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z ^m 


^ V ^ JJit)rary 

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March 3, 1923 

Twenty Cents Per Cop; 

^^Msej «>»»-> ry^^'^, % f 'i /^■^'i 8*' 

^'-tW^ »««5054 


Here^s Our New Home 

Floor space of old plant 130,000 square feet. Floor space of new 
plant 375,000 square feet (and ample room for expansion). Nearly 
200% increase. We take this occasion to express our thanks to all 
our friends and customers who by demanding Johns-Pratt prod- 
ucts in ever-increasing volume have made the acqusition of this 
plant a necessity. With the added facilities it affords, we pledge 
the continued maintenance of Johns-Pratt standards of quality 
and our best endeavors for still better service. 

THE JOHNS-PRATT COMPANY, Hartford, Connecticut 


161 Summer Street 

35 South Desplaines St. 



41 East 42nd Street 

Engineers' Building 

Franklin Trust Building 

Boatmen's Bank BIdg. 



Bessemer Building 

Call Building 



/////ir/Wafi JS-3;. 

Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

New ! 

Safer ! 

The*5^pe OD SafetjHFirst Fuse Box for 
circuits up to 7500 volts:— Ideal for protecting 
outdoor distribution transformers. 

Here are 10 Reasons Why: 

i . Compact, substantial box with through bolts to 
prevent warping. 

2. One-piece metal top keeps moisture out of box 
and forms the mounting bracket and part of 
simple latching device. 

3. Mounting bracket at top puts the box as far as 
possible below the line wire. 

4. Bottom-opening door, swinging through 1 80 ° 
allows re-fusing at maximum distance from live 

5. Fuse tube of white bone fibre substantially held 
on mounting bloc, yet easily removed for 

6. Fuse link, with decreased portion at upper end, 
assures blowing at that point, and quick open- 
ing of the circuit. 

7. Barrier in box prevents arcing between upper 
and lower contacts. 

8. One-piece base and outlet bushing 
of moulded insulation material 
prevent the charring of base. 

9. Projection of the fuse into the 
outlet bushing causes hot gases to 
expand into the outer atmosphere 
instead of into the box. 

10. Very high interrupting capacity is 
obtained because of features (7) 
and (9). 

During periods when power is not used 
such as in grain elevators during 
winter months, the fuse tube may be 
removed and the fuse box closed, thus 
disconnecting the transformer from 
the line and preventing no-load losses. 

Catalogue Supplement l-B 
goes into details, ask for it 

Westinghouse Electric 8C Manufacturing Company 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Door Dropped 


Vol. 61, No. 9 

New York, March 3, 1923 

Pages 357-394 

CoainlUiv Editor 


Ikitlneerint Editor 

Aai(wltt« Editor 

AiiocUte Editor 

Nem Editor 


Editorial Assistant 



Henry W. Blake and Harry L. Brown, Editors 

PtciAo Coast Editor 
Biaito Bld(., San 

New Endand Editor 
Tromont Bldi.. Boaton 


Editorial Assistant 

Old Coloor Bids., Chlewa 

Washincton RepraaanUllT* 
Colorado Bldg. *' 


Editorials 357 

Automatic Substation Experience in Cleveland — 1 359 

Bv L. D. Bale. 

In this first section are given the general considerations leading 

up to the trial of automatic control in city service, the main design 

features of the buildings, and a brief discussion of the equipment 


What Accountants* Association Has Done 365 

By M. W. Glover. 

A past-president of the Accountants' Association lists a number 
of the important achievements of the association, points out some 
of the problems ahead and urges all accountants to take an active 
Interest In the work. 

Good Record for British Single-Phase Electrification. . . .367 

Merchandising Transportation Abroad 367 

By J. Kaffeyne. 

New Safety Devices Developed in Tri-Cities 369 

Scheme of control operates electrically instead of by air valves. 
Devices are claimed to be simple and comparatively inexpensive 
In first cost and maintenance. 

Would "Sell" Detroit Municipal Railway to Detroit 
People 371 

The Readers' Forum 372 

Americanization Work Proving Success 373 

Association News and Discussions- 374 

American Association News 376 

Maintenance of Equipment 377 

News of the Industry 380 

Financial and. Corporate 384 

Traffic and Transportation 388 

Personal Mention 390 

Manufactures and the Markets 393 

McGraw-Hill Co., Inc., Tenth Ave. at 36th St., New York 

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What the Subscribers Read 

IN THE routine circulation work, subscribers 
of the Journal have been asked what articles 
or classes of articles they found interesting. The 
replies to this have been many and various. Here 
are a few : 

M. Cou6 Ought to Read It 

Everything — although personally I find the 
equipment details and the construction and opera- 
ting columns most interesting, being an engineer. 
The Journal is getting better and better all the 
time: M. Coue ought to read it regularly as it is 
a paper after his own heart! The articles arc 
admirably written, in every detail, and always 
clear ahd crisp. — A. H. B., Engineer. 

Appreciates Practical Service 

"What and Where to Buy." This page is of 
great help in ordering, odds and ends which are 
not standard goods. ' 

"Alphabetical Index to Advertisements." 
This page is of great help in ordering also, be- 
cause you have the address of the company before 
\ou and little time is wasted on where to send 
your order. .■ ' \ 

Your articles on one-man cars have been ver\' 
good and they have taken and given the points 
desired, that is, good and bad, and in that way a 
person could apply the conditions to his own ex- 
isting conditions. I believe your articles on main- 
tenance of equipment have saved us a great deal 
and hope that we may see more of them. 

— N. E. .v., Manager. 

The Back End of the Paper Appeals 

"Manufactures and the Markets.". ' . 
"Personal Items." 
"Searchlight Section." 

The above especially, the JournSal ftself in- 
general. — /. T. McC, Purchasing 3,(!ent:, 

Relative Interest Specified , ! •>•.■,,. 

In the order in which they' are givein,, the items 
which interest the w^ter .most in tht Electric 
Railway Journal are: >i' 

1. Those articles dealing with the technical or 
practical details covering operation of rail- 

2. Editorials. 

3. Advertisements. 

— ¥. R. P., Superintendent of Equipment. 

Circulation of this issne, 6,075 

Advertising Index — Alphabetical, 62; Classified, 58, 60; Searchlight Section, 57 

Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

Expert Catenary Construction Service 

SomeVestinghouse Insiallaiions 

Westinghouse Electric 8C Manufacturing Co. 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Sales Offices In All Principal American Cities. . 


March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway journal 

NQ552-B. 50HP 

To Improvelfour Service 

Here are some of the railway 
systems that are using the 
Standard Westinghouse No. 
532 Railway Moto r with 

Androscoggin & Kennebec R. R. 
Cincinnati Tractin Coo. 
Conestoga Traction Co. 
Connecticut Company, The 
Massachusetts North Eastern St. 

Ry. Co. 
Mobile Light & R. R. Co. 
Northern Ohio Traction Co. 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. 
Pittsburgh Railways Co. 
United Ry. & Electric Co. 
Schuylkill Railway Co. 

Steubenville & E. Liverpool R. & 
L. Co. 

West Penn Traction Co. 

Wheeling Traction Co. 

Wilkes-Barre Ry. Co. 


Cars now equipped with obsolete types 
of 50 h.p. motors can be brought to 
the greatest degree of operating ef- 
ficiency by replacing the obsolete 
motors with Standard Westinghouse, 
Box-Type No. 532-B, 50 H.P. Motors. 

This type of motor embraces the 
following improvements : 

Moisture resisting insulation. 

Improved ventilation. 

Rugged shaft and bearings. 

Long Life commutator and brushholders. 

Efficient lubrication. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturini Company 
East PitUburgh, Pa. 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 192S 



\ X T^ABCO is the new brake cvlin- 
' " der packing cup material which 
has revolutionized the packing cup 

Until Wabco was discovered in the 
Westinghouse laboratories, such effi- 
cient and economical service as this 
product has since been giving was 

Wabco Packing Cups have practi- 
cally banished brake cylinder leakage, 
resulting in better air brake perform- 
ance with reduced labor, and less 
wear, on the part of the compressor. 

Wabco is so constructed as to be 
virtually indestructible and lasts for 
years under average conditions. 

WestinghouseTraction Brakes 

Afore A 3, 1923 Electric RAILWAY JOURNAL "J 7 

The Secret of 


Earns More by Saving More 

THE great earning power of the Safety Car is based 
on its ability to save. Among the chief factors in 
this respect is the reduction in platform expense. 

The saving is not achieved by any sacrifice of service. 
In fact, the public has come to regard "Safety Car 
service" as distinctive of the best that can be offered. 

You can enjoy the advantages of the Safety Car either 
by adopting new cars of the standard type or converting 
existing "two-man" cars, and in either case you will 
find complete satisfaction in the use of our Air Brake 
and Safety Car Control Equipment. 

SafetyCar Devices Col 

OF St. Louis, Mo. 
Postal and 9o/egraphic Address: 



It it not a safety ear unlemM equipped with oar etand- 
ard Air Brake and Safety Car Control Device*. 

Electric Railway journal March 3, 1923 

^ insurance plus 

Have You Finished 

the Job Right f 

Your personnel has been chosen wisely; your 
plant has been planned carefully; your meth- 
ods are the last word in efficiency and your 
products find an insatiate market. Have 
you finished the job right? 

If fire can damage your plant or accidents dis- 
organize your personnel and drive your cus- 
tomers to waiting competitors, you cannot 
rest secure. 

Insurance is the final and fitting step of the 
wise executive who finishes the job right. He 
takes care of today and has the vision to pro- 
tect himself against the emergency that may 
come at any time. He is prepared against 
all contingencies by having adequate insurance 
for his business in all its branches. 

As carefully as you choose your banker, just 
as carefully should you choose your insurance 
broker. The one assists, the other safeguards 
your business. 

"He who serves best profits most." 


\75 W.Jackson Blvd. Chicago, 111. 



San Francisco 


New York 








March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 

A week's copy 
for the papers 


It's easy enough for a car — bouncing 
across a rough steam road crossing — to 
throw the trolley wheel. And it doesn't 
take as long for a train traveling — say 
thirty miles an hour — to cover a thou- 
sand feet as for a conductor to race to the 
rear end, fumble with the rope and re- 
place wheel on wire. And if train and 
car do connect — 

Can't you see the big black headlines? 
And the columns of sob stuff? 
And the letters from "Indignant Citizens"? 
It's good first page stuff for a week at least. 

Not even a glance 
from a rider 

But suppose the wheel jumps the wire 
on a crossing protected with National 
Trolley Guard. 

The wheel runs on the Guard — which 
is live — and the car travels on across the 
tracks and out of danger. 

Probably not a single passenger even 
looks up from his paper. It is not even 
an incident. Yet National Trolley 
Guard has paid for itself a hundred 
times over. 

Side View Single Trolley (also made for Double Trolley) 

and, at the left an end-on view of Na- 
tional Guard. At the right is a crossing 
properly protected by National Trolley 

The Ohio (Qi Brass c^ 


Ohio. U.S. A. 

New York Philadelphia Pittsburgh Charleston. W.Va. Chicago Los Angeles San Francisco Paris, France ^ 
^ariucto: Trolley Material, Rail Bonds. Electric Railway Car Equipment. High Tension Porcelain Insulators. Third Rail Inauli 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 


from Tree to Treating Yard 

SUCCESSFUL tie preservation demands a sound tie 
to start with. A decayed or unsound tie cannot give 
satisfactory service no matter how well it is treated. 

The extreme care and personal supervision of ties im- 
mediately after they are cut is in large measure responsible 
for the soundness and longevity of International Ties. 

To secure sound ties, they must be properly cut and properly 
followed from the tree to the treating yard. The important 
fact to be remembered is that they must be Removed 
Quickly From the Woods. 

This period in the production of International Ties is given 
particular attention for its execution has a direct beating 
on the ultimate life of the tie. 

International Ties are removed quickly from the decay 
producing conditions of the woods, transported to the right 
of vay, inspected, graded and shipped to the seasoning 
yard, where they are free from all vegetation. 

Here the ties are carefully stacked to allow maximum 
circulation of air and promote early seasoning with mini- 
mum danger of decay. 

International Ties are permanent- 
ly marked with the I. C. C. 
Co. Dating Nail. 

International Creosoting and Construction Co. 


General Office — Galveston, Te". 
Texarkana, Texas Beaumont, Texas 

Galveston, Texas 

March 3, 1923 ElectricRailwayJoubnal 11 

High Class Construction 

Need Not Be Expensive 

Less Material Excavation and Labor 
with Steel Twin Ties 

Steel Twin Tie Construction has lowered the first and final cost of 
paved track. 

The utilization of the concrete formerly wasted between and below 
wooden ties has in every case effected a large saving in construction 
materials. And this saving is at no sacrifice in quality because more 
efifective bearing is provided, both on the concrete, and the subgrade 
than with wooden ties while the steel cross members serve to rein- 
force the foundation concrete. 

Write for the folder "Costs, Methods and 
Best Practice in Steel Tie Construction" and 
delivered prices at your material yard. 

The International Steel Tie Company 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 






L I G 










Merurban RaiMays 

Union automatic 
^ block signals ^ 

afford a simple system of 
indications easily under- 
stood by trainmen. 
The continuous A. C. 
track circuit makes possible 
the use of "polarized" or 
"wireless*' control and in- 
sures the display of the pro- 
per indication at all times. 













On the W. B. y A. Railroad 



Let us study your operating conditions and cooperate with you in considering 
what automatic block signaling wUI do for your line. 

rri ^nton ^Itittcti ^ ^tsnal Co. m 

[jl SWISS VALE. PA. [|J 




March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


ALsoluiely. ^^ , 

"The value of a car as a revenue getter is in direct ratio with the 
efFectiveness of its markings" — A. C. Colby, Supt. of Equipment, Dept. 
of Street Railways, City of Detroit, in Electric Traction, Dec, 1922. 

Mr. Colby is right, absolutely! And his opinion is concurred in by hundreds of 
Superintendents in this country and abroad who are using Keystone Hunter Illuminated 
Signs to keep the destination points of their cars conspicuously displayed, and the 
length and breath of their territory constantly advertised to residents and transients. 

Keystone Hunter Signs and Route 
Symbols do more than make your cars 
talk; they made it an easy matter for 
the superintendent to re-route his cars 
at will. This flexibility of control is not 
readily obtainable when cars are route- 
labelled in the paint shop or tagged with 
clattering metal and wooden signs that 
sometimes are and sometimes are not at 
hand. All your destination points are on 
the Keystone Hunter roller curtain. 

Write for the data sheet*. 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

Another Installation 

Just completed, o n Washington 
Street, Binghamton, N. Y., an in- 
stallation of combination railway and 
lighting poles. We supplied Elreco 
Poles for this job. Note the absence 
of overhead wires, and the improved 
appearance of a busy city street, 
gained by the use of this high grade 
type of pole. 


Lowest Cost 
Lowest Maintenance 

Lightest Weight 
Greatest Adaptability 

Let us send you oar pro- 
fusely illustrated descrip- 
tive catalogue. Write for 
it today. 

Electric Railway Equipment Co. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 
New York Office: 30 Church St. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 




— where 9 were used before! 

Multiple Unit Door Control 

makes train operation still more economical 

OUITE a progressive step, it was, when they 
first began coupling cars in trains of two or 
more units, and thereby eliminated one man per 

But Multiple Unit Door Control beats that! It 
concentrates door control at any point or points 
you wish, and eliminates even the necessity for 
one man on every car. 

Take the New York Interborough Subway trains 
as a conspicuous example. By means of National 
Pneumatic Multiple Unit Door Control, they now 
have five platform men per 10-car train, instead 
of 9, without impairment of service, or conflict of 
any kind. Passengers caught in closing doors are 
never hurt, because at the slightest touch the 
motion is instantly and automatically reversed, and 
the door repeats the cycle automatically until it is 
entirely closed. 

It's the biggest money saver in train operation 
you can find. 

IjCt us show you more! 

National Pneumatic Company, Inc. 

Designers, Builders and Installers 

Door and Step Control Door and Step Operating Mechanisms 

Motorman's Signal Lights Safety Interlocking Door Control 

Multiple Unit Door Control 

50 Church Street, New York McCormick Bldg., Chicago 

Colonial Trust Bldg., Philadelphia 

Works: Rah way, N. J. 

Manufactured in Canada by 
Dominion Wheel & Foundries, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 


Electric Railway Journal 

March S, 192^ 

AJAX Electric Arc Welder 

Do More 

Welding and Grinding 

It Adds to Life of Track and Cars 

Vibrations and shocks cause rapid distintegration of track 
structures, car trucks and bodies. By a little constant atten- 
tion to the condition of special work, joints and rail surface, 
a smooth running track is secured at trifling expense and 
vibrations and shocks are thereby eliminated. 

ATLAS Rail Grinder 


Electric Arc Welder 

Highest capacity, lightest 
weight resistance type arc 
welder. At 600 volts its 
output is 333 amperes, at 300 
volts it gives 200 amperes. 
Weighs but 155 lbs. 


Rail Grinder 

An efficient, light-weight rail 
grinder at an attractively 
moderate price. Especially 
adapted for grinding off sur- 
plus metal after welding. 


Track Grinder 

A class by itself for remov- 
ing corrugations and irregu- 
larities from rail-head. 
Should be used at the first 
sign of corrugation. 

Railway Track-work Co. 

3132-48 E. Thompson St. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chas. N. Wood Co. 


Atlas Railway Supply Co. 



Electrical Engineering & Mfr. Co. 


P. W. Wood 

New Orleans 


Equipment & Engineering Co. 
Ijondon, En^. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Photo -micrograph showing sohd structure of cop- 
per bond head and complete union to steel rail 



Una Metal Plays 
Important Part^ 

Welding all copper UNA Bonds direct to the rails 
is also the simplest and quickest method of bonding. 
This is largely due to the action of UNA Metal. 

In the UNA Bonding Process it is not necessary to 
grind the rails. The Bond is simply placed in a 
mold against the rail. Then the Bond strands are 
melted together in the mold and UNA Metal added. 
When the mold is full the bond is finished. 

In this welding of copper to steel, UNA Metal plays 
an important part. As the mold is gradually filled 
the molten UNA Metal cleans the rail of scale and 
oxides, giving clean steel to which the copper welds. 
It also elitnjnates the gases formed, produces a fus- 
able slag which floats ofl and thus makes the copper 
in the finished bond head solid and tough. 

Actual tests show it requires 25,000 to 32,000 pounds 
steady force to shear a bond head from the rail — 
and then the shear takes place through the bond head 
leaving the weld of copper to steel intact. These 
characteristics assure long life to UNA Bonds. 

With UNA Bonds, a continuous path of copper 
from rail to rail is formed. Thus copper alone car- 
ries the current which results in maximum power 

Investigate UNA Bonds now — they save money. 

Rail Welding & Bonding Company 

Cleveland, Ohio 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 



— first to brand Butt-Treated 
poles for the protection of the 

— first to use a butt-treating pro- 
cess that insures a deeper penetration 
of the preservative throughout the 
ground-line area. 

— first to give a written guarantee sp)eci- 
fying a definite depth of penetration. 



is the original and strongest Guaranteed 
Penetration Process of butt-treatment. 
We agree to refund, without quibbling, 
the entire butt-treating price on every 
pole that does not show the specified 
half inch uniform penetration. 

For longest pole life — for greatest satis- 
faction and economy— insist on the 
"P & H" — the original Guaranteed 
Penetration Process. 

We produce and sell butt-treated and untreated 
Northern White and Western Red Cedar Poles; 

— we can give you any form of butt-treatment; 

— and we are the originators of the Guaranteed 
Penetration Process— the "P & H". 

Prompt Shipment - yards convenient- 
ly located throughout the North Cent- 
ral and Western States. 

Get the facts about Butt-Treatment 
Write for illustrated booklet. 
CopjTirlit 1922, by P. & H. Co. 


K4iisrjsr]^A.F>OL/iB , Jviijsrjsr. 

New York, N. Y. 50 Church St 
. Chicago, 111., 19 So. LaSallcSt. 

Grand Rapids. Mich., Powers BIdg. 
Kansas City, Mo. 717 Bryant Bldg. Houston, Texas, 1 1 1 1 Carter Bldg. 

Omaha, Neb., 513 Electric BIdg. Dallas. Texas, 3 II Sumpter BIdg. 

Buffalo. N. Y. 950 Ellicott Sq. BIdg. 
Louisville. Ky. 1416 Starks BIdg. 


March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


"Well Jimmy, you have ]had about a year to watch these Helical Gears, what 
have you got to say about them?" 

"Well, boss, all the talk about end thrust and other troubles that never came, 
had me up in the air, and I thought I was in for a bad time when you ordered the last 
new equipments to have Helical Gears and Pinions, but I must say that I have 
never had such comfort before in the upkeep of cars. The Nuttall people say cut- 
ting down vibration which means fewer overhaulings pays good interest on the 
investment, and we have proved this not only on new equipments, but also on the 
old cars we have equipped with Helicals. I am sure our shop expense will be re- 
duced when we have Helicals on all cars." 

"All right, Jimmy, I have decided to make them our standards." 

"Don't forget boss, the Union Standard Trolleys as well." 




All Westtnghouae Electric and 
Mfg. Co. DUtrict OfHcca arc 
Salem RepreaentativcB in the 
United State* for Nuttall Elec- 
tric Railway and Mine Haulage 

In Canada: Lyman Tube A 
Supply Co., Ltd., Montreal and 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

Multiple - unit - control double 
truck passenger car for tvio- 
man operation. 

CITY and interurban cars and 
trucks, safety cars, combination 
and work cars, snow plows, sweepers, 
and electric locomotives. 

Twenty years of specialization in the 
construction of all classes of rolling 
stock for the successful operation of 
electric railways. 

McGuire - Cummings 
No. 62 Motor Truck 
for low car body for 
city service. 

Inside hung brake- 
equalizer design, 26-in. 

McGuire-Cummings Manufacturing Co., 

General Offices 
111 W. Monroe St., Chicago, 111. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Lubrication is of Extreme Importance 

EXECUTIVE officers of electric rail- 
ways are awakening to the fact that 
lubrication is not only a determining 
factor in securing efficient service from 
power house and rolling equipment, but 
that many other important expense items 
are regulated largely by its quality. 

The installation of efficient lubrication 
on your road is not the simple proposition 
of buying oil, nor does the purchase of 
cheap oil indicate economy in lubrication 
— in fact, quite the reverse. 

Service is the one unfailing test of oil 
quality. Unless the lubricant is capable 
of demonstrating efficient service, it is 
dear at any price. And SERVICE is not 
a difficult quantity to measure — it shows 
in performance. 

The subject is one worthy of careful 
consideration. The mechanical and 

operating departments — as well as the 
purchasing — are interested, and in a posi- 
tion to judge service values at first hand. 
Their opinion is indispensable to intel- 
ligent selection. 

Lubrication costs will be found high or 
low, exactly in proportion to the service 
results obtained. V^ith the inevitable 
poor service that marks the use of cheap 
oils, the small savings made through their 
lower first cost is lost many times over in 
the expenses of repairs and depreciation 
caused by their shortcomings. 

When the lubrication question is con- 
sidered from all angles — when efficient 
service and ultimate economy are the 
deciding factors — Galena Oils will be 
found the only logical choice. They are 
now used by over five hundred electric 

'When Galena Service Goes In 
Lubrication Troubles Go out!" 


s:>*>^ -tJ^^Ji^i^ ^ 

Galena-Signal Oil Gbmpanyi 

New York Franklin, Pa. . Chicago 

» and offices in principal cities ^ 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 



do a ye^r\ 



■^ i 



;1 ' 



Oxide Film Arrester jar generating equipments and 
targe transformers 

Don't you want 

"The average consumer will re- 
member one minute's interruption 
longer than he will the other 
525,999 minutes of good service in 
the year." This is damage which 
requires years to repair. 

A lightning stroke may shatter a 
pole or insulator, or bum off a 
v/ire, and that cannot be prevented. 
But practical immunity from dam- 
age to apparatus, and the conse- 
quent interruption to service, can 
be secured by protection with G-E 

The problem of lightning protec- 
tion is studied in the G-E organ- 
ization not only by lightning 
arrester engineers, but also by 

Magnetic Blowout Arrester for 
d-c. electric railwavs 

Combined Fused 

Switch and 
Arrester for tel' 
ephone circuits 


Arrester for 

railway signal 



March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 




Millionth part 

real protection? 

transformer, generator, motor, 
insulation, switchboard, and transmission 
engineers, to the end that G-E Light- 
ning Arresters and other G-E equipment 
must work together to maintain electric 
service. The experience of thousands 
of users, gathered from all parts of the 
world, also contributes to the success of 
G-E Arresters. 

There are G-E Lightning Arresters for 
every need, and they're all tested by 
years of service. 

It is no longer a question of whether you 
can get lightning protection, but whether 
you want it. 

General Electric Company 
Schenectady, N. Y. 




High Frequency Absorher for relieve 

ing lines of high frequency , loiv- 

voltage disturbances 


Chamber Arrest' 

for distributiot 


D'C. Aluminum Arrester for 
railway apparatus 

Choke Coil for o-c. circuits 

E> L/ E^ C T R I C 


Electeic Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

More miles per dollar from gearing is assured by careful 
installation as well as by high-quality steel 

Preheating the pinion 
in water at boiling tem- 
perature expands it 
enough to reduce the 
force required to drive 
it on the shaft 

Using a 4-lb. hammer for seat- 
ing smalt pinions prevents set- 
ting up excessive stresses in 
the metal 

HOW does your shop seat motor pinions — that im- 
portant little device for probably the hardest job 
of all? Proper care in this operation is sure to be re- 
flected in longer pinion life. Too much driving force 
means a pinion crippled before it gets in service. 

The small pinions, used on motors for Safety and other 
light weight cars, necessitate extra care in mounting. 
On account of the thinness of the metal between bore 
and root of tooth they cannot stand sledge hammer 
blows. Preheating for expansion, therefore, is desirable, 
and then using a rawhide mallet, an ordinary 4-lb. 
hammer, or lead hammer, is an additional safeguard. 

A study of the causes of long life or premature failures 
of motor pinions under various conditions offers con- 
vincing proof of the importance of careful mounting. 

There are G-E engineers who give special attention to 
these problems. Can they be of service to you? 


General Office 


Sales Offices in 
all large cities 


Electric Railway Journal 


CoTisolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Published by McOraw-Hill Company, Inc. 

Henry W. Blake and Harry L. Brown, Editors 

Volume 61 

New York, Saturday, March 3, 1923 

Number 9 

Trying to Keep Detroit 

Sold on Municipal Ownership 

THE first report of Walter Jackson on the municipal 
system in Detroit has been made public and is ab- 
stracted elsewhere in this issue. Called in as a consul- 
tant to investigate and state for the benefit of the 
public with what degree of good management the mu- 
nicipal railway has been conducted thus far, and per- 
haps make recommendations for improvement, this first 
section seems to be little more than a means of giving 
publicity to the opinions and work of the municipal 
railway engineers. Mr. Jackson's function in this par- 
ticular report seems to be more that of a publicity expert 
than a true consultant, for there is little of his own 
opinion expressed except for corroboration of the state- 
ments of the system's own engineers. Granting that 
the track engineering is good, to which fact the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal gave credit at the time (issue of 
July 23, 1921, page 121), good engineering does not 
alone make municipal ownership a success. The critical 
time will come when politics begin to creep into the 
direction of the property. 

But withal, credit must be given to the city adminis- 
tration in Detroit for realizing that there is an element 
of public relations in the public utility business even 
though municipally owned, and that in particular right 
now there is need to keep the people of Detroit "sold" 
on their decision to have municipal ownership. If Mr. 
Jackson's future installments show actual facts on the 
financial results and the real costs of car rides, including 
what may be derived from taxes, such figures and facts 
will be of much more interest to the Detroit public. 

Continuous Progress Is Being Made 
in Electric Railway Accounting 

DURING the past ten years the science of electric 
railway transportation has been revolutionized by 
the development of the one-man car. In electric rail- 
way engineering there have been almost, if not quite, 
as great developments through the use of higher poten- 
tials in transmission, the introduction of automatic sub- 
stations, the adoption of effective motor ventilation and 
other improvements. Not all electric railway men 
realize, however, that side by side with these changes 
in other departments there have been equal advances 
in the science of electric railway accounting. To under- 
stand it one has only to recount the many new problems 
which have been thrust on this fundamental branch 
of the industry during the past decade. He will then 
appreciate how great a change has been wrought by 
our associates, the accountants. 

Ten years ago, for instance, little was known of such 
subjects in electric railway operating as accounting for 
depreciation on a scientific basis, of cost accounting 

and of budget making. A knowledge of each of these 
now may be considered as almost essential in economical 
operation. The proper methods to be followed in valu- 
ation were also still unsolved. Many problems con- 
nected with the income tax, now satisfactorily settled, 
were then unknown. These matters have been largely 
lost sight of in what is perhaps the more spectacular 
development of other branches of the industry. They 
are brought out, however, in an interesting article on 
another page of this issue, contributed by M. W. Glover 
of Pittsburgh. Mr. Glover calls attention in the course 
of the article to the need of active co-operation in the 
Accountant's Association by every electric railway 
accountant. This plea could well be enlarged to include 
those in every department of an electric railway be- 
cause, after all, every department must be closely allied 
with the accounting department if most efficient oper- 
ation is to be expected. 

Rail Joint Test Enthusiasts 
Are Making Progress 

THE approaching tests on welded rail joints are 
rapidly taking on tangible form. Attendants at 
the meeting of the committee on this subject, held in 
Washington two weeks ago, witnessed the sample tests 
and were pleased with the way the work was done. 
Obviously if sample tests can be performed satisfac- 
torily, the carrying out of a comprehensive program is 
simply a question of organization. The facilities of the 
laboratories of the Bureau of Standards, the University 
of Illinois and Purdue University will be drawn upon 
for the routine tests. The reputations of these institu- 
tions are a guarantee that the work will be well done. 

The testing program divides itself into two parts. Of 
these the first comprises the application to rail joints 
of familiar and fairly well standardized tests. There 
is nothing novel or experimental in subjecting a rail 
joint to a bending, tensile, impact or electrical conduc- 
tivity test. Such tests are made in scores of labora- 
tories, yielding results of a high degree of accuracy. 
In fact, the safety of modern engineering work is predi- 
cated upon researches made with the highly developed 
testing machines of Olsen, Emery, Riehl6 and others. 

Data for rail joints obtained with standard testing 
machines will be valuable for comparison of different 
types of joints and different ways of makine up each. 
They do not, however, exactly duplicate the conditions 
under which rail joints are used. Hence, the second 
part of the committee's program will comprise service 
tests, or approximations to these as close as can be 

The service tests will prove in many ways the most 
interesting because they will involve many novel fea- 
tures. They will require a lot of development work. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

The repeated impact tests will bring out the effects of 
vibration in the joints, and the results obtained with the 
rotary service test machine will serve as a general check 
upon all of the other tests. In fact, the greatest value 
of the long-continued service tests will be to determine 
the factors of safety and the limitations which must 
be observed with the quicker and simpler tests. Pre- 
sumably when a reasonable number of the more elabo- 
rate tests have been made, it will be possible to make a 
fair estimate of what a joint will do, without waiting 
in future for the tedious routine necessarily involved 
in the service tests. 

Two Decades of 

Engineering Achievement 

THE American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation is to be congratulated upon having reached 
the mature age of twenty years, for it was organized in 
Cleveland on Feb. 16, 1903. The mere reaching of such 
an age is not necessarily a cause for congratulation, but 
in this case the making of a notable record has gone 
along with the accumulation of years. The original 
name of the association was the American Railway 
Mechanical & Electrical Association, and among its first 
officers were two Detroit United Railway men, Thomas 
Farmer, president, and S. Walter Mower, secretary. 

The Cleveland organization meeting, of course, did 
not just happen. It was the outcome of a lot of dis- 
cussion among electric railway engineers as to how they 
could best organize for helpfulness to each other and 
to the industry as a whole. At the Detroit convention 
of the American Street Railway Association in the fall 
of 1902 the plan really got a start and the organization 
meetine: was pla^n^d. Amoner those who were inter- 
ested in getting the enterprise launched, in addition to 
the officers already mentioned, were H. H. Adams, Balti- 
more, Md. ; R. E. Danforth and Alfred Green. Rochester, 
N.Y.; W. Roberts, Akron, Ohio; C. F. Baker, Boston, 
Mass.; D. F. Carver, Cleveland, Ohio, and perhaps a 
dozen others. 

The new association was just off the ways when the 
American Street Railway Association undertook actively 
to reorganize itself, under the direction of the late 
W. Caryl Ely, for more aggressive and effective work. 
A part of the reorganization plan was the bringing into 
affiliation with the parent association of several electric 
railway societies, including that of the engineers, which 
had sprung up in response to a demand for opportunity 
for specialized discussion. Consequently at Philadel- 
phia, on Sept. 25, 1905, the A.R.M.&E. Association affil- 
iated with what had become the American Street & 
Interurban Railway Association, and took on the com- 
plicated name of the American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Engineering Association. After laboring under 
this hardship for five years the association, at Atlantic 
City in 1910, changed its name to the present one, 
coincident with the simplification of name of the parent 

At first the association had to find itself; to tackle a 
job that would bring out its best efforts. During the 
fifteen years preceding its organization the cities of the 
country had been largely provided with electric trans- 
portation. There was thus a vast store of experience 
to draw upon. The task to which the association ad- 
dressed itself was the codification of this experience. 
It was necessary, however, to begin with generalities. 

practical ones to be sure, but the work gradually took 
on a more specific character. Through a process of 
evolution it has become highly organized under the 
elaborate committee system of today. 

From the early days the importance of developing 
uniform specifications and other standards was recog- 
nized as the primary task of the association. A steady 
effort has been, and continues to be, made in this direc- 
tion with great success, although the use of the asso- 
ciation standards is still not as widespread as might 
be wished. 

In its first few years of activity the association was 
obliged to work out its problems by itself, these prob- 
lems being, or seeming to be, of a peculiar nature. As 
time went on, however, the wisdom and economy of 
close affiliation with other organizations has been seen. 
Today the Engineering Association is doing some of 
its best work in co-operation with other associations 
which are especially well qualified to furnish the tech- 
nical data needed, and which in turn are glad to avail 
themselves of the experience of the electric railway 

During its two decades of life the Engineering Asso- 
ciation has seen the electric railway industry go through 
its period of greatest expansion. In this it has taken 
an important part. Now the country is fairly liberally 
supplied with electric railway facilities, and the live 
engineering questions relate to intensive development 
of traffic with the aid of new equipment better designed 
to yield the maximum of good service. Never has there 
been a more excellent chance than now for the Engi- 
neering Association to show what it can do in a practical 
way. There is thus reason to believe that the third 
decade of association history will be as fruitful as its 
predecessors in contributing to technical advances in 

Street Congestion Aiding Solution 
of Newark's Traffic Problem 

A SIGNIFICANT change of public sentiment is 
shown in the letters received by a leading news- 
paper in Newark, N. J., in reply to its appeal for sug- 
gestions to solve the city's traffic problem. Ever since 
the birth of the jitney business several years ago, the 
great majority of bus routes in Newark have paralleled 
the trolley tracks on the same streets. The fact that 
this was an unwise and uneconomical duplication of 
service did not seem to influence public opinion, which 
resisted vigorously every attempt to place the buses on 
separate streets. Recently, however, the congestion has 
grown so great in the center of the city where several 
lines of trolleys and numerous bus routes use the same 
streets, that the people have begun to realize the neces- 
sity for some change. The strong sentiment in favor of 
the removal of the jitneys to streets where no trolleys 
are operated probably does not indicate any sudden 
preference for the street railway as a means of trans- 
portation, but it does show that public opinion in New- 
ark is tending toward a broader view of the city's traffic 
problem, and will support a reasonable and impartial 
solution. In other words, where it may sometimes seem 
that it is practically impossible to bring the public to see 
in advance that some measure advocated by the local 
railway is for the public's own best interest, the develop- 
ments as time elapses are likely to be such that they 
force the people to "discover" this for themselves. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 









St. Clair 
Three Automatic Subfttatlon Bailding:8 In Cleveland 


Automatic Substation Experience 

in Cleveland — I 

In This First Section Are Given the General Considerations Leading Up 
to the Trial of Automatic Control in City Service, the Main Design Features 
of the Buildings and a Brief Discussion of the Equipment that Is Employed 

By L. D. Bale 

Superintendent of Substations, the Cleveland Railway 

THE automatically controlled substation, as de- 
veloped upon the property of the Cleveland Rail- 
way, has been carried to a successful result. 
Based on the experience had, the company has definitely 
decided to adopt this type of station for all future power 
requirements wherever applicable. In fact, the immedi- 
ate program of the power department contemplates 
several additional automatic substations, among which 
are both one and two unit plants. 

When it is recalled that the existing three automatic 
substations on the Cleveland property represent the first 
instance where full automatic control has been attempted 
on a large city system ; also that they have the distinc- 
tion of being the first two-unit plants of relatively large 
capacity to be constructed, it is something to say that 
the results obtained from these pioneer installations 
have been, indeed, gratifying. It may also be appreci- 
ated that the development of these installations pre- 
sented many new problems, and that, on the whole, it 
was an intensely interesting study. 

At the time the control for these stations was de- 
signed utilization was naturally made of such equipment 
as had proved reliable and was in service in many auto- 
matic plants then in operation. This also applied to 
the method or scheme of connections. It was necessary, 
however, in several instances, to develop new equip- 
ment, and to devise new methods of connections to meet 
the special requirements brought about by the type of 
system these stations were to serve and by peculiarities 
of control met with in this type of station. 

Among the most important instances where special 
development was necessary were: (1) An arrangement 
guaranteeing a greater degree of insurance against 
service interruptions, which resulted in the necessity 
of development along the lines of refinement of control. 
(2) A system of protection of air-blast transformers 
against air failure which at the same time would make 
equipment so involved by air failures available for peak- 

load operation. (3) The development of higher capacity 
contactors, etc., required by the existence of larger 
current values than have hitherto been experienced in. 
automatic converter substations. (4) The presence of 
two converters in one plant brought about some new 
development work. However, this phase of control was 
accomplished, in the main, by making additions to exist- 
ing relays and by adding interlocks. 

As is invariably the rule when a venture is made into 
new fields with time-tried equipment, a number of the 
standard devices failed under conditions of service re- 
quired of them, thus making still further development 
necessary. The sequence of operation of the control has 
been changed, in some cases numerous times. In fact, 
in certain instances, portions of the scheme have been 
actually reversed until finally a point was arrived at 
where a sequence of operation has been evolved that, in 
the estimation of those familiar with the development, 
may be depended upon to function with perfect satisfac- 
tion under any emergency that may arise in the opera- 
tion of a substation upon an urban system, where un- 
interrupted service is demanded. 

Necessity for Additional Power Facilities 

There existed, before the addition of the present auto- 
matic substations, three territories throughout which 
difliculty was being experienced in maintaining schedules 
by reason of inadequate power supply. This condition 
was primarily due to increase in traffic, and was further 
augmented by the new schedules which called for higher 
speed together with additional trains. In one instance 
an entirely new line was being constructed (the Cleve- 
land Interurban Railway) . These territories were out- 
side of the 2-mile distribution limits of the then exist- 
ing sources of power supply, and the potential drop 
during peaks was in most instances excessive. 

To rectify this condition by increase in feeder copper 
from existing plants was impractical, not only from the 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

standpoint of the investment to be made in copper, plus 
bhe annual charges and losses thereby accruing, but also 
because this scheme involved an increase of conversion 
equipment in existing surrounding plants. The alter- 
native to the additional copper plan was necessarily 
additional power facilities located within the territories 

The fact that these areas were widely separated 
eliminated the possibility of one plant supplying all 
involved territories. The nature of the problem, there- 
fore, resolved itself into the utilization of small power 
producing centers, provided this could be accomplished 
economically. A study was accordingly made of this 
phase of the matter with the result that the adoption of 
the automatically controlled substation was decided upon. 

be retired shortly by the utilization of additional con- 
verter substations. Whether this will be accomplished 
entirely by automatic plants, or whether a manual sta- 
tion will be utilized together with two or three auto- 
matic plants, will hinge upon the decision of a local 
matter having an important bearing on the subject of 
the economical power which is to be supplied to the ter- 
ritory that is involved. 

Contracts were let for building and equipment, and 
the first automatic station, known as the Heights sub- 
station, was put in service in August, 1920. Before 
this station was ready for operation the demand for 
additional power became so acute, in this particular 
territory, that a temporary substation of 1,000 kw. 
capacity had to be constructed to supply increased 

Fig. 1 — Map of Cleveland Bailway System Showlns Liocations of Sabstations 

Further study of the subject brought out the fact that 
as far as the territories in question were involved the 
two-unit station proved to be the most desirable, taking 
all conditions into account. The most important of these 
were land values, building costs and restrictions, d.c. 
feeder system, reserve capacity (both in converter equip- 
ment and in alternating-current feeders) and, above all, 
a power source having the highest possible degree of 
reliability obtainable. 

With the automatic plants in operation, the total sub- 
station installed capacity amounts to 42,500 kw., con- 
sisting of twenty-seven 1,500-kw. synchronous con- 
verters and two 1,000-kw. converters. In addition, there 
is one steam-driven 600-volt d.c. plant of 8,100 kw., 
bringing the total system capacity to 50,600 kw. By 
referring to Fig. 1, distribution of this equipment over 
the system will be noted. The steam-driven plant is to 

potential to portions of the most important lines leading 
through the territory. This temporary substation was, 
of course, abandoned when the Heights automatic sub- 
station went into operation. The second station to be 
placed in service (April, 1921) was that known as the 
St. Clair substation, which was closely followed by the 
Collinwood substation in June, 1921. 

Design of Buildings to House Automatics 

In planning the buildings for these pioneer automatic 
installations, lack of precedent and insufficient time to 
make the necessary exhaustive study of the absolute re- 
quirements of a building to house equipment of this 
type in urban service caused the adoption of the stand- 
ard manual type of building in all details wherever 

These plants are fireproof, the only combustible ma- 

March 3; 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


terial used in the construction being the insulating wood 
base upon which the switchboard slate and supports are 
mounted. Steel window frames fitted with wire mesh 
glass are used throughout. All doors are of hollow steel 
construction. The large door observed in the front 
elevation of the St. Clair and Collinwood substations 
provides not only an ordinary entrance door to the plant 
but one which can be utilized as a material door also. 
The door structure, measuring approximately 10 ft. 
square, is provided with side channels and is equipped 
with a 1-ton chain falls. When it becomes necessary to 
move bulky objects in or out, the entire door structure 
may be hoisted into the clear. The rail around the en- 
trance platform is also readily removable, thus forming 
an unobstructed path for the moving of large heavy 
objects. In the case of the Heights substation sufficient 
room was available in the rear of the building to install 
the customary steel rolling door for material entrance. 
The exteriors of the buildings are sufficiently different 
in appearance to break the monotony of a set design and 
were planned to conform with surrounding buildings in 
each individual case. 

By referring to Fig. 2, it will be noted that the build- 
ings are arranged in conformity with the standard 
layout for manually operated stations on this system. 
Special features were introduced to care for ventilation 
of converters and current limiting resistances. Like- 
wise, rearrangement of steel was made to accommodate 
the crane and to furnish a balcony upon which to place 
current limiting resistances used in d.c. feeder and con- 
verter circuits. 

The subject of proper ventilation of substation build- 
ings has, in general, seldom received special attention 
in the past. This phase is, however, of importance when 
considering automatic stations, and especially so when 
the station is in urban service. This is true not only 
because of the larger capacity involved in city work, but 
also because of possible interference with, or entire 
cutting off of, the supply of air for natural ventilation 
of the building by surrounding structures. There is 
also the limitation placed upon the customary "wall 
opening" method of ventilation in city work because of 
the necessity, in some cases, of confining equipment 
operating noises to the plant itself, or approximately 
so. The matter of ventilation of metropolitan automatic 
substations must receive serious thought, for with poor 
ventilation resulting in high temperature, not only will 
the rating, and in some cases the life, of the various 

standard Cleveland RaUway Automatic Drainage Panels 

pieces of equipment involved be affected, but the relia- 
bility of the station as a whole might also be endangered 
by the untimely operation of any one of the thermal 
devices constituting part of the equipment. 

In the study of this problem in Cleveland, numerous 
ventilation charts were prepared for illustrating the 
course of air current throughout the plant. A glance at 
the charts (Figs. 3 and 4) will suffice to indicate that 
the laws of natural ventilation are rendered almost en- 
tirely inoperative. It will be noted that the circulation 
of air in the basement under the converters is from 
front to rear of the building, carrying out the warm air 
from the converters in its passage through. Any ten- 
dency for the cool air to rise and enter the converter is 
repelled by the blast of warm air throwTi off by the con- 
verter armature. On the main operating floor it will 
be noted that the air currents resolve themselves into 
a series of eddies or whirlpools, and that unless they 
approach the roof ventilators within approximately 12 
in. they are not affected by the natural draft of these 
devices. Four of these ventilators are located in the 
roof, each 30 in. in diameter. 

No difficulty has been experienced in the present 
plants due to the relatively high room temperatures at- 
tained during unusually warm summer days, notwith- 
standing the presence of the air-blast transformers, 
except with thermal relay equipment that was funda- 






1,800 Kw. Botarjr Converter, with Total Load Meter and D.C. 
Converter Contactor Panels 

A.C. Starting: Panels, 

vrith Transformers and OU Breaker 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

Fiff. 2 — Standard Antomatic Sabstatlon Layout in Cleveland 

mentally wrong in its application, and has since been 
redeveloped. However, it is realized that, if the plants 
were located in close proximity to or possibly adjoining 
near-by buildings, trouble could be expected. Adequate 
ventilation of plants of this type can, without doubt, 
be accomplished by adopting forced draft. This, how- 
ever, involves additional equipment, which is not de- 
sired. At the same time, it is realized that there will 
be some plants so located that forced draft will have to 
be resorted to in order that proper ventilation may be 

Equipment Installed in the Cleveland 
Automatic Stations 

The three automatic substationt, are of 3,000 kw. capac- 
ity, made up of two 1,500-kw. synchronous converters 
each. The converters are of the type developed for and 
known as the Cleveland Railway standard. The first of 
these converters was placed in operation in Cleveland 
in 1912, at which time the four original manually 
operated plants were constructed. Nine 1,500-kw. con- 
verters and two 1,000-kw. converters were purchased 
at that time. Since then four additional 1,500-kw. con- 

verters have been added to the original four stations, 
and in 1917 the Cedar substation was built, containing 
eight converters of the same design, type and capacity. 
The standard converters which have been described 
upon previous occasions are of 1,500 kw. capacity, 60 
cycles, 514 r.p.m., six-phase, fourteen-pole, 600 volts d.c, 
compound wound and equipped with interpoles. These 
converters, it will be recalled, were especially designed, 
utilizing interpoles, heavy armatures, etc., to insure 
satisfactory operation with fluctuating d.c. loads. Dur- 
ing the ten years since the first converter was put into 
operation, these machines have given such perfect satis- 
faction regarding reliability and economical operating 
characteristics that, when the question of converter 
equipment for the new automatic stations was broached, 
the railway would not consider any converter other than 
that built upon the specifications of the standard. As a 
result, the converters being used in the automatic plants 
are identical with those on the remainder of the system, 
with the addition of flashboards on the commutator ends 
and such apparatus as was necessary for automatic 

Each of the two converters in these plants is complete 
with three single-phase, 11,000 410-volt, 60-cycle air- 
blast transformers connected in delta, and having 8.4 per 
cent impedance each. The secondaries of the trans- 
formers are provided with i voltage tap for a.c. con-, 
verter starting. Each group of transformers is sup- 
plied with air by a 15,000-cu.ft. blower, induction-motor 
driven, receiving energy from the main transformers. 
These two blowers exhaust into a common air chamber. 
Each blower, having sufficient air capacity, can be relied 
upon to protect the entire group of transfonners from 
overheating in the event of the failure of one of the 
blowers to operate. Under normal conditions each 
blower is operated only when its particular converter 
operates. To prevent discharge of air from the air 
chamber in a reverse direction, through a blower not in 
operation, each blower is equipped with a damper ar- 
ranged to close automatically when the blower ceases to 
deliver air. 

The alternating-current supply for these stations is 
obtained through two underground 11,000-volt. 60-cyle, 
grounded, neutral lines. Either of the feeders has suf- 
ficient capacity to supply both converters with energy. 
These feeders are normally tied in parallel through the 
a.c. bus at the substation end. By this arrangement 
either of the a.c. feeders may be disconnected from serv- 
ice, either through routine operation or by reason of 
trouble occurring upon them, without interfering with 
the continuity of service of the plant. Each a.c. feeder 

ri fi-^W ^— ^W 


Fl(8. 3 and 4 — Ventilation Charts (or Cleveland Sabstatlon* 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


is protected at the generating end by inverse time-limit 
overload relays, while at the substation end instantane- 
ous reverse power relays are installed, only. Each a.c. 
feeder is connected to the a.c. bus at the substation 
through a 600-amp., 25,000-volt, electrically operated 
oil switch, remote controlled from the a.c. line panel by 
the customary manual type of control switch. These 
oil switches are, therefore, not automatic in their action 
except by reason of the operation of the reverse power 
relays in the event of line failure. 

The arrangement of the two principal control boards 
is indicated in Figs. 5 and 6. Referring to Fig. 5, show- 
ing the main board, it is noted that the first panels 
encountered at the right of the board are the two in- 
coming a.c. line panels. These are complete with various 
recording and curve drawing instruments, together with 
the reverse power relays. 

The next panel (3). is known as the sequence panel. 
This carries, in addition to the low-voltage relay (1), 
various switches through which control of the operating 
circuits of the converters is obtained. Also, means are 
had on this panel for reversing the operating sequence 
or schedule of operation of the converters; that is, 
causing one converter to be "lead-off" and the other 
"follow-up," or vice versa, this schedule being varied at 
given periods. The fourth panel contains relays used 
in connection with remote, supervisory control and in- 
dication. The fifth and sixth panels contain equipment 
for automatic control of the converters. 

Panel 7 contains relays for the control of the shunt- 
ing contactors for the d.c. converter current-limiting 
resistance of both converters. Through the use of these 
relays synchronized action of the corresponding d.c. 
converter shunting contactors of both converters is also 
secured, thus eliminating the possibility of pumping of 
contactors with the resulting interchange of load be- 
tween converters during overload periods. 

Panels 8 and 10 each carry the shunting contactors 
for the d.c. converter current-limiting resistance. 

On panels 9 and 11, known as the converter meter 
panels, is mounted, in addition to the d.c. ammeter, 
d.c. wattmeter, reactance volt-ampere indicator and 
three relays, a carbon circuit breaker. This breaker is 

Fig. 6 — Alternating-Current Startlnc Fanels for Kotary Converter 

equipped with a trip coil in connection with the speed- 
limiting device of the converter, and its one function 
is to disconnect the converter from the d.c. station bus 
in the event of overspeed, an interlock, in connection, 
shutting down and locking out the converter when the 
breaker operates. This breaker is hand reset and is 
also used as a safety measure during periods of inspec- 

Panel 12 is a total load panel, and is equipped with a 
differential indicating voltmeter, a curve drawing 
graphic station voltmeter and a curve drawing graphic 
station ammeter. The last mentioned instrument will 
be dispensed with when the power indication system is 
in operation. Panel 13 is one of the nine standard 
outgoing d.c. feeder panels. The present method of 
control of these panels is not acceptable on the system, 
and will give way to a scheme of remote control, of 
which mention will be made later. 

Mounted apart from the main board are the a.c. con- 




II 10 

9 & 


6 5 

rig. 5 — Main Control Kwlt«Jiboard in Automatic Substation 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 


1. Undervoltage d.c. relay for initial start- 

2. Low voltage delay a.c. relay, preventing 
unnecessary starting after closing of 
relay 1. 

3. Master relay. 

4. Starting contactor relay, controlling con- 
tactor 6. 

6. A.C. converter starting contactor, i volt- 
age tap. 

7. D.C. polarized motor relay for converter 
potential correction. 

9. Field contactor relay, controlling field 
reversing contactor 10. 
10. Field reversing contactor. 
11-a, bandc. A.C. running contactors. 

12. D.C. converter contactor. 

12-a. D.C. overload converter relay, con- 
trolling contactor 14. 

12-b. D.C. overload converter master relay. 

12-c. D.C. overload intermediate relay. 

12-x. Shunt trip coil, operating carbon cir- 
cuit breaker, also shunting out master 
relay 3. 

13. A.C. converter underload relay. 

14. D.C. converter resistance shunting con- 

14-a. i).C. overload converter relay, con- 
trolling contactor 15. 
14-b. D.C. overload master relay. 
14-c. D.C. overload intermediate relay. 

15. D.C. converter shunting contactor. 

15-a. D.C. overload relay, controlling con- 
tactor 16-a. 

lo-b. D.C. overload master relay. 

15-c. D.C. overload intermediate relay. 

16-a and b. D.C. converter resistance shunt- 
ing contactors. 

17. S.p.d.t. knife switch for changing from 
automatic to non-automatic operation. 

18. Reverse phase and low voltage a.c. 

19. A.C. relay, controlling contactors 11-a, 
b and c. 

19-x. Relay, shunting starting contactor re- 
lay 4. 

20. Oil breaker between a.c. bus and pri- 

mary of transformers. 
20-a. Latch coil for breaker. 
20-c. Operating coil for breaker. 

21. A.C. relay, controlling 22. 

22. A.C. relay, controlling energy for 
breaker operating coil 20-c. 

23. A.C. overload relays. 

24. Overspeed device on converter. 
2.5. Bearing thermostats. 

26. Field reversal limiting relay. 

27. Delay relay. 

27-s. Contacts of No. 27 relay which close 
if converter does not complete cycle of 
operation in given time, or if there is a 
sudden overload making it necessary to 
bring on the second converter. 




t. Contacts of No. 27 relay which close 
when load drops to predetermined low 
point and remains there for the time 
setting of the relay. 

Thermal relay for converter grid re- 

Replica thermal relay for shutting down 
converter in the event of sustained over- 
Lockout relay. 

r. Reset coil for relay 30. 
Brush operating mechanism. 
D.C. reverse current relay. 
Thermal relays for feeder grid resist- 
ance. ■ 

Replica thermal relay for starting sec- 
ond unit. 

a and 38-a. Sequence switches. 
D.C. equalizer contactor. 
D.C. feeder resistance shunting con- 

D.C. feeder contactor. 

Air pressure relays for protecting air 
blast transformers against air failure. 
Relay for starting second unit in the 
event of failure of first unit or overload. 
Shunt field protection relay. 
Phase balance relay. 

Temporary lockout relay in connection 
with air pressure relays 42. 
and 50. A.C. power failure protection 
Xon-starting protection relay. 

verter starting panels (Fig. 6), as is the case with the 
110-volt control battery and motor generator charging 
set panels. 

These stations are also equipped with standard Cleve- 
land Railway negative drainage panels (illustrated in 
an accompanying photograph) for controlling the nega- 
tive drainage of various subterranean structures. The 
operation of these panels is such that all contactors 
close upon the starting of the first converter in the 
house and open when the last machine ceases operation. 
Connection between the negative bus and the various 
underground metallic structures is completed upon the 
closing of these contactors. In the majority of cases 
current-limiting resistance is installed in the drainage 

It will be noted, referring to Figs. 5 and 6, that the 
various items making up the automatic control are 
given numbers. If it is desired, reference can be made 
to the tabulation of relays, contactors, etc., thus identi- 
fying any of them. 

The second section of this article, to be printed 
shortly, will give a comprehensive discussion of the 
scheme of operation, showing how each part of the 
control-equipment functions. 

Warning the Automobilist 

TEN safety suggestions have recently been sent in 
the form of a letter to some 20,000 automobile 
drivers in Albany and vicinity by the Union Traction 
Company of Albany. The suggestions follow : 

1. Make sure trolley car is not coming when starting out 
from the curb, and give proper warning before starting if 
car should be near. 

2. Do not trail trolley car too closely. 

3. Cross crossings cautiously. 

4. Be watchful of trolley car making curve so as not to 
be hit by the swing of rear end. 

5. Avoid parking cars near trolley curves in narrow 
streets so as not to be caught "in the pinch." 

6. Avoid speeding to get ahead of trolley when other cars 
are parked at the curb. 

7. Avoid crossing in rear of trolley car. Other cars, 
unseen, may be coming in the opposite direction. 

8. To get ahead of trolley car, make sure it is well to 
the rear before cutting in front. 

9. Observe the law and do not pass trolley while it is 
taking on or discharging passengers. 

10. When parking at curb in narrow streets, be sure there 
is plenty of room for trolley to pass. 

Elevated Structure Abandoned 

THE elevated structure of the Kansas City Railways, 
connecting Kansas City, Mo., and Kansas City, Kan., 
after thirty-six years of service has been abandoned due 
to the failure of one of the 60-ft. longitudinal support- 
ing girders. This structure had been used as the roadbed 
for the street railway systems of both cities and was an 
important link in their rapid transit system. The mem- 
ber in question was of the conventional open girder type, 
built up of angles. The failure was no doubt due to 
the rusting through of the lower angles or tension mem- 
bers of the girder. The city engineers of both cities, 
together with the engineers of the operating company, 
made a careful inspection of the entire structure, after 
the initial sag was discovered, and reported it unsafe 
for travel. A new structure of reinforced concrete and 
steel is contemplated to replace the old structure. 

New Plan for Providing A.E.S.C. Funds 

ANEW grade of membership in the American Engi- 
neering Standards Committee has been approved 
by its executive committee through which it is expected 
that $50,000 extra annual income will be secured. The 
new members will be known as "sustaining members" ; 
they will be asked to contribute one-thousandth of 1 
per cent of their gross annual incomes or li cents per 
$1,000 of aggregate value of corporate securities. A 
new information service will be created for the benefit of 
these members. Heretofore the committee has been 
financed entirely by dues from the nine technical so- 
cieties and seventeen national trade associations, which, 
with seven government departments, constitute its 
present membership. 

During the year 1922, according to the report of the 
state inspector of hulls and brakes at San Francisco, 
the number of passengers crossing San Francisco Bay 
on the Key Route ferries was 15,551,624. This is an 
increase over the 1921 figure, which was 14,996,988. 
This report shows 1922 to have been the busiest year 
since 1915, the year of the Panama Pacific International 
Exposition, when the Key Route tramway, boat and 
train system carried 16,677,421 passengers. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


What Accountants' Association Has Done 

A Past-President of the Accountants' Association Lists a Number of the 
Important Achievements of the Association, Points Out Some of the Problems 
Ahead and Urges All Accountants to Take an Active Interest in the Work 

By M. W. Glover 

General Auditor West Penn Railways 

THE importance of accounting and its value to the 
electric railway industry is not fully realized or 
appreciated. Andrew Carnegie cannot be classed 
as a theorist, but was a successful, practical business 
man. He recognized the importance and value of 
accounting and made the statement: "There is not a 
science or class of men on whom the business of the 
world is more dependent than the science of accounts 
and accounting." 

At the 1915 session of the Accountants' Association, 
P. V. Burington, Columbus, Ohio, presented a paper 
reviewing the activities of the Accountants' Association 
and called attention to some of the pi-oblems which at 
that time had been brought before the association for 
discussion. He called attention to some remarks by 
Paul R. Jones, then auditor of the Doherty organiza- 
tion, in connection with the importance of the account- 
ing department. 

In recent years certain factors have raised the auditing 
department of the public utility organization from a purely 
clerical status to that of one of its most important depart- 

Jn the call for the organization meeting held in 
Cleveland, March 23, 1897, the following appears: 
"Headquarters will be at the Hollenden Hotel, which 
has made a rate of $3 per day, Amerijcan plan." At 
the present time this seems almost unbelievable. 

From the time the Accountants' Association was or- 
ganized in 1897 up to the present, the work of the 
association has been devoted to the objects for which it 
was formed. The following is taken from Article 2 of 
the constitution of the association adopted in 1897 and 
amended in 1910: 

The object of this association shall be to bring together 
those engaged in the accounting department of urban and 
interurban railway companies and the electrified sections 
of steam railway companies for the interchange of ideas, 
to promote the adoption of a uniform system of accounts, 
and to improve the work of the accounting department. 

Apparently an impression exists in some quarters 
■ that the work of the Accountants' Association was over 
when it adopted a uniform system of accounts. This 
erroneous impression should be corrected, as it is not 
true that the association has completed its work. In 
fact, the adoption of a uniform classification of 
accounts is merely the first step in accomplishing the 
purposes for which the association was organized. In 
a recent article on the subject of "Lack of Uniformity 
in Electric Railway Accounting" attention was called 
to the fact that the adoption of a uniform system of 
accounts does not necessarily mean that all companies 
which have adopted this system are handling their 
accounts in a uniform manner, and the desirability of 
uniformity in accounting practices is emphasized. 

It will be noted that the first object of the asso- 
ciation is "to bring together those engaged in the 
accounting department of street railway companies for 

the interchange of ideas." This was undoubtedly placed 
first, with the thought that before any results could 
be obtained, those engaged in the accounting depart- 
ments of electric railway companies must first be 
brought together, to interchange ideas and to discuss 
problems of mutual interest. The informal discussions, 
as well as the prepared papers presented at the various 
conventions of the Accountants' Association, cover a 
large number of accounting problems, and many of the 
papers presented represent the expenditure of valu- 
able time and study. Every electric railway accountant 
should be glad of the opportunity afforded by the asso- 
ciation to meet others, some of whom have been in the 
accounting departments of electric railways from the 
time the old horse car lines were electrified, and it is 
a matter of congratulation that accountants have always 
been pleased to discuss accounting problems with their 
brethren and to give them the benefit of their experi- 
ence in handling many intricate and difficult problems, 
which arise from time to time. 

From the organization of the Accountants' Associa- 
tion to the present time the published minutes are 
filled with valuable information and data which cannot 
fail to prove of assistance to any electric railway 
accountant, no matter how long he has been handling 
accounts or what system of accounts he may use. Some 
of the subjects which have been discussed at conventions 
of the Accountants' Association are of vital importance 
to all electric railway accountants, and if they do not 
take advantage of the opportunity afforded by attending 
conventions of the association and meeting others 
engaged in accounting work for electric railways they 
are losing an opportunity which would be eagerly 
sought by many engaged in other lines of business. 

Testimony on Value of Association 

The following remarks taken from the addresses of 
presidents of the association are interesting: 

1898 — H. L. Wilson: "Accounting is now looked upon 
as a much more important branch of the business than 
was the case a few years ago, and we must make it the 
aim of this association to make it still more important 
each year." In other words, day by day in every way we 
are getting better and better. 

1900 — C. N. Duffy: "The annual conventions give the 
members an opportunity of meeting each other, inter- 
changing ideas, learning from each other and acquiring 
knowledge and experience which could not be obtained in 
any other way." 

1901 — W. F. Ham : "I cannot conceive how any one who 
has attended these conventions, participated in the meet- 
ings and mingled with the other members, could fail to be 
benefited by it, with the possible exception of the man who 
has a 'perfect system' and 'knows it all.' " 

1902 — H. C. Mackay: "Let me remind you that we each 
and all owe to the association and to the companies we 
represent prompt and faithful attendance at all meetings." 

1903 — H. J. Davies: "One of the most beneficial features 
of our annual meetings is the exchange of ideas in conver- 
sations among ourselves outside of the regular meetings." 

1906 — W. B. Brockway: "I believe, positively, that as 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

you work for the interests of this association, so will you 
benefit in knowledge and other ways." 

1909 — R. N. Wallis: "I wish to call attention again to 
the fact that the main value to the individual in these con- 
vention sessions lies in the thorough discussion of the sub- 
jects presented." 

1912 — P. S. Young: "The scope of the accountants' work 
in the business world is continually broadening, and nowhere 
is this more apparent than in the electric railway business." 

1913— J. H. NeaL: "In all modern big business it is grad- 
ually becoming a maxim that a business is no better than 
its accounting department." 

1920—1. A. May: "Cost accounting has been developed 
in the large manufacturing industries to a fine art, and 
my message to you is that our association develop cost 
accounting in our industry in advance of the requests that 
are bound to come to us for this kind of information." 

Committee Work Thorough 

Most of the work of any association which meets in 
convention once a year must be done through its com- 
mittees, and the Accountants' Association has been able 
to secure as members on its committees those who are 
willing to give sufficient time to committee work, in 
order that the reports might be of value to the asso- 
ciation. Some of the committee reports and the discus- 
sions following their presentation have brought out 
many important features of accounting work, and mem- 
bers of the committees, who have done the most work, 
frankly admit that it has been of great benefit to them 
personally. Any accountant who honestly investigates 
the activities of the Accountants' Association and will 
take part in these activities will never regret it. He 
A^ll feel that his time has been well spent, and the 
experience gained will be of material benefit to him 
personally as well as to the company which he 

The Accountants* Association intends to continue 
active work along the lines for which it was organized, 
and those accountants who have not taken an active 
interest in the association in the past will find that they 
have been the losers and those who have given time and 
work to the association will profit. 

Topics Discussed at Recent Meetings 

The following are some of the subjects which have 
been discussed at conventions of the association and 
•serve to illustrate the important matters relating to the 
accountants of electric railway companies which have 
been given attention by the association. 

Statistics. The Journal recently contained a short 
•editorial on "Getting Useful Information Out of Masses 
of Statistics." The usefulness of statistics depends 
entirely upon their accuracy, and as most statistics 
-originate from information compiled in the accounting 
department, it is very important that accounts be kept 
on a uniform basis, in order that statistics may be 
of sufficient value to justify their cost. Realizing the 
importance and necessity for statistics, the Accountants' 
Association has devoted a considerable amount of time 
to this subject on its programs. In 1898 an article on 
"Statistics, Their Use and Abuse" was presented by E. 
D. Hibbs ; in 1903 W. M. Steuart presented a paper on 
"Census Statistics and Standard Form of Electric Rail- 
way Accounting"; in 1906 a paper by A. Stuart Pratt 
on "Use of Curves in Statistics" was presented and 
discussed; in 1909 a paper on "Interurban Statistics" 
was presented by S. C. Rogers; in 1911 a paper on 
"Statistics of Cost of Electric Operation on Steam 
Railways" was presented by A. B. Bierck; in 1913 an 
article on "Statistical Units Used in Analysis of Electric 
Railway Accounts" was presented by J. A. Emery; in 

1915 George B. Willcutt presented a paper on the 
"Value of Statistics to Executive and Accounting 
Heads"; in 1916 W. E. Jones presented a paper on the 
subject of "The Statistician"; in 1919 an article was 
presented by C. R. Bitting on "The Preparation of 
Accounting and Statistical Data in Connection with 
Rate Cases." 

Depi-eciation. This is a most important subject from 
an accounting standpoint and was so recognized as far 
back as 1897. In that year a paper on this subject was 
presented by H. C. McJilton; in 1906 another paper on 
the same subject was presented by R. N. Wallis, and 
in 1914 Robert Sealy presented a paper on "Accounting 
Treatment of Depreciation." In addition to these 
papers, depreciation has been discussed in connection 
with various committee reports and the subject is now 
being handled by the committee on a uniform classifica- 
tion of accounts. 

Relation Between Accountants and Other Depart- 
ments. This is an important subject and was covered 
by a paper in 1897 by P. V. Burington, in 1909 by W. 
B. Brockway, and in 1922 by E. D. Dreyfus, the latter 
paper referring particularly to the relations between the 
accounting and engineering departments. 

Construction and Operating Budget. The budget 
system, which has been in use for some time by a few 
large utility organizations, is a subject of vital interest 
and, so far, has not been adopted by many electric 
railway companies, but the importance of this matter 
has been realized by the Accountants' Association. At 
the 1922 convention a very interesting address on this 
subject was delivered by Harry A. Snow, assistant 
comptroller of the Detroit Edison Company. This 
address has been published in pamphlet form by the 
association because of the importance of the subject 
and to comply with requests received for information 
on it. The association is preparing to develop this sub- 
ject and has appointed a committee to study it and make 
recommendations as to a satisfactory budget system 
for electric railway companies. 

Cost Accounting. The subject of cost accounting has 
been given considerable prominence in recent years and 
an address on this subject was presented at the 1921 
convention by J. H. Bowman, C.P.A., of New York City, 
and at the 1920 convention a paper on "Cost of Service 
Accounting" was presented by H. J. Davies. In addition 
other papers have been presented from time to time 
on the subject of arriving at the proper unit costs, as 
the system of accounts for electric railways was not 
intended primarily as a cost accounting system. 

Taxes. Accounting for taxes, both federal and state, 
has become a most important subject. It seems that, 
instead of simplifying the computation of taxes, taxing 
authorities attempt to complicate the provisions of tax 
laws, so that it is now necessary for nearly all large 
corporations to employ tax experts in handling their 
tax accounts. The question of taxes has been given 
attention by the Accountants' Association and is one of 
the live subjects to be discussed at future meetings. 

Many other important accounting subjects have been 
discussed at the conventions of the associations, and 
when it is considered that the membership of this asso- 
ciation consists of accountants who have been engaged 
in public utility accounting work for many years, the 
advantages of membership in the association cannot be 
overestimated. But in order to receive the benefits 
which may be secured through the association, members 
must take an active interest in its work. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


During its twenty-five years of existence, the Account- 
ants' Association has proved its worth to the electric 
railway industry, and its members intend to continue 
working in future along the lines which will prove of 
most benefit to the industry. The science of accounting 
has developed in recent years, and its importance is 
being realized more and more by the executives and 
owners of electric railway companies. If the associa- 
tion continues its activities in the future on the same 
lines as in the past, it will be recognized as one of the 
most important branches of the parent association, and 
its members will be held in esteem by all who are 
interested in the success of the electric railway industry. 
The members of the Accountants' Association are 
therefore urged to interest themselves in its welfare and 
to attend the conventions, with the assurance that they 
will benefit by meeting others engaged in accounting 
departments of electric railways and by a discussion of 
subjects which are of interest to every electric railway 

Good Record for British Single- 
Phase Electrification 

THE London, Brighton & South Coast section of the 
Southern Railway, Great Britain, has in operation 
a total of 70 miles of line electrified on the single-phase 
system at 6,700 volts. In a recent paper before the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, H. W. H. Richards, trac- 
tion engineer of the railway, gave a summary of the 
results of twelve years of electrical operation. He said 
that the original bow collecting gear is still in opera- 
tion, with slight modifications. The gear springs are 
set to maintain a pressure of 12 lb. of the bow strip 
on the contact wire w^ith the latter at a height of 16 ft. 

The motors used are of the Winter-Eichberg single- 
phase compensated repulsion type, which were satis- 
factory electrically but showed some mechanical weak- 
nesses. These have been largely eliminated. Mileages 
up to 250,000 have been obtained with the split gears 
used, and double this mileage is expected with the solid 
gears. Little trouble has been caused by the trans- 
formers, of which there are seventy-one of the 310-kva. 
type in use. After ten years of service the sheet in- 
sulation between high and low-tension windings was 

Gun-metal liners have been placed on the truck pedes- 
tal guides and other points of considerable wear so as 
to keep all clearances at a minimum. The Westing- 
house automatic air brake, combined with clasp brakes 
and automatic slack adjusters, permits a rate of braking 
of 3 ft. p.s.p.s. to be made, and the brakes to be released 
in three seconds. General overhaul of motor coaches 
occurs after 60,000 miles have been made, or about 
every one and one-half years. The trail coaches are 
permitted to run for a period twice as long between 

The effect of corrosion caused by steam locomotive 
smoke is seen in the fact that renewal of catenary and 
"dropper" wires is, in the non-steam traflSc section, only 
10 per cent of that in the sections where there is heavy 
steam traffic. 

During 1921 the average energy consumption was 
75.8 watt-hours per ton-mile. The number" of coach- 
miles operated was nearly 6,000,000. The average dis- 
tance between stops was 1.14 miles, the average run- 
ning speed 24.36 m.p.h. and the schedule speed, includ- 
ing stops, 22.11 m.p.h. 

Merchandising Transportation 

Some of the Features on Which Greater Stress Is Laid 

than in America Are Destination Signs, City 

Waiting Stations, Attractive Rolling 

Stock and Overhead System 

By J. Kappeyne 

Consulting Engineer, Syracuse, N. Y. 

WHILE the economic conditions and the attitude of 
the public toward electric street railways are not 
alike in Europe and in this country, some of the meth- 
ods employed abroad to merchandise transportation and 
secure the good will of patrons may be of interest to 
operating properties in this country. 

Thus, the first view on page 368 shows three distinct 
ways used on the trolley cars in Amsterdam to indicate 
the car route. First there is a route number (No. 14), 
conspicuously hung within the bow-shaped current col- 
lector. A variation in the first figure distinguishes the 
main car lines of the system, while a variation in the 
last figure indicates a different destination or terminal 
of the same main line, as in the case of short routing 
or of split lines. The route number is duplicated by a 
hood marker, shown at the right in the same illustra- 
tion, and this marker is illuminated at night. 

In the center of the hood is the usual route sign, 
which is square, oblong (as in the picture), cir- 
cular, oval, diamond shaped, or of other outline and 
embodies a combination of two colors, such as red and 
green, red and yellow (as in the picture), green and 
yellow and so forth. Each shape represents a main 
route, similar to the first figure of the route number, 
while a variation in the coloring indicates a different 
destination, corresponding to the last figure of the 
route number. The shape and coloring of this illumina- 
tive route sign is duplicated in a marker at the right 
of the platform vestibule roof (at the left in the view) . 
The route description is repeated on the side of the car 
roof on a board painted the same double color as the 
route sign. This double indication of routing insures 
correct advance information about the routing of an 
approaching car under nearly all possible conditions. 

This same information, that is route number, route 
sign and route description is repeated at important 
traffic points on the car stop signs, as shown in the 
second view, and at waiting stations, third view. 

Such route indication permits inspectors, policemen 
and others to give concise but nevertheless specific in- 
formation as to the proper car to be taken. It also 
facilitates the condensing of instructions on transfers, 
time tables, public railway guides and similar useful 
information pamphlets. Above all, it clearly identifies 
the particular car in the mind of the intending pas- 
senger long enough in advance to permit him to be pre- 
pared to board that car with the self-satisfaction of 
knowing its certain destination and routing. 

Another method of merchandising transportation 
service to prospective patrons was observed at con- 
gested loading points in Paris. A box, provided with 
paper tickets numbered consecutively (see fourth illus- 
tration), is attached to the trolley pole at a convenient 
height. During rush hours, each waiting passenger 
helps himself to one of these tickets. When the next 
car comes along, the conductor allows the passenger 
with the lowest numbered ticket to board first and.tiMie 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

Roates Are Clearly Marked in Amsterdam by Car Signs and Numbered Poles 

enables him to secure a seat if one is available. In this 
manner, the principle of first come first served is ap- 
plied, with the result that the usual pushing and crowd- 
ing at the car entrance is practically eliminated. 

This method of loading has all the advantages of 
queue loading, but it eliminates the obnoxious feature 
of the latter of people having to stand in line while 
waiting. It has a wider field of usefulness, being ap- 
plicable in cases where normally the number of waiting 
passengers would not warrant queue loading. Ticket 
loading is especially adapted, however, where the defi- 
nite stopping place of the particular car is not prede- 
termined, as in the case of multiple berthing, or of a 
near-side stop for converging car lines. It has the fur- 
ther advantage over queue loading in that it is self- 
instructing, as those slow to learn are being penalized. 

A further catering to the comforts of one not yet 
a passenger, in quite common use in many cities on the 
Continent, is evidenced by the number of attractive, 
glass inclosed, waiting stations erected, as shown in the 
third, view. These are often installed in the heart of 
the city at important transfer points and provide for 
news stands, boot blacking, parcel checking, candy and 
flower shops. They also serve as a convenient depot for 
transfers, extra car tickets, report blanks, e+c, for the 
use of inspectors. Usually a company telephone and a 
public pay station will be found there. 

In this country, the erection of waiting stations is 
usually confined to interurban lines, outside of the built- 
up area. Although traffic congestion and narrow streets, 
found in most business districts of our cities, militates 
against the establishment of such stations, with proper 

co-operation from city officials and interested property 
owners, suitable locations could probably be found in a 
surprising number of instances, where the construction 
of convenient waiting stations would result in greater 
comfort to waiting patrons. 

Apparently many street railway managers abroad are 
believers in selling transportation "neatly wrapped and 
done up in an attractive package." The rolling stock, 
for example, is usually painted a pleasing color, such 
as pale blue, light olive green, cream color and others. 
The windows are broad and kept scrupulously clean and 
the brass fittings bright and shiny. More frequent use 
is made of ornamental trolley poles than in this country. 
In Antwerp I noticed ornamental combination arc light 
and trolley poles carrying flower pots with red gera- 
niums. It may be that the providing of cream-colored 
cars, shiny conductor bells and flower-decked trolley 
poles is not directly remunerative, but a more general 
application in this country of attracting the car rider 
by a pleasing appearance of the property used is worthy 
of serious consideration. 

Evidently the value of advertising within as well as 
without the cars is appreciated abroad, as shown in the 
fifth view. Monitor and dash advertising are common, 
and the company reserves the more conspicuous adver- 
tising space inside the cars for its own use. Here it 
displays maps showing the car system, lists of stopping 
places and transfer points, time-tables, company rules 
affecting the public, picturesque views of points of in- 
terest reached by street car, safety warnings, police 
regulations, etc. Much of this matter serves effectively 
as means of merchandising transportation. 

.Amsterdam Waiting Station — Paris Queue Number — Lucerne Car With Monitor Deck Advertising. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway journal 


New Safety Devices Developed 

in Tri-Cities 

Scheme of Control Operates Electrically Instead of by 
Air Valves — Devices Claimed to Be Simple and Com- 
paratively Inexpensive in First Cost and Maintenance 

THE city railway service of Rock Island, 111., has 
been operated entirely with converted one-man 
cars since March 1, 1922, and that of Davenport, 
Iowa, since June 15, 1921. A total of 128 double-truck 
cars of these two properties of the Tri-City Railway 
were changed over for one-man operation by the addi- 

series with a cutout switch operated from the brake 
cylinder air pressure, so the circuit can be kept open 
by any one of these three contacts alone. Door pro- 
tection is taken care of by connecting to the door engine 
valve an air cylinder operated by the brake cylinder 
pressure. To open the doors with the brakes off the 


Pneumatic deer ancf . 

step confrvlkr -ot- 


iconfrpl/pr simfi 


I fnmn Hm- 




Magnetic coil 

.Cutout switch 

Smitt^ Ojiinder, 



■ Switch operating 
rod- 'HOOd 
L me tv cutout swifcti cyhndcr 
^and o/oor dosing cylind er 


2 rncfin prss.'iurT //T0 1 

6 £■ emergency 
vaM. TypeE f^rmj-^- 

y 'tA "pipe 

frcfin line to bra Ac cyhnder - 

;i "iine to sandor 

'A "pipe-' 

Safety valve 

Main Air Reservoir 

III ^ 

2 tine to JyrGfkz cylinder-;^ 

Emergency ^and vaive 



I emergency une 


To s,ander at opposite onoi,' 
of car. Plug tee if only one 
sandier /s to be used 

i 1 Viood plunger 

'''Breaf:er reset cylinder 

'" g round rod for resottin\ 
breatcer by tiand 
Wood knolj 


At Bottom, Pipinir UiaKram for Singrle £nd Control. At Top, Wiring Diagram of Magnetic Control Circuit 

tion of a system of safety devices developed by John 
Sutherland, master mechanic. Forty cars of the Michi- 
gan Railway used in Lansing. Battle Creek, Jackson and 
Kalamazoo have also been equipped. 

Complete protection, reliability, low first cost and 
low maintenance expense, ease and cheapness of in- 
stallation are the advantages claimed for the new de- 
velopment. The protection is obtained with several 
units that are positive in operation and simple in con- 
struction. A trip coil on a circuit breaker located 
underneath the car is actuated through a single control 
circuit using live current and connected with the con- 
troller handle. The plunger of this trip coil kicks out 
the breaker whenever the operator removes his hand 
from the controller, unless his foot is held on a floor 
switch. The controller handle and floor switch are in 

operator must turn the door handle against a 40-lb. 
spring in the air cylinder. With the brakes on, the 
spring is compressed by the air entering from the brake 
cylinder, allowing free operation of the door control. 

To describe the action of the safety devices, take a 
car in the shop with the pole down and no air in the 
reservoir. The operator puts up the pole and then 
pushes open the doors, which are released because the 
door engine with no air pressure offers no resistance. 
The compressor switch is closed and after the air pres- 
sure reaches 40 lb. or more the circuit breaker on the 
platform can be closed. It is in series with the one 
under the car controlled by a magnetic coil, but has a 
setting 100 amp. higher. An application of the brakes 
from the brake valve operates a cutout switch, thus 
making it unnecessary for the operator to hold down 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

Dead-Man Handle and Unit FartH 

(1) Aluminum cap; (2) spring steel arm; (3) contact Ting; 
(4) contact finger: (5) controller liandle cap; (6) wooden knob; 
(7) brass controller handle; (S) assembled handle. 

Foot Switch and Parts 
(1) Filler pin dislc ; (2) plunger with contact ring in position; 
(3) aluminum cup; (4) steel shell; (5) assembled switch ready 
for installation. 

either the controller handle or foot switch. By re- 
leasing the brakes the doors automatically close. 

The door control cylinder is identical in design with 
the cutout switch cylinder and both are piped from the 
brake cylinder. The control device on the door has a 
link sliding on the door engine valve rod so that when 
the brakes are released the spring tension holds a link 
against a collar on the rod, making it difficult for the 
operator to turn the shor.t door lever against a 40-lb. 
pressure. When the car comes to a standstill after a 
brake application, the operator must keep the air brake 
valve set so as to permit air to travel from the pressure 
line to the train line. Thus a constant pressure is main- 
tained in both the air-brake and the door-closing 

This releases the door and step mechanism so o{)era- 
tor can easily turn the handle controlling the door-engine 
air valve. When the brakes are released just before 
starting the car, the air pressure in the door-closing 
•cylinder is also released. A spring around the piston 
stem forces the piston back to its normal position and 
pulls the door-operating mechanism back to its original 
position. It should be noted that the control cylinder 
does not open the doors whenever the brakes are applied, 
but it does close them on release of the brakes. 

When the circuit through the magnetic coil is closed, 
as upon release of the controller handle, the coil plunger 
strikes the breaker trip plate and the breaker, inclosed 
in a fireproof box underneath the car, opens. The breaker 
handle opens the emergency sand valve and holds it 
in the open position against the spring pressure. This 
permits the air to travel to both sanders. At the same 
time the emergency air line is opened and an immediate 

brake application results. Thus the car is brought to a 
sudden stop if the control circuit is allowed to close for 
any reason, and the full air pressure having built up 
in the brake cylinder, the door engine valve is again 

The circuit breaker must be reset at once to close 
the emergency sand valve and allow the air pressure in 
the emergency line to build up until the valve resumes 
its normal position. A reset valve located convenient 
to the operator actuates a plunger that forces the breaker 
handle back to the operating position. If there is no air 
in the reservoir, the breaker can be closed by hand by 
means of an extension of the reset rod protruding to 
the side of the car. 

The Tri-City cars are double ended, but only one door 
handle 4 in. long is allowed per car. On changing ends 
the operator removes this little handle and the brake 
valve and reverser handles. The controller handle re- 
mains attached. A convenient refinement of the device 
is a rod under the bumper on each end with which the 
operator can close the door after himself and keep the 
car warm should he leave the car for any reason at the 
end of the line. This appurtenance is operative only 
when the 4-in. handle inside the car is in place. Thus 
no one familiar with the trick can open the rear door 
from the outside. The feature was obtained by using 
a rod joining into a pipe for operating the door valve. 
The rod and pipe are connected only when the 4-in. 
handle is screwed through a slot into a hole tapped in 
the rod. 

In operating the cars equipped with this type of safety 
device the men become accustomed to keeping one foot 
on the floor switch or holding onto the controller handle. 

OperatinK Platform Showing the Arrangrement of 
Siafety Control l>evice» 

Cylinder Controlling: Door E;ng:ine Valve Located 
on Front Bulkhead 

March 3, 1923 

Electeic Railway Journal 


The cutout switch breaks the circuit through the mag- 
netic coil when the car is stopped, thus allowing the 
operator to release the controller handle and foot switch. 
Several of the accompanying illustrations show the 
location of the various elements. With the door engines 
over the doors, the control cylinder was placed over the 
dash window. The cutout-switch cylinder is placed un- 
der one of the front seats. Were there room on the 
bulkhead the same cylinder could be used for both pur- 
poses. One of these switches, mounted on a board, ready 
for installation, is shown herewith. With the spring in 
the cylinder fully released, the contact rod takes the 
position shown and the electrical contact is made 
through the two hinged brushes. With sufficient air 
pressure the brass sleeve on the rod is pushed away 
and the two brushes are thus held apart with the wooden 

Details of Controller Handle and Foot Switch 

The adapted controller handle and the foot switch, 
which constitute the remaining devices controlling the 
circuit breaker operation, are illustrated, also showing 
the assembly and the detail parts. The controller han- 

At Left, Unit AxHembly of Swltrh and Cylliider Operated from Air 

Reservoir Pressure. At Riltrht, Circuit Breaker 

Adapted by Addition of Trip Call 

die is designed so that a very light pressure on the 
handle holds open the circuit. A positive action has 
been obtained with a vertical movement of the knob 
of about J in. A standard handle (2) is stripped as 
shown and an L-shaped contact finger (4) designed 
to pass through a groove machined in the controller 
shaft with ample clearance. The end of this finger can 
make contact with a brass ring mounted on a larger 
fiber contact ring (3) that is screwed to the controller 

Engaging the upper end of the contact pin is a steel 
arm bent to slightly less curvature than the controller 
handle and one end of which is bored to pars over the 
knob pin. In this position the bend in the controller 
handle acts as a fulcrum for the steel arm, which is 
counterweighted on one end to overbalance the effect of 
the wooden knob. An aluminum cap (5) is fitted over 
the assembly and another cap (1) is applied over the 
contact ring. The controller points are indicated on it 
to replace those ground off the cover when the ring was 
screwed on. The completed handle has only three mov- 
ing parts. 

Another view shows the foot switch, which normally 
is held closed by a spring. The shell (4) is cut from 
3-in. steel tubing, one end at a 45-deg. angle. The in- 
side is bored to a slightly larger diameter to form a 

shoulder, against which is inserted a fiber disk. Thia 
acts as the lower guide for the plunger (2), while a 
similar disk with two contact pins fits into the top. The 
circuit between the contact pins is completed by a brass 
ring on the plunger disk. The inside of the steel shell 
is insulated with a micarta tube. An aluminum cap is 
screwed onto the end of the plunger shaft and it extends 
over the tube far enough to prevent the entrance of 
snow or water. Another view shows a standard circuit 
breaker adapted for tripping with a magnetic coil that 
is attached to the cast-iron box. 

The cost of applying the safety equipment, including 
labor and material, averaged less than $600 per car. 
The patents for this method of protection for one-man 
operation are held by John Sutherland, master mechanic 
of the Tri-City Railway properties. The devices are 
manufactured and sold by Nic Le Grand, Inc., Rock 
Island, 111. 

Would "Sell" Detroit Municipal 
Railway to Detroit People 

Consultant Uses Opinions of Municipal Railway Engi- 
neers for Report to Give Publicity to Faults of 
D.U.R. Track, the Rehabilitation Work Done 
and Merits of the New Construction 

THE first of what is presumably to be a series of 
bulletins prepared by Walter Jackson, consultant, 
apparently for the purpose of keeping the people of 
Detroit sold on their municipal railway system, has 
been made public. This bulletin is printed in the form 
of a four-page leaflet under the heading of "What Was 
and What Is on the Street Railway System." A sub- 
heading explains that the report is an "analysis by a 
technical specialist of the conditions and practices on 
the city's own system prepared that the general public 
may intelligently watch developments and adequately 
gage the policies being executed." Further explanation 
of the report is set apart in a box as follows : 

"The purpose of this report is to present an analysis 
of the operation of the Department of Street Railways, 
City of Detroit, along the following lines: 

"1. The condition of the property when taken over 
from the Detroit United Railways; first, as regards the 
degree of deterioration ; second, as regards the character 
of construction, equipment and practices regarded as 
good by the predecessor organization. 

"2. The condition of the property today; first, as re- 
gards the extent of rehabilitation; second, as regards 
the character of construction, equipment and practices 
regarded as good by the successor organization. 

"3. A comparison of the municipal standards with 
the practices and tendencies of the American electric 
railway industry at large. 

■"4. Suggestions that may tend to make the Depart- 
ment of Street Railways of the City of Detroit the most 
capable mass transport concern in America." 

The report then takes up a discussion of the physical 
condition of the track which was taken over from the 
Detroit United Railway. The report of the engineer of 
the municipal system to the general manager of the 
municipal system is drawn upon for extensive quotations 
about the disrepair of the D.U.R. track. A summary is 
then given of the extensive trackwork done during 1922 
from May 15, the day on which the property was taken 
over, up to Dec. 31, 1922, in bringing the D.U.R. system 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

up to operating physical standard. This summary was 
as follows: 

New track construction (ft. of single track) 5.539 

Track reconstructed (ft. of single track) 49,449 

Falk cast-weld joints replaced . . 1 2,890 

Tons o( steel used for special work renewals 1,055 

Track repaired (ft. of single track) 70,469 

Pavement replaced, sq.yd 42,641 

Concrete foundations replaced, cu.yd 1,811 

"From this greatly condensed statement," the report 
goes on, "it will be apparent that the track and paving 
needed early and earnest attention if service was to be 
given with any degree of reliability. Track reconstruc- 
tion is the most costly work an electric railway has to 
face, so that it is not to be wondered at that the Detroit 
United Railway refused to spend thousands of dollars 
for a new crossing if it could bump along until the end 
of its expected departure from city operation. Had the 
purchase negotiations moved faster, the property would 
have been in correspondingly better condition for safe 
and comfortable operation." 

Discussion of D. U. R. Construction 

As to the standards of track construction used by the 
Detroit United Railway, Mr. Jackson has this to say: 

"Any kind of equipment, no matter how good, has to 
be cared for to give smooth service. We know that dur- 
ing the last two or three years of its tenure, the pre- 
decessor company naturally did no more than it could 
avoid doing and with this policy no one can find fault. 
However, a different question arises when we consider 
the character of construction in itself and ask whether 
it represented the best types available for the job. In 
ether words, were the track standards of the Detroit 
United Railway the best standards — if we assume that 
the company had continued to operate with the usual 
degree of care in upkeep and renewal of the structure." 

Here follows a summary of the mileage of each type 
of D.U.R. track taken over with the corresponding com- 
Tnent of the municipal railway engineer as to its faults. 
Mr. Jackson adds the comment that "From the fore- 
going it will be seen that while the concrete and wood 
tie construction adopted as a Detroit United standard 
conformed to the ideas of many track engineers, the use 
of such construction with a non-waterproof paving led 
to a deterioration that may have been hastened by neg- 
lect in the last uncertain years but which appears to 
have been inevitable in any case. At any rate, the ex- 
perience of the Detroit United Railway has been the 
strongest reason for the use of the much different track 
construction described hereinafter." 

Similarly, the practice of cast welding the joints is 
criticised with the comment that the D.U.R. "seems to 
have been one step behind the latest developments of the 
art." The report then takes up a discussion of the type 
of track construction adopted by the municipal railway 
and quotes articles and editorials from the Electric 
Railway Journal at length to establish the merit of 
the municipal construction work. 

Reference is made to the matter of rail corrugation, 
which forms an answer to some critics who have asso- 
ciated corrugation with the rigid type of construction 
used by the municipal system. The report points out 
that a stretch of 6 miles of open track with wooden ties, 
constituting as flexible track as one could desire, had 
developed corrugation. It also brings out that the rail- 
way's engineer made the telling point that the corruga- 
tion in rigid track had been confined to the 100-lb. sec- 
tion of rail, whereas if it were a condition due to stress 

of car operation, one would look for it in the 91-lb. and 
93-lb. sections first. It is then pointed out that no one 
knows the dominant cause of corrugation. Finally Mr. 
Jackson indorses the Detroit Municipal construction in 
this manner: 

Indorses Construction Used by City 

"The combination of steel ties, concrete foundation, 
electric welded joints and compressed concrete paving is 
the last and best word in track construction of the rigid 
or monolithic type. This construction does not oppose 
the modern tendency toward monolithic street paving but 
works with it. The department's design actually rein- 
forces the rest of the paving, whereas the so-called 
flexible track using wooden ties and block paving would 
tend to break up adjacent paving owing to the up and 
down movement of heavj- cars running over wood." 

The report is then concluded with the following com- 
ments : 

"If any electric railway is entitled to relief from the 
paving burden, it is one like the department of Street 
Railways because the latter has adapted itself com- 
pletely to the type that is best for all other users of the 
public highway. 

"The use of electric welding between the rails them- 
selves and between rails, steel ties and mechanical con- 
nections means that the Department of Street Railways 
has taken more precautions to avoid electrolysis than 
any other electric railway in the world. 

"No other electric railway has made such extensive 
use of the 'best quality' standards or specifications of 
the American Electric Railway Association, nor con- 
structed track with such a modern array of labor, time 
and nuisance-saving appliances. Finally, a big advance 
in labor policy has been made by grading the men so 
that the more capable individuals will remain with the 
department throughout the year instead of drifting into 
other employment and thus making it necessary for the 
track division to break in too large a number of new 

"A patchwork policy may give the older track three 
or four years more of useful life; a reconstruction policy 
will settle the track question for a generation. The 
answer lies with the public." 

^ The Readers' Forum ) 

We Strive to Merit This 

Harrisburg Railways Company 

Harrisburg, Pa., Feb. 26, 1923. 
To the Editors: 

I want to take this opportunity of congratulating you 
on your Feb. 24, 1923, issue of the Electric Railway 

This is one of the best issues, to my mind, that the 
Electric Railway Journal has ever placed before the 
public and you are to be congratulated for the articles 
that it contains and the general make-up. In fact, I 
think you have set a standard by this issue that will 
mean a considerable amount of work on your part to 
maintain during the year. This is really an issue that 
should be placed in the hands of every operating man in 
the industry in the United States. C. F. Crane, 

Assistant to the President. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Americanization Work Proving 

Intensive Effort Among the Employees on the Insull 

Properties Results in Practically All of Them 

Becoming Citizens 

AMERICANIZATION work among employees of the 
l\ Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad, Chi- 
cago Elevated Railroads and other public utility com- 
panies under the direction of Samuel Insull, Chicago, 
has established a record believed to be unique among 
the industries of the country. For the last eighteen 
months intensive Americanization effort has been car- 
ried on among the employees of the six public service 
companies, with a result that today practically all em- 
ployees are either American citizens or have declared 
their intentions of becoming such and have taken out 
their first naturalization papers. 

A report just made to Mr. Insull by the joint com- 
mittee in charge of the Americanization work shows 
that on Jan. 1 the aggregate number of employees on 
the payrolls of the combined companies was 24,214, and 
of this number, 22,270, or 91.97 per cent, were American 
^ citizens. Those who were in pos.session of their first 
papers and who will gain the full rights of citizenship 
within the next few months number 1,893, or 7.82 
per cent. Only fifty-one or 0.21 per cent were not citi- 
zens or had not taken out first papers. Some of those 
who had not yet declared their intentions of becoming 
citizens expected to do so within a few weeks. 

The report shows that out of 5,488 employees of the 
Chicago Elevated Railroads, 5,107 were citizens, 379 
had taken out their first papers and only two were non- 
citizens. The Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Rail- 
road had 1,350 employees, of whom 1,231 were citizens, 
eighty-seven had taken out their first papers and thirty- 
two were non-citizens, most of whom expected to apply 
for their first papers within a short time. 

Back of these interesting statistics is a record of 
intensive Americanization work, which in reality, to a 
large extent, was education of the foreign-born em- 
ployees to speak, read and write the English language 
and do simple problems in arithmetic. As the work 
advanced, its scope was broadened to include instruction 
in the science of government and the meaning of Ameri- 
can citizenship. 

North Shore Line Benefits Particularly 

The most diflScult of the situations encountered in 
this Americanization program fell to the lot of the 
Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad. Track- 
men employed by that company were largely aliens, as 
is usually the case with workers doing this class of 
labor. Altogether, fifteen nationalities were repre- 
sented, with Croatians and Italians predominating. At 
the time the work was undertaken, few of them could 
read or speak the English language and some of them 
could not even read or write their native language. 
They lived mostly in camps located at various points 
along the right-of-way, so that making them American 
citizens presented a problem altogether different from 
that of any other company in the group. 

As usual, these men were hired through labor agen- 
cies. After a brief survey of the situation it became 
apparent that little in the way of improvement could be 
accomplished by the customary practice of working 
through foremen and labor agencies. It was a diflUcult 

problem to carry on Americanization work under these 
conditions as it was not a simple proposition to convince 
employees that they should become American citizens. 
It was a question of educating them to make them 
fit for citizenship by instruction in the English language. 

The first step was orders from Britton I. Budd, presi- 
dent of the company, discontinuing the practice of keep- 
ing labor in boarding camps maintained by contractors 
and the establishment of a system of company camps 
constructed and maintained to attract the better class 
of men and keep them contented. The commissary was 
improved, baths were provided, close attention given to 
cleanliness about the camp and a Y. M. C. A. secretary 
was employed to keep after their recreation. 

After a further study of the situation it was decided 
that although this work was a step in the right direc- 
tion, a systematic course of education should be estab- 
lished to assist these foreign-born employees in be- 
coming citizens. The magnitude of this task will be 
more readily comprehended when it is understood that 
the first survey showed that 90 per cent of the men 
were not citizens, over 30 per cent of them could not 
speak English, 75 per cent could not read it, and 25 
per cent could not read or write their own language. 
The ages of the men ranged from eighteen to sixty 
years and averaged thirty-six years. 

The company engaged an experienced instructor to 
direct the work and he was assisted by men in the or- 
ganization. Schools were fitted up in buildings belong- 
ing to the company at various locations along the line. 
Classes were held on specified evenings at different 
locations most convenient to the men. 

The first step was instruction in English. Later, as 
the work progressed, English was supplemented with 
simple courses of study in grammar, arithmetic and 
government. The instruction was associated with the 
work the men were actually doing. For example, in 
arithmetic, a problem like this would be given : If 250 
ties are unloaded for renewals in track and 65 ties have 
been renewed, how many ties are left? This system 
of instruction promoted interest and enlarged upon the 
value of the work to the men. Motion pictures were 
used often as a method of keeping the study interesting. 

Beginning late in 1920, two hourly classes were held 
on two evenings of each week, excepting for two months 
during the summer, when the program was confined to 
pictures and recreational pastimes. 

As an indication of the interest taken in the work 
by some, one man over forty years of age, who, though 
many years in this country, had not learned the English 
language, said to an interpreter at the close of the first 
lesson: "I would rather learn English than have 

After several months of this intensive educational 
work a certain day was set as "first paper day," upon 
which all foreign employees who had not yet declared 
their intentions of becoming American citizens could 
do so. Arrangements were made to receive the appli- 
cants at the courthouses in Waukegan, 111., and Kenosha, 
Racine and Milwaukee, Wis., and the day was made a 
gala occasion. As a result of this, the number of em- 
ployees among the trackmen who were not citizens 
dropped from 90 per cent to 27 per cent. 

The educational work proved such a success that it 
is being continued. A school has been started for fore- 
men and all who desire to become foremen. Safety 
classes are also held and accidents have been reduced 
to a minimum as a result of education of this sort. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

[^ Association News & Discussions 1 

Mr. Lieb Talks About Coal Situation 

Representative of the Utilities Points Out the Causes of the Problem 

and Discusses Remedial Measures, Showing How the Expansion 

of Utility Service Tends Toward Solution 

AT THE February luncheon meeting 
. of the New York Electrical League 
on Feb. 28, John W. Lieb, vice-president 
New York Edison Company, and chair- 
man of the joint fuel committee rep- 
resenting the national electric light and 
power, railway and gas interests, 
addressed the meeting on the outlook 
in the coal situation. His primary intent 
was to set forth the way in which the 
electrical industries have been affected 
by conditions in the coal industry and 
how they are serving the nation in the 
conservation of fuel and simplification 
of its distribution. 

Working in this direction, he first 
undertook to show the essential impor- 
tance of the utilities, presenting some 
statistics as to the mag^nitude of the 
investment and the great importance of 
their service to the public. He laid 
great stress upon the fact that the elec- 
tric, gas and street railway utilities 
must function and that for the public 
good, they should be placed beyond any 
danger of failure to obtain adequate 
quantities of proper fuel. 

Mr. Lieb reviewed the great difficul- 
ties the utilities have had during the 
past few years in getting coal with 
which to keep up continuous operation, 
and how the critical conditions in the 
coal market have practically nullified 
the effect of coal contracts and have 
forced abandonment of any pretense of 
holding to any minimum specification 
on coal analysis. To show how more 
extended use of central station energy 
would tend to improve the problem of 
coal distribution, as well as its con- 
servation, Mr. Lieb said that isolated 
power plants consumed in 1922 about 
20 per cent of the total coal mined. 
This was compared with 6.7 per cent 
of the total which was consumed by the 
utilities, indicating the high fuel econ- 
omy of the utilities when the relative 
outputs of electrical energy are com- 
pared, since these utilities generate 
annually more energy than the aggre- 
gate produced by all isolated industrial 

Turning to the mining operations, 
Mr. Lieb said that there was an increase 
of 154 per cent in the number of mines 
operated in 1920 compared with the 
number in 1910, with an increase in 
annual capacity to over 800,000,000 tons, 
while the actual demand reaches only 
from 500,000,000 to 600,000,000 tons. 
This great excess development of new 
mines as compared with output has seri- 
ously interfered with healthy conditions 
in the coal business. The resultant irreg- 

ularity of production has been great; 
thus, in Hlinois, in 1921, the average 
number of days per mine worked was 
only 131, and for the country as a 
whole in that year it was 149 days. 
Similarly, the amount of labor avail- 
able at the mines is excessive. About 
74,000 men were employed in Illinois 
in 1921, when 42,033 men could have 
performed the service by working a 
more reasonable number of days in the 
year. For the whole country in the 
same year, 663,000 mine workers were 
employed, producing only 415,000,000 
tons, while in 1910 to produce 417,000,- 
000 tons only 556,000 were required. 

In addition to this increase in num- 
ber of miners employed, the average 
annual output per mine decreased from 
71,559 tons in 1910 to 38,612 tons in 
1920. This would of course involve a 
serious increase in overhead costs per 
ton for much of the coal produced. 
Under any conditions the irregularly 
employed men of the coal regions, plus 
the extra expense of non-steady pro- 
duction at the mines, is reflected in the 
excessive prices of coal, which have to 
be borne by the ultimate consumer. 

Railways Seriously Affected by 
Overdevelopment of Mines 

Mr. Lieb then discussed the effect of 
mine and railroad strikes on the supply 
of coal during the past few years and 
commented on the enormous fluctuations 
in price. Continuing, he said that the 
opening up of an excessive number of 
mines previously referred to had had 
its reflection on the railroad situation, 
making it necessary for the railroads 
to divide their available cars among 
over 2,900 mines in 1918 and 6,800 more 

Forthcoming Meetings of Inter- 
est to Electric Railway 

MLarch 12-14 — Oklahoma Utilities Asso- 
ciation, Oklahoma City, 

March 22— New England Street Rail- 
way Club (annual meet- 
ing), Boston. Mass. 

March 14-15 — Illinois Electric Railway 
Association, Chicago. 

March 19-21 — American Railway Asso- 
ciation, Engineering Divi- 
sion, Chicago. 

March 22-23 — Wisconsin Utilities Associ- 
ation, Milwaukee, Wis. 

May 7-10 — Chamber of Commerce of 
the United States. New 

May 15-17 — Southwestern Public Serv- 
ice Association, Ft. Worth, 

June 27-29— Central Electric Railway 
Association, Cedar Point. 

mines in 1920 than would have been nec- 
essary had the average production per 
mine in these years been maintained on 
the 1910 basis. Gathering the increased 
tonnage from a largely increased num- 
ber of mines calls for vastly increased 
motive power, coal car supply and man- 
power from the railroads to serve 
them all. 

The number of cars called for based 
on the rated ability of the mine to pro- 
duce coal kept pace with the increased 
number of mines until for the year 1920, 
cars were ordered in sufficient number 
to load over 830,000,000 tons5— 56 per 
cent more than the total consumption 
of the country. In the latter part of 
1922, cars were called for at the rate 
of twice the annual consumption of the 

While it is stated that, the railroads 
have provided in 1920, as compared with 
1911, an increase of 42.5 per cent in 
tonnage capacity of coal cars, 55.1 per 
cent in new motive power and tractive 
effort, and have provided 40 per cent 
increased investment in road and equip- 
ment, it is nevertheless true that car 
shortage did dislocate the steady flow 
of coal to the consumer, and it may be 
said, generally speaking, that car short- 
age periods are closely related to and 
are the result of labor trouble in both 
coal and transportation industries. 

Mr. Lieb said that the inadequacy of 
car supply is also intimately related to 
the system of mine ratings for car 
assignments and it is expected that the 
federal coal commission may bring for- 
ward valuable suggestions. 

Remedial Measures Considered 

Turning to remedies that have been 
proposed to stabilize the coal business, 
Mr. Lieb said that as yet the United 
States Coal Commission, after several 
months of intensive study, has not been 
convinced that a proper solution has 
been found. One important group of 
those interested advocate in essence 
that the situation be allowed to work 
itself out without external government 
or other interferences. Their conten- 
tion is that the coal industry, under 
the ordinary laws of competition and of 
supply and demand, was as stable prior 
to the war and as satisfactorily oper- 
ated as any other industry. They claim 
that the recent difficulties are an after- 
math resulting from war conditions, 
and that these will rectify themselves, 
with time. They believe, if unrestrained 
by artificial means, that the excessive 
development of mines will be reduced 
in the natural course of business through 
the less efficient schemes worked out 
by competition. This in turn will cause 
the excess mine labor to enter other 
pursuits. The result of such a natural 
movement would, they say, tend to in- 
crease the steadiness of the workings 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


of the mines remaining and give steadier 
employment to the miners. All of this 
would mean greater economy and lower 
cost of production. 

The second suggestion which Mr. Lieb 
said had been made is that the govern- 
ment itself purchase and operate the 
mines. This plan, although vigorously 
and continuously promoted by a group 
of the more radically inclined, has been 
quite universally condemned by the pub- 
lic on the ground that government 
ownership and operation have not 
proved either efficient or economical and 
experience with the railroads under gov- 
ernment management has not been such 
as to encourage further experimenta- 
tion in that direction. 

It is more or less self-evident that 
under government operation at least a 
large proportion of the mine officials 
and probably workmen would hold their 
positions not primarily upon merit, but 
in many cases because of their indi- 
vidual political affiliations and influ- 
ences. It has usually been found, Mr. 
Lieb said, that the public is better 
served and better protected under the 
natural laws of business than through 
governmental interference and political 
control. Several bills have already 
been introduced in Congress having to 
do with the various phases of govern- 
mental control. Thus, one bill provides 
that long-time coal contracts may be 
recorded with the Interstate Commerce 
Commission and that when crises arise, 
. a mine shall supply its recorded con- 
tracts with coal before it supplies other 
customers. Another bill provides that 
anthracite coal shall be graded into 
classes and that coal operators and 
dealers will be subject to penalty for 
shipping or selling coal which is not in 
conformity with the grade represented 
or contracted for. 

Finally, plans have been proposed 
whereby, through the extension of the 
storage of coal by all users, the sea- 
sonal variation of prices of coal and 
possibly seasonal variations of freight 
rates, by conservation of energy in 
the use of coal, and by simplifying its 
distribution, conditions can be mate- 
rially improved. 

Railroads Should Store Coal 

Mr. Lieb then discussed the advan- 
tages of storage and pointed out that 
the utilities have long been practicing 
this measure in an extensive way. In 
fact, it was the storage of coal by the 
utilities in advance of the strike of 
1922 which practically saved the sit- 
uation. Mr. Lieb said that larger stor- 
age capacities for all coal users, to be 
filled in times during the year when 
transportation facilities are best avail- 
able, would do much to prevent the 
present unsatisfactory fuel conditions. 
The railroads themselves should, in as 
great measure as possible, haul and 
store the coal for their own needs. 
They use approximately one-third of 
the bituminous coal consumed, and thus 
they are in an excellent position to aid 
to a much greater extent than in the 
past in stabilizing both the coal indus- 
try and their own operations through 
such methods. 

Further, Mr. Lieb pointed out that 
the mines can in a certain measure 
promote storage which would prevent 
irregular daily production output from 
the mines, caused by variations in daily 
.car supply. In many locations a coal 
pocket holding from one to two days 
output may be installed at a moderate 
expense and so arranged as to discharge 
directly into the railroad cars with little 
additional equipment and no additional 
handling. Such a storage should enable 
the mine to run continually at least 
five days per week and the slight addi- 
tional cost would be largely overbal- 
anced by improved showing in the over- 
head per ton of coal produced. The 
overhead expenses go on while the mine 
is idle. 

These expenses amount to about 
40 per cent of the total cost of the 
coal on the car. Those mines which 
have installed storage of this kind find 
that under most conditions the car 
supply is equalized and that definite 
advantages result from the practice. 

A greater application of electrical 
equipment in coal mines would also tend 
to improve the situation, the speaker 
said. As to the possibility of locating 
electric generating stations at the mine 
mouth, Mr. Lieb said that this was 
possible only in comparatively few 
cases. The project of pumping coal 
through a pipe line has been considered 
by many engineers and its feasibility 
has been shown, at least theoretically. 
A proportion of 50 per cent by volume 
between material and water can be 
maintained. At 10 ft. per second, which 
is not excessive, a 14-in. pipe would 
carry over 7,000,000 tons of coal per 
year, and this delivery is independent 
of the length of the pipe. He said that 
at the present time it is estimated that 
the cost of delivering a ton of coal, 
including fixed charges from Scranton, 
Pa., to the New Jersey side of the Hud- 
son would probably not exceed 50 cents 
a ton, to which would have to be added 
the ordinary charges for lighterage and 
handling in the Port of New York. 
Mr. Lieb also touched upon the work- 
ing out of super-power systems as tend- 
ing to solve the problem. 

Mr. Lieb concluded his address by an 
appeal for the necessity of state regula- 
tion. Referring to the great possibil- 
ities which the utilities offer in conserv- 
ing coal and simplifying its distribution, 
he said that it will be impossible for 
them to develop or give good service 
to the public if subjected to the harass- 
ing interferences of all of the munic- 
ipal or minor political establishments 
through which they may extend and in 
which they operate. Nor will such a 
consummation as the public desires and 
the companies wish to provide be pos- 
sible unless state-wide regulation of a 
broad and equitable character is main- 
tained and the laws and rulings govern- 
ing the utilities are of a helpful and 
stable character and such as to attract 
the large quotas of capital which it is 
necessary to obtain each year to pro- 
vide for the rapid extension of the pub- 
lic utilities in order that they may serve 
the public adequately, efficiently and 

Association in Maryland 

THE Maryland Utilities Association 
is the latest utility organization, 
the initial meeting having been held at 
the Engineers' Club in Baltimore on 
Feb. 20 and 21. The morning of Feb. 
20 was devoted to a general meeting, 
and in the afternoon the association 
divided into three sections : Electric, gas 
and water. On Thursday evening there 
was a banquet at which the speakers 
were Governor Ritchie of Maryland, 
W. R. Voorhis, vice-president American 
Water Works & Electric Company and 
Senator Orlando Harrison. On the 
morning of Feb. 21 there were also sec- 
tion meetings with papers and ad- 
dresses. More than 170 delegates were 

The officers of the new organization 
are as follows: President, Hon. Emory 
L. Coblentz, Frederick; vice-president, 
Charles 0. Culver, Salisbury; secretary 
and treasurer, H. T. Connolly, An- 
napolis. The board of directors con- 
sists of six members as follows: Joseph 
W. Lynch, Hagerstown; Luther D. 
Shank, Centreville; A. N. Tawes, Cris- 
field; T. E. Bullock, Baltimore; George 
W. Woolford, Cambridge, and Louis H. 
Palmer, Baltimore. 

Mr. Coblentz, the new president, is 
chairman of the board of directors of 
the Potomac Public Service Company. 

C.E.R. Accountants Meet at Lima 

FOUR excellent papers were pre- 
sented at the forty-fourth meeting 
of the Central Electric Railway Ac- 
countants' Association, held in Lima, 
Ohio, Feb. 23 and 24. The authors 
were Robert R. Peery and J. B. Mahan, 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Company; A. R. Baxter, In- 
dianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Com- 
pany, and A. W. Heath, Chicago, South 
Bend & Northern Indiana Railway. Ab- 
stracts of these papers will be published 
in a later issue. 

The following officers were elected 
for the coming year: President, Karl A. 
George, auditor Northern Indiana Power 
Company, Kokomo, Ind.; first vice- 
president, L. W. Van Bibber, auditor 
Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Traction 
Company, Springfield, Ohio; second 
vice-president, J. P. Longon, auditor 
Cincinnati & Dayton Traction Company, 
Dayton, Ohio; secretary-treasurer, L. E. 
Earlywine, Traction Terminal Building, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

The executive committee elected com- 
prises: H. P. McColgin, auditor passen- 
ger receipts Interstate Public Service 
Company, Indianapolis, Ind.; John Cum- 
mings, auditor Wheeling (W. Va.) Trac- 
tion Company; Tudor W. Jones, auditor 
Union Traction Company of Indiana, 
Anderson, Ind.; H. 0. Weimer, auditor 
Winona Interurban Railway, Warsaw, 

It was decided to hold the midsummer 
meeting at Cincinnati, Ohio, July 27 and 
28. There will be a one-day session in 
Cincinnati and the association will make 
a trip by river packet from Cincinnati 
to Louisville, Ky., and from Louisville 
to Indianapolis by the Interstate Public 
Service Company's line. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

Wisconsin Utilities Association 

THE Wisconsin Utilities Association, 
which includes the gas, electric and 
street railway companies, will hold its 
annual meeting on March 22 and 23 at 
the Hotel Pfister, Milwaukee. The Wis- 
consin State Telephone Association will 
hold its sessions at the Wisconsin Ho- 
tel, March 21, 22 and 23. A joint ses- 
sion of both associations will be con- 
ducted at the Pfister on the morning 
of March 23. It is expected that nearly 
1,000 utility men will be present. 

The program for the joint session 
■will include reports from J. P. Pul- 
liam, Milwaukee, president of the Wis- 
consin Utilities Association; Arthur 
Taylor, Rhinelander, president of the 
Telephone Association; John A. Pratt, 
Madison, secretary; Bruno Rahn, Mil- 
waukee, chairman gas section; C. R. 
Phenicie, Green Bay, chairman electric 
section; B. W. Arnold, Oshkosh, chair- 
man electric railway section; A. E. 
Gerg, Fond du Lac, sales section; and 
C. E. Kohlhepp, Milwaukee, accounting 

James P. Barnes, Louisville, Ky., 
and John B. Malig, New Haven, Ind., 
will make the principal addresses. 
Group luncheons of executives, engi- 

neers, accountants, superintendents, 
advertising and sales men will be held 
at noon. Several other speakers whose 
acceptances have not as yet been re- 
ceived will be on the general session 

Chairman B. W. Arnold announced 
the following program for the electric 
railway section: 

"Education of Electric Railway Em- 
ployees," by Edward J. Blair, Chicago. 
"Pneumatic Operation of Car Doors 
and Steps," by Oscar Broten, Chicago. 

"Maintenance Problems of Track and 
Overhead," by Albert A. Oldfield, Osh- 

"Automobile Street Car Collision Sta- 
tistics," by R. M. Howard, La Crosse. 

"Selling Transportation," by F. W. 
Shapport, Chicago. 

"Business Ethics," by Oscar Stotzer, 

The papers will be discussed by Dud- 
ley Montgomery, Madison; C. E. War- 
wick, Green Bay; Nels Rasmussen, 
Wausau; Clyde Hedges, La Crosse; 
John St. John, Cedarburg; A. J. Goed- 
jen, Menominee; C. C. Shockley and 
J. A. Phelan, Rockford; Joe Jessart, 
Green Bay; H. G. Menger and J. H. 
Lucas. Milwaukee. 

r American Association News 1 

Heavy Traction 

THE Engineering Association com- 
mittee on heavy traction met in 
New York City on Feb. 20, to review 
the progress made to date on the sev- 
eral assignments. The committee 
learned with satisfaction that the Amer- 
ican Association executive committee 
had made an appropriation to provide 
for a careful revision of the commit- 
tee's bibliography on heavy traction. 

This work will be assigned to an expert 
on indexing, and the committee will 
supplement his work by bringing the 
bibliography up to date. The commit- 
tee feels that this is one of the most 
important pieces of work to which it 
can address itself, as a reliable and per- 
manent index to important articles in 
the field will form the basis for research 
in this subject and will reflect credit on 
the association. 
The committee devoted particular at- 

On the Steps of the Executive Offices of 
the White House 

The party of electric railway men at 
the White House who were received by 
President Harding at the time of the 
Midyear Conference of the American 
Electric Railway Association in Wash- 

ington, Feb. 16. The news of this and 
the names of the men were published 
in the Feb. 17 issue of ELECTRIC Rail- 
way Journal, which contained the full 
report of the meeting. 

American Electric Rail- 
way Association 

It has been decided that the 1923 
convention of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Association shall be 
held at 

Atlantic City 

during the week commencing 

October 8 

and that there shall be an exhibit 
of the apparatus and equipment 
available for use of the electric 

tention to self-propelled vehicles, which 
was the subject of a comprehensive re- 
port by the 1912 committee. In view 
of the renewed interest in self-pro- 
pelled rail cars the committee will bring 
the data of the earlier report up to 
date by sending out a comprehensive 
questionnaire to all known operators of 
these vehicles. The list will be com- 
piled with the co-operation of manufac- 
turers, an extended list of which has 
been compiled. The questionnaire will 
be complete enough to permit a study of 
the operating conditions of the rail-car 
lines, as well as the details of the 
vehicles. The investigation will cover 
steam, oil, gasoline and electric motive 

At the meeting progress was re- 
ported regarding the compilation of 
data on American and foreign electric 
locomotive development, and on the 
digesting of the results of the work 
which the committee has performed 
during recent years. 

The meeting of the committee was 
attended by Sidney Withington, New 
Haven, Conn., chairman; J. M. Bosen- 
bury, H. W. Coen, J. C. Davidson, and 
J. V. B. Duer, Norman Litchfield and 
L. S. Wells. 

Committee on Welded Rail Joints 

SUPPLEMENTING the report of the 
meeting of the committee on welded 
rail joints and of the executive com- 
mittee, given in last week's issue of 
this paper, the following additional in- 
formation will be of interest to electric 
railway men: 

At the meeting there was consider- 
able discussion as to the way in which 
the joints which are to be submitted 
for tests should be made up. It was 
decided that joints for straight track 
should be made under service condi- 
ditions wherever possible, and in cases 
where this is not possible a detailed 
description of the actual condition is to 
be furnished to the committee. The 
test joints are to be made early this 

The tensile and conductivity tests are 
to be made at the United States Bureau 
of Standards in Washington, the drop 
tests at the University of Illinois, Ur- 
bana, and the bending tests at Purdue 
University, Lafayette, Ind. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


r Maintenance of Equipment 1 

Oeaning Armature Coils 
by Boiling 

THE problem of cleaning used 
armature coils has been one that 
has puzzled most armature-room 
foremen and master mechanics. 
Aside from the time and labor re- 
quired by the scraping method, the 
danger of damaging the coil through 
the use or misuse of a sharp tool 
also arises. With the old method, 
two men, usually helpers, would strip 
what mica was possible from the bars 
and then scrape the remainder off 
with putty knives or special chisels. 
In a new process, as used at the 
shop of the Metropolitan West Side 
Elevated Railway, the coils are 
stripped as before. They are then 
placed in a boiling vat heated by 
steam. A solution of "Okite" and 
water, 5 lb. of Okite to 10 gal. of 
■water, is used as the cleaning agent. 
Boiling for five hours, wiping with 
a soft cloth and drying in an oven is 
all that is necessary. No damage is 
done to the coils and much labor is 
saved. This process has been used 
on commutator segments with equal 
success and a corresponding saving 
in labor. From information obtain- 
able, labor time required for hand 
scraping a set of coils is forty-eight 
man-hours, that is, two men working 
three days, while that required for 
the boiling process is one and one- 
half man-hours. . The one and one- 
half hours for one man represents 
labor time required to strip coils, 
handling to and from boiler, wiping, 
handling to and from oven, and pre- 
paring for tape machine. This 
means a total of six and one-half 
hours from start to finish of process 
compared with three days for two 
men in the old process. It has been 
found that coils and bars subject to 
this process take tinning more read- 
ily than scraped ones. 

pressor motors are used in connec- 
tion with the forge. One of these 
drives a fan which furnishes the 
draft for the fire and the other drives 
the fan which draws off the smoke 
through the hood. The two motors 
are controlled through a single 
switch, so that both drafts are al- 
ways furnished simultaneously and 
there is only one operation to bother 
about. The blacksmith has his sup- 
ply of coal in a bin out of doors, with 
an opening through the wall handy 
to the forge. This opening is closed 
with a slide. 

Old Compressor Motors 

IN THE maintenance shops of 
the Eastern Massachusetts Street 
Railway in Fall River the corner 
occupied by the blacksmith contains 
several interesting stunts. One is 
the way in which two retired com- 

Board Shows the Location 
of Cars 

THE accompanying illustration 
shows a type of board that is 
mounted on the wall of the master 
mechanic's oflSce for the New York 
& Harlem Railroad. This is adjacent 
to the master mechanic's desk and in- 




i •♦•%F 

, ' '■ 

Board SIiowh Location of Kiilliiiff Stock 

dicates the location of all cars under 
his supervision. The board is divided 
so as to indicate the various shops, 
and the cars are indicated by 1-in. 
diameter fiber tags which have the 
car number stamped on them. These 
have a small hole so that they can be 
hooked over small hooks on the 
board. These tags are also used to 
show other information than the car 
numbers. Thus, the painting of the 
cars is indicated by changing the 
color of the tags as the cars are re- 
painted, and where cars are renum- 
bered the old number is placed on one 
side of the tag and the new number 
on the other. Space on the board is 
provided so that service cars are kept 

separate from passenger cars. The 
board has glass doors and when 
mounted on the wall presents an 
attractive appearance. It is a great 
convenience for keeping track of the 
location of cars. 

Roller-Link Chain Found 
Economical on Conveyor 

MORE than seventeen years ago 
the Market Street Railway, San 
Francisco, opened a rock quarry at 
Daly City, one of the outlying dis- 
tricts reached by the system, where 
rock has been quarried and crushed 
ever since for the ballasting and pav- 
ing done by this company. As first 
installed, the 120-ft. continuous 
bucket elevator used in elevating 
rock from the crusher pit to the top 
of the bunkers was operated on a 
malleable iron chain. The heavy duty 
proved too much for this type of 
chain and the plant was subject to 
frequent shut-downs while the chain 
was being repaired. 

When breaks occurred at the top 
the elevator was precipitated into the 
pit below, and in the absence of 
facilities for overhead tackle the only 
means of reassembly was to take it 
apart into five-bucket sections, which 
one man could carry up the ladder. 
By this slow process the elevator 
was again assembled from the top 

In 1906 the original chain was re- 
placed with a steel double-link chain 
in which each unit consists of two 
links with the shaft or pin encircled 
by a bushing and a roller, known as 
a steel-thimble, roller chain. This 
type of chain has been in practically 
continuous service for sixteen years, 
and though the first cost was com- 
paratively high, the advantage of 
avoiding delays due to breakage and 
the low maintenance cost have made 
this type of chain highly economical 
in the long run. 

The manufacturer has long since 
discontinued making this particular 
size of chain, but replacements are 
readily made up in the shop of ft x 
IJ-in. links, punched cold from strap- 
iron. Special pins are used with 
bushings and rollers cut from cold 
rolled tubing of two sizes. Links are 
made up as needed so as to keep a 
supply always on hand. 


ELECTRIC Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

Straightening Bent 
Armature Shafts 

THE armature shafts of railway 
motors sometimes become bent 
due to the breaking of pinions or to 
some abnormal condition. The ac- 
companying illustration shows a 
rigging used by the Eighth Avenue 
Railroad, New York, N. Y., for 
straightening its armature shafts. 
The armature is first placed in the 
lathe centers and is chalked to in- 
dicate the place where the shaft is 
sprung. The rigging used for 
straightening is then attached with 
the armature still remaining in the 

The equipment used for the 
straightening consists of a 60-lb. 
plain girder rail which extends 
lengthwise of the armature. Over 
the ends of this are placed two stir- 
rups which pass around the end of 
the armature shaft. A clamping 
support is fastened to the middle of 
the plain girder rail so that the 
entire equipment can be suspended 
from a chain hoist. When the rig- 
ging has been brought up tight so 
as to take out all slack at the 
stirrups and to remove any strain 
from the lathe centers a screw jack 
with right and left hand threads is 
used for the straightening. A col- 
lar is placed over the armature shaft 
on the pinion seat or taper so that 
the stirrup will not slip. The jack 
is placed between the point where 
the shaft is bent and the girder rail. 
The jack used by the Eighth Avenue 

Railroad has twelve threads to the 
inch, and sufficient pressure to 
straighten the worst cases can be ob- 
tained by using a rod approximately 
3 ft. long for the turning of the jack. 
As the most severe strains come at 
the pinion end of the armature shaft, 
this end is the one which is usually 

Spot- Welded Fastenings Im- 
prove Wheelbarrow Design 

REPAIR of wheelbarrows in the 
shops of the Market Street Rail- 
way, San Francisco, drew attention 
to the fact that frequent breaks were 
due to a weak spot in the 1-in. 
wrought iron pipe frame where holes 
are drilled for the bolts that hold the 
frame together. In making renewals 
pipe of extra heavy thickness is used 
and instead of drilling holes for bolts 
at the weak point a collar is there 
spot-welded onto the pipe. Thus, by 
eliminating four bolt holes, the re- 
sultant construction is considerably 
stronger and more serviceable than 
equipment purchased new. 

On the wheelbarrow shown in the 
accompanying illustration only the 
pan and the wheel were bought for 
the purpose, all the other parts being 
made up from material previously 
made up from material salvaged 
from obsolete or worn out equipment. 

Work of this sort would be eco- 
nomical only during slack time and 
with comparatively low-cost labor. 
However, it is pointed out that when 
men have been in the mechanical de- 

StralKhtentnr an Armature Shaft of a Railway Motor 

Wlirelbarron- P'rainework Constmcted In 
Kalln-ay Shop 

partment long enough to earn a pen- 
sion, minor work of this character 
fits the case very well and becomes 
profitable for both employer and 

Making Thermit Compro- 
mise Welds 

THERMIT compromise rail welds 
can be made in the track or in 
the shop. Where large quantities 
are desired of the same style, it pays 
to obtain special patterns and mold 
boxes in order to facilitate the mak- 
ing of the weld. Where, however, 
only a few are required or where 
various combinations are required a 
wax pattern can be applied directly 
to the rail and the mold rammed 
against it. The wax pattern should 
conform as closely as possible in 
shape to the aluminum pattern or- 
dinarily supplied for rail welding and 
is easily shaped by hand. 

A very simple and efficient way of 
making a wax pattern is to melt the 
wax in a suitable pan to a liquid 
stage, 1 in. thick. This is allowed 
to cool until the top surface has be- 
come solid. The lower part will still 
be plastic. This is cut into strips 2 
in. vdde and is applied around the 
rail ends. 

The wax will be sufficiently soft to 
be easily manipulated by hand to the 
desired shape and thickness for the 
weld. It is advisable to imbed a cord 
about J in. thick in the wax, leading 
from the riser to the heating gate. 
This cord can be pulled out, leaving 
a vent hole, which greatly facilitates 
the melting of the wax during the 
preheating. A regular sand mold can 
then be rammed around the wax pat- 
tern, using wooden patterns for pour- 
ing gate, riser and heating gate. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


The preheating melts out the wax 
and leaves the mold ready to receive 
the Thermit steel as soon as the 
rails are red hot. The rest of the 
operation is the same as in the case 
of the regular rail weld. 

The quantity of Thermit required 
can be calculated from the weight of 
the wax used in the pattern. It is 
best to weigh the wax before start- 
ing and weigh what is left over, the 
difference being the amount in the 
pattern itself. Allow 20 lb. of Ther- 
mit rail welding mixture to each 
pound of wax. 

Large Assortment of Self- 
Centering Chucks 

THE accompanying illustration 
shows a rack with eleven self- 
centering chucks for holding arma- 
ture bearings while they are being 

A Ruck with A'nriouN-Slzed ChuckH 

Ih Located t'onveiiiently 

to the Liatlie 

machined. These are used in the 
shops of the United Railwaj's of St. 
Louis, where equipment for about 
125 cars is maintained. The rack 
is adjacent to the lathe used for turn- 
ing armature bearings and the type 
of chuck used is the same as de- 
scribed in the Electric Railway 
Journal for Jan. 20, 1923, page 129. 

Improved Mechanical Soot 

IT IS common practice to overload 
boilers continuously and force 
them over high peaks during emer- 
gencies. Because of this they must 
not only be provided with sufficient 
combustion space but the boiler tubes 
must be kept clean. Since the fur- 
nace temperature ranges all the way 
from 2,000 to 2,800 deg. F. it is plain 
that the problem of developing a soot 
blower element that will stand up 
under this high temperature is 

Most of the steam is generated in 


that portion of the boiler where heat 
is most intense, directly "in sight 
of" the fire. It is absolutely neces- 
sary that the tubes in this portion 
be kept free from soot. To keep 
these tubes clean one or more soot- 
blower elements must be placed close 
enough to reach and thoroughly 
clean them all. This means that 
these elements must be able to resist 
unusually high temperatures. The 
Bayer Company, St. Louis, Mo., has 
developed a revolving soot-blower 
element that overcomes the tempera- 
ture difficulty by use of monel metal 
and has other valuable features. 
The interior steam element is 

Likewise, the outer monel-metal sec- 
tional air tube is kept at a compara- 
tively low temperature by the cooling 
effect of the circulating air passing 
through and within it. 

Recently it was pointed out by the 
manufacturers of monel metal that 
there are eight widely used commer- 
cial metals : Copper, zinc, aluminum, 
iron, steel, lead, bronze and monel 
metal. Of these metals, acid destroys 
copper, zinc and aluminum; oxygen 
corrodes iron and steel; heat weak- 
ens lead. Monel metal resists all of 
these destructive forces, resists 
nearly all acids as well as oxidation 
and is able to resist hot sulphurous 
gases in the combustion chamber. 

For these reasons, a sectional 
monel-metal protecting tube called 
an "air tube" and monel-metal 
nozzles are used on this new blower. 
The danger of oxidation of the air 
tube is thus eliminated and the noz- 
zles will not corrode, nor will they 
wear away because of wire drawing. 
To take care of expansion, ample 
space is provided for each nozzle 
where it projects through the outer 
tube. The outer tube, also, is joined 
together by means of expansion 
sleeves to allow for expansion and 

An additional feature of the Bayer 
blower is the valve-in-head construc- 
tion. By placing the valve in the 
head time is saved for the operator 
and it automatically opens and closes 
at the proper points with the rotat- 
ing of the element. 

A cap at the bottom of the blower 
head gives access to the valve mech- 
anism. This cap is easily removed 
and replaced. The two stuffing 
boxes in the blower can be readily 
packed without disturbing any 
other part and the valve is so located 
in the blower head that steam con- 
densation cannot accumulate above 
the valve. 








locked in a central position within 
the outer or sectional monel-metal 
air tube so that both the interior 
steam element and the outer sec- 
tional air tube revolve as one element. 
The inner steam element is kept free 
from the high furnace temperatures 
by a liberal circulating air space. 

The elements can be rotated in 
either direction, which is an exclu- 
sive feature and another advantage. 
The steam jets are blown within a 
predetermined arc, making it impos- 
sible to blow except where necessary. 

The entire head is free to expand 
or contract with change in tempera- 
ture and with the expansion and con- 
traction of the boiler walls or the 
pipe lines. Working parts are pro- 
tected from the grit and dust of the 
boiler room by the head casing. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

(^ TheNews of the Industry J 

New Plan Submitted 

International Railway Head Proposes 

Contract Providing for Operation 

Under Service-at-Cost 

Herbert G. Tulley, president of the 
International Railway, Buffalo, N. Y., 
has submitted to Mayor Frank X. 
Schwab and members of the City Coun- 
cil an outline of a proposed city-com- 
pany contract providing for a service- 
at-cost system on the Buffalo lines of 
the International. The plan would re- 
establish the basic 5-cent fare with free 
transfers, but the fare would be based 
upon a sliding scale, dependent upon re- 
ceipts, with a 7-cent fare and a 1-cent 
transfer as the maximum rate. 

Administration of the city-company 
contract would be under the direction 
of a transit commissioner to be ap- 
pointed by the Mayor, the salary and 
expenses of the office to be paid by the 
traction company. The plan of Presi- 
dent Tulley provides that the rate of 
fare would be governed by the status 
of a proposed fare regulation fund simi- 
lar to the Cleveland plan. The fund 
would be $500,000. When the fund 
reaches $750,000 fares would be re- 
duced, but to no lower than 5 cents, and 
when the fund drops to $250,000, the 
rate of fare would go up, but to no 
higher than 7 cents with a 1-cent trans- 

Nine per Cent Return Asked 

The standard rate of return to the 
International under the proposed con- 
tract would be 9 per cent per annum. 
The valuation of the company would be 
determined with cost of additions and 
betterments added. All extensions 
would be built with city money, the 
company to pay the city the interest 
and sinking fund charges. There would 
be no special franchise tax and no 
charge for snow removal or paving to 
be paid by the company. It is esti- 
mated this saving to the company 
from the elimination of these charges 
would be more than $1,000,000 a year. 

No part of the company's interurban 
revenues and no part of the interurban 
expenses for wages of crews or main- 
tenance of equipment would be included 
under the contract. All accounts would 
be kept as specified by the Public Serv- 
ice Commission and the surplus to be 
credited to the proposed fare regulation 
fund. All deficits would be made good 
from the fare regulation fund. Any 
disagreement between the city and com- 
pany under the contract would be ad- 
justed by a board of arbitrators, one 
member appointed by the city and one 
by the company, these two choosing the 
third, and the expenses of such a board 
would be divided between the city and 

Members of the City Council with 

the exception of Frank C. Perkins, 
Commissioner of Public Affairs and the 
Socialist member of the board, have re- 
fused to comment upon the plan until 
they have made a careful examination 
of all phases of the situation. Mr. Per- 
kins, however, says that by not charg- 
ing the company any paving costs, 
snow removal expenses and franchise 
tax, the International would have the 
best of the bargain. 

Buffalo newspapers are divided in 
commenting editorially upon the plan. 
The Commercial says the plan is too 
much like the cost-plus plan in effect 
during the war, while other newspapers 
believe that much is to be gained by the 
city under such a contract. 

Trainmen's Wages Increased 
in Milwaukee 

An increase of 5 cents an hour in the 
wages of all trainmen employed by the 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Company since May 1, 1921, went into 
effect on Jan. 1, 1923. The men em- 
ployed since May 1, 1921, will now 
receive the following wages: 


Conductors Cents 

First year <5 

Second year 47 

Third year 49 

B^ourth year and thereafter 51 

Motormen Cents 

First year 50 

Second year 52 

Third year .' 54 

Fourth year and thereafter 56 

All men will now receive time and a 
half for more than ten hours work. 

The city trainmen, both conductors 
and motormen, who were in the employ 
of the company prior to May 1, 1921, 
continue to receive their former rate of 
wages which is 50 cents during the first 
year, 53 cents during the second year 
and 56 cents during the third year and 
thereafter. The majority of these men 
have been receiving 56 cents an hour 
and now are receiving that rate. The 
interurban men receive 2 cents an hour 
additional over city rates and the one- 
man car operators and city bus opera- 
tors receive 5 cents an hour additional. 
In addition all men receive a bonus 
which varies according to the revenue, 
freedom from accidents, amount of 
power saving and a number of other 

The scales previously mentioned were 
fixed after negotiations between the 
company and committee of employees 
selected by secret ballot representing 
the transportation employees of the 
Employees' Mutual Benefit Association 
of the company. These negotiations are 
conducted semi-annually, thus permit- 
ting of frequent adjustments of wages 
and working conditions to meet in- 
creases or decreases in cost of living. 

Plans Unification 

Railroad Commission Wants Survey of 

Los Angeles Railway Systems to 

Eliminate Traffic Congestion 

The California State Railroad Com- 
mission recently made an official request 
to the City Council of Los Angeles 
asking the municipal authorities to ad- 
vise the commission of its desire to take 
part in the preliminary work looking 
toward a survey of the lines of the 
Los Angeles Railway and the Pacific 
Electric Railway under the contemplated 
plan for the unification of the two prop- 
erties. The same communication was 
also sent by the commission to both 
railway companies setting forth the 
purpose of the proposed survey. 

In the commission's activities during 
the past three years in its service sur- 
veys of the railway transportation prob- 
lem for the city of Los Angeles it devel- 
oped several months ago that the com- 
mission offered a suggested plan of the 
unification of the two railways. 

Unified Operation Suggested 

When a survey of these two lines has 
been completed and a valuation of the 
properties fixed it is expected that the 
commission will finally recommend one 
of three plans: 

That the Pacific Electric Railway pur- 
chase the Los Angeles Railway lines 
that actually serve as "feeders" to the 
Pacific Electric Railway company's sys- 
tem of local lines in the Hollywood 
district of Los Angeles; that the Los 
Angeles Railway acquire the Hollywood 
lines of the Pacific Electric, or that 
the city of Los Angeles purchase the 
Hollywood lines of both companies. 

The unified operation of the two rail- 
ways in Los Angeles is suggested by 
the commission for the purpose of re- 
lieving the present traffic congestion. 

The surveys of the two systems to be 
conducted by the commission's engineers 
are under agreement with the railways 
and in co-operation with the Board of 
Public Utilties. The proposed surveys 
by the commission are to be at the 
expense of the railways. The commis- 
sion intends to hold a conference for 
the purpose of discussing these issues 
just as soon as an agreement of all 
concerned to the proposed study and 
survey is received by the commission. 

On Feb. 10 the Board of Public Util- 
ities held a hearing on the matter of 
transportation conditions in the Holly- 
wood district and various associations 
from Hollywood petitioned the board 
to take the necessary action to better 
the service. Demands were made for 
extension of the Los Angeles Railway 
lines into the Hollywood district. The 
question was again reviewed as to who 
had the power to order these lines 
extended, as it had been previously con- 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


tended that only the railroad commis- 
sion had such power and not the Los 
Angeles Board of Public Utilities. It 
was also urged upon the board that 
prompt action be taken to obtain trans- 
fers between the cars of the two rail- 

Home Rule Talk Again 

In the matter of fares charged, as 
discussed at the hearing before the 
board, Commissioner Kennedy of ths 
board stated that it was the plan in the 
near future to circulate petitions with 
a view to taking out of the hands of the 
commission the power of fixing the rates 
of fare as charged on the local lines in 
Los Angeles. The city held this power 
at one time, but some years ago voted 
at an election an amendment to its 
charter placing such responsibilities and 
powers with the commission. Com- 
missioner Kennedy stated that when 
this power is returned to the city the 
Board of Public Utilities would see that 
there is no discrimination in the fares. 

The City Council plans to take imme- 
diate action regarding the survey of 
transportation, having referred the invi- 
tation of the commission on this matter 
to the Board of Public Utilities. 

At various of the recent motor bus 
hearings and hearings on the trans- 
portation conditions in Los Angeles it 
was brought out by the board that the 
matter of unifying the two railway 
properties could not be taken under 
advisement until the proposed survey 
of the properties had been concluded 
by the Railroad Commission. 

Company Will Take Further 

Decision of the United States Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals in San Fran- 
cisco recently denying a rehearing of 
the Puget Sound Light & Power Com- 
pany's so-called specific performance 
suit against the city of Seattle will be 
opposed by the company in one more 
action. The suit was to compel the 
city to pay the bonded indebtedness of 
its car line — and interest — on the bonds 
from the general funds of the city 
if necessary rather than from the 

J. B. Howe, attorney for Stone & 
Webster interests, states the company 
will sue for a writ of certiorari in the 
United States Supreme Court within 
the next three months. If the writ is 
granted the case will again come up for 

The original action by the power 
company was brought in the United 
States District Court. Judge E. E. 
Cushman of that court held for the 
plaintiff that the city be required to 
meet the bonded indebtedness on its 
car lines from a special fund main- 
tained for that purpose, even at the 
expense of the city's general fund. The 
city appealed to the United States Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals and the ruling of 
Judge Cushman was reversed. The 
company then appealed for a rehear- 
ing. This has now been denied in the 
San Francisco court. 

Governor's Measure 

Right Would Be Conferred on Cities to 

Regulate Utilities in Their 


Governor Smith's own feature bill, 
which is supposed to embody a solu- 
tion of the home rule reg:ulation of 
public utilities in New York and afford 
a panacea for all local civic ills, is 
embodied in a measure introduced in the 
New York State Legislature on Feb. 
27. This measure has been drawn in 
accordance with recommendations con- 
tained in the Governor's initial message 
to the Legislature and confers almost 
mandatory jurisdiction upon all cities 
of the State to regulate their own pub- 
lic utilities — mandatory that they 
assume such responsibility of juris- 
diction, unless by a resolution of its 
governing board, approved by the 
Mayor, such city elect to have the 
public utilities in the city regulated by 
the State Public Service Commission. 

The newly created bodies are to be 
called "city public utilities commis- 
sions." Christened with this official 
title, their term of office and compen- 
sation are left to the judgment of 
the governing board of each city, which 
may, if it see fit, require an existing 
body or officer within such city, not 
necessarily an appropriate body or 
officer, to act as such a city utilities 

This is the bill which has been under 
discussion for the past two weeks and 
has been all ready for introduction a 
couple of times, but each time has been 
withdrawn for repairs, once at the 
suggestion of corporation counsels from 
the up-state cities. Now it is in such 
shape as to be satisfactory to the larger 
up-state cities, especially Buffalo and 

Municipal Ownership Provision 

The notable feature of the bill is it 
allows local regulation of all of that 
portion of a utility lying wholly within 
a city, except that the power is reserved 
to the State Public Service Commission 
of establishing and enforcing through 
rates or charges for services rendered 
whether alone or in conjunction with 
any other corporation by any utility 
not wholly within a city; to prescribe 
a uniform system of accounts; to re- 
quire the filing of schedules and tariffs; 
or to approve the issuance of stocks or 
bonds by all public utilities. 

As the Democrats see the bill through 
their political spectacles absolute 
authority is conferred by the measure 
upon each city to regulate each and 
every public utility to the extent that 
the utilities operate within the boun- 
daries of such city. A statement made 
by the proponents of the bill says : 

The measure gives to cities in tiie broad- 
est possible sense optional home rule of 
public utilities, but provides If the govern- 
ing board of a city does not wish to func- 
tion under the law, or wishes to regulate one 
or more, but not all utilities within such a 
city, it may pass a resolution with the ap- 
proval of the mayor, specifying just the 

kind of utilities it elects not to regulate, if 
any, and whatever utilities it elects not to 
regulate, the state commission will regulate 
as now provided. A city may change the 
regulatory jurisdiction of the utilities oper- 
ated within its boundaries at any time, 
either from state to city or from city to 

Tliese are the salient provisions of the 
bill. Other provisions provide the machin- 
ery for the transfer of jurisdiction, records 
and documents from the state to city com- 
missions and their return to the state com- 
mission in the event that jurisdiction over 
a utility ceases to rest with the city utili- 
ties commission. 

The city functioning under the provi- 
sions of the proT>osed law is not obliged to 
set up an expensive additional governmental 
machine, but the governing board of such 
city may authorize any established agency 
of government therein, such as the corpora- 
tion counsel, to exercise such prerogatives, 
or it may itself assume to perform the work 
of carrying out the provisions of the law. 

In the city of New York, the city public 
utilities commission does not have control 
over transit facilities or systems as In such 
city a special bill takes care of that sub- 
ject. In all other cities the city public 
utilities commission has jurisdiction over 
service, rate- of fare, facilities and every- 
thing m connection with the operation of 
that part of a public utility corporation 
within the limits of such a city, not specifi- 
cally exempted and reserved to the state 
public service commission. 

The public service committee of the 
Senate of the New York State Legis- 
lature will hold a hearing on the fol- 
lowing administration public service 
commission bills on March 14: Senate 
Print No. 688, the New York City 
Transit bill by Mr. Walker; Senate 
Print No. 833 by Mr. Twomey, amend- 
ing General City Law, permitting 
municipal ownership of public utilities; 
Senate Print No. 834 by Mr. Twomey, 
reorganizing public service commission 
and divesting it of certain present 
powers; Senate Print No. 835 by Mr. 
Twomey, amending Public Service 
Commission Law, generally. 

Messrs. Emmons and McCarter 
to Lecture at Princeton 

President C. D. Emmons and Past- 
President Thomas N. McCarter of the 
American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion have been appointed joint lec- 
turers on "America's Electric Rail- 
ways," under the Cyrus Fogg Brackett 
Foundation in Applied Engineering 
Technology at Princeton University 
during the college year 1923-1924. They 
will speak on the broad phases of the 
electric railway industry, with some 
reference also to the opportunities in 
this industry for the university trained 
men. This year's program of the lec- 
ture committee includes leaders in pub- 
lic utilities and engineering. The 
lecturers will include, besides Mr. Em- 
mons and Mr. McCarter, D. D. Barnum, 
past-president of the American Gas As- 
sociation; Alexander S. Lyman, general 
attorney, New York Central Railroad; 
J. J. Carty of the New York Telephone 
Company; Henry I. Harriraan, August 
Belmont, Ralph Modjeska and C. E. 

The date for the joint lecture on 
"America's Electric Railways" has been 
set for Jan. 8, 1924, at Princeton. The 
committee invites the American elec- 
tric railway industry to contribute to 
Princeton such exhibits relating to the 
industry as the association, through its 
member companies, may care to have 
prepared and to present. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

Will Consider Subway 
for Philadelphia 

Mayor Appoints Committee of Three — 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit 

Suggests Plan 

On Feb. 24 Mayor Moore of Phila- 
delphia appointed an advisory commit- 
tee of three engineers to study the 
various rapid transit plans that have 
been proposed for the city and report 
on the routes which, in their opinion, 
■will best answer the present needs of 
the city and take care of future growth. 
A report is requested by April 15. The 
instructions of the Mayor say, in part: 

You will proceed immediately to an ex- 
amination and survey of the plans of the 
Broad Street subway, delivery loop and 
other authorized high-speed lines as here- 
tofore prepared by the Department of City 
Transit, to the end that on or before April 
15, if possible, you will present to me, for 
submission to Council and the people, a re- 
port that will fully cover a comprehensive 
high-speed system, adequate to the present 

adviser to the city of Philadelphia on its 
municipal gas system. 

Mr. Cooke was director of the Depart- 
ment of PVblic Service of Philadelphia 
in 1915. 

Mr. Stuart was chief engineer of the 
Erie Railroad from 1905 to 1910 and 
chief engineer of the Baltimore & Ohio 
from 1910 to 1915. Since then he has 
acted as consulting engineer on various 
projects, including the Port Develop- 
ment Commission of Baltimore and the 
Port Authority of New York. 

It is realized by all that the increas- 
ing size of Philadelphia and the grow- 
ing congestion on its narrow streets 
make some plan for improved rapid 
transit service necessary. The comple- 
tion of the Frankford Elevated and its 
lease by the city to the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company has given an 
impetus to the development of further 
rapid transit lines. 

For many years a subway under 

adopted, the merits of which have been 
a matter of dispute. The plan of rout- 
ing all traflSc around a loop in the cen- 
ter of the city has been criticised by the 
present Director of the Department of 
City Transit, William S. Twining, who 
proposes "through-routing," as in New 
York City, as a substitute, with a 
change of plan and connections of lines 
to correspond. 

While no arrangements have been en- 
tered into with the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company for the operation of 
the proposed city-built high-speed 
system, that company is, of course, the 
logical operator, and for that reason 
its engineers have given a great deal 
of consideration to the development of 
practicable plans. Some of the com- 
pany's recommendations appear in full- 
page advertisements inserted in all the 
Philadelphia papers of Feb. 26 and 
called in these announcements the "city- 
ccmpany" plan. The partial plan shown 

'roposed Subwajr Routes In Center of City Considered In P. K. T. AdvertiKrineiit 

and future needs of the city, including any 
revision or modification thereof, or addition 
thereto that may be desirable. 

In the course of your inquiry, and with 
due regard to the necessities of our grow- 
ing population, urban and suburban, I sug- 
gest that you set apart certain days to hear 
citizens, including the representatives of 
transit companies, who may wish to be 
heard with respect to existing plans or re- 
visions or modifications thereof. 

You are advised that the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company has been in con- 
ference with the Department of City 
Transit, in an endeavor to co-operate in 
the event it should become a bidder for 
operation of the lines when completed. You 
will, therefore, I trust, invite such informa- 
tion or suggestions as this company may 
have to offer, reserving, of course, the city's 
rights in the matter of operation should it 
fail to obtain an operating agreement, and 
remembering always that the money spent 
upon construction is public money, and that 
it is being spent primarily for the city's 
welfare and development. 

You are asked to complete your examina- 
tion and survey within the limited time 
mentioned, so that contracts may be let 
and work begun upon new lines at the earli- 
est possible date after sufficient time has 
elapsed for consideration by Council and 
the people. 

The committee is composed of Dr. 
Milo R. Maltbie, Morris Llewellyn Cooke 
and Francis Lee Stuart. 

Dr. Maltbie, chairman of the commis- 
sion, was a member of the Public Serv- 
ice Commission of New York, first dis- 
trict, from 1907 to 1915, and has been 
a consultant and expert on public utili- 
ties since then. He has recently been 

Broad Street has been considered a 
necessary feature of any comprehensive 
rapid transit plan; such a line forming 
a north and south traffic artery cor- 
responding to the present east and 
west rapid transit line on Market 
Street. A Broad Street transit plan was 
brought out in 1913, when A. Merritt 
Taylor was Transit Commissioner and 
recognized the fact that the Broad 
Street line must form the trunk of any 
high-speed system designed adequately 
to serve Philadelphia. In 1915, during 
Mr. Taylor's term of office as Director 
of the Department of City Transit, a 
short section of such a subway was be- 
gun under City Hall at the intersection 
of Market and Broad Streets. Two 
years later, in 1917 and 1918, short 
sections of subways, totaling about 900 
ft. in length, were built under Arch 
and Locust Streets. These latter were 
to have been part of a "downtown loop" 
which Mr. Taylor proposed should form 
an integral part of the Broad Street 
subway. Due to the interference of 
the War Department at Washington, all 
subway work was suspended in 1918 and 
before construction is resumed the 
Transit Commission just appointed is to 
advise the city concerning some tech- 
nical features of the plans heretofore 

therein, and reproduced herewith, covers 
only the center of the city and is based 
on the principle of through routing 
traffic rather than concentrating it upon 
a loop surrounding a part of the busi- 
ness district of the city, similar in type 
to the elevated loop of Chicago. Two 
connections are proposed to the new 
bridge to be constructed over the Dela- 
ware River to Camden and to be finished 
in 1926. The routes recommended out- 
side the center of the city are not in- 
dicated, but presumably are designed to 
fit into rapid transit lines already pro- 
posed or authorized. Some of these 
subway lines obviously can be used at 
the start for surface cars and evidently 
are intended to be so used, with the 
ultimate aim in view of removing all 
car tracks from the surface of some of 
the narrow downtown streets, as has 
been done on Tremont Street and other 
streets in Boston. 

In the advertisement of the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Company already 
mentioned appeared an indorsement of 
that plan by S. M. Swaab, consulting 
engineer to a group of downtown retail 
merchants. City officials have been 
quoted in Philadelphia papers, however, 
as saying that the city was in no way 
officially connected with this plan. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Transit Bill for Detroit 

Provides Increase in Bonding for Rapid 

Transit Purposes — Power Plant 

Project Proposed 

The rapid transit bill introduced in 
the Michigan State Legislature by Rep- 
resentative Culver of Detroit is ex- 
pected to receive rapid action in amend- 
ing the home rule act of 1909 so as to 
permit Detroit to vote a bond for rapid 
transit purposes up to 4 per cent of the 
city's assessed valuation in addition to 
the 10 per cent asked for public utili- 
ties and general public improvements. 
The present limit is 2 per cent for 
public utilities and the increase is 
recommended by the city oflficials to 
legalize the issuance of $5,000,000 bonds 
to be again voted on for street railway 

Real Estate Purchase Contemplated 

The primary object of the bill is 
stated to be that of providing a bonding 
limit for rapid transit apart from bond- 
ing for all other municipal purposes, 
opening the way for the city to finance 
the building of proposed subway dips 
and other projects. 

Another provision of the bill provides 
for raising the present bonding limit 
for public utility purposes and general 
public improvements from 6 per cent to 
10 per cent. When the rate was estab- 
lished the 6 per cent limit did not in- 
clude the street railways as Detroit had 
not at that time acquired the Detroit 
United Railway's system or any part of 
it. The bill, known as the Culver-Wil- 
cox bill, will also open the way for the 
city to sell real estate acquired from 
the Detroit United Railway and not now 
required in connection with the opera- 
tion of the city car lines. This property 
is estimated to be worth between 
$1,000,000 and $1,500,000. 

$4,000,000 FOR New Equipment 

As the city's bonding limit has al- 
ready been practically exhausted, only 
approximately $25,000 being available 
under the 2 per cent bonding limit now 
in effect, the increase is needed to legal- 
ize the proposed $5,000,000 issue and 
also to provide for the city's proposed 
$12,000,000 power plant, an item for 
which has been stricken out of this 
year's budget by acting Mayor Lodge. 
It is cited that the money for the power 
plant is urgently needed because the 
Detroit Edison Company, which fur- 
nishes the street railway department 
power, is now carrying its peak load, 
and the city could not put on any more 
street cars without more power being 
available. It has been necessary to re- 
move the electric heaters from some of 
the cars in order to conserve power. 

Plans have been prepared and the 
city has received bids on approximately 
$4,000,000 worth of equipment for the 
new power plant. The $12,000,000 bond 
issue is proposed for the April election, 
providing the amendment of the home 
rule act paves the way by legalizing 
the issue. 

It is the desire of the Public Lighting 
Commission to progress with the new 

power station so as to be able to fur- Commission Still Controls 

nish service for the operation of street p -i 

cars not later than July 1, 1925, by Kauway 

which date the cost of power service "^^e South Carolina Railroad Com- 

for the operation of the cars under the mission is still supervising the railway 

terms of the contract with the Detroit operations of the South Carolina Gas 

Edison Company will be more than ^ Electric Company at Spartanburg. 

$600,000 greater for the year than is There has been a falling off in traffic 

paid at the present time. The net reve- amounting to 15 per cent in comparison 

nue of the street cars, it is cited, will be with the same average period of 1922. 

reduced in that amount plus the in- This decrease is apparent. y caused by 

creased cost of additional service which 
will be required between the present 
time and July 1, 1925. 

Collision on "L" in Chicago 

On Sunday morning, Feb. 25, at 7:10 
a.m., during the worst fog in years, 
a two-car North Shore Line train ran 
into the rear end of a three-car Evans- 
ton local elevated train, killing one 
passenger and injuring several. The 
Evanston train had made a station 
stop and the signal to start had just 
been passed when the Badger limited 
from Milwaukee ran into it. Service 
had to be suspended for two and one- 
half hours. 

The impact broke down the plat- 
forms between the two rear cars of 
the Evanston local. Two 

increased unrestricted jitney competi- 
tion and the very liberal use of the 
personally-owned automobile in daily 

Some weeks ago the commission took 
over the railway lines after the city 
had been without service for several 
weeks. The difficulty in Spartanburg 
dates back to December of last year 
when the company discontinued car 
service, after failure to come to an 
agreement with the city on the matter 
of bus operation. The owners of the 
line had advanced a plan to substitute 
bus operation in districts where the 
railway lines were unprofitable, but the 
city refused to agree to this. 

City to Make Deihands 

passengers Demands for better service, espe- 
who were standing on these platforms cially to the suburbs recently annexed, 
were caught between the cars. One will be made by the city of Fort Worth 
passenger was killed, the other had of the Northern Texas Traction Corn- 
both legs broken. While first reports pany. This action will be taken by the 
indicated that twenty-five passengers city in lieu of further action seeking 
were hurt, only four were so injured to reduce fares from 7 cents to 5 cents, 
that they required other than first-aid The city lost its fight for reduction 


Blame for the collision was placed 
on the weather condition, as the fog 
was in banks or clouds, the North 
Shore train having just entered such 
a bank when the trains collided. 

Fifth Safety Contest On 

The company's fifth safety contest 
was opened on Feb. 17 and will be 
continued until June 15, according to 
announcements made by the South- 
ern Public Utilities Company. The 
contest will be conducted in Charlotte, 
Winston-Salem and Greenville, S. C, 
at the same time, it was stated. 

The only change that has been 
made in the previous rules, it is re- 
ported, is that making every motorman 
and conductor who goes through the 
campaign with a clean record eligible 
for a prize. The prizes have been an- 
nounced as follows: 

To the team in each branch making the 
beat record, $250. 

To the team in each branch making the 
second best record, $100. 

To each motorman or one-man operator 
who goes through the contest without an 
accident, $10. 

To each conductor that goes through the 
contest without an accident, $5. 

The individual prizes will be in addi- 
tion to the money distributed among 
winners of the winning teams, it is 
stated. A banner is to be presented to 
the team making the best record in the 
campaign, according to announcements, 
and a prize is being offered for the per- 
son who writes the best slogan for the 

in fares recently when N. A. Dodge, 
special master in chancery held that 
any reduction from 7-cent fare would 
be confiscatory. 

George H. Clifford, vice-president 
and general manager of the railway, 
declined to make any statement on the 
action taken by the city. He intimated 
that the company would await legal 
action to compel it to build the lines 

A committee of citizens has advanced 
a proposal that the city authorize the 
operation of jitneys as a measure in 
retaliation. Another proposal sub- 
mitted is that the city take over and 
operate the railway. 

Men Seek Wage Increase 

A wage increase of 15 cents an hour 
for all trainmen has been asked of the 
Cleveland (Ohio) Railway by Division 
No. 268 of the Amalgamated Associa- 
ation. The men want the increase 
effective on May 1, when their present 
wage agreement expires. Cleveland 
motormen and conductors now receive 
50 cents an hour for the first three 
months, 53 cents an hour for the next 
nine months and 55 cents an hour after 
the first year. 

At the first conference between 
President John J. Stanley and the offi- 
cers of the union, Mr. Stanley informed 
the men that a 15-cent increase was 
out of the question. Further negotia- 
tions, however, are to take place re- 
garding the demand of the men, which 
also calls for changes in working con- 
ditions as well as a further wage boost. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

r Financial and Corporate 1 

I. T. S. Merger Rumors 

Consolidation of McKinley Utilities with 

So-Called Studebaker Group Said 

to Be Impending 

For several weeks there have been 
rumors in the financial district of New 
York of a deal in which the Illinois 
Traction Company was to be involved. 
These unconfirmed statements have 
gone so far as to indicate a possible 
change in control of the company. 
Although the rumors have persisted, 
nothing definite could be learned about 
them at first except that they involved 
possible financing in the future. 

Even during the war-time period the 
company was able to do necessary 
financing, mostly in the form of deben- 
tures, at very advantageous terms, and 
the recent unconfirmed statements indi- 
cated that the plans under discussion 
included the refunding of these loans 
for longer terms than the original bor- 

More recently there has come from 
St. Louis a statement to the effect that 
a consolidation is contemplated of the 
Illinois Traction Company and the 
so-called Studebaker group of utilities 
into a $200,000,000 utility company. 
Attorneys for the two sets of interests 
are said to be conferring about the 
matter and the indications are that the 
developments have progressed to a point 
where a statement will be made about 
the matter in the near future. 

At the head of the Illinois Traction is 
Senator W. B. McKinley. He is the 
chief executive oflScer, but for years the 
details of management have been in the 
hands of H. E. Chubbuck, vice-president 
executive. In addition to the McKinley 
money in the enterprise the company is 
owned largely in Canada. The stock 
is listed on the Montreal and Toronto 
exchanges and is dealt in over the 
counter in the United States by a few 
of the public utility specialists. In the 
past the most prolific source of new 
money to the company has been from 
the group identified with the Sun Life 
Insurance Company. 

The Illinois Traction is a tremendous 
enterprise — one of the largest holding 
companies in the United States operat- 
ing railway, light, power and gas plants 
in cities in the highly developed and 
most prosperous agricultural district of 
Illinois, Iowa and Kansas. Almost 600 
miles of railway are included in the 
system. The company is a very large 
handler of freight. 

The capital structure of the Illinois 
Traction consists of $7,289,500 of 6 per 
cent preferred stock, $12,331,000 of com- 
mon stock' and $4,562,000 of deben- 
tures. Of subsidiary preferred stocks 
there are $16,259,000 outstanding. The 
subsidiaries are bonded for upward of 
$35,000,000. The dividend on the pre- 
ferred stock has been paid uninter- 
ruptedly since the organization of the 

company in 1904, but on the common 
the recent record has been 3 per cent 
in 1915, 1916 and 1917, and three- 
quarters of 1 per cent in 1918, with 
none since. From a low of 14 in the 
period between 1914-1917 the common 
has advanced to around 45 at the pres- 
ent time. 

The so-called Studebaker properties 
are embraced in the system of the 
North American Light & Power Com- 
pany, of which Clement Studebaker, Jr., 

South Bend, is chairman of the board 
and William A. Baehr, Chicago, presi- 
dent and general manager. The com- 
pany was incorporated in Maine in 1915 
to acquire the securities of public utility 
properties. It owns and controls sub- 
sidiary operating companies in the light 
and power field serving a population of 
more than 300,000 in 104 communities 
in Missouri, Ohio, Illinois and also in 
Oklahoma. The capital stock consists 
of $1,445,500 of preferred stock and 
193,272 shares of common of a nominal 
value of $5. There are also outstand- 
ing $3,785,900 of first lien 6 per cent 
bonds, $1,600,000 of convertible series 
A and B bonds and $200,000 of 7 per 
cent notes. 

San Francisco Loss $190,866 

Sum Shown After Taking Out Charter Comparison Charges — Income 

After Expenses, Interest, Depreciation and Accident 

Reserves Was $55,669 

THE report of the Municipal Rail- 
way, San Francisco, Cal., for the 
year ended June 30, 1922, has recently 
been made public. It was prepared for 
and approved by the finance commit- 
tee of the Board of Supervisors. The 
total revenue for the year was 
$2,896,115, to which was added $48,475 
interest on securities, making the total 
income $2,944,591. The total operating 
expenses were $2,154,566, made up as 
shown in the accompanying statement. 
The excess of income over operating 
expenses was $574,936, but after charg- 
ing off $519,266, or 18 per cent of the 
gross, for depreciation there remained 
only $55,669 as the excess of the income 
over operating expenses, interest, de- 
preciation and accident reserves. De- 
ducting from this charter comparison 
charges of $246,535 there was a de- 
ficiency for the year of $190,866. This 
compares with a deficiency for the 
previous year of $188,811 and makes a 
total deficiency of $475,110 for the 

period from Dec. 28, 1912, to June 30, 

The report is particularly interesting 
in that it takes up the various items 
one by one and explains them. Thus of 
the depreciation reserve of $1,603,572 it 
says that the balance to this account 
represents the amount of assets avail- 
able for the purpose for which the fund 
was created and is made up by setting 
aside annually 18 per cent of the gross 
revenue. Of this amount 4 per cent 
was intended to provide for accident 
claims and the' other 14 per cent was to 
accumulate a fund for the redemption 
of bonds and to meet all charges and 
expenses arising on account of replace- 
ments, reconstruction and depreciation. 
The assets available in this fund follow: 

Book value of securities in the deprecia- 
tion fund $1,406,587 

Cash in depreciation fund 216.235 

Total assets $1,622,822 

Less outstanding warrants 19,249 

Balance available $1,603,572 


ENDED JUNE 30, 1922 

Total Per Per 

Amount Car-Mile Car-Hour 
Total passengerrevenue $2,884,815,20 $0.3757 $3.5558 

Total operating expenses (taxes and depreciation not included) . 
Total operating earnings (taxes and depreciationnot included) . 

Ratio of eai^iiugs to passefiger re veo ue . 


Total taxes a^d charter charges . 

Ratio to passengerrevenue . 

Ratio to passengerrevenue . , _ 

Operating expenses, depreciation and taxes 2,920,368.80 

Ratio to passenger revenue » 0123 

Net deficit from operation 3 ,ii .60 

Ratio to pas.sengerrevenue .0123 

♦Passenger car mileage 7,677,307 

1 Passenger car hours 81 1,292 

Platform expense (62 J c. jjerhour, 8-hour day) $1,078, 16(). 45 

Number of passenger cars owned , 
Number of work cars owned . 

Total number of cars owned. . . 
Total number of busses owned . 

Total number of cars and buses owned 

Number of passengers carried — 5-cent fares . 

Government tickets — 5-centfare8 

School tickets — 2i-cen,t fares 

JRevenue transfers — 2-cent fares 

Free transfers 

Free pass (employees, etc.) 










■ ! 3038 



. 3803 

'3! 5096 




Total passengers carried 

Numberof passengers carried per car-mile 9.2165 

* Includes mileage of buses. 

"t Includes hours of buses. 

t Transfers received at Fillmore and Union Streets treated as revenue transfers pending result of litigation. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 





Passenger revenue $28,564 

Quartermaster tickets — -77 at 5 cents $3 . 75 

School tickets— 1 6,852 at 2S cents 421.30 

Local transfers— 394, 948 at 2ioentB 3,873.70 10,298 

Totalrevenues $38,863 

Operating expenses: 

Repairs to buses .', $13,504 

Conductors, chauffeurs — buses 1 8, 1 5 1 

Garage expenses — buses 1 4,958 

Tire expense — 280, 1 27 miles at 5] cents per mile 15,406 

Depreciation — 1 8 per cent of receipts 5, 144 

Compensation insurance 786 

Total operating expenses 67,949 

Net loss $29,086 

Average net loss per day $73 

It is explained that the Municipal 
Railway has no capital stock and that 
the excess of its assets over its liabili- 
ties represents surplus. In the prepara- 
tion of the balance sheet this surplus 
has been divided into two classes — first, 
that which was created by donations or 
contributions, and second, that which 
was accumulated from the earnings re- 
sulting from the operation of the road. 
They are listed as follows: 

bonds. Of this amount $1,090,900 is 
covered by bonds redeemed and can- 
celed, and the remainder consists of 
cash in the hands of the treasurer. The 
bond redemption program is as follows: 

Name of Bond 
Geary Street Railway. . . 
Market Street Railway. . 
Municipal Railway 







Contributed surplus 
Premium on funded debt Cr. 

Represents premiums realized on 
Bale of bonds. 
Contribution from general taxes.. . . Cr. 

Represents the following: 
Tax moneys applied to the payment 

of interest on funded debt 

Cost of bond elections 

Contiibutory services of employees 


Surplus fiom income 

Bonds retired through income Cr. 

Reserve forbond redemptions Cr. 






These amounts represent the income, 
$1,190,000, which has actually been set 
aside in cash for the redemption of 

For the purpose of securing a com- 
parison between the results of the oper- 
ation of municipally owned utilities and 
those operated by private capital, the 
charter of the city and county of San 
Francisco provides that the operating 
reports shall include certain comparison 
charges, consisting of items which con- 
stitute part of the actual cost of operat- 
ing privately owned companies, but 
which the municipally owned utility is 
not required to pay. In consonance 
with the above-mentioned charter pro- 
vision it is explained that there has 
been charged to the earnings of the 
Municipal Railway certain amounts 

FROM DEC. 28, 1912, TO JUNE 30, 1922 

12/ 28,' 1 2 to 

Pas.senger revenue ; $16,363,363 

Miscellaneous revenue 71,331 

Total revenue $16,434,694 

Interest on securities owned 1 66,383 


7/1/20 to 





Period Period 

7/1/21 to 12/28/ l2to 

6/30/22 6 30/22 

$2,884,815 $19,248,178 

11,300 82,632 

$2,896,116 $19,330,610 
48,476 214,858 

representing insurance and taxes for 
the period of Dec. 28, 1912, to June 30, 

The Municipal system not having to 
pay any of these charges, the receipts 
from operations were deposited in the 
operating cash fund without any re- 
striction as to how they were to be 
used. As a matter of fact, however, 
most of the cash in the operating 
fund, represented by such comparison 
charges, was actually expended in new 
construction and addition and better- 
ment work, so that these reserves, rep- 
resenting obligating charter compari- 
son charges, have in reality been used 
as reserves for betterments. 

For the purpose of making the bal- 
ance sheet reflect the actual results of 
operating, the amount expended in addi- 
tion and betterment work has been re- 
flected in an account entitled "Additions 
and Betterments From Income," and 
the charter reserves for insurance and 
taxes carry a balance equal only to the 
unused portion of the original reserves. 

The account of $1,431,800 for addi- 
tions and betterments from income rep- 
resents the value of construction and 
addition and betterment work performed 
out of the funds derived from the oper- 
ations of the road. A small portion of 
the cash used in this connection came 
from the depreciation fund, but the 
larger portion consists of operating 
fund moneys. 

Operating surplus of $211,407 rep- 
resents the following: 

Surplus June 30, 1921, as per last report ..Cr. $26,761 

Add; Deduction of compensa- 
tion insurance reserve cor- 
responding to dividends de- 

. dared by the state com- 
pensation insurance fund 
adjustment $96, 1 72 

Less: Transfers previously „„ „„„ , ,„ 

madebyoperatingfund... 90,000 6. '72 

Deduct: ^ »23'.934 

Amount transferred from 

income account $190,866 

Interest on bonds owned 
credited to income but 
deposited in the depreci- ..„.,, 

ati^fund iS.VS 1^9 lit 

Halance *" •♦''' 

Totalincome $16,601,077 $2,914,212 $2,944,591 $1 9,545,668 

Operating Expenses 

Waj^s and structures 


Power . 

Conducting transportation 


General and miscellaneous 

Loss on road retired 




























Total operating expenses $10,724,718 $2,116,975 $2,154,566 $12,879,284 

Excess of income over operating expenses $5,876,359 

Less interest on funded debt 1,757,927 

Excess of income over operating expenses and interest. 

Less reserve for depreciation and accidents ( 1 8% 

of gross earnings) 


Excess of income over operating expenses, interest and 

depreciation and accident reserves $1, 173,925 

Less charter comparison charges 1,440,167 





Net income. 

siee.ns ii88,8ii 

Analysis of comparison charges: 

♦State franchise tax, 5i% of gross earnings 

Municipal franchise tax, 3% of gross earnings . 

Municipal car license 

Federal income tax 

Salary of clerks 

Law expense 























$1,440,167 $245,180 $246,535 $1,686,703 

Italics indicate loss or deficiency. 

* Franchise tax percentage has varied in different years. 

The total surplus of $2,905,373 de- 
rived from the operation of the road, 
all of which has been referred to in 
detail above, is as follows: 

Bonds retired through income "•''oS'?2S 

Reserve forbond redemption 99,100 

.\dvanced general fund account Twin 

Peaks tunnel 82,152 

.\dvanced general fund account Stockton 

Street tunnel ,15'.il 

Charter reserves ^Sl'inS 

Additions and betterments from mcome.. 1,431.800 

Operating suiplus tll.iOV 

Total $2,905,373 

Ila'io indicate loss or deficiency. 

The comparative income statement 
for the periotl from Dec. 28, 1912, to 
June 30, 1922, presents in summary 
form an analysis of the income and ex- 
penses of the road from the date opera- 
tions commenced, Dec. 28, 1912, to June 
30, 1922; also a comparison between 
the fiscal years ending June 30, 1922, 
and June 30, 1921, and an analysis of 
the charter comparison charges. For 
the purpose of showing clearly just 
what the property has earned, the direct 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

operating expenses have been deducted 
from gross income, and from the result- 
ant figures there has been deducted in 
turn interest on funded debt, reserve 
for depreciation, and charter compari- 
son charges, a new total being shown 
after each deduction. 

JUNE 30, 1922 
Operated track: 

Track owned and operated June 30, 1 922 ... 57. 97 
Track owned and operated jointly with the 

Market Street Railway j. , _ 5.15 

Total operated track .'.^i>0<i^>. 63. 12 

Non-operated track, sidings, turn-outs, etc.: 

Masonic Avenue spur .46 

Polk and Geary Streets spur .05 

Columbus Avenue, between Washington 

and Jackson Streets .08 

Geary Street carhouse sidings and turn-outs 2.18 
Seventeenth Street carhouse, sidings and 

tuin-outs 1 .23 

Total single track mileage June 30, 

1922 67,12 

Track changes made dui ing yj'ar ended June 

30, 1922 None 

Financial Readjustment 

Readjustment of the financial struc- 
ture of the Chicago, North Shore & 
Milwaukee Railroad so as to give 
greater elasticity to finance and permit 
capital expenditures such as will enable 
the company to accept the continuous 
new business offered it, as recommended 
recently by the board of directors, was 
ratified at the annual meeting of par- 
ticipation shareholders held on Feb. 27. 
The reorganization plan provides for: 

1. The creation of an open first and refund- 
ing mortgage under which bonds may be 
issued for retiring first mortgage bonds and 
other obligations issued for capital expendi- 
tures now outstanding and for capital 
expenditures in the future. 

2. The issuance of $10,000,000 prior lien 
7 per cent stock to be sold as required for 
capital expenditures and to retire equip- 
ment notes and secured notes in accordance 
with the sinking fund provisions governing 
these issues. 

3. The issuance of 50.000 shares of 6 per 
cent non-cumulative preferred stock of $100 
per share par value, and 50.000 shares of 
common stock, $100 par value. This $10,- 
000,000 of preferred and common stock Is 
to be given to the participation sharehold- 
ers m exchange for their 170.000 no-par 
participation shares in the ratio of 50 per 
cent thereof to the holders of the first pre- 
ferred participation shares. 40 per cent to 
holders of second preferred participation 
shares and 10 per cent to holders of com- 
mon participation shares. Provision for 
this is made in the participation trust agree- 

It is the intention to give recognition 
to the dividends in favor of the first 
and second preferred 'p«rticipation 
shares. These unpaid dividends, on Dec. 
31, 1922, amounted to approximately 
$2,700,000. In recognizing these divi- 
dends it is proposed to give the share- 
holders the unsecured non-interest bear- 
ing notes of the new corporation, pay- 
able five years after date, the new 
corporation at the maturity of the notes 
to have the option of either giving new 
notes bearing interest and payable in 
five years, or of exchanging them for 
the company's 6 per cent non-cumula- 
tive preferred stock at par, or to pay 
the notes in cash. The shareholders 
authorized the trustees to proceed with 
the sale of the property and the issu- 
ance of the securities. 

Charles C. Shedd was elected a direc- 
tor to succeed E. A. Shedd, deceased. 
John R. Thompson was re-elected. 

$504,979 Net in LouisviUe 

Preferred Dividend Payments Being 

Arranged — Common Dividend 

Prospects Very Good 

At the annual meeting of the stock- 
holders of the Louisville Railway on 
Feb. 21, President James P. Barnes 
announced that arrangements were be- 
ing made to resume paying dividends 
on the preferred stock about April 1. 
The possibility also exists of resump- 
tion of dividend payments on common 
stock by 1925. The voting of dividends 
on the preferred stock will mark the 
first dividend paid in a period of five 
years by this company. This dividend 
has not been determined as yet and 
must come out of net earnings since 
the first of the year, according to Mr. 
Barnes in a talk after the meeting. 

The company has a fund of $504,979 
on hand, listed as a balance from 1922, 
available for dividends on stock, but 
Mr. Barnes explained that under the 
terms of the present franchise contract 
with the city, this money will have to 
be spent to improve service. 

All directors and officials of the com- 
pany were re-elected. 

The comparative income statement 
of the company for 1922 showed total 
operating revenues of $4,542,817, an 
increase of $73,315; operating expenses 
of $3,190,232, a decrease of $83,490; 
net revenue from operations, $1,352,585, 
an increase of $156,805; gross income 
of $1,128,380, an increase of $198,838. 
Deductions from the last item are as 
follows : * Interest on bonds and notes 
$619,589, a decrease of $13,490; amorti- 
zation of discount on notes $2,220, a 
decrease of $2,882, and miscellaneous 
debits of $1,590, an increase of $825, 
giving total deductions of $623,400, a 
decrease of $15,547. 

1922 1921 
Revenue from trans- 
portation $4,358,450 $4,275,435 

Other operating rev- 
enues 184,367 194,067 

Total operating 

revenues $4,542,817 $4,469,502 

Operating expenses 3,190.232 3,273,723 

Net revenue from 

operations $1,352,585 $1,195,779 

Taxes 388,000 363,000 

0|)erating income. $964,585 $832,779 
Non-operating income : 

LouLsville & Inter- 
urban Railroad 
Co.. net Income... $145,982 $87,885 

Other non-operating 

income 17.813 8,877 

Total non-operat- 
ing income .... $163,795 $96,762 

Gross income ....$1,128,380 $929,641 
Deductions from gross 
income : 

Interest on bonds 

and notes $619,689 $633,079 

Amortization of dis- 
count on notes. .. . 2,220 5,103 

Miscellaneous debits. 1,591 766 

Total deductions. . $623,400 $638,948 

Balance available 
for dividends on 
stock $504,979 $290,592 

The first matter touched upon by 
Mr. Barnes in his remarks to the stock- 
holders was the fare case. The various 

moves made in this connection he re- 
viewed very briefly. All of these steps 
were followed from time to time in the 
Electric Railway Journal from the 
hearing before the Court of Appeals 
at its March term in 1922 to the pas- 
sage on Aug. 24 of the new franchise 
ordinance by the Board of Aldermen. 
This grant the stockholders of the com- 
pany approved on Sept. 11 and at 4 
a.m. Sept. 17 the ordinance became ef- 
fective, placing in effect a 7-cent cash 
fare with tokens at the rate of five for 
30 cents. 

It was explained by Mr. Barnes that 
on July 16 one-man safety cars were 
placed in operation on the Brook Street 
line. These cars were rebuilt in the 
company's own shops. The economies 
resulting from the operation of these 
cars make it possible to improve the 
service by running additional cars at 
closer headway, and their adaptability 
is recognized in the new fare ordinance, 
to which reference has just been made, 
which contains as one of its provisions 
a paragraph directing the acquisition 
of 80 additional cars of this type. 
Fifty-five new safety cars have been 
ordered from the J. G. Brill Company, 
some of which are already in operation 
on the Chestnut Street line, and a suf- 
ficient number of old cars have been 
remodeled in our own shops to complete 
the number required by ordinance. 

When this program is completed the 
company will have available for opera- 
tion 101 safety cars. The economies 
from the use of the new cars, with the 
saving in platform expense, reduction 
in power cost, etc., result in an esti- 
mated saving of approximately $100,000 
a year. 

In 1920 seventeen lives were lost in 
street car accidents in Louisville, in 
1921 seven lives and in 1922 three lives. 
This is regarded as a graphic and very 
gratifying illustration of the effective- 
ness of the safety work, in which the 
officers of the company have been 
greatly assisted by the Louisville Safety 

Mr. Barnes explains that on Dec. 18 
the transportation committee of the 
Welfare Association met the officers of 
the company and after a general dis- 
cussion of wage scales in this and other 
industries a new scale was arranged 
for platform employees to be effective 
Jan. 1, 1923. Under the new scale, 
rates paid to motormen and conductors 
are as follows: 

Period Rate per Hour 

First three months $0.34 

Next nine months 37 

After one year 40 

After two years 45 

One cent an hour additional is paid 
for interurban service and 3 cents an 
hour additional for safety car opera- 

Purchases Plant. — The Potomac Pub- 
lic Service Company, operating in Mary- 
land, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West 
Virginia, has purchased the plant of 
the Fayetteville Electric Light & Power 
Company and will take possession 
June 1. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Valuation of Los Angeles The commission informed the Mayor Auction Sales in New York.— At the 

Pronerties ProDOsed ^^^^ i*^ "^^^^ between $100,000 and public auction rooms in New York there 

x-ropc I If $200,000 to compromise claims now in were no sales of electric railway secun- 

In connection with plans announced utigation against it by reason of land- ties this week. 

by the California State Railroad Com- guj^g ^j^^g ^j^^ gu^way system. Will Issue $1,000,000 in Bonds.— The 

mission for the proposed unification of ^^^ Lima-Toledo Railroad, which is to 

the lines of the Los Angeles Railway t„_u„_„ Roston Net $96 725 take over the property of the old Ohio 

and the Pacific Electric Railway the January Boston mi 3.yb,/Za ^^^^^^.^ Railroad, between Toledo and 

City Council on Feb. 21 adopted the The Boston (Mass.) Elevated Rail- ^ima recently bid in by the bond- 
report of the commission, passing the way still owes $3,462,955 to fourteen jjoije^g^ ^iH jsgue $1,000,000 in bonds 
necessary motion in the Council order- cities and towns which advanced money ^^^ acquire some new capital by the 
ing a survey of the two properties in by taxation to pay its deficit from op- jgguance of $750,000 in preferred stock 
question with a view of their consoli- eration during a lean period ending in ^^^ jj qqq qqq jj, common stock, 
dation into a single transportation 1919 The company has accumulated j2.5(io,000 East Penn Issue.-A new 
system. $465,929 toward its second payment on .*';'*":• j, 50O 000 East Penn Electric 

Engineers of the two railways work- that indebtedness. That payment will '^Zv^l^lf^ZrtSte !TJ^:^1 
ng under the supervision of the State be made next July. The company hopes ^ ^ o-nlH hnnHo Hup iq'5'i is 

Railroad Commission and the Los to be able to pay $1,000,000. At the ^eTng „ff"rrat 97 and"^^^^^^^ 
Angeles City Board of Public Utilities, present rate the entire indebtedness J^'^/gfo p^ cent The^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
wi 1 make a survey determining the should be wiped out m three or four ^^i' ^^^^.^^ ^^ j ^ ^^j^^ 

price the Pacific Electric Lines should years, after which the company will be ^^^ gpencer Trask & Company, 

pay for the Los Angeles Railway sys. ,n a position to make a downward re- ^^^^^J pj^,^ q,„1, ^ard & Com- 
tem, the price the Los Angeles Rail- vision of its fare unit, now 10 cents. ^^^ bankers state that the corn- 

way should pay for portions of the So long as the company continues to ^ srxpv^ies most of Schuylkill Coun- 
Pacific Electric's local street car system make financial gains month by month ^ Pa., with electric light, power and 
in the city and the amount to be paid it probably can reduce fares gradually j.^-j^^ service 

by the city of Los Angeles for both city by the introduction of more 5-cent jj^^^ Gold Bonds for Sale.- 

systems should the city elect to take routes which are not considered as a ^^^^^^ p ^ Company and Paine, 

the systems over and operate them, part of the straight rate fabric. These ^^^^^^ ^ Company, New York, are 
Richard Sachse, formerly chief engi- .5-cent routes are intended to encourage ^^ $750,000 of the Indiana Service 

neer of the State Railroad Commission, short-haul riding where they ^o not Corporation, Fort Wayne, Ind., first and 
has been engaged to fix the valuation encroach upon the 10-cent routes, or ^.^^^^^ mortgage 5 per cent gold 
of the properties. eat materially into the receipts from ^ ^^^.^^ ^ ^^j^^ i^^ j^ ggj ^^j 

No estimate is given of the time re- the 10-cent fares, and they bring down i^^g^ggt yielding 5i per cent. The bonds 
quired to complete the survey, but it is the average charge per fare, but the ^^^ ^^^^^ j^^ ^^ ^ggQ^ and are due Jan. 
thought from three to six months will regular 10-cent fare cannot under the ^ ^^^^ ^p^^^ completion of the pres- 
be necessary in order to compile an present law be reduced until the com- ^^^ financing it is estimated that the 
exact valuation cost for the Los Angeles pany has paid its debt to the cities ^^^.^j f„j,jgj jgi,t outstanding in the 
Railway properties, as it has been nine and towns that were assessed in 1919 j^^j^j^ ^^ ^^^ public exclusive of income 
years since a proper value was affixed to pay its deficit from operation. j^^j^^g .^^jj amount to less than 47 per 

on the property. However, the condi- Even Mayor Curley of Boston has ^^^^^ ^^ ^.j^^ valuation of the company's 
tions are somewhat better in connec- officially announced abandonment of his property 

tion with the Pacific Electric Railway 5-cent fare campaign, in the face of i^^^' c„^^^^ Dividend by Federal 
properties, as that company recently this law which has been interpreted t^ Light & Traction.-At a special meeting 
completed a valuation of its properties him by his own law department, as well ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ directors of Federal 
started during the year 1912 upon as by the State Attorney-General. ^ Traction Company, New York, 

order of the State Railroad Commission. In January the Boston Elevated jj * y held Feb 21 1923 an initial 
These completed valuation data were earned $96 725 in excess of the cost of ^^^e'rly cash divide'nd, at 'the rate of 
used extensively during the past two service, while m 1922 the company ^^ ^^^^.^ ^j^^^^^ ^^^ declared upon 

years in rate increase hearings held earned $203,273 in excess of the cost ^^^ common stock of the company. An 
before the commission. of service. The expenses for January ^^^^^ dividend of 75 cents per share 

1923, however mcluded $190,807 cost ^^^ ^,^^ j^,^^^^ ^p^^ ^^^ ^^^^^„ 

Bond Issue Approved «* removal of snow. The condensed ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ company payable in 6 per 

Conditionally state ment for January follows. ^^^^j. cumulative preferred stock of the 

« „„ „„„ , i, ^. ~ T7I ,.„„ company. Both dividends are payable 

A bond issue for $500 000 of the Cm- 1923 1922 „„ ^prii 2, 1923, to common stock- 

cinnati Rapid Transit Commission was ^'^'^pXlioA""'". . ."'.'^. . .$2,982,532 $2,802,683 holders of record at the close of busi- 
signed recently by Mayor George P. interest on deposits m- j^^g^ ^^ ^^^^-^ jg ^ggs. 

Carrel on condition that no further con- "P^ et^". . ."''."": 15.764 34.373 j,o,000,000 Philadelphia Company 
tracts would be entered '"to by the com- -_^^ ^^^^^^^ Issue.-A new issue of $10,000,000 

mission until negotiations betwee^^^^^ Cost of service * 2.901.572 2.633.783 Philadelphia Company fifteen-year 5J 

Cincinnati (Ohio) J™<=t'°n Company J convertible debenture gold 

and the Cincinnati Street Railway look- Lx-„-%f J-^^;'' °-. ,96,725 J203,273 g„„d d^t^j March 1, 1923, and due 
ing to an adjustment of the traction ^ , ^^^^^ .^ ^^^^^^ ^^ g^i 

""uZr Carrd'reZsedTo'sign the bond The report is interesting in that it and accrued interest to yield over 6J per 

issue rNovTmber giving as'^his reason shows 25.016,707 10-cent passengers cent The Philadelph a Company's 

then immediatelv after the failure of carried in January, 1923, as compared assets consist of investments m gas 

threTtr^^Hv tax levv to pass-^th^^^ no with 24,747,377 in January. 1922, and and oil properties valued at more than 

additional fiLncial burdens should be 8,351,759 5-;ent passengers in January, $76000,000 and investments in electric 

nfaced on the voters since they had 1923, compared with 5,449,332 5-cent light and power companies valued at 

expressed at the eStion their desfre passengers in January, 1922. The re- $29000,000 above existing indebtednes.s^ 

tha't the ctty shouwTnction on de- ceipts per revenue passenger in Jan- It a so owns securities of the Pittsburgh 

TUa ^nni^Z^ uary 1923. were 8.985 cents compared Railways representing the equity in the 

The proceed; from the sale of the with 9.395 cents in January. 1922. The electric railway system in Pittsburgh 

boS: ^if be employed to pay off exist- --^-0 * ton fa, c_e^ SvSfat ^e^ OSs Sn^o^ 'o^ 

'Z:t::Z^\Tt;Zi.lLTS'- wltSsS^^i jSaTSriSi'-Coal^costs after March 1. 1924, par for par, into 

Xforthe competiorof hf ?ap^^ for the two months were: January, non-callable 6 per cent cumulative pre- 

Snsit system 1923. $233,014; January. 1922, «194.388. ferred stock. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

Traffic and Transportation I 

Rhode Island Commission Has 

Approved Short-Haul 

Bus Plan 

The substitution of motor bus service 
for local electric railway service along 
Broadway, placing all electrics on an 
express line basis, was authorized on 
Feb. 23 in an order entered by the Pub- 
lic Utilities Commission of Rhode 
Island granting such a request of the 
United Electric Railways. As was ex- 
plained at considerable length in the 
Electric Railway Journal for Feb. 
17, page 301, a bus line will operate be- 
tween Exchange Place and Barton 
Street, and the electric cars operating 
over Broadway will run express be- 
tween La Salle Square and Broadway 
and Valley Street, in both directions. 
The outbound cars will stop to take on 
passengers at all of the present stops, 
and the inbound cars will make the 
customary stops to discharge passen- 
gers. All cars over Broadway, under 
the new plan, will be operated under the 
same plan as the Hughesdale and Cen- 
tredale cars are now running, and the 
proposed bus line will provide the local 
service for patrons between Barton 
Street and La Salle Square. 

The fare reduction comes in accord- 
ance with the franchise amendment 
which provides that when the interest 
fund, the fare barometer, contains in 
excess of $700,000, the rate of fare 
shall be automatically decreased. 

Feb. 28 is the end of the company's 
ordinance year and on that date any 
surplus in the company's funds, such as 
the operating or maintenance fund, is 
placed to the credit of the interest fund. 
On Feb. 1 there was a surplus in the 
company's funds of $488,008. On the 
same day the interest fund contained 
$474,848. Mr. Stanley, in his letter 
to the City Council, said that the com- 
pany's operating allowance for Febru- 
ary would be exceeded, but in spite 
of this draft upon the surplus of the 
company's funds on Feb. 1 there would 
still be enough money to throw into 
the interest fund on Feb. 28 to make the 
interest fund exceed the $700,000, when 
the fare reduction takes place. 

Charter Permits Bus and Track- 
less Trolley Operation 

The first move by up-state traction 
companies to start operation of track- 
less trolleys was made on Feb. 24 by 
the New York State Railways in the 
incorporation of the Rochester Railways 
Co-ordinated Bus Lines, Inc. 

The directors of the Rochester cor- 
poration are James F. Hamilton, presi- 
dent of the New York State Railways, 
and W. A. Matson and Daniel M. 
Beach, Rochester, officials of the New 
York State Railways. 

Under the terms of the charter 
granted to the new corporation, which 
is incorporated for $50,000, stage or 
omnibus routes may be operated. It 
is probable that the corporation will 
operate both buses and trackless trol- 
leys. As has been noted previously in 
the Elbctric Railway Journal the 
new corporation intends to operate con- 
necting cross-town lines between the 
trolley lines in Rochester. 

Cleveland Fare Down to 
Five Cents 

Fares in Cleveland were reduced by 
the Cleveland (Ohio) Railway to 5 
cents cash, eleven tickets for 50 cents 
and 1 cent for transfer without rebate, 
on March 1. The fact that a decrease 
in fare was impending was announced 
in the Electric Railway Journal some 
time ago. Posters announcing the fare 
reduction were put in all Cleveland 
cars by the company on Feb. 27, follow- 
ing President John J. Stanley's noti- 
fication to the City Council on Feb. 26. 

Council Approves Additional 
Bus Lines 

The City Council at Toledo, Ohio, 
has finally approved the addition of two 
auxiliary bus lines for the Community 
Traction Company and directed that 
purchases of the buses be made from 
the moneys in the depreciation fund of 
the car company as set up by the 
Milner ordinance. Commissioner Wil- 
fred E. Cann had combated this theory 
of the payment for the new bus equip- 
ment, but he was overruled by the 

The new lines will be on Oak Street 
from Fassett to the end of the street 
and on South Erie Street, where the 
present tripper service in effect will be 
supplanted by one bus. 

No date has been set for the start- 
ing of the new auxiliary service and 
company officials have not made any 
announcement as to the type of bus 
to be purchased. It was considered 
at one time that the equipment would 
probably be the Garford bus, with seat- 
ing capacity of about twenty-five 
passengers. Garages and shops will be 
constructed to take care of the buses. 

5-Cent Agitation Continued in Washington 

Tennessee Senator Wants Special Committee to Report on Railway 

Methods — Capital Traction Official Does Not Believe Congress 

Wants to Throttle His Company Financially 

SENATOR McKELLAR of Tennessee, 
as a continuation of his efforts to se- 
cure a return to a 5-cent cash fare on 
the railways of Washington, introduced 
a resolution on Feb. 27 calling for the 
appointment of a special committee of 
the Senate to investigate the entire 
question and report at the next session 
of Congress. 

It is understood that the committee 
to be named under this resolution, if 
adopted, will be composed of Senator 
Ball of Delaware, Senator Couzens of 
Michigan, Senator Keyes of New Hamp- 
shire, Senator Simmons of North Caro- 
lina and Senator McKellar. 

The resolution proposes an inquiry 
into the franchise grants between the 
railways and the District of Columbia 
regarding rates of fare, and especially 
into the authority of the District of 
Columbia Public Utilites Commission 
to order increases of fares. The cash 
fare in Washington is 8 cents, with 
six tokens for 40 cents. Senator McKel- 
lar has been waging war against rail- 
way fares in Washington for several 
weeks, having spoken on the subject 
frequently on the floor of the Senate. 
He has also attacked the members of 
the District Public Utilities Commission, 
alleging that they acted without 
authority in granting increased fares 
and that such increases violated con- 
tracts between the companies and the 
District. In this connection, it has been 
pointed out that during the political 
campaign in Tennessee last fall, when 
Senator McKellar was re-elected, the 
successful candidate for Governor on 
the same ticket, and others, assailed the 
Tennessee Public Utilities Commission. 

Also, there is a politico-economic con- 
troversy ranging around the railway 
system in Memphis, the Senator's home 

The Tennessee Senator offered amend- 
ments directing a return to 5-cent fares 
to three District of Columbia bills in 
the Senate recently. On the last occa- 
sion his amendment was laid on the 
table by a narrow vote of thirty-seven 
to thirty-six. 

J. H. Hanna, vice-president of the 
Capital Traction Company, Washing- 
ton, D. C, on Feb. 20 wrote to Senator 
McKellar calling his attention to cer- 
tain statements made by him on Feb. 
17 in debate on the 5-cent fare amend- 
ment relating to the Capital Traction 
Company and the effect which the pro- 
posed rate of fare would have on it. 
This letter was sent with a view of giv- 
ing Senator McKellar accurate informa- 
tion respecting certain matters on 
which he had been misinformed. 

In view of the position of Senator 
L. Heisler Hall as chairman of the 
Senate district committee, and knowing 
Mr. Hall's interest in all affairs con- 
cerning the District of Columbia, Mr. 
Hanna sent him a copy of the letter to 
Senator McKellar and also gave him 
certain more detailed information re- 
specting the situation. 

The comparison made by Mr. Hanna 
is shown between the years 1922 and 
1912 because in the discussion of the 
proposed amendment reference was 
made to conditions existing ten years 
ago, and also because the year 1912, 
probably as fairly as any of the 
pre-war years, reflects conditions exist- 
ing under the 5-cent fare, with six 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


tickets for 25 cents. Data submitted by 
Mr. Hanna show that: 

Total operating reveiiue.s in the year 1922 
were 12U.4 per cent greater than in 1912. 

Operating expenses and ta.xes in 1922 
■were 193.0 per cent greater tlian in 1912. 

Operating income available for interest, 
dividends and improvements to property 
was 34.3 per cent greater in 1922 than in 

Pay passengers increased 34.6 per cent 
in 1922 over the year 1S12. 

In 1922 this company earned 8.6 per cent 
on the fair value of its property as fixed by 
the Public Utilities Commission, and paid 
a 7 per cent dividend to its stockholders. 
During the past ten years it has paid divi- 
dends to stockholders ranging from 5 per 
cent to 7 per cent per annum, the average 
being 5.975 per cent. 

During 1922 operating expenses and taxes 
per pay passenger was 5.083 cents. Interest 
and dividends required a further 1.637 cents. 
At the present rate the average fare per 
pay pa.ssenger is 6.962 cents. 

Trainmen's wages constitute a very large 
Item of operating expense. In 1912 the 
total wages paid the trainmen was $460.- 
070, and in 1922 ?1, 272, 399, an increase of 
176.6 per cent. In 1912 the average wage 
paid trainmen was approximately 23.72 
cents an hour and in 1922 55.62 cents. The 
wages of other employees were increased 
in about the same ratio during this period, 
in order to adjust wages to living costs. 

Mr. Hanna says that re-establishment 
of the pre-war fare of 5 cents cash with 
six tickets for 25 cents would reduce 
income to a point where the company 
could not meet operating expenses and 
taxes, unless the wages paid to em- 
ployees were materially decreased. Res- 
toration of the old rates would simply 
make it impossible for the company to 
meet interest charges or pay any divi- 
dend. It is Mr. Hanna's idea that Con- 
gress has no desire to place the com- 
pany in a position where it would be 
forced to reduce wages, default on in- 
terest charges and suspend all divi- 
dends, as would be necessary under the 
restoration of the 5-cent cash fare. 

Mr. Hanna calls attention particu- 
larly to the fact that any discussion 
of the capitalization of the company has 
no bearing on the present fare situation. 
The values of both railway companies 
operating in the District have been 
found by the Public Utilities Commis- 
sion, and existing rates of fare were 
fixed by it on the basis of those values. 
Reports for the year 1922 show that the 
amount earned under the existing rates 
of fare on the combined fair value of 
the two companies as found by the com- 
mission was less than 6 per cent, and 
that the proposed rate of fare would, if 
made effective, entirely eliminate any 
question of values or rates thereon, as 
the income would not be sufficient to 
meet operating expenses. In conclusion 
Mr. Hanna said his company was ready 
at all times to furnish any information 
that Congress might desire respecting 
the operations of his company. 

ment to out-of-town buyers, due to over 
burdened main thoroughfares and parking 
difficulties, are much discussed. 

.Several groups of Newarkers are study- 
ing conditions, but they and all others in- 
terested in the welfare of the city court 
advice and criticism. How can these prob- 
lems be quickly and wisely solved? What 

Six-Cent Fare Again Extended.— The 

City Council of Richmond, Va., recently 
extended the 6-cent fare ordinance 
under which the Virginia Railway & 
Power Company is relieved of its obli- 
gation under franchise to carry pas- 
sengers at a fare of 5 cents. The Mayor 
signed the paper, giving the company 
permission to charge 6 cents for six 
months more. The ordinance has been 
extejided regularly every six months 
for the last two years, awaiting settle- 
ment of the new franchise. 

Traffic Congestion Worries ''"^rK^ ^'■°'" ^^^ important streets on 

.-," , trolleys operate in the center of 

INewark the city. This very suggestion had been 

ni. ■ D ui- r. • • D ix • P"* forward before from time to time 

Change .n Public Op.n.on Results m « d^^ing the past several years by those 

Demand for Remova of J.tneys ^ho had studied the transportation 

from Trolley Streets p^^blem but it had always met with a 

A short time ago the Sunday Call, storm of protest from those who wished 

Newark, N. J., carried under the cap- to have the buses on the principal 

tion "Newark Needs Your Help" an streets. Storekeepers also had voiced 

appeal to its readers to write to the ^ determined opposition when it was 

paper telling their views on ways to proposed to take the jitneys away from 

reduce traffic congestion in the center their front doors. It appears now that 

of the city. By this action the news- sentiment is beginning to swing the 

paper took the initiative in directing other way. The practical unanimity of 

public attention to an important civic the letter writers in urging this step 

problem that has been constantly be- shows that the public is beginning to 

coming more complex. Many letters realize the disadvantage in having du- 

were received in answer to the appeal P'icate transportation facilities on the 

showing that many people had given same crowded streets, and the improve- 

serious study to the question, and quite ment to be effected by removal of bus 

remarkably, had nearly all arrived at routes to streets where there are no 

the same conclusion, namely, that the trolleys. 

jitney buses should not be allowed to 

operate on the same street with the Average of 4,524 Passes a Week 

trolleys. for First Year in Fort Wayne 

Conditions Becoming Unbearable The first year of the use of the. 

The original announcement about the "^^^^^^ P*^^ ^^^^em by the Indiana' 

matter, which appeared on Feb. 18, 1923, T'^v^ Corporation on the Fort Wayne 

said in part: "^^ ''"^^ u"''^'* ^^^- ^^- '^^^ '■«<='"-'ls 

of sales show that a total of 235,254 

Busmess in the central district of New- weeklv nnoooo uro-n „«ij j ■ ^■u 

ark will be seriously threatened, if certain w^^Kiy passes were sold during the 

conditions are not corrected soon. Traffic year, making an average of 4 524 Basses 

complexities, with attendant . discourage- a week for the fifty-two weeks. 

Starting in with a modest sale of 
only 2,967 the first week, the sales 
increased steadily until the peak was 
reached recently with sales of 7,539 

do you think is- the basic causeT- " weXr an^d' ^^7' n '^"'^ ''' '"^'^ 

Let us have your opinion, your analysis ^eatner ana many snows, was an ex- 
of the whole situation, your suggestion for ceptionally good month for pass sales 
''*'"^'' each week the number sold amount- 

On Feb. 25 the paper published ing to more than 7,000. The previous 
several pages of letters received in high mark was reached in the week 
answer to the appeal. Well considered before Christmas when 7,162 were sold, 
thought characterized almost all of the It is estimated by company officials 
replies. Only one writer showed that that the average use of each pass is 
he was unable to distinguish between twenty-five rides. As the pass sells for 
healthy business activity and hopeless $1, this means a 4-cent fare for the 
traffic congestion. A few others offered steady rider. 

rather far-fetched solutions of the diffi- 

culty suggesting overhead bridges for p,v„ r'^„t v n-i. .-... . 

pedestrians, huge underground garages M.^I^^hf.,, «' . Killed.-The 

beneath the public parks and so forth. Hv ' nn it ^' on°"'! ."{ Representa- 
Subway construction was suggested r/n' t^f .l , """^"^ t°. "Phold the 
also as a measure of relief, although fl^?^i °' 5^;^^ committee m re- 
none of the proponents of this plan of- J"!!"? M rf^ the Petition of Mayor 
fered any definite ideas to show how it l^^'L^" ^ll'^ ^°.'^" ^i" t ^■'=^"* 
could be arranged. Various other reme- fric railtavs "P^"^"*'"" °* *^« «'«<=- 
dies found a little support among the „ . ' 

writers of the numerous letters. The „ Magnanimous Bus Company. _ The 
New Jersey Industrial Traffic League "ort Jervis (N. Y.) Traction Company 
contributed a novel idea by urging the '" *"® , emergency of snow-clogged 
establishment of a trolley freight serv- "^'^''s "as been operating a bus be- 
ice to reduce the amount of heavy „ ^,®" Sparrowbush and Tri States. The 
trucking in the city streets. Hudson Transit Company loaned the 

Most of the answers published by the ['""way company a bus to help solve 
Call, however, agreed in putting the '^® transportation difficulty, 
blame for the existing traffic congestion One-Man Cars, Lower Fare, More 
on automobile parking and on duplica- Service. — One-man operation with the 
tion of transportation facilities on Birney type car was started on Sunday, 
streets where both buses and cars are ^eb. 18, on its city line in Milwaukee 
operated. Inasmuch as no two people ''V the Chicago, North Shore & Milwau- 
thought alike about the proper way to ^ee Railroad. At the same time the 
restrict parking, the result was not company reduced it rate of fare on the 
particularly informative. Opinion was ''"e from 6 cents to 5 cents and in- 
almost unanimous, however, that the creased the frequency of service from 
first step to relieve traffic congestion in a headway of ten minutes to a headway 
Newark must be to remove jitney bus of six minutes. 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

Mr. Rossman at Mobile 

Westinghouse Division Manager Be- 
comes Railway Vice-President 
and General Manager 

Frank F. Rossman has resigned as 
division manager of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company at 
Kansas City, to become vice-president 
and general manager of the Mobile 
Light & Railroad Company, Mobile. 
Ala., the duties of vsrhich office he as- 
sumed on March 1. Friends of Mr. 
Rossman tendered a dinner in his honor 
at the Hotel Baltimore, Kansas City, on 
Feb. 22. Brief talks were made by 

F. F. Rosr^iuan 

W. M. Hand, district manager of the 
General Electric Company; C. E. Allen, 
southwestern district manager of the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company; Col. K. D. Klemm, president 
of the Kansas City, Kaw Valley & 
Western Railway; Col. P. J. Kealy, 
former president of the Kansas City 
Railways; B. C. Adams, vice-president 
and general manager of the St. Joseph 
Railway, Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany; Mayor H. B. Burton of Kansas 
City, Kan.; L. H. Chapman commis- 
sioner of water and light, Kansas City, 
Kan.; D. 0. Vaughn, vice-president of 
the Albert Emanuel Company. F. G. 
BufFe, general manager for the receivers 
of the Kansas City Railways, presided 
as toastmaster. 

Mr. Rossman has represented his 
company in the Kansas City territory 
for the last eight years, and in that 
time has endeared himself to all those 
in the industry with whom he has come 
in contact. Mr. Rossman has completed 
his twenty-third year of service with the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company and in that time has become 
thoroughly acquainted with railway 
matters, especially those pertaining to 
the mechanical and operating depart- 
ments, so his entry into the operating 
end of the industry as an official of an 
electric railway is not an experiment. 

Mr. Rossman was bom in Bay City, 
Mich., on Sept. 17, 1882. He was edu- 

cated in the public schools there and 
was graduated from the Bay City High 
School in 1900. He started work with 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company as helper in the con- 
struction department in Philadelphia on 
July 1, 1900. After about two years 
there he was sent to East Pittsburgh, 
where he served two years as an engi- 
neering apprentice. In 1904 he was 
placed in the construction department 
and followed that class of work for 
four years. He was then appointed 
district engineer of the Cleveland office 
of the company. In 1909 Mr. Rossman 
entered the sales department and has 
followed railway work closely since that 
time. Since 1916 he has been manager 
of the Kansas City office of the West- 
inghouse Company. While he was lo- 
cated in Cleveland Mr. Rossman had 
charge of the construction of the 
Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad, the 
Cleveland, Ashland & Mansfield Rail- 
road and the extensions to the Lake 
Shore Electric Railway. 

Railway Men, Manufacturers 
AND Others Attend 

Among those present at the dinner to 
Mr. Rossman were: 

C. E. Allen, N. B. Johnson, B. W. 
Stemmerich, J. S. Warren, Graeme Ross, 
R. C. Redhead, G. S. Gillespie, F. S. 
Detweiler, of the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company; W. M. 
Hand and F. R. Johnson of the General 
Electric Company; F. G. Buflfe, J. A. 
Harder, D. E. Druen, I. R. Carson, 

C. A. Kincade, R. S. Neal, H. M. Smith, 
J. J. Fitzmorris, C. L. Carr, A. E. Har- 
vey, E. E. Stigall, D. L. Fennell and 
R. W. Bailey of the Kansas City Rail- 
ways; B. C. Adams, H. C. Porter, Frank 
Harrington and F. E. Henderson of the 
St. Joseph Railway, Light, Heat & Power 
Company; H. B. Burton, Mayor, Kansas 
City, Kan.; L. H. Chapman, commis- 
sioner Water & Light, Kansas City, 
Kan.; J. D. Donovan, chief engineer, 
Kansas City, Kan.; A. E. Baum and 
J. M. Dapron of the Westinghouse 
Traction Brake Company; J. A. Weimer 
and C. W. Way of the Kansas City, 
Clay County & St. Joseph Railway; 
K D. Klemm and O. S. Lamb of the 
Kansas City, Kaw Valley & Western 
Railway, and P. J. Kealy, F. S. Dewey, 
F. L. Markham, F. V. Cook, Nic Le 
Grand, L. E. Gould, E. T. Bronenkamp, 

D. O. Vaughn and H. S. Day. 
Arrangements for the dinner were 

handled by a committee consisting of 

E. E. Stigall, purchasing agent of the 
Kansas City Railways; B. C. Adams; 
D. L. Fennell, superintendent of trans- 
portation of the Kansas City Railways; 

F. V. Cook of the Ohio Brass Company; 
and W. M. Hand. 

Mr. Shartel Made President 

Former Vice-President and General 
Manager of Oklahoma Road Suc- 
ceeds Late .Mr. Classen 

John W. Shartel, vice-president and 
general manager of the Oklahoma 
Railway, Oklahoma Cty, Okla., and long 
an associate of the late Anton H. Clas- 
sen, president of the company, has been 
elected president of the company to 
succeed Mr. Classen. Mr. Shartel and 
Mr. Classen share almost equally be- 
tween them the honor for the excellent 
system of transportation which the 
residents of Oklahoma City now enjoy. 
Each of these men in his respective 
field made the success of the enter- 
prise possible. 

In the brief period of twenty years 
the city grew from a town of 15,000 
to a city of 100,000 population. The 

J. W. Shartel 

A. F. Kertsing has resigned as man- 
ager of the Citizens Gas Company in 
Jackson, Tenn., to accept a post with 
the Carolina Light & Power Company. 

local company was liberal, almost to 
the extent of being radical, in building 
new lines through unsettled territory. 
Much private right-of-way was secured 
and land obtained for terminals with 
the result that the railway system in 
Oklahoma is one of the best laid out, 
if not quite the best, to be found any- 
where in a city of similar size in the 
civilized world. 

That sounds like an all-embracing 
statement, but it needs no other quali- 
fications than those previously men- 
tioned. Moreover, the company has 
been uniformly successful, a state- 
ment that is also mighty significant 
considering the adverse conditions 
affecting electric railways everywhere 
during the war-time period. 

John W. Shartel, the new president 
of the company, was born in Harmons- 
burg, Pa., on May 1, 1862. Soon there- 
after his parents moved to Missouri, 
where Mr. Shartel received his early 
education in the county schools. He 
was graduated from Kansas Agricul- 
tural College, Manhattan, Kan., in 1884. 
After leaving college Mr. Shartel went 
to Topeka, Kan., and studied law. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1885 and 
practiced law in Topeka for a year. 
He then went to Sedan, Kan. After 
serving three years there as county 
attorney he formed a partnership in 
1890 with W. C. Hackney, and prac- 

March 3, 1923 



ticed at Winfield, Kan., until Jan. 1, 
1893, when he moved to Guthrie, Okla., 
where the firm of Asp, Shartel & Cot- 
tingham was formed. 

In 1898 Mr. Shartel went to Okla- 
homa City and became general attor- 
ney for the Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf 
Railroad, which position he held until 
1901. Several years later he formed a 
law partnership with J. R. Keaton and 
Frank Wells. This connection con- 
tinued until 1912, when he retired in or- 
der to devote his time to the Oklahoma 
Railway, which he had helped to organ- 
ize in 1902 and which had grown mean- 
while to such proportions that the con- 
duct of the company's affairs required 
the greater part of his time. 

In 1920 he was elected president of 
the Oklahoma Utilities Association and 
the following year was reelected to that 
office, the precedent of a single term 
for that office having been abandoned. 
Mr. Shartel is also a director of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the United 
States, representing the fifth district. 
He was elected to this office at the last 
annual meeting of the chamber, held in 
Washington in May, 1922. 

During Mr. Sachse's service on the 
Railroad Commission he has been 
actively engaged in handling the Los 
Angeles Plaza Terminal project, which 
the Railroad Commission ordered be 
carried out by all the steam road and 
electric interurban lines entering Los 
Angeles. The railroads carried the 
matter to the State Supreme Court 
on the score that the Railroad Com- 
mission lacked jurisdiction and from 
that body the case went to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. 

J. W. Nicholson Secretary 
at Cincinnati 

Joseph W. Nicholson, for many years 
assistant to W. Kesley Schoepf, presi- 
dent of the Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction 
Company, has been elected secretary of 
that corporation by the directors. The 
promotion comes to Mr. Nicholson, one 

Engineer Resigns 

Richard Sachse Will Work Up Plans for 

Unifying Railway Lines in 

Los Angeles 

Richard Sachse, chief engineer of the 
' California Railroad Commission, re- 
signed Feb. 21 to engage in the work of 
fixing the valuation of the properties of 
the Los Angeles Railway and the Pacific 
Electric Railway in the proposed unifi- 
cation plan. Mr. Sachse's work will be 
to determine the costs of the properties 
so as to ascertain the sum to be paid 
for the properties taken over, depend- 
ing on which plan is the one to be 
finally accepted. 

Since the railway lines involved will 
assume the expense of the proposed 
surveys, Mr. Sachse will be engaged by 
them in handling the surveys. He will 
also represent the Railroad Commis- 
sion. Likewise, he will serve tha city 
of Los Angeles in a supervisory capac- 
ity, if the city decides that his services 
are needed in this respect. It is under- 
stood that Mr. Sachse resigned his post 
with the Railroad Commission primarily 
to take up private engineering practice 
in Los Angeles. Mr. Sachse announced 
more than a year ago his plans for 
leaving the commission. 

Mr. Sachse entered the service of 
the California State Railroad Commis- 
sion in 1912 and was appointed chief 
engineer of the commission in 1916. He 
was recently appointed chairman of the 
engineering advisory commission on 
valuation of all railroad and public util- 
ity properties in the United States. 
He was also chairman of the inductive 
interference commission which investi- 
gated all power, railroad and telephone 
lines in California. As chief engineer 
of the State Railroad Commission he 
has had engineering supervision over 
public utility properties valued at 

Chief Engineer of Los Angeles 
Board Resigns 

H. Z. Osborne, Jr., has resigned as 
chief engineer of the Los Angeles Board 
of Public Utilities in order to run for 
Congress as successor to his father, 
Congressman H. Z. Osborne, who died 
recently. Mr. Osborne had been em- 
ployed by the Los Angeles municipal 
government for twenty-seven years. 
He entered the Los Angeles city engi- 
neering department after graduating 
from Leland Stanford University. After 
serving in various positions in the engi- 
neering department for twenty-four 
years he was appointed to the position 
of chief engineer of the Board of Pub- 
lic Utilities three years ago. 

Mr. Osborne will retain his connec- 
tion with the semi-official Los Angeles 
Traffic Commission as chairman of the 
executive committee. This is an unsal- 
aried position. The commission is 
organized to make recommendations 
toward the improvement of relief of 
traffic conditions. Resolutions were 
passed by the members of the board 
expressing regret at Mr. Osborne's 
resignation and extending appreciation 
of the service rendered by him. 

3. W. Nicholson 

of the youngest executives in the elec- 
tric transportation field, after years of 
faithful and efficient service. He en- 
tered the employ of the company eleven 
years ago as a stenographer. Mr. 
Nicholson also has been elected secre- 
tary of the Cincinnati Car Company. 
In 1920 he was elected secretary of the 
Ohio Traction Company, the parent or- 
ganization of the Cincinnati Traction 
Company, which office he still occupies. 

William T. Crawford has replaced 
George A. Peirce as secretary of the 
Columbia (Ga.) Electric & Power Com- 

H. B. Weatherwax, vice-president of 
the United Traction Company, Albany, 
N. Y., was recently elected a director of 
the Champlain Transportation Company. 
Senator John H. Trumbull, Plainville, 
Conn., a director of the Bristol & Plain- 
ville Tramway, has been appointed 
president, pro tem., of the Connecticut 
State Senate at Hartford. 

David L. Starr, attorney and public 
utility expert, has been elected repre- 
sentative of the Pennsylvania League of 
Boroughs and Townships on the four- 
man traction conference board to be 
created in the proposed reorganization 
of the Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways. 

Mr. Gaboury in New Field 

Arthur Gaboury, formerly superin- 
tendent of the Montreal (Que.) Tram- 
ways, has been elected vice-president 
and managing director of the American 
Druggists Syndicate, Ltd., of Canada. 

Mr. Gaboury, a well-known figure in 
the railway field, first became identified 
with the Montreal Street Railway in 
1894 as conductor after he had com- 
pleted his college course at St. Laurent. 
It was in the role of conductor and 
later as a motorman that he learned the 
practical end of the transportation busi- 
ness. In 1901 he was appointed assist- 
ant inspector and from that time on we 
find him taking on new and bigger re- 
sponsibilities until in 1906 he was made 
assistant superintendent. Only one 
year did he remain assistant superin- 
tendent, being appointed superintendent 
in 1907. This position he held until last 
fall, when he was allowed a long leave 
of absence to regain his failing health. 
Mr. Gaboury was actively connected 
with the Canadian Electric Railway 
Association, at different times being 
president and treasurer. In the Amer- 
ican Electric Railway Association he 
was also a prominent figure, having 
been made second vice-president of the 
Transportation & Traffic Association at 
the meeting in Chicago last fall. Be- 
sides his professional interests Mr. 
Gaboury gave his services for the ad- 
vancement of French activities, which 
in 1918 received public recognition from 
the French government in the form of 
a title of Officer of the Academy. 

The American Druggists Syndicate, 
with which Mr. Gaboury 's company 
is affiliated, is a $10,000,000 corporation, 
with branches throughout the United 
States and with offices in New York, 
Chicago and San Francisco. The 
Canadian branch, which is essentially- a 
Canadian industry in pharmaceutical 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

products, has its main office in Montreal 
with branches in Toronto, Winnipeg 
and Vancouver. 

C. H. Goddard, president of the Amer- 
ican Syndicate, is also president of the 
Canadian branch. W. B. Woodland, 
B. Sc. and Phar. C, was elected treas- 
urer and production manager at the 
same meeting at which Mr. Gaboury 
was made an officer of the company. 

A. G. Nelson has replaced W. W. 
Crawford as secretary and treasurer of 
the Chicago & Interurban Traction 
Company, Chicago, 111. 

F. G. Hart has replaced C. B. Hamil- 
ton as acting superintendent of trans- 
poration of the Bloomington & Normal 
Railway & Light Company, Blooming- 
ton, 111. 

Norman W. Mumford has been elected 
vice-president of the Savannah (Ga.) 
Electric & Power Company to serve 
with Harry H. Hunt and Charles F. W. 

Victor D. Vickery has been elected 
vice-president of the Jacksonville (Fla.) 
Traction Company. Other officials act- 
ing in this capacity are Harry H. Hunt 
and Charles F. W. Wetterer. 

Walter S. Lee is now auditor of the 
Chattahoochee Valley Railway, West 
Point, Ga., and J. L. Pepper is claim 
agent. Both positions were formerly 
combined and were held by Hubert 

I. P. Macnab, superintendent of tram- 
ways of the Novia Scotia Tramways & 
Power Company, Halifax, N. S., has 
resigned. He will accept the position of 
manager of the Riverside Iron Works, 
Calgamy, Alta. 

C. A. Harvey, associated with the 
North American Railway Construction 
Company for fifteen years, has been ap- 
pointed roadmaster of the Chicago & 
West Towns Railway, Oak Park, 111. 
The appointment became effective on 
Feb. 11. 

Walter M. Bird, formerly general 
superintendent of the railway depart- 
ment of the Savannah (Ga.) Electric 
& Power Company, has been appointed 
manager of the Fort Madison (Iowa) 
Electric Company. Both properties are 
under the management of Stone & Web- 
ster, Inc., of Boston. 

Judge Warren W. Foster has been 
elected chairman of the executive com- 
mittee of American Light & Traction 
Company, New York, N. Y., succeeding 
the late Emerson McMillin. M. S. 
Paine, vice-president of the Bowery 
Bank, New York, has been made a 
member of the executive committee. 

Oscar Johannesen, for several years 
connected with the Brunswick & Inter- 
urban Railway, Brunswick, Ga., in the 
capacity of superintendent, has resigned 
from the company to accept an appoint- 
ment by the Brunswick Board of Trade 
and the Young Men's Club as port sta- 
tistician for the port of Brunswick. 
During his long years of service with 
the local railway lines Mr. Johannesen 
made an enviable record for faithful 
service and efficiency and received many 

expressions of best wishes from his 
immediate associates and others for 
success in his new work. 

R. F. Tyson, who has been assistant 
to the vice-president of the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company, has been made 
operating manager of subway-elevated 
lines of the company, succeeding G. B. 
Taylor, who resumes his former place 
as engineer of way. This change in 
personnel of the company is in addition 
to the ones noted in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal for Feb. 24, page 353. 

N. M. Aycock, formerly superintend- 
ent of car maintenance of the Phila- 
delphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit Company, 
has joined the electric street railways 
department of the Texas Company, pro- 
ducers of Texaco petroleum products. 
Mr. Aycock will act in an engineering 
capacity with the Texas Company. 
His headquarters will be in New York 

. Matt L. Cobb, has been employed by 
the Dallas Railway in the claim depart- 
ment. Mr. Cobb is experienced in this 
work, having served the company in a 
simi>ar capacity from 1911 to 1914. Mr. 
Cobb served the people of Dallas County 
as District Clerk for three successive 
terms, a period of six years. The last 
two years of his public service was as 
deputy tax assessor under W. E. Horton. 
Mr. Cobb re-enters the employment of 
the Dallas Railway as assistant claim 
agent under G. P. Reddick. 

James Mangan has been appointed 
superintendent of the railway depart- 
ment of the Rutland (Vt.) Light & 
Power Company, W. R. Farr superin- 
tendent of the gas department and 
W. O. Minard superintendent of the 
electric department. J. M. Eveleth, 
W. H. Lawson and E. D. Sibley were 
the former superintendents of these de- 
partments. W. H. Lawson was ad- 
vanced from his position at the head 
of the gas department to that of as- 
sistant manager. W. E. Kampf is 
operating engineer in the place of C. D. 


Anton H. Classen 

Anton H. Classen, president of the 
Oklahoma Railway, whose death was 
noted briefly in the Electric Railway 
Journal for Feb. 17, was one of the 
pioneers of Oklahoma and in more than 
one sense the father of Oklahoma City. 
He was one of the first men to see the 
future possibilities of the city and the 
very first to set systematically about 
the task of planning for the city's 
future growth. In the pioneer days 
there he made an intimate study of 
cities elsewhere with a population of 
100,000 and then set about shaping the 
development of Oklahoma City to its 
future requirements as he discerned 

Mr. Classen was born in 1862. He 
was graduated from the law school of 
the University of Michigan and went 
to Oklahoma from Illinois in 1889 at 

the opening of the new State. He spent 
one year in Guthrie and then moved 
to Edmond. There he became editor of 
the Edmond Sun. In 1895 he was 
appointed receiver of the land office 
at Oklahoma City. In 1897 he entered 
the real estate field in Oklahoma City, 
in which line he continued active until 
the time of his death. In 1902 he or- 
ganized the Classen Company to take 
over his real estate holdings. It was 
in this same year that a company was 
organized to build an electric railway 
in Oklahoma City. Mr. Classen at 
once became one of the principal back- 
ers of the company. He was connected 
with the company officially from that 
time on and in 1903 was made president 
of the company. 

Writing in the issue of Oklahoma for 
Jan. 18, Ed. Overholser, president and 
manager of the Oklahoma Chamber of 
Commerce, concluded an appreciation 
of Mr. Classen with this statement: 

As I sat in the Methodist church the day 
Mr. Classen was buried and watched Okla- 
homa City filed by his casket, it occurred to 
me that a man who could so live that he 
would receive such homage in his last hour, 
would leave as a heritage to his family, city, 
state and nation something of greater value 
than any hero of wars, holder of office, 
prince or potentate, and surely such a man 
will hear the final message: "Well done, 
thou good and faithful servant . . . enter 
thou into the joy of the Lord." 

Martin Francis Hanley died at Ot- 
tawa, 111., on Feb. 13. He had been in 
poor health for more than a year, but 
it was not until quite recently that his 
condition became critical. Mr. Hanley 
was claim agent for the Chicago, Ot- 
tawa & Peoria Railway and a special 
investigator for the law firm of Duncan 
& O'Conor. He had held these positions 
for the past fifteen years. Mr. Hanley 
had a very large circle of friends in 
Ottawa, and was well known in every 
city in which the Chicago, Ottawa & 
Peoria Railway operates. He was born 
in La Salle June 29, 1884, a son of the 
late Judge and Mrs. Patrick Hanley of 
La Salle. He is survived by a wife and 
four children. 

William E. Kuhlman, a brother of the 
late Gustave Kuhlman, founder of the 
G. C. Kuhlman Car Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio, is dead. With the passing of 
William E. Kuhlman one brother is left 
of the four who, with their father, Fred 
Kuhlman, Sr., won a niche in the city's 
cabinet making industry. The oldest 
was Charles. Next came in order Gus- 
tave, William and Fred, who, with two 
sisters and the widow, Mrs. Anna Kuhl- 
man, survives. Born in Cleveland, Wil- 
liam entered his father's cabinet mak- 
ing shop as a boy. Some time later, 
horse-drawn street cars came into use 
and the father and the three eldest sons 
were commissioned to build the first 
half dozen. With the organization of 
the G. C. Kuhlman Car Company, Wil- 
liam was associated with his brother. 
A number of years before he opened a 
wood working shop at E. Fifty-seventh 
Street, north of Euclid Avenue. This 
he later sold, but some months before 
his death he opened another shop. Mr. 
Kuhlman was sixty years old. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



Manufactures and the Markets 

News of and for Manufacturers — Market and Trade Conditions 
A Department Open to Railways and Manufacturers 
for Discussion of Manufacturing and Sales Matters 



Car Building Active 

Orders for Rolling Stock So Far Placed 

This Year Running Ahead 

of 1922 

Confirmation was hardly needed of 
the predictions made previously in the 
Electric Railway Journal regarding 
the outlook in the market for electric 
railway cars for the year 1923, but it is 
at hand in the figures of the car building 
companies with respect to the amount 
of work on hand as expressed in dollars 
of business booked. Thus on Feb. 1 
the J. G. Brill Company had orders 
booked for $11,000,000 of work, while 
the St. Louis Car Company has more 
than $2,000,000 of work on its books and 
the Cincinnati Car Company has $5,- 
000,000 of new car construction under 
way. Here is a total of more than $17,- 
000,000 of work in hand by the three 
largest manufacturers, to say nothing 
about orders placed with other builders. 

That the electric railways were com- 
ing back into the market for equipment 
was indicated early in 1922 by the 
record of orders listed from week to 
week in the Electric Railway Journal. 
So pronounced did the tendency become 
early in 1922 to order new equipment 
that a survey was made in the issue of 
this pa{)er for July 1, 1922, which re- 
duced the matter to definite figures. 
The tendency to buy manifested itself 
slowly at first, as many buying move- 
ments do, but as the year rolled on the 
orders continued to increase in number 
and size with the result that the year 
1922 closed with nearly 200 per cent 
increase in rolling stock orders placed, 
as noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal for Jan. 6, 1923. 

It might properly be expected that 
a buying movement which so quickly 
accelerated its pace and to such pro- 
portions would shortly spend its momen- 
tum, but such has not been the case 
judging from the orders so far placed 
this year of which there is a record and 
of the inquiries that are out for bids 
on additional rolling stock. 

No doubt much of the buying being 
done is on account of deferred pur- 
chases in the past, but that does not 
alter or detract from the facts with 
respect to the indicated total of busi- 
ness now on hand among the car build- 
ers. If there is to be any slackening in 
the market for cars in the near future 
there has certainly been no indication 
of any such trend so far this year. Not 
all the orders so far placed or those 
likely to be placed in the near future 
have been recorded in this paper, but 
enough of them have to show the trend. 
As typical of some of the orders 
placed recently there is one from the 
Key Route for fifty-five cars, one from 

the Louisville Railway for fifteen cars, 
one from the Interstate Public Service 
Corporation for forty-four cars, one 
from the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Company for 576 cars, one from the 
Washington Railway & Electric Com- 
pany for ten cars, to say nothing of the 
smaller orders. This is a total of con- 
siderably more than 700 cars reported 
as ordered since the first of the year 
and places the industry, even allowing 
for the unusual Philadelphia order, 
back on the pre-war basis when orders 
for cars ran from 4,000 to 6,000 a year. 
So far the new year is running ahead 
of 1922 with its record of 3,538 cars. 

As regards contemplated purchases 
there is the desire of the city of Seattle 
to provide the Municipal Railway with 
from 100 to 200 new cars, the plan of 
the Los Angeles Railway to build 
eighty-two cars in its own shops, the 
contemplated purchase of fifty cars for 
the Cleveland Railway, the inquiry of 
the Brooklyn City Railroad for 500 new 
double-truck cars and the contemplated 
purchase noted in this week's issue by 
the Kentucky Traction & Terminal 
Company of twenty-seven new city 
cars, a few extra one-man interurban 
cars and some one-man express cars. 

These are merely the outstanding 
inquiries from the railways among 
the plans so far made public. Doubt- 
less these represent most of the large 
additions to rolling stock equipment so 

far decided of which news has become 
public, but the list is not meant to be 
inclusive and probably is far from being 
so. As a criterion for judging the 
future, however, the facts set down 
show, as indicated previously, that the 
cars so far ordered this year are pro- 
portionally in excess of the total of 
cars ordered for 1922, while purchfises 
contemplated in the future indicate tife 
demand for cars continues unabated. 

Large Order for Automatic 

The order for automatic substation 
equipment placed on Feb. 17 by the 
United Railways & Electric Company 
of Baltimore is said to be the largest 
single order ever placed by a city rail- 
way company for automatic substation 
apparatus. There will be four new 
substations, each containing two 1,500- 
kw. rotary converters with necessary 
transformers and control equipment. 

The installation will be unique in 
other respects than size. The new sub- 
stations are designed to supply power 
to the central portion of the railway 
system where the heaviest loads occur, 
and the four new substations will all 
be within a mile of each other. This 
installation will not involve the dis- 
continuance of any of the existing sub- 
stations. They will be continued in 
service with manual operation as at 
present. The company purchases its 
power at 25 cycles. 

The order for substation .equipment 
was placed with the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, 
and it is expected that one or two of 
these substations will be in service by 
Dec. 1 and all of them within slightly 
more than a year. The cost of instal- 
lation is said to be more than $500,000. 


Metals — New York 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per lb 16. 687 

Leaa, cents per lb 8.15 

Nickel, cents per lb 27.50 

Zinc, cents per lb 7.95 

Tin, Straits, cents per lb 44.875 

Aluminum, 98 to 99 per cent, cents per lb 24 . 00 

Babbitt metal, wsrenouaa, oents per lb.: 

Fair grade 42. 00 

Commercial 25 . 00 

Bituminous Coal 

Smokeless mine run, f.o.b. vessel, Hampton 

Roads $6. 275 

Somerset mine run, Boston 4.00 

Pittsburgh mine run, Pittsburgh 2.75 

Franklin, 111., screenings, Chicago 2.375 

Central, 111., screenings, Chicago 1 . 625 

Kansas Screenings, Kansas City 2 . 50 

Tratfk Materials — PittsboEgh 

Standard Bessemer steel rails, gross ton $43 . 00 

Standard open hearth rails, gross ton 43.00 

Railroad spikes, drive, Pittsburgh base, cents 

perlb 2.90 

Tie plates (flat type), cents per lb tic 

Angle bars, oents per lb ^•''. 

Rail bolts and nuts, Pittsburgh base, oents, lb. ♦ • ' J ' 

Steel bars, cents per lb 2. 25 

TIee, white oak, Chicago, 6i n. i 8 in. x 8) ft. 1 . 50 

Hardware — Pittsburgh 

Wire nails, base per keg 2 . 80 

Sheet iron, (28 gage), cents per lb 3.50 

Sheet iron, galvanised, (28 gage), cents per lb 4. 60 

Galvanised barbed wire, oents per lb 3.45 

Galvanised wire, ordinary, cents per lb 2. 65 

Waste — New York 

Waste, wool, cents per lb 

Waste, cotton, (tOO lb. bale), oents per lb.: 

Faints, Putty and Glass — ^New York 

Linseed oil, (Sbbl. lots), oents per gal 99.00 

White lead, (100 lb. keg), cents per lb 13. 125 

Turpentine, (bbl. lots), per gal $1,55 

Car window glass, (single strength), first 

three brackets, A qualitv, discount* 84. 0% 

Car window glass, (single strength), first 

three brackets, B quality, discount* 86. 0% 

Car window glass, (double strength, all sises. 

A quality), discount* 85. 0% 

' itty, lOOlb. tins, cents per lb 5.50 

*Thefle prices are f.o.b. works, boxing 


White .■ .' \ll\ 

Colored 10.00 

charges extra. 

Wire— New York 

Copper wire base, eents per lb 18.75 

Rubber-covered wire. No. 14, per 1. 000 ft... 7.30 

Weatherproof wire base, oents per lb 17.50 

Paying Materials 

Paving stone, granite, 4x8 z 4, f.o.b. 

Chicago, dressed, iwrsq.yd $).60 

Common, persq.yd 3.15 

Wood block paving 3), 16 treatment, N. Y., 

persq.yd 3.04 

Paving brick, 3) x 8} x 4. N. Y. per 1,000 In 

carload ]ot« 50.00 

Crushed stone, S-ln., carioad lota, N. Y., 

perou.yd 1.75 

Cement, Chicago oonsumera net prioea, with- 
out bags 2.20 

Graveh i-in.. cu.yd., N. Y 2.00 

Sand, ou.yd.. N. Y 1 . 00 

Old Metals— New York 

Heavy copper, cents per lb 13.25 

Light copper, cents per lb II 75 

Heavy brass, cents per lb 8 . 00 

Zino. old scrap, cents per lb 4.75 

Yellow brass, oents per lb (heavy) 8.00 

Lead, heavy, cents per lb 6.75 

Steel car axles. Chicago, net ton 24.25 

Old ear wheels, Chicago, groM ton 27 . 75 

Rails (short), Chicago, groas ton 25.25 

Rails (relavin|:), Chicago, gross ton 33.50 

I Machine turnings. Chicago, net ton 14 . 25 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 9 

Rolling Stock 

Community Traction Company, Toledo, 

Ohio, will purchase buses in accordance 
with a recent ruling of the City Council. 

Virginia Railway & Power Company, 
Richmond, Va., received five new one- 
man type cars recently from the Brill 
Company. The cars are for use on the 
Richmond division and are of the type 
in use throughout the system. 

American Electric Power Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa., successor to Amer- 
ican Railways Company, is considering 
the purchase of thirty cars within the 
next six weeks. These cars will be 
purchased on the car trust plan and will 
be assigned among the different prop- 
erties owned by it. 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Com- 
pany, Lexington, Ky., contemplates the 
purchase of twenty-seven new city cars, 
a few additional one-man interurban 
cars and some one-man express cars. 
This company was one of the first to 
use the one-man light-weight car in 
interurban service, so that the order 
now contemplated is a repeat one. 

Louisville (Ky.) Railway, through 
Frank Miller superintendent of main- 
tenance and vice-president, reported on 
Feb. 23 that so far it has taken no action 
in regard to replacing the fifty-four 
cars lost to the company in the last six 
weeks. Thirty-five of these were lost 
in one fire and seventeen in another, 
while two were demolished in grade 
crossing accidents. Mr. Miller stated 
that he had been busy with plans for 
rebuilding the two burned carhouses 
and was not in a position as yet to say 
much about the rebuilding program for 
the carhouses or replacement of cars 
lost by fire and wreck. Some new cars 
will probably be purchased, although 
in actual number of cars the company 
is protected by the new ones which are 

president and general manager, will be 
submitted to the directors and, if rati- 
fied, work will begin at once on the im- 
provements. These will include several 
extensions, addition to power plant and 
replacement of some old cars now in 

Track and Roadway 

Cape Fear Railways, Fayetteville, 

N. C, will extend its line to Hope 
Mills and to Manchester. 

Louisville (Ky.) Railway will likely 
extend its Second Street car line to the 
new park which is being erected by the 
Louisville Baseball Club. The company 
has also been requested to arrange new 
trackage to carry part of the service 
on the Fourth Street line to the new 
ball yard during the season. 

Houston-Beaumont, Tex. — Ed Ken- 
nedy, Houston, Tex., is now at work on 
a project to build and operate a line 
from Houston to Beaumont, via Goose 
Creek, with connection from Beaumont 
to Port Arthur. Mr. Kennedy has 
launched several interurban projects 
which have been carried out and the 
lines put in operation. 

El Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway an- 
nounces a program of improvements 
and extensions for 1923 calling for the 
expenditure of $450,000. A tentative 
budget prepared by Alba Warren, vice- 

Trade Notes 

A. E. Ensell, formerly with the 
Equipment Corporation of America, is 
now engaged in the purchase, sale or 
rental of contractors' railroad, mine, 
mill and quarry equipment, new, used 
or rebuilt. He will deal in inspection, 
appraisals, and retail estimates. He is 
located at 1628 Market Street, Phila- 

Ohio Brass (Company, Mansfield, Ohio, 

has built a new plant at Niagara Falls, 
Ont., and organized a company to be 
known as the Dominion Insulator & 
Manufacturing Company, Ltd., which 
will manufacture high-tension insula 
tors and such other O. B. products as 
are sold to any particular extent in the 
Canadian market. 

Portland Cement Association, Chi- 
cago, 111., announces the opening of a 
new district oflice in the Hibernia Bank 
Building, New Orleans. tAssociation 
Work in Louisiana and Mississippi will 
be directed from this oflSce. The dis- 
trict engineer in charge of the New 
Orleans oflice is John E. Tate, formerly 
associated with the Atlanta office as 
field engineer in North Carolina. 

The Uehling Instrument Company, 
Paterson, N. J., has just appointed two 
new agents, namely, John E. Arnold, 
154 South Fourth Street, Tulsa, whose 
territory is the State of Oklahoma, and 
H. R. N. Johnson, 917-A Marquette 
Avenue, Minneapolis, whose territory is 
Minnesota, North Dakota and South 
Dakota. These agents are well ac- 
quainted in the power plant field and are 
thoroughly conversant with the prob- 
lems necessitating the use of Uehling 
COj recorders and other Uehling gages. 

Mitsui & Company have been ap- 
pointed exclusive representatives in 
Japan and China for Uehling COs 
recording equipment and other Uehling 
power plant instruments and gages. 
The head office of Mitsui & Company 
is located in Tokio and the New York 
branch office is at 65 Broadway. Many 
Uehling installations have been made in 
Japan and China without the aid of 
local representatives, but it is believed 
that with the co-operation of the very 
able engineering department of Mitsui 
& Company the Japanese and Chinese 
Uehling customers will be served to 
the very best advantage. 

Combustion Engineering Corporation, 
New York, N. Y., announces that T. J. 
Cleary, who has recently opened an 
office in Atlanta, Ga., for the sale of 
power plant equipment, has been ap- 
pointed the company's Southern agent. 
Mr. Cleary has been a sales engineer 
in the South for many years and has a 
thorough knowledge of Southern busi- 

ness methods and power plant problems. 
By this arrangement the company is 
enabled to extend to Southern power 
plants a complete service covering all 
phases of combustion engineering and 
to supply equipment of its own manu- 
facture to meet any fuel-burning 

Railway Bearing Company, Syracuse. 
N. Y., capital $200,000, has been formed 
to manufacture bearings for railway 
cars. Incorporation papers give Alex- 
ander T. Brown, Willard C. Lipe, J. H. 
T. Bell, Herman Cassler and Harry D. 
Weed as incorporators. Most of these 
men have been prominent in the gear 
industry in Syracuse. Of the capital 
stock of $200,000, a total of $50,000 is 
to be preferred to pay 8 per cent, and 
the balance $150,000 in common stock. 
The new company is the successor to- 
the Railway Roller Bearing Company 
and the change in name is to provide 
for extension of operations. 

Globe Ticket Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa., recently opened a branch factory 
in Los Angeles, Calif. The new plant 
i-= located in the Westinghouse Building^ 
420 South San Pedro Street. During 
the last year or two the business of thia 
company has increased to such an ex- 
tent that it seemed advisable to estab- 
lish a factory on the west coast. This 
factory is a complete unit, prepared to 
turn out all classes of tickets on short 
notice. C. M. MacAllister, who was in 
the Philadelphia office for several years, 
has charge of the Los Angeles factory. 
The same brand of service that has 
been the standard of the Globe Ticket 
Company in Philadelphia for over forty 
years will be the aim of Mr. MacAlIiste? 
in operating the Los Angeles plant. 

New Advertising Literature 

Combustion Engineering Corporation, 
New York, N. Y., has just published an 
eleven-page pamphlet describing with 
illustrations its Combusco water seal 
ash conveyor. 

Nic Le Grand, Inc., Rock Island, III., 

has issued a folder describing some of 
the railway equipment parts handled. 
These include safety hand and foot- 
holds for cars, improved scrapers, life 
guards and ball and roller bearings for 
center plates and side bearings. 

Philip Casey Company, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, has issued a thirty-two page book- 
let entitled "Insured Results with Con- 
crete Paving." In the introduction it 
IS said that the booklet exhibits what 
Elastite, "the Sandwich Joint," has ac- 
complished when afforded the oppor- 

The Conveyors Corporation of Amer- 
ica, Chicago, III., has issued a new folder 
describing the American airtight door. 
This door is largely used in ashpits, 
and boiler settings and is made in five 
sizes 15 X 16, 18 x 18, 22 x 26, 24 x 24 
and 24 x 36. The door is of unique de- 
sign, strong and substantially built of 
cast iron. When closed and locked it 
is airtight. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway journal 


Write us for full data a* 
to weight, space-saving 
dimensions and other at- 
tractive features of these 

The big graphite bronze 
bushings on the hand 
wheel bearings eliminate 
the need of lubrication 


Staffless Brakes 

require least maintenance work 

lESIDES ensuring greater safety, Peacock 
Staffless Brakes on safety cars need far 

I less attention than the ordinary type of 

land brake. We are now bushing the hand wheel 
bearings with graphite bushings, and the chain- 
winding bearings are also bushed. This makes the 
brake easier to operate and does away with the 
frequent oilings such as are needed by ordinary 
types of brake. 

Peacock Staffless Brakes mean lowest costs. 


890 EUicott Square 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Canadian Representative: Lyman Tube & Supply Co., Ltd., Montreal, Canada 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

J3 atxK.ere ^ ^rt^irveefvsl 

ifor^, SJacott & "S'avie 


Business Established 1894 

115 BROADWAY, New York 


Stone & Webster 













105 South La Salle Street 







Consulting Engineers 

Specializing in Utility Rate Cases and 
Reports to Bankers and Investors 

1017 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 

C. E. SMITH & CO. 

Conaulting Engineer* 

2065-75 Railway Exchange Bids., St. Louis, Mo. 
Chicago Kansas City 

Investigations, Appraisals, Expert Testimony, Bridge 

and Structural Works, Electrification, Grade Crossing 

Elimination, Foundations, Power Plants 



Gardner F. Wells John F. Layng Albert W. Hemphill 



Reorganization Management Operation Construction 

43 Cedar Street, New York City 


Engineers — Constructors 

Industrial Plants, Buildings, Steam Power Plants, Water 

Powers. Gas Plants, Steam and Electric Railroads, 

Transmission Systems 

43 Exchanfi^e Place, New York 

John A. Beeler 






Conaulting and Constructing Engineers 






76 West Monroe Street, 215 South Broad Street 

Chicago, IlL Philadelphia, Pa. 


Consulting Engineer 

Appraisals, Reports, Rates, Service Investigation, 

Studies on Financial and Physical Rehabilitation 

Reorganization, Operation, Management 

683 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Joe R. Ong 

Consulting Transportation Engineer 

Specialixing in TrafRc Problem* and in Method* to 

Improve Service and Increase 

Efficiency of Operation 




Rate, TrafiBic and Reorganization 


Fort Wayne, Indiana 


Consultant on Fares, Buses, Motor Trucks 

Originator of unlimited ride, transferable weekly 
pass. Campaigns handled to make it a success. 

143 Crary Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

Parsons, Klapp, Brinckerhoff & Douglas 



Engineers — Constructors — Managers 

Hydro-electric Railway Light and Industrial Plants 

Appraisals and Reports 


1570 Hanna BIdc. «4 Pine St. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


10 seconds to change wheels! 


Detachable Trolley Harps 

Trolley wheel mileage can be increased and 
service interruptions reduced when Bayonet 
Trolley Harps are used. They permit re- 
moval of wheel and harp for inspection, 
lubrication, adjustment or repair. The 
change is made in a fraction of a minute — 
no tools needed. 

With Bayonet Detachable Harps, there is 
no need or incentive for running a wheel 
which needs some minor repair. That's the 
kind of business which shortens the life of 
equipment. Bayonet Equipment helps you 
to prolong its life. 


Sleet Cutters 

Bases with Detachable Pole Clamps 

Bayonet Trolley Harp Co., Springfield, Ohio 

Transmission Line and Special Crossing 
Structures, Catenary Bridges 



Enxineert and Contractors SYRACUSE, N. Y. 


'D£ji^n, Construction 
"Rfporix, Valuations, "Management 


The Most Successful Men in the Electric Railway 
Industry read the 


Every Week 


BO Church St. Street Railway Inspection 131 State St. 


When writing the advertiser for Information or 

prices, a mention of the Electric Railway 

Journal would be appreciated. 

of the City of New York 

Capital $1,500,000 

Surplus $1,000,000 Und. Profits $363,051 

Resources $23,743,000 

Offers to dealers every facility of a New York 
Clearing House Bank. 

Dwight P. Robinson & Company 


Design and Construction of 

Electric Railwayt, Shop; Power Statione 

125 East 46th Street, New York 

Chicafo Younffstown 

Lo« AnflrolcB 


Rio de Janeiro 


Engineer — Washington, D. C. 


Complete Transit Surveys gnd DeTelopment Programs, Adopting Motor- 
Transport, B.B. Termlnsl and City Plans, Traffic, Service, Routing, 
Operation and Valuation. 



28 ElectricRailwayJournal March 3, 1923 


Deciding About That Track 

—OLD or NEW, is EASY 

The best is the cheapest — and when the cheapest is the best no need to hesitate. 
Get prices on the "Ideal Track" the "Continuous Rail" kind, that is 

"Jointless", "Bond less" and "Costless" 

Indianapolis Welded Joints Exterminate maintenance 

Indianapolis Welded Joints Low in cost, high in efficiency 

Indianapolis Welded Joints Super-rail, strength and conductivity 

Indianapolis Welded Joints Any rail, anywhere, any time 

Indianapolis Welded Joints Proven in performance — 10 years' test 

Indianapolis Welded Joints In use on over 125 different rails 

Indianapolis Welded Joints In 200 cities, 48 states 

Indianapolis Welded Joints The last word in track economy 


Applied with the Indianapolis Electric Welder and with- Indianapolis Fluxated 
Welding Steel. 

Insures Dependable, "Continuous Rail Track," the only kind of track that will 

Thoroly Dependable — ^Inexpensive — No Bolts — No Bonds — No Maintenance. 

The Proof of the Product Is In the Performance 

ONE SAYS: Have installed 3,000 pairs since 1917. ANOTHER SAYS: Installed 2,+00 pairs, beginning 

Thoroly satisfactoni' and efficient in every respect. in 1916, with very satisfactory results. 

Economical and adopted as standard. ANOTHER SAYS: Since 1912 have used about 

A M/^T^iiT-n o A17C Ti ^ nnn • r- ■ 3,000 pairs. Standard for our paved tracks. 

ANOTHER SAYS: Have over 6,000 pairs, first in- ax^Utuitd ca^-c r^ i u ■ 1010 vu caa 

stalled in 1913, consider them thoroly practical and ANOTHER SMS: Only begun in 1919, with 500 

satisfactory, standard with us. P^'"' ""'formly good results. 

ANOTHER SAYS: Joints welded in 1916, no 

ANOTHER SAYS: About 2,500 pairs installed since maintenance and track apparently "Jointless" today. 

1907. with very gratifying results. ETC., ETC.. ETC., ETC., ETC., ETC., ETC. 

That ''INDIANAPOLIS'' Welders, Steel and Joints 

ARE GOOD, is our claim. That they DO GOOD, is your opportunity. That they have. MADE GOOD, 
is conclusively proven, in that manv properties owe their present existence to the use of these products, which 
are saving hundreds of roads, MILLIONS of DOLLARS ANNUALLY. 

To Users— The MORE you USE the MORE you SAVE 
To Not-Yet Users— JOIN THE SAVERS 

Get our proposition for comparison 

The Indianapolis Switch & Frog Co. 


J. J. Costello Boston, Mass. New England Representative 

The Lid Is Off! 


The best salesman in the Electric Railway Field is about 
to make another trip. He is scheduled to call on 6000 buyers 
in the United States and about 700 in Canada and foreign 

He will produce a bi{/ volume of business this trip. 

This salesman is ready to make your sales talk for you. 
He will get orders for you. Many more can be had, if you 
supply the selling facts and full information about your 
product. This salesman is the 

Annual Maintenance Number 

Electric Railway Journal 

He reaches people the usual salesman never sees. He can 
talk with eloquence to men who like him, believe him and 
who may not know all about what you make. 

You can put this remarkable man to work for you at a 
nominal sum — no traveling expenses. 

Why let him go forth without information on your 

Make sure this man is posted. Wire instructions to him 
today. Reserve space now. Forms close March 10. Sample 
copies and rate cards on request. 

Yours truly, 
-" Electric Railway Journal 

C ^ •^v1A^0-u>a.<«>w<...<^^1^>o^>uA^ 

Advertising Manager 

The Standard Textile Products Co. 

iiHO Broauway, Nkw York. 

Dept. E. R. J. 


March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Jouenal 













Insert Welds 



in Youngstown, O. 

Maintenance cost on joints 
practically zero 

If you could show your Board of Directors a record like 
that — wouldn't it make them sit up and take notice? It 
can be done. It is being done! 

Look at this story of the Youngstown Municipal Railway 
Company. In the past six years they have eliminated 
2000 joints with Thermit Welds— 1998 of them have 
never cost a cent for maintenance since. That's 99.9% 

Their Engineer says: "The oldest joints have been in 
for six years and are still in as good condition as when 
installed. Excepting for the two joints mentioned we 
have had no expenditures, maintaining any of the joints. 
We are well pleased with this type of joint and intend to 
install approximately 250 more this year" (latter part 
of 1P22). 

Youngstown confirms what others say — "The first cost is 
the last cost." Find out how low the firtt eo*t it. 

Metal & Thermit Corporation 

120 Broadway, New York 

Pittsburgh Chicago Boston S. San Francisco Toronto 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

Laying Resilient ties in con 
traffic and without temporary 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Crete without interruption to 

Think of having a permanent, easy-riding track 
on a permanent concrete foundation without 
interrupting service during construction and 
without the expense of temporary crossovers. 

On the page opposite are shown city and inter- 
urban cars operating on a five- and thirty-minute 
headway, respectively, while dry concrete is 
being tamped under the ties. 

The setting of unseasoned concrete is not, in 
any way, disturbed by the operation of the cars 
over it. 

The asphalt cushion in the resilient tie absorbs 
the shocks so effectively that they do not reach 
the green concrete. 

Tests have proved this construction sound. On 
other properties where this method was em- 
ployed the concrete was found to be in perfectly 
good condition after 3 years of service. 

Resilient ties are fundamentally and practically 
right, moreover, they permit of a saving of $6000 a 
mile over wood ties laid in concrete. Ask for de- 
scriptive literature. 

The Dayton 
Mechanical Tie Go. 

707 Commercial Building, Dayton, Ohio 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

March. 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



^yi ^oostexg SloAaTLi 



But it's a good one. The Phoenix, Arizona, 
boosters find that it pays to feature the bright 
sunshine of their native state. It attracts instant 
attention and brings people there. 

Are your cars shining today ? 
Advertise with PAINT! 

Like the featured sunhght of Arizona, the 
freshly painted, glistening street car rivets the 
attention and reminds the pedestrian that trans- 
portation is there at his disposal. And, further- 
more, by its refreshingly new appearance, it 
automatically suggests clean, comfortable and 
even luxurious accommodation. 

Beckw^ith-Chandler paints and varnishes, 
especially prepared for car-finishing work, are 
used by steam and electric railways which are 
noted for their progressive ideas. 

The Beckwith-Chandler Company specializes in car finishes. 
Beclcwith-Chandler makes finishes for the flat color and var- 
nish system, the enamel system, and the color varnish system 
— everything needed on the outside or inside of the car. Our 
railway experts can suggest many improvements in your car 
painting practice which will mean money in your pocket. 

Write for further details. 

The Beckwith-Chandler Company 

320 Fifth Ave., New York 
203 Emmett St., Newark, N. J. 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 


ys Unsafe 

A CHILLED, uncomfort- 
-^ ^ able motorman cannot 
give undivided attention to 
the operation of his car. It's 
against human nature. 

Hours of duty on the plat- 
form, alongside constantly 
opening doors, are not con- 
ducive to comfort — unless 
you make it so. 


Stationary Cab Heater 

Keeps the vestibule comfortable. 
Distinct from the regular car- 
heating system and subject to indi- 
vidual control. 

Connected directly across the line. 
Controlled by a simple snap switch 
and fuse, combined. 

The perforated case and the 
louvres in the top permit free 
circulation of air, utilizing to the 
utmost the heat produced. 

Compact and durable in construc- 
tion. Trim and neat in appearance. 
Economical in maintenance. 

Let's tell you more about it 


Car-Heating Co. 

New York 

Albany, N. Y. 


March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


£ I , 

_J I » i 1< 





Electric Car 

The Columbia Electric Car Hoist is economi- 
cal, efficient and time-saving. 

It will raise a 50 ton car six feet in less than 
5 minutes. 

It makes car hoisting easy and because of its 
speed of operation, saves workers' time as well 
as affording absolute safety to men in the pit, 
and to equipment. 

It can be operated by a discarded electric motor. 

We also make special car hoisting machinery 
for car work shops. 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

The Philadelphia and Western are using Steel 

Tired Wheels and Axles, made by the 

Standard Steel Works Company, who also 

manufacture Steel Springs, Solid Forged 

and Wrought Steel Wheels, Steel 

Forgings, Steel and Malleable Iron 

Castings and Steel Pipe Flanges. 

"Not only to mak.e better products but 

to make them better understood — not 

only to sell but to serve, assisting 

those who buy to choose as Well 

as use their purchases — this 

is the privilege if not the 

practice of all modern 

man ufacturers .' ' 

— Vauclain 

Standard Steel Works Company 












March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 




more economical on this road too 

THREE years ago they decided to try Miller 
Trolley Shoes on the Hudson Valley Railway 
Company's cars. 

Today this company uses Miller Trolley Shoes exclu- 
sively because they find them better than trolley wheels. 
They report that Miller Trolley Shoes give more 
mileage with better contact and have no dewirements. 
Calls for the emergency line crew have been greatly 

! reduced. In every way they agree that Miller Trolley 

.Shoes are more economical. 


The Cost is less — the service better 

that's the real compelling 
reason why your road 
should equip with Miller 
Trolley Shoes. Arrange 
for a thorough test now. 

Write Hs today. 


Boston-21, Mass. 

fCeslern Representative 

Economy Electric Devices Co. 

1590 Old Colony BIdg., Chicago, III. 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

The New 

Instead of a big coarse-threaded jam 
nut that needs a two-fisted wrench 
for application you require only a 
pocket-size wrench that is applied at a 
convenient angle. The secret? The 
jam-nut idea is replaced by a split 
clamp with a spring power that won't 
be loosened once the little nut on the 
side has been tightened. 

This new turnbuckle will last as long 
as the truck, because — 

It's Boyerized! 



It is not exaggeration to say 
that "Boyerized" car parts 
last three and four times as 
long as parts of ordinary steel 

Buyers will generally admit that specially 
treated steel parts ought to last twice as 
long as ordinary steel parts. 

But they sometimes smile when we tell 
them that "Boyerized" parts last three 
and four times as long — but it's true! 

Other BOYERIZED Parts 

Brake Pins 
Brake Hangers 
Brake Levers 
Pedestal Gibs 
Brake Fulcrums 
Center Bearings 
Side Bearings 
Spring Post Bushings 

Spring Posts 

Bolster and Transom 

Chafing Plates 
MacArthur Tumbuckles 
Manganese Brake Heads 
Manganese Truck Parts 
Bronze Bearings 

Boyerized Parts cost slightly more because they last 
three or four times as long as parts of ordinary un- 
treated steel. Let us quote you on your requirements. 

Bemis Car Truck Company 

Electric Railway Supplies 



Economy Electric r).;vices Co.. Old Colony Bldg., Chicago. III. 
F. P. Bodler. 903 Monadnock Bid?., San Francisco. Cal. 
W. F. McKenney. 34 First Street. Portland. Oregon 
J. H Denton. 13:.>8 Broadway. New York City, N. Y. 
A. W. Arlin. T7C Pacific Electric Bide, Los Angeles. Cal. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


It is the least expensive of all babbitt metals, judged by its 
ability to keep down repair and maintenance expense. 

M-J Armature Babbitt is one of more than twenty grades of 
babbitt metal which we manufacture, but it is the only grade 
that we recommend for the hard gruelling service of electric 
railway armature bearings. 

It is standard because it goes farther, lasts longer and can be 
used over and over again. 


St. Louis, Mo. 


V-K Oil-less, M-J Lubricated Axle and Armature and Similar Products 

V-K Non-Arcing, M-J Standard 

mmrmf.% asm &mei4i cq 

St. loiiis MifiKSoiuri 



ELECTRIC Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 


Each has subscribed to 
and is maintaining the 
highest standards of 
practice in its editorial 
and advertising service. 

Advertisings and Selline" 
American Architect & 

Architectural RevieTP 
American Blacksmith. 

Auto & Tractor Shop 
American Exjjorter 
American Funeral 

American Hatter 
American Machinist 
American Paint Journal 
Americaji Paint & Oil 

American Printer 
American School Board 

Architectural Record 
Automobile Dealer and 

Automobile Journal 
Automotive Industries 

Baker's Heli>er 
Bakers Weekly 
Boiler Maker (The) 
Boot and Shoe 

Brick and Clay Record 
Buildintr Aire & The 

Builders Journal 
Building-s and Buildini: 

Building- Sunnly News 

Canadian Grocer 

Canadian Machinery & 
Manufacturingr News 

Cana<Han Railway & 
Marine World 

Candy and Ice Cream 

Chemical & Metal- 
lurgical EnK-ineeriuH 

Clothier and Furnisher 

Coal Ag-e 



Daily Metal Trade 

Domestic Engrineering 

Dry Goods Economist 


Dry Goo<ls Reporter 

Electric Railway 



Electrical Record 

Electrical World 

Embalmers' Monthly 

Engrineerine- and 

Mininp: Journal-Press 

Enerineerinsr News- 


Farm Implement News 

Fire and Water 

Foundry (The) 
Furniture Manufacturer 

and Artisan 

Gaiment Weekly (The) 
Ga« Age- Record 
Good Furnitiu-e Mag'a- 

Grand Rapids Furniture 


You are invited to consult us freely about 
Business Papers or Business Paper Advertising 


as affected by 


TT IS to your interest to know that goods 
are %vell sold, as well as well made. You 
have to pay the cost of selling just as you 
have to pay for the cost of manufacturing. 
Think it over. 

And the cost of selling is no small item. 
In some cases it costs more to sell goods 
than to make them. The seller who clings 
to antiquated, expensive methods of selling 
is no more entitled to your patronage than 
the one who nms an out-of-date factory, 
because you have to pay the additional costs 
in either case. 

If the waste is to be squeezed out of sell- 
ing, the buyer cannot escape a share of the 
responsibility in bringing it about. 

THIS means recognizing the efforts of 
those sellers who have adopted modern, 
economical methods of selling, and one of 
these beyond any question is good adver- 
tising in good Business Papers. 

Advertising not only cuts the cost of sell- 
ing, but it increases production volume and 
lowers manufacturing costs. It standardizes 
quality, and is a guarantee of good faith. 


Haberdaaher (The) 
Hardware Ag-e 
Hardware & Metal 
Heating and Ventilating 

Hide and leather 
Hospital Manae-ement 
Hotel Monthly 
Hotel Review 

lliiistrated Milliner 
Imi>lemcnt & Tractor 

Trade Journal 
Industrial Arts 

Indusliial Engineer 
Inland Printer 
Iron Age 
Iron Trade Review 


Lumber World Review 

Manufactur-^rs* Record 
Marine En^nneering' & 

Shippin;; Asre 
Marine Review 
Millinery Trade Review 
Mill Supplies 
Modern Hospital (The) 
Motor Age 
Motorcyle and 

Bicycle Illustrated 
Motor Truck 
Motor World 

National Builder 
National Cleaners Sc 

National Lanndry 

National Miller 
National Petroleum 

Nautical Gazette 
Northwest Commercial 


Oil News 

Oil Trade Journal 


Power Boating 

Power Plant 

Printers' Ink 
Piu*cha«ing Agent 

Railway Ag-e 
Railway Electrical 

Railway Engineering & 

Railway Mechanical 

Railway Signal 

Retail Lumberman 
Rock Products 
Rubber Age 

Sanitary & Heating 

Shoe and Leather 

Shoe Retailer 
Southern Engineer 
Sporting Goods Dealer 

Tea and Coffee Trade 

Textile World 

Welding Engineer 
Western Contractor 
Wood- Worker (The) 



JESSE H. NEAL, Executive Secretary 
22a West 42nd STREET 


March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


THE map above shows the location of the 
50 foundries in the United States and 
Canada, represented by the Association of 
Manufacturers of Chilled Car Wheels. 


for railway and street car 
service. Capacity 20,000 per 
day. 25.000,000 in service. 

1847 McCormick Bldg., Chicago 

Chicago, 4 

St. Louis, 2 

Buffalo, 4 

Pittsbursh, 2 

Cleveland, 2 

Amherst, N. S. 


Mich. City, Ind. 


Mt. Vernon, 111. 

Ft. Wayne, Ind. 






St. Paul 

Kansas City, Kan. 



Rochester, N. Y. 

Sayre, Pa 
Berwick, Pa. 


New Glasgow, N* S. 
Madison, IlL 
Huntinston, W. Va. 
Wilmington, Del. 
Houston, Tex. 
Hannibal, Mo. 
Reading, Pa. 
Richmond, Va. 
Ft. William, Ont. 
St. Thomas 
Ramapo, N. Y. 
Marshall. Tex. 
Los Angeles 
Council Bluffs 



American Railroad Association 

650 lb. wheel for 60,000 Capacity Car. 
700 lb. wheel for 80,000 Capacity Car. 
750 lb. wheel for 100,000 Capacity Car. 
850 lb. wheel for 140,000 Capacity Can 

The Standard Wheel for SeoerUy-Two 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

Bates Steel Poles 




Your Securities 

A permanent Bates 
Pole installation is easy 
and inexpensive to 
maintain. All surfaces 
are exterior and are 
easily and quickly 


208 South La Salle Street 

Have you your Bates Trea- 
tise on Steel Poles? 




Aetna Insulation 

For over twenty years, Anderson Line Material 
has been a leader in the field because of its em- 
inently satisfactory and long service. Aetna In- 
sulation has helped to make this reputation for it. 

Aetna Insulation is our own special compound. 
Developed years ago, it has continued ever since 
to meet the exacting requirements of electric rail- 
road line service. 

-Let us send our catalog — 

Albert & J. M. Anderson Mfg. Co. 

Established 1877 

289-293 A St., Boston, Mass. 

Branches — ^New York. 135 Broadway. Philadelphia. 429 Real 
Estate Trust Bldg-. Chicago. 105 So. Dearborn St. Ix>ndon. 
E. 0. 4, 38-39 Upper Thames St. 



Reg. n. S. Pat. Off. 


March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


The "Universal" Standardized Safety Car 

Combines the best results of all the various 
experiments with double-truck, one-man, two- 
man cars. Furthermore, it includes all the 
successful "safety" features, and interlocking 
control of doors, brakes and emergency pro- 
visions, which have become standard on the 

single-truck Birney "Safety." The Universal 
Safety Car, with its light weight, its large 
carrying capacity, its separate entrance and 
exit facilities, and its standardized construc- 
tion will increase your profits. 

If rite for full details. 

>lL^Bg E^c i^m.^m^^.1 St^ L^i^iflfe, Wa 

TKc Birthplace of the SafetyCar" 

Write for our 
Circular No. 10 

Brazed Bonding with 

KiCO Portable Series Type Outfit 

Efficient power consumption 

is dependent on the condition of your rail 
bonding. The ERICO Method of 
Brazed Bonding, with the Portable Series 

Type Bonding Outfit insures bonding of 
the highest conductivity and long life at 
a very low cost per bond applied. 

Investigate now — and be prepared for your Spring bonding problems 

The Electric Railway Improvement Co. 

Cleveland, Ohio 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 192b 





S. A. 



Center Plate Height 22)4 in- ^tb 26 in. Diam. Wheels 

For Modern Low Level Double Truck Cars, the Taylor R. H. Truck, equipped with Taylor S. A. Brake, 
with large diameter hard steel pins, will provide the best possible service results from every standpoint. 



Established 1892 


A single acting duplex compressor 
with crankcase and cylinders integral. 

One-piece cylinder-head for both 
cylinders contains suction and discharge valves. 
Heavily designed crankshaft of high-grade steel 





In the City of 
Seattle service 

turns in journal bearings of ample 
proportions to insure minimum wear. 
Herringbone Gears transmit power 
from motor shaft to crankshaft with 
practically silent operation. 
Lubrication is positive and efficient. 


Electrical Machinery 

Steam Turbines 

Steam Engines 

Gas and Oil Engines 

Hydraulic Turbines 

Crushing and Cement 


Mining Machinery 




I Flour ud Saw Mill M»chtB«y 
Power Tiuumission Machiaoy 
Pumptnt CngtB«>-C«ainlu8al Pta^^ 

SlFstn and Eltectrk Houts 

Air Compressors . Air Brtkck 

Agricultural M«chiaeiy 


March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Are you prepared 

to meet competition? 

It may be sharpened to a very 
keen edge — this competition — ^but 
nevertheless, it must be met. 

After you get the people to ride 
on your cars, you have the problem 
of holding patronage. But your 
first and most important problem 
is to get riders. You must influ- 
ence the choice of the people who 
do not ride on your cars, and get 
them for your patrons. 

And how can you manage this? 
Well, lots of Electric Railways 
are coaxing riders on their cars by 
means of Weekly Passes. These 
are sold at a set price, and entitle 
the holder to ride on the cars of 


.'A>ri>i»/-jm»M ' i 

"^ The YouHgstown Municipal Railway Company 

April 17 

Past b«ar«r oti 

within the on* f JHHftkiJ 
»ev«n (7) days as thowj 

Pass must be 
for on* (1) 


22, (Incl.) 

[I Railway Companr 
,own for a period of 
ia pas». 
T and is food onlv 

rven the r{|[ht to 
ind pro«rata unused 

the Company for a week. This 
sort of thing appeals to the people, 
and so builds business for the rail- 

Why not tempt the riders in your 
vicinify- by selling Weekly Passes 
on your lines? 

GLOBE TICKET COMPANY, 112 N. 12th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



with the 


Air Brush 

Handles all materials 
from the lightest disin- 
fectant to the heaviest 
leads and oils v.-ithottf 
special preparation. 

Man power is too valuable these days to waste it daubing paint by hand on 
sides of buildings, elevated structures, bridges and other heav>' work. There 
is plenty of higher grade work for good painters to do. 

The Dayton Air Brush can be used by any intelligent workman, and will do 
a smooth, uniform, finished job, in less time than several experienced Pointers 
using hand brushes. Moreover it actually saves paint. Still it reaches the 
most inaccessible cracks, joints, spaces under rivet heads, etc. By its more 
thorough and complete covering power, the Dayton Air Brush actually adds 
to the certainty of preventing corrosion of iron and steel structures. 

Send for quotations 

The Dayton Air Brush Company 

17 Maryland Avenue, Dayton, Ohio 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 


THE NEW Trolley Catcher which has made good. Less parts than any other 
Catcher. Catches pole before it acquires the momentum which breaks the trolley 
cord. Sample for free trial on application. Also manufacturers of the Eclipse and 
Acme Fenders, Eclipse Wheelguard, Eclipse Trolley Retriever. 




for your new cars 

Best seats for City Cars 
Interurban Lines, One Man Cars 
Trolley Buses 


Lightest IVeight 
Steel Seat 

No higher in price than others 
JVrite for particulars 

Hale & Kilburn Corporation 

American Motor Body Company, Successors 




Steel Sen! 

New York 




San Francisco 

Los Angeles 

il/arcfe 3, 1923 Electric Railway Journal 

I""" """""' ' """"' iiiMiiniimrimiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiif miiiiiiiii mil iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiniiimiii' 


Our Cars Cost Less 
To Maintain 

-■ li BlillllPBI 

Safety First 

Cars of All Types 

From I 

Birney One- Man Safety 

To I 

Large City and Interurban | 



Sash, Doors, Interior Finish and I 
Framing, Curtains, Ventilators and = 
Car Trimmings, Brakes, Gongs, j 
Door and Step Mechanism. | 

"We Satisfy" | 

Give Us A Trial i 

Perley A.Thomas Car Works 

High Point, N. C. 

Examine this useful library 
for 10 days FREE 

The four books give modern, reliable information 
derived from the actual experience of practical elec- 
tric railway engineering men. The library contains no 
far-fetched suggestions — practical usefulness is its 
keynote. It points out ways and means of increas- 
ing efficiency and lowering costs which other en- 
gineers have found successful. You can apply these 
methods to your every-day problems. Why not make 
this information count for you? It will shorten the 
road to better results. 




4 volumes, over 2,000 pages, fully illustrated 
$16.00 postpaid, payable in five installment* 

Electric Railway Engineering is a thorough manual of 
the broader engineering problems. Electrical Railway 
Transportation covers the business side of the subject — 
the relation of traffic to profits. Electric Car Main- 
tenance has saved money for hundreds of lines. It is 
a complete treatment of this special subject. The Elec- 
tric Railway Handbook is a pocket encyclopedia of 
electric railway construction, operation and maintenance. 
It is the Webster of the industry. 

Sent on approval 

No advance remittance 

Small monthly payments 


M<'(>riin-HIII Bonk Co., Inc.. 

370 Sfvrath .Vveiiue, New York. 

Yiiu may Bend mi- the Electric Railway Library for my 
inspection. If the books prove satistartory I will send 
$-J 00 In 10 clays and %'A.iM per month tor four months — 
until I have paid the price of the books — flO.OO. If the 
books are not what I want I agree to return them pest- 
l)aid within 10 days of receipt. 

SubKcrlber to the Electric Railway Journal? 

Member of the A.I.E.E. or the A.G.B.A.? 



Name of Company 
Official Position . . 

(Books sent on approval to retail ourehssers In tlie 
V. S. and Canada.) E. 3..3 23 

.iiiiiililiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiijiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitlliiilliiimiillllliiiiiiiiimiiiiiii 'Ui 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 


When you have to connect cables from 
the dial to the grids of field rheostats 
— you need this 

T\f\Q.^T^'0'^ Rheostat 
UVyOi^rLJV J Terminal 

The elongated shank holds the cable in a 
straight line — the contact disc being slotted 
to fit over the grid — while the Dossert 
tapered sleeve and compression nut gives 
solderless connection to the cable. 

Another example of Dossert adaptability 
taken from the book below. 



Dossert & Go. 

242 West 41st Street 
New York, N. Y. 






Bei. U. 8. Pat Offloe 

Oklvanlzed Iron and Steel 

Wire and Strand 

Incandescent lAmp Cord 



Standard Underground Gable Go. 

Manafactnrerft of 

Electric Wirea and Cables of all kinds; 

also Cable Terminals. Junction Boxes, etc. 

Bostt^i Philadelphia I'ittsburgli Detixiit New TOPTk 

San Francisco Chicago Washington St. Louil 

-iiirii inniiiiiiiniiillliliriMiiHitrillliinillirillllilllllliilllHiiiiiMUiiiiiHiiiiiiidtlllllliilll iiiiiriiHiiiuiiniilllliilllliMniiniiiR 






Jimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Ill iiiiiiiiiiiii II uiiig 

I >o. t i 

Electric Railway | 

Automatic | 
Signals | 



^ 1 






for Accessibility 
and Reliability 

isr IS65 8^82 mcjva 


«/lil^coi»fF»Arrr ' 

*«0. U.* ttHT. 



Bosun, ITS rsdsnl: Ctilcsgo, 111 W. Adami: : 

Clndnnstl. Trsotltn Bide.; New Toik, IS 3 B'wi; | 



Philadelphia, New Terk. Paiia, 1 

Sides Agentai | 

Electric Serrice Supplies Co. | 

Phlladelpliia. New York Chlcafo | 

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■ .©ME WDE] " 


I Rome Merit Wins Customers | 

I Rome Service Holds Them | 


I Main Plant and Executive Offices: Rome, N. Y. i 

I "Diamond" Branch: BufTalo, N. Y. | 


I New York, 50 Church St. ChlcsKO, lU., 14 E. Jaokson Blvd. I 

S Boston. Mass.. Little Bids. Detroit. Mich.. «S Parsons St. ^ 

f Los Angeles, Cal., J. O. Pomeroy, 336 Azusa St. 2113.L | 




I Automatic Signals 

i Charles N. Wood Co., Boston 


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for single track block si«rnal protection | 

United States Electric Signal Co. | 

Vvest Newton, Mass. = 






Conway Building. Chicaeo. Ill 


rnrra! Offices: Watcrbury. Conn. 



I Highway Crossing Bells 

I Headway Recorders 


e = 


March 3. 1923 Electric Rai 


I Lorain Special Trackwork I 
I Girder Rails 

I Electrically Welded Joints | 


I Johnitown, Pa. i 

I Sates Offices: | 

I Atlanta Chicago Cleveland New York I 

I Philadelphia Pittsburgh | 

i Pacific Coast Representative; 1 

I United States Steel Products Company 1 

I Los Angeles Portland San Francisco Seattle = 

= Export Representative: § 

I United States Steel Products Company, New York, N. Y. I 

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^iHinnilllllllHiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiir iiilil i llililiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiirriimiiiiiiiiijiirriiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiinL 


I Of the well-known WHARTON Superior Designs I 
I and Constructions I 



Steel CutiiiC* 


Ga« Cylinden 

CoBTerter aad 

Drop Hammer 



and Preaa 


I Wm. Wharton Jr. & Ck». Inc., Easton, Pa. | 

I (Subsidiary of Taylor-Whartoa Iron & Steel Co., I 

I High Bridge, N. J.) | 

s - 



aimnimiriiiiiiiiimiiiiiniMiiiiiiiMimiiiiiiiMiiiiimiiiii miii iiiiMiUMiiiiniiimiiriiiiimiimiiiimiiMiiiiiii iiiiimim. 

Rail Bonds 



Arc Weld and Flame Weld 

Send for new 
Rail Bond Book 

American Steel & Wire 
NEW YORK Company 


I Use only Awebco Tape on your Armatures | 
I Field Coils have better protection when wound with i 
I "AWEBCO Tape." Send for samples. | 


1300 Brook Street, Pawtucket, Rhode Island I 



afiHlliiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiri ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiir iirMiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiniiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiR. 


I High-Grade Track 






I New York Switch & Crossing Co. 
I Hoboken, N. J. 


bunt ir itiliiilliiiiilluii iiiliriiiiiiillllllllK iiii i iiiiiiiiimhiiiiimii iiiiiiirMiiiiiiiiiniiiiti iiiiiitr 

i Croia Ties: 

White Oak, Chestnut, and Treated Ties. 
Oak Switch Ties. 

I Prompt ihipment from our o<um stocks. | 

I Headquarters — Nashville, Tenn. | 

I A. D. Andrews, Terre Haute, Ind., Representative. | 



i Ramapo Iron Works AJaz Force OoiUMUiT i 

I Gitibllabed 1881 ElUbllsCed liSI = 


1 Successor = 


I Chicago New York Superior, Wis. Niagara Falls, N. Y. | 

i Automatic Return Switch Stands for Passing Sidings i 

g Automatic Safety Switch Stands i 

i Manganese Construction — Tee Bail Special Work S 

Clllliminiriimiiiinimiiiliiiniiiniimiiiiliiiiilllllllillirillim rlilririiililllllriiliiiiiiiiriiii riiiiiitilliiriiilliririiir illliiiH 

<2/^ InsutatorCoJncJeFi^^lCf 

= Trade Mark 


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Rml Bonds cmd Trolley Line SpecUdtimt 
Flood City Mfg. Co., Johnstown,?*. 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

nilllHlliraitniimiililliiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilimiiiiiimiiiiiiiirliiiiiii iiiiniiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiriiiiuiluniiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiHiiijiiijiiiiiriimiuiiiliimiiiliiiiiiiuJiiillllilliiijiiiiniitriiiiiiii uiiiiiiii iiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinriii i iiiiuiiliiiimiiiuiinim 


85 Liberty Street, New Vork 

Builders since 1868 of 
Water Tube Boilers 
of continuing reliability 

Boston, 49 Federal Street 
Phiuadei-phia, North American Building 
Pittsburgh, Farmers Deposit Bank Building 
Cleveland, Guardian Building 
Chicago, Marquette Building 
Cincinnati, Traction Building 
Atlanta, Candler Building 
Tucson, Akiz., 21 So. Stone Avenue 
Dallas, Tbx^ 2001 Magnolia Building 
Honolulu, H. T., Castle & Cooke Building 

Bayonne, N. J. 
Barberton, Ohio 

Makers of Steam Superheaters 
since 1898 and of Chain Grate 
Stokers since 1893 

Detroit, Ford Building 
New Orleans, 521-5 Baronne Street 
Houston, Texas, Southern Paclflc Building 
Denver, 435 Seventeenth Street 
Salt Lake City, 705-6 Kearns Building 
San Francisco. Sheldon Building 
Los Anqbles, 404-6 Central Building 
Seattle, L. C. Smith Building 
Havana, Cuba, Calle de Aguiar 104 
San Juan, Porto Rico, Royal Bank Building 

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iiiiiiiiiriiiiii miriiiiiiinuiiimi iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiim i ii iii iiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiraiminiiimiiiimic gniiiiimimiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiii uiiiuiimiiim iiiiiiiHiiuiiiniiitiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiriiiriiiii nimiimiiiiin- 


205 Broadway, Cambridgeport, Mass. 
Established 1858 

Manufacturers of 

Special Work for Street Railways 

Frogs, Crossings, Switches and Mates 

Turnouts and Cross Connections 

Kerwin Portable Crossovers 

Balkwill Articulated Csut Manganese Crossing* 

I Don't throw 

i the oily 

I waste away! 

I Save Money By Reclaiming It! | 

1 i This oil extracting" machine is reclaiming hundreds of gallons of i 

i = perfectly good lubricating oil and many pounds of waste for the i 

i i Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. as well as many other = 

I £ companies. It will do the same for you. It is widely used as a = 

= = real economy producing equipment. = 

I I Write for full details 1 


I I Philadelphia, Pa. | 

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BUck and Y*Uow 

Vamiakvd Silk, Vamisked Cambric, Vamisked Papar 

iiT>0-Slot Inaolsttion Flexible Vamisked Tubing 
Insulating Vamisbes and Compounds 

Irvington Varnish & Insulator Co. 

Irvington, N. J. 

Sales Representatives in the Principal Cities 

We Specialize in 
Electric Railway Lubrication 

Tulc, a lubricant, gives many advantages, I 

in operation and reduces the cost of lubri- i 

cation. Our service men are engineers, i 

and besides advising proper methods, vfill 1 

pack your cars, show you how and why | 

Tulc should be used, and get money- | 

saving results. Ask us for details. | 

The Universal Lubricating Co. f 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Scientifically and 

accurately compounded to 

reduce lubricating costs. 

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A necessity for turbine protection, engine cylinder economy and utilization of superheat for all its benefits S 


Boston Philadelphia Pittsburgh Kansaa City Dallas Chicago San Francisco London. Bng. | 


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Peirce Forged Steel Pins 
with Drawn Separable Thimbles 

Your best insurance against insulator breakage 

Hubbard & Company 



to all types 


I Adapted 
I of rail: 
I paTinflf. 

I W. S. GODWIN CO., Inc. ^^^^,^2 E. Lexington St., Baltimore. Md. | 


Proven by 
service to 
economically pre- 
vent seepage and 
disintegration o f 
street railway paving. 

H^rite for Illustrated 
Catalog No, 20. 

March 3, 192S Electric Railway Journal 

|<'i<"iii iiuiiiiiiii JiiiJiiiiiriniMiniiiiMiirriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiciiir iiifriiiiiiiiiiiiiliii riiiiiiiiiiiiillll I llilllllliuiiir: iiiiini rillliiiiiuiiiiiimiimiiuiiimiiiiiimii 




For results — Tapes, Webbings, f 

Sleevings, of uniform and standard j 

quality for electric purposes, that is, I 

Hope Webbing Company service. [ 

Send for samples and prices | 


New York 



Chicago I 


I Car Seat and 
Snow Sweeper Rattan | 

For 60 years we have been the largest im- 
porters of rattan from the Far East. It 
is therefore to be expected that when Rat- 
tan is thought of our name, "Heywood- 
Wakefield," instantly comes to mind. 

Follow that impulse and write us when in 
the market for: 

High Grade close woven Rattan Car Seat 
Webbing, canvas lined and unlined, in 
widths from 12 in. to 48 in. 

High Grade Snow Sweeper Rattan in 
Natural and Cut Lengths. 

High Grade Car Seats, cross or longi- 
tudinal, covered with Rattan, Plush or 


Ohmer Fare Registers 

Ohmer Fare Registers place the sale 
of electric railway transportation on 
a correct business basis. 

They indicate the exact amount of 
each sale and print a record of it. 

Ohmer Fare Registers are made in 
many sizes and types. All fare col- 
lection requirements can be easily 

Ohmer Fare Register Company 

Dayton, Ohio 


Factory: Wakefield, Mass. 


Heywood- Wakefield Co. Heywood- Wakefield Co. 

516 West 34th St., New York 1415 Michlg-an Ave.. Chicago 

E. F. Boyle. Monadnock Bldg.. San Francisco. Cal. 

F. N. Grigg. 630 Louisiana Ave.. Washington. D. C. 

Railway and Power Engineering Corp.. Toronto and Montreal 

G. F. Cotter Supply Co., Houston, Texas 

For Accurate Placing 

THE Tribloc lowers its load gently and 
accurately into place. To understand 
why, one has only to examine the planet- 
ary gear system. Such a well balanced 
drive insures absolute smoothness of oper- 
ation. A Tribloc will never jump, jam, 
or jerk under its proper load. 

H^rite for information on any 

type or capacity to 40 torn. 2217-D 






Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 


I They are Used 

Nearly Everywhere 


Notice, when you travel, the large 
number of street railways and city 
systems using International Fare 
Registers, Many of these properties 
have been using International 
Registers for years, and many of the 
registers are veterans in service. 

The widespread use of International 
Registers is not a matter of chance. 
In many cases they have been 
selected only after a p>eriod of trial 
which has demonstrated the value 
of their reliable registration. Their 
simplicity of operation and the 
definite visible and audible registra- 
tion of each fare helps platform 
men. and giv«» a record which the 
accounting department can rely 

The newest models of International 
Registers retain all the distinctive 
features which have established the 
reputation of this equipment. 

A full description will be sent on 

i The International Register Co. 

I 15 South Throop Street, Chicago | 

I Exclusive Selling A^nts for HEEREN Enamel Badges = 


A Really Useful 
Wiring Handbook 

This book will enable the 
inexperienced as well as 
experienced wiremen 
to meet the require- 
ments of th 
National Elec- 
trical Code, 

Wiring for 
Light and Power 

426 pages, flexible, pocket 
size, $3.00 net, postpaid 
A Wiring Handbook ^ 

That flts the requlremcDta ot the ** 
National Code. ^»' 

That conforms to the best Amerl. ^** 
can practice. ^' 

That is Indexed so that you can ,* McGraw- 
flnd Instantly the tacts you «' Hill Book 
need. ^»' Co., inc.. 

That U a common sense, practical .»' »*'• Serenth 
commentary on the National Electrical Code. ,♦ Yotk'N' Y "^ 

That tells how to install wiring and appa- ,'' you may Knd me on 

10 day<i' approval. 
Croft's WIrlnit for Ll^t 
That tells how to Install these so ,>' and Power, S3.M. I agree to 
as to be electrically sale and ,' remit tor the book or return It 
mechanically correct. ^„' postpaid within 10 days ot receipt. 

That explains why Inatal- ,'' Member ot A, I. E. E.T 

l"i''3've'n «?. "' ""''' ,''' subscriber to Electric RaUway Journal? 

ExamOieit .''' signed 

for-tOdaym *' Address Official Position 

FREE ,'' Name ot Company F.E 

ratus for practically all services, under 
practically all conrlitlons. 


Universal | 


Hie beet changer on the market. 
Can be adjusted by the conductor to 
throw out a Taryinr number of 
coins, necessary to meet chanrea in 
rates of fares. 


i!Uich barrel a a^arate unit, permit- 
ting the conductor to interehanre 
the barrels to suit his personal re- 

auirements. and to facilitate the ad- 
Ltion of extra barrels. 



I B. A. HeKeman, Jr., President = 

= Charles C. Cistle, First Vice-President W. C. Lincoln. Manager Sales and = 

I Harold A. Hegeman, Vice-President, Engineering = 

I Treas. and Acting Secy | 

National Railway Appliance Co. | 

E Grand Central Terminal, 452 Lexington Ave., Cor. 4Sth St.. i 

= New York i 


£ Munsey Bldg., Washington. D. C; 100 Boylston St., Boston. Mass.; Union 1 

= Trust Bldg., HarrUburg. I'a. ; Ilegeinan-Castle Corporation, Railway Exchange = 

1 Btdg.. Chicago, III. = 

I Railway Supplies I 

= Tool Steel Gears and Pinions 
I Anderson Slack Adjusters 
§ (ipnespo Paint Oils 


Ravenswood, Chicago, 111. 


Diinhain Hopper Door Devices 
= .XiiKlo-.Xnierican Varnish Co., 
= A'aniiNlies. Enamels, etc. 

= I>rew Line Material and Railway 
= Specialties 

i Turnstile Car Corporation 
= National Hand Holds 
= PUtsbureh Forge & Iron Co.'s 

= Products = 

I Tneniec Paint & Oil Co.'s Cement Paint = 

I Fort Pitt Spring & Mfg. Co., Springs | 


Kcunoniy Electric Devices Co.. = 

Power Saving Meters i 

Lind Alaminuni Field Coils I 

C-H Electric Heaters | 

(iarland \>ntilatorB = 

National Sofety Car Equipment i 

Co.'s One-3Ian Safety Cars | 

Flaxlinnm Insulation | 

E-Z Car C-ontrol Corporation | 

Safety Devices 1 


iimiiiiimiuiiuiimiillllii . SHiiiiiniiiHiiHiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiHiiniiniiiiMiiiiiiiiiitiiimiiiniitiiiniiuiiiiiiuiiinMiniiiiiiniiiiiiuiiiitmiiiiiiiiiiti 

1 Fare Boxes Change Carriers i 





§ Canadian Branch, Preston, Ontario. 1 


i SS New Users in the Last 4 Months 


I present an Unusual Combination 

I in that they grive BETTER RESULTS AT LESS COST 

I Manufactured and Sold bw 

I Morton Manufacturing Company, Chicago 

iiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriuimiiniiiiiiiii iiiiiiimiiuiiiiiiimiiiiiiiii iiiiini uumimimiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiniiniinimi 

Gets Every Fare I 


Use tliem in your Prepayment Areas and i 
Street Oars | 

Percy Manufacturing Co., Inc. | 

30 Church Street, New York City | 


iinniiiiiiiiiiiui iiiiimiimiiiiiiiiiii uiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiniiiiiiuiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiifiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiMiiii^ 

Saa th* Crank of the i 


Uy meani of it, conductor or motorman = 

cnn change sign without leaving platform, g 

All that has to be done is to turn the § 

crank. Better investigate. = 


^lUiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiim i tiiiniiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiS 

March 3, 1923 ElectricRailwayJournal 55 

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DIFFERENT kinds of service require different modes 
of treatment. For years we have specialized on 
Catchers and Retrievers exclusively. We can satisfac- 
torily meet every condition. 

We can give you the Ratchet Wind, the Emergency Re- 
lease, the Free-Winding Spring, the Drum Check, and 
other absolutely exclusive features. 

i-^J^^T-^, 7^ 

Canadian Agents: 

Railway A Power Engineering Corp., Ltd., Teronto, Ont. 

In All Other Foreign Countries; 

International General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

§ § 

THE N-L New Style Type C Venti- 
lator is absolutely weatherproof, lays 
low on roof, looks well and meets every 
requirement of ventilation. 

More than seven thousand N-L V entilators 
sold during 1922. 

The Nichols-Lintern Company 

7960 Lorain Ave., Cleveland, O. 

S-L Products mantdastured and sold in Canada by 

Railway and Power Engineering Corporation, Ltd., 

133 Eastern Avenue, Toronto, Ontario 

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▲ddreM All I 
Conununi- = 
cations to = 


<220 36tfaSt.>i 

Brooklyn, = 

N. Y. I 

LrterotttT* on = 

Rm^nmmt = 


NEW YORK cirr 


= TUIktfcMUaAAT CUAilbUA. &.«««. u .«a^ ' 

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I 75% of the electric railways 

B-V Punches 

i Send lor Catalog 


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Car Seating, Broom and Snow Sweeper 
Rattan, Mouldings, etc. 


Brooklyn, N. Y. 


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tiii*^ wm^-ny ConJu^^ Direct | 

Automatic | 
Registration \ 

By tb* I 

Rooke Automatic i 
Register Co. | 

Providence, R. I. I 





I i^ 



Car Heating and Ventilation 

is one of the winter problems that you mam 
Bettle without delay. We can show you how 
to take care of both, with one equipment. 
Now IB the time to get your cars ready for 
next winter. Write for details. 

The Peter Smitli Heater Company 

1725 Mt. Elliott Ave., Detroit, Mich. 






Phtabursk, Pik 

56 ElectricRailwayJoubnal March 3, 1923 

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The Right to Advertise 

by Festus J. Wade, President 

Mercantile Trust Company 

of St. Louis 

I repeat I am prejudiced in favor 
of advertising. But I am not 
guessing. I have seen what it has 
been able to do. 

Advertising is almost as nec- 
essary to the bank, particularly 
the one offering a diversified 
service, as it is to the department 

It is a powerful force, and no 
one deserving the right to apply 
it to his business should be denied 
that right. 

[Published by the Electric Railway Journal in co-operation "l i 
with The American Association of Advertising AgenciesJ | 



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The Differential Car 

An automatic dump car, an electric locomotive, a 
snow plow, and a freight car — all in one. Big 
savings shown in track con- 
struction and maintenance, 
paving work, coal hauling, 
ash disposal, snow removal, 
and freight transportation. 

The Differential 
Steel Car Co. 

Findlay, Ohio 

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'■^:^^':^^i^^^^iM^^m^!^': . 

Defective Wheelt 
Corrected While They Run 


— keep your cars and wheels in 
service. Abrasive blocks in vari- 
ous sections correct flattening- or 
wear on any part of flang-e or 
tread. Write for booklet. 

Wheel Truinjf Brake Shoe Co. 

Detroit. Mich. 

Trade Mark — Wheel Tmlnjc Brake 




15 pages 6x9, Ulustraud. S3 00 fiei. postpaid 
This book is a compilation of prso tica 
methoda used by repairmen and atsaturc 
winders. It givee in detail those methoda 
which have been found by actual exprr* 
ience to represent bent practice in a repair 
shop of average size. 

McGraw-HlU Book Co.. Inc., 

370 Seventh Are.. New York. N. Y 

You may send me on 10 days' approva 
Braymer's Armature Winding and 
Motor Repair, $3.00 net, postpaid. I 
agree to pay lor the book or return It 
postpaid wlUiln 10 days ol receipt. 
Regular subscriber to tbe Electric Rall- 

wa) Journal? 

MeiQberof A. I. £. E? 



Name of Company Official Position 

(Books sent on approval to retail purchasers In the 
U. S. and Canada only.) P.K. 


I ii 

Make it of VuUCot Fibre'' 






One-Piece Gear Cases | 

Seamless — Rlvetless — Light Weight = 

Best for Service^Durability and = 

Economy. IVrife C/s. \ 

Chillingworth Mfg. Co. I 

Jersey City, N. J. 5 


I A Single Segment or a Complete Commutator I | SHaW Lightning ArrCSterS 

is turned out with equal care in our shops. The orders we 1111 
differ only in magnitude; small orders command our utmost cars 
and skill just as do large orders. CAMERON quality applies to 
every coil or segment that we can make, as well as to every com- 
mutator we build. That's why so many electric railway men raly 
absolutely on our name. 

Cameron Electrical Mfg. Co., Ansonia, Connecticut 



high-grade R. R. Track and Car Jacks 

The Buckeye Jack Mfg. Co. 

Alliance, Ohio 


I Slandard in the Electric Indtatrtea | 

i for 35 years | 

Henry M. Shaw 

i 150 Coit St., Irvington, Newark, N. J. | 


I Rolled and Forged I 


I Midvale Steel and Ordnance Company | 

I Cambria Steel Company | 

i Gen«rii2 Offices; i 

I Widener Building, Philadelphia, Pa. | 


March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Searchlight Section 



i'ositions Wanted, 4 cents a word, minimum Bon Humbert In care of any of our offices 1 to S Inchci »4.50 an Inch 

'5 cents an insertion, payable In advance. count 10 words additional In undlsplayed adi. 4 to 7 Inchej 4 30 an Inch 

''°«"!.Z',/r™r/"ml^L,?m'JhJ;'ff'?,"io"'' DUccHnt of 10% If one payment Is made In * '° ''' '"*»' *•"■ '" ^^ 

8 cents a word, minimum charge 1^.00. advance for four consecutive Insertions of An adMrtUitm tneh Is measured TOrtlctlly on 

PrODOgalSt 4C cents a line an Insertion. undlsplayed ads (not Inciudins proposals). one column, 3 columns — 30 inches — to a page. 



AN KXPERIENCED engineer wanted, ca- 
pable of doing drafting and designing 
work of electric railway equipment de- 
vices. Prefer a man with shop experi- 
ence. Excellent opportunity for advance- 
ment with old established concern. P-526, 
Electric Railway Journal, 10th Ave. at 
36th St.. New York. 

ARMATURE winder to act as foreman in 
small shop near New York. State age, 
experience, salary. P-527, Electric Rail- 
way Journal, 10th Ave. at 36th St., New 

DRAFTSMEN calculators wanted on special 
track work. With or without experience 
but must have thorough working knowl- 
edge of mathematics. P-518, Electric 
Railway Journal, Real Estate Trust Bldg', 
Phila,, Pa. 

FIRST class armature winder, one familiar 
. with street railway motors. Address 
Master Mechanic, P. O. Box 407, Rens- 
selaer, N. Y. 


MASTER mechanic desires position on 
small city or Interurban property. I 
am at present employed and can give 
good references. PW-506, Blec. Rn 
Journal, Old Colony Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

MR. MANAGER, are you In need of a ca- 
pable, practical superintendent of trans- 
portation who is fully competent to take 
over all details and handle same in a 
manner that would be a credit to your 
property? Successful in public relations, 
safety campaigns and capable of getting 
results from employees ; recognized as an 
economical operator. At present with 
large property ; present relations are 
pleasant ; personal reasons for desiring a 
change to another property. A proven 
record of eighteen years with large city, 
suburban and interurban properties with 


high grade references is back of this ad. 
PW-520, Elec. Railway Journal, Leader- 
News Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 1 

SUPERINTENDENT of transportation or 
superintendent secret service. Twenty 
years' experience in electrical line, oper- 
ating city, interurban and suburban prop- 
erty. Good record based on long experi- 
ence with large property. Present rela- 
tions are pleasant — personal reasons for 
desiring a change. PW-B17. Electric 
Railway Journal, Old Colony Bldg., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

SUPKRINTBNDENT of equipment, with 
good record based on broad experience, 
city and interurban. now employed, de- 
sires a change. Willing to rebuild run 
down property. Interview solicited. PW- 
525, Electric Railway Journal, 10th Ave. 
at 36th St., New York. 

CHIEF engineer or superintendent, broad 
experience in power, refrigeration, min- 
ing and industrial equipment. Graduate 
combustion engineer. R. B. Hutchason. 
New Athens, 111. 


Ohio Representation 

Established manufacturers agent covering 
Ohio desires account with manufacturer 
of electric railway equipment. RA-523, 
Electric Railway Journal, Leader-News 
Bldg., Cleveland Ohio. 



Street Car Registers 

Up to loO; cither sing-Ie or double readinjr. = 

Give make, model, lowest price and when | 

available. | 

W-524. Elertric Railway Journal s 

Rialto Bldg-., San Francisco. Calif. | 


Sell Your Idle Equipment 

Tell others in the field what you wish to 
dispose of. Buyers in the market look 
here for good used machinery. 

Advertising in the Searchlight Section 
costs little and usually brings prompt and 
satisfactory returns. 

Let "Searchlight" Help You 


On account of discontinuing cars 

on which wheels were formerly used 

National Car Wheel Go's make 

269 — 3U-in. diam. Spoke. 3% in. rouKh 
borp. Approximate weiifhl 190 IbB. 
Griffin Wheel Co.'s Make. 

350 — 24-in. diam.. 4 'A -in. roufh bore — 
double plate. Approx. weiffht 325 lbs. 

147 — .33-in. diam. rough bores. 4% -in. to 
O-in. double plate. Approximate 
weight 530 lbs. each. 

-33-in. Motor Wheels, 
weight 815 lbs. 

-30-in. Trailer Wheels, 
wciglit 645 11>B. 



1 ^ cent per lb. f .o.b. Boston. 

Boston Elevated Railway 

Purchasing Agent 
108 Mass. Ave., Boston 



20— Peter Witt Cars 

Waifht Complet*. 33.000 lbs. 
Seat 53. 4 — O. E. No. 258-C Moton. 
K-12-H Control. West. Air Taylor Traeka. 
R H. Type Complete. 

Cnrnmnnwealtb Bld(.. Vhlladelphla. Pa. 

I i New Motor Repair Parts 


! I We have in Block virtually every part 

I I necessary to complete all of the tTPM Of 

I I non-intcrpole motors. They are new and 

I I were manufactured by either the Westing:- 

I i house Company or the General Electric 

I I Company. They may be purchaaed at 26 

i I per cent less than the manufacturers pres- 

I I ent prices. 

i I Send your orders to us and deduct 25 per 

: I cent from the current quotations. 

I I What have you for aaUT 


3 I Cars — Mutorn 

I I .">01 Fifth Avenue. New Y()rl(. 


I i 


4 — Passenger Motor Cars— 4 

Weiiht 47,000 lbs. 0«ared 64-20 

Single end cars— Leather upholstered seats 

Seats 44 — Passenger Compartment 32 and 
Smoker 12 

4 O.B. 203-L Motors — K-3B-0 Control 

St. Louie No. 47-B Trucks— Steel Body 

Have been run only 357,000 miles per car 

at low speed and hare always been properly 


Are in excellent condition in every way I 

El Paso Electric Railway Co. 

P. O. Box 431. Kl Paso, Texas 




Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 192S 


E^qaipment, Appamtua ani Supplies Used hy tke Electric Railway lodnalry with 
Names uf Manufacturers and Distributors Advertisingjin this Issue 

AdTertUine, Street Ou 
Collier, Inc., Barron 6. 
Air BeceiverB, Aft«rooolen 

lng«rsoll-Kand Co. 

Roller-Smith Co. 
Anchors, Qny 
Electric Service Supplies Oo. 
Oliio Brass Co. 
Westin§:houBe Elec. 4 M . Os. 
Armature Sliop Tooli 
Elec. Serrice SuppUei Co. 
Automatic Return Switeh 
Ramapo Ajaz Corp. 
Automatic Hafety Switch 
Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Axle Straighteners 

Columbia M. W. & U. I. Os. 
Axies, Car AVheel 
Bemis Car Trucii Co. 
Brill Co.. The J. O. 
Cambria Steel Co. 
Carnegie Steel Co. 
Midvale Steel & Ord. Co. 
St. Louis Car Co. 
Standard Steel Works Co. 
Taylor Electric Tmclt Co. 
WeatiDghouse Elec. 4 If . Co. 
Babbitt Metal 
Ajax Metal Co. 
More-Jones B. & M. Co. 
Babbittinr Devices 
Columbia M. W. A H. I. Go. 
Badges and Buttons 
Electric Service Supplies Oo. 
International Register Os. 
Bankers and Broken 

Coal & Iron National Bank 
Batteries, Dry 

Nicbols-Llntem Co. 
Bearings and Bearint Metals 
Ajax Metai Co. 
Bemis Car Truck Co. 
Columbia M. W. & M. I. Oo. 
General Electric Co. 
A. Gilbert & Sons B. F. Co. 
Le Grand. Inc., NIC. 
More-Jones Br. & Metal Oo. 
Taylor Electric Truck Oo. 
Westinghouse Elec. ft M. Oo. 
Bearings, Center and BoUar 
Stucki Co.. A. 
Bearings, Roller 
Stafford Roller Bearing Car 
Truck Co. 
Bells and Gongs 
Brill Co., The J, O. 
Columbia M. W. * M.I. Oo. 
Consolidated Car Heating Oo. 
Elec. Service Supplies Co. 
Benders, Bail 

By. Track-work Co. 

Babcock & Wilcox Co.. Th« 
Boiler Tube* 
Cambria Steel Co. 
Midvale Steel & Ord. Co. 
Bond Testers 
Amer. Steel ft Wire Co. 
Elec. Service Suppliee Co. 
Rail Weldin? ft Bonding Oo. 
Bonding Apparatss 
Amer. Steel ft Wire Oo. 
Blec. By. Imp. Co. 
Blee. Service Suplies Oo. 
Indianapolis Switch ft Free 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Railway Track-work Oo. 
Bail Welding ft Bonding Oo. 
Boote, Ball 
Amer. Steel ft Wire Oo. 
Blec. Railway Imp. Co. 
Elec. Service Supplies Oo. 
General Electric Co. 
Ohio Brass Co. 
Railway Track-Work Co. 
Rail Welding: ft Bonding Oo. 
Westinghouse Blec. ft M. Oo. 
Book I'nblisiiers 

McGraw-Hill Book Co. 
Boxes. Switch 
Johns-Pratt Co. 
Brackets and Crose Amu 
(See also Poles. Ties, Poetic 
Bates Exp. Steel Truss Oo. 
Creaghead Eng. Co. 
Elec. Ry. Equip. Co. 
Elec. Service Supplies Oo. 
Hubbard ft Co. 
Ohio Brass Co. 
Brake Adjusters 
Nat'l Ry. Appliance Oo. 
Westlnghouse Tr. Br. Oo. 

Brake Shoes 
Amer. Brake Shoe ft Fdrr. 

Barbour-StocUwell Co. 
Bemis Car Trueto Co. 
Brill Co.. The J. S. 
Oolnmbis M. W. ft M. I. Oo. 
Taylor Blectric Truck Oo. 
Wheel Truing Brake Shoe 

Brakes, Brake Systems and 
Brake ParU 

Ackley Brake ft Sup. Corp. 
Bemis Car Truck Co- 
Brill Co.. The J. G 
Uoiumbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
National Brake Co. 
Safety Car Devices Co. 
Taylor Electric Truck Co. 
Westlnghouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Brooms, Track, Steel and 
Amer. Rattan ft Reed Mfg. 
Brushes, Carbon 
General Electric Co. 
Jeandron, W. J. 
Le Carbone Co. 
Weetinghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 
Brush Holders 
Anderson Mfg. Co.. A. ft 

J. M. 
Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 
Brushes. Wire Pneumatic 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Buses, .Motor 
Brill Co.. The J. G. 
St. Louis Car Co. 

Nat'l Vulcanized Fibre Co. 
Bushings, Case Hardened and 
Bemis Car Truck Co. 
Brill Co.. The J. Q. 
Bus Heats 
Hale ft Kilburn CoiT). 
Heywood-Wakefield Co. 

(See Wires and Cables) 
Cambric Tapes, Yellow ft 
Black Varnish 
Irvington Varnish ft Ins. Co. 
Carbon Brushes 

(See Brushes. Oarbon) 
Car Lighting Apparatus 
Elec. Service Supplies 
C^r Panel Safety Switches 
Consolidated Car Heating Co. 
Wastinghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 
Cars, Dump 
Differential Steel Car (3o., 
Cars, Gas Rail 

St. Louis Car Co. 
Cars, Passenger Freight 
Express, etc. 
American Car Co. 
Brill Co., The J. G. 
Cambria Steel Co. 
Euhlman Car Co.. G. C. 
McOuire CTummlnga Mfg. 

Midvale Steel ft Ord. Co. 
National Ry Appliance Co. 

Perley A. 
St. Louis Car Co. 
Thomas Car Works. 
Wason Mfg. Co. 
C^rs. Second Hand 

Electric Equipment Co. 
Cars, Selt-Propelled 

General Electric Co. 
Castings, Brass, Composltton 
or Copper 
Ajax Metal Co. 
Anderson Mfg. Co.. A ft 
J. M. 
Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 
More-Jonea Br. ft Ketal Co. 
Castings, Funnel 
Wharton, Jr., ft Co., Inc. 
Castings, Gray Iron and Steel 
Bemis Car Truck Co. 
Columbia H. W. ft M. I. Co. 
Standard Steel Works Co. 
Wharton Jr.. ft Co.. Inc., 
Castings, Malleable and Brass 
Amer. Brake Shoe ft Fdry. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 
Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 
Le Grand. Inc. Nic 
Catchers and Betrierers 
Earil. C. I. 

Eclipse Railway Supply (3o. 
Electric Service Snp. Oo. 
Ohio Brass Co. 
Wood Co., Chas. N. 
Catenary Construction 
Archbold-Brady Co. 
Circuit Breakers 
General Electric (3o. 
Westlnghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 
Clamps and Connectors for 
Wires and Cables 
Anderson Mfg. Co., A. ft 

J. M. 
Dossert ft Co. 

Electric Railway Equip. Co. 
Elec. Service Supplies Co. 
(General Electric Co. 
Hubbard ft Co. 

-tinghouse Elec. ft M. |Co. 

Cleaners and Scrapers, Track 
(See also Snow - Plows, 
Sweepers and Brooms) 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Clusters and Sockets 

(General Electric Co. 
Coal and Ash Handling 

(See Conveying and Hoist- 
ing Machinery) 
Coil Banding and Winding 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Coils, Armature and Field 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. C^. 

(general Electric Co. 

Rome Wire Co. 

Weetinghouse Elec. ft M.Co. 
Coils, Choke and Kicking 

Electric Service SuppUee Co. 

(general Electric Co. 

Weetinghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 
Coin-Counting Machines 

International Register Co. 

Johnson Fare Box Co. 
Conimntator Slotters 

Electric Service SuppUee (3o. 

(General Electric Co. 

Weetinghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 
Commutator Truing Devices 

(general Electric Co. 
Commutators or Parts 

Cameron Elec'l Mfg. C!o. 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Westlnghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 
Compressors, Air 

Allis-Cbalmera Mfg. Co. 

(General Electric Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Westlnghouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Compressors, Air Portable 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Compressors, Gas 

Ingersoll-Rand C^. 
Concrete ReinforcinK Bars 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel ft Ord. Co. 

(Jeneral Hectric Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Westlnghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 
Condenser Papers 

Irvington Varnish ft Ins. Co. 
Conduits, Underground 

Std. Underground Cable Co. 
Connectors. Solderless 

Dossert & Co. 

Weetinghouse Elec. ft M./Co. 
Connectors, Trailer Oar 

Consolidated Car Heating Co. 

Elec. Service Supplies Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Controllers or Parts 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

(Jeneral Electric Co. 

Weetinghouse Elec. ft M.ICo. 
Controller Regulators 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Controlling Systems 
(Jeneral Electric Co. 
Westlnghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 

Converters. Rotary 

General Electric Co. 

Westlnghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 
Conveying and Hoisting Ma- 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Copper Wire 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co. 
Cord .Vdjnsters 

Nat'l Vulcanized Fibre Co. 
Cord, Bell, Trolley, Register, 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

International Register Co., 

RoebUngs Sons Co.. John A. 

Samson Ck>rdage Works 
Cord Connectors and Couplers 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Samson Cordage Works 

Wood Co., Chas. N. 

Couplers, Car 

Brill Co.. The. J. O. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Weetinghouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Cross Arms. (See Brackets) 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Crossing Foundations 

International Steel Tie Co. 
Crossing Frop and Switchfs 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 

Wharton. Jr., ftCo. Inc., Wm. 

Crossings, Manganese 
lodianapoUs Switch ft Frog 

. Ramapo Ajax Corr>. 

Crossing Signals, ((iee. Sig- 
nals, Crossing) 
Crossings, Track. (See Track, 

Special Work) 
Crossings, Trolley 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Curtains and Curtain Fix- 

Brill Co., The. J. G. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Morton Mfg. Co. 

Johns-Pratt Co. 
Dealers' Machinery 

Electric Equipment Co. 

Transit Equipment Co. 
Derailing Switches, Tee Rail 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Destination Signs 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Creaghead Eng. Co. 

fiilectric tService SuppUee Co. 
Detective Service 

Wish Service. P. Edward 
Door Operating Devices 

(Consolidated Car Heating 

National Pneumatic Co.. Inc. 

Safety Car Devi<-eg Co. 
Doors and Door Fixtures 

Brill Co.. The, J. G. 

General Electric Co. 

Hale & Kilburn Corp. 

Safety Car Devices Oj. 
Doors, Folding Vestibule 

National Pnetimatic Co., 

Draft Rigging. (See Coup- 
Drills, Rock 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Drills, Track 

American Steel ft Wire Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand (^. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Dryers, Sand 

Electric Service SuppUes Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Electric Grinder* 

Railway Track Work Co. 
Blectrodes, Carbon 

IndianapoUs Switch ft Frog 

Railway Track Work C!o. 
Electrodes, Steel 

Indianapolis Switch ft Frog 

Railway Track Work (^. 
Electrical 'Wires and Cables 

American Elec. Works 

Boeblings Sons Co.. J. A. 
Emergency Kits 

First .\id Specialty Co. 
Engineers, ODnsnlting, (Con- 
tracting alid Operating 

AUison ft Co.. J. B. 

Archbold-Bnidy Co. 

Arnold Co.. The 

Beeler John A. 

BiblxMis. J. Rowland 

Day ft Zimmerman, Inc. 

Drum ft Co.. A. L 

Feustel. Robert M. 

Ford. Bacon ft Davis 

Hemphill ft Wells 

Hoist, Bngelhardt W. 

Jackson. Walter 

Onsr. Joe R 

Parsons, Klapp. Brinkerbofl 
ft Douglas 

Richey. Albert S. 

Robinson ft Co.. Dwight P. 

Sanderson ft Porter 

Sha\v, Henry M. 

Smith & Co., C. E. 

Stone ft Webster 
Engines, Gas, Oil and Steam 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Westlnghouse Elec. ft M. 
Expansion Joints, Track 

Wharton Jr.. ft (3o., Inc., 
Fare Boxes „ 

Cleveland Fare Box C». 

Economy Elec. Devices Co. 

Johnson Pare Box Co. 

Nat'l Ry. AppUance Co. 

Ohmer Fare Register Co. 


Cambria Steel Co. 

MHdvale Steel ft Ord. Co. 
Fence*, Woven Wire and 
Fence Posts 

Amer. Steel ft Wire Co. 
Fenders and Wheel Guards 

Brill Co.. The. J. G. 

Cleveland Fare Box Co. 

Consolidated Car Fender Co. 

Eclipse Railway Supply Co. 

Electric Sen Ice Sup. Oo. 

Le < '-rand. Jtc. Nic 

Star Brass ^orks 
Fibre and Fibre Tubing 

-Vat'l Vlileaiiizt-d Fibre Co. 

Westlnghouse E. & M. (3o. 
Field Coils, (See Coito) 
First -Vid Equipment 

First .Aid Speeialty Co. 
FlHiigewa,v (iuards 

(iodwiii Co.. In... W. S. 
Flaxiinam Insulation 

Nat'y Ry. Appliance Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Cambria Steel Co 

Caineg-ie Steel Co. 

Coliunbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Midvale Steel ft Ord. Ck). 

Slandanl Steel Works Co. 
Frogs ft Croisings, Tee Rail! 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Frogs, Track. (See Track. 

Frogs, Trolley 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Fuses and Fuse Boxes 

Columbia M. W ft M. I. Co. 

Consolidated Car Heating Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Westlnghouse Elec. itil.Co 
I'lises. Cartridge. Non-Relill-- 

Johns-Pratt Co. 
Fuses. Cartridge. Reflllable 

Johns-Pratt Co. 
Fuses. High A'oltage 

Joliii--rralt Co. 
Fuses, Reailable 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co 

General Electric Co. 

Power SpecialLv C^. 

Westlnghouse Tr. Br. C!o. 
Gas-Electric Cars 

(Jeneral Electric Co. 
Gas Producers 

Weetinghouse Blec. ft M. Oo . 
Gasolene Torches 

Economy Elec. Devices Co. 
Gates, Car 

Brill Co.. The. J. G. 
Gear Blanks 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Carneeie Steel (^. 

Midvale Steel ft Ord. Ck>. 

Standard Steel Worlds Co. 

Chilliiiirworth Mfg. Co. 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Electric Service SuppUss Co, 

Weetinghouse Blec. ft M. Oo. 
Gears and_Pinlon8 

Ackley Brake ft Sup. Corp. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Columbia M.W. ft M.I. Co. 

Electric Bervice SuppUea Co. 

General Electric (3o. 

Nafl Rv. AppUance Co. 

Nuttall Co.. R. D. 
Generating Sets. <}as-Blectri« 

General Electric Co. 

KngUsh Electric Co. 

(Jeneral Electric Co. 

Westlnghouse Elec. ft M. Oo 
Gaggles, Safety ^ . .,_ 

IndianapoUs Switch ft Prog 

Co- ^-, » 

Gongs (See Bells and Oongs) 


Morganlte Brush Co. 
Greases. (See Lubricants) 
Grinders and Grinding Snp- 
piles ^ . ___ 

IndianapoUs Switoi ft Prog 

Metal & Thermit Corp. 

Railway Track-work Co. 
Grinders, Portable 

Railway Track Work Co. 
Grinders. Portable Electric 

Railway Track Work Co. 
Grinding Stocks and WJiedt. 

Railway Track-work <3o. 

Seymour Rail Grinder Co.. 
E. P. 
Guard Rail aamps 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Guard Rails, Tee Rail ft 

Ramapo Aiax Corp. 

Guards, Trolley _ 

Electric Service Sup. Co 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Hammers, Pneumatic 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Harps. Trolley . . , „ 

Anderson M. Co.. A. * J; *• 

Bayonet TroUey Harp Oo. 

Electric Service Sup. (3o. 

More-Jones Br. ft MeUI Oo, 

Nuttall Co.. R. D. 

Star Brass Works 

Thornton Trolley Wheri Co. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



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v\ nr. 


M r\ . 

/^ 1- I- C O F> F3 E R 


(No Alloy) 


Take the sting out of the arc and prolong the 
life of the trolley wire 

Send for Particulars 


1412 East 47th Street, CLEVELAND 

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The No-StafF Brake 

for any size and 

type of car 

Apply the advantaees of the staffleas brain 
with its space-saving- features, to all your 
cars. Ackley No-Stafl Brakes are adaptable 
to any kind of tervice. The eccentric ehain- 
windinr drum insures quickest applications 
and maximum power. 

Price only $32.00 

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I The Kalamazoo Trolley Wheels [ 

I have always been made of en- 

1 tirely new metal, which accounts 

1 for their long life WITHOUT 


I not be misled by statements of 

I large mileage, because a wheel 

:| that will run too long will dam- 

I age the wire. If our catalogue 

i does not show the style you 

1 need, write us— the LARGEST 








When you think of Steel — think of Carnegie 


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that's what you want to save | 

Thm double th« string by lospectlnc can ao a kllotnU-fa«« s 
basil Instead of mlleace or tlm»-basii. Atk for data = 


L. £. Gould, 37 W. Van Buren St., Chicago | 

OENSBAL AQEINT: Und Aluminum Field ColU i 

DISTRICT AGENTS: Peter Smith Beaten, Wood* Lock TIU = 
i Fare Boxes, Bemls Truok SpedalUea, Milter TTolley Sboea. | 


Compressor Efficiency 
At Full and Partial Loads 

With the 5-St^ Clearance Control 

Be sure your air compressor will perform reliably 
and that its regulation will give you efficient 
performance at full and partial loads. 

This latter is extremely important because the 
demand for air is seldom steady. Although 
maximum full load compressor efficiency is nec- 
essar>^ high economy at underloads is even more 


Probably the outstanding cause for the success 
of IngersoU-Rand direct-connected electric mo- 
tor-driven compressors is their 5-Step CLEAR- 
ANCE CONTROL. With this regulation the 
compressor automatically operates at any one of 
five load points, depending upon the demand for 
air. The compressor will deliver full, three- 
quarter, one-half, one-quarter or none of 
its capacity, and the horsepower required is 
practically in proportion to the air output. 

Smnd for Complmim Information 

IngersoII-Rand Company 

11 Broadway, New York 








S>U Lake Cllr 



Lm Ant*lM 

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Electric Service Sup. Oo. 

(ieneral Electric Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
B«tei's, Oar (ElMtrU) 

Consolidated Car Hmtinc 

Bconom; Electric Dcrloa* 

Gold Car Heatini A U«ht- 
ing Co. 

Nat'l Ry. Appliance Co. 

Smith Heater Co.. Peter 
Heaters, Car, Hot Air tad 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Smith Heater Co., Peter 
Helmets, Welding 

Indianapolis Switch & Pros 

Railway Track-Work Co. 
Hoists and Lifts 

Columbia M. W. 4 M. I. Co. 

Pord Chain-Block Co. 
Hoists, Portable 

IngersoU-Rand Co. 
Hose, Bridge 

Olilo Brass Co. 
lf»tmments, Measuring, Teat- 
Ing and Recording 

Bconomy Electric Dericee 

Hlectric Service Sup. Oo. 

Qeneral Electric Co. 

Westinghouse EHec. ft H. Oo. 
Insulating Cloth, Paper and 

Anchor Webbing Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hope Webbing Co, 

IrviQgton Varnish & Ins. Oo. 

Nat" I Vulcanized Fibre Co. 

Westinghouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Insulating Machinerr 

Amer. Ins. Machiner; Oo. 
Iiwnlating Silk 

Irvington Varnish & Ins. Co. 
Insulation. (See also Patnta) 

Anderson M. Co.. A. & J. K, 

Electric Ry. Equipment Oo. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Irvington Varnish & In*. Oo. 

Westinghouse Elec. * M. Oe. 
InsQlators. (See also liae 

Anderson M. Co., A. ft J. H. 

Greaghead Engineering Oo. 

Electric Ry. Equipment Oo. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Irvington Varnish ft Ins. Oo. 

Oiiio Brass Co. 

Westinghouse Kioa. ft M. Oo. 
Insnlator Pins 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Hubbard ft Cki. 
Insulators, High Voltage 

Lapp Insulator Co., Inc. 
Insnlation Slot 

Irvington Varnish ft Ins. Co. 
InsDlating Varnishes 

Irvington Varnish ft Ins. Co. 
Insurance, Fire 

Marsh & McLennan 

Inventions Developed ^^ 

Peters & Co.. 6. D. 
Jacks. (See also HoUta and 

Buckeye Jack Mfg. Co. 

Columbia M". W. ft M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

National Ry Appliance Co. 
Journal Boxes 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co., The. J. O. 
Lamp Guards and Flxtoree 

Anderson M. Co.. A. ft J, X. 

Electric Service Sup. Co 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft If . O*. 
Lamps, Arc and Incandesoenfe 
(See also HeadllghU) 

Anderson M . Co., A. ft J. M 

(Jeneral Electric Co. 

Nat'l Elec. Specialty Co. 

Westinghouse Blec. ft M. Oo. 
Lamps. Signal and Marker 

Nichols-Lintern Co. 
Lanterns, ClassifleaUon 

Nichols-Lintem Co. 
Leather Cloth 

Standard Textile Products 

Lightning Arresters 

Shaw, Henry M. 
Uglitntng ProteetioD 

Anderson M. (3o.. A. ft J. K. 

Electric Service Sup. Oo. 

(Seneral Electric Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Westinghouse Mec. ft K. Oo. 
Line Material, (See also 
Brackets, Insulators, Wire*, 

Anderson M. Co., A. ft J. X. 

Archbold-Bradr Co. 

Columbia M. W. ft H. I. Co. 

Creaghead Mfg. Oo. 

Dossert ft Co. 

Electric Ry. Equipmeot Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Electric Railway Journal 

English Electric Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hubbard ft Co. 

More-Jones Br. ft Metal Oo. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft M. Oo. 
Locking tjpring Boxes 

Wharton. Jr. ft Co., Inc. 
Locomotives, Electric 

(general Electric Co. 

McGuire Chimraings Mfg. Co. 

WeetingbouBO Elec. ft M. Oo. 
Lubricating Engineers 

Galena-Signal Oil Co. 

Universal Lubricating Co. 

Vacuum Oil Co. 
Lubricants, Oil and Grease 
. Galena-Signal Oil (^. 

Universal Lubricating (3o. 

Vacuum Oil Co. 
Lumber. (See Poles, Tiea. 

Machine Tools 

Columbia M. W. ft U. I. Oo. 
Manganese Steel Guard Kails 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Manganese Steel, Special 
Track Work 

Indianapolis Switch ft Frog 

Wharton, Jr. & Co., Inc.. 
Manganese Steel Switches, 
Frogs and Crossings 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Meters, Car Watt-Hour 

Economy Elec. Devices (3o. 
Motor Buses 

(See Buses, Motor) 
Motor Leads 

Dossert & Co. 
Motonnen's Seats 

Brill Co.. The, J. Q. 

Electric Service Sup. Oo. 

Heywood-VVakefield Co. 

Wood Co.. Chas. N. 
Motors, Electrie 

Cieneral Electric <3o, 

Westingheuse Elec. ft M. Oo. 
Motor and Generator Seta 

General Electric Co. 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel & Ord. Co. 
Nuts and Bdta 

Barbour-Stockwell Co. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Coliunbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Hubbard ft Co. 
Oils (See Lubricants 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Power Specialty Co. 

Westinghouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Paint Guns 

Dayton Air Brush Co. 
Paints and Varnishes, Insu- 

Beokwilh-Chandler Co. 

Paints and Varnishes for 

Ackley Brake & Sup. Co. 

Bcokwith-Chandlcr Co. 

National Ry. Appliance Co. 
Paint Spraying Device 

Dayton Air Brush Ck). 
Pavement Breakers 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Pavinfi (iuards. Steel 

Godwin Co.. Inc., W. S. 
Paving Material 

Amer. Br. Shoe ft Pdry Co. 
Pickups, Trolley Wire 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Pinion Pullers 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Suppliw Co. 

(Seneral Electric Co. 

Wood Co.. Chas. N. 
Pinions. (See Gears) 
Pins, Case Hardened, Wood 
and Iron 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Electric Service Sup. C!o. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Westinghouse Tr. Br, Co. 
Pipe Fittings 

Power Specialty Co. 

Standard Steel Works Co. 

Westinghouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Planers. (See Machine Tools) 
Plates for Tee Rail Sivitches 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Pliers, Rubber Insulated 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 
Pneumatic Tools St 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Pole Line Hardware 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Pole Reinforcing 

Drew Elec. ft Mfg. Co. 

Hubbard ft Co. 
Poles, Metal Street 

Bates Expanded Steel Truss 

Electric Ry. Equip. Co. 

Hubbard ft Co. 

Poles and Ties, Trmted 

Bell Lumber Co. 

International Creosoting ft 
Construction Co. 

Page & Hill Co. 
Poles, Ties, Posts, Piling and 

Bell Ijumber Co. 

International Creosoting ft 
Construction Co. 

Le Grand. Inc.. Nic 

Nashville Tie Co. 

Page & Hill Co. 
Poles, Trolley 

Anderson Mfg. Co., A. ft 
J. M. 

Bayonet Trolley Harp Ck). 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I, Co. 

Nuttall Co.. R. D. 
Poles, Tubular Steel 

Elec. Ry. Equip. Co. 

EUectric Service Sup. Co. 
Porcelain !S(>ecial High 

Lapp Insulator Co.. Inc. 
Power Saving Devices 

Economy Electric Devlcea 

Nat'l Ry. Appliance Co. 
Pressure Regulators 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft Mfg. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Pumps, Vacuum 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Punches, Ticket 

Bonney-Vehslage Tool Co. 

International Register Co.. 

Wood Co.. caias. N. 
Rail Braces ft Fastenings 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Hail Joints 

Carnegie Steel Co. 

Lorain Steel Co. 
Rail Joints, Welded 

Indianapolis Switch ft Frog 
Rail Oimdera, (See Grinders) 

Cambria Steel Co. 
Midvale Steel ft Ord. Co. 
Railway Paling Guards, 

Godwin Co.. Ini-., W. S. 
Railway Safety Switchea 

C!onsoUdated Car Heating Co. 

Westinghouse Blec. ft M. Co. 
Rail Welding. (See Welding 

Metal & Thermit Corp. 

Ry. Track-work Co. 

Rail Welding ft Bonding Co. 

Amer. Rattan ft Reed Mfg. 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Hale & Kiburn Corp. 

Heywood-Wakefield Co. 

McGuire Cummings Mfg. Co. 

St. Louis Car Co. 
Reclaimers, Waste ft Oil 

Oil & Waste Saving Machine 

Registers and Fittings 

Brill Co.. The. J. G. 

Electric Service Sup. Co 

International Reg. Co.. The 

Ohmer Fare Register Co. 

Rooke Automatic Reg. Co. 

St. Louis Car Co. 
Reinforcement, Concrete 

Amer. Steel ft Wire Co. 

Carneg-ie Steel Co. 
Repair Shop .\pplianres. (See 
also 0>il Banding and 
Winding Machines) 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Repair Work. (See also 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 
Replacers, Car 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 
Resistance, Grid 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 
Resistance, Wire and Tube 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 

Consolidated Car Heating Co. 
Retrieverg, Trolley. (See 

Catchers and Retrievers. 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. ft M. Co. 
Roller Bearings 

Stafford Roller Bearing Car 
Truck Co. 

Rolled Steel Wheels 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel & Ord. Co. 
Sanders, Track 

Brill Co., The, J. G. 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Nichols-Lintem Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Sash Fixtures, Car 

Brill Co.. The. J. G. 

.Sash, Metal, Car Window 

Hale & Kilburn Corp. 
Scrapers, Track. (See Clean- 
ers and Scrapers, Track) 
Screw Drivers, Rubber 

Electric Serv.ce Supplies Co. 
Seating Materials 

Brill Co.. J. G. 

Standard Textile Products 
Seats, Bus 

St. Louis Car Co. 
Seats, Car. (See also Rattan) 

Amer. Rattan ft Reed Mfg. 

BriU Co.. The. J. Q. 

Hale & Kilburn Corp. 

Hey wood- Wakefield Corp. 

Peters ft Co., G. D. 

St. Louis Car Co. 
Second-Hand Equipment 

Electric Equipment Co. 
Securities Electric Railway 

Bonbright ft <Jo. 
Shades, Vestibule 

Brill Co., The, J. O. 

Hubbard ft Co. 
Shovels, Power 

Brill Co.. The. J. G. 
Signals, Car Starting 

Consolidated Car Heating Co. 

Electric Service Suppliee Co. 

Nat'l Pneumatic Co., Inc. 
Signals, Indicathig 

Nichols-Lintern Co. 
Signal Systems, Block 

Electric Service Suppliee Co. 

Nachod Signal Co.. Inc. 

Union Switch ft Signal Co. 

U. S. Electric Signal Co. 

Wood Co., Chas. N. 
Signal Siystems, Hlchwhy 

Nachod Signal Co.. Inc. 

U. S. Electric Signal Co. 
Slack Adjusters. (See Brake 


Carneirie Steel Co. 
Sleet Wheels and Cutters 

Anderson Mfg. Co., A. ft 
J. M. 

Bayonet Trolley Harp Co. 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Electric Ry. Equip. Co. 

Electric Service Supplies Co. 

More- Jones Br. ft Metal Co. 

Nuttall Co.. R. D. 
Smokestacks, Or 

Nichols-Lintem Co. 
Snow-Plows, Sweepers and 

Amer, Rattan ft Reed Mfg. 

Brill Co.. The. J. G. 

Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 

Consolidated Car Fender Co. 

McGuire Cummings Mfg. Co. 
Soldering and Brazing. (See 
Welding Processes and Ap- 

Amer. Steel ft Wire Co. 
Special .Adhesive Papers 

Ir\'ington Varnish ft Ins. Co. 
Splicing Compounds 

Westinghouse Blec. ft M. Co. 
Splicing Sleeves. (See Clamps 

and Connectors) 
Springs, Car and Truck 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co., The. J. G. 

Si .Louis Car Co. 

Standard Steel Works Co. 

Taylor Electric Truck (Jo. 
Sprinklers, Track and Road 

Brill Co.. The, J. G. 

McGuire Cummings Mfg. Co. 
Steel Freight Cars 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel ft Ord. Co. 
Steel and Steel ProAucts 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel ft Ord. Co. 

Morton Mfg. Co. 
Steps, Car 

Morton Mfg. Co. 
Stokers, Mechanical 

Babcock & Wilcox Co. 

Westinghouse Blec. ft M. Co. 
Storage Batteries. (See Bat- 
teries, Storage) 
Strain Insulators 

Ohio Brass Co, 

Roeblings* Sons Co.. J. A. 
Structural Steel 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel & Ord. Co. 
Subway Boxes 

Johns-Pratt Co. 

Babcock ft Wilcox Co. 

Power Specialty Co, 
Sweepers, Snow. (See Snow 
Plows, Sweepers and 
Switches, Safety 

Johns-r^att Co. 
Switch Stands 

Indianapolis Switch ft Frog 

Ramapo Aiax Corp. 
Switches, Selector 

Nicbols-Lintern Co. 

March 3, 192S 

I Switches, Tee Rail 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Switches, Track. (See Tracks 

Special Work) 
Switches and Switchboards 
Anderson Mfg. Co.. A, ft. 

J. M. 
Electric Servivce Sup. (3o. 
(Jeneral Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Hlec. ft M. (^. 
Tampers, Tie 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Railway Track-Work Co. 
Tapes and Cloths. (See In- 
sulating Cloth, Paper an^ 
Tee Rail, Special Track 

Ramapo Ajax C^orp. 
Telephones and Parts 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 
Testing Device!., .Meter 

Johns-Pratt Co. 
Testing Instruments. (See lo^ 
struments, Electrical Meas- 
uring, Testing, etc.) 
Consolidated Car Heating Co. 

Gold Car Heating ft Light- 
ing Co. 
Railway Utility Co. 
Smith Heater Co.. Peter 
Ticket Choppers and Da-- 
Electric Service Suppliee Co.. 
Tickets and Transfers 

Globe Ticket Co. 
Tie Plates 
Cambria Steel Co. 
Midvale Steel & Ord. Co. 
Ties, Mechanical 

Dayton Mechanical Tie Co. 
Ties and Tie Bods, Steel 
Barbour-Stockwell Co. 
Carnegrie Steel Co. 
International Steel Tie Co, 
Ties, Wood Cross. (See PoleSr- 

Tles, Posts, etc.) 
Tongue Switches 
Wharton. Jr., ft Co., Inc.^ 
Tool Steel 
Cambria Steel Co. 
Carnegie Steel Co. 
Midvale Steel & Oril. Co. 
Tools, Track and Hlse. 
Amer. Steel ft Wire Co. 
Columbia M. W. ft M. I. Co. 
Electric Service Supplies Co- 
Hubbard ft Co. 
Railway Track-work Co. 
I Tools, Thread Catting 
I Williams ft Co.. J. H. 
Towers and TransmlssioO' 
Archixild-Brady Co. 
Bates Expanded Steel Truss- 
Westinghouse Elec. ft Mfg. 
Track Grinders 

Railway Track Work Co. 
Trackless Trollicar 
St. Louis Car Co. 
Track, Special Work 
Barbour-Stockwell Co. 
Indianapolis Switch ft Froc 

New York Switch ft 

Crossing Co. 
Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Wharton, Jr., ft Co., Inc. 
Transfer Issuing Machine* 

Ohmor Fare Register Co. 
(General Electric Co, 
Westinghouse Eflec. ft M. Co, 
Treads, Safety, Stair, CW- 
Morton Mfg. Co. 
Trolley Base* 
Ackley Brake ft Sup. Corp. 
Anderson Mfg. Co., A. k 
J. M. 

Electric Senrico Supplies Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Nat'y Ry. Appliance Co. 
Nuttall Co.. R. D. 
Ohio Brass Co. 
Trolley Bases, Retrieving 
Ackley Brake ft Sup. Corp- 
Anderson Mfg. Co.. A. ft 
J. M. 

EJlectric Service Supplies Co. 
(General Electric Co, 
More-Jones Br, ft Met, Co. 
Nat'y Ry. Appliance Co. 
Nuttall Co.. R. D. 
Ohio Brass Oo. 
Trolley Buses 
Brill Co., The. J. G. 
(Seneral Electrie C!o. 
Westinghouse Kleo. ft M. Co. 
Trolley Materials 
Eflectrie Service Supplies Co. 
Olilo Brass Co. 
IroUey Materials. Overhead 
More-Jones Brass ft Metal 

Trolley Shoes 
Miller Trolley Shoe Co. 

March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



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Brake Shoes | 

5 3 

I A.E.R.A. Standards | 

I Diamond "S" Steel Back is the Best Type I 




fli*"'**^ li 


W J. Jeandron 

345 Madison Avenue, New York 

Pittsburgh OfiSce: 634 Wabash BIdg. 
San Francisco Office: 525 Market Street 

Catiadian Dietributors: Lyman Tube & Supply Co., 
Montreal and loronto 


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Ajax Perfecto Bronze 
/ Check Plates 

Made from our Perfecto 
Bronze — the strongest 
and toughest metal on 
the market; will bend 
before it will break. 
Withstands shocks there- 
fore, and outlasts all 
other check plates several 

Specify Ajax Ptrfectt 

Bronte on your next 


The Ajax Metal Company 

Established 1880 
Main Office and Works: Pkiladelphia, Pa. 


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D-67 for Narrow Treads 
D-87 for Wide Treads 

American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co. 
30 Church Street, New York 

I 332 So. Michigan Ave., Chicago Chattanooga, Tenn. 



The trolley wheel with the high 
mileage side bearing 

Thornton Wheels with Thornton side 
bearings are unusually long-lived, re- 
quire less lubrication, and less main- 
tenance. They are free from vibra- 
tion and noiseless. No bushings. In- 
vestigate them. 

Send for deteriptive eiretdar 

Thornton Trolley Wheel Co., 

Ashland, Kentucky 





Cut Power Require- | 
ments in Half I 

Prevent hot boxes and | 

resiiIlinK journal tpoubles; | 

check end thrust and dn = 

awa.v with all lubrication i 

difficulties BECAUSE — | 

They Elimfnate = 

Journal Friction | 

(tuaranteed Two Years = 

Afk for literature = 

.,,„„, ^ „„„ „, ^ ..^^—. STArrOUD nOLUR BCAHI/iOi i 

Fil A.E.B.A. and .M.C.B. Stand- ^S^VBr ruD TDIICH CODDODATION = = 

I ar<l JovrnaU: ReadUp Applied to WS^^ ''^^^i/^Sj Ji" Ts , = = 

- IJ'iiiipntrTtt .Voir in de. = s 

I mill iiiiiiiiilii iiiiiiiiiit iiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiii iiiiiniiiiliiiiiiill i nun i iiimiii? Ii I II II " ' " """" """" '""" " ""iiiiiiiiiiiiiMi""""""" l" 

Electric Railway Journal 

March 3, 1923 

TroUers and TroUer Srstenu 

Ford Cbsin-BIock Co. 
TroUer WheeU. (Sea Wheel*, 

Trailer Wheel « Rarpe 
More-Jonee Brasa & Uetal 

Tliornton Trolley Wheel Co. 
Trailer Wheel Bashing* 
More-Jones Brass * ITetal 

Trallej Wire 

American Elec'l Works 
Amer. Steel & Wire Co. 
Anaconda Copi>er Mininr Co. 
Roeblinrs Sons Co.. J. A. 
Rome Wire Co. 

Trucks, Car 

Brill Co.. The. J. Q. 
Bemis Car Truck Co. 
McQuire Cnmminera Mtg. Co. 
St. Louis Car Co. 
Taylor Electric Truck Oo. 
Westinrhouse Elec. * X. Oo. 
Tnbins, Yellow & Black 
Flexible Varnlahe* 
Irvington Varnish & Ins^. Co. 

Tnrfoines. Steam 

General Electric Co. 

EUectric Service Sui^Iies Co. 

Percy Mfff. Co.. Inc. 

Indianapolis Switch & Proc 
Upholstery Materials 
Amer. Rattan A Heed X. 


Ohio Brass Co 

Westingrhouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Varnished Papers 

Irrln^on Vamisb & Ins. Co. 

Varnished Silks 

Irvington Varnish & Ins. Oo. 
Varnishes. (See Paints, etc) 
Ventilators, Car 

BriU Co.. The, J. G. 

National By. Appliance Co. 

Nichola-Lintem Co. 

Railway Utility Co. 
Waste Saving Machines 
Oil & Waste Saving Machine 

Water Tube Boilers 

Edffemoor Iron Works 
Welded KaU Joints 

Indianapolis Switch & Froc 

Lorain Steel Co. 

Metal & Thermit Corp. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Ry. Track-work Co. 

Bail Weldiner & Bondinr Co. 

American Steel St Wire Co. 
Welders, Portable, Electric 

Railway Track-work Co. 
Weldinc Processes and Appa- 

Elec. Ry Improvement Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Indianapolis Switch & Frog 

Metal 4 Thermit Corp. 

National Ry Appliance Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Rail Weldmf & Bondinc Co. 

Railway Track-work Co. 

Westinrhouse Blec. le M. Co. 
WeUlnc Steel 

Indianapolis Switch AFroc 

Railway Track-work Co. 

Welders, Portable Electric 

Electric Ry. Imp. Co. 
Indianapolis Switch & Froi 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Ry. Track-work Co. 
Rail Welding & Bondinr Co. 
Wheel Guards (See Fenders 

aiu] Wheel Guards) 
Wheel Grinders 
Wheel Trumg Brake Shoe 
Wheel Presses (See Machine 

Wheels, Car, Cast Iron 
Assn. of Mfrs. of Chilled 
Car Wheels 
Wheels, Car, Steel « Steel 
Carnegie Steel Co. 
Standard Steel Works Co. 
Wheels, Trolley 
Anderson Mfr. Co.. A. & 

J. M. 
Bayonet Trolley Harp Co. 
Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 
Copper Products Forcing Co. 
Electric Ry. Equip. (k>. 
Elec. Service Supplies Co. 

(Seneral Electric (}0. 
Gilbert & Sons, B. P. A. 
More- Jones Br. * Metal 0>. 
Nnttall Co.. B. D. 
Star Brass Works 

WhisUes, Air 

General EHectric Co. 

Ohio Braes Co. 

Westinghouse Tr. Br. Co. 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel & Ord. Co. 

Wire Kope 
Amer. Steel & Wire Co. 
Boeblinr's Sons Co., J A. 

Wires and (Tables 
Amer. Electrical Works 
Amer. Steel & Wire (}o. 
Anaconda Couper Min. 0>. 
Qeneral Electric Co. 
Indianapolis Switdi * Fro( 

BioebUnff's Sons, Co., J. A. 
Rome Wire Co. 
Westinrhouse Elec. & H. Co. 


Aekley Brake & Supply Con). . . .'J8 

Ajax Metal Co 61 

Aliig-Chalmers Mfg. Co 4(i 

Allison Cto., J. E 86 

Amer. Brake Shoe & Fdy. Co . . 61 

American Car Co 6.1 

American Electrical Works rtO 

American Insulating Machinery 

Co 50 

American Rattaji & Reed Mfg. 

Co ,i5 

American Steel & Wire Co .">1 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co. . . 50 

-Anchor WebbinK Co 51 

Anderson Mfg. Co.. A. & J. M. . 44 

.•\rehbold-Brady Co 27 

ArabM Co., 'The 26 

Assn. of Mfrs. of Cliilled Car 

Wheels 43 

Babcock & Wilcox Co 32 

Barbour-Stockweli Co 52 

Bates Expanded Steel Trass Co. 44 

Bayonet Trolley Harp Co 37 

Beckwith-Chandler Co 36 

Beeler. John A 26 

Bell Lumber Co 62 

Bibbins. J. Rowland 37 

Bemis Car Truck Co 40 

Bonney-Vehslage Tool Co 53 

Brill Co.. The J. G 63 

Buckeye Jack Mfg. Co 5b 

Cambria Steel Go 36 

Cameron Electric Mfg. Co 56 

Carnegie Steel Co 59 

ChillingTvorth Mfr. Co ." 56 

Cleveland Fare Box Co •54 

Coal tc Iron Nat. Bank 27 

Collier. Inc., Barron G 34 

Columbia. M. W. & M, I. Co. . . 37 

Consolidated Car Fender Co ... . 62 

Consolidated Car Heating Co. . . . 36 

Copper Products Forginir Co ... . 50 

Creag^head Engineering Co i>4 


Day & Zimmerman. Inc 37 

Dayton Air Brush Co 47 

Dayton Mechanical Tie Co.. . .33-33 
Differential Steel Car Co.. The. . 56 

Dossert & Co ."iO 

Drum & Co., A. L 38 

Earn C. r 55 

Eclipse Railway Supply Co 48 

Economy Electric Devices Co. . 59 

Electric Equipment Co 57 

Electric Ry. Equipment Co.... 14 

Eleo. Ry. Improvement Co 45 

Electric Service Supplies Co. . . . 13 

English Electric Co A 

Feustel. Robt. M 86 

Flood City Mfr. Co 51 

Ford. Bacon & Davis 26 

Ford Chain Block Co 53 

•For Sale" Ads :>7 

Galena-Signal Oil Co 31 

General Electric Co 23-24, B.C. 

Gilbert & Sons. B. F. Co.. A. . . . 81 

Globe Ticket Co 47 

Godwin Co.. Inc.. W. S 53 

(Jold Car Heating & Ltr. Co. . . . 55 

Hale & Kilbum Corp 48 

"Help Wanted" Ads 57 

Hemphill & Wells 26 

Heywood- Wakefield Co 53 

Hoist. Englehardt W 86 

Hope Webbing Co 53 

Hubbard & Co 53 

Indianapolis Switch & Frog Co. 38 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 59 

International Creosotinr & Con- 
struction Co 10 

International Register Co.. The.. 54 

Internationa' Steel Tie Co., The. 11 


Irvington V.irnish & Insulator 
Ck) 52 

Jackson. Walter 26 

Jeandron. W. J 81 

Johnson Fare Box Co 54 

Johns-Pratt Cio Front Cover 

Kuhlman Car Co. 


Lapp Insulator Co., Inc 51 

Le Carbone (Jo • 61 

Le Grand, Inc.. Nic 55 

Lorain Steel Co 51 

McGraw-Hill Book (5o 

McGuire Commings Mfr. Co. . . 

Marsh & McLennan 

.Metal & Thermit Curp 

Midvale Steel & Ordnance Co. 

Miller Trolley Shoe Co 

More-Jones Brass Metal Co . . . 
Morton Mfg. Co 

Nachod Signal Co 

Nashville Tie Co 

National Brake Co 

National Pneumatic Co.. Inc. . . 

National Ry. Appliance Co 

National Vulcanized Fibre Co . . . 
New York Switch & Oossinr Cp. 

Nichols-Lintern Co 

Nuttall Co.. R. D 

Ohio Brass Co 

Ohmer Fare Register Co 

Oil & Waste Savinr Machine Co. 
Ong, Joe R 




Pare & Hill 

Parsons. Klapp, BrinekerhoK A 


Percy Mfr. Co.. Inc 

Peters te Co 

Positions Wanted and V.ieant . . . 
Power SiM-'cialty Cit 



Railway Track-work Co 16 

Railway Utility Co 62 

Rail Welding & Bonding Co ... . 17 

Ramapo Ajax Corp 61 

Richey. Albert S 26 

Robinson & Co.. Dwight P.... 27 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. . . . 50 

Rome Wire Co 50 

Booke Automatic Rerister Co. . 55 

Safety Car Devices Co 

St. Louis Car Co 

Samson Cordare Works 

Sanderson & Porter - 

Searchlight Section 

Shaw. Henry M 

Smith & Co.. C. E 

Smith Heater Co.. Peter 

Stafford Roller Bearing Car 

Truck CIo 

Standard Steel Works 

Standard Textile Products Corp; 
Standard Underground Cable ^o> 

Star Works 

Stone 4 Webster 

Stucki Co.. A '....' 


Taylor Electric Truck Co 4« 

Thomas Car Works. Perley A . . . 49 

Thornton Trolley Wheel Co.... 61 

Transit Equip. Co 57 

Union Switch & Sirnal Co 12 

U. S. Electric Signal Co .in 

Universal Lubricating Co r>'l 

"Want" Ads 57 

Wason Mfg. Ck) 63 

Westinrhouse Elec. & Mfg. Co.. 
.- . . 2.4. .". 

West'rh'se Traction 'Brake Co . . rt 

Wharton. Jr.. & Co.. Wm 31 

Wheel Truing Brake Shoe Co. . .' 56 
While Eng. Corp.. The J. G. . . . 3H 

Wish Service. The P. Edw 37 

Wooii Co.. Chas. N 50 

^ti>iiiiiiiiiiiiitiitiiimiiiiiii)tr;itiii)iiiiiiiittiii(iiiitiiiiiiitiiuiiiiMHiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiL' HiiniitiiiiiiiuHmiiuiiiiiiitmiiiitiiitiiiitiaiiuitiiiiiiuuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiutiiiiiiiuiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiuiiiiuiiiiMHUuin; 

I Northern CEDAR POLES Western 

I Butt Treating Guaranteed Grades 

I Bell Lumber Company, Minneapolis, Minn. 


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_ Trad- M ■■ 

S Made of extra quality stock fij;;.,, ,,,..,„«.. ^a om^iuiy Oniahed. 

= Carefully inspected and ruaranteed free from flaws. 

§ Samples and Information gladly sent 


'4HlimilJltiiiiiiiirtiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiitiitriiiiiiiitiiitriiirtiitiiiitiiiiii itTiiiiiitttiiniitdiriiiitiitriiiiiirrii tiiiiiiiiitiiiiiitim-*iiiiiiin 

I i 



I The Consolidated Car Fender Co.^ Providence, R. I. | 

I Wendell & MacDuffie Co., 61 Broadway, New York I 

I General Sales Acento I 



I Sole Manufacturers | 


S for Monitor Rtid Arch Roof Cars, and alt classes of buildinffs: = 

I hIso electric thermometer CONTROL I 

1 of Car Temperatures | 

I 141-X51 West 29d St. WHte for 1328 Broadway | 

Chicago. III. Catalogue New York, N. Y. § 


March 3, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 

BIrney Safety Car at Santa Cruz, Cal. Built by the American Car Co. 

Maximum Economy 

The large number of Birney Safety 
Cars in service today is evidence of 
their success. Over 3,600 cars have 
been built by us for service on over 
200 railways. Their introduction 
at a time when economical operation 
and increased receipts were neces- 
sary proved to be the solution of 
many difficult financial problems. 

Today the Birney Safety Car is just 
as capable in providing the most 

service at the lowest cost as it was 
when the industry's financial pulse 
was at its lowest ebb. 

Figured on the basis of its seated 
passenger load the Birney Safety 
Car is the lightest car yet developed, 
and consequently the maximum 
saving in power and maintenance is 
worth taking advantage of. 

The J. G. BRILL Company 

Pmiladei-phia. Pa. 


American Car Co. — GC. Kuhlman c^p Co. — WAsp^N^MANrt Co. 

ST. UOUIS fN^O. cue VEl-/*.'^ w. u"'w. 

Automatic substations effect greater economies 

Savannah Automatic Substation, 
St. Joseph <Mo.) Railway. Light. Heat & Power Co, 

No hands, yet they serve 

Significantly indicating the trend of the times is the increasing 
application of automatic control to electric railway distribution 

Automatic railway substations have proved themselves in 
service. They are being preferred by many properties in the 
interest of greater economy and better schedules. Automatic 
apparatus — responding to power demands — insures a power 
supply which is adequate to meet traffic requirements. 

There are now 165 G-E automatic control equipments for 
railway substations in operation or on order. This makes a 
total of nearly 130,000 kw. capacity, established since 1914 
when the first automatic equipment was furnished. 


General Office 
Schenectady; N.Y 



Sales Offices in 
all large cities 


McGraw-Hill Co., Inc. 

March 10, 1923 

Twenty Cents Per Copy 




Do Brooms ring up Fares ? 

Some electric railway 
companies attach more im- 
portance to the selection 
of brooms than they do to 
the selection of lubricat- 
ing oils. 

Brooms have good uses of 
their own, but scientifi- 
cally correct lubrication 
keeps cars running and 

Domestic Branches: 

New York Boston Chicago Philadelphia Detroit ^ ' 

{Main Office) Indianapolis Minneapolis Rochester Kansas City, Kan. 

Pittsburgh Milwaukee Buffalo Des Moines Dallas 

Albany Oklahoma Citv 

fares ringing. 

The Vacuum Oil Com- 
pany will gladly cooperate 
in making an analysis of 
your car failures and will 
make lubrication recom- 
mendations based on its 
57 years' experience in 
reducing operating costs 
throughout the world. 

Lubricating Oils 

A grade for each type of service 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 

Long Island 


ffr «:t r» 



Electrification Means 
Increased Business 

The Long Island Railroad has just closed another 
order for 44 Multiple-Unit Car Equipments and sub- 
station apparatus to keep pace with the rapidly grow- 
ing requirements of this electrification service. 

The reliability, regularity and popularity of electric 
service as compared to steam suburban service under 
all conditions, invariably results in increased traffic. 
To quote an official opinion: 

"Were we today forced to abandon electricity as a 
motive power, it would mean a complete revolution 
in our train service and either the enlargemen of our 
Flatbush, Brooklyn, station to two or three times its 
present size, at an almost prohibitive expense or, 
what is more probable, it would be necessary to aban- 
don much of the service not possible under the re- 
strictions of steam operation." 

Westinghouse Electric 8C Manufacturing Company 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

— East Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Vol. 61, No. 10 

New York, March 10, 1923 

Pages 395-434 


Consulting Editor 


Engineering Edttor 


Associate Editor 

Associate Editor 


News Editor 

Editorial Assistant 


Henry W. Blake and Harry L. Brown, Editors 

PaclAo i'ottst editor 
Hlillo Bldg., San Franclno 


New £>igland Eilllor 
Tramont Bldg., Boston 


Editurlal Asslttant 

Old Colony Bldg., ChlcKo 


Wasttingtiin Bcpresentative 
Colorado Bldg. 


Editorials 395 

Rerouting Would Save Money in Richmond 397 

Bj- rerouting and other service charges requiring a verv slight 
capital expenditure for special trackwork only, a saving of more 
than $250,000 annually is possible. Principles of rerouting are 
laid down. 

New Cars Embody Unusual Features 402 

By E. B. Sanders. 

Interlocking control is a feature of the new Kansas City Railways 
equipment. Provision Is made so that cars cannot be started until 
doors are fully closed. 

Automatic Substation Experience in Cleveland — II 405 

By L, D. Bale. 

The author traces in detail the sequence in operations of the 
present substations of the • Cleveland Railway, which is designed 
to give reliability of power supply. 

4,000-Volt D.C. Italian Electrification Successful 409 

French Progressing with Electrification Projects 410 

By J. C. Thirlwall. 

The Readers* Forum 411 

180-Ton Passenger Locomotives 412 

Association News and Discussions 413 

American Association News 416 

Maintenance of Equipment 418 

News of the Industry 421 

Financial and Corporate 424 

Traffic and Transportation 428 

Personal Mention 431 

Manufactures and the Mar'kets 433 

McGraw-Hill Co., Inc., Tenth Ave. at 36th St., New York 


Cabia Addreai: "Machlnlit, N. Y." 

Publtihera of 

BtHhnewino Smot-Raeerd 

American Machinitt 


Chemical and 

Metollmgical EnginMring 

Ooal Age 

Engineering and Mining Journal-Preet 

Ingenieria Internaeionat 

Bum Traneportation 
Electric ItaUicay Journal 

Electrical World 
Bleetrieol Merchandising 
Journal of ElectricUti 9nd 
Weetern tnduitry 
(PuUithed in Ban Franeiteo) 
Induttrial Engineer 
{PuUiihet in Chicago) 
American Machinist — Bvro^ean 
(Fublithei in LoHdm) 
the United States. Canada, Mexico, Alaska, 
Hawaii, PhlllDplnes, Porto Rico, Canal Zone, Bonduraa, Cuba, Nicaragua, Peru. Co- 
lombia, Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Panama, El Salvador. Argentina, Brazil. Spain. 
Uruguay. Coata Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala and Paraguay. Extra foreign poittge in 
other countrlea 93 (total ST, or 29 shilUnga). Subacrdptloni may be sent to the 
New York office or to the l«ondon offlce. Single copies, postage prepaid, to any part 
of the world, 2 cents. 

Change of Addresa — When change of addresa ts ordered the new and the old mdttraas 
must be glren, notice to be recelred at leaat tea days before the ohange takes plaea. 
Copyright. 1123. by McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 

Published weekly. Ekitered as seoond-olais matter. June 18, 19tS. at the Post OHo*. 
at New York, under the Act of Martb 3. lITt. Printed In U. 8. A. 

Jamu H. MoGkaw. Prealdent 

Abtucb J. Baldwin. Vice-President 

Maloolu Mdib. Vice-President 

E. J. Mkhkin, Vice-President 

Mason Bbitton, Vice-President 

O. D. Stebkt, Vice-President 

James H. MoGbaw, Jb.. See. and Trees. 


Colorado Building 

Old Colony Building 

Real BaUte Trust Building 
Clbt bland: 

Ijeader-News Building 
St. Loms: 

Star Building 
San Faanouoo: 

Rlalto Building 
London : 

6 Bourerle Street, Lcndotl. B. C. 4 

Member Associated Business Pspsrs, Inc. 

Member Audit Bureau of Clroulatlons 
The nnnual suhtcrlotion rate Is 34 in 

What the Subscribers Read 

What a Manufacturer Reads 

Engineering subjects; personals; trade condi- 
tions. — L. P. M., Manufacturer. 

Looks For New Ideas 

Those articles describing methods of construc- 
tion and maintenance of companies, as we are 
continually getting new ideas of merit, thereby 
improving our own methods. 

— B. P. L., Engineer Maintenance of Way. 

Traffic Man Reads All Articles 

I find most interesting those articles pertain- 
ing to freight and passenger matters, as this is 
my work. Still I go through the Journal and 
read every article, as they are all instructive and 
educational from an electric railway standpoint, 
irrespective of department. The personal column 
is also interesting, as I frequently find the name 
of someone with whom I am intimately ac- 
quainted. — PF. J. IV., Passenger Traffic Agent. 

Likes the Legal Notes 

I find the greater part of the matter contained 
in the Electric Railway Journal interesting 
and derive a very great deal of information from 
"Legal Notes," as these are especially useful to 
a claim agent. — T. N., Claim Agent. 

What a Purchasing Agent Reads 

The markets; railway equipment and supplies 
advertisements ; the news columns ; in fact, the 
Journal is beneficial from the front cover to 
the back cover. — H'. A. B., Purchasing Agent. 

Publicist Finds Paper Helpful 

Being in that end of the utility business, natu- 
rally I am more interested in articles dealing with 
public relations. I find the Electric Railway 
Journal of value to me in this connection. 

— J. C, Director 
{of, a state committee on public utiUty mformatUm) . 

Interested in Selecting Men 

Of recent articles will say that those pertaining 
to equipment and operation of one man cars were 
of most interest. We are also interested in Mr. 
M. McCant's article on "Tests Used in Selecting 
New Men." The importance of this problem is, 
in my opinion, often underrated. I also like your 
up-to-the-minute editorials. Your paper so thor- 
oughly covers the electric railway field that there 
does not seem to be any room for improvement. 

— J. G. H., Superintendent. 

Circulation of this issue, 6,040 

Advertising Index — Alphabetical, 38; Classified, 34, 36; Searchlight Section, 33 

Electric Kailway Journal 

March 10, 1923 

A New Westinghouse Direct-Current 
Electrolytic Lightning Arrester 

For Voltages up to 3800 


Elect rolyticArrester 


Type AR Electrolytic 
Lightning Arresters for 
railway and power cir- 
cuits, or for car and 
station service, indoor 
and outdoor mounting. 

There is a Westinghouse Lightning Ar- 
rester (and Choke Coil) exactly suited 
for every application and for every 

Write for Descriptive Leaflet 3425 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. 


March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



WABCO is the new brake cylin- 
der packing cup material which 
has revolutionized the packing cup 

Until Wabco was discovered in the 
Westinghouse laboratories, such effi- 
cient and economical service as this 
product has since been giving was 

Wabco Packing Cups have practi- 
cally banished brake cylinder leakage, 
resulting in better air brake perform- 
ance with reduced labor, and less 
wear, on the part of the compressor. 

Wabco is so constructed as to be 
virtually indestructible and lasts for 
years under average conditions. 

WestinghouseTraction Brakes 

Electric Railway Journal " March 10, 1923 

^ Jnsurance plus 

Have You Finished 

the Job Right f 

Your personnel has been chosen wisely; your 
plant has been planned carefully; your meth- 
ods are the last word in efficiency and your 
products find an insatiate market. Have 
you finished the job right? 

If fire can damage your plant or accidents dis- 
organize your personnel and drive your cus- 
tomers to waiting competitors, you cannot 
rest secure. 

Insurance is the final and fitting step of the 
wise executive who finishes the job right. He 
takes care of today and has the vision to pro- 
tect himself against the emergency that may 
come at any time. He is prepared against 
all contingencies by having adequate insurance 
for his business in all its branches. 

As carefully as you choose your banker, just 
as carefully should you choose your insurance 
broker. The one assists, the other safeguards 
your business. 

"He who serves best profits most." 


175 W.Jackson Blvd. Chicago, 111. 



San Francisco 


New York 








March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 

Tomlinson Equipment is solving 
Every coupling problem 

Hooking the old style trailer on behind a motor car was simply a 
matter of mechanical coupling — but it was a harder job, and a 
more dangerous one than making up a modern multiple unit train 
with its car-to-car air lines and complicated electric circuits. 

Provided, of course, that the cars have Tomlinson Couplers. 

Tomlinson Equipment couples cars, air lines and electric circuits 
automatically, simultaneously, safely. Electric signal lines, heater 
circuits, controller connections and power bus may all be part of 
Tomlinson Coupler Equipment. 

Your mass transportation problem is simplified by Tomlinson 
Couplers. They are used from coast to coast in interurban and city 
service — for motor car and trailer operation or multiple unit trains. 

Put your coupler problems up to Tomlinson Equipment 
and 0-B Specialists. 

From draft gear to draft gear 
the couplers are a single rigid 
unit. Mounted radially and 
with a Tomlinson Spring Draw 
Bar Carrier the coupler easily 
takes care of the sharpest of 
grade changes and the shortest 
of curves. 

Tomlinson Form 10 Automatic Car Coupler 


One of the several types 

O-B Disconnecting Switch— Pat. Applied for--Air line and 
electric circuits are interlocked through this switch. 

O-B Electric Couplers — Patented — as installed on Tomlinson 
Couplers which connect cars of air lines and electric circuit! 
simultaneously — and safely. Made in several sizes. 

The Ohio ^ Brass c° 



N^wYork Philadelphia Pittsburgh Charleston.W.Va. Ch.^go Los An^^^^^^^^ 
Products: Trolley Material. Rail Bofids. Eleetri^ailway^Car^quiprne^^ 

Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 


Amk for a Copy of Bulletin 
No. 14 — "NATIONAL" 



Uniform and neat in appearance, 
safe and efficient in service. 

Obtainable in a wide range of 

Adaptable to various types of serv- 
ice, including- electric railway ; elec- 
tric transmission ; signal ; telephone, 
telegraph and street lighting. 

Our engineers will be glad to assist in selecting 
the right pole for any particular installation. 


General Sales Offices : Frick Building 



March 10, 1923 ElectricRailwayJournal 9 


High Class Construction 

Need Not Be Expensive 

Less Material Excavation and Labor 
with Steel Twin Ties 

Steel Twin Tie Construction has lowered the first and final cost of 
paved track. 

The utilization of the concrete formerly wasted between and below 
wooden ties has in every case eflfected a large saving in construction 
materials. And this saving is at no sacrifice in quality because more 
effective bearing is provided, both on the concrete, and the subgrade 
than with wooden ties while the steel cross members serve to rein- 
force the foundation concrete. 

Write for the folder "Costs, Methods and 
Best Practice in Steel Tie Construction" and 
delivered prices at your material yard. 

The International Steel Tie Company 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 

Carry an Ajax 
Portable Electric Arc Welder 


Weight — only 155 lbs. 
Dimensions — 18 in. x 28 in. x 36 in. 

Capacity — 333 amps, at 600 volts. 
— 200 amps, at 300 volts. 

Control — Switchboard attached. 

Equipment — Electrode Holders. 
— Trollev Pole. 
— Face Shield. 
— Canvas Cover. 

Write for circular and prices 

It will pay you well to carry one or more 
of these sturdy little machines in your 
track department equipment. Light, 
rugged, easy to operate, inexpensive to 
maintain, the Ajax Electric Arc Welder 
is the most practical instrument ever 
devised for the maintenance of elec- 
tric railway track. Its extremely high 
capacity at all operating voltages makes 
it especially valuable for accomplishing 
strong, deeply-penetrating welds under 
all conditions. 

Strengthen Your Track Department 


Universal Rotary Track Grinders 

Atlas Rail Grinders 

Reciprocating Track Grinders 


3132-48 E. Thompson St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chas. N.Wood Co. 

Electrical Engrineerine & Mfg. Co. 



.\ttas Railway Supply Co. 

P. W. Wood 
New Orleans 

Equipment & Eng-ineering Co. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



Railway Specialties 

B Kvyvtone Destination Slsns 

■ Kkystons Stsvl Caar C«s«s 

■ Kvystona Motorm«n's S«at» 

■ Faraday Car Si(n»ls 

■ Safety Llxhtlns FUturea 

■ Golden Glow Haadlif hta 

■ Kaystone Atr Sanders 

■ Keyatono Trolley Catchers 

■ Shelby Trolley Poles 

■ Keystone Rotary Gongs 

■ International Fare Reg:taters 

■ Fare Register Fittings 

■ Samson Cordage 

■ Keystone Air Valves 

I Keystone Cord Connectors 

■ Keystone Trailer Connector* 

■ Automatic Door Signals 
I Standard Trolley Harps 

■ Standard Trolley Wheela 

■ Keystone Trolley Lfna Material 

■ Locke High Voltage Insulators 

■ P*erles« Armature Shop Tools 

■ Segur Coll Winding Tools 

■ Protected Rail Bonds 

■ Welded Rail Bonds 

■ Keystons Expulsion Arrester* 

■ Garton<DanUls Arraslar* 

A sign for the better 

The Keystone trade mark has meant for years all 
that is best in the way of electrical equipment and 
car specialties. When you specify any product 
bearing this special Keystone design you can rest 
assured you are ordering something that passed the 
experimental stage years back. 

Some of the Car Specialties sold under the 
Keystone name are listed in the panel. You will 
find some of them on nearly every car operated 
today. You will find all of them on many cars. 
You, too, should be using all of them. Maybe 
you would like the complete set of data sheets. 
How shall we address them? 

Lectric Serviced Suppwes Qx 


17th and Cambria Sts. 337 Oliver Buildinf 316 N. Washinfton Ava. 


50 Church St. Monadnock Bld(. 

Canadian DlMiributora : 
Lyman Tube A Supply Co., Ltd., Montreal, Toronto, Winnlpaf, Vaacoiaver 

is estimated at $150,000. 

\^ Power Company will spend $5,000,000\ Seattle, Wash., will expend approxi- 
\ in 1923 in improvements and extensions^ mately $150,000 in rebuilding the water-' 
\ to its properties. About half of theA front trestle, 4J miles long, used by the ^ 
\ sum will be applied toward construc-\ interurban between Bellingham andy 
\ tion of the great hydro-electric powerX Blanchard. Three million feet of tim-> 
\ generating plant on the Oak Grove\ her and 20,000 ties will be needed for. 
X tributary of the Clackamas River.V the improvement. The material will be i 
\ Franklin T. Griffith, president of theV purchased locally. ..,,.»x\\v .\ 
X company, who recently returned from\ 
\^he East, has made th\s armounc 

\ Springfield (Mass.) Street RailwaV,\> Georgia Railway & Power Company 

\ through President Wood, has announcedl\^^t'^"*»-Gf- '« now building its n 

\ }ts intention of buying ten or twelve carsSS '^°[e'^"<l. Avenue substation, which 

\ of a large two-man type similar to^^ *° °^ finished by September. The cosi 

\ those in use on the Boston Elevated! 

\ lines. Each of these cars will carry' 

\ fifty persons seated. No new open carsNix 

\ or one-man cars will be bought. About\V 

\ $150,000 will be invested in the new^S 

\ equipment. vv ^' 

Sv N. >^N. N,\N^N>s>yV\\\\^^ purchase of ten or twelve cars, for use 

N^S.\\\>C\>VV\VvN>WV>^^ on one of its interurban lines, whic ' 

\. Tri-City Railway & Light Company,S\ will be as elaborately equipped am 

\ Davenport, Iowa, will install a newvv finished as a limousine. 

\ generator and a 35,000-hp. steam tu^-s^NS^v^$I^J^S$$$^^^$$!^^^^j^^ 

\ bine and new boilers and auxiliary'"^^^^''^^*^^*^^^^^"^^*^^^*^^^^ 

^ equipment will constitute part of th 

^ $1,250,000 improvement program. 

V. Morns County Traction Company 
\ Morristown, N. J., is arranging to in-, 
\ stall an automatic block signal systemsXN 
\ on its lines which run from LakeNX" 


Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit 
Company has ordered 576 new cars.i 
costing approximately $6,500,000. Ofj 
the car order, 520 cars will be of the 
regular passenger type, thirty-four 
snow plows and sweepers, twenty con- 
struction and supply cars, one crane 
car for subway (elevated operation) 
and one crane car fpr surface, operation. 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad, Chi- 
cago, III., recently installed in its Wilson 
Avenue shop, a new 400-ton wheel press 
manufactured by the Niles-Bement- 
Pond Company. 

Pennsylvania-Ohio Electric Company, 
foungstown, Ohio, is considering th 

t\ I'ona company. 


A\\ rhira?n Surface Lines has ordere 

Chicago Surface Lines has ordered 
250 Johnson hand-operated fare boxes,] 
These are in addition to the 270 that 
are already installed. 

The buying 
has begun 

V, HojDatcong to Maplewood and Elizabeth. > 

\, Citizens Traction Company, Oil Q( 
\ Pa., has ordered six new cars fg 
-^ in Franklin and Oil City. Thei 
^, of a type similar to the Birnej 
--^ cars now in service. 

You can keep 
if you keep 

South Covington & 
Railway, Cincinnati, ' 

ket for 100 tons of j 
-Of T-rails. 

Big Orders Pending 

A few recent items are shown above. There is a quickening flow of 
them. Since January 1, reports show that orders for 1 106 cars will be 
placed at once. A car builder reports a 550% increase in business 
over last year's to date. A tie manufacturer reports a 700% increase. 
Similar signs of progress come from all classes of manufacturers. 
Progress reports come from everywhere. 

Get your full share of the prosperity 

Electric Railway Journal, Tenth 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Washington Railway & Electric Com 
pany, Washington, D. C, recently or 
dered ten more one-man cars. . This 
makes a total of forty that will be, 
added to the company's rolling stock 
during 1923. Some time ago an order 
was placed for thirty new cars of the' 
most modern, pay-within type to be 
delivered early during this y.ear.- 


Los Angeles (Calif.) Railway will' 
soon start the reconstruction of East/ 
Ninth Street between Mateo Street and / 

ment involves 700 ft. of work in which / 

United Electric Railways, Providence,'/ Chicago Surface Lines has just placed /. 
R. L, has purchased 900 of a new typey orders for 100 motor passenger cars ot/. 
of Rooke register from the Rooke Auto- y the same type as the sixty-nine that A 
matic Register Company which will A are now under construction in its shops'^ 
take nickels, dimes, quarters and metal/ for hauling trailers. J. G. Brill Com-'^ 
tokens. The railway has standardized/ P^ny will furnish seventy bodies and all ^ 
are coUectine device / the trucks and the remaining thirty O 

on this type, of fare collecting device/ 

and is using it on all its cars, both pay- / bodies will be built by the McGuire- 

Cummings Company. Each car will be' 

Santa Fe Avenue line. This improve- 

work in 
new girder rail will be installed. 


Springfield (Mass.) Street Railway V „ „ • y 

and Worcester Consolidated Street Rail-y °^" Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rail-/ 

way have purchased two escalator sniow'/^"^®' ^^" Francisco, Calif., has ordered/ 
removers costing about $3,000 each '/for the Key Route system from Ameri--^ 
This device built on a caterpillar tractor z/*^^" ^^^ Company fifty-five double truck'^ 
rpn tTiP fi„or,.;oi^cars to be delivered in four to five'' 


Georgia Railway & Power Company. ' 

Atlanta. Ga., will shortly add twenty' 

cars to its equipment. 

is expected to lighten the financial 7^ '—"^J" —, "—■-•— ■•■ -"-' -" •"_'=> 
'burden of snow removal. THey were//"'°" ^"° *° '^°^*^ delivered approxi-'/ 

Charlottesville & Albemarle Railway.// p-*""""- P'-w- s» 
larlottesville, Va., has installed andV^ 

v^ Potomac Public Service Company,/ 
Frederick, Md., is making rapid prog-/ 

put in operation its new 1,500-kw. G. E./^ '"^^^ '" the erection of the $2,000,000/ 
' turbine. The company will now pur-X/ electric power plant which is being built/ 

5.113 /y along the Potomac River at Williams-/' 

chase and install one 750-hp. 225-lb.^ 

The buying 
will continue 

selling them 
telling them 

'working pressure boiler with stoker. 

y. port, Md. 

Chicago. North Shore & Milwaukee^' 
Railroad, Highwood, III., has placed an/ 
order with the General American Car/ 
Company, Chicago, for fifteen gondolas,/" 
and with the Standard Steel Car (Jom-/* 
;pany, for twenty drop bottom cars. 

Puget Sound Power & 4.ight Comv 
pany, Bellingham, Wash., announces^^ 
J^hat it will rebuild its South Elk Street^ 
Ijacks and repave between them this - 
at a cost of approximately $60,000.^ 

^ (N. Y.) City Railroad is in.-' 
. for 500 new double-trucfc-' 

Big Customers Waiting 

for light on the equipment, materials and supplies that best meet 
their needs. They read their Electric Railivay Journal every week. 
Keep telling them every week what you can do for them. Keep 
telling them and you will keep selling them. The increase in sales 
recorded by many advertisers are possible also for you. Keep your 
message in the Journal and get your share. 

Make your space show what you think of your product 

Avenue at 36th Street, New York 

^& Cincinnati (Ohio)^ 

to spend $300,000]^ 

new tracks on, 

in Covingtonv- 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 

"Advice" from the Bleachers 

TWENTY thousand roaring fans tell 
the pitcher just what to do. But un- 
moved by the clamor, he does what he 
knows to be right. Possibly he wonders if 
any of those fans have ever stood on the 
mound and faced Babe Ruth. 

It's easy to give advice, but advice is usu- 
ally only valuable when it comes from a man 
who has been through the mill. 

Now, then, to get down to your business. 
When a man ofifers you advice on the opera- 
tion of Rolling Stock or Power Plants, you 
have the right to ask him this question ; 

Where did you learn your trade? 

The Texaco Lubrication Engineer who 

calls on you would be glad to have you ask 

For Texaco Lubrication Engineers are not 
swivel chair engineers. They are at home 
in overalls. 

They know their business in the practical 

When they tell you to use a certain 
Texaco Lubricant for a certain purpose, they 
knozi' that it will work right. 

They have watched it work time and time 
again, not from the side lines, but right along- 
side the man in overalls, whose job it is to 
keep the equipment running at the maximum 
capacity for the least cost. 

TEXACO recommendations are sound 

They are made by men who have their feet on the ground. 

Ask us for a practical solution of any problem — all roads have 
them once in a while — and see for yourself how quickly Texaco 
Service and Texaco Lubricants will banish the trouble. 

There is a Texaco Lubricant for every purpose, rolling stock, power plant, 

substations everywhere. 







March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Manufactured in Canada by 

Dominion Wheel & Foundries, Ltd. 

Toronto, Ont. 


Means More Than Hardware! 

WE'VE talked about those 25 new cars of the Ontario Hydro- 
Electric Commission before. And they're worth talking about 
some more ! 
Don't overlook the fact, please, that it's not merely pneumatic door en- 
gines alone that makes this job worthy of your attention. It's the way the 
pneumatic operation is backed up by our doorshaft and folding step 
mechanisms that counts most. 

The ball bearing door shaft mechanism has taper thrust collars to allow 
free movement no matter what time and traffic may do to throw the 
platforms out of line. So, too, with the ball bearing mechanism for the 
folding steps. Here, a thrust collar is used to keep wear off of the 
shaft — plain or sleeve bearings can't do that. Finally, the slide bar be- 
tween steps and door shaft mechanisms and the levers which tie the 
engine connecting rods to the door shafts are readily adjustable. 
Hydro-Electric safeties next year, the year after and so on will be just 
as responsive to pneumatic manipulation as they are this winter. 
National Pneumatic Equipment means more than hardware. 


Door and Step Control Door and Step Operatiing Mechanism 

Motorman's Signal Lights Safety Interlocking Door Control 

Multiple Unit Door Control 

National Pneumatic Company, Inc. 

Originators and Manufacturert 


Philadelphia — Colonial Tru»t Bldr. Clilc«»o— MoCormlck BoUdlnc 

Works— Rahway, New Jersey 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 




"to Eii-diiieei?>^ 

Coil '^n^^ , Repair $Kop$ 
Aiotor, Tian^former axid. 

Furnished in — • 
Widths % in. and wider. 
Lengths 36 and 72 yd rolls. 
Thickness .005 to .015 in. 

Seven Factors 
of Quality 

High Dielectric Strength 

High Resistance 


Non Hygroscopic 

Heat Resisting 

Chemically Neutral 

Maximum Elasticity 

1RVINGT0N seamless bias tape varnished cambric is made in widths of 
% in. and wider. Length 36 and 72 yd. rolls. Thickness .005 to .01 5 in. 
The advantages of a SEAMLESS over a sewed bias tape are: It can be con- 
tinuously wound without the necessity of stopping to cut out a seam. Absence 
of seam avoids air pockets and the consequent lowering of dielectric at that 
spot. Can be wound with a taping machine. Will successfully supplant 
method of insulating with linen tape and the subsequent impregnation with 
insulating varnish. Seamless bias can be wound with lap instead of butt joint. 

Sale* Repretentative* : 

Mitchell-Rand Mfg. Co., New York 

T. C. White Electric Supply Co., St. Louis 

E. M. Wolcott, Rochester 
L. L. Fleig & Co., Chicago 
Consumers Rubber Co., Cleveland 
Clapp & Lamoree, Los Angeles 

F. G. Scofield, Toronto 


jLrv iiap ton.. NewTerse^. 

Established 1905 



March 10, 1923 • 

Electric Railway Journal 


A real s^mibol of servicer' 

Not your shoulders — but ours! 

WHEN Galena Service takes 
hold of your lubrication, it 
assumes the responsibility of de- 
livering satisfactory results. 

Galena Service Engineers are not 
theorists, but trained specialists 
familiar with every detail of your 
mechanical equipment and its lubri- 
cation requirements. 

From the selection of raw materials, 
through the stages of special process 
in manufacture and to the final ap- 

plication and correct use of the 
lubricants. Galena Service works 
for your interest in the advancement 
of efficient and economical opera- 

Through the practical experience 
and personal cooperation of this 
competent organization the railways 
under Galena lubrication are saving 
thousands of dollars annually by the 
elimination of the expensive trou- 
bles of faulty lubrication. 

'When Galena Service goes in — 
Lubrication troubles go out!" 

Galena-Signal (Ml Gbmpanyi 

New York Franklin. Pa. ^ Chicago 

and offices in principal cities ^ 


Electric Railway Journal 

• March 10, 1923 

Standardize on G-E Line Material and 
be insured against line- down tie-ups 

They Make Good — 
Every One 

Here is the solution of your over- 
head difficulties. There are lit- 
erally hundreds of different 
devices. They meet every require- 
ment. They withstand tests 
more severe than any service con- 
ditions. The sturdy construction 
and the protective finish, which is 
exclusively "G-E", is the reason. 

Your G-E Railway Supply Cat- 
alog makes it easy to select just 
what you need. Look over the 
section on Line Material. 


General Office 
Schenectady; N.Y 


Sales Offices "in «m» 
all large "cities 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Publlahed bjr McOriw-BlII Company, Inc. 

Henry W. Blake and Harry L. Brown, Editors 

Volume 61 

New York, Saturday, March 10, 1923 

Number 10 

The Personal Touch Is Necessary 

in Maintaining Friendly Public Relations 

THE present interest in fostering good relations 
between the public utility and its public is excellent. 
Wherever such relations can be fostered on a sound 
basis, no effort to develop them is wasted. But to be 
.successful the effort must be based upon a few funda- 
mental facts. Otherwise the relations will fall like the 
house built upon the sand when the storm comes. The 
manager ambitious to keep his property right with its 
patrons must have high ideals of the mission of the 
property to the community, must understand the in- 
dividual and social characteristics of his patrons and 
must know how to convince his community that he and 
the utility which he administers are there to serve it 
first and make a profit second. In no other ways can 
he keep from getting in wrong, and once in he will find 
it hard to get out. A tough proposition? Yes, it takes 
a real man to solve it. But it can be solved. 

The public which supplies the patronage for an elec- 
tric railway is something individually personal, not a 
mass of humanity. These individuals, therefore, must 
be reached as such. They do, of course, think in groups 
and even then many think very little, but unless they 
are visualized as separate entities, "public relations" 
will not get veiy far. 

The manager must, therefore, be a "mixer," using 
that overworked word in its best sense of a friendly 
man. The public relations matter must begin at the 
head, it is something that cannot be delegated. The 
manager personifies the railway to the patrons. They 
must like and respect him or he cannot properly serve 
them. Good public relations cannot be made by ma- 
chinery, no matter how ingeniously devised, for ma- 
chinery has no heart. 

Service Must Come Ahead of Profits 
in Promoting Good Public Relations 

OBVIOUSLY, then, good public relations are friendly 
relations, but they must be based on what really 
interests the people — good service. No amount of 
handshaking and captivating talk will take the place 
of it. Better keep mum and in the background until 
the service is as good as it can be made. When good 
service is being supplied it is worth talking about. In 
doing this some simple rules can be followed, although, 
people being as they are, no complete technique of good 
public relations will ever be developed. The following 
appear to be sound: 

Let the manager put service ahead of profits in his 
mind as well as in his words. Profit will follow. 

Let the manager and his entire staff be as integral 
a part of the community socially as their service is 
an intimate part of its life. 

Let the manager mellow his intelligence in putting a 
message across with sympathy for the public point of 
view, without necessarily saying or feeling that the 
public is always right. 

Let the aim be to reach the public as individuals, 
man to man, utilizing so far as possible the natural 
channels of leadership through which the general run 
of people are accustomed to receiving their impressions. 

Many companies have men who are vested with the 
particular task of promoting good public relations. 
Where do they come in if this is a kind of vrork which 
cannot be delegated by the management? When a com- 
pany can afford a specialist along these lines, well and 
good. But he must do his work as an auxiliary and 
not as the principal representative of the company be- 
fore the public. Otherwise he would put the manage- 
ment in the shade as far as the public is concerned, 
and render it in effect and to this extent supernumerary. 
There is plenty of study and planning for a specialist 
where the manager has the right idea on this subject. 

A Place for College Men in 

the Transportation Department 

'"pHERE is no great difficulty to interest young engi- 
1 neers coming out of college in a job in the power 
house of an electric railway. The power house seems 
to appeal to the training these men have had in a way 
that no other place in the organization does. Some 
can be interested in jobs in the mechanical and way 
and structures departments. But practically none seem 
to visualize any opportunity in the transportation de- 
partment. They are willing and happy to don overalls 
and get into the grease of the power plant, but seem 
unwilling to start with a clerical job at a division 
headquarters and learn that phase of the business. 

The opportunity here is something that colleges can 
well bring to the attention of student engineers. The 
transportation department of the electric railway offers 
real opportunity for a man to grow for several reasons. 
In the first place, there is probably greater room for 
improvement of the calibre of men now in the trans- 
portation positions than is true of any other depart- 
ment. Generally speaking, the men holding the posi- 
tions of division superintendents and their assistants 
are men who have come up from the ranks and who 
have learned to handle men. But they are often hard 
taskmasters and have little vision beyond the existing 
methods and routine. A young engineer with energy 
and initiative, and trained to think and analyze, would 
thus step into an almost virgin field in many com- 
panies upon taking a place in the transportation depart- 
ment. Of course, he must expect to start at the bottom 
and spend perhaps two or three years in hard subor- 
dinate positions while gaining a thorough grounding. 



Vol. 61, No. 10 

That there is need for something more than a boss 
of men hardly needs argument. The transportation 
department employee who develops the genius to fit 
schedules to traffic, so that there shall be the minimum 
of unprofitable mileage, but the maximum profitable 
use of equipment, and then, as a boss, can turn his 
trainmen and inspectors into a truly merchandising 
organization, can name his own salary. 

The transportation department spends some 60 per 
cent of the total operating expenditures and yet it is 
probably the poorest manned of all departments. It 
is also the poorest paid of all departments, referring 
to the salaried positions. But this is an outgrowth 
of the fact that these men are from the ranks and they 
have not required as much money, though this is wrong. 
Had the salaries paid in this department been adequate 
to attract and hold better men, the transportation de- 
partment would probably be a better functioning ma- 
chine than it is today, generally speaking. At any 
rate, there is great opportunity for improvement and 
managements would do well to endeavor to bring some 
new blood into this department and give it a chance 
to grow. For the young college men, this department 
would be no bed of roses, but the chance for real 
accomplishment there is so great that it may be quite 
sound to say that the young engineer will find his 
ability rewarded more quickly here than in strictly 
engineering pursuits, where the need for improvement 
is much less apparent. 

Is a Merit and Demerit System 
for Utility Service Possible? 

CAN utilities be graded as to their service perform- 
ance to determine which are living up to their capa- 
bilities. The public service commissions of at least 
two states think that they can. As yet, there is no 
report that a service standard has been drafted for elec- 
tric railway companies, but if the grading system can be 
applied to gas, electric light and telephone companies, 
it may be possible later to include the railways. 
The system as used in Wisconsin was described at a 
meeting of the commission engineers in Washington 
last week, and it is reported that the Illinois commission 
also has a somewhat similar schedule. 

Mr. Hayden of the Wisconsin commission was very 
careful to explain that the system as applied to the 
utility companies was not drafted with the thought that 
they should be graded like schoolboys, with some receiv- 
ing honor marks and others being conditioned and per- 
haps failing finally to graduate. Nevertheless, it is ob- 
vious that such a merit and demerit system has many 
possibilities for good, if justly administered. 

Of course, allowances would have to be made for the 
conditions under which the service had to be given. 
One should not expect metropolitan service in a small 
community. Nevertheless, one of the handicaps of many 
railways has been that there has been no real standard 
against which their service can be judged. When a 
chronic grumbler or a demagogue for political eflfect 
says that the service is poor compared with what it 
ought to be, no reply is possible. But it would be differ- 
ent if the company could declare that its service has been 
classified on a recognized definite standard in comparison 
with other like properties and had been found to be 
"Grade A." It may be also that such a system of grading, 
as has been pointed out by Mr. Nash of Stone & Web- 
ster, will provide a basis for that financial "incentive" 
which many think necessary in service-at-cost franchises. 

Holding Company Investors Carry 
Reorganization Load 

FAST on the heels of the announcement of the com- 
pletion of the plans for the readjustment of the 
financial affairs of the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company, New York, has come the publication of the 
terms of the proposed reorganization of the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company under' foreclosure. As has been 
detailed before, the underlying bonds of the companies 
making up the Brooklyn Rapid Transit system will 
remain undisturbed. The principal obligation to be 
adjusted is the company's own $57,243,700 of three-year 
7 per cent notes due in 1921 on which $20,035,295 in 
interest will have accumulated by July 1 next. In the 
place of this $77,278,995 of principal and interest 
there will be issued $62,968,070 of new 6 per cent bonds 
and $10,303,866 of 6 per cent preferred stock with 
$4,007,059 to be paid to the holders in cash. As for the 
tort creditors, about whom such a fuss was made in the 
newspapers following the terrible Malbone Street acci- 
dent, they are to be paid in full. These claims for per- 
sonal injuries are estimated at $2,200,000. Holders of 
general contract claims aggregating $1,500,000 with 
$400,000 of unpaid interest to July 1, 1923, will receive 
$1,150,000 in the new preferred stock and $750,000 in 
cash according to the plan proposed. As for the stock- 
holders, they must pay an assessment of $35 a share. 

The net result of the reorganization will increase the 
funded debt to $139,210,135, or more than $10,000,000, 
with an estimated annual interest charge of $6,679,528. 
This, it is said, is slightly less than the amount paid on 
this account before the receivership, but a fair com- 
parison is not possible because the reorganization plan 
is subject to some revision and because the last report 
made by the company previous to the receivership did 
not differentiate between taxes and fixed charges. Off- 
hand, it would seem that the charge of $1,500,000 per 
annum on the issue of $25,000,000 of new 6 per cent 
preferred stock accumulative after three years must 
necessarily work to the material detriment of the holder 
of the common issue. As a matter of fact the holders 
of the common stock will, under the reorganization, be 
assured of a small immediate income, for they will 
receive for the assessment 62 J per cent in new sinking 
fund 6 per cent bonds, while for the balance of the assess- 
ment they will receive preferred stock. Moreover, the 
chance is good for immediate appreciation in the value 
of the common share holdings, which will be exchanged 
share for share. On the basis of the earnings of the 
company for the year ended June 30, 1922, it has been 
estimated that the dividend on the preferred stock is 
being earned 2.84 times, with 3.5 per cent left for the 

As Judge Mayer explained, it was a very difficult job 
to reconcile the representatives of the various security 
holders to a workable plan not too onerous in its terms 
to any of the holders. All that remains to be done 
now is to work out the details inherent in every impor- 
tant plan of reorganization and then to present the plan 
to the Transit Commission. It is interesting to note 
that whereas in the Interborough Rapid Transit read- 
justment that company divested itself of the surface 
lines in New York and Queens to devote itself to the 
intensive development of the rapid transit lines, the 
Brooklyn reorganization contemplates the possible future 
reacquisition of the Brooklyn City Railroad, now re- 
stored to a good degree of prosperity and a dividend- 
paying basis. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Rerouting Would Save Money 
in Richmond 

By Rerouting and Other Service Changes Requiring a Very Slight Capital Expenditure for 

Special Trackwork Only, a Saving of More than $250,000 Annually Is Possible 

Principles of Rerouting Are Laid Down — Other Economies Are Suggested 

THE report on the Richmond railway property for 
the City Council of Richmond, Va., being made 
by John A. Beeler of New York, concludes with 
a suggested rerouting plan. Briefly, it declares that 
without the addition of any new equipment or the build- 
ing of any new lines or tracks except a few minor 
connections more than $250,000 can be saved annually 
by the plan proposed. 

Previous abstracts of sections of this report have 
been published as they have been made public by the 

this, with the improved operating method suggested, 
the saving already mentioned may be expected. 

It is believed that with these changes a fair return 
on a fair valuation will be immediately available. 

Routing and Service ' 

In this final section of his report Mr. Beeler not only 
outlines a system of rerouting for the Richmond lines 
but lays down a set of principles of routing and service. 
Routing, he says, is a vital factor in the successful 

Downtown Car Flow C'hartH Under Fre8«nt and Proposed Boating. The FlirureH Indicate CarN 
Scheduled in Maxtmum Hour, 5 to 6 P.M. 

Council and have appeared in the issues of this paper 
for Dec. 9, 1922; Jan. 27 and Feb. 10, 1923. Briefly 
their contents may be summarized as follows: 

First, the cost to reproduce the property as it exists 
today and the company's actual cumulated investment 
from the date of its organization to the present time 
are given. 

The status of the securities issued is then treated in 
detail, with their proper allocation to the Richmond 
railway division. 

Then the report describes the financial methods and 
practices of the railway from its organization to the 
present, with a statement of the service rendered, the 
expenses and taxes in detail by years from 1911 to 
date. The income and outgo are analyzed, and the rate 
of return ascertained for each year. 

Next a survey of the passenger and traflSc movement 
is presented, showing that the present movement has 
long been obsolete. A new routing plan is proposed, 
which will lessen congestion in the downtown section 
and provide quicker, more direct and better service. By 

operation of a street railway property. It should be 
watched continually. A routing correct today may not 
be suitable a year hence. Cars should be so routed as 
to serve best the riding public by carrying them where 
they want to go directly, quickly and economically. To 
transport passengers economically, the car service must 
be adjusted to the traffic demands, and to carry them 
quickly the routing must be such as to avoid traffic 

Usually the demand confronting a street railway is 
for transportation between the manufacturing or busi- 
ness sections of a city and the residence districts. Two 
methods have been developed, namely, loop routing, 
where the cars loop in the business section and return, 
and through routing, where cars operate from one side 
of the city through the downtown section to another 
district. Some cities adopt one plan and some the 
other. In Richmond, a combination of the two is found. 
The best solution depends on the riding characteristics. 
If the demands for service in two different districts are 
about the same, through routing is the better, as it 

Present and Proposed Routes, Richmon d Rerouting Plan 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


eliminates loop mileage, usually unproductive, and 
reduces turning movements in the basiness section, 
where congestion is most acute. On the other hand, 
if the demands are not approximately the same, loop 
routing may be preferable, because if through routing 
were used either one section would be under-serviced 
at the expense of the other or more cars would be run 
lightly loaded in the first. 

Short-lining, or turning back a part of the service at 
some intermediate point instead of running it all to 
the end of the line, should always be cpnsidered in 
any routing plan. This not only promotes more efficient 
operation but it distributes the service more justly. 

Before recommendations for improving transporta- 
tion in the city of Richmond were formulated it was 
necessary to obtain and digest a large amount of mate- 
rial with regard to the operation of the cars at all times 
of day, as well as movements of people and vehicles, and 
traffic conditions generally throughout the city. The 
company co-operated by furnishing schedules of all 
lines, route maps and much other valuable information. 

To study car loading and operating conditions of 
individual lines, more than 100 trips covering all routes 
were made by trained observers and carefully analyzed. 
The records of these trips show the actual observed 
running time of the car over the various sections of 
the route, the locations where stops were made, the 
passenger interchange at each, and the delays and their 
causes. These rides were made at all periods of the day, 
special attention being given to obtain average rush- 
hour and non-rush conditions. Charts were made to 
show graphically the information obtained, so as to 
have them available for study of the individual condi- 
tions of each route. A typical one is reproduced. 

A series of traffic counts was made to show the total 
demands for service at the principal controlling points 
in the city. The counts show the total number of riders 
passing these points for all periods of the day from 
6 a.m. until midnight. The passenger loads were tabu- 
lated by fifteen-minute periods in the rush hours, and 
by thirty-minute periods in the non-rush. Charts 
similar to that reproduced were then prepared to show 
similar information in graphical form. Special observa- 
tions were taken of traffic at congested points in the 
business district and during the rush hours at selected 
locations where conditions were bad. 

Layout op the City 

The city of Richmond has a rather rugged topog- 
raphy. It is divided into two main portions by the 
James River, which runs near the center of the city. 
The northern section is divided further by Shockoe 
Creek, which runs in a deep valley between the hill on 
which the business district is built and the residential 
sections to the north and east. Several industries re- 
quiring transportation facilities are located in this 
valley. The separation of the city into districts by this 
topography has necessitated the construction of several 
bridges and viaducts. Naturally the distances to be 
covered are fairly great, causing a decided increase in 
demands on the transportation system. 

Service is now given by eighteen routes regularly 
operated in the base hours, supplemented by various 
"tripper" cars for the rush. On the average weekday 
some 134 cars are in operation in the base. During 
the rush periods this service is built up to 182 cars 
in the morning and 195 in the evening. The passenger 
averages show that there are more than enough seats 

furnished everywhere in the city at all periods of the 
day. Even in the rush periods from 6 to 9 a.m. and 4 
to 7 p.m. there is no place where the total passengers 
exceed the total seating capacity. Nevertheless, if the 
cars do not come at the right time, there may be more 
than enough seats furnished in any given period and 
yet passengers may be obliged to stand. Irregular 
loading and spacing are characteristic of the Richmond 

Present and Proposed Routing 

The eighteen routes forming the major service in 
Richmond were laid out more as a result of competi- 
tion than with regard to the present needs of tlie 
residents they serve. There is much duplication, and 
many lines are indirect and inefficient. The present and 
proposed routes are shown on the accompanying maps, 
which are not drawn to scale. 

In the new routing much of the duplication mentioned 
is eliminated, and the routes are more direct. It will be 
easier to build up the rush-hour service. Congestion 
in the business district will be reduced, especially in the 
peak hours, so that all car, vehicle and pedestrian move- 

8 9 10 II 12 

6789I0 1II2IE34567 
A.M. P.M. 

Leaving Westbound «+ 5th oinci Main 

Traffic Count of Cars on Main Strept I.inr, Taken 
by Fixed Obaerrer 

This is a througli east and west line, and westl>ound cars are 
cliarted in both of these cases. 

ments will be speeded up. The time required for a 
patron to reach his destination should be reduced, and 
in many instances the headways will be improved 

A comparison of these routes shows that those pro- 
posed are more direct than at present. The arrange- 
ment is such as to accommodate the riding public as 
well as may be with the limitations of track and 
topography. More through routes are provided, thus 
increasing the delivery area for such lines and decreas- 
ing the amount of transferring. Of the transfers that 
may be necessary under the new routing, more are made 
outside the downtown district, so that this source of 
congestion will be lessened. Fewer cars also are turned 
back in the heart of the city. This will reduce the 
congestion. It also will better serve the stores in this 
district and beyond, since more of the patrons will be 
able to take their cars without a walk to some point 
removed a considerable distance. 

The plan will commend itself in the rush hours espe- 
cially. The traffic graphs reproduced show the present 
and proposed number of cars scheduled in the maximum 
evening hour, between 5 and 6 o'clock. At present the 
worst points on the system are on Broad between 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

Seventh and Eighth, and on Main between Eighth and 
Ninth. The trouble is due to the large number of cars 
looping in these squares. With the rerouting this 
source of congestion will be reduced materially. The 
present operation is further complicated by the cross- 
over movements at Seventh and Broad and Eleventh and 
Broad. With the new routing these movements will not 
be made in the rush hours, the cars going straight 
through. All left-hand turns at Seventh and Broad 
will be eliminated, while similar turns at Ninth and 
Broad will be reduced to less than a third the number 
now made. 

On Main Street conditions will be improved about 
equally. All the left-hand turns at Ninth and Main, 


Observations taken August 31, September I, I9Z2 

9 10 II 12 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 
A.M. P.M 

Arriving Eas+bound at 5th and Franklin 

10 II I? 

TratDc Count of .litnrys on Jitney Ronte No. 1 

This route serves the "fan-shaped" residential district in the 
western part of the city, 3,000 ft. wide at its widest part, now 
without direct car lines going downtown. Both charts show in- 
bound traffic. The point of observation in the upper chart is 
part way "downtown." The ol)servations in the lower chart are 
In the business district. The charts show much unused jitney 

except those made by the Westhampton cars, will be 
eliminated. At Seventh and Main the left-hand turns 
will be reduced from forty-three to twenty-four. 

The total turning movements scheduled at present are 
402. With the proposed routing they will be reduced to 
264. The gain is largely in the reduction of left-hand 
turns, as will be seen from the detailed figures. A com- 
parison of totals follows: 

Car Movements 


Present Proposed Number Per Cent 

Number of left-hand turns 266i 136 130i 49.0 

Number of right-hand turns. .. . 135| 128 71 5.5 

Total turning movements 402 264 138 34.4 

It is generally conceded that the left-hand tui-n is 
much more difficult and conducive to congestion than 
the right-hand turn. In this case, while the total turns 
proposed are one-third less than at present, the number 
of left-hand turns proposed has been reduced nearly 
50 per cent. Another improvement is that the num- 
ber of cars scheduled in opposing directions on a street 
is more nearly equal. This is desirable as two streams 
of cars can be moved through an intersection almost 
as quickly as one. With the rerouting in effect the 
total congestion from car movements in the downtown 
section will be reduced more than a third. All move- 
ments, both car and vehicular, will be accelerated. The 
other recommendations for the relief of traffic conges- 
tion should assist still further. 

Due to the economies recommended it is possible to 
handle the business with somewhat fewer cars than now 
in use. Each car will make more mileage and provide 

more service than with the existing methods. The 
safety cars will be used to best advantage, thus improv- 
ing the service for a larger share of the public. 


Due to conditions of unbridled competition existing 
when the present street car lines were begun too much 
track was constructed for the best interests of the 
public. Since that time the city has grown very 
greatly. The development, to a great extent, has been 
along the street car lines, but even so there are certain 
lines which have not earned as yet, nor are likely to 
earn in the near future, enough to justify their exist- 
ence apart from the general good to the city. 

In planning new lines it is desirable to consider all 
the factors likely to influence city growth, so that the 
mistakes of the past may not be repeated in the light 
of more experience. 

The Jitney Situation 

As in many other cities, competition to the street 
ears sprang up a few years ago in the form of 
"jitneys," principally Ford touring cars, carrying pas- 
sengers for a 5-cent fare directly along the street 
railway routes. The operation of these jitneys was 
conducted in an irresponsible manner, and traffic con- 
gestion increased to the point where all vehicle move- 
ments were affected adversely. The situation finally 
became so serious that the city was forced to adopt 
regulatory measures. During the past summer an 
ordinance was adopted, among other things licensing 
the drivers, fixing the fare at 8 cents, and providing 
for indemnity insurance. Operation was restricted to 
five regular routes, covering a large portion of the city. 
This ordinance has clarified the situation and has 
brought the operation of jitneys within the supervision 
of the city authorities. Up to the present time but one 
of the routes has been operated regularly. This is 
known officially as "Route No. 1," and runs through the 
"fan-shaped district" in the West End section of the 

A special investigation of the jitney traffic was made 
in accordance vdth the request of the Council commit- 
tee. The data are charted in an accompanying diagram. 
In the eighteen hours covered by the check the jitneys 
on this one route carried 4,017 passengers westbound 
and 4,309 eastbound, as determined at the maximum 
point. Laurel Street. This compares with 12,454 car- 
ried westward and 13,131 carried eastward on the 
Broad Street cars, and 6,419 westbound and 6,152 east- 
bound passengers on the Main Street cars. 

The maximum number of jitneys observed was fifty- 
six in one fifteen-minute period. This is at the rate 
of nearly four per minute, and represents almost the 
limit from the standpoint of congestion. While the 
headways were very close, the advantage to the indi- 
vidual was not equally great, as the usual allowance 
per jitney is four passengers, and frequently prospec- 
tive passengers have to wait considerable periods before 
they can obtain transportation by this method. 

To carry this business ninety-nine machines actually 
were in operation at some time during the day of the 
counts. Presumably at the very least ninety-nine men 
were engaged in the business of operating these cars. 

Equal or better service could have been offered by 
the street railway with some twelve safety cars, with 
not more than twenty-four men as operators for the 
entire eighteen hours. This would furnish the same 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


number of seats throughout the day as the jitneys had 
during the rush hours, or nearly twice as many as were 
running in the non-rush hours. 

Jitney service costs considerably more to operate 
than equivalent street car service. This has been 
proved many times and under widely varying condi- 
tions. The reason the business survives is because any 
individual may engage in it and be satisfied with day 
wages. In fact, some persons will run their machines a 
few hours each day in addition to some other line of 
work. The jitneys as at present operated, even with 
the excellent provisions of the ordinance now in force, 
do not have anything like the safeguards required of 
a responsible corporation, either with respect to service 
or damages. There is no way of collecting damages 
beyond the amount of the insurance, though several 
people may be involved in an accident. Neither is the 
public assured of adequate service, as there is no method 
by which the jitney operator may be forced to run his 
machine, or by which individuals may be obliged to 
engage in the jitney business. 

Up to date the jitneys have not been taxed nearly 
as heavily as the corporations, nor have they been 
obliged to assist in paying for paving and its main- 
tenance. The street railway pays taxes equivalent to 
nearly 10 per cent of the gross receipts and, in addition, 
installs and maintains a considerable portion of the 
paving on streets where it operates. 

Estimated Savings of Proposed Car Service 

The plan outlined in the preceding discussion has 
been laid out with a view to giving the best service 
for the entire city of Richmond. The operation will 
also be conducted with regard to economy and efficiency. 
Schedules based on this plan show savings in every 
department, due to a reduction in car-miles or car-hours 
operated. Those calculated have been the savings in 
maintenance, power, and trainmen's wages. Savings 
in other accounts, such as supervision of transporta- 
tion, accidents, damages, and general miscellaneous 
expenses, have not been estimated, though there will 
be some reduction in these items. On the above basis, 
the total saving from routing and service changes will 
amount to $251,790 annually. The only capital expendi- 
tures required are for a revision in the special work at 
four points. To offset these, there is a certain amount 
of track to be retired, so that the capital account should 
not be increased, and there should be no addition to the 
fixed charges. As new cars are not needed to put the 
entire program in effect, there should be no delay in 
proceeding with it. 

Effect of Savings on Finances of Company 
Based on the latest information available, the 
revenues and expenses of the Richmond railway 
division, operating on a 6-cent fare, are approximately 
as follows: 

Gross earnings ii VtW ihn *^'*^^'"'"' 

Operating expenses * ' o^'cnn 

tIxIs'!"'.^.".\'. .''."'! .'■.T.'!!'!' . ■. : '. : : : : : 251:600 2,179.000 

t 442,000 

Other income less deductions 

Net Income 

Sinking fund charges 


Amount available for Interest, etc. 

The above amount is almost exactly 6 per cent on the 
reproduction cost of the property new, less depreciation. 

Typical Car Loading Carves, Tslcen by Obsrrver on Car 

The verticals above and below the zero line show the number of 
passengers boarding and leaving the car at each stop. 

of $7,355,000 as determined by the Beeler organization. 
A 7 per cent return on the valuation would call for 
$515,000 in round figures. 

With the successful inauguration of the more efficient 
routing and scheduling just proposed, there will be an 
increase in the net income of some $252,000 annually, 
bringing the total net up to $692,000 annually. After 
deducting from this the $515,000 required to pay 7 
per cent on the investment, $177,000 will remain, which 
may be applied for lowering the fare or for other pur- 
poses. A return to the flat fare of 5 cents at the 
present time would, undoubtedly, reduce the gross 
revenues practically one-sixth or about $437,000. To 
make this possible and at the same time permit a 7 
per cent return would require some $260,000 additional 
savings. This rate of return is used for purposes of 
illustration only. 

Further Economies Possible 

The economies already recommended may be obtained 
with a few minor changes in track. With the 
co-operation of the authorities and the public, other 
improvements can be made with further economies. 
There is no reason why practically all the service in 
Richmond cannot be given with one-man car», if the 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

methods already recommended for traffic control and 
rush-hour loading are employed. This would require 
the purchase of additional equipment if the safety type 
of car is used. For certain purposes the best of the 
two-man cars may be remodeled to give fair service with 
one man, although of course they will be inferior to cars 
designed for the purpose. By a careful readjustment 
of the stopping places throughout the city to conform 
to the standard of eight per mile as nearly as prac- 
ticable, patrons would be afforded faster and better 
service, and at the same time further operating savings 
would result. 

The re-establishment of an effective power-saving 
device, followed up energetically by the management 
and co-operated in by the men should save a considerable 
amount of the power now used. Other companies have 
been able to reduce their power bills 10 per cent or 
more in this way, and Richmond should do as well. 
Were the jitneys eliminated the company undoubtedly 
would be able to get a large share of their patronage 
and should add some $125,000 to the net earnings. 
None of these economies should interfere with the re- 
quirements of good service, but on the contrary, if 
properly carried out, they should improve the perform- 
ance of the cars and give better results for the public. 

The trend in traction settlements for some years past 

has been strongly toward the service-at-cost plan. The 
one serious defect in this method, however, is that with 
valuation fixed and rate of return determined, manage- 
ments naturally are content to proceed along lines of 
least resistance. Indeed, under such conditions, it is 
most unusual that one will make strenuous efforts to 
reduce the rate of fare. To stimulate a management 
to strive for the highest attainments there must be 
an incentive. 

A plan can be provided whereby the benefits, result- 
ing from efficient management may be shared by the 
public and the owners of the property. For illustration, 
suppose the company be allowed to earn 7 per cent on 
its valuation with the present rate of fare. The adop- 
tion of the improved routing, together with the applica- 
tion of economies set forth herein, should prove more 
than sufficient for this. The savings may be used to 
reduce the fare. As the fare is reduced, allow the 
company to earn an increased rate of return if it can 
do so by operating more efficiently. For instance, if 
the fare can be reduced to 5i cents (or nine tickets for 
50 cents), the return may be increased to 7^ per cent; 
should the fare be reduced to 5 cents the return may be 
8 per cent, and so on. With such an incentive the 
company should exert all its energies toward giving 
the best possible service at the lowest possible fare. 

New Cars Embody Unusual Features 

Kansas City Railways' Multiple-Unit Cars Are Used in Trains in Rush Hours, with Three Men for Two 

Cars, and as Single Units in Non-Rush Periods — Facilitate Handling of Peak 

Load, with Operating and Investment Costs Minimized 

By E. B. Sanders 

Publicity Manaifer Kansas City (Mo.) Railways 

IN ORDER to provide equipment which can be oper- 
ated most economically and efficiently, the Kansas 
City Railways has recently placed in operation twenty 
new multiple-unit cars built by the G. C. Kuhlman 
Car Company of Cleveland, Ohio. The control equip- 
ment of these new "1400" type cars, as they are known, 
is so designed that they can be operated not only in 
two-car trains with three men, but also as single units 
with either one or two men. The many steep grades 
and short curves in Kansas City have made the use 
of large trailers impracticable. Accordingly, the new 
trains consist of two motor cars rather than one motor 
car and a trailer. 

These new cars were built from the specifications 
of the "1100" and "1200" type cars which have been so 
successfully used since 1915. A few minor changes 
were introduced in the new cars, and are also being 
built into the "1100" and "1200" type cars in the 
Kansas City Railways shops. The new cars are equipped 
with Westinghouse standard HL control, four General 
Electric 247 motors, the Safety Car Devices Company 
air brakes, and the St. Louis Pneumatic Devices Company 
rear-end door control. 

An unusual feature of this equipment is that the HL 
control has been combined with the Safety Car Devices 
Company equipment on double-truck cars embodying the 
one-man operating features. All safety features em- 
bodied on the one-man type of car have been applied 

to this new equipment, and in addition to this a new 
type of rear-end control has been worked out. The 
rear doors on these cars can be controlled by conduc- 
tor's valve, or by a street collector's valve on the outside 
of the car near the rear doors. All apparatus used to 
make connections for two-car train operation is a per- 
manent part of the car equipment, so there is no delay 
in coupling up single units for train operation. 

A matter of special interest was the working out of 
satisfactory coupling connections. For many reasons 
it was desired to operate the trains with only one trolley, 
which necessitated the carrying of a bus line, in addi- 
tion to the control wires, through the coupler. The Tom- 
linson automatic coupler was adapted with minor 
changes in anchorage. Installed on one side of the 
coupler head is the bus line circuit, and on the opposite 
side the necessary HL control wires, compressor syn- 
chronizing wire, door signal wire and conductor's sig- 
nal ; all this is in addition, of course, to the air connec- 
tions. Just back of the coupler is installed a group of 
di.sconnecting switches which couple simultaneously 
with the air connections of the coupler, so that with one 
operation the air cocks are closed off and the electric 
disconnections made. In this way whenever the cars 
are operated as single units the coupler is dead. 

All doors on the cars are interlocked with the brakes, 
and it is impossible to start a car or train with any of 
the doors open. The motorman also has signal lights 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Two-Car Train in Service, Trolley Used on Head Caj- Only 

which show when the doors are closed, and he is gov- 
erned by these lights, not starting until the lights show 
that the doors are all closed. 

All cars are equipped with the standard M-28 type of 
brake valve which controls the front door operation. 
The rear doors are controlled by the conductor's valve 
or street collector's valve. It is impossible to open or 
close these rear doors from one valve, without the other 
valve being in "door closed" position, as they are con- 
nected in series and operate separately by means of a 
double check valve and relay valve which also interlocks 
the door with the brake system. If the doors are opened 
while the car or train is moving, brake application is 
immediately made. The equipment on all cars is iden- 
tical and it is possible to make connection through the 
Tomlinson automatic coupler with the cars in any 
position. With the coupler disconnecting switches 
closed, that is, when current is on the second car through 
the bus line, the cut-out cock is open, permitting the 
passage of air into the brake system on the second car. 
If for any reason the coupler connection is broken or 
car.^ are .separated without first closing the disconnect- 

ing switches and cut-out cock, the emergency air line in 
the braking system opens to atmosphere through the 
coupler head, setting the brakes on both cars in emer- 
gency. If by mistake the operator neglects to open the 
disconnecting switches and simply pulls the coupler open 
to disconnect the train, thus leaving the points alive on 
the coupler, the cars as separate units cannot be moved 
until the disconnecting switches are closed. This inter- 
locking feature is accomplished by having the cut-out 
cock, which is placed in the air line to the coupler, 
operated by the same mechanism that operates the dis- 
connecting switches. This combined operation is per- 
formed by the manipulation of a small handle mounted 
under the bumper iron on each car. 

In respect to doors and steps, both front and rear 
platforms are the same. The doors are handled with 
the air valve, opening to the full width of the plat- 
form. The rear platform is equipped with a conductor's 
rail, and folding seats for passengers. The front plat- 
form is the same as any other standard platform on this 
class of eouipment, with the exception of a motorman'a 
I'ailing and a .swinging gate which when closed permits 


^ i ' 

-t^k^y ji^tM 


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t^it/'^, ff '' ^r^fl^^^^^^P 


"» ^ff.^^^Ld^-^ 






Wide AiNle* and Comfortable Seats OntxtandlnK FeatnrrH 

Coupllnr ArranKement for Tno-C'«r OfierHlionii 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

loading only through the front half of 
the door. If desired for two-man 
operation, however, this gate may be 
locked open. 

Both the passenger and conductor's 
signal systems are a little different 
from those usually used for train 
operation. The passenger signal 
reaches only the conductor, who in 
turn relays it to the motorman. The 
passenger push buttons are the Fara- 
day high-tension buzzer buttons con- 
nected to Faraday buzzers. The 
Faraday single-stroke bell is used by 
the conductor. 

A city ordinance requiring that a 
light be kept burning at night on the 
rear end of each car while on the 
streets necessitated the installation 
of a battery system. A double-acting 
relay, designed and built in the Kan- 
sas City Railways shops, was installed. 
This operates a small tail lamp which 
burns only when the power is removed 
from the car. A two-way switch is 
used to connect the charging system and the passenger 
buzzers, making it impossible to work the buzzer system 
until the switch is thrown on. Connecting these two in 
this manner permits a trickle charge of 0.1 amp. to flow 
into the battery at all times that the cars are in use. 
If this switch is on and the power off of the car, as in a 
storage yard, the tail light on the car continues to burn, 
indicating to the crew or the watchman that the switch 
has not been thrown to the off position. The fenders 
were designed by the Eclipse Railway & Supply Com- 
pany of Cleveland, Ohio, and allow the coupling of the 
cars without being removed. 

These cars have now been in operation for a period 
of more than three months and have measured up to ex- 
pectations in every way. No changes have been made 
as to the original layout, and none are contemplated, 
r The accompanying tables give a fair sample of the air 
control tests made on one and two car trains. A study 
of this table is very interesting and the indications are 


Car No. 1105. 

(Ali, Tests Made Between 50 and 65 Lb. of Air) 

Piston travel — 4 in. Time of 

Governor cut-out at 65 lb. — Cut-in at 55 lb. Operation 

Bralce cylinder application, to 50 lb 2 seconds 

Brake cylinder release. 65 lb. to 1 J seconds 

Secure controller handle emergencv in li seconds 

Release after control handle engaged 8 seconds 

Secure brake-valve emergency i second 

Release after brake-valve emergency 8 seconds 

Application of brakes to 50 lb. by rear door opening. . li seconds 

Release by closing rear door 3J seconds 

Two-Car Train, Car Nob. 1105 and 1116 
Brake cylinder 10 in. x 12 in. — 4 in. piston travel 

Brake cylinder application, to 50 lb 2 J seconds 

Brake cylinder release. 65 lb. to 3 seconds 

Controller handle emergency 21 seconds 

Controller handle release , n seconds 

Brake-valve emergency 1 second 

Brake-valve release 12 seconds 

Car weight, 38,000 lb. 

Ill per cent braking ratio with 50 lb. cylinder pressure. 

Two-Car Train Stops Service Application 

Miles per Hour Time Test B. C. 

25 8 seconds 130 lb. 50 lb. 

30 down grade 9 seconds 200 lb. 50 lb. 

Control. Handle Gmergbnct Stop 
Miles per Hour Time Test B. C. 

30 7J seconds 125 1b. 50 1b. 

Brake Valve Emeroenct Stop Down Grade 
Miles per Hour Time Test B. C. 

30 11 seconds 210 lb. 50 lb. 

Front and Rear Platforms, Showing Jb'oldiiiK St-atK uiiil i-.xit i-'eatures 

that the same efficiency will be obtained on this style 
of equipment that has been adopted as standard on one- 
man single-truck cars. 

The following results indicate the compressor oper- 
ation on cars 1105 and 1116 operating as multiple unit. 
These results do not represent normal car operation, 
because a number of emergency applications were made. 
Emergency application and door operation receive air 
from reservoirs on both cars, but for straight air appli- 
cation air is furnished by the reservoir on first car only. 


First Car — No. 1105 

Duration of test 1 hour. 20 minutes, 40 seconds 

Compressor "on". . . .22 minutes, 17 seconds, or 27 per cent of time 
Compressor "off". . . . 58 minutes, 23 seconds, or 73 per cent of time 

Number of governor operations 17 

.\verage time "on" 1 minute, 29 seconds 

Average time "oft" 3 minutes. 27 seconds 

Pressure increased from 55 lb. to 65 lb. in average time of 1 
minute, 29 seconds, or at the rate of 6.66 lb. per minute. 

Type of compressor Car No. 1105 CP-27 

Type of governor S-6-.'V 

Size of reservoir 16 in. x 42 in. 

Second Car — No. 1116 

Duration of test 1 hour, 20 minutes. 40 seconds 

Compressor "on". . . .19 nvinutes. 32 seconds, or 24 per cent of time 
Compressor "off" ... .61 minutes, 8 seconds, or 76 per cent of time 

Number of governor operations 18 

-Average time "on" 1 minute, 7 seconds 

.Average time "off" 3 minutes. 24 seconds 

Pressure increased from 55 lb. to 65 lb. in average time of 1 min- 
ute, 7 seconds, or at the rate of 8.95 lb. per minute. 

Type of compressor on Car No. 1116 CP-27 

Type of governor S-6-A 

Size of reservoir 16 in. x 42 in. 

Big British Electrification Impending 

THE Electric Railway & Tramway Journal states 
that specifications for the work involved in elec- 
trifying the South Eastern & Chatham Railway for a 
radius of 15 miles from London are to be issued at once 
and the work will be inaugurated almost immediately. 
It is expected to take two years to complete, and for 
that period between 16,000 and 17,000 men will be 
engaged, either on the electrification of the line or in 
making the equipment for it. The main stations which 
the electrification will reach are Dartford, Orpington, 
Addiscombe Road (Croydon) and Hayes. Between 
these points and London the intention is to operate 
more frequent and more rapid services, with a consid- 
erable addition to seating capacity during rush hours. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Automatic Substation Experience 
in Cleveland — IF 

The Author Traces in Detail the Sequence in Operations of the 
Present Substations of the Cleveland Railway, Which Are 
Designed Particularly to Give Reliability of Power Supply 

By L. D. Bale 

Superintendent of Substations the Cleveland Railway 

TO THOSE who have not had the opportunity of 
becoming intimately familiar with the scheme of 
operation of an automatic installation, the se- 
quence chart of the Cleveland installations, shown in 
Fig. 7, may seem unduly complicated, so much so, pos- 
sibly, that dependability in continuous operation might 
be questioned. The contrary is, however, the case. Ex- 
perience with these installations, together with reports 
from other properties utilizing automatic control, indi- 
cates that, when the equipment is properly installed and 
receives adequate inspection and maintenance, the ut- 
most confidence may be placed in its operation. 

The operation of the individual converters in the 
Cleveland installations does not vary greatly from that 
of the general scheme of automatic operation with the 
exception that a greater number of service protective 
features than usual have been installed. The occur- 
rence of higher current values than have been encoun- 
tered in previous automatic railway converter substa- 
tion worlt adds some complications, as does also the 
necessity for protecting the air-blast transformers 
against air failure. The presence of the second con- 
verter in these stations, likewise, creates an interesting 
item of control. 

First Converter Connected to Load 

The initial start is accomplished through the opera- 
tion of voltage relay No. 1, which closes its contact when 
a predetermined low value of trolley voltage occurs. 
This action causes the master relay No. 3 to close, and 
starts operation of the delay motor-drive relay No. 27. 
This is followed by the closing of the oil switch which 
energizes the power transformers. As the auxiliary 
410-volt a.c. bus is energized from the secondaries of 
the power transformers, the starting contactor No. 6 
is closed, connecting the converter to the one-half volt- 
age tap of the. transformer secondaries. There is a 
pause in the operation at this point sufficient to allow 
the converter to pull into step. In the event that the 
converter potential builds up in the wrong direction it 
is, of course, necessary to reverse the field to cause the 
converter to slip a pole. This is accomplished through 
the action of polarized motor-drive relay No. 7. 

This relay, having a permanent field, has the armature 
connected directly across the armature of the converter. 
If the converter potential builds up reversed, the arma- 
ture of No. 7 relay will revolve in a counter-clockwise 
direction. If, on the other hand, the potential builds 
up in the correct direction, the armature will revolve in 
a clockwise direction. The armature, in revolving, 
drives a set of contacts which perform certain opera- 

•For the first article in this series see issue of this paper for 
March 3. page 359. 

tions, depending upon the direction of rotation. In the 
event of incorrect potential, connection is made through 
No. 7 relay contacts for reversing the shunt field of the 
converter through the operation of field contactor relay 
No. 9 and field contactor No. 10. 

As the voltage of the converter falls to zero under 
reverse field connections. No. 10 contactor again operates 
and reconnects the field in the normal operating posi- 
tion. The converter thus is given an opportunity to 
build up in the correct direction. With correct d.c. 
potential. No. 7 relay, in rotating in the clockwise direc- 
tion, causes the transfer to be made from the one-half 
a.c. voltage starting taps to the full a.c. voltage running 
taps by opening No. 6 contactor and closing the three 
No. 11 contactors. Interlock connections are then made, 
energizing the brush-operating device. No. 31, which 
lowers the brushes on the ' d.c. commutator. As this 
device completes its operation, a contact is made, clos- 
ing the equalizer contactor No. 39. 

The operation of No. 39 contactor completes an inter- 
lock circuit closing No. 12, the first of the d.c. contac- 
tors which connect the converter through the current- 
limiting resistance to the load. The resistance shunting 
contactors, Nos. 14, 15 and 16a and b, are closed in 
turn, provided the load is not in excess of the calibra- 
tion of the various controlling relays. As No. 16 con- 
tactor closes, the circuit for No. 27 time-limit relay is 
opened. The function of this will be explained later. 

Under normal conditions, as the load upon the first 
converter increases to the point where it is desired to 
have the second machine in parallel, the operation of 
No. 34 thermal relay (after an interval of approxi- 
mately fifteen minutes) sets up a circuit, causing the 
second machine to be started, similar to the circuit 
derived through the under-voltage relay No. 1 in the 
case of starting the first machine. The action of No. 34 
relay is dependent upon a condition simulating, as 
nearly as possible, the mean square heating effect of 
the current in' the armature conductors of the converter. 
In this manner full advantage is taken of the overload 
capacity of the converter, with the result that a higher 
operating eflSciency is maintained. 

When the load has decreased to a point where it is 
desired to discontinue the operation of the second con- 
verter, underload relay No. 13, whose contacts close at 
a predetermined minimum d.c. load, again energizes No. 
27 delay relay. After operation has continued for a 
definite time (fifteen minutes) the closing of No. 27t 
contacts will cause the control circuits to be de-en- 
ergized, and allow the second machine to be discon- 
nected. The first converter is also shut down in the 
same manner, when the load upon that machine has de- 
creased to a predetermined low point for a definite time. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 


In the event that only one machine is in operation, 
and an overload is encountered that is of sufficient vol- 
ume to cause the insertion of current-limiting resistance 
in the converter circuit, the second machine is put into 
operation in one and one-half minutes, through the 
action of No. 27 relay (No. 27s contacts) of the over- 
loaded machine, thus securing the service of additional 
equipment without having to wait for the operation of 
the thermal starting relay No. 34. 

Protective Features Which Are Included 

Failure of Converter to Start. — In the event that the 
converter armature does not revolve upon the applica- 
tion of starting current, relay No. 53, energized from 
a current transformer in one of the starting leads, 
opens the control circuit and cuts off the energy supply 
before damage to the armature conductors can be done. 

Failure of Converter to Complete Cycle of Operation 
on Starting. — If for some reason the converter does not 
complete its cycle of operation. No. 27 delay relay, which 
is started simultaneously with the starting of the con- 
verter, will cause its No. 27s contacts to be closed in 
one and one-half minutes, shunting out the relays of the 
converter that has failed and placing the second machine 
in operation instead. As the demand upon the second 
machine reaches a point where additional equipment 
is desired, the control is so ar- 
ranged that an attempt will be 
made in this case again 'to start 
the machine that has failed. If 
the converter fails a second time 
its control circuits will again be §.^ 
de-energized, and, upon a third '^| 
attempt to operate, it will be |*| 
locked out through the operation || 
of No. 30 relay, which will be dis- S 
cussed later. p 

A.C. Overloads — For overloads ? 
of abnormal value, such as short 
circuits within the station itself, 
a.c. overload relays are provided. 

D.C. Overloads. — Overloads on 
the d.c. side are limited by insert- 
ing current limiting resistance 
in the converter circuit in three 
sections, by causing one or more 
of the resistance shunting contac- 
tors (Nos. 16a and b, 15 and 14) 
to open, depending upon the sever- 
ity of the overload. These con- 
tactors on the two converters are 
controlled through relays in such 
a manner as to synchronize the 
action of the contactors and. in 
this way, prevent pumping. 

Bearing Protection. — Should the 
converter bearings reach a 
dangerous temperature the ther- 
mal relays No. 25 will function, 
shutting down and locking out the 

Balance Pha-oe Protection. — To 
prevent the possibility of the con- 
verter running single phase ^due, 
for example, to the failure of a 
contactor to close), relay No. 45 

is connected across three current transformers in the 
low voltage side of the converter, so arranged that, in 
the event of the unbalancing of the transformer circuits, 
the i-elay will operate and disconnect the converter. 

LoivA.C. Voltage or Its Entire Failure. — If the voltage 
is too low for proper operation at the time of starting. 
No. 2 low-voltage relay will not make contact. If the 
voltage drops during starting or after the start has 
been made, No. 18 relay will close its contacts, causing 
the starting contactor to open. In the event of low 
voltage during operation. No. 49 relay, whose contacts 
are set to close at a voltage corresponding to the mini- 
mum at which the converters will operate satisfactorily, 
will complete a circuit shunting out No. 50 relay, which 
in turn, opens the circuit of No. 3 master relay, thus 
causing the converter to be disconnected from the line. 
No. 50 relay also prevents the converters from being 
locked out by the action of No. 27 relay (No. 27s con- 
tacts) in the event of failure of a.c. power lasting more 
than one and one-half minutes. 

D.C. Reverse Current. — Reverse current relay No. 32 
will remove the converter from the bus in the event of 
reverse direction of flow of current. 

Overspeed. — The customary overspeed device has been 
supplied on the converter shaft, which works in con- 

Fig. 7 — DiaRram Showing Sequence of Operations in 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


nection with the manually operated circuit breaker in 
the converter positive between the bus and the various 
positive contactors and resistances. This circuit breaker, 
in opening, disconnects the converter from the d.c. bus 
and completes an interlock circuit, shutting Ao\\n\ the 

Field Reversal Limiting Relay. — Occasionally a con- 
verter is found that will persist in building up its poten- 
tial in the reverse direction. In automatic operation, if 
some special preventive measures were not taken, it 
would be possible under abnormal conditions to have a 
converter continually reversing its field, thus consuming 
the one and one-half minutes allowed for its complete 
cycle of operation, and, as a result, shutting down 
through the operation of No. 27 relay. To help rectify 
this condition a notching-up relay, No. 26, has been pro- 
vided, which will allow the field to reverse three times 
in succession and then cause the starting contactor to 
open for a few seconds. After the time allowance in 
connection with No. 26 relay has elapsed, the starting 
contactor is again free to close, and three more attempts, 
if necessary, are made to reverse the field. 

Failure of Field Circuit. — Relay No. 44. whose coll Is 
in .«eries with the shunt field circuit, will prevent the 
converter from being connected to the load in the event 

of open or no field, or will shut down the converter In 
case it is already in operation. 

Continuous or Sustained Overloads. — To protect the 
converter against sustained or repeated overloads, 
brought about by some abnormal condition of loading 
or, possibly, failure of control, thermal relay No. 29 is 
provided. This relay operates on the same principle as 
No. 34 relay, being calibrated, however, for a longer 
time interval. In the event of operation the converter 
is removed from service. 

Protection of Transformers Against Air Failure. — 
This phase of the control presented some difficult 
angles. It was realized that it would be a simple matter 
to protect each individual transformer bank against air 
failure by shutting down the converter connecte'd to 
that bank. But, the adoption of such a scheme would 
mean that 50 per cent of the equipment (of a two-unit 
station) would be thrown out of service by reason of the 
failure of a blower. The possibility of such an occur- 
rence, particularly during peak-load periods, necessi- 
tated the finding of some other solution to this 

The scheme of protection finally adopted resolved 
itself into the utilization of air pressure relays (No. 42) 
on each transformer, which, in the event of air failure 

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Automatic Substations of Cleveland Railway 


Electeic Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

with but one converter in operation, will cause that 
unit to be discontinued from service through the action 
of No. 48 relay. The resulting demand for equipment 
(caused by the immediate lowering of the d.c. bus volt- 
age), will subsequently close No. 1 relay in the attempt 
to place this converter again in operation. This being 
impossible (because the converter is locked out by No. 
48 relay), No. 27 relay will operate and through No. 27s 
contacts cause the second unit to be started. Both 
blowers discharge into a common air chamber under all 
transformers, hence, when the second unit goes into 
operation with its blower, air is supplied again to all 
of the transformers, and, as a result, the No. 42 relays 
on the transformers originally discontinued from service 
will Teset, relieving the locked out circuit on the first 
converter through the operation of No. 48 relay. By 
this scheme of control it will be noted that the first con- 
verter is again applicable for service upon demand, and 
will be placed in operation through the normal func- 
tioning of No. 34 relay of the machine in service, or 
through No. 27 relay in the event of overloads. 

Lockout Features. — Several of the protective devices, 
during the course of their operation, form but a mo- 
mentary circuit, shunting out the master relay No. 3 
and causing the converter to be shut down. It is, there- 
fore, necessary to have some provision at hand to pre- 
vent the continual starting and stopping in the event of 
operation of protective devices which have no lockout 
features in themselves. Relay No. 30, known as lockout 
relay, is provided for this purpose and is so arranged 
that each closing of the a.c. oil switch causes a coil of 
the relay to raise a specially constructed mechanism one 
notch. If the converter completes its cycle of operation, 
a second coil of the relay (No. 30r) is energized, re- 
turning the mechanism to the original position. On 
the other hand, if the converter attempts to start twice, 
that is, if the oil switch is closed twice, without the con- 
verter being connected to the load, then upon the third 
closing, the converter will be definitely locked out. 

D.C. Feeder Control. — The proper method of outgoing 
d.c. feeder control has been one of the most troublesome 
problems of the whole automatic development. There 
was instaHed (and, in fact, still exists in the Cleveland 
plants) the only type of automatic feeder control avail- 
able at the time these stations were built. In this 
scheme, current limiting resistance is introduced into 
the feeder circuit by the opening of the resistance 
shunting contactor in the event of overload or grounds. 
If the overload persists, the feeder is finally disconnected 
from the station bus entirely. This scheme of feeder 
control has proved very successful when applied to 
interurban and suburban work, but for urban systems 
the scheme has certain limitations which make it un- 
desirable for this type of service. 

For example, a feeder in urban work may be quite 
often subjected to legitimate overloads from extraor- 
dinary car movements, traffic delays or, possibly, power 
trouble on the system elsewhere. Under these condi- 
tions, it certainly is not desirable either to lower the 
potential on the feeder by cutting in resistance, or to 
allow the feeder to be disconnected from the source of 
power, which in all probability is capable of handling 
the overload. Such a procedure would tend to make 
operating conditions still worse. On this property, 
where a premium is placed upon continuity of power 
supply, the policy is adopted of "burning off' all 
grounds possible. This phase of operation cannot be 

obtained with the resistance type of feeder control unless 
the ground is light and the current necessary to clear 
the ground is within the capacity of the current- 
limiting resistance, or nearly so. 

The Short-Circuit Dettector Prevents Unnecessary 
Interruptions of Power Supply 

Within the past year there has been made availablt 
a new system of automatic feeder control, known as 
the short-circuit detector, or differentiating method, 
that is, a system differentiating between legitimate 
overloads and grounds. This scheme utilizes a current 
transformer whose primary is formed by the d.c. feeder 
cable. The secondary is connected with control relays, 
which, in turn, cause the feeder contactor to be opened 
only when sufficient current is induced in the secondary 
by the flow of short-circuit current in the feeder cable. 
By this method, the feeder is disconnected from the 
source of supply only in the event of a ground, service 
again being restored when the ground is cleared. By 
utilizing this scheme the feeder is not subject to the 
disadvantage of a reduction in potential in the event 
of legitimate overload. The scheme as it stands does 
not, however, adapt itself to the process of "burning 
off" grounds. 

A feeder control system is at present being installed 
in the Cleveland automatic substations utilizing the 
most important features of the detector, or differentiat- 
ing, system of feeder control, together with an auxiliary 
feeder bus frequently used in manual plants, and, in 
addition, remote supervisory control that, when in- 
stalled, will afford complete control of the direct-current 

With this system in operation all feeders will, as at 
present, be connected to the main converter bus. In 
the event of a ground the feeder will automatically be 
disconnected from the main bus and transferred or 
connected to the auxiliary bus. The auxiliary bus and 
the faulty feeder may then be energized by causing one 
or more tie feeders, fed from other sources, to be trans- 
ferred to the auxiliary bus by remote control. In utiliz- 
ing the potential drop of these feeders, energy may be 
supplied to the faulty feeder, clearing it of ground and 
at the same time distributing to two or more plants 
the possible total overload resulting over the feeder 
system. When the feeder has been cleared of ground 
it will automatically be retransferred to the main bus 

A Device for Handling Faulty Feeders 

There is also available a heavy-duty current-limiting 
resistance which may be connected by remote control 
between the main and auxiliary buses for handling 
faulty feeders. Both the resistance and the tie feeders 
may be utilized simultaneously for this purpose. 

Which of the methods will be used in clearing a faulty 
section will be dictated by conditions existing at that 
particular time, regarding condition of the plant from 
which the faulty feeder originates, station load, equip- 
ment reserve or availability, etc. It will be noted that 
with the exception of the one heavy duty d.c. bus tie 
resistance, all individual feeder current limiting resist- 
ances are eliminated. 

Details of the remote supervisory control and load 
indication, operating experience with the present au- 
tomatic substations and proposals for future substa- 
tions, will be covered in the third and last article in 
this series. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Jouknal 


4,000-Volt D.C. Italian 
Electrification Successful 

Picturesque Route from Turin Northwestward Was 

Electrified in 1920— High Voltage Was Selected 

to Minimize Number of Substations and 

Insure Good Transmission Efficiency 

IN ANOTHER part of this issue is a letter from the 
Tecnomasio Italiano Brown Boveri, referring to the 
electrified railway operating between Turin and Ceres, 
Italy. This is a dis lance, measured along the rail^ray 
route, of 26.6 miles. The railway was built from Turin 
northwest to Lanzo in 1876, and was extended to Ceres 
between 1913 and 1916. From Turin the railway climbs 
progressively, with one short stretch excepted, until 
Ceres is reached. The grade increases from 0.83 per 
cent to 3.5 per cent, the last for a distance of less than 
2 miles between Pessinetto and Ceres. Between Turin 
and Borgaro, and Cirie and Ceres the track is single ; be- 
ing double between Borgaro and Cirie. The route is a 
picturesque one, the western end being of a mountainous 

Length over bumpers •. 42 ft. 

Distance between truck centers 16 ft. 5 in. 

Rigid wheelbase of trucks 7 ft. 10 J in. 

Diameter of driving wlieel 38t in. 

Total weight r. 46 tons 

Motors, four in number 140 hp. each at 20 m.p.ti. 

Voltage at brushes l.gOO 

Gear ratio 1 : 3.95 

Ma.\imum speed of locomotive 40 m.p.h. 

Tractive effort at 20 m.p.h 10.025 lb. 

Maximum braking effort 20.500 lb. 

The locomotives have two pantographs each, with 
greased aluminum shoes. 

The coaches used by this road are of two types: 
first and third class, seating seventy-two persons, and 
third class, seating eighty persons. Both are double- 
truck, 61 ft. 8 in. long over bumpers and of 32 tons 
weight. They are divided into four compartments and 
three platforms, one in the middle. 

The cost of this installation was 5,699,340 lires, or 
about $1,100,000 at par exchange. Of this the substation 
cost $312,000 ($83,700 for the building, the remainder 
for the equipment) ; the aerial line and track bonding 
cost $400,000; the locomotives cost $360,000, and the 
remainder was for miscellaneous expense. With about 

4,000-Volt Locomotive Used on Turln-L.anzo-Cer«8 Railway 

character. The construction of the line is in harmony 
with the beauty of its surroundings. 

It was expected that the line would be electrified when 
the western section was built, but the war interfered. 
However, in 1918 money was raised for the electrifica- 
tion and operation was inaugurated in September, 1920. 
The voltage of 4,000 was selected so that only one sub- 
station would be required and to give good transmission 
efficiency. This substation, located at Cirie, receives 
three-phase, 22,000-volt, 50-cycle power from the Societe 
Anonyms d'Electricite Alta Italia. Provision is made 
for taking power either from the plant at Funghera or 
from a steam station in Turin. 

In the substation each converter group consists of 
five machines mounted as a unit: a three-phase synchron- 
ous motor, two 2,000-volt generators connected in series, 
and two exciters, one for the motor and one for the 
two generators. The motor exciter has an auxiliary 
winding in series with the generators so as to improve 
the power factor of the load. At present two converting 
sets are installed and there is provision for a third. 
Each motor is rated at 716 kw. 

The contact line has a simple catenary suspension, 
the area of the contact wire being 120,000 
(between and 00 A.W.G). A feeder of the same size 
is used in the Cirie-Ceres section. 

There are five locomotives with these characteristics: 

Interior of Substation at Clri« 

40 miles of aerial line, of which 7J miles is in the 
stations, the cost per mile of line is less than $10,000, 
even with copper at 87 cents per pound. The substation 
cost $7,750 per mile of single track, and $212 per 
kilowatt installed. Each mile of electrified track cost 
a total of $27,300. 

The Hope of Reward 

Mr. Nash Argues for a Monetary Incentive for 
Efficient Public Utility Operation 

IN A three-page article in the Electrical World for 
March 10 L. R. Nash of Stone & Webster urges the 
adoption by commissions of some rating er merit system 
for efficient service by public utility companies. The 
article is entitled "The Hope of Reward." He declares that 
the tendencies of the day toward standardization and 
co-ordinated effort are destructive of the highest moral 
standards and efficiency and of that individual incentive 
which is necessary for both. 

The public service field, he says, because of its com- 
parative youth, pioneer spirit and enthusiasm for prog- 
ress, has not yet yielded to the conventionalizing in- 
fluences as much as some others, but if they continue, 
the yielding is inevitable. A system of regulation which 
reduces rates when a gain in economy has been secured 
by the business skill of the management acts to dis- 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

courage further improvement. In that case, he thinks, 
18 holes of golf on pleasant afternoons will prove much 
more interesting to executives than saving a tenth of a 
pound of coal per kilowatt-hour for the benefit of their 

As an illustration he suggests a railway company 
which, by putting on one-man cars or car energy-meas- 
uring devices could effect important economies, but if 
all the savings are to go to the patrons, why bother? 
He also cites, as a case from actual experience, a com- 
pany which spent considerable money in planning out a 
welfare system for its men, in the hope of securing 
greater efficiency and improved morale from them, but 
a commission, in a rate investigation, excluded these 
expenses from the cost of service on the ground that 
the company should not be reimbursed for them unless 
or until the program had been put into effect and had 
proved profitable. 

In conclusion Mr. Nash says that one of the state 
commissions had recently developed an interesting sys- 
tem of grading public utilities, but the purposes of the 
grading have not been disclosed. If there is a slight 
difference, say 10 per cent, he thinks, in the valuation 
or rate of return, based on some merit system, it would 
have a negligible effect upon the amount paid in rates 
by the bulk of a utility's patrons, but to the utility it 
would have a great incentive to improvement and 

French Progressing with 
Electrification Projects 

Comments on the Tremendous Developments Already 

Under Way on Three Great Transportation Systems 

— Review of Considerations Which Render This 

a Logical Program 

By J. C. Thirlwall 

Railway Engineering Department, General Klectric Company, 
Sclienectady, N. Y. 

FOR the time being the center of greatest activity 
in steam railroad electrification is France, where a 
program involving approximately 5,000 route-miles, 
mostly double track, has been adopted. The Paris- 
Orleans, the Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean and the Midi 
systems are involved and the work is to be carried out 
within the next twenty years. The direct incentive for 
this move was the desire to conserve fuel and to utilize 
water powers to the greatest possible extent, but the 
need for increasing track capacity also influenced the 

Many railroad men in this country picture European 
trafik as much lighter than our own, based on the well- 
known fact that locomotives and cars, both passenger 
and freight, are smaller and lighter than we are ac- 
customed to on our main systems. It may be illuminat- 
ing, therefore, to outline the basic traffic on the Paris- 
Vierzon division of the Paris-Orleans Railway, for 
which electric equipment has been ordered and which 
will shortly be electrically operated. This division in- 
cludes 25 miles of foui'-track and 118 miles of double- 
track road. One complete steam engine division for 
through trains and one suburban division will be in- 
volved in the change-over. The traffic over this route, 
at the outbreak of the war, was crowding the track 
capacity. While it slumped immediately after the war, 
it is again expanding and the basic schedules for which 
equipment contracts have been placed call for the fol- 

lowing train movements out of Paris daily: 44 freight 
trains and 106 passenger trains, about half of which 
are suburban trains consisting of motor cars and trail- 
er.s. The freight trains average about 1,100 to 1,200 
tons of trailing load, the through passenger trains from 
• 400 to 700 tons of trailing load, and the motor-car 
trains 325 to 490 tons total, depending on whether the 
trains are six-car or nine-car make-up. 

Altogether the daily traffic over the 78 miles between 
Paris and Orleans, about one-third of which is four 
track, is about 11,000,000 ton-miles. Of this about 
5,000,000 ton-miles is freight, with approximately the 
>-,ame amount of locomotive passenger train ton-miles, 
and about 880,000 ton-miles in motor-car train move- 

Equipment already ordered by the Paris-Orleans in- 
cludes 200 locomotives and eighty motor cars. The 
high-speed passenger locomotives weigh 123 tons and 
are capable of pulling a 580-ton train at a speed of 75 
to 80 m.p.h., the schedule speeds on the fastest runs 
being as high as, and in some instancss higher than, any- 
thing in this country. For the freight .service, switch- 
ing and local passenger runs, 71-ton locomotives will 
be ufed, two being coupled together as a 142-ton unit 
for the heavier freight movements, the double unit, 
however, requiring but a single engine crew. The first 
electrified division, as stated above, will cover 143 route- 
miles and extensions will be made at fi-euuent intervals, 
the first to Limoges, an additional engine division about 
175 miles beyond Vierzon, and next some east and west 
routes where gi-adients are severe. 

On the Midi, the first electric operation will be over 
the mountain division in the Pyrenees, some of which 
are already electrified, and the present contracts cover 
about 155 route-miles. The company has selected for 
use in freight, local-passenger and expres.s-passenger 
service over heavy grades an 80-ton eight-wheel loco- 
motive, all the weight being carried on the drivers. 
The motors are capable of delivering 1,000 hp. continu 
ously, and 1,400 hp. for one hour. The passenger loco 
motives are geared for a maximum speed of 60 m.p.h. 
All locomotives are arranged for multiple-unit opera- 
tion, so that two or more can be coupled together and 
operated by a single crew, for use on the heaviest trains. 

The program which is now under way in France is, 
of course, the outcome of the comprehensive study 
made some years ago by a large commission. Now that 
the work is actually being carried out it may be inter- 
esting to i-eview the important considerations which 
render the present program a logical one. 

In the first place, the rails and bridges in France are 
so much lighter than are usual in this country that 
the American practice of pui-chasing heavier and more 
powerful locomotives to handle increased traffic would 
have entailed complete rebuilding of road and structure. 
Not only would there be additional weight per axle, 
but the longer wheelbases would have required the 
straightening out of curves. This would have entailed 
prohibitive expense, and the same objection applies to 
the building of additional trackage, water stations, 
shops, roundhouses, turntables, etc., to accommodate 
an increased number of trains hauled by steam locomo- 
tives of the existing weight. Experience had proved 
conclusively that electric locomotives can provide the 
tractive effort for much greater trailing loads without 
increase of axle weight or of wheelbase, and can handle 
longer trains at higher speeds than the steam locomo- 
tive. This permits a material increase in the capacity 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


of the existing track, with substantially lower operat- 
ing costs. 

Weight on drivers is the measure of the effective 
working capacity of any locomotive. In the steam en- 
gine, this weight is not over 60 per cent of the total, 
including tender; in the electric freight engine, the 
entire weight is available for traction. The electric 
locomotive costs to build nearly twice as much per pound 
of effective weight, but a smaller number of units are 
required to handle a given freight tonnage, partly be- 
cause of the higher and more uniform speed, and partly 
because the electrics need to be less in the shops or 
roundhouses. On the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railroad, for instance, forty-two electric locomotives 
displaced 112 steam engines, and in many instances, 
the ratio would be considerably bettered. The com- 
parative weight on drivers would not, however, be in 
the same ratio, but would probably average at least 
twice as great for a division with steam haulage as 
for electric. The first costs of the two types of locomo- 
tive, therefore, are not far apart, and that for the 
electric may actually be less. 

The cost of the electric distribution system, including 
overhead and substations, is largely offset by savings 
in shops, turntables, roundhouses, water stations, and 
coal and ash facilities, which add, on an average, 50 
per cent to the cost of the steam engines required. 
Excess investment in the electric structures is more 
than counterbalanced where the need of building addi- 
tional trackage can be postponed for years by a reduc- 
tion in the number of train movements. 

Fuel Savings Through Electrification 

As to economies in operation, records from this coun- 
try and Europe show savings of 60 per cent to 70 per 
cent in the consumption of fuel for electric operation, 
and of 50 per cent to 75 per cent in locomotive repairs 
and engine-house expense, in addition to material re- 
ductions in crew wages. In most places in this country 
the fixed charges on the investment in power houses, 
substations and overhead lines nearly balance the re- 
duction in fuel costs, but where the price of coal has run 
unusually high as in fnany sections here and abroad, 
or the cost of electric power unusually low as it is on 
the Milwaukee system, the total charges for power may 
be very materially lower. Moreover, in a country that 
must import nearly all of its fuel, conservation is of 
vital importance. In Fi-ance, with water pov/er avail- 
able in the Alps, the Pyrenees and in the central plateau 
district, the possible savings in fuel and in power costs 
are tremendous. The engineers estimate that within 
twenty years the annual power consumption of the three 
roads mentioned, with electrification complete on 5,000 
route-miles, will be about 2,260,000,000 kw.-hr., which 
will all be obtained from water-power development. The 
same power output from steam locomotives would re- 
quire the burning of at least 6,000,000 tons of coal. 
With coal prices materially higher than they are in 
the United States, the direct money saving is an im- 
portant item and the release of this fuel for industries 
in northern France of tremendous economic value. On 
the basis of the present traffic, the coal saving would be 
somewhat more than half of this total, and since the 
first divisions to be changed over will be those. involving 
the greatest power consumption, on account of moun- 
tain grades, or because they have the heaviest traffic, 
the initial savings will probably be proportionately as 
great as the eventual. 

^ The Readers* Forum ^ 

High-Voltage Locomotives in Europe 
Tecnomasio Italiano Brown Boveri 

Milan, Italy, Jan. 30, 1923. 

To the Editors: 

Our attention has been drawn to the article on page 
19 of your issue for Jan. 6, entitled "1922 Was a Good 
Year in the Field of Heavy Traction." In this it is 
stated that six 8,000-volt d.c. locomotives, nearly com- 
pleted, will be the first machines of such high voltage 
in Europe. 

We would call your attention to the fact that the 
Turin-Lanzo-Ceres Railway in Italy, constructed by our 
firm, has been operating for two years at 4,000 volts 
direct current. We shall, therefore, be obliged if you 
will correct the above statement in an early issue and 
publish some details of the Turin-Lanzo-Ceres Railway. 
Tecnomasio Italiano Brown Boveri. 

[Editor's Note: — The statement made in the article 
referred to by the Brown Boveri Company of Italy was 
not that the six locomotives mentioned were designed 
for the highest direct-current voltage used in Europe, 
but that "they will be the first 3,000-volt machines in 
Europe." This fact was considered of special interest 
in view of the use of that particular voltaire in the 
United States and elsewhere. There was no intention 
in the review to compare voltages of different high- 
voltage electrifications. We feel, therefore, that our 
correspondent misinterpreted the statement made in 
the review. 

We are pleased, however, to accept the suggestion 
made in the above letter and give some details of this 
interesting and important 4,000-volt d.c. electrification. 
This is done in an article elsewhere in this issue.] 

Pioneers in the Development of the 

Engineering Association 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit System 

Brooklyn, N. Y., March 5, 1923. 
To the Editors : 

Anent your editorial on the history of thq American 
Electric Railway Engineering' Association, appearing in 
the March 3 issue, it is suggested that some steps be 
taken to compile a complete roster of those present at 
the meeting held in the power station in Detroit in 
1902, when the association had its real beginning. As 
additions to the list it should be noted that G. W. 
Palmer, former vice-president, stated at the recent 
Chicago convention that he was present and the writer 
also subscribes his name as being among those who 
were on hand. 

It may not be out of place to add that for several 
years the association comprised only mechanical and 
electrical men, track men not being eligible to member- 
ship. About 1906, as I recall it, Past-President Fred 
G. Simmons started to organize a way engineers' asso- 
ciation, and the writer had some correspondence with 
him about it. Ultimately the way men were permitted 
to join the mechanical-electrical group and the idea 
of forming a second, separate engineering .society was 
abandoned. R- C. CRAM. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

New 180-Ton Passenger 
Locomotives for the New Haven 

One of These Locomotives Will Be Capable of Hauling 

a 900-Ton Trailing Load, or Twelve Pullman Cars, 

Between Grand Central Terminal and New 

Haven in Ninety-nine Minutes at a 

Schedule Speed of 44 M.p.h. 

By W. J. Clardy 

General Engineering Department 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 

THE New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad has 
in service almost 600 miles of electrified track, in- 
cluding some of the busiest main-line and yard trackage 
in the world. Yards at Oakpoint and Westchester are 
served entirely by electric switcher locomotives. 

The present electric motive power consists of 106 
Baldwin-Westinghouse locomotives, fifty-two for pas- 
senger, thirty-eight for freight and sixteen for switcher 
service. There are also thirty-five multiple-unit motor 
cars. The first forty-one passenger locomotives, placed 
in service in 1906 and 1908, are of the 2-6-2 type and 
weigh 102 tons complete; the last five were built in 
1919 and are of the 2-6-2 + 2-6-2 type, weighing 180 
tons complete. Recently twelve more of this type were 

Sixteen 80-ton, 0-8-0 type switcher locomotives were 
placed in service in 1912, and thirty-six 110-ton, 2-8-2 
type road freight engines in 1912 and 1913. The first 
of the thirty-five multiple-unit motor cars were operated 
in 1909 and the last eight cars went into service in 
1922. These cars range in weight from 84 to 91 tons 
complete with all equipment (no load) and are really 
locomotives, as each motor car is capable of hauling 
two trail cars. 

The twelve passenger locomotives now under con- 
struction will be identical with the five placed in service 
in 1919, except for some refinements in minor details. 
They will be equipped with six twin motors and will 
operate from an 11,000-volt, single-phase trolley or a 
650-volt, direct-current third rail. The gear ratio will 
be 25 to 89, and the drivers will be 63 in. in diameter. 
Each engine will have two pantographs and four third- 
rail shoes for current collection. Of the total weight 
122 tons will be on drivers. 

The new locomotives will rate 2,016 hp. They will 
develop 23,200 lb. tractive effort at 32.6 m.p.h., the con- 
tinuous rating being 15,800 lb. at 39.4 m.p.h. The high- 
speed rating will be 2,424 hp. at 45.5 m.p.h. and 19,900 
lb. tractive effort. A maximum momentary tractive 
effort of 52,500 lb. will be available and the normal 
accelerating tractive effort will be 36,200 lb. A maxi- 
mum speed of 66 m.p.h. may be attained with safety. 

The mechanical parts of the engine involve an inter- 
esting feature in that the frame is a one-piece steel 
casting for each half of the running gear. That is, 
there are but two frame castings per locomotive and 
these are the largest integral castings ever made for a 
locomotive, each weighing 18,000 lb. 

The quill drive and details are the same as on the 
present locomotives and this type of flexible drive has 
proved very successful. 

The 409 C-2 twin motor, which will be used on the 
new locomotives, rates 336 hp. at 275 volts for one 
hour and 276 hp. continuous at the same voltage. It is 
of the series commutator type with a resistance lead 

winding in the armature, and compensating windings 
on the field. A twin motor weighs approximately 13,000 
lb., including bases, axle caps, axle bearings, dust 
guards, commutator lids and gear cases. 

The a.c.-d.c. control equipment will be of the West- 
inghouse unit-switch, pneumatically-operated type, the 
entire control of an engine being handled by twenty- 
eight switches. This is accomplished by connecting the 
motors in four permanent groups of three armatures 
in series. The switches are arranged in three groups: 
motor switches, transformer switches, and resistance 
switches. There will be three starting and nine run- 
ning notches obtained by means of voltage taps on the 

Series-parallel control is not provided for direct-cur- 
rent operation as suflicient speed can be obtained when 
three motors are connected in series. A field shunt, 
which is effective on the last controller notch, will give 
the speed that is necessary in the d.c. zone. 

The airblast transformer will weigh 15,300 lb. and 
rate 2,100 kva. Storage batteries (used on alternate 
days) will provide energy for operating the control 
switches and a motor-generator set will charge the bat- 
teries. Each locomotive will be equipped with an oil- 
fired flash boiler and the necessary oil and water tanks. 
The boiler will have sufficient capacity to heat a twelve- 
car train. 

The 180-ton locomotive permits the handling of all 
the heavy passenger trains with a single engine. ■ The 
heaviest of the express trains consist of twelve Pullman 
cars of 75 tons weight each, or a trailing load of 900 
tons. This locomotive can haul these trains between 
Grand Central Terminal and New Haven in 99 minutes 
on a non-stop run, a schedule speed of more than 44 

The five 180-ton passenger locomotives that have 
been in service the past four years frequently make over 
500 miles per day, the longest single trip being 72 miles. 
A number of the forty-one original passenger locomo- 
tives of the 2-8-2 gearless type (0-1 to 0-41) have now 
made over 1,000,000 locomotive-miles and the others are 
very close to this figure. This is the result of sixteen 
years of successful oeration. 

In concluding the writer would call attention to the 
fact that in the design of passenger locomotives for the 
New Haven, the weight is limited to 181 tons complete 
with all details including sand, water, oil and crew. 
This restriction is imposed on account of the Park Ave- 
nue Viaduct in New York over which passenger trains 
run when entering the Grand Central Station. Further, 
the locomotives must be designed for direct-current 
operation from a 650-volt third rail to permit running 
on the tracks of the New York Central. This, of course, 
complicates the control apparatus. 

Atlanta Window Poster 


would bring better street car 

service to the 

250,000 who depend 

upon the street cars daily 

The Georgia Electric Railway is carrying this poster to 
help the campaign for better traffic laws in Atlanta. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


^ Association News & Discussions J 

General Accounting with Bookkeeping 


Machines Are Used to a Great Extent in the Accounting Work of This 

Property — An Analysis of the Operations and Advantages 

Over Hand Bookkeeping Are Given 

By R. R. Pbery 

Chief Clerk Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

THE use of mechanical appliances in 
the office is becoming more gen- 
eral. The typewriter and ordinary add- 
ing machine are now considered a neces- 
sary part of the equipment for prac- 
tically every office, and the bookkeeping 
machine is rapidly making a place for 
itself. Our equipment consists of two 
11-in. bed, Elliott-Fisher bookkeeping 
machines equipped with crossfooter and 
four seven-digit registers on each 

Forms Used and How Machines Are 
Used with Each 

Invoices — Vouchers and Accounts 
Payable Ledger. Approved invoices, 
after they have been audited by comp- 
tometers and a predetermined total 
taken by listing on the adding machine, 
are posted to the distribution ledger. 
Proof sheets are made of such postings 
for checking purposes and are retained 
until the end of the month, after which 
they are destroyed. At the close of the 
month these invoices are accumulated 
by firms, and a total is made. The dis- 
tribution by control accounts is filled in 
on the lower portion of the voucher in 
ink, and the voucher is numbered, with 
month and year given, and is passed to 
the operator for completion. 

The operator then proceeds to write 
the check, remittance statement and 
voucher and post the accounts-payable 
ledger in one operation. The voucher 
number is written in the last column 
for reference in the accounts-payable 
ledger. One add register is used to 
prove that the items listed are correct, 
and the total is written in the second 
column from the right, which is a sub- 
tract register and clears the cross- 
footer. Checks for payment of loss 
artd damage claims are made on a spe- 
cial form and are posted to the 
accounts-payable ledger by the same op- 
eration. Proof sheets are made of these 
checks and are attached to the voucher 
at the end of the month, covering all 
payments of this nature made during 
the month. 

The accounts in the ledger are ar- 
ranged alphabetically by name of 
creditor. As payments are made, the 

•Abstract of paper presented at the an- 
nual meeting of the Central Electric Rail- 
way Accountants' Association, Lima, Ohio, 
Feb. 23-24. 

bookkeeper enters the amount of such 
payments on the cash book and the 
operator from time to time posts all 
the payments to the accounts-payable 
ledger immediately below the amount of 
voucher, giving the check number. A 
proof sheet of these postings is made, 
showing each entry, and the total is 
accumulated, which agrees with the 
total cash disbursed. 

Distribution Ledger. The distribution 
ledgers are kept in a vertical tub file 
or desk, and are divided into control 
groups, numerically under each group. 
There are from twenty to 200 accounts 
in each division. In other words, the 
accounts in the first control are num- 
bered consecutively, 1 to 28, "Way and 
Structures," those in the second, 29 to 
44, "Equipment," etc. Payroll, store 
requisitions and invoices (vouchers) 
are posted at separate runs. 

Store Requisitions. Material issued at 
the storeroom is entered on requisition 
forms which are assorted daily by op- 
erating account numbers and entered 
by the storekeeper to a disbursement 
sheet and forwarded to the auditor's 
office periodically according to the size 
of the storeroom — weekly, semi-monthly 
or monthly as the case may be. These 
sheets are audited by comptometers for 
errors in extensions and additions and 
are then arranged according to the ac- 
count number and passed to the 
operator. The operator first posts to 
"Way and Structures," then to "Equip- 
ment" and so on. When she has posted 
all the stores on "Way and Structures" 
or the first control, she transfers the 
total to the next column which sub- 
tracts from the crossfooter and leaves 
the machine clear. This transfer shows 
on the proof sheet only. The totals in 
this register are accumulated until the 
entire run is completed and verification 
made against an adding machine total. 

By handling the work in this manner 
we get a total separately and collec- 
tively. At the end of the month these 
proof sheets are recapped by store- 
rooms and used as a journal entry. 

Payroll Distribution. The distribu- 
tion of the payroll is made by the head 
of each department, and the accounts 
are arranged on the sheet in numerical 
order. After being verified against the 
total of each payroll they are passed to 

the operator for posting. The postings 
are made as with the stores' requisi- 
tions. A proof sheet is made of this 
work by payrolls, and from the sum- 
marized totals, the journal entry is 
made at the end of the month. 

Invoices (Vouchers). When vouchers 
are posted, no division is made by con- 
trols, but as the postings are made the 
amount for each account, as shown by 
the crossfooter, is thrown out into the 
last column on the right, and is al- 
lowed to accumulate in the register so 
as to give the total for the run. This 
grand total must agree with the pre- 
determined total, proving the correct- 
ness of the postings. As all the work 
is handled by separate runs, only one 
adding register is necessary for the 
payroll, store and voucher columns. 

Balancing. At the end of the month 
the various columns on the distribution 
ledger are added and proved against 
the total amount of the requisitions and 
payroll. The total of the vouchers is 
proved against the voucher register 
control, which is kept by the book- 

Payrolls. Department time sheets are 
made up twice each month, are as- 
sembled in approximately the same 
order as each payroll period, and the 
rates checked against the previous pay- 
roll (except for trainmen whose rates 
are checked against the trainmen's 
roster). Deductions are shown, such 
as time orders or advances against 
salaries, and other miscellaneous items, 
as well as the number of the check in 
the first column on the payroll sheet. 
The sheets are then passed to 
comptometers for adding total time, 
verification of extensions, and addition 
to arrive at the total payroll. The 
time sheets are now ready for the 

Pay checks for about 1,800 em- 
ployees are written from these time 
sheets (the checks being dated and 
numbered previously by a combination 
numbering and dating machine), show- 
ing the amount earned, time orders, 
other deductions, check number and 
amount to pay. A proof sheet in dupli- 
cate is written at the same time. One 
copy accompanies the checks to the de- 
partment head and the other is kept as 
a permanent payroll record. The ma- 
chine automatically takes care of de- 
ductions, "time orders" and other items 
and the amount to pay is computed by 
the crossfooter, which latter amount 
when written on the check clears the 
crossfooter and a star is shown prov- 
ing the operation to be correct. As 
the amounts are written in different 
columns on the check, four registers 
are used, and the totals are subtracted 
from the registers as each payroll is 
completed. This form of check is not 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

universally used but the banks do not 
object to it. An actual test showed the 
operator was able to write 1,793 pay 
checks, which constitutes an entire pay- 
roll, in eleven hours. 

Earnings Reports. Eleven copies of 
a daily earnings report are made and 
proved to be correct. The machine 
figures the increases and decreases as 
the amounts are written in the first 
two columns, namely, "this year" and 
"last year." It also furnishes the 
column totals at the same time. 

Conductors' Overs and Shorts. A 
daily record of conductors is kept, giv- 
ing the total charges, amount remitted 
and net amount over or short, as the 
case may be. Three registers are used 
for these postings. The first register 
accumulates the total debits, the second 
the total remittances and the third the 
net amount over or short. This work 
is proved against the total of recapitula- 
tion of conductors which gives the total 
for each division. 

Accou7its Receivable. Various depart- 
ments advise this office of material sold 
and labor performed for individuals 

and companies, as well as charges 
against the United States government 
for transportation furnished, and a bill 
is promptly made in duplicate. These 
bills are then posted to the proper firm 
and an entry is made on the statement 
at the same time. The statement is the 
original and the ledger sheet the car- 
bon copy. Four registers are used for 
this work, one for each column on the 
sheet. At all times we know the exact 
amount due, and this plan enables us 
to mail statements promptly at the end 
of each month. A proof sheet is made of 
all postings, both debits and credits. The 
debit postings less credit memoranda 
issued are proved against the total of 
the invoice register and cash credits 
are proved against the cash book. 

In conclusion I might say that with 
the use of bookkeeping machines we 
have eliminated a lot of possibilities 
for errors such as illegible figures, in- 
correct postings that can be found only 
by checking back the work for the en- 
tire month, etc. We have found that 
they are more economical than the hand 
method of bookkeeping. 

Commission Engineers Hold Conference 

Decide in Washington on Annual Meeting, Also Discuss 
Grading of Utilities for Efficiency 

PLANS for an annual conference of 
engineers attached to the state utili- 
ties commissions, to be conducted under 
the auspices of the Bureau of Stand- 
ards, were laid at a meeting at the De- 
partment of Commerce March 2 and 3. 
It was the consensus of opinion of the 
engineers of more than one-third of the 
state commissions that there should be 
an annual conference at which the tech- 
nical and enginering questions involved 
in utility operation could be discussed 
in the interest of the common good. 

This conference was called by Dr. 
F. C. Brown, the acting director of the 
Bureau of Standards. The conferences 
are to be along the lines of those which 
have been in progress many years in 
which the specialists of the bureau meet 
with the weights and measures officials 
of the various states with the idea of 
exchanging views and experiences. In 
addition to the benefits which will come 
from the exchanges of views among the 
utilities engineers, it will give them an 
opportunity to secure first-hand knowl- 
edge of the experiments and research 
which the bureau is conducting on the 
public utility problems. 

An executive committee was selected 
to work out plans for future confer- 
ences. C. B. Hayden of the Wisconsin 
commission was chosen as the chairman 
of the executive committee and E. C. 
Crittenden, chief of the Electrical Divi- 
sion of the Bureau of Standards, its sec- 
retary. Other members selected are: 
William M. Black of the Maine commis- 
sion, C. R. Vanneman of the New York 
commission and A. I. Thompson of the 
Oklahoma commission. 

Secretary Hoover, in opening the con- 
ference, pointed out how necessary it is 
to promote uniformity and to prevent 

duplication of effort. Such gatherings 
of engineers, he declared, give an op- 
portunity for each one attending to 
benefit by the accomplishments of 

Commission engineers who attended 
the conference were: Alabama, I. F. 
McDonnell; Georgia, J. Houstoun 
Johnston; Illinois, J. Howard Mathews; 
Indiana, Earl L. Carter; Iowa, A. B. 
Campbell; Maine, William M. Black; 
Maryland, H. C. Wolf, W. F. Strouse, 
S. A. Covell, Mr. Cullen, L. Ellis, R. Y. 
Gildea and J. L. Wicks; Michigan, Man- 
fred K. Toeppen; New Hampshire, D. 
Waldo White; New Jersey, Colv P. 
Betts; New York, C. R. Vanneman and 
R. H. Nexsen; Ohio, L. G. White and 


, Credit s 

Gas, Electric, 

per per 

Subject Cent Rank Cent Rank 

(_'reeping meters 4 6 

Accuracy of me- 
ters 7 4 7 3 

Installation tests .... ■> o 

Periodic tests.. 14 3 14 2 

Meter testing 

records 5 6 o 5 

Mete r testing 

equipment ... a 6 5 5 tests ... 4 7 4 6 

Referee tests 

Meter readings 

on bills 4 7 4 6 

Heating value... 21 1 

Cat o r i m e t e r 

equipment .... 7 4 

Interruptions 18 1 

Station records 6 4 

Pressure and 
voltage varia- 
tion IS 2 18 1 

I ' r e s s u r e and 
voltage sur- 
veys 6 B 6 4 

Purity 4 7 

Complaint rec- 
ords 5 6 

Information .. 4 6 

100 100 

Ward Snook; Oklahoma, A. I. Thomp- 
son; Tennessee, F. G. Proutt; Virginia, 
J. W. West, Jr.; West Virginia, James 
Imboden and W. B. Hall; Wisconsin, 
C. B. Hayden; District of Columbia, 
E. G. Runyan, and Connecticut, A. E. 

Grading Public Utilities 

At the meeting C. B. Hayden, assist- 
ant engineer Wisconsin Railroad Com- 
mision, read a paper entitled "Grading 
Utilities in Conformity to Service 
Rules." While the paper indicated that 
no criteria had been established yet for 
railways and the study had been con- 
fined to gas, electric and telephone utili- 
ties, the address is of much interest to 
railway men. 

The speaker said that the first order 
issued by the Railroad Commission of 
Wisconsin prescribing certain require- 
ments for gas and electric service was 
made effective in 1908 and the second 
order, which is now in effect, was issued 
in 1913. Very soon after the last order 
came out the service department began 
grading the gas and electric utilities, 
and about a year later, in 1915 or 1916, 
the telephone utilities were given stand- 
ings. It was not the thought when this 
system of grading was started of apply- 
ing it in the way used in schools, where 
it is necessary to keep the pupils placed 
according to the achievements which 
each makes, nor was it expected that 
each utility would pass or secure honor 
marks through the various years of the 
course, with a possibility of failure up 
to the final graduation. It was done 
because it afforded a means of keeping 
track of the utilities according to the 
service standards which had been estab- 
lished, and if possible to determine 
whether there was any increase or de- 
crease in the degree of compliance, from 
year to year, of the utilities throughout 
the state or of any one in particular. 

After use in this way for some time, 
it was determined to try out the scheme 
on the unsuspecting utilities, and it was 
found that the results were decidedly 
good. The utilities which received high 
rank were very much pleased, and in 
most every case put forth effort to im- 
prove their position or maintain it in 
any event. To be sure, some jealousy 
developed, but for the most part the 
best of feeling existed and a friendly 
rivalry developed for the high rank 

The weighting of the various stand- 
ards for gas and electric service was 
decided after a number of conferences 
of all the inspectors, and it is believed 
that the result is reasonably proper. 
For gas service, the heating value of 
the gas is given first place in impor- 
tance, pressure variation second, peri- 
odic meter tests third, accuracy of 
meters and calorimeter equipment 
fourth, and the balance of the standards 
of about equal value. For electric serv- 
ice, interruption and voltage variation 
hold first place, periodic tests second, 
accuracy of meters third, and the bal- 
ance of the standards of about equal 
value. The accompanying table gives 
an idea of the plan. 

The speaker then gave the wording 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway journal 


and an explanation of the rules or 
standards of each of the subjects in the 

A somewhat similar set of standards 
was prepared for the telephone com- 
panies. In conclusion, the speaker said, 
in part: 

"For the last few years the service 
requirements imposed by the Wisconsin 
Railroad Commission have been tem- 
pered materially because of the difficul- 
ties which have been the lot of all 
public utilities, and doubtless this con- 
dition has been prevalent throughout 
the country. Special cases, which have 
arisen because of the conditions result- 
ing from the war, have engaged largely 
the time of our engineers, so that the 
personnel of the staff was not sufficient 
to handle the service matters thoroughly 

and do the extra special work. For these 
reasons the work of grading the utilities 
has not been complete, i.e., while grades 
have been given with their reports on 
all inspections, it has not been possi- 
ble to make the inspections of all the 
localities, and therefore comparative 
summaries have not been made for two 
or three years. We are getting caught 
up again, though, and will have our 
summary of the gas companies again, 
for this year, for inspection by the 
utility representatives at the gas and 
electric association convention this 

"It is our opinion that the practice 
of gradings has been of great value 
and aid to the department and has been 
generally looked upon favorably by the 

Talks on Management and Operation 

Railway Club Members Hear an Explanation of the Electric Railway 

Situation in and Around San Francisco as Presented by Three 

Executives of Important Local Properties 

AT THE Feb. 8 meeting of the Pacific 
. Railway Club in San Francisco 
three talks were made dealing in a gen- 
eral way with the problems that, in 
one form or another, continually con- 
front electric railway executives. The 
speakers of the evening were: Fred 
Boeken, superintendent Municipal Rail- 
ways of San Francisco; M. McCants, 
assistant general manager Market 
Street Railway, and J. P. Potter, super- 
intendent of transportation San Fran- 
cisco-Oakland Terminal Railways. Ab- 
stracts of the three talks are given in 
the following: 

Mr. Boeken 's Address 

On the subject of developing traffic, 
Mr. Boeken pointed out that one of the 
peculiarities of San Francisco's prob- 
lem is that its location on the tip of a 
peninsula limits its future growth to 
one direction, i.e., down the peninsula. 
In commenting on some of the schemes 
for increasing revenue he said: 

"The European zone system of fare 
collection, which has been introduced in 
a few places in the United States, might 
properly be termed a traffic-developing 
measure. While no doubt the main ob- 
ject of the zone system of fare collec- 
tion is more nearly to equalize the dis- 
tance traveled for the amount paid, 
whether it develops any more car riders 
or not, if properly worked out it should 
at least produce more revenue." 

He referred to an innovation now be- 
ing tried out in southern California by 
a merchants' association whose mem- 
bers sell street car tokens with free 
coupons to their customers, the tokens 
being accepted by the street car com- 
pany at the regrular rate of fare and 
the coupon being accepted by the mer- 
chant on goods purchased. These tokens 
are accepted only in the oflF-rush period. 
On store purchases amounting to $1 the 
saving by the use of the coupons is 8 
cents, or a little over half the round- 
trip fare. 

Another somewhat similar method, 
known as the Prole system of coupon 
transfer, he said, provides for a dis- 
count of 5 cents on a dollar's purchase. 
Both these schemes seemed to Mr. 
Boeken to involve danger of incurring 
the ill will of small storekeepers in the 
outlying districts. 

Depreciation as affecting changes 
from one type of equipment to another 
is a subject that requires careful at- 
tention. Changes were rapid up to the 
electric stage of operation, the larger 
cities are being forced to elevated or 
subway construction, the radical change 
from one-man horse-drawn cars to ex- 
pensive two-man electric cars has been 
succeeded by a trend toward a lighter 
one-man car again, and there is by no 
means assurance that other radical 
changes may not be necessary in the 
future. "The method of figuring de- 
preciation used by the Municipal Rail- 
way," he said, "requires the setting 
aside of 14 per cent of the gross rev- 
enue for depreciation and bond redemp- 
tion. In our case this seems to be 
ample as we have a large car-hour rev- 
enue." In view of the heavy costs of 
operation at present and the uncertain- 
ties of the future, Mr. Boeken did not 
believe that any street railway would be 
in danger of setting aside too much in 
a depreciation fund. 

On the subject of competition, Mr. 
Boeken pointed out that during the 
pioneering days of a city's development 
competition may have much to do with 
hastening development and bringing 
service and rate of fare to a reasonable 
standard. Generally speaking, however, 
it would seem to be far better for the 
public to have the right to regulate 
service for all than to have certain dis- 
tricts "over-served," to the detriment of 
other districts not so fortunate aa to 
have competition — a waste of service in 
one locality must be offset by a saving 
somewhere else. Then, too, competition 
in electric railways is confined to a nar- 

row strip on either side of a line, and 
better service in one section is unlikely 
to be of advantage to residents of other 

Mr. McCants's Addrkss 

In discussing the subject of headway 
and rush hours, Mr. McCants stated 
that it is a maxim in street railway 
management that 10 per cent of the 
passengers in any day of twenty-four 
hours will be hauled between 8 and 
9 a.m. and 14 per cent between 5 and 
6 p.m. As a result, the headway must 
be very short at rush hours, and then 
it must be quickly lengthened as the 
traffic dwindles in volume. 

Even where large factories or mills 
are willing to co-operate to the extent 
of "staggering" work-hours so that 
large numbers of employees will not be 
dismissed at exactly the same time, it 
would be virtually impossible to limit 
the load in each car to seating capacity 
only and still get the rush-hour crowds 
home in an expeditious manner. Un- 
comfortable though it may be to stand, 
rush-hour passengers must accept this 
condition. The attempt in Berlin to 
carry only passengers for whom there 
were seats has been anything but satis- 
factory; in Rome all seats are removed 
at the rush hour and everybody is 
obliged to stand. 

After pointing out how radically the 
operation of jitneys is opposed to the 
interests of the common weal, Mr. Mc- 
Cants said: "Street railways have long 
been regarded as a monopoly and there- 
fore subject to regulation. They have 
submitted to that regulation, and in the 
face of such regrulation have seen such 
irresponsible competitors as jitneys 
enter the field. There is, therefore, no 
escape from the logic of this thesis — 
that if the street railway is no longer 
to be a monopoly, it should no longer 
be subject to regulation," 

The highly beneficial influence of pub- 
lic parks should be utilized to a greater 
extent, and the chief need in accomplish- 
ing this end is an effective means of 
"selling" the parks, not only to tourists 
and other visitors but to residents of 
the city themselves. There should be 
more extensive and more intelligent 

Greater simplification of systems ot 
transferring and in the transfers them- 
selves are urgently needed. Stopovers 
and other improper use of transfers 
must be prevented if the railway com- 
pany would avoid serious losses. For 
example, one company tried out its 
system by sending out agents to ride as 
long and on as many lines as possible 
for one fare. One agent rode all day 
on the same fare and ended his day by 
cutting out of a newspaper advertise- 
ment a slip with the same shape and 
size as the regular transfer. He pre- 
sented this scrap of paper and it was 
accepted. His report to the manage- 
ment, backed up by the reports of the 
other agents, resulted in a new transfer 
system and an estimated saving to the 
company of $1,000 per day. 

On the lines of the Market Street 
Railway the number of transfers issued 


EiiECTBic Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

does not increase as rapidly as the num- 
ber of passengers carried. This may 
indicate either or both of two things: 
First, that the transfer system is be- 
ing operated with increasing efficiency, 
and, second, that the people are being 
educated to saving time by taking more 
short trips. 

The law of diminishing returns, in 
eifect, says: "Do not devote all your 
attention to keeping the operating ex- 
penses of your business down to an 
absolute minimum; instead, try so to 
conduct your business that it will give 
the greatest possible profit on the cap- 
ital invested." If city fathers would 
properly apply that law they would ask 
themselves: "If the street railways are 
not held responsible for the upkeep of 
the paving between and beside the 
tracks, how far will they go in the con- 
struction of extensions ? If an ex- 
clusive right-of-way is granted on 
Blank Street, how much faster service 
can we demand ? What is the ultimate 
dollar value of all such improvements?" 

Painstaking research on the part of 
the electric railway company in the 
matter of selecting personnel is very 
much worth while. The attention of 
the Market Street Railway to this sub- 
ject, Mr. McCants thought, has a direct 
relation to the fact that the turnover 
of men employed by that company is 
now only 21 per cent per annum and 
that within the past four years the 
ratio of passengers to accidents has 
been increased 65.3 per cent. 

Again, the platform men can do as 
much toward "selling" the city to visi- 
tors as would an extensive advertising 
budget. When the columns of the daily 
press are used to educate the public the 
effort is labeled "propaganda." There 
is no other agency nearly so potent in 
educating the public and creating gen- 
eral good will as an army of enthusi- 
astic employees who render effective 
service cheerfully and boost for the 

Mb. PoTTEai's Address 

Transportation systems on the east 
side of San Francisco Bay, Mr. Potter 
pointed out, extend from Richmond on 
the north to Alameda on the south, an 
area of approximately 72 square miles, 
with a population of about 360,000 peo- 
ple. Rail systems include three trans- 
continental steam lines, the electrified 
division of the Southern Pacific, the 
Sacramento Short Line and the system 
of street railways operated by the San 
Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railway. 
The combined local and interurban sys- 
tem trackage totals 369 miles in length, 
probably the most comprehensive sys- 
tem of transportation of any city in the 
United States comparable in size and 

The demand for express or restricted 
service from the different municipali- 
ties, particularly between residential 
and business districts, is becoming more 
pronounced as the population increases 
and the peak hours of travel grow 
heavier. At the same time the possi- 
bility of providing restricted stop serv- 
ice is becoming more limited by con- 

gested traffic. As the morning and 
evening peaks increase the large num- 
ber of units necessary to move the 
traffic materially slows up schedules. 

In endeavoring to find some relief at- 
tention is being given to the possibility 
of multiple-unit control with a seating 
capacity of not less than fifty passen- 
gers, using cars equipped with auto- 
matic couplers and operating in two or 
three car units. 

The Key Route transbay service is 
largely rush-hour business, and of the 
average haul of 42,000 passengers per 
day in 1922 on the transbay system 46 
per cent rode during a two-hour travel 
peak. Because of this condition it was 
necessary to provide an average of two 
seats for every passenger. On the 
ferry system the provision was more 
than three seats for each passenger 
transported. The combined Key Route 
and Southern Pacific systems operated 
more than 54,000,000 vacant seats last 
year; this, despite the fact that in 
1922 the Key Route had the heaviest 
travel since 1915 (the year of the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposi- 
tion). These figures were cited to show 
how the rush-hour one-way service 
loads up the system with "return 
empty" hauls. This does not indicate 
the provision of more seats than abso- 
lutely necessary. An accurate log or 
train chart of every train, car and boat 
is kept to show just how much the 
seating capacity is above or below the 

Illinois Electric Railways 

THE Illinois Electric Railways Asso- ' 
elation will hold a joint meeting 
with the Illinois Gas Association and 
the Illinois State Electric Association 
at the Hotel Sherman, Chicago, on 
Wednesday and Thursday, March 14 
and 15. The morning sessions will be 
joint meetings and the afternoon ses- 
sions will be separate meetings for 
each association. 

The following will be among the 
speakers at the morning sessions: 
Charles M. Thompson, dean College of 
Commerce and Business Administration, 
University of Illinois; Ralph E. Heilman, 
dean Northwestern University School of 
Commerce; Martin J. Insull, vice-presi- 
dent Middle West Utilities Company; 
Britton I. Budd, president Chicago Ele- 
vated Railroads; E. W. Lloyd, chair- 
man N.E.L.A. Joint Committee for 
Business Development; George R. 
Jones, chairman Illinois Committee 
Public Speaking Bureau; E. Hill Leith, 
Halsey, Stuart & Company; B. J. Mul- 
laney, director Illinois Committee on 
Public Utility Information. 

The following papers are scheduled 
for presentation at the railways sec- 
tion: "Future of the Electric Railway 
Business," by W. H. Sawyer, East St. 
Louis & Suburban Railway; "The Sale 
of the Ride," by Walter Jackson, con- 
sultant, New York City; "Advantages 
of Americanization of Railway Em- 
ployees," by C. B. Goodsell, Chicago, 
North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad; 
"The Manufacture of Railway Equip- 

ment," by C. E. Thompson, Chicago, 
North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad: 
"Paving," by John B. Tinnon, Chicago & 
Joliet Electric Railway; "Stores and 
Inventory Methods," by a representa- 
tive of the Bureau of Commercial Eco- 

The joint annual banquet of the three 
associations will be held on the evening 
of March 14 at the Hotel Sherman. 
Charles A. Luther, Peoples Gas Build- 
ing, Chicago, is chairman of the ban- 
quet committee. 

C.E.R.A. Meeting in July 

IN THE summary of association meet- 
ings scheduled for the next few 
months, which was printed in the 
Electric Railway Journal for March 
3, page 374, the date given for the Cen- 
tral Electric Railway Association sum- 
mer meeting was that originally an- 
nounced. Since the first announcement 
a change in the date has been neces- 
sary, the date of the meeting now being 
July 18, 19 and 20. 

New England Street 
Railway Club 

THE annual meeting and banquet 
of the New England Street Rail- 
way Club will take place on Thursday, 
March 22, at the Copley-Plaza Hotel, 

At the banquet George W. Gardiner, 
vice-president of the Union Trust Com- 
pany, Providence, will act as'toastmas- 
ter. The speakers scheduled include: 
His Excellency Channing H. Cox, Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts; Hon. James 
M. Curley, Mayor of Boston; William 
H. P. Faunce, D.D., LL.D., president 
of Brown University, and Robert H. 
Newcomb, executive assistant Boston & 
Maine Railroad. 

Association News 


Committee of One Hundred 

THE executive committee of the 
Committee of One Hundred met in 
New York on March 5. The committee 
listened to a report of the joint commit- 
tee of the publicity committee of the 
Committee of One Hundred and the ad- 
vertising section of the association's 
Bureau of Information and Service, and 
thereafter approved a plan for solicit- 
ing funds with which to carry on the 
work of the Committee of One Hundred. 
The plan adopted is practically the same 
as that by which funds were raised 
when the Committee of One Hundred 
was first organized. Each member com- 
pany of the association will be re- 
quested to contribute an amount equal 
to 50 per cent of the annual dues paid 
the association. This plan was brought 
before the committee by the sub-com- 
mittee on finance, of which Randall 
Morgan is chairman. 

Those present at the meeting of the 
executive committee were the chairman, 
General Guy E. Tripp, and C. D. Em- 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


mons, J. H. Pardee, L. S. Storrs, F. R. 
Coates, Henry R. Hayes, Gen. George 
H. Harries, J. N. Shannahan, J. H. 
Choat, O. D. Young, and J. W. Welsh, 
Labert St. Clair and J. W. Colton. 


AT ITS meeting held on March 5 the 
American Association committee on 
publicity spent most of its time hearing 
and discussing a report from Labert 
St. Clair on the work of the committee 
of 100. The committee also considered 
plans for countrywide publicity for 
those features of the electric railway 
situation on which general information 
seems now to be particularly needed. 
The committee was fortunate in having 
President C. D. Emmons in attendance. 
F. R. Coates, chairman, presided, and 
the meeting was also attended by J. N. 
Labert St. Clair and J. W. Colton. 

Revised Transportation & Traffic 
Rules for City Operation 

THE standard code of rules of the 
Transportation & Traffic Associa- 
tion for city operation, which were re- 
vised at the last convention primarily 
to extend their range to cover the oper- 
ation of one-man cars, are now being 
reprinted in suitable pocket-sized form. 
They can be had in bound form, 
with the association's standard cover, 
or unbound to permit the use of a spe- 
cial cover and additional inserts if de- 
sired by a local company. 

Problems of the Purchasing Agent 
and Storelteeper 

THE Engineering Association com- 
mittee on purchases and stores met 
in New York City on March 5, with 
almost a perfect attendance. Those 
present were B. J. Yungbluth, chair- 
man; W. S. Stackpole, vice-chairman; 
W. C. Bell, J. P. Dick, J. F. Fleming, 
W. N. Ford and H. H. Lloyd. 

A report was received from a sub- 
committee appointed to prepare proper 
instructions for putting into effect the 
approved "Materials Classification." A 
meeting of this sub-committee had 
been held in Baltimore on Feb. 15. As 
amended by the main committee, this 
report is as follows: 

For the proper operation ot a "Materials 
Classification" it is recommended that all 
items of material handled by or through 
the supply or stores department be desig- 
nated by a class number. 

All such items should be divided into the 
various classes as shown in the "Materials 
Classification" and then an inventory taken 
to establish the money value of material in 
each class, after which, in order to main- 
tain the classification, it will be necessary 
to keep a record of receipts and issues un- 
der each material class listed, and to make 
statement of total values monthly. 

The class to which material Is to be 
charged or credited should be designated 
by the storekeeper, by notation against 
each Item on stores requisition on purchas- 
ing agent, invoice, storeroom report of ma- 
terial received and storeroom report of ma- 
terial issued. The number should be 
used on every transaction, and record of 
each item which is kept in stock. Espe- 
cially ordered material not charged to sup- 
ply account, need not be classified unless 

As a matter of convenience to the store- 
room force in fixing the class to which any 
article belongs, some companies using "Ma- 
terials Classification" find it desirable to 

use a numerical numbering system. To 
accomplish this, it is recommended that all 
items subdivided under each class be ar- 
ranged in alphabetical sequence, writing 
the noun first and further description after 
the noun, as, say, in Class No. 31. 
ArniB, pressure, for GEJ-ST brushholder. 
Arms, pressure, for GB-200-J brushholder. 
Blocks, brush yoke, for WH-101 motor. 
Caps, axle bearing, for WH-307 motor. 
Shafts, armature, for WH-514-C motor. 

After this has been done an individual 
class number should be applied to each 
item of material, the first two figures of 
this class number to be the same as, and 
to represent, the class to which the material 
belongs, the remaining figures to designate 
the numerical position ot the item in its 
class. As an example, eay, in Class No. 17, 
individual numbers applied to machine bolts 
might be as follows: 

Bolts, Machine 

Class No. 1772 3 x 2i in. 

Class No. 1773 j x 3 In. 

Class No. 1781 J x 5 In 

Class No. 1782 J x SJ in. 

In assigning class numbers sufficient 
space should be allowed between numbers 
to provide for additional items which may 
be added to the material classification from 
time to time. In this connection It is ad- 
visable to handle the numbers in groups 
for each kind of material, such as assign- 
ing class numbers 1,700 to 1,799 to ma- 
chine bolts, 17,200 to 17,259 for lag screws 

As a form for a monthly statement show- 
ing the transactions in classified material 
reference is made to Ebchibit B as shown 
m the 1921 report of the committee on stores 
accounting, and the samples submitted here- 
with, being those used by the United Rail- 
S'**??- & Electric Company of Baltimore and 
Public Service Railway Company, New Jer- 
sey, as being typical ones which might be 
adopted with such modifications as may be 
deemed necessary to suit the needs of anv 
individual company. 

Supplemental detailed forms necessary to 
prepare this statement can be designed by 
companies to meet their requirement.". 

In this connection it was decided that 
a joint meeting with the stores account- 
ing committee of the Accountants' As- 
sociation would be desirable for the 
purpose of obtaining agreement with 
that committee on the method of putting 
into effect the proposed materials classi- 
fication and agreement with regard to 
inventory methods. An endeavor will 
therefore be made to hold a joint meet- 
ing, and June 4 or thereabouts was 
selected as a desirable date on account 
of the convention of the National Elec- 
tric Light Association, which will be 
held during the week of June 4. 

The committee then discussed in de- 
tail the preliminary program for the 
special session of purchasing agents and 
storekeepers which will be held at the 
coming annual convention. There will 
be papers by prominent storekeepers 
and purchasing agents, with prepared 
discussions by carefully selected speak- 
ers. The meeting will be given special 
publicity to show a good attendance. 

A large part of the meeting was 
taken up with the subject of periodic 
inventories, with debates on the rela- 
tive merits of the stock book form 
presented at the 1921 convention by 
the joint committee on stores account- 
ing, the perpetual inventory system and 
other methods of control. As the com- 
mittee was not prepared to vote unani- 
mously in favor of the stock-book plan, 
a vote was not taken with regard to its 
general recommendation, but the com- 
mittee will study the system with a 
view ^o reaching a unanimous decision 
prior to the joint meeting with the 
stores accounting committee. 

The chairman appointed Messrs. Ford 
and Bell to collect data from a selected 
group of companies, so as to show the 

outstanding feature in connection with 
the investment in, and the control of, 
materials and supplies. A question- 
naire will be used for this purpose. 

One-Man Interurban Cars 

THE practicability of the one-man 
car and plans for obtaining infor- 
mation from all parts of the country 
concerning its operation were discussed 
at a special meeting of the committee 
on one-man car operation of the Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Association at the 
Hotel Gibson, Cincinnati, Feb. 19. 
Following the conference it was an- 
nounced that the committee would send 
out questionnaires to all electric rail- 
ways to obtain their opinions on the 
one-man car and the advantages and 
disadvantages of the light-weight car. 
J. P. Pope, general manager Kentucky 
Traction & Terminal Company, was 
chairman of the meeting, at which the 
following also were present: N. W. 
Bolen, H. C. DeCamp, J. E. Duffy, A. L. 
Reynolds, Karl A. Simmon, A. Swartz, 
L. G. Van Ness, A. E. Wood, A. H. 
Clifford and T. C. Cherry. 

Following the meeting the committee 
was entertained with a dinner at the 
hotel by officials of the Cincinnati Car 
Company and the railway department 
of the General Electric Company. 

Association Bulletins Available 

that the following reports and com- 
pilations are available to association 
members in good standing: 

Working Conditions of Trainmen: A 
tabulation of the replies of over 250 
companies to a questionnaire sent out 
in February, showing hours of labor, 
length and types of runs, overtime 
rates, extra compensation allowed for 
special work, number of trainmen em- 
ployed, labor turnover, etc. 

One-Man Car Legislation: A record 
of unsuccessful attempts by means of 
statutes, ordinances, etc., to prohibit 
the operation of street railway cars 
with one man; the second supplement 
to a compilation originally issued 
May 1, 1921. 

Bus Franchises: A summary and 
analysis of the principal provisions of 
the franchises or permits under which 
electric railways are now operating 

Metal Fare Tokens: A list of 105 
electric railways using metal fare 
tokens, with a photographic reproduc- 
tion of the tokens used by each com- 
pany, showing all types in use and both 
sides of each type. 

Financial and Operating Statistics of 
Electric Railways for the Calendar 
Year 1922 as Compared imth 1921; 
Gives the combined income statement 
of a large group of companies report- 
ing to the association and their op- 
erating expenses subdivided into the 
primary accounts in totals and on a per 
car-mile basis. Also gives operating 
and traffic statistics from which cer- 
tain significant ratios are calculated to 
indicate the underlying conditions of 
the industry. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

^ Maintenance of Equipment j 

Maintenance of Car-Type Electrolytic 
Lightning Arresters 

When Operating Troubles Occur They Point to Some Definite Cause 

That, in Most Cases, Can Be Overcome by Careful 

Inspection and Maintenance 

By L. R. Golladay 

Supply Engineering Department Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, 

East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

ALTHOUGH an electrolytic light- 
L. ning arrester requires a certain 
amount of attention, it furnishes, 
when in good condition, a protection 
against storms that is unsurpassed. 
Consequently, if the original invest- 
ment in this type of arrester was 
wise, it is only economic folly to lose 
the value of its protection by giving 
it insufficient or improper attention. 

An electrolji;ic arrester for 600- 
volt street car service is shown in the 
accompanying illustration. In the top 
compartmenet of the case is the in- 
closed fuse, and in the lower compart- 
ment are the two balancing resistors 
and electrolytic cells. These three 
elements are the parts of the arrester 
that require the most careful atten- 
tion. An arrester with a blown fuse 
has no protection value and, since 
this is the most common operating 
trouble, it should be examined first 
in the course of an inspection. The 
blowing of fuses can be largely 
avoided by charging the arrester 
each time it is placed in service. 

The resistors should rarely cause 
any trouble. If one should develop 
an open circuit, it will usually cause 
the cell shunted by that resistor to 
overheat and perhaps boil out the 
electrolyte. This is an indication 
of a defective resistor. A resistor, 
broken by a severe shock, will cause 
such trouble. 

The wearing parts of the arrester 
are the aluminum electrodes. Their 
life, as well as the protection, is in- 
creased by proper maintenance. Much 
care should be taken to see that the 
electrolyte is not contaminated by 
foreign matter. The electrolyte must 
be mixed with clean distilled water 
in clean glass or earthenware vessels 
that have first been rinsed in dis- 
tilled water. The containers should 
not stand uncovered where dust can 
settle in the electrolyte. When han- 
dling the aluminum pieces, especial 

care should be taken that they do 
not touch anything. 

When in good condition the electro- 
lyte is clear and there is no sediment 
in the bottom of the cell. Brown spots 
on the cell plates do not indicate 
trouble in the cell. However, rapid 
corrosion and sludging are indicative 
of unsatisfactory conditions within 

WeHtiiiKhonse Type A. B. Arrester 

the cells. After corrosion has once 
started it is not possible to stop it 
except by renewing the plates and 
electrolyte. The condition of the cells 
may be checked by measuring the 
leakage current with a milliammeter 
after disconnecting the resistors. If 
this current is much greater than 3 
milliamp., the cell is not in good con- 
dition. The resistors take four or 
five times the current of the cells. 

The life of the cell plates and elec- 
trolyte will be somewhat prolonged 
if the arrester is taken out of service 
in the winter season, which can be 
done if there is no lightning during 
this part of the year. Good results 
will be obtained if the electrolyte is 
removed from the cells and stored in 
an earthenware jar while the arrester 
is out of service. After allowing 
time for the separation of the oil 
and electrolyte, the former may be 
siphoned off and kept in a separate 
container. If the electrolyte is in 
good condition and kept covered, it 
can be used again. If the condition of 

the eledtrolyte is not certain, how- 
ever it is better to use new electro- 
lyte. When taking an arrester out of 
service the cell plates should be re- 
moved from the jars, cleaned with 
gasoline, rinsed in distilled water, 
and put back in the jars. 

The life of the cell plates and elec- 
trolyte will be shortened by an un- 
usually high operating temperature. 
For this reason it would be better 
to mount the arrester underneath the 
car rather than inside or on top of 
the car, where the temperature would 
undoubtedly be higher than is recom- 
mended for the satisfactory opera- 
tion of electrolytic arresters. 

Baggage Cars Converted for 
Passenger Service 

THE New York, Westchester & 
Boston Railway has recently com- 
pleted the conversion of two baggage 
cars into passenger cars. When these 
cars, Nos. 201 and 202, were orig- 
inally built in 1911, they were de- 
signed for combined baggage and 
passenger use. A partition about 
one-third the way from one end of 
the car divided it into two compart- 
ments, the smaller of which was used 
for baggage. A separate door to 
this compartment was placed where 
the third window of an ordinary pas- 
senger car would have been. The 
larger compartment was fitted up in 
the usual way with upholstered seats. 

Soon after these cars were built, 
however, the railroad entered into 
an arrangement with the Adams Ex- 
press Company, which involved the 
handling of more express business 
than could be conveniently taken care 
of by the small baggage compart- 
ments in the two cars. All the seats 
were taken out of the passenger end 
and the cars used solely for baggage. 
They were operated in that way for 
a number of years until the arrange- 
ment with the express company was 
terminated as a result of the war. 
Then the cars were relegated to the 
storage yard and gradually stripped 
of most of their equipment. But the 
effect of the war, which first de- 
stroyed the usefulness of the cars, 
was later the reason for bringing 
them back into service. 

A short time ago there developed 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Jouenal 


a need for more passenger equipment 
on the New York, Westchester & 
Boston. The cost of new rolling stock 
was prohibitive, and so J. T. Hamil- 
ton, superintendent of equipment, hit 
upon the expedient of converting the 
old useless baggage cars for pas- 
senger service. The partitions were 
taken out, bars removed from the 
windows, baggage doors replaced by- 
windows and new seats installed. 

In appearance today, inside and 
out, they are indistinguishable from 
the ordinary passenger cars. In 
spite of the fact that much expensive 
equipment which had been removed 
from the cars during their period 
of idleness had to be replaced, the 
cost of converting them was about 
one-fourth the cost of new cars. 

Our Creed 

To do a little better than is ex- 
pected of us; 

To be a little ahead of time 
rather than a little behind it ; 

To be as anxious to perform as 
to promise; 

To furnish results and not ex- 
cuses ; 

And, above all else, to remem- 
ber that we are spending the 
company's money and not 
our own, and that we should 
therefore exercise more than 
ordinary care as to how we 
spend it. 

Convenient Babbitting Jigs 

THE accompanying illustration 
shows some of the babbitting 
jigs used by the Eighth Avenue Rail- 
road in New York, N. Y., for babbitt- 
ing armature and axle bearings. The 
first and second jigs shown in the 
illustration beginning at the left are 
used for babbitting axle bearings. 

This "creed," epitomizing the purpose of 
the department of rolling: stock and shops 
of the United Kailways & Klectrlc Company 
of Baltimore, hangs in the office of A. T. 
Clark, the snperintendent of those shops. 

The two jigs shovra at the right 
in the illustration are for babbitting 
armature bearings. These have a re- 
cessed base with an upright shaft in 
the center. The flanged ends of the 
armature bearings rest in the cir- 
cular recess at the bottom. The base 
is provided with a handle for con- 

Convenient Jiss for Babbitting Armature and Axle Bearings 

The view at the extreme left shows 
the jig completely assembled and 
ready to pour the lining for a bear- 
ing. The next illustration shows the 
various parts. The base consists of 
an angle plate with a half round por- 
tion in the upright part of the same 
diameter as the armature shaft or 
the inside of the bearing after it is 
babbitted. The outside portion fits 
between the two fastenings shown 
at either side, and this is forced up 
close to the base by means of a clamp- 
ing strip with a handle. A top plate 
is provided with an opening cor- 
responding to the space to be filled 
with babbitt. This has a handle and 
by moving the plate across the end 
as the babbitt cools, a smooth end 
surface is produced. 

venience. Of course, the complete 
circular portion is babbitted for 
armature bearings, while but one- 
half is babbitted for axle bearings. 

Platform for Washing 
Ventilator Glass 

THE cleaning of cars of the New 
York & Harlem Railroad is under 
the supervision of the mechanical de- 
partment. Car cleaning is done on a 
time basis, and the time schedule for 
cleaning ventilator glass and the 
clearstory of cars is an even multiple 
of that for washing the car bodies. 
In order to facilitate the washing of 
the clearstory, elevated platforms 
have been constructed on either side 
of the track used for bringing the 

cars into the shop for cleaning. Two 
men are stationed on these platforms 
to clean the ventilator glass and 
clearstory of cars due for this clean- 
ing. This method permits of much 
better workmanship and better at- 
tention to the washing of the upper 
parts of the car bodies. 

Fall River Shop Notes 

THE Eastern Massachusetts; 
Street Railway's Fall River divi- 
sion shops have recently been greatly 
improved. A visitor to these shops 
notices a number of little conveni- 
ences which conduce to economical 
maintenance. Some of these follow: 
On a board conveniently mounted 


Canvas Cover for Protecting Sand Spoul 
from Wheel Splash 

for the inspectors to examine are 
examples of well-worn and im- 
properly-worn brake shoes, and other 
exhibits, which serve as a constant 
reminder as to how to get the most 
out of the wearing parts. 

In order to save space all material 
which can be stored overhead is so 
stored. For example, sweeper brooms 
are piled on a high shelf mounted 
between building columns. They are 
thus in plain sight, but absolutely 
out of the way. 

An old single-truck car has been 
rigged up as a carhouse sand car, to^ 
facilitate filling of the sand boxes 
on the cars. Two longitudinal bins 
were built in this sand car, with 
openings at the side, closed with, 
slides, to permit pails to be filled. 
The sand car is run alongside the 
drying room for filling, and is then 
moved about as required. 

A home-made trolley pole tension 
tester has been found useful. It con- 
sists of a trolley catcher, suitably 
weighted. An iron handle is at- 
tached for convenience in carrying. 
A rope of length equal to that at 
which it is desired to test the tension 
is attached to the trolley catcher, 
which keeps it wound up when the 
device is not in use. When the end 
of the rope is hooked over the end 
of the trolley pole and the weight just 
balances the tension when the weight 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

clears the ground, the tension is 

It was found desirable to protect 
the spring sand spouts on the cars 
from wheel splash so that they would 
not become damp and clog the sand. 
For this purpose the spouts were 
covered with fire or other canvas 
hose and a canvas shield was slipped 
over the spout and tacked up against 
the bottom of the car. This shield 
is of the form shown in the accom- 
panying diagram. It is tacked 
against the bottom of the car along 
edges A, B and C, being folded along 
the lines D and E. The back is toward 
the wheel, the front being open. For 
tacking up the canvas a tack driver 
consisting of a weighted rod sliding 
in a small piece of gas pipe was found 

Reinforcing Outside 

Corners of Truck 


THE New York & Harlem Rail- 
road, New York, N. Y., experi- 
enced some difficulty through the 
breaking of truck frames at the out- 
side corner of the truck pedestal. 
This trouble has been overcome by 
reinforcing this point with an angle 

Truck Pedestal Reinforced by Angle 
Iron and Welding 

iron welded to the upright and split 
at the bottom so as to extend down 
the side of the truck frame. The 
center part of the angle at the bot- 
tom is bent back so as to lie on the 
top of the truck frame. A 3 in. x 
3 in. X i in. angle is used. The accom- 
panying illustration shows one of 
these side frames as repaired. The 
welding is done by the oxyacetylene 

Old Axles Afford Very 
Useful Material 

THE Market Street Railway of 
San Francisco has found so 
many uses for old axles that not only 
does it use all those taken from obso- 
lete trucks of its own equipment, but 
the purchase of old axles from steam 

railroads has been found economical. 
The old axles are first heated in the 
oil furnace and then hammered out 
under the steam hammer to smaller 
diameter and greater length. This 
reworking materially improves the 
quality of the metal. It is used for 
filler bars in built-up crossings and 
frogs, tongues for switches, and for 
miscellaneous heavy forglngs. 

Trolley Rail Height Gage 

OFTEN it becomes necessary to 
gage the height and alignment 
of the trolley or third rail. A me- 
chanical device for this purpose has 
been used in the past with some de- 
gree of success. A new apparatus 
using a hydraulic principle is now 
used on the Chicago Elevated Rail- 
roads which has proved more simple 
in construction and more accurate in 

A trolley board or shoe beam is 
equipped with a cylinder made of 
1-in. brass tubing placed vertically 
through the board. The piston which 
operates in this cylinder has on one 
end a yoke or harp carrying two 
rollers 5 in. long by 2 in. in diameter. 
The piston is supplied with double 
leathers on its upper end. Suitable 
couplings and hose connections are 
made to the upper end of the cylinder 
and to a graduated glass tube prop- 
erly mounted in the car. The sys- 
tem is filled with soap solution and 

The rollers ride upon the trolley 
rail, and the variation in height of 
the rail is transmitted through the 
liquid by the action of the piston in 
the cylinder to the graduated tube. 
A device of this type is placed on 
each side of the car in order to 
obtain readings on lap rail and spe- 
cial rail. Two observers in the car 
take readings at intervals of 200 ft. 
of track and also at high and low 
marks, and a recorder plots these 
readings directly on a previously 
prepared chart. 

The ratio of the area of the piston 
to the area of cross-section of the 
glass tube is the determining factor 
in the degree of sensitiveness of the 
apparatus. After experimenting it 
was found that this ratio should be 
1 to 1, that is, the diameter of the 
cylinder should equal the diameter of 
the graduated glass tube. 

Records plotted by this method 
were checked and found to be more 
accurate, in showing the true condi- 
tions, than the foreman's rail height 
gage. As will readily be seen, this 
plotted record shows the height 

under operating conditions with the 
weight of the car on the running 
rail. A careful study of this record 
discloses conditions of the roadbed 
as well as of the trolley rail, and 
serves as a guide to reconstruction. 

New Equipment 

Continuous Roller Side 

ANEW type of roller side bearing 
. has just been placed on the mar- 
ket by the Burry Railway Supply 
Company, Chicago, 111. The rollers 
and axles are of high-carbon steel, 
and malleable iron is used for the 
renewable bearing bushings, housing 
and wedges. The roller revolves on 
its axle and the axle in turn revolves 
in a renewable interlocked bearing 
bushing. This type of construction 
is intended to overcome trouble such 
as the wearing of an oblong hole in 
the housing, which of course lowers 
the roller and increases the side 
bearing clearance, thus making it 
necessary to renew such housings. 
The new type bearing is being 

New Continuous Roller Side Bearing 

marketed under the trade name of 
"Paragon." The roller and the renew- 
able bearing bushing have chafing 
fianges. These engage each other to 
prevent endwise movement. Outside 
endwise movement of the axle is re- 
sisted by the solid end of the hous- 
ing. The renewable bearing bushings 
are designed so that the hexagon 
shape of the lower half fits in sim- 
ilar recesses in the housing, thereby 
preventing the bearing bushing 
from rotating with the axle, and 
as the surface of the bearing bush- 
ing engaging the recess of the hous- 
ing is of generous width, all wear of 
the housing is eliminated. 

The "Paragon" bearing bushings 
are easily renewed without removing 
the side bearing housings from the 
truck or body bolster. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


[^ The News of the Industry J 

Negotiations Suspended 

Winnipeg Electric Railway Temporarily 

Withdraws Request for Franchise 


After twelve months of negotiating 
the Winnipeg (Man.) Electric Railway 
has temporarily withdrawn its request 
to the City Council for an extension of 
its franchise. The city of Winnipeg 
has the option in 1927 of purchasing the 
railway property. If it does not then 
purchase, the franchise is automatically 
extended for a recurring period of five 
years. Negotiations looking to an 
agreement deferring the period at 
which the city could take over the 
railroad property for ten years — until 
1937 — were undertaken by the company 
in order to enable it to do certain financ- 
ing which would mean an extension of 
the transportation system in Winnipeg 
on a large scale. 

A. W. McLimont, vice-president of 
the company, who personally conducted 
the negotiations with the Council, re- 
vealed his plans for a future transpor- 
tation system that would keep abreast 
• of the requirements of the city. The 
plans were finally incorporated in a 
draft agreement referred to previously 
in the Electric Railway Journal. 

Among the concessions agreed to by 
Mr. McLimont in consideration for the 
extension was a schedule of lower fares, 
payment by the company of a share 
in the cost of building bridges and sub- 
ways, placing wires underground in the 
business section of the city, adjustment 
of franchises in municipalities outside 
the city limits and a number of im- 
portant extensions to track. 

While this agreement met with the 
favor of the majority of the City Coun- 
cil, the labor group objected to the 
franchise question being dealt with at 
any time prior to 1927. This opposition 
protracted the negotiations. 

Mr. McLimont said to the Council: 

The bankers take the position that the 
very determined and continuous opposition 
to the franchise negotiations by certain 
members of the City Council and from in- 
fluential quarters elsewhere is very detri- 
mental to the company's financial standing 
and credit, and on account of the long de- 
lay that has already taken place in nego- 
tiations, the uncertainty as to when the 
matter will be ended, what the final out- 
come will be. and the general conditions 
now prevailing in Winnipeg, the bankers 
seem very reluctant to consider any ar- 
rangement which would require them to 
provide for the large financial obligations 
Involved and which would be necessary to 
carry out the program outlined in the draft 
agreement now before Council, and advise 
us to suspend negotiations temporarily. 

Another matter strongly influencing the 
bankers is the financial showing made by 
the railway department of the company for 
1922, which was very disappointing. Con- 
ditions are not improving so far this year, 
and it would be impossible in the face of 
these conditions to Justify putting into 
effect the fares proposed in the agreement. 

Under all these circumstances we feel 
that the only proper action to take Is to 
suspend negotiations for the time being. 

After considering all phases of the situa- 
tion the bankers intimated to me that they 

were prepared to consider providing us with 
sufllcient money to meet our immediate and 
pressing obligations, and we now have nego- 
tiations pending with that end in view. 
When these are concluded we expect to 
take up the matter of our indebtedness to 
the city. 

The company has been successful in 
effecting new financial arrangements 
and a special general meeting of the 
shareholders of the Winnipeg Electric 
Railway has been called for March 19, 
to consider and deal with a formal by- 
law authorizing a total issue of $5,000,- 
000 of twenty-year 6 per cent general 
mortgage and collateral trust gold 
bonds of the company, of which there 
are to be presently issued $3^250,000. 
This amount will be disposed of in retir- 
ing the company's current indebtedness 
for capital expenditures and for general 
corporate purposes and will place the 
company in a splendid liquid position, 
with its interest charges less than they 
are at the present time. This issue has 
already been referred to in these 
columns. In 1921 this company found 
it necessary to provide additional elec- 
tric energy to meet the growing de- 
mands of the company and organized 
the Manitoba Power Company, Ltd., to 
produce the required additional power. 
The Winnipeg Electric Railway is to 
be the distributor of this big power 
load, and in order to do so considerable 
money will have to be expended to 
install the necessary plant. 

Orders Report of^ Salaries Paid 

The California State Railroad Com- 
mission has adopted a resolution re- 
quiring all public utilities of the State 
to file salary data with the commission 
and furnish an accounting of donations, 
contributions, subscriptions and cash 

All public utilities having gross 
annual operating revenues of $100,000 
or more must file on or before March 10 
a statement showing the names of all 
officers or employees who during the 
year 1922 received a salary of $5,000 
or more annually. The statement must 
include the salary paid, expense account, 
fees received by and duties of each such 

Public utilities with revenues of 
$25,000 and less than $100,000 are 
directed to file with the commission the 
names and salaries of all employees 
receiving $3,000 or more annually, with 
details as to fees, expenses and duties. 

The commission's resolution also pro- 
vides that all public utilities having 
gross annual operating revenues of 
$25,000 or more shall file on or before 
March 10 a statement showing the 
amount of cash they had on hand for 
all purposes on Dec. 31, 1922, the names 
of banks or other institutions with 
which such cash was deposited, the rate 
of interest received, and the amount 
of cash in the utility's treasury. 

Appeal Dismissed 

The Seattle Municipal and Paget Sound 

Properties Must Pay 1919 Taxes — 

City Considers Ways and Means 

Word has been received from Wash- 
ington, D. C, that the appeal of the 
Puget Sound Power & Light Company 
from the imposition of 1919 taxes on 
the Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Railway 
property has been dismissed by the 
United States Supreme Court. The suit 
w-as brought by the power company, as 
plaintiff in error, against King County. 
King County obtained a rule in the 
Washington state courts that it had a 
right to collect $401,000 accrued taxes, 
now amounting, with interest, to 
$640,000 on the railway property for 
1919, as the assessment was made be- 
fore the railway became exempt from 
taxation by transfer of ownership to 
the city. The appeal followed, but no 
briefs were submitted, and hearing had 
not been held. The case was dismissed 
because attorneys failed to deposit with 
the clerk of the court an amount suffi- 
cient to cover the cost of printing the 

Under an agreement, if the tax must 
be paid, the city of Seattle, which owned 
the railways for three-fourths of the 
year, must pay three-fourths of the 
tax, or about $480,000, while the power 
company must pay one-fourth. 

With approximately $480,000 in 
unpaid 1919 taxes which the Seattle 
Municipal Railway must pay, and with 
the 5-cent fare effective March 3, city 
officials are anxiously considering ways 
and means of raising the money required 
to meet the railway deficit. Council- 
man E. F. Blaine, chairman of the 
finance committee, has urged Superin- 
tendent of Public Utilities George F. 
Russell to make a constructive sugges- 
tion as to any methods that would be 
helpful. The Municipal Railway has 
completed plans for increasing service 
under the 5-cent fare and taking care 
of the expected increased patronage. 

Superintendent of Railway D. W. 
Henderson states that it is realized by 
officials that the success of the 5-cent 
fare, which has been restored, as noted 
elsewhere in this issue, depends upon 
the increase in railway traffic and every 
effort will be made to stimulate traffic. 

Company Continues Fifty-four- 
Cent Wage Scale 

The Boston & Worcester Street Rail- 
way, Framingham, Mass., has decided to 
continue the 54-cent wage rate during 
the balance of the contract with its men. 
The contract with the blue uniform men 
entered into on Sept. 1, 1922, was on a 
basis of 54 cents an hour until March 1, 
1923, and 53 cents an hour from March 
1. 1923, to Sept. 30, 1923. 


ELECTRIC Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

Exterior Vtew of New Northern Elevated Railroad Station 

Chicago "L" Opens New Station 

To take care of the enormous growth 
of the uptown section of Chicago, which 
until the last year or two had been 
known as the Wilson Avenue district, 
the Northwestern Elevated Railroad has 
built an entirely new station at Law- 
rence Avenue, which was opened up on 
Feb. 27, at 8 p.m. Officials of the road, 
a forty-piece Elevated band and mem- 
bers of the Uptown Chicago Business 
Men's Association were present at the 
opening. Speeches were made by offi- 
cials of the railroad and by officers of 
the business men's association. 

The Wilson Avenue station was for 
many years the northern terminus of 
the elevated line. There was a very 
rapid grovrth about this point which 
centered along Wilson Avenue. More 
recently, however, this growth has ex- 
panded to the north, so that Lawrence 
Avenue, two blocks farther north and 
the mile-section street, on which a 
surface car crosstown line operates, has 
become a nearly equally important cen- 
ter. The traffic carried by the elevated 
to and from this district is so heavy 
that it has warranted the opening of 
this additional station, giving two sta- 
tions only two blocks apart. 

The station is of the new island plat- 
form type, similar to the design already 
in service along the newly elevated 
portion of the Evanston line. The street 

level of the station is beautifully 
constructed of marble and tile and in- 
cludes, in addition to the space oc- 
cupied by the company, a store on either 
side of the entrance. Due to the fact 
that this station was not contemplated 
until after the abutment wall and fill 
had been made for the track elevation, 
it was necessary to move the abut- 
ments, consisting of 250 yd. of concrete, 
back from the street line 65 ft. and re- 
move that portion of the fill. The steel 
structure over the street was separated 
and moved bodily each way to make 
room for the island platform. The 
cost of the station, including the extra- 
ordinary construction work, was about 
$90,000, of which $30,000 was spent on 
the building proper. The station was 
designed by the company and the con- 
struction contracted for. 

Court Rules Commission Must 
Act on One-Man Car Issue 

A preliminary injunction prohibiting 
the city of Clarksburg from putting 
into; effect its recently-adopted ordi- 
nance restraining the Monongahela 
Po"wer & Railway Company from oper- 
ating one-man cars in the city was 
granted by Judge Raymond Maxwell 
at a special term of the Harrison 
County circuit court. Judge Maxwell's 
opinion granting the car company the 
preliminary injunction is quite a 

Interior View of Station 

lengthy affair and one of the principal 
reasons set forth for granting the re- 
quest is that the Public Service Com- 
mission is delegated authority to act 
in such matters. The Judge also as- 
sumes that if the necessary time is 
allowed the traction company will take 
the case before the commission. Imme- 
diately after granting the temporary 
injunction, counsel for the city, Fred 
L. Shinn and E. G. Smith, gave notice 
of action on the part of the city to have 
it dissolved. 

In part Judge Maxwell's opinion 
follows : 

Upon reason it would seem that where a 
public service corporation has adopted a 
policy that may or may not be just and 
reasonable, the Public Service Commission 
is the governmental instrumentality best 
calculated and best equipped tlioroughly to 
investigate the matter and then to prescribe 
such practices as may be just. 

The railway alleges in its bill that the 
one-man car question is a proper one for 
determination by the Public Service Com- 
mission. Presumably, therefore, the com- 
pany will promptly take this question to the 
Commission if the operation of the ordi- 
nance is enjoined for a sufficient length of 
time to permit the matter to be presented 
lo. and considered by, the commission. 
Acting upon this assumption, and being 
of opinion under the principles hereinabove 
discussed, that this matter ought to go to 
the Public Service Commission, and that 
the present status should be preser\'ed at 
least for a reasonable time to afford oppor- 
tunity for action by the commission, the 
court awards a preliminary injunction pro- 
hibiting the enforcement of the one-man 
car ordinance until further order of the 

Trainmen and Police OflBcers 
Will Co-operate 

To effect close co-operation between-, 
police traffic officers and trainmen, three- 
meetings of trainmen of the Los 
Angeles (Calif.) Railway were held Feb.. 
20. Capt. James McDowell, head of the 
police traffic department, spoke of some 
of the traffic conditions peculiar to Los 
Angeles in which trainmen can help.. 
After each meeting he answered ques- 
tions presented by trainmen. As a re- 
sult of the gatherings, arrangements 
have been made whereby the police de- 
partment and street railway officials 
will prepare a small card form to be 
carried by trainmen. On this card they 
will note the license number and other 
necessary information where automo- 
biles pass standing street cars or violate- 
other city ordinances. This informa- 
tion has been supplied to the company's 
safety bureau in reports of trainmen, 
but, as Captain McDowell said, he is 
anxious to have the reports made regu- 
larly and systematically. 

Dip Subway Plans Being Prepared 

Engineers for the Street Railway 
Department of the city of Detroit, 
Mich., are preparing plans for a down- 
town subway dip system with an under- 
ground loading station at a central 
point. The project is to be submitted 
to the voters at the October primary 
election. An agrreement has been 
reached with the Rapid Transit Com- 
mission and the plans will be reviewed 
by the engineers of that body in order 
to insure co-ordination with the gen- 
eral subway plan. 

The members of the Rapid Transit 
Commission are of the opinion that a 
system that would best relieve surface 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


congestion at this time may not be the 
best system as the population of the 
city increases. The present agreement 
between the two commissions, it is 
pointed out by Sydney D. Waldon, chair- 
man of the Rapid Transit Commis- 
sion, will afford relief from the down- 
town congestion in a comparatively 
short time and will permit the Rapid 
Transit Commission to confine its ef- 
forts to its primary purpose of care- 
fully developing plans for the trans- 
poration needs of a city of 3,000,000 

Clarence E. Wilcox, Corporation 
Counsel, is now working on legislation 
planned to raising Detroit's bonding 
limit from the present 2 per cent of the 
city's assessed valuation to 4 per cent, 
for public utility purposes, such action 
being permissible under the Home Rule 
act. "rhe city officials are hopeful that 
permission to increase the bonding limit 
will be granted at the present session 
of the State Legislature as a bond issue 
for the proposed subways would more 
than exhaust the balance of the city's 
present bonding limit. 

It's the Car Rider that Pays 
for Paving 

The United Traction Company, 
Albany, N. Y., has posted in its cars 
a placard showing the alleged injustice 
of existing laws which make it man- 
datory that traction companies pay for 
the improvement and upkeep of pave- 
ment of city streets between the rails 
and for 2 ft. each side of them. The 
bulletin reads: 

A Relic of Horse Car Days 

Back in the horse car days when street 
ears really wore out pavements, street car 
companies were required to pay for all pav- 
ing inside their tracks and two feet out- 

Thi.s means from one-third to two-thirds 
of the entire street area. 

Tlip horse cars have been gone thirty 
years. The paving tax still stands. 

You— the car rider — pay for It. 

New System to Be Constructed 

The Council of Orange, Tex., has 
granted a franchise on application of 
Harry A. Burr, general manager of the 
Orange Light & Water Company, and 
his associates, for the right to operate 
electric passenger carrying vehicles in 
the city for a period of forty years. 
The company is proposing to try out a 
system of trackless cars to be operated 
only on paved streets. The streets on 
which the cars are to be operated, fares 
to be charged, etc., are to be decided 
by the City Council and directors of the 
company in joint conference. 

Saginaw Votes Down 
Bus Franchise 

Citizens of Saginaw, Mich., ex- 
jjressed their disapproval on March 7 
of the Henning-Wade franchise which 
offered city-wide motor bus operation 
with the installation of forty motor 
omnibuses. The vote stood 8,540 for 
and 6,023 against. The measure failed 
by 2,517 to obtain even a majority and 
lacked 2,714 of the necessary 60 per 

This was the first opportunity that 
the people of Saginaw had to express 
their choice on a definite motor bus 
proposal since suspension of service in 
August, 1921, by the Saginaw-Bay City 
Railway. The grantees were Leonard 
A, Henning, Saginaw, and John Wade, 
Atlantic City, N. J. There will be 
another vote in Saginaw on April 2 on 
a car-bus franchise. 

Will Demand a Ten-Cent an 
Hour Increase 

Employees of the New York State 
Railways in Rochester, Syracuse, Utica 
and Rome are organizing to demand a 
wage increase of from 50 to 60 cents an 
hour. The men accepted a wage reduc- 
tion from 53 to 50 cents a year ago 
and now contend that the cost of living 
has since risen. The men contend that 
the operators of one-man cars should 
receive at least 25 per cent more than 
men on two-man cars. The wage agree- 
ment does not expire until June 1. 


^ews Notes 


Idea of Elective Commission Rejected. 

— Popular election of members of the 
Public Utilities Commission was re- 
jected in the Connecticut Senate on 
March 2. Minority Leader McGrath's 
bill provided that the members be se- 
lected in this manner rather than by 
appointment of the Governor. 

New Pamphlet Appears. — In addition 
to the Public Service News published 
by the Winnipeg (Man.) Electric Rail- 
way and devoted to activities in the 
railway field the company has started 
a monthly pamphlet entitled The Utility 
Optimist, in the interests of its power 
and light customers. The first issue is 
dated February, 1923. 

Increases Force. — The Springfield 
(Mass.) Street Railway has added sixty 
blue uniform men to its regular force 
by calling back forty men that had been 
laid off and employing twenty new men. 
This addition was made in conformance 
to a rerouting of cars and change of 
schedule so as to afford more time for 
the round trip in rush hours and admit 
of more frequent service in several 

Seeks Repeal of Trolley Act.— The 
first move has been made for repeal of 
the Brooks-Coleman act in Minnesota. 
This measure put jurisdiction over the 
rates of electric railways in the hands 
of the State Railroad & Warehouse 
Commission. It was introduced in the 
House by a League member. One sec- 
tion proposes annulment of indeter- 
minate permits granted the Twin City 
lines under the terms of the 1921 law. 

Will Guard Carhouses.— The Louis- 
ville (Ky.) Railway is planning to use 
guards at its carhouses, temporarily at 
least, as a result of the two recent 
carhouse fires, one of which occurred 
on Feb. 16 and the other on Jan. 16, 
resulting in heavy losses. While the 
company has no reason to believe that 

the fires were of incendiary orig^in, it 
is felt that the guards at least would 
be useful in putting out a fire before 
it obtained headway. Nine men will 
be used for the time being. 

Hardship Experienced. — A traction 
car on the Evansville and Ohio Valley 
Traction Company line leaving Hender- 
son, Ky., was marooned on a ferry boat 
on the Ohio River recently for more 
than twelve hours. The car had about 
twenty-five passengers aboard. A vio- 
lent storm with a fifty-mile wind made 
it necessary to tie the ferry to the 
willows on the Kentucky side. Most 
of the passengers were women and 
children. Food and fuel were taken to 
the passengers in skiffs. 

New Railway in Prospect. — H. S. 
Shaner, Sand Springs, Okla., is the 
promoter of a new electric railway in 
south Missouri to be about 300 miles 
long. The line will connect with the 
Frisco line at Cabool, Texas County, 
and at Winona, Shannon County. Con- 
nection with the Springfield & St. Louis 
line will be made at Salem, Dent County. 
Other steam lines will be joined at 
Patosi in Washington County and Bis- 
mark, in St. Francis County. The char- 
ter name for the new line is the Mis- 
souri Hydro-Electric Interurban. The 
dam and power plant are to be located 
on Current River, in Round Springs. 

Will Accept Company's Offer. — Line- 
men and electrical helpers employed by 
the Cincinnati (Ohio) Traction Com- 
pany, who went on a strike last No- 
vember because the company refused to 
- grant them a 25 per cent wage increase, 
i-ecently voted to accept the offer of 
their employers. Theodore H. Schoepf, 
chief engineer of the traction company, 
said that on Nov. 15 last fifty men, 
members of Local 101 of the Electrical 
Workers' Union, declared a strike, al- 
though they had an arbitration clause in 
their contract. Despite the fact the 
men called off the strike, Mr. Schoepf 
said he would take back as individuals 
such men as he needed and that they 
would be paid the same scale of wages 
that prevailed prior to the strike. Dur- 
the strike the traction company re- 
cruited men from other cities. 

Plans Made for Final Dual Transit 
Construction. — Plans for the construc- 
tion of one of the two remaining sec- 
tion of the Nassau Street subway in 
Manhattan Borough- the final piece of 
construction work provided for under 
the dual contract — ^have been completed, 
according to an announcement made by 
the New York Transit Commission. A 
hearing will be held on the formal con- 
tracts for the whole route on March 26. 
The Nassau Street line will be part of 
the system operated by the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company. It will extend 
from the Municipal Building, at Cham- 
bers Street, where connection will be 
made with the Center Street loop tracks 
under that structure south through 
Printing House Square and Nassau 
Street, to Wall Street, thence the line 
will continue on through Broad Street 
to a connection with the Montague 
Street-Whitehall Street Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit tunnel. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

r Financial and Corporate 1 

I. T. S. Merger Details 

New Company to Be Organized to Take 

Over McKinley and Studebaker 


Confirmation has been obtained of 
the rumor that Senator William B. 
McKinley and others associated with 
him in the development of the Illinois 
Traction System are proposing a con- 
solidation of the Southern Illinois prop- 
erties controlled by Clement Stude- 
baker and his associates with the prop- 
erties of the Illinois Traction Company. 
On the other hand, the interests asso- 
ciated with Mr. Studebaker plan to 
acquire a substantial interest in the 
Illinois Traction Company. These in- 
terests have also associated with them- 
selves strong financial backing for the 
purpose of financing the present and 
future requirements of the unified and 
consolidated properties. 

In order to provide the simplified 
financial structure fundamental to the 
whole problem of future capital require- 
ments, it is proposed to consolidate all 
of the operating properties of the 
Illinois Traction Company in Illinois 
into one company, to be known as the 
Illinois Power & Light Corporation, and 
to acquire through consolidation the 
properties operated by the Southern 
Illinois Light & Power Company. To 
accomplish this consolidation and to 
establish a proper foundation for a 
new first and refunding mortgage for 
the new consolidated operating com- 
pany, including the creation of an at- 
tractive preferred stock, it is planned 
to acquire approximately $22,000,000, 
par value, of bonds and to call for re- 
demption a further $9,000,000 of bonds 
now in the hands of the public. 

It is also proposed to acquire about 
$9,300,000 of guaranteed preferred 
stock issued by subsidiary companies 
and $1,641,000 of preferred stock of the 
Illinois Traction Company. All these 
holdings will either be canceled or 
pledged under the new mortgage. In 
addition it will be necessary to provide 
for the retirement of $5,649,000 of 
Illinois Traction preferred stock, $2,169,- 
000 of Western Railways & Light pre- 
ferred, $1,665,000 of Southern Illinois 
Light & Power preferred and $631,000 
of Bloomington & Normal Railway & 
Light preferred, all of which are now 
in the hands of the public. In this con- 
nection, the intention is to offer the 
holders of these securities in exchange 
therefor a like amount of 7 per cent 
cumulative preferred stock of the new 
Illinois Power & Light Corporation. 

As existing legal requirements make 
it either impossible or undesirable to 
acquire direct ownership of all the prop- 
erties comprising the Illinois Traction 
System, it will probably be necessary 
for the Illinois Power & Light Cor- 
poration to control through stock owner- 
ship the Illinois interurbans and the 

utilities operating in states other than 

Succinctly stated, the plan provides 
for the ultimate retirement or exchange 
of approximately $50,000,000 of securi- 
ties and the creation of a new company, 
all of whose common stock will be 
owned by the Illinois Traction Company, 
which company will create a new first 
and refunding mortgage and an attrac- 
tive preferred stock, which will make 
it possible to finance future require- 
ments through the existence of securi- 
ties guarded by conservative restric- 
tion. After having effected the reorgan- 
ization and financing, the capitalization, 
subject to approval of the Illinois Com- 
merce Commission, will be approxi- 
mately as follows: 

Divisional bonds (includins 
Soutliern Illinois Light & 
Power bonds) $36,414,800 

First and refunding mortgage 6 

per cent bonds 30,000,000 

Thirty-year 7 per cent sinlcing 

fund debentures 10,000,000 

First preferred 7 per cent cumu- 
lative stoclc, par $100 17.678,500 

Participating preferred stock 6 

per cent cumulative, par $50. . 1,865,500 

Common stock, no par value. 400,000 shares 

All of the common stock of the new 
consolidated company will be owned by 
the Illinois Traction Company, the com- 
mon stock of which will not be disturbed. 
It is expected that an offer of exchange 
will be made to the holders of the out- 
standing common stock of the Illinois 
Traction Company to exchange their 
holdings for securities upon which it is 
proposed to inaugurate dividends at 
once, the acceptance of such offer being 
optional to the stockholder. 

The fact that a deal was pending 
such as is now outlined was referred 
to briefly in the Electric Railway 
Journal for March 2, page 384. 

Reorganization of United Rail- 
ways Investment Proposed 

Reorganization of the United Rail- 
ways Investment Company, by the 
division of its eastern and western 
subsidiaries into separate companies, 
is now being planned. 

In the Eastern company would be 
combined the Philadelphia Company, 
Duquesne Light & Power and Pitts- 
burgh Railways. It has been proposed 
that the new company purchase from 
the United Railways Investment Com- 
pany $24,475,000 common stock of the 
Philadelphia Company, making pay- 
ment in its common and preferred 
stock. To carry out this plan, a new 
issue of $10,000,000 bonds at 6 or 7 per 
cent and a new issue of preferred stock 
will be offered. 

In the Western company would be 
grouped the United Railroads of San 
Francisco, Sierra & San Francisco 
Power and Coast Valley Gas & Electric 

North American Does Well 

Net Addition to Surplus Was $1,766,672 

After Making Very Liberal 


The consolidated income statement of 
the North American Company, New 
York, N. Y., and its subsidiaries shows 
a balance for depreciation, dividends 
and surplus of $11,303,731 for the year 
ended Dec. 31, 1922, compared with 
$6,711,141 for the previous year. In 
his remarks to the stockholders Frank 
L. Dame, president of the company, 
says that during the year several im- 
portant public utility properties were 
added to those heretofore controlled, the 
most important being the Cleveland Il- 
luminating Company. Mr. Dame ex- 
plains that the earnings of these prop- 
erties are not included prior to the date 
of their acquisition and the statement 
of the present earning power of the 
company is therefore on a conservative 
basis. During the year substantial 
progress was made in the development 
of the financial structures of sub- 
sidiaries in order that senior securities 
may be marketed under even the most 
adverse conditions. 

Mr. Dame refers back to the report 
of the company for 1905 to reiterate 
the statement that the company holds 
the securities of other companies as 
permanent investments and seeks to es- 
tablish them in the favor and confi- 
dence of the public by just methods and 
efficient administration and to maintain 
their finances on the most conservative 
basis. Notwithstanding large capital 
demands during the year, a materially 
larger distribution of earnings has 
been made to stockholders. Mr. Dame 
then recommends the increase in the 
authorized common and preferred 




Year Ended Year Ended 

Dec. 31, 1922 Dec. 31, 1921 

Gross earninss $55,234,491 $38,853,189 

Operating expenses and 

taxes 35,812,043 26,791,255 

Net income from 

operation $19,422,448 $I2,0«1,934 

Other net income 407,182 307,196 

Total $19,829,631 $12,369,130 


Interest charges... $6,667,283 $4,603,114 
Preferred dividends 

of subsidiaries... 1,318,172 684.565 

Minority interest 

in subsidiaries. . . 540,444 370,309 

Total deductions.. $8,525,899 $5,657,988 

Balance for deprecia- 
tion, dividends and 
surplus $11,303,732 $6,711,142 

stocks and the change in the par value 
of the common stock from $50 a share 
to $10 a share, referred to previously 
in the Electric Railway Journal. 

In his report to Mr. Dame, Edwin 
Gruhl, vice-president and general man- 
ager of the company, calls attention to 
the fact that the gross earnings of 
the subsidiary companies for 1922 
amounted to $55,234,491, an increase of 
$16,381,301, or 42.16 per cent. Of the 
total gross earnings 65.33 per cent was 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



Surplus, Jan. I, 1922 $12,776,355 


Balance for depreciation, dividends and surplus year ended Dec. 31, 1922... $11,303,731 
Other credits to surplus 953,268 

Total additions $12,256,999 

, . $25,033,356 


Appropriations for depreciation reserves $5,209,882 

Dividends on stock of the North American Company; 

Preferred stoclc $1,061,998 

Common stock 1,857,088 


Writedown in book value of securities 1,601,219 

Unamortized discount and /or premium on securities redeemed or ex- 
changed 661,439 

Miscellaneous charges 98,698 

Total deductions $ 1 0,490,327 

Surplus, Deo. 31, 1922 $14,543,029 

derived from electric and heating, 18.63 
per cent from railway, 4.04 per cent 
from gas, and 12 per cent from coal op- 
erations. Operating expenses and 
taxes amounted to $35,812,043, an in- 
crease of 39,020,787, or 33.67 per cent. 
Net income from operation amounted to 
$19,422,447, an increase of $7,360,513, 
or 61.02 per cent. Of net income from 
operation 76.58 per cent was derived 
from electric and heating, 12.46 per 
cent from railway, 3.13 per cent from 
gas, and 7.83 per cent from coal opera- 
tions. The balance for depreciation, 
dividends and surplus amounted to 
$11,303,731, compared with $6,711,141 
for 1921, an increase of $4,592,589, or 
68.43 per cent. The corresponding 
balances for the three previous years 
were: 1920, $5,396,288; 1919, $4,580,- 
701, and 1918, $2,549,864. The com- 
panies referred to as subsidiaries and 
included in the foregoing statements 
are only those companies of whose com- 
mon stock more than three-quarters is 
owned by the North American company 
or its subsidiaries. Accordingly, gross 
earnings do not include revenues from 
very substantial interests in other 
utilities or industrials. 

Mr. Gruhl says that the company has 
derived substantial revenues from in- 
vestments, syndicate participations and 
underwritings. He explains that the 
greater part of these earnings has been 
applied to writing down book values 
of securities. 

Total additions to surplus for the 
year 1922 from earnings and other 
sources amounted to $12,256,999. Of 
this amount $5,209,882 was appropri- 
ated for depreciation reserves, $2,919,- 
087 was paid as dividends on preferred 
and common stock of the North Ameri- 
can Company, $1,601,219 was applied 
to the writing down of book values of 
securities, and $760,138 was charged 
off on account of unamortized discount, 
etc. The net addition to surplus for 
the year was $1,766,672. 

Four quarterly dividends, each of 
li per cent, were paid during the year 
on the preferred stock. The dividends 
on the comntion stock were increased to 
2J per cent quarterly beginning with 
the April 1, 1922, dividend, of which 
1 per cent was paid in preferred stock 
at par and IJ per cent in cash. The 
July 1 and Oct. 1, 1922, quarterly divi- 
dends on the common stock, each of 
2J per cent, were paid entirely in cash. 

In conclusion Mr. Gruhl refers to the 
fact that upward of $25,000,000 of the 
securities of subsidiaries of the com- 
pany are held by more than 33,000 resi- 
dents of the territory they serve. 

Railway Not Included in Deal 
for Light Plant 

The property of the Piedmont Power 
& Light Company, Burlington, N. C, 
had been sold to Philadelphia and New 
York public service operators, according 
to the announcement. The power and 
light plant at Burlington has been in 
operation for thirteen years, being oper- 
ated in connection with the Alamance 
Railway, a street railway connecting 
Burlington, Graham and Haw River. 

The Piedmont Power & Light Com- 
pany has been owned and controlled in 
the past by J. R. Paschall, Warner 
Moore of Richmond, Va., Junius H. 
Harden, John M. Cook and the State 
Realty Company of Burlington. 

W. R. Dixon, formerly connected with 
the Kentucky & West Virginia Power 
Company, has been chosen manager of 
the concern under the new ownership. 
He comes from Logan, W. Va. 

It is understood that the purchase 
price of the power and light plant was 
about $1,000,000. It is further under- 
stood that the sale of the power and 
light plant does not aflfect the Alamance 
Railway, an 8-mile line, which has been 
operated jointly with the power and 
light plant, and that the railway will 
be continued as usual. 

Dubuque Property Bought 

All the common stock of the Dubuque 
(la.) Electric Company has been pur- 
chased by Albert Emanuel Company, 
Inc., New York, N. Y. The new com- 
pany has had much practical experi- 
ence in directing various public utility 
enterprises. The Dubuque Electric 
Company operates th"e electric light and 
power and railway systems in Dubuque. 

The new purchasers also acquired the 
majority of the outstanding stock of 
the Eastern Iowa Electric Company, 
which supplies light and power to a 
number of settlements near Dubuque. 
Albert Emanuel has been elected presi- 
dent of the Dubuque Electric Company 
to succeed I. C. Elston, Jr. O. H. Sim- 
onds, who is general manager, has in 
addition been elected vice-president and 
a director of the company. 

Good Year in Columbus 

Dividends Resumed by This Company 

and Securities Strengthened by 

Upbuilding of Property 

The Columbus Railway, Power & 
Light Company, Columbus, Ohio, re- 
ports a profit and loss surplus for the 
year ended Dec. 31, 1922, of $1,467,196. 
This figure compares with $1,954,908 
for 1921, but the 1922 figure takes into 
account dividend payments deferred 
from previous year. The comparative 
statement is as follows: 


Railway revenue .... 
Power, light and 


Non-operating revenue 

Total gross revenue 

Operating expenses and 


Interest on funded debt 

Interest on unfunded debt . 
Other deductions. ........ 

Net income . . . . 
Previous surplus . 
Other credits 





$7,499,343 $6,977,041 

Total surplus 


Sinking fund 

Preferred dividends (in 


Preferred dividends (in 


Other debit« 









(a) 1,227,996 











Profit and loss surplus $1,467,196 $1,954,908 

(a) Includes $392,376 paid in 6 per cent Series "A" 
preferred stock and $835,620 in 5 per cent Series "B" 
preferred stock on account of accumulations. (6) In- 
cludes $91,227 paid in cash on the 6 per cent Series 
"A" preferred stock and $188,015 on thef 51 peif cent 
Series "B" preferred stock. 

Charles L. Kurtz, president of the 
company, says that the securities of the 
company have been strengthened by the 
upbuilding of its properties. During 
the past year additions and betterments 
representing a total expenditure of 
$1,930,946 were made. A large pro- 
portion of this total expenditure, 
namely $780,556, represented additions 
and betterments for track and roadway 
made in compliance with the obliga- 
tions of the company to the city. In 
order to provide efficiently for the in- 
crease in kilowatt-hours sold, number 
of customers and connected load, it was 
necessary materially to increase the 
capacity of the transmission and dis- 
tribution lines as well as the capacity 
of transformer and substation equip- 
ment. The items of cost, represent- 
ing the additions and betterments 
for these purposes, approximated 
$1,095,001. Other additions and bet- 
terments to the properties amounted to 
$55,388 and represented expenditures 
for car equipment, office fixtures, etc. 

The fares in Columbus have always 
been very low, and the company con- 
tinues to operate its cars at a rate of 
fare which is much below that of other 
cities in Ohio, and greatly below the 
average of other cities in the country. 
The revenue passengers carried for 
1922 showed a slight decrese over the 
number of revenue passengers carried 
during 1921. The transfer passengers 
showed a small increase over similar 
figures for 1921. The total passengers 
showed a very slight increase over the 
same period of 1921. The car mileage 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

for 1922 totaled 9,021,094, showing an 
increase of 504,794 ear-miles, or 6 per 

In presenting his report for the year 
President Kurtz referred to the so- 
called Slaymaker case. He said that in 
what is known as the Slaymaker case, 
the Court of Common Pleas of Frank- 
lin County, Ohio, on March 17, 1922, 
rendered a judgment against the E. W. 
Clark Company, Philadelphia, and the 
individual members thereof, in the sum 
of $1,512,570 with interest from Feb 
15, 1922. On March 31, 1922, he ex- 
plains that the Clarks entered into a 
declaration and settlement of such an 
agreement, whereby securities of the- 
value equal to the judgment were de- 
posited with the Guarantee Title & 
Trust Company, Columbus, Ohio, which 
company signed the appeal bond as 
surety for the Clark defendents. On 
Oct. 10 and 11, 1922, upon the applica- 
tion of the Clarks the Court of Appeals ■ 
heard further evidence in the case. On 
Nov. 9 and 10, 1922, the case was 
orally argued through the Court of Ap- 
peals. Printed briefs were also sub- 
m.itted to the Court of Appeals and the 
matter is now pending in that court for 
a decision. The progress of this pro- 
ceeding before the courts has been re- 
viewed previously in the Electric 
KAiLWAY Journal. 

to the public, in this month of January the 
company earned all of its operating ex- 
Iienses, payments to the city for rentals 
under Contracts 1 and 2, taxes, and one- 
twelfth proportion of lU annual obligations 
under the plan of readjustment, with a 
margm as indicated in the statement of 
earnmgs and expenses. 

As has been explained previously in 
the Electric Railway Journal, fixed 
charges do not include sinking fund on 
Interborough first mortgage 5 per cent 
bonds payment which, under the plan 
of readjustment declared operative July 
1, last, is postponed until July 1, 1926. 
Postponement of sinking fund pay- 
ments aggregating approximately $175,- 
000 a month was assented to by holders 
of I. R. T. 5s in order to improve the 
company's cash position and tem- 
porarily to increase the amount of 
earnings available for betterments, 
additions and improvements. 

$319,724 Balance for Interbor- 
ough in January, 1923 

The Interborough Rapid Transit 
•Company, New York, N. Y., showed a 
balance of $319,724 over expenses and 
fixed charges during January, accord- 
ing to a statement issued on Feb. 25 by 
Frank Hedley, the president. This was 
the first complete month under the new 
board of directors, chosen after the con- 
summation of the plan of financial re- 
adjustment recently carried out. The 
net earnings of the Interborough for 
the month are shown by the following 

13.07 per Cent Earned on Stand- 
ard Gas & Electric Common 

The preliminary statement of the 
Standard Gas & Electric Company, Chi- 
cago, 111., for the year ended Dec. 31, 
last, showed a surplus after preferred 
dividends and reserves, available for 
the common stock, of $1,386,457 which 
is equivalent to 13.07 per cent on the 
outstanding common stock, as compared 
with $1,080,980, equivalent to 10.19 per 
cent on the common stock in 1921. 

The revenues and expenses of the 
company for the twelve months com- 
pared with those of 1921 are as follows : 


Gross income $4,759,702 

Expenses and taxes 107.586 

Net income J4,652, 1 26 

Interest charges 1,840,704 

Balance $2,811,422 

Preferred dividends 1,074,965 

Balance $1,736,457 

Amort, and otherreserves.... 350,000 

Surplus $1,386,457 






■ Total revenues $4,983 957 

OperatinK expenses, taxes and rentals paid 

city for the old subway 3,450,116 

Income available for all purposes $1,533 641 

Fixed charges; 

Interest on I. R. T. first mort- 
gage 5 per cent bonds $669,484 

Interest on Manhattan Railway 
bonds 150,685 

Interest on I. R. T. 7 per cent 
secured notes 183,866 1,004,038 

r r. .„ , $529,803 

merest on I. R. T. 6 per cent 

ten-year notes $8. 1 43 

Miscellaneous income deduc- 
tions 51,935 60,078 

learnings without deducting sinking fund 
on the I. R. T. Co. first mortgage 5 per 
cent bonds ($179,499 for January. 
1923) which does not become operative 
until .Iidy 1, 1926, but which must be 
deducted from earnings before arriving 
.It the sum available for dindends on 
Manhattanstock . $649 724 

Dividend on $60,000,000 Manhattan 
stock at 3 per cent annual rate 1 50,000 

Balance $319,724 

Referring to the reduction in the com- 
pany's fixed charges under the plan of 
readjustment, Mr. Hedley continued: 

With these reduced charges, despite the 
Increase in the cost of domg business grow- 
ing out of effort.* to render better service 

Seven Months Net Increase 

Although the total operating 
revenues of the Brooklyn (N. Y.) 
Rapid Transit Company for the month 
of January, 1923, were $247,880 above 
those of January, 1922, the total oper- 
ating expenses for the month in 1923 
were $287,269 above those of a year 
ago, resulting in a decrease of $39,389 
in net revenue from operation in Janu- 
ary, 1923, as compared with January, 
1922. The increase in operating ex- 
penses is due to the fact that included 
in the January, 1923, statement are 
charges aggregating approximately 
$150,000 for paving, track reconstruc- 
tion and damage expenses on surface 
lines accrued as far back as 1920. In 
addition to these items, the cost of 
operation of the power plant increased 
from $268,820, in January, 1922, t3 
$343,888, in January, 1^23, largely due 
to the increased cost of coal this year. 

For the seven months ended Jan. 31, 
1923, the net income realized was 
$1,567,591, compared with $1,498,016 for 
the seven months period ending Jan 
31, 1922. 

Broad Survey Planned 

Engineer Names Nine Points Essential 

for Answer in Los Angeles 


In connec;ion with the proposed 
valuations of the railway properties in 
Los Angeles, Calif., to which reference 
was made in the Electric Railway 
Journal for March 3, it is considered 
that to a great extent the value of 
the properties of the Pacific Electric 
Railway has been completed, as data 
are available. These data were col- 
lected for the Hollywood rate case, 
conducted during the past eighteen 
months. This valuation covered both 
interurban and local lines operated by 
the company in four different counties 
in southern California. The Pacific 
Electric, as a matter of fact, operates 
local lines in seven other cities outside 
of Los Angeles. 

As Richard Sachse, who will make 
the valuation, sees it, however, the 
valuation will have to be modified so as 

1. To cover only such property of thi- 
company as is allocated solely to tlu- com- 
pany's local system in the city of Los 

2. To conform to such considerations of 
valution as should be applied when the 
(luestion of sale and transfer of the property 
is at issue. 

In the case of the Los Angeles Rail- 
way Corporation's lines locally serving 
the city of Los Angeles, Mr. Sachse 
states the task will be somewhat more 
extensive. This is due to the fact that 
the railway's property has not bean 
valued since 1912. Since then the prop- 
erty has been greatly enlarged. Con- 
sequently, it will require a complete 
analysis of the property's financial 
status and its present earning power. 

Briefly, Mr. Sachse believes that in 
order to draw sound conclusions it will 
be necessary: 

1. To make a complete valuation of the 
Los Angeles Hallway's properties to de- 
termine purposes of transfer for sale. 

:;. To make an evaluation for purposes of 
transfer or sale of such sections of the 
Pacific Klectric Railwi^' properties neces- 
sary for unifying of the lines in the city 
nf Los Angeles. 

3. To determine the purchase price thi 
Los Angeles Railway shall pay to th. 
Pacific iSlectric Railway, provided it is 
recommended that the former company 
lake over the local system of the latter 
company in Los Angeles. 

4. To determine the purchase price that 
the Pacific Electric Railway should and 
could pay to the Los Angeles Railway, 
provided it is recommended that the for- 
mer company take over the entire local 
system of the latter company in the city 
ftf Los -Vngeles, 

5. To calculate the results from the 
standpoint of serv'ice, fares, operating sav- 
ings, revenues and expenses, provided the 
Pacific Electric Lines purchased the local 
lines of the Los Angeles Railway in Los 

6. To calculate the results from the same 
.standiK)int, provided the Los Angeles Rnil- 
way imrchased the local lines in the city 
of I^s Angeles as owned and now operated 
by the Pacific Electric Railway. 

T. To estimate the cost to the city of 
Los Angeles to operate the local lines of 
ej'cli of the respective companies separately 
or both lines, should the city elect to pur- 
chase either one or both of the prop.-'rties 
in tiuestion. 

8. To determine what the outcome or re- 
sults would be from the same standpoint 
as outlined in paragrai)hs 5 and «, provided 
the city of Los Angeles acquired and oper- 
ated either one or both of the lines 

9. To determine a solution of tlie ques- 
tion of how necessary extensions can bo 
taken care of under various possibilities, 
with respect to how it concerns railway 
i-xtensiiin.s and bus line extetisions. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


New York State Railways Has 
Good Year 

The New York State Railways, 
Rochester, N. Y., made an excellent 
showing in the year ended Dec. 31, 1922, 
compared with 1921. Although rail- 
way operating revenue for the year 
decreased more than $190,000 railway 
operating expenses including deprecia- 
tion decreased $824,359. Thus net rev- 
enue from railway operation increased 
$632,317. The surplus of $244,228 for 
the year was $97,426 less than in 1921, 
but in 1922 common stock dividends of 
$299,175 were paid whereas there was 
no payment of this kind in 1921. 

In his remarks to stockholders James 
F. Hamilton, president of the company, 
explains that the company has further 
paid up all the arrears on the preferred 
stock which, at the beginning of the 
year, amounted to 18i per cent, paid 
the current dividend of 5 per cent, and 
IJ per cent on the common stock. He 
says an agreement was entered into 
with the employees covering wages and 
working conditions for one year from 
June 1, 1922, which involved a slight 
reduction in wages. 

With respect to the application of 
the company for an increased fare in 
the city of Ut:ca, denied by the Public 
Service Commission, Mr. Hamilton ex- 
plains that this was reviewed and re- 

aggregating $925,000, liquidate all its 
bank loans and accounts payable and 
partly to reimburse its treasury for 
capital expenditures made from income. 


1922 1921 

Operating revenues $10,500,220 ,10,692,262 

Operating expenses (in- 
cluding depreciation).... 7.687,017 8,511,376 

Netrevcnue J2,8I3,20.1 $2,180,886 

Auxiliary operations 1,544 1,261 

Net operating revenue ... $2,814,747 $2,182,147 
Taxes assignable to rail- 
way operation.s 705,382 627,903 

Operating income $2,109,365 $1,554,244 

Non-operating income. .. . 97,421 388,653 

Gross income $2,206,786 $1,942,897 

Deductions from gross in- 
come 1,435,517 1,374,044 

Net income $771,269 $568,853 

Sinking fund appropria- 
tions 34,740 34,073 

Dividends preferred stock 

(5%) 193,125 1193,125 

$543,403 $341,654 

Dividends common stock 

(1J%) 299,175 

Surplus $244,228 $341,654 

t Paid in year 1922. 

ferred back to the commission by the 
courts for reconsideration, with the 
result that the fare was increased from 
6 cents to 7 cents. At the same time 
the Public Service Commission adjusted 
the fares in the city of Syracuse from 
8 cents cash and a 7i-cent ticket rate 
to a flat 7-cent fare, thus making a 7- 
cent cash fare the prevailing rate in all 
the cities in which the company 

In April, 1922, the company sold 
$3,000,000 of its first consolidated mort- 
gage 4i per cent bonds bearing 2 per 
cent per annum additional interest not 
secured by the mortgage. The pro- 
ceeds from the sale of these bonds per- 
mitted the company to refund two 
matured issues of underlying bonds 

January Net Income Amounts 

to $70,558 

For the month of January, 1923, the 
city of Detroit, Department of Street 
Railways, reported a total operating 
revenue of $1,712,228, against $1,650,- 
927 for December, 1922. Included in 
total revenue is revenue from trans- 
portation, amounting to $1,620,210 in 
January, an advance of $59,547 over 
the transportation revenue for Decem- 
ber. Operating expenses were $1,213,- 
884 for December, compared with 
$1,221,492 in January of this year. The 
net revenue from railway operations 
was $490,736 in January and $437,043 
in December. After necessary de- 
ductions the net income realized in 
January is reported as $70,5-58, against 
$47,271 in December, 1922. In De- 
cember 38,258,194 passengers were 
transported and in January 40,167,868. 

Toronto Award May Be Appealed 

Reports from Toronto indicate that 
the award of $11,188,500 as the price to 
be paid by the city for the prop- 
erties of the Toronto (Ont.) Railway 
may be appealed from by the city to 
the Privy Council in London. The pres- 
ident, Sir William Mackenzie, in a letter 
to stockholders states that if the award 
stands and no other contingencies arise 
the stock should be worth par or better. 
Expenses in connection with the arbi- 
tration proceedings have cut heavily 
into the balance of $1,030,000 expected 
from other properties over and above 
the award. The equivalent of about 
$33 a share for each $100 par value of 
stock must remain with the trustees of 
the $4,103 200 bonds of the Toronto 
Power Company until July 1, 1924, 
when they mature. The payment of 
these bonds has been guaranteed by the 
Hydro-Electric Commission, but under 
the sales agreement the deposit must 
remain with ^he trustee until the bonds 
are actually red"eemed. 

An abstract of the arbitration finding 
was published in the Electric Railway 
Journal for Feb. 10, page 247. 

Auction Sales in New York. — At the 

public auction rooms in New York there 
were no sales of electric railway securi- 
ties this week. 

Surplus $334,625.— The net income of 
the Fort Dodge, Des Moines & South- 
ern Railroad, Boone, la., for the cal- 
endar year ended Dec. 31, 1922, was 
$614,625 excluding depreciation. The 
balance or surplus was $334,625. 

Traction Company Offers Collateral 
Bonds. — A syndicate headed by Tucker, 
Anthony & Company is offering at 92i 
and interest to yield 7.06 per cent 
$2,305,00 Wilmington & Chester Trac- 
tion Company's 6 per cent gold collat- 
eral trust bonds. In the public adver- 
tisement of the issue the purpose of the 
offering is not stated. 

Net Income $99,682.— The Market 
Street Railway, San Francisco, Calif., 
for January, 1923, reports a railway 
operating revenue of $801 506 and oper- 
ating expenses of $591,396. The net 
income amounted to $99,682. 

Two New Directors for Bond & Share 
Company. — At the annual meeting of 
stockholders of the Electric Bond & 
Share Company, New York, N. Y., 
a; W. Burchard and C. E. Groesbeck 
were elected directors in place of Mars- 
den J. Perry, resigned, and William C. 
Lane, deceased. 

Large Advance in Tax Valuation in 
Ohio. — In the last twelve years there 
has been an advance of 446 per cent in 
tax valuations of public utility proper- 
ties in Ohio. In 1910 the tax valuation 
on street, suburban and interurban rail- 
ways amounted to $32,693,904 and in 
1922 the figure was $198,362,040, an 
increase of 506 per cent. 

January Net Income Lower. -The 
Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway, 
Boston, Mass., made a substantial gain 
in revenue in January as compared with 
the corresponding month a year ago, 
with a reduction in its fixed charges. 
The net income, however, was only $86,- 
830 for January, 1923, as against 
$104,479 in January, 1922. 

Net Income Increases. — The net in- 
come of the Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid 
Transit Company for January, 1923, 
was $250,100, against $234,400 in Jan- 
uary, 1922. The passenger revenue in- 
creased from $3,363,926 to $3,625,768 
in January of this year. The number 
of passengers carried increased from 
68,147,370 in January a year ago to 
74,857,899 in January of the current 

Bonds Offered. — Halsey, Stuart & 
Company, New York, N. Y., are offer- 
ing $6,770,000 of first lien and refund- 
ing convertible 6 per cent gold bonds, 
series A, of the Monongahela West 
Penn Public Service Company. The 
bonds are dated Feb. 1, 1923, and arc 
due Feb. 1, 1928. The price is $97.89 
and interest to yield 6.50 per cent. The 
proceeds from this issue of bonds are 
to be used to retire $6,258,500 of 7 per 
cent bonds due July 1, 1923. 

American Public Utilities Plan Ap- 
proved. — The stockholders of the Amer- 
ican Public Utilities Company, Grand 
Rapids, Mich., have approved the plan 
for the reclassification of the capital 
stock. As announced previously in the 
Electric Railway Journal the plan 
provides for the retirement of the pres- 
ent $4,268,200 of cumulative preferred 
stock and issuance of two other classe.s 
aggregating 110 per cent of the present 
preferred outstanding so as to fund 
the accumulated dividends and the 
scrip issued in lieu of dividends 
amounting to $1,406,758, which amount 
will constitute the only present increase 
in the capitalization of the company. 
Of the two classes to be issued under 
the plan, one will be a 7 per cent prior 
preference on which dividends will begin 
immediately and the other will be at 
the step rate of 4, 5, 6 and 7 per cent 
during the next four years. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

Traffic and Transportation J 

Pass Successful in 
Terre Haute 

More Revenue and More Rides with 
Fewer Car-Miles Offset Disad- 
vantage of Coal Strike 

Although the Terre Haute lines of the 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Company sell the unlimited 
ride weekly pass at the highest multi- 
plier known, namely, the cost of twenty 
fares, the company has been most suc- 
cessful in demonstrating that the high 
riding index obtained through short 
headway operation, safety cars and 5- 
cent fares can be stimulated still 
further. Figures compiled by E. M. 
Walker, general manager Terre Haute 
Division, show that for the first eight 
months of the pass — May 1 to Dec. 31, 
1922, inclusive — the riding increased 7 
per cent and the revenue 0.4 per cent. 
This occurred in spite of the fact that 
the great coal strike begun on April 1, 
1922, made itself felt in Terre Haute 
business about the time that the pass 
was started and continued a depressing 
factor until September. 

What is still more remarkable is that 
the revenue for all of 1922, including 
the five months before the pass, actually 
was 1.21 per cent below the year 1921 
and the traffic correspondingly less, in- 
asmuch as the fares in the pre-pass 
months of each year were the same. 
An accompanying table shows that for 
the first eight months of the pass there 
was an increase in revenue from $435,- 
728 in 1921 to $437,349 in the same 
months of 1922. The number of custo- 
mers rose from 10,479,417 to 11,295,320. 
Another table shows that much bet- 
ter results are being obtained in the 
opening of 1923 as compared with the 
first seven weeks of 1922. The increase 
in revenue was from $88,136 to $94,- 
559, or 6.8 per cent, while passenger 
traffic grew from 2,110,815 to 2,378,957, 
or 11 per cent. Expressed in another 
way, the number of rides per inhabitant 
per annum increased from 235.8 to 265.9. 
This means that more than thirty rides 
per inhabitant were added as compared 
with the passless period of 1922. 

During the first eight months of the 
pass the mileage was slightly higher 
(2,053,211, against 2,016,711) than the 
same period of 1921, but the record for 
the first eight weeks of 1923 is lower 
than the first eight weeks of 1922, 
namely, 488,530 car-miles against 497,- 
203 car-miles. Revenue increased 7 per 
cent, while car-miles dropped 1.7 per 

The net rides per pass, after allow- 
ances made for transfers, ranges be- 
tween four and one-quarter and four 
and one-half a day. Therefore, the 
pass rider in Terre Haute actually gets 
a through ride for something like 3i 
cents — ^the lowest electric railway fare 
in America. 

The pass, of course, is bought almost 
entirely by residents with a definite 
riding need. For this reason, no passes 
are on sale on the cars after Wednesday 
of the week of use. Recently, however, 
a traveling man called at the city office 
on a Saturday morning and insisted 
that he be permitted to buy a pass. He 



Started May I, 1922 

First S«ven Weeks — 1922 and 1923 

1922 1923 Inc. 

Revenue, city lines... $88,136 $94,559 6.8 

Passrides 332,356 ... 

Cash fares 1,760,668 1,689,439 . . 

Transfers 350,147 357,162 ... 

Total passengers... 2.110,815 2,378.957 II 

Passes sold None 10,030 ... 

Average per week. .. . None 1,433 

Riding index per year 235.8 265.9 

1921 AND 1922 

1921 1922 Cent 

Revenue, city lines... $435,728 $437,349 0.4 

Passrides 1,659,840 ... 

Cashfares 8,647.799 7,808,595 ... 

Transfers 1,831,618 1,826,885 

Total pa.ssengers.. 10,479,417 11,295,320 7.2 

Passes sold None 46.920 

Average per week.... . None 1,340 ... 

Riding index per year 238.6 254.7 

Total revenue of 1922 was 1.21 per cent less than 

said he felt sure he would get ample 
value for his money even though he 
had but Saturday and Sunday in which 
to make use of his purchase. This in- 
dicates that some people must purchase 
the pass purely as a matter of con- 

Jitneys Will Replace Discontinued 
Railway Line 

A jitney service has been organized 
to take the place of the Concord, May- 
nard & Hudson Street I^ilway, which 
went into the hands of receivers about 
a year ago and then was ordered dis- 
continued by the court because the 
road could not be made to pay. 

The Concord Board of Selectmen has 
adopted a set of jitney rules, and has 
granted a jitney license to John F. 
Lovell, Wobum, Mass., who already is 
running a line of buses between Wobum 
and Reading, where the Eastern Massa- 
chusetts Street Railway tore up its 
tracks several years ago for lack of 
sufficient income from the service to 
pay costs. 

It has been arranged for Mr. Lovell 
to start his jitney service at once in 
Concord, with three buses, to run on 
regular schedules and cover the same 
routes that the Concord, Maynard & 
Hudson Street Railway covered, and a 
few side streets in addition. The fares 
for adults will be 10 cents between 
Concord and Concord Junction, and 
there will be 5-cent routes, and 5-cent 
fares for school pupils. 

Inquiry Resolution Lost 

Senator McKellar Fails in the Effort to 

Appoint Committee for District — 

Material Sought Now Available 

The resolution of Senator McKellar of 
Tennessee to create a special Senate 
committee, to investigate various ques- 
tions affecting the rate of fare in the 
District of Columbia, which was re- 
garded as a national affair, inasmuch 
as it would have created a precedent, 
failed of adoption in the closing hours 
of the Sixty-seventh Congress when 
objection to its consideration was en- 
tered by Senator McKinley of Illinois. 

When objection was entered. Senator 
McKellar asked that the objection be 
withdrawn. He said: 

The street car compaines have advertised 
here in the city of Wasliington in the news- 
pape!"s that they courted an investigation, 
and I am sure they would not go bacic on 
tlieir published statement. I hope the 
Senator will not object to the resolution. 

Senator McKinley, however, renewed 

his objection. He said: 

The reading of the resolution at the desk 
causes me to object. If the Senator will 
talte the trouble to write to the various 
public utility commissions he can get all 
the information the resolution calls for. 
The resolution provides for traveling all 
over the United States, bringing witnesses 
from all over the country to Washington, 
securing papers and general information 
which the Senator or any one interested 
can obtain from any of the public utility 
commissions in the United States. 

As this occurred within a few hours 
of the end of the Congress, there was 
no further opportunity to renew the 
subject on the floor. 

Data Sought All Available Now 

The resolution was introduced by 
Senator McKellar as the climax of an 
effort he had been making for some 
weeks to bring about a restoration of 
5-cent fares on the railways of Wash- 
ington. The Senator from Tennessee, 
where the State Public Utilities Com- 
mission has been under fire in a recent 
political campaign in which Senator 
McKellar participated, has engaged in 
a newspaper controversy with members 
of the District of Columbia Public Util- 
ities Commission following assertions by 
him on the floor of the Senate that the 
commission had exceeded its authority 
in granting an increase in fares to 8 
cents cash and six tokens for 40 cents. 
Senator McKellar had charged that 
higher fares violated the franchise con- 
tracts and that they are unnecessary 
now, whatever may have been the case 
during the war. He had made several 
efforts to attach riders to various Dis- 
trict of Columbia, bills calling for a 
restoration of the 5-cent fare, with six 
tickets for 25 cents, before he intro- 
duced his resolution. 

The resolution would have authorized 
a special committee to investigate the 
whole question of franchise rights of 
the electric railways in the District of 
Columbia, stock issues of the companies 
and their predecessors, the powers of 
the Public Utilities Commission, sim- 
ilar powers of other commissions and 
a wide range of related subjects, with 
directions that the committee report 
its conclusions regarding fares to the 
next Congress. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Controversy Settled — Railway 
Will Supply Service 

In the controversy between the Bos- 
ton (Mass.) Elevated Railway and the 
city government of Maiden, previously 
reported in the Electric Railway 
Journal, Mayor Kimball of Maiden 
yielded to the elevated and refused to 
sign an order from the City Council 
authorizing jitney competition with the 

As a result the competing jitney 
service will be withdrawn from Salem 
Street, where it has been operating, 
and the elevated will not only continue 
its car service there but will introduce 
bus service at various points as feed- 
ers. Mayor Kimball sent the following 
letter to the trustees of the railway 
in reply to the letter which the trustees 
had sent to him : 

Believing the settlement of the Jitney 
question to be a matter of vital importanci' 
to a large section of the city, I have taken 
time "to consider it carefully. 

While the section east of Maiden Square 
is vitally affected this condition also affects 
the entire city because loss of elevated 
service here means a curtailment of 
service in other parts of the community, 
and, after all, no one can deny that we 
must, for the present at least, depend upon 
the Boston Elevated Railway for electric 
car transportation to and from Boston — 
this section in common with the rest of the 

This service is necessary, whereas a com- 
peting jitney simply to and from Maiden 
Square is not necessary. 

With the present car service improved, 
as it will be, and an elevated Jitney run- 
ning to Linden, which will be put on as 
soon as cars can be obtained, I believe this 
part of the city will have adequate service. 
' Moreover, it must be remembered that 
under the present public management of 
the elevated, every taxpayer has a finan- 
cial interest in it and should be concerned 
In its successful operation. 

To remove this electric car service from 
the eastern section of the city would impose 
a severe hardship upon a large number of 
people, and, unfortunately, upon those least 
able to bear it ; beyond this the loss in 
property value must be considered. 

Therefore, with a full knowledge of all 
the facts and considering carefully the 
appeals of those most vitally affected, I 
cannot conscientiously see my way clear to 
sign a competing Jitney license and shall 
not do so. 

In reaching this conclusion I wish it 
distinctly understood that there has been 
no attempt made to dictate to me by any 
one and such charges are only malicious 
propaganda. I have sought only to reach 
a decision which I believed would be best 
not only for that section particularly con- 
cerned but also for the entire city. 

realty experts at $1,936,000. On the 
rights-of-way outside the city, but 
near by, the experts placed a valuation 
of $1,111,000. 

Among those who attended the hear- 
ing were C. J. Joyce, chief counsel for 
the Mitten interests in Philadelphia; 
Thomas Penney of Penney, Killeen & 
Ney, attorneys for the International 
and former president of the company; 
Herbert G. Tulley, president, and 
others. The case has been pending be- 
fore the commission since 1918. 

Fare Hearings Begun 

The Public Service Commission has 
started to hold a series of hearings in 
Buffalo on the complaint of the munic- 
ipal authorities against the rate of fare 
now charged on the local lines' of the 
International Railway. The municipal 
authorities hope for the return of the 
5-cent fare. Seven cents or four tokens 
for 25 cents is now charged by the com- 
pany. At the initial hearing before the 
commission experts on behalf of the In- 
ternational presented evidence tending 
to prove that the valuation of the com- 
pany is $96,539,165. W. K. Meyers, 
valuation manager of Mitten Manage- 
ment, Inc., and the Philadelphia (Pa.) 
Rapid Transit Company, identified the 
bound volumes, consisting of maps, cost 
sheets, etc., in order to substantiate 
the valuation figures. Land owned by 
the railway company in Buffalo, ex- 
clusive of buildings, was valued by 

500 Jitneys Operate in Detroit 

Under Protection of 


Jitneys are operating on the main 
thoroughfares of the city of Detroit 
under their 1922 licenses in spite of the 
ordinance passed by the City Council 
and approved by former Mayor James 
Couzens. The intention of this measure 
was to banish the jitneys, Oct. 1 last, 
from the streets on which there are car 
lines. The service now handled by the 
jitneys over Woodward Avenue, Jeffer- 
son Avenue, Grand River Avenue, and 
Fort Street is a result of an order is- 
sued by Judge Moynihan on Sept. 30, 
in the form of a temporary injunction 
restraining the Mayor, police commis- 
sioner and the sheriff from enforcing 
the ordinance. 

The petition for the order was taken 
to Judge Moynihan by officers of the 
Red Star Motor Driver's Association 
and the Blue Ribbon Auto Driver's As- 
sociation. The contention was that 
the ordinance was "unreasonable and 
arbitrary" and unconstitutional in that 
it extended immunities and privileges 
to one portion of a certain class and 
denied such immunities and privileges 
to others. It was sought to substanti- 
ate this statement -with the assertion 
that buses owned by the Detroit Motor 
Bus Company were "allowed to oper- 
ate on the several streets and avenues 
of the city of Detroit giving the same 
service and receiving the same fare 
as is prohibited the jitneuers." At the 
time jitney service was to have been 
stopped there were approximately 510 
in operation. This number has been 
somewhat decreased so that there are 
now between 400 and 500 jitneys in 

A petition was filed in the Circuit 
Court by Corporation Counsel Clar- 
ence E. Wilcox in an effort to dissolve 
the injunction against the city of De- 
troit which restrained the officials from 
enforcing the new ordinance. The hear- 
ing on the motion was postponed, both 
sides being agreeable at the time to 
having the hearing adjourned. 

Action on a proposed jitney and bus 
ordinance for the city of Highland 
Park, where the Ford plant is located, 
was postponed following a conference 
of the City Council with representatives 
of the transportation men. A loading 
station plan, designed to eliminate all 
objectional features of the bus and jit- 
ney traffic, was put into effect. TVo 
loading stations were established in 
front of the Ford plant. 

Mayor Wants Buffalo Motorized 

Gradual replacement of trolley cars 
by motor buses by the International 
Railway in Buffalo is proposed by 
Mayor Frank X. Schwab. The problem 
already has been discussed by the Mayor 
with Herbert G. Tulley, president of the 
International, and other railway offi- 
cials. Mayor Schwab's plan is to have 
the traction company purchase two 
motor buses as each trolley car becomes 
worn out. It was declared that 800 
buses would provide adequate service 
for the city. Rails and wires would be 
removed as the service gradually be- 
comes motorized, which Mayor Schwab 
thinks would be within three years. 

Buffalo's Mayor has gone to the ex- 
tent of obtaining tentative figures on 
the cost of the plan. Motor buses have 
been offered to the city at $6,000 each 
and the Mayor believes they could be 
purchased as low as $5,000 if bought in 
large lots. The Mayor believes that 
$8,000,000 would adequately motorize 
the railway company's lines in Buffalo. 
Mayor Schwab says that the speed of 
motor buses is from 25 to 50 per cent 
greater than electric cars. 

All of the Buffalo newspapers used 
Mayor Schwab's plan to motorize the 
traction service in Buffalo as the basis 
of extended editorial comment. Under 
the caption of "Is the Trolley Extinct?" 
the Express said in part: 

Are the present transportation troubles 
a struggle between electric power and gaso- 
line, like the old effort of the trolley to dis- 
place the horse car? The Mayor evidently 
thinks that is the case and Is advising the 
company itself to be the medium for the 
transformation. But a lot of ideas look 
good on paper which do not work out well 
in practice. Buffalonians will need a few- 
years to think on the subject and some 
demonstrations before they will conclude 
the trolley car is a back number. 

"Scrapping the Trolley" is the cap- 
tion of the editorial appearing in the 
Commercial. It said, in part: 

While there is much to be said for the 
motor bus as an instrument for supplement 
service, street car corporations will be slow 
to scrap the trolley. In the first place, the 
street car as now operated is the cheapest 
unit that has yet been devised for this 
sort of transportation. The motor bus may 
be operated more speedily, but when the 
Mayor talks about a 5-cent fare in a gaso- 
line motor car he Is talking what he would 
like to see done, not about what has yet 
been accomplished. 

"It might be feasible for the Interna- 
tional to run a line of buses on the main 
arteries of traffic during rush hours to re- 
lieve the trolley car congestion for those 
who do not object to paying a 10-cent fare 
and are willing to run the risks Incurred 
and put up with certain inevitable incon- 
veniences. But it will be a long time 
before the trolley is thrown upon the Junk 
pile where the old horse car now lies." 

Washington Company Seeks to 
Justify Use of One-Man Cars 

The Public Utilities Commission of 
the District of Columbia will send its 
traffic engineer, R. G. Klotz, on an 
inspection tour of other cities where 
one-man cars are in operation before 
deciding the fate of that type of 
conveyance in Washington. This was 
intimated by Col. Keller, chairman of 
the commission, on Feb. 21, after 
listening all day to testimony for and 
against the one-man car. 

Practically the entire afternoon ses- 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

sion was devoted to the presentation of 
evidence by the Washington Railway & 
Electric Company to refute arguments 
advanced by citizens' associations that 
one-man cars are unsafe, uncomfort- 
able and slow in getting over the rails. 
John H. Hanna, vice-president of 
the Capital Traction Company, made 
a strong witness for the Washington 
Railway & Electric Company. Al- 
though his company does not operate 
one-man cars, Mr. Hanna said: 

If we were In the market for new equip- 
ment we probably would buy that type of 
car. I believe there are some of our lines 
where one-man cars could be operated 

William F. Ham, president of the 
Washington Railway & Electric, pre- 
sented voluminous testimony to show 
that one-man cars he is operating are 
the most modern cars of that type in 
the country, and that they are safe. He 
testified that the company will have 
seventy one-man cars in service this 
year and should save approximately 
$150,000 by their use. In answer to 
questions from William McK. Clayton 
of the Federation of Citizens' Associa- 
tion Mr. Ham testified that this sav- 
ing would not make possible an im- 
mediate reduction in fare. 

The company called to the stand 
Henry G. Bradlee of the Stone & 
Webster properties and C. E. Morgan, 
vice-president of the Brooklyn (N. Y.) 
surface lines, to testify to the success- 
ful operation of one-man cars outside 
of Washington. 

bus lines, with the same transfer priv- 
ileges to and from the buses as to 
street cars. A passenger may now 
board a bus at one end of the town, 
transfer to a street car line, transfer 
to another car line downtown and to 
a bus line at some other point in the 
city, all for the payment of 6i cents. 
D. W. Henderson, superintendent of 
the railway, announces that if an in- 
crease in traffic justifies, railway serv- 
ice can be increased at least 20 per cent 
at once. Fifty additional cars now un- 
dergoing slight repairs can be placed 
in operation on short notice. 

Five-Cent Fare in Seattle — First 
Day Shows Increased Traffic 

The Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Rail- 
way on March 1 returned to the 5-cent 
fare. The first day's receipts showed 
a slight increase in traflSc on most of 
the lines in the city. This was particu- 
larly true on short hauls. The 5-cent 
fare is the "straight" fare; transfer 
tokens are sold at 6i cents or four for 
25 cents. These transfers are good for 
use from one car line to another, and 
in addition a second transfer may be 
obtained on the 6J-cent fare, if a double 
transfer is necessary. 

The fare for school children remains 
at 3 cents cash or 2i cents with tokens. 
Children under fifteen years of age, 
upon presentation of certificates signed 
by their Sunday school superintendent, 
may ride between the hours of 7 a.m. 
and 2 p.m. on Sundays at the regular 
school fare. Transfers are issued upon 
the payment of 5-cent fare to and from 
the feeder lines in the city. However, 
when issuing the transfer, conductor 
detaches a coupon, indicating that no 
further transfer privilege is to be 

On the Lake Burien line outside the 
city limits two tokens will be used, 
one white metal, for the regular fare, 
and the other bronze metal if a trans- 
fer is desired. The white token is for 
the ride to the city limits, the bronze 
for the city ride and transfer. 

With the passage of an emergency 
ordinance, the City Council provided for 
a 5-cent fare on the municipally owned 

Fare Ordinance Defeated — No 
Restoration of Service in Sight 

At a special election in East Liver- 
pool, Ohio, on Feb. 27, a councilmanic 
ordinance granting the Steubenville, 
East Liverpool & Beaver Valley Trac- 
tion Company a fare increase in Liver- 
pool was defeated, lagging 250 votes 
behind. The defeat of the measure 
practically means the end of overtures 
for restoration of street car service, 
suspended since May 1. 

When the final count was made after 
the election the vote for the ordinance 
was 2,277, and 2,527 votes were cast 
against its passage. It carried by a 
narrow margin in the downtown wards, 
but the East End, the stronghold of the 
street car men, dealt the measure its 
death blow. A bitter fight had been 
waged previous to the special refer- 
endum by those for and against its 
passage. Despite the apparent inter- 
est in the controversy, the vote polled 
was lighter than that when the city 
defeated an ordinance containing the 
public utilities clause. 

The ordinance voted on a proposed 
7-cent city fare, a 10-cent intercity 
fare and a 1-cent transfer. It was a 
councilmanic ordinance, the passage of 
which, it was thought, would bring an 
end to the traction tie-up, which on 
election day entered its 103d day. 

With the defeat of the ordinance the 
end of the tie-up seems more remote 
than ever. The failure of the measure 
nullifies the final step taken by the 
City Council to restore traction service, 
and since the company and its em- 
ployees have failed to reach a pre-elec- 
tion agreement, all hope of an early 
settlement has dwindled. 

When they learned the result of the 
referendum the traction officials de- 

ared that it appeared as though the 
people of East Liverpool did not want 
street cars. It was declared that the 
people would have their wish. 

The traction company officials reiter- 
ated their statements that no attempts 
would be made to operate cars, stating 
that not a single move would be made 
to give the city car service until it 
manifested a desire for it. 

After the measure was defeated there 
was a suggestion that the ordinance 
might be passed by the Council with an 
emergency clause, but the general be- 
lief is that that will not be the case 
and that the ordinance will receive no 
further consideration. 

Wants to Try Pass Plan.— The Walla 
Walla (Wash.) Valley Traction Com- 
pany has applied to the Department of 
Public Works for permission to experi- 
ment for thirty days with the $1 weekly 
pass system on its line. The company 
now charges a 10-cent cash fare and 
asks the privilege of trying the pass 
system with authority to return to cash 
fare if results are not satisfactory. 

Have Extended Bus Service. — Motor 
bus operation between DeKalb and 
Geneva, 111., has now been extended to 
Aurora to cover the entire territory of 
the Chicago, Aurora & DeKalb Rail- 
road which recently, discontinued serv- 
ice. J. E. Joseph, who purchased the 
traction line, was allowed ninety days 
by the court to determine whether to 
junk the line or resume operation. 

Syracuse Baiting Its Railway Again. 
— The announcement of a surplus of 
$244,228 for the New York State Rail- 
ways for 1922 after the payment of 
charges, taxes and dividends was 
the signal for a new attack for a lower 
fare by the city authorities. Corpora- 
tion Counsel Frank J. Cregg, who has 
been leading the fight for a 5-cent fare, 
said that the report showed more than 
a "good return." He is also demanding 
restoration of two-man cars. Adrian 
M. Landman, adviser to the city, will 
investigate the company affairs in 
connection with the expiration of 7-cent 
fare period on April 1. 

Returns to Higher Fare. — Fare in 
Waterloo, Iowa, was raised from 7 
cents to the old charge of 10 cents in 
March, C. D. Cass, president of the 
Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern 
Railway, notified the City Council. In 
December last year the company agreed 
upon the recommendation of the Coun- 
cil to lower the fare to 7 cents for a 
two months test period to determine 
whether or not such a move would 
increase the revenue of the company 
by inducing a larger number of people 
to ride. Monthly and daily reports of 
the number of passengers carried and 
the gross revenue submitted to the 
Council disclosed the fact that the num- 
ber of passengers did increase slightly 
but that the volume of increased riding 
was not sufficient to change the finan- 
cial result. 

Hearing on Railways' Rights to Run 
Buses. — A hearing was held recently on 
the bill introduced in the New Jersey 
Legislature granting permission to elec- 
tric railways to operate buses. The 
bill was drawn by Assemblyman David 
F. Barkman at the request of Otto G. 
Schultz, manager of the Morris County 
Traction Company, Dover. Mr. Schultz, 
in discussing the bill, said that a trac- 
tion company may wish to use the bus 
in supplementary service in territory 
where trolley lines could not profitably 
be built, and that these extensions 
should be in the hands of responsible 
people. So far as his company was 
concerned it was in the transportation 
business and wished to give the public 
the best possible service. As Mr. 
Schultz saw it the bill was in the in- 
terest of the public. He appealed to the 
members to pass the measure. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Personal Items 

Chris Dahl, Master 

Muskegon Man Has Served Local Rail- 
way There Thirty-five Years— Sons 

Also with Company 
Chris Dahl, aged seventy-three, is 
probably the oldest master mechanic, 
both in point of service and years, em- 
ployed by an electric railway in the 
United States. Mr. Dahl does not be- 
lieve in changing Jobs. He started to 
■work for the Muskegon Traction & 
Lighting Company, Muskegon, Mich., in 
1888, when horse cars were in use. He 
is still at work for the company. Not 
only has Mr. Dahl held the job for 
thirty-five years, but he lives in the 

tained its electric line. They were still 
using horse cars in Detroit and most 
other cities. 

"You know, we didn't know much 
about electricity in those days. There 
were no books on the subject or instruc- 
tion such as the present worker has. 
You had to experiment. It was the 
only way to learn. Often in those days 
something happened and it took hours 
to learn the trouble. 

"People didn't complain in the old 
days as much as they do at present, it 
seems. They accepted things with bet- 
ter grace. All the tools I had in the 
shop at first were a grindstone and a 
hand drill. Most of the work was sent 
out to shops." 

Mr. Dahl has seen twelve superin- 
tendents go and come during his time 
and he recalled that as a little girl the 
mother of E. H. Hammer, present secre- 
tary and treasurer of the company, was 
present at his wedding. Mr. Dahl has 
been quick to appreciate new ma- 
chinery, and he is always pleased when 
the latest tools are purchased by the 
company for use by him on his job. 

The aged mechanic supervises all the 
work at the local shop and he takes 
great pride in the ability of his two 
sons, Alfred and Oscar, who are his 

"Mighty good boys, but they still 
come to me when they get stuck on a 
job," said Mr. Dahl with a smile. 

R. W. WiUiams District 

Appointed by Westinghouse Air Brake 
Company to Succeed the Late 
Mr. Adreon in Southwest 
R. W. Williams has been appointed 
to the office of Southwestern district 
manager for both the Westinghouse Air 
Brake Company and the Westinghouse 
Traction Brake Company, with head- 
quarters in St. Louis. This is the posi- 
tion recently made vacant by the sudden 
death of R. E. Adreon, who, in addition 
to his duties as president of the Ameri- 
can Brake Company, had held the title 
of acting Southwestern manager since 
C. P. Cass left the St. Louis office of 
the Air Brake Company several years 
ago to become president of the West- 
inghouse Pacific Coast Brake Company, 
at Emeryville, Calif. 

Coincident with the announcement of 
Mr. Williams' promotion in the Air 

C'liri» imiii 

house he constructed for himself in 1871 
across from the carhouse. 

"I don't believe in changing jobs if 
you are satisfied," said Mr. Dahl as he 
knocked off work at the shops the other 
day. "I have always remained here, 
for I like my work." 

In view of the fact that the local Ime 
at Muskegon was the first in Michigan 
to adopt electricity and one of the first 
in the United States to use that form of 
propulsion, Mr. Dahl comes by his rec- 
ord without much chance for dispute. 

"In 1888," said Mr. Dahl, "I started 
keeping the old horse cars in shape. In 
1891 the horse cars gave way to the 
queer machine propelled by electricity. 
State officials were here that day and 
great crowds gathered to see the 
strange car. Just after the car started 
it come to a stop. No one could learn 
the cause. There were shouts to bring 
out the horses and much good natured 
joking. Finally, somebody placed the 
trolley on the wire and the car was 
started again, amid applause. 

"People lined the streets for days in 
order to ride on the cars. Joy riding 
■was a popular sport in those days just 
as it is now, only the vehicle then was a 
■different one from that used now. I re- 
member the next year Battle Creek ob- 

Mr. Ready Succeeds Mr. Sachse 
on California Commission 

Lester S. Ready has been made chief 
engineer of the California State Rail- 
road Commission. He succeeds Richard 
Sachse, resigned, who will take up pri- 
vate practice in Los Angeles and handle 
the appraisal of the local lines of the 
Los Angeles Railway and the Pacific 
Electric Railway in Los Angeles with a 
view of the unification of the properties 
of these two systems so far as local 
service in Los Angeles is concerned. 
Mr. Ready is thirty-four years of age. 
He has served for ten years as an 
assistant engineer on the commission, 
in which capacity he has devoted a 
large amount of time to the gas and 
electrical division of the commission's 
engineering department. In October, 
1919, Mr. Ready was promoted from as- 
sistant engineer to assistant chief engi- 
neer. He was graduated from the 
University of California in 1912. He is 
a native of California. 

K. W. WlUlumi. 

O R. Hill, formerly master mechanic 
of the Rockford & Interurban Railway, 
Rockford, 111., has now the title of 
superintendent of equipment. 

W. A. Underwood has succeeded 0. W. 
Rudin as electrical and signal engineer 
of the Chicago, Lake Shore & South 
Bend Railway, Michigan City, Ind. 

Brake Company, the American Brake 
Company announced his election as vice- 
president of that organization. 

Mr. Williams has been connected with 
the Westinghouse Air Brake Company 
since April 1, 1902, when he went to 
Wilmerding to accept the position of 
secretary to John F. Miller, now vice- 
chairman of the board of directors. 

Mr. Williams was born in Renovo, Pa., 
in 1878. His boyhood was spent in 
Williamsport, Pa., where he attended 
public school. He was graduated from 
high school with the class of 1897 and 
immediately entered the employ of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, serving in the 
freight and maintenance-of-way depart- 
ments at Williamsport until joining the 
Air Brake Company. 

After remaining in the general offices 
of the Air Brake Company at Wil- 
merding for seven years, he was trans- 
ferred to the Southeastern district office 
in Pittsburgh. In 1910 he went to the 
Cincinnati office and two years later 
was appointed representative and as- 
signed to the Atlanta office. He re- 
turned to the Pittsburgh office in Sep- 
tember, 1920, where he has served since. 
Mr. Williams is widely known in rail- 
way and traction circles and is actively 
identified with a number of clubs and 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

associations, among which are included 
the American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation, the Central Electric Railway 
Association, the Air Brake Association, 
Railway Club of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh 
Athletic Association and the Edgewood 
Country Club. 

Change in Dubuque 

Albert Emanuel Heads Dubuque Elec- 
tric Company, with O. H. 
Simonds Vice-President 

At a recent meeting of the board of 
directors of the Dubuque (Iowa) Elec- 
tric Company, I. C. Elston, Jr., presi- 
dent of the company for the last seven 
years, withdrew from any further active 
connection with the operation of the 
local utility. 

The action is a further manifestation 
of Mr. Elston's desire to relieve himself 
of the cares and responsibilities which 
for many years have rested upon him. 
More than a year ago he withdrew 
from the presidency of the investment 
banking house of Elston, Allyn & Com- 
pany. About the same time he dis- 
posed of his utility property at St. 
Charles, and more recently turned over 
the management of the electric light 
and street railway company at Vicks- 
burg, Miss., to operators and owners of 
several other utitlities in the South. 

Mr. Elston has been succeeded as 
president of the Dubuque company by 
Albert Emanuel, New York, chief ex- 
ecutive of utility companies elsewhere 
in the West and the purchaser of a 
controlling interest in the Dubuque Com- 
pany as noted elsewhere in this issue. 

0. H. Simonds, general manager of 

the company at Dubuque for the last 

five years, will continue in that position, 

and in addition becomes vice-president 

of the local company and a member of 

its board of directors. This means 

that much company business formerly 

handled at Chicago will hereafter be 

done in Dubuque. Mr. Simonds said: 

The change in presidency of the company 
will not affect the policy of the present 
management or the local personnel of the 
company. As heretofore, we always will 
have the best Interests of the city at heart. 
In fact, there is a community of interest 
between any city and its utility companies, 
for one cannot prosper without the other. 
We desire sympathetic! co-operation and 
assistance to help us to serve the people of 
Dubuque adequately and satisfactorily and 
to aid in the progress of our city. 

James Stewart has succeeded J. H. 
McCahan as roadmaster of the Topeka 
(Kan.) Railway. 

F. W. Broerman has replaced John 
Moore as roadmaster of the Chicago, 
Ottawa & Peoria Railway, Ottawa, Til. 

Robert W. Vote has replaced George 
W. Wilson as auditor of the Evansville 
& Ohio Valley Railway, Evansville, Ind., 
and of the Owensboro City Railroad, 
controlled by the former property. 

B. B. Kraus has succeeded D. 
Zerhusen as purchasing agent of the 
Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis 
Electric Railroad, Annapolis, Md. H. T. 
Connolly, formerly superintendent of 
power, is now electrical engineer. 

Mr. Masengill Appointed 

W. T. Masengill was made superin- 
tendent and general freight and pas- 
senger agent of the Pacific Coast Rail- 
way, San Luis Obispo, Calif., on Feb. 1. 
This promotion came after only seven 
months' service with the company as 
Mr. Masengill entered its employ in 
July, 1922, as assistant superintendent. 
In his new capacity he succeeds J. M. 

Mr. Masengill's association with rail- 
way work began in 1897, when he en- 
tered the employ of the Southern Pacific 
Company on its coast division as agent- 
telegrapher. In 1901 he was promoted 
to train dispatcher at the office in San 
Francisco. He served also as chief dis- 
patcher in San Francisco, Tucson, Ariz , 
Guaymas, Mexico, and San Luis Obispo, 
Calif., until July of last year, when he 

W. T. HasenslU 

joined the forces of the Pacific Coast 
Railway. The latter property, which 
operates a little more than 100 miles 
of track, connects Guadalupe and Santa 

Railway Man of Long Experience 
Represents Manufacturer 

George A. Saylor, has recently been 
appointed Western sales manager of 
the electrical division of the Johns- 
Pratt Company, Hartford. Mr. Saylor 
accepted his first important position in 
the electric railway industry in 1900, 
when he became general superintendent 
of the Indianapolis, Columbus & South- 
ern Traction Company, in which capac- 
ity he served for six years. At that 
time Mr. Saylor enjoyed the distinction 
of being the youngest traction superin- 
tendent in the United States. 

In 1906, when Johns-Manville, Inc., 
sought sales representation in the West, 
Mr. Saylor was selected to serve in its 
electrical department, rising to the posi- 
tion of manager of the electrical, auto- 
motive equipment and specialties de- 
partments of that company. He devoted 
much time and effort during these years 
to advancement of the industry in gen- 
eral, and was particularly active in the 
Sons of Jove, serving as statesman and 
Jupiter of the Wisconsin order of that 
organization. During these years he 

made a comprehensive study of pro- 
tective devices, particularly fuses, 
specializing in the Noark lines, which 
were at that time sold through Johns- 
Manville, Inc. 

It was logical of Mr. Saylor to accept 
the position of Western sales manager 
of the Johns-Pratt Company, for al- 
though this' meant a change in the name 
of his principals, he continues to handle 
the same products, as the Johns-Pratt 
Company manufactured the Noark line 
of electrical protective devices and 
molded insulation from their inception 
as marketable products. 

J. M. Yount, master mechanic of the 
Market Street Railway, San Francisco, 
Calif., has been nominated for election 
to the office of first vice-president of 
the Pacific Railway Club. 

T. G. Hamilton, formerly general 
superintendent and purchasing agent 
of the Gary (Ind.) Street Railway, is 
now performing the duties of vice- 
president, superintendent and purchas- 
ing agent. J. P. Gannon is master me- 

Frank D. Conley, formerly superin- 
tendent and chief engineer of the De- 
Kalb, Sycamore & Interurban Traction 
Company, is now known as division 
manager. Charles Glossof is chief en- 
gineer and Elmer Reese is electrical 


William Penn White 

William Penn White, identified for 
the last eleven years with the railway 
department of the General Electric 
Company at its New York office, died 
in the Garfield Hospital, Washington, 
following a major operation. It was 
while attending the midwinter conven- 
tion of the American Electric Railway 
Association in Washington, D. C, that 
Mr. White first developed the sickness 
which caused his death on March 6. 

Mr. White was born in Washington 
in 1876. After being graduated from 
the Lehigh University with the degree 
of electrical engineer, he entered the 
employ of the General Electric Com- 
pany at Schenectady. He served in 
the testing department, calculating and 
drafting department and then trans- 
ferred to the railway engineering de- 
partment. He was in this work until 
June, 1912, when he was transferred 
to commercial work in the railway de- 
partment of the company in New York. 
Since his transfer he has been engaged 
in the activities of the railway depart- 
ment in the Metropolitan district and 

Mr. White was a member of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers and was also a member of the 
Engineers' Club of New York and 
of the Mohawk Club of Schenectady. 
He had just completed a term as presi- 
dent of the General Electric Club of 
New York. Mr. White is survived by 
his wife and three daughters. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 




Manufactures and the Markets 

News of and for Manufacturers — Market and Trade Conditions 
A Department Open to Railway s and Manufacturers 
for Discussion of Manufacturing and Sales Matters 



Details of Philadelphia Order 
for 576 Cars 

On Jan. 22 the board of directors 
of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Company authorized the lease and pur- 
chase by car trust agreement of 576 
new cars of which 520 will be passen- 
ger cars. A brief note in regard to 
this order, which is said to be the 
largest single order for trolley cars 
ever placed in this country, was made 
in the Jan. 27 issue of the Electric 
Railway Journal. Details regarding 
these cars and their equipment are now 
available. Three hundred and eighty- 
five of these cars are to be for single- 
end operation and 135 for double-end. 

The exact design of the double-end 
cars has not yet been decided, but the 
accompanying illustration shows a 
seating, plan and elevation for the 
single-end type. As will be seen they 
are of the side-entrance pay-as-you- 
pass type. Provision will be made so 
that these cars and also the double- 
end cars can be operated by one man 
during off-peak periods. 

Both types of cars will be 45 ft. 6 
in. over all. The single-end cars will 
seat fifty-three, while the double-end 
cars have a seating capacity of forty- 
four. The type of seats is also differ- 
ent for the two cars. Brill standard 
Winner double-rod pressed-steel seats 
will be used for the double-end cars, 
with wooden slat construction, while 
the Brill Cleveland type of seats will 
be used on the single-end cars. These 

also will be of wooden slat construction. 
The estimated weights for the two 
types are 34,000 lb. for the single-end 
cars and 35,000 lb. for the double-end 
cars. The motor and control equip- 
ment will be the same for both types. 


Air brakes G.E. Co. 

Armature bearings Plain 

Axles Carnegie Steel Co.'s heat treated 

Bumpers Six-inch Channel reinforced 

Car signal system. .Brill's standard and push 

button contact bases — Faraday Type-B 
Car trimmings • . ^ 

...Malleable and bronze statuary finish 
Center and side bearings . . . Brill's standard 
Conduits and junction boxes. .. .Galvanized 
Control G.E. 2-K-68 with ratchet attachment 

Couplers Drawbar pockets 

Curtain fixtures . Curtain Supply Co.'s No. 88 
Curtain material. .. .Double face pantasote 

Designation signs Hunter 

Door operating mechanism 

National Pneumatic Co. 

Wheelguards H. B. Life Guard 

Gears and pinions ^ 

Tool Steel Gear & Pinion Co. 

Hand brakes Peacock staffless 

Heater equipment • 

Consolidated Car Heating Co. s 

Headlights. .Crouse Hinds semaphore lens 

Journal bearings Plain 

Journal boxes Plain cast-iron 

Lightning arresters M. D. 

Motors. Two per car, G.E.-275A outside hung 

Registers International Type R-7 

Sanders Ohio Brass Co. 

Sash fixtures Bronze .statuary finish 

Seats. .Brill's standard Winner double rod 

for double end cars and Brill Cleveland 

type for single end cars. 

Seating material ^°?,° 

Springs Brill's helical and elliptic 

Step treads. Universal anti-slip smooth safety 

Trolley catchers Ohio Brass Co. 

Trolley base Two U. S. No. 14 

Trolley wheels Star Brass Foundry 

Trucks Brill No. 39 E-2 

Ventilators Garland Type C-1 Jr. 

Wheels (type and size) 

Steel 28-in. and 22-in. diameter 

Special devices, etc 

. . . Birney Safety Car devices equipment 


Length over-all 45 ft 6 in. 

Width overall 8 ft. 6 In. 

Height, rail to trolley base.... 11 ft. Oi In. 
Bolster centers : Double-end cars. 22 ft. 6 In. 

Single-end cars 24 ft 6 in. 

Truck wheelbase 4 ft 10 in. 

Weight total: Double-end cars.. 35,000 lb. 
S!ngle-end cars . . 34.000 lb. 
Seating capacity : 

Double-end cars 44 

Single-end cars 53 

The cars will be built by the J. G. Brill 
Company. The Interior trim will be bronze 
statuary finish, the headlining will be Aga- 
sote and the roof will be arch type. 

Two G.E. type 275-A motors will be 
used, with General Electric Company's 
2-K-68 control with ratchet attach- 
ment. Accompanying tables give de- 
tails of weights and dimensions, and 
also details of the equipment which 
will be furnished. 

In addition to the passenger cars, 
the following double-truck, four-motor, 
double-end utility cars were ordered: 

Twenty-four share-type snow plows. 

Ten snow sweepers. 

Eight standard differential dump 
cars and five differential trailers. 

Six flat-bottom, drop-side work cars. 

One crane car for surface service. 

One crane car for elevated service. 

One line tower car. 

' Metal, Coal and Material Prices 

MetaU— New York Marcii 6, 1923 

Copper, electrolytic, centa per lb 1 6 , 937 

Copper wire base, cents per lb 19. 125 

Lead, cents per lb 8.25 

Zinc, centa per lb 8.70 

Tin. Straite. centa per lb 47.00 

Bituminous Coal, f.o.b. Mines 
Smokeless mine run, f.o.b. vessel, Hamp- 
ton Roads, gross tons $6,175 

Somerset mine run, Boston, net tons 3.75 

Pittsburgh mine run. Pittaburgh, net tons. 2 . 75 

Franklin, III., screeninga, Chicago, net tons 2.375 

Central, 111., screenings, Chicago, net tons. 1 . 30 

Kansas screeninga, Kansas City, net tons.. 2 . 625 


Rubber-covered wire. N. Y., No. 14, per 

1,000ft 7 50 

Weatherproof wire base, N.Y.,oent8per lb. 19.50 

Cement, Chicago net prices, without bags. J2 20 
Linseed oil (5-bbl.lota),N.Y..cents per gal.. 1. 01 

Whitclcad,(l00-lb.keg),N.Y..ccnt8perlb. 13.375 

Turpentine (bbl. lota), N. Y., per gal $1.54 

Plan and Klevation Showing Seating Arrangement of P. R. T. New Single-End Type Car 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 10 

Rolling Stock 

Lima (Ohio) Street Railway Has I'e- 
ceived five of a total of twenty one-man 
cars ordered. The twenty cars are ex- 
pected to be in operation by April 1. 

Pitts\)urgh, Harmony, Butler & New- 
Castle Railway, Pittsburgh, Pa., has 
purchased three Packard cars for bus 
service between New Castle and Ell- 
wood City. 

Springfield (Mass.) Street Railway 
has placed an order with the J. G. Brill 
Company's Wason Manufacturing Com- 
pany plant at Springfield for ten new 
double-truck cars. The company's in- 
tention of buying the cars was referred 
to in the Electric Railway Joi^inal 
issue of Feb. 17. 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) City Railroad has 

placed an order with the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company for 
fifty-four two-motor equipments and 
control for motorizing as many cars 
now in use as trailers. The motors 
will be the type 535-A, of 60 hp. each, 
and the control will be type K-68-A 
arranged for double-end operation. The 
control will be Interlocked with tha 
doors by type 801-E line switches. 
The 535-A motor is a comparatively • 
new type, which makes possible the 
use of a 60-hp. motor with 28-in. 
wheels, which will be the plan followed 
in Brooklyn. These trailers at present 
weigh 31,000 lb. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, 
Calif., has just placed an order for ten 
additional electric freight locomotives, 
which are to be of the latest improved 
type and to cost $475,000 for the entire 
order. Delivery of two of the new loco- 
motives is anticipated vrithin sixty days 
and it is contemplated the remaining 
locomotives will be delivered early dur- 
ing the summer. The new locomotives 
are to be of 60-ton type and will be 
capable of handling fifty loaded cars on 
level track. When delivery is completed 
the company will have a total of fifty- 
three electric freight locomotives in its 
freight service. The company has also 
placed large orders for car equipment, 
those now in course of construction 
aggregating an expenditure of $1,750,- 
000. This equipment, delivery of which 
will commence within a short time, 
consists of 400 dump cars, 300 box and 
150 flat cars. 

loop from Haddon Avenue to King's 
Highway. A petition has been pre- 
sented to the borough commissioners 
of Haddonfield, N. J., asking for this 

Puget Sound International Railway, 
Everett, Wash., will use steel rails ag- 
gregating 360 tons for replacement on 
the Everett-Seattle interurban line, be- 
tween Foy and North Park stations. 
The new rails wall be 70-lb. size, replac- 
ing 50, 56 and 60-lb. rails. 

Market Street Railway, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., will begin within thirty 
days the relaying of rails on Market 
Street from the Ferry to McAllister. 
This improvement will mean about 6 
miles of single track. Rails, joint plates 
and other material have been purchased 
and is already delivered in San Fran- 

Los Angeles (Calif.) Railway has 

started the construction of an exten- 
sion from Third and Larchmont Streets 
along Larchmont to La Brea. The ex- 
tension involves a little more than a 
mile of double-track construction. This 
new track will serve new territory in 
South Hollywood. 

Power Houses, Shops 
and Buildings 

Cleveland (Ohio) Illuminating Com- 
pany IS planning to take over the 
$1,000,000 power house owned by the 
Lake Shore Electric Railway in Avon 
Beach Park, east of Lorain, Ohio. 

Oklahoma Union Railway, Tulsa, 
Okla., expects to build a new interurban 
depot at Red Fork, Okla. Work will 
begm within a few weeks. The new 
depot will be modeled after the pas- 
senger depot in West Tulsa, but will be 
somewhat smaller. 

Ohio Valley Electric Railway, Hunt- 
SfT'nn^" V*-J°"templates spending 
12,250,000 on additions to the Kenova 
power plant. This plant now generates 
all the electric current which the com- 
pany supplies between Guyandotte, 
W. Va. and Hanging Rock, Ohio, and 
demands for service are increasing at 
such rate, officials say, that additional 
facilities are imperative. To cover this 
and other improvements the company is 
planning an issue of new securities. 

of its portable belt conveyor, the "Cub." 
The new price is $585 complete with 
a 2-hp. electric motor. Portable belt 
conveyors are used for unloaiiing and 
loading cars, trucks and wagons of any 
loose material. 

Burry Railway Supply Company, Chi- 
cago, 111., reports orders received for 
Hartman center plates and Perry, Para- 
gon and Peerless side bearings from the 
following: Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Company, Detroit Municipal Railways, 
Macon Railway & Light Company, 
American Electric Power Company, 
Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Muske- 
gon Railway, Tri-City Railways, Texas 
Electric Company, Dallas Street Rail- 
way, Chicago Surface Lines, British 
Columbia Electric Railway and the 
Eastern Wisconsin Railway. 

Uehling Instrument Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., manufacturers of CO-- re- 
corders and other power plant gages, 
has placed Charles J. Schmid in charge 
of sales in greater New York and Long 
Island. Mr. Schmid is well qualified 
for his duties in this important terri- 
tory due to his close contact with power 
plant operators in the interest of fuel 
economy when formerly in charge of 
the Boston office. Temporarily Mr. 
Schmid will make the home office in 
Paterson, N. J., his headquarters. 

B. Olney Hough, for many years past 
editor of the American Exporter, has 
relinquished that position to establish 
himself as export counsellor, consultant 
and adviser to banks, exporters and 
manufacturers, with offices under the 
style of B. Olney Hough, Inc., 17 Bat- 
tery Place, New York. It may be re- 
garded as significant of the esteem in 
which his opinions and advice are held 
that his first retainer in his new pro- 
fession is from the American Exporter, 
for which he will continue to act in a 
capacity similar to some extent to his 
former position, as export and technical 
adviser and writer, with the title of 
contributing editor. 

New Advertising Literature 

Track and Roadway 

Trade Notes 

Orange, Tex.— A franchise has been 
granted on application of the general 
manager of the Orange Light & Water 
Company for the construction, of a 
trackless trolley system in Orange. 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Com- 
pany, Erie, Pa., through General Man- 
ager Myers, is seeking a franchise for 
the construction of a double-track line 
connecting curves in Twenty-first Street 
from State to Peach Street. 

Public Service Railway, Newark, 
N. J., may be asked to build a trolley 

Nichols-Lintern Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio, has reprinted in the form of a' 
blotter a recent editorial from the 
Electric Railway Journal entitled 
Work— Thought— Character." 
Haskelit« Manufacturing Corpora- 
tion, Chicago, 111., has received the 
order for roofing the fifty-two trail cars 
which have been ordered by the city of 
Detroit. These roofs will be of the 
rii-ln. three-ply construction and will 
be furnished in five sections per car. 

Link-Belt Company, Chicago, 111. an- 
nounces a cut of 14 per cent in the price 

Wagner Electric Corporation, St. 
Louis, Mo., has issued descriptive bul- 
letin No. 131, giving instructions for 
ordering and adjusting repair parts. 

Railway Improvement Company, New 
York, N. Y., has issued an illustrated 
booklet on the Ransom vacuum oiler. 
It shows the oiler installed on motors 
on a large number of properties. 

J. G. White Engineering Corporation, 
New York, N. Y., is distributing a book- 
let, called Steam Power, which is illus- 
trative and descriptive of some of the 
more important steam power plants 
which have been built by this corpo- 

W. S. Goodwin Company, Inc., Balti- 
more, Md., describes in its bulletin N, 
on steel paving guards, a number of 
types of steel paving edges. These are 
designed to preserve the edges of pav- 
ing of different types, special attention 
being given to the edges abutting on 
electric railway track rails. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


-from 7 
to 70 tons 


A Special Type — A Right Type 
for Each Size and Type of Car 

From the Peacock Staffles — a development of recent times for 
the little safety c;lr — to the Peacock Improved 12/52 type for 
heaviest interurban and rapid transit cars, there is a Peacock 
Brake to fit your particular requirements. We have been de- 
veloping and manufacturing hand-brakes for so many years 
that we can deliver what's needed in any case. 

The Engineering Slant — 

Trained engineers are gradually supplanting the old- 
fashioned equipment man who knew only what his own 
experience had taught him. Those who remain are the 
ones who have learned to do what the trained engineer 
does — to figure out their equipment problems. Do a little 
figuring now on brakes for your new cars — find out what 
hraking forces will be necessary to stop the car under 
worst conditions — tAen get the data on Peacock Brakes. 

: National Brake Company, Inc. 

890 Ellicott Square 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Canadian Representative: 
Lyman Tube A Supply Company Limited, Montreal, Canada 

Peacock Staffles> 

Peacock Improved 12/52 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 

"B atvK^era ^ E.ixg;liveervs 

jFor&, SJacon & "J'avie 

Business Established 1894 

115 BROADWAY, New York 




Stone & Webster 













105 South La Salle Straat 






C. E. SMITH & CO. 

CotiMulting Engineer* 

2065-75 Railway Exchange Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 

Chicago Kansas City 

Inrestigations, Appraisals, Expert Testimony, Bridge 

and Structural Works, Electrification, Grade Crossing 

Elimination, Foundations, Power Plants 



Gardner F. Wells John F. Layng Albert W. Hemphill 



Reorganization Management Operation Construction 

43 Cedar Street, New York City 


Consultant on Fares, Buses, Motor Trucks 

Originator of unlimited ride, transferable weekly 
pass. Campaigns handled to make it a success. 

143 Crary Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 


Engineers — Constructors 

Industrial Plants, Buildings, Steam Power Plants, Water 

Powers. Gas Plants, Steam and Electric Railroads, 

Transmission Systems 

43 Ezchansre Place, New York 

John A. Beeler 






Consulting Engineer 

Appraisals, Reports, Rates, Service Investigation, 

Studies on Financial and Physical Rehabilitation 

Reorganization, Operation, Management 

683 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Msiss. 



Rate, Traffic and Reorganization 


Fort Wayne, Indiana 


Engineering & Management 


New York 

208 S. La Salle Street, Chicago 


Parsons, Klapp, Brinckerhoff & Douglas 



Engineers — Constructors — Managers 

Hydro-electric Railway Light and Industrial Plants 

appraisals and Reports 


1670 Banna Bide. 84 flnf St. 



'D£si^n , Co nstru ction 
T{fboHs, Valuations, 'Management 



Consulting Engineers 

Specializing in Utility Rate Cases and 
Reports to Bankers and Investors 

1017 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiii iiiiiii iiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii I iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii II iiiijiiiiijiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii nil 

To Secure — 

up-to-date speed and safety with old equipment 

When converting existing rolling stock for one-man safety car opera- 
tion, you do not have to replace your present air brake valves with 
ne\v equipment. E-Z Car Control involves only the addition of a 
little simple piping, and you have a safety car with emergency de- 
vices and selective door control. 

What E-Z Car Control Does ! 

Automatically cuts off power and applies brakes if air pressure gets 
too low. 

Doors "balance" on emergency application of brakes after car is 

Safety equipment functions without moving parts under ordinary 
operating conditions. This means the virtual elimination of mainte- 



Write us for 

full details and low cott of 
this remarkable installation. 


383 West Fayette St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

W. M. Lawyer, Sales Manager 

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Transmission Line and Special Crossing 
Structures, Catenairy Bridges 



Engineer* and Contractor* SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

Dwight P. Robinson & Company 


Design and Construction of 

Electric Railtvays, Shops, Power Stations 

125 East 46th Street, New York 

Chicago Youngstown 

Lo* Angeles 


Rio de Janeiro 


50 Church St. Street Railway Inspection 131 Stttt* St. 


When writing the advertiser for information or 

prices, a mention of the Electric Railway 

Joum^J would be appreciated. 

Andrew Sangster & Company 

Rate InveatlrtttloDa 
Depreciation Studies 

Consulting Accountants 
New York and Chicago 

BeportB to Bankers 

25 Broadway, New York 

Joe R. Ong 

Consulting Transportation Engineer 

SpeeiaUaing in TratRe Problems and in Methods to 
Improve Service and Increase , 

EfReiancy of Op*ration 



Engineer — Washington. D. C. 


Complete Transit Surveys and Development 


grams, adapting Motor-Transport, R.R. Terminal 


City Plans. Traffic, Service, Routing, Operation 




Standard Underground Cable Co. 

Manufactnrers of 

EtecUie Wires and Cables of all kinds; 

also Cable Terminals, Janction Boxes, etc 

Boston Philtdelphii Plttsburgii Ueiroit New York 

San Fraiifisco Chimgo Washinirtcm St. Loolt 

Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 




The Zulu dead are most always buried in a 
crouching position facing the east, so they can 
jump up quickly when Okulunkulu the Great 
Spirit calls from the rising sun. 

To be buried in any other position is a severe 
handicap. The planted one will have about as 
much chance of getting his share of Okulunkulu's 
gifts as the late riser in a starvation boarding- 
house has of getting breakfast. 

For the operator buried in brush trouble there 
is only one thing that can help. 

His position is bad from every angle unless he 
faces the issue squarely. 

He must break away from the 'cheap brush' 
habit. Must realize that motors doing different 
jobs have certain individual brush requirements. 
Just as men doing different kinds of work must 
have specific articles of diet. 

Brush trouble is merely a form of motor indi- 
gestion which can be cleared up by any 
Morganite Prescriptionist within twenty-four 
hours ! 

Main Office and Factory: 
519 West 38th Street, New York 

S Electric Power Equipment Corp., 
= 13th and Wood Sts.. Phlla- 
~ delphla 

= Electrical Engineering & Mfg. 

— (Ml., 909 Penn. Ave.. Pltts- 

— burgh 

S ■!■ F. Drummey. 75 Pleasant 
= St., Revere, Massachusetts 
~ W. B. Hendcy Co.. Hogo Bldg.. 
~ Seattle 


Spwial Service Sales Co.. 202 = 
Rusk Building, San Francisco, s 
Calirornla — 


Sp rial Service Sales Company, ^ 

502 Delta Bldg.. Los Ahgelrs = 

Railway & Power Engineering ^ 

Corporation. TA<1.. 131 East- — 

ern Ave.. Toronto, Ontario. — 

Canada S 

Just off the pres*! 

Rate -Making 


By Lamar Lyndon, Author 
of Hydro-electric Power 
and Storage Battery Engi- 

209 page; S\i x 8, $2.00 

THIS book is designed 
to clear up the con- 
fusion raised by the 
numerous conflicting court 
decisions and rulings on the 
various problems entering 
into the regulation of pub- 
lic utilities. 

The author's aim has been 
to clarify the points on which 
experts and engineers dif- 
fer in fixing rates for utili- 
ties and to indicate the logi- 
cal basis for figuring each 
and every factor involved in 
the problems of valuation 
and rate-making. 

Another New Book! 

Depreciation of 
Public Utility Properties 

By Henry Earle Riggt, C.E., Professor of Civil 
Engineering, University of Michigan. 

211 page*. Sji X 8, $2.00 pottpaid 

THIS book sets forth the new problems in valuation 
and depreciation of public utility properties 
brought about by the price fluctuations of 1914 to 

The author traces briefly the history of the regulation of 
utilities, gives his own interpretation of the distinction 
which must be made between the replacements necessary 
because of wear and tear, and actual loss of value, and 
points out certain important conclusions of the courts 
with which every one engaged in valuation work should 
be familiar. 

Examine these books for 10 days, FREE! 


7^tee 6xamhia//cn Ccaficn 

.Mr(irnw-HIII llook I'unipanjr, Inc.. 

370 Seventh Avenue, New York. 

Send me for 10 days' Free Examination, postage charges prepaid, 
the books checked; 

RiglCH — Uepreclallon of Public f Ullty Properties, fS.OO. 

Lyndon — Rate- .Making for Public Utilities, (tt.OO. 

I agiee to remit for the books or return them postpaid within ten 

days of receipt. 

Subsonber Electric Railway Journal? 


Addr ess 

Name of Company 
Offloial Position . . 

(BookB sent on approval to retail purchasers In the U. S. and 

Canada only.) 

E. 3-10-23 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 

Griffin Wheel 

McCormick Building 
Chicago, 111. 


For Street and Interurban Railways 

AH of our plants have adequate facilities for fitting wheels to axles 





Kansas City 

Council Bluffs 

St. Paul 
Los An&eles 




Last winter's tie-ups from sleet storms 

Don't wait until you have a sleet storm and then wish 
for Nuttall Sleet Wheels and Scrapers. Order them 
now — ^be ready. And don't smile at the reminder'and 
forget it. Every winter we express many, many ship- 
ments of sleet removing devices, showing that some 
one forgets. 


All Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. District offices in 
the United States are Sales Agents for Nuttall Products. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



— on single-end can 



— on douhle-end rtirs 

— on Peter Witt cars 

Uses both ends of any car 
without paying for conductor 

A One-Man Car Necessity! 

Delays and slower schedules have been the strongest 
arguments used against the one-man car. And since 
larger double-truck cars have been introduced for 
one-man operation, these difficulties have become 
more pronounced. 

In Syracuse and Utica, N. Y., in Dayton, Ohio, 
and other places they have overcome these obstacles 
by the use of the Syracuse Car Turnstile. Now 
they run cars of largest capacity, with a single opera- 
tor, on schedules that are little if any slower than 
when two men were on the car. 

When Syracuse Car Turnstiles are installed full utiliza- 
tion is made of entrance and exit facilities at both ends 
of the car. Instead of having a confused and interming- 
ling mass of jostling people entering and leaving at one 
end, passengers board at one end, and leave at the other, 
passing through the car in orderly flow. Pay-enter or 
pay-leave methods can be used, on any type of car. 
Let us show you how the Syracuse Car Turnstile will 
adapt itself to your own particular type of cars, and your 
special operating conditions. One-man operation, with 
turnstiles, offers your biggest opportunity for effecting 
large economies with your present double-truck cars. 

Write «j today 

The Turnstile Gar Corporation 

383 West Fayette St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

W. M. Lawyer, Sales Manager 


for your new cars 

Best seats for City Cars 

Interurban Lines, One Man Cars 

Trolley Buses 


Lightest Weight 
Steel Seat 

New York 

No higher in price than others 
Write for particulars 

Hale & Kilburn Corporation 

American Motor Body Company, Successors 




Steel Seat 




San Francisco 

Los .\ngeles 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 

Chatter-Proof Brakes 

on all 

Baldwin Improved 

Motor Trucks For 

Electric Railways 

Baldwin Class "AA" Motoi Truck, 
built for the Osaka Railway, Japan. 

AMONG the many notable features of Baldwin Electric Motor and Trailer 
trucks for high speed electric interurban and street railway service, are the 
brakes and the rrethod of brake suspension. Internationally known as the simplest 
and best design of brake. 

Baldwin Brakes are always to be depended upon 

Baldwin representatives in all principal countries of the world. 
Detailed information upon request. 


PHILADELPHIA, U. S. A. Cable Address, "Baldwin. Philadelphia" 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


xK \ 

Bates Steel Poles are used by 

recognized leaders in the electrical industry. They have 
found it both logical and economical to buy Bates Poles — poles 
of a character consistent with the high standard demanded 
and specified in the rest of their equipment. 

Bates equipped installations have proved, in innumerable 
cases, lower in initial costs than if substitute poles had been 

Bates Steel Poles lend character to installations and reflect 
the progressive trend of the organization using them. 

^ 6! ^ 

[stesl^ande^peel Jlruss ^ 

208 South La Salle Street, Chicago, U. S. A. 

Bates engineers will gladly co-operate 
With you in your planning 


iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiraiii iiiiiiuiiiiim mimmuiiii miiiiiiiiiiiiiiimimiiiiiiu uiinimiui iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiuiiiii iiiiuiiiiiiiiiuiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuniiiiiwuilHUUUIiiiHIiwiilui iiiiitiiiiiiiiiii. 

Rail Bonds 



Arc Weld and Flame Weld 

Send for new 
Rail Bond Book 

American Steel & Wire 




Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 




s Conway Buiidine. Cbicaeo, III 


General Offices: Waterbury. Conn. 



! Shaw Lightning Arresters | 

I Standard in the Electric Industries 

I for 35 years 

I Henry M. Shaw | 

I ISO Coit St., Irvington, Newark, N. J. | 

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w'lilliMiiliinililliiiiiiiriilriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliriiitiiiiiuiiitiiijiiir (iiiiiiiiiiiittiiitiiiriiiiiinMiiriiiiilllilMnimiiiuiiiilllllim 






MmilillllliiilniiiilililililiiillillllHiitiiiiiiiimiitiiiiiiimiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuillluiltlluiiiimill ^ 


Highway Crossing Bells 
Headway Recorders 




Peirce Forged Steel Pins | 

with Drawn Separable Thimbles \ 

Your best insurance a^inst insulator breakage 

Hubbard & Company 





Cross Ties: 

White Oak, Chestnut, and Treated Ties. 
Oak Switch Ties. 

Prompt shipment from our ovm stocks. 
Headquarters — Nashville, Tenn. 

A. D. Andrews, Terre Haute, Ind., RepretentatiTe. | 




One-Piece Gear Casec | 

Seamless — Rivetless — Light Weight | 

Best for Service— Durability and i 

Economy. Write Vs. | 

Chillingworth Mfg. Co. | 

Jersey City, N. J. S 



When you think, of Steel — think of Carnegie 




I _ i 

I high-grade R. R. Track and Car Jades I 

= £ 

j The Buckeye Jack Mfg. Go. | 

i Alliance, Ohio | 

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Ramapo Iron Works AJaz Fo^-ce CompttBy i 

Ell>bllsh«d 1881 E>UbU«b«l 1181 = 

Ramapo ajax Corporation I 

SucceMor i 


Chicago New York SupeHor, Wis. Niagara FaUs. N. Y. I 

Automatic Return Switch Stands for Passinr Sidinn i 

Automatic Safety Switch Stands i 

Manganese Construction — Tee Rail Special Work i 




I Automatic Signals 

I Charles N. Wood Co., Boston 

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i Third Kail Insulators, Trolley Bases. Harps and Wheels, Bronze and | 
1 Malleable Iron Frogs, CroBsingrs, Section Insulators. Section Switches i 



Albert & J. M. Anderson Mfg. Co. 

289-93 A Street Boston. Mass. 

Established 1877 

Branches — New York. 136 B'way 

4S9 Beal EsUU Trust Bld(. Chlcato. ISS So, 

UDPac Th»m« 

Dwitoni St. = 

London. E. C. 4, S8-39 UDPac Th»m« St. 


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for single track block signal protection | 

United States Electric Signal Co. | 

West Newton, Mass. | 

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Proven by i 

service to 1 

economically pre- | 

vent seepage and | 

^^ disintegration of | 

Adapted to all types J^^ ^^=^ street railway paving. | 

I of rails and ^^P^ Write for Illustrated i 

I paving. (PS Catalog No, 20. | 

I W. S. GODWIN CO., Inc.^'^^lZ E. Lexington St.» Baltimore. Md. f 



Make it of Vul-Cot Fibre'' \ | 



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{app InsuhtorCoJncJeFi^X)^ \ 

i -Trails Mark I 


March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 




Rail Bonds 

Brazed Bonds 

Arc Weld Bonds 

Type ET 
Type EA 

of rail 

Type EC, web of rail 

Type AT-F 
Type AT-R 
Typo AU 
Type A, base of rail 

of rail 

I The Electric Railway Improvement Co. | 

I Cleveland, Ohio I 

I = 



205 Broadway, Cambridgeport, Mas*. I 

EstablUhed 1858 i 


High-Grade Track I 






New York Switch & Crossing Go. 
Hoboken, N. J. 



I Of the well-known WHARTON Superior Designs 
and Constructions 

Manufacturer* of 

Special Work for Street Railways 

Frogs, Crossings, Switches and Mates 

Turnouts and Cross Connections 

Kerwin Portable Crossovers 

Balkwill Articulated Cast Manganese Cro**ing* 

Stoel Casting* 

CoBTMter aad 



Drop Hammer 

and Prea* 

Ga* Cylind* 


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THE "YUnt l.QCIC*'! 


Lowest Cost Lightest Weight 

I Least Maintenance Greatest Adaptability 

I Catalog complete with engineeiinK data sent on reqneit | 



I New York aty, 30 Church Street | 

s s 

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I Wm. Wharton Jr. & Co. Inc., Baston, Pa. 

I (Subsidiary of Taylor- Whartoo Iron & Steel Co., 

I High Bridge, N. J.) 




International Creosoting 
& Construction Co. 

Galveston, Texas 

Plant — Tezarkana Beaumont GalTeataa 


Treated railway ties, poles, piling, 
bridge timbers, etc. 

See our full page advertisement 
in last week's issue. 

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Bw. O. 8. Pat. Oaee 

OalTanized Iron and Steel 

Wire and Strand 

Incandescent LamD Cord 





BMtOD, 176 Fadaril: Chleuo, 1)1 W. .tduni: 
ClneinniU, Tnotlon Bids.; N«r Tork, ISI B'ww 



I Rome Merit Wins Customers 
I Rome Service Holds Them 

i Main Plant and Executive Offices: Rome, N. Y. 

I "Diamond" Brandl: Buffalo, N. Y. 


1 New York. BO Church St. Chlcaco. III., 14 K. Jackeoa ■!*«. 

i Boston, .Masii.. I.lttir Bldic. Detroit, Mich., Sfi Paraona St. 

s Loa Anicrles, Cal., J. O. Pomeroy, 336 Aiuaa St. 311S-I, 


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Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 



85 Liberty Street, 

Builders since 1868 of 
Water Tube Boilers 
of continuing reliability 

Boston, 49 Federal Street 
PHil.Anm.FHiA, North American Bulldlnr 
PiTTSBUROH, Farmers Deposit Bank Building 
CLKV>L.iLND, Guardian Building 
Chicaoo, Marquette Building 
Cincinnati, Traction Building 
Atlanta, Candler Building 
Tucson, Ariz., 21 So. Stone Avenue 
DxlulB, Tbx^ 2001 Magnolia Building 
HoNOLULn, H. T., Castle & Cooke Building 

Bayonne, N. J. 
Barberton, Ohio 

New ifORK 

Makers of Steam Superheaters 
since 1898 and of Chain Grate 
Stokers since 1893 

Detboit, Ford Building 
New Orleans. 521-5 Baronne Street 
Houston, Texas, Southern Pacific Building 
Denver, 4S5 Seventeenth Street 
Salt Lake Citt, 705-6 Kearna Building 
San Francisco, Sheldon Building 
Los Anobles, 404-6 Central Building 
Seattle, L. C. Smith Building 
Havana, Cuba, Calle de Aguiar 104 
San Juan, Porto Rico, Royal Bank Building 


The Indianapw^is Switch & Frog Co., Springfield, Ohio 
Indianapolis Economy Products That Make Dollars "Grow" 

Indianapolis Solid Manganese: 

Froffs, CrossinffB, Mates and Tongrue-switches. Super-quality 
materials. Par-excellent designs. Gives many lives to one. of 
ordinary construction and when worn down. CAN BB RE- 

Indianapolis Electric Welder: 

Efficient. Rapid, ECONOMICAL, Durable. Price. f2.00 (per 
day for three hundred days) thorourbly dependable every day 
in the year, uplteep about 76 cents per month. lAST A liD'E 

Indianapolis Welding Steel: 

Fluxated heat treated Metal Electrodes, Insure nnifonn De- 
pendable Weld^ that are from 75 per cent to 100 per cent -more 
efficient, than the "MELT," from the same High Grade basic 
stock, untreated. * 

Indianapolis Welding Plates: 

Eliminate "Joints" and "Bonds" in Street Track. Higher in 
Slrenpth and Conductivity than the unbroken Rail. Installed 
according to instructions, nave proven THOROUGHLY DE- 
PENDABLE, during 10 TEARS of "Time and Usage" TBBT. 
Extensively used in 48 STATES and CUONTIBS. Recognized 

Indianapolis Welding Supplies: 



Ball-bearing, for ash-pits, storage yards, etc. 

Indianapolis "Economy" Products: 

are Pre-eminently "Money Savers." YES— "Money Makers" for 
Electric Railways. 




in the 

Design and Manufacture 


Standard — Insulated — and 
Compromise Rail Joints, 

The Rail Joint Company 

61 Broadway, New York City 

^UUNMtflimHIUtllullulllJIIUIHIinilllltMlttliitlilii icniriKiiiiKinriiiMtiMiiMtii 



= B. A, Begeman, Jr.. President = 

= ChariM C. Cwtle, First Vlce-Preeldent W. C. Lincoln, Manager Salea and i 

I Harold A. Hegeman, Vlce-Preaident, Engineering = 

= Treas. and Acting Sec'y 3 

National Railway Appliance Co. | 

i Grand Central Terminal, 452 Lexington Ave., Cor. 4Sth St., i 

I New York = 


I Mung«ar Bids.. Washington, D. C. ; 100 Boylston St.. Boston, Mass.; Union = 

= Trust BldiT., Hmrrlsburi, Pa.; Hegeman- Castle Corporation, Railway Bxcban«« = 
= BIdg.. Chicago. HI. 

Railway Supplies 

Tool Steel Gears and Pinions 
Anderson Slack Adjusters 
Genesco Paint Oils 
Dunham IIopi>er Door Devices 
Anglo-American Varnish Co., 

Varnishes, Enamels, etc. 
Drew Line Material and Railway 

TornHtlle Car Corporation 
National Hand Holds 
Pittsbursh For^ & Iron Co.'s 


Tnemeo Paint & Oil 
Fort Pitt Spring & 


Kconomy Electric Devices 

Power Savins Meters 
Lind Aluminum Field Colls 
C-H Electric Heaters 
Garlant! Ventilators 
National Safety Car Equipment 

Co.'s One>Maji Safety Cars 
Flnxlinnm Insulation 
E-Z Car Control Corporatton 

Safety Devices 

Co.*s Cement Paint 
Mfg. Co., Springs 


We make a specialty of 


We solicit a test of TULC 
on your equipment. 

The Universal Lubricating Co. 

Cleveland, Ohio 


I I l«IL¥MIIIIBK. Wl«. l^oS.A. W 

I Electrical Machinery, Steam Turbines, Steam Engines, | 
I Condenaer*. Ga« and Oil Engines, Air Compreators, | 
I Air Brakes | 




A Chain Hoist that excels in every feature. It has i 
Planetary Gears, Steel Parts, 3^ to 1 factor of Safetr. I 
It's the only block that carries a five-year guarantee. | 

Second and Disunond Sts., Philadalplua 


March 10, 1923 


ElectricRailwayJournal 81 

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1 1 What is your 

Brush Mileage ? 

I I Constant replacements cost Time, Trouble and Money. 
I I Correct Brushes correctly applied will eliminate these ex- 
I I pense factors to a great extent. 

I Specify 

THE N-L New Style Type C Venti- 
lator is absolutely weatherproof, lays 
low on roof, looks well and meets every 
requirement of ventilation. 

More than seven thousand N-L Ventilators 
sold during 1922. 

The Nichols-Lintern Company 

7960 Lorain Ave., Cleveland, O. 

N'L ProductM manufactvred and Mold in Canada by 

Railway and Power Engineering Corporation, lAi., 

133 Eastern Avenue, Toronto, Ontario 

More Mileage 

and be assured of the BEST Brushes that Men, Money and 
Materials can produce. 

You will get 

Longer Service — Better Satisfaction 


Less Mechanical Trouble — ^Lower Operating Cost* 

— Fewer Replacements 

Every brash fully gnaranteed. You are the Jndce 

Write today for Catalog B-3 

The United States Graphite Company 

Saginaw, Michigan 
District Offices : 

New York Pittsburgh Chicago Denver 

Philadelphia St. Louis San 7raiieisco 

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Trade Mark Bw. U. S. Pit. Off. = 

= Kads of extra Quality stoclc firmly braided aod imoothly l-'**"^ = 

i Carefully inspected and ruaraoteed free from flaws. I 

i Samples and InfonnatiOD rladly sent. i 



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A Style for I 
Every Service I 

Smnd tor Catate ^ 



Newark, N. J. | 



Type R-IO 

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Made in various types and sizes 
to meet the requirements of 
service on street and city system. 

Complete line of roisters, 
counters and car fittings. 

Exclusive selling agents for 

The International Register Co. 

15 South Throop Street, Chicago, Illinois 


The Cleveland 

accomodates any rate of cash 
fare and any kind of ticket, 
therefore it is not necessary for 
conductors to take any fares ii 


I I Portable Type 
wi ^iiiiiiiiiiiilllf;;:liHmillllliiMHiniiiisll« 

The Cleveland Fare Box Co. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Canadian— Cleveland Fare Box Co., Ltd. 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 

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The Differential Car 

An automatic dump car, an electric locomotive, a 

snow plow, and a freight car — all in one. Big 

savings shown in track con- 

struction and maintenance, 

paving work, coal hauling, 

ash disposal, snow removal, 

and freight transportation. 

The Differential 
Steel Car Co. 

Findlay, Ohio 




W J. Jeandron 

345 Madison Avenue, New York 
Pittsburgh Office: 634 Wabash Bldg. 

San Francisco Office: 525 Market Street 

Canadian Distribntorg: Lyman Tube & Sopplr Co„ IMn 
Montreal and loronto 


The trolley wheel \rith the high 
mileage side bearing 

Thornton Wheels with Thornton side 
bearings are unusually long-lived, re- 
quire less lubrication, and less main- 
tenance. They are free from vibra- 
tion and noiseless. No bushings. In- 
vestigate them. 

Send for detcriptive eireular 

Thornton Trolley Wheel Co., 

Ashland, Kentucky 

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Waterproofed Trolley Cord 

Is the finest cord that science and skill can produce. | 

Its wearing qualities are unsurpassed. | 



If you are not familiar with the quality you will be i 

surprised at its ENDURANCE and ECONOMY. | 

Sold by Net Wtightt and Full Lengths | 


Manvtfacturerm of bell, MigncU and other eordm, | 

Newtonville, Massachusetts | 



Car Seating, Broom and Snow Sweeper | 

Rattan, Mouldings, etc. | 






Brooklyn, N. Y. 

_Ao/ aly^'ays we chedpesi, bui eVer 
lowest in u/iimdle cost 


St. Louis. A\issoiii-i. 

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= a 

I "Paint Sells Transportation'* | 

I Let us show you | 

i i 





I Rolled and Forged I 


I Midvale Steel and Ordnance Company | 

I Cambria Steel Company | 

i Cenerai OfReet: | 

I Widener Building, Philadelphia, Pa. | 





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Direct | 


By th« I 


Rooke Automatic | 
Register Co. | 

i Providence. R. I. = 


March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Searchlight Section 


CLAIM agent experienced to take charge of 
claim department. Position open now. 
F-528, Elec. Ry. Journal, Old Colony 
Bldg., Chicago. 111. 

ONE high grade switchboard engineer 
wanted : also one switchboard builder. 
American Electric Switch Company, Can- 
ton, Ohio. 


AUDITOR or assistant. Twenty years of 
experience in electric railway, light and 
power. At present employed but desire 
to make cliange. PW-B29, Elec. Ry. 
Journal, 10th Ave., at 36th St., New York 

CHIEF engineer or superintendent, broad 
experience in power, refrigeration, min- 
ing and industrial equipment. Graduate 
combustion engineer. R. B. Hutchason, 
New Athens, 111. 

MASTER mechanic desires position on 
small city or interurban property. I 
am at present employed and can give 
good references. PW-506, Elec. Ryv 
Journal, Old Colony Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

SUPERINTENDENT of equipment, with 
good record based on broad experience, 
city and interurban, now employed, de- 
sires a change. Willing to rebuild run 
down property. Interview solicited. PW- 
525, Electric Railway Journal, 10th Ave. 
at 36th St., New York. 



"Wanted by a manufacturer of rail bonds 
and welding apparatus. Man familiar 
with selling to electric railway field pre- 
ferred. SW-530, Elec. Ry. Journal, 10th 
Ave. at 36th St.. New York City. 


Ohio Representation 

Established manufacturers agent covering 
Ohio desires account with manufacturer 
of electric railway equipment. RA-523, 
Electric Railway Journal, Leader-News 
Bldg., Cleveland Ohio. 



I Street Car Registers 

I Up to 150; either single or double reading, i 
I Give make, mode], lowest price and when = 
I available. = 

I W-524. Electric Railway Journal I 

1 Rialto Bldg:., San Francisco. Calif. i 


On account of discontinuing cars 

on which wheels were formerly used 

National Car Wheel Go's make 

i 269 — 20-in. diam. Spoke. 3 % -in. rough 
I bore. ApproxiQiate weigrht 190 lbs. 

I Griffin Wheel Co.'s Make. 

1 350 — 34-in. diam., 4 14 -in. rough bore — 
I double plate. Approx. weight 325 lbs. 

I 147 — 33-in. diam. rough bores, 4% -in. to 
i 6-in. double plate. Approximate 

i weight 630 lbs. each. 

24 — 33-in. Motor Wheels, 
weight 815 lbs. 

1 ^ cent per lb. f .o.b. Boston. 

20 — 30-in. Trailer Wheels 
weight 645 lbs. 

Boston Elevated Railway 

Purchasing Agent 

108 Mass. Ave., Boston 

100 lb. 

with angle bars 

530 per gross ton t.o.b. Pittsburgh 

Subject to Inspection at Destination 
for Prompt Shipment 

Write or Wire 


531 Peoples Gas Bldg., Chicago 

or 1312 Ist Natl. Bank Bldg., 
Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Other Offices at: New Yorlt. St. Louis. 
Detroit, San Francisco 

We carry In stock rails from 
SO to 90 per yard. 




20— Peter Witt Car* 

Weight Complet., 33,000 lbs. 
I 8Mt 63. 4 — O. B. No. ZfiS^C Motor*. 
i K-12-H Control, West. Air Taylor Tmeka, 
I B.H. Tjrpe. Complete. 

i Commonwealth Bldg., Fhlladelphls, Pa. 


I 300-kw. General Electric Belted Railway s 

= Generator; 535/575 v.. 348 amp., com- 5 

= pound wound: Type MP. Class 6-200- I 

I 435: Form H; 425 r.p.m. In A-1 con- 1 

i dition. Complete with generator panel. | 

I pulley and rails. Price 5740 cash. | 

I f.o.b. cars. | 


I 415 Pine Street. St. Louis, Mo. 5 


"Opportunity" Advertising: 


4 — Passenger Motor Cars— 4 

Weight 47,000 lbs. Geared 64-20 

Single end cars— Leather upholstered seats 

Seats 44 — Passenger Compartment 32 and 

Smoker 12 

4 O.E. 203-L Motors — K-35-G Control 

St. Louis No. 47-B Trucks — Steel Body 

Have been run only 357,000 miles per car 

at low speed and have always been properly 


Are in excellent condition in everr way I 

El Paso Electric Railway Co. 

P. O. Box 431, El Paso, TVixa* 






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-new G. E. 203 Motors 
-new G. E. 247 Motors 


501 Fifth Avenue. New York. 

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No. 201—2—3—6. 

4 — 15-Jt. Interurban Passenger and Baggage Cars — Wood Body. 

End Entrance, Cane Seat. Monitor Roof Motor G.E. 57, 

Quadruple, 2-Tum Control Westinghouse, K-14, Single End. 

Brakes, Westinghouse, Compressors, Nat. Brake & Electric Co. 

B.B, 2 Baldwin Trucks, 34-in. Wheels. 4% -in. Axles. Each 


No. 207. 

Interurban Passenger and Baggage. All Steel Center Entrance. 
51-ft. Car. Motor, Westinghouse. 308 V 4 Quadruple. Con- 
trol Westinghouse Hi,., Brakes. Westinghouse, with Nat. 
Brake Compressor, B.B.2, Baldwin Trucks, 34in. Wheels, 6-ln, 
Axles. V4.A0O.0O. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Ten other cara in very good condition are covered by our BuHetit^— mailed upon rmvumxt. 


Phone, Fillmore 1856 




Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 


Equipment, Apparatus and ^applies Used by the Electric Railway Industry with 
Names of Manufacturers and Distributors this Issue 

itdvertiBiiis. Street Cat 

Collier, Inc.. Barron G. 
Air Keeeivers, Afterooolen 

Ingersolt-Rand Co. 
Aachors, Guy 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Otiio Brass Co. 

Standard Steel Work* Co. 
Westtngbouse E. & M. Co. 
Armature Shop Tools 

Blec. Service Supplies Co. 
Automatic Beturn Switch 

Ramapo Aiaz Corp. 
Automatic Safety Switch 

Kamapo Ajax Corp. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel & Old. 0». 
.Axles. Car Wheel 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co.. The J. Q. 

Carnegie Steel Co. 

Westiughouse E. * K. Oa. 
Axle Straighteners 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. C». 
Babbitt Metal 

More-Jones Br. & Metal Co. 
Babbitting Devices 

Columbia M. W. & K. I. Co. 
Badges and Buttons 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Internafl Register Co.. The 
Bearings and Bearing HetaU 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. 0». 

General Electric Co. 

Gilbert & Sons, B. F. A. 

Le Grand. iDe.. M* 

More-Jones Br. Ic Metal Co. 

Westingbouse E. & M. Co. 
Bearings, Center and Kollar 

Baldwin Locomotive Works 

Stucki Co.. A. 
Bearings. Roller 

Staflord Roller Bearing Car 
Truck Corp'n 
Bells and Gongs 

Brill Co.. The J. Q. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. 0«. 

Consolidated Car-Heatlnc Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Babcock A Wilcox Co. 
Boiler Tubes (Charcoal Iraa 
and Steel) 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel & Ord. Co. 

National Tube Co. 
Bonding Apparatus 

American Steel A Wire Oa. 

Electric Railway Improre- 
ment Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Indianapolis Switch A Ttot 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Rail Welding & Bondluc Co. 

Railway Track-work Co. 
Bonds, Rail 

American Steel A Wire Oo. 
Electric Railway Imp. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Indianapolis Switch A Trot 

Ohio Bras5i Co. 

Railway Track-Work Co. 

Rail Welding A Bonding Co. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Book Publishers 

McGraw-Hill Book Co. 
Brackets and Cross Arms 
(See also Poles, Ties, 
Posts, etc.) 

Bates Exp. Steel A Tr. Co. 

Electric Ry. Equip. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Oo. 

Hubbard A C!o. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Brake Adjusters 

National Ry. Appliance Oo. 

Westingbouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Brake Shoes 

Amer. Br. Shoe A Fdry. Oo. 

Barbour-Stockwell Co. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Columbia M. W. A K. I. Oo. 
Brakes, Brake Systems mat 
Brake Parts 

A'-kley Brake A Sopplj 

Allis-Cbalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Oo. 

Oneral Electric Co. 

National Brake Co. 

Westingbouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Brooms, Track, Steel or Bat- 

Amer. Rattan A Reed Ktc. 
■brushes. Carbon 

General Electric Oo. 

Jeandron. W. J. 

Le CarOuue Co. 

Morganite Brush Co. 

Westingbuuse K. A M. Co. 
Brushes, oraphite 

Mur^auile inrush Co. 

0. S. Graphite Co. 
Brushes. Wire Pneumatic 

ingersoU-Kand Co. 
Brush Holders 

Anderson Mfg. Co.. A. A 
J. M. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 
Buses, Motor 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

National Vulcanized Fibre 
Bushings, Case Hardened and 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 
Bus Seats 

Hale & Eilbum <}arp. 

He.vwood-Wakefield Co. 
Cables (See Wires and 

Cambric, Tapes, Yellow A 
Black Varnished 

Irvington Varnish A Ins. Co. 
Carbon Brushes (See Brushes 

Car Lighting iFixtures 

Elec. Service Supplies 
Car Panel .Safety Switches 

Consolidated Car-Heating Co. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Cars, Dump 

Differential Steel Car Co. 
Cars, Passenger, Freight 
Express. Etc. 

Amer. Car Co. 

Brill Co., The J. Q. 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Kuhlman Car Co.. O. C. 

Midvale Steel A Ord. Co. 

National Ry. Appliance Co. 

Wason Mfg. Co. 
Cars, Second Hand 

Electric Equipment Co. 
Cars, Seir-Propelled 

General Electric Co. 
Castings, Brass, Composition 
or Copper 

Anderson Mfg. Co., A. A 
J. M. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 

More-Jones Br. A Metal Co. 
Castings, Gray Iron and 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 
Castings, Malleable and 

Amer. Brake Shoe A Fdry. 

Bemis Car Truck (^. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 

tye Grand. Inc^ Blc 
Catchers and Retrievers. 

E.irll. Chas. I. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Wood Co.. Chas. N. 
Catenary Construction 

Archbold-Brady Co. 
Circuit Breakers 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghuse E. A M. Co. 
Clamps and Connectors for 
Wires and Cables 

Anderson Mfg. (3o., A. A 
J. M. 

Electric Ry. Equip. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. (3o. 

General Electric Co. 

Hubbard & Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Westingbouse E. & M. Co. 
Cleaners and Scrapers — 
Track (See also Snow- 
Plows. Sweepers and 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Clusters and Sockets 

General Electric Co. 
Coal and Ash Handling (See 
Conveying and Hoisting 
Coll Banding and Winding 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 
Colls. Armature and Field 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Ck). 

Economy Elec. Devices Co. 

(General Electric Co. 

Rome Wire Co. 
Colls, Choke and Kicking 

General Electric Co. 

Westinfhouse E. A M. Co. 
Coln-Coontlng Machines 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Internafl Rfgister Co.. The 
Commutator Slotters 

Electric Service Sup. (Jo. 

General Blectrio C!o. 

WestlDcbonse B A X. Oo. 

Commutator Truing Devices 

General Electric Co. 
Commutators or Parts 

Cameron liliec'l Mfg. Co. 

Columbia M. W. A M. 1. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Compressors. Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Ck). 

(Seneral Electric Co. 

IngersoU-Rand Co. 

Westingbouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Compressors, Air, Portable 

Ingersoll-Rand (^. 
Concrete Reinforcing Bars 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel & Ord. Co. 

Allis-Cbalmers Mfg. Ck>. 

General Electric Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Condensor, Papers 

Irvington Varnish A Ins. Co. 
Connectors. Solderless 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Connectors. Trailer Car 

Consolidated Car-Heat'g Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Controllers or Parts 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 

(Jeneral Electric Co. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Controller Regulators 

Electric Service Sup. (^. 
ControUIng Systems 

General Electric Co. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Converters, Rotary 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric (Jo. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co 
Conveying and Hoisting Ma- 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 
Copper Wire 

Anaconda Copper Min. Co. 
Cord Adjusters 

National Vulcanized Fibre 
Cord, Bell, Trolley Register, 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Internafl Register Co.. The 

Roebling's Sons Co.. J. A. 

Samson Cordage Works 

Silver Lake Co. 
Cord Connectors A Couplers 

Electric Senrice Sup. Co. 

Samson Cordage Works 

Wood Co.. CSias. N. 
Couplers, Car 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Westingbouse Tr. Br. Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. C!o. 
Cross Arms (See Brackets) 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Crossing Foundations 

International Steel Tie Co. 
'rosslng Frog A Switch 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 

Wharton. Jr.. A Co., Wm. 
Crossing Manganese 

Indianapolis Switch A Frog 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Crossing Signals (See Sig- 
nals, Crossing) 
Crossings Track (See Track) 

Special Work) 
Crossings, Trolley 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Crushers. Rock 

Allis-<3halmers Mfg. (3o. 
Curtains and Cartmn 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Morton Mfg. C!o. 
Dealers* Machinery 

Electric Equipment Co. 
Derailing DeTloes (See Track 

Derailing Switches 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Destination Signs 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 
Detective Service 

Wish Service. P. Edward 
Door Operating Derlces 
Con. Car-Heating Co. 
Nafl Pneumatic Co.. Inc. 
Doors and Door Fixtures 
Brill Co.. The J. O. 
General Electric Co 

Hale A Kilbum Corp. 
Doors. Folding Vestibule 

Nafl Pnetimatlc Co.. Inc. 
Draft Rigging (See Couplers) 
Drills. Rock 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Drills, Track 
American Steel A Wire Co. 
Electric Service Sup. Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Ohio Brass Co. 
Dryers, Sand 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Electrical Wires and Cables 
Amer. Electrical Works 
American Steel A Wire Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., J. A. 
Electric Grinders 

Railway Track-Work Co. 
Electrodes. Carbon 
Indianapolis Switch A Frog 

Railway Track-Work Ck). 
Electrodes. Steel 
Indianapolis Switch A Frog 

Railway Track-Work Co. 
Engineers Consulting Con- 
tracting and (h)eratlng 
Allison & Co.. J. R. 
Andrew. Sangster A Co. 
Archbold-Brady Co. 
Arnold Co.. The 
Beeler. John A. 
Bibbins. J. Rowland 
Byllesby A Co., H. M. 
Day & Zimmermann 
Feustel. Robert M. 
Ford. Bacon A Davis 
Hemphill A Wells 
Hoist. Englehardt W. 
Jackson. Walter 
Kelly. Cooke A Co. 
Ong. Joe R. 
Parsons. Elapp. BrinkerhofI 

A Douglas 
Richey. Albert S. 
Robinson A Co.. Inc.. 

Dwight P. 
Sanderson A Porter 
Smith A Co., C. B. 
Stone A Webster 
White Engineering Corp.. 
The J. G. 
Engines. Gas, Oil or Steam 
Allis-Chalmers MYg. 0>. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Fare Boxes 
Cleveland Fare Box Co. 
Economy Electric Devices 

National Ry. Appliance Co. 
Cambria 3teel Co. 
Midvale Steel A Ord. Co. 
Fences. Woven Wire and 
Fence Posts 
American Steel A Wire Oo. 
Fenders and Wheel Guards 
Brill Co.. The J. G. 
Cleveland Fare Box Co. 
Consolidated Car Fender Co. 
Eflectric Service Sup. Co. 
Le Grand. Inc.. NIc 
Fibre and Fibre Tnb'Tg 
National Vulcanized Fibre 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Field Colls (See Colls) 
Flangeway Guards. Steel 
(Jodwin Co.. Inc.. W. S. 
Cambria Steel Co. 
Carnegie Steel Co. 
Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 
Midvale Steel A Ord. Co. 
Frogs s Crosstngs. Tee Ball 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Frogs. Track 

(See Track Work) 
Wharton. Jr.. A Co.. Wm. 
Frogs. Trolley 
Ohio Brass Co. 
Fuses and Fuse Boxes 
Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 
Consolidated Car-Heating Co. 
Greneral Electric Co. 
Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Williams A Co.. J. H. 
Fuses, Reflllable 
Columbia M. W. A K. I. Co. 
(rcneral Electric Co. 
Gages, Oil and Water 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Westlnghonse Tr. Br. Oo. 
Gas-Electric Cars 

General Electric Co. 
San Producers 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co 
Gasoline Torches 
Economy Electric Devices 
Gates, Car 

Brill Co., The J. O. 
Gear Blanks 
Cambria Steel Ck). 
Carnegie Steel Co. 
Midvale Steel A Ord. Co. 

Gear Cases 

Chilliugwortb Mfg. Co. 

Columbia M. W. & M. 1. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. {^. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Gears and Pinions 

Aokley Brake A Supply 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

National Railway Appliance 

Nuttall Co.. R. D. 
Generating Sets, Gas-Blectrlr 

(^neral Electric Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Goggles, Eyes 

Indianapolis Switch A Frog 

Smith Heater Co.. Peter 
Gongs (See Bells and Gongs) 
Oreasee (See Lubricants) 
Grinders and Grinding Sup- 

Indianapolis Switch A Frog 

Railway Track-Work Co. 
Grinders, Portable 

Railway Track-work Co. 
Grinders, Portable Electric 

Railway Track-work Co. 
Grinding Bricks and Wheels 

Railway Track-work Co. 
Onard Kail Clamps 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Onard Rails, Tee Ball and 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Guards, Trolley 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Hammers, Pneumatic 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Harps, Trolley 

Anderson Mfg 0>.. A. A 
J. M. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Hore- Jones Br. A Metal Co. 

Nuttall Co.. R. D. 

Star Brass Works 

Thornton Trolley Wheel Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

(Seneral Electric Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Heaters, Car (Electric) 

Consolidated Car Heating Co 

Economy Electric Devices 

Gold Car Heating A Light- 
ing Co. 

National Ry. Appliance Co. 

Smith Heater Co.. Peter 
Heaters. Car. Hot Air and 

Smith Heater Co.. Peter 
Heaters. Car (Store) 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Sterling Varnish Co. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Helmets. Welding 

Indianapolis Switch A Frog 

Railway Track-Work Co. 

Hoists and Lifts _ 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co 

Ford-Chain Block Co. , 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Hose. Bridges 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Hydraulic Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Indnstrini Co-ordination 

Sherman Service. Inc. 
Instruments, Measuring and 

Economy Electric Devices 

Co- - .„ 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 

Insulating Cloth. Paper and 

(General Electric Co. 
Irvington Vamlsh A Ins. 

National Vulcanized Fibre 

Standard Underground Cable 
Westingbouse E. A M. Co. 
Insulating Silk 
Irvington Vamlsh A Ins. 

Insulating Tarnishes 
Irvington Vamlsh A Ins. 

iBsnIation (See also Paints) 
Anderson Mfg. Co.. A. A 

J. M. 
Electric Ry. BanlP. Co. 
Electric Service Sup. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Irvington Varnish A Ins. C«. 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


•■<• iiiiimiiiiiiimiiiiiimiiiiin imiimimiiii iiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiimimiiiiii iiiiiiiiun miiiniii il anmniniiiimiiimiii nun i nuni miini nnnimnnnin nimnnunmmiunminnnnnninnns 

Brake Shoes 
A.E.R.A. Standards 

Diamond "S" Steel Back is the Best Type j | 




D-67 for Narrow Treads 
D-87 for Wide Treads 

I American Brake Shoe and Foundry Co. | 

I 30 Church Street, New York J 

I 332 So. Michigan Ave., Chicago Chattanooga, Tenn. | 

SmnHinninniiiiiiiiniinlinunilMl iiij ilnni iiiniinnlllliiiMniuiiinmunnri iiiim nininn ininic 

lit niniinnnnimnuniun nninn i nnininuimi uniniin i nnininnnininniiniiimnii iinni^ 

I The Kalamazoo Trolley Wheels f 

i lj»ve always been made of en- i 

i tirely new metal, which accounts 

I for their long life WITHOUT 


I not be misled by statements of 

i large mileage, because a wheel 

i 'hat will run too long will dam- 

I ige the wire. If our catalogue 

I does not show the style you 

I need, write us — the LARGEST 






^ninniunniiininni umiii iiniiiiiiiiniiiiiMniiiii iifiiiiiiiiiiini i mn iiniminnini nuiimc 

aniinriiiiiiniiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiii i ii mi iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiini uiiiiiiiiiiiii: | 


I Reduce track, tamping 

I and maintenance costs. 

Ask for Bulletin 9123 


I 11 Broadway, New York 170 rr 

~'unmMinrmuimiirMniiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiMiirimiiMiiiiiiiiimiiMiiimiiiiiinii)imiiitn<iiiniiiiiiiiuiimimiiiM^ iiiiiiiiiiiimMiiiR 

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Cut Power Require- | 
ments in Half | 

Prevent hot boxes and i 

resultingr journal troubles; i 

check end thrust and do i 

away with all lubrication B 

diffleultics BECAUSE — | 

They Klimlnate i 

Juiirnal l-VletlOR = 

Cuarantred Two Years | 

Auk tor literattire 1 

STArroRD nourn DDwrnl 
cah truck corpohation I 


= S 

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I Fit A.E.R.A and M.C.B. Stand- 

s ard Journals: lleadUv Applied to 
i Equipment Sow in I'* 

The No-StafF Brake 

for any size and 

type of car 

Apply the advantares of the staffleu brak* 
with its space-saving features, to all your 
cars. Ackley No Staff Brakes are adaptable 
to any kind of service. The eccentric chain- 
winding: drum insures quickest applications 
and maximum power. 

Price only $32.00 


r, ■■ \-\y\- OMPAHY.KWtSEKTAT^V ' 


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lu»uUitluu. Slot 

lrvuis:toa VaroiBh A ins. Co. 

(See also Une Mjkterlal) 

Anderson Hig. Co., A. & 
J. M. 

Eflectric Ry. Equip. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Irvinrton Varnish A Ins. Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Westinshouse E. & M. Co. 
InsnJator Fins 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Hubbard & Co. 

InKulators. IliKh Voltage 

l^app Insulator Co.. Inc. 
Insurance, Fire 

Marsh & McLennan 

Jacks (See also C^ranes* 

Hoists and Lifts; 

Buckeye Jack Mlg. Co. 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 
Joints, Rail 

(See Rail Joints) 
Journal Boxes 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 
Jmnctlon Boxes 

Standard Underground Cable 
[Amp Guards and Fixtures 

Anderson Mfg. Co., A. & 
J. M. 

Electric Serrice Sup. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Westin^house E. & M. Co. 

Lamps, Arc and Incandeseent 

(See also Hradllghts) 

Anderson Mffi:. Co., A. k 
J. M. 

(General Electric Co. 

Westingrhouse E. A M. Co. 
Lamps, Signal and Marksr 

Nlchols-Llntem C^. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
lAntems, ClassifleatioD 

Nichols-Lintem Oo. 
LIshtnInc Proteottan 

Anderson Mfg. Co.. A. A 
J. M. 

Blectric Service Sup. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Ohio Brass Co 

Shaw. Henry M, 

Weetinghouse h.. * II. Oo. 
Line Material (Sao alsa 
Brackets, Insalatars. Wires, 

Anderson Htg. Co.. A. A 
J. M. 

Archbold-Brad7 Co. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 

Blectric Service Sup. Oo. 

Electric Ry. Bqulp. Co. 

General Electric fVi. 

Johns-STanville, Inc. 

More-Jones Br. A Metal Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Westinghouse B. A M. 0>, 
Locking Spring Boxes 

Wharton. Jr.. A Co.. Wm. 
L«eomatlTes, ElecMe 

Baldwin I.opomotive Works 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse B. A M. Co. 
Lnbrloating Englne^r p 

Galena Signal Oil Co. 

Texas Co. 

nniversal Tyubricstlnr Co. 

Vacuum Oil Co. 
Lnbricants. Oils and Orsasss 

Galena Signal Oil Co. 

Texas Co. 

nniversal T-ubrlcatlng Co. 

Vacuum Oil Co, 
Hachine Tfwls 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. C!s 
Machine Work 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co 
Manganese Steel Castings 

Wharton. Jr.. A Co., Wm, 
Manganese Steel Guard Balls 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Manganese Steel Special 
Track Work 

Indianapolis Switch A JVog 

Ramapo Ajax Ckirp. 

Wharton. Jr.. A Co., Wm. 
Meters (.See Instmmcnts) 
Meters, Oar, Watt-Bonr 

Economy Electric Devices 
Mot^r Roses 

(See Rases, Motor) 
Motormen's Seats 

Brtll Co., The J. G. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Wood (Jo.. (Sias. N, 
Minors. Electric 

Allis Chalmers Mlg. Co, 

WestinEhouse E. A M. Co. 
Motors and Generators, Sets 

(Seneral Electric Co. 

Cambria Steel C!o. 

Midvale Steel A Ord. Co. 
Nats and uolts 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg Co. 

BarbourStockwell Co. 

Bemi.i Car Truck Co. 

Columbia M. W. A U. I. Oo 

Hubbard A Co. 
Oils (See Lubricants) 

Electric Service Sup. Co 

Westinghouse E. A M. Co. 
Paints and Varnishes, Insn- 

Beokwith-Chandler Co. 

Paints and Varnishes (I'rcMir- 

Ackiey Brake A Supply 

BecRwithChandler Co. 
Paints and Varnishes (or 

National Ry. AppUance Co. 
Pavement Breakers 

IngersoU-Rand Co 
Paving (iuards, Steel 

Giiilwin Co., Inc., W. S. 
Paving Material 

Amer. Br. Shoe A Fdry. Co. 
Pickups, Trolley Wire 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Ohio Brass (X). 
Pinion Pullers 

Columbia M. W. A M. 1. Co 

Electric Service Sup Co. 

General Electric Cu. 

Wood Co.. Chas. W. 
Pinions (See Gears) 
Pins, Case Hardened. Wood 
and Iron 

Bemis Car Truck CX>. 

Electric Service Sup. Co, 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Westinghouse Tr. Br. (3o. 

National Tube Co. 
Pipe Fittings 

Westinghouse Tr. Br. Co. 
Planers (See Machine Tools) 
Plates tor Tee Kail Switches 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Pliers — Kublier Insnlated 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Pneumatic Tools 
Pole Reinforcing 

Hubbard A Co. 
Pole Line Hardware 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Poles, Metal Street 

Bates Exp. Steel Truss Co. 

Electric Ry. Equip. Co. 

Hubbard A Co. 
Poles, Trolley 

Anderson Mfg. Co., A. A 
J. M. 

Columbia M. W. A M, I. (ki. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Niilioinal Tube Co 

Nuttall Co.. R. D. 
Poles, Tubular Steel 

Electric By. Equip. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

National Tube Co. 
Poles and Ties, Treated 

Bell Lumber Co. 

International Creosoting and 
Construction Co. 
Poles. Ties, Post, Piling and 

Bell Lumber Co. 

International Creosoting and 
Construction Co. 

Le Grand. Inc., Nlc 

Nashville Tie Co. 
Porrelain, Special High 

Lapp Insulator Co. 
Power Saving Devices 

Economy Electric Devices 

National Ry. Appliance Co. 
Pressure Regulators 

(Seneral Electric Co 

Ohio IJrasB Co. 

Westinghouse E. A M. Co. 
Production Kngineeiing 

Sherman Service. Inc. 

AUis-C^almers Mfg. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Pumps, Vacuum 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Punches. Ticket 

Bonney-Vehslage Tool Co. 

International Reg. Co., The 

Wood Co., <^as. N. 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel & Ord. Co. 
Rail Braces A Fastenings 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Rail Grinders (See Grinders) 
Rail Joints 

CameCTe Steel Co. 

Hail Joint Co.. The 

Lorain Steel Co. 
Rail Joints, Welded 

Indianapolis Switch A Frog 
Rails, Steel 

Carnegie Steel Co. 
Railway Paving Guards, Steel 

Gmlwin Co.. Inc., W. S. 
Railway Safe\> Switches 

Consolidated Car Heating Co. 

Westinghouse E. A M. Co. 
Rail Welding 

Rail Welding A Bonding Co. 

Railway Track- work Co. 

Amer. Rat. A Reed Mfg. Go. 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Electric Service 3ud. Co. 

Hale & Kllbum Corp, 
Registers and Fittings 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

International Reg. Ck) , The 

Rooke Automatic Reg. Co. 
Belnforeemeat. Concrete 

American Steel A Wire Co 

Carnegie Steel Co. 
Repair Shop Appliances (See 
also Coil Banding and 
Winding Maehlnn) 

Columbia M W A M. I. (k>. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Uepair »>ork (See uImi €oi1s> 

Columbia M. W. A M 1. C.O. 

(^etjt-ral Ei.^aric Co 

Westinghuust E. A M. Ck>. 
Replacers, Car 

C..iUMibla .M W AM 1. Oo. 

Electric Service Sup. Co 
KrsiMuuce, Grid 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 
Resistance, Wire and Tube 

General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse E. A M. Co. 

(consolidated Car-Heating Co. 
Retrievers, Trolley (See 

Catchers and Retrlevera. 

(Jeneral Electric Co. 

Westinghouse E. A M. Co. 
Rolled Steel Wheels 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel A Ord. Co. 
Roller Bearings 

StaOord Roller Bearing Car 
Truck Corp. 
Banders, Track 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Coltunbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

NicholB-Lintern Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Sash Fixtures, Car 

Brill Co., The J. G. 
Sash Metal Car Window 

Hale A Kilburn Corp. 
Scrapers, Track (See Clean- 
ers and Scrapers, Track) 
Screw Drivers, Rubber In- 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 
Seating Materials 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 
Seats, Car (See also Rattan) 

Amer. Rattan A Reed Mlg. 

Brill Co., The J, G. 

Hale A Kilburn Corp. 

Heywood-Wakefleld Co. 
Second Hand Equipment 

Electric Equipment Co. 
Shades, Vestibule 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Brill Co., The J. 0. 

Hubbard A (3o. 
Side Bearings (See Bearings, 

Center and Side) 
Signals, Car Starting 

Coo. Car Heating Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Nat'l Pneumatic (3o„ Inc. 
Signals, Indicating 

Niohols-Lintem C!o. 
Signal Systems, Block 

Blectric Service Sup. Co. 

Nachod Signal Co., Inc. 

U. S. Electric Signal Co. 

Wood Co., (Jhas. N. 
Signal Systems, Highway 

Nachod Signal Co.. Inc. 

U. S. Electric Signal Co. 
Slack Adjusters 

(See Brake Adjusters) 

Carnegie Steel Co. 
Sleet Wheels and letters 

Anderson Mfg. Co., A. A 
J. M. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I, Co. 

Electric Ry. Equip. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Morejones Br. A Metal Co. 

Nuttall Co.. R. D. 
Smokestacks, Car 

Nichols-Lintem Co. 
Snow-Plows, Sweepers and 

Amer. Rat. A Reed Mfg. Co. 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 

Consolidated Car Pender Co. 
Special Adhesive Papers 

Irvington Varnish A Ins. 

Amer. Steel A Wire Co. 
Splicing Compounds 

Westinghouse E. A M. Co. 
Splicing Sleeves (.See Clamps 

and Connectors) 
Springs, Car and Truck 

Amer. Steel A Wire Co. 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Brill Co., The J. G. 
Sprinklers. Track and Road 

Brill Co.. The J. G. 
Steel Castings 

Wharton. Jr.. A Co.. Wm. 
Steels and Steel Products 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Morton Mfg. Co. 

Midvale Steel A Ord. Co. 
Steel Freight Cars 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel A Ord. Co. 
Steps. Car 

Morton Mfg. Co. 
Stokers. Meehanleal 

Bsbcock A Wilcox Cn 

Westinghouse E- A M. Cn 
Storage Batteries (See Rat 
teries **»orare I 

Strain Insulators 

Ohio Brass Co 

Roebling's Sons (3o.. J. A 

Structural Steel 
Cambria Steel Co. 
MidvaJe Steel A Ord. Co. 

Babcock A Wilcox (;o. 
Sweepers, Snow tSee Sno» 
Plows, Sweepers and 
Switch Stands 
indianupous Switch A Frog 
Switch Stands and Fixtures 

Ramapo Aja.Y Corp 
Switches, Selector 

Nichols-Lintem Co. 
Switches. TraeJt (See Track, 

Special Work) 
Switches and Switchboards 
Aiiis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Anderson Mfg. Co.. A. A 
J. M. 
Electric Service Sup. <3o. 
General Electric Ck). 
Westngbouse E. A M. Co. 
Switches. Tee Rail 

Ramapo Ajax Corp. 
Tampers, Tie 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Hallway TiackWork Co. 
Tapes and Cloths (r^ee In- 
sulating Cloth. Paper and 
Tee Rail Special Track Work 

Ramapo Ajax Ckirp 
Telephones and Parts 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 
Terminals, Cable 
Standard Underground Cable 

Testing Instruments (See In- 
struments, Electrical Meas- 
uring, Testing, etc.) 


Con. Car Heating (k>. 

Gold Car Heating A Light- 
ing Co. 

Railway Dtillty Co. 

Smith Heater Co.. Peter 
Ticket Choppers and Destroy- 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 
Tie Plates 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel A Ord. Co. 
Ties and Tie Rods, Steel 

Barbour-Stockwell Co. 

Carnegie Steel (io. 

International Steel Tie (k>. 
Ties, Wood Cross (See Poles, 

Ties, etc) 
Tongue Switches 

Wharton, Jr. A Co.. Wm. 
Tool Steel 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Carnegie Steel Co, 

Midvale Steel A Ord, Co. 
Tools, Track and Mlscellane- 


Amer. Steel A Wire Co. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Co. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Hubbard A Co. 

Railway Track-work Co. 
Towers and Transmission 

Bates Exp. Steel Truss Co. 

Westinghouse E. A M. Co. 
Track Expansion Joints 

Wharton. Jr.. A Co.. Wm. 
Track Grinders 

Railway Track-work Co. 
Trackless Trollicars 

St. Louis Car Co. 
Track, Special Work 

Barbour-Stockwell Co. 

Indianapolis Switch A Prog 

New York Switch A Cross- 
ing Co. 

St. Louis Frog A Switch Co. 

Wharton. Jr., A Co., Wm. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

(Jeneral Electric Co. 

Westinghouse E. A M. Co. 
Trrads, Safety. Stair Car Step 

Morion Mfg, Co. 
Trolley Bases 

Anderson Mfg. Co.. A. A. 
J. M. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Nuttall Co., R. D. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Trolley Bases. Retrieving 

Ackley Brake A Supply 

Anderson Mfg. Co., A, A 
J. M. 

Blectric Service Sup. Co. 

(reneral Electric (Do. 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Trolley Buses 

Brill Co., The J. O. 

(General Electric Co. 

Westinghouse E. A M. (3o. 
Trolley Materials, Overhead 

More-Jones Brass A Metal 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Trolley Shoes 

Economy Elec. Devices Co. 
Trolley and Trolley Systems 

Ford Chain Block Co. 
Trolley Wheels and Harps 

Morejones Brass A Metal 

Thornton Trolley Wheel Co 

March 10, 1923 

Trolley Wheels, (See Wheels, 
I roUey Wheel Bashings) 

More-Jouos Brass A Metal 
Trolley Wire 

Amer. Electrical Works 

Amer. Steel A Wire Co. 

.•\naeonda Copper Min. Oo. 

Roebling's Sons 0>., J. A. 

Home Wire Co. 
rracks, <^ar 

Baldwin Locomotive Works 

Bemis Car lYuck oo. 

Brill Co.. Tlxe J. G. 
I'ubing, .Steel 

National Tube Co. 
lubiug, Leiiow and Blaak 
Flexible Varnishes 

Irvington Varnish A Ins. Os. 
Turbines, Stetuu 

Allis Chalmers Mfg, Co. 

(Jeneral Eicotnc Co. 

Westing&ouse E. A M. Oo. 
Turbines, t\ater 

AlUs-Chalmers Mfg. Oo. 

Indianapolis Switch A Pros 

Electric Service Sup. Oo. 

E. Z. Car Control Corp. 

Ohio Brass Ck>. 

Percy Mfg. Co. 

Turnstile Car Corp. 
Upholstery Material 

Amer. Rattan A Reed Mtt. 

Westinghouse Tr. Br. Oo. 
Vacuum Imnregnatton 

Allis-Chahners Mlg. 0>. 
Varnished Papers 

Irvington Varnish A Ins. Co. 
Varnished SUks 
Irvington Varnish A Ins. Co. 

Ventilators, Car 

Brill Co., The J. G. 

National Ry. Applianco Oo. 

Nichols-Lintem C!o. 

Railway Utility Co. 
Welders, Portable EleetH' 

Electric Railway Improve- 
ment Co. 

Indianapolis Switch A Prof 

Ohio Brass Ck>. 

Railway Track-work Co. 

Rail Welding A Bonding 0*. 
Welding Processes mad Aw 

Elc'trio Railway Improve- 
ment Co. 

(}eT>«rM Electric (3o. 

Indianapolis Switch A Frov 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Railway Track-work Oo. 

Rail Welding A Bondlnc Os. 

Westinghouse E. A M. Oo. 
Welders, Rail Joint 

Indiinapolis Switch A Frof 

Lorain Steel Co. 

Ohio Brass Co. 

Railway Track-work Oo. 

Rail Welding A Bonding Os. 
Welders, Steel 

Indianapolis Switch A Troc 
WeldinK Steel 

Railway Track-Work Co. 
Wheel Guards (See Fea4en 

and Wheel Gnards) 
Wheel Presses (See Machine 

Wheels, Car, Cast Iran 

Bemis Car Truck Co. 

Griffin Wheel Co. 
Wheels. Car, Sted and Btesl 

Bemlg Car Truck Co. 

Carnegie Steel Co. 
Wheels, Trolley 

Anderson Mfg. Co., A. A 
J. M. 

Columbia M. W. A M. I. Oo. 

Copper Products Forging Oo. 

Electric Ry. Bquip. (3o. 

Electric Service Sup. Co. 

Oneral Electric Co. 

Oilbcrt A Sons. B. F. A. 

More-Jones B. A M. Co. 

Nuttall Co.. R. D. 

Star Brass Works 
Whistles. Air 

(Jeneral Electric <3o. 

Ohio Brass Ck). 

Westinghouse Tr. Br. Co. 

Cambria Steel Co. 

Midvale Steel A Ord. C!o. 
Wire Rope 

Amer. Steel A Wire Co. 

Roebling's Sons Co., J, A. 
Wires and Cables 

Amer. Blec'i Works 

Amer. Steel A Wire 0>. 

Anaconda Copper Min. Oo. 

(Jeneral Electric Co 

Indianapolis Switch A Frog 

Kerite Ins. Wire A Cable Co. 

Roebling's Sons Co., J. A. 

Rome Wire Co. 

Standard Underground Cable 

Westinghouse E. A M. Oo. 
Woodworking Machines 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. <3o. 

March 10, 1923 

ElectricRailwayJournal 87 

giiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiniimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiliiiiiiiii: imiiiiii i JiiiiiiiiijiniiiniiniiiiJiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiininriiiiiii mm iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini 

E A R L L 

iii|. Mfiniii 

DIFFERENT kinds of service require different modes 
of treatment. For years we have specialized on 
Catchers and Retrievers exclusively. We can satisfac- 
torily meet every condition. 

We can give you the Ratchet Wind, the Emergency Re- 
lease, the Free-Winding Spring, the Drum Check, and 
other absolutely exclusive features. 

^J^^^, 7^. 

Canadian Agent b: 

Railway A Power Engineerinff Corp., Ltd,, Toronto* Ont. 

In All Other Foreign Countriem : 

International General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

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I Lorain|Special Trackwork | 
Girder Rails 


Electrically Welded Joints | 


Johnstown, Pa. | 

Salem Office*: | 

Atlanta Chicago Cleveland New York i 

Philadelphia Pittsburgh | 

Pacific Coast Representative : i 

United States Steel Products Company = 

i Los Angeles Portland San Francisco SeattU | 

I Export Representative: | 

I United States Steel Products Company. New York. N. Y. | 

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mn I I Mill II HiiiMiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiii^ 

AddreM All § 
Communi- = 
cations t« i 




Car Seat and 

Snow Sweeper Rattan 

For 60 years we have been the largest im- 
porters of rattan from the Far East. It 
is therefore to be expected that when Rat- 
tan is thought of our name, "Heywood- 
Wakefield," instantly comes to mind. 

Follow that impulse and write us when in 
the market for : 

High Grade close woven Rattan Car Seat 
Webbing, canvas lined and unlined, in 
widths from 12 in. to 48 in. 

High Grade Snow Sweeper Rattan in 
Natural and Cut Lengths. 

High Grade Car Seats, cross or long:i- 
tudinal, covered with Rattan, Plush or 


Factory: Wakefield, Mass. 


Heywood-Wakefleld Co. Heywood-Wakefleld Co. 

616 West 34th St., New York 1415 Michigan Ave.. Chicago 1 

E. F. Boyle. Monadnock Bldg.. San Frandseo. Cal. | 

P. N. Grigg. 630 Louisiana Ave.. Waahington. D. C. | 

Railway and Power Engineering Corp.. Toronto and Montreal = 

G. F. Cotter Supply Co., Houston, Texas | 






i-JV I 

(No Alloy) I 


For the one-man car or heavy duty | 

the advantages are the same. | 

Send for Particulars | 


1412 East 47th Street, CLEVELAND | 

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1 220 36th St.) 



Literatare mm 


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Car Heating and Ventilation | 

is one of the winter problems that you must 
settle without delay. We can show you how 
to take care of both, with one equipment. 
Now is the time to get your cars ready Jot 
next winter. Write for details. 



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The Peter Smith Heater Company 1 

1725 Mt. Elliott Ave., Detroit, Mich. | 


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RAIUWA\/lfTIHTVPOMRANV| | a Single Segment or a Complete Commutator | 
'^^■^^■"■■■■J ^^•■■^^i^MMJ N^ ^^^^i^^i^^M^ 5 i . tnrned out with equal care in our shops. The orders we ftll 

Sole Manufactvreri 


for Monitor and Arch Roof Cars, and all classes of baildlngt: | 


of Car Temperattires. 3 

141-151 West S«d St. Write for 1388 Broadway 1 

Chicago. 111. Catalogue New York, N. Y. a 

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is turned out with equal care in our shops. The orders we ftll 
diBer only in magnitude: small orders command our utmost c»r» 
= and skill Just as do large orders. CAMERON quality applies to 
i every coll or segment that we can make, as well as to every com- 
i mutator we build. That's why so many electric railway mea raiy 
E AtMOlutely on our name. 

I Cameron Electrical Mfg. Co., Ansonia, Connecticut 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 10, 1923 



Ackley Brake & Supply Corp. . . 35 

Allis-Chalmers Mf?. Co 30 

Allison & Co., J. E 20 

Amer. Brake Shoe & Fdy. Co. . 33 

American Car Co 39 

American Electrical Works. ... 29 
American Rattan & Reed Mfg. 

Co 32 

American Steel & Wire Co 27 

Anaconda Copper Mining: Co. . . 28 

Anderson Mfg. Co.. A. & J. M. 28 

Andrew Sangster & Co 21 

Arelibold-Brady Co 21 

Arnold Co.. Tlie 20 


Babcock & Wilcox Co 30 

Baldwin Locomotive Works .... 20 

BarbourStockwell Co 29 

Bates Expanded Steel Truss Co. 27 

BeckwithCha:Hller Co 32 

Beeler. John A 20 

Bell Lumber Co 38 

Bemis Car Truck Co 38 

Bibbins J. Rowland 21 

Bonney-Vehslage Tool Co 31 

Brill Co.. J. G 39 

Buckeye Jack Mfg. Co 28 

Byllesby & Co.. H. M 20 


Cambria Steel Co 32 

Cameron Electric Mfg. Co 37 

Carnegie Steel Co 28 

Chillingworth Mfg. Co 38 

Cleveland Fare Box Co 31 

Collier. Inc., Barron Co 21 

Columbia M. W. & M. I. Co. . . . 20 

Consolidated Car Fender Co ... . 38 

Consolidated Car Heating Co ... . 38 

Copper Products Forging Co. . . . 37 


Day & Zimmerman Co., Inc 20 

Differential Steel Car Co 32 


Earn, Chas. 1 37 

Economy Electric Devices Co. . , 38 

Electric Equipment Co 33 

Electric Railway Equipment Co. 29 
Electric Railwaj- Improvement 

Co 29 

Electric Service Supplies Co.. . . 11 

E-Z Car Control Corp 21 


Feustel. Robt. M 20 

Ford. Bacon & Davis 20 

Ford Chain Block Co 30 

"For Sale" Ads 33 


Galena-Signal Oil Co 17 

General Electric Co 18, B. C. 

Gilbert & Sons. B. F. Co 35 

Godwin Co.. W. S 28 

Gold Car Heating & Ltg, Co ... . 37 

Griflen Wheel Co 24 


Hale & Kilbm"n Corp 26 

•Help Wanted" Ads 33 

Hemphill & Wells 20 

Hey wood- Wakefield Co 37 

Hoist Englehardt, W 20 

Hubbard & Co 28 


IndianapoMs Switch & Frog Co. 30 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 35 

International Creosoting & Con- 
struction Co 29 

Internationa] Register Co., The. 31 

International :Steel Tie Co 9 

Irvington Varnish & Insulator 

Co 19 


Jackson. Walter 20 

Jeandron. W. J 32 


Kelly. Cooke & Co 21 

Kerite Ins. Wire & Cable Co ... . 27 
Kuhlman Car Co 39 

Lapp. Insulator Co.. Ine 28 

Le Carbone Co 32 

Le Grand, Inc., Nic 31 

Lorain Steel Co 37 


McGraw-Hill Book Co 23 

Marsh & Mc'Lennan 

Midvale Steel & Ordnance Co. . , 33 

More-Jones Brass & Metal Co. . 32 

Morganite Brush Co 23 

Morton Mfg. Co 38 


Nachod Signal Co.. Ine 38 

Nashville Tie Co 28 

National Brake Co 19 

National Pneumatic Co.. Inc. ... 15 

National Railway Appliance Co. 30 

National Tube Co 8 

National Vulcanized Fibre Co. . 28 

New York Switch & Crossing Co. 29 

Nichols-Lintem Co 31 

Nuttall Co., R. D 24 

Ohio Brass Co. 
Ong. Joe R . . . 

Parsons. Klapp, Bnnckerhoff & 

Douglas 30 

Percy Mfg. Co.. Inc 38 

Positions Wanted and Vacant. . 3.3 

Rail Joint Co 30 

Railway Track -work Co 23 

Railway Utility Co 37 

Ramapo Ajax Corp 38 


Richey. Albert S 20 

Robinson Co.. Dwigbt P 21 

Rwbllng's Sons Co.. John A . . . . 28 

Rome Wire Co 29 

Rooke Automatic Register Co . . 32 

Samson Cordage Works 31 

Sanderson & Porter 20 

Searchlight Section 33 

Shaw. Henry M 28 

Silver Lake Co 32 

Smith & Co.. C. E 20 

Smith Heater Co.. Peter 37 

Stafford Roller Bearing Car 

Truck Corp'n 35 

Standard Underground Cable Co. 21 

Star Bra.s8 Works 35 

Stone & Webster 30 

Stucki & Co.. A 38 

Texas Co 14 

Thornton Trolley Wheel Co.... 32 

Transit Equipment Co 33 

Turnstile Car Co 25 

U. S. Electric Signal Co 28 

U. S. Graphite Co 31 

Universal Lubricating Co 30 

Vacuum Oil Co Front Cover 



"Want"' Ads 

Wason Mfg. Co 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co 

Westinghouse Traction Brake Co. 5 

Wharton. Jr., & Co.. Wm 29 

White Engineering Corp.. The 

J. G 20 

Wish Servir*. The P. Edw 31 

Wood Co.. Chas. N 28 

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Northern CEDAR POLES Western \ 

We guarantee 1 

All grades of poles; also any butt treating specifications s 


Minneapolis, Minn. | 






OUvar Bide. H 

Plttsbur(h, Pa. | 

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S'miiiiiniHiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriuriiitiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiriiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiir. ^i)iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilliiliiiiiiuiiuiiiliiiiiiiiliiiiiliiiiiiiiiniliiMiiiiinMllMillilllillliiniluilllllilriiiiriitiiiiiiiiliiiriiHiriniii(iiiiliim>' 

"Boyerized" Products Reduce Maintenance | 

Bemis Trucks Manganese Brake Heads = 

Case Hardened Brake Pins li.angiiin-se Transom Plates = 

Case Hai-dencd Bushings Manganese Bodv Bushings = 

Case Hardened Nuts and Bolts Bronze Axle Bearings = 

Bemis Pins are absolutely smooth and true in diameter. We = 

carry 40 different sizes of case hardener pins in stock. Samples 5 

furnished. Write for full data. | 

Bemis Car Truck Co., Springfield, Mass. £ 

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Gets Every Fare I 


Cse them In your Prepayment Areae and = 
Street Cars = 

Perey Manufacturing Co., Inc. § 

30 Church Street, New York City | 

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I The Consolidated Car Fender Co.^ Providence, R. 1. | 

I Wendell & MacDufiBe Co., 61 Broadway, New York | 
^ General bales Agents = 






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that's what you want to save | 

Then double the sirlrti by loipMting can oo a kllotratt-bour = 

baiii InitMd ot mUeaca or tlmfr-baaii. Ask for data | 


L. E. Gould, 37 W. Van Buren St.. Chicago | 

OEINERAL AGENT: Llnd Aluminum Field Colli = 

DISTRICT AGENT**: Teter Smith Heaters. Woods Lock Till = 

Fare Boxei. Bemis Truck Specialties. Miller TroI'»« Shoea. = 
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SS New Users in the Last 4 Months 


present an Unusual Combination 

in that they five BETTER RESULTS AT LESS COST 
Manufactured and Sold by 

Morton Manufacturing Company, Chicago 

March 10, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 

Birney Safety Car at Santa Cruz, Cal. Built by the American Car Co. 

Maximum Economy 

The large number of Birney Safety 
Cars in service today is evidence of 
their success. Over 3,600 cars have 
been built by us for service on over 
200 railways. Their introduction 
at a time when economical operation 
and increased receipts were neces- 
sary proved to be the solution of 
many difficult financial problems. 

Today the Birney Safety Car is just 
as capable in providing the most 

service at the lowest cost as it was 
when the industry's financial pulse 
was at its lowest ebb. 

Figured on the basis of its seated 
passenger load the Birney Safety 
Car is the lightest car yet developed, 
and consequently the maximum 
saving in power and maintenance is 
worth taking advantage of. 

The J. G. Brill Company 

Pmh-adel-pmia. Pa 

American Car Co. — G.C. Kuhlman Car Co. 


Wason Manf'c Co. 



Meet These Authorities 
On Steel Tie Track Construction 

AFTER all, those who k'^ow the economy of Steel Tie Con- 
• struction are those who have laid it. On their calm and 
experienced judgment, as it is displayed in their re-orders, we 
rest our case with you. 

The figures in the table below are compiled from our records and our 1923 
Order File, covering a few representative customers who have placed early- 
Spring orders. 

General Location Property 


Total Mileage of 

Twin Tie Track 

as of Dec. 1922, 




An TnHiflnn Tntenirhan ComDanv . . . 








2 38 

1 75 

A Northern Ohio Comoanv 


A Southern New England Company 

A 'M'assarhii'setts Citv Comoanv 


A Southern Colorado Comoanv 



An Eastern Pennsylvania Company 

A Tidewater Virginia Comoanv 


A New York Urban Company 


Our sales method is a sincere effort to co-operate in your investiga- 
tion of Steel Tie Construction as to its performance and cost on 
other properties and its adaptability to your local conditions. It 
will be a pleasure to put this service at your disposal. 

The International Steel Tie Company 
Cleveland, Ohio 

Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

Helpful Hints On Maintenance 






Recognizing the great importance of the proper maintenance 
of electric railway systems, the Westinghouse Company issues 
numerous publications to assist railway operating men. 
The illustrations show some of the more important of these 
publications, as follows: 

Electric Railway Equipment illustrates more than fifty items 
of electric railway equipment, showing the important features 
of each and describing and recommending maintenance practice. 
Railway Operating Data are used in many shops as text books 
for the maintenance of electric railway equipment. 
Cars and Car Equipment is a reference guide in the selection 
of car designs and motor and control applications. 
Westinghouse Standard 600-Volt Railway Motors is of 
great help to superintendents of equipment in selecting from 
our standard line of motors the proper equipment for new or 
rehabilitated cars. 

Part Catalogues illustrate and describe every part of the 
motor, and give the style number and other information neces- 
sary in ordering renewal parts. 
Railway Motor Leaflets show 
the rating, application, perform- 
ance curve, and outline dimen- 
sions of a specific motor, illus- 
trating and describing the im- 
portant parts. / / '"""W^f 


Electric & Manufacturing Co., 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. 







'^Z^.^k ' 


Vol. 61, No. 11 

New York, March 17, 1923 

Pages 435-502 


Engineering Editor 


Associate Editor 


Associate Editor 

Associate Editor 

News Editor 


Editorial Assistant 

Henry W. Blake and Harry L. Brown, Editors 

Padflo Coast Editor 
Rialto Bldg., San Francisco 
New England Editor 
Tremont Uldg., Boston 
Editorial Assistant 
Old Colony Bldg., Chicaio 
Washington Representative 
Colorado Bldg. 

Consulting Editor 


Editorials 435 

Power Generation Costs Reduced 35 per Cent 438 

BT D. E. DRfEN. 

Piece-Work System in Car Maintenance 443 

Methods and Equipment for Remoying Wheels ........ 447 

Bt C. W. Sqiier. 

The Power Distribution System and Its Maintenance. . . .453 

By M. B. Rosevear. 

Track Machinery in Boston 458 

Chrome-Nickel Steel in Special Work 461 

By F. G. Hibbard. 

Signal Maintenance on an Oregon Railway 468 

By H. J. Charters. 

Maintaining Dielectric Strength of Transformer Oil.... 471 

Individual Motor Drive Improves Shop Efficiency 475 

By H, J. Rice. 

Automatic Substation Experience in Cleveland — III .... 477 

By L. D. Bale. 

Readers' Forum 480 

Equipment Maintenance Notes 481 

New Apparatus Available 486 

News of the Industry 4,89 

Financial and Corporate 493 

Traffic and Transportation 497 

Personal Mention 499 

Manufactures and the Markets 501 

McGraw-Hill Co., Inc., Tenth Ave. at 36th St., New York 

JammH MoOraw, Prealdwit Cabla Addreas : ■■Machinist. N. T." 

AJITIIDB J. BiLDWlK, yUa-Piesldeot Publlshera of 

Makjolm Mom, Vloa-Prealdeot puoiisnora or 

B. J. MzHasH, VIce-Prealdmt 

Mason Bbittoic, Vle»-Pr«aI(J«M 

O. D. STBBKT, VIc**Pr«aId«ol 

Jahk H. Mt^RAW, Jr., See. and Tnu. 



Colorado Bulldlix 

Old Colony Building 

Heal EsUte Trust Building 

Leader-Nesn Building 
St. Loina : 

Star Building 
San Franoiboo: 

Rialto Building 

6 BouTorie StraeC. Landca. B. C, 4 

Member Asseelated Busineaa Papera. Inc. 

Meober Audit Bureau ot Clroulatlons 
The annual subscrlDtion rate is t4 in the United Statea. Canada, Mexico, Alaska, 
Hawaii. PhUlDplnes, Porto Rico, Canal Zone. Hondurai. Cuba, Nicaragua. Peru. Co- 
lombia, BollTla, Dominican Republic, Panama, El Salrador, Argentina. Brazil, Spain, 
Uruguay, Coata Rica. Ecuador, Guatemala and Paraguay. Bitra foreign postage in 
other countriea <3 (toul »r, or 29 shillings). Subscriptions may be sent to the 
New York ofBce or to the London offlee. Single copies, postage prepaid, to any part 
of the world, 2 cents. 

Chance ef Addreaa — When change of addreia la ordered the new and the old addreaa 
Duat be glr<n, notice to be recelred at least ten days before the ebange takea place. 
CoivrUht, UI3, by McOraw-Hlll Company. Inc. 

Published weekly. Entered aa second-class matter, June 33, l»«8, at the Poet Ofllea. 
at Now Tork, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Printed Is U. 8. A. 

BnffinMTinff Nmea-Bteard 

American MaeMMH 


CHamicot «td 

UttaUwaical BiwMeertaff 

Coal Ae« 

Biwineerinff amd UMng Jomnai-Preu 

Inotnitria Intmnacional 

But Trantpcrtation 
Bl9e1rie Rmlwav Jouncl 

Eltcttie* WorU 

BloatriMl MerohandUUv 

Jtmrnai ot BltetrMty and 

Wettern Induttry 

(PuHiaketf *■ Ban n-onoUeo) 

Induitriat Bnffineer 

(PuUUhei in CMtKVc) 

AmcrUan Machinirt — Jhropeon 


(PaHUked in L<mivn) 

This Issue 

Illustrates the Scope 

of Maintenance 

MAINTENANCE is one of the 
biggest problems of any electric 
railway. Every phase of it must be 
handled well to keep the wheels turn- 
ing. Realizing this our annual main- 
tenance number is planned to appeal 
to a wide class of readers. Two arti- 
cles on track maintenance, one on line, 
three on equipment, and three on 
p>ower comprise the main section of 
the paper. In addition there are in 
our regular departments eight pages of 
shorter maintenance items and shop, 
track and line kinks. 

Nearly a quarter of all a railway 
spends is for maintenance, so that the 
importance of keeping down costs can- 
not be overlooked. Improvements 
such as those described in this issue 
point direftly to better efficiency, 
which in turn means reduced costs. 
While the busy railway man may pay 
greatest attention to those articles 
dealing with his own department, he 
will find many other ideas in this issue 
that can be applied to his work. The 
advertising pages also hold practical 
suggestions displayed so effectively 
that they are as instructive as the text 
pages. We cannot urge too strongly 
that in this day of inflated costs advan- 
tage should be taken of the experience 
of others in ways of reducing costs, 
such as presented in the two hundred 
twenty-odd pages of this issue — a book 
on maintenance in itself. 

Circulation of this issue, 7,000 Advertising Index — Alphabetical, 160; Classified, 154-158; Searchlight Section, 150-153 

Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 


Its Importance 

The successful and profitable oper- 
ation of an electric railway system 
depends largely upon the proper 
maintenance of its shops; its 
rolling stock; its line and track; its 
power house, and its substations. 

No one department is independent 
of the others — each forms a link 
in the chain that maintains the 
operating efficiency of the system. 
A weak link may mean an inter- 
ruption to service, causing a loss 
to the road and dissatisfied patrons 

It is, therefore, manifest that 
reliability and durability should be 
the principal considerations when 
purchasing renewal parts and other 
apparatus entering into mainte- 
nance. Ultimate cost, not first 
cost, should be the keynote when 
making purchases. 

A brief description of what the 
Westinghouse Company is doing 
to assist in efficient electric railway 
maintenance is given on the pages 

Westinghouse Electric 8C Manufacturing Company 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. 


March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 

TypeSK. Motor 

Bearing Bracket 

Armature Coil 

Field Coil 

The maintenance of an electric rail- 
way system centers principally in the 
shop. How quickly and efficiently 
repairs to rolling stock are made 
depend upon the quality of the shop 
equipment, and how well the equip- 
ment is maintained. 

Westinghouse Type SK Motors and 
Magnetic Control will be found most 
reliable and efficient for driving wheel 
lathes, reversing planers, drill presses 
and other machine tools in the shop. 

For many repair jobs a Westinghouse 
Arc Welding Equipment will save 
time and money. Some of the many 
possibilities where electric welding 
can be used to advantage are in 
repairing truck frames; brake hang- 
ers; journal boxes; resistors: draw- 
heads and underframing; loose bearing 
dowels; worn axles, broken armature 
shafts; broken and worn motor 
frames; axle brackets ; damaged pinion 
fits of shafts, etc. 

Electric ovens for the baking of 
armatures, commutators, etc., are a 
shop necessity, and electric solder and 
electric glue pots should also be a part 
of every shop equipment. All this 
apparatus is manufactured by the 
Westinghouse Company. 

Portable ArcWeldingSet 


Electric Railway Journal 

On The Car 

March 17, 1923 

No.532 Motor 


ArmatuneCoil Complete Armature 

Main Field Coii 
and Pole 

Two fundamental requirements in the 
upkeep of electric railway motors are, 
first, a definite program of systematic 
inspection and, second, a complete 
stock of renewal parts. 

The first will tell when a motor needs 
attention, the second makes possible 
proper rehabilitation of the motor. 

The wisdom of using only Westing- 
house Renewal Parts to maintain 
Westinghouse motors is evident. All 
the renewal parts such as armature 
and field coils, armatures, commuta- 
tors, brushholders, bearings and other 
parts entering into the construction 
of the motor, are the exact duplicates 
of those used in building the complete 
motor. They are made with the same 
skilled workmanship and of the same 
high-grade material, and with the 
same tools. 

Every car should be provided with 
adequate protection against lightning. 
Westinghouse MP Multi - Path 
arrester, the type K-3 condenser 
arrester and the type AR electrolytic 
arrester provide cimple protection 
according to the requirements. When 
the conditions are severe, Westing- 
house Tyjse 1 9 Choke Coils should be 
used in connection with the arr asters. 


Resistor Grid 


March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 

QnTheLine and Track 

Type ELTrolley Ear 

Cleveland Splicer 

Permanency of the overhead Une con- 
struction is an absolute requirement in 
the efficient operation of any electric 
railway system. High rate of accelera- 
tion and shock loads must be reckoned 
with if continuity of operation is to be 

Westinghouse line material will keep 
your overhead lines in good condition. 
It is designed for the severest service and 
can be relied upon to stand the stram 
where traffic is heaviest. Wherever 
difficult line problems are encountered, 
such as reverse curves, or long stretches 
of accurately aligned overhead, 
Westinghouse Cleveland Splicers and 
Westinghouse suspensions and ears give 
the maximum wear and reliability. This 
applies equally to Westinghouse Trolley 
Frogs, crossings, section insulators, and 
all other items used in the construction 
and maintenance of overhead lines. 

The Westinghouse Arc Welding Equip- 
ment is an essential and economical tool 
in maintaining the track system, such as 
building up material on cupped rails, 
worn frogs and crossings at points sub- 
jected to rapid local wear. It is also 
used in rail bonding, and welding fish- 
plates to the rails. 

Type KB Section Insuleitor 

■^^H ^^^H ^^_ ^_ Type B-1 Suspension f^m 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

LiThe Potcer House 


.^flv4 4^*^ :^f4fc^^^^ 



«— 1 

Perhaps the most important Hnk 
in the chain of the electric railway 
system, is the p>ower source — the 
power generating station, upon 
which the operation of practically 
the entire system depends. 

It therefore behooves the electric 
railway company to guarantee the 
reliability of its service to the 
public by exercising the utmost 
care in the selection of power- 
house equipment. 

It is a demonstrated fact that 
Westinghouse turbine generating 
equipments and Westinghouse con- 
densers pKjssess a degree of relia- 
bility surpassed by none. Upkeep 
is extremely low. The efficiency is 

Mechanical stoking is another 
important means of reducing the 
power-house maintenance. 
Westinghouse mechanical stokers 
are recommended as a means of 
increasing combustion efficiency, 
and consequently materially re- 
ducing coal bills. 

WestinghouseUnderfeed Stokers 


March 17, 1923 

Electric Kailwatc Journal 

In The Substation 

Acrtomatic Substation 

In congested metropolitan dis- 
tricts where traffic is heaviest, as 
well as in sparsely settled neigh- 
borhoods, Westinghouse Auto- 
matic Railway Substations have 
a demonstrated universal appli- 

This equipment is "always on 
the job. " Only an occasional 
inspection is required. It auto- 
matically operates to supply 
power upon demand and cuts 
down the supply as require- 
ments diminish. 



Not only does this equipment 
reduce overhead costs, but it 
greatly improves the service and 
assures continuity of operation. 
Since the very beginning of the 
electric railway industry few 
improvements have effected 
such economies and betterment 
of service as has the Automatic 

Westinghouse Electric 8C Manufacturing Company 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 




Electric railroad executives are taking great interest in 
Westinghouse Automatic Sub-Station Switching Equip- 
ment as a way to reduce excessive operating costs. 

Perhaps the most important advantage, in addition to 
labor economy, is the absolutely reliable protection given 
to expensive equipment and to service by automatic 

Since Westinghouse Automatic Switching Equipment is 
combined into a unit Switchboard, practically all wiring 
is done at the factory, thereby reducing installation costs 
to an absolute minimum. 

Write for Leaflet 3998. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 


March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Easy to "^et at'* 

THE ready accessibility to all parts 
is one of the most marked advan- 
tages of Westinghouse DH "Bunga- 
low" Compressors. 

Your inspectors find DH Compressors 
so easy to "get at" that a high state of 

efficiency, with minimum effort and 
expense, is always assured. 

Three sizes— 10, 16 and 25 cu. ft. dis- 
placement. Have you seen Publication 


Westinghouse Traction Brake Company 

General Offices and Works: Wilmerding, Pa. 

B^8ton. Mass. 
Chicago. 111. 
Columbus. Ohio 
Denver. Colo. 
Houston, Tex. 


Los An^e!es 
Mexico City 
St. Louis Mo. 
St. Paul. Minn. 

New York 




San Francisco 


12 .. Electric Railway Journal March 17, 1923 

The Secret of 


Earns More by Saving More 

THE great earning power of the Safety Car is based 
on its ability to save. Among the chief factors in 
this respect is the reduction in platform expense. 

The saving is not achieved by any sacrifice of service. 
In fact, the public has come to regard "Safety Car 
service" as distinctive of the best that can be offered. 

You can enjoy the advantages of the Safety Car either 
by adopting new cars of the standard type or converting 
existing "two-man" cars, and in either case you will 
find complete satisfaction in the use of our Air Brake 
and Safety Car Control Equipment. 

SafetyCar Devices Cot 

OF St. Louis, Mo. 
Postal and Olographic Address: 



It is not a safety ear unless equipped with our stand- 
ard Air Brake and Safety Car Control Devices. 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 




The quicker distribution of heat in 
Aluminum field coils is due to an almost 
solid metallic path to the exterior via 
large square wires. 

With coils of like resistance the heat 
generated is identical and aluminum 
coils are wound to closely duplicate 
copper coils. 

They have the same number of turns 
and repeated tests show that Lind 
Aluminum coils develop and maintain 
full field strength. 

The Aluminum oxide insulation is an 
integral part of the conductor — which, 

Let us quote you prices and 

Longer Life Less Weight 

Same Field Strength 

Less Terminal Trouble 
Quicker Conduction of Heat 
Less Affected By Moisture 

means, that these coils are less affected 
by heat and moisture, and since there 
is no cotton insulation to char or bake 
out shorted fields are practically 

The high specific heat of Aluminum 
compared with copper is another valu- 
able characteristic, especially in coils 
that are loaded intermittently, as in 
Railway Service. 

Consider these long-life features in ad- 
dition to that of saving half the weight 
of all the field coils of every car in 
many cases a weight reduction of more 
than 1000 lb. 

answer detailed questions 

Economy Electric Devices Company 

General Sales Agent* 

Sangamo Economy Railway Meter 

L. E. GOULD, President 

1592 Old Colony Building, Chicago 

Lind Aluminum Field Coils 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

Equipment and materials \vith the 

Car Equipment 

Line Material 

Rail Bonds 

High Tension 


The Ohio 





Hew York Philadelphia Pittsburgh Charleston.W.Va. Chicago Los Angeles San Francisco Paris. Franc* » 
fW i fctrte : Trolley Mat«rial. Rail Bonds. Electric Railway Car Equipmerrt. High Tension Porcelain Insulators. Third Rail Insuf 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


mark reduce maintenance costs 

Measure the results in ultimate expense 

Not by first cost alone, nor unsupported claims, nor yet by 
the occasional record of a single part, but by the long-run 
average of the final aggregate figures of life and cost, is 
determined the best equipment to use. 

Behind every piece of material furnished with the O-B 
mark, is the reputation, the standing and the experience of 
a concern which has been serving electric railways since 
the advent of the first electric railway cars. Among our 
hundreds of regular customers are many of the largest 
companies which were pioneers in the history of the 
industry. If we can satisfy them, we can satisfy you. Just 
as they have found that they can figure on greater savings 
and utmost service with O-B Equipment — so also can you. 

Ask for I ro quotations on every order! 

The Ohio (^ Brass <^° 




New York Philadelphia Pittsburgh Charleston. W.Va. Chicago Los Angeles San Francisco Paris, France 
ProducU: Trolley Material. Rail Bonds. Electric Railway Car Equipment. High Tension Porcelain Inaulators. Third Rail Insulator^ 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 


Maintenance of intangibles 

Maintenance of equipment, way, overhead lines and 
power plants is only part of the maintenance job. 

To maintain 



Doors and steps operated by quick-acting, 
tireless pneumatic door engines save several 
seconds at every stop. With five or six stops, 
per mile, these seconds very quickly add up 
into minutes on every trip. 

To maintain 

Good Will 


Faster service with fewer delays, means better 
satisfaction to the public, and a contented 
public though intangible is a more valuable 
asset than any amount of physical property. 

National Pneumatic Company, Inc. 

Designers, Builders and Installers 

Door and Step Control Door and Step Operating Mechanisms 

Motorman's Signal Lights Safety Interlocking Door Control 

Multiple Unit Door Control 

Principal Office: 50 Church St., New York 

Philadelphia — Colonial Trust Bldg. Chicago — McCormick Building 
Works — Rahway, New Jersey 

Manufactured in Canada by 
Dominion Wheel & Foundries, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 


March n, 1923 Electric Railway Journal 17 

cuts those tangible expenses 

There's even more profit in maintaining your 
valuable intangible assets. 

To maintain 

Safe Operation 


Accidents of the "boarding and alighting" 
class, have been practically eliminated, where 
platform entrances and exits are protected by 
pneumatically-operated doors and steps, inter- 
locked with car control and emergency 

To maintain 

One-Man Efficiency 


Fatigue, that enemy of efficiency and so often 
the occasion of accidents, is minimized when 
the one-man car operator is aided by National 
Pneumatic time-saving, labor-saving, econ- 
omy-producing devices. 

National Pneumatic Company, Inc. 

Designers, Builders and Installers 

Door and Step Control Door and Step Operating Mechanisms 

Motorman's Signal Lights Safety Interlocking Door Control 

Multiple Unit Door Control 

Principal Office: 50 Church St., New York 

Philadelphia— Colonial Trust Bldg. Chicago— McCormick Building 
Works— Rahway, New Jersey 

Manufactured in Canada by 
Dominion Wheel & Foundries, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 17. 1923 


Each has subscribed to 
and is maintaining the 
highest standards of 
practice in its editorial 
and advertising service. 

Advertising- and Selline 
American Architect & 

Architectural Review 
American Blackemith. 

Auto & Tractor Shop 
American Exporter 
American Fimeral 

American Hatter 
American Machinist 
American Paint Journal 
American Paint & Oil 

American Printer 
American School Board 

Architectural Record 
Automobile Dealer and 

Automobile Journal 
Automotive Industries 

Baker's Helper 
Baker's Weekly 
Boiler Maker (The) 
Boot and Shoe 

Brick and Clay Record 
Building Age & The 

Builders Journal 
Buildings and Building 

Building Supply News 

Canadian Grocer 

Canadian Machinery ft 
Manufacturing' News 

Canadian Railway & 
Marine World 

Candy and Ice Cream 

Chemical & Metal- 
lurgical Engineering 

Clothier and Furnisher 

Coal Age 



Daily Metal Trade 

Domestic Engineering 

Dry Grooda Economist 


Dry Groods Reporter 

Electric Railway 



Electrical Record 

Electrical World 

Embalmers' Monthly 

Engineering and 

Mining Journal-Presa 

Engineering News- 


Farm Implement News 

Fire and Water 

Foundry (The) 
Furniture Manufacturer 

and Artisan 

Garment Weekly (The) 
Gas Age-Record 
Good Furniture 

Grand Rapids Furniture 



as affected by 


IT IS to your interest to know that goods 
are well sold, as well as well made. 
You have to pay the cost of selling just as 
you have to pay for the cost of manufac- 
turing. Think it over. 

And the cost of selling is no small item. 
In some cases it costs more to sell goods 
than to make them. The seller who clings 
to antiquated, expensive methods of sell- 
ing is no more entitled to your patronage 
than the one who runs an out-of-date fac- 
tory, because you have to pay the addi- 
tional costs in either case. 

If the waste is to be squeezed out of sell- 
ing, the buyer cannot escape a share of the 
responsibility in bringing it about. 

THIS means recognizing the efforts of 
those sellers who have adopted moderp, 
economical methods of selling, and one of 
these beyond any question is good adver- 
tising in good Business Papers. 

Advertising not only cuts the cost of 
selling, but it increases production volume 
and lowers manufacturing costs. It stand- 
ardizes quality, and is a guarantee of good 

You are invited to consult us freely about 
Business Papers or Business Paper Advertising 


Haberdasher (The) 
Hardware Age 
Hardware & Metal 
Heating and Ventilating 

Hide and Leather 
Hospital Management 
Hotel Monthly 
Hotel Review 

Illustrated Milliner 
Implement & Tractor 

Trade Journal 
Industrial Arts 

Industrir! Engineer 
Inland Printer 
Iron Age 
Iron Trade Review 


Lumber World Review 

Manufacturers' Record 
Marine Ehigineering & 

Shipping Age 
Marine Review 
Millinery Trade Review 
Mill Supplies 
Modern Hospital (The) 
Motor Age 
Motorcycle and 

Bicycle Illustrated 
Motet Truck 
Motor World 

National Builder 
National Cleaner & 

National Laundry 

National Miller 
National Petroleum 

Nautical Gazette 
Northwest Commercial 


Oil News 

Oil Trade Jotimal 


Power Boating 

Power Plant 

Printers' Ink 
Purchasing Agent 

Railway Age 
Railway Electrical 

Railway Engineering A 

Railway Mechanical 

Railway Signal 

Retail Lumberman 
Rock Products 
Rubber Age 

Sanitary & Heating 

Shoe and Leather 

Shoe Retailer 
Southern Engineer 
Sporting Goods Dealer 

Tea and Coffee Trade 

Textile World 

Welding Engineer 
Western Contractor 
Wood- Worker (The) 


JESSE H. NEAL, Executive Secretary 

Lightnind Protection 

Beat that Bolt of 
Lightning with 


^ Expulsion 

THERE is a great deal of experimental work being done which is contin- 
ually sustaining the now recognized correct method of installing lightning 
arresters. By the older method, lightning arresters were installed at 
intervals of approximately every half mile on primary distribution circuits, 
which did not in any manner afford adequate protection to apparatus, partic- 
ularly transformers. By the new method of installing lightning arresters, 
which is for simplicity called "100% Protection", every transformer irrespective 
of capacity, is protected with an efficient lightning arrester installed preferably 
on the transformer pole. Only by such a method can adequate lightning 
protection be secured. 

Wherever used, "100% Protection" has been found to result in a tremendous 
reduction of transformer burnouts and blown primary fuses. 

Keystone Expulsion Arresters being designed especially for use where "100% 
Protection" is followed, incorporate these desirable features:— highly efficient 
electrically; reasonable in first cost; allow of easy, cheap and quick installation; 
require a minimum of inspection. They are heartily recommended for this 
service. Thousands are now in use giving wonderfully efficient and economical 

In conjunction with the general use of Expulsion 
Arresters, Garton-Daniels Lightning Arresters should be 
used in special installations for the protection of large and 
important line transformers and for station apparatus. 

Both Keystone and Garton-Daniels Arresters are uncon- 
ditionally guaranteed for one year's service. 
Write for Bulletin No. 189. 


"m for Real 
believe me! 

Keystone Expulsion Typ* 
Lightning Arrester 

Garton-Daniels High 

Voltage Choke 


Garton-Daniels High 

Voltage Disconnecting 



D.C. Pole Arrester 

Door Removed 

Garton-Daniels A. C. 
Station Arrester 

* Electric Service Supplies Co. 
1 1 1 1 1 1 i uiiiiiaiiiiiiiiii. 1 1 1 1 1 


List o^ 

Keystone Expulsion Arresters 

Keystone Triangle Arms 

Garton-Danieis Arresters 

Disconnecting Switclies 

Never-Creep Anchors 


Lock Insulators 

Choke Coils 


Hie Home of * 

^ Keystone Products 


and Transmission 



Catalog No. 8 

is now on press 

Write for your 


Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Manufacturer of 

Railway, Mining and Industrial 

Electrical Supplies 

Sales Offices and Warehouses: 

PHILADELPHIA, 17th and Camhria Sts. 
CHICAGO, Monadnock Building 

Branch Sales Offices: 




March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 





Trolleif Poles 

THE aesthetic effect of an 
ornamental street light- 
ing installation is largely lost 
if other poles are allowed to 
remain in the street. When 
trolley supports must be pro- 
vided, a most satisfactory solu- 
tion can be found in the rein- 
forced concrete pole, which 
meets every requirement of 
appearance, and when made 
by the Hollowspun process, 
has ample strength. 

On account of bad spacing, 
the poles illustrated above, in, 
West AUis, Wis., were actually 
built to withstand a strain of 
two tons applied at a point 21 
ft. above the ground. The 
practical indestructibility of 
these poles made possible other - 
unusual features in this instal- 
lation, fully described in our 
"Hollowspun Standard" No. 7. 
A copy will be sent on request. 


Peoples Gas Bixildin^ftj Clnica 




EiiECTRic Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 




r LOOK! 



The I. C. C. Co. Dating Nail 

Full Value 
for your Tie Dollar 

WHEN you receive International Treated Ties you get 
full value for your tie dollar. The Ties are hewed from 
sound, selected timber to resist mechanical wear, treated 
effectively to resist decay and give long life, graded accurately 
and marked permanently, all of which serve to guarantee that 
the railroad company receives exactly what it specifies and pays 

Reflect for a moment upon the tremendous significance of the con- 
centration of hundreds of thousands of these ties in our tie yards and 
the dollar and cents value to you of our "Ship today" service from 
stock of such high grade standard ties. 

Our prices are right. Our service is prompt and we stand ready to 
prove it. Every tie is permanently identified as an International 
Product by the International Dating Nail. 

L«t lu qaot« on yottr tie requirementB. 

International Creosoting & Construction Co. 

Main Office: Galveston, Texas 

Plants : Texarkana, Texas Beaumont, Texas 
Galveston, Taxaa 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Uninterrupted Service 

ANACONDA Trolley Wire is made from Anaconda 
^ Copper 99.95% pure. A Single organization is 
responsible for the whole process of mining, smelting, 
rolling and drawing, thereby insuring the utmost in 
quality at every stage of production from Mine to ' 


To insure uninterrupted service specify Anaconda 
Trolley Wire. 


Rolling Mills Department 


General Offices 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

You can get the right goods 

prompt shipments 
quick deliveries 

from the 
Western Electric Company 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 

Poles and Line Material 

Everything electrical to construct and maintain your lines — that is 
what we offer. The list below names the high spots — each a product 
of an organization nationally known. 

Everything you need is obtainable through the nearest of our 48 
Houses. It is only a few miles or hours from you. These stocks 
save you time and money, for their nearness and completeness give 
you all the benefits inherent in large reserve stocks without the 
necessity of your carrying such stock financially. 

Check the items you want and write for information 


— Western Red Cedar 
— Northern White Cedar 
— Creosoted Yellow Pine 


-Wood Crossarms 

-Boring and Pole Setting 

-Construction Tools 
-Wood Pins 

-Pierce Forged Steel Pins 
-Anchor Bolts 
-Anchor Rods 
-Log Screws 
-Pole Steps 

— Guys or Guy Wire 

— Strain Insulators 

— Cap and Cone Suspensions 

— High Voltage Insulators 

— Fibre Conduit 

— Friction and Rubber Tapes 

— Copper Trolley Wire 

— Galvanized Iron Wire 

— Trolley Ears 

— Trolley Crossings 

— Splicing Ears 

— Section Insulators 

— Rail Bonds 




Western Electric 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 


Bermico Fibre Conduit and 


— ^The trade name for the 
wood fibre products of The 
Brown Company which has 
served the wood pulp and 
paper trade since 1852. 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



Western Electric Distribution 

A steadily increasing demand for a high 
grade long-lived fibre conduit to place 
more and more overhead lines under- 
ground and replace other forms of con- 
duit already installed — 

A manufacturer of national reputation 
seeking one established, efficient and 
economical distributing agency — 


A distributor measuring up to these 
qualifications seeking a source of supply 
capable of manufacturing and delivering 
in quantity and quality a product that 
will make possible an exceptional service 
to the trade — 

These three factors have led to the 
alliance of Bermico Fibre Conduit and 
Western Electric National Service. 

This conduit was developed for the 
United States Government during the 
War. The pulp and fibre are produced 
under standardized conditions. Manu- 
facture is under the supervision of expert 
chemists and engineers responsible for 
maintaining quality. 

Bermico Fibre Conduit will be obtain- 
able through any of our 48 houses. Stocks 
will be carried of straight lengths and 
bends in large variety. 

Western Electric Company 

Offices in All Principal Cities 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

Note the large area of contact 
made by the terminal of the 
Brazed Bonds. 

Samples of 

Applied Terminals 

upon request. 



is the criterion by which to judge your bonding, 
for the conductivity of it measures your power 

It must be the highest possible if you will use your 
electric power economically. 

In addition to very high initial conductivity, your 
bonding must stay permanently so, without atten- 
tion, for years of service. The upkeep must not 
continually eat into your profits. 

Type ET Brazed Bond 

Other types for the head or web of rail. 


measure up to these very high stand- 

The large area of the brazed union, 
the low resistance of the rail contact, 
together with the great mechanical 

strength of the braze, provide an un- 
paralled, permanent conductivity. 

Our careful rolling or cabling of the 
copper conductors of our Brazed 
Bonds insure long life under the most 
trying conditions. 

Write us for further details. 

The Electric Railway Improvement Co. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Bates Steel Poles 

The Bates 




The flanges of the sheared and heated H- 
section are gripped and pulled apart, thus 
stretching the web portion between the 
unsheared intacts of original steel, creat- 
ing, without waste of material, a perfect 
one-piece Bates Expanded Steel Pole 
every two minutes from each Bates manu- 
facturing unit. 

There's a Bates Pole for every pole purpose 

Bates Steel Poles are being used in rapidly increasing 
numbers in all types of modern construction all over the 
world. With their distinct advantages of strength, per- 
manence, economy and their wide range of adaptability. 
Bates Poles have met the exacting demands of numer- 
ous pole users who are recognized as leaders in the elec- 
trical industry. 

Bates Engineers will gladly co-operate with you in your planning 

|p| ate8 llgje ande^lteol Iruss ^ 
208 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, U. S. A. 





Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

Differentials never stand idle. Differential quick demountable snovs plow 
is just one more economical differential feature 




Dump Cars 
Electric Locomotives 
Power House Cars 
Snow Plows 
Freight Cars 

The Differential Steel Car Company 

Findlay, Ohio 

Easiest and most economical method of loading, unloading, and ir,ins*<nting ties. 

Mar^ 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



Loading in tilted position. Greatly reduced height for hand loading. 


placing materials on the job, handling ties, loading and 
disposing of excavated material. 

The Differential Steel Car Company 

Findlay, Ohio 

Unloading in congested section of large city. Material placed clear of track. \o interference luith traffic. 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 192S 

Read this ^ 

and Save $ 


1066 B*OAOM*v 

NEW York. 

;!ay 15, 19^2 

Mr. H.B. Log«n, President, 
Dossert 4 CoiTipany, 
J42 West 41st Street, 
New York City. 

Deiir Sir: 

It may be of Interest to you to kno* that 
we have used a niarbar of Dossert Solderless Connec- 
tors In the cable construction work of the new Hell 
Gate Power Station.' 

we use Dossert Connectors In all our work 
for .experience has proven that they "°J °"J,y "-'J' 
very efficient and neat appearing Joints, but In 
practically every Instance they save us money. 


IN EVERY power house, substation, shop, car 
and distribution system you'll find joints that 
DOSSERTS will do quicker and better than old 

If you will figure up the year's costs for making 
taps, splices and connections on your system, you'll 
find that it represents a cost that you can cut ma- 

terially if you follow the lead of a number of compa- 
nies that keep a supply of DOSSERTS in the stock 

A Dossert Catalog in the hands of your men will 
show them the kinds of connections that can be 
done so quickly with this Tapered Sleeve Principle 
of Solderless Connection. 

Write for a copy 


H. B. LOGAN, President 
242 West 41st Street, New York 

2 -Way, Type A 

Cable Anchors 

Back Lug 

Grounding Device 

3 Way Joint 

Swivel Luff 

March 17, 1923 

Electeic Railway Journal 



Found The World Over 

The Ackley No-Staff Brake 

Would Have Stopped That Car! 

It is the ideal emergency brake be- 
cause it is quick-acting. No time is 
spent in merely winding up slack. 
The action is practically instantane- 

The hand wheel is 16 or 18 inch as 
you prefer. 

Back up your air brakes with the 
NO-STAFF and be ready for any 
crisis from now on. 

The price is only $32.00 

Representatives : 

E. A. Thornwell, Candler Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 
A. W. Arlin, Central Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 




n 50ChurchStreei:.NevvYoik,U.SA, ' r 


Electbic Railway Journal 

March 17, 1928 

Multiple - unit - control 
double truck passenger 
car for tvto-man opera- 

Our Engineering De- 
partment is at your 
service vihenever the 
question in new equip- 
ment comes up for dis- 

/^ITY and interurban cars and trucks, 
^^^ safety cars, combination and work cars, 
snow plows, sweepers and electric loco- 

Twenty years of specialization in the con- 
struction of all classes of rolling stock for 
the successful operation of electric railways. 

McGuire-Cummings Mfg. Co. 

General Offices 

111 W. Monroe St., Chicago 111. 

McGuire - Cummings 
No. 62 Motor Truck 
for low car body for 
city service. 
Inside hung brake- 
tqualleer design. 

March 17, 1923 Electric Railway Journal 86 


^ The Vital Factor in 


No wise man would consider erecting a plant 
without adequate foundations under it. Other- 
wise the investment in plant and in machinery 
would be jeopardized. 

The most essential part of any industrial 
enterprise is the human structure of a working 

This is vitally true in transportation because 
75% of Vailroading is human. 

Your human structure must be made of the 
materials of human thought, feeling, skill, in- 
terest and loyalty — infinitely finer stuff than 
enters into your physical plant or property. 

Many employers who own valuable plants and 
who view with pride their extensive properties 
have urgent need to rebuild their human 
structure, from the ground up. 

Mutual understanding, cordial relationship, 
and sincere cooperation, laid deep in the minds 
and hearts of employee, insure the only per- 
manent human foundation. 

"The Viewpoint of the Employee la 
the Mos Neglected Asset in Industry" 


Industrial Co-ordination Production Engineering 

■"^^ / Proident 


J lUctor Street SOS So. LeSalle Street 1 Stete Street 1 1 1 Chestnut Street SU N. Brotdwtj 


Park BtUldiiif First Netlontl Bank Bulldlni Dnimmond Sulldloc 1 Adelaide Street, E. 

Write u* on your business letterhead for copy of our monthly Review of Industry 
of interest to all traction executives. Address Department DE 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

No Panel except the most durable 
is suitable for railway service 

RAILWAY service demands the best. Roofs which leak 
and headlinings which sag are an avoidable expense. 

HASKELITE is the most suitable for roofs and linings. It 
is the only panel which will pass the strict Grade A test speci- 
fied by the Navy for water-resistant plywood. 

HASKELITE roofs save time and labor; they are furnished 
moulded ready to apply and finish. 

Linings of HASKELITE or PLYMETL are unexcelled for 
light weight, long life and attractive appearance. They will 
not sag or vibrate. They provide the best foundation for a 
lasting finish. 

Among recent specifications are the following: 

50 HASKELITE Roofs — Detroit Street Railways 

25 HASKELITE Roofs — Eastern Massachusetts Railways 

55 HASKELITE Linings — Pittsburgh Railways 

The extreme durability of HASKELITE justifies the rigid 
adherence to its specification for roofs and linings. 

Write for our blueprint booklet descriptive of HASKELITE and for samples 
of our 3/16 in. headlining — the lightest weight headlining in use today. 


133 W. Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

The Denver Tramway 
Company writes: "We 
have used HASKELITE 
because of it 

(1) Light Weight 

(2) Great Strength 

(3) Attractive Appearance 

(4) Loio Cost of Installa- 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 







NOARK renewable fuses are approved by: 

Underwriters* Laboratories Inc. 

Millers Mutual Fire Insurance Companies 

U. S. Navy Dept. 

NOARK non-renewable fuses are approved by: 

Underwriters' Laboratories Inc. 
Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Companies 
Millers Mutual Fire Insurance Companies 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission, Toronto 

Fuses-Clips-Cut-out Bases-Service Boxes-N.E.C. Standard 

The Johns -Pratt Company 

Hartford u '^ 



laSmmmtrSl. 41 Emu 42mdU. fr^Mim Tmu BUf- Btuemtr BUf Si St. Dtsfltiim St. Bmgimttn tUt- 

'1 Aul IU(. 


38 ElectricRailwayJournal March 17, 1923 

^ Jnsurance plus 

Jnarsh ^JrC-iDennan o entice 

A Worth While Saving 

The Service of Marsh ^ McLennan 
Engineers results in a direct dollars 
and cents saving in insurance cost. 

A large Eastern corporation, for ex- 
ample, was able to reduce its insur- 
ance cost from $17.50 per thousand to 
$4.30 per thousand, by carrying out 
the recommendations of our engineer- 
ing service. 

We will be glad to outline this service 
to business executives who are inter- 
ested in reducing insurance cost. 


175 W. Jackson Blvd. Chicago, 111. 

Minneapolis Denver 

New York Duluth 

Detroit Columbus 

San Francisco 






March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 




Combination Railway and Lighting 


On the New Viaduct at Akron 

Akron, Ohio is another one of those live middle-western 
cities which believe in doing things and doing them right. 
Here's this two million dollar concrete viaduct, over half a 
mile long, which has been constructed as a real civic im- 
provement. And on it they've used Elreco Combination 
Railway and Lighting Poles. 

The advantages of Elreco Combination Poles are — fewer 
poles needed — beautified appearance of highway — lower main- 
tenance costs. Any type of ornamental brackets and lamp 
fixtures can be attached as shown. 

Write for illustrated catalogues 

Electric Railway Equipment Co. 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

New York City: 30 Church Street 

. 40 

Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

"P & H" Guaranteed Penetration Process Poles in lines of 
the Mississippi River Power Co., Keokuk, Iowa. 

s<ag^:gfesgca<g^»gs^^ ^ 

viiJsrNre-A.i30L.iS , KdiNTJsr. 


March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


There is only ONE 


Penetration Process 

THE "P & H" Guaranteed Penetration 
Process is the original process of deep 
penetration Butt-Treatment. There 
is no other ju^ like it. It guarantees, in 
writing, a full one half inch uniform pen- 
etration throughout the ground line area. 
We agree to refund the Butt-Treating price on any 
pole that does not show, by your own test, the full 
specified penetration. 

It pays to buy "P&H"Guareaiteed Penetration poles. 
They lower maintenance costs by reducing the re- 
placements and giving longer pole life. 

We produce and sell Butt-Treated and untreated Northern 
White and Western Red Cedar Poles; — ^we can give you any 
form of Butt-Treatment; — and we are the originators of the 
Guaranteed Penetration Process — the "P & H." 

Prompt Shipment — yards conveniently located throughout the 
North Central and Western States. 

Get the facts about Butt-Treatment 
— write for illustrated folder. 


Copyright 1922, by P & H Co, 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 




A highly sensitive thermostat of the mercury thermometer type, 
efficient and reliable. Switches off the heating current at a pre- 
determined point, automatically maintaining uniform tempera- 
ture in the car. 

Nothing new in that, you say. But — the CONSOLIDATED 


Sturdy, durable Pyrex glass that stands the shocks of service 
fully as well as the old type metal cover, yet keeps the thermom- 
eter tube always in view. 



Keeps Nothing Under Cover 

The thermostat controls the car heating system. The glass 
case gives a constant check on that control. The new Consoli- 
dated Visible Thermostat reveals the condition of the car heat- 
ing system as easily and well as the water glass does that of 
the boiler. 

Any attempt to damage the instrument, whether ignorantly or 
maliciously, is immediately apparent. This, as well as the glass 
tube itself, serves as a deterrent to the tamperer. 

unusually sensitive to temperature changes and correct in its 
action. It adds to the comfort of your patrons and reduces your 
heating cost. A new method of mounting the tube gives it 
stability and firmness, yet leaves it sufficiently resilient to absorb 
the shocks of street car service. 

Consolidated Car-Heating Co. 

Write for I nformation 
or Sample for Inspection 

New York 

Albany, N. Y. 


March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


As evidence of our confidence In 
Lone^Bell Creosoted Yellow Pine 
Poles, and to mark their quality, 
each is branded "Long-Bell", five 
feet above the ground line. 

Accompanying photograph shows 
Long-Bell Creosoted Yellow Pine 
Poles in service of the Indiana 
Union Traction Company, near 
Muncie, Indiana. 

iiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii' iUiz 

BECAUSE of their great 
durability, Long-Bell Creo- 
soted Yellow Pine Poles have 
the unqualified "OK" of many 
public service companies. 
Year after year tests show 
Long-Bell Poles as sturdy, 
strong and dependable as the 
day they were set. 

Long-Bell Poles are treated, 
full length, with the best grade 
English Creosote Oil by the 
pressure-vacuum process. 
This makes permanent the 
unusual breaking, bending 
and shearing strength of Long 
Leaf YellowPine. They resist 
decay and fire. 

In addition to efficiently serv- 
ing their purpose, Long-Bell 
Poles are straight and attrac- 
tive, giving a trim appearance 
to any right-of-way. 

Get further information! Send for" Poles 
That Resist Decay", our booklet which 
fully describes Long-Bell Creosoted 
Yellow Pine Poles. 

Ttie T ono-Ren, T pniber C ompanu 

1235 R. A. Long Bldg. KANSAS CITY, MO. 

Creosoted Yellow Pine Poles; Highway Guard 

Rails and Fence Posts; Timbers, Ties, 

Lumber, Piling and Wood Blocks. 

Creosoted HeUowPlne Poles 



Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

it lasted 

A photograph of a section of 
the Phono-Electric wire which 
performed so steadfastly for 
the Denver and Interurban 
Railroad. The experience of 
this road with Phono-Electric 
wire is well worth consider' 
ing in making YOVR choice. 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


•..- »i~SIi.-*£--- 

for fourteen years 

(for the Denver & Interurban R.R.) 

Recently the Denver and Interurban 
Railroad discontinued 3 miles of a 
line that had been in service for 14 
years. The Phono-Electric trolley 
wire used on this line had undergone, 
during that time, 190,000 passes of 
the pantograph. The cross-section 
view shows how relatively little wear 

had resulted. In spite of the time 
and service this wire had rendered, 
there was no appreciable crystalliza- 
tion, for the wire was taken down, 
coiled on reels without the least diffi- 
culty and was almost immediately 
reinstalled on a new extension. 



The sheer statement of such perform- dent that this Phono-Electric line is 

ance overshadows any comments or good' for a great many more years 

arguments that could be ad- of service. We like to offer 

vanced without such con- ^0^ ^^^^ '^''^^ ^^ evidence of the 

elusive proof. Examine the £^^^^ ""^^^ economy of standard- 
photograph and the cross- (^pE^^P) '^^"^ overhead construction 
.sectional drawing. It is evi- ^Iw Wiif with Phono-Electric. 




^i#!o!^f#ifi^i^i^! ^ggg^^g^ 


















Let users tell why they 

Metal & Thermit Corporation 


order more Thermit Joints 

General Offices: 120 Broadway, New York 

Pittsburgh Chicago Boston S. San Francisco Toronto 
















iHHS l^l^lt^ i^i^l^l^ff^i^y^l^f^?^^ 



roll w!'^ lull 

l ieil^lQIQIQttQIQl F 













Others confirm the fact that 

Houston Electric Co. 

• ^ 

'*The fact that no mainte- 

nance is required renders 

the Thermit Joint more eco- 

nomical in the long run/' 



Engineer Maint. of Way. 


Metal & Thermit Corporation 



^ || \/)|\/l l\_/l! WUWII W 



"first cost is the last cost'' 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

-for car shops 

for power plants 

"There is a tested Galena 
lubricant for every re- 
quirement of electric rail- 

Galena-Signal Oil G>mpany 

New'tork Franklin, Pa. , Chicago 

» and offices in principal cities ^ 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 




Reduces Lubrication Costs 

When all factors are equated — miles 
per gallon, power consumption and 
wear and tear on bearings — and the 
actual net cost of lubrication is fig- 
ured, Galena Service always shows sur- 
prising economies in maintenance costs. 
Over five hundred electric utility com- 
panies are now receiving the benefits 
of its efficiency. 

Galena Service Engineers carry the 
authority of practical experience in 
the lubrication of every type of equip- 
ment. They bring to our clients the 
valuable knowledge acquired through 
many years of constant touch with 
lubrication problems of every nature, 

and co-operate with them in securing 
conditions that result in improved 

Correct lubrication means the use of 
the right lubricant in the right quan- 
tity in the right way. Its proper ap- 
plication means not only improved 
service but an ultimate economy in 
lubrication costs far beyond the pur- 
chase price of the oils used. Galena 
Service demonstrates, to your own sat- 
isfaction, that the supposed savings 
made in the purchase price of inferior 
oils are insignificant, compared with 
the expenses of repairs and deprecia- 
tion arising from their use. 

Let us figure with you now on 

operating your road the 

Galena way. 

Galena-Signal (Ml Gbmpanyi 

New York Franklin, Pa. Chicago 

» and oflRces in principal cities ^ 


Electric Railway Journal 

March 17, 1923 

For higher standards in motor maintenance 


General Office 
Schenectady; N.Y. 



Sales Offices in ««e 
all large cities 

G'E Arc Suppressor Plates reduce 
burning of controller fingersy seg- 
ments and arcing plates 

Extreme care in manufacturing 
makes each G-E coil an exact 
duplicate of the next one 


A few cents saved in the shop often means 
dollars on the road in lost revenue-miles. 
Many a poorly-made finger or segment is re- 
sponsible for controller trouble; inferior 
motor coils burn out in weather emergen- 
cies and rush hours; ill-fitting brush-holders 
mean shorter brush and commutator life; 
and too often circuit breakers ruin the 
equipment they are installed to protect. 

When it comes to renewals, only the maker 
of your G-E Equipment can make parts 
which exactly duplicate the originals. Could 
any other parts give better service? 



f Higher Standards 

Maintenance of overhead with G-E Line 
Material is insurance against line-down tie- 
ups. There are hundreds of different devices, 
so every railway property's requirements 
can be met. They are built for harder serv- 
ice than you're likely to have for them — • 
which accounts for their long life. Sturdy 
construction and that "G-E" protective 
finish is the reason — as any user can tell 

When we compiled your G-E Railway 
Supply Catalog we made it easy for you 
to select these devices. Consult the section 
on Line Material before you start mainte- 
nance work this season. 

Use Grade M — the "more-miles-per- 
dollar gearing" 


and you can get prompt shipments 

t A nation-wide 
Warehouse Service 

We don't urge you any more to stock up with 
large quantities of G-E Railway Supplies. Quite 
the contrary. G-E warehouse service has developed 
to a point where it insures that you can get what 
you want when you need it. 

The General Electric Company maintains stocks 
of railway renewal parts and supplies in two dozen 
cities located all the way from San Francisco to 
New York. The fact that shipments from these 
complete stocks are made promptly enables you to 
let us do your stock keeping and thus reduce to an 
emergency basis your investment in supplies. 

This is a G-E service you cannot afford to overlook. 
Take advantage of it. Use a G-E warehouse for 
your stock room, and simplify your stock-keeping. 


General Office 
Schenectady; N.Y 


Sales Offices in 
all large cities 

New York, Saturday, March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Published by McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 

Henry W. Blake and Harry L. Brown, Editors 

Volume 61 




Number 11 

Opportunity Lies in Shouldering 
the New Responsibilities 


OW on the threshold of success, 
the electric railway industry 
faces the need for a recon- 
secration to its ideals and 
commitments. There has come a public 
understanding of transportation, which, if 
fostered, will redound to the welfare of 
the industry. But this public apprecia- 
tion, now gained in part, challenges the 
industry to make good its acclaimed 
responsibilities and intentions. 

Let the spirit of frank, fair, open deal- 
ing with the public continue whole- 
heartedly and even more completely and 
genuinely. Let the railways improve 
their service. They must spend money to 
rehabilitate, to modernize plant, methods 
and equipment. They must grasp every 
advance in the art to reduce the cost of 
service, and savings must benefit riders, 
employees and stockholders. 

Employees must take a new hold of 
their jobs, cast aside the old idea of 
merely keeping the cars going with the 
least possible expenditure, and think of 
bettering operation. True economy now 
comes through new thinking, new tools, 
new methods, and the will to achieve a 
new standard of service. 

The manufacturers, too, must accept 
new responsibilities. They have long 
been a great impetus in the development 
of the railways. Today, creative engi- 
neering thinking more than ever is needed, 
and the time has again arrived when it 
can be rewarded. 

The public service commissions face a 
tremendous responsibility and a splendid 
opportunity. Their opportunity is truly 
to serve the best interests of the people. 
Their responsibility is to see that the 
utilities have fair treatment. Only when 
the electric railways are prosperous and 
healthy can the best interests of the 
people be served. Let commissions be 
above politics. Let the principle prevail 
that as a company serves, so shall it 

Finally, ELECTRIC Railway Journal 
pledges its utmost effort in gathering and 
disseminating the best thinking and the 
best information for the aid of the rail- 
ways, the manufacturers and the commis- 
sions. As friend, and as friendly critic, 
the Journal will spare no labor or 
expense in helping the three other parts 
of the industry to carry on more intelli- 
gently, more effectively. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

A Familiar Machine 
Used In a New Way 

THE difficulty of teaching an old dog new tricks is 
proverbial. Every new method of performing a 
familiar operation is sure to meet with opposition from 
those who are used to the old way. But when it can 
be shown definitely that the new way is better than the 
old, then habit should not be allowed to block progress. 
The tests of the centrifugal separator for dehydrating 
transformer oil, described elsewhere in this number, 
seem to indicate that this method is superior to the 
filter press. A high dielectric value was restored in 
much less time than the old method required. Where 
these tests were made, it is the usual practice to take 
the transformer out of service during dehydration. Not 
every company can do that, however, and it may some- 
times be a little dangerous to dump back into the top 
of a live transformer the first oil that passes through 
the separator. However, the filter press is not above 
criticism in this respect, when it is carelessly operated, 
and either apparatus can be so handled that the danger 
of a transformer breakdown is negligible. The fact 
that the centrifugal separator is already widely known 
as a purifier of lubricating oils may make easier its 
introduction as a machine for the dehydration of trans- 
former oil. Its increasing use for that purpose is to be 

An Increased Use May Be 

Expected of Labor-Savlng Machinery 

WHETHER the present bill restricting immigration 
is responsible for the situation or not, labor, par- 
ticularly common labor, is scarce, and the unemployment 
problem, so prominent two years ago, has disappeared. 
This means that increased attention must be given in 
all industrial work to developing the use of labor-saving 
machinery in every direction. This need was con- 
sidered at the last meeting of the committee on pro- 
cedure of the American Engineering Council, which 
recommended to that organization that it make an en- 
gineering study of industry for this purpose, particu- 
larly those kinds of work where great numbers of men 
could be replaced if power-driven devices did the work. 
There is no doubt that labor-saving equipment is 
being used to a constantly greater extent in the electric 
railway field. The one-man car is an example in the 
transportation department, but the same condition holds 
true in all the other departments, shops, track and even 
in accounting. 

In one respect an electric railway company is pecu- 
liarly well situated to introduce machinery of this kind, 
because it has conveniently at hand an inexhaustible 
supply of power, wherever power need be used. One 
need only compare the condition in track rehabilitation, 
for instance, with the steam railroad. Above the track, 
on an electric road, whether it is in a city paved street 
or in the country, is the trolley wire, from which power 
to any amount can be taken to drive concrete mixing 
and distributing machines, pneumatic tampers or rivet- 
ers or any of the equipment needed in rehabilitating or 
renewing track. Even electric welding can be done 
directly at any point. Moreover, these machines not 
only work more cheaply and quickly than the unaided 
track gang, but the work usually is better; that is to say, 
the concrete is mixed more evenly and sets better be- 
cause laid more promptly, the ballast is tamped more 

solidly, etc. Hence it is not surprising that there has 
been almost a revolution in track methods during the 
last few years, and it is perhaps along these lines that 
the greatest economies in an engineering way within 
the early future are to be expected in the industry. 

Piece-Work Plan Tends 

to Induce Craftsmanship 

NOW that labor conditions in the mechanical de- 
partments of electric railways are more nearly 
normal, it is not out of place to give attention to econ- 
omies of a nature different from those which have been 
necessarily more prevalent. Among these is the piece- 
work system, which, when properly administered, cuts 
costs and improves the morale of the working force. 
This system owes its chief value to the fact that it is 
an approach to a man's being in business for himself, 
which means independence, interest in production and 
better workmanship. 

The principal saving in piece work is the elimination 
of lost time. When a worker is paid for the time he 
puts in on a job, regardless of the work he does, there 
is almost sure to be lost time for there is not the clearly 
apparent incentive to make every minute count. This 
is likely to be true even if he is reasonably conscien- 
tious. To be sure, there are foremen on duty who are 
paid to see that men earn their money, but the foreman 
is neither omniscient nor omnipresent. No foreman 
can get men to do much more work than they do 
naturally under the day-wage system, and this is usually 
much less than they could easily do, and which they 
would enjoy doing, under the piece-work plan. 

Also, when men are on piece work there is probably 
a greater incentive to the management to furnish them 
with the best machines for the work in hand. This fol- 
lows because the system tsnds to make good machinery 
highly profitable. If the men are striving to get the 
most out of the machinery assigned to them, it requires 
obviously only ordinarily good perspicacity on the part 
of the management to see that poor machinery neu- 
tralizes part of the men's efforts and discourages them. 
To illustrate, suppose that in a routine operation a 
turret lathe could be utilized efficiently, with an output 
several times that possible with an ordinary lathe. 
Under these conditions the cost of the better machine 
would soon be earned by the increased output per man 
and per cubic foot of shop space. The contract prices 
for the output of the machine would be set at a fair 
value with due consideration of the facilities afforded. 
The Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New 
York, as told elsewhere in this issue, has been very 
successful with the piece-work plan applied to a great 
many shop operations. With an experience dating back 
some fifteen years, the plan is on a basis that neither 
company nor men would abandon it. The Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Company has also had con- 
spicuous success with a similar plan, as shown in the 
Electric Railway Journal, issue of March 19, 1921, 
page 529, and issue of April 2, 1921, page 647. One 
very large company which was forced to abandon piece 
work for reasons beyond its control and against the 
sentiment of the men in the shop has since been con- 
fronted with shop costs about 50 per cent increased. 
This is another illustration of what the scheme means 
to a company in the way of lower costs. 

Hence where the piece-work plan is practicable but 
not now in use it would be worth while to study the 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


maintenance work to see if some jobs could not be put 
on piece work. It is not necessary to have this on a 
large scale at first. Try it out on a few jobs. 

Operating the Old 

Power Plant at Its Best 

THIS is the year of checking up on everything. 
Because the system or any part of it has been 
operating with fair satisfaction is not always evidence 
that the best use is being made of it. Because the 
power plant may be old and really ought to be placed 
with a new one is not a very good reason for neglecting 
to get the best possible efficiency out of the present 
plant while it is continued in use. An illustration of 
what can be done in this direction is given in the article 
published this week dealing with the power plant of the 
Kansas City Railways. Rather than adopt a narrow 
policy of retrenchment, the management made a thor- 
ough study of all the factors bearing on high operating 
costs, and by complete revision of methods was able to 
eliminate more than half the labor charges and reduce 
the cost of power production some 85 per cent. 

The salient feature of this example is that the 
changes did not involve any expenditures for extensive 
equipment, but only called for a more effective use for 
the existing plant. It would be interesting to see how 
much more could have been done had the superintendent 
been free to modernize the old plant as far as possible 
by providing such new auxiliary equipment and appa- 
ratus as steam flow meters, CO, recorders, new stokers 
and similar economizing apparatus in addition to the 
general checking up on waste practices. 

There are many other electric railway systems which 
have power plants where savings of similar magnitude 
could be made if the problems were handled in the same 
thorough-going manner as was this one. 

Looking Toward Standardization 

of Gear Blanks and Wheel Removal 

ELECTRIC railways throughout the country are 
using a large assortment of special devices to assist 
in wheel removal work. A large number of these devices 
and the methods used are described in an article in this 
issue, written as the result of a survey of this work 
on fifty properties. It is evident from this that the 
problem of wheel removal is closely interlocked with that 
of gear design, since fully one-half the electric railways 
of the country make use of the web holes in the gears 
in connection with the pressing off of wheels. 

Gear design has advanced considerably since electric 
railway operation first started. The need for small 
diameter gears with large hubs has decreased the space 
once used for spokes and later for web holes, until now 
some types are made entirely solid. Other types have 
very great differences in the diameter and spacing of 
the web holes. This has led to numerous complaints 
from the users and increased expense to the manu- 
facturers in that frequently gears are rejected because 
the web holes do not correspond to those furnished on 
some previous order. 

Some of the leading gear blank manufacturers have 
endeavored to build up a series of standards that will 
simplify conditions, and the American Gear Manufac- 
turers' Association has also had a committee actively at 
work on this standardization problem for some time. 
It has been suggested that the proposed layout for web 

holes be submitted to the equipment committee of the 
American Electric Railway Engineering Association, 
and its co-operation asked toward some definite stand- 
ardization. The subject of car gearing has already 
been assigned to the equipment committee for study and 
report this year, and it appears a very opportune time 
for all concerned to get together on this important 

From the information obtained in the Journal's 
survey it appears that standardization along the follow- 
ing lines will meet the needs of the majority of users. 
There should be four holes in the webs of gears spaced 
90 deg. apart. The holes should be not less than 2i in. 
in diameter. The diameter of the circle on which the 
holes are located must be governed by the hub diameters 
of the gear blanks, and a further detailed study of this 
one point will be necessary before it is possible to 
arrive at the several definite standards necessary. 

In regard to standardization of wheel removal methods 
and appliances it is possible to draw these conclusions : 
Where both gear and wheel are removed at the same 
time, a space of J in. should be left between gear and 
wheel hubs to eliminate excessive starting pressures. 
Where the jack-pin method is used a device with the 
ends of the jack pins firmly anchored as in the stool type 
appliance is most satisfactory, and a collar should be 
used between the gear and the wheel. Of the devices 
for applying pressure to the wheels outside the gear, 
the split cylinder appears to have the most advantages. 

Improved Appearance of Cars Is an 
Encouraging Sign of the Times 

RECENTLY in a suburban community the people 
were not satisfied with their trolley service. Their 
chief objections were that the cars were dirty in appear- 
ance, inside and out, and that they were cold in winter, 
that the buzzer signal systems were too often out of 
order, and that the windows frequently stuck and 
could be neither opened nor closed. A committee was 
formed to wait upon the trolley company and present 
these complaints. 

After receiving a polite greeting from an executive 
of the railway, the committee was led outside to where 
the cars were stored, and conducted down into the pits. 
It was explained to them that the trucks were of the 
latest pattern, and that the motors were new and power- 
ful — in short, that the equipment was really of the best. 
The specific faults of which the people complained, the 
railway dismissed airily with the remark that they were 
all superficial. The committee was silenced but not con- 
vinced. In truth they were not particularly interested 
in trucks and motors and gears. But they were very 
much interested in nice looking, clean, warm cars, with 
buzzers that worked and windows that could be opened 
and closed. The trolley company, instead of trying to 
give the people what they wanted, tried to make them 
satisfied with what they had. 

Such a policy is usually a mistake, for the public 
cannot be made to look at the question from the rail- 
way man's point of view. While it must be admitted 
that the upkeep of the running gear is more important 
than the upkeep of the car body, nevertheless appearance 
counts with the passenger. It is one of the most en- 
couraging signs of the times to see again bright new 
paint on many cars everywhere, to discover heaters and 
buzzers in good order, and to find clean windows that 
slide easily. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

Missouri River Power Plant, 
Kansas Oty, Mo. 

The existing equipment in the Kansas City Railways 
power plant was all installed prior to 1910. These 
views give an idea of the kind of station on which 
special maintenance attention has produced a high 
degree of economy 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Power Generation Costs Reduced 

35 per Cent 

Elimination of Waste by Improvements in Practices in 50,000-Kw. Station of 
Kansas City Railways Has Resulted in a Saving of $1,000 a Day — This Has Been 
Accomplished by Methods Readily Available in Many Railway Power Plants 

By D. E. Druen 

Assistant Superintendent of Power, Kansas City (Mo.) Railways 

RAPID advances 
in the design 
L. and operation 
of modern generating 
stations during the 
past few years, pro- 
ducing 45,000 to 60,- 
000 - kw. generating 
units and boilers of 
proportionate size 
operating under high 
pressures and tem- 
peratures, have tended 
to obscure the prac- 
tices and ingenuity 
demanded of those 
operating older plants. 
While the new plants 
• are equipped with all 
the recentlj' developed 
facilities for obtaining 

maximum economy and for making their operation easy, 
the many antiquated plants scattered over the country 
still offer unrecognized possibilities of economies. It is 
not an exaggeration to say that by taking advantage of 
such latent economies operators working with old equip- 
ment may often reduce generating costs close to those of 
stations erected during the past ten years. 

Such a problem was encountered in the Missouri 
River power plant of the Kansas City Railways. Though 
the work is not yet completed, the results accomplished 
to date have amply justified the efforts put forth. The 
Kansas City Railways passed into the hands of receivers 
in September, 1920. In line with reducing operating 
expenses of the property as a whole, an endeavor was 
made to effect economies in power generation. That the 
newly completed station of the Kansas City Power & 
Light Company had taken over practically all of the 
commercial load formerly supplied from the railway 
plant gave a further reason for every possible economy. 
While in 1920 the energy sales amounted to more than 
40 per cent of the total output, in 1921 a drop to about 
17 per cent was faced. This meant that besides the loss 
of the profit on the sales and a decreased total genera- 
tion over which to distribute many of the operating 
charges, the plant would be operating at a load factor 
from 8 to 10 per cent lower. The decrease in the load 
gave the opportunity to overhaul equipment that in the 
past had been loaded to the limit to maintain service. 

The station was built twenty years ago with an initial 
installation of three 3,000-kw. generators direct con- 
nected to vertical, compound engines taking steam from 
ten 575-hp. water-tube boilers. By 1910 the installa- 
tion as it exists today was completed, the station having. 

This General View of tiie Turbine Boom Sliows tlie Variety 
of Maclibies In Use 

in addition to the three 
original engine-driven 
units, which now are 
used only in emergen- 
cies, two 15,000 -kw. 
vertical turbines and 
two 10,000 -kw. hori- 
zontal turbines of later 
design. These four 
turbines are all 
equipped with old-type 
square condensers hav- 
ing tubes li and li in. 
in diameter, arranged 
in solid nests. With 
condensers of this type 
a rapid falling off of 
the vacuum accompa- 
nies an increase in the 
circulating water tem- 
I>erature and a consid- 
erable depression of the hotwell temperature during the 
winter months. The circulating water, which is drawn 
from the Missouri River, carries a considerable amount 
of silt in suspension. Its temperature ranges from 33 
deg. F. in the winter to 84 deg. F. during the hot summer 
months. Under these circumstances and the best condi- 
tions of loading, it is possible to obtain from the turbines 
water rates ranging from 14.8 to 15.8 lb. per kilowatt- 

The boiler room contains forty water-tube boilers ar- 
ranged on two floors, one directly above the other. Two 
rows of ten boilers each face a common firing aisle. 
Twelve boilers on the first floor are fitted with old-style 
underfeed stokers and the remaining eight are equipped 
with natural-draft chain grates. On the upper deck 
nine more boilers also have chain grates, while the stok- 
ers have been removed from the other eleven and oil 
burners installed. All the boilers still have the original 
headroom of 8 ft. from the floor to the bottom of the 
front tube header, giving a furnace volume of 6.6 cu.ft. 
per square foot of grate area for the underfeed stokers 
and 3.4 cu.ft. for the chain grates. Steam is generated 
at 185 lb. pressure with 85 deg. of superheat. 

In 1921, on account of the various fields from which 
fuel was procured, coal showed only a balanced average 
heat value of 9,574 B.t.u. per pound. The average 
analysis of the coal as fired was as follows: 

Fixed carbon 44.2 per cent 

Volatile 25.1 |>er cent 

Ash 18.8 per cent 

Moisture 11.9 per cent 

In 1920 the average calorific value of the fuel used 
was 9,670 B.t.u. per pound; last year it ran about 9,460. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 







— ! 











h 1 








' — 




"2 ^80 





a 7(0 





— 1 




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•c 100 








in 4b 





>- S >- <*> -fi. 

£ ^ ^ 5 .X 



Bednrtion in Load and Load Factor Which the Operating Force 
Had to Face 

Coal is spouted from an 8,000-ton concrete storage 
bunker above the second deck of boilers to hand-pro- 
pelled lorries serving the boilers. Ashes from the upper 
deck are spouted to the ash hoppers of the lower deck 
boilers located in the basement. From there they are 
hauled by means of a 2i-ton gasoline mine locomotive 
to a skip hoist at one end of the plant that raises the 
ashes to an overhead spouting device delivering them 
to standard railroad cars. 

This brief description of the plant furnishes a gen- 
eral idea of the equipment in the station as it exists 
today and as it was on Jan. 1, 1921, when steps were 
first taken to reduce production costs. What savings 
have been obtained were effected with the addition of no 
new apparatus except a master steam gage, three boiler 
feed pump regulators and a centrifugal oil purifier, all 
representing an investment of perhaps $2,500. 

It is difficult to figure accurately what savings have 
been brought about as a result of the general house 
cleaning and the adoption of an organized program of 
operation based on an analytical study of conditions in 
the Missouri River plant. Had 1920 operating costs, 
when the plant was running under more favorable con- 
ditions as regards load factor, total generation and qual- 
ity of coal, been applied to 1921 conditions of load, it is 
estimated that the cost would have exceeded the actual 

amount spent by $275,000. In a like manner the year 
1922 shows a saving of $450,000, making a total saving 
in twenty-four months of about $725,000, or an average 
of about $1,000 per day. Such a comparison seems con- 
servative when it is considered that the price of coal for 
both years was practically the same and it was of lower 
B.t.u. content in 1921 than in 1920, that the load factor 
was from 8 to 10 per cent lower and the annual output 
about 31 per cent less. Coal has been slightly cheaper 
in 1922 than in 1920, but the average load factor was 
not quite as good as in the previous year and the total 
generation ran a little behind that of 1921. 

Actual cost figures show that the average energy cost 
per car-mile for 1921 was reduced 1 cent under 1920 
and another i cent during 1922. In all this period the 
energy consumption per car-mile was practically con- 
stant. The reductions cited are the difference between 
almost steady conditions obtaining in 1920 and a period 
when costs are continuously falling, so that the ultimate 
saving will not be reached until the station has been 
operated at the new economical level for some time. 

During 1921 the coal required per kilowatt-hour was 
reduced on the average about 0.52 lb. as compared with 
1920, and a further reduction of 0.68 lb. was effected 
in 1922. The actual consumption is now running 1.2 lb. 
per kilowatt-hour below the average of two years ago. 
The B.t.u. per kilowatt-hour is now about 12,000 less 
than two years ago, which represents about 1.1 lb. of 
coal. The increased economy meant a real saving of 
around 38,000 tons of coal in 1921 and about 68,000 tons 
in 1922, or a total of 106,000 tons in twenty-four 
months. Coupled with this are savings in every other 
phase of plant operation, so that we have been produc- 
ing in 1922 a kilowatt-hour on the average at a reduc- 
tion of 35 per cent compared with 1920 costs. The low- 
est figure reached so far was in December, 1922, when 
the cost per unit was 47 per cent under the average 
for 1920. 

The accompanying curves show the tendency with the 
new operating practices for the thermal efficiency to go 
up and for costs to drop. Certain limits of efficiency 
of the station are imposed by the existing equipment. 
It is estimated that without the addition of more eco- 
nomical units the best economy with present operation 
will be reached by the end of this year. That the entire 
plant organization is directing its efforts to this end 
is indicated by operating costs in January, 1923, which 
were lower than any in 1922. 

Continuity First Essential 

When the new regime took charge of the plant at 
the beginning of 1921, it was apparent that a radical 
departure from practices in vogue would have to be 
made without delay. The initial efforts ware directed 
toward insuring continuity of service. The station had 
suffered fiftj'-two service interruptions in 1920, varying 
from a few minutes to two hours, making the solution 
of this difl^iculty imperative. A careful analysis, sup- 
plemented by information gathered from the station 
operators, revealed most of the sources of trouble. The 
immediate elimination of the faults responsible involved 
hasty repairs to auxiliary equipment, the overhauling 
and adjusting of machine governors, oil switches, dis- 
connects, control wiring, feed lines, boiler feed pumps, 
etc. Rigid rules for the regular inspection of every 
unit were laid down, and operating methods were 
adopted that not only would minimize the possibility of 
service interruptions but would also permit the re- 
establishment of service with the least delay. Every 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


cause of breakdown was sought out and eliminated or 
provision made to lessen the hazard. As a net result 
of these efforts the station has had but three interrup- 
tions since Jan. 1, 1921. The maximum tie-up. of about 
nineteen minutes, was due to an error in switching and 
not to failure of any apparatus. This record shows the 
benefit derived from making deferred repairs and en- 
forcing rigid operating rules. 

Building an Organization 

The building up of an efficient and capable operating 
organization has been a most interesting and fruitful 
phase of the work. It would have been comparatively 
easy to form a group capable of operating the plant at 
the existing economy and do nothing but improve the 
service reliability. But in addition it was necessary to 
bring the thermal efficiency of the station to the maxi- 
mum possible with the available equipment, while main- 
tenance on the building and equipment that had been 
deferred for years had to be completed, and radically 
different operating methods had to be adopted. Old 
traditions and customs that had become law had to 
be wiped out. In fact, it was first thought the most 
feasible plan would be to replace the major portion of 
the station employees. But among them were many 
old and loyal men worthy of every chance and assis- 
tance, so that this plan was abandoned and instead it 
was decided to build the new organization, if possible, 
from those already employed. The result is that the 
present employees were nearly all in service during 

In December, 1920, 360 men were regularly employed 
in the station. It was estimated that 170 men should be 
sufficient, so that a weeding-out process began in 
January, 1921. Among the old employees quite a few 
were physically unfit for central station work, and they 
were the first to go. In many instances it was found un- 
necessary to fill their places, but when one of these men 
had to be replaced a man was picked from another crew. 
The next step was to eliminate the undesirables. We 
felt that no organization could function properly with 
men in its ranks who had a tendency to promote dis- 
satisfaction in any way. One of the most diflicult 
things we had to do was to develop an entirely new 
attitude in the minds of the men, as they had become 
listless and absolutely disinterested in the success of 
the plant. Having little or no knowledge of operating 
costs, they accepted service interruptions and equipment 
failures as a mere incident in the day's work. 

Another line of investigation was carried out to de- 
termine easier and better methods of doing work and 
of increasing the output per man, enabling us to get 
rid of the non-essential workers. This third reduction 
in forces was reflected on the weekly payroll curve dur- 
ing March, 1921. Following this, further improvement 
in operating methods and a careful study of the char- 
acteristics of individual employees showed that some 
were incapable of adapting themselves to the changed 
conditions, and they were weeded out. From that time 
on, no employees were dismissed before they were 
critically studied. These studies revealed that in some 
instances men had held positions for years and yet 
they were capable of other work in the station that 
would make them more desirable and valuable employees. 
The rate at which these changes in organization were 
made and the effect of force reductions is indicated on 
the accompanying graph. 

At the end of twenty-four months of this organization 
building we find that 150 men now comprise our entire 











z 410 



-^ 400 



J 3.0 










1 42 




1= 40 


■c 36 







» If. 




fld 34 










1911 1922 

The Bednctlon in Coal and in Station Water Rate Sliow 
the ProgTesB Made 


station force as compared to 360 in 1920. This force 
of 150 men has completed deferred maintenance on 
building and equipment and made it possible for the 
station to render practically 100 per cent service at a 
unit cost for power in December, 1922, of 47 per cent 
less than the average for 1920. Probably the one great- 
est factor that made it possible to accomplish this was 
the changing of the attitude of these men from the 
defensive to the offensive. 

We have endeavored to produce an organization that 
would operate as one large family with the common 
incentive of ever decreasing the cost of producing a 
kilowatt-hour. Today one would look far to find as 
contented and efl!icient a power plant organization as 
that operating the Missouri River power house. A 
visitor will find that almost any one in the station, from 
the chief engineer down, can tell him the exact number 
of pounds of coal per kilowatt-hour required last month 
and the month previous. Only through such organiza- 
tion has it been possible to accomplish what has been 
done during the past twenty-four months, as it must 
be remembered that this group was gleaned entirely 
from the force found in the plant at the beginning of 
1921. A power plant committee, composed of five rep- 
resentatives chosen from the workmen and five from 
the engineers and foremen, with the plant superin- 
tendent as chairman, handles all matters pertaining to 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 




No.Men Employed at Station' 










1 1 1 




Weekli) Payrolls 


— m 

2 — 




Jan Feb. Man Apr Maij June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

Redurtton in the Number of Men and CorrpKpondInK Change in 
Payroll Were Made While Obtaining; Better Operation 

wages and working conditions, welfare and safety. 
This committee meets twice a month. 

While the work of building up the personnel and the 
physical condition of the plant was under way, progress 
was being made in improving the thermal efficiency of 
the station. As every operator knows, the greatest pos- 
sibilities for increasing economy of a given installation 
exist in the boiler room. On the basis of a series of 
boiler tests on the losses in warming up and banking 
of the boilers and on their efficiency at various loads, a 
method of boiler dispatching has been established which 
reduces banked boiler-hours to a minimum and allows 
the boilers to be operated at a maximum boiler efficiency. 

These tests showed that it was not economical to force 
the boilers to a rating much above 150 per cent because 
of the limited combustion space, and there are enough 
boilers so that it is seldom necessary to exceed this 
rating. Formerly the boilers had been operated at 180 
to 200 per cent of rating, with considerable drop in the 
efficiency. At these higher ratings, gas passages and 
furnace volumes were too small, and consequently when 
operating at ratings much over 150 per cent, furnace 
and stoker maintenance reached an abnormal figure, 
ashpit losses were large and considerable trouble was 
experienced with slag on the boiler tubes. 

Four of the forty boilers have been arranged for 
service by an independent feed pump and heater, so 
that all make-up water may be passed through them. 









— . 

o 95 




o c 






7 n 

















* fc 











1— = 






_ ! 



5 • 

\ i 



^ i 

^ s 

^ J 

r i 




i « 

' ) 


^ f 


^ 5 


rngnun In Reduction of Hwltchboard Co«t» Show, the Combined 
ReNult of All thangei) 

All scale deposits are thereby localized and scale-free 
water is fed to the remaining boilers. The make-up 
water drawn from the city mains averages from six- 
teen to twenty grains of hardness and is treated with 
soda ash to neutralize as nearly as possible the scale- 
forming tendency. We are just beginning to realize 
the benefits of this scheme and expect to make a mate- 
rial saving in fuel by it in a'short time. A sand filter 
for the blow-off water has produced a substantial sav- 
ing by conserving scale-free water. The city water bill 
has been reduced from an average of $1,800 a month 
to $850, and by using the generator air washers to 
reduce the temperature of cooling oil and jacket cooling 
water, we anticipate reducing the city water bill in 1923 
to approximately $400 per month. 

The adoption of the various methods described has 
raised the average boiler efliciency from 59 to 67 per 
cent. Four oil-burning boilers are being revamped to 
give more efficient combustion for use over the peak 
loads, thereby reducing the banked hours on the coal- 
fired boilers. All fuel and ash are analyzed, the ash 
analyses being grouped by the boilers fired by different 
men. The tabulated results are posted in the boiler 
room so that every man knows what he is doing. 

Generator dispatching has been worked out on a 
B.t.u. input-output basis, and economies from this 
source are already apparent. The most economical unit 
carries the base load, and the other units are put on 
the line for the additional load in the order of their 
water rates. As the load may be predicted a day in 
advance, the probable load curve is drawn to the cor- 
rect time plotted for connecting and disconnecting ma- 
chines from the line. On the same sheet a similar curve 
is drawn indicating the number of boilers and the time 
for them to be put on and off the line. On the day 
following, a bulletin is posted commenting on the 
previous day's operation. 

Each morning all data covering the previous day's 
operation are figured and plotted. The curves, which 
are carried out for a complete month, are posted each 
morning with the figures of the day before. These 
sheets show the gross generation, boiler horsepower- 
hours in service, total evaporation, station water rate, 
individual machine water rates, combined machine 
water rate, plant load factor, machine load factors, 
average barometer, temperature of circulating water, 
individual machine vacuums, water evaporated per 
boiler horsepower-hour, average kilowatt-hours per 
boiler horsepower-hour, and total evaporation. Each 
month a comparative report is prepared showing the 
station efficiencies. It is circulated throughout the 
plant and compared by the men with previous months. 

Further Economies Contemplated 
To reach our desired goal we have several plans 
which do not involve the purchase of additional equip- 
ment. We contemplate obtaining a better balance by 
bleeding two turbines to the heater through thermo- 
static control valves. Steam "laning" in the condensers 
is planned by the removal of tubes. Thus steam can 
reach the lower tubes directly without cooling the steam 
already condensed. From this change we expect a 
slight increase in vacuum and also a decrease in the 
depression of the hot-well temperature. 

It is also planned to install an evaporator for han- 
dling the make-up feed water, and also assist in main- 
taining the proper heat balance. 

A lubrication survey completed last September indi- 
cated that the cost of lubrication may be reduced about 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


50 per cent. Progress made thus far indicates that 
the contemplated figure undoubtedly will be reached. 
In this survey each piece of station equipment that 
required lubrication was given a page in a lubrication 
handbook on which was noted the equipment number, 
manufacturer, speed, kinds of lubrication required, 
times of lubricating, the recommendation for oil and 
quantities, lubricator attachments, etc. Thus the proper 
oils for the lubrication of the unit and the approximate 
quantity" required per 100 hours of operation were 
determined. On the generating units with circulating 
oil systems, oil levels were set and the oil maintained 
at this level. On the fifteenth and first of each month, 
a sample is drawn from the oiling system of each 
turbine and examined in the laboratory for the deter- 
mination of acrdity, saponification, viscosity, emulsifica- 
tion, dirt, etc. The test results and the average 
maximum bearing temperatures are plotted on curve 
sheets, one for each generating unit. Piping from 
each turbine oiling system has been arranged to bypass 
the oil to a centrifugal oil purifier which is also 
arranged to purify miscellaneous oil reclaimed from 

A similar analysis is now being made covering all 
packings used in the station. The grade and size 
required for any particular location will be determined 
and mandrels will be provided for cutting the packing 
to exact size. Already we have standardized valves 
for all types of service from 2i-in. sizes to the smallest 
in use. By studying the necessary amount of main- 
tenance supplies, the stores stock has been reduced by 
about two-thirds. 

The above are but a few of many schemes we are 
working on to assist in obtaining the lowest possible 
production costs from the station. 

While the results as shown might have been accom- 
plished in less than two years, the reorganization of 
the plant forces involved much more than a reassem- 
bling of men under different lines of authority. A 
sudden radical departure from methods in vogue for 
years would not only have upset the organization, but 
would have defeated the very ends we wished to attain. 
Today we have a competent, willing and confident work- 
ing unit, whose efficiency has made possible all the 
savings so far, and which ultimately will obtain every 
available economy within the station's possibilities. 

Piece- Work System in Car Maintenance 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, in New York City, Has Secured Excellent Results 

from Its Use on Routine Jobs — Men Make More, and Company Saves Money — 

Men Take Great Pride in Developing Special Skill 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^ M 








*"' \^^^^^ ■ ^fl^^l 


/// ^ 


This I'owerful Lathe lIlustruteM the Ty 
.Make Piece Worit a Succ 

THE piece-work 
plan of payment 
of workmen is 
highly developed in the 
manufacturing field 
and has been used to a 
limited extent on elec- 
tric railway properties. 
A pioneer in this field 
was the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, which for fifteen 
years, more or less, 
has used the plan on 
all shop operations 
which are sufficiently 
standardized to render 
this possible. As early as 1912 the system was producing 
satisfactory results so that the management was willing 
to have its working described in the Electric Railway 
Journal, which was done in the issue for April 6, 
1912, page 576. Since that time there have been minor 
adjustments in detail, but the fundamental principles 
which governed then are followed today. These prin- 
ciples are, in brief, as follows: 

First, in general it is to the interest of both workers 
and employer to get the maximum output from the 
maintenance plant, to the extent to which the work 
does not overtax the men. 

Second, the men are more contented with, and in- 
terested in, their work when assured that they will be 
compensated for their own efforts. This results in a 
constant endeavor to eliminate lost time. 

Third, while the company pays the men more under 

pes of Macliines Wllieli Hare Helped 
'eMH on the InterlKirouKli 

this plan, its return is 
greater both as to di- 
rect cost per unit pro- 
duced and in economy 
in the use of shop 
space and facilities. 

Fourth, the system 
tends to the develop- 
ment of specialists, 
who realize that by 
doing their work bet- 
ter than others could 
do it they insure 
steady work for them- 
selves, as well as bet- 
ter remuneration. 
The men who are on 
piece work like it, and there is a constant incentive to 
day workers to get on piece work when they can. Fur- 
ther, the industriousness of the piece workers sets a 
good example to the force generally. 

The Piece-Work Plan in Practice 

An example of the good results of the piece-work plan 
is furnished by the operation of wheel turning. The 
men on this job have studied it so carefully that they 
are now putting a pair of wheels through in twenty- 
two minutes on the average, at a contract cost of 34.1 
cents. Under the plan of paying for work by the 
day the output in this operation was three or four 
pairs of wheels per day per man. With the improved 
machinery now used, with high-speed tool steel and 
with operation at 100 per cent efficiency due to the use 
of the piece-work plan, the output has been increased to 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

I.oakliifr at the Knd of the Big Wheel I,athe Which TiirnH Wheel 
Treads and Flanires In Twenty -two Minutes 

twenty-five pairs of wheels per day per man, and the 
men are able to earn on the job about $200 per month. 
This has been made possible by the elimination of lost 
motion, and the forcing of the cut to the maximum of 

The piece-work plan is used not only on routine 
operations but on new installation work as well. This 
work is kept separata from the maintenance work, 
and the regular force is not employed upon it. 

One of the most interesting jobs of recent years 
is one now under way, the equipping of nearly four 
hundred cars, now in use, with high-voltage, multiple- 
unit car-door control. This involves considerably more 
than 150 contract items, large and small. For example, 
one contract calls for the cutting, threading and 
reaming of about 600 pieces of electric conduit and air 
pipe (for one car), for which the contract price is 
$16.10; another calls for the bending of these pipes to 
template, at $11.60, etc. 

To make this illustration somewhat more tangible the 
following excerpts from the schedule are given: 

Disconnect brake rigging for jacking car bodies, disconnect 
and remove air piping and conduit for installation of 
multiple-unit door equipment. Remove fitting from pipe 
and deliver to stock room. Motor car, per car A. \V. I. 
(All work included) ♦9-5« 

Same, trail car ■ 2.40 

Drill holes under car body for installation of air and con- 
duit pipe clamps. Motor car, per car, A. W. 1 9.60 

Same, trail car •. • • o-"" 

Cut to length and pull in all wires tor multiple-unit equip- 
ment, e.xcluding pulling from master controllers to cutout 
switches and door contact shoes to reversing springs and 
switches. Motor car, per car, A. W. 1 37.00 

Same, trail car 32.00 

Dismantle vestibule light cluster on high-voltage trail cars. 

per car, A. W. 1 0.20 

Install vestibule light cluster on high-voltage trail cars. 

per car, A. W. 1 0-35 

Install the following apparatus in motor-car body interior ; 
two door-lock cylinders, two cylinder relay boxes, two in- 
terlock boxes, two car-door unit cutout switch boxes, one 
electric brake resistance coil and one governor resistance 
coil with necessary bolts and brackets. Motor car, per 
car, A. W. I • • 300 

Rethread and plug thirty holes in back of door. Motor 

car, per car, A. W. 1 1.80 

Install door-engine bedplates: Spot ten rivet heads with drill 
and remove seat separators, clean floor, set up drilling jig, 
drill four i-in. holes and bolt bedplate in place. Install 
door engines as follows: remove magnet valves and en- 
gine levers, install door slide rods and brackets, drill two 
I-in. holes, line up machine, bolt in place, connect and 
adjust so that door operates free. Motor car, per car, 
A.W.I 15.00 

Time Studies Are Constantly Being Made 

The aim of the equipment department is to have as 
many jobs as possible on piece work. To that end a 
constant study is made of all day work with a view 
to changing it over. The detail of this falls to the 
"data collectors," one to each department, who are 
expected to report on all possibilities, with facts to 
back up their recommendations. They not only do this 
but also suggest changes in the procedure on an opera- 
tion when, in their opinion, it is not being done to the 
best advantage. 

The machine shops, paint shops, wood mills and 
blacksmith shops are practically all on a piece-work 
basis. All types of bearings are babbitted, brush- 
holders overhauled, commutators removed and replaced, 
and armatures stripped, rewound and banded on the 
same basis. 

Take, for a detailed example of the way in which a 
routine job is put through, the treatment of a car 
which comes into the paint shop for repainting. The 
foreman has a complete list of the items which may 




Paint Department Opeihtion Sheet 
Monhatlon Division 

Car No. 

Date In 

Date Out 







Pass and 


Pass and 


Pass and 


Pass and 


Pass and 




J . 

' ^ 


flK. 1 — Check Sheet TTaed for PreTentlar Duplication of Charges 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


possibly require attention, although usually a car does 
not need to have everything done to it that is included 
in the list. The following are the items and contract 
prices on Manhattan Elevated cars, which have wood 
bodies and have been in service for many years : 

Scrub exterior $3.02 

Prime exterior 1.26 

Putty and sand, oil 

enamel 321 

Second coat exterior... 1.90 
Number ends exterior.. .0243 
Number ends interior.. .0243 

Letter boards 1.57 

Door posts, burn off. . . .0603 

Paint deck 389 

Paint canvas roof 428 

Paint gates 1.20 

Black off ironwork.... 1.26 
Door posts, putty and 

plaster 122 

Scrub motor car interior 1.81 
Scrub trailer interior.. 1.43 
Clean and oil curtains. .48 

Clean hand straps 389 

Putty and paint lining. 1.11 
Enamel head and side 

linings 1.35 

Sand and varnish motor 

interior 2.22 

Sand and varnish trailer 

interior 1.81 

Number glass, 1 fig 418 

Number glass, 2 figs... .515 
Number glass, 3 figs... .60 
Number glass, 4 tigs... .681 
Warning notice seats. . .564 
Scrape and clean sash. .0243 

Body sash burn oft 0243 

Bodv sash scrub two 

sides 0122 

Body sash scrub one 

side 00603 

Clean embossed glass.. 1.18 

Sash to loft 108 

Body sash, finish one 

side 049 

Body sash, finish both 

sides 073 

Cleaning glass 1.35 

Blinds, scrub two sides .0122 
• Blinds, prime and 

enamel 0185 

Scrub seats 63 

Paint seats $0.73 

Varnish seats 642 

Paint motor truck 389 

Paint trailer truck 282 

Putty and sand rein- 
forced cars, having 

panels 788 

One coat color 282 

Putty and sand rein- 
forced cars, having 

sheathing 428 

One coat color rein- 
forced sheathing 272 

Remove paint and vai - 

nish 96 

Sand body sash 428 

Paint heater wires 073 

Scrape body sash 86 

Paint new canvas roof. .321 

Truck shoe beam 122 

Seat frames 37 

Clean motor truck 341 

Clean motor car trailer 

truck 525 

Clean trailer truck 428 

Spray motor truck 171 

Spray trailer truck 122 

Safety gate 073 

Paint heaters 321 

Scrub floor strips 96 

Paint floor 219 

Remove varnish trailer.. 12. 24 
Remove varnish motor. 15.01 
Remove varnish, sand . 

strips, etc 2.77 

Remove varnish, sand 

parting strip 3.55 

Varnish trailer 3.16 

Varnish motor 4.34 

Body sash 049 

Varnish sash stops, etc. 1.90 

Window capping l-*^„ 

Remove varnish in part .788 
Remove varnish swing 

door 321 

Bleach, etc., in part... 1.26 
Paint ateel posts 1.59 

This Boring Mill la a Valuable Viilt In the InterborougU 
Plece-Work Scheme 

is allowed 81 cents, regardless of the number of pieces 
ordered. He is then allowed 3.913 cents per piece, 
which is the sum of the following items, each of which 
has been made the subject of careful time study : 

In a case like this it is sometimes possible to group 
some of the jobs, in which case the group is given a 
combination number and is priced at the sum of the 
component contract prices. 

In the operation of the piece-work system everything 
depends upon the proper determination of the contract 
prices. These are set in the Interborough shops on the 
basis of careful and detailed time studies. By the term 
"detailed" is meant the actual measurement of the time 
of each component part of an operation. When a spe- 
cial construction job develops, such as the equipping of 
the large number of cars with door control already 
mentioned, sample cars are equipped by careful work- 
men and time studies are made as the work proceeds. 
In routine operations a man is selected for test who 
is average as far as production is concerned. He knows 
that the time studies are being made. A large number 
of timings are made, say seventy-five or more, and 
maximum, minimum and average values are noted. 
Then comes the task of fixing the rates. In doing 
this allowance is made for odds and ends of things that 
must be done during working hours and also for a 
reasonable amount of speeding up under the stimulus 
of the piece-work plan. This work is done in great 
detail and, once done, the contract prices are not dis- 
turbed unless conditions change or the job is modified. 
As an example of the making up of a price, take a 
small piece like the wood base-block for a car-door 
cutout snap switch. This is a piece which requires a 
finish all over, rounding of the corners, slotting under- 
neath and a little shaping on the handsaw machine. 
First, a study is made of the time required to get the 
several machines ready for use. For this the workman 

A — Cross cut to over length 0.015 cent 

B — Rip to over width 0.03 cent 

C — Joint to give true edge 0.054 cent 

D— Re-rip 0.02 cent 

E — Dress to thickness 0.047 cent 

F — Square and cross cut "•1?? '^*''' 

G — Cut slot, single cut 0.092 cent 

H — Band saw to shape 1.1 cents 

I — Bore four A -in. holes, six i'l-in. holes. Jig work... 1.45 cents 

J — Round oft all edges 0.97 cent 

Total 3.9 13 cents 

Thus on an order of 200 base blocks the workman 
would get 

81 + (200 X 3.913) = $8,636, or 
4.318 cents each, whereas if he made but ten pieces 
the price would be 12.013 cents each. This, of course, 
illustrates the importance of getting out large quan- 
tities on each order. 

The advantage of having a detailed analysis like 
this lies not only in the accuracy of it, but it renders 
very easy the changing of the contract price without 
new studies if one or more of the parts of the opera- 
tion are omitted. Of course, if the job is expanded 
the new items must be priced from additional time- 
study data. 

In keeping track of the work of each man, and of the 
group or gang engaged upon a given job, the daily 
form shown in Figs. 2 and 3 is used. Fig. 2 shows the 

This Tnrret L,»the Tarns Out Bolts at an Amasins Rate 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

face of the sheet, which is 7x8 in. in size; while Fig. 
3 shows the back, used in case extra space is required. 

This form comprises two sections, one for a general 
summary of each man's work for the day, the other 
for a detailed statement of the work done by the gang 
as a whole on each contract. It will be noted that the 
work is detailed by contract numbers, every job of 
piece work being so identified. The particular job is 
noted also, or if it is a routine job on a car the car 
number serves as identification. The number of pieces, 
nature of the job, price per piece and amounts charged 
to slight repairs (S. R.), general repairs (G. R.) and 
construction are also given. 

This slip is signed by the inspector or checker and 
the foreman or his clerk, these having agreed that 

sheet, of which there must be one copy for each major 
job such as repainting, as covered in the list on page 
445, the work is itemized in a column for each car. 
Then as work on an item is reported for a car it is 
entered at the appropriate point, furnishing a check 
against a second charge for a given contract on one car 
at the same time. It also checks against a car coming 
back too soon for a given repair. In this case if the 
repetition is found to be due to poor workmanship the 
workman is expected to "make good" by repairing the 
part without pay. 

The piece-work plan is used by the Interborough for 
practically all jobs on which the workmen can be paid 
in accordance with the work done. However, as sug- 
gested earlier, some work is done under a bonus plan, 


Cam EouirMiHT Ot»Aimmir. 


. .JOap. 





















Shop Date, 191 — 











Fig. « (Above. Left) 
— Front of DaUy 
Time Sheet Vsed on 
Piece Work, Inter- 
bo r o o K I> Rapid 
Transit Company 

Fig. 3 (Below. Left) 
— Back of Dally 
Time Sheet 

Fig. 4 (Above. 
Right) — Front of 
Weekly Plece-Work 
Time Card 

Fig. 5 (Below, 
Right) — Back of 
Weekl.v Time Card 
(Printed length- 





MO 0* 











the work was properly done and in the quantity stated. 
The inspector and foreman co-operate for the purpose 
of insuring compliance of the work with specifications 
as to quality, and the inspector for this purpose is 
assistant to the foreman. He, however, is responsible 
to the head of the piece-work department. 

Each week there is compiled also the piece-work time 
card for each gang, summarizing the information on 
the daily slips. This form is 5ix9J in. in size. It is 
shown in Figs. 4 and 5. This form on its face calls for 
the total hours worked by each man and the amount he 
earned. On the back is a summary of the work done 
by the gang, the costs being segregated by contract 

A third form (blueprinted) which is found useful is 
known as the "check sheet." This is shown in Fig. 1. 
Its main purpose is to prevent duplication. On this 

principally car cleaning. To this work considerable 
attention was given in the 1912 article previously men- 
tioned. The base daily wage rate is fixed for a reason- 
able number of cars washed per day. For all cars 
washed above this number the workman receives one- 
half of the rate per car that formed the basis of the 
daily wage. This plan seems better adapted to the 
class of labor employed in car cleaning as the men 
appreciate the assurance of receiving at least a mini- 
mum daily wage. 

The equipment department of the Interborough is 
thoroughly "sold" on the piece-work system. The main- 
tenance work is costing possibly 25 per cent less than 
it would under the time system and the men are better 
paid and more contented. 

W. E. Strait, superintendent of economy, has direct 
charge of this department. 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


A Study, Covering Fifty Shops, of the Various Methods Employed in Pressing Off Wheels to Bring 
Out the Function of the Holes in the Gear Blank, Looking Toward a Standardization of the Number, 
Size and Location of These Holes — The Principal Methods and Devices Used Are Described and Pictured 

Methods and Equipment for 
Removing Wheels 

By C. W. Squier 

Associate Editor Electric Railwat Journal, New York, N. Y. 

A PROBLEM of considerable pro- 
portion in wheel maintenance 
. has gradually been forced upon 
electric railways, due to the trend of 
car and motor design. This problem is 
as to how wheels at the gear end of 
axles can best be removed without 
bending the axles or breaking the 
wheels. In the days of split gears, 
these could be removed readily and 
hence did not present any obstacle to 
wheel removal. When solid gears were 
first introduced, they were made from 
steel castings, and in order that gear 
weight might be reduced, the designer 
put as large holes as possible into the 
web. Where spokes were used there 
was a large space between them. With 
these designs there was no difficulty in 
pressing off the wheel at the gear end 
and leaving the gear in place, as there 
was ample room for jack pins, which 
could be inserted in most any desirable 
position through the holes in the web 
or between the spokes of the gear. 

When forged gears were first in- 
troduced, manufacturers followed the 

same general practice of putting as 

large holes as possible in the web. 
These holes were usually 34 in. in diameter and were 
usually spaced on a 144-in. diameter circle. This was in 
the days when practically all gears used with railway 
motors in city service were three pitch and usually had 
in the neighborhood of from sixty-five to seventy-one 
teeth. With these gears there was ample room for holes 
in the web, and the use of jack pins for removing wheels 
was the general practice. 

When forged gear blanks began to be made for use 
on interurban cars, it was found necessary to use large 
hubs for the gears and frequently the outside diameter 
of the gears was very small. As a result, the space for 
web holes was considerably reduced, and the sizes 
dropped to as small as 11 in. in some cases, and in others 
it was found necessary to eliminate web holes entirely. 
With the introduction of the safety car, it was found 
impossible to maintain the same center distance between 
the web holes or to use the same diameter for these 

As a result of these advances in car design and 
service, nearly every gear has now developed into a spe- 
cial engineering problem for the location of the web 
holes. If the railway operator has a dozen different 
types of motors, the gears that are furnished for the 














Wheel Shop of the Twin City Rapid Transit Company, .St. Paul, Minn. 

This shop occupies a space 50 x 80 ft., 
adjoining the truck shop. It contains the 
following machine tools : One wheel-turn- 
ing lathe, one 200-ton hydraulic press, 
one standard wheel-boring machine, one 
double-head 48-in. boring mill, two wheel- 
grinding machines, one cutting off and 
centering lathe, one axle turning lathe, 

one axle grinding machine, one lathe 
equipped for boring a 2-in. hole through 
axles end to end. one milling machine, 
one key seater used on pinions, one gear 
cutter, capacity up to 60 in. ; two cast- 
iron axle racks, one 100-ton hydraulic 
axle straightener and four electric hoists 
for serving the various machines. 

different motors may have a dozen different sizes of 
web holes and different spacings of centers. 

Some time ago the Carnegie Steel Company, which 
was the leader in forged gear blank production, en- 
deavored to build up a series of standards for the size 
and spacing of the web holes. Considerable difficulty 
was experienced, however, in deciding on sizes which 
would cover satisfactorily the large range. Another 
complication arose from the fact that a different die 
may be used for two gears that, from the customers' 
standpoint, seem alike, one, however, being used on a 
larger axle than the other, which necessitates a larger 
hub and therefore a different die. Of course, this 
affects the space available for web holes. Another diffi- 
culty which prevents location of the holes close to the 
hub comes from the sloping web of the gear. This 
makes it necessary to locate the center of holes at the 
bottom of the dish and also to limit the size of the holes. 
Otherwise, in starting to drill the web hole, the drill 
point would not touch the web, so that in effect it 
would be trying to drill a hole with the side of the 
drill. At the present time, the American Gear Man- 
ufacturers' Association has a committee working on this 
subject and the Carnegie and Cambria Steel Companies 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

<la<^k Pin Methods of Wheel Removal 

At top — Jack pins through web holes in gear, together with 
clamping collar between gear and wheel, used by the Caoltal 
Traction Company, Washington, D. C. >-apiiai 

Second and third views — Jack pins through web holes In sear 
together with yokes at ends of jack pins, used by the Louisville 

At bottom — Jack pins through web holes in gear, with U-shaped 
yoke between gear and wheel, used by Twin City Rapid Transit Co. 

have developed some tentative standards which are 
being considered for recommendation to various com- 
mittees interested in this subject. 

"Journal" Makes Study of Problem 

The foregoing summary of the development of gear 
blank design indicates how the problem of removing 
wheels at the gear end of axles has gradually been com- 
plicated for car maintenance men, and a large variety 
of special tools and fixtures have been designed in order 
to care for the new condition. Realizing that this 
problem was of particular interest to the operators, the 
Electric Railway Journal sent out a questionnaire to 
obtain information in regard to the various practices in 
use and the difficulties which were experienced. This 
information has been added to through personal visits 
to a large number of electric railway shops, so that 
altogether information has been obtained from more 
than fifty electric railways regarding the practices used. 

Before taking up a description of some of the methods 
used and the special equipment found necessary for re- 
moving wheels, it will be interesting to note the various 
sizes of wheel presses employed and the maximum pres- 
sures found necessary for removing wheels. Informa- 
tion obtained indicates that the wheel presses range in 
size from 150 to 400 tons. By far the largest number 
of electric railway shops, however, are using the 300- 
ton size. Pressures used for removing wheels vary 
from 70 tons to 350 tons. However, with pressures in 
excess of 150 tons, there is danger of breaking the 
wheel or bending the axle, and a large number of rail- 
ways heat the hub of the wheel where high pressures 
are found necessary rather than to increase the pres- 
sure to dangerous amounts. From the information 
gathered, it appears that for cast-iron wheels safe work- 
ing pressures range from 75 to 100 tons, and for steel 
wheels from 125 to 200 tons. 

Some Methods Used for Removing Wheels 

Various devices have been developed by electric rail- 
way shops in order to utilize their presses for removing 
the wheel without removing the gear. Some roads, 
particularly those which have interurban service or 
high-speed rapid transit service, such as elevated or 
subway trains, have adopted the practice of removing 
both the gear and wheel at the same time. These roads 
take advantage of the wheel and gear removal to exam- 
ine the axles for flaws and to test them for trueness. 
The majority of cars in this class of service have large 
motors, and as a result, the gear and wheel hubs come 
very close together. Where both gear and wheel are 
removed at the same time, the usual method consists of 
holding the gear stationary by means of a heavy yoke, 
which rests against the stationary yoke of the wheel 
press. Pressure is applied to the outside end of the 
axle, so that this is really pushed through the gear and 
wheel. Where possible most roads leave a little space 
between the hubs of the gear and wheel, so that the 
gear will move first. This, of course, reduces the pres- 
sure necessary for the initial movement. When the 
axle is moving through the gear the pressure, of course, 
is again increased when the gear hub comes in contact 
with that of the wheel. After the wheel is started, the 
pressure again reduces. Of the various railways from 
which information was obtained about one-sixth were 
found to employ the practice of pressing both gear and 
wheel off simultaneously. In general, the practice is to 
return the gear to the same size axle. 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


The methods used for removing wheels without 
removing the gears can be divided into two general 
classes: First, the use of jack pins or a device 
with pins which operate through the web holes in the 
gear and thus press against the wheel as near to the 
hub as possible. The second class of devices are those 
which are applied outside of the gear diameter, and in 
most cases the wheel is pushed off by having a rigid 
support for the wheel at the rim. With this latter 
method care must be used to make certain that the 
pressures are not excessive, otherwise there is danger 
of breaking the wheel or bending the axle, since the 
point of support is so far from the axle. From the 
information gathered, it is learned that more than one- 
half the railways use the web holes in the gear and 
either jack pins or special devices to apply pressure to 
the wheel; one-third use devices applying pressure to 
the wheel outside the gear circumference. 

Of the railways using jack pins, the most common 
method seems to be to employ a split collar between the 
gear and the wheel. This type of collar usually has 
lugs on either side and the two parts are held together 
by bolts. An accompanying illustration shows this 
method as used by the Capital Traction Company, 
Washington, D. C. In this case the cast-steel collar or 
"wedge block," as it is termed on that system, has a 
plane surface on one side, while the other side is turned 
to fit the contour of the web of the wheel. The web 
of the gear shown in the illustration has holes 3 in. in 
diameter, spaced on a 14J-in. diameter circle. As the 
wedge block is made in two pieces and bolted together, 
this can be enlarged, if found advisable, so as to accom- 
modate a different diameter for the spacing of the web 
holes or even to such an extent as to put the pressure 
outside the gear if necessary. In the illustration the 
gear is a seventy-tooth three-pitch type, and the wheel 
is 31 in. in diameter. 

One railway which employs this method reports that 
eccentric jack pins are used so as to overcome the dif- 
ficulty when web holes in all the gears are not uniformly 
spaced. This latter road uses a U-shaped block bolted 
to the head of the wheel press, and four eccentric jack 
pins. The collar between the gear and the wheel is of 
cast steel, having one side straight and the other con- 
cave to fit the wheel surface. 

Other roads which use this method have found it 
necessary to enlarge the holes in the web of the gears 
by cutting out with an acetylene torch. Thus, one road 
reports difficulty where the holes were but 2 in. in 
diameter. The small jack pins necessary buckled under 
the pressure. These holes in the web of the gear were 
cut to 2 J in. diameter, and larger push pins have been 
used satisfactorily. In this connection care should be 
used in the manipulation of the torch, as it is possible 
to injure a treated and hardened gear so as to decrease 
its durability and set up serious strains. Chrome nickel 
or nickel steel push pins may also be used to give a 
stiffer construction with less tendency to buckle. 

Several roads use a horseshoe-shaped yoke between 
the gear and the wheel instead of the split collar. Jack 
pins are then used through the web holes, resting with 
one end against the yoke and the other end against the 
frame of the wheel press or against other U-shaped 
yokes to take up the necessary space. Accompanying 
illustrations show this method as used by the Louisville 
Railway, and also by the Twin City Lines in St. Paul, 
Minn. The yokes are fitted with an eye-bolt for con- 
venience in handling and have one side shaped so as to 

stool-Type Equipment for Wheel Removal 

At the top — Stool with legs through web holes in gear, together 
with clamped collar between gear and wheel, as used by the united 
Electric Railways, Providence, R. I. 

Center and bottom — Four-legged stool split and hinged to pro- 
vide for placing around axle, together with clamping collar, used 
by the United Railways of St. Louis, Mo. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

form a good bearing surface against the wheel face, 
where they fit around the axle. On some roads which 
have wide gage lines so that there is considerable space 
between the hub of the wheel and that of the gear, the 
yoke is made to fit against the hub of the wheel with a 
projection at the top to reach the wheel web. 

Some roads employ the jack-pin method with a yoke 
between the gear and wheel where gears are provided 
with web holes, but where the gears are not furnished 
with holes or with holes of small diameter, a heavy bar 

(T^LocaHon ofeye-bofi 
VM/ musf- balance shell 

Thimble Attacliment for Presulng Off Car WheeU Used 

by the Birmingham Railway. Ligrht & rower 

Company. Birmingham, .Ala, 

is placed against the rim of the wheel and the jack pins 
are then used outside the gear. 

A number of roads which reported using the jack- 
pin method made no mention of using either yoke or a 
split collar between the gear and wheel. Due to the 
sloping surface at the hub of the wheel, however, there 
is danger of bending the jack pins or of causing exces- 
sive strains to the gear or wheel which may result in 
breakage of the wheels or bending of the axles unless 
some sort of plane surface is provided for the ends of 
the pins to rest against. One road reported the use of 
a special head, which it had welded to the wheel press. 
This head is provided with receptacles for the jack pins, 
so as to give them a somewhat firmer support than that 
provided by simply resting against the press frame. 

Several roads which essentially employ the jack-pin 
method report a much more elaborate fixture in the 
shape of a stool with one side left open so as to pass 
over the axle. Stools are provided with either three or 
four legs, depending upon the number and spacing of 

the web holes. The legs extend through these holes 
and rest against a collar between the gear and wheel, 
or a U-shaped yoke. Accompanying illustrations show 
this method as used by the United Electric Railways of 
Providence, R. I., and the United Railways of St. Louis, 
Mo. The use of such a stool makes it unnecessary to 
use an additional yoke for the jack pins to rest against 
at the wheel-press end, and in addition the legs have a 
very firm support at one end so that there is less danger 
of buckling or bending. The form of stool used by the 
St. Louis Company is split through the center and has 
a hinge arrangement at one side, so that this can be 
opened and inserted around the axle, and then clamped 

The Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction Company 
has wide gage track. It uses a slotted stool type of 
fixture, and in addition a casting which fits between the 
wheel hub and the gear. This casting is slotted so that 
it can be installed over the axle. One end is made small 
enough to fit against the hub of the wheel while the 
other end is considerably larger in diameter and has a 
flat surface against which the ends of the stool legs rest. 
The head of the stool fits against the frame of the 
wheel press as shown in the accompanying illustration. 
Hook bolts are installed in the various parts for con- 
venience in handling, and also to provide a support by 
means of chains while the wheel pressing operation is 
taking place. 

Present Practice Regarding Size of Web 
Holes and Spacing 

In connection with the use of jack pins or the stool 
method for removing wheels, it is interesting to note 
the present practice in regard to the size of holes used 
and also the spacing desired. Information was obtained 
from the various roads in regard to this point. The 
sizes of holes vary in diameter from 2 in. to 3J in., 
with the majority using 2i and 3-in. holes. In regard 
to the spacing, all seem to agree that it is desirable to 
have the holes as close to the hub as practicable. Pres- 
ent practice indicates the use of either two, three or 
four holes on a circle varying in diameter from Hi in. 
to 15 in. The majority of railways expressed the opin- 
ion that some definite spacing was desirable, although 
several stated that they could accommodate their tools 
to almost any spacing, but of course permanent devices 
would require modification if the diameter or spacing 


Four-Legged Stool, Together with Sperlal Collar to <io Between Oear anil Wheel Hub. as I'sed by the 
IVilniington & Philadeliihia Traction Company 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


was changed from the present practice. If a standard 
were adopted, however, they could readily arrange their 
devices to take this standard, and then there would be 
no further changing. 

Information was also obtained as to how the various 
railways remove their wheels, if the gears have web 
holes, diameter of holes, or spacing differing from their 
standard. The following are some of the answers re- 
ceived to this question: 

"With small gears we remove the wheels by using a cast- 
iron block, putting pressure against the rim of the wheel. 
I should object very strongly, however, to the entire elimina- 
tion of the holes in the w«b of the gears which are large 
enough to have them, as they prove of considerable ad- 

"As yet have not had to remove any wheels with small 
gears. When the time comes, we will probably use a steel 
thimble to surround the gear and push against the rim of 
the wheel and will heat the hub of the wheel so as to 
facilitate removal." 

"Where gears do not have holes in the web, we use a 
yoke on the front block on the wheel press, and then use 
the push pins on the outside of the gear, with the ends 
against the rim of the wheel." 

"Where gears are not provided with web holes, we either 
press off both gears and wheels at the same time, or our 
most recent practice is to burn web holes in the gears with 
our oxweld outfit." 

"We have no such condition at present, but if such was 
the case, we would use a shell over the gear, with one end 
resting against the press and the other against the rim of 
the wheel." 

"Where the web holes do not fit our fixture, we cut holes 
or enlarge them with the oxyactylene torch. We have not 
removed any wheels without holes in the gears so far, but 
for our safety car wheels we will probably make a special 
fixture to go over the outside of the gear." 

"In some cases we are able to remove the wheel by plac- 
ing two steel blocks against the rim of the wheel oiitside 
of the gear, but if the wheel does not start at a pressure 
less than 70 tons, we then press off both gear and wheel 
together. On the larger sizes of axles we usually heat the 
hub of the wheel with a gas burner in order to reduce the 
pressure necessary for pressing off." 

A considerable number reported that where gears 
have no web holes both gear and wheel are pressed off 
at the same time. 

Use of Devices Over Outside of Gears 

Another class of devices used is of the type which 
passes over the outside of the gear, and either presses 
directly against the rim of the wheel or else has collars 
or extensions to go down to the hub of the wheel. In 
the information obtained it was found that a large 
number of roads use rectangular steel blocks, with the 
ends I'esting between the frame of the wheel press and 

the rim of the wheel. A slight modification of this is 
used by a number of railways which consists of the use 
of a steel collar, which is inserted between the gear and 
the wheel. The rectangular bars then rest against the 
top of this steel collar, and the strain is transmitted 
over a larger surface of the wheel than would be the 
case with bars resting directly against the rim of the 
wheel. The steel bars most generally are about 2 in. x 


- m^^wm-^: 







■>. -^W, -V 

Ir . 


W .i. '^^■■^^^^^^^^^^■■■HR- 

LarK^ Round Bara Outside of the Uear, witli Special Yoke on 

Wlieei PresH, Used \>y tile Kortliem Oliia Traction & 

Liffiit Company, Aiiron. OIUo 

6 in. in cross-section and of varying length depending 
upon the space necessary to provide clearance for mov- 
ing the wheels. 

An accompanying illustration shows the equipment 
used by the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company 
in its Akron shops. Round bars are used over the out- 
side of the gear and rest against the rim of the wheel. 
A special casting has been made to receive the ends 
of the bars as they rest against the yoke of the wheel 

The line cut shown on page 450 illustrates a steel 
thimble as used in the shops of the Birmingham Rail- 
way, Light & Power Company. The cylindrical portion 
passes over the gear and the closed end portion rests 
against the wheel. A. Taurman, superintendent of 
equipment, reports that since putting this tool into 
operation he has found that the pressure necessary to 
remove a wheel from the axle is greatly reduced. This 
is due to the fact that there is a more even distribution 

Sperlui Yolte witli Arms Extending Over <Jeur» Ised by the Bust .si. I.oui" * Suburban Kall««> 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

of the pressure on the wheel than is possible to get with 
any device which depends upon pins projecting through 
the gear. The pressure necessary to remove the wheels 
in the Birmingham shops at present corresponds very 
closely to the pressure with which they are applied, 
which was not the case before this device was used. 
The bending of axles has been entirely eliminated. 

The Tri-City Railway in its Rock Island, 111., shop 
uses a large semicircular steel collar, which extends 
around the circumference of the gear and fits snugly 
against the frame of the press and the flange of the 
wheel. A description of the method used by this com- 
pany in removing its wheels was published in the 
Electric Railway Journal for Jan. 17, 1920, page 
161. The use of special devices in connection with wheel 
mounting and wheel removal work has greatly simpli- 
fied the process, so that it is carried out by one man 


Fash Bars Over Gear Used by the Eastern Massachusetts 
Street Railway, Chelsea, Mass. 

with practically no lifting and requiring very little 
special skill. 

The East St. Louis & Suburban Railway uses a 
U-shaped casting with two arms which extend outside 
the gear for removing wheels. This device is made of 
east steel, and the ends of the two arms rest against 
the rim of the wheel to be removed. Accompanying illus- 
trations show this device and its method of use in 
removing wheels. It is pictured in use with steel wheels, 
but the company reports that it works equally well on 
cast-iron wheels and that no difficulty has been experi- 
enced in breaking or bending of axles. 

Some of the comments made by master mechanics 
regarding their practice and what is desired in order 
to produce simpler and more universal methods of wheel 
removal practice are of interest and are given in the 

"We use both the yoke and push pin method. Our only 
reason for preferring holes in gears is to kill the noise and 
stop the ringing, which we have found particularly annoy- 
ing with solid gears." 

"We remove gears at the time the wheels are removed, 
80 that the axles may be placed on lathe centers and tested 
lor trueness and to permit an examination for flaws. Ex- 
perience has shown us that it is a dangerous practice to 
try to remove the gear and wheel at the same time where 
the hubs meet, because the starting pressure for each is so 
great that in order to start them moving a sprung axle 
often results. Our road operates interurban cars with 
steel wheels." 

"On interurban wheels we have never tried to remove the 
wheels without removing the gears. The holes through the 
web of the gear in this class of equipment do not come in 
such a position that it is possible to use them, as they are 
opposite the curved surface of the web of the wheel, which 
makes it impracticable to apply sufficient pressure to re- 
move the wheels. For interurban service, it is necessary 
that the gear and wheel hubs come very close together. 
We have made it a practice to see that there is space left 

of at least I in. between the gear hub and the wheel hub, 
so that in pressing off the gear and wheel, the gear will be 
started first, as we find that the pressure required to re- 
move the wheel and gear at the same time is very much in 
excess of that required by this practice. As a rule, the 
minimum pressure required on a 7-in. wheel fit is 70 tons, 
being 10 tons per inch of diameter. The maximum pressure 
for this fit is around 85 tons. We frequently find that a 
pressure of 150 tons is insufficient to remove the wheels. 
In cases of this kind we heat the wheel slightly with a 
large kerosene oil torch in order to avoid excessive pres- 
sure, which is liable to spring or bend the axle." 

"We have found it good practice to remove the wheels 
with the gears, due to the fact that on a cast-iron wheel 
you cannot get a solid or true enough surface in order to 
press the wheels off, and with high pressures there is 
danger of bending the axle. Very high pressures are nec- 
essary with steel wheels, and consequently the danger of 
bending axles is more pronounced. It appears to us that 
steel wheel manufacturers should provide a flat space on 
the face of the wheel and thus give a solid foundation for 
pressing the wheels off without pressing the gears off at 
the same time." 

"On our 26-in. and 27-in- diameter wheels, we are pre- 
paring to use a steel casting in the form of a cylinder 
large enough to fit over the outside diameter of the gear 
and press off the wheel by bearing against the back of the 
press. If this steel cylinder will do the work, the need for 
openings through the web of the gear will, of course, be 
eliminated, and I am in hopes that the results will prove 

From the foregoing it is evident that wheel removal 
practice is closely connected with gear design. It seems 
to be quite essential that the web holes be incorporated 
in gears wherever space will permit, since more than 
one-half the railways now make use of them in pushing 
off wheels. Their presence provides a convenient 
method of wheel removal and allows pressure to be 
applied to the wheels at points close to the hub, so that 
there is less danger of wheel breakage or bending of 
axles. Aside from their use in connection with the 
removal of wheels, they are also of advantage in reduc- 
ing weight and breaking up vibration which results in 
noise. All concerned, however, will be benefited by a 
standard size and location of the web holes, and any 
changes in special wheel removal fixtures tha+ r-i-~>it 
be required if definite standards were adopted could be 
easily made. 

Where web holes cannot be incorporated conveniently, 
or where they are of insufficient size to permit of use 
for wheel removal, it is evident that with proper pre- 
caution the method of wheel removal with the use of 
devices placed outside the gear will prove entirely satis- 
factory. Roads using this method prefer it to the jack- 
pin method, and when the devices are once made, there 
is no further need to worry about the size and location 
of the web holes. 

Engineering Symbols and Abbreviations 

to Be Standardized 

AT THE request of a number of national societies, 
£\ the American Engineering Standards Committee 
recently called a conference of representatives of inter- 
ested organizations for the purpose of starting a move- 
ment to standardize symbols and abbreviations. The 
conference decided to include, as part of its project, the 
graphical symbols used in engineering drawings, dia- 
grams and the like, for representing instruments and 
apparatus and component parts of them. The work 
will go forward under a committee organization devel- 
oped in accordance with the rules and procedure of the 
A.E.S.C. The co-operation of foreign standardizing 
bodies will be sought. 

March 17, 1923 

Electeic Railway Journal 


r^''-"'- ~ ^BK ^^Hr ^^gflKP^' ^^^^ 


Ga»io]ine-I>riven Tower Truck 

The Power Distribution System and 

Its Maintenance 

A Summary of the Elements of a Good Distribution System with Detail 
of the Plans Used on a Large Railway Property for Keeping the 
Overhead in Condition — Records Play an Important Part in This Work 

By M. B. RoseVear 

Superintendent ot Distribution, Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J. 

ELECTRIC street railways are an importint ele- 
ment of our national transportation facilities, and 
the power distribution system of an electric rail- 
way has as its center the power station, from which 
radiate the feeder cables which must deliver to the 
cars under all conditions the energy required for suc- 
cessful operation. 

The first problem of the distribution engineer is the 
proper location of this source of power. This is true 
not only in the case of a new property but should be 
kept prominently in mind even on established systems. 

We may now be said to be in the third stage of de- 
velopment with respect to the source of power supply. 
The first stage was that of the engine-driven, direct- 
current generator, which, if properly planned, was so 
located that coal, water and other essential supplies 
were conveniently available in sufficient quantity, of 
proper quality, and at reasonable cost. This resulted 
in the concentration of heavy loads at single stations 
and it was necessary to transmit power at high cost for 
long distances. 

The second stage was that of the manual substation, 
power being transmitted from the generating station to 
the substation at high voltage and therefore with 
greater economy, and then distributed from the sub- 
station to the cars at trolley voltage. This method was 
an improvement over the first, power being generated 
in greater quantities by more efficient plants, which did 
hot need to be located so close to the car lines as with 
direct-current stations. The load was divided among 
several substations, and this better distribution made 

possible the satisfactory operation of larger electric 
railway systems. But even then there was still too 
great a concentration of load at single stations and the 
feeding distances were still too long. 

The automatic substation has marked the third stage, 
bringing our direct-current supply source even closer 
to the car, the ultimate consumer, and reducing not only 
labor costs, and losses on both the positive feeders and 
negative return, but, as has been demonstrated by the 
numerous existing installations, giving more satisfac- 
tory operating results than is possible with manual 
operation. Although the automatic railway substation 
has been used for a number of years and has passed 
the point of being merely experimental, it ia yet sus- 
ceptible of further development. The relative merits 
of the single unit and multiple-unit automatic substa- 
tions are worthy of careful consideration, but fre- 
quently the practical problem of obtaining suitable 
property, especially where there are zoning laws and 
other limitations, may be the determining factor. 

While there are as yet no automatic substations on 
our property, they have been a subject of intensive 
study and we expect before many months to have one 
or more in operation. One phase of our problem is 
limiting damage from underground cable failures. With 
manual operation of supply stations there have been 
occasions on various properties when the failure of a 
large-capacity cable has had disastrous results, damag- 
ing other cables and at times even burning up entire 
duct lines. Automatic substations in underground ter- 
ritory, therefore, require protective apparatus that will 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

immediately disconnect a cable in case of failure, and 
not permit its reconnection until conditions are safe, 
and yet not interfere with operation under normal con- 
ditions even with typical railway load fluctuations. 

Sectionalizing the Trolley Is a Factor 
IN Maintenance 

In the second place, the distribution engineer is con- 
cerned with the sectionalizing of the trolley wires. Fig. 
2 shows the various trolley sections on a portion of one 
large railway system, the details being described more 
completely later. In general, section insulators are 
placed near junction points, loops and turn-back points, 
and so located that in case of a wire down, or power off 
on one section, the interruption to service will affect 

Fi^. 1 — Trolley £ar on Which Maintenance In Low 

only a restricted district. In case of long delays, cars 
can be turned back at crossovers and loops. Still fur- 
ther sectionalizing may be required if the service on a 
given section is too heavy for a single circuit. In the 
congested portion of the system above referred to some 
of the sections are less than 1,500 ft. long, while two 
important intersections have special feeders. Our ex- 
perience has made us limit the size of sections in con- 
gested territory to an average of 1,500-2,000 amp., that 
is, to the capacity of two paper-and-lead cables of not 
more than 1,500,000 area «ach, and usually 
1,000,000 each. 

Car service and routing must be carefully checked 
in order to note changes in loading. While this may be 

done by watching the time-tables, there are times when 
trippers are used without being shown on the table, 
and there may be other factors, so that we have found 
it helpful to have "five-minute" readings taken once a 
month for the peak load from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m. for every 
railway feeder at every station. These are averaged for 
the highest thirteen consecutive readings and listed, 
with the maximum swing, in a book for ready refer- 
ence. While this method is admittedly somewhat rough 
and- ready it has been found by years of experience to 
give a very helpful check on individual section loads. 
A special check or study of a particular section may be 
made if the "load book" indicates that it is advisable. 
Such follow-up methods may require installation of re- 
inforcing feeder or may permit removal of feeder or its 
transfer from one point to another. 

The Feeder System from the Maintenance 

The distribution of power from the supply station to 
the trolley section may be by either aerial feeders or 
underground cables. There are places where the plac- 
ing of cables underground is proper, there are other 
places where only the aerial feeder would be considered. 
In those places where the question is at all debatable 
the placing of railway feeder cables underground should 
be avoided as long as possible for several reasons. For 
one thing, an underground cable is more subject to 
failure because it cannot be completely inspected; tests 
that can be made with present equipment have not 
proved entirely satisfactory; it is subject to mechanical 
injury, and being connected to the aerial trolley may at 
times be damaged by lightning. It also has a more 
limited current-carrying capacity and not only costs 
more of itself but requires the construction of a con- 

*■•«• * — l.«r«« Scale Map for Use In Maintenance of Distribution System 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


duit line, or rental of duct space from another concern ; 
both of these increase the cost, and the joint use of 
duct lines has the further disadvantage of increasing 
the hazard in case of cable failure. 

Inasmuch as the electric railway must maintain its 
poles for the support of the trolley contact wire, there 
is no compensating saving for the extra hazard and ex- 
pense of placing wires underground. 

Where only 600-volt d.c. cables are concerned, periodic 
tests of insulation resistance may tend to reduce fail- 
ures. These tests may be made with a megger or with 
a voltmeter of very high resistance, say 1,000,000 ohms 
on the 750-volt scale. We have found the voltmeter 
method preferable. 

Where higher voltage cables are involved more elabo- 
rate tests are necessary, as was brought out at the re- 
cent convention of the American Institute of Electrical 

SECxmiNG A Substantial Supporting Structure 

Probably wood poles have been most extensively used 
for the support of the overhead wires, but the increas- 
ing scarcity and cost, particularly of chestnut poles, 
which have been used extensively in the East, makes it 
advisable to substitute poles of a more permanent char- 
acter. This may be done either by proper methods of 
preservative treatment for wood poles (a subject now 
under consideration by a special committee of the 
American Electric Railway Engineering Association) 
or by use of metal or reinforced concrete poles. Where 
metal poles are used, care needs to be exercised in the 
selection of a pole that can be readily reinfoi'ced at the 
ground line where it is most subject to corrosion. It is 
also important that metal poles be so designed that 
there are no shelves or pockets where moisture may 
collect and increase the corrosion. For illustration, the 
specifications of the A. E. R. E. A. Manual section 
Ds-5b, for tubular steel poles require "the top of the 
outer pipe to be chamfered to shed water" at joints. 

Poles of structural shapes, whether made from one 
piece, as the Bates pole, or built up of several pieces, 
should be so designed that they can be easily inspected, 
cleaned and painted. 

The reinforced concrete pole has given satisfactory 
service when properly designed and would probably be 
more generally used were it not for the greater weight 
involved. This objection has been overcome to some 
extent by centrifugally cast, hollow poles — the Massey 
pole for example — ^which give a denser structure and 
greater strength for a given weight than is found in the 
solid pole. 

In city service the joint use of ornamental poles for 
both railway wires and street lighting is desirable. A 
photograph reproduced illustrates such a combination 
pol6 which has been used extensively and given satis- 
faction. This pole is 30 ft. long, and weighs about 800 
lb. with the reinforcing sleeve at the ground line, the 
sections being 5-6-7 in. nominal diameter. A slot is 
cut in the pole below the ground, and the lateral cable 
for the lamp brought directly from the manhole and up 
inside the pole and bracket, through a second hole in 
the pole, to the lamp. It will be seen by looking at the 
line on the opposite side of the street that several rail- 
way aerial feeders can be mounted on a crossarm, the 
whole making a neat, attractive installation. 

The maintenance cost is also somewhat less to the 
railway in the case of joint poles as the railway com- 
pany construction, unless it has transmission lines, is 


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I'lir. 3 — Sample Individual Section Map as Used on One 
I<aT(e Property 

always in the lowest position, and it therefore uses the 
shortest poles of any utility. Care must be exercised in 
agreeing to joint pole use not to increase maintenance 
costs, each company being entitled to show some benefit 
to itself as well as contributing to the general improve- 
ment in appearance. 

Special Ear for Reducing Trolley Wire Wear 

The cost of replacement of trolley wire is the largest 
single item of expense in the power distribution group 
of accounts. Therefore anything which serves to re- 
duce the wear and increase the life of the wire is of 
direct financial value. 

In general, the wear on trolley wire at the ear gov- 
erns the length of time the wire can be kept in service. 
With this in mind a type of ear was developed for our 
use about five years ago which it was believed would 
reduce the wear. The principal feature of this ear 
(See Fig. 1) was a gradual taper from each end to 
the center directly under the boss where the ear fastens 
to the hanger. The ear is cast, of the clinch type. At each 
end it is merely deep enough to come slightly below the 
middle of the wire, after being clinched, while at the 
center it is deep enough almost to encircle the wire. 

This ear was installed with new trolley on a test 
section on an upgrade, where for many years the aver- 
age life of wire was about two years. In November, 
1922, the wire was finally replaced after four years 
service, which means that the life of the wire was 
doubled merely by changing to the new style ear, the 
car service being if anything somewhat increased over 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

Electric Vehicle \\ huh Has Served More Than a Decade In 
Overhead Maintenance Woric 

the earlier period. After renewal the old wire was 
found to have a cross section equal to 66 per cent of 
that of the original wire. It is of further interest to 
note that the new ears wore just as long as the older 
type, six sets of ears having been used during the four- 
year period. It was found that the wire at the point 
of support did not wear so as to require installation 
of any splicing ears prior to July, 1922. While we 
have no similar definite figures for the old type ears we 
know the record with the new type is much better in 
this respect. 

It is also interesting to know that an ear of very 
similar design has been used on the Market Street 
Railway, San Francisco, for a long time, and that both 
companies developed the improved type independently. 

Equipment for Use in Maintenance Work 

To take care of the routine and emergency work of 
the department, there must be suitable and satisfactory 
tools and vehicular equipment. The vehicle is used both 
as a means of transportation for men and materials and 
as a tool during the performance of the day's work. 

Local conditions have great weight in the determina- 
tion of the type of vehicle used. For the small property 
the horse-drawn vehicle may even today be the most 
suitable for highway use, while the line car is, of course, 
required for work on private right-of-way. On the 
larger property, particularly if scattered over a wide 
territory, a motor-driven vehicle is indispensable, and 
may be operated either by an electric storage battery 
or by a gasoline motor, the choice of which again de- 
pends on local conditions. We have an electric vehicle, 
-shown in one of the illustrations, which has been in 
service since 1912 and a second battery permits its use 
by both day and night crews. Where gasoline motor 
trucks are used experience has led to the adoption of 
two sizes of trucks. 

For ordinary maintenance a 2-ton truck is needed, 
while a 3J-ton truck is necessary to carry reels of feed 
wire and trolley wire. Both sizes of trucks are 
.equipped with adjustable Trenton towers and platforms. 
The three-section tower has lower center of gravity 
and reasonable height, making it possible to work on 
low bridges, of which we have many. It can also be 
raised high enough to permit work on the trolley 
•at railroad crossings. Such an equipment is illustrated. 

It will be seen that by placing boxes for tools and 
materials along the side of the truck over the wheels, 
space is provided for a reel stand. 

The use of one large and one smaller truck permits 
the installation of trolley wire more quickly and effi- 
ciently than with horse-drawn or other older type ve- 
hicles, as both towers are used after the wire is run 
out and there is no idle equipment part of the day. 

Records Are a Factor in SuccESsrin. 
Maintenance Work 

One essential requirement on any property is the 
preparation and continuance of adequate records, par- 
ticularly those containing information for use in emer- 

The first requirement is a large-scale map showing 
the physical layout of the property. On our system it 
is necessary to use several such maps, each division be- 
ing shown on one or two maps, drawn to a scale of 1,0(70 
ft. to the inch. Fig. 2 is typical, showing one-half of 
one large division. 

It may be of interest to note the historical develop- 
ment of this map system. Originally these maps con- 
tained not only the line layout (using one line for a 
single track) but also showed the feeders from the 
power supply stations to and along each portion of the 
line. As the property increased in size and complexity, 
the feeders were omitted between the stations and the 
commencement of the trolley section, and a symbol was 
inserted at the feeding-in point denoting from which 
station the line received its power. The insertion of 
changes in feeders, etc., from time to time caused the 
tracing to become illegible or torn, and it had to be 
entirely retraced at frequent intervals. It was also 
difficult to show all the details clearly on a single map 
and it was too large for convenient reference. As a 
result we have for several years limited the information 
on the large maps to the following: (a) Physical lay- 
out of lines showing curves, connections, etc. ; (b) loca- 

Coinbination I'ole Which Involves I.ow Maintenance Cost 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 



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rig. 4 — Xote-Book Leaf Containing Data as to Feeder Sections 

Conduit Buns, with Corresponding Sections Fed by Tli 

tion of section insulators; (c) number of each trolley 
section; (d) symbol denoting source of power — one or 
more — (e) automatic circuit breakers, and switches, for 
emergency feeds; (f) power supply for carhouses and 

Other detailed information as to feeder sections is 
shown on individual section maps, of which Fig. 3 is 
typical. It will be noted that aerial feeders, under- 
ground and submarine cables, switches, section insula- 
tors, etc., are shown by different conventions. These 
maps show the feeder in considerable detail from the 
power station to the end of the line. In addition to 
these individual section maps, brief written descrip- 
tions are used for further details. 

Quite recently it was felt necessary to provide certain 
essential data in more concise form, therefore the 
pocket size data sheets shown in Figs. 4 to 7 inclusive 
were developed. 

Fig. 4 is a list of sections fed by each power supply 
station and shows the number and name of the section, 
the cable number if in underground territory, the con- 
trolling or limiting size of feeder, as well as the name 
of any other power station which also feeds the section 
either regularly or in emergency. 

Fig. 5 lists the sections that may be equalized with 
each other, giving the location and kind of equalizer 
and stating its normal position, whether open or closed. 

Fig. 7 is a diagram of underground conduit and man- 
holes, the latter numbered, whereas the reference notes 
A-4, B-8, etc., refer to Fig. 6, which lists the numbers 
of the cables in each conduit run, together with the 
name and number of the section which the cables feed. 

These sheets in loose-leaf notebooks are invaluable 
aids in case of trouble and are furnished to the super- 
visory force, engineers and load dispatchers. 

Changes of various kinds can be readily noted on all 
the records listed above; they rarely require retracing 
of maps, and even then the labor involved is relatively 
small when compared with that formerly necessary 
when we attempted to show everything on one large 

' In the preparation of this article on power distribu- 
tion, the writer has endeavored to present certain gen- 
eral phases, rather than a technical discussion. It is 
hoped that it will be of interest not merely to those who 
have direct supervision over street railway power dis- 

Flgr. 5 — Data for Cse In Equalizing Section. Fig. 6 — Cables In 
em. Fig. 7 — Underground Conduit and Manhole Data. 


tribution systems, but also to the men who are directly 
engaged in the operation and maintenance of the lines, 
and possibly to persons in other departments who are 
concerned in the proper functioning of distribution sys- 
tems, and their relation to car service. 

High- Voltage Ring Connection 

THE Detroit Edison Company, which supplies power 
to a number of electric railways in and around 
Detroit, is making a notable change in its power trans- 
mission system. The company proposes to establish a 
120,000-volt transmission system around the territory 
in which it serves power. A large quantity of trans- 
forming and other apparatus has been ordered, the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company hav- 
ing been the recipient of a substantial order. 

It is intended to tie the new 120,000-volt ring into 
the present 24,000-volt system at several points. The 
power at one of the existing power plants will be trans- 
formed from 12,000 to 120,000 volts in a bank of three 
single-phase transformers ; it will be transmitted at the 
high voltage about 60 miles and then stepped down to 
24,000 volts and tied in with the lower voltage system 
through a bank of three single-phase transformers. At 
an intermediate point the high-tension line will be tied 
to the 24,000-volt system through a third bank of 

A Half Million a Year for Lighting 

IT WILL cost $500,000 this year to light the subway 
and elevated trains, station platforms, track signals, 
and other facilities of the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company, New York City. Of all the energy generated 
in its power plants 6.6 per cent will be required for 
electric light. 

There are 320,000 outlets throughout the system, in- 
cluding those for 50,000 incandescent lamps in the sub- 
way cars, and 88,000 on the subway platforms and in 
the tunnels. Ninety per cent of the last-named burn 
continuously. The elevated trains require 45,000 lamps 
for lighting. 

Track signals account for additional thousands of 
lamps. Every 400 ft. along the subway track is a blue 
lamp indicating the location of an emergency switch for 
shutting off power in the third rail. 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

Track Machinery in Boston 

From the Time that the Old Paving Is Taken Up Until 

the New Paving Is Laid, Machinery Plays a Most 

Important Part in the Work 

Plow Tearing Up a Pavement 

FOR ten years the maintenance department of the 
Boston Elevated Railway has gradually been in- 
creasing the use of machines in connection with the 
reconstruction of the surface tracks of that system until 
now machinery does nearly all of the heavy and repetitive 
work. The following is an account of the procedure in 
track building, told briefly, because the accompanying 
pictures tell the greater part of the story. 

Procedure in Rebuilding Track 

After portable crossovers or temporary tracks are 
installed the pavement plow (1) is brought into oper- 
ation. The usual length of track under construction 
varies between 1,000 and 1,400 ft. of single track. After 
the pavement plow has passed over the track, the paving 
blocks are piled on the curb, where they are recut by pav- 
ing cutters. The recutting of blocks is done by contract. 

Next, the acetylene torch (2) comes into play and 
the rails are cut into the length proper for handling. 

This operation is followed by the crane car (3), which 
lifts both rails so that the ties can be knocked off by 
a sledge. The rails are then thrown to one side where 
they are picked up by the rail car. 

This operation is followed by the electric shovel (4), 
which excavates the track trench to the proper depth. 
One man operates the shovel and under good working 
conditions can excavate the trench for a distance of 
about 800 ft. in an eight-hour day and load the material 
upon auto trucks or cars. The shovel works very closely 
to grade so that after it has passed along there is very 
little work to be done by hand. If there is any, it con- 
sists merely of smoothing up the material which has 
been left behind. 

The shovels are hauled to and from the track jobs 
by service cars. When the shovels are excavating the 
track trench, they operate over short sections of port- 
able track of light tee-rail construction. Each section 
is 5 ft. long and is handled by means of a short chain 
hitched to the heel of the dipper and as the shovel pro- 

Acetylene Torch Cuttinir Old KaiU for Removal 

gresses along the trench, the boom is swung back 
through 180 deg. and a section of the track is picked 
up and carried forward and laid in front of the shovel. 
This operation repeated many times during the day 
consumes a certain amount of time which slows up the 
operation of the shovel. To overcome this objection the 
company is now arranging to equip the shovels with 
caterpillar treads in addition to the car wheels already 
mentioned, so that the shovel will use the treads 
while working in the trench. These treads will be per- 
manently attached to the shovel. Means will be pro- 
vided for lowering and raising them into and out of 
contact with the ground, and the car wheels will bs used 
while the shovel is moving to and from the track jobs, 
as at present. 

When the shovel has progressed for a sufficient dis- 
tance the steam roller (5) is brought on the job and 
rolls the trench as fast as it is excavated. The steam 
rollers are moved to and from the track jobs by use 
of a ramp car, as shown in the engraving. 

After the trench has been rolled the ties, rails and 
other material are distributed by cars (6) to the job. 
The rails are then spiked, the joints made up, and the rail 
joint base plates attached and made ready for welding. 

The crushed stone for ballasting the track is delivered 
on the job by Differential cars. As the company has two 
hopper cars formerly used for coal, which have not been 
in use for this purpose for about two years, these cars 
(having a capacity of 25 tons) have been used to a cer- 
tain extent because with their use the ballast can be 
dumped through the hopper in the bottom of the car 
directly in the track, saving any rehandling. 

The company has a track, with a 100-ton track scale, 
in a local quarry, so that crushed stone is purchased at a 
very favorable price and delivered directly onto the 
company's cars. 

After the ballast has been delivered, the track is 
jacked up to grade and surfaced with pneumatic tie 
tampers (8) . A tamping gang consists of from eight to» 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Some of the Machines Used by the Maintenance Department in Boston 

No 3 shows the crane car for lifting 
rails and ties. This is followed by the 
electric shovel (4) and this by the steam 
roller (5) to form the new sub-base. In 

this view the roller is shown on a flat car. 
Material for the new track Is distributed 
bv rail cars (6) and ballast hopper cars 
(7). The new ballast is then tamped by 

pneumatic tampers (8). The concrete is 
then put In place by means of the con- 
crete mixer (9) which is used In connec- 
tion with the concrete loader (10). 


Electric Railwaii Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

twelve tampers, and air is supplied from a compressor 
mounted in an old passenger car. The compressor is of 
sufficient capacity to operate a maximum of twelve ma- 
chines. Spare tamping machines are carried on each 
compressor car in order that the work might not be held 
up in the event of any machine breaking down or while 
machines are being overhauled. When tracks under ele- 
vated structures are being reconstructed or repaired, the 
tie tampers are connected up with the air main on the 
elevated structure. 

It is planned to weld the rail joints between the time 
the track is surfaced and the concrete base installed, but 
joints can be welded at any 
time during the process of 
track building by the seam 
weld method. 

During the operations of 
tamping and welding the 
concreting material for the 
paving base is delivered by 
Differential dump cars and 
is placed alongside the track 
in proper position. 

The next operation is the 
laying of the concrete pav- 
ing base. The concrete 
mixer (9) is accompanied 
by a machine called a mixer 
loader (10) . This loader is, 
in effect, a continuous belt, 
45 ft. from center to center 
of belt pulleys. The frame 
is mounted on car trucks 
and the machine is self- 
propelling. A separate mo- 
tor drives the continuous 

belt. There are three measuring bins, each of 8 cu.ft. 
maximum capacity and adjustable for lower capacity. 
These bins are mounted on flanged wheels and may be 
rolled along the top of the belt frame for the accommo- 
dation of the shovellers. These machines were built in 
the maintenance department machine shop. 

The concreting material is shoveled directly into the 
hoppers above the belt, where it is properly measured 
and is then dumped onto the belt and carried into the 
mixer. It is possible to have three batches of concrete 
in progress at one time, this is, one in the loader or 
distributor, one in the skip of the concrete mixer and 
the third being mixed in the drum of the concrete mixer. 

These two machines require very few men to operate 
them and it is possible to install a large amount of con- 
crete per day with this outfit. All the concrete mixers 
and loaders are mounted on car wheels and are self- 

The track is then paved and the concrete mixer and 
loader are again used for grouting the pavement. 

Additional equipment not shown by the engravings 
consists of four air compressor units mounted in pas- 
senger cars; one portable air compressor mounted on 
auto trailer, with capacity of 210 cu.ft. free air per 
minute and two portable air compressors with wagon 
mountings of smaller capacity; two Ransome concrete 
mixers of 1 bag capacity used occasionally for grouting 
pavement, and a Clark concrete breaker. The latter is 
used to break up the concrete base. 

Altogether the company has of the equipment de- 
scribed: One pavement plow ; seven acetylene cutting 
outfits; three crane cars; two type "0".Thew electric 

In Us report dated January, 1923, the Massachusetts 
Department of Public Utilities presents several tables 
showing the rise in cost of labor and material, the cost for 
tracl{ rebuilding and the miles of track, rebuilt for a 
period of seoeral years. The department then maizes the 
following statement in regard to the track maintenance 
work of ''■^ Boston Elevated Railway : 

"From these figures it seems reasonably clear 
that during the last trustee year relatively little 
more was expended for maintenance of tracks, 
building and equipment than was expended by 
the former management in the period before 
the European war, and that if any increase in 
the amount of repairs and reconstruction work 
done has occurred it must have been due to 
increased efficiency in methods used, either 
through introduction of labor-saving machin- 
ery, improvements in the art oi economy of 

shovels; two 10-ton tandem steam rollers, each with a 
ramp car; three rail cars; seventeen Differential and 
Universal dump cars ; three bottom dump hopper cars of 
25-ton capacity; 105 Ingersoll-Rand tie tampers; three 
Austin self-propelling concrete mixers; three loaders 
for concrete mixers; one Clark concrete breaker, seven 
air-compressor units. ", 

The company has two storage yards, both having 
steam railroad and water connections. At the South 
Boston yard is located the maintenance department's 
shop where all of the rails are curved, cut and drilled 
for special curves or in connection with, special work. 

At this yard is also an up- 
to-date treating plant where 
treatment is given to all of 
the ties used by the com- 
pany, as well as the lumber 
used on the elevated struc- 
ture and in the subways and 
to some extent for building 
work. The treating plant 
was fully described in a 
special article in the report 
of the committee on way 
matters, read before the 
American Electric Railway 
Engineering convention in 
Chicago, October, 1922. 

In addition to labor-sav- 
ing tools and equipment, the 
efficiency of the mainte- 
nance department is largely 
made possible by proper 
ordering, delivering and 
handling of material. Dur- 
ing the busy season from 
fourteen to sixteen large track building jobs may be 
under way at any one time, and the material, equipment 
and transportation, consisting of cars and trucks 
required for each day, is determined upon the previous 
day. The orders for these are placed by the man in 
charge of each job with the material and equipment 
dispatcher at the main office, and it is his business to 
see that each crew is supplied with the material or 
equipment that it has ordered or may require. The 
operator of each car or truck receives his orders directly 
from the dispatcher and at the end of each trip reports 
to him for further instructions. 

The company uses in its busy season in track build- 
ing work from eight to twenty cars and from five to 
twenty trucks daily. The maintenance department owns 
five 5-ton Mack dump trucks and six 2-ton trucks used 
for various purposes. Additional trucks which are re- 
quired daily are secured from contractors, the number 
of hired trucks varying in accordance with the work 
in hand. 

Public Utility Information for Students 

FOLLOWING the examples of many other states, 
New Mexico and Wyoming are coming into line in 
furthering co-operation between the institutions of 
higher learning and the public utilities. In the State 
University of New Mexico public utilities are being 
systematically studied, and the State Agricultural 
College is preparing for similar instructions. Prelim- 
inary steps have been taken in Wyoming in the same 
direction. In Colorado students are learning the basic 
facts regarding electric railways and other utilities. 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


Chrome-Nickel Steel in Special Work* 

A Scientific and Practical Discussion of the Characteristics of this New 
Steel Which Has Demonstrated Its Practicability in Milwaukee — Results 
of More than Three Years' Use Are Given — First Impetus to Develop 
the Steel Was Given by Prohibitive Wartime Prices of Ferro-Manganese 

By F. a Hibhard 

Construction Engineer Way and Structures l>epartment 
Mllwauliee Electric Railway & Light Company 

Left — Thermit Weldingr of Joints in Crossing for East Water and Wisconsin Streets, Preparatory to Monnting on Bolted Foundation. 
Right — Thermit Welding of Joints in Crossing for East Water and Wisconsin Streets. Openings Shown Are for Inserts at Joints 

DURING the last few years the Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway & Light Company has installed in 
its tracks considerable special trackwork, in 
which the crossings, the frogs and some of the switch 
pieces were made of cast chrome-nickel steel. Much 
interest has been manifested both locally and through- 
out the country in these installations and their relative 
value compared to similar work constructed of cast 
manganese steel. It will be the object of this paper 
to set forth our experiences in the development of 
chrome-nickel steel as a material for special trackwork. 

While the details of special trackwork construction 
have been greatly improved, in the writer's knowledge 
no new material has been offered the electric railways 
since the introduction of manganese steel in 1894, until 
we proposed the use of cast chrome-nickel steel in 1919. 

Manganese steel was such a vast improvement over 
the other types that it seems to have been accepted by 
the manufacturers as the last word in materials for 
special work construction ; and while no attempt will be 
made to discredit it, some of its disadvantages will be 
disclosed which are not apparent in our new alloy steel. 

Considerations that Suggested Use op 
Chrome-Nickel Steel 

During the World War prices for materials used in 
the construction and maintenance of track rapidly ad- 
vanced and deliveries were uncertain. For several years 

•This article is condensed from a still more comprehensive paper 
read by the author before the Technical League of the Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Company. 

the rising prices of materials were not compensated for 
by increases in the company's revenue and every pos- 
sible expedient was adopted to conserve materials and 
make existing track and special trackwork serve until 
adjustments in rates could be secured to meet this 
inflated cost of materials. This condition brought into 
active play the electric welding machine, which served 
to extend the useful life of thousands of dollars worth 
of expensive trackwork. 

In attempting to weld cast manganese steel, it was 
found that while many good welds were made, others 
did not prove successful and actually hastened the neces- 
sity for renewal of the pieces repaired. No welding 
concern was found that would guarantee a weld on 
manganese steel. Even in the face of these facts we 
were reluctant to substitute anything for manganess 
steel until the price of that material advanced to a point 
where it was practically prohibitive. This advance in 
price was due largely to the increase in the cost of 
ferro-manganese, which in 1911 could be purchased for 
an average price of $37.51 per ton, but in 1917 cost 
$327.21 and in June of that year sold for $443.75 per 
ton, an advance of over 1,000 per cent. As a com- 
parison, standard steel rails showed a maximum ad- 
vance of only a little over 100 per cent during the war 
period, the cost advancing from $28 per gross ton to 
a peak price of $57 in 1918. 

The company had already made considerable progress 
in the development and manufacture of its own special 
trackwork, having installed a large number of frogs 
and crossings of the steel bound type. These pieces 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 61, No. 11 

were constructed by first cutting and fitting the rails 
to the proper dimensions, and then casting open-hearth 
or electric steel around the intersection, binding the 
rails together and forming a guard and a support for 
the wheel flange. This type of construction was com- 
paratively cheap and possessed the important advantage 
that when the flange bearing was cut out it could be 
successfully built up with the electric welder, whereas if 
it had been constructed of manganese steel or with a 


Details Showing Construotlon of Crositlng Foundation 

manganese plate at the intersection welding would have 
been resorted to only as a temporary and uncertain 
expedient to prolong the useful life of the piece for 
a time. 

The success experienced with the home-made steel 
bound frogs and the excessive price charged for man- 
ganese steel trackwork were the principal factors that 
induced the company to extend the manufacture of its 
special trackwork in its own shops and accordingly the 
writer was instructed to seek a substitute for man- 
ganese steel, which could be machined and finished at 
the company's Cold Spring shops and which could be 
cast at local foundries. At that time a new local electric 
steel foundry with large furnaces, known as the Gen- 
eral Steel Company, was in operation and the company 
had transferred its steel bound frog business to that 
plant. As this plant was casting heavy alloy steel ingots 
and its facilities were available, the situation was par- 
ticularly favorable for the plans being developed. 

Satisfactory experience with some special trackwork 
layouts, consisting of open-hearth steel castings with a 
carbon content of from 0.40 to 0.50 per cent, which were 
given a single annealing treatment, suggested the pos- 
sibility of improving castings of this nature by adding 
alloys other than manganese. These layouts were suc- 
cessful in part because they could be successfully 
welded, which together with the practicability of 
machining was the important consideration. 

By the addition of nickel and chromium the physical 
properties of carbon steel can be materially improved. 
Testimony to this effect has been furnished in the pub- 
lications of some of the nation's foremost metallurgical 

Eighteen years of experience in the design and con- 
struction of special trackwork for electric railways 
pointed to only one installation of an alloy steel other 

than manganese. The Pennsylvania Steel Company 
(now the Bethlehem Steel Company) had built an elec- 
tric crossing with center plates of forged Mayari steel, 
a natural nickel-chrome alloy. This was installed in 
Omaha, Neb. Diligent search failed to show any instal- 
lations of cast chrome-nickel steel. 

First Installation. Made in 1919 

At last a trial installation of cast chrome-nickel steel 
was agreed upon and instructions were issued to place 
a crossing of this material at East Water and Wis- 
consin Streets. Details were prepared and patterns 
constructed but the question of analysis was yet un- 
decided. Most of the existing specifications covered 
oil quenching and drawing of forgings, hence they were 
of little help because the unbalanced sections of track 
castings prohibited such treatment, as warping would 
surely result and in the treated condition straightening 
without cracking would be impossible. With this con- 
dition in mind and with a desire to produce a steel with 
good wearing qualities and high resistance to shock, 
it was decided to keep the nickel and chromium content 
somewhat higher than was specified in work that could 
be oil quenched. The following analysis was finally 
decided upon: 

Element Percentage 

Carbon 0.30to 0.40 

Manganese G.90to I. 10 

Phosphorua not over 0. 03 

.Sulphur not over 0. 04 

Element Percentage 

Silicon 15 to 0.20 

Chromium 55 to 0.65 

Nickel 2.20 to 2.40 

After the castings were made, a check analysis 
showed the following close conformity for the analysis 
specified : 










I 00 









The castings were g^iven a single annealing treatment 
and no difficulty was experienced in machining them. 
When the castings were made proper shrink heads were 
not used, so that all castings contained large shrink 
holes located in the heavy part of the top of the section 

\:\^£f'r'>'er ra'/y'-.r:: '■' 
^ ..-^.... ....- . •-..■....-.■.■.•.. 


£i2e;;!>x3:;?;. .._....... 

y •■.•:! ■'■r^■•:■:.■:::f.v.\^;^'^:^v:^:.■v^:■r■:";>^.•:i■'■^/.<^^■ . 
Typical Section Tlirougli Chrome-Nickel Steel Crosxing 

approximately under the gage line, as well as several 
cracks in the base at or near the box section where the 
two rails intersect. Owing to the strict necessity for 
conserving materials at the time, the defective castings 
were used. The cracks were thermit welded, frogs were 
assembled and the joints thermit welded to form one- 
half of the double-track crossing. (See accompanying 
illustrations.) The crossing was through-bolted to a 
heavy timber foundation, consisting of 8-in. deep white 
oak ties bolted with heat-treated bolts to inverted old 

March 17, 1923 

Electric Railway Journal 


7-in. 80-lb. girder rail. This type of foundation was 
originated by this company and is now used as standard 
on all heavy crossing installations. The two units thus 
formed were easily installed in one night. Eight li-in. 
round rods were placed at right angles and imme- 
diately under the old rails and an 18-in. concrete slab 
of 1 :3 :5 mix was cast around this foundation, extending 
up to the top of the ties. The four "dummy" joints 
and the sixteen exterior joints were then thermit 
welded. The thermit welding of the joints not only 
saved the cost of machining and drilling for splices and 

suits, and in purchasing the layout for East Water and 
Michigan Streets we incorporated this treatment in our 
specifications. At this time we began the study of air 
quenching and drawing, allowing the castings to cool 
down in the air from the annealing temperature, then 
heating them to the proper temperature below the criti- 
cal range and allowing them to cool down with the oven. 
On Jan. 28, 1922, we made a physical test of six tensile 
specimens, two of which were double annealed, two were 
air quenched at 1,725 deg. F. and dravra at 1,350 deg. F. 
and two were air quenched at 1,725 deg. F. and drawn 

Installation of Spe<-ial Trai-kwork at Second and 
Sycamore StreetM 

.S|>ecial Trackwork ut West ^\'atPr Street and Grand Avenue, 
a Good Example of Modern Special Traekwork DeHign 

the cost of the joint plates, but gave an absolutely 
smooth unbroken floor for the continuous flange bear- 
ing construction which was adopted for this crossing. 

This crossing was installed in April, 1919, and similar 
ones properly cast, however, were placed at West Water 
and Sycamore Streets in May, 1919, and at Third and 
State Streets in October, 1919. A typical section 
through the crossing and a section through the founda- 
tions are shown herewith. The wide departure from 
previous practice and the novelty of these installations 
attracted considerable attention, and articles were 
published on this new type special work in the trade 
journals. From the resulting comment we realized that 
we had started something and made up our minds to 
see it through. We began to study what we had in the 
track and to make complete physical tests of the steel. 

What the Studies Developed 

Our first test bars showed a decided lack of ductility 
and the fracture indicated that the cast nickel structure 
was not completely broken up. A considerably longer 
period was required completely to anneal these castings 
than was required for carbon steel. Holding the cast- 
ings in the oven at the proper temperature from four 
to five hours gave us the results, but still the tests 
showed a decided lack of uniformity. We then tried 
double annealing. This produced decidedly better re- 

at 1,500 deg., which is slightly above the critical range. 
The results are shown in Table I. 

Chemical analysis of these bars gave the following 
results : 



Sulphur.. . . . 
Phosphorus . 
Manganese. . 




Chromium . 

Percent age 

By comparing bars No. 11 and No. 12 with bars 
No. 1 and No. 2, the de