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Electric Railway 

Volume XLIX 

January to June, 1917 

McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc. 

239 West 39th Street, New York City 


Instructions for Use of Index 

This index is essentially a subject index, 
not an index of titles, and articles treating a 
number of different subjects are indexed un- 
der each of them. In addition, a geographical 
reference is published wherever the article 
relates to any particular railway company, 
or to the State matters of any particular 
State. The geographical method of grouping 
serves to locate in the index any article de- 
scriptive of practices, conditions, events, etc., 
when the searcher knows the electric rail- 
way, city or State to which the article ap- 
plies. Groupings are made under the name 
of the city in which the main office of the 
company is located, but an exception is made 
in the case of electrified sections of steam 
railroads, such entries being made direct un- 
der the name of the railroad. City or State 
affairs appear direct under the names of the 
city or State involved. 

In the subject index, the alphabetical 
method is followed, and if there is a choice 
of two or three keywords the one most gen- 
erally used has been selected, cross refer- 
ences being supplied. Below will be found a 
list of the more common keywords used in 

the index. This list has been subdivided for 
convenience into sixteen general subjects, but 
the general subject headings, shown in capi- 
tal letters, do not appear in the body of the 
index. As an example, if a reader wished to 
locate an article on power-driven tower 
wagons he would obviously look in the list 
under the general subject "vehicles," and of 
the two keywords that appear under this cap- 
tion, only "Service and tower wagons" could 
apply to the article in question. The reader 
would therefore refer to this keyword under 
"S" in the body of the index. Articles not 
covered by key word appear alphabetically. 
In addition to the groups of articles cov- 
ered by these headings the papers and re- 
ports from railway associations and tech- 
nical societies are grouped under the names 
of the various organizations. Proceedings of 
other associations are indexed only in accord- 
ance with the subject discussed. Short de- 
scriptions of machine tools appear only un- 
der the heading "Repair Shop Equipment" 
and are not indexed alphabetically, because of 
the wide choice in most cases of the proper 



Accidents (including wrecks) 

Accident claim department 



Public service and regulative 

Public service corporations 
Safety-first movement 


Car design 

Cars (descriptive) 

Cleaning and washing of cars 

Gasoline cars 


Heating of cars 

Lighting of cars 

Storage battery cars 

Ventilation of cars 

Work and wrecking cars 





Controllers and wiring 


Current-collecting devices 

Doors, seats and windows 

Fenders and wheel guards 

Gears and pinions 



Trucks, car 





Strikes and arbitrations 



Fare collection (including ap- 



Appraisal of I'ailway property 




Operating records and costs 


Traffic investigations 


Heavy electric traction (gen- 
High-voltage d.c. railways 
Interurban railways (general) 

Low-voltage d.c. railways 
Single-phase railways 



Cleaning and washing of cars 
Inspection of cars 
Maintenance records and costs 
Paints and painting 
Repair shop equipment 
Repair shop practice 
Repair shops 
Tests of equipment 
Welding, special methods 


Carhouses and storage yards 

Operating records and costs 

Passenger handling records 

Schedules and time tables 


Stopping of cars 

Train operating practice 


Boilers and equipment 


Energy consumption 


Overhead contact system 


Power distribution 

Power generation 

Power stations and equipment 

Purchased power 
Substations and equipment 
Third-rail contact system 
Transmission lines 
Turbo-generators and equipment 


Maintenarice records and costs 
Operating records and costs 
Passenger handling records 
Record forms 



Carhouses and storage yards 

Power stations and equipment 

Repair shops 

Terminal stations and terminals 

Waiting stations 



Rail Joints and bonds 


Special work 


Track construction 

Track maintenance 


Freight and express 
Public. Relations with 
Routing of ears 
Traffic investigations 
Trafllc stimulation 

VEHICLES (not on tracks) 

Motor buses 

Service and tower wagons 


Fire protection and insurance 

Ijightning protection 

Loading limits for cars 

Manufacturing conditions 

Municipal ownership 

Public, Relations with 



Timber preservation 

January-June, 1917] 





Jan. 6 1 to 62 

Jan. 13 63 to 102 

Jan. 20 103 to 146 

Jan. 27 147 to 192 

Feb. 3 193 to 236 

Feb. 10 237 to 278 

Feb. 17 279 to 332 

Feb. 24 333 to 374 

Mar. 3 375 to 420 

Mar. 10 421 to 468 

Mar. 17 469 to 530 

Mar, 24 531 to 578 

Mar. 31 579 to 626 

Apr. 7 627 to 674 

Apr. 14 675 to 722 

Apr. 21 723 to 766 

Apr. 28 767 to 810 

May 5 811 to 856 

May 12 857 to 902 

May 19 903 to 944 

May 26 945 to 988 

June 2 989 to 1034 

June 9 1035 to 1078 

June 16 1079 to 1124 

June 23 1125 to 1172 

June 30 1173 to 1214 

Aberdeen, Wash. : 

Gray*s Harbor Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Improvised locomotive used for hauling 
lumber, *954 
Accident claim department : 
Personal injurv laws ought to be changed 

[Smith], 211 

Atlanta, Ga.. Fire., n 97i 

Aurora, 111., Collapse of carhouse roof, n 51 

Frederick Md., Carhouse fire, n 610 

Louisville, Ky., Fatal accident on grade 

crossing, n 367 
New Castle, Ind., Railways give assistance 

after tornado, n 512 
Palo Alto, Pa., Eastern Pennsylvania Rys. 

lire, n 88, n 272, *350 
• Statistics issued by Interstate Commerce 

Commission, n 343, n 981 
Accountants' Association : 
Committee meetings: 

Engineering-accounting, 212 

Standard classification of accounts, 443 

Transportation-accounting, 394 
—Analysis of tynica! interurban reports [Doo- 

little], *242; Comment, 238 
Continuous inventories. Use and value of 

(Bates], 115 
Depreciation of car equipment, Comment, 

Fare auditing, Denver 

[Buehler], 737 
— — -Mechanical aids in, 

[Schwenke]. *77S 
System for authorizing construction 

and keeping costs fWalker], *950 
Advertising of manufacturers in company nub- 

Hcations (see Company publications) 
Aera (see American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion, Aera) 
Air supremacy cheao at half a billion. Comment, 

1079; Carto'on, M128 
Akron, O.: 
Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co.: 

Ticket sales on cars discontinued, 
Alabama Power Co. (see Anniston, Ala.) 
Albany, N. Y.: 
United Traction Co.: 

Albany-Troy fare case settled, n 

Discharge of employee sustained by ar- 
bitration board. 220 

Fare increase publicity, n 756, n 893 

Pittsfield-AIbanv line planned, n 660 

Transfer privileges between interurban 
and city lines withdrawn, n 367, 412 

\'iolation of wage agreement charged, 
n 658. n 750. 974 
Alexandria Bay, N. Y. : 

St. Lawrence International Electric Railroad 

& Land Co. : 

P roperty abandoned , n 226 

(Col.) Tramway 
Milwaukee, Wis. 




Allegheny Valley Street Ry. (.see Tarentum, Pa.) 
Allentown, Pa. : 
— - — Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 
Annual report, 266 
Consolidation plans, n 409 
.Mliancc, O. : 

Cleveland, Alliance &■ Mahoning Valley R.R. : 

Strike, n 974 

Wage increase, n 1158 

Stark Electric RR.: 

Strike, 974 

\\'age inrease, n 1158 
.American Electric Railway Association; 

Aera advertising policy ; 

.Advertisements should be discontinued 
( Mortimer] , 442 ; [ Williams] , 441 ; 
[Ford], 554; Comment, 422, 531 
Executive committee majority and mi- 
nority reports, 340; Comment. 333 

Bulletins of committees on national deiense, 

1009, 1053 
— — Committee appointments : 

Accident reduction at grade crossings, 

National defense, 59/ ; Comment, 580 

Committee meetings: 

Company membership, 167 
• Executive, 300 

Libraries, 831 

National defense, 647, 675, 961 
Way matters, 167 

Committee reports: 

Executive sub-committee on status of 

manufacturers, 348 
Social relations. Pensions and minimum 
wage laws, "282; Comment, 279, 280 

Company section activities: 

Capital Traction Co.. 76, 349. 601, 741 
Chicago Elevated. 213, 395, 648, 785,962, 

Connecticut Co.. 76, 553, 647, 831, 1097 
Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co., 76 
Denver Tra-.iway. 167, 553, 647 
Hampton, Va., 1053 
Manila, 117, 394. 648, 785. 963, 1097 
Milwaukee, 118, 349, 647. 740, 962, 1190; 
Mechanical aids in accounting 
[Schwenke], *775 
Newport News, S3 

Public Service, 118, 394. 500, 647, 741, 
962, 1148; Address on success, 785; 
Comment, 815 
Toledo, 255, 395, 648, 963. 1009, 1054; 

Administrative chart, *117 
Washington Ry. & Elec. Co., *118, 395 
Convention of 1917 abandoned. 814; Com- 
ment, 815; Letters of approval, 814 
—Desirability of company section membership 

[Schreiber], 961 
— — ^.Toins National Chamber of Commerce, 39-i 
^ Local associations. Separate field for, Com- 
ment, 1175 
Manufacturers' status should be settled, Com- 
ment. 1126 
—Midyear meeting: 
Banquet, 301 

Meeting at Boston appropriate. Com- 
ment, 237 
Papers, [ Fagan] , 297 ; [ Frothingham ] , 
•289; [Rice], *292: [Warren], 344; 
Comment. 279. 280. 281 
Proceedings, 299; Comment, 279 
Program announcements, 37 
Resolutions supporting President Wil- 
son in national defense, 299; Com- 
ment, 279 
-War department. Co-operation with [Har- 
ries], 675 
American Electric Railway Accountants' Asso- 
ciation (see Accountants' Association) 
American Electric Railwav Engineering .\ssn.: 
Adoption of standards should be conserva- 
tive. Comment, 421 
— — Committee appointments: 

Engineering Manual, 601 
Equipment. 552 
Power distribution, 443 
Power generation. 552 
Way matters, 552 

Committee meetings: 

Block signals, 34S 
Engineering-accounting, 212 
Engineering standards, 212 
Engineering-transportation, 740 
Equipment, 212 
Overhead specifications, 552 
Power distribution, 37. 552 
Power distribution, line material sec- 
tion. 255 
Standard threads for p:ns and insu- 
lators, 552 
.\merican Electric Railway Transportation & 
Traffic Assn.: 

Committee meetings: 

Block signals. 348 
Claims-transportation, 348 
Engineering-transportation, 740 
Executive. 553 
Fares and transfers, 552 

American Electric Railway Transportation & 
Traffic Assn.; 

Committee meetings: (Continued) 

Rules, 831 

Schedules and timetables, 962 
Training of transportation employees, 37 
Transportation-accounting, 394 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 

Mid-winter convention, 351 

Regenerative braking [Hellmundl, *I09; 

Comment, 104 
American Museum of Safety: 

Award of Brady medal, 500, 594; Comment, 


Award of individual medals, 596 

American Railway Engineering Assn.: 

^ Annual convention: 

Proceedings, 590, n 619 

Committee reports. 546; Comment, 532 

American Railway Master Mechanics' convention 

postponed, n 749, n 840 
American Rys. (sec Philadelphia, Pa.) 
.American Society of Civil Engineers: 

Valuation report, 72; Comment, 64 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 

Feed water softening, 401 

Anderson, Ind.: 

L'nion Traction Co. : 

Accident insurance companies' discrimi- 
tion against electric railways unfair 
[Dunbar], 554 
Advantages of interline traffic [Nor- 

viel], 206 
Annual report, 662 
Catalog size standardization discussed 

[Dunbar], 467; [Hemming]. 721 
Purchasing agents organization advo- 
cated [Dunbar], 720 
Sleet sotrm damages overhead lines, 

n 564 
Strike, 929, n 974 
Wage increase, n 453 
.\nniston, Ala.: 

Alabama Power Co. : 

Motor bus operation planned, n 757 
.\ppraisal of railway property: 
— — Chicago Elevated, Valuation methods, 
•688, [Bachelder]. ^386 

Continuous inventories (see Accounting) 

Depreciation of plant, British practice, 865 

Portland (Ore.) Ry.. Lt. & Pr. Co., Ap- 
praisal report, 885 
— —Track special work appraisal [Bailey], *876 
Valuation report of A. S. C. E., 72; Com- 
ment, 64 
-Arbitration (see Strikes and arbitrations) 
.Arkansas Assn. of Public Utility Operators. An- 
nual convention, 963 
.Arkansas Valley Interurban Rv. (see Wichita, 

Ashtabula, O.; 

Pennsylvania & Ohio Ry.: 

Receivership, n 1162 
.\thens. (-la.: 

Athens Ry. & Elect. Co.: 

Ilonus to employees, n 1200 
Schedule boards for patrons [Baker], 
.\tlanta. Ga, : 

(Georgia Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Advertising in company publication not 

allowed, n 271; Comment, 237 
Air-operated punch [SissonJ, *a34 
Car dynamiting cases, n 263, n 406, 

n 659, n 887 
Commission cannot authorize issuance 

of scrip, n 455 
Economical buying [Smaw], 576 
Fiber gear cutting device [Sisson], '968 
Financial program opposed by strike 

sympathizers, n 135 
Fire causes great damage, n 973 
Good-service department organized, 

n 713 
Home-made drill carriage [Sisson], 

Horn gaps of lightning arresters pro- 
tected against birds, "85 
Phase-rotation meter of home make, 84 
Photographic analyses of construction 

work, *nOO 
Pole-setting costs, 358 
Publicity through broadminded adver- 
tising [Waters], *25 
Steel tower moved with gin poles 

[Hook], •965 
Substation, Out-door, home-made, *1153 
Transmission lines of galvanized-iron 
wire, 1012 
.Atlantic City, N. T. : 
^—Atlantic City & Shore R.R.: 

Dishonest conductors apprehended, 
n 360. n 609 

City's right to regulate jitneys upheld by 

court, n 617 

Jitneys lose fight to operate on main street. 

n 1070 
Jitney ordinance, n 892 

(Abbreviations. • Illustrated, n Short news item.) 



[Vol. XLIX 

Auburn, N. Y.: 

Auburn & Syracuse Elec. R.R. : 

Car curtain cleaning method [Colburn], 

Fare increase, n 894 
Record chart for increasing substation 

efficiency [Crouse], *557 
Redeemable cash-fare receipts [ Palmer j, 

Tool holder for economical use of cut- 
ting steel [Titus], *922 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Ry. (see Wheaton, 

Aurora, Plainfield & Joliet Ry. (see Joliet, 111.) 
Austin, Tex.: 

Austin Street Ry.: 

Waterproofing rail joints with asphaltum 
[KallochI, 1196 

Annual report of, electric railways, 915 


Double wheel-flanges on Melbourne, 
Brunswick & Coburg Tramway 
[Robertson], 1009 

New railway project, n 865 


Proposed rapid transit plan. General lay- 
out and equipment, *382; Comment, 
111, 422 


Ballast (see Track construction) 
Baltimore, Md. : 

Arnold, B. J., Engagement by city, n 1158 

United Rys. & Elec. Co.: 

Aims of publicity work [Burroughs], 

Annual report, 975 

Car loading limit order unpopular, n 95 

President House given leave of absence, 
n 50; Successor appointed, n 704 

Publicity conference proposed [Bur- 
roughs], 554 

Safety-first organization, n 1117 

Skip-stop education, n 570; Operation, 
n 757; Extended, n 1116 

Skip-stop publicity methods [Bur- 
roughs], *992; Comment, 989 

Social activities for employees, n 1156 
Bangor, Me.; 
Bangor Ky. & Elec. Co.: 

Stock sold to employees, n 711 

Wage increase, n 839 
Bay State Street Ry. (see Boston, Mas.s.) 
Improved lubrication for old motor bearings, 

San Antonio, Tex., *128 

Keys instead of dowels to hold brasses, El- 

mira, N. Y.. *1101 
Remodeling old-type motor bearings, Third 

Avenue (N. Y.) Ry [Parsons]. *79 
Spring adjustment for armature bearings, 

Kansas City, Mo. [Smith], *602 
Beaver Valley Tr. Co. (see New Brighton, Pa.) 
Bellingham, Wash. : 

Jitney ordinance upheld by court, n 459 

Benton Harbor, Mich.: 

Benton Harbor-St. Joe Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Freight traffic [Pound], 207 
Berkshire Street Ry. (see Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Binghamton, N. Y. : 
Binghamton Ry. : 

Service investigation by Commission re- 
quested by public, n 186, n 413. 

Single-truck, flush-platform car, "745 
Birmingham, Ala.: 
Birmingham Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Freight handling practices [Brabston], 
^^ 582 
Bismarck, N. D. : 
Capital Car Line: 

Abandonment proposed, n 265 
Bloomington, 111.: 
Bloomington & Normal Ry. : 

Attempted strike, n 1157 
Blue Hill Street Ry. (see Canton, Mass.) 
Blueprint filing rack, *449 
Bluffton, Ind.r 
Bluffton & Marion Tr. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 516 
Boilers and equipment : 

(see also CozX) 

Ashes removed by flushing, 833 

• Burning of buckwheat coal, Maytiard. Mass.. 


Clinker trouble. Reduction of, 607 

Coal handling. Report of N. E. L. A. on. 

Combustion in the underfeed stoker 

[Pigott], 448 
Connecticut Co., Grand Avenue installation, 

*860; Comment, 859 

Feed water regulator (Ray Mfg. Co ), '85 

Feed water softening, Calculation of chemi- 
cals required, 401 

Gage glass guard (Simplex), *1016 

Heat losses in boilers [Lawrence], 1058 

Review of developments during 1916, Com- 
ment, 9 

Smoke consumer, Buffalo, N. Y., "744 

Soot blowers (Diamond Power Specialty 

Co.), •559 
Stoker installation cost data (Illinois Stoker 

Co.), 172 

Boilers and equipment: (Continued) 

Stokers and furnaces. Report of N. E. L. A., 

• Stokers of overfeed, inclined grate type (De- 
troit Stoker Co.), *511 
Boise, Idaho: 

Boise R.R., Ltd.: 

Foreclosure sale authorized by court, 

n 663 
Receivership and sale, n 52 
IJonds (see Rail joints and bonds) 
Bonds and other securities (see Financial) 
Boston & Maine R R. : 

Gas-driven line car found economical, *10S6 

Boston, Mass.: 

J3ay State Street Ry. : 

Annual report, 133 

Arlington through-service case, n 617 

Bridge inspection methods [Walker], 

Car remodeling, Pneumatic door and 
step control installed, *502; Com- 
ment, 469 
Commutation tax repeal sought before 

legislative comnuttee, 566 
Company publication inaugurated, n 712 
Employees toJd of increased costs, 749 

Fall River, Mass., Reduced-rate 

tickets withdrawn, n 457, n 521 

Nashua, N. H., Increase proposed, 

n 322 
New schedule for cut-rate tickets 

filed, n 801 
Six-cent fare case to be reopened, 

Six-cent fare legislation defeated, 

n 936 
Tentative agreement with several 
cities for trial of 6-cent fare, 
1188; Comment, 1174 
Maintenance cost reduction by platform 

men, 1135 
Maintenance of way efficiency [Curtain], 

Montello-Bridgewaler service case won 

by railway, n 757 
Open car equipped for winter service, 

Reynolds, Henry E., Memory honored, 

n 840 
Service reductions allowed by Commis- 
sion, 458 
Standard classification of trucks advo- 
cated [Hoist], 254 
Suppressing reckless autoists, n 609 
System for authorizing construction 
work and keeping costs [Walker], 
Tower truck of conipact design •834 
Wilmington Center-Billerica Center line 
abandonment proposed, n 666, n 801 

Boston Elevated Ry. : 

Arlington through-service case, n 617 
Car expenditures for past six years and 

future plans, 329 
Commission outlines improvements, 

n 756 
Compensation tax abolished, n 251 
Drawbridge safety order, n 667 
Fare box and turnstile combination for 

rapid transit stations, *126 
Financial relief case, n 91, n 134; Tem- 
porary relief granted, 250; Com- 
ment, 280; Legislative hearings, 
454, 563, 617; Comment, 579; 
Partial relief granted. 1018 
Freight service at off-peak hours, '1144 
Inclosed transfer areas recommended, 

n 251; Hearing, n 979 
Liquor drinking by employees prohibited, 

n 570 
Low-floor, center-entrance cars, •879 
One-man car operation proposed, n 569, 

Prepayment area proposed by commis- 

_ sioner, n 569 
Switch for emergency lighting of sta- 
tions and tunnels. •SIO 
Trolley wheel machining methods, *789 
War activities, n 649 

Boston & Worcester Street Ry.: 

Jig for boring bearing brasses [Gouthro], 

Method of draining pipes to prevent freez- 
ing, Brooklyn, N. Y. [Sinclair], *699 

Regenerative braking [Hellmund], •109, 

349; Comment, 104 
llridgeport. Conn.: 

Connecticut Co. (see New Haven) 


Comparative advantages of wooden and con- 
crete construction, 549. 603 

Inspection and maintenance [Keith], 357 

Inspection methods. Bay State Street Ry. 

[Walker], *770 

Steel bridge constructed by Fort Wayne & 

Northern Indiana Tr. Co.'s forces [Nor- 
ford]. •1099 

Temporary drawbridge constructed by Puget 

Sound Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co., *1058 
Itrill Co., J. G.: 

Annual report, 372; Comment, 375 

Itristol, Tenn,: 

Bristol Traction Co.: 

Receivership, n'52 

British Columbia Elec. Ry. (see Vancouver, 

Brockton & Plymouth Street Ry. (see Plymouth, 

Brookfield, Mass. : 
Worcester & Warren Street Ry. : 

Seven-cent fare hearing, 411, n 711 
Brooklyn. N. Y.: 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Advertising in Aera undesirable [ Will- 
iams], 441; Comment, 422 

Automatic coin registers on heavy-traffic 
line [Rooke], *168 

Brush carbons recut on dry grinder 
[PikeJ. *1057 

Car capacity order amended, n 55 

Car-heating case, n 132; Dismissed, 
n 523 

Commission's methods criticized by com- 
pany's official, 315 

Concrete baffles for protection of road- 
bed [Cram], *79 

Control switch for street lights, *789 

Derailments reduced by study of causes 
[Bernard], *1101 

Earnings July-December, 1916, 224 

Efficiency campaign, n 94, n 137, n 184; 
Pamphlets distributed, *544; Bulle- 
tins, •829 

Franchise tax increased, n 266 

Increased-fare campaign, 874. '916, *957, 
1003, *1047; Comment, 905, 946 

Paving burden statistics [Cram], 1130; 
Comment. 1125 

Pole-raising wagon [McKelway], *352 

Special work, Definition of [Bernard], 

Standard classification of trucks. Con- 
sideration of types [Gove], 395 

Strike prevention plan discussion [Will- 
iams], 305 

Switch-and-mate standards of company 
[Bernard], ^213 

Third-rail temporary protection devices, 

Track grinder with swing frame [Cram]. 

Track maintenance costs analyzed 
[Cram], ^479; Comment, 470 

Track rails welded to bridge structure 
[Cram], "444 

Trolley wire. Desirable qualities [Mc- 
Kelway], 258 

Useless paving repairs sometimes neces- 
sary [Cram]. 211 

Violation of commission's order causes 
conviction of official, n 265, n 316, 
n 661 

Dual subway system (see New York City) 

New York Municipal Ry. Corp.: 

Advertisements in company publications 
[Bullock], TJ 

Coasting recorder results, n 696 

Discipline in the transportation depart- 
ment [Bullock], 431 

Method of preventing frozen air brake 
pipes [Sinclair], *699 

Power contracts for rapid transit lines, 
440; Comment, 677 
Transit Development Co.: 

Power contract with New York Munici- 
pal Ry., 440; Comment, 677 
rUiffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry. (see Roches- 
ter, N. Y.) 
Buffalo, N. Y.: 

Attempt to establish sanitarv code, n 523 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Tr. Co.: 

Appeal to automobile drivers, n 936 
Frontier Electric Ry.: 

Sale to Penn R. R. and D.. L. & W. R. R. 
proposed. Hearing before commis- 
sion, n 135. 262, n 706; Reopened, 
n 1158. n 1199 
International Ry.: 

Bearing facing machine. ^654 

Buffalo-Niagara Falls high-speed line 

General layout and equipment, *378; 
Comment, Zld 
Car cleaning rules, 312 
Car heating by coal heaters planned, 

n 667 
Employees given police power, n 520 
Express car, •791 

Furnace for burning insulation, *605 
Labor shortage causes withdrawal of 

cars, n 974 
Newspaper attack against company, 183 
Old power plant improvements, 683 
Publicity policy brings favorable news- 
paper comment, n 324 
Publicity posters, *205 
Skip-stop recommended for trial by 

traffic committee, n 1026 
Small-tool practices. "967 
Smoke consumer of simple design, •744. 
Steel wire sweeper brooms, *558 
Strike damage suit, n 89, n 131, 177, 

n 362 
Traffic survey proposed, n 366; Progress, 

n 846 
Universal bearing chuck, '1015 
Waste and oil-reclaiming press, '835 
Bureau of Standards (U. S.): 

National Safety Code on trial. Comment, 

531; Abstract issued by Wisconsin (Tom- 
mission, n 551 

(Abbreviations. • Illustrated, n Short news Item.) 

January-June, 1917] 


Biirlingame. Cal. : 

Burlingame Electric Rj 

Sui^geslion tor ; 
[WillJ, *964 



ruse box with interlocked cover (v'rouse- 

Ilinds), *1106 

] oint box for submarine cables ( Standard 

Underground Cable Co.), *560 

Metal lath for protecting cables in man- 
holes (Composite Metal Lath Co.). •311 

Oil-impregnation of joints (Metropolitan 

Kngineering Co.), 84 

C alifornia: 

California Railroad Commission : 

Method of reducing grade crossing ac- 
cidents, *952 

—Karnings of utilities during 1915, 181 

— —Jitney operators ask commission for in- 
creased fares, n 1026 

jitney regulation legislation, n 521 

• jitneys file rates with Railroad Commis- 
sion, n 618 

One-way-street ordinances authorized, n 1116 

• Tax on municipal railways proposed by 

State board, n 179; Conment, 194 

California Electric Railway Assn. : 

■ Annual report, 956; Comment, 1036 


Electric railway earnings for 1915-16, 1077 

— — ^W'ar experiences of railways, '823 
t anadian Electric Railway Assn.: 
Handling complaints from patrons [\'an 

Zandtl, "1090 
Canadian Northern Ry. (see Montreal, Can.) 
Canadian Railway Club: 
Capacity of cast-iron car wheels [Lyndon |, 

Canton, Mass.: 

— Blue Hill Street Ry.: 

Fare and zone hearing before Commis- 
sion, n 137 

Norwood, Canton & Sharon Street Ry. : 

Seven-cent fare granted, 322, 893 
Cape May, N. J.: 

Cape May, Delaware Bay & Se well's Point 

Receiver s sale, n 1023 
Capital Car Line (see Bismarck, N. D.) 
Capital Traction Co. (see Washington, D. C.) 
Car design: 

(see also Trucks) 

Bankers' view of car standardization, Com- 

ment, 533 

Depreciation of cars. Comment, 1080 

Discussion of disputed points [Danfortbl, 


Fully inclosed vest-bnles. Hearing in New 

York City, n 228, n 618, n 1026 

Non-telescoping reinforcement, Erie R. R.. 


Pneumatically operated doors and steps, 

Bav State Street Ry., •502; Comment, 

Prepavment car railings, Des Moines, la., 


Remodelled cars in Portland, Me., with full 

inclosure of vestibules, *106 
Review of developments during 1916, Com- 
ment, 5 

■ Small wheels. Present status of, (Comment, 

Standardization in design (see Standardiza- 

Toilets. Pennsylvania ruling, n 93 

Carhouses and storage yards: 

Detroit. Mich., •535: Comment, 531 

Milwaukee, Wis., '690 

Rochester, N. Y., Car-yard improvements, 

[Graham] •1082 
Car-mileage recording device (Ohmer), •510 
Car order details: 

Allentown, Pa., 722 

Atlanta, Ga., 987 

——Austin (Tex.) Street Ry., n 420 

Birmingham, Ala., 1213 

Boston Elevated Ry., 278 

Buffalo, N. Y., International Ry., 61 

Cedar Rapids (la.) & Marion City Ry., 331 

East St. Louis & Suburban Ry., 102 

El Paso (Tex.) Elec. Ry., 901 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Tr. Co., 192 

Fort Worth, Tex., 855 

^Gary (Ind.) & Interurban E. R., 1171 

Grand Rapids (Mich.) Street Ry. 1123 

Greensboro. N. C, 530 

Houston (Tex.) Elec. Co., 943 

• Illinois Traction System, 809 

Knoxville, Tenn., 1213 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co., 1123 

Michigan Rys., 1071 

Montreal Tramways, 673 

New York, N, Y., I. R. T, Co., 766 

New York State Rvs., Rochester, 943 

New York State Rys., Syr.icuse. 578 

Northern Ohio Tr, & U. Co., 1077, 1213 

Oklahoma City (Okla.) Ry., 855 

Omaha, Neb., 766 

Public Service Ry., Newark, N. J., 809 

San Francisco-Oakland Term. Ry., 673 

Seattle (Wash.) Electric Co., 855, 902, 943 

Sprini^eld (HI.) Consolidated Street Ry., 



Remodeled car with 
•502; Comment, 469 
Open car equ.pped 
Single-truck, flush-plat- 

Car order details: (Continued) 

Spnngi.eld (Mass.) St.ect Ry., 1033 

enuig car stops (Wash.) Ky. & Pr Co 809 

Tulsa, Okla., 987, 1033 

Wichita (Kan.) R. R. & Lt. Co., 810 

Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated St.eet 

Bay State Street Ry., 

inclosed vestibules, 
Bay State Street Ry. 

for winter service 
Binghamton, N. Y, 

form, *745 
Boston, Mass., Low-floor multiple-unit tyjie, 

Buffalo, N. Y., Express car, *79i 

.Buffalo-Niagara Falls high-speed line, 61, 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R. R. 

combination parlor and dining lar, *84 
*650 ' 

Cleaning (see Cleaning and wash ng of cars) 

Detroit, Mich., two-car unit [RcedJ, *698 

Erie R.R., non-telescoping type, "1185 

Gasoline (see Gasoline cars) 

Heating (see Heating of cars) 

Inspection (see Inspection of cars) 

Jamestown, N. Y., Interurban cars with off- 
set central vestibules, *907 

London Underground extension ^87 1 

Milwaukee, Wis., Low-step ceriter-entrancc, 


Minneapolis, Minn., Two-car unit with 

small wheels, *353; Comment, 377 

■ One-man (see One-man cars) 

Portland, Me., Remodeled for prepayment 

service, '106 

Statistics of cars ordered during 1916, 33; 

Total cars owned, 35 

Syracuse, N. V., Front-entrance, center-exit 

cars, '400 

Toledo, O., Front-entrance, center-exit, "604 

Utica, N. Y., Quick loading interurban car 

[Ayers], *256 

X?"V'*''°" '^^^ Ventilation of cars) 

Work (see Work and wrecking cars) 

Catalog sizes (see Standardization) 
Catenary construction (see Overhead contact sys- 
Central Electric Railway Assn.: 

.\nnual meeting: 

Papers [Benham], 438; [Broomall] 
486; [Roberts], 484 
, Proceedings, 437, 483; Comment, 469 

tommittce appointments, 733 

Engineering subdivision desirable. Com- 

:nent, 581; [Schlesinger], 1054 

.Tonii interline time-table folder d stributed 

n 186, n 437 
Chattanotigna, Tenn.: 

Chattanooga Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Ballast unloading trestle [Dike], ^257 
Wage increase, n 930 
Chemicnl laboratory founi useful. United Rys 

St. Louis, Mo., 449 
Chicago. 111.: 

.Autcmobile traffic investigation, n 587 

Chicapo Traction & Subway Commission: 

.Xnalysis of residential distribution of 

industrial employees, '588 
Elevated system. Valuation figures, 

Financing plan for rapid transt sys 

tern, *688 
I'ranchise report opposed, 175 
Plans for consolidation of traction 

lines, n 263. 927, n 1155 
Supplemental report on future trans- 
portation requirements, •434 
Traffic checking methods. *686 
N aluation methods, Chicago Elevated 
[BachelderJ, *386 

Control over local utilities, "Home rule" 

proposed, n 178; Public Utility Com- 
miss on's jurisdiction upheld, 792 
Drawbridge safeguarding device [Avery], 

Motor bus operation, *637. n 841 

Payments under 1907 settlement ordinances, 

n 796 

Traction legislation, n 361, n 451, n 564, 

n 886. 927, n 1062; Killed, n 1155, 
n 1200; Comment, 1175 

X'ehicular traffic responsible for street car 

delays, Chicago Herald investigation, 
270; Comment, 238; Parking of vehicles 
prohibited, n 521, n 847; Result, n 893 
Chicago transportation systems: 
Chicago City & Connecting Railways Col- 
lateral Trust Co.: 
Annual report, 318 

Chicago Elevated Rys.: 

Recruiting train, *1008 

Training, of motormen [Feron], 158; 

Comment, 148 
Wage increase asked, n 887, n 975 ; New 
scale granted, 1198 

' h'cago Rys.: 

-Annual report, 933 

Chicaeo Surface Lines: 

.Annual report, 752 

Clubhouse opened, n 202; Pictures, 

Operating agreement renewed for three 
years, n 319 

Chicago transportation systems: 

Chicago Surface Lines: (Continued) 

Pay car. Motor bus type, ^736 

Public Utilities Commission's control 

sustained, 792 
Skip-stop operation urged, n 571 
Standard classincation of trucks dis- 
cussed [Johnson], 349 
Ventilators of new type for cars (Rail- 

way Utility Co.), •US 
Wage increase asked, n 887, 975- Com- 
pany's offer rejected, n 1061; New 
scale granted, 1198 
Chicago & Joliet Elec. Ry. (see Joliet, 111.) 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul R. R. ; 

Comparison between steam and electric 

operation [Becuwkes], 540; Correction, 

Electrification from Seattle, Wash., to 

Othello, Wash., authorized, 210; Com- 
ment, 193; Organization plans, n 704 
n 972; Bids asked, n 1063 
I .iicago. North Shore & Milwaukee R. R (see 

Highwood, 111.) 
Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. (see Ottawa 
> hicago. South Bend & Northern Indi,ina 

(see South Bend, Ind.) 
Chico, Cal. : 

Northern Electric Ry. : 

Proposed reorganization, n 753 
Soldered bond maintenance costs 
practice [Evans], '40 
„, . . Storeroom excess stock [Evans] 
Christchurch Tramway (see New Zealand) 
Cincinnati, O. : 

Agitation for franchise revision and 







renewal of Tayler franchise, 

provisions and summary 
situation, "633; Comment, 627' 
Lease provisions, 561 
Loop construction bond issue opposed. 

n 840 
I-oop construction forces being organ- 
ized, n 794, 929 
Negotiations, n 50, n 222, n '65 
n 405, n 748 

Application by transit commission for juris- 

diction over all local utilities, n 1064 

(incinnati, Georgetown & Portsmouth Rv • 

Strike, n 930 
( inc.unati, Davton & Toledo Tr. Co. (see Hamil- 
ton, O.) 
Circuit breakers (see Power stations and 

Cities Service Co. (see New York City) 
City Lt. & Tr. Co. (see Sedalia, Mo.) 
Claims Assn.: 

Committee meetings: 

Claims-transportation, 348 
t leaning and washing cars: 

Uules for cleaning, Buffalo, N. Y., 312 

Washing instead of sweepng cars, Des 

Moines, la., 836 
(.'learance of cars on curves [Foster], *743 
Cleburne, Tex.; 

("leburne Traction Co. : 

Public sale of property, n 519 
Cleveland, Alliance & Mahoning \alley R. R. 

(see Alliance, O.) 
( leveland, O. : 

.Vpplication fo 

n 513 

Agitation for underground street 

terminal, n 88, n 129, n 405 

City plans for rapid transit 

n 1155 

Cleveland & Eastern Tr. Co.: 

Combination rail-contact or 
tact signal, •SI 

Cleveland Ry.: 

.Annual report, 842 

Center-pole construction of trolley loop 

Dump cars. Economies effected by use 

■ of [Clark], 508 

Handling of way material. Harvard 

storage yard, "336; Comment, 335 

Operating allowance negotiations, n 264 

n 316, n 405: City Council grants 

1 cent per mile increase, n 452 

Operating report for April shows cost 

increase, n 1068 
Power contract approved, 49 
Prices of materials, 1910-1916, 577 
Rail cleaning machine, ^747 
Temporary track for making detours. 

Three-cent fare discussed, n 222, n 268. 
n 359 

Cleveland Rapid Transit Ry.: 

Delay in beginning construction, n 565 

East Cleveland Ry. franchise negotiations, 

n 515, n 609, n 1201 
Coal : 

Burning buckwheat. Maynard. Mass., 1154 

In powdered form. Experiments with, 

.Seattle, Wash. [Hull], ^923 

1 oading with street car as tractor. 

Price a good basis for 

Comment, 904 

Situation serious; Comment 811, 

\'alue of [Smith], 1148 

C'-asting (see Energy consumption) 




•448 . 


chises, I 


power to refuse fran- 

(Abbrevlatlons. • Illustrated, n Short news Item.) 



[Vol. XLIX 

Colorado Springs, Col.: 

Colorado Springs & Interurban Ky. : 

Identifying spare wheel sets in shop. 

Wage increase, n 888 

Columbus, Ind.: „ o ^u n 

. Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Co.: 

Wage increase, n 516 

Columoiis, O.: „ ^ r- 

.olumbus Ry., Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Franchise for suburban line, n lliO 
Large power plant plans, n 360 
Reduction of selling costs [Buckeley], 

Safety-first electric sign, *69 
Wage increase, n 565 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry.: 

Foreclosure sale, n 1161 

Ohio Electric Ky. (see Springfield, O.) 

Company publications; j ■ vi 

'xdvertising of manufacturers undesirable, 

comment, 1 t> e 

\dvertising not allowed by Georgia Ry. & 

Pr. Co., n 271; Comment, 237 

.Vdvertising practice of B. R. T. [ Bul- 
lock), 77 

Bay State Street Ry., n 712 

Kansas City Rys., Advertising not used in 

The Railwayan [Kealy], 121 

Public Service Ry. establishes employees 

magazine, n 229 , 

.. Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co., .^idvertisenients not 

used [Wheelwright], 77 

United Rys., St. Louis, Mo., _Advertising 

not solicited [McCulloch], 77 

Company sections (see American Electric Rail- 
way Assn.) 

Concord, Maynard & Hudson Street Ry. (see 
Maynard, Mass.) 

Connecticut: , ,„,, ,c i 

Electric railway earnings for 191415 and 

1915-16, 1068 

yitvi automobile law that regulates jitney 

operation, n 1070 

Public Utilities Commission: 

Annual report, 359 

Savings banks investments in certain public 

utility bonds legalized, n 843 
Connecticut Company (see New Haven) 
Conscription Act, Effect on electric railways. 

Comment, 990. 
Consolidated Elec. Street Ry. (see Dallas. Tex.) 
Contact systems (see Overhead contact system; 

Third-rail contact system) 
Controllers and wiring: 

Controller handle with self-tightening de- 
vice, San Francisco, Cal., "970 

London Underground extension, "871 

Oil for pneumatic switch cylinders (W est- 

inghouse), 448 

Split-phase equipment not suitable for 

suburban service, Comment, 579 

Tapped-field control, Buffalo-Niagara I'alls 

line, *381; Comment, 376 
Copper prices (see Market conditions) 
Couplers; i. i-, \ 

Automatic car and air coupler (Van Dorn), 

Interurban and city service M. C. B. coup- 
ler (Van Dorn), "926 
Cranes, Locomotive, Pacific Electric Ry. t Elliott], 

"1152; Pittsburg Rys. [Aime], "786 
Crossing signals (see Signals) 


Havana Elec. Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 
Annual report, 1159 
Passenger motor buses, n 459 
Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co. (see Port- 
land, Me.) 
Current collecting devices: 

Causes of trolley wheels leaving the wire 

[Foster], 445 
Maintenance of (see Repair shop prac- 

Six-inch wheels adopted in San Francisco, 


Trolley base of anti-friction, non-retrieving 

type (Holden & White), *174 

Trolley-harp spring of new design (Starr), 


Trolley wheels made in Oakland (Cal.) 

shops, 879 


Dallas, Tex.; 

City franchise negotiations, n 133, 514, 659, 

n 838, n 1107 

City ordinance for jitney traffic, n 56 

C^onsolidation of Strickland interurban lines, 

n 225; Terms of merger, 267 

. Consolidated Electric Street Ry. ; 

Ballast shoveling by aid of old passenger 
car, "44 

. Dallas Electric Co.: 

Track maintenance economies [Brown], 

Southern Traction Co.: 

Worn-out rail used for ties, "1059 

Texas Electric Ry.: 

Automobile*s effect on the interurban 

[Griffon], 820 
Trainmen receive bonus for careful oper- 
ation, n 619 

Dallas, Tex.: (Continued) 

Texas Traction Co. : 

Operation of 60-cycle converters from 
long transmission lines [Ingram], 
Danbury, Conn.: 

Danbury & Bethel Street Ry.; 

Ten-cent fare proposed, n 1025 
Davenport, Iowa: 

Tri-City Ry.: 

Wage increase, n 1065 
Davlight saving plan. Effect on electric railways. 

Comment, 334, 533 
Dayton, O. : 

Dayton Street Ry. : 

Strike, n 1155, n 1200 
Defective equipment. Adjusting payment for, 

Denver, Col.: 

Denver & Interurban Ry. : 

Gas-driven inspection car, *1057 

Denver Tramway: 

Advertises among its own men for an 

engineer, n 317; Comment, 279 
Auditing of fares [Buehler], 737 
Employees' brotherhood repudiates action 

by .Amalgamated ."^ssn., n 1110 
Mutual Aid .Association's scope enlarged, 

n 610 
Near-side stop. Changeover methods, 

Publicity men's conference advocated 

[Davidson], 600 
Signal for indicating proper point of 

heat, "1104 
Snow-fighting organizat:on, 304 
Standards shown by samples mounted on 
boards, "1013 
Depreciation (see .\ppraisal of railway property) 
l)es Moines, Iowa; 

-Des Moines City Ry. : 

.Automatic substation installations, '66; 

Comment, 63 ... 

Economy of motor-driven auxiliaries 

[Chambers], 684 
Heater motor maintenance notes, "970 
Oxy-acetylene welding practice, "837 
Railings for prepayment car, "881 
Surface condenser cleaned kero- 
sene [Chambers], "397 
Track construction methods [Wilson], 

Winding heater motor armatures, "1150 

-Inter Urban Ry.: 

Home-made sump pump switch, "835 
Methods of supplying commercial energy 
[Chambers]. "878 
Detroit, Mich.; 

City's subway plans, n 751 

Detroit United Ry.: 

Annual report, 454 

-Arbitration award, n 1020 

Armature shafts reclaimed by welding 

[Keller], "789 
Automobile accidents increase, n 570 
Car control switches. Labeling of [Kel- 
ler], *881 
Car storage yard layouts, "535; Com- 
ment, 531 
City fares not extended by annexation of 
suburban districts. Court decision, 
Conference of publicity men advocated 

(Van Zandt], 649 
Freight terminal. "729 
Handling complaints [Van Zandt], "1090 
Interchangeable car destination sign 

[Keller], "556 
New carpenter shops, "693 
Storage yard for track material planned, 

n 404 
Two-car trains for city and interurban 

service [Reed], "698 
Wage arbitration, n 659, n 706 
District of Columbia (see Washington, D. C.) 
Dominion Pr. & Trans. Co. (see Hamilton, Can.) 
Doors, seats and windows: 

Folding seats for conductors on Louisville 

Ry., "1016 

Plush seats, Repair of, Columbus, O. 

[Foote]. "504 

Pneumatically operated doors and steps. 

Bay State Street Ry., "502; Comment, 

Pneumatically operated doors. Summary of 

developments (National Pneumatic), n 60 

Rattan seating maintenance, Beaver Valley 

Tr. Co., "1196 

Spring-type sash guide for car windows 

(Brill), "82 

Window curtain cleaning process, .Auburn. 

N. Y. [Colburn], 604 
Drawbridge protective devices: 

Chicago, 111. [.Avery], "505 

"Killing" of trolley wire on approaches un- 
desirable ["Railway Manager"], 964 
Duluth, Minn.: 

Condition of weather affects traffic, 865 

Duluth Street Ry. : 

Fare controversy, n 848, n 981, n 1027, 

n 1157 
Wage increase. Insurance and pensions 
announced, n 1021 

Duluth-Superior Tr. Co. : 

Annual report, 798 
Use of, 261, 449; [Stoneking], "700 

Earnings of electric railways (see Financial) 
Eastern Pennsylvania Rys. (see Pottsville, Pa.) 
East Liverpool, Ohio: 

East Liverpool Tr. & Lt. Co.: 

Truck equalization essential [PittengerJ, 
East St. Louis, 111.: 

East St. Louis & Suburban Ky.: 

.Arbitration for wage dispute, n 1064 
Illinois passenger rates [Gregory], 1190 
Reduction of selling cost [Johnston], 
Editorial conference in Washington, D. C, 1005 
Electric Railway Journal; 

Cartoons on publicity published in pamphlet 

form, n 347 

Consolidation of McGraw Publishing Co. and 

Hill Publishing Co., Comment, 375; His- 
tory of publishing compariies, "460 

Readers' co-operation essential. Comment, 


Relation of Electric Railway Journal to the 

railway industry. Comment, 239 

Review of 1916, Comment, 1 

Electric railways; 

.Automobile merits should be added to rail- 
way service. Comment, 945 
Combination against .Amalgamated Associa- 
tion essential. Comment, 532 
Commissions should aid in solving war prob- 
lems. Comment, 903 

Daylight saving, Effect on railway operation, 

Comment, 334, 533 

Earnings (see Financial) 

— — Financial and operating statistics, 180 

Improvements in operating conditions timely. 

Comment, 903 

Local associations. Field of. Comment, 1175 

Managers for local electric railway associa- 
tions, Comment, 1036 
Municipal vs. State regulation of street rail- 
ways [.McCIoy], 1095 

Prohibition causes increased traffic in Iowa, 

Comment, 193 

War-time conditions: 

Assistance in national defense. Comment, 
580, 628; [Harries], 249; Comment, 
British railway's activities [Dalrymple], 

Bulletin of A. R. A. on transportation 

of troops, 152 
Canadian experiences, "823, "866 
Conscription act. Effect of. Comment, 

Conservation, not retrenchment, desir- 
able, Comment, 768 
Economy in fuel and man-power. Com- 
ment, 676, 991, 1035 
Effect of war on railways. Comment, 815 
Effect on utilities [Bradlee], 1184 
Gardens along right-of-way hazardous. 

Comment, 857 
Liberty Loan subscriptions. Comment, 
811, *812; .Advertising, 959; Com- 
ment, 945; Character of. Comment, 
Massachusetts railways in defense move- 
ment, n 361, 436 
Miscell-ineous notes, *738, "782, "823, 

827 "866, "919, *960, "1008 
National defense committee of .A. E. R. 
-A., 597; Comment, 580; Data on 
electric railways [Harries], 675; 
Bulletin, 961 
National department heads address edi- 
torial conference in Washington, 
D. C, 1005 
New spirit developing. Comment, 1035 
Pennsylvania railways experiences, 910 
Preparations for war. Poster issued, 
n 349; Notes, n 696; Comment, 423 
President's message. Comment, 723 
Protection of railway property, 657; 

Comment, 627 
Railway specialists needed in war. Com- 
ment, 279 
"Right man in right place," Comment, 

Scotch railway's cable message to LI, S., 

[Dalrymple], 945 
Women as car checkers, Beaver Valley 

Tr. Co., n 1089 
Women conductors. Employment being 
considered, 919; Comment, 1081, 
1125, 1173 
Women conductors, Practice in England 
and France, 738, 960; Trial in Can- 
ada, 824; Comment, 857 

Report of American Committee on Electro- 
lysis, 549; Comment, 581; Discussion 
[Waterman], 598; [Flinn], 598; [Ganz], 
598; [Torchio], 599 
Elmira, N. Y. ; 

Elmira Water, Lt. & R. R. Co.: 

Bearings with keys in place of dowels, 

Lubrication economies [Hill], 966 
Power tools on track work [Hill], 

"1176; Comment, 1173 
Repairing worn armature shafts, 1194 
Turn-buckle brake rod with flexible 

joint, "1154 
Wage increase, n 1020 

(Abbreviations. • Illustrated, n Short news item.) 

January-June, 1917] 



Emergency trucks (see Service and power 

Empire United Rys. (see Syracuse, N. V.) 


(see also Insurance; Strikes and arbitra- 
tions; Wages) 
Appointments from within organization. Pol- 
icy of Denver Tramway, n 317; Com- 
ment, 279 

Courtesy essential. Comment, 1126 

. Denver, Col., Mutual aid association's scope 

enlarged, n 610 

Discipline in transportation department, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. [BuUockl. 431 

Education of apprentices. Comment. 1174 

■Efficiency and safety pamphlets, Brooklyn. 

N. Y.. "544 

Employees' magazine for use by any electric 

railway inaugurated, n 751 

Executives and the labor problem. Comment, 


Experience ordinance vetoed. Rockford, 111., 

n 795 

Good-will between company and employees 

[Pagan], 297 

Individual contracts, Washington, IX C, 

512. 562, 608 

Kansas City, Mo., Savings and loan associa- 
tion formed, n 460 

Medical department, Pittsburgh (Pa.) Rys. 

[Holtz], "816; Comment, 811 

Milwaukee, W^is., Bonus system to increase 

safety in transportation department. 209 

— Fenns-dvania R. R., Plan for securing help. 

Pensions and minimum wage laws. .\. E. R. .\. 

report, "282; Comment, 279, 380 

Selling service to public by platform men, 

[Frothingham], *380; Comment. 281 

— ^^Specifications for men, Comment, 148 

Stock sold to employees, Bangor, Me., n 711 

Training of motormen, Chicago Elevated 

Rys. [Feron], 158; Comment. 148 

Wage arbitration and contracts f Warren], 


Women conductors (see Electric railways, 

War time conditions) 

Workmen's compensation acts of U. S. sum- 
marized. 1138 

Energy consumption: 

(see also Sale of power; Purchased power) 

Car men's interest in the power plant will 

effect economies. Comment. 947 

Coasting recorder records at Fort Worth, 

Tex., *995: Recorders discussed, 1147 

Determining slack in schedules by energy 

inj.ut [Koehler], *1088; Comment, 1079 

Education of employees in power economy 

desirable, Comment, 813 

Effect of low voltage on railway motors 

[Woods], *159 

—Kansas City (Mo.) Rys.. Power-saving cam- 
paign, 784 

Power-saving recorder for cars. Connecti- 
cut Co., *788 

Train resistance on curves, Illinois Uni- 
versity, *32 ; Comment, 63 

Engineering Foundation, Report on scope of 
National Research Council issued, n 696 

Evansville, Ind. : 

Public Utilities Co.: 

Metal token fare-collection system, *640 

Everett, Wash.: 

Everett Railway, Light & Water Co.: 

Jitney service abandoned, n 270 

Exper-ence ordinances (see Employees) 

Express. (see Freight and express) 

Fairburn. Ga. : 

Fairburn & Atlanta Rv. & Elec. Co.: 

Car with automobile engine built in rail- 
way's shops [Hill]. '126 
Fairmont, W. \'a. : 
— —Consolidation of Monongah'^'a \'alley Tr. 

Co. and Kanawha Tr & Elec. Co., n 615 
Fare collection: 
Automatic coin registers on Brooklyn 

(N. V.) line [Rookel, "168 
^Boston, Mass., Prepayment areas proposed, 

n 569 
-Fare box and turnstile combination for rapid 

transit stations, Boston Elevated Ry., 


Metal tokens used in St. Louis, n 757 

Metal token system, Evansville Ind., *640 

Newark, N. .T., Use of turnstiles and change 

booths, *734 

Redeemable cash-fare receipts [Palmer], 391 

— — Sale of tickets on cars discontinued, Akron, 

O., n 229 
Fares : 

—Albany (N. Y.)-Troy fare case settled, n 981 
— Bay State fare case to be reopened, 998; 

Tentative agreement for 6-cent fare with 

several cities, 1188; Comment, 1174 
—Boston Elevated financial relief case, n 91, 

n 134; Temporary relief granted, 250; 

Comment, 280; Legislative hearings, 

454, 563, 617; Comment, 579; Partial 

relief granted, 1018. 
I'ritish railroad fares increased to discourage 

travel during war, 847 

Fares: (Continued) 

City fares not extended by annexation of 

suburban districts. Court decisiouj De- 
troit, Mich., 71; California Radroad 
Commission's decision, 269 
— ■ — Copper zone system authorized for trial in 
Massachusetts, n 846, n l')25 

Fort Smith, Ark., Fare reduced, n 757 

Pittsburgh ( Pa. ) Rys., Owl fare case de- 
cision, n 569 

"Illinois court upholds 2-cent railroad fare, 

n 138, n 413, n 1115, n 1163; [Gregory], 

Increased fare movement : 

C ommissions appreciate that operating 

costs are high, 953 
Efforts toward economy not to be 

abandoned, Conmient, 989 
General increase needed, Comment, 675, 

857; I Wright], 921 
1 ncrease of 20 per cent reasonable 

[Choate], 955 
Middlesex & Boston Street Ry., Hear- 
ings, n 1114 
New York City, 874, *916, *957, 1003, 
•1047, 1142, 1188; Comment. 905, 
946, 1125, 1127; Commission's 
power [Quackenbushl, 1 145 
New York State, Railwavs need relief 
[C onway], *1092; Operating sta- 
tistics [C^onway], 1045; Six cent 
fare asked by tweniy-eight lines, 
Pennsylvania Street Railway Assn. 

takes action, 911 
Problem inherently simple, Comment, 

Return to former practice, Comment, 

Vising costs [Lee], *n39, 1180 
Six-cent fare a national issue. Comment, 

Six-cent fare inevitable, C omment, 990 
Springfield. Mass., Argument for 6-cent 

fare, *1000 
Taking form, Comment, 767, 903 
Time for united action, Comment, 947 


Brookfield. Mass., n 711 
Canton, Mass., 322, 893 
Chicago lSi Joliet Elect. Ry., n 1117 
Fall River. Mass., n 457. n 521 
Fort William, Conn., n 711 
Hagerstown & Frederick Ry., n 1071 
Maynard, Mass., Copper-fare zones au- 
thorized, n 846, 1025 
Port Arthur, Can., n 711 
Seneca Falls, N. V., n 665 
Shore Line Elec. Ry., Norwich, Conn., 

n 618 
Trenton. Bristol & Philadelphia Ry., 

n 56 
Ware, Mass., n 665 

Publicity a solution of the five-cent-fare 

problem. Comment, 725 

Reduction of transfer privileges to avoid 

raising fares. Comment, 193 
^Through-fare case won by railway, Indian- 
apolis, Ind., n 459 

Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Ry., 

Grafton fare case decision, n 54 
Fargo, N. D.: 

Fargo & Moorehead Street Ry.: 

W^age increase, n 361 

Feeders: , , , i 

Corner stresses on heavily loaded poles 

[Foster], *1051 

Profitable point at which to splice up scrap 

wire [Foster]. 1192 

Fences, Report of A. R. E. A. committee. 547 

Fenders and wheel guards (see C?r orHer de- 
tails — for record of recent practice) 


(see also Taxes) 

Annual reports (indexed under the railway) 

Corporation capital stock tax. Ruling of In- 
ternal Revenue Commissioner, 90 

Earnings of electric railways: 

Analysis for 1916, 843; Comment, 
California utilities 1915, 181 
( anada, 1916. 1067 
Connecticut. 1068 
(ieographical analysis of A. 
180. 362. 613. 753, 976; 
ter, 1917. 1160 
Maine. 1067 

Nebraska, 1915-16 n 1113 
Review of 1916, Comment, 4 

Fair rates of return. Factors in [Erickson], 


Holding companies' charges against utilities. 

Comment, 724, 769 

Indemnity and surety bonds [Tomlins], 392 

Insurance companies' holdings in public 

utility securities analyzed, 612; Com- 
ment. 579 

Loans made to foreign railways. 708 

-^"No-par-value" bill in New York State, 
n 1022 

-Public utility financing for March, 1917, 

707 . ■ r 
Receivership and foreclosure statistics for 

^Sale of frai"'ulent securities can be forbid- 
den by State, Court decision, n 179 



E. R. A., 

First quar- 


Financial: (Continued) 

Savings Lank investment in certain public 

utility bonds legalized in Maine, n 708; 
In Connecticut, n 843 

War's effect on utility securities, 931 

Fire protection and insurance: 

Shop improvements to reduce rates, 

Brighton, Pa. [Hoyce], *503 
Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R.R. 

Gloversville, N. Y.) 
Fond du Lac, Mich.: 

Eastern Wisconsin Elec. Co. formed by con- 
solidation of local properties, n 407 
I-'ort Smith, Ark. : 
. — Fort Smith Lt. &■ Tr. Co.: 
Fare reduction, n 757 
Fort Wayne, Ind.: 

Fort Wayne &■ Northern Indiana Tr. Co. : 

Motor bus operation planned, n 522 
Steel bridge constructed by company 

forces (Norford], *1099 
Wage increase, n 406 
I'ort William, Can. : 

Fort William Elec. Ry. : 

Fare increase, n 711 
Fort Worth, Tex.: 

Jitney zone ordinance upheld by court, 

——Northern Texas Tr. ( o. : 

(Joasting records, *995. 1147 
Motor-bus conii>any organized, n 1116 
Operating problems [Berry], 781 
Repair of old joint plates by welding, 

Repair shop economics [Taylor], 822 

Report on industrial conditions, 190 


Economic aspects of [Doolittle], 494 

Fiedcrick, Md. : 

Hagerstown & Frederick Ry.: 

Carhouse fire, n 610 
Fare increase granted, n 1071 
l'"ree[)ort, L. 1. : 

Freeport R.R. ; 

Abandonment of winter service disal- 
lowed by commission, 367 
Free ride law upheld by New Jersey courts, 

n 1025 
l-reigbt and express: 
— (see also lerminal stations and 

Advantages of freight traffic in 

interurbau service factor, 
— Advantages of interline traffic 

Benton Harbor, Mich., Extent 

traffic and facilities used [Pound], 207 

Birmingham, Ala., methods of getting and 

handling business [Brabston], "582 

Boston Elevated Ry., Tank car service in 

off-peak hours, *1144 
Development of business during 1916, Com- 
ment, 14 
— ■ — Freight should be solicited to relieve steam 
roads. Comment, 945 

Interurban freight should not be allowed to 

injure passenger business, Comment, 

Massachusetts Commission indorses freight 

service, 730 

Seattle, Wash., Flxperiences with freight 

business [ Somers ] , 208 

Tdedo & Western R.R., Extent of freight 

business handled [Wegner], 207 
I'resno, Cal. : 

Fresno Traction Co. : 

Legislative relief necessary, n 178 
Frontier Elec. Ry. (see Buffalo, N. Y.) 
Fuse box with cover interlocked with disconnect- 
ing switch [Crouse-Hinds], *1106 


[Norviel |, 

of freight 



(lalveston, Tex.: 

(;;alveston Electric Co.: 

Commutator slotter of home-made 
sign, *352 

Special collar used in pressing 
wheels, *174 
(iary, Ind. : 
Gary & Interurban R.R. : 

Franchise eliminating 3-cent fare 
posed, n 50; Failed, n 178 
Gasoline cars: 
Fairburn, Ga., Car built in railway s shop 

[Hill], 126 
San Diego & Southern Ry., Oil-engine car, 

(iear manufacturers organize, n 672 
(Jears and pinions: 

Pinion assembly practice [Kronfeld] 

(leneral Electric Company: 

Annual report, 764 

Geneva, Seneca Falls & Auburn R.R. 

Seneca Falls, N. Y.) 
Georgia Ry- & Pr. Co. (see Atlanta, 

Grosse Berliner Strassenbahn, -Annual 
report, 566 
(jlrardsville. Pa.: 
Schuylkill Ry.: 

n 521 

, *217 


of passengers considered. 

(Abbreviations. * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 



[Vol. XLIX 

Gloversville, X. Y. : 

- — -Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversvillc R.R.: 

Fare increase sought, n 271, 521 
Government ownership: 

(see also Municipal ownership) 

Not a solution of public utility problem, 

Comment, 989 
Grade crossing signals. (see Signals) 
Grand Rapids. Mich.: 
Grand Rapids Ry. ; 

Wage increase, n 51 
United Light & Ry*s Co.: 

Annual report, 1202 
Gray's Harbor Ry. & Lt. Co. (see Aberdeen, 

Great Britain: 
British railway's war activities [Dalrymple], 

Fares increased to discourage public travel 

during war, 227 
Glasgow : 

Glasgow Tramways' war greeting to 
V. S. railways [Dalrymple], 945 

Liverpool Corporation Tramways, An- 
nual report, 932 
London : 

Letters from, 46, 219, 403, 656, 883. 

Underground Electric Rys. : 
Annual report, 890 
New extension and Us equipment, 

Statement on operated railways, 519 
Great Northern Ry. : 

Electrification considered, n 361 

Greensboro, N. C. : 
Public Service Co.: 

Filing rack for blueprints, *449 
Guelph, Can. : 
Guelph Municipal Ry. : 

Wage increase, n 974 
Gulfport, Miss.: 
Gulfport & Mississippi Coast Tr. Co. : 

Effect of salt air on cars, 834 


Hagerstown & Frederick Ry. (see Frederick, 

Hamilton. Can.; 
■ Dominion Pr. & Trans. Co.: 

Annual report, 933 
Hamilton, O.; 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tr. Co. : 

Strike, n 223, n 317, n 453, n 610 
Hampton, Va. : 

— — Newport News & Hampton Ry., Gas & 
Elec. Co.: 

Annual report, 1066 
Ilarrisburg, Pa.: 

Jitney case, n 569, n 756 

— ■ — Harrisburg Rys.: 

Annual report, 708 

Tram rail guard made by electric welding 
{Moist], *926 

Wage increase, n 1020 
Havana Elec. Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co. (see Cuba) 
Hazleton, Pa.: 
Wilkes-Barre & Hazleton Ry. ; 

Wage increase, n 1 1 10 
Resistance box for arc headlights [Foote], 

Heating effect of electric currents. Meter for 

measuring [Westinghouse], 313 
Healing of cars: 
Heater motor maintenance, Des Moines, la., 

Hot water heater, Columbus, O. [Foote], 

Signal for indicating proper point of lieat 

in Denver, Col., *1104 
Testimony before New York Commission 

published in pamphlet form, n 185 
Thermostat calibration by use of heat bo.\ 

(Ransom], *602 
Heavy electric traction: 
(see also High-voltage d.c. railways: I-oco- 

motives; Low-voltage d.c. railways; 

Single-phase railways) 
Effect of eight-hour law on electrification. 

Comment, 580 

Effect of electrification on maintenance, 546 

• Fuel economy under electric operation. 

Comment, 675 
— — Review of developments during 1916 and 

prospects for 1917, Comment, 4 
Southern Pacific Ry. electrification suggested 

to solve fuel problem, n 1197 
Track maintenance data desirable. Comment, 

High-voltage d.c. railways: 
Comparative figures for steam and electric 

operation, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 

Paul Ry. [Beeuwkes], 540; Correction, 

Highway crossing protection (see Signals) 
Highwood, HI.: 
Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R.: 

Dining car and dining service, *84, *650 

Fire-proof switch cabinet for cars, '1015 

Grade crossing protection methods, *303 

Traffic stimulation by special tours, 826 

Hill Publishing Co. (see McGraw-Hill Publish- 
ing Co.) 

nolyoke, Mass. : 

Holyoke Street Ry.: 

Increased fares asked, n 1116 

Hudson & Manhattan R.R. (see New York 


Public Utilities Commission : 

Clearance regulations for railroad con- 
struction, 539 
Control over Chicago utilities upheld, 

Storm damage to public utilities, n 1020, 

n 1064 

Two-cent railroad fare law upheld by Court, 

n 138, n 413; Railroads enj oined by 
State from charging 2.4-cent rate, 
n 1115; L C. C. powers questioned, 
n 1163; [Gregory], 1190 
Illinois Electric Railway Assn. : 

Annual meeting, 157 

Committee appointments, 436 

March meeting, 584; Addresses [Lorenz], 

584; [Carr], 586 
Illinois Traction System. (see Peoria, 111.) 

Interurban railways. Operating and finan- 
cial results for 1914-15. 518 

Railways combine in purchasing coal mines, 

n 794 

Tax valuations on interurban railways, 1068 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Co. (see 

Columbus, Ind.) 
Indianapolis, Ind. : 

Indianapolis Tr. & Term. Co.: 

Exi)enditures for improvements during 

1916, n 177 
Free-ride order opposed, n 979 
Strike injunction dismissed, n 48 
Traffic increase shown by statistics, 321 
Wage increase, n 89 

■ Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Tr. 

Effective service rendered after tor- 
nado, n 512 
Engineers in C. E. R. A. f Schlesinger], 

Standard classification of trucks dis- 
cussed [Clark], 501 
Through-fare case won by railway, n 459 
Inspection of cars: 

Elmira, N. Y., inspection of lubrication 

[Hill], 966 

■ Accident-insurance companies* discrimina- 
tion against electric railways unfair 
[Dunbar], 554 

Compulsory health insurance opposed by 

National Civic Federation. 16.^ 
Compulsory mutual association for employ- 
ers*, Advantages, 685 

Co-operative insurance for employees [Rice], 

*292; Comment, 280 
Duluth Street Rys. plan for insuring em- 
ployees, n 1021 
Kansas City (Mo.) Rys., Company-employ- 
ees joint plan put mU' 

Macon (Ga.) Ry. & Lt. Co. 

ployees, n 937 
Interborough Consolidated Corp. 

York City) 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co. 

York City) 
International Ry. (see Buflfalo, N. 
Interstate Commerce Commission : 

Accident statistics for electric 

n 343, n 981 

Freight rate increase procedure, n 802. n 846 

Railroad valuation report issued, n 453 

Inter Urban Ry. (see Des Moines. la.) 
Interurban railways: 

Analysis of typical interurban reports [Doo- 

little], •242; Comment, 238 

Effect of the automobile [Griffin], 820 

Freight traffic, Comment, 1163 

Future of the interurban [Benbam], 438 

New Kansas line, Arkansas Valley Interur- 
ban Ry., *996 
Through service essential to stimulate traf- 
fic, Comment, 105 

Prohibition causes increased traffic, Com- 
ment. 193 

Workmen's compensation law upheld by 

U. S. Supreme Court, n 451 
Ironwood, Mich.: 

Ironwood & Bessemer Ry. &■ Lt. Co.: 

Company purchased by L. E. Myers, 
n 319 

insures cm- 

(see New 





.(amaica, West Indies: 


West India Elec. Ry., Annual report, 
Jamestown, N. Y. : 

Jamestown, Westfield & Northwestern R.R.: 

Interurban cars with off-set central ves- 
tibules, *907 

Jitney bus: 

'■ Atlantic City, N. J., Right to regulate traf- 
fic upheld by Court, n 617; Ordinance, 
n 892; Main street closed to jitneys, 
n 1070 

Bellingham, Wash., Local jitney ordinance 

upheld by court, n 459 

California legislation, n 521; Jitneys file 

rates with Railroad Commission, n 618; 
Fare increase asked, 1026 

Dallas, Tex., ordinance, n 56 

Everett, Wash., Bus service abandoned by 

railway, n 270 

Fort Worth, Tex., Zone ordinance upheld 

by Court, n 185 

Harrisburg (Pa.) case, n 569, n 756 

Los Angeles, Cal., Initiative ordinance 

drafted, n 846; Signatures obtained, 
n 936, n 980; Jitneys excluded from 
business district, n 1115 

Memphis, Tenn., Franchises revoked, n 757 

Newark, N. J., Insurance company gives up 

jitney business, n 1206 

Pennsylvania jitneys common carriers. Court 

decision, 935 

Regulative ordinances prevalent in Pacific 

(Toast cities, n 366 

Seattle, Wash., 1916 situation reviewed, 270; 

Jitney's liability not limited to bond, 
n 666; Mutual insurance question, n 936, 
n 980; Controversy, n 1115, n 1164, n 

Stock issue allowed by Commission, Water- 
town, N. Y., n 181 

\'ancouver. Can., Changes in regulations, 

n 229 

Washington State, Operators' organization 

formed, n 711; Satisfactory bonds not 
obtainable, n 1069 

Winnipeg, Can., Suit against city to re- 
cover railway's loss, n 757; Comment, 

Joliet, HI.: 

Aurora, Plainfield & JoHet Ry. : 

Wage increase, n 930 

Chicago & Joliet Elec. Ry. : 

Fare increase granted, n 1117 

Joplin, Mo. : 

Southwest Missouri, R.R.: 

Near-side stop abandoned, 457 


Kankakee & Urbana Tr. Co. (see Urbana, HI.) 
Kansas City, Mo.: 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 

Wage increase, n 611 

Kansas City Rys. : 

Advertising not used in The Railwayan 

[Kealy], 121 
Bearings, Spring adjustment for 

[Smith], '602 
Bridge controversy, 314 
Budget for 1917, n 220 
Car remodeling, *700 
Kmployees disciplined for carelessness, 

n 56 
Fare hearing, n 1163 
Franchise arbitration, n 316 
Ciuard for protecting public against rays 

from electric welder, "215 
Increase in business due to favorable 

public opinion, n 183 
Insurance, Half-payment plan for em- 
ployees, 457 
Methods of enforcing traffic regula- 
tions, n 520 
Power improvements planned, n 404 
Power saving campaign, 784 
I'ublicity ideas [Atchley], '27 
Publicity poster, *205 
Remodeled one-man cars, *832 
Safety poster for vehicle drivers, n 271 
Savings and loan association for em- 
ployees, n 460 
Storage yard. Methods and machinery 

[Harvey], -150 
Substations of portable automatic type, 

Wiring diagram, *881 
Timetables published in newspapers, 

n 523 
Track torn up at night to avoid injunc- 
tion, n 928 
Trolley-pole repairing with special ma- 
chine [Smith], -399 
Wage increase, n 1020 
Kennett Square, Pa.: 

West (Chester, Kennett & Wilmington Elec. 

Strike, n 660, n 795 

Franchise tax decision, Louisville & Inter- 
urban Ry., n 1159 
Keyport, N. J. : 

Jersey Central Tr. Co. : 

Absorption of Central Jersey Tr. Co., 
n 1022 
Knoxville, Tenn.: 

Knoxville Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Shop test leads coiled on trolley re- 
triever, *1060 

(Abbreviations. * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 

January-June, 1917] 

Labor-saving tools, Economies of. Comment, 628 
Legal : 

Adamson eight-hour law case, Closing ar- 
guments, n 13-' 

Bus line privilege not a franchise. New 

\ork State Commission dec.sion, n 322 

City fares not e-xtended by annexation of 

suburban districts, Court decision, De- 
troit, Mich., 71 

Electric railway legal decisions, 326, 416, 

-162, 571, 758, 848, 937, 1027, 1118, 1207 

Extension order for unprotitable lines held 

valid by Supreme t ourt, n 1110 

Free rides for police and firemen upheld 

by New Jersey Supreme Court, n 1025 
-New \ ork State Commission's right to in- 
crease fares stipulated in franchises, 
210; Comment, 195 

• Personal injury laws ought to be changed 

ISmith], 211 

• Public utility employees right to strike may 

be restricted. Comment, 531 
Railway has right of way at street cross- 
ings, New Jersey Supreme Court de- 
cision, n 95 

Sale of fraudulent securities can be forbid- 

den by State, Court decision, n 179 

Strike damage suit, Buffalo, N. Y , n 89 

n 131 ' 
Suit to recover loss due to jitney competi- 
tion, Winnipeg, Can,, n 757; Comment, 

Workmen's compensation laws of New York 

and Iowa upheld by U. S. Supreme 
t ourt, n 451 

Canadian compulsory investigation act un- 
successful in avoiding strikes, n 78 
Savings banks allowed to make certain pub- 
lic utility investments in Maine, n 708- 
In Connecticut, n 843 ' 

Track repairs at night forbidden by ordi- 

nance, Los Angeles, Cal., Comment, 813 

War tax on long-haul automobiles before 

Senate, 918 

Workingmen's compensation acts of U S 

summarized, 1138 

Workmen's compensation laws of New York 

and Iowa upheld by U. S. Supreme 
Court, n 451 
Lehigh \ alley R.R. : 

Electrification plans, n 314 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co. (see Allentown, Pa.) 
Leominster, Mass.: 

Fitchburg & Leominster Street Ry. : 

Home-made equipment for testing car 
circuit breakers [Lish], *1194 
Levis, Can.: 

Levis County Ry. : 

Remodeled one-man car [Weyman], 

Lighting of cars: 

Economy of incandescent headlights and 

large units [Armstrong], *171 
Lamp theft nrevention by use of odd volt- 
ages (Electrical Engineer], 697; 
IDoanc], 697 
Lighting of stations: 

Emergency switch for, *5I0 

Lightning protection: 

Arrester for heavy surges (Railway & In- 

dustnal Engineering Co.), '703 
Sphere gaps for high-tension arresters [Gen- 
eral Electric], "654 
Lincoln, Neb.: 

Lincoln Traction Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 757 
Strike, n 752, n 841 
Loading limits for cars: 

Baltimore order unpopular, n 95 

-.New York City, Ordinance amended, n 55 

Locknut with soft metal washer [Blair], "402 
l.ocknut with steel roller (Roller Locknut Co.], 

n 313 

Comparison of electric and steam operation. 

C. M. & S. P. (Beeuwkesl, 540; Cor- 
rection, 601 

• Comparison between electric and steam 

operation, Norfolk & Western Ry., 538 
1-uel economy under electric operation Com- 
ment, 675 

f/=": losses. Cost of. Comment, 724 

• Mechanical design. Conditions while round- 
ing curves [Kennedy], 'UO 

Pennsylvania freight locomotive for 

service, '1048 

L'se in suburban service. Comment, 147 

London, Can. : 

London Street Ry. : 

Annual report, 932 
Wage agreement signed, n 795 
London. England (see Great Britain) 
Long Island R.R,: 
■ Coil-winding machine 


Los .\ngeles, C'al.: 

TracK repairs at night forbidden 

nance. Comment, 813 

^"'°" KfJ*"'""' ^°'' ^''^""'^ ''"es planned, 


by ordi- 

I OS Angeles transportation systems: 

Los Angeles Ry. Corp.: 

New transfer, "963 
Wage increase, n 930 

Pacific Electric Ry. : 

Discharged motorman reinstated after 

arbitration, n 1111 
Drainage problems (Elliott], *498 
Elevated terminal placed in operation, 

n 453 
Fare reduction case dismissed by Com- 

mission, 269; Rehearing, 411 
lares in Pasadena reduced on certain 

lines, n 1071 
Franchise burdens, 1108 
Locomotive cranes of various types 

[Elliott], *1152 
Repair shops planned, n 792 
Safety work, '595 

Steel trolley wire successfully used [An- 
. derson], "1038; Comment, 1036 

Louisville, Ky. : 

.-..ney-bus company abandons service, n 1 '07 

l-ouisville & Interurban Ry.: 

Franchise tax decision, n 1159 

Louisville Ry. ; 

Conductors' folding scats installed on 

cars, *1016 
Dissolution proceedings, n 663 
Emergency increase in wages, n 1021 
hatal grade crossing accident, n 367 
I'ranchise tax held illegal, n 1111 
Injunction against abandoning unprofit- 
able line, n 1158 
low-voltage d.c. railways: 

London (Eng.) Underground extension. Car 
equipment, *871 

■ (sec also Bearings) 

Economies in, Elniira, N. Y. [Hill], 966 

-Market conditions: (Continued) 

Economies in buying [Sraaw], 576 

I'.reight-car shortage, 145, 277, 673 

-Gears, 985 





r . . - --, ••■ - [Mills], •651 

l-.xtension of electrification proposed, n 661 

1-ease of suburban tracks to city. Report 

on terms filed, n 567 

s'or""'^'^ "^ interpolc motors [Mills]. 

Los Angeles, Cal.: 

■ Jitney ordinance drafted, n 846; Signatures 

obtained, n 936, n 980; License fee -in- 
creased, n 570; Excluded from business 
district, n 1115 

McAIester, Okla. : 

Pittsburg County Ry. : 

Wage increase, n 930 
-McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 

McGraw Publishing Co. and Hill Pub. 
lishing Co., Comment, 375; History of 
|)ublishing companies, *460 
Macon, (»a. : 

-Macon Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

. Employees insured by company, n 937 
.Mahon ng & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co, (see 

1 oungstown, O.) 

Electric railway earnings for 1915-16, 1067 

Savings bank investments in certain public 

utility securities allowed, 708 
-Maintenance records and costs: 

Dump cars for track maintenance. Economies 

effected, Cleveland, O. [Clark], 508 

Equipment maintenance costs. "356 

Increases in costs shown in percentages 

[Lee], *1139 

Material costs on Bay State Street Ry for 

four years, 999 
Overhead construction, New York West- 
chester & Boston Ry., •472; Comment. 
4/ 1 

Track maintenance costs analyzed. Brooklyn 

-N. Y. [Cram], ^479; Comment. 470 
— — \\ ay and structures maintenance costs, *356 
Manchester. N. H.: 

-Manchester Tr.. Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Power developments [Doble] '424 
Manila, P. I,: 

-Manila Elec. R. R. & Lt. Corp.: 

Electric railway conditions in Manila, 
•114; Comment, 103 
Manufacturers and markets (see Market condi- 
Manufactuiers' part in adjustment of payment 

for defective equipment, 1211 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Ry., *996 

Buffalo-Niagara Falls highspeed line. Inter- 
national Ry.. "379 

Chicago, III., Density of population, '435 

< j'lcago. 111., Passenger distribution, *687 

Chicago, III., Residential-industrial districts, 


Cincinnati. O., Interurban and proposed 

rapid transit lines, *634 

Illuminated maps for advertising purposes, 

\ ancouver. B. C.. '591 

Manchester (N. H.) Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co.. 

1 racks and power lines, *424 

Sydney, Australia, Rapid-transit routes, 382 

Market conditions: 

(Current prices of materials appear in each 


Anti-friction center and side bearings, 418 

Carbolineum, 1076 

Cars, 276, 719 

f^oal, 853; Comment, 811, 991 

Coasting recorders. 234 

Control equipment, 276 

Copper. 373. 808, 987, 1033, 1070 

Copper prices, 18961916. shown graphically. 

High prices a hardship to railways [Heee- 

man], 527 * 

"'8h I'^rices, Effect on business [Hammond], 

— —Increases in costs of materials, n 1087 

Insulated wire, 144 

Insulators, 763 

b'",f" tf"^ ^°^ ^^'^ coils [Tucker], 1121 

.Malleable iron, 900 

Maintenance materials, Illinois Traction Sys- 

tem [Vance], 190 

Motors, 276 

Motor trucks, 899 

y^crhead line materials. 719 

Purchasing agents' organization advocated 

671; Comment. 627; [Dunbar], 720 

Rails (second-hand) 985 

Railway materials, (Jleveland, O., 577 

Keduction of selling costs (see Selling costs) 

Keview of market conditions during 1916 

Comment. 12 

Second- hand machinery [McGovern]. 528 

Signal repair parts [Davis]. 1032 

g.'K"?'?. Contactor type. 466; [Nachod]. 90(1 

Skylights. 465 

Special work, 60 

Steel poles, 853 

^""^LE^''^'=*' 1896-1916. shown graphically, 

Thermit welding material [Hulburt] 1121 

1 les, 941 

Ties, steel, 60 

Ties, treated, 1032 

War's effect on market [Petura], 623; 

[Baackes], 941 

Wheels, 418 

Market conditions. Interviews: 

(see also Authors' Index) 

Buehler, J. G.. 100 

Casey. T. W., 60 

Chandler. W. L.. 372, 577 

Chappelle. C. C, 234 

Christopher, Charles, 1075 

Crafts, P. P., 465 

|>ee, William V., 465 

Gammons, Roland F., 2d, 466 

Lyndon, George W., 234 

Smaw, W. H., 720 

Smith, George P., 466 

White, W. McK.. 418 

Wickwire, E. F., 100 

.Maryland : 

Public Service Commission: 

.^nnua^ report, n 178 


Commutation tax repeal sought by railways, 


Financial relief case, Boston Elevated Ry.. 

n 91; Fare increase denied, n 134; Tem- 
porary relief granted. 250; Comment, 
280 Legislative hearings, 454. 563. 617; 
Comment, 579; Partial relief granted. 

Legislativi? inquiry into economic condition 

of railways planned, n 975. n 1201 

• Public Service (Commission: 

Annual report, n 130 

Bay State Street Ry. service reduction 

allowed, 458 
Consolidation with Gas & Electric Com. 

mission proposed, n 50 
Copper zone fare system authorized for 
trial, Maynard, Mass., n 846. n 1025 
Fall River reduced-rate tickets. With- 
drawal allowed, n 457, n 521 
Freight service for street railways in- 

dorsed. 730 
Track material unit costs in Massachu- 
setts. 70 

Street railways' co-operation in preparedness 

movement. 426 
• Street Railway Assn.: 

February meeting, 293 

May meeting, 1003 

Master Car Builders' Convention 

n 749, n 840, n 974 
Master mechanic, Financial value of 

Master mechanics. Possibilities of advancement 
Comment. 904 ' 

Master mechanic's position and pay, Commeiil. 

104, 724 
.Maynard, Mass. : 

Concord, Maynard & Hudson Street Ry.: 

Copper fare-zones authorized on six- 
cent basis, n 846, n 1025 
Medical department of Pittsburgh (Pa.) Kvs 

[Holtz], 1816; Comment, 811 
Memphis, Tenn.: 

Memphis Street Ry. : 

Drainage of sash pockets of cars, '605 
Jitney franchise revoked, n 757 
Tickometer for counting transfers (Tick- 
ometcr Co.), '703 

(see Power stations and equipment) 

Line loss meter (Sangamo), ^970 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry. (see Newton- 

ville, Mass.) 
Mileage recording device for cars (Ohmre), *510 


(Abbreviations. • Illustrated, n Short news item.) 


[Vol. XLIX 

n 221. n 404. 
lines discussed 

"selling rides," 

Milwaukee, Wis.: 

Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Advertising in Aera undesirable [Morti- 
mer], 442; Comment, 422 
Advertising to get fair play and greater 

traffic (Putnam], *3I 
Annual report, 1112 
Bonus system for decreasing accidents in 

transportation department, 209 
Cars with low steps and ceriter en- 
trance, *308 ,, • - , 
Fare increase sought, n 86; Denied, n 129 
Galvanizing plant [Ilinstorff], *652 
Mechanical aids in accounting 

[Schwenkel. '775 
New carhouse and storage yard, *690 
Minneapolis, Minn.: „ t^ . 

Minneapolis St. Paul, Rochester & Dubuque 

Elec. Tr. Co.: 
Foreclosure sale, n 1114 

.Minneapolis Street Ry.: 

Franchise negotiations, 
n 452 

Steel trolley wire for city 

[Scofield], 1148 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. 

Annual report, n 407 
Instruction pamphlet on 

Publicity policies and 

rWarnock], *19 
Truck with mside journals for city 

service, *924 
Two-car unit with small vyheels for rush- 
hour service, *353; Comment, 377 
Mobile. Ala.: 

Mobile Lt. & R. R. Co.: 

Bonus for platform men restored, u 5n5 
Monorail transit plan proposed in Chicago, III., 

n 451 
. Railway financial statement, 1916, 266 

Montoursville, Pa.: 

Montoursville Passenger Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 758 
Montreal, Can.: 

Canadian Northern Ry. : 

Toronto-Niagara Falls l:ne proposed, 
n 264, n 362 

Montreal Tramways: 

Operation of two-car trains planned, 

n 570 
Wage increase, n 1107 

Three Rivers Tr. Co.: 

Name suggested for one-man cars [Hart]. 
Morristown, N. J.: 

Morris County Tr. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 1065 
Motor bus: 

.\nniston, .\la.. 0|)eration by railway planned, 

n 757 

Chicaeo, 111., Service inaugurated, *637 

Fort Wayne, Ind.. Operation planned, n 522 

■ Havana (Cuba) Elec. Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co. 

purchases passenger buses, n 459 

Maintenance guarantees on San Francisco 

Municipal Rvs. motor bus, 323. n 412 

Operating costs increased by European war. 

Fifth Avenue Coach Co., 118 

Pacific Gas & Elec. Co. operating buses at a 

loss, n 139 

Portland & Oregon City Ry. obtains motor 

bus franchise, n 411 

War tax on long-haul automobiles before 

Senate, 918 

.\xle mounted. Effect on track construction 

and maintenance, 546; Comment, 532 

Effect of low voltage [Woods], '159 

Field coil insulation with asbestos and var- 
nish, Columbus, O. [Foote], 833 

Gearless type too heavy for motor cars. 

Comment. 334 

Maintenance of. Providence, R. I., *509 

Old-type motor bearings. Improvement in 

lubrication, San .\ntonio, Tex., *128 

Spr'ng adjustment for armature bearings. 

Kansas City, Mo. [Smith], *602 
Municipal ownership: 

-Tax on municipal railways of California 

proposed, n 179; Comment, 194 
Muskegon, Mich.: 

Muskegon Tr. & Ltg. Co. : 

Franchise controversy, 704 

National Safety Code (see Bureau of Standards) 

National Safety Council: 

Poster using railway's safety suggestions, 


Rear end collision safety poster, *737 

Review of activities during 1916, Com- 
ment, 3 T, \ 

National Utilities Co. (see Philadelphia, Pa.) 
Nebraska: ,,,_ 
Earnings for 1915-16, n 1113 



in emergency 




Nashua, N. H.: 

Fare increase proposed. 322 

Nashville, Tenn.: 

Nashville-Gallatin Intcrurban Ry.: 

Receivership, n 53 
■ Nashville Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Sign-curtain printing press, *837 
National Chamber of Commerce: 

Annual convention, 254 

National Civic Federation: 

• Annual meeting, 163 

National Electric Li^ht Assn.; 
Annual convention: 

Proceedings, 869 

Report of committee on prime movers, 
National Foreign Trade Council : 
.\nnual convention. 235 

.Mbany, Ind.: 

Railways damaged by tornado, n 608 

Louisville & Southern Indiana Tr. Co.. 

War preparations increase traffic, n u-ti 

'Ji!!|[tney d'r'ivers required to wear badges, 
n 1117 

Public Service Ry.: -,.,1,1. 

\ E R. A. company sections desiraUle 

[Schreiber], 961 
.Xnnual report, 889 . 

Car design. Discussion of disputed points 

IDanforth], '477 
Changes in personnel, n 658, 714 
Company publication established, n 229 
Fare collection at terminal. *734 
Free rides for police and firemen upheld 

bv courts, n 1025 
Hudson River tunnel investigated, n 264. 

n 705 . . J .,:, 

Increases in costs explained to public, 

New Essex power station, •1040; Com- 
ment, 1036 

Publicity methods, *1085 

Skip-stop operation in Bloomheld disap- 
proved by Commission, n 138 

New Bedford, Mass.: 

Union Street Ry. : 

Car destination sign rack 
Rack for holding jacks 
car, *836 
New Brighton, N. Y.: 

Richmond Lt. & R. R. Co.: 

Comprom'se joints, Welding 01 

Phee], '603 
Condenser tubes cleaned by sand 

fFalkner]. '1059 
Consolidation with Staten Island 
land Ry. proposed, n 407; 
proved by commission, n 933 
Petition for 6-ccnt fares. 1188 
Recent tendencies in taxation [Kandl, 
389; Comment, 375 

Staten Lsland Midland Ry.: , , . o t. 

Consolidation with Richmond Lt. *c K. 
R. Co. proposed, n 407. n 933 
Petition for 6-cent fares, 1188 
New Brighton, Pa.: 

Beaver Valley Tr. Co.: . , , 1. 

Car window guards used to protect belts. 

Controller segments. Method of re- 
claiming, *558 
Fire insurance. Methods of reducing 

rates in shop [Boyce], '503 
Maintenance of rattan seating, ♦1196 
Public-ty methods of a small road 

I Boyce], '630 . 

Storekeeping system [Pieri], *1150 
Transfer table for truck changing 

[Mever], '744 
Women to be employed as car checkers, 
n 1206 
New England Stfeef Railway Club: 

^ AnnuaPflinner. 551 

February meeting, 393 

New Haven. Conn.: 

Connecticut Co.: 

,\nnual report, 363 . . 

Centerville extension impossible with 

present finances, n 49 
Feeder poles moved with jacks I Butt 

rick], '217 
Legislative service hearing, n 665 
Pavement cutting apparatus (StarkL 

Paving burden unreasonable [Dunham], 

342; Comment, 333 
Power plant reconstruction. Grand .\ve.. 

•860; Comment. 859 
Power-saving recorder for cars, •788 
Prolonging life of old rail [Stark], 8() 
Rail-head contour scribing machine 

[Dunham], '876 
Rake of trolley poles. Current practice 
[Harte], 395 , ,„„ 

Safety work. 594: Medal received, 500; 

Comment, 469 
Way department labor-saving tools 
" I Dunham], 170 

New Tcrscv ■ 

ffranchise tax increased by legislature, n 516 

Hudson River Bridge-Tunnel Commission 

appointed, n 1108 
New Orleans, La.: 
— —New Orleans Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Annual report. 1111 

Investigation of railway problems sought, 
n 618 

Service investigation by commission, 
n 712 
Newport, Ky. : 

Franchise nullified by court, n 611 

Newport News & Hampton Ry.. Gas & Elec Co. 
(see Hampton, Va.) 

Y, C. 

Newtonville, Mass.: 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry.: 

Fare hearings, n 1114 

Wage arbitration and agreement, 928; 
Comment. 904 

New York Central R. R.: 

Gearless motors too heavy for motor cars, 

Comment, 334 
Harlem Division fare reduction refused by 

Commission, n 803 
loint through rates with Illinois Traction 

System ordered by Commission, n 204 
-New York City West Side improvement. 

Discussion of plans, n 130. n 362, n 406. 

n 453, n 841 
New York City: 
Barstow Management .\s-sn.: 

Incorporation of company, n 223 

Car capacity order amended. 11 55 

Cities Service Co.: 

Annual report, 797 
Dual subway system : 

C'orona line opened, n 796 

Estimated equipment costs increase. 

Progress of work, n 47. n 567, n 1064 
White Plains Road line opened, n 451 

Electric Bond & Share Co.: 

Financial statement, 519 

Extent of yearly traffic, n 23" 

Franchise taxes increased, n 266 

Interborough Consolidated Corp.: 

.\nnual report, 180 

-North .American Co. : 

Annual report, 1066 

.Publ'c Service Commission: 

.\nnual report. 87 . ,,. 

Court review legislation approved, 514 
Criticism by B. R. T. official, 315 
Cirade crossing order discussed, n 1"''' 
Inclosed vestibule hearings, 228, n 618, 

Increased fare movement, 874, •916, 
•957, 1003, '1047, 1142, 1188; 
Comment. 905, 946 
Long Island R. R. track lease negotia- 
tions, n 567 . , ,. , 
Railwav official convicted for violation ot 

order, n 265; Sentenced, n 316 
Thompson committee recommends one 
commission for State, 450 

Strike prevention plans, 161, 353, 305. n 705; 

Comment, 149 

Symp.ithetic strike condemned, 515 

West Side improvement plans (see N 

R. R.) 

White, J. G., & Co.: 

.Annual report, 934 
New York City transportation systems: 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. : 

Annual report, 932 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co..- 

Bulletin established for informing public, 

n 56 ,.,!,«■• 

Power contract with New York Munici- 
pal Rv.. 440; Comment, 677 . 
Prison sentences for subway dynamiters. 

n 513. n 565, n 706 
Publicity campaign, 165, n 619. n 712; 

[Lee]. '638; Comment. 629 
Ouotations' on car bodies for new sub- 
" wav. 529, 624 

Stott H. G. Tribute to the memory 
IGoss], ' 120; [Mailloux], 119; 
[Shonts], 119; Comment, 10!! 
Strike prevention plan, 161, 253, 305, 
n 705; Discussion [Shonts], 306: 
Comment, 149 

Manliattan Bridge Three-Cent Line: 

Catenary construction on Manhattan 
Bridge, ^240 

Manhattan & (Jueens Tr. Corp.: 

Welfare association formed, n 610 

New York & Queens County Ry.: 

Safety training given employees, n 137 

New York Rys. : . 

Commission has power to raise fares 

[Quackenbush], 1145 , 

Increased fare campaign, 874. *916. 957, 
1003, •1047, 1142, 1188; Comment, 
905, 946 , . ^, 

Posters in cars bring friendly criticism, 

Relief from traffic congestion sought, 
n 272 n 459, n 801; Poster issued, 

Richmond I.t. & R. R- Co. (see New 

Brighton, N. Y.) 

^Third .\venue Ry.: . , , 

.\ccidents reduced by door interlock on 

controllers, 385 
Increased fare campaign. 874. 916, 
•957 1003, ^1047, 1142, 1188; Com- 
ment. 908, 946, 1125. 1127 
Remodeling bearings of old-type motors 

[Parsons], '79 
Strike prevention plan discussed 

[Maher], 305 
Two-car train tried out, n 1192 
New York Electric Railway Assn.: 

Higher fares committee meeting, 916, 1147 

June meeting, 1183 

March meeting: . , „ , , 

Papers [Bullock], 431; (Palmer] 
•428; (Rand], 389; [Tomlins] 
Comment, 421 
Proceedings. *428; Comment. 421 


(Abbreviations. • Illustrated. 

n Short news Item.) 

January-June, 1917] 



New York Municipal Ry. Corp. (see lirooklyn, 

N. V.) 
New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. : 

Animal report, 363 

Poster warning autoists issued, n 822 

Schedule reduction a war measure, n 1138 

New York & North Shore Tr. Co, (see Roslyn, 

N. Y.) 
New ^'o^k Railroad Club; 

Klectrical night. Addresses [Ouinn], 538; 

[Beeuwkes], 540 
New York & Stamford Ry. (see Port Chester, 

N. Y.) 
New York State: 

ITill passeil permitting railroad mergers, 

n 1068 

Car capacity bill, n 887, n 1110 

Electric railways need relief [Conway], 1045, 

•1092; Comment 1035 

Hudson River Rridge-Tunnel Commission 

appointed, n 1108 
Increased fare movement, 916, 1097; Twenty- 
eight street railways petition Commission 
for 6-cent fare, 1187; Comment, 905 

Public Service Commission, Second District: 

.Annual report on railway finances, 134 
Bus line privilege not a franchise, n 322 
Commission can increase fares stipulated 

in franchises, 210; Comment, 195 
Jitney line in Watertown allowed to 

issue stock, n 181 
.Method of handling work, *196 
Thompson committee recommends one 
Commission for State, 450 

Workmen's compensation laws upheld by 

U. S. Supreme Court, n 451 
New York State Rys. (see Rochester, Syracuse, 

and Utica) 
New York, Westchester & Boston Ry. ; 

Commutators turned with armature supported 

on sleeve bearings (Potter], *169 

Ecjualizer bars not necessary [Potter], 964 

Financial statement, 363 

Maintenance of overhead construction, *472; 

Comment, 471 

Safety movement, 1190 

New Zealand: 

Christchurch : 

Christchurch Tramway, .\nnual report, 
Norfolk, \'a. : 

Norfolk & Ocean View Ry. dissolved, n 799 

\'irgin'a Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Richmond, \'a.) 

Norfolk \- Western Ry. : 

C^oal and ash handling system, *678 

Results of electrification [Quinn], 538 

Northern Electric Ry. (see Chico, Cal.) 
Northern f.)hio Tr. & Lt. Co. (see .\kron, O.) 
Northern Texas Tr. Co. (see Fort Worth, Tex.) 
Northern White Cedar .\ssn. : 

Annual meeting, n 252 

Norwich, Conn.; 

Shore Line Elec. Ry. ; 

Bill providing (or consolidation, n 268, 

n 844 
Fare increase, n 618 
Norwood, Canton & Sharon Street Ry. (see Can- 
ton, Mass.) 

Oaklaiid, Cal.: 

City ordinance gives street cars right-of- 
way over other vehicles, n 139, n 666; 

Comment, 627 
San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys.: 

Changes desirable in personal injury 
laws [Smith], 211 

Franchise negotiations, n 220, n 360, 
n 564, n 707, n 794, n 888 

Fare increase asked, n 1116 

Home-made wheel hoist, *1104 

Trolley wheels, home-made, 879 
Ogden, 'Utah: 
Ogden, Logan & Utah Ry.: 

Wage conference, n 1158 
Ohio Electric Ry. (see Springfield, O.) 
Oklahoma City, Okla.: 
(.Oklahoma Ry. : 

Wage increase, n 89 
Omaha, Neb.: 
Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry. ; 

Annual report, 1203 

Bonus for employees, n 974 

City suit for possession of tracks, n 513 

Franchise dispute, n 131 

Reclaiming continuous joints [Findlcy], 
One-man cars; 
Boston Elevated Ry., Operation advocated, 

n 569, 616 

Importance of automatic devices, 1044 

Kansas City, Mo., Single-truck cars re- 
modeled, *832 

Names suggested [Hart], 649 

Operating results analyzed [Smith], 492 

Plymouth, Mass., Operation proposed, n 569; 

Authorized, n 665 
Rebuilt type in Tacoma, Wash. [Schluss], 

Remodeled design, Levis (Can.) County Ry. 

[Weyman], *1191 

Results of operation summarized, 735 

Seattle, Wash., Use permitted by commission, 

n 895; Protest, n 937; Operation limited, 

n 979 
Should mean better service, Comment, 769 

One-man cars: (Continued) 

Tact needed in introducing service Com- 
ment, 859 

\\'ashington Commission approves one-man 

cars for Spokane, n 184, n 366 
Operating records and costs: 

Comiiarative figures for steam and electric 

operation on Chicago, Milwaukee & St 
Paul Ry. [Beeuwkes], 540; Correction, 

Norfolk & Western Ry,, Traffic under steam 

and electric operation [Quinn], 539 

Operating and traffic statistics for electric 

railways, 1916, 613 

Passenger handling records. Springfield 

Street Ry., *1002 
Philadelphia, Pa., rapid transit system. Esti- 
mated service, *643 

Springfield (Mass.) Street Ry.'s records for 

six years submitted in fare case, '1000 
O.egon Electric Ry. (see Portland, Ore.) 
Ottawa, Can. ; 

Ottawa Traction Co.: 

Annual report, 612 
Ottawa, 111.: 

( hicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. : 

Track and roadway ma ntenance [Carrl. 

Wage arbitration, n 51 
Ottumwa, Iowa: 

Ottumwa Ky. & Lt. Co.: 

Employees length of service record, 875 
Overhead charges (see Appraisal of railway prop- 
Overhead contact system; 

Bracket arms of unusual length used to sup- 
port trolley wire (Ohio Brass), "43 

Catenary construction on Manhattan Bridge 

New York City, 240 
Catenary hanger of simple design (Westing- 
house), '836 

Causes for trolley wheels leaving the wire 

[Foster], 445 

Center-pole construction of trolley loop 

Cleveland, O., *747 
Combination trolley hanger and strain insu- 
lator (Moss), *654 

Costs of erecting overhead work, '127, *173 

•260, '355, *442, '606, *702, '880. *969' 
•1105, "1195 

Location of trolley wire by means 'of special 

sighting device [Fingado], •123 
New York, Westchester S Boston Ry., Main- 
tenance methods and costs, *472; Com- 
ment. 471 

Photographic analyses of construction work, 

(ieorgia Ky. & Pr. Co., "1100 

Rake of trolley poles. Current practice [Kop- 

pelj, 310; [tiarte], 395 

.Steel trolley wire. Advantages depend on 

conditions [Scofield], 1148. 

Steel trolley wire on Pacific Electric Ry. 

[.\nderson], *1038; Comment, 1035 

Steel trolley wire. Utility for city service 

questionable, [Rice], 1148 

Trolley ear. Strain type (General Electric), 


Trolley frog with renewable pan (General 

tlectrlc Co.), ^703 

Trolley hanger lor high voltages (General 

Electric), "701 

Trolley wire. Desirable qualities [McKel- 

way], 258 
Owl cars; 
Pittsburgh fare case decision, n 569 

Pacific Electric Ry. (see Los Angeles, Cal.) 
Pacific Gas & Elect. Co. (see Sacramento, d'al.) 
Pacific Northwest Tr. Co. (see Seattle, Wash.) 
Paducah, Ky. : 
Paducah Traction Co.: 

Emergency truck, ^653 
Paints and painting; 

Inspection of bridge painting [Walker], 772 

Paint shop. West Penn Ry. [Durie], *726 

Protection for bridges [Keith], 357 

Rust prevention with powdered metals, 560 


Air tools effect economies in tearing up pave 

nient, Troy, N. Y., 560 
Burden of paving requirements discussed by 

New York Electric Railway Assn., Com 

ment, 421 
Burden on railways [Dunham], 342; Com 

ment, 333 [Cram], "1130; Comment 
• Costs in Brooklyn, N. Y. [Cram], '1130 

Comment, 1125 

Creosoted block specifications, 45 

Cutting machine, Bridgeport, Conn. [Stark] 

Laying track with low rail to follow paving 

crown, Effect of [Falconer], •lOH 

Seattle, Wash., Types in use [Goodwin], 

Useless paving at bad track joints. Comment, 

147; <Cram], 211 
Wood-block paving Recommendat'ons of 

American Wood-Preservers' .\ssn., 164; 

Comment, 194 
— - — Wooden rail fillers and key block practice, 

New York City (Alcott), '42 

Pay car, motor-bus type, Chicago Surface Lines. 

Payments for defective equiiiment, 1211 
Jitneys adjudged common carriers by Court. 

Toilets on interurban cars not required. Com- 
mission order, n 93 
Pennsylvania & Ohio Ry. (see Ashtabula, O.) 
Pennsylvania R. R.: 

Altoona grade electrification plans, n 888 

Lmployment system, 873 

Freight locomotive for trial service, '1048 

''"espas.sers warned by posters, n 637 

Truck equalizer bars not necessary [Kiesel]. 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Assn ■ 

Spring meeting, 910 

Pensions (see Employees) 

Peoria, III.: j 

— — Illinois Traction System: 

Award of prizes for appearance of sub- 
stations, n 202 
Forestation venture, n 1190 
Injunction sought against St. Louis 
Granite City fare increase, n 90 
Company asks for hearing, n 139 
Injunction dismissal sought, n 184 
Collection of mill tax sought, n 360. 
n 406, n 752 
Joint through rates with N. Y. C R R 

ordered by commission, n 204 
Maintenance materials. Increase in cost 

during 1916 [Vance], 190 

St. Louis freight connection made, n 263 

St. Louis mill tax. Exemption from. 

n 752 * 

Straight-talks in publicity advertising 

[Soules], *28 
Venice track-right suit filed, n 565 
Wage increase, n 1021 
Petaluma, Cal.: 

Petaluma & Santa Rosa Ry.: 

Annual report, 976 
Philadelphia, Pa.: 

Additional rapid transit facilities. Plans for. 
n 88 n 262, n 404, n 610. *643. n 705 
n 750, n 795. 971, n 1019, n 1107 

-Vmerican Rys.: 

Prolonging life of old rail discussed 
I Keen], 254 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.: 

Six-cent fare desirable. Comment, 675 

Wage increase, n 564 

Wage increases shown graphically. '870 

Trenton, Bristol & Philadelpha Street Ry ■ 

Fare increase between Morrisville and 
. Torresdale. Pa., n 56 

Lnited National Utilities Co.: 

Stock of National Properties Co. and 
Jersey Central Tr. Co. purchased, 
n 268, n 455 
Phoenix, .Ariz.: 

Phoenix Ry. : 

Wage increase, n 1065 
Pine Bluff. Ark.: 

Pine Bluff Co.; 

Change of ownership, n 320 
Pittsburgh, Pa.: 

Pittsburgh & Butler Ry. ; 

Receivership, n 53 

Pittsburgh Rys.: 

Arch-bar truck defended [Phillips], 875 
Ifallast-spreading harrow "215 
Bulletin on safety and patriotism, *864 
Locomotive crane of larje capacitv 

[AimeJ, *786 
Medical department methods [Holtzl 

*816; Comment, 811 
Owl fare case decision, n 569 
Publicity posters, •205 
Relays on transmission lines to localize 

troubles [Welsh], *444 
Safety rules for high-voltage rena'r 

work, *746 
Standard classification of trucks desir- 
able [Phillips], 254 
Storeroom methods [Yungbluth], *490 
Tie-tamping practice with pneumatic ma- 
chines (Ingersoll-Rand), *43 

West Penn Rys.: 

Connellsville shops [Durie], '726 
Consolidation with subs'diaries, n 1069 
Organization chart *784 
Pittsfield, Mass.: 
— — Berkshire Street Ry. : 

Financial statement, 363 
Lee-Huntington line completion orde e I 
. Pittsfield-.-Mbany line planned, n 660 
Pliers insulated for high tension work (Rubber 

Insulated Metals), *259 
Plymouth, Mass. : 

Brocton & Plymouth Street Ry.: 

One-man car operation proposed, n 509- 
-Authorized, n 665 

Plymouth & Sandwich Street Ry.; 

Construction costs to be shared by town, 


(See also Power distribution) 

Brooming of cedar poles unusual [Bayncj, 

Caring for corner stresses from heavy feed- 
ers [Foster], '1051 

Centrifugal process for making hollow con- 
crete poles, 783 

(Abbreviations. •Illustrated, n Short news item.) 



[Vol. XLIX 

Poles: (Continued) 

Classification of poles purchased in 1915, 


Concrete type, Richmond, Va., *925 

Erecting wagon, Brooklyn, N. Y, [McKel- 

way], *352 
Flexible-base jacks for handling poles (Tem- 

pleton, Kenly) 967 

Rack for storing, Western Ohio Ry., •1151 

Rake of trolley poles, Current practice iKop- 

pel], 310, 601; [Harte], 395: IJohnson], 

Reinforcement of steel poles, Richmond, Va., 

Port Arthur. Can.: 
Port Arthur Civic Ry.: 

Fare increase granted, n 711 
Port Chester, N. Y.: 
New York and Stamford Ry. : 

Financial statement, 363 , 

Portland, Me.: 

Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Cars remodeled for prepayment service, 
Portland, Ore.: 

Jitnev franchise situation, n 94, n 230; Legis- 
lation proposed, n 1026; Legislation 

passed, n 1070 
Oregon Electric Ry.; _ 

Rotary-converter operation [Cunning- 
ham], *1153 

Substation operating rules, 1102 
Portland & Oregon City Ry. : . 

Motor bus franchise obtained, n 411 
Portland Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Advertisement showing relation of serv- 
ice given to fare charged, 176 

Annual report, 1022 

Protest against paving charge unavail- 
ing, n 1202 

Reduction in lighting rates ordered, 

Shop planning system [Krumbaugh], 

Valuation report, 885 
Wage increase, n 317, n 888 

Porto Rico: . . , • j 

-Public service commission authorized, 

n 1066 

Postage, Proposed zone system unfair. Com- 
ment. 905 „ ^ . 

Potomac Elec. Pr. Co. (see Washington, D. C.) 

Pottsville, Pa.: 

Eastern Pennsylvania Rys.r 

Power station and carhouse fire, n 88, 
n 272. *350 

Power (see also Purchased power; Sale of power) 

Power consumption of cars (see Energy consump- 

Power distribution: 

— —Constant-current transformer of pole-mounted 
type ((General Electric), *449 

Feeder poles moved with jacks, Bridgeport, 

Conn. [Buttrick], *217 

Manchester (N. H.) Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co., 

Changes in distribution system [Doble], 

Metal lath for protecting cables in man- 
holes (Composite Metal Lath Co.), *311 

Meter for measuring line loss (Sangamo), 


Outdoor switch houses (Westinghousc), *402 

Pole-top switch (K. P. F. Elec. Co.), *45 

Review of developments during 1916, Com- 
ment, 10 

Safety rules for high-voltage repair work, 

Pittsburgh, Pa., *746 

Power generation: 

Burning of buckwheat anthracite coal, May- 

nard, Mass., 1154 

Car men should be familiar with the power 

station. Comment, 947 

'Condenser tubes cleaned by sand blast 

IFalkner], *1059 

Economies possible by proper management 

[Roberts], 821 

^Economies in. Report of N. E. L. A., 914 

-Economy of motor-driven auxiliaries. Des 

Moines, Iowa [Chambers], 684 

'Fuel saving important, Comment. 676, 1080 

Heat losses in steam plants [Lawrence], 


Isolated plants. Displacement by electric rail- 
way power sales. Comment, 1079 

Position of brushes with parallel operation of 

d.c. generators, *215 

Review of developments during 1916, Com- 
ment, 9 

Routes of coal and water through Essex 

power station, Newark, N. J., *I040; 
Comment, 1036 

Statistics on output of large plants, 642 

Power stations and equipment: 

Boilers (see Boilers and equipment) 

Buffalo, N. Y., Improvements in old power- 
house, 683 

Circuit breakers for high voltage (Westing- 
house), *45 

Coal and ash handling methods, *678 

Connecticut Co., Reconstructed plant, *860; 

Comment. 859 

Disconnecting switch with bus-bar mounting 

(Delta-Star Elec. Co.). *85 

Economies of motor-driven auxiliaries [Cham- 
bers], 684 

Handling of insulating oils (Westinghousc), 


Power stations and equipment: (Continued) 

Horn-gap lightning arresters protected against 

birds, *85 

Manchester (N. H.) Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co., New 

steam station [Doble], *424 

Meters with black dials desirable (Westing- 
house), *1106 

New Essex station, Public Service Ry., 

*1040; Comment, 1036 

Phase-rotation meter made by Georgia Ry. 

& Pr. Co., 84 

Power station load represented ^tereoto- 

mically, *772 

Relay for operating d.c. circuit breakers 

(Westinghouse). *313 

Reservoir for under-water storage of coal, 

Pittsburgh. Pa., *358 

Stokers (see Boilers and equipment) 

Toledo, O., Proposed plant, *791 

Turbo-generators (see Turbo-generators and 


Vibration of power houses measured by in- 
expensive instrument [Jones], *1013 

• Watt-hour meter that records demand over 

predetermined time interval (Westing- 
house), *n96 

Prohibition causes increased traffic in Iowa, Com- 
ment, 193 

Providence, R. I.: 

Rhode Island Co.: 

Financial relief opposed in City Coun- 
cil, n 1064 
Financial statement, 363 
Five-cent fare inadequate, n 131 
Legislative investigation, n 660, n 705, 

748, n 793, n 841. n 930, n 1197 
Motor maintenance methods. *509 
Service changes ordered, n 802 
Wage arbitration, n 971 


(see also Company publications) 

Advertisements reprinted in pamphlet form, 

Sedalia, Mo., n 186 


Illinois Traction System [Soules], *28 
Milwaukee. Wis. [Putnam], *31 
Minneapolis, Minn. [WarnockJ, *19 
Value in public relations [Waters], *25 

Beaver Valley Tr, Co. publicity methods 

[Boyce], '630 

Central bureau possibilities [Lee], 18 

Conference of publicity men advocated 

[ Burroughs j . 554 ; [ Davidson ] , 600 ; 
(Van Zandt], 649; Comment, 629 

Cultivating public support and encouraging 

employees [Burroughs], 203 

Fare increases through publicity, Comment, 


"Help us tell the truth," Comment, 1174 

-Illustrations of publicity jwsters, *20S 

Kansas City Rys.. Publicity ideas [Atchleyl. 


Methods of combating unfair criticism 

[Heaslip], 153 

— —Methods of Public Service Company of New 
Jersey, '1085 

New York City, I. R. T. Co. campaign. 165, 

n 619. n 712; [Lee], '638; Comment, 

Politicians and public officers criticize pub- 
licity [Lee], 599 

Portland, (re.. Advertisement on value of 

the n'ckel. 176 

Practical results of campaigns [HeaaUp], 

346, 681, 731 

Publicity and good public relations; Com- 
ment, 2 

Publicity methods must stand publicity, 

Comment, 677 

Skip-stop campaign in Baltimore. Md. [Bur- 
roughs], *992; Comment, 989 

Technique of publicity [ Lee 1 , * 16 ; Com- 
ment, 2 

Publicity agents of electric railways meet in 
St. Louis, 1054 

Public, Relations with: 

Closer relations with public advocated [Som- 

mer], 500 

Cultivation of good public relations becom- 
ing more general, Comment 147 

Fair treatment of public essential. Comment, 


Handling complaints from patrons [Van 

Zandt], *1090 

Instruction pamphlet for Minneapolis em- 
ployees, •1098 

— —Method of combating unfair criticism 
[Heaslip], 153 

Salesmanship necessary even in public ser- 
vice [Frothinghaml, *289; Comment, 

Selling transportation. Comment, 768 

Youngstown, C, Purposes of public rela- 
tions department [ Wert ] , *2i 

Public service and regulative commissions: 

— ■ — Commissions know costs are high, 953 

Commissions should help railways solve war 

problems. Comment, 903 

-Method of handling work in New York 

State Commission, 196 

Municipal vs. State regulation of street 

railways [McCloy], 1095 

New York Commission's power to raise 

rates. Explanation of IQuackenbush ] . 

Regulation of holding companies. Comment, 


Public Service Co. (see Greensboro, N. C.) 

Public service corporations: 

Organizing for national defense. Comment. 


Public utility regulation [Burrill], 551 

Public Service Ry. (See Newark, N. J.) 
Puget Sound Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co. (see Seattle. 

Purchased power : 

(see also Sale of power) 

Cleveland Ry.. Power contract approved, 49 
New \ork City, Power contract for rapid 

transit lines, 440; Comment, 677 
^—-Purchase of power by railways. Comment. 

Purchasing agent's duties. 764 [Stigall] 1169 
Purchasing agents organization advocated, 671- 
[ Dunbar] . 720; Comment, 627 

Rail joints and bonds: 

Angle bars reclaimed by welding, "35? 

Commuous joints Rebuilding of, Omaha, 

iNeb. [Findley], *832 . 
Lock nut for rail joints (Roller Lock Nut 
Co.), 313; (F. R. Blair & Co.), *402 
586 ^"^"^ methods, Ottawa. 111. [Carr], 

^"'^fHr^ R^f/"^" f^'" ^'^^'^ bonding (Elec- 
T3 ^ [■?• ^?"way Improvement), '218 
— Rehab..,.at,on^of^o,d;^rack joints. Connec.i- 

Soldered bond maintenance costs and prac- 
tice, Sacramento, Cal. [Evans], '40 

—Welded bonds, Dallas, Tex. [Taber], '1137 

~''°"'[DnnhamJ."*.8r6''^''"'' ^—'-'-t Co. 

■ Corrugation : 

Microscopic analysis and remedies 

Isayers], *773 
Review of investigations of 1916. Com- 
ment, 7 
——Effect of electrification on rail wear, S46 

Guarding of outer rail on curves, Advan- 

,, '?g« of [Stevenson], '949 

land, o"" v!,^'"^ «'"'"'='* "'■'■ Cleve- 

^'°^ls?h}'%n^ n'' '^"'- Connecticut Co. 

[Stark], 'SO; Discussion [Keen], 254 

Stresses caused by locomotives, n 653 

Railway Signal Assn.: 

March meeting, 553 

June meeting, n 1097 

Reading, Pa. ; 

Reading Transit & Lt. Co.: 

Consolidation of subsidiary companies, 
267, n 365 

Wage increase, n 706 
Record forms: 

iii-idge inspection data blanks, Boston, Mass. 

IWalker], '770 
Conductor record forms for pre-collection of 

fares, Newark, N. J., 734 
Shop-planning forms, Portland, Ore. [Brum- 

Special-work appraisal blanks [Hailcy], '877 

Stock book for storeroom accountinu Pitts- 

burgh. Pa. [Yungbluth], "490 
Storeroom accounting blanks, Beaver Valley 

Ir. Co , *1150 ' 

Substation record form [Crouse], '557 

Regeneration (see Brakes) 

Relays on transmission lines (see Transmission 

Repair shop equipment: 

15earing facing machine, Buffalo, N. Y., '654 

Belts protected by old car window guards. 

New Brighton, Pa., *446 
Coil-winding machine, Long Island R. R. 

[Mills], '651 

• Commutator slotter, Galveston, Tex., *3S2 

Fiber gear cutting device, Atlanta, Ga. [Sis- 
son], *968 
Furnace for burning insulation, Buffalo, 

N. Y., '605 
Home-made wheel hoist at Oakland, Cal.. 

— ■ — Home-made equipment for testing car cir- 
cuit breakers [Lish], *I194 
Jig for boring brasses, Boston, Mass. 

[(jouthro], '41 

Kinks, taking advantage of. Comment, 1079 

Ladders, Syracuse, N. Y. [Hinman], *507 

Press for installing and removing armature 

bearings [Parsons]. "788 
-Printing press for sign curtains, Nashville. 

Tenn.. *g37 
Punch equipped for pneumatic operation, 

Atlanta, Ga. [Sisson], *834 
Rivet-cutting attachment for oxy-acetylene 

torch (Prest-O-Lite). *1106 

Testing block for fuses [Parsons]. '310 

Tool holder for economical use of cutting 

steel, Auburn, N. Y. [Titus], *922 
Transfer table for truck changing, New 

Brighton, Pa. [Meyer], '744 

Trolley-pole repairing machine [Smith], *399 

Trolley wheel machining tools, Boston 

(Mass.) Elevated Ry., '789 
—Universal bearing chuck, Buffalo, N. Y., *101S 

(Abbreviations. • Illustrated, n Short news item.) 

January-June, 1917] 



Repair shop equipment: (Continued) 

Waste and oil reclaiming press, Ituffalo, 

N. Y., •835 
West Penn. Rys., Connellsville (Pa.) shops 

[Durie], *726 

Wheel gage. *655 

Repair shop practice: 

Armature shafts reclaimed by welding, De* 

troit, Mich. [KellerJ, '789 
Axle changing method, Rome, Ga. [WadeJ, 

Hearing remodeling, Third Avenue Ry-, 

New York City [Parson], *79 
Bearings with keys instead of dowels, El- 

mira, N. Y., *1101 
Commutators turned with armature sup 

ported on sleeve bearings [Potter], *169 
Controller segments, Method of reclaiming, 

New Brighton, Pa., *558 
Drainage of sash pockets of cars, Memphis, 

Tenn., *605 
Drill carriage for large sheets made by 

Georgia Ry. & Pr. Co. [Sisson], *U00 

■ Drill stubs used as lathe tools, *559 

Economies in Fort Worth, Tex. [Taylor], 

Field-coil insulation using asbestos and var- 
nish, Columbus, O. [Foote], 833^ 
■ Filing of tracings, Columbus, O. [ Foote 1, 

Galvanizing plant, Milwaukee, Wis. [Hin- 

storff], *652 
Identifying spare axles with metal clips, 

Colorado Springs & Interurban Ry., 

Kinks, Taking advantage of. Comment, 

I-ubrication economies, Elmira, N. Y. [Hill], 

Maintenance of interpole motors, Long Isl- 
and R. R. [Mills], 508 
Maintenance of motors. Providence, R. I., 

Motor brushes recut with dry grinder in 

Brooklyn [Pike], *1057 

Pinion assembly practice [KronfeldJ, "217 

Planning system, Portland, Ore. [ Brum- 
baugh], *488 
Pressing off wheels by aid of special collar, 

Galveston, Tex., *174 
Reinsulating wire in shops of Washington 

Water Pr. Co., *1060 

Small tool practices, Buffalo, N. Y., "967 

Trolley pole repairing, Kansas City, Mo. 

[Smith], *399 
Trolley wheel machining, Boston (Mass.) 

Elevated Ry., *789 
Trolley wheel maintenance notes, San Fran- 

c;sco, Cal., 926 

Welding methods, Des Moines, la., *837 

West Penn Rvs., Connellsville (Pa.) shops 

[Durie], *726 
Winding heater motor armatures, Des 

.Moines, la.. *1150 
Window curtain cleaning process. Auburn, 

N. Y. [Colburn], 604 
Repair shops: 
Connellsville shops. West Penn Rys. 

[Durie], *726 

Detroit, Mich., New carpenter shops, '693 

Reproduction cost (see Appraisal of railway 

Reservoir stations for Sydney, Australia, "384; 

Comment, 377, 342 
Rhode Island Co. (see Providence, R. I.) 
Richmond Lt. & R. R. Co. (see New Brighton 

N. Y.) 
Richmond \'a. : 
X'irginia Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Advertisements not used in company 
publication [Wheelwright], 11 

Bonuses granted employees, n 751 

Concrete poles, *925 

Franchise conferences, n 1066, n 1207 

Reinforcement for steel poles, "1014 
Rochester. N. Y. : 
Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester, Ry. : 

Wage increase, n 221 
New York State Rys. : 

Annual report, 517 

Car-yard improvements [Graham], "1082 

( harlotte fare case, n 618 

Concrete paving between rails [Fal- 
coner], •1104 

Cutting costs in storage yards [ Fal- 
coner], 121 

Effect of laying track with low rail to 
follow crown in pavement [Fal- 
coner], "1014 

Oak shims in track rehabilitation, *1193 

Six-cent fare being considered, n 801 

Switch iron details, ^41 

Track work labor saving tools [Fal- 
coner], 172 

Tripper controversy settled, n 1020 

Railway club organized, n 393 

Traffic rerouting. Use of industrial survey 

[Arnold], 122 
Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. R. (see Syra- 
cuse, N. Y.) 
Rockford, 111.: 

Experience ordinance vetoed, n 795 

Rockford & Interurban Ry.: 

Wage increase, n 132 
Rome, Ga. : 
Rome Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Axle changing method [Wade], •555 

Roslyn, N. Y.: 

New York & North Shore Tr. Co.: 

Commission can increase fares, stipu- 
lated in franchises. Court ruling, 
210; Comment, 195 
Seven-cent fare asked, n 1117 

Routing of cars: 

Industrial survey, Rochester, N. Y. f Ar- 
nold], 122 

Rust protection by use of powdered metals, 560 

Sacramento, Cal.: 

Pacific Gas & Elec. Co. : 

Auto-buses of company not paying ex- 
penses, n 139 

Northern Electric Ry. (see Chico, Cal.) 

St. Lawrence International Electric Railroad & 

Land Co. (see Alexandria Bay, N. Y, ) 
St. Louis, Mo.: 
Freight connection with Term. R. R. Assn. 

made by Illinois Traction System, n 263 
Mill tax, Exemption of Illinois Traction 

System, n 752 
United Rys.: 

Advertising in company publication not 
solicited [McCullock], 11 

Annual report, 566 

Chemical laboratory proves useful, 449 

Election of directors, 363 

Metal tokens used, n 757 

Mill tax negotiations, n 516, n 562, 
n 1155, 1198 

Track extension case won by railway, 

Training course for boys, n 313 
Safety First Federation of America: 
Review of activities during 1916, Comment, 

Safety-first movement: 

Award of Brady medal by American Mu- 
seum of Safety, 500, *594; Comment, 


Brooklyn, N. Y., Efficiency posters, *829 

Educational movies should be technically 

correct. Comment, 195 
Joseph A. Holmes Safety Assn. formed, 

n 122 
Legislative program adopted by joint con- 
ference. New York State, n 323 
New York & Queens County Ry., Safety 

training given employees, n 137 
New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., Inter- 
esting the employees, 1190 
Pittsburgh (Pa.) Rys., Bulletin on safety 

and patriotism bulletin, *864 
Poster warning autoists issued by N. Y., 

N. H. & H. R. R., 822 
Rear end collision poster of National Safety 

Council, 1^1 
Review of activities during 1916, Comment, 

State warns automobile owners of grade 

crossing dangers, n 138; Comment, 103 
Sale of power by electric railways: 

(see also Purchased power) 

Des Moines, la.. Handling commercial load 

[Chambers], '878 
Displacing isolated plants by power sales. 

Comment, 1079 
New York City, Power contract for rapid 

transit lines, 440; Comment, 677 
Sale of power by railways, Comment, 65, 

Salt Lake City: 
Utah Lt. & Tr. Co.: 

Strike settled, n 1019 
San Antonio, Tex. : 
San Antonio Tr. Co.: 

Mirror for safeguarding crossing, *44 

Old-type motor. Lubrication improve- 
ments, *128 

Steel ties made of old rails, *401 

Stimulating traffic by meeting trains, 
San Diego, Cal. : 
San Diego & Southwestern Ry. : 

Oil-engine car, "747 
Sanding device, Pacific Northwest Tr. Co., 

Seattle, Wash., "401 
San Francisco, Cal. : 
Municipal Ry. : 

Annual report, 52 

Motor buses to be used, n 56, n 323, 
n 412 

Tracks parallel with United Railroads* 
lines allowed by court, 175; Com- 
promise plan proposed, n 317, n 658 

Wage increase, n 706, n 930; Comment, 
Southern Pacific Co.: 

Annual report of affiliated electric lines, 

Electrification of steam line suggested 
to solve fuel problem, n 1 197 

Whiteson-Corvallis extension opened, 
n 1158 
United Railroads: 

Car clearance on curves [Foster], *743 

Controller handle with self tightening 
device, *970 

Controversy over crossing maintenance, 
n 1111 

Corner stresses on heavily loaded poles 
[Foster], •1051 


United Railroads: (Continued) 

Foreclosure proceedings against Market 

Street Cable Ry., n 52 
Paralleling of tracks by Municipal lines, 

n 175, n 317, n 658 
Partnership with city offered, n 264 
Profitable point at which to splice scrap 

feeder wire [Foster], 1192 
Reorganization negotiations, n 91, n 

179, 364, n 519, 798> n 1112 
Shop gardens, *1007 
Storage and handling of construction 

materials [Legare], ^155 
Transfers, Simplication of, "IHl 
Trolley wheel maintenance practices, 

Trolley wire. Causes for wheels com* 

ing off [Foster], 445 
Wage increase, n 88 
San Francisco-Oakland Term. Rys. (see Oak- 
land, Cal.) 
Schedules and timetables: 

'Accurate watches essential. Comment, 767; 

Economy of accurate watches [Miller], 

Effect of low voltage on railway motors 

[Woods], *159 

High-speed schedule, Buffalo-Niagara Line, 


Joint interline folder issued by C. ¥.. R. A., 


Kansas City Rys. publishes timetables in 

local papers, n 523 

Method of making changes, Youngstown, 

O. [Smith], 736 
Reservoir stations, Effect of, Sydney, Aus- 
tralia, •384; Comment, 111, All 

Slack in schedules. Method of determining 

[Koehler], •1088; Comment, 1079 

Speed a vital factor; Comment, Zll 

Schenectady, N. Y. : 

Schenectady Ry.: 

Fare increase proposed, n 185; Opposed, 
n 271; Postponed, n 1164 
Schuylkill Ry. (see Girardsville, Pa.) 
Searchlight for night construction work (Elec- 
tric Service Supplies), 1106 
Seats (see Doors, seats and windows) 
Seattle, Wash.: 

Jitney bus fight, n 1115, n 1164, n 1307 

Jitney mutual insurance question, n 936, 

itney situation during 1916 reviewed, 270 
lunicipal elevated line proposed, n 1{)18 

Pacific Northwest Tr. Co.: 

Sanding device, "401 
— Puget Sound Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Coal, Experiments with powdered form 

[Hull], *923 
Controversy with city over bridge ren- 
tal, n 793, n 839, n 887, n 973, 
n 1063, n 1158 
Extension order for unprofitable lines 
held valid by U. S. Supreme Court, 
n 1110, n ,1205 
Freight traffic, Methods of getting busi- 
ness [Somers], 208 
One-man car operation sought, n 366, 
Allowed by commission, n 895; Pro- 
test by local committee, n 937 
Operation limited, n 979 
Safety-first results, n 893 
Special work repairing, "446 
Strike threatened, n 1201 
Tax on gross earnings paid under pro- 
test, 221; Payment rejected by city, 
n 315, n 406; Suit to compel pay- 
ment threatened, n 565, n 842 
Temporary drawbridge, "1058 
Track and paving construction [Good- 
win], "1149 
Track joint angle bars reclaimed by 

welding, '352 
Track repairs with oxy-acetylene tools, 

Wage increase, n 931 

Seattle Municipal Ry. : 

Annual report, 91 

Extension of lines sought, n 565, n 705 
Operating figures showing loss, n 226, 

Seattle & Rainier Valley Ry.: 

Controversy w ith city settled, n 706, 
n 752, n 973 

Seattle, Renton & Southern Ry. : 

Receivership petition dismissed, n 519 
Sedalia, Mo. ; 

( ity Lt. & Tr. Co.: 

Publicity advertisements used, n 649 
Selling cost. Reduction of [Buckeley], 853; 
[Home], 720, 1075; [Johnston], 899: 
[White], 1031 
Seneca Falls, N. Y. : 

Geneva, Seneca Falls &■ Auburn R. R. : 

Fare increase, n 665 
Service and tower wagons: 

Compact type, Boston, Mass., *834 

Paducah, Ky., Light-weight emergency truck, 


-Rack for jacks. New Bedford, Mass., •836 

Sheboygan, Wis.: 

Sheboygan Electric Co.: 

Consolidated with Eastern Wisconsin 
Elec. Co., Fond du Lac. Mich., 
Results of one-man car operation ana- 
lyzed [Smith], 492 
Shore Line Elec. Ry. (see Norwich, Conn.) 

(Abbreviations. • Illustrated, n Short news item.) 



[Vol. XLIX 

E. A. 




^ — Combination rail-contact or trolley-contact 
signal switch, Cleveland & Eastern Tr. 
Co., *81 

■ Crossing signal. Motor-winding, spring- 
operating type (Hoeschen Mfg. Co.;, 

Grade crossing signals Chicago, North Shore 

& Milwaukee R. R., '303 

Light signals. Advantages discussed, 553 

Mirror for safeguarding crossing, San An- 
tonio, Tex., *44 

Relays, New type (Union Switch & Signal), 


Wigwag highway crossing signal [Hall], 


Signs, Destination: 

. Interchangeable sign [Keller], *556 

. Rack for, *607 

Signs for right-of-way. Report of A. R. 
committee, 547 

Single phase railways: 

. Comparisons between electric and 

operation, Norfolk & Western 
[Quinn], 538 . i, , u 

Split-phase equipment not suitable tor sub- 
urban service, Comment, 579 

Skip-stop (see Stopping of cars) ,^ , , 

Snow-fighting organization of Denver (Col.) 
Tramway, 304 

Snowplows (see Work and wrecking cars) 

Society of Terminal Engineers incorporated, 

South Bend, Ind. : „ , . j- 

. Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana 

Strike, n 839, 885, n 930, n 975, n 1019 

Southern Pacific Co. (see San Francisco, Cal.) 

Southern Traction Co. (see Dallas, Tex.) 

Southwestern Electrical and Gas Assn.: 

. Annual convention: 

Papers [Brown], 780; [Berry] 
(Griffin], 820; [Roberts], 
[Taylor], 822 
Proceedings, 819 

Committee appointments, 864 

Southwest Missouri R.R. (see Joplin, Mo.) 



Subway projected, n 362 


Definition of [Bernard], 121 

Frogless switch (Walls), *44 , ,„ . 

Repairs made with old T-rail, Seattle, Wash., 


Steel centers with good wearing qualities 

(Mayari),882 ■ 

Switch-and-mate standards, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

(Bernard), *213 

Valuation of [Bailey], '876 

Spokane, Wash.: 

Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. : 

Commission's owl-car and one-man-car 

order, n 184 
Merger with Washington Water Pr. Co., 

318, n 664 
Wage increase, n 841 

Washington Water Power Co.: 

Annual report, 889 

Commission's owl-car and one-man-car 

order, n 184 
Merger with Inland Empire R. R., 318, 

Reinsulating wire in repair shop, *1060 
Snowplow for city and interurban serv- 
ice [Willson], -39 
Wage increase, n 841 

Springfield, Mass. : 

Springfield Street Ry. : 

Coal and ash handling system, *678 
Contract for purchase of power signed, 

n 748 
Six-cent fare reo.uested on basis of past 
operating records, '*I000 

Springfield, Mo. : 

Jitney ordinance restrictions, n 1117 

Springfield Traction Co.: 

Strike settlement fails, 452; Damage 
suit filed, n 515; Settlement, n 1200 

Springfield, O.: 

Ohio Electric Ry.: 

Economies in car maintenance [Foote], 

Filing system for tracings (Foote), '922 
Future of the interurban [Benham], 

Hot-water heater for cars [Foote], *397 
Insulation of field coils with asbestos 

and varnish [Foote], 833 
Strike in Hamilton, O., n 223 
Wage increase, n 317 

Standardization : 

Adoption of standards by A. E. R. E. A. 

should be conservative, Comment, 421 

Advantages of (Broomall), 486; Comment, 


Car-design, Tendencies, Comment, 5; 

[White], 166; [Lindstrom], 697; Bank- 
er's view. Comment, 533 

Catalog size standardization discussed 

[Bond], 623; [Burton], 942; [Chand- 
ler], 372, 577; [Drew], 901; [Dun- 
bar], 467, 1075; (Hemming], 721; 
(Hulbert), 672; [McQuiston], 764; 
[Montgomery], 467; [Rice], 808; Di- 
mensions adopted by Associated Mfrs. 
of Electrical Supplies, 1212 

Manufacturers' standard apparatus should 

be used [Barry], 527 

Trucks, Standard".cation suggested 

[Bullock], 214; Comment. 470; Discus- 
sion [Hoist], 254: (Phillips], 254; 
(Johnson], 349; [(jove], 393; | Hea- 
lings], 441; (Clark), 501; (Todd), 554 

Wheel-flange standardization favored by mak- 
ers, 234 
Stark Electric R.R. (see Alliance, O. ) 
Staten Island Midland Ry. (see New Brighton. 
N. Y.) 


(see also Financial) 

Cars ordered during 1916, 33; Total cars 

owned, 35 

Operating and traffic statistics for electric 

railways, 1916, 613 
Poles purchased in 1915 classified, 329 

Receiverships and foreclosures for 1916, 38 

Track built in 1916, 36; Total track mile- 
age, 35 

Steel prices (see Market conditions) 

Steubenville, O. : 

Steubenville, Wellsburg & Wiertou Ry. : 

Strike, n 1197 

Stokers (see Boilers and equipment) 

Stopping of cars: 

Intermediate subway station stop disal- 
lowed, Boston, Mass., n 78 

Joplin, Mo., abandons near side stop. Rea- 
sons given, 457 

Change-over publicity, Denver Tramway, 


Skip stops: 

Baltimore, Md., Plans, n 570, n 757; 
Publicity campaign [Burroughs], 
•992; Comment, 989; Extension. 
n 1116 
Bloomfield, N. J., Operation disapproved 
by Commission, n 138 

Storage yards for cars (see Carhouses aiij 
storage yards) 

Storage yards for materials: 

-Cleveland Ry., Handling of materials in 

Harvard storage yard, •336; Comment. 

Cutting costs in storage yards [Falconer], 


Economy in handling way materials. Com- 
ment, 148 

Kansas City Rys., Methods and machinery 

used [Harvey], *150 

Locomotive crane, Pittsburgh Rys. (Aime), 


United Railroads, Storage and handling of 

construction materials [Legare], *I55 


-Accounting system, Beaver Valley Tr. Rv. 

[Fieri], *1150 

Excess stock. Methods of reduction of 

Northern Electric Ry. [Evans], 652 

Stock-book record system, Pittsburgh Rys. 

[Yungbluth], "490 

Strikes and arbitrations: 

Albany, N. Y.: 

Controversy over extra runs, n 658, 

n 750, n 974 
Discharge of employee sustained, 220 

Alliance, O., n 974, n 1065 

Aurora, Elgin & (Chicago R. R., Arbitra- 
tion settled, 87 

Buffalo, N. Y., International Ry. damage 

suit, n 89 

Canadian compulsory investigation act un- 
successful in avoiding strikes, n 78 

Chicago arbitration, n 887, 975, n 1061, 119,'i 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry., n 51 

Cincinnati, Georgetown & Portsmouth Ry., 

n 930 

Dayton Street Ry., n 1155, n 1201 

Detroit United Ry., n 659, n 706, n 1020 

East St. Louis & Suburban Ry., A'-bitra- 

tion adopted for wage dispute, n 1064 

Hamilton, O., n 223, n 317, n 453, n 610 

Indianapolis, Ind., Injunction dismissed, 

n 48 

Kenneit Square, Pa., n 660, n 795 

Lincoln, Neb., n 752, n 841 

Middlesex & Boston wage arbitration, 928: 

Comment, 904 

Preparedness for labor conferences. Com- 
ment, 193 

Providence, R. I., Wage arbitration, n 971 

Public utility employees right to strike may 

be restricted. Comment, 531 

Railways should combine against Amalga- 
mated Assn., Comment, 532 

Rochester, N. Y., Tripper controversy 

settled, n 1020 

South Bend, Ind., n 839, 885, n 930, n 975, 

n 1019 i 

Springfield, Mo.. 452, n 515, n 1200 

Steubenville, Wellsburg & Wierton Ry., 

n 1197 

Strike prevention plan. New York City, 

161, 253, 305, n 705; Comment, 149 

Tarentum, Pa., Strike called off, n 178 

Union Traction Co., Anderson, Ind., 929, 

n 974 

Utah Lt. & Tr. Co., n 1019 

Vancouver, B. C, n 1156, n 1199 

Washington, D. C, 512, 562, 608, n 658; 

Comment, 532, 858; Inquiry by Senate, 
n 840, n 886, 972, 1062, n 1108, n 1156 

Substations and equipment: 

.-\tlanta, Ga., Outdoor type, home made, 


Automatic installations, Des Moines, la., 

•66; Comment, 63 

Handling of insulating oils (Westinghouse), 


Kansas City (Mo.) Rys., Wiring diagram of 

portable automatic substations, '881 

Manchester (N. H.) Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co., 

New substations [Doble], ^426 

Operating rules, Oregon Electric Ry., 1102 

Operating troubles with 60-cycle convert- 
ers, Dallas, Tex. [Ingram], ^311 

Record chart for increasing efficiency of 

stations. Auburn, N. Y. [Crouse], 

Rotary converters without compound wind- 
ings, Oregon Elect. Ry [Cunningham], 

Sweeper brooms using steel wire, Bufifalo, N. 
Y., '558 

Switch and lock movement (L^nion Switch & 
Signal Co.), '701 

Switches (see Special work) 

Switch iron. Details of design used in Roches- 
ter, N. Y., *41 

•Syracuse, N. Y. : 

Grade separation report, 689 

Empire United Rys.; 

Reorganization plans, 319, 408, n 662 
Wage increase, n 221 

New York State Rys. : 

Front-entrance, center-exit cars. '400 
Ladders for shop use [Ilinman], *507 

Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. R. : 

Reorganization plan, 977 

Syracuse & South Bay Elec. R. R. : 

Foreclosure sale confirmed by court, 
n 409 

Syracuse, Watertown & St. Lawrence River 

R. R.: 
Foreclosure sale confirmed by court, 
n 409 

Tacoma, Wash. : 

Tacoma Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Extension of municipal lines, n 571, 

n 661, 750, n 794 
Franchise relief hearing, n 51, 176; 

Decision. 884 
One-man cars rebuilt from old bodies 

[Schluss], '1055 
Wage increase, n 51 

Tarentum, Pa. : 

Alleghany Valley Street Ry. : 

Strike called off, n 178 


Compensation tax on Boston (Mass.) Ele- 
vated Ry. abolished, n 251 

Gross earnings tax protested, Seattle, 

Wash., n 221 

Massachusetts Commission recommends pav- 
ing tax change, n 130 

Recent tendencies in taxation [Rand], 389; 

[Wittmer], 443; Comment, 375 

Wisconsin tax assessments on railways, 455 

Temperature measurements with a potentio- 
meter and thermo-couples (Westing- 
house), 44 

Terminal stations and terminals: 

Detroit (Mich.) United Ry. freight ter- 
minal, *729 

Passenger handling records covering pas- 
sageways, ramps, etc., 301 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Tr. Co. 
(See Indianapolis, Ind.) 

Tests of equipment: 

Car circuit-breakers [Lish], '1194 

Feed-water softening. Calculation of chemi- 
cals required, 401 

Powdered coal. Experiments with [Hull]-, 


\'ibration tests with inexpensive equipment 

(Jones], *I003 


Jitneys abandon service in many cases, 

n 1164 

New tax law for vehicles, n 1206 

Texas Electric Ry. (see Dallas, Tex.) 

Texas Traction Co. (see Dallas. Tex.) 

Thermostats, Heat box for calibration ot [Ran- 
som], *602 

Third Avenue Ry. (see New York City) 

Third-rail contact system: 

Guard for approaches, ^836 

Temporary protection devices, *402 

Three Rivers Trac. Co. (see Montreal, Can.) 


Metal token fare-collection system, Evans- 

ville, Ind., ^640 

Metal tokens in St. Louis, n 757 

Redeemable cash-far6 receipts (Palmer), 


Tidewater Power Co. (see Wilmington, N. C.) 


Classification of kinds of ties purchased in 

1915, 941 

Report of A. R. E. A., 549 

Service tests, 164; Comment, 194 

Steel tie for steam-road service (Interna- 
tional), ^882 

(Abbreviations. • Illustrated, n Short news Item.) 

January-June, 1917] 



Ties: (Continued) 

Steel tie construction, Dallas, Tex. [Taber], 


Tie plates for aligning rail (St. Louis Frog 

& Switch), *1059 

Use and maintenance of, Ottawa, 111. 

ICarrj, 586 

• Worn out rails for steel ties, San Antonio, 

Tex., "401; Dallas, Tex., *I059 
Tie tamping (see Track construction) 
Timber preservation: 

Complete timber treatment necessary 

ICooper], 396 
Creosoting specifications for block pave- 
ments, 45 

Treated wood for paving and ties. Reports 

before American Wood-Preservers' 
Assn., 164; L omment, 194 
Toledo, O.i 

Plan to purchase street railway property, 

n 1023, n 1197 

Toledo Rys. & Lt. Co.: 

Franchise negotiations, n 221, n 265, 
n 360, n 609, n 661, n 707, n 751 
Interior arrangements of front-en- 
trance, center-exit cars, *604 
Local newspaper attacks city officials 

in traction dispute, * 1063 
Power house project, *791 
Rental controversy with city, n 516 
Wage increase, n 660 

Toledo & Western R. R. : 

Freight business [WegnerJ, 207 
Topeka, Kan. : 

Topeka Ry. : 

Car demolished in storm, n *1097 
Toronto, Can. : 

Toronto Ry. : 

Annual report, 890 
Wage increase, n 86 
Tower wagons (see Service and tower wagons) 
Track construction : 

(see also Rails; Special work; Storage yards 

for materials; Ties) 

Air tool practices, Rhode Island Co., 558 

liallast-spreading harrow, Pittsburgh (Pa.) 

Rys., *215 

Ballast unloading trestle, Chattanooga, 

Tenn. [Dike], •257 

Hallast, Report of A. R. E. A., 548 

^ learance regulations, Illinois Commission, 


Concrete paving used between tracks to 

economize [Falconer], *1 104 

Dallas, Tex., Modern construction details 

ITaber], *1137 

Drainage problems, Pacific Electric Ry. 

[Elliott], *498 

Efficiency in way department [Curtain], 353 

■ Guards for outer rail on curves, Advan- 
tages of [Stevenson J, *948 
Labor-saving tools in track work [Dun- 
ham], 170 
Labor-saving tools, Rochester, N. Y. [Fal- 
coner], 172 

Laying track with low rail to follow crown 

in pavement. Effect of [Falconer], "1014 

Methods of rebuilding track in Des Moines, 

la. [Wilson], 'lOlI 

Power tools. Results at Elmira, N. Y. [Hill], 

*1176; Comment, 1173 

Rail-laying machine, Urbana, 111. [Shelton], 


Rails welded to bridge structure, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. [Cram], *444 
• Review of developments during 1916, Com- 
ment, 7 
Roadbed protection by baffle walls, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. [Cram], ^79 

Seattle, Wash., Types in use [Goodwin], 


Statistics of track built in 1916, 36; Total 

track mileage, 35 

System for authorizing construction work 

and keeping costs [Walker], *950 
■ Tie-tamping practice with pneumatic ma- 
chines, Pittsburgh Rys. (Ingersoll- 
Rand). "43 

■ Track spikes. Recommendations of A. R. 

E. A. committee, 548 

Unit costs of track material, 70 

Worn-out rail used as ties by Southern Tr. 

Co., *1059 
Track maintenance: 

(see also Storage yards for materials) 

Air tool practices, Rhode Island Co., 558 

Angle bars reclaimed by welding, Seattle, 

Wash., *352 

Ballast shoveling by aid of passenger car, 

Dallas, Tex., '44 

Ballast-spreading harrow, Pittsburgh ( Pa. ) 

Rys., •215 

Ballast unloading trestle, Chattanooga, 

Tenn. [Dike], •257 

Compromise joints. Welding of New 

Brighton, N. Y. [McPhee], '603 

Continuous joint rebuilding, Omaha, Neb. 

[Findley], •832 

Corrugation (see Rails) 

Costs analyzed, Brooklyn, N. Y. [Cram ] , 

•479; Comment, 470 

Derailments reduced in Brooklyn by study 

of causes [Bernard], *II0I 

Track maintenance: (Contnued) 

Efficiency in maintenance of way [Curtain], 

Electrified track maintenance data desir- 
able, Comment, 767 

Grinder with swing frame, Brooklyn, N. Y, 

[Cram], ^965 

Joint plates repaired by welding. Fort 

Worth, Tex., 968 
Labor-saving tools in track work [Dun- 
ham], 170 
Labor-saving tools, Rochester, N. Y. [Fal- 
coner], 172 

Maintenance methods, Ottawa, III. fCarr]. 


Oak shims for track rehabilitation, *1193 

Oxy-acetylene tools in Seattle. Wash., •1056 

Prolonging life of old rail, Connecticut Co. 

[Stark], "80; Discussion [Keen], 254 
Review of developments during 1916, Com- 
ment, 7 

Special work repaired with old T-rail, 

Seattle. Wash., *446 
Steel ties made of old rails, San Antonio, 

Tex.. ^401 
Temporarv track for detouring traffic in 

Cleveland, O.. "lOlS 
Tie-tamping practice with pneumatic ma- 
chines, Pittsburgh Rys. (Ingersoll- 

Rand), *43 
Tram rail guard made by electric welding, 

Harrisburg, Pa. [Moist], *926 
Traffic investigations : 
—Chicago. 111.. Analvsis of industrial and 

residential distribution of population. 
^ *588 
Chicago, III.. Automobile traffic investiga- 
tion, n 587 
' hicaefo. 111., Future transit requirements. 


Chicago. III., Methods used, *686 

Philadelphia, Pa., Estimated rapid transit 

service, *643 
Rochester. N. Y., Industrial s-irvey for 

routing purposes [Arnold], 122 
Vehicular traffic responsible for street car 

delays. Chicago Herald investigation, 

270; Comment. 238 
Traffic stimulation : 
Advantages of freight traffic in increasing 

interurban service factor. Comment. 194 

Advantages of interline traffic [Norviel]. 206 

Chicago. North Shore & Milwaukee R.R.. 

Use of special trips and tours. 826 
-Freight traffic-getting methods, Seattle, 

Wash. [Somers], 208 
Instruction pamphlet for Minneapolis em- 
ployees, •1098 
- - -Review of developments during 1916, Com- 
^ ment, 14 
Salesmanship essential for electric railways 

[Frothingham], *289; Comment, 281 
San Antonio, Tex., Train-meeting service, 

-Schedule boards for patrons, Athens, Ga. 

[Baker], ^1189 

Selling transi>ortation. Comment. 768 

Through service essential to stimulate traffic. 

Comment, 105 
Train operating practice: 
Operating problems. Fort Worth, Tex. 

[Berry], 781 
Suburban railroad trains routed through 

city subwav. Sydney, Australia. *384 ; 

Comment, 377 
Train resistance (see Energy consumption) 
Albany, N. Y., Transfer privileges between 

interurban and city lines withdrawn, n 

367. 412 
Inclosed transfer areas recommended, Bos- 
ton (Mass.) Elevated Ry., n 251 

Los Angeles Ry. Corp., New transfer, "963 

Reduction of transfer privilege instead of 

raising fares. Comment. 193 

Simplified form in St. Louis, •IHl 

Tickometer for counting transfers (Tick- 

ometer), ^703 
Transit Development Co. see Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Transmission lines: 
Galvanized wire used by Georgia Ry. & Pr. 

Co., I0I2 

Insulators, Selection of, Comment. 858 

Moving steel tower with gin poles, GeorgTa 

Ry. & Pr. Co. [Hook], ^965 
Operating troubles with 6()-cycle converters, 

Dallas. Tex. [Ingram], •311 
Safety rules for high-voltage repair work, 

Pittsburgh. Pa., ^746 
Troubles localized by use of relays, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. [Welsh], '444 
Trenton, Bristol & Philadelphia Street Ry. (see 

Philadelphia, Pa.) 
Trenton, N. J.: 
Trenton & Mercer County Tr. Corp. : 

Tax valuation case, n 661 

Voorhees franchise tax attacked in suit, 
n 795 
Tri-City Ry. (see Davenport, la.) 


Equalization of [Bullock], *742; [Kiesel]^ 

•830; [Brinckerhoff]. *830; [Phillips],. 
875; [Pittenger], 875; [Heulingsl, 921; 
[Potter], 964; [BrinckerhoflTJ. 1054; 
[Francis], 1098 

Light-weight design for single-truck cars 

(Brill), *511 

Minneapolis, Minn., Truck with inside jour- 
nals for city service, *924 

Standard classification for trucks [Bullock], 

214; Comment, 470; [Hoist], 254; 
[Phillips], 254; [Johnson], 349 [Gove], 
395; [ileulings], 441; [Clark], 501; 
[Todd I, 554 

-Turnbuckle brake rod with flexible joint,. 

Elmira, N. Y., *n54 

Turbo-generators and equipment: 

— ■ — Condenser tubes cleaned by sand blast 
[Falkner], *1059 

("ondensers. Report of N. E. L. A., 912 ■ 

Connecticut Co., New power station equip- 
ment, •860; Comment, 859 

Review of developments during 1916, Com- 
ment, 9 

Surface condenser cleaned with kerosene,. 

Des Moines, Iowa [Chambers], ^397 

Twin City Ranid Transit Co. (see Minnea olis,. 


Union Street Ry. (see New Bedford, Mass.) 

Union Switch & Signal Co.: 

Merger with Westinghouse Air Brake Co.. ii 

Union Traction Co. (see Anderson, Ind.) 
United National Utilities Co. (see Philadelphia, 

United Railroads (see San Francisco, Cal.) 
United Rys. & Elec. Co. (see Baltimore, Md. ) 
United Rys. (see St. Louis, Mo.) 
United Traction Co. (see Albany, N. Y.) 
Urbana, 111.: 
Kankakee & Urbana Tr. Co.: 

Rail-laying machine [Shelton], *925 

Wage increase, n 752 
Utah Lt. &■ Tr. Co. (see Salt Lake City) 
Utica, N. Y.: 
New York State Rys.: 

Fare increases proposed, n 802 

Interurban car with quick-loading fea- 
tures [Ayers], *256 

Valuation (see Appraisal of railway property) 
Vancouver, Can. : 

-Altered jitney regulations, n 229 

British Columbia Elec. Ry. : 

Annual report, 224 

Illuminated maps for advertising pur- 
poses, *591 

Strike, n 1156, n 1199 

War, Effect on personnel, 1147 

War relief fund, n 138 
Caracas Electric Tramway : 

Tunnel under construction, n 737 
Ventilation of cars: 
Natural ventilating system with automatic' 

adjustment for speed variation (Railway 

Utility Co.), *128 
Vibration of power house measured inexpen- 
sively [Jones], •1013 
V'icksburg, Miss. : 
Fare cash boxes kept in power station vault, 

n 680 

Electric railway earnings for 1915-16, 1067" 

Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Richmond. Va.) 


Drainage of track imponant,' Comment, 376 Trolley poles and wheels (see Current-collect- 
mies effected by use of, '"? devices) 

-Dump cars, Economies 

Cleveland (O.) Ry. [Clark], 508 
-Economies in [Brown], 780 

Trolley wire and equipment 
contact system) 

(see Overhead 

Wages ; 


Alliance, O., n 1158 

Anderson, Ind., n 453 

Athens, Ga., 1200 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R.R., 87 

Bangor, Me., n 839 

Bluffton, Ind., n 516 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry., n 

Capital Traction Co., Washington, D. C.,. 
n 564 

Chattanooga, Tenn., n 930 

Colorado Springs, Col., n 888 

Columbus, Ind., n 516 

(Columbus, O., n 565 

Detroit United Ry., n 1020 

Duluth Street Ry., n 1021 

Elmira Water, U. & R.R. Co., 

Fargo. N. D„ n 361 

Fort Wayne, Ind., n 406 

Grand Ranids (Mich.) Ry., n 51 

Guelph, Can., n 974 

Harrisburg, Pa., n 1020 

Hazleton. Pa., n 1110 

Illinois Traction System, n 1021 

Indianapolis Tr. & Term. Co., n 89 


(Abbreviations. • Illustrated, n Short news Item.) 



[Vol. XLIX 

Wages, Increases; (Continued) 

Toliet, 111., n 930 „ , , 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 
Ry., n 611 

Kansas City Rys., n 1020 

London, Can., n 795 

Los Angeles (tal.) Railway Corp., n 930 

Louisville Ry., n 1021 

McAlester, Okla., n 930, n 974 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry., Newton- 
ville, Mass., 928; Comment, 904 

Montreal, Can., n 1107 

Morristown, N. J., n 1065 

Ohio Electric Ry., Springfield, O., n 317 

Oklahoma Ry., n 89 

Omaha, Neb., Bonus granted, n 974 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., n 564 

Philadelphia, Pa., Twenty-year graph- 
ical record, *870 

Phoenix (Ariz.) Ry., n 1065 

Portland, Ore., n 317, n 888 

Reading, Pa., n 706 

Richmond, Va-, n 751 

Rockford (111-) & Interurban Ry., n 132 

Salt Lake City, Utah, n 1019 

San Francisco Municipal Ry., n 930; 
Comment, 946 

Seattle, Wash., n 931 

Spokane, Wash., n 841 

Empire United Rys., n 221 

Tacoma (Wash.) Ry. & Pr. Co., n 51 

Toledo,. O., n 660 

Toronto, Can., n 86 

Tri-City Ry., n 1065 

United Railroads of San Francisco, n 88 

Urbana, 111., n 752 

Wheeling (W. Va.) Traction Co., 316 

York, Pa., n 887 

Youngstown, O., n 611 
Minimum wage laws, A. E. R. A. report, 

•282; Comment, 279, 280 
Wage arbitration and contracts. Public's in- 
terests important, 334 
Waiting stations: 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Ry., *997 

Emergency lighting switch, Boston Elevated 

Ry., *5I0 
Use of bifurcated tracks, Sydney, Australia, 

•384; Comment, 377, 422 
Wapakonetka, O. : 
— —Western Ohio Ry.: 

Rack for storing poles, *1151 
War-time condition (see Electric railways) 
Ware, Mass. : 
Ware & Brookfield Street Ry.: 

Fare increase, n 665 
Washington, D. C. : 
Capital Traction Co.: 

Wage agreement, n 512, n 564 
Potomac Elec, Pr. Co. : 

Valuation announced, n 886 
. Washington & Old Dominion Ry. : 

Transfer suit against Capital Traction 
Co. dismissed, n 980 
. Wash. Ry. & Elec. Co.: 

Individual contracts with employees, 512 

Strike, 512, 562, 608, n 658; Comment, 
532, 858; Inquiry by Senate, n 840, 
n 886, 972, 1062, n 1108, n 1156 

Washington- Virginia Ry. : 

Economies in car lighting [Armstrong], 
Washington State: 

Jitney controversy, n 711, n 712, n 1069 

^Tax valuations for 1917, n 1111 

Washington Water Power Co. (see Spokane, 

Waycross, Ga. : 
WaycrosS Street & Suburban Ry. : 

Foreclosure sale, n 1162 
Weather, Effect on traffic, Duluth, Minn., 865 
Weed killing by chemical treatment (Chipman 

Chemical Engineering), *555 
Welding, Special methods: 

Pipe joint welding, Tests of, 790 

Welding methods, Des Moines, la., *837 

West Chester, Kennett & Wilmington Elec. Ry. 

(see Kennett Square, Pa.) 
Westchester Street R.R. (see White Plains, 

N. Y.) 
Western Red Cedar Ass'n: 

Annual meeting, 779 

West India Elec. Ry. (see Jamaica, W. 1.) 

Westinghouse Air Brake Co. : 

Merger with Union Switch & Signal Co., n 

Westinghouse Elect. & Mfg. Co., Income state- 
ment, 1076 
West Jersey & Seashore R.R. : 

Annual report, 518 

West Penn Rys. (see Pittsburgh, Pa.) 

Wheaton, 111.: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R.R. : 

Automobile-accident campaign, "1004 

Carhouse roof collapse, n 51 

Rake of trolley poles. Current practice 
[Johnson], 648 

Wage increase, 87 
Wheeling, W. Va.: 
Wheeling Traction Co.: 

Safe tonnage for wheel pressing [Bran- 
son], 600 

Wage agreement, 316 

Wheels: ^ , 

Capacity and cost of cast iron carwheels 

[Lyndon], 307 

Cause of double-flanges [Robertson], 1009 

One-wear manganese-rim wheels. Advan- 
tages of [Lorenz], 584 

Safe tonnage for wheel pressing [Branson], 


Status of the small wheel, Comment, 377 

Wheel contours and proper gaging, *655 

White Plains, N. Y. : 

Westchester Street R.R.: 

Financial statement, 363 

Wichita, Kan.: 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Ry. : 

Description of property, *996 

Wilkes-Barre & Hazelton Ry. (see Hazelton, Pa.) 

Wilkes- Barre, Pa.: 

Jitneys lose bond suit, n 413 

Wilkes-Barre Ry.: 

Necessity for higher fares [Wright], 921 

Willoughby, O. : 

Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Tr. Co.: 

Annual report, 1159 

Wilmington, N. C. : 

^Tidewater Power Co.: 

Retirement of President MacRae due to 
labor troubles, n 222 

Windows (see Door, seats and windows) 

Winnij>eg, Can. : 

Winnipeg Elec. Ry. : 

Suit against city on account of jitney 
competition, n 757; Comment, 723 

Wire reinsulated for 1 cent per pound by 
ington Water Power Co., *1060 


Railroad Commission: 

National Safety code abstracted, n 551 
Operating rules for electric railways, 710 

Tax assessments of railways, 455 

Wisconsin Electrical Ass'n: 

Annual meeting: 

Papers [Smith], 492; [Erickson], 592; 

Discussion, 542 
Proceedings, 542 

Woman conductors (see Electric railways — war- 
time conditions) 

Worcester, Mass. : 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry. : 

Company not to ask for fare increase, 

n 1071 
Grafton fare case decision, n 54 
Home-made traffic sign, *952 

Worcester & Warren Street Ry. (sec Brook- 
field, Mass.) 

Work and wrecking cars: 

Gas cars found economical on Boston & 

Maine R.R., *1056 

Gasoline-driven inspection car, Denver, Co]., 


Searchlight for illuminating construction 

work at night (Electric Service Sup- 
plies), *1106 

Snowplow for city and interurban use, Spo- 
kane, Wash. [Willson], '39 

Wrecks (see Accidents) 

Wrought iron. Its use in railway work [Rob- 
erts], 484 

Yards (see Carhouses and storage yards; Stor- 
age yards for materials) 

York, Pa.: 

York Rys.: 

Financial statement, 318 
Wage increase, n 887 

Youngstown, O. : 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Public relations department [Wert], •23 
Schedule changing methods [Smith], 

Wage increase, n 611 

(Abbreviations. • Illustrated, n Short news item.) 

January-June, 1917] 



Ainie, Frank L. Locomotive crane of large ca- 
pacity, *786 

Anderson, S. H. Successful use of steel trolley- 
wire by Pacific Electric Ry., *1036 

Armstrong, W. H., Jr. Economical car lighting, 

Arnold, Bion J. Use of industrial survey in 
routing of cars, Rochester, N. Y., 122 

Atchley, E. B. Special ideas in publicity work, 

Avery, F. H. Drawbridge safeguarding device, 
Chicago, III., *505 

Ayers, J. R. Interurban car, Utica, N. Y., *256 



llaackes, Frank. War's effect on market 

tions, 941 
Bachelder, F, J. Chicago Elevated valuation 

methods, "386 
Baker, Ross L. Schedule boards for patronSj 

Bailey, A. R. Valuation of track special work 

Barry, J. G. Manufacturers' standard apparatus 

desirable, 527 
Bates, Harold. Benefits of a continuous inven^ 

tory, 115 
Bayne, R. L. Brooming of cedar poles un^ 

usual, 741 
Beeuwkes, R. Results of electrification of C. M. 

& S. P., 540; Correction, 601 
Benham, A. Future of the interurban, 438 
Bernard, M, Definition of special work, 121 
Derailments reduced bv study of causes, 


Tongue switch and mate standards of Brook- 
lyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit, *213 
Berry, V. W. Present-dav operating problems, 

Bond, Allen. Loose-leaf literature vs. the big 

catalog, 623 
I'.oyce, W. H. Improvements to reduce fire in 

surance rates, *503 

Publicity methods on a small road, *630 

Brabston. T. G. Handling of freight, Birming- 
ham, Ala., *582 
Branson, Harry. Safe tonnage for wheel press- 
ing. 600 
BrinckerhofF, F. M. Riding qualities not affected 

by equalization, 1054 

Truck equalizer bars not necessary, *830 

Broomall, A. L. Value of standards to railway 

industry, 486 
Brown, \\. R. Fconomips in track maintenance, 

Dallas, Tex., 780 
Brumbaugh, H. L . Office routine and planning 

system, •488 
Buckeley, W. V. C. Reduction of selling costs, 

Bullock, H. A. Discipline in the transportation 

department, 431 
Ethics of advertising in company publica- 
tion, n 
Bullock, S. A. Proposed truck classification, 


Truck equalization, *742 

Burrill, C. L. Public utility regulation. 551 
Burroughs, W. Dwight. Aims of publicity work, 


Conference of publicity men suggested. 554 

Putting across the skip stop in Baltimore, 

Burton, F. V. Large sized catalogs favored, 942 
Butt rick, George. Feeder poles moved with 

jacks, '217 

Carr, W. F. 

Chambers, F. 

Track and roadway maintenance, 

C. Economies of motor-driven 

auxiliaries, 684 
Railway practices in supplying commercial 

energy, *878 

Surface condenser cleaned by kerosene, *397 

t handler, W. L. Uniform catalog size advo- 
cated, 577 
Choate, Joseph K. Electric railways must have 

greater revenue, 955 
Clark, C. H. Economies effected by use of dump 

cars in track maintenance, 508 
flark, L. M. Standard classification of trucks 

discussed, 501 
< olburn, William A. Curtain cleaning process, 

' onway, Thomas, Jr. Up-state New York lines 

need relief, 1045, *1092 
Cooper, H. S. Complete treatment in preserving 

timber, 396 
Cram, R. C. Analysis of track maintenance 

costs, *479 
Concrete baffles for protection of roadbed, 

Brooklyn, N. Y., *79 

Swing-frame track grinder, *965 

Useless paving repairs sometimes necessary, 

Welding track rails to bridge structure, ^444 

Cram. R. C: (Continued) 

What shall we do to lighten the paving 

burden, 1130 
Crouse, D. E. Maintaining substation efficiency 

by record chart, *557 
Cunningham, E. R. Operating rotaries without 
hciency in maintenance of 

Curtain, David. En 
way, 353 


Dalrymple, James. War cable message to U. S. 

railways, 945 
Danforth, R. E. Discussion of disputed points 

in car design, *477 
Davidson, J. C. Publicity men's conference ad- 
vocated, 600 
Davis, F. K. Signal repair-part stocks, 1032 
Dike, E. R. Ballast unloading trestle, Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., "257 
Doane, S. E. Use of odd-voltage lamps on rail- 
ways impractical, 697 
Doble, F. C. Power developments at Manches- 
ter, N. H., *424 
Doolittle, F. W. Analysis of typical interurbai; 
reports, *242 

Economic aspects of franchises, 494 

Drew, James H, Standard catalog sizes, 901 
Dunbar, S. R. Accident insurance companies' 
discrimination against electric railways 
unfair, 554 

Don't set your own standard catalog size, 


Purchasing agents' organization advocated, 


Standardization of catalog sizes, 467 

Dunham, W. R., Jr. Labor-saving tools for way 
department, 170 

Paving burden unreasonable, 342 

Rail contour scribing machine, *876 

Durie, Daniel. West Penn Rvs. shops, *726 

'Electrical Engineer." Lamp theft prevention 
by use of odd voltages, 697 

Elliott, Clifford A. Solution of drainage prob- 
lems, '498 

Locomotive cranes of Pacific Electric Ry., 


Erickson. Halford. Fair rates of return, 592 

Evans, W. 11. Getting rid of dead stock in the 
storeroom, 652 

Soldered bond maintenance costs and prac- 
tice, *40 

used to 


Fagau, James O. Good-will between 

and employees, 297 
Falconer, D. P. Concrete pavement 

economize, *1104 

Cutting costs in storage yards, 121 

Effect of laying tracks to follow 

crown, *1014 
Labor-saving tools for track work, R 

ter, N. Y., 172 
Falkner, J. C. Condenser tubes cleaned by sand 

blast, "1059 
Eeron, M. J. Training of motormen, Chicago 

Elevated Rys., 158 
Findley, R. H. Reclaiming continuous joints, 

Fingado, R. Location of trolley wire by means 

of sighting device, *I23 
P'oote, F. J. Asbestos and varnish make good 

field-coil insulation, 833 

Economies of car maintenance, *504 

Filing system for tracings, *922 

Hot-water heater for cars, *397 

Ford, Frank R. Aera editorial policy criticized, 

I'oster, S. L. Car overhang on curves, *743 
Causes of the trolley wheel leaving the wire, 

When does it pay to splice up scrap feed 

wire, 1192 
Francis, John. Springs over journal boxes, 1098 
Frothingham, Robert. Salesmanship on electric 

railways, *289 

Goodwin, S. E. Paving and track construction 

at Seattle, Wash., "1149 
Goss, W. F. M. Tribute to memory of H. G. 

Stott, 120 
Gouthro, L. J. Jig for boring bearing brasses, 

Gove, W. G. Consideration of types in standard 

classification of trucks, 395 
Graham, D. J. Typical car-yard improvements at 

Rochester, •1082 
(Gregory, T. W. Illinois passenger rates, 1190 
Griffin, James F. Influence of the automobile 

on the interurban, 820 


Hammond, W. S. Effect of high prices on 
business, 1169 

Harries, George H. A. E. R. A. to handle war 
information regarding railways, 675 

Ways in which railways can assist in na- 
tional defense, 249 

Hart, W. S. Name suggested for one-man cars, 

Harte, Charles R. Rake of trolley poles. Cur- 
rent practice, 395 

Harvey, A. E. Kansas City Rys. material stor- 
age yard, "150 

Heaslip, Charles T. Method of combating un- 
fair criticism, 153 

Practical results of publicity cami)aigns, 346, 

681, 731 

Hegeman, B. A., Jr. Rising prices a hardship to 
railways, 527 

Hellmund, R. E. Regenerative braking, *109 

Hemming, R. M. Discussion of standard cata- 
losr sizes, 721 

Heulings, W. II., Jr. Practical trials suggested 
for truck etiualization, 921 

Stan'':»rd classification of trucks discussed. 


Hill, F. H. Lubrication economies, 966 

— ^ — Power tools speed up track work, *1176 

Hill, J. A. Car with automobile engine built in 
railway's shop, Fairburn, Ga., •126 

Hill, W. V. Annual report of California Elec- 
tric Railway .Assn., 956 

Hinman, F. L. Ladders for shop use, *507 

Ilinstorff, D. C. Galvanizing plant as a railway 
shop auxiliary, ^652 

Holtz, W. M. Medical department of Pitts- 
burgh (Pa.) Rys., *816 

Hook, E. B., Jr. Steel tower moved with gin 
poles, *965 

Home, L. W. Reducing the selling cost, 720, 

Hulburt, W. R. Helping railways to reduce ex- 
penses, 1121 

Standard sizes for cataIog:s discussed, 672 

Hull, Henry. Experiments with powdered coal, 
Seattle, Wash., '923 

Ingram, H. L. Operating troubles with 60cycle 
converters, Dallas, Tex., *Z\\ 

Johnston, E. C. Reduction of selling costs, 899 

Johnson, H. A. Standard classification of trucks, 

Johnson, Samuel E. Rake of trolley poles, Cur- 
rent practice, 648 

Jones, S. R. Inexpensive apparatus for meas- 
uring power house vibration, "1013 

Kalloch, A. L. Waterproofing rail joints with 

asphaltum, 1196 
Kealy, Philip J. Advertising not used in the 

company's publication, 121 
Keen, C. G. Prolonging life of old rails dis- 
cussed, 254 
Keith, H. C. Inspection and maintenance of 

railway bridges, 357 
Keller, C. L. Armature shafts reclaimed by 

welding, ^789 

Interchangeable car destination sign, *5S6 

— — Marking car control circuit switches, •881 
Kennedy, Henry James. Mechanical design of 

electric locomotives, ^120 
Kiesel, W. F., Jr. Truck equalizer bars not 

necessary, •830 
Koppel, J. G. Rake of trolley poles, Current 

practice, 310, 601 

Heat losses in steam plants, 

Lawrence, H. F. 

Lee, Ivy L. Enemies of publicity, 

How costs have gone up, *1139 

How costs of operation are steadily mount- 
ing, 1180 

Publicity campaign of I. R. T. Co., New 

York City, "638 

Technique of publicity, *16 

I.egare, B. P. Storage and handling of con- 
struction materials, San Francisco, Cal., 

Lindstrom, Charles A. Standardization of car 
design, 697 

Lish, W. P. Home-made equipment for testing 
circuit breakers, ^1194 

Lorenz, F. A. Advantages of manganese-rim 
wheels, 584 

Lyndon, George W. Capacity of cast iron car- 
wheels, 307 

(Abbreviations. • Illustrated, n Short news item.) 



[Vol. XLIX 


MacGovern, Frank. Market good for used 
machinery, 528 

McCloy, J. W. Municipal regulation of street 
railways, 1095. . . 

McCulloch, Richard. Advertising not solicited 
in United Rys. Bulletin, St. Louis, Mo., 

McKelway, G. H. Desirable qualities for trol- 
ley wire, 258 

Pole-raising wagon, *352 

McQuiston, W. D. Catalog size standardization, 

Maher, E. A. Discussion of strike prevention 
plan, 305 

Mailloux, C. O. Tribute to memory of H. G. 
Stott, 119 

Meyer, Henry. Transfer table for truck chang- 
ing, *744 

Mills, J. S. Coil winding machine made from 
old lathe, '651 

Stock of repair parts reduced by use of in- 

terpole motors, 508 

Moist, D. B. Guard for tram rail made by arc 
welding, '926 

Montgomery, F. L. Folder file used for cata- 
logs, 467 

Mortimer, J. D. Advertising in Aera unde- 
sirable, 442 


Nachod, Carl P. Contactor-signal market condi- 
tions, 900 

Norford, H. V. Electric railway's forces con- 
struct steel bridge, *1099 

Norviel, F. D. Advantages of interline traffic, 

Palmer, R. W, 

Parsons, R. H 

Redeemable cash-fare receipts, 

Press for installing and remov- 
ing armature bearings, *788 

Remodeling bearings of old-type motors, *79 

Testing block for fuses, *310 

Pershall, E. E. Effect of war on carbolineum 
business, 1076 

Petura, Frank J. Effect of war on railway ma- 
terial market, 623 

Phillips, F. R. Arch-bar truck in city service 
defended, 875 

Pieri, W. D. Storeroom accounting system, 

Pigott, Reginald T. S. Combustion in the under- 
feed stoker, 448 

Pike, L. R. Carbon brushes recut with carbo- 
rundum wheel, *1057 

Pittenger, C. N. Truck equalization essential, 

Potter, R. R. Turning commutators on New 
York, Westchester & Boston Ry., *169 

Pound, James H. Freight traffic, Benton Har- 
bor, Mich., 207 

Putnam, Frank. Advertising to get fair play 
and more traffic, *31 

Quackenbush, James L. New York Commis- 
sion's power to raise fares. 1145 

Quinn, C. H. Results of electrification of Nor- 
folk & Western Ry., 538 

"Railway Manager." Killing of trolley wire on 
drawbridge approaches undesirable, 964 

Rand, R. L. Recent tendencies in taxation, 389 

Ransom, E. D. Heat box for calibration of car 
thermostats, *602 

Reed, H. S. Two-car train for Detroit, Mich., 

Rice, Edward E. Co-operative insurance for 
employees, *292 

Rice, Martin P. Catalog size standardization, 

Rice, Ralph H. Steel trolley wire for city 
service, 1148 

Roberts, C. R. Betterment of power plant man- 
agement, 820 

Roberts, G. G. Use of wrought iron in railway 
service, 484 

Robertson, Struan. What causes double wheel 
treads? 1009 

Savers, Henry M. Microscopic analysis and 
remedies for rail corrugation, *773 

Schlesinger, A. Engineers in the C. E. R. A., 

Schluss, K. C. One-man cars for Tacoma, *1055 

Schreiber, Martin. A. E. R. A. company sec- 
tions desirable, 961 

Schwenke, A. G. Mechanical aids in account- 
ing, *775 

Scofield, E H. Steel trolley wire on city lines, 

Shonts, T. P. Discussion of strike prevention 
plan, 306 

Tribute to memory of H. G. Stott, 119 

Sinclair, J. J. Freezing of air brakes avoided. 

Sisson, G. B. Fiber gear cutting device, *968 

Home-made air-operated punch, *834 

Home-made drill carnage, *1100 

Skelton, T. W. Rail-laying machine, '925 

Smaw, W. H. Economical buying, 576 

Smith, C. D. Method of making schedule 
changes, 736 

Smith, G. J. Repair of trolley poles by special 
machine, *399 

— -■ — Spring adjustment for armature bearings, 

Smith, Philip S. A day's labor on four tons 
of coal, 1148 

Smith, Raymond H. Analysis of one-man car 
operation, 492 

Smith, W. H. Changes needed in personal in- 
jury laws, 21 1 

Somers, W. H. Freight business experiences, 
Seattle, Wash., 208 

Sommer, Frank H. Closer relations between 
railways and public advocated, 500 

Soules, E. E. Public relations advertising of 
Illinois Traction System, *28 

Stark, M. E. Machine for cutting pavement, 
Bridgeport, Conn., '123 

Prolonging life of old rail, Connecticut Co., 


Stevenson, William H. Double guards reduce 
rail maintenance cost, *948 

Stiga!l, E. E. Purchasing agent should be 
shock absorber for department heads, 

Sioneking, J. B. Use of dynamite for pole 
holes, *700 

Taber, R. G. Modern track construction in 

Dallas, Tex., *U37 
Taylor, Theodore. Economies in repair shop 

work. 822 
Titus, Walter S. Tool holder for economical 

use of cutting steel, *922 
Tomlins, William A. Indemnity and surety 

bonds, 392 
Tucker, A. A, Big demand for field coil linen 

tape, 1121 

X'ance. H. J. Increase in cost of maintenance 

materials during 1916, 190 
Van Zandt, A. D. B. Conference of publicity 

men advocated, 649 
Handling complaints from patrons, *1090 


Wade, A. Method of changing axles. "555 

Walker, Frank B. Bridge inspection methods. 
Bay State Street, Ry., *770 

Inexpensive way of cutting construction 

costs, *950 

Warnock, A. W. Advertising the Twin City 
lines, *19 

Warren, Bentley W. Wage arbitration and con- 
tracts, 344 

Waters, W. T. Publicity through broad-minded 
advertising, *25 

Wegner, A. C. Freight business on Toledo & 
Western R.R., 207 

Welsh, J. W. Use of relays to localize trans- 
mission line troubles, "444 

Wert, Frank. Public relations department, 
Voungstown, O., *23 

Weyman, H. E. Remodeled one-man car, •1191 

Wheelwright, Thomas S. Advertisements not 
used in V^irginia Ry. & Pr. Co. publi- 
cation. 77 

White, H. Denton. Standardization in car-body 
design, 166 

White, W. McK. Reducing the selling cost, 1031 

Will, F. P. Suggestion for shortening car stops, 

Williams, T. S. Advertising in Aera undesira- 
ble, 441 

Discussion of strike prevention plan, 305 

Willson, R. H. Snowplow for city and inter- 
urban use, *39 

Wilson, W. L. Track construction in Des 
Moines, *1011 

Wittmcr, P. B. Recent tendencies in taxation, 

Woods, G. M. Effect of low voltage on railway 
motors, *159 

Wright, T. A. Higher fares are necessary, 9^1 

Yungbluth, B. J. Regulating materials and s ip- 
plies in storeroom. 490 


(Abbreviations. •Illustrated, n Short news iten 

January-June, 1917] 




Aage, K. L., 368 
Abercrombie, J. R., 715 
Aiken, F. D., 140 
Aitken, W. M., 461 
Alberte, Carl, 461 
Alexander, K. k., 96 
Alexander, Walter, 895 
Allen, VV. P., 572 
Allison, T. E., 760 
Allison, James E., 804 
Anderson, C. E., 414 
Andrews, E. T., 96 
Andrus, L. li., 368 
Armbruster, Otto, 524 
Arnold, li. T., 324, 572 
Arnold, B. \V., 368, 461, 1165, 


liacon, F. W., 461 
l!ailcy, Albert R., SJ3 
liaker, diaries WhitinR, 849 
Haldwin, Worth A., 461 
liallard, Roy, 368 
liarber G. E., 368 
riarbier. L. F., 619 
Itnrhoiir. William, 46J 
I'.arhite. lohn A., 368 
r.arker, William S., 668 
Harlow, W. R., 369 
Ilarnes, James P., *524. 715 
liarrett. Tames M,, 141 
Bassett, 1. E., 369 
Baxter. George D., 1165 
Beach, II. I,., 325 
Beaver, John, 804 
Becker, R. A., 1208 
Benhani. Albert. *1119 
Benson, lohn T.. 523 
Berrv, II. C, 1028 
Berry, J. II.. 186 
Bertron. .S. R., 938 
Betts. Amos A., 97 
Biddison, Calvin T.. 668 
Billings, E. T., 715 
Blair, E. T.," 1028 
Blish, J. K., 1208 
Tinhon, W. T., 186 
Bouris, T. G., 368 
Bowen, Edmund I., 140 
Bowers, Frank K., 572 
Boyce, W. H., 461 
Boyd. John TI., 1208 
Braddock. Charles S., Tr., 620 
Braden, Tames ,A.. 715 
Brady, .^rthur W., 982 
Brady. Tames B.. 760 
Brandli, H. E., 895. 1072 
Branson, Harrv, 523 
I'.ravmer, D. H.. 414 
Bredlan, Fred, 96 
Bridges, C. W., 982 
Britton, John '.A., 803 
Brooke, T. H., 96 
Brooks. Frank W.. 368, 715 
Brown, Charles, 1028 
Brown, G. N., 938 
Brown, Homer G., 186 
Brown, J. P. W., •1073 
Brown, J. W., 231 
Brown, L. T., 461 
Brown, Nelson H.. *850 
Brush, Matthew C, 140. 1165 
Buckingham. George Tracv. 97 
Buchner, Charles E., 1165 
Budden, H. G., 324 
Bullock, H. A., 982 
Burleigh, John J., 369 
Burley, Valentine, 895 
Burpee, F. D., 1072 
Burroughs, Dwight, 140 
Burt, Byron T., 140 
Byington, E. T,., 140 

( ady, A. IT., 1208 
I afferty, Uarwin R., 1072 
Cain, John II., 849 
Caldcrwood, John F., 1119, 1166 
( ameron, Bruce, 186, "982 
Campbell, R. B., 324 
Cantlen, A. H. S., 230 
( .irmien, Roy, 324 
Carpenter, R. C, 415 
Carson, A. G., 1165 
Carson, George, 849 
Catherman, John, 759 
Chadderdon, G. C., 330 
Chapman, M. P., 414 
< heney, J. W., 96 
Cheney, .S. W., 620 
t herry, F. W., 186 
Chichester, A. B., 1119 
C"hilds, H. J., 619, 668 
Chilton, W. H., 572 
Chisholm, F. C, 368 
Chisholm, J. J., 849 
Chisholm, W. J., 1028 
Claxton, William G., 96 
Clayton, W. L.. 368 
<'laytcn, William, 572, 620 

Clow, W. A., 414 
Clement, Alvah J., 715 
Clements, Judson C., 1166 
Coakley, \\ alter, 619 
Coates, Frank R., 715 
Cobb, William T., 325 
Cogan, J. I.. 14U 
Collins. C. C, 1072 
Collins. C. R., 2JI, 414 
Connelly, Fred, 368 
Cook, E. J., *369 
Cook, G. W., 96 
Cooper, Eugene, 715 
' ordell, Henry, 759 
Cornwell. R. E., 96 
Corwin, William V.. 760 
Coryell, A. B., 1208 
• 1709 Cotter, John, 186 
Couture, F. X.. 368 
Cox, H. E., J<i4 
Crawford, John B., 415 
Cresson, Benjamin F., 804 
Crosby, Oscar T., 716 
Cross, Thomas A., 97, *760 
Cummings, Al., 140 
Cunningham, H. W., 573 
Currie, Charles, 57, 368 
Curry, James, 96 


Dana, Edward, 272, 619, 982 
Daniels, Winthrop More, 140 
Darrow, T. A„ 368 
Davidson, James E., 414 
Davies, J. Vipond, *896 
Davis, A. J., 1072 
Davis, E. J., 803 
Davison, George W,. 230 
Dawson, Orr H., 231 
Dawson, William J., 1208 
Day, N. G., 620 
Delehanty, Martin, 230 
Dempsey, Thomas E., 803 
Dennis, A. H., 186 

Devine, W. I., 186 

De Windt, f. P. H,, Jr., 


Dicke. H. 1'., 325 
Dill, Samuel J., 1166 
Dillon, Stephen E., 1028 
Dinsmore, William H., 97 
Doherty, Henry L.. 803, 1028 
Douglas, Roydan, 849 
Douglass, W. H., 849 
Dreier, Thomas, 325 
Drummond. Charles A., 57 
Duffy, C. Nesbitt. 1028 
Dunnington, George, 760 
Duenweg, Paul S.. 230 
Duvall, John B., *1U9 
Dwyer, Tohn P., 231 
Dyson, H. W., 803 

Elliott, Howard. 803 
Elliott, Thomas, 938 
Kaston, W. S.. 96 
Enfors. G. L.. 231. 414 
Fsch, John F., 140 
Estill, G. C, 620 
Evans. H. O., 186 
Everett, Henry .\.. 716 

Karrand, Dudley. 668, ^714 
Fasoldt, C. E., 982 
Feller, William II.. 668 
Fenton, E. Burt, 620 
Fetherolf. W. F., 324 
Feustel, Robert M., 97 
Fifer, Charles J., 140 
Fisher. W. H., 96 
.Fisk. Wilbur C. "1208 
Fitzgerald, Thomas. 1118 
Flad. Edward, 849 
Flatley, M. F., 141 
Flowers, Herbert B., *7S9 
Ford, A. H., '573 
Foster, Charles E., 715 
Foster, E. C, 572 
Fowler, Melvin H., 1072 
Fowles, Bvron C. 803 
Francis. Thomas E.. 572 
Franz, W. C, 96 
Funk. H. E., •I 166 
Furlong. C lyde, 97 

Gale, G. Gordon, '273 
Gale, Henry, 96 
Gallaher, J. E., 414 
Gardiner, A., 140 
Gardiner, Arthur V., 938 
Garrson. N. I.. 619 
George, Hernon N., 1118 
Germain. George P., 760 

Gibbs, George, 982 
Gifford, B. T., 619 
Gilpin, H. G., 1118 
Ginnivan, VV. J., 324 
Goldman, Godfrey, 1165 
Gorman, Eugene, 668 
Goss, W. F. M„ 325 
Graham, R. N'., '716 
Green, G. A., 572 
Green, R. C, 414 
Greenway, Bert, 895 
Griffin, 1-. P., 324 
Griffith, R. E., 415 
Grimes, W. H., 368 
Grinnell, Lawrence I., 57, 523 
Guiher, I. A., 140 
tSutelius, F. P., 1028 


Haas, F. J., 140 
Haass, Julius H., 668 
Haberle, S. W., 324 
Hadsell, R. R., 849 
Hall, Edward K., 96 

Hall, Henry C, 619 

Hamilton, James F.. ♦369, 715, 759 

Hammond, Frank, 97 

Handshy, C. F., 'HI 

Hansen, H. L., 186 

Hardecker, William, 272 

Hardy, T. B., 759 

Haren. Daniel J., 368 

Harmon, James, 982 

Hartz, William, 96 

Harvey, Tulien H., 97 

laskell, Lewis Clark, 462 
Hawson, James, 96 
Head, C. S., 324 
Hearn, George .\., 414 
Hcdley, Frank, 523, 572 
Henning, Frank A., 523 
Henshaw, William G., 96 
Henry, S. T.. 231 
Herrick. Charles, 368 
Hervey. Charles S., 849 
Hewitt, J. W., 668 
Hickey, John, 325 
Higgins, Edward E., 1209 
Hill, George Henry, 273 
Hilliard, B. W., 57 
Hine, Edwin W., 715 
Hires, B. F., 414 
Hirt, L. J.. 1028 
Hoagland, H. C, 620 
Hogarth, W. L., 96 
Holding, G. G., 461 
Hole, R. J., 230 
Hollar, L. E., 96 
Hoist, E. W., 620 
Homer, Francis T., 572 
Hoopes, Charles, 619 
Hopkins. Frederick L.. 414 
House, William ,\., 97 
Houser, F. G., 368 
Howard, E. C, 1028 
Hoyt, Allen G., 140. 1072 
Hubbard, Ward, 368 
Hudson, Newton M., 849 
Hughes, Oliver H.. 187 
Hume, .Arthur C, 140 
Huntington, Clarence W., 273 
Hum, William J.. 804 
Huston, H. W.. 1072 
Hutchings, J. T., 1208 

Ingoldsby, T. L., 461 
Irion. \'. K.. 849 

lackson, S. D., 523 

Jacques, L. W., 523, 620 

Tanes, Frank F., 759 

Janes, Ray D., 97 

Jennison, R. D., 414 

Johnson, Edward, 369 

Johnson, H. S., 938 

Johnson, Joseph, 572 

Johnson, W. O, 1166 

Johnston, E. H., 803 

Johnstone, ( harles, 461 

Jones, C. B., 368 

Tones, Melodia Blackmarr, 57, 325 

Tones, R. D., 324 

tones, R. J., 896 

Jumonville, H. J., 668 

Kaap, T. F., 140 
Kalbach, Andrew E.. 896 
Kambs, William, 619 
Katte, Walter. 462 
Kealy, Philip T., 186, 759 
Keller, A., 324 
Kelley, E. F., 759, 804 

Kelsey, E. R., 619 
Kemp, J. 1., 358 
Kephart. C. 1., 803 
Kilkenny. J. J., 272 
Kelsey, E. R., 1209 
King, E. L., 324 
Kirk, H. F., 186 
Kline, P. 1)., 620, 895 
Kniglit, Robert, 760 
Knox, George W., 368, 572 
Koller, E. S., 140 
Komiya, Jiro, 572 
Krial, Charles, 324 
Kunz, T. A., 414 
Kurr, P. W., 368 
Kyle, VV. J., 414 

Laing, J. A., 415 
Landon. Mary A., 324 
Lane, A. F., 186 
Lane, John, 1209 
Laney, Charles J., 1028 
Langdon, L. K., 620 
Launey, R. O., 231 
Leavitt, K. D., 272 
l-edlie, I. B., 849 
Leitch, }ames, 369 
Lewis. Dwight .VL, 140 
Lewis, E. C, 369 
Lewis, Ernest I., 895 
Lloyd, Morton G., 414 
Linden, John J., 325 
Long, li. C, 324 
Longhurst, A. T., 368 
Losey, G. H., 368 
Louser, H. G., 187 
I owd, Mark, 850 
Lowry, T. G., 1208 
Lugar, l-'rank, 368 
Lunsford. H, H., 368 
Lyons, B. F., 572 
Lyons, Harry H., 572 


MacAdams, A. H.. 368 

.MacDonald, John, 140 

MacEIhinney, James A., 187 

Maclay, Thomas, 414 

.MacMillan, E. A., 759 

Mc.'Xrthur, Lewis A., 415 

McCants, M., 140 

McCarthy, John J., 461 

McCloskey, Hugh, 573 

McCardle, John W., 895 

McComas, Perry R., 938 

McElravy, R. ]., 230 

McGarry, Tho..ias H., 369 

McKay, Douglas I., 230 

»'cMath. Francis C, 668 

McOuillin, Eugene, 414 

McReynolds, T. i ., 414 

Macy, E. C, 1208 

Maher. Edward .-\,, Jr., 461 

Maher, Edward A., Sr., 186, 231, 

•273, 414 

March. Alfred S.. 849 

Martin. Burr, *415 

.Vlartzall, F. M., 414 

Mason, T. P., 523 

.Mathews, A. L., 140 

Matter, Phillip, 1072 

Mehren, E. J., 187 

Meirs, Richard W., 804 

Mellor, J. M.. 324 

Meloon, W. G., 461 

Mctzger, R. S., 230 

Miller, Charles E., 57 

Miller, Charles C, 982 

Miller, F. A., 461 
Miller. Frank H.. 97 
Miller, T. G., 57 
Miller, L. T., 1028 
Miller, T. Lee, 57 
Miller, v. A., 668 
Milnor, John F., 804 
Mills, Ellsworth L., 982 
Mitlendorf, William. 938 
Molyneaux, J. J., 230 
Moore, E. W., 415 
Morris, H. C., 849 
Morris, J. H., 368 
Moss, S. A., 186 
Mote, Carl H., 895 
Mullally, Thornwcll, 97 
Munroe, Walter N., 140 
Munton, C. J., 415 
Murch, George A.. ^804 
Murphy, Charles O., 368 
Murphy, George D., 140 
Murphy, Harrv, 140 
Murray, W. S., 272, 715, 938 
Murrin, W. G., 759, 895 


Nagle. George O., 1166 
Neereamer. A. L., *524 
Nellis, C. B., 414 


Nelson, E. E,, 849 
Ncwhouse, Alex, 461 
Newton, C. G., 461 
Nichols, A. S., 895 
Nicholson, F. S., 140 

O'Brien, Frank, 186 
O'Neill, W. J., 804 
Orr, R. M., 524 
Osborne, T. W., 140 
O'Toole, John L., 668, *71 

Paddock, P. C, 186 
Page, W. E., 324 
Paine, Waldo &., 1028 
Palmer, P. H., 368 
Pappert, Herman, 619 
Parker, Alfred W., 462 
Partrick, Earl, 368 
Paterson, A. B., 895, 1028 
Patterson, E. L., 668 
Paul, Henry C, 140 
Pearson, E. J., 803 
Peeling, C. U., 1118 
Pegram, George H., *187 
Persons, Niles, 938 
Phenicie, C. R., 57 
Phillips, John, 461 
Phillips, J. C, 186 
Pinkerton, C. S., 230 
Pinnock, H. C., 140 
Piper, A. R., 803 
Pomeroy, L. R., 982 
Porter, Gilbert E., 715 
Porter. James H., 230 
Potter, J. B., 1208 
Pratt, Tames R., *759 
Prill, Max H,, 230 
Pritchard, H. J., 619 
Pulliam, J. P., 524, 1165 

Rader, L. E., 324 
Ramstedt, A. P., 523 
Ransom, William L., 759 
Ray, Frederick L., 140, 230 
Ray, William D., *325, 804 
Keed, C. G., 619 
Reely, Lee M., *1118 
Reid, M. M., 461 
Reid, Paul D., 715 
Reinking, Paul, 1208 

Reynolds, Henry E., 668 
Rhoads, N. B., 1072 
Rice, P. B., 1118 
Richards, C. R., 804 
Richards, F. S., 849 
Kiddle, Samuel, 368 
Riley, R. A., 368 
Roach, John, 1208 
Roberts, George J., 668. *71'i 
Robertson, j. H., 272 
Roebling, terdinand W., Sr. 
Rogers, Gardner, 414 
Root, Oren, 572 
Ross, George H., Jr., 849 
Ross, I. W., 324 
Ross, M. L., 140 
Rowley, Elihu S., 1072 
Ruff, Charles, 57 
Rusch, Frank, 1119 
Ryan, Thomas J., 368 

Satterlee, R. S., 325 
Sauerwein, M. C, 572 
Saville, W., 804 
Savage, W. B., 272 
Scharter, O. D., 368 
Schmidt, F. H., 803 
Schneider, Frank R., "760 
Schoen, Charles T., 273 
Schott, J. C, 619 
Schreiber, Martin, *715 
Schuch, J. H., 324 
Schumpert, H. M., 523 
Scranton, Edward, 523 
Seaman, Alvah, 938 
Sheldon, George R., 619 
Sheldon, Robert E., 231 
Shell, E. W., 324 
Shepard, R. C, 668 
Shields, R. B., 324 
Shinn, J. O., 186 
Simmons, G. M., 96 
Simpson, Noah W., 849 
Sims, C. S., 1028 
Skead, W. E.. 324 
Sliter, U. S., 896 
Sloan, M. S., 895 
Smith, Clinton B., 231 
Smith, F. W., 1028 
Smith, G. Harold, 272 
Smith, T. J., 186 
Smith, Phifer, 186 
Smith, Raymond H., 414 
Smith, Robert A.. 368 
Smythc, C. D., 324 
Snyder, Otto, 414 
Spangler, Lily T., 524 
Sparks, Ralph M., 716 
Spaulding, J. A., 140 


Spencer, Penrose, 186 
Sperling, R. H., 272 
Stanley, Albert H., 1208 
Stanton, William F., 849 
Starkweather, G. C, 324 
Steel, Sanger B., 231 
Sterling, Fred E., 982 
Stevens, R. P., 230, 759 
Stewart, G., 96 
Stewart. J. B., Jr., 850 
573 Stichter, R. B., 272 
Still, C. H., 368 
Still, G. C, 230 
Stocks, Carl W., *938 
Storms, George H., 1028 
Stott, Henry Gordon, *141 
Stover, I. M., 414 
Strickland, J. F., 415 
Sturzinger, O. R., 849, 896 
Sullivan, John G., 620 
Sullivan, R. T., *716 
Swain, Arnold, 849 
Swain, H. D., 140 
Swenson, Sydney O., 572 

Tail, Leonard, 461 
Taylor, Walter H., 982 
Teachout, Horace E., 462 
Thome, Clifford, 619 
Thurlby, A. A., 231 
Thwing, W, M., 759 
Todd, Martin N., 461, 759 
Towne, A. H., 982 
Trimble, C. A., 186 
Trimble, Perry, 368 
Tripp, George B., 461 
Tripp, G. R., 272 
Troll, G. E., 186 
Treanor, John, 140 
TuUy, Joseph L., 759 
Turnbull, F. M., 186 
Turner, Daniel L., 716 

[Vol. XLIX 



Uffert, J. F., 849 

Vandergrift, J. A., 140 

Van Middlesworth, T. Wilson, 668, 

Voegtly, W. N., 461 
Vordermark, H. E., 803, *896 
Voshall, K. D., 325 

Wadsworth, Eliot, 187 
Wakelee, Edmund W., 668, •714 
Warburton, W. N., 759 
Ward, A. E., 230, 272 
Warfel, Charles O., 938 
Warren, Frank H., 620 
Waterson, W. W., 368 
Weld, Fred M., 230 
Werner, J. A., 324 
Wessel, John F., 1028 
Weston, W. L., 896 
Weymann, FL E., 186 

Wharton, William H., 1165 

Whaley, A. R., 896 

Wheeler, M. B., 368 

Whitamore, H. D., 414 

White, C. M., 619 

White, George, 97 

White, James G., 1208 

Whiting, M. C, 803 

Whitney, Travis H., 186 

Whitney, W. A., 759 

Whitridge, Frederick W., 57 

Wiegel, John O.. 849 

Wilcoxon, Lewis Clark, *462 

Will, F. P., 1028 

Willard, Thomas B., 982 

Willcutt, Joseph L., 573 

Williams, Harrison, 572 

Wilson, Hugh M., ^96 

Wilson, James, 324 

Wischmeyer, H. W., 140 

Witt, S. J., 187 

Wolff, Augustus, 1073 

Wood, Benjamin F., 414 

Wood, H. H., 324 

Wood, William J., 895 

Woods, George B., 759 
Woodsome, T. C., 1028 
Woodyatt, Tames B.. 523 
Woollcott, Harry, 982 

Yeakee, B. F., 324 
Young, Percy S., 668, *714 

Zarr, John, 414 
Zinsheimer, Paul A., 1072 

Statistical and Publicity Issue 


New York, January 6, 1917 

McGraw Publishing Co. Inc. 

Vol 49, No. 1 10c a copy 

]',l.i'!n|.iVH:i 'm'i:'!.i'!!M!i!|i!,! 

:,' I ■' i i( I n I'l I 111 i ' ' i I!, ■ H' ■ M i ■' ' ' ' ■ I', i i' / ' I ' ' ' 


Within the 20.3 miles ' etwees iiroad Street, Philad;'- 
phia, and Paoli, there are , '\ o mi'es of the highest c' -^ 
electrified railroad. The o:h ating ".urrent is transmiiiv:a 
over the dctenary suspended i. >lley "ire at 11,000 volts, 
single pha^. 

For this important elecii;ficati..i, tht Pennsylvania 
Railroad held to the high standards it has set in the stearti 
railroad field. 

For the line of contact between the car and the distri- 
bution system it chL">e 


jl(e orXy trolley wire that has made ff'-od in e.-iu • , 
kjud of electrip- railway service — a. wire that wil; gi\-. 
t' tast spitiin^and bu'^nin^ rt high vi Itage — and con- 
.lently a wire'vthat will give ti.'^ mrst wear— -two !-. 
three limes the life of ordin.r y tro'ley v.'iie, 

Bridgeport El*S5 Company, BiJliJiftjort, Conn. 


[January 6, 1917 



Unit S\¥iteh£ontrol 


The Danger 

From The Platform 

All heavy circuit breaking devices are located 
beneath the floor of the car where they belong, and are all con- 
tained within one compact steel case. 

HL Control retains all the simplicity of the drum type, while 
securing the advantages of power operation. 

The master controller is manipulated with much less 
physical effort, therefore allow.? better control of the car. 
Our Leaflet 3865 describes HL Control in detail. 
Send for a copy 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Sales Offices in All Large American Cities 



■ 1. 







'* ^^^^^J 


a m 



The Master Control- 
ler and Control Switch 
shown, are the only 
control parts located on 
the platform. All main 
circuits and circuit 
breaking devices are be 
neath the floor. 

Over 200 roads 
now use HL 



Volume XLIX. No. i 


Pages 1 to 62 


Retrospect and Prospect 

An editorial review of the conditions prevailing and advances made in 
the electric railway field during the year just closed. On the basis of 
the strength shown during the period, the prospects for 1917 appear to 
be more favorable Page 1 

Symposium on Electric Railway Publicity 

The value of publicity in its various forms is emphasized by the au- 
thors, whose activities have resulted in greatly improved relations with 
the communities they serve and with the employees Page 16 

Annual Statistical Review 

This review contains a record of the cars ordered or built in railway com- 
pany shops, miles of track and cars owned, amount of track built in 
1916, and a report on the receiverships and foreclosure sales during the 
year Page 33 

Equipment and Its Maitenance. 


A Combination Snowplow for City and Suburban Use — 
By R. A. waison. 

.Soldered Bonds Reinstalled at Low Cost — By W. H. 

Home-Made Jig for Boring Brasses — By L. ./. Gouthro. 

Rail Fillers and Key Blocks in Track Special Work, in 
New York City. 

Ix)ng Bracket Arms for Narrow Roadway. 

Pneumatic Tampers Cut Labor Cost In Half In Pitts- 

Mirror Used in Safeguarding Crossing. 

Electric Shoveling. 

Frogless Switch Makes Continuous Rail for High-Speed 

Thermo-Couple and Potentiometer for "Hot Spot" 
Temperature Measurement. 

Creosoted Block Pavement Standardized. 

Circuit Breakers for High Voltage. 

The Technique op Publicity 16 

By Ivy L. Lro 

Advertising -^ ris Twin City Lines 19 

By. A. W. Warnock. 

A Public Relations Department 23 

By Frank Wert. 

Publicity Pays 25 

By W. T, Waters. 

Special Ideas in Publicity Work 27 

By E. B. Atchley. 

"Straight-Talk" Publicity ....28 

By E. E. Soules. 

Street Railway Advertising: When, 
How AND Why 31 

By Frank Putnam. 

A Good Use for Safety Bulletins 32 

Data on Car Resistance on Curves 32 

New Electric Rolling Stock for 1916.. 33 

Electric Railway Statistics 35 

New Electric Railway Track Built in 
19.'.6 36 

Ame'ican Association News 37 

rec1..verships and foreclosure sales. . .38 

London Letter 46 

News op Ei ectric Railways 47 

Six of Ninety Contracts Unawarded. 

Municipality Shares Plan for Completing Country 

Street Railv/ay. 
Connecticut Company Review. 
New Franchisf Conditions in Gary. 
Plan to Cons(jlidate Massa^ liusetts Commissions. 
Progress on Kansas ''ity Terminals. 

Financial and Corporate 52 

Foreclosure Proceedings in San Francisco. *■ 

Traffic and Transportation 54 

Decision in Grafton Fare Case. 
Gar Capacity Measure Amended. 
Louisville Men Discuss Salesmanship. 

Personal Mention 57 

Construction News 58 

Manufactures and Markets 60 

Jamx:;s H. McGraw, President. A. E. Clifford, Secretary. J. T. De Mott, Treasurer. H. W. Blake, Editoi. 


Chicago. 15.0 Old Colony Bldg. 
Cleveland, j.eader-Newg Bldg. 

Philadelphia, Real Estate Trust Bldg. 
San Francisco. Rialto Bldg. 

London, 10 Norfolk St., Strand. 
Cable address : "Stryjourn," New York. 

United Sts tc-s, Mexico, Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii, or the Philippines, )3 per year ; Canada, »4.50 ; elsewhere. * 6. Single copy, 10 cenU. 
n>17, by McGraw Publishinq Company Inc. Published Weekly. Entered at Ne\v 1 ork Post Offlce as Second-Cla,ss Mail. 


No back volumes for more than one year, and no bacit copies for more than three months. 
One week required for change of mailing address. New and old addresses must be given. 

.; Circulation of this issue 7300 copies 


[January 6, 1917 


1^6 ifae Future 


Steam Turbines of 

45,000 and 70,000 KW. 

are now under Construction. 

Who dare predict the possi- 
bilities of the future? 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

^^ff :■''■>■■:'' 


January 6, 1917] 



Porcelain Insulators 

The Future Ratings 
of Westinghouse Insulators; 

will be based on testslunder conditions resembling those 
of actual service as closely as can be obtained in a laboratory. 
The illustrations were obtained from photographs taken while 
the insulators were being tested. cem5nted to a metal pin mounted 
on a steel cross arm grounded, having the line wire tied to the in- 
sulator as in service. 

We have transformers for insulator testing capable of developing 
any required test voltage, including 500,000 volts to ground. 
Insulators tested and rated as above give better insurance to 
the buyer than when rated by the routine commercial test, 
where much higher flashovers can be obtained. 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Sales Office! in All Large 
American Cities 


Sole Agent in 
the United 
States of the 
Insulator Co. 





[January 6> 1917 

The Westinghouse Inspector-Specialist 
is a practical railroad man, direct from 
the car-bam ranks. He knows the air-brake game from A to Z. More- 
over, he knows how to impart his knowledge to others, whether it be to the 
barn-man to procure the best possible conditions of air brake equipment, or 
to the motorman to guarantee safety and to improve transportation move- 

"It is largely because of the Westinghouse Inspector - Specialist's close co- 
operation with our men that we are able to handle our cars better than ever 
before. His work with our barn-men is equally efHcient. The majority of our 
compressors have never been down since first installed eight years ago, 
and at present rate of going will hang for eight years more." (Recent re- 
mark of a Street Railway Manager.) 


Westinghouse Traction Brake Company 

General Offices: Wilmerding, Pa. 



Westinghouse Building 


Railway Exchange Bu'ilding 


City Investing Building 


Boatmen's Bank Building 

January 6, 1917] 




To You 

who are not a Subscriber 

Look through the pages of this issue 
and see what a feast of useful, inspiring- 
information has been prepared for the 
readers of the Electric Railway Journal. 

Then resolve that hereafter you will 
be a subscriber so that you will not miss 
a single issue of the Electric Railway 
Journal throughout 1917 and thereafter. 

To You 
who are not an Advertiser 

Look through the pages of this issue. 
Note the splendid articles from the men 
who have done and are doing big work 
tor better public relations. Note also 
the carefully compiled, exclusive statis- 
tics which the Electric Railway Journal 
has published on conditions in the in- 
dustry during 1916. 

Then resolve that during- 1917 and 
thereafter you will be an advertiser in 
the one paper which is indispensable to 
your customers. 

Klectric Railway Journal 

Member Audit Bureau of Circulations 

... - 



[January 6, 1917 

O-B Type E Frog— Patented 

Cutting the Cost of Line Work 

It's cold work on top of the tower wagon this time of year. 
The linemen are all bundled up — heavy mittens and unwieldy coats. 

Why let time he wasted — expensive time — fussing around with 
small bolts, nuts, washers, screws? O-B Cam Tip Devices do 
away with this useless expenditure of energy. 

For instance, in the O-B Type E Frog, O-B Cam Tips form the 
approach. They are just slipped under the hooks, then turned over 
and down. They force the wire firmly into the groove and when 
the lips are clinched around the wire there is a smooth passage 
for the trolley wheel. O-B Cam Tips are readily renewable. 

A single wedge secured by two large bolts holds the wire 

But ease of installation is only one point of superiority. There 
are the extra long legs, to protect the wire, the groove in the pan 
to steady wheel, O-B Sherardizing on all iron parts. 

Look up complete line of O-B Cam Tip Devices — frogs, cross- 
overs, section in.sulators, strain plates — in Catalog No. 16 or write 
and say you are interested. 

O-B Cam Tip, installed, cross-sectioned to show cam action 

The Ohio Brass Company 

Mansfield, Ohio 



January 6, 1917] 


O-H TyiH' J I'.imd lnst;illed— Patented 

Economical, Efficient Bonding 

Careful!}^ and conservatively compiled figures show the O-B 
Type J to be an exceptionally inexpensive bond to install, consid- 
ering labor, materials and depreciation on machine. This is due 
partly to its short length and partly to the perfection of the milling 

This machine is easily handled and speedy. A crew of three 
men can install from 100 to 150 bonds a day when they have ordi- 
nary traffic interruptions. Frequently an experienced crew installs 
considerably more than 150 a day. 

Because of its large contact area (see cross-section), the O-B 
Type J Bond has excellent electrical efficiency. Its long life under 
vibration is due to its shape. 

If you are interested in the 0-3 Type J Bond, we will be glad 
to tell you more abovit it. 

This cross-section of the Type J Bond installed 

shows the large contact area. The bond is 

forced against the rail at C, D and E. 

The Ohio Brass Company 

Mansfield, Ohio 




[January 6, 1917 






^m^ ' 

1 .^ ig_^ 



- f' I 


^^H^^MbnlM^i ~'**-,^ 

Wi '»■ ■--■■ '^^^■'- ^ 

iiLiiiii'- 'ii? 


^^^•Ik ■■- 






, -'%^:i^;^ 


l^'-*— - 




% ' 



^^il^^^\^ %\ 


^= International Steel Crossing Foundation at crossing of ^= 

^= Cleveland Raihvay and Wheeling & Lake Erie R. R. Installed 19 15. = 



I Soon Pay for Themselves by | 

I Reducing Maintenance Costs | 

Picture in your mind's eye a resilient unit steel 
crossing foundation in which all your crossing 
joints are bridged and in which every square 
inch comes into effective bearing. That's the 
International Steel Crossing Foundation. No 
portion can get out of surface without being re- 
sisted by the entire foundation. The wheel 
loads cannot be concentrated over a point that 
is free to sag — it is evenly distributed over the 
unit. Rails and bolts do not work loose. Pat- 

ented clips hold against all vibration and strains. 

Think what the spring thaws and a soft, "bog- 
gy" roadbed do to your wood-tie crossings. 
Then remember the characteristics of an Inter- 
national Foundation. Now you can see why 
the latter soon pays for itself by reducing main- 
tenance — and at the same time it doubles or 
triples the life of the crossing frogs. 

Let us submit comparative estimates for your 

The International Steel Tie Company 

General Sales Office and Works: Cleveland, Ohio 

Western Eng'g Sales Co., San Francisco, Cal.. 
Los Angeles, Cal. Seattle, Wash. 

R. J. Cooper Co., J. E. Lewis & Co., 

Salt Lake City, Utah Dallas, Texas. 

Maurice Joy, William H. Ziegler, ^= 

Philadelphia. Minneapolis, Minn =) 

January 6, 1917J 






The Company, the Men and the 
People all Marvel at its Wonder- 
ful Efficiency. 

Tht United Railways Company of St. Louis are firm 
believers in "Golden Glow" Headlights. They have 
been using them on some of their cars for a year 
or so and are now installing more of them on 
both their city and suburban cars. 
Thefr cars now operate through the streets of 
St. Louis headed by beautiful beams of soft, 
non-blinding "Golden Glow" light. 

They run cars out into the suburban dis- 
tricts equipped with these same lights ; their 
soft but powerful, penetrating beams pierc- 
ing any ordinary atmospheric condition, 
whether foggy, dusty or smoky, better 
than any other known light 

The Company, the Men and the 
People have adopted this light be- 
cause of its efficiency and economy. 

All St. Louis is wide awake to 
its advantages. 

Electric SEH^nrcE 


I7tb and Cambria Streets' 

50 Church Street 

Monadnock Buildinf^ 

• i 



i January 6, 1917 

Anderson Slack Adjusters 
Make All Cars Brake Alike 

Every electric railway car leaving- a barn is in danger, until the 
inotorman learns how his brakes are set, unless the car is equipped witli 
automatic truck brake adjusters. Every time you change crews o!i 
the street your car is in danger of collision, until the new man learns 
his stopping distance. 

You can eliminate this condition on any car by a few minutes' work 
in installing Anderson slack adjusters, which make every car handle 
and brake alike. Moreover these adjusters at the same time decrease 
brake shoe wear, reduce pull-ins for brake setting until new shoes 
are needed and lessen power consumption. 

The Anderson brake adjuster is really an automatic turnbuckle and 
can be installed without change in present brake rigging. Heat, cold, 
snow, mud or dirt cannot affect its operation. By its gradual action 
it compensates for any slack, no matter how small, but makes allowance 
for trucks greatly affected by load. This prevents locked wheels when 
the load leaves the car. 

Proper brake adjustment must take place on the truck itself. The 
Anderson adjuster does not attempt to regulate piston travel because 
this causes uneven braking and brake shoe wear by constantly varying 
the position of the truck brake lever. 

Put these slack adjusters on your old cars. Can be 
applied to almost any double or single truck car. 
Send for information and data sheet. 

General Sales Agents for The Anderson Brake Adjuster Co. 

1508 Fisher Building, Chicago 

U S Metal & Manufacturing Company. New York and Washington: Grayson Railway ."Supply Company, St. Louis; C. IC. .A. Carr 
■ ■ Company, Toronto; C, F. Saenger & Company, Cleveland; W. M. McClintock, St. Paul. 

January 6, 1917] 




Now is a splendid 

time to prove to yourself 
the efficiency 
of the 


Splicers stand up under 

the most difficult service 

conditions everywhere 

Sleet, cold, heavy traffic and consequent heavy current consumption make overhead main- 
tenance doublv difficult. But by using SAMSON SPLICERS you eliminate one source 
of trouble and expense. The universal reputation of SAMSONS for non-arcing, not 
forming hard spots, staying upright, and having strength and life in excess of new wire, 
has been earned repeatedly. It will pay you to investigate. 


.411 Drew material is standardized. The designs raw materials are bought under rigid specifica- 

have been evolved by close contact and co-opera- tions. Therefore, it will pay you to specify 

tion with practical operating engineers. The DREW. It will pay you in labor saved, in longer 

workmanship is careful and conscientious. The life in service and most satisfactory operation. 

The Drew Service Department is at your disposal in solving over- 
head line problems. Data on any article of Drew manufacture 
glady furnished on request. 


Offices and Works: 1016 E. Michigan Street, Indianapolis, Ind 

District Representatives 

1508 Fisher Building. 

Chicago, III. 


903 Monadnock Building, 

San Francisco, Cal. 


84 SUte Street. 

Boston, Ma»». 


661 Calvert Building, 

Baltimore, Md. 

1124 Pine St., 
St. Louie, Mo. 



Hackney BIdg.. 

St. PanI, Minn. 


1312 Healey BIdg., 

Atlanta, Ga. 


54 First St., 

Portland, Ore. 


Trust & Savings Bldg., 

Los Angeles, Calif. 


Majestic BIdg., 

Denver, Colo. 


1312 Busch BIdg., 

Dallas, Texas. 
C. B. A. CARE, 
2 Toronto St„ 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 
. S. SALT (Export Agent), 
114 Liberty St., 
New York, N. Y. 



[January 6, 1917 


No. 5226 
45000 V 

the New 

No. 5166 
35000 V 

These designs have met with 
instant approval because they 
embody long sought electrical 
and mechanical strength. 

Already they have received 
the endorsement of engineers 
who select insulators for lines 
where continuous uninter- 
rupted service is a most vital 

Unqualifiedly the most ef- 
ficient, rugged, dependable de- 
signs ever offered. 

Get the Supplement to 

The Insulator BooW'' 

describing these designs 


New York City Office, 50 Church Street 


Pierson, Roeding & Co., San Francisco, 

Seattle and Los Angeles 
Electric Service Supplies Co., Chicago and 

Pettingell-Andrew* Co., Boston 

Union Electric Co., Pittsburgh 
Inter-Mountain Electric Co., Salt Lake City 
Wm. Geipel & Co., London, England 
The O. H. Davidson Equipment Co., 

January 6, 1917] 



Dossert Connectors 

Contribute to the Efficiency of the 
Salt Lake & Utah Railroad 

Where they are used for joining the substation 
transformers to the high-tension bus bars. The 
transformers are connected "delta-delta," and the 
Dossert Connectors enable the quick disconnect- 
ing of a defective transformer to permit operation 
on "open delta." 

Many other progressive railways all over the 
country are using Dossert Connectors throughout 
their power plants and substations, for bus bar 
work, for junction boxes in cars, in sectionalizing 
cases of signal control systems, etc. Our Cata- 
logue will show you what Dossert efficiency is, 
and what it will do for you — write for your copy 


H, B. LOGAN, President 

242 West 4l8t Street, New York 



[January 6, 1917 



Tubular Pole 

is the 

Practicable Pole 

One of the most efficient structural shapes 
known to engineers is the I-beam. But in 
utilizing an I-beam due care must be given to 
its installation with respect to the maximum 
strength of the section and the load to iie 

The impracticability of such a structure fo 
withstanding strains in all directions is self 

The only shape that combines the highest 
limit of efficiency in unit weight for all-around 
strength is the circular tube. 

As the circle is the symbol of perfection in 
geometry, so is the tube the symbol of perfec- 
tion in poles. 

For solid proof consider this case. A 30 ft. 
Elreco Tubular Pole made up of 6 in., 5 in. 
and 4 in. sections will weigh about 50 lb. 
lighter and cost about $1.00 less than any other 
form of metal pole of the same all-around 

Elreco Tubular Poles are not in use by 
Imndreds of thousands because they were the 
only ones available in the past, but because 
they were and are the best. 

Elreco Tubular Poles have made good at 
all times as the best poles, against every other 
form, style and shape of pole conceivable. 

In the City of Chicago more than 50,000 
Iilreco Poles are in service. Other Cities 
throughout the World have their proportionate 




Tubular Poles 


Lowest Cost 

Lightest Weight 

Least Maintenance 
^f Greatest Adaptability 


Cincinnati, Ohio 
New York: 30 Church Street 

January 6, 1917] 




rack Switch in Roche.. 
---..,,-c^.c..., Rochester 

'« saving its fii^V"^' ^ "ew type of f ,°^ ^^^ busiest 
^'"•ee months !^'°'* ^^ the rate of A^*^'^ «^^tch whS 
'•esults fro4 ' 'o ""^'"^ has 'ven^''""*""^^ in every, 
Placed in s"rv1cV'-«*-. «ta„/pS e'eTStt'^^j 

«^de of the bJ, t:"'*"^ point wS,> ^'^'■' *° «tard 

's a contml ;V^ ^"^"ch. The thfr^ ^ *'^'" ^nd thus 
a ^^t-Ztnt[ '' ^^^'^<J by boK ;y ^^"t feature 
'■« «xtremS"efo3Vt?.r"^^'^ t'^at a?o Jo^^^^ and 

vented from tT ^^^ ^^r operatino^lhT ^ *=*"■ ^^ich 
trucks of S i^^°^'ng the swSh L ! T'**^^ '« Pre- 

, foreground Th ^ *^^ trolley pole „f ,: " ^""^act is 
* the pictur^' K ^^ '^"t-out contact H *^® '^ar in the 

United States 
Electric Signal Co. 

West Newton, Massachusetts 

Western: Frank F. Bodler 
Monadnock Bldg., San Francisco 

Chicago: Warren Moore Osborn 
McCormick Bldft. 


I'orest City Electric Service Supply Co. 
• Salford, Eng. 

// In Rochester It's a 
300% Investment 

Rochester, N .Y., is a busy town 
— traffic at the corner of Main and 
State Streets requires 150 switch- 
movements an hour — and making 
those switch-movements is a 




Electric-Track Switch 

It does not allow the remotest 
chance of the switchpoint being 
thrown between the trucks of a car 
by a following movement under the 

It does not splash the foot-traffic 
with mud or water — 

It is not subject to derangement 
by dampness — 

It cannot be damaged by a car 
standing under the contactor — 

But it does handle the traffic — 
accurately, surely, safely — 

It does pay tor itself every three 
months — 

And what more can you ask of a 



[January 6, 1917 

East Bound Car 

• iiiiHSSiilil 

West Bound Car 


t iiflilSiiiHH 

that makes LAP ORDERS Impossible 

with the 


of Continuous Cab Signals 

The device shown above is another example 
of the simpHcity of the Simmen System. By 
means of this simple mechanical arrangement 
lap orders are positively prevented. The dis- 
patcher cannot make a mistake. 

Each lever controls a signal point and has 
three definite positions. The upright position 
indicates that a "meet" is scheduled for that 
siding, and therefore gives a red signal to 
trains approaching from both directions. 

The levers leaning to the right give the 
green signal to east bound trains only. The 
levers leaning to the left give the green signal 
to west bound trains only. 

These control levers are arranged in the 
same consecutive order that the signal points 
which they control are arranged on the rail- 
road. It will be obvious that the simple seg- 

ment which moves with each control lever 
prevents setting any given lever in the east 
bound clear position, when the lever con- 
trolling the adjacent siding is in the west 
bound clear position. Thus lap orders are 

The Simmen System enables the dispatcher 
— miles away — to give a positive continuous 
signal in the cab of the train and the train 
itself gives the dispatcher a return signal auto- 
matically. The method is so simple that many 
railroad men can scarcely believe it possible, 
until they have been convinced by a personal 

Why not decide today to investigate the 
Simmen System thoroughly? You will be in- 
terested and enlightened and may profit by the 

Simmen Automatic Railway Signal Co, 

1575 Niagara Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

PACIFIC COAST REPRESENTATIVE— W. H. Crawford, 609 Spalding Bldg., Portland, Oregon 

January 6, 1917] 







Chapman Automatic Signals 

Handled Heavy Traffic Perfectly During the 
Eastern States Agricultural Exposition 

at Springfield, Mass. The only single-track section on the 
Springfield Street Railway Company's line leading to the 
fair grounds is on the 2600-foot North End Bridge over 
the Connecticut River. 

A Chapman Signal is in service at each end of the bridge, 
and these signals were most valuable in facilitating safe 
and rapid service. During the show, cars were operated in 
groups of five across the bridge, first in one direction, then 
in the other — and 60 cars an hour were easily handled in 
each direction. 

The Springfield Street Railway finds Chapman Signals . 
also extremely useful in controlling regular traffic move- 
ments over its suburban and interurban lines, including its 
through service to Holyoke and West field. 

Chapman Signals are giving similar results wherever 
installed — they promote s])eed with safety — protect lives 
and schedules. Find out about them. Write today for 
detailed information. 

Charles N. Wood Company, Boston, Mass. 



[January 6, 1917 









nal inoi 

tion of tl3 powa^^mpbly: lliis princi^ cannot be embodied 

t principle in rai!— ^v stealing i^yth^ which 
-• ^Btop when there is a failure of ,^ny 
function proper ly^*or when there is an 

cotitimious movement of a 

fion will 


ement ceipes for any^easmi the 

TTiis!B^^^jiiIe.di^)laying ^ep andicarti^ bsrthe movenrent^^ 
pc4MTO nTgloperation ,iaso des i p iedthat aiailurfiplany paffol the \ 
a feence o f 


nr^Rich i^ entirely different and 

frorn tl 
ceej indication. Bl other words, thissignal ha^ tppe aspects, 
' iudicating proceed and either of tHe c^er two iildica^g stop 
For additional infprmation see Bulletin 86. 



Ws^t Litton ^tuttct) ^ Signal Co. 

Founded by Geo. Westinehoube 1S81. 


Hndfton Termiaal Bldff. 
Canadian Bxpress Bids. Candler Annex 

Peoples Gas Bids. 
Bailwar ExchanKe Bids. Pacific Bldg. 


Repraeatad bf tba GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. in Auslralaua. South Africa ud Araeatisa 

January 6, 1917] 



Aristos "COPPER WELD" 
Copper Clad Steel Wire 

can not be beaten to a "yield point" by winter weather. It will 
retain its perfection throughout the heaviest of snow and ice 
storms — and therefore reduces maintenance costs. 

Aristos "Copperweld" costs less per pound than copper wire, is 
7 per cent lighter (size for size), is 60 per cent stronger and gives 
better service. It also has 126 per cent greater elastic limit. 

Are vou interested ? Then write ! 



Western Sales Office: 

Steel Sales Corporation 
Chicago, Illinois 


Eastern Sales Office: 

Page Woven Wire Fence Co. 
30 Church St., New York 

Made from tiie product of COPPER CLAD STEEL CO., Pittsburfth, Pa. 

Drawn and Sold Exclusively by 



[January 6, 1917 

The Whole Outfit 

Gets There— FAST 

The complete outfit — tools, supplies 
and bonding gang, all get to the work at 
one time — and get there fast. 

Time saved means money saved, and 
this saving is in your pocket if you use the 

Champion Bonding Truck 

for Your 

Rail Bonding Job 


No Interference 
with Schedules 

The Electric Railway Improvement Co. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

January 6, 1917J 




Give Long and Faithful Service 

because of the extreme purity of the iron of which they are made. 
Large numbers of satisfied users, all over the country, confirm this 
statement. **Armco'' Iron Culverts withstand severe conditions not 
only because of their resistance to corrosion, but also because their 
corrugated form and overlapping joints confer ample strength to 
carry heavy fills and the rolling loads of railway traffic. For use 
under extreme conditions, they are obtainable in gauges heavier 
than standard. 

Write the nearest Manufacturer for information and prices on 
*'Armco" (American Ingot) Iron Culverts, Siphons, Flumes, Sheets, 
Roofing and Formed Products. 

Resists Rust 

ArkanKaH, Little Rock 

Dixie Culvert & Metal Co. 
California, Loh AnK^^lo 

California Cor. Culvert Co. 
California, l\'e«t Berkelej 

California Cor. Culvert Co. 
Colorado, Denver 

R. Uardesty Mfg. Co. 
nela^rare, Clayton 

Delaware Metal Culvert Co. 
Florida. .inotvNonvllle 

Dixie Culvert & Metal Co. 
Ueoriaria, Atlanta 

Dixie Cuhert & Metal Co. 
IlllnolM, Sirin&rfleld 

Illinois Corrugated M**tal Co. 
Indiana. CiawfordBviHe 

W. Q. (/Xeall Co. 
Iowa, Den Molneii 

Iowa r re Iron Culvert Co. 
Iowa, Independence 

IndepeTi'lence Culvert Co. 

KannaM, Topelca 

Tbe Road Supply & Metal Co. 
Kentucky, Lonlnville 

Kentucky Culvert Co. 
Louisiana, New Orleann 

Dixie Culvert & Metal Co. 
Maryland, Mnnsey Bldgr** 

Wm. M. Baker 
MaHflachuNettH, Palmer 

NVw EnKhind Metal Cul. Co. 
Miehluran. Hark River 

IMirk Riv<'r Itridge & Cul. Co. 
>Ilelii»:an, 1<m nnlnK' 

Michigan Bridge & Pipe Co. 
MlnneNOta, MlnneapoltH 

Lyle Corrugated Culvert Co. 
MlnncMOta, Lyle 

I-yle Corrugated Culvert Co. 
MlHSoiiri. Moberl>' 

Corrugated Culvert Co. 
Montana, Mlsnonla 

Montana Culvert & Flame Co. 

Nebraska, Lineoln 

Lee-Arnett Co. 
Nebraska, A\'ahoo 

Nebra.'ika Culvert & Mfg. Co. 
Nevada, Reno 

Nevada Motal Mfg. Co. 
Nevr Hampshire, Nashua 

North-East Metal Culvert Go. 
New Jersey, Plemlnfcton 

Pennsylvania Metal Culvert Co. 
New York, Auburn 

I'ennsylvania Metal Culvert Co. 
North Dakota, 'Walip«>^t«n 

Northwestern Sbeet & Iron Wks. 
Ohio. MIddletown 

Tlie Ohio Corrugated Culvert Co. 

American Rolling Mill Co. 
Oklahoma, Shawnee 

Dixie Culvert & Metal Co. 
Oregron, Portland 

Coast Culvert & Flame Co. 

Pennsylvania, Warren 

Pennsylvania Metal Culvert Co. 
South Dakota. Sionx Falls 

Sioux Falls Metal Culvert Co. 
Tennessee. NashTllle 

Tennessee Metal Culvert Co. 
Texas, Dallas 

Wyatt Metal Works. 
Texas, El Paso 

Western Metal Mfg. Co. 
Texas, Houston 

Lone Star Culvert Co. 
Utah, Woods Cross 

Dtah Corrugated Cul. & Flume 
Virginia, Roanoke 

Virginia Metal Culvert Oo. 
Washington. Spokane 

Spokane Cor. Culvert A Tank 
W^isoonsin. Ean Claire 

Bark River Bridge & Culvert Co. 



[January 6, 1917 

KNIT into 
a Vibration- 

and Water- 

Wire [ut [ug 

It retains its smoothness and dura- 
bility. Its sharp, square edges assure 

Wire-Cut Lug Brick gives the great- 
est permanency of constructioti. It 
resists abrasion and breakage. Its 
uniform lugs and rough edges form a 
positive bond for the cement filler. 

And remember that the wire-cut 

method is the most durable pavement 
for extremely heavy traffic. 

Mr. Railw^ay Man, it's up to you. Do 
you want a pavement that will go to 
pieces in a few months' time, or do you 
want the pavement that is put down 
to stay down ? 

Ask our paving engineers to help 
you. They'll be glad to. 

Manufacturers Licensed by 

Dunn Wire-Cut Lug Brick Co., Conneaut, Ohio 

Corry Brick & Tile Company. Corry, Pa. 
United Brick Company, Greensburg, Pa. 

One plant at Conneaut, Ohio. 
Bterllng Brick Comijany, Olean. N. Y. 
Heynoldsvllle Brick & Tile Co.. Reynoldsvllle. Pa. 
Danville Brick Company, Danville, 111. 
Clinton Paving Brick Company, Clinton. Ind. 
Alton Brlek Company, Alton. 111. 
Medal Paving Brick Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

One plant at Cleveland. Ohio. 

One plant at CarroUton. Ohio. 

One plant at Malvern, Ohio. 

One plant at Wooster, Ohio. 
Metropolitan Paving Brick Co.. Canton. Ohio. 

Four plants at Canton. Ohio. 

One plant at Willow. Ohio. 
Beflsemer Limestone Co., Youngstown. Ohio. 

Three plants at Bessemer. Pa. 
Peebles Paving Brick Co., Portsmouth. Ohio. 

Two plants at Portsmouth, Ohio. 

One plant at Firebrick. Ky. 


Murphysboro Paving Brick Co., Murpbysboro. 111. 
Soutbern Clay JItK. Co.. CbattanooKa. Tenn. 

One plant at Robbius. Teno. 

One plant at Coaldale. Ala. 

One plant at Birmingbam, Ala. 
McAToy VltriBed Brick Co., Phlladelpbla. Pa, 

One plant at I'erkionien Junction, Pa. 
Windsor Brick Company. Akron. Obio. 
Booking Valley Brick Co.. Ciolumbus, Ohio. 

One plant at I.ogan, Obio. 
Vee<Iirsburg Paver Co., Veedersburg, Ind. 
Sprlng&eld Paving Brick Co.. Springfield. III. 
Terrc Haute Vitrified Brick Co.. Terre Haute. Ind. 
Albion Vitrified Brick Co., Albion, III. 
AlUauce Clay Producta Co., Alliance. Ohio. 
Westport Paving Brick &].. Baltimore, Md. 

One plant at Westport. Md. 
The Mack Mfg. Co.. New Cumberland, W. Va. 

Four plants at New Cumberland, W. Va. 
The Hydraulic-Press Brick Co,, St. Louis, M(i. 
The Barr Clay Co., Streator, III. 
Burton-Townsend Co.. ZancsTllle. O. Two planta. 

The Trimble Paving Brick Co.. Dayton, Ohio. 

One plant at Trimble, Ohio. 

One plant at (51ouster, Ohio. 
The Thornton Fire Brick Co., Clarksburg. 

One plant at Thornton. W, Va. 
Indiana Paving Brick & Block Co.. Braill, Ind. 
Standard Brick Co., Crawfordsville, lud. 
Sbawmut Paving Brick Works. Shawinut, I"a. 
The Pennsylvania Clay Co.. Pittsburgh, l'«. 

One plant at Conway. Pa. 

One plant at Crows Kun, Pa. 

One plant at Bradys Itun, Pa. 
Clydesdale Brick & Stone Oo., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Plant at Elwood City. Pa. 
John Kline Brick Co., WlckllSe, Ohio. 
Streator Clay SIfg. Co.. Ktreator, 111. 
Martinsville Brick Co.. J%irtlnsville. Ind. 
Cleveland Brick & Clay C*.. Cleveland, Ohio. 
Jamestown Shale Paving ^rick Co.. 

' Jamestown. N. T. 

Purlneton Paving Brick Co., Galesburg III. 

>. ' # Four planta. 

W. Va 

January 6. 19171 




Manual and Pneumatic Door and Step Control 
for the New Cars of Syracuse and Utica 

Because of their traffic-accelerating features, ease of 
operation and general reliability — the National Pneu- 
matic Company's door and step control was specitied 

For Thirty-Five Peter Witt Car Rider's Cars 

In these cars, the two sliding doors at the center are 
independently operated from the conductor's stand by 
means of National Pneumatic engines, type GM 25^x6. 

Manually-operated equipment is used at the front of 
the car, but provision has been made for pneumatic engine 
operation eventually should traffic demand it. 


7-» PW^- .---r«r»ia,»Krn^« 

50ChurcK5fc. Now York 

515Laf1m 5t. Chic^o 



IJanuaky 6, 1917 

Practical advice in the 
shop is trouble saved 
on the road 

That is one of the many benefits secured through our free Expert Service. 
Read the following partial report from one of our Experts: 

"The manager understands of course that if the bearings are in poor condition, even the best 
oil will not prevent trouble, but he is greatly perturbed by the hot boxes on their interurban 
cars. I have made suggestions to obviate this and bring about permanent betterments to the 
service, as follows : 

"First — The work of rebabbitting journal brasses should be done at the main shop and by 
one man, so as to place the blame for poor work that is being done. 

"Second — That a more liberal supply of new brasses be placed in service, as there are a 
number of the old ones that must be scrapped. 

• "Third — That as soon as possible rebabbitting of journal brasses be discontinued and the 
brass be allowed to wear to a scrapping point and then taken out of service. 

"Fourth — On" account of the high speed and weight of cars, there should be a more liberal 
renewal of high grade packing, as a large proportion of the journal packing now in service is 
short strands, and while it would prove satisfactory in slower service, it is not conducive to 
good operation under the present conditions. 

. "Also, I have requested them to discontinue a practice which, no doubt, has been the cause 
of a part of the journal trouble, and if continued it will ruin the journals. I refer to a block 
of wood that has been made in the form of a journal brass and when they have a hot journal 
they remove the brass and put in the block of wood with a sheet of emery cloth on its face and 
then run the car. The result is another hot journal, as it is impossible to remove all the emery 
from the journal without removing the journal box. -Furthermore, any irregularity in the journal 
face or diameter will be aggravated by such a proceeding and new journal brasses will have so 
little surface in contact with the journal that the weight per square inch is out of all proportion 
to what it should be. This was proven by an inspection of journal brasses that had only been 
in service twenty-four hours. The journal box dust guards have not had the attention they 
deserve, and there are a number of journals without them." 

Little things? Yes. But it was the viewpoint of a practical outside man 
that discovered them and realized their important effect on good service. That 
• is what our Experts will do for you — point out the little faults, far reaching 
in their unfavorable efifect on your service, that you have lived so close to 
that they have been unnoticed. And note that our man made only SUGGES- 
TIONS and REQUESTS of the railway officials — no commands, no arbitrary 
demand that such and such a thing be done — it is up to the officials to accept 
or reject our recommendations. But the wide-awake railroad man is looking 
^or practical advice. And we are equipi)ed to give it to him. 

Galena-Signal Oil Co. 

Franklin, Pa. 

January 6, 1917] 



Steel Wheels 

The steel wheel with the 
one wear tread. 

No turning — no trouble 
with motor clearances. 

A hard, tough manganese 
tread and flange. 

A soft, ductile steel plate 
and hub. 

Reduction in weight. 

lo'/i saving in weight. 

Minimum Maintenance 

Strength — safety — econ- 

The steel wheel backed 
by years of successful 

You are' not expected to 
adj' st your conditions to 
meet our product. Davis 
Steel Wheels are made to 
meet A. E. R. A. Specifica- 
tions and your service re- 

TTie Drop Test 


Davis SteelWheels 

Here is a test that is mighty important to an electric 
railway man. It is made to insure full strength in every 
wheel that leaves our foundry. It is your guarantee that 
your passengers and equipment are not subjected to the 
hazard of broken wheels. 

After the wheels have been tempered they are taken to 
a special machine for the drop test. Here, supported at 
three equidistant points on the underside of the flange, they 
sustain two blows from a 500-pound weight dropped from 
a height of is^/i feet and directed against the hub. 

Probably no set of actual service conditions short of a 
collision or accident would call for such wheel strength. 
But Davis Steel Wheels are designed with an extra large 
factor of safety. That's why they are so well known for 
strength and safety, regardless of the fact that they save 
20% in n'cight. 

The "one-wear" feature makes Davis Steel Wheels 
the most economical for electric railway service. 
The hard, tough manganese steel tread gives full life 
service without 
grinding, wheel 
removals or truck 

Let us show 
you the econom- 
ical possibilities of 
Davis Steel 
Wheels, A re- 
quest will bring 
all the data. 

Taping Davis Steei Wheels to insure proper 
mating in service 

American Steel Foundries 

noo Mccormick building 




[January 6, 1917 

Samson Spot Trolley Cord 

is highly resistant to all actions of the weather be- 
cause it is firmly braided and thoroughly water- 
proof. It saves repair, expense, time and trouble. 
No abrasion — no swelling in the catcher. 

All Samson Spot Trolley Cord bears our trade 
mark — the Colored Spots. 

Samson Bell 
and Register Cord 

is made of the same extra quality cotton yarn as 
used in Spot Cord. It wears better, looks better — 
and costs less than other materials. 

Can be obtained in all sizes and colors, with wire 
center if so desired. 

We are anxious to send you samples and prices. 
\\'rite for them. 


I, • 

' 'J 



January 6, 1917] 



Said the Shop Foreman: 

'Nothing to it when it comes to lubricating 

Hess-Bright Ball Bearings 

"All we have to do is to loosen one nut and force in the 
grease; and the grease will go of itself to where it can do 
the most good. 

"We Don't Have to Worry 

"About having the packing char or glaze 

"About dirt or sand getting into the journals 

"About having the packing fall 
away from the bearing 

"About having the cars de- 
layed on account of hot 

"And the time between lubri- 
cation is measured by 
months now instead of 




Ball Bearings 


Maximum Revenue 





f M 



[January 6, 1917 


One oCThirty-Five (^ar Rider's Cars on whieh DURADUCT is used. 

A Specification for 


Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. 

For twenty-five Areh-Roof, Front-Entrance, Center-Exit, Pay-Enter 
Cars for Syracuse and for ten like cars for Utica as follows: 

"All light wiring inside of car-body is 
to te installed in DURADUCT, and all light 
or signal wiring underneath car is to "be 
installed in a proper size Duraduct." 

Why not write Dtiraduct into your specifications? It's going on the 
best cars of the best railways! 

Sample on Request 




A. HALL BERRY, General Sales Agent ^ 

97 Warren Street, New York 9 South Clinton Street, Chicago 

Distributors for Canada : Kbltfllfm Electn'c Company 


January 6, 1917] 



This All Steel Train of Diflferential Electric Dumiiing Cars belongs to the Cleveland Railway Co., Cleveland, Ohio. They save enough labor 
witliin one year to pay for themselves. They make more money than passenger cars. 


is low and may be loaded while in tilted position. It 
is Electrically operated and discharges the contents far 
from the tracks. It is light and quick and pleases 

Trains of them are operated and unloaded in con- 
gested districts without interfering with passenger car 
schedules. Ask us NOW for detailed information about 
this big money-saver and promoter of better public 

Southern Office and Works : 
Nashviile, Tenn. 

DifFerential Car Company 

141 Broadway, New York 

Sweep Up! 



^axson Brooms fairly bristle 
with j^^oodness. Not only are 
they made of the best obtainable 
materials and made right, but 
they are designed to meet the 
special requirements of railway 

Blind men can make ordinary 
brooms, but it takes wide-awake 
men with a clear vision of the 
work the broom has to do to pro- 
duce efficient, durable brooms. 
Such men stand behind the Pax- 
son and assure you of that lon^" 
li f e and efficiency that spells 
economy. Tliis is not a genera! 
statement. We have specific fig- 
ures that prove it. Write for 

J. W. Paxson Co. 

1021 No. Delaware Ave., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

A crossing 
broum that will 
stand hard 
w(irk. Of flat, 
tempered steel 
wire bristles. 

A split bam- 
Ikm) broom for 
light work wltli 
snow or dirt in 
curves, frogsand 

A flue wire 
bruoni Ijuilt to 
handle all debris 
that may get 
tnto frogs, 
switches and 

Built f.'r rapid 
worlf. Makes a 

clean sweep, 
and serviceable 
the entire year. 

"Fan" bristles 
make a strong 
cleaning edge, 
and give dur- 
ability to the 
broom . 

A bard service 
broom made 
with flat tem- 
pered steel 





[January 6, 1917 

The Bowling Game with a Punch that has a th ill 
forjplayer and spectator alike. The leaping balls 
give a life to the game that no crowd can resist. A 
smashing big success for three years and daily grow- 
ing stronger. Read the following: 

Wildwood, N. J., 
The J. D. Este Company, November 13, 1916. 

Philadelphia, fa. 

At your request to hear from me as to my success with 
your game of Skee-Ball, would say: 

Three years ago I purchased from you four Skee-Ball Al- 
leys. At that time I had just acquired a property on the 
Boardwalk at Wildwood, New Jersey. My object in buying 
the Skee-Ball Alleys was to attract a crowd and thereby form 
a new amusement center; in this I have been amazingly suc- 
cessful, due entirely to Skee-Ball. 

Not only has Skee-Ball increased the value of my property, 
but it has been very profitable to me to operate. The first 
year my four jdleys earned an average of $52.15 (or $13.04 
each) daily throughout the summer. The second year I pur- 
chased two more alleys and my earnings were increased. Last 
yeju- was by far the most successful of the three. On the 3rd 
of last September my six alleys earned $262.00, an average of 
$43.66 per alley per day. 

I attribute my success partly to the fact that I use the 
greatest care in keeping my alleys clean and in good condi- 
tion. The balls are sandpapered, the carpet scrubbed, the 
woodwork rubbed down and the brasswork polished daily, so 
that after three years of the hardest kind of pounding they 
look practically as good as new. 

With best wishes for your continued success and with kind 
personal regards, I am Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) JOHN T. BYRNE. 

This is just one experience out of hundreds, in towns 
and cities ranging in population from 500 to 5,000,000 — 
genuine, actual experiences, not guess-work or estimates. 

Our books show that 42 % of our alleys have been sold 
on repeat orders; in other words, nearly one-half of our 
alleys were sold to customers who had already tried out 
the game to their entire satisfaction. 

We have again been obliged to enlarge the size of our 
factory to meet the steadily increasing demand ; the factory 
is now 500% larger than it was in 1914. 

Get your order in now, even if you do not want immediate 
delivery, as materials and labor are advancing so rapidly 
that we cannot maintain the present price after February 
15th, 1917. 

Skee-BaU is fully covered by domestic and 
foreign patents. Users of infringing games 
will be prorecuted. They are liable to injunc- 
tion and for all p'rofits and triple damages. 


The J. D. Este Compiany 

Owners - Patentees - Distributor^ 

January 6, 1917] 



The Missottd Short Line has a 

Rico Coasting Recorder 

on Every Car 

The Missouri Short Line (Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph Electric Railway) is 
one of the most up-to-date interurbans extant. It was one of the first to appreciate the merits 
of all-steel center-entrance cars for interurban passenger service, and it is equally progress- 
ive in handling freight and express. Naturally a live road of this kind is loo per cent 
equipped with Rico Coasting Recorders. 

Coasting records under the varied city and right-of-way conditions exceed 30 per cent right 
along, the record for September 1916 showing 32.5 per cent. Such records with modem, 
correctly-designed equipment show clearly that the Rico Coasting Recorder embodies 

TKe TrueRinciple 
fof Measuring 
Operating Efl&ciency 

Time is tKe l^sservce of Railiroading' 








Grade M Sales 

Exceed Those 

of Other Grades 

[January 6, 1917 

A survey of the business in railway motor gear- 
ing during the year 1916 indicates strongly the 
preeminent success of 

Grade M Gears and 


Although all grades of G-E gearing have shown a healthy 
increase in sales over the previous year, the percentage of in- 
crease for Grade M has been the highest. It is also noteworthy 
that the sales of this grade have steadily increased ever since it 
was placed on the market. 

Out of a total of over 93,000 gears and pinions (comprising 
8 grades) sold during 1916, almost forty per cent were Grade M. 

This proves that more and more roads are discovering the 
true economy of 

The More-Miles-per-DoUar Gearing 

General Electric Company 

Atlanta, Ga. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Boston, Mass. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Butte, Mont 
Charleston, W. Va. 
Charlotte. N. C. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, III, 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 
•Dallas, Tex. 
Dayton, Ohio 
Denver. Colo. 
tDetroit, Mich. 
De.-^ Moines, Iowa 
Duluth, Minn. 
Elniira, N. Y. 
Erie, Pa. 
*E1 Paso, Tex. 
Fort Wayne, Ind, 
Hartford, Conn 

General Office: Schenectady, N.Y. 


'Houston, Tex. 
Indianapolis. Ind. 
Jacksonville. Fla. 
Joplin, Mo, 
"Kansas City, Mo. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
est General EUrtric Company. 

For Business refi 

to Canadian Gener, 
N. y.; 30 Church .S 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Louisville, Ky. 

Memphis, Tenn, 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Minneapolis, Minn, 

Nashville, Tenn. 

tCtneral Electric Cm 
1 Electric Com pa i 
, New York City 

New Haven, Conn, 
New Orleans, La. 
New York. N, Y 
Niagara Falls, N, Y 
•Oklahoma City, Oitla. 
Omaha, Neb. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh. Pa. 
Portland, Ore, 
Providence, K, I. 
Richmond, Va. 
Rochester, N, V. 
iipany of Michigan 
■y. Ltd,, Toronto, Ont. 
83 Cannon St., London 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Schenectady, N Y 
Seattle, Wash. 
Spokane, Wash, 
Sprinsfield, Mass, 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Toledo, Ohio 
Washington, D. C. 
Youngstown, Ohio. 

E. C, F.ngland 

Electric Railway Journal 

Published by the McGraw Publishing Company Inc. 
Consolidation of Street Railway Journai. and Electric Railway Rbvibw 

Vol. XLIX 


No. 1 

Retrospect and Prospect 

LARGER gross and net earnings, accompanied by rising taxes and other 
-^ expenses; new cars purchased and built a third more than in 1915, with 
new track a third less; receivership and foreclosure rates about normal; com- 
panies giving signs of more intensified traffic development; public showing 
greater appreciation of railway operating problems and financial burdens ; 
these facts form partly the history of 1916. A glance forward indicates that 
the recuperative strength shown during the past year will produce encour- 
aging results under the more favorable conditions promised for 1917. 

THE ELECTRIC Probably the most striking 

RAILWAY JOURNAL developments during 1916 in 

IN 1916 AND 1917 the electric railways of the 

country were of an economic character, growing directly 
out of the tremendous industrial revival which marked 
this past year. This activity brought more traffic to 
the railways, but greatly increased the cost of their 
materials and labor. Properly to report the changed 
conditions in the material market, this paper last April 
considerably enlarged its department of industrial news, 
now known as "Manufactures and Markets." Here have 
appeared interviews on trade conditions with important 
men in the manufacturing field, articles on prices by 
purchasing agents, discussions on questions of de- 
livery and other live industrial news. Another phase 
of the economic development of the year, already men- 
tioned, is that of labor, brought about by the enormous 
demand for help in manufacturing enterprises. This 
condition encouraged the activities of electric railway 
labor agitators, and resulted in a number of strikes, 
of which the most important was the September strike 
in New York. Here also this paper not only reported 
at length the negotiations between the contending 
parties and before the commissions, but followed up the 
most interesting single feature of the New York situ- 
ation, the adoption of the individual contract, by de- 
scribing its early history in Indianapolis and the ex- 
perience with it there. From an engineering point of 
view, the most important development has been the con- 
tinued improvement in the passenger car, especially in 
the direction of providing for more rapid passenger 
interchange. This development was signalized in the 
Convention Number issued on Sept. 30, 1916, and de- 
voted to "The Development of the Modem Car." The 
events in the American Electric Railway Association 
have been reported in the Association News department 
which is MOW a feature of each issue of the paper. In 

this number we present our usual statistics for the year 
which has just passed. We also publish editorial re- 
views of progress in the leading branches of the in- 
dustry, with a survey of its existing economic condition. 
The service which we expect to give during 1917 
will be even better, we hope, than that given to the in- 
dustry in the past. While it is impossible in any news- 
paper to foretell just how each important event of 
the year will be handled, as the events themselves are 
shrouded in the future, we can say concretely that we 
have already arranged for one or more articles on 
three important topics by well-known authorities. One 
of these topics is the labor situation, another is public 
relations and publicity, and the third is the economic 
future of interurban railways. 

ADVERTISING An important point in the ethics 

IN COMPANY of public service corporations 

PUBUCATIONS was raised in a paper on "Rail- 

way Publicity," read recently before the Canadian Rail- 
way Club by Walter S. Thompson, press representative 
Grand Trunk Railway, and published in this paper 
last week. The author was discussing company publi- 
cations, and while he spoke highly of their value in 
producing an esprit de corps among. the employees, he 
condemned, and properly, the inclusion in such papers 
of advertisements of supply houses and other firms 
doing business with the company. We are aware that 
some electric railway publications carry such advertise- 
ments as well as some local advertising directed par- 
ticularly to the men, but believe that where the practice 
of soliciting advertisements from concerns which do 
business only with the company is followed, it has 
been begun without any particular thought of the merits 
of the case. Nevertheless, as Mr. Thompson says, there 
are obvious objections to a railway seeking to gain this 
formaof revtenue from any publication which it issues. 


[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

The primary objection to the plan is that it involves the 
acceptance of money by the company without the giv- 
ing of an equivalent. Those to whom the company pub- 
lication goes and by whom it is attentively read are not 
potential buyers of the turbines, motors or other ap- 
paratus which are sometimes advertised in its columns 
or are purchasers in only very small proportion. Hence 
the circulation which such a publication gives to ad- 
vertisements of this kind is largely wasted. Manu- 
facturers who are large advertisers recognize this fact, 
but experience has shown that many of them prefer to 
submit to petty graft of this kind rather than to run 
the risk of offending the person making the request, if 
he occupies a responsible position on the property. This 
may be cowardice on the part of the manufacturer, but 
■ the blame lies primarily with the railway which makes 
the request directly or through one of its officers. 


Advertising ceased long ago to be 
an indefinite science. If it was, 

it would be impossible to justify 
the large sums of money which are spent annually by 
many large advertisers. The fact is that the princi- 
ples underlying and controlling advertising are just as 
definite as those underlying and controlling the flow of 

electric current in a circuit of known resistance, and 
investments can be made and results predicated there- 
from with practically the same certainty. One of the 
foundation principles of the expenditures thus made is 
that in the commercial world advertising is a business 
force, as necessary in the sale of goods as men, credit, 
transportation or money. It is not to be confused with 
charity, with contributions to religious, political or 
commercial causes or with any other service or thing. 
Another fundamental principle is that good advertising 
mediums do not "happen." They are made by service, 
just as the value of a public utility to a community is 
made by service, and by painstaking adaptation of 
means to ends. Mr. Thompson calls the advertising 
placed by supply houses in railway company publica- 
tions "policy advertising," by which he undoubtedly 
means that the manufacturers are afraid not so to 
spend their money, but this is a reason which is not 
creditable to the railway company soliciting the busi- 
ness. We are glad to learn from the paper before the 
Canadian Railway Club that the steam railroads are 
coming to the view that these publications, when 
properly conducted, are worth to the companies the price 
which they cost and that support from outside adver- 
tisers can be dispensed with. 

Publicity and Good Public Relations 

We expressed the opinion recently that the mainte- 
nance of good public relations was the most important 
subject now before electric railway companies. For 
this reason we have devoted a considerable part of this 
issue to a symposium on the subject from men who have 
in charge the work of publicity and public relations 
on a number of railway properties. This symposium 
might be considered as a continuation of the series of 
editorial talks and cartoons which was concluded in 
our issue of Dec. 23. They discussed the general prin- 
ciples of publicity and the type of man required as a 
publicity agent. The present symposium opens with a 
summary by Ivy L. Lee, who dignifies this official with 
the title "publicity engineer." Mr. Lee tells, among 
other things, who the publicity engineer should be, how 
he should be treated by his employer, and how he 
should perform his functions. In the other articles in 
the symposium the writers show the application of the 
fundamental principles and tell what is being done in 
the way of publicity on different railway properties 
and how it is being done. 

It is possible that there may be some electric rail- 
way managers who have the idea that publicity is being 
urged upon the industry as a specific for a peculiar con- 
dition. This is not so. Publicity is as broad as human 
activity. It is no recent discovery. Its efficacy and 
the wisdom of its application are unique nowhere. It 
pertains to electric railways no more than to all other 
public service corporations. It is not restricted even 
to corporations. It is pertinent to the prosperity and 
peaceful conduct of all affairs, governmental or civic, 
big or little, public or private, corporate or individual. 

with which any large element of population is concerned. 
It is the same everywhere and rests on the same basic 
foundation. Its other name is Mutual Understanding. 

There are certain essentials for success with pub- 
licity. These are honesty of deed, sincerity of purpose 
and frankness of method on the part of those in whose 
behalf it is undertaken; ability and integrity on the 
part of him who applies it to that behalf, and ultimate 
fairness on the part of the people who are the jury. 
The third essential is present always. 

There is only one point of possible difference between 
the publicity practice of utility corporations and that 
of other interests. This difference lies in the fact that 
the utility companies are under more critical surveil- 
lance and, in consequence, that their adherence to the 
canons must be absolute and unswerving. For instance, 
a public utility that lacks in any appreciable measure 
its share of the essentials mentioned above would be 
wise not to tamper with publicity. 

Again, if any corporation possessed all the essen- 
tials it would be compromising its opportunities if it 
entrusted its publicity to the direction of a man whose 
own measure falls short of the proper standard. It is 
undoubtedly true that the spirit of publicity must radi- 
ate throughout the whole corporation, and it is only 
when the entire organization is being ruled by it and 
living up to it that publicity is accomplishing its maxi- 
mum efforts. But the one man whose specialty this is 
must be as big as his work, or the work itself suffers. 
Then, if the cause is worthy and the manner of its 
presentation appropriate, publicity is sure of eventual 
success. It is dangerous, indeed, if misused, but if 

January 6, 1917] 


directed wisely and courageously it is a mighty and 
beneficent force. 

It is the exception in these days to find a public ser- 
vice corporation which cannot stand the limelight of 
publicity. But it is also true that those companies 
which sincerely and consistently invite it still appear 
to be the exception. We might just as well be frank 
and admit that the old ideas hang on tenaciously. Many 
public service corporations have not yet shaken off the 
archaic reluctance to talk publicly and for publication. 
They cling to the old error of baffling silence when the 
public is intent to catch a whisper, of vicarious refusal 
to discuss topics which they regard as none of the pub- 
lic's business. Everything that has to do with utilities 

is the business of the public, because the public itself 
has so decreed, and the public is not going to tolerate 
indefinitely on the part of any corporation that policy 
which denies this right. 

But it is not alone sufficient that a company should 
admit the desirability of a policy of publicity. A per- 
son might give full assent to the statement that to learn 
how to swim is good, but that belief alone would not 
help him much if he got beyond his depth in the water. 
So with publicity — considered in its broadest sense of 
making corporation matters public. Professions of 
willingness to treat the public fairly but without action 
avail little. But there is ample testimony to the fact 
that the right kind of publicity pays. 

The Organized Safety Movement 

The youth of the movement designed to mobilize 
interest in safety work and to stimulate further devel- 
opment is indicated by the fact that during 1916 the 
fifth annual convention of the National Safety Council 
and the second of the Safety Farst Federation of 
America were held. The former association started in 
the industrial field and has had a remarkable growth. 
The Federation represents especially the public- safety 
movement. The fields of the two organizations over- 
lap in all cases where industries and public are both 
involved, as they are in public utility operation and 
particularly electric railway operation. The electric 
railways are therefore interested in the work of both, 
and they have taken an active part in them up to the 
present time. 

It is greatly to be regretted that the very promising 
movement under way during the past year in the direc- 
tion of organic affiliation of the two safety societies 
has not yet accomplished its aim. That it will do so 
soon is to be expected because there is no room in this 
field for competition or duplication. The accident haz- 
ards connected with daily life are increasing so rapidly 
that every effort must be made to control them. The 
two organizations have no doubt had great influence 
so far. United this influence will be far more potent. 

The electric railways have rallied to the support of 
the National Safety Council during the past year and 
at the Detroit convention, held in October, the electric 
railway section was conspicuous. The membership in 
this section is now large enough to make it an important 
medium of co-operation. It is only as the railways 
use the section in this way that it can perform its 
natural and proper function. The council has little 
to give to the railways but the machinery for co-opera- 
tion, and if it does not produce the desired results it 
will be because its function is not understood. The 
principal work of last year was to get the railway.s 
together. Now they must utilize the opportunity thus 

The Safety Federation is so new that the electric 
railways have hardly as yet had an opportunity to util- 
ize it. However, it does furnish a medium through 
which municipal and other officials can work with the 
transportation men in making the streets more useful 
and safer. It has an active electric railway committee. 

Electric railways are perforce in the safety move- 
ment as are few if any other industries. In the first 
place, they are obliged to entrust the inherently danger- 
ous operation of electric cars to a very uncertain class 
of labor. The increase in the number of motor vehicles, 
the recklessness of drivers and pedestrians, and the 
severity with which courts of justice administer the 
law of negligence, all combine to render car operation 
■ difficult and expensive. Again, as far as employees are 
concerned, the railway incurs -many risks incident to 
manufacturing, while as a power producer and dis- 
tributor it has safety problems like those of the elec- 
trical power industry. It is appropriate, therefore, 
that the railways, through the national safety organiza- 
tions and through their own associations, should push 
the safety movement. That they are doing so is indi- 
cated by the amount of space which has been required 
in the Electric Railway Journal during the past year 
to record the new things which are being done. While 
the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad and the Union Trac- 
tion Company of Indiana occupied the limelight through 
the respective awards to them of the Travelers' and the 
Brady safety medals, many other roads have made very 
creditable records. 

Among the tangible evidences of safety efforts in 
the railway field there are two classes of exhibits. One 
consists of warning signs and bulletins, which are now 
found everywhere. These are good so far as they go, 
but better are the safeguards actually placed around 
danger spots. In the shop we find belting and gearing 
inclosed with frames and screens, floors kept clear of 
debris, goggles provided for use in eye-jeopardizing 
operations, etc. In the power plant the switchboard is 
made foolproof as far as possible, stairways are used 
in place of ladders, walkways over boilers and piping 
are provided, and in some cases even railings are in- 
stalled to protect window washers. 

There is, of course, some danger that safety work 
may become a fad; that talk will be considered a sub- 
stitute for deeds and that workmen will not take seri- 
ously the efforts made in their behalf. However, we are 
convinced that the movement is meeting a real need, 
that if followed sanely it will produce good results and 
that the results, of recent progress can be conserved and 
applied through concerted effort. 


[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

The Year in Heavy Electric Traction 

Insofar as new installations in the electrification of 
steam railroads are concerned, the year 1916 has been 
somewhat barren of results. In Europe, it is true, 
there has been the adoption of single-phase electric 
power for the Swiss Federal Railways and the elec- 
trification with high-tension direct current on a freight 
line of the North Eastern Railway in England, as well 
as a rather "dinky" suburban line out of Manchester. 
On this continent we have had only the placing in 
service of the third engine division of the epoch-making 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul installation over the 
Rockies, the interest in which, however, has been largely 
discounted by the great extent of the work .that was 
done on this project in 1915. 

The year, nevertheless, has been exceptionally pro- 
ductive in the way of operating experience. On the 
two spectacular installations of 1915— the Norfolk & 
Western and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul elec- 
trifications — the results have been extraordinary in 
their success. This has been due, obviously, to the 
fact that both lines undertook, for the first time in the 
history of electrification, to handle freight on a large 
scale. The dominant feature of both has been the dis- 
placement of somewhat more than three steam locomo- 
tives by each electric machine. In both cases train 
loads have been increased very materially, and train 
speeds have been practically doubled. 

Here we have, at last, something definite upon which 
to base conclusions as to the future of electric opera- 
tion of trunk line railroads, and every conclusion that 
can be drawn points to a great extension of electrified 
track within the near future. At the present time a 
great number of projects and rumors of projects are in 
evidence, and it is unquestionably the fact that much 
of the electrification work now being considered as a 
possibility has been due directly to the records made 
available during the past year. 

Of the definite new projects the two most ambitious 
are that of the New York Central, including the west- 
side tracks in New York City, and that of the Illinois 

Central, including its lake front terminal in Chicago. 
Neither one offers anything in route mileage that ap- 
proaches the Milwaukee's electrification across the 
Rockies, but at that both will be remarkable for the 
density of the traffic that will have to be handled. In 
addition it is practically a foregone conclusion that the 
New York Central's electrification, which will involve 
handling all the road's heavy freight trains over some 
thirty miles of the main line, will end in the extension 
of the electric zone to Albany, about 100 miles farther 
north. On this division the traffic is so dense and so 
continuous that it is actually feasible to use 1200-volt 
current. At present trains of great length are being 
handled by steam in remarkable time, the entire divi- 
sion being on the flat grade of the Hudson River, and 
this serves to cut down the margin between the ef- 
fectiveness of steam and electric motive power. Nev- 
ertheless, there is a good possibility of the service being 
electrified solely on the grounds of operating economy. 

Other than thi^, the projects now in the air are 
generally those which involve heavy grades, where the 
electric locomotive has the special advantages of un- 
limited power and superior tractive efficiency, both tend- 
ing toward the establishment on the mountain divi- 
sions of train loads that are equal to the tonnages han- 
dled on level divisions as well as to the maintenance of 
reasonably high train speeds. On mountain divisions 
also the element of regenerative braking affords an- 
other advantage to the electric locomotive, the year's 
experience having shown that this method of handling 
trains is thoroughly practical from an operating stand- 
point, although as yet no basis is available for estimat- 
ing the extent to which it increases maintenance costs. 

In conclusion it may, perhaps, be said that the past 
year has been one of watchful waiting in electrification. 
The outlook for 1917 is more than promising as regards 
new projects, mainly for the reason that many doubts 
on the ability of electric traction to produce results 
have been set at rest through the record of definite 

How Earnings Have Held Up 

Just as in periods of panic or depression one finds 
in electric railway and other utility earnings a marked 
stability, so in the days of rapidly expanding pros- 
perity one does not expect to find utility earnings so in- 
flated as those of many other companies, particularly 
industrials. For this reason, the unparalleled earnings 
records that were made by many manufacturers in the 
United States during 1916 had no counterpart in the 
electric railway industry during this period, although 
appreciable advances appear to have been made in the 
latter field. Electric railways as a whole are still far 
from being inclined toward prompt co-operation in the 
matter of furnishing earnings statistics, but from fig- 
ures thus far obtained by the information bureau of 
the American Electric Railway Association it may be 

possible to give some indication of the trend of their 

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1916, as compared 
to the similar preceding period, the operating revenues 
for about 8700 miles of line out of approximately 30,000 
miles showed an increase in gross operating revenues of 
3.47 per cent, in operating expenses 2.40 per cent, and 
in net operating revenues 5.15 per cent. During the 
first six months of the calendar year 1916, as compared 
to 1915, this showing seemed much improved, for 
companies operating about 7450 miles of line increased 
their gross operating revenues 8.08 per cent, and their 
net operating revenues 12.10 per cent, operating ex- 
penses rising 5.68 per cent. To bring the record as far 
as possible up to date, the results for the first nine 

January 6, 1917] 


months of 1916 indicate that the gross operating rev- 
enues for about 7400 miles of line rose 6.26 per cent, 
the operating expenses 5.13 per cent, and the net operat- 
ing revenues 8.06 per cent. 

Comparisons between the foregoing figures must 
naturally be somewhat elastic on account of the diverse 
mileage involved, but it seems to be assured that the 
earnings for 1916 will show up much better than those 
in 1915 — probably to the extent of 7 per cent in gross 
and 9 per cent in net. During the year the Eastern 
and the Southern districts in the main continued to 
report improvement, and in the last reported quarter, 
July-September, an encouraging gain was also notice- 
able in the Western district, where the jitney com- 
petition on the Coast and the peculiarly persistent 
business depression in the Northwest had been such 
disturbing factors. With such general improvement 
the showing for the whole of 1916 would probably have 
followed closely that for the first half if it had not been 
for the losses incurred in the third quarter in connec- 
tion with the New York strikes. According to the 
public service commission reports, the operating rev- 
enues of the metropolitan surface lines concerned fell 
off 50 per cent in September, 1916, as compared to Sep- 
tember, 1915, while the operating expenses decreased 
oily 30 per cent. These decreases had a considerable 
effect upon the general totals for the third quarter, and 
without doubt account for most if not all of the poorer 
results for the first nine months of 1916 than for the 
first half of the year. 

While general increases in gross and net were thus 
secured in 1916, this result is not ground for unlimited 
optimism, for it was obtained only after a most strenu- 
ous struggle with the rising costs of labor and materials, 
as indicated by the above stated increases in operating 
expenses. That was not all, however, for the gain in 

net operating revenues was accompanied by added tax 
burdens to the extent of 3.04 per cent for 7700 miles 
of line in the last fiscal year, 6.58 per cent for 6400 
miles in the first half of 1916 and 7.05 per cent for 
6400 miles in the first three quarters of 1916. For 
neither of these groups is there much hope of im- 
mediate betterment. Such relief in labor costs is not 
possible, and while some materials whose high cost 
has been based largely on war usage will relapse sharply 
with peace, the general high prices of materials will 
probably not soon be forced down to the pre-war levels. 
Nor does it appear that there is any widely growing 
recognition of the fallacy of lessening the effectiveness 
of transportation systems to make them tax gatherers 
or any more serious study of the proper incidence of 

Because of these facts, although the possibilities aris- 
ing from the settlement of the European war present 
no terrors to electric railways and other utilities as 
compared to industrials, the future could well be much 
brighter for electric railway earnings. The point of 
the whole matter is that the companies cannot long 
continue to meet rising expenses with a practically fixed 
income; many of them are seriously pinched now. A 
greater traific development will help some lines, par- 
ticularly interurbans, but for the industry as a whole, 
in the absence of a cataclysm that would sweep away 
high operating costs, the fare unit must be increased 
or some fare system adopted that will give more ade- 
quate recompense for the service rendered. In the last 
three calendar years forty-nine electric railways secured 
fare increases of various sorts, but this is only a drop 
in the bucket. Many more increases ace needed, and 
the sooner electric railway officials try in concert to 
show the fallacy of a sacrosanct 5-cent fare, the better 
it will be for the industry. 

Converging Aims in Car Design 

The close of the year 1916 is a particularly fitting 
time for consideration of the immediate goal toward 
which recent developments in electric railway surface 
cars are leading the industry. During the year cer- 
tain definite ideas seem to have become common to 
practically all who are interested in the design of 
cars for city service, and although the revolutionary 
changes that began some four years ago are still going 
on, there is no question but that sentiment has reached 
a well-defined state of crystallization in regard to a 
number of features of marked importance. This, we 
believe, can only mean that the first step is being taken 
toward standard city cars— something which practically 
every one favors in the abstract, but which as a con- 
crete matter is opposed because of supposititious dif- 
ficulties of establishment. Insofar as interurban cars 
are concerned, there is no doubt that many of the same 
factors apply, but it is in the case of the city car that 
they are mo>t strongly emphasized, thus making the 
latter the better basis for consideration. 

During the past year the record of new construction 

for city service, confirming the indications exhibited in 
1915, has shown very definitely that the open car is 
dead. With it has gone the fully-convertible car, leav- 
ing for future general types only the closed car and 
the semi-convertible car, which differ from each other 
merely in trifling detail. The year has seen, also, a 
practical settlement of the question of all-steel versus 
semi-steel construction, since the rapid growth in pop- 
ularity of steel side posts and carlines demonstrates be- 
yond a doubt that the use of wood, except for floor and 
roof sheathing, will very shortly disappear altogether. 
With regard to less general or more detailed features 
of the car body, the record of the past year has shown 
that the arched roof is thoroughly established, because 
the original opposition to it on the ground of ventila- 
tion has been finally dissipated, the largest company 
that retains the monitor deck having actually adopted 
the plan of closing up the deck sash and installing half 
a dozen automatic ventilators in their place. The use 
of interior bulkheads is also very much on the wane, 
in view of the rising popularity of the fully-inclosed. 


[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

pay-within car, which in addition has produced a 
tendency toward uniformity in platform design for end- 
entrance cars, including door width and radius of 
crownpieces. A practical standardization has already 
taken place in regard to the use of a transverse seat- 
ing arrangement with longitudinal seats at the doors, 
and at the same time has come the adoption of a seat 
spacing (coinciding in all recent cars with the distance 
between side posts) that now falls, without exception, 
within a range of less than 2 per cent from the mean. 
Here, indeed, are the elements of a standard car, 
provided the two questions of general dimensions and 
door arrangement could be settled. Of these the latter 
appears to be most formidable, because the center-door 
principle has received another lease of life through the 
new front-and-center-door designs, and in case these 
fulfill their present promise, they will constitute for- 
midable and permanent rivals of the end-entrance de- 
sign. It seems, in fact, impossible to consider the 
standardization of door arrangement at the present 
time. Thts does not, however, stand in the way of 
establishing a standard end-entrance car which, re- 
gardless of any reasonable growth of the modified cen- 
ter-door idea, could undoubtedly be used for many years 
to come, nor does it even stand in the way of the 
demand for "this year's model," mentioned by W. H. 
Heulings in his recent able article on standard cars. 
"This year's model" does not have to be a freak. In 
fact, experience has shown that radical changes in de- 
sign are never acceptable to the electric railway in- 
dustry, and that the novelties which go to make up a 
new model are invariably subordinate in character. 

Are Standard Dimensions Possible? 

If, then, the question of door arrangement may be 
left aside to be settled by future years of experience, 
there remains no very serious obstacle to standardiza- 
tion of car bodies, at least from the user's standpoint. 
As we have mentioned in previous issues, an overall 
length of 45 ft. might be arbitrarily adopted as standard 
for double-truck city cars without being more than 5 
per cent away from the dimension now used in prac- 
tically any one of the important cities in this country. 
Expressed in terms of capacity, this means four seats, 
and it would require considerable hardihood, even for 
supporters of the "local conditions" theory, to argue 
that such a small change could make a vital difference 
in operating results. 

In the same way a width of 8 ft. 4 in. would be suit- 
able for practically every large city, and, to go a step 
further, as Mr. Heulings has done in his article, a 
width of 8 ft. 2 in. would be suitable, with rare excep- 
tions, for any community, large or small. For a city 
where an 8-ft. 6-in. width is permitted, the suggestion 
of using a narrower car doubtless would not be wel- 
comed, yet it is safe to say that the great majority of 
city railways whose clearance lines permit such ample 
widths are not, to-day, making the most of their op- 
portunities. Thirty-five-inch seats with, say, a 25-in. 
aisle give about all the space that any city car really 
needs, and these dimensions may be attained with an 

overall width of 8 ft. 2 in. When greater overall 
widths have been provided, it is quite the rule to find 
no wider seats or aisles than those just mentioned — 
the extra space in nine cases out of ten is wasted in 
unduly wide side walls which, instead of being confined 
to the easily attainable dimension of 1 in. in thick- 
ness, frequently run up to 3 in. or even more for no 
explicable reason. 

In the case of the double-truck car, therefore, the 
question of standard oyerall dimensions is no longer a 
serious matter. Nor is it any more serious in the 
case of the single-truck car, which has a definite place 
in small cities where travel is light. For such equip- 
ments a length of 33 ft. has become so nearly a uni- 
versal rule that it would already constitute a standard 
except for the incomprehensible and unnecessary vari- 
ations of a few inches over or under that appear in 
recent cars. This, of course, excludes consideration of 
the one-man car whose length may be very much less 
than 33 ft., but here is, of necessity, a novel and little- 
understood type of equipment that cannot well be in- 
cluded, at least for the present, in any discussion of 
standardization. It is, as a matter of fact, a dis- 
tinctly separate development that gives every indica- 
tion of running its own course absolutely without re- 
gard to the older types of design. 

Next Step Toward Standardization 

From the user's standpoint, then, it has now become 
possible to establish a standard car by arbitrarily as- 
signing average overall dimensions and by following 
the most commonly-used designs for vestibules, roof 
contour and seat spacing. This, it would seem, is all 
that the user is really interested in, since the details 
of construction are primarily the affair of the manu- 
facturer, and are not likely to be improved upon by 
those who are operators rather than builders of equip- 
ment. Indeed, we believe that much of the existing 
chaos in car design has been due to the interference of 
railway maintenance departments with construction de- 
tails — something that might far better be left to the 
specialists in construction. Even so, there is sufficient 
divergence in the ideas of the many different builders 
of car bodies to offer a wide choice in structural details 
to the purchaser of a car that had standard overall di- 
mensions and standard general features. What the 
purchaser wants is a car of minimum weight and price, 
and of maximum durability, and a distraction of his 
attention to such petty complications as variations of a 
few inches in length, or differences in roof contour, or 
the relative advantages of continuous or independent 
side-posts and carlines can only obscure the final object. 

Granting this, as well as the possibility of bringing 
a respectable number of railways to use a standard car, 
it seems to us that the next step should be a definite 
estimate as to the actual, tangible advantages accruing 
to the user through standardization. If the gain is 
found to be of considerable importance, there is little 
doubt but that the industry could be induced to indicate 
general dimensions and outlines which would be ac- 
ceptable as standard at least for a large number of com- 

January 6, 1917] 


panics, but which, of course, would not have to be used 
by all. For the ensuing year, therefore, we would com- 
mend this question of economy effected through the use 
of a standard design to the car builders. From no 

other source could any kind of an answer be obtained, 
and without an answer it might well be that the pres- 
ent ripe opportunity for establishing a standard car 
would be lost altogether. 

Keeping Track Costs Down 

in the way departments of electric railways, the year 
1916 will be remembered as one marked by a great 
scarcity of labor and consequent high wages, delayed de- 
liveries and almost prohibitive prices of materials. As 
a result much necessary track work was postponed until 
conditions will have adjusted themselves. In many cities 
the authorized work could not be completed because suf- 
ficient labor could not be had, and in others material de- 
liveries were responsible for incompleted programs. To 
counteract this labor situation much attention was 
directed toward increasing efficiency in the handling of 
materials. Many engineers turned to power tools to 
speed up their work. Pavement rooters in several in- 
stances supplanted the pick in the hands of a laborer. 
Steam shovels, dump cars and auto trucks, were substi- 
tuted for hand shoveling and teams. Derrick cars were 
quite generally used for handling the heavier track ma- 
terials, and concrete mixing plants of various kinds and 
capacities greatly reduced the forces necessary to place 
this material in the track. Pneumatic tamping outfits, 
drills and spike drivers — all had a prominent place in 
track work, and each played an important part in sup- 
planting labor. 

Despite the critical situation that existed in 1916, the 
end does not yet appear in sight. Rail prices were ad- 
vanced $10 per ton during the year and prices for special 
work and other steel products were also increased in the 
same or greater proportion. In fact, abnormal advances 
in prices were recorded all along the line, and indications 
are that further advances will be made. How much more 
the electric railway companies can stand and, continue 
construction and rehabilitation programs is problemati- 
cal. It is true that earnings showed substantial gains, 
but these were needed to make up for the losses of past 
years. On the other hand, the period of retrenchment 
on many properties had been prolonged until renewals 
and reconstruction were absolutely necessary. Hence, it 
was not surprising to find that this class of track work 
rather than that for extensions predominated. 

Spkcial Work and Better Construction 

In the special-work specifications which were sub- 
mitted in final form by the 1916 way committee and 
adopted as standard by the American Electric Railway 
Engineering Association, a valuable contribution to the 
industry was completed. Special-work manufacturers 
co-operated in the preparation of these, and they are 
anxious that the specifications should be used generally 
because they insure a common bidding basis. Undoubt- 
edly these specifications will be amended to meet new 
conditions as they arise, but in their present form they 
are as complete and satisfactory as most thorough con- 
sideration could make them. In connection with special- 
work purchases during the past year it is interesting to 

find that machined-bearing insert settings and flange 
bearings were very generally specified, and all manufac- 
turers are now prepared to supply this demand. We 
feel that our efforts in this direction were largely re- 
sponsible for this change and are not only gratified but 
sure that it will be of great benefit to the industry. 

Another development has been the general drifting 
toward higher standards of track construction. There 
was a marked increase in the mileage of track laid on 
concrete foundations. Where natural drainage condi- 
tions were good this change was not so marked, but 
elsewhere the increased bearing to be had with concrete 
track foundations insured greater permanence to track 
line and surface. Moreover, the advantages of the prin- 
ciple adopted by the Board of Supervising Engineers 
Chicago Traction at the beginning of the extensive track 
rehabilitation program in that city have been accepted 
by many other companies, and a track substructure on 
which rails could be renewed has been growing in fa- 
vor. In an industry such as the electric railway, where 
the margin of profit is small, permanence in the physi- 
cal property is vitally important. Undoubtedly the 
findings of the comprehensive study of rail corrugation 
made in Chicago to determine the relative merits of 
concrete and ballasted track in this respect will influ- 
ence other companies to adopt concrete track founda- 
tions in their future programs. In this study it was 
shown that rail corrugation was as prevalent on one 
type as the other and that the phenomenon was not a 
respecter of age or conditions. 

Rail Heads and Rail Corrugation 

Incident to the rail corrugation problem and more 
closely related to the rate of rail wear has been the 
introduction of curved head rails. Chicago's study of 
rail wear pointed to the advantage of a change from the 
ordinarily used flat-head rail to a curved head. The 
curved-head rail has been used successfully in England 
for a number of years and a few years' experience with 
it in this country indicates that by its use the rate of 
wear on wheels and rails will be greatly retarded. 
During the coming year the way committee will con- 
sider the question of designing a curved-head grooved- 
girder rail section. To facilitate this work and insure 
perfect harmony the equipment committee has been 
asked to co-operate in so far as such a head will affect 
the wheel tread and flange. It appears that the curve 
of the rail head should conform to that of an average 
worn wheel. The problem before these committees is 
to determine whether the average contour of worn 
wheels is sufficiently close on all properties to permit 
the adoption of a standard rail head section, or whether 
this section must be prescribed for each company. It 
appears reasonable to expect that where different rail 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

sections and wheel contours are used the form of wear 
will vary. In some rail purchases a 20-in. curvature 
has been specified, while in others a 12-in. radius curve 
was used. Inclined curved head rails are limited to the 
grooved-girder sections, but this has not prevented the 
users of plain girder and standard-section rails from 
taking advantage of the full-line-of -contact principle. 
The first tilted or "cocked" rail track was built in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, in 1915. Considerable of this type of con- 
struction has been added in the past year, as several 
other companies purchased steel ties designed to hold 
the rails in this tilted position and built track of this 
type. The cocked ties incline the rail so that its head 
conforms to the slope of the wheel tread and thus pro- 
vides a full line of contact. In connection with rail 
tendencies it is also interesting to note the increasing 
popularity of the 7-in. sections as a substitute for the 
6-in. and 9-in. rail in both the plain and grooved-girder 

Rail corrugation, as usual, received its share of at- 
tention during the year. Several old causative theories 
were exploded and new ones advanced. It was pretty 
clearly brought out that curved head rails are not a 
cure but do postpone the appearance of rail corruga- 
tion. A microscopic analysis of the mechanical prop- 
erties of corrugated rail conducted by H. M. Sayers, re- 
vealed nothing new in the way of a remedy. Perhaps 
the vibration theory is still held by the largest number 
of people, but the remedies based upon this theory, 
where they have been used, have failed to cure the dis- 
ease. According to this theory, ballasted track should 
offer a cure, yet the study in Chicago revealed corru- 
gations on both types. It may be, of course, that the 
ballasted track was not sufficiently flexible to eliminate 
corrugation, but it is hard to see how greater flexibility 
could be introduced in track in paved streets without 
introducing greater complications. It has been re- 
peatedly shown that rigid track construction is abso- 
lutely necessary to permanent line and surface — both 
vital requisites to minimum pavement maintenance. 
Where pavement maintenance costs are practically the 
same as track maintenance costs, it ill becomes any en- 
gineer to change his type of construction so as to in- 
crease the cost of the former. In other words, until a 
remedy is found which is less damaging than the dis- 
ease, it appears advisable to follow the practice of the 
past and remove rail corrugations by grinding. 

The Joint Problkm 
Welded, riveted and drive-fit or high-elastic-limit 
bolted joints are being almost exclusively used by the 

progressive companies for their track in paved streets. 
It is useless to argue that the old-style mechanical joint 
will "stay put." The bolt and joint fit clearances are 
too great to provide absolute security, and the substi- 
tution of the drive-fit, high-elastic-limit bolt is a logical 
change and will unquestionably obviate many of the 
difficulties of the past. The electric welder and the 
thermit weld have brought the welded joint within the 
reach of all companies, and the ease of repairing iso- 
lated joint failures commends them. Both of these 
processes are not limited to use at the joints but have 
permitted the introduction of innumerable economies in 
making repairs to steel of all kinds in electric railway 
operation. The cast-welded joint and the Lorain type 
electric-welded joint are equally efficient with the other 
types of welded joints, but one requires an expensive 
plant and the other may only be bought under contract 
for the installation of a large number of joints. Finally, 
it is folly to use the same type of joint in expensive 
track in paved streets as in open construction, simply 
because they are uneconomical. For a time during the 
past year the prohibitive war prices of spelter and ther- 
mit greatly curtailed the use of the Nichols and thermit 
joints, but this situation has practically readjusted it- 

Cost Analysis Accounts Necessary 
Whether track materials and labor are being pur- 
chased at war prices or not, it behooves electric railway 
engineers to analyze all their costs in order to introduce 
economies. It has been particularly evident during the 
year just past that more and more attention is being 
directed to unit costs. Most of those published, how- 
ever, were construction costs. While it is important to 
keep down construction costs, it is of more importance, 
to our mind, to minimize maintenance costs. The effi- 
ciency of various types of track and materials can only 
be determined by a comparative analysis of mainte- 
nance costs. Whether this be done on one property or 
as between different properties is unessential so long 
as an analysis is made. It is but natural that engi- 
neers should delight in construction and dislike main- 
tenance, but it is the latter phase of their work where 
the real savings may be made for their companies. It 
is only through maintenance experience and analysis 
that economical improvements can be made in construc- 
tion. Whether the interest and depreciation on expen- 
sive track more than offset the higher maintenance of 
cheaper construction is a question all way engineers 
must be prepared to answer in the course of the next 
few years. 

THE problems of electric railways are the problems of the communities 
served, and in increasing measure as these problems become more complex 
it is essential that the community vision be clarified if the interests of 
both parties are to be properly served. — James H. McGraw. 

January 6, 1917] 


Equipment of the Power Plant 

In reviewing power plant progress it is convenient 
to consider separately the boiler room and turbine 
room of the steam plant, with their respective auxilia- 
ries, and other general matters which relate to steam 
and other plants as a whole. This year we shall confine 
attention to the steam plant, although this does not 
imply that progress has not been made in water power, 
gas power, and oil power plants as well. For the elec- 
tric railway operator, however, it seems that the most 
significant progress has been made in the steam plant. 

The Boiler Plant Is Improving 

There is no doubt that after a long period of com- 
parative neglect the boiler room is now getting its 
proper share of attention. This is in part due to the 
demand for higher pressure caused by steam turbine 
development and also to the objectionable bulk of the 
boiler compared with the turbine for which it furnishes 
steam. In partial explanation of the slowness of boiler 
improvement it may be said that the opportunity, and 
hence the incentive, for saving was less here than in 
the engine room. At present, further reduction in 
steam consumption in the turbine depends largely upon 
the ability of the boiler to produca higher pressure. 
At the recent A. S. M. E. meeting in New York a 
speaker claimed for a certain boiler plant, not in elec- 
tric railway service, a sustained efficiency of 90 per cent. 
In view of the numerous although individually small 
sources of loss a performance like this cannot be ex- 
pected under ordinary circumstances. The present ex- 
cessive cost of steam coal, however, should stimulate 
boiler operators to get along with a minimum quantity 
of this precious mineral and to provide ample storage 
facilities in future. 

In going to higher boiler pressures there is evidence 
that the makers are prepared to furnish what is de- 
manded. There are practical limitations, however, set 
by first cost and maintenance cost, heat losses and leak- 
age, as well as hesitation in departing from standard 
practice. An example of a high-pressure plant is one 
installed this year by the Public Service Company of 
Northern Illinois in which the pressure is 350 lb. per 
square inch and the superheat 225 deg., Fahr. It is 
to be expected that pressures will be increased gradu- 
ally as design and construction are perfected. The 
standard boiler code of the A. S. M. E., adopted last 
year, will no doubt exert its influence in steering de- 
sign along conservative lines. 

Aside from the matter of pressure, there is no doubt 
a tendency also toward improvement in increasing heat- 
ing surface. With one notable exception, in the main 
plant of the Detroit Edison Company, the popular size 
of boiler has contained 6000 sq. ft. of heating surface 
or less, producing roughly 600 (so-called) boiler horse- 
power or less. There is no reason for not going to 
larger sizes excepting the natural desire for standardi- 
zation, but this cannot, of course, be controlling. At 
any rate, the demand henceforth is going to be for more 

heating surface per unit. The amount of steam which 
can be produced on this surface is determined almost 
entirely by the furnace. 

The Furnace Is a Separate Proposition 
In the line of furnaces there is a steady demand for 
all three general types of stoker, the underfeed for 
use with forced draft, the inclined overfeed for natural 
draft and the chain grate. In spite of the more spec- 
tacular results obtained with the first-named type, 
which is eminently adapted for peak load work, natural 
draft is still relied upon in many plants. The use of 
oil in furnaces has not been forgotten either, but in 
general this fuel cannot compete with coal on a cost 
basis. Although oil as a fuel is attractive from the 
standpoint of convenience and cleanliness, these advan- 
tages are becoming less important each year as the 
apparatus for handling coal and ashes is perfected. In 
a modem plant the labor element in the boiler room 
cost has become entirely reasonable. 

It is to be regretted that little progress has as yet 
been made in popularizing a substitute for the unit 
known as the boiler horsepower. All engineers recog- 
nize the inconsistency of the present practice, particu- 
larly as output depends to so great an extent upon the 
furnace, but they seem not to be able to get together 
in the matter. The good work should be kept up, how- 
ever, in the interest of consistency. Electric railway 
engineers can exert considerable influence to this end. 
Where Will the Turbine Stop? 

At the moment the situation in the metal market is 
affecting deliveries of steam turbines, but great prog- 
ress is being made in the turbine room as well as the 
boiler room. The most remarkable thing is the scale 
upon which large turbines are being purchased, speak- 
ing in general terms of the past year or so. Remodel- 
ings like that of the Virginia Railway & Power Com- 
pany's plant, described in a recent issue of this paper, 
are going on everywhere. That the power plant is able 
to stand the expense involved in the development period 
of a new prime mover like the steam turbine and at 
the same time produce its output at less cost is highly 
creditable to the engineer. 

There seems to be no limit to the size of the turbine, 
large or small. In large units there are some under 
construction to produce outputs of 70,000 kw. in three 
cylinders, and a single-flow turbine recently ordered 
will deliver 45,000 kw. from a single cylinder and gen- 
erator. In small units the turbine is increasingly ap- 
preciated for driving auxiliaries, as it is compact and 
rugged. As its exhaust is used for feed water heating 
the water rate is not a prime consideration. Geared 
turbines, particularly for direct-current generator drive, 
are also being called for more and more. The types 
of turbines now in use between the extremes in size 
mentioned comprise tandem-compound turbines with 
one generator and cross-compound with two generators. 
The three-cylinder turbines referred to, designed for 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, are of the 
two-stage type and drive three generators each. 

The Condenser Is Making Notable Progress 

Condensers have been improved to keep pace with 
the turbines which they serve, as is evidenced by the 
fact that surface condensers of as high as 56,000 sq. ft. 
condensing surface are being built and a jet condenser 
for a 45,000 kw. turbine is on order. The preference 
is for surface condensers, but the business in jet con- 
densers continues to be good. Barometric condensers 
are being constantly improved. In surface condensers 
the problem is to produce straight line flow of steam 
to eliminate friction loss. 

In auxiliaries the steam turbine furnishes a popular 
drive for circulating and air pumps, although the recip- 
rocating vacuum pump and slow-speed circulating pump 
are still preferred in some cases. A so-called "heat bal- 
ance condenser" has also been developed in which the 
pump load on a jet condenser is divided between a tur- 
bine and an electric motor. This permits the turbine 
to furnish just the amount of steam required for heat- 
ing the feed water. 

A New Application of the Phase Converter 

The electrical end of the turbo-generator unit has, 
of course, been improved with the steam end. This has 

been accomplished through refinement in design. Tem- 
perature rise, allowable and actual, has had even more 
than usual attention, and an effort has been made to 
interest users in keeping track of internal temperature 
rises through the use of suitable instruments. Power 
plant operators concerned with the furnishing of single- 
phase power particularly for railways have been much 
iijterested in the application of the phase balancer or 
phase converter by the Philadelphia Electric Company, 
which supplies power for the Philadelphia-Paoli elec- 
trification. This apparatus applies the principle of the 
revolving field somewhat as was done in the phase con- 
verter used on the Norfolk & Western locomotives, 
where single-phase power is drawn from the line and is 
converted to three-phase for the motors. By an in- 
genious adaptation this principle has been applied in a 
machine which can be placed away from the power plant 
on the three-phase line and will automatically transfer 
load from a heavily loaded phase to the others. 

It would be unfair to an important movement to close 
this brief review without a reference to the commend- 
able zeal of power plant operators in safeguarding dan- 
gerous machines, circuits and other sources of possible 
accident. New plants are being designed with this ele- 
ment conspicuously in mind and the older plants are 
being brought up to date rapidly, as is explained more 
in detail in another editorial. 

Protecting the Overhead System 

In the power distribution field the work of the year 
has been in the way of an intensive study of existing 
apparatus and methods with view to increasing the 
reliability and safety of service and to securing econ- 
omy in operation rather than the development of new 
apparatus and radically different systems of distribu- 
tion. As refiected by published articles and the work 
of technical society committees, state commissions and 
federal bureaus, the leading thought of the year seems 
to have been protection. The term "protection" as here 
used covers two categories; protection of service and 
protection of employees and others from the hazards 
incident to the rendering of that service. 

Increasing Reliability of Transmission Lines 
The increased attention on the part of the railway 
companies to the matter of power sales work, the large 
energy supplies required for industrial purposes, and 
the heavier railway traffic all have tended to increase 
the demand for a service which shall be without inter- 
ruption. It is not surprising, therefore, that at the 
present time engineers are giving much time and 
thought to minimizing the number of interruptions of 
service and the time per interruption. Devices, such 
as arc suppressors, electrolytic lightning arresters, cur- 
rent-limiting reactances, isolating transformers, better 
insulators and motor emergency trucks, which assist 
in accomplishing these ends are gaining rapidly in 
favor. As illustrative of what may be accomplished 
by paying careful attention to the matter of lightning 
protection may be cited the experience of the Common- 

wealth Edison Company, as described by D. W. Roper 
in papers presented at the annual conventions of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers and the 
National Electric Light Association. This company, 
by the use of improved methods of protection, has been 
able to eliminate 90 per cent of the troubles caused by 
lightning. Along the same line may be noted the ex- 
perience of the Beaver Valley Traction Company, de- 
scribed in the Electric Railway Journal, Jan. 8, 1916, 
cage 89. By the use of carefully wired electrolytic 
arresters on their cars this company has been able 
to reduce its motor trouble caused by lightning to an 
almost negligible amount. 

So important is the matter of good transmission 
line insulation from the standpoint of continuity of 
service that there is a feeling, in some quarters at 
least, that it is better engineering either to weed out 
defective insulators or to reinsulate a line than to pro- 
vide a duplicate line. Tests for detecting faulty insu- 
lators on both dead and live lines have been more fully 
developed during the year, and, while still not infal- 
lible, a large percentage of the bad insulators on a line 
may be located by their use. Methods for replacing 
defective insulators on high-voltage lines with the line 
in service have also been developed. 

The Problem of Interconnecting 

Transmission Lines 

The interconnection of the transmission systems of 

electric railway and power companies seems to be a 

growing practice and one that is highly commendable. 

January 6, 1917] 



If properly carried out it prevents absolute shutdown, 
reduces the amount of reserve equipment necessary 
and promotes economy in operation. Broadly consid- 
ered, a transmission system is a transportation system 
just as much as is a railway system. In the early days 
each railway formed a separate little unit and the pres- 
ent interconnection of systems has been a gradual de- 
velopment. Such connections, however, have so facili- 
tated transportation that their severance would be, as 
we look at it now, little less than a national calamity. 
It seems reasonable that the facilities for the trans- 
portation of electrical energy should be just as flexible 
and as well interconnected as are the facilities, say, 
for the transportation of coal. The problem of inter- 
connection is one, therefore, that we feel should receive 
in the future even more attention than is now being 
bestowed upon it. The interconnected system of rail- 
way and power companies centering at East St. Louis, 
described in the Electric Railway Journal, Jan. 22, 
1916, page 156, is a good example of what might be 
done with profit by many companies in other sections 
of the country. 

The second phase of protective work, namely, the 
minimization of life hazards, has received an unusual 
amount of attention this year. Not only have indi- 
vidual companies been paying particular attention to 
their safety work, but the labors of the Bureau of 
Standards in connection with the National Electrical 
Safety Code have tended particularly to emphasize this 
phase of protective work. Objections to the code have 
been well aired before technical societies and in the 
engineering press, and, therefore, will not be reviewed 
here. Whatever its faults are as a code, however, it 
cannot but be admitted that it has had considerable 
educational value and that the many joint meetings 
held over the country for the purpose of discussing its 
various features have tended to develop a get-together 
.spirit which should hasten the general standardization 
of many of the minor details of line construction. 

The Work of the Engineering Association 
The American Electric Railway Engineering Associa- 
tion committee on power distribution faced a large num- 
ber of problem assignments when it began its year's 
work; too many one would think on first sight. Never- 
theless, the committee's record is one of much valuable 
work accomplished. The consideration of standards of 
other societies relative to overhead work with the view 
of weeding out inconsistencies, the review and revision 
of the existing association standards on the subject 
and the work on joint committees were among the im- 
portant features of the year's work. An exceptionally 
well prepared technical discussion of the theory of 
concrete poles was contained in the committee report, 
as was also a rather exhaustive study of the various 
third rail constructions now in use. A number of new 
sections were added to the recommended specifications 
for overhead line material and information relative to 
high voltage direct current and catenary trolley con- 
struction preparatory to the formulation of standard 
specifications for such constructions was gathered. The 

formulation of the specifications is one of the important 
tasks set for the succeeding committee. 

Development Work in Power Transmission 

The study of the effect of altitude on apparatus 
ratings and the use of the grounded neutral consti- 
tuted the bulk of the work of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers committee on transmission and 
distribution. No attempt was made by the committee 
to determine an altitude correction factor, but a con- 
sensus of the opinions gathered from operating engi- 
neers seemed to indicate that altitude should be given 
some consideration at least in loading apparatus of 
standard ratings. The question of the grounded neu- 
tral versus the ungrounded one is largely a matter of 
protection of service and apparatus. As one might 
expect, what would be best for one system might not 
be best for another, but as a result of its work the 
committee seemed to feel that the grounded neutral 
offered most advantages when the line voltage was 
above 60,000. 

The Return Circuit 

The work of several national joint committees, com- 
mented on in our review of last year, has been con- 
tinued, although as far as reports are concerned the 
committees have been marking time pending final action 
on the National Electrical Safety Code. It is expected 
that the report of the national joint committee on elec- 
trolysis will be published shortly. As its work will 
represent the combined efforts of a number of associa- 
tions represented by eminent engineers, this report will 
constitute a high authority on the subject. The notable 
series of electrolysis investigations by the Bureau of 
Standards have been continued and several valuable 
technical papers bearing on the subject have been pub- 
lished. Among other things, the investigations of the 
bureau have shown that corrosion is practically negligi- 
ble where the cycles of current reversal are shorter than 
one minute. The conclusion is that, in the so-called 
neutral zones of railway networks, where the currents 
in underground structures are continually reversing, 
the damage chargeable to electrolysis is less than would 
be expected from a consideration of the arithmetical 
average of the current discharged to earth from the 
structure. The three-wire system as a means of elec- 
trolysis mitigation is being installed at Spri*igfield, 
Mass., under the directions of the Bureau of Standards 
experts. Such a sy.stem has been in service on 125 
miles of track in Los Angeles for nearly two years. 
The experience there seems to be that under favorable 
conditions, where there is a sufficient number of feed- 
ers, such a system costs les sand has lower losses than 
the better known insulated return feeder system. 

The problem of maintaining the return circuit is 
very closely related to that tf electrolysis. The elimi- 
nation of electrolysis and poor bonding are certainly 
incompatible, and the problem of bond maintenance 
seems to be largely that of joint maintenance. In city 
service welded joints are being used more than ever 
before. The same may be said of the welded type of 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

bond, and it is of interest to note that several of the 
new bond welding devices are of such nature as to 
permit the work of bonding to go ahead without inter- 
rupting service. 

Electric Railways are Considering 
Substitutes for Copper 

The high cost of copper and aluminum in this country 
during the past year has focussed the attention of 
American engineers on the conducting problem. Con- 
siderable information relative to the electrical charac- 
teristics of iron and steel wire and cables has been pub- 
lished and, where climatic conditions are not adverse, 
there seems to be a growing tendency to use such con- 
ducting materials on lightly loaded distributing circuits. 
The use of specially-spiralled cables for railway feeders 

has been suggested, and in this connection it has been 
pointed out that the higher inductance of the magnetic 
conducting material would increase the protection of 
substation apparatus. While this is true as far as 
substation apparatus is concerned, experience with 
third-rail systems would seem to indicate that, upon 
the interruption of a short circuit or other heavy cur- 
rent, the discharge of the energy stored in the mag- 
netic field in the feeder itself and the surrounding air 
would increase the duty imposed upon the control and 
motor equipment of the cars. As illustrative of the 
greater possibilities in the use of iron or steel may 
be mentioned the return circuit construction used on 
the recently electriiied section of the Lancashire & York- 
shire Railway, where a fourth rail is used for the 
return circuit. 

A Complex Year for the Manufacturers 

The manufacturer of electric railway supplies dur- 
ing 1916 experienced conditions that may safely be de- 
fined as chaotic. Material and labor conditions have 
never been more complex than they were last year, but 
out of the complication has come a stronger group of 
manufacturers, more willing and more able to serve the 
■electric railway industry. 

To summarize the problems which have confronted 
the manufacturers during the past year is difficult, be- 
cause conditions have changed so rapidly. For in- 
stance, a year ago that manufacturer whose income 
was largely derived from sales to electric railways 
found himself in very serious circumstances. For 
three or four years the roads had not been buying in 
substantial quantities, each year the buying was grow- 
ing less and the cost of manufacturing and selling wa.s 
increasing. In the face of rising costs and a diminish- 
ing market, the year 1916 bid fair to be a lean year. 
Until late spring there was little prospect for sus- 
tenance on the part of those whose bread and butter 
came largely from sales to electric railways. Then 
the roads in the eastern industrial districts began to 
buy. Later on traffic increases for the roads in the 
Central States prompted buying activity there. Then 
the rush began. 

Having deferred purchases so long because of lack 
of money and because of high prices, the electric rail- 
ways, when they did begin to buy, really needed prompt 
deliveries. Most of the buying was to meet deferred 
maintenance. But other industries had begun to buy 
earlier, and the material and labor situations were so 
tense that the electric railways had to wait their turn. 
And in most instances it was a long wait. Only within 
the last few weeks have manufacturer."? been able 
safely to make promises of deliveries. 

Production Conditions Still Unsatisfactory 

Production conditions are now far from what the 
manufacturers would wish, but they are on the mend. 
The larger concerns have finally established sources of 

supply for most raw materials so that delivery of fin- 
ished product is now more nearly determined by the 
speed of factory production. Of course there will al- 
ways be special jobs offered, which, if accepted, would 
interrupt factory procedure. But this year the manu- 
facturer, backed up by good orders for his standard 
products, is in a strong position to turn down orders 
for special material and special designs. It has re- 
quired great courage at times to make decisions which 
would clear the involved manufacturing situation. 
Sales effort has had to be curtailed and good salesmen 
diverted from their regular work to go scouting for 
raw materials and for labor to man the shops. But 
now the lines of supply of materials have become bet- 
ter established, and production is going forward at a 
rate probably never before approached by the manu- 
facturers in the electrical industry. 

In setting down the reasons which caused and sus- 
tained the highly involved manufacturing conditions of 
1916, lack of labor should be put first, and lack of raw 
material second. Capital for carrying on the work was 
not lacking, and the freight problem was a natural 
sequel to the labor and material shortage. 

Consider the labor situation first. All the indus- 
tries of the country are busy, and raw material pro- 
ducers are sold so far ahead that they have little con- 
cern about next year's market conditions. They need 
men. Nearly 500,000 men are engaged in munition 
supply work. And, in consequence of labor shortage 
and high living costs, wages for day labor have ex- 
ceeded all previous limits. 

The steel and textile industries, two of the greatest 
employers of labor, have granted a 10 per cent increase 
in wages for the third time since Jan. 1, 1916. Wage 
advances in many lines of manufacturing have been 
more than 50 per cent. Yet, notwithstanding the ab- 
normally high wages paid, it has been practically im- 
possible for manufacturers to hire all the men needed 
during the past seven or eight months. The reason for 
this has largely been the competition for labor among 

January 6, 1917] 



the manufacturers. This is particularly true with re- 
gard to the high grade skilled employees and the low 
grade common laborers, the two extremes. And the 
natural consequence of this shortage of labor has been 
one of lower efficiency in the manufacturing opera- 
tions. Men by the thousands, who two years ago had 
never seen the inside of a large machine shop, are 
now employed at machine work and drawing the pay 
of first-class machinists. Many a "skilled mechanic" 
of to-day never served an apprenticeship. Labor never 
cost so much and earned so little. 

The material problem of the manufacturer can 
probably best be expressed to the railway reader by the 
statement that during the last year so far as embar- 
rassment from slow delivery of material has been con- 
cerned, the manufacturer has suffered more than the 
railway. Most manufacturers at the beginning of 
1916 had on hand some surplus stocks, supplies or extra 
parts ready for manufacturing their products. Many 
had built up reserve stocks during the lean years. They 
were thus able to sell to the roads and protect them 
against emergencies. In contrast, however, the manu- 
facturer found his avenues for buying even more re- 
stricted. The producers had little surplus stock on 
which to draw and were inclined to listen only to the 
big buyers. 

Manufacturers have put enormous pressure on the 
producers of raw materials and have gone to the extra 
expense of having materials expressed into their fac- 
tories in order to be in position to accelerate deliveries 
of finished products to the railways. Raw materials 
must be paid for now at top-notch prices, and these 
conditions have existed for several months. 

The Metal Market Is Still Unsettled 

In the manufacture of electric railway materials cop- 
per plays a most important part, and the dearth of 
this material and its steadily rising price has been a 
bugaboo for many manufacturers. Since 1908 copper 
had ranged from 11 to 22 cents, until 1916 when it be- 
gan its phenomenal climb. At the opening of the year 
1916, the New York carload price for Lake copper was 
20 cents per pound, and an epoch in the history of cop- 
per prices developed on Nov. 20, when for the first time 
all deliveries up to one year were quoted at 30 cents 
per pound or more. Bulk copper was then 34 cents. It 
should be remembered that the prices for lead, tin and 
zinc have followed the same general trend as those of 
copper, but toward the end of the year these materials 
were not quite so strong as was copper. 

The copper question, so far as the manufacturer in 
the electric railway industry is concerned, is a delicate 
one. Should he stock up with copper at 85 to 40 cents 
per pound and use this to manufacture hi.s devices for 
sale two or three months hence? Or should he buy just 
sufficient copper to fill existing orders and take chances 
on the future? In either case he is speculating — in 
one case with materials and in the other case with his 
prestige with his customers. There still exists a wide 
divergence of opinion as to the future trend of copper 
prices. 1 hus the manufacturer must busy himself 

with matching prices and widely fluctuating material 
costs in an endeavor to obtain for himself a margin of 
profit. From the railroad standpoint, of course, pur- 
chasing of copper and copper products at present prices 
means a largely increased permanent investment, on 
which there is a possibility of considerable drop. 
Hence the restraint in buying except for maintenance 

What has been said about copper also applies very 
closely to the conditions in the steel and iron market, 
and uncertainty regarding steel prices and deliveries 
has caused the manufacturer no end of worry during 
1916. The girder-rail manufacturers early in the year 
gave their old customers opportunity to buy their reg- 
ular requirements. Having done this, the manufactur- 
ers felt themselves free to contract for all their other 
capacity. Electric railways purchased less girder rail 
in 1916 than for many years previous, except 1915. 
Even at these increased prices there is little prospect 
of very much girder rail being available for purchasers 
during 1917. 

Buying Irregular But Market Conditions Better 

Notwithstanding the present orders in hand and in 
prospect, market conditions in the electric railway in- 
dustry are not as satisfactory as the manufacturers 
might desire. The general buying is extremely ir- 
regular. This no doubt is due to the fact that the field 
has largely ceased to expand. Comparatively little new 
street or interurban line has been built in the last five 
years. The average additional trackage growth per 
state is less than 15 miles per year, and that means that 
buying for the industry is based largely on main- 
tenance and renewal requirements. 

In turn, of course, this has benefited those manufac- 
turers who are interested in other fields and yet are 
strongly entrenched in this one. It means that they 
are not now subject to the hazardous competition of 
earlier years. Then, when things were going fast, 
there was a market which stimulated competition by 
the very reason of its activity. New devices, new 
tools and new labor and money-saving methods were 
promoted in large numbers. But of late the field has 
not offered the inspiration for new things that it did 
in earlier years. Consequently most manufacturers 
have built up interests in allied fields of industry, and 
their problems have become those of production and 
sale of recognized products, rather than of design and 
development. This is tending toward standardization, 
and if the roads will adopt standards and buy accord- 
ingly, the saving to them will no doubt offset the loss 
due to the lack of the former highly competitive sell- 
ing stimulus. 

The manufacturers of cars, motors, trucks, rails and 
other large elements of an electric railway would ex- 
tend every co-operation to any group or association 
that would standardize its requirements. Much has al- 
ready been said on this subject. The manufacturers 
have always been ready to act, but even though associ- 
ations have "adopted" standards, the railroads don't 
accept them for purchase. Standardization is a manu- 




[Vol. XLIX, No. l 

facturer's problem which the roads have a primary in- 
terest in solving at once. 

The possibilities for next year's business are now a 
live topic. Prospects seem very bright just now for a 
busy year. Slack buying for four years, increasing 

traffic and much equipment that has outlived its natu- 
ral life, would seem to warrant the prediction that the 
electric roads during 1917 will require more new ma- 
terials and supplies than they have bought during sev- 
eral years past. 

Developing Traffic 

A new order of things presents itself in practically 
every phase of the electric railway industry as com- 
pared with practices, opportunities, restrictions, liabili- 
ties and public sentiment prevalent ten, five, and even 
two years ago. In the character of traffic and the 
possibilities of its development, especially, has there 
been noticeable change. For instance, the interurban 
service which we now assume as a potent factor of the 
whole transportation scheme of the nation has been 
almost wholly a unique factor in the field of electric 
common carriers. They had to create a field for them- 
selves and carry people who previously did not travel. 
Now, however, this pioneer work is largely completed, 
use of the electric railways has become habitual, and 
there is not great room for expansion in this class of 
transportation, future growth of passenger travel being 
largely dependent on population growth. Yet this ap- 
proach to saturation is what was expected in the origi- 
nal estimates as the means of profitable return to the 
investors, and the reason that the railways are now in 
hard straits is because the greatly increased operating 
costs were not anticipated. 

Herein, then, lies the incentive and the necessity to 
go beyond the plans of the original promoters and in- 
clude in the business of the electric lines, transporta- 
tion which will offset the grossly enlarged operating 
costs, bring the lucrative return which was expected 
and is on the majority of roads impossible from the 
passenger business alone, and present a field where real 
endeavor may show big increases* in total traffic and 
net profit. 

As the various railways recognize this necessity to 
broaden the scope of their business, the immediate pos- 
sibility for expansion in the transportation of freight 
is obvious. One prominent official even goes so far as 
to say that there is no electric line which accepts 
freight that does not have more traffic offered to it than 
it can possibly handle. We have repeatedly pointed out 
during several years past that the possibilities for im- 
portant revenue from freight service were great, that 
the physical inadequacies were the principal limitations 
and that this was the answer to the question of future 

Hence, it is with interest that we see each year a 
few more properties engaging in this business. Thus, 
during the past year, to mention a few: the Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company; 
the Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway; the 
Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Railway, the 
Scioto Valley Traction Company and the Chicago, North 
Shore & Milwaukee Railroad, among others, have be- 
gun physical preparations for entering into the freight 

business in a large way. The Illinois Traction System, 
the Detroit United Railway, the Michigan Railway, the 
Pacific Electric Railway and others, already well estab- 
lished in this class of traffic, are making e.xtensive ad- 
ditions to their facilities for handling carload and less- 
than-carload freight, including terminal facilities cost- 
ing amounts approaching millions on individual prop- 
erties. And so the dawn of another day in the traction 
field is bright. 

Mkans to Encourage Car Load Freight 

Ways and means to create freight traffic, once it is 
begun, are numerous, but much depends on the personal 
element in the straight solicitation of business, for 
much educational work is still necessary to show the 
shippers that the electric line really has advantages to 
offer. Hence, the solicitation must be tactful and con- 
vincing. Then the matter of service — fast, frequent, 
reliable schedules — is the foremost requisite for devel- 
opment of any class of traffic, and too much emphasis 
cannot be given to this consideration. Terminal facili- 
ties with arrangement and capacity for releasing teams 
and trucks with minimum delay are important business 
getters, for a merchant or manufacturer would much 
rather send his freight over a line that will get his team 
or truck away from the terminal without standing in' 
line two or three hours than to use any line where he 
must make this expensive sacrifice. For every four 
trucks or teams that have to stand in idleness for two 
hours a day regularly, he must add another unit to his 
haulage equipment, with the added labor, upkeep and 
overhead it entails. This is a big item that the ship- 
per sees and feels, and the road that can save him time 
and money here has a big advantage in attracting his 

The carload freight traffic is coupled very closely in 
its possibilities with the interchange arrangements with 
other lines. Some difficulty is experienced in securing 
these traffic agreements with the steam lines, but this 
is gradually being overcome and must soon give way 
before the importance the electric lines can assume as 
tributaries to the flow of freight on the long haul lines. 
Following these arrangements, industries must be de- 
veloped on the electric lines. Grain elevators are one 
of the common adjuncts in this connection. One mer- 
chant who was induced to build three elevators on a 
mid-western line has also put in large stocks of lumber, 
building material and coal at these points. The advan- 
tage of this combination is very significant. It not only 
permits all-year business for both the merchant and 
the railway, but makes it possible for the latter to 
handle cars under load both ways. 


January 6, 1917] 



It is possible to develop some remunerative carload 
traffic by encouraging the installation of side tracks 
for lumber and coal yards at points adjacent to thickly 
settled communities. Connection with sand pits, cin- 
der pits, stone quarries, etc., for distribution of their 
products, and unloading these materials at points close 
to the work under way with a charge for the actual 
cost of this unloading, will encourage preferential 
movements over electric lines. Attention to the haul- 
ing of brick, paving blocks and sand, and cement for 
paving roads and city streets, especially where solicita- 
tion can include the ability to deliver close to the spot 
they are to be used, will create a goodly traffic in the 
course of a year. Keeping closely in touch with con- 
templated public and private improvements in towns 
along the line and co-operating with the concerns sell- 
ing the materials necessary for this work will bring 
good returns. In fact, it is possible to make the rail- 
way traffic department a sort of information bureau for 
people located along the line, to direct as to the best 
place to secure almost all kinds of commodities. This is 
profitable when it stimulates shipments of carload lots 
or even steady shipments of less than carload quantities. 
In many localities within 100 miles of our numerous 
sugar factories, beet culture is a profitable industry for 
the railways and the farmers. Beet dumps or receiv- 
ing stations may be secured at the expense of the sugar 
• company where, within a radius of 3 or 4 miles, farm- 
ers have 500 acres of beets, raise beets averaging 14 
tons to the acre and haul them to the receiving station. 
At these stations the sugar company takes the beets, 
furnishes scales for weighing and pays the freight to 
the sugar factory. 

Possibilities in Less-Than-Carload Freight 

In the development of the less-than-carload and 
package freight traffic, the growth is more than ever 
dependent on "better service" and will increase almost 
in proportion to the class of service maintained. Some 
electric railways are making a practice of accepting 
shipments up to fifteen minutes before scheduled de- 
parture of trains, and by use of the Manibill system, 
make four copies of the waybills at once and place the 
destination station in a position to effect delivery in a 
few minutes after the arrival of trains. A liberal pol- 
icy in discharging freight at points along the line where 
there are no depots is also a business producer for the 
distributor and a time saver for the receiver, and it 
makes friends for the company. These and other ef- 
forts at highest service are effective in competing with 
the motor truck, which is now offering keen competi- 
tion for the short haul package freight. It is advisable 
in some cases to utilize motor trucks as feeders for the 
railway and to make street address deliveries in re- 
stricted areas where competition is particularly keen. 

Working in conjunction with Chambers of Commerce 
and civic organizations for the development of truck 
farms and dairies, arranging convenient schedules for 
movement of these supplies to market, and co-operat- 
ing to create a market, will often bring a very profitable 
return in traffic, though opposition from the commis- 

sion men is often encountered. Another plan is direct 
co-operation with creameries and merchants along the 
line. One creamery company on a western road has 
for next year a plan of loaning money at a nominal 
rate of interest to any farmer who will invest it in 
milch cows, a plan which has great possibilities. In 
the handling of milk, of course, good results have been 
obtained by providing special milk trains. 

Another very important field of traffic in which the 
rapid service of the electric line may be made an im- 
portant inducement is in handling perishable freight. 
Meat, berries and other high class shipments, which 
otherwise move under ice, may be handled without 
icing by virtue of prompt service, thus saving the ex- 
pense of icing to the shipper and to the road. 

Then there is the carrying of freight on passenger 
cars, or "traction express" as it is often misnamed, an 
important item in the sum total business on the inter- 
urban line. Advantage is not taken of this plan by a 
great many roads, which seems rather surprising, for 
we are familiar with the income which has been 
realized from this source on several roads with prac- 
tically no additional expense to handle the business and 
little solicitation to get it. It is a real service to the 
small town merchant to be able to telephone in early in 
the morning to his wholesale house 20 or 30 miles away 
and give his order for merchandise to be placed on the 
"8 o'clock car" and receive it at 9 o'clock. 

Freight Franchises of Benefit to Public 

Of course, many of the possibilities for expansion of 
the interurban freight service depend on the attitude 
of the municipalities through which the lines pass. Un- 
fortunately there has been a short-sighted prejudice 
thrown around the handling of freight through the 
city streets, but this limitation is gradually lifting. 
The electric lines could bring about a large saving in 
the cost to the consumer of bringing produce, dairy 
products, etc., into the cities and moving building ma- 
terials and freight generally, over the city streets to 
their point of local distribution or ultimate consump- 
tion. This movement could be made at night when the 
aesthetic sense of the citizens need be little disturbed, 
in tight, clean cars which would be much less obnoxious 
in every sense than the garbage and other filthy loads 
which are now hauled through our streets in the day 
time in leaky, unsightly wagons. Then, too, the mat- 
ter of street congestion is assuming constantly greater 
importance, yet the most efficient means of transporta- 
tion is used scarcely at all during one-fourth of the 
time. We are glad to note, however, that there is evi- 
dence here and there of a change in public sentiment as 
communities realize the savings and advantages se- 
cured by the movement of electric freight through the 
streets. And with the present high living cost, the 
savings in particular take on added public interest. 
Hence, this may be the opportune year for electric rail- 
ways to press their case for freight franchise rights 
through the streets. Certainly no more commendable 
effort from the viewpoint of service to the community 
or profit to the company, could be made. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

The Technique of Publicity 

By Ivy L. Lee 

Frankness in Dealing with the Public Through the 
Newspapers, Faith in Its Fairness if Facts Are Pre- 
sented Simply and Vi-uthfully, as Well as Methods for 
Securing Publicity Are Advocated in This Article. 

PUBLICITY in the running of public service cor- 
porations is as important in its way as motive 
power itself. Electric railway managers have 
not had time to think about publicity. They are 
busy men. Their whole aim has been to please both the 
public and investors. 

Years ago street railway managers were busy run- 
ning their cars with horses and mules. That was a big 
problem in its time, and it was just as hard then — if 
not indeed harder — to satisfy both the public and in- 
vestors. Then came a new and vital adjunct to the run- 
ning of street railways — electricity. Railway man- 
agers had not thought much about its use to them. It 
came as something from the outside, but it came with 
a universal demand for its use. 

The railway managers could not ignore this new 
force. they employed experts to assist in adapt- 
ing this new power to their service; then they made a 
careful study of it themselves. True, they were very 
busy, but this new thing was too important to leave to 
subordinates. Upon its successful use depended the 
whole future of the business. 

Running railway properties to-day without taking the 
public into one's confidence, without using every legiti- 
mate means of publicity, is about as obsolete as operat- 
ing street railways with horses and mules. Through 
publicity the railway manager of to-day brings to his 
aid those vital forces which come from support of the 
public. Without these, indeed, the business itself can- 
not live. 

Taking the Public Into One's Confidence 

Why is this thing, "Publicity," so important? It is 
so intangible and the direct value of it is so difficult to 
appraise that the practical mind is prone to regard it 
as an evanescent product of an age of newspaper hys- 
terics, and not as a supremely vital and substantia] 
force in business management. But even the most un- 
imaginative business man has come to realize the power 
of public opinion. The public not only has power, but 
it has come to know that it has it. Public service cor- 
porations are beset on every side by laws and regula- 
tions. These, indeed, are very real things demanded 
by a democracy which refuses to be denied. 

I am one of those who believe that the American 
people are fair; and that when they really understand 
the facts, they will see to it that justice is done. They 
have no objections to success as such, no matter how 
large, if only it is honestly and fairly attained. If 
this is correct, and if the railway manager feels that 
the ultimate success of his business hangs upon the 
fairness and justness of law and regulation, must we 
not see to it that the public which is back of law and 
regulation knows all the facts so that its judgments 
may be sound and constructive ? 

Not All the Fault Is With the Politicians 

One so often hears it said that politicians are at the 
bottom of all our troubles; that if they would only stop 
their meddling all would be well. Those who make 


such a statement mis- 
take the effect for the 
cause. The demogog- 
ery of politicians is not 
solely responsible for 
the troubles of public 
service corporations. 
The misunderstandings 
of the public, due gen- 
erally to lack of infor- 
mation on the facts or 
full information on a 
bad state of things, 
have led to an attitude 
of mind exceedingly 
open to the influence of 
the politician. 

When public service 
corporations are run 
with primary regard 
for their public obligations, and when they have made 
the public know that this is true, the politicians will be 
prompt to trim their sails to other winds. 

'Yes," you may say, "this is all very well, but" let's 
get down to a practical basis. How does this all apply 
to the daily life of my company? What can I do to 
avail myself of this new power that in modern days, 
you say, is just as important as electricity itself in the 
conduct of my business?" 

The Wrong Way of Dealing With Newspapers 

The most important medium through which to deal 
with the public is the press. Newspapers are more del- 
icately adjusted to sense the feeling of the people than 
any other institution. H. G. Wells says that the news- 
papers are the windows through which we look at the 
world. The street railroad man must, therefore, take 
the newspapers into his confidence, not as newspapers, 
but as representing the public which the newspapers 

Many people believe that successful publicity consists 
in the cultivation of pleasant personal relations with 
newspaper writers, and that if "the newspaper boys" 
are made to feel good all will be well. Such a theory 
is fundamentally unsound. 

Of course, every man, be he newspaper man or other- 
wise, should be treated with courtesy, and the news- 
paper man should receive all facilities for obtaining 
facts to which the public is entitled. But to rely upon 
friendly interpretation of one's acts in any large way 
by the newspapers simply because of one's personal 
friendship is just as false a procedure as to seek a 
favorable judgment from a court because of one's pleas- 
ant personal relations with the judge. 

A new.spaper which bestows favors because of the 
personal friendships of its writers is sure to lose its 
influence; and a corporation which does not look be- 
yond the newspaper and direct its policy with refer- 
ence to satisfying that paper's readers is sure to be 

When and How to Use Publicity 
Publicity is of no use whatever, unless the funda- 
mental policy of the company itself is honest and sin- 
cere. Even if a company's policy is honest and sincere, 
it must not be taken for granted that the people fully 

January 6, 1917] 



realize its character. Publicity for that policy is ab- 
solutely necessary. 

People are thinking of their own affairs, and if a 
company's service is fairly satisfactory they are not 
likely to give it much thought until trouble arises. 
Then they think not so much of the generally good 
service as of the trouble. That becomes magnified. 
Continuous publicity of good work would have softened 
a public irritation in the day of trouble. 

No public service corporation can satisfy everybody. 
The majority of people are indeed fair, but there are 
always some who consider that a public service com- 
pany should be run for their par- 
ticular benefit, instead of for the 
greatest good of the greatest num- 
ber. In order that the criticism 
of such people be not given undue 
weight it is important that a com- 
pany keep the public informed day 
by day and make itself under- 

The Value of a Publicity 


The functions of a publicity man 
are not to "hush things up," and 
"put things over," but tc interpret 
his company to an enlightened 
public opinion and to interpret an 
enlightened public opinion to his 

Every company which can do so 
should employ a publicity engi- 
neer — preferably an experienced 
newspaper man — to advise with 
its officers and to act with them in 
all matters of public relationship 
and in the cultivation of general 
good will. Such a man should 
know what the public is interested 
in. There are many facts in the 
operation of public service cor- 
porations which are interesting and important. If the 
local newspapers knew about them they would gladly 
send members of their staff to get material for their 

The publicity man will know what the newspapers 
would send for if only they had the suggestion. He 
will write the matter the way the papers want it. In 
cases of accidents such a man is promptly on hand to 
see that the newspapers get those facts which the pub- 
lic is properly entitled to. 

Of course, no one wants to co-operate with the "am- 
bulance chaser," and neither the newspapers nor the 
public have any great interest in trivial accidents, how- 
ever regrettable they may be from the point-of-view of 
the victims. On the other hand nothing irritates either 
the newspapers or the public more, when a serious acci- 
dent occurs, than trouble in getting accurate informa- 
tion promptly. 

This adviser in public relations^for such a man 
should be far more than a mere publicity agent — should 
constantly study the temper of the public mind. He 
should know criticisms of his company which are being 
made; he should know of improvements to its service 
which a company might effect with popular approval. 

Some people seem to think that the functions of a 
publicity man are to "hush things up," and to "put 
things over." On the contrary, his work, in a word, will 
be to interpret his company to an enlightened public 
opinion and to interpret an enlightened public opinion to 
his company. 

Write in Language That All Can Understand 

It so often happens that when in matters of policy it 
is desired to make a statement to the local public the 
railway manager thinks it the wise thing to have a 
lawyer prepare the document. That is another funda- 
mental mistake. Lawyer's functions are with the courts 
and commissions, in the conduct of negotiations, in the 

In this era of a tremendous out- 
pouring of literature of all kinds 
the man or company who can 
arouse curiosity has made a real 
step forward. 

preparation of contracts, and in other purely legal ac- 

When the man of legalistic mind attempts to speak 
to the public he usually encumbers his utterances with 
a mass of irrelevant facts or unintelligible jargon 
which makes the whole document vague and unreadable 
to the average man. 

In the preparation of statements to the public, direct- 
ness and terseness, even colloquialism, are of the ut- 
most importance. The reason Billy Sunday is so effec- 
tive is because he speaks the language of the people. 
The clergyman in the gown may use more elegant Eng- 
lish, but if his real purpose is to 
reach the heart of man, he must 
realize how infinitely more effec- 
tive is the homely straightfor- 
wardness of Billy Sunday. 

Therefore, let the railroad man- 
ager accept the counsel of his ad- 
viser in public relations in the 
preparation of statements to the 
public, whether they concern 
either matters of routine opera- 
tion or corporate policy — that is, 
assuming that he wants the people 
to know exactly what he means. 

A central bureau of advice on 
public relations would serve as a 
power house of publicity assist- 
ance, but the local company must 
always turn on the power. 

Stand Back of Every State- 

And right here let it be urged 
that every statement from a pub- 
lic service corporation should be 
authoritative, issued preferably on 
stationery bearing the name of the 
company and the name of the 
president. Every newspaper, in fact every person, re- 
ceiving such a statement should know whence it comes 
and who stands sponsor for it. 

Nothing is more futile than any devious or indirect 
method of publicity. It may be that a company can at 
times induce the newspaper to publish as its own some- 
thing which the corporation Wants to have said. But 
unless the statement is in every detail truthful and em- 
bodies the honest policy of the newspaper itself no such 
effort on the part of a corporation can be successful. 
This leads to a discussion of advertising. 

A public service corporation should take all of the ad- 
vertising space it can afford to pay for. It should con- 
stantly inform the local public concerning its policy and 
daily work. Unless these are matters of current mo- 
ment a newspaper cannot regard them as news. But it 
is none the less important that the public be constantly 
informed concerning them. 

One of the greatest merchants in the world is H. Gor- 
don Selfridge, an American, who runs a large depart- 
ment store in London. Mr. Selfridge has a big adver- 
tisement in the London morning papers every day tell- 
i ng of his prices, bargains and other strictly mercantile 

Selfridge Tells Also of His Policies and Ideals 

But in the afternoon papers he pays for a column of 
space in which to tell of the general policies, the ideals, 
the principles of the House of Selfridge. 

I question very much whether this advertisement in 
the afternoon papers does not contribute vastly more, in 
the long run, to the success of the firm than the purely 
commercial advertising. It is human nature for people 
to do business with those whom they trust, those in 
whose ideals they believe. Such advertising of one's 
ideals creates just that atmosphere of confidence. 

It follows that, if a railroad corporation wishes the 
extension of a franchise, if it seeks relief from burden- 




[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

(( TT1VERY company which can do so should em- 
■*-^ploy a publicity engineer — preferably an ex- 
perienced newspaper man — to advise with its offi- 
cers and to act with them in all matters of public 
relationship and in the cultivation of general good- 
will. Such a man should know what the public is 
interested in. There are many facts in the opera- 
. tion of public service corporations which are inter- 
esting and important. * * * 

"The publicity man will know what the newspa- 
pers would send for if only they had the sugges- 
tion. He will write the matter the way the papers 
want it." — Ivy L. Lee. 

some taxation, or if it appeals for public support in any 
controversy, its appeals will fall upon receptive or deaf 
ears just in the proportion that the company enjoys the 
confidence, the real confidence, of the people whom it 
serves. And this confidence will be based upon actual 
observation of its service and such interpretation of its 
service as the company may, by appropriate publicity, 
truthfully make. 

Experience has proved that the quickest way to get 
the company's story to the greatest number of readers 
is through advertising columns, where the company can 
write its own headlines and use type in the way best 
calculated to claim attention. 

Other Opportunities for Publicity 

Newspapers are not the only media of communicating 
with the public. Every railroad corporation has in its 
stations and cars an opportunity to create a medium of 
communication of its own, through cards and posters. 
Car cards are read first because they are short; and sec- 
ond because people cannot help seeing them. As in a 
movie theater, so here there is only one thing to look at. 

Every electric railway company should avail itself of 
this medium to the umost. To do so it is necessary to 
make the cards interesting, make them pertinent, make 
them newsy. They should never be allowed to become 
an old story. Such cards should be appropriately illus- 
trated, if possible, but they should most certainly be 
changed frequently. 

But neither the newspapers nor the car cards can con- 
vey to all constituents of a company all of the data which 
people should have in order to interpret the company's 
acts. Those companies which have tried it have found 
it profitable to issue publications of their own. Such 
publications arouse the interest of employees; they 
form the basis for information for editorial comment 
by newspapers; they are media of communication 
with city officials, taxpayers' organizations and the like. 

Such publications should be brief, very brief. My 
own experience has shown that it is much better to is- 
sue such publications irregularly — only when one has 
something important to say — rather than at stated in- 

If issued at irregular intervals, those receiving such 
a publication are likely to wonder as to the occasion 
for its issuance at the time. It arouses curiosity. And 
in this era of a tremendous outpouring of literature 
of all kinds, the man or the company who can arouse 
curiosity has made a real step forward. 

Arouse Curiosity First 

Someone has said that advertising is the roadway to 
a man's mind. The way to make people read advertise- 
ments is first to arouse curiosity. 

Both the railway manager and his adviser in public 
relations should give unusual attention to public bodies 
of all kinds, not with a view to exerting any but proper 
influences, but with a view to insuring that the mem- 
bers of such bodies are well informed concerning the 
policies of the company. 

If the head of the company or if his adviser in public 
relations is a good speaker, the company has an excep- 
tionally valuable asset. The community always likes to 
hear at first hand of the affairs of its public service cor- 

What a Central Bureau Can Do 

The problem of the public service corporation will 
have to be solved separately according to the conditions 
ill each local community. Especially is this true of elec- 
tric railways. Any effective bureau of publicity to 
conduct wholesale the public relations of all electric rail- 
way companies is an impossibility. 

But the fact remains that there are certain general 
problems which do concern all electric railways. Of 
these, the problem most fundamental is that of the fixed 
five-cent fare and its relation to the fact that the costs 
of operation and the amount of service expected for that 
fare are constantly increasing. 

A central bureau can be of tremendous use in making 
a study of the service given for five cents in different 
cities and the conditions surrounding that service, and 
in supplying the results of the study to each company 
for interpretation and comparison. 

The jitney problem concerns nearly all companies. The 
way it is being met in different communities and the 
methods used to cultivate sound public opinion with ref- 
erence to it could very well be studied by a central bu- 
reau and the results placed at the disposal of each com- 
pany for use. 

So with reference to questions of paving, taxation, 
franchise permits, and service requirements by regulat- 
ing commissions — all of these questions are of universal 

Likewise, local problems are constantly arising in the 
affairs cf every company, concerning which information 
of the experience of other companies can be furnished 
by a central organization. 

The American Electric Railway Association is an 
admirable organization for this. Under the direction of 
its committee on social relations a bureau could be cre- 
ated to be placed in contact with companies throughout 
the country needing its help. 

Actual Things A Public Relations Bureau 
Could Well Do 

Such a bureau could give specific advice to railway 
companies in connection with the establishment of pub- 
licity departments, and criticism and suggestions could 
be given concerning material to be issued to local com- 
munities. Publications could be edited on the basis of 
material supplied by the companies; car cards could be 
prepared, and other matters could be handled for use 
in each community concerning such problems as all com- 
panies have to meet. 

Such a central bureau should work entirely through 
local companies and should not assume itself to conduct 
any campaign of education with reference to the gen- 
eral problems. Any effort, however, to avoid treatment 
of local prol)lems by the local company is likely to prove 

A central bureau of advice on public relations as out- 
lined would serve as a sort of power house of publicity 
assistance, to which the wires of any company could be 
attached at will. But the local company must always 
turn on the power, and guide the machine. 

January 6, 1917] 



Advertising the Twin City Lines 

By A. W. Warnock 

General Passenger Agent Twin City Lines, Minneapolis and St. Paul 

An Analysis of the Policies Behind the Publicity of the 
Minneapolis and St. Paul Companies — Some Ex- 
amples of Advertisements Produced to Inform the 
Public of Causes of Delays and Changes in Routes. 

NOT so many years ago street railway companies 
generally took little or no interest in the broad 
subject of Publicity — a term we seem to have 
substituted to-day for the good old-fashioned 
word Advertising. True, we were always glad to have 
the press speak well of us if it felt so disposed, and 
conversely we were always pained to hear ill things 
said of us. Aside from an occasional paid "story" of 
our properties on some special occasion, however, no 
company really and truly adopted advertising as a 
strong aid to its success. It is to be doubted, indeed, 
whether we ever spent any money in advertising ex- 
cept under duress or protest — never, I suppose, because 
it was the sensible, business-like thing to do so. 

The past ten years have seen street railway com- 
j)anies everywhere undertake practical, continuous ad- 
vertising campaigns, and from the good widespreading 
.results that we all know have followed, it is now a 
foregone conclusion that the day has gone when the 
right of advertising to a permanent place on the payroll 
of every progressive company will be questioned. 

Great care should be employed in the management of 
a street railway company's advertising expenditures. 
In a day of "pitiless publicity" when every business. 

profession and calling seems to employ a press agent 
who is screaming at the top of his voice, and when puffs 
and notices are seen so frequently in the columns of 
our papers delicately extolling the merits of men, wine, 
women, songs and other commodities, perhaps we might 
give pause and see that our advertising is properly 
done, so that it may ring true and make the proper im- 
pression on the reader. 

There is danger, a great danger, that lack of care in 
such endeavor may work greater harm than good for 
us, and pessimistically we may ask ourselves the ques- 
tion, "Tell me, does it pay?" in the same way as the 
hopeless man shown in a recent cartoon which we re- 
produce herewith simply to show how very hopeless 
that is. This cartoon suggests the splendid series of 
publicity cartoons and talks which have been appearing 
in the Klectric Railway Journal for some weeks 
past. Those talks and cartoons have expressed so 
clearly and aptly so many wholesome ideas on the sub- 
ject th;it it is hoped the Journal will republish them in 


some permanent form 
for their educational 
value to us all. 

The Advertising De- 
partment Started 

in 1906 
In view of the re- 
quest of the Electric 
Railway Journal for 
an explanation of the 
simple working meth- 
ods of the advertising 
policies of Twin City 
Lines, it may be of in- 
terest to say that ex- 
actly eleven years ago 
we organized an adver- 
tising department in 
connection with the 
General Passenger De- 
partment, and, like the patent-medicine testimonial, we 
can honestly say, "We wouldn't be without it in the 
house since buying our first bottle." 

Prior to 1906, our company, like all electric or steam 
companies, was on the old-fashioned trading basis with 
the newspapers in our territory. We issued perhaps 
$8,000 worth of free tickets every year to the papers 
and carried their bundles of papers free, while they in 
turn gave us such "kindly mention" from time to time 
as they thought proper. The opening of a new exten- 
sion, the purchase or building of some new cars, the 
installation of a new power house — these were all sub- 
jects for news stories regarding our property. One 
hand washed another, and the balance, if there was 
any, no matter in whose favor, automatically wiped 
itself out at the end of each year. 

Just at this time the air all over the country was 
beginning to be surcharged with sentiment against free 
transportation of all kinds, and the days of the trading 
plan were numbered. In February, 1906, nearly one 
year before the Interstate Commerce Commission put 
a stop to the wholesale issuance of transportation in 
general and advertising transportation in particular, 
we put our relations with our newspapers on a strictly 
business basis — as much to their. gratification and sat- 
isfaction as our own. All free transportation to news- 
papers was cancelled, and a charge of one-quarter cent 
a pound was made for the carriage of their bundles to 
local city points and one-half cent a pound to interurban 
points. "Then it was we got down to a brass-tack basis 
of making definite advertising contracts for such space 
as we thought we needed. The papers thus received no 
favors from us, and we received none from them. I do 
not know whether newspapers in other cities are dif- 
ferently constituted than ours, but eleven years of such 
a business-like policy has taught us how just and fair 
the papers are in their attitude to a public service en- 
terprise such as ours. If we are faulty in service, if 
we need reproof — in fine, if we are guilty of errors 
either of omission or commission, we hear from the 
papers promptly in big black type, to our discomfiture, 
perhaps. But if we do the decent thing by the com- 
munities we serve and give evidence of such purpose. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

Best Way To See 
The Twin Cities 

Their ^autiful Lakei, Rivert, Park* 

and Interesting Public Inititutions 

Mo»t Quickly, Comfortably, Inexpensively 


YoD An obtain • good idu oF T>in Citv i 
bark and fotth b*iwr*n MirmrapoliiK and St. Pi 
ftllrarlioni — thr Minnfipolls St Ht. Paul, Ibe ( 
far* ttom tltr >o ^'15 >■ 10 «>«la. collcclnl in f. 

irsphv and tniny much inlrrrtlinc iiiichliicrinit, by IravfTini; 
on Ihp four Inlrrurban line*, pafh »ilh il* nwn diMindiir 
o-Harri't Ihp S»lhv.I,»k» ird th» PnellinK-Minnrhah*. Thf 
* of S r»i>1i in »«ch ri'>. cntiUinn Iht jKJ.diKer to IransfM 




al •Hhrr rnd to .ny loni line dwired. Any point of inWrnt e»n b* r.-irb*d from tilh*r Minnfapolii or St. 
P.ul .» st.rlinK poiM, For in.l.tic,, if jou M.Vt from .M,nn*.poli. to Slill..lM. K.> to St. Piul by an, Tntrr- 
urban linp and aili coSduclor for Irannfrr I" Sliltw.lrr. On n 
Iranafrr lo any Inlprurhan linr lo Minni'»p<ili«, 

aik conductor on .Slilloalrr Train tor 






Krt abojrd a lafc. BWift. tomfcrlablf "TiriB Citj" .St*a»ibo«t. 

from 20 lo 5ft cnta by bo.rdini Steimbaat. wlhfr at E^celator 
or Wildhiirat, 

Gri ■ Laki Minnrtonka Map Tinr TabU tor tmmfitl* Sihm- 
boal inform at ion. 

BOATS— Lake Minneionka ( ar- 
lea<e .'iixlh Street Station (17 
N. KIb St.) for E»ce1«ior etery 
half hour from « A. M. until fi 
P. M. Tonka Bay Car. leave 
for WiUhur*! every boar from 
6 A. M. until 8 P. M. 



Park Board Laanchn Icav* Lakt -St. LandiaR for int^rciitiiiB 
p|p.*urr rruiRM over thr lhre« beanliful uHNin bodica of water. 
LAKE al 1. H. H:30. 9t3g. in. 11. 11 JO A, M, 12:30. 1. 
J:i:). 3:30. 1. ItlS. 4=45. S. r.i.lO, 5:tS. B:15. fi-4«. 7. T:IS. 7rl,., K 
«:30. «:«. 9:1S. 9«. 10. 10:15 P.M. Round Trip— 11 Milc*-»» 

Take k S». LouIk Park or Cal- 
houn Beach Tar lo Lake SIreel 
Landinn, Or lake any Uke Si. 
pr Like Harriel Car lo Hennepin 
Ave. and Lake -St. and iialk 
alenE Lake SI. a >.hort dialance 
to Uke St. UndinK. 



natblng undrr (he finnt tw"»)ble condition*. Eicrllent re- 

Take a St. l^ui- Park or t'al- 
houn Beach Car. 



Picsk Rroundt anil baalinj. Exrdlci.l reffrtory. E.*nin« 
band concerts on atiracliv* roof «ard.n. Park Board launch 
|„v« Main IMck at 8. 8:.10, H, 18. 11 V M.. 12. 1 2. 1. 1, 1:S0. 
5. .V30. S. S:JO. 7. 7:30. 8. 8:an. 9. 9:30. 10. lOsSO, U. Il:,OP. M. 

Take a Lake Harriet. Oak A 
Karnvt, Oak & Xene*. Como- 
Uarriel or Hopkins Car. 



A ureal ncenic playrround of 142 acrr^, a deliihl to nerybody. 
The immorlal Falla and Glrn, picnic Kt..»nd». flower Hardens, 
deer, elk and hear reaer.c. Kicellrnl r^lcttory. 


Atlrarli*r buildinit* and «ri.und», with auperb river *ie"». 


Trained and -ifn an.maN and bird*. 

Tfthe a Minnehaha' Ealli oi 
8. ellini-MiaMhaba Car. 



Picnic |[round«, public golf linka and balMnit. A womjerlul 
park of 5&S *cre«. 

Take a GInwood Peril Car. 



A snxip of nplendld educational boildinga •dominit a aplendid 

Take an Oak * Harriet, fewo- 
Harriet. „r St. Paul K Minneapo- 
lia Car. 



Take a Cono-Harricl Car 
from eilher Minneanolia or .St. 
Paul. Same fare. 



A co«po.ile and pictorial eipoailion of Iht SUle'a r«HHiTte. 

Take a loBio- Harriel or Fair 
Grounda Car from eith.r Minne- 
aoolia or Si. Paul. Same fare. 



Scenic, hi-loric and piclurewm*. 

Car from either Minneapolia or 
St. Paul. .Same fare. 



\n onu.uat cnllection of paintinf*. «i.lplur« »'«' •" ''*V 
ure. np,i. on .-^und.,* and Monday, from 1 lo S P. M. On 
olher dav. from tO A. M. 10?**^' . . , 

Take any Car on Marquette 
\ltollet ..r 4lh A.e. S. lo 241b 
.'^L and walk alonit Z4th SI. ■ 
.horl diManre la Ird Ave. S. 


FLOUft MILLS AND FALLS | m, . ;i, .. w.,i,i.b.. 


BEST MISSISSIPPI RIVER VIEWS ;«™h.'';- ;^";.';;- ■^ ;'.';^ 




"Park" on SI. CroiJ Riter. (;et a 
Map Time Tahle for inlormallon about > 
Wildwood Park and Whil e Hear Lake Ke> 


"The J-inrvl Priai.n in the World." Open eyer> day i 
Sunday* and Holiday, frtwi 8 lo 11 A. M. and from I 
4 :30 P. ? ' 


On picturenquc White Bear Lak. 
Picnic Kenort." offer. 6i 

The Twin Cilita" Ideal 
ncfnjt. bathinit. bow 
id", toller coaster, water ■r 



\ eloiiou^ park of 125 acren a( charmjni « _ 
lardrn- picn.rKround.. w.»d., h>'ule. ard». Excellent r 
Motor bus inp around and ihrough Ihc i>ark. 25 cent.. 
band foncerl., e»cep l M onday*, in Iron! 


X mnx ■llraclite Municia..! reaort on the Miaw* 


OHerinl wonderful w ideswccpinK ' 


*"-* . - marniBcenf public huildinKi in ihe world. 

■ "-"J — from 9 A. M. to 

; & Siitlwater Cara 
; Minute, pa. I each 

Take a St. P*ul * Slillwatei 
Haiel Park & Wild*ood. Hai. 
Park & White Bear, or Had 
Park a Mahtoraedi Cor. 




HandMime.! re-.idrnliBl -t 


1- , f th largeM live>lock markel in Ihe cuntry. 


\n .■MchaiilinB park of IfiJ 
way-, pitnif Rrove.. wo-ids, 
Eicellfnl refetlnrv. E.enin 

Send Your Add'-ess and 6 Cents in Stamps Today 

For a Copy ol the Now Picture Map Folder "The Twin Clli-slOie 

■ ui MioneopolU and SI. PaiL Printed in f»" «l»j;- " 
OS all lb.- above Inlere.llns placet in and aboot Minne- 
piettirei. a» well a. aeerti aplendid colored Hapa of 

HandM>me»t booklet of information puhlnma i 
6ne»l paper, in hlnlieiit ari. Tell, how lo .ee una 
^""a Two rireal Citie.. C-nlai«. new .nformatioi, i 

Twin City intere.1. . 

A. W. Warnock. General Passenger Anent. 

Telephones— Main 458fl— Center 3131. 

FOR "NEW business" 

we are backed up by the papers and given equal credit. 
Could anything be fairer? 

We have six large daily newspapers in the Twin 
Cities and we treat them all exactly alike as to volume 
of space purchased. We play no favorites at any time 
or under any circumstances. Line for line, each paper 
receives exactly the same number each year. Our first 
contracts, made in 1906, were for 14,000 agate lines of 
space in each paper, and from time to time, as our 
necessities have required we have raised that amount, 
until our contracts for 1916 were for 42,000 agate lines 
for each paper. That is the principle followed for the 
large dailies. Such city weeklies as we use receive con- 
tracts based on their character, influence and circula- 
tion. In small towns and villages served by our inter- 
urban lines, we give each weekly paper the same amount 
of money for the insertion of a 5-in., single-column time- 
table advertisement for the entire year. Some of the 
small-town papers figure such a service at $10 or $15 
less than is asked by the largest paper, but we believe 
that each paper in its own town is as important as 
any other, and so the general standard highest figure 
is adopted by us as the basis for all. A good, clean, 
well-edited weekly paper is a big asset for any little 
town, and should be treated liberally. 

The space purchased, comes now the logical question 
what do we put into it? 

Kinds of Advertisements Published 

Strange as it may seem, we devote only a part, a very 
small part, of our space to what might be termed the 
solicitation of new business. From May 15 until Sept. 
30 we operate a fleet of seven passenger and excursion 
steamboats on Lake Minnetonka in connection with our 
two interurban lines from Minneapolis, and that service 
offers material for limited exploitation for the short 
period of three months, June, July and August. From 
Memorial Day to Labor Day we also operate Wildwood 
Park, a resort on White Bear Lake, reached by another 
of our interurban lines from St. Paul, and some space 
is used for that. Of all our advertising efforts we can 
say honestly that we have found the best general ad- 
vertisement to have been a three-column announcement, 
giving in table form the list of places of interest reached 
by our lines, a few words concerning each place, the 
cars to take to reach them and the rates of fare. Dur- 
ing the summer season we constantly use such a 
standard bid for new traffic, and from the expressions 
of many strangers and home people alike, we believe 
it gives just the street-car information people want. 

But the bulk of our contracted space, the large buik, 
is used simply and primarily to keep the public of the 
communities we serve informed of our general service. 

"Why was my car late coming along to take me to 
my work this morning?" "Why was I delayed getting 
home from my work last night?" "What is the reason 
for rerouting such a line?" "When will such a line be 
opened?" "What are my transfer privileges?" "What 
is the reason for this and that and the other thing?" 

These are some of the many subjects we discuss in 
our announcements from time to time. Take the mat- 
ter of delays. How exasperating it is never to know 
what delayed your car going to or from your work, 
to find your line rerouted arbitrarily without advance 
notice, not to be advised of new transfer privileges, or 
not given reasons for changes in service which you as 
a patron are justly entitled to receive! 

For several years we have printed from day to day, 
as occasion requires, a Street Car Delay advertisement 
in all our daily papers. The purpose is to answer the 
many delay questions which naturally arise in the car 
patron's mind. A specimen advertisement is submitted. 

January 6, 1917] 



Street Car 


The followinic i'l'Y' •«""'< ■• 
tlw r«ilrOwi crosntnit «t frmnklm and 
Ctiu Avm: from 12:45 A. M. !• 
niBUtes; from fi;02 A.M. 12 mtnalM; 
from 4:40 P.M. H minutes. 

A vehitk broken down on the triek 
It Plrmonth Ave. and «lh SI. held 
the Plymouth ft BloominKton Line 10 
minutes from 12:0S P.M. 

A Car oir the traek at Univeraity 
Ave. and Oak St. delayed the Oak A 
Harriet Line 34 minulea from OiS."! 
P.M. Extra Car* were sent out from 
Eaat Hennepin Ave. and 4th SL ao 
that there waa little delay from that 
point WeaL 

A broken trolley wire at Hennepin 
and Douslas Avea. delayed the Went- 
bound Hennepin Ave. and Monroe A 
Bryant Linen. Southbound, for IS 
minutea from 7:20 A.M. 

On account of a (ire on Fremont 
Ave. the ChlcaKO ft Fremont Line 
waa delayed. Southbound, for 22 min- 
vtea from 3:S0 P.M.. althouKh eatra 
Cars were filled in the line from 
Waahinston and 20th Avea. N. mak- 
inK the delay in the Loop only 8 min- 

A horae fallen down on the alipiiery 
pavement at 2nd Ave. S. and 5th SI. 
blocked the St. Paul ft Mtnneapolia 
and Minnehaha FalU Linea for 18 
minutea from 9:51 \.M. neceaaitatinn 
a reroutinK of thoae Cara throufh the 
Loop District. 

On account of the Iwrninc owl of a 
Iranamiaaion cable, there waa n*^ 
power and all linea were delayr^ 10 
minx'-a from 2:15 P.M. 

No delay is announced unless it has been for ten 
minutes or more, and all delays, whether our own fault 
or that of others, are recorded. If defective equipment 
was the cause, we report it as readily as though some 
drayman's wagon broke down on our tracks, although 
we never mention the drayman's name. We do not say 
"The Peerless Draying Company's wagon, broken down 
on our track, delayed the Hennepin Ave. Line," but "A 
wagon broken down," etc. The fairness of such a rule 
is obvious. These delays are reported to our office by 
the general superintendent by 11 a. m. each day, and 
at 11:45 a. m. they are in six newspaper offices ready 
for afternoon editions. Thus the patron reads about 
the cause of his morning delay on his way home or at 
his fireside in the evening. We have received from our 
patrons literally hundreds of favorable comments on 

these announcements and 

can recommend such pub- 
licity highly to all com- 
panies. The announcements 
should be boiled down hard, 
and simply state facts — 
the facts the passenger 
wants to know. These ad- 
vertisements will probably 
average each about 80 agate 
lines, single-column space. 
We have tried all sorts of 
typographical arrangements, 
but the sample submitted 
seems to fill the bill best of 
all and is a style we have 
followed for a long time. 
Good-sized, easily read type 
should be used in a generous 

Our advertisements cover- 
ing new features of service 
usually occupy a space equiv- 
alent to three columns wide 
and 8 in. or 9 in. deep, about 
350 to 400 agate lines. A 
liberal use of white space to 
make the advertisement at- 
tractive and a rather stand- 
ard typographical style we 
have found to be two good 
rules. Perhaps the reproduc- 
tion of some specimen an- 
nouncements may give an 
idea as to the methods we 
employ in this respect. The 
importance of the announce- 
ment necessarily determines 
the size of the space used. 
We have taken as much as 
a "two-page spread" (two pages opposite each other) to 
tell of important work done or of several new lines to 
be opened. There was such a case two years ago, when 
we explained the amount of improvements undertaken 
during the unusually heavy summer season of 1914. 
The advertisement went into the details as to the build- 
ing of 45.72 miles of new track in 1914, which meant 
23.27 miles of new lines and 22.43 miles of old lines re- 
built, also 165,963 square yards of new paving laid and 
100 new cars built, as well as all the news details of the 
opening "( the new lines for service. 

This information had a strong news value, and the 
newspai^ rs would have been glad to have printed it at 
length, but we preferied to take a large amount of 
space to tell the story in our own way and at our own 
time. That naturally suggests the idea that we do not 
oflfer news stories to newspapers, unless we are asked 

Conptalnia aaj Sof (eationa Alwayd 
Receive Prompt. Courteoua AtUntiolt 

A-W.Waraoeh. General Paaseuaei Asanl. 
Heaneptn Ave and lllh SC 

Ttlephottl*— v. W. Mita 1580— T. S. S91S4. 


to do SO, or unless we know it is real out-and-out news 
such as they would ask for if they knew of its existence 
with us. City and managing editors have grown to 
look with cold eyes on the Greek bearing gifts in the 
guise of professional "press agents" with "hot news 
stories." Why should papers print anything about the 
building of your wonderful new smoke stack, or any of 
your other doings? If the smoke stack should fall down 
in the course of erection, that's news, but not other- 
wise. Be ready to give the news that is asked, and to 
tell the real damage the smoke stack did in falling. 
Nowadays, very properly, it seems to be bad form to 
work a willing press for free "puffs" and "send-offs." 
An over-enthusiastic, over-zealous press agent, measur- 
ing his results by the number of inches of free space 
he gets in the papers for "the pieces" he writes, is likely 
to be a dangerous person to have access to a public- 
service corporation's closest confidences. So much de- 
pends upon the horse sense of the man acting as the 
megaphone for your property! 

It is regrettable that in too many companies in the 
past the idea of publicity was to tell only what the 
management wanted to tell, not what the public had a 
right to know and what it should have been told. There 
have been instances where it was the vogue to hand out 
a plate of carefully selected scraps of news at the back 

Complaints and Suggestions 

Always Receive 

Prompt and Courteous Attention 


door to reporters, under the mistaken notion that the 
giver was bestowing priceless gifts on the receiver. 

Our papers like to print our monthly financial state- 
ment, and on the same day that such a statement is 
released in New York, copies are sent to all the papers 
in Minneapolis and St. Paul. Usually telephone in- 
quiries from the papers follow the repeipt of these state- 
ments, asking for the cause of the decrease or increase 
of earnings shown. Last month one city editor called 
us up and asked to what we attributed such heavy 
earnings for a month. We explained that it was be- 
cause of the natural good times prevalent in the Twin 
Cities, everybody at work and so many folks riding. 
That was all right as far as it went, but he wanted fur- 
ther explanation. 

"It's the same prosperity reason that accounts for 
the fact that your paper last night had 48 pages with 
100 per cent more advertising at 25 per cent higher 
rates than a while ago when you had only 16 pages." 

"I'm on," the editor laughingly replied. "I guess 
ours is a good deal better game than yours." 

Reporters readily can see anybody they want to see 
in our offices, and if they prefer to see the president or 
any other officer than our publicity department they 
are always welcome. Doors leading to executive offices 
with "Private" in neat gilt letters fortunately are pass- 
ing out of vogue. People with grievances or proper 
inquiries in their minds should not be met with rebuffs 
or obstacles at the start when they visit public servants 
— which we all are. Accessibility breeds friends. 
"Welcome" looks decidedly better on a door than "No 

We have a slogan which we put at the bottom of 
every advertisement we print, whether a newspaper an- 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

nouncement, car window card or any other form of 
publicity. It is a true and tried friend, and we always 
try to back up the promise contained in it with kindly 
and cheerful performance on our part. This slogan is 
shown on page 21. 

We have explained as fully as seems desirable our 
advertising as applied to newspapers. There are still 
some other forms of publicity we have used for some 
years with most satisfactory results. 

Other Forms of Publicity 

At an early date in 1917 we will issue our twelfth an- 
nual folder entitled, "The Twin Cities To-day." The 
purpose of this folder is primarily to exploit the Twin 
Cities and their attractive surroundings, and secondarily 
and indirectly to advertise the Twin City Lines and the 
service they offer. This folder has been an annual fea- 
ture with this company, as stated, for eleven years, and 
it is issued in improved form each year, although the 
shape is never changed. The folder consists of 64 pages 
4 in. X 9 in. when folded and opening up to 9 in. x 32 
in., printed in four colors and illu.strated with a large 
number of fine maps and halftones, on the best paper 
obtainable. This folder is offered in the daily papers 
in the Twin Cities and throughout the State oif Minne- 
sota and elsewhere in a small advertisement from May 
until September. A copy is mailed upon receipt of six 
cents in stamps, although it costs nearly double that 
amount. On the average, seventy-five letters requesting 
copies are received daily from all over the country from 
persons who intend to visit the Twin Cities for a vaca- 
tion, to stop over on their way west, or to move to the 
Twin Cities to reside. The nine steam railroads run- 
ning into the Twin Cities distribute this folder over 
the counters of their city ticket offices in the Twin Cities 
as well as in all their leading offices throughout America, 
[t is not an uncommon experience to receive a letter from 
a man in New York or Chicago asking about the ad- 
vantages of the Twin Cities before he .starts on a jour- 
ney to the Coast. This folder is also found in hotel 
time-table racks everywhere in the Twin Cities, and it 
is on all the passenger steamships plying between Duluth 
and Buffalo on the Great Lakes, as well as on the large 
river boats running on the Mississippi River between 
St. Paul and St. Louis. It is used in the Twin City 
schools as a text book for Twin City geography. Civic 
associations in Minneapolis and St. Paul use it as an 
aid in influencing desirable people to come to our cities 
to live. 

This folder is also distributed in the information 
bureaus of all the large department stores in the Twin 
Cities, in the public libraries, and in all other places 
where strangers are likely to visit. The leading hotel 
of St. Paul and the leading hotel of Minneapolis make 
it a rule to put a folder in each room on the arrival 
of a new guest. The first thing that a guest to either 
of these hotels sees is one of the Twin City folders with 
its collection of street railway maps and information 
for his benefit. We got that pleasant idea from a hotel 
in Heidelburg, Germany. 

Possibly the reason why the folder is acceptable in so 
many places is because of its character, for while we 
do not waste money on its preparation, nevertheless 
from a mechanical point of view, it is prepared with all 
the skill and taste that the best artists, mapmakers and 
printers can summon to their aid. It has been our con- 
stant aim to make it so distinctive as to be in a class 
by itself. The good these annual folders have done for 
us has been immeasurable. 

Right here may we suggest that the reason why so 
much printed matter, regardless of how "clever" it may 
be, does not always do its greatest good^is because no 

intelligent carefully thought-out plan is drawn up and 
followed for its distribution. The best folder is worth- 
less and really represents a waste of time, paper, ink 
and money unless it gets into the hands of prospective 
riders on your cars, the people you prepare the folder 
for and whom you want to reach. 

We carry in two upper sash windows of all our cars 
two six-ply car cards, measuring 14 in. x 25 in., on 

To Patrons 
Cedar Ave. Line 

On WedncBday, November 1, the new through Cedar Ave. Line running from Cedar 
Ave. and 42nd St. into The Loop will be put into operation. 

To Patrons 
Brjm Mawr Line 

CommenctaB on Wednesday, Norember 8. Ihe Great Northern Ry. will begin the 
leconBtruclion of Ihe West end of the Biyn Mawr brldce, over iU tracks. 

To Patrons 

Fremont Ave. and 

N. Lyndale to 51st Ave. Lines 

ComencinfT Monday, October 30, a "No Stop" Car will b* run from The Loop t« 
Fremont and 44th .\ves. N. Daily E.xcept Sunday. This Car will display Chicago & 
Fremont sipna. 

A "No Slop" Car will also be run to Lyndalv and Mst Aves. N. Daily Except Swn- 
day carrying N. Lyndale to Titst Ave. inKtis. 

To Patrons 
N. Lyndale to 51st Ave. Line 

Effective Monday, November 27, the following change will 
be made in the plan of operation of the "No Stop" Car leaving 
Hennepin and Washington Avenues Northbound, at 6:00 p.m. Ex< 
cept Saturday and Sunday. 

No stops to let off passengers will be made between The Loop 
and Washington and 20th Aves. N. (instead of Washington and 
Lowry Aves.) 

As heretofore stops to take on passengers will be made at any 
regular stopping place and stops to let off passengers will be made 
at any regular stopping place between 20th Ave. North and the 
terminus of the line. 

Coniplaint.4 and SuRgestions Always Receive Prompt, Courteous Attention. 
A. W. \N'arnock, General I'asMnger Agent, Hennepin Ave. and 11th St. 
Telephones— N.W. Main 4580— T.S. 38 134, 


which is (displayed general information which we be- 
lieve is most essential in following up our advertising 
satisfactorily. These Cards carry constant daily invi- 
tations and reminders to pas.sengers to bring their griev- 
ances to us for prompt attention. 

The past year we have issued pocket time-tables of 
each of our local lines for the information of patrons. 
We do not show the time where the headway is very 
frequent during the rush hours, but practically all cars 
are shown from all terminals on all lines from midnight 

January 6. 19171 



to midnight. The signs and routes of each line are 
given, and altogether a patron with one of these time- 
tables in his pocket experiences a feeling of satisfaction 
in knowing just what service he has a right to expect 
on his line. We all know how patrons have the habit 
of writing for such information, and so we give it to 
them in neatly printed form. One folder gives the car 
signs and routes of all the lines of our system. How 
times have changed! Think of issuing a street rail- 
way time-table in the old horse-car days! 

To make his advertising fulfill its mission and get 
results, whether the commodity he is offering be gro- 
ceries, pianos or street-car service, the advertiser must 
do exactly what he says he will do and give exactly 
what he promises to give, tying up each transaction 
with those silken strings called courtesy and considerate 
service. A public-service corporation must make even 
greater efforts to back up its promises with civil, effi- 
cient performance. You must first believe absolutely 
— or, at least, most of it — is reasonable, and that good 
will on your part will beget good will on the public's 
part. You must stand ready and willing to do the right 

and reasonable thingat all times as well as to receive 
with an open mind "any complaints and suggestions, 
whether they be reasonable or unreasonable. You should 
regard the receipt of such complaints as real opportuni- 
ties to make friends and to remedy defects in your serv- 
ice, instead of taking offense thereat, as has unfortu- 
nately been the case too many times in the past. In 
that way you will earn and retain the good will of your 
public, and there will be no question about whether 
your advertising "pays." 

Advertising, stripped to the bone, is simply telling 
your "store news" hone.stly, clearly and sincerely, and 
then making good on it. That means treating the cus- 
tomer well and satisfying him completely from the be- 
ginning to the end of his dealings with you. In short, 
it is the practical application of the Golden Rule. In 
recent years the "wiseheimers" in the advertising line 
have made much talk about "psychology," "appeal to 
the mind," and other vague and mysterious things, 
whereas really to any straight-thinking business per- 
son advertising should be as simple as the first three 
letters of the alphabet. 

A Public Relations Department 

By Frank Wert 

Manager Public Relations Department, Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Company 

The Purposes of a Public Relations Department Are 
Explained by the Author, Also the Means' Which 
Have Been Adopted for Improving the Relations Be- 
tween the Company and Its Employees. 

THE Mahoning & Shenango Railway & Light Com- 
pany of Youngstown, Ohio, has had a public rela- 
tions department since Sept. 1, 1914, and we look 
upon its field as somewhat more comprehensive 
than a publicity department, as its scope includes a 
variety of activities all bearing upon the question of im- 
proving the relations of the company with the patrons. 
Some of these activities have been fairly well estab- 
lished, while others remain to be developed to their 
proper degree of usefulness. Prior to its organization, 
matters of publicity, advertising, complaints, etc., were 
cared for in departments whose other duties were too 
pressing for them always to give proper attention to 
these "side issues." Hence the department was organ- 
ized and these matters placed under its jurisdiction, and 
other duties assigned to it from time to time as occa- 
sion arose. 

The field covered by the department at present may 
be divided about as follows: 

Publicity.- — Supplying ten daily and several weekly 
newspapers with news facts about the company, its 
activities, accidents, etc., and in general affording a 
ready means for newspapers to obtain information and 
acting as the company's mouthpiece. All matters per- 
taining to the lay press, and largely to the technical 
press, are handled in or through this department. 

Advertising. — Both commercial and "good-will." Com- 
paratively little of the latter ha.s been done, but oppor- 
tunity is never' lost to use the advertising columns of 
newspapers to announce and explain changes in sched- 
ules, routes, transfer privileges, fare collections, etc. 
More comprehensive use of newspaper space for "good- 
v}\\\" advertising is contemplated, the difficulty noj be- 
ing the subject matter for such advertisements, but 
rather the opportune time for establishing the jjrece- 
dent so as not to create the impression that the company 


"wants something," 
and therefore is "try- 
ing to be good." All 
contracts for advertis- 
ing and, in a general 
way, all copy, especial- 
ly if it touches on any 
question of policy, are 
under the jurisdiction 
of this department. 

Bureau of Adjust- 
ments. — This is an ad- 
junct to the depart- 
ment to which all pa- 
trons, railway or 
lighting, are invited to 
bring their grievances 
in order that the com- 
pany may make rep- 
aration, may adjust or 
explain, as the case 
warrants. It is the medium through which the 
company seeks to meet the individual who feels that 
he has not been used fairly and to right speedily any 
wrong that exists. It is operated upon the basis that 
"the customer is right" until the contrary is proved, 
and that no matter complained of is too trivial for thor- 
ough investigation. This bureau has been in existence 
for one year and has handled more than 1500 cases. 
Many of these, of course, have been trivial, but some of 
them have disclosed conditions of operation which could 
be changed in such manner as to lead to the satisfac- 
tion of a large number of patrons who had not voiced 
their dissatisfaction. Very few absolute failures to 
satisfy the patron have resulted, though the number of 
those who remained resentful but silent cannot be esti- 
mated. Letters and personal expressions of satisfaction 
at the courtesy and fair dealing meted out by the bu- 
reau have been fairly numerous. Of course, the great 
bulk of complainants are never heard from, partly be- 
cause their resentment vanishes after the first outburst 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

and partly because a complaint adjusted becomes to 
them a closed incident not calling for any comment. 

This bureau also handles the refunding of excess 
fares dropped into fare boxes, calls concerning outage 
of street lamps and some commercial lighting "trouble 
calls," and shortly it will take over the restoration to 
owners of articles found on the cars. 

HoTise Organ. — The Em-an-Ess Electric News, a 
monthly paper, 6 in. x 9 in., twenty-four pages and 
cover, is issued under the editorial direction of the man- 
ager of public relations. A part of a sample page of 
this little periodical is shown in the illustration below 
which indicates also one of the ways in which the op- 
portunity for introducing a newcomer in the company 
ranks to the mass of employees is embraced by the 
publicity department. 

The Em-and-Ess Electric Neios is distributed free to 
every employee and to a small number of persons outside 



Introdiftrtng Our New Manager of 

and Extending 

PEKllArS in Ibosc gtxjdold days 
in tftc fine Massachusetts com- 
munity," designated on the maps 
as Newton, the "feUows called him 
Dick." In fad it may be taken for 
granted thai they did. Boys are pretty 
much the same the continent ov^ and. 
whether it be in the somewhat staid 
and rilf,'ri!nated New England, the 
sunny and salubrious South, or the 
more breezy "Middle West, boyish 
nomenclature is aiwut alike, so tliat no 
good, genial "regular fellow" could 
possibly Ik- known by his properly be- 
stowed t.liri.stian name, excepting 
when a slorn-visagcd father decided 
that the time had arrived for parental 
reproval of some prank or otTier. 

So. no doubt, he was "l^ick" during 
those years spent in the, public schools 
of Newton, tliose days of more serious 
study ti) i(joo-02 in the 'Massachusetts 
Institute' of Teclinology and even dur- 
ing^ ilitich of the four years spent at 
Harvard University, but, when he 
emerged from the sehola.stic institution 
founded by John Harvard as the first 
college in the American Colonics, it 
■I »i I ii 4T 

Railways, Mr. Richard T. Sullivan 
Him Greetings 

of the Houston Klectric Company, 
having^Jwcct charge of the city lines 
of Houston and the tnterurban lines 
stretching out some forty miles to the 
occasionally storm-swept city of Gal- 
veston. In those years he still found 
time, at intervals* to help in solving 
some of the railway problems of other 
centers, so that he comes to us a rail- 
way man of broad experience, equipped 
to assume full charge of approximate- 
ly 20O miles of railways. 

With the Em-an-Ess System Mr. 
Sullivan will have full charge of the 
Railway Department, including, as it 
does, the city lines of Youngstown. 
New Castle. Sharon and Warren, and 
all the interurban lines connecting 
those towns or radiating from them. . 

Furthermore, he comes here with a 
worthy ideal. He mentioned it the 
other evening at a meeting of the Em- 
an-Ess Club when he was introduced 
to some thirty or forty of his co-work- 
ers. It was the expectation that, with 
every department working shoulder to 
shoulder with every other department, 
the Km-an-J^ss System wotild go stetd- 


the company. Its purposes are especially to promote 
courtesy toward patrons, the practice of safety in opera- 
tion and co-operation among the various divisions of em- 
ployees and, in general, to place before all employees 
the problems involving electric railway and power com- 
panies with a view to the promotion of better relations 
with the public. That is to say, the company feels that 
by homeopathic doses of educational effort the large 
number of employees who actually come into touch with 
the riding and light-buying public may gradually be 
turned from a liability of unsympathetic ignorance con- 
cerning the company into a decided asset through: 

1. A growing appreciation of what is due to patrons 

2. Improvement in the service rendered, and there- 
fore a removal of many causes of friction between com- 
pany and public (safety and efficiency). 

3. An intelligent understanding of some of the more 
outstanding problems of public utilities (paving bur- 
dens, excessive taxation, service requirements beyond 
the earning capacities of lines, etc.), so that the em- 
ployees may become advocates of fair treatment of the 
companies instead of joining in the chorus of unthink- 
ing criticism. 

To insure reading by the employees in general and 
to gain sympathetic interest for the publication, one- 
third to one-half of the paper is devoted to personal 

news from all departments. Considerable space is also 
devoted to articles on changes in personnel, improve- 
ments made by the company, new equipment, history of 
various departments, biographical sketches of old em- 
ployees, etc., while the more important educational efforts 
are kept from being so conspicuous as to alienate the 
interest of the great body of employees. Too much 
preaching leads to resentment. 

It has also appeared to us that a good means of accom- 
plishing the purposes sought in the paper is to publish 
from time to time cartoons representative of some gen- 
eral idea upon which may be based an editorial article of 
instructive value. For this purpose we have utilized 
cartoons published in the Electric Railway Journal, 
and we hope to print other cartoons in the same manner, 
believing that cartoons are a powerful means of pointing 
a moral. 

In the Councils of the Company. — Under the organiza- 
tion plan of the company the heads of the main depart- 
ments, such as the railway, light and power, accounting, 
treasury and claims, form a sort of cabinet for the presi- 
dent, and meet regularly every two weeks to discuss com- 
pany problems. The manager of public relations is a 
member of this "cabinet," and his "portfolio" is that of 
"advocate of the people." He is included in this group 
for two purposes: 

1. So that he may be informed concerning all impor- 
tant developments, a necessity for publicity work, and 

2. That he may present objections to any proposal 
which, from his observation, would seem to be objection- 
able to the people. Sometimes this may lead to a project 
being abandoned or postponed till conditions change. 
More often it leads to modification to meet the wishes of 
the public. Still more frequently it results in a dis- 
cussion of a proposal from many viewpoints and the 
determination upon a plan for presentation to the people 
so as to reduce to a minimum their opposition by clearly 
showing to them the benefits to them as well as to the 

For essentially the same reasons the manager of public 
relations is a member of or attends meetings of various 
departmental organizations, the object always being to 
keep him fully informed of developments in the company 
and to insure due consideration of the wishes and needs 
of the public on the part of all executive and operating 

Questions of donations to charities and various other 
incidental matters go to complete the "tour of duty" 
for the department, so that there are few activities of 
the company that do not touch to some extent or other 
the public relations work. 

Essential Truths of Public Relations 

In conclusion I might say that I have read with in- 
terest the publicity and public relations editorials pub- 
lished for some weeks past in the Electric Railway 
Journal, and consider them exceptionally forceful and 
thoughtful expositions of the truths which must be ac- 
cepted sooner or later by all public utilities, namely: 

That publicity is a necessary part of public utility 

That publicity must be free and frank, never so 
slightly tinged by press agency-, and must be constant, 
considerate and progressive, if suspicion and misunder- 
standing, due to the silence and, in some instances, 
"gum-shoe" political methods of former years, are to be 
replaced by confidence and appreciation. 

That education is needed not solely by the public, but 
just as much by the rank and file of employees, and, per- 
haps, even more particularly by the executives, boards 
of directors and stockholders, whose financial interests 
are bound up in the welfare of utilities. 

January 6, 1917] 



Publicity Pays 

By W. T. Waters 

Publicity Manager Georgia Railway & Power Company, Atlanta, Ga. 

Publicity Is Broad and Far-Visioned Advertising 
and Can Be of Material Assistance in Every Just 
Cause — The Editorials in the ELECTRIC Railway 
Journal Point the Way. 

I WONDER how many street railway bondholders 
and stock owners and directors and executives read 
those recent editorials in the ELECTRIC Railway 

Journal on publicity? And of those who did read 
them, how many soaked them in? Were they believed 
and taken to heart? Or were they forgotten forthwith 
as vain ideals, phrased by some publicity fanatic of 
more words than experience? 

How much of their import went clear over the heads 
of the folks who say the yeas and nays of street rail- 
roading? That's the test. Did they get it? Did the 
series set them to thinking that perhaps after all some 
of this talk about the value of publicity is more than 
mere verbiage; that it points the way to some prac- 
tical and desirable results — did they catch these truths? 

If only a few of them did the JOURNAL has hastened 
measurably that day when publicity will be a real factor 
in electric railway affairs. 

The Journal's editorials advanced many strong argu- 
ments. I should like to see them distilled to their 
epigrams and kept constantly before the men who make 
and break policies. 

One of these was that corporation publicity is no 
press agent work ; that the man to perform it must have 
"enough size and weight to make his superiors allow 
him to do the right thing in spite of their prejudices 
and previous habits." These are bold specifications, 
and radical — but right. Publicity under the old rules 
of repression would not be publicity at all. 

And another was this: "The very fact that a com- 
pany is trying by a frank policy of publicity to set 
itself right with the public inevitably leads its em- 
ployees into the same attitude." This is one big result 
rarely included in the estimates. 

"The kind of publicity that sticks its head in the 
sand never accomplishes very much," said another. In 
truth, it never accomplishes anything. It is not pub- 

"Successful publicity must concern itself with things 
about which the public is clamoring for information," 
for if it doesn't, the public will get misinformation 
about those same things, which is just what publicity 
must prevent. 

"If explained as they arose, there would be few seri- 
ous controversies between corporations and the public 
they serve." And if the explanations be started long 
before they arise there will be still fewer serious con- 

"The best man to do the every-day cultivation of the 
new.spapers is the publicity man." Because he knows 
just what sort of cultivating to do — which is the self- 
respecting sort that begs no favors and peddles no 
alms; and just how much — which is mighty little. 

But I C'Uld keep on quoting till I reproduced the 

A certain prolific syndicate writer who formerly was 
a minister has retained the wonderful faculty of dis- 
cussing ^vith an air of finality any subject under the 
sun. But recently he said something. He praised ad- 


vertising (which is an 
integral part of pub- 
licity), because in it 
"business becomes vo- 
cal." Industry and 
organization, said he, 
"are dumb giants until 
they find speech — 
dumb and dangerous." 
"The telephone peo- 
ple are spending a deal 
of money talking to 
the public through the 
newspapers," he con- 
tinued. "It is the wis- 
est, shrewdest move a 
corporation ever made. 
Somebody in the tele- 
phone company had 

Then this : "Rail- 
roads, street cars, gas, electricity companies and similar 
forms of public utility are in a bad way. They complain 
that every man's hand is against them and that legisla- 
tion is hostile. The cause of their plight is that they 
have not advertised properly. Even at this late day an 
intelligent program of advertising might save them. 
Without that, their days are numbered." 

It may not be quite so bad as that; but, anyway, 
there's an outsider's suggestion. He happens to be an 
outsider whose writings are read (and believed in, to 
the last syllable) by a great many people in a number 
of cities. 

Publicity ought to have become a well-marked line 
of activity among corporations when the early muck- 
rakers put on paint and feathers. 

But it was overlooked then, or deferred, or rejected, 
and therefore is all the more important now. The peo- 
ple have had their temporary fill of crusading and have 
constituted themselves into a vast jury with some grow- 
ing sense of responsibilities. To win the verdict of 
this jury the corporation must employ publicity in all 
forms. And to do that effectively it must retain pub- 
licity counsel, just as it must retain legal counsel upon 
matters pertaining to courts of law. The public is 
not to be censured for the prejudiced verdict that is apt 
to follow if it hears nothing, either evidence or argu- 
ment, from the utility's side of the court, or if what it 
hears from there is haltingly and weakly presented. 

In the end public opinion is irresistible. It controls 
the legislative, administrative, executive and judicial 
departments of state and city. They are mere agencies 
and instruments of its will. Its recognition has got to 
be merited, and sought, and won. 

The cause that is just need not fear this tribunal. 
True, human nature will retain its emotions, and to an 
extent can be swayed by them into prejudice. But, 
also, it will hold to its faculties of reasoning. By ad- 
dressing itself to the average intelligence of the aver- 
age man and woman, the utility will win that deserves 
to win. 

Regardless of ifs and buts, however, utilities stand 
before the tar of public opinion whether in fear or in 
confidence. They're there, and they've got to make 




[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

the best of it. They've got to plead their cause. 
They've got to employ publicity in some form, in some 
degree, and while they are about it they might as well 
use it fully and effectively. 

Perhaps some indifference toward public opinion still 
survives here and there among utilities. Or perhaps 
the flayings they suffered in bygone years have left 
some controlling individuals raw to the touch even of 
balms and unguents. It may be some were burned so 
often and so cruelly by publicity in hostile hands that 
now the very sound of its name twangs their nerves 

Goodness knows these unfortunate gentlemen, if such 
there be, will find it easy to continue so by shrinking 
from publicity that is in their own behalf. Of course, 
they organize other defensive measures. Of course, 
they overlook no other detail. Yet they would forego 
this. They have not yet realized that to resist without 
it is but to temporize with the final issue. They may 
have their assailants licked to a frazzle on points, but 
unless the public knows it, what's the use in the end? 
Unless the lawyer convinces the jury, where does he 
get by having a better case than his opponent? 

The fact that one has been seared by publicity's hot 
irons does not warrant his refusal of their defense in 
the hands of one who knows which end to pick them 
up by. Then he should be after enjoying the sights that 
he can see. For publicity can be just as effective in 
defense as in aggression — much more so, in fact, if the 
aggression be ignoble. 

The basic principles of publicity are not subject to 
challenge. They are cut in the stone. But their prac- 
tice may be a matter of individual method. Right there 
the human equation enters. Different men may inter- 
pret controlling circumstances from different angles of 
understanding. On each must rest the responsibility 
of his own course. 

For my part, I believe optional expediency never 
should govern when it compromises the principles of 
publicity. As to when expediency is optional and when 
not — there again enters the human equation. I think 
the situation is rare in which the honest utility can be 
compelled into surrender. 

Voicing my own opinion still, I believe expediency is 
optional and that it compromises the far-seeing prin- 
ciples of publicity when it demands for the sake of tem- 
porary peace that some graft, polite or impolite, be 
countenanced. For instance, an artificial and super- 
imposed advertising rate is assessed against a utility by 
some newspaper, as though its advertising were objec- 
tionable and to be penalized with that of clairvoyants 
and quacks and other fakers. Though this segregation 
is without excuse in conscience or reason in business, the 
newspaper has unquestioned privilege to declare it. But 
it has no right to coerce the utility into buying space at 
the spurious rate. Again, worthless or superfluous 
advertising is proffered with the intimation that the 
utility must buy. Both of these are dishonest prac- 
tices. They and similar forms of blackmail will be 
tolerated no longer by any company from any quarter 
when those who own the utilities feel the courage of 
their moral position. 

Again, it is my opinion that the time of all times for 
any corporation to press the accelerator on its publicity 
is when it is under attack. This opinion may be con- 
fronted by that of experienced electric railway men 
that the better course is to lie low and let public inter- 
est pass on. But would it do that any sooner? Public 
interest in a given topic endures just so long and no 
longer. Determined defense by a utility under fire 
will not prolong this interest unduly, but on the con- 
trary may dissipate it by clarifying the issue and an- 

ticipating discussion. Moreover, if it has the public's 
good opinion, the utility stands to lose too large a 
measure of that by remaining silent under abuse. The 
time to convince the public mind is while that mind is 
open to what you have to say. Silence emboldens the 
pack to yap the harder, engenders the suspicion that 
there really is something up the tree and brings no 
end to anything. 

"A lot of disappointments have been caused by the 
hiring of reporter press agents," said one of the 
.Journal's editorials. Care should be taken, as the 
Journal took it, to charge those disappointments 
against their true cause. By no means do they demon- 
strate the failure of publicity as a policy. 

To attract the best men and hold them, publicity must 
be recognized by the utilities as a worthy and technical 
calling and must be compensated as such. To pay for 
reporter press-agent service and expect something of a 
higher order is unreasonable. 

The field of utility publicity is broadening and begins 
to offer those further possibilities of progress which 
inspire effort. The demand is for workers who realize 
that the day of special pleading has passed and that 
specious defense is worse than none at all, who can 
retain the viewpoint of the critical outsider and address 
to his understanding and acceptance the truths about 
public service. 

But the mere securing of the right man and the mere 
designating of him with some entitlement — this is but 
the beginning of deliberate publicity. The name of the 
thing is not enough. The concession of the theory, 
the recognition of the policy accomplish little. Beyond 
and above these the fearless spirit of publicity has got 
to be there. 

Publicity does pay. It is but advertising — broad and 
far-visioned advertising. All of us advertise, whether 
consciously or not. We bow to good taste in personal 
matters. We demand creditable business stationery 
and presentable offices. We pay commensurate rent for 
locations on good business streets. We spend money to 
keep our cars varnished and our windows washed. All 
this is advertising or publicity, and every cent we put 
into it is well invested. Every day of our lives we 
adhere to the credo that publicity judiciously advanced 
certainly pays. 

As a cold, strict, absolutely calculating business 
proposition publicity pays not only in more zealous 
loyalty among employees and in fair treatment dictated 
by public esteem, but also in dollars and cents that 
flow from that loyalty and that esteem; in increased 
demand for whatever we have to sell, whether it be car 
rides or cabbages. 

The electric railway that depends for its dividends 
on the fortunity that if people ride in street cars they 
must pay it their nickels is not only foolish and pathet- 
ically myopic, it is precariously near the edge of big 

A whole lot of folks have a say-so in the conduct 
of every corporation, be it public or private. And 
that's the rub. They have many conflicting opinions. 
The convincing of their majority that publicity offers 
peace to their business souls and fair wages to their 
commercial investments is not a task that can be lightly 
disDOsed of. 

Therefore it is that I wonder how many owners and 
creditors and managers read the Journal's editorials 
and absorbed them and were moved by them to deter- 
mination upon action. 

How many, and who? 

It is an interesting question. The answer could fore- 
tell much of the to-morrow of public service by private 




January 6, 1917] 



Special Ideas in Publicity Work 

By E. B. Atchley 

Publicity Agent Kansas City Railways Company 

TEXT: "Whatsoever ye would have the people do unto 
you, do ye even so unto the people" — and it will he 

THIS is a little sermon — a little sermon on pub- 
licity — and it covers every publicity idea under 
the sun. The publicity department ought to be a 
flood of sunlight, diverging in all directions from 
the heart of every public service concern, enveloping all 
the people served. 

But the heart of the corporation must be there, and 
the chief e.xecutive is the heart. That publicity depart- 
ment is unsuccessful which does not have standing back 
of it the right kind of a chief executive, for he, too, 
needs must have as thorough an understanding of 
human nature as the publicity department. In this the 
Kansas City Railways' publicity department is most 

kSecretiveness has been the curse of public service 
corporations because secretiveness brought only the just 
condemnation of an interested public — no praise. The 
people want to be friendly, and they will be, save for a 
few meddlers, if they are taken into the corporation's 
confidence. The public will treat you as you treat the 
public, and present opportunities for good publicity 
work enabling the department to grasp these oppor- 
tunities. That is keeping ahead of the procession! 

Recently the Common Council of Rosedale, a suburb 
of Kansas City, protested against the cars in use by 
the Kansas City Railways, and adopted a resolution pro- 
hibiting their operation. 

The controversy brought bitter words, and while the 
break was bridged temporarily, the bad feeling was not 
wholly removed. In a few weeks a movement started 
by Rosedale women for a big playground, and the Rail- 
ways' publicity department was the first to give aid in 
pushing the movement. Cards were carried on the cars 
boosting the playground, while newspaper stories urging 
the people to help found their way into print from this 
department. While this work meant no financial return 
to the company it did mean a better feeling, and to-day 
the women of Rosedale sing the praises of the Railways. 
The Golden Rule did it! 

Knowing that all Kansas City was interested in the 
November election, the Railways arranged with the light 
■company for a system of signals to announce the results 
as soon as the telegraph brought the news. The news- 
papers took up the plan, carried stories on it from day 
to day, and it was talked everywhere. The plan was 
•carried out, with the result that everybody on the cars, 
as well as the people who remained at home, knew who 
had won as quickly as the people who watched the bul- 
letin boards. Everybody was pleased. 

Space has been given on the front of the cars in the 
last few months to promote public welfare, church, 
school and hospital work to show the Railways is in- 
terested and willing to aid in promoting any movement 
for the public good. Undoubtedly the assistance given 
these measures has aided the Railways materially in its 
efforts til relieve traffic congestion, for the organiza- 
tions boosted have, in turn, fought for better traffic regu- 
lations on the part of the city. In some of this work 
the pulilicity department has gone outside its regular 
duties to in the preparation of newspaper stories. 


but everything done 
has been productive of 
splendid results. 

Kansas City inaugu- 
rated a "health week" 
early in December, 
holding big meetings 
in Convention Hall, 
where a "health evan- 
gelist" exhorted his 
hearers to live up to 
the health rules laid 
down. The railways 
joined in the move- 
ment, helped in the 
newspaper publicity 
work, placed cards on 
the front of the cars 
calling attention to 
the meetings and pre- 
pared health literature 
for distribution on the cars. Every health advocate in 
the city talked about what the Railways was doing — and 
he liked it. The Railways did for the health advocate 
what it would like the health advocate to do for it under 
similar circumstances, and it naturally brought good 
will. Isn't this the object of a publicity department? 
The safety work inaugurated by the Railways pub- 
licity department has been thoroughly "covered" in the 
Electric Railway Journal, but in the few months 
it has been carried on the work has developed wonder- 
fully. Safety patrols have been established by all 
.schools, essays are written by pupils, and the various 
local school publications carry articles on safety. These 
things followed the work of the safety director carried 
on in the schools, but they also indicated co-operation 
as a result of the publicity department having taken a 
part in pushing school athletics, evidencing more 
strongly the biblical truth. 

Just one more word about building good will in a 
special manner. When the national encampment of the 
Grand Army of the Republic was held in Kansas City 
last August, this department issued a small daily news- 
paper called "The G. A. R. Edition" of The Railwayan, 
this being the title of the company's magazine for its 
employees, which carried all official news of the encamp- 
ment and 20,000 copies of which were distributed free 
each day. Everybody interested in that encampment 
clamored for recognition in that little newspaper. It 
was made the official organ, and resolutions were adopted 
indorsing, praising and proclaiming all the other neces- 
sary good will, friendship, etc. Thousands of visitors 
saved every copy, many wrote back for extra copies 
after they went home, congratulatory letters came in by 
the dozen, and that paper was the talk of the town. It 
simply made a big hit, and the 20,000 veterans went 
back to their homes declaring Kansas City had the best 
street railway system on earth, to which every employee 
of the company wholly agreed. The little newspaper 
did it! 

And now a word about newspaper publicity. Hardly 
a day has gone by in the last ten months since the 
Railways established its publicity department that the 
newspapers have not carried favorable mention of the 





[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

company. Of course, there has been criticism — some 
just, some unjust. When the criticism has been unjust 
it has always been regarded as an unintentional error, 
and so treated in discussing the matter with the news- 
papers, the man who wrote it never being blamed and 
no anger being displayed. Keporters from every paper 
in the city call daily at this office, being kept advised of 
the Railways plans, frequently a week in advance of the 
time of publication, and not one has violated the con- 
fidence. They are as careful not to violate a confidence 
as a company official. In the news submitted for pub- 
lication no effort is made to boost the company, no facts 
are hidden. The truth is always told. In this manner 
the Railways' publicity department Has established a 
feeling of confidence in the statements made. Every 
effort is made to be fair — and news is judged mainly 
from the viewpoint of the public and the newspaper 
man, not purely from the company's viewpoint. This, 
it is considered, is a vital matter in the publicity work. 

If the newspaper becomes convinced the publicity man 
is "coloring" news, all information coming from the 
department is regarded as "colored." As a result of 
the confidence established, when an accident is reported 
to police headquarters involving the Railways, almost 
the first step of the reporter "covering" it is to call this 
department. If the information is not at hand the de- 
partment secures it, looks into every angle of it and 
supplies the details. The newspapers take the state- 
ments as true. Wishing to be dealt with fairly, the 
Railways deals with the newspapers fairly — and the 
plan has proved to be right in Kansas City. 

Whatsoever ye would that any or all should do unto 
you, do ye even so unto them, is the great fundamental 
law, or idea, of publicity, o'ershadowing everything, 
reaching even unto your enemies. Opportunities will 
bring forth the lesser and more special ideas, differing 
as to localities and dependent wholly on the brain that 
directs the work. The flood of sunlight will loose itself. 

"Straight-Talk" Publicity 

By E. E. Soules 

Manager Department of Publicity, Illinois Traction System 

The Author Outlines the Policy of the Illinois Trac- 
tion System, Which Is Invariably to Tell the Com- 
pany's Story First Thereby Obviating the Necessity 
for Defensive Campaigns to Meet Popular Criticism 
Based on Misinformation. 

IF the illustrious David Harum had given the same 
thought to the psychology of public utility opera- 
tion that he gave to horse trading it is almost a 
certainty that his advice would have been to "tell 
the truth about yourself — and tell it first." 

Actual experience has convinced the operators of 
American public utilities that publicity, rightly used, is 
a valuable factor in producing and maintaining desira- 
ble relations with the public. As to the method to be 
used, it has been demonstrated that this is dependent 
in large measure upon local conditions. It is impossible 
to lay down a hard and fast set of publicity command- 
ments that will apply to all properties. There are 
scores of publicity mediums, and the first duty of the 
executive who has under his direction the outlining of 
the publicity policy of his property is to pick the me- 
dium that will work to best advantage in his particular 
territory. Then follows the selection of method of ap- 
peal to be used through this medium. 

It is possible, however, to form some conclusions from 
the experience of others, and the results of the publicity 
efforts and methods pursued by a company that has 
pioneered in public utility publicity should be of interest 
to the present-day public utility operator. 

The Illinois Traction System, operating some 800 
miles of interurban and city railway, with gas, elec- 
tric and steam-heat plants in twenty-five cities in the 
Central West, was perhaps one of the first companies of 
its kind to establish a publicity department. The inno- 
vation was worked out and put into effect by H. E. 
Chubbuck, vice-president executive, and since 1909 the 
publicity department has been a fixture with this prop- 

The company started its publicity work at a time 
when part of its property was in the development stage. 
This is an advantage. During this period the manage- 
ment has a story to tell that is welcome in the community 
in which it intends to operate. The ordinary reader 

is interested in learning of the plans of a new enter- 
prise. He likes to feel that he is being given advance 
information on a project that affects the prosperity 
and development of his particular neighborhood. If he 
is taken into the confidence of the company at the out- 
set he is very likely to take a personal interest in the 
affairs of the company in years to come. 

From the beginning the publicity policy of the Illi- 
nois Traction System has been based upon the use of 
the newspaper as a medium. For this reason the pub- 
licity department has been in charge from its incep- 
tion of a man taken from the newspaper field. The 
original idea of co-operation between the management 
of the property and the newspapers has not been 
changed. It has been the aim of the company to con- 
stantly impress upon the mind of the publishers in its 
territory the idea that its publicity department is at 
their command at any and all times for the furnishing 
of any information that may be consistently given in 
regard to matters of public interest. It has not been 
the intention of the company to "work" the editorial 
or news rooms of the publications for free, or compli- 
mentary write-ups, nor to save on its advertising bills 
by "slipping in" editorial matter of an advertising 

However, instances of co-operation between the com- 
pany and the editorial rooms of the newspapers appear 
in connection with accidents, wrecks, new extensions, 
purchasing of equipment, etc. In case of an accident 
it is the policy of the company to place every means for 
the securing of necessary information at the disposal 
of the newspaper man. Requests from the newspaper 
man for information on matters of news interest con- 
cerning the company's affairs receive immediate and 
careful attention. Another example of this kind of co- 
operation is the issuing of a "press sheet" at frequent 
intervals. This contains short news stories written in 
newspaper style so that they reach the news editor's 
desk in such shape that he can use a few or all of them 
at his own convenience and discretion. This news sheet 
is mimeographed and mailed to a list of all publications 
in the territory. 

The publicity department is not used to keep the 
newspaper man out of the office of the executive officials. 

January 6, 1917J 



The door of the highest official is always open to the 
newspaper man with a legitimate request for facts. 
Nor is the department used for the suppression of bad 
news. The policy of the company is to give the news- 
paper man the bad news along with the good and to ask 
only in return an even break on editorial comment or 
news "position." 

When the company has a story to tell that deals with 
a question of public policy it buys and pays for sufficient 
space in the newspapers to tell it. Its policy is to place 
this display advertising copy with all newspapers in 
the territory affected, regardless of the editorial policy 
of the paper. It considers the avoidance of hostile 

A Straight Talk on 
Street Cars 

What the Automobile and General Business 

Ck)nditions Did to the Peoria 

RaUway Co. in 1915 

TVf ti net 1 pnMperitT itory. sMlKer U it a wUM 
sraaylMrtiu'L It a ■ lOitawnt of fMb 

W« balier* the peajiU of Pwri* ut tiitenkted In 
fMU fstber Uun (Uttenng g«iwr^itiM haring proa- 
pmt; *a a Ui<-iii« and wc tit ifsatx MiM apar* lo Ml 
jou Joit what ihr 7«ar 1913 intaiii to oa and aona at 
tb* Kaaotn wt aMjfa UtcrdoT. 

TV Peoria Railmr Compuij mrrifd 6TD,000 tenti 
pay puarag^n In 19U tbu is l!>14. Ita f»ri olrrird 
(j-iw ftcaetitrn in ISlt Uian m 1311 Em art Oie 

I9U 1^14 

tVkrt fam T,S06ja8 -S,M0,3W 

Ca>b turn „.„..^..^j...- 8.08T/M5 M13,906 

15.993:273 UjBblSi* 
TitMter bn« „..«.,.... 3;>Mja*. 3X1,333 

Tia*. dtniiig lli« paat ytar. »*u1r ihr aumber nt paj 
pttitmftn I'M appMsmuttdv irTC.On) Int iban *n 
If>11 Iba numtwr of tianafn' puACDRCn. wliiiJi nipanii 

nh 4Kreaa* IB bwlBCM la bataf BAtad yaar attar 
jtai la aptta of a carraqMndiof ataadj growth for th* 
cHj ct PaorU Mlh la populaUan, cItIc iMattlt asd 

Ticrt art rMaoaa fnr l!ii» foalraffitlory^fondifiuo. 
AMnrdisK t« ««r ao»!,T»is thf priaripal firalributary 
eauM la the prtrttalj ovsad aatamoUIa. ADotlier 
Muar. but oat neeoaanly a pf rmaDtM onr. la Cm ci- 
Minc (CDcnJ teBiDcaa oonditviL 

Mae* rwdlTI «f Ihia atalnspni do daubl pewf a a 
tbrir nim automobile. Tlir^ •rliJ rMd that bcfrT^' 
tb*7 inTorlcd la thla Mavcfanee ibvj rod* *« Blrerl 
car to th« oSIt* or Ibc ibop in Ihn noniing am) tr- 
lunwal b7 atfvrt car at nilAL Tbry wml mth tlirir 
fuuHj aod fti*»di to the tbcatcr ru itntl or Tbc} 

nrsntiattd buainraa tripa In tjir aama maniiFr. On 
bolida.Ti the* boardch a atrrrt nr tor a trip to ib« 
park. On Sundafi thej [uolid tLcir waj to chuTrh is 

In thu day tbMc lanw itrrrt rar patnwa irivt thrlr 
rar to the office is the monung and drira hauu in Iba 
rvrcinf, pnibabl; pidung up iw-reral bitoda or Bvif-h- 
boni on both trip*. For a ihcaur partj Ibc^prrs* Iba 
autoioDbila Into tirvic*. dininriis tiipa arc made m 
Ihii aatne maimer. On buliiiaya thr or acUom ha an 
rinptf itat and on Hundlj's il mt} M »tta Blandu^g la 
front of thctf rburdL 

Whan fonaarly th*r war* makiog Oim trips ria 
■tmt car at a rata of 4 eanta par trip ttwy ar« noW 
natag tha aotomoblla. altbaofb tbttaaTt(% in txf t»i% 
deaaa't pay for wtar n Uraa. 

The adTfnl of tbc piinUU owori ■ntmnebili' hai 
cut bi( holes io tbr biuioeaa of iJit gtrval car nnipanj 
Id Protia »» wfll u in etrty iifln'r d^, Tni'^. tha 
alrert caraliU baa ita ruab huuir. but Ibtateaily IrnSle 
irhiiA ia (D BTMMary to the pmfitiUt wnduct I'f tbw 
local tnuuporlaOoo company baa bttn pntticaltr toaL 

Oanend bualnr«« rondilunn A'r alio ki| farrlnra in 
the condurt of a atrtd rsilwaf. AMcflartion in bud- 
neaa i> raptdlr mnrded bj a d<^rraae fa) Ibr nuuifan 
«f atrwt ear ndcrn. nu w» again dcBomilrainl la 
1911 and mit. 

On the oprraiiiig fide of du- proparftlon It la c 
fiH't thai co«t •>{ tabor au<i iiialrriala hat ip'-i-'^aaad 
Tapndlj and Ainnuntl)'. Tbii uicana H incrMtc is 

T«t, in tjiito ot Uua routliDt 1 i ltmi\ in numtNt 
vl paweiiRi <i rarried anil iu<<iTa»T ia operalint ex- 
|xii^. «bi-4> ni'>aM inartr'l il'-Tr.-ise fa pet rricnnft 
the iaiBi nickel ar four o*nt Uckat IhK bon^t J9V 
Hda tarn rean aga bnj* a longar. bettar iM more cna 
lacMbb ndt todar 

Peoria Railway Co. 

Br a E. CHUBBUCK, yice-Pmidnit Cieculiv 


newspapers as a short-sighted policy. Equal space is 
usually placed with all newspapers regardless of edi- 
torial opinion. 

Typical "Straight Talks" 

Different styles of copy have been used in different 
cities, the actual method of appeal depending upon local 
conditions. For instance, on one property a series of 
"Straight Talks on Street Cars" was used in which the 
problems of the local street car company were set forth. 
In another city "Plain Talks About the McKinley Com- 
pany in Your City" were carried on, the copy dealing 
with the conditions under which the gas and electric 
company operated in that community. In another city 
the affairs of the company were set forth in opposing a 
municipal ownership bond issue; while in still another 
the advertising columns of the newspaper were used to 
explain reasons for and conditions under which the 
company intended to appeal to the proper regulative 
body for an increase in tariff rates. 

In all of the company's newspaper advertising it en- 
deavors to place its message in words that will be un- 
derstood by the average newspaper reader. It adopts 
the "heart-to-heart" attitude, with the human interest 
side of its story uppermost, at the same time maintain- 
ing the proper amount of dignity. Technical expres- 
sions are avoided, and in no instance is copy used that 
can be construed as antagonistic to individuals or 
classes. Especially is this true in cases such as a cam- 
paign against municipal ownership or some such propa- 
ganda where there is divided opinion in the public mind. 

Personalities in company advertising are religiously 
avoided. The loss of dignity and broad-mindedness 
which should characterize the efforts of a public utility 
company is far greater from the use of personalities 
than any gain. The company endeavors to make state- 
ments rather than refute them. In other words, it en- 
deavors to tell its story first, whether it be good or bad. 


To the Cditof or Publiabn ~ Ttie mfonnation below ta anbiiiilteij for uac at you may *ct fit 
in the ncwa columna ol your pubtitatKm It ia tbc deairc of thia company to cooperate in every way 
poaaible witin^ newapapcrv in fumiBhio^ rcliabtc informatioa concerafaig our propcrtka on mat 
tera of newa intercat to your readera 


Depar tm ent of Pubkcity. 
Peoria. tU E. B. Soulea. Manager 

The electric raUwayo were the first to use the telephone 
-China cars cr trains, m Tact have never used any othrr 

on a najorlty of steam road, the proficiency of tWa method of 
diapatohing 18 dsnointratsi. 

nf th. Tii?^ . J annual picnic of employeee of the general ahope 
Sfl .t llil i', I^ct.on Syate. at Decatur, Ilia., .111 be held in 
MiMJ,!f,^! fl oj^^ncton niB., or, June 22. Thia event ie annually 
?!^H r. F .!" '"' •'"'"J hundred employeea of the iTaotlon 8yete» 

? .K i' =""'=lPa-ec that Congreeeman n. B. Be Klnley, President 
of the Company, win attend as ia hie cuaton. 

A conparison of electric railway atatistics for the 
?f"?5,2 ; °v"iv-'^^^' "* "e""8 for the. correopondlng month 
01 1914 made ty theteerloan Electric Hal Inay Aasociation Indicatea 
that ao a TOola, the electric railway buslnaaa la the United statea 
haa changed but little during that period. Data frcm 107 city and 
interurhan canpanlee reporting to the Aaaociatlon showe an increaae 
in operating revenue cf 1,47 per cent, in operating expensea of 
U.74 per cent, and in net revenue of 3.42 per cent, ohlle data for 
v or theae companies indloateo -o 'ncreaae In taxea of 8,30 per cent 


rather than to spend space and money later denying or 
explaining statements of the opposition or the unin- 

The company endeavors to get the thought to its 
patrons that it is doing the best it can in the way of 
furnishing adequate service. It does not claim in all 
cases that it is furnishing the best possible service, but 
that it is giving the best service possible under existing 
conditions. Where such conditions handicap the com- 
pany an effort is made to explain them. 

An example of "straight-talk" publicity used by this 
company is the full-page display copy which was used 
widely in the New Year and "Prosperity" editions of 
newspapers early in 1916. Where it has been custom- 
ary for utility companies to patronize these "special 
editions" of newspapers with copy expressing the com- 
pliments of the season or pledging co-operation during 
the coming year, this company used copy showing what 
the privately owned automobile did to the local street- 
car company in the year previous. That this piece of 
copy produced results was evident from comment both 
from newspapers and individuals. At any rate, it is 
believed that it set some of its patrons thinking along 
constructive lines. 

' A typical series of "straight talks" used by this com- 
pany for one of its local street railway properties at 




[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

a time when no particular point was at issue, contained 
the following subjects: 

In some cases this copy was illustrated with diagrams 
or halftone cuts, but for the most part the company 
depended upon the type alone for the telling of its story. 

1 — What One Car Traveling One Mile Earns in Peoria 

and Elsewhere. 
2 — You Can't Judge the Earning Capacity of a Street Car 

by the Load It Carries. 
3_Your Nickel, and What Part of It the Street Railway 

Company Retains as a Profit. 
4— The Investment of a Street Railway in City Pavement. 
5 — What a Crowded Car During the Rush Hour Does and 

Does Not Mean. 
6 — The High Cost of Living and Your Street Car Fare. 
7 — The Development of the Street Railway Track and 

What It Has Cost the Industry. 

Of Interest 

to Street Car 


TV Ptoni BailWk.T ninip«DT U rn- 

nilulT rtrvirr cMMiMasI viib Iwtl oob 
dil)OB> ud ibr ti* of t^ dtf 

bnuKbt to 

We Provide the 
Post Card 

In ordrr tli>i ■' w»\ prap^rW invostl- 
||>l* nwh i-oiDfJalnU we uv prvpariof la 
ie*r diMribntlou of ■ vlf ■d4rr*Ml p«t 
rtrd *4iirti ve ••* patrmi* to uv. THEKB 
OABS, M qairkU a* ifwv no br n^nip^ 
irilh bom 

If jint bsTc rfiiDplainl to loallf uw nmr ol 
thH* nrdi^ Till it io, utAling yoor «na 
|7t>inl in apMini- tomm rivin|[ ear number 
nanaoriio*. time ot day. *tc.:Bllaob aifna 

Peoria Railway Co 



"A Fmt r^r LmptrimtM With a Fiot C*nt Fan." 


T.. Ibe P*opl«^tSt. Louin and lb* Tri-Oiti«b; 

Tb* St. LouU KI<?rtrK Terminal Railwav Compaoy 
lia» fr^ mors than ftvc fran nprrated Its suburban ran 
■ •ver Ihr McKinlrv Bridgr bctwpcD Oraut* City, IllitioiB, 
■nd Twelflb and Lucai Strrvta in St. Louia at an actual 


This hridcc and ihcM Icrminak, linkiDg husineM St. 
1.01I]- ttilh thr buvinic public of the moat productiTr bm- 
tionn of Illinoia, werr buill upon plana and hnp^H whirh 
were of ncccaaitx laniely *ipifriiiient4ll. After fivr ye»n 
of efhrimt operation it w appAmit Ibat our b*»v7 invMt- 
■nent m thia etectm ((■t^*'*}' brtKrFii Illinois and .Win- 
wun will betventuallv r«n&S''ali>d uodtr tbr prvMnt rata 
<.f auburban iMrt. A r'htnf;* from tbc piwtMiI ni]rd''(uiaaM 
< onditiiin ia abaohitcly nrrcsiwry Plana for relief are non 
iindfr rcinaiderati<iii. 

Thi! name "lUinoix Trariion OnnpuiT" la popuUrW 
naaocialrid onlr oith thr 430 milm of electrid railroad run- 
iiin| iDto 8t. Louis nirr (hr Mr Kinky brulgf frtmi Illinois 
pointK. TIiMr kDtTurbau liiio rrpmrnl but a snullfr 
[KTlof ihelot»l pniprrtj of the lUiiifliaTrmetian Company, 
and yirld only about 30 prr r«nt of tb« Comotuy'f in^»i 
fevrnuFs TJwotbfrTOp^rtent ik rontnbntea b; ibrlar^« 
pumb«r of cl«lni' ligbtinit and oowcr, Ksa, ctnvt railway, 
ind bcatins propcrtlM located ni various ritlt» lu lllinoix, 
Muwouri, Iowa and Kanus. I«it jk»t out of thr total 
cruw inrom« of thr [IIidhih Tradion Company thr mtrr- 
urban railways iirrvrd by thr Mi-KinW Bridsp. inrliiding 
thr suburban arrvirr. ranwd hut tt,On,OIIOM. Thia waa 
iiol profit, but «■» RTona incofbr. 

Tbr publir uliUtirs in otbrr rit)«« rannot br rtpr^tn), 
nor arr tbey prrmittrd undrr rtirtini: statr utditim ram- 
niiMton laws, Co support thr hndgr and (rrminals in St. 
lyiuiaaDdUirTri-<'itKia. TbMr lattrr br« proprrly a part 
of tbr railway invcstmrnt. 

We beli«Tr in thr policy of informing tbr publir of tha 
facu and fooditioiw runrenunji '>ur propertira. Wr witj 
prrarnt tbroocb Ihr rohimnf of thi> nrwapaprr in a Mrlca 
of advrrtisemrats, facts wbiefa will riplalo tbr ncrrssltyof 
our prra«nl taoerrv and ansirly over ikia Brid(e and 
Termioal Sittiation. 

Thr nrxt artirle will explain and sal forth the grbersl 
rhararirr of our proprrti« in 8t. I^mia and tbr Trl^'itiefc 
H\ P., D.Brll, OrneralSnperuiUitdcut 




8— The Street Car You Rode in Then; the One You Ride 

in Now, and What Your Ride Costs. 
9_How the Cost of Street Railway "Overhead" has Ad- 
vanced with the Times. 
10_Your Street Railway Company as an Employer of 

ll_Twenty-One Million People Rode in Safety on Peoria 

Street Cars Last Year. 
12_What the Peoria Railway Company Fays for Use of 

the Streets. 
Supplementing these general publicity campaigns are 
special campaigns on subjects of public interest. For 
example, at the outset of the jitney invasion the com- 
pany presented its side of the problem through "straight 
talks" in newspapers in the cities principally affected 
by the invader. Typical pieces of copy on this subject 
1_A Preliminary Chat on Street Railway Finance and the 

Jitney Bus. 
2— Your Street Railway and the So-Called Jitney Bus— A 

3— Think of Safety When Choosing Between the Street Car 

and the Jitney Bus. 
4_A Nine-Mile Street Car Ride for the Cost of a Three- 

Mile Jitney Bus Ride. 
5— Jitney Comfort and Jitney Immorality— A Comparison 

with the Street Car. 

6 — What the Street Railway Company Pays for the Use of 

the Streets — A Comparison with the Jitney Bus. 
7— The Jitney Bus Ruling and What It Really Means. 
8 — The Street Car, the Jitney Bus and the Working Man. 

In presenting the case of the jitney bus the company 
did not endeavor to make the point that the jitney was 
all bad and the street car all good. Rather, it was held 
that there was, perhaps, a place for the jitney bus but 
that, if allowed to compete on equal footing with the 
street car, it should be willing to submit to equal regu- 
lation. Also, it was pointed out that the street car of- 
fered added conveniences for the same money, such as 
universal transfers, safety and comfort. 

The company has used this style of copy on several 
occasions when proposed municipally owned plants 
threatened confiscation of its own local properties. It 
is in such campaigns that the difficulty of keeping away 
from personalities with individuals or factions is en- 
countered. And it is especially desirable in this kind 
of campaign, the company has found, to tell its story 
first, to stay on the offensive rather than the defensive, 
to deal absolutely with facts and to induce the people 
to believe in the management. Circulars and other 
methods of publicity have been used in these campaigns, 
but the newspaper advertising campaign has been the 
nucleus about which all the rest has been built. 

The company feels that its publicity efforts have been 
well rewarded in these campaigns, and in a majority 
of cases the vote of the people has expressed their con- 
fidence in the company and its cause. 

A Complaint Campaign 

Appreciating the fact that the public is entitled to 
have personal attention given its complaints, this com- 
pany inaugurated a "complaint campaign" on one of 
its local street railway properties which met with con- 
siderable success. Boxes placed in all city cars con- 
tained a supply of return post cards with a message 
from the company inviting complaints from patrons as 
to the management, service and conduct of trainmen 
and asking for suggestions. Ample space was provided 
for writing the complaint, and the only requirement was 
that the card should be signed with name and address 
of the complainant. 

Newspaper space was liberally used in calling atten- 
tion to this request for complaints, and during each of 
the first two or three weeks about 100 complaints 
and suggestions were received. Each communication 
as received was given attention by the local superin- 
tendent, and a personal letter of acknowledgment was 
written to the complainant. In many cases suggestions 
were adopted, and when this was the case the complain- 
ant or suggestor was courteously thanked for his inter- 
est. Where it was impossible to adopt suggestions a 
special effort was made to explain the reason. 

After a few weeks the number of complaints gradu- 
ally decreased. The patrons of the company who had 
suggestions stored away for several years past had evi- 
dently been satisfied by this personal attention and 
ceased making complaint when they learned that the 
company evinced a real interest and was making an 
honest effort to comply with the wishes of its patrons 
to the best of its ability. 

In conclusion, it may be said that the Illinois Trac- 
tion System has not solved all of its problems through 
use of publicity. It is still misunderstood, as are many 
other utility companies in many questions of public in- 
terest. Some of its efforts to present its cause have 
seemed to fail. But its officials believe that it enjoys 
much good will and has a better standing in the com- 
munities in which it operates by reason of frank and 
honest presentation of its side of questions of public 

January 6, 1917] 



Street Railway Advertising: 

When, How and Why 

By Frank Putnam 

The Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company 

The Objects of Such Advertising Shotdd Be to Secure 
Increased Patronage, Fair Play from City and 
State Regulating and Taxing Agencies, and the 
. Friendship of the Public — Advertisements Should Ap- 
pear Continuously, not Spasmodically. 

THIS comment applies specifically to street rail- 
ways operating under state regulation of capital, 
value, earnings, service, rates, accounting, etc. In 
part it may apply also to street railways operating 
under city regulation, or none. It is based upon some- 
what more than twenty years' study of the business 
from the outside, as an active advocate of municipal 
ownership, and upon somewhat less than two years' 
study of the business from the inside, as an advocate 
of company ownership under state regulation. 

When I advocated municipal ownership, I did so be- 
lieving the surplus earnings of the business should go 
into the city treasuries, to support non-productive munic- 
ipal services. I believed municipal ownership was the 
only way the public could get a fair share of its car- 
fare spent for car service and the only way that the 
corrupt jobbing of franchises and the dishonest flota- 
tion of watered securities could be stopped. 

To-day I advocate company ownership, under state 
regulation, because I have learned that under state 
regulation "there ain't going to be no core to this 
apple" — no surplus profits to be used for any other pur- 
pose, because it is apparent that State regulation is a 
surer and better way than city ownership to get a fair 
share of the carfare spent for car service, because under 
state regulation franchises no longer have any value 
except for taxing purposes, and because under state 
regulation the flotation of watered securities is im- 

The public has got the results it wanted, but by an- 
other route than the one we early advocates of munici- 
pal ownership advised it to travel. 

Some of my Socialist friends, who believe in the pub- 
lic ownership of all property because they believe in it, 
and some of my practical politician friends, who are 
able to visualize the fat pickings that would be made 
available under city ownership and political control of 
street railway payrolls, stubbornly declare state regu- 
lation of the business to be a failure. From their point 
of view it is a failure. 

Some street railway operators, I suspect, harbor the 
idea that in the long run they will be able to "regulate 
the regulators." 

They won't. They're dreaming. The state street 
railway regulators are on the public payroll. Here and 
there one of them may temporarily lean to mercy's side, 
so to say, but as a rule and in the long run they are 
going to give the public the big half of the apple. 

State regulation has made good in some of the states. 
It will make good in all. It establishes company owner- 
ship and operation of street railways on a public service 
basis — the only tolerable basis from the public's view- 
point — the public through its own agencies saying what 
kind and amount of car service it wants and assuring 
the company owners a fair rental return on the cost 
of providing such service and not a penny more. 


If any street railway 
company is not satis- 
fled with that prospect 
under state regula- 
tion, it can either sell 
out while the selling is 
good or it can encour- 
age the gradual confis- 
cation of its property 
by cultivating a chron- 
ic grouch and fighting 
its job. 

My brief comment 
on street railway ad- 
vertising, now to be 
written, is addressed 
to street railway in- 
vestors and operators 
who are satisfied with 
that prospect. 
Street railway com- 
panies should advertise to get two results chiefly: (a) 
Increased patronage; (6) fair play from city and state 
regulating and taxing agencies, and public friendship. 
Advertising for increased patronage should be con- 
tinuous — every day in the year— straight sales adver- 
tising. The riding habit, like any other, can be encour- 
aged by apt suggestions, varied and repeated daily — 
just as the buying habit has been increased tenfold 
within a generation. 

Public relations advertising should be used to make 
the public acquainted with all facts regarding the street 
railway service that the citizen gets as a matter of right 
regarding his city owned and operated services. Under 
state regulation the street railway company is only a 
group of citizens chartered to perform a public service 
for a going wage to the capital and labor required by 
that service. The public has an unquestioned right to 
know as much about this public service as about any 
other. It is to the interest of a street railway company 
that is conforming to the letter and spirit of state regu- 
lation to have the public know all about it. Possessing 
this knowledge, the public won't listen to unjust at- 
tacks upon the company. Nobody — either predatory 
politicians or sensational newspapers or even the So- 
cialist agitators — will dare make unjust attacks upon 
the company when the public knows all the facts in the 

If state rate regulators fix fares and hauls on a los- 
ing basis, so that the company can't earn on its oflS- 
cially determined earning value the fair return which 
state regulation generally has indicated to be necessary 
to maintain sound ctedit and give good service, the 
company's best recourse is an appeal straight to the 
public in newspaper advertisements. The American 
people are on the square. They don't want anybody's 
property confiscated. They won't have it done in their 
name if they know it. The exceptions to this rule no- 
where form more than a noisy minority. 

Street railway companies, approaching this task of 
establishing friendlier relations with the public by 
means of publicity, must bear in mind that the public 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

as a whole is not yet habited to the idea that state regu- 
lation has stopped stock watering, franchise jobbing 
and excessive dividends. The extraordinary change 
which state regulation has made in the relation of the 
utility companies to the public are but dimly understood 
by the average citizen. Some of the facts which every 
street railway company under state regulation needs to 
fix in the public mind are these : 

1. That a franchise no longer has any earning value 
or any sale value; in a word, it is no longer a "special 
privilege"; has, in fact, no use except to serve as an 
excuse for levying an extra tax on street railway 

2. That identical street railway service would cost at 
least as much — for plant, labor and interest on capital — 
under city as under company ownership, and that com- 
pany management will invariably be more energetic and 
efficient, and almost invariably more economical, than 
political management. 

3. That the company has no more interest in "playing 
politics" than the department stores; that it is ready 
and eager to provide any kind and quantity of car 
service the public wants, provided the public's regulat- 
ing and taxing agencies will let it earn and keep, for 
that purpose, revenue sufficient to provide that kind and 
quantity of service, pay a fair rental return to its owners 
and maintain good wages and fair working conditions 
for its employees. 

The public still vividly remembers its unpleasant sen- 
sations experienced during the pre-regulation period of 
street railway development. It is not more than dimly 
aware of the new status of the business under state 
regulation. The new generation of operators can't spend 
money to any better purpose than for making the new 
status thoroughly understood. 

But if any company has any extra cards up its sleeve, 
if it still thinks it can "slip something over" on the 
public, if its hands are not clean and its closets scoured, 
it had better clean up before it announces the house- 

And as for insinuated bogus "news" publicity cal- 
culated to mislead the public, why, that's old stuff. The 
public is on. That gun kicks harder than it shoots. 
When a street railway company talks to its public to-day 
it should do the talking in display advertising space, 
preferably over the signature of a responsible official 
speaking for the company. 

The old public prejudices against street railway com- 
panies were not established in a day or a year; they 
were the product of a good many years of cumulative 
dissatisfaction, part of it justified, part of it due to 
public ignorance of street railway limitations which 
operators didn't have the merchandising wisdom to re- 
move, as they might have done. 

These prejudices can't be wiped out in a day or a 
year. The public sympathizes with a. repentant sinner. 
Indeed, there is more joy in Zion over one black sheep 
that has repented than over ninety and nine whose feet 
have never slipped. But the public naturally wants 
time to make sure the repentance is genuine. 

A Good Use for Safety Bulletins 

The annual meeting of the Missouri Short Line 
safety committee was held in Liberty, Mo., on Dec. 19, 
1916, fifty of the employees of the Kansas City, Clay 
County & St. Joseph Railway being present. Addresses 
were made by a pastor of the Disciples of Christ Church 
and a Catholic priest of Liberty, and by .1. D. Bower- 
sock, attorney for the road. R. S. Mahan, general pas- 
senger agent, who acted as toastmaster, had provided 
slips for each man on which had been written mottoes 

and statements concerning safety practices, culled by 
him from bulletins and publications of the National 
Safety Council. Most of the men, after reading the 
slips that had been handed to them, made short com- 
ments, relating experiences of the past few months and 
drawing lessons therefrom. Both of the ministers who 
spoke emphasized the importance of educating the pub- 
lic to proper practices while getting on and off cars, 
while on the cars, and while crossing the tracks. Both 
mentioned also the necessity of educating motor-car 
drivers in the means of avoiding collisions. J. R. 
Harrigan, general manager of the road, pointedly urged 
the men to be watchful of their own and others' safety. 

Data on Car Resistance on Curves 

Edward C. Schmidt, professor of railway engineer- 
ing, University of Illinois, and H. H. Dunn, assistant 
in railway engineering, have recently published in the 
form of a University of Illinois Engineering Experi- 
ment Station Bulletin, No. 92, the results of tests of 
tractive resistance of a 28-ton electric car on curves. 
This is the test car which has been owned by the uni- 
versity for a number of years. It has a body 45 ft. 




~ " 

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^ ' J M.P.M. 

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7^ y Z !> 25 m PH. 



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1 hi 


-J— „ :::_.x. 

Track Curvature — Degrees 


long, trucks with 6 1/3-ft. wheelbase placed on 2314 -ft. 
centers, and four 50-hp. motors. The tests were made 
on track laid with 70-lb. T-rail on ties spaced on 24-in. 
centers, with super-elevation of the outer rail on curves 
varying from 0.75 in. on a 2-deg. curve to 5.9 in. on a 
14li>-deg. curve. 

The results of the tests are expressed in the formula : 
Re = 0.058 S C, 
where Re is the curve resistance in pounds per ton, 
S is the speed in miles per hour, and C is the degrees 
curvature. The results are also shown in the report 
in graphical form as in the accompanying sample 

Full data of the tests are given in the bulletin, which 
lan be obtained from the experiment station at a price 
of 25 cents per copy. In the introduction to the bulletin 
the authors acknowledge the assistance of the officers of 
the Illinois Traction System on which road the tests 
were made. » 

January 6, 19171 



New Electric Rolling Stock for 1916 

The Record of New Cars Ordered or Built in Railway Companies' Shops Shows a Total 

Approximating 3900 — This Is a Marked Increase Over the Figures for Both 1914 

and 1915, Which Is Mainly Due to the Large Number of New 

City Cars Purchased 

THE annual compilation of figures covering new cars 
ordered by electric railways or built in electric rail- 
way companies' shops during the past year is shown 
in the table below. The railways represented in the 
figures own 97 per cent of all cars operated in the 
United States and Canada. From the total of 3942 it is 
apparent that the year, although by no means a banner 
one in car building, has seen a very distinct recovery 
from the low figures of 1915. Taken as a whole the fig- 
ures are especially encouraging because of the large 
number of companies ordering cars, the total of 250 be- 
ing about 50 per cent more than last year. 

The following summary shows the record in condensed 
form since the year 1907, and classifies the cars ac- 
cording to the various services for which they were pur- 
chased. In this summary, of course, certain arbitrary 
dispositions have had to be made in special cases. Sub- 
way and elevated cars are considered as city equip- 
ments, as are also all storage-battery cars. Cars in- 
tended for use on suburban lines or for operation 
indiscriminately in city and interurban service have 
been classified as interurban equipment. Express cars, 
electric lomotives, funeral cars, freight cars and line 
and work cars of all kinds have been placed in the 
miscellaneous column. 



Freight and 




Misc. Cars 
















4 957 



























2 072 









Special features of the statistics appear in connec- 
tion with the number of electric locomotives ordered, 
which was 31, as compared with 43 ordered in 1915. 
The number of cars of all classes built in company 
shops was 445, thus showing a sudden Increase when 
opposed to the figures of 165 in 1915 and 228 in 1914. 
A decrease took place in the number of gasoline-driven 
cars of all kinds. On the other hand, the number of 
one-man cars purchased during 1916 was materially 
greater than in 1915, the respective totals being 187 
and seventy-seven. Purchases of automobiles and auto- 
mobile trucks also displayed an increase. These figures 
are respectively twenty-nine and ten, but they have 
not been included in the lists of rolling stock. 

The list of passenger cars is virtually divided between 
semi-steel and all-steel cars, showing a remarkable 
growth of popularity for the latter type of construc- 
tion. Trail cars, however, have definitely lost popular- 
ity, since the lists include only seventy-one inter- 
urban trailers and 128 city trailers. The same thing 
applies to open cars of which only 131 were purchased 
and even this number is affected by the large single 
order of 127 constructed by the Public Service Railway 
of New Jersey in its shops. Of semi-convertible cars 
there were a total of 379, an insignificant number of 
f ully-converi ible cars being included in this figure. 

In the lists below, space limits have necessitated 

certain arbitrary usages. All cars not specifically 
marked as trail cars may be considered to be equipped 
with motors. The classification of freight cars in- 
cludes all gondola, box, flat and hopper bottom designs 
^at are used to handle bulk freight. Cars less than 
' 35 ft. long are marked to show one-man or two-man 
- operation, and it is to be understood that cars longer 
than this are operated with two men. In connection 
with construction the term "all" refers to all-steel de- 
signs that have steel framing throughout, while the 
term "semi" applies to cars with steel carried only as 
high as the belt rail. Since practically none of the cars 
ordered during the year is of fully convertible type, 
the term "conv." has been used to indicate semi-con- 
vertible as well as convertible cars. 








































Aberdeen R. R 2 Psr. CI. 26 

Albany Tr. Co 1 Psr. CI. 32 

Al ia l.t. & Rv 2 Psr. CI. 33 

Alton, Granite & St. L. Tr. Co. , 3 Psr. CI. 54 

Altoona <fe Logan Valley Ry 5 Psr. CI. 41 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co 2 Psr. CI. 53 

1 Psr. T.ail 47 

ApiMiIachian Pr. Co 1 Psr. CI. 33 

Arkansas Vallev Int. Ry 1 Psr. CI. 56 

1 Exp. 50 

Asheville Pr. & Lt. Co 8 Psr. Conv. 35 

Atchison Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co 3 Psr. CI. 30 

Aurora, Elgin & Chi. R. R 4 Psr. CI. 42 

Au.stin St. Ry 4 Psr. CI. .30 

Bangor Ry. & Elec. Co 3 Psr. Conv. 43 

3 Psr. CI. 33 

Bay State St. Ry 200 Psr. Conv. 43 

7 Exp. 40 

5 Frt. 40 

Beaumont Tr. Co 7 Psr. CI. 27 

Benton Harbor-St. Joe Ry 2 Psr. CI. 39 

Berl<shire St. Ry 4 Psr. Conv. 43 

Binirhamton Rv 16 Psr. CI. 31 

Boston & Maine R. R 2 Loco. 130 ton. . 

Boston Elevated Ry 42 Psr. CI. 47 

100 Psr. CI. 49 

2 Frt. 39 
10 Psr. CI. 48 
50 Psr. Trail 48 

2 Work 47 

Bristol & Plainville Tr. Co 3 Psr. CI. 39 

Buffalo & Depew Ry 1 Work 28 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Tr. Co 30 Psr. CI. 45 

1 Sweeper 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester 1 Exp 54 

Burlington Countv Tr. Co 2 Psr. Conv. 41 

Burlington Trac. Co 1 Psr. CI. 44 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry 6 Locos. 80 ton 

Butte Elec. Ry 4 Psr. Open 46 

5 Par. CI. 41 

Centralia Trac. Co 2 Psr. CI. 32 

Chambersb'g, G'no'Ble&W'boroRy. 2 Psr. Conv. 47 

1 Line 34 

Charleston Interurban R. R 2 Psr. CI. 47 

1 Exp 45 

Chattanooga Trac. Co 2 Psr. & Bagg. 46 

Chicago & Interurban Tr. Co 1 Psr. CI. 48 

Chicago, Lake Shore & So. Bend Ry.. 2 Locos. 72 tons 

18 Frt. Trail 44 

Chicago, No. Shore & Mil. R. R 5 Psr. CI. .54 

7 Psr. & Exp. 54 

3 Dining 54 

Chicago, So. Bend & No. Ind. Ry 5 Psr. CI. 38 

Chicago Surface Lines 10 Psr. CI. 48 

Chicago & West Towns Ry 5 Psr. CI. 46 

Cincinnati. Newport & Cov'gt'n. .25 Psr. CI. 45 

2 Sweeper 28 

Cincinnati Traction Co 100 CI. 44 

Citizens' Rv. Co 2 Psr. CI. 30 

Citv Elec. Co.. Albuquerque, N. M. . 5 Prs CI 28 

Citv Lt. & Tr. Co., .«cdalia. Mo. . X Psr. CI. 29 

Citv Rv.. Davton, O 10 Psr. CI. 43 

CIcv. All'nce & M'h'n'g V'y R. R 2 Psr. CI. 55 

6 Frt. Trail 50 
Cleveland, PainesT'lc & E'sfn R. R. 1 Exp. 50 
Cleveland Ry Cu 25 Psr. CI. 51 

25 Trail 49 
1 Sweeper 

Cleveland .Southw'n & Col. Ry 6 Psr. CI. 62 Int. All 

Columbus Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co 5 Psr. CI. 36 City Semi 







City All 
























Semi - 















[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

Railway "2 Type 



Conestoga Trac. Co 1 Psr. CI. 

3 Psr. CI. 
1 Frt. 

Connectinut Co 60 Psr. Conv. 

30 Psr. Conv. 
10 Psr. Conv. 

1 Psr. CI. 

4 Exp. 

4 Frt. Trail 
6 Frt. Trail 
1 Snow Plow 
1 Line 
1 Wrecker 

Connecticut Valley Ry 1 Work 

Coming & Painted Post Ry 4 Psr. CI. 

Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co... 4 Psr. Conv. 

Cumberland & West'p't Elec. Ry. . . 5 Par. CI. 

Dayton & Troy Ry 6 Frt. 

Dayton, Sprin-tfieU & Xenia Ky 2 Psr. CI. 

Des Moines City Ry 40 Psr. CI. 

1 Loco. 

1 Line 

2 Work 
Detroit United Ry 100 Trail 

8 Trail 
50 Par. CI. 
8 Par. CI. 
8 Per. CI. 

31 Frt. Trail 
30 Frt. Trail 

1 Work 

3 Line 

2 Express 

Duluth St. Ry 8 Psr. CI. 

Durham Trac. Co 6 Psr. CI. 

3 Psr. CI. 

plast St. Louis & Sub'n Ry .")0 Psr. CI. 

3 Psr. CI. 

Eastern Pennsylvania Rys 2 Psr. Conv. 

Easton Transit Co 6 Psr. CI. 

1 Sweeper 
Elmira Water, Lt. & R. R 5 Psr. CI. 

3 Work 

Escanaba Trac. Co 1 Psr. CI. 

Evanston Ry 3 Psr. CI. 

Fonda, JonhstownAGIv'IeR. R 2 Psr. CI. 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines A S'n R. R. . 1 Psr. CI. 

2 Psr. CI. 
I Trail 

Fort Wayne & Decatur Trac. Co. . . 3 Psr. CI. 

1 Exp. 

Fort Wayne & N. Ind. Tr. Co 1 Sweeper 

Fox & Illinois Union Ry 1 Exp. 

Fresno Trac. Co 6 Psr. CI. 

Georgia Rv. & Pr. Co 6 Psr. CI. 

Grand Rapids Ry 15 Psr. CI. 

Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Mus- 
kegon Rv 1 Psr. CI. 

3 Exp. 
3 Exp. 

Great Falls St. Ry 7 Psr. CI. 

Hagerstown & Frederick Ry 2 Trail 

Hammond, Whiting & E. Chi. Ry.. . 4 Psr. CI. 
Harrisburg Rys 2 Psr. CI. 

3 Psr. CI. 
Hocking-.Sunday Creek Tr. Co 1 Psr. CI. 

1 Psr. Trail 
Holyoke St. Ry 5 Psr. CI. 

5 Psr. CI. 
1 Sweeper 

Hudson Valley Ry 3 Psr. CI. 

1 Work 

Hutchinson Inter-Urban Co 3 Psr. CI. 

Hydro-Klect. Pr. Com., Toronto, 
Can 3 Psr. CI. 

Illinois Northern Utilities Co 1 Psr. CI. 

Illinois Trac. System 101 Frt. Trail 

40 Frt. Trail 
60 Frt. Trail 

1 Sweeper 

Indianapolis Trac. & Term. Co 25 Psr. CI. 

International Ry 20 Psr. CI. 

7 Psr. CI. 

2 Funeral 

Ironwood A Bessemer Ry 3 Psr. CI. 

Ithaca Trac. Corporation 1 Sweeper 

.Jackson (Miss.) l.t. & Trac. Co 2 Psr. CI. 

Jackson (Tcnn.) Hv. & Lt. Co 2 Par. CI. 

Jamestown St. Ry. Co 10 Psr. CI. 

.lamestown, Westfield & Nor. R. R . . . 3 Psr. CI. 

1 Psr. Trail 

Jersey Central Trac. Co 3 Psr. CI. 

Johnstown Trac. Co 10 Psr. CI. 

Joplin & Pittsburgh Ry. Co 1 Exp. 

Kankakee & Urbana Trac. Co 1 Exp. 

7 Frt. 

Kankakee Elec. Ry 2 Par. CI. 

Kansas City Ry« 75 P»r. CI. 

KansasCity, ClayCo.,&St. Jo. Ky..' 1 Loco. 
Kansas City, Kaw Valley & W'n E y. . 2 Locos. 
Keokuk Elec. Co 1 Psr. CI. 

Lake Shore Elec. Ry 12 Psr. CI. 

2 Exp. 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co 12 Psr. CI. 

I^vis County Ry 2 Psr. CI. 

Lewisburg & Ronceverte Ry 1 Psr. CI. 

Lewiston, Augusta &W'v'Ie St. Ry. . 2 Exp. 

1 Snou- Plow 

Lewiston-Clarkston Transit Co 3 Psr. CIsd. . 

London & Port Stanley Ry 2 Psr. CI. 

Long Island R. R 45 Psr. Trail 

Lorain St. Ry 5 Psr. CI. 



0>J to 



43 Sub 


38 City 


49. City 


43 Citv 


46 Both 


50 City 


41 .. 


42 .. 




42 '.'. 


42 .. 


45 .. 


34 City 



36 City 


45 Int. 


SO Semi 

44 City 


45 City 


30 .. 

40 .. 


40 .. 


47 City 


54 Int. 


47 City 


.54 Int. 


58 Int. 


50 .. 

40 .. 

48 .. 

.50 .. 

47 City 


31 City 



26 City 



46 City 


54 Int. 


47 City 


42 Int. 


31 .. 

45 City 


45 .. 

34 City 



42 City 


33 City 



43 City 


53 Int. 


50 Int. 


49 Int. 


40 .. 


28 .. 

50 .. 


30 City 


44 City 


44 City 


S3 Int. 


50 .. 


48 .. 


40 City 


30 City 



48 Citv 


44 Both 


37 City 


48 Int. 


45 Int. 


42 City 


44 City 


51 Int. 


43 .. 

28 City 



M Int. 


32 City 



40 .. 

42 .. 

38 .. 

47 City 


55 Int. 


34 City 


28 City 



28 .. 

26 City 



30 City 



42 City 


62 Int. 


62 Int. 


33 City 



40 City 


45 .. 


51 .. 


36 .. 


27 City 



44 City 


28 city 



60 Int. 


50 Both 


32 City 



39 Int. 


41 .. 
28 City 




71 Int. 


54 Int. 


50 City 



Macon Ry. & Lt. Co 

Madison Rys 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry . 

Manhattan & Queens Tr. Co ... . 

Masfiachusetts No'east'n Tr. Co . 

Memphis & Rugby Ry 

Miami Tr. Co 

Michigan Railway 

Michigan United Rys 

Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co , 

Mississippi Valley Elect. Co 

Moline, Rock Island & E'st'n Tr. Co 

iMonongahela Valley Tr. Co 

Monroe St. Rv 

Montgomery Lt. & Tr. Co 

Montgomery Transit Co 

.Morris County Tr. Co 

Municipal Ry., Alexandria, La. 

-Murphysboro Elec. Ry 

.Muskegon Tr. & Lt. Co 

Nashville (Tenn.) Int. Ry 

Nashville (Tenn.) Ry. & Lt 

New Bedford & Onset St. Ry. . 
New Jersey & Penna. Tr. Co. . . 
Newport News & Hampton Ry. 
.\'ew York Central H. R 


6 Psr. CI. 

5 Per. CI. 
10 Psr. CI. 
10 Psr. CL 

4 Frt. 
1 Line 

7 Psr. CI. 
1 Sweeper 

12 Psr. Conv. 

1 Psr. CI. 

2 St. Batt.. . 
2 Psr.Ch 

8 Psr. Trail 

2 Express 
4 Psr. CI. 

20 Psr. CI. 
20 Psr. CI. 
50 Psr. CI. 
1 Sweeper 

4 Psr. CI. 
1 Sweeper 
8 Psr. CI. 

3 Psr. CI. 

6 Psr. CI. 

3 Psr. CI. 

5 Psr. CI. 

1 Sweeper 

2 Psr. CI. 
2 Psr. CI. 

4 Psr. CI. 
1 Express 
9 Psr. CI. 
1 Line 

1 Baggage 

4 Psr. CI. 
12 Psr. CI. 










= .2 












26 City Semi One 





New York Municipal Ry 

New York Railways 

New York State Rys. (Rochester) . 

.\ew York State Rys. (Syracuse) . . 

New York State Rys. (Utica) 

Niagara Junction Ry 

North Carolina Pub. Serv. Co - . 
Northern Massachusetts St. Ry . 
Northern Ohio Tr. & Lt. Co..'. 

10 Locos. 100 ton 








Northern Texas Tr. Co. 
Ogden, Logan & Idaho. 

Oakwood St. Ry 

Ohio Elect. Ry 

Ohio River Pasa'g'r Ry . 
Oklahoma Ry 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Ry 

( tshawa Rv 

Oskaloosa Tr. & Lt. Co 

Ottumwa Ry. & Lt. Co 

Pokin Municipal St. Ry 

Pennsylvania R. R. (Elec. Div'n) . 
Peoples' Ry. of Dayton, O 

Piedmont & Northern 

Piedmont Ry. & Elect. Co. 
Pittsburgh Rys 

Portsmouth El|ct. Ry 

Pottstown & Phoenixville Ry. . 

Princeton Power Co 

Public Service R. R., "Trenton. 
Public Service Ry., Newark. . . 

Public Utilities Co 

Puget Sound Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co. 

Quebec Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co 

Reading Tr. & Lt. Co 

Regina Municipal Ry . 
Rhode Island Co 

Richmond Lt. & R. R. Co 

Rockland, Thomaston & Camden. 

Rutland Ry., Lt. & Pr 

St. Cloud Puh. Serv. Co 

Salem & Peiiiis Grove 

Salt Lake & Ogden R- 
Salt Lake & Ut 

den Ky . , 
ahR. R. 

..200 Psr. CI. 
. . 70 St. Batt. 
. 50 Psr. CI. 
3 Dump 
. . 25 Psr. CI. 
1 Snow Plow 
. 12 Psr. CI. 
10 Psr. CI. 
1 Loco. GO ton 
() Conv. 
. 15 Psr. CI. 
25 Psr. CI. 
1 Express 
. 10 Psr. CI. 
. 3 Psr. CI. 

3 Loco. 50-ton 

1 Loco. 30-ton 
. 5 Psr. CI. 
. 10 Krt. Trail 

2 Psr. Trail 
. 4 Psr. CI. 

« Psr. CI. 

2 Exp. Trail 
. 25 Psr. CI. 

1 Loco. 
. 6 Psr. CL 
. 5 Psr. CI. 
. 2 Psr. CI. 

1 Sweeper 
. 10 Psr. CI. 
10 Psr. Trail 
10 Psr. TraU 
, 1 Psr. CI. 
. 2 Psr. CI. 
. 162 Psr. CI. 
75 Psr. Trail 

4 Dump 
1 Work 

. 8 Psr. Conv. 
. 2 Psr. CI. 
. 5 Psr. CI. 
. 127 Psr. Open 
50 Psr. CI. 
20 Psr. CI. 
10 Sweepers 
. 10 Psr. CI. 

1 Frt. 
, 1 Par. CI. 

8 Psr. CL 
. 4 Per. CL 

1 Sweeijer 

. 15 Psr. Conv. 

13 Psr. Conv. 

1 Dump 

1 Snow Plow 
. .50 Psr. CI. 

7 Express 

1 Dump 

1 Psr. CI. 

1 Psr. CL 

2 Psr. CL 
1 Express 
6 Psr. TraU 
6 Psr. CL 

Sbwy. All 
City Semi 































City Semi 

.San Antonio Tr. Co . 
Sand Springs Ry ... 

Sandwich, Windsor ,fc Am'b'g R^ . 
San Francisco-Oakland Term. RJ- . 

Schenectady Ry 

Schuylkill Ry 

Scranton & Binghamt<jn Ry 

2 Locos. 50-ton 
30 Psr. CI. 

2 Psr. CL 

3 Frt. TraU 
2 Psr. CL 
2 Psr. CL 

-'0 Psr. CI. 
12 Psr. CL 

« Psr. CI. 
10 Psr. CI. 

2 Psr. CI. 

1 Psr. CI. 

2 Express 

1 Coal 



















































January 6, 1917] 



Railtcan -S Tupe 


Scranton Ry 10 Par. CI. 

Shore Line Elec. Ry 2 Frt. Trail 

Sioux Citv Serrtce Co 10 Par. CI. 

Sioux Falls Tr. System 1 Psr. CI. 

Slate Belt Elect. St. Ry 1 Frt. 

Southern Cambria Ry . Co 2 Psr. CI. 

Southern Penna. Tr. Co 3 Psr. Conv. 

Southern Pub. Utilities Co 6 Psr. CI. 

6 Psr. CI. 

Southwest Missouri R. R 5 Psr. CI. 

Southwestern Interurban Ry 1 Psr. CI. 

SprinKfield & Washington Rv 1 Psr. CI. 

SprincPeld (Ill.> Cnnsol. St. Rv 7 Psr. CI. 

Springfield (Vt.) Fleet. Ry. Co 1 Snow Plow 

Springfield (Mass.) St. Ry 10 Psr. Conv. 

1 Express 
Springfield (O.), Troy & Piqua Ry. . 1 Express 

1 Exp. Trail 
Stark Elec. R.R 2 Psr. CI. 

3 Psr. CI. 

Stcubenville & East L'p'l Rv r, Psr. Trail 

Steubenville Ry 3 Par. CI. 

Stroudaburg P's'g'r Ry 1 Psr. Conv. 

Tatewell St. Ry 1 Par. CI. 

Third Avenue Ry 1 Dump 

Tidewater Pr. Co 2 Par. CI. 

Tiffin, Fostoria & East'n Ry 1 Psr. CI. 

Toledo, Bowl'g Green & S'n Tr. Co. 1 Psr. CI. 

2 Express 

Toledo, Foatorja & F'dl'y Ry 1 Psr. CI. 

Toledo Rva. & Lt. Co 60 Par. CI. 

Toronto Civic Ry 13 Par. CI. 

Toronto Ry. Co 2.5 Psr. Conv. 

Toronto Suburban St. Rv 2 Psr. CI. 

Towaon & Cockevsville El. Ry 1 St. Batt. 

Tri-City Rg of Illinois 3 Psr. CI. 

Tri-City Ry. of Iowa 10 Psr. CI. 

I Dump 

Twin City Rapid Tr. Co 83 Par. CI. 

Union Depot Bridge & Term. Co 5 Psr. CI. 

Union St. Rv., New Bedford. Mass ... 12 Psr. CI. 
Union Tr. Co. of Coffeyville, Kan. 1 Loco. 

Union Tr. Co. of Indiana 1 Sweeper 

United Rya. & Elect. Co 100 Psr. CI. 

United Rya. of St. Louis 4 Sweeper 

United Traction Co 10 Par. CI. 

Valley Railways 4 Par. CI. 

Vickoburg Lt. & Tr. Co 1 Par. CI. 

Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co 1 Psr. CI. 

3 Psr. Trail 

Visalia Electric Co 1 Par. CI. 

Warren St. Ry 1 Par. CI. 

Washincton & Marvland Ry 1 Psr. CI. 

Waterliury & Milldale Tr'w'y 2 Psr. Conv. 

Waverly, Sayre & Athens Tr. Co. . . 1 Psr. CI. 

West Chester St. Ry. Co 2 Psr. CI. 

Weat Penn Rys 6 Par. CI. 

1 Express 
I Sweeper 

Weat Virginia Tr. Co 1 K press 

Western Lt. & Pr. Co 3 Pj CI. 

Wheeling Tr. Co 8 Psr. CI. 

Wichita Falls Tr. Co 5 Psr. CI. 

Wichita R. R. & Lt. Co 15 Par. CI. 

Wiaconsin Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co 4 Psr. CI. 

7 Psr. CI. 
Worcester Consol. St. Ry 11 Psr. CI. 

3 Express 
3 Snow Plows 

York Railways 8 Psr. CI. 

1 Dump 



48 City 


39 City Wood . . 

30 City Semi Both 

50 Int. Wood . . 
41 City Semi 

38 City All 

27 City One 

44 Int. Semi 

28 City All Two 

49 Int. All 

45 City Semi 

43 city Semi 

45 . Semi 

51 Int. Semi 
45 Int. Semi 
55 Int. All 

43 City All 
47 City All 

44 Int. All 

31 City Wood Two 
31 City Semi Two 

si City Semi One 

55 Int. 

45 Int. 

City All 

50 City All 

47 City Semi 

. . City , . 

60 City Wood . . 

26 City Wood One 

42 City Semi 

37 City All 

47 City .Semi '. 

30 City All One 

44 City All 

44 City Wood 
40 . . 

33 City Semi 

40 City Semi 

33 City 

45 Int. 
45 Int. 
72 Int. Semi 
47 City Semi 
25 City Semi 

31 Int. Semi 

47 City Wood 

" " All 


45 Int. 
58 Int. 


. . . . Wood 

28 City All 

45 City All 

2 City Semi 

30 City All 

31 City Semi 

43 City Semi 

44 City Semi 

45 . . ,Semi 





3.5 City All Two 

Electric Railway Statistics 

Figures Are Given by States of the Miles of Track 
and Number of Cars Owned 

THE accompanying table gives statistics of the miles 
of track and cars of the electric railway companies 
in the United States, made up from the August, 1916. 
Electric Railway Directory of the McGraw Publishing 
Company. The dates of the reports in this directory 
average about June, 1916, so that the table may be 
considered to represent the statistics of the industry 
at about that time. 

A comparison of the totals given in this table with 
those in a somewhat similar table published in the 
issue of Jan. 22, 1916, will show for all states a total 
of 47,562 miles as compared with a total of 46,454 
miles last year, and 100,476 cars as Ampared with 99,405 year. A comparison by stateSjhowever, will show 
some decreases in both cars and iplps of track, while 
in the case of other states, there aa-e increases of con- 
siderable magnitude. This conditipn, to which attention 
was directed last year, may be tccounted for, in part, 
by the seeming inevitable discrepancies which occur 

when reports are made out by different officials each 
year, in part to differences in the methods of classify- 
ing cars, and in part to more exact information as to 
the portions of interstate railways which are located 
in two or more states. 

A few other words of explanation are necessary. 
The electrified mileage of steam railroads is included 
in all cases, but under cars only the electric locomotives 
and the electric motor cars on such roads are given. 
That is to say, in such cases, trail cars and service 
cars have not been included. Gasoline motor passenger 
cars are included in the column of motor passenger cars, 
but in most cases the miles of track over which the 
gasoline motor cars operate have been omitted from 
the mileage column as these tracks are used very 
largely for steam freight trains and it has been the 
intention to make the table primarily one of city and 
interurban passenger properties. In a few cases, where 
a company owns a large number of service cars com- 
pared with the number of passenger cars owned, the 
total number of such service cars has been intentionally 
omitted from the table. 


sl -s '^^ |o o-s s - ZS li 

|i s ss -fe ■£§ I i .§^ SX 

io i la -ag gS &E f El s I 

g 5 Sg Hg M.3 WO £ Is <3a 

Neir England State): 

Connecticut 12 1,592 2,160 44 100 67 

JJ»™,-;; 16 580 589 .... 3 3 "56 149 '« 

Massachusetts 43 3,245 7,922 236 3 23 37 1 144 

New Hampshire 13 210 266 . . 1 2 ' 29 2 

Rhode Island 3 438 1,051 47 259 

Vermont 10 125 142 !. '3 17 ; ;; 

Tntal 97 6,190 12,130 327 107 26 98 1,665 1 

Eaulern States: 

Delaware 2 153 309 .... mo 

District of Columbia 7 412 1,078 ... 433 

Marvland 11 675 2,155 .... 10 .' 3 218 

New Jersey 29 1,538 2,810 2 2 13 63 ' 

New York.. 110 5,477 16,559 1,124 138 11 35 2,161 203 

Pennsylvania 128 4,477 8,575 16 2 6 '78 60'> I 

Virginia 17 602 921 25 . 179 

WestNirgmia 25 633 641 12 .... 3 43 , ! ! 

T°' al 329 13.967 33,048 1,167 164 30 119 3,769 204 

Cmtrd Sta en: ^ 

Jl'i'Jtiis 72 3,760 5,922 697 51 .... 062 627 

Indiana 44 2,304 1,923 ... 1 7 3 256 

Iowa 27 868 965 13 19 365 

Kentucky 9 462 992 26 2i 58 

Michigan 25 1,676 2,272 8 20 102 13 473 

Minnesota 14 715 1,250 8 8 287 ' 

Missouri 22 1,113 2,514 6 . 459 

Ohio 80 4,300 5,512 76 11 S 28 1 309 •> 

TVisconsm 21 768 875 142 3 60 .' 

Tot al 314 15, 966 22,225 976 110 115 1,030 3,894 3 

Southern Stata: 

Alabama 15 365 437 34 2 210 

Arkani-as 11 134 237 64 ' 

Florida 9 193 248 .'.'.' 69 " 

GcofBia 17 485 691 5 88 " 2 

Louisiana 10 328 680 140 

Mississippi II 123 159 2 ' 27 

North Carolina 13 289 301 6 .. 2 217 

South Carolina 7 113 156 6 ' .' 2 19 

Tennessee 14 461 835 1 3 147 ' ' ' 

Total 107 2,491 3,744 47 7 .... « 961 2 

Weitem Statea: 

Arizona 4 52 45 1 i 

California 42 3,232 3,674 81 69 "i2 338 1,746 ' io9 

Colorado 13 459 414 167 .... 059 2 

Idaho 6 180 68 19 

Kansas 20 627 391 .1 !■> ip s 

Montana 9 647 110 20 35 . . " 19 

Nebraska 6 254 538 10 . 1 M 

Nevaila 2 10 12 . . . . 

New Mexico 2 9 11 

Nortl, Dakota 6 3S 77 .. 14 

Oklahoma 15 301 242 7 .. . 100 " 

Oregon 10 733 799 47 19 3 146 548 

SouthDakota 3 26 28 2 5 

Texas, 40 977 1,188 78 ... 14 "3 186 ' ' 

Utah 5 425 275 6 . . . . 1 2 262 " " 

Washington 13 1,056 1,0»7 24 27 819 29 110 "45 

Wyoming 2 22 12 7 3 

Total 198 8,948 8,911 443 161 849 5.10 3,l49 189 

T otal. aU States 1 . 045 47.^2 80,058 2,960 539 1.0 20 1.786"l3,738 375 




[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

New Electric Railway Track Built in 1916 

Reports Received from the Various Electric Railway Companies of the United States and 

Canada Show That Approximately 700 Miles of New Track Were Constructed or 

Electrified During the Year — A Marked Decrease from Previous Years 

THE single-track mileage of new line built or 
electrified and placed in operation during the year 
1916 by the electric railways of the United States 
and Canada is tabulated in the accompanying 
lists. The data for these records have been compiled 
from reports received from practically every electric 
railway in the United States and Canada and represent 
98 per cent of the total operated mileage. 

The total new mileage for the year, amounting to 
744.3, is materially less than the total of any previous 
year for which record has been kept. This condition 
is shown in the following table, which contains the 
statistics obtained in previous years since 1907, but 
note should be made of the fact that by far the greater 
part of the decrease has been a loss in new electric 
railway track, since the electrified steam railroad mile- 
age of 388 is not an exceptional decrease from the high 
corresponding figure of last year. Thus it becomes 
increasingly evident that the two classes of electric 
railway mileage display wholly independent tendencies 
and should be considered separately. 

Of the 356.3 miles of new electric railway track 
that has been built during the past year, about two- 
thirds may be classed as interurban — only a slightly 
larger ratio than that which existed last year. A 
tendency toward an evenly-distributed loss in new con- 
struction appears also in the fact that although the 
decrease from last year on a mileage basis is prac- 
tically 50 per cent, it is only 25 per cent on the basis 
of states represented and a loss of only 33 per cent on 
the basis of the number of companies appearing in the 
record. In other words, the average company cut down 
on its new construction and relatively few gave up new 
work altogether. The same thing is evidenced by the 
fact thst, in only one case was there any considerable 

stretch of new track put down in any particular local- 
ity, the maximum mileage built in one State being 78.4 
if the electrified steam road mileage of Montana is 

The State in question is California, whose leading 
position in new track construction is due to considerable 
extension of four of the numerous interurban railways 
characteristic of the west coast. Illinois ranks second 
in the list, with approximately 33 miles of new track, 
of which 25 miles were constructed by the Chicago Sur- 
face Lines — the largest extension of strictly city tracks 
reported for the year. In this connection it may be said 
that Canada appears to have maintained track exten- 
sions to a rather surprising degree in view of the Euro- 
pean war, since no less than ten electric railways are 
represented with 9 miles of new track exclusive of the 
53-mile electrification of the Lake Erie & Northern. 

This 53 miles of the Lake Erie & Northern is in- 
cluded in the total of 388 miles of electrified steam rail- 
road track, but the major part of the steam railroad 
track equipped for electric operation is contributed by 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul installation extend- 
ing across the Eocky Mountains. This project includes 
four engine divisions, of which one was placed in serv- 
ice in 1915 and two during the past vear. The remain- 
ing division will be completed early in 1917. 

New Electric Blectrifled Total New 

Plailway Track Steam Electric 

Built Line Mileage 

1907 1S80.0 

1908 1174.5 84.0 12.^8.5 

1909 774.7 112.4 887.1 

1910 1204.8 192.4 1397.2 

1911 -. 1105.0 - 86.5 1191.5 

•1912 869.4 80 8 950.2 

1913 974.9 119.0 1093.9 

1914 716.5 229.0 946.4 

1915 596.0 448.2 1044 2 

1916 356.3 388.0 744.S 


IVIobile, Volanta & Pensacola R. R 1.0 


Fresno Interurban Ry 15-0 

Oakland, Antloch & Eastern Ry 1.4 

Pacific Electric Ry Ij-J 

San Diego Electric Ry ^-^ 

South San Francisco R. R. & Power Co 0.5 

Tide Water Southern Ry — .Modesto to Turlock 17.0 

VIsalla Electric R. R. Co. — Exeter to Strathmore to Lind- 
say 21.5 miles. Southeast to Portersville 4.5 miles 26.0 


Connecticut Co J-| 

Lordship Co., Bridgeport. Conn O.ib 


Capital Trac. Co ^■'^ 


St. Petersburo & Gulf Ry ■ ■" l-S 


Georgia Ry. & Power Co <-^ 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co 0-" 


Bloomington, Pontiac «. JoHet Ry. Co I--.*. 9-^ 

Centralia & Central City Trac. Co -—jn 0.2 

Chicago Heights St. Ry r...-. 0.75 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria O.J 

Chicago Heights St. Ry 

Decatur Ry. & Light Co 

Jollet & Eastern Trac. Co 

Kankakee <£. Urbana Trac. Co. — Connects Ludlow and 

Paxton , 

Springfield Consolidated Ry. Co 

TrI-City Ry. Co. of Illinois 

Chicago Lake Shore & South Bend Ry. 
interstate Public Service Co 





Des IVIoines City Ry 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R. Co. — Swanwood 

.liinction to Des Moines 

Fort Madison St. Ry. Co 

Inter-Urban Ry. Co ' 

Keokuk Electric Co 

TrI-City Ry. Co. of Iowa 


Sallna St. Ry. Co 

Topeka Rys 

Hutchinson Inter-Urban Ry. Co 


Louisville Ry. Co 

Southern Traction Co., Inc 


New Orleans Ry. i Lt. Co. 

United Rys. & Electric Co 













January 6, 1917] 




Boston Elevated Ry. Co J-| 

Springfield St. Ry. Co !•» 

Union St. Ry. Co 0° 


Detroit United Ry. Co 23.9 

Escanaba Traction Co 0-1 

Grand Rapids Ry. Co "a 


Duluth St. Ry. Co 5.4 

Twin-City Rapid Transit Co i-^ 


Kansas City Rys. Co 9-3 

United Rys. of St. Louis 1-1 


Butte Electric Ry ■ • • ■ 2.5 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry.— Electrification. Be- 
tween Tliree Forl<s and Harlowton 114 miles of main 
tracli; 54.5 miles of side track and yards. Between 
Deer Lodge and Alberton, 111 miles of main track; 
53.0 miles of side track and yards 332.5 

Missoula St. Ry. Co 1-5 

Public Service Ry. Co 1.2 


Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co 6.0 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Trac. Co U-S 

International Ry. Co 0-5 

Manhattan & Queens Trac. Corporation 2.7 

New York State Rys. — Syracuse Lines 0.2 

Third Ave. Ry 1-6 


Goldsboro Electric Ry 1.5 

Piedmont & Northern Ry 3.5 

Southern Public Utilities Co 2.0 


Cleveland Ry. Co 3.0 

Mahoning iS. Shenango Ry. & Light Co 3.0 

Portsmouth St. R. R. & Light Co. — Between Wheelers- 
burg and Hanging Keck 21.0 

Toledo Rys. & Light Co O.b 


Ardmore Ry. Co 1-25 

Oklahoma Ry. Co. — Edmond to Guthne lo.u 

Tulsa St. Ry. Co l-" 


Allen St. Ry. Co 0.3 

Chester iS, Eddystone St. Ry. Co 1.9 

Eastern Pennsylvania Rys. Co. — Pottsville to St. Clair 2.0 

Lehigh Trac. Co •• O.S 

Northwestern Pennsylvania Ry. Co — Venango to Cara- 

hridge Springs 3.6 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co 0.9 

Philadelphia & West Chester Trac. Co 1.0 

Pottstown & Phoenixville Ry. Co 4.0 

Reading Transit & Light Co 1.0 

Scranton & Binghamton R. R. Co.— Brooklyn to Montrose 10.0 

Rhode Island Co 0-8 

Sioux Falls Trac. System 0.5 

Chattanooga Trac. Co.— Valley .lunction to Red Bank, 
5 miles, and C. & 1 ). Junction to C. N. O. & H. Ry., 

5 miles '0.0 

Jackson Ry. <£. Light Co i-V 


Beaumont Trac. Co 0-'^ 


Lewlston-Clarkston Transit Co 2.0 

Walla Walla Valley Ry. Co _____ 


Appalachian Power Co 1.7 

Charleston Interurban R. R. Co. — Marmet to Cabin Creek 

Jijnc"ti*.>ii .....•-....-t ,,.,....,....■••■■•••■••••• o.o 

Norfolk & Western Ry. Co. (Elec. Div.). — Electrification 

of brail' n line to Pocahontas, Va "o 

Princeton Power Co.— Interurban through New Hope 

and Billie 12.0 



Chicago, Harvard & Geneva Lake Ry 0.6 

Madison Rys. Co 1.0 


Cheyenne Electric Ry. Co 0.25 


Calgary Municipal Ry 3.5 

Lake Erie & Northern Ry. — Electrification from Gait to 

Paris, Hrantford, Waterford, Simcoe and Port Dover 53.0 

London St. Ry. Co 0.8 

Montreal & Southern Counties Ry. — Abbotsford to City 

of Granby 8,5 

Port Arthur Civic Ry. Co , 1.1 

Quebec Ry., Light & Power Co 0.5 

Reginia Municipal Ry 1.4 

Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg Ry 0.8 

Sarnia St. Ry. Co O.b 

Toronto Civic Railway 1.2 

Toronto Ry. Co 0.75 


Boston Meeting Program 

Supplementing the statement made in the issue for 
Dec. 16, the following brings the information regard- 
ing the mid-year meeting program up to date: 

a. General business. 

b. Report of committee on social relations: 

1. Minimum wage, 

2. Old-age pensions, 

3. Employees' thrift. 

c. Prepared discussion by E. E. Rice. 

d. Paper on "Wage Arbitration and Contracts," by 
Bentley Warren, Boston, Mass. 

e. Paper on "Salesmanship in the Electric Railway 
Business," by Robert Frothingham, New York City. 

Power Distribution 

The Engineering Association committee on power 
distribution met in Chicago, 111., on Jan. 3, 4 and 5. 
The committee devoted its combined efforts to revision 
of the specifications for line construction and line ma- 
terials. As this issue of the paper goes to press a tele- 
gram announces that Friday evening was to be spent 
by the committee in an inspection of one of the auto- 
matic substations of the Elgin & Belvidere Electric 
Railway as guests of E. S. Gillette, electrical engineer 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad. 

The Chicago meeting was attended by the following 
committee members: C. L. Cadle, Rochester, N. Y., 
chairman; R. H. Rice, Chicago, 111.; E. J. Blair, Chi- 
cago, 111.; C. R. Harte, New Haven, Conn.; E. S. Gil- 
lette, Aurora, 111.; C. E. Fritts, Kansas City, Mo.; J. 
H. Libbey, Boston, Mass., and A. Schlessinger, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. C. C. Beck, commercial engineer Ohio 
Brass Company, was also present by invitation, for the 
purpose of representing the line material section of the 
Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies. 

Training of Transportation Employees 

The Transportation & Traffic Association committee 
on the above subject met in Chicago, 111., on Jan. 3 
and 4 and finished the task of co-ordinating the work of 
previous committees. In attendance were G. T. Seely, 
Chicago, chairman; H. B. Flower, Baltimore, Md. ; C. 
W. Kellogg, Keokuk, Iowa; J. E. Gibson, Kansas City, 
Mo., and W. A. Carson, Evansville, Ind. 

H. J. Kenfield has been appointed chairman of the 
transportation sub-committee in charge of the Illinois- 
Wisconsin district. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

Receiverships and Foreclosure Sales 

Mileage Placed in Receivers' Hands During 1916 Was Next to Smallest in Last Eight Years 
— Mortality Rate Through Foreclosure About the Average 

THE record of electric railway receiverships for 
1916 is considerably better than that for many of 
the years preceding. In fact, the number of com- 
panies, or fourteen, whose finances in 1916 became in- 
volved to the point of receivership, was the smallest in 
the last eight years with the exception of eleven in 1910 
and ten in 1914, while the mileage concerned was in 
the low group and the least with the exception of that 
in 1913. The showing made in 1916 was especially in 
contrast to that in 1915, the fourteen railways involved 
in the last year having a mileage of 351.06 and a cap- 
italization of $24,988,800, as compared to a mileage of 
1152.10 and a capitalization of $79,670,425 for the 
twenty-seven lines in 1915. The receiverships for the 
last eight years compare as follows: 

Funded Debt 

Number of 

Miles of 

Outstanding C 



Stoclt F 































The accompanying table gives the details of electric 
railway receiverships in the last calendar year. An 
attempt was made at all time.s to take the figures from 
the most up-to-date and most authoritative sources, and 
to sift out the correct data in many cases where there 
were a surprising number of conflicting statements in 
the financial manuals, particularly with reference to the 
smaller companies. These, it will be noted, constituted 
the majority of the railways placed in receivership, 
only three having more than 50 miles of track. 

Most of the receiverships were evidently caused by 
accumulated financial burdens due to rising costs, oper- 
ation in poor territory or inherent weakness of organi- 
zation, but in a few cases there were special reasons. 
For example, the chief cause of the financial troubles of 
the Monmouth County Electric Company was the com- 
petition of jitneys. A receiver was appointed for the 
Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Company to take 
the place of a bondholders' protective committee in col- 
lecting the rentals of its property from the lessee, the 
Ohio Electric Railway, which desired a second modifica- 
tion of the lease on account of losses thereunder. 

The number of electric railways sold at foreclosure 
in 1916 was nineteen, the same as in the preceding year. 
Although the mileage was greater, owing to the resale 
of the Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad property 
after the cancelled sale of 1912, the general record was 
not far from the average for the last eight years. The 
following table shows the complete comparative figures 
for this period: 

Number of Miles of 
Companies Traclj 
1909 21 






Funded Debt 



The detailed foreclosure sales are published in the 
accompanying table. As in preceding years, some elec- 
tric railways for which receivers had been appoinljed 
or against which foreclosure .'^uits had been broi^t 
were able to effect reorganization without public sale 
or have the case dismissed by the court. All the various 

forms of reorganization, readjustment and change in 
ownership without formal foreclosure sale were omitted 
in compiling the table. In passing, however, it might 
well be noted that the 1915 receivership of the Des 
Moines City Railway was dissolved without sale after 
the settlement of the franchise question, and the 1915 
receiver of the Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 
Railway, appointed to protect a judgment for $1,500,000 
to the Interstate Railway for the taking of right-of- 
way on which it held options, was removed in 1916 after 
the perfection of a satisfactory bond pending final de- 
cision on the appeal of the damage case. 

In the majority of cases the foreclosure sales in 1916 
were the last step prior to the beginning of business 
through a reorganized company or an entirely new one. 
For some lines, however, such sales meant a complete 
cessation of operation and dismantlement. The Mount 
Vernon Railway, the Lima & Honeoye Light & Railroad 
Company, the Mountain Railway and half of the Lake 
Erie, Bowling Green & Napoleon Railway suffered such 
a fate, and according to reports the Lancaster & South- 
ern Street Railway was destined also to be junked. 


•Algiers Railway & Lighting Com- 

Boise Railroad, Ltd 

Bristol Traction Company 

Cape May, Delaware Bay & Sew- 
ell's Point Railroad 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Trac- 
tion Company 

City Railway, Mt. Vernon, 111 

Gary, Hobart & Eastern Traction 

Lancaster & Southern Street Rail- 

Lancaster & York Furnace Street 

Minneapolis, St. Paul. Rochester & 
Dubuque Electric Traction Com- 

Monmouth County Electric Com- 

Naghville-Gallatin Interurban Rail- 

Sonthwestern Traction Company . . . 

Winona Interurban Railway 










Out- Outstanding 
standing Funded 












56.00 8,331,000 
17.71 325.000 


500, onn 

27.05 750,000 600.000 

15.00 189,000 130,000 

70.00 750,000 2,343,700 

Totals 35L06 $14,264,600 $10,724,200 


Out- Outstanding 
Mile ^ ' ' 


Ardmore Electric Railway 4.70 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Rail- 
road 160.00 

Choctow Railway & Lighting Com- 
pany 23.26 

Lake Krie, Bowling Green & Naixj- 

leon Itailway 24.50 

Lancaster & Southern Street Rail- 
way 7.35 

Lancaster & York Furnace Street 

Railway 12.50 

Ijima & Honeoye Light & Railroad 

Company 4.60 

Lykens & Williams Valley Street 

Railway 10.10 

Mountain Railway ...r 2.00 

Jionmouth County Klettric Com- 
pany 17.71 

Mount Vernon Railway 9.00 

Xorton & Taunton Street Railway.. 21.20 
Sapulpa & Interurban Railwav. . . . 12.00 
.Seattle, Renton. & Soutliem Railway 25.00 
Southeastern nhio Railway, Light 

& Power CoiiTpany 16.34 

Southern Iowa Railway & Light 

Company 10.00 

S\ racuse & South Bay Electric 

Railroad 26.56 

S.vracuse. Watertown & St. Law- 
rence River Railroad f,.35 

Youngstown & Southern Railway.. 38 18 




5,000,000 $16,225,000 
2,000,000 1,144,000 
























948 000 

Totals 431. :i5 $13,655,400 $22,542,300 

'Authorized amount; uutstandinK amoiuit not a.scertainable 

January 6, 1917] 



Short and Up-to-Date Articles on 


Combination Snowplow for City and Interurban Lines of Spokane — Hardwood Key 
Blocks for Track and Pavement Work in New York — Reinstallation of Old Sol- 
dered Bonds by Sacramento Company — Economical Work by Pneumatic Tampers 
of Pittsburgh Railways — Mirror for Protecting Track Crossing in San Antonio, Etc. 

(Contributions from the Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will Be Paid for at Special Rates.) 

A Combination Snowplow for City and 
Interurban Use 

Washington Water Power Company Has Built a 

Plow Which Is Suitable for City and 

Interurban Snow Fighting 


General Superintendent Washington Water Power Company, 

Spoltane, Wash. 

A snowplow to be used on the city and interurban 
lines of Spokane, Wash., has recently been built by the 
Washington Water Power Company. Inside a city, in 
clearing double tracks of snow it is desirable to use a 
shear plow which throws the snow to only one side of 
the car. On interurban lines, however, the snow often 
forms heavy drifts which the shear plow cannot clear 
off, and it is necessary to use a plow with a sharp nose 
which cuts through the snow and throws it to both sides. 
The plow described below combines both kinds of blade 
mounted on the same frame. 

This frame is built of heavy structural steel, as may 
be seen from the illustration, the side sills, for example, 
being 8 in. x 8 in. channel bars. The width of the frame 
as shown is 7 ft. 10 in. and the length is 36 ft., and with 
the plows in position the total length is 43 ft. 3 in. The 
weight of the whole car and its equipment is 35 tons. 
Brill 27-F trucks having a 6-ft. wheelbase set with a 
distance of 15 ft. between centers are used, and mounted 
on these trucks are four 60-hp. General Electric motors 
which drive through gears having a ratio of 15 to 71. 

The plows are of .steel boiler plate mounted on heavy 
frames. The shear plow, as shown in the illustration, 
may be used in connection with the auxiliary wing 
which is shown .swung in position at the center of the 
car. The shear is 12 ft. x 6 ft. and the wing is 10 ft. 


x 3 ft., the maximum sweep of both shear and wing be- 
ing 15 ft. Another illustration shows the sharp-nosed 
or wedge plow which is 9 ft. 9 in. across and 7 ft. 
high. It splits the heavy drifts and throws the snow to 
both sides. Both types of plow overhang the track 20 
in. on each side. Their bottom or cutting edges are 
riveted to the main plow face and may be replaced if in- 
jured by striking an immovable object. By means of 
compressed-air cylinders, the plows are raised on slid- 





[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

ing rods to a maximum height of 10 in. above the rail. 
In addition to the plows, the car is equipped with spring 
steel track scrapers. These are held against the track 
under pressure, which may be made as high as 70 lb. for 
each scraper, but when they come in contact with an im- 
movable object they spring over it without being dam- 

The car body is built of wood reinforced with steel 
and it has sixteen windows of %-in. plate glass set in 
heavy frames. A tool box is built on the outside of the 
car for carrying picks, snow shovels and other tools. 
The car is equipped with a General Electric magnetite 
headlight which can be moved from one end to the other, 


and stationary Golden Glow headlights on each end. 
There is also a row of incandescent lamps circling the 
car underneath the eaves for general illumination of the 

As far as possible all of the operating mechanism is 
placed inside the car to avoid slush and snow. A view 
of the car's interior given here shows (on the left-hand 
side of the car) the air compressor, the large reservoirs 
and the cylinder for operating the side wing. 

The convenience and comfort of the men running 
the car was carefully looked after. To this end the 
switches which control the different apparatus were 
plainly marked, and a radiator for warming the entire 
car and a small heater for cooking coffee, as well as com- 
fortable chairs and a table, were provided. These lux- 
uries serve to add some pleasure to what is usually a 
disagreeable task. 

Soldered Bonds Reinstalled at 
Low Cost 

Old Bonds Removed from Web of Rail and Soldered 
to the Rail Head 

Klectrical Engineer Noithern Electric Railway, Sacramento. Cal. 

The experience of the Puget Sound Traction, Light & 
Power Company with soldered rail bonds, as outlined in 
the issue of the Electric Railway Journal for Oct. 28, 
1916, page 938, is of interest to those companies which 
still use soldered bonds, and our own experience along 
these lines may prove of further interest, particularly as 
a large number of roads have had unprofital)le experi- 
ences with the soldered type of bond. 

The Northern Electric Railway has some 150 miles 
of track, mostly on private right-of-way, of 60-lb. 
A. S. C. E. T-rail section on which the bonding originally 
consisted of two 10-in., 200,000-circ. mil. ribbon type 
soldered bonds soldered to the web of the rail under the 
angle bars at each joint. Owing to the very restricted 
clearance under this joint the bonds soon became 
pinched and either failed by coming loose at one or both 
terminals or the ribbons broke at the center of the 

bonds. The cost of this type of bond installed was 55 
cents each. The bond itself cost 27.5 cents, the other 
material such as solder, gasoline, etc., nine cents, and 
the labor, 18.5 cents. The average life of this bond 
was probably not in excess of six years, and a large 
number failed in less time. 

It became imperative to rebond the line and after a 
consideration of various type of bonds, it was decided to 
install the same bond, but in a different manner. The 
choice was in a way influenced by the fact that we had 
on hand a large number of bonds of this type, and that 
financial considerations forbade any large outlay for 
new bonds. 

The 10-in. bonds were placed in a frame and by means 
of a bulldozer were made to assume a U-shape with the 
ends turned out parallel to the top of the rail giving us 
a bond for application on the outside head of the rail. 
This newly-formed bond was then soldered to the head 
of the rail by a method which, I believe, was first de- 
veloped on the Northwestern Pacific Railroad at Sausa- 
lito, Cal., and has been used by it for a number of years 
on soldered bonds with wonderful success. 

This method as applied to our bonds consists in the 
formation of a substantial layer of .«older between the 
bond terminal and the head of the rail in the following 
manner. The rail was first ground clean and bright, 
using a carborundum wheel electrically operated from 
the third-rail supply. Then some five or six small cuts 
were made vertically in the rail with hammer and 
chisel, the rail was then heated and tinned thoroughly, 
after which the bond, held in a pair of tongs, was placed 
against the rail and so inclined that the lower edge of 
the terminal touched the rail while the upper edge was 
about a quarter inch from the rail. Solder and heat 
were then applied by means of a gasoline bonding torch, 
care being taken not to get the rail too hot. The solder 
instead of running freely was puddled into the wedge- 
shaped space between the bond terminal and the rail. 
In other words, an effort was made to obtain a sort of 
wiped joint between the rail and the bond terminal, and 
while the solder was in this semi-plastic condition the 
terminal was pressed toward the rail leaving, however, 
about Vn in. between the terminal and the rail at the 
top. The bond was held in position by the tongs a very 
short time after removing the torch, no water being 







used to cool the joint; the other terminal was then ap- 
plied in a similar manner. 

This process tends to cause an even distribution of 
solder over the faces of the bond and the rail and leaves 
a cushion of solder between the two. The success of 
this method depends upon not getting a temperature so 
high as to cause the solder to run too freely, as if it 
flows too freely it acts like drops of water on a piece of 
glass, gathering in spots to cover some areas of contact 


January 6, 1917] 



and leaving others with no solder. The latter in time 
oxidize and reduce the contact area of the terminal and 
also its holding power. 

The concealed joints are tested by means of a Roller- 
Smith bond tester with a snap switch on the test handle 
of the test bar wired in series with auxiliary contacts 
at the ends of the test bar, and a small portable box of 
aix dry cells so that the tester can use either the power 
current or the current from the battery. Unless traffic 
is very frequent we find that the auxiliary source of cur- 
rent is necessary if any number of joints ^are to be 
tested in an efficient manner. 

In doing the rebonding it has been found profitable to 
open up all joints which test over 10 ft. of rail. About 
60 per cent of the bonds thus reclaimed are in such 
shape that they can be used over again on the head of 
the rail and the remaining 50 per cent are so torn that 
they are scrapped, their value as scrap more than com- 
pensating for the cost of opening up the joints. 

While the new method of bonding consists of but one 
bond per joint whereas there were two originally, a 
completely single bonded line is obtained with no ex- 
penditure for new bonds since, as noted above, about 
half of the bonds removed are in suitable condition to 
be reinstalled. At the present price of copper this 
means a large saving, and at the same time we have 
obtained a bond which promises a life at least equal to 
the former type, and one much more easily maintained 
when it does fail. 

About 30,000 soldered bonds of this type have been 
installed, the costs of which are shown below: 

Material per IJoiid — Unit .\mouiit 

200.00()-circ. mil bond 1.0 

Gasoline gal. 0.04 

Solder lb. 0.13 

Soldering? salts cans 0.00:15 

Carborvindum wheels ....each 0.001 

Unit Cost Total Cost 







Store-expense. -! i)er cent . 


. 1.25 


Labor per Bond — Cents 

Testing 0.89 

Supervision 0.50 

Soldermen 4.09 

Torchmen 3.72 

Grinding 1.87 

Miscellaneous 0.93 

Use of tools. 2 per cent ' 0.24 

Total Labor 12.24 

Total Material 32. 5S 


The rates of pay per day for this work were: fore- 
man $3.50, soldermen $2.75, torchmen $2.50, grinders 
$2.50, all men working a nine-hour day. The gang usu- 
ally consisted of a foreman, four soldermen, four torch- 
men and two grinders, with an extra man at. $2.50 for 
part of the time to aid in painting the bonds after in- 
stallation. The foreman tested all joints as well as run- 
ning his gang. The men lived in an outfit car which 
•was spotted on adjacent spurs and moved along the 
line as the work progressed. 

It was found that the bonding men could do much 
better work if the connection between the tank and 
burner was made with about 30 in. of rubber in- 
stead of the iron pipe usually used. The heavy gaso- 
line tank can then be placed on the ground at a con- 
venient position, and the burner applied in the po.sition 
most suitable for directing the flame on the rail and 
bond. Some experimenting has been done with the oxy- 
acetylene process in connection with these bonds, but 
the shape of the head of the bond terminal has so far 
prevented us from getting a good job with this process. 

On the tracks in city streets we have been using for 

several years a flexible jumper bond, installed around the 
joint plates and soldered to the flange of the rail, in a 
manner similar to that used by the Puget Sound Trac- 
tion, Light & Power Company. A large number of 
these came from old scrap third rail jumper cables which 
would have been sold for scrap but by this method are 
used for city bonding work, thus eliminating the neces- 
sity of purchasing new material. 

Home-Made Jig for Boring Brasses 


Foreman of Machine Sliop Boston & Worcester Street Railway 

At the Framingham (Mass.) shops of the Boston & 
Worcester Street Railway the jig shown in the ac- 
companying illustrations is used to expedite the boring 
of brasses. Fig. 1 shows the jig open, ready to receive 
the brasses, these being bored in pairs when set up 
as shown in Fig. 2. The jig consists essentially of a 
pair of clamps mounted on an adjustable base which is 


attached to the bedplate of the boring machine. These 
clamps are brought up against the work by two %-in. 
bolts, and the brasses are centered by two Vk-in. x %-in. 
vertical rods, which, when turned, give an adjustment 
of 1/16 in. in diameter at the brass. About 3 in. of 
horizontal adjustment can be had at the clamps. Two 
brasses of any size that the road uses can be bored 
out in ten minutes, whereas such an operation on a 
single brass would easily take twice as long on a lathe 
or milling machine. 

Switch Iron 

The New York State Railways, Rochester Lines, is 
now making switch irons according to the accompany- 

—„ I Material % Round Machine Steel 


ing drawing. The print from which the cut was made 
was furnished by G. M. Cameron, master mechanic, 
and is dated Dec. 27, 1916. 




[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 




Rail Fillers and Key Blocks Prolong 
Special Work Life in New York City 

Special Paving Used by the New York Railways 
; at Street Crossings Subject to 

Heavy Traffic 

About three years ago the New York Railways tried 
the experiment of lengthening the life of granite block 
paving and special work at Twenty-third Street and 
Fourth Avenue and Twenty-third Street and Sixth Ave- 
nue by installing hardwood key blocks between the 
gi-anite and rail fillers along the rails. The blocks and 
fillers were supplied by Edward Alcott, Manassas, Va., 
who recommended that the key blocks be driven to such 
a depth that they would project, say, 1/4 in. above the 
granite blocks on each side. 

The initial jobs proved so satisfactory that the New 
York Railways decided to adopt this construction for 
practically every piece of special work on its system. 
At this writing more than sixty intersections have been 
so paved, and at some locations the plan has also been 
applied to the straight runs. 

The actual results obtained with this method of pro- 
longing rail life were noted in a recent inspection trip 
which covered some of the heaviest car and trucking 
streets in the world. In every instance the Alcott pav- 
ing and the special work paved therewith were found 
to be in decidedly better condition than adjacent con- 

The inspection was made during and after a heavy 
rainstorm, thereby making apparent the non-slip advan- 
tages of the key block paving. As previously stated, the 


iflMlS * 

wm-<''^^^^!mwm\mKk ■' 

■ I ^ . ' * •" : . 

■ ■ 

- ■ - ; . V ■ '11 « 1 

f"^ v.. .»■■ 

^^^^^^^^^^% ^^HWr^J^C^ TBLfc^^ 



key blocks, as installed, project V4, in. above the granite. 
The tendency of traffic is to drive these blocks down, 
thereby keeping the paving wedged tight, but still leav- 
ing it rough enough to give an excellent footing for 
horses and a better grip for automobile tires. Natur- 
ally, this construction is also watertight and therefore 
is not damaged either by rain or flushing by the street 
cleaning department. 

As the key blocks assure a tight paving structure, 
movement of the special work is materially reduced at a 
great gain in the direction of noiselessness and in the 
reduction of track maintenance cost. To use one track 
foreman's expression, "They never loosen like granite 
does." Another consequence of this, noted after the 
storm in question, was the absence of water pockets and 
puddles. The latter condition elicited praise from the 
traffic policemen who are stationed at intersections. 

As the New York Railways installations are so 
numerous, it will serve to mention the following few 
typical cases: 

Thirty-fourth Sti-eet and Eleventh Avenue. At this 
point the Thirty-fourth Street cars cross the New York 
Central freight tracks on Eleventh Avenue. On this 
avenue there is also extremely heavy trucking from the 
warehouses and river terminals. The paving has been 
in service one and one-half years. Other installations 
along Thirty-fourth Street are at Tenth, Ninth and 
Eighth Avenues and Cortlandt and West Streets, the 
last-named having been in use more than two years and 
nine months. 

Forty-second Street, the most important crosstown 
thoroughfare for car and automobile travel. Alcott 
paving is found at Lexington, Sixth and Ninth Avenues. 





January 6, 1917] 



The intersection at Sixth Avenue is within two blocks Ohio Brass Company, are 23 ft. long and are made of 
of the New York Hippodrome. 

West Broadway from Bleecker to Broome Streets. In 
this installation the blocks are used from rail to rail 
without any pinching of the conduit slot, showing that 
there is no swelling of these blocks. 

Other important installations are at Twenty-third 
Street and Fourth Avenue, now in service three years; 
Canal Street and Broadway, Cortlandt and West 
Streets, Delancey Street approach to the East River 
Bridge, etc. 

2-in. C-tubing. They are braced by IVa-in. C-tubing 
braces aijd in addition are supported by two rods 
attached to each arm. In order to protect the wooden 
poles from damage by wagon hubs, renewable V-shaped 
guards are placed at the bottom of each pole. 

Pneumatic Tampers Cut Labor Cost in 
Half in Pittsburgh 

Long Bracket Arms for Narrow 

In the issue of the Electric Railway Journal for 
Sept. 30, 1916, page 684, there appeared an account of 
an installation of unusually long bracket arms on the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit System. In this case the pur- 
pose was to avoid interference between a cableway 


constructed by a contractor for digging a sewer in an 
important street and the span construction in use for 
supporting the trolley wire. 

The Virginia Railway & Power Company has made of a similar scheme at one location on its right-of- 
way where it is so narrow that it is impracticable to 
set poles on both sides. A wagon road runs along one 
side of the tracks and the brackets span this road and 
the two car tracks. 

The pole bracket arms, wfcich were furnished by the 

The Tamping Outfits Also Reduce the First Cost of 
Welding Equipment 

The Pittsburgh Railways was one of the first to use 
pneumatic tampers. The present equipment consists of 
two compressors, each of which furnishes power for a 
battery of six tampers. These machines have three 
lines, respectively 50 ft., 100 ft. and 150 ft. long and 
each line takes care of two tampers. 

The company is also planning to purchase five portable 
sets, made to handle four tampers each, in order to se- 
cure the convenience of working with compressor equip- 
ment that can be kept off the tracks where traffic is 
being maintained upon the tracks undergoing repairs. 

As in other installations, the pneumatic tampers show 
a decided saving in cost, the saving per foot of track 
being about 15 cents or one-half of the former cost. The 
proportionate saving in men, however, is greater, and 
this is an advantage, particularly as the much smaller 
force that is required is of a higher grade. There is 
only 30 per cent of the force used that would be re- 
quired for hand tamping. 

The ballast used in Pittsburgh is classified as 
"coarse," in which sizes up to 2^/2 in. are used, and as 
fine, in which 1 in. is the largest size. The machines 
tamp both classes of ballast much better than was cus- 
tomary with hand labor. Though the tamping is done 
as a rule with the 1-in. ballast, the rough ballast is 
spread, compacted and rolled to a depth of about 6 in. 
before the track is laid. 

The company has also taken advantage of the Inger- 
soll-Rand tamping equipment to reduce the first cost of 
Thermit welding outfits. The ordinary preheater used 
in connection with Thermit joints includes a blower out- 
fit which costs about $600. The Pittsburgh Railways 
only find it necessary to use of this outfit the tanks and 
burners costing about $35 to do the preheating in con- 
nection with reduced air pressure supplied from the 
compressor outfits. 

A second by-product of the tamping equipment is the 
forthcoming use of small air drills, which are lighter 
than electric drills, in making joints immediately fol- 
lowing the tamping. Also" having compressed air on 
the job, it may be found to be useful to run air drills 
to break up and remove concrete. 




[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

Mirror Used in Safeguarding Crossing 

The accompanying illustration shows how W. W. 
Holden, superintendent of transportation San Antonio 
(Tex.) Traction Company has used a mirror to do the 
work of a signal in protecting a crossing on his road. 
The route of car A is straight head while car B takes 
the route indicated by the dash line and arrow points. 
The track layout is such that before the mirror was 




used the motormen on the two cars could not see each 
other. The placing of a mirror at the point shown in 
the diagram brings the two cars within view of each 
other before they reach the crossing, and thus the 
danger of a collision is greatly reduced. 

The mirror is 30 in. x 45 in. in size and is protected 
by a wire screen. It is mounted on a post using two 
turnbuckles to provide for easy adjustment. 

Electric Shoveling 

Shoveling with the motive power of a street car re- 
duced the cost from 12 cents to 5 cents per yard on 
about 2200 ft. of double track in Dallas, Tex. R. G. 
Taber of the Stone & Webster organization, general 
managers of the Consolidated Electric Street Railway, 
was in charge of electrically welding a section of new 
track. As the car used for transporting the welding 
outfit remained idle most of the time Mr. Taber con- 
ceived the plan of putting it to work. He fastened a 


rope to a scraper as shown in the accompanying illus- 
trations, passed it through a pulley which was hooked 
over the rail and tied the other end to the car. The 
scraper was taken out beyond the dirt which was piled 
on both sides during the laying of the track. Then the 
car was started and the scraper was pulled in toward 
the track, gathering a load as it came. The cost men- 
tioned above covered everything (including the motor- 
man's wages) except the power used by the car. 

Frogless Switch Makes Continuous 
Rail for High-Speed Track 

A mechanism for eliminating the break in the rail 
and the two pieces of guard rail necessary, and to form 
a continuous rail at a switch, has been developed by the 
Walls Frogless Switch & Manufacturing Company, a 
Colorado corporation of Kansas City, Mo. This con- 
sists of a section of rail which is made to take the place 
of the usual frog, and which is turned with the switch 
point to form a section of either the main-line track or 
the switch track. This section of .".wing rail is 7 ft. 
long and rests on a plate of steel carried on the track 
ties. As the section of rail is thrown with the switch 
point to either position, it is locked on both sides of 
either end to prevent it moving while a train or car 


is passing over it. One of these locks at each end is 
affected by inserts in the bearing plate, and the other 
by means of a rod running parallel with the rail and 
contained in a housing, which inserts a bolt at either 
end, the combination affecting five locks in 7 ft. of rail. 
The steel plate under the frog is 15 ft. long, taking care 
of the bearing area for the 7-ft. rail section and supply- 
ing 3 ft. anchorage at either end leading onto the frog. 
Expansion and contraction are taken care of by mount- 
ing a short section of rail at each side of the swing 
section, and then as rail and bearing plate expand or 
contract, no difficulty is had with the rails binding. 

Thermo-Couple and Potentiometer for 

"Hot Spot" Temperature 


The importance of knowing the temperature of the 
hottest part in electrical machines is now well recog- 
nized. An accurate and reliable method of measuring 
temperature in parts inaccessible to thermometers is by 
means of a thermo-electric couple. The practice of 
building such couples into the windings of large ma- 
chines at points where the highest temperatures are 
reached, though of comparatively recent origin, is fast 
becoming standard. For measuring the temperature 
at a point where a thermo-electric couple has been in- 
stalled a potentiometer is utilized. This instrument 
balances the electromotive force of the couple under 
test against that of another couple at a known tem- 
perature. This avoids all errors due to variation in 
resistance of leads, etc. As all indications are on the 
zero-reading principle, very accurate readings can be 
obtained. A handy set for this purpose made by the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
combines in one case a standard couple and a poten- 

January 6, 1917] 



Pole-Top Switch 

Low cost, simplicity and ruggedness are the claims 
of the makers, the K. P. F. Electric Company, San 
Francisco, for the switch shown herewith. This switch 
is fabricated from structural iron, and is then hot-dip 
galvanized. No clamps are used on the insulators, 
cemented caps being employed. The units are shipped 
from the factory in assembled form. To install them it 


Feomt View 




is only necessary to bolt the three units to the crossarm 
and attach the line wires and control rods. The channel 
baseplate and the channel arm supporting the insulators 
are riveted together, and no amount of warping of the 
crossarm, it is claimed, can throw the switch arms out 
of alignment. While the three legs of the circuit are 
opened and closed simultaneously by means of the rear 
control rod, each pole of the switch is separate from 
the others and is self-contained. 

Creosoted Block Pavement 

The chief defects of creosoted block pavement have 
been the occasional tendency to expand and buckle and 
the bleeding or exuding of oil caused by the blocks being 
improperly treated. While the character of the oil has 
frequently been held responsible for these defects, the 
method of treatment and the character of the timber of 
which the blocks are manufactured are of greater im- 
portance. The pressing need for a uniform standard 
for this pavement has been realized, and a specification 
has been adopted by the American Society of Municipal 
Improvements, Chicago, 111. This specification has al- 
ready been indorsed by five other leading engineering 
and municipal societies interested in this subject. 

The vital points covered by the specifications are the 
timber, preservative compounds, treatment, and the 
method of laying the pavement. The quality of the 
timber is based on it.<!- density, and specific directions 
are given for measuring the number of rings in a defi- 
nite distance and the determination of the percentage 
of summer wood in that region. The preservative speci- 
fication allows the use of two types of oil, the first a coal 
tar solution consisting of a creosote oil to which a lim- 
ited amount of refined coal tar is added, and the second 
a coal tar distillate oil the qualities of which are clearly 
defined. Careful descriptions are given of the methods 
of sampling and testing the preservative. The oils al- 

lowed include practically all the high-grade oils previ- 
ously used in preservative specifications. 

The treatment specifications state that the timber 
should preferably be only partly seasoned, and that 
green and seasoned timbers shall not be treated in the 
same charge. Approximately nine hours is the length 
of treatment required to give a uniform distribution 
of the oil. The need of an adequate preliminary steam 
treatment with proper time and temperature limits is 
also emphasized. 

In laying the pavement sand gives too yielding a base 
when used as a cushion, and as a filler it allows water 
to get under the paving, thus causing swelling and con- 
sequent buckling. This can be prevented by the use 
of a bituminous filler. A new method of construction 
is recommended in which a coating of coal tar pitch or 
other suitable water-proofing paint is applied in a thin 
coat over a smooth base of concrete. The wood blocks 
are placed upon this coating within at least thirty min- 
utes of its application. The specification as a whole has 
received the best thought of many authorities, and if 
consistently followed there is little doubt that most of 
the troubles charged against wood block pavement will 
be eliminated. 

Circuit Breakers for High Voltage 

The circuit-breaker illustrated herewith is one of a 
line recently developed by the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. These break- 
ers range in capacities from 300 to 1200 amp. at 23,000 
volts, and from 1600 to 2000 amp. at 16,600 volts. All- 
steel construction is 
used, rendering them 
compact for their rup- 
turing capacity. They 
are made up of single 
poles mechanically con- 
nected so as to permit 
spacing according to 
local conditions. For 
cell mounting, the steel 
base of each pole unit 
is held in channel irons 
built into the cell walls 
and the single pole 
solenoid is mounted 
with its mechanism on 
a plate and channel 
frame fastened on top 
of the cell. To en- 
able them to break the 
arc quickly the break- 
ers are provided with 
accelerating springs. 
Adjustable air-cylinder 
dash-pots take up the 
shock of the moving 
parts at the full open 
position. The moving 
contacts are of the 
laminated-brush type 
and they are protected 
by butt-type arcing contacts of considerable size. 
Recently tests were made on one of these breakers by 
short-circuiting a 25,000-kva., 23,000-volt turbo-genera- 
tor, five tests being made without external reactance in 
the circuit, five tests with 5 per cent 500-amp. reactance 
coils and six tests by short-circuiting the line at a sub- 
station 8 miles distant, the circuit including about 3 
miles of cable. After the tests the breaker was opened 
for inspection, and there was no evidence on the arcing 
tips of excessive burning. 




^^^^Hv 1^ 


' 'l 










[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

London Letter 

Topics Discussed Mostly Those Growing Out of the 

War — Claygate Electrification Completed 

{From Our Regular Correspondent.) 

The Ashton-under-Lyne Corporation, in conjunction with 
the Waterloo and the Bardsley Parish Councils, recently 
took the first definite step towards acquiring the tramway 
system of the Oldham, Ashton & Hyde Electric Tramways, 
operated under private management for about twenty-five 
years. The Ashton Council decided to promote in the next 
session of Parliament a bill to make provision in respect 
to the purchase of the undertaking. Agreements were 
also confirmed with the Parish Councils of Waterloo and 
Bardsley for the transfer of their powers to the Corpora- 
tion. The bill seeks to authorize the Corporation to con- 
struct additional tramways in the borough and to provide 
and run omnibuses. In the event of the bill being passed, 
it is hoped to establish through inter-running between Ash- 
ton and Oldham. 

A bill will be promoted next session by the Nottingham- 
shire & Derbyshire Tramways to empower it to purchase 
the tramway of the Corporation of Ilkeston. The bill will 
confirm and carry into effect the indenture dated Nov. 5, 
1916, between the Corporation and the company for the 
transfer of the undertaking. 

The motormen of the Newcastle Corporation tramcars 
have made a request to the management for a cessation of 
work at 10.30 p. m. during the winter months. This is due 
to the excessive strain upon the men in driving the cars for 
so many hours in darkness, both morning and night. The 
committee is anxious to give due consideration to the men's 
request, and also to cause as little inconvenience as possible 
to the public and to the places of entertainment. The 
members of the tramway committee have discussed with 
theater managers the desirability of altering the hours of 
performances, with a view to meeting the changed con- 
ditions under which the tramway system is at present being 

The financial position of the Hull Corporation Tramway 
has necessitated several important changes. These will be 
made with the sanction of the City Council. Since the war 
all sailors and soldiers have had the free use of the 
cars, and the privilege has naturally been enjoyed to the 
fullest possible extent. Some time ago commissioned offi- 
cers were asked to pay as ordinary passengers, and now it 
is proposed to charge the rank and file half-penny fares. 
Wounded men will still be allowed to use the cars free. In 
crder to effect an economy in wear and tear, the tram ser- 
vice will be curtailed. The chairman at a recent commit- 
tee meeting stated that it was estimated that for the year 
1916-17 there would be a deficiency of £2,447. He also 
stated that there would have to be a revision of stages, and 
the abolition of penny through rides from extreme points of 
the service. Owing to the shortage of drivers, the man- 
ager had been empowered to introduce women drivers where 

There is every prospect that passengers of the Liverpool 
Corporation Tramways will soon hear the stations announced 
automatically by a gramophone arrangement connected with 
an electro-magnetic route indicator. This ingenious con- 
trivance is the invention of Mr. Mallins, the general man- 
ager of the tramway. 

An application put forward by employees in the traffic 
section of the London County Council tramways for an in- 
crease of 15 per cent on all current rates of wages formed 
the subject of arbitration proceedings at the Chief Indus- 
trial Commissioner's Department, Westminster, recently. 
The claim was based on the ground of the higher cost of 
living, and more than 5000 workers were affected, including 
men and women conductors, and pointsmen. A concession 
of 2s. a week, in addition to the existing war bonus of 3s., 
and 6d. for each employee's child under fourteen years of 
age, was offered by the London County Council, but this 
offer was declined. At the close of the proceedings, which 
were conducted in private, it was announced that the de- 
cision of the arbitrators would be communicated to the par- 
ties interested after full consideration of the evidence laid 
before the tribunal. 

Suggestions were made recently by local authorities that 
there is danger, during Zeppelin raids, from tramways and 
railways. The Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief of the 
Home Forces now points out that it is confidently believed 
that it is only necessary to assure the public that the con- 
tinuance of railway and tramway traffic does not serve as 
a guide to hostile aircraft, and is of vital importance for the 
successful prosecution of the war for them to accept the 
decision and co-operate in carrying it out with loyalty and 

Stoppages are still taking place on the Birmingham Cor- 
poration Tramways, owing to lack of power. An endeavor 
is being made to give the necessary motive power for tram- 
way purposes so as to enable a limited number of cars to be 
run on all routes throughout the day at times when the 
pressure of the factories is greatest. The matter has been 
referred to the Ministry of Munitions, whose local represen- 
tatives are giving careful consideration to the question with 
the object of effecting an improvement in the supply of 
electricity to the tramways. 

The electrification of the Claygate portion of the Lon- 
don & South-Western Railway's suburban lines has been 
completed, and a half-hourly service of electric trains be- 
tween Claygate and Waterloo, covering the journey in 
twenty-nine minutes, has begun. There will be extra steam 
trains morning and evening. 

One of the most interesting appointments to readers of 
this paper in the cabinet of ministers under the new Lloyd 
George Government, is that of Sir Albert Stanley to the 
post of president of the Board of Trade. Sir Albert has 
now a world-wide reputation as a most successful organizer, 
and for the past few years has been the managing director 
of the Underground Electric Railways, London. Brought 
to London by the absolute necessity of having a strong 
man to co-ordinate the services of the various underground 
railways and tube railways. Sir Albert has made a com- 
plete success of the whole system. Two years ago he 
was granted a knighthood, and now this further honor has 
been conferred upon him in recognition of his valuable 
services in connection with the transport problems of Lon- 
don. Sir Albert has already helped the Government in 
many ways connected with the transport problem at the 
front, and is now put in a position where his great abilities 
will be used to assist the whole country. 

The business of the A. E. G. Electric Company, one 
of the three subsidiaries in England of the Allgemeine 
Elektricitats Gesellschaft of Berlin, has been sold by the 
controller appointed by the Board of Trade to Dick, Kerr & 
Company, Ltd., London and Preston. The A. E. G. Electric 
Company was the most important of the three subsidiaries, 
and had offices and works in London, Newcastle, Cardiff and 
Birmingham. It had undertaken large contracts, and one 
of the reasons advanced for the continuance of its opera- 
tions after the outbreak of war is understood to have been 
the importance of the work it had undertaken. The con- 
tracts varied in value from £1,000 to about £40,000, and the 
liquid assets held in this country amounted to more than 
£100,000. Before the war the company employed many Ger- 
man mechanics, and the whole of the capital was held by 
the parent company in Berlin. During the war the German 
staff is stated to have been replaced by a British staff, and 
the latter is now taken over by Dick, Kerr & Company, to- 
gether with a number of uncompleted contracts. 

It will be remembered that a short time ago Dick, Kerr 
& Company also obtained the control of Willans & Robin- 
son, Rugby, who manufacture steam turbines, pumping and 
eonden.sing apparatus, etc. They have also obtained con- 
trol recently of the United Electric Car Company, Preston, 
with which they had a working agreement for many years. 
AH of these businesses will now be entirely in the hands of 
Dick, Kerr & Company, who are gradually putting them- 
selves into a very strong position to conduct the very largest 
kind of enterprises in any part of the world as soon as the 
opportunity arises. They will be in a position to control the 
manufacture of almost every piece of apparatus that can 
be installed in connection with the most elaborate electric 
power, electric tramway or electric railway enterprises, and 
by these consolidations will become one of the most im- 
portant manufacturing and contracting companies in 
Europe. A. C. S. 

January 6, 1917] 



News of Electric Railways 

Financial and Corporate 

Traffic and Transportation 
Personal Mention 

Construction News 

Extension of Line Ordered 

Berkshire Street Railway Ordered to Complete Intra- 
state Connecting Link 

The Public Service Commission of Massachusetts issued 
an order Dec. 30, 1916, requiring the Berkshire Street Rail- 
way to complete its Lee-Huntington line for service on or 
before July 1, 1917. The order ansvpers a petition of the 
selectmen of five towns traversed by the line which was 
constructed under the provisions of Chap. 601, Acts of 1910, 
which authorized the purchase of the Berkshire company by 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and re- 
quired the building of this line among others as an inci- 
dental feature of the purchase. In 1912 the then Board of 
Railroad Commissioners extended the time of completion 
of this line from Jan. 1, 1913, to Jan. 1, 1914. No further 
extension of time has been granted by the commission or 
requested by the company. 

The entire line, which is 23.86 miles long, was nearly com- 
pleted three years ago. In December, 1915, the commis- 
sion granted a certificate of operation for a section of the 
line 12.54 miles long, from East Lee to Otis. Soon after- 
ward informal complaint was made to the commission 
because of the failure of the company to operate the entire 
line. In August, 1916, the board authorized the company 
to operate an additional 3800-ft. section. The company 
stated at a hearing before the board that it desires to post- 
pone as long as possible the completion and operation of 
the section of the line from Algeree Four Corners, Otis, to 
Blandford, and that it had no intention or desire to com- 
plete and operate the remainder of the line from Blandford 
to Huntington, unless ordered to do so by proper public 

The attitude of the company was influenced by its finan- 
cial condition and by the physical condition of the line. Con- 
struction has been difficult and costly in the hilly region 
traversed, about $3,000,000 having been expended. The com- 
pany also claimed that the operation of the entire line would 
involve a financial loss which it ought not to be called upon 
to assume in its present financial condition. 

The Berkshire company failed to pay its operating ex- 
penses and fixed charges in 1916 by more than $87,000. 
After every reasonable allowance had been made for any 
possible inflation in the company's capitalization or floating 
debt, it did not appear that the company's financial status 
was such as to justify the commission, under ordinary con- 
ditions, in requiring the company to assume an additional 
financial burden through the operation of an unprofitable 
line. This case differed, however, in important respects 
from a proceeding brought under the general law to compel 
a street railway to build and operate an extension of its 
existing lines. This line had already been substantially com- 
pleted at an estimated cost of about $3,000,000. The obliga- 
tion to build was definitely imposed by the Act of 1910, as 
one of the considerations for permitting the New Haven 
company, contrary to the general law and policy of the 
State, to acquire and hold the capital stock of a ttreet 
railway. This legislation was actively sought by tht| New 
Haven company, not with any expectation that the dera- 
tion of the Berkshire company would in itself prove profit- 
able, but that the existing and projected lines of the 'Berk- 
shire company would serve as feeders to the New Haven 
road, and would develop a large amount of long-hauf busi- 
ness for tlie latter, which would be sufficiently profitable to 
offset any loss from the Berkshire, property. The commis- 
sion holds that the agreement of the two companies, evi- 
denced by their acceptance of the act, raises what is vir- 
tually a contractual obligation to complete and operate the 

Six of Ninety Contracts Unawarded 

These Are All of the New York Contracts Unlet. 
Many New Lines to Open Soon 

Only six general construction contracts out of ninety for 
the dual system of rapid transit remain to be awarded by 
the Public Service Commission for the First District of New 
York. Several important portions of the new lines will be 
placed in operation during the year 1917, adding mate- 
rially to the present traffic facilities of New York. Several 
track installation contracts and station finish contracts for 
a number of stations remain to be awarded. These for the 
most part will be delivered during 1917. At the end of the 
year the Public Service Commission had completed or had 
awarded contracts for construction work on the new lines 
to be owned by the city of New York aggregating $196,- 
278,900. In addition, expenditures had already been made 
or authorized to the amount of nearly $15,000,000 for real 
estate in connection with rapid transit work. Portions of 
this real estate, however, will be resold. 

Exclusive of the above expenditures, the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company and the New York Municipal Rail- 
way Corporation, which will operate the new rapid transit 
lines, entered into contracts and agreements involving large 
amounts in connection with rapid transit work. While exact 
figures are not at hand as to the amounts involved, it is 
roughly estimated that the two companies had expended 
and were under obligation to the amount of $35,000,000 all 
told for construction work upon company owned lines, mak- 
ing the total of construction contracts let by the city and 
the companies for all work about $231,000,000. In addition, 
the two operating companies will contract for $20,000,000 
of equipment which they must supply. 

Among the city owned lines which it is hoped may be 
placed in operation during the coming year are the Astoria 
and Corona extensions, the White Plains Road extension, 
the Jerome Avenue extension and a portion of the Southern 
Boulevard extension of the Lexington Avenue line, together 
with the main stem of the Lexington Avenue line, the 
Seventh Avenue Subway in Manhattan, and possibly a por- 
tion of the Platbush Avenue and Eastern Parkway Subway 
in Brooklyn, for operation by the Interborough. The major 
portion of the Interborough lines will be in operation by 
the end of this year. Of the city-owned lines for operation 
by the New York Municipal Railway Corporation of Brook- 
lyn, it is believed that a part and possibly all of the Broad- 
way Subway in Manhattan will be in operation. Such 
operation will be in part a shuttle service south of Canal 
Street and a through service from Brooklyn by way of 
Manhattan Bridge and Canal Street north of Canal Street. 
Reports indicate that during the coming year the Second 
Avenue elevated line extension across the Queensboro 
Bridge and possibly the extension of the Ninth Avenue 
elevated line to a connection with the Jerome Avenue line 
will be placed in operation. New elevated facilities for 
operation by the Brooklyn company expected during the 
year are the third tracks on the Broadway line from Myrtle 
Avenue to Aberdeen Street, the Jamaica Avenue extension 
from Cypress Hills to Jamaica, and the third tracks on the 
Myrtle Avenue line between Broadway and Wyckoff Avenue. 

Since the first of the year the third track on the Broadway 
line, Brooklyn, between Myrtle Avenue, Williamsburg, and 
Aberdeen Street, East New York, has been placed in opera- 
tion for the use of express trains from Canarsie. Within 
the last few days there has also been opened for service the 
extension of the elevated lines on Jamaica Avenue from 
Crescent Street, Cypress Hills, to Grant Avenue, Woodha- 
ven. This last extension is a section of the new elevated 
route from Cypress Hills over Jamaica Avenue to Jamaica. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

Beaver Valley Traction Entertains 

Christmas Reception Planned by Superintendent 
Boyce — Newspaper Participates by Sending Gifts 

The sixth annual Christmas entertainment for the em- 
ployees and families of the Beaver Valley Traction Com- 
pany, New Brighton, Pa., was held on Dec. 20 at the pavilion 
at Junction Park, owned by the company. It was the big- 
gest affair of the kind the company has held. The enter- 
tainment of the children, of whom there were more than 
300, was a feature. W. H. Boyce, superintendent of the 
company, planned the affair and in carrying out the pro- 
gram he was ably assisted by Mrs. Boyce, J. E. McKirdey, 
advertising manager of the Pittsburgh Railways Company; 
Mr. Hay, president of the Pittsburgh section of the Na- 
tional Electric Light Association, and others. An enormous 
Christmas tree strung with red, white and blue electric light 
bulbs, red and green papier mache rope, gilt and other bril- 
liant ornaments, stood at the lower end of the dance floor, 
while hundreds of lantern-effect shades were draped over 
the lights of the room. The entire pavilion was strung with 
garlands and on every hand were cards bearing the in- 
scription "We wish you all A Merry Christmas and A Happy 
New Year," signed by the Beaver Valley Traction Company. 

The children were entertained royally for an hour and in 
turn sang Christmas carols for Mr. Boyce. Each received 
candy, a toy and a monkey-on-a-stick. Shortly after 5 
o'clock the employees of the company, their wives, families 
and sweethearts arrived with their friends. As they came 
in each employee walked up to the tree and gave his name. 
Miss Blanche Moore, acting as clerk to Santa Claus, had a 
list of all the employees and the number of the package 
each was to get. In addition there was candy in boxes and 
boxed peanuts, the latter complimentary from The Beaver 
Daily Times. For each of the men of the company there 
was a handsome lapel watch chain. For the women guests 
there were necklaces of beads and other jewelry and orna- 
ments. C. C. Shetterley, lessee and manager of Junction 
Park during the past season, also presented cigars to each 
employee of the company. Lunch was prepared for 700 
persons. Shortly after 1 a. m., the employees who had 
been out all night with cars began to arrive. These belated 
arrivals received their gifts and were entertained with 
music. The company hung in its cars, over its own name, 
a placard, 19 in. by 13 in., in colors, on which was printed 
this Christmas sentiment "We wish you All a Very Merry 
Christmas and a Happy and Prosperous New Year." 

U. S. Circuit Court Dismisses Strike 

The United States Circuit Court of Appeals at Chicago, 
111., on Jan. 2 reversed the ruling of the United States Dis- 
trict Court at Indianapolis, Ind., in the case of the Indian- 
apolis Traction & Terminal Company, and dismissed the in- 
junction against W. D. Mahon and other officials of the 
Amalgamated Association and the employees of the Indian- 
apolis Traction & Terminal Company restraining them from 
calling a strike against the company. The Court of Appeals 
ruled that the District Court had no jurisdiction in the mat- 
ter because the real parties at interest were both residenti 
of the State of Indiana, and therefore the action should have 
been in the state court and not in the federal court. 

The suit was brought in 1914 by the Guaranty Trust & 
Safe Deposit Company, Philadelphia, Pa., trustee under the 
mortgage of the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Com- 
pany, and was a suit on contract — that of the arbitration 
award which ended the strike of November, 1913. In the 
hearing before Judge Anderson of the United States Dis- 
trict Court at Indianapolis, the plaintiff proved that a strike 
in violation of the arbitration award was imminent, and the 
defendants, who included members of the street railway 
men's local union and officials of the Amalgamated Associa- 
tion, offered no testimony. 

When the matter of the threatened strike was first 
brought before Judge Anderson in September, 1914, he de- 
clined to issue a temporary restraining order ex parte. He 
called the attorney representing the union and asked that it 

guarantee that no strike would be called that night, but 
when the attorney refused to assure the court that the con- 
templated strike would be held in abeyance until a hearing, 
Ji'.dge Anderson then issued the restraining order. Two 
months later, proof of the threatened strike having been 
given at the hearing and no evidence being offered by the 
defendants, the temporary injunction was issued. An ap- 
peal was then taken by the unions to the Circuit Court of 
Appeals, but no decision was handed down by the Court of 
Appeals until Jan. 2, 1917. The court held that the bringing 
of the action in the name of the Guaranty Trust & Safe De- 
posit Company, Philadelphia, and omitting the name of 
the Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company as a party 
plaintiff was not the proper procedure. 

Town to Help Complete Railway 

Massachusetts Municipality Shares Construction Cost 
for Completing County Street Railway 

The Public Service Commission of Massachusetts has 
concluded an investigation of plans for completing the 
Plymouth & Sandwich Street Railway, under which the 
town of Plymouth shares in the construction cost of the 
road. By Chap. 95, Acts of 1911, the town was authorized 
to purchase securities of the road to the amount of $50,000 
to facilitate building the railway, which is to serve sparsely 
settled territory in the Cape Cod district. The town was 
not allowed to subscribe, however, until the commission had 
found that reasonably sufficient financial arrangements had 
been made to permit the completion of the line. The com- 
pany now petitions the commission to enter such order as 
may be necessary to authorize the subscription by the town. 
A portion of the line 6.15 miles long, from Plymouth to 
Fresh Pond, has been completed, a further portion, 1.85 
miles long, between Sagamore Beach and the Cape Cod 
Canal, has been built but not as yet operated; and there re- 
mains to be completed 9.9 miles, between Fresh Pond and 
Sagamore Beach and between the Cape Cod Canal and the 
Bourne-Sandwich line. 

On Dec. 6, 1916, there remained only 1.47 miles of track 
construction to be done. The company has three single- 
truck open cars, two single-truck box cars and one double- 
truck box car. It now has an agreement with the Brock- 
ton & Plymouth Street Railway for the joint use of the 
latter's tracks to Plymouth, and expects to arrange for the 
use by the Brockton & Plymouth of the new track to Saga- 
more. At present the company has a carhouse of five-car 
capacity at Manomet, but plans to build a carhouse of eight 
or ten-car capacity in 1917 at Sagamore. Power is pur- 
chased from the Brockton & Plymouth Street Railway, but 
a connection will be made with the system of the South- 
eastern Massachusetts Power & Electric Company near 
Sagamore. The assets of the company on Oct. 31, 1916, 
totalled $360,651. The banking house of Hodgdon, Cash- 
man & Company, Boston, has agreed to underwrite the con- 
struction notes of the company sufficiently to cover the con- 
tract price. In this case it has been urged that the words 
"reasonably sufficient financial arrangements," as shown in 
the statute, are equivalent to the words, "reasonably sound 
financial arrangements," and that the commission cannot 
properly issue the desired certificate if it appears that the 
construction of the road has been or is being financed largely 
by the creation of floating indebtedness and without the 
issue of stock sufficient in amount to insure a reasonable 
measure of financial stability to the enterprise. In the 
judgment of the board, the Legislature was endeavormg to 
insure, not the financial stability of the company, but the 
completion of a railway between Plymouth and Sandwich. 

From the beginning it appears that the town of Plymouth 
has desired an opportunity to invest in the undertaking, 
not so much in the hope of securing a direct return upon the 
investment as to obtain the advantages of railway connec- 
tion to the coastal territory lying immediately to the south, 
which included a region of summer-vacation popularity. 
The town was the petitioner for the above legislation. 
The commission certifies that reasonably sufficient finan- 
cial arrangements have been made to permit the comple- 
tion of the road. 

January 6, 1917] 



Cleveland Power Contract Finding 

Board of Arbitration Decides in Favor of Railway 
Purchasing Power from Illuminating Company 

The board of arbitration selected two months ago to pass 
upon the Cleveland power contract made public its decision 
on Jan. 2. The board approved the power contract between 
the Cleveland Railway and the Cleveland Electric Illuminat- 
ing Company. The plan of the railway to scrap its Cedar 
Avenue power house and build a substation at a cost of 
$250,000 was also approved. The decision on the latter 
points was announced some time ago. The cost of power to 
the railway under this contract will be less than 6 mills per 
kilowatt hour, according to the estimates made by the engi- 
neers at the hearings. The board stated that it considered 
the Illuminating Company's bid the lower of the two and the 
best under the circumstances. 

The report stated that the bid of the local municipal light 
plant had not been approved by the board of control, as re- 
quired by law; that it contained statements to the effect that 
the proposition was tentative and to be used as a basis for 
a more formal contract, and that it would be necessary to 
agree on conditions if the bid proved satisfactory. One of 
the principal reasons for the rejection of the municipal 
plant's bid was that the question as to whether it should be 
accepted was not included among those upon which the 
board was asked to pass. Moreover, the municipal plant 
proposed to furnish only the power which had been generat- 
ed heretofore at the Cedar Avenue power house of the rail- 
way. This amounted to about 50,000,000 kw.-hr. per annum. 
The contract was arranged to extend over a period of ten 

On the other hand, the Cleveland Electric Illuminating 
Company agreed to furnish not only this amount of power, 
but to continue that already being furnished to four substa- 
tions, and as much more as may be required. The contract 
with this company is to cover a period of eighteen years. 
At the end of five years, however, the railway may receive 
competitive bids for the remainder of the term and if any 
bid received is 10 per cent lower than the price paid to the 
Illuminating Company and so low that this company will 
not meet it, then the railway may abrogate the contract on 
a year's notice. 

The report said that if the primary and secondary charges 
alone were considered, the bid of the municipal plant for the 
service heretofore furnished by the Cedar Avenue plant was 
probably lower than that of the Illuminating Company. The 
municipal plant, however, could probably not furnish this 
power before July 1, 1918, while the Illuminating Company 
can furnish it by July 1, 1917. 

There was considerable discussion of the clause by which 
the railway agreed to pay a certain proportion of the addi- 
tional cost of coal above $2.25 per ton. The board criticized 
this, but said that the objections to it were not sufficient to 
overcome the advantages of other features of the contract. 
It recommended a modification of a clause relating to han- 
dling coal, and this will be made. 

The reproduction value of the Cedar Avenue power house 
was placed at $1,265,565, and this, less the salvage of ma- 
chinery and equipment estimated at $115,565, is to be placed 
in a suspense account and paid off at the rate of $20,000 a 

It is estimated that the saving by buying the power here- 
tofore furnished by the Cedar Avenue power house will be 
about $200,000 a year. The cost of production at the Cedar 
Avenue plant of the Cleveland Railway has been around 1 
cent per kilowatt hour. 

The report was signed by A. F. Ingersoll, chairman of the 
board and Warren Bicknell the member selected by the rail- 
way. Thomas L. Sidlow, the member selected by the city, 
brought in a minority report, in which many points of the 
majority report were discussed and criticized. He recom- 
mended the approval of the bid of the municipal plant as the 
more advantageous in every respect. 

The total cost of the arbitration was $24,053. The arbi- 
trators weie awarded $5,000 each. Joseph Alexander, first 
selected by the company to represent it and afterward in- 
capacitated by accident, received $1,000. The fees of city 
witnesses amounted to $4,6(;5, while those of the company's 
witnesses were $858. The stenographer received $2,530. 

Connecticut Company Review 

Present Financial Condition Makes It Impossible 
for Company to Extend Service 

The Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn., in a brief 
which has just been filed with the Public Utilities Commis- 
iion, announces that its present financial condition makes it 
impossible for the corporation to extend its service through 
Centerville, for which a petition was filed recently. The 
brief answers a petition for service in Hamden. The final 
hearing on the petition of the Hamden residents was held 
before the commission a few weeks ago. 

The brief explains that the trustees of the Connecticut 
Company do not hold office in the same manner that the 
board of directors of street railways generally do. The men 
who handle the Connecticut Company affairs were appointed 
trustees of the property by the federal court and the tenure 
of office ends in 1919, giving them about two and a half 
years more service. The company said in part: 

"Under these circumstances the trustees may very prop- 
erly hesitate to make arrangements for the permanent 
financing of the company. The directors have followed the 
policy that the extraordinary expenditures be made out of 
current expenses, rather than permanently to finance the 
company and use the proceeds for the capital account. This 
policy has led the trustees to declare extremely small divi- 
dends during the last two years, paying last year a 1% per 
cent dividend and the year previous, 1 per cent. 

"It does not seem out of place at this time to mention a 
few of the larger expenditures which have been made dur- 
ing the past year, or are to be made during the present 
fiscal year, and the expenditures which have been recom- 
mended by officials but have not been approved by the board 
of directors at the present time. 

"During the past year it has been necessary greatly to in- 
crease the capacity of the power houses in New Haven, 
Bridgeport and Hartford, upon which account is being spent 
the sum of $900,000. The carhouse in Waterbury is to be 
extended and rebuilt, for which an authorization of $200,000 
has been granted. The building of bridges that are now un- 
der construction will result in a cost of $250,000 this year 
and bridges in contemplation will add $100,000 more to this 
account. For new passenger equipment it has been neces- 
sary in the last two years to form equipment trusts amount- 
ing to $1,100,000, which must be paid within five years. 
Paving of streets has averaged for the last three years an 
expenditure of $400,000 a year. 

"Recommendations have been made by officials of the com- 
pany for necessary carhouses, inspection bams, repair shops 
in various cities at an expenditure estimated at $1,150,000. 
These latter are very necessary in order to provide accom- 
modations for the additional equipment. 

"During the last five months of this fiscal year the total 
operating expenses have increased 31.58 per cent over the 
same period of last year. The gross earnings, however, 
have increased only 13.74 per cent, so that the net earnings 
have shown a decrease of 14.30 per cent, due to the enor- 
mous increase in the cost of maintenance and labor." 

Report on Dorchester Tunnel Extension 

The Boston Transit Commission has filed a special report 
in the Legislature relative to the extension of the Dorchester 
tunnel from Andrew Square to Upham's Corner. At the last 
session the commission was ordered to report upon the cost 
and most feasible route, and it finds the former to be about 
$2,800,000, via Boston Street, Edward Everett Square and 
Columbia Road, the distance being about 1 mile. An accom- 
panying report by Chief Engineer Edmund S. Davis states 
that the present terminal at Andrew Square includes about 
(520 linear feet of two-track tunnel extending southerly froni 
the station for cross-over facilities. The extension from this 
point to Upham's Corner would terminate at a station 350 ft. 
long with a lobby above the track level and the necessary 
entrances and exits. South of this station the usual cross- 
over facilities would be provided. The estimate takes into 
consideration the advanced cost of labor and material, the 
cost of the subway and station, including location of water- 
pipes and sewers and land damages. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

Lease Negotiations in Cincinnati 

In a letter to E. W. Edwards, president of the Rapid 
Transit Commission of Cincinnati, Ohio, on Dec. 27, W. 
Kesley Schoepf, president of the Cincinnati Traction Com- 
pany, expressed a willingness to enter into negotiations for 
the lease of the proposed rapid transit loop on the basis of 
a general proposition which had been presented to him. 
Mr. Schoepf said he would not object to a new franchise 
for his company, as proposed, on condition that it is so 
drawn as to leave no doubt as to its legality and to its prac- 
ticability from a financial standpoint. 

Instead of basing the returns on the net earnings of 1916, 
however, Mr. Schoepf made the counter-proposal that 1914, 
1915 and 1916 be used for this purpose. He also said the 
company should deduct an amount equal to its 6 per cent 
franchise tax, before a division of any balance was made 
with the city, and he further contended that the percentage 
tax should not exceed the present payments. The company 
would agree to operate the loop as a part of a unified sys- 
tem, with universal transfers, entrance for all interurban 
lines, regulation of service and rates of fare, the city's right 
to order extensions and the fixing of a valuation for the 
purchase of the company's property by the city. Mr. Schoepf 
suggested that the zone of the 5-cent fare be limited to the 
present area. Through City Solicitor Charles A. Groom the 
canal lease secured by the city has been modified in such a 
way as to allow its use under somewhat different specifica- 
tions than originally intended. It permits the city to build 
the rapid transit loop from 100 ft. beyond Brighton bridge 
to 300 ft. beyond Mitchell Avenue as an open way or on 
the surface instead of constructing it as a subway, as orig- 
inally intended. 

to appoint the sub-boards and to name the chairman and 
secretary of each. According to the bill the decision of the 
sub-board is to be the decision of the commission. Previous 
efforts to consolidate the two commissions have failed on 
account of the absorption of both boards in their duties 
and the unbroken and successful regulative history of the 
Gas & Electric Light Commission in its particular field of 

New Franchise Conditions in Gary 

Proposed Substitute Grant Would Eliminate 3-Cent 
Fares and Make City a Partner 

The segregation of the properties of the Gary & Inter- 
urban Railroad into its former constituent parts and a share 
of the net profits to the city of Gary, Ind., are provided 
for in a new franchise before the Council of that city. 
In return, the city of Gary will repeal the former fifty- 
year grant which exacted a 3-cent fare and grant a new 
thirty-year franchise. Should the company break faith 
with the city, the 3-cent fare will become operative again. 

The segregation will restore the identity of the Val- 
paraiso & Northern and the Chicago, Goshen & South Bend 
and connecting lines. The city of Gary demands that all 
lines east of Broadway in Gary be operated as separate 
companies. There is no objection to the old Gary & Inter- 
urban Railway, which also operates in Tolleston and Ham- 
mond, and the old East Chicago City Railways being one 

Other conditions in the tentative grant provide for the 
addition at once of twenty modern pay-as-you-enter cars 
for service in Gary, all future track to be laid with 85-lb. 
rail, extensions of the road to new plants and to new sec- 
tions of the city. 

Plan to Consolidate Massachusetts 

A struggle in the Legislature is forecasted by the recent 
action of Representative Allen of Newton, Mass., in filing a 
bill in the House providing for the consolidation of the 
Public Service Commission and the Gas & Electric Light 
Commission. Instead of the present boards aggregating 
eight members the bill provides a single body of seven 
members, to be appointed for terms of seven years at sal- 
aries of $7,500 each, with the exception of the chairman, 
whose compensation will be $8,000. The bill provides for 
the appointment by the chairman of four sub-boards of 
three members each, to deal respectively with steam rail- 
roads and steamships, street and elevated railways, gas 
and electric light companies, telephone and telegraph com- 
panies. The chairman and secretary of the commission are 
to be appointed by the Governor, the chairman having power 

President House on Indefinite Leave 

After Brief Rest He Will Study and Report to the 

Company Methods in Use Elsewhere 

Than Baltimore 

At a special meeting of the directors of the United Rail- 
ways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md., on Jan. 3 William 
A. House, president of the company, was voted an indefinite 
leave of absence, and Thomas A. Cross, the vice-president, 
was selected to perform the executive duties while Mr. 
House is away. The official statement issued by the board 

"William A. House, at his request made to the directors of 
the United Railways & Electric Company, has been granted 
a leave of absence from official duties in order that he may 
secure, first, complete rest, after which he will engage in an 
investigation of the operation of a number of street railways 
in other cities. During his absence Mr. House will continue 
as president, but his duties will be performed by the vice- 
president, Thomas A. Cross. 

"The directors realize that with the rapid industrial ex- 
pansion of our city the company will be confronted with 
many serious problems of operation, and it is the desire of 
the directors that the company be in a position not merely 
to meet requirements, but to lead and assist in an intelli- 
gent policy of expansion and development. 

"In order that they may have before them a thorough and 
competent study of what has been done elsewhere in the in- 
telligent development of facilities to meet similar situations, 
the directors have decided to have made a report which will 
embrace the work done in most of the other large centers in 
this country. . 

"In considering means of making such a survey of the 
work elsewhere, different engineering firms were under con- 
sideration, but it was finally decided that it would be more 
satisfactory to have the report made by a man familiar with 
the local situation. The man pre-eminently fitted to make 
such a report is William A. House. Mr. House has been 
connected with the United Railways for the past thirty-five 
years, during which time he has not only seen the develop- 
ment of the company from a comparatively small beginning 
to its present magnitude, but during this time has been an 
important factor in the development and expansion of the 

"In order to facilitate this work, and realizing that the 
exacting duties of the president of the company during the 
past years have taxed the strength of its president to the 
limit, and in order that he may be prepared to make the ex- 
tensive tour of the larger cities involved in making the re- 
port in question, the directors of the company have granted 
a leave of absence to President House. 

"It is the intention of the president for the first month to 
take a complete rest. The directors insisted that this should 
be done before his new duties were assumed. After his rest 
he will begin the inspection and examination into the rail- 
way situation in other cities. With the assistance of the re- 
port that will be made by President House, the directors of 
the company expect to develop comprehensive plans looking 
to meeting the future requirements of the local railway sit- 

Toronto Carhouse Destroyed By Fire. — A fire broke out 
in the east carhouse of the Toronto (Ont.) Railway on 
the Don River at 8.30 p. m., on Dec. 28, causing total destruc- 
tion of the building and many cars which were stored 
in the carhouse at the time. "The loss is unofficially esti- 
mated at $500,000. R. J. Fleming, general managjer of the 
company, refused to make any statement until the officials 
had made a complete examination and determined the exact 
loss. <■ 

January 6, 1917] 



Aurora Carhouse Roof Collapses. — As a result of split- 
ting a switch upon entering the carhouse in Aurora, 111., 
■one of the cars of the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway 
jumped the track and knocked down one of the columns 
supporting the roof, and the south half of the latter caved 
in. The construction was undoubtedly strong enough to 
support the roof under ordinary conditions without one 
column, but the excessive weight brought on by 8 in. of 
snow and ice was probably responsible for the failure. The 
truss rods buckled, and the roof gave way, burying five cars 
in the wreckage. 

Arbitration of Wages on Interurban Line. — The trainmen 
in the employ of the Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway, 
Ottawa, 111., have agreed to submit their request for in- 
creased wages to a board of arbitration. The present basis 
of pay is 24 Vi cents for first-year men, the scale then rang- 
ing to a maximum of 28 cents. The company offered the 
men a flat increase of 2 cents an hour for the first year with 
an additional increase of 1 cent an hour for the other years. 
The trainmen asked 25 cents an hour for first-year men and 
-30 cents and 35 cents for the other employees. The work- 
ing conditions that exist, other than the wage scale, are 

Hearing on Jan. 15 on Relief from Franchise Conditions. 
— The State Public Service Commission of Washington has 
fixed Jan. 15 as the date for a hearing of the petition of 
the Tacoma Railway & Power Company, Tacoma, to be 
relieved of certain of its franchise obligations, which in- 
clude the paving of right-of-way, and the payment of 2 
per cent of its gross earnings to the city, because of im- 
paired revenues due to jitney competition, and other rea- 
sons. The case is identical to that instituted by the Puget 
Sound Traction, Light and Power Company, Seattle, ex- 
cept that the Public Service Commission has made a valua- 
tion of the Tacoma Railway system, while it has not valued 
the Seattle system. 

Grand Rapids Railway Raises Wages. — The third in- 
crease within a year in the wage scale of the employees 
of the Grand Rapids (Mich.) Railway was announced on 
Dec. 24 by Benjamin S. Hanchett, president, to become ef- 
fective on Jan. 1. The scale is raised 4 cents an hour, 
bringing the new rate up to 28 cents for the first six 
months, 29 cents for the second six months, 31 cents for 
the second year, and 32 cents for the third year. The 
notice of the raise called attention to the fact that the 
earnings of the company did not justify the action at this 
time, but that the living expenses of the men had in- 
creased so materially that the company felt it necessary 
to assist in alleviating the conditions. 

High Cost of Materials May Endanger Fare at Cleveland. 
— Fielder Sanders, street railway commissioner of Cleveland, 
Ohio, said that a decision of the board of arbitration in 
favor of the Cleveland Railway in the power contract con- 
troversy will result in a saving of $200,000 a year to the 
company and that this will meet the constantly advancing 
cost of labor, materials and equipment. In case the com- 
pany does not receive this relief, he said, the fare would 
almost inevitably have to be increased to 4 cents cash 
and three tickets for 10 cents. Mayor Harry L. Davis is 
quoted as saying the city is opposed to an increase in fare, 
but Commissioner Sanders has answered this with the as- 
sertion that there is nothing else to do but stand for it, 
if the interest fund falls below the limit at which the fare 
is to be increased automatically under the Tayler franchise 

Increases in Wages in Tacoma and Seattle. — Employees of 
the Tacoma Railway & Power Company, Tacoma, Wash., 
to the number of more than 300, received a Christmas pres- 
ent in the form of a rearranged wage schedule providing 
increases in pay approximating 2 cents an hour above the 
old wage scale. The new scale of wages ranges from 23 
cents an hour for the first six months, up to 30 cents for 
ten years and thereafter. Trainmen operating one-man 
cars receive 2 cents an hour in addition to the above rates. 
Gripmen on cable cars receive 1 cent an hour in addition 
to the regular schedule. Trainmen while breaking in stu- 
dents receive 2% cents an hour in addition to the regular 
schedule. Seattle employees of the Pnget Sound Traction, 
Light & Power Company, which also controls the Tacoma 
Railway & Power Company, also received a Christmas pres- 

ent in the form of a wage increase, effective on Jan. 1, when 
the scale was increased 1 cent an hour above what it for- 
merly was, to be followed by an increase of another cent 
on July 1, 1917. Nearly 1000 employees of the company are 
benefited by the Seattle increase. 

Extension of Bridge Approach Underground. — At a con- 
ference of the city-planning commission of Cleveland, Ohio, 
recently, the matter of extending the eastern subway bridge 
approach on Superior Avenue to the Public Square was 
discussed, and it was decided to make an investigation 
with that end in view. Under present plans the entrance 
to the subway will be at West Sixth Street. Members of 
the commission believe that, with a moderate expenditure, 
the subway could be extended to the Public Square. This 
would relieve congestion and allow the cars greater free- 
dom of operation. Such construction is also regarded as 
a first step toward subways on the various streets ap- 
proaching this point and an underground terminal at the 
square. County Engineer Stinchcomb told President Stan- 
ley of the Cleveland Railway, Street Railway Commissioner 
Fielder Sanders and members of the street railway com- 
mittee of the City Council that the county will not recede 
from its position in refusing to pay one-third of the ex- 
pense of re-locating the street railway tracks in order to 
allow the construction of the subways to the bridge to 
proceed. He said the city had agreed to take care of 
this matter. 

Programs of Association Meetings 

National Foreign Trade Council 

The National Foreign Trade Council has called the 
Fourth National Foreign Trade Convention to meet at the 
William Penn Hotel, Pittsburgh, Pa., on Jan. 25, 26 and 27, 
1917, to consider, among others, the following questions: 

Conditions in Foreign Markets After the War, and the 
Measures Necessary to Safeguard American Foreign Trade, 
as Well as the Foreign Trade Aspect of the American Tariff 
■ Co-operation in Foreign Trade Development. 

The American Merchant Marine. 

Foreign Investment of American Capital as an Aid to 
Oversea Commerce. 

Problems of the Smaller Manufacturer and Merchant. 

All Americans engaged in, or desirous of entering, over- 
sea commerce are invited to participate. 

The proceedings will be designed to bring out the mutual 
interests of the chief elements in foreign trade. In addi- 
tion to prepared addresses by authorities on topics men- 
tioned, the convention will be given over largely to "group 
sessions," each devoted to intensive discussion of a single 
problem, in which all delegates are at liberty to participate. 
R. H. Patchin, Hanover Square, New York, is secretary of 
the National Foreign Trade Council. 

American Wood Preservers' Association 

The thirteenth annual meeting of the American Wood 
Preservers' Association will be held at the Hotel Astor, 
New York, N. Y., on Jan. 23, 24 and 25. The association 
will convene on Jan. 23 with an address of welcome by 
Mayor Mitchel of New York. In the afternoon reports of 
committees will be presented as follows: Publicity, Pro- 
motion and Education, by E. A. Sterling, chairman; Service 
Tests of Ties and Structural Timber, by C. P. Winslow, 
chairman; Terminology, by J. B. Card, chairman. 

On Jan. 24 reports of committees will be presented as 
follows: Plant Operation, by A. L. Kuehn, chairman; 
Preservatives, by E. B. Fulks, chairman; Purchase and 
Preservation of Treatable Timber, by A. R. Joyce, chair- 
man. On the same day the following papers will be pre- 
sented: "The Grouping of Ties for Treatment," by C. P. 
Winslow, and "The Bad and the Good in the Handling of 
Wood," by J. H. Waterman. 

On Jan. 25 reports of committees will be presented as 
follows: Service Tests of Wood Block Paving, by L. B. 
Moses, chairman; Wood Block Paving, by C. H. Teesdale, 

An informal banquet will be held on the evening of 
Jan. 24 at 6.30 p. m. Special entertainment features will 
be provided for the ladies on all three days. 



[Vol. XLIX. No. 1 

Financial and Corporate 

Foreclosure Proceeding in 
San Francisco 

Suit was filed in San Francisco, Cal., on Dec. 27 by the 
Anglo & London-Paris National Bank, the Oakland Bank 
of Savings, and D. A. Bulmore, as trustee, to foreclose the 
mortgage on the property of the Market Street Cable Rail- 
way, under which are secured $1,800,000 of 6 per cent bonds. 
The defendants are the Market Street Cable Railway, the 
United Railroads, the Union Trust Company, which is trus- 
tee for junior mortgages, and others. 

The apparent objects of the suit are to prod along the 
reorganization of the United Railroads, the bondholders 
of which are not readily responding to the plan, and to 
prevent the junior bondholders from pleading the statute 
of limitations against this issue of $1,800,000. It was be- 
lieved in the San Francisco financial district that, with 
the filing of this suit, it becomes imperative on the part 
of the holders of the $28,854,000 of United Railroads 4 per 
cent blanket mortgage bonds which are junior to these 
underlying mortgages, to take active steps to protect them- 
selves, either by depositing their bonds under the present 
plan, or formulating a plan of their own. 

Annual Report 

Municipal Railway of San Francisco 

An advance statement of the annual report of the Mu- 
nicipal Railway of San Francisco, Cal., contains the fol- 
lowing income statement for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1916: 
Operating revenues $1,982,804 

Operating exi>enses 1.164.617 

Net operating revenues $818,187 

IjCgal and clerical service ♦$9,182 

Denreciation (18 per cent of gross) 352,075' 


Operating Income $456,930 

Income from bonds owned 24.038 

Gross income $480,968 

Deductions from income: 

Taxes, comparison charges required by 

cliarter $103,855 

Municipal franchise 59,149 

Municipa.1 car license 2,955 

Federal income 755 


Balance before interest $314,254 

Interest on funded debt 239,486 

Net profit $74,768 

•Comparison charter charges as above 175,896 

Profit for year $250,664 

According to the advance statement, presented by Super- 
intendent Thomas A. Cashin, the system has been main- 
tained at better than 80 per cent of its reproduction cost. 
He warns the city, however, that although the road has 
been earning a surplus, there must be a conservative policy 
in undertaking costly and unprofitable extensions. 

Heavy drains have been made upon the earnings of the 
municipal system which must be borne in mind, he points 
out. From surplus earnings $48,000 was expended on the 
Stockton Street Tunnel; about $84,000 was used to help 
complete the Church Street line; $25,000 is being appro- 
priated for five motor buses to operate across Golden Gate 
Park, and the track construction through the Twin Peaks 
Tunnel, which will be required within a few months, will 
probably cost $275,000. Thu.'; a total of $428,000 has been 
taken bodily out of the earnings of the system. The Church 
Street line, for which a total of $500,000 has been spent, 
is not operating, and thus earnings are not accruing to 
defray interest on the investment. The Chestnut Street 
line, built to handle Exposition traffic, vdll not be profitable 
until the district is built up. Moreover, some of the cross- 
town lines which it is necessary to maintain are being op- 

erated at present in expectation of greater development in 
the future. 

Bond redemptions. Superintendent Cashin adds, will in- 
crease this year from $100,000 to $202,000 annually, and 
as long as the system is required to pay its own way out 
of earnings and at the same time maintain a high state 
of efficiency, projected extensions and other expenses must 
be carefully watched if "the garment is to be cut ac- 
cording to the cloth." Although the complete financial re- 
port for the year has not yet been put in shape for circu- 
lation, it is stated that the net profit of the municipal line 
for the year is $74,768, after deducting state and municipal 
franchise, municipal car license and federal income taxes. 
In other words, the actual profits total $250,664, which 
amount is now actually in the city treasury. 

.Vrkansas Valley Internrban Railway, Wichita, Kan. — 

The Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway has been author- 
ized by the Public Utilities Commission of Kansas to issue 
.<i;l,000,000 of first mortgage 5% per cent gold bonds; $600,- 
000 of preferred stock and $1,500,000 of common stock. The 
company is to retire $1,30.3,000 of bonds authorized by the 
Railroad Commission in 1910, using for such retirement the 
pioceeds of $900,000 of the new bond issue and $500,000 of 
the preferred stock. The proceeds of the other issues are to 
go for improvements. 

Bartlesville (Okla.) Interurban Railway. — Edward V. 
Kane & Company, Philadelphia, Pa., announce that the $250,- 
000 of Bartlesville Interurban Railway first mortgage 6 per 
cent gold bonds, due July 1, 1934, which they placed in 1910, 
were called for redemption at 102 and interest on Jan. 1, 
1917. The same firm has purchased a new issue of $350,- 
000 of Bartlesville Interurban Railway first mortgage sink- 
ing fund 6 per cent gold bonds, dated Jan. 1, 1917, due 
Jan. 1, 1947, and redeemable any time at 102 and interest. 
Practically all the old bonds will be exchanged for the new 
issue. Bonds not exchanged will be offered to the public at 
100 and interest. The new bonds are a first lien on railway, 
light and power property in Bartlesville, having a replace- 
ment value of $583,000 as compared with $350,000 of out- 
standing bonds. All of the stock of the Bartlesville Interur- 
ban Railway is owned by the Cities Service Company. 

Boise (Idaho) Railroad, Ltd. — H. E. Dalton, general 
manager, has been appointed receiver of the Boise Railroad. 
Ltd., which operates 8 miles of local lines in Boise. A sale 
was ordered by the court for Jan. 3, at a minimum price of 
$182,000. The application for a receiver, which was made 
by the Germantown Trust Company, Philadelphia, trustee 
under a mortgage securing $389,000 of bonds, was noted in 
the Electric Railway Journal of Aug. 19. 

Bristol (Tenn.) Traction Company. — Upon a hearing of 
the bill of complaint of the Munsey Trust Company, trustee, 
in a suit in chancery instituted against the Bristol Traction 
Company, Judge Roberts of the Corporation Court of Bris- 
tol, Va., on Dec. 8 appointed Fred Dulaney and Joseph A. 
Caldwell receivers of the company. The same action was 
taken in the Chancery Court in Bristol, Tenn. The deed 
of trust under which application for a receiver was made 
was executed to secure payment of thirty-year gold bonds 
aggregating $300,000, but the bill recited that bonds in the 
total amount of only $200,000 were ever issued, $7,500 of 
which the defendant itself owns. On Sept. 1, 1916, the 
defendant defaulted in the payment of the semi-annual 
installment of interest on the outstanding bonds of $192,500. 
The complainant filed as an exhibit to its bill a copy of a 
report which B. L. Dulaney, president, recently made to the 
board of directors of the company, showing that after pay- 
ing taxes and interest on its bonds his company operated 
in both Bristols at a total loss of $8,652 during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1916. 

Chicago (lit.) City Railway.— The First Trust & Savings 
Bank and the Illinois Trust & Savings Bank, Chicago, 111., 
have purchased an issue of $1,700,000 of first mortgage 5 per 
cent bonds of the Chicago City Railway. The proceeds from 
the sale of these bonds will be used to reimburse the com- 
pany for improvements which have been made by it and 
for which the purchase price to the city is raised. 

Chicago (111.) Elevated Railways.— Officials of the Chi- 
cago Elevated Railways have announced that the interest 

January 6, 1917] 



on such of the $14,000,000 of two-year 5 per cent secured 
gold notes of the company, dated July 1, 1914, as have not 
been extended under the terms of the extension agreement 
of June 19, 1916, will be payable at the office of the National 
City Bank in New York City for the six months ended 
Dec. 31, 1916, at the rate of 5 per cent per annum. It is 
stated that practically all of the notes have gone into the 

Cincinnati & Columbus Traction Company, Cincinnati, 

Ohio. — The sale of the property of the Cincinnati & Co- 
lumbus Traction Company, which was scheduled to take 
place on Dec. 19 at an upset price of $850,000, failed to 
be carried through on account of a lack .of bidders. It is 
expected that the court will order a revaluation, and the 
property will again be offered for sale. Were it not for 
the unsettled condition of the loop question and an inter- 
urban right-of-way into Cincinnati, it is said, the stock- 
holders would be prepared to buy in the property at once. 
The railway was placed in the hands of the Union Savings 
& Trust Company, Cincinnati, as receiver on account of 
flood damage in 1913. 

Gary, Hobart & Eastern Traction Company, Hobart, 
Ind. — The application for a receiver in the case of the 
Gary, Hobart & Eastern Traction Company, noted a few 
months ago in the Electric Railway Journal, has been 
granted. Judge Wildermuth receiving the appointment. 

Kansas City, Kaw Valley & Western Railway, Bonner 
Springs, Kan. — The application for a receiver for the Kan- 
sas City, Kaw Valley & Western Railway, noted in the 
Electric Railway Journal of March 11, 1916, was dis- 
missed by order of the court, according to official informa- 
tion now available. 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Electric Trac- 
tion Company, Minneapolis, Minn. — Howard Abbott, master 
in chancery, has been ordered by Judge Wilbur F. Booth, 
in the United States District Court at Minneapolis, Minn., to 
sell the property of the Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester 
& Dubuque Electric Traction Company at auction on or 
before May 27, 1917. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, W. Va. 
—An extra stock dividend of 6 per cent has been declared 
by the directors of the Monongahela Valley Traction Com- 
pany on the $6,782,037 of common stock, along with the 
regular quarterly dividend of 1 per cent. Both of these 
dividends are payable on Jan. 1.5 to holders of record of 
Jan. 5. The regular quarterly 1 Vt per cent on the preferred 
stock of the company has also been declared, payable on 
Feb. 1. 

Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Railway, Nashville, Tenn. 
— The Nashville-Gallatin Interurban Railway has been 
placed in a receivership upon the petition of H. H. May- 
berry, the controlling stockholder in the property, whose 
bill filed with the court alleged that interest due on July 1, 
1916, on the $600,000 of first mortgage bonds of the road 
is in default. H. H. Corson and James R. West were ap- 
pointed receivers, and creditors were ordered to file their 
claims before July 1 next. The receivers were authorized 
to issue $20,000 of 6 per cent receivers' certificates to 
mature in six months, and to use the proceeds to pay the 
bond interest to prevent foreclosure. It is believed, ac- 
cording to the bill of complaint, that a sacrifice of the 
property will be thus prevented, and that the company will 
be able to work out of its financial difficulties. The rail- 
way is 27 miles long from Nashville to Gallatin. 

Northern Ohio Electric Corporation, Akron, Ohio. — The 
Public Utilities Commission of Ohio on Dec. 29 authorized 
the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company to issue 
$1,000,000 of additional common stock, from the proceeds 
of which a number, of improvements will be made. The 
new stock will be taken by the parent corporation, the 
Northern Ohio Electric Corporation. 

Orleans-Kenner Electric Railway, New Orleans, La. — The 
application for a receiver for the Orleans-Kenner Electric 
Railway, made several months ago, was promptly thrown 
out of court. In connection with present advice to this ef- 
fect, it is stated that the company is in fine shape and is do 
ing well. 

People's Street Railway of Nanticoke & Newport, Wana- 
mie. Pa. — The application for a receiver for the People's 

Street Railway of Nanticoke & Newport, noted several 
months ago in these pages, is still formally in court, but 
there is said in official circles to be no reason why the 
property should be placed in receivership. The application 
was made by a few dissatisfied minority stockholders. The 
company is said to be in a very sound financial condition, 
interest on $73,500 of outstanding bonds always having been 
met as required, and liberal dividends having been paid on 
$100,000 of stock since 1910. 

Pittsburgh & Butler Railway, Pittsburgh, Pa.— The Pitts- 
burgh Trust Company was named on Jan. 2 as receiver of 
the Pittsburgh & Butler Railway. The railway defaulted in 
November, 1914, in the payment of interest on the $1,500,000 
of first mortgage 5 per cent gold bonds of the Pittsburgh & 
Butler Street Railway of which the Pittsburgh Trust Com- 
pany is trustee. Subsequent interest payments were not 
made and a bondholders' protective committee was appoint- 
ed. The Pittsburgh & Butler Railway was organized in 
March, 1914, as a consolidation of the Pittsburgh & Butler 
Street Railway and the Butler Passenger Railway. 

Sapulpa & Interurban Railway, Sapulpa, Okla. — The re- 
cent newspaper report that the Midland Valley Railroad, a 
steam line with main offices in Philadelphia, has purchased 
the Sapulpa & Interurban Railway is declared to be erro- 
neous. The property of this 12-mile electric railway was 
foreclosed and bought in by the bondholders on Sept. 9 and 
the receivership was discharged. The former receiver, R. V. 
Miller, however, is still in charge of the property for the 
new owners. There will probably be a reorganization soon, 
but as yet nothing has been done. As far as is known, there 
is no probability that the Midland Valley Railroad will ac- 
quire the property. 

Southern Traction Company, Inc., Bowling Green, Ky. — 
The application for a receiver in the case of the Southern 
Traction Company, Inc., made by a director a few months 
ago, has been denied, according to official information now 
at hand. 

Steubenville & East Liverpool Railway & Light Company, 
Steubenville, Ohio. — In a joint application filed with the 
Ohio Public Utilities Commission on Dec. 26, the Ohio 
River Power Company proposes to lease that portion of the 
property of the Steubenville & East Liverpool Railway & 
Light Company which is utilized in carrying on the electric 
light and power business of the Ohio River Power Company. 
The proposed lease is to run until Oct. 1, 1919, at a rental 
of $90,000 a year, with the privilege of purchasing the 
property for $1,500,000. A notice of a special meeting of 
the stockholders of the railway and light company to act 
on the lease was published in the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal for Nov. 18, page 1079. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad, Leetonia, Ohio. — An 
initial dividend of 1 per cent was paid on Dec. 21 to the 
holders of the common stock of the Youngstown & Ohio 
River Railroad of record of Dec. 16. The company also paid 
on Dec. 21 to holders of record of Dec. 16 a dividend of 1 
per cent on the preferred stock on account of accumula- 
tions, together with the regular quarterly dividend of 1^4 
per cent. 

York (Pa.) Railways. — A dividend of 2% per cent has 
been declared on the preferred stock of the York Railways 
on account of accumulations, along with the regular quar- 
terly IVi per cent, both payable on Jan. 30 to holders of 
record of Jan. 20. The accumulations in dividends on this 
stock have now all been met. 

Dividends Declared 

Athens Railway & Electric Company, Athens, Ga., quar- 
terly, IM per cent, preferred. 

Boston ( Suburban Electric Companies, 50 cents, 

Capital Traction Company, Washington, D. C, quarterly, 
IVi per cent. 

Citizens Traction C^ompany, Oil City, Pa., quarterly, 1% 
per cent, preferred. 

Columbus, Newark & Zanesville Electric Railway, Spring- 
field, Ohio, quarterly, 1% per cent, preferred. 

Dayton & Troy Electric Railway, Dayton, Ohio, quarterly, 
1% per cent, preferred; quarterly, IM per cent, common. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. I 

Mohawk Valley Company, New York, N. Y., quarterly, 
1% per cent. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Company, Fairmont, W. Va., 
quarterly, IVi per cent, preferred; quarterly, 1 per cent, 
common; 6 per cent on common payable in common stock. 

Rome Railway & Electric Company, Rome, Ga., quarterly, 
1 per cent. 

Stark Electric Railroad, Alliance, Ohio, 1 per cent. 

Warren & Jamestown Street Railway, Warren, Pa., 3 per 

Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction Company, 
Olean, N. Y., 3 per cent, first preferred. 

Western Ohio Railway, Lima, Ohio, quarterly, 1% per 
cent, first preferred. 

West Penn Railways, Pittsburgh, Pa., quarterly, l'/4 per 
cent, preferred. 

West Penn Traction Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., quarterly, 
1% per cent, preferred. 

York (Pa.) Railways, quarterly, IVi per cent, preferred; 
2% per cent on preferred in full of all accumulations. 

Electric Railway Monthly Earnings 

Operating Operating Operating Fixed 


12 '■ 


1 •• 

12 '• 

12 " 


1 '• 

. Oct., 



IS. 096 


























.Oct., '16 $9,964 ^$9,306 $658 $1,128 t$470 

'15 9.405 ^7,855 1.550 1,106 444 

'16 121,336 •106.240 15,096 13,264 1,832 

'15 115,316 •97,162 18,154 13,563 4.591 



Oct., '16 $36,466 ^$18,205 

•15 34.152 •16,891 

'16 387,757 ^227, 251 

•15 347.773 •205,637 

$18,261 6,568 

17,261 6,606 

160,506 78,470 
142,136 79,289 


, Oct., '16 $84,786 •$30,405 $54,381 $28,572 
'15 67,214 •28,135 39,079 28,730 

'16 847,466 •343.413 504,053 343,883 
•15 706,911 •324,245 382,666 344,769 


1 " 
12 " 

Im., Oct., 
1 " 

12 " 

12 " 



'16 $72,130 '$37,862 $34,268 $8,759 $25,509 
'15 71,664 •35,193 36,471 8,715 27,756 

•16 817,842 ^435, 548 382,294 106,336 275,958 
•15 694,754 •380,106 314,648 105,056 209,592 

Im., Oct., •le $104,990 •$55,576 $49,114 $5,286 

1 15 84,807 •43,932 40,875 4,202 

12 16 1,088,443 •633,775 454.668 56.891 

12 15 967.036 •515,683 451,353 50,371 

Oct., '16 $171,761 •$107,012 $64,749 $36,858 
'15 174,258 '103,652 70,606 36,124 
•16 1,929,671 •1.231.365 698,306 438,617 
•15 1,992,280 •I, 199, 804 792,476 432,963 



$25,956 •$15,756 $10,200 

23,033 •13,053 9,980 

320,263 •181,911 138,352 

268,003 •160,261 107,742 

1 " 

12 " 
12 " 











1 ■• 
12 " 
12 ' 

Ira., Nov. 
1 " 
6 " 










'16 $512,904 •$224,107 $288,797 $215,702 $73,095 
'15 477,687 •197.256 280.431 212.253 68,178 
'16 2,397,008 •1,084,185 1,312.823 1,075,132 237,691 
'15 2,246,309 '956,673 1.289.636 1.059,286 230,348 

Im., Oct., '16 $49,646 '$34,930 $14,716 $15,437 

1 15 51,338 '35,896. 1.^..442 14,735 

12 16 619,387 '422,793 191!. 594 182,308 

12" " '15 617,722 '431,913 lsr,,809 174,675 

Im., Oct., '16 $26,437 '$17,390 $9,047 $7,241 

1 15 25,312 '15,336 9,975 7,511 

12 " " '16 310,557 '203,171 107,386 87,075 
12 15 289,478 '180,484 108.994 91,595 

Oct., '16 $21,439 •$12,819 $9,120 $7,714 
" •IS 22.385 '13,025 9,360 7,082 

'16 279,557 •154,398 125,159 91,217 
'15 249,556 •146,262 103,294 86,375 


I., Oct., •le $82,457 •$43,762 ?38,695 $4,263 

'15 84,803 ^42,938 il,865 4,212 

'16 964.328 •527,078 437.250 52,269 

'15 978,005 •498,264 47!), 741 52,503 


1 " 
12 " 



















Traffic and Transportation 

•Includes taxes. tDeflcit. 

Decision in Grafton Fare Case 

Commission Finding Contains Discussion of Eco- 
nomics of Country Line Transportation 

The Public Service Commission of Massachusetts has 
reached a finding. in the Grafton fare case, on the Worcester 
Consolidated Street Railway, to the effect that a reduction 
in rates is justified on this branch of the system radiating 
from Worcester. As the company, after conference with 
the commission, has agreed to furnish special tickets on the 
line good between the hours of 6 a. m. and 8 a. m. and 4.45 
p. m. and 6.45 p. m., the petition of citizens of Grafton for 
lower cash fares is placed on file. The finding contains a 
discussion of the economics of transportation on country 
lines radiating from Worcester and is abstracted below. 

The petitioners alleged that the fares charged by the com- 
pany for the transportation of passengers through Grafton, 
viz., two fares of 5 cents each for passage in one direction, 
were excessive. The distance from Worcester City Hall 
to the end of the line in Grafton Center is 8.90 miles. From 
the City Hall a passenger can ride 4.79 miles for 5 cents, 
7.47 miles for 10 cents, and 8.90 miles for 15 cents, without 
allowance for the transfer privilege at Worcester. The line 
in Grafton is 4.77 miles long and the fare is 10 cents. 

The petitioners requested a reduction largely on the 
ground that the fares they are paying are relatively higher 
than those prevailing upon other and similar lines radiating 
from Worcester. On twelve routes out of Worcester the dis- 
tance available on a 10-cent cash fare from the center of 
Worcester ranges from 6.04 to 10.33 miles, and on ten of 
these routes the distance available on a 15-cent cash fare 
varies from 7.98 to 13.3 miles. On the Holden route a con- 
cession is given in the form of 10-cent tickets good in the 
morning and afternoon rush hours between Holden and 
Worcester City Hall and giving a ride of 10.16 miles, by 
former order of the commission. There are no transfer priv- 
ileges in Worcester with these tickets. Other tickets are in 
vogue on the Spencer and Bramanville lines. The commission 
held that the fact that the above inequalities existed was 
not conclusive evidence in favor of the petitioners. Similar 
apparent irregularities were to be found upon most of the 
Massachusetts street railways. Fares had been established 
strictly on a mileage basis, but had been influenced by other 
factors, such as the location of centers of population, munici- 
pal boundary lines and trafl!ic density. Cost of service was 
by no means solely dependent upon mileage. An attempt to 
readjust street railway fares within the State upon a uni- 
form mileage basis would mean revolutionary changes prob- 
ably in general unsatisfactory to all concerned. 

A tabular exhibit of maximum distances was likely to be 
misleading. Thus: if on a certain line the maximum distance 
for a 10-cent fare was 8 miles and for a 15-cent fare, 12 
miles, the principal settlement in the 15-cent zone might be 
at the 9-mile point, so that very few local riders had the 
benefit of the maximum distance. The company contended 
that a situation similar to this existed on many of the 
routes radiating from the Worcester City Hall. On nearly 
all the suburban lines except the Grafton line very few 
persons lived in the vicinity of the 10-cent fare limit. Hence 
if that fare limit was extended for a considerable distance 
into the country on those lines, it would not materially affect 
the income of the company, as the through passengers would 
pay the fare anyway. A reduction of the fare to 10 cents 
in the case of the Grafton line would result in a very 
considerable loss for the street railway and give to persons 
located at the large settlement a privilege and advantage 
that was not accorded to any considerable number of people 
on any other suburban line. If the Grafton line did not 
end at Grafton Center, the 15-cent fare limit might be placed 
at a point more nearly conforming to the similar distances 
on the other routes without any real benefit to the people 
living at the Center. 

The company paid dividends of 5.5 per cent on its stock 
in 1915 and 5 per cent in 1916. In this case no attempt 

January 6, 1917] 



was made, either by the company oi- the petitioners, to 
segregate investment in the Grafton line and pro-rate 
revenues and operating expenses so that the financial results 
from operation might be determined with approximate ac- 
curacy. It was claimed by the petitioners, however, that the 
line was one of the better paying suburban routes. The 
company did not refute this. The commission knew of no 
uniform and inflexible rule to apply with general public 
advantage in cases where comparative street railway fares 
were involved. The factors that apply were so numerous 
and varied that each case must be determined on its own 
merits. The commission found that an adjustment by means 
of special tickets was equitable. The company has agreed 
to furnish tickets good during the hours above mentioned 
at 10 cents each for the use of regular patrons traveling 
between any part of Grafton and the terminus of the line 
at Salem Square, Worcester. 

Car Capacity Measure Amended 

Board of Health Order Will Not Apply Where Full 
Track Capacity Is Utilized 

Two years ago, through the initiative of Dr. S. S. Gold- 
water, then Commissioner of Health of New York, an order 
was issued by the Board of Health against certain car lines 
in the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn and Richmond, 
forbidding them to carry in any car passengers to a number 
exceeding one and one-half times the seating capacity of 
such car. The application of the order led to strong de- 
nunciation of the board's orders and to a demand for their 
repeal. On the other hand, the Board of Health felt that 
the duties imposed upon it by the charter demanded that 
the efforts to improve the hygienic conditions prevailing in 
the transportation service be continued, to the end that the 
health menace might be reduced to the minimum. 

In order that the department might have the advice and 
guidance of others experienced in this field, a meeting of 
the advisory committee on traflic sanitation was held in the 
office of the commissioner of health, on Dec. 15. At this 
meeting, there were present the Mayor, John Puroy Mitchel, 
Deputy Police Commissioner Guy A. Scully, City Chamber- 
lain Milo R. Maltbie, Commissioner of Plant and Structures 
F. J. H. Kracke, Public Service Commissioner Henry W. ' 
Hodge, Daniel L. Turner, engineer of the Public Service 
Commission; Jacob C. Klinck, president of the Brooklyn 
Civic Club; J. S. Doyle, of the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company; R. A. Shaw of the Brooklyn Traffic Committee 
of One Hundred; Alexander McKinney, William J. Millard, 
assistant corporation counsel; Max W. Weir, for the Mer- 
chants' Association, and Dr. John Franklin Crowell, for the 
Chamber of Commerce. 

For the information and guidance of the meeting, atten- 
tion was called to Sec. 1169 of the charter, which requires 
the Board of Health to aid in the enforcement of and, so 
far as practicable, to enforce all laws of the State applicable 
in New York City, to the preservation of human life or to 
the care, promotion or protection of health. Section 1172 
of the charter empowers the Board of Health to amend the 
sanitary code and to publish therein additional provisions 
for the security of life and health in the city of New York. 

After considerable discussion, the committee decided that 
overcrowding could be prevented to a very great degree if 
the full track capacity of all the lines was used, as far as 
practicable, to meet the demand of the traveling public. It 
was agreed that when the operating companies were using 
to the full all the available facilities which the public al- 
lows them, it would be unreasonable to demand that they 
exclude excess passengers from their cars. The committee 
suggested that the Board of Health meet this situation by 
revoking the existing orders and adding the following sec- 
tion to the sanitary code: 

" 'Sec. 30(1. Cars Not to be Overcrowded. The carrying 
of passengers on railroad cars in the city of New York 
shall be so regulated at all times that the number of pas- 
sengers oil any such car at any time shall not exceed one 
and one-h;iIf times the seating capacity of the car; pro- 
vided, however, that the foregoing provisions of this sec- 
tion shall not apply when the full number of cars which 

shall have been ordered by the Public Service Commission 
to be operated on any line or part of a line are so operated; 
and provided, further, that the foregoing provisions of this 
section shall not apply, in the absence of such an order of 
the Public Service Commission, when the maximum number 
of cars which can be practicably operated on any line or part 
of a line are so operated.' " 

The recommendations of the committee were submitted 
to the Board of Health at a special meeting held on Dec. 16, 
and the orders already referred to were revoked and Sec. 
306, as just cited, was adopted as part of the sanitary code, 
to take eff'ect immediately. 

Storm Affects Traffic 

Western New York Lines Tied Up— Cause of Delays 

Traffic on electric lines throughout western New York 
was seriously delayed for several days following the freez- 
ing rain and heavy snow fall on Dec. 23, last. The sleet 
storm lowered wires and covered rails with heavy ice. No 
efforts were made to operate cars on the Buffalo & Lake 
Erie Traction line between Buffalo and points west, and 
several cars were abandoned along the line between Buf- 
falo and Lackawanna. The schedules of the city lines in 
Buff"alo were only partly maintained by the International 
Railway and service was completely suspended on several 
of the Niagara Falls local lines. Interurban traffic between 
Buffalo and Niagara Falls and Lockport was abandoned 
for a short time. Neglect on the part of the city to clean 
up the snow in the streets of Buffalo also caused much de- 
lay in operating lines. 

In an effort to acquaint the public with causes of delay 
on the Buffalo city lines, the International Railway printed 
advertisements in the daily newspapers giving the time, 
place and cause for each delayed car. This departure on the 
part of the company caused much favorable comment. E. J. 
Dickson, vice-president of the company, also prepared a 
statement for the public which was printed in the daily 
newspapers giving the cause for the delays on the lines. He 
placed much of the blame for the delays on blockades caused 
by motor trucks, wagons, sleighs, etc., on the tracks. 

Louisville Men Discuss Salesmanship 

In presentation of their activities to them in the light of 
"Selling Rides," officials of the Louisville (Ky.) Railway 
have created much new interest in their work among the 
trainmen. The passengers are regarded differently than 
they used to be and the men are talking about the proposi- 
tion some weeks after the meetings at which the subject 
was discussed. In the current issue of Trolley Topics, issued 
l)y the company, Motorman O. E. Allen is represented by 
the following on "Selling Rides": 

"This is a subject composed of two small words but has 
a great meaning. It is an easy matter to sell something 
to eat, drink or wear, but when it comes to selling rides, 
it takes a first-class salesman to do business. We are up 
against hard competitors when it comes to selling rides, for 
we have many automobile owners who give rides away. 
Think what we would be up against if we were in a business 
selling groceries and our next-door neighbor was giving the 
same articles away. Do you think we would make many 
sales? When we make a sale let us do all in our power to 
m.ake a satisfied customer and he will bring us more. If we 
sell a ride to one customer and he is dissatisfied he will not 
buy any more from us and will not stop there but will keep 
others from buying from us. I have noticed on several 
occasions where I was in sight of a station a passenger 
standing there; when the car approached within 100 to 150 
ft. a machine would come along, and the man would get in; 
sale gone, not 5 cents either, but sometimes 25 or 30 cents. 
(Mr. Allen is on a country line.) Dissatisfied customers or 
1 ad salesmanship may be the cause of losing sale of the 
ride. Now let us all devote our energy to our sales and 
when we make a sale let it be a satisfied sale. Use all the 
politeness we have, especially to the aged and infirm, and 
pee what an improvement it will make." 




[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

Buses for Municipal Railway 

Announcement has been made by the Board of Public 
Works of San Francisco, Cal., that sealed proposals will 
be received on Jan. 31 for furnishing the city with from 
five to fifteen buses for uses in the transportation of pas- 
sengers in conjunction with the Municipal Railway System. 
It is stipulated in the specifications that the actual seating 
capacity of each bjis shall be nineteen passengers, with a 
total carrying capacity of thirty passengers. 

The proposals which have been sent out also call for bids 
for the maintenance and upkeep of buses ordered by the 
city during a run of 125,000 miles. As the estimated daily 
run of each machine will average about 125 miles, this 
means that the successful bidder will be obliged to main- 
tain the upkeep of each machine taken by the city for a 
period of about three years. The estimated cost of the 
machines is about $5,000 each. 

While the original idea was to purchase only sufficient 
buses to operate across Golden Gate Park into the Sunset 
District from the present Tenth Avenue terminal of the 
Municipal Railway System, the proposition advanced by 
the Harbor Commission that the city operate a line along 
the harbor front over a smooth roadway to be constructed 
by the State may mean the purchase by the city of the full 
complement of fifteen machines. 

Fall River Ticket Withdrawal Postponed. — The Public 
Service Commission of Massachusetts has issued an order 
postponing the proposed withdrawal from sale by the Bay 
State Street Railway of strips of six tickets for 25 cents 
in the city of Fall River until Feb. 1, 1917. 

Low Freight Damages of Louisvilie Interurban Line. — 
Losses and damage charges against the freight service of 
the Louisville & Interurban Railway, Louisville, Ky., are less 
than one-fifteenth of 1 per cent of the receipts. R. H. 
Wyatt, general freight agent of the company, is quoted as 
claiming that this record cannot be excelled by that of any 
other similar service. 

Windows Replace Curtains in San Francisco Cars. — The 
curtains which have thus far been used to protect the open 
sections of cars of the San Francisco (Cal.) Municipal Rail- 
way, have been replaced by glass windows. This change 
excludes rain and has decided advantages over the fully in- 
closed cars, which are not so popular. The change is cost- 
ing about $40 a car. 

Kansas City Rate Hearing on Feb. 15. — A hearing on 
suburban street railway rates on the lines of the Kansas 
City Railways will be held in Kansas City, Mo., on Feb. 15 
by the Public Service Commission of Missouri. Because of 
a controversy over certain suburban rates, the company 
had asked the commission to take up the entire matter and 
establish a basis for future ratemaking on the suburban 
lines, possibly on the mileage plan. 

Increase in Fare on New Jersey-Pennsylvania Line. — The 
Trenton, Bristol & Philadelphia Street Railway, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., has placed a new schedule of fares in effect be- 
tween Morrisville and Torresdale, Pa. The through trip fare 
between these two towns has been increased from 25 cents 
to 35 cents. The rate from Torresdale to Cornwells and 
Eddington remains unchanged, as does the rate from Bristol 
to Croyden, Eddington, Cornwells and Edgely. 

Numbered Stops on Trenton Suburban Line. — The Tren- 
ton & Mercer County Traction Corporation, Trenton, N. J., 
has had sheet-iron tags hung from the wires at about eighty 
stops along its Hopewell line. Each tag is numbered, and 
passengers now inform the conductor at what number they 
want to alight from the car. The signs also show just 
where the cars stop to take on passengers along the coun- 
try districts. A number of old stops has been eliminated. 

Tulsa Service Increased. — The Tulsa (Okla.) Street Rail- 
way has increased its service by placing conductors on all 
its cars. When the jitneys made inroads into the com- 
pany's business several months ago, the company was 
forced to curtail expenses, and in addition to reducing the 
number of cars in operation the company resorted to one- 
man cars. Since the City Commission of Tulsa adopted ade- 
quate legislation for the jitneys the business of the Tulsa 
Street Railway has more than doubled. 

Sliding Gates Considered for Manhattan Elevated Lines. 

— The Public Service Commission for the First District, 
New York, is attempting to get the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company to improve the type of platform gate 
used on its trains on the Manhattan elevated lines. At a 
hearing held last week, George Keegan, assistant to the 
vice-president and general manager, promised the commis- 
sion that he would within a short time submit drawings 
of a type of sliding gate to be placed on the outside of the 
cars which the company would be willing to install upon 
two or three trains for the purpose of experiment. Ex- 
perts of the commission testified at the hearing that the in- 
stallation of folding and collapsible gate devices on Manhat- 
tan elevated lines would undoubtedly serve to improve con- 
ditions materially. 

Legislating Against the Dallas Jitney. — The jitney traffic 
ordinance drafted by the city attorney at the instance of 
the Mayor and the City Commissioners of Dallas, Tex., 
seems likely to be finally adopted. This ordinance, which 
is a general traffic law, provides that each jitney in Dallas 
shall give an indemnity bond in the sum of $2,500 to protect 
passengers and the public. The ordinance also limits the 
number of passengers to be carried by a jitney to its seat- 
ing capacity. The demand for more stringent regulatory 
measures affecting jitneys arises from the numerous acci- 
dents. Since Jan. 1, 1916, two persons have been killed, 
forty-five persons seriously injured and 173 persons slightly 
injured. It is estimated that more than 100 minor acci- 
dents were not reported to or by the police. The jitney 
drivers declare that the ordinance will put them out of 
business. They maintain that the cheapest bond which 
will meet the city's requirements will cost them $250 a 
year. The jitney driver now pays annual fees of approxi- 
mately $100. This he considers prohibitive. 

Discharges Follow Inability to Sense Organization Spirit. 
— The Kansas City (Mo.) Railways has during the eleven 
months since the new organization took charge, gradually 
installed many features of welfare work, insurance, social 
intercourse, athletics, and safety, in addition to the depart- 
ments that make for greater efficiency in maintenance 
and operation. In each case of thoughtful provision for 
the personal good of the employees, the response has been 
grateful and immediate. The ideals of the company having 
been pretty thoroughly disseminated, the time arrived when 
the problem presented itself of dealing with those who did 
not and could not respond to these ideals. As a first move 
the company in December discharged sixteen men, most of 
them for violation of the spirit of the safety rules. These 
were all cases wherein it was apparent that the men were 
not in sympathy with the safety policies of the company, 
and could not get into sympathy with them. A few of 
the discharges, however, were on account of deception, with 
respect to misstatements as to accidents. Nine collisions 
occurred one day, and this startling number was made the 
occasion for the first demonstration on a considerable scale 
that discipline was an essential feature of the new regime. 

New Medium Between Company and Public in New York. 

— Interborough Rapid Transit is the name of a new bulle- 
tin just issued by the Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, New York, N. Y. The new paper, which will be pub- 
lished from time to time, as constantly arising questions 
demand it, has long been contemplated as a medium of ex- 
pression between the company and the public, while, on the 
other hand, the Interborough BriUetin and the Nexv York 
Railways Employees' Magazine already serve as mediums 
of communication between the companies and their em- 
ployees. The circulation of the new magazine will depend 
upon the subject matter handled, i. e., it will be mailed to 
those individuals and organizations who would seem at the 
time to be most interested in the subject under discussion. 
The front page of the first issue, dated Dec. 20, 1916, con- 
tains a graphic representation of the tremendous growth ot 
the traveling habit in New York from 147 rides per annum 
per person in the horse car days of 1872, to 332 rides per 
person on the subway, surface and elevated lines in 1916. 
The paper also enumerates and describes the numerous and 
costly safety devices which have been installed in the sub- 
way, such as safety platforms, safety signal system, door 
signals, extra lighting system, electric fans and white enam- 
eled car ceilings for better lighting. 

January 6, 1917] 



Personal Mention 

Charles Ruff has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Company. 

B. W. Hilliard has been appointed superintendent of 
transportation of the Lincoln (Neb.) Traction Company. 

C. R. Phenicie, vice-president of the Wisconsin Public 
Service Company, Green Bay, Wis., has been elected vice- 
president of the Manitowoc & Northern Traction Company, 
Manitowoc, Wis. 

Charles E. Miller, who has been bookkeeper for the Marion 
& Bluffton Traction Company, Bluflfton, Ind., for several 
months, has been appointed auditor of the company. Mr. 
Miller entered upon his new duties on Jan. 1. 

Lawrence L Grinnell, who went to the Border in July, 
1916, as a member of Troop D, Squadron A, New York 
National Guard, has been mustered out of active service 
and has resumed his position as a member of the editorial 
staff of the Electric Railway Journal. 

J. G. Miller has been appointed local manager of the 
Manitowoc & Northern Traction Company, Manitowoc, Wis., 
to succeed Thomas Higgins, resigned. Mr. Miller was born 
and educated in Milwaukee, is a civil engineer by profes- 
sion, and was formerly in electric railway work in San An- 
tonio, Tex. Mr. Miller for the past year has been civil en- 
gineer for the Highway Commission in construction of roads 
about the city of Milwaukee. The property at Manitowoc 
was taken over recently by the Clement C. Smith interests. 
Charles A. Drummond has been appointed assistant pub- 
licity agent of the Detroit (Mich.) United Railway and 
assistant editor of Electric Railway Service, which is pub- 
lished in the interest of the railway. Mr. Drummond was 
for many years on the editorial staff of the Detroit Journal 
and for the last year and a half was city editor of that 
paper. He succeeds with the Detroit United Railway A. 
H. Sarvis, who resigned in November to become a member 
of the executive staff of the Flint Varnish & Color Works. 
Melodia Blackmarr Jones, widow of Capt. Joseph T. Jones, 
president of the Niagara Gorge Railway, Niagara Falls, 
N. Y., the Gulf & Ship Island Railroad, Gulfport, Miss., 
and the Gulfport & Mississippi Coast Traction Company, 
has been elected active president of the Gulf & Ship Island 
Railroad. It is reported Mrs. Jones will also have charge of 
the Gulf & Mississippi Coast Traction Company. No an- 
nouncement is made as to who will assume the presidency of 
the Niagara Gorge Railway, of which Burt L. Jones is gen- 
eral manager. 

T. Lee Miller, since last August assistant to the president 
of the Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Company, 
Fort Wayne, Ind., has resigned to accept a position with a 
New York banking firm. Mr. Miller was graduated from 
Cornell University with the degree of mechanical engineer. 
Immediately after graduation he became connected with the 
firm of Marwick, Mitchell & Company, New York, efficiency 
and cost engineers. Upon leaving the last-named firm he 
entered the service of the Toledo Railways & Light Com- 
pany, Toledo, Ohio, as assistant to F. R. Coates, president. 
He resigned from that company in 1915 to become New 
York manager of sales of the Sangamo Electric Company. 
It was from this company that Mr. Miller resigned to be- 
come connected with the Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana 
Traction Company. 

Charles Currie, who retired as vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the Northern Ohio Traction & Light ('om- 
pany, Akron, Ohio, on Dec. 31, was born in Toronto, Ont., 
on March 8, 1868. At the age of fourteen he entered 
the employ of the ^London (Ont.) Street Railway as an 
office boy. This was in the horse-car days, and, al- 
though Mr. Currie*s activities were always in the office 
end of the business, he had an opportunity of coming 
in contact with very many operating and construction 
problems. He rose through the office ranks as clerk, 
cashier and auditor, after which he became sec- 

retary of the company. In 1896 he was called to Lima, 
Ohio, as general manager of the Lima Railway. Three 
years later he resigned from the company at Lima to be- 
come general superintendent of the Cleveland (Ohio) Elec- 
tric Railway. In this position he handled successfully a 
very serious strike. Mr. Currie became general manager 
of the Detroit & Toledo Shore Line, operating between De- 
troit and Toledo, in 1901, with headquarters at Detroit. He 
was then asked by the Everett-Moore syndicate to take the 
position of vice-president and general manager of the 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, which had been 
organized only a short time before to take over the Akron, 
Bedford & Cleveland interurban line, the Akron city lines 
and several suburban lines. This connection continued fif- 
teen and one-half years and witnessed the development of 
the property to one of the most modern and complete utili- 
ties of its Itind in the United States. During Mr. Currie's 
administration at Akron other lines were added to those 
originally owned by the company, including the Canton- 
Akron, Canton-Massillon and Canton-New Philadelphia in- 
terurban lines and the Canton and Massillon city lines, 
making a consolidated property of 264 miles of track. The 
power developments of the company alone in the last five 
years involved an investment of more than $3,000,000. The 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company was one of the 
first to place limited cars on interurban lines and to dem- 
onstrate the possibilities of this service. In 1913 Mr. Cur- 
rie spent three months in Europe studying the electric rail- 
way developments on the continent and in the cities of Eng- 
land and Scotland. With this exception he was never away 
from his desk for any length of time in the more than fif- 
teen years' service with the company. On the sale of the 
property recently to Hodenpyl, Hardy & Company and E. 
W. Clark & Company Mr. Currie declined a proposal that 
he remain in active charge, but agreed to continue with 
the company as a director. 


Frederick W. Whitridge, president of the Third Avenue 
Railway, New York, N. Y., died on Dec. 30 of pneumonia 
following an operation for appendicitis. Mr. Whitridge, 
who was responsible for lifting the Third Avenue system 
out of receivership into a paying system, and whose recent 
controversy with the labor unions during the car strike 
brought him into prominence, was born in New Bedford, 
Mass., on Aug. 8, 1852. He was graduated from Amherst 
College in 1874 and in 1877 received a master of arts de- 
gree from the same institution. Mr. Whitridge was ad- 
mitted to the bar of New York in 1879; and after that time 
practised in New York, devoting part of his time to lectur- 
ing at Columbia University on administrative law and con- 
stitutional and political history. In 1906, on the occasion 
of the coronation of King Alfonso of Spain, Mr. Whitridge 
represented the United States as special ambassador. The 
work of rehabilitating the physical property of the Third 
.Avenue Railroad, which Mr. Whitridge directed as receiver 
of the company until he became president in 1912, is well 
known through the articles which have appeared in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal from time to time. While Mr. Whit- 
ridge was receiver of the Third Avenue Railroad his fre- 
quent tilts with the Public Service Commission of the First 
District enlivened the proceedings before that commission 
and his correspondence with that body was voluminous. 
This correspondence Mr. Whitridge subsequently published 
at his own expense. Besides being an author of numerous 
pamphlets, Mr. Whitridge wrote several books on legal, his- 
torical and other subjects, including one on the present Eu- 
ropean war. He received a degree of LL.B. from Columbia 
University in 1878 and in 1909 Amherst College, his alma 
mater, conferred on him a degree of LL.D. Mr. Whitridge 
was a director of many corporations besides the Third Ave- 
nue and its subsidiary companies. His funeral was at- 
tended by some 300 employees of the Third Avenue Rail- 
way, and a number of men very prominent in public life 
were among those who acted as honorary pallbearers. A 
resolution of sympathy and regret at Mr. Whitridge's death 
was drawn up at a meeting of the board of directors of the 
Third Avenue Railway held on Jan. 3. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 
An asterisk (*) indicates a project not previously reported. 


Berwyn, 111. — .The Chicago & West Towns Railway has 
received a franchise from the City Council of Berwyn to 
construct three new crosstown car lines on Harlem, Ogden 
and Ridgeland Avenues. 

Taylor Springs, 111. — ^The Southern Illinois Light & Power 
Company has received a franchise from the City Council 
of Taylor Springs to construct a line to the American Zinc 
Company's smelter. 

Columbus, Ohio. — The City Council of Columbus granted 
a new twenty-five-year franchise to the Columbus Depot 
Company on Dec. 26 to cross a number of streets and erect a 
depot and union terminal station. The company will have 
until 1919 to complete the work. Town, Front, Rich, Wal- 
nut and Wall Streets are to be crossed with tracks and 

Miami, Okla. — The Oklahoma & Northern Traction Com- 
pany has received a franchise from the City Council of 
Miami to construct a line on Vine Street for passenger traf- 
fic and a line on Short Street for freight traffic. F. M. Over- 
lees and Richard Flood, Bartlesville, are interested. [Dec. 
23, '16.] 

*Union, S. C. — Application has been made to the City 
Council for a franchise to construct an electric railway in 
Union. E. F. Kelly, B. F. Kennedy and A. C. Kennedy, 
Union, are interested. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. — The Emigration Canyon Railroad 
has asked the Council for a franchise to construct an ex- 
tension to the mouth of Big Cottonwood Canyon and thence 
up the canyon. 

*Hampton, Va. — H. R. Booker, Nelson D. Groome and H. 
H. Holt have received a franchise from the City Council 
to construct a line from Mallory Avenue to the city limits 
of Hampton. 


Montgomery Light & Traction Company, Montgomery, 
Ala. — A report from the Montgomery Light & 'Traction 
Company states that it will construct an extension from 
Pickett Springs to Wetumpka, 9 miles, during 1917. 

Fort Smith Light & Traction Company, Fort Smith, Ark. 

— During 1917 this company will construct 1 mile of new 

Peninsular Railway, San Jose, Cal. — .Work will be begim 
in February by the Peninsular Railway lowering the tracks 
on its Alameda branch. It is estimated that the cost will 
be about $100,000. 

Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn. — .Work has 
been begun by this company laying tracks on the new 
Stratford Avenue bridge, at Bridgeport. A temporary 
track is being laid on the northerly side of the bridge, which 
will be replaced with permanent rails later when the bridge 
is in use. On the southerly side the company will lay 
permanent tracks, and while these are being laid the cars 
will use the temporary tracks. 

Valdosta (Ga.) Street Railway. — A report from the Val- 
dosta Street Railway states that the company expects to 
begin construction of 3 miles of track in February or March. 

Caldwell (Idaho) Traction Company, Ltd. — This company 
reports that during 1917 it expects to electrify the line be- 
tween Caldwell, Greenleaf and Wilder, 10.3 miles, leased 
from the Oregon Short Line and now operated with steam. 

Pekin City Municipal Railway. Pekin, 111. — A report from 
the Pekin City Municipal Railway states that it will con- 
struct 2 miles of new track during 1917. 

Springfield (111.) Consolidated Railway. — A proposition 
for placing all overhead wires in underground conduits, to 
be owned by the city and to be leased to the public utility 
companies, has been submitted to the City Council by A. D. 
Mackie, general manager of the Springfield Consolidated 
Railway. The cost of the installation of conduit system is 
estimated at $390,000. 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Company, Indianapolis, 
Ind. — This company will construct an extension during the 
coming spring to the plant of the Premier Motor Corpora- 
tion near Brookside Park. The exact route has not been 
announced but will be submitted to the Board of Public 
Works in the near future. 

Mason City & Clear Lake Railroad, Mason City, Iowa. — 
This company reports that it will construct 7 miles of new 
track during 1917. 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway, Wichita, Kan. — 
This company has applied to the Public Utilities Commission 
of Kansas for authority to issue $2,000,000 additional in 
bonds and $900,000 additional in capital stock for the pur- 
pose of making extensions into other counties, including 
Sumner, Butler, Cowley, McPherson, Marion, Rice, Saline 
and Dickinson. 

Brantford (Man.) Municipal Railway. — A report from 
the Brantford Municipal Railway states that an extension 
of about 2 miles may be built during 1917. 

United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. — 
The Public Service Commission of Maryland has passed an 
order authorizing the United Railways & Electric Company 
to construct a new car line out Liberty Heights Avenue 
to Berwyn Avenue, and has approved the company's plans 
for the new route. The new line will make connection with 
the Garrison Avenue line and another line to enable pas- 
sengers to reach Howard Park and Gwynn Oak. 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway. — This company will 
construct new rails in Salem Street from the Faulkner 
school to Broadway. 

Lawrence, Mass. — A contract has been awarded by the 
Lawrence Bridge Commission to Joseph Wagenbach & Son, 
Lawrence, at $19,987, for the construction of 1500 lineal feet 
of double track on the Central Bridge across the Merrimac 
River in Lawrence. [Dec. 16, '16.] 

Milford, Attleboro & Woonsocket Street Railway, Mil- 
ford, Mass. — A contract has been awarded by the Milford, 
Attleboro & Woonsocket Street Railway to F. T. Ley & 
Company, Springfield, for the construction of a new bridge 
at Franklin at a cost of about $5,000. 

Berkshire Street Railway, Pittsfield, Mass. — The Public 
Service Commission of Massachusetts issued an order Dec. 
30, 1916, requiring the Berkshire Street Railway to com- 
plete its Lee-Huntington line for service on or before July 
1, 1917. 

Springfield (Mass.) Street Railway. — ^The lines of the 
Springfield Street Railway west of the Connecticut River 
are being equipped with the sectional three-wire system in 
an attempt to mitigate electrolysis. 

Worcester (Mass.) Street Railway. — This company has 
received permission from the Board of Aldermen to con- 
struct an extension in Greenwood Street, Worcester, to the 
Millbury line. 

Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Railway, Lincoln, Neb. — It 
is reported that the Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Railway 
will let contract early in the spring of 1917 for the con- 
struction of an extension from Lincoln to Omaha, via Have- 
lock, Greenwood, Ashland, Papillion and South Omaha, 
about 50 miles, including the construction of pile and steel 
concjrett bridges. 

Fallon (Nev.) Electric Railroad. — This company, which 
is building a line from Fallon to Sand Springs, 38 miles, 
states that during 1917 it expects to build a line from Fal- 
lon to Stillwater. 4 miles. [Nov. 25, '16.] 

Brooklyn (X. Y.) Rapid Transit (Company. — Work will be 
begun during ilarch by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany on the construction of an extension of the Metropolitan 
Avenue line. The line will extend from St. John's Cemetery, 
in Middle Village, through the Forest Hills section and 
thence to Jamaica Avenue, Richmond Hill. 

January 6, 1917] 



International Railway, Buffalo, N. Y.— This company has 
completed its new double-track line on Bailey Avenue, be- 
tween East Ferry and Genesee Streets and Broadway and 
William Street. One track has been laid between William 
and Clinton Streets and cars are now being operated over 
this new route, a distance of more than two miles. Tracks 
have been laid between Clinton and Seneca Streets and 
service over the line between Broadway and Seneca Street 
will be started within the next few weeks. 

Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Company, Elmira, N. Y. 
— This company plans to lay a double track along College 
Avenue, from Roe Avenue north to West Thurston Street, at 
which point a new single-track line is to be laid along 
Thurston Street to Westside Avenue, where it will be united 
with the present tracks. 

New York State Railways, Utica, N. Y. — The president, 
trustees and citizens of Whitesboro have filed a petition 
with the Public Service Commission of New York asking 
that the New York State Railway be required to reconstruct 
its tracks through the village, the present track construc- 
tion being too light and inadequate. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company, Akron, Ohio. — 
The Public Utilities Commission has authorized the Northern 
Ohio Traction & Light Company to issue $1,000,000 addi- 
tional stock, from the proceeds of which a number of im- 
provements will be made. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Railway. — This company plans to con- 
struct tracks on the new Detroit-Superior high-level bridge 
at a cost of about $135,000. 

Columbus Railway, Power & Light Company, Columbus, 
Ohio. — This company has proposed to build a line on 
Eleventh Avenue from Fourth Street into and past the 
State Fair Grounds to connect with its Linden line, if the 
city will accept $5,000 as its proportion of the cost of 
eliminating the Big Four Railroad grade crossing. The 
Council asked the company to pay $20,000. The Chamber 
of Commerce recently passed a resolution requesting the 
Council to accept the company's offer. 

*Middlefield & Lockwood Traction Company, Middlefield. 
Ohio. — The Public Utilities Commission of Ohio has author 
ized this company to issue $100,000 of common stock and 
$200,000 of bonds for the purpose of constructing a line be- 
tween Middlefield and Lockwood, 12 miles, which will be 
operated by the Eastern Ohio Traction Company. This will 
connect Cleveland and the Youngstown district. 

Sand Springs Railway, Tulsa, Okla. — It is reported that 
the Sand Springs Railway has awarded a contract for the 
double-tracking of its line from Sand Springs to Tulsa. 

Tulsa (Okla.) Street Railway. — This company was 
stopped by an injunction issued by the District Court at 
Tulsa when it attempted to lay its tracks across the new 
$200,000 bridge built by Tulsa County, across the Arkansas 
River at Tulsa. The traction company had laid 500 ft. of 
track on the approaches to the bridge when the injunction 
was granted. Tulsa County Commissioners have laid down 
certain rules and conditions that must be met by any trac- 
tion company which desires to use the new bridge. The 
public authorities contended that the company was not 
meeting these requirements. 

Tulsa (Okla.) Traction Company. — It is reported that 
construction has been begun by this company on its pro- 
posed extension to Sapulpa. All material for the new line 
has been purchased and contracts that have been let call 
for a completed road that will permit the operation of trains 
from Tulsa to Red Fork. 

.Montoursville (Pa.) Passenger Railway. — This company 
reports that in the spring it will construct 1% miles of new 
track in Loyal sock Township and in Montoursville. 

Philadelphia, Pa. — According to an unofficial announce- 
ment, the public hearing before the Public Service Commis- 
sion of Pennsylvania on the application of Director Twining 
for a certificate of convenience for the Byberry trolley 
line will be held in Philadelphia during the week of Jan. 
S. The Byberry line, for which $1,200,000 has been appro- 
priated, is designed to extend from Frankford and Oxford 
Avenues, along Oxford Avenue, Castor Road, Bustleton Ave- 
nue, Worthington Road and Southampton Road to Byberry 
.and Beusalem Pike, in the Thirty-fifth Ward. 

Dallas (Tex.) Consolidated Street Railway.— This com- 
pany has announced its readiness to begin improvements 
on Tremont Street from Beacon Street to Fulton Street, as 
ordered by the City Commissioners of Dallas. The company 
will relay its tracks with 90-lb. T-rails, the work to be com- 
pleted early in February. 

Grays Harbor Railway & Light Company, Aberdeen, 
Wash. — Petitions asking the construction of a line between 
Grays Harbor and Willapa Harbor will be presented to the 
officials of Grays Harbor Railway & Light Company at an 
early date by the Grays Harbor Realty Association. 

*Tacoma, Wash. — President D. D. MacKay of Whitworth 
College, Tacoma, backed by business men of Spokane, is 
heading a committee which will petition Louis W. Hill, 
president of the Great Northern Railway, to construct a 
street railway .line from Whitworth College to Spokane, to 
supplant the present jitney service. President MacKay 
states the college has an offer from one railroad company 
that if the college will obtain the roadbed and lay the 
rails, the company will take care of the operation of the 
line. The estimated cost of constructing the line has been 
placed at $20,000. 

Wisconsin Railway, Light & Power Company, La Crosse, 
Wis. — This company reports that during 1917 it expects to 
double-track and reconstruct some of its lines. 


Pacific Electric Company, Los Angeles, Cal. — Work has 
been begun on the construction of new carshops for the 
Pacific Electric Railway at Torrance. Fourteen buildings 
will be constructed at this time, these constituting the first 
and principal unit of a group that will eventually include 
thirty or more structures. As soon as the need for expan- 
sion arises, a second unit comprising six structures will 
be erected adjoining the first group. The new buildings, 
equipped, will cost over $500,000, and all plans are made 
so that the plant can be doubled at any time without any 
impairment of efficiency while the construction work is 
going on. Recreation grounds, including a baseball field 
and tennis courts, will be provided for the employees, and 
the entire surroundings made as agreeable as possible. 

Connecticut Company, New Haven, Conn. — This company 
will reconstruct and extend its carhouse at Waterbury, for 
which an authorization of $200,000 has been granted. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, N. Y. 
— The Public Service Commission for the First District of 
New York has received bids for the construction of station 
finish for nine stations on the lower portion of the Seventh 
Avenue subway in Manhattan. The contract has already 
been awarded by the Commission covering several stations 
on the northern portion of this line. The stations included 
in the bids recently received were those between South 
Ferry and Fourteenth Street inclusive, including two ex- 
press stations. The low bidder was the Seventh Avenue 
Construction Company, New York, at $389,880. Bids had 
been received for the construction of station finish for the 
above stations previously. The bids were rejected, how- 
ever, when question arose as to the incorporation of one 
of the bidders. 

Piedmont & Northern Railway, Charlotte, N. C. — It is re- 
ported that plans have been prepared by the Piedmont & 
Northern Railway for the construction of twelve ware- 
houses to cost about $100,000. 


Indiana Railways & Light C^ompany, Kokomo, Ind. — This 
company has announced that it will enlarge its power house 
at Kokomo, and plans to install four new boilers of 500-hp. 
capacity at an estimated cost of $48,000; a 5000-kw. turbine 
and necessary auxiliaries at an estimated cost of $90,000 
and additional pumps, heaters and other devices necessary 
to complete the enlargement of the plant at a cost of 
$10,000. The installation of 250 new street lamps at an 
estimated cost of $10,000 to $12,000 is also planned. 

Burlington Railway & Light Company, Burlington, Iowa. 
— This company has received permission from the Iowa 
Railroad Commission to extend its transmission lines in 
Louisa and Des Moines Counties. 




[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

Manufactures and Markets 

Discussions of Industrial Conditions 

A Department for the Manufacturer, Salesman and Purchasing Agent 

Rolling Stock Purchases Business Announcements Trade Literature 

Steel Tie and Crossing Foundation 
Business Is Active 

Inquiries Very Numerous from All Parts of Country 

— Price Increase Probable — High Prices of 

Manganese Crossings Stimulate 

Crossing Foundation Inquiries 

Inquiries for steel ties and for crossing foundations were 
never before so numerous," according to E. M. Haas, sales 
manager of the International Steel Tie Company. "These 
inquiries," he states, "originate with both electric and steam 
railways. They are not confined to any part of the coun- 
try nor to large or small roads but are diversified as to 
location and size of property. One reason for the inquiries 
is the anticipation of an increased price in the spring and 
because a great many roads were sufficiently fore-handed 
to order rails far in advance lor the 1917 construction 

Steel Ties Sold at Less Than Material Price 
According to Mr. Haas the pos.sible increase in the price 
of the International twin-steel track ties is due entirely to 
the raw material market situation. The International com- 
pany now has more than $100,000 worth of raw material in 
its yards, but a large part of this will be required in ful- 
filling tie contracts now in hand. This reserve supply of 
steel was purchased some time ago at 2Vz cents per pound. 
The market is now at 4 '/a cents jar pound, and deliveries 
are difficult. According to the manufacturer, twin-steel ties 
are now being quoted at a price l.elow that of the present 
cost of the raw material, and therefore it appears that when 
additional material is necessary, the manufacturer will be 
forced to increase the selling price of the ties. "At pres- 
ent prices," Mr. Haas says, "the use of steel twin-ties, com- 
pared with wooden ties, will show a construction-cost saving 
ranging from $2,000 to $6,000 per mile. This proportion- 
ately large saving is derived from savings in excavation 
and in concrete, as well as in the cost of ties. Thus, any 
slight increase in the first cost of the steel tie will not 
greatly affect the initial and final economy. 

Crossing Foundation Business Developing Fast 

"The unusually high range of prices for special track 
work and particularly crossings in which manganese steel 
is used has brought about more active recognition of the 
value of stable crossing foundations. This condition has ac- 
celerated the sale of the International crossing structures. 
The roads have found, for example, that by combining an 
ordinary built-up crossing with the International steel 
crossing foundation, the life and cost of the unit, installed 
in situations where the life of the crossing is limited by the 
bolt breakage, compares favorably with that of the in- 
stallation of a manganese steel crossing. The reason for 
the economy is the large bearing area of the International 
foundation. This, in combination with a built-up crossing, 
affords a bearing area much larger than that of a widely 
spread manganese steel crossing. Moreover, bolt break- 
ages are practically eliminated by the unit support given to 
the composite crossing frogs." 

Favorable service reports on six International crossing 
foundations installed by the Los Angeles Railway, where 
it crosses the Santa Fe Railroad tracks, have resulted in 
orders for the construction of other foundations which will 
be used by the Santa Fe for steam-over-steam crossings. 
It is pointed out by Mr. Haas that in this way the Santa 
Fe System will be able to watch the crossing foundation per- 
formance and have entire say about its maintenance. They 
will thus be able to determine the actual cost. The Penn- 
sylvania Railroad also has installed six of these founda- 

tions in Indiana and Ohio. Some of these have been down 
three years, and the results are so favorable that the engi- 
neering department of the road is said to have appointed 
a committee of division engineers to keep track of the per- 
formance of these crossings and to report for the benefit 
of the entire Pennsylvania System. 

Adaptation of Compressed Air to Door 
and Step Control 

T. W. Casey Discusses in Detail the Advances Made 

in the Various Branches of This 

Highly Specialized Art 

In a recent interview, T. W. Casey, vice-president of the 
National Pneumatic Company, discussed the remarkable 
development during recent years of pneumatic door and 
step control for electric railway cars. 

When the company brought out its first pneumatic en- 
gines for operating car doors, in 1905, it was already doing 
a large business in air operators for elevator doors. The 
air-operated car door was considered applicable only to 
heavy rapid-transit service like the New York subway, 
where it was obviously impracticable to operate center 
doors rapidly by hand when the guard was stationed on 
the end platform. These engines lacked a number of the 
features that are in use to-day, such as the cushioning 
feature, the releasing feature which prevents passengers 
from being caught in the doors, means by which doors may 
be opened at one rate of speed and closed at another; means 
by which only a practically negligible amount of air is used 
— as well as numerous detail improvements, such as con- 
tinuous lubrication regardless of weather conditions, etc. 

The use of air-operated doors in heavy rapid-transit serv- 
ice showed such a clear gain in reducing the standing time 
of the cars at station stops that progressive operators 
began to see its advantages for operation on surface cars. 
This was particularly true of applications to lines with 
congested traffic and short headways, where the burdens 
imposed upon the motorman and conductor are so great 
that any automatic device that enables them to handle pas- 
sengers faster and more safely is worth consideration. 

It would seem a very simple problem to work out air- 
operated doors, and steps interconnected therewith, for 
practically universal application. Nevertheless, almost every 
city has a combination of needs that calls for important 
variations whose successful invention and application de- 
mands the services of men who are specialists in pneu- 
matic devices. As examples of diverse conditions one may 
name the Bay State Street Railway, where both left-hand 
and right-hand operation are required; the New York Mu- 
nicipal Railway, where it is necessary to operate from 
one to six doors; the Pontiac Interurban Division of the De- 
troit United Railway, where the doors must be capable 
of being operated from any part of the car; and the Detroit 
city lines, where the air consumption of the engines must 
be so low that it will not interfere with the storage-air-brake 
opei-ation unique to Detroit. 

The National Pneumatic Company's engineers have been 
obliged to develop not only the design but in many cases 
the tools for securing that exactitude of manufacture that 
is essential to a pneumatic device called upon to operate 
hundreds of times a day under very severe conditions. 

It is now recognized that air-operated doors and steps 
not only fulfill the function of greater safety but they make 
possible higher schedule speeds, permit the conductors to 
collect fares undor easier conditions, allow the mechanism 
to be operated with scientific uniformity and ease, and, in 
general, enable the car to produce more revenue car-miles 
a day than had been hitherto possible. 

January 6, 1917] 



Among the cities where this company's air-operated door 
and step control is used may be named New York, Brook- 
lyn, Boston, Cleveland, Detroit, Schenectady, Utica, Syra- 
cuse, Ottumwa, Indianapolis, Haverhill, Toledo, Denver and 
Pasadena. These installations cover practically the whole 
range of electric railway service. Judging from the large 
number of equipments ordered during 1916, Mr. Casey feels 
that the time is not far distant when practically all new 
cars and a very large proportion of existing cars will be 
fitted with pneumatic door and step control. 

and six months hence is also true, as well as that purchasers 
who have in the past followed the policy of holding up 
requisitions in the hope of lower prices now find themselves 
obliged to cover their needs in a much higher market. "The 
Wire Message," published by Habirshaw Electric Cable 
Company, Inc., and the Electric Cable Company, comment- 
ing on the foregoing situation, says that it "can see nothing 
in the copper situation to justify the hope of lower prices 
in the near future. On the contrary there are many indi- 
cations that point to higher values." 

Copper Value Contends with Iron for 
First Place 

A total of over $100,000,000 in dividends was paid out 
of the mines of five Western States in the year 1916, ac- 
cording to a recent report of the Geological Survey to 
Secretary Lane, just made. "Never before," said Mr. Lane, 
"has so large a draft been made on the natural resources 
of our country as during this year, and never before have 
the metals been extracted from these ores with less waste 
or utilized to better advantage in advancing the general 
prosperity of the country. Even as v(rritten in the plain 
figures of 1916 production, the wonderful record of our 
mines sets forth a degree of national industrial independence 
only hoped for a few years ago. 

"Again copper stands out as the best illustration of how 
American mines can meet a world demand. The output 
of nearly 2,000,000,000 lb. of the red metal is double that 
of ten years ago, and its value is twice that of the copper 
produced in 1915. Add to this the facts that in value cop- 
per now contends with iron for first place among the met- 
als, and that together the amount of these two metals pro- 
duced last year had a value of more than ?1, 000,000,000, 
and we have a measure of what this country can contribute 
in useful metals. 

"The output of zinc for domestic ores increased last 
year 95,000 tons, which makes a new record for that metal, 
the total value of spelter from United States ore being 
$150,000,000. Lead also shows a large increase, the $75,- 
000,000 output being a gain of more than 50 per cent. 

"Another mineral product which furnishes an index of 
business conditions is cement, the 1916 production of which 
i.s estimated to be 5,000,000 bbl. in excess of the output of 
the previous year, while the shipments were even greater, 
aggregating 94,500,000 bbl. 

"These advance statements not only show that 1916 marks 
a new advance for the mineral industry of the country, 
but this remarkable increase promises to be approximately 
25 per cent over the 1915 production." 

Rubber Covered Wire Market a Puzzle 

Market Hard to Analyze — Manufacturers Crov^^ded 

with Orders — No Fixed Price for Bare Wire 

— No Hope for Lower Prices 

The market situation for rubber covered wires and cables 
is most difficult to analyze so far as the future is concerned, 
and according to manufacturers it would be unwise to haz- 
ard a guess as to how long the present condition will con- 
tinue. The operation of the law of supply and demand under 
the present situation is influenced by many uncertain fac- 
tors, and also it is generally admitted that the output of 
copper for the first half of 1917 is practically all under 
contract. Even if orders for war munitions were curtailed, 
that could not affect the wire and cable industry for months 
to come. Manufacturers' books are crowded with orders 
for deliveries which will run well into 1917, and these or- 
ders were taken and the copper contracted for at prevailing 

There is no fixed price for bare copper wire. It i.s alto- 
gether a matter of bargaining between buyer and seller, and 
the price is largely determined by' the necessities of the 
buyer. Bare copper wire in substantial quantities for imme- 
diate delivery, or even for delivery in the near future, is not 
to be had. That manufacturers are paying premiums to ex- 
pedite deliveries and are placing orders for shipments five 

Electrical Production for 1916 Passes 
Half-Billion Mark 

At no time in the history of the world has industry been 
carried on so tremendously as during the twelve months of 
the year that has just passed. The new year is ushered in 
to the music of a record of production difficult not only to 
surpass but even to equal. In this flood of business prosper- 
ity the electrical industry was swept along with the leaders. 
Electrical manufacturers and agents have produced and sold 
to the last ounce that was physically possible, and yet the 
market is unsatisfied. The production of electrical goods in 
1916 went beyond the $500,000,000 mark, while the unfilled 
orders at the beginning of 1917 were probably well over 
$200,000,000. There was placed, therefore, in 1916 a volume 
of orders for electrical equipment of $750,000,000, a most 
stupendous total for an industry that has practically grown 
up within the present generation. 

With one or two exceptions the orders placed in 1916 were 
not particularly large. In the first few days of 1916 a 
$1,000,000 order was placed for the electrical equipment of a 
steel mill, and in the last few weeks of the year a prominent 
holding company placed a $1,000,000 contract for electrical 
equipment for its various plants. As a rule, however, the 
orders were not of a size to create comment. 

On the other hand, there was a marked tendency toward 
the purchase of units larger than ordinary rating. Orders 
were received for a number of 15,000-hp., 12,000-hp. and 
8000-hp. motors. The 15,000-hp. size is the largest ever 
built. Turbo generator sets passed the 60,000 hp. mark early 
in the year, when a 73,000-hp. set was ordered for one of the 
largest urban railways in the country. There have been oth- 
er orders for sets in the neighborhood of 50,000 hp., which 
rating was unattained until a few months previous to the 
placing of the order for the 73,000 hp. set. 


Toronto (Ontario) Railway, Toronto, Canada, is reported 
on Dec. 28 to have lost 130 cars in a fire which totally 
destroyed its carhouse. 

International Railway, Buffalo, N. Y., noted in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal of Dec. 16, 1916, as having ordered 
twenty double-end center-entrance cars from the G. C. Kuhl- 
man Car Company has specified the following details for 
this equipment: 

Seating capacity 63 

Weight (car body only). 27, 000 lb. 
Bolster centers. lengtli . 32 ft. in. 
Ijength ot body 43 ft. 10 in. 

Over vestibules. . .u3 ft. 7% in. 
Width over sills — 

Over all 8 ft. 8H in. 

Height, rail to sills. 2 ft. 10 '/s in. 

Sill to trolley base 9 ft. 3 in. 

Body, wood or metal. . Semi-steel 

Interior trim MaJiogany 

Headlining Nevasplit 

Roof, tvpe Arched 

Undertrame Metal 

Air brakes. .Westinghouse AMM. 

Axles Sin. and 6 in. EB. 

Bumpers . .Hedlev Anti-climbers 

Cables Flexible 

Car trimmings. .Chocolate brass 
Conduits and Junction boxes . . 


Control, type GB, PC. 

Couplers Tomlinson 

Curtain fixtures 

Curtain Supply-Rex 

Window fixtures 

Ring 1 in. roller 

Curtain material Pantasote 

Door operating mechanism. . . 


Destination signs Hunter 

Fenders or wheelguards 

Locomotive Patented 
Gears and pinions. .GE Grade M 

Gongs 12 in. Dedenda 

Hand braises National 

Heaters Consolidated 

Headlights GE Luminous 

Journal boxes. 4 M in. x 8 in. MCB 
Motors, types and number .... 

4 GE 203 

Motors, .suspension Inside 

Paint Acme System 

Registers. . . . New Haven Square 

Sanders Westinghouse 

Sash fixtures Brill 

Seats, style 

Transversible head roll 

Seating material Fabrikoid 

Springs Brill 

Step treads Feralun Safety 

Trolley catchers or retrievers. 

Earll No. 10 

Trolley base US 14 

Trucks, type Brill MCB-2 

Varnish Valspar 

Ventilators Brill Exhaust 

Wheels.. 30 in. rolled steel, 3 in. 
tread % in. flanges 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 1 

Toronto (Ont.) Railway, Toronto, Canada, lost 130 cars 
in a disastrous fire which totally destroyed the King Street 
carhouse on the Don River and caused a loss of about $500,- 
000. Of the equipment destroyed, one-third consisted of 
palace cars, the remainder being cars of other types. The 
King Street division will be operated temporarily from the 
Front Street carhouse and cars from the different divisions 
will be drawn to provide an adequate service. It is reported 
that the loss will be fully covered by insurance. 

East St. Louis & Suburban Railway, East St. Louis, 111., 
and not the Columbus (Ohio) Railway, Power & Light Com- 
pany, as was noted in the Electric Railway Journal of 
Dec. 23, is said to be in the market for five city cars and 
three interurban cars. It was stated that this company was 
planning to rebuild forty-five cars in its own shops, but 
these plans have been changed. The company now plans to 
have new car bodies built by the American Car Company, 
making use of the hardware and equipment from the old 
cars as far as possible. 


Trolley Supply Company, Canton, Ohio, has received an 
order from the Boston Elevated Railway for 200 Simplex 
trolley bases for its 100 new cars. 

Joseph A. Bower, Philadelphia, Pa., president of the Hale 
& Kilburn Company, has been elected a vice-president of the 
Liberty National Bank, New York City. 

Robbing & Myers Company, Springfield, Ohio, announces 
that on Jan. 1, 1917, the Rochester office will be removed 
to 740 Ellicott Square Building, Buffalo, N. Y. L. Larsen, 
the present manager of the Rochester office, will have charge 
of the Buffalo office. 

Stanley M. Tracy, until recently Western district manager 
in the Chicago office of the Driver Harris Wire Company, is 
now assistant general sales manager at the main office and 
works of the company, Harrison, N. J. 

F. H. Poss became sales manager of the Benjamin Elec- 
tric Manufacturing Company on Jan. 1. He was formerly 
Pacific Coast manager for the same company, having opened 
that office in 1905. Between 1905 and 1912 he also repre- 
sented the Holophane Company. 

American Conduit Manufacturing Company, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., announces that beginning Jan. 1, M. B. Austin & Co. of 
700 Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111., will be its sales agents 
in Chicago territory for the following products of its man- 
ufacture: "Wiremold," the new surface wiring material, and 
"Wireduct," a non-metallic flexible conduit. 

Hensley Trolley & Manufacturing Company, Detroit, 
Mich., will be represented after Jan. 1 in the New England 
States by the Frank Ridlon Company, 261 Franklin Street, 
Boston, Mass. The company feels that its many customers 
in the New England States will be better taken care of by 
having a representative in this territory and for this reason 
they have appointed the above company as exclusive agents. 

F. R. Blair & Company, Inc., 50 Church Street, New York, 
N. Y., announce that on Jan. 1, 1917, H. H. Gildner, who has 
been chief engineer for the S. K. F. Ball Bearing Company 
for the last three years, has joined this organization as 
manager of the Flexite department. Mr. Gildner will make 
his headquarters in New York and will devote his time to the 
development and sale of Flexite universal joints and coup- 

Lord Manufacturing Company, New York, N. Y., wishes 
to correct the announcement made in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Dec. 30, and advises that the entire business, to- 
gether with all of the railway devices now manufactured by 
it, will be taken over and handled after Jan. 1, 1917, by the 
Home Manufacturing Company, 50 Court Street, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Under the new arrangement manufacturing facilities 
will be increased and the scope of the selling organization 

Lumber Prices Show Little Increase. — A recent compila- 
tion by the best authorities of the prices of 111 commodities 
on the New York market compared with only two years ago 
shows a minimum increase of 19 per cent, a maximum of 
476 per cent and an average of 85 per cent, yet the official 
Government figures show that the lumber manufacturer in 
1915 got 10 per cent less per thousand feet for his product 

than in 1906. According to R. S. Kellogg, secretary Na- 
tional Lumber Manufacturers Association, the 1916 lumber 
prices will average little more than those of 1915. 


General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has issued 
bulletin No. 49,300 on single, flat twin and three conductor 
band-steel armored cables. A number of completed instal- 
lations are shown and several pages are devoted to data on 
the different types and grades of armored cable. 

Peter Smith Heater Company, Detroit, Mich., has sent 
out a danger notice in the form of a post card. This card 
is a warning to operators of hot-water heaters, advising 
them to test safety valves and to know that the system is 
open and free to circulate before placing heaters in service. 

United Hammer Company, Boston, Mass., is distributing 
a sixteen-page booklet on Fairbanks' hammers. The reg- 
ular hammers which are manufactured in sizes of from 25 
lb. to 300 lb. are described and illustrated, as are also motor- 
driven hammers with special treadle and hammers with 
self-contained countershafts. 

Atlas Preservative Company of America, Inc., 95 Liberty 
Street, New York, N. Y., announces that the company has 
been reorganized and after Jan. 1, 1917, will be known as 
the Chipman Chemical Engineering Company, Inc. The 
company as reorganized will continue the weed-killing busi- 
ness by the Atlas "A" method, and the manufacture and 
sale of chemicals used in this process will be continued as 
in the past. Improved manufacturing facilities and addi- 
tional capital will enable the company to give its customers 
the highest class service. The staff of the new company, of 
which R. W. Chipman is manager, will remain the same. 

Harvey Fisk & Sons, New York, N. Y., bankers and gov- 
ernment bond dealers, have published a 120 page pamphlet, 
"The Insular Possessions of the United States — The Repub- 
lic of Cuba," descriptive of the island possessions of the 
United States, Hawaii, the Philippine Islands and Porto 
Rico, and of the Republic of Cuba. The book contains chap- 
ters on the area and population, products and industries, 
banks, commerce, finances and bonded debts, also historical 
notes. The book will be found valuable for reference not 
only by investors, but also by all persons who wish to be 
well informed about these island countries. 

Railway Utility Company, Chicago, IlL, has issued cata- 
log No. 600 on car ventilation and on the thermometer con- 
trol of electrically heated cars. The operation of the ther- 
mometer control is explained, and wiring diagrams and illus- 
trations of the regulator panel are also given. One section 
is devoted to Honeycomb and round- jet ventilators which 
are designed for all classes of cars and buildings. Sections 
through the different types of Honeycomb ventilators are 
shown and in addition a summary of tests showing efficien- 
cies are tabulated. The last ten pages show illustrations of 
these ventilators installed on electric car equipment. 


Applied Electricity for Practical Men. Arthur J. Rowland, 
McGraw-Hill Book Company. 375 pages, illustrated. 
Price $2. 
The many books written for the purpose of imparting 
electrical knowledge without demanding of the reader a 
considerable acquaintance with mathematics generally have 
one of two faults. They either attempt to cover the whole 
range of electricity or they deal too much with principles 
without giving sufficient knowledge of practical applica- 
tions. This volume seems well adapted for practical men 
who expect to make direct application of their information 
to their daily work with commercial circuits and machinery. 
It does not touch problems of apparatus design. Pure 
theory is avoided except as it bears directly on practical 
matters. The principle stated and the explanations of ap- 
paratus offered are given to show the practical application 
of the theory. Numerical problems are given at the end 
of each chapter, and these are useful both in teaching the 
principle and performances of apparatus and also as guides 
in solving particular problems that may come up in prac- 
tice. The book should prove very useful for teaching ap- 
plied electricity in trade and industrial schools, and for 
helping electrical workers of all kinds. 

January 6, 1917] 



The Duais 

"Cost" is often as tricky as the Irish enchantress 
who demanded for duais (reward) only 

"Enough wool to till the hole of my arm." 

Thereupon she stood in the door of her hut, bent 
her arm into a circle at her side and directed the 
purchaser of her magic to thrust wool through her 
arm until the hut was full! 

There's no such trickery or enchantment about 
PEACOCK BRAKES. The duais we ask is 
exactly as modest as we state it! It's a little wool 
we ask, not a houseful! 

In other words, the first cost of a Peacock Brake 
is practically the only cost. You don't have to 
add to it the further cost of excessive maintenance 
and accident charges. 

The Eccentric 

National Brake Co. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 



[January 6, 1917 

^^ ^ E^rtgitve ers 

Electric Railway Lighting and 
Power Company Bonds 









The ^ rnold (C ompany 




artljuc 2D. Hittle, g^nc. 

An organization prepared to handle all work which calls for 
the application of chemistry to electric railway engineering — 
such as the testing of coal, lubricants, water, wire insulation, 
trolley wire, cable, timber preservatives, paints, bearing metals, 

Correspondence regarding our service is invited. 

93 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. 




Robert W. Hunt Jno. J. Cone Jas. C. Hallsted D. W McNaughef 

ROBERT W. HUNT & CO., Engineers ' 


Inspection and Test of all Electrical Equipment 

NKW YORK, 90 Wost St. ST. LOUIS. Sj-ndlcate Trust BIdg. 

CHICAGO, 2200 Insurance hxcbangf. 
I'lTTSBLUGU. Wonougaliela Bk. B.dg. 

H. M. Byllesby & Company, Inc. 

Trinity Bldg. » 

No. 208 So. U Salle St. 


Purchase, Finance, Construct and Operate Electric Light 

Gas, Street Railway and Water Power Properties. 

Examination and reports. Utility Securities Bought and Sold. 





Chicago ' New York ^n Francisco 





Plans, Specifications, Supervision of Construction 

General Superintendence and Management 

Examinations and Reportt 

Financial Investigations and Rate Adjustments 


New OrleaskS NEW YORK San Franciacc 



Wells Bldg. 


784. Continental & Commercial 
National Bank Bldg. 


Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation 

CoNSTRucnNG Encineers 




Technical Men Want Facts 

Journal advertisers who present facts 

see ample evidence that their 

advertisements are read. ' 

! « : 

Scof ield Engineering Co. *^"?g?,'iUSpm2f^l*'" 



Suite 1710 DETECTI VES Suite 7 1 5 

Park Row Bldg., New York Board of Trade Bldg., Boston 


71 Broadway . ENGINEERS New York 

Report, Investigate, Appraise, Manage Electric Railway, 
Light and Power rropertica. 


Electrical, Photometrlcal and 

Mechanical Testing. 

80th Street and East End Ave., New York, N. Y. 

January 6, 1917] 



American Brtoge Company 

Hudson Terminal-30 Church Street, Newark 

jyfanuTacturers or Steel Structures of all classes 
particularly BrIDGES and BuILDINGS 


NEW YORK, N. Y., 30 Chnrcli Street 
Pbiladelpliit, Pa., . Wiiiener Bailding 
Eoston, Matt. . . John Hancock Bldg. ' 
Baltimore, Md. , Continental Trust Bldg. 
PITTSBURGH, PA. . . Frick Bnildbg 
Rochester, N. Y. . . . Powers Block 
Baffalo, N. Y. . Marine National Bank 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Union Trntt Building 
Atlanta, Ga. ... Candler Bailding 
Cleveland, Ohio . Rockefeller Bailding 
Detroit, Mich., BeecherAve. &M. C. R. R. 

CHICAGO, ILL, 208 South La Salle St. 
St. Louis, Mo., Third Nat'I Bank Bldg. 
Denver, Colo., First Nat'I Bank Bnilding 
Salt Lake City, Utah, Walker Bank Bldg. 

Daluth, Miim Wolvin Building 

Minneapolis, Minn., 7tliAve.&2ndSt . ,S. E. 

Pacific Coast Representative: 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., Rialto Building 

Portland. Ore Selling Building 

Seattle. Wash, ,4th Ave. So. Cor. Conn. St ' 

Export Representative: 
United States Steel Products Co., 30 Church Stf, N. Y. 

The Coal & Iron National Bank 
of the City of New York 

Capital, Surplus & Profits $1,635,000 
Resources Nearly $10,000,000. 

Offers to dealers every facility of a New York 
Clearing House Bank. 


The famous men of the 
electric railway field 
contribute the benefit 
of their experience to the 


When writing the adverllter ter Informallelh or prices, a men- 
tion of the Electric Railway Journal would be appreciated. 

EDWARD P. BURGH, Engineer 

Dime Bank Bld(., Detroit Plymouth Bldf., Minneapolis 

Frederick Sargent a. D. Lnndv 

Wm. S. Monroe Jamea I^man 

SARGENT <a. LUNDY, Engineers 

1412 EaUoi) Bldg., 72 W. Adams St., Ctiicago, III. 

NEILER, RICH & CO., '"c Engineers 

Manhattan Building. CHICAGO, ILL. 
Reports, Appraisals and Valuations, Railway and Lighting Properties 



[January 6, 1917 

One of several hundred cars of the Bay State Street Railway equipped with Duff Emergency Jacks 


Emergency Type Car Jacks 
Reduce Delays from Vehicle Breakdowns 

Barrett Emergency Type Car Jacks are more than Safety Insurance. 

Their users have found them a first-rate tool for clearing the track of broken- 
down vehicles. 

With one of these jacks on each of your cars, you don't have to wait for a wreck- 
ing car to clear the track. 

In many cases, you won't need a wrecking outfit at all. 

Reduction of Blockade Delays 
Means Less Loss of Revenue Mileage 

For every car-mile that you lose, yn\i may sacrifice 30 to 40 
cents revenue. 

The unnecessary losses of one blockade will pay for a 
goodly number of Jacks. 

Ask us for prices on these Revenue Con servers. 

We maintain an Engineering Dept. for the design of special 
Jacks to meet individual conditions. 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 

New York: 50 Church Street Chicago: People's Gas Building 

Atlanta: Candler Building 

No. 239 

"Bay State" 



January 6, 1917] 



''This is the BIGGEST 
Little Book I Ever Saw !" 

"It's given me some mighty practical tips on economy. 
For instance, here on pages 6 and 7, I find a handy for- 
mula for figuring the comparative costs of copper and 

"I wish you'd figure it up, and see how much we can 
save by using aluminum conductors on that new South- 
wood extension. If it's a real saving — and I feel sure it 
will be — we'll plan to use aluminum wherever we can, all 
over the system. 

"1)6 sure to give me back this book, for it's too valu- 
able to lose. I want our Overhead Engineer to 
have a copy, too — he'll find it very useful. Ask / 

Miss Freeman to write for it right away, / 

please. Tell her to address the 


Company of 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 



New York Boston Chicago San Francisco 

^ 4.- Gentlemen: Kindly 

s^ A mall me your new book 

^^ on *'.\lumlnum Electrical 

> Conductors." 

(Full name and title.) 


(City and .Street.) 





[January 6, 1917 

The Great Business 
"A Good Product- 




„... «=°""'o"S. COW 

5,01s. & 

,. DeO 



1916 ■ 

«lo sail-ay J°-^"'' 
^^"'° . 39th Streel>. 

vnrk 01 W( • 

journal- ^^ ao. tl>» ,„g as to 

XjttO^ing ^ gjei i° ^ the 

, „ ,, the ^o--"-^ ""^ \,, ^ this country 

,on.ince »^«°*'\ ,,, their -e. ^^^^ ,,e 

of our «a°^^°* , ,beo fS «** .n^eBtoent 

^•^" >, of our husineBS. * ,, „ our ^»- 

.* eroflth ol ° mair^etB, 

rapii gro foreign m»* 

,«s^ta rrod^oed 3^tlBtactory 

. Oournal loo^ -'^ ^,o. V^o^-"'' '° ,, , .it*i-^ 

^'^ *" ' ,. I00.S a. *--^^ ^^ ,0«^B iS 

co-py SeT^i»« »«^ >,elpf^- 

,e8ul*°*'"*' ' >,a.e heen extremely ^^ 

January 6, 1917] 



building Combination 
iood Advertising — 
Service to Customers" 

^^^'^^ never 

*«= tact. ,. 

Reprinted from ''*'«, C/. ^ a 

Electric Railway Journal ' ' 

Reprin ted from 

Electric Railway Journal 

Issue July IS. 1916 ^ 

Electric railway journal 

[January 6, 1917 

A View of the Cincimiati Skyline Opposite Covington 

Ten Years 
Deltabeston Service 

and Still Going Strong in 
the Hills of Old Kentucky 

The South Covington & Cincinnati Street 
Railway was one of the pioneer users of 
Deltabeston Wire for railway motor rehabilita- 
tion. It began this work as early as 1904. 

About ten years later when the equipment 
department had occasion to make a general 
examination, it found that 


To go back to the efficient, everyday service 
that is so characteristic of D & W Products. 
That's why the equipment department said: 

Good For Ten Years And Then Some! 



^^^i^^ A. Hall Berry, 97 Warren St., New York 

Agents— Pettingell- Andrews Company Western Electric Company 

Central Electric Company 

January 6, 1917] 



Resolve to Use the 


Thermit Insert Rail Weld 

in 1917 and Thereafter 


Because by reducing the percentage 
of breaks to a minimum — 

The Thermit Insert Weld avoids the 

expense of street openings which cost 

, far more than the joints or welds. 

i The Thermit Insert Weld avoids the 

bad feeling due to tearing up streets 

in front of business buildings. 

The Thermit Insert Weld avoids the 
heavy losses due to rerouting car 


The Thermit Insert Weld gives a 
continuous rail which assures quiet 
running and long life to your cars. 

The Thermit Insert Weld, by elimi- 
nating the hard-riding track, also pro- 
motes increased use of your service. 

New York, Kansas City, Boston, 
San Antonio, Dallas, Milwaukee, Pitts- 
burgh, Chicago, Youngstown, Los 
Angeles are some of the cities where 


Thermit Welds Are Making Good 


329-333 St., San FrancUco 103 Richmond St., W., Toronto, Ont. 

7300 So. Chicago Ave., Chicago 



[January 6, 1917 

—And Nolo I've 
Found ir 

"I've been hunting for years for a rail brace that would hold 
•f- my track rigid to gage, do away with the rail drilling menace • . ^ 

and stop waste due to rusted threads," said the Roadmaster, 
" — and now I've found it." . 

The Combination Rail Brace and 


does all of this — and more. It saves on ties — costs less than 
tie rbd^facilitates paving — and gives better service. 

Qpen hearth steel ^" or 7/16" thick for girder or "T" rails. 

Start' saving now. Write for cost data today. • 

Steel Car Forge Company 

■* # 


New York 


Works: Ellwood City, Pa., and Hammond, Ind. 

January 6, 1917] 



You Don't Have to GUESS 
About the Value of 

Ti:ack Grinders 

You Can Demonstrate it on your' own tracks 

And you can do that without a 
nickel of expense for the machine. 

In the past few years more than 60 
railway companies have put a Recip- 
rocating Grinder at work on their 
^tracks with the clear understanding 
that if they were willing to give up the 
machine after a fair, square trial of it 
*hey were simply to say so and we 
would take it back — all at our 

In not a single instance has a ma- 
chine come back. 

This demonstrates two things : First, the supreme 
efficiency and economy of the Reciprocating Trac^ 

Second, that it so greatly improves track condi- 
tions that no railway having once demonstrated the 
improvement produced by this machine is willing to 
be without it. 

The elimination of corrugations 
and cupped joints produces a big sav- 
ing in maintenance cost, increases life 
of track, decreases wear and tear on 
rolling stock, and is a source of satis-» 
faction to the public. 

Railway Track- work Co. 

30th and Walnut Sts., Philadelphia, U. S. A. i 



[January 6, 1917 




lOaS 80. "'-"^ p,ic-nc CO"' '• ■ 


. Uton Kiois 
ICK So."*-' 





TUK << 




-^ «" 



t>»> ' ' 

■i f 

Adirondack Electric Power Corporatiom 

Jrd« rv. i-l»6»r 

fi. T«EirlatoE, K«&i7 * Co., 

noil 30. fiuti*^ J^!i 






I,.. - - 

For pulling or straightening poles of all sizes, under 
any conditions, the No. 318 is a big dividend payer; 

The first dozen poles handled will easily defray the 
whole cost of the Simplex. 

0it^i"^'^- ' 


ORlCIN*!. , 



.^^.Sendfof^ BulletinJSataloe No- 216 


rhere's A Simplex Jack 

January 6, 1917] 



OrnciAL OflDCR ^_ 

CLl M WEST. Rect.viB 

iii>*.l>Ei^WAK»: &* Marion 


CoLUMBUB, Ohio,, l^:. 

ICLKs poa use or thjs coMPAwy and ship 

it. o«ot" 

^^ vi(i»'^ 

I w 




NOTICE .'.■..•;y^".^va:,a°.r/ -v."i'ii_i«M, art., s i 

logo S CtWTSAL *.!wt 

• Br ««n uiDui mm MOtfis m >mii 

,,,„ EO.SOH CO-P*-' 
"'•^nlwiS STREET . 



of The No. 318 

Simplex Pole Jack 

Reduces the Labor and Cost of 
Pulling Poles . 

Makes Straightening of Poles a 
One-Man Job. 

Every telephone, lighting and power, 
public utility and electric railway 
company will find this tool of extra- 
ordinary value. 


1024 So. Central Ave. 



For Every Purpose 



" CHICAGO, ».£ ._ r'l.-*,!... ... 

* ^ -■■ '■'''^"■■ii:^^!-j^rmtm^^^ THTnTi- 


■rniettTw. Kcmtr C3 , .- ,, 

7^"" ""»«"""»--■'« 1. v^-,„,;7t^^i^ 


^^' ... 





Send This Order To 

Your Nearest Jobber 

Gentleme4: > 

Please furnish 

318 Simplex Pole Jack including fiJl 

equipment at $28.00 complete F. O. B. 

Name f 


Ship Via 



[January 6. 1917 


More Than Twice as Many in 1916 as 1915 

—50,000 to Date 

During the year 1916 the amount of 

"Simplex" and "Apex" Joints 

applied by the 

Indianapolis Portable Welder 

has doubled that of 1915 

From a total of only 50 joints installed in the entire country in 19 12 the 
Indianapolis Welder has increased this amount to 50,000 joints up to the 
present time. 

This constant and remarkable growth is sure proof of the superiority of the 
Indianapolis Portable Electric Welder and "Simplex" and "Apex" joints. 

The Price and Delivery of rails, joints and bonds mean more than twice as 
much as it did last year. This makes it even more important that you consider 
the use of the Indianapolis Portable Electric Welder. 

There's lots more we cjm tell you about them. Ask us! 

Indianapolis Switch & Frog Co. 

New York Springfield, Ohio Chicago 






The "Simplex" Joint 

The "Apex" 

January 6, 1917] 



Economical Welding 

Any weld at all will cost less than replacing a worn 
rail or a broken part, but no weld is really econo- 
mical unless it is made at the lowest possible cost. 

The Lincoln Arc Welder 

will do track or shop welding at 
lower cost than any other ap- 

Saves Power 

The Lincoln Arc Welder is 
simply a motor operated by cur- 
rent from the trolley wire. This 
motor in turn drives a generator 
which delivers current at 150 to 
180 amperes. To do this the 
motor only takes 7 to 8 kw. power 
from the line. 

In other types, the welding cur- 
rent is produced by "cutting- 
down" the voltage of the line 
through a cast iron resistance. 
The excess power is wasted in the 
resistance and consequently 80 to 
100 kw. must be taken from the 

The Lincoln Arc Welder saves 
70 to 90 kw. in power. 

Faster Welding with the Lincoln Arc 
Welder the rail or piece to be welded is 
the positive electrode, hence it is always 
hot and the molten metal sticks to it 
readily. The operator can work much 

Saves Trolley Wire. The Lincoln Arc 
Welder taking only 7 to 8 kw. will not 
cause burning of the trolley such as fre- 
quently occurs when more power is 

Investigate the Cost of Lincoln Welding 

The Lincoln Electric Co. 

Cleveland, O. 

New York City 
(Singer Bldg.) 
Burfalo '41 

Grand Rapids 



"^ Detroit 
^^Toronto, Canada 

Agencies in other principal cities 


Charlotte, N. C. 



[January 6, 1917 








\ ou probably know tliat it is oxy-acetylene welding and cutting with the 
higly developed Oxweld apparatus. 

But have you ever investigated the possibilities 
of Oxwelding in your own business ? 

Many a master mechanic and maintenance engineer has saved his com- 
pany thousands of dollars per year by employing Oxwelding in repair 
work, bonding and track maintenance. Now conies a new application 
(originated by a user) which radically reduces the cost of car parts by 
cutting them from scrap steel plate. 

And yet the surface hasn't been scratched. In addition to these uses 
which you know will increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of your 
department, you may develop neiv applications that will lead to further 
economies for your company. 

Surely a process of such unlimited possibilities is worthy of^careful 
investigation. We have made it easy for you by preparing • special 
articles on Oxwelding in the electric railway business. 

Just ask for Bulletin Series 700-J. 

Oxweld Acetylene Co. 

NewarR. N. J. CKicaB'o Los Anffeles 

Largest Makers of Welding and Cutting 
Equipment and Supplies in the World 


January 6, 1917] 



Complete Machinery Equipment 

Car Wheel Lathe 


Electric Railway 

Repair Shops 

A Car Wheel Lathe is probably the most im- 
portant part of a Repair Shop equipment. The 
Car Wheel Lathe shown above is of heavy 
massive construction and is equipped with all 
the modern improved devices for the rapid 
handling and turning of steel car wheels. It is 
designed for wheels from 26" to 42" diameter 
and will take in axles having either outside or 
inside journals. 

Right-hand head is traversed by a motor 
and has a friction safety device to prevent the 
possibility of accident in case the faceplates 
are brought up too forcibly against the wheels. 
A convenient calipering device, "Sure Grip" 
drivers and patented pneumatic tool clamps are 

We shall be i)leased to send you descriptive 
circulars and catalogues showing all the 
various machines required for repair shop 

Standard Car 
Wheel Borer 

Car Wheel Press 


111 Broadway, New York 

25 Victoria St., London, S. W. 

SAI.KS OFFICES .\MJ ACiBNCIES— llontou ! 9.1-Bn (Ulver St. Philnllelpblu : 40:, X. 21st St. PIttsbnrKli : Prick Hldg. 
C'levrland, O.: Tim Nilcs 'I'lul Works Co.. 730 Suiiorlor .Vvc. Hniiiilton, O.i The Nili's Tool Works Co. Cincinnati: Tho Nlles 
Tool Works Co., 3."i; W. 4tli .St. Iletrolt! Kerr BldK. Chl<-nK'<>: 571 W. W'aehinetoii Hlvil. St. Lonlx: 51B North Third St. 
IliriiiiiiKhain. Alu.: 201.' I'^lrst .\ve. Son Friinciscoi 16 to l.s Fremont St. For r€il<>rudo» Utah, l^yoniliiH; and Neiv 

Mexico: Hpndric .V Boltlioi^ Mfg. & Sujipl.v Co., Deliver. l''or Sentcle: naUidi'' Mar■lliu^'r.^■ Co. For Canada: The .lohn Bertram 
& Sons Co., Ltd.. DiiiidaH, .M.plreal. Toront.i. Winnipeg, VancoiiTer. Jn|>an; The F. W. Home Co., Tokio. Italy: Ing. Ercole Vaghl, 
Mihin. France: (ilaenzer .v I'errfniid. is PaBboarg du Temple, ParK RnNHla: 3. C. Martin & Co., Ltd., Petroi:rad and .Moscow. Coniptoir r-linliim- I'.n'sill.'il. r. <K Box Sn2, Rio <]■■ .Taneiro. 


75% Efficiency is 
33^% Inefficient 

A man or a machine only 75% efficient must do one-third better to be 100% 

100% efficiency is not necessarily perfection — but, the standard of 100% is 
essentially the "best obtainable" — therefore, it is the basis for comparison of less 
efficient performance. 

One of the most prominent industries in the United States, employing a large amount 
of Davis-Bournonville apparatus with much success, recently said — bantering the salesman 
about the price — "When we can get welding torches 75% as efficient as the Davis-Bournon- 
ville torches, at sufficiently lower price, we will consider them !" 

Consider, yes! But the chances are they will not willingly employ tool.s, machines or 
men, that ought to be and could be 33j^% more efficient than they are. This would mean 
that the 75% efficient man does in four days what he ought to do in three days — that the 
75% efficient welding torch should give one-third better results than it does — and, if efficiency 
is based on both gas consumption and manual performance, that four tanks of oxygen are 
used when three would do the work, four hours' time consumed when three should have 
been enough, or, the welded job is only three- fourths as good as it ought to be — 

also, 75% efficiency may mean loss of prestige and reputation for efficient performance. 

Davis-Bournonville oxy-acetylene and oxy-hydrogen apparatus is the standard for 
efficiency, and has been since this company introduced the positive-pressure process of oxy- 
acetylene welding to the metal working industries in the United States, ten years ago — 
because it provides the highest efficiency obtainable, with the greatest development of appa- 
ratus, and most extended application in the metal working trades, and the widest range of 
equipment made for the use of the oxy-acetylene and oxy-hydrogen processes. 


Leads the World in Range, Efficiency 
and Apparatus in Successful Use 

Davis-Bournonville Welding and Cutting Apparatus is in successful use hy the most 
prominent concerns in the United States and Canada engaged in iron and steel production 
and metal working — ^^foundries, rolling mills, ship yards, navy yards, scrap yards, railroad 
shops, locomotive and car shops, steel furniture, sash and door plants, tube mills, pipe and 
pipe bending works, by automobile and motor truck makers, manufacturers of automobile 
metal bodies, ornamental iron workers, on construction work and for wrecking, and in 
hundreds of small and large repair shops and garages, for welding and building up broken 
and worn castings. 


(Our No. 3 factory building was completed and occupied in niid-sumraer, 1916. 
affording 30,000 additional square feet of floor space. We are now adding two 
more stories with 20.000 square feet more floor space, to Iteep up with the 
dem.ind for "Davis apparatus.") 

Davis-Bournonville Company 

General Office and Factory: Jersey City, N. J. 

Sales Offices: New York, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, 
Detroit, St. Louis, San Francisco, Toronto 

January 6, 19171 



♦*"[) OYS." said the General Manager at the luncheon Round Table one day, "a lot 
Jj of great work has been done in fare collection these past years, but we're still 
a long way from getting all the money." 

"Ye gods, we certainly need the coin more than ever, with 34-cent copper 
staring us in the face,"' muttered the Purchasing Agent. 

"Yes, and our poor, old nickel has just been stretched to give another half-mile 
of riding to," said the treasurer with a sigh. 

"Gosh, it can't be said we haven't tried," put in the Superintendent of Equip- 
ment. "Only the other day we sold a fine lot of railings and other fare-collecting 
junk that we had stuck in the cars at one time or another. 

"How you can expect to train the public to a new system of fare collection 
every few months is the thing that's getting my goat," grumbled the Superin- 
tendent of Transportation. "And it gets the conductors up in the air. too." 

"I've noticed," added the superintendent of timetables, "that some of those 
experiments slow down the line instead of speeding it up." 

The General Manager laughed. "Boys, it looks as if I started something 
when I mentioned fare collection. Well, I'm going to try once mqre, but this 
time it's going to be 

"A fare collection system that won't cost us anything for new equipment, 
that won't call for changes in the cars, that has no, register ropes or rods, that 
doesn't puzzle the passenger one minute, and that GETS THE MONEY. 
I refer to the 

Automatic Register! 



"Let's lalk further about it at our ne.Kt luncheon.' 

Rooke Automatic Register Co., 

Providence, R. I. 



[January 6, 1917 



An Ohmer Far 

Register equipment adapted to one man. two man. pay as 
\o\\ enter or pay within operation. ' 



HE Ohmer System is a success because it con- 
strains the conductor to collect the right fare, to 
register it correctly and turn it in, irrespective of 

Its registration. 

The Ohmer System is a success because it recognizes 
the tendencies to fail on the part of the conductor and 
eliminates those tendencies by a system of registration 
which makes unpaid fares, unregistered or misregistered 
fares so evident that they are avoided. 

The Ohmer System is a success because it eliminates 
the unworthy conductor, because it makes an efficient 
man and a "salesman of transportation" out of the man 
who is worth while. 

Ohmer Fare Register Company 

Dayton, Ohio 

January 6, 1917] 



Boston's Latest Rapid Transit Extension — 

"South Station Under"— 

Was Opened for Traffic December 3 

With tht' i)])fniii.L;' of ihis new station, the lloston 
Elevated Railway has brought Harvard Square. Cam- 
bridge, within al)out 10 minutes' ride of South Station. 
It is interesting to nc^te that this, as well as most of the 
other prepayment stations of the Boston Elevated, is 
equipped with 


Motor-Driven Station Registers 

which have proved unsurpassed in speed and accuracy. 

You, too, will save money and schedules by doing away 
with tickets for your station, parks, ferry and other pre- 
payment areas and adopting International Station 


We also manufacture Round and Square Registers; 
Portable Registers : Fare Boxes for all kinds of Fare Com- 
binations: Coin, 'i'icket and Transfer Registers; Transfer- 
Issuing Machines and 

mei:ren i-:namel badges 

The International Register Company 

15 South Throop Street, Chicago 



[January 6, 1917 


Coin-Ticket Registering Fare Box. Size SIA in. x 

6I/2 In. X 17i/y In. Weight 3214 lbs. 

Increased Safeguards 
of Fare Collection 

The American Fare Box simplitics and perfects prepayment fare collection 

by combining fare box and fare register, with provisions to collect and register 

coins and paper tickets through the fare box, and registering transfers and other 

fares "collected over the box" 

on the same mechanism. 

Passengers pay the fares — 
coins and tickets, direct intci 
the fare box — the fares being 
exposed for visual examina- 
tion — there is )io intermediate 
handling of coins or tickets 
between f<ayment and regis- 

The fares are registered im- 
mediately as paid— whether it 
is a coin or ticket paid into 
the box, or a fare collected 
over the box, one turn of the 
operating handle for each 
fare, indicated by a bell, 
makes the registration. 

There is no accuniuhUion of 
coins in the registering mech- 
anism; no 'grinding" of coins 
through the fare box between 
stops; no divided attention of 
conductors betzveen fare box 
and overhead register, and no 
change required in the form 
of tickets used. 

The full passenger load is 
indicated each trip on the fare 
box_ trip register; total regis- 
trations on the total-passenger 
register; and money registra- 
tions on tife cash register. 
Nickels and dimes, as regis- 
tered, are available for change. 
Pennies are not 
registered, but are 
segregated from 
full fare coins and 
deposited in a 
locked box ; tickets 
also are deposited 
in a locked box. 

The American 
Fare Box increases 
the safeguards of 
tare collection. It 
is the fare box 
conditions demand 
• — one registerini; 
device, simple and 
reliable in con- 
struction and 
operation, for all 

The boxes can 
be furnislied in 
the types illus- 


Coin Registering Fare Box. Size 7I/, In. x 6i/s in. x 

16 In. Weight 27 lbs. 

This is the fare 
box to invi'stigate. 


f.^,ffltl "^^t' ^"Z ""'X*" overhead Trip Register and 

separate Transfer Register operated dl?ect Uom 

fare box handle 

The American Railways Equipment Co., Dayton, Ohio 

January 6, 1917] 




Awarded Medal and Diploma 

at San Francisco 








New York City 
for Railway Car SeaU. and Interior Steel Trim for Passenger Cars. 

Pioneers in Steel Trim for Passenger Cars, incltiding interior finish, steel doors, etc. 

Hale and Kilburn Go. 

Philadelphia New York Chicago 

Washington San Francisco 




[January 6, 1917 





One of the four White Trucks owned by the New York State Railways, Rochester, N. Y. 

A Significant Fact 

While predominating in the total number 
of motor trucks annually put into service 
in this country, most of the White output 
is absorbed by repeat orders from satisfied 
users — regardless of price competition. 


Largest Manufacturers of Commercial Motor Vehicles in America 

January 6, 1917] 



Make It Easy to Attain 
Efficient Car Operation 



Good car operation is simply a matter of fun- 
damental principles and methods of execution. 
You can't expect motormen to develop these 
principles on their own initiative, but you can 
teach them to employ the correct methods. 

Trained motormen can effect big" economies. 
You can readily train them — teach them the 
possibilities and limitations of modern equip- 
ment; and show them how to effect, these 

And the most modern step: by installing 
ECONOMY Meters on your cars, you can 
obtain data which will measure the efficiency 
of the motormen and the progress they are 

This system of improving car operation has 
never failed. It's simple, economical, and 
without hazard. Large electric railways are 
accomplishing wonderful results every day. 
Let us give you the records of existing cases 
and submit a plan for improving your opera- 

Sandamo Electric Company^ 

Springfield, rUinois 
Specialists in Meters for Every Electrical Need 





[January 6, 1917 


On 60 -Ton Locomotive Hauling Trains 

Up to 1200 Tons 


The fact that the Miller Trolley 
Shoe is a most efficient current col- 
lector for high-voltage, heavy-train 
service is attested again in the case 
of the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & 
Northern Railway. 

Here's a picture showing it in use 
on the 1300-volt section of this rail- 
way. The 60-ton locomotive used is 

equipped with four Westinghouse 
308-D-3 275-hp. forced ventilation 
motors and HL control. 

This locomotive, equipped with 
the Miller Trolley Shoe, hauls be- 
tween Waterloo and Cedar Rapids, 
a distance of 60 miles, trains up to 
1200 tons, at speeds up to 24 miles an 
hour on level track. 

Join the many roads that are now using the Miller Trolley Shoe 

Miller Trolley Shoe Company 

53 State Street 

Boston, Mass. 

Holden & White, Chicago. Alfred Connor, Denver, Col, 

W. F. McKenney, Portland, Oregon. T. C. White & Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

F. F. Bodler, San Francisco, Cal. W. M. McClintock, St. Paul, Minn. 

S. I. Waile.<i, Los Angeles, Cal. A. L Sanger & Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 


January 6, 1917] 




Graphite and Bronze Oil- less Bearings 

U. S. Pat. Rea. 

were made in this modern reinforced factory during 191G. With the early completion of our 
new works at Lincohi, N. ]., for the exclusive manufacture of "Nigrum"' impregnated wood 
bearings, our production will be increased to 

5,000,000 Bearings in 1917 

A Bound Brook Mold. The graphite 
Cannot be forced out under pressure. 

We take this occasion 
to thank our many elec- 
tric railway customers 
for their confidence in 
our product, and to as- 
sure both old and new 
customers that our future 
service will be even bet- 
ter than in the past. 

.\11 genuine graphited 
"Oil-less" Bearings have 
always lieen made at 
Bound Brook. X. J., in 
the United States of 
America, by the 

The end of a Bound Brook Bearing 
is lubricated to take care of end thrust. 

Bound Brook Oil-less Bearing Co. 

Formerly Graphite lubricating Co. 



Uanuary 6, 1917 

''Account No. 92 will look a lot better/' 

said the General Manager, as he scanned the comparison of accidents 
during 1915 and 1916. "Looks as if we were on the right track at last. 
Besides saving us a lot of accident expense, the H-B Life Guard and 
Providence Fender have changed a lot of newspaper knocks to hoosts that 
will surely sweeten things with the public." 

"Another thing I've noticed," remarked the Superintendent of Trans- 
portation, "is that we are getting more work and better work out of our 
motormen on the Marble Avenue line — they're more at ease now — don't 
lose their heads when they see a flock of kiddies playing on the tracks, 
because they know the H-B is on the job to protect everybody concerned." 

"I'm might glad," rejoined the Claim Agent, "to see the more friendly 
attitude of the juries when we do have to let an accident case go to 
court — but that isn't often now. It's easy to convince everybody in court 
that we are doing our part to save life and limb, and that the f>iib!ic must 
do theirs, too. We're getting a square deal now." 

"And as to repairing those H-B Life Guards and Providence Fenders." 
said the Master Mechanic, "it really costs next to nothing to keep them 
in A-i shape." 

"I'm glad to hear these boosts from you men," concluded the General 
Manager, "because they confirm my own judgment. When the Board 
of Directors meets next week, I'll recommend the installation of H-B 
Life Guards and Providence Fenders as standards throughout our 

The Consolidated Car Fender Co. 

Providence, R. I. 

General Sales Agent 

Wendell & MacDuffie Co. 

61 Broadway, N. Y. 

Fifth of a s-cn'es of talks on Fewer Accidents and Better Public Relations 


January 6, 1917 



Like most of tlie leadino- electric railway companies of the I'nited States 

The Connecticut Company 

regards Pantafsote and Agasote products as •'the standard" — and utilizes them 
accordingly in the new cars being built by the Wason Mfg. Co. 

The Pantasote Company 

11 Croadway, New York 797 Monadncck Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. People's Gas Bldg., Chicago, 111. 



[January 6, 1917 

For Real Protection 
Against All Weather Elements: 

Bayonne Car Roofing 

It will not deteriorate under the hot rays of the sun — it 
will not rot under rain or crack and peel under frozen 

It is no ordinary cotton duck, but a special, closely- 
woven fabric, every fibre of which is saturated with a 
weather-proofing-, rot-proofing- preservative. 

This impregnation is a thorough-going mechanical 
process which makes it necessary for you to give Bayonne 
Roofing only one coat of color paint after it is attached to 
the car roof. 

It's a time-saver in installation — a money-saver in 
maintenance. It renews the good looks of old cars — and 
makes new cars better, inside and outside. 

\ M^rite for samples today 


112-114 Duane Strieet New. York City 70-72 Reade Street 

Branch House, 202-204 Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 

January 6, 1917; 



Nevasplit Headlining 

was installed in 10 new low-floor type cars built for the 
Pittsburgh Railways Co. by the Cincinnati Car Co. 

Nevasplit Headlining provides a strikingly beautiful 
surface which is permanent. 

It cannot warp, peel or fade under any conditions of 
service, and is waterproof in fact as well as in word. 

Its low initial cost and maintenance cost should com- 
mend it to you for repairs and renewals as well as for 
new cars. 

Write for samples and prices. 

The Keyes Products Co., uobroadway^new^^^^ 

New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Cal., Italy, American Traffic Company, 

W. I< Kersclincr Co., Inc., 50 Churcli *>!. I, M. Smnms, Fisher Bldg. D. K. Ford, Merchants' Exchange BIdg. via Capuccini No. 4, Milano, Italy 



[January 6, 1917 

wo ^¥.<; 'wmimo :mm\mw:m< 





Operates Simultaneously and Automatically with Track Switch and can be installed with any style of 


Thejsystems on which this device has been adopted as Standard include the following: — 

llllnol* Traction System. 

Peoria Railway Terminal Co. 

Interstate Public Service Co. 

Evansvllle Railways Co. 

Ft. Wayne & Springfield Railway 

Toledo & Chicago Interurban Traction Co. 

Springfield, Troy A Piqua Railway Co. 

Toledo, Bowling Green*& Southern Traction Co. 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway 

Bluffton, Genoa & Celina Traction Co. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad 

Dayton & Troy Electric Railway 

Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Railway 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Railway 

Toledo & Western Railroad Co. 

Salt Lake & Utah Railway 

Starl< Electric Railroad Co. 

Ft. Wayne <£. Northern Indiana Traction Co. 

Indiana Union Traction Co. , 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Traction Co. 

Oes Moines Interurban Railway 

East St. Louis & Suburban Railway 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City Railway & Light Co. *< 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. 

Winona Interurban Railway 

Lake Shore Electric Railway 

Ohio Electric Railway 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Railway 

Muncie & Portland Traction Co. 

Marlon, Bluffton & Eastern Traction Co. 

Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Co. 

Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joe Railway 

Ogden. Logan <£. Idaho Railway 


Railway Exchange, CHICAGO 

Singer Building, NEW YORK 

January 6, 1917] 







of Uniform Service 

You cannot get regular constant steady carbon 
brush service without high efficiency in the manufac- 
ture of the brushes. 

Just remember that the measure of true economy 
is efficiency and price combined. You can never secure 
high service by depending upon price alone. 

It is the absolute uniformity of efficiency in Le 
Carbone Brushes which differentiates them and makes 
them preferred by the men who appreciate rnost fully 
the importance of SERVICE. 

We none of us ever appreciate insurance until 
"something goes wrong." The Le Carbone Brand is 
carbon brush insurance. And it's worth having. 




W. J. Jeandrofi «fl 

173 Fulton St.. New York ^ 





[January 6. 1917 

TVie line includes: 

V-K Oilless Trolley Wheels 

V-K Non Arcing Harps 

Lubricated Trolley Wheels 

M-J Standard Harps 

Contact Springs 

"Tiger" Bronze Motor Axle 

"Tiger" Bronze Armature 

"No. 36" Bronze Truck Journal 

Air Compressor Bearings 

"Armature" Babbitt Metal 

VER forty years' experience in laboratory and 
foundry practice is behind the MORE-JONES 
line of standard equipment for Electric Rail- 

We are specialists in the compounding of metal 
alloys. Our research department has originated 
many new and valuable combinations, each one best 
adapted for a specific purpose. Our materials are the 
highest grade ; our manufacturing methods careful 
and accurate. 

We have studied the problems affecting electric 
railways in the closest and heartiest co-operation 
with the mechanical experts of various large sys- 
tems. The most practical ideas that intelligent ex- 
periment and exhaustive tests have shown will lead 
to greater efficiency, longer service and reduced 
maintenance cost have always been sure of incor- 
poration into MORE-JONES products. 

"We invite inquiries and investigation." 




Tool Steel Gear and Pinion 

Extract from a letter April 4th, 1916, 


'T^eplyin^ to your inquiry****, we have 
for the past tnree Years had qj^ test al^ of i ^p 
better grades oi ^^^ rs a noBinions tnat are manu- 
lactured. frominent in our test are the Tool 
Steel Gear 5: Pinion Company, ** (Naming- three 
other large companies)**. The result is*** that 


carefully, and I will give you as follows the 
results that were obtained from the material 
under our observation from the beginning" of 
test up to the present time." 

Here follows detailed measurements, 
showing type of equipment , measure- 
ments of teeth when new, and after 
^Jk. 94,667 miles, Tool Steel pinion teeth 

Wr having given one-third of their al- 

lowable wear. 

"I do not feel that it would be right 
for me to give you comparative figures of mil- 
eage made by other companies entering into this 
test*********. We have in service or on order 
several thousand gears and pinions manufactured by 
this company. Up to date we have not experienced 
^ sin^^le case of broken teetb» " "^ ' ' 




IJanuary 6. 1917 

"Don't let a single overhauled car leave the shops until 
its brake rigging has been fitted throughout with 

Boyerized Pins" 

said the General Manager, as lie and the superintendent of equipment were looking over the open 
cars and other equi])ment which were awaiting overhauling for the spring and summer drive. 

"When you put in a requisition about a year ago for a sample lot of Boyerized case-hardened 
])ins, the purchasing agent and myself wanted to know why the ordinary kind weren't good enough 
for you in these hard times. 

"You've certainly shown us in great shape, not only on the Safety First basis but on the miles- 
per-dollars basis too. 

"Judging by the way our first lot of Boyerized Pins has shown up," replied the gratified super- 
intendent, "we're perfectly safe in making 'em standard. It's a great thing to feel that you're nsing 
Boyerized Pins because they are case-hardened so uniformly. 

"We don't have to take chances any more with the stuff turned out by the average blacksmith." 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Springfield, Mass. 

Constitute a Form of Safety rnsurance whkh Returns the 
Premium Many Times Over 

Other Products Are: 
Bemis Trucks Ix)rd Baltimore Trucl<s 

Case Hardened Brake Pins Manganese Brake Heads 

Case Har'lened Bushings Manganese Transom Plates 

Case Hardened Nuts and Bolts Manganese Body Bushings 
Bronze Axle l^earings 

January 6, 1917] 





A new type of gear anH pinion especially prepared and 
heat-treated, made from a material of fine quality steel 
blanks, both split, and sold at an exceptionally reasonable 

Heat -Treated, Star Brand 


Gears and Pinions 

are cut true to pitch, and then put through the special heat- 
treating process which gives them exceptional tensile 
strength and assures a wearing ability of from 3 to 5 times 
greater than that of ordinary gears and pinions. 

Where heavy service is an absolute essential, specify 
Catskill Gears and Pinions. 

May we send complete data? 

• J • 




W. R. Kerschner Co., inc. 

50 Church Street, New York 



[January 6. 1917 

Babbitted Bearings 
Run True 
to Form 

After a Columbia Bab- 
bitted bearing has gone 
through the rough cut the 
finishing cut and the inner 

The bore is carefully 
calipered to see that it is 
exactly right. 

If the bore is right, the 
bearing is considered 
worthy to go out into the 
world as a member of the 
Columbia family as soon 
as the oil grooves have been 
cut therein. 

The Calipers prove if the job was well done 

And that's true of all the items listed below: 


Armature and axle straighteners 

Armature buggies and stands 

Babbitting molds 

Banding and heading machines 

Car replacers 

Coil taping machines for armature leads 

Coil winding machines 

Pinion pullers 

Pit jacks 

Signal or target switches 

Tension stands 

Armature and field coils 
Brush-holders and brush-holder springs 
Brake, door and other handles 
Brake forgings, rigging, etc. 
Car trimmings 
Controller handles 
Forgings of all kinds 
Gear cases (steel or mall, iron) 
Grid resistors 

Third-rail contact-shoes and accessories 
Trolley poles (steel) and wheels 

Columbia Machine Works & Malleable Iron Co. 

Atlantic Ave. and Chestnut St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

W. R. Kenchner Co., Inc., N. Y. Holden ft White, Chicago F. F. Bodler, SanFrandaco 

January 6, 1917] 








Here Is the Evidence 

These and other important railway properties throughout the 
world have found by thorough test that Nuttall Railway 
Products give more and better service and at less cost per mile. 

Their experience covers every operating condition and some- 
where in all this varied exjierience is a solution for the problem 
that may now be troubling you. Let us suggest the proper gear, 
pinion or trolley for } our particular condition and make a test 
for yourself. 

Ask for Catalogues 12 and 13. 












[January a. 1917 

The Van Dorn Automatic 

Car and Air 


for City 
and Light 
Interurban Cars 

Promotes Speed and Safety 




It speeds the work of making up trains by insuring- 
a positive connection of both coupler and air under 
extreme variations of coupler positions, hence giv- 
ing the greatest safety to employees. 

This operation is so simplified that the work can be 
TInCOlinlinC f^f>"e quickly and with maximum safety because the 

trainman need not be between or near the cars 
when the signal is given to move them. 

The long hose connections and the troubles ensu- 
ing from them are eliminated. The rigidity of the 
draft connections prevents see-sawing and makes 
two or more cars move as one. They operate per- 
fectly on curves of 30-ft. radius and abrupt grades 
causing as much as 10 inches ditierence in normal 
cou])ler levels, without an\- binding whatever. 


Van Dorn Coupler Ca 

2323So.PaulinaSt Chic^o.111. 

January 6, 1917] 



Are Your Brakes 

Getting Least Attention 

When You Need Them Most? 

In these freezing, drizzling days, yuur equipment in- 
spectors have every temptation to skimp their work — to 
get their numbed hands and feet out of the cold and 
the wet. 

Poor Inspection Is Dangerous 

for, if there ever is a time when you want (juick, sure and 
even brakeshoe application, it's now. 

If you have Smith-Ward slack-adjusters on your cars 
today, you won't have to worry about that kind of 
trouble. If you haven-'t got them on your cars, 

'■1 . L 

S-W Brake Slack Adjusters 

at your earliest opjxirtunity. They will do for yon what 
they are doing for many other roads. 

Increase Safety — Decrease Brakeshoe and Labor Costs 
S-W Brake Slack Adjusters are made for any truck 


Smith- Ward Brake Company, Inc. 

17 Battery Place, New York 




[January e, 1917 

Keeping Pace with the Developments 
of Two Generations 

Horse-car days. 

We can all remember the frail little "match 
boxes" jerking and bouncing along a narrow- 
gauge "snake-trail" track behind one or two old 
broken-down cab horses. They tipped the scales 
at only one or two tons when loaded to capacity, 
and the speed seldom reached the hair-raising 
rate of 6 miles per hour. 

Yet within this short space of years we have 
seen the electric car develop into a 6o-ton palace, 
riding as smoothly as thistledown in the air at 
speeds as high as 70 miles per hour. 

Do you fully appreciate the changes of the last 
30 or 40 years ? 

Can you comprehend what this ever-increasing 
service has demanded of the car wheel manu- 

Although the pace has been a hot one, we have 
never lost our stride, never lagged behind. The 
Wonderful Single-Service Chilled Iron Wheel 
was standard in the days of the "hobbie-horse" 
car, and is standard today with over 90% of 
the street-car companies of the United States 
and Canada which operate lOO cars or over. 

Association of Manufacturers of Chilled Car Wheels 

1228 McCormick Building, Chicago, 111. 

Representing Forty-eight Wheel Foundries Throughout the United 
States and Canada. Capacity 20.000 Chilled Iron Wheels Per Day 

January 6, 1917] 





Sir Hubert Stanley 
Is Praise Indeed '* 


"By golly, that's the nicest running truck you 
ever saw," said a shopman, as he pushed a truck 
about in the shops of the Chautauqua Traction 

Of course, that truck was equipped with Gurney 
Ball Bearing Journal Boxes. 

Your decision to buy Gurney Radio-Thrust Ball 
earings ' 
use them! 

Bearings will be endorsed by the men who will 


ConraH Patent Licensee 




Chicago, IlL 

New York City 



[January 6, 1917 

Storage Batteries 


Electric Railway Service 


For carrying peaks and fluctua- 
tions of load, especially in connection 
with water-power developments or 
where power is purchased on the basis 
of maximum demand, the "Cblori&e 
accumulator" or the "XTuDor ac= 
cumulator" is adapted. 


Due to the present high price of cop- 
per there are cases where the use of a 
battery for maintaining voltage is more 
economical than the purchase of cop- 
per for feeders. The "(Iblort5e ac- 
cumulator" has been largely used in 
this service by many railways. 


It is standard practice to install a 
storage battery connected to the Ex- 
citer Bus to prevent interruption in 
the supply of current for field excita- 
tion. Either the '<(IblorlOe accumu* 
lator," the "XTuDor accumulator" or 
the "JExtOe" Batter>' can be used. 


Storage batteries are used in power 
houses and sub-stations for the opera- 
tion of oil switches and supplying 
current for pilot lamps and emer- 
gency station lights in case of failure 
of the power supply. For this service 
the "dblort&e accumulator," the 
«»XIuC>or accumulator" and the 
"lExibC" Battery are used. 


For infrequent service or for condi- 
tions where trolley wires are prohibit- 
ed, storage battery cars offer the most 
economical and profitable solution of 
the transportation problem. The 
'*1Kscap*]£xi&e" Battery has been 
largely used in this service. In New 
York City alone there are in operation 
nearly 200 storage battery cars equip- 
ped with "HscapsjExiOe" Batteries. 


The "Exi&e" Battery and the 
•'luOor accumulator" are used by a 
nximber of railways for furnishing a 
supply of low voltage current to be 
used in connection with the operation 
of multiple-unit control systems. 


A number of interurban electric rail- 
way companies have installed batteries 
on their cars to maintain steady illu- 
mination and to overcome fluctuations 
caused by changes in line voltage, in- 
terruptions in third rails at crossings 
and switches or by temporary failure 
of power supply. For this service 
the '•Exl5e" Battery is particularly 


The "JExt&e" Battery is being used 
in connection with head lights and tail 
lights for furnishing current in case of 
interruptions in power supply. 

Detail information on batteries for any cf the above services 
can be secured from any sales office of the company. 


Manufacturer of 

The "Cblort&e accumulator", The "Xlubor accumulator", 

The "j6Xi&e", "lHycap»]£xiC>e", "Ubtn-JExlDe" and "flronClaO^jextOe" Batteries 
New York Boston Chicago Washington PHILADELPHIA, PA. Rochester Detroit St. Louis 

Cleveland Atlanta Minneapolis Pittsburgh 1888-1917 Kansas City San Francisco Denver Toronto 

January 6, 1917] 





Designing and building" electric trucks to-day is a 
different proposition from what it was some years 
ago. Speeds are higher, cars are heavier, and rec|uire- 
ments throughout are more severe. Engineering 
skill, coupled with complete manufacturing facilities, 
are necessary to the production of the modern electric 

Baldwin Truck, Class 66-18-C. Built for New York State Rys. for 
city service. 

Baldwin Truck, Class 84-30-AA. Built for Dayton <S, Troy Electric 
Ry. Co. for high speed interurban service. 

There is a Baldwin electric truck for every kind of 
service — freight, city, suburban, and high-speed inter- 
urban. We are prepared to study your operating 
conditions, and to recommend the type of truck equip- 
ment best suited to your recjuirements. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


F. W. Weston. l20 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Charles Riddell, 627 Railway Exchange, Chicago, III. 

C. H. Peterson, 1210 Boatmen's Bank BIdg., St. Louis, Mo. 

George F. Jones, 407 Travelers' Building, Richmond, Va. 
A. Wm. Hinger, 724 Spalding Building, Portland, Ore. 
Williams, Dimond St Co., 310 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 



[January 6, 1917 


ajr<» cordially 








220 W: 4.2 nd. Si. 








January 6, 19171 






Railway Feed Wires insulated with OKONITE are 
unequaled for flexibility, durability, and efficiency, and 
are in use by the leading Electric Street Railway Com- 
panies. OKONITE is preferred above any other insula- 
tion for Car Wiring, Telegraph and Telephone Purposes. 




Samples and Estimates on Application 


253 Broadway, New York 

CENTRAL ELECTRIC CO., Chicago, III., General Western Agents 
F. D. Lawrence Electric Co., Cincinnati, O. Novelty Electric Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Pettingell -Andrews Co., Boston, Mass. 



Round Grooved and Figure 8 

If you will agree that one 
make of trolley wire is able 
to give longer service than 
another make — 

That one is more economi- 
cal than another — 

Then investigate our trol- 
ley wire with a view to cut- 
ting your wire costs. 

Wires and Cables 

Star Brand 

Star Brand Wires are 
made with long service as 
the most prominent fea- 

Because of their ability 
to render long service they 
cut wire costs. 

Read the words in the 
cut of the star. 

American Electrical Works 

\E^ \UKKi IttS Bruadnny 
<;inCAfiO: 1J2 Went AdaniK Strr.-t 
BOSTON I 170 Federal Streel 


Phillipsdale, R. I. 

CINCINNATI: Triiettou BulIallnB' 
SAN FRANCISCO: 012 HiMvard Strt-el 
SKATTI.E1 1002 Flrx* Avenue Sontta 



[January 6, 1917 

give high protection at a small ultimate 
cost. Made for single-track opposing 
movements, absolute or permissive, and 
for double-track following movements. 

warn the public of danger from approach- 
ing cars, and advertise to the public 
progressive railway operation. 

give an accurate record at the end of the 
day of the entire car operation at a given 

Better write us for details. For safety's sake — do it now. 


4773 Louisville Avenue, LOUISVILLE, KY. 

Kachod Bell on Nash^nlle Tnterurban Railway 


You Can Minimize Overhead Repair Work 

and successfully cut maintenance costs if you turn to 

The Macallen Line 

of strain insulators, hangers, splicing ears, crossings, and other 
overhead material. 

They are "specialty" products, designed and built to make 
"Macallen" the standard on American railways. 

It will pay you to write for information and prices. 

The Macallen Insulating Joint 

Adopted by principal air brake manufacturers as part of their standard equipment. Also 
insulates steam pipes, etc. Shell is seamless drawn steel, nipples are machined from steel rod, 
and insulating material is Macallen Vulcanite Compound, not affected by heat or oil — prac- 
tically indestructible. 

May We Send CXir Catalog ? 

The Macallen Company 

Macallen and Foundry Sts., Boston 

January 6, 1917] 



The Building -In of Ideals 

"Good enough to serve the purpose" never has been 
an acceptable standard for 

Model 341 
A.C. and D.C. Voltmeter 

One of the Portable Electrodynamometer Group, 
which also includes Model 310 Single Phase D. C. 
Wattmeters. Model 329 Polyphase Wattmeter, and 
Model 370 A.C. and D.C. Ammeter. 
The characteristics of the group are extreme accu- 
racy (guaranteed within a fraction of I ^o fu" scale 
value), adaptability for use on circuits of any com- 
mercial frequency and any wave form, great over- 
load capacity, low moment of inertia, effective 
damping and shielding, and the legibility and re- 
markable uniformity of the hand calibrated scales. 

Indicating Instruments m 

The entire energies of our organization have been de- ^ 

voted to making each Instrument contribute its maximum ^= 

toward perfecting the Art of Electrical Measurement. = 

It is this guiding purpose which has created for the = 

Weston name the unique and enviable position it occu- = 

pies in its field. ^= 

Weston Indicating Instruments include a great variety of groups ^= 

for portable or switchboard service on A. C. or D. C. Circuits, Instru- ^^ 

ments designed expressly for testing and laboratory use, for motor car ;^= 

and boat electrical ^stems, and many others for special purposes. ■=*■ 
Write for Bulletins or Catalogs describing those which interest you. 

Weston Electrical Instrument Company 

21 Weston Ave., Newark, N. J. 

New York 





San Francisco 

Petrograd Florence 

St. Louis 
Johannesburg, S. Africa 










is more easily installed and more 
satisfactory in service 

The insulator, stud :iiul yoke are separable, 
yet they assemble as a unit. When the trolley 
ear is attached and screwed up firmly on the 
stud, it can be twisted around at right angles 
to the span wire without looseninj.,^ the ear on 
the stud. 

The head of the stud is countersunk into in- 
sulator so it can't turn after the ear is set in 
proper alignment. 

Jhe insulator is made of durable glazed por- 
celain. The yoke is galvanized iron, the stud 
sherardized steel, or bronze bolts can be used 
instead of steel. 

White's Porcelain Hanger is extremely dur- 
able, safe and low in cost, and W'K CAN 



Foreign Representative, Forest City Electrical Services Supply Company, Salford, England. 



[January 6. 1917 

A Book You Can 
Use Every Day 

The data needed in every phase of elec- 
tric railway work are given in this com- 
pact, pocket size encyclopedia — 

Electric Railway Handbook 

It contains material you've hitherto been 
obliged to obtain from a dozen or more 
different sources. Some of the information 
it gives couldn't be obtained except by going 
through the files of periodicals. 

The best thing about the book is its prac- 
ticability — its every-day-of-the-year useful- 

If you own a copy, it's pretty safe to say 
that few days go by when you don't find it 
a mighty handy tool. 

If you don't own a copy — send for one 

This doesn't mean you have to buy the 
book — not at all. You can examine it at 
your leisure, in your own home or office, 
under our Free Examination Offer. 

Your acceptance of this offer doesn't place 
you under any obligation to purchase the 
book. We want you to be satisfied. Merely 
fill in and mail the coupon below. 


Me(>rHW-lllll Book Co., Inc., 

^30 West .lOtU Street. New York, N. Y. 

Yon may sond ine on 10 days' approval : 
Rleliey— Electric Railway Handbook, $4.00 t%.^\. 

I ugroe to pay fnr the lx)ok or return It [Mistpaid within lo 
ilnys of receipt. 

....I am a regular subsoriber to the Electric Railway Journnl. 
I am a member nf A. T. E. E. or A. E. R. A. 

I Sinned t 

{ Addi-es") ■ ■ 

Reference K 1 -*! 

(Not required of subscribers to the Electric Railway Jnurnal or 

members of A. I. B. E. or A. E. R. A. Books sent on approval 

to retail eusiomers In the T'. S. only.) 

Blot Out the Cause 

Rot is one of the mighty forces that 
is always working to the detriment of 
the maintenance engineer and the com- 
pany's earnings. Sometimes it's 
called corrosion, or electrolysis — but 
with wood it's plain r-o-t. 

Wood Preserver 

will mitigate the effects of rot in 
poles, cross-arms, ties, and all kinds 
of construction timber. 

It is applied COLD with a brush 
(like paint) or by dipping in an open 
vat. It penetrates like ink into a blot- 
ter and checks rot in its incipiency. 
The least it will do is to double the life 
of wood. The most it will cost is but 
a trifle compared to the savings it will 
effect in purchases of new material 
and the cost of erection. 

No, it will not corrode the hardware, 
wash or sweat out. You can prove it 
yourself with our test outfit. 

VIrite for it to-day 


The Reeves Co. 

New Orleans, La. 



January 6, 1917] 



Your Boiler Fuel Problem can be 
Settled from Dock to Dump 

by using 

Hunt Coal and 
Ash-Handling Equipment 

For more than forty years the name of C. W. Hunt Company has stood as the 
embodiment of the best and most economical devices in the handhng of coal and 

Hunt equipment covers the whole range — 

Unloading apparatus such as steeple towers, mast and gaff rigs, skip hoists, 
automatic and cable railways, etc. 

Boiler room apparatus such as conveyors, narrow-gage track and dump cars, 
charging cars, etc. 

Complete storage structures, etc. 

H it's Hunt-designed and Hunt-made, it's right. 

IVrile for our catalogs embracing every conceivable fuel or ash handling device. 

C. W. HUNT CO., Inc. 

West New Brighton, N. Y. 

Hunt double skip Iiuist and cabit railway at ^ ^ , ,t x - i ■» t • t>i j x i r i. * -_*. t7- i rn i r-i. ■ „ 

Mahoning and Sh^nan^n. T^aihvay and Light Co., 6i Broadway, Ncw \ ork Munsey Bldg, Washington Fisher Bklg., Chicago 

Tear Out and Mail This Coupon Today 

/ 'i-'f. 

It will tell you how to obtain Efficiency and 
Economy in your Paint Shop 

Here is a booklet that furnishes general information regarding The 

Sherwin-Williams Modern Method Car Painting System. It 

will acquaint those interested in efficient car painting 

with the advantages to be derived through 

its use. 

Modern Method Car 
Painting System ehminates all 
unnecessary labor and the use of excess- 
ive material, and brings about the best results 
in service, wfth a minimum expense for labor 
and material. 


The Sherwin-Wiluams Co. 

Railway Paints and Varnishes 

782 Canal Road, Cleveland, Ohio 

The Sherwin-Wiluams Co. 


Please mall without obligation to me jroor 
hook which will explain etflcient and eco- 
nomical car flniahing. 



Address State . 



[January 6, 1917 

Telescopic Ram Hydraulic 
Motor Lift 
10,000 lb. 
Capacity ^ 



Promote Car Shop Efficiency 

50 Tons 

This motor lift has a telescopic ram with a movement of 37 

yet it is only 32 in. high when ram is down. It can be mo 

easily about the floor and can be 

operated by one man. 

Here is shown a Portable Forc- 
ing Press for forging, shaping 

bending and straightening. It 

is a self-contained portable type 

especially designed for shop use 

for rebushing, force fitting gears 

bearings, pins, etc., and for as- 

sembling armatures, broaching 

and a variety of operations of bending, straightening and pressing. 
We build a full line of jacks, pit jacks, rail benders, rail 
lionders. pumps, shears, punches, etc. 

Write for catalogs. 

The Watson-Stillman Co. 

Engineers and Builders of Hydraulic Machinery 

46 Church St., New York 

Chicago, McCormick Bldg. 
Pittsburgh, Brown & Zortraan 
.St. Louis, Corby Supply Co. 


Safe From the Snows of Winter 

The rolling stoik and equipment of the Public Service Railway of Xewark, 
.\. J., are protected not only from the snows of Winter but the rains of 
Summtr under " Anti-Pluvius" Pnttyless Skylights. Property protection is 
always economical. ".\nti-Plu\ ius" Skylights srp self-protective. .Materials 
are permanent, upkeep simple and practically negligible. 
IVrite for daylight data. 

The G. Drouve Company, Bridgeix>rt, Conn. 

180 X. Dearborn St.. Chicago. 

January 6, 1917] 



Serious Thought 

should precede the buying of 
a chain hoist 

Ford Tribloc 


will meet all of your hoist require- 
ments — they will enable you to 
handle both light and heavy loads 
with greater safety and at higher 
speeds than any other type. 

The Ford Tribloc is equipped 
with the Patented Loop Hand- 
Oiain Guide which prevents 
gagging of the hand-chain 
when worked at high speed 
or an acute angle. It has 
planetary gearing, steel work- 
ing parts and drop- forged 
chains, and hooks. It has 
everything that serves to in- 
crease efficiency and make a 
safer hoist. In fact the Ford 
Tribloc is so good that we 
guarantee it for five years. 

Before you buy a hoist let us 
tell you more about the Ford 

Have you our Catalog ? If 
not, let us mail you one. 

Ford Chain Block & 
Manufacturing Company 

142 Oxford Street - Philadelphia, Pa. 

If You Have 
Railway Field 
Work to Do 

You owe it to yourself to give 
these books a chance to show 
what they can do for vou. 

They contain all the data — 
formulas, tables, infonnation — 
that the railway engineer needs. 
Much of their material is not 
available in any other single 

Their use at the present time is 
the result solely of the excep- 
tional value and usefulness engi- 
neers have found them to possess. 
By C. FR.-XNK ALLEN, Profes- 
sor of Railroad Engineering, 
Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 

Railroad Curves and Earthwork 

234 pages, $2.00 net, postpaid. 

Field and Office Tables 

282 pages. $2.00 net, postpaiil. 


516 pages, flexible leather, pocket size, 
gilt edges, $3.00 net, postpaid. 

Examine These Books Free 

To appreciate the full value of these books, you must examine 
them, at your leisure, in your own home or olfice. Vou can do 
this, without placing yourself under the slightest obligation to pur- 
chase the books, through our Free Examination Offer. Simply fill 
out and mail coupon below. 




McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. ■ 

239 West 39th Street, New York, N. Y. J 

You may send me on 10 days* approval; J 

Allen's I 

. . . . Railroiid C'lirveft nn<l E^nrth-fvork, ^li.OO net. « 

. . . .Field and Offlee Tables, $2.00 net. { 

. . . .Tn'o piirtN l»onnd as one, $3.O0 net. S 

I agree to pay for the boobs or return them postpaid vithin 10 g 

(lays of receipt. ■ 

I am a regular subscriber to the Electric Railway Journal. I 

I am a member of A. I. E. E. or A. B. R. A. % 


( Signed) ■ 

(Address) g 


Reference E 1-8 E 

(Not rciinired of fiibscribers to the Klectrle Railway Journal or § 

members of A. I. K. E. or A, E. R. A. Books sent on approval to | 

retail customers In ihe U. S. only.) | 

................. ...__. — ........._« 



[January 6, 1917 

Packard Varnishes are the best the industry can pro- 
duce for armatures, field coils, transformer coils, etc. 

Twenty different varnishes for twenty different con- 
ditions and each one exactly adapted to its particu- 
lar purpose. 

Write for Special E. R. J. Varnish Bulletin — it contains valuable 
data on the use of Insulating Varnishes. 

Warren, Ohio, U. S. A. 


Rleotrk- Appliance Co., Cblcngo. Dallas. New Orleans iiiul San 
Francisco; Post Glover Electric Company. (Mncinnati, Oliio ; H. I. 
Sackott Bleitric Comiiany. Buffalo, N. Y. : Electric Service Supplier 
Co.. Plilladelphia. New York and Boston: Braid Klcctrlc Co.. X:i*sh. 
ville. Tenn. ; N. L. Walker, Kaleigh. N. C 

You Will Find 

that when the work is of the higli temijered tool 

steel variety a Vitiifled Alundum wheel 3836 to 3860 gr.iiii 

of the softer grades, say H to K, is the correct wheel for diis, 

small machine parts, tools, etc. 

Whether your battery of surface grinding machines i.s large or small you will di.scover that care- 
ful attention to the clioice of the right grinding wheel for each kind of work is (if vital importance to 
the eflftciency of each machine. As in the photograph above where a group of surfacing maciiines are 
shown, operators are constantly insisting that .\Uiiidum wheels are uniformly the heat. 


Worcester, Mass., U.S.A. 
Electric Furnai:e Plants 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. Chippawa. Ont., Car 

New York Store 
151 Chambers Street 

Chicago Store 
11 N. Jefferson Street 



January 6, 19171 



n^newable pUg^S 4 


Protect Cars and 
Pcwrer- plant 

Don't trust to your more 
limited facilities for refilling 
fuses. As fuse specialists, we 
furnish reliable and carefully 
tested Renewal Links all ready 
to insert in 

ECONOMY '•— •^»»»'' 



when they blow. These Links 
cost but a trifle and assure a 
complete break in the circuit at 
the required overload. 

There's no need to use an 
extra new fuse every time one 
blows when the efficient and 
safe Economy fuse can be re- 
newed over and over again 
with our tested Renewal Links 
at a saving of 80% of fuse 
maintenance expense under 
old-style, wasteful methods. 

Write now for Bulletin No. 17 and our catalog. 


Economy Fuse ^ Mfg. Co. 

Kinzie and Orleans St. 
Chicago. 111. 

epair Work safe with Yate Hoists 

Yale Hoist 

Suspended loads are dangerous. 
A complete knowledge of the 
causes of danger — and the 
remedy — has produced Yale 
Safety Hoists. 

Yale Steel Chain is made to meet 
the need for great strength, uni- 
formity and resistance to shock. 

Yale Steel Chain 
Yale Steel Vitals 
Yale Overload Test 

These are some of the safety 
features protecting every user of 
Yale Hoists. 

For sale by Machinery 
Supply Houses 

Put your h<>i>ting problems up to us 


For factory locking equipntent 

use a Yale Maatev'key System. 

Write us for particulars. 

The Yale & Towne 
Mfg. Co. 

9 East 40th Street 



[January 6, 1917 

When an overload 
hits the Circuit, 
something must go 

If it's the feeder — it melts. If 
it's a machine — it's destroyed. If 
it's a fuse — it blows. 

The burning out of 
a feeder or machine 
involves a consider- 
able loss, an interrup- 
tion of service, and a 
lot of trouble. The 
b 1 o w i n o of a fuse 
causes a negligible 
disturbance — but it 
saves the feeder and 
the machine. It is 
vitally important to 
use fuses that can be 
depended upon abso- 
lutely to blow when 
they should. 

"Noark" Fuses are famous for 
this element of dependability. 

Experimenting with fuses ap- 
plied to practical Central Station 
service is like playing with 
matches in a powder-mill. 

There's no "if" nor "but" con- 
nected with "Noark" Fuse serv- 
ice. When the critical overload 
comes they're on the job. 

Seroes more people in more ways than any 
other Institution af its ifciW in the world. 


in 54 

Large Cities 
.^ ^ 






and keep your motors 
or generators running 
silently and at maxi- 
mum efficiency. 

Commutator surfaces 
improve under the 
action of these 

I-osses by friction are 
thus minimized ; and 
sparking- and chatter- 
ing are avoided. 

Upkeep costs are de- 

Our electrical service 
department is at your 

* »l 

Write for 

Graphite Brush Booklet No. 108-M 

Made in JERSEY CITY, N. J., by the 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company 

Established 1827 ^^^ 


January 6, 1917 1 




Ticket Punches 

have been adopted 
as Standard on many 
of the leading elec- 
tric railways and 
steam roads in the 
United States and 
Foreign Countries. 

Send for Catalog 


124 Chambers St., New York 
Factory* Newark* N.J. 

^-v^ ©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© ^-v^ 

Auditing Expenses are Lower 

Because the complete record afforded by the 
Bonham Traffic Recorder needs no compilation 
or checking. It is ready to be placed on your 
company's books. 

BONHAM Traffic Recorders 

keep tab on the traffic while on the road. They 
do away with the need for elaborate computa- 
tions. When a Public Service Commission calls 
on you for data as to "Earnings per Passenger 
Mile," YOU HAVE THE FACTS— if your cars 
are BONHAM-Equipped. 

The Bonham Recorder not only records cash 
but it keeps tab on passenger-mileage — the unit 
needed in computing operating costs and 

Write for the Illustrated 

Book ^^ Earnings Per 

Passenger Mile.'" 


Hamilton, Ohio, U. S. A. 



[January 6, 1917 

For Car-Seating 

If you've been accustomed to thinking of leather as the best 
car-seat covering, remember that the only leather that is within 
your available price-range is "coated splits," the soft, porous 
inner layers of the hide. Such leather may look well for a short 
time, but it soon cracks and peels. 
These "coated splits ' are certainly too expensive to use 
when, at a less cost, you can upholster your car seats with 

FABRIKOID which will long outwear the coated splits, and 

will hold its good looks to the end. 

Fabrikoid samples will show you the striking difference — 
write for them. 

Du Pont Fabrikoid Company 

Du Pont Building 
Wilmington, Delaware 

Wendell & MacDuffie Campin/ 

Railroad Department Representatives 

61 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 

Tons for 

i »inrti I 

\'ork .slunicipal R^iilw: 

■T>1)L UI l-IB-^Wi«t««*^ 

Seating caijacily 78 to aO 

Weight (car body only), 

45,000 1b. 
Bolster centers, length. ... 47 ft. 
Length of body : 

Over vestibule. ..66 ft. 2Vi in. 
Width over .sills. . . .9 ft. 9 in. 

Over all 10 ft. 

Height, rail to side sills, 

3 ft. 14 in. 
Side sill to top of roof, 

9 ft. 1% in. 

Body Metal 

Interior trim. .Steel and Agasote 

Headlining Aga-sote 

Hoof, type Compromise 

Underframe Metal 

Air brakes Westinghouse 


Carnegie quenched and tempered 
iBumper.s . . . Hedley anti-climber 

"" ijv York Municipal Railway'.s^ 
"Ironzo ami 


Gears and' 

Hand brakes. 


Journal boxes. . . 

Motors, type and nuri 


Motors, outside or li] 



Sash fixtures . . 
Seats, style, 

Seating material. 

Step treads 

Trucks, type 

Ventilators. . .Perj 


Because Edwards fixtures are Best and 

Ronember to write "Edwards" opposite 
"Sash Fixtures" in your specifications. 


The O. M. Edwards Co., Inc. Syracuse, N. Y. 

Window Fixtures ^ 

Top, Bottom and Side Weather Stripping 
Metal top Casing* 

Metal Extension PlatfonnTrap Doors 
All-Metal Sash Balances and Shade Rollers 
Railway Devices 

January 6, 1917] 



Wire Costs More Than Wheels 

On most roads the cost of trolley wire for 
maintenance work alone averages several 
times the cost of all the trolley wheels on the 
system. On one road we know of this ratio 
is 7 to 1. 

One thing, and one only, is the cause of 
this rapid wear of trolley wire — the abrasive 
effect of the trolley wheels. 

Many of the most progressive roads in this 
country have found in Anderson Trolley 
Wheels a highly economical combination of 
long wheel life and minimum wear of trolley 
wire. You will, too, after you have tested 
them. Our nearest office is ready with 
prices and particulars. Write! 

Albert & J. M. Anderson Mfg. Co. 

289-293 A Street 


fEstablished 1877) 

New York, 135 Broadway 
Chicago, 105 So. Dearborn Street 
Philadelphia, 429 Real Estate Trust BIdg. 
London. E. C, 48 Milton Street 

Boston, Mass., U. S. A. 

For High Speed Operation 

— Large Diameter Kalamazoo 
Trolley Wheels 

" As a solution to arcing and short wheel life on high 
speed electric railway work, two new Kalamazoo 
Wheels have been designed. 

They are (No. 20) iij4 inches and (No. 21) 10 inches 
in diameter. An ample increase of width, depth of 
groove and length of hub insures a well-balanced wheel 
in each case. 

Tests covering considerable mileage at high speeds 
show that these two new "Kalamazoos" greatly decrease 
sparking, while offering longer wheel life. There is more 
bearing on the wire, with consequent greater contact and 
current carrying capacity. 

The patented Kalamazoo Harps have been enlarged to 
carry these wheels. 

Try several on your lines. Compare their service with 
that of smaller wheels. 

Write Today. 





[January 6, 1917 

Note the Oiling Feature 

The Hensley trolley wheel is cast in one piece, dispensing with the bushing. The 
hub bearing will outwear the rim. It is provided with a grease cavity with 
automatic feed so that the 

Hensley Trolley Wheel 

Needs Oiling But Twice a Week 

and requires but three seconds' work in doing it. The lubricant is fed to the 
bearing surface of the hub. The cavity is filled with lubricant through the end 
(if the spindle without either uncapping an orifice or removing the spindle wheel. 

Hensley Trolley Wheels & Harps 

are made in a factory devoted exclusively to these particular articles, enabling 
us to produce a thoroughly efficient product and at reasonable prices. 

Get the general catalog of the Hensley Line. Write now for it. 

Hensley Trolley & Mfg. Company 

Detroit, Mich. 

No. 7, Catcher 

No. 10, 8-Ib. Catcher 

No. 4-A, Retriever 

No. 5-A, 
(with emergency release) 


Represent the Highest Specialization and Reliability in Their Field j 



11 Broadway, New York 

TheJohnS.BlaclcGo. W. R. KerSChnCr Co., IllC. Brown &Han 

Eastern Sales Agents, 50 Church Street, New York 

v>( • !• rL/ ArvJLL York, pa. I 

New Orleans, La. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

January 6, 1917] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 101 

Steel for Service 

In an advertisement of a prominent gear maker it is to be noted 
that the rating in service of their "Case Hardened Forged Steel" gears 
is given at 500, as against their Standard Cast Steel Gears with a 
rating of 100, and that they guarantee the life of the former to the 
latter in service will be in that proportion. 

The forged steel gears mentioned are cut from 

Carnegie-Slick Rolled Steel 

Gear Blanks 

Ask any district office for pamphlet — Rolled Steel Gear Blanks 
and Miscellaneous Circular Sections. 

Carnegie Steel Company 

General Offices: Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Drawn Steel Seamless 



and Rivetless Cases 



Compared with Malleable j^^k 

Iron Cases Average a Saving ^^^^K 

of 40% in Weight ^^R 


The cost of hauling^ each ^IHIi 


pound of car weight is 5 h|| 


cents per year. ^^H 


P^ ^y 

Why haul unnecessary ^^Pl 

weight? Ma ^^ 


THAYER & COMPANY, INC., f^tsJ'^:^ 





[January G, 1917 

Less Weight — and Less Trouble— in 

MB Resistors 

The drazvn grids are 
much lighter than the 
cast grids used in ordi- 
nary resistors. They 
are never brittle, always 
uniform in cross-section, 
never strained by expan- 
sion and contraction due 
to rapid heating and 
cooling. They resist rust 
and corrosion better than 
cast grids. 

And there are only 
about one-twenty-fifth as 
many joints as in re- 
sistors using cast grids. 
Our data sheet is in- 


50 Church Street, New York 

Western Etectric 


Flood Lamps 


for ruction 

work — wherever lijfht is needed at night. 

light I hat I urn; 
iiiijli! into (l;iv 

II can Im- (lif-^ 
fused over large 
ar<>as ()\- prt>je<-ted 
in single hearn. 

ley v\\\\ lie used iin\ where no are \<\\\\\) trimming no 
rm.inent wiring write today iw t)iir [""older l-'Iy-IT. 

Western Etectrk Company 


;&t<: KAi- City 


January 6, 1917] 



You are assured 




For Street and Interurban Railways 


Chicago Detroit Denver Boston St. Paul Tacoma 

Los Angeles Kansas City 

Main Office: McCormick Building, Chicago, 111. 




[January 6, 1917 

The Border Line Between Success and Failure 

in Electric Railroading 

often lies in the length and capacity of your cars. 

Cars too big mean lower platform cost but long headways and decreased 

Cars too short mean high platform cost and short headways, but not enough 
extra business to warrant their use. 

Philadelphia Radial Trucks 

Permit the Happy Medium in Car Capacity 

for a great many situations. 
They are longer and easier 
riding than the rigid single- 
truck car, and yet are not 
too big to cause unprofit- 
able service during oflf-peak 

Philadelphia Holding Company, 505 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 




12 Facts regarding "Taylor-made" Trucks 









Established 1892 


TROY, N. Y. 


January 6, 1917] 



THIS picture of a Car Rider's Car — 
with the roof and part of the side omit- 
ted — shows how passengers can flock 
aboard at a transfer point, because there is 
no fare collecting at or near the entrance to 
hold them up. And while passengers arc 
entering at the front others are leaving at the 
side — there can be no conflicting movement. 

The conductor collects fares as passengers 
pass him at the center of the car either on 
r- leaving (from the front section) or on going 
to the rear. The conductor operates slid- 
ing doors at the exit and the motorman oper- 
ates folding doors and step at the entrance. 
Very complete information on all particulars 
will be sent on request. 

PETER WITT, 630 Leader Building, CLEVELAND 

To meet the requirements of its high class service — 

The London & Port Stanley Railway 


Jewett Steel Cars 

one of which is shown above. 
They are decidedly "cars of character." 
Let us figure on your new requirement. 

THE JEWETT CAR CO., Newark, Ohio 



[January 6, 1917 

Quick Shipmenta 

from our 
Minneapolis Yard 


Western "Good PolcS Quick" Northern 

Rooms 832-834, 72 West Adams St., Chicago, IlL 
Spokane - St. Louis 

Butt Treating 

Open Tank and 

'Hot and Cold'* Process* 





Address all communications to Office, Galveston. Texas 

Works : Beaumont, Texas Texarkana, Texas 









We use C-A- Wood -Preserver in Treating 

The Valentine-Clark Co. 

General Office: Minneapolis, Minn. 

Toledo, Ohio; Chicago, 111.; Kansas City, Mo.; St. Maries, Idaho. 

MARSH & MCT FTSTNT AN ^^^^ insurance 

-'-^■■-*- ^-A-Vk-FX X %.^ J.TX X-/X-/X -1 J. -^ X XX -1 spgjiai Attention Given to Traclion Insurance 

Insurance Exchange, CHICAGO 

19 Cedar St. 

1615 California St. 

314 Superior St. 

300 Nicollet Ave. 

Ford Bldg. 

17 St. John St. 

23 Leadenhall 


The Celebrated 



Patentees and 
Sole Manufacturers 


Correspondence Solicited 

It meets every 

Qrade-One Liquid 

(gl?(3©0©te (oH 




Write for booklet 

""* <^Bja^Comi>ary 

Branches in Principal Cities 



Fibre Track Insulation 


Klsraere, Pel. Brldeeport, Penna. Chicago, III. 

Ramapo iron Works 

Main Office, Hillburn, N. Y. 

New York Office: 30 Church St. 

Automatic Switch Stands, 
T-Rail Special Worlt, 
Manganese Construction, 
Crossings, Sr/itches, Etc. 




We brag about the SERVICE we give 


E, B. BRANDE, Manager M. P. FLANNERY, Manager 

819 Broad Street, Grinnell, la. Spokane, Wash. 

WM. MULLER & CO.. 1729 McComiick Bldg., Chicago. 

Commit us to memory 





52 Vanderbllt Avenue, New York Monadnock Block, Chicago 

118-130 New Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal. 


for all classes of electrical construction and repair 
work. Write for catalog. 

Mathias Klein & Sons c-J^-^- Chicago^ 

January 6, 1917] 



Permanent Overhead 

If you find it necessary to rebuild your 
interurban overhead construction on 
account of the decay of your wooden 
poles, write us and we will give you an 
estimate as to what permanent recon- 
struction would cost you. 

Archbold -Brady Company 

Engineers and Contractors 
Syracuse, N. Y. 






ib^ aM 

-^ ■** 






Bates Steel Poles in use by the DES MOINES CITY RAILWAY. 
Dea Moines, Iowa. U. S. A. 

Strongest STEEL POLE of like weight in the world. 

Best STEEL POLE in the world for electric railway 

trolley service. 

Most artistic STEEL POLE in the world for any 


We make the lowest prices. 

We have constantly on hand about two thousand tons 

of steel and can make immediate shipments. 

A full line of convenient malleable fittings. 

Our steel pole TREATISE tells a big story, ask for it. 


208 South La Salle St., Chicago, 111., U. S. A. 

Change itKName-Chan^e *"lelepIione]>famher-Chan^ei^<idress 




Vict P^tSiOEMT 







—?7 PHONES \ 

^ 616V. Jackson Boulevard^ 6 484 X^CKica^o . U. S . A. ^ 


An Assurance of Uninterrupted Service 

is best secured by a careful selection of the transmission 
line insulators. It is here that breakdowns are most hkely 
to occur. 

Hemingray Insulators 

by reason of their contimied use on important transmission 
lines have demonstrated the soundness of Hemingray de- 
sign. The teats on the petticoat attract water on the outer 
and inner surfaces into drops— preventing the creeping of 
moisture on insulators and pins. The line is complete and 
the catalog shows it. Have you a copy? 

Hemingray Glass Company 

Established 1848 1 „ . ^_ „., 
Incorporated 1870 / Covmgton, Ky. 


No. 20—5000 Voiti 



[January 6, 1917 

Duquesne Light Co. Laying 11,000-volt Sub-Marine 
Cables, made by Standard Underground Cable Co., 
Across Ohio River at Pittsburgh. 

At Your Service 

It is a simple phrase, yet today forms the basis oi 
all permanent and successful business. The above in- 
stallation was made in the interest of better service. 

Standard Light and Power Cables 

were installed because this customer had experienced 
their dependability, both as to materials and delivery, 
in many previous installations. 

Standard service means not only ivillingness but also 
an exceptional ability to supply you with any quantity 
of electric wires and cables of all kinds and sizes, also 
cable accessories, etc. 

A request for prices or other information will receive 
immediate attention. IVrite today. 

Standard Underground Cable Co. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

New Torlc Philadelphia 

Boston San Francisco 

and other principal cities 
For Canada 
Standard Underground Cable Co., of Canada, 
Hamilton, Ont. 


St. Louis 



Red Cross 





WITH the arrival of 
winter days railway 
work can be economic- 
ally and effectually done 

Thawing explosives with 
the attending dangers to 
life and property is 
rarely necessary when 
Red Cross Low Freezing 
Explosives are used ex- 

Efficiency, economy, 
greater safety and ex- 
tended working seasons 
are the desirable results 
secured bv the adoption 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

Powder Makers Since 1802 

Wilmington, Delaware 



Another year added to the 



Make Splices Easy to Open Up, Too 

All you need is a wrench to open up a splice or make 
it up again, if you use 


Wonderfully simple; Mechanically and electrically strong. 
Withstand big overloads. Get our booklet. 

177-179 Hudson 
St., New York 



Sales Rooms I 
733-735 Broadway 
New York 

On Ball, Web or Base— It's All 
One to the Lincoln System 

— equally adapted for all these methods of bonding. 

The electric arc blends the copper of the bond 
and the steel of the rail into one structure, without 
in the least affecting the crystalline structure of 
the rail. 

We want an opportunity to show you how to 
save from 20 to 50 cents on every bond you install. 


636 Huron Rd. 


Agents: Lewis & Roth Company, 312 Denckla Bldg., Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; Charles N. Wood Company, r9 Milk St., Boston, Mass. 

January 6, 1917] 









ail Konds 


United States 
T^v^in Terminal 

American Steel & Wire GompanF 

CUoa«o New York Cleireliind PitiBburth Worcester Denver 

Export Representative : U. S. Steel Products Co., New York 

Pacific Coast Representative : U. S. Steel ProducU Co. 

San Francisco Los AnKeles Portlanij Seattle 







are not affected by severe rainstorms — 

«ulTerta which we purchased of you In 1908 have elven ub 
excellent eatlofactlont eBpeclally one of the large ones 
which has had a severe teat owing to lt.8 peculiar location 
and to a very heavy ralnfall'of 3 1/2 Inches which oaoie,ln ae 
teany hours. The country people went to see the ruin which 
thoy had predicted fron euch a sudden rainfall only to find 
that ©verythlnc 'as In perfect order. We can cheerfully 
recoi'npiend the uae of your naterlal to all railroad Imilderfl* 

— and resist Corrosion 
because iV»;^;;^::.:.';i«';^>i is used 

Shipped Set-up or knocked 
down. Write for Catalog G-3 

The ©NTON CuLVER^sSiLoG>^ 


(Jwnton.Ohio. U.S. A. 

New York Switch and Crossing Co. 

Hoboken, N. J. 

Special Track Work 

Manganese Steel and Hard Center Frogs 
Switches Mates Crossings 




Kilby Frog & Switch Co. 


Tongue Switches, Mates, Frogs, Curves and 
Special Work of all kinds for Street Railways. 

The Rail Joint Company 

61 Broadway, New York City 

100% Rail Joint 

Makers of Continuous, Weber, Wolhaupter and 

ioo% Rail Joints 
Standard — Insulated — Step — Frog and Switch Types 
Protected by Patents 
Grand Prize, San Francisco, 1915 4 



IJanuary 6, 1917 

Continuous Operation 

of the 

Power Plant 

is a matter of extreme importance to the electric 
railway man. There must be no failure to supply 
the current when it is needed. 

The constant use of Dearborn Treatment guar- 
antees a high percentage of efficiency from the 
boilers. Made to suit the water conditions shown 
by analysis, it keeps the boilers free from scale, 
so that they steam freely and quickly, all cor- 
rosive or pitting action of the water is arrested, 
and, in fact, the boilers are in condition to yield 
their full quota of power constantly, while the 
fuel consumption is greatly reduced. 

Send gallon of water for analysis, and let us 
advise regarding your plant requirements. 

Dearborn Chemical Company 

McCortnick Building, Chicago 


For Protection Always 

But we have made 






The most popular 


because they carry 




The Babcock & Wilcox Company 

85 Liberty Street, New York 


Steam Superheaters 

Mechanical Stokers 


ATLANTA, Candler Building. 
BOSTON, 35 Federal St, 
CHICAGO, Marquette Building. 
CINCINNATI, Traction Building. 
CLEVELAND. New England Building. 
DENVER. 435 Seventeentli St. 


HAVANA, CUBA, Salle de Aguiar 104. 
HOUSTON, TEX., Southern Pacific Bldg. 
LOS ANGELES, I. N. Van Nuys Bldg. 
NEW ORLEANS, 533 Baronne St. 
PHILADELPHIA, North American Building. 
PITTSIU'RGH, Farmers' Depo.^it Bank Bldg, 

SALT LAKE CITY, 705-6 Kearna Bldf. 

SAN FRANCISCO, Sheldon Bldg. 

SAN TUAN, Porto Rico, Royal Bank Bldg. 

SEATTLE, Mutual Life Building. 

TUCSON, ARIZONA, Santa Rita Hotel Bldg, 


For Water Tube and Tubular Boileri 

East Chicago, Indiana 

Bulletin No. 1 — Green Chain Grate Stokers 
Bulletin No. 2 — Geco Steam Jet Ash Oonveyors 

DAISES the possibil- 
ity of efficient stok- 
ing to a maximum. 
Write for catalog "C." 

Datroit. iMich. TV I 


Railroad and Tram Car Specialties 

New inventions developed, perfected 
and worked for the English market • 

Wessrs. G. D. Peters & Co., Ltd. 

Moorgate Works, Moorfields, LONDON, E. C. 








January 6, 1917J 



Anchor Webbing Co. 

MIU & Office, Woonsocket, R. I. 

Reprc'NentatlvoM; Chicago — E 
St. Louis— Brown & Hall. 620 Cell 

Oliiu — l:. S. .Muell.-i, 4:j:! Iligli .\ve. 

Tapes and Webbings 

are produced accord- 
ing to the specifica- 
tions laid down by 
Railway Motor Man- 
ufacturers. Popular 
with manufacturers 
of motors l)ecause al- 
ways right a.s to width 
and thickness of 
material, breaking 
strength, yarns, warp 
ends, and other stand- 
ard requirements. The 
prices and material in- 
variably satisfactory. 

p. Bartlett. 13B8 Grand Ave. 
tral Nat. Bk. BIdg. Cleveland, 
S. E. 

Full Power with ^^^V 
High orLowerAdjustment ^^VH ^ 

Many emergencies requiring a ■ ~^^^^F ^^^ 
powerful jack present a difli- ^B ^^^^^^ ^^m 
culty in bringing the jack to bear ^| ^^^^^^^ ^^m 
on the load. The M l^^^^B^V 

Buckeye Emergency ■ ^^^^^^ 
Jack No. 239 Special ■ I^^H 

saves time, strength and trouble. ^| ^^^^^^T 
The many positions to which it is ^^ V^^^F 
adjustable easily solve perplex- J^ft ^^^H 
ing iifting problems. Full de- fl^^H^B ^^^A 
tails in our catalog. Write for it. ^^^^^^B ^^^A ^ 

The Buckeye ^ ..^fllBfe 
Jack Mfg. Co. jfjB^^ | 

Alliance, Ohio 


Circuit Breakers 

Best in 

Design, Construction, Material 


Heavy Railway Service 

Write for Hand Book of the I-T-E Circuit 

Breaker which contains Circuit Breaker data for 

every Service 

The Cutter Company 

8507 Philadelphia 


Steel and Wood 
Rolling Doors 

For Car Houses and Power Houses 

Write for new Catalog "M" and Booklet 
"Car House Doors." 

The Kinnear Mfg.Co.,Ccluinbu8,0. 

Boston Philadelphia Chicago 

Armature and Field Coils — Armatures Rewound 



Prompt Service 





Vf&veri Fabric Co 
Walpola. /I a*r. 


Insulating Varnishes 
and Compounds 


Clear and Black Air Drying Insulating TirnlshM 

Clear and Black Baking Insulating VarniBhes 

on Proof Finishing Varnishes 

Impregnating Compounda 

Wire Enamels 


InquIrlf'S InTited. Catalogue on request. 
We gladlj assist In selection. 


Manchester, England 



[January 6, 1917 

For All Electrical Service Use 
P & B Varnishes, Insulating 
Compound, and Weatherproof 
Insulating Tape 

There's thirty-two years of experience be- 
hind products bearing the P & B trade mark. 

Write for booklets describing P & B 
products for electric railways 

The Standard Paint Company 

Woolworth Building, New York 
Boston ' Chlcafto Denver 

If it's a Tape or Webbing You Want 
—Put it up to US 

No matter what kind of electri- 
cal tape or webbing you need, 
we make it — in all weights, 
widths and textures. Get the 
Hope Sample Book and solve 
your webbing problems. 


396 Broadway, New York. 

Consumers* Rubber Co., 

829 Superior Ave. N. W., Cleveland 

Belden Mfg. Co. 

23d St. and Western Ave., Chicago 

T. C. White Co., 

71891 1124 Pine St., St. Louis. 4 


The Acetylene Blow Torch 


Quicker and cheaper 
than a gasoline blow-torch 
for brazing and soldering 

For factories, repair shops, linemen, dentists. 
Jewelers, the Prest-O-Torch saves time and 
money. Used with Prest-O-Lite Tanks — 
ready made gas. Intense, concentrated 
flame Instantly lighted. No depreciation, 
safe and convenient. Style "A," price, 75c (Can- 
ada, 85c) will braze up to % inch round rod. Style 
"C" for heavier work, $2.25 (Canada, $2.75). Special 
styles for dentists. Write for literature or send 
order now. Money refunded if not satisfied. 

The Prest-0-UteCo.,i„c. m^dTanllfolt'^L. 

Canadian Main Office and Factory, Merrltton, Ont. 

The Solution of Your Insulation Problem 

is to be found in the insulating materials listed here, or in some one or more ^^^^^i^//y 

of the many other products of our plant. To take fullest advantage of the ■J||^a |k|| 
insulation service we offer, you should know the complete line. ITl * nui^^ 

JVrite today for descriptive bulletins. ^" 





Commutator Insulators, Linseed oil treated Cam- 
Tubes, Washers, Rings, brie. Linen. Silk, Canva^;. 
Segments, Sheets, Tapes, Ducli and Papers. High 
etc., made of imported mica puncture voltage, long life. 

New York 
68 etiurch St. 

Linseed oil coated tape Black varnished Cambric. Untreated insnlatiuje fab- 

both straight and bias cut Linen, Silk, Canvas, Duck rics. Papers. Fibres, Linen 

for coil winding, cable & Papers. Flexible, efficient Tapes, Sleeves, Shellacs, 

splicing, bus bars, etc. under high temperature. Cements and Yarnisbes. 


542 So. Dearborn St. 

Cameron Commutators 
Command Confidence. Why? 

Because of the dense, high conductivity 
hard -drawn copper we put Into the 

Because of the best-there-is quality of 
high grade Canadian amber mica we 
use in insdlating the segments. 
Because of years of specialized, 
commutator-building experience that 

makes our workmen experts In their 

Because of the Cameron ideal of qual- 
ity — and the painstaking inspection 
that guarantees it in every job we 
turn out. 

Specify CAMERON for commutators, 
segments or coll*. 

Cameron Electrical Mfg. Co. 

Ansonia, Connecticut 

January 6, 1917] 




A much abused word that 
we interpret successfully. 

We believe that "90% of all 
orders shipped same day 
received" is a good defini- 

Try us on that requisition 


Electrical Headquarters 
Terminal Warehouses Pittsburgh, Pa. 

ENCLOSED A fuse is a small 
FHSFS article when com- 

pared with the 
apparatus it protects, but on its 
performance depends the safety 
of this apparatus. The impor- 
tance of reliable fuses is evident. 
"Union" fuses will give you good 


61111 < > 3D 




Box catalogs. 

We have just is- 
sued our No. 28 
catalog, which 
combines the 
former Fuse and 
It contains much 
valuable reference information, 
also complete descriptions of 
fuses for railway service. 

Write for a copy. 


Get Our 
Price Lists on 




Saved from the Ashes as many tickets sre, means 
nickels lost to you. Avoid the risk. 
Patten I'icket Destroyer is used right in the 
office under the eyes of trustworthy employea. 
It mutilates beyond redemption. 
Scrap sold will pay for the machines. 
Ask us for Circular J. 
78 Lafayette St., Salem, Maaa., U. S. A. 

Heating and ventilating your cars is the problem to- 
day. Let us show you how to do both with one equip- 
ment. Now is the time to consider this change before 
you start your cars through the shops <for overhauling. 
Kill two birds with one stone. 


1759 Mt. Elliott Ave., Detroit, Mich. 


Sole Manufacturers 

"Honeycomb" and "Round Jet" Ventilators 

for Monitor and Arch Roof Cars, and all classea of bDlldings; also 

Electric Ttaermometer Control 

of Car Teiiiperatnrea. 
721 W. FULTON SX. Wriufor 132S BROADWAY 
ChlcaQO, 111. Catalogue N cw Yoplt, IM.Y. 

The Best Shade Rollers for Cars 

SPBCIAL shade rollers for cars, that will last and give satlifac- 
tloD for years, and yt-t cost but little more than the poorest 
you can buy. are made by the Stewart Hartshorn Co., E. Newark, 
N. J. Tills company la by far the largest shade roller manufacturer 
In the world. It Is able to give high quality at lower prices because 
of the enormou-s output. Write for catiilog, stating wants. T>u are 
always protected when 
you buy shade rollers 
If they bear the signature 




[January 6, 1917 

McLain No. 25 Headlight 

is the lightest-weight headlight made — right in line with the latest prac- 
tice of reducing weight of cars and car equipment 

It is not only light, but strong, weather-proof and a surprisingly 
powerful illuminator. 

Test it in comparison with any other headlight on the market and learn 
for yourself its points of superiority. 


The Trolley Supply Co., Canton, Ohio 

Johnson Registering 
Fare Boxes 

used in connection with the 
car register increase receipts 
$1.00 per car, per day, counts 
metal tickets the same as cash 
thus giving a positive check 
on all class of fares. 



Jttckson Blvd. & Robey St. 
Chicago* III. 

U. S. Metal & Manufacturing Co. 
165 Broadway, New York City, N.Y. 

Our forty years of suc- 
cessful punch making are 
well demonstrated in the 
perfection of our product, 
which is Standard through- 
out the world. 

These punches prove the 
most efficient, because they 
operate quickest and easi- 
est, and the most eco- 
nomical because they wear 

Let us show you WHY. 

Punchmakers since *72. 

R. Woodman Mfg. & 
Supply Co. 

82 Sudbury St., Boston, 


E. G. Long Co., 50 Church St., New York City 

Eastern Electrical and Export Representatives. 


on your cars and station steps. 
Universal Safety Tread Company 

Waltham, Mass. 

Sse tha Crank of tha 


By means of it, conductor or motorman 
can change sign without leaving platform. 
All that has to be done is to turn the 
crank. Better investigate. 


Fare Boxes 

Cleveland Fare Box Co. 

5318 St. Clair Avenue 
Cleveland, Ohio 



stallation and Maintenance Charge. 

VENTILATORS Also Ventilate in 

Stormy Weather. 

THERMOSTATS Save Current. 

OR IG INATED the use of NON- 
CORROSIVE Wire for Electric 
Car Heaters. 

^^^^^^^^^_^^^^^^^ Coil Support. 


Gold Car Heating & Lighting Co., 17 Battery PL, New York 

MASOir SAFETY TREADS— prevent slipping and thm obTlate 
damage suits. 

KARBOLITH CAR FI,OORIBIG— for »teel cars Is lanltarr, 
flrepmot and light In weight ' 

STANWOOU STEPS— are non-sllpplng and self-cleaning. 

Above products are used on all leading Railroads. For details address 
Main Offices : Branch Offices: Boston, New Tork City, Chicago 

Lowell, Mass. Philadelphia, Kansas City, CleTehind, St. Louis. 

Have you our new 

Trolley Wheel Bulletin 

Write for your copy 
The Eureka Company North East, Pa. 

January 6, 1917] 



No Chance for 
Deceit or Dispute 

Due to hand punching or notching which 
puzzles the passenger or which can be read 
different ways. 

Macdonald Ticket Boxes 

Produce a passenger's ticket and auditor's 
stub which tell exactly the same story to the 
passenger, the conductor and the auditor. 

And the stubs are tamperproof, too. 

Convince yourself by ordering one box ! 

The Macdonald Ticket & Ticket Box Co. 

Cleveland, Ohio 



ter first making most thorough tests und 
11 conditions. Such tests have shown th 
t will cut lubrication costs in half. 


Ventilation— Sanitation— Economy— Safety 

All Combing Int 


PttUnted SepUmbtr 30, 1»13. Atk for t/ie full tttry. 

We Also Manufacture Pressed Steel Hot Water Heaters 

The Eclipse Railway Supply Co. 

Manufacturers of the 




TheDoof^ Are Glosi^- 
>^6 AhedM^ 




0tC22 isoe 
«"Lieo roe 

— And the Motorman Gets It 


Consolidated Safety Starting System 

When this little light alongside the controller 
flashes, he is sure that all doors have been closed, 
and that no passenger can be getting on or off 
when the car is started. 

.Ask the claim agent — he knows. 

Consolidated Car-Heating Co. 

New York Albany Chicago 



Renewable Fuses 

Really renewable. Not the kind that waste 
more time filling than new fuses are worth, 
but the kind that save 60 to 80 per cent on 
cost of non-renewable cartridge fuses. The 
right kind. 

Send for sample and literature. 


Sole Manufacturers, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Makers o( tha First Suooassful Rsflliabis Fuse on the Market. 
Members Society for Electrical Development 

THE readers of technical papers are 
busy men. Don't expect one 
flash of the SearchHght to reveal 
them all — or one insertion of your ad- 
vertisement to be read by them all. 
Order your Want or For Sale Adver- 
tisement published four times or more. 
If all of the insertions are not needed 
we will return the full amount re- 
ceived for whatever space is not used. 
Searchlight Department, 




[January 6, 1917 


You get more than simply 
BRAKE SHOES when you use 
our Product. 

You get the advantage of our 
constant effort to improve our 
product for your service. 

You get the earnest co-opera- 
tion of our engineers to assist 
you in getting the full quota of 
service from each Brake Shoe 

Miles of service from the 
Brake Shoe are more to be de- 
sired than pounds of scrap. 

All of which means increased 
efficiency and decreased cost of 
Brake Maintenance. 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry Co. 

30 Church St., New York 

McConnick BIdg., Chicago Chattanooga, Tenn. 




M. C. B. Pressed Steel Journal Box Litfa 

General Office: First Nat'l Bank BIdg. 


Works: New Kensington, Pa. 

50 Church St., New York. 1204 Fisher BIdg., Chicago, III 
Missouri Trust BIdg., St. Louis, Mo. 


is preventable with denatured alcohol injection into 
the air brake system. 

If you have been encountering serious troubles 
from this cause, do not permit this winter to go 
by without testing out our 



National Safety Device & Mfg. Co. 

2415 Smalley Court, Chicago, III. 

Eastern Electric Railway Agent 

The Men Who Plan 
and Execute 

owe some of their efficiency to 
the thought, energy and re- 
sourcefulness of manufacturers 
who supply the means for such 

These men know how impor- 
tant it is for them to keep in 
touch with the manufacturers. 

In the electric railway in- 
dustry, such men find the easy, 
certain and thorough way to 
keep in touch with manufac- 
turers is through the advertis- 
ing pages of the 

Electric Railway Journal 

239 West 39th Street New York 


For Brake Gear 





E.G.Xong Coamnsmg 

50 Church Street New York 

Wheel Condition No. 2 

When the Flange 
and outer portion 
of tread need tru- 
ing use this style 

Pat. May 31, 1898; Sept. 
1. 1903; Aug. 2, 1904; Dec. 
29, 1908; June IS, 1909; April 21, 1914. 

Wheel Truing Brake Shoe 

You need not keep a crew of men for wheel removal and ma- 
chines for wheel truing if you use our wheel Truing Shoes. 

Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Co. 

Detroit Mlcblgan 

January 6, 1917] 



The engineering departments of these railways 
made a thorough investigation — then selected 

Foster Superheaters 

— and most of these companies have supplemented their first deci- 
sion with repeat orders. 

Berkshire Street Railway Company 
Bay State Street Railway Company 
The Connecticut Company 
Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus 

Railway Co. 
Charleston Consolidated Railway & 

Lighting Co. 
The Cleveland Railways Company 
El Paso Electric Railway Company 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern 

Railway. Co. 
Gale.sburK Railway, Light & Power 

Havana Electric Railway, Light & 

Power Company 
Iowa Railway & Light Company 
Illinois Traction Company 
Ithaca Traction Corporation 
.lamestown Street Railway Company 

Kentucky Traction and Terminal Com- 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Rail- 
way Co. 

Mesaba Railway Company. 

Metropolitan Street Railway Company 
(Kansas City, Mo.) 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 

New York, New Haven & Hartford 
R. R. Company 

Philadelphia & Western Railway Co. 

Philadelphia & West Chester Traction 

The Rhode Island Company , 

Rome Railway & Light Company ' 

Republic Railway & Light Company 
Reading Transit & Light Company 
Rochester Railways and Light Co. 
Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. 
Shore Line Electric Railway Co. 
Terre Haute Traction & Light Com- 
Toledo Railways & Light Company 
Virginia Railway & Power Company 
Wisconsin Traction, Light, Heat & 

Power Co. 
Worcester Consolidated Street RaHwa> 

Winnipeg Electric Railway Co. 
^ Wilmi;igton & Philadelphia Traction Co 
Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern 
Railway Co. 

Low repair costs, constcint service and uniform superhe?t,t — that's why. 
It will pay your engineering department t.o investigate, top, . 



111 Broadway, NEW YORK 

Philadelphia Pittsburg Chicago San Francisco 

The St. Louis 
Car Company 


8000 N. Broadway 
St. Louis 









rJANUARY 6, 1917 



400 Kilowatt 60 Cycle Rotary Converter 

1—490 KW. Westinghouse, 3 ph., 60 cy.. 370 v. A. C. 575 
V. D. C, speed 600 revolutions. 

200 Kilowatt 60 Cycle Rotary Converters 

2 — 200 KW. Westinghouse, 3 ph., 60 cy. rotary converters, 
370 V. A. C, 575 v. D. C, 720 rpm., with starting motors, 
also transformers If desired. 

150 Kilowatt 60 Cycle Rotary Converters 

2 — 150 KW. Westinghouse 3 phase, 60 cycle rotary con- 
verters, 550 volts, 273 amps., 720 r.p.m., complete with 
4 — 100 KW. Westinghouse Scott connected oil Insulated 
transformers, 10,000/9500 volts prim., 430/362 volts secy. 

150 Kilowatt 25 Cycle Rotary Converters 

J— 15t) KW. General Electric type T. C, 4-150-750, 25 
cycle, 3 phase, 675 volt, rotary converters, 750 r.p.m., 
complete with end play and speed limit device. 


3—185 KVA. Gen. Elec, type A. C, 85 or 60 cycles, 2300 
volts primary, 430 volts secondary. 

4 — 125 KW. Westinghouse transformers, single phase, 60 
cycles, 15,000 volts primary, 340/360 v. secondary. 

4 — 100 KW. Westinghouse transformers, oil insulated, sin- 
gle ph., 60 cy., 2300 v. primary, 360 v. secondary. 

4 — 100 KW. Westinghouse, oil Insulated, Scott connected 
transformers, 10,000/9500 v. primary, 430/362 v. second- 

3 — 75 KW. Westinghouse, oil insulated. 60 cycle, 6600 or 
13,200 V. primary, 220 v. secondary. 

Railway Motors 

I — 75 to 90 HP. Westinghouse No. 112 Railway Motors, 
newly rewound, practically new. 


114-118 Liberty Street New York City 



Will pay cash for any or all of the follow- 
ing apparatus intended for reinstallation : Two 
watertube boilers 350 to 400 H.P. each, 160 
lbs. or better working pressure, two individual 
steel stacks or single stack for both boilers. 
One 25 KW motor driven exciter and one 50 
KW steam driven exciter, feed water heater, 
pumps, piping, etc. Give price, location and 
complete description. No dealers. 

Address: Box 1.310, Elec. Ry. Journ. 





Write for Price and Full Particulars to IQ 


Conunonwealtli BUg. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 

86 Ton 
Electric Locomotive 

Built by The General Electric Co. 

Rating 808-E-172-4GE94-600 V. 

Dimensions and Weights: 

Length inside l<nuckles 35' 2" 

Length over cab 32' 6" 

Height over cab 12' 1" 

Wldth over all 10' 1" 

Total wheel base 29' 0" 

Rigid wheel base 12' 0" 

Track gauge 4' S'/a" 

Total weight 172,500 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 117,200lbs. 

Maximum safe speed 60 MPH. 

Minimum radius curvature 150ft. 

Four G.E.-94 bipolar gearless motors with type'M 
multiple unit control; combined straight and auto- 
matic air brake; two 16" electric headlights: air 
operated bell; whistle; pneumatic sanders, etc. 


Control equipment is arranged for three economi- 
cal running speeds; slow for switching service, 
medium for freight service and high speed for fast 
freight and passenger service. 

MacGovern and Company, Inc. 

114 Liberty Street 

New York City 

Advertisements for the 

SearcHli^Kt Section 

Can be received at the New 

York OflSce of the Electric 

Railway Journal until 


For Issue of That Week 




Amarloa's Crcatast Rapair Works 



Get Your Wants into the Searchlight 

January 6, 1917] 



Cet uoUA ^qmU iyxid ttvt Sc^^i^^u^^M^ 

Under 'Tositions Wanted," including Salesmen 
looking for new connections. Evening Work 
Wanted, etc, undisplayed advertisements cost 
tiree cent> a word, minimum charge 50 cents an 
insertion, payable in advance. 
Under " Positions Vacant." including Agents 
and Agencies Wanted. Representatives Wanted. 
Salesmen Wanted, Partners Wanted. Business 
Opportunities. Employment Agencies, and 
Miscellaneous For Sale, For Rent, and Want 
ads; also Auction Notices, Receivers' Sales, 


Machinery and Plants For Sale or Wanted, 

undisplayed advertisements set solid in one 

paragraph, cost five cents a ward, minimum 

charge $1.50 an insertion. 

Machinery adrertisemenls (undisplayed) set 

with a paragraph for each item, or tabulated, 

30 cents a line, minimum 5 Unes. 

If replies are in care of any of our offices, allow 

live words for the address. 

All advertisements for bids (Proposals) cost 

$2.40 an inch. 


cost as follows for single insertions: 

Ap.(lHi3Hij») J5.00 1m.(I«2Ain5.) $3.00 

Hp.(2Mi3Jiim.) 10 00 4inche3(4i2Ain>.).. 11.60 

Jip.(5x3Hor2Mx7im.) 20.00 8inche>(8x2Ain..).. 22.40 

J^p.('OKi3J^OT5i7im.)....40.00 ISinchw 40.50 

For space to be used within one year, to be divided to 
suit requirements of advertiser, provided some space is 
used at lesist once a month following first insertion: 

I page $80 a page 

3 pages 72 a page 

6 pages 64 a page 

9 pages 62 a page 

12 pages 58 a page 

18 pages $56 a page 

26 pages 52 a page 

32 pages 50 a page 

40 pages 48a page 

32 pages 45 a page 

In replying to adyertlscments, do NOT enclose original testimonials, or anything that you may want returned. 
State your qualifications i n as concise and neat a manner as you can and enclose COPIES of testimonials. 
In machinery ads. use a local name or address if possible so that readers can wire direct and get quick replies. 


Armature Coils 

3 Sets GE-1200 Railwray Motor Armature 
coils. Catalog No. 18069. Immediate 
shipment. It interested address Hagers- 
town & Frederick Ry. Co., Terminal 
Bldg.. Frederick, Md. 

Immediate Delivery 

Boiler feed pump, capacity 75 gal. per 
minute, aeainst a .500-£t. head at 3200 
r.p.m. Dayton Turbine pump, direct con- 
nected to Kerr steam turbine. Mesaba 
Railway Co., Virginia, Minn. 

No 18. Dorner Trucks 

Prefer to sell frames only without wheels 
or axles at $50. Good condition. Ad- 
dress U. T. Co. of Indiana, Anderson, 

Stock Taking Time 

Now is the time to turn the surplus stock 
of inetala you have on hand into cash. 
We buy all grades of scrap metals, 
small lots as well as large lots. Write 
us today and tell ua what you have and 
we will be pleased to quote you prices. 
National Metal & Rubber Company, 
30-31 India Wharf, Boston, Mass. 


Armature Coil Taping 

Saves Time, Labor and Money 

A boy can tape 40 
coils for Westinghouee 
]2A Armature in an 
hour. Further par- 
ticulars gladly fur- 

6«o. M. Griswold Machine Co. 

New Haven, Conn. 

For Sale Cheap 


300 tons 68 lb. 

650 tons 58 lb. 

800 tons 52 lb. 

800 tons 40 lb. 

400 tone 35 lb. 

500 tons 30 lb. 

800 tons 20 lb. 

Alao large quantities of other sections 

These are practically aa good as new 

and at a fraction of the cost. 

Before Buying 



see what Zelnlcker oCfers. 


423 First Nnfl Bk., Cblrago 

010 Henuen Bldg., New Orleans 

Msln Offlce, 425 Loeust St., St. Lonis 

Transformers for Sale 

Six 350 K.V.A. 60 cycle, Type H single 
phase General Electric Co. transformer.s, 
2400-2300-2200 volt primary; 200-400 
volt secondary. New. These can be Y 
connected for use with 300 or 600 volt 
rotaries. Box 1308, Elec. Ry. Jour. 


Electric Locomotive Wanted 

Des Moines City Railway Company, Des 
Moines, Iowa, is in the market for one 
second-hand electric locomotive operat- 
ing on a standard gauge track 4 ft. 8% 
in., 500 volt,' Weight from 45 to 55 
ton, 4 motors from 100 to 125 H.P. ca- 

Motors Wanted 

Four G.E. 57 Type H two-turn motors, 

with or without armature and field 

coils. Holden & White. 1508 Fisher 
Bldg.. Chicago. 

Transformers and Rotary Converter 

2—100 K. W. or 3—75 K. W., 60 cycle 
transformers, wound for 33,000 volts on 
primary aide and 370 volts on secondary 
side. Also one 200 or one 300 K. W., 3 
phase, 60 cycle, rotary converter. State 
make, condition, location and delivery. 
Elgin & Belvidere Electric Co., 106 S. 
La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

Your Advancement 

is largely in 

your own hands — it is 

doubtful if any 

one else is worrying over it 

Better positions are constantly being se- 
cured through small advertisements in 
the "Positions Wanted" Columns of 
Electric Railway Journal. 

60 cents for 20 words 


ACCOUNTANT — Eleven years' experience 
Street Railway, Electric Lighting and 
Gas, both Construction and Mainte- 
nance. Married, 30. Best reference 
from present employer. Desire change 
about February 1st. Box 1314, Eaec 
Ry. Jour. 

EFFICIENT manager of railway and 
lighting properties open for engagement. 
Can put your road on paying basis. 
Salary, $6,000. Box 1315, Elec. Ry. Jour 

GENERAL foreman wants position. Mar- 
ried, 35, reliable, experienced. Now as- 
sistant general shop foreman for city 
and interurban road. References. Box 
1294, Elec. Ry. Jour., 1570 Old Colonv 
Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

GENERAL manager electric railway and 
lighting properties open for positioiL 
Twenty years' experience handling prop- 
erties for large banking concern. Box 
1236, Elec. Ry. Jour., 93.", Real Estate 
Trust Bldg., I'hiladelphia, Pa, 

SUPERINTENDENT of city and interur- 
ban lines, now employed, wishes same 
position with larger property. Best of 
reference furnished. Box 1266, Elec 
Ry. Jour., 1570 Old Colony Bldg., Chi 
cago. 111. 

YOUNG man, six years In executive offlces 
large Eastern street railway and lighting 
company. Now law clerk legal depart- 
ment. College graduate; member of bar. 
Can handle legal and claim work. Good 
assistant to busy executive. Box 122S> 
Elec. Ry. Jour., 935 Real Estate Trust 
Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 


GENERAL Manager or General Superin- 
tendent for electric street railway 
Transportation experience especially 
necessary. Box 1311, Elec. Ry. Jour. " 

ELECTRICIAN wanted who understands 
Wcstinghouse H.L. control and auto- 
matic air equipment for large interur- 
ban company in Middle West. Good 
position for first class man. Box 1313 
Elec. Ry. Jour., 1570 Old Colony Bldg. 
Chicago, 111. 

LARGE interurban company wants first 
class man experienced In care of auto- 
matic air equipment. One who under- 
stands Westlnghouse H.L. control pre- 
ferred. Location Mirldle West. Excel- 
lent working and living conditions. If 
you are qualified write us at once. Box 
1312, Elec. Ry. Jour., 1570 Old Colony 
Kid., Chicago, in. 

WANTED— Experlenood investigator and 
adjuster to assist Claim Agent on acci- 
dent work, only those with experience 
need apply. Good salary and oppor- 
tunities. Address E. R., Box 2, Station 
U, N T. P. O. 


(Acetylene Apparatus to Commutator Slotters) 

[January 6, 1917 


to products manufactured by advertisers in this issue of Electric Railway Journal 

More than 300 different products are here listed. 

The Alphabetical Index (see eighth page following) 
gives the page number of each advertisement. 

As far as possible advertisements are so arranged 
that those relating to the same kind of equipment or 
apparatus will be found together. 

This ready-reference index is up to date, changes 
being made each week. 

If you don't find listed in these pages any product 
of which you desire the name of the maker, write or 
wire Electric Railway Journal, and we will promptly 
furnish the information. 

Acetylene Apparatus. (See Cut- 
ting Apparatus, Oxy-Acety- 
Acetylene Service. 

Davis-Bournonville Co. 

Oxweld Acetylene Co. 

Prest-O-Lite Co., Inc., The. 
Advertising, Street Car. 

Collier, Inc., Barron G. 
Air Rectifiers. 

Home Mfg. Co. 

National Safety Device & 
Mfg. Co. 
Alloys, Steel & Iron. 

Titanium Alloy Mfg. Co. 
Alloys, and Bearing Metals. 
(See Bearings and Bearing 
Amusement Devices. 

Kste Co.. The J. D. 
Anchors, Guy. 

Electric Material Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Uolden & White. 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

We.stern Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Ixailway Imiiroveniciit Co. 
Automobiles and Busses. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

White Co., The. 
Axle Stralghteners. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 


Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Carnegie Steel Co. 

Cincinnati Car Co. 

Hadllelds. L,U\. 

St. Louis Car Co. 

Standard Steel Wonss Co. 

Taylor IClectric Truck Co. 

U. "S. Metal and Mfg. Co. 

Westinghouse Eaec. & M. Co. 
Babbitting Devices. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 
Badges and Buttons. 

.Jiraerican Railway Supply Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

International Register Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Woodman Mrs. * Supply C"., 
Bankers and Brokers. 

Coal & Iron National Bank. 

National City Co. 

Batteries, Dry. • ' 

Johns-Manville- Co . H. W. 
Western Electric Co. 

Batteries, Storage: 

Electric Storage Battery Co. 

Western Electric Co. 
Bearings and Bearing Metals. 

Bemis Car Truck Co 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Kerschner Co., Inc., -W. R. 

Long Co., E. Q. 

More-Jones Brass & M. Co. 
I St. Louis Car Co. 

Taylor P31ec. Trucli Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Bearings, Center. 

Baldwin Locom*tive Works. 

Holden & Whl^' 
Bearings, OII-leM, Graphite 
Bronze and Wood. 

Bound Brook Oil-less Bearing 
Co. • 

Bearings, Roller anc Ball. 

Gurney Ball Bearing Co. 

Hess-Bright Mfg. Co» 

Railway Roller Bearing Co 
Bearings, Roller Side. 1 

Holden & White. 
Bells and Gongs. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Electric Service Supplies <3o. 

St. Louis Car Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Benders, Rail. 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co. 

Watson-Stillman Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Zelnicker Supply Co., W. A. 
Blasting Powder & Equipment. 

Du Pont de Nemours & Co., 
E. I. 
Blow Torches for Soldering and 
Brazing. (See Cutting Ap- 
paratus, Oxy-Acetylene.) 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Boiler Cleaning Compounds. 

Dearborn Chemical Co. 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Boiler Coverings. 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Boiler Graphite. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

Babcock &■ Wilcox Co. 
Bond Clips. 

Electric Railway Improve. Co. 
Bond Testers. 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Bonding Apparatus. 

Davis-Boiafnonvilie Co. 

Electric Railway Improve. Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Ojcweld Acetylene Co. 

Prest-O-Lite Co^ Inc., The. 
Bonding Tools. ' 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Electric; Railway Improve. Co. 

Electrid Service Supplies Co. 

Ohio Bt-ass Co. 
Bonds, R9II. 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Electric Material Co. 

Electric Railway Improve. Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Johns-.Manvllle Co., H. W. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Bonds, Welded. 

Lincoln Bonding Co. 
Book Publishers. 

McGraW-Hiil Book Co.. Inc. 
Boring Tpols, Car Wheel. 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co. 
Braces, Rail. 

Kilby Frog & Switch Co. 

Steel Car ForKe Co. 
Brackets and Cross Arms. (See 
also Poles, Ties, Posts, Pil- 
ing ar)d Lumber.) 

American Bridge Co. 

Bates Expanded Steel Truss 

Creagheari Engrg. Co. 

Electric Ry. Equipment Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

International Creo. & C. Co. 

Llndsley Bros. Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 
Brake Adjusters. 

Holden & White. 

Kerschner Co.. Inc.. W. E. 

Smith-Ward Brake Co. 
Brake Shoes. 

American Brake S. & Fdy. Co. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

Long Cq.. E. G. 

Railway; Material Co. 

St. Louis Car Co. 

Taylor Elec. Truck Co. 

Wheel Truing Brakeshoe Co. 
Brakes, Brake Systems and 
Brake. Parts. 

Ackley & Co., G. S. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co., The J. Q. . 

y.r. Westinghouse E. & M. Co. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Holden & White. 

Home Mfg. Co. 

Long Co., E. G. 

National Brake Co. 

National Safety Device & 
Mfg. Co. 

St. Louis Car Co. 

Taylor Elec. Truck Co. 

Westinghouse Trac. Brake Co. 
Brazing. (See Welding.) 
Bridges and Buildings. 

American Bridge Co. 
Brooms, Track. Steel or Rattan. 

Patten Co., Paul B. 

Western Electric Co. 

Zelnicker Supply Co., W. A. 
Brushes, Carbon. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. 

General Electric Co. 

Jeandron, W. J. 

Morgan Crucible Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Brush Holders. 

Anderson Mfg. Co., A. & J. M. 
Bumpers, Car Seat. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Bunkers, Coal, 

American Bridge Co. 

Boyle & Co., Inc., Jolm. 
Bushings, Case Hardened Man- 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 
Bushings. Fibre. 

I >iamond State Fibre Co. 
Bushings, Graphite & Wooden. 

Bound Brook Oil-less Bearing 
Buttons. (See Badges and 

Cables. (See Wires and Cables.) 
Carbon Brushes. (See Brushes, 

Car Equipment. (For Fenders, 
Heaters, Registers, WTieels, 
etc., see those Headings.) 
Car Stop, Automatic. 

Consolidated Car-Heating Co. 
Car Trimmings. (For Curtains, 
Doors, Seats, etc., see those 
Cars, Dump. 

Differential Car Co. 
Cars, Passenger, Freight, Ex- 
press, etc. 

.American Car Co. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Cincinnati Car Co. 

Jewett Car Co. 

Kuhlman Car Co., G. C. 

St. Louis Car Co. 

Wason Mfg. Co. 

Witt, Peter. 
Cars, Second Hand. 

Electric Equipment Co. 

Kerscliner Co.. Inc., W. R. 
Cars, Self-Propelled. 

Br. Westinghouse E. & M. Co. 

Electric Storage Battery Co. 

General Electric Co. 
Castings, Brass. 

FranKel Connector Co. 

More-Jones Brass & M. Co. 
Castings, Composition or Cop- 

Anderson M. Co., A. & J. M. 
Castings, Gray Iron and Steel. 

American B. S. & Pdry. Co. 

American Bridge Co. 

American Steel Foundries. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

Hadfields, Ltd. 

I^ng Co., E. G. 

St. Louis Car Co. 

Standard Steel Works Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

Union Spring & Mfg. Co. 
Castings, Malleable and Brass. 

American Brake S. & Fdry. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Hadfields, Ltd. 

Long Co., E. G. 

St. Louis Car Co. 
Catchers and Retrievers, Trol- 

Earll, C. T. 

Eclipse Railway Supply Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Holden & White. 

Kerschner Co., Inc., W. R. 

Long Co., E. G. 

Home Mfg. Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Trolley Supply Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

Wood Co., C. N. 
Celling, Car. 

Keyes Products Co. 

Pantasote Co., The. 
Chargers, Storage Battery. 

jGeneral Electric Co. 

Lincoln Electric Co. 
Checks, Employees. 

American Railway Supply Co. 
Cheese Cloth. 

Boyle .& Co., Inc., John. 

Little, Inc., Arthur D. 
Circuit Breakers. 

Cutter Electrical & Mfg. Co. 

Electric Material Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Clamps and Connectors, for 
Wires and Cables. 

Anderson Mfg. Co., A. & J. M. 

Dossert & Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Frankel Connector Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Klein & Sons, M. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Cleaners and Scrapers, Track. 
(See also Snow- Plows, 
Sweepers and Brooms.) 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Cincinnati Car Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Vandorn & Dutton Co. 

Western Electric Co. 
Cleats, Car Wiring. 

General Electric Co. 
Clusters and Sockets. 

General Electric Co. 
Coal and Ash Handling. (See 
Conveying and Hoisting 
Coasting Clocks. 

Railway Improvement Co. 
Coll Banding and Winding Ma- 

Columbia M. W. & M. I Co. 

Electric Material Co. 

Electric Service Simplies Co. 

Western Electric Co. 
Colls, Armature and Field. 

Cleveland Armature Works. 

Coll Mfg. & llepair Co. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I Co. 

D & W Fuse Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Independent Lamp & Wire Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Colls, Choke and Kicking. 

EHectric Service Supplies Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Coin-Counting Machines. 

American Railways Equip- 
ment Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

International Register Co. 

Johnson Fare Box Co. 
Commutator Slotters. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

General Electric Co. 

^Vestipuhouee Klec. & M. Co. 

Wood Co.. C. N. 

January 6, 1917] 



Is YOUR Capital 
Gathering Cobwebs? 

It is if any of it is tied up in old field coils. 
We can lielp you put these coils to work 
again. Send them to us and let us recon- 
struct them. We remove the old insulation — 
clean and anneal the copper — then reinsu- 
late it with 


which is. in itself, a guarantee against car- 
bonization due to age and breakdown under 
overload. We then rewind the wire into new 
coils having just the same characteristics as 
the old ones. 

It's better than selling your old coils — and 
cheaper than buying new ones, for our only 
charge is for the actual insulation used. Ask 
us to demonstrate the economy of our 

Independent Lamp & Wire Co., Inc. 

Offices I 
1737 Broadway, New York 

York, Pa., and Weehawken, N. J. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 


Chicago Washington, D. C. 



Tool Steel Gears and Pinions 

Johnson Fare Box 

Perry Side Bearings 

Hartman Centering Center Plates 

Wasson Trolley Bases 
Garland Ventilator 

Electric Arc Welders 
High Class Railway Varnishes 

and Enamels 

{Tool Steel Gear & Pinion Co. 
C. & C. Electnc & Mfg. Co. 
Holden 8s White 

General Agents for Anglo-American Varnish Co. 
Eastern Agents for Union Fibre Co. 


In Bombay you leave word for Tom to shave 
you at 8.00 'a. m., but you don't have to get up 
to keep the appointment. 

He comes to your room and without the 
formality of waking you up he wields his trusty 
and rusty Chooree through the scrape. 

You would be surprised to see how many people 
can sleep right through this tonsorial stunt with- 
out knowing what is happening. WE are not 
surprised because we see so many operators who 
are able to sleep through the night watch with 
the brushes on a rotary scraping and chattering 
like an election night din. 

But the boss wakes up when he reviews the 
brush bills and the commutator repair bills. 

We hope the boss reads this during such a 
waking moment, and that he will pave the way 
for a real eye-opener in carbon-brush economy 
by requesting a Morgan brush engineer to pre- 
scribe a type of Morganite that will make no 
more noise than a motion-picture drama on the 

Wake-up ! 

Factory, Brooklyn, 'N.V. 


Lewis & Roth Co., 1012 Liberty Bldg.; Philadelphia 

Electrical Engineering & ISJfg. Co. 

First National Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh 

W. L. Rose Equipment Co. 

La Salle Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 

Herzog Electric & Engineering Co. 

150 Steuart Street, San Francisco, Gal. 


(Commutator Truing Devices to Inspection) 

[January 6, 1917 


to products manufactured by advertisers in this issue of Electric Railway Journal 

Commutator Truing Devices. 

General Electric Co. 
Commutators or Parts. 

Cameron Elec'l Mfg. Co. 
Cleveland Armature Works. 
Coil Mfg. & Repair Co. 
Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 
Electric Material Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Long Co., E. G. 
Mica Insulator Co. 
Western Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Compressors, Air. 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Trac. Brake Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Eiec. & M. Co. 
Conduit, Flexible. 

Tubular Woven Fabric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 
Conduits, Underground. 

Johns-Manviile Co., H. W. 

Standard Underground Cable 
Connectors, Solderless. 

Frankel Connector Co. 
Controller Fingers. 

Home Mfg. Co. 
Controller Handles. 

Home Mfg. Co. 
Controller Regulators. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Controllers or Parts. 

Br. Westinghouse E. & M. Co. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Eureka Co. 

General Electric Co. 
* Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 

Kerschner. W. R. 
■ • Westinghouse Elec. & M, Co. 
Controlling Systems. 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Converters, Rotary. 

General Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Conveying and Hoisting Ma- 

American Bridge Co. 

Green Rng'c Co. 

Hadfields. Ltd. 

Hunt Co., Inc., C. W. 

Cord, Bill, Trolley, Register, 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Electric Material Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Internntionnl Itegister Co. 

Long Co., E. G. 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 

Samson Cordage Works. 

Trolley Sunnlv To. 

Union Electric Co. 
Cord Connectors and Couplers. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Samson Cordage Works. 

Wood Co., C. N. 
Cotton Duck. 

Boyle & Co.. Inc., John. 
Couplers, Car. 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Cincinnati Car Co. 

Long Co., E. O. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Van Dorn Coupler Co. 

Westinghouse Trac. Brake Co. 
Cranes. (See also Hoists.) 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co. 
Van Dorn & Dutton Co. 
Crcosotlng. (See Wood Pre- 
Cross Arms. (See Brackets.) 
Crossing Foundations. 

International Steel Tie Co. 
Crossing Signals. (See Signals, 

Crosslnns. Track. (See Track. 
Special Work.) 


American Rolling Mill Co. 
Bark River B. & Culvert Co. 
California Co. Culvert Co. 
Canton Culvert & Silo Co. 
Coast Culvert & Flume Co. 
Corrugated Culvert Co. 
Delaware Metal Culvert Co. 
Dixie Culvert & Metal Co. 

Hardesty Mfg. Co., R. 
Illinois Corrugated Metal Co. 
Independence Culvert CJo. 
Iowa Pure Iron Culvert Co. 
Kentucky Culvert Mfg. Co. 
Lee-Arnett Co. 
Lone Star Culvert Co. 
Lyie Corrugated Culvert Co. 
Michigan Bridge & Pipe Go. 
Montana Culvert Co. 
Nebraska Culvert & Mtg. Co. 
Nevada Metal Mfg. Co. 
New England Metal Cul. Co. 
North East Metal Co. 
Northwestern Sheet & I. Wks. 
O'Neill Co., W. Q. 
Ohio Corrugated Culvert Co. 
Pennsylvania Metal Cul. Co. 
Road Supply & Metal Co. 
Sioux Falls Metal Cul. Co. 
Spencer, J. N. 
Spokane Corr. Cul. Co. 
Tennessee Metal Culvert Co. 
Utah Corr. Culvert & Flume 

Virginia Metal & Culvert Co. 
Western Metal Mfg. Co. 
Wyatt Mfg. Co. 

Curtains and Curtain Fixtures. 
Brill Co., The J. G. 
Du Pont Fabrikoid Co. 
Edwards Co., The O. M. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Hartshorn Company, Stewart. 
Pantasote Co., The. 
St. Louis Car Co. 

Cutting Apparatus, Oxy-Acety- 
Davis-Bournonville Co. 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 
Prest-O-Lite Co., The. 

Derailing Devices. 
Cleveland Frog & Oosslng Co. 

Destination Signs. 
Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 
Creaghead Engrg. Co. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Western Electric Co. 

Detective Service. 
Wisch Service, P. Edward. 

Dispatching Systems. 
Simmen Auto. Ry. .''ig. Co. 
Western Electric Co. 

Doors, Asbestos. 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Door Operating Devices. 

ConsolidatPd Car-Heating Co. 

National Pneumatic Co. 
Doors and Door Fixtures. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Fdwards Co.. The O. M. 

Hale & Kllbum Co. 
Doors, Folding Vestibule. 

National Pneumatic Co. 
Doors. Steel Rolling. 

Kinnear Mfg. Co. 
Doors, Trap. 

Edwards Co., The O. M. 
Draft Rigging. (See Coupler*, 

Drills, Track. 

American Steel A Wire Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Long Co., E. G. 

Niies. Bement, Pond Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

Dryers, Sand. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

Zelnicker Supply Co., W. A. 
Engineers, Consulting, Con- 
tracting and Operating. 

Archbolo-Brady Co. 

Arnold Co., The. 

Burrh. Edw. P. 

Byllesby & Co., H. M. 

Ford. Bacon & Davis. 

Hunt & Co., Robert W. 

Jackson, D. C. & Wm. B. 

Little. Inc.. Arthur D. 

Neiler, Rich & Co. 

Rlchey, Albert S. 

Roosevelt & Thompson. 

Sanderson & Porter. 

SarG'ent ^ Liindy. 

Scofield Engineering Co. 

Stone * Webster Kng'g Corp.. 

W^hitp Companies. The J. d. 

Woodmanaee & Davidson, Inc. 
Enqines, Gas and Oil. 

Westinghouse EHec. & M. Co. 

! Engines, Steam. 

Westing. .uLii=e Elec. & M. Co. 
Fare Boxes. 
American Ry. Equipment Co. 
Brill Co., The J. G. 
Cleveland Fare Box Co. 
International Register Co., The 
Johnson Fare Box Co. 
Ohmer Fare Register Co. 
Fences, Woven Wire, and Fence 
American Steel & Wire Co. 
Fencing, Wire. 
American Steel & Wire Co. 
Page Woven Wire Fence Co. 
Fenders and Wheel Guards. 
Brill Co., The J. G. 
Cincinnati Car Co. 
(Cleveland Fare Box Co. 
Consolidated Car Fender Co. 
Eclipse Railway Supply Co. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Home Mfg. Co. 
Star Brass Works. 
Trolley Supply Co. 
Western Electric Co. 
Diamond State Fibre Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Fibre Tubing. 
Diamond State Fibre Co. 
Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Fibre Insulation. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 
Field Colls. (See Colls.) 
Filters, Water. 

Scaife & Sons Co., Wm. B. 
Fire Extinguishing Apparatus. 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Fire Proofing Material. 

Johns-Marivilie Co., H. W. 
Flooring, Composition. 
American Mason Safety T. Co. 
Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 
Standard Steel Works Co. 
Steel Car Forge Co. 
Furniture, Metal Office. 

Edwards Co., The O. M. 
Fuses and Fuse Boxes, 
Chicago Fuse Mfg. Co. 
Columbia M. W. & M. 1. Co. 
D & W Fuse Co. 
Daum, A. F. 
General Electric Co. 
Johns-Manviile Co.. H. W. 
Western Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Fuses, Refi liable. 
Columbia M. W. & M. X. Co. 
Economy Fuse Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Gages, Oil and Water. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Diamond State Fibre Co. 
Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Power Specialty <io. 
Gas-Electrl'- Crs. 

General Electric Ca 
Gas Producers. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Gates, Car. 
Brill Co., The J. G. 
Cincinnati Car Co. 
Jewett Car Co. 
Gear Blanks. 
Carnegie Steel Co. 
Diamond State Fibre Co. 
Standard Steel VSTca. Co. 
Gear Cases. 
Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Kerschner, W. R. 
Thayer * Co., Inc. 
Union Electric Co. 
U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Gears and Pinions. 
Ackley & Co.. G. S. 
Bemis Car Truck Co. 
Columbia M. W. * M. I. Co. 
Diamond State Fibre Co. 
Electric Material Co. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Hadflelda. Ltd. 
Kerschner. W. R. 
I>one Co.. E. G. 
Nuttall Co.. R. D. 
Tool Steel Gear & Pinion Co 

Union Electric Co. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 

Van Dorn & Dutton Co. 
Generating Sets, Gas- Electric. 

General Electric Co. 
Generators, Alt.-Current. 

General Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Generators, DIr.-Current. 

Dick, Kerr & Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Lincoln Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Gongs. (See Bells and Gongs.) 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Morgan Crucible Co. 
Grates, Chain. 

Green Eng'g Co. 
Greases. (See Lubricants.) 
Grinders & Grinding Wheels. 

Indianapolis Switch & Frog Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Grinders, Portable, Electric. 

General Electric Co. 

Goldschmidt Thermit Co. 

Hadfleids, Ltd. 

Indianapolis Switch & Frog Co. 

Railway Track -work Co. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 

Western Electric Co. 
Grinders, Rail. 

Norton Co. 
Guards, Cattle. 

American Bridge Co. 

Guards, Trolley. 

Ackley & Co., G. S. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Harps, Trolley. 

Anderson M. Co.. A. & J. M. 

Bayonet Trolley Harp Co. 

Electric Material Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Hensiey Trolley & Mfg. Co. 

More-Jones Brass & M. Co. 

Nuttall Co., R. D. 

Star Brass Works. 

Western Electric Co. 


Electric Material Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

General Electric Co. 

I.X)ng Co., E. G. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

St. Louis Car Co. 

Trolley Supply Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Kerschner, W. R. 

Key.s Products" Co. 

Pantasote Co., The. 

Heaters, Car, Electric. 

Consolidated Car-Heating Co. 

Gold Car Heating & Lighting 

Smith Heater Co., Peter. 
Heaters. Car, Hot Air. 

Cooper Heater Co. 

Smith Heater Co., Peter. 
Heaters, Car, Hot Water. 

Cooper Heater Co. 

Smith Heater Co., Peter. 
Heaters, Car, Stove. 

Elei'tric .'Service Supplies Co, 

Smith Heater Co.. Peter. 
Hoists and Lifts. 

DutT ^^nnnf.^^turing Co 

Ford Chain Blo^k & Mfg. Oo 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co. 

Patten Co.. Paul B. 

Van Dorn & Dutton Co. 

Talc & Towne Mfg. Co. 

Hose Bridges. 
Ohio Brass Co. 

Hose, Pneumatic & Fire. 
Johns-Manville Co.. H. W. 

Hydraulic Machinery. 
Niles-Rement-Pond Co. 
Watson-Stillman Co. 

Home Mfg. Co. 

El»c'l Testing Laboratories. 

Hunt & Co.. Robert W. 

January 6, 1917] 





In 1916 


Cut Track Maintenance Costs on 
Many Electric Traction Lines 

The experience of users has been — that 
"Imperial" pneumatically tamped track is more 
evenly and firmly ballasted and permanently 
stable than the best hand tamped track — that 
"Imperial" Tampers are equally effective in any 
sort of ballast — that 80% less labor is required 
for tamping and that, in many instances, the 
cost of the "Imperial" Outfit has been returned 
in the savings of a single season's operation. 

We would like to prove to you 
that you can save money with 


in 1917 

Start by Aakinfi for Bulletin 902) 









OFFICES THE WORLD OVER *" ^lo^JSon^'^ ^^' ] 

40 TT 


(Instruments, Measuring, to Sash Fixtures 


[January 6, 1917 


to products manufactured by advertisers in this issue of Electric Railway Journal 

Instruments, Measuring, Test- 
ing and Recording. 

General Electric Co. 

.lohns-Manville Co., H. W. 

Sangamo Electric Co. 

Western >^lectric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Weston Elec'i Instrument Co. 
Insulating Cloths, Paper and 

Anchor Webbing Co. 

Diamond State Fibre Co. 

Electric Material Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hope Webbing Co. 

.lohns-Manville Co., H. W. 

Home Mfg. Co. 

Mica Insulator Co. 

Okonite Co. 

Packard Electrir Co. 

Sherwin-Williams Co. i 

Standard Paint Co. ! 

Standard Underground Cable ! 

Standard Woven Fabric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

inaulatlon. (See also Paints.) 
Anderson M. Co.. A. & J. M. 
IJiamond State Fibre Co. 
lOlectric Material Co. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Holden & White. 
.John.s-Manville Co.. H. W. 
Okonite Co. 
Sherwin-Williams Co. 
Sterling Varnish Co. 
ITnion Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Insulators. (See also Line Ma- 

Anderson M. Co., A. & J. M. 

Creaghead Engrg. Co. 

Drew Electric & Mfg. Co. 

Electric Material Co. 

Electric Ry. Equipment Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hemingra\' Glass Co. 

.Tohns-Manville Co.. H. W. 

Locke Insulator Co. 

Macallen Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Tnion Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

White Co.. T. C. 
Insulators, Tree. 

Holden & White. 
Insurance. Fire. 

Marsh t^c McLennan. 

Inventions, Developed and Per- 

Peters & Co.. G. D. 
Jacks. (See also Cranes, Hoists 
and Lifts.) 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Buckeye Jack Mfg. Co. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

Duff Manufacturing Co. 

'IV^inpleton. Kenlv & Co. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 

\\ atson-.Stillman Co. 

Jack Boxes. (See also Tele- 
phones and Parts.) 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Western Electric Co. 
iolnts, Rati. 

Carnegie Steel Co. 

■ Rail Joint Co. 

Ifelnicker Supply Co., W. A. 

1 >nal Boxes. 
'^\l8 Car Truck Co. 
|yi Co.. The J. G. 
• "nev Hall Bearing Co. , 
pSs-Bright Mfg. Co. 
bng Co.. E. G. 
Railway Roller Bearlng^Co. 
Junction Boxes. 

lohns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Standard Underground Cable 
Elec'i Testing Laboratories, 

Little. Inc.. Arthur D. 
Lamp Guards and Fixtures. 
Anderson M. Co., A. & J. M. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Lamps, Acetylene. 
Prest-O-Lite Co.. Inc., The. 

Lamps, Arc and Incandescent. 

Andersen M. Co., A. & J. M. 

General Electric Co. 

Western Ele<-tric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Lamps, Signal and Marker. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Lathes, Car Wheel. 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co 
Lifters, Car Step. 

Consolidated Car Fender Co. 
Lighting Regulators, Car. 

Holden & White. 
Lightning Protection, 

Anderson M. Co. A. & J. M. 

Klectric Material Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Home Mfg. Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 
Line Material. (See also Brack- 
ets, Insulators, Wires, etc.) 

Anderson M. Co., A. & J. M. 

Archbold-Brady Co. 

Creaghead Engrg. Co. 

Diamond State Fibrfc Co. 

Dick. Kerr & Co. 

Dessert & Co. 

Drew Electric & Mfg. Co. 

Electric Material Co. 

Electric Ry. Equipment Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hemingrav Glass Co. 

.lohns-Manville Co., H. W. 

I.ocl<e Insulator Co. 

Macallen Co. 

More-Jones Brass & M. Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Union Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

White Co., T. C. 
Lock Nuts and Washers. (See 

Nuts and Bolts.) 
Lockers, Metal. 

Edwards Co.. The O. M. 

Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. 

Locomotives, Electric, 

Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Eler. & Mfg. Co. 
Lubricating Engineers. 

Galena-Signal C>il Co. 

Lubricants, Oil and Grease. 

Rome. Scrymser Co. ' 

Dearborn Chemical Co. • 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Jos. 

Galena-Signal Oil Co. 

Universal Lubricating Co 
Lumber. (See Poles, Ties, Posts, 

Machine Tools. 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co. 

Watson-Stillman Co. 
Manganese Parts. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Jolins-Manville Co.. H. W. 
Meters, Car, Watthour. 

Sangamo Electric Co. 
Meters. (See Instruments.) 

Long Co., E. G. 

Macallen Co. 
Mirrors for Motormen. 

Drew Electric & Mfg. Co. 
Motor Leads. 

Dossert & Co. 

Motormen's Seats. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Wood Co., C. N. 
Motor Generator, Bonding and 

Lincoln Bonding Co. 
Motors and Generators Sets. 

General Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 
Motors. Electric, 

Br. Westinghouse E. & M. Co. 

Dick, Kerr & Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Lincoln Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Nuts and Bolts. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 
! Long Co., E. G. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 
Oils. (See Lubricants.) 
Oils, Paints. 

Sterling Varnish Co. 
I Overhead Equipment. (See Line 

j Oxy-Acetylene. (See Cutting 
Apparatus, Oxy-Acetylene.) 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Diamond State Fibre Co. 

Electric Material Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 

Power Specialty Co. 
Packing Rings. 

Johns-Manville Co.. H. W. 
Paints and Varnishes. (Insu- 

General Electric Co. 

Holden & White. 

Long Co.. E. G. 

Mica Insulator Co. 

Packard Electric Co. 

Sherwin-Williams Co. 

Standard Paint Co. 

Sterling Varnish Co. 

Union Electric Co. 
Paints and Varnishes. (Pre- 

Dixon Crucible Co., Jos. 

Long Co., E. G. 

Sherwin-Williams Co. 

Standard Paint Co. 

Sterling Varnish Co. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 
Paints and Varnishes for Wood- 

Sherwin-Williams Co. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 
Park Amusements. 

Este Co.. The J. D. 

Paving Material. 

American B. S. & Fdy. Co. 

Barrett Co., The. 

Dunn Wire-Cut Lug Brick Co. 

International Creo. & (ion. Co. 
Paving Pitch. 

Barrett Co., The. 
Pickups, (Trolley Wire.) 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Pinion Pullers. 

Columl)ia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Wood Co., C. N. 
Pinions. (See Gears.) 
Pins, Case Hardened, Wood and 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Long Co., E. G. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Union Electric Co. 
Pipe Fittings. 

Power .Specialty Co. 

Standard Steel Works Co. 

Watson-Stillman Co. 
Platforms, Extension. Car. 

Edwards Co., The O. M. 
Pole Sleeves, 

Drew Ele^ctric & Mfg. Co. 
Poles, Metat Street. 

Bates Expanded Steel Truss 

Electrir Material Co. 

Electric Ry. Equipment Co. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 
Poles, Tle«, Posts, Piling and 

Carney & Co.. B. J. 

Electric Material Co. 

International Creo. & Con. Co. 

Lindsley Bros. Co. 

Page & Hill Co. 

Valentine-Clark Co. 

Western Electric Co. 
Poles and Ties, Treated. 

International Creo. & Con. Co. 

T.indsley Bros. Co. 

Page & Hill Co. 
. Valentine-Clark Co. 

Western Electric Co. 
Poles. Trolley. 

Anderson M. Co.. A. & J. B. 

Bavonet Trolley Harp Co. 


Columbia M. W. & M. I. Q<>. 

Electric Material Co. i 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Long Co., E. G. 

Nuttall Co.. R. D. 

Union Electric Co. 

okonite Co. 
Preservatives. (See Wood Pre- 
Pressure Regulators. 

General Electric Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Watson-Stillman Co. 
Punches, Ticket. 

American Railway Supply Co. 

Bonney-Vehslage Tool Co. 

International Register Co., 

Home Mfg. Co. 

Wood Co.. C. N. 

Woodman Mfg. & Supply Co. 
Punching Machinery. 

Watson-Stillman Co. 
Rail Grinders. (See Grinders.) 
Rails, Relaying. 

Zelnicker Supply Co., W. A. 
Rail Welding. (See Brazing and 

Welding Processes.) 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Hale & Kilbum Co. 

Jewett Car Co. 

St. Louis Car Co. 
Registers and Fittings. 

Bonham Recorder Co. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Cincinnati Car Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Internat'l Register Co., The 

Long Co., E. G. 

Ohmer Fare Register Co. 

Rooke Automatic Register Co 

Union Electric Co. 
Reinforcing Concrete. 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Repair Shop Appliances. (See 
also Coil Banding and Wind- 
ing Machines.) 

Columbia M. W. & M. 1. Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co 
Repair Work. (See also Coll 
Armature and Field.) 

Cleveland Armature VVorks. 

Coil Mfg. & Repair Co. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Independent Lamp & W. Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co 
Replacers, Car. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Resistance, Grid. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

Ellcon Co. 
Resistance, Wire and Tube. 

General Electric Co. 

Western Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co 
Retrievers, Trolley. (See Catch- 
ers and Retrievers, Trolley.) 

Ellcon Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Mica Insulator Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co 
Roofing, Building. 

Barrett Co., The. 

.Tohns-Manville Co.. H. W. 

-Standard Paint Co. 
Roofing, Car. , 

Boyle & Co.. Inc.. John. 

Johrs-Manville Co.. H. W. 

Keys Products Co. 

Pantasote Co., The, 
Rubblncj Cloth. 

Boyle & Co., Inc., John. 
Sand Bla.tts. 

U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 
Sanders, Vrack. 

Brill Co. The J. G. 

Clevelanc' Fare Box Co. 

Electric Siervice Supplies Co. 

Holden & White. 

Jewett <>r Co. 

Home M '^. Co. 

Ohio Brai s Co. 

St. Louis Car Co. 
Sash Fixtures, Car. 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Edwards Co.. The O. M. 

January 6, 1917] 






/ 1 




Rockingham Road, Davenport, Iowa. Brick pavement filled with Barrett's Paving Pitch. 

^JT-iMfi'S .K>3'i*'>ia- i%| n[?^f34F^^M>^ 


vvW'>^Mre»v:nv=W7?Af;ni3i;y9!:/!£S A'fv^a^KS^^Timpami 








Smooth pavement with a grooved footing 

in tile whole 16,000 yards of this paving con- 
tract there is not a single special expansion 
joint. Every joint is an expansion joint. 
There will be no thrust against the rails or 
curbs, for every brick is surrounded with 
flexible pitch to take up the hot weather 


Til]-^ ideal combination of a smooth pave- 
ment with a grooved footing is attained 
by a brick pavement with the joints filled with 
Barrett's Paving Pitch. The pitch in the joints 
makes them act like grooves. These grooves 
are too small to be the cause of any noise from 
wheels. Likewise they are too small to inter- 
fere with the smooth and easy traction which 
the pavement offers. 

So far as noise and traction-resistance are con- 
cerned, the pavement is smooth. It has, how- 
ever, the added advantage that the individual 
bricks surrounded by an elastic medium give a 
foothold for horses. The horses' hoofs find a 
sure grip and the load goes forward with a 
sure and steady pull. 

Booklets free on request. 


Pitch gives ideal protection against water and 
frost. The cost is not markedly different from 
the less efficient cement and asphalt fillers. 1/ 

Barrett's Paving Pitch will outlast the pave- 
ment. Many years from now, the pitch will 
be found still on duty in the joints taking up 
expansion or contraction and protecting the 
foundation against frost and water. 

Address our nearest office. 



New York Chicago Pliiladelphia Boston St. Loiii.s Cleveland Cincinnati 
Detroit Birmingham Kansa.s City Minneapolis Na.shville Salt Lake City Seattle Peoria 
The Pati-.rson ^l.\NUF.\cruRiNf. Comi'.snv, Limited: Montreal Toronto Winnipeg 
Vancouver St. John, N.I'.. Halifax. N.S. Sydney, X.S. 




' I,} 



(Sash, Metal, Car Windows, to Wood Preservatives) 

[January 6, 1917 


to products manufactured by advertisers in this issue of Electric Railway Journal 

Sash, Metal, Car Windows. 
Edwards Co., The O. M. 
Hale & Kilburn Co. 

Sash Operators. 
Drouve Co., The G. 

Root Spring Scraper Co. 

Seats, Car. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 
Hale & Kilburn Co. 
Jewett Car Co. 
Peters & Co., G. D. 
St. Louis Car Co. 

Seating Material. (See at*o 
Brill Co., The J. G. 
Du Pont Fabril<oid Co. 
Pantasote Co.. The 

Shade Rollers. 
Edwarda Co.. Inc., The O. M. 
Hartshorn Co., Stewart. 

Shades, Vestibule. 
Brill Co., The .T. G. 
Eaectric Service Supplies Co. 

Signals, Car Starting. 

Consolidated Car-Heating Co. 
National Pneumatic Co. 

Signals, Hlqhway Crossing. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Nachod Signal Co. 
Simmen Auto Ry. Signal Co. 
U. S. Electric Signal Co 

Signal Systems. Block. 
Electric Service Supplies Co 
Federal Signal Co. 
Nachod Signal Co. 
Simmen Auto Ry. Signal Co. 
Union Switch & Signal Co. 
IT P. Electric Signal Co. 
Western Electric Co 
Wood Co , C. N. 

Skids, Car. 

Electric Material Cb. 
Home Mfg. Co 

Drouve Co., The G 

Slack Adjusters. (See Brake 

Sleet Wheels and Cutters. 
Anderson M. Co., A. & J. M. 
Bayonet Trolley Harp Co. 
Bonney Vehslage Tool Co. 
Drew Elertric & Mfg. Co. 
Electric Material Co. 
More-Jones Brass & M. Co. 
Nuttall Co., R. D. 

Snow- Plows, Removers,' Sweep- 
ers, etc. 
, Brill Co., The J. G. 
' Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 
Consolidated Car Fender Co. 


Sherwin-Williams Co. 

Solder and ^Ider Flux. 
Westing^^•' ise Elec. & M. Co. 

Soldering anu Brazing Appara' 
tus. (See Welding Proc, & 

Speed Indicators. 

Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Wood Co.. C. N. 
Woodman Mfg. &: Supply Co., 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Splicing Compounds. 
Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Standard Woven Fabric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. St M. Co. 

Splicing Sleeves. (See Clamps 
and Connectors.) 

Springs, Car S. Truck. 

American Steel Foundries. 
American .steel & Wire Co. 
Bemis Car Truck Co. 
Brill Co., The J. G. 
Long Co., E. G. 
S'andard Steel Works Co. 
Taylor Elec. Truck Co. 
Union. Spring & Mfg. Co. 

Sprinklers, Track and Road. 
Brill Co., The J. G. 
St. Louis Car Co. 

Steps, Car. 
American Mason S. T. Co. 
Universal Safety Tread Co. 

Stokers, Mechanical. 
Babcock & Wilcox Co. 
Green Engrg. Co. 
Murphy Iron Works. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Storage Batteries. (See Bat- 
teries, Storage.) 

Straps Car, Sanitary. 

H olden & White. 
Railway Improvement Co. 

Iron. (See Bridges 


Babcock & Wilcox. 
Power Specialty Co. 

Sweepers, Snow. (See Snow- 
Plows, Sweepers and Brooms.) 

Switchboard Mats. 
Western Electric Co. 

Indianapolis Frog & Switch Co. 
Kllby Frog & Switch Co. 
Ramapo Iron Works. 

Switches, Automatic. 
U. S. Electric Signal Co. 
Western Electric Co. 

Switches, Track. (See Track 
Special Work.) 

Switches and Switchboards. 
Anderson M. Co.. A. & J. M. 
Cutter Electrical & Mfg. Co. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Western Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Tampers, Tie. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Tapes & Cloth. (See Insulating 
Cloths. Paper and Tape.) 

Telephone and Parts. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Western Electric Co. 

Terminal Cables. 
Standard Underground Cable 

Testing Clips. 
Frarikel Connector Co. 

Testing, Commercial and Elec- 

Electrical Testing Labora- 
tories, Inc. 

Hunt Co., Robert W. 

Testing Instruments. (See In- 
struments, Electrical, Meas- 
uring, Testing.) 


Frankel Connector Co. 


Consolidated Car-Heating Co. 
Gold Car Heating & Lighting 

Railway Utility Co. 
Smith Heater Co.. Peter. 

Ticket Boxes. 

Macdonald Ticket & Ticket 
Box Co. 

Ticket Choppers & Destroyers. 
Electric Service Simplies Co. 
Patten Co., Paul B. 

Tickets & Transfers. 

Ajnerican Railway Supply Co. 

Tie* & Tie Reds, Steel. 
American Bridge Go^ 
Camegi.. Steel C o. 
International St' el Tie Co. 

Ties, Wood. (See Poles, Ties, 

Toels, Track and Miscellaneous. 
American Steel & Wire Co. 
Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Johns-Manville Co.. H. W. 
I Klein & Sons, M. 

Railway Track-work Co. 
Union Electric Co. 

Torches, Acetylene. (See Cut- 
ting Apparatus, Oxy-Acety- 

Towers & Transmission Struc- 
American Bridge Co. 
Aj-chbold-Brady Co. 
Bates Expanded Steel Truss 
I Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 

Tower Wagons & Automobiles. 
McCardell & Co., J. R. 
White Co., The. 

I Track, Special Work. 

American Frog & Switch Co. 
Cleveland Frog & Crossing Co. 
Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 
Indianapolis Switch & Frog Co. 
Kllby Frog & Switch Co. 
New York S. & Cross. Co. 
Ramapo Iron Works. 

Transfers. (See Tickets.) 

Transfer Issuing Machines. 
Ohmer Fare Register Co. 

Transfer Tables. 1 

American Bridge Co. 
Archbold-Brady Co. 

General Electric Co. 
Packard Electric Co. 
Western Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Trap Doors. 

Edwards Co., The O. M. 

Treads, Safetv, Stair Car Step. 
American Mason Safety T. Co. 
Electric Material Co. 
Universal Safety Tread Co. 

Trolley Bases. 
Anderson M. Co., A. & J. M. 
Electric Service Supplies Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Holden & White. 
Home Mfg. Co. 
More-Jones Brass & M. Co. 
Nuttall Co.. R. D. 
Ohio Brass Co. 
Trolley Supply Co. 
Union Electric Co. 

Trolley Bases, Retrieving. 
Ackley & Co.. G. S. 
Holden & White. 

Trolley Shoes 
Holden & White. 
Miller .Trolley Shoe Co. 

Trolley Switches. 
Raihva,y Material Co., The. 

Trolleys and Trolley Systems. 
Ford Chain Block & Mfg. Co. 

Trucks, Car. 

.American Steel Foundries. 
Baldwin Locomotive Works. 
Bemis Car Truck Co. 
Brill Co.. The J. G. 
Cincinnati Car Co. 
Long Co., E. G. 
Philadelphia Holding Co. 
St. Louis Car Co. 
Taylor Elec. Truck Co. 

Turbines. Steam. 
General Electric Co. 
Western Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 


Edwards Co.. The O. M. 
Ohio Brass Co. 

Varnishes. (See Paints, etc.) 

Ventilators. Building. 
Drouve Co., The G. 

Vencltators, Car. 
trill Co., The J. O. 
Cincinnati Car Co. 
Holden & White. 
Railway Utility Co. 
St. Louis Car Co. 

Vestibules, Portable. 
Brill Co.. The J. O. 

Volt Meter. (See Instrument*.) 

Bound Brook Oil-less Bearlns 

Diamond State Fibre Co. 

Waste Boxes. 

Electric Material Co. 

Water Softening and Purifying 
Scaile & Sons Co., Wm. B. 

Welders. Electric Arc 

Lincoln Electric Co. 

Welders, Portable, Electric, 
Indianapolis Switch & Frog Co. 

Welding Processes and Appara- 
D.avis-Bournonyille Co. 
Electric Railway Improve. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Goidschmidt Thermit Co. 
Lincoln Electric Co. 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 
Prest-O-Lite' Co., Inc.. The. 
U. S. Metal & Mfg. Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Window Operators. 
Drouve Co., The G. 

I Wheel Grinders. 

Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Co. 

Wheel Guards. (See Fenders 
I and Wheel Guards.) 

Wheels,' Car, Cast Iron. 
American Steel & Wire Co. 
Association of Mfrs. of CHiilled 

Car Wheels. 
Bemis Car Truck Co. 
Griffin Wheel Co. 
Long Co., E. G. 

I Wheels, Car. (Steel and Steel 
I Tired.) 

American Steel Foundries. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Carnegie Steel Co. 

Standard Steel Works Co. 

Wheels, Trolley. 
Anderson M. Co., A. & J. H. 
Bayonet Trolley Harp Co. 
Bound Brooli Oil-less Bearing 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. <3o. 
Electric Material Co. 
Electric Servloe Supplies Co. 
Eureka Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Hensley Trolley & Mfg. Co. 
Holden & White. 
Johns-Manville Co., H. W. 
Long Co., E. G. 
More-Jones Brass ft M. Co. 
Nuttall Co., R. D. 
Star Brass Works. 
Union Electric Co. 

Whistles, Air. 
General Electric Co. 
Ohio Brass Co. 

Winding Machines. (See Coll 
Banding and Winding Ma- 

i Wire Rope. 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Roebling's Sons Ci^o., John A. 

Wires and Cables. 
Aluminum Co. of America. 
American Electrical Works. 
American Steel & Wire Co. 
Bridgeport Brass, Co. 
D & W Fuse Co. 
Electric Material Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Kerite Insulated Wire & Cable 

Okonlte Co. 
Packard Electric Co. 
Page Woven Wire & Fenc* 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Standaid Underground Cable 

Western Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & M. Co. 

Wood Preservatives. 
Barrett Co.. The. 
Intems^t'l Creo. & Con. CJe. 
Lindslfly Bros. Co. 
Reevep Co., The. 
Sherwin-Williams Co. 
Valentine-Clark Co. 

Automatic Substations in Des Moines, Iowa 


New York, January 13, 1917 McGraw Publishing Co. Inc. Vol. 49, No. 2 10c a copy 

How many car wheels 
do you remove a year? 

How often do you make wheel removals for turning on account of worn 
Manges, or because of short life? How much do these wheel removals cost you 
m direct labor and cars out of service when most needed? 

You can eliminate this expense. 

Davis Steel Wheels give a large mileage without turning, do away with 
chipped wheels and minimize slid flat troubles. The remarkable wearing qualities 
ot the hard, tough manganese steel in the tread and flange of the Davis Wheel 
make possible a big mileage on one wear. 

Tell us how many wheel removals you make per year and we'll show you 
some economies that will surprise you. 

American Steel Foundries, iioo McCormick Bidg., Chicago 





[January 13, 1917 

HLD Control Bos with Conn Removed 

Westinghouse HLD Control 
For Low-Floor City and Surburban Cars 




combination of the 
^ well-known Westing- 
house Light- Weight HL Control and 
PK Control contained in a single box. 
Three pneumatically operated switches open 
and close the main circuits and give overload 
protection. Resistance is cut in and out, and 
field tap connections made when required, by 
the PK drum. Automatic acceleration is pro- 
vided where operating conditions justify its use. 

The two outstanding advantages of Westinghouse HLD 
Control are, the banishing of all heavy circuit-breaking 
devices from the platform, and permitting the opera- 
tion of cars in trains during rush-hour traffic. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 502 

Sidea Offlcea tn All Large American.Cltiee j 

Electric Railway Journal 

Volume XLIX, No. 2 


Pages 63 to 102 


Automatic Substations Effect Large Economies 

The first cost of seven city substations in Des Moines under construc- 
tion is $140,000 less than the cost of manually-operated converters and 
feeder system for equal losses. The present plan calls for ten automatic 
substations, city and interurban Page 66 

A. S. C. E. Valuation Report Prepared 

The work of five years results in an enunciation of principals which 
should control the valuation of normal public utilities. The report 
should tend to greatly clarify this involved subject Page 72 

Unit Costs of Construction for Permanent Way 

In connection with a report to the Massachusetts Public Service Com- 
mission by H. W. Hayes, engineer to the commission, a large amount of 
data have been compiled which are of interest to estimators. . . .Page 70 

Equipment and Its Maintenance 79 

Concrete Baffle Walls in Protection of Roadbed for 
Water-Retaining Soils — By R. C. Cram. 

A Large Job of Motor Remodeling — By R. H. Parsons. 

Prolonging the Life of an Old Rail — By M. E. Stark. 

New Type of Contact Signal for Cleveland & Eastern. 

The Spring Type of Post Casing for Car Windows. 

Automatic Car and Air Coupler for City Cars. 

Combination Dining and Parlor Cars for Chicago, 
North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad. 

An Easily-Made Phase-Rotation Meter. 

Oil-Insulated Cable Joints. 

Continuous Feed-Water Regulator. 

Preventing Birds from Grounding Lines. 

Bus-Type Disconnecting Switch. 

Temporary Substation Quickly Built After Fire. 

Editorials 63 

Automatic Substations in Des Moines. 
Automatic Substations In General. 
The Tractive Resistance of Cars on Curves. 
A Praiseworthy Valuation Report. 

Purchase and Sale of Electrical Energy by Electric 

Columbus Railway Impresses Safety- 
First Move by Night as Well as by 
Day 69 

Consolidation of French Technical 
Journals 69 

Fares in Annexed District 71 

Results in Kansas City Railways Safety 
Campaign 75 

Washington Railway Relief Paid $13,000 75 

Association News 76 

Communications 77 

Advertising in Company Publications. 

Spacing of Subway Stations 78 

Canadian Compulsory Investigation 
Act 78 

News of Electric Railways 86 

Fare Hearing in Milwaukee. 
Aurora. Elgin & Chicago Arbitration. 
United Railroads Increase Wages. 
Fire Ravages Pottsville Plant. 

Financial and Corporate 90 

Capital Stock Tax Rulings. 

Relief for the Boston Elevated. 

.San Francisco Deposit Time Extended. 

Traffic and Transportation 93 

B. R. T. Starts Efficiency Campaign. 
Jitney Matters in Portland. 
Service Improvements in Harrisburg. 
New Company Publication in Baltimore. 

Hugh M. Wilson Retires 96 

Personal Mention 96 

Construction News 98 

Manufactures and Markets 100 

Line Material Orders Indicate Unusual Activity. 

J. G. Buehler Discusses Car Equipment and Tool 

Steam Roads Show Big Gains. 

James H. McGraw, President. A. E. Clifford, Secretary. J. T. De Mott, Treasurer. H. W. Blake, Editor. 


Chicaoo, 1570 Old Colony Bldg. 
Cleveland, Leader-News Bldg. 

Philadelphia, Real Estate Trust Bldg. 
.San Francisco. Rialto Bldg, 

LONDON, 10 Norfolk St., Slrajid. 
Cable address : "Stryjourn," New York. 

United States, Mexico, Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii, or the Philippines, S3 per year ; Canada, t4.50 ; elsewhere, $6. Single copy, JO cents 
CopvBiOHT, 1917, by McGraw Publishing Inc. Published Weekly. Entered at New York Post Office as Second-Class Mall 

No back volumes for more than one year, and no back copies for more than three months. 

One week required for change of mailing address. New and old addresses must be given. 

Circulation of this issue 7300 copies 


[January 13, 1917 

Mto ili€ 

,1 t*'." 


Steam Turbines of 

45,000 and 70,000 KW. 

are now under Construction. 

Who dare predict the possi- 
bilities of the future? 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 




January 13, 1917] 


"It is largely because of the Westinghouse Inspector - Specialist's close co- 
operation our men that we are able to handle our cars better than ever 
before. H.s work our barn-men is equally efficient. The majority of our 
ZT.TT" t*""! "r^*"- ''««".„'^«^n since first installed eight years ago, 
ma'rk ^rritreTtVanray Va'nLg^^^^ '^'^ ^'^'^ ^^^" ™°'--" ^«— * -' 

Westinghouse Traction Brake Company 

General Offices: Wilmerding, Pa, 


Westinghouse Building 


Railway Exchange Building 


City Investing Building 

Boatmen's Bank Building 



tJANUAllY 13, 1917 

0-B Lock Hanger (Pat.) 

Every Ear Tight 

O-B Type N Lock Hanger. 
"A" is always tight. 

The joint at 

Unless a trolley'ear, when aligned with the wire, 
fits tightly against the hanger there is vibration 
with a possibility of stripped threads. That is 
often what happens with an ordinary hanger. 

But with an O-B Lock Hanger there is always a 
tight joint between hanger and ear.' 

There is a limited vertical movement of the stud 
against a heavy lock washer. Both stud and 
washer are inside a shell which is molded into the 
insulation. The ear is screwed up until it touches 
the hanger. Then it is tightened still further, com- 
pressing the lock washer, until it aligns with the 

Result: tight joint with no chattering or strip- 
ping of threads. 

There are many types of O-B Hangers for as 
many conditions. All are insulated with Dirigo 
composition insulation and metal parts are O-B 

Catalog No. i6 lists and describes the 
complete line of O-B Line Material. 

The Ohio Brass Co. 

Mansfield, Ohio 

January 13, 1917] 


Duplex Tri-Colored Signal Lantern 

Automatic Double Lens Lantern 

Paying Premiums on a Perilous Nuisance 

From the standpoint of maintenance Oil 
Signals on cars are objectionable — a costly 

But when the all-important question of 
safety is considered they are positively dan- 
gerous. They are easily jarred or blown out 
and are not always kept in good condition. 

Contrast this with the simple, automatic 
operation of the O-B Electric Car Signal 

Ordinarily, it is operated on the trolley 
current, but if this fails, or if the lights grow 
too dim, or if the circuit is broken for any 
reason, a storage battery, always charged to 
capacity, lights a second circuit of lamps in 
the same lanterns. The car is always well 

Also, the O-B System costs little to main- 
tain — much less than Oil Signals. 

Send for booklet zvhich describes the operation of the 
O-B System and gives the actual saving effected over oil. 

The Ohio Brass Co. 

Mansfield, Ohio 


[January 13, 1917 



Cut Rehabilitation Costs 

In these days of the diminishing nickel you must build for ■ 
permanence — track construction must be an investment, not 
an expense. 

You can't afford to tear up your track foundation every time 
the rails need replacement. You don't have to if you construct 
with International Steel Twin Ties. 

When International Ties are once installed your foundation 
and tie costs are ended. To replace worn rails simply remove 
the wedges and clips, replace old rails and put the clip back 
in place. You needn't worry about the ties and foundation. 
They're built to last, they stay put, and no man has ever known 
them to fail. 

Permanent construction with International Steel Ties costs 
less than wood tie construction — $1000 to $8000 per mile less. 

Let us submit comparative estimates 
on your job. 

The International Steel Tie Company 

Manufacturers of Steel Twin Ties and Crossing Foundations 
General Sales Office and Works: Cleveland, Ohio 

Western Eng'g Sales Co., San Francisco, Cal. 
Los Angeles, Cal. Seattle, Wash. 

R. J. Cooper Co., J. E. Lewis & Co., Maurice Joy, 

Salt Lake City, Utah. Dallas, Texas. Philadelphia. 

William H. Ziegler, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

January 13. 1917] 


Bears the Brunt 

l^^v^f i ^.^Kft^ 

Here is one of several hundred spans on the 
Brooklyn Bridge. 

These spans receive the shock of trolley 
wheels thousands of times a day — 

Sometimes from lightly loaded cars travel- 
ing at high speeds — 

Sometimes from fully-loaded cars traveling 
at slow speeds but taking heavy currents — 

Always on heavy grades. 

No marvel that Phono-Electric is used in 
many a span on this famous bridge! Experi- 
ence of the operating companies proves that it 
bears the brunt! 

Bridgeport Brass Company 





[January 13, 1917 

Why the 



What Is It? 

There are millions of strong, straight chestnut trees in the great 
forests of America. 

You never see 

But what are they good for ? 

You never see chestnut furniture or fixtures, 
chestnut timbers used for bridges or buildings. 

Yet chestnut surpasses all other timbers in the one purpose for 
which Nature intended it. 


Strong, straight, durable, cheap. Neither 
Nature nor the hand of man ever produced 
a better pole than chestnut. The added 
strength is just what your line needs to 
resist the wind and sleet storms of winter. 
The inherent rot-resisting qualities make 
them last longer. They have only i4-i"ch sap- 
wood — balance heartwood. Heartwood is 
conceded the strength of timber. What 
other wood equals chestnut in this quality? 

When you specify chestnut you get the 
strongest pole that Nature produces. It 
renders dependable service and dependable 
service is the best salesman you can employ. 

Have you ever gone into this pole prob- 
lem? Do you know if you're paying too 
much and getting too little? We can show 
you if you'll give us the opportunity. All 
the proof you want for a 2-cent stamp. 


JOHN L. FAY, Sales Mgr. 



Producers of chestnut poles, cypress and long-leaf 
yellow pine cross-arms, locust pins, oak pins, piling, 
bridge timbers, red cedar posts and lumber. 

Yards, Paducah, Ky. ; Metropolis, 111. ; Dividing Ridge, 
Ky. ; Bonnieville, Ky. ; Munfordville, Ky., and Mans- 
field, Tenn. 

January 13, 1917] 




Keystone Trolley Catchers and Car Signs 

in the Heart of Philadelphia 

The Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company were the first compan\' lo adopt the 
Automotoiieer — the device that keeps the motorman to the predetermined, econom- 
ical rate of acceleration. 

And they are wide awake to the advantages of the curtain car destination signs 
which we manufacture. 

And their use of the Keystone Trolley Catcher for the famous Near-Side car is 
obvious evidence of its efficiency, because the conductor's position is at the front 
of the car, which means extra responsibility for the trolley catcher. 

Have you our catalogs on these specialties? 

Elixttric Si:rvici> StjppI/IES Ca 

Manufacturer of Railway Material and Electrical Supplies 

1 7th and Cambria St*. 


50 Church Street 


Monadnock BIdg. 



[January 13, 1917 

Anderson Slack Adjusters 

will not lock the wheels 
when the load leaves the car 

governed sole- 
ly by brake 
shoe wear 

It is an 

on any car 
in 15 minutes 

With the Anderson Brake Slack Adjusters no definite amount of 
slack has to accumulate before the adjuster will compensate for it. No 
excess slack in the brake rigging is too small to operate the adjuster. 

It eliminates the possibility of taking up too much slack simply 
because the car is heavily loaded and then locking the wheels when the 
load leaves the car. There is nothing in the adjuster to buckle or clog 
and no attention is required until the brake shoes wear out. 

The Anderson Slack Adjuster is really an automatic turnbuckle. It 
operates by means of a cone clutch. It is so simple that there is nothing 
to get out of order and it does the same work continually as is ordinarily 
done periodically by the man in the pit. It reduces pull-ins, makes every 
car handle alike, saves power and brake shoes. 

The Anderson Adjuster simply takes the place of the usual turn- 
buckle and can be installed in 15 minutes. It is not necessary to over- 
haul or change the brake rigging of the car to add this time and 
money-saver to the car equipment. Once installed no attention is 
required whatever. 

Heat, cold, snow, mud or dirt cannot affect its operation. 

Put these slack adjusters on your old cars to reduce shoe and wheel 
wear, to provide increased safety and to decrease maintenance cost. 

Tell us the make and type of your trucks, or send blueprints, and we 
will furnish you with further interesting information. 

General Sales Agents for The Anderson Brake Adjuster Co. 
1508 Fisher Building Chicago, Illinois 

January 13, 1917] 



Who Killed Cock Robin? 

In other words, who put this water pipe out of 

Natural rust or electrolytic corrosion? 

If your rails are bonded with 

ERICO Welded Bonds 

you will have no trouble in shifting the respon- 

And now you can do your bonding better and 
more conveniently than ever with the 

Champion Bonding Truck 

The Champion System saves schedules and 
labor and therefore MONEY. 

Write today for details. 

The Electric Railway Improvement Co. 

Cleveland, Ohio 



[January 13, 1917 

You May Need a Magnifying Glass 
to See it— but it's THERE 

That insignificant — almost im- 
perceptible — unevenness in the rail 
ends of a newly laid track joint is 
the "germ" of a bad joint. And it 
is a mighty malignant germ and 
grows rapidly. 

The only safe way to "treat" it 
is to kill it when it's young and the 
best medicine for that is the use 
of the 

Track Grinder 

Here is a specific instance which shows very 
clearly the reduction of maintenance costs 
that may be accomplished by the application 
of the Reciprocating Grinder to new track 

The disease of corrugations 
and cupped joints will prove fatal 
to the long life of track if neg- 
lected. To check its ravages it 
should be treated in its early and 
incipient stages. And the most 
effective and economical medicine 
is the application of a Recipro- 
cating Track Grinder which is 
sold on the basis of "no pay un- 
less you are completely satisfied." 

Differences in height of rails at joints must be re- 
moved immediately to conserve the life of the joint. 
Practice has demonstrated this very forcibly within the 
last eight years, and I will mention one particular in- 
stance out of many where the issue was brought to my 
attention. Two pairs of compromise splices were in- 
stalled of the Atlas type where 70-lb. A. S. C. E. rails 
were connected to 97-lb. 424 grooved section. At the 
time of installation in 1913 a very slight difference in 
the surface of the rails was noticed, and we neglected 
to grind the rails to a smooth surface. This 
was a single track over which 26-ton cars op- 
erated on from a headway of from three to 
four minutes. Inside of eight months these joints 
were a wreck, including paving and rail ends. In order 
to repair them, new Atlas plates were installed, new 
pieces of rails were cut in, and the joints were the n 
ground to a true surface. After more than two years 
these joints are apparently as perfect as on the day 
they were installed. We find this to be particularly 
true on compromise joints at special work. 

From a retort by the track superintendent of a large electric railway. 

Railway Track-work Go. 

30th and Walnut Sts., Philadelphia, U. S. A. 

January 13, 1917] 




AXLE <9A7c/ 

THE severest operating conditions prevailing today can be successfully 
"TIGER" BRONZE has been specially developed for bearing service. It 
is distinguished by unusual anti-friction qualities, toughness and density of 
grain. This insures great strength, a very slow, even rate of wear and min- 
imum friction. 

world over as standard. Measured by service actually performed, it is the 
most economical on the market. Composed of entirely new metal — no scrap — 
contains absolutely no lead and is much lighter than other babbitts. Takes on 
a high polish and shows perceptibly no wear. 

Further information and prices on application. 

More- J ones Brass & Metal Co., St. Louis, U.S.A. 




...^^i^..,/...... ;..«^,.^m^.^^^»..aa,a^..- 

mWMl -»itliaiflllfftl 




[January 13, 1917 






Here Is the Evidence 

These and other important railway properties throughout the 
world have found by thorough test that Nuttall Railway 
Products give: more and better service and at less cost per mile. 

Their experience covers every operating condition and some- 
where in all this varied experience is a solution for the problem 
that may now be troubling you. Let us suggest the proper gear, 
pinion or trolley for your particular condition and make a test 
for yourself. 

Ask for Catalogues 12 and 13. 








January 13, 1917] 



Denver State House 

22o Rico Coasting Recorders 

Increased Armature Li^ 5o per cent 

at Denver, Colorado 

Denver is 5270 feet above sea level, just 10 feet short of a mile. But it is not one 
inch short of attaining operating efficiency with every available tool — and one of its most 
important tools is the Rico Coasting Recorder. On no other Rico Railway have the possi- 
bilities of the Rico Coasting Recorder been studied from so many angles as at Denver. 

Not only have the Denver Tramways found that the Rico Coasting Recorder saved 
power and brakeshoes, but also increased armature life 50 per cent. (April 1915), decreased 
rundown accidents 41 per cent. (April 1915), and, in the words of its electrical engineer, 

"Provided a means whereby we can 
investigate and obtain economy in op- 
eration which heretofore would entail 
the conducting of expensive tests." 
These benefits would not be possible if 
the Rico Coasting Recorder did not 

TKe TttielVinciple 

Operating EflSciency 
Time is tKe Essence of Railroading' 



18 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL [January 13, 1917 

Why Divide Responsibility? 


G-E railway motors are amply guaranteed by 
the General Electric Company — so are G-E car- 
bon brushes. Where G-E motors are equipped 
with G-E parts there is no division of responsi- 
bility — the General Electric Company stands back 
of the entire equipment. 

Furthermore, buyers of G-E motors get the 
benefit of the engineering skill of this company in 
prescribing the proper motor for their individual 
needs. Why not take advantage of the same skill 
in the selection of brushes for these motors? 

G-E brushes cost less per mile — 


General Electric 


Schenectady, N. Y. 

Electric Railway Journal 

Published by the McGraw Publishing Company Inc. 
Consolidation of Street Railway journal, and Electric Railway Review 

Vol. XLIX 


No. 2 

AUTOMATIC We are pleased to be able to give 

SUBSTATIONS our readers this week some data 

IN DES MOINES regarding the equipment of auto- 

matic substations now in process of installation in Des 
Moines, Iowa, on the city and interurban lines. The 
most striking fact in this case is that a large quantity 
of low-tension line copper is to be taken down and sold, 
a highly profitable undertaking with scrap copper at its 
present price. The significance of the Des Moines situ- 
ation is that the engineers of the local railways had 
sufficient confidence in the reliability of this newcomer 
in the transportation field to proceed upon the basis of 
calculations to adopt it upon so large a scale. In this 
case, also, one element favoring the "automatic" was 
lacking, namely the possibility of making considerable 
immediate saving in labor cost. It had to justify its 
adoption upon the basis of low investment cost. Ulti- 
mately there will be a labor cost saving also but this 
will be "velvet" so to speak. In this installation the 
automatic principle will be applied in two ways. It will 
be used for the substations considered as units and 
also for the individual machines. In the first case the 
substations will come onto the line or go off as may be 
necessary to maintain proper voltage regulation, and in 
the second case where more than one rotary is installed 
the machine capacity will be adjusted to the load re- 
quirements so as to maintain high efficiency and pre- 
vent overloading. The flexibility of the automatics is 
indicated here as they are used in conjunction with the 
manually-operated substation^, each type being assigned 
to the duty which it can best perform. 


It is but about a year and a quar- 
ter since we published the first ac- 
count of an automatic substation 
equipment in the transportation field, that is on the 
Elgin & Belvidere Electric Railway, a small property 
in northeastern Illinois. This installation has since op- 
erated with entire satisfaction to the owners. Since 
then substantial progress has been made, and one man- 
ufacturer reports that at the end of 1916 there were 
twenty automatic electric railway substations under 
construction or in operation, the latter comprising about 
one-half of the total. This progress is quoted princi- 
pally as evidence of the confidence felt in the reliability 
of the apparatus. The advantages of a scheme like this 
can be worked out nicely on paper, but after all they 
are only of academic interest if the element of reliability 
is lacking. The underlying principle involved here is 
that of utilizing the high-tension line to the fullest pos- 
sible extent. With any system on which rotary con- 
verters are used it is obvious that the more uniformly 

these converters are spread over the system the less 
will be the amount of copper required in the low-ten- 
sion distribution. However, with manually operated 
stations, the labor item soon sets a subdivision limit. 
With the automatics many more substations can be 
used, for the labor element is inconsiderable, but ulti- 
mately a limit is set by the increasingly higher cost per 
kilowatt of substation equipment, including buildings 
and sites, as the individual capacities of substations are 
lower. An economic balance must be struck to deter- 
mine the proper number of units to be used in any case. 


Last week we directed attention 
to the recently published de- 
scription of tests, made under 
the auspices of the University of Illinois Engineering 
Experiment Station, on the tractive resistance of a 
double-truck electric car on curves. The results of the 
tests furnish data to show that there is a relation be- 
tween speed and resistance, a fact which while sus- 
pected has in general been ignored for lack of definite 
information. Under these circumstances it has been 
customary to assume a value for the extra resistance 
due to track curvature on the basis of weight, degree 
of curvature and, sometimes, length of wheelbase. 
For rough calculations one extra pound per ton per de- 
gree curvature is a convenient factor, although this 
value is probably high for the usual conditions under 
which an electric car rounds curves. It appears from 
the University of Illinois tests, however, that unless the 
merest approximation to the force or the power required 
in rounding curves is desired such an assumption is 
entirely too crude. For example, from the sample chart 
printed last week the tractive resistance per ton at 35 
m.p.h. on a 5-deg. curve is 10 lb., whereas at 1 lb. per 
degree curvature it would be 5 lb., or one-half as much. 
At 10 m.p.h. on an 8y2-deg. curve the force is 5 lb., or, 
say, 30 per cent less than under the l-lb.-per-ton-per- 
degree assumption. It may also be of interest to com- 
pare the power consumptions in the above cases. At 
35 m.p.h. on the 5-deg. curve slightly over 0.9 hp. per 
ton is required to overcome curve resistance only, while 
at 10 m.p.h. on the 8y2-deg. curve it is 0.133 hp. At 
l-lb.-per-ton-per-degree the respective values would be 
0.46 hp. and 0.226 hp. It must, of course, be remembered 
that the University of Illinois tests were made on one 
car and under somewhat limited track conditions. 
However, they furnish reference data of value. The 
components of curve resistance are of a nature to resist 
rational investigation. We must, therefore, largely de- 
pend upon empirical formulas like the one resulting 
from these tests. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 2 


With the science of valuation still in a formative 
stage, as it is, we are glad to see any v/otk that really 
tends to clarify the subject. We welcome, therefore, the 
long-awaited report of the valuation committee of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, abstracted else- 
where this week, for it summarizes in a way that should 
be helpful to utilities the principles that should control 
the valuation of normal properties. Representing five 
years of steadfast work, in the course of which the first 
progress report was almost completely revamped, the 
present work ought to be of material service in reducing 
the uncertainties of valuation as now practiced, although 
in such a rapidly growing science it is necessarily not 
the last word. 

What to our mind is the most admirable feature of 
the report is its comprehensiveness and fair discrimina- 
tion. For instance, although it realizes the desirability 
of a goal of uniformity, it clearly sees that a sharp 
distinction must be made between what may be done 
under present laws and what may be done under 
future legislation and continuous commission con- 
trol. New properties, old properties under regulation 
from their inception and old properties not subject to 
continuous regulation present different problems and 
demand different treatment along depreciation and other 
lines. In general, the report testifies to the painstak- 
ing efforts of the committee not to sacrifice justice to 
generalization, and it deserves careful study as an ex- 
ample of sanity in valuation literature. 

The report is too voluminous to be discussed here in 
detail, but some of the noteworthy sections may be men- 
tioned. The committee, for instance, recognizes that the 
bases for ratemaking, capitalization, taxation and public 
purchase are not necessarily the same, but that in each 
case "fair value" should be deduced by making full 
allowance for the tangible values in the property, how- 
ever acquired, and also full allowance for intangibles as 
far as they are applicable to the purpose in mind. In 
other words, in an appraisal on the original cost or re- 
production-cost basis there must first be included the 
tangible elements with assigned costs based on concrete 
facts, but the pertinent facts relating to intangible 
elements should then be developed independently, so 
that their value may be determined and added to the 

In regard to the two main indicators of tangible value, 
original cost and reproduction cost of existing property, 
it is evident that the committee is inclined to favor the 
latter, because of the practical impossibility of obtain- 
ing a dependable result where the absence of reliable his- 
torical data makes necessary a resort to estimates of 
original cost, as in the case of old properties consisting 
mainly of long-lived items. We recognize, of course, the 
difficulty of obtaining an original cost figure when rec- 
ords are poor or unavailable, and to such an extent we 
agree with the committee. We believe, however, that 
original cost should be ascertained if possible as one 
of the elements of "fair value," and we are not at all 
certain that the resourceful engineer cannot, in the ab- 

sence of only part of the original cost records, make 
suitable estimates with as great a degree of dependa- 
bility as he can establish a proper reproduction cost 
schedule of the existing property for the application of 
present prices. . 

Other important points in the report have to do with 
land valuation, development expense and going value. 
Utilities that have seemed to try in various guises to 
secure what the Minnesota rate decision denied — an ad- 
ditional land , value attaching to the property because 
of its higher use — will probably be disappointed in the 
finding of the committee on this point, but they should 
notice that the report is far from going to the extreme 
desired by some commissions, i.e., striking off all ele- 
ments except the naked formal value of land. In other 
words, the committee believes in the full allowance of 
all real items of cost, including the compulsory feature, 
severance damages and acquisition expenses. In regard 
to development expenses, the committee, in classifying 
these as an unavoidable real cost to be added to the cost 
of the physical property, has recognized the demand of 
commissions that such expenses be proved by the 
presentation of concrete facts, while in making going 
value a distinct and intangible element the committee 
has taken a step that should clarify the existing con- 
fusion and secure for this item its proper recognition 
with other elements that are included in the intangible 

We have mentioned before the realization of the com- 
mittee that different utilities must be treated differently 
in valuation matters. The report particularly empha- 
sizes this in depreciation matters. Its analysis is very 
clear. What it happily calls "decretion" or loss of serv- 
ice life is always present in some degree even in a well- 
maintained property. Whether the cost of decretion, 
however, is a deductible quantity or "depreciation of 
valuation" simply depends on the accounting proce- 
dure that has been followed, or should have been fol- 
lowed under regulation. If the heretofore much-criti- 
cized replacement method is used, as on railways where 
renewals are handled as ordinary maintenance and re- 
tirements after a time proceed with fair regularity and 
cause no serious variations in the return, the cost of 
decretion found to exist at any time should not be de- 
ducted from the valuation because the public has not 
yet paid for the accrued decretion and is still under ob- 
ligation to pay for it. Where a commission, however, 
has prescribed an accumulating depreciation fund in 
order to make provision in advance for the full decre- 
tion of property items, the cost of decretion should be 
deducted in securing the rate base, but this deduction 
should be offset by the fund found in public service, 
either as a separate fund or as additions to plant. 
Complications arise, for instance, when the accounting 
treatment of depreciation has not been uniform or when 
regulation has limited earnings so that they have 
not been sufficient to cover operating expenses, depre- 
ciation allowances and a fair return. In the former 
case the committee positively says that the depreciation 
of valuation should be equivalent merely to the accu- 

January 13, 1917] 



mulated contributions of the public for depreciation al- 
lowances. In the latter case the committee qualifies 
its suggestion of the same procedure by saying that the 
relative importance of depreciation and a fair return 
is a matter of equity which will have to be decided 
by the court. This is undoubtedly correct, but when 
the courts act we hope that utility owners will not be 
penalized because of the failure of commissions to allow 
adequate earnings. 


There are few electric railways which are not inter- 
ested in electrical energy as a commodity to be bought 
or sold, or both. In many localities energy can be pur- 
chased more cheaply than it can be generated, in 
others it is economical not only to generate electrical 
energy but to sell it also, at wholesale or retail. The 
businesses of transportation and electricity supply are 
constantly becoming more intimately related so that 
there are many properties which supply both kinds of 
service. In other cases, railway and lighting proper- 
ties are united through holding companies. On the 
properties where all of the energy is consumed locally 
in transportation and other railway uses the motive 
power department virtually sells energy to the trans- 
portation department. It is highly important, there- 
fore, for every railway management to know exactly 
what energy is worth locally, and what the profit is, 
either when buying or selling or producing for home 

At a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, held on April 26, L. B. Stillwell stated that 
in a 50,000-kw. steam plant with a load of 50 per cent 
load factor the total cost of energy varies from about 
0.4 cent per kilowatt-hour with coal at $1 per ton to 
0.75 cent with $5 coal. He assumed a unit power plant 
cost of $68.70 per kilowatt. The Cleveland controversy 
over the question of the purchase of additional power 
for the railway from the central station company or 
from the Municipal plant, which was just settled, has 
brought out some fundamental facts. The Engineering 
Association committee on power generation submitted 
some valuable tables at the Atlantic City convention 
giving detailed costs for a number of typical plants. 
Unfortunately these data were printed for private cir- 
culation only, but they are available to members of the 
association. They show annual average operating 
costs between about 0.3 cent and 0.6 cent per kilowatt- 
hr. with load factors from 33 per cent to 44 per cent 
and outputs between 40,000,000 and 130,000,000 kw.-hr. 
per year. 

So great is the interest in the subject of energy pur- 
chase and sale by railways and so active are the central 
station companies in going after central station load 
that the ELECTRIC Railway Journal has found it de- 
sirable to investigate the present status of this busi- 
ness with the aid of the McGraw Electric Railway Di- 
rectory. On account of the complicated organization of 
many companies the results can be stated only ap- 

proximately, but they will serve as a general guide and 
as supplementary to the data given in the latest re- 
port of the Bureau of the Census. It appears that 
about 18 per cent of the electric railway companies in 
this country are doing a supplementary power business 
and 24 per cent a lighting business. Of the total num- 
ber 55 per cent generate their own power and 45 per 
cent purchase power, these classes overlapping to the 
extent of about 2 per cent. The railways generating 
power operate roughly 70 per cent of the mileage and 
74 per cent of the rolling stock, indicating that in 
spite of the tendency toward purchasing, to which ref- 
erence has been made in these columns from time to 
time and to which the latest census report directs 
special attention, the railways are still far from go- 
ing out of the power business. Indeed, many of them 
are making a good profit by adding to their commercial 

Whether purchase or sale of power is profitable or 
not depends so much upon local conditions that no gen- 
eral rule is applicable. The whole matter was sum- 
marized in H. G. Stott's New Haven paper, abstracted 
in the issue of the ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL for 
June 24, 1916, page 1170. He pointed out that it comes 
down ultimately to the question of load factor. That 
is, the plant which has the most nearly uniform load 
can, everything else being equal, produce energy most 
cheaply. It is of minor importance who owns and op- 
erates the plant. There is, of course, the related ques- 
tion of reliability, for no railway can afford to risk 
preventable interruption of power supply. This risk, 
however, is not as great as it was a few years ago 
for the perfecting of protective devices has rendered 
electrical energy supply remarkably continuous. 

The most difficult feature of this whole subject is 
the calculation of the exact cost of electrical energy. 
The fuel, water, labor and other operating components 
of cost can be obtained from the records, but the over- 
head charges must be estimated and thus uncertain 
elements are brought in. It is customary to assume 
certain interest and depreciation rates which must por- 
vide for keeping the plant in an assumed "per cent 
condition." But no prophet can tell what a year will 
bring forth in the way of technical progress, necessi- 
tating the retirement from service of generating units 
mechanically perfect. Take for example the virtual 
crowding out of the reciprocating engine by the steam 
turbine, and in turn that of the vertical turbine by the 
horizontal. Such a process is expensive but is inci- 
dent to progress. It is a factor in the cost of power. 
Fortunately, the unit cost of power plant, i.e., the in- 
vestment cost per kilowatt, is decreasing. This fact 
combined with an accompanying load factor improve- 
ment accounts for a greatly increased annual output 
per dollar invested. Investment in plant and deprecia- 
tion thereof are, therefore, less important than for- 
merly. It should thus be easier as time goes on to cal- 
culate the cost of power. The technical association 
committees which are working along this line should, 
however, be given every possible facility for their work. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 2 

Automatic Substations Permit Large 
Saving in Des Moines 

First Cost of Seven City Substations Under Construction Is $140,000 Less Than 
the Cost of Manually-Operated Converters and Feeder System for Equal Losses — 
Present Plan Calls for Ten Automatic Substations, City and Interurban — $90,000 
Worth of Copper in Old Feeder System Is to Be Taken Down and Sold 


THE first example of the application of the automatic 
substation to an entire city property is the installa- 
tion now being made in Des Moines, Iowa. Four 
automatic substations including one portable sub- 
station are now in operation and seven more are under 
construction or on order. 

The principle of the automatic substation is already 
familiar to the readers of the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal through several articles which have been published. 
It is that variation in line voltage is utilized to control 
the starting and stopping of rotary converters, and the 
switching operations. The details of operation of an 
early installation were presented in the issue of ELEC- 
TRIC Railway Journal for Sept. 18, 1915, page 583, 
where the equipment of the Elgin & Belvidere Electric 
Railway was described. The equipment as installed at 
Des Moines is in all essentials identical with that in 
the earlier installation, except for some refinements in 
the control apparatus. 

Two Plans for Increasing Line Capacity 

The plan in general includes the complete operation 
of the lines of the Des Moines City Railway from auto- 
matic substations and the supply of power to the Inter- 
Urban Railway, which is under the same management, 
at points intermediate to the present substations in 
order to provide for the very heavy freight traffic and 
to eliminate the excessive voltage drop. For the present 
there will be seven automatic rotary converters on the 
city lines and three on the interurban lines located as 
shown on the accompanying maps. Plans not yet com- 
plete involve two additional machines on the city lines 
and several more on the interurban lines. 

The introduction of the automatic substation in elec- 

tric railway work came at a time fortunate for the Des 
Moines properties. The company had been fighting for 
fifteen years to gain a franchise, in the meantime being 
hampered in financing new work needed to keep the 
property up to the greatly increasing transportation 
needs of the city and surrounding territory. The power 
loss due to insufficiency of copper in the lines was exces- 
sive, so great in certain localities that it was at times 
barely possible to move the cars. Then upoa the grant- 
ing of a franchise last year forty new four-motor cars 
were purchased and placed in service, rendering impera- 
tive the bettering of the conditions in the direct-current 
feeder system. 

With money available, the first impulse, of course, 
was to put up more copper. It was estimated, however, 
that the cost of putting the city feeder system into such 
a condition that the losses would approximate 10 per 
cent, would be about $345,000. This estimate was 
made after an exhaustive study of the conditions, involv- 
ing the making of many thousand voltage readings at 
numerous points on the city lines. It included the cost 
of installing two additional 1000-kw. rotary converters 
at the power house. 

A study of the possibilities of the automatic substa- 
tion was then made, and it was found that for the city 
alone an adequate distribution system giving voltage 
regulation equal to or better than would have been 
obtained under the previous plan could be installed for 
$51,500 less first cost. To this could be added the sum 
of $90,000, the value of the copper which was no longer 
necessary and could be taken down and sold. The 
detailed estimates are given in Table I. 

Under the latter plan it was, of course, necessary to 
erect transmission lines to the several new substations. 

January 13, 1917] 



at a cost estimated at $2000 a mile. The first cost was 
materially lessened by installing auto-transformers and 
equipment for doubling the power plant generating volt- 
age to transmit at 4400 volts instead of 2200 volts. The 
total cost of $345,000 under the first plan is in 
reality not a fair figure with which to compare the cost 
of the automatic-substation plan for the condition of the 
feeder lines is such that it would have been necessary 

units would be useless, and while they are worth $40,- 
000 in the present plant, they are worth only $5,000 as 
.junk. This $40,000 less the junk value is charged 
against the substation plan. But before these units 
and the feeder system can be dispensed with, a new 
turbo-generator is necessary. While it is essential at 
the present moment to replace only the equipment to 
be discarded, which has 2000-kw. capacity, a unit of 

OldSubSfa Hanual/y Operat-ed 
fkniufomaiic SubSfa inOperatron or 
under Consfruction. 

- Trolley Corrhd Wire . 

- ht<len(?reieni)hbe fatten Down 
* feeder which mil be Retained in Service 

after Completion nffresenf Plan 

feeder _ InVtirbon FlmtVoll ei) FrtightLine 


BoKsher SutSIa, 


practically to rebuild them completely 
before additional copper could be safely 
strung. This would have added not less 
than $25,000 to the amount given. 

Necessary Power House Changes 

If the costs of the rearrangements 
made necessary at the power house un- 
der the automatic substation plan be included, the total 
cost is apparently slightly greater than the feeder plan, 
but this is not really the case, for the following reason : 
The power house is now equipped with one 2000-kw. and 
one 1000-kw. turbine units, and two 1000-kw. direct-cur- 
rent reciprocating cross-compound units. With the 
feeder system taken down, these two direct-current 



Feeder Plan 

Present feeder copper, at 2T> cents per pound $112,800 

Additional copper necessary for proi^er voltage regula- 
tion, at 2G cents 172,500 

Two 1000-kw. rotary converters installed in power house. 

building extension, switchboard, equipment, etc 60,000 


Automatic Substtition Plan 

Present feeder copper $112,800 

Seven rotary converters and control equipment 98,000 

Installation of seven equipments 8.500 

Seven substation buildings 21,000 

Seventeen miles 4400-volt transmission line 34,000 

Mi.scellaneous material 10.000 

Auto transformers for stepping voltage from 2200 to 4400, 

labor, cable, switching equipment, etc 9,500 

Credit feeder copper taken down at 20 cents 90,200 


Manually-operated-substatlons plan, total $345,300 

Automaticaliy-operated-substations plan, total 203,600 

Difference $141,700 

not less than 5000-kw. capacity will be 
installed to provide for the immediate 
future. The cost of the new 5000-kw. 
unit and of the addition to the power 
house for it, with the auxiliaries and 
electrical apparatus, is estimated at 
$120,000. As seen in the second table 
this gives an excess cost of the complete 
automatic substation plan over the feeder plan of $13,- 
300, but increases the station capacity by 3000 kw. and 
frees the station space previously occupied by the re- 
ciprocating units. No provision is made for future 
growth in the $345,000 feeder plan. Such provision is 
necessary, as the load is now up to the capacity of the 
present plant. Estimating at $13,300 the cost of the 
3000 kw. of additional capacity, it is secured at a rate 
of $4.43 per kilowatt. If in the feeder plan $120,000 
is added for the cost of a 5000-kw. unit and $25,000 for 
rebuilding the feeder pole lines, to put the two plans 
upon a more nearly comparable cost basis, the automatic 
equipment is seen to be more economical. The complete 
comparison is given in Table II on page 68. 

Practical Working Out of the Plan Involving 
Automatic Substations 

One of the principal features of the automatic sub- 
station is the economic possibility of placing stations 
where the power is needed. In Des Moines practically 
all cars pass through the downtown "loop" district, in- 
dicated on the accompanying map within the light dot- 
dash line, and the power requirements in this area are 
consequently very great. In the new plan a substation 
ia placed at either end of the loop. The line losses are cut 
down so materially thereby that the trolley wire pro- 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 2 


vides ample copper and all feeder copper is to be re- 
moved. Comparison of the location of these two sub- 
stations with the former location of the substation 
nearest to the loop district, the one in the power house, 
indicates the cause of the saving. Yet the cost of 
operating a manually-controlled substation placed in 
the loop would have been greater than the capitalized 
value of the copper losses involved in supplying direct- 
current energy from the power house where the station 
engineer does the operating. 

The substation at Twelfth and High Streets is de- 
signed for two rotaries which will be arranged so that 
the second unit will come in on the line only after the 
load at that point has increased beyond the capacity of 
the first. One of these units, a 500-kw. machine, is 
now in operation. A single 500-kw. unit will Very 
shortly be placed in operation at the opposite end of the 
loop, East Second and Walnut Streets, and the other 
five automatic stations will be located over the city, as 
shown in the map, as rapidly as the work can be done. 
Formerly the entire city lines were supplied from the 
power house substation, from a few feeders carried 
back into the city from the Beaver Valley Junction sub- 
station on the west division of the interurban, 4.5 miles 
from the loop, and from the Bowsher substation on the 
east division of the interurban, 7.4 miles from the loop. 

On the Colfax division of the Inter-Urban property 


Loss due to elimination of two 1000-kw. direct-current 

reciprocating units $40,000 

Cost of new 5000-kw. turbo-generator installed, extension 

of station, switchboard equipment, condenser, etc.... 120,000 

Credit for Junk value of two 1000-kw. direct-current units 5,000 

Saving with automatic rather than manual plan, outside 

of station 141,700 

Additional cost with gain of 3000 kw. in capacity $13,300 

Cost per kilowatt of 3000 kw. additional station capacity. $4.43 

Cost of feeder plan from previous table, about $345,000 

Cost of rebuilding feeder pole lines 25,000 

Cost of adding 5000 kw. turbine to power house 120,000 


Cost of complete automatic substation plan ($203,600 plus 

$155,000) 358,600 

Overall flrst-cost saving in favor of automatic station. . . .$131,400 

power is supplied from substations at Bowsher and 
Mitchellvi.le, which will be retained for the present. 
An extension of this line to Newton is contemplated, 
and with its completion a heavy freight traffic is ex- 
pected which will necessitate a rearrangement of the 
.substations and the use of automatic equipment. 

On the west, or Beaver Valley division, of the Inter- 
Urban property, power was previously supplied by sub- 
.stations at Beaver Valley Junction, Herrold, Moran and 
Perry, the distances between them being, respectively, 
8.7, 11 and 11 miles. Some time ago a gravel pit was 
opened on the banks of the Des Moines River north of 
Herrold, and a 2.25-mile spur was built to it to per- 
mit the taking of contract for hauling from twenty to 
forty cars of gravel a day and delivering them to the 
Chicago, Great Western Railroad at Highland Junc- 
tion, on the belt line north of the city. Last summer 
the haul-out of this gravel pit averaged nearly forty 
cars a day, and this with the other freight haul and the 
heavy grades and curves on the spur and between Her- 
rold and Beaver Valley Junction caused an excessive 
drop in voltage. To provide suitable power supply for 
this profitable carload freight two 300-kw. automatic 



January 13, 1917] 



substations were installed at Brennan and Hyperion, 
in the 8.7-mile space between Beaver Valley Junction 
and Herrold substations. The spacing on the section 
of line between substations was thus made 3.7 miles 
from Beaver Valley Junction to Brennan; 2.7 miles 
from Brennan to Hyperion, and 2.3 miles from Hy- 
perion to Herrold. A 500-kw. portable automatic sub- 
station was used all during the summer while the 
gravel pit was in operation at a mid-point on the 214- 
mile spur, as indicated on the map. This portable sub- 
station is completely equipped to be used on either the 
23,000-volt line supplying the interurban substations 
or the 4400-volt lines in the city, it being possible to 
make the change-over from one to the other in a few 

In addition to these three substations on the route of 
the principal freight traffic, another automatic station 
is being installed midway between the two interurban 
divisions on the 6-mile connecting belt line north of the 
city. This will be equipped with one 500-kw. unit and 
will greatly improve ths operating conditions over this 
belt line, which has a profile with rather stiff grades 
for heavy traffic both ways. While the capacity repre- 
sented by these six substations between the gravel pit 
and the interchange with the Great Western is more 
than enough for present requirements, it has been 
planned for the growth expected in the immediate fu- 
ture. It is expected that the output of the gravel pit 
will be doubled next summer, and this alone will make 
considerable traffic over these lines. 

At Perry, Moran, Herrold, Bowsher and Mitchell- 
ville the day operator also acts as station, ticket and 
freight agent, handles train* orders, etc., and as these 
other duties require the services of a man anyway, the 
stations will be continued under manual operation for 
the present. As the business grows, however, and the 
combined duties become greater than one man can 
handle, automatic control equipment will be installed. 
The situation at Perry has very nearly reached the 
point where it will be necessary to put on a second day 
operator, and this station will probably be equipped 
with automatic control at an early date. 

Work is being pushed on the construction of the 
power house extension and the installation of the new 
5000-kw. turbine-generator unit in order to make it 
possible to take down the present feeder system while 
the copper market is favorable. The work planned at 
the power house also includes extensive rearrangements 
designed to bring the whole station up to a thoroughly 
modern plant. Good operating economy has been 
gained in the old plant by utilizing the exhaust from 
the two cross-compound reciprocating units in a mixed- 
pressure turbine and balancing the load between the 
alternating-current and direct-current generators by 
floating a 1000-kw. rotary converter between the two. 

Economies to be Realized 

The figures given in the early paragraphs of this 
article do not take into consideration the operating sav- 
ings resulting from the automatic apparatus. Just 
what these will amount to is difficult to estimate, but 
it is certain that the saving resulting from the elimi- 
j nation of light-load losses will be very important. At 
present no station operators are displaced because of 
the previous location of the city substation at the 
power house, where the same number of men must be 
employed anyway, and on interurban lines because of 
other duties assigned to the operators. But the ab- 
sence of the labor cost is distinctly the feature which 
makes it economically possible to place the automatic 
stations at the places needed to gain this great saving 
in copper and the much better voltage conditions than 

possible by any other plan. The gross savings to be 
realized must remain largely a matter of conjecture 
until a period of operation brings out the finite results. 
When the installation is completed, it is expected that 
one inspector for the interurban substations and one 
for the city substations will be all the labor necessary 
to the operation of all the direct-current supply sta- 
tions, which will probably eventually number upwards 
of sixteen stations. 

The Des Moines installation was laid out and en- 
gineered by F. C. Chambers, mechanical and electrical 
engineer for the company, and the operation of the 
substations is directly in charge of C. A. Butcher. 

Columbus Railway Impresses 

Safety-First Move by Night as Well as 

by Day 

A large electric sign mounted on the front of the 
office building of the Columbus Railway, Power & Light 
Company blazes forth the warning and the company's 
interest in the safety-first movement, both night and 

day. As it is the 
only illuminated sign 
on the company's 
office building, it 
naturally emphasizes 
the company's posi- 
tion in safety work. 
It is very plainly 
distinguishable from 
the viaduct on High 
Street in front of 
the Union Station, 
which is at a higher 
elevation than the 
downtown section of 
the street, and is, 
therefore, one of the 
first things noticed 
by the traveler as 
he leaves the station 
and looks up the 
m.ain street. In this 
manner it has at- 
tracted a great deal of attention on the part of the 
strangers in the city as well as the residents. 

This sign is simply one of the means which the Co- 
lumbus company has taken to carry on its active work 
in the interest of safety, and in which it has been 
unusually successful. The significant features of this 
work were brought out in a paper read by Harold W. 
Clapp, general superintendent, before the Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association recently and published on page 
1110 of the Nov. 25, 1916, ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 




Consolidation of French Technical 

The most important two journals in the electrical 
field in France, La Lumiere Electrique and La Revue 
Electrique, have united to form the new Revue Generale 
de I'Electricite. This will be a weekly of about fifty 
pages each issue, and it will be the official organ of 
the Union des Syndicats de I'Electricite. The publica- 
tion will contain four general sections, namely, scien- 
tific and technical; industrial; economic and financial, 
and legislative. The office of publication is 12, Place 
de Laborde, Paris, and the subscription price in France 
is 40 francs and in foreign countries 50 francs per 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 2 

Unit Costs of Construction for 
Permanent Way 

Data Transmitted to Massachusetts Public Service 

Commission by H. W. Hayes, Engineer 

of the Commission, Were Gathered 

from Numerous Sources 

IN connection with a report to the Massachusetts Pub- 
lic Service Commission by the engineering depart- 
ment of the board for the purpose of comparing con- 
struction cost data submitted by the Bay State Street 
Railway with similar data from other sources, a large 
amount of material has been assembled which is of in- 
terest to estimators. Selections from these data cover- 
ing permanent way matters are printed below, only such 
items being listed as appear useful in general practice. 
In his letter of transmittal to the board, H. W. Hayes, 
engineer of the commission, states that the cost data 
presented were obtained from many sources, notably 
from the purchase records of the Boston Elevated Rail- 
way, the Middlesex & Boston Street Railway, Worcester 
Consolidated Street Railway and other operating prop- 
erties; from the Massachusetts Highway Commission, 
Boston Transit Commission, and from dealers and man- 
ufacturers. In the following notes, the source of each 
unit cost figure is given, so far as possible, and so far 
as feasible, only recent data are included unless other- 
wise specified. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission's classification 
has been followed in the items listed. 


I. C. C. AccT. No. 508 

All costs except fi nal distribution of croesings, crossovers, c urves, frogs, switches, mates and 
portions of track made to order. 

Puhlic Service Commission enpineerinfc department estimate of average costs of special 
work (material only) f.o.b. destination in Massachusetts. 

Allow 12 ft. of track for switch and mate; 6 ft. for frog. 

1915 Costs, 9-In. Girder Rail Solid Insert Heavy Insert Light Insert 

Switch, each $240 00 IIPO.OO 

Mate, each IfiO.OO 130.00 $117.00 

Frog, each lOO.OO 120.00 108.00 

Curved track, per foot 3.80 3.80 3 30 

Straight track, per foot 3.20 3.20 2.70 

For 7-in. or 6-in. girder, deduct 10 per cent from aliove prices. 

Allow 12 ft. of track for switch and mate: 6 ft. for frog. 

1915 Costs T-rail work not more than 4.25 in. high. 

Heavy Insert IJght Insert 

Switch, each Add 10 per cen $125.00 

Mate.each to 16 per cent 80 00 

Frog, each 70,00 

Curveti track, per foot 2 . .50 

Straight track , per foot 2 . 00 

Z guar<l, 4.25-in. T-rail $0.80 per foot 

Bar guard, 4.25-in. T-rail .50 per foot 

Split switch turnout ends, 15-ft. points, all acceesories and ground throw, 

single or double spring frogs, average 120.00 per end 

Add fur frog guards 7.50each 


l.C.C..\ccT. No. 507 
Average prices paid by Boston Elevated Railway f.o.b. destination per groffi ton, drilhn^ 

Girder Girder Guard T T 

Less Than Over Over Less Than 6 In. or Stringer 

100 Lb. 100 1 b. 100 Lb. 6 In. Over Tram Guard 

1910 $39.88 $35.70 $33.44 $36 00 $45 00 

1911 37.91 40.42 $54.96 31.51 36.00 

1912 38.62 39.20 54.93 39.09 

1913 39.20 39.09 65.88 35.09 

1914 39.26 39.06 58 05 32.40 $48 16 

1916 41.27 66,35 39.68 

Mill inspection, 1902-1914, $0.06 per ton. 

Bay State Street Railway, record of purchases f.o.b. destination, 1906-1913, 12,991 tosn 
(T) at $30.38. 
Adding 35 cents for inspection and warehousing. $30.73. 


I. C. C. AcCT. No. 607 
Price per keg of 200 lb. 

• Kegs Per Keg 

Bay State Street Railway average to 11-14 $4. 10 

Middlcsfx & Boston. 1S99-1914 1.329 4.28 

Boston Elevated Railway. 1895-1914 24,611 3.90 

Worcester Con'ohdated, I902-I9I6 4,295 3.85 

Total and iverage price 30,295 3 91 

Add for warehousing 5 per cent .19 

Total average price per keg $4. 10 


I.C.C. Acer. No.507 

Middlesex t Boston, 1902-1914, 1,583 tons at $39.09 

Boston Elevated Railway, 1902-1914, 22,525 tons at 38.86 

Worcester Consolidated and Springfield, 1902-1914, 5,805 tons at. 38. 82 

Average of above, including 36 centa for inspection and warefaouaing 39.21 per ton 


I. C. C. Acer. No. 607 

Middlesex & Boston, 1902-1914 12,600 at $0.44 each 

Worcester Consolidated, 1902-1915 18,063 .37 

Boston Elevated Railway, 1894-1914 473,218 .37 

Total and average price 503,881 $0.37 

Add 5 per cent for warehousing .02 

Total $0.39 

Site and average price range Boston Elevated Sat tie rods, lSn4-19I4: 

2K in. X A in $0.04 

IH in. X A in. X 6 ft. 4 in 22 

21^ in. X H in. X 5 ft. 1 Ji in 84 

2Ji in. I H in. X 6 ft. 3}^ in S46 


I. C. C. Acer. No. SOT 

Boston Elevated Railway 1894-1914, ^ in. x 5 ft. 4H i" K.13 

Boston Elevated Railway. 1894-1914, 1 in 0.30 


Goldie, 175,120 (Boston Elevated), 1894-1914 

I. C. C. Acer. No. 507 
$0 11 each 


I. 0. C. AcCT. No. 507 

60 lb. and 70 lb. Acme, Bay State records 1911, 600 at $0. 14 each 

75 lb. Acme, Bav State records, 1911 at 0. 165 

45-lb. Niagara, Bay State to November, 1914 at 0. 10 

75-lb. Lebanon, Bay State to November, 1914 at 0.36 


I. C. C. AccT. No. 507 
Feustel — Bay State Street Railway average to November, 1914, including $0.0002 per 
pound for war^oueing and inspection. 

For Sections Weight Per Joint 

TramP.S. No. 200-9-in. 90;includingbolt» $1.57 

TramP.S. No. 201-9-in. 85;includingbolts 1.68 

GirderP.S. No. 113 26-in.channcl:includingbolts 1.80 

GirderP.S. No. 219-9-in. 85 32-in. channel; including bolts 2.29 

GuardP.S. No. 230-9-in. 100 36-in. channel: including lolts 2.53 

Guard.P.S. No. 240-9-in. 87 36-in. channel (mn.);including bolts 2.76 

Guard girder P. S. No. 222-8H-in. 95;includinBl)olt8 1.56 

TramP.S. No. 22f-S«>-in. 96 24-in.channnel:in;ludingbolts 1.67 

Guard girder P. S. No. 226-8!H-in. 94 26 in. channel; including bolts 1.7» 

Guard girder P. S. No. 229-S}5-in. 84 bolts 2.29 

TramP.S. No. 93-8'X-in. 90;including bolts 2.68 

TramL.S. No. 206-SH-in. 96;includingbolls 3.94 

TtamL.S. No. 2S8-8M-in. 89;includinE bolts 4.18 

TramL.S. No. 297-8H-in. 96; including bolts 4.80 

Guard girder L.S. No. 319-8H-in. 95;including bolts 5.38 

Gi-derP.S. No. 273-9-in. 125 22-in.channcl;includingbolts 2.06 

GirderP.S. No. 273A-9-in. 133;includingbolt8 3,02 

GirdcrB.E. No. 6-9-in. 132 3.30 

TramP.S. No. 400-9-in 104;includingholts, 1912.. . 3.01 

GirderP.S. No. 40I-9-in. 104;includingbolts, 1912.. . 3,29 

GirderL.S No. 461-9-in. 104«/^in.);includingbolt8, 191.3-14 3 06 

GirderL.S. No. 336-9-in. 94 36-in. channel (HinOlincludingbolts, 1913-14 3.35 

Boston Elevated averace cost of thirteen purchases of channel joints, adding $0.0002 

for warehousing and inspection $0.0202 

Worcester Consolidated for eight *^-in. rail, 26-in. channel, including bolts 1 .93 

Worcester Consolifiated for eight *?-in. rail, channel, including bolts 2.38 

Barbour-Stockwell Company 119 lb. 32-in. channel, includii^g bolts, average 3.75 

Barbour-Stockwell Company 134 lb. 36-in. channel, including bolts, average 4.15 


I. C. C. AccT. No. 607 
Feustel— Bay State average 1912-1914 including $0.0002 for warehousing and inspection. 


T-rail to T-rail $3 10 

T-'ail to Birder rail 6 50 

Girder rail to girder rail 5,50 

Average of five Massachusetts street railways: 

T-rail to T-rail (range $2.83-$4.06) 3,27 

T-rail to girder rail (range $4.43-$6.78) 6,04 

Four railways — Oirder rail to girder rail (range $3.86-$6.40) T 5 09 


I. a. C. AccT. No. 507 
Feustel— Bay State Street Railway average prices 1912-1914, including $0.0002. 

Per Joint 

For 36 lb. T-rail, 24-in. fish plate, with t'olts $0.25 

For 40 lb. T-rail, 24-in. fish plate, with bilts 0.29 


I. C. C. Acer. No. 507 
Feustel— Bay State Street Railway average price 1912-1914, including $0.0032 for ware- 
housing and inspection. 

For 60-lb. T-vail, 24-in. Bonjano with bolts $0 90 

For 67-lb. T-rail, 24-in. Bonzano with bolts ." 1 02 

For 70-lb. T-rail, 24-in. Boniano with bolts 1.11 

For 75-lb. T-rail, 24-in. Bonzano with bolts 1.27, 

Boston Elevated Railway, 24-in. for 70-lb. T-rail, 1912 l.i 


I. C. C Acer. No. 60 
Feustel — Bay State Street Railway average prices to November, t914, including $0.01 
for warehousing and inspection. 

Lorain joints $5.< 

Lorain joints, head-supported 6,i 

Thermit 12.0 


I. C. C. Acer. No. J 
Per Lb, 

Boston Elevated Railway, weighted average, 6600 joints, without inspection $0.01ft 

Boston Elevated Railway, weighted average, 1459 joi nts, average for T-rail over 60 lb. . 02 ISM 

Per Jointr 

Boston Elevated Railway, 24-in. for 45-lb. T-ral $0. 31-$0.i 

Worcester ConsoUdated 24-in. for 70-lb. T-rail, 1915 0." 


I. C. C. Acer. No. 
Per Joi 

Bay State purchases 32-in. contin. girder rail, 1912 $4.! 

Bay State purchases 36-in. contin. girder rail, 1913 5.1 

Boston Elevated purchases 24-in. contin. for 68-60-lb. T-rail, 1901 1. 1| 

Middlesex it Boston purchases 24-in. contin. for 58-60-lb. T-rail, 1916 1.'' 

Middlesex & Boston purchases 24 in. contin. for 70-lb. T-rail, 1915 l.J 

January 13, 1917] 




I. C. C. AccT. No. 507 
Feustel— Bay State Street Railway average to November, 1914, including $0.0032 per pound 
for warehousing and inspection. 

ForBections No. 222, etc., 26-in. Weber complete $3.94 

60-ib. T-rail, 24-in. Weber complete 1.55 

70-lb. T-rail, 24 in. Weber complete 1.65 

75-lb. T-rail. 24-in. Weber complete 1.83 


I. C. C. AccT. No. 504 
Feustel— Bay State Street Railway to November, 1914. 

Per Cubic Yard 

Track trench in city $0. 60 

City line eastern Massachuaetta, 11,530 ft. track, by company 616 

Earth excavation country lines— Feustel-Bay State Street Railway to Novem- 
ber. 1914 0.38 

Fifteen Massachusetts railroads, 1907-1914, earth excavation, country 0.423 

Rock excavation Feustel-Bay .State Street Railway to November, 1914 1.82 

Rock excavation four Massachuseits railroads, 1907-1914 1.60 

Loose rock excavation, l-eustel-Bay State Street Railway 1.00 

Rip Rap— rough, Feuste>-Bay State Street Railway 2. 00 

Rip Rap carefully plaied, l-eustel-Bay State Street Railway 1.60 

Dry rubble for retaining walli. Feustel-Bay State Street Railway 6.00 

Rubble masonry for retaining walls, Feustel-Bay State Street Railway 6.60 

Track and side catch basins, 14 in. x 14 in. cover and frame, i'eustel B. S 7.00 each 

Track and side cat<;h basins, 15 in. circular cover and frame, Feustel B. S. 7.00 each 

Track and side catch basins, 20- in. circular cover and frame, Feustel B. S. . 8.00 each 

Track and side catch basins, 24-in. x 24-in. cover and frame Feustel B. S 12.00 each 

Track and side catch basins 3C in. x 30-in. cover and frame Feustel B. S 16.00 each 


C. C. AccT. No. 56d 
Per Cubic Y5 

Feustel-Bay State Street Railway to November 1914 $0. 60 

Boston Elevated 1913-1915, on wharf from sea bed 60 

Worcester Con3olidat«d, 19J7-1914, estimated haul 5 miles; including pitcost $0.05... .54 

Crushed rock, Boston Elevated. 1915, 16,039 ft. of track 1.40 

Crushed rock, Masaachusetta Highway Commission, local stone, 292 contracts 1.44 

Crushed rock, Massachusetts Highway Coounission, trap rock. 447 contracts 2.06 


L C. C. Acer. No. 606 
. Each 

Chsstaut 6 in. X 8 in. x 8 ft. Bay State, 1910-1914 $0.62 

Chajtflit, 6ia. xrfin. x 8 tt. Spnngdeld Street Railway, 1910-1914, 206,351 ties 0.469 

ChsJtQjt, 6ia. x8in. X ^ f t. Wo.-c-*3ter Consolidated, 1910-1914, 397,565 ties 0.465 

CheJtaat, 6ia.x8ia. x / tt. Bjitoi Elevated. 19JJ-19i:j. r>7,72.i ties 0.612 

Treated ties delivered to storage yard: 

BoJtoa Elevated, 6 in. x 8in. x 8 ft. hard pine, creosoted, sawed. 1915 $099 

Fares in Annexed Districts 

United States Supreme Court Decides It Has Juris- 
diction in Detroit Case and That Annexation of 
Suburban Districts by Municipality Does 
Not Extend City Fare to Those Districts 

A SHORT reference to the decision of the United 
States Supreme Court, delivered Dec. 11, 1916, in 
tne case of the Detroit United Railway, plaintiff in er- 
ror against the people of the State of Michigan and 
also against the city of Detroit, carried up from the 
Supreme Court of the State of Michigan, was mentioned 
in the is.sue of this paper for Dec. 16, page 1271. The 
full text of the decision, which was delivered by Justice 
Pitney, is now available. It is upon a matter which is 
of considerable importance to a number of railway com- 
panies, as it involves the right of a city to claim the ex- 
tension of the city fare of an electric railway in dis- 
tricts annexed to the city subsequent to the agreement 
between the city and the railway. 

The decision first rehearses the history of the case, 
telling that the Detroit United Railway, which was in- 
corporated in 1900, united under one organization cer- 
tain lines previously constructed and operated inde- 
pendently in the city and its suburbs under different 
and distinct franchises. Among these were the De- 
troit City Railway and the Grand River Street Railway, 
each in the city of Detroit with a franchise which re- 
quired the sale at certain hours of eight tickets for 25 
cents, and the Grand River Electric Railway in the 
township of Greenfield without this provision. The 
Grand River Electric Railway was a different corpora- 
tion than the Grand River Street Railway. In 1905 and 
1907 the city annexed part of Greenfield township and 
claimed that the low rate of fare mentioned was ap- 
plicable to all of the lines of the Detroit United Rail- 
way within the city, not only as its limits existed in 
1889, when the Grand River Street Railway received a 
franchise to extend its tracks to the city limits, but also 
to the lines in the territory annexed in 1905 and 1907. 
In the legislation authorizing this annexation it wa.s 

stated that the annexed territory should be subject to 
all the laws of the State applicable to the city and to all 
the ordinances and regulations of the city, with excep- 
tions not material to this case. The railway company 
took the case to the State Supreme Court on the ground 
that these acts were in conflict with Sec. 10 of Art. 1 of 
the Federal constitution. 

The decision delivered by Justice Pitney then dis- 
cusses the question of jurisdiction in the case. It says 
that the United States Supreme Court has many times 
decided that the "contract clause" of the constitution is 
not intended to cover "such impairments of contract 
obligations, if any, as may arise by mere judicial de- 
cisions in the state courts without action by the legis- 
lative authority of the state. But in this case there 
were state laws passed subsequent to the making of the 
alleged contracts in question, in the form of the legisla- 
tion of 1905 and 1907 extending the corporate limits of 
the city ; and it is not correct to say that the decisions 
of the state court turned upon the mere meaning of 
these contracts without reference to these subsequent 
laws." "It is too well settled," the court says later, "to 
be opened to further debate that where this court is 
called upon in the exercise of its jurisdiction to decide 
whether state legislation impairs the obligation of a 
contract, we are required to determine upon our inde- 
pendent judgment these questions: (1) Was there a 
contract? (2) If so, what obligation arose from it? 
and (3) Has that obligation been impaired by subse- 
quent legislation?" 

The decision then takes up the question as to 
whether, by voluntary action of the parties between the 
making of the suburban grant and the passage of the 
annexation act, the obligations arising out of these 
grants had been modified, and holds that they were 
not. It says: "Defendants in error invoke the estab- 
lished rule that the terms of a municipal grant or fran- 
chise should be construed strictly as against the gran- 
tees and as favorably to the grantor as its terms per- 
mit. The state court deemed the rule to be applicable. 
It is at least doubtful, however, whether the rule, prop- 
erly applied to the facts of these cases does not bear 
altogether in favor of plaintiff in error. For, of course 
it is not possible to adopt an extensive construction of 
the obligations imposed upon the city companies by the 
ordinances without adopting a like construction as to 
the extent of the franchises thereby conferred upon 
the companies. And can it be supposed that if either 
of these companies had claimd the right to lay down 
tracks and operate railways in the annexed territory by 
virtue of the ordinances of 1889, they would not liave 
been met with the rule that municipal grants are to be 
construed strictly against the grantee, and cannot be 
extended beyond their expressed terms?" 

The decision then goes on to say that "if the city 
lines had been extended into the annexed territory by 
either of the city railway companies under any author- 
ity conferred by or assumed under the ordinances of 
1889, a very different question would have been pre- 
sented. But such is not the case. We find it impos- 
sible to regard the purchase of suburban lines, with 
their rights, privileges and franchises, as being in ef- 
fect an extension of the city lines, but at the same time 
an abrogation of an essential part of the rights and 
privileges appurtenant to the acquired lines. . . . And 
since the judgments of the Supreme Court of that state 
(Michigan) gave such an effect to the annexation acts 
of 1905 and 1907, in conjunction with the ordinances of 
1889, as to impair those obligations, the judgments 
must be reversed." 

A short dissenting opinion was presented by Justice 
Clarke, who added that he was authorized to state that 
Justice Brandeis concurred in this dissent. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 2 

A. S. C. E. Valuation Report Prepared 

Work of Five Years Results in Enunciation of Principles Which Should Control Valuation 

of Normal Public Utilities— Report Should Clarify 

This Involved Subject 

the early years of operation before the property was 
tuned up and the business developed, either by includ- 
ing in the valuation the sum of the deficiency of earn- 
ings in the early years, with interest compounded an- 
nually, or by allowing higher rates of return in subse- 
quent years to offset the early deficiency. 
Old Properties Not Under Continuous Regulation — 

AFTER five years, during which forty-eight joint 
meetings have been held and a voluminous corre- 
spondence aggregating thirteen substantial vol- 
umes has been carried on, the special committee of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers has prepared an 
exhaustive report as to the principles and methods to 
be followed in the valuation of normal railroads and 
other public utilities. The report, 
which is published in the Decem- 
ber Proceedings of the society, 
contains 230 pages, the report 
proper being preceded by a twelve- 
page abstract prepared by the 
committee. This abstract, some- 
what condensed, is published be- 

The report of the committee is 
to be presented to the society on 
Jan. 17, but it is suggested by 
the committee that the discussion 
be continued in writing and that 
the report be finally presented at 
the next annual convention in 
June. The report is signed by 
Frederic P. Stearns, chairman; 
Leonard Metcalf, secretary, and 
William G. Raymond, Jonathan 
P. Snow, Charles S. Churchill, 

Henry E. Riggs and William J. Wilgus, the last three 
having been appointed in 1914 to fill vacancies. 

Fundamental Principles of Valuation 

In the opinion of the committee the principles and 
methods must be such that when properly applied the 
result will be fair to all parties affected and of a nature 
that will attract to the service of the public capital 
to build new properties and extend old ones. 

New Properties — In the valuation of a new property, 
if the question of a fair return is at stake, the actual 
investment in the portion devoted to public use, includ- 
ing working capital and development expense, should 
be taken as the basis for "fair value." If the same 
property is to be valued for public acquisition, the basis 
of "fair value" should be the actual cost, including the 
money value of services and other considerations in- 
volved. If the valuation is to be used for capitalization, 
the result should be attained in the same way as the 
return base, except that all parts of the property should 
be included. If for taxation, whether of a new or 
old property, the result must accord with the laws of 
the state, or, where not governed by such laws, should 
be fixed at a sum consistent with the valuation of other 
property for taxation. 

Old Properties Under Continuov^ Regulation/ — In the 
valuation of an old property, operating without compe- 
tition and from its inception under commission control 
as to rates and methods of accounting, and assumed to 
have been entitled to earn sums sufficiently large to 
provide for all expenses of maintenance, operation and 
taxation, depreciation allowances and a fair return on 
the "fair value" of the property, the owner should be 
compensated in some way for losses sustained during 

Noteworthy Findings 

Estimated original cost is not de- 
pendable; original topographical 
conditions but present-day prices 
and methods should govern in esti- 
mating reproduction cost; all real 
items of cost but no "higher use" 
value should enter into the repro- 
duction cost of land; only when 
provision is made in the rate, or 
should be in the accounting, for an 
accumulating fund should a depre- 
ciation deduction be made for loss 
of service life, this to be offset by 
the fund; and development expense 
and going value are distinct, the 
one tangible and the other in- 

In the valuation of an old prop- 
erty which has not been subject 
to continuous regulation, not only 
are the foregoing principles im- 
portant, but there are many cases 
in which equity calls for the in- 
clusion of not only the sum repre- 
senting the sacrifice by the owner 
but also a further positive or 
negative sum representing valua- 
ble property or rights acquired or 
lost by the owner as a result of 
time or through the failure of the 
public or the owner to assert their 
authority, the courts holding that 
the present value of the property 
should be used rather than its cost. 

Physical Property Included 

The physical property to be in- 
cluded varies in different cases 
with the use to which the valuation 'is to be put and 
the law governing the case. 

Used and Unused Property — In cases of rate regula- 
tion, only the property- considered devoted to public 
use should be included, embracing that in active use 
and also that properly and reasonably held in reserve 
to insure the safety, economy, sufliiciency and continuity 
of service. In valuations for capitalization and public 
acquisition all the property should be included. 

Retired or Discarded Property — Plant units definitely 
abandoned and not likely again to be used, due to hav- 
ing been worn out in service or by reason of the recon- 
struction of the property, should be excluded from the 
valuation and should appear either in a separate 
schedule of retired or discarded property, or such full 
statement of the conditions should be made as will 
definitely fix the status of the units or parts. Tempo- 
rary works necessarily built in connection with, or re- 
quired for, the construction of permanent works, or for 
furnishing service to the public at an earlier date than 
it could be furnished by the permanent works, should 
be included in the valuation. 

Excessive Size or Capacity — No reduction should be 
made in the valuation on account of excessive size or 
capacity, except when the excess is so great as to be 
clearly unreasonable and is the result of not using 
proper foresight. 

Donated Property — Lands or other property volun- 
tarily donated to a public utility should be included 
when determining the reproduction cost, on the same 
basis as land and property otherwise acquired. 

Leased Property — In the case of leased property, 
either the property itself or the lease should be valued, 
as circumstances may dictate. 

January 13, 1917] 



Title to Property Not Concliisive. — Structures located 
on land to which the owner of a public utility has no 
title should be included in the valuation of the property 
where the owner has been required by law or necessity 
to pay their cost, including in this class also property 
voluntarily donated ; and they should be excluded where 
other public service companies, the public or the users, 
other than the owner in question, have been required by 
law or necessity to pay their cost. 

Working Capital— It is customary to include under 
the term "working capital" the amount of cash, mate- 
rials and supplies provided for use in the plant, but not 
yet forming a part of it, and other current assets essen- 
tial for proper maintenance, operation and administra- 
tion. There should be included an amount of working 
capital sufficiently large not only to meet the usual 
requirements but to provide for emergencies. 

Securities 02vned — Ordinarily, the valuation of prop- 
erty devoted to public use should not include securities 
owned, or surplus cash not forming a part of working 
capital, except in instances where such securities and 
surplus cash are an offset, in whole or in part, for de- 
preciation deducted from the cost of the property. 

Original Cost to Date 

As defined by the committee, original cost to date is 
the first cost of the identical property units now in use, 
including overhead charges. 

Difficulties — While much of the difficulty of deter- 
mining original cost as thus defined in some cases may 
be removed, especially in the case of short-lived prop- 
erty, it is not feasible to obtain a dependable result 
where the absence of reliable historic data makes neces- 
sary a resort to estimates, as in the case of old proper- 
ties consisting mainly of long-lived items. 

Schedule — Generally it will be found necessary to 
prepare a schedule in the same way that one would be 
made for determining the cost of reproduction, many 
adjustments in the records often being required, even 
under the most favorable conditions, in order to obtain 
correct results. 

Costs — Unit Costs — When a schedule is necessary, 
the corresponding costs or unit costs are essential to 
the completion of the inventory, and where these are 
unobtainable, as is usually true in the case of property 
units acquired or created long ago, the ascertainment 
of the original cost is impossible. 

Overhead Charges — Overhead charges are, as a rule, 
inadequately reflected in the records, and therefore ad- 
justments are required which are largely matters of 
opinion and speculation, and which, in consequence, 
make more uncertain the final result, thus often de- 
.stroying its usefulness. 

Development Expense— The expense actually incurred 
in connection with the tuning up and creation of the 
business of a property should be included as a part of 
the original cost to date. 

Cost of Reproduction 

Estimates of the cost of reproduction should be based 
on the assumption that the identical property is to be 
reproduced, rather than a substitute property; that 
while apparent present-day conditions that would affect 
the cost of reproducing the property must be considered 
in any logical estimate, yet history must also be con- 
sidered to determine what is to be reproduced, the con- 
ditions under which it is to be reproduced and how the 
estimates must be made, and that normal present con- 
ditions shall determine the prices and methods for 
doing the work. 

Preliminary Work — The first , step in estimating re- 
production cost is such a study of the property and its 

history as will enable the estimator to make a complete 
list of all items and lay out a proper financial and con- 
struction program. The field schedules and inventories 
should not only be based on complete inspections of 
the visible physical property, but should also reflect a 
careful historical search of existing records and other 
reliable sources of information bearing on items of 
material or work which entered into or were incidental 
to actual existing units, special care being exercised to 
limit the speculative uncertainties as far as possible. 

Unit Prices — In determining unit prices a rational 
sequence of construction should be assumed, and ra- 
tional assumptions made as to the manner of doing the 
different parts of the work, whether by company forces 
or by contract. Unit prices based where possible on 
the actual cost of doing similar work, in a similar man- 
ner, under similar circumstances, should be determined 
by persons of experience and sound judgment. They 
should be based on the normal average cost of work for 
a considerable period— say, five or ten years. In the 
case of items which are steadily increasing or decreas- 
ing in value, the prices adopted should be normal for 
the time of the valuation. Full consideration should 
be given to the time allowed for construction, to cli- 
matic conditions and to the effect of any other signifi- 
cant conditions or limitations upon the cost of the work. 

Reproduction Cost of Land— The determination of 
the figure to be' used should be based in all cases on full 
consideration of the present normal market value of 
the area of land acquired and of other recent purchases 
by the same or other companies of similar lands in the 
vicinity or in districts of like characteristics; the dam- 
age to the remaining land, not required, due to sever- 
ance and all consequential injuries; the amount and 
character of the costs of acquisition and overhead 
charges; enhanced prices due to active demand, and 
any other real items of cost which would be included 
in case of purchase. But no allowance should be in- 
cluded for special values coming after the acquisition 
of the property on account of its new use or on account 
of a greater earning power under the new use, or for 
any other hypothetical "value." Estimates should be 
based on prices and values as of the time of appraisal, 
be they higher or lower than those prevailing at the 
time of original acquisition. 

Overhead Charges — These charges are a necessary 
and proper part of cost but are not capable of physical 
identification after the completion of construction work. 
They cannot be covered in the estimate of cost of re- 
production by the application of specific unit prices; 
from their nature they attach to the whole or large 
parts of the property rather than to any particular 
units. Among such charges are: 

(a) Cost of promotion. 

(6) Cost of financing and securing the necessary 
capital with which to carry out the enterprise. 

(c) Cost of organization, including the incorporation 
and organization of the company, securing of fran- 
chises, and other like expenditures. 

(d) Engineering, including the making of the pre- 
liminary investigations and plans, plans for the con- 
struction of the entire property, the engineering super- 
vision of all construction and other work involved in 
the development of a property, except such direct su- 
pervision as may properly be included in the unit prices 
of various property units, or as specific charge against 
some particular schedule or group of units. 

(e) Administration, including salaries for general 
officers, agents, accountants, clerks and other assist- 
ants not included in the engineering and legal depart- 
ments, and all administration expenses. 

(/) Legal expenses, including salaries and expenses 




[Vol. XLIX, No. 2 

of law officials and costs of litigation which, depending 
on the character of the property and its location, may 
be a comparatively minor item or a very large one. 

(.g) Interest during the period of construction. 

(h) Taxes and insurance during construction. 

(0 Contingencies. 

, How Depreciation Should be Handled 

With a desire to remove the ambiguity and resulting 
confusion that has attended the use of the term "depre- 
ciation" in connection with valuation, the committee 
has considered the subject from three standpoints: (1) 
The cause, decretion or loss of service life; (2) the 
record, accounting depreciation, or the money allowance 
made in bookkeeping to offset accruing loss of service 
life; and (3) the amount sought, depreciation of valuu- 
tion or fair depreciation, the sum which should be de- 
ducted from original cost to date or from estimated 
cost of reproduction new as a step in finding that which 
the courts have called "fair value." 

Decretion or Loss of Service Life — Decretion is the 
fact of loss of service life of a physical property, prop- 
erty unit or item, regardless of its effect on value or 
anything else. It may be due to use, inadequacy, obso- 
lescence or accident, either singly or in combination. 
Although, in a well-maintained property, decretion is 
always present in some degree, yet in some cases this 
decretion, converted into loss of value, which loss is 
hereafter called cost of decretion, should not be con- 
sidered deductible in finding property value. 

Accounting Depreciation.— The fundamentals of the 
methods of accounting for depreciation are that the 
owner of a public utility is under obligation to the in- 
vestors in its securities to maintain the integrity of 
the investment as a continuing property and to furnish 
suitable service to the public; that the public is under 
obligation to the owner to pay a fair price for the serv- 
ice rendered, which should cover all operating expenses, 
a proper allowance for depreciation and a fair return 
upon the "fair value" of the property, and that the re- 
turn to the investor and the rates to the consumer 
should be kept reasonably stable and uniform from year 
to year and should be fair. 

The four methods that may be used in connection 
with accounting for depreciation, the replacement 
method, the straight-line method, the compound-interest 
method (formerly called by the committee the "equal- 
annual - payment method"), and the sinking-fund 
method, yield identical total costs when the whole life 
of a property unit is considered, and any one of them 
seeming to be the most convenient may be chosen, pro- 
vided under the circumstances it is legal, safe and fair. 

The replacement method is applicable to short-lived 
properties or parts of properties made up of a large 
number of items, the replacement or retirement of 
which proceeds after a time with fair regularity and 
causes no troublesome variations in return or service 
rates. The straight-line method applies to property 
units having more than a year of service life, which 
are assumed to depreciate uniformly from the beginning 
to the end of service life. The compound-interest and 
sinking-fund methods apply to property units the de- 
preciation of which is assumed to progress at the same 
rate as a sinking fund grows from an annuity, accumu- 
lating at compound interest. 

Depreciation of Valu^ition — Finding the cost of de- 
cretion is a step in the determination of depreciation, 
but whether and to what extent, if at all, the estimate 
thus found shall be treated as depreciation of valuation 
may be, and very probably will be, dependent, at least 
in part, on the methods of accounting for depreciation 
and the character of regulation that have prevailed. 

If by order or sanction of a regulating body, or by 
long-continued proper custom under no regulation, a 
property, as for instance a railroad, has been main- 
tained in normal working condition, necessarily less 
than new in some or all of its parts, by the replace- 
ment method, and at any given date is being valued for 
any public purpose and at that date shows normal con- 
dition, all its several parts being in as good condition 
as could be expected, the accounts showing that those 
amounts have been expended in renewals that were 
necessary to keep the property in normal working con- 
dition, and the fact appearing that no expenditure rea- 
sonably to be expected could put the property in better 
than the normal condition in which it is found, and that 
no unusually large expenditure is presently to be neces- 
sary for this purpose, then, in spite of the fact that 
(Jiere is an existing decretion in its several parts, there 
should be found no depreciation of valuation. Under 
the method of accounting the public has not paid, and 
could not pay, for the accrued depreciation, and under 
this condition its accrued obligation to pay should be 
considered a company asset. 

If parts of the property are maintained under the 
replacement method and part by some proper allowance 
method, except as noted below, then depreciation of 
valuation should be found with respect to those parts 
maintained under the allowance method, but this depre- 
ciation of specific physical units will be made good in 
whole or in part by existing funds or property pur- 
chase4 with allowances, either or both of which will be 
included in the valuation as they are found. 

If in the judgment of the valuing engineer the re- 
placement method may not be used with propriety for 
a given property, either because not in accordance with 
law, or because the method is not adapted to the prop- 
erty, then, whether or not the property has been main- 
tained in the past under this method, the valuing engi- 
neer should estimate depreciation of valuation in the 
amount of the cost of the decretion he finds. 

When a comparatively new property, other than a 
railroad, is to be valued, and it has not been under any 
regulation that has affected its accounting methods, the 
law as laid down in the Knoxville decision would seem 
to make it necessary to find depreciation of valuation 
equal to the cost of decretion found for all items, 
whether or not maintained by the replacement method. 
This might sometimes be unjust; the engineer should 
then report facts with recommendations as to equity. 

If the straight-line, compound-interest or sinking- 
fund method has been used in computing depreciation, 
and the method of accounting for' it has been prescribed 
by a regulating body or voluntarily followed by a com- 
pany owner from the beginning, the same theory, as far 
as it applies to the property in question, should be used 
for estimating the cost of decretion; and the entire 
cost so found, lessened by any accumulated depreciation 
funds, will appear as depreciation of valuation, unless 
the sinking-fund method of accounting has been used. 
In the latter case, if the valuation has to do with the 
reasonableness of the return and the accounting is to 
go on as before, apparently existing depreciation would 
not be depreciation of valuation, and therefore would 
not be deductible; but if the valuation has to do with 
condemnation or purchase, then, as in other cases, the 
apparently existing depreciation is depreciation of 
valuation, and the owner should receive the depreciated 
value of the physical property and the existing fund. 

Methods of accounting in force at the present time 
which make proper provision for the accruing deprecia- 
tion should not have full weight if, in previous years 
during the life of the property units, other methods 
were in use which did not make provision for such de- 

January 13, 1917] 



preciation. The amount of depreciation of valuation in 
such cases should be equivalent to the accumulated con- 
tributions of the public for depreciation allowances 
under the various methods of accounting which have 
affected the property unit from time to time. The pub- 
lic is still under obligation to' make good that part of 
the loss of service life not yet paid for, and this obli- 
gation should be considered as much the property of 
the company usable to offset accrued depreciation as 
renewal funds or property actually in existence. 

If regulation has not fixed accounting methods, but 
has limited the earnings, it should be permissible to 
inquire whether the limited earnings have been suffi- 
cient to pay operating expense, depreciation, and fair 
return. If so, depreciation found should be considered 
depreciation of valuation to the extent warranted by 
the accounting methods lawfully or properly followed; 
if not, a question arises. It is remembered that the 
duty of the company owner is first to maintain the prop- 
erty "before coming to the question of profit at all," 
and that it is the duty of the regulating body to see that 
rates are such as to permit the company owner to earn 
operating expenses, depreciation and fair return. If 
the regulating body has made sufficient earnings impos- 
sible, is it still the duty of the company owner to main- 
tain the property before paying fair return to its se- 
curity holders? If it is, depreciation of valuation should 
be found in the amount of the total cost of decretion or 
so far as warranted by tha accounting methods fol- 
lowed. If not, depreciation found should hot be con- 
sidered depreciation of valuation except to the extent 
covered by earnings after deducting operating expenses 
and fair return. This is a matter of equity to be de- 
termined by a court. 

The valuing engineer should bear in mind that when 
a company has invested a reasonable sum in a property 
for public service, it is entitled to, but not guaranteed, 
a fair return on its investment, so long as the money 
remains in the property, either as property, funds or 
accrued public obligation to pay. Therefore, so long 
as the owner keeps a sum equivalent to the total invest- 
ment at work for the public, either as property serving 
the public or funds held in reserve for such property, 
no policy should be followed in estimating depreciation 
that will reduce the property to a value less than the 
investment, or, when using cost of reproduction less 
depreciation as a basis of "fair value," to a value less 
than the cost of reproduction of that part of the prop- 
erty estimated to have been created with company funds 
or acquired by gift or in any way not the result of pub- 
lic contributions to cover depreciation. 


Appreciation, largely the result of solidification, sea- 
soning and adaptation, represents the improvement in 
quality and usefulness of certain parts of the physical 
properties of a railroad or other public-utility property. 
It results from the lapse of time, from work not spe- 
cifically charged to capital account, from maintenance, 
from use, etc., and covers items, not represented either 
by the quantities or unit prices, that are determined in 
connection with a valuation. There should be no gen- 
eral setting off of appreciation against depreciation, but 
appreciation should be determined independently from 
depreciation. Care must be taken that items of labor 
and expense included in the estimate may not be dupli- 
cated in development expense. 

Development Expense and Intangible Value 

In the production of a normal going property, devel- 
opment expense almost invariably is an unavoidable real 
cost, and is measured by the difference between the 

amount which the company is entitled to earn in the 
early years and the amount which it actually does earn. 
The portion of this expense incurred in tuning up the 
property and bringing it to its present state of operat- 
ing efficiency may be included in the cost of construc- 
tion, and the remainder may be treated as the cost of 
acquiring the business. 

The intangible value that pertains to a property and 
should be given due weight in the ascertainment of 
"fair value" is the difference between the tangible value 
— that is to say, proper cost including development ex- 
pense, less depreciation of valuation — and exchange 
value, in which is reflected existing and potential de- 
pendable income and beneficial results. It embraces 
going value, in which is merged good will, franchise 
value, efficiency, favorable business arrangements and 
design ; and other elements, such as leases, easements, 
water rights, traffic and operating agreements, stra- 
tegic location and advantages, and other privileges. 

With reference to intangible value as a whole, the 
committee takes the ground that, in finding original or 
reproduction cost, there must be included, first, the 
tangible elements, which can be separately scheduled 
with an attached value based on concrete facts, and, 
second, that pertinent facts bearing upon intangible 
values should thereafter be developed independently, as 
an aid in the formation of sound judgment as to their 
value. Exceptional efficiency should be recognized by 
courts and commissions when appraising property. 

Results of Kansas City Railways 
Safety Campaign 

The excellent work in promoting public observance 
of safety and attention to the subject by the Kansas 
City (Mo.) Railways is conceded to have been chiefly 
responsible for the success of a week's campaign for 
members by the local Safety Council of Kansas City. 
C. W. Price, field secretary of the National Safety 
Council, assisted in the campaign, which netted about 
thirty new members. The local Safety Council has 
grown from fifteen to more than sixty members in two 
months. In nearly every case the firm visited expressed 
itself as eager to participate in the safety work, and 
signed the application. In several cases secretaries of 
central organizations asked for material which they 
could send to their members with letters urging them 
to join the national council. An association of business 
men was addressed each noon, and three of the high 
schools devoted their weekly program to safety. 

Washington Railway Relief Paid 

Nearly $13,000 was paid out in sick and death bene- 
fits by the Washington Railway Relief Association dur- 
ing the year ended Sept. 30, the annual statement of 
the association shows. The organization is composed of 
about 1200 employees of the Washington Railway & 
Electric Company, Washington, D. C, who are assessed 
at the rate of $1 a month. For the past year each mem- 
ber received a refund of $8.77, which made the insur- 
ance cost exactly 27 cents a month. The sum of $9,485 
was paid out in sick benefits and $8,270 in death bene- 
fits, the total showing an increase of $4,404.25 over the 
amount paid out during the preceding year. Since its 
organization, sixteen years ago, the association has dis- 
bursed more than $100,000 on account of sick benefits 
and $33,000 on account of death benefits, and now has 
cash and securities on hand amounting to $100,651. 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 2 



FEBRUARY 16, 1917 




FEBRUARY 16, 1917 

Motion-Picture Film Showing the Development of Transportation Displayed at Portland Company Section 

Meeting — Capital Traction Section Celebrates Its First Anniversary — Signals and Heavy 

Traction Were Discussed at the Connecticut Company Section Meeting 

"King of the Rails" Film Shown in Portland 

Two hundred persons sat down to supper preliminary 
to the Dec. 20 meeting of the Cumberland County 
Power & Light Company section. After a short busi- 
ness session, at which seventeen new members were ad- 
mitted, the meeting was turned over to the entertain- 
ment committee. The section orchestra made its debut, 
and singing and exhibition dancing also contributed to 
the success of the evening. 

M. R. Griffith of the Boston office of the General 
Electric Company showed and explained a motion pic- 
ture film entitled "The King of the Rails." This showed 
the development of transportation from the early days, 
leading up to the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
way electrification. 

First Anniversary Celebration of Section No. 8 

On Jan. 11 the Capital Traction Company section cele- 
brated the first anniversary of its founding with an at- 
tendance of 130. George E. Hamilton, president of the 
company, was the principal speaker. Greetings from 
the Washington Ry. & El. Co. section were presented 
by President J. T. Moffett. A talented local cartoonist 
gave a "stunt" chalk talk, and a number of those pres- 
ent furnished good music. A buffet lunch was served 
at the close. 

In congratulating the section upon the completion of 
a successful year's work Mr. Hamilton said that this 
effort to bring the men into closer touch, to teach them 
to look broadly at their work, was one of the best things 
that had ever come into the life of the company. He re- 
peated some things which he had said a year before, in 
part as follows : 

"I am a believer in the association of men, especially 
of men engaged in the same or similar work. It gives 
opportunity for useful discussion, and discussion aids 
thought, stimulates inquiry and invites criticism. It 
produces knowledge and concentrates effort. It pro- 
motes good fellowship and teaches men the value of co- 
ordination in view, effort and direction. It is good for 
the men and good for the interests they serve. Asso- 
ciation develops organization, and organization pro- 
motes efficiency; efficiency is power, and power well di- 
rected compels success. So I am a believer in and an 
advocate of this association, and my sympathy and co- 
operation, personal and official, is with the intent and 
purpose of this meeting. We serve ourselves when we 
serve well the company and the public, and the fact that 
we are a public service corporation should never be for- 
gotten. The least of us can by association and all that 
association brings take on the strength, that comes 
with a fuller knowledge and a wider understanding, to 
meet manfully and well our three- fold duty: to our- 
selves, to the company and to the public we serve." 

Continuing this line of thought Mr. Hamilton said in 

"An organization of this kind brings us together, 
makes us all see what each is doing, and gives new im- 
petus to our minds and a firmer and a fuller purpose to 

every man who is striving to do what is right. It 
teaches us what a service corporation is; shows us that 
because we are members of this service corporation we 
have assumed duties that we cannot lightly consider, 
duties that will compel us thoughtfully to perform all of 
the obligations that we assume. It shows us the part 
that each is playing in the performance of this duty. 
If we learn our lesson well, if all of us engaged in this 
common enterprise feel and, feeling, measure up to the 
obligations that we assume, then indeed are we doing 
the work of men. 

"This close contact teaches us more. It brings into 
the lives of all of us the spirit of service and teaches us 
what service is." 

January Meeting of Section No. 7 

Signals, heavy traction and boosting the company 
were the topics discussed at. the twelfth meeting of the 
Connecticut Company section held on Jan. 9. The usual 
dinner was held, with an attendance of 125 members and 
guests, after which George Pfurr, general line fore- 
man Waterbury division, gave an illustrated talk on 
"Signal and Dispatching Systems Used on the Water- 
bury Division." He described the working mechanisms 
forming parts of these systems. 

The next speaker was Nathan B. Stone, president of 
the publicity club of the Chamber of Commerce of New 
Haven, who chose for his topic "Lux et Veritas." With 
this as a basis he explained what the public expects from 
the street railway, and suggested several ways of boost- 
ing the Connecticut Company. 

George H. Hill, assistant engineer railway and trac- 
tion department General Electric Company, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., then spoke on the C. M. & St. P. Railway 
electrification, using lantern slides and moving picture 

During the dinner the section orchestra played and 
two soloists gave vocal numbers. 

Western Society of Engineers Elects 

At the forty-seventh annual meeting and dinner of 
the Western Society of Engineers, held in Chicago on 
Jan. 10, the result of the election of ofikers was an- 
nounced as follows: President, H. J. Burt, structural 
engineer Holabird & Roche, Chicago; first vice-presi- 
dent, D. W. Roper, superintendent street department 
Commonwealth Edison Company, Chicago; second vice- 
president, J. N. Hatch, consulting engineer, Chicago; 
third vice-president, W. W. DeBerard, Western editor 
Engineering Record, Chicago; treasurer, C. R. Dart, 
bridge engineer Sanitary District of Chicago. 

James Keeley, editor and publisher of the Chicago 
Herald, addressed the meeting on the conditions in 
Europe and what may be expected after the war, and 
Dean F. E. Turneaure of the University of Wisconsin 
made some remarks on the relations of the engineering . 
school and the engineering profession. 

January 13, 1917] 




Advertising in Company Publications 

[Note. — The letters printed below were received in 
response to an inquiry addressed by the ELECTRIC 
Railway Journal to three of the companies which 
publish employees' magazines without advertising of 
the character criticized editorially in our issue of last 
week. This inquiry was designed to bring out the rea- 
sons for the policy followed by these companies. We 
shall be pleased to print other comment by our readers 
on this subject, in which we believe an important and 
fundamental principle is involved. — Eds.] 

United Railways Company of St. Louis 

St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 8, 1917. 
To the Editors: 

Answering your inquiry as to the policy of the 
United Railways Company of St. Louis in soliciting 
advertising for the monthly bulletin which we publish 
for the information of our employees, I will state that 
when this publication was first suggested we consid- 
ered the matter of soliciting advertising to pay for a 
portion of the cost of the magazine. 

We decided against such solicitation for the reason 
that we felt that any such advertising would be given, 
not because the advertiser desired it for its publicity 
value, but because he would regard such solicitation as 
a demand from the Railways Company which he could 
not refuse. We do not wish to place ourselves in the 
position of making such demands, and furthermore, we 
wished the publication to be entirely independent and 
not have the editor feel that he was under obligation 
to any advertising concern. 

Our United Railways Bulletin is now two years old 
and has increased in size from twelve to twenty-four 
pages, with a circulation of about 10,000 once a month, 
and we have no reason to contemplate a change in our 
policy. Richard McCulloch, President. 

Virginia Railway & Power Company 

Richmond, Va., Jan. 8, 1917. 
To the Editors: ' 

In reply to letter of Jan. 5 on the subject of em- 
ployees' magazines I desire to say that we are heartily 
in accord with the views of W. S. Thompson of the 
Grand Trunk Railway in reference to advertising in 
company publications. 

The whole value of such publications in the street 
railway business is to establish a live contact between 
the company and its patrons. To carry advertising we 
believe would needlessly antagonize private enterprises 
engaged in the various branches of the advertising 
business who would resent the intrusion of a new ad- 
vertising agency entering a "closed field." 

If we were to consent to carry advertisements, the 
easiest way to get such advertising would be to appeal 
to concerns from whom we purchased supplies. These 
concerns could expect no benefit whatever from the pub- 
licity gained; hence their only motive in complying with 
the request for such advertising would be to ingratiate 
themselves into the favor of the company and in the 
last analysis one cannot escape the conclusion that this 
would really be a form of graft. For a company pub- 
lication to recognize this practice is, to our mind, a 
serious blunder, and we are glad that the question is 
being so thoroughly discussed through your valuable 
paper. Thomas S. Wheelwright, 


New York Municipal Railway Corporation 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 8, 1917. 
To the Editors: 

I have your request for my views on advertis- 
ing in company publications. The primary question in 
regard to local advertising, it seems to me, is what 
one can afford. If a company is able to get out a pub- 
lication for free distribution, carrying no advertising 
and using covers and other prominent positions for art 
work, educational bulletins, etc., it is obvious that such 
publication will be more attractive and probably will 
make a more effective appeal than a publication in 
which advertisements are carried. 

An employees' publication, it seems to me, should be 
a subject of pride among all those who are responsible 
for it. If its full value as a unifying influence is to 
be realized every member of an organization from the 
president down ought to take a personal interest in 
having just as high a grade of publication as it is pos- 
sible to produce. 

I have examined most of the company publications 
of this kind that have appeared in recent years, and I 
think I am justified in saying that this examination 
gives evidence that the relative degrees of success at- 
tained by such publications have depended on the in- 
terest taken by all connected with the management of 
the companies producing them, from the highest offi- 
cers down, in making them dignified, interesting and 
typographically attractive. 

Every publication, whether it is a company maga- 
zine or a daily newspaper, develops a personality. This 
personality usually becomes that of the persons who 
produce it and reflects their attitude toward it. The 
publication is the child of their brains and will be 
characterized by regard or disregard for truth, by fair- 
ness or unfairness, by courage or timidity, by good 
taste or bad taste, according to the controlling charac- 
teristics of those who produce it. It will also reflect 
the extent of their interest in it when it is once born. 
If it becomes an untidy child, if it cheapens itself by 
poor English, vulgarity or other evidences of bad taste, 
this will mean either that its producers are similarly 
disposed, or else that they care little about it and 
have abandoned its bringing up to some person or per- 
sons who reflect these characteristics. 

If I am correct in the foregoing analogy, it is evi- 
dent that no pains should be spared in producing the 
best possible type of company publication, for what- 
ever influence it may exert must necessarily be for the 
development in its readers of the qualities which it thus 

However, to return to our analogy, a family does not 
cease to be respectable if, through limitations of in- 
come, some of its members are called upon to earn 
money. Plainly the propriety of such a situation de- 
pends upon the character of the work done. The head 
of a household who would allow his children to per- 
form manual labor beyond their strength, or who would 
allow his neighbors to give them employment in nom- 
inal tasks in which they could render no real service, 
would obviously increase the family income at a sacri- 
fice of self-respect. No one, however, would criticise 
a boy who performed suitable work, giving fair value 
for what he earned, either for the purpose of helping 
out the pocketbook of a family in straitened circum- 
stances or for the purpose of securing spending money 
over and above what his father could allow him. 

The situation is the same with company publica- 
tions. While the feeling of pride which should be 
taken in the attractiveness of a publication would natu- 
rally disincline a company, that could afford to pro- 
duce one without advertising, to enter the advertising 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 2 

field, nevertheless I see no objection, involving man- 
ners or morals, to the acceptance of proper advertising 
where this is necessary in order that the publication 
may be produced, or where it affords the additional in- 
come necessary to make the publication thoroughly at- 
tractive. Any publication which circulates among 
several hundred or several thousand employees, in a 
given city or in various cities which may be centers of 
industry has, of course, a definite value for certain 
classes of advertisements. A publication whose circu- 
lation is confined to one city only ought to be a very de- 
sirable medium for local stores, theaters and all other 
classes of strictly home advertisers, because if its 
standards of excellence justifies continued existence, it 
is bound to be read from cover to cover by its clientele. 
This sort of reading creates an element of advertising 
value quite distinct from the size of the circulation and 
enables certain well-known periodicals with very lim- 
ited circulation to command the highest rates paid by 
advertisers in their respective fields. 

A publication issued in several different industrial 
centers where any large company may have plants ought 
in any event to have certain pages devoted to local news 
in each plant which would, in the interest of economy, 
make it desirable to have separate editions. Each such 
edition, however, could develop its own advertising 
along local lines, if for any of the reasons indicated 
above it is necessary to carry advertising. 

I do not think it necessary to characterize the im- 
pression which would be made on any intelligent per- 
son by a company publication which solicited or ac- 
cepted advertisements from concerns from which it was 
purchasing supplies or to which it sold its product. If 
such supplies were required by its employees the com- 
pany would do better to arrange to obtain them on the 
lowest possible terms through its own purchasing ma- 
chinery, which would not require advertising on the 
part of the dealers. If its own product is one which its 
employees have occasion to purchase, then the company 
had better sell to them direct on the most reasonable 
basis possible. 

I do not recall any instances of company publica- 
tions that have come to my attention which have of- 
fended the proprieties in this way, and I add this to my 
discussion only that it may cover fully the conditions to 
which it is addressed. Harry A. Bullock, 


Spacing of Subway Stations 

Massachusetts Commission Points Out That Interests 

of Greatest Number of People Must 

Be Considered 

IN a hearing held recently by the Massachusetts Pub- 
lic Service Commission on a petition for another 
subway station in Cambridge, brought by some citi- 
zens of that city, the commission discusses the general 
subject of the proper spacing of stations and the prin- 
ciples which should govern. It said that it would con- 
sider this question on its merits without admitting ths 
power of the commission to compel the company to 
construct a station at the point suggested, if that should 
prove desirable. 

The proposed location is about half-way between two 
existing stations which are about a mile apart. The 
petitioners pointed out that on other subways and rapid 
transit lines, both in Boston and other cities, notably 
New York, the stations are usually located at intervals 
of about a half mile, but the commission declares that 
the conditions affecting station location in the business 
districts of Boston are so different from those which 
exist in the suburban district.s served by the Cambridge 

subway as not to be properly comparable. In New 
York, the commission says, the conditions are also 
so different as to make a comparison of even less value, 
as local and express service is conducted in the same 
subway, and the average distance between the express 
stops from Brooklyn Bridge north is about 1.66 miles. 
The petitioners further stated that the installation of 
the new station would largely increase property values 
in the vicinity and prove of great economic value to the 
city, but the commissioir held that for it to stimulate 
artificially real estate development in Cambridge at the 
expense of similar development in other communities 
would be an arbitrary and unwarranted exercise of 
authority. It also pointed out that the saving in time 
to those who would use such a station would be more 
than overbalanced by the loss of time by others living 
farther out who would be delayed by the station stop, 
the company had testified it would cost $60,646 a year 
to operate the station, and its installation would be an 
entering wedge which would tend to decrease the value 
of the subway as a rapid transit line serving more dis- 
tant suburbs as well as Cambridge. The petition was, 
therefore, dismissed. 

Canadian Compulsory Investigation 

Adoption of Principle in This Country Would 

Grievously Disappoint Even Its Most 

Ardent Advocates 

IN view of the present administrative program for 
adopting in this country the principle of the Cana- 
dian compulsory investigation act, Ralph M. Easley, 
chairman executive council National Civic Federation, 
New York, has issued a statement regarding what he 
deems to be the unsuccessful workings of the Canadian 
act and the impropriety and uselessness of passing a 
similar act for the United States. This act was de- 
scribed in the Electric Railway Journal of Nov. 25, 
1916, page 1107. According to Mr. Easley the official 
reports of the Board of Conciliation to the Labor De- 
partment of Canada on the operation of the act from 
its passage in 1907 to 1916 furnish enough information 
to dissipate all belief that an industrial Utopia has 
been developed in Canada. 

In the whole nine years the Canadian act dealt with 
disputes involving only 146,000 employees,' and 32,000 
of them, or nearly 22 per cent, struck in spite of the 
award, and in many cases in spite of the law itself 
before making an application for an investigation. 
Nothing in the record shows that any attempt was made 
to inflict the penalties of the law by fining them or 
sending them to jail. The Canadian act, it is asserted, 
was not intended to prohibit strikes and it does not 
prevent them. It is intended only to delay them until 
after a board has heard both sides of the issue and 
made a public recommendation, after which either side 
or both sides, as has happened in Canada again and 
again, can go ahead and fight it out. 

Mr. Easley believes that the adoption of the principle 
of the Canadian act in this country would not only 
grievously disappoint the hopes of its advocates, but 
would tend to make of wage-earners here a horde of 
lawbreakers. The issue cannot be met by any form of 
compulsory legislation. Some sort of a mediation 
board, named by the President and mutually agreed 
upon by the railroad managers and the brotherhood 
leaders, under federal supervision, would help the pres- 
ent railroad situation. It would not absolutely prevent 
a recurrence of the crucial situation of last autumn, 
but in Mr. Easley's opinion there is no scheme which 
would be an absolute preventive. 

January 13, 1917] 



Short and Up-to-Date Articles on 


Remodeling Motors on Third Avenue Railway System — Prolonging Life of 
Rails in Connecticut — Protecting Roadbed on Water-Retaining Soils on 
B. R. T. System — Automatic Car and Air Coupler — Spring Type Post Casing 
for Car Windows — Contact Signal for Cleveland & Eastern Traction Company 

{Contributions from the Men in the Field Are Solicited and Will Be Paid for at Special Rates.) 

Concrete Baffle Walls in Protection of 
Roadbed for Water-Retaining Soils 

The Plan of Keeping the Water Out Rather Than 

Draining It Away Was Preferred in the 

Case Cited 


Assistant Engineer Way & Structure Department, Brooklyn Rapid 

Transit System 

During an investigation of soil conditions prece- 
dent to the construction of the Eighth Avenue exten- 
sion from Thirty-ninth Street to Bay Ridge Avenue, 
Brooklyn, it was found that a soil of a character likely 
to retain considerable water would have to serve as the 
roadbed for the new tracks. A rather unusual condi- 
tion was thus presented, as most of the soils found in 
Brooklyn are gravel and sand, or sandy loam, retaining 
little water, and these have been found generally suitable 
for sub-grade foundation without resort to special drain- 
age or the use of concrete platforms or ballast under 
the ties. The necessity of some method of drainage 
therefore became evident. 

The need for keeping water-retaining subsoil dry 
was recognized, particularly as no protecting pave- 
ment was to be installed in "the adjacent roadways 

& Qraalta Blwjk Pavsmeot 

l[ |j ipfifiiiliiiipiliiiiliililiiJIiiiliLiii.aijaiiliwiiry, ', :! , , ■, , .;,Vi:ipi]iiiTpJljl|fn]1tr,|ffl[ii|il»jillM 

l':3:fl dnvct Ooncrate 



A Large Job of Motor Remodeling 

An Eastern Railway System Has Been Able to 

Reduce Maintenance Costs on Old Motors to 

a Reasonable Value 


Electrical Foreman 

When the present management of the Third Avenue 
System of New York took charge about ten years ago 
the road was equipped with some 600 Westinghouse No. 
56 motors. These motors had previously been a source 
of continual trouble, especially on account of hot bear- 
ings. Flashovers and grounded armatures, fields and 
brushholders were also common. At this time the 
motors were overhauled and the car wiring repaired. 
Whereas grease had been used as a lubricant previously 
oil lubrication was tried. Men were stationed at the 
ends of the line to oil on each trip, and the motors were 
also oiled nightly. 

The motors then gave fairly satisfactory service until 


I Nofe O/aSfyk 
' Openings at Top 
Nen Siyle Larger 
and open on bide. 
•fith Old Type of Bearing, 
Felt Feeder Etc. 

With New Type of Bearing, 
Wasfe Packed, Showing New 
Method of Lubrication. 



which would conduct the surface water away from 
tracks, but instead of installing a subsoil drainage 
system it was decided to construct small concrete 
baffle walls at the outer edges of the concrete base 
necessary for the granite track pavement. They were 
constructed as a part of the paving base and the 
small trenches required to form the walls were made 
in the soil shortly before the installation of the con- 
crete so as to avoid the necessity for using the usual 

A glance at the accompanying cross-section will 
show that the adjacent roadway surface must become 
thoroughly saturated with water to a depth of over 
21 in. before the moisture can pass to the subsoil 
directly under the tracks. It is believed that it is 
practically impossible for this to occur and that the 
subsoil will be kept dry. As dry clay soils of the charac- 
ter found will sustain any load which can be placed on it 
by means of street railway tracks, the tracks should re- 
main in good surface until the city can pave the adja- 
cent roadway, which may not be done for a period of 
several years. 

about a year later, when they were placed on fast runs. 
Here they again developed hot bearings. An attempt 
was then made to convert them from the split-frame 
type to the box type by electric welding, using frame- 
heads of modern motors. This was very successful, 
except that the cost was excessive, about $75 per motor. 
Finally the old bearings were rebuilt along modern lines, 
as described below, and this completely remedied the 

In the old bearings lubrication was accomplished by 
means of a felt feeder, which conducted oil from the 
bottom of the bearing shell onto the shaft, as shown in 
an accompanying diagram. The glazing of this felt, 
together with the leakage of oil, was the cause of poor 
lubrication. In the new style of bearing lubrication is 
effected by the use of a roll of oily waste which is packed 
above and below the bearing, passing around the shaft, 
as shown in a second diagram. 

In changing the bearings the first operation was to 
burn out the old bridging through which the felt feeder 
was led. A view of the shells with this piece burned 
out is given in an illustration on page 80. Then a 



[Vol. XLIX, No. 2 

^^,— ^-o 

.J^^J^:'~9. I 

^Ir^Bffifci* —J 

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curved piece of Ve-Jh. steel was electrically welded in 
place of the old bridging, as shown. This piece instead 
of having a hole in its center had the hole on the end, 
and in the upper shell a hole was left in such a position 
as to fit directly over this lower hole. The large bear- 
ing which fits over the wheel shaft was also built up 
where it had worn. Both bearings were then rebored 
to their original dimensions, as shown in another 

For reboring, a discarded planer was pressed into 
service. The motor was fastened to supports which 
rested on the sliding bed of the planer. Both bearings 
were bored at the same time by two boring bars, which 
were geared to a motor on top of the planer. These bars 
were held securely and guided correctly by two heavy 
pillar blocks which were doweled and bolted to the 
frame of the planer. 

Cast-steel bearings were used in the remodeled motors 
on account of their long life and the ease with which 
they could be tinned to keep the babbitt tight. New 
babbitt blocks were put in, the axle lugs were rein- 
forced and the covers were fitted with modern fasten- 
ings. The cost of the whole operation is shown below: 

Welding »6 

Boring 6 

Reassembling 6 

Materia!, bearings, etc 8 

Total J25 

While this work was being done, the fields and arma- 
tures were tested and repaired. The armatures were 
rebanded and the commutators were tightened and 

The advantages derived from this change are appar- 
ent in the following records: One car was run 280 
miles per day for four days and then brought in for 

inspection and oiling, using 1 gill of oil for each box. 
The car continued in this service until it had made a 
mileage of 45,000, and then, for reasons other than 
motor trouble, it was put in lighter service. It re- 
mained in this service for 15,000 additional miles, after 
which the motors were still in good condition. 

On another division, where the cost of lubrication 
had been high, after fifty out of sixty-five cars had 
been equipped with the remodeled motors, the cost was 
reduced exactly one-half. The remodeled motors are 
now put into the same service and given the same at- 
tention as the modern motors. The bearings do not have 
the life of modern ones, but where the old bearings 
needed overhauling after 10,000 miles, the remodeled 
bearings easily make 50,000 miles with oiling at regular 
inspection periods instead of daily. 

Prolonging the Life of Old Rail* 

Experience of Connecticut Company Shows that 

Rail Need Not Always Be Relaid When 

Permanent Paving Is Installed 

Superintendent of Track Connecticut Company, Bridgeport, Conn. 

The Connecticut Company has been called upon by 
city and state highway ofl!icials to pave many miles of 
its track with so-called permanent pavement. In com- 
plying with these requests it was at first considered 
necessary to renew the rails which in many cases had 
Yiot reached a condition where renewal would be con- 
sidered necessary under ordinary conditions. It was 
possible in many cases, however, to prolong the life 
of the old rail by the use of grinding machines, special 
joints and welding equipment. Brief descriptions follow 
of methods employed in typical jobs where the track 
was rebuilt at the time the pavement was constructed. 
Figures are given to show the saving that has resulted. 

Job A — The track construction on this job was 7-in., 
70-Ib., T-rail in 30-ft. lengths with ordinary joints. The 
joints were badly hammered, and corrugations had 
started in many places. The general surface and align- 
ment of the track were also very poor. In rebuilding 
the track the joints were repaired with welding and 
grinding machines, Abbott joint-plates were placed un- 
der every joint, iron shims were placed under the rail 
on every tie and the track was paved with Hassam 
pavement. This job covered about 8000 ft. of double 
track, and by leaving the old rail in the new pavement 
a saving of the expenditure of nearly $20,000 was 

Job B— This section comprised 6678 ft. of double 


•Abstract of paper read at American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion Company Section Meeting, Dec. 14, 1916. 

January 13, 1917] 



track and 425 ft. of single track. The rail, which was 
7-in., 70-lb. section was electrically welded. New 
ties were installed throughout, new rails were cut in 
where some of the welded joints had broken down and 
some joints that were badly cupped were built up with 
the aid of the Indianapolis welding machine. The ex- 
cess welding steel was ground down with the Seymour 
rotary grinder and finished with the reciprocating 
grinder, and a few places where corrugations had 
started were smoothed up. The track was then paved 
with Hassam pavement. All of the labor for track work 
on this line, including the preparing of the sub-grade 
before paving, cost 67 cents per foot of single track. 
The figures show that on this job alone by leaving 
the old rail in the new pavement a saving in the ex- 
penditure of about $16,575 was made. 

Job C — This track was laid with 4i/i-in. second-hand 
steam road rail in 30-ft. lengths, weighing about 50 lb. 
per yard. About half the track was located on the side 
and half in the center of the street. New ties, new 
joint plates and Abbott joints were installed and the 
track was back-filled with gravel. The length of single 
track repaired on this job was 4500 ft. and a saving in 
the expenditure of $3,010 was made. On a similar sec- 
tion comprising 3520 ft. of single track, a large portion 
of the old rail was left in and by prolonging the life 
of the old rail a saving of the expenditure of $6,325 was 

Job D—On this job the old 7-in., 70-lb., T-rail was 
left in, being given the same treatment as outlined 
above. This covered a distance of 400 ft. of double 
track, the saving in this case being about $1,000. 

On another job involving two tracks, one of which 
was in good condition, striking results were obtained. 
The south-bound track was of 7-in., 70-lb., T-rail 
somewhat cupped at the joints and with slight corru- 
gations in places. The joints were not electrically weld- 
ed. The north-bound track was of 9-in. girder rail 
worn beyond redemption, and this was replaced with 
7-in., 95-lb., T-rail with continuous joints. When the 
work of putting the south-bound track in repair so as 
to save the old rail was under way the company put 
the Indianapolis welder at work and filled up all the 
cups at the joints, ground off the excess steel with 
the Seymour grinder and polished the joints down 

with the reciprocating grinder. All corrugations and 
rough places were smoothed off and now that the job 
is completed very few people riding over this track 
could say which of the two tracks rides the smoother. 
It was the rule on all of these jobs that cars should 
not pass over the track being paved until the last sec- 
tion of pavement laid had been in place at least twenty- 
four hours, but occasionally it was necessary to let the 
cars run over small stretches of the track, while the 
pavement was being installed. In all of the jobs men- 
tioned a good riding track has been obtained, the rail 
of which is embedded in a solid mass of concrete which 
extends 5 in. below the base of the rail. It is believed 
that with minor repairs with the grinding and welding 
machines the track will give entire satisfaction for 
many years to come. 

New Type of Contact Signal 

A Simple Hand or Automatic Signal Operating 
Satisfactorily on Cleveland & Eastern 

A new design of block and crossing signal has been 
in practical operation on the lines of the Cleveland & 
Eastern Traction Company for more than two years. 
Its construction and operation are very simple, and, 
therefore, no skilled workmen are required to keep it 
in working condition. It may be operated either from 
track or from trolley, a two-way switch that forms the 
most important element being operable either elec- 
trically by a solenoid or by mechanical pressure from 
the trolley poles of passing cars. 

The apparatus, when operated from a rail contact for 
block signal purposes, consists of a switch mounted on 
a line pole at each end of the block, a circuit of lights 
connected in series between the two switches and two 
30-ft. insulated sections in one rail. The circuit through 
the relay is completed through the other rail. The 
switch mechanism consists of the above mentioned re- 
lay, a solenoid which operates the switch that controls 
the 500-volt light circuit, and a seven-cell storage bat- 
tery. This battery floats on the line continually and 
supplies the energy to the solenoid. 

The operation of the switch is as follows : The block 
is protected at each end by a lantern with red lenses, 




[Vol. XLIX, No. 2 

and if this lantern is illumined, indicating danger, the 
car is compelled to remain beyond the block until the 
lantern is extinguished, indicating that the block is 

When the signal is not set at danger, the car 
travels beyond the first lantern to the insulated rail, at 
which point the motorman receives a come-on signal by 
a white light. He then proceeds for about one-half the 
length of the block, at which point a double caution 
light is seen. He then proceeds through the block, and 
at the far end the car makes contact with another 
insulated length of rail, clearing all of the signals in 
this block for the next car or train. 

The above-mentioned middle or caution light is for 
any irregularities, such as if another car had entered 
the block through the carelessness of the operator in 
not having observed the signal. In this case, the oppos- 
ing car would immediately note that this signal was 
dark and would thereupon stop at once, flagging through 
the balance of the block. 

In the operation of the same apparatus as a crossing 
signal, it is necessary only to use one switch with a 
wire running to each insulated rail. In this combina- 
tion is used a set of five lights in conjunction with a 
bell. One each of this group of lights is located ap- 
proximately 700 ft. on either side of the crossing, the 
remaining cluster of three lights being located at the 
crossing to serve as a visual indication. 

The light circuit and the bell circuit are separate, so 
that neither one is dependent upon the other for opera- 
tion. The lights located adjacent to the insulated rail 
on either side of the crossing are intended for the 
guidance of the trainmen, who are thus informed that 
protection is being given at the crossing by lights. 
Trainmen are not permitted to proceed until they get 
this signal, and when they are unable to get it, conduc- 
tors are instructed to flag the car over the crossing. 
This type of signal prevents two cars from entering 
the crossing simultaneously — a very dangerous prac- 
tice that does not give the general public sufficient time 
in many cases to cross between cars. 

With both the block signal and the crossing signal 
there may be used, instead of the insulated rails, a 
trolley-operated switch that is entirely mechanical in 
operation, electric current being used only for the light 
signals and for the bell circuit. This contact switch is 
operated by the upward pressure of the trolley pole, 
and on a double trolley line the operation of the switch 
is not interfered with in any way by the trainman 
placing the trolley wheel on the trolley wire of either 
direction. The switch is used in practically the same 
way as the previously mentioned insulated rail sections 
for signal purposes, one switch being mounted on a 
separate pole at either end of the block. 

For the crossing signal it is necessary to use one 
trolley contactor switch at each side of the crossing. 
The current to operate the bell and to illuminate the 
lights is taken from the trolley, the bell and lights 
being in series. In this case the motorman is not per- 
mitted to proceed unless he gets his proper signals 
through the lights, indicating that the crossing is pro- 
tected by both bell and lights, the lights vibrating or 
giving a flash effect due to the vibration of the bell. 
Either of the above-described signals, which were orig- 
inated and patented by Robert D. Beatty, general man- 
ager Cleveland & Eastern Traction Company, can be 
installed at a very nominal cost. 

The Spring Type of Post Casing 

A Moisture-Proof, Rattle-Proof Device Permitting 
Ready Removal of Sash 

Until very recently the window system of a car built 
with steel upper framing was customarily made up by 
attaching to the T-posts grooved wooden runways for 
sashes and curtains, as well as the wooden pilasters. 
This method of construction was early discovered to be 
not thoroughly efficient, because the wood had a tendency 
to swell when subjected to dampness. The demand for a 
post that would not be affected by moisture eventually 
became so strong that the attention of The J. G. Brill 
Company was turned to the subject of an all-metal post, 
and the result has been the Brill "renitent" post, where- 
by there is provided a post casing that has in its favor 
the advantages of being water-tight, rattle-proof and 
safe against dropping the sash, and of being easily re- 
moved from its runways without the use of tools. 

The post-casing, which gets its name from its feature 
of "offering elastic resistance to pressure," consists of a 
easing of spring brass attached to the T-post by means 
of clips fastened to the casing and fitting into stirrups 
riveted to the post. The feature of ready removal with- 
out the use of tools is of tremendous importance. Ordi- 
narily, the removal of a sash from its casing involves 
careful handling of tools by a mechanic and consequently 
the loss of some little time. However, with the renitent 
post the sash may be taken from its casing simply by 
pulling it out. This means that the operation is one 
that can be performed by anyone and that does not re- 
quire the services of a mechanic. However, the sash 
cannot be removed from its casing as a result of the 
casual pressure exerted by a passenger in raising or 
lowering. Also, no wind pressure, no matter how great, 
can disturb the sash. 

Another very great advantage of the renitent post is 

Aluminum wire has been used for more than 50,000 
miles of transmission line of which, according to the 
engineers of the Aluminum Company of America, about 
15,000 miles are in the Pacific States. 


January 13, 1917] 



that rattling is absolutely prevented by the elastic 
pressure that is exerted on the sash stiles by the spring- 
brass runways. This feature also guarantees the 
passenger against accident to his hands or arms which 
may be resting on the window sill and which might be 
injured by the sash dropping suddenly. If the catches 
should become unfastened the sash will drop gradually. 
A very great advantage given to the sash by this check 
on its dropping is that the sashes cannot be racked or 
the glass broken by careless handling. The spring brass 
casing gives a uniformity of pressure which does away 


absolutely with fitting sashes individually into their run- 
ways as must be done with sashes which are constructed 
to slide in wooden runways. Consequently the sashes 
are interchangeable from window to window and from 
car to car, where the windows are similar. 

Still another advantage of the resilient post — and 
one that, although named last, by no means is the least 
important — is that the post casing may readily be re- 
moved from the T-post, thus making the latter easily 
accessible if it should be necessary to make inspections 
or repairs in case of collision. The clip-and-stirrup 
method of attaching the casing to the post is very effec- 
tive although it is simple, and it absolutely prevents 
the casing from becoming loose. 

The renitent post is considered to be better than the 
wooden construction not only because of its many me- 
chanical advantages, of which the most important have 
been cited, but also because it presents a much 
better appearance than can be obtained with 
wood, making a lighter and considerably neater 
looking post than does the wooden post. This 
improved appearance is not the result of any 
sacrifice of strength, the pressed form of the 
post casing giving it sufficient strength in 
every direction to prevent it becoming dented 
or injured except by very heavy blows. 

Because of the curving sweep which has to be given 
the casing, the renitent post system is not adaptable 
to the Brill semi-convertible type of car. However, the 
post may be attached to any other type of city or inter- 
urban car, and it is readily applied to the double-window 
post construction that is found in interurban cars built 
with twin windows. In this twin-post construction the 
gap between the post on the inside of the car is bridged 
with a sheet steel cover which is fastened into the cur- 
tain groove on the sash side of each of the twin posts. 
The renitent post is made in a range of sizes covering 
every width of post. 

The injurious effects of skidding by electric cars were 
illustrated by C. V. Wood, shop foreman Newport 
News, & Hampton Railway, Gas & Electric Company in 
a paper delivered before the local company section of 
'the American Electric Railway Association. He esti- 
mated that in sliding 10 ft. a 30-ton car develops suffi- 
cient heat to melt 0.59 lb. of metal per wheel, while a 
wheel carrying 20,000 lb. with a flat spot 3 in. long 
strikes the rail with a force of 104,000 lb. when running 
at 16 m.p.h. 

Automatic Car and Air Coupler for 
City Cars 

This Coupler Obviates the Necessity for Men to 
Stand Between Cars When Coupling 

A recent design of automatic car and air couplers 
brought out by the Van Dorn Coupler Company, Chi- 
cago, for city and light interurban service embodies sev- 
eral new features. These couplers are carefully ma- 
chined to make a perfectly rigid connection when 
coupled together, the two heads being held in this rigid 
contact by means of the locking mechanism, and the 
rigidity at the connection made possible by virtue of 
the suitable joints behind the heads to provide the neces- 
sary vertical and lateral movement. The horizontal 
movement pivots about the bolt through the inner end 
of the coupler, while the vertical motion is pivoted at 
the horizontal bolt just back of the head and unlock- 
ing lever. In spite of this exactness of fit, the couplers 
will properly come together and lock, it is claimed, 
though they may be 3 in. out of alignment, and they 
are sufficiently flexible to operate under conditions where 
the car platforms may assume a difference in level of 
10 in. 

A lever, located on top of the head where it is readily 
accessible from either side, lifts up and turns through 
45 deg. to unlock the device. When in the normal posi- 
tion this handle lies between two lugs on the head which 
protect it from breakage by striking the platform or 
chains, and this horizontal position of the lever gives 
more clearance for the free working of the coupler. 
When operating this unlocking device, a special mech- 
anism holds the coupler unlocked after the lever has 
been turned through 45 deg., the handle going back to 
the normal position when released. This catch on the 
locking mechanism is automatically released when the 


two couplers part, or (if the coupler has been unlocked 
while not in connection with another car) when they 
come together, so that there is no necessity for a man 
to stand between the cars when coupling or uncoupling. 
In other words, the coupler is always ready to couple- 
up without attention being given to the locking mech- 
anism. The lock is complete in each coupler and thus 
makes a double lock when two are coupled together, and 
as long as either one is locked the connection is held 
in the same rigid condition. All obstruction to the 
free operation of the locking lever is removed by 
placing the two air pipes on the underside of the coupler 
with the valves just behind the face plate where they 
are conveniently located to be reached by the train- 
man, both from either side. The mechanism is so de- 
signed that any wear in any part of the mechanism is 
automatically taken up as it develops so that the con- 
nection remains as rigid as ever throughout the life of 
the coupler. 

The coupler heads are held in normal coupling posi- 
tion by a flexible supporting device underneath the 




drawbar shank, and the whole coupler is supported by 
means of lugs cast on the top of the shank which en- 
gage the carrier sliding on the radial bar. This flexible 
device supporting the head is adjustable to allow for 
sagging of platforms, wearing down of wheels, etc. 

The Van Dorn patented draft gear especially adapted 
to city service is utilized with the new coupler. The 
slot seen in the coupling nose is for use when coupling 
with other style Van Dorn couplers. The length of the 
new couplers is 4 ft. 6 in. The pronounced rigidity 
of connection secured at the coupler heads of course 
increases the life of the couplers and insures against 
air leakage. 

Over 200 of these couplers are in use on the cars of 
the Pittsburgh Railway, where the hilly conditions place 
rather exacting strains on coupling devices. Some 520 
more of them are being made for this company which 
has now practically standardized on this type of equip- 

Combination Dining and Parlor Cars 

for Chicago, North Shore & 

Milwaukee Railroad 

With the completion of three new all-steel cars now 
under construction at the Jewett Car Company's plant, 
the Chicago, .North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad will 
begin a dining and parlor-car service between Chicago 
and Milwaukee. This is expected to be in operation 
soon after the first of February and its inauguration 
will be another link in the series of improvements and 
refinement of the service, roadbed and equipment of this 
road since it came under the control of Britton I. Budd. 
These new cars are to be of the standard design of the 
North Shore road and equipped with four motors and 
multiple-unit control so that they may be operated as 
part of a train or individually if engaged for a private 
party. The interior arrangement of chairs and tables 
is to be such that the cars may be entirely devoted to 
dining service or entirely to parlor-car service, or partly 
to both at the same time. The chairs are so dimensioned 
as to fit into either arrangement without the necessity 
to store any away. These two arrangements of the 
chairs are shown in the accompanying illustrations. 
There will be nine tables and twenty-two chairs, and sta- 
tionary seats at the bulkheads for twelve passengers, 
making the total seating or dining capacity thirty-four 
persons. The kitchen is to be fully equipped to serve, 
as Mr. Budd says, "not elaborate meals, but everything 
good and at popular prices." 

In the rearrangement from parlor car to diner, there 
is one chair extra in the smoking compartment which 
makes up the one short in the main compartment. 
Changing back, the tables all fold up and are stored in 
a locker at the front kitchen bulkhead. Thus after a 
meal is served the passengers may be made comfortable 
by putting the tables away and rearranging the chairs. 
There will probably be call for this equipment as 
special chartered cars for parties from the North Shore 
towns into Milwaukee and into Chicago, especially the 
latter with a station of the elevated lines in Chicago at 
the very door of the Auditorium theater, where all grand 
opera and other important social gatherings are held. 
The interior of the cars will be mahogany finish and the 
chairs solid mahogany with leather upholstery giving, 
with the center and side post lighting, a very attractive 

An Easily-Made Phase-Rotation Meter 

When a three-phase generator is to be connected to 
a live system, its phase rotation must be in the same 
direction as that of the system. For determining this 
phase rotation an easily-made instrument was devised 
by E. P. Peck, Georgia Railway & Power Company, At- 
lanta, Ga. 

The instrument consists essentially of a watt-hour 
meter disk mounted in its bearings directly over three 
symmetrically spaced telephone bell coils. When this in- 
strument is connected to a three-phase system the disk 
revolves in one direction or the other. The instrument 
is then transferred to the generator cable and if the 
disk revolves in the same direction as before the phase 
rotations are proved to be the same, and vice versa. 

Oil-Insulated Cable Joints 

A method of impregnating cable joints with oil ha 
been developed by the Metropolitan Engineering Cor 
pany. New York City. After a joint is made, a specia 
sleeve having an opening for filling with oil is put oi| 
For voltages under 16,000 the oil is simply pour 
through this opening. 

When used on cables for voltages of more than 16J 
000 a special apparatus is used for producing a vacuui 
inside the sleeve so that when the oil is poured in 
penetrates more completely than if put In under atmosj 
pheric pressure. It is claimed that the joints made bj 
these methods operate satisfactorily under the worst 

Door %sitb Qlass 


January 13, 1917] 



Continuous Feed- Water Regulator 

A regulator for providing a continuous flow of feed 
water proportionate to the evaporation has been devel- 
oped by the Ray Manufacturing Company, Louisville. 

Essentially it consists of a perfectly balanced valve 
operated by a float. The feed water is admitted to the 


valve at its center and is discharged at one end in a con- 
ixious flow controlled by the position of the float. 

A high and low-water alarm whistle is operated by 
two contact points on the float rod. The whistle lever 
is counter-balanced to hold the whistle valve closed when 
pressure is off the boiler. 

Preventing Birds from Grounding 

Small birds have in the past been a source of con- 
siderable trouble on the lines of the Georgia Railway 
& Power Company. By alighting on the horn gaps of 



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1 : 

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Fibre dfocl'3 

the lightning arresters they grounded the lines through 
their bodies and caused the automatic switches to trip 
out in a number of cases. To prevent such disturbances 
the device illustrated herewith was built under the 
direction of T. F. Johnson, superintendent of lines. 

The device consists of two 1/2-in. horn-fiber blocks, 
5 in. by 21/2 in. each, connected together by a spring- 
brass strap. The heads of the bolts holding this strap 
are countersunk and sealing wax is poured over them. 
The inside edges of the blocks are grooved so as to fit 

on the horn. By bending back the outer edges of the 
blocks, the inside edges are forced apart far enough to 
enable them to slip over t