending upon 
the nature of the test. The final results are repre- 
sented by the average on three test rods of each grade 
of varnish. 

The amber insulator used in connection with the dip- 
ping and baking of railway motor armatures when 
tested under the above conditions shows an average of 
880 hours in a saturated solution of salt water. 

Cementing and Sticking Qualities of Varnish 
To determine the ability of a dipping varnish to 
cement the treated coil into a solid, tough, elastic mass, 
which will be strong mechanically as well as electrically, 
a sample coil is wound up, using about No. 20 B. & S. 
gage double-cotton-covered wire, is given two dips of 
the test varnish and is then baked for 300 hours at a 
temperature of 100 deg. C. The coil is then removed 
from the oven and inspected for its toughness and elas- 
ticity as compared with a similar coil that has not been 

In order to improve the distribution of the heat which 
is generated in the various parts of the winding of a 
motor it is essential to use a varnish with good heat 
conduction and radiation properties, to insure a more 
uniform temperature of the motor under service condi- 

To test for heat conduction and radiation two coils 
are wound up with the same size of wire and the 
same number of turns, identical in every respect. One 
of these is treated with the varnish and baked, while 
the other is left untreated. These coils are connected 
in series and the resistance at room temperature is 

carefully measured by means of a Wheatstone bridge- 
testing set. A current is then passed through these 
two coils in series, resistance measurements are taken 
of each coil at stated intervals of time and tempera- 
tures are calculated from the increase in resistance. 
The difference in temperature of these two coils is an 
indication of the heat-conducting and radiating prop- 
erties of the test varnish. 

It is necessary to know something about the time 
and temperature required thoroughly to dry or bake out 
the insulating varnish. To get the best results with 
the least possible delay to production, samples of cloth 
or tin are dipped in the air-drying varnish and are 
hung up in the open. The time required to dry is 
noted and recorded. In testing the baking varnishes, 
the test samples after being dipped in the varnish 
are placed in the oven and baked at a constant tem- 
perature for a definite period until thoroughly dried. 
The temperature is then increased and the time noted. 
In this manner a number of tests are made with vary- 
ing temperatures through a range of from 90 to 120 
deg. C, noting the time required to bake thoroughly. 
The maximum temperature which will not damage the 
texture of paper or cloth to be treated is taken, as this 
temperature will expedite the production in the factory. 

It is also very important to know just how certain 
paints and varnishes resist the action of weather under 
varying conditions, and to determine this a weather 
rack, such as shown, is constructed and placed on the 
roof of one of the shop buildings. On this rack the 
various treated samples are securely suspended and 
exposed to all weather conditions over a long period 
of time and are carefully inspected at stated intervals 
of time to determine their deterioration. These ob- 
servations are recorded and comparisons made of the 
condition of the various samples of paints and varnishes 
under test. 

Adhesion Test for Friction Tape 

To determine the adhesion or sticking properties 
of friction tape and cloth, which is very important 
with this kind of material, an adhesion testing machine 

Important That Insulating Varnishes Withstand Action 
of Acids, Alkali and Salt Water 

especially designed for testing friction tape is used. It 
consists primarily of an upright support having a small 
swivel clamp which is connected to the pencil on a 
Thompson steam indicator through a system of levers. 
The lower clamp, which holds the test roll of tape, is 
connected to the cylinder on the Thompson indicator 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


and is driven in a vertical direction through a worm 
drive by a small electric motor. 

The test specimens are cut 22 in. long from standard 
rolls of friction tape. In the testing of friction cloth 
the strips are made 1 in. wide, cut from the rolls of 

The 22-in. specimen of test tape is rolled up on a 
test spool under a uniform tension of 5 lb. The test 
spool is then placed in the lower clamp of the machine, 
free to turn, while the free end of the tape is attached 
to the upper clamp. With a chart in place on the 
cylinder of the Thompson indicator and the pencil 
adjusted, the driving motor is started. This unwinds 
the tape at a uniform rate of speed, registering the 
pull due to the adhesion of the tape on the rotating 
chart. The readings in pounds are taken from ten 
uniformly spaced points on the chart and averaged. 
This test is repeated on a similar sample after the 
tape has been baked for sixteen hours at a temperature 
of 100 deg. C. The loss in adhesion, due to aging by 
heat, changes with different grades of tape. In general, 
it will vary from 35 to 50 per cent, depending upon 
the quality. 

Paper treated on one side with shellac or bakelite 
varnish and used in the manufacture of micarta tubes, 
sheets, etc., should stick together thoroughly when 
subjected to heat and pressure during the process of 

Special detail apparatus, consisting of two electrically 
heated irons with controlling rheostat to regulate the 
heat and a 300-deg. C. thermometer for measuring the 
temperature of the heated irons is used for the test. 

The test specimens are cut 21 in. wide and 12 in. 
long and are taken from the rolls of paper during the 
process of treatment. The test strip of paper is folded 
lengthwise, with the treated sides together, and pressed 
between the two electrically heated irons, which are 
held at a temperature of 105 deg. C. The crease is 
placed between the two irons with the two free ends 
extending out from underneath the irons. To the lower 
free ends is attached a 30-gram weight, while the upper 

Built-Up Mica and Paper Subjected To a Dielectric Test 
Before Given Final Gaging Test 

one is held to the side of the iron. After thirty seconds' 
application, or pressing, the top iron with the free end 
of the test specimen is lifted, allowing the treated 
surface of the test strip to be pulled apart due to the 
action of the 30-gram weight suspended from the lower 
free end. The adhesive property of the test specimen 

is gaged by the amount of separation at the treated 
surfaces as measured on one side of the folded test 

This method of testing gives comparative results 
only and is a check on the uniformity of the treated 
material. Under these conditions a piece of treated 

Mica for Railway Motor Commutators Is Tested for 
Uniform Thickness 

paper used to make micarta tubes, etc., as used for 
insulation on railway motor parts, will show a separa- 
tion of from % to li in. 

Treating Test Specimens 

In connection with the preparation cf samples of 
treated cloth and paper for the dielectric test it is very 
important that the untreated materials be given a uni- 
form and even coating of the varnish. This makes it 
necessary to draw the samples through the varnish at a 
slow uniform speed so as to eliminate any variation 
of the coating on the surface of the treated samples 
which are being prepared for test purposes. The appa- 
ratus used consists of a motor-driven hoist, to which 
the sample test sheets are attached and pulled through 
the test sample of varnish. 

The sample varnish, which is poured into the glass 
jar, is diluted to have the same specific gravity as is 
used in the factory and is kept at room temperature. 
The test sheets of untreated material, which are cut 
6 in. square, after being thoroughly dried out, are 
attached to the hoisting mechanism and drawn through 
the varnish at a uniform rate of about 14 in. per 
minute, after which the samples are baked in an oven 
for a certain number of hours at a definite fixed tem- 
perature, which depends upon the grade and quality of 
varnish being tested. Amber insulator samples require 
baking at from six to eight hours at 110 deg. C. From 
two to four dips are given all samples and in making 
successive dips the direction of drawing the sample 
through the varnish is reversed to insure uniformity. 
All test samples are gaged with a micrometer before 
treatment and after final treatment in order accurately 
to determine the thickness of the coating of the varnish 
on the test specimens, which should be approximately 
3i mils total for both surfaces. 

To determine ,the dielectric value of sheet insulat- 
ing materials in their original plain uncreased form 
a high voltage (at least of 1 kw. capacity) transformer 
is used. This is provided with a number of taps 
and is arranged for voltage control using a regulator 
so designed that the circuit is not broken between 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

steps. Two circuit breakers,, one on each side of the 
low-voltage line, and a voltmeter are required. A test- 
ing board is fitted with two short brass terminal rods 
2 in. in diameter, having the edges on one face well 
rounded. One of these terminals is permanently 
mounted upon the baseboard and the other is hinged 
to the board and so located as to rest on top of the 
fixed terminal when swung in position on the test sheet. 

Test specimens cut 8 in. wide and 2 ft. long are 
taken from the treated rolls and should be selected 
free from defects such as creases or rough lumpy sur- 
faces. The test sheet is placed between the two brass 
test terminals so adjusted that each terminal makes 
a good face contact with the material. The test volt- 
age is raised rapidly and steadily and the reading 
of the meter is noted when breakdown occurs. While 
making this test care must be taken that a puncture 
and not a flash over the surface is obtained. The 
average of five or ten breakdowns is taken as the final 
dielectric test of the sample. 

To determine the amount of moisture that a treated 
sample of cloth or paper will absorb under conditions 
of exposure to 
water, the sam- 
ple, which con- 
sists of a section 
of the treated 
material 6 in. 
square, is care- 
fully weighed 
and then im- 
mersed in a jar 
of water and 
kept at room 
temperature for 
t w e n t y-f our 
hours, after 
which it is re- 
moved and all 
surface water 
wiped off with a 
dry cloth. The 
sample is again 
weighed. The 
percentage of 

moisture absorbed is then figured by dividing the differ- 
ence between the weight of the sample before immer- 
sion. Immediately after the moisture test has been 
made the test sample is given a dielectric test to deter- 
mine its relative dielectric strength before and after 

It has been found that a good grade of treated 
cambric such as used for railway motor insulation will 
absorb from 3 to 4 per cent of moisture under these 
conditions. This same sample of treated cambric will 
show a dielectric test before immersion of 9,440 volts 
and after immersion of 1,780 volts. 

In making the above dielectric tests two samples 
are used, one for the "before immersion tests," the 
other for the "after immersion tests." These values 
represent an average of five breakdown tests, which are 
made at different points on the surface of each test 

To insure a uniform thickness of the built-up mica 
used principally in the manufacture of railway motor 
commutators a metal surface plate on which is mounted 
an indicating micrometer is used. The jaws of this 
plate are actuated by means of a quick-acting lever. 

Even the Adhesive Properties of Friction 
Tape Are Determined 

The readings are indicated by a needle on a uniformly 
divided scale on a large upright mounted dial con- 
veniently located so that it can be read easily by the 

The test specimens are commutator mica segments 
and sheets used to make commutator V-rings and bush- 
ings. The material to be tested is placed on the surface 
plate and is drawn by the operator between the open 
jaws of the micrometer, while at the same time the 
controlling lever is prassed down with a uniform pres- 
sure, bringing the face of the jaws on the mica board 
and registering the thickness in thousandths of an inch 
on the dial. The operation is repeated a number of 
times over the surface of the sheet, and in general 
if material varies more than one-thousandth of an inch 
above or below standard gage it is rejected. Commu- 
tator segments that are 0.0005 in. over or under size 
are rejected. 

All built-up mica sheets used in connection with the 
above work and before they are given this final gaging 
test are subjected to a light test by placing the sheets 
on a large pane of glass backed up by brilliant illumina- 
tion, where they are carefully inspected for foreign 
particles and light spots. In this manner all impuri- 
ties are removed from the sheets and the light spots 
are reinforced and built up, thus securing a clean, 
uniform product. 

Mica cells for insulating railway motor field and 
armature coils are tested in order to weed out the 
defective sections due to poor workmanship and mate- 
rial. The apparatus used is a special testing machine 
built by the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company. The roll of composite material is mounted 
at one end of the machine as shown and as it unrolls 
the sheet passes over a plate and under two rows of 
spring-supported contact fingers about \ in. apart which 
are staggered, so that they cover the entire width of 
the sheet as it is fed through the machine. The mate- 
rial is subjected to a voltage test ranging from 1,000 
to 10,000 volts, depending upon the grade of the mate- 
rial being tested, by connecting one side of the test 
circuit to the plate of the machine and the other to the 
sliding contact fingers. When a defect in the sheet is 
located by the material being punctured by the high- 
voltage test the machine automatically stops. The 
defect is plainly stenciled and the machine is again 
put in operation. This test insures the selection of a 
good grade of material for winding coils free from 
electrical defects and able to stand the final high- 
voltage test given the completed motor before shipment. 

To eliminate the defects in connection with the com- 
mercial production of treated materials an experimental 
treating tower is used to treat materials on a larger 
scale than is possible by using strictly laboratory meth- 
ods. This tower, which is under the direct supervision 
of the research laboratory experts, consists of a motor- 
driven series of rolls over which the material is drawn 
at from 10 to 40 in. per minute and is fitted with a 
combination of treating vats so arranged as to coat the 
material on either one or both sides, depending upon 
the requirements to be met in the factory. The tower 
is provided with a steam-heated chamber, the tem- 
perature of which can readily be adjusted and controlled 
to secure the range of baking temperatures, which will 
vary with the different grades of baking varnishes used 
in the treatment of the cloths and paper. This tower 
has greatly facilitated the commercial productions of 
the various grades of treated paper or cloth. 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Preparing for Pageant of Progress 

Extensive Terminal Facilities Have Been Built at the Municipal Pier in Chicago by the 
Chicago Surface Lines to Handle the Large Crowds Which Are 
Expected July 30 to Aug. 14 

CHICAGO is to have a Pageant of Progress on 
July 30 to Aug. 14 which is expected to approach 
a World's Fair for exhibits and interest. It is to 
be held on the mile-long Municipal Pier, used pri- 
marily for shipping purposes but including at its outer 
end a large recreational center. The entire upper level 
and outer end of the pier are to be used in the pageant. 

The Chicago Surface Lines built an extension to its 
Grand Avenue line at the time the pier was erected, 
extending the tracks out to the far end of the pier to 
serve directly the people using the recreation center. 
These tracks were built on the upper level of the pier, 
one track on either side with a loop at the outer end, 
and another loop at the land end of the pier for short- 
routing in winter. In making arrangements for the 
pageant, the city authorities desired to have the com- 
plete use of the upper level of the pier and therefore 
required the Surface Lines to remove its tracks from 
the upper level and re-lay them through the center of 
the lower level or main driveway. The entire work of 
tearing up the track and rebuilding it, largely from the 
same materia!s, on the lower level was completed in 
twenty-eight days, including the construction of ex- 
tensive additional terminal facilities at the approach to 
the pier. Altogether 21 miles of track were laid, most 
of which was of the open-type construction. 

In the construction of the tracks extensive use was 
made of machines to save labor and speed up the work. 
Three electric shovels were simultaneously employed. 
The first took up the asphalt which was hauled away. 

The second excavated the crushed stone used under- 
neath the paving and placed it along one side of the 
trench for reuse. The third shovel then dug out the 
trench to the subgrade. Steam rollers were used to 
roll the subgrade and the 8 in. of crushed stone placed 
underneath the ties. 

The 100-lb. T-rail and the wood ties were expedi- 
tiously transferred from the old to the new location 
by simply sliding them down ramps. The gravel ballast 
which had been used under the ties on the upper level 
was transferred to the lower level by shoveling into 
rough troughs which carried it to the edge of the lower 
track trench. Except for the fact that this transfer 
of gravel ballast took place on a rainy day, which 
changed the angle of repose of the material, it would 
have been possible to discharge the ballast directly into 
the lower trench. As it was, however, the pitch of the 
trough had to be steepened and the ballast discharged 
along the side of the trench, whence it was distributed. 
An Ingersoll four-tool air tamper, a Buda two-tool 
direct-current electrical tamper and a Jackson two-tool 
alternating-current electrical tamper were used in 
tamping the tracks. 

The type of track construction used on the pier is 
largely shown in the cross-section in the accompanying 
drawing. The six-bolt Weber joints used on the upper 
level were reused below. Pin-type bonds were used and 
were placed under the fish plates in the open tracks and 
outside the fish plates where the track was to be paved. 

Terminal facilities for this track extending out on 


Indicates present tracks 
" proposed " 
" future extensions 

hading \\ J\unloadind fence 6' high! } unloading 

Cross Section E * E Looking East 

_ Tie plates 


E. Illinois 

I* Fare booths 


Layout of New Track at Chicago's Municipal Pier, Which Pro lies Three Terminals for Handling Crowds 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. ,3 

H A 

'The Street Car Tracks Were Removed from the Upper Level 
to the Center of the Lower Level 
.... of the Pier 

the Municipal Pier were provided by widening out the 
devil strip, stub-ending both tracks and providing a 
double crossover at the approach to the terminal. Each 
of these track ends has a capacity for five cars and the 
double crossover will make it possible to route the cars 
into either stub. Unloading will take place on one 
side of either track while the loading takes place on 
the opposite side. 

On the upper level tracks the trolley was supported 
directly on steel brackets attached to the building and 
extending out over the tracks. When the overhead 
for the new track on the lower level was erected the 
old trolley wire was taken down, and these same brack- 
ets were used to support long span wires extending 
across the center driveway to the bracket opposite on 
the other building. The double trolley was suspended 
from these cross spans, over the lower level tracks. 
These span wires are about 100 ft. long but are under 
very little strain, as there is so much sag. Standard 
ft-in. stranded steel span wire was used. A wood strain 
insulator at the bracket, another adjacent to the trolley, 
and the trolley ear, provide triple insulation. This over- 
head construction is shown in accompanying views. 

In addition to the stub-end terminal facilities at the 
outer end of the pier, the terminal capacity of the 
Grand Avenue line, which has served the pier alone 
heretofore, was greatly increased by the building of a 
long and short loop in front of the pier. This will be 
used particularly during the pageant, as the crowd, in 
order to see the exhibits, will leave the cars at the shore 
end of the pier and walk down one side to the far end 

Looking Down the Center of the Pier. The View Shows New 
Track Under Construction and Method of 
Suspending Overhead 

and back on the other side. This will bring the prin- 
cipal loading and unloading requirements at the shore 
end of the pier. The short loop in the new terminal 
will be used when there is light traffic and the long loop 
only when traffic is heavy. Under heavy traffic condi- 
tions the cars will stop for unloading at the space 
indicated for that purpose on the accompanying draw- 
ing and then pull up to a new stop for loading. 

The capacity of the surface lines to handle the ex- 
pected crowds was also materially increased by extend- 
ing the Chicago Avenue line down the lake shore and 
terminating it in a large loop in front of the pier. 
This track extends in the parkway adjacent to Lake 
Shore Drive for a distance of five blocks along the lake 
shore and is the only piece of track the Surface Lines 
has immediately adjacent to Lake Michigan. This track 
is almost entirely of open-type construction, employing 
center poles for the overhead along the parkway. It 
is planned to install cashiers' booths with fare registers 
or turnstiles and establish a prepayment area or sell 
tickets to speed up the loading. 

They Crowd Them in Italy 

visiting Italian delegation of engineers, provided 
the illustrations from which the two accompanying half- 
tones were made. In presenting these for publication 
for American readers, Marquis Cusani remarked that 
this would give proof that the United States was not 
the only place where it has become necessary to load 
street cars to their ultimate limit. 

"Compression Des Voyageurs/-' as the French Express This Italian Scene 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Railway Motor-Generators in Winnipeg Rebuilt 

Three Old Direct-Current Generators and Two Alternators Direct Connected to Corliss Engines, Already 
in the Shadow of the Scrap Heap, Reassembled Into Two Motor-Generator 
Sets — Additional Capacity Has Been Obtained 

By W. Nelson Smith 

Consulting Engineer Winnipeg Electric Railway 

One 800-kw. alternator in the center operating as a synchronous motor driving two 400-kw. 
direct-current generators for three-wire service. 

IN AN article published in the Electric Railway 
Journal for March 26, 1921, the writer describes 
the rearrangement of the substation equipment and 
the trolley distribution system of the Winnipeg Electric 
Railway. In the course of changing from two-wire to 
three-wire operation, for the purpose of electrolysis 
mitigation, additional motor-generator equipment 
became necessary. The prices asked and the time 
required for delivery by manufacturers during 1918 and 
1919 were so unsatisfactory, however, that we made a 
study of the possibilities of converting some old station 
equipment to this new use and succeeded in accomplish- 
ing the desired results within the required time and 
with a small expenditure of additional capital. 

The steam plant that had constituted the original 
source of the company power supply, located on Assini- 
boine Avenue, was permanently closed down in the 
spring of 1918. It dated back to 1898 or earlier and 
was fitted entirely with engine-type generating units, 
both alternating and direct current. The alternating- 
current units had been superseded since 1911 by a 
modern turbine power station which relays the hydro- 
electric system that has supplied nearly all the com- 
pany's power since 1906. The old direct-current steam 
units had since been used only on rare occasions, such 
as heavy blizzards. 

The engine-type direct-current generators comprised 
one 850- and two 400-kw. machines, the latter shown in 
an accompanying illustration in their original condition 
in the old generating station. The former ran at 85 
r.p.m. and the two smaller machines at 100 r.p.m. 

Among the engine-type alternators there were two 800- 
kw. machines operating at 90 r.p.m. The fact that 
the speeds of the direct-current units were so near those 
of the alternating-current units immediately suggested 
the possibility of yoking them up together, with one 
800-kw. alternator driving the 850-kw. railway genera- 
tor, and the other 800-kw. alternator driving the two 
400-kw. generators as a three-unit machine. There was 
no doubt that an 85-r.p.m. railway machine would 
generate 575 to 600 volts when run at 90 r.p.m., and a 
test performed for the purpose showed that each of the 
400-kw. railway machines could generate 575 volts at 
90 r.p.m. With these facts established, it appeared 
feasible to create an addition to the motor-generator 
equipment of the company to the extent of at least 1,600 
nominal kilowatts out of equipment on hand. The 
engineering problem was thus reduced to the mechanical 
design and assembly of these machines as motor- 
generators, on suitable shafts and bearings. The new 
substation at St. Boniface was then being constructed, 
and provision was being made for space for a railway 
motor-generator to take care of the trolley lines east of 
the Red River. It was thought worth while to recon- 
struct a three-unit machine for the substation out of 
the two 400-kw. generators and one 800-kw. alternator. 

The old engines on which the two 400-kw. machines 
were mounted were of the cross-compound Corliss type. 
One of them was of so old a pattern that the engine 
frames and the pillow blocks were in separate pieces 
bolted together, and this suggested utilizing the two 
engine pillow blocks as the center bearings of the three- 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

unit machine, between which the alternator would be 
mounted as a motor. A pattern of a ring-oiling bear- 
ing was found in a local foundry which proved to be 
easily adaptable for the two outboard bearings required. 
The shaft from the oldest Corliss engine was found to 

Corliss engine-driven units in the old generating station, one of 
two 400-kw. direct-current units in the foreground, and one 850- 
kw. direct-current unit in the background. 

be just long enough to provide shafts for mounting the 
direct-current generator armatures, after being cut in 
half. It remained to find a suitable central shaft on 
which to mount the rotor of the alternator which was 
now to be turned into a motor. An old engine shaft 
was discovered at another machine shop, which was just 
large enough so far as its strength was concerned, 
though not sufficiently large in diameter to fit the hub of 
the alternator rotor which had been fitted to a 22-in. 
engine shaft. This fit was accom- 
plished by providing a heavy cast-iron 
bushing, and the remaining necessary 
elements were two cast-steel face coup- 
lings and the necessary keys, with 
some smaller cast-steel bushings for 
filling out certain places on the gener- 
ator shafts that were too small for the 
direct-current armature fits. How 
these elements were all assembled to 
create the newly reconstructed three- 
unit machine is shown in an accom- 
panying illustration, and another view 
shows the finished machine operating 
in the substations. 

The order of operation was as fol- 
lows: The flywheel of the oldest Cor- 
liss engine connected to a 400-kw. 
direct-current generator was taken off 
the shaft, the crank disks pulled off 
and the old engine frames separated 
from the pillow blocks. The armature 
of the generator was then pressed off 
the shaft, and the latter was sent to 
the machine shop to be cut in two, turned up for coup- 
ling seats and journals and fitted with the necessary 
bushings and keys for completing the altered armature 
fits. The other Corliss engine was of more modern 
design, and it was thought best to save it for possible 
sale, so that the shaft was dismantled, one crank disk 
was pulled off and the armature was removed. 

When the two new armature shafts were ready they 
were brought back to the power plant, each with its 
half-coupling and the necessary keys, and the two direct- 
current armatures were then pressed on. Meantime the 
central piece of shafting was also fitted with the heavy 
bushing of 22 in. external diameter for the hub of the 
rotor of one of the 800-kw. alternators, the cast steel 
bushings for forming new journal bearings upon it, and 
the other halves of the couplings. The new outboard 
bearings were then completed and all the parts, bear- 
ings, shafts, armatures and fields taken to the sub- 
station and assembled. All the machine-shop operations 
consumed about two and one half months and the field 
work of mechanical and electrical assembly at the sub- 
station took about two months. The mounting of the 
alternator rotor upon the motor shaft was quite simple, 
because the rotor is built in halves bolted together and 
therefore did not require a press fit. 

No bedplate was thought necessary for holding this 
machine in alignment. The stationary parts are very 
heavy and are bolted down to separate foundation piers 
which are joined together at the bottom by masses of 
concrete and at the top by the reinforced-concrete floor. 
The machine foundation piers all rest on a single con- 
crete slab about 32 ft. long, 22 ft. wide and 1 ft. thick, 
reinforced with old 60-lb. rails. 

The exciter for the field of the alternator is a 30-kw. 
slow-speed machine, which had formerly been belted 
through a pulley on the engine shaft. In the new sub- 
station this exciter is driven through an inclosed silent 
chain by a 40-hp. induction motor. 

The old pillow blocks are fitted with the four-part 
babbitted bearings and adjusting wedges with which 
they were originally provided, so that close adjustment 
is possible. The two new outboard ring-oiling bearings 
are adjustable vertically by means of shims and horizon- 
tally by means of adjusting bolts. 

r~ -27-10-- 

New outboar0_ 
bearing " 


X=C./. bushing shrunk on 
shaft to complete 
Armature fits 

' 'New outboard 





The bearings of the old Corliss engine were used for center bearings, and two 
new bearings ordered for outboard bearings. The old Corliss engine shaft cut in two 
served for the two direct-current machines. A second-hand shaft was found for the 
alternator. Cast-iron bushings of suitable diameter were shrunk on these shafts to 
fit the bore of the three machines, and steel bushings were used to enlarge the shaft 
and provide new journal surfaces in the center bearings. Note the concrete pedestals 
or pads necessary to bring the bearings and machines in correct alignment. 

The machine went into permanent operation about 
Sept. 1, 1919, and has since given very satisfactory 
service excepting for a period of several weeks during 
the summer of 1920, when one of the main pillow-block 
bearings burned out, owing to a failure of the lubrica- 

The two generators when running in parallel operate 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


together much better now than they ever did when they 
were mounted on separate steam engines in the old 
steam plant. Occasionally they run two-wire, but the 
usual operation is three-wire with the generators in 

The success of this reconstructed motor-generator set 
was sufficiently marked to justify the conversion of the 
two remaining engine-type machines into a two-unit 
motor-generator. It was therefore decided to scrap the 
1,200-hp. Corliss engine which had been driving the 
850-kw. direct-current generator, excepting its arma- 
ture shaft and main bearings. Careful measurement 
had indicated that if the flywheel, eccentrics and crank 
disks were removed from the engine shaft there would 
be just room enough in the space formerly occupied by 
the flywheel to mount the rotor of the second 800-kw. 
alternator and at the same time provide sufficient space 
in the pit for shifting the alternator stator to uncover 
either field or armature for inspection or repairs. 
Fortunately, this could be done without moving the 
heavy direct-current armature from its position on the 
shaft, for it is about 10 ft. in diameter, weighs some- 
thing like 36 tons and had required a force estimated 
at 400 tons to press it on the shaft. The shaft and 
bearings being therefore on hand and all made to size, 
the mechanical operations were simple and consisted in 
cutting away all unnecessary metal from the heavy 
cast-iron engine-frame housings in which the main 
pillow-block bearings were set; taking off the 50-ton 
flywheel with the eccentrics and crank disks ; cutting a 
new keyway for the hub of the alternator rotor; pro- 

60-in. pulley for the belt drive to the exciter. The 
remainder of the engine was sold for junk. 

The layout of this assembly, excepting the exciter 
drive, is shown in one of the illustrations herewith, and 
another shows the complete unit including the exciter. 


The 850-kw. direct-current generator, its shaft and bearings 
were left untouched. The flywheel and other parts of the Corliss 
engine were removed from the shaft and replaced by the rotor of 
one of the 800-kw. alternators, with a suitable cast-iron bushing 
to fit the rotor bore. Note the concrete pedestals or pads neces- 
sary to bring the direct-current machine and the bearings in the 
correct alignment, while the alternator feet were dropped slightly 
below the floor level for this purpose. 

viding a cast-iron bushing of about 22 in. inside and 
24 in. outside diameter and long enough to carry the 
rotor hub and the collector rings, and a suitable bushing 
to fit on the external shoulder formerly occupied by one 
of the crank disks, where it was decided to mount the 

Built up from the 850-kw. direct-current generator visible in 
background of another illustration herewith, and from one 800- 
kw. engine-type alternator serving as a synchronous motor. 

No electrical changes were made on the generator. This 
machine, as well as the three-unit set, is started from 
the direct-current end. Work on it was started Feb. 1, 
1920, and the rebuilt machine was ready to turn over 
early in July. It went into regular operation in October, 

As in the case of the first reconstructed machine, the 
only trouble that developed was in the bearings, one of 
which had a crack in the babbitt of the lower portion, 
inherited from its steam-driven service, and after 
several ineffectual attempts to remedy this, the bearing 
was rebabbitted. There was some further trouble from 
oil throwing as the shaft was of sufficiently large 
diameter to make its peripheral velocity greater than 
in the case of the first machine, where this trouble had 
not developed. This was finally overcome by the addi- 
tion of disks inclosed in sheet-metal guards. 

Electrically, both these reconstructed motor-generator 
sets operate perfectly. Mechanically, there are only 
two or three elements that would be changed if the 
work had to be done over again. In the case of the 
three-unit machine it would have been better to have 
provided cast-iron sole plates about 15 in. deep under- 
neath the two center bearings so designed that they 
could be readily withdrawn from underneath the pillow 
blocks, in order to permit the lowering of the pillow 
blocks when any repairs were required on the center 
bearings, as this would save the trouble of uncoupling 
the motor shaft and lifting it out of the center bearings 
at such a time. It would also have been better to have 
designed a modern lubricating system for the old 
engine bearings on both machines, prior to the con- 
struction, including the oil-throwing disks required for 
the 22-in. shaft. 

The original cost of the five old generators purchased 
between 1898 and 1905 was about $93,000. An engi- 
neering appraisal of the property made in 1915 had 
set the present value of these machines at about 
$41,000, but at the time the steam plant was ordered 
discontinued these generators were regarded as obso- 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

lete. The cost of reconstructing them and setting them 
in operation, as described, exclusive of foundations, 
was about $31,000 for labor and material on a war- 
time basis. In pre-war days the same work would 
probably not have cost more than $18,000. 

Quotations on new motor-generator equipments in 
1918 were on the basis of more than $40 per kilowatt 
at the factory, or say $45 per kilowatt erected in Win- 
nipeg, which would have amounted to about $72,000 
of new capital for 1,600 nominal kilowatts. The con- 
struction herein described is therefore believed to have 
saved the railway company more than $40,000 and 
prevented what would otherwise have been a deliberate 
waste of valuable equipment, for these machines have 
proved their' title to a new lease of life and are able 
to render the same service they did twenty years ago. 

Impairing and Repairing Street 
Railway Rates 

Owing to the Increase in Commodity Prices the Nickel Fare 
in 1914 Had Already Become Too Small — Decreases 
Not Now Possible Until Balance Is Reattained 

WALTER H. BURKE has contributed an interesting 
article on street railway rates to the June number 
of Stone & Webster Journal. At the beginning of this 
article he points out that even before the war a great 
many city railway companies could no longer make both 
ends meet on the universal 5-cent fare. This was the 
cause of the gradual but steady increase in commodity 
prices and wages which began in 1896. Statistics of 
the United States Bureau of Labor show that wholesale 
commodity prices, rated at 66 in 1896, had advanced 
to 100 in 1913. Average hourly wages also had increased 
during the same period from 69 to 100. On the other 
hand, street railway fares on the whole had decreased 
during the period, due to various factors, including the 
extension of the use of free transfers, the sale of tickets 
at reduced rates, etc. Thus, the beginning of the war 
found the industry as a whole like a man, already in 
poor health, who suddenly contracts an acute illness. 

The condition since 1914 is shown by the chart. The 
index numbers for commodity prices and of wages in 
this chart are from publications of the United States 
Bureau of Labor Statistics. The fares are an average 
for all cities in the United States of more than 50,000 
population except New York City and are weighted 
according to population. The data on fares were pre- 
pared by Prof. A. S. Richey. The latter portion of Mr. 
Burke's article, considerably abstracted, follows: 

The point to be particularly noted from the chart is the 
lag between railway fares and other prices, no appreciable 
increase having been shown in the former until the middle 
of 1918, i.e., a few months before the close of the war, 
whereas commodity prices had practically doubled in the 
meantime, and the hourly wage rate had advanced some 65 
per cent. This in a nutshell was the trouble with the street 
railway situation. 

The future trend of prices is uncertain, but economists 
quite generally agree that for a number of years at least 
the average will be from 50 to 60 per cent above pre-war 

Assuming a 50 per cent higher price level for the future, 
it is evident from the chart that street railway fares, even 
with the increases of the past few years, still are short of 
what they should be to meet the permanently changed con- 
ditions. This, however, takes no account of the tremendous 
discrepancies of the past five years between the prices of 
street railway transportation and those of other commodities 
and of labor. This is a disparity which must be compen- 
sated for in the long run if the companies are to go along 
on a comparable basis with other industries. The fact must 
not be lost sight of that while the increases in fares of the 

past few years or so have helped conditions, they have by no 
means repaired the damage which resulted from failure to 
allow this relief more promptly. This can be accomplished 
only by continuing the increases in force for such period in 
the future as may be necessary. 

The under-development of the properties during recent 
years, in the face of the rapid and continued growth of the 
communities served, means that, in addition to refunding 
their short-term obligations, a tremendous amount of new 
money will be required to bring them back to pre-war stand- 
ards of development and enable them to keep pace with 
future city growth. What rate of interest the street rail- 
ways must pay to get this money can only be guessed at. 
If, as generally agreed, from 7 to 8 per cent was the mini- 
mum fair return for the public utilities before the war, and 
if we are now to find ourselves on a 50 per cent higher price 
level than at that time, then, to use a rough yardstick, the 
fair rate of return becomes at least lOi to 12 per cent. 

The above situation is emphasized because recently there 
has been some scattered sentiment in favor of reducing 
existing fares on the general theory that "the price of 
everything else is coming down and the street railways 
=hould take their medicine along with the rest of us." It 
is only necessary to refer again to the accompanying chart 
to show that for several years past the street railways have 
been "taking their medicine" in double doses at a time when 
other business has been getting the largest profits in its 
history- It is just now approaching what might be termed 
the convalescent stage of its illness. It would have been to 
the best interests of all concerned if, beginning in 1916, 
street railway fares had more nearly kept pace with the 
increases in other commodity prices and wages. Unfortu- 
nately this policy was not followed, and the penalty is the 

8 280 

- 100 lom "jukT Jan July Jon" July Jon. July Jan. July Jan. July Join. 
1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 

Relative Increases in Wholesale Commodity Prices, Hourly 
Waces and Street Railway Fares 

continuance of higher prices for a longer period than would 
otherwise have been necessary, assuming that the street 
railways are to function and meet the needs of the public 
for adequate and dependable transportation service. 

Nevertheless, there are a great many encouraging factors 
in the present outlook. The fundamental soundness of the 
business has been proved without doubt. There are few if 
any other industries which could have withstood such a test 
as the street railways have had to face during the past five 
or six years. The companies have no large inventories, car- 
ried on their books at inflated war prices, which must be 
liquidated. Again, while the street railways have been 
forced to suspend practically all new development work 
for five years past, their new construction work of the 
future will require a substantially smaller capital expendi- 
ture than would have been the case under war conditions. 
The war has naturally stimulated previous efforts to effect 
economies in operation, like the Birney car. Finally, the 
general public is coming to appreciate that the street rail- 
way fills a vital need because it furnishes a service which 
the cities cannot do without. As a result of the companies' 
efforts a great many of their patrons now own securities 
in the properties, and this is one of the most effective means 
of securing and holding the public interest. The regulatory 
authorities also are devoting their efforts to a correct solu- 
tion of the problem ; the same is generally true of the press. 
It is this co-operation which will accomplish more than any- 
thing else toward working out the street railway situation 
on a permanently sound and satisfactory basis, fair alike 
to the public and to the companies. 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Public Service Railway Offers Valuation Argument 

Extensive Brief Which Is Presented to the New Jersey Board of Public Utility Commissioners Gives 
All Details on Which a Value of $200,898,906 Is Claimed 
and 10-Cent Fare Petitioned 

IN ONE of the most complete valuation briefs which 
have so far made their appearance, the Public 
Service Railway of New Jersey presents its argu- 
ment to the New Jersey Board of Public Utility Com- 
missioners to support its own figure of valuation and its 
petition for a 10-cent fare. The brief contains a com- 
plete review of the total valuation history of the Public 
Service Railway, giving all details of previous valuation, 
and it is replete with arguments, some of them novel 
but convincing, to support contentions for various 
elements of value. 

Commencing with a description of the Public Service 
Railway property, the brief then takes up the argument 
that the property is private property and on this has to 

The reason for here stating them (these arguments) is 
simply to plant upon them the further proposition that the 
value for rate purposes of a street railway property — the 
same being private property — must be determined in accord- 
ance with established legal principles, and is the value of 
the property and not merely a sum of money, on which, 
in the discretionary opinion of the commission, the owner 
of the property should be permitted a return. 

The various elements of value which the brief con- 
siders are: 

1. Structural value. 

2. Value of the land. 

3. Going value, which includes: 

a. Development costs including: 

al. Money expended in attaching the business. 
a2. Money expended in tuning up the property. 
a3. Carrying charges until the property becomes self- 
supporting, including deficit of earnings. 

b. Consolidation of a number of small properties into 
one property under one management. 

c. Superseded property due to advance in the art, obso- 
lescence, inadequacy, etc. 

d. The value imparted to the property by reason of its 
favorable location, referred to by the court as its 
adventitious value. 

4. Value of the power contract (discussed under a sepa- 
rate heading). 

Considerable attention is paid to the item "Going 
value," for which an allowance of 30 per cent of the 
physical value is claimed. In connection with the 
element of going value due to consolidation of the 
smaller properties, the brief has to say : 

The properties necessarily purchased or leased to effect 
this consolidation were not so purchased or leased at the cost 
of their physical parts. Their "going value" was recog- 
nized and it entered into the price which this company paid 
for them. This cost of consolidation was a cost necessary 
to the creation of the existing railway, and it added largely 
to the value of the property which is to be determined in 
this proceeding. 

Superseded property and attaching business to the 
lines of the company are also supported by argument. 
The cost of training a staff to make it familiar with 
the needs of the communities served and conversant 
with the routes and rules of the company, the rules of 
the commission, the traffic rules and ordinances of the 
communities and the various intimate details of opera- 
tion that come only from experience and practice and 
in the perfection of the company's personnel in the 
knowledge of its duties is portrayed. The report says 
"an example of the nature of this cost is found again in 

the fact that prior to the putting in service of the so- 
called safety cars, trainmen were given five days' course 
of actual operation on cars that were not transporting 
a single paying passenger. Through the year with its 
frequent changes in both means and methods of opera- 
tion, this cost has enlarged, and there is nothing to show 
for it in the physical property inventory. It is a part 
of the cost of the present railway, and its results con- 
stitute an element of value in that railway." 

The power contract, as a separate element of value, 
is supported in the same manner that it was supported 
in the appraisal made by Ford, Bacon & Davis outlined 
in Electric Railway Journal April 23, 1921, page 767. 
The state valuation and the Cooley appraisal are 
reviewed. An argument of the significance of present 
value is followed by a summary of all the valuations 
which have ever been made of the property, with some 
of these modified to make them represent present-day 

The brief goes into detail in discussion of the qualifi- 
cations of the various witnesses who have appeared 
before the board in connection with the valuations 
which have been made. 

The inventory, unit prices, general contingencies, 
engineering and superintendence, law expenditures and 
administration, interest during construction, taxes dur- 
ing construction, organization and development, cost of 
money, promoters' remuneration, working capital and 
material and supplies, franchises, land, non-deduction of 
depreciation, the property of miscellaneous subsidiary 
companies, historical costs, are all chapter headings 
under which extensive argument and citation of cases 
are given. This leads the brief to the statement of the 
value of the property as follows: 

The value of the property of the Public Service Railway 
fixed in the report of the engineering concern (Ford, Bacon 
& Davis) employed by the state is $125,000,000, and under 
the acts of the Legislature this is the presumptive value of 
the property. 

The only evidence before the board that can possibly 
overcome the legal presumption in favor of $125,000,000 is 
the Cooley appraisal, as brought down to date, and the testi- 
mony of the numerous expert witnesses sustaining and sup- 
porting the same. 

The value of the property of the Public Service Railway 
is : 

Physical property with additions to May 31, 

1921 (Cooley appraisal) $149,922,236 

Development cost, going value, including loca- 
tion and consolidation values (30 per cent of 
structural cost, as allowed in the Passaic gas 
rate case) 44,976,670 

Value of power contract (the lowest value 

placed upon it by any witness) 6,000,000 

Total value $200,898,906 

The brief then points out that the value of the 
property must be found independently of the rate of 
fare and allow the return upon the value of the prop- 
erty as found. "This does not mean," says the brief, 
"that this company should necessarily be permitted to 
charge the highest rate that the traffic will bear. We 
are now only discussing the relation between the value 
of the property and the rate of fare and pointing out 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

that the value of this property cannot be reduced 
because there is no rate that will net a return upon it. 
. . . We suppose that the New York subway con- 
structed out in the country somewhere between two 
small places would be so expensive that no rate of fare 
would net a return upon it. But that is not this situa- 
tion. This property is not overbuilt. It is not con- 
structed in the Sahara Desert ; it is right here in New 
Jersey, connecting- the principal cities of the state and 
furnishing the only complete system of urban transpor- 
tation available in all these great populous centers." 

The brief ends with a plea for a just and reasonable 
fare and recites various cities in the country in which 
a 10-cent fare is charged and gives supporting testimony 
from officers of other railway companies which charge 
10 cents. In the discussion on rate of fare, the brief 
takes up the claim of people that the company has 
valuable rights because it is allowed to do business in 
the streets. The brief continues: 

It is just as sensible to talk about the valuable rights of 
the policeman because he is allowed to perform his service 
to the public in the street, or the fireman because he is al- 
lowed to perform his services in public places. The police- 
man and the fireman perform honorably and are paid for 
their labor by the public, notwithstanding the fact that such 
labor is performed in the public streets. The street railway 
company also performs a valuable service in the public- 
streets, and it should be paid for its service, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that it is performed in the streets. That is all 
the company seeks to obtain in this case, and yet the idea 
is continually advanced that perhaps the company ought not 
to be paid or ought to be paid less because of this valuable 
"privilege" it enjoys. 

The entire brief is filled with innumerable citations 
from court and commission decisions and with many 
direct quotations from the testimony of witnesses before 
the board. 

Why Baltimore Departed from the Standard Car 

United Railways & Electric Company 

Baltimore, Md., July 11, 1921. 

To the Editors: 

The letter published in your issue of June 11 from 
W. G. Gove, superintendent of equipment, Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company, it seems to me, merits com- 
ment, because it fails to recognize the fact that more 
than one type of one-man car is required because of 
traffic conditions. 

To quote the first phrase in the third paragraph, "it 
is particularly unfortunate" that the idea of "something 
different" should be allowed to confuse the need for 
clear vision on the part of the operating men to develop 
such types of one-man cars as are essential to meet vary- 
ing traffic demands. 

In the study and discussion that are going on concern- 
ing one-man car design, I do not think that those "in 
responsible charge of executive and operating depart- 
ments" are concerned with "measuring up" by means 
of having equipment of their own design in service on 
their properties. Certainly as far as the situation in 
Baltimore is concerned, we have conscientiously studied 
the problem with the idea of providing a car best suited 
to handle heavy interchange traffic in this city. 

If we are to "sell" the one-man car idea in toto in 
the large cities, we must do so by providing a car that 
will give adequate facilities for the loading and unload- 
ing of passengers. Why should we adhere to the 
present standard car if improvements can be made? Is 
it not inconceivable that we have reached a stage of 
development where initiative on the subject of car 
design is to stop? This is particularly true where a 
principle of operation is concerned. 

May I repeat again that I am not desirous of entering 
into a controversy in the matter but endeavored dis- 
passionately to point out what I felt and feel was a 
development in the design of this car which has been 
overlooked by the manufacturers and equipment men 
in their efforts to standardize on a single type of car. 

We believe that the car we have just purchased for 
Baltimore will give higher efficiency and greater 
economy than the so-called standard type for the con- 
ditions we have to meet. As our general manager has 
recently well stated, the problem before us was that "the 
public of Baltimore was beginning to show a decided 
dislike to the safety car on account of the congestion 
at the entrance and exit point." Appreciating the value 
of the one-man idea, we decided to correct this mani- 
festly incorrect design. At this point we suggest turn- 
ing to the cut on the inside back cover of the Electric 
Railway Journal of July 2, 1921 ; we think the picture 
is a good ocular demonstration of just what we are 
trying to avoid. Here are four persons encumbered with 
luggage, etc., waiting to board a standard one-man car, 
while four passengers are ambling gracefully off. This 
condition is much worse in rainy weather. It is just 
what we are overcoming in our new design. 

And now a final word in reply to my friend Walker's 
letter of June 15. The standard whereby car design 
with reference to passenger interchange facilities should 
be measured is not in cents per car-mile but in the 
volume of passenger movements in and out of the car. 
On a line where traffic is heavy and frequent transfer- 
ring is the rule car-mile earnings do not express the 
density of use by the public, so that an erroneous con- 
clusion might well be arrived at in setting a standard 
based on earnings per car-mile. 

The proper way to determine what is the best design 
for given conditions is to put the several types of cars 
in service under identical conditions and take observa- 
tions with stop watches, over a sufficient period of time 
to get average conditions and data, and then compare 
results. Any other method of arriving at a descision 
will not be based upon figures and results but upon 
judgment and opinion. L. H. Palmer, 

Assistant to President. 

Metal Ceiling Used for Head Lining on 
Little Rock Railway 

The Little Rock Railway & Light Company, Little 
Rock, Ark., is using metal ceiling for head lining in 
repairing and rebuilding some of its cars, where the 
head lining needs renewal. The metal ceiling, which is 
the same as used in buildings, comes in 24 in. x 48 in. 
sheets, and the metal for one car costs about $12. 
Labor and painting cost about $18. This total cost 
of $30 compares most favorably with the previous cost 
of $100 for replacing bird's-eye lining in kind, and 
the car interior presents a very satisfactory appear- 

Equipment and Its Maintenance 

Short Descriptions and Details of New Apparatus of Interest 
to the Industry. Mechanical and Electrical 
Practices of All Departments 

Tracks Rebuilt on Old Ties 

Creosoted Ties Set in Concrete Thirteen Years Ago Used in 
Place for New Rail — City Raises Street Grade 
2 In. to Allow New 7-In. Rail in Place of 
5-In. to Avoid Disturbing Base 

WHEN the city of Memphis, Term., decided to re- 
pave South Florida Avenue it became necessary 
for the Memphis Street Railway to relay its tracks at 
the same time that it did its part of the paving. The 
old track had been 5-in. girder, which had been in 

Thirteen-Year Old Creosoted Ties in Concrete To 
Receive New Rail 

place since 1908 and was badly worn. The previous 
paving had been brick and the new paving was to be 
asphalt. The standard construction of the Memphis 
system is now 7-in., 105-lb. girder rail for use in 
asphalt paved streets, and it was decided to use this 
rail on Florida Avenue. 

When the old pavement was taken up and the original 
concrete base and ties uncovered it was found, upon 
close examination and test by boring, that the original 
ties were in as good condition as they were when first 
laid, so far as could be told. These ties were some 
which had been laid in 1908 ; they were laid in concrete 
which was finished off level with the upper surface of 
the ties. Seeing that the new rail to be put in was 
7 in. in place of 5 in. the city authorities were ap- 
proached with reference to raising the grade of the 
streets to allow the new higher rail to be put in with- 
out removing the concrete foundation and ties, which 
of course would prove very expensive. It happened 
that the raising of the grade was beneficial to the city 
in this case, also, as a particularly high curb had been 
installed in the first place, and when the grade of the 
street was raised a normal height of curb was obtained. 
More material in street paving was used, but it is 
understood that the electric railway took care of this 
part as an offset to its saving in not having to take up 
the old ties and put down new ones. 

Accordingly, the pavement in the railway area was 
removed and track labor cleared off the concrete, level- 

ing down to the ties smoothly, the old rail was removed 
and the new rail installed. Temporary crossovers were 
laid so that one-half of the street was done at a time. 
An accompanying illustration shows the appearance 
of the work after the rail and pavement had been laid 
on one side and the pavement removed on the other side. 
This illustration also shows the type of 8-hole joint use<I 
on the new construction. 

The standard construction used in laying the new 
rail is to use tie plates on all ties and to use a 26-in. 
by 10-in. base plate under all joints. A 34-in. 8-hole 
angle bar is used and this is beaded along the bottom 
of the plate. The rail is welded to the base plate for 
the entire length of the base plate, a Cleveland electric 
welder being used for this work. Screw spikes are 
used at j-oints and cut spikes elsewhere. 

Improving Riding Qualities 

THE Southern Public Utilities Company, Charlotte, 
N. C, is an enthusiastic operator of one-man cars- 
claiming that they show reduced operating expenses 
and allow closer headways and consequently better serv- 
ice. During part of the day, however, these cars oper- 
ate under light load, but being equipped with springs 
which are rigid enough to carry heavy loads successfully 
and heavy enough not to break under such loads, the 
riding qualities are not exceptionally good when they 
are lightly loaded. 

In an effort to improve the riding qualities of the one- 
man cars under this condition M. F. Osborne, master 
mechanic, decided to install a coil spring at each body 
bearing point, which coil spring would carry the body at 
light load and would compress so as to allow the semi- 
elliptical spring alone to carry the body at heavy load. 
The Charlotte cars are arranged so that the inner 

Coil Spring Added to Semi-Elliptical Spring 

end of the semi-elliptical spring is fixed and the car body 
borne at the four outer ends of the springs. The body 
formerly rested at these points on blocks of wood 4 in. 
thick and about 8 in. square, which in turn rested di- 
rectly upon the free outer end of the springs. To in- 
stall the coil springs these blocks were reduced in thick- 
ness to 3 in., a 5i-in. hole bored in each of them and a 
coil spring 5 in. long, consisting of five turns of 5-in. 



Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

wire, placed in this hole and fitted with spring caps, 
which provide the actual bearing surface. The 2-in. 
play thus allowed is sufficient for all light loadings of 
the car and when the car is fully loaded the spring com- 
presses so that the blocks come in contact with the 
heavier semi-elliptical springs, which thereby assume 
the load direct. 

The improvement in the riding quality is said to have 
been so great that, unsolicited, patrons of the road have 
inquired what has been done to certain cars to make 
them ride better. 

An accompanying illustration shows the spring ar- 
rangement which Mr. Osborne is now using. 

Reclamation Department Shows 
Large Savings 

New Welding Shop and Reclamation Department Installed 
by Washington Railway & Electric Company Provide 
Better Facilities for Carrying on This Work — Accu- 
rate Cost Records for Work Done Are Being Kept 

ON ACCOUNT of the rapid increase in the amount 
of reclamation work necessary at the shops of the 
Washington Railway & Electric Company, it was de- 
cided some months ago to build a larger shop to house 
the electric welding equipment. The interior of the new 
shop is shown in the accompanying illustration. It is 
an addition to the main shop, 34 ft. long by 18 ft. wide, 
built of b ick and well lighted on three sides. The floor 
is of cement and the roof of galvanized iron provided 
with large ventilators. An overhead track carries a 1J- 
ton chain hoist for use in handling heavy parts. Con- 
venient benches, racks, etc., together with the welding 
equipment, are included. 

For electric welding a Wilson "plastic arc" machine 
that will accommodate two welders is used. In the con- 
struction of the building additional room is provided so 
that additional machines can be added should fu f ure 
needs make them necessary. Since the installation of 
this machine an accurate cost record has been kept for 
every job done in the shops and a recapitulation for the 
first three months of the shop's operation shows a net 
saving of approximately $2,000 per month with two 
operators working. Since that time new and different 
kinds of work have been constantly coming in and it 
has now been found necessary to increase the working 
force. Electric welds are made on steel, cast and 
wrought iron, bronze and malleable iron. In welding 
cast iron the parts are carefully studded with steel pins 
before the welding work is undertaken. 

At the present time the company is testing out a 
special metal which has been developed by the Wilson 
Welder & Metals Company for cast-iron welding. On 
small sections of cast iron and brass the oxyacetylene 
method of welding is used, which is found preferable by 
this company and more satisfactory for these small jobs. 
The oxyacetylene torch is also used almost entirely for 

A partial list of some of the work being done in re- 
claiming various parts includes building up axles and 
armature shafts, repair of truck frames when broken 
or badly worn, filling in dowel holes in brass and malle- 
able axle-bearing shells when badly worn, building up 
and welding brushholders when burnt or excessively 
worn, filling in armature-housing bolt-holes where the 
threads have stripped, repairing journal boxes and 
axle-bearing caps, welding and straightening resistance 
grids when broken or warped, building up axle-bearing 

collars on brass shells, welding and repairing gear cases 
and adding metal for rethreading bolts, nuts, center 
bearings, motor cases, etc. 

It is frequently desirable to build up or repair parts 
which cannot be easily transported to the welding shop. 
In order to take care of this work, leads have been pro- 
vided from the welding machine with plug-in sockets in 

Interior of New Reclamation Shop in Washington 

the truck shop, carpenter shop, etc. By this arrange- 
ment welding of large parts can be conveniently taken 
care of on the job, and the removal and transporting 
of the large parts to the welding room is avoided. 

At present consideration is being given to the pur- 
chase of an automatic welding machine complete with a 
single-arc motor-generator. This outfit when attached 
to a lathe will automatically build up axles with worn 
bearing seats, as well as worn armature shafts, and 
will, in the opinion of the officials of this road, do much 
better and cheaper work than can be done by hand 

A Universal Tie Plate 

THE Georgia Railway & Power Company, Atlanta, 
Ga., uses steel tie plates in all of its construction. 
Formerly three kinds of tie plates were used to suit 
the various kinds of rail on the system. The usual 

difficulties inci- 
dent to a variety 
of tie plates, 
both in the 
storeroom and 
on the job, led 
the company to 
desire a single 
tie plate which 
could be used 
and, finding 
none with a 
spacing of holes 
which was ex- 
actly suitable to 
i t s conditions, 

designed one to fit them. The accompanying drawing 
shows the dimensions of the new tie plate, which of 
course can be furnished by any steel concern, with 
which any rail 5 in., 5i in., 6^in. can be used. There are 
no shoulders on this tie plate, it being a plain piece of 
steel punched as indicated. 

Universal Tie Plate Used in Atlanta 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Shop Notes from Newark, N. Y. 

Rochester & Syracuse Electric Railroad Has Well-Equipped 
Shops Where Many "Stunts" for Solving Maintenance 
Problems Have Been Developed 

THE shops of the Rochester & Syracuse Electric 
Railroad, the offices of which are at Syracuse, N. Y., 
are at Newark, about 32 miles east of Rochester. Due 
to the destruction of its Newark shops by fire in 1912 
the Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern Railroad, the prede- 
cessor of the present company, had the opportunity to 
rebuild along modern lines. New shops, similar in 
general plan to the then new Lakeland shops of the 
company near Syracuse, were constructed early the 
following year. They were described briefly in an 
article in the issue of this paper for Sept. 20, 1913, 
where a plan was reproduced. The views grouped on 
this page are typical. 

These shops have proved to be admirably adapted to 
the demands upon them and no important changes have 
since been made. A number of minor improvements 
have, however, been introduced. Several of these were 
photographed by a representative of the paper on a 
visit to Newark several months ago. 

The shop property comprises a shop building, approxi- 
mately 204 ft. by 105 ft.; a carhouse about 240 ft. 
by 82 ft., and a two-story office building. Most of the 
shop work is done in one large room, which contains 
practically all of the machines and has three tracks at 
one side, two of which are partly over pits. On the 
side of the pits the floor is depressed 18 in. to facilitate 
inspection and repair work without unnecessary stoop- 
ing on the part of the workmen. 

This Machine Simultaneously Sands Both Rails 

The shop is liberally equipped with "abor-saving 
devices, such as a trolley crane, transfer table, turn- 
table, etc. 

For dipping and baking purposes, a combined tank 
and oven has been constructed in one corner of the 
machine and erecting shop, as illustrated, being built 
out of concrete blocks. Over the dipping and baking 
sections are metal-covered wood lids. A trolley crane 
bar runs over the two. The oven is heated by means 
of electric heaters, controlled by snap switches located 
on the wall behind the oven and visible in the picture. 

The shop contains no special welding room, but appa- 
ratus is taken as required to the work. A convenient 

No. 1 — One of the Big Interurbans in Front of the Main Shop. No. 2 — The Shop Administration Building Is Attractive. 
No. 3 — A Home-Made Self-Contained Oil Heater. No. 4 — Typical View in the Newark Shops 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

A Reminiscence of the Season of Heavy Snow 

two-wheel truck for carrying a pair of gas tanks has 
been constructed and has given a good account of itself. 
As shown in one of the illustrations, it consists of a 
light steel frame, normally vertical, to which the tanks 
are held by a steel strap clamp, the weight being taken 
on a platform just above floor level. A A-in. steel rod 
attached to the front of the platform on each side is 
bent backward to form an extra guide for the tanks 
and also a handle bar. 

For heating soldering irons and solder pots, a home- 
made oil torch is employed. A frame such as is used 
with gasoline solder pots is mounted on the top of an 
air tank, a supply of oil is poured into the air tank and 
air pressure is pumped up to 60 lb. or so. The oil 
jet spurts up through a carbureting cylinder, where it 
is vaporized and ignited. One pumping up of the 
tank lasts for several days of intermittent work. The 
outfit is shown in one of the illustrations, in use for 
heating soldering irons for armature banding. 

An interesting small job recently put through the 
shop was the construction of portable shelters for 
the use of flagmen and others obliged to be out on 
the line during severe weather. A picture of a pair 
of these is reproduced. The shelter is made in sections 
which hook together, four sides, a roof and a floor. 
Electric heaters are provided to be used in very severe 
weather. The roof has a frame around the edges which 
drops over the sides, thus making a watertight joint. 

Portable Gas Welding and Cutting Outfit 

These Shelters Mitigate the Rigors of Winter 

The only window provided is in the door. A shelter 
like this can be taken apart, loaded on any kind of a 
work car, freight car or truck and quickly transported 
to the place needed and set up. 

As the pictures indicate the writer's visit was made 
before the snow left the ground. He was able to snap 
one of the big snowplows used by the railway, along- 
side the carhouse. An interesting device seen in the 
shop yards, also, was a track-sanding apparatus, con- 
sisting of two sand boxes, mounted on a light truck, 
with a handle bar to assist in propelling it along the 
track. This equipment permits the rapid sanding of 
a stretch of track where there is not enough work to be 
done to warrant the use of a regular sand car. 

The Jamaica government two years ago voted 1,000 
pounds sterling for investigations of the possibility of 
the electrification of the government railway, according 
to the issue of Commerce Reports for May 25. This 
forms the only means of transportation across the 
island, either for passengers or for freight, except by 
truck and wagon on the public roads. The lines have a 
total mileage of 197. Since this railroad is entirely 
dependent upon imported coal, which is very expensive 
^here, the authorities have desired to make use of the 
water power on the island. Experts from both American 
and English companies have made investigations and 
formed estimates for the needed equipment. 

Dipping and Baking Corner 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Atlanta Single-Truck Car Before and After Remodeling to Introduce P.A.Y.E. Feature 

Remodels Single-Truck Cars 

WITH about 163 single-truck, twenty-eight seat 
two-man cars on its hands, the Georgia Railway & 
Power Company, Atlanta, Ga., has been studying the 
best manner of applying these cars to the service re- 
quirements. They are all of one type, with open plat- 
forms and bulkhead doors and thus arranged only for 
inside fare collection. 

The Atlanta management has not yet decided to make 
use of the one-man car principle, but did want to install 
the pay-as-you-enter feature as far as possible. At 
first it was decided to remodel one car only as an 
experiment and the following changes were made : 
The doors in the bulkhead were taken out and a stan- 
chion placed at each side of the opening thus left in 
the bulkhead ; folding doors and steps were installed on 
each side of each platform, the cars being arranged for 
double-end operation ; a guard rail about 30 in. long was 
placed on the platform in front of the conductor's posi- 
tion, to assist in guiding passengers as they passed in 
paying fare. This experiment was closely watched by 
the management to see if it gave an answer as to the 
economical use of these single-truck cars. There was 
no doubt that the P.A.Y.E. feature greatly assisted in 
speeding up the schedule and in making operation more 
attractive. In fact many trainmen soon made applica- 
tion for the run on which this remodeled car was used. 

The experiment proved so successful that the man- 
agement has started on a program of changing over all 

the rest of the 163 cars. By July 1 some 35 were re- 
modeled and in operation and others were being closed 
up at the rate of one per day. 

The only new equipments necessary are the door and 
step mechanisms which are furnished by the McGuire- 
Cummings Manufacturing Company, Chicago. The total 
cost of changing these cars as described is about $225 
per car. 

Chattanooga's Successful 
Creosote Plant 

Hot and Cold Tank Application of Creosote Gives lj Gal. 
Penetration per Tie — Ties Handled by Angle- 
Iron Swing Basket 

THE way engineering department of the Chatta- 
nooga Railway & Light Company has been having 
very satisfactory results from its creosote plant, which 
has been running for about a year. It is a plant oper- 
ated on the hot and cold immersion principle, and the 
average results on a 6-in. x 8-in. x 8-ft. red oak tie 
show a penetration of li gal. as against a desideratum 
or possible maximum of H gal. 

The arrangement of the plant is shown in an accom- 
panying plan and is seen to consist of two tanks, the 
first a steel tank in which the hot creosote is placed and 
the second a concrete tank in which is the cold creosote. 
It is probable, however, that the steel tank will be re- 
placed soon with a concrete tank, the steel tank being 

Section A - A 

Longitudinal Section from C.L.of I - Beam, Section C - D 
a □ □ □ 

Platform of- 



l I ron i; tank (Hot bet fh) 
4'>i< \':I6'- >~z4'A 

: Concrete 
0} tank 

(Cold bath) 

C.L. of I-beam 
overhead ^ 

Drain platform 



9 Steam pipe Q 
from boiler 

□ □ a 

Plan and Elevation Sketches of Chattanooga Railway & Light Company's Creosote Plant 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

one which was left from a previous installation and was 
used before the present arrangement was started. One 
of the interesting features of this installation is the 
I-beam and crane and basket for the handling of the 
ties. As indicated on the elevation, in the accompany- 
ing sketch, there is an I-beam installed which has a 2 
per cent slope in the direction in which the ties are 

The Creosote Plant in Action 

always carried. On this I-beam is a traveling hoisting 
machine of 1-ton capacity made by the Brown Hoisting 
Machine Company of Cleveland. This is a screw-geared 
block and falls, from which is suspended the basket 
made of angle iron, shown in the accompanying view. 

Seasoned red oak ties are used and are delivered at 
the end of the hot tank, where they are stacked. About 
eight ties at once can be handled in the present basket. 
These are then carried on the I-beam crane, which is on 
rol'ers, to the hot tank, where they are left in 150 deg. 
creosote for one hour. This tank is heated by means 
of steam coils supplied from a 5-hp. boiler, which is 
located at a sufficient distance to minimize the risk. 
The ties are then removed from the hot bath to the 

* 3 

4-5 6 

Cross-Section of One of the Ties Treated in Chattanooga. 
Showing Penetration at the Following Distances from 
End of Tie: No. 1, 2 In. ; No. 2, 4 In. : No. 3, 6 In. ; 
No. 4, 8 In. ; No. 5, 10 In. ; No. 6, 12 In. 

cold bath, where they are left for an additional hour. 
After coming out of this bath they are laid on the drain 
table, after which they are stacked and are allowed to 
season for at least one week before being used. 

In commenting on this plant, R. C. Morrison, engi- 
neer of maintenance of way, said that if he were rebuild- 
ing the plant he would place the I-beam 3 ft. higher 
than it is in the present installation in order to give 
more room to work with ties in the basket; that is, 
in order to give better leverage in handling the basket 
up and down by means of the screw-geared block and 
falls, which in this case should be more rapid than the 
present one. 

The original cost of the plant was about $600. As 
to operating costs, labor, the records show, figures at 
from 4 to 5 cents per tie, and material — carbosota — at 
a little more than 37* cents per tie. Fi'guring interest, 
maintenance and material and labor, the total cost 
is from 45 to 50 cents per tie. 

Hardening Elliptic Springs 

IN ITS shops at Rochester the New York State Rail- 
ways has a convenient outfit in the corner of the 
blacksmith shop for heating and chilling complete halvea 
of eKiptic springs. The set of leaves forming a half 

spring are bunched together and heated in an oil-fired 
furnace, as shown in the accompanying illustration. This 
is built in an angle between the chimney and the shop 

Spring Hardening Corner in Railway Shop at Rochester 

wall, with a hood and flue connection to the chimney. 
Doors are provided on one end and one side. 

In the angle between the second side of the chimney 
and the second wall is the water-cooled oil quenching 
tank, also provided with a hood connected to the chim- 
ney to remove fumes. A simple lever mechanism 
facilitates the lowering of the hot spring into the oil 
from a distance sufficient to prevent scalding of the 
operator by oil or fumes. 

The Municipal Tramways at Bradford, England, have 
recently added to their equipment a one-man trackless 
trolley bus with seats for thirty passengers. The car 
is equipped with one motor only. Another type of track- 
less car recently added is a six-wheel bus with double 
deck. One-half of the weight is carried on the rear 
axle, the other being divided equally between the two 
front axles, which turn together for steering purposes. 
The principal data of this car are: Seating capacity 
top deck, thirty-three; lower deck, twenty-four; over-all 
height, 14 ft. 7 in.; outside width, 6 ft. 10 in.; total 
length, 23 ft. 10 in. This gives an occupancy per seat 
of 2.85 sq.ft. of street surface. 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Meeting of American Society for Testing Materials 

Sulphur and Phosphorus Limits Raised on Structural Steel and Steel Castings — New Specifications for 
Cast-Iron Wheels Presented — Tests for Insulating Varnishes Agreed Upon 

THE annual meeting of the A. S. 
T. M. was held June 20-24 at 
Asbury Park, N. J. At this meet- 
ing several matters were discussed 
which are of interest to electric railway 
engineers and the following is an ab- 
stract of some of the reports and papers 
presented : 

Steel Specifications 

Action was taken regarding the 
extra point of phosphorus and sulphur 
which had been permitted in various 
standard specifications as a war meas- 
ure. The note concerning this is now 
to be removed from all specifications. 
Recommendation, however, has been 
made to raise the sulphur content 0.01 
per cent in the following specifications: 
Structural steel for locomotives, cars 
and ships and steel castings. In the 
car steel specification this applies to 
the structural grade only. The phos- 
phorus content in acid steel castings 
is raised .01 per cent. This is for 
the reason that it is felt the extension 
in sulphur from 0.05 to 0.06 per cent 
in the three classes of structural steel 
must be retained due to the heavy ton- 
nages involved and to the continued dif- 
ficulty in obtaining low-sulphur fuels 
and melting stock. It will be noted that 
the sulphur extension will be removed 
on the materials which are to be worked 
hot and allowed on structural mate- 
rials which are to be fabricated cold. 

Report was made that the survey 
which was started last year of the 
effects of phosphorus and sulphur in 
steel is now well under way in the 
hands of a joint committee working 
under the chairmanship of the United 
States Bureau of Standards. 

The specifications for carbon steel 
rails have been extensively revised as 
to form, at the same time clarifying 
the sections covering the nick and break 
test. Slight changes have also been 
made in specifications for quenched 
high carbon steel splice bars, quenched 
carbon-steel track bolts, steel track 
spikes, steel screw spikes, low carbon 
steel splice bars and quenched alloy 
steel track bolts. These changes relate 
chiefly to the manner of taking test 
specimens and making tests. 

Similar changes were made in the 
specifications for structural steel for 
cars, carbon steel bars for railway 
springs, special silicon spring bars, sili- 
con manganese bars for railway 
springs, chrome-vanadium spring bars, 
carbon steel and alloy steel forgings, 
quenched and tempered carbon steel 
axles, quenched and tempered alloy 
steel axles, cold rolled steel axles and 
steel castings. 

The tentative specifications for 
welded and seamless steel pipe has been 
extensively revised and a new tentative 
specification was presented for carbon- 

steel rails with special quality require- 
ments. These specifications are based 
entirely on the specifications recently 
adopted by the American Railway En- 
gineering Association. This added 
specification is proposed for the reason 
that it is felt that the requirements of 
rail buyers are by no means uniform, 
and where the amount of traffic and 
general service conditions are more 
severe, a buyer might want to purchase 
rails subject to more rigid require- 
ments than would be the case if the 
service conditions were less severe. 
Among other things the new specifica- 
tions require that there shall be sheared 
from the end of the bloom formed from 
the top of the ingot sufficient metal 
to secure sound rails. Addition of 
aluminum to the molds is not permitted. 
Definite limits for carbon, manganese, 
phosphorus and silicon are set, and 
tests are required to determine ductility 
or toughness as opposed to brittleness 
and soundness. Physical qualities are 
determined by drop test in the stand- 
ard A. R. E. A. drop testing machine, 
record being taken of the elongation 
of the rail under the blow. Test pieces 
which do not break under the drop test 
are marked and broken to determine 
whether the interior metal is sound. 
Rails are classified as No. 1 and No. 2; 
No. 1 being those that are free from 
injurious defects and flaws of all 
kinds. No. 2 rails are those which by 
reason of surface imperfections, or 
for other specified causes, vary from 
the specifications in a manner which 
does not impair their soundness and 
strength. It is permitted that No. 2 
rails shall form 5 per cent of the order. 

Cast-Iron Car Wheels 

A new proposed tentative specifica- 
tion for cast-iron car wheels was pre- 
sented to replace the standard specifica- 
tions for cast-iron car wheels. This 
differs somewhat from the American 
Railway Association (M. C. B.) stand- 
ard specification and is drawn so as to 
cover wheels other than M. C. B. stand- 
ard wheels as well as the standard 
wheels themselves. The new specifica- 
tions are drawn up along lines which 
represent present-day practice in wheel 

Iron and Steel Chain 

While the present specification is sub- 
stantially correct with respect to test 
requirements, gradual changes in raw 
material and trade practices have made 
necessary a thorough revision of the 
section on classification and manufac- 
ture. In consequence a new proposed 
tentative specification was presented, 
in which especial attention was directed 
to the term "Crane Chain," which no 
longer represents the highest grade, 
the term "Dredge Chain" having super- 

seded it. Five classes of chain are 

Class AA for slings, cranes, hoists, 
steam shovels and marine uses, and 
where an all-iron chain is desired. 

Class A for slings, cranes, hoists, 
steam shovels and marine use where a 
high quality chain is desired and sold 
under the trade designation "Dredge 

Class B for ordinary slings and 
hoists and sold under the trade desig- 
nation "B.B.B." 

Class C for railroad cars, construc- 
tion and forestry work and sold under 
the trade designation "B.B." or Rail- 
road Chain. 

Class D for general service and sold 
under the trade designation "Proof 
Coil" or "Common Coil Chain." 

Merchant Bar Iron 

A new proposed tentative specifica- 
tion for merchant bar iron is included 
in the report on wrought iron, it being 
stated that a considerable change has 
taken place in the process of manufac- 
ture of some of the ordinary grades of 
bar iron. Small sizes of mixed scrap, 
thoroughly reworked, are now a promi- 
nent factor and it has been thought 
desirable to recognize this condition in 
a new specification, rather than to in- 
clude the material in the present stand- 
ard specification for refined wrought 
iron bars. The new specification pre- 
sents the same tensile and bend test 
requirements as for the refined bars, 
but the section on manufacture is par- 
ticularly adapted to this product. 

Insulated Wire and Cable 

The committee states that this speci- 
fication has been materially improved. 
While no extensive revision has been 
made some new material has been 
added. The more important changes 
are as follows: 

1. Thickness of Insulation. — A table 
of recommended thicknesses of insula- 
tion for various working pressures has 
been added together with details of 
procedure for measuring the thickness, 
including the variation limits, rejection 
conditions, etc. 

2. A new sub-division covering tape 
has been added. 

3. A new sub-division covering braid 
has been added. 

An interesting feature of the work 
of the committee on rubber products 
for the coming year is that the com- 
mittee contemplates taking up the sub- 
ject of specifications for weather strip- 
ping for cars. 

Electrical Insulating Materials 

In explanation of its work, the com- 
mittee states that since its inception it 
has confined its work entirely to the 
testing of insulating materials, as the 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

state of the art does not as yet war- 
rant the establishing of specifications 
for the various materials themselves. 
This year a standard has been agreed 
upon for a method of testing insulating 

The society's tentative standard 
methods of testing molded insulating 
materials has now been in use for four 
years without important criticism, and 
it is understood that they are in more 
or less general use by the manufactur- 
ers of this class of insulating material. 
They have also been adopted to stand- 
ard by the Associated Manufacturers 
of Electrical Supplies. They are there- 
fore now to be advanced to standard of 
the A. S. T. M. with some minor 

Two Tests for Sheet Insulation 

With regard to sheet insulation, the 
dielectric strength is the most im- 
portant property. The apparent di- 
electric strength is greatly affected by 
the time of application of the testing 
potential due to the generation of heat, 
so that two types of test are desirable; 
one, to give the dielectric strength un- 
der a rapidly applied potential or so- 
called apparent "momentary" dielectric 
strength, and the other to give the 
strength under continuous application 
of potential. No agreement has been 
reached yet on the test. 

In the testing of liquid insulations a 
great need has been the standardiza- 
tion of the electrodes and length of gap 
used in testing oils for high-tension 
transformers and switches. The com- 
mittee has completed an investigation 
on this subject and presented its report 
thereon to the convention and a pro- 
posed standard method for testing 
transformer and switch oils. A pro- 
posed standard method was also pre- 
sented for testing electrical porcelain. 

Subjects to which the committee ex- 
pects to give attention are : 

1. Procedure for dielectric strength 
tests of sheet-insulating materials. 

2. Procedure for a sludging test of 
transformer and switch oils. 

3. Preparation of tests of molded in- 
sulation for high-frequency applica- 

4. Pothead and splicing compounds 
for underground cables. 

5. Dielectric losses in insulating ma- 

Corrosion of Iron and Steel 

The five-year test of uncoated sheets 
exposed in the Pittsburgh district is 
nearing completion and the committee 
states that it may definitely be con- 
cluded that copper bearing metal shows 
marked superiority as compared to non- 
copper bearing material. Iron or steel 
containing less than 0.15 per cent cop- 
per are classed as "non-copper bear- 
ing." It is interesting to note that no 
16 gage sheet containing 0.06 per cent 
copper or more has failed after five 
months' exposure, while 65 per cent 
have failed of those having 0.03 or less. 

In the immersion tests made the 
presence of copper apparently has little 
influence on the life of the specimen. 

The Mechanical Man as a 

By E. B. Gunn 

Superintendent of Transportation and 
Equipment Western Ohio Railway Company, 
Wapakoneta, Ohio. 

WE HAVE found that by keeping 
in close contact with our em- 
ployees, not on^y our salesmen (the con- 
ductors and motormen) but all other 
members of the organization as well, 
we are able to keep the force running 
much smoother and so gain better 

It is necessary for the mechanical 
equipment to be kept in good condition 
so that passengers can get over the 
line smoothly and quickly; also to pre- 
vent frequent pull-offs, as the changing 
of cars is very objectionable to the 
traveling public. A failure of the 
mechanical equipment causes delays 
which often result in the passenger's 
missing his connection, which, of course, 
discourages traffic; and at this time the 
electric lines need all the friends they 
can get. 

The roadway department's co-opera- 
tion is just as necessary as that of any 
other, for a bad track causes derail- 
ments and rough riding, which makes 
the work of the salesmen much harder. 
It also causes delays and failures of 
the equipment which are expensive. 

It is also just as necessary for the 
employees to work for the success of 
the freight department as it is for 
that of the passenger, with the excep- 
tion, of course, of the element of 
personal feeling which does not enter 
into the freight department. It is from 
the freight hauling that the electric 
line must look for its gain, and that 
is the branch of service, I think, that 
has been overlooked more than the 
passenger business. Of course, the 
motor truck under the present condi- 
tions is a great rival of the electric 
line, but by having a quick, reliable 
service and safe handling of goods and 
courteous treatment from all employees 
the electric line, I believe, will be able 
to hold a great part of the freight 
haulage. The time is not far off when 
the motor trucks must be brought under 
the supervision of the public utilities 
commissions, and must file their 
schedules of rates the same as the 
electric lines are required to do. When 
this is done and they are required to 
pay their proportion for the upkeep of 
the roads they use, they will then be 
on the same basis as the electric lines; 
and, I believe, the selling of the 
products will be just as easy and the 
outlook for the electric roads as bright 
as it was a few years ago. The electric 
lines have a place in the traffic world 
and the public will not stand for them 
to be sidetracked. 

It is a problem for us to work out, 
and the only way that this can be 
accomplished is, as Mr. Barnes has so 
ably shown, for all departments to co- 
operate and all work together. Each 

♦Abstract of Discussion on Merchandis- 
ing Transportation, at meeting of Central 
Electric Railway Association on board S. S. 
South American, Thursday, June 30, 1921. 

and every head of department must get 
away from the idea that his department 
is more important than any other, for 
the man who greases the track is just 
as necessary along his line as the ex- 
ecutive. When the spirit of co-opera- 
tion permeates the entire organization 
from the president to the track man, 
and everyone is pulling for the one and 
only purpose, success, then we will 
have the success that is sure to come. 
Let us all get over the dumps and put 
into the proposition the pep and enthu- 
siasm that the proposition deserves, and 
that enthusiasm will be communicated 
to the men under our supervision and 
they, in turn, will do their best for the 
success of the electric line, and the 
business will just have to be successful. 

Valuation and Rate 
of Return 

IN HIS paper on "Valuation and Rate 
of Return," presented before the 
joint meeting of the Iowa Electric Rail- 
way Association and the Iowa Section 
of the National Electric Light Associa- 
tion, on June 23, at Lake Okobogi, Iowa, 
L. B. King, appraisal engineer United 
Light & Railways Company, Daven- 
port, Iowa, paid particular attention to 
electric lighting companies, but a few 
of his remarks are pertinent to rail- 

After outlining the purposes of valu- 
ation he discusses inventory of prop- 
erty, from which discussion the follow- 
ing extracts are taken: 

It is quite essential that every utility 
should have a valuation of its property, 
entirely distinct from the "plant and 
investment" account carried on its bal- 
ance sheet, because without this knowl- 
edge it is impossible for the operators 
of the plant to know what results are 
being obtained in the way of net 
revenues applicable to paying interest 
charges and dividends from that par- 
ticular plant. 

Unless operating under a uniform . 
classification of accounts, where two 
valuations have been made of the same 
property, one by or for the company 
and the other by or for the city or 
state, it becomes hard to compare or 
reconcile these valuations, and this 
leads to more or less confusion whether 
the report is presented in court or to 
a city council. No matter what system 
is adopted, after one is adopted and 
the property accounts are classified, 
later expenditures for new construction 
should certainly be classified under the 
account adopted. 

The distribution system of either an 
electric utility or electric railway 
utility is the most difficult part of the 
property to inventory and to obtain 
prices on. It will very seldom be pos- 
sible to obtain the exact original cost 
of building the pole lines, stringing 
the wire, etc., for many reasons, one 
of which is that the work is done piece- 
meal and not all expenditures find their 
way to the proper charges. It is there- 
fore necessary to estimate the cost of 
poles, wire and erection to a large 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Mr. King then takes up the question 
of intangible fixed capital, in which he 
argues for capitalization of superseded 
property, of the cost of consolidation 
of smaller, older companies, develop- 
ment expense, early losses, cost of es- 
tablishing business, etc. 

Capitalize Unfinished Construction 

Mr. King also urges the capitaliza- 
tion of unfinished construction. Of this 
he says: "In the determination of the 
rate base there should also be included 
the estimated cost of completing any 
construction which is under way, and 
any construction which has been author- 
ized and is certain to be started very 
soon. Inasmuch as the study of rates 
is for the purpose of fixing rates for 
the future, it is only proper that these 
rates should pay the proper return on 
additional investments which must be 
made." The usual account is taken of 
the subject of working capital. 

In his discussion on rate of return, 
Mr. King points out that many utility 
commissions have excluded from the 
valuation the cost of financing, whether 
this includes the cost of interesting 
capital, issuing and marketing securi- 
ties and brokerage fees, or also the dis- 

count at which the securities have been 
sold in order to market them. He then 
says: "The cost of selling the securi- 
ties will usually amount to from 2 per 
cent to 3 per cent of their par value, 
and the discount frequently runs as 
high as 25 per cent of the par value. 
These items, if excluded from the valu- 
ation, must be considered in fixing the 
rate of return which should be insisted 
upon." With reference to rate of re- 
turn and the dependent rate schedule, 
he said: "Certain rates of return have 
been approved or fixed in many rate 
cases, and then service rates have been 
established which were entirely insuf- 
ficient to earn anywhere near the rate 
of return which had been approved. 
When this happens, it is a moral obli- 
gation of the regulatory body to make 
up the deficiency so created by further 
adjustment in the rate. The mere fix- 
ing of a rate of return in an ordinance 
or decision does not guarantee this rate 
to the utility, and if the theory of 
rate-fixing legislation is to be fair, 
then the deficit created must be made 
up by future higher rates, and this 
future must not be so long deferred 
that the patient dies during the 

Special Reorganization Committee Reports 

Recommends J. W. Welsh as Permanent Executive Secretary — Suggests Useful 
Changes in Constitution and in Procedure 

THE special reorganization commit- 
tee appointed by President Gads- 
den in response to a resolution of the 
executive committee to make recom- 
mendations regarding reorganization 
of the headquarters office of the asso- 
ciation and any other recommendations 
regarding the organization or opera- 
tion of the entire association which it 
saw fit or thought advisable has now 
formulated its report and placed it in 
the hands of the members of the execu- 
tive committee. The executive com- 
mittee will hold a meeting which has 
been tentatively arranged for Aug. 5, 
at which this report will be considered; 
but meanwhile the committee decided 
that it would be advisable to publish 
an abstract of this report so that the 
association members might have op- 
portunity to transmit their ideas to 
the executive committee, and that the 
executive committee, having the ad- 
vantage of hearing from the industry, 
could formulate its program in more 
nearly complete form, ready for action 
by the association at Atlantic City in 

Criticisms of, and suggestions with 
reference to, these recommendations of 
the reorganization committee to the ex- 
ecutive committee will therefore be wel- 
comed. They should reach the secre- 
tary's office not later than Aug. 3, in 
order to be ready for consideration by 
the executive committee at its meeting 
on Aug. 5. 

The following is an abstract of the 
report of this committee. Many of the 
suggestions, in order to be incorporated 
in useful form, have necessitated 
changes in the constitution and by- 
laws and the committee has therefore 
drawn up an amended constitution and 
by-laws in which the following things 
have been accomplished: 

Recognition of the interest in and 
necessity for study of other transpor- 
tation systems, and permission under 
special act of the executive committee 
for trackless transportation companies 
to enter the association. 

Provision for separate classification 
of members such as consulting engi- 
neers, management companies, invest- 
ment bankers, etc. 

Redefinition of the officers and mem- 
bership of the executive committee as 
follows : 

A president, to hold office for one year, 
eligible to re-election. 

Four vice-presidents, two elected each 
year for two-year terms, not eligible to 
re-eleetion to the executive committee, ex- 
cept as president. 

Twelve members at large, six represent- 
ing manufacturing companies, six represent- 
ing operating companies ; two of each to 
be elected each year for three-year terms 
and not eligible to re-election to the same 

A treasurer, to hold office for one year, 
subject to re-election. 

The two junior living past-presidents, 
with power to vote. 

The four presidents of the> affiliated as- 

An executive secretary, who is not a 
member of the executive committee, but 
who attends its meetings. He may not be 
the same person as the treasurer. 

Provision for regular monthly meet- 
ings of the executive committee. 

A classification and amplification of 
the definition of duties of officers, which 
make ample provision for the safe- 
guarding of the funds of the associa- 
tion and the issuance of checks. 

Provision for a nominating commit- 
tee, to be appointed early in each sum- 
mer, which will make public its nomi- 
nations thirty days before the annual 
convention. Other nominations may be 
made by any member at any time before 
the actual election. 

Definite by-law provision for the 
mid-year conference. 

Definite provision for certain stand- 
ing committees of the association, such 
as finance, policy, subjects and meet- 
ings, publicity, publications and national 
relations, with the requirement that 
these committees make monthly reports 
to the executive committee. All the 
members of the first two committees are 
to be members of the executive com- 
mittee, and the chairmen of the other 
four are ex officio members of the ex- 
ecutive committee, without vote, unless 
they are already elected members. 

Provision for certain other commit- 
tees having to do with membership 
and with co-operation with sectional 
railway associations. 

Definition of the duties of the vari- 
ous committees. 

Provision that the dues now in the 
by-laws shall be maximum dues, which 
the executive committee may lower, but 
once lowered may not raise without 
consent of the association. 

Provision that privileges of the asso- 
ciation shall be withdrawn from mem- 
bers who are a year or more in arrears 
in dues. 

Other suggestions which the com- 
mittee has considered and regarding 
which it makes recommendations are: 

That the executive committee con- 
sider in its own meeting the question 
of arranging for admission of munici- 
pally owned railways to membership. 
The executive committee has a sub- 
committee of its own on this subject 
which will present data to it. 

That the executive committee make 
a study of the present system of dues. 

That the association do not sponsor 
certain experts in labor, legal, tech- 
nical or other special lines. 

That the executive committee give 
closer supervision to committee work, 
arranging that committee reports may 
be made public at any time during the 
year whenever finished, rather than 
holding them to flood the annual con- 

That the executive committee create 
a special committee for co-operation 
with educational institutions of the 
country, to encourage the study of 
railway and public utility problems, 
and to assist in placing young engi- 
neers with railways. 

That the committee codify its own 
regulations as a sort of executive com- 
mittee by-laws. 

That the executive committee con- 
sider the advisability of incorporating 
the association. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

That due consideration be given to 
the geographical distribution of the 
executive and other committee meet- 
ings, to the selection of executive and 
other committee members, and that the 
association co-operate with various sec- 
tional associations and arrange for 
representation of the American Asso- 
ciation at their meetings. 

That the executive committee out- 
line some policy to promote continu- 
ous work by committees to avoid a halt 
in activities for a month or two after 
annual association meetings, which fre- 
quently occurs. Suggestion was made 
of appointing committee members for 
a term of years, a portion, of the com- 
mittee retiring each year. 

That the executive committee con- 
sider giving publicity through t"he Ad- 
vertising Section to the sense of respon- 
sibility which the electric railway 
industry today feels in trying to pro- 
vide complete transportation service to 
a community. 

The question of Aera being contin- 
ued as a magazine or changed to a bul- 
letin was brought before the committee. 
The Aera advisory board was requested 
to make a report on this subject to the 
committee. This was presented by 
Chairman C. L. Henry of the advisory 
board in person. There was consider- 
able discussion on the benefits of Aera 
as the association's official mouthpiece 
and as an agent to promote company 
section work and to reach the rank and 
file of the industry. There was a dis- 
cussion as to how best Aera could co- 
operate and avoid unnecessary duplica- 
tion with existing technical magazines 
in the railway field. The committee in 
accepting the report decided to recom- 
mend the continuation of A era as a 
magazine in its present general form 

Finally, in response to a special 
request of the executive committee to 
suggest a name or names for the posi- 
tion of seci-etary, to fill the vacancy 
created by Mr. Burritt's resignation, the 
committee recommends that J. W. 
Welsh be apDointed secretary, to date 
from July 1, 1921. 


Progress on Heavy Traction 

AT A meeting of the heavy electric 
traction committee, held in the 
association office on June 23, a 
draft of the committee's report was 
read and discussed, after which various 
suggestions offered by members present 
and by letter were considered. It was 
decided to include in the report news 
of a 60-ton Westinghouse switching 
locomotive of standard design and of 
?. Butte, Anaconda & Pacific tractor 
truck, used for switching, as well as 
views of the Westinghouse and General 
Electric Paulista locomotives. The 
tabulated data on multiple-unit equip- 
ment, which are being prepared by the 
General Electric and Westinghouse 
companies, will be consolidated for 
presentation in the report as soon as 
received by the chairman. 

Those who were present and par- 
ticipated in the discussions were Sidney 

Withington, chairman; C. M. Quereau, 
John C. Davidson, A. H. Armstrong, 
J. V. B. Duer, Mr. Masson, representing 
H. W. Cope, and Mr. Sloan. 

Association Announces 1921 
Convention Program 

THE plans for the 1921 convention 
at Atlantic City of the American 
Electric Railway Association have ad- 
vanced far enough so that the associa- 
tion is able now to announce the 
tentative program. The duration of the 
meeting will be as usual from Monday 
to Thursday inclusive, or from Oct. 3 
to Oct. 6. The general subjects to be 
considered in formal papers, topical dis- 
cussions or addresses are: (1) a paper 
on the influence of the electric railways 
in improving industrial efficiency; (2) 
a paper on the contrasted advantages 
of service-at-cost contract franchise and 
state regulation; (3) a paper on the 
comparative condition of the industry 
today and four years ago; (4) a topical 
discussion on electric railway finance; 
(5) an address by some public official 
on a subject relating to the industry. 

The first subject will bring out the 
fact that electric railways are essential 
to the maintenance of community and 
commercial lite, and that this fact 
should be kept before the investors and 
general public. The existence of a 
street railway has often been taken as a 
matter of fact, and at present there is 
much discussion as to whether or not 
surface railways will be extended. Some 
hold that as yet the electric lines have 
not had a full opportunity to demon- 
strate their maximum utility because of 
restrictions placed by state laws and 
franchises prohibiting the transporta- 
tion of commodities, and it is possible 
that this view may be presented by 
one of the papers on this subject. 

The paper on service-at-cost will take 
up the two methods of rate adjustments 
and present the advantages appei-tain- 
ing thereto so as to permit careful 
study. Some operators prefer the ser- 
vice-at-cost while others believe state 
regulation of rates and service to be 
more desirable. 

The subject of comparative condi- 
tions divides into four parts, namely, 
community relationships, plant and 
facilities, net earnings and finances, and 
it is hoped that each of these will be 

The discussion on electric railway 
financing will continue that begun at 
the last mid-year meeting, and a basis 
of discussion is found in present require- 
ments for mortgage securities, home 
town financing, financing by sale of 
capital shares and municipal aid. 

The names of those who will present 
papers on the different topics mentioned 
will be made public by the secretary of 
the association as soon as definite ar- 
rangements along this line have been 

The association is not yet readv to 
announce the name of the public official 
who it is expected will address the 
members of the association at the con- 

Committee Plans Increased Activ- 
ity Organizing Company 

THE committee on company sections 
and individual membership of the 
association is planning a campaign to 
organize additional company sections 
among member companies. 

A meeting of the committee is to be 
heM in the immediate future, to discuss 
the details of the plan to place before 
electric railways the benefits to be de- 
rived from company section organiza- 
tion. The original company section 
committee, which consisted of Martin 
Schreiber, chief engineer and manager, 
southern division, Public Service Rail- 
way, Camden, N. J., as chairman; 
Charles C. Peirce, manager railway de- 
partment General Electric Company, 
Boston, Mass., and H. H. Norris, man- 
aging editor Electric Railway Jour- 
nal, New York, N. Y., was recently en- 
larged by the appointment of the follow- 
ing members: F. G. Buffe, general man- 
ager Kansas City (Mo.) Railways; E. F. 
Wickwire, sales manager Ohio Brass 
Company, Mansfield, Ohio; J. P. Barnes, 
pi-esident Louisville (Ky.) Railway; 
F. S. Arkwright, president Georgia Rail- 
way & Power Company, Atlanta, Ga.; 
and B. J. Mallon, assistant general man- 
ager Metropolitan West Side Elevated 
Railway. Chicago, 111. 

The idea which the committee has in 
mind is the revival of the interest taken 
in company sections. Prior to the war 
t v ere were twelve organizations of 
this kind located at points throughout 
the country, each of which was main- 
taining considerable enthusiasm among 
its members and educational work per- 
taining to the industry. 

During the war many members en- 
tered military service and company sec- 
tion activities were suspended. Since 
the close of the war two new company 
sections have been organized and many 
companies are now considering the 
organization of sections. The committee 
will be glad to co-operate in every way 
possible to the furtherance of such 

Merchandising Transportation 

THE final meeting of the committee 
on merchandising transportation of 
the T. & T. Association was held at the 
association's headquarters on July 14. 
Those present were J. H. Alexander, 
Cleveland: H. C. Clark, Newark; G. T. 
Seeley, Youngstown; K. A. Simmon, 
for M. B. Lambert, East Pittsburgh. 

Since the previous meeting the chair- 
man had prepared in tentative form 
the full report and had forwarded it to 
all members for comment. Letters 
either of approval or criticism from 
those of the committee unable to be 
present and others were read, and th^ir 
comments as they referred to the re- 
port were noted. The chairman w'U 
present the completed report to the 
executive committee next week. The 
report this year will detail actual 
means of merchandising transportation 
as practiced by the industry and is a 
supplement to the report of last year. 

News of the Ele&ric Railways 



Suspension Contemplated 

Receivers at Des Moines Appeal to 
Court for Permission to Shut Down 
All Service 

The receivers for the Des Moines (la.) 
City Eailway filed a petition during the 
week ended July 9 with Judge Martin 
J. Wade of the federal court asking 
that they he allowed completely to 
suspend operation of the railway sys- 
tem in Des Moines. 

Judge Wade set July 13 as the date 
for hearing arguments on the motion 
and F. C. Chambers, operating receiver, 
is authority for the statement that in 
the event the petition is allowed serv- 
ice will he suspended one week from the 
date of Judge Wade's order. 

Receivers Lose Hope 

This seemingly drastic step was 
taken by the receivers only after all 
hope had apparently disappeared of 
securing relief through the City Council. 

M. H. McClean, representing the Har- 
ris Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago, 
acting for security holders of the rail- 
way, appeared "before the City Council 
recently with a program for the solu- 
tion of the railway problem. He pro- 
posed to the Council that the owners 
of the local plant would undertake to 
secure the funds necessary to secure 
electrical equipment to restore full 
service in Des Moines if the City Coun- 
cil would take the following action: 

1. Declare the present franchise forfeited. 

2. Eliminate the present destructive bus 

3. Initiate proceedings looking to the 
negotiation of a new service-at-cost fran- 

4. Declare its intent to refrain from de- 
manding extensions or extensive reconstruc- 
tion and from the levying of burdensome 
special assessments for paving while the 
company is financially unable to undertake 
such things. 

This program apparently made little 
impression upon members of the Coun- 
cil and ultimately all four measures 
were killed by being received and filed. 
The bus measure appeared to have some 
chance of passage, but in a stormy ses- 
sion of the Council, in which bus own- 
ers and members of improvement 
leagues were present the ordinance was 
defeated on its second reading. 

Mayor Regards Buses as Insufficient 

The program had the indorsement of 
the Corporation Counsel and received 
partial support from Mayor Barton. 
Mr. Barton's attitude with regard to 
ruling the buses off the street was that 
this measure ?hould be taken only in 
the event that the railway agreed to 
make a substantial reduction in fares. 
Mayor Barton, however, addressed a 
letter to the Council in which he stated 
that the city could not hope to depend 
upon the buses for transportation. 

As the situation now stands, appar- 

ently no real action toward a settlement 
is to be taken until Judge Wade rules 
on the petition filed with the court by 
the receivers. 

Judge Wade on July 13 took under 
advisement the petition of the receivers 
of the Des Moines City Railway for a 
complete suspension of service. His 
ruling is expected within twenty-four 
hours. Just previous to the hearing the 
city of Des Moines filed a belated re- 
sistance to the petition and city attor- 
neys argued for a delay in suspension. 

Wage Cuts Being Negotiated 
in New York 

Frank Hedley, president and general 
manager of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company, New York, N. Y., an- 
nounced officially on July 12 that he had 
asked the employees to accept a 10 
per cent cut in wages beginning July 
24. The present agreement between 
the company and the Interborough 
Brotherhood expires on Dec. 31. 

Mr. Hedley said that some time ago 
when the cost of living was rapidly 
rising, the company at the request of 
the men voluntarily increased wages, 
although it had a contract with the men 
for a fixed wage. Now that conditions 
are the reverse, the company has re- 
quested the men to treat it the same as 
the company has treated them. 

The cut, if accepted, will affect some 
14,500 men. Under the present scale of 
wages motormen are getting 86 cents 
an hour, guards 58 cents, laborers from 
48 cents to 58 cents, and the mechanical 
forces, from 65 to 80 cents an hour. 

It is understood that the company 
has guaranteed that if the men accept 
the proposed cut, no further lowering 
of wages will be made until July, 1922, 
six months after the present agreement 
with the Brotherhood expires. 

Negotiations are in progress between 
Receiver Hedges of the New York Rail- 
ways and the employees of that com- 
pany looking to a similar decrease in 
wages. The number of men affected by 
these negotiations is reported to be 
about 5,000. 

As has been stated previously in the 
Electric Railway Journal negotia- 
tions are also in progress in Brooklyn 
looking to a cut in the pay of the men 
employed on the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
System. The cut in wages there is ex- 
pected to be made on Aug. 6 when the 
agreement between the men and the 
company expires. It is said that it will 
be at least 10 per cent. Receiver Gar- 
rison is understood to favor a reduction 
of from 12 to 15 per cent. The em- 
ployees are conferring among them- 
selves, and their representatives will in 
turn meet the officials of the company 
during the week ended July 23 to agree 
on the size of the decrease. 

Another Brawl Started 

Chicago's "City Hall" Will Endeavor 
to Get Five-Cent Fare — Mayor 
Before New Commission 

Mayor Thompson on July 8 started 
his long promised fight for restoration 
of the 5-cent fare on the Chicago sur- 
face lines. This was in the shape of 
five petitions filed before the new 
Illinois Commerce Commission against 
the Chicago Surface Lines and its four 
component companies. The petitioners 
were the city of Chicago, Mayor Thomp- 
son and four other "citizens and tax- 
payers." The preliminary hearing was 
set for July 12. 

The petitions reiterate many of the 
Mayor's arguments against the surface 
line companies, arguments which failed 
to stand the test before the old utili- 
ties commission or the courts. He evi- 
dently expects to get a more favorable 
ruling from a friendly commission, the 
members of which were reappointed re- 
cently by his political ally, Governor 
Small. The petitioners ask that the 
"final order" entered by the former 
commission on Nov. 5, 1920, be re- 
scinded, altered or amended and that 
the rate of fare be reduced from 8 to 
5 cents. 

Contending that the contract ordi- 
nances under which the companies are 
operating have been abrogated by the 
"acceptance of a rate of fare higher 
than 5 cents, the petitioners ask the 
commission to restore the old rate re- 
gardless of the ordinance provision." 
This is said to be warranted by a 
change in conditions due to decreased 
cost of operation. They also ask that 
the $7,000,000 row in the renewal fund 
be applied to the reduction of fares, 
and that the city's share of the net 
receipts for the past two years be used 
for the same purpose or turned over to 
the municipality for use and occupa- 
tion of the streets. This latter sum of 
about $3,500,000 was tendered to the 
city by the companies but was refused 
because the Mayor has insisted that 
an acceptance would be a recognition 
that the ordinances of 1907 are still in 

The petitioners also attack the Board 
of Supervising Engineers, claiming that 
it has no legal right to exist and that, 
the members should not be paid out 
of the operating expenses of the com- 
panies. The commission also is asked 
to inquire into the salaries paid cer- 
tain officers and lawyers employed by 
the companies. The unusual sug- 
gestion is made that the companies are 
not entitled to any return on their in- 
vestment until they "comply with the 
law and furnish adequate service." In 
any event it is alleged that they should 
not be allowed a return greater than 
the 5 per cent fixed by the ordinances. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

New Orleans No Nearer 

The Commission Council of New 
Orleans, La., at the conference on July 
7 wound up the discussion bearing upon 
a solution of the city's traction 
troubles without reaching a definite 
conclusion. The hearing was confined 
largely to the matter of the valuation 
of the railway. 

Representatives of the association of 
commerce and the advisory committee 
of forty appeared and urged the mem- 
bers of the Commission Council to take 
immediate action in the matter. They 
insisted that the commissioners had 
already had enough advice. 

W. S. Penick, one of the committee 
of forty, said he was impressed with 
the work of the sub-committee that 
fixed the valuation and that the amount 
named ($44,700,000) was less than some 
of the members present thought the 
property was worth. 

The conference adjourned with the 
promise that when "the thing is 
whipped into shape" those interested 
would hear from the city. 

The delay of the city has entangled 
it in a web of litigation which will 
hardly permit the commissioners to 
extricate themselves before winter. Up 
to the present time the litigation pend- 
ing is as follows: 

The railway has enjoined the city, in 
the federal court, from interfering with 
the receiver in the collection of an 
8-cent fare. , 

The railway has instituted injunc- 
tion proceedings against the State of 
Louisiana, in the Civil District Court, 
restraining it from interfering in the 
pending controversy between the city 
and the railway, looking to an adjust- 
ment of the city's traction troubles. 

The State of Louisiana, through the 
Attorney-General's office, seeks to 
restrain the city by injunction from 
reaching a settlement with the railway 
upon any terms not in keeping with 
the company's franchise alleged to 
have been obtained from the State and 
not from the municipality. 

Seattle Case to Be Determined 
on Its Merits 

In a decision handed by Judge Jere- 
miah Neterer in the United States Dis- 
trict Court recently, the application was 
granted that has been made by S. B. 
Asia and thirteen taxpayers of Seattle, 
Wash., for dismissal of the amended 
complaint filed by the Puget Sound 
Power & Light Company for a restrain- 
ing order to prevent the fourteen tax- 
payers from interfering with the city in 
the payment of the interest and prin- 
cipal on the $15,000,000 of bonds issued 
by the city in payment of the railway 
lines now included in the system of the 
Seattle Municipal Railway. 

The court said: 

For the reasons given in the decisions 
filed on April 1, and on March 12, the 
motion of the defendant is granted. The 
issue should be determined at the earliest 
date. The Circuit Court of Appeals con- 
venes in this city in September and it is 
possible to have the action of this court 
reviewed at that time if the parties are so 

disposed, and all parties may then rest 
secure in the proceeding which must be 

Judge Neterer handed down a de- 
cision on March 12 denying the appli- 
cation of the Stone & Webster inter- 
ests for a temporary injunction 
against the fourteen taxpayers. The 
amended complaint upon which the ap- 
peal was handed down recently was in 
the nature of an appeal from that 
decision. At that time, the court held 
that the Superior Court had full juris- 
diction in the case. The court held 
that the payment of the interest when 
due removed the "contingency which 
no doubt caused the plaintiff to move 
in this case and this was done without 
order or suggestion from this court." 

Public Hearing on Question of 

The City Council of Portland, Ore., 
has adopted a resolution requesting the 
Public Service Commission to call a 
public hearing to discuss the question 
of whether the Portland Railway, Light 
& Power Company has made the ex- 
penditures for maintenance and recon- 
struction which it promised to make 
prior to the granting of the 8-cent fare. 
F. I. Fuller, vice-president of the com- 
pany, states that his company has no 
objection to the investigation. He said 
that in the last seventeen months the 
company has spent $431,000 for main- 
tenance, reconstruction and general 
track and roadway work. The total 
maintenance for this period was 

Highway Legislation Before 

There is a growing feeling in Con- 
gress that federal aid highways should 
not be "free from tolls of all kinds" as 
is provided in both the Dowell and 
Townsend bills now before Congress 
and in the existing law. This is due 
to the increasing tendency on the part 
of motor common carriers to use the 
public highways without making re- 
turns for the use of this facility. 

It is recognized that it is frequently 
very difficult to require a common car- 
rier or a contract carrier performing 
his service on a highway without penal- 
izing the farmer or other producer in 
his efforts to get his products to mar- 
ket. Some are of the opinion that the 
federal law should contain no inhibi- 
tion against tolls and that the matter 
better could be left to the states, since 
the question involved is almost always 
a local one. 

Highway legislation marked time 
during the week ended July 9. Sen- 
ator Townsend found it impossible to be 
in Washington during the week. Both 
the highway bills are at present under 
his immediate jurisdiction. The Dow- 
ell bill, which recently passed the House 
as a rider on the Phipps bill, was re- 
ferred to Senator Townsend's commit- 
tee. The Townsend bill itself is on the 
Senate calendar. Senator Townsend is 
in a position to call the bill up at nearly 
any time that he desires. 

City Still Opposing Indianapolis 
Street Railway 

At a conference of officials of the 
city and Indianapolis Street Railway 
recently, the traction men refused to 
enter negotiations for a contract which 
would give the city all regulatory 
rights over the company excepting that 
i elating to rates. 

Mayor Jewett said that Dr. Henry 
Jameson, chairman of the board of the 
utility, promised him that if the city 
would not use its influence against? 
the bill to permit public utilities to 
surrender their franchises all the com- 
pany would desire to do would be to 
get relief from the fare provisions of 
its contract with the city and would 
submit to city regulation in all other 

Dr. Jameson denied having made 
such a promise. He insisted that he 
was standing by his word. 

Upon refusal of the company to 
enter into negotiations for the contract 
Corporation Counsel Samuel Ashby 
announced that the city will seek to 
have its common council pass an ordi- 
nance or ordinances granting it such 
regulatory powers as it desires, under 
authority of section 10 of the public 
service commission law which provides 
for such procedure in the case of a 
utility operating under an indeter- 
minate permit. 

It seems certain that the city will 
insist upon its right to collect $30,000 
a year for the next five years and 
$50,000 for the seven years thereafter 
as a franchise tax payment to the 
board of park commissioners, as was 
guaranteed under the surrendered 
franchise. It also appeared probable 
that the city will insist that the com- 
pany continue to pay both for original 
cost and maintenance of pavement 
between its tracks. 

The traction men insisted that for 
the city to continue to require these 
things would constitute burdens which 
would either break the company's back 
or necessitate appeal to the Public 
Service Commission for higher fares. 
They were pessimistic about the relief 
to be obtained from a rate greater than 
5 cents, because the recent 6-cent 
charge brought in less revenue than 
did the nickel when coupled with a 
charge for transfers. 

Arbitrators Reduce Wages in 
Des Moines 

Wages of the employees of the Des 
Moines City Railway have been reduced 
from a maximum of 70 cents an hour, 
the old scale, to a maximum of 59 cents 
by the findings of the board of arbiters 
chosen by the company and the men. 
The employees had sought an increase 
to a maximum of 80 cents, while the 
company asked a reduction to 57 cents. 
The high rate goes to men of more than 
nine months' service. Those serving 
their first three months will receive 53 
cents and the men over three months 
and less than nine months 56 cents. 
The agreement fixed by the arbitrators 
became effective on July 1. 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Jersey Value $82,000,000— 
Increased Charge for 

The Board of Public Utility Commis- 
sioners of New Jersey at noon on July 
14 filed its decision in the investigation 
of the rates of the Public Service Rail- 
way. The board continued the 7-cent 
fare, but increased the charge for 
transfers from 1 to 2 cents. It finds a 
valuation of $82,000;000 for the prop- 
erty, and estimates the income to be 
produced by the additional transfer 
charge, together with the company's 
other revenue, will afford a return of 
slightly more than 7 per cent on the 
value found. 

The board's decision is voluminous, 
comprising more than seventy type- 
written pages. It discusses in detail 
the different estimates of value sub- 
mitted to the board, the capitalization 
of the company, its revenues and operat- 
ing expenses. The board states that 
it had before it data regarding the 
value of the company as included in the 
Cooley appraisal, which was made by 
the company; the appraisal made by 
Ford, Bacon & Davis, under contract 
with the State Appraisal Commission; 
testimony of the board's own experts 
and that of the experts for the munic- 
ipalities and historical costs of the 
property as developed by witnesses 
of the municipalities. 

The principles of the valuation as de- 
clared by the New Jersey courts are re- 
ferred to and applied by the board. In 
addition to the decision of the New 
Jersey courts numerous decisions of 
the United States Supreme Court and 
courts and commissions of other States 
are cited and the principles therein set 
forth are discussed. 

The board found itself unable in view 
of the testimony presented to accept 
the valuation figures as presented by 
Ford, Bacon & Davis to the special 
state valuation board. 

The valuation as found by Ford, 
Bacon & Davis for the State was $125,- 
000,000. The valuation as found by 
Dean Cooley for the company was $200,- 
000,000. The value claimed by the 
municipalities was $60,000,000. Other 
phases of the rate case are referred to 
elsewhere in this issue. 

Interurban Will Electrify Track 
to Union Station 

The Denver & Interurban Railroad 
will take steps immediately to electrify 
the Burlington Railway right-of-way 
from Utah Junction to Union Station 
in Denver, according to announcement 
made in Denver on July 9. The work 
will occupy about six months' time, the 
cars being routed over the present line 
via Globeville and over the Denver 
Tramway tracks until the project is 

Provision for electrification of the 
railway line into Denver and shortening 
of the route was contained in a rate 
increase which was given the company 
last fall by the state Public Utilities 
Commission. The estimated cut in the 
running time under the new system is 

20 minutes with the elimination of all 
the attendant congestion of traffic in 
Denver streets over which the cars run. 

Under the new plan, the electric cars 
will not run into the Union station 
proper but will have their terminus on 
the Colorado and Southern coach 
tracks to the north of the main lines. 
With the new system in effect no addi- 
tional charge, it is understood, will be 
made for city fares in Denver which are 
now collected by the tramway company 
there as franchise rights. This will, 
under prevailing street car rates in 
Denver, lower the round trip fare 16 

City to Make Offer for Woodward 
and Fort Lines 

At a conference of the members of 
the Street Railway Commission with 
three representatives of the Detroit 
(Mich.) United Railway on July 8 it 
was announced that the city would soon 
tender an offer to the company for the 
lines on Fort Street and on Woodward 
Avenue, where the franchises have ex- 
pired. It is frcm these streets that the 
courts have held that the city has the 
right to order the company to remove 
its tracks. 

According to a statement by Alex 
Dow, speaking for the company, the 
company will give its answer as to 
whether or not it is willing to accept 
the figures named by the city within 
forty-eight hours after receiving the 
commission's offer. No decision was 
reached by the commission at the re- 
cent meeting as to what figures the city 
will name for the two lines. 

The question of ratifying the pur- 
chase of these two lines, which will link 
up the new municipal system with the 
down-town district, will be decided at 
the November election. Final decision 
will be left to the voters and they will 
be asked to authorize the purchase of 
the lines at that time. 

Some time ago the Detroit United 
Railway signified its willingness to sell 
the two lines at such time as the people 
desired to take them over. Although 
no announcement was made by com- 
pany officials following the last meeting, 
Allan F. Edwards, vice-president of the 
railway, stated that the company's at- 
titude had not changed. Both Mr. Ed- 
wards and Mr. Dow declined to make 
any statement at the present time ex- 
cept to say that the company was ready 
to sell these lines to the city. 

Denver Plans Wage Readjustment 

Negotiations will be entered into in 
the near future between a committee of 
employees' representatives and E. Sten- 
ger, receiver for the Denver Tramway, 
looking toward a general wage read- 
justment. In the meantime, the em- 
ployees' representatives have notified 
the trainmen that Receiver Stenger will 
not restore the top wage of 58 cents an 
hour which was in effect at the time 
of the August, 1920, strike — a rate 
approximately 90 per cent of the pres- 
ent trainmen would have automatically 
received next month or soon thereafter. 

Fares May Go Up in Cincinnati 

There will be no reduction in fares 
on the lines of the Cincinnati (Ohio) 
Traction Company on Aug. 1. This 
is a direct result of activity of the 
citizens' committee, of which William 
J. Schultz is chairman. Instead there 
is a likelihood of fares going up on the 
strength of petitions filed by the com- 
mittee with the city auditor. The peti- 
tions ask for a referendum on the 
ordinance recently passed by the City 
Council providing for the lowering of 

The filing of the petitions has the 
effect of suspending the operation of 
the new ordinance. It means, there- 
fore, that the 1918 franchise ordinance 
still is in force and under its terms 
when the traction company suffers a 
deficit for two months in succession it 
may give notice of an increase in fares 
on the fifteenth of the following month, 
to take effect on the first day of the 
month thereafter. 

The committee submitted 178 peti- 
tions which contain a total of 16,644 
names. Less than 10,000 signatures 
were required. The petition seeks to 
submit the ordinance to the voters at 
the November election, thus holding up 
the issue until after that time. Mr. 
Schultz declared that if the ordinance 
is voted down by the citizens he will 
introduce an ordinance by initiative 
petition providing for a reduction of 
fares at the rate of one-half cent each 
month until a level of 5 cents is 

City officials pointed out that under 
the law the formal acceptance by a 
public utility of any franchise ordi- 
nance or an amendment is necessarv 
before the ordinance can become ef- 
fective. Such an ordinance will take 
care of the deficits, it was pointed out, 
and the traction company is not likely 
to accept it because of these conditions. 
Mr. Schultz's idea is to abolish the 
annual franchise tax of $350,000 paid 
to the city by the traction comtnny. 

Mayor John Galvin. when informed 
that the Detitions had been filed, said it 
is too bad that a condition of this kind 
should arise. 

Duluth Absconder Captured 

Berger T. Jager, former confidential 
secretary to Vice-President A. M. 
Robertson of the Twin City Rapid Tran- 
sit Company, is in the Hennepin County 
jail under indictment for grand larceny. 
After confessing to a Cincinnati clergy- 
man he wrote to Mr. Robertson offering 
to eive himself up, and arrived July 9 
in Minneapolis in charge of a Pinkerton 
man. On Jan. 29 it was discovered Jager 
had converted to his own use a Duluth- 
Superior Traction Company check for 
$4,825. On Jan 31 it was discovered he 
had taken from a safety deposit vault 
$127,000 in securities belonging to the 
Duluth company. Of these securities 
$116,000 were recovered on July 2. 
Jager had been employed fifteen years 
by the company before his resignation 
and disappearance. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 58, No. 3 

Milwaukee Sells Stock 

§3,000.000 of New Issue be:ng Placed 
Locally in Campaign with Several 
Novel Features 

A novel advertising scheme has just 
been made use of by the Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Company, 
Milwaukee, Wis., in selling its securi- 
ties direct to the public. The company 
is one of the pioneers in direct sales 

The methods employed by the Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway & Light Com- 
pany and its affiliated companies in 
Wisconsin in selling their securities to 
the public were described in some detail 
in the paper, "Home-Town Financing," 
read by S. B. Way, vice-president and 
general manager of the company, be- 
for the 1921 mid-year meeting of the 
American Electric Railway Association. 
This paper was printed in the Electric 

past twenty -one years, according to 
these advertisements, the company paid 
a total of $5,661,879 to holders of the 
$4,500,000 of 6 per cent preferred stock 
in regular quarterly cash dividends. 
The holders of the common stock have 
received during the past nineteen years 
a total of $12,315 550, or at an average 
yearly rate of 6i per cent. 

Banner Displayed on Milwaukee Cars 

of securities. As reported in the 
Electric Railway Journal of June 11, 
1921, page 1100, it recently increased 
its capital stock. It was decided to 
offer for sale in 1921 a part of the new 
issue of preferred stock, largely for 
the purpose of transforming floating 
debt incurred during recent years for 
additions to plant and property to a 
permanent investment basis. In order 
to attract attention to the sale which 
was to begin on June 30, 1921, all the 
700 city and interurban cars of the com- 
pany appeared on the morning of June 
30 carrying large banners on their sides 
calling attention to the sale of securi- 
ties. As is shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration, the banners read: 
"T. M. E. R. & L. Co. 8 Per Cent Cumu- 
lative Preferred Stock. On sale today. 
Public Service Building." 

Banners Produce Sensation 

The banners produced something akin 
to a sensation since they resembled ban- 
ners announcing picnics. This caused 
everybody to endeavor to get a good 
look at them. The banners were sup- 
plemented on June 30 by half-page ad- 
vertisements in the principal Milwaukee 
daily newspapers, giving further de- 
tails of the stock issue and of the sale 
in general. The advertising campaign 
is being continued, a quarter-page ad- 
vertisement being used in the large 
dailies since July 1. Advertising will 
also be carried in the various Wiscon- 
sin dailies and weeklies. In addition, 
the company has asked the co-operation 
of its employees to help sell the securi- 
ties. A small commission will be paid 
for each share of stock sold by them. 

Railway Journal of Feb. 12, 1921, 
page 304. 

The stock being sold is a $3,000 000 
issue of 8 per cent cumulative non -vot- 
ing preferred. It is being sold at par 
($100). The issue has been approved 
by the Wisconsin Railroad Commission. 
The advertisements announcing the sale 
of this stock call attention to the fact 
that the increase in preferred stock is 
the first in twenty years. During the 

Adequate Junior Financing 

Practical Application of Doctrine of 
Bankers' Association to Be Made 
by Holding Company 

A committee of the stockholders of 
the North American Company, New 
York, N. Y., has recommended to the 
stockholders a plan and agreement for 
the reclassification and readjustment of 
the capital stock of the company. The 
subsidiaries serve rapidly growing dis- 
tricts constantly demanding increased 
facilities with the attendant large re- 
quirements for new capital. It is ex- 
plained that continued employment by 
subsidiaries of bonds and notes as the 
sole means of financing the cost of such 
added facilities tends in time to produce 
a financial set-up top-heavy in debt and 
to impair the credit of the parent com- 
pany and its subsidiaries. 

In other words, the rapid growth of 
the properties has required a larger 
amount of capital than the subsidiaries 
could provide and it has been necessary 
to make up the balance from surplus 
earnings, with the result that the quoted 
market discount on the stock of the 
holding company as now organized has 
made it impossible to meet these capi- 
tal requirements from the sale of ad- 
ditional amounts of such stock. It thus 
becomes imperative that a readjust- 
ment of capitalization be effected which 
will make it practicable to raise new 
capital and permit distribution of a 


T. M. E. R & L. Co. Increases Capital Stock $3,000,000 
and Gives Wisconsin Investors an Opportunity 
to Buy S% Cumulative Preferred 
Shares ai $100 a Share. 

For tiic first time in over twenty years. The Milwaukee tlcc- 

rrie Railway k Lipbl Company. Wi f ronMffl"> hrsi -I and itronscst public Utility, is b- 
creasinr its preferred ,-tn.k and. cinrij investors a ilran. p in nrnuirt; share 
ownership in tbr bii'ines*. Tbr Company'* pr'.ntli .lunn- it> pa*t twenty years has 
t.f-fti financed kt f 'llmc hond and n 

20-Year Dividend Record 

ft, total of 55.661.879 ha: b< 
regular quarterly ca£h d 
A total of S12.315.550 18. a 

s of 54,500,000 of 6 preferred stock, in 
l break, during the past twenty -one years. 
I rate of d'/'i"- ■. has been paid, the holders*! 


■-, f..r 

-tof it 

and c 

U, if i 

Growth of the Business 

Starting Thursday, June 30, T M E. R & L. Co. will place on sale in its 
Securities Department, and through the offices of WisconE'n Gas & Electric 
Company, an issue of S3.000.000 of 8% cumulative preferred slock, ap- 
proved by ibe Railroad Commission of Wisconsin. 

TV prW of llie ■SATCl i. p:ir. $100 "i alt r»r*X"'« rrrdit to apr'r th* final 

simple form and from 

Property Value Exceeds Capitalization 

I »,«. -JO-l M)2 


S 8^13,22315 
10.200.579 82 
14.883,446 05 

Today T M E B. te~L- CoJsJo. better 

_ 3.B76.TK 

Where You Can Buy the Shares 

,-imrni— will brin; a aalriaaa at any Jwur you Mail orders should be addressed to. 

The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company 

Effective Advertisement Used in Milwaukee Campaign 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


larger proportion of these earnings to 

The present authorized capital of the 
company is ?30,000,000, all common, of 
which $29,793,300 is outstanding. It is 
proposed to provide an authorized capi- 
tal of $60,000,000 to consist of $30,000,- 
000 of 6 per cent cumulative preferred 
stock to be redeemable at 105 per cent 
of par and $30,000,000 of common stock. 
Under this plan there will be issued to 
each stockholder for each $100 share 
held at present $50 par value of 6 per 
cent cumulative preferred stock and 
$50 par value of common stock. 

This will require the issuance of ths 
same amount of stock as is now 
outstanding, so that upon completion 
of the plan recommended, the relative 
position of each stockholder will be 
maintained, unaltered as far as his pro- 
portionate interest in the assets of 
the company are concerned. On the 
other hand, however, the new plan has 
the advantage that the preferred stock 
with its fixed dividends of 6 per cent 
and the small proportion of the total 
earnings required therefor should rank 
as a high-grade investment stock. 

Since the return on one-half the capi- 
talization will be limited to 6 per cent, 
all remaining earnings will be applic- 
able to the common stock. The larger 
sum thus left available for this issue, 
it is hoped, will warrant this stock 
enjoying a market from time to time at 
par or above. In this way it is expected 
provision can be made for financing 
the capital requirements of the sub- 
sidiaries, thus permitting the release 
for dividends of a larger percentage 
of the subsidiaries' earnings. 

The matter of a readjustment of the 
capitalization of the company was first 
considered in 1917. Prior to the an- 
nual meeting of the stockholders in 1920 
a plan was submitted and received the 
approval of a majority of the stock- 
holders. It was later withdrawn, how- 
ever, for further consideration. The 
directors believe that the plan now of- 
fered obviates the only objection which 
was offered to the plan of 1920. 

Future Encouraging 

Increased Traffic on London Railways 
Fails to Offset Increase in 
Operating Expenses 

In the 1920 comparative statement of 
the operations of the five companies, 
which became parties to the agreement 
made under the London Electric Rail- 
way Facilities Act of 1915, there is 
shown an increase in traffic receipts of 
£1,924,388, or 20 per cent over 1919. At 
the same time the operating expenses 
increased £2,199,249, or 26.9 per cent 
over the preceding year. 

Allowing for an increase in the 
miscellaneous receipts of more than 
£130,000, the net income for 1920 was 
£141,895 less than in 1919. The state- 
ment of the London General Omnibus 
Company is more encouraging than in 

1919, the net income being a deficit of 
only £1,942 or a gain of £137,062. The 
reason, therefore, for the total decrease 
in net income over 1919 was due to the 
large decreases of the London Electric 
Railway of £167,607, the City & South 
London Company £41,275, and the Cen- 
tral London Railway £84,668. 

Some idea of the rapid growth of the 
service rendered by the London under- 

ground Electric Railways may be ob- 
tained by the fact that 98,309,320 more 
passengers were carried than in 1919, 
an increase of 5.7 per cent. During the 
same period the total car miles in- 
creased 17,751,663, or 11.9 per cent. 

During the year the London General 
Omnibus Company placed an order for 
500 "K" type motor omnibuses, making 
together with those ordered the pre- 
vious year 1,000 in all, of which 547 
had been put into service up to Dec. 
31, 1920. Another order has been placed 
for an improved bus known as the "S" 
type. The company will then have 
omnibuses of the "B" type seating 
thirty-four passengers, the "K" type 
seating forty-six passengers, and the 
"S" type seating fifty-four passengers. 

A bill which was promoted by the 
four railway companies for an increase 

in rates received the Royal assent on 
August 16, 1920. The new fare was put 
into operation on Sept. 26, by which 
ordinary fares were increased about 30 
per cent, and workmen's fares and sea- 
son tickets were also increased. On the 
same date a new schedule of rates was 
introduced by the London General 
Omnibus Company. The results of the 
increase thus far are up to expectations. 


Mileage — first track. . 

second track 

Total single track 

Train-miles — active. . . 



1 19.053 

City a nd 


Central General 

London Omnibus 

Railway Company 



21.375 ( ) 577 


Total train-miles operated. . . 5,251,721 6,836,354 

Total car-miles operated 19,562,491 27,862,463 

Revenue passengers carried: 

Ordinary (cash) in) 95,320, 1 79 112,703,726 26,443,739 39,328,973 767.953,649 

Workmen (a) 24,338,296 32,946,156 12.011,225 4.536,672 

Season (.1)28,040.865 18.940.220 2,683,928 6,454,240 

Total passengers («) 147,699.340 164,590,102 41,138,892 50,319,885 767,953.649 

Gross passenger revenue 

Average fare per passenger 

Statistics per car-mile: s 

Traffic receipts 1 

Operating expenses 1 

Net income 

Passenger traffic 

(o) Estimated. ( ) Deficit. 

tramway tracks. 


10 30 
7 55 

7,391,809 8,069,045 85,843,092 148,728,900 



£1,716,476 £353.104 £525,083 £6,533,951 

11 .94 
1 .53 
5 91 

2 06 

1 1 .47 
10 45 
5 57 

3 63 
1 . 76 
6 23 

2 04 

6 64 
8 94 

2 18 

6 72 
1 76 

(r) Miles of street on which buses operate, of which 222 miles 


City and 

Metropolitan London Sou h 

District Electric London 

Railway Railway Railway 

Traffic receipts (a) £2,472,614 £1,716,476 £353,104 

Operating expenses 1,509,272 1,387,294 321,911 

Net receipts : £963,342 £329.182 £31,193 

Miscellaneous receipts (net) 205.508 134,936 32,309 

Grossincome £1,168,850 £464,118 £63,502 

Interest, rentals and other fixed charges 327,371 286,266 49,619 

Net income £841,479 £177,852 £13,883 

Reserve for contingencies and renewals 45,000 45,000 25,000 

Dividend on guaranteed and preference stocks ( ) 124.930 126,947 42,500 

Total deductions £169,930 £171,947 £67,500 

Surplus paid into or drawn from common fund £671,549 £5.905 (c) £53,617 

Amount received from common fund 42,539 106,348 2L270 

Per cent of total ' |2 30 6 

Add balance from last year's accounts 22,098 20,942 19,750 

Total amount available for dividends and further reserves £64 637 £127 290 £41020 

Dividends 44,'l00 104,940 22^200 

Balance carried to next year's account £20,537 £22,350 £18,820 

(a) Including $705,347 from Government compensation after providing for adjustments. 
( ) Exclusive of dividend on second preference ,-tock. 
(r) Deficit met out of common fund. 

* Deficit. 




£1 13,268 



1 1,762 




* £141.287 




(c) £286,942 
I 13,437 

1 14,320 


£1 1,601,228 









Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

Hartford & Springfield Road 
Doing Better 

The committee representing the hold- 
ers of bonds of the Hartford & Spring- 
field Street Railway, Hartford, Conn., 
has expressed great satisfaction over 
the much-improved physical condition 
of the property and its present financial 
status, and has urged the continuation 
of the receivership. The members 
further suggested that bondholders re- 
frain from sending in for payment the 
$600,000 of first mortgage 5s due on 
July 1. 

The bondholders received a statement 
of operation from Receiver Harrison 
B. Freeman under date of June 10, 1921. 
In this report Mr. Freeman expressed 
the belief that the railway "can be 
made to earn its operating expenses, 
taxes and something to apply on bond 
interest as soon as the industrial 
depression has passed and there has 
been a readjustment so that operating 
expenses can be reduced." 

The Hartford & Springfield Division 
went into receiver's hands in October, 
1918. At that time it owed more than 
$50,000 in open accounts and had failed 

the company's property was valued by 
the commission in 1913 at $500,000 and 
again in 1916 at $575,000. Both sides 
agreed that the 1916 valuation would 
hold for the proceedings in the present 
case. The 6 per cent net return on this 
valuation, which the commission au- 
thorized, would mount to $34,000 a year. 
A deficit amounting to from $11,000 to 
$50,000 a year has accumulated since 
1913. Last December the commission 
rejected the application to raise the 
fare from 7 to 8 cents and advised the 
company that an increased rate would 
be unlikely to solve its financial prob- 

Toledo Going Behind Steadily 

•With the stabilizing fund of the Com- 
munity Traction Company, Toledo, Ohio, 
down to $183,333 after five months of 
operation it has been necessary to raise 
fares to 7 cents with tickets at eight 
for 50 cents or possibly six for 40 cents. 

The report for the month of June 
made by Commissioner Wilfred E. Cann 
indicates a deficit of $32,963 after pro- 
viding for operating expenses and allow- 
ances for various funds. This is a de- 

Hartford & Springfield Division 

Gross Operating 
Receipts Expense 

Oct., 1918-1919 $245,675 $235,942 

Oct., 1919-1920 255,140 265,131 

Seven months to May, 1921 151,301 157,984 

Hartford Division 

Gross Operating 

Receipts Expense 

July 1, 1920-May I, 1921.. $152,450 $130,422 

Total system 31 mo3 804,566 789,479 

to pay interest on its bonds. Money 
had to be borrowed to keep the road 
going, but the company, despite the 
severe conditions imposed by the in- 
fluenza epidemic and the coal shortage, 
weathered the gale so that now all 
notes have been paid and all bills 
up to June 1 have been met. Con- 
siderable money has been spent in 
replacement and more than $20,000 has 
been expended within the last two 
years in rolling stock. These various 
expenditures, together with a 50 per 
cent wage advance, have eaten pretty 
well into the company's finances, even 
though a flat 10-cent rate for each zone 
went into effect on April 1, 1920, in- 
stead of the 7-cent fare. The advance 
in rates helped materially at first to 
swell the gross receipts, but this favor- 
able development was only temporary 
due to the present industrial depression. 
State taxes and assessments for high- 
way improvements to the amount of 
$29,653 accrued from Oct. 1, 1918, to 
Jan. 1, 1921. 

The accompanying statement shows 
the operating results of the receiver- 
ship from Oct. 1, 1918, to May 1, 1921. 

Deficit of $150,000 Accumulated 
Since 1913 

The New Jersey & Pennsylvania 
Traction Company, Trenton, N. J., an- 
nounces a deficit of more than $150,000 
in operating its line from Trenton to 
Princeton since 1913, according to fig- 
ures submitted by the company in the 
hearing of the application for a 10-cent 
fare before the Board of Public Utility 
Commissioners. It was shown that 

crease of $1,406 from the previous 
month. The total accrued deficits so 
far amount to $313,634. 

This sum will have to be made up 
by fare increases and savings in opera- 
tions. The fare raise will not take 
effect before Aug. 1 because of a special 
provision in the ordinance which allows 
six months operation without a fare 

A decrease in gross revenue from all 
sources of $13,663 is accounted for by 
the fact that riding has fallen off about 
18 per cent and that June had one day 
less of operation than the previous 

Operating Ratio 85.47 Per Cent 

There was a greatly increased ex- 
penditure on ways and structures dur- 
ing the month of June. A total of 
$49,811 was paid out for that work 
ciuring the month. The ratio of operat- 
ing expense to income fell to 85.47 
per cent during the month, a decline of 
2.01 per cent. 

The commissioners are not pessimistic 
over the status of the operation of the 
lines. They believe that the restriction 
of buses which will soon be effective 
will divert about $16,000 revenue to the 
railway and that the decrease in power 
rate will net a saving of between $10,- 
000 and $20,000 a month. 

The bus ordinance is now in litiga- 
tion. The Common Pleas Court was 
upheld during the week ended July 9 
by the Court of Appeals and further 
action was expected on July 13 to bring 
the matter before the Supreme Court of 
the State for the final effort to set the 
measure aside. 

Wants to Issue Bonds. — The Chicago, 
North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad, 
Highwood, 111., has petitioned the State 
Public Utilities Commission for per- 
mission to issue $500,000 of 7 per cent 
secured sinking fund gold bonds and 
$98,400 of first mortgage bonds. 

$525,000 Sought to Be Recovered. — 

Two suits seeking a total of $525,000 
from the Ohio Traction Company and 
the Cincinnati Street Railway for fran- 
chise tax hav^ been filed in the Hamil- 
ton County Common Pleas Court by 
Attorney Robert S. Alcorn as a tax- 

Haytian-American Corporation in 
Difficulties. — A petition in bankruptcy 
has been filed against the Haytian- 
American Corporation. The corpora- 
tion has concessions from the Haytian 
government for the operation of rail- 
way and electric lines, electric light 
and power companies and a large sugar 
plantation in Hayti. James N. Rosen- 
berg was appointed receiver in equity 
for the corporation last April. 

Overtures Made to Continue Line. — 

The Lake Shore Electric Railway has 
been asked by citizens to abandon its 
plan of removing service on the Sol- 
diers' Home and West Monroe Street 
lines in Sandusky. The service will be 
continued according to company offi- 
cials provided a 10-cent fare is per- 
mitted to be charged on the Soldiers' 
Home line and a 7-cent fare on the 
West Monroe Street line. The present 
fare on other lines is 6 cents with five- 
for-a-quarter tickets. 

$1,000,000 of Transit Bonds Sold.— 

The city of Cincinnati, Ohio, has sold 
to a syndicate composed of Halsey, 
Stuart & Company, the Guarantee 
Trust Company, the Bankers Trust 
Company, Stacy & Braun, the Fifth- 
Third National Bank and Ames, Em- 
erich & Company, $1,000,000 of Cin- 
cinnati Rapid Transit Railway Con- 
struction 53 per cent bonds. They are 
a direct obligation of the city, mature 
Jan. 2, 1967 (optional 1942), and are 
being offered at 103.50 and interest, 
yielding 51 per cent. 

"Let Your Service Pay You Divi- 
dends." — The Public Service Corpora- 
tion of New Jersey, Newark, N. J., 
reported on July 5 that its "Customer 
Ownership" campaign or its offering of 
8 per cent cumulative preferred stock 
had aggregated subscriptions in the 
first four weeks of more than $1,000,- 
000. The campaign was started on 
May 23. In the first four days 612 
new partners were secured, and in the 
first four weeks this number was in- 
creased to more than 4,000. A detailed 
account of this offering was given in 
the Electric Railway Journal for 
June 4. 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Traffic and Transportation 

Jersey Case Carried Up 

Public Service Commission Appeals 
From Court Ruling Holding Pres- 
ent Fare Inadequate 

The Board of Public Utility Commis- 
sioners of New Jersey has appealed 
from the decision of the Supreme Court 
of New Jersey in the 10-cent fare peti- 
tion of the Public Service Railway. It 
will be recalled that the opinion of Jus- 
tice Bergen in this case declared that 
the course followed by the commission 
was not warranted by the evidence. The 
commission now replies to the stric- 
tures by the Supreme Court upon its 
action in the 10 cent case. 

Order Not Warranted 

The commission says that the order 
of the Supreme Court was not war- 
ranted by law. Furthermore, the com- 
mission holds that the order of the 
court was in effect the legalizing of 
"all the bond issues of the Public Serv- 
ice Railway and all the rentals paid 
to subsidiary companies under lease," 
the valuations of which have never been 
determined by commission or court. 

The third point made by the commis- 
sion in its comment upon the Supreme 
Court decision is that the appeal to 
the Court of Errors will determine 
whether the fixing of a just and reason- 
able rate is a judicial or legislative 
function. It was expected that the 
board would announce by July 14 what 
it considered a just and reasonable 
permanent fare for the railway. 

The commission sought immediate ac- 
tion on its appeal, but Chancellor Ed- 
win Robert Walker declined to convene 
the Court of Errors and Appeals in 
special session to stay the judgment 
of the Supreme Court directing the 
commission to grant a higher rate of 
fare than 7 cents to the railway. L. 
Edward Herrmann appeared before the 
chancellor at the direction of the Utility 
Board. The chancellor stated that it 
would not be possible at this time, upon 
such short notice, to secure a quorum 
of the sixteen Errors Court members, 
as many of the judges are away. 

Valuation Brief Filed 

In a brief filed with the Public Utili- 
ties Commission on July 11 in the Public 
Service Railway valuation case, George 
L. Record, representing Jersey City, re- 
peats his stand for the continuance of 
the 7-cent fare and asks that the Public 
Service be warned that if it wants 
greater return on its investment it must 
rely upon greater efficiency and economy 
in management. Mr. Record contended: 

The evidence shows that the Public 
Service is not entitled to any increase of 
fare, and that on the contrary the rapid 
fall in the price of labor and material will 
soon put the company where a reduction in 
the present 7-cent rate should be ordered. 

It is not fair that this company should be 
able to exact from the people who ride in 
the cars a tribute of $1,500,000 annually 

to pay interest upon securities that repre- 
sent no invested value. The injustice of 
taxing forever people who are mostly poor 
in order to provide an unearned income to 
security holders who are mostly rich, is 
intolerable and in the long run can not in 
the nature of things continue. 

The Cooley appraisal of the Public 
Service property is called "fanciful" 
and "absurd" by Mr. Record and the 
one made for the state by Ford, Bason 
& Davis fails also, he declares, because 
it is built up upon the same fanciful 
theory and because the value found 
depends entirely upon what rate the 
board should allow. Mr. Record con- 
tends for the $60,000,000 value offered 
by the municipalities. 

Six Cents Upheld 

State Supreme Court Reverses Lower 
Court Decision and Dismisses 
Attorney's Suit 

The State Supreme Court of Louisi- 
ana in a recent decision ruled that 
Shreveport citizens must continue to 
pay a 6-cent fare until Dec. 31, 1923. 
This finding by Justice Provosty re- 
versed the Caddo District Court and 
dismissed the suit of Huey P. Long, Jr., 
against the Shreveport Traction Com- 
pany, asking that the 6-cent fare ordi- 
nance be declared illegal. 

The Shreveport fare controversy 
dates back to May 18, 1920, when an 
election was held and a majority of 
votes cast favored the increase in fare 
from 5 to 6 cents. 

The increase was contested by H. P. 
Long, an attorney at Shreveport and 
a member of the Louisiana State Rail- 
road Commission. Having failed in his 
efforts to defeat the proposition on the 
day of the election, Mr. Long filed suit 
to annul the election, alleging certain 
irregularities in the proceedings of the 
Mayor and Council in calling the vote. 
The case was tried in February, 1921, 
and the District Judge sustained the 
contention that the irregularities were 
sufficient for an annulment. Mr. Long 
came out in public print advising peo- 
ple to pay only 5 cents. The railway 
advised the people that an appeal would 
be taken to the Supreme Court and 
that the fare would be 6 cents until 
such time as the Supreme Court should 
pass upon the matter. 

In the course of a few weeks the 
number of patrons wno insisted on pay- 
ing only 5 cents grew to such pro- 
portions that the railway instructed its 
conductors to eject any passenger who 
failed to pay the full fare. As a result 
there was considerable confusion and 
the company compromised the matter 
by agreeing to issue coupons for 1 cent 
in case the higher court should sustain 
the lower court. 

The case was argued before the Su- 
preme Court on April 11 and decision 
was rendered on June 30 in favor of the 

More Jitney Decisions 

Connecticut Commission in New Find- 
ings Reiterates Stand Taken in 
Hartford-Manchester Case 

The jitneys heretofore operating in 
New Haven, Conn., have been denied 
certificates of convenience and necessity 
by the Connecticut Public Utilities Com- 
mission with the exception of three 
buses operating on a route that serves 
territory intervening between two car 
lines. This decision also largely pro- 
hibits jitney operation to surrounding- 
towns either on account of adequate rail 
service or because permits have already 
been granted to other jitney operators. 

In denying the applications between 
Branford and New Haven the commis- 
sion suggests that the Connecticut Com- 
pany establish a motor bus service in 
connection with its trolley lines to serve 
territory between East Haven and 
Branford, formerly fed by jitneys and 
row without other means of transpor- 

With regard to the applications for 
permits to run to Bridgeport and Hart- 
ford the commission denied the peti- 
tions, holding that in each case there 
was adequate steam road service and 
that the routes were intended princi- 
pally for through traffic and would only 
serve intermediate territory to a lim- 
ited extent. However, on the New 
Haven-Bridgeport route the commis- 
sion suggested that the Connecticut 
Company might operate a motor bus 
from New Haven via Milford to Devon 
and Allingtown over the main trunk 
highway, there being no other exist- 
ing means of transportation, nor any 
application for this territory. In con- 
nection with the route to Hartford, over 
which large touring cars were run, the 
commission held the train service was 
adequate and further that inasmuch as 
the automobiles with reasonable safe 
speed took at least thirty minutes 
longer than the train, the duplicate 
service was not warranted. 

The commission allowed the applica- 
tion for a bus route from New Haven 
to Waterbury via Bethany on the 
grounds of inadequate train service, but 
denied the through route to Waterbury 
via Ansonia and Derby. This last- 
named route is co-extensive with or 
parallels street railway service supply- 
ing intermediate points over its entire 
length. The route to Waterbury via 
Bethany, it was held, was the quick- 
est, most direct and uncongested for 
through travel and for that reason the 
commission denied the applications for 
another through route via Derby. 

Business Men Ask for Cheaper Fares. 

— At the monthly meeting of the Allied 
Boards of Trade of Pittsburgh, Pa., 
on June 15 constituent organizations 
through their delegates reported that 
they had approved resolutions adopted 
last month by the Allied Boards, calling 
for a lowering of railway fares in Pitts- 
burgh. The committee on better serv- 
ice was instructed to bring this matter 
before City Council and the Public 
Service Commission. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

More Municipal Buses 

Kylan Administration in New York 
Establishes Routes Over Grand 

The Emergency Bus System, so- 
called, of the Department of Plant and 
Structures, New . York, started opera- 
tion on Sunday, July 3, over an 8-mile 
line for a 5-cent fare along the Grand 
Concourse in the Harlem and Bronx dis- 
tricts of upper New York City. Nine 
two-man doubledeck buses, seating fifty 
passengers each and mounted on Dia- 
mond-T chassis, comprised the original 
fleet put into service. Eleven more 
buses are soon to be added. Five of 
these will be of the same design while 
the other six will be mounted on a 
Packard chassis with body patterned 
after that of the London bus. 

Original Route Extended 

The original bus route extends from 
110th Street and Fifth Avenue north 
via Fifth Avenue, Morris Parkway, 
Madison Avenue, Mott Avenue, and the 

those waiting in the queue a chance to 
get aboard in their turn according to 
the number of seats operated. Stops 
per mile will vary from- six to eight. 
This gives an average speed of 9.75 

The streets over which the buses 
operate could not be better so far as 
the paving is concerned. There is less 
than a mile of granite block paving, 
some of which is grouted, while the 
balance is either asphalt or bitulithic 
macadam. The amount of vehicular 
traffic which the buses have to contend 
with is heavy inasmuch as the major 
portion of the route passes over one of 
the main arteries for automobile traf- 
fic out of New York City for points 
north and east. This, however, is not 
as slow moving as the buses them- 
selves for the Concourse has two one- 
way traffic lanes each wide enough to 
accommodate three traffic streams with- 
out difficulty and the speed limit is not 
strictly enforced. 

The traffic handled during the first 
few days of operation averaged from 

Birmingham Case Closed 

Commission Expected to Rule Within 
Thirty Days on Eight-Cent 
Fare Plea 

Hearings on the application of Lee 
C. Bradley, receiver for the Birmingham 
Railway, Light & Power Company, Bir- 
mingham, Ala., for an 8-cent fare with 
a 2-cent transfer charge and an appli- 
cation to keep the present electric light 
schedules in effect, eliminating an auto- 
matic reduction in rates, were held be- 
fore the Alabama Public Service Com- 
mission on July 7 and 8. 

Testimony before the commission 
was completed on the night of July 8 
and the case was taken under advise- 
ment pending the filing of a budget for 
the last half of the year by J. S. 
Pevear, president of the company, and 
general manager of the property under 
the receiver. Mr. Pevear is also to file 
estimates of the receipts of the prop- 
erty for the last half of the year based 
on the present rate and on the advanced 
rate. Similar estimates are to be 

Fleet of Buses Serving Territory Now Without Railway Facilities 

Grand Concourse to Mosholu Parkway 
at 207th Street, a distance of 8.3 miles. 
The buses are run on a ten-minute 
headway so far as possible. As soon 
as additional equipment is received, it 
is planned to open up another route 
from Fort Lee Ferry thence via 126th 
Street to Fifth Avenue and to sand- 
wich in with the first-named route so 
as to give a five-minute schedule over 
the Concourse. These routes do not 
operate except for about a half mile on 
streets occupied by trolley car tracks 
and then only to cross the Madison Ave- 
nue Bridge. 

This bus system is the result of action 
taken by the Board of Estimate on July 
1, 1921, granting to Emil Leindorf, 
owner of the Concourse Bus Line, Inc., 
permits to use the above streets for 
motor bus traffic. Operation is under 
the direction of the City Department of 
Plant and Structures, and that depart- 
ment furnishes starters and police to 
man the que'ie loading areas established 
at the bus terminals. 

The actual running time for a one- 
way trip took fifty-one minutes, with- 
out including any loading time at the 
terminals. Under the plan of opera- 
tion all buses must unload before start- 
ing on the return trip so as to give 

15.000 to 20,000 a day of nineteen hours. 
Buses for the most part were filled to 
capacity and it was with difficulty that 
the no-standing rule was enforced. 

Three-Cent Fare Advocated 

Councilman Oliver T. Erickson of 
Seattle, Wash., is sponsor for a 3-cent 
fare initiative ordinance to be intro- 
duced at the spring election next year. 
Mr. Erickson's proposal is to charge a 
fare on the Seattle Municipal Railway 
sufficient to pay interest and redemp- 
tion charges on the $15,000,000 of bonds 
issued to Stone & Webster in payment 
for the lines bought by the city two 
years ago, and then meet the cost of 
maintenance and operation of the lines 
out of taxation. 

City officials have joined with busi- 
ness men in condemning the measure. 
Mayor Hugh M. Caldwell stated: 

I have never thought favorably of the 
3-cent fare plan. I think it would hurt the 

Councilmen John E. Carroll and A. 
Lou Cohen have gone on record as flatly 
opposing it, and other members of the 
Council have similarly expressed them- 
selves. Others hold it would, ruin the 
credit of the city. 

furnished by I. W. Ross, consulting 
engineer for the city of Birmingham. 
Efforts of the receiver to secure the ad- 
vance in fares were strongly contested 
by the city. 

Mr. Pevear for the company stated 
that the increase was necessary in order 
that the company continue to operate 
and render proper service. I. W. Ross, 
witness for the city, main f ained that 
the present 7-cent fare is adequate and 
that by making a traffic survey, rerout- 
ing and effecting certain economies the 
condition of the property can be im- 
proved. In the arguments Mr. Bradley, 
the receiver, declared that the raise 
must be granted or the property will 
have definitely turned back toward the 
conditions of 1918 when there was an 
almost total break down in the service. 
Mr. Johnston maintained that the com- 
pany should be re-organized and that 
the additional money needed should be 
supplied by the stockholders. He con- 
tended that about $2,000,000 in new 
money should be put into the property 
and stated that a large part of the ■ 
heavy expenditures of the receiver rep- 
resent deferred maintenance and capi- 
tal investments which should not be- 
gotten from the people in increased 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Mr. Pevear outlined the improvements 
made by the receiver. Twenty-five new 
one-man cars were bought, 144 motors 
were installed in old cars which were 
rebuilt. Trailers were bought and the 
work of rehabilitating the track was 
begun. During the receivership, he 
testified, only the preferred creditors 
have been paid and all other money 
has been put back into the property. 
He stated that the receiver has spent 
approximately $2 297,000 in rehabil- 

Testimony was given to the effect 
that the number of revenue passengers 
now using the railway is about the 
same as in 1913. An exhibit was filed 
showing that for 1920 there was an in- 
crease in comparison with 1913 of 287 
per cent in current sold, 115 per cent 
in gas, and 32 per cent in the number of 
revenue passengers handled. In May, 
1921, the comparison with May, 1913, 
shows a 253 per cent increase in cur- 
rent, 150 per cent increase in gas, and 
a 5 per cent increase in the number of 
revenue passengers handled. Mr. Pe- 
vear testified that railway mileage is 
the same as in 1915, more cars are in 
•operation and better service is being 
given, but no more people are riding. 

An exhibit was filed showing that in 
May, 1921, a total of 110,500 revenue 
passengers were handled as against 
140,500 in May, 1920. Exhibits were 
also filed showing that since 1913 the 
average wage of the company has in- 
creased from $64 a month to $120. 
Operating costs of the street railway 
were shown by another exhibit to have 
been reduced from 23 cents per car mile 
in January to 20.1 cents per car mile in 
May, 1921. This compares with 21.4 
cents per car mile in May, 1920. Other 
exhibits filed showed economies effected 
and savings made in the shops and a 
general financial statement. 

Cross examination of Mr. Pevear by 
Mr. Johnston lasted for practically a 
whole day. Mr. Pevear testified that 
the property was in fair condition in 
1913 and 1914 and that it went down 
to a point of practical collapse dur- 
ing the war. The property he testified 
has now been put in good condition. 
The coinmon stock had not paid a div- 
idend in years and the preferred has 
paid only 9 or 10 per cent where 42 per 
cent is due. 

Mr. Ross was put on the stand for 
the city. The most salient features of 
his testimony were strong recommenda- 
tion for a traffic survey and rerouting 
of lines in the business district. He 
stated that the introduction of an ex- 
press service to suburbs with local cars 
for the nearer in traffic would effect a 
saving. He also recommended the 
abandonment of a portion of the Tide- 
water tracks and a rerouting of a por- 
tion of that line. He expressed the opin- 
ion that a 7-cent fare is adequate in 
Birmingham. He filed a lengthy state- 
ment in the form of an exhibit showing 
the results of his study of the property 
which has covered several months. 

Following the close of the testimony 
the commission indicated that it would 
probably rule within thirty days. 

Wants Five-Cent Fare Restored 

It was recently stated by Corpora- 
tion Counsel Lewis that the City of 
Syracuse would take steps immediately 
after Nov. 1 for a return of the 5-cent 
fare on the lines of the New York State 
Railways in that city. On that date 
the time will expire in which the city 
was prevented by the former Public 
Service Commission from filing a 
demand for a 5-cent fare. 

The reduction will be asked on the 
ground that the company has installed 
changes which have greatly reduced 
the cost of operation and also that the 
8-cent fare was not justifiable from the 
evidence submitted. Mr. Lewis will 
also petition the Public Service Com- 
mission to act on the one-man car 
issue. He wants a survey by a state 
expert as many complaints have been 
made about this method of operation 
in Syracuse. 

Commission Grants Fare Increase 

In a decision handed down June 25, 
1921, the Wisconsin Railroad Commis- 
sion granted permission to the Wiscon- 
sin Traction, Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany operating an interurban electric 
railway between Neenah and Kaukauna 
and a street railway in Appleton, to 
increase its city and interurban electric 
railway fares. The application for an 
increase was filed in October, 1920, on 
the ground that the increases in oper- 
ating costs has been so large that a 
fair return on the property was not 
being earned. The case was heard by 
the commission in November, 1920, but 
action on the application was withheld 
by the commission, until the company 
made substantial progress towards 
bettering its gas service. 

On Jan. 7, 1921, satisfactory evidence 
as to progress towards better gas serv- 
ice having been shown, the commission 
proceeded with the consideration of the 
case with the result that an increase 
in railway fares was granted. The 
cash fare within the city fare limits of 
Appleton, Neenah-Menasha and Kau- 
kauna was increased from 5 cents to 7 
cents; children 3 to 10 years who used 
to pay half-fare or 2J cents will now 
pay 4 cents. The following ticket rates 
were established: eight tickets for 50 
cents good for any 7-cent fare on sys- 
tem; twelve tickets for $1, good for 
any 10-cent fare on system; books of 
twenty-five tickets for $4, each ticket 
good for any 20-cent fare on the system 
and in addition good for transportation 
between Neenah and Appleton or be- 
tween Kaukauna and Appleton with 
transfer privilege to and from city cars 
in Appleton. The company was also 
granted increases in interurban cash 
rates of fare. 

Wants Interstate Rate Raised. — The 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend 
Railway, Michigan City, Ind., has peti- 
tioned the Public Sei-vice Commission 
of Indiana for an increase in its Indiana 
rates to the Illinois-Indiana interstate 
rate level. 

1 ransportation 
News Notes 

Print Transfers for Car Changes. — 

Rerouting the street car lines at Mem- 
phis made necessary an initial order 
for 16,240,000 transfer tickets, requir- 
ing twelve tons of paper, according 
to E. W. Ford, general superintendent 
of the Memphis Street Railway. For 
each of the twenty-three lines on which 
the routing has been changed a new 
transfer ticket must be provided. Mr. 
Ford said that the date for starting 
the new routing awaits the completion 
of track work. 

Nashville Survey Expected Soon. — 

The traffic survey of the city of Nash- 
ville which is being made by Ross Har- 
ris, traffic engineer for the city and the 
Nashville Railway & Light Company, is 
expected to be completed within the 
next month. A preliminary report has 
been published showing statistics of the 
city but no recommendations will be 
made until the survey is complete. At 
present the main thoroughfares of the 
city are very much congested during the 
rush hours. One-way traffic is in force 
on a great many of the principal 

Supreme Court to Decide Jitney Is- 
sue. — Jitney operators of Atlantic City, 
barred from driving machines unless 
they are owners of the cars, will carry 
the new ordinance which went into ef- 
fect on June 13 into the New Jersey 
Supreme Court on a writ of certiorari 
in an effort to prove it unconstitutional. 
Under the provisions of the act before 
the present amendment, the city issued 
125 licenses to operators, giving ex- 
service men first call. It has been 
charged by the city that scores of driv- 
ers were reckless in operating cars. Re- 
peated warnings failed to break up this 
condition and the law was amended to 
permit only owners to drive. Many 
jitneymen were thrown out of employ- 
ment by the new ordinance. 

Discrimination Charged in Utah. — 

The Salt Lake &'Utah Railroad, Salt 
Lake City, Utah, complainant against the 
Utah Railroad, has filed its brief with 
the Public Utilities Commission of 
Utah, in which it is alleged that the 
acts of the defendant violate sections of 
the compiled laws of Utah of 1917 and 
sections of the public utilities act. 
These acts, it is alleged, constitute a 
discrimination against the Salt Lake & 
Utah Railroad and shippers in that a 
greater amount is charged by defend- 
ant's tariffs for carriage of coal via the 
Salt Lake & Utah road than is charged 
for identical service via the Salt Lake 
route. The Utah Railroad has ten days 
in which to file its brief with the com- 
mission, the case having been pre- 
sented on May 4, and taken under ad- 
visement by the commission, both 
parties to submit briefs in the matter. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 3 

Newspaper Man in Charge of 
Utility Information Service 

Linton K. Starr, assistant city edi- 
tor of the Atlanta Journal, announced 
his resignation recently to become ex- 
ecutive secretary of the newly formed 
Georgia Committee on Public Utility 
Information. He will have direction of 
the committee's activities, which, it was 
announced, will be to develop friendlier 
relationship between the public and cor- 
porations serving it by acquainting the 
one with the problems and purposes of 
the other. 

Mr. Starr undertakes the work of the 
committee with the advantage of a wide 
experience, not only in the newspaper 
profession, but in publicity and public- 
relations work of all kinds. A native 
Georgian, a graduate of Emory Uni- 
versity and a former student of Johns 
Hopkins University, he has lived prac- 
tically all his life in Georgia and has 
been familiar from boyhood with the 
state and its people. 

Mr. Starr has been a close student of 
public relations for many years. Dur- 
ing the war he conducted an extensive 
campaign for the government to arouse 
interest in and encourage the support 
of the selective service law in Georgia. 
His other work has included publicity 
for Emory University, various conven- 
tions and a number of business enter- 
prises. He is an experienced adver- 
tising writer. 

In its initial statement the commit- 
tee expressed its views and intentions 
by saying that "We believe that the 
utilities have reached a period demand- 
ing, first, the highest possible standard 
of service to the public; and, second, 
the full understanding by the public of 
the problems of utilities, which, after 
all, are the problems of the public." 

A. LeRoy Hodges Promoted on 
the Brooklyn City Railroad 

A. LeRoy Hodges was recently ap- 
pointed assistant secretary and assist- 
ant treasurer of the Brooklyn (N. Y.) 
City Railroad, where, until this promo- 
tion, he had been in charge of the sta- 
tistical work in connection with the op- 
eration of the surface lines. 

Mr. Hodges' first railway connection 
was with the Westchester, Kennett & 
Wilmington Railway, Kennett Square, 
Pa., as secretary to the general man- 
ager, a position he took after a busi- 
ness education in Albany, N. Y. Leav- 
ing this property in 1908, he was em- 
ployed by the General Electric Com- 
pany as secretary to the assistant man- 
ager of the switchboard department. In 
1911 Mr. Hodges left Schenectady to 
accept an appointment as secretary to 
A. W. McLimont, then vice-president 
and general manager of the Michigan 
United Railways, Jackson, Mich. 

Upon the leasing of this property to 
the Commonwealth Power, Railway & 
Light Company he was appointed chief 
clerk to C. E. Morgan, general super- 
intendent of the Michigan Railway, and 
continued in this capacity until Nov. 1, 

J. W. Welsh Secretary 

Special Reorganization Committee Rec- 
ommends that A. E. R. A. Engi- 
neer Re Made Secretary 

As is indicated elsewhere in this is- 
sue, J. W. Welsh, special engineer of 
the American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, and acting secretary since the 
resignation of E. B. Burritt in March 
of this year, has been recommended by 

J. W. Welsh 

the special reorganization committee as 
the permanent secretary. For the past 
two years as special engineer of the 
association, Mr. Welsh has conducted 
studies and investigations of special 
subjects and has had charge of the in- 
formation service of the association. 
Under his direction the Bureau of In- 
formation and Service has rendered 
valuable aid to the industry. 

It is the function of this bureau to 
compile information concerning all 
phases of electric railway operation. By 
means of it members of the association 
are kept informed of the latest develop- 
ments in the fare situation throughout 
the country, wages and working con- 
ditions, trend of regulation; valuation, 
franchise requirements, operating meth- 
ods, operating economies, effect of in- 
creased rating of fare, developments in 
the operation of safety cars, etc. In 
addition to this direct service to the 
member companies, the bureau has also 
prepared statistical data for and other- 
wise has assisted the various standing 
committees of the association, Aera, 
and the publicity department. 

During each of the past two years 
Mr. Welsh, as a special lecturer of 
Yale University, has given a series of 

lectures on electric railway problems 
to Yale graduate engineering students. 

Until his appointment as engineer of 
the association, Mr. Welsh was in 
Washington, D. C, associated with A. 
Merritt Taylor, manager of the pas- 
senger transportation of the Emer- 
gency Fleet Corporation of the United 
States Shipping Board. Mr. Welsh, who 
served on Mr. Taylor's staff, assisted 
in providing transportation facilities 
to the various shipyards on the Atlan- 
tic and the Pacific Coast as well as cor- 
recting existing shortcomings where 
they were present. Previously Mr. 
Welsh was electrical engineer and traf- 
fic agent of the Pittsburgh (Pa.) Rail- 
ways, with which he became associated 
in 1906 as assistant electrician. In 1910 
he was made electrical engineer and in 
1913 took charge of the traffic depart- 
ment. Some of his earlier electrical 
engineering experience was gained in 
the employ of the National Tube Com- 
pany, Wheeling, W. Va., and also in 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company at East Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Welsh was graduated from Wit- 
tenberg College in 1900, Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1901, and Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology in 1903. 

J. V. Granger has been elected vice- 
president of the Tidewater Power Com- 
pany, Wilmington, Del., in which office 
he succeeds H. C. McQueen. 

R. Knecht has recently become mas- 
ter mechanic of the Indiana (Pa.) 
County Street Railways, succeeding 
William Kinter. 

S. G. Shaw, supervisor of safety on 
the Denver & Intermountain Railroad, 
Denver, Col., was recently appointed 
claim agent. W. C. Simonds has joined 
the staff of the property with the title 
of purchasing agent. This position was 
formerly held by W. S. Brackett. The 
two first-mentioned men hold like posi- 
tions respectively with the Denver 
Tramways Company. 

Francis B. Crocker, founder of the 
Crocker-Wheeler Company, died on 
July 9 at the age of sixty-one. His 
most important contribution to the elec- 
trical industry was work done in making 
the electric motor a commercial suc- 
cess. His teaching as founder and head 
of the school of electrical engineering 
of Columbia University contributed 
much to the growth and importance of 
the electrical development of this coun- 
try. It was his aim to bring about 
standardization in the electrical indus- 
try and as the first chairman of the 
standardization committee of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
his painstaking work earned for him 
much commendation. He was a past- 
president of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers, the Electric Power 
Club and the New York Electrical 

July 16, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


Manufactures and the Markets 



Improvement Expected in 
Track Material 

Market for First Half Year Has Been 
Very Quiet — Deliveries Are 

The market for track material such 
as spikes, bolts and nuts should show 
improvement in the fall months, ac- 
cording- to the opinion of producers. It 
is generally conceded that present buy- 
ing is no better than the poor demand 
existent all the first half of this year. 
There are some inquiries out from 
steam roads as though they were feel- 
ing out the market, but actual orders 
are scarce. 

Electric railway business is flat, but 
some of the lines in the Middle West 
have inquiries on the market for creo- 
soting ties, which may be the first step 
vn tracK construction work. Both steam 
and electric roads have been out of the 
market for so long that it seems con- 
ditions of demand cannot help but im- 
prove. The chief retarding factor, it 
is felt, has been high labor costs, and 
this now seems to be on the road to 
being remedied. Export sales are dead, 
and prospects there are uncertain as 
this market is largely contingent upon 
large world affairs. 

Jobbers of this class of material are 
buying from hand to mouth and gen- 
erally have low stocks. Manufacturers, 
however, still have considerable sup- 
plies of cancelled material on their 
hands and are able to make immediate 
shipments, though manufacturing op- 
eration is at a very low point. Some 
producers who make only bolts and nuts 
are closed down entirely, though as re- 
cently as late last summer production 
was two to three months behind on 
spikes and as long as six months on 
bolts and nuts. 

The current base price on standard 
railroad spikes and track bolts has re- 
ceded about J cent in view of the re- 
cent drop in steel. In car lots spikes 
are now quoted at 2.90 cents to 3 cents 
per pound and track bolts at 3.80 to 4 
cents. These price reductions are gen- 
erally expected to improve buying. 

Brill Has Built 2,961 Safety Cars 
to Date 

The J. G. Brill Company and its sub- 
sidiary companies, the American Car 
Company and Wason Manufacturing 
Company, have received orders to date 
for a total of 2 961 Birney safety cars, 
according to the June, 1921, issue of 
the Brill Magazine. With the excep- 
tion of those still in the course of con- 
struction, shipments of these cars have 
been made to 168 street railways in 
the United States, Canada, Mexico, 
South America, New Zealand and Hol- 


land. Indications are, it is stated, that 
light-weight, ore-man-operated safety 
cars will very rapidly be installed in 
service in practically every country in 
the world. Up to the first of this year 
a total of 4,193 safety cars had been 
ordered by companies in this country 
and Canada, statistics compiled by the 
Electric Railway Journal show. This 
total covers the five-year period pre- 
vious to the present year as this type 
of car was practically unknown before 
1916, when 187 safety cars were pur- 

Steel Cut Brings Price Drop 
in Electrical Items 

Conduit, Outlet and Switch Boxes and 
Locknuts and Bushings Are Re- 
duced This Month 

Following general reductions in the 
price of steel products that were made 
recently, lower quotations have resulted 
on a number of electrical steel prod- 
ucts. Effective July 7 the U. S. Steel 
Corporation reduced the price of stand- 
ard steel pipe from the discounts shown 
on its April 13 card as follows: i-in. 
and |-in., 1 point or $2 per ton; i-in. 
to 6-in., 2 points or $4 per ton; and 7- 
in. to 12-in., 3 points amounting to $6 
per ton. 

Effective July 11 a number of lead- 
ing manufacturers of electrical conduit 
also reduced prices by increasing the 
discount allowed distributers, at the 
same time advancing the number of 
their base card by one. The decrease 
amounted to 9 points on black and gal- 
vanized conduit in some instances and 
5 points in others. The difference of 4 
points is accounted for by earlier price 
reductions on the part of those who at 
this time dropped the least, so that 
base prices are said to be approximately 
on the same level. Sizeable stocks are 
reported by manufacturers, with keen 
competition for orders and generally 
quiet conditions of demand. 

In line with the drop in the price of 
base sheets, outlet box quotations have 
been generally reduced 11 per cent on 
black and 10 per cent on galvanized. 
The drop became effective on various 
dates ranging from June 27 to July 11, 
and was made by increasing the dis- 
count 5 points in each case. 

Locknuts and bushings were reduced 
approximately 29 per cent by manufac- 
turers during the same period as the 
price decrease noted above. The dis- 
count to jobbers in standard packages 
was increased 10 points. 

Switch box prices are also down, the 
drop in several instances there becom- 
ing effective around the first of the 
month. The amount of the decrease 
varied with different manufacturers, 
ranging from 11 to 35 per cent. 

Secretary Hoover Optimistic 
on Trade Situation 

Although Exports Are Lower in Value, 
He Foresees Slow Increase Under 
Better Economic Operation 

In an address in Boston on July 12 
Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce, 
in discussing the foreign and domestic 
business situation, said that although 
our exports and imports had dropped 
nearly 50 per cent in value from the 
high water mark of a year ago, more 
of this decrease was due to the fall in 
prices than to a decrease in volume, and 
that with Russia not exporting food 
he saw no reason why we should not 
continue to export approximately the 
same volume of foodstuffs that we have 
shipped abroad during the past six 
months. This item alone, he said, even 
at present prices would be triple our 
pre-war food exports and would repre- 
sent the equal of more than 60 per cent 
of our whole pre-war export trade. He 
thought also that the demand for our 
raw materials would slowly increase 
toward pre-war amounts and that our 
manufacturers should be able to hold 
special fields for repetitive production 
and ingenuity. He expected we would 
have to make an effort to hold the mar- 
ket for manufactured goods wherever 
we come more directly into competition 
with the European manufacturer, but 
that we can do it if we will work and 
apply our brains to it. 

On the financial side of our situation 
he expressed the belief that our world 
credit situation is not so serious as to 
require extraordinary solution. The 
real cure for this depression as all other 
depressions is courage and applied in- 
telligence, and the return to primary 
virtues of hard, conscientious toil and 
economy in living. On every side there 
is evidence that the vast majority of 
our nation is making a gain in effort 
ir. those directions equaled only by that 
of 1918, and the day some months ago 
when we entered this effort we funda- 
mentally turned the corner of this de- 
pression. While our recovery may be 
slower than some may expect nothing 
can prevent the prosperity of a coun- 
try where the people have enlighten- 
ment, wish to work, wish to produce 
and wish to do right by their neighbors. 

New York Retail Cement 
Price Down to $3 

Producers Hold Sufficient Stock to Make 
Prompt Shipments, Though Pro- 
duction Is Low 

Activity in the market for cement 
continues on the same quiet level as 
heretofore. Electric railways are buy- 
ing very little and demand from other 
sources, such as steam l'ailroads or the 
building trade, has not picked up ap- 
preciably. Early this year, in view of 
the low production of cement, it seemed 
possible that deliveries might become 
pushed if building work started up as 
was expected. At present there seems 
little chance of a shortage developing, 
however, despite the fact that produc- 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 6 

tion is still down very low. Dealers 
are existing from hand to mouth but 
producers have a fair surplus quan- 
tity, which insures immediate deliveries. 
Manufacturers apparently believe that 
the situation will drift along on its 
present quiet plane for a few months, 
with some activity in the field of resi- 
dential construction work but very lit- 
tle in other classes of building. 

Producers' prices have held steady 
since last April, when a cut of 60 cents 
per barrel was made, but meanwhile 
retail quotations have continued to 
drop. At the time producers lowered 
prices last April New York dealers 
were quoting $3.50 per barrel. This 
has since dropped to a nominal price 
of $3.20 per barrel, but at the same 
time prices are being cut to $3, though 
some interests refuse to sell as low 
as that. The peak price of cement was 
$5.20 per barrel, New York, in effect 
last November. 

Rolling Stock 

Tampa Electric Company, Tampa, Fla., 

lias placed an order for twelve more Birney 
safety cars for the Tampa service to be 
delivered in time for the next tourist sea- 
son, General Manager Thomas J. Hanlon. 
Jr., announces. The company placed a 
previous order for eight safety cars with 
J. G. Brill Company in February, 1920. 

Pacific Electric Railway Company, Eos 
Angeles, Cal., received ten new all-steel, 
multiple-unit, interurban motor cars in Los 
Angeles on July 5. These cars, which were 
described on page 393 of the August 21, 
1920, issue, are the first installment of thirty 
ordered in July. 1920, from the Pullman 
Company. Delivery was delayed by two 
fires in the Pullman works, which destroyed 
a large amount of construction material. 
Twenty of the oars are equipped with four 
motors of 150 hp. each, the cost of the 
motor cars being $46,000 each. The re- 
maining ten cars are trailers, costing $25,- 
000. The ten motor cars yet undelivered 
are expected to arrive within a few weeks, 
followed by the trailers. The new cars, 
which weigh 57 tons each, will be dis- 
tributed on the Long Beach San Bernardino 
and other lines of the company where traf- 
fic is heavy, the intention being to transfer 
the cars now in use to other divisions of 
the system. 

Detroit (Mich.) Municipal Railway, men- 
tioned in the June 18 issue as askin 0- for 
bids on 100 safety cars and fifty Peter 
Witt cars, has this week placed orders for 
these. Information just issued on the 
Peter Witt cars is given below. Specifica- 
tions on the safety cars are as shown 
below : 

Number of cars ordered 5ft 

Date of order July 12. 1921 

Delivery November 

Builder G. C. Kuhlman Car Comnanv 

Type of car.Peter-AVitt, Detroit Safety Tyne 

Seating capacity 56 

Weight, total 36,000 lb. 

Length over all 4 8 ft. 1 in. 

Truck wheelbase 5 ft. 2 in. 

Width over all 8 ft. 2 in. 

Height, rail to trolley base 11 ft. 

Body Steel 

Interior trim Cherry 

Headlining Agasote 

Roof Arch 

Air brakes G.E C.P. 27 

Axles 41-in. A.E.R.A. Standard 

Bumpers Hedley Anti-climber 

Car sisrnal system Faraday Buzzers 

Car trimminers Statuary Bronze 

Center and side bearings . . Perrv-Hartman 

Control K-3562, with door contacts 

and line switch 

Couplers Metropolitan 

Curtain fixtures ....Curtain Supply Xo. 88 
Curtain material ..O'Bannon D.C., No. 076 

Designation signs Keystone 

Door operating mechanism 

National Pneumatic at center doors 

Fare boxes Johnson 

Fenders or wheelguards H.B. 

Gears and pinions 

G.E. Long Adendum tooth, solid 

Hand brakes Peacock 

Heater equipment Cutler-Hammer 

Headlights Golden Glow, No. 96 

Journal boxes M.C.B. 

Lightning arresters G.E. 


G.E. 265 — 35-hp., 4 per car. inside hung 

Paint - 

Sherwin-Williams, Old Dutch, enamel 
P.egisters ...International R-7. air-operated 

Sanders Osgood-Bradley sand traps 

Sash fixtures 

O. M. Edwards Company, 13J Dl 

Seats Brill 

Seating material Rattan 

Step treads Feralun 

Trolley catchers or retrievers 

Ohio Brass Company 

Trolley base Ohio Brass Company 

Trolley wheels or shoes Ideal, 4i in. 

Trucks Brill, 77 El 

Ventilators Garland 

Wheels Steel, 26 in. 

Special devices, etc 

Nichols-Lintern Tail Light. Duplex 
Safety Car Devices Equipment like that 
used on safety cars, controlling front 
door and interlocking center doors. 

Track and Roadwav 

Southern Pacific Company. San Francisco, 
Cal., received bids in the office of the pur- 
chasing agent up to July 14 for track bolts 
: nd spikes. 

Tampa (Fla.) Electric Company is plan- 
ning to double-track about 2 miles of its 

East St. Eouis & Suburban Kailway, East 
St. Eouis, 111., will not be able to make the 
improvement as requested by the city of 
Belleville, O. W. H. Sawyer, president, 
stated that $30,000 had been appropriated 
for maintenance in the city during the year 
and that this amount would not cover ex- 
tended enlargements demanded. Members 
of the Belleville Council will consider pav- 
ing West Main Street by assessment and 
will compel the railway to install double 
tracks between the Public Square and the 
Southern Railway crossing. 

Indiana Service Corporation. Fort Wayne, 
Ind. — Owing to poor business condition^ the 
oroposed big truck plant which is to be 
erected just east of Fort Wavne. Ind., by 
the International Harvester Company has 
been postponed for about a year. But the 
Greater Fort Wayne Development Company 
— a million dollar concern — which was 
formed among Fort Wayne business men to 
build homes, etc., is going ahead with 
plans already formed for putting in streets 
for the plant. One of the things which the 
development company is pushing right 
along is the extension of the car lines of 
the Indiana Service Corporation to the 
plant. Recently a remonstrance was filed 
by residents of Pontiac Street against the 
double tracking of that street, so another 
route to the plant east of the city is being 

The Public Service Kailwav. Newark. N. 
J., will shortly begin to lay Belgian blocks 
along the tracks from Bordentown. N. J., 
to Black's Creek. 

Cincinnati (Ohio) Street Railway, has 
submitted proposals to the Cincmrati Trac- 
tion Company for a loan of $650,000 to 
finance improvements which will include the 
proposed extension of the Warsaw Avenue 
line. Director of Street Railways. William 
Jerome- Kuertz, disclosed this fact recently 
to a delegation of citizens who called on 
him for information in regard to the above 
mentioned extension. 

Power Houses, Shops 
and Buildings 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway has 

signed a lease with the Boston Transit 
Commission for the construction and opera- 
tion of an underground tunnel station at 
Maverick Square, East Boston, the end of 
the East Boston tunnel. At present the 
cars run up an incline and radiate to the 
various surface lines. When the new sta- 
tion is constructed train service will be 
operated through the tunnel and passengers 
will change to surface cars at this point. 
The estimated cost of this station will be 

Hudson & Manhattan Railroad is purchas- 
ing all its energy from the New York 
Edison Company. This company took over 
the power plant located at Washington and 
Bay Streets, Jersey City, New Jersey. It 
contains four turbo-generators with a total 
capacity of 8.000 kw. The plant was built 
in 1910. 

Professional Note 

Ford, Bacon & Davis, consulting engi- 
neers. New York, have opened an office at 
1421 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. At this 
office the firm is prepared to render services 
in the way of making valuations, engineer- 
ing reports, superintending construction, 
conducting management of public utilities 
and industrial properties and preparing 
financial programs. The office in Philadel- 
phia is in addition to the offices at 115 
Broadway, New York, and at 58 Sutter 
Street, San Francisco. 

Trade Notes 

The Esterline-Angus Company, Indian- 
apolis, Ind., has developed a portable con- 
centration meter for showing the degree of 
concentration of chemical salts in water. 

W. H. Bloss of the executive sales de- 
partment of the Ohio Brass Company at its 
main office, Mansfield, Ohio, died at his 
home in that city on June 22. Mr. Bloss 
had been with the company continuously 
since 1906 and for the past year had been 
in charge of steam railroad electrification 
for the company. Previous to that he was 
in charge of sales for the central district. 

The Mica Insulator Company, 68 Church 
street. New York City, has developed a 
flexible oiled cotton tube for withstanding 
high temperature in electrical machine and 
instrument winding. 

.1. R. Crawford, general sales manager 
of the Union Carbide Sales Company, has 
succeeded N. C. Catabish as general sales 
manager of the National Carbon Company, 
Inc.. Cleveland. Ohio. 

P. E. Eaughlin, assistant district sales 
manager of the Verona Tool Works, Chi- 
cago, has been made district sales man- 
ager, succeeding John B. Seymour, who as- 
sumed the office of sales manager Superior 
Supply Company, Chicago, last month. 

Jeffrey Manufacturing Company, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, manufacturer of conveying, ele- 
vating, crushing machinery, etc., has moved 
its New York office from 50 Dey Street to 
3C Church Street. Harold B. Wood has 
been made district sales manager, succeed- 
ing F. C. Ayers, who has left the company. 

The International Register Company, 
Chicago, 111., through its sales agent the 
Electric Service Supplies Company, has 
leased 112 International portable hand reg- 
isters to the- Third Avenue Railway Com- 
pany, New York City. These registers are 
attached to the fare box and used as an 
additional check on fares. About 250 of 
them were also placed with the Public 
Service Railway Company, Newark, N. J., 
earlier this year, for use on its safety cars. 

The Worcester Electric Tool Corporation, 
Worcester, Mass., has recently been organ- 
ized to take over the business of the Sten- 
man Electric Valve Grinder Company, Inc , 
the Stenman Electric Tool Company and 
the Consolidated Machine Tool Company, 
all of Worcester. The principal products of 
the company for the present will be the 
"HusKee" three-in-one combination service 
tool and the "HusKee" service drills. These 
tools have been on the market in a small 
way for the past six months and are the 
result of over two years' development wi>rk. 
The officers of the company are : H. P. 
Gleason, president : A. G. Sandberg. treas- 
urer ; J. J. Kelleher, sales manager, and 
Harold Raine, advertising and service 

New Advertising Literature 

Pneumatic Tool Accessories. — Ingersoit- 
Rand Company, 11 Broadway, New York 
City, has issued a twenty-four-page booklet 
illustrating and describing its line of "Little 
David" pneumatic tool accessories. 

Fire Fighting Equipment. — The Oil Con- 
servation Engineering Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio, has issued a pamphlet on "Eleciric 
Light and Power Plant Fire Protection." 
which describes the "Oceco" 10-gal., un- 
freezing fire extinguisher. 

Track Equipment. — A. C. Callon, Port- 
land, Ore., dealer in cars, rails and other 
railway equipment, has issued No. 117 of 
"Callons Bulletin," dated June 1921, which 
lists various quantities of new and relaying 
rails, frogs, switch points, track bolts, SDlkes 
and other equipment. 

Electric Railway Journal 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

BARRY L.BROWN.Western Editor 

HENRY W. BLAKE and HAROLD V. BOZELL. Editors HENRY H. NOUKIS. Managing Editor 

N. A. BOWERS, Pacific Coast Editor H.S.KNOWLT ON.New England Editor C.W.SQU1ER. Associate Editor 
DONALD F.HINE. Editorial Representative GEORGE BUSHFIELD. Editorial Representative 

L.W.W'.MORROW.Special Editorial .Representative G.J.MACMURRAY.News Editor 

C.W. STOCKS, Associate Editor 

Volume 58 

New York, Saturday, July 23, 1921 

Number 4 


Avoiding Losses as Important 
as Increasing Earnings 

TO LOWER the operating ratio is the partic*ular 
concern of every interurban manager at this time. 
This is leading to an energetic search for new business 
to counteract the falling off in normal regular business, 
but another equally important pursuit to the same end 
is the curtailment of the outgo of money earned. 

An example of unavoidable expenditure is the pay- 
ment of lost and damage claims on merchandise 
handled. Some figures presented on the Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association boat trip and published in 
this paper show that in 1920 thirty-four out of sixty- 
six interurban member companies of the Central Asso- 
ciation paid out $142,744 in freight claims. This 
association has taken steps to start a campaign of 
education among employees who handle freight and 
among the shippers to secure better marking, packing, 
billing, loading and handling. A similar campaign 
conducted by the American Railway Express Company 
has brought remarkable results, and gives promise of 
marked savings for the effort on the electric lines. The 
companies in the Central territory should give full 
measure of co-operation in making this campaign effec- 
tive, and the idea is well worth emulation by groups of 
companies or individual companies in other sections. 
If expenditures such as these, which are purely waste, 
can be eliminated, the results will be helpful on the 
general showing of the individual companies and of the 
industry as a whole. 

to have the final authority of the company present as 
ah active participant. It is human nature for aldermen 
to appreciate the attentions of no lesser person than the 
chief official of the company. And if he is just "John" 
to them, the company's interests, while fair and right, 
are not likely to suffer severely. 

Making the Most of the 

Public's Representatives 

ONE of the major reasons for whatever success has 
been had with the Tayler franchise in Cleveland is 
embodied in the habit of John J. Stanley to secure the 
personal friendship and respect of the city councilmen, 
particularly those who serve on the local transportation 
committee. This is not incidental with Mr. Stanley; 
it is his first order of business. He gives these matters 
his personal attention and sits in all meetings in which 
the company is concerned so that he may be on hand 
to answer any questions, or to explain away any mis- 
conceptions of the street railway business that may 
arise. When he is sitting across the table from an 
alderman, whom he addresses by his front name and 
who, in turn, knows Mr. Stanley as "John," there will 
hardly be a disposition on the part of that public rep- 
resentative to take action without full and fair dis- 
cussion, and that is the way it has worked out. Prob- 
ably because it is the easier way, many railway 
executives hold themselves aloof from the meetings and 
particularly from the personal friendship of the public 
officials. They are busy with other things and send 
some one down in the organization to listen in at the 
meeting (not take part in it), and report back what 
the committee or Council did. How much better it is 

Plan How to Remove Fare 

Discriminations and Inconsistencies 

DURING the period when rates were advancing, the 
simplest method of making the change from a 
lower to a higher rate of fare was usually a horizontal 
increase, as from 5 cents to 6, 7 or 8 cents. The reason 
for this is not far to seek. No matter how thoroughly 
a community recognized the need of the railway for 
more money and became reconciled to a higher fare, 
the change could never be a particularly popular one. 
The public was willing to accept it, but one reason 
which made acquiescence easier was the knowledge that 
the burden fell on all equally. 

With a material reduction in wages and in cost of 
materials, there will be popular demands for reductions 
in fare. Railways should be as interested in reducing 
the cost of living as other industries, and doubtless there 
may be places where reductions in the basic fare will 
actually gain for the railways an increase in both gross 
and net, but modifications of rates of fare which will 
reduce the net receipts of the companies are not 
warranted until the credit of the railways is restored 
and they have an opportunity to carry out deferred 
maintenance and build up some surplus. Nevertheless, 
it is not premature to consider the ways in which a 
reduction in fare might best be made when the time 
comes to put them in force. 

It is to be hoped that the method used when the 
rates were increased will not be followed when the rates 
are reduced, that is to say, that there will be a hori- 
zontal reduction, unless the conditions are such as to 
make such a step the best possible solution of the 
problem. Usually this will not be the case. On most 
systems the fare limits are an inheritance from the 
ordinances of early days or from ancient franchises, 
and it is obvious that they are not the best which can 
now be drawn. This, then, is the time when each 
management ought to be considering seriously what 
fare system is best adapted to its particular property. 
Then when the time comes that reductions in fare are 
made, these reductions can be such as to bring about a 
logical fare system. 

Such a system need not, by any means, be the same 
in every city. Thus, with a system like that in Boston 
with an inner area provided with expensive subways 
and surrounded by separate communities furnished 
with surface traction only, a reduction in fare for a 
local community ride may be the most logical plan to 
follow when a reduction is made. On the other hand, 
in a city where all cars radiate from a central point, as 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol 58, No. 4 

in Cleveland, it may be that the reduction should first 
be made in a central zone as a means of building up 
short-haul traffic. In still another city, the most desir- 
able plan might be to expand the central unit fare zone 
in some or all directions or to correct glaring inconsist- 
encies in the fare limits where there is more than one 
zone. In another case, where all the fare limits seem to 
be consistently arranged, they can remain the same, but 
a reduced rate ticket or weekly pass can be installed. 
In other localities, the introduction of a basic fare for 
the shortest ride, with some means of charging more for 
the longer ride, such as pay-enter for the first part of 
the ride and pay-leave for the latter part, may be the 
most fitting plan. 

In fact, there is a multitude of ways of making re- 
ductions and no set rule can be laid down. But this at 
least can be said. The present is an excellent time for 
the study of this question of straightening out incon- 
sistencies and discriminations in fare limits. Most 
managers know where these points are on their own 
systems. Reforms of this kind can probably be made 
more easily at a time of general fare reduction than at 
any other time and much more easily than when fares 
are increased. 

A Mile a Day When 

You Have Your Way 

THE article on municipal track construction at 
Detroit, in this issue, serves to bring out the salient 
feature of the job, viz. : the large amount of track 
completed daily. The task of constructing a mile of 
paved track a day in paved city streets is one of some 
magnitude, especially when it is noted that the existing 
asphalt pavement must be torn up. To a large extent 
the work is a problem involving the utmost possible 
use of machinery, and the Detroit municipal engineers 
have assembled a plant which has enabled them to build 
track on a record-making scale. To a certain extent, 
also, the type of track as laid this year is of some 
assistance, since surfacing and lining are at a minimum 
where the type of steel ties selected is installed, while 
the "compressed concrete" or Hassam pavement may 
readily be constructed in a wholesale manner. 

Another and essential factor of the speed at which 
the work is being carried on is the control which the 
city has over the streets. Probably no private enter- 
prise would be permitted to open streets for such long 
distances, much less to open them practically over their 
entire width between curbs or to block entrances to 
homes and business houses at will. In some instances 
the only access to private property on the Detroit work 
has been by way of the sidewalks, and these have been 
used by automobiles and delivery wagons for block 
after block. The engineer for any private company 
who even suggested such a construction procedure 
doubtless would be forcibly ejected from his home town. 

The Detroit work is notable for the adherence to 
the standards and recommendations of the American 
Electric Railway Engineering Association in such mat- 
ters as rails and drainage provisions. Especial atten- 
tion has been given to the latter. It should not be 
understood from this that the Engineering Association 
has recommended the rigid type of construction which 
has been adopted for the work done this year. Neither 
has the association recommended the use of the con- 
crete pavement. 

Another feature of the work is the adoption of the 
metallic electrode type of seam-weld rail joints as 

standard. In view of the discussion which seam-weld 
joints are receiving at the hands of track engineers, it 
will be worth while to watch the performance of the 
Detroit installation because its extent is sufficient to 
give the joint an ideal service test. In fact, the entire 
track installation should afford opportunities for study 
of the performance of a type of track construction 
which constantly has been gaining headway. The at- 
tention paid to the return circuit is to be marked 
because exceptional steps have been taken to assure a 
return of large capacity and one which cannot readily 
be disrupted. 

The entire enterprise gives evidence of careful pre- 
liminary study in an attempt to build tracks which will 
stand up under the poor soil conditions for which 
Detroit is noted. 

Store Door Delivery by Railway 
and Truck Co-operation 

THERE have been many proponents of store door 
delivery as a means of reducing total transportation 
costs and of speeding up service, but little actual prog- 
ress has been made in putting the idea into practice. 
The opponents or doubters of such a plan should be 
given food for thought, at least, by the experience in 
Chicago, related in this issue. ■ 

That an increase in rate equal to the delivery charge 
of independent trucking concerns is not used is to be 
expected. On an independent basis, then, the delivery 
will not pay. But that very fact is a part of the reason 
for increased business. More important, however, is 
the idea of the service given. It is service which the 
railway has to sell to its freight customers, and the fact 
that the customers appreciate this new service in 
Chicago is attested, according to the data, by so large 
an increase in volume that the total profits have been 
favorably augmented. 

An articulation of various transporting agencies is 
a much-needed development today, and the success 
attending the intelligent use and co-ordination of motor 
trucks by an electric railway management should 
encourage others to adopt similar programs. 

It is good business for the railway, for the truck and 
for the public. 

''In Business as a Conductor," 

Not "Working for the Railway Company" 

MAY NOT the first aim of all employee training and 
much organization and personnel work be epito- 
mized in the statement that what is being attempted is 
to put each employee "In business as a railway man" 
rather than merely "working for the company" ? 

The real end desired is that the employee have a 
knowledge of the business; that he understand some- 
thing of costs and revenue; that he realize that profits, 
including his own wages, must be earned and are ob- 
tainable only from the difference between revenue and 
expense ; that he is a producer and a salesman — one of a 
large group all in one kind of business, mutually help- 
ful and organized for greatest efficiency, and that he 
is "in business as a railway man" as much as the gen- 
eral manager, only in a different capacity. 

It seems worth while to suggest this phrase, which 
really carries its own significance, as a motto or slogan 
to have in mind in dealing with employees. When 
every employee feels himself "in business" in his par- 
ticular job, rather than selling his time, "working for 
the company," many problems are automatically solved. 

July 23, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


A Mile of Paved Track a Day 

Eighty-two Miles of Track to Be Built by Detroit Municipal Railway This Summer— Rigid Type Construc- 
tion, with Heavy Plain Girder Rail, Seam-Welded Joints and Steel Ties, Is Used — 
Unusual Methods Employed to Expedite Construction Program 

Concrete Mixing Plant and T^rain Used in Distributing 1,000-Ft. Either Wat 

HETHER the city of Detroit is in earnest about 
going into the street railway business, the 
reader may judge for himself after learning 
from what follows of the magnitude and nature of the 
construction work now going on there. Besides those 
franchiseless Detroit United Railway lines which the 
city plans to add to its system by purchase this year, 
it is expected that 82 miles of single-track equivalent 
line will be completed before the winter sets in, so that 
by the end of 1921 the city may have a railway system 
of some importance. The construction is soon to be 
carried on at the rate of a mile of single track a work- 
ing day. Already the scale of work has reached a 
magnitude nearing this schedule. The outstanding 
features are the extensive use of labor-saving devices, 
the adherence to American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion standards, the permanence of the construction and 
the ends to which the officials have gone to secure good 
drainage and good negative return circuit. 

During the working week from May 2 to May 7 
27,676 cu.ft. of trackway excavation was made, 11,496 
ft. of rail laid and 12,117 ft. of concreting and paving 
done. On one of these days 360 truckloads of excava- 
tion of 6 and 7 cu.yd. each were hauled from various 
locations to the lower end of Belle Isle and dumped 
to fill in and enlarge the island. Up to May 7 the 
work completed this season includes 111,823 cu.ft. of 
trackway excavation, 59,133 ft. of rail laid and 27,250 ft. 
of concreting and paving. Forty to fifty carloads of 
materials of all kinds are being received daily. 

The construction equipment purchased includes, 

among other things, twelve Erie steam shovels for 
excavating the trackway and breaking up existing pave- 
ment, six Erie cranes for handling aggregate at the 
mixer plants and in the storage yard, three Rex and 
three Lakewood 14-cu.ft. concrete mixers, ninety Lake- 
wood three-bucket cars, six 4-ton Burton kerosene loco- 
motives for pulling the concrete trains, 4 miles of indus- 
trial track, two tractors for snaking rail, two Winthrop 
Truck Company tractor earth-boring machines and pole 
setters, twelve Wilson plastic-arc, two-electrode welding 
machines, and other labor-saving devices. For hauling 
excavated earth and transporting the various materials 
to the job 200 motor trucks are being rented. 

The total number of employees is 1,800, of whom the 
great majority are engaged as construction forces. All 
work is being done by the railway department itself 
rather than on contract. The trackwork is being done 
under the direction of H. P. Hevenor, who is retained 
as consulting and construction engineer, with W. R. 
Dunham, Jr., formerly engineer of way the Connecticut 
Company, as principal assistant. The overhead con- 
struction, described in an article to follow, and the track 
bonding and welding are being done under the direc- 
tion of H. M. Gould, electrical engineer and formerly 
electrical and signal engineer of the Connecticut Com- 

Present Status of Detroit Situation 

These last few paragraphs will give an idea of the 
extent of the railway construction activities of the 
city now in progress. A comprehensive understanding 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 4 

Aggressive Tactics Used in Excavating 
for and Laying the Track 

1. Machine used for breaking up paving for track 

2. Appearance of warm asphalt after breaking up. Note 
chiseled line marking edge of excavation. In background 
asphalt has been removed for reclaiming and materials 
stored along trackway for new construction. 

3. A better ex- 
ample of how the 
breaker leaves the 

4. Steam shovel 
digging excavation 
for track and load- 
ing paving and 
earth into motor 

5. The heavy 
clay soil encoun- 
tered necessitates 
special drainage 

6. Ordinary field 
tile are used for 
drainage and the 
trench filled i n 
with broken slag. 

7. A layer of 
slag is spread over 
the track trench 
and rolled. 

8. Rails and ties 
are assembled and 
blocked and wedged 
to grade and align- 

July 23, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


of the present status of the whole traction situation 
in Detroit can best be gained from a study of the maps 
especially prepared for this purpose and reproduced 
herewith. The map on page 124 shows the franchise 
situation of the Detroit United Railway as understood 
by the city authorities. The lines are divided into three 
classes : Those on which the franchises have several 
years to run before expiration ; those lines being op- 
erated without franchises, and those on which the fran- 
chises have, expired and operation is continued on a day- 
to-day agreement. The expiration of a franchise, of 
course, places the city in a position of advantage in 
negotiating piecemeal purchases. 

The map below shows the municipal lines built and 

Last year the city built eighteen of the 67.1 miles 
of track planned as the first year's work. The uncom- 
pleted remainder, added to the lines planned for con- 
struction in 1921 (33.65 miles), gives the total of 82.75 
miles to be built this year in order to catch up with the 
original promises made to the voters. By the end of 
1921, if the present schedule is accomplished, the city 
will have constructed 100.75 miles of single track. In 
addition, it will have acquired by purchase roughly 28 
miles, making a total system by the end of 1921 com- 
prising in the neighborhood of 130 miles. At the time 
of this writing plans had been nearly completed for a 
new shop capable of handling 500 cars, a new carhouse 
and open storage for 200 cars and a large office building, 

This Map Was Drafted by the Municipal, Railway Authorities to Show the Condition of Their Lines in About May of This 

Year with the Private Lines Which the City Hoped to Take Over 

in operation; the lines built but not being operated; the 
lines now under construction ; the additional lines to be 
constructed this year; those D. U. R. lines already 
purchased; those D. U. R. lines the purchase of which 
has been authorized; those D. U. R. lines which the city 
plans later to purchase though the bonds are not yet 
authorized, and, finally, the existing D. U. R. lines and 
the ultimate municipal lines, construction of which was 
authorized at the April, 1920, election. By taking the 
first six groups together, these lines being indicated on 
the map by the several heavy-line legends, an idea may 
be gained of what the municipal system will comprise 
by the end of 1921 if present intentions are carried out, 
and the relation of this to the D. U. R. system and to 
the proposed further city construction. 

all of which are to be built this summer. Twenty-five 
cars are in operation and 100 more on order. 

Of the first 18 miles of track built in 1920 two inter- 
secting lines on Charlevoix and St. Jean Streets, as 
seen on the map and comprising about 13 miles of single 
track, are being operated in a district not otherwise 
served, in which there are several important factories 
and scattered residences. During six hours a day 
twenty-two cars are operated to give rush-hour service 
and eleven cars all day. J. S. Goodwin, general man- 
ager, formerly Bridgeport manager for the Connecti- 
cut Company, reports that the earnings of these lines 
under conditions obviously unfavorable with only a 
piece of a system, are just about breaking even with 
expenses now. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 4 

During 1920 the track construction was done by con- 
tract. The type of construction employed then is 
somewhat similar to the standard of the D. U. R. This 
included a trench 22 in. deep in which a separate 
8-in. slab of 1:3:5 concrete was poured under each 
track and permitted to set. Over this a 1-in. layer 
of 1 :4 dry mix of sand and cement was placed and the 

4'-8i" - 


->f< — -2'-6f — ->K — 2'-6g- — ->-(< 4'-8f— 

■sL.5.Co.9/-375 \ Compressed concrete paving 


— _ n 


Long i tud ina 1 Section A"A 


Longitudinal Section 

Sectional Drawings of Track Under Construction by the Detroit 
Municipal System on June 1 

track assembled on top of this and concreted in. This 
upper pouring of concrete was brought up to the level 
of the rails and floated and brushed to form the paving. 
Wood ties, 6 in. x 10 in. x 6 ft. 8 in., and 91-lb. 7-in. 
standard A.E.R.A. plain girder (or high T) rail were 
used, the joints being electrically welded. Steel ties 
were substituted for the wood ties on 22,600 ft. of 
double track built last year on Buchanan Street. 

Type of Construction Now Being Used 

Beginning this year, the department of street rail- 
ways decided to do its own construction work and to 
adopt a monolithic type of rigid track construction, 
employing International steel twin ties altogether, ex- 
cept under special work. By virtue of this change the 
depth of trench required was reduced to 17* in. and, 
according to Mr. Goodwin, $30,000 per mile saved on 
the cost of construction as compared to the cost of 
the type of construction used last year embodying wood 

This new type of construction consists first of 2 in. 
of rolled slag on the bottom of the trench, with a 
1:2:4 mix of concrete poured from the slag up over the 
ties and base of the rails. After this has hardened, the 
remainder of the trench up to the level of the rails is 
filled in with 2} to 3 in. crushed Wisconsin granite. 
This is rolled and then filled in with 1 :2 grout and 
rolled again, forming what is termed "compressed con- 
crete pavement." The rail used is either A.E.R.A. 
7-in. 91 or 93-lb. plain girder or A. R. A. (which is also 
a standard of A.E.R.A.) 100-lb. 6-in. standard section 
rail, both sections being supplied by the Lorain Steel 
Company. The 93-lb. rail is identical with the 91-lb. 
except that the thickness of the web just beneath the 
rail head has been increased to £ in., tapering to the 
standard thickness of rail web, ft in., to a point between 
the rail head and the top of the bolt hole. The heavier 
section is used on those streets on which greatest 
density of traffic is expected, and it not only reduces 
the amount of concrete required by a depth of 1 in. 
but the price per ton is also less. The 100-lb. rail comes 
in 66-ft. lengths, while the 91 and 93-lb. sections come 
in 60-ft. lengths. 

The steel ties are spaced 5 ft. 6 in. average centers 
and have the ends bent upward to give a cant of 1 to 
25, thus providing for an inward tilting of the rails 
by the same amount. 

The rail joints are made by using two 20-in. x l-in. 
plates which are held in place by two 1-in. bolts and 
electrically welded along the top and bottom. The head 
and nut of each of the bolts are welded 
to the rail and the nut to the bolt. This 
welding is done by the short arc or 
metallic electrode process, using Wilson 
Welder & Metals Company two-arc, 
gasoline engine-driven welding ma- 
chines. This welding work will be 
treated more fully later on. 

Construction Methods and 

Where a new street-car line is to be 
constructed on a street already paved, 
the first operation is to cut a line with 
hand chisel and sledges to mark the side 
lines of the track excavation. A pave- 
ment breaker consisting of an Erie 
steam shovel equipped with guides and 
a 2,000-lb. weight, which is raised and dropped, is then 
used to break and shatter the asphalt and concrete 
foundation. If the asphalt surface is good, it is re- 
moved and reclaimed by the Department of Public 
Works. This breaker and the manner in which it 
shatters the pavement are shown in the accompanying 

The next step is the use of a l-yd. Erie steam shovel 
to dig up the broken concrete and earth and dump it 
into motor trucks for removal. After this is done, a 
drainage trench 16 in. deep is dug by hand along the 
center of the trackway and common 6-in. field tile 
installed to insure thorough drainage underneath the 
track structure. The problem of drainage is particu- 
larly severe in Detroit on account of the heavy clay 

Day-to-day agreement tracks 
Non -franchise tracks 
Franchise tracks 

Present Franchise Status of the D. U. R. City Lines as 
Understood by the Detroit Authorities 

soil which offers practically no natural drainage. Hence 
unless provision is made for carrying away any accu- 
mulation of water, the clay soil and extremely flat topog- 
raphy result in a working of the entire track structure 
on a watery bed, under traffic conditions, producing a 
rapid deterioration. Hence a great effort has been 

July 23, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


made to seal the track from above, to provide good sur- 
face drainage, and to drain it thoroughly from below. 
It is considered that if this drainage problem is solved, 
the most difficult phase of track construction in Detroit 
is mastered. An accompanying picture shows very 
clearly the nature of the subsoil on which the track 
structure must be placed. Another paragraph dealing 
with surface drainage appears later in this article. 

With the drainage tile in place, the trench is filled 
with i-in to 1-in. broken slag and then a 2-in. layer of 
slag (or cinders when slag cannot be secured) spread 
over the entire track trench and compressed with an 
8-ton roller. The steel ties and rails are then assembled 
and blocked up approximately to grade by means of 
concrete blocks made for this special purpose during 
the past winter. An effort is made to bring the rails 
as near to grade and alignment as possible before weld- 
ing, but it is necessary to make the final adjustment 

tive return. If every joint were broken down there 
would still be an electrical by-pass around . thi joints 
through the intermediate welded ties and opposite rail. 

To accomplish this extensive welding work twelve 
Wilson welding machines were purchased. Even with 
this number of machines it is necessary at times to 
work two shifts a day in order to keep ahead of the 
concreters. This is avoided if possible, however, as the 
noise of the engine and the flashing of the arc annoy 
the residents at night. Some little difficulty was had 
in training welders to handle this plastic arc welding. 
Most of the experienced welders were accustomed to 
other machines using a longer arc. Whenever an arc 
over § in. long is drawn with this machine the current 
is automatically cut off. Hence except for those men 
who had previously had experience in handling the 
short arc the best results were obtained by breaking 
in entirely inexperienced men. These Wilson welders 

f \' 


after the welding has been completed, and just prior to 
pouring the concrete foundation. 

The welding work is usually carried on by placing 
a Wilson welding machine on each track and assigning 
an operator to each rail. The use of gasoline engine- 
driven generators was necessitated because of the ab- 
sence of power in many locations and because the over- 
head construction has for the most part been erected 
after completion of the trackwork. The joint plates 
are welded to the head and base of the rail along their 
entire length and the bolt heads and nuts welded as 
already mentioned. The operator also welds the two 
rails together at the base where the two ends abut, and 
then welds the base of the rail to the plate of the steel 
tie. The rail joints are staggered and both sides of the 
base of the rail opposite a joint are also welded to the 
tie plate. This is done on both sides of the rail. Also, 
beginning at the joint, every other tie is welded to 
the base of the rail and on one tie per rail length located 
midway between joints the two tie plates are each 
spot welded at the four corners to the cross channels 
(making eight spot welds) as well as to both sides of 
the bases of the two rails. This insures a perfect 
cross bond between rails and makes it practically an 
impossibility for an open circuit to occur in the nega- 

have a capacity of 300 amp. at 35 volts using approxi- 
mately 20 volts at the arc. Under the very heavy serv- 
ice to which they have been subjected they have worked 
out very well. Two Ohio Brass Company resistance- 
type welders have also been used at locations where 
current was available. All joints are finally finished 
off with a reciprocating grinder after the track is 
entirely completed. 

Concreting Methods and Equipment 

After the track is assembled and welded and wedged 
and blocked to grade and alignment the concrete for 
the base is poured as a rather large scale operation. 
The concrete is prepared at a central mixing plant and 
distributed 1,000 ft. either way by means of side dump 
cars which are hauled over a narrow-gage track by 
means of kerosene engine locomotives supplied by the 
Burton Engine & Machine Company, Cincinnati. After 
a 2,000-ft. stretch of track is concreted the mixing plant 
is moved to the middle point of the next 2,000-ft. sec- 
tion and again erected. 

These mixing plants are usually located in a street 
intersecting the line under construction. The concrete 
materials are brought by truck and unloaded in the 
street adjacent to the plant. From here they are picked 

9. Dumping concrete from cars into pan and pouring to make 
track foundation. 

10. Another pouring scene showing how care is taken to g-et 
complete bearing under ties and rails. 

11. "Lift bridge" used for operating concrete trains across exist- 
ing car tracks. 

12. Concrete foundation completed and surface roughed up to 
secure binding with paving concrete. 

13. Crushed granite is dumped by truck loads on the track after 
the base has hardened. 

14. Distributing the granite to a level slightly above the rail 
ready for rolling. 

15. Appearance of track after spreading the layer of granite 
and before rolling. , „ 

16. Grouting machine. The stone is rolled both before and 
after grouting to form "compressed concrete paving." 

17. After final rolling, hand-tampers remove any irregularities 
and smooth up the flangeway. 

18. The final operation is to distribute surplus grout and cross- 
brush the surface. 

July 23, 1921 

Electric Railway Journal 


pi - 

J ; |*- ~ 

J I 




4 rf/fl/r? 

1 Rrlj 

' . 

g^_J S«c+ion A-A 

Cross-Sectional Views of Track Drain, Showing Cover Construction 

Section B-B 

up by an Erie crane and clamshell bucket and dumped 
into an elevated bin from which they are discharged by 
gravity into the charging skip of the mixer. The 
cement is emptied from bags by hand into this skip. 
When the charge is made up the chute from the over- 
head bin is raised so that the skip may be elevated and 
the materials discharged into the 14-cu.ft. steam-driven 
mixer. The mixer discharges directly into the narrow- 
gage dump cars.- The aggregate used is made up of 
25 per cent 1-in. to 2i-in. slag to neutralize the excessive 
amount of sand in the local gravel. 

One locomotive and three five-car trains serve each 
mixer. Three trains are required in order to facilitate 
the movement of the cars, the plan followed requiring 
only a single track with a short double-end siding at the 
imixer plant. Five cars stand idle on this side track 
while the locomotive is taking five other cars to the 
pouring point and return and the third five cars are 
being filled at the mixer. The scheme is this: The 
locomotive pushes the loaded train to the pouring point 
and pulls it back after the cars are dumped. When it 
returns it takes the siding, couples with the five idle cars 
and uncouples from the five cars which it has just 
brought back. The five cars just picked up are then 
pushed through the opposite end of the siding and 
then pulled back on the track immediately in front of 
the mixer. The locomotive is then uncoupled from these 
empty cars and coupled to the five loaded cars and the 
cycle is repeated. While the engine is gone the five 
cars on the mixer track are moved up one at a time by 
hand and filled, moved on beyond the mixer and coupled 
up ready for handling by the locomotive. It takes a lot 
of words to tell about this but the operation is very 
simple and quick, the locomotives coupling and un- 
coupling practically without stopping except to reverse 

At the pouring point the cars are dumped in a large 
steel pan from which the concrete is shoveled and hoed 
into the track and shoveled and tamped underneath ties, 
and underneath rails between ties, so that a complete 
bearing is secured. As the concrete is carried up 2 in. 
over the base of the rail, embedding and gripping the 
ties and base of the rail, the construction is spoken of 
as being monolithic, though the paving is put on as a 
separate layer. An effort is made to secure a good 
union between the paving layer and the base concrete 
by roughing up the surface of the latter before it sets. 

Building the Compressed Concrete Paving 

After the base is poured, the concrete is allowed to 
set three or four days until trucks can be driven over 
it. Crushed Wisconsin granite in 2i to 3-in. sizes is 
then dumped on the track by truck loads so distributed 
as to require minimum handling. From these piles the 
granite is spread with forks and this is the only part 
of the work where a large number of men are seen to 
be engaged in one operation. The stone is spread over 
the trackway, level with the top of the rails or slightly 

above, and is then rolled with 
an 8-ton roller, which just 
fits in between the rails, until 
the pieces of stone are thor- 
oughly welded together and 
a compact mass of stone ob- 
tained. A 1 : 2 grout is then 
poured into the stone, filling 
the joints until flush with 
the top. The roller is again 
applied, squeezing out all the 
air and securing a complete 
penetration. The rolling is 
continued until there ceases 
to be a wave of grout ahead 
of the roller, thus forming a 
granite-concrete pavement of 
extreme hardness and pre- 
sumably having much of the 
resistance to wear that is 
characteristic of Wisconsin 
granite block paving. The 
grout mixer consists of a 

sheet-iron tank with straight sides and a curved bottom 
mounted on heavy steel wheels with the platform about 
three feet above the ground. A steel shaft to which 
mixing blades are fastened runs longitudinally through 
the tank. This shaft is rotated by a small gasoline 
motor which also operates a loading hopper. The grout 













Three 4 /o 
arc weld / 




—Two tyo 
arc weld 


Sketch op Bonding Around 
Special Work Layout 

< ^rz — t 

At Top, Type of Mechanical and Electrical Joints Used in 
Track Special Work. At Bottom, Bolted and Welded 
Compromise Joints Between Special Work 
and Standard Section 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 58, No. 4 

is delivered from the bottom of the tank through two 
galvanized iron telescopic swinging spouts, which ter- 
minate in cylindrical perforated heads about 12 in. in 
diameter. These spout heads are moved over the work 
to distribute the grout equally. One of these units will 
lay about 900 sq.yd. of grouted cement, 6 in. in depth, 
per eight-hour day. 

Just before the grout rolling is begun provision is 

A Crane and Clamshell Bucket and Overhead Bunker 
Greatly Facilitate Handling of Materials 
and Loading Trucks at Storage Yard 

made for forming the flangeway along each rail by 
laying down, adjacent to the rail, flange forms consist- 
ing of a 4-in. steel strip on top, to which is riveted a 
3-in. strip underneath, with a wood filler between the 
two in such manner as to give a triangular cross-sec- 
tion. As these forms are laid in place the base of the 
triangle is adjacent to the rail and the hypotenuse down. 
As the grouted stone is rolled these forms are pressed 
into the structure, forming a flangeway in the concrete. 
They are removed after the rolling has been completed. 

A group of men follow along after the rolling is 
completed and tamp down any irregularities in the sur- 
face and trim up the flangeway. These men are fol- 
lowed by another group equipped with brooms who dis- 

Texture of Detroit Compressed Concrete Paving and Founda- 
tion Concrete as Revealed bt Test Opening 

tribute any surplus grout and complete the paving sur- 
face with a cross-brushed finish. This type of paving 
is called "compressed concrete paving" in Detroit, but 
the more common name for it is stone paving. It is 
being used quite commonly in highway construction and 
has been used to a limited extent by New England trac- 
tion companies. The amount of stone used with this 
compressed process is from 8 to 10 per cent more than 

in ordinary concrete. The advantages claimed for this 
particular type of concrete pavement are as follows: It 
is more dense and homogeneous than ordinary mixed 
concrete. It is free from pockets of sand and fine aggre- 
gate. As the stone is placed and then grouted, large- 
sized stone can be used so that all wear is directly on the 
stone instead of on the cement mortar and the pave- 
ment thus has greater resistance to abrasion, the mor- 
tar cementing the stone together. A smooth surface 
comparable with asphalt is obtained. This type of 
concrete pavement holds up better under traffic and is 
less likely to crack and chip than ordinary concrete. 
Excavations through it for underground structures are 
repaired in the same manner as in ordinary concrete 

Special Work Construction and Bonding 

At all special work locations wood ties, tie plates and 
tie rods and granite block paving are being used, other- 
wise the construction is the same as on tangent track. 
The special work is of the manganese insert type using 
tadpole switches entirely, all special work being of 
Lorain manufacture. All joints in special work are 
made with six-bolt fishplates which are also welded 
along the top and bottom, including the compromise 
joints between the special work and standard section. 
The electrical circuit of these joints is further insured 
by the use of one 

Appearance of Completed Joint 
After Welding 

No. 0000 ar