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Full text of "Electric Railway Journal"

From the collection of the 



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DISCARD 



Electric Railway Journal 



INDEX 

to Volume 74 

January to December, 1930 



McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc. 

Tenth Avenue at Thirty-sixth Street 
New York City 



Getting the Most from the 

INDEX 



THIS is essentially a subject index, 
rather than an index of titles. An arti- 
cle treating a number of different sub- 
jects is listed under each of them. In addi- 
tion, a geographical reference is published 
wherever the article relates to a particular 
railway, city, state or country. Entries 
about an electric railway in the United 
States or Canada are listed under the name 
of the city in which the main office of the 
company is located. Foreign railways are 
listed under the country. 

In the subject index, an alphabetical ar- 
rangement is followed. If there is a choice 
of two or three keywords, the one most gen- 
erally used has been selected, cross refer- 
ences being supplied. Below is given a li.st 
of keywords arranged under a numlier of 
major topics. 



As an example of how to use the index, 
if a reader wishes to locate an article on car 
design, he would look in the list below at 
the general" topic, "Rolling Stock." Under 
this topic, the heading, "Car Design and 
Car Orders," would apply to the article in 
question. This heading will be found under 
the letter "C" in the index, with individual 
articles separately listed. 

In addition to the groups of articles 
covered by these headings, papers and re- 
ports from electric railway and other asso- 
ciations are grouped under the names of 
the various organizations. Biographical in- 
formation is listed in the personal index. 

Signed articles also are indexed by the 
name of the author. When the name of the 
author is known to the reader, this supplies 
the simplest method of locating the article. 



Classified List of Keywords 



Rolling Stock 



Buses, (See motor buses) 
Car design and car orders 
Carhouses and storage yards 
Electric equipment of cars 
Motors 
Locomotives 
Maintenance, general 
Maintenance practices and devices 
Noise reduction 
Trollev bus 



Motor Buses 

Garages 

Motor bus design 

Motor buses, general 

Motor buses, gas-electric 

Maintenance practices and devices 

Power 

Electrolysis 

Maintenance practices and devices 

Overhead contact systems 

Power, general 

Power distribution 



Rectifiers 

Substations and equipment 

Way and Structures 

Carhouses and storage yards 

Maintenance practices and devices 

Pavements 

Track construction 

Snow and ice removal 

Transportation and Traffic 

Accidents and accident prevention 

Advertising 

Employees 

Fares and fare collection 

Merchandising transportation 

Operating records and costs 

Parking of automobiles 

Rapid transit 

Schools 

Signals 

Snow and ice removal 

Street traffic congestion 

Traffic regulation 

Transportation, general 

Transportation, metropolitan 



General and Miscellaneous 

Accounting 

Book reviews 

Brady Safety Award 

Coffin Award 

Conspectus of Indexes 

Fare increases and decreases 

Financial 

Franchises 

Freight and express 

Heavy electric traction 

Insurance 

Legislation and legal matters 

Management 

Market conditions 

Modernization 

Operating records and costs 

Patents 

Public relations 

Rapid Transit 

Schools 

Statistics 

Standardization 

Stores 

Taxation 

Taxicabs 

Transportation, general 

Transportation, metropolitan 

Trolley bus 



INDEX TO VOLUME 74 



PAGES BY ISSUES 

January 1 to 64 

February ! 65 to 124 

March 125 to 178 

April 179 to 244 

May 245 to 300 

June 301 to 35-. 

June 14 355 to 426 

July 427 to 496 

August 497 to 554 

September 555 to 610 

October 611 to 668 

November 669 to 728 

December 729 to 786 



Accideiitfl and accident prevention: 

— ^Blinfl accidents and how to handle them 

[Giltner]. 470. 
— Boston. Mass.: 

Scientific analysis brings practical results. 
•68. 
— Brady awards (ed). 66. •68. 165, 171% 457. 
— Chtcaffo. North Shore & Milwaukee R.R.: 

First serious accident in ten years, 171. 
— Claims men discuss witness statements. 468. 
— Clfveland, Ohio: 

Causes analyzed. 152. 
— El Paso. Tex.: 

Record improved. 73. 

More passengers and fewer accidents. 440. 
—Fraudulent claims investigated [Hellmuth]. 

469. 

— 171 interstate lines report accident figures. 

393. 
— Kansas City. Mo. : 

Record bettered, 436. 
— Louisville, Ky. : 

New attitude on safety, 'TS. 
— Safety devices aid in reducing accidents 

[Butler], •383. 
— Securing the facts [McClainl. 470. 
— Short signal cycles speed traffic and reduce 

accidents [Bibbins], 631. 
— Tampa. Fla.: 

Record improved. *71. 
— Washington, D. C: 

"Dark period" before sunrise creates 
hazard. 152. 
— Wilmington. N. C: 

Tide Water Power Co. extends safety 
work, 72. 



Aeoonnting : 

— Accountants committee work. 483. 
— Accountants give attention to budgetary con^ 
trol. 471. 

■ — Auditor as an analyst tVickers], 472. 



Advertising: 

— Baltimore, Md.: 

United Railways & Electric Co. distributes 
picture map. •190. 

— Banker co-operates with transportation ad, 

•423. 
— Binghamton. N. Y.r 

Poster competition successful. 289. 
— Cincinnati, O.: 

Procter & Gamble Co. street ,car posters. 
•169. 



Advertising: 

— Cincinnati. O. (Continued) : 

Novel merchandising plan of Cincinnati 
Street Railway. •657. 
— Des Moines. Iowa : 

Extensive rehabilitation [ Wingerler] . •736. 

— Harvard award to Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co., 336. 

— Ice cars advertise product of railway sub- 
sidiary, '633. 

Akron, Ohio: 

— Northern Ohio Power & Light Co.; 

Temporary franchise extended. 345. 

Through limited bus service suggested, 234. 

Segregation of properties. 423, 488. 

Withdraws from operation in Canton. 346. 
— Ohio Edison Co.: 

Announcement made of merger of Ohio 
companies. 545. 

Albany, N. Y.: 

— United Traction Co. : 

New car design [ Beers 1, •TS. 
Receivers appointed. 58. 

Allegheny Valley Street Railway (See Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.) 

.'lllentown. Pa.: 



-Lehigh Valley Transit Co. 
New cars. •736. 
Package service 



113 



Alliance, Ohio: 

— Stark Electric Railway : 

Gradr' crossing for heavy vehicular traffic, 

•705. 
System being improved, 64. 
Work car equipped to spread material 
along track, •765. 

American Electric Railway Association: 

— Abstracts of committee reports, ^474. 

■ — Accomplished results, 427. 

— Advisory Council activities outlined. 444. 

— Brady awards for accident prevention. • 68 . 

— Committees active during the year. 474'. 

— Cooperation is essential [Shoup] , •431. 

— Executive comniitee meets. 84, 233. 445, 715, 
761. 

— Lower fire insurance rates in effect. 74. 

— Manufacturers show confidence in the in- 
dustry (ed). 730. 

— Newly-elected presidents of American and 
affiliated associations, ^430. 

— Opportunity for utilizing art of drama (ed), 
429. 

— Program of San Francisco convention. 326 
(pdl. 303. 

— Report of managing director [Gordon], *437. 

— San Francisco convention, 433. (ed) 427. 

- — Transportation men are community builders 
[Curtissl. *440. 

American Electric Railway Accountants Asso- 
ciation: 

• — Abstracts of committee reports. •482. 
— Report of convention, ^471. 

American Electric Railway Claims Association: 

— Abstract of committee reports. •483. 
— Report of convention. •468. 

American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation: 

— Abstract of committee reports. ♦477. 

— Economics, methods and new designs studied. 

462. (ed) 478. 
— January meeting, 77. 
— Noise on the defensive (ed). 67. 
— To seek formula on suitable vehicle, 600. 

American Electric Railway Transportation and 
Traffic Association : 

— Abstracts of committee reports. •480. 
— Program announced. 57. 

■ — Studies industry's fundamental problems. 
459, fed) 428. 



American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 

— Meeting considers railroad electrification. 682. 
— To revise standards for control apparatus. 
562. 

American Road Builders* Association: 

— Report on street railway paving. 143. 

American Society for Testing Materials: 

— Cement specifications revised. 626. 

Anderson, Ind.: 

— Indiana Railroad succeeds to Union Traction. 

644. 
— Union Traction Co. of Indiana: 

Receiver would sell, .344. 

Argentina : 

■ — Buenos Aires new subway. 688. 

-— Mendoza Empresa de Luz y Fuerza ac- 
quired by American & Foreign Power. 
547. 

Atlanta. Ga. : 

— Georgia Power Co.; 

Ball bearing for brake handle [McAloney]. 

•223. 
Combination tie plate [Yeates], •108, cor- 
rection, 163. 
Economical rerailing [Berman]. •766. 
Hammer operated by compressed air 

[Pirkle], •325. 
Net revenue increased 400% in five years, 

•673. 
Special work built in place [Yeates] . •339. 
Spray equipment for weed killing [Pirkle]. 

•104. correction. 163. 
Supreme Court upholds lower court's 

decree. 345. 
Switch tongues built up by welding 

[PicklesimerJ. ^283. 
Track construction experience. • 191 . 
Track sand stored by compressed air 

[Yeates]. •590. 
Welding and cutting equipment [Hayes], 

•163. 

Austria : 

—Vertical motors feature locomotives, *511. 



B 



Baltimore. Md.: 

— Survey to show shifts of business, 310. 
— United Railways & Electric Co.: 

Brief description of ears ordered. 354. 

Built-up compromise joint [Bragg]. •282. 

Car-rider publication, 631. 

Contracts awarded for new cars. 243. 

Dam for weld metal IHaberam], •225. 

Distributes picture map. •190. 

Extensive rolling stock rehabilitation 

[Locke & Clark], •248. 
Financial report. 658. 
Introduces its new rolling stock. •59i). 
More buses ordered for Baltimore Coach 

Co., 496. 
Old rail makes satisfactory whistle post 

[Hysan], ^591. 
Orders placed for 10 double-deck buses and 

50 new cars. 178. 
Safety zone markers, installing [Davis], 

341. 
Substation wins architectural prize. •ISl. 
Supreme Court's rate decision. 75, (ed) 65. 
Switch mate redesigned [Davis], '534. 
Track construction experience. 271. 
Trolley wire break record, •48. 

Beacon, N.T. : 

— Fishkill Elee. Ry.: 

Buses substituted for cars. 59. 

Beaamont, Texas: 

. — Eastern Texas Electric Co.: 

Abstract of Coffin Contest brief, 453. 

Binghamton, X. Y.: 

— Poster competition successful, 289. 



READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations : •Illu.strated. c Communications. 



IV 



Electric Railway Journa l — I n d e x 



\Vo\.J\ 



Birmingham, Ala.: 

— Birmingham Electric Co.: 

Insulation tested with portable trans- 
former ITaurman]. •763. 
Track construction experience. 'lOl. 
Trolley wire break record, •48, 

Bonus (See Employees) 
Book reviews: 

— Annual safety congrress transactions. 172. 
— Conditional sales — Law and local practices 

for executive and lawyer, R. S. Hoar. 172. 
— Co-ordinated Motor-rail-steamship transporta- 
tion. G. Lloyd Wilson. 603. 
— Electric system handbook, ed. by Clarence 

H. Sanderson. 172. 
— Electrical distribution engineering:, H. P. 

Seelye. 718. 
— Electrification of steam railroads. Kent T. 

Healy. 172. 
— Elektrische Bahnen. D. O. Horing, 172. 
— High voltage oil circuit breakers. Roy 

Wilkins. 603, 718. 
— Life expectancy of physical property based on 

mortality laws, E. B. Kurtz, 718. 
— New York Association's work. 172. 
— An outline of principles and practical methods 

for traffic control of value to all American 

Cities. 603. . 
— Planning the future of the New York Region, 

R. L. Duffus. 172. 
— Problems in public utility management, 

Philip Cabot, 603. 
— Public Utility control in Massachusetts. I. R. 

Barnes, 603. 
— Railroad statistics report. 172. 
— Techno-Dictionary, English-Germ an-Italian, 

718. 

— Uniform paved track. International Steel Tie 
Co.. 170. 



Boston, Mass.: 

— Boston Elevated Ry. : 

Accident analysis successful. •OS. 

Building concrete track with minimum In- 
terruption of service. •lOl. 

Celebrate Tercentenary of Boston. 601. 

Repairing 900 cars a year in the shop. 'SSO. 

Track construction experience. 'IDl. 

Trolley wire break record. •48. 

Vote on future of railway. 545. 

Washing buses in record time tMackay]. 
•340. 
- — Boston. Revere Beach & Lynn R.R.: 

Increase in fare authorized. 236. 
— Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway: 

Equipment for overhead maintenance 
modernized, •336. 

Snow removal practice. 676. 

Track construction experience. •191. 



Brady Safety Award: 

— Award for 1928. *Q%, (ed) 66. 171. 
—Awards for 1929. 457. 
— Scope broadened, 165. 

Brooklyn. (See New York City) 

Buffalo, N. T.: 

— International Ry. : 

Deep crankcase pans. 'lOS. 
Field testing and taping. •163. 
New snow fighting methods. 'SSI. 
Snow removal practice, 676. 

Buses (See Motor Buses) 



Calgary, Alberta: 

— Calgary Municipal Railway wins honorable 
mention in Brady award. •457. 

Canadian Electric Railway Association: 

— Convention held at Ottawa. •627. 

— Program for meeting. 541. 

— Statistical report on Canadian properties. 630. 

Canton, Ohio: 

— Northern Ohio Power & Light Co.: 

Withdraws from operating lines. 346. 

Car design and car orders: 

— Air-magnetic brakes make quick stops 

[Davis], •256. 
— Albany, N. Y. : 

New car of United Traction Co. [Beers], 
•78. 



Car design and car orders (Continued) : 
— Allegheny Valley Street Railway: 

Complete replacement on Allegheny Valley 

route. •150. 
Comfort and speed on new cars [Inglis], 
•242. 
— Aluminum for car construction [Faust], ^184. 
— Aluminum reduces motor weight. •676. 
— Baltimore. Md.: 

Brief description of cars ordered by United 

Rys. & Elec. Co.. 354. 
Order placed for 50 cars and 10 double- 
deck buses, 178. 
Rolling stock rehabilitation [Locke and 
Clark]. *248. 

• — British Columbia Electric Railway: 

Aluminum alloys reduce weight of new 
cars. •123. 

Details of new cars, 63. 
—Brooklyn & Queens Transit Co.: 

New cars in service. *242. 
■ — Chicago. North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad: 

New cars, ^243. 
— Cincinnati & Lake Erie R.R.: 

New de luxe cars. *614. 

Receives new cars. • 494 . 
— Comfort and convenience in cars [Otis], •379. 

— Des Moines Railway: 

Specifications of new cars, 495. 
• — Detroit Dept. of Street Railways: 

Brief description of cars ordered. 353. 

New cars delivered, *608. 
— Dresden, Germany : 

Articulated cars tested. ^572. 
• — Economies of high speed motors [Bethel], 

•465. 
— Edmonton Radial Ry.: 

New cars ordered. 609. 
— Faster schedules in rapid transit service 

[Clardy]. '257. 
— General Car & Coach Co.: 

New standardized, light weight car. •767. 
- — Higher accelerating and braking rates (ed), 

247. 
— Hydro Electric Power Commission: 

New cars for Windsor. 63. 
— Improvement in the ride is the most effective 

stimulant of public interest [Gordon]. 360. 
— Improving design to improve service (ed). 

355. 
— Increasing- speed through analysis (ed), 499. 
— Knoxville Power & Light Co.: 

Specifications of cars ordered. 353. 
— ^Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 

New cars. ^726. 
- — London County Council Tramways: 

New low-level cars, *687. 
— Long Island Railroad: 

Cars received. 785. 

Orders placed for new equipment. 494. 
— Lowering cost by reducing noise [Williams], 

•376. 
— Lubrication for roller bearings, •lOO. 
— Making faster operation practicable (ed). 730. 
— Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

New train equipment received, 353. 

— Mobile Light & R.R. Co.: 

Brief description of cars ordered, 354, 
— Modern vehicles and equipment [Burleson], 

•466. 
— Monroe Municipal St. Railway: 

Receives new cars, 494. 

— New braking apparatus demonstrated. 562. 
— New York City: 

New subway cars, 488. 
— Northern Indiana Railway: 

Brief description of cars ordered, 298. 353. 
— Northwestern Pacific R.R. : 

Orders new rolling stock, 494 . 
— Orders placed during 1929 [van der Stem- 
pel] 33. 
— Oklahoma Railways — cars described. 609. 
— Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.: 

Sample car of new type, •741. 
—Presidents' Conference Comm. to develop 

plans for improving design (ed) 428, [<Jon- 

way]. 438. 
— Safety devices aid in reducing accidents 

[Butler], ^383. 
• — St. Louis. Mo. Public Service Co. : 

Sample car. •105. 
— Selection of motor control [Beers]. 575. 
- — Simpler car parts proposed. 170. 
— Simplicity and utility in design [Graham], 

•363. 
— Speed an essential of street car performance 

[Rossein, •ses. 

— Supply car for B.-M. T. System, '227. 
— Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction: 
Parlor-buffet service car. •208. 

— ^Timidity a bar to progress in design (ed). 612. 
— Wheel, demountable, •llO. 



-Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Railway: 
Specifications for new cars, 495. 
Modern design features Windsor cars. 



►565. 



-Yakima Valley Transportation Co. — new cars. 
•299. 



Car design and car orders (Continued) : 
— York Railways: 

Receives three new cars, 785. 
— Youngstown Municipal Railway: 

Details of new cars. 63. 

Speedy, light-weight cars [Graham ]. •267. 

Carhouses and storaire yards: 

— Detroit, Mich.: 

Department of Street Railways — new car- 
house. ^702. 

Central Electric Railway Accountants' Associa- 
tion: 

—Arrangement for meeting, 486. 

Central Electric Railway Association: 

— Meeting — analyzes condition of the industry, 
506. 

— More business and how to get it, 89. 

Central Electric Railway Master Mechanics Asso- 
ciation : 

— Discuss equipment at meeting, 276. 
— Have varied program. *641. 

Charlotte, N. C: 

— Southern Public Utilities Co.: 

Preventing trrcase from entering motor 
bearing [Osborn], ^224. 



Chicago, III.: 

— Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad t 

Car washer, •322. 

New cars, •243. 
— Chicago Rapid Transit Co. : 

Improvement bonds approved. 658. 

New shop unit. •506. 

Temporary financing proposed. 600. 
- — Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana 
Railway — Financial situation (ed), 127. 

Reorganized, 168. 
— Chicago, South Shore & South Bend Railroad: 

New shop building started, 299. 
— Chicago Surface Lines: 

Feeder bus controversy to be settled, 59. 

Largest trolley bus system, •272. 

Operating statistics prove success of trolley 
buses [Forty], •563. 

Orders trolley buses, 244. 

Steel poles used for trolley bus system, 
•317. 

Suspends car-and-trailer operation, (ed) 
613. ^640. 

Transfer demand deferred. 55. 

Trolley buses received. •784. 

Trolley wire break record. •48. 
— Co-ordination ahead for Chicago (ed). 429. 
- — Subway plans started, 540, 
— Unification franchise almost ready. 288. 
— Unification franchise approved by voters. 486. 
— Unification ordinance ready for voters, 343. 
— Unified transportation development. ^500 
(ed). 497. 

Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Emergency dolly [Jonas], *160. 

Modern machinery for better maintenance 

[Jonas], •418. 
Negotiations about floating debt. 169. 
Novel merchandising plan. ^657. 
Tiltinff bench for controller repairs [Jonas], 

•283. 



Cleveland, Ohio: 

— Cleveland Railway: 

Abstract of Coffin Contest brief, 450. 

Accident causes analyzed. 152. 

Accurate work schedules permit speedy 

track reconstruction [George], •278. 
Adjustable hanger for switch contactors 

[Brownl. •708. 
Belt conveyor for loading concrete mixer 

[Spenzer]. ^536. 
Blinker light protects linemen on night 

work [Reinker ], *651. 
Boring of motor axle bearing seats [Greer]. 

•650. 
Brake hangers, jig for drilling [Scullis], 

•341. 
Brake lining selected by test results 

[Stevens], •647. 
Bus hood clamp locks easily [Rose]. •SSS. 
Center control for temporary block signal 

[Brown], •648. 
Clamp for installing field coils [Dumke], 

•704. 
Connecting rod boring tool [Rose], *646. 
Connecting rod for tongue switches [Spen- 

zer]. •162. 



READ THE INSTRUCTIONS \T THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communications. 



January-December, 1930] 



Electric Railway Journa l — I n d e x 



Cleveland, Ohio: 

^—Cleveland Railway (Continued) : 

Contract line, renewal of [Scott], 709. 
Contributory pension plan. B81. 
Convenient machine for armature removal 

[Scullin], 'eiS. 
Cylinder borin^r device for air compressor 

[SohU. *651. 
Dog: holds armature pinion [Leary], •648. 
Double air chuck for tires [Grant], ♦160. 
Double-milling rail heads to prevent cuppingr 

at joints [George]. '103. 
Electrically heated inspection lamps [Rein- 

kerj. *161. 
Fare controversy, 600. 
Fare increases. 52. 
Feeler gages [Stevens], •706. 
Filling sweeper broom blocks by machine 

[Scullin], ♦706. 
Flashing hghts on tower trucks [Brown], 

♦282. 
Gage makes wheel mounting easy [Scullin], 

♦708. 
Gun for track switch lubrication [Brown], 

♦286. 
Hood rims and carlins reshaped [Davidson], 

♦163. 
Increased allowance, 292. 
Ingenious jig speeds brake head drilling 

[Niederst], ^651. 
Instruction school for linemen [Scott], 

♦586. 
Leveling bar facilitates joint alignment 

[Anthony], *591. 
Lighted brooms help cleaners [Stevens], 

♦226. 
Long level, one-man [Evans], ♦1*04. 
Loosening tight wires in conduit 

[Mcintosh]. ♦SB?. 
Maintenance award given by Electric Rail- 
way Journal. 644. 
More power [ Welsh ] , 750. 
Overhead for temporary crossovers [Scott], 

♦533. 
Oversize bearing housings bored in jig 

[Niederst]. ♦OSO. 
-Oxyacetylene apparatus [Copeland], ^226. 
Pavement straight edge [Costello]. ♦104. 
Portable jack for bus tools [Palmer], ♦531. 
Pump and heater facilitate transmission 

filling [Rose], •764. 
Repairing switches for portable crossovers. 

[Spenzerl, •707. 
"Safety arm for coal and sand bin lids 

[AppJ, ♦649. 
Scaffold for car washing [Sohl], *535. 
Selling an idea to the foreman [George]. 

619. 
Signal bell on tower truck [Brown], ^221. 
^now removal practice, ♦676. 
Stand for bus motor adjustment [Stevens], 

♦284. 
-Steel plate safety shoes fitted to ladders 

[Scullin], ♦589. 

Switch, tongue [Spenzer], ^338. 
Thawing frozen pipes [Brown] , ^217. 

■Towing and spacer bar for disabled buses 

[Piwonka], •647. 
■Track construction experience, 'lOl. 
Trailers dropped on Lorain Ave. line, 599. 
•Treated ties safely handled [Evans], "649. 

Trolley wire break record. ♦48. 

Two-cent fare zone (ed). 557. 

"Two-faced compass determines motor field 
polarity [Dumke] , ♦650. 

Use of dynamometer successful in stringing 

trolley wire [Scott], 281. 
Warning lights on tower wagons [Scott], 

•339. 

Wheel nut wrench [Kehoe], •SS?. 
Window guard painting machine [Scullin] , 
•283. 

Wins partial victory for no zone cabs in 

Cleveland, 601. 
- — Cleveland Union Terminals Co. : 

Motor generators supply power for terminal 

electrification [McDonald], ♦633. 

'Coffin Award : 

- — Award won by Youngstown Municipal Rail- 
way, 448. 

- — Abstract of brief presented by Cleveland Rail- 
way. 450. 

- — Abstract of brief presented by Community 
Traction Co.. 452. 

- — Abstract of brief presented by Eastern Texas 
Electric Co., 453. 

— Abstract of brief presented by El Paso Elec- 
tric Co., 449. 

■ — Abstract of brief presented by Union St. Rail- 
way. 448. 

- — Brief review of theme of award. 646. 
- — Comments on, 427. 



Colorado Springs, Col. : 

— Brady award won by Col. Spgs. & Int. R.R., 
♦457. 



Columbia, S. C: 

— Columbia Railway Gas and Electric Co.: 
Case before Supreme Court, 116. 

— U. S. Supreme Court orders railway service 
to be resumed, 342. 

Columbus, Ohio: 

— Columbus Railway. Power & Li^t Co.: 

Another fare proposed, 171 . 

Reduction in current rates hinges on fare 
increase, 234, 
— Scioto Valley Railway & Power Co.: 

Proposed abandonment under inquiry, 545. 

Community Traction Co. {see Toledo, Ohio) 
Connecticut Co. (See New Haven. Conn.) 
Conspectus of Indexes: 



— Conspectus of Indexes, 68, 
292. 346, 488, 646, 661. 



118. 
718. 



170, 234, 



D 



Dallas. Texas: 

— Dallas Railway & Terminal Co.: 

Copper and mica dust collected on com- 
mutator Blotter [Beadle], ^707. 

Grease ring protects commutators on ball- 
bearing motors [Beadle], ♦590. 

Holder for armature dipping [Traw], ♦IGl. 

Preventing loose breaker tips [McGinnis], 
♦285. 

Test for partial open circuit [Beadle], 
♦536. 

Testing air governors [McGinnis], ^766. 

Wheel grinding economical [Freeman], 
•341. 
— Texas Electric Railway: 

New locomotives facilitate freight handling 
tSilvus], •260. 

Dayton, Ohio: 

— Cincinnati & Lake Erie Railroad: 

City Commission rejects C. & L. E. R.R. 
proposal, 234. 

Dispute. 346. 

New de luxe cars challenge the steam rail- 
road and the bus. ♦614. 

Receives new cars. •494. 

Receives new freight cars, ♦298. 

Sells its power lines, 66. 

Through operation begun, 52. 

Delaware. Lackawanna & Western R.R.: 

— Electric suburban service planned. 543. 

— Scheduled speed increased by electrification. 



♦683. 
-Switching locomotive added. 



•726. 



Denmark : 

— Experimental ears for Copenhagen. 710. 

Deg Moines, Iowa: 

— Des Moines Railway : 

Extensive rehabilitation [Wingerter], •736. 
Specifications of new cars, 496. 

Detroit, Mich.: 

— Department of Street Railways: 

%rief description of cars ordered. 353. 
Center bearing lubrication [Williams], ♦285. 
City Council refuses to approve contract, 

346. 
Exhaust gas fumes discharged from roof 

of bus. ^687. 
Express service popular [Faust], *86. 
Pare increases. 166 (ed). 127. 
High voltage equipment test [Williams], 

•226, 
New carhouse built, •702. 
New cars arrive, ♦608. 
Parking service popular, ^682. 
Snow removal practice. ♦670. 
Track construction experience, •191. 
TroJIny buses to have opening ceremonies. 

425. 
Trolley bus operation. ♦753. 
Trolley wire break record. ♦48. 
— Eastern Michigan Railways: 

Pressure lubrication of trolley wire. ♦384. 

Dtiluth. Minn.: 

— Duhilh Street Railway: 

Seeks to restrain bus competitor, 315. 



Duluth, Minn.: 

— Duluth Street Railway (Continued) : 
Snow removal practice, ^676. 
Wins Brady award, ^457. 



Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway (See 
Boston, Mass.) 

Edmonton, Alberta: 

— Edmonton Radial Railway: 
New ears ordered. 609." 

Electrical equipment of cars: 

— Field shunting switch. •769. 

— Light weight trolley base, ♦593. 

— Regenerative system successful in Paris. ♦757 

■ — Signal lights for stop warning, •770. 

— Shunting motors for greater spec* [Beers] 

535. 
— Terminal for brush holder leads. ♦286. 
— Thermostat for heat control, 770. 

Electric Railway Association of Equipment Men. 
Southern Properties: 

— Analyze maintenance practices, 118. 
— Semi-annual meeting. 344. 

Electric Railway Journal: 

— Awards for first period of maintenance con- 
test, ^159. 

— Awards for second period of maintenance 
contest. ^329. 

— Awards for third period of maintenance con- 
test. ^645. 

— Now maintenance contest announced, 701. 

Electrification: (See Heavy Electric Traction): 

Electrolysis : 

— Checked by potential . wires in Winnipeg 
[Stewart], ♦338. 

El Paso, Texas: 

— El Paso Electric Co.: 

Abstract of Coffin Contest brief. 449. 

Accident prevention , 73 . 

Selling tickets from house to house, 233. 

Employees: 

— Bonus plan works well on N. Y. & Queens 

County Railway, 513. 
— Cleveland Railway has contributory pension 

plan, 581. 
■ — Educational activities lag (ed), 301. 
— First aid graduates in Chicago, 541. 
— Methods of training: platform men, ♦698. 
— Pension plans analyzed. 614. 
- — Pension- plans should be on sound basis (ed), 

499. 
— Philadelphia rapid transit school [Summers], 

♦132. 
— Salesmen who wear overalls (ed), 179. 
— School for linemen in Cleveland [Scott] . •586. 
— Selling an idea to the foreman [George], 619, 

Erie, Pa.: 

— Eri^ Railways : 

New storage garage. *310. 



Fare Decreases: 

— Boston Elevated Railway: 

Five-cent fare restored, 697. 
— Cleveland's two-cent fare zone (ed), 557. 
— Higher revenue with lower fares, 739. 
— New Jersey: 

Five-cent fare to be restored, 717. 

Fare Increases: 

— Baltimore. M'l. : 

Supreme Court decision. 76 (ed), 65. 
— Boston. Ma*'*. : 

Boston. Revere Beach & Lynn R.R. m 
crease. 236. 
— Buffalo. N. Y.: 

Decision reserved in case, 170. 
— Cleveland, O.: 

Cleveland Ry. fare increases. 52. 
— Detroit, Mich.: 

Detroit Municipal Railway increase. 165. 

Municipal operation not immune from 
economic law (ed), 127. 



READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communications. 



VI 



Electric Railway Jocrna l — I n d e x 



[Vol.74 



Fare increases (Continued) : 

—Kansas City: 

Supreme Court refuses fare stay, 665. 
— Los Angeles, Cal. : 

Rehearing: asked. 59. 

— Omaha. Neb.: 

Increase asked for. 344. 

Fares and fare collection: 

— Fares and costs in 1029 [Richey], 13. 

— Higher revenues with lower fares. *739. 

■ — Milwaukee. Wis.: 

Christmas shopping pass. 777. 

— New York City: 

Multiple coin turnstile. 178. 

— Portland. Ore.: 

Northwest Public Service Co. — weekly pass. 
717. 
— Richey fare index revised, 756. 
— St. Louis Public Service Co.: 

Results of first year of ticket plan. 665. 

Tags transfer passengers, 752. 

Financial : 

— Baltimore, Md.: 

United Railways & Electric Co. — Financial 
report. 658. 
— Canadian Electric Railway, Assn.: 

Report on Canadian properties, 630. 
--■Capital structures of public utilities [Forbes]. 

473. 

— Chicago. 111.: 

Chicago Rapid Transit — temporary financ- 
ing proposed. 600. 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana 
Railway, Financial Situation (ed). 127. 

Improvement bonds for "L" approved, 668. 
— Condensed reports of electric railway prop- 
erties. 1928-1929. 204. 
— Determining utility depreciation tBurke], 637. 
— Electric railway properties, financial reports, 

1929-1938. 308. 
— Equipment trust certificates offered. 774. 
— Georgia Power Co.: 

Net revenue increased 400% in five years, 
•673. 
— Investment by compulsion (ed), 612. 
— Monthly reports. Jan. 50, Feb. 97. Mar. 158, 

Apr. 229. May 277. June 335. July 485, 

Aug. 639, Sept. 596, Oct. 643, Nov. 714. 

Dec. 7 HO. 
— New York City: 

Begins to realize on its rapid transit In- 
vestment, 603. 

Third Avenue Ry. — co-ordinated bus opera- 
tion increases revenues, •690. 
— Oakland. Cal.: 

Key System on new basis, 557. 
— Operating statistics for 1939 [Murphyl, 318. 
— Portland, Ore. : 

Pacific Northwest Public Service Co. — re- 
port, 389. 
— Seattle, Wash.: 

Municipal Railway troubles, 597. 
— Small city properties appraise assets (ed), 

345. 
— Solving the problem for small-city systems 

(ed). 670. 
— Statistics for 1929 [Buck]. 41. 
— Survey shows electric railways with fxill 

budget program [Miller], 182. 
— Toledo, Ohio: 

Unemployment hurts earnings. 488. 
— Washington, D. C: 

New rates benefit railways, 667. 
— Winnipeg Railway — financial report, 600. 

Fort Wayne, Indiana: 

— Fort Wayne-Lima Railroad: 

Speeding up freight service. 288. 

France : 

— Paris: 

Regenerative equipment planned for tram- 
cars. *757. 

Subway fusion takes effect. 115. 

Subway system expands. 277. 
— Paris-Lyon-Mediterranean railway gets heavy 

locomotives. 576. 

Franchises: 

— Akron, Ohio: 

Temporary agreement extended 19 months. 
345. 
— Chicago, 111. : 

Transit settlement a message to the indus- 
try. 497. 

Unification franchise almost ready, 388. 

Unified transportation development. ^eOO. 

Voters approve unification franchise, 486. 
— Jacksonville. Fla. : 

Franchise rejected, 116. 
— New York City : 

Taxicab regulation recommended. *685. 
— Rochester, N. Y. : 

New York State Railways agree to new 
contract. 167. 
— Springfield, Ohio : 

Progress reported, 173. 



Franchises (Continued) : 

— Toledo, Ohio: 

Community Traction Co. — renewal of grant 
an issue, 486. 

Freight and express: 

— Allentown. Pa.: 

Package service on Lehigh Valley Transit 
Co., 113. 
— Attracting freight business [Pontius], •443. 
— Dallas, Texas: 

Texas Electric Railway — new locomotives 
facilitate freight handling, 260. 
— Dayton, Ohio : 

C. & L. E. R.R. receives new equipment, 
•298. 
— Recent freight equipment assures a more 

profitable business [Thomas], •SOS. 
— Speeding up service on Fort Wayne & Lima 
R.R., 288. 



Garages : 

•^Erie Railways : 

New garage built on unit plan. •SIO. 

Georgia Power Co. (See Atlanta, Ga.) 

Germany : 

—Berlin : 

Street cars washed by machine. '707. 
Transportation facilities co - ordinated 
[Breslauer], •304. 
— Dresden : 

Articulated cars tested. •573. 
— Elliptical steel tie, 'OS*. 
— Hamburger Hochbahn Aktiengesellschaf t : 

Interchangeable bearing repair [Feigen- 

span]. •lOO. 
Truck springs assembled by pneumatic 

machine [Horn]. •aSO. 
Warning signal insures proper meshing of 
gears [E. von Pirch], •688. 

Grand Rapids, Mich.: 

- — Cars, buses, taxis and planes. 53. 

Great Britain: 

— Birmingham: 

New light-weight cars, 719. 
— Glasgow: 

Financial report. 719. 
— Liverpool : 

No material changes recommended, 719. 
— London : 

Catches the car riding craze. 710. 

Free shoe shines for subway passengers, 
•236. 

London County Council Tramways get low- 
level cars, •OS?. 

New suburban line, 547. 

Subway construction approved. 647. 

Subway tries roller bearings. •613. 

"Tube" extensions to cost $_65.000,000, 622. 

Underground headquarters, highest commer- 
cial structure, *115. 

Unified public control for transport services, 
719. 



H 



Hammond, Ind. : 

— Calumet Rys. formed. 56. 

— Hammond, Whiting & E. Chicago Ry. sold, 66. 

Hampton, Va.: 

— Virginia Public Service Co.: 

Ice cars advertise product. *632. ** 

Slide valve grinder [Wood], •690. 



Havana, Cuba: 

— Causes of wheel failure studied [Gottschalk], 
•107. 



Heavy electric traction: 

— A.I.E.E. meeting considers railroad electrifica- 
tion. 682. 

— D. L. & W. R.R.: 

Scheduled speed increased by electrification. 
683. 

— Heating passenger trains on electrified steam 
railroads, 756. 

— Maintaining distribution system N.Y.,N.H.&H. 
R.R. [Bardo], •SO?. 

— Philadelphia facilities of P.R.R., *606. 

— Power for Reading electrification [Doub], 
•747. 



Heavy electric traction (Continued) : 

- — Reports on work at Amer. Elec. Railway 

Assn., 477. 
— Serving the suburban commuter [Buck], 

•407. 
— Statistics for 1939. 46. 

— Suburban electrification [Wright] progress on 

Reading R.R.. ^212. 
— Swiss scenic railroad electrified. •OSl. 



Illinois Electric Railway Association: 

— Annual convention. 235. 

Indiana Railroad (See Anderson, Ind.) 

Indianapolis. Ind.: 

— Indianapolis & Martinsville Rapid Transit Co.: 
Bondholders oppose receiver's certificates 
to meet expenses. 658. 
— Indianapolis & Southeastern Railroad: 

Important improvements in service, 235. 
— Indianapolis Street Railway: 
$9,000,000 choice (ed), 671. 
Rerouting suggested under traffic survey, 

600. 
Security deposits satisfactory, 716. 
— Interstate Public Service: 

New mattresses for berths. 666. 
— Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Co.: 
Indiana Commission rejects merger proposal. 

301. 
Merger — exception may prove rule (ed), 

302. 
Parlor-buffet service car. •208. 

Insurance, Fire: 

■ — Improved fire record brings lower insurance 

rate. (ed). 66. 
— Lower rates in effect, 74. 
— Neglect of precautions may prove costly (ed), 

613. 

International Tramway & Bus Association : 
— Warsaw meeting, 523. 

Iowa Electric Railway Assn.: 

— October meeting. •773. 



Italy : 

■ — Length of electrified lines now 1.635 kilo- 
meters, 547. 
— Rome : 

Co-ordinated transit makes progress (ed). 

126. 
Readjusts car and bus routes [Ascarelli], 

•136. 
To have modern subway, 115 [Vallecchi], 
•636. 



Japan : 

— Electric Railway makes scenic trips. 647 



K 



-Proceeding on merit (ed), 181. 



Kansas City, Mo^: 

— Kansas City Public Service Co.: 

Insulating sleeve protects test points 
[Brindson], •334. 

Spraying destination signs, •692. 
— Traffic improvements planned, 623. 

KnoKville, Tenn.: 

— Knoxville Power & Light Co.: 
Orders ten cars. 353. •737. 
Trolley buses delivered. 244. 
Trolley buses increase patronage. •735. 



Legislation and legal matters: 

— Atlanta, Ga.: 

Supreme Court upholds lower court's de- 
cree. 345. 
— Baltimore, Md.: 

Supreme Court's rate decision. 76 (ed). 65. 



READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations: •TUustrated. c Communications. 



January-December, 1930] 



Electric Railway Journa l— I n d e x 



VII 



230, 



Legislation and legal matters (Continued) 

— Chicago, 111.: 

Fare case on Chicago "L" draggini 

— Cleveland, Ohio: 

Cleveland Railway wins partial victory for 

no zone cabs in Cleveland, 801. 
Suburban rapid transit tare controversy. 

600. 

— Columbia. S. C: 

Supreme Court orders railway service to be 
resumed. 342. 
Determining utility depreciation [BurkeL 567, 

637. 
— Interstate bus regulation advanced (ed), 180, 

230. 
— Louisville, Ky. : 

Jurisdiction of court in fare ease upheld. 
333. 
— Ohio : 

Protest against 
tained, 170. 
— Peoples Counsel" to protect or 

(ed) 346. 
Polities should not be permitted to seep into 

utility regulation (ed), 497. 

Use of one-man car upheld at Shreveport. 67. 

Interstate bus operation should be regulated 

(ed) 556. 
— New Yorlt City: 

No progress toward unification (ed). 

Unification bill introduced. 170. 

— Providence. R. I.: 

Regulates the taxi. 346. 
— Interstate bus bill passed by house. 



Maintenance, general (Continued) ; 

— Increased power department responsibility de- 
mands proper equipment and practices 
[Bale]. •412. 

— Materials and labor, 1937-1930. 10. 

— Meeting the industry's equipment problem 
[Conway]. 438. 

— New contest. 701. 

New Maintenance contest, 701. 

— Putting maintenance on a production basis. 
179. 

— Snow removal practices and equipment. •678. 

— Trends in material purchasing analyzed, 209. 

Maiiitenanre practices and devices: 

— Buses and trucks: 



by test 



competitive 



service sus- 
to harass? 



246. 



330. 



— Washington. D. C: 

Progress reported on merger legislation, 167 



I^high Valley Transit Co. (See AUentown, Pa.) 

I-ethbridge, Alberta: 

Brady award won by municipal railway, '457. 



Locomotives: 



featured by vertical 



Midland 
524. 



— Austrian locomotives 
motors, •511. 

Double-voltage operation features 

Utilities locomotive [Perkinsonl. 

—Lackawanna Railroad gets switching locomo- 
tive. ♦736. 

jjew Haven orders ten locomotives, 667. 

Paris-Lyon-Mediterranean gets heavy locomo- 
tives, 576. 

Testing locomotives for Great Northern Rail- 
road, •553. 



Los Angeles, Cal.: 

— Pacific Electric Railway: 

Cleaning cars and equipment by sand blast. 

•763. 
Long Beach repairs completed. 496. 



Louisville, Ky.: 

^Louisville Railway: 

Accident prevention, 73. 

Axle and armature bearing jig 

•lOS. 
Curtails its advertising. 661. 
Statement to stockholders. 53. 
Trolley wire break record. •48. 



[Senior]. 



Lubrication (see Maintenance) 

Economies in bUs lubrication. 



M 



Madison, Wis.: 

— Madison Railways: 
Demurs on paving. 



345. 



Maintenance, general : 

Awards for first period. ^159. 

Awards for second period. •320. 

Awards for third period. •646. 

Bus Transportation awards, 320. 718. 

New maintenaQce contest. 701. 
— Efficient maintenance as a revenue producer. 

303. 
^Electric Railway Journal award won by 

Cleveland Railway. 644. 
•^^Jetting the most out of improvements (ed). 



results 
Rose], 
[HalU. 
[Hall], 
•846. 
tires 



Brake lining selected 

[Stevens], •647. 
Bus hood clamp locks easily [L. 

•588. 
Bus wheels removed with a clamp 

•763. 
Clamp removes bus wheel, simple 

•763. 
Connecting rod boring tool [Rose]. 
Deep crankcase pans, •lOS. 
Double air chuck inflates dual 

[Grant], 'leO. 
Exhaust gas fumes discharged from roof 

of bus. •587. 
Feeler gages, simple [Stevens]. ^706. 
Lighted brooms help clean [Stevens], •326. 
Low jack for raising buses. •386. 
Lubrication economies in Philadelphia 

•197. 
Pump and heater facilitate transmission 

filling [Rose]. "764. 
Rack, portable, for special bus tools 

[Palmer], ^531. 
Stand facilitates bus motor adjustment 

[Stevens]. '348. 
Towing and spacer bar for disabled buses, 

•647. 
Warning signal insures proper meshing of 

gears [von Pirch], •588, 
Washing buses in record time [MacKay], 

•340, 
Wheel aligner [Fairelothl. •334. 
Wheel nut wrench [Kehoe]. •.337. 
Wrench for wheel nuts [Kehoe], 



Car equipment : 



Maintenance prartiees and devices: 

— Car equipment (Continued) : 
Tread flooring, *770. 
Trolley base — light-weight, '593. 
Trolley wheel lubricated with composition 

washer. •653. 
Wheel grinding economical [Freemen], 

•341. 
Work car equipped to spread material 

alon^. track. ^765. 
— Cleaning. Car and Bus: 

Cars washed by machine in Berlin. •707. 
Car washing machine used in Philadelphia. 

•704. 
Car washing speed doubled. ♦332. 
Sand blast cleaning saves time and money, 

•762. 
Scaffold for car washing, adjustable [Sohl], 

•535. 
Washing buses in record time [MacKay 1. 

•340. 



•337. 



Aluminum frame reduces railway motor 

weight, •576. 
Ball bearing under brake handle [McAloney]. 

•223. 
Cars grounded on crown plate [Munford]. 

•531. 
Causes of wheel failure studied at Havana 

[Gottschalk], •lO?. 
Circuit breakers tested in place [James]. 

•108. 
Cylinder boring device for air compressor 

[Sohl]. •esi. 

Dash-illuminating headlight. '228. 
Dolly for broken axles [Jonas], ♦160. 
Dolly, demountable [Herms], ♦223. 
Hand lever for testing bell ringers, ♦164. 
Headlight, dash-illuminating. ♦228. 
High voltage test discloses equipment weak- 
ness [Wms.]. •226. 
Hood rims and oarlms reshaped [Davidson], 

♦163. 
Interchangeable bearings, repair of [Feigen- 

spanl. ^106. 
Jig speeds brake head drilling [Niederst]. 

♦651. 
Loading plate with patterned surface, •238. 
Lubricating car apparatus [Kauffman], 333. 
Lubrication prolongs life of control equip- 
ment [Moses]. ^199. 
Preventing loose breaker tips [McGinnis]. 

♦285. 
Rachet jack, ^286. 
Radio interference eliminated by choke 

coil [Warner], •764. 
Remodeling cars for one-man operation. 

•765. 
Repairing 900 cars a year in the Boston 

Elevated shop. •330. 
Reverser protectors prevent tampering 

[Hall], ^224. 
Rolling stock rehabilitation at Baltimore 

ILocke & Clark], ^348, 
Seating capacity increased in Winnipeg, 

•708. 
Slide valve grinder [Wood], •690. 
Supply car for B.-M.T. system. ^337. 
Sweeper broom blocks filled by machine 

[Scullin], ^706. 
Thermostat for close heat control. 770. 
Tilting bench for controller repairs [Jonas], 
•383. 



— Electrical shop: 

Adjustable hanger for switch contactors 

[Brown], •708. 
Armature bearing, bi-metallic, ♦538. 
Armature core bands anchored [Dean]. 

♦321. 
Armature dipping tank [Traw], ♦lOl. 
Armature nut wrench [McRae], ♦285. 
Armature removal machine [Scullin], ♦648. 
Bell ringer tester, ♦164. 
Clamp for installing field coils [Dumke]. 

♦704. 
Commutator sander. •256. 
Compact field shunting switch, •769. 
Compensating controller fingers adjusted 

and installed [Moses], •.337, 
Copper and mica dust collected, pni com- 
mutator Blotter [Beadle], •707, 
Dog holds armature pinion [Leary], •648. 
Field coil tester, •les. 
Field testing and taping. ♦163. 
Gage to check alignment of commutators 

[Dean], •689. 
Grease prevented from entering armature 

bearing [Osborn]. ^234. 
Grease ring protects commutators in ball- 
bearing motors [Beadle], •590. 
Holder for dipping armature [Traw], 

•161. 
Holder, light-weight, for electric welding, 

•594. 
Installing and adjusting controller fingers 

[Moses], •337. 
Insulating paste for bolt heads [Lackey], 

786. 
Insulating sleeve protects test points 

[Brindson], •334, 
Insulation tested with portable transformer 

[Taurman], •763. 
Lamp cord used for controller testing 

[Munford], 706. 
Lamp storage during car overhaul [Hall], 

•689. 
Simple cradle for storing armatures, ♦588. 
Terminal for brush-holder leads, *286. 
Test for partially open circuit [Beadle], 

♦536. 
Test, high voltage discloses equipment 

weakness [Williams], ♦326. 
Testing air governors [McGinnis], ♦766, 
Testing of field coils [Hall], ♦634, 
Two-faced compass determines motor field 

popularity [Dumke], ♦660. 
Welder, large-capacity. ^594. 



♦712. 



revenue pro- 



671. 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations: ♦Illustrated, c Communications. 



■General : 

Bearing metal, steel-backed. 

Budget for 1930. 8. 

Efficient maintenance as a 
ducer (ed). 303. 

Hand grinders, portable, •713. 

Hand tool, portable electric, ♦638. 

Inspection lamps. electrically heated 
[Reinker]. ♦lOl. 

Modern machinery for better maintenance 
[Jonas]. ^418. 

Multi-tool, portable electric, ♦538. 

Pressure regulator for oxy-acetylene ap- 
paratus. ♦653. 

Production basis urged (ed), 179. 

Safety arm for coal and sand bin lids 
(App.l. ^649. 

Shop efficiency improved by unit replace- 
ment system. ^300. 

Shovel truck for bulk material, ♦654. 

Steel plate safety shoes fitted to ladders 
[Scullin]. ^589. 

Thawing frozen water and conduit pipes 
[Brown], 317. 

Whistle post made by old rail fPffsan], 
♦691. 



VIII 



Electric Railway Journa l— I n d e x 



[Vol.74 



Maintenance practices and devices (Continued) : 

— Line : 

Blinlter liglit protects linemen on nifht 
worlc [Reinker], •651. 

Cable roller lor stringing feeder wire, •537. 

Catenary clip, •287. 

Contact line renewal [Scott]. •700. 

Crossovers, temporary [Scottl. •533. 

Equipment for overhead line maintenance, 
•33B. . . 

Plashine dangrer lights on tower trucks 
[Brown 1. •282. 

Hanger for switch contactors, adjustable 
[Brown], '708. 

Increasing height of span wire poles, •222. 

Loosening tight wires in conduit [R. S. 
Mcintosh], 'SS?. 

Low records in trolley wire breaks in nine 

cities. ^48. 
Lubrication of overhead trolley wire, *284. 
Maintenance of distribution system on New 

Haven [Bardol. ^507. 
Marathon ear reduces wheel and wire wear. 

•504. 
Marking wood poles for identification, 591. 
Poles lengthened by splicing, •SSI. 
Poles, reinforcing corroded. •340. 
Poteijtial wires check electrolysis [Stewart]. 

•338. 
Preventing loose breaker tips [McGlnnis], 

•286, 
Records of trolley wire breaks, 48. 
Signal bell on tower truck [Brown]. ^221. 
Stringing trolley wire [Neild], •216. 
Tower ladder, triangular. ^537. 
Use of dynamometer successful in stringing 

trolley wire [Scott], 281. 
Warning lights on tower wagon [Scott], 

•339, 

— Lubrication : 

Center bearing lubrication [Williams] , 
•285. 

Gun used for electric track switch lubrica- 
tion [Brown 1. 'eSO. 

Lubricating car apparatus [Kauffman], 
333. 

Pressure lubrication, door engine used for 
[Herms], "222. 

— ^Machine shop: 

Babbitting, correct [Dean], •532. 
Bearing jig. axle and armature. •lOS. 
Boring of motor axle bearing seats [Greer], 

•050, 
Chuck spindle equipped with roller bearings, 

•228. 
Connecting rod boring tool [Rose], •646. 
Cylinder boring device for air compressor 

[Sohl], 'esi. 
Feeler gages [Stevens], •706. 
Filling sweeper broom blocks by machine 

[Scullin]. ^706. 
Grinder, slide valve [Wood], •SOO. 
Grinders, portable sand. '713. 
Grinding of wheels [Freeman]. •341. 
Hammer operated by compressed air 

[Pirklel. ^225, 
Ingenious jig speeds brake head drilling 

[Niederst], r651. 
Jig for drilling brake hangers [Scullin ] . 

•341. 
Jig for turning axle and armature bearings 

[Senior], •lOS. • 

Modern machinery a sound investment 

[Jonas], '418. 
Oversize bearing housings bored in jig 

[Niederst). •650. 
Portable bench for finishing bearings 

[Feigenspan]. •lOe. 
Spraying destination signs at Kansas City. 

•502. 
Testing air governors [McGinnis], •766. 

— Motors; 

Aluminum frame reduces railway motor 

weight. •576. 
Anchoring armature core bands [Dean], 

•221. 
Armature nut wrench [McRae], •285. 
Bimetallic armature bearing. ^538. 
Boring of motor axle bearing sets [Greer], 

•650. 
Commutator sander, adjustable, •255. 
Convenient machine for armature removal 

[Scullin]. •648. 

Bog holds armature pinion [Leary], •649. 

Field shunting gives cars new pep [Moses]. 
•710. 



Maintenance practices and devices: 

— Motors (Continued) ; 

Field shunting switch, compact, •760. 

Gage to check alignment of commutators 
[Dean], •SSO. 

Grease entrance into armature bearings 
prevented [Osborn], ^224. 

Grease ring protects commutator on ball 
bearing motors [Beadle], •SOO. 

Insulating paste for bolt heads [Lackey], 
•786. 

Oversized bearing housings bored in jig 
[Niederst], 'OSO. 

Proper fit of brushes reduces chatter 
[Warner], 164. 

Selection of motor controls [Beers], 575. 

Shunting motors to obtain greater speed 
[Beers], 535. 

Terminal for brush holder leads, *286, 

Two faced compass determines motor field 
polarity [Dumke], •OSO. 

— Paint shop : 

Protection against corrosion, 711. 

Spray painting outfit, •llO. 

Spraying destination signs at Kansas City, 
•502. 

Window guard painting machine [Scullin], 
•283. 

— Track and way: 

Built-up compromise joints [Bragg]. ^282. 

Center control for temporary block signal 
[Brown], •648. 

Combination tie plate for various rails 
[Yeats], '108 ; Correction, 163. 

Compromise joint for rail [Bragg], •282. 

Concrete mixer has belt conveyor for load- 
ing [Spenzer], •SSO. 

Concrete track built with minimum in- 
terruption, Boston, •lOl. 



Connecting rod for 
[Spenzer], ^162. 



tongue switches 

Detecting broken rails [Evans]. ^223. 

Disconnecting locked tongues of electric 
track switches [Grant], ^161. 

Double-milling rail heads to prevent cup- 
ping at joints [George], •lOS. 

Double-track branch off [Yeates]. ^330. 
Drainage, center subdrainage system, '533. 
Elliptical steel tie, •654. 
Grade crossing for heavy vehicular traffic, 

•705. 
Gun used for electric track switch lubrica- — Des Moines improves service, ^736 

tion [Brown], ^286. 
Heavy-duty circular saw for track work. 

•110. 

Installing safety zone markers [Davis], 341. 
Iron rod used as dam for weld metal 

[Habercam], •225. 
Leveling bar facilitates joint alignment 

[Anthony], •SOI. 

Long level, one man [L'vans], •104. 
Maco template for registering rail contours. 
•594. 



Maintenance practices and devices: 

- — Track and way (Continued) ; 

Treated ties safely handled [Evans], ^649. 

Welding and cutting equipment [Hayes], 
•162. 

Work car spreads material along track, 
•765. 

Work schedules permit speedy track recon- 
struction [George]. *278. 

— Trucks : 

Demountable dolly used in San Diego 
[Herms], •223. 

Dolly for broken axle [Jonas], •160. 
Gage makes wheel mounting easy [Scullin]. 

•708. 
Increasing truck-jaw life [Mondoux], •592. 

Lubrication of center bearing [Williams], 
•285. 

Removing trucks from cars on hoists 
[Munford], •284. 

Springs assembled by pneumatic machine 
[Korn], •339. 

. — Welding : 

Holder for electric welding, lightweight, 
•594. 

Larger capacity welder. ^594. 
Management: 

— Favorable results of Des Moints rehabilitation, 
•736, 

— Getting the most out "of improvements (ed), 
671. 

— Research demanded (ed), 731. 

— Research department of Pittsburgh Rys., 
•732. 

Market conditions: 

— Material prices, 124, 178, 244, 300, 354, 496, 
554, 610, 668, 728. 

Maryland Utilities Association: 

— Operators discuss latest developments. 661. 

Memphis, Tenn.: 

— Memphis Street Railway: 

Track construction experience. 'lOl. 
Wage scale renewed. 233. 

Merchandising transportation : 

— ^Popularizing interurban service [Pontius], 
•443. 

— Cincinnati & Lake Erie R.R.: 
New de luxe cars, •614. 

— Cincinnati Street Railway; 

"Save by riding street cars — see more 
shows." ^657. 



— El Paso EJectrio Co.: 

Selling tickets from house to house, 233, 
— Hio'her revenue with lower fares, *739. 

— Service best means of winning confidence 
(ed). 729. 

— Solving the problem for small-city systems 

(ed). 670. 
— Virginia Electric & Power Co.; 

Sales promotion work done by trainmen 
[Womack], 531. 



Mate floor of switches redesigned [Davis], 
•534. 

Old rail used as whistle post [Hysonil, 

•591. 
Pavement straight edge [Costello). ^104. 
Portable motor flow pulsator. "287. 
Portable oxyacetylene apparatus [Cope- 

landl. ^226. 
Portable sand drier and mix reheater. •SOS. 
Pulsator for track work under traffic, •712. 
Rail bond of steel and copper, •537. 
Rail joint, flexible. Providence, 107. 
Rail preheater, "SSS. 
Reclaimed crank case oil for curves and 

switches [Botto], 163. 

Rerailing at Atlanta, economical [Ber- 
nian). •767. 

Sand for track stored by compressed air 
[ Yeates] . '690. 

Single life vs. renewable track. ^191, 271. 

Spray equipment for weed killing [Pirklel, 

•104: Correction, 163, 
Switch, raised toe tongue [Spenzer). •3;)8. 
Switch heater supplied with gas fuel. '6.53. 
Switch tongues built up by welding 

[Pieklesimer], •283. 

Switches for portable crossovers repaired 

[Spenzerl. •707. 
Track construction methods [Dalgleish], 



Track without ties [Mall], ^154, 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations : •Illustrated, c Communications. 



Middle Atlantic States Equipment Men: 

— Meets at Norfolk, 773. 

Mid-West Electric Railway Association: 

— Annual meeting, 717. 

Milwaukee, Wis.: 

— Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co. 
Buys ten two-car trains. 363. 
Christmas Shopping Pass. 777. 
Rate case under way. 423. 



Minneapolis, Minn.: 

— Twin City Rapid Transit Co.; 
Snow removal practice, •676. 



Missoula, Mont.: 

— Honorable mention in Brady aw.ird won by 
Montana Power Co.. •457. 

Mobile. Ala.: 

— Mobile Light & Railroad Co.; 

Bids for patronage with clean cars, close 
headway and smooth track [Faust], •SSS. 
New cars ordered. 354. 



January-December, 1930] E,l ectric Railway Journa l— I n d e 



IX 



Modernization: 

— Conditions favorable now for modernization 
(ed). 611. 

— Consigning junk to junk pile (ed). 180. 

— Serviceable but not suitable (ed). 246. 



receives new cars. 494. 



609. 



Ford chassis. 



Monroe, La.: 

■ — Municipal Street Ry. 

Montreal. Quebec: 

— Montreal Tramways: 

Installs third automatic rectifier substation 

(de Angrelis], *577. 
Rapid transit proposed, 771. 
Snow removal practice, *676. 
To help defray tunnel cost. 657. 

Motor bus. design: 

— Detroit D.S.R, bus equipped for roof discharge 
of exhaust fumes, ♦SS?. 

— Diesel bus tested, 435. 
— Dodgre Bros, new models 
— Farg-o 8-cylinder bus. *653. 
— Fitzjohn body designed for 
•768. 

— Improving the bus to increase its usefulness 
[Stocks]. •387. 

— Mack "Salon club car," 'TIS. 

— Pickwick double deck observation bus. •287. 

— Twin Coach small-capacity bus. •711. 

— White six-cylinder buses. •769. 

^lotor buses, general: 

— Berlin transportation facilities co-ordinated 
[Breslauer], *',iCi\, 

— "Bus Transportation" offers awards. 220. 

— Buses bought by railways in 1929, 24. 

— Bus route extensions, city and intercity in 
1929. 26. 

-—Car. bus and taxicab services co-ordinated at 
New Bedford. 448. 

— Co-ordination at Poughkeepsie. •252. 

— De luxe buses become a necessity in cities 
(I'd). 06. 

— De luxe bus in intenirban service [Stauffer], 
•144. 

— Development of buses and trolley buses, 456. 

— Electric railways win bus maintenance awards. 
718. 



-For mass transportation [Warner], 



•745. 

180. 



—Interstate bus regulation advanced (ed 
230. 

-Interstate bus regulation needed (ed). 556. 

—Merit alone should control substitution of 
buses for cars (ed) 408. 

-New York City: 

Third Avenue Ry. — co-ordinated bus opera- 
tion increases revenues, ♦690. 

-Operation by electric railways and subsidiary 
companies [Stauffer], 20. 



— ^Paterson, 
Public 



N. J. 
Service 



-P.R.T. effects economies in 
•107. 



Co-ordinated Transport — 
bus lubrication. 



— Urban transportation facilities keep pace with 
population increase (ed), 669. 

Motor i>ii»ies, gus-electric: 

— Development of the bus in mass transporta- 
tion [Warner]. •745. 

— Electric governor for buses. ♦160. 

— Single-motor drive for" gas-electric buses 
[Atwell], 164. 

Motors : 

— Commercial frequency for single-phase road 
510. 



— Compound equipment in Paris. ♦' 
— Economies of high-speed motor 
[Bethel], 465. 



'57. 
and 



— Field shunting advantageous [MosesJ. 
— More power needed [Welsh]. 750. 



dri\e 
•710. 



N 

Natianal Electric Mght Association: 



Newark, N. J.: 

— Public Service Co-ordinated Transport: 
Acquires Yellow Cab control, 171. 
Buses replace cars in Paterson. *315. 
Five-cent fai"e to be restored, 717. 
New bus terminal in New York, *351, 
Operations analyzed, 56, 
Place of the bus in mass transportation 

[Warner], »745. 
Places largest bus order, 178, 

New Bedford, Mass,; 

■ — Union Street Railway: 

Abstract of CofHn Contest brief, 448, 

New Haven, Conn,: 

— Connecticut Co.: 

Increasing height of span wire poles, ♦222. 
Marking wood poles for identification, •591. 
Track construction experience, 191. 

— New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R. 

Maintaining the distribution system of an 



Norfolk, Va.: 

— Virginia Electric & 



Power Co.: 



electrified railroad [Bardo], 
Ten new locomotives ordered. 



'507. 
607. 



New Orleans, La.: 

— New Orleans Public Service, Inc. : 

Shop efficiency improved by unit replace- 
ment system. •200, 

Track without ties [Mall], •154. 

Trolley buses installed on shuttle line 

[Rainville], '141. 
Trolley wire break record. ^48. 

New Tork City: 

— Passengers carried in 1939, 51. 
— Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Co.: 

Socony lubricants for company. 178. 

Supply car for system, •327, 
— Brooklyn & Queens Transit Corp,: 

Eighteen lines to be rerouted, 236. 

New cars in service. •343. 

Track construction experience, •lOl. 

Trolley bus service started, 553. 

Want trolley buses, 436. 

— Bus substitution should depend on merit, 
(ed), 408. 

— Eighth Avenue Subway: 

Nearing completion. 601. 

New subway cars for new line, 488, 
— Elevated railways value proved anew (ed), 66. 
— Interborough Rapid Transit: 

City begins to realize on its investment. 
603. 

— Long Island R.R.: 

Orders 85 new steel cars, 494, 

Receives steel cars. 785. 
— New York Bd. of Transportation: 

Large order for heaters, 178. 
— New York & Queens County Railway: 

Bonus plan works well, 513. 

— Public Service Co-ordinated Transport; 
New terminal, •351, 

— Richmond Railways: 

Cradle for storing armatures, ♦588, 
Testing pneumatic bell rinsrers, ^164, 

— Subway ears being delivered, 608. 

— Taxicabs : 

Regulation as a public utility recommended. 
685. 

— Third Avenue Ry. : 
Bus receipts, 113. 

Co-ordinated bus operation increases 

revenues, ^690. 
Long poles made by splicing, ^531, 
Rearranging parked area on Broadway, 116, 
Reinforcing corroded poles, ♦340. 

— Yonkers Railroad, Westchester Electric Rail- 
road and New York, Westchester & Con- 
necticut Traction Co, seek fare increases. 
544. 



Niagara Falls, N. Y.: 

— International Railway: 

Settlement of case to be arranged, 543. 
Pare increase sustained. 775. 



Bus wheels removed with a simple clamp 

[Hall], ♦763. 
Field coil testing [Hall], ♦534, 
Sales promotion work by trammen 

[Womack], 531, 
Storage of lamps during 

[Hall], ^589, 



car overhaul 



o 



Noise Reduction: 

— Elimination in rapid transit studied. 



546. 



-Lowering costs and bettering public relations 
by reducing noise [Williamsl. •376. 



Oakland, Cal: 

— Key System on new financial basis (ed). 557. 

Ohio Edison Co. (See Akron, Ohio) 
Oklahoma City, Okla.: 
■ — Oklahon^a Railway: 

Description of new cars, 699, 

Omaha, Neb.: 

— Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Railway: 

Citizens to vote on bridge bond issue, 658. 

Fare increase asked, 344. 

New rerouting, 336, 

Rerouting plan in Omaha changed, 169. 

Operating records and costs: 

— Baltimore, Md.: 

United Railways & Electric Co. — analysis 
of car performance during rush hours, 
249. 
— Beware of costly economies (ed), 555, 
— Cincinnati & Erie R.R.: 

Car earnings, sales of tickets and rates, 630, 
— Cost analyses indicate field of the trolley bus 

[Clardy], 623. 
— Eastern Texas Electric Co.: 

Gross and net increased by company, 453. 
-^Georgia Power Co.: 

Revenues and expenses 1925-1939, ♦673. 
— Higher revenue with lower lares, 739. 
— Industry in more favorable position, 3. 
- — Lowering costs and bettering public relations 

by reducing noise [Williams], ♦376, 
— New Orleans Public Service, Inc.; 

Shop efliciency improved by unit replace- 
ment system, ♦300. 
• — New York City: 

Third Ave. Ry. — statistics, ♦693. 
—Operating statistics for 1929 [Murphy], 318. 
— Survey of materials and supplies in stock, 181. 
— Toledo. Ohio: 

Community Traction Co. — services modern- 
ized and co-ordinated, 452, 
— Trends in material purchasing analyzed, 209. 

Ottawa, Ontario : 

• — Ottawa Electric Railway: 

Cars grounded on crown plate [Munford], 

♦531. 
Honorable mention in Brady Award, ♦457. 
Increasing truck-jaw life [Blondoux]. *b&2. 
Insulating paste for bolt heads [Lackey], 

766. 
Lamp cord used for controller testing 

[Munford], 706. 
Removing car trucks [Munford], ^284. 
Testing circuit breakers [James]. 'lOS. 

Overhead contact system; 

— Are essential in stringing trolley wire [Nelld], 

— Catenary clip, ♦387, 
— Dynamometer for 

[Scott], •281, 
— Overhead for temporary crossovers [Scott], 



stringing trolley wire 



•533. 

-Renewal of [Scott], 709, 
-Trolley car improved, •594. 
-Trolley bus requirements [Bowen], 



•693, 



— Putting noise on the defensive (ed). 67. 
READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communications; 



Paclflr, Electric Railway (See Los Angeles, Cal,) ; 

Pacific Northwest Public Service Co. (see Port- 
land, Ore.) 

I'arklng of automobiles: 

— Detroit. Mich.: 

D.S.R. parking service popular, 583. 
— Kansas City traffic improvements planned, 633. 
— Washington, D. C; 

Garage problem and parking studied, 650, 

Patents: 

— Carey Elastite patent sustained. 737. 
Paterson, N. J.: 

— Public Service Co-ordinated Transport: 
Bxises replace cars, ♦316. 



Electric Railway Journa l — I n d e,x 



[Vol.74 



PaTements : 

— Road builders recommend relief oi pavingr 
obligations. 14.1. ,„ • , o.i 

— Safety zone markers, installm? [Davis], 3*1. 
Steel markers at Washingrton. D. C, 7*-!. 

Pennsylvania Railroad: 

— (See Philadelphia. Pa.) : 

Pensions (See Employees) 

Philadelphia: 

— Engineers report on transit, 422. 
— Pennsylvania Railroad: 

Opens new facilities in Philadelphia. 'OSU. 
Separation of suburban from through 
trafBc. 426. 
— Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.; 
Car washing machines, •704. 
Checking up and appraisal of physical 

assets ordered, 602. 
Economy in bus lubrication, 'IQ?. 
Late T. E. Mitten large share holder, 661. 
Purchase by city discussed. 661. 
Sample car of new type. '741. 
School for rapid transit employees (Sum- 
mers], 'ISS. 
Transit tangle. 111. 
■ — Philadelphia & Western Railway: 

Conway interests take railway. 423. 
— Reading Co. : 

Electrification proceeding. 867. 

Reliability features power supply IDoub], 

•747. 
Suburban electrification making rapid 
progress IWright], •212. 



Public reiatlons: 

— Higher revenue with lower fares, 739. 

— Improvement in the ride is the most effective 

stimulant of public interest [Gordon], 360. 
— Lowering costs and bettering public relations 

by reducing noise [WilUams], •376, 
— Mobile Light & Railroad Co.: 

Bids for patronage with clean cars, close 
headway and smooth track [Faust], 
•568. 
— Speed an essential of street car performance 

[Rossell], •368. 

Puget Sound Power & Light Co. (See Seattle, 
Wash.) 



R 



Rapid transit: 

• — Attaining faster schedules [Clardy], •257. 
— Data on lines in U, S.. 19. 
— Growing need for rapid transit [Dana], •391. 
— Paris, France: 

Subway system expands. 277. 
— PhiladelpKia. Pa. : 

Instruction for trainmen [Summers], •133. 
— ^Proposed for Montreal, 771. 
— Rome to have modern subway [Valleechi], 

•526. 

Rending, Pa.; 

— Reading Transit Co. : 

Radio interference from cars eliminated by 
choke coil [Warner]. •764. 



Pittsburgh, Pa.: 

— Allegheny Valley Street Railway: 

Comfort and speed on new cars [Inglis]. 

•242. 
Complete car replacement on Allegheny 
Valley route. •ISO. 
— Pittsburgh Railways: 

Research department aids railway opera- 
tions. •732, (ed), 731. 
Statistics on securities amplified [Mitchell], 
183. 
— Progressive signals aid traffic movement 

[Staufler and Marsh). •261. 
— Terminal planned at Uniontown, Pa., 168, 
— Traflle signal controlled by car movement, 

•75:;. 
— West Penn Railways : 

Reverser protector [Hall]. •224. 
Snow removal practice, •676. 



Portland. Ore.: 

— City Planning Commission: 

Consideration of service-at-cost grant post- 
poned. 658. 
—Pacific Northwest Public Service Co.: 

Segregation move, 600. 

Statement, 280. 

To form two subsidiaries for administrative 
purposes. 541. 

Wage proposal rejected. 234. 

Weekly pass. 717. 



Poughkeepsle. N. Y. : 

— Poughkeepsie & Wappingers Falls Railway : 
Income increased by co-ordination. •252. 



Power, general ; 

— More power [Welsh], 750. 

— Increased power department responsibility de- 
mands proper equipment and practices 
[Bale]. '412. 

— Cleveland Union Terminal Co.: 

Motor generators supply power for terminal 
electrification [McDonald]. •633. 

— Reading Co.: 

Reliability features power supply [Doub], 
•747. 



Power Distribution: 

— Cable roller for stringing feeder, •537. 
— Reading Company System [Doub], •747. 
— Steel and copper rail bond. 537 



— Mercury arc rectifiers meet transportation de- 
mands [Baker], •Sll. 

— Montreal Tramways installs rectifier substa- 
tions [de Angelis], ^577. 

Richmond, Va.: 

— Virginia Electric & Power Co.: 

Bus wheel aligner [Faircloth], ^224, 



Roanoke, Va. : 

— Roanoke Railway & Electric Co.: 
Circulating sales manager. 233. 

Korhester, N. Y.: 

. — New York State Railways: 

Ancillary receivers appointed. 113. 

Decree of foreclosure ordered, 233. 

Receivers appointed, 58, 113. 

Track construction experience. •I 91. 

Wage scale renewed, 234. 
— Rochester-Buffalo Coach Lines: 

Bus order modified. 541. 
— Rochester. Niagara Falls ft Buffalo Coacb 
Lines: 

Buses to replace railway service. 425. 



Safety ( See Accident prevention ) 

St. Louis. Mo.: 

— People's Motor Bus Co.: 

Terms of settlement of bus strike. 291. 
— St. Louis Public Service Co.: 

Remodeling cars for one-man operation. 
•765. 

Report on expenditures. 55. 

Results of first year of ticket plan. 685. 

Sample car. •106. 

Tags transfer passengers, 752. 

To reopen wage agreement, 280. 
— Transportation Survey Commission : 

Co-ordination of transit facilities proposed. 
743. 

Program for improvement should be acted 
upon (ed). 556. 

Report to Board of Aldermen, 540. 



San Antonio, Texas: 

— San Antonio Public Service Co. 

Reclaimed oil used lor curves [Botto], 163. 

San Diego, Cal.: 

— San Diego Electric Railway: 

Demountable dolly [Herms], •223. 
Pressure lubrication [Herms], ^222. 
Question of jurisdiction in hearing, 545. 

San Francisco, Cal. : 

— Market Street Ry. : 

Speeding up service [Kahn], •442. 

Track construction exi>erience, •191. 
- — Municipal Railway: 

Paving charges [Boeken], 99. 

Track construction experience, *191. 
— Northwestern Pacific Railroad: 

Orders new rolling stock. 494. 
— Southern Pacific Co.: 

Center drainage system reduces track main- 
tenance cost, •533, 

Schenectady, N. Y.: 
■ — Schenectady Railway : 

Commission authorizes buses on two lines. 
426. 



■ — Cleveland Railway : 

Instruction school for linemen [Scott], 

•686. 
Methods of training platform men, 698, 
Selling an idea to the foreman [George] . 
51B. 
— Educational activities lag (ed), 301. 
— P.R.T. gives instruction for trainmen I Sum- 
mers], *132, 

Seattle, Wash.: 

— Problems of city ownership (ed), 613, 
— Puget Sound Power & Light Co.: 

Sale ordered, 289. 
— Seattle Municipal Railway: 

In insolvent condition (ed), 730. 

Two-year moratorium, 56, 

Taxi cuts revenue, 346. 

Shreveport, La.: 

— Shreveport Railways ; 

One-man case won. 117 (ed). 67. 



Signals (See also Traffic regulations) : 

— Highway crossing signals with mechanical 
contactors. •768. 

— Railway crossing signals should be distinc- 
tive [Nachod], 99. 

— -Traffic signals controlled by street cars, 
•752. 

— Two-color or three-color signals [Ross]. 98. 



Snow and ice removal: 

— Buffalo, N. Y.: 

International Railways adopts new methods. 
•231. 

— Survey of methods used on numerous prop- 
erties, •676. 



Society of Automotive Engineers: 

•-■National Transport Meeting program. 541. 

South Bend, Ind.: 

— -Northern Indiana Railway : 

Financial situation (ed), 127. 
New cars ordered, 298. 
New company formed. 168. 

Springfield, Mass.: 

— Springfield Street Ry. : 

Snow removal practice, •070. 



Standardization : 

— A.I.E.E. to revise standards for control ap- 
paratus. 662. 

— Simplification of materials and supplies 
[Cooper], 323. 

Stark Electric Railway (See Alliance. Ohio) 

S'.aten Island, N. Y. (See New York City) : 



Providence, R. I.: 

— United Electric Railways: 

Flexible rail joint tried, 107. 
Snow removal practice. *676. 
Window wipers for cars, 170. 



Salt Lake City, Utah: 

— Combination traffic and warning signal. •571. 
— Salt Lake & Utah Railroad: 

Rails, detecting breaks [Evans]. ^223. 

Reorganization to be speeded. 345- 



Statlstics: 

— Accelerated progress forecast (ed), 1. 
— Annual figures encouraging (ed), 301. 
— Bus operation by electric railways and sub- 
sidiary companies [Staufler], 20. 



READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations: •Illu.strated. c Communication.'-. 



January-December, 1930] 



Electric Railway Journa l — I n d e x 



XI 



StatisticB (Continued) : 

— Canadian Electric Railway Assn.: 
Report on industry, 630. 

— City and intcrurban electric railways and elec- 
trified steam lines. 6. 

— Condensed financial reports of electric rail- 
way properties 1939-1928 [Tables], 304. 

— Construction work in heavy electric traction 
in 1920, 46. 

—Costs and fares in 1920 [Richey], 13. 

— Electric railways doing: well compared to 
other industries (ed), 555. 

— Electric railway properties, financial reports 
1929-1038. 308. 

— Expenditures for materials and plant [Faust] . 
8. 

— Financial situation in 1930 [Buck], 41. 

— Industry in more favorable position, 3. 

— Operating statistics for 1930 [Murphy], 318. 

— Railways proceeding with full budget program 
(Miller] 83, (ed) 179. 

— Rapid transit lines in U. S.. 19. 

— Riehey fare index revised. 756. 

— Rolling stock ordered during 1929 [van der 
Stempelj. 33. 

— Track extensions, reconstruction and abandon- 
ments in 1929 [Miller], 15. 

— Trends in material purchasing analyzed (ed), 
181, •209. 

— Trolley bus operation in U. S. and Canada. 
37. 

— Urban transportation facilities in 1930 (ed), 
669. 

Stores: 

— Elimination of waste [Duncan], 467. 

— Relations of purchasing and engineering 

(Harris], 464. 
— Simplification of materials and supplies 

[Cooper], 323. 
— Trends in niaterial purchasing analyzed. 309. 

Street traffle congestion : 

— Kansas City traffic improvements planned, 623. 

— Preferential traflic rights for street cars 
[Daniels]. 318, (ed), 181. 

— St. Louis: 

Auto does not justify its use in streets. 
432. 

Substations and equipment: 

— Baltimore station wins architectural distinc- 
tion. 'ISl. 

— Cleveland Union Terminals Co.: 

Motor generators supply power for terminal 
electrification [McDonald], '633. 

— Increased power department responsibility de- 
mands proper equipment and practices 
[Bale]. •412. 

— Montreal Tramways: 

Installs third automatic i-ectifler substation 
[do Angelis], •577 

— Reading Co.: 

Reliability features power supply (Doubl 

•747 

Switzerland: 

— 170 miles to be electrified. 115. 
— Scenic railway electrified, •681. 



Tampa. Fla.: 

— Tampa Electric Co.: 
Accident prevention. 



•71. 



Taxation: 

— Road builders recommend relief of paving 
obligations. 143. 

— Utility taxation [Lack]. 442. 

Taxicab: 

— As a public utility (ed). 670. 

— City transit problems belter understood (ed) 
498. 



Taxicab (Continued) : 

— Control of 400 cabs acquired by Pub. Serv. 

Co-ord. Transport, 171. 
— Defining the place (ed), 125. 
— Rate war in Springfield. Mass.. 346. 
— Regulation in Providence, R. I. (ed), 246. 
— Regulation as a public utility recommended 

in N. T.. •685. 
— Undermining an essential service (ed), 731. 

Toledo, Ohio: 

— Community Traction Company: 

Abstract of CoflBn Contest brief. 452. 
Displays its wares. 601. 
Revamping of Milner ordinance. 655. 
Unemployment hurts earnings, 488. 

— Toledo. Bowling Green & Southern : 
Granted authority to suspend, 659. 

— Toledo. Fostoria & Findlay : 

Granted authority to suspend. 659. 

Toronto. Ont.: 

— Toronto Transportation Commission ; 
Armature nut wrench IMcRae], ^285. 
Care essential in stringing trolley wire. 

[Neild]. •216. 
Disconnecting switch tongues [Grant]. 

•161. 
Snow removal practice, •676. 
Trolley wire break record, •48. 

Track conjitruction: 

— Boston Elevated Ry.: 

Building concrete track with minimum 
interruption of service. •lOl. 

— Building better track [Wysor], •403. 

— Cleveland Railway : 

Accurate work schedules permit speedy 

track reconstruction [George]. ^278. 
One-man long level [Evans]. ^104. 
Straight edge for pavement [Costello] 

•104. 

— Extensions, reconstruction and abandonments 
in 1020 [Miller], 15. 

— Georgia Power Co. : 

Economical rerailing [Berman], ^766. 

Good layouts facilitate routing, •672. 

Mortar flow pulsator. •287. 
— New Orleans Public Service. Inc. : 

Track without ties [Mall]. ^154. 
— Pulsator for work under traffic. ^713. 
— Rail proheater, •SSS. 
— Ratchet jack. ^286. 
— Sand drier portable, •593. 
— San Francisco Municipal Ry. : 

Extensive paving [Boeken], 90. 
— Selling an idea to foremen [George], •SIO. 
— Single life versus renewable track. •lOl. 271. 
— Special work built In place [Yeates], •339. 
— Statistics for 1030. 16. 



-Track in paving: 
-Washington. D. C. : 
Ties imbedded in 
[Dalgleish]. ^130. 



pre-mixed concrete 



Trackless trolley (See Trolley bus) 

Traflic regulation: 

— Compulsion or persuasion of pedestrians (ed). 
301. 

— Correct timing of signals essential in traffic 
regulation [Matson], 82. 

— Kansas City: 

Improvements planned. 623. 
— New York City: 

New pedestrian control. 344. 

Taxicab regulation recommended. ^685. 

— Preferential traffic rights for street cars 
[Daniels]. 218, ed) 181. 

— Progressive signal system aids movement in 
Pittsburgh [Stauffer and Marsh]. ^261. 

— Short signal cycles speed traffic and reduce 
accidents [Bibbins], 631. 

— Signals: 

Combination traffic and warning signal used 

at Salt Lake City. •571. 
Two color vs. three color [Ross], 08. 

D. C, 742. 



Track Regmlation (Continued) : 
— Traffic officers as transportation men [Taylor]. 
138. 

— Trolleys speeded by new stagger system, 544. 

Trailer : 

— Chicago Surface Lines: 

Suspends trailer operation, •640. 

— Dropping the trailer (ed), 613. 
Transportation, general: 

— Growing need for public transportation (ed), 
247. 

— Making faster car operation practicable (ed), 
730. 

— 1930's challenge to transportation [Shoup], 
431. 

— Piling up bricks and trouble (ed), 303. 

— Serviceable but not suitable (ed), 345. 

— Serving the suburban commuter [Buck], •407. 

— Speed increased through detailed analysis, 
499. 

— Too many self-appointed experts (ed). 302. 

— Transportation men are community builders. 
[Curtiss], 440. 

Transportation, metropolitan: 

— Berlin. Germany, transportation facilities co- 
ordinated [Breslauer], •304. 

— Chicago. 111.: 

Unified transportation development, •SOO. 

— City transit problems are becoming better 
understood (ed), 498. 

transit makes 



— Co-ordinated 
126. 



Cut-rate taxi a 



progress (ed). 

menace (ed), 731. 

for mass transportation 



— Development of bus 
[Warner]. ^745. 

— Merchants — hitting them in the pocketbook 
(ed), 557. 

— Modern vehicles and equipment for urban 
transportation [Burleson], 466. 

— Place of the bus 

[Warner], ^745. 

— Public transportation gaining 
large cities (ed), 125. 

— Rome readjusts car and bus routes [Ascarelli], 

— St. Louis, Mo.: 

Co-ordination of transit facilities proposed. 



transportation 
steadily in 



743. 

-Solving 
(ed). 



the problem 
670. 



for small-city systems 



— Survey of Baltimore to show shifts of busi- 
ness, 310. 

— Surveys often valueless (ed), 671, 

— Taxicabs as a public utility (ed), 670, 
population (ed), 660. 

— Urban transportation facilities keep pace with 

Trolley Bus: 

— Brooklyn & Queens Transit Corp, : 

Asks permission to use trolley buses, 426. 

Inaugurates trolley bus service. 553. 
— Chicago Surface Lines: 

Brill delivers vehicles, ^784. 

Largest trolley bus system, •272. 

More vehicles ordered, 426. 
■ Operating statistics prove success of trolley 
buses in Chicago [Forty]. •563. 



Orders placed, 244. 

Steel poles used for. trolley bus system. 



>317. 



Street markers in Washington, 
— Survey in Washington, 344. 

READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communications. 



— Cost analyses indicate field of the trolley bu^ 
[Clardy]. 622. 

— Detroit Dept. of Street Railways: 

Operation proves advantageous. ^753. 

Plans for inauguration, 425. 

Proposed for use. 163. 
— Improved trolley bus [Richardson], •371. 
— Knoxville Power & Light Co.: 

Increase patronage, ^735. 

Vehicles delivered, 244, 
— Naming the new baby (ed), 730. 
— New Orleans Public Service Co.: 

Installs on shuttle line [Rainville]. •141. 

Tax and licen.se rulings, 333. 
— Operations in U. S. and Canada, 37. 
— Rockford Electric Co. : 

System to be operating soon, 715. 

— Successful operation demands suitable over- 
head [Bower]. ^693. 

— Utah Light & Traction Co.: 

To be used on Capital St., 598. 



XII 



Electric Railway Jo urn a l — I n d e x 



[Vol.74 



U 

Union Internationale de Tramways, etc. (See 
International Tramway & Bub Assn.) 

United Railways & Electric Co. (See Baltimore. 
Md.) 

Union Street Railway (See New Bedford, Mass.) 



Vancouver, British Columbia: 

— British Columbia Electric Ry.: 
Details ol new cars. 63. '123. 

Virginia Electric & Power Co. (See Richmond 
and Norfolii, Va.) : 

Virginia Public Service Co. (See Hampton. Va.) 



w 



Washington, D. C: 

— Capital Traction Co.: 

Surrounding men 

[MeCarty]. '583. 



with conveniences 



Washington, D. C: 

— Capital Traction Co. (Continued): 

Ties imbedded in premixed concrete 

[Dalgleish], 'ISO. 
Tracli construction methods [Dalgleish], 

♦130. 

— Experiments with new markers. 743. 
— Washington Railway & Electnic Co.: 
New rates benefit railways. 657. 

Waste (See Stores) 

West Pcnn Rys. (See Pittsburgh, Pa.) 

Westinghouse, George: 

Memorial dedicated, •660, 689. 

Wilmington, Del.: 

— Standard Steel Car Co. & Osgood Bradley Car 
to merge with Pullman Co.. 63. 

Wilmington, >'. C. 

— Tide Water Power Co.: 

Accident prevention. 72. 

Windsor, Ontario : 

— Hydro Elec. Pwr. Comm. orders new cars, 63. 
— Receives new cars. 496. 



Windsor, Ontario (Continued) : 
— Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Railway: 
Modern design in new cars. 'SeB. 

Winnipeg, Manitoba: 

— Winnipeg Electric Co.: 

Electrolysis checked [Stewart]. *338. 

Financial report. 600. 

Seating capacity ol cars increased. '708. 

Snow removal practice, •676. 

Track improvements. 64. 



Vakima, Washington: -~ 

— Yakima Valley Transportation Co.: 
New cars. ^299. 



York, Pa.: 

— York Railways: 

Receives three new cars. 



•785. 



Youngstown, Ohio : 

— ^Youngstown Municipal Railway: 

Speedy, light-weight ears [Graham]. 
Wins Coflln award, •446. 



READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 
Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Communications. 



January-December, 1930] Electric Railway Jo urn a l — I n d f. x 



XIII 



AUTHOR INDEX 



Anthony. William: 

— LevelinB bar facilitates joint aliirnment, "SOI. 
App. Joseph : 

— Safely arm for coal and sand bin lids, *6i9. 
Ascarelli. Mario; 

— Rome readjusts car and bus routes, 'ise. 
Atwpll. C. A.: 

— Advantages of single-motor drive for gras- 
eleetric buses, 164. 



B 



Baker, C. E.: 

— Mercury arc rectifiers meet transportation de- 
mands. *311. 

Bale, L. D.: 

— Increased power department responsibility de- 
mands proper equipment and practices, 
•413. 

Bardo. B. T.: 

— Maintaining: the distribution system of an 
electrified railroad, '507, 

Beadle. H. J.: 

— Copper and mica dust collected on com- 
mutator slotter, •707. 

— Grease ringr protects commutators on ball- 
bearinir motors. •590. 

— Test for partially open circuit, 'SSe. 

Beers, R. S.: 

— New Albany car includes many innovations. 
•78. 

— Selection of motor controls depends on 
circumstances. 675. 

— Shunting: motors to obtain g:rcater speed. 535. 

Berman. D. S.: 

— Economical rerailing at Atlanta, •766. 

Bethel. C: 

— Economies of high-speed motor and drive. 
•405. 

Bibbins. J. Rowland : 

— Short signal cycles speed traffic and reduce 
accidents, *631 

Boeken, F.; 

— Extensive paving work done by San Fran- 
cisco municipal railway, » 99. 

Botto. Louis T. : 

• — Reclaimed crank case oil for curves and 
switches. 163. 

Bower, G. W.: 

— Succes.sful trolley bus operation demands suit- 
able overhead. ^693. 

Bragg. H. : 

— Built-up compromise joint. *282. 

Breslauer, Walter : 

— Berlin transportation facilities co-ordinated, 
•304. 

Brindson. T. E.: 

— Insulating sleeve protects test points, •224, 

Brown, H. A.: 

— Adjustable hanger for switch contactors, •708. 

— Center control for temporary block sigTial. 

•648. 
— Flashing danger lights on tower trucks. '282. 
— Gun used for electric track switch lubrication, 

•286. 
— Signal bell on tower truck. '221. 
— Thawing frozen water and conduit pipes, 217. 
Brown. L. M.: 
— The dodo became extinct because it ceased 

developing, 90. 
Buck. Morris: 

— Great improvement in financial situation. •41. 
— Serving the suburban commuter, •407. 
Burke. John W. : 
— Determining utility depreciation on a logical 

basis, 637. 
— Utility valuation demands logical treatment. 

567. 
Burleson, C. A.: 
— Modern vehicles and equipment for urban 

transportation. •466. 
Butler. F. L.: 

— Safety devices aid materially in reducing acci- 
dents, •383. 



Clardy, W. J.: 

— Attaining faster schedules In rapid transit 
service. ^257. 

— Cost analyses indicated field of the trolley 
bus. 622. 

Clark. A. T. and Dean J. Locke: 

— -Extensive rolling stock rehabilitation at Bal- 
timore, ^248. 

Conway, Thomas, Jr.: 

— Meeting the industry's equipment problem. 

Cooper, George A.: 



— Underground overhead. *323. 
Copeland. A. B.: 

— Portable oxyacetylene apparatus, ^226. 
Costello. P. H.: 

— -Pavement straight edge. •104. 
Curtiss. John E. : 

— Transportation men are community builders. 
•440. 



D 



Dalgleish, R. H.: 

— New track construction methods prove speedy 

and economical, •130. 
Dana, Edward: 
— Answering a growing need for adequate rapid 

transit, •391. 
Daniels. Winthrop M.: 

— Preferential traffic rights for street cars, •218. 
Davidson. James: 
— Hood rims and carlins reshaped by machine. 

•163. 
Davis. H. A.: 

— Air-magnetic brakes make quick stops, •256. 
Davis. W. P.: 

— Installing safety zone markers. 341. 
— Redesigned mate floor prevents derailments. 

•534. 
Dean. J. S.: 

• — Anchoring armature core bands. •221. 
— Gage to check alignment of commutators. 

•589. 
■ — Tests show importance of correct babbitting. 

•533. 
de Angelis. M. L. : 
— Montreal Tramways installs third automatic 

rectifier substation, •677. 
De Forest, A. T.: 

— Engineering influence in Western develop- 
ments, 463, 
Donb, C. L. : 
— Reliability features Reading's power supply. 

•747. 
Dumke. R.: 

— Clamp for installing field coils, ^704. 
— Two-faced compass determines motor field 

polarity, •eSO. 
Duncan. A. S.: 
— Elimination of waste, •467. 



Evans, Carl W.: 

— Detecting broken rails, •223. 

Evans. R. B.: 

— One-man long level, ^104, 

— Treated ties safely handled, *649, 



Faircloth, W. K,: 

— Bus wheel aligner, ^224. 

Faust, Clifford A.: 

— Aluminum gaining in favor for car construc- 
tion. ^184. 

— Detroit express service gains popularity, 'SS. 

— Expenditures for improvements mount up- 
ward. 8. 

— Mobile bids for patronage with clean cars, 
close headway and smooth track, •658. 

Feignespan, Max: 

— Repair of interchangeable bearings, •lOO, 

Forbes, John F.: 

• — Capital structures ol public utilities, 473. 

Forty, F. A.: 

— Operating statistics prove success of trolley 
buses in Chicago, •563, 

Freeman, J. B.: 

- — Grinding of wheels makes maintenance 
economical. '341. 



George. Howard H. : 

- — ^Accurate work schedules permit speedy track 

reconstruction, •278. 
— Double-milling rail heads to prevent cupping 

at joints. ^103. 
— Selling an idea to the foreman, ^519. 
Giltner. J. W,: 

— Blind accidents and how to handle them. 470. 
Gordon. Charles: 

— Co-operative effort is essential. ^437. 
— Improvement in the ride is the most effective 

stimulant of public interest, •360. 
Gottschalk, Otto: 
— Causes of wheel failure studied at Havana. 

•107. 



Graham. R. N.; 

— Obtaining an attractive appearance with 

simplicity and utility in design, •SOS. 
— Speedy, light-weight ears placed in service In 

Youngstown, •SO?. 

Grant, G. I.: 

— Disconnecting ^pcked tongues of electric 

track switches, *161, 
Grant, Richard : 
— Double air chuck inflates dtial tires evenly. 

•160. 
Greer. John : 
— Simplified boring of motor axle bearing seats, 

•650. 



H 



Habercam, F. B.: 

— Iron rod acts as dam for weld metal, •235. 

Hall, Benjamin H. ; 

■ — Reverser protectors prevent tampering, •234. 

Hall, C. B.: 

— Bus wheels removed with a simple clamp. 

•763. 
— Storage of lamps during car overhaul. •SSS. 
— Testing of field coils. •534. 

Hanna. J. H.: 

— Co-operative effort is greatest need, •357. 

Harris. Frank M.: 

— Relations of purchasing and engineering, •464. 

Hayes. W. H.: 

— Welding and cutting equipment combined, 

•162. 
Hellmuth. G. T. : 
— Painstaking investigation reduces fraudulent 

claims, ^469. 
Herms. Charles: 

— Demountable dolly used in San Diego, ^223, 
— Door engine used for pressure lubrication, 

•223, 
Hysan, Joseph M.: 
— Old rail makes satisfactory whistle post, *591. 



Inglis. J. G.: 

— Comfort and speed on new Allegheny Valley 
cars, •242. 



James, R, W. : 

— Testing circuit breakers in place, •108. 

Jonas. E. J. : 

— Emergency dolly for broken axles. •I 60. 

— Modern machinery for better maintenance. 

•418. 
— Tilting bench for controller repairs. ^283. 



Kahn. Samuel : 
— Speeding up service. ♦442. 
Kauffman, H. L.: 
— Lubricating car apparatus. 333. 
Kehoe. Jack: 

— ^Wrench for wheel nuts, ^337. 
Korn. Hans : 

— Truck springs assembled by pneumatic ma- 
chine, •339. 



Lack. M. D.: 
— Utility taxation. 443. 
Lackey. E. V.: 

— Insulating paste for bolt heads, 766. 
Leary. M. J. : 

— Dog holds armature pinion, *648. 
Locke. Dean J. & A. T. Clark: 
— -Extensive rolling stock rehabilitation at Bal- 
timore. •248. 



McAloney. W. H.: 

— Ball bearing under brake handle, ^223. 

McCarty. H. W.: 

— Surrounding men with conveniences, •583, 

McClain, J. E.: 

— Securing the facts is the basis of accident 

investigation, 470. 
McDonald. G. R.: 
— Motor generators supply power for Cleveland 

Terminal electrification, •633. 



READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 
Abbreviations : •Illustrated, c Communications. 



XIV 



Electric Railway Journa l — I n d e x 



[Vol.74 



McGinnis. E. S. : 

— Prerenting- loose breaker tips. •285. 
- — Testing- air governors, • 766 . 
Mcintosh. R. S.: 

— Loosening: tight wires in conduit, *bS7. 
McRae. W. R.: 

— Special armature nut wrench, •285. 
MacKay. D. S.: 

— Washing buses in record time, •340. 
MacMurray, G. J.: 

— It's sand that keeps the wheels from slipping, 
•27 

Mall. I. O.: 

— Track without ties built at New Orleans, •154. 

Marsh. B. W. with J. R. Stauffer: 

— Flexible progressive signal system aids traffic 

movement in downtown Pittsburgh, •261. 
Matson, Theodore M.: 
— Correct timing of signals essential in traflBc 

regulations, •82. 
Miller, John A. Jr.: 

— Industry strengthened by^rackage readjust- 
ment, ^15. 
— Nationwide survey shows electric railways 

proceeding with full budget program, 183. 
Mitchell. C. S.: 
— Statistics on Pittsburgh railways securities 

amplified. 153. 
Mondoux. J.: 

— Increasing truck-jaw life, •592. 
Moses, G. L.: 
— Installation and adjustment of compensating 

controller fingers. •337. 
— Motor field shunting gives old cars new pep, 

710. 
— Proper lubrication prolongs life of control 

equipment, 199. 
Munford, J. : 

- — Cars grounded on crown plate, •531. 
— Lamp cord used for controller testing, 706. 
— Removing trucks from cars on hoists, *284. 
Murphy, Edmund J. : 
— 1929 was a successful year for the electrical 

railways, 318. 



Naohod. Carl P.: 

— Railway crossing signals should be distinctive, 

99. 
Neild. J. F.: 

— Care essential in stringing troUey wire, *216. 
Niederst. Martin P.: 

— Ingenious jig speeds brake head drilling, •651. 
— Oversize bearing housings bored in jig. *650. 



Osborn, W. B.: 

- — Preventing grease from entering armature 

bearing, •224. 
Otis, H. A.: 
— Meeting the passengers' demand for greater 

comfort and convenience, •379. 



Palmer. Stewart: 

- — -Portable rack for special bus tools, •SSI. 

Perkinson. T. F.: 

- — Double-voltage operation features Midland 

Utilities locomotive, •524. 
Picklesimer, G. E.: 

— Switch tongues built up by welding. •283. 
Pirkle. A. G.: 

— Hammer operated by compressed air. *225. 
- — Spray equipment effective for weed killing. 



•104. 



Piwonka. William : 

— Towing and spacer bar for disabled buses. 

•647. 
Pontius. D. W.: 
- — Interurban revenues. ^443. 



Rainville, W. S. Jr.: 

— Trolley buses installed on New Orleans 
shuttle line. ^141. 

Reinker. Christ: 

— Blinker light protects linemen on night work. 
•651. 

■ — Electrically heated inspection lamps. ^161. 

Richardson, G. A. : 

— Improved trolley bus makes a bid for popu- 
larity. ^371. 

Richey. Albert S.: 

— Electric railway costs and fares in 1929, •IS. 

Rose, L.: 

— Bus hood clamp locks easily. •588. 

— Connecting rod boring tool. '646. 

Rose, Leonard S.: 

— Pump and healer facilitate transmission fill- 
ing. •764. 

Ross, O. A.: 

— Two-color and three-color signals. c98. 

Rossell. W. T.: 

— Speed — an essential of street car perform- 
ance. •368. 



Scott. Angus G.: 

— Economical overhead for temporary cross- 
overs. •SSS. 

— Instruction school for linemen, 'SSe. 

— Use of dynamometer successful in stringing 
trolley wire, 281. 

— Warning lights on tower wagons, ^339. 

— When should contact line be renewed? 709. 

Scullin. Terance : 

— -Convenient machine for armature removal, 
•648. 

■ — Filling sweeper broom blocks by machine. 
•706. 

— Gage makes wheel mounting easy, •708. 

— Jiff for drilling brake hangers, *341. 

— Steel plate safety shoes fitted to ladders, •589. 

— Window guard painting machine, '383. 

Senior, Herbert: 

— Axle and armature bearing jig. *108. 

Shoup, Paul: 

— Co-operation is essential to meet 1930's 
challenge to transportation. •431. 

— How the convention will benefit the industry, 
•354. 

Silvus. Walter: 

■ — New locomotives facilitate freight handling. 
•260. 

Snow. William H.: 

• — Street car interurbans, 642. 

Sohl. R. C: 

— Adjustable scaffold for car washing, •535. 

— Cylinder boring device for air compressor, 
•651. 

Spenzer, E. B.: 

— Belt conveyor for loading concrete mixer, *536. 

— Improved connecting rod for tongue switches, 
•162. 

— Raised toe tongue switch. *338. 

— Repairing switches for portable crossovers, 
•707. 

Stauffer, J. R.: 

— Bus operations are steadily expanded by elec- 
tric railways, 20. 

— De luxe bus finds wide application in inter- 
urban service. •144. 

— Opportunities for profits in De Luxe bus 
operation. *91. 

Stauffer. J. R. with B. W. Marsh: 

— Flexible progressive signal system aids traffic 
movement in downtown Pittsburgh, •261. 



Stevens. Hoy: 

— Brake lining selected by test results. ^647. 

— Lighted brooms help coach cleaners, •226. 

— Simple feeler gages, •706. 

— rStand facintates bus motor adjustment. ♦284. 

Stewart, H. G.: 

— Potential wires check electrolysis, •SSS. 

Stocks, Carl W.: 

— Improving the bus to increase its usefulness, 
•387. 

Summers, L. E.: 

— Operating delays reduced by practical in- 
struction methods, •ISS. 



Taurman, A.: 

— Insulation tested with portable transformer, 

•763. 
Taylor. Clarence P.: 

— Traflic oiflcers as transportation men, •128. 
Thomas, David R.: 
■ — Recent freight equipment trends assure a 

more profitable business, •398. 
Traw. W. A.: 
— Safety holder for dipping armatures, *XQ1. 



Vallecchi. Ugo: 

- — Rome to have modern subway, •526. 
van der Stempel, Th. M.: 

— Rolling stock purchases largely increased, •SS. 
Vickers. Leslie: 

— Auditor as an analyst,- •472. 
von Pirch, E.: 

— Warning signal insures proper meshing of 
gears, •SSS. 



Warner. A. S. : 

— Radio interference from cars eliminated by 
choke coil. ^764. 

Warner. A. T.: 

— Development of the bus for mass transporta- 
tion, •745. 

Warner, W. E.: 

— Proper fit of brushes reduces chatter, 164. 

Welsh, J. W.: 

— More power, 750. 

Westinghouse Memorial dedicated. *689. 

Williams. E. Bryan: 

— St. Louis tags transfer passengers, 752. 

■ — Center bearing lubrication simplified, •SSS. 

— High voltage test discloses equipment weak- 
ness, *226. 

Williams. H. S.: 

— Lowering costs'and bettering public relations 
by reducing noise. •376. 

Wingerter. Laurence : 

— Extensive rehabilitation places Des Moines in 
favorable position, •736. 

Womack, F. C: 

— Effective sales promotion work by trainmen 
at Norfolk, 521. 

Wood. C. W.: 

— Slide valve grinder, •SOO. 

Wright. G. I.: 

— Reading Company's Philadelphia suburban 
electrification making rapid progress. *312. 

Wysor. W. W.: 

— Building better track. ^403. 



Yeates. W. S.: 

• — Combination tie plate for various rails. *108. 
• — Emergency special work built in place. *33J> 
— Track sand stored by compressed air, ^590 



READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations: *Illustrated. c Communications. 



January-December, 1930] Electric Railway Journa l — I n d e x 



XV 



PERSONAL INDEX 

(with biographical notes) 



A 

Adams, A. A 296 

Adams, Thomas 176 

Addison. Dr. Thomas 297 

Allen. William F 725 

Amidon. G. S 725 

Anthony. Wm •645 

Arkwiiffht. P. S 606 

Arnislrons, A. H '781 

Arnhcim. W. W 725 

Artnian. S. R 492 



B 

Bahrcnburg. Mrs. Carrie Alex- 
ander 62 

Baker. F. K 131, 176 

Baldwin. Seth W 352 

Barrows. Oliver B 241 

Bell. W. R 489 

Belloville. F. E '651 

Bemis. E. W 725 

Berta. A. J 17:i 

Birne.v. Charles O '348 

Bixby. F. P 177 

Black, ilexander L 241 

Blewett. Scott H 808 

Blodprett. W. E '293 

Bock. E. J 663 

Bongrard. Hermon 666 

Booth. E. J 720 

Border, John J 298 

Bowie. H. K 782 

Bradley, Alva •347 

Bradley, C. L •347 

Bradley. Hurt 662 

Bradj-. Nicholas F •297 

Bragassa. Augustine A 176 

Bragdon. Joseph H 241 

Braheney. B. P 121 

Bramgron. J. 1 493 

Brennan. Joe 239 

Briggs. W. W 62 

Brill. B. 552 

Brook. James A 177 

Brooks. F. H •174 

Brown. A. Georgre W 176 

Brown, B. R ^721 

Brown. L. M '604 

Bruce. J. K 490 

Buchanan. C. B 293 

Bucher. Henry 120, 173, ^604, 724 

Buck, Morris 351 

Bullingrton, L, C 176 

Burch, Edw, P 120 

Burke, T. ?.• 779 

Burley. Vine W 290 

Burns. W. R ^721 

Burritt, M, C 294 

Busby, Leonard A •665 

Bush, Leroy C 780 

Butler. F. L 401 



C 

Carlisle. I. Reid ^62 

Charlton. E. P 783 

Childs. R. B 605 

Chubb. L. W 605 

Clarkson. Coker F 493 

Clin.'h. R. F 783 

Clopher. Ambrose 352 

Cone. Edward D 175 

Coons. Charles A 725 

CosgTove. R. E ^551 

Couch. C. P 295 

Couch. Harvey C 725 

Couzens. Frank 724 

Crews. H. 121 

Cross. Thomas A ^352 

Cullen. J. E 604 

Cumminsrs. F. A 350 

Cumminers. Walter J •662 

Cutter. Wm. B 726 



D 

Dahl. C. H •293 

Dahl. G. M '721 

Davidson, James 'ISO 

Davidson, R, J '297 

Davis, H, A *493 

Davis, J, A ^63 

Davis, James Carey •608 

Davis, W. E 782 

Davis. John E 725 

Davis, L. J 61 

Davison, Robert L 351 

DellPlain, Morse 239 

Dieke. H, F •723 

Dickerson, C. W 552 

Dimmoek. W. S 782 

Dinkey. John F 177 

Dohany. F. H 119 

Donnelly. M. T 493 

Draftan. G. L '175 

Duffy. James A 122 

Dunn. S. 351 

du Pont. T. Coleman 783 

E 

Elliott. H. C *662 

Ellis. Charles J 176 

Emmons. CD. . . .240. •548. "722 
Es.son. J. L 06(1 

F 

Faccioli, Guiseppe 550 

Fagran, Maj, James A 651 

Ferguson, A, E 295 

Feustel. Robert M 176, 203 

Fishback, Jacob 783 

Fisher, F. R 666 

Flemings, H. B 663. ^723 

Flowers, Herbert B 176, '550 

Ford, Frank R '865 

Forman, R. C ^664 

Porrey. George C. Jr ^349 

Foster. J. 1 121 

Frame. D. Ernest ^349 

Francis. A. E 733 

Frank, M. H 490 

Frazier, Walter Lee 177 

Frederick. H. R 239 

Funk. Neill W 782 

G 

Gaboury. Arthur 781 

Gale. A. P 340 

Gallagher, R. A 348 

Gannon. F. J 174 

Gardiner, J. F 004 

Gardner, A, B 170 

Gass. Howard R '174 

Gereharty, Thomas 177 

Gibson. W. H 'Ol 

Godfrey. H. W 110 

Gordon. Wm. G 403 

Graham. R. N.^ 778 

Grant, Richard 169, 644 

Green, G. H 780 

Green, Geo. R 239 

Greene, John E 662 

Greenland, J. A 604 

Gres.sens. Dr. Otto *296 

Grimth. Thomas F 668 

Griswold. A. P 663 

Grover "Neb" •205 

Guilfoyl, Frederick 666 

H 

Habercam, F. B 329 

Hadsell. Roy R 60 

Hallen, M. A 663 

Hamilton, J. F "60 

Hanbury. A, R •605 

Hardesty, C. H.^ 779 

Barker. Herbert E 176 



Harper, H. Holmes •490 

Harton. W. H 725 

Harvey. A. E •552 

Harvey, Col, C. H ^173 

Harvey. Spencer G 176 

Hayes. W. H '159 

Heacock, Charles J 170 

Hein. Caroline 120 

Heinrichs, R. M '491 

Hennessey. David W 783 

Henry. A. H 177 

Henry, Carl D 295 

Hermann, R, L 551 

Herms, Charles '329 

Herrington, L, B 238. 733 

Hickrod. W. R 730 

Higgins. H. C 122 

Hill. Aaron H 175 

Himel. R. 174 

Hinkley. B. A 724 

Hirshfeld, C. F '489 

Hodges, A, LeRoy 348 

Horner, J. A 290 

Horton, H. R 350 

Howland, W. S 491 

Huteheson, Col. J. E ^394 

Hutchinson. C. T 177 

Hymans. Edgar 178 

I 

Ingle. John P •730 



Jackson. W. P 175 

James. Col. R. H 781 

January, W. P 603 

Johnson. Chas. R 353 

Johnson. S. Jr 608 

Johnston. L. V 548 

Jones, Curtis F 178 

Jonps, C. R 664 

Jones, G. W •IIO 

Jones, J, N 60 

Junkersfeld, Peter 341 

K 

Keams, Laurence 663 

Keller, George 664 

Kimball, Charles S 725 

Kineade, C, A 341 

Klement, G ^779 

Knight, W, W 551 

Kramer. Theodore Francis . . . 550 
Kyscr, W. D •540 

I, 

LaMonte. Heber 684 

Langan. T. R •600 

Ledlie. J. B 174 

Lee. Alfred C 177 

Leighton, John B 123 

Leonard, H. C 489 

Lloyd. M, M 400 

Locke, Fred M 298 

Long, C, T 563 

Lotz, J, R 205 

Ludwig, W, C 550 

Lummis, Herbert C 780 

Lundberg, A. J,« 780 

Lux. Charles A 122 

M 

McCabe, John F 606 

McCallum, J, B 175 

McConnell, Thomas A 237 

McCormick, M. E 350 

McCurdy, William H 662 

McCusker. T. A 177 

McGwinn, G. D ^347 



McMorrow. Charles J. . . . 662. 725 

McNally. J. J 173 

McPherson, J. C 781 

McRae. Walter R ^329 

McWethy, Harold E 120 

Maag, Jacob H 241 

Mackinnon. L 549 

MacMurray. G. J. ... * 351 

Madden. James J 351 

Mahaffle. C. D 604 

Malone. Jim 121 

Maltbie. Dr. M. R 240 

Mangum. Robert H 725 

Markham. Fred L 726 

Marsh. Burton W ^360 

Marsh. John R ^348 

Marshall. W. R 489 

Mathewson, Billy 61 

Matthews, David E 540 

Maze. Harry 176 

Meriwether. Richard ^493 

Merker. H. F '724 

Miles. E. K 60. 121 

Miles. L. D 783 

Miller. Frank H 733 

Miller. H. L 352 

Miller. Col. Otto '347 

Miller. W. P 293 

Millican, G. R 492 

Minary. Thomas 173 

Mitchell. E. A 131 

Mobcrly. Wm. A 398 

Mondoux. J •8*5 

Moore. B. H 730 

Moore, E. L 549 

Moore. T. Justin 782 

Moorhaus. A. C 782 

Morrison. S. A '296 

Mozley. H 178. 351 

Murphy. Ernest 00 

Myers. Albert E 3.50 



Naughton. J. G. . , 





. 551 


Needles, Wm. F, . . 




. 297 


Newman. J. C. ... 




.•130 


Newton, H. S 




. 493 


Nicholl. H. A 




.•605 


Nicholl, Thomas . . . 


563. 


•607 


Norris, E. R 




. 240 



o 

OBrien. W. L 124 

OConnell. John B ^240 

O'Laughlin. John 133 

Onken. W. H. Jr 170 

Osgood. Harry A 347 

P 

Page, Henry C 663 

Palk, L, F. B •293 

Palmer, B, C 782 

Paterson. A. B ^548 

Peck. E. P 240 

Perkins, Col, A. T 347 

Peterson. S. J 351 

Pfeifler, T. P 349 

Pierce, Armel W 62 

Pillsbury, Cecil R 241 

Plimpton. R. E 350 

Plummer, G. 1 721 

Pogue. J, M 491 

Pond, J, Franklin 606 

Porter, H. Hobart 351 

Post, Prank T 605. 663 

Potter, J. P 176 

Pratt, P, C 177 

Pratt. Stuart A 239 

Prendergast, William A. ..174, 295 

Pringle, P. J 725 

Pritchard, J. H. ^ 720 



READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OP THE INDEX 
Abbreviations : •Illustrated, c Communications. 



XVI 



Electric Railway Journa l — I n d e x 



[Vol.74 



Pritehard. R. A. 
Protzeller, H. W. 
Pulcipher, K. D. 



Quick. C. H. 
Quill, .C. J. . 



61 

•606 

618 



176 
60 



B 

Rafi. Arthur L 295 

Rehnquist. Nelson L 174 

Reynolds. A. E 723 

Rich. J 293 

Rich. J. W 240 

Richardson. Guy A *237 

Riddle. Samuel 'SSI 

Ridirway. Robert 548 

Robbins. N. C 241 

Robertson. W. A 120. '237 

RogKi. Charles J 'SSI 

Roosevelt. W. Emlen 352 

Root. Oren 490 

Rose. Leonard S •645 

Rosscll. W. T 61 

Rowland. Thomas H 608 

Royce. P. P 130 

Royer. J. E. E 605 

Russell. Herman 63 

Rust. E. C 491 

Ryerson. W. N 607 



8 

Sadler. W. Howe . 
Samniis. W. H.^ . 
Sanders. E. B. . . . 
Sapp, K. P 



664 

778 

240. 296 

491 



Savase, Hugh 
Sawyer. W. H. 
Schildgen. Carl H, 
Schoultes. Edward 
Scott. Angus . . . 
Scott. Charles P. 

Scott. N. J 

Seullin. James . 
Seagrave. L. H. 
Seavey. C. L. , . 
See. P. V. C. ... 
Selbie. R. H. . . 
Seymour, John A 
Sharley. John J. 
Shaw. Glenn H. 
Shelter, 0. M. . 
Sheridan, J. B. . 
Sheridan, John H. 
Sherman. Hugh 
Siggins. Hugh A 
Sleeper. E. I. . 
Small. Oren A. 
Smith. E. B. . 
Smith. H. W. . 
Smith. P. W. J. 
Smith. R. R. . . 
Smith. Walter . 
Snider, J. R, . 
South. E. S. . . 
Spencer, A. I. , 
Spencer. ,W. B. 
Sperry, Elmer A 
Spink. Glen C. . 
-Springer. W. A. 
Spurr. A. C. . , , 
Stanton, W. J. 
Stanton. Wm. P. 
Starr, L. K. ... 
Stearns. R. B. . 
Steffens. T. H. 



.174, 



61 
724 
548 
176 

•329 
121 
294 
353 
121 
239 
778 
493 
725 
662 
724 
120 

•397 
666 
61 
63 
177 
339 
730 

•550 
491 
339 
550 
649 
608 

•122 

•607 
403 
348 
175 
663 
664 
666 
351 
121 

•238 



Stephen. R. A. . . 


725 


Stephens, 0. E. . 


480 


Stout. E. W. ... 


'349 


Strickler, J. M. . 


^175 


Sullivan, J, P, . 


297 


Swift. W. H. Jr. 


781 


Symonds. N. G. . 


489 



van der Stempel, T. M ^490 

Van Burington. P 725 

Vandeveer. Pred L 348 



Tatt. C. P 


177 


Takada. H 


176 


Tarbell, R. P 


^664 


Tate. Hugh M 


176 


Tebbetts. George E 


176 


Tow. P. J 


60 


Thayer. E. F 


... 361 




.... 722 




122 


Thomas. T. E 489, '722 


Thompson, Arthur W. . . 


•783 


Thorne. L. E 


61 


Thorne. L. S 


174 


Thornton. Charles E. ... 


394 


Thornton. K. B 


^394 


Thorp. J. S 


730 


Tighe. L. G. . .». 


'119 


Tilton. B. E 


^60 


Townsend. A. F 


330 


Trotter, Geo. P 


663 


Tsukada M 


.... 176 




.... 491 


Tutwiler. T. H 


^649 



Wair. H. R 

Walsh. Frank .... 
Watson. D. E. ... 
Weathcrwax. H. B 

Weber. H. P 

Weddle. W. W. ... 
Weir. Harry .... 
Welsh. M. E. ... 
Welsh. Maurice A. 
Wernsdorfer. John 
White. Martin 
Whiteman. P. O, 
Whiting, P. T. . 
Whitney, L. C. , . 
Whitney. Wm. A 
Whiton. H. S. . . 
Williams. S. L. . 
Williams. Col. T. S 

Wills, G. S 

Winter. Edwin W 

Witt. Peter 

Woeber. Chas. M. 
Wood. A. H. ... 
Wood, Henry B. . 
Woodworth. C. B. . . . 
Worthington. Thomas 
Wright, George . . . . 

Wright. Roy V 

Wyatt. Horace 



37 



U 



Dffert. John P 60 Tamawaki. H. 



607 
663 

•395 
60 

•723 
121 
239 
174 
122 
241 

•782 
350 
664 

•349 
362 
294 
•62 
493 
60 
493 

•238 
298 

•396 
338 
560 
177 
781 
782 
782 



170 



READ THE INSTRUCTIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE INDEX 
Abbreviations: •Illustrated, c Communications. 



Annual Statistical and Progress Number 




iw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc 



JANUARY, 1930 



Thirty-five Cents per Copy 



Tr[S(D[L[L[iv mm 




In and out — and around other vehicfes 
'— the G-Eequipped trolley bus is blaz- 
ng new trails to bigger profits — 
quietly, smoothly, and economically. 
The trolley bus is no, longer an experi- 
ment ; it iscomfortableand attractive ; 
it has won its place i n the modern sys- 
tem of coordinated transportation. 
Investigate G-E equipment ;thereare 
now five installations — all interest- 
ing. 

GENERAL ELECTRIC 

GENERAL ELHCTftlC COMPANt, SCHENECTADY. N.V., SALES OFFICES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 




ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 





A faster getaway ^vith VA Control 



With higher accelerating, running, and decelerating 
rates of speed essential to the present-day traffic con- 
ditions, Westinghouse recohnmends the new VA (Vari- 
able Automatic) Control for increased comfort, speed 
and safety in city street car operation. 

Following are some of the operating features of VA 
Control: 

Smooth acceleration 
Rapid acceleration 
Variable rates of acceleration 
Variable tractive effort 
Quick response 



Effective notching 
Emergency brake 
Hand-operated reverser 
Simplicity and reliability 

(Each of these features is fully described in S.P. 1863, 
Westinghouse Electric Railway Equipment for Speedy 
and Comfortable Transportation Service). 

If you are interested in giving your patrons the 
benefits of the latest practices in comfortable and safe 
control, allow our engineers to analyze your equip- 
ment and make recommendations relative to the use 
of Variable Automatic Control. 



WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC 8b MANUFACTURING COMPANY /m^^ 
EASTPITTSBURGH PENNSYLVANIA f ^gj/ I 

SALES OFFICES AND SERVICE SHOPS IN ALL PRINCIPAL CITIES >>«_ii«^ 

WestiDghouse 

W W ^^^ T 30992 

ELECTEic Railway Joiexal. January. 1930. Vol. 74, No. 1. Published monthly, with one adililional Convention Number during the year. McGraw-Hill Publishing 
Company, Inc., Tenth Avenue at Thirty-sixth Street, New Yorl!, N. Y. 13 per year. J.'j cents per copy. Entered as second-class matter, June 23. 1908, at tin- Post Omce 

at New York. N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1S79. Printed in U. S. A. 



Electric Railway Journal 



Morris Buck 

Engineering Editor 
Grorob J. MaoMttrrat 
Clifford A. Fai'St 
J. W. McClot 



Consolidation of 

Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

John A. Miller, Jr., Managing Editor 
Vol. 74, No. 1 Pages 1 to 64 



Paul Wooton 

Washington 
Albx McCallum 

LondOTi, England 



Louis F. Stoll 

Publishing Director 



Coming! 

DURING 1930 

A survey of de luxe bus opera- 
tions by electric railways 

Unit replacement system in 
railway shops 

Analyses of transportation 
problems in small cities 

Statistics of electric railways in 
foreign countries 

Timing of traffic signals 



McGraw-Hill 

Publishing Company, 
Inc. 

Tenth Avenue 

at 36th Street 
New York, N. Y. 

cable address : 
"machinist, K. Y." 



James H. MoGraw, Chairman of the Board 

Malcolu Mu:r, Preaidevt 

JAMKS H. MoOraw, Jr., 

Vice-President and Treasurer 

Edward J. Mkhren, Vice-President 

Mason Britton, Vice-President 

Edgar Kobak, Vice-President 

Harold W. McGraw. Vice-President 

H. C. pARMELBB, Editorial Director 

C. H. Thompson, Secretary 



Memher A. B.C. 
Member A.B.P. 




1930 
Official correspondent In the Unlt^l States for ; 
Union International do Tramwaya, de Chemins 
de fer d'Interet local et de Transports Publics 
Automobiles. 

New York, District Office, £85 Maditon Avenae 
Washington, Naiioncl Press Building 
Chicago, 5t0 North Michigan Avenue 
PHILADBLI'HIA, 1600 Arch Street 
Cleveland, Ouardia7i Building 
Boston, 1^27 Statler Buildino 
Greenville, S. C, ISOl Woodside Building 
Dbtroit. 4-257 Grmeral Motors Building 
St. Louis. Bell Telephone Building 
San Francisco, 883 Mission Street 
Los Ancelbs, 6SZ Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 
London, 6 Bowerie Street, London, E. C. J, 



Number of Copies Printed 
This Issue, 6,400 



J 



Contents of This Issue 

JANUARY, 1930 
Copyright, 1930, by McGrmv-Hill Publishing Company. Inc. 



Editorial — Accelerated Progress Forecast by Record of 

Past Year 1 

Electric Railway Industry in More Favorable Position 3 

Expenditures and Improvements Mount Upward 8 

By Clifford A. Faust 

Electric Railway Costs and Fares in 1929 12 

By Albert S. Richey 

Industry Strengthened by Trackage Readjustment 15 

By John A. Miller, Jr. 

Rapid Transit Situation Shows Little Change 19 

Bus Operations Are Steadily Expanded by Electric Railways. .20 

By J. R. Stauffer 

It's Sand That Keeps the Wheels from Slipping 27 

By G. J. MacMurray 

Rolling Stock Purchases Largely Increased 33 

By Th. M. van der Stempel 

Interest Revived in Trackless Trolley Operations 37 

Great Improvement in Financial Situation 41 

By Morris Buck 

Much Construction Work Features Heavy Electric Traction 
in 1929 46 

Low Records Made in Trolley Wire Breaks 48 

Monthly Statistics of the Industry 50 

News of the Industry . 52- 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




A big blowout--- 

without coils 



Type TC-2 Control 
and Reset Switch. 




THE simplicity of this control switch has 
won popularity even beyond the expecta- 
tion of its designers. The fact that a powerful 
blowout action is obtained without the use of 
blowout coils strongly appeals to operators. 

This assertion is supported by the highly satis- 
factory operation of more than 3500 switches 
sold during the past two years. 

We offer you, at a reasonable price, a simple, 
sturdy, and reliable switch for 600 volts, current 
up to 25 amperes. For compressor service the 
maximum current rating is 12 amperes. 

The nearest Westinghouse representative will 
be glad to furnish you with further information 
and literature. 



WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MANUFACTURING CO. /■«■> 
EAST PITTSBURGH PENNSYLVANIA | |^f 



SALES OFFICES AND SERVICE SHOPS IN ALL PRINCIPAL CITIES 







Westinghouse 



N 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 







The list grows longer - - 



ONE after another electric railway companies, large and small 
the country over, continue to place their names upon the roster 
of users of Westinghouse-Nuttall quiet gears. 

The intense interest which has followed this revolutionary improve- 
ment since its introduction scarcely two years ago, is reflected in 
the fact that at present more than 30 properties have specified 
these gears both for replacements and as part of new equipment. 
Among these are many of the largest orders for new cars placed 
during the past year. 

Such ever-increasing use of Westinghouse-Nuttall quiet gears is a 
significant indorsement of their importance as a fundamental re- 
quirement wherever quiet car operation is to be secured. 

The Westinghouse-Nuttall noise-eliminating feature may be ap- 

.^^">v plied to either helical or spur gears. 
(\U\ 

y JSfSL j The nearest Westinghouse transportation representative 

^■"—^ gladly will give you details. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

NUTTALL WORKS PITTSBURGH, PA. 

SALES OFFICES AND SERVICE SHOPS IN ALL PRINCIPAL CITIES 
CANADIAN AGENTS: LYMAN TUBi, AND SUPPLY COMPANY 

Westinghouse 

W W ^^7 T 30933 




ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




Improved Atlas Rail Grinder 




Eureka Radial Rail Grinder 




Imperial Track Grinder 




For a 

prosperous 
year 



Ajax Electric Arc Welder 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



Money can't buy everything- — 
unless you have a lot of it, but 
you don't need much money to 
have some very worth-while 
things... smooth track, for in- 
stance. And, that as most street 
railway men now know, is the 
very foundation of good service. 

Only good track makes new 
cars act their age and old cars 
hide theirs. 

You can't harvest a bumper crop 
of fares on bumpy track. 

You can tell your public how 
good you are, but you can't sell 
them if your track refutes your 
words. 

Good track, worth so much, 
costs so little if you'll only use 
modern trackgrinding and elec- 
tric arc-welding equipment. 



Here it is — 
yours for a prosperous year 



mM 



3132-48 East Thompson Street, Philadelphia 

AGENTS 
Chester F. Gailor. 50 Church St.. New York 
Chas. N. Wood Co., Boston 
H. F. McDermott, 208 S. LaSalle St.. Chicago 
F. F. Bodler, San Francisco, Cal. 

H. E. Burns Co.. Pittsburgh. Pa. a 

Equipment & Engineering: Co.. London 



I 3433 




Kcciprupating Tracl« (irindc? 




Vnlcan l£ail <irinik>r 




Mldset Rail Grinder 




KTW Carre Oiler 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



How Over 125 Electric Railways 
Secure Efficient Rail Bonding 



O-B Titon Bonds, Installed with 

Duron Welding Rod, Improve 

Reliability of Return Circuit. 

FROM coast to coast, from Canada to 
Mexico and in many foreign countries, 
operators of electric railway properties 
have solved many rail bonding problems by 
installing Titon Bonds. 

lltlTON 




The O-B Titon Bond, for installation on ball of rail, over 
standard joint plates. Observe how the cupped terminal 
holds the welding material while in a molten state, thus 
assuring complete union between cable and rail. 

In the few short years since Titons were first 
offered to the industry, experience shows a 
marked reduction in maintenance and re- 
placements, with vastly improved efficiency 
due to the longer life and permanently lower 
resistance possible with properly - installed 
Titon Bonds. 

Proper installation requires, in addition to a 
bond of correct design, a welding rod of defi- 
nite characteristics. A dense weld, free from 
gas bubbles, which form a homogeneous 
union with the rail, is absolutely necessary 
to long Ufe and low resistance. 

The use of O-B Duron Welding Rod provides 
such a weld. Compare the above micro- 
photographs of sheared sections. Why the 
weld made with O-B Duron Rod will and 
does render far better service than is possible 





Microphotographs of welds sheared from rail. At the left is a 
weld made with ordinary scrap copper wire. Note the porosity 
and poor union with the rail. The weld at the right, made with 
O-B Duron Welding Rod is dense, free from porosity and makes 
a homogeneous union with the rail. 

with less efficient material is obvious to the 
critical eye. A resistance welder, with nega- 
tive rail polarity is used. 

The service rendered by O-B Titon Rail 
Bonds throughout the industry is definite 
proof that this design, regardless of the weld- 
ing material, is greatly improving perform- 



The O-B Hevi-Bede Titon Rail Bond for installation on ball of 
the rail, where heavily beaded or Weber type joints are used. 

ance. With the use of O-B Duron Welding 
Rod even this improved performance is 
bettered. 

If you, too, have rail bond problems — if you 
want lower return circuit resistance, greater 
reliability and much longer life, why not in- 
vestigate O-B Titon Rail Bonds? 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio 

Canadian Ohio Brass Co., Limited 

Niagara Falls, Canada 

iiaoB 




rass Co. 



NEW YORK PITTSBURGH 
IPHILAOELPHIA BOSTON 



CHICAGO CLEVELAND ST. LOUIS ATLANTA 
SAN FRANCISCO LOS ANGELES DALLAS 



PORCELAIN 

INSULATORS 

LINE MATERIALS 

RAIL BONDS 

CAR EQUIPMENT 

MINING 

MATERIALS 

VALVES 



-3' 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWA"^ JOURNAL 



A Bujing Record that Service 
is Building for 

MARATHON 

EARS 




IN 1924 0-B Marathon Ears were first offered to tlie 
electric railway industry. Service tests, at that time, 
showed that more than double the mileage of other 
types could be expected' That there was a definite need 
for such an improved ear is indicated by the fact that 
during that first year, enough 0-B Marathon Ears were 
purchased to take care of nearly 5,000 miles of wire. 

From the beginning, the industry proved to itself that 
double mileage was the rule with 0-B Marathon Ears — 
that 400,000 and more car passes were not unusual. 
Records on one property showed as high as 700,000. 

As a result, year by year, more and more overhead 
superintendents have learned of and have chosen 0-B 
Marathon Ears. And it is a significant fact that 1929 
shows a continuation of this progress, as evidenced by 
a 12 7o increase over 1928; a 75% increase over 1924. 

Certainly extraordinary service must be the reason. If 
you are not now using 0-B Marathon Ears, may we sug- 
gest that you investigate this long lived, time and money 
saving device for your 1930 ear requirements? 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio 

Canadian Ohio Brass Co., Limited 
Niagara Falls, Canada 

IITOU 









CO 






00 
CM 



0) 
CM 




MSS Ck). 



NEW YORK PITTSBURGH 
PHILADELPHIA BOSTON 



CHICAGO CLEVELAND ST. LOUIS ATLANTA 
SAN FRANCISCO LOS ANGELES DALLAS 



PORCELAIN 
INSULATORS 

LINE MATERIALS 

RAIL BONDS 

CAR EQUIPMENT 

MINING 

MATERIALS 

VALVES 



10 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




Do 

you have 



mui'co^y 



.? 



Yo 



-OU have, no doubt, been 
following our series of advertisements dealing with the seven 
factors that influence stopping distance. . . . The interest 
manifested in this series by street railway men throughout the 
country has indicated an eagerness for better brake perform- 
ance. . . . These advertisements have now been reprinted in 
booklet form for ready reference and connected study by those 
interested. If you have not already received a copy, write for 
one now. Ask for Publication 9073. 



( 



Remember, also, that our engineers 

are always available for assistance in 

solving your braking problems. 



WESTINGHOUSE TRACTION BRAKE CO. 



General Office and Works 



WILMERDING, PA. 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



11 



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» C» '» t» «♦ t* t» t» Cf (( n <if 


' H H H '*♦ '* ** ^'/^B^^Rv 


'» C» t# ^t ^.^ lir <.» ',» \t i» -;> 



12 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



J-M Brake Blocks are making unusual 
performance records on Bus Lines . . . 



^^<^^i 



J-M BRAKE BLOCKS 

FOR BUSES AND TRUCKS 

J-M Brake Blocks are recommended for use 
on air brakes which may be either of the 
diaphragm cype, requiring a tank pressure 
of 60 lbs. or of the wheel cylinder type, re- 
quiring a pressure of from 100 to 1 10 lbs. 
They are also applicable to mechanical 
brakes, with vacuum boosters. These may 
be two wheel or four wheel brakes, the latter 
being used extensively on 17-21 passenger 
coaches. The size of the friction material in 
each instance runs from 1-4" to 7-8" thick. 
In the manufacture of J-M Brake Blocks, 
composition, density, hardness and dimen- 
sions are carefully controlled. 



MORE than 650,000 safe, quick, 
quiet stops is an unbelievable 
record for any braking material. Yet 
the J-M Brake Blocks shown in the 
photograph below made this reco;rd 
in 25,000 miles of service . . .,*tnd 
this set of blocks is still good for 
thousands of miles additional cost- 
free braking service. 

This is not an isolated record of 
the money-saving, safe service that 
J-M Brake Blocks give the bus oper- 
ator. More than sixty companies have 
tested this friction material with uni- 
formly successful results. 

J-M Brake Blocks, adaptable to many 
types of equipment, have been spe- 
cially designed to meet the operating 
conditions of modern bus service. 



J-M Brake Blocks, made of moulded 
asbestos, resist the action of oils and 
greases. They reduce costs by giving 
thousands of miles of extra service, by 
reducing shop time for adjustments, 
by increasing tire life through smooth 
gripping and by eliminating road de- 
lays. J-M Brake Blocks provide quiet 
and positive braking action. They 
allow higher running speeds and 
quicker stopping with absolute safety. 
They are particularly recommended 
for use on alloy or high-carbon drums. 

From the standpoint of safety, ef- 
ficiency and reduced cost of oper- 
ation we ask that you test this J-M 
friction material. The coupon will 
bring you further information and 
performance facts. 




BUS a CAR INSULATION REFRACTORY « INSULATING CEMENTS FIBRE CONDUIT ASBESTOS EXHAUST PIPE COVERING ASBESTOS SHINGLES 

PACKINGS TRANSITE BUILT-UP a READY-TO-LAY ROOFING ASPHALT PLANK TILE FLOORING POWER PLANT INSULATIONS 

MASTICOKE a TRUSS PLATE FLOORING ELECTRICAL INSULATING MATERIALS FRICTION TAPE BRAKE BLOCKS a LININGS 




^ Johns -Manville 

SERVICE TO BUS TRANSPORTATION 



JOHNS-MANVILLE CORPORATION 

Address our office nearest you 
New York Chicago Cleveland San Francisco Montreal 
(Branches in all large cities) 
Please send me further information about your Brake Blocks. 



Name . . . 
Address. 



SB-llB-1 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



13 




Look for Comfort 






"^^^^^^ 



/'^NE has only to look around with a 
^"'^ penetrating eye to know that com- 
fort is being sold. 

How does the successful hotel attract 
steady patronage? Why are theatres so 
luxurious? What appeals most to people 
when riding in motor cars? Why has 
deeply upholstered furniture displaced the 
old-fashioned straight back chair and hair- 
cloth sofa. 

The answer is "comfort." People look for 
comfort. They pay to be comfortable. It 
pays to make them comfortable. 

Comfort is a commodity that is building 
increased patronage for many a progressive 
railway. The foundation of riding com- 
fort is a seat that is really restful. 

HALE & KILBURN SEATS 

"A BETTER SEAT FOR EVERY TYPE OF MODERN TRANSPORTATION" 




HALE 8C 

General Office and Works: 



KILBURN CO. 

1800 Lehigh Avenue, Philadelphia 



SALES OFFICES: 
Hale & Kilburn Co., Graybar Bldg., New York Prank F. Bodler, nos Monadnock Bldg., San Francisco 

Hale & Kilburn Co., McCormick Bldfr.. Chicago W. L. Jefferies, Jr., Mutual Bldg.. Richmond 

E. A. Thornwell, Candler Bldg.. Atlanta W. D. Jenkins, Praetorian Bldg., Dallas, Texas 

H. M. Euler, 146 N. Sixth St., Portland, Oregon 



14 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



Time Tested and . 




Golden Clow Railway Car Headlights 



KtysroNc <j, 

KOLitV CATCHER V 



V ■^ PaTCNTCO jC 



Keystone Trolley Catchers 



OAKDALE 



Typical Hunter Illuminated Sign 



■1 ; ^ADi;: 
SIGNAL SYSTEM 



Faraday Car Signal 
Systems 





Dome Type A Keystone-lvanhoe 

Fixture 



Golden Glow Bus Headlights 



2 





1 


1 8^" & P A R 


K 1 




Type T Lighting Fixtures 



Type 129 Hunter Sign — mechanism 



9 



Faraday 
Push Buttons 




Dome Type S Keystone-lvanhoe 
Fixture 





Keystone Roof Type Bus Ventilator 



Faraday Buzzers 




Home office and mannfapturine plant 
located at 17th and Cambria Streets, Phil- 
adetphia. Pa.; District offices are located at 
111 North Canal Street, ChicaBo, III. and 
50 Church Street, New York City. 



H 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



15 



v(mshntlyImprofved 

KEYSTONE EQUIPMENT 

for cars and buses 



Long experience in meeting the needs of 
Electric Railway Transportation Companies 
since the infancy of the industry enables us to 
serve you as specioXists in car equipment un- 
surpassed in design, material and workmanship. 

These long years of experience in manufacturing 
electrical equipment have prepared us to meet 
the needs of the latest development in mass 
transportation — the modern bus. 

For Car Equipment — ^e\ex to Catalog No* 7* 
For Bus Equipment — Refer to Catalog No* 9. 



CI Sppplies 




ltr»n(-h«H — BeHHemer Blilg., Ptttshiireli; 88 
Broad Street, JioMton; General Motorg Bldg., 
Detroit; 3lf» N. WaHhln^ton Ave., Scrunton; 
( aiiudlan Agents — Lyman Tube & Supply 
Company, Ltd., Montreal, Toronto, Van- 
couver. 



16 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



)j Revieiv 




G-E equipped trolley buses 
have won their place in the 
modem transportation syMon 



PCM contn>L provides smooth, quick acceleration. 
It is simple, compact, and reliable 



(Above) G-E magnetic track brakes are designed to 
prevent accidents 



GENERAL 

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, SCHENECTADY, N. Y. 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



17 



Ve 



^/ ^^^ m (Right) Automatic I 

^ switching equipment I 



fN recent years, the necessity of realizing 
L every possible economy in operation 
ind maintenance has become increasingly 
umportant. Now— more than ever before— 
lihe railway industry has opportunities, 
'ihrough the use of General Electric equip- 
tnent, to effect sound economies and also 
lo provide better service for the public. 



for mercury-arc recti' 
tiers, Piedmont and 

Northern Railway 
(Below) 1,000-kw., 
600-volt, mercury-arc 
rectifiers, Philadelphia 

Rapid Transit Co. 



(Above) The Public Service Coordinated Transport of New Jersey 
now operates more than 1,0CX) G-E equipped gas-electric buses 





(Above) One 4,000.kw. and 
two 2,000-kw., 650-volt, man- 
ually controlled, synchronous- 
converter units, Brooklyn- 
Manhattan Transit Corp. 



(Left) G-E line-material prod- 
ucts include overhead equip- 
ment for trolley-bus operation 



(Left) The G-E 
non-resonant gear 
contributes much 
toward quiet car 
operation 



330-141 



ELECTRIC 



SALES 



OFFICES 



I N 



PRINCIPAL 



CITIES 



18 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



POWER 




Foot'operated control for tbt 
one-man car 



TO START 
TO STOP 



SPEED, with safety, and comfort characterize 
this new G-E equipped car operated by the 
United Traction Company of Albany, N. Y. It is 
powered with four GE-265 motors (35 hp. each); 
it has a free running speed of 32 miles per hour 
at 550 volts. A smooth, quick acceleration (33^ mi. 
per hr. per sec.) is obtained with foot-operated 
PCM control, the operator selecting his desired 
running speed by means of a pedal instead of the 
usual band controller. Two sets of brakes — G-E air 
brakes and the new G-E magnetic track brakes, 
both foot-operated — provide the utmost safety re- 
gardless of rail conditions. This equipment makes 
possible an emergency braking rate of from 6 to 8 
mi. per hr. per sec. 

This car permits an increase of 15 per cent in 
schedule speed. Such all-round performance attracts 
patronage and reduces operating costs. For complete 
information, address the General Electric Company, 
Schenectady, N. Y. or the G-E sales office nearest you. 




L_ 



The magnetic track brakes are focate'a tetween ■ 

the "wheels, next to the track 



330-142 



JOIN US IN THE GENERAL ELECTRIC HOUR, BROADCASTEVERY 



GENERALWELECTRIC 



SATURDAY AT9 P.M., E.S.T. ON A NATION-WIDE N.B.C. NETWORK 



Electric Railway Journal 



Contolidation of 
Street Railwav Journal and Slectric Railway Review 

A McGraw-Hill Publication— Established 1884 



John A. Miller, Jr., Managing Editor 



Volume 74 



New York, January, 1930 



Number 1 



Accelerated Progress 

FORECAST BY RECORD OF PAST YEAR 




IRM FAITH in the future is shown 
by the intention of the electric rail- 
ways to spend almost $375,000,000 
during the next twelve months for 
extensions, betterments and maintenance. 
Building slowly but surely on a firm foundation, 
the industry has steadily improved its position 
in recent years until today it looks forward with 
renewed confidence. Figures received by this 
paper from companies representing more than 
97 per cent of the electrified track mileage of 
the United States and Canada show that the 
record of 1929 is more encouraging in nearly 
every way than the record of any other recent 
year. Estimates for 1930 indicate that even 
greater progress may be expected during the 
year just beginning. 

Operating Results Improved 

FINANCIAL results of operations in 1929 
were notably better than in 1928. The total 
number of passengers carried by the cars and 
buses of the electric railways last year was 
slightly greater than during the preceding year. 
The average fare increased a fraction of a cent. 
Gross earnings showed a moderate gain. On 
the other hand, wages and construction costs re- 
mained fairly steady, and more efficient opera- 
tion permitted a substantial reduction in ex- 
penses. As a result, net income was consider- 
ably improved. Apparently the recent disturb- 
ance in the stock market has had little, if any, 
harmful effect upon the electric railways. De- 
spite some uncertainty concerning the general 



business outlook, indications are that revenue 
will be as good in 1930 as in 1929, or perhaps 
slightly better, and that operating expenses may 
be still further reduced. 

Budget Figures Show Gain 

EXPENDITURES made during 1929 for 
new plant and equipment, maintenance ma- 
terials and supplies, and construction and main- 
tenance labor, totaled more than $355,000,000. 
This total is about 4 per cent higher than the 
figure of similar expenditures made during the 
preceding year, and is slightly more than was 
forecast by this paper last January. 

Estimates for expenditures during 1930 re- 
flect clearly a recognition of the continuing need 
for rail service. An increase of $3,000,000, is 
indicated in expenditures for new cars, making 
a total of about $32,000,000. Way and struc- 
tures expenditures will be increased $7,000,000 
to a total of more than $88,000,000, not includ- 
ing the cost of regular maintenance work. The 
power and line budget shows a similar but 
somewhat smaller increase. At the same time 
continued expansion of bus operation is fore- 
cast by expenditures of some $20,000,000 esti- 
mated under that heading. 

Rolling Stock Purchases Increased 

APPROXIMATELY 1,400 cars were 
^ bought by the electric railways in 1929 
as compared with less than 900 in 1928. Cars 
designed for carrying heavy loads in the larger 



cities pre-dominated in the purchases last year, 
but it is notable that a considerable number of 
companies operating in the smaller cities are 
also found in the list of purchasers. Included 
in the total is one order for 300 rapid transit 
cars for New York City and several orders 
totaling more than 200 cars for multiple-unit 
operation in electrified suburban service. One 
hundred trail freight cars were bought by the 
electric railway industry, and 77 electric loco- 
motives. Moreover, some 2,300 old cars were 
scrapped during the year. 



Bus Operations Expanded 

THE number of new buses bought last year 
was even larger than the number of new 
cars, being over 1,800. At the same time 
nearly 400 additional buses were acquired 
through the purchase by the railways of inde- 
pendent lines already in operation, making a 
total gain of about 2,200 buses. This increase 
is only a little less than that which occurred in 
1928, a year of notable expansion in the bus 
operations of the electric railways. Some 700 
buses were scrapped or otherwise disposed of. 
It is interesting to note that this is equivalent to 
70 per cent of the number of buses bought by 
the electric railways five years ago. Extensions 
to existing bus routes and new routes added 
during 1929 totaled nearly 4,000 miles, a con- 
siderably larger increase than occurred during 
the preceding year. 

Particularly significant is the increase in the 
number of trackless trolleys operated by the 
electric railways. After a promising beginning 
about ten years ago this type of transportation 
waned in popularity until it appeared to be on 
the verge of disappearing entirely. More re- 
cently, however, important improvements in the 
design of the vehicle have restored it to favor. 
While it is too early as yet to prophesy how far 
the adoption of trackless trolleys is likely to 
go in the future, it is evident that this type of 
vehicle has promising possibilities for render- 
ing efficient transportation service under the 
conditions to which it is suited. 

Volume of Trackwork Large 

EXTENSIONS and reconstruction of elec- 
trified tracks totaled over 1,050 miles last 
year. Of this amount more than 850 miles 
represented increases and improvements to the 



trackage of the urban and interurban electric 
railways, and some 200 miles represented elec- 
trification of lines formerly operated by steam. 
While these figures show a slight decrease from 
the corresponding figures for 1928, they are 
considerably above the average for the past ten 
years. 

Coincident with the additions made to the 
trackage and equipment of the electric railways, 
certain decreases also have occurred. Con- 
siderable track was abandoned during the year 
just ended, the total being approximately 1,000 
miles. This is substantially less than the mile- 
age of abandonments which occurred in 1928. 
Moreover, there was a marked reduction in the 
number and mileage of properties that were 
entirely abandoned. 

Partial abandonments by companies which 
continued rail operation on other routes con- 
stituted by far the larger part of the decrease 
in mileage which occurred last year. From this 
it is evident that real progress is being made in 
co-ordination, rail service being retained where 
it is justified by the relationship between rev- 
enue and expense, and bus service being insti- 
tuted in its place where conditions are more 
favorable for that type of operation. 

Industry Strengthened By Readjustment 

AS A NET result of these changes the 
iV electric railways find themselves at the be- 
ginning of the new year with a slightly re- 
duced mileage of track, and a slightly smaller 
number of cars, but with a substantially larger 
number of buses and mileage of bus routes. 
Without doubt, this readjustment has greatly 
strengthened the position of the industry by 
enabling it more effectively to meet the trans- 
portation demands of the traveling public. 
That further readjustment along similar lines 
will occur during 1930 appears certain. From 
this it is not to be inferred, however, that 
wholesale substitution of buses for cars is in 
prospect. Substitutions will continue to be 
made where they appear to be advantageous, 
but the necessity for rail service on heavy traf- 
fic lines is steadily becoming more widely recog- 
nized. 

These facts furnish convincing evidence that 
the industry is in a fundamentally sound condi- 
tion. Notable progress was made during the 
year just ended and every indication points to 
an even greater advance in the year now 
beginning. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74. No.l 



Electric Railway Industry in More 



Favorable Position 



With revenues approximately the same as in the previous 
year, the companies have been able to make readjust- 
ments for reduced operating expenses, making the 
net revenue for 1929 the largest in the his- 
tory of the industry. Statistics show the 
progress made over a period of years 



WITH another year added to the record, the elec- 
tric railway industry is found in a more stable 
position than it has been in for some time. It 
has continued during 1929 along lines similar to 
those followed in the previous year. The results of 
a number of influences that have been at work for 
some time are, however, only beginning to make 
themselves apparent, so that the industry has 
been able to make readjustment to the end that 
greater net revenues have been obtained. The 
increase in the number of automobiles used for 
private, urban and suburban transportation has 
continued at a pace only slightly retarded from 
its maximum of a few years ago. Even with 
this the revenues of the electric railways have 
held up. At the same time it has been found 
possible to introduce economies, some of them 
of a major character, so that expenses have not 
increased. As a result of these two trends acting 
together, the net income of the electric railway 
properties for the year, according to the pre- 
liminary estimates now available, actually will 
be the highest the industry has known. 

Financial results for the past year's 
operations, shown graphically on the right edge 
of Fig. 1, may be compared at a glance with those 
of past years. This chart, which has been pre- 
pared with the assistance of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Association, shows the financial 
history of the industry since 1907. The figures 




Fig. 1 — Distribution of revenues of electric railways of the United States 

Figures for 1907, 1912, 1917 and 1922 are from the U. S. Census, and for 
r . , 1 rir\'7 ^ 1 ooo ■ 1 • r other years from data collected and compiled by the American Electric Rail- 

tor the years 190/ to 1922, inclusive, are from way Association, 
the United States census of street and electric 



railways, and the others are from the association's rec- 
ords. Inspection of the chart shows that from a net 
income in 1907 of $40,000,000 retained out of gross 
revenues of $430,000,000, the business done by the elec- 
tric railway properties has expanded so that last year the 
net earned was approximately $83,000,000 out of total 
revenues amounting to slightly less than $1,130,000,000. 
On a per cent basis the return has diminished consid- 
erably, the net income being 9.4 per cent of the gross 



in 1907 and only 7.4 per cent in 1929. However, the 
net income has been increasing steadily each year since 
1924, when it was only 4.2 per cent of the gross. This 
change is of immense importance when the status of the 
industry as a going concern is under consideration. It is 
reflected in the improved standing of electric railways 
with financial interests generally. The approximate 
figures for the distribution of the expenses for the past 
year are : wages $424,000,000 ; other operating expenses, 



Electric Railway Journal — January. 1930 
3 



Total Passengers Carried (Railway and Bus)-^ 




Elect-ic Railway 



Electric Roi 



I way 



Bos f asser gers' 



Car 1 'asset gers 



10 c 



5= 



1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 

Fig. 2 — Total annual passengers of United States electric railways 
and their bus subsidiaries 

Compiled from U. S. Census figures for 1917 and 1922 and from 
A.E.R.A. data for other years. 

$357,000,000; rents, taxes, interest and similar charges, 
$264,000,000. Wages thus represent 37.6 per cent of 
the total revenue. Other operating expenses are 31.6 
per cent, and rents, interest, etc., are 23.4 per cent of 
the gross revenue. The ratio of operating expenses to 
gross revenue stood at 69.2 per cent, which is less than 
the operating ratio in any recent year. 

Passenger Traffic Almost Constant 

In number of passengers carried the industry has 
shown but little change from year to year for some time. 
In a number of the smaller communities there has been 
a reduction in riding on street cars, but this has been 
balanced to a large extent by an increase in the riders 
on buses operated by the street railway interests. In 
some of the larger cities there has been a gain in both 
car and bus passengers. Fig. 2 shows the total number 
of passengers carried on the vehicles operated by the 
electric railway companies from 1917 on, separated into 
car and bus riders. In this chart the figures for electric 
railway passenger traffic are based on the 1917 and 1922 
United States censuses of electric railways, while those 
for other years are estimates of the American Electric 
Railway Association. The total number of passengers 
carried in 1929 was approximately 15,830,000,000, of 
which 14,740,000,000 were car passengers and the re- 
maining 1,090,000,000 were bus riders. 

Miles of Route Covered Expanded Greatly 
IN Ten Years 

The track mileage and mileage of bus routes operated 
by electric railway companies are shown graphically in 
Fig. 3. During the period from 1917 down to the 
present there has been an increase of enormous propor- 
tions in the length of streets, highways and private 
rights-of-way over which street and electric railway cars 
and buses are run. The chart shows that in 1918 there 
were some 45,000 miles of electric railway tracks and 
2,630 miles of electrified steam railroad in the United 
States. At that time there were no bus routes, and none 
were recorded until 1920, when there were about 1,000 
miles. From year to year there have been minor sus- 
pensions of service on tracks which were non-productive, 
or where buses could be used to replace the cars to 
advantage. These abandonments have been offset to 



some extent by extensions of track. In practically every 
instance where such extensions have been made they were 
justified economically, as it now is possible to use the 
bus for extensions of service into territory where there 
is uncertainty of the need for it. In a number of in- 
stances the necessity for maintaining track and rehabil- 
itating it has disappeared, since it is possible to use buses 
to replace it to good advantage without continuing the 
liability for excessive taxation and paving charges which 
in the past have been assessed against the electric rail- 
way companies and have proved a severe handicap to 
successful operation. Where service is not too heavy 
this plan has proved advantageous. 

In other instances abandonment of track has resulted 
from the need for more direct routing. Many lines 
were laid out without regard to obtaining the most 
direct or fastest service, but were distorted to satisfy 
real estate operators and others who for one reason or 
another demanded a deviation from the best route. In 
such instances the bus has usually been accepted as a 
substitute over the route which best serves the patrons 
at the present time. The abnormal rise in construction 
costs without a corresponding rise in revenue caused a 
situation due to which some of the smaller railway com- 
panies were unable to survive the onslaught of much 
higher operating expenses without an adequate amount 
of traffic. Then, too, the advent of the private auto- 
mobile took away sufficient traffic that certain lines 
became unremunerative. 

It is a matter of common understanding that in the 
heyday of the promotion of electric railway lines 20 to 
30 years ago many miles of track were constructed that 
never should have been built. The territory in which 
they were placed was not, and could not be, productive 
of sufficient traffic to warrant them. Although they were 
a drag on the system, the remainder brought in sufficient 
revenue to carry the loss. When the war came, bringing 
in its wake greatly increased costs of operation and 
maintenance, and when the number of passenger autq- 
mobiles increased to a total undreamed of in the days 



I 




-Electric railway track and bus route mileage 
in the United States 

Figures compiled by Electric Railway Journal. 



of the promoters, all within the space of a few years, 
such unwarranted railway lines were wiped out. Some 
of them were replaced by bus lines, but in other in- 
stances no public transportation of any sort is now 
given. While the process has been going on for several 
years, it is not yet completed. There still is some rail- 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
4 



way track that was uneconomically located at the begin- 
ning, and which is a drag on the more prosperous 
portions of the systems. 

Little Change in Number of Vehicles 
BUT Capacity Increases 

Despite the large numbers of cars and buses that are 
retired annually, there has been little change in the total 
number for the last several years. At present there are 
approximately 111,000 cars and buses in use in the 
United States, of which 73,768 are passenger cars and 
11,854 are buses. The remainder are divided between 
electric locomotives, freight, service, and miscellaneous 
cars. It is noteworthy in this connection that the im- 
provement in electric railway cars has made possible 
the retirement of large numbers of obsolete vehicles 
and their replacement by a smaller number of new, fast, 
light-weight cars that are operated today to give an 
increased number of car-miles. The buses likewise are 
vastly improved from those that were first introduced, 
so that comparisons of numbers alone do not give an 
adequate picture of the change that has been wrought 
in the past ten years or so. Fig. 4 merely indicates 
the increase in vehicles that .has taken place from 1917 
to the present time. 

A measure of the actual service rendered by the 
industry is given in Fig. 5, which shows the vehicle- 
miles of the cars and buses operated by electric railway 
systems for the past thirteen years. More and more 
service is being rendered to the public year by year, as 
will be noted by a comparison of the vehicle-miles in 
this chart and the number of passengers carried in 
Fig. 2. When it is remembered that the modern cars 
and buses are larger, and not only have more seats but 
more standing room, the increase becomes even more 
noteworthy. 

Traffic Holds Up Despite Unfavorable 
Industrial Situation 

Another trend which may be noted with considerable 
interest is the relation between industrial employment 
and riding. During the four years shown in Fig. 6 
there has been comparatively little change in the employ- 
ment index, save for a relatively brief period in 1928. 
In the summer of that year the index fell to a low 


















■ 


2.500 


Electric Roilway Bus Miles--^^^^^^J 


_ — T^ 




^^ 






] 


















Cotr 


Miles 




i i 


73 

X 

5 


! \ 








c 

o 

500^ 



1 J i 1 















1917 1918 I9I9 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 



Fig. 4 — Cars and buses of the electric railways 
of the United States 

Figures compiled by Blexjtric Railway Journal. 



1917 1918 1919 19E0 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 



Fig. 5 — Revenue vchicle-milcs operated annually by United 
States electric railway systems 

Car-mil«!,s for 1917 and 1922 from U. S. Census, for other years 
from A.B.R.A. 

figure of 93.1, where it remained for two months, 
recovering to a present high of 98.5, as compared with 
101.2 in the fall of 1926. Passenger traffic, on the con- 
trary, has not followed this trend directly, if at all. It 
reached <a high value of 101.43 in March, 1927, falling 
gradually and with minor fluctuations to 97.37, the index 
for October, 1929. There was no drop in riding corre- 
sponding with the low employment figure of 1928, and 
hence there was no corresponding rise during the present 
year with the improvement in the labor situation. 

Undoubtedly a long period of depression would have 
a more marked effect on the riding habit. On the other 
hand, it probably would cause a reduction in the use of 
automobiles, as the operating cost of the motor vehicle 
would in that instance require a more careful analysis 
by its owner, who today is interested far more in its 
convenience as compared with public transportation. 
As there has been no such period of depression since 
the automobile has become a large factor in local trans- 
portation, the best estimates of what would happen in 
such an event are little more than guesses. It appears 
probable, judged by past depressions, that the loss of 
riding would be decidedly less than the reduction in em- 
ployment, and under today's conditions there might even 
be an increase. That, however, is purely a matter of 
conjecture. 

Automobile Affects Riding Less than 
Popularly Supposed 

Many writers have laid all the ills of the transporta- 
tion industry to the growth in use of the passenger 
automobile. Fig. 7 shows how far from the truth is 
the idea that the industry has received a death-blow from 
this source. The riding habit, or number of rides per 
capita, is the best measure available for the use made of 
transportation vehicles. In the period shown it has 
ranged between 101 and 116, the high figure being 
reached in 1923, which was the banner year for street 
car riding. Contrasted with this is the increase in the 
registration of automobiles, which has gone up from 
35 per thousand of population in 1917 to 189 in the year 
just closed. Naturally it might be expected that the 
great increase in a new mode of transit would cause a 
reduction in riding on public vehicles so great that their 
operation, even in large cities, would be unprofitable. 
Instead, with a 50 per cent increase in registrations since 
1923, the reduction in car and bus riding has been from 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
5 



Statistics of City and Interurban Electric Railways and Electrified Steam Lines 

(As of January 1, 1930) 



New England States 

Connecticut 

Maine 

Massachusetts 

New Hampshire 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 



Eastern States 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Maryland 

New Jersey 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Virginia 

West Virginia 



Central States 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kentucky 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Ohio.. 

Wisconsin 



Southern States 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

Florida 

Georgia 

Louisiana 

Mississippi 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 



Western States 

Arizona 

California 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Kansas 

Montana 

Nebraska 

North Dakota 

Oklahoma 

Oregon . 



South Dakota. 

Texas 

Utah. 

Washington.. . 
Wyoming 



U. S. Total 

U. S. Possessions.. 
^ Canada 



Grand Total 



Number 

of 
Operating 
Companies 



12 

25 

II 

3 

4 



1 

5 
5 
13 
71 
78 
13 
10 



49 
24 
23 

7 
22 

8 
14 
49 
15 



10 
7 
7 
7 
8 
7 
8 
4 
9 



3 

26 
9 
I 

15 
8 
4 
3 

II 
5 
I 

22 
7 

18 
1 



671 

5 

57 



Miles 

of 
Track 



Passenger Cars 



733' 



1,290.51 
422.93 

1,912.67 

125.03 

301.74 

20.10 



70.02 

395.06 

667.75 

1,164.16 

5,275.54 

3,889.03 

677.30 

635.34 



3,245 . 1 8 

2,496.17 
984.32 
495.49 

1,273. 
694. 

1,152, 

3,267. 



.50 
.71 
.26 
.08 



767.03 



329.53 
119.23 
209.82 
370.42 
285.65 

24.00 
321.97 

60.16 
455.01 



24,46 

3,464.55 

342.70 



431 .47 

705.15 

183.88 

25.54 

378.84 

684.73 



1,025.84 

472.45 

1,293.08 





42,431.40 

125.39 

2,505.86 



45,062.65 



Motor Trailer 



1,395 
321 

3,773 

172 

585 

7 



113 

862 

1,277 

2,679 

16,056 

6,876 

684 

365 



6,327 
1,619 
614 
731 
2,208 
1,198 
2,281 
3,475 
1,199 



397 
233 
382 
535 
787 

35 
205 

72 
593 



33 

4,093 

366 



268 

105 

452 

42 

231 

609 



1,314 

262 

936 





66,767 

268 

3,831 



70,866 



105 
8 

288 

9 






24 

156 

100 

2,773 

261 

61 





975 
89 
43 
71 

295 
26 

186 

585 
54 



62 
10 

2 
21 
47 


10 


53 




229 
127 



23 
14 
20 

1 
27 
76 


46 
60 
64 





Freight Cars 



7,001 



368 



Electric 
Loco- 
motives I Motor Trailer 



7,369 



146 
7 
6 
2 
3 
3 





6 

3 



203 

9 

16 

19 



80 
23 
39 


27 

2 

5 
26 

8 



2 


2 


17 

3 





103 

9 



14 

50 

3 



19 

24 



5 

14 

47 





945 

I 

65 



1,011 



54 
25 
23 


15 

2 





2 

28 

5 

196 

117 

10 

25 



88 

426 

13 

24 

57 

1 

14 

173 

8 



3 

67 

2 



66 

35 

1 



83 

4 



28 

4 

203 





1,828 

29 

244 



2,101 



8 
69 
12 
1 

1 




13 
95 


87 
82 

7 
28 



2,787 

519 

1,036 



153 



22 

577 

4 





2 
10 


159 

I 





2,953 

220 



29 

1,430 

1 



67 

481 



16 

344 

128 





Service I Buses 
Cars 'Operated 



11,342 



469 



11,811 



214 
94 

752 
30 

113 
3 



15 

109 

148 

327 

1,524 

931 

82 

54 



766 

'436 
193 
126 
254 

99 
338 
645 

42 



61 
17 
24 
44 
78 

3 
40 

9 
71 



3 

428 

86 



38 

32 

67 

9 

34 

116 



142 

58 

69 





8,724 

25 

449 



217 

5 

713 

41 
164 

23 



22 
144 
231 
2,458 
831 
892 
247 
128 



463 
443 
150 
84 
,036 
117 
179 
986 
310 



15 
20 
90 
69 
61 
56 
60 
9 
49 



13 
592 

46 

11 

121 

5 

54 

4 

140 

62 

27 
295 

27 

135 

9 



1,854 

98 

499 



9,198 



12,451 



542.90 

25.00 

,131.87 

71.48 

160.60 
32.20 



47.49 

287.98 

1,602.14 

3,184.75 

947.73 

1,518.93 

171.43 

642.05 



1,371.73 
1,330.46 
1,089.18 
77.21 
1,855.57 
I 144.54 
' 248.56 
1,878.72 
1,471.92 



24.24 
20.60 
67.15 
45.39 
72.76 
35.20 
39.02 
32.70 
366.04 



22.98 
1,410.41 

69.70 

17.00 

166.69 

3.50 

42.49 

4.95 

177.79 

71.40 
574.28 
399.88 

78.94 
279.71 

28.50 



23 885.76 

67.78 

983.76 



24,937.30 



'Includes 55 companies which now operate only buses. 



FIGURES presented in this table are based 
_ on reports received by Electric Rail- 
way Journal during December, 1929, from 
companies representing more than 97 per 
cent of the total electrified track mileage of 
the United States and Canada, supplemented 
by reports previously received from other 
companies. The number of companies 
shown is the number of actual operating 
companies and does not include subsidiaries 



whose physical property has been absorbed 
by merger, etc., nor holding companies which 
do not operate under their own names. 
Track mileage and equipment data of inter- 
state companies are listed according to the 
actual location of track. In addition to the 
number of cars shown in this table there are 
in the United States and Canada a total of 
3,374 miscellaneous cars which have not 
been listed by states. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
6 



116 to 101. Furthermore, with the automobile registra- 
tion standing at virtually one for every five people, little 
additional competition from this source is likely, and an 
increase in the riding habit on account of the difficulty 
of operating motor vehicles in the modern city may be 
looked for from now on. 

Readjustment of Fares Has Been Gradual 

While it is not possible to make a complete analysis 
of the fare situation in a review of this nature, the 
trend of fares in the past thirteen years can be seen clearly 
in Fig. 8. Before the war practically all the city com- 
panies had a basic 5-cent cash fare, frequently supple- 
mented with reduced rate tickets. By 1917, when the 
chart begins, 271 out of the 297 companies included 
still had the 5-cent base charge. One had zone fares, 24 
had 6-cent cash fares, and the remaining company 7 
cents. In the next year many companies went to 6 



105 



„ioo 



95 



90 





"^ 




^^ 
















































































































































m 








IB 


































-6 


^ 





s 








^ 


K 


Passenaer traffic 

1 r , , 1 


























'V 


s 




<^ 




*■ 


1% 






































s 










N 


"■ 


- 




T 


£ 


— 
























\ 






































>. 
















/ 


































\ 












/ 
























e 


'vp/oymet 


71^ 






S 


1 




*«-' 


/' 










































v 


J 

































































































































































1926 



1927 



1928 



Fig. 6 — Trends of passenger traffic and industrial employment 
in the United States 

Passenger traffic is from data reported by 201 companies to the 
A.E.R.A., and the data on employment from the U. S. Bureau of 
Labor Statistics. 



cents, several to 7 cents, and a few to 8 cents. The 
10-cent cash fare appeared in 1919 and the 9-cent fare 
in 1920. In that year all but 64 of the companies had 
obtained a cash fare higher than 5 cents. The succeed- 
ing years have seen the growth of the 10-cent base rate 
and a .still further reduction of the S-cent fare, as at 
the end of 1929 only 33 companies retained the low 
rate. The 6-cent fare also has fallen from popularity, 
being confined to 13 properties. Seven cents is charged 
on 56 systems, 8 cents on 44, 9 cents on only one and 10 
cents on 126, while zone fares are in use on 24 systems. 
Attention should be called to the fact that reduced rate 
fares of one form or another are in use on a considerable 
number of the companies included in the chart, which 
would reduce the average fare considerably. On the 
contrary, no bus fares are included. Since in the 
majority of instances the bus fares are higher than 
the street car fares the number of higher rate companies 
would be augmented if they were included. 

Industry Statistics Presented 

Statistics of the industry have been compiled by this 
I^aper, and are presented in the table on page 6. The 
figures have been obtained from a canvass of the in- 
dividual companies, supplemented by information previ- 
ously published in the McGraw Electric Railway Di- 
rectory. The new information, however, covers more 



ZOO 




j 

Revenue rides per capifa~^ 














^ 


^ 


y 




»• 








__^^^MV 


■ 


^ 





^ 


* 


• 


• 




B 






^^^^■* 










/ 


z' 




























/ 




























/ 


/ 


/tomobi/es per 
ousand poputaf 


















/ 


t. 


M 


on 
















/ 






























1 
































1 
































1 




























2 
1 
































/ 


1 





























1902 



1901 



1912 



1917 •» '19 '20 71 '22 '25 '24 '26 '26 "C\ '28 '29 



Fig. 7 — Effect of private automobiles on passenger transportation 
in the United States 

Electric railway traffic figures for 1917 and 1922 are from the 
U. S. Census, the remainder are A.B.R.A. estimates. The pas- 
senger automobile registrations are supplied by the National 
Automobile Chamber of Commerce. 

than 97 per cent of the systems of the United States 
and Canada. It may be accepted as the best available 
information extant. 

At the beginning of this year there are 671 operating 
electric railways in the United States. They have 
42,431 miles of track and approximately 24,000 miles 
of bus routes. The number of cars owned includes 
73,768 passenger cars, 945 electric locomotives, 13,170 
freight cars, and about 12,000 service and miscellaneous 
cars. In addition these companies or their subsidiaries 
own nearly 12,000 buses. 




1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 



Fig. S— Distribution and trend of fares of electric railways 

Based on 297 companies operating in 280 cities of the United 
States having a population of 25,000 or more, as reported to the 
American Electric Railway Association. 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
7 



Expenditures for Improvement 



CONTINUING the 
upward climb which 
started in the year 
of 1928, following the low 
ebb of 1927, the total ex- 
penditures for new plant 



Budget increase in 1929 exceeded that of 
1928, reflecting continued betterment of 
railways' financial condition. Rolling stock 
expenditures show greatest increase. Both 
maintenance material and labor totals rise. 
Estimates for 1930 forecast further increases. 



tions in trade. Expendi- 
tures for the past year 
were not curtailed in any 
instance and most of the 
electric railways reporting 
showed increases for 1930. 



and equipment and maintenance materials in the electric In a survey made by the American Electric Railway 

railway industry in 1929 again exceeded those for the Association for President Hoover the railways reported 

preceding year. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the ex- the same plans. It was stated in the association's an- 

penditures of 1930 will exceed those of 1929 by an even nouncement, following the survey that the railways would 



greater margin. During the years 1925, 1926 and 1927 
the totals receded steadily. The figure for 1927, how- 
ever, represented a smaller decrease than attended the 
previous figures and it was predicted at the time that 
the next year would show a slight increase and the 
following years slightly greater increases. This trend 
has been borne out, not only for 1928 and again for 
1929, but also in the forecast for the new year, 1930. 
From $225,271,000 for 1927 to $225,730,000 in 1928 
and to $236,005,000 for 1929 are the actual figures. 
$459,000 and $10,275,000 are the increases for the 
respective years. Budgets for 1930 submitted by the 
electric railways indicate that the total will soar to 



spend more than $1,000,000 a day for equipment and 
various construction activities in 1930. Actual figures 
show that the total amount will be $371,220,000, repre- 
senting $149,050,000 for new plant and equipment, 
$102,480,000 for maintenance materials and $119,690,- 
000 for maintenance labor. 

As mentioned in the interpretation of the budget 
figures last year, the electric railways had been plan- 
ning extensive improvement programs for some time, 
but hesitated in carrying them through because of 
trifling uncertainties. With the great improvements in 
car design of the past few years and the reassurance 
that local transportation cannot be dispensed with, many 



$251,530,000, representing an increase of $15,525,000 properties have gone ahead with rehabilitation plans. 

or 6.58 per cent. It was stated last year that the purchasing power of 

In view of the somewhat disturbed condition of the industry was rapidly being restored and that a 

general business brought about by the recent market steady climb could reasonably be looked for in the 

crash, the figures of 1929 and the forecast of 1930, following years. This forecast was borne out in 1929 
both showing increases, are of real significance. They • and in the budgets for 1930. 

emphasize again the fundamental stability of the electric Perhaps the outstanding trend indicated by the fig- 
railway industry and its relative immunity to fluctua- ures, aside from the continued climb in the total, is 



Purchases Planned by Electric Railways for 1930, Compared with Actual Figures for 
Past Years Compiled by "Electric Railway Journal" 

New Plant and Equipment — Capital 

Forecast 

1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 

Way and structures $52,400,000 $51,200,000 $77,365,000 $90,050,000 $81,890,000 $88,400,000 

Cars 50,400,000 40,000,000 34,758,000 18,900,000 28,710,000 31,800,000 

Buses 15,680,000 17,540,000 14,368,000 19,100,000 17,300,000 19,900,000 

Power equipment 5,150,000 7,640,000 3,561,000 7,300,000 7,570,000 8,950,000 

Total $123,630,000 $116,380,000 $130,052,000 $135,350,000 $135,470,000 $149,050,000 

Maintenance Materials — Operating 

Way and structures $56,900,000 $50,000,000 $40,517,000 $31,040,000 $35,800,000 $35,790,000 

Cars 54,700,000 47,800,000 36,941,000 35,200,000 36,350,000 36,520,000 

Buses 7,370,000 7,500,000 9,451,000 15,040,000 17,925,000 19,650,000 

Power equipment 22,650,000 11,370,000 8,310,000 9,100,000 10,460,000 10,520,000 

Total $141,620,000 $116,670,000 $95,219,000 $90,380,000 $100,535,000 $102,480,000 

Total of New Plant and Equipment, and Maintenance Materials 

Way and structures $109,300,000 $101,200,000 $117,882,000 $121,090,000 $117,690,000 $124,190,000 

Cars 105,100,000 87,800,000 71,699,000 54,100,000 65,060,000 68,320,000 

Buses 23,050,000 25,040,000 23,819,000 34,140,000 35,225,000 39,550,000 

Power equipment 27,800,000 19,010,000 11,871,000 16,400,000 18,030,000 19,470,000 

Grand total $265,250,000 $233,050,000 $225,271,000 $225,730,000 $236,005,000 $251,530,000 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
8 



Mount Upward 



By 
CLIFFORD A. FAUST 

Assistant Editor Electric Railway Journal 



smaller cities are having more difficulty than the larger 
ones this is particularly encouraging. Although no 
definite announcements have been made of large orders 
for rapid transit or steam road electrification equipment, 
it is not unlikely that at least one or two such orders 
will be placed. Considering the low figure for 1928, 
when car purchases were at an ebb, there is much 
reason for optimism with the present outlook. It ap- 
pears that the extensive experimentation and develop- 
ment of modern equipment, which delayed car purchases 
for a time, will be rewarded in a normal resumption 
of buying. 

As forecast a year ago the expenditures for way 



the buying movement in rolling stock, following and 
now accompanying a period of great track activity. 
Last year's low mark of $18,900,000 for cars and the 
high mark of $90,050,000 for way and structures indi- 
cated that operators were preparing for the extensive 
purchase of new equipment by conditioning their track. 
Their budgets submitted a year ago also showed the 
same trend, giving an estimate of approximately 
$30,000,000 for cars in 1929 and slightly under 
$80,000,000 for way and structures. Actual expendi- 
tures in 1929 of $28,710,000 for cars and $81,890,000 
for way and structures bear out the trend as foreseen. 
The predicted increases of 7.95 per cent for way and 
structures and 10.76 per cent for cars indicate a return 
to normalcy in the relation of these two accounts. 
Surveying the past trends in both the expenditures of 
1929 and the forecasts for 1930, it is evident that the 
buying of cars will increase slowly but steadily and be 
accompanied by reasonably large amounts for track 
reconstruction. 

Car Purchases Increased 51.8 per Cent 

Actual expenditures for new cars during 1929 totaled 
$28,710,000, an increase of 
$9,810,000, or 51.8 per cent, 
over 1928. Definite infor- 
mation received last year 
indicated that several large 
orders for car equipment 
would be placed. All of 
these and several others 
were placed during the year. 
Among the outstanding or- 
ders of the year were 300 
subway cars for the City of 
New York, 141 suburban 
motor cars for the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & West- 
ern Railroad, 106 for the 
Cleveland Railway, 101 for 

the City of Detroit, 101 for the Brooklyn & Manhattan and structures, charged to capital accounts, showed a 
Transit Corporation, 100 for the Chicago Surface Lines, recession in 1929. Thetotal dropped from $90,060,000 
50 for the Montreal Tramways and 25 for the Market to $81,890,000, a comparatively small amount consider- 
Street Railway. Other large orders were 42 locomotives ing the large increase in car purchases. It also should 
for the New York Central Railroad and 22 heavy pas- be remembered that the figure for 1928 was a high 
senger locomotives for the Cleveland Union Terminals mark for this account, since these figures were first 
Company. Total orders of new equipment for the year compiled in 1923, and that the 1929 figure of $81,890,000 
were 77 electric locomotives and approximately 1,400 exceeds all other totals except the one for 1928. That 
cars, including freight, express and service cars. this activity in track is to continue is indicated in the 

That the large number of cars purchased in 1929 forecast for 1930 of $88,400,000, an increase of 
is not an unusual number is indicated in the budgets $6,510,000. No doubt the way and structures account 
of 1930, which show that cars purchased in that year will continue to exceed the $80,000,000 mark in succeed- 
will even exceed in value those of 1929. Definite ing years. 




How the total of ^236,005,000 spent in 1929 
for new equipment and materials was apportioned. 
The lower halves of the cubes represent new plant and equip- 
ment, the upper halves maintenance materials 



orifcrs totaling 522 were shown on the budgets sub- 
mitted. Of this number 417 will be ordered by nine 
companies in lots of 135, 66, 60, 50, 32, 23, 20, 16 
and 15, respectively. An important evident trend is 
that many of the smaller companies will order cars in 
1930, increasing their percentage which in the past years 
has not been very high. In view of the fact that the 



During the past year more than 700 miles of track 
was rebuilt, over 165 miles of track extension was 
made and approximately 200 miles of steam railroad 
lines was electrified. These figures compare with 
slightly more than 890 miles of rebuilt track in 1928 
and 230 miles of extensions. Structures, of course, 
account for an appreciable percentage of the total way 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
9 




Distribution by individual accounts of new plant and equipment 
and maintenance materials, for the years 1925 to 1929, inclu- 
sive, and the forecasts for 1930. Note the upward turn follow- 
ing 1927 

and structures figure. Since structures and track are 
not segregated on the budget blanks it is impossible 
to give the exact proportions of the two. 

As mentioned previously, way and structures will 
total $88,400,000 in 1930. It was definitely indicated 
on the budget blanks that 22 companies would alone 
expend $17,110,000 for this account. Representing the 
larger programs, five companies will spend a total of 
$9,000,000, in amounts of $3,000,000, $2,500,000, 
$1,300,000, $1,200,000 and $1,000,000. Seven pro- 
grams under $1,000,000, totaling $4,942,000, are $889,- 
000, $800,000, $700,000, $685,000, $655,000, $633,000 
and $580,000. Ten smaller programs, totaling $3,168,- 
000, are $487,000, $466,000, $367,000, $350,000, 
$349,000, $261,000, $250,000, $229,000, $209,000 and 
$200,000. These programs in many instances are ac- 
companying large orders for equipment. Others are 
probably the forerunners of rolling stock buying, just 
as many orders of 1929 followed the extensive track 
rehabilitation in 1928. 

Falling slightly short of the high mark for buses 
in 1928, but practically equaling the second highest 
mark for 1926, expenditures for new buses during 1929 



totaled $17,300,000. This figure compares with 
$19,100,000 for 1928, $14,368,000 in 1927 and 
$17,540,000 for 1926. The actual number of new buses 
bought totaled more than 1,800 in 1929 as compared 
with approximately 2,100 in 1928. An increase of 
$2,600,000, however, is forecast by the electric railways 
for 1930. This increase, together with increases of 
practically the same percentages in the other three 
capital accounts indicates a steady and normal expan- 
sion in every department. 

Adding 1,800 new buses during 1929 brings the total 
now being operated by electric railways to more than 
12,400. Since a large number of these have been in 
service for more than five years a considerable pro- 
portion of the buses bought this year were for replace- 
ment. This proportion should increase in the following 
years. With the steady expansion which has character- 




O40 



?30- 



2 20 



10- 



S49,:r6,ooo 



$51,700.000 



546,010.000 



S 38.000,000 




Combined values of cars and buses bought during 1925-1929 and 
the forecasts for 1930. The lower portions represent cars, the 
upper portions buses. The 1929 and 1930 figures indicate a 
pronounced climb from the low point of 1927 



ized this type of service since it was first adopted by 
the electric railways, and the ever-increasing number 
for replacement, the sales should continue to be high. 
In one or two more years the number of buses for 
replacement actually should exceed the numbers pur- 
chased in the years of its expansion. 

In 1928 the total figure for cars and buses reached 
a low mark at $38,000,000. This followed similar de- 
creases in the previous years, the total for 1925 being 
$66,080,000, that for 1926 being $57,540,000 and that 
for 1927 being $49,126,000. It was predicted in pre- 



Maintenance Materials and Labor 



Material. 
1927 Expenditures ■! I^bor. . 



Way and 
Structures 


Cars 


Buses* 


Power 


Total 


$40,517,000 
66,874,000 


$36,941,000 
44,952,000 


$9,451,000 
6,592,000 


$8,310,000 
8,244,000 


$95,219,000- 
126,662.000 



Total $107,391 ,000 



,„,, _ I Material. 
1928 Kxpenditures I Labor 



Total. 

■ „,»„ 1 Material... 
1929 Expenditures I Labor 



Total. 
1 930 Estimated expenditures J Labor. . . . . 



Total. 



$31,040,000 
50,400,000 

$81,440,000 

$35,800,000 
52,800,000 

$88,600,000 

$35,790,000 
51,360,000 

$87,150,000 



*Bu8 maintenance materials include replacement parts, tires and tubes. 



$81,893,000 

$35,200,000 
49,300,000 

$84,500,000 

$36,350,000 
49,380,000 

$85,730,000 

$36,520,000 
50,200,000 

$86,720,000 



$16,043,000 

$15,040,000 
11,870,000 

$26,910,000 

$17,925,000 
13,540,000 

$31,465,000 

$19,650,000 
12,470,000 

$32,120,000 



Bus operating supplies, including fuel and lubricants. 



$16,554,000 

$9,100,000 
6,580,000 

$15,680,000 

$10,460,000 
5,730,000 

$16,190,000 

$10,520,000 
5,660,000 

$16,180,000 



1929 
$20,720,000 



$221,881,000 

$90,380,000 
118,150,000 

$208,530,000 

$100,535,000 
121,450,000 

$221,985,000 

$102,480)«00 
119,690,000 

$222,170,000 



Forecast 
1930 



$22,510,000 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
10 



Outstanding Facts Revealed by the 
Budget Data 



vious articles that 1928 would be the low year, and it 
was. Mounting to $46,010,000 the total for 1929 ex- 
ceeded that for 1928 by $8,010,000 and almost reached 
the combined figure for 1927. It is of particular 
significance that the total for cars and buses in 1930 
will continue to climb, reaching $51,700,000. This 
figure will be an increase of $5,690,000 over 1929 and 
will exceed the totals for the three previous years. 

Expenditures for new power equipment in 1929 were 
$7,570,000, exceeding the 1928 figure by $270,000. 
Because of several rather extensive programs being 
planned and under way the total for 1930 will amount to 
$8,950,000. Among 

the larger expendi- ___^^^^_^_^^^^^^^^^^^ 
tures for new power 
equipment of the 
past year were those 
for the Cleveland 
Union Terminal 
electrification and the 
Lackawanna project. 

Following a slight 
recession in the year 
1928 the total of 
maintenance mate- 
rials, charged to op- 
erating accounts, 
ehowed an increase 
of $10,155,000, or 
11.2 per cent. All of 
the accounts showed 
increases, the first 
time since these fig- 
ures have been com- 
piled. The new total 
was $100,535,000, 
compared with $90,- 
380,000 for 1928. -^^^^—^—-—^^^ 

Way and structures 

showed an increase of $4,700,000 ; cars, $1,150,000 ; buses, 
$2,885,000; and power equipment, $1,360,000. The way 
and structures increase is accounted for in the increased 
expenditure in track maintenance accompanying the de- 
creased amount of track reconstruction. During 1928, 
when the new plant and equipment for way and structures 
showed a large increase, the maintenance materials 
dropped. In 1929 the two accounts were reversed, 
the capital account showing a decrease and maintenance 
an increase. During 1930 maintenance materials for 
way and structures will remain practically the same, 
varying only $10,000. 

One of the most encouraging results of all the main- 
tenance figures is the increase shown in maintenance 
materials for cars. From the time these figures were 
first compiled car maintenance materials have decreased 
each year. Although the increase shown in 1929 is 
not a very large one it does indicate that the downward 
turn has been stemmed. The decrease in 1928 was 
much smaller than in any previous year, which indi- 
cated that no doubt the low point would be reached in 
the first part of 1929 and then go upward. The actual 
total for 1929 and the forecast for 1930, showing 
another increase, proved that this theory was true. 

Exceeding the previous high mark of $15,040,000 
by $2,885,000 the 1929 total of bus maintenance ma- 
terials reach a new high mark at $17,925,000. This 
figure includes replacement parts, tires and tubes, but 
not fuel and lubricants. Bus maintenance materials 



DURING 1929 

The total for new plant and 
equipment and maintenance ma- 
terials showed an increase of 
^10,275,000. 

Car purchases totaled ^28,- 
710,000, an increase of ^9,810,- 
000, or 51.8 per cent. 

Power equipment expenditures 
for both new plant and mainte- 
nance material increased. 

Total maintenance materials 
increased from ^90,380,000 to 
^(100,535,000. 



have shown a steady climb, the increases being almost 
in direct proportion with the number of buses being 
used by the electric railways. During 1930 the total 
will again increase, reaching $19,650,000. 

Bus operating supplies, including fuel and lubricants, 
totaled $20,720,000 for the year. This figure is the 
first one obtained on the budget blanks, so that no 
comparison can be made with previous years. How- 
ever, this figure should increase more nearly in pro- 
portion with the number of buses in operation than 
the maintenance materials. In 1930 this account will 
increase to $22,510,000. It is interesting to note that 

fuel and lubricants 

^^ actually exceed the 

cost of replacement 
parts, tires and 
tubes. 

Maintenance ma- 
terials for power 
equipment showed an 
increase of $1,360,- 
000, reaching the 
figure of $10,460,- 
000. In 1930 ma- 
terials for power 
plant, substation and 
line maintenance will 
show another in- 
crease. It appears 
from the figures for 
the past three years 
and the forecast for 
1930 that this ac- 
count will vary but 
little each year. 
With the ex- 

ception of power all 

departments showed 
an increase in 1929 
of expenditures for maintenance labor. Way and struc- 
tures showed an increase of $2,400,000, cars an increase 
of $80,000, and buses one of $1,670,000. These increases 
brought the total for maintenance materials for 1929 
up to $121,450,000, an increase of $3,300,000. The most 
consistent increases are shown by buses, this account 
mounting from $6,592,000 in 1927 to $11,870,000 in 
1928 and $13,540,000 in 1929. The forecasts for 1930 
indicate that maintenance labor for every account will 
remain practically the same. 

Because all of the maintenance material accounts 
showed increases in 1929 over 1928 and maintenance 
labor varied little, the combined total for both main- 
tenance materials and labor showed an increase. From 
the previous figure of $208,530,000 the total mounted 
to $221,985,000. The combined total for 1930 is set 
by the industry at $222,170,000. It is of real signifi- 
cance that the totals for each account increased. Main- 
tenance figures ordinarily do not fluctuate because main- 
tenance practices on individual properties do not vary 
much within a period of twelve months. Increases in 
every account, therefore, can only indicate that the 
railways are bettering their standards of maintenance. 
In the article of last year the percentages were com- 
puted of maintenance materials to the total of materials 
and labor. Budgets for 1929 indicated that the percent- 
ages were practically the same as for 1928, being 
40.3 for way and structures, 41.2 for cars, 57.0 for 
buses, 64.5 for power and 45.3 for the total. 



DURING 1930 

The total of all expenditures 
for new equipment and mainte- 
nance materials will increase 
more than in 1929, reaching the 
mark of ^251,530,000. 

Car purchases will again be 
high and will exceed those of 
1929. 

Both buses and power equip- 
ment will increase. 

Maintenance materials and 
labor will not vary much from 
the 1929 figures. 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
11 





































































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WHOLESALE 


COMMODITY PRICES 









300 
280 
760 

740 
730 
720 
210 
200 
190 
180 
170 
160 
150 
140 
130 
170 

no 



100 



90 



80 



"' 1914 1915 1916 1911 1918 1919 1970 1971 1977 1923 1924 1925 1926 1977 1926 1929 
Trend of Construction and Operating Costs, Wages and Fares, 1914-1929 

1. Electric railway construction costs weighted according to average use in main- 4. Street railway fares (Richey). U. S. 
(according to American Electric Railway tenance and operation. cities (except New York), weighted ac- 
Association). 3. Electric railway wages (Richey). cording to population. 

2. Electric railway operating materials Maximum hourly wages of platform men, 5. Wholesale commodity prices (U. S. 
costs (Richey). Includes fuel for power, weighted according to number of men. Bureau of Labor Statistics). 





AVERAGE FARES AND 


COSTS 1913-1929 














General 


Wholesale 




















Elec. Ry. 




Eleo. Ry. 


Construc- 


Prices 






Base 1913 = 


100 








Street 


Operating 


Electric 


Construc- 


tion Costs 


All Com- 


















Railway 


Materials 


Railway 


tion Costs 


(Eng. 


modities* 












General 


Wholesale 




Fares 


Costs 


Wages 


(Am. Elec. 


News- 


(U. S Bur. 






Eleo. Ry. 




Elec. Ry. 


Construc- 


Prices, 


1926 


(Eichey) 


(Richey) 


(Richey) 


Ry. Afsn.) 


Record) 


Lab, Stat,) 




Street 
Railway 

Fares 
(Richey) 


Operating 
Materials 

Costs 
(Richey) 


Elestric 

Railway 

Wages 

(Richey) 


Construc- 
tion Costs 
(Am. Elec. 
Ry. Assn.) 


tion Costs 

(En9. 

Neu'S- 

Record) 


All Com- 
modities* 

(U. S. Bur. 

Lab. Stat.) 


September. 
October... 
November. 
December.. 


512.0 
152.8 
153.2 
153.2 


154.2 
155.4 
156.6 
159.2 


226.1 
226.2 
226.3 
226.3 


•203.2 
202.9 
203.7 
203.2 


208.3 
209.8 
210.8 
210,8 


99,7 
99,4 
98.4 
97.9 


1913 


. 100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


69.8 
















1914 


. 100.0 


92.6 


104.2 


94.0 


88.6 


68.1 


1927 














1915 


. 100.1 


93.5 


106.2 


97.3 


92.6 


69.5 


January... 


153.2 


156.0 


226.6 


203.5 


211,5 


96,6 
















February.. 


153.8 


154.0 


226.7 


202.9 


210,2 


95,9 


1916 


. 100.1 


126.2 


111.6 


119.8 


129.6 


85.5 


March .... 


153.4 


152.1 


226.7 


203.0 


208,8 


94,5 


1917 


. 100.5 


181.9 


120.6 


162.7 


181.2 


117.5 


April 


153.4 


148.0 


226.9 


202.6 


209,0 


93,7 


1918. 


. 106.2 


168.8 


140.5 


192.5 


189.2 


131.3 






























May 


153.6 


144.2 


227.4 


201.0 


206,8 


93,7 


1919 

1920. 


. 120.7 
137 2 


172.2 
224 6 


174.0 
217 3 


205.1 
244 7 


198.4 
251.3 


138.6 
154.4 


June 

July 


153.6 
155.2 


143.0 
142.9 


227.5 
227.8 


200 6 
199.9 


205,6 
203,7 


93,8 
94,1 


1921 


. 148.9 


169.9 


222.7 


200.7 


201.8 


97.6 


August. ... 


155.3 


142.1 


227.9 


200.9 


205,5 


95,2 


1922 

I92J 

1924. 


. 146.0 
. 142.9 
. 149.2 


170.0 
168.0 
156.0 


210.0 
212.1 
219.2 


175.2 
200.2 
204.6 


174.4 
214.1 
215.4 


96.7 
100.6 
98.1 


September. 
October. . . 
November. 
December. 


155,5 
155.7 
156.1 
156.2 


141.6 
141.8 
141.3 
140.6 


228.0 
228.2 
228.3 
228.4 


199.4 
199,8 
199.4 
200.7 


203,6 
204,4 
202,0 
203,9 


96,5 
97,0 
96,7 
96,8 


1925 


. 150.2 


153.1 


222.2 


202.4 


206.7 


103.5 


1928 














1926 


. 152.2 


155.0 


225.3 


202.6 


208.0 


100.0 




156.7 


140.6 


228.6 


200.9 


203,9 


96,3 


1927 


. 154.6 


145.7 


227.5 


201.1 


206.2 


95.4 


February.. 


156.7 


139.5 


228.7 


200,9 


204,6 


96,4 
















March. . . . 


157.2 


140.1 


228.8 


200,5 


204,6 


96,0 


1928 


. 157.7 


142.2 


229.3 


203.1 


206.8 


97.6 


April 


157.2 


140.0 


228.8 


201,2 


206,4 


97.4 


1929 


. 160.2 


145.6 


230.6 


202.4 


207.0 


































157.3 


140.4 


229.2 


201,9 


207,0 


98,6 


*B»se 1926 = 100. 












June 


157.3 


141.4 


229.2 


202,7 


206,2 


97,6 
















July 


157.7 


141.8 
142.5 

144.2 
144.9 


229.2 


203,3 


206,6 


98,3 
















August — 
September. 


158.0 

158.1 
158.2 


229.7 

229.7 
229.9 


204,5 

204,4 
205.5 


207,3 

207,3 
207,7 


98,9 




MONTHLY INDEX OF FARES AND COSTS FOR 




100,1 
97,8 






PAST 


FOUR YEARS 






November. 


158.9 


145.1 


229.9 


205.7 


209,5 


96,7 






Base 1913 = 


100 






December. 


159.3 


145.5 


229.8 


205.1 


210,2 


96.7 












General 


Wholesale 


1929 


159.3 


145.3 


229.9 


204.5 


209,4 


97,2 






Eleo. Ry. 




Elec. Ry. 


Construc- 


Prices, 


February.. 


160.0 


145.0 


229.9 


205.2 


210,4 


96.7 




Street 


Operating 


Electric 


Construc- 


tion Costa 


All Com- 




160.0 


144.8 


230.1 


203.4 


207,8 


97,5 




Railway 


Materials 


Railway 


tion Costs 


(Eng. 


modities* 


April 


160.0 


145.0 


230.1 


200,9 


203,4 


96,8 




Fares 


Costs 


Wages 


(Am. Elec. 


News- 


(U. S. Bur. 
















1926 


(Richey) 


(Richey) 


(Richey) 


Ry. Assn.) 


Record) 


Lab. Stat.) 


May 


160.2 


145.5 


230.1 


199,5 


205,2 


95,8 


January... 


. 151.2 


154.3 


223.8 


202.2 


207.2 


103.6 


June 


160.3 


145.8 


230.8 


199,7 


205,6 


96,4 


February. 


. 151.8 


155.3 


223.8 


201.9 


206.6 


102.1 


July 


160.3 


147.5 


230.8 


199,0 


204,8 


98,0 


March. . . . 


. 151.9 


156.4 


224.1 


202.0 


207.6 


100.4 


August 


160.3 


146.4 


251.0 


200,8 


205,9 


97,7 


April 


. 151.9 


154.2 


224.7 


201.3 


207.0 


100.1 






























September. 


160.3 


146.1 


231.0 


203,4 


207,6 


97,5 


May 


151 9 


153 1 


225.4 


202.4 


207.3 


100.5 


October. . . 


160.3 


145.6 


231.1 


203.0 


206,3 


96,3 


152.1 


154.4 


225.5 


201.9 


204.8 


100.5 


November. 


160.6 


145.7 


231.1 


204.8 


208,5 


94.4 


July 


. 152.0 


154.1 


225.7 


203.2 


207.8 


99.5 


December. 


160.6 


144.9 


231. 1 


205. 1 


209,5 




Auffust... 


. 152.0 


153.1 


225.9 


203.6 


208.3 


99.0 


♦Base 1926 - 100. 




















Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
12 











Electric Railway 



Fares and wages continue to in* 
crease, but in a smaller measure 
than during 1928 and 1927. Com- 
modity prices and construction costs 
maintain a level practically the same 
as during the past three years 



Costs and Fares 



in 1929 



FOR several years past the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal has 
pubHshed monthly in its finan- 
cial and corporate section a series of 
index numbers compiled by the writer 
under the heading of "Conspectus of 
Indexes." This conspectus is made up of indexes show- 
ing the trends of street railway fares and of the costs 
of electric railway wages and materials entering into 
electric railway operation; costs of construction, both 
electric railway and general; wholesale commodities in 
general ; retail food ; cost of living, and some others. 
In the annual statistical numbers of the Journal, the 
first issue in January each year, beginning in 1923, 
charts and tables have been presented showing the trend 
since 1913 of the most important of these indexes as 
affecting electric railway operation. In Fig. 7 herewith 
is shown a similar chart indicating the trend of five of 
these indexes from January, 1914, through the latest 
available figures for 1929. The indexes there shown 
are: (1) Electric Railway Construction Costs, as com- 
puted by the formula of the American Electric Railway 
Association; (2) Electric Railway Operating Materials 
Costs, including fuel for power; (3) Electric Railway 
Wages; (4) Street Railway Fares; (5) Wholesale 
Prices of All Commodities, as computed by the U. S. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

The methods used in the computation of these five 
indexes were described fully on page 37 of the Journal 
for Jan. 2, 1926, in an article which also contained a 
tabulation showing the numerical values of the various 
indexes monthly from January, 1920, through December, 
1925. The earlier monthly numerical values, from Jan- 
uary, 1914, through December, 1919, may be found on 
page 19 of the Journal for Jan. 5, 1924. A tabulation 
herewith shows the numerical value of six of the indexes 
yearly from 1913 through 1929, and monthly beginning 
with January, 1926, and these six indexes also are shown 
graphically for the past four years on a somewhat larger 
scale than in Fig. 7 by the charts Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive. 
The weighted average street railway fare, as shown by 
the Richey index in Fig. 1, has increased during 1929 
from 7.71 cents to 7.78 cents, an increase of 0.8 per 
cent during the year. This is a slowing up of the rate 



ALBERT S. RICHEY 

Electric Railway Engineer, 
Worcester, Mass. 



By of increase in the average fare, as 

this index showed a 2 per cent gain 
in 1928 following a 2 per cent gain in 
1927. Ten of the 143 cities which 
aflfect this index reported increases 
in street railway fares during 1929, 
the most important of these increases being in Louis- 
ville, Minneapolis and St. Paul. Other changes were of 
less importance as affecting the index, either on account 
of the smallness of the changes or the relatively small 
population involved. It will be noted that the index of 
the American Electric Railway Association, which is 
also shown in Fig. 1, shows not only a higher average 



&o 









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.^-^^ 




A£«Aj— 


jJ-""^ FAI 


tES 








^ 




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_,-, r^'chev 




• 











ao 



1927 



1929 



7. a 



Fig. 1 — Street Railway Fares (1913 = 4.8425 cents) 

fare, but a slightly greater increase in the average than 
does the Richey index. This is on account of the fact 
that the American Electric Railway Association Fare 
Index includes all cities of more than 25,000 population, 
is an average of cash fares only, and is not a weighted 
average, so that each city is of equal importance in the 
final average regardless of its size or the number of 
passengers aflfected by the fare. On the other hand, the 
Richey index includes only cities of more than 50,000 
population (excluding New York City), and in com- 
puting the average the fares are weighted in accordance 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
13 



235 



230 



225 



720 



215 



210 



200 









^^ 


^^^ 


--' — 


i__ -J ' 

Richey 




^ 










WAGES 


1913 = 100 








A.E.RA, , 







J—'"'^ 






'^ 





230 



225 



220 



1926 1927 1928 1929 

Fig. 2 — Electric Railway Wages 

with the populations of the cities; further, for each city 
where reduced rate tickets are used consideration is 
given to both cash and ticket rates, except that children's 
or workmen's tickets or other forms of special reduced 
rates are not included. 

Electric railway wages, as shown by the indexes in 
Fig. 2, have continued the gradual upward trend which 
started in 1923. The Richey index which includes wages 
on 130 street and interurban railways, weighted in ac- 
cordance with the number of trainmen employed on such 
railways, shows an increase of about 0.6 per cent during 
1929 and now stands at 231. The principal increases in 
wages have been in Chicago, St. Louis, Indianapolis, 
Cincinnati, Louisville, Ft. Wayne, Toledo, Wilmington 
and Memphis, these cities being named in the order of 
the effect of the 1929 wage change on the index. The 
American Electric Railway Association Wage Index 
uses wages on 85 railways and is unweighted with respect 



160 




1926 1927 1928 1929 

Fig. 3 — Electric Railway Operating Materials 

to the number of men employed. Both indexes indicate 
about the same measure of increase in trainmen's wages 
during the past four years. 

A computation of an index of "real wages" of electric 
railway trainmen as compared with 1913 and 1914 may 
be made by dividing the index of wages by the index 
of the cost of living. This indicates an index of "real 
wages" (on the base of 1913-14) of 141.5 at the end of 
1929, which may be compared with 141 at the end of 
1928 and 138 at the end of 1927. Such increases in the 
■"real wages" index for street railway employees show 
their steadily increasing opportunity to better their 
standard of living. 

The cost of electric railway operating materials was 
maintained at a fairly uniform level during 1929. This 
index, as shown by Fig. 3, declined from a high of 159 
in December, 1926, to a low of 139.5 in February, 1928, 
and recovered to practically its present level by Novem- 
ber, 1928. It should be borne in mind that in the 



make-up of this index, fuel for power enters into it with 
a weighting of 40 per cent. 

Electric railway construction costs have remained very 
steadily at about their present level since the middle of 
1923, as indicated by the American Electric Railway 
Association Construction Cost Index, shown on page 12 



710 



200 



1926 1927 1928 1929 

Fig. 4 — A.B.R.A, Electric Railway Construction Costs 

and on a larger scale for the past four years in Fig. 4. 
This index of electric railway construction costs may be 
compared with the general construction cost index of 
the Engineering News-Record, which is shown in Fig. 5 
for the past four years. The latter includes structural 
steel and other building materials in a considerably 
greater weighting than such materials are used in the 
Electric Railway Construction Cost Index, which 




220 



210 



200 



.... , , 

ENeiNEERIN6 NEWS-RECORD CONSTRUCTION COSTS 




"L, 






-'^r"' 


'^hn. 


^.ruH-— ^ 


\"^ 




TJTr|j- 




Lr" 



is 



220 



210. 



20p 



1926 1927 1928 1929 

Fig. 5 — Engineering News-Record Construction Costs 

somewhat stabilized by the heavier weighting of steel 
rail, the price of which has remained constant since Oc- 
tober, 1922. The Electric Railway Construction Cost 
Index has, however, a heavier weighting of the common 
labor rate, which started the year at about 56 cents, 
dropped to 53 cents during the summer months, and has 
recovered to 56^ cents at the end of the year. 

The Wholesale Commodity Index of the United States 
Bureau of Labor Statistics is shown for the past four 
years in Fig. 6, and from 1916 on in the large chart. 
Its level during 1929 has been not greatly different from 
that of 1928. This index is the only one of those pre- 
sented here which has a base other than the year 1913. 
The base of 1913 ^ 100 for the Wholesale Commodity 
Index was discontinued in August, 1927, and since then 
it has been calculated on the base of 1926 = 100 and is 
so shown in the accompanying tables and charts. 




1926 



1927 



1928 



1929 



Fig. 6 — Bureau of Labor Statistics 
Wholesale Commodity Prices 

Favorable indications in the index figures are the even 
trends of prices for several years, continuing through 
1929, along with an increase in fares. The only disturb- 
ing element is the uptrend of wages, making them an 
increasing item in operating cost. Otherwise all the 
indications for the coming year are favorable. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
14 



Industry Strengthened by 

Trackage Readjustment 



By 
JOHN A. MILLER, JR. 

Managing Editor 
Electric Railway Journal 



1000 

soo 

800 

700 

«, 600 

S 500 

400 

300 

200 

100 





Track rebuiH 



Track extension 



qp 



1 n I n 1 

m lai t^ Im Eh I 



rn. 



m 



,'»■: 



1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 

Summary of track extensions and reconstructions since 1917 



1928 



Survey of changes which have occurred 
during past ten years shows that exten- 
sions made by electric railways have 
largely offset abandonments of unprofit- 
able lines. Despite the steady growth 
of bus operation the net decrease in elec- 
tric trackage has been less than 10 per 
cent. Mileage of extensions and also of 
abandonments decreased in 1929 as com- 
pared with 1928. Volume of track re- 
construction continued large on both 
urban and intei'urban properties 

MANY changes in physical plant have been made 
by the electric railways in recent years to meet 
the changing transportation requirements of the 
public. Although somewhat smaller in extent, the 
changes which occurred in 1929 were similar in character 
to those of other recent years. During the past decade 
a considerable amount of track has been abandoned 
where operation proved unprofitable. At the same time 
the electric railways have been active in adding to their 
trackage in profitable territory. The net result of these 
changes has been a decrease of about 9^ per cent in the 



Comparison of Track Construction by Years 





Track ExtensioHB 


Track Rebuilt 


Electrified 




Number of 


Number of 


Steam Lines 


Year 


Companies 


Miles 


Companies 


Miles 


Miles 


1908 


157 


1,174.5 


(o) 


(o) 


84.00 


1909 


160 


774.7 


(o) 


(o) 


112.40 


1910 


217 


1,204.8 


(o) 


(o) 


192.40 


1911 


223 


1,105.0 


(o) 


(a) 


86.50 


1912 


171 


869.4 


(a) 


(a) 


80.80 


1913 


181 


974.9 


(a) 


(o) 


119.00 


1914 


163 


716.5 


(o) 


(o) 


229.00 


1915 


136 


596.0 


(a) 


(o) 


448.20 


1915 


104 


356.30 


(o) 


(o) 


388.00 


1917 


121 


376.70 


150 


375.40 


66.00 


1918 


80 


313.82 


81 


155.43 


275.70 


1919 


73 


140.57 


148 


389.89 


287.60 


1920 


87 


176.56 


131 


361'. 77 


8.92 


1921 


78 


147.10 


184 


615.21 


8.08 


1922 


104 


211.38 


212 


739.70 


12.35 


1923 


132 


233.15 


241 


854.63 


26.12 


1924 


112 


312.08 


218 


764.33 


83.39 


1925 


100 


339.79 


179 


578.90 


236.36 


1926 


95 


317.96 




802.52 


169.52 


1927 


95 


192.41 


212 


887.94 


140.70 


1928 


103 


238.94 


216 


894.73 


276,14 


1929 


81 


167.71 


190 


700. 14 


204.85 


(o) Information not available. 









total electrified track mileage in the United States and 
Canada. Undoubtedly the readjustment of trackage by 
abandonments in some localities and extensions in others 
has greatly strengthened the position of the industry. 

In all, approximately 1,050 miles of track was built 
or rebuilt in 1929. Extensions of electric trackage made 
during the year totaled nearly 380 miles. This total was 
divided 'almost equally between additions to the trackage 
of the local transportation systems and additions to the 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 



15 



electrified trackage of the steam railroads. Extensions 
made to rapid transit track mileage were relatively unim- 
portant. 

While the mileage of extensions made in 1929 was 
somewhat below that of the preceding year, it was 
slightly above the average for the past ten years. Since 
Jan. 1, 1920, the urban and interurban electric railways 
of the United States and Canada have added a total of 
2,337.08 miles of track to their systems. Approximately 
70 per cent of these extensions were made by the urban 
railways and 30 per cent by the interurbans. During 
the same period the steam railroads added 1,166.43 miles 
to their electrified trackage. Thus the total increase in 
electric railway track has been approximately 3,500 miles 
or an average of about 350 miles per year. The mileage 
of extensions is summarized by years in an accompany- 
ing table. 

Some 80 electric railways made extensions to their 
trackage last year. Among the important additions re- 
ported by these companies are 16.48 miles built by the 
Department of Street Railways, Detroit, 11.52 miles by 
the Montreal Tramways, 10.94 miles by the Cleveland 
Railway, 10.45 miles by the Milwaukee Electric Railway 
& Light Company, 5.21 miles by the Pacific Electric 
Railway, 19.98 miles by the Sacramento Northern Rail- 
way, and 23.76 miles by the Oklahoma Railway. Numer- 
ous other extensions were made, ranging in length from 
a fraction of a mile to 5 miles. The complete list of 
extensions made in 1929 is tabulated below. A number 
of additions made to the electrified track mileage of the 
steam railroads are discussed in greater detail elsewhere 
in this issue. 




Classification of electrified track mileage 

Nearly 200 electric railways reported reconstruction 
of track during the year just ended. This is about the 
same number as in other recent years. In all, a total 
of more than 700 miles of track was rebuilt, of which 
approximately 475 miles was in paved street and 225 
miles was open construction. The total figure for 1929 
is slightly less than that for 1928, but about the same 
as the average for the past ten years. This decrease in 



Track Extensions in 1929 



Name of Company 

Alabama 

Birmingham Elec. Co 



Miles 



0.02 



Name of Company 

Michigan 



Mil& 



California 

Market St. Ry., San Francisco . 30 

Pacific Elec. Ry 5.21 

Peninsular Ry., San Jose 0, 75 

Sacramento Northern Ry 19, 98 

Visalia Elec. R.R 0. 10 

Connecticut 

Connecticut Company 1 . 80 

Delaware 

Ddaware Elec. Power Co 0. 29 

Florida 

Miami Beach Ry 0. 48 

Tampa Electric Co. . 04 

Illinois 

Calumet & South Chicago Ry 0.14 

Chicago, Aurora & Elgin R.R 0. 25 

Chicago City Ry 0.07 

Chicago Rys 0. 23 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R 3. 45 

St. Louis & Belleville Elec. Ry 0.41 

Indiana 

Chicago, South Shore & South Bend R.R 4. 00 

Indianapolis Street Ry 0.19 

Indiana Service Corp 36 

Lafayette Street Ry 1. 00 

Union Traction Co 0. 25 

Kentucky 

Louisville Ry 1.13 

Louisiana 

New Orleans Public Service Inc . 80 

Maryland 

United Rsrs. & Elec. Co., Baltimore 4.45 

Massachusetts 

Berkshire St. Ry 0. 21 

Boston Elevated Ry 2. 60 

Eastern Mass. Street Ry 4.91 

Worcester Consolidated St. Ry 0. 22 



Dept. of Street Rys., Detroit 16.48 

Eastern Michigan Ry 1.50 

Minnesota 

Duluth Street Ry 0. 59 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co 4.00 

Missouri 

Kansas City Public Service Co 1.14 

St. Louis Public Service Co 1 . 1 



Nebraska 

Omaha * Council Bluffs Street Ry 0.97 

New York 

International Ry., Buffalo 0.45 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry 2. 92 

Niagara Junction Ry 0. 60 

Third Avenue Railway 0.13 

Steinway Railway . 04 

North Dakota 

Northern States Pwr. Co., Fargo 0.14 

Ohio 

Cincinnati Street Ry 0.18 

Community Traction Co 0. 21 

Cleveland Ry 10.94 

Ohio Public Service Co 0. 1 1 

Pennsylvania-Ohio Pwr, & Lt. Co 0.27 

Toledo Western Ry 0.13 

Oklahoma 

Oklahoma Railway 23 . 76 

Oklahoma Union Ry 0. 82 

Oregon 

Portland Electric Power Co 2. 00 

Pennsylvania 

Conestoga Traction Co 0.43 

Harrisburg Rys 0.28 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co 3.22 

Pittsburgh Railways 2.91 

York Railways 0. 27 



Name of Company Miles 
Rhode Island 

United Elec. Rys., Providence 0. 27 

Tennessee 

MemphisStreet Ry 0.0 

Texas 

Dallas Ry. & Terminal Co 0. 28 

Eastern Texas Elec. Co 0. 23 

Houston North Shore Ry 0. 33 

Texas Electric Ry 1 . 50 

Utah 

Salt Lake & Utah R.R 1 . 65 

Virginia 

Lynchburg Traction & Light Co 0.35 

Virginia Public Service Co 0.10 

Washington 

Seattle Municipal Street Ry . 42 

Spokane, Coeur d'Alene & Palouse Rys 0.12 

Tacoma Ry. & Power Co 0. 17 

Yakima Valley Transportation Co 0. 06 

West Virginia 

Monongahela West Penn. Pub. Serv, Co 0. 08 

Wisconsin 

Milwaukee Elec, Ry, & Light Co 10. 45 

Wisconsin Gas & Elec. Co 0. 38 

Canada 

British Columbia Elec, Ry 0, 30 

Cornwall Street Ry, Light & Power Co 0. 50 

Hamilton Street Ry ^ 4, 00 

Montreal Tramways 1 1 . 52 

Niagara, St. Catherines * Toronto Ry 0. 20 

Nova Scotia Light & Power Co r 0.17 

Oshawa Ry 0.48 

Saskatoon Municipal Ry 1 . 20 

Shcrbrooke Elec. Ry. & PoweliCo 0. 1 1 

Winnipeg Elec. Co 3, 27 

Total 167.71 



Electric Railway Journal— /fl««ory, 1930 
16 



the volume of track reconstruction done last year as 
compared with the preceding year was to be expected, 
however, as the budget figures published in the Jan. 12, 
1929, statistical issue of Electric Railway Journal 
showed a slight reduction in the expenditures planned 
for way and structures in 1929 as compared with 1928. 
Indications from similar reports received during the past 
few weeks are that the volume of trackwork which will 
be done during the coming year will show a considerable 
increase. 



The largest single program of track reconstruction re- 
ported for the year 1929 was that of the Department of 
Street Railways, Detroit, which rebuilt more than 42 
miles of track. Next in size were the programs of the 
Pittsburgh Railways, Public Service Co-ordinated 
Transport and the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Com- 
pany which rebuilt about 32, 26 and 25 miles of track, 
respectively. Other urban railways reporting more than 
10 miles of reconstruction during the past year include 
the Connecticut Company, Chicago Surface Lines, Twin 



Track Reconstruction in 1929 



. — Miles s 

Name of Company Paved Open 
Alabama 

.Alabama Power Co., Anniston 0.76 

Alabama Power Co., Montgomery 0. 45 .... 

Alabama Power Co., Tuscaloosa 0.15 .... 

Birmingham Elec. Co 2.32 6. 45 

Birmingham & Edgewood Elec. Ry 0. 32 

MobUo Light & R.R. Co 3.53 7.21 

Arkansas 

Texarkanna Street Railway 0.20 

CaUfornla 

Key System Transit Co 2.18 

Los Angeles Ry 17.53 

Market St. Ry., San Francisco 2. 22 

Municipal Ry. of San Francisco 0.77 .... 

Pacific Elec. Ry 3.36 11.41 

Southern Pacific Co., East Bay Div.. . . 5 . 84 4.62 

Colorado 

Denver & Intermountain R. R 0.04 

Denver Tramway 2. 60 1.23 

Connecticut 

Connecticut Co 10.90 1.02 

Delaware 

Delaware Elec. Power Co . 65 .... 

District of Columbia 

Capital Traction Co 1.63 .... 

Washington Ry. & Elec. Co 4.07 

Florida 

Gulf Power Co., Pensaoola 0.11 0.06 

Jacksonville Traction Co 1.71 

Tampa Electric Co 1 . 00 

Georgia 

Georgia Power Co., Atlanta 6.14 .... 

niinois 

Calumet & South Chicago Ry . 86 

Chicago, Aurora & Elgin R.R? 1 2. 00 

Chicago City Ry 9.11 . 

Chicago Rys 14.32 0.25 

Chicago & Joliet Elec. Ry 1 . 00 .... 

Chicago, No. Shore & Milwaukee R.R. . 1.28 3.03 

Kast St. Louis Ry 0.50 .... 

Illinois Power & Light Corp., Champaign. ... 0. 04 

Illinois Power & Light Corp., Decatur. 0.15 .... 

Illinois Power & Light Corp., Peoria. . . 1 . 60 .... 

Rockford Elec. Co 0.35 

St. Louis & Alton Ry 1.93 

St. Louis & Belleville Elec. Ejr 0.41 

Indiana 

Beech Grove Traction Corp 1 . 00 

Chicago, S. Bend & Northern Ind. Ry.. 1 . 25 

Chicago, S. Shore 4 S. Bend R.R 7.00 

Indianapolis St. Ry 1.47 1.18 

Indiana Service Corp 0.55 

Lafayette Street Railway 1 . 00 .... 

Terre Haute. Ind. & Eastern Trac. Co. 0.19 

Union Traction Co 0.05 .... 

Kansas 

Kansas Power & Light Co 0.76 .... 

Wichita R.R. & Light Co 0.50 

Kentucl<7 

Louisville Ry 2.09 0.88 

Louisville & Interurban Ry 0. 1 1 .... 

Ixtuisiana 

New Orleans Public Service, Inc 3.58 3.33 

Maine 

Biddeford & Saco R.R 1 . 50 

York Utilities Co 0.90 0.90 

Maryland 

Potomac Edison Co 0.38 .... 

United Rys. & Elec. Co., Baltimore 7.63 1.33 

Massacbusetts 

Berkshire St. Ry 0.05 1.57 

Boston Elevated Ry 5.02 2.76 

Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn R.R 4.00 

Boston, Worcester cSc New York St. Ry 15.00 



Name of Company 



. — Miles — , 
Paved Open 



1.25 
2.28 
3.00 
0.34 



2.05 



1.00 



0.32 



Eastern Mass. St. Ry 8.41 

Springfield St. Ry 2. 34 

Union Street Ry., New Bedford 1 . 00 

Worcester Consolidated St. Ry 2. 22 

Micbigan 

Eastern Michigan-Toledo R.R 0.10 

Eastern Michigan Railway 2.10 

Dept. of Street Railways, Detroit 40. 22 

Minnesota 

Duluth St. Ry 3. II 

Northern States Pwr. Co., St. Cloud 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co 1 3 . 80 

Missouri 

Hannibal Ry. & Elec. Co 0.19 

Kansas City Public Service Co 0. 49 

Springfield Traction Co 1 . 27 

St. Joseph Ry., Lt., Ht. & Pwr. Co.. . . 0. 50 

St. Louis Public Service Co 7 , 00 

Montana 

Butte Elec. Ry 0. 40 

Nebraslia 

Lincoln Traction Co 0.41 

Omaha & Council Bluffs St. Ry 0. 88 

Omaha Lincoln & Beatrice Ry 0. 25 

New Hampsbire 

Berlin Street Railway 

Nashua Street Railway 0. 33 

New Jersey 

Public Service Co-ord. Transport 23. 85 

New Yoric 

luternational Ry.. Buffalo 10.51 

Jamaica Central Rys 1.35 

Jamestown Street Railway 1 . 23 

Manhattan & Queens Trac. Corp 0. 28 

New York Rys 0.68 

New York & Queens County Ry. ..... 1 . 26 

New York State Rys., Rochester 1.91 

New, York State Rys., Syracuse 

New York State Rys., Utica 0.61 

Schenectady Ry 1.25 

Steinway Ry 1.61 

Syracuse & Eastern R.R 0. 58 

Triple Cities Traction Co., Bingbamton 0. 47 

Third Ave. Ry 12.16 .... 

United Traction Co., Albany 1.79 

Nortb Carolina 

Carolina Pwr. & Lt. Co., Raleigh 0.25 

Tide Water Power Co., Wilmington 0.13 

North Daltota 

Northern States Pwr. Co., Fargo 0.48 

Ohio 

Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry .... 0.56 0.28 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington, Ry. 3.70 .... 

Cmcinnati St. Ry 15.00 1.62 

Cleveland Ry 8.35 0.71 

Cleveland Southwestern Ry. & Lt. Co. 0. 50 

Columbus Ry., Pwr. & Lt. Co 1 . 49 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Elec. Co. 1 . 00 

Community Traction Co., Toledo 8. 12 

Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Trac. Co 

Lake Shore Elec. Ry 1 . 85 

Lima & Toledo R.R 0.28 13.10 

Lorain St. Railroad 0. 34 

Lancaster Traction & Power Co 1.00 

Northern Ohio Pwr. & Lt. Co 3. 55 

Pennsylvania-Ohio Pwr. & Lt. Co 0. 34 

Shenango Valley Trac. Co 0. 32 

Stark Electric R.R 0.56 

Toledo & Western Ry 0.38 

Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Ry 0. 50 

Western Ohio Ry. & Power Corp 0. 40 

West End Trac. Co 

Oiilaboma 

United Service Co., Tulsa 2. 00 

Oregon 
Portland Electric Power Co 

Pennsylvania 

Allegheny Valley Street Railway 0.10 3.30 

Altoona & Logan Valley Elec. Ry 0.70 2.17 

Beaver Valley Traction Co 1.58 



0.38 



2.11 



0.54 



4.83 

3.63 
3. 10 
1.96 



1.70 



0.70 
19.90 
2.00 



1.50 



0.72 



1.25 



. — .Miles — . 
Paved Open 

0.20 .... 

1.00 .... 

0.97 

2.00 

0.50 

3.55 
24.69 
27.85 



Name of Company 

Conestoga Traction Co 

Erie Rys 

Harrisburg Rys 

Johnstown Traction Co 

New Castle Elec. St. Ry 

Northern Ohio Power & Light Co 

Philadephia Rapid Transit Co 

Pittsburgh Railways 

Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & New 

Castle Ry 

Reading Transit Co 

Scranton Ry 

Southern Pennsylvania Traction Co. . . 

Valley Rys., Lemoyne 

Webster, Monessen, Belle Vernon, 

Fayette City St. Ry 

West Penn. Rye 

Wilkes-Barre Ry 

Williamsport Rys 

York Railways 

Rhode Island 

IPnited Elec. Rys., Providence 

Tennessee 

Knoxville Power & Light Co 

Memphis St. Ry 

Nashville Ry. & Lt. Co 

Tennessee Electric Power Co 

Texas 

Dallas Ry. & Terminal Co 1 . 28 

Galveston Elec. Co 0. 59 

Houston Elec. Co 0. 02 

San Antonio Public Service Co 0.71 

Texas Elec. Ry 1 . 00 

Utah 

Salt Lake & Utah R.R 

Utah Light & Traction Co . 20 

Virginia 

Lynchburg Trac. & Lt. Co 2. 00 

Roanoke Ry. & Elec. Co 0. 65 

Virginia Elec. & Pwr. Co 6.15 

Virginia Public Service Co 0.19 

Washington 

Gray's Harbor Ry. & Lt. Co 

Seattle Municipal St. Ry 

Spokane United Rys 

Tacoma Ry. & Pwr. Co 



0.25 



1.00 15.00 

1.75 .... 

1.44 0.15 

0.55 .... 

0.63 0.62 



0.31 
1.20 
1.10 
0.13 
1.09 

7.50 

0.21 
8.10 
1.45 
3.12 



0.71 
2.70 
0.77 
2.92 



West Virginia 

Charleston Interurban R.R 

Monongahela West Penn Pub. Serv. Co, 
Wheeling Traction Company 

Wisconsin 

Chicago & Milwaukee Elec. Ry 

Madison Rys 

Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co 

Northern States Power Co., Eau Claire 

Wisconsin Power & Lt. Co 

Wisconsin Valley Elec. Co 

Hawaiian Islands 

Honolulu Rapid Transit Co 



0.25 
0.32 
3.00 



1.28 
0.50 
10.52 
1.00 
0.75 
0.70 



0.63 



Canada 

British Columbia Elec. Ry 

Cape Breton Electric Co 

Cornwall St. Ry. Lt. & Power Co 

Edmonton Radial Ry 

Hamilton St. Ry 

Hydro-Electric Rys., Guelph 

Hydro Electric Rys., Kingsville 

Hydro-Electric Rys., Windsor 

Lethbridge Municipal St. Ry 

Levis Tramways 

London Street Ry 

Montreal Tramways 

New Brunswick Power Co 

Nova Scotia Light & Power Co 

Ottawa Klectric Railway 

Saskatoon Municipal Ry 

Sherbrooke Elec. Ry. & Power Co. . . . 
Toronto Transportation Commission. , 
Winnipeg Elec. Co 



2.17 
0.75 
0.50 
0.86 
2.00 



1.50 
0.88 
10.37 
0.53 
0.64 
3.00 
1.00 
0.60 
5.04 
1.32 



0.90 
0.63 



1.55 



0.50 

6. si 

3.12 
1.00 

0.75 



1.28 
1.66 



3.06 
5.00 
2.87 



0.16 
1.30 



1.55 



0.5t 

i:66 



0.25 
0.38 
1.26 



0.45 



TotaU .472.07 228.07 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
17 



City Rapid Transit Company, Mobile Light & Railroad 
Company, International Railway at Buffalo, Cincinnati 
Street Railway, Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Company, Los Angeles Railway, Third Avenue Railway 
and the Montreal Tramways. Among the interurbans, the 
Pacific Electric Railway, the Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler 
& New Castle, the Boston, Worcester & New York Street 
Railway, the Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany, the Lima & Toledo Railroad and the Chicago, 
Aurora & Elgin Railroad reported more than 10 miles of 
reconstruction done during the past year. 

Less track was permanently abandoned by the electric 
railways during 1929 than in other recent years. In all, 
about 750 miles of track was abandoned by companies 
which continued to operate the major portions of their 
rail systems. Reasons for such abandonments were the 
same as those which have actuated similar actions in the 
past — light traffic which did not produce sufficient rev- 
enue to meet operating costs or the necessity to make 
large expenditures for rehabilitation, or both. In many 
instances bus operation under the management of the 
railway was inaugurated to replace the rail service for- 
merly given. In some instances, however, where traffic 
was extremely thin, it was not deemed advisable to sup- 
ply service of any kind. 

The number of electric railways which abandoned all 



rail operation was smaller in 1929 than in any other 
recent year, as was also the mileage involved. Alto- 
gether, there were fewer than twenty such companies 
operating only about 300 miles of track. Among these 
the West Chester Street Railway, the Burlington Trac- 
tion Company, the Sioux Falls. Traction System and the 
Hamilton Radial Electric Railway, all replaced their rail 
service by bus service under their own auspices. The 
Bethlehem Transit Company abandoned rail operation, 
and bus service is now furnished by the Lehigh Valley 
Transit Company. All rail operations were abandoned 
in the small cities of Plattsburgh, N. Y., and Santa 
Barbara, Cal., without the substitution of any other 
organized transportation service. Other complete aban- 
donments of the year include the Manhattan Bridge 
3-Cent Line of New York City and the Van Brunt & 
Erie Basin Railroad in Brooklyn. Prior to their aban- 
donment the service rendered by these companies had 
been superseded to a large extent by under-river tunnels 
and rapid transit service. 

Analysis of the conditions surrounding the abandon- 
ment of some 150 electric railway systems during the 
past decade shows that the great majority have occurred 
in small communities. The average size of the population 
served was approximately 10,000 and the average length 
of the rail system was about 8.5 miles. Nearly half of 



Partial Track Abandonments in 1929 



Miles 
Name of Campauy 
Aistama 

Blrmineham Eleo. Co 0. M 

Arizona 

SlTMt Ry.. City of Phoenix 5. 50 

Tueson Rapid Transit Co 1.01 

Arkansas 

Arkansas Pwr. & U. Co., Pine Bluff 0. 20 

CaUfornla 

Key System Transit Co 9. 32 

Market St. Ry., San Francisco 0.10 

Pacific Coast Ry., San Luis Obispo 0.4^ 

Pacific Klec. Ry 10. 54 

Peninsular Ry., San Jose 2. 00 

Sacramento Northern Ry 0.13 

San Diego Elec. Ry 1 . 30 

Colorado 

Denver Tramway 1 1 . 76 

Connecticut 

Connecticut Co 42. 49 

New Haven & Shore Line Elec. Ry 18.13 

Delaware 

Delaware Elec. Power Co 11 . 76 

District of Columbia 

Washington Ry. & Elec. Co 0. 05 

Florida 

Gulf Power Co., Pensaeola 1.81 

Jacksonville Trac. Co 1.26 

Georgia 

Columbus Elec. & Pwr. Co 0, 90 

Georgia Power Co., Rome 1 . 60 

Savannah Electric & Power Co 2.51 

llilnois 

Alton Ry 4.18 

Chicago* Illinois Valley R.R 14.39 

Chicago & Joliet Elec. Ry 1 . 00 

Illinois Power & Light Corp., Bloomington. 0. 98 

Illinois Power & Lighf Corp., Galesburg. . . . 1 . 50 

Illinois Power & Light Corp., Quincy 15. 94 

Rockford, Beloit & Janesville Elec. Ry 1 . 00 

Indiana 

Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Traction Co . . 8.37 

Interstate Public Service Co 2. 16 

Northern Indiana Power Co 0.25 

Union Traction Co 0. 65 

Iowa 

Mississippi Valley Elec. Co., Iowa City ... 1 . 00 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Ry. & Bridge Co. . 0. 77 

Tri-City Ry. of Iowa 1 . 74 



Miles 

Name of Company 

Kansas 

Kansas Power Sc Light Co., Topeka 8. 24 

Kentuclcy 

Kentucky Utilities Co., Paducah 2. 20 

Louisville Ry. 0.28 

Louisiana 

New Orleans Public Service, Ino 1 3 . 76 

Orleans-Kenner Trac. Co 3.61 

Maine 

Androscoggin & Kennebec Ry 16.22 

York UtiUties Co 32.68 

Maryland 

Potomac Edison Co 10. 09 

United Rys. & Elec. Co., Baltimore 6. 33 

Massachusetts 

Berkshire St. Ry 2. 73 

Boston El. Ry 19. 54 

Eastern Mass. St. Ry 16. 81 

Fitchburg & Leominster St. Ry 5 . 00 

Massachusetts Northeastern St. Ry 18. 17 

Middlesex & Boston St. Ry 22.77 

Worcester Consolidated St. Ry 17. 40 

Michigan 

Dept. of Street Rys.. Detroit 2. 07 

Lake Superior Dist. Pwr. Co., Ironwood.. . , 5. 54 

Minnesota 

Duluth St. Ry 0.31 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co 0. 26 

Missouri 

City Light & Traction Co., Sedalia 0. 45 

Kansas City Public Service Co 0. 14 

St. Louis Public Service Co 4. 26 

Nebrasl<a 

Omaha <fe Council Bluffs St. Ry 0.19 

New Jersey 

Coast Cities Railway 1 3. 32 

New Torlc 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R.R 4.05 

International Ry, Buffalo 4. 57 

New York Rys 0.15 

New York State Rys., Oneida 1.71 

New York State Rys., Rochester 44. 86 

New York State Rys., Utica 1.42 

Niagara Junction Ry 0. 25 

Ogdensburg St. Ry 1 . 70 

Steinway Railway 0.05 

Third Avenue Ry 20.04 

United Traction Co., Albany 4.19 

Ohio 

Cincinnati St. Ry 1 . 60 

Cleveland Ry 6. 15 

Columbus Ry., Pkt. <t Lt. Co 3.47 



Miles 
Name of Company 

Community Traction Co., Toledo 7. 29 

New Castle & Lowell Ry 0. 26 

Northern Ohio Power <fc Light Co 65. 04 

Ohio River Ry. & Pwr. Co 9. 29 

Pioneer Transportation, Inc 1 . 75 

Youngstown Municipal Ry 4, 84 

Oldahoma 

Northeast Oklahoma R.R 9. 60 

Oklahoma Union Ry 13.51 

Pennsylvania 

Beaver Valley Traction Co 0. 06 

Conestoga Traction Co 0. 17 

Harrisburg Rys 0. 31 

New Castle Elec. St. Ry 0. 32 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co 2. 15 

Pittsburgh Railways 2.17 

Reading Transit Co 0. 25 

Scranton Ry 0. 72 

Valley Rys., Lemoyne 0. 25 

Khode Island 

United Elec. Rys., Providenc* 44. »• 

Texas 

Eastern Texas Elec. Co 0. 68 

Northern Texas Traction Co 3. 70 

San Antonio Public Service Co 2. 57 

Utah 

Utah Light & Traction Co 5.71 

Virginia 

Lynchburg Trac. & Lt. Co 0. 25 

Petersburg, Hopewell & City Point Ry 3. 00 

Roanoke Ry. & Elee. Co 1 , 05 

Virginia Elec. & Pwr. Co 7. 38 

Virginia Public Service Co 9. 07 

Washington 

Pacific Northwest Traction Co 1.94 

Seattle Municipal St. Ry 6.12 

Spokane, Coeur d'Alene & Palouse Rys. ... 0. 49 

Tacoma Ry. & Power Co 20. 6* 

Yakima Valley Transportation Co 0. 04 

West Virginia 

Monongahela West Penn. Pub. Serv. Co. . . 22. 28 
Wisconsin 

Milwaukee Elec. Ry. & Lt. Co 10.98 

Wisconsin Public Service Corp 2 1 . 22 

Canada 

London Street Ry 1 . 25 

Montreal Tramways 0. 90 

Niagara, St. Catherines & Toronto Ry 0.10 

Oshawa Ry 0. 02 

Winnipeg Elec. Co 9. 7» 

Total 766.45 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
18 



these companies and half of the total miles of track were 
in towns having an average population of less than 5,000 
persons. Only 10 per cent of the abandoned railways 
were located in towns of over 20,000 population. 

A considerable number of other abandoned electric 
railway systems were so located that exact determination 
of the population served is impossible. From the fact 
that in many instances no organized transportation service 
has replaced the abandoned rail service, however, it may 
be inferred that the population formerly served by these 
lines also was exceedingly small. 

Bus service has replaced rail service over about two- 
thirds of the abandoned mileage. In many instances this 
is being given by the same management which formerly 
gave rail service, but in some instances new management 
has come in. On some 1,300 miles of track where the 
traffic was so light that it became necessary to discontinue 
rail service, no organized transportation service of any 
kind is now given. 



Entire Electric Railway Properties Abandoned in 1929 

Miles 
of 

Name of Company Track 

.Atlantic City & Suburban Ry 1 6. 00 

.\ugu8ta-Aiken Railway 25. 10 

Bethlehem Transit Co 7.25 

♦Burlington Rapid Transit Co 16. 50 

Commission of Public Docks, Portland, Ore 1 . 50 

Detroit, Jackson & Chicago Ry 69. 14 

♦Hamilton Radial Elec. Ry 18.00 

Lima & Defiance R.R., Ohio 45.00 

Lowell & Fitchburg St. Ry 13. 22 

Manhattan Bridge 3c. Line 4.50 

Plattsburgh Traction Co 7 . 58 

Puget Sound Power & Light Co., Southern District 6. 66 

Santa Barbara & Suburban Ry * . . . . 8. 99 

♦^ioux Falls Traction System 1 4 . 50 

♦Vermont Co 12.02 

\&n Brunt Street & Erie Basin R.R 2.78 

W arren <fe Jamestown St. Ry 20 . 38 

♦West Chester Street Railway 28. 00 

Total 317.12 



♦ Bus service substituted under same management. 



Rapid Transit Situation Shows Little Change 

New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Chicago are the only ones in which regular 
high-speed subway and elevated service is given 



NOTWITHSTANDIImG widespread interest in 
transit in many cities, there are only four metro- 
politan centers in the United States where lines devoted 
exclusively to rapid transit passenger movement has been 
constructed. These are New York, Boston, Philadelphia 
and Chicago. The accompanying table gives the route 
and track mileages and the number of cars operated, as 
compiled from available sources. 

New York, on account of the immense concentration 
of population in a limited area, naturally has the greatest 
rapid transit mileage. Two separate companies give both 
subway and elevated service in the boroughs of Man- 
hattan, Brooklyn and Queens. The Interborough system 
alone operates in the Bronx, and the Staten Island Rapid 
Transit Company, which is an electrification of the steam 
railroad which has been in operation for many years, 
serves the Borough of Richmond (Staten Island). Be- 
sides these lines, the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, 
popularly known as the Hudson Tubes, operates an un- 
derground system beneath Sixth Avenue, Manhattan, 
which crosses the Hudson River to reach points in Jersey 
City and Hoboken. A second route runs from the Hud- 
son Terminal at Church and Dey Streets, Manhattan, to 
Jersey City and continues on surface tracks of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad to Newark. While the Hudson & 
Manhattan is an interstate line, and as such comes under 
the supervision of the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
its service differs but little from rapid transit. 

For years the Long Island Railroad has been serving 
the urban population of New York City with suburban 
transit. It operates into the heart of Manhattan and 
supplements to a large extent the subway and elevated 
lines. The same is true to a lesser extent of the suburban 
services of the New York Central, New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, and New York, Westchester & Boston. 

In Boston the rapid transit service is given by the 
trains of the Boston Elevated Railway. In addition there 
are several routes of surface cars operating on elevated 
or subway tracks. The most important of these is the 
Boylston Street subway, which runs from Kenmore to 
Park Street at the edge of the Boston Common. Another 



route runs on an elevated track from Lechmere Square 
to North Station, the surface cars continuing into the 
Tremont Street Subway to Park Street. 

The Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn Railroad is a nar- 
row-gage line operating on its own right-of-way between 
East Boston and Lynn, Mass. Its method of operation 



Data on Rapid Transit Lines in United States 

Total 

. — Route Miles — > Track 

Subway Elevated Miles Cara 
Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Rapid Transit Co 0.0 81.1 229.5 1,797 

Boston, Mass. 

Boston Elevated Railway 12.2 10.0 57.5 528J 

Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn R.R... 0.0 13.8* 31.0 96 
New York, N. Y. 

Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Co 41.66 280.6 1,939 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co 44.6 116.6 356.7 3,712 

Hudson & Manhattan R.R 8.5 O.Ot 20.0 305 

Staten Island Rapid Transit Co. 0.0 21.6* 44.7 100 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. 

Market St.-Frankford Elevated.... 2.6 11.8 39.0 215 

Broad St. Subway 6.1 0.0 20.9 150 

♦Operates a high-speed line on the surface on private right-of-way. 
i Operates a subway line and leases a high-speed surface line on the private 
right-of-way of the Pennsylvania Railroad to Newark, N.J. 

differs but little from the rapid transit lines of the Boston 
Elevated Railway, and for that reason it is included. 

Besides these lines there are several instances where 
electric railways and electrified steam lines give service 
comparable with that already described. The North- 
western Pacific Railroad, and the Key System Transit 
Company, operating across the bay from San Francisco, 
are examples of this class of service. The Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad runs a suburban service in the city of 
Chicago and its suburbs that is comparable to rapid 
transit. Beginning in the near future certain lines center- 
ing in the Cleveland Union Terminal will furnish sub- 
urban service, principally within the city of Cleveland, 
differing but little from rapid transit. 

In the city of Cincinnati a rapid transit subway has 
been constructed, but the stations never have been built 
nor track laid. For that reason it is impossible to include 
it in the tabulation. 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
19 



Bus Operations Are SteadU 



By 
J. R. STAUFFER 

Assistant Editor Electrical Railway Journal 



CONTINUED activities in the co-ordination of bus 
and trolley operations, substitution of buses for 
cars on small, unprofitable lines that did not 
warrant rehabilitation, and the merging of numerous 
independent units into stronger unified systems were the 
dominant features in the development of bus operations 
by electric railways in 1929. 

These adjustments involved the purchase of nearly 
2,200 buses during the past year and the extension and 



installation of bus routes of approximately 4,000 miles, 
bringing the total number of buses now operated by the 
electric railways of the United States and Canada to 
12,451 and the total number of bus-miles covered to 
24,937. In comparison with the 1928 survey, purchases 
of bus equipment were slightly lower in 1929, but exten- 
sions to bus mileage were greater, excluding the mileage 
added in 1928 by the Southern Pacific Motor Transport 
Company in special long-haul service. 



Bus Operation by Electric Railways and Subsidiary Companies 



Xo. Buses 
Jan. I, 
1930 
Alabama 

Alabama Power Co. { gfd|den . . . . . . . . . ... 4 

Birmingham Electric Co 4 

♦Selma Electric Ry 5 

Arizona 

Phoenix Street Ry 2 

Tuscon Rapid Transit Co 5 

*Warren Co 6 

Arkansas 

Arkansas Power & Light Co II 

Intercity Terminal Railway 9 

California 

Bakersfield & Kern Electric Ry 5 

Eureka Street Ry I 

Key System Transit Co 64 

Los Angeles Ry 189 

Los Angeles Motor Bus Co. 67 

Market Street Ry 6 

Municipal Ry. of San Francisco 18 

Pacific Electric Ry 1 32 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co II 

Peninsular Ry 8 

Sacramento Northern Ry I 

San Diego Electric Ry 30 

San Francisco, Napa & Calistoga R.R 2 

Napa VaUey Bus Co. 

San Jose Railroads 1 

Southern Pacific Co. (Electric Division) 52 

♦Union Traction Co., Santa Cruz 5 

Colorado 

Colorado Springs A Interurban Ry 5 

♦Denver & Interurban Motor Co 10 

♦Denver & South Platte Transportation Co. . . 2 

Denver Tramway 22 

Bus Transportation Co. 

Fitzsimons Bus & Taxi Co. 

Grand River Valley Ry 2 

Public Service Co. of Colo 5 

Connecticut 

Connecticut Co 165 

♦Danbury Power & Transportation Co 17 

♦Groton «k Stonington Traction Co 14 

♦Lordship Ry 5 

New Haven & Shore Line Ry 13 

Waterbury 4 Mildale Tramway 3 

Delaware 

Delaware Electric Power Co 22 

Delaware Bus Co. 

District of Columbia 

Capital Traction Co 42 

Washington Ry. & Electric Co 101 

Washington & Old Dominion Ry I 

Florida 

Jacksonville Traction Co 4 

♦Key West Electric Co 5 

Miami Beach Ry 50 

Municipal Ry. of St. Petersburg 8 

Tampa Electric Co 23 



No. Buses 
Jan. I, 
1930 
Georgia 

Columbus Electric & Power Co 22 

Columbus Transportation Co. 

Georgia Power Co 29 

AUanta Coach Co. 

Savannah Electric & Power Co 18 

Idaho 

♦Boise Street Car Co II 

Illinois 

Alton Ry... 5 

.■\urora, Elgin & Fox River Electric Co 5 

♦Central niinoisPublicServiceCo. j gpri^gfieW 9 

♦Central Illinois Traction Co 3 

Chicago, Aurora & Elgin R.R 10 

Western Motor Coach Co. 

Chicago City Ry 3 

Chicago & Illinois Valley R.R ID 

Chicago & Joliet Electrio Ry 10 

Chicago & Joliet Transportation Co. 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R 85 

Metropolitan Motor Coach Co. 

Chicago Ry 5 

Chicago & West Towns Ry 46 

East St. Louis & Suburban Ry 5 

East St. Louis Ry 13 

Evanston Ry 27 

Evansion & NUes Center Bus Co. 

Illinois Power Co 19 

Illinois Power & Light Corp 1 39 

Illinois Terminal R.R 18 

♦Joliet, Plainfield & Aurora Transp, Co 6 

Kewanee Public Service Co 2 

Rockford Electric Co 26 

Rockford & Interurban Ry 10 

Tri-City Ry. of III 5 

Indiana 

Beech Grove Traction Corp 8 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Ry. 25 

Chicago, South Shore & South Bend R.R 108 

Shore Line Motor Coach Co. 

Evansville & Ohio Valley Ry 10 

Gary Railways 5 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Trac. Co. 2 

Indianapolis Street Ry 27 

Peoples Motor Coach Co. 

Indianapolis & Southeastern R.R 8 

Indiana Service Corp 12 

Interstate Public Service Co 32 

Northern Indiana Power Co 5 

Southern Indiana Gas & Electric Co 17 

Southern Michigan Ry 3 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac. Co. 50 

Indiana Motor Transit Co. 

T. H. I. & E. (Terre Haute Div.) 19 

Union Traction Co. of Indiana 51 

Iowa 

Cedar Rapids & Iowa City R.R 8 

Clinton, Davenport & Muscatine Ry 3 

Des Moines & Central Iowa R.R 3 

♦Des Moines Electric Light Co 6 

Fort Dodge. Des Moines & Southern R.R. ... 37 
Ft. Dodge, Des Moines & SotUh. Transp. Co. 



No. Buses 

Jan. I, 

1930 

Fort Madison Street Ry 2 

Interstate Power Co 9 

♦Iowa Railway & Light Co. iMarsballtowzi. . . 9 
Iowa Southern Utilities Co. 

Burlington 22 

Centervilie 3 

Ottumwa 6 

Mississippi Valley Electric Co 5 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry II 

Tri-City Ry 15 

Kansas 

Arkansas Valley Interurban Ry 12 

Arkansas Valley Transportation Co. 

Kansas City, Leavenworth & Western Ry. ... 13 

Leavenworth Transportation Co. 

Kansas Power & Light Co 39 

Kansas Public Service Co 2 

Salina Street Ry 2 

United Power & Light Corp 3 

Wichita Railroad & Light Co 50 

Wichita Motor Bus Co. 

Kentucky 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co 29 

Kentucky Coach Co. 

Consolidated Coach Corp. 

Kentucky Utilities Co 12 

Louisville Ry 43 

Kentucky Carriers, Inc. 

Louisiana 

Baton *vouge Electric Co 3 

♦Louisiana Elec. Co 7 

Municipal Street Ry., Alexandria 12 

New Orleans Puolic Service, Inc 39 

Maine 

YorkUtihtiesCo 5 

Maryland 

♦Cumberland & Westernport Transit Co 13 

Potomac Edison Co 93 

Blue Ridge Transportation Co. 

United Rys. & Electric Co 122 

Baltimore Coach Co. 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elec. R.R. 3 

Massachusetts 

Berkshire Street Ry 4 

Boston Elevated Ry ? 19 

Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn Ry 2 

Point Shirley St. Ry. Co. 

Boston, Worcester & New York Street Ry.. . . II 

Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry 90 

East Taunton Street Ry 2 

Fitchbuj-g & Leominster Street Ry 7 

♦Gardner-Templeton Street Ry 9 

Holyoke Street Ry 3 

Interstate Street Ry '4 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry 98 ] 

♦Milford, Framingham, Hopedale & Uxbridge 

Coach Co 7 1 

Northampton Street Ry 4 

(Table Continued on page SB) 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
20 



Ixpanded by Electric Railways 



Of the 2,194 buses bought 
last year, 1,813 were new 
equipment while 381 were 
used and were acquired, in 
most cases, in the absorption 
of independent bus compa- 
nies by the railways. Simi- 
larly, the figure of 775 buses which were sold or scrapped 
during the year includes a large number of transferred 
equipment as a result of the merging of interests. 

Still maintaining its position as the largest operator of 
motor buses in the United States, Public Service Co-ordi- 
nated Transport, of New Jersey, increased its fleet to a 
total of 2,337 buses. During 1929 this company pur- 
chased 638 buses, of which 374 were new and 264 were 
second-hand. Practically all of these buses were of the 



Purchases of new buses and extensions of bus 
mileage during the past year denote normal and 
healthy progress. Almost 2,200 buses were bought 
and nearly 4,000 miles of route was added 



Electric & Power Company 
and the Third Avenue Rail- 
way in New York each pur- 
chased more than 25 new 
buses during 1929. 

Bus mileage changes dur- 
ing the year include 3,825 
miles of extensions and 670 miles of abandoned route. 
Of the extensions made, only 425 miles replaced former 
trolley operations, and in almost every case substitution 
of bus service was made on lines which were due for 
renewal of tracks or sul)ject to municipal paving demands. 
The Wheeling Traction Company, through its acquisition 
of tile White Star Lines, extended its bus operations by 
197 miles : Wisconsin Power & Light Company extended 
its bus routes 168 miles, replacing all trolley car service 
in the city of Janesville, Wis., and 1.75 miles in Oshkosh, 
Wis. An exchange was made with the Royal Rapid Bus 
Company whereby three lines — Berlin to Juneau, 51 
miles ; Plymouth to Elkhart Lake, 7 miles, and Madison 

to Prairie du Sac. 35 
miles — were traded for 
a 114-mile route from 
Madison, Wis., to Du- 
buque, Iowa. The Po- 
tomac Edison Com- 
pany extended its 
routes 150 miles with 
bus service, of which 
6.69 miles replaced 
trolley car route ; 
Northern Ohio Power 
& Light Company ex- 
tended its bus opera- 




Additional electric railways which 
inaugurated bus service during 
the year bring the total to 370 

semi-deluxe or deluxe, 29 to 
33-passenger type. Approxi- 
mately 1,100 miles of bus 
routes was added to the 
existing routes, bringing the 
total to 2,852 miles. 

Other large purchasers of 
bus equipment were : United 
Electric Railways, Provi- 
dence, R. L, which bought 
72 new buses from 29 to 37- 

passenger capacity ; Toronto Transportation Commission, 
which added 51 buses ranging in seating capacity from 17 to 
.^3 passengers ; New York State Railways, which purchased 
."^0 buses of the 30 to 38-passenger type ; Northern Ohio 
Power & Light, which bought 46 buses of large seating 
capacity and the Manila Electric Company, which more 
than doubled its fleet, adding 46 new small type buses to 
the 36 it already owned. The Boston Elevated Rail- 
way, Detroit Street Railways, Cleveland Railway, Virginia 



Electric railways are 
operating more 
12,000 buses 



25000 



•20,000 



ispod 



lOjQOO 



5P00 



I I I I III 



I9?0 1921 1922 1925 1924 1925 1926 192 ( )vi6 vnt 

Substantial extensions to bus service in 1929 increase the 
mileage to 25,000 



Electric Railway Journal — January. 1930 
21 



Bus Operations by Electric Railways and Subsidiary Companies — (Continued) 



•Plymouth A Brockton Street Ry. . 

Springfield Street Ry 

Union Street Ry 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry. 



No. Buses 
Jan. L 
1930 
11 
52 
18 
62 



Michigan 

CSty of Detroit, Department of Street Rys 533 



Bastern Michigan Railways. 

Eastern Michigan Motor Buses 
♦Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Muskegon Ry 

Grand Rapids R.R 

Jackson Transportation Co 

Southern Michigan Transportation Co. 

Kalamazoo Transportation Co 

Lansing Transportation Co 

♦Menominee & Marinette Light <fe Traction Co. 

Muskegon Traction & Lighting Co 

Saginaw Transit Co 

Minnesota 

Duluth Street Ry 

Duluih Superior Coach Co. 
Twin City Rapid Transit Co 

Twin City Motor Bus Co. 

Mississippi 

Mississippi Power Co. 

(Gulf port Division) 

•( Haitiesburg Division) 

*i.Ueridian Division) 

Mississippi Power & Light Co. 

*{Greenville Division) 

(yicksburg Division) 



' 16 
101 



Mlssonrl 

City Light & Traction Co 

Kansas City, Clay County ife St. Joseph Ry. . . . 
Kansas City, Clay County <t St. Joseph 
Auto Transit Co. 

Kansas City Public Service Co 

Misaoun Power & Light Co 

Springfield Traction Co 

St. Joseph Ry., Lt., Ht. & Pwr. Co 

St. Louis Public Service Co 



Montana 



Butte Electric Ry 

Nebraska 

Lincoln Traction Co 

Omaha & Council Blu£Fs Street Ry 

New Hampshire 

•Dover, Somersworth & Rochester St. Ry. 

♦Keene Electric Ry 

•Laconia Street Ry 

LcKOnia Transit Co. 

Nashua Street Ry 

•Portsmouth Electric Ry , 



New Jersey 

Atlantic City * Shore R.R 

Coast Cities Ry 

Cumberland Traction Co 

Five-Mile Beach Ry 

•New Jersey Inter-Urban Co 

Ocean City Electric R.R 

Public Service Co-Ordinated Transport.. 
Trenton Transit Co 



New Torlt 



Black River Traction Co 

Watertown Transportation Co. 
Brooklyn A Queens Transit Corp 

Brooklyn Bus Corp. 
Buffalo & Erie Ry 

Buffalo & Erie Coach Company 
Cortland County Traction Co 

Cortland County Bus Lines 
Eastern New York Utilities Corp 

Eastern New York Transportation Co. 
Empire State Rys 

Mid-State Coach Lines 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R.R 

•Geneva, Seneca Falls & Auburn R.R 

Hamburg Railway 

•Hudson Valley Ry 

Hudson Transportation Co. 
•Huntington Traction Co 

Huntington Coach Corp. 
International Ry 

International Bus Corp. 
Jamestown Street Ry 

Jamestown Motor Bus Transportation Co. 
Kingston Consolidated R.R 

Kingston City Transportaiion Co. 

•Newburgh Public Service Co 

•New York & Stamford Ry 

County Transportation Co. 
New York State Rys. (Rochester) 

Rochester Interurban Bus Co. 

Rochester Rys. Co-Ord. Bus Lines. 

East Ave. Bus Co. 

Darling Bus Line. 
New York State Rys. (Syracuse) 

Syracuse Rys. Co-Ord. Bus Line. 

New York State Rys. (Utica) 

Utica Rys. Co-Ord. Bus Line. 



34 

33 
2 
6 

10 

1 

2,337 

35 



16 

28 

6 

3 

3 

6 

5 

3 

16 

24 

5 

90 

21 

6 

22 
62 



84 



No. Buses 
Jan. I, 
1930 
Niagara Gorge R.R 6 

Niagara Gorge Bus Line 
•Peekskill Lighting & R.R. Corp 29 

Feekskilt Motor Bus Corp. 

♦Port Jervis Transit Co 2 

Poughkeepsie & Wappingers Falls Ry 6 

Rochester & Syracuse R.R I 

Mid-State Coach Lines. 
Schenectady Ry 24 

Schenectady Rapid Transit Co. 
Syracuse & Eastern R.R 6 

Syracuse d* Eastern Bus Lines. 
Southern New York Ry 4 

Manson Transportation Co. 
Third Ave. Ry 1 84 

Surface Transportation System 
Triple Cities Traction Co 20 

Binahamton Ry. Bus Line 
United Traction Co 90 

Capitol District Transp. Co. 

*Walkill Transit Co 8 

Waverly, Sayre & Athens Trans. Co 5 

North Carolina 

Carolina Power & Lignt Co 3 

Durham Public Service Co 19 

North Carolina Public Service Co 16 

Greensboro Bus Co. 

Southern Public Utilities Co 20 

Tidewater Power Co 2 

Coast City Transit Co. 

North Dakota 

Northern States Power Co 4 

Northern Transit Co. 

Ohio 

City of Ashtabula — Division of Street Rys 4 

Cincinnati Hamilton & Dayton Ry 4 

Blue Bus Co. 
Cincinnati, Lawrencebxirg & Aurora Electric 

Street Ry 7 

Cincinnati Street Ry 98 

Cleveland Ry 187 

Cleveland, Southwestern Ry. & Light Co 19 

Southwestern Bus Co. 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Elec. Co 4 

Columbus Railway, Power & Light Co 6 

Community Traction Co 1 28 

Dayton Street Ry 3 

Dayton & Xenia Ry 2 

Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Traction Co. . . 20 

Dayton & Columbus Transportation Co. 

Lake Shore Electric Ry 3 

Lorain Street Ry 8 

Maumee Valley Co ] 3 

Maumee Valley Transp. Co. 

Nelsonville-Athens Electric Ry I 

Nelsonville Transp. Co. 

Northern Ohio Power & Light Co 283 

Ohio Public Service Co 5 

Penn-Ohio Public Service Corp 34 

Pioneer Transportation Co 50 

Columbus & Zanesville Transp. Co. 

Portsmouth Public Service Co II 

Springfield Ry j 

Steubenville, East Liverpool & Beaver Valley 

Traction Co 3 

West End Traction Co 10 

Youngstown Municipal Ry 69 

Youngstown & Suburban Ry 13 

Youngstown & Suburban Transportation 
Co. 

Columbiana Bus Co. 

Youngstown Suburban Tourist Lines. 

Oklahoma 

Northern Oklahoma R.R 2 

Oklahoma Ry 48 

Oklahoma Union Ry 83 

Union Transportation Co. 

♦Shawnee-Tecumseh Traction Co 12 

United Service Co 7 

Oregon 

Commission of Public Docks, Portland 1 

Oregon Electric Ry I 

Portland Electric Power Co 48 

Oregon City Motor Bus Co. 

Pennsylvania 

AUentown & Reading Traction Co 3 

Altoona & Logan Valley Electric Ry 23 

Logan Valley Bus Co. 
Beaver Valley Traction Co 9 

Bearer Valley Motor Coach Co. 

♦Berwick & Nescopeck St. Ry 2 

♦Chambersburg & Shippensburg Ry 6 

Cumberland Valley Transp. Co. 
.♦Citizens Traction Co 33 

Citizens Transit Co. 
Conestoga Traction Co 4 

Conestoga Transp. Co. 
East Penn Traction Co 9 

East Penn Transportation Co. 
Erie Ry 24 

Erie Coach Co. 
Johnstown & Somerset Ry 1 



No. Buses 

Jan. I, 

l>3D 

Johnstown Traction Co 34 

Traction Bus Co. 

Southern Cambria Bus Co. 

Beaverdale and South Fork Bus Co. 
Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R.R 5 

Laurel Line Bus Co. 

Lehigh Traction Co 14 

Hazleton Auto Bus Co. 
Lehigh Valley Transit Co 22 

Lehigh Valley Transportation Co. 
Lewiston & Reedsville Electric Ry 9 

Lewiston Transvortation Co. 
♦Lewisburg, Milton& Watsonville Pass. Ry. Co. 3 

♦North Branch Bus Co 1 

Philadelphia & Westchester Traction Co 33 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 348 

Philadelphia Rural Transit Co. 
Pittsburgh Rys 86 

Pittsburgh Motor Coach Co. 

Pittsburgh, Mars & Butler Ry ) 

Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & New Castle Ry. \ 7 
Harmony Short Line Motor Transport Co. j 

♦Pocono Motor Coach Co I g 

Reading Transit Co 6 

Schuylkill Transportation Co 16 

Scranton, Montrose & Binghamton Ry 2 

Scranton Ry 19 

Scranton Bus Co. 
Shamokin & Edgewood Elec. Ry 9 

Shamokin & Treverton Bus Line. 
Shamokin & Mt. Carmel Transportation Co. . . 3 

Ashland & Centratia Auto Bus Co. 
Southern Penn Traction Co 35 

Southern Penn Bus Co. 
♦United Traction Street Ry 2 

Dubois Transit Co. 
♦West Chester Street Ry 35 

Chester Valley Bus Line 
Westmoreland County Ry 6 

Chestnut Ridge Transp. Co. 
West Penn Rys 25 

Penn Bus Lines. 

Ohio Valley Transit Co. 
Weatside Electric Rys 5 

Westside Motor Transit Co. 
Wilkes-Barre Ry 33 

Wyoming Valley Autobus Co. 
Williamsport Railways 3 

Williamsport Transportation Co, 
Woodlawn & Southern Street Ry 5 

Rhode Island 

♦Newport & Providence Ry 

United Electric Rys 



South Carolina 

South Carolina Gas & Electric Co. . . 

Spartanburg Bus Co. 
Southern Public Utilities 



South Dakota 

♦Sioux Falls Traction System 



Tennessee 

Knoxville Power & Light Co 

Nashville Interurban Ry 

Interurban Bus Co. 
Nashville Railway & Light Co.. . . 
Tennessee Electric Power Co. . . . 
Union Traction Co 



Texas 

Abilene Traction Co 

Austin Street Ry 

Bryan College Traction Co 

Dallas Ry. & Terminal Co 

Eastern Texas Electric Co 

J. G. Holtzclaw Bus Line. 

El Paso Electric Co 

Houston Electric Co 

Northern Texas Traction Co 

Nueces Ry 

♦Rio Grande Valley Traction Co . 
San Antonio PubUc Service Co. . . 

♦Southwestern Transit Co 

Texas Electric Ry 

Wichita Falls Traction Co 



Utah 

Bamberger Electric R.R.. ._ 

Bamberger Transportation Co. 

Utah Lignt & Traction Co 

Utah-Idaho Central R.R 

Utah Rapid Transit Co 



Vermont 

♦Burlington Rapid Transit Co. . 
♦Twin State Gas & Electric Co . . 



34 
130 



27 



6 
9 

18 

15 

I 



2 
25 
25 

7 

75 

27 

6 

5 

88 

4 

6 

II 



18 
5 
2 



20 
3 



Virginia 

Lynchburg Traction & Light Co 3 

Petersburg, Hopewell & City Point Ry 3 

Roanoke Railway & Electric Co 7 

Virginia Electric & Power Co 229 

Virginia Public Serv.ce Co 5 

Citizen's Rapid Transit Corp. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol,74, No,l 
22 



Bus Operations by Electric Railways and Subsidiary Companies — (Concluded) 



No. Buses 
Jan. I, 
1930 
Washington 

Grays Harbor Ry. & Light Co 13 

North River Transportation Co. 

Twin City Transit Co. 

LewiSton-CIarkson Transit Co 4 

Pugct Sound Power & Light Co 41 

North Coast Trans. Co. 

Portland-Seattle Stage Co. 
Pacific Northwest Traction Co. 

Seattle Municipal St. Ry 48 

Seattle & Kainier Valley Ry 2 

Tacoma Municipal Belt Line I 

Tacoma Ry. & Power Co 23 

Tacoma Bus Co. 

Yakima Valley Transportation Co 3 

West Virginia 
Charleston Interurban R.R 6 

Midland Trail Transit 

New River Transit 

Red Bird 
Monongahela-West Penn Public Service Co 48 

Monongahda Transport Co. 
Ohio Valley Electric Ry 18 

Ohio Valley Bus Co. 
Wheeling PubUc Service Co 4 

Bus Transportation Co. 



No. Buses 

Jan. 1, 

1930 

Wheeling Traction System 52 

Ohio Valley Transit Co. 

Wisconsin 

Madison Rys 9 

Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co 1 69 

Wisconsin Motor Bus Lines. 

Mississippi Valley Public Service 2 

Wisconsin Gas & Electric Co II 

Wisconsin Michigan Power Co 20 

Intercity Bus Company 

Wisconsin Power & Light Co 74 

Wisconsin Public Service Corp 18 

Wisconsin Valley Electric Co 7 

Valley Transit Co. 

Wyoming 

*Cheyenne Motor Bus Co 9 

Hawaii 

Honolulu Rapid Transit Co 12 

Philippine Islands 

Manila Electric Co 82 

Porto Bleo 
Ponce Electric Co 4 



No. Buses 
Jan. 1, 
1930 
Canada 

Brantford A Hamilton Electric Ry 5 

Brantford Municipal Ry 1 

British Columbia Electric Ry 23 

British Columbia Transit Co. 

Dominion Power & Transmission Co 5 

Grand River Ry 3 

Canadian Pacific Transport Co. 

Hamilton, Grimsby & Beamsville Electric Ry .. 7 

Hamilton Street Ry 28 

Hydro-Electric Rys 17 

Levis Tramsways 1 

London Street Ry 11 

Montreal Tramways 100 

Moose Jaw Electric Ry 3 

New Brunswick Power Co 1 

Niagara, St. Catherines & Toronto Ry 3 

Ottawa Electric Ry 14 

Pictou County Electric Co 4 

Quebec Railway Light & Power Co 12 

Sherbrooke Ry. & Power Co 4 

Toronto Transportation Commission 206 

Gray Coach Lines. 

Winnipeg Electric Ky 48 

♦Woodstock, Thames Valley & Ingersoll Elec- 
tric Ry 3 



tions 150 miles, 37.9 miles, of which replaced trolley 
service, and the Boston Elevated Railway added 84 
miles to its bus routes during the year. 

Abandonment of all railway operations in favor of 
bus service is reported by the following companies, the 
substitution having been completed this year. The At- 
lantic and Suburban Railway, Atlantic City, N. J., dis- 
contined operation with the abandonment and subsequent 
sale of its line between Absecon and Somers Point via 
Pleasantville. The Atlantic City & .Shore Railroad is 
now operating a bus line over this route. The Bethle- 
hem Transit Company ceased operating on Jan. 12, 1929, 
and most of its track was taken up during the summer 
months. The Lehigh Valley Transit Company began 
bus operations in this territory on Jan. 22. In South 
Carolina, the Augusta-Aiken interurban line was ac- 
f(uired by the South Carolina Power Company through 
a merger and abandoned in July of this year. Augusta 
has electric railway service supplied by the Georgia 
Power Company, while the service between Augusta and 
Aiken as well as to other points in the Southeastern 
states is supplied by the independent Camel City Coach 
Company. In Pennsylvania, the West Chester Street 
Railway discontinued its entire railway operations on 
Dec. 1, 1929, and abandoned 28 miles of single track. 
The Chester Valley Bus Lines, which always has been 
closely identified with the railway, is now operating bus 
service in lieu of that formerly given by the trolley. 
Likewise, the Burlington Rapid Transit Company in 
Vermont, the Sioux Falls Traction Company in South 
Dakota, Hamilton Radial Railway in Canada, Puget 
Sound Power & Light Company, Chehalis, Wash., and 
the Vermont Company have abandoned all railway opera- 
tions and through a subsidiary or affiliated bus com- 
pany have substituted bus service. Included in the total 
number of bus operating railways are 55 companies 
which have abandoned all rail service. These companies 
operate 620 buses on 1,650 miles of route. 

The Arkansas Valley Interurban Railway, Wichita, 
Kan., sold a bus line of 76.5 miles to an operating com- 
pany with a contract for joint rates and interchange of 
business, and the Northeast Oklahoma Railroad sus- 
pended its bus operations entirely. A small number of 
other companies abandoned some negligible bus mileage 
on lines that had been extended into new territory and 
later proved financially unsatisfactory. 



In contrast to these abandonments, ten companies 
inaugurated bus operations for the first time. The Street 
Railway of Phoenix, Ariz., purchased buses to cover a 
new route of 7.75 miles ; City Light & Traction Company, 
Sedalia, Mo., replaced 7.2 miles of car route with 
buses ; the Berkshire Street Railway, Pittsfield, Mass., 
substituted 21 -passenger buses for the trolley car service 
formerly rendered by the Vermont company, and 
the Mississippi Power & Light Company, Greenville 
division, replaced 8.5 miles of trolley service with bus 
service. In Canada, the Brantford & Hamilton Electric 
Railway used buses for the first time this year. 

Two important and interesting changes in bus opera- 
tions were effected in 1929. First was the purchase of 
the companies previously controlled by the O. G. Schnllz 
Management operating in southern New Jersey by Public 
.Service Co-ordinated Transport, Newark, N. J. Twenty- 
one companies operating eighteen lines were involved in 
the sale. 

The second large step in the unification of all surface 
transportation of a community was effected in St. Louis 
with the purchase of the People's Motor Bus Company 
by the City Utilities Company and the subsequent agree- 
ment for co-ordinated operation between this latter com- 
pany and the St. Louis Public Service Company, now 
operating all trolley service. Although the People's 
Motor Bus Company will for the present be operated 
independently, it will be in friendly co-operation with 
the electric railway system and the Public Service Com- 
pany will have the right to purchase the bus company 
when financial and franchise situations in St. Louis shall 
warrant. 

The City Utilities Company recently acquired 38 per 
cent of the common stock of the St. Louis Public Service 
Company and now the purchase of the People's Motor 
Bus Company gives it a monopoly on the major trans- 
portation facilities of the city. 

Further co-ordination of car and bus operations, with 
a number of minor substitutions of buses for cars, is 
practically assured for the near future. Many prop- 
erties are continuing to operate some unprofitable lines 
which will soon require new track, overhead or paving 
and the question of substitution of bus service on these 
routes will have to be considered. In some cases it will 
be found to be economically sound to rebuild the present 
structure, while again, in many instances, buses will 



Electric Railway Journal— /onwaj-y, 1930 
23 



Buses Bought by Railways During 1929 



Name of Company 
Alabama 

Alabama Power Co. (Gadsden 
Div.) 



Arizona 

Phoenix Street Railway. ... 2 

Tucson Rapid TransitCo.. . I 

Calirornta 

Los .4006168 Motor Bus Co... 2 

Los Angeles Railway 22 



Municipal Railway of San 

Francisco I 

Pacific Electric Railway. ... M 



Total 
Total Type 



Type 
Chassis 



Body 
Builder 



Facifie Gas & Electric Co . 
fisn Diego Electric Ry. . . 



Colorado 

Penvcr Tramway 13 



Connecticut 

Connecticut Co 23 

Danbury Power and Trans- 
portation Co 1 

Groton-Stonington Traction 
Co 1 

New Haven & Shore Line 
Ry 16 

Delaware 

Delaware Electric Power Co. 5 

District of Columbia 

Capital Traction Co 13 



Washington Railway & Elec- 
tric Co 18 

Florida 

Jacksonville Traction Co.... 4 
Georgia 

Georgia Power Co 13 

Savannah Electric & Power 
Co 12 

Idaho 

Boise Street Car Co 4 

IlUnois 

Chicago A Illinois Valley 
R.R 5 

Chicago North Shore & 
Milwaukee R.R 18 

Chicago & West Towns Ry. 5 
Evanston Railway 10 

Illinois Power & Light Corp. 

Champaign 2 

Illinois Power & Light Corp. 

Decatur 3 

Illinois Power & Light Corp. 

Galesburg 7 

Illinois Power & Light Corp. 

Jacksonville t 

Illinois Power 4 Light Corp. 

Quin<^ 6 

Illinois Power lic Light Corp. 

Springfield 3 

Joliet, Plainfield and Aurora 

Trans. Co 2 

Kockford Electric Co 2 

Indiana 

Beech Grove Traction Corp. 5 
Indianapolis, Columbus & 

Southern Traction Co ,2 

Indianapolis Street Railway 18 



Interstate Public Service. ... 2 

Northern Indiana Power Co. 2 
Southern Indiana Gas & 

Electric Co 7 

Terre Haate, Indianapolis & 

Eaatem Traction Co 14 



t2 



1 

*3 

*1 

10 

4 

6 

3 

3 

2 
2 
*l 
*3 
•I 
*I 

21 
2 



3 

*2 

10 

6 

2 

5 

t5 

*2 

*3 

2 

3 

7 

*1 

6 

3 

1 

*1 

2 



White 



Studebaker 
Dodge 



Bender 



Studebaker 
Dodge 



Seating 
Ca- 
pacity 



29 



Twin Coach Twin Coach 
Twin Coach Twin Coach 
White White 



Mack Mack 

Moreland Moreland 

White Motor Transit 

Twin Coach Twin Coach 
Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

Twin Coach Twin Coach 

Fageol Fageol 



White 

Mack 

A.C.F. 

Dodge 

Dodge 

Reo 

Studebaker 



Bender 

Mack 

A.C.F. 

Local 

Dodge 

Fitsjohn 

Studebaker 



Mack Mack 

Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 



5 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

4 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

3 Yellow Coadi Yellow Coach 
t A.C.F. A.C.F. 

*5 Fageol Fageol 

1 2 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

6 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

4 Twin Coach Twin Coach 

4 Reo Fitzjohn 

3 White White 

6 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 



Twin Coach Twin Coach 
Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 
Mack Mack 



White 

Yellow Coach 
Dodge 

Yellow Coach 
A.C.F. 
A.C.F. 
Mack 

Yellow Coach 
Yellow Coach 
Yellow Coach 

Yellow Coach 

Yellow Coach 

Yellow Coach 

Dodge 

Yellow Coach 

Mack 

Will 

Yellow Coach 

A.F.C. 

Reo 



Bender 



Yellow Coach 
Dodge 

Lang^ 

A.c!r. 

A.C.F. 
Cummings 
Yellow Coach 
Yellow Coach 
Yellow Coach 

Yellow Coach 

Yellow Coach 

Yellow Coach 

Dodge 

Yellow Coach 

Mack 

Eckland 
Yellow Coach 
A.C.F. 

Fitsjohn 



Dodge Dodge 

Dodge Dodge 

White White 

Mack Mack 

Mack Mack 

Dodge Dodge 
International Burket 



*8 White 

•4 Mack 

* I Ruggles 

* I Ruggles 



White 
Mack 
Ruggles 
Ruggles 



21 
21 



40 
40 



25 
25 
40 
21 
39 



25 



24 
21 
21 
18 

29 
29 



1 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 2 1 
I Twin Coach Twin Coach 40 



5 Twin Coach Twin Coach 37 

II Twin Coach Twin Coach 21 



29 

29 
29 
29 
27 

21 
29 

40 

23 
23 
23 

40 

21 
29 

25 



21 
21 

22 
30 
39 
29 
39 
21 
29 

29 

29 

21 

21 

21 

25 

30 
21 
40 

21 

21 
21 
29 
29 
21 
21 
15 



3 Dodge Dodge 21 

4 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 29 



28 
28 
22 
25 



Name of Company Total 

Iowa 
Cedar Rapids & Iowa City 

Ry 8 

*3 
Clinton, Davenport & 

Muscatine Ry 2 

Fort Dodge, DesMoines & 
Southern R.R 8 

Interstate Power Co 2 

Iowa Southern Utilities Co. 9 

Mississippi Valley Elec. Co. I 

Tri-City Railway of Iowa. . . 5 

Kentucky 

Kentucky Traction & 

Terminal Co 8 

Kentucky Utilities Co 4 

Louisville Railway 3 

Louisiana 

Lomsiana Electric Co 3 

New Orleans Public Service. 

Inc 7 

Maine 

YorkUtiUtiesCo I 

Maryland 
Cumberland & Westernport 
Transit Co 4 

Potomac Edison Co 22 



United Railways & Electric 
Co 12 

Massachusetts 

Berkshire Street Railway. . . 4 
Boston Elevated Railway 26 



Boston, Worcester & New 

York Street Ry 4 

Eastern Massachiisetts St. 

Ry 19 

East Taunton Street Ry... . 1 
Fitchburg & Leominster St. 

Railway 3 

Gardner Templeton St. Ry.. 2 

Interstate Street Ry 7 



Middlesex & Boston St. Ry. 16 

Plymouth & Brockton St. Ry. 3 

Springfield Street Ry. ... 5 

Union Street Railway 4 

Worcester Consol. St. Ry. . . 3 



Michigan 

Detroit Street Railway 27 



Eastern Michigan Railways 41 



Grand Rapids R.R 2 

Saginaw Transit Co 5 

Minnesota 

Duluth Street Railway 2 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. 18 



Mississippi 

Mississippi Power & Light 
Co. (GreenviUe) 4 

Missouri 

City Light & Traction Co... 3 
Springfield Traction Co. . . . 3 
St. Joseph Railway, Light, 
Heat & Power Co 14 



Nebraska 

Omaha & Council Bluffs 
Street Ry 24 

Atlantic City & Shore R.R. 9 
Coast Cities Railway 8 



Total 
Type 



Type 

Chassis 



Body 
Builder 



Seating 

Ca- 
pacity 



Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 
Mack Mack 



Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 



3 
5 
2 
9 

1 

3 
2 


YeUow Coach Yellow Coach 
Reo Fitzjohn 
Mack Mack 
Mack Mack 
Yellow Coach Y'dlow Coach 
YeUow Coach Yellow Coach 
Mack Mack 


6 
2 
4 
3 


YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 
A.C.F. A.C.F. 
Yellow Coach YeUow Coach 
Yellow Coach YeUow Coach 


3 


Dodge Dodge 


7 


YeUow Coaoh St. Louis Car Co 


1 


Studebaker Studebaker 


3 
1 

2 
6 
5 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 


White Bender 
YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 
International Lang 
YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 
White Bender 
Studebaker Studebaker 
White White 
White White 
White White 
Studebaker Studebaker 


5 

7 


A.C.F. A.C.F. 
White Bender 


4 
1 

5 
9 


YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 
White Farnum Nelson 
White Farnum Nelson 
A.C.F. A.C.F. 
A.C.F. A.C.F. 
Twin Coach Twin Coach 
Twin Coach Twin Coach 


3 
1 


Mack Mack 
A.C.F. A.C.F. 



1 1 studebaker Superior 
8 A.C.F. A.C.F. 

I Dodge Dodge 



21 
25 



21 
20 
25 
25 
21 
29 
29 



29 
29 
21 
29 

17 

34 

15 



29 
29 
27 
21 
25 
21 
20 
25 
17 
20 
30 
19 



33 
39 
40 
36 
37 
39 
29 
29 

21 
40 
21 



3 studebaker 

I White 

1 Larrabee 

2 Twin Coach 

3 A.C.F. 

2 White 
16 White 

3 Mack 
3 Mack 

2 YeUow Coach 

2 YeUow Coach 

2 Yellow Coach 

I YeUow Coach 

I White 

I White 

25 YeUow Coach 

1 Dodge 

1 1 Twin Coach 

6 Yellow Coach 

8 A.C.F. 

5 Fageol 

2 Studebaker 
10 YeUow Coach 
10 Yellow Coaoh 

2 Yellow Coach 

5 Yellow Coach 



Studebaker 

Bender 

Boston 

Twin Coach 

A.C.F. 

Wnite 

Bender 

Wayne 

Farnham Nelson 29 

Yellow Coach 25 

Yellow Coach 29 

YeUow Coach 21 

YeUow Coach 25 

Brown 29 

Bender 25 



YeUow Coach 
Dodge 
Twin Coach 
YeUow Coach 
A.C.F. 
Fageol 
Studebaker 
YeUow Coach 
Yellow Coach 
YeUow Coach 
Yellow Coach 



2 YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 

2 Will Eckland 

2 Will Eckland 
4 White Eckland 
4 Mack Eckland 

3 Mack Lang 
t3 Yellow Coach Eckland 



3 Dodge 
I White 



Dodge 
Bender 



Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 
Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 



4 Yellow Coach Bender 
4 White Bender 

6 Mack Mack 



8 YeUow Coach YeUow Coaoh 

8 White Bender 

8 Douglas Bender 

9 YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 
4 YeUow Coach Lang 

4 YeUow Coach Yellow Coach 



2» 
21 

21 
29 
29 
21 
17 
33 
21 
23 

21 
23 
29 
29 
29 
29 
32 

21 
15 

23 

23 

21 
21 
29 



21 
29 
29 
29 
37 
23 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
24 



Buses Bought by Railways During 1929 — (Continued) 



Name of Company 
Five Mile Beach Elec. Ry. . . 
New Jersey Interurban Co. . 

Public Service Coordinated 
Transport 638 



Trenton Transit Co.. . . 

New York 

Brooklyn & Queens Transit 
Corp 24 

Buffalo & Erie Railway 2 

Fonda, Johnstown & Glovers- 
villeR.R 5 

Hamburg Railway 11 

Jamestown Street Ry 5 

New York State Railways, 
Rochester 37 



New York State Railways, 
Syracuse 13 



Syracuse & Eastern R.R. . . t 
Third Avenue Railway 31 



Triple Cities Traction Co. . . 3 

United Traction Co 10 

Waverly, Sayre & Athens 

Trao. Co 5 

North Carolina 
Carolina Power & LightCo., 

Raleigh Div t 

Durham Public Service Co . 2 
North Carolina Pub. Service 1 

Ohio 
Cincinnati Street Railway.. . 22 



City of Ashtabula (Div. of 

Street Rys.) 1 

Cleveland Railway 25 

Cleveland, Southwestern 

Railway & Light Co 15 



Community Traction Co. . . 4 

LfOrain Street Railway 3 

Northern Ohio Power & 

Light Co 46 

Ohio Public Service Co 2 

Penn-Ohio Public Service 

Corp 6 

Pioneer Transportation Inc. 2 

Portsmouth Pub. Serv. Co.. 3 

Youngstown Municipal Ry . 1 

Oklahoma 

Oklahoma Railway 18 



Oklahoma Union Railway. . 2 
Oregon 

Commission of Public Docks I 

Portland Electric Power Co, 6 

Pennsylvania 

Allentown & Reading Trac- 
tion Co 3 

Altoona & Logan Valley 

Electric Railway 5 

Beaver Valley Traction Co. 2 

Citizens Transit Co 9 

East Penn Traction Co I 

Erie Railways 5 

Johnstown Traction Co 7 

Lehigh Traction Co 3 

North Branch Bus Co I 

Philadelphia & Westchester 

Traction Co 7 

Pittsburgh Railways 37 



Total Type Body 


Seating 
Ca- 


Total Typ 


e Chassis Builder 


pacity 


2 2 


Dodge Dodge 


21 


3 2 


Habn Hahn 


29 


1 


Studebaker Studebaker 


21 


638 34 


Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 


29 


94 


Yellow Coach Public Service 


29 


50 


Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 


39 


tl6l 


Yellow Coach Public Service 


29 


tl 


Yellow Coach Lang 


29 


tio 


Yellow Coach Lang 


38 


24 


Dodge Dodge 


21 


*264 


Miscellaneous 




4 4 


Twin Coach Twin Coach 


40 



12 A.C.F. A.C.F. 

1 Twin Coach Twin Coach 

2 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

2 Mack Fremont 

1 Mack Mack 

4 Mack Mack 
7 Mack Birney 

2 Mack Whitfield 
2 Mack Mack 

2 

2 

1 

1 8 Mack Bender 

5 White Bender 
1 White Bender 

4 Mack Bender 

9 Mack Bender 

I Mack Bender 

3 Yellow Coach Bender 

I Reo Fitijohn 

12 Versarj Versare 

10 White White 

*9 Six Wheel Six-Wheel 

•2 White Bender 

* I Brockway Brockway 

10 Twin Coach Twin Coach 

5 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 



1 Corbitt Hackney 

2 White White 

I Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

4 Mack Mack 
10 Mack Mack 

8 Twin Coach Twin Coach 

1 Dodge Dodge 

5 Yellow Coach Lang 
20 White Lang 

9 White Bender 

1 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

I Schacht Schacht 

3 Studebaker Miller 

1 Pierce Arrow Pierce Arrow 

4 Mack Mack 

3 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

5 White Lang 

4 1 Twin Coach Twin Coach 

2 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

6 White Bender 

2 A.C.F. A.C.F. 

3 White White 

1 Twin Coacn Twin Coach 



2 Sudebaker Superior 

4 Dodge Dodge 

6 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

2 YeUow Coach Yellow Coach 

3 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 

1 Dodge Dodge 

2 Mack Mack 

1 Federal Wayne 

5 A.C.F. A.C.F. 

1 Twin Coach Twin Coach 



Mack 



Mack 



5 A.C.F. A.C.F. 

2 Yellow Coach YeUow Coach 
8 A.C.F. A.C.F. 

tl A.C.F. A.C.F. 

I White Bender 

5 YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 

7 YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 

3 Mack Mack 

I Reo Fitijohn 



6 Twin Coach Twin Coach 

I White Bender 

9 Yellow Coach YeUow Coach 



40 
40 
38 
21 

20 
25 
29 
33 
33 
21 
29 
26 

33 
33 

38 
29 

30 
36 
30 
29 
37 
41 
29 
29 
15 
40 



21 
2i 

25 
29 
40 

21 
38 
38 

29 
24 
24 
12 
29 
29 
21 

29 
40 
21 

35 



42 

21 
21 
23 
17 
21 
17 
29 

16 
40 
40 



29 

24 
21 
33 
33 
21 
23 
21 
29 
21 

40 
29 
92 



Name of Company Total 



Pocono Motor Coach Co. . . 2 

Scranton Railway 5 

Southern Pennsylvania 

Traction Co 6 

West Penn Railways 4 

Westside Motor Transit Co. 1 
Woodlawn & Southern Street 

Ry 6 

Bhode Island 

Newport & Providence Ry.. 4 

United Electric Railways. . . 72 



South Dakota 

Sioux Falls Traction System 



Tennessee 

Knoxville Power & Light Co. 6 
Tennessee Electric Power Co. 5 



Tennessee Transp. Co 5 

Texas 

Abilene Traction Co 2 

Austin Street Railway 4 

DaUas Ry. & Terminal Co.. 16 

Eastern Texas Electric Co... 6 



El Paso Electric Co. . 
Houston Electric Co . 



Neuces RaUway 1 

Northern Texas Traction Co. 17 



San Antonio Pub. Serv. Co. . 14 

Utah 

Utah Light & Traction Co... 9 



Utah Rapid Transit Co 2 

Vermont 

Burhngton Rapid Transit 
Co 18 



Twin State Gas 4 Elee. Co... I 

Virginia 

Lynchburg Traction & Light 
Co 2 

Petersburg, Hopewell & City 
Point Railway I 

Roanoke Railway & Electric 
Co 8 

Virginia Elec. & Power Co... 30 

Washington 

Pacific Northwest Traction 
Co 4 

Seattle & Rainier VaUey Ry. t 
Tacoma Railway <Sc Pwr. Co. 7 



West Virginia 

Monongahela West Penn 
Public Service Co 12 



WheeUng Traction Co 47 



Wisconsin 

Milwaukee Electric Ry. & 
Light Co 20 



Mississippi VaUey Pub. Serv. 2 

Wisconsin Gas & Elec. Co... 1 

WisconsinPwr. &Lt. Co.... 15 

Wyoming 

Cheyenne Motor Bus Co — 1 

V. S. Possessions 

Honolulu Rapid Transit Co. 3 

Manila Electric Co 46 



Total 
Type 

5 

6 
12 

5 

2 

2 

3 

6 

4 
1 



4 

4 

37 

31 

4 

'^2 



2 
4 

14 
2 

•4 
2 
I 
I 
I 
3 
2 
I 
I 



2 
4 
*6 
3 
2 
»42 



Type Body 
Chassis Builder 


Seating 

Ca- 
pacity 


YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 
YeUow Coach Lang 
White Bender 
White Fremont 
YeUow Coach Yellow Coach 
A.C.F. A.C.F. 
A.C.F. A.C.F. 


21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
23 
33 


YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 
Dodge Dodge 
YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 


29 
21 
17 


Mack Mack 


29 


White White 
YeUow Coach YeUow Coach 
Twin Coach Twin Coach 
White Bender 


29 
37 
33 



Reo Fitzjohn 

Yellow Coach YeUow Coach 
White Bender 



YeUow Coach Yellow Coach 
Twin Coach Twin Coach 
Studebaker Studebaker 
Studebaker Studebaker 
Studebaker Studebaker 



Reo 

Dodge 

Dodge 

Dodge 

YeUow Coach 

White 

White 

Twin Coach 

Mack 

White 

White 

Twin Coach 

Ford 



Fitijohn 

Dodge 

Dodge 

Dodge 

YeUow Coach 

Bender 

White 

Twin Coach 

Mack 

Bender 

Bender 

Twin Coacn 

Aero Car 



2 Dodge 
I Dodge 



Dodge 
Dodge 



4 Dodge Dodge 

4 Yellow Coach YeUow Coach 
30 Twin Coach Twin Coch 



A.C.F. 

A.C.F. 

Studebaker 

Mack 

Mack 

Mack 



A.C.F. 
Dodge 
Fageol 
White 
Dodge 
Misc. 



NeweU 

NeweU 

Heiser 

Mack 

Mack 

Mack 



A.C.F. 
Dodge 
Fageol 
Bender 
Dodge 
Misc. 



Twin Coach 
Twin Coach 
Wills 

Yellow Coach 
YeUow Coach 
YeUow Coach 
YeUow Coach 
YeUow Coach 

Reo 



Twin Coach 
Twin Coach 
Eckland 
YeUow Coach 
YeUow Coach 
YeUow Coach 
YeUow Coach 
YeUow Coach 

Fitijohn 



21 
21 
15 



23 
40 
22 
14 
22 



21 
21 
14 
21 
41 
25 
40 
33 
16 
21 
21 
16 



10 Twin Coach Twin Coach 40 

6 Reo Reo 21 

*l Studebaker Studebaker 16 

14 Reo Fitzjohn 22 



1 Studebaker Stevens 13 

t7 .Twin Coach Twin Coach 

1 Twin Coach Twin Coach 

2 Pierce Arrow Buffalo 25 



9 Dodge Dodge 21 

6 Twin Coach Twin Coach 40 

3 White Bender 39 

I YeUow Coach Yellow Coach 21 



21 

21 

21 
21 
40 



34 
38 

21 
29 
37 
33 



29 
21 
26 
29 
21 



35 
38 
35 

17 
23 
29 
22 
24 

21 



Wbite Wbite 21 

Ford Manila Elec. 1 7 

Chevrolet Manila Eleo. 1 7 

Dodge Manila Elec. 17 



Electric Railway Journal- 
25 



-January, 1930 



Buses Bought by Railways in 1929 — (Concluded) 



Name of Company Total 

Canada 

Brantford & Hamilton Elec- 
tric Railway 5 

Brantford Municipal Ry. . . i i 
Dominion Power & Trans- 
mission Co 5 

London Street Ry 5 

Niagara, St. Catherines & 

Toronto Ry 3 

Ottawa Electric Ry 2 

Sherbrooke Ry. & Power Co. 2 
Toronto Transportation 

Commission 48 

Winnipes Electric Co 2 



Total 
Type 



Type 
Chassis 



Body 
Bmlder 



Seating 

Ca- 
pacity 



5 White Bender 29 

1 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 21 

5 White Bender 29 

5 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 23 

2 Yellow Coach Fisher 2 1 

1 Leyland Smith 29 

2 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 28 
2 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 21 

5 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 1 7 

20 Yellow Coach Yellow Coach 21 

10 Yellow Coach Lang 33 

•13 Misc. Misc. 30 

1 Reo Freemont 25 

I Mack Mack 33 



solve the financial and service problems by extending the 
present lines into nevv^ territory or rerouting them 



through more thickly populated districts. Utilization 
of the bus as a feeder to existing rail arteries is now rec- 
ognized as sound practice and many railway companies 
have come out of the red figures into the black by careful 
readjustment of bus and trolley services. 

As to the type of buses purchased this year, approxi- 
mately 65 per cent were of a capacity seating 29 to 40 
passengers, 25 per cent had a seating capacity of from 
21 to 28 passengers, and 10 per cent were of less than 
the 21 -passenger type. Of the more than 1,800 new 
buses purchased, approximately 200 were of the gas- 
electric type. Although a large number of the buses 
purchased Were for use on new de luxe routes, such as 
interurban and interstate service, many companies are 
now purchasing a finer type of equipment for selected 
city service lines. This kind of bus appeals to a new 
class of rider, the automobile owner, and on week ends 
and holidays allows a surplus of de luxe equipment for 
special and chartered work. 



Bus Route Extensions, City and Intercity 



Miles 
Alabama 

I Power (Gadsden Div.) 1.15 

Arizona 

Phoenix Street Railway 7. 75 

Tucson Rapid Transit Co 1.96 

California 

Los Angeles Motor Bus Co 2. 73 

Loa Angeles Railway 7.56 

Municipal Railway of San Francisco 1 . 23 

Pacific Electric Railway 33. 20 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co 1.58 

PeninsxJar Railway 2. 20 

San Diego Electric Ry 2. 40 

Colorado 

Denver Tramway Corp 1 1 . 20 

Connecticut 

Connecticut Co 46. 49 

Lordship Railway 3.00 

Delaware 

Delaware Electric Power Co 12. 49 

District of Columbia 

Washington Railway <fe Electric Co 17. 15 

Florida 

Jacksonville Traction Co 22. 30 

Tampa Electric Co - 1.10 

Georgia 

Georgia Power Co. 5.10 

Savannah Electric and Power Co 5 . 80 

Iliinois 

Alton Railway 3.00 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R 71 . 00 

East St. Louis Railway 2. 70 

Evanston Railway 19. 00 

Illinois Power Co 1 . 06 

Illinois Pwr. & Lt. Corp. (Galeaburg Div.) . 3. 50 

Illinois Power & Lt. Corp. (Quinoy Div.).. . 3. 89 

Joliet, Plainfield and Aurora Trans. Co 44 . 00 

Indiana 

Beech Grove Traction Corp 1 7. 00 

Chicago, South Shore 4 South Bend R.R.... 3. 30 

Indiana Service Corp 1.50 

Indianapolis Street Railway 1 3. 28 

Interstate Public Service 2. 50 

Southern Indiana Gas & Electric Co 1 . 70 

Terre Haute, Indianaplis & Eastern Trac. Co. 52 . 00 

Iowa 

Clinton, Davenport and Muscatine Ry 30. 00 

Mississippi Valley Electric Co 1 . 50 

Tri-City Railway of Iowa 2. 75 

Kansas 

Kansas City, Leavenworth & Western Ry... 0. 65 

Kansas Power & Light Co 2. 00 

Wichita Falls Traction Co 1.10 

Kentuclcy 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co 6. 00 

Kentucky Utilities Company 2. 20 

Louisville Ry 0.31 

Louisiana 

New Orleans Public Service 5.97 



Miles 
Maryland ' 

Potomac Edison Co 1 50. 30 

United Railways & Electric Co 1 5 . 40 

Massacliusetts 

Berkshire Street Ry 20 . 00 

Boston Elevated Railway Co 84. 03 

Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry 30. 95 

Fitchburg and Leominster Street Ry 5.00 

Gardner Templeton Street Ry 29.00 

Middlesex and Boston Street Ry 15.59 

Union Street Railway 2.00 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry 17.00 

Michigan 

Eastern Michigan Railways 87. 20 

Minnesota 

Northern States Power Co 1 . 20 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co 1.75 

Mississippi 

Mississippi Pwr. & Lt. Co. (Greenville). . . 8,50 

Missouri 

City Light and Traction Co 7. 20 

Kansas City Public Service Co 12.18 

St. Joseph Railway, Lt., Heat, & Pwr. Co... 6. 30 

St. Louis Public Service Co 3 . 00 

Nebrasiia 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry 6. 80 

New Jersey 

Coast Cities Railway 8. 70 

Five Mile Beach Electric Ry 2 . 20 

Public Service Coordinated Transport 1,108.00 

New Toric 

Buffalo and Erie Railway 18.90 

Fonda, Johnstown and (jloversville R.R.. . . 5. 56 

Hamburg Railway 33. 00 

International Railway 3 . 00 

Jamestown Street Ry 6. 40 

New York & Stamford Railway 1 2. 70 

New York State Railways (Rochester Div). 26. 80 

New York State Railways (Syracuse Div.).. 6. 40 

Syracuse & Eastern R.R 0. 30 

Third Avenue Railway 6.35 

Triple Cities Traction Company 1.90 

United Traction Co 5. 69 

Ohio 

Cincinnati Street Railway 3. 20 

Cleveland Railway 17.13 

Cleveland Southwestern Ry. & Light Co. . . 16. 00 

Columbus Railway, Power & Light Co . 80 

Community Traction Co 14.90 

Northern Ohio Power & Light Co 1 49. 26 

Ohio Public Service Company 5.00 

Penn-Ohio Public Service Corp 20. 45 

Pioneer Transportation, Inc 7. 10 

West End Traction Co 0. 03 

Youngstown Municipal Railway 5 . 70 

Olilahoma 

Oklahoma Railway 87. 18 

Oregon 

Commission of Public Docks 1.50 

Portland Electric Power Co 3. 00 



Miles 
Pennsylvania 

Beaver Valley Traction Co 0. 28 

Citisens Transit Company 1 . 40 

East Penn Traction Co 8! 00 

Erie Railways 3 80 

Philadelphia & West Chester Traction Co. . 1 ! 00 

Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & N. Castle Ry. 1 5 . 00 

Pittsburgh Railways 63. 25 

Pocono Motor Coach Co 30. 00 

Scranton Railway 14 55 

West Penn Railways 1 1 . 50 

Rhode Island 

United Electric Railways 46 . 37 

South Daliota 

Sioux Falls Traction System 10. 28 

Tennessee 

Knoxville Power & Light Co 6.15 

Tennessee Electric Power Co 23.72 

Tennessee Transportation Co 1 2. 61 

Texas 

Dallas Ry. A Terminal Co 9.00 

Eastern Texas Electric Co 10.00 

Houston Electric Co. 8. 39 

Northern Texas Traction Co 16. 85 

San Antonio Public Service Co 5. 08 

Utah 

Utah Light 4 Traction Co 1 . 14 

Vermont 

Burlington Rapid Transit Co 24. 70 

Virginia 

Lynchburg Traction & Light Co 0. 10 

Virginia Electric & Power Co 7. 27 

Washington 

Pacific Northwest Traction Co 28. 00 

Seattle Municipal Street Ry 5.10 

West Virginia 

Monongahela West Penn Public Service Co. 147 77 

Wheeling Traction Co 197. 60 

Wisconsin 

Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co 35. 57 

Wisconsin Power & Light Co 168.00 

Wisconsin Public Service 2. 40 

Wyoming 

Cheyenne Motor Bus Co 6. 50 

U. S. Possessions 

Manila Electric Co 38.07 

Honolulu Rapid Transit Co 6.80 

Canada 

Dominion Power & Transmission Co il . 00 

Brantford & Hamilton Electric Ry 24.00- 

British Columbia Electric Ry 18.00 

Hamilton Street Ry 1 . 50 

Hydro-Electric Railways (Kingsville) 4.00 

Hydro-Electric Railways (Windsor) 5 . 00 

London Street Ry }. 30 

Montreal Tramways 0. 25 

Ottawa Electric Railway 5. 50 

Sherbrooke Railway & Power Co 50.00 

Toronto Transportation Commission 147.04 

T. T. C. Radial Lines 30. 20 

Winnipeg Electric Co 0. 92 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
26 




It's Sand That Keeps the Wheels 

from Slipping 



By 
G. J. MacMURRAY 

News Editor Electric Railway journal 



Atlantic City on New Jersey's shore ! 
Its boardwalk free, but nothing more ! 
To which sweet spot each year or so 
A. E. R. A. decides to go 
To hold a bus and street car show, 
Converse and hear dear Old Bill Wise 
Socratic facts clothed in disguise — 
How good 'tis now this all to ponder 
And then to sit at ease and wonder 
When transportation's apogee will come 
As a result of all that's said and done. 
So once again with pen in hand 
We scan the facts from all the land 
To glean good cheer for all the crew 
Rightly to start the year anew, 
With shining thoughts for June's debate 
Under Paul Shoup at the Golden Gate. 



SOME TIME ago a wit remarked that in these 
United States too many persons were riding around 
in Lincohis who ought to be using Fords and that 
too many others were using Fords who ought to be 
pushing wheelbarrows. This, of course, was exaggera- 
tion for the sake of emphasis, but back of it was the 
scintilla of common sense so often spoken in jest. Any- 
way, a lot of us have learned that we have to do more 
than give ourselves a close shave each morning in order 

Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
27 



to be prepared for the day's grind. This ought to be 
encouraging to local transportation managers and dis- 
heartening to taxicab drivers. There ought to be some 
cheer in the fact that 1929 the local transportation in- 
dustry did a gross business in excess of $1,000,000,000, 
but then some pessimist will arise to ask what the net 
was, not realizing that to a considerable degree the net 
depends on the individual. The pessimists are like the 
black little boy who stood straight and stiff and still 
beside the front of the house whose dead master was 
about to be buried. When the minister arrived, a lady 
whispered to this straight, still, little boy: 

"IDere's de preacher. Service gwine to start now. 
Ain't you gwine in?" 

"Ah can't, mum," mumbled the boy. "Ah's de crepe." 

These fellows are the crepe. 

Crepe and crepehangers are all right in their place, but 
they haven't any place in the local transportation in- 
dustry. The need is for more men conscious of their 
powers — more men like the Irishman at the dinner 
where every guest had to make a speech, sing a song or 
tell a story. Well, when this Irishman's time came, 
he said: 



Side Lights on News Events of 1929 




Taxi rate wars didn't help the taxis much. Spring- 
field, Mass., and Philadelphia were among the cities 
to sec the folly of un- 
restrained taxi opera- 
tion. 




Historical and commercial subjects were in- 
cluded in a film of Virginia's development 
made by the utility at Richmond as a contribu- 
tion to the state's progress. 



TRANSPOFfTATlOM^ 
REPORTS 




Gty officials at Chicago sleep while reports on the 
transportation situation accumulate. The pile is now 
6 ft. high, weighs 200 lb. and cost ^1,500,000. 




When Mexicans across the border from El Paso got 
careless with firearms, the cars run over the inter- 
national bridge scooted for the U. S. A. 




41,367 cars which disre- 
garded Detroit parking 
rules were hauled to the Public 
Pound in 60 towing days 



Los Angeles has a lot of Sunny 
Jims, people who realize that the 
increased fare allowed there is go- 
ing to react to their benefit. 




Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
28 



"Friends, I can't make a speech, or sing a song, or tell 
a story, but I'll fight any man in the room." 

That man was conscious of his powers. Local trans- 
portation men, who do know transportation, need more 
of this Irishman's will to do. After all, a grapefruit 
is only a lemon that has been given a chance and taken 
advantage of it. 

Statistical facts appear to indicate that the industry 
is very much like Hiram, Mary's beau. "Mary," began 
Hiram, "you know I got a clearin' over thar an' a team 
and wagon and some hawgs an' cows an' I calc'late on 
buildin' a house this fall an' — " 

Just then he was interrupted by Mary's mother in the 
kitchen. 

"Mary," she called in a loud voice, "is that young 
man thar yit?" 

Back came the answer, "No, 
mar, but he's gittin' thar." 

And the local transportation 
service is getting there. Let's 
look at the facts. Rail service is 
being modernized, buses are be- 
ing co-ordinated with cars, city- 
wide taxicab fleets taken over, 
and in a few instances, airplanes 
used in supplemental service. 
The private motor remains the 
most serious competitor of the 
co-ordinated services. Buses no 
longer are considered as serious 
competitors. Most of the im- 
portant urban bus lines have 
been absorbed by rail line manage- 
ments, about 12,500 buses be- 
ing operated by the electric rail- 
ways in conjunction with 80,000 
passenger rail cars. Most of 
the independent bus operators 
are now found running inter- 
state service. That's how things 
have changed. The American 
drug store isn't what it used to 
be, and neither is the local trans- 
portation business. It would not 
do for a drum major to have an 
inferiority complex. 

Fares are at the peak for all 
time, averaging approximately 8f 
cents for the entire country. The 
greatest single unit of cash fare is 10 cents. Less than a 
score of cities have a nickel fare, and most of them are 
small. Where 5-cent fares obtain, special reasons are re- 
sponsible. In New York, Subway deficits are paid 
from taxes. In New Jersey a zone ride system obtains. 
On the municipal system in San Francisco taxes are 
refunded. There are a few small cities in which the 
interurbans charge 5 cents within the city limits as a 
part of a higher fare for service outside of the town. 
Wages have held an even keel, there being a change 
of less than ^ cent an hour during the last year. Little 
change in taxes is noted. Net revenue for the first 
six months of 1929 has been 1.75 per cent higher for the 
entire country than it was during 1928. This is due to 
increased fares. Traffic for the same corresponding 
period is oiif | of 1 per cent for the entire co-ordinated 
systems. The total of passengers carried last year was 
16,000,000,000, divided 15,000,000,000 rail cars and 
1,000,000,000 buses. Expenses are 1.9 per cent lower. 




Charles Gordon was installed in the office 
of managing director 



The number of car-miles run is off only ^ of 1 per cent. 
In this business, if you're going to survive, you've just 
got to be undaunted and adaptable, like the piano tuner 
a traveler met in the West some time ago. It was the 
fellow traveler and not the piano tuner who was un- 
imaginative. 

"Surely," said the commiserative one, "I shouldn't 
imagine that pianos were very plentiful in this region." 
"No, they are not," said the piano tuner, "but I make 
a pretty fair income tightening up barbed wire fences." 
As Ed Wickwire said in Atlantic City, "Remember 
that Noah floated the ark when the rest of the world was 
in liquidation." There are some things we don't have to 
prove. You admit them, as the student did who was 
asked if he could prove that the square of the hypotenuse 
is equal to the sum of the squares 
of the legs of the triangle. Didn't 
Jack Shannahan on behalf of the 
association tell Mr. Hoover at 
the conference in Washington 
that statistics indicated that this 
industry was spending more than 
$1,000,000 a day during 1929 
and probably would equal or even 
exceed this amount during the 
year 1930? 

With all due respect to Mr. 
Wickwire, the bon mot of the 
Atlantic 'City convention was the 
remark by President Barnes that 
it was the task of the industry 
today to provide the bones of 
transportation facilities and clothe 
them with the fle.sh of service. 
That may not be a perfect 
figure of speech, but it states 
the idea succinctly. Incidentally, 
Jim Barnes showed Louisville 
how he proposed to carry out 
the idea when he exhibited his 
four experimental cars. Second 
perhaps to Mr. Barnes in the 
forcefulness of his remarks came 
Thomas N. McCarter, who said 
that there had been a change in 
the character of the service which 
people want, but there had been 
no abatement in the total demand 
for local transportation. Certainly 
he has lived up to the idea of co-ordination, one of the 
latest moves of his company being to take over a large 
bus system in southern New Jersey. 

It took a whole issue of the Journal and four little 
daily journals to tell the story of the A. C. convention. 
We can't aliford to get started on that subject, other than 
to say that we hope to greet Paul Shoup, the new presi- 
dent, out in San Francisco next June. 

So much for that. The number of interesting facts 
about this industry is legion. At least the Journal's 
index makes it appear so. But nobody is ever satisfied 
with this review — no more satisfied than was the owner 
of the hen who had by mistake been fed sawdust instead 
of oatmeal. This hen laid twelve eggs, sat on them and 
when they hatched, eleven of the chickens had wooden 
legs and the twelfth was a woodpecker. What, for in- 
stance, can I consistently make out of the fact that the 
Baltimore fare case is still pending, that Los Angeles 
got its fare increase, that Cleveland intends to advance 



Electric Railway Journal- 
29 



-January, 1930 



//\%\i /////... 




Jim Barnes shows 
Louisville some 
samples 



its fares, that Louisville got a fare boost, that out in 
Oregon the Portland Electric Power Company needs a 
fare advance, and that in Cincinnati the demands of 
outlying sections for increases in service, if granted, 
would jeopardize the present fares under service at cost! 
On cars and fares it leads me to wonder: 

What is a street car? Who can say? 

Its face uplifted in recent years 

Fills old timer's eyes with tears 
O'er the shattered ideal of the one-horse shay. 

What is a street car ? A faithful chariot 
Entrusted to a hopeful manager's care 
To be run by him from here to there 

At a fare that is adequate. 

And what is the fare ? Not even the prophets know. 

Answer they can not, for it all depends 

On what the management can achieve. 

Whether the earnings may be made to show 

Something left over for dividends. 
That stockholders may not be left to grieve. 

One of the most interesting things on fares contained 
in the year's news was the summary of the California 
Railroad Commission's report on results in that state 
rendered to the Commission for the District of Columbia 
where not only the question of fares but the matter of 
the consolidation of the two local railways is being agi- 
tated. In Illinois the Governor signed the bill looking 
toward unification in Chicago. Progress has been made 
in the windy city, but not to the extent that was expected. 
Samuel Insull lays the blame on politics. Chicago has 
sufficient facts to guide it. Subway reports and plans 
for a unified system there, made since 1900 at a cost of 
$1,500,000, stand 6 ft. high and weigh more than 200 
lb. But Cleveland has gone right 
ahead. The Cleveland Railway, under 
Joe Alexander and the Van Swer- 
ingens, has actually developed a pro- 
gram of co-ordination which contem- 
plates articulation of suburban trunk 
line operation, city street railway serv- 
ice, service by bus, transportation by 
taxi, and a rapid transit system. This 
development was the subject of a six- 
page story in the May issue. It is in 
the working out of this program that 
former Association Secretary Welsh 
will have a hand. Guy C. Hecker, who 
succeeded Mr. Welsh with the asso- 
ciation, had his baptism of fire as 



secretary at the convention last October. St. 
Louis also appears to be coming along 
promisingly. The Transit Survey Commis- 
sion there under R. F. Kelker, Jr., favors 
unification. If, as, and when the program 
is carried out, the recent purchase of the 
independent bus system by the holding com- 
pany which controls the railway will be ad- 
vantageous. There the skip-stop plan has been 
extended successfully by the railway. In San 
Francisco the purchase of the Market Street 
Railway by the city and the unification of 
that property with the lines of the present 
municipal railway are still under discussion, 
with the purchase price the chief stumbling block. Mr. 
O'Shaughnessy, the city engineer, did not gloss over the 
facts about the financial condition of the municipal rail- 
way. Seattle is still talking about articulation, regulation 
of taxis and what to do with the municipal railway. 
The municipal railway system is badly run down. It 
has borrowed from the water fund. Still the city raised 
trainmen's wages only to turn around and arrange with 
Stone & Webster for a two-year moratorium on the 
l)ayment of the principal sum of the purchase price so 
as to obtain funds for rehabilitation. The Mayor hopes 
eventually to refinance the entire purchase on a long-term 
basis. The original purchase plan contemplated that the 
city would pay for the system out of earnings. The ills 
of the Seattle system are blamed on the two experiments 
with 5-cent fares. In other words, Seattle was to settle 
on the pay-as-you-go plan, but it isn't going anywhere. 
While we are wandering around, there's the Detroit 
municipal system. The jitneys have been restrained. 
Service installed by the city to replace them — a service 
with small-capacity vehicles — seems to be highly satis- 
factory. City officials at Detroit are apparently un- 
daunted by the defeat of the proposal to build a subway. 
In the matter of dealing with the parkers, 

Detroit apparently has seen the light 
And relieved itself of its traffic plight. 
How it refused longer to be fooled 
Was told to you by Harold Gould. 

In New York the new subway to be run by the 
municipality is nearing completion. As Phillips put it 
in the New York Sun, the streets are so torn up for 
subway construction that the wags are beginning to 




Messrs. McCartcr and Boylan keep on gathering in the buses 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
30 



speak of it as a holey city. Wisely the city decided to 
purchase power for the new lines rather than to attempt 
to generate its own current. It is this system which 
will be unified with the privately-owned lines if a legis- 
lative program can be enacted satisfactory to Sam Unter- 
myer, Jimmy Walker, Tammany Hall and the officers of 
the railways, including President Hedley of the Inter- 
borough. Well, the surface lines in Brooklyn were 
brought together by a consolidation in which the Brook- 
lyn & Queens Transit Corporation was created. In- 
cidentally, Clint Morgan, the former chief operating 
official of the Brooklyn City Railroad, jumped from the 
management end of the business to the selling end, with 
the Cincinnati Car Corporation. The United States 
Supreme Court remanded the Interborough's suit for a 
7-cent fare back to the state courts. Meanwhile, Mr. 
Amster, as head of the stockholders' protective com- 
mittee of the Manhattan Railway, and Mr. Hedley con- 
tinue their passages at arms. In Philadelphia 

On banks, trolleys, buses and cabs 
Mitten Management still keeps tabs. 
It does it quite well beyond all doubt 
For it knows exactly what it's about 
Although old Philly's daily newspapers 
Claim to have uncovered some company capers. 

Mr. Storrs, the chairman of the executive committee 
of the United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, 
did a good stroke in arranging new financing for that 
company. Baltimore, too, grappled successfully with 
the parking problem, and a milk company ordered its 
drivers to respect the rights of the street cars. Buses 
are being run there successfully in a 25-cent service. A 
new franchise was awarded in Youngstown, Ohio, and 
in Toledo the Milner service-at-cost grant was modified. 

With one or two exceptions things were quiet in the 
South. Employees of the New Orleans Public Service, 
Inc., took it into their heads suddenly to strike on Aug. 2, 
during negotiations looking toward a new working agree- 
ment. After being on strike many weeks, and after the 
company felt it could no longer keep open the offer it 
made for the men to return, the strikers voted to accept 
the company's terms. This did not happen, however, 
until the men had sorrowfully learned that in ignoring 
the good offices of President Mahon and officials of the 
American Federation of Labor they had followed local 
labor prophets into the wilderness. There was also a 



Service in Cleveland 
is being co-ordi- 
nated under Pres- 
ident Alexander 





From Brooklyn to Cincinnati 
— From selling service to 
selling the instruments of 
service 



little fracas in El Paso, Tex. The railway there operates 
over the international bridge into Juarez, Mexico. Sud- 
denly the Mexicans staged a shooting bee. Just as 
suddenly the cars scooted for home, there to remain 
until the insurrection had died down. This incident 
recalls the case of the Mayor who frantically wired to 
the Governor for Texas Rangers, to restore peace after 
a reign of terror started by gunmen. A special train 
came down from the capital and one lonely ranger 
stepped out. 

"Where's the rest of the outfit?" demanded the Mayor 
and the sheriff. 

"Rest, hell," replied the ranger mildly, "you ain't got 
but one riot going on here, have you?" 

Jack Shannahan is doing quite well in Omaha. Re- 
member the good-natured editorial, headed "The Miracle 
Man," in the Morning World-Herald. Even the New 
York Times had a feature about him. He's been adopted 
into the Ogallala Sioux Indian Tribe and given the tribal 
name of Hounska-Kle Ska, or spotted breeches. Mr. 
Shannahan still has his hands full with the question of 
the sale of the bridge between Omaha and Council Bluffs, 
owned by his company, to the cities, but promise is ahead 
for a settlement. He has cleared up the franchise matter, 
and has put into effect a rerouting plan, based on the 
survey by Ross Harris. That's working out well now, 
but, as is natural in a major move of this kind, there 
was some dissatisfaction and much good-natured joshing 
at first. It so happened that on the evening of the first 
day of the change the Ad-Sell League met. Since some 
of its members were affected by the rerouting the fol- 
lowing song was received with enthusiasm : 

"Show us the way to go home, 

We're tired and want to go to bed; 
We nad a little ride about an hour ago 

But we didn't know where it led. 
We've got a dizzy dome, 

No more do we want to roam 
In Mr. Shannahan's merry-go-round 

Show us the way to go home." 

The Des Moines property changed hands and the men 
agreed to the modification of the terms of a long-time 
wage agreement which contained an iron-clad clause 
against one-man cars. It would appear now that a pro- 
gram of rehabilitation for Des Moines is ahead, no less 
efficacious than the one now under way in Omaha. The 



Electric Railway Journal — January. 1030 
31 




Omaha's miracle man is made a Sioux Indian 

Roanoke Railway & Electric Company has also done 
some unusual things in rehabilitating its property and 
in selling the service to the public, notably in its house- 
to-house campaigns. The Boston Elevated Railway has 
been quick to seize the opportunities presented by the 
traffic problem to win back many of its passengers. 
In this work it has turned to advertising for assistance. 

Posters and printed matter played a prominent part 
in putting over the idea of the Pittsburgh campaign, 
which was called "Loftis Testimonial Week." The 
slogan, "For the Love of Mike Be Careful," was repro- 
duced on an attractive placard which was posted at all 
carhouses during the week. 

Penn-Ohio won the Class A Safety Medal for 1929, 
while the Brady Award in Class B went to the Tampa 
Electric Company and in Class C to the Tide Water 
Power Company. Many other companies did effective 
newspaper advertising, particularly safety advertising. 
A very effective piece of advertising was the historical 
and industrial film prepared by the Virginia Electric & 
Power Company to stimulate home interest in Virginia 
and the industries of Virginia. Fred Cummings, of the 
Eastern Massachusetts, made a notable contribution 
to the subject of merchandising with his article in the 
issue of Sept. 14. 

According to Secretary of Commerce Lamont, traffic 
congestion costs the nation $2,000,000,000 a year. The 
full story of Chicago's effort to curtail parking was told in 



detail by Charles Gordon in an elaborate article in 
the Journal for Feb. 22>. The victory in securing 
proper traffic control and in abating the parking 
menace is not going to be won in a day: Of course, 
restrictions will help, but better yet will it be 
when drivers realize the significance of the little 
poem run by the Northern Ohio Power & Light 
Company, Akron, in Service News: 

I'm blocked in front, I'm blocked behind, 
Till I'm afraid I'll lose my mind. 

The hours that I have spent right here. 
Watching street cars pass so near. 

Have taught me vifhat I won't forget — 
This parking business is all wet. 

The Pittsburgh car was a notable contribution 
to the art during the year, as were the new cars 
for Louisville, Albany and Detroit. Comment on 
cars would not be complete without reference to 
the increase in the interest in the trackless trolley, 
reflected in the added installations in Salt Lake 
City and New Orleans, and in the numerous 
proposals for the use of this vehicle, notably 
in Chicago and Detroit. 
One of the best studies of the interurban problem 
was the paper by Dr. Thomas Conway, president of 
the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railway, entitled 
"Courage, Faith and Vision Will Advance Interurbans," 
presented at the Atlantic City convention. There have 
been several instances of the extension of the pick-up 
and delivery service by the interurbans, in the Central 
West and the roads on the Coast notably on the system 
at Los Angeles. 

In most large cities, and many small ones as well, all 
business faces the problems of congestion and deficiency 
in efficient local transportation. These are community 
and public problems that require the application of sound 
principles for their solution. Electric railways are en- 
deavoring to improve their facilities and service despite 
a long period of inadequate earnings and consequent re- 
stricted credit. That's preparedness for you and pre- 
paredness is merely the act of wearing spectacles to break- 
fast, when you know you're going to have grapefruit. 

An officer once reported to Lord Kitchener that he 
had been unable to carry out an assigned task and gave 
his reason. Kitchener made this reply: "Your reason 
for not doing it is the best I ever heard. Now go ahead 
and do it." In this industry at this time it's the courage 
of the Vikings that's needed. It was not the Roman 
army that conquered Gaul, but Caesar. It was not the 
Carthaginian army that made Rome tremble in her 
gates, but Hannibal. It was not the Macedonian army 
that reached Indus, but Alexander. The problems of 
economics are not settled by oratory. 




New Orleans men allowed themselves to be led into labor's 
wilderness by false local prophets 



Electric Railway Journal— FoZ.74, No.l 
32 



Rolling Stock Purchases 
LARGELY INCREASED 

Nearly 1,300 passenger cars, 130 freight and service cars and 77 electric 

locomotives were bought during 1929 by the electric railways. Cars 

for handling heavy traffic on city surface lines predominated. 

Large car orders also were placed for rapid transit lines and 

for electrified suburban service. Interurbans purchased 

comparatively few new cars 



By 
TH. M. van der STEMPEL 

Assistant Editor Electric Railway Journal 



PURCHASES of new rolling stock by the electric 
railways during 1929 exceeded those of 1928 by a 
large amount. A total of 1,496 new cars and loco- 
motives were bought last year as compared with 897 the 
year before. Included in the total for 1929 are 663 for 
city surface lines, 300 for rapid transit lines, 240 for 
electrified suburban service and 79 for interurbans. 
More than 130 freight and miscellaneous cars were 
ordered during the year just ended and 77 electric loco- 
motives. In 1928, a total of 601 cars were bought for 
city surface lines and 93 for interurban service. In 
that year orders were placed for 171 freight and service 
cars and 32 electric locomotives. 

A total of 58 electric railway companies are listed 
among the purchasers in 1929 as compared with 46 the 
preceding year. Of this number 49 are located in the 
United States and nine in Canada. Of the number of 
purchasers in this country 24 bought cars for city service 
and fifteen for interurban 
service. In Canada the 
figures are eight and two 
respectively. Three com- 
panies in the United States 
added to their equipment 
for electrified suburban 
service. 

The largest single pur- 
chase of cars during the 
year just ended was 300 
for the city-owned rapid 
transit lines in New York 
City. Next in size was the 
order for 141 multiple- 
unit cars for the electrified 
suburban service of the 
Lackawanna Railroad. 
Among the large orders 
for surface line cars placed 
last year were 106 for the 
Cleveland Railway, 101 
for the Brooklyn & 
Queens Transit Corpora- 
tion and 100 each for the 



Summary of Car Purchases 

United States Canada 

Number of companies reporting pur- 
chase of new cars 49 9 

CiTv Service 

Single truclc 1 ... 

Double truck 851 86 

Trailers 25 

Total cars for city service 852 111 

Interurban Service 

Motor cars 59 10 

Trailers 9 1 

Express and freight 130 . . . 

Miscellaneous 7 ... 

Total cars for interurban service.... 205 11 

Multiple-Unit Suburb.\n Cars.. 240 ... 

Electric Locomotives 77 ... 

Grand total 1.374 122 



Department of Street Railways, City of Detroit, and the 
Chicago Surface Lines. The Montreal Tramways placed 
an order for 50 cars, of which 25 are motorized and 25 
trail. The only other order placed during 1929 for 
trail cars was that of the Washington, Baltimore & 
Annapolis Electric Railroad for nine such units, making 
the total for the year 34 as compared with 20 trailers 
ordered in 1928. The Market Street Railway of San 
Francisco built 25 cars in its own shops. The Lynchburg 
Traction & Light Company bought 20 cars for city 
service. Besides the purchase of passenger cars already 
mentioned, three orders of 15 cars each were placed 
during the year, one of 13 cars, seven of 10, one of 7, 
two of 6, five of 5, one of 4, three of 3, four of 2 and 
eleven orders for single cars. 

Large capacity double-truck cars for two-man opera- 
tion predominated in the purchases last year. The 307 
cars ordered for Cleveland, Detroit and Chicago are 

straight two-man cars. The 
25 motor cars purchased 
by the Montreal Tram- 
ways are designed to oper- 
ate as one-man cars during 
non-rush hours but are 
used for train service at 
rush hours with the 25 
trail cars bought by the 
same railway. All of the 
101 cars ordered by the 
Brooklyn & Queens Transit 
Corporation are designed 
for one-man operation, as 
also were those for the 
Lynchburg Traction& 
Light Company. The other 
orders were divided be- 
tween one-man and one- 
man two-man design. Only 
two single-truck cars were 
bought, one by the Third 
Avenue Railway and the 
other by the railway in 
Porto Rico. 



Total 



58 



1 
937 

25 

963 



69 

10 

130 

7 

216 

240 

77 

1,496 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
33 



Rolling Stock Ordered During 1929 



Name of Company 



California 

San Francisco, Napa A Caliatoga Ry. . . . 
Pacific Gae & Electric Co., Sacramento. , 
Sacramento Northern R.R 



Connecticut 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R.. 

Delaware 

Delaware Electric Power Co 



No. 



IlUnols 

Chicago Surface Lines 

Illinois Traction Co 

Indiana 

Gary Rys 

Indianapolis & Southeastern R.R. 



Iowa 

Dea Moines Railway 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & So. R.R.. 



Kentucky 

Kentucky Traction 4 Terminal Co. . 



Louisville Railway 

Maryland 
Washington. Baltimore & AnnapoUa R.R. . . . 

Massachusetts 

Greenfield & Montague Transportation Area 

Union Street Railway, New Bedford 

Michigan 
Department of Street Rys., Detroit 

Missouri 

St. Louis Public Service Co 



New Jersey 

Delawarei Lackawanna & Western R.R 

New Torlt 

Brooklyn & Queens Transit Corp I 

City of N. Y. Board of Transportation 

New York Central R.R 

Third Avenue Ry 

United Traction Co., Albany 

Long Island R.R 

North Carolina 

North Carolina Pub. Serv. Co., Greensboro 

Ohio 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton R.R 



Cleveland Railway | 

Cleveland Union Terminala Company 

Dayton & Troy Electric Railway 

Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Traction Co 



Lima-Toledo R.R 

Youngstown Municipal Railway 

tLorain Street Railroad 

Oklahoma 

Oklahoma Railway 

Pennsylvania 
Altoona & Logan Valley Electric Ry.. 

Pennsylvania Railroad 



Pittsburgh Railways 

Scranton Railway 

York Railways 

Tennessee 

Nashville Interurban Ry 

VlTsinia 

Lynchburg Traction & Light Co 

Washington 

Great Northern 

Yakima Valley Transportation Co 

West VirKlnla 
Monongahela West Penn Pub. Serv. Co.. 

Newell Bridge & Ry. Co 

Wisconsin 

Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Light Co 

Wisconsin Power & Light Co 

Porto Rico 
Porto Rico Ry., Light & Power Co 

DOMINION OF CANADA 

British Columbia Electric Ry 

Calgary Municipal Ry 

Hamilton Street Ry 

Hydro-Electric Power Commission 



Montreal Tramways 

Quebec Railway, Light ft Power Co.. 



Regina Municipal Ry 

Saskatoon Municipal Railway. 
Winnipeg Electric Co 



I 

12 

I 



10 



10 



100 

4 

100 

2 
3 



10 

I 



1 
1 

9 
I 

2 
12 

101 

1 

Ml 

100 

I 

300 

10 

42 

I 

1 

t40 



20 

6 

6 

100 

6 

22 
4 
15 
8 
20 
13 
10 

10 

5 
*36 
• 3 

2 

1 
10 

I 

2 

20 

4 
3 



15 
1 



15 
6 
12 

4 

25 
25 
15 
6 
7 
5 
I 



Class 



Bag. & Mail 

Passenger 

Locomotive 



Passenger 



Passenger 



Passenger 

Locomotives 

Freight 

Passenger 
Passenger 



Passenger 
Locomotives 

Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 

Passenger 
Express 

Passenger 
Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Locomotives 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Service 

Freight 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Locomotives 

Passenger 

Freight 

Freight 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Locomotives 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Passenger 

Locomotives 
Passenger 

Passenger 
Passenger 

Passenger 
Locomotive 

Passenger 



Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 
Passenger 



Type 

of 
Service 



Interurban 
City 



Suburban 



City 



City 



Interurban 



Interurban 
Interurban 



City 



Interurban 
City 
City 
City 

Interurban 
Interurban 

Interiirban 
City 

City 

City 

Suburban 

City 

City 

City 

Suburban 

Freight 

City 

City 

Suburban 

City 

Interurban 

Interurban 

Interurban 

City 

City 

Passenger 

Interurban 

Interurban 

Interurban 

Interurban 

City 

City 

City 

City 

Suburban 

Suburban 



City 
City 
Interurban 

Interurban 

City 

Passenger 
City 

Interurban 
City 

City 



Interurban 

City 

City 

City 

Interurban 

Interurban 

City 

City 

City 

Interurban 

City 

City 

City 



Motor 

or 
Trailer 



Trailer 
Motor 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



Trailer 



Motor 
Motor 



Motor 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 

Trailer 
Motor 

Motor 
Motor 

Motor 

Motor 

Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



Motor 
Motor 



Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Trailer 
Motor 
3 Duplex 
units 



Single or 
Double 
Truck 



Double 
Double 



Double 
Double 
Double 



Double 



Double 
Double 



Double 



Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 

Double 
Double 

Double 
Double 

Double 

Double 

Double 

Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 



Single 
Double 



Length 
Over All 
Ft. In. 



56— 
41— 6} 



79— 7i 
42— H 
48— 4 



44—10 
45— 2 



43— 3 
46— 3 
41— 21 

58— I 
55— 

39— IJ 

44— 

58— 5 



71—0 

45— 6 
45— 
60— 6 



Motor 
Trailer 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 

Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



Motor 
Motor 
Motor 

Motor 
Motor 



Double 
Double 



Double 
3 Trucks 
per unit 



Double 



Double 
Double 
Double 

Double 

Double 
Double 
Double 



Motor 



Motor 
Motor 



Motor 



Motor 

Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Trailer 
Motor 
Trailer 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 
Motor 



Double 
Double 
Double 

Double 
Double 



38— 9i 
42— 8t 



Total 

Weight 

Lbs. 



120,000 



35,360 
44,440 



40,000 
38,000 



150,000 



33,993 
37,980 
29,000 

65,200 



33,000 
32,000 



148,000 

34,000 
27,500 
83,000 



Number 

of 
Motors 



41— 5 
43— 9 



53— 6i 



80— 
45— 2 



40— 6 

41— lOi 

33— 5 
42— 6 



45— 3 
42— 6 



26,980 
32,000 



34,200 
45,000 



47,000 



204,000 
40,000 



30,000 
36,000 

26,060 

36,200 



27,000 
35,900 



Double 



Double 
Double 



Double 



Single 

Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 
Double 



44— 2 
40—10 



40—10 



47— 3 
45— 3 

45— 



46— 2 
46— 2 



51— 2 
51— 2 
46— 2 
46— 2 
41— 2 
65— 
41— 11 
39— 3 



39,000 
34,680 



35,000 
32,220 



38,840 



39,200 
39,400 



58,000 
44,500 
37,000 



38,700 
85,000 
34,000 
30,400 



Seating 
Capacity 









44 


4 


51 


4 


51 


4 


47 




58 


4 





40 



48 
46 



55 



28 

50 
53 
44 
50 
49 
42 
57 
40 
37 
49 
41 
52 



'Converted from steam to electric. 



tMotorised trailers. 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
34 



As is usual, there was considerable variation in the 
dimensions, weights and seating capacities of the cars 
ordered last year. The length of the double-truck cars 
for city service varies between 33 ft. 5 in. and 53 ft. 6^ 
in., the average being about 43 ft. 6 in. Weights for 
this type of car range from 26,000 lb. to 47,000 lb., with 
an average of approximately 36,500 lb. Seating capac- 
ities vary from 36 to 62 per car. Among the interurban 
motor passenger cars there is less variation, the aver- 
age length being about 48 ft. 8 in. with a weight of 
40,916 lb. The cars purchased for New York rapid 
transit service have a length of 60 ft. 6 in. and weigh 
85,000 lb. Even larger than these are the cars bought 
for the electrified suburban service of the Lackawanna 
Railroad, their length being 71 ft. and their weight 



New Rolling Stock Ordered Since 1907 

Freight and 

Passenger Cars Miscellaneous Electric 
Year City Interurban Cars Locomotives Total 

1907 3,483 1,327 1,406 (o) 6,216 

1908 2,208 727 176 (o) 3,111 

1909 2,537 1,245 1,175 (o) 4,957 

I9I0 3,571 990 820 (o) 5,381 

1911 2,884 626 505 • (o) 4,015 

1912 4,531 783 687 (o) 6,001 

1913 3,820 547 1,147 (o) 5,514 

1914 2,147 384 479 (o) 3,010 

1915 2,072 336 374 (o) 2,782 

1916 3,046 374 491 31 3,942 

1917 1,998 185 223 49 2,455 

1918 1,842 255 278 44 2,419 

1919 2,129 128 172 18 2,447 

1920 2,889 227 465 17 3,598 

1921 1,059 129 81 7 1,276 

1922 2,910 187 405 34 3,536 

1923 2,915 427 595 92 4,029 

1924 1,985 538 1,538 31 4,092 

1925 1,054 320 238 47 1,659 

1926 1,249 309 264 60 1,882 

1927 824 121 363 40 1,348 

1928 601 93 171 32 897 

1929 963 319 137 77 1,496 

(a) Included in "Freight and Miscellaneous Cars." 

148,000 lb. Other additions to motorized cars for elec- 
trified suburban service are 39 cars which are being 
converted by the Pennsylvania Railroad from steam 
operation to electric operation, and 40 cars of the Long 
Island Railroad which are being motorized. 



7'51 

53 

804 


5,723 

53 

5,776 


O 
6,809 

714 
7,523 


< 
105,688 
5,970 
111,658 


760 

54 

814 


7,005 

67 

7,072 


4,754 

717 

5,471 


105,618 

5,996 

111,614 


772 
56 

828 


8,761 

168 

8,929 


2,795 

531 

3,326 


104,672 

6,198 

110,870 



Number of Cars Owned by Electric Railways 
by Years 



S .—Passenger-^ - — Freight — . 

>^ Motor Trailer Motor Trailer 

f United States. 77,722 6,027 1,215 7,441 

1920 Canada 4,269 136 133 612 

iTotal 81,991 6,163 1,348 8,053 

( United States. 77,921 6,142 1,324 7,712 

I92H Canada 4,348 138 134 538 

[Total 82,269 6,240 1,458 8,250 

f United States. 75,442 7,624 1,375 7,903 

1922 Canada 4,413 312 143 575 

(Total 79,855 7,936 1,518 8,478 

( United States. 75,249 7,423 1,712 8,442 

1923 I Canada 4,262 365 134 646 

[Total 79,511 7,785 1,846 9,088 

( United States. 75,678 6,768 1,790 9,016 

1924 J Canada 4,267 364 136 642 

[Total 79,945 7,132 1,826 9,658 

f United States. 74,898 6,737 1,760 9,138 

1925] Canada 4,311 367 130 637 

[Total 79,209 7,104 1,890 9,775 

( United States. 73,694 7,050 1,960 9,850 

1926 Canada 3,945 368 125 629 

(Total 77,639 7,418 2,085 10,479 

( United States. 72,030 7,355 2,265 10,500 

1927] Canada 3,878 354 297 618 

[Total 75,908 7,709 2,562 11,118 

( United States. 69,963 7,660 2,488 11,037 

1928] Canada 3,706 364 249 472 

[Total 73,669 8,024 2,737 11,509 

( United States. 67,035 7,001 1,857 11,342 

1929 Canada 3,831 368 244 469 

[Total 70,866 7,369 2,101 11,811 



814 8,971 2,435 

62 213 448 

876 9,184 2,883 

799 9,092 2,491 

62 212 442 

861 9,304 2,933 

809 9,004 2,370 

67 232 463 

876 9,236 2,833 

870 8,731 2,600 

67 313 380 

937 9,044 2,980 

910 8,474 2,950 

64 382 57 
974 8,856 3,007 

948 8,208 3,286 

62 419 51 

1,000 8,627 3,337 

946 8,749 3,325 

65 449 49 
1,011 9,198 3,374 



105,046 

6,130 

111,176 

105,634 

6,125 

111,759 

104,716 

6,207 

110,023 

104,755 

5,827 

110,582 

104,484 

5,650 

110,134 

103,590 

5,323 

108,913 

100,255 

5,475 

105,730 



New York led all other states in the amount of new 
rolling stock purchased for electric railway operation 
last year with a total of 411 cars and 42 electric locomo- 
tives. This numerical superiority was due largely to 
the big order for rapid transit cars and the order of 
101 surface cars for Brooklyn. Ohio was second with 
a total of 146 cars and 26 electric locomotives. Other 
states which bought more than 100 cars included New 
Jersey, Michigan and Illinois. 

At the same time that the electric railways bought 
these 1,404 cars, 2,325 old cars were junked or otherwise 
disposed of. This is by far the largest number that has 
been scrapped in any year of record. The next highest 




1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 WI3 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 - 1929 

Total purchases of electric railway rolling stock increased to a marked extent in 1929 over the 1928 figure 

Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
35 



number reported was 1,853 in 1924, followed closely by 
1,819 in 1928. The relative number of cars scrapped 
in each of the last seven years is shown in an accom- 
panying diagram. 

Interesting Developments in Design 

Aside from the trends of the past year as shown by 
the statistics prepared in accompanying tables, interesting 
developments have occurred in design. Much effort has 
been spent by the manufacturers in the development of 
lighter and quieter trucks. Particular attention has been 
f>aid to securing faster acceleration and retardation. 
Some of the new cars equipped with high-speed motors 
accelerate at a rate of 3 m.p.h.p.s. and can attain a free 
running speed as high as 40 m.p.h. Improvements in 
braking have made it possible to secure a rate of retarda- 
tion as high as 3^ or 4 m.p.h.p.s. without discomfort to 
the passenger. Foot control and automatic acceleration 
appear to be regarded favorably. 

In several instances the cars ordered during the year 



2^ 




1922 WZ3 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 



More than 2,300 old cars were scrapped in 1929, the largest 
number in any year of record 

represent a radical departure from established precedent. 
While the majority of the orders are for equipment that 
follows more or less standard design, more attention has 
been given than ever before to improved general appear- 
ance. Designers have made a serious effort to create ve- 
hicles that are in keeping with their surroundings on the 
modern city street, but which will be an outstanding and 
desirable element in the picture. Attention has been di- 
rected to the balance in the general proportions, to lines 
and colors, to the curves of the roof, proportions^^ of win- 
dows, shape of the ends, and to innumerable minor de- 
tails that a few years ago were given little or no atten- 
tion. 

Greater attention also has been given to interior design 
and appointments, as well as to the exterior. Seats have 
been improved. Lines and colors have been selected to 
harmonize and to create a favorable impression in the 
mind of the rider. Care has been taken to facilitate en- 
trance and exit, and to eliminate congestion near the 
doors and fare box. 



Car Weights Greatly Reduced 
Weights of cars purchased during the year have been 
reduced a great deal from the practice of a few years 
ago. Among the extremely light cars are one for Louis- 
ville which weighs 29,000 lb. and seats 47 passengers, or 
620 lb. per passenger ; the Union Street Railway of New 
Bedford, Mass., which weighs 32.000 lb. and seats 52 
passengers, or 616 lb. per passenger; Pittsburgh Rail- 
ways, weighing 27,000 lb. and seating 42 passengers, or 
640 lb. per passenger; Scranton Railways, weighing 

Electric Railway Journal- 
36 



35,900 and seating 54 passengers, or 665 lb. per passen- 
ger. By far the lightest car listed is that built for the 
Brooklyn & Queens Transit Corporation, which, with a 
weight of 27,500 lb., seats 52 passengers, making the 
weight per passenger 530 lb. 

While these examples of light-weight cars are in gen- 
eral sample designs, enough have been built to show that 
it is practicable to use in their construction those prin- 
ciples which have been expounded by the advocates of 
radical improvements. Practically all the car builders 
are represented in the list of these improved designs, and 
all the builders are using methods once considered revo- 
lutionary. Among these is the use of light-weight metals 
for structural parts as well as for trimmings. It is by 
the use of such methods that the weights have been re- 
duced so radically. 

It is not felt that the ultimate in weight reduction has 
been reached, by any means. Further study will make 
it possible not only to use light-weight metals as they 
have been employed in recent designs, but to modify 
other parts such as motors, controllers and air brake 
equipment to a greater extent than anything that has yet 
been attempted. Such changes will be possible on ac- 
count of the very much lower weight, of the body itself. 
The trucks are capable of redesign for less weight, as 
has been demonstrated in a few sample units. These 
changes in turn make it possible to increase the rates of 
acceleration and braking, even beyond the limits which 
have been referred to earlier in this article, and to do it 
without the necessity of having recourse to more power- 
ful equipment. 

Much Interest Shown in Special Designs 

The purchase of special designs of cars has been made 
in larger quantities during the year just closed than in 
any similar period. This indicates that the interest taken 
in the subject is not merely a passing fancy, but that 
managements are becoming more and more alert to the 
necessity for taking advantage at once of the possibilities 
that lie in such changes. At the close of the year it is 
to be expected that more information as to the per- 
formance of these units in service will be available, and 
will form a basis on which to judge the merits of the 
several innovations incorporated in the recent designs. 
Such results are awaited with interest by all live oper- 
ating men. It is not easy to predict in advance the exact 
effect of changes in design in passenger carrying vehicles 
but it is evident from past experience that the progress 
in car improvement has been productive of beneficial 
results. 

Statistics given in the accompanying tables of rolling 
stock were obtained from replies to questionnaires sent 
to all electric railways in the United States and Canada. 
Replies were received from companies representing more 
than 97 per cent of the total track mileage. Through the 
co-operation of the manufacturers, lists of cars built by 
them during the year were furnished so that the replies 
received from railways could be checked very carefully. 
In a few cases where replies were not received from 
electric railways themselves, the information furnished 
by the car manufacturers has been used. Replies were 
received from all car manufacturers. In addition to the 
information obtained from these two sources, the files 
of Electric Railway Journal have been used exten- 
sively. Particular care has been used to verify figures 
which appeared doubtful and it is believed that the final 
data are complete and accurate. 



-Vol.74, No.l 



Interest Revived in 
Trackless Trolley Operations 



During the past two years this type of service 
has enjoyed a marked increase in popularity. 
More trackless trolleys were bought in 1929 . 
than in any recent year. Seven companies 
are now operating 65 such vehicles. A 
synopsis of all operations since the first 
installation in 1910 is presented 



DEVELOPMENTS of the past year indicate that 
the trackless trolley is again finding favor as a 
local transportation vehicle. Eight years ago it 
was the subject of considerable experimentation and 
much interest was shown in its possibilities. Numerous 
systems were established at the time by the railways, but 
abandonments during the period from 1923 to 1927 
showed that it was losing popularity. With the coming 
of 1928, however, the manufacturers of equipment 
brought out new designs, resulting in a revival of interest 
in the trackless trolley. Indeed, the new models were 
so far removed from the old vehicles known as track- 
less trolleys that the manufacturers were reluctant to 
call them as such and termed them "electric coaches" 
and "trolley buses.'' 

On Sept. 9, 1928. the Utah Light & Traction 
Company, Salt Lake City, placed ten electric coaches in 
service on a route 3.45 miles in length, replacing a former 
street car line. So successful did this original line prove 
to be, that the management on Dec. 4, 1929, added a 
second line, 4.74 miles in length, using fifteen additional 
vehicles. 

New Orleans Established Line in 1929 

A second recent installation of trolley buses in the 
United States is that of the New Orleans Public Service, 
Inc., which started a shuttle route of 1.37 miles in No- 
vember, 1929, using two vehicles. Knoxville is expected 
to have the third installation when it opens up a route 
of approximately 5 miles the latter part of February or 
early in March, using four electric coaches. 

Several other electric railways are considering installa- 
tions in the near future. Of the pending plans, those of 
the Chicago Surface Lines to install trackless trolleys on 
two feeder lines in the northwest part of Chicago stand 
out as of particular significance. If this company ob- 
tains the desired permission to serve this district, it 
will purchase from 60 to 100 vehicles. Another city, 
in the South, is also awaiting only a court decision to 
start an operation of electric coaches. 

It was recently announced by the general manager of 
the Department of Street Railways, Detroit, Mich., 
that he intended to propose the purchase of a number 
of trackless trolleys for trial purposes in that city. Should 
the experiment prove successful, the management plans 
to extend the use of trackless trolleys. Reports re- 



ceived by this paper from three other large properties 
and three smaller ones state that they are considering 
similar installations. 

New Equipment Responsible for 
Renewed Interest 

It has long been felt by many operators that the track- 
less trolley has a definite place in the field of local trans- 
portation. Until recently, however, there was a strong 
feeling that the equipment available was not satisfactory. 
As a result, only a few of the installations made with 
earlier equipment are now in operation. Awkward in 
appearance, hard riding and subject to many mechanical 
troubles, the early trackless trolley was a very unattrac- 
tive vehicle. Development of the Versare, Twin Coach 
and A.C.F. Metropolitan type of buses removed the 
principal objections to the earlier designs, so far as the 
riding qualities and arrangement of equipment were con- 
cerned. At the same time light-weight, high-speed motors 
and control suitable for this type of vehicle became avail- 
able as a result of developments in car design. Further 
refinements in the collection of current and the overhead 
removed several other objections. 

Seven Railways Now Using Trackless Trolleys 

At the present time seven companies are operating 
trackless trolleys in the United States, its possessions and 
Canada. These companies are operating 65 vehicles over 
27.95 miles of one-way route. When service is started 
in Knoxville, the operating companies will be increased 
to eight, the number of vehicles to 69 and the mileage 
to approximately 33. Cities now operating are Balti- 
more, Md. ; Philadelphia, Pa. ; Rochester, N. Y. ; Cohoes, 
N. Y. ; Manila, P. I.; Salt Lake City, Utah, and New 
Orleans, La. 

During the year 1929 a total of 20 vehicles were pur- 
chased, fourteen by the Utah Light &Traction Company, 
Salt Lake City ; two by the New Orleans Public Service, 
Inc., and four by the Knoxville Power & Light Company. 
All of these except those for Knoxville are now in opera- 
tion. Route extensions for the year totaled 6.11 miles, 
1.37 miles of this being accounted for in the new line 
in New Orleans and 4.74 miles being the second line 
established by the Utah Light & Traction Company. 

Of the seven companies now operating trackless trol- 
leys, the system of the United Railways & Electric Com- 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
37 



pany of Baltimore is the oldest.- This line, established 
in July, 1922, is 6.6 miles in length and uses three 
vehicles, two of which are in active operation and one 
of which is held in reserve. They are used in feeder 
service between the end of a car line and a sparsely 
settled section in the country, known as Randallstown. 
Trackless trolleys were selected for this service largely 
as an experiment and also because of their low cost. 
Real estate owners in the territory to be served requested 
that a permanent form of transportation be installed to 
aid in the development of the section and the company 
complied with their wishes. 

Philadelphia has the second oldest system in the coun- 
try with a line which was established on Oct. 14, 1923. 
This route of 2.8 miles serves a rapidly developing 
industrial and residential district in the southern part 
of the city. Ten vehicles are used. Need for the im- 
mediate service was the reason that prompted the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Company to install the trackless 
trolley system on a street having steam railroad tracks. 
These would have required considerable time for removal 
before electric railway tracks could have been installed. 
Also, because the district was not yet fully developed, 
the cost of an electric railway system would have been 
prohibitive. '- 



Closely following the Philadelphia installation was 
that of the New York State Railways at Rochester, 
N. Y. It established a crosstown city service through 
a densely populated and important industrial section on 
Nov. 1, 1923. Twelve vehicles are used on the 3 .5-mile 
route. Since the line passes through a densely populated 
district and crosses five street car lines, the company 
felt that trackless trolleys would provide the most 
economical form of transportation. 

Belt Car Line Replaced in Cohoes 

On Nov. 2, 1924, the Capitol District Transportation 
Company, a subsidiary of the United Traction Company 
of Albany, started operation of a 2.53 mile route in 
Cohoes, N. Y., with four vehicles. The company was 
faced with a large expenditure for street reconstruction 
and paving over a considerable part of a belt line, and 
substituted the electric coaches for this reason. It 
also selected this form of transportation partly so that 
it could shorten the distance taken by certain lines in 
reaching the business center of the city. Reducing the 
track and paving maintenance costs was also a factor. 

Immediate need for reconstructing the street car 
tracks on one of its lines and the high cost of gasoline 
in the Philippines caused the Manila Electric Company 



Present Trackless Trolley Operations in the U. S., its Possessions and Canada 



Companjr 


City 


Equipment 
Number and Type 


Present 
One-Way 
Mileage 


Date 
Started 


Type of 
Service 


Reason for Selection 


Remarks 


United Railways ft 

Electric Company 

of Baltimore. 


Baltimore, 
Md. 


3 Brill (2 in active opera- 
tion, 1 held in reserve). 


6.60 


July, 1922 


Feederl service, between 
end of a car line and 
Randallstown, a 
sparsely settled sec- 
tion in the country. 


Selected largely as an experiment 
and because of their low operating 
cost. Territory was not densely 
populated but real estate owners 
desired a permanent form of 
transportation. 


Performance of these 
trackless trolleys is 
satisfactory. 


Philadelphia 

Rapid Transit 

Company. 


Philadelphia, 
Pa. 


9 Brill B-3 type, 28 pass. 
1 Berg B-4 type, 27 pass. 
Body by Trackless Trol- 
ley Corp. 


2.80 


Oct. 14. 
1923 


Crosstown service in 
south part of city, 
serving docks and in- 
dustrial plants in 
rapidly developing in- 
dustrial and residen- 
tial sections. 


Because of abandoned steam rail- 
road tracks in street it would have 
taken too long to substitute street 
car tracks. Tidewater Docks, em- 
ploying 2,000, and other plants 
needed service immediately. Also, 
territory was not sufficiently de- 
veloped to warrant investment in 
tracks. 


No supplement or cur- 
tailment since original 
installation. General 
performance has been 
quite satisfactory. 
Gas-electric bus felt 
to have advantage in 
flexibility and econ- 
omy. 


.New York State 
Railways. 


Rochester, 
N. Y. 


12 Brockways, 25 pass. 
(Original ly 5 had electric 
motorv and 7 gasoline 
engines. All equipped 
with motors now.) 


3.50 
(Originally 
only 3.00.) 


Nov. 1, 
1923 


Crosstown city service. 
Connects large indus- 
trial and residential 
sections on either side 
of a river. Crosses 5 
car lines. 


Economical operation principal 
reason. 


Company satisfied with 
their performance. 


Capitol District 
Transportation 
Company, sub- 

' Bidiary of United 
Traction Com- 
pany. 


Cohoes, N. Y. 


4 Brockway chassis. 
Wason bodies. 


2.53 


Nov. 2, 
1924 


City. 


Replaced belt street car line. Com- 
pany was faced with larger ex- 
penditure for street reconstruc- 
tion along considerable part of 
line. Change in route brought 
many residents closer to center of 
city. Also to reduce track and 
paving upkeep. 


Performance satisfac- 
tory. 


Manila Electric 
Company. 


ManUa, P. I. 


8 Twin Coaches, 40 pass. 


2.96 


April, 1928 


Feeder service on heavy 
traffic street from city 
limits to two street car 
lines which are routed 
to business center of 
city. 


Replaced street cars on a line the 
tracks of which needed recon- 
structing. Economy of electric 
operation as compared to gasoline 
in Philippines influenced choice of 
trolley buses. 


Giving satisfactory ser- 
vice at low coats, both 
operating and fixed. 


Utah Light & 
Traction 
Company 


Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 


26-total. ISVersares. 8- 
Twin Coaches. (7 Ver- 
sares of Cincinnati Car 
Corporation and 7 Twin 
Coaches added in 1929.) 


8.19 total 
First line 

3.45 
Second line 

4.74 


Sept. 9. 

1928 

Second line 

Dec. 4, 

1929 


City service in well built 
up residential districts 
and main business 
district of city. 


Necessity of reconstructing and re- 
paving four miles of track. At- 
tendant future paving liabilities. 
Company believed electric coach 
to be most economic type of 
vehicle, at same time offering 
comfort and speed in a new, at- 
tractive vehicle 


Company and public so 
pleased with first line 
that second was ad- 
ded. Operating costs 
low. Riding increased. 


New Orleans Pub- 
- Be Service, Inc. 


New Orleans, 
La. 


I Twin Coach, 40 pass. 
1 American Car & 
Foundry Motors Corp., 
42 pass. 


1.37 


Nov.. 1929 


Short feeder from in- 
dustrial plants in 
Southport, through 
residential district to 
a street car line. 


Substituted for street car line. 
Travel too light on line to operate 
street cars profitably. 


Not in service long 
enough for a report of 

operation. 


Knoxville Power 


Knoxville, 
Tenn. 


4 Versares of the Cin- 
cinnati Car Corp., order- 
ed. 


To be ap- 
proximately 
5 miles. 


To start 

late in Feb. 

1 930, or 

early in 

March. 


City. 






A Light Company. 







Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.1 
38 



to select trolley buses for the replacement ot street cars 
on one of its lines. Although the line is a feeder, it 
passes through a heavily populated district, so that the 
' company felt trolley buses would be more efficient and 
provide satisfactory service. Eight Twin Coaches were 
purchased for use on the 2.96-mile route. 

As mentioned previously, the Utah Light & Traction 
Company placed ten Versare electric coaches in service 
on a 3.45-mile route in Salt Lake City on Sept. 9, 1928. 
The necessity of reconstructing and repaving 4 miles of 
track led to the investigation of the new type of vehicle. 
It was felt by the management that the electric coach 
would be the most economical type to use, and that it 
would also offer attractive, comfortable and speedy serv- 
ice. Operating costs were very low on the new line, and 
both the company and public were well pleased. As a 
result, a second line, 4.74 miles in length, was started on 
Dec. 4, 1929. 

Like the first line, this second one serves a well 
built up residential district and reaches the central busi- 
ness district of the city. Fourteen new vehicles were 
ordered for the extension, seven Versares of the Cincin- 
nati Car Corporation and seven Twin Coaches. In ad- 
dition to the ten original coaches the company secured 
one more Versare and a Twin Coach in 1928, making a 
total of 12 in operation at the end of 1928 and 26 at the 
end of 1929. 

The line established in November, 1929, by the New 
Orleans Public Service, Inc., is a short feeder, 1.37 miles 
in length, connecting several industrial plants with a 



street car line. Two vehicles were purchased for this 
service, one a Twin Coach and the other an A.C.F. The 
vehicles are being operated partly as an experiment, and 
more may be placed on lines which do not have sufficient 
patronage to warrant a street car line. 

Late in February, 1930, or early in March, the Knox- 
ville Power & Light Company will place four electric 
coaches in service on a line approximately 5 miles in 
length. Full details of this installation are not yet 
available. 

Most Abandonments Caused by Poorly Designed 
Equipment 

During the years 1921, 1922 and 1923 eight installa- 
tions of trackless trolleys were made in the United States 
and Canada. Of this number only three are still in 
existence. The cities in which the operations were aban- 
doned were New York, N. Y. ; Toronto, Ont. ; Minneap- 
olis, Minn. ; Windsor, Ont., and Petersburg, Va. Aban- 
donment of earlier installations occurred in Greenwich, 
Conn., many years agfo; in Laurel Canyon, near Los 
Angeles, Cal., in 1910; and in Merrill, Wis;; in 1913. 
Little information is known about the Greenwich, Conn., 
installation, which, it is reported, was operated before 
any electric street cars made their appearance. Like- 
wise, no definite information is available concerning the 
installation in Laurel Canyon in 1910. Details of all 
the other abandonments are known, however, and are 
presented in an accompanying table. It will be noted 
from the table that in almost every case the operations 



Abandoned Trackless Trolley Operations in the U. S. and Canada 




Company 


City 


Date 
Started 


Type of Service 


Equipment 


Date 
Abandonee 


Reasons for 
Abandonment 


Service 
Substituted 




Greenwich, Conn. 


Before trol- 
leys were 
operated 
























Pacific Electric Railway. . . 


Laurel Canyon, 

near 
Los Angeles, Cal. 


1910 






















Merrill Railway & Light 


Merrill, Wis. 


Jan., 1913 


City. Reached a ward on west 
side of city over a bridge, too 
light and narrow to support 
a street car line. 




Uf^ 1 q n 


Proved a failure. 










Was sold to West 
End Street Rail- 
way, Boeton, 






WestEnd Street Railway. . 


Sconticut Neck, 
Mass. 


1916 




One vehicle pur- 
chased from Mer- 
rill Railway & 
Light Co. 


1916 












Staten Island - Midland 
Railway. Operated by 
Department of Plant 
and .Structures, City of 
Xew York 


Staten Island, 
New York, N. Y. 


Oct. 8. 1921 

System 

expanded 

Nov. 4, 1922 


Feeders. The two original lines 
extended from the end of a 
Richmond trolley line. One, 
2. 6 miles long, reached a large 
city hospital, the second, 4.4 
miles long, served a settle- 
ment called Linoleumville. 
Third line started in Nov., 
1922, extended to Tottenville, 
a distance of 9 miles. 


First installed 8 
trolley buses by 
the Atlas Truck 
Company with G. 
E. equipment. 1 5 
Brock ways bought 
for third route. 


July 31, 
1927 


Excessive operating costs. 
Worn-out equipment. 
Power company shut off 
power supply because of 
large debt. 


Buses 






Toronto Transportation 


Toronto, Ont. 


Fall, 1921 


City 


Four 


FaU. 1923 


Were operated under ad- 
verse conditions and were 
purely experimental. 


Buses 






Twin City Rapid Transit 


Minneapolis, 
Minn. 


Apr. 15, 
1922 


City 


1 Brill; 1 built by 
Company. 


April, 
1923 


Operating costs excessive. 
Trouble with trolley poles 
and control, due to jar- 
ring. Residents objected 
to overhead. Accidents 
high. Restricted to fixed 
route. 










Hydro-Electric Railways. . . 


Windsor, Ont. 


May, 1922 


City 


Four 


One line, 
Sept., 1923. 

Second, 
May, 1926 


First because of track ex- 
tension. Second, because 
of inflexibility. 


Street cars 
on first. 
Buses on 
seconds 


Virginia Electric & Power 
Company. Installation 
by Virginia Railway & 
Power Company, its 
predecessor 


Petersburg, Va. 


June, 1923 
Expanded 
late in 1924 


Original line a feeder of 0.8 
mile from a residential sec- 
tion to a trolley line. Later 
extended to business section, 
replacing street car line. 
Length 3.5 miles. 


Total of five. Two 
for original in- 
stallation. 


Dec. 31, 
1926 


Had to pay for and operate 
on narrow stj-ip of con- 
crete in center of street. 
Vehicles uncomfortable. 
Overhead objectionable 
to residents and expensive 
to maintain. Operating 
costs high. 


Buses 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
39 



were suspended because of unsatisfactory performance 
of the equipment. The rapid development of the bus 
also was responsible for the replacement of some of these 
lines. 

What can probably be called the pioneer trackless trol- 
ley installation in the United States and Canada was 
that of the Merrill Railway & Light Company, Merrill, 
Wis. E. S. King, president and general manager of the 
company, had seen a storage battery operated bus of a 
large department store in Chicago, and conceived the 
idea of building a similar bus equipped with a 500-voIt 
motor and trolley poles, to serve a ward of the city which 
required transportation service. This ward was located 
on the west banks of the Wisconsin River and could not 
be reached by street car because the bridge joining this 
section with the main part of the city was too narrow 
and not strong enough to support heavy equipment. Mr. 
King planned to extend his trackless trolley operation if 
it proved successful, but abandoned the line after main- 
taining service during the year 1913. The vehicle was 
purchased by the West End Street Railway of Boston, 
and operated by this company for a short period at 
Sconticut Neck, Mass. 

With much ceremony, the city of New York intro- 
duced trackless trolley transportation to the residents 
of two sections of Staten Island, on Oct. 8, 1921. Two 
lines were established, both feeding a trolley line. A 
total of eight trolley buses was used in this service 
over the 7 miles of route. On Nov. 4, 1922, the city 
added a third line on Staten Island, extending a distance 
of 9 miles and using fifteen trolley buses. Operation on 
all three lines was suspended on July 31, 1927, when the 
power company cut off its supply to the city, because of 
a large unpaid debt for energy consumed. The vehicles, 
however, were worn out and operating costs were so 
excessive that the city had been negotiating for some 
time previous for the substitution of buses. 

Details of the systems established by the Toronto 
Transportation Commission, the Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company, the Hydro-Electric Railways at Wind- 
sor and the Virginia Railway & Power Company are 
given in the accompanying table of abandonments. Un- 
satisfactory equipment was responsible for most of these 
failures. 

Many Experiments in Early Years 

Tests were made by the Virginia Railway & Power 
Company in June, 1921, of a trolley bus manufactured 
by the Atlas Truck Company, with General Electric 



equipment, over a 1-mile route in Richmond. Later in 
the year the same company experimented with a trolley 
bus in a residential district of Norfolk. Detroit was the 
scene of two tests in 1921, one of a trackless trolley with . 
a Brill body, a Packard chassis and Westinghouse equip- 
ment, and the other of St. Louis Car Company manufac- 
ture. Tests of equipment also were made in the year by 
the J. G. Brill Company at Philadelphia, the General 
Electric Company at Schenectady and the St. Louis Car 
Company at St. Louis. Later, experiments were made in 
Los Angeles in 1922, in Norfolk during July, 1923, and 
at Detroit in the summer of 1924. In Norfolk a Brill 
trackless trolley was run free to demonstrate its prac- 
ticability. The Detroit tests were to compare two dif- 
ferent types of vehicles, one a Brill, with one General 
Electric motor, and the other a St. Louis Car Company 
vehicle, with two Westinghouse motors. 

It is interesting to note, through the period of these 
several experiments and installations, the many proposals 
in other cities for the installation of trackless trolleys. 
A few of these, selected at random, are : Greenville, 
Tex., April, 1921; Akron, Ohio, July, 1921; Buffalo, 
N. Y., August, 1921 ; Detroit, Mich., August, 1921 ; 
Seattle, Wash., September, 1921 ; St. Louis, Mo., Sep- 
tember, 1921 ; Milwaukee, Wis., January, 1922; Orange, 
Tex., March, 1923; Toledo, Ohio, January, 1924; De- 
troit, Mich., April, 1924 ; and Albany, N. Y., September, 
1924. 

From the history of installations, abandonments, ex- 
periments and proposals, herewith recorded, it is not 
difficult to trace the cycle through which the trackless 
trolley has passed since its first inception. Casual experi- 
ments previous to 1921 led up to a great period of 
activity in the two years following. Installations made 
in the years from 1921 to 1923 were not entirely suc- 
cessful in all the cities where installed and the next few 
j'ears saw a waning of popularity. During 1927, how- 
ever, radically different designs of vehicles made their 
appearance and there followed two important installa- 
tions, one at Manila, P. I., and one at Salt Lake City, 
Utah. At present, it appears that the trolley bus is 
entering upon another period of much activity. Seven 
companies are now operating this type of vehicle, another 
will begin in February or March of 1930, and a few 
others are planning installations in the near future. 
Upon the activities of the year 1930 will depend, pos- 
sibly, the outcome of this type of vehicle and whether it 
will form for itself a definite place in the field of 
transportation. 



Significant Figures of Past Year in Electric Railway Industry 

Expenditures for new plant and equipment ^135,470,000 

Expenditures for maintenance materials ^100,535,000 

Expenditures for maintenance labor ^121,450,000 

Number of new cars bought 1,419 

Mileage of track extensions 161.71 

Mileage of track reconstruction 700.14 

Number of new buses bought 1,813 

Miles of bus route extension 3,825 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
40 



Great Improvement in 

Financial Situation 



With restoration of the industry's credit refunding 
has heen easier in the past year, and maturities are 
being taken care of on nearly all properties. The 
receivership status is the most encouraging for any 
year since the record has been kept by this paper 

By 
MORRIS BUCK 

Engineering Editor Electric Railway Journal 




50 - 



45 



i?4.Q 



<4. 35 



= 30 



• 15 



'20 



w 15 



^Cify 

r//'.v,:i Interurban 

' ' C\^ and Suburbcin 



1919 



19 ZO 



1922 



The record of financing done by electric railways for the past eleven years shows that the needs of capital are being met adequately 



FINANCIALLY speaking, to a greater extent than 
in any recent year the electric railway industry put 
its house in order during 1929. Not only was the 
number of receiverships entered into greatly reduced, but 
many roads that had been in receivership for a number 
of years were restored to their owners. Besides this, the 
total of bonds of electric railway properties in default 
of interest was reduced almost $40,000,000. Out of a 
total of $26,668,000 of securities maturing last year, 
$18,342,000 were retired, and $7,141,000 of bonds, matur- 
ing in 22 years or more, were called at prices ranging 
from 101 to 105. These are the outstanding facts of a 
record that has not been made by the electric railways 
for many years, not, in fact, since this paper has been 
presenting the statistics in its annual reviews. 

During the year the major pieces of financing amounted 
to $18,310,000, as is indicated in Table I. This compares 
with $8,800,000 in 1928 and $39,676,000 in 1927. By 



far the largest single transaction in the year was that of 
the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation, which 
placed an issue of $13,500,000 three-year secured 6J per 
cent notes at 98^, or a yield of 7.06 per cent to maturity. 
The Insull properties placed two issues, one for the 
South Shore Line and one for the North Shore Line. 
The South Shore securities were $810,000 of 5^ per cent 
equipment trust certificates, and the North Shore were 
$1,500,000 of three-year 6 per cent notes. The latter were 
placed at 97| to yield 6.84 per cent. The other large issue 
was that of the United Railways & Electric Company of 
Baltimore. It was divided into two parts, the first being 
$1,500,000 of first consolidated 4's due in 1949. These 
bonds, which are part of an issue authorized a number 
of years ago, were floated at 58. The other issue was 
$1,000,000 of first and refunding 6^ per cent bonds due 
in 1957. These were sold at 80. The yields of the two 
issues were 8.35 per cent and 8.36 per cent respectively. 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
41 



Table I — Eleven- Year Record of New Electric Railway 

Financing Involving Bond or Note Issues 

of More Than ^400,000 

City and 

City Railway Interurban Suburban 

1919.. .< 1. $22,800,000 $6,050,000 $7,550,000 

1920 2,250,000 2,340,000 4,200,000 

1921 11,740,000 1,900,000 7,250,000 

1922 865,000 750,000 27,138,000 

1923 14,562,000 6,305,000 

1924 50,797,000 21,731,600 11,414.000 

1925 23,141,000 750,000 486,000 

1926 2,100,000 6,500,000 2,500,000 

1927 38,956,000 720,000 

1928 4,400,000 4,000,000 400,000 

1929 13,500.000 2,310,000 2,500,000 



Table II — Comparison of Maturities in the 
Electric Railway Field 



1930 $49,274,000 

1929 27,316,600 

1928 47,577,200 

1927 180,798,000 

1926 26,644,790 



1925 $28,224,000 

1924 73,051,600 

1923 94,851,800 

1922 160,015,860 

1921 207,617,530 

1920 80,466,100 



They attracted considerable attention at the time they 
were issued on account of being part of a mortgage 
authorized a number of years ago, and on account of the 
ease with which they were absorbed by investors. 

The major portion of the financing during the past 
year was for city railways, principally on account of the 
inclusion of the Brooklyn issue. On the other hand, the 
interurban and combination city and suburban properties 
handled issues totaling approximately the average in these 
classifications for the past five years. This shows that it 
still is possible to obtain funds for the two latter classes 
of properties if the security is good. 

In the present year the maturities will be almost double 
what they were during 1929. The total for 1930 as given 
in the table is $49,274,000, as compared with $27,316,000. 
With the improving position of the electric railways in 
the eyes of the investing public little difficulty should be 
involved in the refunding. No very large individual 
amounts are included, the largest items being the Louis- 
ville Railway consolidated 5's, $6,000,000, due in July; 
Newark Passenger Railway consolidated 5's, $5,849,000, 
also due in July, and Portland Railway, of Portland, 
Ore., refunding 5's, $5,870,000, due in November. 



Table IV — Principal Electric Railway Maturities in 1930 

(Baaed on Dow, Jones & Company Compilation) 

Security Hate Amount 

January $2,079,000 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Co 2nd 5 654,000 

Topeka Railway Ist 5 622,000 

.Mbany Railway Cons. 5 428,000 

Brooklyn City Railroad Eq.Tr.A 5 375,000 

February $3,937,500 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R 3-Yr. 5 H 2,500,000 

Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago Ry Ist 5 1,000,000 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co Eq.Tr.G 5M 237,500 

Pittoburgh Railways Eq.Tr. 6 200,000 

March $2,900,000 

United Railways & Electric Co. of Baltimore. . . 3-Yr. 6 2,500,000 

Berkshire Street Railway Deb. 5 200,000 

Empire Passenger Railway Ist 3}^ 200,000 

April $2,179,000 

Rochester Railway Cons. 5 2,179,000 

May $3,332,000 

Duluth Street Railway Ist 5 2,500,000 

Duluth Street Railway Gen. 5 832,000 

June $2,170,000 

City & Suburban Railway Ist 4 1,290,000 

Detroit United Railway Serial 6 500,000 

Doylestown & Willow Grove Railway Ist 4 500,000 

Pasadena & Mt. Lowe Railway Ist 4 480,000 

July $15,641,000 

Louisville Railway Cons. 5 6.000,000 

Newark Passenger Railway Cons. 5 5,849,000 

West End Street Railway Deb. 4H 1,604,000 

Duquesne Traction Company Ist 5 1,31 3,000 

West Liberty Street Railway 1st 5 400,000 

AUentown & Kutitown Traction Co 1st 5 250,000 

Atlanta Street Railroad Ist 6 225,000 

August $5,542,500 

Worcester Consolidated Street Railway Ref. 6'A 2, 1 1 6,000 

Worcester Consolidated Street Railway Ref. 4M 1,489,000 

Worcester Consolidated Street Railway Deb. 6 1,200,000 

Worcester & Southbridge Street Railway 1st 6 500,000 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company Eq.Tr.G 5H 237,500 

September $2,493,000 

Hartford Street Railway U( 4 2,493,000 

October $1,34«,00« 

Pittsburrb, Allegheny & Manchester Traction Co. Ut 5 1,346,000 

NoTember $6,284,000 

Portland (Ore.) Railway Ref. 5 5,870,000 

Sioux Falls Traction Company lit 4 4 1 4,000 

December $770,000 

Detroit United Railway Serial 4 500,000 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Compa«y Eq.Tr.H 5H 270,000 

Total for 1930 $49,274,00* 

In the matter of securities defaulted, the year has 

shown a remarkable improvement. At the beginning of 
1929 the total of such securities was $262,953,875. At 
the close of the year there were only $223,672,275 of 



Table III — Disposition of Electric Railway Maturities in 1929 



Company and Issue 

January 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co. ctfs 

New Bedford, Middleboro & Brockton St. Ry. Ist. 

Eastern Massachusetts St. Ry. refunding 

Brooklyn City Railroad equipment trust 

February 

South Shore & Boston St. Ry., Ist 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., equip, trust G. . . . 
Pittsburgh Railways, equipment trust 



Mari(» City Railway, Ist. . 
East Side Traction Co., Ist. 



May 
June 



Lebanon Valley St. Railway, 1st. 

Erie Traction Co., Ist 

Central Traction Co., Ist 

LaCrosse City Railway, Ist 



July 



August 

Atlantic & Suburban Railway, Ist 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., equipment trust G. . 

-Aroostook Valley Railroad, Ist 

Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Co., 1 yr 



.Amount Disposition 
$1,449,000 



September 

•Wilkinsburgh & East Pittsburgh Ry., 1st 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Co., clt. 
Hoosac Valley Street Railway, refunding 



$450,000 
324,000 
300,000 
375,000 

$763,500 

$331,000 
237,500 
200,000 

$328,000 

$328,000 

$250,000 

$250,000 

$1,398,000 

$500,000 
353,000 
325,000 
220,000 

$U,028,500 

$591,100 

237,500 

200,000 

10,000,000 

$2,714,000 

$1,989,000 
425.000 
300,000 



Retired 
Retired 
Retired 
Retired 



Retired 
Retired 
No data 



None 



Retired 



None 
Retired 
Extended 
Refunded 



No data 
Retired 
Retired 
Retired 



Extended 

Retired 

Extended 



Company and Issue 

November 

Baltimore Traction Co., 1st 

Pittsburgh & Birmingham Traction Co., Ist. . . . 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co., ctfs. C 



December 

Lynn & Boston Railroad, Ist. .^ 

St. Louis Electric Terminal Railway, Ist 

■lohnstown Passenger Railway, consoUdated 

East McKeesport Street Railway, Ist 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., equipment trust H. . 



Amount 


Disposition 


$3,570,000 




$1,500,000 

1,500,000 

570,000 


Retired 

Extended 

Retired 


$5,161000 




$2,519,000 

1,724,000 

399,000 

250,000 

270,000 


Retired 

Extended 

Renewed 

Extended 

Retired 



Summary of Dispositions by Months 

No 
Refunded 



Month Retired 

January $1,449,000 

February 568,500 

March 

April 

May 

June 250,000 

July 353,000 

August 10,437,500 

September 425,000 

October 

November 2,070,000 

December 2,789,000 



$220,000 



Extended Disposition Unknown 
'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. $200,660 



$325,000 

2,289,66o 

i, 500,000 
2,373,000 



$328,000 
■ 500,666 



Total $18,342,000 

Grand total 



$220,000 $6,487,000 $828,000 
$26,668,000 



591,100 



$791,100 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
42 



250 



Table V — New Bond and Note Financing in 1929 
Offered Publicly in Amounts of More Than $250,000 

Issue Price Maturity Yield Amount 

Chicago, South Shore & South Bend R.R. „,. ,„ .o,„„„a 

Equipment Trust C5J'8 193(>-39 .... $810,000 

Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation ,,j„„„„„ 

3-yr. secured notes, 6i's 98.50 1932 7.06 13,500,000 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R.R. _ „ . ,„„ „„„ 

3-yr notes, 6'b 97.75 1932 6.84 1,500,000 

United Railways & Electric Co. of Balti- ,,„„„„„ 

more Ist consolidated 48 58.00 1949 8.35 1,500,000 

United Railways & Electric Co. of Balti- ,.„„„„„ 

more Island refunding 6i'8 80.00 1957 8.36 1.000,000 

Total $18,310,000 



Table VI— Electric Railway Securities Called in 1929 

Month Company Mature Amount Price 
February Wilmington & Philadelphia Traction 

Co. 5'8 1963 $5,041,000 105 

March Cleveland, Elyria & Western Ry. 6'8. 1954 1,073,000 101 

March Wilmington City Rv. 1st 5'8 1951 600,000 105 

March Cleveland & Elyria Div. 6'8 1954 200,000 101 

March Cleveland, Berea, Elyria & Oberlin 6's 1 954 1 27,000 101 

March Cleveland & Oberlin Div. 6'8 1954 100,000 101 



Table VII — Electric Railway Receiverships — 1929 

Miles of 
Single Track Capital Funded Receiver's 

Involved Stock Debt Certificates 

Hammond, Whiting & East 

Chicago Ry., Hammond, Ind. 34.16 $1,000,000 $1,788,000 None 
New York State Railways, 

Rochester, N. Y 254.14 23,814,900 26,087,000 None 

United Traction Co., Albany, 

N. Y 112.10 12,500,000 6.500.000 None 

Oklahoma Union Railway, Tulsa, 

Okla 18.9 $1,500,000 $750,000 None 

Sunbury A Selinsgrove Railway, 

Selinsgrove, Pa 6.2 220,100 13,400 None 

Total for 1 929 425.50 $39,035,000 $35,138,400 None 



bonds in default. The situation is the more encouraging 
when it is seen that included in these totals are items of 
$156,169,475 of bonds of the Chicago Surface Lines 
constituent companies, defaulted on account of the un- 
satisfactory political situation which pre- 
vented a renewal of the operating franchises 
early in 1927. As a result it was not possible 
to refinance and the bonds are technically in 
default, although interest is being paid regu- 
larly on them, and the principal undoubtedly 
will be paid off or refunded as soon as an 
agreement with the city is reached. Apart 
from these securities the total of defaulted 
bonds a year ago was $106,784,400. At the 
end of the year just closed the amount had 
been reduced to $67,602,800. In other words, 
more than a third of the issues in default, 
except for Chicago, had been adjusted. This 
excellent record speaks well for the soundness 



20 



15 



V 

ho 






"150 



.!;ioo 



■ 60 



fe. 



s s s 



Maturities for 1930 show an increase above 
last year, but are relatively small in the 
aggregate 



of the industry. 
The receiver- 
ship record of 
1929 would be 
good at any 
time, but is par- 
ticularly note- 
worthy after the 
record of the 
past twenty 
years. When 
conditions in the 
industry were 
normal, in the 
five years before 
the World War 
began, the re- 
ceiverships aver- 
aged nineleen 
per year, with an average of 500 miles of track each 
year, and with securities averaging $24,700,000 in stock 
and $39,000,000 in bonds. As the war progressed the 
situation became worse,, the 1919 record reaching the 
tremendous figure of 48 roads with 3,781 miles of track 
thrown into receivership, involving $321,000,000 of 
stocks and $312,900,000 of bonds. From that point the 
receiverships diminished gradually until only eight roads 
became involved in 1928. But the record for last year, 
when only five roads with a total of 510 miles of track, 
and with $18,473,000 of stocks and $21,173,700 of bonds 
went into the hands of receivers, is the best since 1925. 
It is also noteworthy that one of these roads was able to 
satisfy its creditors and the arrangements for ending the 
receivership were made during the year. 

There also has been a material reduction in the number 
and importance of roads remaining insolvent. 
Notable among the reorganizations were 
several properties that have been in trouble 
for several years. The Des Moines City 
Railway is one of these. This 100-mile 
system was sold at foreclosure and taken 
over by a new group, headed by W. J. 
Cummings of Chicago. The long-standing 
source of difficulty has been a contract be- 
tween the company and its trainmen which 
prohibited the use of one-man cars. This 
has now been abrogated, and it is expected 
that operating economies that will make the 
system successful can be introduced. 

Another important system that was re- 
organized during the year is the Detroit 
United system. This property, which was 
the interurban portion of the old Detroit 
United remaining when the city of Detroit 



Receivership 
I Foreclosure Soles 




1909 



1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 
The great improvement in the receivership situation 



1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 
is seen from this record covering the past 21 years 



1929 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
"43 



Table VIII — Outstanding Electric Railway Bonds in Default of Interest 



iBaaed on Compilation by Doio, Jones & Company) 



Amount 

Auburn & Syracuse Electric R.R. ref. 5's (1,752,000 

Bethlehem & Naiareth Railway S's, 1 929 1 50,000 

Bloomfield Street Railway 5'8, 1 923 250,000 

Brownsville Avenue Street Railway S's, 1 926 300,000 

Buffalo & Erie Railway Ist 6 H's 994,000 

Buffalo & Lackawanna Traction Company 5'b, 1928 1,000,000 

Calumet & South Chicago Railway 5'b, 1927 5,532,000 

Central Passenger Railway 6's, 1 924 1 25,000 

Chatham. Wallaceburg & Lake Erie 6's, 1925 800,000 

Chicago City & Connecting Railways 5'8, 1927 20,616,000 

Chicago City Railway 1st 5's, 1927 33,926,000 

Chicago Railways 1st S's, 1927 55,655,000 

Cons. A 5'8, 1927 16,703,800 

Cons. B 5's, 1927 17,164,475 

Purch. money 5's, 1927 4,073,000 

Adj. income 4'8, 1927 2,500,000 

Citizens Traction Company Ist 5's, 1927 246,000 

Clinton Street Railway Ist 5'8, 1926 400,000 

Detroit, Jackson & Chicago Railway S's 881,000 

Evansville & Ohio Valley Railway S's 1,034,200 

Inter-Urban Railway Ist 7H's 562,500 

Inter-Urban debenture 6'8 250,000 

Kansas-Oklahoma Traction Company 6*B 234,000 

Key System Securities Company coll. 6'b 2,500,000 

Lakeside Railway Ist 6'b 1 50,000 

Lebanon Valley Street Railway 5'b, 1929 500,000 

Lowell & Fitchburg Street Railway 5's, 1926 275,000 

Millvale, Etna & Sharon Street Railway 5'8, 1923. . 741,000 

Monongahela Street Railway 5'b, 1928 993,000 

New York & Queens County Railway 4'b 1,300,000 



Defa 
April, 


lUted 
1926 


May, 


1929 


Aug., 


1923 


Aug., 


1926 


July, 


1925 


Dec., 


1918 


Feb., 


1927 


Oct., 


1924 


July, 


1925 


Jan., 


1927 


Feb., 


1927 


Feb.. 


1927 


Feb., 


1927 


Feb., 


1927 


Feb., 


1927 


Feb., 


1927 


Oct., 


1927 


April, 


1926 


Aug., 


1925 


Jan., 


1928 


April, 


1927 


Jan., 


1923 


Nov., 


1924 


July, 


1929 


Nov., 


1927 


July, 


1929 


Jan., 


1926 


Nov., 


1923 


June, 


1928 


April, 


1922 



New York State Railways cons. A 4 V^'b 

New York State Railways cons. B 6 Vi's 

Ogdensburg Street Railway 6'8, 1925 

Penn Street Railway Ist 5's, 1922 

Pittsburgh & Birmingham Traction Co. 5'b, 1929.. . 

Pittsburgh, Crafton & Mansfield 5'8, 1924 

Pittsburgh Traction Company 5's l927 

Pittsburgh & West End Passenger Railway 5's, 1922 

Puget Sound Electric Railway cons. 5'b 

Rociiester & Syracuse Railroad 5's 

Salt Lake & Utah Railroad 1st 6'8 

Salt Lake & Utah Railroad conv. 7's, 1928 

Seattle & Rainier Valley Railway 6'8 

Seattle & Rainier Valley Railway general 5'b 

Southwest Missouri Electric Company 6'b, 1928.. . . 

Southwest Missouri Railroad 5'8 

Springfield Railway 1st S's 

Stein way Railway 6's, 1922 

Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern Railroad S's 

Union Traction Company, Coffeyville, Kansas S'b.. 

Union Traction Company of Indiana gen. 6*8 

Washington Electric Street Railway S's, 1927 

Waterloo Cedar Falls & Northern S's 

Webb City Northern Electric Railroad 6'b, 1928 

Wilkes-Rarre & HaBclton Railway 1st S's 

Wilkes-Barre & Hazelton 2nd coll. S's 

Wilkinsburg & East Pittsburgh S's, 1929 

YoungBtown & Ohio River Railroad Ist S's 

Total $223,672,275 



Amount 
13,457,000 
3,000,000 
150,000 
250,000 
1,500,000 
171,000 
666,000 
313,000 
2,427,000 
2,448,500 
1,431,900 
150,000 
484,000 
577,500 
909,000 
1,034,000 
1,335,400 
1.500,000 
2,496,000 
941,000 
4,623,000 
125,000 
5,773,000 
125,000 
1,761,000 
1,227,000 
1,989,000 
1,200,000 



Defaulted 
Nov., 1929 



Nov., 

Sept., 

June, 

Nov., 

July, 

Oct., 

July, 

Aug., 

May, 

Oct., 

Oct., 

Jan., 

Jan., 

Sept., 

.Sept., 



1929 
1925 
1922 
1929 
1924 
1927 
1922 
1927 
1927 
192S 
1925 
1928 
1928 
1926 
1926 



March, 1928 
July, 1922 



May, 
Jan., 
Jan., 
Feb., 
Jan. 



1927 
1925 
1 925 
1927 
1922 



Sept., 1926 

May, 1929 

April, 1929 

Sept., 1929 

April, 1927 



Table IX— Record of Electric 


Railway Receiverships 


Table 


X — Record of Electric Railway Foreclosure Sales 














Number of 
Companies 


Track 
Involved 




vauuiu^ L.'t.uu 


Receivers* 
Certificates 


Year 


Companies 


Involved 


stocks Bonds 


Year 


Stocks 


Bonds 


1909 


22 


558.00 


$29,962,200 


$22,325,000 


1909 


21 


488.00 


$22,265,700 


$21,174,000 


(a) 


1910 


11 


696.61 


12,629,400 


75,490,735 


1910 


22 


724.36 


19,106,613 


26,374,075 


(o) 


I9II 


19 


518.90 


29,533,450 


38,973,293 


1911 


25 


660.72 


91,354,800 


115,092,750 


(o) 


1912 


26 


373.58 


20,410,700 


11,133,800 


1912 


18 


267.18 


14,197,300 


10,685,250 


(») 


19IJ 


18 


342.84 


31,006,900 


47,272,200 


1913 


17 


302.28 


15,243,700 


19,094,500 


(o) 


1914 


10 


362.39 


35,562,550 


19,050,460 


1914 


11 


181.26 


26,239,700 


44,094,241 


(o) 


1915 


27 


1,152.10 


40,298,050 


39,372.375 


1915 


19 


308.31 


30,508,817 


16,759,997 


(o) 


1916 


15 


359.26 


14,476,600 


10,849,200 


1916 


19 


430.14 


13,895,400 


22,702,300 


(a) 


1917 


21 


1,177.32 


33,918,725 


33,778,400 


1917 


26 


745.19 


27.281,900 


27,313,045 


(o) 


I9IS 


29 


2,017.61 


92,130,388 


163,257,102 


1918 


23 


524.22 


37,740,325 


20,149,384 


(o) 


1919 


48 


3,781.12 


321,259,354 


312,915,104 


1919 


29 


2,675.48 


89,893,400 


79,836,738 


$42,300 


1920 


19 


1,065.31 


28,758,455 


72,283,575 


1920 


13 


259.90 


7,782,400 


11,227,328 


52,000 




19 


986.42 


32,909,525 


36,177,800 


1921 


13 


777.97 


33,642,255 


30,863,526 


5,000 


1922 


14 


695.43 


18,140.150 


20,304,400 


1922 


13 


322.88 


7,491,500 


12,640,600 


14,683 


1923 


12 


333.63 


8,332,100 


14,707,066 


1923 


15 


927.45 


118,077,959 


110,638,250 


12,265,000 


1924 


12 


1,021.88 


28,489,700 


35,716,000 


1924 


14 


869.25 


21,022,800 


34.845,535 


3,440,388 


1925 


14 


1,260.07 


51,383,195 


54,696,525 


1925 


13 


569.39 


18,074,300 


18,329,555 


53,000 


1926 


16 


1,228.28 


17,769,435 


117,560,073 


1926 


28 


1,291.17 


20,054,700 


57,340,363 


214,000 


1927 


13 


624.32 


17,615,050 


20,875,450 


1927 


16 


940.68 


53,345,000 


78,445,100 


3,140,000 




8 


261.95 


9,216,700 


14,790,700 


1928 


8 


1,003.73 


26,084,325 


40,683,400 


168.150 


1929 


' 


425.50 


39,035,000 


35,138,400 


1929 


10 


510.38 


18,472,995 


21,173,700 


285,359 



purchased the city Hnes, finally was able to work 
out a plan for satisfying its creditors. It now has 
been reorganized as the Eastern Michigan Railways. 
Incidentally, this was the largest road remaining in re- 
ceivership at the beginning of last year, comprising 613.9 
miles of track and involving $45,000,000 of securities. 



(a) Data not available. 

The Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Traction Company, 
which went into receivership in 1921, finally adjusted its 
difficulties and was merged with the Cincinnati, Hamilton 
& Dayton Railway. The plan was worked out in 1928, 
but was not consummated until last year. 

With these roads and a number of others out of 



Table XI — Receiverships Terminated and Foreclosure Sales During 1929 

Miles of 
Receivers Discharged with or without Foreclosure Sales Single 

or Following .Abandonment 'Track Capital Funded Receiver's 

Involved Stock Debt Certificates 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., Indianapolis, Ind 101.00 $3,600,000 $2,600,000 156,000 Sold at receiver's sale in 1928. Receiver disharged. 

Milford & Uxbndge Street Ry., Milford, Mass 35. 00 540,000 500,000 None Sold at foreclosure in 1927. Receiver discharged 

^ ^ March, 1929. 

Wahpeton-Breckenridge Street Ry., Breckenridge, Minn 1.00 42,500 None None Receivership lifted. 

Atlantic & Suburban Ry., Atlantic City, N. J 16.00 150,000 691,000 None Sold at foreclosure. Road sold for scrap. 

Missouri & Kansas Ry., Kansas City, Kansas 20.03 1,000,000 655,000 None Sold at foreclosure and receiver discharged. 

Joplin & Pittsburgh Ry., Pittsburgh, Kansas 94.52 7,000,000 3,078,500 None Sold at foreclosure; now operated by Joplin & 

Pittsburgh R. R. 

Manhattan & Queens Traction Corp., Long Island City, N. Y.. . . 20.11 20,000 None None Reorganized and receiver discharged. 

Ogdensburg Street Ry., Odgensburg, N. Y 4.23 150,000 150,000 None Receivership lifted April 1 3, 1929. 

Westchester Street R. R., New York, N. Y 1 7 . 68 700,000 1 68,000 None Sold at foreclosure in 1927 and receivership Ifited 

„ , September, 1929 

Tulsa Street Ry., Tulsa, Okla 23. 00 800,000 None None Sold at foreclosure, and reorganized as the United 

Service Company. Receiver discharged. 

Total of receiverships terminated (nine companies) 332.57 $14,002,500 $7,842,500 156,000 

Sold at Foreclosure Sale But Receiver Not Yet Discharged 

De« Moines City Ry., Dae Moines, Iowa 103.10 $3,019,100 $4,821,000 None Sold at receiver's sale. 

Hammond, Whiting and East Chicago Ry., Hammond, Ind 34.16 1,000,000 1,788,000 None Sold at foreclosure sale. 

Binghamton Ry., Binghamton, N. Y 47.31 978,895 2,877,200 None Sold at foreclosure and reorganized as the Triple 

Cities Traction Company. 

Ithaca Traction Corp., Ithaca, N.Y 12.72 400,000 763,000 25,000 Sold at receiver's sale. 

Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Traction Co., Springfield, Ohio 153.23 4,025,000 6,400,000 260,359 Sold at receiver's sale. 

Lawton Railway & Light Co., Lawton, Okla 6.31 100,000 100,000 None .Sold at receiver's sale and company out of existence. 

Total foreclosure sales, receiver not discharged (six companies) 356.83 $9,522,995 $16,749,200 285,359 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
44 



receivership, the record has been 

greatly improved. Apart from the Table XII — Electric Railway Receiverships as of Dec. 31, 1929 

New York State properties, which Year of ^siiTie' 

were taken over by the courts on Receiver- Track Capital Funded Receivers 

■p. 2r\ ft, 1 *. r • Illinois snip Stock Debt Certificates 

Dec. OU, trie only system Ot any Size Chicago Railways, Chicago I»26 597.06 $100,000 $103,854,255 None 

remaining in receivership is the Peoria Railway Terminal Co., Peoria (l) 1922 25.28 $1,000,000 2,444,000 None 

Union Traction Company of Indi- Chicago, South Bend"& Northern Indiana Ry., 

ana. With 445.5 miles of track and ^southBend 1927 125.00 7.5oo,ooo |«5.5oo None 

_ ^ ^ ^^ ... ... Evansville & Ohio \ alley Ry., Evansville 1927 42.85 311,985 1,960,900 None 

Si/,3(A),(J(XJ of securities involved, it Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago Ry., 

' , .^ • xu . . 1 Hammond, Ind. ( II) 1929 34.16 1,000,000 1,788,000 None 

represents a large item in the total southern Michigan Railway, South Bend 1928 36.50 2,000,000 1,145,000 None 

of receiverships at the end of the Union Traction Co. of Indiana, Anderson 1924 451.67 11,500,000 15,848,000 None 

year. Various plans have been pro- Oes Moines city Ry., Des Moines (9) 1927 103.10 3,019,100 4,821,000 None 

posed for its reorganization, but up Mississippi ValleyEtectri^Co.Iowa City 1926 6.00 538,420 148,000 None 

to date none of them has been ac- Union Traction Co., CoffeyvUle 1927 85.00 700,000 1,150,000 None 

Cepted. Kentucky 

'^ Owensboro City R. R., Owensboro 1923 11.95 75,000 400,000 None 

One of the most searching analyses Michigan 

nf ir\ inrlncfrir Mr«r mnrlo ,ir-,c tV,ot Detroit & Port Huron Shore Line Ry., Detroit (8) 1925 125.00 2,000,000 2,500,000 None 

OI an inuustry ever maae was :nat Houghton County Traction Co., Houghton 1921 32.15 957,200 660,000 None 

conducted recently for the Invest- Michigan Railroad, Jackson (2) 1924 156.71 4,000,000 4,050,000 None 

ment Bankers Association by its pub- Minneapolis, Ano'kfr'cuyuna Range Ry., 

lie service securities mmmittPf anH Minneapolis 1926 29.25 300,000 284,000 None 

ULbCiviLC becunueb committee, ana st. Paul Southern Electric Ry., Hastings (7)... . 1918 17.54 658;225 364,900 12.900 

just released by the association. In Missouri 

Sreneral it believes in thp inViprpnt- Hannibal Railway & Electric Co., Hannibal 1927 6.50 111,165 102,500 None 

gcucid.1 u uei eves in tne innerent Southwest Missouri R. R., Webb City 1926 90.00 5,000;000 2,34i;000 None 

soundness of this class of properties, New York 

although it issues a wnrnino- atnincf .\uburn & Northern Electric R. R., Syracuse... . 1928 (a) (b) 236,000 None 

a I. iv^ug.i It issues a WdUilllg aj,dinst Binghamton Ry, Binghamton (3) 1925 47.31 978,895 2,877,200 None 

OVer-lnflatlOn of prices of some of Buffalo & Erie Ry., Fredonia 1928 95.56 1,450,500 910,300 None 

,1 u 1J- ■ /-% 1 Buffalo & Lackawanna Traction Co., Buffalo. . . 1918 8.80 55,000 1,000,000 None 

tne nolding companies. (Jn the Spe- Eighth and Ninth Avenues Ry., New York 1927 37.84 116,000* None None 

cific Sllhiert nf plprtnV rn;K.r.i,r r^,-^r^ Empire State R. R., Syracuse 1927 76.31 2,950,000 2,750,000 None 

Line SUUjeCt 01 electric railway prop- Hamburg Ry, Buffalo 1920 21.72 None 750,000 4,000 

erties the rennrt in nart ic ac fr.llr>«rc • Ithaca Traction Corp., Ithaca (10) 1924 12.72 400,000 763,000 25,000 

Cl LlCb Uie report in part IS as tOllOWS . New York & Queens County Ry.,Jack8on Heights 1923 34.94 3,235.000 1,300,000 Nine 

Thp Qtrppt r!>il,.,o,r ;.,^„of, • 1 u • New York State Rys., Rochester, N. Y 1929 254.14 23,814,900 26,087,000 None 

ine Street railway industry IS laboring second Avenue K. R., New York (4) 1908 23.96 1,600,000 None None 

to recover its former position of prestige, Staten Island Midland Ry., Brooklyn 1920 28.68 1,000,000 1,000,000 3,000 

to which the communitv benefits it confers Steinway Ry., New York 1922 31.11 None 1,500,000 None 

entitlp it VJh^„ tuJ . c ■ i .Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern Ry., Syracuse 1928 (a) (b) 2,496,000 None 

entitle It. When the source of income of United Traction Co., Albany, N. Y 1929 112.10 12,500,000 6,500,000 None 

an industry is not increasing — is, in fact, Ohio 

too frequently decreasing — it cannot raise Indiana, Columbus & Eastern Traction Co., 

needed capital advantageously and the mar- Springfield (5) 1921 153.25 4,025,000 6,400,000 260,359 

ket position of its siuritfes suffers ac- Springfield Ry., Sp^ingfieW^. 1928 40.54 1.500.000 1.335,400 None 

cordmgly Increase in fares and reduction Lawton Railway & Light"™, Lawton (6) 1927 6.31 100,000 100,000 None 

in operating expenses have their hmits ; Oklahoma Union Railway, Tulsa 1929 18.90 1.500.000 750.000 None 

and net earnings dependent for their in- Pennsylvania 

crease on such factors spell sooner or later Schuylkill Ry., GirardviUe 1927 34.00 400,000 1,550,000 None 

an unsuccessful business. All this is un- «unbury & Selinsgrove Ry., Selinsgrove 1929 6.20 220,100 13,400 None 

H?™n\*K, ^°'" ^^'^ '*''^^'''n'''^''V' =*" '"" Salt Lake & Utah K.R*!'salt Lake City 1925 97.55 5,043,700 2,532,320 200,000 

dispensable service, especially in large com- Washington 

munities. It behooves the owner of street Puget Sound Electric Ry., Tacoma 1928 57.10 3,116,200 7,322,000 None 

railway securities, and the would-be in- 

vestor in them, to gage if possible the rea- Net receiverships Dec. 31, 1929 3,142.61 104,860,390 216,989,675 $505,259 

sons for the existing situation and the pos- fa) included with Empire state R. R. figures. ~ 

Sible remedies for it. (b) information not available. 

Unless the mihlir is to taWp nvpr tVipcp 0) Sold at foreclosure in 1927. Receiver not yet discharged. 

v.^iiicsb ine puuiic is to laKe over inese ^2) .Sold at receiver's sale 1 928. Receiver not yet discharged. 

Operations (which your committee believes (3) Sold at foreclosure and reorganized as Triple Cities Traction Co. 

to be a wrong policy to pursue), and tax H) Reorganized as Second Avenue Railroad Corp. Receiver not yet discharged, 

the whole commimitv for siirh sprvirp as it <5) Sold at receiver's sale. Receiver not yet discharged. 

tne wnoie community lor sucn service as it (^^ y^ij ^t receiver's sale. Receiver not yet discharged. Company out of existence, 

elects to give, it must change its attitude (7) Soldat public auction in 1928. Receiver not yet discharged. 

toward the street railway and recognize it W This is the only subsidiary company of the Detroit United Ry. now operating under receivership. The 

a« a nnhliV cprirant r-oiifcrririn- Ao(\nUa Detroit, Jackson & Ciiicago Ry. has discontinued Service and the Detroit United Rv. and the Detroit, 

as a pUDllC servant coniernng aennite Monroe and Toledo R. A. were sold at foreclosure and reorganized as the Eastern Michigan Rys. 

and large community benefits, and relieve (9) Sold at receiver's sale. Receiver not yet discharged. 

it of inequitable financing burdens Why (iO) Sold at receiver's sale. Now operated by Ithaca Ry. Co., but receiver not yet discharged. 
sbrviiM a ctrppt raiU.rQ,, r.a,7 Inrn-e r.o,/ (I II Sold at foreclosure sale. Receivernot yet discharged. 

snouia a street railway pay large pav- *58,000 shares. No par value. Based on market quotation. 

ing costs, and snow removal costs, for 

general public advantage? Why should not subway and simi- rolling on a fixed track over any form of free-moving bus, in 
lar costs be borne by the benefited property, as are other street transporting multitudes of people, should make itself apparent, 
improvements, for a subway is nothing but street extension? To all of this the American Electric Railway Association is 
It is the fair cost of service that the car rider should pay, abundantly alive, and at its convention just held in Atlantic 
under careful public regulation, and not a 5-cent fare specified City there was much evidence of progress in equipment — new 
in some antiquated franchise, under which a service essential design of cars, differential drive, worm gears and numberless 
to public welfare cannot survive. And the public must recognize devices to make the street car more attractive to passengers and 
that monopoly of all the facilities of transportation under public the public both in appearance and performance. These efforts, 
regulation will confer wider community benefits than can a the gradual restrictions on parking privileges in congested dis- 
continuation of destructive competition. tricts, and the co-ordination of the various transportation services 

On the other hand, the industry has grave responsibilities. A should mean a recovery in the street railway industry, 
new point of view must be developed, both as to equipment and The significance of the abandonment of track has been over- 
operating methods. Evolution in these respects has been aston- estimated. Most of this has been normal; some, of course, has 
ishingly slow. The whole subject must be thought of in new been forced by competition. Interurban roads particularly have 
terms. First, income must be increased— more passengers must suffered, as was to have been expected when the motor car appeared, 
use street cars. Present equipment is for the most part an Street railways are local urban enterprises and each must be studied 
anachronism. Cars must be made attractive, light weight, noise- and estimated in the light of the peculiar problems surrounding 
less, easy to board and leave. Public taste and convenience must it. In some instances the investment possibilities of the securities 
be catered to. This done, the great advantage of the street car of individual properties have not been recognized because of too 

Electric Railway Journal — Januamy. 1930 
45 



broad generalizations, though what has already been said seems 
too germane to the industry as a whole to be overlooked. 

The aggregate figures of investment and income for the indus- 
try are impressive. They show an industry that must survive 
in the public interest. The new brains in the industry, looking 
ahead and discarding the past, will accornplish much, and may 
accomplish a revolution in the business if they be given time 
and support. 

On the other hand, some unfavorable comment has 
been heard concerning the financial status of the industry. 
Only recently a spokesman for one of the investment 
services warned against the purchase of electric railway 
bonds. His words were widely circulated. They should be 
taken cum grano salts, but they certainly did not help the 
situation. In an appeal to bondholders of the New York 
State Railways and other properties for the conversion 
of their securities, H. C. Hopson, president of the Asso- 
ciated Gas & Electric Company, made a number, of state- 
ments which are not reassurmg to present holders and 
can have only a bad efifect on any prospective purchasers 
of railway securities. The situation on the properties in 
New York State has been acute for some time, and 
culminated in their receivership a few days ago. But to 
generalize about the railway financial situation as a whole 
from the status of these companies is entirely unjustified. 



As the Investment Bankers Association points out, the 
street railway is a much more essential service than one 
might be led to believe if he were to accept at face value 
all that the adverse commentators have said about it. 
Too often, far too often, the railways have been made 
the football of politics. This is Mr. Insull's comment 
in his recent penetrating remarks about Chicago. Com- 
panies with which he is identified have made a financial 
success not only in interurban operation, but in operation 
in the more moderate sized cities, the ones in which it is 
held that successful operation is most difficult. Not even 
the committee on electric railway financing of the 
A.E.R.A., which reported several years ago after an ex- 
tended investigation, sought to mitigate the condition 
which exists of a need for recasting of financial structures 
of many properties. It is regrettable that more companies 
have not followed out these recommendations, but the 
comments of Mr. Hopson and others may properly be 
characterized as representing the extreme point of view. 
It is more nearly true, as Mr. InsuU said of the Chicago 
situation, that with proper set-up of the financial plan, 
founded on true economic principles, money necessary 
will pour in from securities, both senior and junior — 
bonds, preferred and common stock. 



Much Construction Work Features 

Heavy Electric Traction in 1929 



CONSTRUCTION work on projects already au- 
thorized occupied the major attention of elec- 
trification engineers during the year just past. The 
conversion has continued at a rate foreshadowed by the 
announcements made public during 1928. While com- 
paratively little track was opened to electric operation 
during the year, the present year will witness the ful- 
fillment of many of the projects under way. 

Chief among the installations being made is that of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, which is actively at work on 
extension of its electric system to cover the territory be- 
tween New York and Washington. The section between 
Philadelphia and Wilmington is now using electric power 
for local service over 52.6 miles of route. The sections 
comprising the line between Philadelphia and New York 
will follow next. The obstacle to electrification of the 
line between Wilmington and Washington, the series of 
tunnels in Baltimore, has now been removed by the ac- 
tion of the city to permit the construction of new tunnels 
to supplement the present ones. In all a total of 325 
miles of route and 1,300 miles of track has been au- 
thorized. Following the completion of the New York- 
Washington line, it is rumored that the Pennsylvania will 
proceed at once with preparations for the electrification 
of the route over the Allegheny Mountains between 
Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, a project which has been 
considered for years. 

The Cleveland Union Terminal Company has virtually 
completed the equipment of the new terminal at the 
Public Square in Cleveland and the approaches of the 
several roads entering it, so that electric operation will 
begin in the immediate future. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad is 
making rapid progress with the conversion of its suburban 



lines out of New York for electric service. The construc- 
tion is well under way and the equipment is on order. The 
work probably will be completed during the present year. 
The Reading Company is preceding with plans for the 
electrification of its Philadelphia terminal and the subur- 
ban lines running out of it. The authorization was made 
late in 1928, and construction work is just beginning. 



Steam Railroad Electrification Reported for 1929 

Miles of Track 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Cleveland 4 . 25 

Cleveland Union Terminals Company, Cleveland 4.01 

Illinois Central Railroad, Chicago and vicinity 25 . 88 

Long Island Railroad, New York and vicinity 9 . 23 

New York Central Railroad, Cleveland 3.51 

New York Central Railroad, New York and vicinity 2.46 

New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Cleveland 5.32 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, New York and vic'ty 1 . 59 

Pennsylvania Railroad, Philadelphia-Wilmington 1 50 . 06 

Virginian Railway, Roanoke, Va.-Mullens, W. Va 0.13 



While the construction work was completed in 1928, 
electric operation of the new tunnel of the Great North- 
ern Railway through the Cascade Mountains was opened 
in January of last year. This replaces the former short 
electrification of the old tunnel, and brings the electrified 
track on this system up to 87.5 miles. 

During the year extensions to the Illinois Central elec- 
tric zone in Chicago were made totaling 25.88 miles. 
This road also ordered four electric locomotives for 
freight switching in the Chicago terminal division. 
Figures for extensions to electrified track are given in 
one of the tables. 

Among the new projects which have been discussed 
during the past year the outstanding one is that of the 
New York Central. Plans have been prepared in some 



ELEcrilic Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
46 




Mileage of Steam Railroads Electrified and Total Weight of 
Active Electric Locomotives in Tons 

As reported by Committee on Heavy Electric Traction, A.E.R.E.A. 

detail for the electrification of the system between New 
York and Bufifalo. This is a section of dense traffic 
which ultimately, it is said, will have to be powered with 
some form of energy other than steam. No definite an- 
nouncements have been made, but it is understood that 
the work as planned will cost in the neighborhood of 
$150,000,000. 

The Lehigh Valley Railroad has received bids from 
the leading electrical manufacturers on the equipment of 
75 miles of route of its main line between Mauch Chunk 



and Wilkes-Barre, Pa. The cost of this project would be 
between |7,000,000 and $10,000,000, and would assist 
traffic on the ruling grades of the system. The section is 
through mountainous territory, and the use of electricity 
would make possible the movement of more and longer 
trains at greater speed than is possible with steam. 

In foreign countries the progress in electrification is in 
line with that in this country. The Central Argentine 
Railway was authorized in 1929 to proceed with the 
extension of its suburban electrification out of Buenos 
Aires. The new project involves a total of 26 miles. The 
Central Terminal Railway of Buenos Aires is construct- 
ing 5^ miles of double-track subway into the main busi- 
ness district of the city, with the intention of operating 
its passenger trains to a new terminal to be built in the 
business district. 

The New South Wales Government Railway is con- 
verting to electric traction its suburban services at 
Sydney. It is expected that the project, involving about 
400 track-miles, will be completed this year. 

Work is in progress on the electrification of the divi- 
sions of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway between 
Kalyan and Poona and Igatpuri. With the main line from 
Bombay to Kalyan already completed, the total electrifi- 
cation will comprise about 180 miles of route. 

Electrifications are also planned in the Netherlands, 
Sweden, Germany, Italy, France and Spain. In England 
and Austria plans have been deferred for economic 
reasons. The principal Swiss railways already have been 
converted to electric operation, and comparatively few 
lines demand a change to electric power at present. 



Installations of Electrical Operation of Steam Railroads in the United States 

Based on orlgrlnal data, supplemented by reports of the American Electric Railway Engineering 
Association and the National Electric Light Association 



Railroad — Location 


electric Mileage 


System 


Year 
Elec- 
trified 


Electric 
Locomotives 


Motor 
Cars 


Daily Trains 


Annual Car-Miles 


Route 


Track 


Volts 


Cycles 


Con- 
tact 
J.ine 


Pass. 


Freight 


Pass. 


Freight 


Pass. 


Freight 




3.6 
7.9 

37. 4 

4«.l 

218.4 

0.0 

18.8 

18.8 

70.0 
16.6 
34.0 

146.6 

3.7 

72.8 

37.8 

122.8 

11.9 

4.5 
63.1 

6.9 
23.9 
75.2 

7.9 
23.7 

9.0 
44.5 
63.7 
20.6 
75.0 
13,4 
36.2 
52.6 


9.1 
21.4 

145.8 

578.0 

305.4 

6.9 

24.8 

40.0 

160.0 
50.0 
38.0 

195.1 

12.2 

87.5 

152.1 

361.4 

84.4 

28.6 

330.1 

16.2 

38.6 

519.6 

9.8 

31.0 

26.3 

54.3 

209.1 

40.4 

150.1 

103.7 

129.8 

140.3 


675 
11,000 

2,400 

3,000 
3,000 
1,500 
600 
3,000 

3,000 
22,000 
11,000 

1,200 

3,300 

11,500 

1,500 

650 

11,000 

650 

650 

650 

650 

11,000 

11,000 

11,000 

11,000 

575 

11,000 

600 

650 

675 

11,000 

11,000 

11,000 

1,200 

11,000 


d.c. 
25 

d.c. 

d.c. 
d.c. 
d.c. 
d.c. 
d.c. 

d.c. 
25 
25 

d.c. 

25 
25 

d.c. 

d.c. 
25 

d.c. 

d.o. 

d.c. 

d.c. 
25 
25 
25 
25 

d.c. 
25 

d.c. 

d.c. 

d.c. 
25 
25 
25 

d.c. 
25 


Rail 
Over'd 

Over'd 

Over'd 
Over'd 
Over'd 
Over'd 
Over'd 

Over'd 
Over'd 
Over'd 

Over'd 

Over'd 

Over'd 

Over'd 

Rail 

Over'd 

Rail 

Rail 

R&O 

Over'd 

Over d 

Over'd 

Over'd 

Over'd 

Over'd 

Over'd 

Rail 

Rail 

Rail 

Over'd 

Over'd 


1895 
1911 

1913 

1916 
1920 
1915 


12 
a 

1 

9 
5 


a 
7 

27 

27 
15 











13 

12 

4 

4 
4 


21 
28 

6 


142,590 
215,172 

117,457 

6,553,898 
3,810,520 


1,297,900 




3,868,065 


Butte. Anaconda A Pacific — Butte-Anaconda-Rocker. 


5,079,040 


Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific — Harlowton, 


52,190,990 


Othello-Tacoma-Seattle, Wash 


15,810,893 






r^Rllatin Vftllpv Branch 




1 





141 

8 

13 





140 

742 





336 

8 
22 
65 

a 
a 



19 



44 

107 



158 

123 










Cleveland Union Terminal — Cleveland, Ohio 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western — Hoboken-Dover- 


a 

b 
1926 
1907 

1912 

1908 

1929 

1926 

1905c 

1927 

1910 

1906c 

1895 

1901 

1907c 

1908 

1925 

1918c 

■i9i5c 


22 


















Detroit, Toledo & Ironton — Fordson-Flat Rock, Mich. 
Erie — Roches ter-Mt. Morris, N. Y 









5c 



7 



I2< 
83 





71 

a 

Q 

2' 



2 


12 

9e 

5 



8 

7 





73 

9 
Q 

a 



20 

8 

9 

8 

552 

895 



38 

505 

36 
42 
190 
32 
8 
18 


8 


12 

4 

4 



8 

30 

47 

45 




44 
2 
6 

21 






535,000 
275,000 
127,367 





Ft. Dodge, Des Moines & So. — Ft. Dodge-Rockwell, 


2,585,657 


Grand Trunk (Canadian National) — Port Huron, 


2,532,176 


Great Northern—Skykomish-Wenatchee, Wash 




10,814,046 

42,914,621 



474,530 

23,391,989 





T.onff Island New York N Y 








Michigan Central — Detroit, Mich-Windsor, Ont 

New York Central— N.Y.-Croton-White Plains. N.Y. 
New York, New Haven <fe Hartford — Nantasket Jc- 


1,728,084 







702,382 

24,523,377 

a 

350,000 







53,000,000 


Stamford-New Canaan, Conn 


a 




a 


Port Morris-Fresh Pond Jc, N. Y. & 

Norfolk Southern — -Norfolk-Virginia Beach, Va 

Norfolk <fc Western— Bluefield-Iaeger, W. Va 

Northwestern Pacific — Corte Madera-Sausalito, Cal.. . 
Pennsylvania — Camden-Atlantic City, N. J 

New York, N. Y.-Manhattan Transfer, N. J 

Philadelphia-Paoli-Chest nut-Hill, Pa 


9,149,807 




34 










1906 
1910 
1915c 
1928 
d 




46 

I 










48 
200 
172 

75 


6 






3,310,533 






4,253,055 
615,580 





Philadelphia, Pa.-Wilmington, Del 









Southern Paci6o — OakUnd-Alameda-Berkeley, Cal. . . 
Virginian — Roanoke, Va. -Mullens, W. Va 


50.0 
134.0 


118.8 
229.8 


Over'd 1911 
Overd 1925c 






3 

14 


87 



780 




19 


4,022,617 





29,120,883 






1 





a To be completed in 1930. b To be completed in I93I. e Includes extensions in subsequent years. _„<iUnder construction, e Passenger and freight /Operates 
n New York Central between Woodlawn and Grand Central Terminal, New York, a Included in Woodlawn-New Haven section. * New York Connecting R.R. 

Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
47 



Low Records Made in 



Trolley Wire Breaks 



Continued improvement over previous figures was shown 
in 1929. Survey shows average reduction of more 
than 60 per cent accomplished during past eight years 



DATA compiled by various of the leading electric 
railway systems in the United States and Canada 
show that the number of trolley wire breaks per 
year is steadily decreasing. Notable achievements in 
this direction have been made by the railways in Chi- 
cago, Detroit, Cleveland, Baltimore, Boston, Birming- 
ham, Louisville, New Orleans and Toronto. Although 
the number of car-miles operated has remained practi- 
cally constant for the group of properties included in this 
survey, the number of breaks has been reduced more 
than 60 per cent during the past eight years. 

Reasons for failure can be classified under two main 
headings, namely, those due to uncontrollable causes 
and those due to inherent characteristics. Among the 
uncontrollable causes are burnouts by shovels, grinders, 
welders, foreign wires, and fires, while the causes of 
inherent failures are such as worn wire, defective fit- 
tings, burnt spots, crystallization or fatigue, flaws in wire 
and worn fittings. Reductions have been made under 
both classifications by systematic inspection and main- 
tenance methods. 

DiflFerentiation between so-called uncontrollable causes 
and defects and wear varies somewhat on different prop- 
erties. According to the classifications used in Boston, 
Detroit and Cleveland it appears that slightly more 
breaks are due to defects and wear than to uncontrollable 
causes, the ratio being about 60-40. Figures for breaks 
occurring on these properties in 1928 are summarized 
in the following table : 



Causes of Trolley Wire Breaks 

Boston Detroit Cleveland Total Per Cent 

Defects and wear 45 38 8 91 58 

Uncontrollable 23 22 20 65 42 

Total 68 60 28 156 100 



Regular inspections are made either on a time basis 
or on the basis of the number of car passes. In Balti- 
more, for example, the entire overhead system is in- 
spected once a month. In Chicago inspection is made 
after approximately 60,000 car passes and in Cleveland 
after 50,000. On lines where cars operate on a short 
headway this results in comparatively frequent inspec- 
tion, while on the less heavily traveled lines the period 
between inspections is longer. 

Since 1927 the Chicago Surface Lines has had a crew 
inspecting sections every 60,000 car passes. This crew 
also renews ears and other miscellaneous small fittings. 



If, however, the line crew finds any of the larger ele- 
ments of the overhead system to be in need of replace- 
ment or repair and the crew cannot take care of the job 
themselves, they report this to the superintendent, who 
assigns a regular repair crew to make the required re- 
pairs. This company renewed an average of 173 miles 
of trolley wire per year from 1914 to 1927 but in 1928 
replacements were reduced to 78 miles and during the 
first 9 months of 1929 only 74 miles was replaced. The 
Chicago Surface Lines has found also that the use of 
underslung ears and armor has been an important factor 
in the reduction of trolley breaks. 

The Cleveland Railway considers it of great benefit 
to the maintenance of its overhead system to give the 
line crews a thorough training. Samples of wire in 
different stages of wear are shown to the men, and they 
are instructed as to just how far this wear may progress 
until the defective section has to be replaced in order 
to prevent a wire break and a consequent delay and 
tie-up of traffic. Cleveland line crews are provided with 
gages for inspecting the wire, thus enabling them to 
determine accurately just when a certain piece of wire 
has to be replaced. If a wire is reported to be in need 
of substitution a special line inspector makes a careful 
examination and submits a report. The decision as 
to the action to be taken is then left to the superinten- 
dent, who from his experience determines whether re- 
placement is necessary or not. 

The average length of wire maintained by each line 
crew of the United Railways & Electric Company of 
Baltimore is approximately 60 miles. The New Orleans 
Public Service and several others, however, allot 100 
miles to each crew. As a rule, repairs on fittings are 
made during the day but replacement of wire, except 
for actual breakdowns, takes place during the night on 
most properties. 

Line crews in Baltimore are available for 24 hours. 
During the day they are not kept at their stations but 
inspect continually the overhead system. They are re- 
quired to call the dispatcher at regular intervals, inform- 
ing him as to their location so that in case of eniergencx' 
they can be located at once. Each crew is assigned a 
certain portion of the system for which it has sole re- 
sponsibility, and is held accountable for the up-keej) 
and general condition of the overhead structures. In 
this way the entire system is covered thoroughly not 
less than once a month. 

In Baltimore it also has been found desirable to study 
the form of trolley wheel, as this has been responsible 



Electric R.^ilway Journal — January. 1930 
48 



hue 



iOOO 




200 

1 



120 
100 
80 
60 
40 
20 


350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 




Sill 



' ^ 




1 

1 


BALTIMORE 




I ■ ■ ^ ^ 


iiiiin 



=t¥ 



BOSTON 



I I I n 
I I I I I 

:iiiiiiii 



1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 



800| 
700l 
600 
501 
400 
300 
2001 
100 


120 
100 
80 
60 
40 
20 


350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 




hi 



DETROIT 



III 



BIRMINGHAM fc _ 

Datanof B~B~^ 

available l~H~l 

I 111m 



TORONTO 



Si 



1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 



800 
700 
600 
500 
400 
300 
200 
100 


120 
100 
80 
60 
40 
20 


350 
300 
250 
200 
150 
100 
50 




CLEVELAND 



I I I 

I I I r 



NEW ORLEANS 



Data 



not 



available 



llll«^ 



LOUISVILLE 



lis S S 8 S I 



1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 19281929 



Progress in overhead trolley wire maintenance during the last eight years is clearly shown 
by the general decrease in the number of breaks 



for many of the breaks. As a result the U-groove type 
of wheel has replaced the V-type formerly in use on the 
property, with a reduction in the number of replacements 
of ears to about one-fourth of what they were four 
years ago. 

Research in overhead construction characteristics has 
been carried on extensively by the Cleveland Railway. 
It has been observed that the ears which are near car 
stops, beyond the point where the car comes to a 
standstill, are most subject to burndowns due to the 
starting arc. These ears usually have to be replaced 
every inspection period. Ears farther away from the 
car stop will last three or four inspection periods. Ears 
located before car stops will only wear out on account 
of mechanical causes, as the current is almost always 
cut off as the trolley passes over them prior to coming 
to a stop and they will only be worn out by the fric- 
tion of the collector. 

Maintenance of Span Wires Important 

Several railways included in this survey believe that 
best results are obtained when the contact wire is kept 
taut and the span wires comparatively slack. Proper 
maintenance of the span wires and ears is of great im- 
portance and has direct influence on the number of 
trolley wire breaks. Experience of the United Railways 
& Electric Company of Baltimore indicates that it is 
advantageous to have the ends of the ears taper ground 
to afford the trolley wheel an unobstructed approach 
and run-off, thereby increasing the wear on the wire 
itself. Another matter of vital importance is the use 
of only high quality material in the overhead structure. 

Much attention is given also to the proper mainte- 
nance and inspection of the collecting devices on car 
equipment. Loose trolley wheels or shoes not only 



disturb the passengers by their abnormal noisiness but 
also cause more rapid wear of the contact wire. Many 
companies have enlisted the aid and co-operation of 
building contractors and others who move loose build- 
ing equipment, shovels, etc., across car lines, and they 
thus reduce considerably the number of wires burned 
out or pulled down. One company has gone so far as 
to ask all contractors in its city to notify it when shovels 
or other equipment have to be moved across car lines, 
and a special line crew is assigned to assist them in 
crossing the track. 

It is worthy of note that on all of these properties 
which have made excellent records in reduction of trolley 
wire breaks the improvement has not been made with 
a sacrifice of economy. Instead, the total cost has in 
nearly every instance been reduced. The line crews, 
instead of taking all their time in making emergency 
repairs that can only be considered temporary, now spend 
more effort in making permanent renewals of trolley 
wire as a matter of routine. The work is then done with 
more care and as a result the tendency to failure in 
service is greatly reduced. More efficient methods of 
stringing trolley wire have been devised in several of 
the cities mentioned. These have been noted in this paper 
from time to time. Reclamation of materials also is prac- 
ticed to a large extent and considerable savings are made 
in maintenance expense. 

Apart from any direct saving in cost of carrying on 
the work of the line department, all of the companies 
have made large savings in transportation expense on 
account of fewer delays to cars. There has also been 
a greater gross revenue due to the very small number of 
tie-ups as compared with the records of past years when 
the work of the line department was not organized as 
efficiently as it is at present. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
49 



Monthly and Other Financial Reports 



Operating Operating 
Revenue Expenses 
S $ 



Gross 
Taxes Income 

» t 

Key System Transit Co., Oakland, Cal. 

October, 1929 617,783 

October, 1928 629,852 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1929 5,903,991 SAi'oOi 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1928 6,017,318 ." sh'.Sit 

Market Street Railway, San Francisco, Cal. 

November. 1929 799,843 656,119 H3 724 

November, 1 928 

l2mo. end. Nov., 1929 9,584,907 8,084,583a 1,500 324 

I2mo.end. Nov., 1928 9,795,829 8,324,868a 1,470,961 

Capital Traction Co., Washington, D. C. 

October, 1929 370,108 263,356 29,329 

October, 1928 377,300 256,792 28,688 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1929 3,564,165 2,558,662 275,210 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1928 3,613,504 2,540,932 289,178 



Net 
Income 
$ 



SO, SOS 
5S,5S0 



85,452 
786,6 i 4 



80,097 

95,851 

751,534 

808,517 



49,881 

67,058 

446,781 

512,988 



Jacksonville Traction Co., Jacksonville, Fla. 

October, 1929 95,472 79,495 9,037 

October, 1928 102,749 82,286 8,875 

12mo. end. Oct., 1929 1,150,146 942,972 107,807 
l2mo. end. Oct., 1928 1,219,114 973,281 108,261 

Honolulu Rapid Transit Co., Honolulu, T. H. 

October, 1929 88,576 52,387 7,932 

October, 1928 91,310 53,119 13,172 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1929 878,604 504,821 90,011 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1928 896,373 525,874 120,999 

Honolulu Rapid Transit Co., Honolulu, T. H. 

November, 1929 85,384 51,473 7,932 

November, 1928 86,169 51,366 13,046 

11 mo. end. Nov., 1929 963,989 556,295 97 943 
II mo. end. Nov., 1928 982,543 577,241 134,046 

Chicago Surface Lines, Chicago, HI. 

November, 1929 5,246,124 4,056,792o 1,199332 

November, 1928 5,208,725 4,052,149a 1,156,576 

Des Moines City Railway, Des Moines, Iowa 

October, 1929 1 80, 1 98 1 24, 397 

August, 1929 177,305 134,732 ....'.'.'.. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 



7,389 

10,996 

93,124 

130,781 



30,242 

26,502 

294,685 

260,672 



27,044 

22,829 

321,729 

283,500 



United Railways & ilectrlc Co., Baltimore, Md. 

October, 1929 1,460,077 962,111 140,656 

October, 1928 1,437,781 908,727 156,669 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1929 13,838,333 9,443,190 1,340,756 
lOmo. end. Oct., 1928 13,482,451 9,035,030 1,309,056 

United Railways & Electric Co., Baltimore, Md. 

November, 1929 1,407,934 919,304 142,421 

November, 1928 1,360,315 870,431 140,568 

11 mo. end. Nov., 1929 15,246,268 10,362,494 1,483,178 
II mo. end. Nov., 1928 14,842,766 9,905,462 1,449,625 

Boston Elevated Railway, Boston, Mass. 

October, 1929 2,929,491 2,048,406 

October, 1928 2,980,077 2,153,209 

4 mo. end. Oct., 1 929 

4 mo. end. Oct.. 1 928 



137,268 
131,745 



371,860 

384,384 

3,203,953 

3,260,461 



355,717 

361,455 

3,559,670 

3,621,916 



758,760 
709,236 



Eastern Massachusetts Street Ry., Boston, Mass. 

October, 1929 681,562 465,241 26,732 215,385 

October, 1928 711,035 471,762 31,561 233,525 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1929 7,154,387 4,510,930 318,417 2,517,670 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1928 7,499,552 4,853,317 297,034 2,552,284 



Si,65B 



15,297 

18,795 

180,445 

182,008 



15,407 

15,124 

195,850 

197,130 



898,499* 
871,572* 



13,053 
154 



87,250 

92,584 

381,670 

416,253 



72,462 

76,260 

454,133 

492,514 



64,866 

3,135 

780,512 

931,392 



57,947 

66,292 

784,164 

808,460 



Boston, Worcester & New York Street Ry., 

October, 1929 61,124 51,538 

October, 1928 56,904 49,298 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1929 618,580 499,955 
10 mo. end. Oct., 1928 625,928« 534,133 



Framingham. Mass. 

1,625 8,551 

1,614 6,217 

15,523 113,757 

15,148 77,675 



7,181 

4,747 

99,057 

62,826 



1S,S6S 

£8,1 er 

6,669 
lt,56B 



Middlesex & Boston Street Railway, Newtonville, Mass. 

3mo. end. Sept., 1929 250,095 230,722 8,702 20,671 

3mo. end. Sept., 1928 253,435 245,129 5,343 11,963 

9 mo. end. Sept., 1929 859,897 523,319 25,399 111,179 
9 mo. end. Sept., 1928 875,038 747,525 17,538 109,874 

Department of Street Railways, Detroit, Mich. 

November, 1929 1,932,988 1,477,477 61,987 403,476 256,822 

November, 1928 2,097,518 1,639,548 63,435 423,734 262,888 

12mo.end.Nov., 1929 26,520,209 20,983,064 748,021 4,907,454 3,245,065 

12mo.end.Nov., 1928 24,486,908 19,130,829 784,629 4,827,221 2,910,339 

Duluth-Superlor Traction Co., Duluth, Minn. 

3 mo. end. Sept., 1929 404,098 345,901 .. . 

3 mo. end. Sept., 1928 429,985 363,194 

9 mo. end. Sept., 1929 1,349,290 1,129,973 

9mo. end. Sept., 1928 1,440,423 1,155,173 



58,197c 1S,B19 

65,791c 11,987 

219,317c 1S,609 

284,250i! 37,053 

Kansas City Public Service Co., Kansas City, Mo. (See E.R, J.-Dec.) 

October, 1929 761,938 578,448 41,675 141,813 66,889 

October, 1928 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1929 7,434,118 5,527,347 416,750 1,390,620 614,329 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1928 

Kansas City Public Serzice Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

November, 1929 745,136 5l5,451o 

11 mo. end. Nov., 1929 8,180,255 6,559,560a 



130,675 
1,520,695 



55,821 
670,150 



Operating Operating 
Revenue Expenses 
« * 

Lincoln Traction Co., Lincoln, Neb. 

October, 1929 

October, 1928 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1929 394,582 324,651 
lOmo. end. Oct., 1928 395,552 300,058 



Taxes 
S 



Gross 
Income 

« 



Net 

Income 

% 



49,801 
73,425 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversvilie R.R., GloverslvUe, N. T. 

October, 1929 92,098 62,445 4,300 30,444 

October, 1928 86,037 60,240 5,775 22 559 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1929 845,679 633,507 74,860 248 404 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1928 864,355 521,237 76,335 255,546 

Jamestown, Westfleld & Northwestern R.R., Jamestown, N. T. 

9 mo. end. Sept., 1929 224,690 195,769 10,125 35,433 

9 mo. end. Sept., 1928 187,296 193,023 10,125 475 

Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation, New York, N. Y. 

November, 1929 4,987,071 3,345,314 273,596 1,443,351 

November, 1928 3,970,021 2,477,877 264,260 1,307,147 

5mo.end. Nov., 1929;. 25,210,850 17,021,861 1,596,231 6,943,391 
5mo.end.Nov., 1928. 20,000,199 13,142,902 1,382,900 5,885,399 



9,819 
22,268 



779 

9,0S7 

69,S7i 

es.goe 



9,525 

a.isi 



573,707 

605,723 

3,052,578 

2,432,232 



Brooldyn & Queens Transit Corporation, New York, 

November, 1929 1,929,432 1,549,294 98,255 

November, 1928 1,954,189 1,571,594 110,651 

5 mo. end. Nov., 1929 9,933,027 7,874,414 555,470 
5mo. end. Nov., 1928 10,075,325 8,373,900 537,715 

Hudson & Manhattan R.R., New York, N. Y. 

November, 1929 1,059,113 510,620a 

November, 1928 1,044,884 528,924a.. 

llmo. end. Nov., 1929 11,405,284 5,740,672o . 

11 mo. end. Nov., 1928 11,287,618 5,874,471a 



N. Y. 

304,005 

305,155 

1,600,398 

1,272,400 



178,518 
176,636 
975,555 
625,412 



548,492 215,518 

515,950 180,933 

5,654,612 1,974,920 

5,413,147 1,722,957 



Interborough Rapid Transit Co., New York, N. Y. 

October, 1929 6,387,991 3,995,255 202,126 

October, 1928 6,143,922 3,658,587 202,455 

4 mo. end. Oct., 1929. 22,951,459 14,995,351 799,700 

4 mo. end. Oct., 1928. 21,543,254 13,953,154 795,556 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co., New York, N. Y. 

November, 1929 6,275,425 3,565,977 201,549 

November, 1928 5,925,143 3,578,340 201,588 

5 mo. end. Nov., 1929.. 29,237,885 18,662,339 1,001,249 
5 mo. end. Nov., 1928.. 27,462,408 17,531,504 997,155 



2,190,638 
2,272,878 
7,166,397 
6,794,533 



2,407,898 
2,145,124 
9,574,296 
8,939,748 



130,66i 
473,808 

607,651 
1,10,701 



Il3,6i7 

345,546 

780,199 

65,155 



Long Island Railroad, New York, N. Y. 

October, 1929 3,578,672 2,442,505 250,773 885,394 

October, 1928 3,664,309 2,452,332 219,239 992,738 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1929 35,131,457 12,258.685 2,744,112 9,524,574 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1928 34,209,872 10,482,000 2,402,214 8,079,786 

New York Railways, New York, N. Y. 

September, 1929 535,117 453,486a 81,631 

September, 1928 541,159 457,322o 83,837 

9mo. end. Sept., 1929 4,696,094 4,110,354a 585,740 

9mo. end. Sept.. 1928 4,957,177 4,278,007a 679,170 

New York Railways, New York, N. Y. 

October, 1929 525,979 459,873a 56,106 

October, 1928 569,792 490,828o 78,964 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1929 5,222,073 4,570,227a 651,846 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1928 5,526,969 4,768,835o 758,134 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry., New York, N. Y. 

October, 1929 218,457 136,808 24,047 59,480 

October, 1928 215,179 147,383 20,525 48,026 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1929 2,111,275 1,285,019 225,903 610,999 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1928 1,985,809 1,327,487 199,485 459,810 

New York, Westchester & Boston R.R., New York, N. Y. 

November, 1929 202,381 36,048 

November, 1928 199,578 37,755 

11 mo. end. Nov., 1929 2,313,658 536,402 

11 mo. end. Nov., 1928 2,185,488 496,602 



71I,856A 

821,415fc 

7,918,56IA 

5,591,414* 



20,554d 

19,096d 

38,242d 

I15,l75<i 



5,105/ 

27,223/ 

43,347/ 

142,399/ 



157,910 

159,8 Sg 

l,oU,18o 

l,55i,i35 



Staten Island Rapid Transit Co., New York, N. Y. 

October, 1929 229,918 161,196 18,000 

October, 1928 272,557 174,758 15,000 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1929 2,225,217 1,554,132 175,817 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1928 2,525,884 1,777,622 198,708 

Third Avenue Railway, New York, N. Y. 

October, 1929 1,320,170 1,007,189 92,385 

October, 1928 1,365,099 1,031,850 95,329 

4mo. end. Oct., 1929. 5,136,505 3,955,777 362,166 

4mo. end. Oct., 1928. 5,196,595 4,002,540 380,357 



50,722 

82,809 

394,268 

649,554 



241,078 
245,046 
898,805 
884,359 



15,131 



New York State Railways, Rochester, N. Y. 

September, 1929 667,684 65I,19lo 

September, 1 928 

12 mo. end. Sept., 1929 9,253,828 8,075,266a 1,280,014 

12mo.end. Sept., 1928 



180,500 

169,75B 

1,72!,,686 

1,689,136 



40,227A 

J2,354A 

328,335A 

277,743& 



16,701 
8,838 

119,775 
lH,9i6 



lll,6iS 

'gs7,'sds 



Troy City Railway, Troy, N. Y. 

1 2 mo. end. Sept., 1 929 743,24 1 
12 mo. end. Sept., 1928 770,852 



666,609 
545,588 



39,336 
38,140 



42,589 
83,824 



New York Stote Railways, Utica Lines, Vtlca, N. Y. 

12mo.end. Sept., 1929 1,433,952 1,009,386 111,226 39,621 

12 mo. end. Sept., 1928 1,514,107 1,022,922 99,895 100,939 



57, ill 
16,17t 



S8,S6^ 
£7,969 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
SO 



Operating Operating 

Revenue Expenses 

$ $ 

Cincinnati Street Railway, Cincinnati, Oliio 

November, 1929 721,404 490,905 

Community Traction Co., Toledo, Ohio 

October, 1929 306,768 244,503 

October, 1928 324,341 236,885 

Lebanon Valley Street Railway, Lel>anon, Pa. 

12mo.end.Sept., 1929. 145,641 118,656a.. 
l2mo.end. Sept., 1928 150,175 109,528o . 

Philadelpliia & Western Ry., Norrlstown. Fa. 

October,l929 71,112 37,112 .. 

October, 1928 77,555 37,734 .. 



Taxes 

S 


Groas 
Income 

t 


Net 
Income 

S 


io 

46,378 


186,190 


10,233 
2,383 



17,921 
31,134 



34,000e 
39,821c 



Philadelphia & Western Ry., Norrlstown, Pa. 

November, 1929 67,305 49,552 .. 

November, 1928 68,796 49,176 .. 

llmo.end. Nov., 1929 724,657 583,265 ... 
Ilmo.end. Nov., 1928 762,606 609,786 ... 



GalTCSton-Houston Electric Railway, Houston, Texas 

October, 1929 46,399 26,557 2,716 17,125 

October, 1928 51,638 29,057 2,932 19,647 

1 2 mo. end. Oct., 1929 598,952 334,522 31,421 233,180 

12mo.end. Oct., 1928 656,615 383,429 31,483 241,701 

Houston Electric Co., Houston, Texas 

October, 1929 289,119 176,475 27,114 85,529 

October, 1928 293,502 171,453 23,771 98,277 

12 mo. end. Oct., 1929 3,384,334 2,096,068 295,212 999,153 

12 mo. end. Oct., 1928 3,319,296 2,028,260 294,231 996,804 

PaclOc Northwest Traction Co., Seattle, Wash. 

October, 1929 82,289 58,755 6,942 16,591 

October, 1928 70,403 67,383 5,179 £,160 

12mo.end. Oct., 1929 937,596 733,532 56,471 147,590 

12 mo. end. Oct., 1928 884,757 732,811 51,900 100,044 



7,079 
6,134 



19,840 
24,664 



17,753 

19,620 

141,392 

152,820 



S7,07S 
!7,i99 



598,303 
588,675 



30,825 

€6,1,08 



More Than 3,000,000,000 a 
Year Carried in New York 

RIDERS on the various transit lines in the city of 
New York totaled more than 3,317,400,000 passen- 
gers in the 1929 fiscal year, according to the annual 
report of the New York Transit Commission. During 
the year ended June 30, 1929, the rapid transit and 
street surface lines in the city carried a total of 
2,972,400,000 passengers, an increase of 33,500,000 or 
1.1 per cent over the preceding fiscal year. In addition 
the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad carried 111,800,000 
passengers, and bus companies (exclusive of the Tomp- 
kins Bus Corporation and the municipal bus lines) 
111,200,000 passengers, an increase of 58,000,000 or 
1.9 per cent over the preceding year. The traffic of 
the Tompkins Bus Corporation is not included in the 
above comparison as no figures are available for the 
fiscal year 1928. This company carried 14,500,000 
passengers in 1929. Traffic on the municipal bus lines, 
which do not report to the commission, has been esti- 
mated at 107,500. The total traffic, therefore, during 
the year ended June 30, 1929, on the rapid transit lines, 
Hudson tubes, street surface cars and bus lines, was 
more than 3,317,400,000 passengers. 

The distribution of this traffic by classes of service 
was as follows : 



Seattle Municipal Railway, Seattle, Wash. 

October, 1929 477,244 401,911 

October, 1928 483,615 405,651 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1929 ■ 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1928 



Calgary Municipal Railway, Calgary, Alta. 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1929 852,661 512,510 
lOmo. end. Oct., 1928 



Edmonton Radial Railway, Edmonton, Alta. 

9 mo. end. Sept., 1929. 621,100 402,068 .. 
9mo. end. Sept., 1928 



Edmonton Radial Railway, Edmonton, Alta. 

October, 1929 69,803 47,253 ., 

October, 1928 67,875 43,867 ., 

10 mo. end. Oct., 1929 690,904 449,321 .. 
10 mo. end. Oct., 1928 656,624 438,808 .. 



Lethbrldge Municipal Railway, Lethbridge, Alta. 

9mo. end. .Sept., 1929. 45,315 36,587 

9mo. end. Sept., 1928. 44,712 41,225 



British Columbia Electric Railway, VaneouTer, B. C. 

September. 1929 1,169,278 784,097 

September, 1 928 1,101,483 746,296 

3mo. end. Sept., 1929. 3,494,751 

3mo. end. Sept., 1928. 3,284,759 

British Columbia Electric Railway, Vaneouzer, B. C. 

October,1929 1,230,278 698,747 

October,l928 1,145,394 631,879 

4mo.end. Oct., 1929.. 4,725,029 2,617,947 

4 mo. end. Oct., 1928.. 4,430,053 2,453,297 



76,271 
79,678 



340,1511) 



219,032 



22)549 

24,008 

241,582 

217,815 



8,728 
3,487 



385,1816 

355,1876 

1, 1 35,632k 

l,03l,64lb 



531,5316 

513,5156 

2,107,082b 

1,976,856b 



26,368 

27,014 

168,816 

iie.soio 



37,464 
44,673 



7,400 
S,SS1 



201 
1,264 
7,601 
S,616 



li.lil 
19,777 



Division of Passenger Traffic, New York 
Transportation Lines 



Interborough Rapid Transit Co. 

Subway division 

Elevated division 



Per Cent of 
Total Traffic 



28.11 
10.51 



Total, I. R. T 

New York Rapid Transit Corporation.. 



Total, rapid transit linea . 



Street surface lines 

Hudson & Manhattan Railroad 

Bus lines reporting to the commission.. 
Municipal bus lines (estimated) 



Total. 



38.62 
20.82 



59.44 



100.00 



Rapid transit traffic alone amounted to 1,971,800,000 
passengers, or 53,300,000 (2.8 per cent) more than in 
1928. The following tabulation shows the distribution 
by boroughs of the ticket sales or fare collections at 
all of the rapid transit stations, both Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company and New York Rapid Transit 
Corporation (Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit System), 
during the fiscal years ended June 30, 1929 and 1928: 



Guelph Radial Railway, Guelph, Ont. 

II mo. end. Sept., 1929 80,935 74,739 
II mo. end. Sept., 1928 



1,877 4,319 



Ontario Hydro-Electric Railways, Essex District 

11 mo. end. .Sept., 1929 1,142,904 859,237 4,346 
1 1 mo. end. Sept., 1 928 



279,320 



Regina Municipal Railway, Regina, Sask. 

lOmo.end. Oct., 1929 343,579 212,973 
lOmo.end. Oct., 1928 



130,605 



S9,St7 
iS,76S 



i7,56S 
4,592 



12,671 

g,sos 



Stations in 1929 

Manhattan 1,149,260,509 

Bronx 215,349,575 

Brooklyn 486,137,756 

Queens 119,650,532 

UnaUocated 1,446,787 



-Fiscal Yeai^ 



Total 1,971,845,159 



1928 

1,135,237,354 

204,925,096 

466,798,253 

110,167,414 

1,376,628 

1,918,504,745 



-Increase 



Number 
14,023,155 
10,424,479 
19,339,503 
9,483,118 
70,159 

53,340,414 



Per Cent 
1.24 
5.09 
4.14 
8.61 
5.10 

2.78 



Sasl<atoon Municipal Railway, Saskatoon, Sask. 

lOmo.end. Oct., 1929 318,437 208,585 12,349 
lOmo.end. Oct., 1928 



97,502 



10,548 
3,587 

Italic figures indicate deficit, a Includes taxee, b Net operating revenue. 
Before taxes, d Before adjtistment bond interest, e Includes $41,793 special 
reight revenue. / Before adjustment bond interest, g Deficit after deducting 
9574,676 tax judgment. / Net after rents, j Before reserves. A; After joint account 
expenses, federal taxes, and city's 55 per cent. I Including Brooklyn & Queens 
Transit System. 



Fare collections at the Times Square subway stations 
during the two fiscal years were as follows : 



Interborough lines.. 
N. Y. R. T. lines... 



Total, Times Square . 



1929 
55,944,891 
35,936,443 

91,881,334 



1928 
55,093,646 
34,630,250 

89,723,896 



Increase 

851,245 
1,306,193 

2,157,438 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
51 



News of the Industry 



LATE NEWS 



Kansas City, Mo. — The directors of 
the Kansas City Public Service Com- 
pany on Dec. 26 approved the tentative 
plan of the company to purchase and 
operate the Yellow and the Checker 
cabs. The purchase contract still is in 
process of negotiation. Under the con- 
tract the railway would pay $187,000 
cash for the property and assume a 
bonded debt of $375,000. The railway 
hopes to effect economies by combining 
the operating departments of the two 
companies. 

Los Angeles, Cal.— On Dec. 14, $118,- 
041 was distributed in bonus checks and 
special awards to trainmen of the Los 
Angeles Railway. Of that amount $17,- 
830 covered special awards which, in 
addition to the earned bonus, were 
divided among 912 men of the 2,046 who 
participated in the distribution. Many 
more men participated in the award 
this year than did so a year ago. 
-f 

New Orleans, La. — ^Judge Wayne G. 
Borah in the United States District 
Court has issued a temporary order 
restraining 815 alleged jitney operators 
from using their automobiles to tarry 
passengers in competition with the 
street cars of the New Orleans Public 
Service. Inc., on which the union crews 
struck last July. 

St. Louis, Mo.— The St. Louis Public 
Service Company's new experimental 
fare of a twelve-ride weekly ticket for 
$1, single adult rides for 10 cents and 
children's at 5 cents instead of 3 cents, 
went into effect on Dec. 30. Six 
children's tickets may be purchased for 
25 cents while ticket holders riding more 
than twelve times in any one week may 
secure the extra rides at 5 cents each. 
Hereafter ticket riders must present 
their tickets to be punched by the con- 
ductor when paying the fare, but there 
will be no limits on the number of times 
a ticket may be used in any week. 
-f 

New York, N. Y. — Standardized taxi- 
cabs for New York City have been 
agrreed on by manufacturers, owners and 
Police Commissioner Whalen. All cabs 
now ofl the streets or in process of man- 
ufacture will be permitted to be sold and 
operated in the city, but all taxicabs 
manufactured after Feb. 1 for use in 
New York City must comply with new 
regulations. Cabs are to be of two 
classes, heavy cabs seating five or more 
passengers and light cabs seating two or 
three. They are to have larger rear 
windows. 

-♦■ 

Boston, Mass. — The new high-speed 
trolley line between Mattapan and Ash- 
mont was opened to the public on 
Dec. 21 by the Boston Elevated Railway. 
The new line cuts the running time from 
Mattapan to the center of Boston by 
nine minutes. 



Late News Continued on Page 5i 



Eight -Cent Cash Fare 



Announced in Cleveland 

New Rate in the Ohio City Went 
Into Effect on Jan. 1. Tickets 
Sell at Rate of Seven for 50 Cents 



THE Cleveland Railway, Cleveland, 
Ohio, on Dec. 26, announced an in- 
crease in the rate of fare from 7 to 8 cents, 
effective on Jan. 1. The increase had 
been predicted, following a decision 
against the company by the United 
States District Court of Appeals in an 
income tax case. 

Under the new rate of fare, tickets 
will be sold in strips of seven for 50 
cents. In East Cleveland and Cleveland 
Heights, the two suburbs which pay a 
service-at-cost fare based on the Cleve- 
land rate, the cash fare will advance 
from 9 to 10 cents, but the ticket rate 
will continue to be six for 50 cents. 

The result of the company's announce- 
ment was an immediate revival of agita- 
tion for adoption of a zone system of 
fares urged by the company a year ago 
but tabled by the street railway com- 
mittee of the City Council. President 
Alexander said: 

"For many months the interest fund 
has been at a figure which would have 
made an increase necessary had we not 
been hopeful of a favorable decision in 
our long-pending income tax suit. The 
decision of the United States Court of 
Appeals, while a partial victory, makes 
impossitjle the continuance of the pres- 
ent rate until we can have appealed the 
case and have had a final adjudication. 

"It is regrettable that the city did not 
agree with us at the beginning of the 
year on some application of the zone 
system which would make fares more 
equitable to riders. As it is, the increase 
falls largely on the city rider, whose 



San Francisco Convention 
Plans Maturing 

THE 49th annual convention of 
the American Electric Railway 
Association will be held at San 
Francisco, Cal., June 23 to 26, in- 
clusive, 1930. 

The national character of the con- 
vention brings together several 
thousand delegates. A sizable dele- 
gation from the various European 
and South American memberships 
of the association is also expected. 

Committees are now at work 
under the direction of the general 
chairman, W. V. Hill, manager of 
the California Electric Railway As- 
sociation, 58 Sutter Street, San 
Francisco, Cal. Edwin C. Faber, 
vice-president of Barron G. Collier, 
Inc., New York City, will have 
charge of the three special trains. 



ticket rate, as well as cash rate, is ad- 
vanced. 

"The East Cleveland and Cleveland 
Heights riders, generally, will pay no 
increase, only the cash rate and local fare 
being changed. 

"Lakewood, of course, advances with 
Cleveland, although retaining its local 
rate. Perhaps with the differential be- 
tween city and suburbs reduced to ap- 
proximately 1 cent, except in cash 
rates, the making of a new franchise by 
Lakewood will be possible." 



Cincinnati-Lake Erie Line Opened 

The Cincinnati & Lake Erie Railroad, 
formed recently through the consolida- 
tion of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Day- 
ton Railway, the Indiana, Columbus & 
Eastern Traction Company and the 
Lima-Toledo Railroad, opened its elec- 
tric line, linking the Ohio River with 
Lake Erie, on Dec. 31. The new sys- 
tem, announced by Dr. Thomas Con- 
tem is the longest, straight main electric 
interurban line in the world. It covers 
a route of 220 miles. 

The new line will offer high-speed 
passenger and freight service with im- 
proved equipment. New types of motors 
have been developed for cars in this 
service which, under tests, have attained 
a speed of 75 m.p.h. 

Consolidation of the three interurban 
lines was engineered by the Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton Railway under the di- 
rection of Dr. Thomas Conway, president 
of that line. 

Officers of the new Cincinnati & Lake 
Erie Railroad, besides President Con- 
way, are William L. Butler, Philadel- 
phia, executive vice-president; J. H. Mc- 
Clure, Dayton, vice-president in charge 
of public relations; Richard Breckin- 
ridge, Cincinnati, vice-president in 
charge of traffic; H. C. Donecker, Day- 
ton, vice-president in charge of research, 
and W. D. Gordon, Philadelphia, secre- 
tary and treasurer. 

• 

Cars, Buses, Taxis and Planes 

in Grand Rapids 

A municipal transportation system 
which ties up street cars, buses, taxicabs 
and airplanes, has been effected in Grand 
Rapids, Mich., by the Grand Rapids 
Railroad. The move is looked upon by 
Louis J. DeLamarter, general manager, 
as one of the outstanding steps in city 
transportation service. He points out 
that the combined services of street car, 
bus and taxicab automatically will help 
each other to serve further the residents 
of the city, permitting the city's prin- 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
52 



cipal transportation organization to meet 
every citizen's needs. 

While the railroad has not taken over 
an air service, the Furniture Capital Air 
Service, Inc., has taken offices in the 
street railroad building and a fleet of 
planes is to be available at all times for 
aerial transportation service from Grand 
Rapids to any other city in the state 
with a landing field. 

Special attention will be paid to emer- 
gency and commercial calls, which may 
be filed with the railway central office. 
The system has been worked out so 
completely that a person wishing plane 
service may call for a cab to the airport 
and his taxi driver will have his ticket 
for the flight when he arrives. 

The entire system will be under mu- 
nicipal regulation. 

The railroad plans a special school of 
instruction for the cab drivers. A sim- 
ilar school long has been in operation 
for trainmen. 

The company also has announced it 
will sp^nd approximately $100,000 in 
1930 on improvements. Twenty new 
electric coaches will be placed in service 
as soon as possible, Mr. De Lamarter 
asserts. 



carried 1,000,000 passengers daily. He 
said the company would do its utmost 
to render efficient service in all respects 
and under all circumstances. 



Richmond Hard Hit by Storm 

The recent cold wave, which froze up 
private automobiles and even made the 
average home in and around Richmond, 
Va., uncomfortable at times, vyas not 
in the least partial to the Virginia Elec- 
tric & Power Company. The movement 
of cars and buses, which is ordinarily 
according to carefully worked out 
schedules, became exceedingly irregular. 
Frozen air lines, slippery tracks and 
pavements, disabled automobiles and 
trucks, and other causes contributed to 
the confusion. On Dec. 28 there were 
21 fire alarms. General Manager Penick 
said: 

"The other day we had a trolley 
break, the second in a year, and service 
was crippled temporarily over a con- 
siderable area, but the ice and sleet were 
the main contributors to irregular 
service. 

"We are not citing the difficulties with 
which we have to contend as alibis for 
failures of our service, but we want our 
patrons to know the facts and when they 
know, we feel sure they will bear with 
us under such conditions." 



City and Company Co-operate 

on Buffalo Improvements 

The International Railway, Buflalo, 
N. Y., has been requested by the Buffalo 
City Council to undertake track recon- 
struction and roadbed improvements on 
40 streets covering 32 miles of single 
track and involving an expenditure of 
approximately $1,920,000 for 1930. The 
tentative program was suggested by the 
municipal authorities at a conference at- 
tended by B. J. Yungbluth, president of 
the railway. President Yungbluth ex- 
pressed the belief that this program was 
too much for the company to undertake 
in a single year, but consented to co- 
operate with the City Council in reach- 
ing an agreement on streets where the 
work is most essential. 



Edward Dana on the Air 

Edward Dana, general manager of 
the Boston Elevated Railway, Boston, 
Mass., gave the first of a series of radio 
broadcasts on Dec. 10 from Station 
WEEI. The broadcast is identified as 
the "El Service Hour" intended to give 
the public a better insight into and 
understanding of the problems and diffi- 
culties confronting present-day trans- 
portation companies. Mr. Dana said 
in part: 

"We hope to make clear matters 
which cause misunderstandings, and 
demonstrate that our only aim is suc- 
cessful operation and satisfactory serv- 
ice. At present the equipment of the 
Boston Elevated Railway is modern in 
every respect. It compares favorably 
with the best in use anywhere in the 
country. By reason of this modernized 
equipment your trips on the Elevated 
system have been made more comfort- 
able, speedier and safer." 

Mr. Dana explained that the elevated 



cent fares, or three tokens for 25 cents, 
and a cross-town bus route, in addition to 
several bus routes providing service for 
districts in which it seems desirable to sup- 
plant cars. 

Two formal protests, representing 1,200 
residents of East Denver and Montclair, 
were registered prior to passage of the 
ordinance. The protestants do not believe 
buses will provide adequate transportation 
facilities in their territory where electric 
trams are to be eliminated. On other 
phases of the bill there were no objections. 



Denver Fare Ordinance 
Advanced 

With only one change, boosting from 
$10,000 to $15,000 annually the amount to 
be paid for use of city streets, the Denver 
Tramway Corporation ordinance, asking 
higher fares and permission to substitute 
bus routes for unprofitable rail lines, was 
passed on first reading by the City Council 
of Denver, Col., on Dec. 23. 

A second passage Jan. 5 will make the 
bill operative, carrying provisions for 10- 



New Jacksonville Franchise 

Up Jan. 14 

The Miller draft of the proposed fran- 
chise of the Jacksonville Traction Com- 
pany, Jacksonville, Fla., to take the 
place of the one under which it now 
operates but which expires in 1932, will 
go to the company officially at once. The 
grant was placed on first reading at a 
special session of the City Council on 
Dec. 19, and referred to the laws and 
rules and public service committees 
jointly, with instructions to the recorder 
that copies be sent the company, along 
with a copy of the report and recom- 
mendations of the public service com- 
mittee that this action be taken. 

Under the recommendations of the 
public service committee the company 
will be asked to make a written reply to 
the communication, giving its views on 
the proposed franchise, as drafted by 
City Attorney Austin Miller, not later 
than Jan. 14, the next meeting date of 
the Council. 



Louisville Situation Reviewed 

President Barnes Goes Over the Accomplishments During His 

Regime in Southern City — System Returned to. 

Dividend-Paying Basis 



PRESIDENT J. P. Barnes, of the 
Louisville Railway, Louisville, Ky., is- 
sued a statement to the stockholders on 
Dec. 7 regarding the condition of the 
company. When Mr. Barnes became 
president of the company it was labor- 
ing under the handicap of a 5-cent fare, 
under an eighteenth-century type of 
franchise ordinance. Eventually a 7-cent 
cash fare was secured; then under fed- 
eral injunction fares were advanced to 
10 cents cash with three tickets for 25 
cents. 



Service 
Given Earings Expense 

1920 11,307,652 $4,146,507.28 $3,229,187.38 

(Car-miles) 

1928 13,136,871 4,847,000.40 3,494,755.52 

(Car and bus-miles) 



Increase.... 1,829,219 $700,493.12 $265,568.14 
Percent.... 16.18 16.89 8.22 



The number of passengers carried has 
fallen off, due in part to higher fares, 
but also in part to the fact that there is 
considerable unemployment in Louisville 
at this time. Moreover taxicabs are 
operating at the rate of 2 miles for 25 
cents, and are carrying four passengers 
for a single fare. 

The increase in revenue under the 
new fare rates became effective too late 
to affect materially 1929 operations. The 



belief was expressed, however, that when 
normal conditions of employment and 
business in Louisville are restored, the 
company's earnings will show a material 
improvement over former years and per- 
mit the payment of greater dividends. 

The statement set forth in detail the 
amount of dividends that have been paid 
under the present management. 

The growth of the company is shown 
in the accompanying table : 

President Barnes said in part: 

"Not until the recent decision in our 
fare litigation did we achieve adjustment 
of the various matters criticised by the 
bankers who said, several years ago, 
that under the ordinance regulations in 
effect at that time neither legal right nor 
our ability to earn was sufficiently 
established to assure economical re- 
financing. 

"When the present management took 
charge in 1920 no dividends, preferred 
or common, had been paid for two 
years, and the company's total liabilities 
exceeded its total assets by more than 
$400,000. By 1923 our operations and 
earnings had so improved that we were 
able to begin paying off accrued divi- 
dends on the preferred stock and, since 
that time, we have paid not only these 
dividends, but all current preferred divi- 
dends and $582,652 common dividends, 
as well. The total dividend payments 
have amounted to $2,332,652. At the 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1920 . 
S3 



close of 1928 there had been accumulated 
a. corporate surplus of $868,328. The re- 
port of Humphrey Robinson & Com- 
pany, accountants, made as of Dec. 31. 
1928, shows the common stock of the 
company to have a book value of $110 a 
share. 

Refinancing Aheiad 

Our constant effort has been to build 
up a regular, dependable net earn- 
ing capacity sufficient to meet the 
bankers' requirements for refunding 
operations. 

"Since 1923 there have been added to 
the company's property 121 new cars, 43 
buses and numerous smaller items of 
equipment. Many renewals and im- 
provements of carhouses and track have 
been made. 



"In view of this growth in earnings, 
addition to capital and improvement of 
property, there can be little doubt that 
the present low market quotations of 
Louisville Railway securities are due to 
uncertainty in the minds of investors 
as to the refunding of the $6,000,000 first 
mortgage bonds due July 1, 1930. We 
are continuing active negotiations for 
this refunding. Several plans are under 
consideration and, therefore, it is im- 
possible to state at this time just what 
the final proposal will be. It may be 
that no refinancing plan will be perfected 
until after the decision of the city's 
fare appeal, which will be argued in the 
circuit court at Cincinnati on Jan. 6, 
1930. As soon as positive recommenda- 
tions can be made, I shall advise you 
fully." 



LATE NEWS 

Continued from Page 5i 



Pensacola, Fla. — Gulf Power Com- 
pany forces are completing construction 
of the new tracks in the western section 
of the city for the Bayshore line. Under 
an agreement with the Frisco Railway 
when that road purchased parts of the 
Bayshore line, the power company will 
operate its Bayshore cars into the city 
over the spur line. The Frisco Railway 
is improving the portion of the Bayshore 
line purchased. 

Seattle, Wash. — Residents of the 
White River Valley, through which the 
abandoned Seattle-Tacoma interurban 
line is routed, have organized to formu- 
late a plan whereby re-establishment of 
the electric system might be effected. 
A second meeting has been scheduled 
for Jan. 15 in the Auburn City Hall. 
Stage schedules were declared inade- 
quate to serve transportation needs of 
valley residents. T. J. Ferguson, 
Auburn, is active in the movement. 



Chicago, IlL — Failure of the City 
Council of Chicago to initiate action in 
the matter of the new subway and dis- 
putes among officials of the elevated and 
the surface lines as to whether the pro- 
posed State Street subway shall be for 
elevated trains or for both "L" and sur- 
face cars are cited as the two major 
causes of delay. The fact that the $57,- 
000,000 railway fund, accumulated out 
of payments made by the surface com- 
panies to the city, is now represented in 
the main by paper, chiefly tax anticipa- 
tion warrants, is another obstacle in the 
way of an underground for the Windy 
City. One definite step toward settling 
some of these problems was taken re- 
cently by a Council sub-committee 
which will seek to have the telephone 
company and the Commonwealth Edison 
company contract with the city to place 
their underground wires and mains in 
gallery space in the subway. 



Far Rockaway, N. Y.— The Transit 
Commission and the _ New York City 
Board of Transportation are holding a 
series of conferences for the purpose of 
working out a co-ordinated policy with 
respect to the Rockaway Branch of the 
Long Island Railroad. This is the 
branch which the company is desirous 
of selling to the city. The city cannot 
immediately answer the negotiation 
count. It will probably be five years 



before it will have in operation a trunk 
to Manhattan available to carry the 
Rockaway traffic, and during that time, 
unless some makeshift plan is adopted, 
there might be no relief from the grade- 
:rossing menaces. Further, the estimates 
>f the Board of Transportation engineers 
as to the cost of a new subway have 
not been fully developed, so that even 
if a price were fixed as between the rail- 
road and the city the comparison of that 
price with present estimates of a new 
structure would be inconclusive. 



Fond du Lac, Wis. — OflFering was 
made on Dec. 16 of a new issue of $2,- 
500,000 Wisconsin Power & Light Com- 
pany first lien and refunding mortgage 
5 per cent bonds, due Dec. 1, 1958, at 
96i and interest. The corporation sup- 
plies electric light and power to 268 com- 
munities located in 30 counties of central 
and southern Wisconsin, and wholesales 
power to 65 communities having an 
aggregate population exceeding 700,000. 
In addition it gives 98 communities gas, 
water, electric railway, bus and heating 
services. 

-f 

Philadelphia, Pa. — The new escalator 
on the northwest plaza of City Hall on 
the Philadelphia Rapid Transit subway 
has been placed in operation. The 
escalator saves 43 of the 64 steps from 
the station platform to the surface. 
Passenger approach is by a short stairway 
from the platform to the mezzanine. Three 
passengers may ride abreast on the esca- 
lator, which will carry from 8,000 to 10,000 
passengers per hour. It was built at a 
cost of $80,000. 



Aurora, 111. — The Illinois Commerce 
Commission on Dec. 18 approved the is- 
suance of $3,400,000 of 6 per cent ten- 
year gold notes of the Chicago, Aurora 
& Elgin Railroad to reimburse the com- 
any treasury for capital expenditures for 
recent extensive improvements made by 
the railroad. 

■f 

Tulsa, Okla. — The twelfth annual con- 
vention of the Oklahoma Utilities As- 
sociation will be held at the Mayo Hotel 
here on March 11, 12 and 13, according 
to a decision reached by the executive 
board of the association. Active ar- 
rangements for the convention will soon 
be under way. 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
54 



Waverly, N. Y. — Permission has been 
granted the Waverly, Sayre & Athens 
Traction Company by the New York 
Public Service Commission to operate 
buses in place of street cars from the 
New York-Pennsylvania state line at 
Cayuta Avenue in Waverly, N. Y., over 
certain streets in the village. Evidence 
showed that the company had paid no 
dividends in 36 years and that it is two 
years behind on its bond interest. 
-f 

Oakland, Cal. — Reconstruction of the 
street car tracks and paving on San 
Pablo Avenue, from the city limits of 
South Berkeley, Cal., to the north line of 
Ashby Avenue, is now being undertaken 
by the Key System Transit Company, 
according to the announcement of Alfred 
J. Lundberg, president. 

Richmond, Va. — Continued operation 
of the Richmond-Ashland Railway is 
possible only if citizens served by the 
road rally to its support. A committee 
of stockholders has been named to lay 
the matter before the people in territory 
adjacent to the 18-mile electric line. Due 
to loss of revenue and large expenses in- 
curred in making emergency repairs to 
the viaduct leading into the station on 
West Broad Street, the company did 
not expect to be able to meet in full 
the interest payment on the mortgage 
bonds due on Jan. 1. 

■f 

Pasadena, Cal. — Elimination of every 
grade crossing in Pasadena, eventual 
electrification of the railroad, elevation 
of tracks, and installation of double 
tracks from Los Angeles to San 
Bernardino are plans which the Santa 
Fe Railroad is said to be about ready 
to make public. 

4 

Ithaca, N. Y. — The Public Service 
Commission has decided to defer action 
on the application of the Ithaca Railway, 
Inc., for approval of the exercise of 
rights and construction under a franchise 
granted to it by the city of Ithaca on 
Aug. 7, 1929. This action will give the 
petitioner an opportunity of applying to 
the commission for approval of a reor- 
ganization following the sale of the 
property and franchises of the former 
Ithaca Traction Company in 1928. The 
sale was made, pursuant to an order of 
the Supreme Court, to Sherman Peer, as 
agent of a corporation to be formed, who 
operated the railway until it was turned 
over to the Ithaca Railway, Inc. The 
commission held that the reorganization 
should first be authorized by the commis- 
sion before the company is in a position 
to receive the approval which it seeks 
in the present application. 

South Bend, Ind. — Sale of the Chi- 
cago, South Bend & Northern Indiana 
Railway and the Southern Michigan 
Railway under foreclosure was post- 
poned on Dec. 28 until Feb. 1. Bank- 
ruptcy proceedings were entered to 
satisfy claims of several mortgage 
holders. 

■f 

Athens, Ga. — After Jan. 1 people who 
hail autoists for a lift inside the city 
limits of Athens will be liable to prose- 
cution by the city. Under the new law 
no one will be allowed to ask for auto 
rides while standing in the streets or on 
the sidewalks. Any speech, motion or 
gesture to an autoist for a ride will be 
considered a violation of the law. 

(.Continued on Page SI) 



Bridge Line Rolling Stock 
to Be Sold 

Commissioner Albert Goldman of 
the Department of Plant and Structures 
of New York City, through whom, as 
the custodian of bridges, the deal with 
respect to the 3-Cent Line was transacted, 
states that very soon he proposes to dis- 
pose of the seventeen cars under the ham- 
mer. He will advertise them for a 
period and then knock them down to 
the highest bidder. The cars consti- 
tuted the rolling stock of the defunct 
Manhattan Bridge 3-Cent Line, which 
went out of business on Nov. 13, when 
the city handed its owners a check for 
$206,750.29 in return for which the com- 
pany abandoned its operation over the 
Manhattan Bridge and Flatbush Avenue 
extension between Fulton Street, Brook- 
lyn, and the Bowery, in Manhattan, re- 
turned its franchise to the city and 
deeded the municipality its tracks, poles, 
trolley wires and cars — all it owned 
save some real estate on which is lo- 
cated its carhouse in Brooklyn. 



^25,000,000 Expenditure Ahead 
for St. Louis 

Stanley Clarke, president of the St. 
Louis Public Service Company, St. Louis, 
Mo., has informed the St. Louis Trans- 
portation Survey Commission that the com- 
pany would spend $25,000,000 or more for 
additional equipment and other betterments 
to service, including extensions, if it could 
raise the money. To the end that this 
may be accomplished the commission has 
created a finance committee to work out 
a plan to enable the company to make the 
expenditures suggested by R. K. Kelker, 
Jr., consulting engineer for the commission. 

In a recent report to the commission Mr. 
Kelker suggested the company spend $23,- 
776,000 as follows: Rerouting car lines, 
$726,000: extensions, $1,338,000; feeder 
buses, $512,000; 800 new cars, $13,800,000: 
additions to substations, $1,400,000, and 
street paving between car tracks, $6,000,000. 

He also recommended elimination of 
hundreds of stops and the ultimate driving 
of service cars or "jitneys." 

Mr. Clarke is a non-voting member of 
the Transportation Survey Commission. 



B. E. Sunny Sees Chicago 
Settlement Ahead 

B. E. Sunny, chairman of the pro- 
tective committee of the Chicago City & 
Connecting Railway collateral trust 
bonds, in a letter to the depositors of 
bonds says: 

"In the letter of June 11, 1929, your 
protective committee reported that the 
necessary enabling legislation had been 
approved by the Governor. The sub- 
committee of the local transportation 
committee of the city of Chicago, in 
charge of working out a new ordinance, 
has completed a tentative draft of the 
proposed new franchise. 

"The sub-committee left blank three 
or four sections dealing with the ques- 
tions of rate of return on the capital ac- 
count of the new company, amortization 
and sinking fund. The draft of these 
sections was deferred till the views of 
the reorganization committee could be 
obtained. 



"As soon as the views of this com- 
mittee on the questions of rate of re- 
turn, amortization, sinking funds and 
other like problems can be obtained, it 
is hoped that the drafting of the new 
franchise will be completed promptly 
and sent to the City Council for con- 
sideration and approval, subject, of 
course, to a referendum. It is hoped 
that the ordinance can be passed and 
ample time given for a thorough discus- 
sion of the provisions of the ordinance 
so that a referendum may be had in the 
spring or early summer of next year" 
♦ 

Seattle Council Has Two- Year 
Moratorium Proposal 

The City Council of Seattle, Wash., is 
now ready to take the. last step necessary 
to make the two-year moratorium on 
the municipal railway bond redemption 
effective. Two ordinances have been 
introduced at a special Council session, 
and can be brought up immediately for 
passage. The plan is to limit payments 
to the bondholders to interest during 
1930 and 1931 so as to enable the city, 
during the next few weeks, to repay 
fully the loan from the Water Depart- 
ment that was necessary to make the 
payments for 1929 on the purchase 
bonds. The Water Department loan 
should be wiped out before March. 
Heretofore the city has paid to the 
owners of the property now comprising 
the municipal lines not only interest but 
a part of the principal sum. 

With the floating debt of the munici- 
pal railway wiped out, funds for the 
purchase of new cars and a modest re- 
habilitation of the lines will begin to 
accumulate. There has been no decision 
as to whether track improvements or 
new cars shall take precedence, though 
there is general agreement that the track 
work should take precedence. 

Mayor Frank Edwards has declared 
that this is the first dividend it has been 
possible to give the car riders whose 
money is paying for the railway system, 
and he has demanded the best rolling 
stock available. At the same time the 
Mayor has repeatedly urged that in pro- 
viding new cars as much work as pos- 
sible be done in Seattle. He said: 

"In this whole proceeding the car 
riders are entitled to first consideration, 
because it is their patronage which 
makes the purchase of the railway sys- 
tem possible and their money that keeps 
it going." . 



present ownership of its capital stock 
and any and all transfers or assignments 
thereof" by the United Traction Com- 
pany since June 17, 1927, by the New 
York State Railways since Jan. 1, 1928, 
and by the Schenectady Railway since 
Jan. 1, 1929. 



Inquiry Into Ownership of 
New York Properties 

The Public Service Commission of 
New York by order issued on Dec. 27 
directed the United Traction Company, 
the New York State Railways and the 
Schenectady Railway to produce before 
it in Albany, on Jan. 8, records in an 
inquiry instituted by the commission, on 
its own motion, to determine: 

The ownership cf the capital stock of the 
companies : , *. «* 

Whether any transfer or assignment ol 
capital stock has been made in violation 
of the provisions of the public service 
commission law. . 

Whether any of the companies has maae 
or recorded upon its books any transfer 
or assignment of capital stock in violation 
of the provisions of the public service com- 
mission law. 

The order directs each of the three 
companies to produce at the hearing 
"its stock book and any and all other 
records showing or tending to show the 



Speeding Up the Louisville 
Service 

The recent experiment by the Louisville 
Railway, Louisville, Ky., of allowing mo- 
tormen on Market Street to disregard run- 
ning time on outbound trips in certain 
territory has proved successful and is pleas- 
ing passengers by enabling them to reach 
their destination in a shorter period of time. 
In consequence the company has announced 
that, beginning at once on specified lines 
and at locations indicated, motormen may 
disregard running time and go on to the 
end of the line as soon as they can do so 
safely. Leaving time at the ends of the 
line and at all places other than those 
designated must be strictly observed. 

In the territory in which passengers are 
picked up in quantity and at transfer points, 
the company enjoins upon its employees 
careful attention to the even spacing of the 
cars and strict observance of the running 
time. 

In the territory where motormen are 
allowed to disregard the time schedule, cars 
must be operated with the proper slow- 
downs for dangerous street crossings. The 
exceptions that have been made to the 
regular running rules are solely to prevent 
the cars from having to drag in order to 
observe the schedule religiously. 
♦ • 

Chicago Transfer Demand 
Deferred 

The Chicago City Council's committee 
on local transportation has decided not 
to initiate before the Illinois Commerce 
Commission proceedings to obtain trans- 
fers between the surface and elevated 
lines. The resolution to this effect pre- 
sented by Alderman John A. Massen 
eighteen months ago was sent instead 
to the subcommittee, which has been 
drafting the proposed new franchise. 

Committee members who opposed 
starting proceedings before the state 
commission declared that to do so might 
interfere with the negotiations with the 
companies for a new ordinance. AH 
agreed that better service is imperative, 
and favored incorporating the universal 
transfers in the new ordinance. 

At the same session, a sulscommittee 
of five councilmen was appointed to go 
before the commission with a request 
that the Surface Lines be permitted to 
use part of its $18,000,000 renewals and 
depreciation fund to build 125 miles of 
double-track extensions and to install 
feeder bus service. 

The companies point out that the draft 
is as binding as possible on this point, 
and that the entire question of whether 
or not the companies will carry out the 
promised prograin depends on their abil- 
ity to get the $200,000,000 of new monies 
required. 

Other objections of the Aldermen to 
the proposed ordinance draft had to do 
with its failure to determine which fac- 
tion shall pay for building the connection 
between the elevated system and the 
subway. The companies wish the city to 
do this, but the subcommittee desires 
that the companies reconsider the 
matter. 



Electric Railway Journal— /anwary, 1930 
55 



The Aldermen rejected the company's 
alternative section that the city pay for 
paving the surface Hne's right-of-way. 
They consider the section ambiguous 
which deals with removal of tracks and 
structures no longer necessary (which 
may or may not include the elevated 
loop). They also wish to include a pro- 
vision that the new company pay the 



city 3 per cent of its gross receipts. 

In general, the attitude of the Alder- 
men is one of uncertainty. They believe 
that the city is accorded less power in 
the proposed ordinance than it enjoys 
at present over the surface lines. 

The Aldermen favor a subway to be 
built by the city through the central 
business district. 



Public Service Fare Decision 

Based on Valuation 

Newark Paper Analyzes Operation 
of New Jersey Company So Its 
Readers May Be Adequately Informed 



WHEN the Public Utilities Com- 
mission of New Jersey handed 
down the fare decision in the Public 
Service Co-ordinated Transport applica- 
tion, the finding for the company grant- 
ing a 10-cent cash fare with ten tokens 
for 50 cents, which went into effect on 
Jan. 1, was based on failure to earn 
a 7 per cent return. The valuation of 
the property was fixed by Judge 
Haight, who was special master in the 
company's application of 1921. In a 
letter to President McCarter, the com- 
mission stated that the company's oper- 
ating income last year fell short by 
$3,300,000 of what a return of 7 per cent 
would have been upon the Haight valua- 
tion brought down to date. However, 
the commission also indicated that the 
company's operating revenue fell ap- 
proximately $1,900,000 short of a 7 per 
cent return upon its own valuation at 
the same time, brought down to date. 

An analysis of the earnings of the 
Public Service Co-ordinated Transport 
and its predecessors, the Public Service 
Railway and the Public Service Trans- 
portation Company, was made in a 
special article appearing recently in the 
Newark Evening News. The article 
points out that the only things about 
which the commission is concerned in 
its present decision are the operating in- 
come, that portion of the revenue re- 
maining after deducting operating ex- 
penses, depreciation and taxes, and the 
valuation of the property placed on it by 
the authorities. The company's capi- 
talization is not in any sense a factor, 
and it is only necessary that the com- 
pany be allowed to earn a reasonable re- 
turn upon the value of the property. 

Nobody knows conclusively what a 
fair value of Public Service Co-ordinated 
Transport is, according to the article. 
There has been no valuation of the 
property since 1921, at least by the com- 
mission or the courts. In the 1921 fare 
case, there was a wide variance in the 
valuations submitted. The company 
claimed a value of approximately $200,- 
000.000. An appraisal by Ford, Bacon 
& Davis, authorized by the Legislature, 
placed the value at $125,000,000. Mark 
Wolff, a utility expert, made a study re- 
sulting in an estimate of $100,000,000 
historical cost. Other valuations were 
submitted. 

After a study, the utilities commission 
finally decided that $82,000,000 was the 
value for rate-making purposes. The 
company carried the case to the federal 
courts and Judge Haight, as special 
master, found a value of not less than 
$110,000,000. These last two figures 



stand out, the one as the commission's 
findings and the other as the court's 
final decision. 

Since 1921 there has been a revolution 
in the company's transportation methods. 
Buses have come to the fore and have 
passed trolleys in volume of business. 
Trolley lines have been abandoned and 
replaced by buses. How much remains 
of the original trolley inventory no one 
outside of Public Service itself knows. 
Therefore, nothing short of a new inven- 
tory and appraisal would establish what 
would be a fair value today. 

Public Service has spent millions of 
dollars in acquiring bus lines and in 
purchasing new buses. It is debatable 
whether the company is entitled to re- 
ceive a return upon the difference be- 
tween a fair price for the buses and 
what it actually paid. 



ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF NEW JERSEY 






OPERATION 






Needed Operating Income for 






7 Per Cent Return on 






P.U.C. 




Actual 


Judge P.U.C. Valuation 




Operating 


Haight 'b 1921 Less Bus 


Year 


Income 


Decision Valuation Intangible 


1922 


$5,736,021 $7,820,139 $5,732,932 $5,732,932 


1923 


3,265,163 


7,843,315 5,758,711 5,758,711 


1924 


4,055,052 


7,909,172 5,831,989 5,750,247 


1925 


4,006,641 


8,152,062 6,102,173 5,858,727 


1926 


5,046,933 


8,635,193 6,639,827 6,132,061 


1927 


4,529,584 


9,073,860 7,127,925 6,306,309 


1928 


5,602,252 


9,379,738 7,476,001 6,504,390 



In the first column of the accompany- 
ing tabulation is shown the operating 
income that Public Service actually has 
received, by years, through operation of 
its trolleys and buses, exclusive of the 
Public Service Railroad and interstate 
buses. These figures, by themselves, 
give no answer to the question of 
whether the company has been receiving 
a fair return upon the fair value of its 
properties. Using the several valuations, 
and bringing them down to date, the 
computation of earnings becomes simply 
a matter of mathematics. 

Making the proper adjustment in the 
company's capital account for additions, 
withdrawals and retirements, and for 
accrued depreciation, the 7 per cent re- 
turn on the basis of Judge Haight's de- 
cision has been figured out. This is 
shown in the second column of the 
tabulation. This exceeds by from $2,- 
000,000 to nearly $4,000,000 the actual 
operating income of the company in the 
seven years examined. 

If the original valuation made by the 
Public Utility Commission, which was 
$82,000,000 in 1921, be used as a rate 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
56 



base, with proper changes year by year, 
the 7 per cent return would be as shown 
in the third column. For the year 1922 
this amount was virtually equal to the 
actual operating income. For each suc- 
ceeding year it will be noted the de- 
ficiency in income has been greater. 
Even on this low basis the deficiency for 
1928 was approximately $1,800,000. 

Still another computation has been 
made, with deductions for the so-called 
intangible value of buses. It was the 
practice of the company, up to 1928, to 
divide the cost of buses between tangible 
and intangible value. The tangible 
value represented what the company be- 
lieved the bus to be worth, while the 
balance between that and the price 
actually paid represented the intangible 
value. This intangible value, by years, 
has been between $2,000,000 and $4,500,- 
000. Making a computation of earnings 
of 7 per cent upon the board's base 
valuation of 1921, with deductions for 
"intangible bus value," the figures given 
in the last column are obtained. Even 
using this basis, there is a deficiency in 
earnings in every year except 1922, vary- 
ing between about $1,000,000 and 
$2,500,000. 

Summarized, a 7 per cent return upon 
Judge Haight's valuation made in 1921 
would total $58,813,483 for the period 
1922-28. The total upon the board's valu- 
ation with inclusion of bus intangibles 
would be $44,669,562. With exclusion of 
all intangible bus values, the total for 
the period would be $42,043,380. The 
operating income of the company dur- 
ing that period has been $32,241,649. 



Chicago Suburban Line Sold 
Under Foreclosure 

The Hammond, Whiting & East Chicago 
Railway was sold at auction on Dec. 26 to 
a syndicate of business men headed by 
Morse DellPlain, president of the Northern 
Indiana Public Service Company. The sale 
was conducted by Ernest Force, special 
master in chancery, who acted under a 
decree of Federal Judge Slick. The sale 
price was $300,000. 

A mortgage of $1,788,000 had previously 
been foreclosed on the property. The sale 
was approved on Dec. 28 by Judge Slick. 

According to present plans the recently 
organized Calumet Railways, Inc., will 
take over the property. The Calumet 
Railways, Inc., seeks to obtain franchises 
from the three cities involved. If it is 
successful in doing this, the Insull or- 
ganization will provide money for re- 
habilitation. 



Ohio Interurban Sells Its 

Power Lines 

Sale of all its power lines and poles, 
and the rights-of-way for such lines to 
the Ohio Edison Company, Springfield, 
Ohio, was announced on Dec. 26 by the 
Cincinnati & Lake Erie Railroad, the 
through electric railway system formed 
by the merger of the lines of the Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railway, 
the Indiana, Columbus & Eastern, and 
the Lima-Toledo Railway lines recently. 
The sale price was $350,000. Coincident 
with the announcement of the sale, the 
company also revealed that it was enter- 
ing into a contract with the Springfield 
cornpany whereby, in the future, the 
Ohio Edison Company will supply all of 
the power for the railway lines. 



Program of Transportation Men 
Takes Shape 

The meeting of the executive com- 
mittee of the Transportation and Traffic 
Association held at the office of C. H. 
Evenson at Chicago on Dec. 10, 1929, 
was devoted largely to consideration of 
the program for the San Francisco con- 
vention in June. A letter of George B. 
Anderson, chairman of the program 
committee, announced tentative choice 
of speakers for the meeting and outlined 
the program for the three-day session. 
It was the opinion of those present that 
in the future fewer luncheon conferences 
should be held and that no subjects 
under study by the association com- 
mittees should be chosen as topics for 
the luncheon meetings. President 
Samuel Riddle announced the comple- 
tion of the membership of all com- 
mittees. 

The secretary was instructed to bring 
to the attention of the Accountants' 
executive committee the cost analysis 
methods set forth in the 1928 report of 
the committee on bus operation, and the 
1929 report of the committee on the 
equipment and suggest the desirability 
of collaboration between the Accoun- 
tants' and the Transportation and Traffic 
Associations in completing the study of 
such methods. 

In the matter of the nomination and 
election of officers by the association 
at its convention it was decided that 
the election should take place at either 
the first or the second meeting rather 
than at the last session as is the present 
practice. 

C. W. Wilson of the committee on the 
movement of the vehicle was instructed 
to elaborate to some extent on the work 
done by the previous committee and 
to give particular attention to the studies 
for the purpose of making recommenda- 
tions on suitable parking regulations 
under various conditions. The com- 
mittee was also instructed to study auto- 
mobile registration in cities and its effect 
upon public transportation. W. W. 
Holden, chairman of the committee on 
"the passenger," said the work of his 
committee would depend largely on 
whether the employment of a specialist 
was authorized by the executive com- 
mittee. The committee wanted to em- 
ploy a well-known authority for making 
analyses in a selected group of cities, 
and unless this can be provided for, it 
will be necessary for the members of 
the committee to conduct the investiga- 
tion only in the communities in which 
they reside. 

A. C. Spurr, who is chairman of 
the committee on the "small city," stated 
that a sub-committee on procedure had 
been appointed and that this year spe- 
cial attention would be given to the 
subject of return on new capital in- 
vested and the results obtained with vari- 
ous fare systems in use. Committee 
members are to furnish data for their 
own properties and in addition each will 
visit several other properties to obtain 
such information as is available. 

C. D. Smith, chairman of the com- 
mittee on the transportation employee, 
said that this committee will give spe- 
cial attention to the subject of training 
from the standpoint of accident preven- 
tion, including the conference training 
method, job analysis, etc. 

It was agreed to accept the invitation 
of Mr. Holden to hold a meeting in San 
Antonio on March 3, 1930. 



NEWS BRIEFS 

Continued from Page 54 



South Bend, Ind. — Steadily increasing 
patronage has unqualifiedly approved 
the operation of Chicago, South Shore & 
South Bend Railroad de luxe trains. Re- 
ports show that the traveling public 
indorses the operation of parlor cars on 
dining car trains, for parlor car patronage 
on de luxe trains has increased from 
month to month since the line instituted 
this service last July. 

Trenton, N. J. — The Trenton Transit 
Company has been organized as the suc- 
cessor to the Trenton & Mercer County 
Traction Corporation. The new com- 
pany really represents the consolidation 
of the railway with its former bus sub- 
sidiary, the Central Transportation 
Company. 

■f 

Allentown, Pa. — A bill for fore- 
closure of the first mortgage of $150,000 
on the property of the Bethlehem & 
Nazareth Passenger Railway has been 
filed in the United States District Court 
at Philadelphia by the Guaranty Trust 
Company, New York, trustee for the 
bondholders. The bill was filed because 
the company defaulted in payment of 
bonds which matured May 1, 1929. The 
railway is being operated under lease 
by the Lehigh Valley Transit Company. 

Chicago, III. — The Illinois Commerce 
Commission on Dec. 18 approved the 
issuance by the Chicago, North Shore & 
Milwaukee Railroad of $700,000 Series G 
equipment trust certificates partially to 
cover the cost of 25 additional all-steel 
motor cars, delivery of which is to start 
on Feb. 1. It also approved the issuance 
of $522,000 first and refunding mortgage 
54 per cent bonds to reimburse the com- 
pany treasury for expenditures made in 
the latter part of 1929 for improvements. 

New Orleans, La. — Racing fans de- 
siring quick and efficient transportation 
to the tracks this season are invited to 
use the service of the Orleans-Kenner 
Traction Company, Inc., which is one 
of the quickest in the city and has an 
added advantage in that its cars stop 
only a few feet from the grandstand 
entrance of the race track. L. J. 
D'Aubiu, general superintendent of the 
Orleans-Kenner Traction Company, has 
made the most of this, realizing that 
patrons want speedy, efficient and 
comfortable service, which the company 
renders. 

Hampton, Va — Norman E. Drexler, 
general manager of the Public Service 
Company, has asked the Hampton City 
Council for permission to substitute 
buses for trolley cars on the east Hamp- 
ton line. 

■f 

Jamestown, N. Y. — The Jamestown 
Motor Bus Transportation Company, a 
subsidiary of the Jamestown Street Rail- 
way, plans to extend its Fairmount 
Avenue line from the present terminus 
in Lakewood, N. Y., to the village of 
Ashville, making the one-way distance 
of that line 9 miles, instead of 6 as at 
present. The Jamestown Street Rail- 
way will continue its service between 
Jamestown and Ashville, the bus line 
being intended to augment the trolley 
service. 



Portsmouth, Ohio— The Public Utili- 
ties Commission has authorized the 
Portsmouth Public Service Company to 
abandon service for a period of one year 
over its interurban line between Ports- 
mouth and Ironton. The abandonment 
will be effective after 30 days notice to 
the public. 

■f 

Springfield, Mass. — A through bus 
service from Springfield to Boston, 
Mass., is to be started about Jan. 8 by 
the Springfield Street Railway in con- 
junction with the Worcester Consoli- 
dated and the Boston, Worcester & 
New York companies. Three round 
trips daily are proposed. This service 
is in addition to buses already in opera- 
tion by the same agencies and will fol- 
low routes already authorized by state 
and municipal authorities, with the ex- 
ception of a minor change in Springfield. 
-f 

San Diego, Cal.— The San Diego Elec- 
tric Railway has notified the Councils 
of San Diego and National City that it 
has applied to the Railroad Commission 
for authority to abandon its lines and 
to remove the tracks from 32nd Street 
and Newton Avenue, San Diego, and 
thence on a private right-of-way to Dal- 
bergia Street and National Avenue, 
thence on National Avenue along the 
pike to National City, thence on Na- 
tional Avenue to Twelfth Street and on 
Twelfth Street, National City, to a junc- 
tion with the San Diego & Arizona Rail- 
road. The company recently acquired 
the Sutherland Stages operating be- 
tween National City and San Diego. 
-♦■ 

Brooklyn, N. Y. — Irving Lee Bloch, 
vice-president of the Long Island Title 
& Guarantee Company, suggests the 
building of a four-track subway under- 
neath the Atlantic Avenue route of the 
Long Island Railroad, the tearing down 
of the existing railroad tracks and the 
rebuilding of Atlantic Avenue into a 
motor parkway with direct egress from 
Jamaica, and the connection of such a 
Jamaica-Brooklyn subway system at the 
existing Flatbush Avenue terminal with 
the existing systems leading to other 
parts of Brooklyn and Manhattan. 

Kansas City, Mo. — Due to the Kansas 
City election and delay in the state 
valuation of the Kansas City Public 
Service Company, the street car fare 
issue before the Public Service Commis- 
sion is about to be continued into April. 
The company has a 10-cent fare schedule 
on file at JeiTerson City and the last six- 
month suspension ordered by the com- 
mission expires on Jan. 12. The Mis- 
souri statutes permit the commission to 
suspend a filed schedule twice before it 
must be denied or affirmed. Valuation 
will probably be completed in February. 

St. Louis, Mo. — The General Cab 
Company of Kansas City, and Los 
Angeles, Cal., on Jan. 4 will begin opera- 
tions in St. Louis with a fleet of 54 Ford 
taxicabs. The fare will be 10 cents for 
flag pull and 10 cents for each additional 
half-mile compared with a 25-cent flag 
pull and 10 cents for each two-fifths of 
a mile charged by other companies in 
the St. Louis field. The new taxicab 
company plans to increase its fleet to 
100 cars within a very few months. 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
57 



Receivers for Albany, Syracuse 

and Rochester Lines 



Federal Judge Frederick H. Bryant, 
at Malone, N. Y., on Dec. 28 appointed 
receivers for the United Traction Com- 
pany of Albany, Troy and Cohoes, and 
for the New York State Railways, serv- 
ing Rochester, Syracuse and Utica and 
owning lines running between Rochester 
and Little Falls. 

Harry Weatherwax and Neil F. 
Towner, both of Albany, were named 
receivers for the United Traction, while 
Benjamin E. Tilton of Utica, and Wal- 
lace Pierce of Plattsburgh were named 
receivers for the New York State 
Railways. 

The receivership was forced by an 
action of the General Finance Company, 
which alleged that United Traction 
owed about $195,000 on one note and 
$3,500,000 on another. The company 
also had some miscellaneous debts, it 
was stated, amounting to about $100,000. 
There was a mortgage of $420,000 due 
on Jan. 1 and some miscellaneous in- 
terest. The United Traction is said to 
have an accumulated deficit of about 
$10,000,000. Earnings for the last year 
were represented by counsel for the 
plaintiff as showing a deficit of more 
than $600,000. The allegation also as- 
serted that the company had defaulted 
interest amounting to $80,000 on Nov. 1. 

The Finance Company stated that the 



New York State Railways owed about 
$400,000 on open accounts and about 
$260,000 on labor claims and taxes. 

Robert C. Watson, president of the 
Rochester Trust & Safe Deposit Company 
and member of the protective committee 
formed by bondholders of the Rochester 
Railway, which was taken over by the New 
York State Railways, characterized the 
receivership as a "smart move by the man- 
agement of the railway lines to gain more 
time" and he said that the activities of the 
protective committee will be pressed with 
the greatest vigor. He said that he would 
make no attempt to interpret the legal 
phases of the receivership, but he viewed 
it as another means of "intimidating the 
bondholders to accept an unreasonable and 
unfair offer of conversion of their securi- 
ties into those of the Association Gas & 
Electric Company." He is said to have 
charged that the attitude of the present 
management of the railways toward the 
bondholders shows that they are "wreckers, 
not builders." 

J. H. Pardee, chairman of the New York 
State Railways, has sent a letter to the 
bondholders of the Rochester Railway out- 
lining the status of the holders under the 
terms of the mortgages covering that prop- 
erty. The statement is technical and 
mostly of direct interest to the actual 



Conspectus of Indexes for December, 1929 

Compiled for Publication in Electric Rah-wat Journal by 

AI/BEBT S. BICHBT 

Electric Railway Engineer, "Worcester, Mass. 



Street Railway Fares* 

1913 = 4.84 



Electric Railway Materials* 

1913 =1 too 



Electric Railway Wages* 

1913 - 100 



Electric Ry. Construction Cost 

Am. Elec. Ry. Assn. 1913 - 100 



General Construction Cost 

Eng'g News-Record 1913 = 100 



Wholesale Commodities 

U. S. Bur. Labor Stat. 1926 = 100 



Wholesale Commodities 

Bradstreet 1913 =- 9.21 



Retail Food 

U. S. Bur. Labor Stat. 



1913 



100 



Cost of Living 

Nat. Ind. Conf. Board 



1914 - 100 



Industrial Activity 

Elec. World, kw.-hr. 1923-25=100 



Bank Clearings 

Outside N. Y. City 



1926 - 100 



Business Failures 

Nximber 

Liabilities, Millions of Dollars 



Latest 



Dec., 1929 
7.78 



Dec.. 1929 
144.9 



Dec., 1929 

231.1 



Montii 
Ago 



Nov., 1929 

7.78 



Nov.. 1929 
145.7 



Dec., 1929 
205.1 



Dec, 1929 
209.5 



Nov., 1929 
94.4 



Dec., 1929 
12.24 



Nov., 1929 
157.9 



Nov., 1929 

163.0 



Nov., 1929 
122.9 



Nov., 1929 
111.2 



Nov., 1929 
231.1 



Nov., 1929 
204.8 



Nov., 1929 
208.5 



Oct., 1929 

96.3 



Nov., 1929 
12.40 



Oct., 1929 
160.5 



Oct., 1929 
163.4 



Oct., 1929 
134.6 



Oct., 1929 
111.8 



rov., 1929 


Oct., 1929 


1336 


ISIl 


53.86 


29.51 



Year 

Ago 



Dec, 1928 
7.71 



Dec, 1928 
145.5 



Dec, 1928 
229.8 



Dec, 1928 
205.1 



Dec, 1928 
210.2 



Nov., 1928 
96.7 



Dec, 1928 
13.15 



Nov., 1928 
157.3 



Nov., 1928 
162.6 



Nov., 1928 

135.0 



Nov., 1928 
104.0 



Nov., 1928 

1568 

54.23 



Last Five Years 



High 



Nov., 1929 
7.78 



Dec, 1926 
159.2 



Low 



Nov., 1924 
7.24 



Nov., 1929 
231.1 



Nov., 1928 
205.7 



Jan., 1927 
211.5 



Nov., 1925 

104.5 



Dec, 1925 
14.41 



Nov., 1925 
167.1 



Nov., 1925 
171.8 



Feb., 1929 
140.4 



Oct., 1929 
111.8 



July, 1929 

1581 

102.09 



Feb., 1928 
139.5 



Dec, 1924 
220.8 



July, 1929 

199.0 



Nov., 1927 
202.0 



Apr., 1927 

93.7 



Dec, 1929 
12.24 



Apr., 1925 
150.8 



Apr.. 1929 
159.3 



Aug., 1925 
94.3 



Dec. 1924 
90.07 



Sept., 1928 

1348 

23.13 



♦The three index numbers marked with an asterisk 
are computed by Mr. Richey, as follows: Farea index 
is average street railway fare in all United States 
cities with a population of 50,000 or over except New 
York City, and weighted according to population. 
Street Railway Materials index is relative average 
price of materials (including fuel) used in street 



railway operation and maintenance, weighted accord- 
ing to average use of such materials. Wages index is 
relative average maximum hoiu-ly wage of motormen, 
conductors and operators on 136 of the largest street 
and interurban railways operated in the United 
States, weighted according to the number of such men 
employed on these roads. 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
58 



holders of the securities, but the following 
excerpt is of general interest : 

"The service-at-cost plan expires on July 
31 next. The plan provided that, if it were 
to be extended, notice of extension should 
be filed one year before the expiration date. 
No notice of extension was given and so 
far as we know there is no assurance on 
the part of the city of Rochester that it will 
extend the service-at-cost plan for any 
further period. If it is not extended and 
the Quimby decision upholding a S-cent 
fare is held binding, the situation will be 
serious. We have had a statement made 
up showing the 5-cent fare applied to the 
number of revenue passengers carried for 
the year ended October, 1929, to see what 
the income statement would be if that 
fare had been in effect throughout the 
twelve-month period, with these results : 

Operating expenses, maintenance, 

depreciation and taxes $3,920,817 

Operating revenue, other income.. 2,775,758 
Operating loss before provision 

for bond interest 1,145,059 

"The erroneous impression also seems 
to prevail that the Rochester Railway lines 
can be seized by the Rochester Railway 
first and second mortgage bondholders and 
operated independently of the New York 
State Railways. This cannot be done since 
substantial amounts of the equipment, as 
well as other property necessary for opera- 
tion in Rochester, is subject to the first 
lien of our consolidated mortgage." 

Under date of Dec. 21, 1929, H. C. 
Hopson, president of the Associated Gas & 
Electric Securities Company, which made 
an offer of exchange to bondholders, issued 
a statement in which he referred to the 
dangers of receivership. After reviewing 
briefly the history of the electric railway 
Mr. Hopson says that "most astute bank- 
ers and able students have for years wor- 
ried about its future and greatly doubted 
its ability to survive. It came to be true 
some time ago that no well-informed per- 
son willingly invested a dollar in street 
railway securities unless he got the best 
security available at the time, and then 
only on a basis which he thought would 
compensate him for the risk being taken." 
It seems that the Associated Gas & Elec- 
tric System did not want the transporta- 
tion system ; that in fact it "unavoidably 
became the largest security holders of the 
traction system." Mr. Hopson says : 

"As a result of acquisitions of electric 
and gas properties a few months ago, our 
interests also unavoidably became the larg- 
est security holder of the traction system 
in which you are a bondholder. We did 
not value our interest at much, if any- 
thing, but on the other hand our pre- 
decessors with less experience in the in- 
dustry than ourselves had hope for it. 
Their advisors and the operators in charge 
of the properties were still optimistic that 
something might come about or be done 
to change the course of events. * * * 
It is obvious that those who have purchased 
securities of an interprise which is pri- 
marily engaged in the light and power 
business cannot be expected to be willing 
to have their money invested in another 
industry about which most investors feel 
decidedly pessimistic." 

Later the offer of exchange for Albany 
Railway S's was made 90 per cent of the 
face value instead of 40 per cent. Cir- 
culars to Albany Railway holders ex- 
plained the change by saying that since 
the offer of 40 was made, "we have 
made a more extensive investigation of the 
operations of the company and of the value 
of the real estate subject to the lien of the 
mortgage securing the bonds which you 
hold." The new offer is made retroactive. 



Another Hearing on Rochester- 
Buffalo Service 

Opposition on the part of the Interna- 
tional Railway and the Buffalo Transit 
Company, Buffalo, to the application of 
the Rochester, Niagara Falls & Buffalo 
Coach Lines, Inc., for a certificate to 
operate buses between Rochester and 
Buffalo has prompted the Public Service 
Commission to adjourn the hearing 
again until Jan. 20. 

Much of the testimony taken by Com- 
missioner Pooley at the first adjourned 
hearing held in Buffalo centered about 
losses that the International Railway 
would sustain should it be deprived of 
the interchange of traffic with the 
Rochester, Lockport & Buffalo trolley 
line at Lockport. The Buffalo Transit 
Company, which now operates buses be- 
tween Lockport and Buffalo, wants the 
Rochester, Niagara Falls & Buffalo 
Coach Lines, Inc., restricted from carry- 
ing local passengers in territory now 
covered by its bus system. 

The capitalization of the proposed new 
bus line is $100,000. Authority is asked 
by the Rochester, Lockport & Buffalo 
Railway for permission to acquire the 
entire capital stock. 



Substitution in Fishkill 

The Public Service Commission has 
granted a petition by the Fishkill Elec- 
tric Railway to substitute buses for 
trolley cars on part of its system in 
Beacon, N. Y., the city consenting to 
the substitution. Operation of trolley 
cars between Beacon and Fishkill will 
be continued. It is the intention of the 
company to supplement the bus opera- 
tion by trolley cars when necessary, 
especially in the summer season. The 
company plans to put five buses in 
operation. The substitution, it is stated, 
will make for freer movements in the 
streets and a seven-minute headway, in 
place of the present ten-minute head- 
way will be placed in operation. There 
will be no change in the existing fares, 
nor lessening of the number of 
scheduled trips. 



Electric Railways Eliminated from 
Grade Crossing Removal Costs 

The special commission created by 
the Legislature of Massachusetts to in- 
vestigate the abolition of grade cross- 
ings has filed its final report with the 
General Court. The report recommends 
the establishment of an entirely new 
method for the abolition of such cross- 
ings. In brief, the special commission 
would give entire control of the work to 
the State through the Public Utilities 
Commission. A second innovation would 
be in the apportionment of the cost, 
which a majority believes should be so 
distributed that the state would pay 35 
to 40 per cent, the railroad SO per cent, 
the city and town not less than S per 
cent or more than 10 per cent, while the 
county may be assessed from nothing to 
a maximum of 10 per cent. 

The report recommends the elimina- 
tion of the electric railways from the 
cost assessments. It says: 

"Because of the financial condition of 
the electric railways of the state, their 
decreasing revenues from rail service 
and the rapid trend toward bus service, 
these corporations have been eliminated 
from sharing in the costs, except under 



the voluntary agreement section. The 
electric railways will, however, pay for 
any changes in rails, poles or wires made 
necessary through change of grade or 
location due to the abolition of a grade 

crossing." 

♦ 

Rehearing Asked in Los 
Angeles Case 

The City of Los Angeles and the Cali- 
fornia Railroad Commission on Dec. 23 ap- 
pealed to the United States Supreme Court 
for a rehearing of the case in which the 
high court upheld a fare increase from 
S to 7 cents. 

Early in December the Supreme Court 
handed down a decision granting the Los 
Angeles Railway the fare increase. A 
federal order previously had put the 7-cent 
fare into effect pending settlement of the 
suit. In petitioning for a rehearing of the 
case, the joint petition filed with the high 
court alleges the court erred in its decision 
on three grounds : 

1. In holding that the city did not have 
power to prescribe franchise rates. 

2. In not holding that the franchise rates 
would be binding to the railway if the 
California law was silent on the subject. 

3. In holding that the California Railroad 
Commission had assumed jurisdiction over 
fares in 1921 and 1928. 

The petitioners asserted that the court's 
decision "is constantly unsound and at 
direct variance with many decisions of it 
and other courts referred to in the brief of 
appellant." 

The "Home Telephone case," relied 
upon in the court's majority opinion, is 
not applicable to the fare case, the peti- 
tioners contend. In that case it was held 
that the city did not have continuing power 
to regulate phone rates by prescribing 
rates in a charter, it was stated. The Los 
Angeles Railway filed its objection to a 
rehearing a few hours after the city-state 
petition was lodged with the court. 

Justices Brandeis, Holmes and Stone 
dissented when the high court handed 
down its six-to-three opinion on Dec. 2. 
Justice Butler delivered the majority 
opinion. Both sides in the case are said 
to have admitted a S-cent fare was not 
compensatory. The minority dissenting 
opinion stated that the high court exceeded 
its powers in interpreting the law of Cali- 
fornia as to whether the city had the right 
to contract for a fixed S-cent fare. 



run the trolley buses the company must 
satisfy the city and the commission that 
this new type of transportation will be 
adequate, efficient and economical. 
Since the north side lines are in re- 
ceivership, Federal Judge Wilkerson is 
in a position to prevent the lines from 
spending more money should the se- 
curity holders take action. 



Feeder Bus Controversy 
Settlement Ahead in Chicago 

The controversy over the operation 
of feeder buses by the Surface Lines in 
Chicago's outlying districts, especially 
on the northwest side, may come to an 
end on Jan. 7 after two years of dispute. 
On that day a committee of Chicago 
Aldermen will appear before the Illinois 
Commerce Commission with a petition 
for more than 90 miles of routes. All 
indications are that their plea will be 
treated favorably. This would provide 
residents of the northwest side with a 
7-cent feeder bus fare, with railway 
transfer privileges, as against the Chi- 
cago Motor Coach company's 10-cent 
fare without transfers. 

After everything seemed well on the 
way to settlement, it became known on 
Dec. 30 that the Surface Lines plan to 
go before the commission on Jan. 14 
with a request for authority to operate 
trolley buses on Diversey Avenue and 
motor buses on Belmont Avenue. 
Whether or not other service is con- 
templated is not known. In order to 



Morgan Report Awaited 
at Detroit 

A report showing that the Detroit 
Municipal Railway is being operated at 
a loss, despite the monthly financial 
statements indicating a profit, has been 
prepared by John H. Morgan, auditor, 
says the Free Press. 

As Mr. Morgan explained the matter, 
he had made a report on questions 
raised by Senator Couzens and trans- 
mitted to him by Frank Couzens, mem- 
ber of the Street Railway Commission. 
He also said that he had completed a re- 
port on railway department insurance, 
and was working out a plan for figuring 
the depreciation on the equipment of 
the system. 

As Mayor of Detroit in 1921 Senator 
James Couzens brought about the con- 
solidation of all lines under city man- 
agement. Since then he has shown a 
keen interest in the manner in which 
the system operated. The appointment 
of his son, Frank, to the Detroit Street 
Railway Commission, followed closely the 
primary election in October and the 
resignation of G. Ogden Ellis, who had 
served for many years as chairman. 

Mr. Morgan stated in a meeting a few 
weeks ago that not one bus line was 
earning money. It is expected that the 
Morgan report will become an active 
issue just as soon as Mayor-Elect 
Charles Bowles takes office on Jan. 14. 



New Edition of Engineering 
Manual Ready Soon 

The 1929 edition of the Engineering 
Manual, which is the electric railway 
man's handbook of standards, recom- 
mended specifications, designs, methods, 
etc., and miscellaneous methods and 
practices that have been approved by 
the American Electric Railway Engi- 
neering Association, is in preparation. 

It is very desirable that all users of 
the Engineering Manual obtain the 1929 
issue, so that errors will not be made in 
using specifications that have been re- 
vised, withdrawn or superseded. Even 
when accompanied by the 1927 and 1928 
supplements the 1926 edition cannot be 
brought up-to-date, since the revised and 
added material approved during 1929 
would not be included. All new material 
from the past year in the new edition 
of the Manual has been printed there 
without first appearing in any supple- 
ments. 

Several months ago association head- 
quarters distributed an order blank to 
every operating member company. In 
addition, every holder of the 1926 edition 
will receive a separate letter, calling at- 
tention to the new edition. Others who 
desire the Manual may address their re- 
quests to association headquarters. 

No price on the new edition has been 
definitely set, but it is probable that the 
cost will not change from that for the 
1926 edition, i.e., $7.S0 per copy to mem- 
bers and $10 to non-members. 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
59 



PERSONAL MENTION 




B^ £♦ Tilton President of 

New York State Railways 

Succeeds James F. Hamilton as Chief Executive at 
Rochester. E. K. Miles Manager in Syracuse. Many 
Other Changes on Central New York Systems 



IMPORTANT changes in the executive 
personnel of the New York State Rail- 
ways, made necessary by the resignation 
of James F. Hamilton as president, have 
been announced. Mr. Hamilton leaves the 
electric railway industry to become head 
of a large aircraft combine, the Aviation 
Corporation of America. 

Benjamin E. Tilton, Syracuse, first vice- 
president, succeeds Mr. Hamilton as 
president. 

H. B. Weatherwax, for many years vice- 
president of the United Traction Company, |, 
operating in the Capitol district, becomes 
president of the United Traction Company 
and the Schenectady Railway, posts for- 
merly held by Mr. Hamilton. 

Ernest Murphy, general manager of the 
United Company, will continue in that ca- 
pacity, taking in addition the position of 
general manager of the Schenectady 
company. 

Roy R. Hadsell, in charge of operations 
of the Schenectady company, becomes man- 
ager of that system and Ernest K. Miles, 
superintendent of transportation at Syra- 
cuse, will be appointed general manager 
of the Syracuse lines. 

John F. Uffert, general superintendent 
of transportation and equipment of the 
Rochester lines, becomes general manager 
of the system in that city. 

J. N. Jones, superintendent of transpor- 
tation at Utica, is promoted to be general 
manager there. Howard L. Reichart, 
secretary-treasurer, and Joseph M. Joel, 
general auditor of the group, remain in 
the same positions. 

Headquarters of the New York State 
Railways will remain in Rochester. 

Besides being president of the New York 
State Railways, Mr. Hamilton was presi- 
dent and a director of eighteen subsidiary 
bus and railway companies, all controlled by 
the Associated Gas & Electric Company, 
with headquarters in New York. 

William F. Stanton, assistant to Mr. 
Hamilton, will go with his chief to the 
new post. 

Mr. Hamilton, now in his S2d year, 
began his career in the electric railway 
field as a motorman on the Internationjil 
Railway lines in Buffalo. He went to 
Rochester in 1917. Previously he was as- 
sistant superintendent of the Schenectady 
Railway, rising to the presidency in 1909. 
In 1911 he became general superintendent 
of the United Traction Company of Albany 
and in the following year general manager 
of both the United and Schenectady lines. 
He went to the New York State Railways 
as general manager. In 1918 he was made 
vice-president and assumed the presidency 
a few months later. 

During his regime, the service-at-cost 
contract was negotiated between the city 
of Rochester and the railways. This grant 
has been in effect for the past ten years. 

It was said of Mr. Tilton as far back as 
1922 that no task is ever likely to master 



B. E. Tilton 



him that can be accomplished by the ap- 
plication of a combination of tact, tenacity 
and technology. Mr. Tilton brought all 
three of these adjuncts to bear on his first 
job down in Porto Rico with the govern- 
ment service making geodetic and coast 
surveys and he has been using the com- 
bination with success ever since. And with 
every new application of them by Mr. Til- 
ton has come added ease in their use and 
greater success to their possessor through 
their application. 

The government work in Porto Rico 
was Mr. Tilton's first job after he was 
graduated from Cornell in 1897. He was 
in Porto Rico for three years. And then 
came to Mr. Tilton the call of private 
enterprise. It was a loud call, and he 
heeded it to become engineer of construc- 
tion of the Pennsylvania Lines West and 
was located at Fort Wayne and Cleveland 
for six years. At Cleveland Mr. Tilton's 
fine work attracted the attention of the 
management of the Cleveland Railway and 
he was induced to join the select circle of 
very able men who administer that prop- 




J. F. Hamilton 



erty. His title there was engineer of main- 
tenance of way. Then and there Mr. Til- 
ton was won over to the electric railways. 
His next connection was with the Roch- 
ester Railway & Light Company as engi- 
neer of maintenance of way of city and 
suburban lines. The Rochester lines are 
tied in vvith the New York State Railways 
and so it was in reality only a step for 
Mr. Tilton in his upward climb to go from 
the post in Rochester to the position of 
general manager of the Syracuse Rapid 
Transit Company, Utica & Mohawk Val- 
ley Railway and the Oneida Railway. His 
election as vice-president followed quite 
logically. In this dual post at Syracuse 
Mr. Tilton had jurisdiction over the Oneida 
and the Utica lines. He is steeped in a 
knowledge of the history and affairs of 
the New York State Railways and his 
selection for the post of president followed 
just as logically as did his other promo- 
tions with the company. 



F. J. Tew in Another Foreign Post 

F. J. Tew has resigned as superintendent 
of shops and equipment of the Sacramento 
Northern Railway, Sacramento, Cal., to 
accept a position with Emprezas Elec- 
tricas Brasileiras, S. A., at Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil, South America. 

Mr. Tew received his early training in 
electric railway work with the Twin City 
Rapid Transit Company, being employed 
in the Snelling Avenue shops from 1904 
to 1912 inclusive in various capacities in 
the different departments. 

In November, 1912, he accepted the posi- 
tion of superintendent of shops and car- 
houses with the Manila Electric Railroad 
& Light Company at Manila, P. I., where 
he remained until 1920. at which time he re- 
turned to the United States. 

Upon his arrival in California from 
Manila, Mr. Tew accepted the position of 
superintendent of shops with the Sacra- 
mento Northern Railway. At both Manila 
and Sacramento he was in entire charge 
of all mechanical and electrical shop work 
in connection with the maintenance of roll- 
ing stock, including city, suburban, inter- 
urban passenger and freight cars and 
heavy electric locomotives. 



C. J. Quill With North 

Coast Company 

C. J. Quill has succeeded H. R. Leigh as 
superintendent of the North Coast Trans- 
portation Company, Seattle, Wash. Mr. 
Quill's transportation experience dates back 
to June, 1912, when he entered the employ 
of the Tacoma Railway & Power Com- 
pany. He continued with this company 
until he enlisted for military service in 
1917. Returning from military duty he 
re-entered the service of the Tacoma Rail- 
way & Power Company, which he served 
in several positions. In February, 1927, he 
was made general passenger agent for the 
North Coast Lines. On June 1, 1927, he 
was appointed assistant superintendent of 
the North Coast Lines, in which capacity 
he has since continued. 



G. S. Wills, former general manager 
of the Wheeling Traction Company. 
Wheeling, W. Va., and former general 
superintendent of the Steubenville, East 
Liverpool & Beaver Valley Traction 
Company, is now associated with the 
Pharo Engineering Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
60 



W. T. Rossell Vice-President of 
New Brooklyn System 

W. T. Rossell, who has been general 
manager of the Pittsburgh Railways, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has resigned to become vice- 
president of the Brooklyn & Queens 
Transit Corporation, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
which includes more than 500 miles of 
surface railway making up the Brooklyn 
City Railroad and the surface lines of the 
Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation. 

Mr. Rossell has served as general man- 
ager at Pittsburgh since September, 1926. 
He succeeded F. R. Phillips in that post. 
He had previously been superintendent of 
way of the Pittsburgh Railways and gen- 
eral superintendent in charge of mainte- 
nance. He is another official schooled in 
engineering who has demonstrated his 
managerial ability. 

The new Brooklyn vice-president was 
born in Memphis, Tenn., and was educated 
at Staten Island Academy, Staten Island, 
N. Y., from which he was graduated in 
1904. Later he entered the United States 
Military Academy at West Point. In 




W. T. Rossell 

August, 1908, he became assistant engineer 
of track and structures for the Cincinnati 
Traction Company and the following year 
was connected with the York Manufactur- 
ing Company, York, Pa. In October, 
1909, he returned to the Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Company where he remained until 1916 
when he became superintendent of track 
and structures for the Cincinnati, New- 
port & Covington Railway, operating out 
of Covington, Ky. Following his dis- 
charge from the army in June, 1919, as a 
captain of engineers, Mr. Rossell returned 
to the Cincinnati, Newport & Covington 
Railway as superintendent of way and 
structures, in which capacity he continued 
until his appointment as superintendent of 
way of the Pittsburgh Railways in July, 
1924. 

Thomas Fitzgerald, who has been vice- 
president of the Pittsburgh Railways, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., takes over in addition the title 
of general manager. 

Billy Mathewson Retires After 
Forty Years 

Billy Mathewson of the United Electric 
Railway, Providence, R. I., has retired on 
pension. Mr. Mathewson entered the em- 
ploy of the old Union Railroad in May, 
1884, as a horse car driver, reporting at the 
Olneyville carhouse. After about five 
years service as a driver, he became as- 
sistant to Ellis R. Swan, superintendent 
at Olneyville at that time. Mr. Mathewson 
continued in this position until 1902, at 
which time he became superintendent of the 



Olneyville carhouse under the late Robert 
I. Todd, then general manager. He was 
superintendent of this carhouse for about 
fifteen years, going to the Riverside divi- 
sion in 1917. From Riverside Mr. Mathew- 
son took charge of the newly established 
East Providence Division on March 30, 
1924. 

Mr. Mathewson continued there until 
November, 1926, when he took charge of 
the Mount Pleasant division upon the re- 
tirement of B. D. Sweet. He remained in 
the Mount Pleasant division until he retired 
on pension. 



L. E. Thorne With Gulf 
States Utilities 

Lawrence E. Thorne, general super- 
intendent of the Northern Texas Trac- 
tion Company, will take charge of the 
Port Arthur division of the Gulf States 
Utilities Company, Fort Worth, Tex., a 
Stone & Webster subsidiary. Mr. 
Thorne studied electrical engineering at 
Texas Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege. He entered the employ of the 
Northern Texas Traction Company in 
1911 as chain man in a survey gang. He 
received rapid promotion and with the 
transfer in 192S of General Superintend- 
ent V. W. Berry to the Virginia Power 
& Light Company, Mr. Thorne was 
made general superintendent of the local 
company. 



Messrs. Davis, Savage and 
Sherman With Car Company 

C. E. Morgan, president, has announced 
a number of changes in the personnel of 
the Cincinnati Car Company, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Lewis J. Davis has been made 
assistant to the president; Hugh Savage, 
superintendent of production, and Hugh 
K. Sherman, purchasing agent. The ap- 
pointments as announced in an official bul- 
letin are as follows : 

L. J. Davis, assistant to the president, 
in charge of engineering and production, 
vice J. H. Elliott resigned. 

Hugh Savage, superintendent of produc- 
tion, reporting to Mr. Davis. 

C. J. Ellis, chief engineer, reporting to 
Mr. Davis. 

H. K. Sherman, purchasing agent, in 
charge of the purchase of materials and 
supplies, as well as the handling and dis- 
posmg of scrap and other materials. Mr. 
Sherman will also have charge of the 
general storeroom. 

F. A. Latscha, assistant purchasing agent, 
reporting to Mr. Sherman. 

C. F. Schnittger, general storekeeper, 
reporting to Mr. Sherman. 

R. MacDonald, in charge of the service 
department. 

A. L. Kasemeier continuing as vice- 
president, in charge of sales department. 

Mr. Davis was assistant to Mr. Morgan 
as general manager of the Brooklyn City 
Railroad and, with the merging of the 
Brooklyn City lines with the Brooklyn- 
Manhattan Transit Corporation, became 
car engineer under William G. Gove. 

Mr. Savage was formerly superintendent 
of equipment of the Brooklyn City Rail- 
road, and before going to Brooklyn was 
superintendent of shops of the Detroit 
United Railway. 

Mr. Sherman was purchasing agent of 
the Brooklyn City Railroad from Nov. 1, 
1925, to July 1, 1929. Previous to that 
he was purchasing agent of the Michigan 
Electric Railway and the Michigan Rail- 
road. 



W. H. Gihson Purchasing Agent 
in Brooklyn 

William H. Gibson has been appointed 
purchasing agent of the Brooklyn-Manhat- 
tan Transit system, to succeed the late 
Lincoln Van Cott. Mr. Gibson became 
connected with the Brooklyn companies in 
October, 1903, and advanced through the 
ranks in the purchasing department to his 
present position. 

Mr. Gibson was born in Belleville, N. J., 
49 years ago and after completing courses 
at the Belleville schools and a Newark 
business school he entered the employ of 
the Sprague Electric Company as a stock 
clerk. During his employment with the 
Sprague Company, Mr. Gibson advanced 
to the position of storekeeper and then 
accepted a similar position on the Man- 
hattan Elevated _ Railway in New York 
City. He remained with the Manhattan 
"L" system for two years and then joined 
the staflf of a hardware firm located in 
Manhattan. 

In October, 1903, Mr. Van Cott selected 
Mr. Gibson to take charge of the store 




W. H. Gibson 

room at East New York for the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company, predecessor to the 
present company. This was shortly after 
the consolidation of the Kings County 
"L" lines and the Brooklyn Union "L" 
lines as part of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
system. The work of converting the old 
"L" cars for electrical operation was then 
in progress at East New York and Mr. 
Gibson remained in charge of the store- 
room there until the completion of that 
work. 

He then spent a year on the staff of the 
late John F. Calderwood, general manager 
of the B. R. T. system at that time. Later 
he was appointed assistant general store- 
keeper for the B. R. T. system, under 
C. S. Waters, storekeeper. In 1906, when 
Mr. Waters took charge of the storerooms 
of the New York Municipal Railway Cor- 
poration following the signing of the dual 
subway contracts with the city of New 
York, Mr. Gibson was made general store- 
keeper. He was finally advanced to the 
position of assistant purchasing agent and 
general storekeeper in 1920 and continued 
as Mr. Van Cott's assistant until the latter's 
death. 



R. A. Pritchard, assistant superin- 
tendent of the railway at Little Rock, 
Ark., has been decorated with a pin de- 
noting 25 years of service with the rail- 
way department of the Arkansas Power 
& Light Company. Mr. Pritchard entered 
the service of the railway in 1904 as con- 
ductor. Prior to that, at the age of 
nineteen, he went to work at a carhouse 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
61 



in Knoxville, Tenn. At the time of the 
Spanish-American War he volunteered 
for service with Company F, First Ala- 
bama Infantry. He served under Gen. 
Fitzhugh Lee, of the 27th Corps, and 
helped clear the site for Miami, Fla., 
while the troops were there. After the 
close of the Spanish-American War he 
went to Little Rock as a conductor. In 
1911 he was appointed supervisor and in 
1923 was made assistant superintendent 
of the railway department. 



New Assistant to President 
at Richmond 

I. Reid Carlisle has been appointed as- 
sistant to the president of the Virginia 
Electric & Power Company with head- 
quarters in Richmond, Va., succeeding 
R. C. Hopkins, who was recently trans- 
ferred to the Boston office of Stone & 
Webster. Mr. Reid assumed his duties 
on Dec. 9. He came to Virginia from 
Beaumont, Tex., where he was assistant 
to J. F. McLaughlin, formerly district 




I. R. Carlisle 

manager in that territory, and recently 
promoted to be vice-president of the 
Stone & Webster organization, with of- 
fices in Boston. 



Herman Russell Succeeds the 
Late Robert M. Searle 

Herman Russell, for seven years 
executive vice-president of the Rochester 
Gas & Electric Corporation, Rochester, 
N. Y., has been named president of the 
company to succeed the late Robert M. 
Searle. 

Mr. Russell, a native of Michigan, has 
been connected with the gas and elec- 
tric corporation and its predecessor, the 
Rochester Railway & Light Company, 
for 23 years. 

A graduate of the University of Michi- 
gan, he entered the public utility field 
with the Detroit Gas Company in 1900. 
Two years later he was made assistant 
superintendent of that company. 

In 1903 he became superintendent of 
the gas manufacturing plant of the San 
Francisco Gas Company and a year 
later went to Cincinnati to take the post 
of assistant superintendent of the Cin- 
cinnati Gas & Electric Company. 

For eight years, from 1906 to 1914, 
Mr. Russell served as assistant superin- 
tendent in Rochester, being elevated to 
the superintendency of the gas division 
in the latter year. He was appointed 
general manager in 1919 and was elected 
vice-president and director in 1922. 




J. A. Davis 



J. A. Davis Assistant at Norfolk 

John A. Davis, Jr., who came to the 
Virginia Electric & Power Company in 
the capacity of a student engineer two 
years ago, has been promoted to be as- 
sistant to F. Carter Womack, manager 
of transportation in Norfolk, Va., in 
which territory service by electric rail- 
way and bus is co-ordinated. Mr. Davis 
left Richmond on Dec. 9 to as- 
sume his new duties. He is a native of 
R.ichmond and a graduate of the Vir- 
ginia Polytechnic Institute. He joined 
the Stone & Webster forces in 1927. 
Mr. Davis formerly held the post of act- 
ing assistant to the president of the 
company, taking over the work of R. C. 
Hopkins, who was recently transferred 
to Boston and who on Dec. 9 was suc- 
ceeded by I. Reid Carlisle. 



S. L. Williams Promoted by 
Westinghouse Air Brake 

S. L. Williams has been appointed 
district engineer for the Eastern district 
of the Westinghouse Air Brake Com- 
pany at New York. Mr. Williams was 
graduated from the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology as a mechanical en- 
gineer in 1923, and immediately entered 
the employ of the Westinghouse Air 
Brake Company as special apprentice in 
the Wilmerding works. After serving 
for several months as inspector in Bos- 
ton and New York, he was made assist- 
ant to the district engineer at the latter 
place in 1925. In 1928 he was trans- 
ferred to the West Coast and promoted 
to be assistant district engineer of the 
Pacific District at San Francisco. This 
position he held until his recnt pro- 
motion. 




OBITUARY 



W. W. Briggs 

Wallace W. Briggs, since 1925 vice- 
president in charge of operation for the 
Grays Harbor Railway & Light Company, 
Aberdeen, Wash., and also general man- 
ager and purchasing agent, died in that 
city on Dec. 9. His death was preceded 
by an immediate illness of only two days. 

Mr. Briggs was well known in the West. 
For a number of years he was San Fran- 
cisco district manager for the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company 
and later became general manager of the 
Great Western Power Company of Cali- 
fornia. In 1918 he joined the Westmg- 
house organization in New York and 
subsequently became affiliated with the 
Federal Light & Traction Company, which 
controls the Grays Harbor company. 
About the middle of 1925 he was sent 
from New York to become the operating 
head of the Grays Harbor property. 

A genial, kindly man, he was "Wally" 
to all who knew him. An annual custom 




S. L. Williams 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
62 



W. W. Briggs 

of his was to give a "Kids' Party" in the 
Electric Park power station grounds on 
his birthday to all the children of the 
community. 

Mr. Briggs had become a very important 
figure in his community in the last four 
years, taking an active interest in civic 
affairs. 

Hugh A. Siggins, whose father, the 
late David Siggins, in 1892 incorporated 
the Warren Street Railway and the War- 
ren & Jamestown Street Railway, War- 
ren, Pa., died on Dec. 24 after a brief 
illness. With the retirement of his 
father from active management of the 
transportation lines, Mr. Siggins headed 
the two companies until they were sold 
to the Associated Gas & Electric Com- 
pany several years ago. He was 52 
years of age. 

Ormel W. Pierce, founder and presi- 
dent of the Railroad Trolley Guard 
Company, Olean, N. Y., died at his home 
in that city on Dec. 28, following a 
short illness. He was also head of the 
Olean Tile Manufacturing Company 
and was an officer of a number of other 
local industrial concerns. He was 63 
years old. 

Mrs. Carrie Alexander Bahrenburg, 

widow of Henry Alexander, founder of 
the local railway at Belleville, 111., and 
its operator for several years after her 
husband's death, died in Belleville, on 
Nov. 24. She was 68 years old. 



Industry Market and Trade News 



Big Merger in Car Building Field 

Plans involving an important expansion 
in the manufacturing activities of the Pull- 
man company, through the acquisition by 
purchase of the Standard Steel Car Com- 
pany and the Osgood Bradley Car Com- 
pany have been announced, the entire trans- 
action calling for an exchange of stock 
and cash to the amount of $50,000,000. 
Action on the merger will probably be 
confirmed at a meeting of the stockholders 
of Pullman, Inc., to be held in Wilmington, 
Del., on Jan. 28. 

Standard Steel Car and Osgood Bradley 
Car own and operate plants manufacturing 
railway passenger and freight cars, street 
railway cars, steel forgings, gray iron cast- 
ings, etc.. at the following locations : 
Butler, Pa. ; Hammond, Ind. ; Baltimore ; 
St. Paul ; Richmond ; Worcester ; Saga- 
more, Mass. ; Elwood City, Pa. ; La 
Rochelle, France ; and Rio de Janeiro. 
Besides these properties, Pullman, Inc., is 
acquiring sales offices in New York, Chi- 
cago, Pittsburgh, St. Paul, Baltimore, 
Richmond, London, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, 
Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires and Cape Town. 
The Middletown Car Company owns and 
operates a car assembling plant at Rio de 
Janeiro, while Entreprises Industrielles 
Charentaises owns and operates a freight 
and passenger car plant at La Rochelle, 
France, equipped to handle a general ex- 
port business. 

Lands and Buildings Included 

In addition to the manufacturing plants 
and sales offices, Pullman, Inc., is acquir- 
ing certain lands, housing properties, owned 
by Standard Steel Car or subsidiaries. The 
inventories, receivables, etc., connected 
with the manufacturing plants are to be 
acquired for cash or equivalent in se- 
curities. 

The properties being acquired will be 
operated by a newly incorporated subsid- 
iary of Pullman, Inc., to be wholly owned 
by that company but to be operated sepa- 
rately from the Pullman's present manu- 
facturing subsidiary, the Pullman Car & 
Manufacturing Corporation. 

Entrance of the Mellon interests into 
Pullman's affairs is indicated by the elec- 
tion of R. K. Mellon as a director. 
Pittsburgh interests, including the Mellons, 
were largely interested in Standard Steel 
Car. 



Freight Terminal Planned for 
South Bend, Ind. 

The Chicago, South Shore & South Bend 
Railroad has acquired an lli-acre tract in 
South Bend, Ind., as a site for a new 
freight terminal. The property was pur- 
chased in the name of the Indiana Indus- 
trial Land Company, and is adjacent to the 
tracks of the New York Central Railroad. 

This is a further step in the improve- 
ment program begun four years ago when 
the present management took over the rail- 
road. Rapid (growth of carload and less- 
than-carload freight business in that period 
is the foundation for this new expansion. 

The acquisition and development of this 
property according to plans of the line will 
enable the South Shore Line to offer ship- 
pers prompter and more convenient service, 
will eliminate the movement of freight over 
South Bend streets and will open up highly 
desirable sites for industries. 



The South Shore Line will develop the 
site as a freight terminal and industrial site 
with inbound and outbound freight tracks 
and houses. Detailed plans for the instal- 
lation of trackage and the reconditioning 
and construction of buildings on the prop- 
erty are being drawn up. 

When the new terminal is completed, the 



South Shore Line will abandon its present 
freight terminal on La Salle Street east 
of Sycamore Street, and will discontinue 
the present method of handling less-than- 
carload freight in tractor-trailers over 
South Bend streets from the old freight 
house now located at Orange and Olive 
Streets. 



Recent Rolling Stock Orders and 

Deliveries Include Thirty Units 



CANADIAN as well as United States 
properties figured in a number of car 
orders and deliveries which were announced 
during the closing weeks of the year. The 
Ottawa Car & Manufacturing Company has 
received an order from the Hydro-Electric 
Power Commission of Ontario for four 
motor cars and one trail car for interurban 
service, delivery of which is to be made 
early in the new year. The motor cars 



will be of the four-motor, double-truck, 
double-end, one-man type, with seats for 
50 passengers. Over-all length of the cars 
for Canadian service is to be 51 ft. 2 in.; 
over-all width, 8 ft. 4 in., and total weight 
of bodies, trucks and equipment is ex- 
pected to approximate 58,000 lb. 
The trail car is of the same general dimen- 
sions, with an estimated weight of 44,500 
lb. Both motor and trail cars will be of 



Details of Recent Rolling Stock Orders 



Name of railway. . . . 

City and State 

Number of units . . . . 
Builder of car body,, 



Air brakes 

Armature bearings. 

Axles 

Car signal system . . 

Compressors 

Conduit 

Control 

Couplers 

Curtain fixtures. . . . 



Curtain material, . 
Destination signs. 
Door mechanism. . 



Doors 

Fare boxes 

Finish (paint, enamel, lacquer) 

Floor covering 

Gears and pinions 

Glass 

Hand brakes 

Hand straps 

Heat insulating material 

Heaters 



Hydro Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario 

Windsor, Ont 

4 

Ottawa Car Mfg, Com- 
pany 

Westinghouse 

Plain 

A.E.R.E.A 

Faraday 

Westinghouse DH- 16.... 

Metal 

Westinghouse K-35 

Tomlinson 

National Lock Washer 
Company 

Pantasote 

Hunter 

National Pneumatic 

Folding 



British Columbia Elec- 
tric Ry 

Vancouver, B. C 

15 

Canadian Car & 
Foundry Company, , , 

Westinghouse 

Plain 

A,E,R,E,A. "E-4" 

Faraday 

Westinghouse DH-25. . 

Metal 

Westinghouse K-35. . . . 

Car builders 

Curtain Supply Com- 
pany 

Pantasote 

Hunter 

National Pneumatic. .. 



Youngstown Munici- 
pal Railway 

Youngstown, Oh 

13 

Kuhlman Car Com- 
pany, 

Westinghouse; pedal. 

Roller, 

Brill special. 

Bus type, with cord. 

General Electric 

Diu*atube flexible 

Westinghouse pedal. 

BriU. 



Paint, 



A-Jn. plate.. 
Peacock, , , . 



i in. cork composition. 
General Electric 



Folding,,.. 
Cleveland, 
Enamel, ,.. 

Maple 

Tool steel , , 

Plate 

Peacock. , . 



None, 
None. 
Hunter. 
Interlocked ; 
valve. 
Folding. 
Cleveland. 
Duco. 
Flexolith 
W-N drive. 
Plate. 



selective 



General Electric, 



Stanchions. 



Headlights. . . 
Headlining . , . 
Interior trim. 



Journal bearings. 
Journal boxes. . , , 
Lamp fixtures, ,., 



Motors 

Painting scheme. 

Registers 

Roof type 

Roof material,., . 



Grouse Hinds 

Agasote 

Birch, cherry stained, , 

Plain 

Dome 

Four Westinghouse,., , 



Golden Glow. , 

Agasote 

Birch 



None 

Arch 

BasBwood, canvas 
covered 



♦Plain 

Car builders 

Electric Service 

plies Company . 
Four Westinghouse No. 

510 A 

Red; cream trim 



Sup- 



Arch 

Steel and wood; 
vas covered. . , . 



Safety car devices 

Sash fixtures 

Seats Hey wood -Wakefield,., . 

Seat spacing 33 in 

Seating material Plush 

Slack adjusters Westinghouse 

Steps Folding 

Step treads Universal 

TroUey Ohio Brass, No. 131 19. 

Trolley base Ohio Brass, . . ,^ 

Trolley wheels Ohio Brass, 5-in 

Trucks Baldwin 

Ventilators Nichols Lintern 

Wheels, type Rolled steel, 33 in 

Wheelguards or fenders Pilot 



O. M. Edwards 

Car builders 

30 in 

Leather 

American automatic. . 

Folding 

Irving 

Earll retrievers 

Ohio Brass 

Ohio Brass 5 in 

Car builders 

Nichols Lintern 

Rolled steel, 26 in 

Wheel guards 



Chromalun; thermo- 
stat control. 

Ohio Brass 

Haskelite. 

Haskelite and wood, 
walnut finish. 

Plain 

Standard, 

Ivanhoe. 

Four Westinghouse 35 

hp. 
Brown and cream. 
Ohmer. 
Arch, 
Wood; canvas c o vered 



O. M. Edwards. 

Brill 2 IOC. 

29i in. 

Brown Spanish leather. 

Stationary. 
Kass Safety. 
Ohio Brass. 

Ohio Brass 

Ohio Brass. 
Brill No. I77E-I-X. 
Brill standard. 
Rolled steel 22 in. 
H-B tray type life 
guard. 



♦One car with SKF bearings. 



Electric Railway Journal — January, 1930 
63 



semi-steel construction, with end doors and 
arch roof. 

The Canadian Car & Foundry Company, 
of Montreal, recently delivered to the Brit- 
ish Columbia Electric Railway fifteen one- 
man two-man, single-end, double-truck 
motor cars for city service in Vancouver, 
B. C. The cars, which are of the pay-as- 
you-pass type, with single treadle exit door 
at center and at rear end, are of all-steel 
construction, with the exception of some 
members, which are made of duralumin 
to save weight. Over-all length is 46 ft. 
2 in., and total weight is about 38,000 lb. 
Arch roof construction is employed. 

The Youngstown Municipal Railway has 
placed an order with the Kuhlman Car 
Company, Cleveland, for thirteen one-man, 
double-end, double-truck motor cars for 
city service in Youngstown, delivery of 
which is to be made Feb. 1. Steel, wood 
and aluminum are used in the body con- 
struction, and it is expected that the total 
weight will be held down to 28,000 lb. 
There will be end doors and arch roofs. 



Length over all is 40 ft. 6 in., with length 
over the body posts of 26 ft. 5 in. Bolster 
centers are 17 ft. 2 in., and truck wheel- 
base is 5 ft., 1 in. Brakes are of the 
Westinghouse foot pedal, variable load 
type, with automotive-type hand brake. 

Outside finish will be of Duco, with 
enamel used for interior finish and trim. 
Vestibule windows will be of non-shatter- 
able glass. Door mechanism is interlocked, 
with selective valve control. Cars will be 
driven by four 35-hp. Westinghouse mo- 
tors, with WN drive. 

The J. G. Brill Company announces that 
it has received an order from the Dela- 
ware Electric Power <Zompany, Wilming- 
ton, for twelve more cars similar in type 
to the two previous orders of ten cars each, 
which were delivered late in 1928 and dur- 
ing the summer of 1929. The cars were 
described in detail in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of Dec. IS, 1928. 

Equipment specifications on a number of 
the recent purchases are set forth in the 
accompanying table. 



Bus Manufacturers Close Year with L 



FOR extension of existing facilities and 
for replacement purposes, orders and 
deliveries of a considerable number of 
buses have been recorded lately by electric 
railways and their subsidiaries. 

The Brooklyn Bus Corporation, sub- 
sidiary of the Brooklyn & Queens Transit 
Corporation, has received ten Twin 
Coaches, twelve ACF metropolitan type 
coaches, and two Yellow 38-passenger 
buses, a number of which have been placed 
in service on the Manhattan Bridge route, 
pending the granting of further operating 
rights by the city of New York. The Los 
Angeles Motor Bus Company, operated 
jointly by the Los Angeles Railway and 
the Pacific Electric Railway, has received 
twelve Twin Coaches of the urban type, 
bringing its total number of vehicles of 
this type to 26. Other recent deliveries of 
Twin Coaches include ten to the Northern 
Texas Traction Company, of Fort Worth, 
five to the San Diego Electric Railway, 
and one to the Portland Electric Power 
Company, all of the urban type, seating 40 
passengers. The Twin Coach Corporation 
has also delivered six trackless trolleys to 
the Utah Light & Traction Company for 
service in Salt Lake City, and one rail 
street car of S2-passenger capacity to the 
Brooklyn & Queens Transit Corporation 
for trial operation. 

A notable recent installation is that of 
the North Coast Transportation Company, 
one of the Stone & Webster transporta- 
tion lines operating out of Seattle, which 
has received four 37-passenger parlor 
observation coaches, mounted on ACF 
264-in. wheelbase chassis and equipped 
with 17S-hp. Hall-Scott engines. The 
same company has also received two 
37-passenger parlor car coaches, mounted 
on the new ACF 240-in. wheelbase chassis 
and equipped with 120-hp. Hall-Scott en- 
gines. Other deliveries of ACF equipment 
include two 23-passenger urban coaches 
to Pioneer Transportation, Inc., two 
33-passenger urban coaches to the Inter- 
state Street Railway, of Attleboro, Mass., 
and one 40-passenger, all-steel metropoli- 
tan type coach each to the Portland 
Electric Power Company, the San Diego 
Electric Railway, and the New Orleans 
Public Service Company. 

International Motor ' Truck Corporation 
reports the delivery of Mack buses to the 
following electric railway companies : four 



six-cylinder, 25-passenger parlor car buses 
to the Cincinnati Street Railway, one four- 
cylinder 29-passenger city type bus to the 
Denver Tramway Company, and one four- 
cylinder 177-in. chassis to the Peoples' 
Motor Coach Company, of Indianapolis, 
the last named being a subsidiary of the 
Indianapolis Street Railway. Orders for 
Mack buses are also reported from the 
Lehigh Valley Transit Company and the 
Cincinnati Street Railway, which is adding 
ten 29-passenger city type buses, powered 
with six-cylinder engines, to its fleet. 

General Motors Truck Company reports 
delivery of One Type W city service bus 
to the Springfield Traction Company, 
Springfield, Mo.; three Type W observa- 
tion buses to the Fort Dodge, Des Moines 
& Southern Railroad, Boone, Iowa; two 
Type W city service buses to the Okla- 
homa Railway, Oklahoma City ; one Type 
Z 29-passenger bus to the Cumberland & 
Westernport Transportation Company, 
Cumberland, Md. ; and six buses to the 
Georgia Power Company. Public Service 
Co-ordinated Transport has taken delivery 
of ten 38-passenger Yellow coaches, 
mounted with Lang bodies. The Fifth 
Avenue Coach Company, of New York, 
has placed an order with the General 
Motors Truck Company for 100 Type 
Z 225 chassis, for double deck bodies. These 
buses are being ordered to replace obsolete 
equipment, and delivery is to start early 
in the year. 



Alliance System Being Improved 

A moving picture camera is being 
used by C. E. Sperow, general manager 
of the Stark Electric Railroad, Alliance, 
Ohio, to record improvements being 
made over the division. Wherever new 
work is being done Mr. Sperow is on 
hand to record its various phases. These 
records are kept for future reference. 

The Stark Electric is completing its 
1929 rehabilitation program which in- 
cludes considerable work over the 35- 
mile link. Two concrete spans have 
been replaced with steel bridges. Ten 
thousand new ties were installed. There 
was a similar number of new ties last 
year, while the 1930 program calls for 
15,000. 

New overhead wires were placed on 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.l 
64 



most of the line in Alliance. About half 
a mile of 100-lb. rails was installed 
with thermit-weld joints throughout. In 
the business district, sections of old rail 
were replaced with new rails, all joints 
being welded. 

In addition to this work, the company 
constructed a new track on Liberty Ave- 
nue while this street was being repaved 
by the city. 

> 

Converter Substations for 
Wilkes-Barre 

The Wilkes-Barre Railway, Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa., recently changed its policy 
of generating its own electrical energy 
and now intends to purchase power from 
three local power companies. The 
power companies will supply power to 
eight new synchronous converter sub- 
stations, equipments being built by the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company. 

There will be six 750-kw. synchronous 
converter substations and two 500-kw. 
converter substations. Two of the 750- 
kw. stations and one SOO-kw. station will 
be for automatic operation, while the 
others will be the manually controlled 
type. 

All of the synchronous converters will 
be of the shunt wound type. They 
will operate in conjunction with trans- 
formers having 8 per cent reactance. 
This type of machine was specified by 
the purchaser to obtain superior voltage 
and power factor characteristics, and 
also to afford stability to the substations 
while operating together on a common 
feeder network. 



Signal Equipment Being Installed 

on Gary Railways 

Work of modernizing the signal equip- 
ment of Gary Railways, Gary, Ind., which 
has been in progress for more than a year, 
is proceeding apace. The cost of the 96 
block signals alone will be approximately 
$65,000, and the cost of wire and labor will 
amount to an additional $35,000. The most 
recent installations have been between Val- 
paraiso and Woodville. When the Val- 
paraiso division is finished there will re- 
main only the Crown Point and Hobart 
divisions. Signals for these sections have 
been ordered and work will get under way 
shortly after the first of the year. 



Improving Winnipeg 

Track improvements involving a total 
expenditure of over $340,000 have been 
made during the past year by the Win- 
nipeg Electric Company. 

The biggest item was the Main Street 
trackage, where double tracks were laid 
inside the old tracks, thus allowing more 
space at the sides for other vehicular 
traffic. This work cost $135,000. The 
track is 115-lb. steel laid on steel ties. 
The steel tie was used for the first time 
in Winnipeg. Elastite filler alongside the 
rail to absorb shock, and thermit-welded 
joints were two of the modern devices 
in track construction used. 

Double track extension on StaflFord, 
from Grosvenor to Lorette, cost $104,- 
400, and meant laying 3,000 ft. of new 
double track. The extension on Cory- 
don, from Lilac to Wilton, was 2,900 ft., 
and cost $81,760. 

A single track extension of 2,000 ft. 
from Midland to Worth on Notre Dame 
Avenue cost $10,615. 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



21 





1930 



MODERNIZATION 
PROGRAMS INCLUDE 

"PEACOCK^^ 

REG. U. S. PAT. OFF. 

STAFFLESS 
BRAKES 

The electric railway industry, including all 
types of service, has cast an overwhelming 
majority vote for Peacock Staffless. Follow 
the installations of modern cars. In almost 
every instance you will find Peacock StafHess 
Brakes. 

National Brake Co., Inc. 

890 Ellicott Sq. Buffalo, N. Y. 
General Sales Office: 

The Ellcon Co., 50 Church St., New York 

Canadian Representative: 
Lyman Tube 8C Supply Company, Limited, Montreal, Canada 




22 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



70,000,000 miUs of 




Pennjersey Garagre in the Camden District 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



23 



scientific lubrication 

on Americans largest 
bus property 




Company: Public Service Coordinated 

Transport 
Number of Vehicles : 2406 
Yearly Bus Mileage: 70,000,000 miles 
Passengers Carried Yearly: 350,000,000 

in both suburban and inter-urban service 
Cities Service Products Used: 

Koolmotor Bus Oils 

Koolmotor Transmission Oil (Extra Heavy) 

Koolmotor Universal Grease (Heavy) 

Cities Service Grease Guns. 

CITIES SERVICE 
COMPANY 

NEW YORK CITY 
% 

KOOLMOTOR PRODUCTS 



ROUTES OPERATED BY 
PUBLIC SERVICE 
COORDINATED TRANSPORT 
IN NEW JERSEY 



24 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




featuring 

1 Less journal, journal box, 
*■ • and pedestal wear. 

•^ Permits wheels to freely 
"• follow track irregularities. 

"2 Divides energy absorption be- 
*^* tween two shoes; reducing heating 
effect from brake application, re- 
sulting in higher coefficient of 
friction. 



A Reduced frequency of brake shoe rc- 
' • placement lessens maintenance costs. 

C An efficient, balanced brake. 




Makers of 
Davis One Wear Wheels 



American 



NEW YORK 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



25 




MuHiple Unit 
Clasp Brakes 



speed is today's byword. Greater Speed, faster service, better 
schedules — these are the demands on practically every transporta- 
tion organization today. 

Without a doubt deceleration is as important a factor in main- 
taining schedules as acceleration or running speed. It's the 
most important factor where speed with safety is concerned. 

Simplex Multiple Unit Clasp Brakes offer today's method of 
braking to meet today's demands in speed. Two brake shoes per 
wheel double the braking area and halve the wear on braking 
equipment. 

Balanced braking has many advantages. Study the features out- 
lined here. Details and blueprints will be sent at your request. 



Steel Foundries 

CHICAGO ST. LOUIS 



26 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



TVPIC4L RECORDS DEMOTIMG 
^OUT§¥4ilDING SUPERIORIIY 




GUM-DIPPED 

TRUCK C Bl)§ BALIjOON 



That Firestone Gum-Dipped Truck and Bus Balloon 
Tires out-run, out-wear and out-perform any other tires on 
the market today is clearly indicated by the following 
typical records, selected at random from the hun- 
dreds of owners' statements in our files. 



I Raymond Bros, Motor 
Transportation of Minne- 
apolis, report record-breakinf; 
mileage, as high as 90,000 
miles, from Firestone Gum- 
Dipped Tires on their 25 
freight trucks. 

t% Parker Stage Lines of 
^' Salem, Oregon, have 
obtained the exceptional 
average of 30,000 miles 
from the Firestone Tires on 
their buses — including a 
high record of 58,000 miles. 



3 The Everett-Marysville 
Stage Co. of Everett, 
Washington, add another great 
record, reporting 76,123 miles 
from Firestone Cum-Dipped 
Tires on their stage line. 

4 The Wisconsin Public 
Service Corp, of Green 
Bay, report a total of 395,225 
miles from the six Firestone 
Gum-Dipped Tires on their 
bus No. 301, for the amazing 
average of 65,871 miles. 




January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



27 



THOMAS -BUILT CARS 

assure comfortable 
efficient transportation 




THE North Carolina Public Service Company is just another 
company that, wishing to give its patrons the utmost in com- 
fort, efficiency and safety in transportation, has selected "Thomas- 
Built Cars." 

Thomas-Built Cars are designed with sufficient strength to meet 
all requirements and yet not be of excessive weight. Structural 
simplicity, combined with lasting strength and fine appearance, 
makes the Thomas-Built Car ideal for satisfactory service. 

This construction, typical of our cars, is an important feature in 
that it helps to cut the cost of maintenance. 



PERLEY A. THOMAS 
CAR WORKS 

HIGH POIHT, N. C. 




28 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




Car Card Advertising 
Almost EveryMrhere 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



29 



PROGRESSIVE merchants use 
^ advertising to build busi- 
ness. They depend on modern 
transportation faciHties to bring 
this business to their stores. 
As advertising develops more 
business the greater is the 
need for transportation. Thus 
Collier Service car cards bene- 
fit the Electric Railway Line as 
well as the merchants and the 
riding public. 




Barron G. GollierJiic 

CandlerBldgv NEW-Y0I9L 



30 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



The "DIE-HARDS" stuck to the stagecoach 

The superior transportation offered by the iron horse 
was no inducement to the die'hards — not because of 
any reason, but merely because they were die'hards. 

For the resistance of the die'hards Hngers on long 
after the merits of a new product have been proved 
beyond any reasonable doubt. 




To the "DIE-HARDS" in the electric railway industry 

The day of the mercury arc power rectifier is here. Its pet' 
formance record in hundreds of important installations has 
established it with the whole electrical industry as dependable, 
economical equipment. It converts current without noise, 
without vibration, without rotating parts, without special 
buildings, and without special foundations. 

Its operation may be completely automatic and it may be 
controlled from a distance. At our Camden plant are engineers 
who figured prominently in the early development of the 
rectifier. Their services are at your disposal. 



American Brown Boveri Co., Inc. 

Camden, N. J. 





AMERICAN BROWN BOVERI 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



31 






De Luxe Reclining Chair/ 



The 155-P is one of the most luxurious and 
comfortable reclining bus chairs ever produced. 
As shown above, in a smart upholstery com- 
bination of leather and plush, this modern seat 
offers long, satisfying wear, as well as a distinc- 
tive appearance. Both the cushion and back on 
this style are designed and pitched for restful 
comfort. The soft, spring-filled back is concave 
and has a pillow-type headroll. The back may 
be reclined to three positions by pressure on. the 
handily located lever at the side of the chair. 
Write to the nearest Heywood- Wakefield sales 
office for complete details of the 155-P and other 
popular bus seats in our line. 

HEYWOOD - WAKEFIELD 
COMPANY 




If you have not 
received a copy of 
our new Bus Seat 
Catalogue, write 
for it. 



BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 

516 West 34th St., New York Citg 439 Railway Exchange Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

J. R. Hayward, Liberty Trust Bldg., Roanoke, Va. A. W. Arlin, Delta Bldg., Los Angeles, Calif. 

H. G. Cook, Hobart Bldg., San Francisco, Calif. The G. F. Cotter Supply Co., Houston, Texas 

The Railway and Power Engineering Corporation 
133 Eastern Ave., Toronto; Montreal; Winnip)eg, Canada 



32 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



/very^haustin^/^blem 

SOLVED 



DeWbiss 




iQUIPMEWT 



aIxHAUSTING equipment is just as important as the spray-painting 
( equipment. Speed, character of resuh, operating cost all depend upon 
' the suitability and efficiency of the exhausting equipment and the way 
in which its installation is engineered. 

DeVilbiss has intensively specialized in the exhausting require- 
ments of all industries. DeVilbiss provides all types of exhausting out- 
fits from the ordinary wall fan to the great departments built for car 
shops and bus terminals. DeVilbiss can render valuable help in the 
design, location and installation of your exhausting facilities. We will 
gladly give you the benefits of an almost infinite experience and study 
of this important phase of the spray-finishing operation. 

DeVi/biss 



EVERYTHING /or 
SPRAY -PAINTING 

and 

SPRAY-FINISHING 

spray guns of various types and 
sizes. 

Pressure feed paint tanks and 
containers. 

Spray booths, exhaust Jans, and 
approved lighting fixtures. 
Air compressing equipment. 
Air transformers and accessories. 
Air and fluid hose and connections. 
Complete outfits from the smallest 
hand-operated units to the largest 
industrial installations. 

Write for cataloK of the DeVilbiss spray 
equipment that fits your individual need. 



THE DEVILBISS COMPANY 



272 PHILLIPS AVENUE / TOLEDO, OHIO 



Sales and Service Branches: 
NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA CLEVELAND DETROIT INDIANAPOLIS 

ST. LOUIS SAN FRANCISCO WINDSOR, ONT. 

Direct Jactory representatrres m all other territories 



CHICAGO 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



33 



m JiMPa lAPERED 

Rail Joint Shim 




inr 



The Remedy for Low Joints caused by wear 





The above shows Joint Shim in position 
with angle bar removed. 



The above shows Joint Shim in position 
between Bar and Ball of Rail. 



Other True Temper Products 
for Electric Railway Use: 



Safety Rail Forks 
Railroad ScuflBie Hoes 
Ice Chisels 



Road, Gravel and 
Gleaning Rakes 
Sidewalk Gleaners 



Send for a free copy of our Catalog RADl, which de- 
scribes these and other True Temper Products for 
Electric Railway use. 



THE AMERICAN FORK & HOE COMPANY 

General Offices: GLEVELAND, OHIO; Factory: NORTH GIRARD, PA. 

District Offices 
Whitehall Bldg.. New York. N. T. Dally News Plaza, Chicago, lU. 

Representatives at 
Boston, Denver, Detroit, Minneapolis, St. I,oiil» and San Frauolaco 

Foreisn Representatives 

Wonliam, Inc., 44 WhltehaU St., New York, N. Y., and 

0»-Ti Winilsor Bouse, Tlotoria St., I^ndon, S.W.-1. 



34 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



That 1930 
BUDGET 



y J' y y y^ 




*VIBROLITION 

A coined word denoting demolition 
of rail substructure through rail 
vibration. Dayton Mechanical Ties 
positively prevent VIBROLITION. 



When expediency demands that tracks be renewed, econ- 
omy also demands that permanency be a vital considera- 
tion. Can these factors of expediency and economy be 
combined safely in your 1930 budget? READ 

Dayton Mechanical Ties depend upon no factors other than their 
own inherent merit, to successfully bear the burden of traffic with- 
out danger to track substructure or excessive rail weari 

In every single instance of installation over a period of seventeen 
years, where time has been more than sufficient to demonstrate 
their worth . . . these facts stand out . . . FIRST that Dayton 
Ties cut maintenance costs to a minimum . . . SECOND that 
track substructure and pavement remain absolutely intact. 

Dayton Ties not only introduce the vibration absorbing feature of 
wood ties in gravel ballast but also provide a supporting structure 
to pavement that positively and permanently protects it from de- 
struction by traffic. Before specifying any tie for your 1930 work 
ask yourself this simple question : 

Are you sure that any other tie is quite as safe ? 



Rail Vibration cannot be safely buried in a track 
structure without placing in the track structure 
an agent that will counteract its destructive 
effect. "VIBROLITION" (demolition of sub- 
structure as a result of rail vibration) can be 
prevented only through the use of Dayton Ties. 
They are the only ties that successfully utilizes 
a vibration absorbing element. This element 
absorbs rail vibration and gives positive and 
permanent protection to substructure and pave- 
ment. To specify Dayton Ties is to insure the 
permanence of your track construction. Our 
new 1930 catalogue is now ready. Your request 
will bring full details promptly. 



The Dayton Integral System of 
Track and Paving Structure 



THE DAYTON MECHANICAL TIE CO., 



Dayton, Ohio 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



35 




36 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



HERE 




-"liiiir! 




is the greatest testimoniai of all 




MONTH after month we have published 
in these pages the reports of motor 
coach operators who use Goodyear Tires. 

Impressive facts — but here is one which 
totals all the rest. 

In motor coaches, all over the world, more 
people ride on Goodyear Tires than on any 
other kind! 

The simple and powerful reason for this 
fact is that more coach fleets are equipped 
with these tires — more operators have found 
by practical experience that Goodyear Tires 
deliver what they need, in surplus measure. 

Here is the vote of companies 
like your own — operating passen- 
ger coaches under your type of 



OIV YOLR NEXT 
COACHES, SPEC- 



IFY GOODYEARS 



operating conditions. On level city boule- 
vards — on hilly city streets — in city to city 
service up and down the east coast — or on 
desert and mountain trails in the far west — 
Goodyears are serving and satisfying more 
motor transportation companies than anv 
other tires. 

They must show their greater economy on 
cost records — they must demonstrate their 
greater vitality on fast long trips — they must 
prove their greater traction on every type of 
road — otherwise they would not have and 
hold this outstanding position. 

What can you find in other 
tires, which you will not find in 
greater measure in Goodyears? 



fi^^ffi 




EAm 



THE GREATEST NAME IN RUBBER 




PREFERENCE OF 

PATRONS 

HIGH 




COSTS 
LOW 



our costs low 




DODGE BROTHERS 




your patrons 
pleased v/ i t h 
Dodge Coaches 

No operator asks for more — no motor 
coach can provide more » » » » 




You can conclusively determine how well Dodse 
Motor Coaches fit your needs. Simply judge them in 
the light of essentials: for their ability to serve at low 
cost and please your patrons. 

Contributing in ample measure to the low cost opera- 
tion of Dodge Coaches, you Find power, economy, 
dependability, speed and acceleration. From the stand- 
point of low cost, also consider their practical sizes — 
21 -passenger capacity in the Street Car Coach and 
16-passenger capacity in the Parlor Coach. Sizes that 
permit of shorter headway during brief peak periods 
and fewer empty seats during the long off-peak hours. 




■■-«S!«..'i3: 



MOTOR COACH 




tributing to lov/ 
maintenance costs 



HCA vy F£L r PiDDWe 



HASKCLire ROOF -^ 



' insui»rcD BOBr m/>/nc CAmieo 

IHCHAHKU IH DOMCLISHT HAIL 



lAMIHAriO HOOF KIB 



~ D/tIP MOULDIMG 



- CADMIUM PLATCD SCIIFWS 
USED THfiOUGHOUT 



^ ALL wooo Mprs THODOUenV 

LCAO PRIMED 



FACH MFTAi PANtl OVFfLAPS 
' THE ONE IMMFDIATFLYBCL0WI7. 
JOIHTS ARC COL/ERFD IVir/l 
RACE OI/AL ALUMINUM MOUIBINC 



Slew RAIL PDOTECTED BV HCAUY 



HAlfOVAL STEEL STRIP 



-Vnardwooo FWORING > 



ROOF, o( Haskelite, supported by laminated ribs. Is 
strong and weave-prooF. Heavy felt padding between 
top covering and wood eFfectively protects the covering. 

INSULATED BODY WIRING is carried In channel In 
dome-light rail. Greater protection and ease o( access 
result. 

DRIP MOULDING is amply deep and of heavy con- 
struction. It provides the needed protection to insure 
efficient drainage in all weather. 

CADMIUM PLATED SCREWS, exclusively, are used 
In construction of body. These rust-resisting screws pre- 
vent premature destruction of the wood at points used. 

ALL WOOD PARTS are of oak, thoroughly lead 
primed. Body will endure for a longer period. 

EACH OUTSIDE METAL PANEL overlaps the one 
Immediately below it. All joints are covered with half- 
oval aluminum moulding. Such care Insures In design and 
construction more effective weatherproofing, a more 
Finished appearance and longer life. 

SKID RAILS, on sides and rear of coach, provide added 
safety for passengers and material protection to body. 

SKIRTING Is securely braced and adequately protected 
by sturdy angle Irons. Long body-life and protection 
In even unusually severe coach service, are assured. 

WINDOWS are of brass sash with pinch locks operating 
on brass slides. They are free from rattle. 

Add to this list of advantages such motor coach essentials as 
metal nonskid entrance step, removable safety mat in aisle and 
genuine leather seats of sturdy, enduring construction. Body 
maintenance costs are sure to be low. 




DDDBE- BRDTHBRE 
M DTDR COACH BSi 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



41 




ew Exide Battery 

Specially Built for Hard Motor Coach Service 



Sgil';■^5«Srf^•;«:^^^i^ifeW;;«'f?^•i!^r-: ■-'■■,-, 




No more rotting battery boxes. 
No more containers wet and 
soggy from last week's storm. 
New Exide composition case 
eliminates these annoying, 
cost-building evils. The case 
is impervious to the damaging 
effects of mud, water, acid and 
hard knocks. 

Now you can have the fa- 
mous dependabil- 
ity, power, econ- 
omy of Exide 



Exi6e 



Latest development 
ot Exide engineers 
meets demand (or 
improved battery 
service 

Motor Coach Batteries in a 
composition case that will 
wear as long as these long- 
lived batteries . . . will stand 
up under the tough treatment 
a bus battery gets. 

Write today for full infor- 
mation on Exide Motor Coach 
Batteries in the new compo- 
sition cases. They are built 
to cut your main- 
tenance costs. 



MOTOR COACH BATTERIES 



THE ELECTRIC STORAGE BATTERY COMPANY, Philadelphia 

Exide Batteries of Canada, Limited, Toronto 



42 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




MBTAI^ 4^ THERMIT 

PITTSBURGH CHICAGO BOSTON JQjO BI^OADWAY 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



43 



■i»^i34*».:*«*r3i*«©»j.r Ai 



A CLEAH TRACK AHEAD 



Have faith in the future 

of the 
TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY 



1^'OT words, but deeds must be used as the 
^ yard-stick with which to measure all 
progress made in the past, and as a basis for 
predicting the future. 

In spite of the prophets of gloom, the motor 
bus has not ruined the electric railway busi- 
ness. Rather, it has become an important 
adjunct to the operations of the established 
transportation companies. If some track 
mileage has been abandoned, here and there, 
it represents that over-building which every 
industry experiences in its earlier years. 

Look rather at the positive side of the 
picture I The statistics in this issue tell the 
story of an industry with a billion dollar 
revenue. New cars and buses added, hun- 
dreds of miles of track rebuilt, and extensions 
made. A budget for 1930 of about 
$300,000,000 for maintenance, and for 
betterments and extensions. These are the 
attributes of a going concern. 

To this picture the Metal & Thermit Corpo- 
ration adds this report for 1929 — more 
Thermit Welds sold than ever before/ For 
1930, the programs already revealed to us 



by leading electric railway customers indicate 
substantially more work planned than in 
1929. The release of money formerly tied 
up in speculative enterprises will make it 
easier for the railways to finance improve- 
ments and additions. 

Metal & Thermit Corporation has much at 
stake in the success or failure of the electric 
railway industry. In expressing our own con- 
fidence in the future of your industry, we are 
reciprocating that confidence you have always 
shown in our product. 



DIAGRAM INDICATING 
PROPORTIONATE GROWTH 

IN SALES OF 
THERMIT WELDS 






a- 



COrtPORATI Ob/^ 

*IEW YORKL » N.V» south SAN FRANCKCO TORONTO 



44 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




IVfcfrcoM'"'"" ,l„,„v 
Baits An.''^"""'"r" 




Tuiin Balanced Angle 
Compressors at <ii;orlc 
/or a Zarge iron mine. 



Big Business Adopts 
Balanced Angle Compressors 



Big business is setting a new 
pace. Facts — not opinions — 
are guiding its methods and 
selection of machines. 

And big business has adopted 
air power by Balanced Angle 
Compressors. 

Builders of half the world's 
automobiles — 

Makers of two-thirds of 
America's electrical equip- 
ment — 

Refiners of eighty percent of 
industry's lubricants — 



Great foundries, power plants, 
lumber mills, mines — 

— now save money with Bal- 
anced Angle Air Compressors. 

For these distinctive machines 
have proved their ability to 
supply air for less power, and 
lower maintenance. 

The facts that persuaded big 
business to use Sullivan Com- 
pressors are available for 
you. 

Send for Booklet 83- J. 



Send for portfolio of adver- 
tisements shotving Balanced 
Angle Compressors, in 
plana of industry's leaders. 



SULLIVAN 

MACHINERY COMPANY 

809 Wrigley Building Chicago, U. S. A. 

Offices in all principal cities in the world 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



45 





Because they practically eliminate start- 
ing resistance — because they need lubri- 
cating less often — because they require 
merely routine attention even after 
thousands upon thousands of miles, 
Timken Bearings have established 
themselves with both the builders and 
the operators of cars. Timkens are more 
than just anti-friction bearings. The total 
carrying ability of Timken tapered con- 
struction, Timken POSITIVELY ALIGNED 
ROLLS and Timken steel includes radial, 
thrust and combined loads. 

Without compromise — ^without complica- 
tion — Timken Bearings materially help in 
putting rail transportation on a more 
economical basis. 

THE TIMKEN ROLLER BEARING CO. 



CANTON, 



OHIO 



TIMKEN 

Tapered 

ROLLER BEARINGS 



46 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



THE CHOICE OF LEADING 
BUS FLEETS— because of its 
outstanding record ^^ 



The U. S. Royal Heavy Service Tire 
asks no odds when It goes Into bus 
service. 

Its record on many of the country's 
most prominent fleets stands as full 
proof of its ability to deliver trouble- 
free mileage at low cost. 

For those operators changing to 
balloons— the U. S. Royal Heavy 
Service Balloon is in equally high 
favor because it has qualified as 
having the same superior qualities 
associated with the high pressure 
Royal Heavy Service. 

UNITED STATES |([@l RUBBER COMPANY 
THE WORLD'S LARGEST PRODUCER OF RUBBER 




U. S. ROYAL 

HEAVY SERVICE 
BALLOON 




The great fleet of de luxe motor coaches operated by Union 
Pacific Stoges, Incorporated, covering the northwest, are equip- 
ped with U. S. Royal Heavy Service Tires to meet the demands 
of a transportation service famous for its smooth operation. 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



47 



$00007.90 



26 JAN 
26 M 
26 JAN 
26 JM 
26 JAN 
26 JAN 
26 JAN 



-8R 



•8 R 
•8 P 
-8S 



5S 
7 S 
8S 

I es 

I 5S 
^ OS 



$0 llO 
$ TR 

s 0. cn 

JO. 8 
$ 0. HI 
$ 2. 7 RT 
$4.00 



$ 0000 0.00 




Here is a section of the detail 
strip from a Class 80 Regis- 
ter. Because of thewidedetail 
strip (4% inches) a complete 
record with proper column 
spacing is made possible. 



\ 



c3 AUTOMOTIVE 
ji . TRANSPORT 
S°.^ LINES 



S S" ACME LINES.INC 

Jo 

O 



oo. 



GOOD FOR ONE PASSAGE ^ 
BETWEEN STATIONS 
INDICATED 

z 

HAND TO OPERATOR O 
UNFOLDED AT (30 

DESTINATION Cn 



8593 




Tickets issued from OHMER 

Registers give exactly the 
same information as the de- 
tail strip. They are of the 
same shape and size, and have 
the same value to passengers 
as purchased railroad tickets. 



Consecutive Number on 
Detail Strip and Ticket 



Only OHMER gives you this 
added protection 



HERE'S a feature that you need on all your 
ticket-printing fare registers. It's a feature 
that was developed by transportation specialists 
to give you added protection through a complete 
check on every sale. 

When the consecutive number appears on detail 
strip and ticket, you can positively identify each 
ticket with the corresponding sale on the detail 
strip. You can save time by auditing fares con- 



+ 




+ 



+ 



The Class 80 Register 
with large visual indi- 
cator shows the numbers 
of the From and To 
stations and the amount 
and class of fare. This 
register has the ex- 
clusive OHMER pre- 
indicating feature 
which makes it pos* 
sible to detect mis- 
takes before registra- 
tion. Repeat tickets 
can beissued by press- 
ing a single button. 
The register is elec- 
trically or manually 
operated. 



secutively ... a system impossible with any other 
register. You can make checking definite and 
simple. 

And in addition, the detail strip carries the 
operator's number . . . another feature that makes 
the audit of sales even more positive and more 
accurate. 

Other information appearing on the detail strip 
and ticket is the Date, the From and To stations, 
the Division traveled, and the Amount and Class 
of fare. No other fare register in the world gives 
so much information and so much protection. 

Now . . . a more perfect "On and Off" Check 

Our transportation specialists have devised a 
new "On and Off" check. It is simple, accurate 
and sure. We want you to see how it works. Send 
for your free copy of the folder in which it is 
completely described. 



OH 



MER 

REG. U.S. PAT. OFF . AND OTHER COUNTBIES 

FARE REGISTER COMPANY 

Davton. Ohio. U.S.A. 



48 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




sound 
en^meering 




r 

extensive 
fecilities 



Trolley Wheels 
and Harps 







M-J Armature Babbitt 



"Tiger" Bronze Axle 

and Armature 

Bearings 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



49 



Combination 

for Perfect Service 

QUALITY materials, sound engineering, and 
extensive facilities unite to produce these prod- 
ucts of the National Bearing Metals Corpora- 
tion. Such a combination has been at the service of the 
industry since the first street cars appeared. Such a well- 
organized background has made it possible to meet the 
requirements of the industry as conditions have changed 
and progress has been made. 

Armature Babbitt Metal 

Twenty-five different grades of babbitt have been successfully perfected 
in our line, designed for varying services and at varying prices. 
"Armature" for electric railway motor bearings is unexcelled for dura- 
bility and economy. 

Trolley Wheels 

This company is the largest manufacturer of trolley wheels and harps. 
Many of our products have been perfected in co-operation with experts 
from various large electric railway systems. 

"Tiger" Bronze Axle and Armature Bearings 

Being one of the early achievements of this organization and probably 
the most widely known bronze on the market, "Tiger" Bronze has done 
much to establish the National Bearing Metals Corporation as one of the 
leaders in bearing manufacture. 

The personnel of the More-Jones organization is com- 
posed of many men, of proven ability, whose connections 
with it date back to the very beginning of electric railway 
transportation in America. 

These specialists, versed in your problems, will gladly 
work with you at your request. 



NATIONAL BEARING METALS CORPORATION 

More-Jones Division 

ST. LOUIS, MO. 



New York, N. Y. Jersey City, N. J. 
Portsmouth, Va. 



Pittsburgh, Pa. Meadville, Pa. 
St. Paul, Minn. 



so 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



WINTER 





January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



51 



will your buses 

furnish passengers with 

stuffy — drafty — 

gas poisoned air — 



or will those buses 
he equipped with 

(THE COMPLETE BUS VENTILATINQ SYSTEM) 



No matter how luxuriously your buses are 
furnished or how comfortable the seats — ^your 
passengers will not be comfortable unless you 
take steps to remedy the ventilation evil. 

Vac-Vent, the new ventilating system of radical, 
yet sound principle, is already adopted and 
enthusiastically praised by leading operating 
officials. Why? Because Vac-Vent easily ac- 
complishes what no other ventilating system 
has even attempted to do — it thoroughly ven- 
tilates both the bus body and the motor crank- 
case. There are no moving parts — and no 
maintenance. The results depend upon a never- 
failing source of supply — the powerful exhaust 
from the bus motor. By surrounding the end 



of the exhaust pipe with our Vac-Vent Ejector, 
a vacuum is produced, which sucks out all of 
the vapors, fumes and carbon particles which 
blow by the pistons. The connecting pipe has 
two or more ventilating heads which project 
through the bus floor, drawing out the heavy, 
foul air at the floor line, and causing even dis- 
tribution of fresh heated air. 

Vac-Vent prolongs motor life, because of elimi- 
nation of diluting and contaminating elements, 
and the reduction of motor temperature. It 
completely ventilates the bus. Get in touch 
with us now, in time for deliveries before bitter 
weather becomes the rule. 



X^ic^M 



52 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



^--1 



4 - ■ — ^-'- 



Roebling 



Whether your needs are for the finest Magnet Wire for electrical equip- 
ment; aircraft or automotive cables; underground or overhead transmis- 
sion cables required for hydro-electric developments, Roebling Quality 
Products can be depended upon for long and satisfactory service. 



John A. Roebling' s Sons 

Company 
Trenton New Jersey 



Makers of Wire Rope, Wire 

and Electrical Wires 

and Cables 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



53 




UTILITY means ECONOMY AND SERVICE 




Below — Thermo- 
control and Heat 
Regulator Panel. 
Note the simplicity 
of assembly and 
rugged construc- 
tion. 





The Chromalox Strip shown below is the heart of 
the Utility Chromalox Cross Seat Heater. An 
unusually efficient heating unit listed as standard 
by Underwriters' Laboratories. 



frJlJTILITY Heating and Ventilat- 
H.*J[ ing Systems, render adequate 
ventilation and proper car tem- 
peratures, providing comfortable 
transportation that increases revenue. 
Furthermore, many old heating sys- 
tems are wasteful and uneconomical. 
Again you may be dividing your 
profits by unnecessarily high heating 
costs. 

Let us tell you about Utility Compen- 
sating Systems of natural ventilation. 




pAIUWAV( |friUITl( p OMPANV( 




2241 TO 2247 INDIANA AVE. 

J. H. Denton — Eastern Manager 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

1328 Broadway, New York City 



54 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




}DIR€IJet1T STEEL WHEELS 



• . . . Modem rolling mills, expert supervision, 
regular and frequent inspections are incor- 
porated in every Gary Wrought Steel Wheel, 

JIUtnotB ^tpf I OInmpang 

Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation 



giving that dependable service electric rail- 
way men expect in products bearing the name 
Illinois. . . . Our wheel engineers are at your service. 



ALL THAT GOOD WHEELS SHOULD BE 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



55 



A 
An ACON dA 

from mine to consumer 




BEG. U.S. c: ^?H PAT.OrF. 




Anaconda — safe- 
guards quality from 
mine to consumer — 
provides a nation- 
wide service, prompt, 
dependable and 
complete. 



A complete wire 
and cable service 



T'he new year finds Anaconda Wire and Cable Com- 
pany in a better position than ever before to offer a 
complete wire and cable service to the electrical industry. 

NINE WIRE MILLS, Strategically located throughout the coun- 
try and supplemented by convenient warehouse stocks, make 
possible a coast-to-coast service unequalled for promptness 
and dependability. Modern and efficient mill equipment 
strengthens production facilities and speeds deliveries. The 
coordinated supervision by a single organization from ore 
to finished product — from mine to consumer — guarantees 
the high conductivity and uniform quality of all Anaconda 
wire and cable products. 

FIFTEEN SALES OFFICES dot the map between Boston and 
San Francisco, making Anaconda service immediately avail- 
able everywhere. Our Engineering Department, with its back- 
ground of metallurgical experience covering more than one 
hundred years, offers its facilities to electrical engineers to 
assist in the design and construction of cables to meet special 
and unusual requirements. 

IN A WORD, Anaconda offers a complete wire and cable 
service — wires and cables for every electrical requirement — 
and makes available to the industry the vast resources and 
technical facilities of the Anaconda organization. We wel- 
come the opportunity of cooperating with you. 



Anaconda Wire & Cable Company 

General Offices: 25 Broadway, New York 

Chicago Office: 111 West Washington St. 

Sales Offices in Principal Cities 



* 



II 



56 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




Globe designed 
tickets and transfers 
help you realize 
most on every 
riding dollar 



A transfer designed to 
eliminate a large percentage 
of the ever-present abuses 
at transfer points; a ticket 
designed to save the con- 
ductor's time and eliminate 
change-making, a "hat 
check" to eliminate over- 
riding, a weekly and Sunday- 
pass to increase riding dur- 
ing off-peak hours and to 
^ve revenue in advance . . . 
these are a few of the con- 



crete examples of Globe 
service in assisting operat- 
ing companies to solve their 
fare problems. 

Globe service has the verbal 
and written O.K. of most 
of the important operators. 
Globe experience is a 
tangible asset . . . result- 
ing In increased revenue for 
you, and the elimination of 
fare difficulties. Write. 



Gl©lb© 



TICKET COMPANY 

PHILADELPHIA 

Factoring: 

Philadelphia Los Ang^eles Boston New York Jacksonville 





Sales Offices: 




Syracuse 


Cincinnati 


Pittsburgh 


Baltimore 


Cleveland 


Springfield, Mass 




"'N. 





■jiinn.^ nu 







utiWi^F^:-^': 






in the year just ended 
Twin Coach main- 
tains its position; 
re peats its success of 
1928. 



This success is represented by 
the sale to electric railways of 
nearly 40% more 37-40 pas- 
senger coaches than were sold 
by all other coach manufactur- 
ers combined . 

The railways requiring large 
capacity street car type vehicles 
realize that such units to suc- 
ceed must be built as Twin 
Coaches are built— with body 
and chassis integral 




January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



61 



20th Century 

Spanish 

Leathers 




Write for samples. Specify General Leathers on your Cars, 
Buses and Taxi-Cabs or when you overhaul your seat coverings. 

General Leather Company 

Makers of Famous Tried and Proven "00" Leathers 



NEWARK, N. J. 



Detroit Office 

Stoddard Lovely & Co. 

I0-219 General Motora Bide 



Colonial Tradernj Ine. 
78 William!) St. 
Chatham, Ont. 



Ix>ndon Office 

R. ft A. Kohnstamm, JAd. 

SI Wett Smithfleld, I^ndon, E. C. 



Went Coast Office 

A. 4. » i. R. Caoi<, Ine. 

t37 Bishth St.. San FMuiela 



62 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




Bethlehem Silico-Manganese Weldable Crossing at Ralph and Gates Avenues, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Trackwork — that is 

wear -resisting and Weldable 




Increasingly heavy traffic re- 
quires trackwork that is wear- 
resisting, weldable and thor- 
oughly dependable. Bethlehem 
Silico - Manganese Trackwork, 
Design 999, meets all of these 
requirements. It can be in- 
stalled at heavy traffic loca- 
tions with confidence that it 
will stand up under the most 
severe service conditions. 

Bethlehem Silico - Manganese 



Trackwork is remarkably 
wear - resisting and is readily 
weldable by any of the stand- 
ard methods, such as electric 
arc, oxy-acetylene and Thermit 
Welding. 

BETHLEHEM STEEL 
COMPANY 

General Offices: Bethlehem, Pa. 

District Offices: New York. Boston. Phila- 
delphia. Baltimore. Wasbingrton. Atlanta, 
Pittsburgh. Buffalo. ClerelaDd; Detroit, 
Cincinnati. Chicago. St. Louis. San Fran- 
cisco. Los Angeles. Seattle, Portland, and 
Honolulu. 



Installing a Bethlehem Silico- 
Manganese Weldable Three-Way 
Turnout. Bethlehem trackwork is 
assembled in spacious, well-lighte<i 
shops by careful workmen to in- 
sure quick and easy installation in 
the field. 



BETHLEHEM 

Silico-Manganese 

Trackwork >^ Design 999 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



63 




Wheels — that meet the 
demands of m,odern traffic 



The exceptionally severe 
service that car wheels under- 
go today greatly reduces the 
life of ordinary wheels. 
Wheels that meet modern traf- 
fic conditions must be good 
wheels. 

Bethlehem manufactures 
and offers to electric railways 
a wrought steel wheel that has 
the strength, endurance and 
wearing qualities to stand up 
and deliver exceptional mile- 
age under severe modern traf- 
fic conditions. Five distinct 
forging and rolling operations 
are required to make a Bethle- 
hem Wheel. The forging 



gives the metal toughness and 
density. The rolling establishes 
a uniform grain structure 
throughout the wheel virtually 
eliminating crystallization and 
reducing to a minimum the 
possibility of breakage. 

When you use Bethlehem 
Wrought Steel Wheels you can 
rest assured that you will re- 
ceive from each wheel many 
thousands of miles of trouble- 
free service. 

BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY 
General Offices: Bethlehem, Pa. 

District Offices: New York, Boston, Phil- 
adelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Atlanta, 
Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, 
Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis, San Fran- 
cisco. Los Angeles, Seattle, Portland, and 
Honolulu. 




BETHLEHEM 

Wrought Steel Wheels 
and Forged Axles 



FORGED AXLES 

Extreme care is exercised in the 
manufacture of Bethlehem Axles. 
Special heat treatment gives them 
ductility and a high elastic limit. 
They give excellent service under 
severe torsional stresses. 



64 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



6S 




Mile after MUe 

of smoother, 
quieter transportation 



ALL over the country — from coast to coast — electric 
^ railway systems are adopting the Carey Elastite 
System of Track Insulation. Mile after mile of new 
rails will be Carey-insulated, in 1930. 

Traction officials approve it because it means lower main- 
tenance costs. The public approves it because it muffles 
noise — makes for smoother, more pleasant transportation. 

Carey Elastite Track Insulation is climate-proof, rot- 
proof. Water seepage does not affect it — nor does the Sum- 
mer sun or Winter frost. It eliminates joint ruts, pavement 
buckling between rails, cracking and spalling of adjoining 
concrete. 

Is it any wonder that you see such a growing use of this 
product? 

If you have any questions to ask about the Carey Elastite 
System of Track Insulation — write. Full details will be 
presented to you without obligation. 

The Philip Carey Company 

Lock land, CINCINNATI, OHIO 

Carey Elastite System of Track Insulation is preformed, 
under heavy pressure, of durable asphaltic compound, 
substantially reenforced with asphalt-saturated fibre. 




) 





SYSTEM OF 

TRACK INSULATION 



-«*- 



Carey Elastite Electric Railway Products 

Carey Elastite Expansion Joint 
Carey Elastite Asphalt Plank 

for bridge flooring 

for water-proofing overhead bridges 
Carey Elastite Trunking for signals 



66 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 193G 




COMMOX . . . 

yet not Commonplace 



Tc 



LO street railway men 
this equipment is familiar, yet not devoid 
of interest. It still attracts attention by 
virtue of its contribution to safe, speedy, 
and economical transportation. Its po- 
tentiality for improvement in service 
and public goodwill is being recognized 
more extensively from year to year. 



Safety Car Devices Co 

OF St. Louis, Mo. 

Postal and Telegraphic Address: 

WILMERDING, PA. 

CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO NEW YORK 

WASHINGTON PITTSBURGH 




January. 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



67 



50 YEARS 

have seen a revolution in tlie 
generation off direct current 




Above. An Edison 250-{ight type 

K generator in use from 1883 to 

1928. Equipped with copper leaf 

brushes. 



At right. Modern 4200 KW Rotary 
Converter, 285 volts, 14,800 am- 
peres. Equipped with ISational 
Pyramid Brushes. 



The past fifty years have witnessed tremendous 
changes in the design of electrical machinery for 
the supply of direct current. Throughout these 
years. National Carbon Company, Inc., has been an 
outstanding leader in developing new and more 
efficient carbon brushes for the successful operation 
of these machines. 

When the incandescent lamp was in its infancy, 
the Eklison generator illustrated above was used as 
the source of electrical power. This generator was 
belt-driven from a steam engine. Its approximate 
capacity of 25 kilowatts was considered high. 

Compare this with the methods of today. Most 
direct-current power in use today is initially gen- 
erated as alternating current, often by units with a 
capacity of over 100,000 KVA. It is transmitted at 
high voltage to sub-stations where it is transformed 
to lower voltage and converted to direct current by 
means of huge rotary converters. The modem 
rotary converter illustrated herewith is a typical 
example. 

The various designs of machinery necessary for 



the collection and redistribution of electrical energy 
in this highly efficient way would be impossible 
without carbon brushes. Scientific research in the 
up-to-the-minute Research Laboratories of National 
Carbon Company, Inc., always has kept (and still 
keeps) pace with the ever-changing demands placed 
on the many types of carbon brushes required. 

Engineering science in our laboratories and care- 
fully supervised workmanship in our factories are 
maintaining for National Pyramid Brushes the 
leadership established through the years. 



NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY, INC. 


Unit of Union Carbt 




rf Carbon Curporation 


- m^ '- 


Carbon Sales Division 


SILVER STRAND 
CABLE 

TXA6I M*»K 


Cleveland, Ohio 



Branch Offices and Factories 
New York Pittsburgh Chicago Birmingham San Francisco 



68 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



If SKF Wasn't Quite So Big,.,. 
"The Highest Priced Bearing in the World" 



Would Be Higher Priced 



SGSfF Ball and Roller Bearings have never been sold on 
any other basis than performance. They can't be. No 
other bearing in the world costs so much — to buy or to 
make. But there are other bearings, many of them, that 
cost more — znuch more — to USE. 

SGS[F produces not one type but many different types 
of anti-friction bearings. The special ores it requires come 
from its own mines. The charcoal it uses in processing 
its special steels comes from its own forests. Its labora- 
tories, plants, factory branches extend right 'round the 
world. Among its 23,000 employees 27 languages are 
spoken. 

SCSIF" supplies greater service to more customers in 
more places than any other anti-friction bearing manu- 
facturer in the world. And SGSiF makes "the highest 
priced bearing in the world." 




>oiaW 




^actoty 
>pffices 




^^3000 



SKP" INDUSTRIES, INCORPORATED 
40 East 34th Street, New York, N.Y. 




/ 











X 



2439 



THE HIGHEST PRICED BEARING IN THE WORLD 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



73 



I 



I 






I 



I 



DIVISION 
OF WAY AMD 
STRUCTURI 
ITEMS 




MfCHAN 

-ICAL 

ITEMS 



CAR WHEELS 



Actual Survey Shows 
That on a Typical Elec- 
tric Railway Property, 
Car Wheels, Over an 
Extended Period, Rep- 
resent the Highest An- 
nual Item of Mechan- 
ical Maintenance Cost. 



CARWHEEL BUDGETS FOR 1930 

WILL BE LOWER FOR THE MANY REPRESENTATIVE 
ELECTRIC RAILWAY COMPANIES NOW USING 



NACO 



SPUN STEEL CAR WHEELS 

T^O SERVE the industry effectively by supply- 
ing better car wheels — this was our purpose 
five years ago when engaging in the manufacture 
of wheels. 

TN THE meantime, actual results covering 
severe service accurately computed on several 
properties have definitely established our prod- 
uct as a progressive and timely development. 



When arranging your program for the coming year, write NACO 
SPUN STEEL WHEELS into your specifications for regular re- 
placement use, and for any new car construction. This will lead 
to lower car wheel budgets over ensuing periods. 



National Malleable & Steel Castings Co. 

General Ofl[ices: Cleveland, Ohio 

STEEL PLANTS: Sharon, Pa., Chicago, Melrose Park, El. 



74 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




FOR MORE SATISFACTORY SERVICE 




A good remedy for service 
troubles can usually be found in 
automatic signaling. "Union" 
automatic signals, interlocking 
installations, and power oper- 
ated, remotely controlled 
switches are being used to elimi- 
nate unnecessary stops. 



These installations give definite 
economies. They permit higher 
average speeds. The time saved 
per trip due to signaling can be 
definitely represented as return 
on investment. Installations of 
"Union" apparatus are depend- 
able investments. 



Illl 



Our nearest district office will gladly give you more information on "Union" apparatus. 

1881 ra Pinion ^feitcf) Sc Signal OId- ra 1930 

^gLf SWISSVALE. PA. TSSr 



Nfew York 



Montreal 



Chicago 



St. Louis 



San Francisco 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



75 



AB-2 BOND 
APPLIED 



l'>ArT='.«»x. 



t-J*,! 



Bond 
Performance^ 

One of the advantages of buying 
American Steel and Wire Company 
Rail Bonds is the assurance you will 
have of dependable performance. The 
reason is materials, design, and con- 
struction. Our experience has been 
of the kind that is worth money to 
you in Bond performance. 

The AB-2 Bond is easily and quickly 
applied with a steel electrode. The 
open shape of this Bond terminal is 
especially desirable since the arc can 
be directed freely at the junction of ^ 
the terminal and the rail. 



\ 



Would you be interested in inspecting 
a sample? 




AMERICAN STEEL & WIRE COMPANY 

208 S. La Saile Street, Chicago 30 Church Street, New York 
And All Principal Cities 




SUSSIOIARV OF 

UNITED STATES STEEL CORPORATION, 

(jualUg, Products y ^ principal subsidiary manufacturing companies: \ J>epeiufaJ,t<, Servin 

American Bridge Company Caanegis Steel Company Illinois Steel Company The Lorain Steel Company 

American Sheet and Tin Plate Company Cyclone Fence Company Minnesota Steel Company Tennessee Coal, Iron A R. R. Company 

American Stbhl and Wire Company Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company National Tube Company Universal Portland Cement Company 

Paci/k Caul OUIriiidtirt—Vultci States Steel Froducu Company. San Francisco, Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle, Honolulu. Export Dislriiutars—Vaitcd States Steel Products Company, New York City 



7t 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



^r^^t^ 



.*m4^ 






' "■ ^ ^^p 



POLES- 
STRAIGHT 
STRONG 

and 
STURDY 



IYPICAL of this modern 
age is the Union Metal Fluted 
Steel Pole. Designed with 
the City Beautiful ideal in 
mind, it is gracefully tapered 
end fluted in the manner 
of architectural columns. 
Here is no ordinary pole, 



. iA.-'^ 





PI 

liMI.U 


! 

• 


1 


IP 


B A N I. 




r 








I* 








M.. 


L ... J 






£i^rr- 



Typical Installations of 
Union Metal Fluted Steel Poles 



no public eyesore. Straight, 
strong and sturdy, Union 
Metal Poles stand in even 
rows along the curb-line, 
monuments to the foresight of 
progressive utility operators. 

Because they are fabricated 
from heavy steel, they are 
strong enough to withstand 
heavy side strains. And be- 
cause of their strength — and 
appearance — one set of poles 
may be used to support light- 
ing units, trolley span wires, 
traffic signals, and distribution 
and transmission lines. The 
result is true economy for 
the users of the poles and o 
decided improvement in 
street appearance. 



THE UNION Metal manufacturing Co. 

GENERAL OFFICES AND FACTORY: CANTON, OHIO 
SALES OFFICES: New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Boston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Dallas, Atlanta 

DISTRIBUTORS 

General Electric Supply Corp. Graybar Electric Company, Inc. 

Offices in all principle cities 

UNION METAL 

DISTRIBUTION AND TRANSMISSION POLES 





January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



77 




M.ilinit Spray BootliN installed r 

of the Chicago Rapid liaii^^it Cu 



• • • an Essential Part of 

Your Maintenance 
Equipment 



The indisputable economy of Spray Paint- 
ing . . . the smoother, more durable 
lacquer finishes . . . the tremendous re- 
duction in the out of service time required 
for refinishing, and the increased capacity 
of your paint shop makes Spray Painting 
Facilities an essential part of your main- 
tenance equipment. ^ Many Street Rail- 
ways are seriously considering the adop- 
tion of this modern means of cost reduc- 
tion . . . You too, will install Spray 
Painting facilities in your paint shop. 



y[ When you are contemplating this equip- 
ment, remember that Mahon engineers 
are recognized the world over as a highly 
specialized staff of Spray Booth experts 
. . . remember also, that it cost no more 
for the services of these specialists whose 
widely diversified experience will prove of 
inestimable value to you in the economical 
solution of your Spray Booth problems, 
both in initial cost and in operating ex- 
pense over a period of time. Arrange a 
consultation with Mahon engineers today. 



THE R. C, MAHON COMPANY 

DETROIT, MICHIGAN 

Mcnujacturers of Spray Booths and Exhaust Stacks, 
Industrial Drying Ovens and Blow Pipe Systems. 

MAHON 



i^- 



SPRAY BOOTHS €. EXHAUST STACKS 



\ 



♦ DESIGNED FOR FIRE SAFETY ♦ 



78 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



Increased 
Mileage 




^^^ ^ WROUGHT SrE£L\ '^ -^^ 

mEels 

Product of CARNEGIE STEEL COMPANY, Pittsburgh, Pa.— Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation 3S 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



79 



ANDERSON LINE MATERIAL 




the TIME TESTED 
Overhead Construction 

From the very beginning of the electric railway industry, 
A. & J. M. Anderson have been known for the high 
quality of Line Material which they supply. 
And by constantly introducing new products which help 
railway operating men with their problems, this company 
has built up an extensive and varied line of overhead 
construction material. Hence from one source, you can 
purchase many of the items of Line Material which you 
require. 

At the right is a partial list of ANDERSON TIME 
TESTED Line Material. From every item, you may 
be sure of long life and dependability. More than 40 
years of specializing in Line Material are back of every 
product. 

Large or small orders of standard material can be shipped 
promptly from stock. Whatever your requirements — 
write us today. 

Bulletin No. 39 contains over one hundred pages; it illus- 
trates and describes hundreds of different items. A copy 
of this comprehensive catalog will be sent on request. 



SUSPENSIONS 

Cap and Cone 

Armored 

Straight Line 
. Single and Doyblo Curve 

Car Barn; Strain 

Hinged Bracket Arm 
Twin 

Straight Line 

Single and Doyble Curve 
Ronnd Top 

Straight Line 

Single and Double Curve 

Hinged Bracket Arm 
West End 

Straight Line 

Single and Double Curve 

Hinged Bracket Ann 
Boston Twin 

Straight Line 

Single and Double Curve 

Strain 
Ceiling or Trough 

Types B. C, E, F. G. 

With removable Insulated bolt:- 

Types H, 1. J. 
Insulated Bolts 



EARS 

Straight Line for Round, OroovecJ 
or Figure 8 Wire. 

Double Center 

Feeder Ears 

Splicing Ears 

Half Strain 

Double Strain 

Clamp 

Mechanical 
Splicing Sleeves 
Feeder Cable Splicers 
Wire Connectors 
Strain Plates 
Wire Protecting Sleeves 



FROGS 

Bronze 

Malleable Iron 
Two, four and six pull-offi 
In any degree, right and left hand 
High Speed 

With and without removable ears 
Frog wearing plates 



CROSSINGS 

Bronze 

Malleable Iron 
Steel 
Insulated 
Uninsulated 
Adjustable 
Rigid 

With and without remortbla ears 
Overhead Conductor Bar Construction 



YOKES 

Feed in 

Feeder Plug 

Straight Line 

Single and Double Curr* 

Swivel Strain 

Double Trolley Wire 



INSULATORS 

Wood Strain 

Elephant Strain 

Giant Strain 

Globe Strain 

Porcelain 

Feed Wire 

Feeder Tap 

Brooklyn 

Turnbuckle 
Third Rail Section 

Single and Double Beam 

Automatic 

High Speed 
Split Spools 
Solid Spools 

Overhead material for Bridges 
Line Malarial for Cranes 
Sectional! zins Switches 
Trolley Wheels 
Sleet Wheels and Cutten 
Harps 
Pole Bands 
Eye Bolts 
Insulator Pins 
Tools for Installing overhead material 



J 



Albert & J, M. Anderson Manufacturing Co. 



New York 



289-305 A Street, Boston, Mass. 

Chicago Philadelphia 



London 



80 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



Wlicn Layouts are Complex 
LOOK TO 



^ 




^^^^'vw ""^^i 




For the Community Traction Co.,Tolcdo,Ohio. 



WHEN car wheels pass over this trackwork, they have a 
continuous flange bearing through the crossings. Ap- 
proaches to the flangeway intersections are gradual. These two 
features of construction eliminate the usual pounding noise where 
the guard rail is of ordinary depth and the approaches are short. 



This double track 3-part through wye is constructed of 7-inch 
guard rail Standard Section Lorain 140 No. 468 and correspond- 
ing flange bearing rail 150 No. 512. The tongue switches are 
of manganese steel. Mates, frogs and crossings are of iron-bound 
hard centre construction with chrome nickel steel center plates. 

LORAIN can meet any street railway requirement from the 
most complicated layout to a switch tongue lock-box; tongue 
switches, mates, frogs, crossings, etc., either to girder rail or 
standard tee rail sections. Investigate our ability to serve you. 

The Lorain Steel Company 

JOHNSTOW^V, PA. 

SUBSIDIARY OF UNITED STATES STEEL CORPORATION 

PRINCIPAL SUBSIDIARY MANUFACTURING COMPANIES: 

American Bridge Company Carnegie Steel Company Illinois Steel Company The Lorain Steel Company 

American Sheet and Tin Plate Company Cyclone Fence Company Minnesota Steel Company Tennessee Coal. Iron & R. R. Company 

American Steel and Wire Company Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company National Tube Company Universal Portland Cement Company 

PaciM Caul Dislriialtrs— Halted Stalei Steel Product! Compao;, San Francitco, Los Angeles, Portland, Seattle, Honolulu. Expert DislriMors—Vmtti Slalei Steel Producti Company, New York City 

Lorain Salts Offices— ATLAi^TA CHICAGO CLEVELAND DALLAS NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA PITTSBURGH 



<5 



Oram 



GIRDER RAILS 

GIRDER GUARD RAILS 

PLAIN GIRDER RAILS 

RAIL JOINTS AND 
TRACK ACCESSORIES 

EXPANSION JOINTS FOR 

ELECTRICALLY WELDED 

TRACK 

SPECIAL TRACKWORK 

SWITCHES, FROGS AND 

CROSSINGS 

in 

Solid Manganese Steely 

Manganese Insert Construction, 

Chrome Nickel Steel Insert 

Construction and Built-up 

Construction of all 
heights and weights of rail. 






Remember there is only 
one way to put track in the 
street exactly lile the plan 

Umform Mechanica/ Methods 
and SHO^MN^i SJ 



To INit Tke Trad fci Tke 



'^i^~:C-i!»;S:»?fj-s1JSg&iii^S^:iSSi'SiT>>Sis'fi';:i^wriA^^' 




Compression Tamper 



Uniform Tension Bolt Tightener 



INTESMnONM STEEL 



Street E 




Use Uniform Mechanical 

Methods and Steel 

Iwin lies 



Uniform results in ronstriicling paved track are 
what every operator wants. For uniform quality 
and results International machine methods com- 
bined with Steel Twin Ties have no counterpart in 
paved track construction. It is the only completely 
controlled, economical method of building paved 
track — regardless of whether the job is large or 
small. 

The modernized standard Steel Twin Tie has 8 plate 
anchors twisted into the concrete. It is furnished 
with the precision type rail clip that is rolled, sawed, 
drilled and machined, and with heat treated high 
tensile bolts. 

Install these Steel Twin Ties with the four machines 
that comprise the International Mechanical Method 
— Track Layer, Bolt Tightener, Compression Tam- 
per and the marvellous Mortar-Flow Pulsator that 
gives a .300 '^t better bond between rail, tie and 
concrete. 

Then you know you have track in the street exactly 
like the plan. 

Let us demonstrate International Mechanical Track 
laying methods, submit prices on ties, and terms on 
machine equipment. Write. 




Vibrating the track strnrliirr 
at 5500 vibrations per minute 
— with the '■^Mortar - Flou" 
Pnlsator — liives 301)% better 
bond between steel, rail, and 
concrete. 



CKETELAND 



Til COMPAN^'^o^'^ 



Here s a labor saver for you ! 

The Differential Electric 
Locomotive Crane Car 

Saves Time and Labor 
Reduces Accidents 




Capacity 

5 Tons at radii up to 26 

2 Tons at radii from 

26 feet 



feet. 

to 44 feet. 



Economically Performs Many Operations: 

Handling rails 

Handling special track work 

Setting poles 

Handling bridge timbers 

Magnet loading 

All kinds of loading and unloading operations 

One Man Operation: 

The crane operator sits in a revolving turret. 
From his seat he can conveniently and safely 
control the movement of the car along the 
track as well as control the four distinct crane 
movements. 




Safety: 



The machine is speedy but safe. It conforms 
to Electric Railway clearances. Never blocks 
traffic on adjacent tracks. 




The 




DIFFERENTIAL METHOD 
cuts construction costs 

The Differential Electric Dump Car. 

The Differential Body — 3 -way Dump 

The Clark Concrete Breaker 

The Differential Electric Locomotive Crane Car 



Adopt the Differential Method for 
Better Track and Lower Costs 



The Differential Steel Car Co., Findlay, Ohio, U, S. A. 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



85 



G 



L 



OOD IjUBRICATION 

keeps these Buses young 



Some of the 28 buses and trucks 
operated by the Charles H. 
Vollmer Motor Bus Lines of 
Amsterdam, N. Y. This fleet uses 
only Socony Gasoline and Air- 
craft Oil. 



BUSES wear out in parts. Sometimes the 
parts become worn out through long ser- 
vice. All too often they wear out early because of 
incorrect lubrication or unsuitable lubricants. 

Socony Aircraft Oil and Socony Gear Com- 
pound and Greases are keeping many buses 
young in New York and New England by pro- 
viding their moving parts with correct lubri- 
cation. 




STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF NEW YORK 



86 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



Jainiarv, 1930 



Is a saving of 

^180- per Bus-per year 

Interesting 
to you? 




"Tests recently completed on a line com- 
pletely equipped with Ecoftomy Gasoline 
Meters show that a saving of 10% to 17% 
IN GASOLINE can be obtained through 
the use of these meters. 

"This would mean a saving in FUEL 
COST of $180.00 per bus per year, or 
$.006 per bus mile. 

"THESE METERS would pay for them- 
selves in 3 to 6 months' time in gasoline 
savings." 



Economy Gasoline Meters 



WILL 

WILL 
WILL 
WILL 
WILL 
WILL 
WILL 
WILL 



Give you individual fuel consumption rec- 
ords, by men, by vehicles and by routes. 

Tell you which drivers are operating their 
busses correctly. 

Cut your fuel costs by encouraging cor- 
rect operation. 

Give you data on which to base educational 
campaigns for drivers. 

Indicate the condition of your equipment 
day by day, trip by trip. 

Assist your Mechanical Department to 
properly maintain your equipment. 

Cut your maintainance costs by indicating 
defective equipment. 

Enable you to determine proper carburetor 



adjustment. 

Let us send you the details of this new device 
and how it works. 



WILL Assist you in estimating the merits of 
various auxiliary devices. 

WILL Serve as a daily check upon the quality of 
your gasoline. 

WILL Enable you to fit most efficient vehicle to 
proper service. 

WILL Help you to determine most efficient 
schedules. 

WILL Indicate amount of fuel withdrawn from 
tank for power. 

WILL Eliminate waste of gasoline by overflow- 
ing tank when refilling. 

WILL Give you an accurate measure of your 
fuel costs by men, by routes, by busses, 
by trips. 



Economy Electric Devices Company 



Sangamo Economy Watthour Meters 
Peter Smith Heaters 



37 W. VAN BUREN ST., CHICAGO 

Haskelitc and Plymetl 
Peter Smith Reverse Flow Car Ventilating System 



Lang Bus Bodies 
Economy Gasoline Vehicle Meters 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



87 




NATIONAL 

SHELBY 



TROLLEY POLES 

Minimum weight with maximum strength 



To keep daily service at the highest peak of 
efficiency means the elimination of delays or 
traffic tie-ups frequently caused by trolley poles 
failing to hold up in service. Reliable poles, there^ 
fore, are a good investment. Their selection should be 
based on design and tests that prove their fitness for 
the character of service in which they will be used. 
NATIONAL-SHELBY Poles are designed with 
sufficient strength to meet all service requirements 
and yet not be of excessive weight. A special form 
of reinforcement at the proper place gives the pole 
great strength while the grade of steel used and a 



special heat treatment after drawing gives a high 
elastic fimit and assures long life and satisfactory 
service. 

In addition, every NATIONAL-SHELBY Trol- 
ley Pole is individually tested before it leaves the 
mill — a form of test that approximates actual serv- 
ice conditions. This type of test is especially im- 
portant in that it minimizes the possibility of any 
defective pole being installed — thereby helping to 
cut the cost of trolley pole service before it begins. 
A description of this test and complete information 
about these poles will be sent on request. 



NATIONAL TUBE COMPANV 

FricJc Buildinff, PiHshuvffh, Pa. 

SUBSIDIARY OF UNITED STATES STEEL CORPORATION 

principal subsidiary manufacturing companies: 
American Bridgb Company Carnegie Steel Company Illinois Steel Company The Lorain Steel Company 

American Sheet and Tin Plate Company Cyclone Fence Company Minnesota Steel Company Tennessee Coal, Iron & R. R. Company 

American Steel and Wire Company Federal Shipbtmi.dino and Dry Dock Company National Tube Company Universal Portland Cement Company 

Pacific Coast Dittriiutors— United Statet Steel Producti Company, San Franciico, Lot An£eles, Portland, Seattle, Honolulu. Export Distritulors^VaUti States Steel Products Company, New York CUjr 





88 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



The New Wharton Switch 

Designed For Minimum Maintenance 

...no kick-up. . . no moving forward 
no holding-down device 



The Wharton Flexible Wall 
Switch has a heel tightening de- 
vice based on the principle of a 
split collar. By means of a bolt 
the wall is flexed or drawn in until 
it hugs the tongue heel; thus all 
play caused by wear is taken up. 
The nut of this bolt is located in 
the drain box and is readily 
accessible. 

The tongue pin is 9/^" in diam- 
eter and is 6" deep. This con- 
struction eliminates a holding- 
down device, prevents kick-up and 
forward movement of the tongue. 





WM, WHARTON JR. & CO. INC. 

EASTON, PA. 



NEW YORK 

PHILADELPHIA 

BOSTON 



PITTSBURGH 

SAN FRANCISCO 

EL PASO HOUSTON 



CHICAGO 
SCRANTON 
MONTREAL 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



89 



"Standard" Steel Wheels Are Safer 



PRODUCTS 

Rolled 

Steel 

Wheels 

Armature 
Shafts 

Axles 

and 

springs 




Modern High Speed Electric 
Transportation needs the supe- 
rior safety and economy of 
"Standard" Wrought Steel 
Wheels and Forged Steel Axles. 






STANDARD STEEL WORKS COMPANY 



CHICAGO 
NEW YORK 
RICHMOND 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
WORKS: BURNHAM, PA. 



ST. LOUIS 
PORTLAND 
SAN FRANCISCO 



90 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL January, 1930 



PHONO -ELECTRIC 



PHONO-HI-STRENGTH 
PHONO -HI -CONDUCTIVITY 



BRIDGEPORT BRASS COMPANY is pleased to announce to the many users of 
Bridgeport Phono-Alloys the appointment of General Cable Corpora,tion as our 
sole and exclusive agent in the United States to draw wire from Phono- Alloys and to 
sell such wire and stranded cable. 

This arrangement offers a three-fold advantage to all users of these famous 
Bridgeport Brass Company products: 

(1) Ready availability of Phono- Alloy products through well-equipped 
and strategically located plants, with large capacity for drawing 
wire and stranding cable . . . 

(2) Technical assistance, gladly given when needed, by a staff of com- 
petent cable engineers, unbiased in their recommendations . . . 

(3) The co-operation of a nation-wide sales organization thoroughly 
versed in the practical application of Phono-Alloys to the transmis- 
sion of electrical energy. 

The Bridgeport Brass Company will continue, as heretofore, the manufacture 
and sale of Phono products, thus making available the combined engineering counsel and 
manufacturing facilities of both companies for the benefit of users of Phono-Electric, 
Phono-Hi-Strength, and Phono-Hi-Conductivity wires and stranded cables. 

The Bridgeport Brass Company feels that the appointment of the General Cable 
Company as outlined above will be welcomed throughout the entire electrical industry, 
further perfecting, as it does, the service obtainable by standardizing on Phono-Alloys. 



BRIDGEPORT BRASS COMPANY 



"PHONO" ALLOYS FOR OVER THIRTY YEARS 

BRIDGEPORT, CONNECTICUT 



January, 1930 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 91 



PHONO -ELECTRIC 



PHONO-HI-STRENGTH 
PHONO - HI - CONDUCTIVITY 



^^F particular significance is the appointment of General Cable Corporation by the 
^^ Bridgeport Brass Company as its sole and exclusive agent in the United States to 
draw wire from Phono-Alloys and to sell such wire and stranded cable. 

For, in the addition of bronze Phono- Alloys to its complete line of electric wire 
and cable products, General Cable Corporation takes a forward step in broadening its 
scope of service to the entire electrical industry. The appointment is truly indicative 
of our earnest desire to provide a complete, dependable source of supply for all types 
of electrical wires and cables — and thus to be able to weigh our customers' requirements 
with open minds, uninfluenced by manufacturing limitations. The soundness of this 
policy and the benefits derived from it by all wire and cable users will, we believe, be 
quickly realized by the whole industry. 

Adequate manufacturing facilities and a large sales and engineering organization, 
ably represented in the principal cities of the United States, are now available to all users 
of Phono- Alloys. 

Although Bridgeport Brass Company will continue the manufacture and sale of 
this material, wires and cables manufactured from Phono-Electric, Phono-Hi-Strength, 
and Phono-Hi-Conductivity alloys will henceforth be obtainable through all of the 
divisions of General Cable Corporation. 



STANDARD UNDERGROUND CABLE COMPANY 



\ DIVISION OF GENERAL CABLE CORPORATION 



PERTH AMBOY, NEW JERSEY 



92 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 





MOTOR COACH FUMES 



ARE 



COSTLY 



T. 



HE pedestrians that your motor 
coaches pass at the street corners 
. . . the motorists that follow your 
buses on the highway . . . may be 
prospective passengers. 

To subject these potential custom- 
ers to the stifling fumes produced 
by gasoline with high sulphur con- 
tent is not good business . . . and it 
can easily be avoided. Red Crown 
Gasoline, pure and practically free 
from sulphur, does not produce 
objectionable odors. 

As a motor fuel Red Crown Gaso- 
line ranks at the top. It possesses 
every characteristic that a superior 
gasoline must possess . . . quick 




starting . . . rapid acceleration 
. . . power . . . ability to give 
maximum mileage. 

Motor coach operators who in- 
vestigate motor fuel find that 
Red Crown, in addition to 
burning without the objec- 
tionable odors so noticeable 
in some gasolines, speeds up 
service, increases mileage and 
lowers operating costs. 

A test will convince you, as it 
has others, that Red Crown is 
the gasoline for you to use. 

STANDARD OIL COMPANY 

(Indiana) 
910 So. Michigan Ave. Chicago, IlL 



RED CROWN GASOLINE 



Davenport 
Decatur 
Des Moines 
Detroit 



Duluth 
Evansville 
Fargo 
Grand Rapids 



Green Bay 
Huron 
Indianapolis 
Joliet 



^Saeii 



Kansas City 
La Crosse 
Mankato 
Mason City 



Milwaukee 
Minneapolis 
Minot 
Peoria 



Quincy 

Saginaw 
Sioux City 
South Bend 



St. Joseph 
St. Louis 
Wichita 



;>3«e» 








\J^.ji.j,S.J^^ 



H 



the Old Town 
Has Changed 



.ERE is Fifth Avenue at 34th Street in 
1898. The horse-drawn stages originally 
installed in 1885 "to prevent an invasion 
of the Avenue by horse cars" long ago 
made way for "America's first fleet of gaso- 
line propelled coaches, imported from 
Europe." These too are gone. Now 
Yellow Coaches serve Fifth Avenue . . . 
the most famous thoroughfare in American 
history and probably the most severe city- 
service route in this country. 






From Washington Square to 72nd 
Street is the most congested three 
miles of bus route in America. 



>4j^ > 0'>^-^3^Ng7S iJ> ,NgSiw > iN O i? 




Easter on the Avenue at 50th 
Street in 1900. There was no 
annoying automobile competition 
in these gay days — hut just look 
at the 'ansoms. 



The first buses to run on Fifth 

Avenue were imported from 

Europe. 



TKe Most Famous — audi Difficult 
City-Service Route in America 



The history of bus operation in America began 45 
years ago in New York — on Fifth Avenue — known 
in pioneer times as "The Middle Road." 

Its forebear was the horse-drawn stage. The Fifth 
Avenue Transportation Company, Limited, was 
organized in 1885 to operate a horse-drawn stage 
line. The company grew. Ten years later its equip- 
ment consisted of 71 stages and 360 horses. 

Then came a reorganization. History tells us that 
the new owners in 1899 began experimenting with 



"gasoline and electric propelled buses" but that "the 
first types utilizing a gasoline engine and an electric 
transmission" were found impractical. 

Then came experiments conducted with a single 
gasoline bus — the DeDion Bouton imported from 
Europe. Fourteen others were ordered in 1907. 
Two months later the horse equipment was sold 
at auction. The fleet of buses grew steadily. Motor 
coach operation on Fifth Avenue had come to stay. 

Then came the world war. Coaches could no longer 



Rftli Avcauc Coadi bu^sJOO moK 




The latest double deck Yellow 
Coach of the type just ordered. 



be imported and the company was forced to manu- 
facture their own equipment to meet their specialized 
requirements. Then came Yellow Coach — one of 
America's first bus manufacturers — with equipment 
specially designed and developed for large capacity 
passenger transportation. Fifth Avenue has been 
standardizing on Yellow ever since. 

Today the Fifth Avenue Coach Company operates 
a maximum total of 440 buses — with 100 more 
Yellows now on order to replace equipment of 
older type. 

There is no more severe or grueling test of equip- 
ment than double deck operation on Fifth Avenue. 
Here, along this world-famous artery, buses operate 
over a longer congested route than is found in any 
motor coach operation in America. Congestion! 
From Washington Square to 72nd Street a dense 
packed mass of vehicles and surging humanity 

yellow 



Fifth Avenue at 44th Street to- 
day. For three miles it's like this 
— the most congested stretch of 
route in America 



stretches solidly ahead for three grueling miles. Yet 
under the scheduled headway a bus every 16j 
seconds must work its way through. 

The drag and strain on machinery is tremendous. 
During practically all hours of the day the traffic is 
packed, jammed. When it moves it moves as a unit. 
Frequent traffic stops pile up the buses. Equipment 
crawls, stops, starts, stops and starts again. One 
mile — two — three — there is no relief in this con- 
gested area. 

Fifth Avenue Coach Company operates 32.23 miles 
of route. 

11,385,574 revenue bus miles were piled up during 
the year ending June 30, 1929. 

66,236,312 revenue and transfer passengers were 
carried. 

618,181,395 active seat miles were furnished. 



Coaches 




f\,.,.J^ff Vw/ 



1,300 drivers and conductors are on the payroll and 
four main and service garages keep equipment in 
good condition. 

Traffic conditions on Fifth Avenue hold no place 
for motor coaches that cannot stand the gaff. These 
big, double deck coaches must keep moving for a 
breakdown would jam traffic instantly. 

The Company' years of experience along this ruth- 
less proving ground, proves that Yellow Coaches suc- 
cessfully meet the abnormal conditions encountered. 

Because of their performance, 100 "Type Z" Yellow 
chassis, for double deck bodies, have just been 
ordered by this pioneer operator and will soon go 
into service on the most famous, and difficult, city- 
service route in America — Fifth Avenue in 
New York. 



Interesting Facts 

The Fifth Avenue Coach Com- 
pany is the pioneer bus operator 
of America. 

The company obtained its charter 
in 1885 and operated horse stages 
on Fifth Avenue until 1907. 
The first experiments with gaso- 
line buses in America were con- 
ducted on Fifth Avenue by this 
company. 

The first successful gasoline bus 
was imported from Europe in 1906. 
The company has an operating fleet 
of 440 coaches — practically all 
double deck equipment — and has 
just placed an order for 100 addi- 
tional Yellow Chassis. 

Year Ending June, 1929 

Passengers carried 66,236,312 

Miles of route 32.23 

Revenue bus miles 11,385,574 

Drivers and conductors 1,300 

Garages and shops 4 



GENERAL MOTORS TRUCK COMPANY, PONTIAC, MICH. 

Subsidiary of Yellow Truck & Coach Mfg. Company 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



97 



Cjidd definite sales lvalue-- 

G/ ART RATTAN 

Seats 



STREET car manufacturers who install 
Art Rattan seats find that they add 
definite sales value to their products. The 
qualities that made Art Rattan seats out- 
standing in the bus field is repeated among 
car builders. 

The greater comfort, smart tailoring, deep, 
inviting upholstery and sturdy frames re- 
sult from years of experience in building 
Art Rattan Seats. 

Operators insist on comfort and style. 
Art Rattan Seats meet their demands. 




ART RATTAN WORKS, INC^ 

Builders of De Luxe Street Car Seats 
CLEVELAND, OHIO OAKLAND, CAL. 



98 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



Ihrough the 

McGRAW-HILL 
PUBLICATIONS 

you can tell your sales 

story to this broad 

sweep of industry 

and business: 



Economy in distribution is a mat- 
ter of intelligent weighing of mar- 
kets and intensive specialization 
in those that are found to be most 
profitable. The McGraw-hlill pub- 
lishing program offers not only a 
wide and effective advertisingcov- 
erage of industry and business but 
facilities and experienced help in 
establishing efficient selling pro- 
grams to which advertising, to be 
successful and economical, must 
be geared. 




January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



99 



AMERICAN MACHINIST- A weekly publication reaching 
those executives of the metal -working industries who are 
responsible for management, production and plant operation. 
Circulation 17,512.** 

PRODUCT ENGINEERING— A new monthly publication reach- 
ing the executives of the metal-working industries who are 
directly responsible for the planning of the product from the 
viewpoint of salability, best service in use and economy in 
manufacture. Over 8,000 copies of this publication are dis- 
tributed monthly to the executives in charge of research, 
design, specification and field investigation.! 

THE BUSINESS WEEK— A new journal of business news and 

interpretation. Fast, complete coverage of the news. Published 
weekly on a newspaper schedule. Fifteen editors — all busi- 
ness specialists— provide 75,000 major executives with the 
news they need and tell them what it means.* 

SYSTEM— A monthly journal devoted to modern business man- 
agement. Covers the managerial executives in large and 
medium-sized businesses. Circulation 70,000. 

FACTORY & INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT- A monthly 
publication serving the men responsible for production and 
plant management policies in all major industries. A general 
industrial executive journal. Circulation more than 33,000.** 

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING-A monthly publication serving 
the plant engineering department throughout industry on the 
selection, installation and maintenance of mechanical and elec- 
trical equipment, and maintenance of plant structures. Circula- 
tion 15,000.** 

ENGINEERING NEWS-RECORD-A weekly publication reach- 
ing the engineering executives and contractors of the civil 
engineering and construction industry. Editorially covers 
planning, designing, construction and maintenance of build- 
ings, bridges, highways, railroads, waterworks, irrigation, 
drainage ana sewerage systems, etc. Circulation 30,000.** 

CONSTRUCTION METHODS -A monthly pictorial of field 
practice and equipment read by the field-minded construction 
men. Covers construction, maintenance and material handling 
methods for general construction, highways, buildings, indus- 
trial plants, public works and utilities. Circulation 32,000.** 

POWER— A weekly publication reaching those in responsible 
charge of power generation and attendant services in all 
industries. Editorially covers the functions of executive con- 
trol, installation, operation, maintenance and application of 
power wherever it is employed. Circulation 27,535.** 

AVIATION — A weekly publication serving all those engaged 
or actively interested in the development of the aeronautical 
industries . . . 20,332 copies are subscribed to by the 
business men of the aeronautical industries. The oldest 
American aeronautical magazine.* 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL-A monthly publication 
reaching the managing and operating executives and engineers 
of city and inter-city transportation companies — electrified 
railways (surface, subway, elevated) and affiliated bus oper- 
ations—in the U. S., Canada and throughout the World. 
Circulation nearly 6,000.** 




CHEMICAL & METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING-A montn- 

ly publication serving the chemical engineering or process 
industries— a group of approximately 20 industries closely 
related because of common production processes. Circula- 
tion more than 13,000.** 

FOOD INDUSTRIES— A monthly publication serving the manu- 
facturing and processing of food products. Written for the 
production executives and technologists of the food manufac- 
turing industries. Circulation 10,000. 

COAL AGE— A monthly engineering journal reaching the 
executives and operating heads of the bituminous and anthra- 
cite mining industry. Devoted editorially to operating, tech- 
nical and business problems. Circulation 9,383.** 

ENGINEERING AND MINING JOURNAL-A national semi- 
monthly publication read by the executives and operating 
heads responsible for mining, milling, smelting and refining 
metals and non-metallic minerals in the United States and 
possessions. Editorially covers operating, technical and busi- 
ness problems of the industry. Circulation 7,000, concentra- 
ted in the United States and its possessions. 

ENGINEERING AND MINING WORLD -An international 

monthly publication read by the executives and operating 
heads of 3,000 mining enterprises outside the United States 
and its possessions. Editorially covers operating, technical 
and business problems connected with mining, milling, smelt- 
ing and refining of metals and non-metallic minerals. Circula- 
tion 6,300 (outside U. S. A. and possessions). 

E. & M. J. METAL AND MINERAL MARKETS -A weekly 
publication read by metal and mineral dealers and brokers, 
and the major industrial metal consumers, also by the sales 
executivesof mineral producing companies. Editorially covers 
metal and mineral market trends and current prices of metals 
and minerals. Circulation 1,500. 

ELECTRICAL WORLD— A weekly publication reaching exec- 
utives and engineers of central stations and electrical manufac- 
turers, electrical engineers of industrial manufacturers, 
consulting engineers, etc. Circulation more than 18,500.** 

ELECTRICAL MERCHANDISING- A monthly publication 
reaching appliance departments of central stations, sales 
executives of electrical appliance manufacturers, wholesalers 
and dealers of all classes handling electrical merchandise in 
volume. Circulation more than 17,000.** 

RADIO RETAILING — A monthly publication serving retailers, 
wholesalers and manufacturers — radio, music, hardware, 
sport, department stores, etc. The only ABC-ABP paper in 
the radio or music trade field. Circulation more than 26,000.** 

ELECTRICAL WEST — A monthly publication serving central 
station executives, appliance dealers, jobbers, contractors 
and contractor-dealers, in the 11 Western and Pacific Coast 
States. Circulation nearly 6,000.** 

BUS TRANSPORTATION— A monthly publication read by 
the managing, operating and maintenance executives and 
engineers of common carrier bus operating companies through- 
out the United States. Circulation nearly 10,000.** 

TEXTILE WORLD— A weekly publication serving all branches 
of textile manufacturing — cotton, wool, silk and rayon. Edited 
for the administrative and production executives. One of the 
earliest industrial publications (established 1868) and the 
world's accepted textile authority. Circulation nearly 9,000.** 



** Member of Audit Bureau of Circulations and Associated Business Papers 
* Member of Audit Bureau of Circulations 
' First issue appears in January, 1930 



McGRAW-HILL PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC. 



NEW YORK CHICAGO 

DETROIT ST. LOUIS 

SAN FRANCISCO 



PHILADELPHIA VCASHINGTON 

CLEVELAND BOSTON 

GREENVILLE LONDON 



100 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



SPEED 



GETAWAY 



LESS WEIGHT 

NO NOISE 



Tool Steel*"^ Gear Drive 




Fig. 2 — Axle Unit, Coupling and Hanger (top housing removed) 



This Drive Has Made Good 

Bulletin upon Request 



The Tool Steel Gear & Pinion Co. 

Elmwood Place, Cincinnati, Ohio 



(OOL-STEEL QUALIiy 

j!us>«4^/<i^ CEARSAND PINION/" ' 




January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



101 



DUNDEE 



fcfcA^' 



STICKS IN PLACE 



DUNDEE "A" friction tape is popular 
with electrical workers because it sticks 
quickly and therefore is easy to use. Fore- 
men and superintendents like it because it 
does not dry out and therefore it stays in 
place. 

Dundee "B" is a true friction tape. The ad- 
hesive compound is not merely spread on 
the cotton fabric but is calendered under 
heavy pressure into every part of the cloth. 
For that reason the fabric and the adhesive 
never separate into layers. 

In spite of the care used in its manufacture, 
it is moderately priced. Specify it on your 
next order. 



THE OKONITE COMPANY 

Founded 1878 

THE OKONITE-CALLENDER CABLE COMPANY, INC. 

Foctofies: Passaic, N. J. Paterson, N. J 

SALES OFFrCES: 



ST. LOUIS 
LOS ANGELES 
Conodian R«pr«$«nratjvas: 
Engineering Malerioli, Limited. Montr«ol 





BOSTON 
SEAHIE 



ATLANTA 
DALLAS 



Cuban i)*pr«s«ntaliv»k: 
Victor G. Mandozo Co.. Hovand 



DKONin ntODUCTS 

Okontt* 

Intulalcd WirM 

and Cabl«s 

Vamith«d Com brie 
Coblet 

Okonile 
Intutating Tapa 

Monton & Dvnd0« 
Friction Topes 

Okocord 

Okoloom 



Impregnotod 
Pap«r Cablet 



Supcr-tsntion Cables 
Splicing tAatmrioh 



102 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




Convert your 

Danger Zones into 

Safety Zones 

Make it a thorough job. You can't afford to be 
half-hearted in your protection efforts. TOLEDO 
Torches are not just another means of pro- 
tecting your construction work. They are the only 
means that will fully protect you from 



«<rA% 



the harder it blows 
the better they burn 




accident losses. 



^ AWT »0»* 



Toledo Torches are free from theft and breakage. 

They are always ready for service without attention. 

Our patented Economy Burner cuts the oil cost in half 
and insures perfect performance. 

Look for our name on each 

TOLEDO 1^1 TORCH 

The Toledo Pressed Steel Co. 

Toledo, Ohio 

aiiiiiniiniiiiiiiiiiiiiimimiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiinii iiiiiiiin iiiiiiiiiuiiii i i mi iiiiii iiiiiiii iiiiiiiinu 91 miiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiihiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiikikiixiikiiii""""'""""""""""^ 





COLUMBIA 



Railway and Utility Supplies 



Castings — Grey Iron. 
Brass and Aluminum 

Forgings 

Special Machinery 

and Patterns 

Machine and Sheet 
Metal Work 

Armature and 
Field Coils. 



The Columbia Machine Works and M. I. Co. 

265 Chestnut St., comer Atlantic Ave., 
Brooklyn, New York 



News .... 



brief, late news flashes for | 

the electric railway industry | 

To supplement the service of the | 

regular monthly issues of Electric | 

Railway Journal, a separate NEWS | 

service appears on thirty-nine | 

Saturdays during the year. This | 

supplement keeps you in touch with | 

court decisions . . . fare increases | 

, . . new ordinances . . . associa- | 

tion meetings . . . financial state- | 

ments . . . equipment purchases. | 

Subscription Price: For all coun- | 

tries taking domestic subscription | 

rate, $2. Sold in combination with i 

the monthly edition of Electric \ 

Raihcay Journal for $4 a year | 

domestic rate. I 



Ill I hJ IfiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii tiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiim iiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiiimmimimiiiiiiiiR 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



103 



STRUCTURAL 
STEEL 

Fabricated STEEL STRUCTURES 

for every purpose 



^^^^^^^^^H^^ ''ii'^'-^'^!^^^ 


w 


I 


^^^^^H'"- 1 


|^H|-'iiiiii«« 

sis T-- .. ♦«» 




1^ 

imii 






»- 



PROGRESS PICTURE, POWER STATION 

■ 

Fabricated Structural Steel by 

American Bridge Company 

Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation 

■ - 

Manufacturers of StEEL STRUCTURES 

of all classes, particularly 

Bridges and Buildings 

Roof Trusses, Columns, Girders, Towers and Poles, etc 

■ 

General Office: 71 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Contracting Offices in Principal Cities 



104 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



The Texas Company has solved the 
problem of car journal lubrication 




THE TEXACO OIL SEAL 




A new oil seal has been devised which for the 
first time effectively prevents leakage of lubri- 
cant from the journal box and the access of 
abrasive dust and water. 

It is an important part of a new Texaco 
System of Lubrication. 

Notice the illustration above. It shows one of 
the oil seals after two years actual service — 
still in perfect condition. 

Contrast this with the illustration of the felt- 
lined wooden dust guard. A few months serv- 
ice renders these dust guards entirely in- 
effective. 

The Texas Company is prepared to supply the 
new Texaco Oil Seals and explain fully the 
money-saving principle of Texaco Lovis Oil 
and the Texaco System of Lubrication. Write 
The Texas Company, Dept. L. 



USUAL FELT LINED WOODEN 
DUST GUARD 




TEXACO LUBRICANTS 



THE TEXAS COMPANY, 

17 Battery Place, New York City 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 

Electric Motor 
Insulations 



107 





. . . lor every need 

_for every motor type and size! 



Glance at the insulations listed at the right. There is one 
for every motor need from slot buttons to phase leads. 
They are all performance-proved in thousands of motors 
of every manufacture. Their quality is unvarying, for 
throughout manufacture — from raw materials to fin- 
ished products — continuous inspections to most rigid 
standards are maintained. 

We offer you one source of supply for all your motor 
insulations and quality that is unexcelled. 

MICA INSULATOR COMPANY 

New York: 200 Varick Street Chicago: 542 South Dearborn Street 

Works: Schenectady, N. Y. London, England 

Cleveland Pittsburgh Cincinnati Birmingham Seattle San Francisco 

Lob Angeles Toronto Montreal 



.N^x^'ite 



Mfcwfrr 

I'" INSULATOR ^ 



REG. U.S. PAT. QCP. 




S uper-Micanite 

and Micanite 

Commutator Segments 
Commutator, Rings, Tape. 

Empire Oiled 

Insulations 

Linotape, Cloth, Armatite, 
Paper, Tubing, Canvas 
Duck, Silk. 

Mica Insulations 

Varnishes, Compounds, 
Slot Paper, Cotton, Sleev- 
ing, Friction Tape, Rub- 
ber Tape, Twines. 

VJV^ PERFECT ^% 

EMPIRE 

^, INSULATOR vA^ 

REG. li.S.PAT.OFP 



MICA INSULATION 



OILED CLOTH INSULATION 



108 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



y* 



^. 



Thit is one of a series of advertisements directed originally to 
advertising men in an effort to make industrial advertising more 
profitable to buyer and seller. It is printed in these pages as an 
indication to readers that McGravi-Hill publishing standards mean 
advertising effectiveness as <well as editorifil virility. 



•\, 



PATENTS 
EXPIRING 



:/ 



whafll we do? 
what^ll others do? 



-The Formui-a 




During this three-year period, when 
XYZ's profits were barely enough 
to pay the patent owners, XYZ ad- 
vertised regularly in McGraw-Hill 
Publications — building recognition 
for the future — intrenching them- 
selves in a strategic position for 
the ftost-patent period. 



Pyramided effects of continous in- 
dustrial advertising sent sales and 
profits constantly upward after 
patents expired. A sustained ad- 
vertising program of full and double 
pages, with pithy, factful copy, is 
keeping the XYZ Co. in top place. 
A clear-cut victory— not so much 
for McGraw-Hill publications but 
for Industrial Advertising strategi- 
cally applied. 



J 



B 



>ASIC patents on a ma- 
chine used extensively by a 
specific industry were 
owned by the ABC Corp. 

The XYZ Co. also made the 
machine, along with other 
products, paying the ABC 
people a royalty for every 
machine sold. The XYZ 
Co. chose to stay in business 
without making a practical 
profit on this particular 
product. Whyf 

Two years or so ago the 
patents expired. The ex- 
pected happened. Dozens 
of manufacturers turned to 
making the machine. But 
instead of diminishing sales 
for the XYZ Co., there came 
increased sales, pyramiding 
profits and leadership in the 
field. This leadership is be- 
ing maintained today by the 
same formula that was used 
steadily for three years be- 
fore industry-at-large was 
free to make the machine. 



McGRAW-HILL PUBLICATIONS 



New York . 



Chicago 
Greenville 



Cleveland 
San Francisco 



Detroit 

Boston 



Philadelphia 
London 



St. Louis 



»-II 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



109 



Boyerize — and "skip-stop" 
the repair shops! 



In continuous operation — that's 
where you will find cars equipped 
with Boyerized Parts. These parts 
have wear, tear and strain resisting 
qualities that are phenomenal. Boyer- 
izing — a special process gives them 
this tremendous strength. 

Boyerized Parts outlast parts made 
of untreated steel three to four times 
— reduce replacements 50 to 75%. 

Put a "skip-stop" sign on your re- 
pair shops by specifying Boyerized 
Parts on new cars or for replace- 
ments. Use the list ! 

BOYERIZED 
PARTS 




Brake Pins 
Brake Hangers 
Brake Levers 
Pedestal Gibs 
Brake Fulcrums 
Center Bearings 
Side Bearings 



LIST OF PRODUCTS 

Spring Post 

Bushings 
Brake Bushings 
Bronze Bearings 
Bolster and 

Transom 

Chafing 

Plates 



Spring Posts 
McArthur 

Turnbucklcs 
Manganese 

Brake Heads 
Manganese 

Truck 

Parts 



BEMIS CAR TRUCK COMPANY 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY SUPPLIES 
SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

RepresentatiTes : 

P. F. Bodler. 903 Monadnock Bids., San Francisco, Cal. 
W. F, McKenney, 62-66 First St., Portland, Ore. 
J. H. Denton. 1,338 Broadway, New York City, N, Y. 
A. W. Arlin. 519 Delta Building-, Los Angreles. Cal. 




Bates -Truss Poles 
for Trolley Suspension 

MODERN transportation demands 
modem methods. The Bates'Truss 
Pole is the solution of trolley suspension 
problems. The general tendency of elec 
trie railways toward the increased use of 
Bates'Truss Poles is significant in these 
days of high costs and keen transportation 
competition. 

Structural simplicity, combined with lasting 
strength and fine appearance, makes the 
Bates'Truss Pole ideal for all forms of over' 
head construction. Let us quote you on 
poles, structures or towers. 



Hn P ^ TP r 
pteslj^anflgljteel muss [p. 

EAST CHICAGO, IND. 



110 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



ROLLER- SMITH 

Portable Direct Reading 

RAIL BOND TESTERS 



are 



Standard the World Over 





And for good reasons. They are light, compact and portable. Only one 
man is required to make quick, accurate readings. Readings in units of 
feet of rail are taken directly from the 300° long scale. 

The Type SBT is recommended for all ordinary work and the super- 
sensitive Type BBT for conditions where there is little or no current in the 
rail. Bulletin G-200 should be in the hands of every man who is interested 
in bond testing. Send for it. 



"Over ihirty-five years' instrument experience 
is back of Roller-Smith" 



m 



iTTFRrSMITHCOMB 



Electrtcal Mcasurinfl and Ppotecttvc Apparatus 



•ANY 

iratusi M 



Main Office: 

2140 Woolworth BIdg., 

NEW YORK, N. Y., U. S. A. 



Worts: 

Belhlehem, Pennsylvania, 

U.S.A. 



Offices in principal cities in U. S. A. and Canada 
Representatives in Australia, Cuba, Japan and Philippine Islands 







k 

n^ 


Meets Any Change 






I 

i 


in Fare or System 






I 


The ease with which Clevelands fit into any fare 
collection system has made them standard on 
hundreds of properties. 


« 




^ 


Any system of collection can be built around 
ga them. They collect tokens and tickets as effi- 




^^H^H^H^l ciently as 




^^^H9^H Under your existing system, they insure efficient, 
^^^^■fP^Hl modern fare collection. Their flexibility makes 
^^^^B V '^^B them fit into any change in fare collection that 
^^^P 'J^^ you may make tomorrow. 




^^^^K' 


^JM "4-Way" locks with other safeguards insure 
gj^H ample protection. Simple to operate and sturdily 
H|H built they will easily outlast the car. 






1 

^P The Cleveland Fare Box Co* 






HH 4900 Lexington Ave. Cleveland, Ohio 

^^^^H| Canadian Cleveland Fare Box Co., Limited, Preston, Ontario 


^ 


W^^ "4- Way" Padlocks, Coin Auditing Machines, Change Carriers, Tokens 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



111 



♦ ♦ 



a sign 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



Track areas 
paved with 
vitrified brick 



are 



unmistakable 
signs of 

THRIFTY 



FARSIGHTED 



MANAGEMENT 



For engineering data on Brick 
Pavements, write National Pav- 
ing Brick Manufacturers Ass'n, 
1245 National Press Building, 
Washington, D. C. 



VITRIFIED 

BRICK 
I PAVEMENTS 

FACE THE FUTURE . . PAVE WITH BRICK 



It's Poor 
Publicity ^^ 

An accident on your property may be news but 
it's poor — and costly — publicity for your lines. 

NACHOD Automatic Signal equipment is the 
best insurance against such occurrences. Positive 
in action, there is a type for every need. 

N'A'C'H-O-D 

Spells Safety —On 
Your Crossings 







On Streets— Over 
Your Entire 
System 




The Nachod Turn-Right Sig- 
nal (illustrated) prevents side 
swipes with autos. Nachod 
manufactures Signals for Single 
and Double Track. Stub End 
Signals, Annunciator Signals, 
Headway Recorders — a com- 
plete line for complete pro- 
tection. 



Nachod and United States 
Signal Co., Inc. 

Louisville, Ky. 



112 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




THE fine record of service of 
Tucolith flooring is proven by 
its years of use in over 50,000 
vehicles. Its future is indicated by 
the increasing number of new street 
cars in which Tucolith is the speci- 
fied flooring. 



TUCO PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

NEW YORK 
BLDG., CHICAGO 



30 CHURCH ST., 
RAILWAY EXCH. 



^^Canned Experienced^ 

— for Electric Railway Men 



The Most Efficient Methods Are Those 

Tested and Perfected by Men 

Recognized as Experts 

The world's best research in the Electric Railway Industry 
is contained in these McGraw-Hill books. They have 
been written by noted engineers and authorities. From 
them you will gain a priceless heritage of "canned experi- 
ence' which will give you a better grasp of your taslc 
and fit you for added achievement. 

Rickey — 1 

Electric Railway Handbook 

.Seconfl Edition, 708 uaeeR, flexible, pocket 8ize. 538 illugtratlonfl, 
»4.00. 

A thorouKhly revised referenre hook of practical data, formulas and tables for the use 
of operators, engineers and students. It Kh'es the essential reference data on all 
phases of electric railway construction and operation. It presents: (1) Data on sub- 
jects which come up in everyday railway practice. (2) Material of service to the 
non-teclinical manaRcr or operator. (3) Reference material on electric railway practice 
for those who are specializing in other or allied lines. ' 

Healy— 2 

Electrification of Steam Railroads 

rublished May. 1028. 

By KKNT T. HEALY. Assistant professor of Transportation. Yale rnlversity; 

formerly Inspector and Cost EiiRineer. The New York, New Haven and Hartford 

Railroad. 

3115 pagen. 6x0. 165 illustrationH. «5.00. 
This book combines the description of the physical characteristics of the elements ot 
electrification with the analysis of economic prohlems and the operating performance 
of both electrification and electric operation. Special emphasis Is given to such 
topics as power supply contracts, overhead distribution systems and economic data. 

Harding — 3 

Electric Railway Engineering 

Third Edition. 480 imRes. (>xO, 218 illustrations. $5.00. 

A thorough revision of this standard work on the theory and practice of electric rail- 
way engineering. The hook covers the principles of train operation, power generation, 
and distribution, equipment and types of systems. 

Blake and Jackson — 4 

Electric Railway Transportation 

Second F^dition, 437 pages, 6x9. 121 itlu8tration§, $5.00. 

A second edition of this widely known book on the transportation side of the electric 
railway business — getting the cars over the tracks — increasing the traffic — collecting 
the fares — and selling service in the face of modern conditions. Particular con- 
sideration is given to the place of the bus in modern transportation. - 

King — 5 

Railway Signaling 

369 paces, 6\0. 340 illustrations, $4.00. 

A cttrapletely adequate book on all phases of modern railway signaling. The book 
describes fully the construction, installation, operation and maintenance of signaling 
equipment, and presents a thorough discussion of principles. 

These books may be examined for 10 days FREE 



McOraw^-Hil-l. 



FREE EXAMINATION COUPON 



,4. Blake ajid Jackson — Elec- 
tric Railway Transportation. 
S5.00. 

.5. King — Railway Signaling. 
$4.00. 



McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 370 Seventh Avenue. New York. 

Send me the books checked below: 
1. Rlchey's — Electric Railway 

Handbook. 14.00. 
2. Healy — Electrification of 

Steam Railroads. S5.00. 
3. Harding — Electric Railway 

Engineering. $5.00. 
1 agree to return such books as I do not wish to keep, postpaid, or to remit for 
them within 10 days of receipt. 

Name • 

Home Address 

City and SUte 

Position 

Name of Company E- ^*30 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



113 



Especially 

for Bonding around Splice Bars 



Erico CAE Arc Weld Bonds are preformed. That's 
one reason why they are so widely used for special 
work and cross bonding. It's the reason, too, why 
the cable goes over splice bars without twisting or 
bending to get the bond to lie in position on the rail. 

Type CAE Arc Weld Bonds are made with cop- 
per terminals. Due to the angle at which the ter- 




minal is sheared, every wire is exposed to the weld- 
ing arc and must be included in the weld. The 
large area of weld is secured with but one half elec- 
trode per terminal, using C-1 flux coated copper 
electrodes which are short and convenient for the 
welder to handle. 



A request 

for samples entails 

no obligation. 



Write- 



Type CAE Copper Weld Bond, applied. 

The Electric Railway Improvement Co. 

2070 E. 61st Place, Cleveland, Ohio 




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PANTASOTE 

TRADE MARK 

— the car curtain and upholstery material chat 
pays back its cost by many added yean of 
service. Since 1S97 there has been no substitute 
for Pantasnte. 

AGASOTE 

TRADE MARK 

— the only panel board made in one piece. It is 
homogeneous and waterproof. Will not separate, 
warp or blister. 




Standard 

for electric railway cars 

and motor buses 



Samples and full 
information gladly 
furnished. 



The PANTASOTE COMPANY, Inc. 

250 Park Avenue NEW YORK 

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i THERE'S ATRENTON TOWER 
I jor Railway Worli^ tool 



From our forty-four 
y e a r 8' experience 
we have built this 
Trenton Utility 
Tower to handle 
overhead construc- 
tion on the rail- 
roads. It operates 
on ARA standard 
graugre track and 
has a wheelbase of 




8 feet. Body plat- 
form 6 feet wide, 
13 feet longr and 
about 2 feet from 
top of rail to top 
of platform. Equip- 
ped with Brakes. 
Pin Couplings, and 
Rail Clamps so 
truck can be locked 
in position. 



J. R. McCARDELL AND COMPANY 

391-401 SO. WARREN ST., TRENTON, N. J. 



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114 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



c^- 



-'^\d 



G>S. RY 



R AlL^Wv^Y: 




□□mamcDcrTO 



51 



51 




Oee of the Latest Type 

Light-weight ^ One ^ Mae 

iBteriarbam Cars 

built by 

CUMMINGS CAR AND COACH CO. 

Js^ 111 West Monroe St., Chicago, 111. A 




enniraraiininiuiiniiiii iimriiiriiiriiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiuiiiimiiiiiiiin iiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiuiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiipj ^jiiiiiiuiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiir 

JOHNSON 

FARE 

COLLECTING 

SYSTEMS 

Johnson Electric Fare Boxes and overhead reg:istars | 

make possible the instantaneous reg-isteringr and | 

counting^ of every fare. Revenues are increased i 

1% to 5% and the efficiency of one-man operation i 

is materially increased. Quicker boarding of = 

passengers with resultant reduction in running: = 

time for the buses. Over 6.000 already in use. | 

When more than three coins are used as fare, the i 
Type D Johnson Fare Box is the best manually i 
operated registration system. Over 50.000 in use. § 

Johnson Change-Makers are designed to function i 

with odd fare and metal tickets selling at frae- i 

tional rates. It is possible to use each barrel = 

separately or in groups to meet local conditions, i 

Each barrel can be adjusted to eject from one to | 

five coins or one to six tokens. = = 

Drip Points for 
Added Efficiency 

i They prevent creeping' moi«ture and quickly drain the petti- 

i coat In wet weather, keeping the Inner area dry. 

i The Above Insulator — Ko. 72 — ToIta»e« — Test — Dry 04.000 

I Wet 31.400. Line 10.000. 

^ Our engineers are always ready to help yon on yotir riaas 

I Insulator problem. Write for catalog. 

I Hemingray Glass Company 

i Muncie, Ind. 

3' 

§ Est. 1848 — Inc. 1870 







Johnson Fare Box Co. 

4619 Ravensjt^od Ave., Chicago, III, 

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rmiimiliiimiiiliimiiiMimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiniiiiiniiiiiinimimiiiimiii 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



115 



^nrnmmitiiiiiriiiriHiiitiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiitiiitiiiiiiniiiiiiitiiiiii tiiiriiiiiiin i Miiiiiiiiiitii iiitiiiiiiiiiitiiiriiiriiiiiimin' ainiiitiiiiKiiuiiiiiiimiriiimiminiiiHiimimiii 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiitiiiiiHiiHiiiiitiiiiiiiir- 



Replacements in 1930 

Silver Lake Trolley and Bell Cord 
lead again for special railway serv- 
ice. Durable and economical, pro- 
duced from the best yarns obtain- 
able, the quality of Silver Lake 
products has made them standard 
for the industry. 

For replacementn In 1930 order 
Silver Lake. Samples on request. 

SILVER LAKE COMPANY 
Newtonville. Mass. 



■1KWHgl«»^j 



CHOSEN 
for 
PERFORMANCE 



T 



ROLLEY wheels are 
never chosen for looks, never 
selected because one kind 
costs a little more or less than 
another. They're chosen for 
performance. That's why 




Seamless, Rivetless, Light in Weight 

Chillingworth One-Piece Gear Cases will wear longer 
because they are made of tough durable deep drawing 
steel, properly annealed and supported by strong Malle- 
able Iron Brackets, or Forged Steel if you prefer. 
Because of the seamless one-piece construction with over- 
lapping joints, they prevent dirt entering or grease escap- 
"Jg— the best possible means of saving your gears and 
pinions. 

Chillingworth One-Piece Gear Cases meet all operating 
requirements. Used extensively on rapid transit service. 
Most steam road electrifications use Chillingworth Cases. 

Chillingworth Manufacturing Go. 

Jersey City, N. J. 



KEPBBSEN 
CANADA 
Kallway & Power En». Co. 


TATIVES 


NEW YORK 
J. W. Oerke 


ENOU^ND 
Tool Steel Gearlnj & Equip. Co. 




FRANCE 
A. P. Champion 



KALAMAZOO 



jiniilMiiiMiMiimiMiiMllllliMiir iililllii riJirilllillii iilim llii iiiiiiimmiijiiiiiii miijiiiJimiijliiniiimiiR | 

SJiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiriiiriiiiiiiiiuriiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriJiiiiririiiirijrriiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiijiiiJiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriu | 

Chillingworth 

I One-Piece Gear Gases I I 




■uiiiuillllliirriiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiilllilliiiliiiiiiiririiiiiiiilllllllllllllllliuillllllllllliliilllllllliiiiiiiiiuilliiiiiiiiilllllljllllllllllllllllllliliiuir 



trolley wheels and harps are 
the standard of comparison 
today. That's why many prop- 
erties use them exclusively. 
There's a difference in trolley 
wheels. May we tell you 
about it? 



THE STAR 
I BRASS WORKS i 

I KALAMAZOO, MICHIGAN | 

jiiiiiHiniiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiHiuMiirMiiiniriniiiniiHiiiiiiiiiiiuiiniiHiiiiiimiiiiiiiiimiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitinHiiminH^ 



116 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



ENGINLERS and CONSULTANTS 



Ford, Bacon & Davis 

Incorporated 

Engineers 

39 Broadway, New York 

PHILADELPHIA CHICAGO 

SAN FRANCISCO 

NEW ORLEANS 



ALBERT S. RICHEY 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY ENGINEER 
WORCESTER. MASSACHUSETTS 

EXAMINATIONS 

REPORTS-APPRAISALS- RATES 

OPERATION-SERVICE 



Stone &Webster 

INCORPORATED 
NKW YOKK BOSTON CHICAOO 

Organization 

Financing 

Design 

Construction 

Management 

Reports 

Appraisals 

PUBLIC UTILITY AND 
INDUSTRIAL PROPERTIES 



SANDERSON & PORTER 



ENGINEERS 



PUBLIC UTIUTIES 

AND 

INDUSTRIALS 



DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 
gT tMTKATinxH KEFOBTS TALCATIONS 



NEW YORK 

CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO 



Stevens & 
Wood 

Incorporated 

Engineers and 

Constructors 



60 John Street, 

New York 

Transportation Examinatiom 

and Reports 



C. B. BCCHANAN, rreaideot 

W. H. PRICE, JR., Sec'y-Trca*. 

JOHN F. lAYNO, Tlee-PrMldco* 

Buchanan & Layng 
Corporation 

Engineering and Management, 

Construction, Financial Reports, 
Traffic Surveys and 

Equipment Maintenance 



BALTIMORE 

1001 First National 

Bank Bide. 

Phone: Hanover: 2142 



NEW YORK 

49 WaU Street 



HEMPHILL & WELLS 

CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

Gardner F. Wells 
Albert W. Hemphill 

APPRAISALS 

INVESTIGATIONS COVERING 



Reorganization 

Operation 



Management 
Construction 



50 East 42nd St., New York City 



E. H. FAILE & GO. 

Designers of 

Garages — Service 
Buildings — Terminals 



441 Lexington Ave. 



New York 



THE BEELER 
ORGANIZATION 

Engineers and Accountants 

JOHN A. BEELER, DIRECTOR 

Traffic — Traction 

Bus-Equipment 

Power- Management 

Appraisals Operating and 

Financial Reports 

Current Imu« LATE NEWS and FACTS 
f r«« on req uest 

52 Vandsrbilt Avenue, New York 



J. ROWLAND BIBBINS 

CONSULTING ENGINEER 
TRANSPORTATION 

UTILITIES 

Transit-Traffic Development Surveys. 
Street Plans, Controls, Speed Signals. 
Economic Operation, Schedule Analy- 
ses, Bus Co-ordination, Rerouting. 
Budgets, Valuation, Rate Cases and 
Ordinances. 

EXPERIENCE IN 26 CITIES 

2301 Connecticut Avenue 
Washington, D. C. 



Byllesby Engineering 

and Management 
Corporation 




231 S. La Salle Street, Oiicago 
New York Pittsburgh San Francisco 



WALTER JACKSON 



Consultant on Fares 
and Motor Buses 

The Weekly and Sunday Pan 
Differential Fares — Ride Selling 



Holbrook Hall 5-W-3 
472 Gramatan Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



117 



The P» Edward 
Wish Service 

50 Church St., NEW YORK 

Street Railway Inspection 
DETECTIVES 

131 State St., BOSTON 



H. U. WALLACE 

Bus, Truck and Railway 
Transportation, Traffic and 
Operating Surveys. Financial 
Reports, Appraisals, Reorgan- 
izations, Management. 

All Work Under Personal Snpervision 

6 N. Michigan Ave. 420 Lexington Ave. 
Chicago Neve York City 

Phone LEXINGTON 8485 



KELKER, 

De LEUW & 
COMPANY 

Consulting Engineers 

Transit Development 

Operating Problems 

TraflSc Surveys 

Valuations 

in W. WASHINGTON ST.. CHICAGO 



SAFETY 




Are you interested in reducing your operating costs? 

Start the year by making a check of your wheel and maintenance cost. Allow our 
experienced wheel engineers to make a survey of your operating conditions and recom- 
mend a design of the new chilled back of flange and chilled rim wheels best suited 
for your particular service. 

We can show you a definite saving per 1000 car miles and a material reduction in shop 
costs and equipment charges. 

No turning — ^No maintenance 

Address any of the following 

GRIFFIN WHEEL COMPANY PLANTS 



MILEAGE GUARANTEED 



CHICAGO 
DETROIT 
CLEVELAND 
CINCINNATI 



BOSTON 
ST. PAUL 
KANSAS CITY 
COUNCIL BLUFFS 



TACOMA 
LOS ANGELES 
SALT LAKE CITY 
DENVER 



iininmiiimmmimiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiimniiHiiiHiiinmtiiiiiiniiiiiiintiiHiiiiiitiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiHiitniMniiiiniiiiiHiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

The 
2000 Type 




Bus Heater 

Increased heating efficiency, 
simplified assembly, abso- 
lute insulation from body, 
easy installation and low 
cost are the features of the 
new 2000 type Heater. Sup- 
plement B-4 mailed on re- 
quest, contains a complete 
description. 

The Nichols-Lititern Co. 

7960 Lorain Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 



iiiimimiiiiuiifliiiiiiHiiiimiitiimimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiitiiiiiiitiiiMiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiitiiiiiiiiiiHiiii 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiini 



aiiHiiinimiitniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiMiimiiuiiuiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinimiiiiiiiiiiiinniiiiimiiiiiiifiinn^ 




R 11 Double Register 



A Fare Registration System 

that Qains the Confidence 

of ALL 

The durability, accuracy, speed and con- 
venience of International Registers has 
given them the nation-wide reputation for 
efHcient service that they have enjoyed for 
over thirty years. 

Electric operation gives the new types even 
greater speed, accuracy and convenience. 
Registers can be furnished for operation 
by hand. 



I The International Register Co. 

I 15 South Throop St., Chicago 

-iHmiimiiiiiiiin iii mil iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiuiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



118 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 



It^s Dependable 




open the Eyes of Your 
Operators with 

TfveAlR'PUSH 

WINDOW 
WIPER 

Built to Wear the Lifetime 
of Your Equipment 



National Railway Appliance Co. 

Graybar Bldg. 

420 Lexington Ave. 

New York 



WORKS LIKE A 
DOOR CHECK 




Unprotected Spring Return Switches 
get severely battered by every passing 
wheel flange running against them. The 
RACOR Oil Cylinder Retarding Dash 
Pot gives protection. 

Acting exactly like a door check, it al- 
lows the points to be forced aside easily 
by the first flange but retards their re- 
turn movement. The result is that 
successive flanges do not strike but only 
rub the points and the life of the points 
is greatly prolonged. 

This equipment is simple, has few parts, 
requires little attention and will oper- 
ate in any climate. It is double acting. 
Operates automatically with switch in 
either position and freely for hand throw. 

Behind Racor Service stand nine plants 
which specialize in the manufacture and 
distribution of railroad track turnout 
and crossing equipment, including 
Manganese work for heavy traffic. 



RAgpR, 



RAMAPO AJAX CORPORATION 

General Ofaccs - *230 PARK AVENUE, NEW YORK 



Nint RticorWdrhs 



SALES OFflCeS AT WOKK6. AND 
M^COKMICK BUILDING. CHICAGO 
METROPOLITAN BANK DLDO. WASHINGTON 
BUILOEKS EXCHANGE DLDO.ST.PAUL 



Hltlbum. New York. NlaA«ra Falla. N.Y. ChicsAo. tlllfM>4», Kaat St-LouU. lU. 
Suparlor.'Wi^a. Puablo.cSl Lo* Ang«l««,Cal. M«ttl«.Wk*k Nl«^r« r*ll«.Ont. 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



119 



»<- 





->« 



►EAMCMOGIIT SECTION 

EMPLOYMENT and BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES— USED and SURPLUS NEW EQUIPMENT 

UNDISPLATED — BATEPEBWOBD: INFORMATION: DISPLAYED — BATE PEE INCH: 

Positions Wanted, 6 cents a word, minimum Box Numbers in care of our New York ^ '°"^'* $6.00 

$1.00 an insertion, payable in advance. Cbicaco or San Pranoieco offlres count ? '" 2 inciies 5.75 an Inch 

Positions Vacant and all other classiflca- 10 words additional in undisplayed ads. * to 7 inches 5.50 an in<A 

tions, excepting Equipment. 10 cenu a Discount ot 10% if full payment is made in Other spaces and contract rates on request. 

word, minimum cbarre ja.OO. advance for four consecutive insertions ■in advertising inch is measured vertically 

Proposals, 40 cents a line an insertion. of undisplayed ads (not indudinr pro- on one column, 3 columns— 30 inches 

posals). to a paee. _ . 

K HJ. 



4- 



POSITIONS VACANT 



ACTIVE, ambitions young man wanted for 
position of street and interurban railway 
superintendent. Man of technical training: and 
experience in operating- responsibility desired. 
Must fnmish references and complete state- 
ment of experience. An excellent executive 
opportunity with rapidly growing street and 
Interurban railway system in the Middle West. 
P-192, Electric Railway Journal. 530 No. Michi- 
ran Ave., Chicag'o. 111. 



POSITIONS WANTED 



ARMATURE winder well experienced with 
railway equipment desires changre. Ref- 
erence. PW-197. Electric Railway, Tenth Ave. 
at 36th Street. New York. 



SOMEWHERE there is an electric line which 
handles less than carload freigrht and ex- 
press, who are not satisfied that they are 
grettin? the volume that they deserve. Such a 
condition mig-ht be the result of a combination 
of things. A successful operator of more than 
twenty years in business getting:, systemizing. 
station operations, claims and claim prevention 
is prepared to go into such a position and 
bring the revenue up to expectations and ce- 
ment a genuine friendship on the part of the 
customer for the carrier. I can do that job. 
PW-196, Electric Railway Journal, Tenth Ave. 
at 36th St., New York. 

■iiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



New "SEARCHLIGHT" Advertisements 

must be received by 3 P.M.. the 15th of 
the month to appear in the issue out the 

1st of the month. 

Address copy to the Searchlight Department 

Electric Railway Journal 

Tenth Ave. at 36th St.. New York City 



BUSIiSTESS OPPORTUNITY 

Capital Raising 

Stock and bond selling campaigns planned and 
executed for companies seeking development. 
Mergers, • reorganizations and now financing by 
experienced dependable financial organization. 
Reference exchanged and booklet by request. 
The Brookworth Co.. Inc.. 110 East 4Snd St., 
New York. N. Y. 

IIIMtllllllltllllllll 



STREET RAILWAYS 

We are in the market at all times to pur- 
chase and dismantle abandoned street rail- 
ways. Highest prices paid. 

M. K. FRANK 

Park Row Bldg., New York 



IIHIHMIIIItllMtllDHMtMHI.* 



ItUMMMtllllllltlllttlltC 



IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT | 

FOUR BIRNEY CARS j 

good condition. Any reasonable I 

offer accepted. | 

Electric Railway Journal | 

at 36th St.. New York City i 



FS-105 
Tenth Ave. 



ItltlllM ■llttMIMIHIMIIIIHUHr 



3 

Agents and 
Representatives — | 

i 

can be secured through the \ 

SEARCHLIGHT SECTION I 



Responsible Agents and Representatives \ 

consult the Searchlight Section for new | 

lines to handle. I 



THE PERRY, BUXTON, DOANE CO. 

New and Relaying Rails 

All Weights and Sections 

We specialize in buying and dismantling entire 
Railroads, Street Railways, and all other industrial 
properties which have ceased operation. We fur- 
nish expert appraisals of all such properties. 

May We Serve You? 



THE PERRY, BUXTON, DOANE CO. 

Rail Department, Philadelphia, Pa. General Department, Boston, Mass. 

Pacific Sales Office — Failing Building, Portland, Oregon 



iHIMHMMItllKtIllltlMIIIIMItlllMfr 



Sell out to Salzberg^ — Railways Purchased 

in Entirety 




6 — Light Weight Double 
Truck Passenger Cars 

two to four years old — 
excellent condition— ready 
for immediate shipment. 

Single Truck Sweepers. 
Double Truck Snow Plows. 
Railway Motors. 
Controllers. 
Compressors. 

Reasonably priced. 

Let us have your requirements. 



When business judgment dictates the wisdom of abandoning part or all 
of your electric railway equipment — don't let it rust away in idleness 
waiting for the chance piece-meal buyer to gradually unburden you, 
at big losses. 

Do the one practical thing. Sell it as a unit to SALZBERG — complete 
with power plant, track, feeder and trolley wire system and roll- 
ing stock. 

You will get FAIR dealing and the highest prices that are based solely 
on present day market values. Save money, time and trouble. We will 
do our own dismantling. 

No obligation for our proposition. 



H* E^ SALZBERG COMPANY, INC. 

225 Broadway — Estii. isos — New York City, N. Y. 



120 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




ALPHABETICAL INDEX 

This Index is published as a convenience to the reader. Every 
care is taken to make it accurate, but Electric Bailwav 
Journal assumes no responsibility lor errors or omissions. 



Competent to solve 
cleaning problems 

ASK us about your car and motor re- 
■*^^ pair cleaning problems that seem to 
defy solution. From our long experience 
in serving electric railway systems, we 
can suggest suitable Oakite materials and 
methods for overcoming the difficulty. 

Our nearest Service Man will gladly study 
your cleaning requirements and recom- 
mend the most effective and economical 
Oakite material for saving time and effort 
in cleaning cars, large and small truck 
and brake parts, motor parts, etc. A 
postal to us will bring him to your shop. 

Manufactured only by 

OAKITE PRODUCTS INC., 28B Thames St,, NEW YORK,N.Y. 

Oakite Service Men, cleaning specialists, are located at 

AAany, N. Y.: Allentown, Pa.: •Atlanta, Altoona, Pa.; Baltimore. Battle 
Creek. Mich.: *Bo8ton. Bridgeport. *Broolilyn. N. Y.: Buffalo. *Camaen 
N J ; Charlotte. N. C: Chattanooga. Tenn.: 'Chicago. •Cincinnati. •Cleve- 
tand •Columbus. O.: 'Dallas, 'Davenport. 'Dayton, O. ; Decatur. 111.: 
•Denver. Des Moines. 'Detroit. Erie. Pa.: Fall River, Mass.: Flint. Mich.: 
Fresno. Cal.: 'Grand Rapids. Mich.: Harrlsburg, Pa.: Hartford. 'Houston 
Texas: 'Indianapolis, 'Jacksonville. Fla.: 'Kansas City. Mo.: 'Lm Angeles. 
Louisville. Ky.: Madison. Wis.: '.Memphis. Tenn.: 'Milwaukee. '.Minneap- 
olis '.MoUne. HI.: 'Montreal. Newark. N. J.: Newburgh, N. Y.: New 
Haven 'New York. •Oakland. Cal. : •Oklahoma City, Okla. : •Omaha. Neb. : 
Oshkosh. Wis.: •Philadelphia. Phoenix, Arli.: •Pittsburgh, Pleasantvllle, 
N Y.; Portland. Me.: 'Portland. Ore.: Poughkeepsle. N. Y.: Prortdence, 
Beading, Pa.: Richmond. Va : 'Rochester. N. Y.: Rocklord, III.; 
•Rock Island. Sacramento. Cal.: 'San Francisco. 'Seattle, South 
Bend, Ind ; Sprlngfleld, Mass.; 'St. Louia. 'St. Paul, 
Syracuse, N. Y.; 'Toledo, •Toronto. Trenton, 
•Tulsa, Okla. : Utlca, N. Y. ; •Vancouver, 
B. C: Wichita. Kan.: Wllllams- 
port. Pa.: Worcester, Mass. 

■Stocks of Oakite materials are carried in these cities. 

OAKITE 

TBADt •i^Ml■ ■»» u.». "BT. orr. « * • • 

Jndustritd QeaningMateaais m>«Memods 



Pasre 

American Bridge Co 103 

American Brown Boveri Co,, Inc 30 

American Car Co Third Cover 

American Fork & Hoe Co., The 33 

American Steel & Wire Co 75 

American Steel Foundries .24-25 

Anaconda Wire & Cable Co 55 

Anderson Mfg. Co,, A. & J 79 

Art Rattan Works, Inc 97 

Bates Expanded Steel Truss Co 109 

Beeler Organization 116 

Bemis Car Truck Co 109 

Bender Body Co., The 122 

Bethlehem Steel Co 62-63 

Bibbins, J, Roland 116 

Bridgeport Brass Co 90-91 

Brill Co,, The J. G Third Cover 

Buchanan & Layng Corp 116 

Byllesby Eng, & Manag, Corp 116 

Carey Co., Philip 65 

Carnegie Steel Co 78 

Chillingworth Mfg, Co 115 

Cities Service Co 22-23 

Cleveland Fare Box Co HO 

Collier, Inc., Barron G 28-29 

Columbia Machine Works 102 

Consolidated Car Heating Co 35 

Cummings Car & Coach Co 114 

Dayton Mechanical Tie Co., The 34 

De Vilbiss Co,, The 32 

Differential Steel Car Insert 84 

Dodge Brothers Insert 37-40 

Economy Electric Devices Co 86 

Electric Railway Improvement Co 113 

Electric Service Supplies Co 14-15 

Electric Storage Battery Co 41 

Faile & Co., E. H 116 

Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., The 26 

Ford, Bacon & Davis 116 

"For Sale" Ads IW 

General Electric Co Front Cover and 16-17-18 

General Leather Co 61 

General Motors Truck Co Insert 93-96 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co 36 

Globe Ticket Co • 56 

Griffin Wheel Co 117 

Hale-Kilburn Co ,\l 

"Help Wanted" Ads J|9 

Hemingray Glass Co JJ j 

Hemphill & Wells 116 

Heywood-Wakefield Co 31 

IIHnois Steel Co 54 

International Motor Co lt'3 

International Register Co., The _ „, i. 

International Steel Tie Co Insert 81-83 

Jackson, Walter • }}6 

Johnson Fare Box Co 1|^ 

Johns-Manville Corp 1- 

Kelker, DeLeuw & Co -•.••;-^l^ 

Kuhlman Car Co Third Cover 

Long Mfg, Co 64 

Lorain Steel Co ^ 



January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



121 



Pagre 

Mack Trucks, Inc 103 

Mahon Co., The R. C 77 

Malleable Iron Fittings Co 121 

McCardell Co., J. R 113 

McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc 112 

McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., Inc 98-99 

Metal & Thermit Corp 42-43 

Mica Insulator Co 107 

Motor-Car Ventilator Corp 50-51 

Nachod and U. S. Signal Co Ill 

National Bearing Metals Corp 48-49 

National Brake Co., Inc 21 

National Carbon Co. 67 

National Malleable & Steel Castings Co 73 

National Paving Brick Mf rs. Ass'n Ill 

National Pneumatic Co 11 

National Railway Appliance Co 118 

National Tube Co 87 

Nichols-Lintern Co 117 

Oakite Products, Inc 120 

Ohio Brass Co 8-9 

Ohmer Fare Register Co 47 

Okonite-Callendar Cable Co., Inc., The 101 

Okonite Co., The 101 

Pantasote Co., Inc., The 113 

Positions Wanted and Vacant 119 

Railway Track-work Co 6-7 

Railway Utility Co S3 

Ramapo Ajax Corp 118 

Richey, Albert 116 

Roebling's Sons Co., John A 52 

Roller-Smith Co 110 

Safety Car Devices Co 66 

Sanderson & Porter 116 

Searchlight Section 119 

Silver Lake Co 115 

S K F Industries, Inc 68 

Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) 92 

Standard Oil Co. of New York 85 

Standard Steel Works Co ^89 

Standard Underground Cable Co 90-91 

Star Brass Works M15 

Stevens & Wood, Inc 116 

Stone & Webster 116 

Sullivan Machinery Co ]. 44 

Texas Co., The 104 

Thomas Car Works, Perley A 27 

Timken-Detroit Axle Co Back Cover 

Timken Roller Bearing Co. 45 

Toledo Pressed Steel Co., The 102 

Tool Steel Gear & Pinion Co 100 

Tuco Products Corp , 112 

Twin Coach Corp Insert 57-60 

Union Metal Mfg. Co., The I 76 

Union Switch & Signal Co 74 

United States Rubber Co 46 

Wallace, H. W 117 

"Want" Ads 119 

Wason Mfg; Corp Third Cover 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co Second Cover, 4-5 

Westinghouse Traction Brake Co 10 

Wharton, Jr., & Co., Inc., Wm 88 

Wish Service, The P. Edw 117 

Searchlight Section — Classified Advertising 

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 119 

EQUIPMENT (Used, Etc.) 

Frank, M. K 119 

Perry, Buxton, Doane Co 119 

Salzberg Co., Inc., H. E 119 

POSITIONS VACANT AND WANTED 119 

WANTED TO PURCHASE 119 



The 19S0 Budget 

Sor Tubular Pole 
Maintenance and 
Construction - - « 

This part of the 1930 appropria- 
tions for maintenance and con- 
struction may not be satisfactorily- 
large. 

Expand it by taking advantage of 
the salvage and construction hints 
given in our new bulletin — Acces- 
sories for Tubular Iron Poles. 

Reinforcing and Extension 
Clamps 
A-Clamps — for reinforcing corroded 
joints, or extending poles, with 1 in.' re- 
duction in outside diameter from lower to 
upper section. I nstalleiion illustrated at 
right. 

B-Clamps — for reinforcing corroded 
swaged joints where reduction in outside 
diameter is less, averaging about % in. 
from lower to upper sectioa. j^ I lltatraled 
Mow. 

C-CIamps — for same diameter of pipe 
throughout. Larger sizes for overcoming 
ground-line corrosion, or for lower ex- 
tensions, and smallerjsizes for pole-top 
extensions. 



1- . 

KbtL 




X 



L'*" 



Williams Pole Mounts 

Pole Mounts, as illustrated at left, frequently 
provide the only satisfactory, economical 
method of salvaging old tubular poles, or 
installing new poles imder certain conditions 
— such as anchoring poles on bridgel, rock, 
concrete, etc. Also used with pre-c^st con- 
crete base to salvage pole corroded at ground- 
line, or to give maximum clearanQe^ with 
given pole. 

M. I. F. Crossarm Gains 

Assemblies are available for all service con- 
ditions, weights of feeders, lengths of arms, 
bracing, etc. Lighter in weight, yet amply 
strong. 

Other M. I. F. Specialties 

used by Electric Railway Companies and 
covered in other Bulletins are: 
Williams Pole Mounts for wood poles/ Cross- 
arm Gains for wood poles. Cable Insulator 
(Span) Hangers — Spool Insulator or split 
spool types, with conductors parallel to mes- 
senger or at right angles, for single conductor, 
or in multiple, etc. 

Send for new Bulletin mentioned, 
also literature on other items. 



MALLEABLE IRON FITTINGS COMPANY 
Pole Hardivare Department 

^^J^^ Factory and Ne'w England Sales ^^^^. 
^Jjl^^^ Office: Branford, Connecticut ^nM||P^ 



Office: 

Middle Atlantic States Sales 

Office: 30 Church St., New York, N. Y. 

GenertU Sales Agents elseivhere in U. S. 

UNE MATERIAL COMPANY, South Milwaukee, Wis. 

Canadian Mfg. Distributor: Line & Cable Accessories, Ltd., 

Toronto 



122 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



January, 1930 




rasewi— 



"XTOT only 38 comfortable 
'*' ^ seats but also a big 23- 
inch aisle and generous standing 
well, providing accommodations for 
many additional passengers. 

The four-piece jackknife entrance door at 
right front and the same type exit door at right 
rear are actuated by pneumatic air engines with 
controls at driver's seat. 

Bus operators know from experience that this 
Bender large City Pay-Enter handles bigger loads 
and handles them with more speed and ease. 

And, furthermore, like other Bender units, it has 
that inbuilt quality of durability com- 
bining stamina with a practical light- 
ness of weight, assuring low mainte- 
nance and longer life. 

You will profit by getting the complete 
facts from us. 




THE BENDER BODY CO. 

W. 62nd and Denison, Cleveland, O. 




January, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 




Wilmington Reorders Again! 

In 1928 the Delaware Electric Power Company of 
Wilmington, Delaware, purchased ten Brill low-level 
city cars. During the summer of 1929, ten additional 
cars were delivered and now an order for twelve more 
of this same type car has been received. 

Here is ample evidence of the value of modernization 
with Brill Cars equipped with Brill Trucks. 

Let this same combination work for you in your city. 



THE J. G. BRILL COMPANY, Philadelphia 

Associate Plants 

American Car Company, St. Louis, Missouri 

The G. C. Kuhlman Car Company, Cleveland, Ohio 

Wason Manufacturing Company, Springfield, Mass. 

Pacific Coast Representative, Rialto Bldg., San Francisco 




ELECTRIC RAILWA.Y JOURNAL 



A NEW STAR TO HITCH TO 




HUMS 



£7raT?5T Worm ^ 



"=0 



KI 



niuKsnd' 




FOR- ELECTRIC -RAILWAY • CARS 



m^mm^mmi 



JOURNAL 



fishing Ci 




FEBRUARY. l1 



its per Copy 






1902 



1892 

FIRST 

Electric Car Heater 

Invented and built by 

CONSOUPATED 



:eu 



ated Rys 



NEWYORKl 

lectrified an v^»'- 
CONSOLIDATED 

INTERBOROUGH oui 

Built AIIC< 



I907 

CHICAGO Surface Cars 
Rebuilt all 



way 
ars Equipped 
with CONSOLIDATED 



M 



cars 



1928 
CLEVELAND 



fcrt^l8''?a'!?°'-"^^^^'> Heate.s 



Railways adopt 
CONSOLIDATED Heaters 



DL&W Railway orders 12126 

3000 volt CONSOLIDATED Heaters 
NEW YORK Municipal SubwayordersB 

8400 CONSOLIDATED Heaters 
CLEVELAND Railway orders ▲ 

CONSOLIDATED Heaters 
for 2^ lOO Cars 




/^;r-' 




.'^aasr 



Original equipment of Consoli- 
dated Heaters, still in excellent 
condition. 

The largest order for electric car 
heaters ever placed and the first 
order for 3000 Volt Heaters 



Light Weight Heaters 



Electric Heaters and Resistor 
Heaters 



■«CORDs 

, CAR HEATERS 

IM aP-^^^^^lRESI STOPS I 



XONSOLIDATED CAR-HEATING COMPANY INC. 



N EW YORK 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



■:t? 




an name 



COMPARATIVE operating tests have prov- 
ed the superior calibre of Westinghouse 
Champion" trolley ears. 

These tests show their higher conductivity, 
uniform thickness of lips, longer life, and 
greater tensile strength. The "Champion" 
consists of two parts — the body and the run- 
ner. The body is made of a special high 
strength alloy; the runner, from a flat, tough 
copper sheet, blanked, punched and shaped. 

We suggest that you give the "Champion" a 
test. Write our nearest district office for some 
of these ears. You will be convinced of their 
outstanding qualities. 



Let the Champion" 
be your next 
trolley ear 



Service, prompt and efilcient, by a coast-to-coast chain of well- equipped shops 



W^tinghouse 

W W ^^ T 31007 




Electric Railway Journal 



MOBBiB Buck 

Engineering Editor 

Geobqh J. MaoMubbat 

Cliffobd a. Facst 

J. W. MoCLOr 



Consolidation of 
Street Railway Journal aiid Electric Railway Review 



John A. Miller, Jr., Managing Editor 
Vol. 74, No. 2 • Pages 65-124 



Paul Wooton 

Washinjcton 
Alex McCallcu 

London, England 



Louis p. Stoll 
Publishing Director 



Next Month 



How one electric railway is 
solving the small dty trans- 
portation problem 

De luxe buses in interurban 
service — another phase of 
the subject ' discussed in this 
issue 

New developments in track 
construction 



McGraw-Hill 

Publishing Company, 

Inc. 

Tenth Avenue at 36th Street 
New York, N. Y. 

cable address : 
"machinist, N. Y," 



Jambs H. MoGbaw, Cftoirman of the Board 

Malcolm Mora, President 

Jambs H. MoQraw, Je., 

Vice-Preeident and Treasurer 

Edwabd J. Mbhbbn, Vice-President 

Mason Britton, Vice-President 

Edgab Kobak, Vice-President 

Habold W. MoGbaw, Vice-President 

H. C. Parmblbb, Bditori<il Director 

C. H. Thompson, Secretary 

Member A. B.C. 
Member A.B.P. 




Official correspondent in the United States for 
Union International de Tramways, de Cherains 
de fer d'Interet local et de Transports Publics 
Automobiles. 

Nbw Yobk, Di$trict Office. 285 Madison Avenue 
Washington, NationtU Press Buildina 
Chioaoo, 5B0 North Michigan Avenue 
Pbiladslphia, 1600 Arch Street 
Clbvbland, Ouordian BuUdino 
Boston, Hi7 Statler Buildina 
Grbbnvillb. S. C. ISOl Woodside Building 
Dbtboit, S-257 General Motors Building 
St. Lodib, Bell Telephone BuildiTig 
San Pbancisco, 88S Mission Street 
Los Angblbs, 6S2 Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 
London, 6 Bowerie Street, London, B. O. U 

Elbctrio Railway Journal. February, 
1930. Vol. 74. No. 2. Published monthly, 
with one additional Convention Number during 
the year. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 
Inc., Tenth Avenue at Thlr-ty-slith Street, New 
York, N. Y. $3 per year. 35 cents per copy. 
Entered as second-class matter, June 23. 1908. 
at the Post Office at New yorlt, N. Y., under 
the Aa of March 3. 1879. Printed in U. 3. A. 



Number of Copies Printed 
This Issue, 6,200 



J 



Contents of This Issue 

FEBRUARY, 1930 
Copyright, 1930, by McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc. 



Editorials 65 

Notable Achievements in Accident Prevention Win Brady Awards for 
Boston, Tampa and Tide Water Companies 68 

Baltimore Rate Decision Sanctions Larger Earnings 75 

Engineering Executive Committee Receives Committee Reports 77 

New Albany Car Includes Many Innovations 78 

By R. S. Beers 

Correct Timing of Signals Essential in Traffic Regulation — Part One. . . 82 

By Theodore M. Matson 

A.E.R.A. Executive Committee Holds Cleveland Meeting 84 

Detroit Express Service Gains Popularity 85 

By Clifford A. Faust 

More Business and How to Get It 89 

Opportunities for Profit in de Luxe Bus Operation 91 

By Joseph R. Stauffer 

Monthly and Other Financial Reports 97 

Letters to the Editor 98 

Building Concrete Track with Minimum Interruption to Service 100 

Double Milling Rail Heads to Prevent Cupping of Joints 103 

By Howard H. George 

Distinctive Features in St. Louis Sample Car 105 

Causes of Wheel Failure Studied at Havana 107 

By Otto Gottschalk 

Maintenance Notes: 

Deep Crankcase Pans Prove Advantageous 103 

One-Man Long Level — By R. B. Evans ,. 104 j 

Pavement Straight Edge — By P. H. Costello , 104 j 

Spray Equipment Effective for Weed Killing — By A. G. ' \ 

Pirkle 104 

Repair of Interchangeable Bearings — By Max Feigenspan.lQ6 

Flexible Rail Joints Tried at Providence 107 ' 

Combination Tie Plates for Various Rails — By W. S. 

Yeats 108 

Axles and Armature Bearing Jig — By Herbert Senior. . . .108 
Testing Circuit Breakers in Place — By R. IV. James 108 

New Products for the Railways' Use 109 

News of the Industry Ill 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



Febrtiary, 1930 




Increased 
Revenue 





Results from higher schedule speeds 

HIGHER schedule speeds may be obtained not only by the 
use of new and modern cars, but also by properly rehabil- 
itating old equipment, making use of modern development. 
For instance: — 

Some ways to increase speed are: 

1. Change the gear ratio. 

2. Shunt the field. 

3. Use fields with fewer turns. 

And then, too, increased ratings may be obtained by the use of: 

1. Internal and external fans. 

2. Square wire armature coils. 

3. Class "B" insulation. 

Any Westinghouse transportation salesman will be glad to 
assist you himself or to send an engineer to help you make a 
study of your requirements in order to help you obtain higher 
schedule speeds. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MFG. COMPANY 
EAST PITTSBURGH PENNSYLVANIA 

SALES OFFICES AND SERVICE SHOPS IN ALL 
PRINCIPAL CITIES OF THE UNITED STATES 



Square wire 
a r m a t u re 

coils. 




Internal Fan. 



Commutator 
end housing 
andfancham* 
ber with ex- 
ternal &n. 




Westinghouse 

• • *iy T 30710 



February, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



Speedy 



car 



movement 



-attracts 
new freight 
business 



^^^^^^^^^^•« Iff £-uW^^PB 








'-'"- ' -■- * _,,«*s^SS^^*' ' •■ ..._.. 





BALDWIN-WESTINGHOUSE electric 
locomotives are necessary tools in giv- 
ing the reliable and speedy car movement 
that attracts new freight business. 

The Wisconsin Power and Light Company 

recently ordered a 50-ton, 600-volt, 400-hp., 

Baldwin-Westinghouse locomotive. Prompt 

shipment permitted its being placed in freight and switching service almost at once 

over the 15-mile run between Sheboygan and Plymouth connecting with trunk 

line railroads. 

Seventy-five of these standard 50-ton Baldwin-Westinghouse electric locomiotives 
are in successful service throughout the United States. 

A recent survey of freight haulage business on typical electric railway properties 
indicates a 50 per cent increase in gross freight receipts between the years 1920 and 
1928. The excellent performance of Baldwin-Westinghouse locomotives was a 
contributing factor to these favorable business records. 

Address either company or call our nearest office for full particulars about standard 
Baldwin-Westinghouse electric locomotives. 

Have you seriously considered the freight possibilities of your property? 



The Baldwin Locomotive Works 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



Wesringhouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. 

Eait Pittsburgh. Pa. 




Baldwin-Westinghouse 



ELECTRIC , RAILWAY JOURNAL 



February, 1930 




Improved Atlas Rail Grinder 




Eareka Radial Rail Grinder 




Imperial Track Grinder 




Is road 
to rule 
or rail? 



Ajax Electric Arc Welder 



February, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



Billions for better 
roads. How much for 
better rail? 

Every dollar for better 
roads helps automo- 
bile compete with rail. 

Every dollar for better 
track helps rail com- 
pete with automobile. 

Nobody wants to ride 
rough road or rough 
rail. 

Smooth your rail and 
keep it smooth with 
the equipment you 
see here. 



^ai 



3132-48 East Thompson Street, Philadelphia 

AGENTS 
Chester F. Gsilor, 50 Church St.. New York 
Cbas. N. Wood Co., Boston 
H. F. McDermott. 208 S. LaSalle St., Chicago 
F. F. Bodler, San Francisco, Cal. 

H. E. Burns Co.. Pittsburgrh. Pa. g 

Equipment & Engineering Co., London 



I 4060 




Reciprocating Tmck Grinder 




Tnlcan Rail Grinder 




Midget Rail Grinder 




ETW Curve Oiler 



8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



Cnt Your Pole Replacement Budget 
f 73.32 for Each Worn Out Pole 




View showing pole to be re- 
newed, with ground dug away 
to determine corrosion. 



Renewing Steel Poles at Ground Line 

With O-B Pole Sleeves Gives Old Poles 

Double the Life of New Poles, at a 

Total Cost of $12.98 Each 

How many of your steel poles were replaced last 
year? How many of them were corroded only at 
the ground line? Multiply this last number by $73.52, 
and the result is the actual saving you would have real- 
ized had you renewed these poles with O-B Pole Sleeves. 

This fact has been proved by the experience of electric 
railway properties in practically every large city in America, where 
O-B Pole Sleeves are saving thousands of dollars annually. 

This is how it works out. A new 30-ft. pole (7-inch) costs about 
$61.50. Freight, haulage, unloading and installation labor costs 
are at least $25.00. So, every new 7-inch pole costs approxi- 
mately $86.50 to install. 

But, by renewing the old pole with an O-B Pole Sleeve, the cost 
is only about one-seventh that of a new pole installed, and the add- 
ed life is double that of a new pole. Here is the cost — 
1 7-in. Pole Sleeve . . $10.50 
Labor: 2 men @ .60 per hour . 1.20 
Foreman @ .80 per hour .80 

Cement, sand, gravel and paint . .48 

Total Renewing Cost $12.98 
Your saving on each pole renewed is $73.52 

Unless you are now using O-B Pole Sleeves, you are "passing up" 
one of the most outstanding money-saving opportunities in system 
maintenance today. Furnished in five sizes, for 5-in. to 10-in. poles. 

Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio 

Canadian Ohio Brass Co.. Limited 
Niagara Falls, Canada 



.OMcySaass to. 

NEW YORK PITTSBURGH LiAiJI CMICAOO CtJVCI^ND «T. LOUIS ATLANTi 
rHIt-AOEL^HIA BOSTON BH^ SAN FRANCISCO LOS ANGELES DALLAS 



POOCCLAM 



UNE MATERIALS 

RAA. BONDS 

CAR EQUIPMENT 

MININS 



Slipping the O-B Pole Sleeve 
into position on the pole. 
Note ease of installation. 



3 



The O-B Pole Sleeve in posi- - 
tion ready for sealing with 
Portland Cement. 



Pouring the cement. The en- 
tire space between pole and 
sleeve is filled. 




P|^^li 


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6 



Cementing the base. Side- 
walk poles are cemented 
flush with pavement. 



February, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 












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NEW YORK PITTSBURGH 
PHILADEUPHIA BOSTON 




mss Co, 




CHICAGO CLEVELAND ST. LOUIS ATLANTA 
SAN FRANCISCO LOS ANGELES DALLAS 



PORCELAIN 

INSULATORS 

LINE MATERIALS 

RAIL BONOS 

CAR EQUIPMENT 

MINING 

MATERIALS 

VALVES 



-3' 



10 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



February, 1930 





Installation of Type T-twenty-in-series lighting fixtures in a new model Brill Car, 



Reducing 

car lighting to a 

science 




Safety Dome Lighting Fixtures provide numerous ad- 
vantages over older methods of car illumination, requir- 
ing less current consumption, more perfect diffusion of 
light and the elimination of eye strain. And by using 
larger lamp units they have the advantages of longer 
lamp life, simplified wiring and less theft. 

Aside from this, they provide much more attractive in- 
teriors by the inviting and artistic effect they produce. 



Above is illustrated two views of the type T fixtures and 
also a typical installation. These units are used in the 
new twenty-in-series lighting system, which also utilizes 
the cutout type C lamp. 

Many types of dome type lighting fixtures are illustrated 
in our No. 7 catalog and in special data sheets which will 
be sent to you upon request. 






Write for Special Data Sheets 

ELECTRIC SERVICE SUPPLIES CO. 



MANUFACTURER OF RAILWAY, POWER 



Home ofBce and manufuturlnff plant located 
at 1 7th and Cambria Streets, Philadelphia. 
Pa.; District offices are located at 111 North 
Canal Street, Chicago, lU., and 50 Church 
Street, New York City. 




AND INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICAL MATERIAL 



Brandies — ^Bessemer Bide., Pittsburgh; 88 
Broad Street, Boston; General Motors BIdg., 
Detroit; 316 N. Washington Are., Scranton; 
Canadian Agents — Lyman Tube A Supply 
Company. Ltd., Montreal, Toronto, ViocouTer. 



February, 1930 ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 11 




adds to its list of 
door control mechanism — 

An Indestructible Track 

for sliding doors 

4 

nPHIS door track is provided with a re- 
newable wearing surface, that rotates 
as the doors operate. This results in a 
wearing surface, four times the area pro- 
vided by any other type track. 

And the wearing surface can be easily 
replaced. i^x:^^^ 

Applicable to either ^..^.^^^^^^^ 
new or old cars. f^^^^^HIB 

ns^ 1 

Ask for Bulletin S '^ilB^ 
N0.25-A. X "1 'I 



NATIONAL PNEUMATIC COMPANY 

Executive Office: Graybar Building, New York 

General Works: Rahway, New Jersey 

McConnick Bnilding 1010 Colonial Building 

CfflCAGO PHILADELPHIA 

Manufactured for Canada by 

Railway & Power Engineering Corp. Ltd, 

TORONTO 



12 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



February, 1930 




There^s Only 

One Solution 



To induce more people to use the trolleys instead 
of their own motor cars, the trolleys must go faster 
than they now do and they must be more comfort- 
able. The best minds in the industry recognize 
that the competition of the private automobile is 
based on its superior speed and comfort. 

Schedules can be somewhat accelerated by better 
pick-up, better brakes, faster loading and unload- 
ing, but before trolleys can compete in speed with 
automobiles, the automobile traffic must be re- 
duced. It can be reduced only by improving 
trolley service so effectively that people wijl ride 
the trolleys in preference to using their motor cars. 

The initial step is to make the trolleys comfortable. 

The installation of comfortable seats, seats that 
equal or excel the comfort of automobile seats, is 
the first requisite. A number of trolley companies 
have installed Hale 8b Kilbum chairs with profitable 
results. They have increased their passenger traffic 
because of the improved comfort of their cars. 

We shall be glad to supply facts and figures regard- 
ing this interesting subject. 



SALES OFFICES: 
Hale & Kilbum Co., Graybar 

Bide., New York 
Hale & Kllburn Co., MeCormich 

Bldg-., Chicagro 
Frank F. Bodler, 903 Monadnock 

Bldg:., San Francisco. 




HALE & KILBURN SEATS 

"A BETTER SEAT FOR EVERY TYPE OP 
MODERN TRANSPORTATION" 

HALE 8C KILBURN CO. 

General Office and Works: 

1800 Lehigh Avenue, Philadelphia 



E. A. Thornwell, Candler Bldg., 

Atlanta. 
W. L. Jefferies. Jr.. Mutual Bldg.. 

Richmond. 
W. D. Jenkins, Praetorian Bldg., 

Dallas. Texas. 
H. M. Euler. 146 N. Sixth St.. 

Portland. Oregon. 



This Hale & Kilbum No. 
393-A deep cushioned 
leather covered reversible 
seat is the one used by 
the Market Street Railway 
in San Francisco. 



1 



A 




re are putting* 
Comfort into Street Cars 



.^^^ 




". '■ I ■■! ■ ■ I 1 I I , l|.. ! «■*—[»— I . II M l ni l I H II . IIPIWg>i^ 



»-««.*>*; 



February, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



13 




Do 

you have 



yi^i/ACopy 



.? 



Yo 



LOU have, no doubt, been 
following our series of advertisements dealing with the seven, 
factors that influence stopping distance. . . . The interest 
manifested in this series by street railway men throughout the' 
country has indicated an eagerness for better brake perform- 
ance. . . . These advertisements have now been reprinted in 
booklet form for ready reference and connected study by those 
interested. If you have not already received a copy, write for 
one now. Ask for Publication 9073. 



Remember, also, that our engineers 

are always available for assistance in 

solving your braking problems. 



WESTINGHOUSE TRACTION BRAKE CO. 



General Office and Works 



WILMERDING, PA. 



14 ' ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL February, 1930 

ANOTHER TRIUMPH OF GENERAL ELECTRIC RESEARCH! 






ALL SIZES 


i Half-pint cons to 52-gal. 




drums. 




COLORS 


Red 


.... No. 1201 


Cieor 






" 1202 


Blue 






" 1206 


Black 






" 1209 


Brown 






" 1210 


Green 






" 1211 


Aluminum 




" 1212 


Gray 


, 




" 1214 


Gray 


. . 




" 1217 



Lacquers 



REG. if Bus. PAT. OFF. 

INDUSTRY'S LIQUID ARMOR 



G-E Glyptal Lacquers are more than paint. 
They protect and seal — tanks, pipe lines, 
motors . . . machinery, structural steel . . . 
the list is endless, in every industry. 

Long-run cost is less because they need no 
primer, no sizer . . . one glossy coat does the 
work of two. 

Their tough, flexible film prevents rust, with- 
stands heat, alkalies, weak acids,salt spray, 
mineral oils. And it lasts. 

Applied with spray-gun,' brush or dip- tank 
these lacquers dry dust-free in 30 minutes! 
Save time and labor. 



G-E Glyptal Lacquers modernize industrial 
painting. Let them modernize Kot/rs— begin- 
ning NOW! 



G-E Mercliandise Distributors everywhere 
can tell you about G-E Glyptal Lacquers — 
or write Section M-812, Merchandise De- 
partment, General Electric Co., Bridgeport, 
Conn. 



(Join us in the General Electric Hour. Satur- 
day at 9 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, N.B.C. 
Network). 



GENERAL ELECTM 

GLYPTAL LACQUERS 




MERCHANDISE DEPARTMENT 



GENERAL ^ELECTRIC COMPANY 



BRIDGEPORT, CONNECTICUT 



February, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



15 



SKILL + 




Hand Shield— Light- 
weight fiber with remov- 
able clear glass over 
welder's glass. 



— wz 



Helmet — Most comfort- 
able, giving eyes best 
protection. 




Clamp-Type Electrode 
Holder — Holds any size 
electrode accurately. 



Screw-Type Electrode 
Holder— A twist of the 
handle opens and closes 
It. 



G-E Arc Welding Accessories 




Scratch Brush— A dur- 
able scale and oxide 
cleaner. 



Spring-Rod Electrode 
Holder— New Electrode 
can be instantly Inserted. 

Arc Welding Cable — Us 
extreme flexibility allows 
for full freedom of oper- 
ator manipulation. 




Weld Gauge — Eleven 
leaves measure welds, 
angles, thicknesses. 



GOOD WORK, FAST! 




Good eye . . . steady hand . . . ex- 
perience . . . welding technique— 
they're priceless. Don't handicap 
them. The right welding acces- 
sories help them turn out good 
work fastest. 

General Electric offers accessories 
that aid welders. They are the result 
of practical experiments. They are 
adapted to inside or outside use. 



Receive the most from your wel- 
ders' efforts by furnishing them 
with quality accessories. 

G-E Merchandise Distributors 
everywhere have G-E Arc Weld- 
ing Accessories in stock — or write 
Section M-812, Merchandise De- 
partment, General Electric Com- 
pany, Bridgeport, Conn. 



GENERAL ELECTM 

ARC WELDING ACCESSORIES 




MERCHANDISE DEPARTMENT 



GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY :: :: BRIDGtKORT, CONN. 



16 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



February, lyJU 



MODERN EQUIPMENT 
WINS PUBLIC PATRONAGE 



The Gary Railways Com- 
pany improved local service 
with this type of modem 
light-weight car, G-E 
equipped 




For interurban operation, also, 

Gary Railways Company uses 

modem cars with G-E equip- 

m*mt 



GARY WELCOMES NEW CARS 



( 



JOIN US IN THE GENERAL 
ELECTRIC HOUR, BROADCAST 
EVERY SATURDAY AT 9 P.M., 
E.S.T. ON A NATION-WIDE 
N.B.C. NETWORK. 



) 




GENERAL 
ELECTMC 



BUSINESS men and city officials joined the throng 
that welcomed new street cars into service 
between Gary and Crown Point, Ind. Like scores 
of other cities, Gary is helping people to realize 
more and more that the railway industry is keeping 
up with the times — that modern equipment offers 
speedy, comfortable transportation. 

The Gary Railways Company operates a total of 
72 street cars, of which 14 are used in interurban 
service. All are equipped with G-E motors, G-E 
control, and G-E air brakes. General Electric Com- 
pany, Schenectady, New York. Sales offices in 
principal cities. 



330-138 



February, 1930 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



17 




15 Trolley Buses 

/&/* Salt Lake City 

G"E BquLpped 



THE trolley bus is fast becoming an 
important part of the transportation 
system in Salt Lake City. Such advantages 
as maneuverability, smooth, quick accelera- 
tion, speed on grades, low operating cost, 
and decreased paving charges have led to 
a recent decision of the Utah Light and 
Traction Company to provide fifteen 
additional units. 



The new Salt Lake City trolley buses will 
be equipped with General Electric motors 
and foot-operated PCM control, * with 
electric braking feature. 



*PCM control, a recent General Electric con- 
tribution to the railway industry, provides 
automatically smoother and faster acceleration. 
For complete information, communicate with the 
nearest G-E sales office. 





A motion'picture film showing trolley buses in operation 
is available. Address the G-E ofiice nearest you 

330-136 
JOIN US IN THE GENERAL ELECTRIC HOUR, BROADCAST EVERY SATURDAY AT 9 P.M., E.S.T. ON A NATION-WIDE N.B.C. NETWORK 

GENERAL ELECTRIC 

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, SCHENECTADY, N. Y. , SALES OFFICES IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 



18 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 



February, 1930 



THE NEW G-E ALUMINUM ARRESTER 




3 Times Approved 
at Baltimore 



IN each of three successive years 
—1927 to 1929— the United 
Railways and Electric Company 
of Baltimore, Md., has purchased 
250 G-E aluminum lightning 
arresters. This company operates 
1131 passenger cars and 149 
service cars. 

The unqualified approval of the 
G-E aluminum arrester at Balti- 
more dates back to 1910, when 
1000 units were purchased. These 
were in continuous service until 



GENERAL 




1926, when a much improved 
type was announced by General 
Electric. Since then, the improved 
design and better performance of 
the new arrester have resulted in 
the gradual replacement of the 
original units. 

For complete information, address 
the G-E sales office nearest you 
or General Electric Company, 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

Join us in the General Electric hour, broadcast 
every Saturday at 9 p.m., E.S.T. on a 
nation-wide N.B.C. network 



130-147 

ELECTRIC 



SALES AND ENGINEERING SERVICE IN PRINCIPAL CITIES 



Electric Railway Journal 



Consolidation of 
Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

A McGraw-Hill Publication— Established 1884 



John A. Miller, Jr., Managing Editor 



Volume 74 



New York, February, 1930 



Number 2 



Supreme Court Strikes Off Shackles of 
Inadequate Rates 

GOOD reason for expecting improvement in the 
financial condition of the electric railway industry is 
found in the recent decision of the United States 
Supreme Court in the rate case of the United Railways 
& Electric Company of Baltimore. The court definitely 
established two important principles of rate making and 
reaffirmed a third which it had previously laid down. It 
held that the electric railway company was entitled to a 
return of 7^ to 8 per cent on its present fair value. It 
ruled that depreciation should be set up on the basis of 
"expenditures equal to the cost of the worn-out equip- 
ment at the time of replacement; and this, for all prac- 
tical purposes, means present value." Moreover, the 
decision suggests, although it does not definitely state, 
that present reproduction cost must be considered the 
most important factor in determining valuation for rate- 
making purposes. 

Encouraging, indeed, is the ruling that a return of 
7-^ to 8 per cent is not excessive. Since the industry 
in general has had to pay interest at this rate or more 
when it has gone into the market for new money, it can- 
not fairly be denied permission to earn that rate of re- 
turn. Few state regulatory bodies, however, have been 
willing to grant rates sufficient to accomplish this pur- 
pose. It is noteworthy that only two members of the 
Court, Justices Brandeis and Holmes, took exception to 
this part of the decision and that their objections were 
directed rather at the rate base than at the rate itself. 

Concerning the proper basis upon which to calculate 
depreciation, wide diflferences of opinion have long 
existed. On the one hand it is said that the purpose 
of setting up depreciation is to permit the replacement 
of worn-out physical property. The natural corollary of 
this is that replacement cost should be the basis of 
calculation. On the other hand it is claimed that the 
object should be merely to restore to the treasury the 
money originally spent ; from which it follows that orig- 
inal cost rather than replacement cost should be the basis 
of calculation. When the latter plan is adopted the extra 
cost of the new property required to replace that which 
has been worn out must be met by borrowing additional 
money and thereby increasing the capital investment. 

Provided that the earnings are high enough to permit 
borrowing, it does not make a great deal of practical 
difference which method is followed. In one instance 
the company must earn a larger sum for depreciation, 
while in the other, the depreciation allowance is smaller, 
but there is also required a certain sum for interest on 
the additional investment. The relation between these 
amounts depends on the difference between the original 
and the replacement cost and the length of the useful life 



of the property. Since the general level of prices is 
upward rather than downward, the original cost method 
of calculating depreciation will result in a steadily in- 
creasing invesment and a steadily increasing burden of 
interest charges. 

To what extent the opinion of the court may be taken 
as an indorsement of the reproduction cost theory of 
valuation is not entirely clear. This point was not at 
issue and the decision merely asserts that "it is the 
settled rule of this court that the rate base is present 
value." Judging from the previous rulings of the court in 
the Indianapolis Water Company case and the St. Louis 
& O'Fallon Railroad case it may be inferred that repro- 
duction cost is to be considered a major element in 
determining value. This view is strengthened by the 
vigorous dissent of Justices Brandeis and Holmes, who 
are recognized believers in the prudent investment theory 
of valuation. The language of the decision, however, 
leaves this phase of the matter open to argument. 

Prompt improvement of the financial condition of the 
railway in Baltimore may be expected to result from the 
decision. Ultimately it is likely to have far-reaching 
effects in fare cases now pending in other cities. At this 
time when the need for modernization of the electric 
railway equipment has received wide recognition, the 
decision of the court is particularly timely and opens the 
door to a new and better era for the local transportation 
industry. 

Improved Fire Record Brings Lower 
Insurance Rate 

FOR many years the fire record of the electric railways 
was not one in which the industry could take much 
pride. More recently, however, a marked improvement 
has occurred. Several factors have contributed to this 
improvement. Present-day structures and equipment are 
not so inflammable as those of an earlier period. Greater 
care is devoted to storage of materials. A larger mea- 
sure of attention is paid to periodic inspections. More 
efficient methods of fire detection have been developed, 
as well as automatic equipment for fire extinguishing. 
All this has resulted in a material decrease in the number 
of fires in electric railway carhouses and shops, and a 
decrease in the seriousness of the fires that have 
occurred. 

This achievement has been the more noteworthy when 
compared with the steadily rising fire losses for the 
country as a whole. In recognition of this, new fire 
insurance rate schedules for electric railways have been 
granted in 42 states, and tentatively adopted in three 
others. For this accomplishment a large measure of 
credit goes to the committee on insurance of the Amer- 
ican Electric Railway Association. It is now up to the 



<5 



railways themselves to take advantage of the opportuni- 
ties that have been offered to them. If they do, sub- 
stantial savings will be effected. There is every reason 
to expect that improvement in the fire record will be 
continued, in which event it may be anticipated that still 
further reductions will be made in the rate schedule. 



Luxury Becomes a Necessity 

DE LUXE buses in urban service have proved their 
ability to earn profits. That they have done so 
independently and not at the sacrifice of revenue from 
city-type operations is a fact of major significance. The 
attractive equipment and the fast, direct service which 
is typical of the majority of these lines has appealed to a 
new kind of rider. This is clearly shown by a survey 
of numerous properties published elsewhere in this issue. 
Almost without exception, the de luxe lines now in oper- 
ation, charging fares considerably above those for street 
car service, are routed so as to connect the downtown 
business, shopping and theater districts of the city with 
one or more exclusive residential sections. The busi- 
ness man has found this service convenient for his trips 
to and from the office and as comfortable as traveling in 
his own private automobile. During the mid-day hours 
the women enjoy an attractive vehicle for their shopping 
trips. 

Some of these lines have opened new territory that 
would not support or permit .street cars, but the majority 
of them are furnishing a selective additional service 
through communities already well served by city lines. 
The higher fares, 25 cents in the majority of instances, 
make it possible for the operating company to render 
faster and more luxurious service, yet at the same time 
offer economies to the motorist who has been in the habit 
of using his automobile for commuting. It has been 
estimated that a person cannot drive his car into town, 
park it and return home at a ccst less than $1 per day. 
At half the cost he can use the buses and not have the 
worry of driving or parking. Traffic conditions, parking 
restrictions and the cost of short-time storage in a garage 
are all working for the benefit of the de luxe bus and 
are more than indirectly responsible for the expansion 
of this class of service. 

Further evidence of the future of the de luxe bus is 
found in the statistics of recent bus purchases. There 
were more buses of this type bought by the electric rail- 
ways last year than in any previous year. Approximately 
400 more de luxe buses were purchased in 1929 than 
in 1928, while there was an increase of only 23 in city- 
type buses. Undoubtedly there is a definite luxury trend 
in bus operations, and the electric railways are strength- 
ening their systems both from an operating and economic 
standpoint by expanding their service along this line. 



Value of Elevated Railways Proved Anew 

ALTHOUGH occasional clamor is heard in favor of 
■i- *- the removal of elevated railways from citv streets, 
evidence continues to accumulate that they still have a real 
place in providing transportation in large communities. 
An apt illustration of this is furnished by comparison of 
the service now being given by the elevated railway lines 
in New York City and the service which a new elevated 
motor highway now under construction along the Hudson 



River waterfront is expected to render. The cost of 
this undertaking probably will exceed $18,000,000, 
and its carrying capacity has been estimated at approx- 
imately 100,000 persons per day. A few blocks away 
an elevated railway is at present carrying more than 
250,000 persons per day. A subway could do no more. 
Yet the city, while spending vast sums for the construc- 
tion of the new elevated highway, is proposing at the 
same time to tear down its elevated railways. 

An argument often advanced is that the present ele- 
vated railway structures are unsightly. In this respect 
the elevated highway promises little improvement. Al- 
ready a forest of ugly steel columns has sprung up in the 
center of West Street interfering to a considerable extent 
with surface traffic. Of course, there is much to be said 
in favor of the new project. By providing a by-pass 
route without grade crossings between lower Manhattan 
and the uptown residential districts it will undoubtedly 
afford some relief to the city's congested streets. But 
the real measure of usefulness of a transportation facility 
is the number of people accommodated. From this 
standpoint the elevated railways are far more valuable 
than the new highway. 

In Manhattan, unfortunately, the .elevated railways 
stand low in public esteem. Stations of corrugated iron 
designed and built in an era when jigsaw work was the 
ultimate in ornamentation cannot fail to shock the 
esthetic tastes of the j^resent-day Gothamite. Nor can 
rolling stock of the pre-Spanish war period hold forth 
much in the way of rider a])peal. But stations can be 
made artistic, and modern cars, less noisy and more 
comfortable than those now in use on the "L" in Man- 
hattan, are obtainable. 

That the prejudice against elevated structures in New 
York is being carried to an extreme is evidenced by the 
fact that this very useful and relatively inexpensive form 
of transit is being to a large extent ignored in plans for 
the future. Into the far reaches of Brooklyn and Queens, 
amid scenes almost pastoral, subway routes are being 
planned at enormous expense to handle anticipated devel- 
opment that is at best many years away. Chicago, more 
wisely, provides in her new city plan for some 70 miles 
of elevated lines to serve the more remote suburbs. Be- 
fore deciding that the day of the elevated railway has 
passed, New York would do well to study carefully the 
facts and figures of the situation. 



Scientific Accident Analysis Brings 
Practical Results 

SAFETY has as its ultimate goal the prevention of all 
accidents. In industry, however, it has been necessary 
to interpret it in relative terms because the ideal seems 
impossible of attainment. Since it is inevitable that 
some accidents should occur, their cost must be esti- 
mated year by year and allowed for in the budget as 
a more or less constant element of operating expense. 
As a result of this treatment of the situation from the 
financial point of view, accident prevention work fre- 
quently degenerates into a part of the regular routine, 
and efforts to better conditions become perfunctory. 
Preaching accident prevention by emphasizing to the 
men the cost to the company is not effective, particularly 
if the operator believes he is doing the best he can. 
Trying to place the blame for the accident on someone 
other than the operator is liot profitable, for it does not 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
60 



reduce the pain of the victim or the grief of his friends, 
nor does it save the expense involved. But that some- 
times represents the scope of accident prevention work. 
In refreshing contrast to this is the attitude of the win- 
ners of the latest Anthony N. Brady Memorial Safety 
Award, as evidenced by the briefs submitted in the com- 
petition and abstracted in this issue. 

The jDrogram of research in accident prevention out- 
lined by the Boston Elevated Railway, which won the 
Brady medal in the class of large properties, is particu- 
larly noteworthy. Not satisfied with the ordinary meth- 
ods, the management had a searching analysis made to 
determine, so far as possible, all the causes of accidents 
in order that they might be dealt with intelligently and 
eliminated wherever possible. A program was put before 
the organization in such a manner that all co-operated 
in working it out effectively. After only one year the 
results have been remarkable. They have proved the 
soundness of the methods used. The good operators 
have remained good and the poor ones have become 
much better. There has been a marked reduction in the 
number and in the severity of accidents. 

While the methods which are so successful in Boston 
may appear elaborate for some of the smaller properties, 
there is nothing that cannot be used with suitable mod- 
ification. In fact, the smaller size of a property should 
make the u.se of similar methods simpler and should 
produce results more quickly. The other winners of the 
Brady awards did use methods which, while not devel- 
oped so scientifically as those used in Boston, followed 
along similar lines in many respects. Intensive and con- 
tinuous efforts made it possible to improve the already 
good records they had achieved in past years. 



Putting Noise on the Defensive 

NOISE is receiving ever-increasing attention as an 
unfavorable factor in American life, particularly in 
metrojjolitan centers. Means of eliminating or reducing 
it are under consideration nearly everywhere. Unneces- 
sary blowing of factory whistles has been l>anned. Even 
the ringing of church bells is looked upon with disfavor 
in some cities. The noisy motor truck, a consistent of- 
fender, has occasioned so much caustic comment that in 
many ])laces it has become the subject of police regula- 
tion. Drilling and blasting for building foundations are 
today subjects of criticism. Riveting, that symbol of 
progress, is under suspicion, for now electricity welds 
building frames in silence. Contractors have become 
apologetic about the noise they feel compelled to make. 

With all this campaign against unnecessary noise it 
is inevitable that unfavorable attention should be directed 
to noisy street cars. Many people probably believe that 
the noise of street car operation cannot be elimi..ciced. 
Few indeed realize the progress that is being made along 
this line. The committee on noise reduction of the 
A.E.R.E.A. has shown conclusively that most of the 
noise usually associated with car operation is unneces- 
sary. New cars are being built that are far less noisy 
than those of the older types. Even the old cars can be 
made far less noisy than some of them now are. A 
monkey wrench and a screwdriver will work wonders 
in tightening up the loose bolts and screws. Loose or 
Ijroken parts that rattle and squeak can be attached se- 
curely or replaced. Noisy air compressors, the curse 
of many cars, can be repaired or new ones installed that 
do not make a racket every time the car stops. 



As to the track, of itself it is one of the quietest things 
on earth. But when a car passes it begins to act up and 
emit many and various noises. Here again the wrench 
and the welder can make a lot of difference. By tight- 
ening loose joints, truing up worn surfaces and securing 
correct alignment even poor track can be so improved 
that cars can run on it without emitting .sounds of pain 
that arouse the neighborhood. 

Since noise is an indication of inefficiency, it follows 
that the noisy car is being subjected to strains that are 
heading it for the repair shop sooner than necessary. 
Money spent on noise reduction will return directly in 
lower maintenance costs. Equally important, however, 
is the effect on the public. This cannot be measured in 
dollars and cents but it is hardly an exaggeration to 
say that it may mean the difference between success and 
failure. 



Use of One-Man Car Upheld 

FINDINGS of the special master in the suit in equity 
of the Shreveport Railways vs. City of Shreveport 
to enjoin enforcement of an ordinance requiring two men 
on every street car are not only of importance to the 
company in question, but also carry a message affecting 
the entire industry. In no uncertain language it is 
pointed out that a municipality's right under its ]iolice 
powers to interfere in matters of this kind exists only 
when necessary to the safety and convenience of the 
public. The court states that from the evidence the 
modern one-man car with safety devices has been shown 
to be safer than its predecessor, the two-man car. Fur- 
thermore, the evidence shows that speed has been 
increased and that companies have been able to operate 
more service, that wages have been increased, and that 
operators have become more efficient and better satisfied 
when the change from two-man to one-man cars has 
been made. Moreover, the court found that since 1917 
no public service commission has refused to permit the 
operation of one-man cars, and since 1924 no commis- 
sion has limited the right to use one-man cars subject to 
any particular conditions. Under these circumstances 
the refusal of the city to permit the use of one-man cars 
of the latest type was held to be arbitrary, and equivalent 
to a taking of the railway's property without due proc- 
ess of law. 

Aside from the specific matter of safety of one-man 
operation, the court made several significant statements. 
The evidence showed that a choice had to be made 
between reducing railway operating expenses through the 
instrumentality of the one-man car, and the ultimate 
bankruptcy of the company and the loss of electric rail- 
way service to the city of Shreveport. The court was 
unwilling that the city should lose its railway. It 
appraised the situation correctly when it said that street 
cars, for the present at least, appear to be an essential 
means of transportation for a large portion of the popu- 
lation, particularly those not able to own automobiles, 
and the loss of such service without an equally cheap 
substitute would be a serious handicap to a growing 
community. 

While the fight against the one-man car has largely 
died out, this decision makes the position of the courts 
more definite than it ever has been. In addition, it chal- 
lenges the right of the municipal authorities to exert 
their police power in matters which do not affect the 
safety and convenience of the public. 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1920 
67 



NOTABLE ACHIEVEMENTS IN 

Accident Prevention 

Win Brady Awards for Boston, Tampa 
and Tide Water Companies 



WINNERS of the Brady safety medals have 
recently been announced by the American Elec- 
tric Railway Association. There are three 
divisions in the contest, according to the amount of 
service rendered. In Class A, including electric railway 
organizations operating more than 5,000,000 vehicle 
miles, the award, consisting of a gold medal, was made 
to the Boston Elevated Railway, with honorable men- 
tion to the Louisville Railway. The Qass B award, a 
silver medal, for those companies operating more than 
1,000.000 but not over 5,000,000 vehicle miles, went to 
the Tampa Electric Company, with honorable mention 
to the El Paso Electric Company. In Class C, for 
smaller properties, the bronze medal was awarded to 
the Tide Water Power Company of Wilmington, N. C. 

The awards are a memorial to the late Anthony N. 
Brady, and are presented each year for the best records 
of safety in operation and health promotion made by 
electric railways. The selection of the winners was made 
by a joint committee of the American Museum of Safety 
and the American Electric Railway Association, con- 
sisting of Lewis Gawtry, president the Bank for Savings, 
chairman; Col. A. B. Barber, manager transportation 
and communication department U. S. Chamber of Com- 
merce; James H. McGraw, chairman of the board 
McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc., and Charles 
Gordon, managing director American Electric Railway 
Association. 



Accident Analysis Successful 
in Boston 

BY FAR the most impressive accomplishment of the 
Boston Elevated Railway in its safety work has been 
its study of the human factor in accidents. Since it 
was recognized that accidents may be caused by some 
human failings, primarily of a psychological nature, the 
railway engaged the Personnel Research Federation of 
New York to survey the situation. As a result it was 
found that half of the accidents happen to less than a 
third of the operators. In one sample of 200 men of 
ample experience and maturity, one-half the accidents 
happened to only one-fifth of the motormen. This 
difference in proneness to accidents holds even when the 



Marked improvement shown in 1928 
safety records as compared with pre- 
vious years. Honorable mention made 
of Louisville Railway and El Paso 
Electric Company 

question of blame is eliminated. A further study indi- 
cated that men who pay the most attention to operating 
efficiently, as evidenced by the percentage of coasting 
obtained, are also the men who have the least accidents. 
It was found that the 100 men with the lowest coasting 
records had 364 accidents and 73 delinquencies, while 
the 100 men with the high coasting record had 313 
accidents and 46 delinquencies. A further study of 
delinquencies of bus operators developed that, apart from 
fare irregularities, among the low-accident men there 
was an average of 9.7 delinquencies which were made 
by 65 per cent of the men; whereas among the high- 
accident men, there were 16.8 average delinquencies 
made by 89 per cent of the men. 

A study of the men over 50 years of age showed that 
21 men with abnormal blood pressure had a total of 
136 accidents, or 6^ per man; those with normal blood 
pressure, numbering 38, had 110 total accidents, or an 
average of 3 per man. The length of service was found 
to have a very distinct relation to the number of acci- 
dents, the older men having far less accidents than the 
younger ones ; second, the largest number of accidents 
and the largest proportion of men having a large num- 
ber of accidents are in the group with less than one 
year of experience. 

Summing up, it was found that there are four classes 
of men who may be regarded as more than ordinarily 
prone to accidents: (1) those who do not operate eco- 
nomically, as shown by low coasting record ; (2) those 
whose record of delinquencies is long; (3) older men 
with abnormal blood pressure, and (4) younger men 
with very limited experience. 

Following this survey the records of car operators 
and motormen were studied individually. They were 
divided into two classes: (1) high-accident men, i.e., 
those with five or more collisions during 1927; (2) 
low-accident men, i.e., those with fewer than five col- 
lisions during 1927. It was found that out of 2,300 
operators, approximately 20 per cent, or 472, were high- 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 



68 




observations as to their habits. Then 
the habits of the operator, his record, 
personaHty, and physical condition 
were all considered together in an at- 
tempt to arrive at conclusions regard- 
ing the cause of his accidents, and in 
relation to the possibility of the effec- 
tiveness of individual action, the 
main thought being that the man 
should be cured of his accident 
tendencies if possible. 

The method chiefly depended on 
to produce a reduction in accidents 
was instruction on the job by the 
especially trained instructors. While 
instruction was mainly relied on, two 
other methods were used: (1) where 
the accident record of a man indi- 
cated that he did not realize his re- 
sponsibility, he was interviewed by the 



In Boston, traffic lanes are marked prominently at 
congested intersections 

accident men, and the remaining 1,828 were low. The 
1,828 low men were regarded for the time bejing as 
satisfactory operators, and were left under the usual 
influences inducing safety. 

The high-accident men were then studied and handled 
individually. Two things were noted about these men: 

(1) the man who tends to have many slight accidents, 
which are themselves relatively unimportant, is also the 
man who tends eventually to have serious accidents; 

(2) the man who has many accidents in one year is 
also the man who is likely to have accidents every year. 
Accident proneness may, therefore, be regarded as some- 
thing in the nature of a disease, which has to be 
diagnosed and treated. The first step in treating a man 
is finding out why he has accidents. 

Instructors were then brought into conference, relative 
to the 472 operators who were on the high-accident list. 
They rode on the cars with these operators, making 




Many safety measures are in use in the Boston shops. This view 
shows the advantage of depressed pits with leg holes for in- 
spection and repair work on trucks and motors 



Some 291,000 cars or trains passed over this electric switch 
in 1928 without a derailment 



safety supervisor and division superintendent; (2) 
where the cause of accident was ill health, the men were 
physically examined and told what was the matter with 
them, and advised to go to their own physicians for 
treatment. 

Since the habits in question were generally of long 
standing and a change would require some time, it was 
necessary to arrange follow-up work. Each inspector 
was required to see each of his operators on the job, 
the frequency depending on the seriousness of the case. 
When it became apparent that although a man might do 
his job well during the hours the instructor was with 
him, he might not do it at all well during the other 47 
hours of the week, the entire street supervisory force 
was enlisted. Their hours and duties were rearranged 
so that they could include a great measure of personal 
supervision of high-accident operators. 

A selected group of instructors and supervisors was 
consolidated into a group of safety inspectors, working 
directly under the safety supervisor. Districts were 
allotted to these inspectors, according to the routes and 
districts where the accident hazards were greatest. Sample 
studies of accidents and times of accidents were made. 
It was then made the duty of the inspectors to acquaint 
the high-accident men with all the information they had 
regarding the accident hazards of the district. 

Other activities of the transportation department cod- 



Electric Railway Journal- 
69 



-February, 1930 




Sand is spread on slippery streets where buses of the Boston 
Elevated run, and it protects general vehicle traffic as well 



cerning accidents have included conferences with the 
division superintendent regarding the method of han- 
dling men, co-operation of the dispatchers and carhouse 
starters, particularly with respect to warning operators 
when weather conditions were unfavorable, or when 
men were placed on new routes, and keeping a careful 
check of punctuality. These men have also been encour- 
aged to inspect cars and see that the equipment is on 
hand and the car in perfect running order. 

Results that have been obtained have proved the 
soundness of these methods. During the year 1928 the 
collision accidents involving surface cars were reduced 
from 7,197 to 5,923. This reduction came about by con- 
centration of efforts of high-accident men. Figures 
show that the 472 high-accident men in 1927 averaged 
7.1 accidents per man. or a total of 3.327 accidents. 
During 1928, 312 of these men averaged 2.1 accidents 
per man. or a total of 663 ; 160 averaged 7.1 accidents 
per man, or 1.136 total accidents. The accidents for 
this group were therefore 1.799 altogether. Contrasted 
with this the 1,828 low-accident men in 1927 averaged 
2.1 accidents per man, a total of 3,870 accidents. During 
1928, 1,693 of these men- averaged two accidents per 
man, or 3,386 accidents ; while the remaining 135 aver- 
aged 5.8 accidents per man, or 738 accidents, making a 
total of 4,124 accidents for this group. Thus it will 
be seen that while there was a 46 per cent reduction in 
the accidents of the men in the first group, a number of 
the men of the second group had a larger number of 
accidents in 1928 than 1927. The discovery, after the 
first year's investigation, that a few of the men placed 
in the low-accident group could not be classed as con- 
stantly low-accident men was an unforeseen but valuable 
result of the investigation. With the additional knowl- 
edge obtained, the system of training has been rounded 
out to include provisions for special treatment of this 
new group. 

Accident location studies have been made on a dif- 
ferent basis from that usually employed. For instance, 
on a particular route a check-up showed that the inbound 
colHsions were all with the front left comer of the car, 
while outbound collisions were with the right front 
corner. The reasons for this were investigated, and 
the instructors and men were told how they should oper- 
ate in view of the condition. This cut the accidents on 
the line to one-third of the former number. In another 



instance, instructors were overheard telling the men how 
much extra care was necessary at a certain corner, where 
studies showed that there had been no accidents for 
more than a year. 

Investigation showed that the times of the accidents 
as well as the locations should be taken into account. 
In one place it was found that inspectors had been on 
duty sixteen hours a day during the previous winter to 
look after traffic conditions, but during the evening rush 
the inspector was required to go to a cross-over 1,000 
ft. away. Study revealed that 80 per cent of the acci- 
dents at this point occurred during the evening rush 
hour. Placing a man there from four to six in the after- 
noon resulted in cleaning up the bad spot, and the sixteen 
hours of unnecessary supervision was eliminated. In 
another place, the prevailing type of accident in the sum- 
mer required twenty-hour supervision, while a study of 
winter conditions showed that 75 per cent of the acci- 
dents occurred during only five hours of the day. The 
superintendent found that he could arrange for five 
hours supervision, and did so, reducing accidents on 
the route from nineteen to nine a month. 

At the beginning of 1928, the inspection school and 
the employment office of the railway were consolidated 
as the division of employment and training. Inspectors 
teach the new employees as well as the older ones. 
Preparing for an interview with a man, the superin- 
tendent decides that it would be better to have this 
man's instruction followed up on the card. The regular 
instructor arrives with him and gives him instruction 
when necessary. Eighty high-accident men have been 
taken out on special cars in street operation by the 
division inspectors. These men have been re-instructed 
for from one to three days, and special attention has 
been given to any faults in operation or habits which 
increase accident hazards. 

The work of 1928 showed that when every possible 
expedient had been tried to cure men of their accident 
proneness, some were not successfully handled. In order 
to discover the reasons for their accident proneness a 
psychology laboratory was set up and these men put 




6 7 8 9 10 11 
Accidents per Man 

Accident proneness is confined to relatively few men. This 
record from Boston shows that 1,828 low-accident men had 
3,870 collisions, or an average of 2.1 per man, while 472 
high-accident men had 3,327 collisions, or 7 per man. The 
small chart shows distinctly that caution comes with experience, 
most of the high-accident men being young in the service 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
70 



through tests to secure further information about their 
mental make-up. After observations it was found that 
several psychological factors are more or less constant as 
contributing causes of accidents: (1) the degree of 
adaptability of the operator to various types of equip- 
ment ; (2) his quickness of reaction to sound and light; 
(3) powers of concentration over a period; (4) judg- 
ment of speed and distance. 

From these tests it was determined that operators 
should be divided into three classes: (1) first-rate oper- 
ators, 73.6 per cent of all, who never have more than a 
few accidents; (2) those who for one reason or another 
do not ordinarily operate in a safe manner, unless spe- 
cial methods of instruction are adopted, but who always 
would be classed as high, comprising 20.5 per cent of 
the total; (3) those who are likely to be either in the 
high-accident or low-accident class in any year, forming 
6.6 per cent of the men. In this third class fall those 
who are qualified in all classes of service and who change 
from one type to another, and those whose health, family 
circumstances, etc., either improve or become worse in 
any year. 

The function of the safety organization, then, has 
been three-fold: (1) to reduce the number of high- 
accident men; (2) to follow up the men whose manner 
of operation has improved and crystallize their improved 
habits; (3) to prevent unnecessary shifts of those men 
who, due to change of operation, will have a tendency 
to come into the high-accident class. 

Safety an Integral Part of Management 

Two fundamental principles determined the policy 
of the Boston Elevated Railway in its safety work 
during 1928, according to the company's presentation. 
First, safety is an integral part of management and not 
simply something to be taken care of by a special 
department charged with the administration of safety 
features only. Second, all specific safety efforts must be 
preceded by and based upon thorough research and in- 
vestigation into past accidents and their causes. 

In order to interest the public in accident prevention, 
there has been close co-operation with the Massachusetts 
Safety Council, officials of the railway being on the exec- 
utive board of that organization. During 1928 the 
general manager of the railway was president of the 
council. 

Particular attention has been taken to interest the 
children in safety. A special motorcycle officer detailed 
to make observations at the opening and closing of 
schools found that the children from certain streets did 
not have due respect for their own safety, so that he 
visited the schools in question, talked with the teachers, 
and in some cases talked directly with the children of 
the class. Another result was the formation of a junior 
safety council in the schools; the co-operation of local 
service clubs was secured ; the Kiwanis Club donated 
white safety belts to the boys for use while on duty as 
safety patrols. 

In connection with its physical plant, the company has 
done much to make the track safe for operation. In 
addition a derailment committee visits the scene of the 
trouble whenever a derailment or a split switch occurs. 
The evidence obtained is weighed and a decision is 
reached as to the probable cause. As a result, in com- 
parison with 243 derailments in 1927, costing in claims 
$15,130, there were only 208 derailments in 1928, costing 
in claims $11,548. 



In order to prevent collisions with cars turning, clear- 
ance lines have been painted on the pavement. On one 
of the recently opened highways, known as the Northern 
Artery, the hazards to passengers have been eliminated 
by moving the safety zones from the highway and placing 
center loading areas between the tracks. These center 
loading areas allow passengers to keep away from the 
vehicular traffic, which is not halted while passengers 
are boarding and alighting. 

Particular attention has been paid to the equipment 
to keep it at all times in safe operating condition. The 
older buses which were purchased by the company in 
1922 and in several years thereafter have been replaced 
by modern buses of steel construction which have much 
greater strength to withstand shocks in collisions. The 
street cars have also been maintained better, and there 
is an improved reliability of the cars from the accident 
standpoint. In cars, both for surface and rapid transit 
lines, safety features have been installed. Much new 
testing equipment has been installed in the shops to 
insure that the cars are in safe operating condition. 
Changes have been made in the rapid transit stations to 
enhance the safety of passengers. Safeguards have been 
placed at approaches to drawbridges to prevent cars from 
running off the track at such points. 

Due to the extensive use of automobiles in winter, as 
well as during the open months, changes in the snow 
removal program have been made so that a width of at 
least 14 ft. in the roadway adjoining the tracks is cleared, 
as well as the area over the tracks themselves. Using 
these measures, the street surface is free from snow in 
practically the entire width, for the whole winter. The 
railway also keeps open 140 miles of highway, over 
which its buses operate. 



Tampa Betters Safety Record 

SAFETY work in Tampa, which brought the Tampa 
Electric Company the Brady Award for 1927, had 
even better results in 1928. In the latter year there was 
a total of 820 car and bus accidents, as compared with 
1,175 occurring in 1927, 2,843 in 1926 and 3,070 in 1925. 
This represents an improvement in 1928 over 1927 of 
30 per cent, over 1926 of 71 per cent, and over 1925 
of 72 per cent. From the comparative record of acci- 




At the South Florida Fair the I'ampa Electric Company had an 
exhibit which included a moving picture booth at which safety 
pictures were shown 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
71 



dents, it appears that of the years 1914 to 1928 inclusive, 
the smallest number of accidents occurred in 1928. Also, 
during 1928 a far greater number of miles was operated 
per accident than was operated at any time during this 
fifteen-year period. The figures indicate an improve- 
ment in miles operated per accident during 1928 over 
1927 of 35 per cent, over 1926 of 184 per cent, and 
over 1925 of 264 per cent. 

The reduction in collisions with vehicles is particu- 
larly notable. In 1925 there were 2,597 such collisions, 
in 1926 there were 2,458 collisions, in 1927 1,021 col- 
lisions, and in 1928 only 691. These figures indicate an 
improvement for 1928 over 1925 of 280 per cent in miles 
operated per collision with a motor vehicle. The auto- 
mobile registration in the two years was approximately 
the same. The latter year also shows a substantial reduc- 
tion in other classes of accidents as compared with the 
three previous years. 

The total expense of settlement of suits, judgments 
and claims was $9,940 in 1928, as compared with $35,135 
in 1927, and approximately the same amount in each of 
the two preceding years. The total accident costs have 
been reduced from $56,290 in 1925, $62,182 in 1926 and 
$57,237 in 1927, to $25,236 in 1928. This is a reduction 
of approximately 60 per cent. The cost of accidents 
per vehicle-mile for the four years was 1.45 cents in 

1926, 1,31 cents in 1926, 1.49 cents in 1927 and 0.65 
cents in 1928. With an accident reserve accumulation of 
$60,000 at the end of 1928, it has been possible to reduce 
the accrual basis from 5 per cent to 3 per cent of the 
revenue from transportation. This record of reduction 
in accident costs has been obtained with a reduction in 
the cost of safety work from $5,448 in 1927 to $4,799 
in 1928. 

Safety work has been carried on by the Tampa Elec- 
tric Company for many years. In a summary of the 
presentation for the Brady Award last year made in 
Electric Railway Journal for Jan. 26, 1929, page 
161, were listed the several plans used up to the end of 

1927. The program has been continued during the past 
year. 

During 1928 blinker stop signs were installed at street 
intersections of the most important through thorough- 
fares. Clearance lines at curves are now painted on the 
street surface in yellow instead of white, which was the 
same color as that used by the city in marking street 
intersections, parking places, etc. It is believed that this 
change prevents confusion with other lines painted on 
the pavements. 

In connection with the annual South Florida Fair, the 
company, in its exhibit in 1928, showed the front end 
of a street car. Inside it motion pictures and lantern 
slides were displayed on a screen. Two short films were 
run, along with slogans. It is estimated that between 
18,000 and 20,000 people saw the exhibit during the 
ten-day period of the exposition. 

Beginning with 1928, a new contest among the train- 
men was begun. This plan has as its reward a monthly 
prize of $5 to each man of the car or bus line which 
operates the greatest number of miles per accident. The 
extra men are also divided into groups, and the members 
of the winning group are likewise given a prize of $5 
each. This contest has proved very successful, and tends 
to keep interest aroused where it has perhaps lagged a 
little during the four-month bonus contests which were 
described in the article last year. Under the rules of the 
contest, all accidents are counted, whether chargeable or 



non-chargeable. In the case of unreported accidents, a 
regular man is disqualified from participating in any 
earnings of the line for that monthly period in which 
the unreported accident occurred. 

Whenever a line makes a poor showing in the line 
contest for two months in succession, class meetings are 
held for the men from that line, in which every phase 
of the operation is discussed, together with the possible 
accident hazards, in order to ascertain if possible the 
reason for the line's poor showing. These classes have 
been found very beneficial and have always resulted in 
improvement for the lines that have been making a poor 
showing. 

In the work of the shops, one of the most noteworthy 
accomplishments for safety during 1928 was the adoption 
of the system of keeping all cars and buses on the same 
run daily. It is believed that when a man is entirely 
familiar with his car by the daily use of it, he naturally 
will handle it with a greater degree of safetly. This 
system has also helped in reducing car defects, and im- 
proving the reliability of the service. 



Tide Water Power Company 
Extends Safety Measures 

DESPITE continually increasing congestion on streets 
and highways the Tide Water Power Company of 
Wilmington, N.C., maintained the excellent record dur- 
ing 1928 that it had established in winning the Brady 
Award in its class in the two preceding years. This 
company always has laid great stress on resuscitation 
of persons suflFering from electric shock or suffocation in 
drowning. It was a pioneer in adopting the SchaeflFer 
prone pressure method and has extended its service to 
neighboring industries and the general public. The com- 
pany owns and operates a large bathing pavilion at 
Wrightsville Beach and maintains lifeguards for the pro- 
tection of the public. It also has shown during the 
bathing season a one-reel picture, "Artificial Respira- 
tion," every eighth evening. Reports have come back 
from many southern states illustrating the peculiar 
eflFectiveness of this method of visual instruction. 

The company also co-operates with the safety depart- 
ments of the railroads and industries located in the city 
as well as with the local Y.M.C.A. In the company's 
employee school for vocational training and safe prac- 
tices, the employees of other companies are welcome to 
receive instruction without charge. 

Particular attention is directed toward all locations 
where accidents are likely to occur. Where the view of 
the track is obstructed special precautions are taken. 
Where a hedge is permitted to obscure the view at a 
crossing a continuous agitation for its trimming or re- 
moval will begin, and will be continued until the risk is 
eliminated or abated. Signs are placed at important 
points along the lines of the company giving full direc- 
tions as to speed and control of the cars. It is believed 
that this has enabled employees to make better than 
average time with little if any extra hazard. 

The company bettered its record of accidents from 46 
in 1927 to 45 in 1928. There have been no fatalities on 
the properties for four years. Expressed in proportion 
to gross revenue the cost of accidents was 1.366 per cent 
for the year 1928. The claim department operations 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
72 



and miscellaneous expense were 0.537 per cent of the 
1928 gross earnings. 

In 1928 the bonus system for rewarding trainmen and 
bus drivers for safe operation met with great success. 
Of the 34 regular operators 15, or 44 per cent, held 
perfect safety records. Of the average number of 48 
total operators, 43 received some reward for safe opera- 
tion. The plan provides for the payment of $1 to each 
operator for each no-accident month. In the event that 
he has an accident he loses all of the accumulated bonus 
for the year to date, but can start over the next month. 
There is an additional bonus of $1 for each no-accident 
quarter, and $5 extra for a perfect year, making a pos- 
sible total actual bonus of $21. The cost of this system 
was $522 in 1928, or less than 1 per cent of the payroll. 



Louisville Men Have New 
Attitude on Safety 

WHILE safety work on the Louisville Railway dur- 
ing 1928 followed along the same lines as in the 
past two years, there has been a change in the attitude of 
the men since the safety program was inaugurated in 
1921. At present they are making efforts to operate 
safely because they have a conviction that safe operation 
for its own sake is distinctly worth while. 

Among mechanical improvements which contribute to 
safety, the most important during 1928 was the elimina- 
tion of a grade crossing over which three of the heaviest 
street car lines operate. Safety of operation has been 
increased by a change in the color with which the street 
cars are painted, the present scheme comprising a lemon 
yellow for the car body with a broad stripe of apple 
green running around the body and a cross of apple 
green on the front and rear dashes. Four safety zones 
have been installed at the principal loading points on 
Jefferson Street. Air gongs have been substituted on 
cars operating on important lines for single-tap foot- 
operated gongs. Treadle doors at the rear of cars on 
one of the one-man car lines have been installed. 
Improved destination signs have made it easier for pas- 
sengers to distinguish routes and have minimized the 
hazard due to their standing in the street to see if the 
car approaching is the desired one. Improved springs 
and locking devices have been installed in electrically 
operated switches to prevent splitting of switches and 
subsequent derailment. 

Despite an increase in the number of car-miles run 
from 12,140,867 in 1927 to 12,365,167 car-miles in 1928. 
the cost of repairs due to accidents was reduced from 
$7,262, to $6,045. 

Comparison of 1928 statistics with those for 1927 
shows that the latter year in nearly all respects was the 
safer. The total charges to the injuries and damages 
account were reduced from $201,112 to $162,186. The 
average number of miles operated per chargeable acci- 
dent went up from 13,326 in 1927 to 17.440 in 1928. 
In this connection it must be remembered that 1928 was 
the eighth year of intensive safety effort on the property 
and comparatively little improvement was looked for. 

Indicative of the change of attitude of the employees 
toward safety is the fact that, of 24 safety rallies held 
at different carhouses during the year, 22 were arranged 
by the platform men themselves. Posters and charts 




In Louisville a dinner is given each month to the carhouses where 
25,000 miles or more are run without an accident. The 
progress of each carhouse is shown by pins on charts posted 
on bulletin boards 

in the carhouses are found of the utmost value in keeping 
the enthusiasm for safety of its employees constantly 
stimulated. One of these shows the average miles oper- 
ated per accident from 1910 to date. Another is a blue- 
print which shows the complete safety record of all of 
the employees. Still another chart is a blueprint showing 
the standing of each carhouse in the company's monthly 
accident contest. 

During the year a postgraduate course for trainmen 
was inagurated. This supplements the training of new 
employees and makes the old employee who takes it a 
more efificient street railway man. There also has been 
increased attendance by employees of the company at the 
Louisville Safety Council's industrial school. 

The good will of the company has been enhanced by 
speeding up the street car service. This was accom- 
plished late in 1927 and early in 1928. In 1927 the 
company operated 12,140,867 car-miles in 1,433,271 car- 
hours; in 1928 it operated 12,365,167 car-miles in 
1,416,690 car-hours. This was accomplished with the 
increase in car-miles per accident and decrease in total 
cost mentioned elsewhere. Besides this general improve- 
ment in speed, an express service was inaugurated on 
one of the company's main lines during the year. For 
four miles in the center of the main route the street cars 
make no stops at streets other than transfer points, local 
service being given by buses. 



El Paso System Increases 
Zero Accident Days 

DURING the year 1928 the El Paso Electric Com- 
pany bettered its record for any previous year, 
having a total of 435 accidents as compared with 445 
in 1927, and 452 in 1926. This compares with 1,767 in 
1921, the earliest year for which statistics were pre- 
sented. Accidents were at the rate of 1.42 per 10,000 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
71 



car-miles, and 2.35 per 100,000 passengers carried. The 
figures for 1928 represent an improvement of approxi- 
mately 8 per cent in the factor of safety over the medal 
winning year, 1926. Reviewing results for the past eight 
years, the company's presentation states that accidents 
per 100,000 passengers carried and per 10,000 car-miles 
operated have been reduced more than 75 per cent. 

During 1928 earnings were increased to the extent of 
$12,752, and expense was reduced by $18,614, through 
accurately fitting service to conditions. The company 
operated 233,452 car-miles less and hauled 76,516 pas- 
sengers more in 1928 than during the previous year. 
Faster schedules oflfset lengthened headways and read- 
justments were followed by a further reduction of the 
number of street car and bus accidents. 

For years it has been the practice of this company to 
set an accident bogey. By the beginning of 1928 so 
much progress had been made towards the goal of acci- 
dentless transportation that no bogey was set and the 
men were simply urged to do their best to "beat last 
year's accident record." This they did, lowering the 
record for 1927 by ten accidents. 

That the efforts towards the reduction of accidents 
have been appreciated in the city of El Paso is evidenced 
by the many expressions of good will included in the 
report. The results did not follow a spurt or any series 
of spasmodic efforts during which spectacular improve- 
ments were shown. On the contrary, progress along 
safety lines was shown by regularly bettering the estab- 
lished accident record year after year, notwithstanding 
that these records have already been recognized as among 
the best. 

Warning signs, the exercise of tact and courtesy, and 
extra precautions taken to prevent accidents have played 



an important part in the program. Careful inspections 
have been made, special instructors have taught student 
operators and a joint committee on investigating acci- 
dents has been active. Operators are continually on the 
alert and report all unsafe conditions. Various safety 
devices have been adopted, quite a few of which were 
developed by the men in the ranks. 

Outstanding benefits have been secured through the 
company's honor roll and gold star merit system. A 
day off with pay once each month is the privilege of 
operators on the honor roll, and this has led to greatly 
increased efficiency and improved safety. The safety 
banquets which are held periodically have increased the 
interest of the men in accident prevention work, and the 
numerous safety contests conducted have resulted in 
materially lowering the number and seriousness of 
accidents. 

One of the outstanding features of the safety contest 
was the establishment of a record for zero days, or days 
on which no accidents occurred. The company had a 
total of 117 such days in 1928. This means that the 
street cars and buses were operated about a third of the 
total number of days in the year without an accident of 
any kind. The goal which the company has set is to 
operate seven consecutive days without an accident. 
There were eight days in June, 1928, in which only one 
accident occurred, and in the last eleven days of Decem- 
ber eight were operated without an accident. All the 
employees are now determined to make the seven consec- 
utive days without an accident a reality. The result has 
been to stimulate a renewed interest in safety among all 
employees, which has materially lessened the number and 
seriousness of accidents in which the street cars and buses 
are involved. 



Lower Insurance Rates In Effect 



NEW fire insurance rate schedules for electric rail- 
ways are now in effect in 42 states, according to the 
announcement made at a meeting of the committee on in- 
surance of the A.E.R.A., held at Baltimore Jan. 10. In 
three other states the new schedule has been tentatively 
adopted and test applications are being made. In three 



Fire Insurance Rate Schedule — Revision of May, 1929 




In Use 




Maine 


North Carolina 


Arkansas 


New Hampshire 


; South Carolina 


Nebraska 


Vermont 


Georgia 


Oklahoma 


Massachusetts 


Florida 


Texas 


Connecticut 


Alabama 


Wyoming 


Rhode Island 


Mississippi 


Colorado 


New York 


Louisiana 


New Mexico 


New Jersey 


Ohio 


Montana 


Pennsylvania 


Tennessee 


Utah 


Delaware 


Indiana 


Arizona 


Maryland 


Wisconsin 


Washington 


Dist. of Columbia Illinois 


Oregon 


Virginia 


Minnesota 


California 


West Virginia 


Iowa 


Nevada 


Michigan "1 
North Dakota } 


Tentatively adopted. 


Test applications 



South Dakota J being made. 
Note— Missouri "I 

Kansas \ Because of litigation, schedule not filed. 

Kentucky J 

Idaho — No traction lines rated. 



additional states the schedule has not been filed because 
of litigation ; and in one state there are no traction lines 
rated. 

Changes in this new schedule as comi)ared with that 
previously in effect are as follows : 

The base rate "A" for incombustible buildings has 
been reduced 50 per cent. 

The base rate "B" on other structures has been re- 
duced 16^ per cent. 

More favorable treatment has been accorded buildings 
of superior construction (rated under base rate "A") and 
deficiency charges for such buildings have been lowered 
in numerous instances. 

Occupancy charges for motor buses (items 31 t,u) 
have been lowered 25 per cent and 20 per cent respec- 
tively, with all occupancy charges reduced 50 per cent 
when in incombustible buildings. 

Watchman deficiency charge has been reduced 50 per 
cent when base rate "A" is used. 

External protection charges are reduced one-half when 
base rate "A" is used. 

Deductions have been introduced for semi-steel cars. 

A 33;^ per cent reduction has been allowed in the base 
rate for rolling stock (1) on tracks and (2) in yards. 

Charges covering defective wiring and heaters for cars 
on tracks have been reduced 50 per cent under stated 
conditions. 



Electric Railway Journal 
74 



-Vol.74, No.2 



Baltimore Rate Decision 



Sanctions Larger 



United States Supreme Court ap- 
proves 7V2 to 8 per cent return on 
present fair value. Similar basis 
held to be proper for setting up 
depreciation 



PRINCIPLES which may have a far-reaching effect 
upon the electric railways and the entire utiHty 
industry in this country were laid down in the 
recent decision of the United States Supreme Court in 
the rate case of the United Railways & Electric Company 
of Baltimore. Not only did the court sustain the primary 
contention of the company that a return of 7.44 per cent 
was no more than fair and reasonable but it went further 
and declared that a return of 7^ to 8 per cent is not 
unreasonable or excessive. Concerning depreciation, the 
second point at issue, the court stated specifically : "This 
naturally calls for expenditures equal to the cost of the 
worn-out equipment at the time of replacement ; and this 
for all practical purposes means pre.sent value." The 
position previously taken by 
the court, that reproduction 
cost must be considered in 
determining valuation, was 
reaffirmed, but the wording 
of the decision was not spe- 
cific and definite on this 
subject. 

More than two years have 
elapsed since the first step 
was taken in the long series 
which led ultimately to the 

victory of the company in the nation's highest court. In 
August, 1927, the company applied to the Maryland 
Public Service Commission for an increase in fare from 
7^ cents to 10 cents. 

The old 5-cent fare remained in effect in Baltimore 
until 1918, when this rate was increased to 6 cents. In 
the following year it was raised to 7 cents with two 
tokens for 13 cents. On Jan. 1, 1920. the token rate 
was withdrawn, and the fare became 7 cents straight. 
This rate continued until 1924, when the company was 
authorized to increase it to 8 cents with two tokens for 
15 cents. Even this failed to yield a fair return on 
the investment and the company therefore requested 
permission to charge a 10-cent flat fare. 

In response to this application the commission in Feb- 
ruary, 1928, ruled that the company could charge a cash 
fare of 9 cents, with three tokens for 25 cents. At that 
time the commission fixed the depreciation charge at 



There is much evidence in the record to 
the effect that in order to induce the invest- 
ment of capital in the enterprise or to enable 
the company to compete successfully in the 
market for money to finance its operations, 
a net return upon the valuation fixed by the 
commission should be not far from 8 per cent. 

— From decision of U. S. Supreme Court. 



Earnings 



$883,544, basing it on original cost. The company took 
the case to the Circuit Court, which in May held the 
rates granted by the commission were confiscatory and 
that depreciation should be based on present value. The 
commission then filed an appeal and the case went to 
the Court of Appeals of Maryland. 

The Court of Appeals reversed the Circuit Court and 
upheld the contention of the commission that a .fare 
calculated to yield a return of approximately 6.26 per cent 
is adequate. In the matter of depreciation, however, the 
Court of Appeals upheld the lower court and overruled 
the contention of the commission that depreciation should 
be figured on the basis of original cost. Both sides then 
appealed to the United States Supreme Court, the com- 
pany in order to secure a rate of return higher than 6.26 
per cent and the commission in order to win its point that 
depreciation should be calculated on original cost. 

The decision of the United States Supreme Court, an- 
nounced on Jan. 6, 1930, sustained the decision of the 
Maryland Court of Appeals that depreciation should be 

calculated on present value, 
but reversed the latter's rul- 
ing that 6.26 per cent con- 
stitutes an adequate return. 
In discussing this subject the 
Supreme Court stated: 

"The commission fixed a 
rate of fare permitting the 
company to earn a return of 
6.26 per cent on this valua- 
tion ; and . . . the case re- 
solves itself into the simple 
question whether that return is so inadequate as to result 
in a deprivation of property in violation of the due 
process of law clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. 
In answering that question, the fundamental principle to 
be observed is that the property of a public utility, 
although devoted to the public service and impressed 
with a public interest, is still private property; and 
neither the corpus of that property nor the use thereof 
constitutionally can be taken for a compulsory price 
which falls below the measure of just compensation. 
One is confiscation no less than the other. 

"What is a fair return within this principle cannot be 
settled by invoking decisions of this Court made years 
ago based upon conditions radically different from those 
which prevail today. The problem is one to be tested 
primarily by present-day conditions. Annual returns 
upon capital and enterprise, like wages of employees, 
cost of maintenance and related expenses, have materially 



Electric Railway J ovRi^AL— February, 1930 
75 



increased the country over. This is common knowledge. 
A rate of return upon capital invested in street railway 
lines and other public utilities which might have been 
proper a few years ago no longer furnishes a safe cri- 
terion either for the present 
or the future. Nor can a 
rule be laid down which will 
apply uniformly to all sorts 
of utilities. 

What may be a fair return 
for one may be inadequate 
for another, depending upon 
circumstances, locality and 
risk. The general rule re- 
centlv has been stated in 

Bluefield Co. vs. Pub. Serv. Comni., 262 U. S. 679, 
692-695 : 

"What annual rate will constitute just compensation 
depends upon many circumstances and must be determined 
by the exercise of a fair and enlightened judgment, having 
regard to all relevant facts. A public utility is entitled to 
such rates as will permit it to earn a return on the value of 
the property which it employs for the convenience of the 
public equal to that generally being made at the same time 
and in the same general part of the country on investments 
in other business undertakings which are attended by cor- 
responding risks and uncertainties ; but it has no constitu- 
tionaL right to profits such as are realized or anticipated in 
highly profitable enterprises or speculative ventures. The 
return should be reasonably sufficient to assure confidence 
in the financial soundness of the utility and should be 
adequate, under efficient and economical management, to 
maintain and support its credit and enable it to raise the 
money necessary for the proper discharge of its public 
duties. A rate of return may be reasonable at one time and 
become too high or too low by changes affecting oppor- 
tunities for investment, the money market and business 
conditions generally. 



It is manifest that just compensation for a 
utility, requiring for efficient public service 
skillful and prudent management as well as 
use of the plant, and whose rates are subject 
to public regulation, is more than current 
interest on mere investment. 

— From decision of U. S. Supreme Court. 



"Investors take into account the result of past operations, 
especially in recent years, when determining the terms upon 
which they will invest in such an undertaking. Low, uncertain 
or irregular income makes for low prices for the securities of 
the utility and higher rates of interest to be demanded by 
investors. The fact that the company may not insist as a 
matter of constitutional right that past losses be made up 
by rates to be applied in the present and future tends to 
weaken credit, and the fact that the utility is protected 
against being compelled to serve for confiscatory rates tends 
to support it. In this case the record shows that the rate 
of return has been low through a long period up to the 
time of the inquiry by the commission here involved." 

"What will constitute a fair return in a given case 
is not capable of exact mathematical demonstration. It 
is a matter more or less of approximation about which 
conclusions may differ. The court in the discharge of 
its constitutional duty on the issue of confiscation must 
determine the amount to the best of its ability in the 
exercise of a fair, enlightened and 'independent judgment 
as to both law and facts.' . . . 

"There is much evidence in the record to the effect 
that in order to induce the investment of capital in the 
enterprise or to enable the company to compete success- 
fully in the market for money to finance its operations, 
a net return upon the valuation fixed by the commission 
should be not far from 8 per cent. Since 1920 the com- 
pany has borrowed from time to time some $18,000,000, 
upon which it has been obliged to pay an average rate of 
interest ranging well over 7 per cent and this has been 
the experience of street railway lines quite generally. 
Upon the valuation fixed, with an allowance for depre- 
ciation calculated with reference to that valuation, and 



upon the then prescribed rates, the company for the 
years 1920 to 1926, both inclusive, obtained a return of 
little more than 5 per cent per annum. It is manifest 
that just compensation for a utility, requiring for effi- 
cient public service skillful 
and prudent management as 
well as use of the plant, 
and of which the rates are 
subject to public regulation, 
is more than current interest 
on mere investment. Sound 
business management re- 
quires that after paying 
all expenses of operation, 
setting aside the necessary 
sums for depreciation, payment of interest and rea- 
sonable dividends, there should still remain something 
to be passed to the surplus account ; and a rate of return 
which does not admit of that being done is not sufficient 
to assure confidence in the financial soundness of the 
utility to maintain its credit and enable it to raise money 
necessary for the proper discharge of its public duties. In 
this view of the matter, a return of 6.26 per cent is 
clearly inadequate. In the light of recent decisions of 
this Court and other federal decisions, it is not certain 
that rates securing a return of 7^ per cent or even 8 per 
cent on the value of the property would not be necessary 
to avoid confiscation. But this we need not decide, since 
the company itself sought from the commission a rate 
which it appears would produce a return of about 7.44 
per cent, at the same time insisting that such return fell 
short of being adequate. Upon the present record, we 
are of opinion that to enforce rates producing less than 
this would be confiscatory and in violation of the due 
process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment." 

From these views Mr. Justice Brandeis and Mr. Jus- 
tice Hohnes dissented. Their dissent, however, appears 
to have been based upon a difference of opinion concern- 
ing valuation and proper allowance for depreciation 
rather than upon the belief that a return of 6.26 per 
cent is adequate. In fact. Justice Brandeis' statement 
refers to a return of 7.78 per cent upon the figure which 
he considers to be the fair value of the property. 

Concerning the method which should be used in setting 
up depreciation the language of the decision is explicit. 
The Court states : 

"The allowance for annual depreciation made by the 
commission was based upon cost. The Court of Appeals 
held that this was erroneous and that it should have been 
based upon present value. The court's view of the mat- 
ter was plainly right. One of the items of expense to 
be ascertained and deducted is the amount necessary to 
restore property worn out or impaired, so as continuously 
to maintain it as nearly as practicable at the same level of 
efficiency for the public service. The amount set aside 
periodically for this purpose is the so-called depreciation 
allowance. Manifestly, this allowance cannot be limited 
by the original cost, because, if values have advanced, 
the allowance is not sufficient to maintain the level of 
efficiency. The utility 'is entitled to see that from earnings 
the value of the property invested is kept unimpaired, so 
that at the end of any given term of years the original 
investment remains as it was at the beginning.' . . . 
This naturally calls for expenditures equal to the cost 
of the worn-out equipment at the time of replacement; 
and this, for all practical purposes, means present value. 
It is the settled rule of this Court that the rate base is 
present value, and it would be wholly illogical to adopt a 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
76 



different rule for depreciation. As the Supreme Court 
of Michigan, in Utilities Commission vs. Telephone Co., 
228 Mich. 658, 666, has aptly said: 'If the rate base is 
present fair value, then the depreciation base as to depre- 
ciable property is the same 
thing. There is no principle 
to sustain a holding that a 
utility may earn outhe present 
fair value of its property de- 
voted to public service, but 
that it must accept and the 
public must pay depreciation 

on book cost or investment cost regardless of present fair 
value. We repeat, the purpose of permitting a depre- 
ciation charge is to compensate the utility for property 
consumed in service, and the duty of the commission, 
guided by experience in rate making, is to spread this 
charge fairly over the years of the life of the property.' " 

From this opinion Justices Brandeis and Holmes again 
dissent and also Mr. Justice Stone in a separate opinion. 
Their objections appear to be based on general disagree- 
ment with the reproduction cost theory of valuation, and 
present value as the basis for depreciation allowance. 

In the matter of valuation the language of the decision 
is open to some difference in interpretation. The state- 
ment is made that "it is the settled rule of this court 
that the rate base is present value." In the opinion of 



It is the settled rule of this Court that the 
rate base is present value, and it would be 
wholly illogical to adopt a different rule for 
depreciation. 

— From decision of U. S. Supreme Court. 



lawyers representing the United Railways & Electric 
Company, this is a reaffirmation of the stand taken by the 
Court in the St. Louis & O'Fallon Railroad case when 
it upset the valuation of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission because sufficient con- 
sideration had not been 
given to the matter of re- 
production cost. It appears 
also to refer back to the In- 
dianapolis Water Company 
case wherein the Supreme 
Court held "if the tendency 
or trend of prices is not definitely upward or downward 
and it does not appear probable that there will be a sub- 
stantial change of prices, then the present value of lands 
plus the present cost of constructing the plant, less de- 
preciation, if any, is a fair measure of the value of the 
physical elements of the property." 

The exact procedure for putting into effect the decision 
of the United States Supreme Court remains in doubt 
at this time. It appears probable that the United States 
Court will transmit its rulings to the Maryland Court of 
Appeals and thence to the Circuit Court, resulting in 
the issuance of a permanent injunction to restrain the 
Public Service Commission from interference with the 
collection of a 10-cent flat fare by the United Railways 
& Electric Company of Baltimore. 



Engineering Executive Committee Receives Committee Reports 



SEVERAL subjects of importance were taken up at 
the regular meeting of the executive committee of 
the American Electric Railway Engineering Association 
held in New York on Jan. 9, 1930. 

Reports were received from the standing committee in 
charge of the several divisions of association work, and 
it appeared evident from them that every effort is being 
made to speed the reports this year to have them ready 
in time for the annual convention to be held in June. 

On account of the withdrawal of the New York State 
Railways from the American Electric Railway Associa- 
tion, F. McVittie tendered his resignation from the Engi- 
neering executive committee. His resignation was ac- 
cepted with regret. To fill the vacancy thus created 
Walter Bryan, superintendent of power, St. Louis Pub- 
lic Service Company, was nominated and unanimously 
elected. It was provided, however, that the remaining 
members of the executive committee be advanced in posi- 
tions, since Mr. McVittie was a ranking member at the 
time of his resignation. 

Resolutions were presented and adopted on the death 
of G. W. Palmer, Jr., who was the only honorary member 
ever elected by the executive committee of the Engineer- 
ing Association. 

A number of matters pertaining to the American 
Standards Association were taken up. Having completed 
this assignment the committee on special track work was 
discharged. C. W. Squier was appointed as the asso- 
ciation's representative on the committee on machine 
pins. On the subject of hacksaw blades the proposed 
standardization prepared by E. P. Goucher was adopted 
for submission to the American Standards Association. 
On account of the proposed change in the method of 
testing steel and malleable iron pipe unions of standard 
weight, this subject also was referred back to Mr. 
Goucher. New designs of axles which were proposed 



were withheld from the Manual pending a discussion 
with the American Railway Association. 

Considerable discussion developed relative to the pro- 
gram of the annual convention to be held in San Fran- 
cisco next June. According to the plan adopted by the 
American Association, sessions of the Engineering Asso- 
ciation will be held Monday and Wednesday afternoons 
and Thursday morning. As to the division of time 
among various subjects, the matter was left to the com- 
mittee on convention program, of which F. H. Miller is 
chairman. 

Discussion developed as to whether the subjects of 
motor buses and wood preservation should be reorgan- 
ized as separate divisions of the Engineering Association, 
instead of special assignments under the rolling stock 
and way and structures divisions, respectively. This was 
referred to a committee consisting of A. T. Clark, chair- 
man; P. V. C. See, and E. M. T. Ryder. 

Revisions of the constitution and by-laws and the rules 
and regulations for committees were adopted at the last 
convention and referred to a committee on editing con- 
sisting of R. C. Cram and C. R. Harte. A report of the 
committee on editing was presented by Mr. Cram. The 
proposals were principally changes in wording to clarify 
the meaning and to insure uniformity. They were ten- 
tatively approved by the executive committee for printing 
in proof form and submission to the membership for 
approval. 

Members present at the meeting included President 
W. W. Wysor, Vice-presidents L. D. Bale and C. H. 
Jones, Secretary-treasurer G. C. Hecker, E. M. T. Ryder, 
H. H. George and A. T. Clark. T. H. Nicholl, C. S. 
Stackpole, L. C. Winship and R. C. Cram, representing 
committees. A. W. Baker of headquarters staff and 
Morris Buck of Electric Railway Journal also were 
present. 



Electric Railway Journal 
77 



-February, 1930 



New Albany Car 



D 



IFFERENCES of many kinds from conventional 
designs are found in the new car which has been 
operating for some little time on the lines of the 
United Traction Company, Albany, N. Y. The outstand- 
ing features are the extensive use of aluminum and its 
alloys in the body construction, and the driving motors 
and type of control. 

Particular care has been taken to make the car interior 
attractive. The miscellaneous parts of the electrical 
equipment, such as the control devices and switches, have 
been grouped and placed in a cabinet in each vestibule, 
with a convenient table top which not only conceals the 
equipment but provides a place for the operator to lay his 
transfers, punch and other paraphernalia. 

Tests made have shown that the service performance 
of the car is also somewhat unusual. The free running 
speed is 32 m.p.h., which is attained with a rate of accel- 
eration on the control points of 3.5 m.p.h.p.s. Stops with 
the service brake are at the rate of 2.5 m.p.h.p.s., but 
when emergency braking is used, combining both air 
and magnetic devices, the rate obtained may be as high 
as 6 m.p.h.p.s. 

In order to obtain minimum weight, aluminum and its 
alloys have been used extensively in the car body and 
framing, many parts being made entirely of such ma- 
terials. In the following discussion, where aluminum is 
referred to it is understood that the term includes not 
only pure aluminum, but the various alloys of the metal 
which have been brought out by the Aluminum Company 



Includes Many 




By 
R. S. BEERS 

Transportation Engineering Department 
General Electric Company 



of America and which have been designated by it as suit- 
able for the part in question. 

The side sills are formed of 3x5xf-in. aluminum 
angles, extending in one continuous piece from front 
body corner posts to center exits and from center exits 
to rear vestibule corner posts on both sides of the car. 
The cross sills are formed of 4-in. aluminum channels. 
These are fastened to the underside of the side sill angle. 
The body end sills are formed of two 4-in. aluminum 
channels spaced on lOx^-in. centers, fastened to the body 
side sills with top and bottom center gusset plates riveted 
to the end sills and platform center sills. 

The center exits are reinforced with additional longi- 
tudinal sills and plates, forming a step well. A 4-in. 
aluminum channel is placed at the junction between the 
floor plate and the top step well. This runs the full length 
of the center exit and is connected by angle clips to the 
body cross sill and riveted to the floor plate. The center 
exits each have a floor cover plate of 
No. 9 gage aluminum, flanged on the 
inside, and extending from within 4^ 
in. of the center line of the car to the 
side sills and between the main body 
cross sills on the two sides of the center 
exit. The step hangers, risers and tread 
plates are formed of No. 7 gage alumi- 
num flanged at the ends. 



General Dimensions of the 
Albany Car 



SXSAi aluminum 
angles fop and 
boHom ^k 



Na9-aXS. -fr 
qaqe a/uminum\ ' 

Syff^'Lalui 
inum clips 1^ 
/oncf 



■f'X4'Jli"LaJum;n-W.— --- \- 19'-4,^ /engfh over 5"X3"X% alui 

um clips -ijicnj^t^ _ %-■■>>f^^r-4^f->p -2•-4yi'>^^^J::lI^e">*.^■^^^ 



mum an: 



gle 




I <- I4'-I0l Over S'XS'K^s aluminum angle 



^ 2fX22 Xi" aluminum U 



L 41-J/l over inside of dashers 



Aluminum is used extensively in the framing of the Albany car. Rolled, extruded 
and cast sections of various alloys are employed 



Ft. In. 

Length over all 42 i\ 

Length over dashers 41 1 U 

Length over body 32 11} 

Length of platforms 4 5}! 

Bumper projection 4i 

Truck centers 22 9t 

Wheelbase of truck 5 4 

Wheel diameter 26 

Post centers 30 

Vestibule door openings between posts 4 Oi 

Side exit door openings, between posts 2 1 1 A 

Width over all 8 2J 

Width over side sills / of 

Width over vestibule corner posts 7 Of 

Width of aisle |2 

Widthofseats 3J 

Height, rail to top of trolley boards V lift 

Height, rail to under side of sill 27 ft 

Height, rail to bottom of apron f 23| 

Height, floor to headlining 6 9J 

Height, rail to first step, end door 17 

Height, first step to platform, end door 15 

Height , rail to first step, center exit 13 

Height, first step to second step, center exit. . 9 J 

Height, second step to car floor, center exit. . 9J 

Seating capacity 44 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
78 



Innovations 



The open side of the platform is supported by a built- 
up knee, formed of No. 7 gage aluminum plate pressed to 
shape. The top and bottom edges of these knees are rein- 
forced by a 2x2x;|-in. steel angle riveted to them. 
The knees are further braced with a No. 7 gage 
aluminum hanger plate, flanged on the inside edge for 
connecting to the knee and then around the outside of the 
side sill angle. 

The center sills at the front and rear ends of the car 
extend through the body end sill to the buffer sills, and 
are formed of 4-in. aluminum channels, connected with 
angle clips. The body end sills are further braced with 
two :J-in. pressed 5-in. aluminum channels laid flatways 
and extending from the end sill to the body bolsters be- 
ing bolted to them. The closed side of the platform is 
formed by a continuation of the side sill angles. The plat- 
form ends at each end of the car are reinforced with 
No. 9 gage aluminum nosing plates for the full width of 
the car and some 20 in. deep. 

Body Framing Is of Aluminum 

The body framing also is of aluminum construction. 
The material includes cast, rolled and extruded sec- 
tions, heat treated. The side posts are of extruded "U" 
shaped sections extending from side sill to side plate, 



bolted and clipped to the side sills. The truss braces be- 
tween each pair of side posts are of built-up construction, 
consisting of an aluminum belt rail or sash-rest casting, a 
body side plate casting and a No. 14 gage, heat-treated 
aluminum flanged plate riveted to the side sill angle. 
These individual truss frames form the side body con- 
struction and extend from body pier posts to center exit 
pier posts on both sides of the car. On the closed side of 
the vestibule cast aluminum belt rails are used, bolted to 
the corner vestibule posts and body pier posts. These 
castings have lugs which permit steel diagonal bracing 
to be used. The side body girder plates and letterboards 
are of 18 gage aluminum plates held in place by alumi- 
num moldings bolted to the side posts. 

The body side posts are fastened to the roof carlins by 
cast aluminum shoes bolted to them, forming a contin- 
uous member from sill to sill. The side posts are finished 
on the inside of the car by extruded aluminum pilasters. 



The main controller is placed beneath the car floor, 
the master control being actuated by the left 
foot. The right foot governs the revcrser and 
the air brake. Only auxiliary devices fiave to 
be controlled by hand 




Foot-operated control and extensive use of alu- 
minum in the framing are features of thi^ 
new car for the United Traction Company of 
Albany, N. Y. 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
79 




The Albany car is designed to permit of easy entrance and exit. 



The body corner piers and exit door piers are finished of 
pressed sheet aluminum pilasters. 

The roof is of the arch type with vestibule hoods at 
each end. A channel shape extruded aluminum carlin is 
located at each side window and door post, and the ends 
of these carlins are fastened to the side plate bracing and 
window posts by cast 
aluminum brackets. 
The body roof is 
sheathed with ^-in. 
Haskelite the full 
width of the roof, 
and in five window- 
length sections. The 
hoods are sheathed 
with i\-in. Agasote 
cast in two pieces. 
The outside of the 
roof is covered with 
canvas. 

The center vesti- 
bule posts extend 
from the buffer sill 
to belt rail and are 
of extruded heat- 
treated aluminum, 
being tied to the 

corner posts by diagonals of 2x;J-in. flat steel bar braces. 
The inside finish of the vestibule below the windows is 
formed by the aluminum equipment cabinet, while the 
side vestibule finish is of No. 18 gage aluminum plate. 
A sign box of cast aluminum is built into the vesti- 
bule hood. 

The headlining is No. 18 gage aluminum sheet curved 
to the contour of the roof, jointed on the carlins and 
covered with aluminum moldings. The advertising card 
racks are made of No. 18 gage aluminum, forming an ex- 




The controller, reverser, resistors and 
car convenient for inspect! 



tension to the headlining sheets. The edges are covered 
with aluminum moldings grooved to take standard car 
cards the full length of the car body. 

The doors are made of cherry. Post cappings, pier 
cover plates and moldings are of aluminum. The wains- 
coting below the windows consists of aluminum plate. 

The window stooling 
is an extension of 
'the cast aluminum 
truss brace finished 
with cherry capping. 
Besides the main 
framing, aluminum 
is used in a number 
of details on the car. 
Spacer rings for the 
head lamps and hous- 
ing rings for the 
marker lights are 
made of aluminum, 
as is the sander 
reservoir. 

The seats are of 
the walk-over type, 
with a welt divided 
back. The chair for 
the motorman is of 
the bucket type and is adjustable vertically and longi- 
tudinally. The seats are upholstered in brown Spanish 
leather. 

The car body is mounted on Cincinnati passenger type 
arch bar trucks, with spring pedestal cantilever type jour- 
nal boxes and combination rubber cushions and semi- 
elliptical spring bolster suspension. The trucks are de- 
signed to operate on curves with a minimum radius of 
30 ft. The wheelbase is 5 ft. 4 in., and the wheel diam- 
eter is 26 in. 



other equipment are placed under the 
on from the pit or the side 



General Specifications of Equipment of the Albany Car 



Type of unit.... One man, motor, passenger, city Door mechanism 
double-end, double truck 

Number of seats 44 

Builder of car body, Cincinnati Car Cor))., 

Cincinnati. Ohio 
Wright 32,000 lb. 



Body Aluminum 

Roof Arch 

Doors Folding, center and end 

Air brakes General Electric, f oot-opcratcd 

Axlee Special 

Car signal system. . .Consolidated busier and single 

stroke bells 

Compressors General Electric CP-27B 

Conduit Flexible duct 

Control General Electric PCM 

Couplers Rail way standard drawbar 

Destination signs Hunter, end and side 



-Consolidated Car Heating Co., 
with treadles at center doors 

Fare boxes Johnson, electrically operated 

Finish Ripolin 

Floor covering Flexolith, * in. 

Gears and pinions. . . .General Electric, heat-treated 

Glass Protex, i in. for vestibule DSA for body 

Hand brakes Cincinnati Car Corp. 

Gongs Crewson pneumatic 

Hand straps Leather, white sanitary grips 

Heat insulating material Cork 

Heaters 20 inclosed, 300 watts, thermostatic 

control 

Headlights Golden Glow 

Headlining Aluminum, 1 8 gage 

Interior trim Nickel-plated, satin finish 

Journal bearings Hyatt roller 

Journal boxes 3 x 6 in. 

Lamp fixtures Standard, 20 in series 



Motors Four, GE-265, inside hung 

Painting scheme Red and cream 

Roof material Haskelite; Agasote in hoods 

Safety car devices Safety Car Devices Co. 

Sash Curtain Supply Co., brass 

Seats Hale & Kilburn Walkover 

Seat spacing 30 in. 

Seating material Brown Spanish leather 

Slack adjusters Turn buckles 

Stanchions and rails Monel metal pipe 

Steps Stationary 

Stop lights .... ,. Keystone 

Step treads . . . '. Kass safety 

Trolley catchers Earlt 

Trolley base Ohio Brass Co. 

Trucks Cincinnati arch bar 

Ventilators Railway Utility Co., New Era 

Wheels Steel, 26 in. diameter 

Window sash Curtain Supply Co., brass 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
80 



Power for driving the car is obtained from four 
GE-265 motors, one on each axle. These motors are 
rated at 35 hp. each and make it possible to maintain a 
high schedule speed. The motors are of the standard, 
self -ventilated type, geared for a free running speed of 
32 m.p.h. at 550 volts. The gear ratio is 68: 15. 

Arrangements have been made for foot operation of 
the G.E. Type PCM control. In practice it has been 
found that this control has all the flexibility of the hand- 
operated Type K. The operator can choose practically 
any speed he desires by stopping on the resistance 
notches. This may be done by the movement of his foot 
on the control pedal. Since the brake is controlled writh 
the other foot both hands are free for making change, 
punching transfers and similar purposes, thus reducing 
the duration of the stops. 

The control was developed to meet the requirements of 
street railways for faster acceleration without discomfort 
to the passengers. In general, this improvement has been 
obtained by increasing the 
number of resistance steps 
permitting small increments 
of accelerating current with 
a comparatively short time 
interval on each step and for 
the total operation. In nor- 
mal service accelerations as 
high as 3.5 m.p.h.p.s. are se- 
cured. There are nine steps 
in series and nine in parallel 
on the main controller. The 
action is automatic, the 
master controller having 
three points, known as 
switching, series, and parallel. 
When the operator presses 
his foot down to the full 
parallel position the control 
notches up under the direc- 
tion of an accelerating relay. 

The line breaker, con- 
tactors and all of the main 
control equipment are in a 
box underneath the car, while 
the foot-operated master con- 
troller is recessed into the toe 
board. The main contacts 
are locked in the off position 

when the reverse lever is removed, just as in the usual 
hand controller. Normally the acceleration of the car is 
controlled by the pedal, and, in addition, there is a pilot 
valve operated by the heel plate which cuts off power in 
an emergency and applies both air and magnetic brakes. 

The air brakes are of the straight air type with an 
emergency feature. The usual hand valve is replaced by 
a foot-operated control valve of the automatic lap type. 
The novel feature of this valve is that when the pedal is 
put in any braking position and held there, a definite pres- 
sure will be built up and maintained in the brake cylinder 
without moving the pedal back to a lap position. In other 
words, the amount of pressure built up depends on the 
distance the pedal is depressed. There is also a lock so 
that the pedal may be placed in the full service position 
and held there, as when the operator is changing ends. 
Supplementary braking is obtained by the magnetic 
track brakes. These consist of four electromagnets 
mounted between the wheels of each truck. Normally 
they clear the rail head but they can be lowered on the 



head and magnetized at the will of the operator. The 
magnets are energized directly from the trolley and are 
controlled through the intermediary of pneumatic valves. 
The retardation obtained by these brakes is thus inde- 
pendent of the motors and control. It does not in any 
way reduce the effectiveness of the air brakes. 

In an emergency both the air and magnetic brakes 
function together, such a combination allowing for very 
fast braking without the sacrifice of flexibility or ease of 
operation. Although the full braking effort is not needed 
at every stop the operator takes greater advantage of his 
high accelerating rate when he knows that he can follow 
more closely behind traffic and get a high rate of re- 
tardation if needed. 

A bell ringer, a sander and the magnetic track brake 
are each operated by individual hand valves. The supply 
of air to these valves is automatically cut off when the 
pedal is locked so that a passenger on the rear platform 
cannot tamper with them. Compressed air for operating 

the control and the auxiliaries 
is furnished by a CP-27, 15- 
cu.ft. compressor, suspended 
beneath the car. 

Two circuits, each consist- 
ing of twenty lamps in series, 
furnish illumination for the 
car interior and for the head- 
light, destination signs and 
markers. The lighting fix- 
tures are of the dome type 
with provision for short- 
circuiting a defective lamp. 
A novel feature is that when 
the motor reverser is turned 
in changing ends the head- 
light and other indication 
lamps are reversed without 
further attention from the 
operator. 

Straight pneumatic con- 
trol is used for the door 
at the motorman's platform, 
while the center door is 
handled with automatic 
treadle control. A four- 
position rotary valve enables 
the motorman to select the 
door - opening combination 
that he desires. A signal lamp in front of the motorman 
indicates whether the center door is closed. The door 
engines are of the direct stroke differential type mounted 
above the door. Each engine operates a two-leaf door. 
The signal buzzer is operated by a pull switch and a 
cord running down each side of the car. In addition there 
is a single stroke bell with a push button near the center 
door so that the passenger can signal the motorman. 
There is a conventional stop light on each end of the 
car, and in addition red lamps are placed over each door 
connected in the same circuit with the stop light. By this 
means automobile drivers as well as persons inside 
of the car, are warned that a stop is about to be made. 
The development of this new type of car was initiated 
by the United Traction Company of Albany, N. Y., 
which furnished unusual assistance and co-operation to 
the manufacturers in suggestions and practical demon- 
strations in operation. The car and trucks were built by 
the Cincinnati Car Corporation and the electrical equip- 
ment was furnished by the General Electric Company. 




Under side of the truck, showing the method of mounting 
the motors and wheel brakes. The double bars be- 
tween the wheels are the shoes of the magnetic track 
brakes which may be pulled against the rails independ- 
ently of the air brakes 



Electric Railway Journal- 
81 



-February, 1930 



CORRECT TIMING Ol 

Essential in 
Traffic Regulation 



PART ONE 



THE utility of any traffic signal system depends 
upon the accuracy with which the system is 
adjusted or timed to fit the traffic requirements. 
An examination of the characteristics of traffic flow 
shows that there are certain demands which should he 
satisfied in so far as the fluidity and safety of traffic 
movement is concerned. These may be set forth as 
follows : 

Signals should be timed ( 1 ) so as to prevent or reduce 
to a minimum the accumulation of traffic in any block or 
series of blocks : (2) in accordance with the relative 
volume of traffic flow per lane at each intersection; (3) 
so as to permit in so far as possible the flow of traffic 
at the speed which is normal for the area traversed ; 
(4) so as to vary with the traffic speed and with the 
volume throughout the traffic day; (5) so as to prevent, 
or reduce to a minimum,- the simultaneous flow of con- 
flicting streams of traffic, for both vehicular and vehicular 
with pedestrian movements. 

All of these requirements, with the exception of the 
third, are or may be present at even the simplest type 
of signal installation — the isolated, independently con- 
trolled intersection. Therefore, the problems which 
arise on an individual intersection must be solved before 
the problems of a traffic control system can be taken up. 

Establishing the Ratio of Times 

With respect to any one stream of traffic which flows 
into a signalized intersection the function of the con- 
trolling signal is to allow or to prohibit the flow of that 
traffic stream. The relative amounts of time which the 
signal gives to the controlled stream of traffic to go 
and to stop form a ratio of time division. Sev- 
eral factors influence the selection of a ratio of time 
division. The amount of traffic flow in each direction 
is certainly basic in establishing this ratio. The width 
of roadway or the number of lanes in which traffic flows 
is likewise important. The character of the traffic, the 
nature of the movement and the channelization of flow 
are factors to be considered. 

In this discussion, a simple right-angle intersection is 
taken for sake of simplicity. Assume all things are 
equal except the width of the intersecting roadways. 

Ignoring clearance periods the proper ratio of move- 
ment time for flow of traffic on one street at the 
intersection with another varies inversely as the roadway 
widths of the intersecting streets expressed in pairs of 
traffic lanes. A simple method of application of this 



principle is to reduce all traffic streams to vehicles per 
lane on each roadway and then treat all roadways alike. 

Let us next assume all things equal except the volume 
of traffic flow. In this instance the ratio of time divi- 
sions varies directly as the traffic flow. 

Where complex intersections are dealt with, road- 
way widths of unequal numbers of lanes can be treated 
as described above. That is, the traffic flow on all road- 
ways is reduced to vehicles per lane and hence all road- 
ways are reduced to equal terms and treated equally. The 
division of the cycle then varies directly as the flow per 
lane. Each artery is then given its part of the available 
time and is described by its flow per lane divided by the 
sum of all the other arteries' flow per lane. The available 
time is ordinarily described as the time of each cycle less 
the clearance periods. These are discussed later. 

The art of traffic engineering has not as yet developed 
to a point where it is possible to determine accurately 
the effect on the ratio of time division of such things 
as the character of traffic flow and the nature of the 
traffic movement. 

The clearance or caution period which is usually indi- 
cated either by an amber or by a red light is one of the 
most important items in the make-up of the complete 
cycle. As the name of the clearance period implies, 
its primary purpose is to clear the intersection of vehicles 
and pedestrians that have been moving in one direction 
at an intersection in time so as to prevent conflict. This 
may mean that the intersection is entirely clear before 
cross-flow is released, or in any case that the cross-streams 
are released only after a sufficient length of time after 
the clearing stream has been stopped so as to prevent 
conflict. While the clearance period is largely a safety 
measure, it is designed to produce both smooth and safe 
operation. 

In analyzing these requirements of the clearance 
period, it is seen that the length of the clearance time is 
expressed by speeds, distances and stopping times. The 
length of time required to stop a vehicle is significant in 
establishing the clearance period. If a stream of traffic 
which is flowing through an intersection is to be stopped, 
a sufficient warning time must be given because of the 
"inertia" effect. That is to say, a moving vehicle cannot 
be stopped instantly. As a minimum time, then, the 
clearance period should be long enough so as to permit 
stopping the vehicles which have been moving. At 20 
m.p.h., a speed now accepted for traffic movement in 
nearly every urban center, a vehicle with adequate 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
82 



5IGNALS 



By 

Theodore M. Matson 

Chief Engineer City-Wide TraflSc Committee 
Kansas City, Mo. 



2 60 



;50 



u40 



30 



10 





















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1 I 


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1 


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iwi 


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W¥f 


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uJ 


^y 


f 














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^ 


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f^ 



















2C 
f 


)0 
loctec 


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rf Flo 


)0 
w in \ 


6C 
/ehid 




es per 


8C 
- Lan 



e per 


Hour 


00 


1?00 



Short signal cycles cause less delay than long cycles 

brakes can be stopped safely in a distance of 50 ft. 
and a time of 3.4 seconds. Any vehicle which is 
closer to the stop line of a signalized intersection than 
50 ft. at the instant the caution period begins, would 
proceed across the intersection. (It is noteworthy that 
this distance is usually less than the width of the inter- 
section. ) 

At a simple right-angle intersection the minimum time 
required for a vehicle to clear the intersecting street may 
be determined as follows : 

Let W = Intersecting street width in feet 

V = Speed of clearing vehicle in miles per 
hour 
Clearance time in seconds. 



Then 



r 



T = 



W 



/5280F^ 
V 3600 
0.682 W 



3600^ 
5280 F 



Factors influencing the time ratio and length 
of cycle at a single intersection are discussed 
in this article. Timing for signal systems 
covering a number of intersections will be dis- 
cussed in a future article 



T = 



0682 
V 



{W + D) 



At complicated intersections there exists frequently a 
length of free path from the place the cross-flow vehicles 
are stopped to the point where these vehicles would con- 
flict with the clearing stream ; therefore a deduction can 
be made from the above clearance time. 

If rf = length of free path in feet to clearing stream 
V = average speed of the accelerating cross-flow 
in miles per hour 
and t = amount of time to be deducted 
0.682 ^ 



0.682 



If the clearing vehicle is 50 ft. or less from the inter- 
section when the signal is thrown and is traveling at 
20 m.p.h. it will require additional time. In general if D 
is the minimum safe stopping distance the maximum 
clearance time required by a vehicle is 

Electric Railway Journal — February, 1920 
83 



and the clearance time becomes 
T = ^-:^{W + D) 

The above equations apply to vehicles only. Usually, 
however, the pedestrians are requested to obey signals 
and in these cases a sufficient length of time must be set 
aside for clearing the pedestrian streams out of danger 
from released cross-flow vehicles. It is readily seen that, 
due to the slow movement of pedestrians, the clearance 
period demanded by them will usually be larger than 
required by vehicles. 

Consider the movement of pedestrians at an intersec- 
tion across the street in the direction, with respect to the 
center, which is counter-clockwise. The most severe con- 
dition results when this group of pedestrians will have left 
the curb at an instant prior to the beginning of the clear- 
ing period and will be directly in front of the cross-flow 
vehicles waiting release at the end of the caution period. 
If no safety zones or isles are provided in the roadway 
and no parking lanes exist, the distance which these 
pedestrians must clear during the caution period is the 
width of the roadway, and, the average walking speed 
being about 5 ft. per second, the time required would be 
about one-fifth of this distance expressed in feet. 
Of course, if safety isles or other places exist in the 
roadway over which there is no vehicular movement the 
distance to be cleared is accordingly reduced. 

The cycle length to be determined must include the 
various components which have been discussed hereto- 
fore. The total length of the cycle must be adequate to 
care properly for each of these components. In choosing 
a length of cycle for an isolated or independent signal 
installation there is no factor on which to base the cycle 
length, as is the case in a signal system where the length 
of cycle must be based on the correlated flow of traffic. 
The standards set forth in the recommendation of the 
American Engineering Council, however, set the limits 
of cycle lengths between 40 seconds and 80 seconds as 
good practice. 

It may be proved mathematically that in any cycle 
the total delay equals the number of vehicles stopped 
times half the sum of the delays to the first vehicle 
and the last vehicle. 

The total hourly delay experienced by one lane of 



traffic is, of course, equal to the cyclic delay multiplied 
by the number of cycles per hour. What this amounts 
to under various conditions is shown in the following 
table in which the time spacing of departures is assumed 
to be three seconds : 



Delay in Vehicle Seconds Per Hour Per Lane 



Vehicles 
per Hour 

200 

400 

600 

800 
1,000 



40 

1,170 

3,420 

6,940 

13,780 

36,200 



Cycle Length in Seconds 

60 80 100 

1,980 2,565 3,095 

^.950 6,440 7925 

9,900 12,915 15,890 

19,800 25,820 31,810 

49,500 64,450 79,500 



120 

3.780 

9,450 

18,900 

37,800 

94,500 



The time savings of shorter cycles on this basis are 
evident from the chart on page 83. Of course, the 
increments in total delay for any cycle length become 
proportionately heavy for high densities. It will be 
noted that, making these assumptions, when the rate of 
flow reaches 1,200 per hour the total delay experienced 
by any stoppage to the traffic streams is infinite. 




u 10 20 JO 40 50 "60 70 80 90 100 110 [10 Ijo" 
l-ycle Length in Seconote 

Time efficiency with respect to cycle length and clearance 

In connection with the choice of cycle lengths it is of 
interest to note the effect of clearance periods on the 
useful time that a signal can deliver for various cycle 
lengths. 

Let £ = Efficiency or per cent time given to passing 
additional traffic 
C = Cycle length 
P = Clearance period 
If P is the same for both directions 

F - <^ — 2P 

That is, the per cent efficiency of available traffic flow 
time is equivalent to the total time minus the losses, 
divided by the total time. This is shown graphically 
on the chart on this page. 

Now, if a part of the traffic wave is temporarily 
stopped, the first part of the green period, when vehicles 
pass at capacity spacing, is more valuable than the latter 
part. 

Since the caution period comes at the end of the green 
period, the subtraction of a few seconds from the green 
period, which are given over to the caution period, does 
not materially affect the efficiency of the operation. This 
is true where traffic is temporarily stopped before the 
green light shows. However, for continuous movement 
of the traffic waves, all parts of the green period are 
equivalent in terms of vehicles. 



A.E.R.A. Executive Committee 
Holds Cleveland Meeting 

/COINCIDENT with the Annual Meeting of the 
V>«CentraI Electric Railway Association, a meeting of 
the executive committee of the American Electric Rail- 
way Association was held at Cleveland on Jan. 24. J. H. 
Hanna, first vice-president, presided in the absence of 
President Shoup. Plans for the 49th annual convention 
of the American Electric Railway Association, to be held 
at San Francisco, June 23-26, were outlined by Charles 
Gordon, managing director, and W. V. Hill, manager 
California Electric Railway Association. Labert St. Clair 
told of the preparation of publicity material for the 
convention. 

Brief comments on the status of the interstate bus bill 
and Interstate Commerce Commission railroad consolida- 
tion plan were made by Dr. Thomas Conway, speaking 
for the committee on. national relations. Reports were 
received also from the policy, membership, finance and 
manufacturers advisory committees. W. E. Wood, chair- 
man publications committee, outlined a plan by' which 
It IS proposed to increase the circulation of the associa- 
tion s magazine Aera and place it ih the hands of a 
larger number of men in a supervisory capacity in the 
industry. After considerable discussion of various phases 
of this project it received the unanimous indorsement of 
the executive committee. 

Preceding the meeting the members of the executive 
committee were the guests of Col. Joseph Alexander, 
president Cleveland Railway, at a luncheon at the Union 
Club. It was decided to hold the next meeting on March 
21 at association headquarters. New York. 

Anti-Freeze Liquid Changed 

Tj^REQUENT trouble has been experienced during the 
X present winter due to freeze-ups in the air brake 
equipment on cars equipped with anti-freezers. This 
trouble first made its appearance the latter part of last 
winter and became more acute this year. The cause of 
the trouble has been traced to the alcohol used. From 
the chief chemist of the Prohibition Department, it has 
been learned that U. S. Formula No. 5, which is gen- 
erally used in automobile radiators, was modified about 
two years ago, one of the modifications consisting of 
adding a small percentage of aldehol, which has a high 
boiling point. This makes Formula No. 5 a good anti- 
freeze solution for automobile radiators but has just the 
opposite effect in preventing freeze-ups in the air brake 
system of electric railway cars. For that reason it is 
recommended that U. S. Formula No. 1 should be used 
to prevent freeze-ups in air brake systems. In so doing 
It is necessary to clean the anti-freezers thoroughly, so 
as to insure that all the aldehol is removed. 



Second Contest Period Starts 

"DEGINNING Feb. 1, the second period of the 
-*-» Electric Railway Journal Maintenance Con- 
test will extend until April 30. Rules were published 
in the issue of November, 1929. Contributions will 
be welcomed from anyone in the industry. Watch 
for announcement next month of the prize winners 
for the first period. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
84 




Train on the Jefferson Avenue line approaching a station. The safety zones are covered with awnings and are well protected 

Detroit Express Service 

Qains Popularity 



By 
CLIFFORD A. FAUST 

Assistant Editor Electric Railway Journal 



WHEN the Department of Street Railways, De- 
troit, inaugurated express street car service on 
Jefferson Avenue in September of 1927, using 
small buses for local service, the plan was looked on 
rather as an experiment. There were numerous skeptics 
who predicted a short life for the plan. But in spite of 
such prognostications, the express service became popu- 
lar immediately after its introduction and became more 
so as the months passed. 

The best evidence of the success of the Jefferson line 
was the adoption of a similar plan on Grand River 
Avenue on Aug. 19, 1928. Like the original installation, 
this line met with public favor at the very outset and 
attracted an increasing number of patrons as the people 
became acquainted with the system. In some measure the 
immediate acceptance of the Grand River express service 
was due to the education of the public by the Jefferson 
line, but by and large, it was occasioned by the higher 
speed and shorter running time. 

Figures from the beginning of the service to the end 
of 1929 show clearly that the Jefferson Avenue line has 



Public well pleased with express street 
car service after 28 months of experience 
on one line and 17 months on a second. 
Passengers and revenue increase steadily 
on both lines. Fewer stops and higher 
speeds facilitate movement of all traffic 



enjoyed a very large increase in patronage and that the 
Grand River line also has built up its riding, in spite of 
the inauguration of a paralleling high-speed, de luxe bus 
route. Passenger revenue, as well, has shown corre- 
sponding increases on both lines. Measured by these two 
barometers, patronage and revenue, express service is a 
successful innovation in Detroit. 

Moreover, there is an intangible factor which is re- 
flected in these figures and which is extremely important 
from the standpoint of the Department of Street Rail-* 
ways. It is the good will obtained by offering an im- 
proved service. Aside from the evidence of good will 
appearing in the operating results, the management has 
received hundreds of letters, praising the new system and 
commending the railway for making the change. It is 
significant that many motorists have stated that they are 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1920 
85 



leaving their automobiles at home and riding the high- 
speed trolley lines to get to their places of employment 
more quickly and more pleasantly. Letters received from 
regular patrons have also praised the express service 
from the standpoint of saving time and making a more 
comfortable ride. Many expressed real pride in riding 
the lines because they can get to work in less time than 
neighbors driving automobiles. 

Other Benefits of System 

In addition to the important results of more passen- 
gers and revenue, and an increased amount of good will, 
the express service has brought about several others. 



consumption in kilowatt-hours per car-mile to be 2.65 
and 2.43 in the express zone, as compared with 6.03 in 
the downtown loop and 4.08 in the local zone. These 
savings are very important, since the line is one of the 
heaviest traveled in the city. 

It has been proved in Detroit that higher speeds of 
both street cars and buses are attended by fewer acci- 
dents. In an accompanying illustration are shown curves 
for average street car speed and number of accidents 
over a period of more than one year. As will be seen, the 
accidents decrease as the speed increases, and vice versa. 
Greater safety on the express lines may be attributed 
largely to the fewer loading areas in the street and the 




On Jefferson Avenue express stops originally numbered six each way and averaged one every 0.83 mile. A few added more recently 
have decreased the spacing slightly. On Grand River Avenue there were originally eleven inbound and twelve outbound stops. 
Since the discontinuance of local bus service a few more stops have been added 



Among these are lower operating expenses, a higher 
degree of safety, an increase in the street capacity, a 
speeding of all forms of traffic, and an improvement of 
public relations, largely by pleasing the motorists and 
truck drivers. 

Operating expenses have been lowered principally 
through the saving of cars, operators and power. On the 
Jefferson Avenue line five cars are saved on the base 
schedule and twelve on the peak. On the Grand River 
line three cars are saved on the base and ten on the peak. 
On the individual cars and trains in express service there 
fflso is a large saving in energy over full local service 
because of the elimination of many stops. As shown in 
the accompanying chart two single cars on the Jefferson 
line average 2.15 and 2.07 kw.-hr. per car-mile in the 
express zone, but consumed 4.31 kw.-hr. in the downtown 
'oop and 3.30 kw.-hr. in the local zone. Tests with two 
trains of a motor car and trailer each showed the energy 



greater protection of those at the express stops. Auto- 
mobiles running through insufficiently guarded loading 
areas are responsible for a great number of accidents 
each year, so that elimination of stops is bound to reduce 
the accidents. The type of safety zones used at the 
express stops is shown in one of the views reproduced. 
On Jefferson Avenue the local transfer buses are per- 
mitted to enter the safety zones, but no other vehicles. 
Passengers at points between the express stops are picked 
up at the curb, eliminating another hazard. 

Conditions Affecting Auxiliary Coach Service 

Combination express street car and local bus service is 
still given on the Jefferson Avenue line, but not on the 
Grand River Avenue line. Coach service was given for a 
time on the Grand River route, but suspended when it 
was found that only a few passengers availed them- 
selves of the transfer privilege. Coincident with their 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
86 



Table I — Revenue, Passengers and Speed of Jefferson 
Line, October, 1927, to December, 1929 







Rail 


Average 


































in M.P.H. 














including 














layovers 














including 














operation 






Average 




Revenue 


Revenue 


in local 


Revenue 


Revenue 


Speed 


1927 


in Dollars 


Passengers 


zones 


in Dollars Passengers 


in M.P.H. 


October. . . . 


. 63,460 


1,033,179 


12 15 


14,343 


236,992 




November. . 


. 61,890 


1,016,204 


12 02 


16,064 


264,504 




December. . 


. 66,005 


1,083,147 


11.00 


19,069 


313,752 




1928 














January.. . . 


. 75,476 


1,226,947 


11.38 


19,776 


324,933 




February.. . 


. 73,378 


1,193,822 


11.53 


19,753 


324,826 


9.88 


March 


. 82,057 


1,339,562 


11.79 


21,888 


359,703 




April 


. 75,371 


1,231,195 


11.69 


20,908 


339,942 


9.97 


May 


. 79,491 


1,298,317 


11.55 


21,354 


346,666 


9 90 


June 


. 78,082 


1,270.205 


11.58 


21,470 


349,285 


9.96 


July 


. 77,783 


1,266,440 


11.32 


20,467 


332,000 


9.87 


August 


. 76,218 


1,240,785 


11.38 


20,641 


334,272 


9 85 


September.. 


. 74,415 


1,213,655 


11.70 


18,452 


299,299 


9.84 


October 


. 78,491 


1,281,090 


11.92 


21,269 


345,624 


9.85 


November.. 


. 79,798 


1,304,573 


11.86 


20,137 


326,497 


9 94 


December. . 

1929 
January.. . . 


. 79,116 


1,298,538 


12.05 


20,258 


329,539 


9.97 


. 87,525 


1,424,854 


11.78 


20,090 


325,503 


9 86 


February.. . 


. 82,369 


1,343,854 


11.78 


19,302 


313,340 


9,97 


March 


. 89,945 


1,470,583 


11.84 


21,191 


344,407 


9.99 


April 


. 88,738 


1,448,790 


11 .94 


20,647 


335,121 


10.07 


May 


. 91,760 


1,495,638 


12.02 


20,469 


332,311 


10.13 


June 


. 89,848 


1,463,887 


11.99 


16,234 


263,838 


10 20 


July 


. 88,214 


1,435,875 


12 24 


15,512 


251,335 


10.24 


August 


. 86,642 


1,410,938 


12 21 


15,719 


255,098 


10.31 


September. . 


. 80,830 


1,318,053 


12 31 


14,453 


234,312 


10 37 


October. . . . 


. 81,244 


1,330,803 


12.14 


15,728 


255,237 


10 33 


November.. 


. 75,011 


1,230,436 


12 34 


14,314 


232,924 


10.31 


December. . 


. 84,572 


1,383,021 


11 68 


14,908 


242,970 


10 16 



removal a few more stops were added to the street car 
line. From the very outset of the Jefferson Avenue line 
there were fewer transfers from local buses to express 
street cars and cars to buses than the company had ex- 
pected. Patrons residing within a reasonable distance of 
the central business district preferred to remain on the 
local buses rather than make one or two changes. It also 
was discovered that people would walk a longer distance 
to an express street car stop rather than bother with tak- 
ing a transfer bus. The service is maintained by the 
local buses on Jefferson Avenue now for those who do 
wish to make the changes and for those who prefer to 
ride the entire distance by bus. 

Passengers Have Increased Steadily 

In Table I are given the revenue, passengers and 
average speed of the Jefferson line for the months of 
October, 1927, to December, 1929, inclusive. Study 



o5 



601 



t 



2.6S 



JM. 



*'A verage of two motor- 
trajJer trains 



r. ll<L 



_2£2_ 



— J£l A 



^'Ayeroge of two ^ing/e cars 



t;| and i c: 
y return K 



-^liJIibridge-Wayburn- g 
:*i anc/ return ^ 



1 



1-T^ 



110 



11 



12 13 I 
I 



6 1 
I {Miles 

1.555 I , . 

...■4J55rm/es A,mllvs_y^ _^4.I35 miles _ .A- 3.90 miles A 

express-inbound ~ iocal- ~ express-outhouncr^ iocai-beyonc/" 
ioop express zone 



Comparison showing average energy consumed in kilowatt-hours 
per car-mile by two single cars and two trains of a motor car 
and trailer each on Jefferson line. Note the much lower con- 
sumption in the express zone 




I9?8 



lOM 



Accidents decrease as the 
speed of street cars in- 
creases in Detroit, and vice 
versa, according to the 
above curves 



of this table shows that with 
the exception of one month 
— November, 1929 — both 
revenue and passengers have 
increased over the corre- 
sponding month of the pre- 
vious year. 

On the Grand River line 
both revenue and passengers 
for the street cars have in- 
creased, the month of No- 
vember, 1929, being the only 
one to show a decrease over 
the corresponding month in 
the previous year. Revenue 
was built up from $102,313 in 
September, 1928, to $114,969 
in December, 1929. Revenue 
passengers for the corre- 
sponding month totaled 1,672,508 and 1,879,760. Coach 
operation on Grand River Avenue for the period of a 
little more than five months showed an increase for the 
first three months and a sharp falling off for the last two. 
These figures are given in Table II. 

Division of revenue and passengers for a typical day 
early in 1929 on the Jefferson express line is made in 
Table III. For both railway and coach operation the 
greatest amount of revenue was collected in cash fares, 
tickets accounting for a greater portion of the remaining 
revenue. The ratio of the total railway revenue to coach 
revenue was approximately 4 to 1 . However, the mileage 
of the street cars was less than 2\ times that of the 
coaches. Receipts per vehicle-mile for the cars were 
$0,404 and $0,256 for the coaches ; passengers per 



Table II — Revenue, Passengers and Speed of Grand River 
Line, September, 1928, to December, 1929 























-Average 






Average ' 
Speed 




Revenue 


Revenue 


Speed 


Revenue 


Revenue 


1927 


in Dollars Passengers 


n M.P.H. 


in Dollars 


Passengers 


in M.P.H 


September.. 


. 102,313 


1,672,508 


11 22 


4,912 


80,084 


9.20 


October. . . . 


. 113,491 


1,854,708 


10.77 


8,073 


130,269 


9.76 


November.. 


. 116,203 


1,905,170 


10 95 


10,051 


I'i5,206 


10.18 


December. . 

1929 
January — 


. 112,580 


1,844,354 


10 98 


9,336 


149,684 


10.06 


. 117,193 


1,912,535 


10 76 


5,557 


87,862 


9 93 




Rail Only 










February.. . 


. 115,274 


1,882,987 


10 64 








March 


. 125,247 


2,045,846 


10 87 








April 

May 


. 118,637 


1,936,012 


10 94 








. 118,104 


1,926,714 


11 10 








June 


. 110,419 


1,799,182 


11 23 








July 


. 103,421 


1,682,727 


11 45 








August 


. 102,934 


1,675,313 


11 83 








September. . 


. 104,014 


1,696,441 


11 63 








October. . . . 


. 114,500 


1,872,743 


11,50 








November. . 


. 107,583 


1,760,567 


11,53 








December. . 


. 114,969 


1,879,760 


10 85 









Table III — ^Analysis of Jefferson Express Line on a 
Typical Day, March 1, 1929 



Revenue: Railway 

Cash $1,588 

Tickets 1,392 

Transfers 155 

Total J3, 135 

Mileage: 

Mileage 7,763 

Receipts per vehicle-mile. SO . 404 

Passengers per vehicle-mile 9 . 489 

Passengers : 

6-cent passengers 26,461 

Ticket passengers 25,056 

10-cent passengers 

Jefferson line transfers 1,098 

Other transfers 21,046 

Total 73,66 1 



Coach 
$477 
320 
50 

$i47 

3,302 

$0 256 

5.440 

7,788 
5,762 
94 
1,476 
2,842 

17,962 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
87 



Table IV — Detailed Analysis of Grand River Express Operation — Daily Averages 
of Data for the Weeks from August 20-24 to November 26-30, 1928 



Daily Averages For 
Street Cars 

Car-miles 

Total revenue 

Total operating expenses.... 

Net revenue 

Revenue per car-mile, 

' dollars 

Revenue passengers 

Transfer passengers 

Total passengers 

Speed in miles per hour.. . . 

Combined Car and Coach 

Net revenue — ears 

Net revenue — coaches 

Net revenue cars and 

coaches 



Aug. 
20-24 

9,806 
»3,404 
$2,999 

$405 



Aug. 
27-31 

9,944 
$3,509 
$3,064 

$445 



Sept. 
4-7 
10,545 
$3,865 
$3,178 
$687 



Sept. 
10-14 
10,632 
$3,626 
$3,097 
$529 



Sept. 
17-21 

10,832 

$3,803 

$3,005 

$798 



Sept. 
24-28 
11,200 
$3,943 
$3,198 
$745 



Cct. 

1-5 
11,202 
$3,884 
$3,208 

$676 



Oct. 
8-12 
11,202 
$3,799 
$3,263 
$536 



$0 3471 $0.3529 $0.3665 $0 3411 $0.3511 $0 3521 $0.3467 $0.3391 

55,485 57,272 63250 59,253 62.196 64,445 63,458 61,950 

23,470 23,659 24,967 24,404 24,752 23,962 24,618 24,638 

78,955 80,931 88,217 83,657 86,948 88,407 88,076 86,588 

11.22 11.43 11.69 11.79 11.88 11.98 1.182 11.41 



Oct. Oct. 

15-19 22-26 

11,201 11,337 

$3,797 $4,007 

$3,309 $3,365 

$488 $642 

$0.3384 $0.3535 

62,204 65,420 

24,045 25,319 

86,249 90,739 

11.25 11.23 



Oct. 29- 
Nov. 2 
13,286 
$4,195 
$3,823 
$372 



Nov. 

5-9 
13,479 
$4,099 
$3,775 

$324 



Nov. 
12-16 
13,910 
$4,106 
$3,809 
$297 



Nov. 
19-23 
13,617 
$4,054 
$3,671 
$383 



Nov. 
25-30 
14,055 
$4,245 
$3,828 
$417 



$0.3158$0 3041 $0 2952 $0.2978 $0.3002 
68.525 67,240 67,349 66,602 69,455 
25,165 26,855 26,348 25,756 26,043 
93,690 94,095 93,697 92,358 95,498 
10.78 11.22 11.65 11.63 11.62 



$405 
*$406 



*$l 



$445 
*$197 



$687 
*$I54 



$529 
*$89 



$798 
*$75 



$745 
*$85 



$676 
*$80 



$536 
*$77 



$488 
*$92 



$642 
*$77 



$372 $324 $297 $383 
*$122 *$109 *$117 '$70 



$248 $533 $440 $723 $660 $596 $459 $396 $565 $250 $215 



$180 



$313 



$417 
*$76 

$341 



♦Deficit. 

vehicle-mile were 9.489 for the cars and 5.44 for the 
coaches. Of the 73,661 total railway passengers, 
26,461 paid 6-cent fares, 25,056 tendered tickets, 
1,098 transferred from Jefferson Avenue coaches and 
21,046 transferred from other lines. Of the 17,962 
coach passengers, 7.788 paid 6-cent fares, 94 paid 
10-cent fares, 5,762 used tickets, 1,476 transferred 
from the express cars and 2,842 transferred from 
other lines. 

A detailed analysis of the Grand River express 
operation for the weeks from Aug. 20-24 to Nov. 
26-30, 1928, is given in Table IV. 

On the Jefferson Avenue line the speed before 
express operation was started was 12.45 m.p.h. ; the = 
speed in the express zone is now 18.4 m.p.h. The 
running time, which formerly was 20.5 minutes through 
the express zone of 4.15 miles, has been reduced to 13.5 
minutes. On the Grand River line the average speed was 
increased from 12.15 m.p.h. to 17.36 m.p.h. The running 
time has been reduced on the section which originally was 
express, from 32 minutes to 25 minutes. In Table V the 



Table V — Running Time and Average Speed of the 
Jefferson Line, as Operated, on a Typical Day in 1928 



-Weetbound- 



-Eastbound— 



5:00 a.m.-8:30 a.m. 
time in min. and sec. 

Speed in m.p.h 

8:00 a.m. -3:30 p.m. time 

Speed 

3:30 p.m.-6:00 p.m. time 

Speed 

5:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m. time 
Speed 



►j- 

10:54 
10.39 

9:34 
11.86 
11:35 

9.79 
10:29 
10.82 



a:; 

K . 

14:15 
17.47 
12:38 
19.70 
13:57 
17.87 
13:39 
18.24 



M H.-K 

25:09 
14.41 
22:12 
16.31 
25:32 
14.18 
24:08 
15.01 



IS 



13:48 

6.74 
15:00 

6.20 
16:07 

5.78 
14:43 

6.32 



is 

K . 



O 4) 



'rtj::.* 



13:20 
18.68 
13:26 
18.53 
14:27 
17.24 
13:35 
18.33 



9:32 
11.90 

8:50 
12.83 

9:44 
11.64 

9:11 
12.34 



22:52 
15.83 
22:16 
16.26 
24:11 
14.98 
22:46 
15.91 



a " 



61:49 
13.22 
59:28 
13.75 
65:50 
12.42 
61:37 
13.28 



running times and average speeds of the Jefferson line for 
three periods of a typical day in 1928 are given. The 
speeds are calculated for the outlying local zone, the 
express zone, the downtown loop and the round trip. It 
shows an average speed of 18.24 m.p.h. through the ex- 
press zone, westbound, 18.33 m.p.h. through the express 
zone, eastbound, and 13.28 m.p.h. for the entire round 
trip, for the period from 5 a.m. to 6 p.m. 




On JefTerson Avenue the local transfer buses run inside the safety zones at express stops. 
Between these stations they stop at the curb 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 



More Business 



and How to Get It 



Ways of securing additional traffic were theme of annual 
meeting of Central Electric Railway Association held 
at Cleveland Jan. 23-24. Other topics of interest were 
technique of freight handling and employee training 



RECOGNITION of the importance of freight busi- 
ness as a source of revenue for the interurbans was 
-a notable feature of the annual meeting of the 
Central Electric Railway Association, held at Cleveland, 
Ohio, Jan. 23 and 24. One entire session was devoted 
to a discussion of means of developing this type of busi- 
ness. Development of passenger business was touched 
upon by speakers at other sessions. 

"Were it not for the freight traffic now carried by 
the interurbans, and the promising outlook for the con- 
tinued development of freight business, the future of the 
interurban industry would indeed be problematical," said 
William L. Butler, executive vice-president Cincinnati 
& Lake Erie Railroad. "Success in holding and develop- 
ing freight business depends upon our ability to give 
overnight delivery to an ever-widening territory, and 
upon the enterprise and ingenuity in supplementing our 
rail service to provide the same or greater convenience, 
reliability and cheapness of service for prospective ship- 
pers as is afforded by our principal competitor, the motor 
truck, or by the steam railroads." 

The speaker also made a point of the necessity of 
developing an entirely new technique of freight service 
by the electric railways if they are to hold a position in 
the transportation industry midway between the stean* 
railway and the motor truck. "Not only must we 
move freight more quickly, but we must modernize our 
facilities and operations to move it more economically," 
said Mr. Butler. 

"Much depends upon the development of a closer con- 
tact between the company and the shipper," declared H. 
A. Nicholl, general manager Union Traction Company 
of Indiana. He expressed the opinion that a great 
deal can be accomplished in this direction by cutting 
down the loss and damage of shipments and by effecting 
quicker settlements where losses are sustained. "Com- 
panies are to some extent going into the pick-up and 
delivery business," stated Mr. Nicholl, and he urged 
a further extension of this activity, calling his hearer's 
attention to the clear-cut recommendation of their own 
committee on the subject made at a previous meeting. 

"Don't let your interurban suffer," advised C. L. Van 
Aucken, editor Electric Traction, in a paper on "Inter- 
urban Development." "Either kill it or cure it." Citing 
numerous examples of what had been done in the 
C.E.R.A. territory the speaker affirmed his faith in the 
belief that in the majority of cases, if energetic methods 
are employed, a cure can be effected. 



That too many railways have plowed along the same 
old furrow until it has become a rut was the opinion 
expressed by Hudson Biery, Cincinnati Street Railway, 
whose paper on "City Transportation Development" was 
read by Paul Wilson. "Many of us are trying to render 
adequate service rather than attractive service," he 
stated. In discussing the matter ' of advertising the 
speaker advised that it should start with a limited pro- 
gram and expand gradually, but, once started, the 
program should never be allowed to die out entirely. 

The program was concluded by a showing of stereop- 
ticon slides illustrating methods of handling freight in 
the C.E.R.A. territory. The showing of the pictures 
was accompanied by a discussion of the subject by J. K. 
Coberly, traffic manager of the Columbus, Marion & 
Delaware Railway. 

Fundamental factors affecting the present situation 
and the future of the electric railway industry were dis- 
cussed at the opening session. Following a brief address 
of welcome made by John D. Marshall, Mayor of Cleve- 
land, L. M. Brown, president of the association, presented 
an encouraging picture of what the future will hold for 
the industry if it takes advantage of its opportunities. 
An abstract of his remarks appears elsewhere in this issue. 

Charles Gordon, managing director of the American 
Electric Railway Association, pointed out the necessity 
of approaching our work with the aim of solving the 
community transportation problem rather than merely 
trying to operate electric cars. Since the earliest day 
when electricity was first used as a source of power, it 
has never yet been relegated to a secondary position in 
any field and it is not likely, according to Mr. Gordon, 
that electricity will suffer defeat in the field of local 
transportation. 

Movement of people, not movement of vehicles, is the 
ultimate objective, he said. One four-track rapid transit 
line will carry as many people as 25 express highways. 
One double-track street car line will carry four times as 
many people as an express highway. More than 200 
years ago, the streets of London were congested because 
too many people used private transportation vehicles. That 
was the origin of the first public transportation service. 
To return now to the use of private vehicles would be 
a step backward. Intelligent development of public trans- 
portation facilities is the only possible solution of the 
problem. 

How public transportation service is being given in 
Grand Rapids was the subject of a paper by L. J. De 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
89 



Lamarter, general manager Grand Rapids Railroad, 
which in the absence of Mr. De Lamarter was read by 
J. W. Knecht. It was brought out in this paper that 
modern cars in Grand Rapids have not only decreased 
operating cost but also attracted new riding. 

Selling methods were discussed by E. S. Jordan, 
Jordan Motor Car Company, who spoke at the morning 
session on the second day of the meeting. "The great 
American novel, when it is written, will be written 
around the story of transportation and communication," 
he said. "It is a dramatic, romantic business in which 
we are engaged." The speaker pointed out that civiliza- 
tion is based upon the lowest cost per ton-mile of trans- 
portation, and cited numerous examples in the history of 
transportation to prove his theory. 

In a comprehensive and instructive paper on "The 
Conference Method and Its Use in the Training of 
E>mployees," E. G. Cox, director of service improvement, 
Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee Railroad, told of 
the development of the conference training methods with 
particular reference to the manner in which it was applied 
on the property which he represented. Dividing his 
paper into four general parts he discussed, in turn, what 
the conference method is, why it is used, how it oper- 
ates, and what it accomplishes. 

"Contrary to the accepted thoughts of a few years 



ago," said the speaker, "the important period of training 
the employees does not end with the close of the proba- 
tion period. The vestibule instruction of a new man,- 
although highly important, is not now regarded as the 
beginning and the end of the training period. Rather 
the training process goes on and on as long as the service 
of the employee, and the longer it goes on the more diffi- 
cult it is likely to become." 

The meeting was closed with the report of a number 
of committees, followed by the election of officers. 
Officers for the coming year will be : 

President, L. G. Tighe, assistant general manager 
Northern Ohio Power & Light Company, Akron, Ohio. 

First Vice-President, F. H. Wilson, president and gen- 
eral manager Cleveland Southwestern Railway & Light 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Second Vice-President, R. R. Smith, receiver Chicago, 
South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway, South Bend, 
Ind. 

Secretary-Treasurer, L. E. Earlywine, Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association, 308 Traction Terminal Build- 
ing, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Henry Bucher, general manager Indiana Service Cor- 
poration, Fort Wayne, Ind., was elected to the executive 
committee to replace C. T. Dehore, president Indian- 
apolis & Southeastern Railroad, Indianapolis, Ind. 



The Dodo Became Extinct Because 
It Ceased Developing* 

By L. M. Brown 

Vice-President Interstate Public Service Company 

President Central Electric Railway Association 



SOME people would have us believe that electric railway men 
are in the same class as the dodo bird. The dodo bird is 
extinct and today there are those who voice the opinion that 
we are rapidly approaching extinction and it is only a matter of 
time until we will be hunting jobs in other lines of business. 
While it is unquestionably true that the number of electric rail- 
ways is gradually diminishing, this does not necessarily mean the 
general breakdown of such transportation as a means of handling 
urban and interurban traffic. Rather do we see in the gradually 
diminishing mileage of electric railway lines a possible solution 
to the difficulties that admittedly beset our path. 

Perhaps there is some justification in likening those lines that 
fail to the once proud and plumed dodo bird. The dodo becaine 
extinct because it quit growmg and developing with the changing 
times. Rather than follow the example of the other birds that 
tried hard to meet new climatic and food conditions, it allowed 
its feathers to droop and it sulked. The results were just those 
which might have been foreseen. But the fact that the dodo 
bird died out had little or no connection with development of other 
birds which found themselves facing the same conditions. The 
latter are still doing business and raising large and prosperous 
families. 

The trends in our industry today are twofold. First, there is 
consolidation into logical, contiguous and larger systems, and 
second there is a gradual elimination of those lines foredoomed 
to failure long ago when they were constructed from "nowhere 
to nowhere" with no stopover privileges. These latter lines had 
the seed of their failure in their inception, for they were built 
quite largely in what may be termed a "boom" period, when the 
idea held sway that any kind of a line would pay if it could 
only be built. 

The process of elimination of these lines is a healthy and 
normal situation. We do not despair of a tree when we prune its 
weaker branches, but on the contrary are more optimistic as to 
its ultimate success. It is thus that we see the gradual elimina- 
tion of various lines an omen for good rather than otherwise 
and we take increased courage for the future. 

To be successful we dare not stand still. Many of the major 
units in our territory are definitely committed to a policy of con- 

*Abstract of an address made at the annual meeting of the 
Central Electric Railway Association, Cleveland, Ohio, Jan. 23-24. 



solidation, admittedly in an effort to place various lines that are 
now financially unsuccessful upon a successful basis. With unified 
management and operation backed by adequate finances the public 
will benefit by improved service. 

It is evident that the freight business must contribute an 
increased proportion of interurban line revenue. For these lines 
to prosper they must increase this business, and particularly the 
carload business. To do this successfully will require improved 
terminal facilities, industrial sidings, elimination of short radius 
curves, building around some cities and towns, and other improve- 
ments in roadway and equipment for faster and more economical 
operation. 

To meet the growing demand for fast, comfortable and con- 
venient passenger service on both city and interurban lines, large 
sums of money have been and are now being spent to rehabilitate 
a number of properties in this territory. Modern, light-weight, 
easily running, noiseless cars for one-man operation, with com- 
fortable seats and attractive appointments, and the speeding up 
of the service improves the morale of the public and employees 
and tends to increase the riding habit. In some of the larger 
cities serious consideration is being given to underground rapid 
transit or other forms of rapid transit lines on private right-of- 
way; to the operation of de luxe motor coach service in appro- 
priate territory at possibly higher rates ; and to the taking over 
of taxicab service. Some of these plans are as yet in the experi- 
mental stage and it is too early to know just what the final 
results may mean, but the efforts now being put forth certainly 
make the outlook for the industry much more encouraging. 

Let us not be discouraged by a seeming apathy and lack of 
appreciation on the part of the public. Service and conveniences 
are frequently unappreciated until they are lost, or drastic events 
bring them to the attention of those who use them. The public 
may, occasionally, find something new in which it will become 
interested for a time, but experience will, in time, force that same 
public back to the patronage of a business based upon sound 
economic principles. 

Our task is to adapt the type of transportation we represent 
to a civilization that is constantly increasing in wealth and in 
complexity. The opportunity is before us. The public needs 
and should have modern, efficient electrical transportation. It is 
vvithin our province to supply that need, and if we do so our 
efforts will be appropriately rewarded. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
90 




opportunities for Profits in 

De Luxe Bus Operation 



THAT the de luxe bus at- 
tracts new riders, pro- 
duces additional income 
without a sacrifice on the part 
of city-type operations and is a 
type of vehicle capable of gain- 
ing favor on routes through 
many highly restricted residen- 
tial districts of a city, has been 
definitely proved by the expe- 
rience of a number of leading 
electric railways. 

Co-ordination of street car 
and trolley-fare bus services 
has progressed steadily during 
the past decade, with the re- 
sult that many companies have 

definitely strengthened their operating and economic 
structures. However, there is an additional definite 
field for the de luxe bus and the faster, more ex- 
clusive features it aflfords. This field is not limited ex- 
clusively to the development of new sections, but often 
is to be found along or parallel to existing city routes. 
Although one of the major values of the de luxe bus is 
the part it has played in securing franchises through dis- 
tricts where formerly any suggestion of public convey- 
ance met with wholesale opposition, it has been equally 
well applied to established arteries of mass transportation. 
Operating practices in Pittsburgh and Detroit contrast 



Survey of urban de luxe bus opera- 
tions by more than a dozen railways 
shows that exclusive, higher fare 
service attracts new riders, princi- 
pally from the automobile and not 
gained at the expense of the street 
car and city-type bus 



J. R. 

Assistant Editor 



these applications very clearly. 
In Pittsburgh, six 25-cent fare 
de luxe coach routes originate 
in the heart of the downtown 
business district, extend along 
improved motor boulevards and 
serve, on their outbound ex- 
tremities, the most exclusive 
residential sections of the city 
or suburbs. In Detroit, four 10- 
cent minimum- fare parlor coach 
lines have been established and 
successfully operated on four 
main thoroughfares, served 
throughout their length by 
street cars or city-type buses at 
lower fares. In both cities pa- 
tronage has been built up from those persons who rarely 
used the regular service, but were attracted by the new, 
distinctive vehicles and the advantages of the service 
they rendered. 

"De luxe," the word itself and its application to bus 
equipment and the type of service rendered, is unques- 
tionably a relative term and any general definition must 
be the result of past and present practices. Those com- 
panies that are utilizing the de luxe bus have almost 
unanimously had one objective in establishing such serv- 
ice, namely, a form of transportation to bridge the gap 
between the street car and the higher priced means of 



By 
STAUFFER 

Electric Railway Journal 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
91 



Comparative Study of Fourteen DeLuxe Bus Routes 



Company 


Line 


One 

Way 

Mileage 


Equipment 
Used 


Territory 
Served 


Other Forms 

of 

Transportation 

in 

Territory 

Served 


Fare 


Fare on 
Street 
Car or 

City- 
Type 

Bus 


Headways, 
Minutes 


Speed, 
Mp.h. 


Speed 

of 

City-Type 

Service 


1 
g 


Peak 


Base 




Pittsburgh Railways 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Wilkinsburg 


7 57 


Twin Coaches 
35 passenger 


Business district of 

Pittsburgh and 
residential sections 


Street car 
and trains 


25o 

9 tickets 

$2.00 


3tokenB 
25o. 


4 


10 


13.80 


10.09 


Yes 




Highland Park 


7.47 


Yellow Coaches 
1 9 passenger 


Pittsburgh and East 
Liberty business and 
residential districts 


Street car 


25c. 

9 tickets 

$2.00 


3token8 
25c. 


7 


15 


14.00 


10.28 


Yea 




East Uberty 


5.12 


Yellow Coaches 
29 psssenger 


Pittsburgh and East 
Liberty business and 
residential districts 


Street car 
and trains 


25c. 

9 tickets 

$2.00 


3tokens 
25c. 


4 


7 


n.90 


10.2 


Yes 




Squirrel Hill 


5 72 


Yellow Coaches 
19 passenger 


Downtown Pittsburgh 
and exclusive resi- 
dential section 


Street car 


25o. 

9 tickets 

$2.00 


3tokens 
25c. 


5 


10 


15.60 


11.13 


Yes 




Mt. Lebanon 


6.92 


Yellow Coaches 
21 passenger 


Down town Pittsburgh 

and residential 

districts 


Street car 


25c. 

9 tickets 

$2.00 


3tokens 
25c. 


5 


12 


18.00 


11 85 


Yes 




Bellevue 


6.55 


Yellow Coaches 
1 9 passenger 


Downtown Pittsburgh 

and residential 

districts 


Street car 
and trains 


25o. 

9 tickets 

$2.00 


3tokens 
25c. 


8 


15 


17.10 


11.22 


Yes 


Dept. of Street Railways 
Detroit, Mich. 


Grand River 


12.18 


44 Cadillacs 
1 6 passenger 


Business and 
residential districts 


Express 
street car 


10c. 

minimum 

(zones) 


6c. 


U 


3 


14 10 


11.43 


No 




Jefferson 


6.80 


13 Dodges 
1 5 passenger 


Business, industrial 

and residential 

districts 


Express, street 
car and city- 
type bus 


10c. 
minimum 

(zones) 


6o. 


4 


S 


14.82 


Exp.street 
oar 14.82 
bus 12.60 


No 




Mack 


9.07 


13 Dodges 
1 5 passenger 


Business and 
residential districts 


Express, street 
car and city- 
type bus 


lOc. 
minimum 
(zones) 


6c. 


4 


10 


15.46 


11.18 


No 




Woodward 


8 08 


81 Dodges 
1 5 passenger 


Business and 
residential districts 


Street ear 


10c. 

minimum 

(zones) 


6c. 


1 


2 


14.36 


10.39 


No 


Capital Traction Co. 
Washington, D. C. 


Chevy Chase 


8.00 


16 Yellow Coaches 

29 passenger type 

converted to 21 

passenger capacity 


Government admin- 
istration, business 
and residential 
districts 


Street car 


25c. 


6token8 
40c. 


3 to 7 


20 


13.00 


9.00 


No 


Cleveland Railway 
Cleveland, Ohio 


Airport Express 


12.85 


4 cylinder Whites 


Downtown Cleveland 
through residential 
district to airport 


Street car 

and 

city-type bus 


15c. to 
25o. 

(zones) 


Street 
car, 7o. 
BuslOo. 


30 


60 


17.00 


15.00 


Ye* 




Heights Express 


7.92 


9 YeUow Coaches 
29 passenger 


Downtown Cleveland 

to exclusive 

Cleveland Heights 


Street car 

and 

city-type bus 


25c. 


Street 
car, 7c. 
BuslOc. 


5 


30 


17.00 


15.00 


No 


United Railways & 

Electric Co. 

Baltimore, Md. 


Roland Park 


6.25 


7 Whites 
25 passenger 


Business District of 
Baltimore and resi- 
dential sections of 
Roland Park, Guil- 
ford and Homeland 


Street car 

and 

city type bus 


2';c. 


4tokens 
35c. 


10 


20 


13.20 


10.40 


No 



travel such as is afforded by the private automobile or 
taxicab. It was evident that it would be folly to estab- 
lish lines of a superior type of service at equal or little 
higher fares than those being charged on the street car, 
because any patronage would be gained at the expense 
of the city type service. A new rider had to be found 
and the logical place was in that group of people who 
had previously left the street car for the automobile. 
It has generally been found that de luxe bus routes 
equipped with the most modern type of vehicles do appeal 
to a class willing to pay a higher fare for a service which 
is fast, comfortable and convenient. 

Bus operations in Pittsburgh are unique in contrast 
with the general practices carried on by the other electric 
railways throughout the country. There is not one trol- 
ley-fare bus in regular use on a system of 592 miles of 
track. This is due, first, to the general topography of 
the territory served by the 
Pittsburgh Railways and, sec- 
ond, to the fact that this whole 
territory is adequately served 
by the street car. Conse- 
quently when the subject of 
bus operation presented itself 
the question of the type of 



A second article showing the use 
of the de luxe bus in interurban 
and interstate service will 
in a later issue. 



service to be installed had to be considered from three 
angles: Should buses be substituted for street cars on 
a number of lines? Should co-ordinated service at trol- 
ley fare be established in direct competition with the 
street car? Should an additional higher fare service be 
placed on selected routes throughout the city? The lat- 
ter course seemed the only logical one for the Pittsburgh 
property, and as a result the Pittsburgh Motor Coach 
Company now operates six de luxe coach lines at a 
25-cent fare. In addition there are four zone routes 
at 25-cent minimum fare with additional 5-cent zones 
between Pittsburgh and Charleroi, Pittsburgh and Castle 
Shannon, Pittsburgh and Oakmont, and a line known as 
Frankstown Road. There is still a third type of service, 
namely, two routes at 10-cent minimum fare with 5-cent 
additional zones. These routes extend between Charleroi 
and California and Charleroi and Donora, Pa. 

A careful analysis of the cost 
of travel in Pittsburgh was 
made. It was found that one 
could travel on the street car 
for approximately ^ cent per 
mile, could drive his privately 
owned automobile for about 10 
cents per mile, or could use 



appear 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
92 



the taxicab at approximately 20 cents 
per mile. It became evident that 
any means of transportation costing 
the rider about 3 cents a mile should 
be profitable, principally because the 
riders would not come from those 
who patronize the street car, and for 
3 cents a mile a service of quality 
could be rendered to appeal to the 
rider who had left the street car 
previously for the automobile. A 
charge of 25 cents was made and has 
proved satisfactory for the lines 
established. Most of the riding on 
the Pittsburgh lines is one way, al- 
though on the new Wilkinsburg 
route there is now some two-wa> 
business. Nearly all passengers are 
carried for a greater part of the 
run. There is no short-haul traffic. 
The Pittsburgh Railways began its 
operation with the larger type of 
bus, having seating capacities of from 
29 to 35 passengers. Experience, 
however, on routes such as it operates with almost en- 
tirely one-way traffic has shown that the smaller type 
of bus is more satisfactory for this kind of work, and 
the company's new purchases are of the 21-passenger 
seating capacity. 

Detroit Operation Unique in Extensive Use 
OF Smaller Buses 

Unlike Pittsburgh, Detroit found its field for de luxe 
bus operation on four main thoroughfares served 
throughout their length with street cars and city type 
buses. Also operating on these routes were hundreds 
of jitneys carrying on an enormous business in compe- 
tition with the railway's services. The small type bus 
was selected to replace jitneys principally because they 
created an impression of a more in- 
dividual service than the larger equip- 
ment and because shorter headways 
could be run with fewer empty seats. 

The four routes operated on Grand 
River, Jefferson, Mack and Wood- 
ward Avenues now use 161 buses of 
15- and 16-passenger capacity of the 
Dodge and Cadillac manufacture. 
On the Grand River Line 44 
16-passenger eight-cylinder Cadillacs 
are used to provide selective local 
service in co-ordination with an ex- 
press street car route on this avenue. 
The fare on this line ranges from 
10 cents to 30 cents, in 5-cent in- 
crements. The fare on the street 
car is 6 cents. The headways range 
from 1^ minutes in the peak hours 
with a base table of three minutes 
in the non-rush hours. 

Likewise on Jeflferson Avenue the 
de luxe bus operation has competi- 
tion by express street car, local city- 
type bus and competitive bus serv- 
ice. The fares on this line range 
from 10 cents to 20 cents in 5-cent 
increments, while the street car and 
local bus charge 6 cents and the com- 




In Pittsburgh de luxe bus terminals are centrally located in 
downtown business districts 



petitive bus 10 cents. This line serves the downtown 
section of Detroit as well as industrial and residential 
sections on Jefferson Avenue. 

Woodward Avenue, one of the most heavily traveled 
thoroughfares in Detroit, is served by the Woodward 
Parlor Coach Line and a street car line. On this line 
eighty-one 15-passenger Dodges are used and run on one- 
and two-minute headways throughout the day. Short 
headways are also maintained by the street cars and yet 
at times there is apparently not enough service to accom- 
modate the traffic on this avenue. From a revenue stand- 
point the de luxe bus operation on Woodward Avenue 
is the most successful. The Mack Avenue Coach Line 
operates parallel to the Jefferson coach route part of 
the way, then it turns north into residential districts. This 




De luxe buses give selective service on four main 
arteries in Detroit 



Electric Railway Journal- 
93 



-February, 1930 



m.m-' )|*' 



pm*-4M 



Unusual seating arrangement and smoking compartment 
feature the Chevy Chase buses 

line operates thirteen 15-passenger Dodges at a fare of 
10 cents to 25 cents in 5-cent increments. Headways of 
four minutes in the rush hours and ten minutes in the 
non-rush hours are scheduled. 

The Capital Traction Company Washington D. C, 
operates three lines with de luxe bus equipment. The 
original one, the Chevy Chase coach line, was started 
in September, 1925, and operates from the downtown 
business section of Washington past the Union Station 
and Capitol to the outlying district of Chevy Chase. The 
second line is a sightseeing line purely and operates from 
the Treasury Building in the center of the city, past the 
Lincoln Memorial and through Potomac Park. Its 
operation is not comparable with the others except that 
the rate of fare and type of equipment used are the 
same. This line operates only during the summer 
months and caters principally to tourists. The third line, 
known as the Cleveland Park Parlor Car Line, was 



14,000 




started in November, 1927, but as it did not prove profit- 
able was abandoned on Sept. 30, 1929, with the exception 
of one trip in each direction in the morning and after- 
noon rush hours. 

The Chevy Chase Coach Line has been a most suc- 
cessful operation since its beginning. It started oper- 
ating with four buses on a headway of twenty minutes 
all day. Traffic has increased continually so that now 
sixteen coaches are used to run headways of three, four 
and five minutes in the morning and five, seven and ten 
minutes in the evening rush hours. An interesting chart 
showing the gross revenue and revenue per mile of this 
line, since its beginning, accompanies this survey. This 
increase in patronage has not been built up at the 
expense of the street car or city-type bus, but has come 
from new riders who prefer to leave their automobiles 
at home and use the high type of service that this line 
affords. The Chevy Chase Line parallels the street car 
line along its whole length outside of the city proper, 
and furnishes service which can be obtained on street 
cars throughout its length. 

A distinctive feature of this line is the unusual seat- 
ing arrangement of the bus. Twenty-nine-passenger 
Yellow Coach chassis are used, but individual seats are 
so placed. that only 21 passengers are carried. From 
an economic standpoint this practice has been questioned, 
but those in charge of the Chevy Chase Coach Line feel 
sure that to a great extent this individual seating of 
their passengers without crowding has been the cause of 
its success. Another feature is the smoking compart- 
ment in the rear, partitioned off from the front of the 
bus by glass panels. 

Cleveland Railway Operates Two Lines 

Two express de luxe bus routes are operated by the 
Cleveland Railways in the territory which it serves. The 
first is known as the Airport Express; the second, the 
Heights Express. The latter line was only put in oper- 
ation on Dec. 7, 1929, and is in every sense a full de luxe 
service between downtown Cleveland and the very highly 
restricted residential section of Cleveland Heights. The 
fare on this line is 25 cents. No transfers are given or 
accepted. Its installation just before the Christmas rush 
period had distinct advantages, in that a number of 
people used the line in preference to taking their auto- 
mobiles into the Christmas traffic jams, became familiar 
with the type of service and are continuing to use it. 

The line carried 380 customers the first day. This 
increased regularly until it now has over 800 fares a 
day. At the beginning a fifteen-minute service was pro- 
vided during the rush hours. It was found necessary to 
give a ten-minute service during the rush hours on 



Gross revenue has been increasing steadily on the Chevey Chase 
Line. Revenue per mile has remained constant 



:< <f> co<>9'»*''°' 




,n»\ 



^tm^'j^^ 






1T>'^ 



^'^: 












ihopP' 



jrtff 



"/ " Mir'' 



flf 



The Chevy Chase Coacli Line in Washington, D. C, serves all phases of the Capital's activities 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
94 



■ De luKe mofor coach //nes 

- Tracks a^neci by fhe C/eve/onc/ Ry. Co. 
-LeasGa/ frocks 

■ Ciiy limits 
Motor coach iines 




Cleveland Railway operates two de luxe routes 



account of the heavy patronage. During the other hours 
of the day the service operates on a half-hour schedule. 
From Dec. 7 to Dec. 31, inclusive, the coaches operated 
12,850 miles, carried 15,039 passengers and took in 
$3,859, earning approximately 30 cents a mile. The cost 
of operating is figured at about 27 cents a mile. 

The situation with regard to the Airport Express line 
is particularly interesting. The route is 12.56 miles in 
length and runs from the Cleveland Airport to East 22nd 
Street and Euclid Avenue, operating as an express route 
through the greater part of the territory. The Berea 
Bus Line Company operates from Berea, Ohio, to the 
Public Square over the same route. This interurban line 
has been in operation for the past six or eight years and 
has during all that time been doing an interurban busi- 
ness as well as picking up passengers from all points 
along its route in the city to the Public Square. While 
this is contrary to the provision of the CoUister-Kreuger 
act of Ohio, it has been permitted by the Cleveland City 
Council because the Cleveland Railway was not giving 
adequate service on the same streets. 

By resolution of the Cleveland City Council, the 
Cleveland Railway started operation of the Airport 



express route on Aug. 23, 1929. During the air races 
of the National Aeronautical Association this route paid 
very well, as many as 100 coaches per day being used. 
However, after the races business immediately dropped 
off because of the duplicated service provided by the 
Berea Bus Line and the Cleveland Railway. 

The Cleveland Railway route is too long for the rate 
of fare charged at the present time, namely 15 cents for 
the first 10 miles, 20 cents for the next zone of 1 mile, 
and 25 cents within the second zone of 1^ miles. This 
route is being continued at the request of the City 
Council, although the Cleveland Railway has requested 
permission to abandon it. If the Berea Bus Line were 
required to rely on the income derived from its inter- 
urban operation it would undoubtedly lose money, but 
the combination makes it a paying proposition. In other 
words, interurban service alone is a losing proposition, 
express service on a line of this length is a losing propo- 
sition, but the combination of the two results in a profit- 
able operation. 

In September, 1929, the United Railways & Electric 
Company, Baltimore, Md., began operation of its first de 
luxe bus line known as the Roland Park Coach Line. 




R 35 - jUlJUI-Juuuu .. . I iv/ J I I 

UUUULJLJUUCi annrir-innn ^ ,)2r — T=d\—-, \ 



Charles^iT' 

LEGEND 

, Dai's a-h strtef inferstcHons 
indicate coach stops 
.— " Indicates non rush hour route 
^— indicates rush hour route 



gannBt 



1 riiiW^^Jrst] ^ 



rir^ r 



Double Loop in 
downtown Balti- 
more is a desir- 
able feature of 
the new Roland 
Park Coach Line 



The route connects the downtown section of Baltimore 
with three of the large residential sections — Roland 
Park, Guilford and Homeland. The fare charged is 25 
cents between any two points. It is an additional express 
service through territory well covered by city-type bus 
and street car service. Operating locally through the 
three residential sections, it then runs express into the 



Electrtc Railway Journal 
95 



-February, 1930 



center of the city. Up to the present time the Hne has 
operated only on weekdays, there being insufficient traffic 
on Sundays and holidays to justify running the buses. 
Before establishing this line a very complete survey 
of the situation was made in conjunction with the Roland 
Park Company and various civic committees. Letters 
were mailed to residences throughout the district asking 
their opinions on the proposed line. The replies were 
encouraging and the service was started with a com- 
plete schedule calculated to produce a patronage that 
would build up to the capacity of the coaches instead of 
with a skeleton service that would grow only as 
increased patronage demanded. The railway company 
believed that this would familiarize the users of the bus 
with its full advantages at once, and would achieve the 
results of having more people change their riding habits. 
A very unusual feature in the layout of this route con- 
sists of a double loop in the downtown section of 
Baltimore. The loop used in the rush hour is shorter 



tween these two points, as there are street car lines 
serving the same territory. The type of service is dif- 
ferent from the city type of bus service in that Yellow 
Coach de luxe buses are used on this line, while White, 
Mack and Reo city-type buses are used on the feeder 
lines. The fare is 25 cents on the de luxe buses and 
7^ to 25 cents on the feeder lines. The speed of this 
line is approximately 15 m.p.h. as compared to 11 m.p.h. 
on the street cars. 

The Cincinnati Street Railway, Cincinnati, Ohio, on 
Nov. 21 began operation of a new bus route between the 
business district of Cincinnati and a new, recently built 
up high-class subdivision 6 miles from downtown. Four 
new Mack buses with special 25-passenger bodies are 
being used. The fare charged is 25 cents. The coaches 
operate on a 30-minute headway from 7:30 in the 
morning until 8 p.m., when they go on an hourly head- 
way until midnight. 

The lines and type of service so far mentioned have 




High class equipment has attracted growing patronage in Baltimore 



and includes most of the financial and business section 
of the city, while in the non-rush hour the loop is 
enlarged to include the better shopping districts. 

Other Companies Use De Luxe Bus Equipment 

The Boston Elevated Railway operates one 25-cent 
fare de luxe bus route on Beacon Street and through 
the business section of the city. The line serves terri- 
tory which also has car service. Patrons have the 
privilege of free transfers from the de luxe buses to 
other service and transfer from other service to de luxe 
buses upon payment of 15 cents additional fare. The 
carfares in the territory served by the de luxe line are 
6^ cents for a local ride and 10 cents with full transfer 
privilege. The scheduled speed of the de luxe service 
is 12.3 m.p.h. as compared with 11.1 m.p.h. average for 
all other bus lines. Stopping places are not arranged 
for express service on this route. Buses ^op to take on 
or let off passengers at any point. However, the equiv- 
alent of express service is operated because practically 
all of the patrons of the de luxe line reside in the terri- 
tory served by the outer sections of the line. 

The Duluth- Superior Coach Company, a subsidiary of 
the Duluth Street Railway, besides operating six feeder 
routes to the street railway lines, also operates one de luxe 
bus service between the business centers of Duluth and 
Superior. This route furnishes additional service be- 



been strictly selective higher fare lines operated for the 
purpose of appealing to a new type of rider in a com- 
munity served by city-type operations of both street cars 
and buses. Quite distinctive from this type of service 
is another use for the de luxe bus on certain selected 
city lines. A number of companies are providing the 
local public on many of their lines with de luxe motor 
coaches, not as supplementary service at higher rates of 
fare. The United Electric Railway, Providence, R. L, 
operates 69 Twin Coaches and 40 of the latest model 
six-cylinder Whites on lines operating at regular rates 
of fare, most of which supplanted street cars. Quite a 
few of these lines are routed and operated as express 
service, benefiting the residents of outlying districts near 
Providence. With this equipment they also operate sev- 
eral special routes, two of which are only operated in 
the summer months to provide supplementary service 
between Providence and Crescent Park, and Pawtucket 
and Crescent Park. Crescent Park is a summer shore 
resort. Excellent results have been secured, particularly 
on the latter where the earnings have been very high. 
Two other special routes between Pawtucket and Paw- 
tuxet, and between 01ne)rville and Pawtuxet are oper- 
ated on Wednesday and Saturday nights to serve a very 
fine public ballroom in Pawtuxet. Twin Coaches are 
used on these lines, which take a more direct route than 
the trolley car and operates express all the way. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
96 



Monthly and Other Financial Reports 



Operating 

Expenses 

t 



Operating 
Revenue 
i 
Key System Transit Co., Oakland, Cal. 

November, 1929 598,437 

November, 1928 588,865 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 6,502,428 

1 2 mo. end. Nov., 1 928 6,606, 1 84 



Taxes 
i 



Gross 

Income 

$ 



Market Street Railway, San Francisco, Cai. 

December, 1929 817,254 676,519o 140,735 

December, 1928 811,968 719,642o 92,326 

12mo. end. Dec, 1929 9,590,194 8,041, 926o 1,548,268 

12 mo. end. Dec., 1928 9,754.461 8,327.688a 1,426,773 

Denver Tramway, Denver, Colo. 

Umo.end. Dec., 1929 4,214,297 2,902,564 
I2mo.end. Dec., 1928 



494,201 864,420 



Jarksonviile Traction Co., Jacksonville, Fla. 

November, 1929 92,574 74,447 7,787 9,877 

November, 1928 98,840 81,044 9,004 8,261 

12mo.end. Nov., 1929 1,143,880 936,375 106,590 94,740 

Umo.end. Nov., 1928 1,210,294 976,864 109,743 117,213 

Honolulu Bapid Transit Co., Honolulu, T. H. 

December, 1929 88.284 52,125 7,888 28,199 

December, 1928 93,890 53,100 13,231 28,653 

Umo.end. Dec, 1929 1,052,273 608,420 105,832 350,927 

12 mo. end. Dec, 1928 1,076,433 630,341 147,277 312,153 

Chicago Surface Lines, Chicago, HI. 

December, 1929 5,272,651 4,074,317a 1,198,334 

December, 1928 5,334,219 4,188,165o 1,146,053 

Boston Elevated Bailway, Boston, Mass. 

November, 1929 2,877,280 1,982,281 138,018 

November, 1928 2,927,910 2,081,326 145,099 

Eastern Massachusetts Street Bailway, Boston, Mass. 

November, 1929 663,198 436,562 19,805 232,687 

November, 1928 703,317 488,821 27,646 206,191 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 7,817,586 4,947,492 338,222 2,750,358 

Umo.end. Nov., 1928 8,202,869 5,342,139 324,680 2,758,475 

Eastern Massachusetts Street Bailway, Boston, Mass. 

December, 1929 761,868 495,262 12,959 264,902 

December, 1928 802,888 548,257 40,079 234,488 

Umo.end. Dec, 1929 8,579,454 5,442,755 351,182 3,015,261 

Umo.end. Dec, 1928 9,005,758 5,890,395 364,759 2,992,963 



Net 

Income 

i 

i5,726 

88,505 

S88,6S1 

6g3,8i6 



83,481ff 

31,982ff 

837,513(7 

677,755ff 



351,137 
460.960 



62,691 
1,7,601, 



17,869 

22,947 

2\i,720 

220,077 



909,743A 
879,486* 



761,223 T 64,148 
705,169 I 2,583 



86,076 

56,170 

870,240 

864,630 



130,462 

128,158 

1,000,703 

992,789 

Boston, Worcester & New York Street Railway, Eramingham, Mass. 

November, 1929 59,262 50,057 1,625 8,209 6,739 

November, 1929 577,842 550,012 18,148 121,956 105,795 

Department of Street Railways, Detroit, Mich. 

December, 1929 2,078,954 1,773,879 55,457 248,354 104,434 

December, 1928 2,154,288 1,599,402 62,529 401,039 245,310 

12mo.end.Dec, 1929 26,444,874 21,057,542 750,948 4,754,779 3,103,189 

Umo.end. Dec, 1928 24,558,175 19,283,497 783,012 4,847,251 2,932,355 



248,354 

401,039 

4,754,779 

4,847,251 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., Minneapolis, Minn. 

12 mo. end. Dec, 1929 13,487,975 1 l,132,357o 2,477,596 

Umo.end. Dec, 1928 13,005,353 1 1,049, 401o 2,055,233 

Kansas City Public Service Co., Kansas City, Mo. 

November, 1929 746,136 553,785 41,675 130,674 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 8,180,254 5,201,134 458,425 1,520,694 

Kansas City Public Service Co., Kansas City, Ho. 
Umo.end. Dec, 1929 8,951,515 7,327,003o 1,524,613 

Lincoln Traction Co., Lincoln, Neb. 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 434,257 380,204o , 

Umo.end. Nov., 1928 438,532 354,905o 



54,053 
83,627 

Fonda, Johnstown & GloversvUle R.R., GloversvUle, N. T. 

November, 1929 83,615 52,158 4,300 22,985 

November, 1928 82,028 50,341 5,775 19,043 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 930,295 595,575 79,150 271,229 

Umo.end. Nov., 1928 945,385 681,579 82,110 274,590 

Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation, New York, N. Y. 

December, 1929 5,199,104 3,400,231 303,977 1,565,568 

December, 1928 4,135,153 2,567,829 259,935 1,375,947 

6mo. end. Dec, 1929. 30,409,954 20,422,091 1,900,208 8,508,950 
6mo.end. Dec, 1928 24,135,352 15,710,731 1,552,835 7,263,345 



1,255,878 
833,589 



55,820 
670,150 



698,223 
10,179 



8,198 
12,55i 
77,871 
7i,8B0 



798,552 
573,910 
851,131 
106,142 



Brooklyn & Queens Transit Corporation, New York, N. Y. 

December, 1929 2,002,528 1,545,105 117,519 361,349 236,588 

December, 1928 2,031,999 1,667,806 105,633 280,122 152,553 

6mo. end. Dec, 1929. 11,935,555 9,419,520 682,989 1,961,747 1,212,144 

6mo. end. Dec, 1928. 12,108,324 10,041,706 644,349 1,552,522 778,965 

Hudson & Manhattan B.B., New York, N. Y. 

December, 1929 1,112,472 507,424a 505,047 272,289 

December, 1928 1,101,309 551.173a 550,136 218,098 

Umo.end. Dec, 1929 12,517,756 6,248,096a 5,269,659 2,247,210 

Umo.end. Dec, 1928 12,388,927 6,425,643o 5,953,283 1,941,055 

Interborough Bapid Transit Co., New York, N. Y. 

December, 1929 6,511,920 3,833,653 201,184 2,477,082 198,880 

6mo. end. Dec, 1929 35,749,805 22,495,993 1,202,433 12,051,378 9^9,179 



Operating Operating 
Revenue Expenses 
« i 

Long Island Railroad, New York, N. Y. 

November, 1929 3,084,453 2,460,962 

November, 1928 3,194,283 2,299,200 

1 1 mo. end. Nov., 1929 38,215,910 25,323,733 
II mo. end. Nov., 1928 37,404,155 26,027,072 



Taxes 
S 

186,121 
167,515 



Gross 

Income 

* 

435,511 
718,208 



2,844,'996 10,029! 170 
2,550,579 8,797,994 



New York, Westchester & Boston By., New York, N. Y. 

November, 1929 202,381 142,855 23,476 35.804 

November, 1928 199,677 141,573 20,238 38,157 

11 mo. end. Nov., 1929 2,31', 557 1,427,875 249,380 647,804 

11 mo. end. Nov., 1928 2,185.487 1,459,150 219,725 507,977 

Staten Island Rapid Transit Co., New York, N. Y. 

November, 1929 216,406 147,545 15,000 53,851 

November, 1928 259,344 150,942 10,541 88,402 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 2,441,623 1,801,677 191,800 448,129 

Umo.end. Nov., 1928 2,885,228 1,938,564 207,850 737,956 

Third Avenue Railway, New York, N. Y. 

November, 1929 1,256,076 959,539 81.555 224,548 

November, 1928 1,278,000 983,039 85,920 233,586 

5mo. end. Nov., 1929. 6,392,582 4,928,417 443,823 1,123,354 

5mo. end. Nov., 1928. 6,475,397 4,985,680 465,277 1,118,046 

Third Avenue Railway, New York, N. Y. 

December, 1929 1,729,135 1,527,285 201,850 

December, 1928 1,315,791 1,102,341 213,450 

5 mo. end. Dec, 1929. 7,571,717 5,447,525 1,224,192 

5 mo. end. Dec, 1928. 7,791,188 5,554,300 1,236,888 



Philadelphia & Western Railway, 

December, 1 929 80, 3 1 1 

December, 1 928 80,883 

December, 1 929 804,968 

December, 1 928 843,489 



Norristown, 

48,624; ... 

50,148/ ... 
631,889j ... 
659,934; ... 



Pa. 



Net 

Income 

S 

240,568/ 

528,431/ 

8,227,214/ 

7,119,845/ 



180,1,99 

169,751 

l,7Si,eSS 

1,72I,,2S7 



54,954/ 

49,192/ 

383,289/ 

326,935/ 



i0,059i 

19,0i5d 

179.8SBd 

lSS,992d 



S0,S68d 

n,S19d 

210,S0id 

155,311d 



31,587 
30,735 
173,079 
183,555 



Philadelphia & West Chester Traction Co., Upper Darby, Pa. 

11 mo. end. Nov., 1929 1,120,128 

Umo.end. Nov., 1928 1,178,547 



United Electric Railways, Providence, R. I. 

November, 1929 592,761 475,434 29,244 

November, 1928 603,645 481,599 35,375 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 5,636,790 5,330,435 353,544 
Umo.end. Nov., 1928 5,837,595 5,473,112 355,807 



88,083 

85,670 

952,809 

1,008,676 



Texas FJectrlc Railway, Dallas, 

November, 1929 168,197 

November, 1928 176,305 

II mo. end. Nov., 1929 1,706,494 
1 1 mo. end. Nov., 1928 1,646,095 



Texas 

145,035o 

141,545o 

l,515,751o 

l,453,234o 



Galveston-Houston Electric Co., Houston, Texas 

November, 1929 42,237 24,029 2,714 

November, 1928 49,171 26,294 2,931 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 592,018 332,258 31,205 

12 mo. end. Nov., 1928 649,540 376,754 31,743 

Houston Electric Co., Houston, Texas 

November, 1929 274,652 159,539 10,742 

November, 1928 280,016 171,529 21,484 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 3,378,970 2,093,987 284,469 

Umo.end. Nov., 1928 3,328,885 2,039,678 294,799 

Paclflc Northwest Traction Co., Seattle, Wash. 

November, 1929 81,198 60,555 2,895 

November, 1928 59,317 62,373 4,043 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 949,477 731,715 55,324 

Umo.end. Nov., 1928 884,529 735,453 51,193 



Calgary Municipal Railway, Calgary, Alta. 

1 1 mo. end. Nov., 1 929 937,348 565,473 . . 
Umo.end. Nov., 1928 



94,371 

86,912 

1,009,179 

994,408 



17,744 

2,899 

162,435 

97,881 



371,875 



Edmonton Radial Railway, Edmonton, Alta. 

November, 1929 72,647 45,842 .... 

November, 1928 59,555 44,492 ..., 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 753,602 494,664 

II mo. end. Nov., 1928 726,278 485,301 .... 



Lethbrldge Municipal Railway, Lethbrldge, Alta. 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1929. 50,298 41,175 

lOmo. end. Oct., 1928 



23,348« 

21,743e 

250,158e 

242,173e 



9,123 



British Columbia Electric Bailway, Vancouver, B. C. 

November, 1929 1,270,922 697,209 573,713 

November, 1928 1,192,080 614,212 577,858 

Smo.end. Nov., 1929. 5,995,951 3,315,155 2,580,795 

Smo.end. Nov., 1928. 5,622,233 3,067,509 2,554,724 

Begina Municipal Railway, Regina, Sask. 

Umo.end. Nov., 1929 383,437 234,931 

11 mo. end. Nov., 1928 



128,506 



37,163 

38,591 

392,020 

433,759 



22,152 

34,750 

190,743 

192,861 

15,492 

19,944 

228,748 il,25i 

241,033 2S,i72 



509,606 
583,867 



45,945 

6S,051 



38,954 
53,322 



1,955 

3,418 

9,528 

802 



16,731 
22,606 



18,778 
218 

Italic figures indicate deficit, a Includes taxes, b Net opera ting revenue. 
c Before taxes, d After adjustment bond interest, e Includes depreciation. 
/Net after rents, p Before depreciation and federal tax. A After joint account 
expenses, federal taxes, and city's 55 per cent. / Includes interest and taxes. 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
97 



Two-Color or Three-Color Signals 

New York, N. Y., Jan. 1, 1930. 
To the Editor: 

In a recent report issued by the National Committee 
for Municipal Traffic Ordinances and Regulations, 
certain proposed standards for the regulation of vehicular 
traffic were recommended. The more important of these 
deal with the proposal to employ three-color light signals 
at locations where a two-color signal might suffice. Since 
definite positions contrary to these recommendations have 
been taken by traffic officials of at least two major cities, 
New York and Los Angeles, the decision seems at least 
open to question. 

It is important to note that this recommendation is 
predicated upon a tabulation of replies to questionnaires 
sent by the national committee to some 200 municipalities 
where traffic control signals are now in operation. The 
purchases and installation of the traffic control systems in 
these 200 municipalities as a rule have not been by the 
official depaftment directing traffic, usually the police 
department, but in general by the Aldermanic Council or 
Town Trustees. Ordinarily neither of these two bodies 
includes traffic control engineers, nor is it versed in the 
art of traffic control signaling. The bidders proposing 
to supply traffic control apparatus, with the exception of 
one or two manufacturers who had undertaken to furnish 
traffic control signal units as a side line, were persons 
politically affiliated and in a favorable position to secure 
a contract. After receiving the award these persons 
generally established a temporary factory wherein were 
assembled the signal housings or such other apparatus as 
could not be purchased in the open market. Obviously 
these manufacturers preferred to sell three-color light 
signals upon which the profit was comparatively large. 

From the foregoing it may be inferred that, in 
adopting a tabulation of the replies received in the 
questionnaires, the national committee has based its 
recommendation on apparatus supplied by certain manu- 
facturers not making a specialty of producing traffic 
control signal apparatus, as distinguished from a recom- 
mendation based on protracted tests made by competent 
traffic control engineers to determine the superiority of 
one or the other signal system. 

Politics a Factor in Signal Equipment 

Unfortunately, owing to the political onus usually 
associated with awarding such contracts most of the 
established and largest manufacturers of signaling 
systems, who have had long experience in that field, have 
held aloof from street traffic control. One major city 
has had the local public service corporation finance, 
install and maintain the traffic control system at a 
service charge of $55 per signal unit per year, thereby 
relieving the city of all major responsibility. Obviously 
the position of the national committee precludes making 
such a recommendation. 

With reference to the indications for governing 
existing traffic, the conditions under which vehicular 
traffic operates may be classified as follows : 

1. Congested traffic lanes : for example, the hub arteries 
of a major city where traffic ordinarily is so dense that 
comparatively slow movement occurs. 

2. Major traffic lanes: these include the more impor- 



Letters to 



tant arteries extending from the congested areas to the 
outlying districts and adjacent towns, on which vehicles 
may travel in groups at comparatively high speed. 

3. Maladroit intersections: those other than simple 
right-angled intersections, blind streets, etc. 

Four General Types of Control 

For the above three conditions of traffic the following 
systems of signaling may be adopted : 

1. Synchronous, where all vehicles traveling in parallel 
directions proceed for a fixed interval of time, alter- 
nately with all remaining stationary for a similar, or 
diflFering, period of time. 

2. Progressive, where successive blocks show the same 
signal indication in conformance to the 'speed-distance 
factor determined by the rate at which traffic may pass 
through. Such ideal conditions of block length are rarely 
found. In this system the driver of a vehicle will always 
find a green signal at the approach to an intersection 
providing he has traveled at the prescribed speed. 
Obviously no yellow signal is required. 

3. Speed-distance or co-ordinated, based on the speed- 
distance factor of each block traversed, long or short. 
In such a system the driver will always find a green 
signal as he approaches the intersection, provided he 
travels at the prescribed speed. This system permits 
group movement of vehicles. Obviously such a system 
is ideal and does not require the yellow light. 

4. Special control, more generally applied to maladroit 
intersections, and dealing with conditions too complex to 
discuss here. With the exception of manual control they 
can usually be covered by systems 1 or 3. 

Let me refer now to the application of systems 1 to 4 
to the conditions (a), (b) and (c), previously named. 

Condition (a): Congested traffic lanes comprising the 
hub area of the major cities. The traffic is ordinarily so 
dense that high-speed group movement of vehicles cannot 
be obtained. Obviously the more simple two-color (green 
and red) synchronized system will suffice, being not only 
more economical and simple to install but more simple to 
operate and less costly to maintain. Owing to the com- 
paratively low speed the moving vehicles can be stopped 
within a few feet and no yellow signal is required. 

Condition (b) : Major traffic lanes extending from 
congested districts to outlying districts and adjoining 
towns. As these lanes not only permit a higher speed, 
but also group movement to olDtain maximum capacity, 
obviously the co-ordinated system should be installed. If 
the vehicle driver proceeds at the proper speed he will, 
always find a green signal at the approaching intersection. 
It is therefore obvious that no yellow signal indication 
is required. 

From the foregoing it will be apparent that a maximum 
flow of traffic may be effected by the use of two-color 
signal indications only, and that the ideal systems for 
obtaining maximum traffic do not require a third 
indication. Furthermore, investigations where the yellow 
signal is employed indicated that the motorist will speed 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
98 



the Editor 



up his car on yellow in an attempt to beat the red signal 
which he knows is coming. This appears to be universal 
at non-policed intersections. 

It is also important to note that in the standards 
adopted by the Railway Signal Association, which have 
been in effect for many years, the yellow signal, when 
employed, indicates proceed, prepared to stop at the next 
signal. Obviously, the meaning established by the 
Railway Signal Association standard is very different 
from that conveyed by the recommendations of the 
national committee, and confusion of standards will 
occur. 

It is also rather unfortunate that the names of one 
or more of the traffic control engineers, who have had 
from 30 to 50 years experience with steam railroads, 
do not appear on the roster of the national committee. 

O. A. Ross, C. E. 



Railway Crossing Signals Should 
Be Distinctive 

Nachod & United States Signal Co., Inc. 

Louisville, Ky., Jan. 8, 1930. 
To the Editor : 

As manufacturers of highway crossing signals for 
electric railways, we have noted a certain trend which 
we think merits discussion. One cannot fail to mark 
how implicitly the traffic signal indications are obeyed 
by automobilists ; and, on the contrary, unfortunately, 
anyone can recall how many times at a highway crossing 
signals indicating the approach of a train have been wan- 
tonly disregarded by motorists. What more natural than 
that the railways, solicitous to have their crossing signals 
obeyed, should set up at their crossings with highways 
indications that look like or imitate traffic signals, show- 
ing green normally to the street, and red when there is 
a train approaching? We ourselves have sold a number 
of such highway crossing signals, when so specified by 
the purchaser, and we note that certain steam roads are 
installing such indications at their highway crossings. 

We think this is essentially wrong, since a traffic sig- 
nal is a "stop and stay" signal, the indications being 
periodically reversed ; while the highway crossing signal, 
for which a distinctive indication has been specified by 
the Signal Division of the A.R.A., is a cautionary signal 
in the nature of a "stop and proceed" signal. The auto- 
ist when confronted with a crossing signal in operation 
should stop and wait a reasonable time; and then, if no 
train appears, should drive close enough to the crossing 
to see for himself, before he crosses. It is manifestly 
impossible to control a highway crossing signal so that it 
will always mean that a train will pass the crossing in 
so many seconds ; for the train may be stopping within 
the warning zone, or it may be shifting over the tracks 
but not approaching the crossing. This means that the 
automobilist will be indefinitely held up, or he must 



violate a signal which he has been taught to consider as 
a "stop and stay" signal. 

Moreover the railroad, by exhibiting a normal green 
at the crossing, which is the most unrestricted clear indi- 
cation possible, invites the autoist to cross on the strength 
of that indication alone without stopping and without 
looking. If a normal indication is wanted, yellow, which 
is cautionary, at least imposes care in crossing. The 
writer is of the opinion that the traffic signal indications 
of alternating red and green, with or without the inter- 
mediate yellow, should be reserved for traffic signals, 
and flashing lights or wigwag signals reserved for rail- 
road crossings. Carl P. Nachod. 

President and Chief Engineer. 



Extensive Paving Work Done by 
San Francisco Municipal Railway 

City and County of San Francisco 
Department of Public Works, Municipal Railway 

Dec. 21, 1929. 
To the Editor : 

Your survey of paving practices of the railways of 
the United States, as contained in an article appearing 
in the Electric Railway Journal on page 1108 of the 
December, 1929, issue, has been read by me with con- 
siderable interest. Your readers might infer from this 
article, however, that the Municipal Railway of San 
Francisco is relieved of all paving charges which the 
private companies are subject to. For your information, 
the following statement of the paving charges of the 
Municipal Railway for the last three years is detailed : 



Fiscal Year 

1926^1927 Maintenance $18,209.69 

New construction 1,907.60 

Replacements 25,578. 81 

Total $45,696. Ifl 

1927—1928 Maintenance $19,555.45 

New construction 8.00 

Replacements 6,797.99 

Total 26,361.44 

1928—1929 Maintenance $16,667.11 

New construction 102,461 .48 

Replacements 9,560.61 

Total 128,689.74 

Total July 1 , 1 926 to June 30, 1 929 $200, 746 . 20 



From the above statement it will be seen that over 
S200,000 was expended by the Municipal Railway in the 
last three years for paving, of which nearly one-half was 
for maintenance and replacements. Considering that the 
Municipal Railway has approximately 80 miles of single 
track of railroad to maintain, it will be readily seen that 
sufficient expenditure has been made to keep the paving 
in first-class order. 

The general impression given to the public by the read- 
ing of articles in various railway and other publications 
is that the Municipal Railway of San Francisco has con- 
siderable work performed for it by the city of San Fran- 
cisco for which no charges are made. This is an entirely 
erroneous conclusion, as the Municipal Railway pays the 
city of San Francisco for all work performed for it. 

F. Boeken, 
Superintendent. 



Electric Railway Journal- 
99 



-February, 1930 



International steel Twin 
Tics spaced 6 ft. center 
to center were laid on a 
3-in. layer of broken 
stone 





Seven-inch grooved girder rail was used with rolled-steel joint plates seam welded 




Track was brought to 
correct line and grade 
\ V'' ^y 'nachinc tamping 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
100 



Building 
Concrete Track 



with 



Minimum 

Interruption 

of Service 




Mixing apparatus mounted on railway trucics was used ior grouting 



USE of a novel method 
of construction recently 
enabled the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway to renew its 
tracks on Huntington Avenue with a minimum inter- 
ruption of service. Instead of using mixed concrete 
as is the usual practice, which requires that the track 
be supported to line and grade by blocking, bracing, 
etc., this track was brought to line and grade with dry 
broken stone ballast and the voids filled with cement 
grout, a vibrating machine being used to assure proper 
p)enetration. 

In the design of this track structure the total depth is 
12 in. At the bottom is a 3-in. layer of broken stone. 
Good quality, clean, 2-in. trap rock was used for this 
purpose. International steel Twin Ties spaced 6 ft. cen- 
ter to center were laid on the broken stone. The rail 
used was 7-in. grooved girder, with rolled steel joint 
plates, carbon arc seam welded. Another layer of broken 
stone was then placed, making the total depth 9 in. to 
the subgrade. Next, the ballast was thoroughly tamped 
and the track brought to correct line and grade. 

After this had been done grout was poured into the 



After track in Boston had been brought 
to line and grade with dry broken stone 
ballast, voids were filled with cement 
grout, using a vibrating machine to assure 
complete penetration 



voids. For this purpose a mix- 
ture of one part cement, two 
parts fine bank sand, and water 
was used. The bank sand was 
considered to be preferable to sea sand on account of the 
presence of a large amount of shell in the latter. Suffi- 
cient water was used to make the grout flow easily and 
penetrate to the bottom of the broken stone. 

Penetration was aided by the use of a vibrator. The 
duration of vibration considered necessary to give com- 
plete penetration was four minutes. Tests made by the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology of the concrete 
produced by this method showed that it was strong and 
of good quality. A 3-in. layer of sheet asphalt was laid 
on the concrete to constitute the paving surface. 

This method of construction is similar in certain 
respects to that of the Hassam pavement which was at 
one time widely used in the vicinity of Boston and 
elsewhere. It is believed by H. M. Steward, superin- 
tendent of maintenance, to possess an important advan- 
tage in that it permits the use of the track by cars at a 
much earlier period than is possible where mixed con- 
crete is used. In fact it is believed that cars can safely 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
101 




to stand on the track which was undermined as described 
above. The weight of the Boston Elevated wrecking 
truck is about 12,800 lb. and it was estimated that it 
lifted one-half the weight of the gas company's truck, 
or 2,500 lb., so that the total weight on the unsupported 
track was 15,300 lb. 

The tracks were damaged very little as a result of 
the water break and the removal of the gas company's 
truck. The in-bound track, being unsupported for a dis- 
tance of 30 ft., sagged of its own weight slightly. The 
out-bound track, however, remained to proper surface. 



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yfesfc 



Penetration of the grout was assured by use of a revolving 
vibrator placed longitudinally between the rails 

operate over such track as soon as it has been brought 
to line and grade and during the time the grout is setting. 
Interesting evidence of the strength of this design was 
furnished by an accident which occurred a short time 
after the completion of the Huntington Avenue job. 

Weight Test Proves Solidity of Structure 

On the night of Dec. 14, a 30-in. high-pressure 
water main, located about 9 ft. below the surface of the 
street, burst, and before the water could be turned ofif a 
hole approximately 30 ft. long and 25 ft. wide at the 
top, and about 9 ft. deep, resulted. All of the earth 
under the in-bound track for a distance of about 30 ft. 
was removed and the excavation extended across the 
out-bound track as well for a length of approximately 
20 ft. 

During the period of excitement, a Boston Consol- 
idated Gas truck, weighing about 5,000 lb., passed over 
the street which was undermined and fell into the excava- 
tion head first. The Boston Elevated wrecking truck 
was called and in order to take the gas company's truck 
out of the hole it was necessary for the wrecking truck 



J<5*k-! — 6'-J0''-f- -->^^ 

k— - —-6'-4''--t >^ 

Crushed stonBjffrouted 




Sectional views of concrete track in Boston built by placing broken 
stone and grouting the vdids 

The pavement in the space between the two tracks 
was broken through in order to facilitate the placing of 
shoring to support the tracks and to allow the city de 
partments to make the necessary repairs. Has this not 
been necessary, the concrete and asphalt pavement would 
have remained intact for the entire track area — that is, 
the tracks, the dummy and the brows. 

When the repairs to the underground structures were 
made, car service was resumed on both tracks, these 
tracks being supported by shoring. No further repairs 
to the tracks were necessary except to replace the pave- 
ment. The excavation caused by the water has been 
filled in, but the shoring supporting the tracks was 
allowed to remain in place, as the final settlement of the 
fill will not take place for a considerable period. This 
occurrence furnished an interesting demonstration of the 
solidity of a structure of this design. 




Tlie paving surface consists of a 3-in. layer of sheet asphalt 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
102 





Note: Rail h be' 
undercut no less 
then '/^" or more 
then ^/sz" 



Start undercut at ttt/s line ' 



O 



£ 



The standard practice of undercutting By milling the heads square after the The practice adopted by the Cleveland Railway is 

rails from head to foot permits a standard undercut is made, there to mill the rail head square and undercut from the 

gap to appear as the rail wears can be no gap and the danger of base of the rail head to the foot of the rail. This 

which gradually causes cupping cupping is minimized is giving very satisfactory results 



Double 'Milling Rail Heads 
to Prevent Cupping at Joints 

By Howard H. George 
Superintendent of Way Cleveland Railway 

PROBABLY no part of the track structure has given 
more trouble than the joint, and it has been the sub- 
ject of a large amount of study and investigation. The 
goal toward which railway engineers have been striving 
has been a joint which would have a life equal to the 
rail without cupping, but the number which produce such 
results has been rather small as compared with the total 
number installed. Assuming that splice bars are of a 
suitable design, that an adequate seam weld has been 
provided and that the mechanical assembly of the joint 
has been properly made, there is only one factor left, 
which is generally responsible for past failures. That 
is the flowing of the rail steel into the small gap between 
the rail ends which soon causes the head of the remain- 
ing rail to cup. 

For a number of years it was the general practice to 
specify rail ends to be milled square. In practice, how- 
ever, it was found that it was impossible to mill these 
rails exactly square and that sometimes the rail bases of 
the abutting rail ends made contact before the heads. 
This, of course, made it impossible to close the gap. To 
overcome this difficulty the specifications were revised 
to provide for undercutting all rail ends from head to 
base, thus insuring initial head to head contact when the 
joint was first assembled. This has been the practice 
for several years and is the method now generally fol- 
lowed. Since the rails are undercut for their entire 
depth, however, as the head wears down there develops 
an opening between the ends of the rails. As the gap 
widens, metal from the head of the sending rail flows 
down into the opening, allowing the car wheel to strike 
a blow on the receiving rail, the result being the rela- 
tively early appearance of rail cupping. 

Electric railway engineers have long sought to elimi- 
nate, or at least minimize this trouble, resort frequently 
being had to the use of shims. During the present year, 
the writer arranged with one of the rail manufacturers 
to experiment with the double-milling of rail ends as 
developed in the way committee of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Engineering Association about four years 
ago and later patented by E. M. T. Ryder, way engineer 
of the Third Avenue Railway. The method followed is 
shown on the accompanying sketch. The rails were first 



undercut in accordance with existing standard practice 
and then the heads were milled square. Each rail was 
carefully checked at the milling machine by the machine 
operator and also by the inspector. 

Accompanying photographs show clearly the diflfer- 
ence in the results obtained, as between the standard 
undercutting and the square milling of the heads. These 
joints were made up in the usual way by drifting the 
rail ends together with 1^-in. diameter drift pins, ream- 
ing the holes and bolting up with l^-in. diameter heat- 
treated bolts. The joints were then seam-welded, using 
the hand feed method of welding with extra low carbon 
welding rods. The splice bars have a carbon content 
between 0.2 and 0.3. They were then machined through, 
as shown, to expose the conditions in the center of the 
joint. The practically perfect contact of rail ends 
throughout the entire depth of the head as well as the 
perfect contact along the fishing surfaces are felt to 
constitute ample justification for the additional expendi- 
ture of 75 cents per ton involved in the extra milling 
operation. 



Deep Crankcase Pans Prove 
Advantageous 

INCREASING by 2 in. the depth of bus crankcase 
pans has proved advantageous for the International 
Railway of Buflfalo, N. Y. The oil capacity is increased 
approximately 77 per cent. This increase in possible oil 
storage has served to eliminate the mid-day follow-up of 
buses for the purpose of adding oil to motor crankcases. 
Buses are getting approximately 28 miles to a quart of 
oil. Old crankcases held 9 qt. of oil, while the new and 
deeper crankcase pan holds 16 qt. of oil. 




Deeper crankcase eliminates the necessity of replenishing 
oil supply of the bus at mid-day 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
103 



One -Man Long Level* 

By R. B. Evans 

Assistant Superintendent of Construction 

Cleveland Railway 

IN CHECKING the level of the subgrade and the 
stone track foundation it is often necessary to use a 
level board longer than ordinary. To facilitate this 
work, the Cleveland Railway has designed a long level 
board which can be handled by one man. This board is 




Long level board, designed by the Cleveland Railway 
to be handled by one man 

10 ft. long, 1^ in. wide and 4 in. high in the center, 
tapering to 2^ in. on either end. A strip of sheet metal 
is fastened to the bottom side to preserve its wearing 
surface. At the free end of the board is placed a level 
glass where it is easily seen by the operator. At the 
same end there is also a graduated metal gaging rod, 
which can be set to any distance desired, being held in 
position with a setscrew. 



Pavement Straight Edge* 

By p. H. COSTELLO 
Paving Inspector Cleveland Railway 

GREATLY improved pavement surface and increased 
production per man have resulted from the use of a 
"pavement straight edge" made in the Cleveland Railway 
shops. This new device has also made it unnecessary 




When paving with granite blocks the Cleveland Railway uses 
straight edges to insure level surface 



for a workman to follow the pavers to raise or lower 
inaccurately placed stones. Past experience on the 
Cleveland Railway indicated that, when laying granite 
block pavement in the track area, the paver did not al- 
ways lay the block to a uniform surface. Use of the 
new "pavement straight edge" has corrected this. 

The device consists of a piece of soft wood 5 ft. 6 in. 
long, 2 in. wide and 3 in. high, well seasoned, and planed 
on the bottom side, to which is fastened a metal strip to 
preserve its wearing surface. On top is a hand grip to 
facilitate handling by the paver. 



Spray Equipment Effective for 
Weed Killing* 

By a. G. Pirkle 

Georgia Power Company, Atlanta, Ga. 

FOR removing weeds from between tracks the Georgia 
Power Company has designed a spray equipment for 
distributing a weed-killing chemical. This apparatus is 
erected on a flat car and connected by pipes to a tank 
carrying the solution. The spray equipment is moved 



;•<■' 



3'coup/i'ng 

J'Sarco,.' 
sfrai'nir 



-1 



3'black- 
pipt 






■2,70Z-gal. fank 



.3"Merto 
Nordstrom 
valve 




*Submitted in Electric Railway Journal Prise Contest. 



>)<-/«"4t-z'— sJ \ -Wj. 

■J ' 
-/- ^ ■' 

/fSpraco ncrrz/e- 

Weed killing is carried on by means of spray equipment 
designed by the Georgia Power Company 

over the roadbed by a sand car, which is equipped with 
an air compressor. Compressed air is brought by means 
of a hose to the tank containing the solution, which is 
then forced out through nozzles at the desired pressure. 
The chemical used is non-poisonous and is shipped in a 
concentrated form which must be diluted by taking 4 gal. 
of water and 1 gal. of the concentrate. After the solu- 
tion is made it is agitated about ten minutes by applying 



Electric Railway Tournal — Vol.74, No.2 
i04 



a pressure of 30 lb. of air through a perforated pipe run- 
ning the full length of the tank, the top of which is left 
open. At a working pressure of 30 lb. per sq.in., each 
of seven small nozzles sprays 8^ gal. per minute and 
each of two large nozzles sprays 24 gal. Thus the total 
capacity is 107^ gal. per minute. This requires an air 
compressor which has a capacity of at least 60 cu.ft. of 
air per minute. 

Manufacturer's specifications call for 472 gal. of 
diluted solution per mile. To discharge that amount, a 
speed of about 40 m.p.h. is required. While operating, 
the car is run as near to that speed as can be estimated 
by the motorman. The spray nozzles are controlled by 



individual valves, which makes it possible to apply the 
chemical only where vegetation exists. When all nozzles 
are ojien, the width of the spray is about 15 ft. This 
method is more economical than the old method of hand 
weeding. In three days all weeds were killed in a track 
area of more than 20 miles of single track, thus making 
it possible to have a clean roadbed during the entire 
growing season. Concentrated chemical totaling 1,473 
gal. was used, which at 38 cents per gallon cost $567.92. 
Labor cost for the three days was $92.94, five men being 
employed where four could have done the job. The total 
cost was $660.86 for 20.08 miles of single track, or 
$32.91 per mile. 



Distinctive Features in Sample Car 

Built by St. Louis Public Service Company 



IN THE past two or three years a number of ex- 
perimental and sample cars have been constructed 
by the electric railways and manufacturers. All of 
these have embodied new ideas in their design and have 
contributed to the development of the modern car to suit 
present-day needs. The latest car to make its appearance 
is a sample car recently completed for the St. Louis 
Public Service Company, St. Louis, Mo. Like the 
others, the St. Louis car has in addition to certain 
features tried in other cars a number of new ones. 
Among its interesting features are automatic pedal 
control, resembling in the arrangement of the pedals 
that of an automobile, a switch to hold the controller in 
full series position, a pedal for preventing emergency 
braking when the hand is released from the dead-man 
control, a control panel for the buttons and levers 
operating the gong, sand, doors, emergency braking and 
heaters, a stanchion arrangement in the front which 
makes fare collection for the one-man operator easier, 
extensive use of aluminum throughout the car, equal 
mounting of equipment underneath the car, a reverser 
control mounted in a pedestal at the rear, a motor- 
operated fare box and an attractive appearance, both 



exterior and interior. As the car includes those elements 
of design which the company feels are desirable for 
standard service on its system, the company plans to use 
it as a sample when ordering new equipment as needed. 
Westinghouse electro-pneumatic control, actuated with 
line current, is installed in the car. It is the VA variable 
automatic type, switch-operated. The master control, 
operated by a pedal, is mounted in a cabinet recessed 
in the floor. The air brakes, of General Electric design, 
also are pedal-operated, with a self-lapping valve. The 
arrangement of the two pedals dififers from previous 
installations in that the pedal for acceleration is on the 
right and the pedal for braking on the left. This change 
was made to make the operation of the car more nearly 
like that of an automobile, and hence more natural for 
most motormen. Both pedals are depressed with the 
right foot, so that in both braking and accelerating the 
action for the right foot is the same as in starting and 
stopping an automobile. In starting, the brake pedal is 
released and the accelerator pedal on the right depressed ; 
in stopping the procedure is simply reversed. Of course 
with no gears to shift and no clutch pedal to operate the 
left foot remains idle. 




A pleasing appearance was obtained by a low roof, a 5-in. skirt below the side sill and streamline painting 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
105 



Unit switches for the control are mounted in a cabinet 
at the rear of the motorman, another departure from 
usual practice. This cabinet extends out from the side 
of the car making a partition between the motorman's 
compartment and the remainder of the car. Action of 
the various control switches is obtained through an air- 
operated sequence drum. Another innovation is a 
series control switch which stops the advance of the 
control when full series position is reached. This is 




Front half of the car showing the arrangement of stanchions 
and the type of seats used 

particularly useful for switching and operating at slow 
speeds through congested downtown districts. 

Immediately in front of the operator's seat and over 
the two pedals is a control panel on which are mounted 
a brake-locking switch, controls for both the front 
entrance and center exit doors, a dead-man control 
button, a handhold, and buttons for operating a gong, 
releasing sand and controlling a heater circuit. 

New Type of Deadman Control 

If the motorman wishes to leave his position at the 
front of the car he may do so by locking the brakes 
with a device on the control panel. The dead-man 
control button is located at a convenient position for the 
left hand. In a corresponding position on the right is 
a handhold of the same size and shape for the operator's 
right hand. If the operator wishes to remove his hand 
from the dead-man control button he may prevent an 
emergency braking by depressing a pedal near the floor. 
The heater circuit is controlled by two buttons so that 
the heater current can be utilized for throwing track 
switches. These buttons have absolute control regardless 
of the thermostat standing. 

In addition to the regular reverser at the front of the 
car there is a second, located in the center of the semi- 
circular rear end. A Westinghouse drum control 
switch and a General Electric brake valve are mounted 
in the enclosed pedestal. To operate the reverser, the 
cover is simply released and slid up a stanchion to a 
resting position. An automatic gong in the base of the 
pedestal is a further help for the operator in backing 
up his car. 

Entrance is gained to the car through double outward- 
folding doors at the front. By locating stanchions in 
the front vestibule as shown in an accompanying 
illustration, it is possible for a large number to board the 
car, yet all must pass by the fare box in single file. This 
allows quick loading and positive collection from every 
passenger. Two half-seats on the left side at the front 



allow free passage for the passengers after leaving the 
fare box. The circulating load principle is employed, the 
passengers leaving by treadle-operated sliding doors in 
the center. Fare collection is made with a Johnson fare 
box, operated with an air motor. It is lighted by a lamp 
in a specially constructed reflector box with louvre con- 
struction, which allows good lighting of the fare box 
but prevents the light from glowing at the operator or 
boarding passengers. 

Aluminum was used for practically the entire body. 
Body bolsters, stanchions, conduits for wiring, posts, 
letterboard and carlins (one at each post) are all of 
this metal. Aluminum was used also for all of the 
ceiling except the circular ends which are of Agasote. 
Almost all air brake and door control piping is of copper 
with brass fittings. Air compressors and reservoirs were 
located under the rear of the car to give a more even 
distribution of weight between the front and rear trucks. 
The car has a total weight of 36,180 lb., divided 19,380 
lb. for the body, 10,800 lb. for the trucks and 6,000 lb. 
for the motors. 

Careful attention was given to obtaining a pleasing ap- 
pearance, both exterior and interior. With a narrow 
letterboard, low roof, streamline painting and a skirt, 
obtained by extending the side plate 5 in. below the 
side sill, a racy appearance was obtained. A wide single- 
piece window, equipped with two vertical-acting window 
wipers, a dash-lighting headlight and a sun visor, gives 
a distinctive air to the front. The car exterior is 
finished in orange and cream, trimmed in red. Its roof 
is gray and the window guards and lettering are black. 

With 26 cross-seats, three single seats and provision 
for seven passengers in a circular seat at the rear, the 
car has a total seating capacity of 62. 



Repair of Interchangeable Bearings* 

By Max Feigenspan 

Mechanic Hamburg Elevated Railway 

Hamburg, Germany 




Portable bench for reaming and finishing relined bearings in the 
Hamburg Elevated Railway shops 

FINISHING bearings which have just received a new 
lining is greatly simplified by the use of a specially 
constructed portable bench in the shops of the Ham- 
burg Elevated Railway. The bench is provided with 
four vises, each of which holds the bearing in a different 
position. This facilitates the finishing of its surface 
on all sides. After reaming has been completed the 
bearing can be placed in the center vise in a nearly hori- 
zontal position and further finished by hand if this is 
desirable. Bearings are held in place by adjustable claws. 

*Submitted in Electric Railway Journal Prize Contest. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.Z 
106 



Causes of Wheel Failure 
Studied at Havana 

By Otto Gottsckalk 

Engineer Car Equipment Department 

Havana Electric Railway 

RECENTLY it came to our attention in Havana that 
none of our cast-iron chilled car wheels were being 
removed because of wear on the tread, but rather because 
of low flanges due to chipping. This called forth an 
investigation which brought us to the conclusion that 
the chipping was due to a combination of two condi- 
tions : first, flange-bearing switches, mates and frogs ; 
second, method of molding and chilling the wheel. 

The Havana Electric Railway operates 600 single- 
truck cars, all equipped with cast-iron chilled wheels 
of 30-in. diameter, 2^-in. tread and f-in. flange. In the 
city the track consists of grooved running rails with 
numerous sharp curves, switches and crossovers. The 
crossovers, switches and mates are of the flange-bearing 
type. Outside the city the track system consists of tee 
rails, non-flange-bearing switches, frogs and crossovers. 
Storage tracks in yards are of the same construction. 

Our records showed that over a period of six years 
the average life of wheels was 36,000 miles. This low 
figure was due to the precautions taken to prevent derail- 
ments in operating cars on the tee rail. Wheels with 
low and chipped flanges were removed for fear of derail- 
ment on the tee rail while they could bnve been oper- 
ated safely over the grooved rail in the city of Havana. 
Various explanations were oflfered for this chipping. 
It was suggested that wheels were not properly installed 
on the axles. Sharp curves, improper alignment of 
track, rough spots due to rail welding, etc., were also 
suggested as possible sources of trouble. Probably all 
of these contributed to some extent. However, we 
found one of the chief difficulties to be that the bead 
of metal left on the top of the flange of non-chilled back 
flanges broke or chipped little by little when passing 
through crossovers or frogs and more so when passing 
through switches and mates. The chipping was found to 
be a detail process up to a certain point; then larger 
pieces of metal broke oflf, resulting in a condition that 
might cause a derailment in operation over tee rail. 

To test our theory we placed a number of wheels 
in service A^ith non-chilled back flanges that had this bead 
of metal ground off, taking care during the grinding to 
prevent undue heating which would soften the chill. The 
average mileage obtained from these wheels was 42,000 
miles. 

Manufacturers have now developed the chilled-back 
flange wheel, claiming for it that the change in grain of 
the metal increases the average mileage per wheel. We 
believe this to be true, although the change in the grain 
is not the principal cause. It is rather that the extension 
of the chill blocks when molding causes the slight bead 
of metal formerly left on the top of the flange to be left 
on the outside, so that the contour of the flange at the 
point of contact with the flange-bearing switches, mates 
and crossovers is left in a perfect condition, almost as if 
it had been turned in a lathe. 

Despite this improvement we have continued to experi- 
ence a certain amount of trouble from chipped flanges, 
and we have come to the conclusion that it is not fair to 
expect even a perfect flange of a cast-iron chilled wheel, 
with its brittle metal, to support a car and its passenger 




Single-truck cars and sharp curves are typical of electric railway 
operation in Havana 

load when passing through and over flange-bearing 
switches, mates and crossovers, though the period of 
such strain is only of momentary duration. The tread 
of the wheel was designed to carry the load. Men were 
not intended to walk on their toes. How long could 
men do this stunt without a breakdown? 

If cast-iron wheels give a greater return on the invest- 
ment than steel wheels, then we must eliminate the 
flange-bearing switches, mates and crossovers. 



Flexible Rail Joint Tried at 
Providence 

EXPERIMENTS are being made by the United Elec- 
tric Railways of Providence, R. I., to determine 
whether or not advantages can be obtained by the use 
of a welded rail joint differing in principle from those 
commonly used. The design of this joint, known as the 
Moisselle joint, provides a round bar which is welded 
to the rail heads and which has a U-shaped bend oppo- 
site the rail ends, making the joint flexible rather than 
rigid. About a year and a half ago, 175 of these joints 
were installed on various rail sections including 9-in. 
girder, 8-in. high T, and 66-lb., 70-lb. and 75-lb. T rail. 
An inspection a year later showed a few partial failures 
which were attributed to the use of weld bars which 
were too small and to defective welding. The record of 
these joints was considered by H. W. Sanborn, chief 
engineer, to be good enough, however, to warrant a trial 
of 50 additional rail joints of the same type. Larger 
bars were used in the later installation. The features of 
the joint which particularly appealed to the management 
were its ease of installation, the absence of necessity for 
any mechanical fit in the fishing section and the flex- 
ibility due to the bend in the bar which is thought to 
eliminate the blow on the receiving rail and also to pro- 
vide for expansion and contraction. 



Electric Railway Journal — hehrua/y, 1930 
107 



Combination Tie Plate for Various 
Rails* 

By W. S. Yeats 
Georgia Power Company, Atlanta, Ga. 

TO OBTAIN the full life of a creosoted tie it is 
necessary to protect it from mechanical injury. If 
rails start to cut in, decay will follow and ties must 
be removed sooner than if they had been protected. 
To prevent this type of wear the Georgia Power Com- 
pany uses tie plates in various sizes to fit the differ- 




isetxret/ 



Bearinq Centering Plerfe 



"^ 




B««iring Clamp Collar 






J' 






-^i' 



— • — •■>!<-- 



■*- 



-//". 



l*-^t^ 



f^P- 



■-,rA 



Ti ^fiick 






< 'i'-Af 



./', 



V 



-^i'-..-. 



TT 



>k/'. 



Puncfi 



-//'•- 



^^Lafhe chuck 



Clamp collar 

'^Centering 
plate 




Jig used by Louisville 
Railway in turn- 
ing down axle and 
armature bearings 



tailstock. The bearing is then ready for turning with 
only one setting of the tool. 

All reclaimed bearings are welded on the two halves, 
after which they are spread over a mandrel -^ in. larger 
than standard size and then finished in the jig described. 
After the bearings have been turned on the outside to 
the required dimension, the outside of. the collar and the 
inside of the bearing are finished to the required size. 



This tie plate used by the Georgia Power Company fits any 
rail base from 4^ in. to 6 in. 

ent rail widths which are found on the property. The 
tie plate used by the company has simplified the problems 
of the track foreman because it fits the bases of rail of 
4^ in. to 6 in. width by \ in. intervals. Either two or 
three spikes per plate may be used, and the form of 
the hole is such that the spikes are backed up by the 
plate. This tie plate has been used by the Georgia Power 
Company since 1923, during which time it has been 
entirely satisfactory. 



Testing Circuit Breakers in Place* 

By R. W. James 

Electrical Department Ottawa Electric Railway 

Ottawa, Canada 

IT HAS been found advantageous on the cars of the 
Ottawa Electric Railway to set the line switches and 
circuit breakers at definite points and then to seal 
them so that they cannot be tampered with, either by car 
operators or carhouse employees, without the knowledge 
of the line switch repairman. 

To test and calibrate the line switches in place on the 
car, a testing set has been developed by the electrical 
department. This is installed in one of the pits in the 

*Submitted in Electric Railway Journal Prise Contest. 



Axle and Armature 
Bearing Jig* 

By Herbert Senior 
Foreman Louisville Railway 

FOR turning axle and armature 
bearings a special jig is used in 
the shops of the Louisville Railway. 
This consists of a bearing centering 
plate and a bearing clamp collar. 
When starting the operation it is 
necessary to face the bearing at the 
split surface, after which the bearing 
clamp collar is put on to hold the 
bearing halves together. When this 
is finished, the bearing is chucked 
and the tailstock is screwed against 
the center plate to force the four 
center pins in the bearing, as shown 
in the accompanying drawing. 

When these operations have been 
performed the bearing clamp collar is 
released and is moved back over the 




Equipment for testing line breaker on cars of the 
Ottawa Electric Railway 



Breaker under test 



A — Mechanical circuit 
breaker ; 

B — Resistance, 1440 ohms; 

C — Air pressure gage ; 

D — Air valve ; 

B — Air pipe insulator ; 

F — Unit switch, type 
806-J-7 ; 

Q- — Resistance, 2160 ohms ; 

H — Resistance, 1440 ohms; 

J — Ammeter ; 



K — Lamp resistance ; 

L — Red lamp, 50 volts ; 

M — Control switch, 10 
amp. ; 

N — Control switch, 10 
amp. ; 

P — Red lamp, 50 volts ; 

Q — Connection to G-1 in 
controller ; 

R — Grid resistor ; 
Type 801-E-4 
switch to be set 



S — Operating coil ; 

T — Interlock ; 

V — Overload fingers ; 

T— Carbon contacts ; 

TT— Holding coil ; 

X — Contact tips ; ^ 

ri, Y2, y 3— Resistances, 
720 ohms each. 

Z — Control switch, 10 
amp. 



Electric Railway Journal- 
108 



-Vol.74, No.2 



repair shop. The car on which the breaker has to be 
tested is run on the pit track and the breaker is con- 
nected into the test circuit by means of short leads. Con- 
nections of the testing set are shown in the diagram. 
A is a mechanical circuit breaker and F a line switch of 
the 806-J-7 air-operated unit switch type. The rheostat 
R, which consists of two sets of grids, 63 small and 63 
large, can be connected in various combinations by the 
canopy switches 1, 2 and 3, the corresponding currents 
being indicated on the ammeter /. ■ The switch to be 
tested, which is of the Westinghouse 801-E-4 type, is 
connected into the circuit as indicated. The magnet valve 
of switch F is energized by current passing through two 
sets, when switch M is closed, each of seven 85-volt 
lamps in series, shown at A in the diagram. The operat- 
ing coil S of the line switch under test is energized 
through the same set of lamps by closing switch A^. 
When the line switch is under test the short-circulating 
bar across the carbon contacts V is removed, the current 
goes through holding coil W, resistance Y2, and the left- 
hand overload finger U. It then follows across the short- 



circuiting bar to the corresponding overload finger and 
then to ground through the G-1 connection. This allows 
a test corresponding to the first notch of the controller. 
On all other notches, holding coil IV is not needed, be- 
cause the control circuit is open when there is an over- 
load and cannot be closed again until the controller is 
put back to the first notch, which permits the current to 
go to ground through G-1. 

To test a switch breaker, switch A is first closed and 
air at approximately 70 lb. admitted through valve D. 
The desired combination of resistances is made by clos- 
ing switches 1, 2 or 3. Control switch M is then closed, 
in turn closing switch F. Control N can then be closed, 
actuating the switch under test. To test a switch with 
the holding coil on the first notch, control switch Z is 
closed, after which it may be opened for testing on two 
or more speeds. 

In this manner a switch can be tested on the car under 
road conditions. In addition to testing and setting line 
switches, this set is also useful in detecting various forms 
of trouble which otherwise would be difficult to locate. 



New Products for the Railways^ Use 



Improved Headlight 
Resistance 

GREATER efficiency of the in- 
dividual units and easier main- 
tenance are advantages claimed for 
a new headlight resistance recently 
placed on the market by the 
Ohio Brass Company. The units 
are of the exposed wire type in- 
stead of having covered wire, thus 




Removable unit headlight resistance is ad- 
justable for voltage variation 

permitting a much higher operating 
temperature. The wire is of nickel- 
chrommm composition which elimi- 
nates rust, corrosion or brittleness 
brought about through long use. 
The tubes supporting the wires are 
threaded to eliminate possible short- 
ing of a part of the coil. These 
tubes are arranged side by side to 



afford maximum opportunity for heat 
radiation. Ventilation is aided by 
two baffles mounted on top of the 
resistance, forming a duct for air 
circulation. 

In order to make up for possible 
variations in line voltage, a sliding 
shunt is attached to two adjacent 
tubes by which the desired amount 
of current is delivered to the lamp. 
There are no exposed operating parts 
in the new resistance, and the cover 
may be readily removed without 
danger of losing the holding ratchets, 
which are securely fastened to the 
base. In place of the "pig tails" that 
were formerly used as connections, 
the new units are joined with brass 
strips which have completely over- 
come sagging and the resultant danger 
of grounded contacts. 



Novel Lubricating System 
for Roller Bearings 

SIMPLICITY of construction 
marks the new Fafnir-Melcher 
roller bearing for railway journals. 
A sleeve comprising the inner race, a 
roller assembly, and an outer housing 
in which the roller path is integral, 
are the three main parts. The sleeve, 
being shrunk or pressed on the axle, 
furnishes a hard and wear-resisting 
surface for the operation of the 
rollers. Alignment and flexibility 
are provided for in the design of the 
box. The rollers need take only 
radial load as all lateral thrust is ab- 



sorbed by bronze thrust bearings, 
which, due to efficient lubrication, 
have a life equal to any other part of 
the bearing. The housing or box 
itself is composed of three parts: the 
front cover, containing the oil seal 
grooves and dust guard; the center 
member, in which is embodied the 
roller path equalizer seat and the 
pedestal flanges, and the oil reservoir. 



yVafer and oi7 seal 



fj^ofainer 



Housini 



Coyer; 



^Safety ring 

I .Thnaf 
/ bean'nff 
Thrusf- 
bearinq 




GasAef'' / /nnerrace •., '^-Oaske/- 

M/er assembly '/Poller assembly 

Lubrication system of Fafnir-Melcher bear- 
ing — from well through wick to journal, 
to roller path and back to reservoir 



A special alloy is used for this center 
member, and the roller path is heat- 
treated and ground to a minimum 
tolerance, thus assuring accurate fits, 
concentricity, and a wearing surface 
equal to or better than that of the 
separate outer race type. An ad- 
vantage of this construction is the 
greater wall thickness permitted, 
which naturally increases the strength 
of the box, but still remains 
within A.E.R.A. standard pedestal 
dimensions. 
The assembly consists of two sets 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
109 



of flexible rollers each contained in a 
spacer bar cage. The separator bars 
between each of the rollers permit 
better lubrication, as well as positive 
alignment of the individual rollers at 
all times. A feature of the bearing is 
the circulating and filtering lubricating 
system, which provides a constant cir- 
culation or flow of from 15 to 30 drops 
of filtered oil per minute through the 
bearing. The important element is 
a wick which draws oil from the 
reservoir to the axle, from whence by 
centrifugal action it is carried to the 
roller path, through the rollers and 
back to the well again. 



Demountable Wheel for 
Rail Cars 

WITH the new Fairmont de- 
mountable wheel for rail cars, 
it is possible, instead of discarding the 
whole wheel when a tire wears out, 
simply to remove eight f-in. nuts and 
press on a steel wheel blank or tire, 
which is bolted to the hub and remains 
permanently in position on the axle. 
The bolt circle is 6g in. instead of the 
usual 5 in. Stout parkerized lock 
washers secure the nuts. As the 
Fairmont hub is not pulled from the 




Fairmont demountable wheel of 16-in. rim 
can be exchanged rapidly if worn out 

axle, no time is lost in refitting 
spoiled insulation. There is no re- 
gaging and re-aligning of wheels every 
time a tire wears out. 

The bolted hub makes it possible 
for the car operator to keep his car 
safe by tightening the nut with an 
ordinary wrench, if any bolt loosens. 
With riveted hubs, no tightening is 
possible, and there is always a tempta- 
tion for the car operator to continue 
to use the car until such time as it is 
more convenient to change the dan- 
gerous wheel which has loose hub 
rivets. 

Since but two sizes of rims (16-in. 
and 20-in.) need be carried, and these 
fit every hub on the line regardless of 
axle size or taper, a maximum stock 



of SO tires is ample, where hundreds 
of complete wheels were formerly 
stocked. After all cars are once 
equipped with bolted hubs, a hub 
stock of one or two of each size is 
ample, for the tight hubs are subject 
to practically no wear. Fairmont 
tires are furnished in both ^-in. and 
y^-in. plate, and nest handily in ver- 
tical stacks. A large wheel stock can 
thus be ke]5t in one small room, and 
the few reserve hubs can be kept 
in small bins. 

The application of Fairmont hubs, 
which are furnished in any size and 
taper of bore, reduces the wheel stock 
for all cars to two tire sizes (or four 
items if both :J-in. and /ff-in. tires are 

used). 

♦ 

Light- Weight Spray-Painting 
Outfit 

CONVENIENT portable appara- 
tus for light-duty spray painting 
has recently been put on the market 
by the De Vilbiss Company. The 
light weight and compact size of 
this outfit make it extremely handy. 
The specially designed air compres- 
sor, and i-hp. universal electric motor 
which drives it, weigh only 5^ lb. 
The spray gun weighs only \^ lb. 
and is said not to tire the arm even 
with long-continued use. 

This apparatus has special features 
which are said to give it large capacity 
and unusual efficiency. The high air 
pressure produced by the powerful 
little motor and the design of the 
pressure-feed spray gun produce a 
complete, fine atomization of the ma- 
terial and assure the same good re- 
sults achieved by big capacity outfits. 
Easy adjustments of the air cap of 
the gun enable the operator to atomize 
perfectly any of the various paints, 
lacquers or material that may be in 
use. 

Two air caps give a choice of round 
spray or a full fan spray several 
inches wide. The pint size glass con- 
tainer has standard Mason jar thread. 
Ordinary Mason jars can be used for 
extra containers. The gun body and 
compressor housing are of high-grade 



aluminum alloy. Nozzle caps, fluid 
tip, valves and other parts are of 
brass, nickel-plated and nicely fin- 
ished. It is designed to plug into any 
110-volt electric socket. The com- 
plete unit consists of the Type GT 
spray gun, rotary compressor with 
switch, 15 ft. of air hose, and con- 
nections, 10-ft. extension cord and 
plug, and brass wire for cleaning. 



Heavy-Duty Circular Saw for 
Track Work 

TO FACILITATE the cutting of 
heavy timber the De Walt Prod- 
ucts Corporation of Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania, has developed a heavy-duty 
electrically driven circular saw. One 
man can operate this machine, feeding 
the saw with a hand ratchet gear 
feed or by chain feed on the arm 
of the machine. This arm mav be 




Heavy-duty cutting machine. Type L, 
handles timber of 12x12 in. 

raised or lowered to depths of cut. 
Saw blades up to 36 in. are provided 
to handle 12-in.x20-in. material. 
The saw blade operates at 1,750 r.p.m,. 
and is direct-driven by motor oper- 
ated on either alternating or direct 
current in 220 to 550 volts. 

This machine comes in two sizes, 
Models L and T, the capacity of the 
L type being 12x12 in. material, while 
the capacity of the T type is 12x20 
in. The larger type is mounted on a 
metal table equipped with all-steel 
conveyor rollers for easy handling. 
The elevating device is operated by a 
wheel in front of the table which 
gives rapid elevation and ease in op- 
eration. 




Light-weight spray-painting outfit manufactured by the De Vilbiss Company 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
110 



News of the Industry 



LATE NEWS 



Philadelphia Wrought Up 



Detroit, Mich. — Mayor Bowles has 
requested the Street Railway Commis- 
sion to make an immediate survey to 
determine whether rate of fare on the 
municipal railway should be increased. 
■¥ 

Philadelphia, Pa. — In a round-up by 
the police against illegal parking, begun 
on Jan. 23, 77 cars were towed to four 
designated garages, where they were im- 
pounded until owners paid $5 towing 
charges and $1 storage fee. Fifty mo- 
torists reclaimed their cars by paying a 
total of $300. Inspector Wasing was in 
charge of the war on parking. He led 
25 patrolmen and eight towing trucks 
through the central streets. 

Chicago, 111. — Master in Chancery 
Mason has again continued the hearing 
involving a petition by the Chicago 
Rapid Transit Company for a permanent 
injunction to restrain the Illniois Com- 
merce Commission from interfering with 
the straight 10-cent fare. The new date 
is Feb. 20. The continuance was at 
the request of representatives of the city. 

Baltimore, Md. — Officials of the Balti- 
more city law department are studying 
the United .States Supreme Court's de- 
cision in the United Railways & Electric 
Company rate case. The city has been 
more or less of a silent observer recently 
so far as the United Railways' rate 
matters have gone. 

■f 

Dallas, Tex.— The Dallas Railway & 
Terminal Company increased its surplus 
reserves by $109,716 during 1929. This 
was $55,912 more than accrued to this 
fund during 1928. The surplus reserve 
accumulates only after the company is 
able to spend or put aside a fixed per- 
centage of its gross revenues in repair, 
maintenance and depreciation reserves 
and then pay a 7 per cent return on 
property value. The gross earnings of 
1929 were $3,319,132 with operating ex- 
penses of $2,329,455. 
■f 

Washington, D. C. — In the District 
Supreme Court, Justice Wheat has de- 
nied the motion of the Public Service 
Commission for dismissal of the appeal 
of the Washington Railway & Electric 
Company and the Capital Traction Com- 
pany from the commission's order deny- 
ing them an increase in fare. 
-f 

Aberdeen, Wash. — Two cars of the 
Grays Harbor Railway & Light Com- 
pany have been repainted in a shade of 
orange enamel developed after years of 
experiment to secure a color easily 
visible in fog or rain but durable under 
the conditions here. This color, adopted 
as standard, contains less red than that 
formerly used. All cars on the system 
will be repainted as rapidly as possible. 



Over Transit Tangle 



The Suit in Equity Brought by the City 
Results in Lively Sessions and Sensa- 
tional Comment — A New Deal Is Likely 



E.ARLY in January hearings were 
begun before presiding Judge Harry 
S. McDevitt in Common Pleas Court 
in Philadelphia in the equity suit 
brought by City Comptroller Will B. 
Hadley against the Mitten corporations, 
not only demanding a complete audit 
but asking for the end of Mitten Man- 
agement's control of the transit system. 
After a few sessions the court observed 
that things were "going from bad to 
worse" and the result was that the 
equity suit hearings were transformed 
into a series of round-table conferences 
which, as indicated in Electric Railway 
Journal News for Jan. 25, may mark the 
birth of a new transit policy for the city. 
Behind closed doors in Judge Mc- 
Devitt's court room Mayor Mackey, 
Deputy Comptroller S. Davis Wilson 
and representatives of the City Council 
and the Mitten interests decided that 
four transit experts, one each for the 
four persons or groups represented, 
would be designated to formulate recom- 
mendations as to the future of the 
transportation system. 

New Relationship May Result 



(Late News Continued on Page 112) 



The way was thus opened for a re- 
adjusted relationship of the city and the 
rapid transit company that may involve 
the municipal condemnation of the entire 
transit system, the ousting of the Mitten 
interests as managers and the appoint- 
ment of a new managerial organization. 
Certainly the developments are attract- 
ing wide attention, so much so that they 
have been made the topic of a special 
article in the New York Times by 
Lawrence Davies This observer even 
goes so far as to say that despite denials 
from one or two of the concerns men- 
tioned in the speculation, suggestions 
in political and financial quarters that 
the move for a "re-deal" has the back- 
ing of interested banking and public 
utility corporations eager to gain a foot- 
hold in the Philadelphia transportation 
field have won credence in the last few 
days. 

The early days of the equity suit were 
spent in the bickering of opposing coun- 
sel in revealing intricate phases of the 
financial relationships among the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Company, Mitten 
Management, Inc., Mitten Bank. Mitten 
Bank Securities Corporation and other 
Mitten interests, including charges 
that Thomas E. Mitten and his son and 
successor, Dr. A. A. Mitten, were sole 
owners of the stock of Mitten Manage- 
ment, Inc., which collected an annual i _ 
fee of $1,100,000 for P.R.T. operation; | 

Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
111 



in adducing from the city's representa- 
tives on the P.R.T. board, Joseph S. 
McCulloch and Ernest T. Trigg, that 
they knew little of the company's opera- 
tions, especially as to its financial trans- 
actions; and in warnings from the judge 
that the case must be tried in court and 
not in the newspapers. 

This last admonition followed the re- 
lease to the newspapers of the city's 
answer in the suit before Deputy Comp- 
troller Wilson, its chief of counsel, had 
turned the papers over to the court. 
After Mitten lawyers had described the 
answer as "vitriolic, defamatory, mali- 
cious and scandalous" Judge McDevitt 
received Mr. Wilson's apology and or- 
dered him to file an amended paper with 
the "vitriolic comment" deleted. 

Ellis Ames Ballard and associated 
counsel for the Mitten interests have 
taken the position that although the late 
Thomas E. Mitten dominated the tran- 
sit company's affairs, his domination 
had brought the P.R.T. operation to 
"as high a plane of excellence as that 
attained by any surface street railway 
in any metropolitan area in the United 
States, and that the relations existing 
between the men and management had 
been brought to a degree of harmony 
unsurpassed in any other community." 
They have contended that the regu- 
latory power and jurisdiction over the 
P.R.T. methods and classification of 
its accounts rests exclusively with the 
Public Service Commission. 

The hearings have had their amusing 
incidents as well as the revelations that 
produced headlines for the Philadelphia 
papers. Deputy Comptroller Wilson, 
although not a full-fledged member of 
the bar. was authorized to prosecute the 
suit, but was assisted by Assistant City 
Solicitor John J. Elcock. Mr. Elcock 
one day protested to Judge McDevitt 
that Mr. Wilson paid no attention to 
him. All he had to do was to sit and 
twiddle his thumbs. The judge bade 
him find a comfortable seat and cease 
worrying about his inactivity, for "the 
public understands the situation." 

Former Senator George Wharton Pep- 
per, former Judge James Gay Gordon 
and other prominent lawyers associated 
with the Mitten side, have been by turns 
enraged, exasperated and caustically 
tolerant of Mr. Wilson's prosecution 
methods. That these methods have 
been unorthodox even the critical 
Philadelphia Record has been forced to 
admit. Of him that paper felt required 



(Continued on Page 114) 



LATE NEWS 

(.Continued from Page 111) 



_ New Orleans, La. — For the first time 
since the beginning of the beautification 
work on Canal Street, which necessitated 
the rerouting of cars of the New Orleans 
Public Service, Inc., six lines using 
tracks in this street resumed operations 
there on Jan. 19. The new rerouting 
is expected to facilitate the movement of 
traffic in Canal Street, lessen congestion, 
and speed up the railway service. 
■f 

New York, N. Y.— The Regional Plan 
Cornmittee made public on Jan. 25 the 
detailed studies of its engineering staff 
on the subject of the Brooklyn and 
Queens approaches to the projected 38th 
Street-East River vehicular tunnel. They 
have an important bearing on the re- 
cently announced proposal of the New 
York and New Jersey tunnel commis- 
sions for a highway connection between 
Long Island and Weehawken, N. J. 
Several months were required by the 
engineers for their studies. 
-f 

Kennebec, Me. — Directors of the 
Androscoggin & Kennebec Railway de- 
ferred payment of the dividend due 
Dec. 1, 1929, on the company's 6 per 
cent cumulative preferred stock. 
■f 

Dayton, Ohio — The Cincinnati & 
Lake Erie Railroad has formed an 
honor club for employees of its pre- 
decessor companies who have seen con- 
tinuous service of 25 years or more. 
At the organization banquet on Jan. 22, 
39 employees, eligible for membership, 
attended. Each of the men was com- 
mended by Dr. Thomas Conway, Jr., 
president of the railroad. 
-f 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Backers of the proj- 
ect of a competitive taxicab service have 
appealed to the Superior Court against 
the ruling of the Public Service Com- 
mission assuming to grant a monopoly 
in this field to Philadelphia Rapid Tran- 
sit and Mitten Management. The posi- 
tion of the commission in its ruling was 
that "the time has come when regu- 
lated monoply is the best means of taxi- 
cab operation." 

Washington, D. C— The Parker bill, 
for regulation of buses operating in in- 
terstate commerce, was considered in 
executive session on Jan. 24 by the inter- 
state commerce committee of the House, 
The committee voted in favor of the 
provision requiring certificates of public 
necessity and convenience before any 
buses are permitted to operate in inter- 
state commerce. It is said that the bill 
will be reported favorably to the House 
very soon. 

-f 

New York, N. Y. — At a meeting of 
the Board of Estimate on Jan. 24 at 
which the matter of granting a fran- 
chise for a bus line in Brownsville, 
Brooklyn, to the Eastern Parkway, 
Brownsville & East New York Transit 
Relief Association came up, Mayor 
Walker announced that consideration of 
the franchise would be deferred until 
April 25, asserting that the city was not 
in the mood for granting a franchise to 
this or any other company until the 
Legislature had disposed of his bill, now 
pending, which would provide unified 
bus transportation. 



Geneva, N. Y.— The Public Service 
Commission has approved the assign- 
ment by the Geneva Railway Bus Lines, 
Inc., to the Colonial Motor Coach Cor- 
poration of the certificate granted by the 
commission to the Geneva company on 
Jan. 29, 1929. The certificate covers the 
bus line running from Geneva to Seneca 
Falls. The commission has also ap- 
proved an amendment to the certificate 
calling for operation over other streets 
than those named in the original consent 
by the city. 

■f 

Seattle, Wash. — Salesmanship on the 
part of trainmen and others that will 
resell street car and city bus serv- 
ice to those who have been gradually 
withdrawing their patronage from the 
Municipal Railway during the last few 
years, has been demanded by George 
B. Avery, superintendent of public 
utilities. 

■f 

Boston, Mass. — The Boston Elevated 
Railway is advertising in display space 
in the daily papers its success as a 
competitor in the Brady Award contest, 
in which, in its class, the company was 
declared to have done most "to conserve 
the safety and health of the public and 
its employees," in 1928. 
■f 

Detroit, Mich.— The Detroit & Port 
Huron Shore Line Railway, the Rapid 
Railway and the Port Huron City 
Electric Railway have been sold 
at public auction to Roger I. Mar- 
quis and Augustus C. Ledyard, repre- 
senting the bondholders protective asso- 
ciation, on their bid of $300,000. There 
were no other bids. The sale is subject 
to confirmation of Judge Charles C. Sim- 
mons of the federal court. 

Atlanta, Ga. — A new issue of Georgia 
Power Company $6 preferred stock was 
placed on the market Jan. 1. This stock 
is offered for sale at $100 per share plus 
accrued dividends, both for cash and on 
a partial payment plan. It is cumula- 
tive and is redeemable at $110 per share 
plus accrued dividend. Employees are 
being paid a special commission of $1 
per share for selling this stock. 
■f 

Bloomington, 111. — The Illinois Power 
& Light Corporation has formally ac- 
cepted the new twenty-year franchise 
with terms practically the same as those 
of the preceding contract, except that 
wider latitude is given to the company 
in the establishment of bus lines to sup- 
plant railway lines. 

S3n'acuse, N. Y. — The committee rep- 
resenting the New York State Railways 
50-year first consolidated mortgage 
bonds series "A" and "B" has announced 
an extension of time for the deposit of 
the bonds to Feb. 18, 1930. Receivers 
for the New York State Railways were 
appointed on Dec. 30, 1929, by the 
United States District Court for the 
Northern District of New York and they 
are now operating the properties. 
■f 

New Orleans, La. — Records up to 
Jan. 2 show the bombing of 64 trolley 
cars of the New Orleans Public Service, 
Inc., since the strike of union crews 
last July. 

Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
112 



Evansville, Ind. — The Evansville & 
Ohio Valley Railway, operating a rail- 
way to Rockport and Grandview, Ind., 
and bus lines to Mount Vernon, Ind., Tell 
City and Cannelton, Ind., and Hender- 
son and Owensboro, Ky., is advertising 
its business intensively in the Evansville 
and Owensboro newspapers. According 
to Ray Millican, general manager, the 
new year has started well with the com- 
pany's passenger and freight business 
showing a nice increase over the corre- 
sponding period last year. 

■f 

St. Louis, Mo. — Murray J. Douglas 
and L. A. Graeser, former president and 
secretary, respectively, of the St. Louis 
local of the Amalgamated Association, 
as trustees of the Sick Benefit Associa- 
tion of the union are suing the Union 
Labor Insurance Agency and the South- 
ern Surety Company to reinstate a con- 
tract for a sick and accident insurance 
for members of the union cancelled 
last October by the Southern Surety as 
improperly drawn. All claims prior to 
the cancellation of the contract were 
paid in full. The court is asked to com- 
pel the Southern Surety to pay all the 
claims that have come up since the 
cancellation. 

+ 

Hartford, Conn. — The Connecticut 
Company discontinued its High Street 
bus line on Jan. 26 under authority of I 
the Public Utilities Commission, which 
accepted the declaration of the company 
that the route was unprofitable. Fre- 
quent transportation over alternative 
routes, the commission believes, com- 
pensates for less frequent transportation 
afforded by the High Street service. 

AVashington, D. C— The Washington 
Railway & Electric Company and the 
Capital Traction Company on Jan. 21 
voiced their objections to Congress to 
the proposal for their merger sent to 
the Capitol by the Public Utilities Com- 
mission. 

Alameda, Cal. — Arrangements have 
been practically completed between the 
city and the Key System Transit Com- 
pany, whereby the Key System will 
use for trolley support the new elec- 
troliers to be installed on Park Street 
in Alameda between Clement Street and 
San Jose Avenue. Present plans call 
for the removal of all Key System trol- 
ley poles on this portion of Park Street. 
Trolley wires will be fastened directly 
to the electroliers. 

-f 

Philadelphia, Pa. — The Council's 
transportation committee has selected 
Roosevelt boulevard as the route for the 
construction of a $30,000,000 high-speed 
feeder line to the Broad Street Subway. 
The new subway will extend from Broad 
Street and Hunting Park Avenue along 
the boulevard to Pennypack Circle. The 
committee has also recommended that 
the Council employ Sol M. Schwab, 
former city consulting engineer, as a 
transit expert to advise the legislative 
body in negotiations with P. R. T. for 
a new operating arrangement on the 
North Broad Street Subway. In addi- 
tion the committee has approved an 
enabling ordinance appropriating $7,000,- 
000 for relocating the Market Street 
Subway's elevated tracks under the 
Schuylkill River and authorizing the 
director of transit to advertise for pro- 
posals and enter into necessary con- 
tracts. 



More Than $5,000 
a Day from Third 

Avenue Buses 

Receipts of the Third Avenue Rail- 
way, New York, from bus operation are 
between $5,000 and $6,000 a day. These 
bus receipts are not included in the 
receipts of the railway system, only the 
net from bus operation appearing in the 
income statement. During the past 
year there were extraordinary expenses 
due to the installation of new lines and 
equipment. The buses are being de- 
preciated on the basis of a five-year life 
which takes care of the equipment notes 
issued for a larger part of the buses. 
Under these conditions, the bus opera- 
tion showed a deficit of $287,775 for the 
year. It is believed that in a very short 
time the bus operation of the system 
will show profitable present operation 
with great possibilities for the future. 
President Huff says: 

"The threat of the destruction of trol- 
ley lines by bus competition has 
disappeared. The bus lines now in 
operation have been laid out in the main 
to feed and supplement existing trolley 
lines. It has been a long, tedious 
process of education both of ourselves 
and the communities in which we 
operate in arriving at fair and reasonable 
conditions of operation. We have had 
many municipal authorities to deal with 
in Westchester County, and it has taken 
time to reach a fair basis for carrying 
on a business that of necessity has to 
look somewhat to the future for its 
rewards." 



committee of bankers appointed by 
Samuel Insull does not really exist, that 
A. W. Harris has never accepted his 
appointment, and that the committee 
would have difficulty in showing that it 
has ever met. 

The Aldermen discussed and shelved 
for three weeks Alderman Guernsey's 
request that March 15 or April 1 be set 
as a date on which franchise contenders 
should submit transit ordinances. This 
was done because the sub-committee is 
working on an ordinance draft with the 
surface and elevated lines. Alderman 
Guernsey's plan for a subway in solid 
rock 125 ft. below street level was turned 
over to the engineers for study. 

On Jan. 21 the Chicago City Council's 
transportation sub-committee submitted 
a dozen changes which it has made in 
the new co-ordination ordinance to At- 
torney Walter L. Fisher, legal repre- 
sentative of Federal Judge James H. 
Wilkerson. The changes are all tech- 
nical and tend to strengthen the city's 
position. If they pass Attorney Fisher, 
the changes will then be submitted to 
the local transportation companies and 
to the citizens' committee. 



mensurate with the small expenditure 
and that the effort indicates a manage- 
ment alert to the requirements of pres- 
ent business methods. 

"It is not the intention of the trustees 
now or later to attempt in any way to 
influence the public mind with respect to 
the future organization of the Boston 
Elevated Railway. We intend simply to 
tell the facts with regard to the service 
as they are today and explain how the 
road has been operated under public 
control." 

Mr. Harriman attached a list of electric 
railways using the radio for advertising 
purposes and an article from Aera ex- 
plaining its use in this connection. 



Adding to Income with 

Package Service 

The Lehigh Valley Transit Company, 
Allentown, Pa., has instituted a package 
service upon its Liberty Bell limited 
cars, which cover the 60 miles between 
Allentown and Philadelphia. Frequent 
requests have been made by firms with 
small parcels requiring quick delivery 
to Philadelphia and way points, to have 
the crews perform this service. It has 
not been a question of money; the re- 
quirement was fast delivery. Space was 
available in the motorman's cabin to 
transport a considerable number of 
packages without any inconvenience. 
The railway, therefore, announced that 
baggage tickets costing SO cents could 
be secured. The packages or parcels 
are delivered by the sender at any of the 
baggage rooms along the route. Here 
they are loaded upon the cars, and 
dropped off at the various stops re- 
quested. Packages must be under SO 
lb. in weight and must not exceed 4 
cu.ft. in capacity. 



No Propaganda in Boston 
Broadcasts 

Radio broadcasts started by the Bos- 
ton Elevated Railway, Boston, Mass., to 
stimulate patronage and increase good 
will toward the road have caused Repre- 
sentative Sullivan, of Dorchester, to 
protest to Governor Allen, asserting the 
broadcasts were being utilized to urge 
continuance of public control. 

Chairman Harriman of the trustees 
of the company has replied that the pur- 
pose of the broadcasts was simple and 
direct, namely, to attract more riders to 
the system. He said in part: 



Ancillary Receivers for New 
York State Railways 

Judge Adler in the United States Dis- 
trict Court in Buffalo, N. Y., has ap- 
pointed William T. Plumb and Benja- 
min E. Tilton as ancillary receivers for 
the properties of the New York State 
Railways following an equity receiver- 
ship action against the company brought 
by the General Ffriance Corporation, 
Utica. Judge Adler instructed them to 
continue the lines in operation and sub- 
mit a detailed report of the condition 
of the company. The receivership order 
enjoins all creditor interests from in- 
stituting court actions against the re- 
ceivers on past due claims. 



Storm Hits Portland, Me. 

Electric railway service at Portland, 
Me., was hampered severely during the 
week ended Dec. 21 by the double sleet 
storm which cut off all incoming power 
service and threw the lighting, power 
and railway load upon the Cape steam 



More Maneuvering in Chicago 

The Chicago City Council's local trans- 
portation committee on Jan. 27 unani- 
mously voted an expenditure of $30,000 
from the traction fund for the prepara- 
tion of actual plans and specifications for 
a State Street subway. The specifica- 
tions will be written into an ordinance 
for the con,-?truction of the subway by 
special assessment, with property owners 
sharing the cost with the city. 

At this same meeting John Maynard 
Harlan, attorney for an Eastern group 
seeking a franchise, charged that the 




Obstacles to Electric Railway Service in Portland 



"In recent years the trustees have 
appropriated moderate sums for adver- 
tising to stimulate riding. The radio 
broadcast is in line with this effort. We 
believe that the objects sought are all 
within the sco^e of legitimate advertis- 
ing, that the returns will be com- 



plant of the Cumberland County Power 
& Light Company. "At no time was 
trolley service completely disrupted in 
Portland," said Fred D. Gordon, vice- 
president and general manager, to a 
representative of the Electric Railway 
Journal. 



Electric Railway Jov^nav— February, 1930 
113 



De Luxe Service in Cleveland 

Popular 

The permit for the 25-cent express 
motor coach service started by the 
Cleveland Railway between Cleveland 
and Cleveland Heights on Dec. 7 has 
been extended for six months by the 
Cleveland Heights Council. The original 
grant was for 30 days. Officers of the 
Cleveland Railway are pleased with the 
results, particularly as all the regular 
customers provided their own trans- 
portation to the business district prior 
to the time the express service was 
started and thus, in a small way, at least. 



the express service is an aid to railway 
service by helping to reduce traffic 
congestion. 

The express coaches make fast time. 
The aim is to give every passenger a 
seat, but during the rush hours this is 
not always achieved. 

The Heights line is the first regular 
express service the railway has been 
able to operate in the Cleveland district. 
Moreover, it is the first local transporta- 
tion line furnishing service to the Van 
Sweringen's new union terminal and it 
provides the only direct service between 
the Van Sweringen terminal and the 
Pennsylvania's East SSth Street station. 



Philadelphia Wrought Up 

Over Transit Tangle 



(.Continued from Page IH) 



to say: "Yes, Mr. Wilson is an in- 
flammatory and rather incalcuable fac- 
tor in the transit controversy. He is 
impulsive, undisciplined, intractable. He 
ignores the traditions of the game and 
defies its rules. He* is a perpetual in- 
surgent, an implacable guerrilla; a shrill 
note of discord in the legalistic sym- 
phony; a bull in the equity china shop; 
a burr under the saddle of justice — pick 
your own metaphor. But he survives 
and he produces." 

Included among the statements of 
Mr. Wilson which brought down upon 
his head the censure of the court were 
in substance the following: 

"Control of P.R.T. by Mitten Man- 
agement was obtained through the allur- 
ing oflfer to P.R.T. employees to give 
them stock therein through the bonus 
system. When these stocks aggregated 
majority control Mitten compelled the 
employees to turn over P.R.T. stock 
for securities in his private enterprises, 
illegally financed by P.R.T. funds 
As the plan progressed Mitten Manage- 
ment would have become sole owner of 
P.R.T. without the investment of one 
dollar . . . 

"P.R.T. men have never had a fair 
voice in the management and policies 
of P.R.T. Their bonus stocks were 
exchanged for stocks in Mitten enter- 
prises. P.R.T. men became obligated 
to Mitten Management rather than to 
the public. . . . 

" . . a gesture of Mitten that he 
was founding an industrial democracy— 
of which, however, he was the autocratic 
and aggrandizing head, in the interest of 
himself and of the Mitten interests." 

In a flaming editorial in which the 
Record asked whether after all Mr. Wil- 
son hadn't performed a public service 
in showing that "there isn't any Santa 
Claus behind those Mitten Management 
whiskers," that paper admitted that 
"Mr. Wilson deserved his spanking as 
the Bad Boy of the transit litigation." 

That of course is a striking instance 
of the extent to which the animosities 
have been carried. The important thing, 
however, is the constructive side of the 
picture. The round-table conferences 
were agreed upon after the deputy 
comptroller had suggested to the court 
the city's purchase at par of the out- 
standing $30,000,000 of P.R.T. com- 
mon s-tock, the $14,000,000 of preferred 
stock and the $25,000,000 of bonded in- 
debtedness, as well as the condemnation 
of the underlying companies for $80,000,- 



000. This estimate would bring the 
total price to $149,000,000. 

Mr. Wilson pointed out that elimina- 
tion of Mitten Management would save 
a yearly fee of $1,100,000, and he figured 
that there would be saved also $8,000,- 
000 which the company pays annually 
as underlier rentals and $2,400,000 in an- 
nual dividend requirements. He also de- 
clared the $800,000 paid yearly to P.R.T. 
officials was excessive. 

Judge McDevitt in agreeing to the 
conference plan called attention to the 
division of transit system ownership 
among the city, the P.R.T. and the 
underlying companies. He said: 

"The sooner we face the music and 
realize that somebody has got to take 
over all of this — and probably the city — 
and run it by competent management 
and executives the better off will all 
be. Now, if we can solve that problem 
and put the transit system where it 
belongs, pay a fair and reasonable price 
for it, and then permit the city to em- 
ploy competent persons to operate it, 
you will be infinitely better oflf than you 
are having a contract with P.R.T. 
and they with Mitten Management and 
the Mitten Bank Securities Corporation 
and three or four other companies, where 



WATCH FOR 

A.E.R.A. Transportation 

Committee's 

Illustrated Brochure 

Covering Three Special Trains 

to the 

San Francisco Convention 

and 

General Convention 
Information 

To be mailed from 

Association Headquarters 
Feb. 15 



it is almost as impossible to unscramble 
them as it was to unscramble the rail- 
roads after the war. They have become 
so intertwined and interwoven now that 
I cannot put my finger on the line of 
demarcation in any of the evidence that 
has already been produced." 

As Mr. Davies sees it, to many ob- 
servers any agreement on terms for 
possible condemnation of the whole 
transit system seems far distant. Skep- 
ticism is the reigning state of mind. And 
in the meantime the clamor grows for 
speedy tunneling under the Schuylkill 
River in order to lay the West Philadel- 
phia elevated tracks underground in 
preparation for the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road improvements and for the extension 
of the city-owned Broad Street subway 
into the northeast section. In short, 
transit has become the urgent outstand- 
ing problem of the Mackey admin- 
istration. 

Company Makes Subway Operating 

Proposal 
In the interim A. A. Mitten, chairman 
of the board of the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company, in an open letter to 
Edwin R. Cox, president of the City 
Council, has made the following sug- 
gestions as a basis for consideration and 
discussion of the lease by the city of 
the Broad Street subway. 

1. Up to such date as a new lease should 
be signed Philadelphia Rapid Transit will 
bear and absorb without reimbursement 
from the city the loss which stands today 
at over JSOO.OOO and is being reduced at 
the rate of about $40,000 per month. 

2. Philadelphia Rapid Transit will sign 
and urge upon the commission for Its ap- 
proval a new lease to run from year to year 
trom the date of its execution which shall 
contain the following terms : 

(a) Philadelphia Rapid Transit as lessee 
to operate the subway as part of the unified 
system. 

(b) Philadelphia Rapid Transit to pay to 
the city monthly the net addition to its net 
revenues arising from Broad Street subway 
operation for the preceding month as re- 
ported by the board of ten, which board 
should be continued for this purpose. 

(c) In computing subway operating ex- 
penses the board shall include to cover 
general and management expenses 2 per 
cent of subway gross revenues ; this because 
thus far the board has Included nothing 
on this account. 

(d) In case for any reason, such as open- 
ing of subway extensions, the subway shall 
cause a loss in P.R.T. net revenue tor one 
or more months, P.R.T. .shall not be en- 
titled to any repayment by the city, but 
such loss shall be made up from the in- 
creased revenues from subsequent months 
and thereafter P.R.T. payments to the 
city shall be resumed. 

(e) Such lease to run from year to year 
terminable by either party at the end of the 
first or any later year on three months 
prior written notice. 

Mr. Mitten stated in the letter that 
loss in addition to rental to P.R.T. for 
the full fifteen months period of 
operation of the subway amounted to 
$826,603, although for the month of 
November, as for several other recent 
months, the subway has proved a slight 
financial benefit to the whole system. 

That progress is being made at the 
round-table conferences is attested by the 
announcement made just before this issue 
of the Journal went to press that the 
committee of four to which reference has 
been made will comprise Dr. Milo R. 
Maltbie, for the city comptroller; S. M. 
Swaab, consulting engineer, for the City 
Council ; W. K. Myers for the P.R.T., and 
J. A. Emery for the Mayor. They have 
been instructed: (1) to make a survey of 
transit facilities; (2) to make a study of 
transit finances; (3) to make a survey 
of the underliers ; (4) to analyze the city- 
company operating contract; (S) to recorn- 
mend methods by which the situation can 
be worked out, and to estimate the results. 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
114 



Underground Headquarters London^s 

Highest Commercial Structure 



The fine new headquarters of the 
London Underground Railways com- 
bine, constructed above St. James's Park 
Station and crowned with a flood- 
lighted tower that is one of London's 
newest and most outstanding landmarks, 
is now in full use. The exterior of the 
building takes the form of a huge white 
Latin cross. It has been made familiar 
to the London public through the con- 
troversy which the Epstein sculptures 
aroused. The interior has no such sug- 



James's subway station and the contigu- 
ous railway ran across a portion of the 
site only a few feet below street level. 
The foundation of the building in this 
region had to be straddled over the 
subway and the framework stanchions 
based on cross girders some 54 ft. in 
length, bridging it. The girders them- 
selves rested on group piles at each side 
of the railroad. 

The building is the highest commer- 
cial structure in London. 




•^B 



- i 



i.,yiiiiiiii 

illillil 



Impressive structure which houses London Underground officers and staff 



gestion of towering solidity. The im- 
pression is rather one of simplicity, soft- 
ness, and polished cleanness. 

The whole building gives a sense of 
utility and of a certain austerity without 
discomfort. It has its own water supply 
pumped from an artesian well 500 ft. 
below the ground level to tanks along- 
side the balconies of the tenth and top 
floor. Its electricity is drawn from 
Lot's Road power station of the Under- 
ground Company, and transformed to 
the required voltage in the basement. 
Here, too, are an automatic telephone 
exchange and a kitchen for the supply 
of afternoon tea to the 1,000 occupants 
of the offices. The business part of the 
building extends upwards only to the 
tenth floor, but above that rises the 
tower with a 60-ft. flagpole above it. 
This is both a landmark by day and by 
night. It afifords a fine view to those 
who are privileged to ascend it. 

Not being a virgin site, certain in- 
herited difficulties presented themselves 
in the construction of the building. St. 



476 Miles to Be Electrified 

in Switzerland 

The complete list of railway lines in 
Switzerland to be electrified within the 
next seven years is as follows: 

Length When to 

in Kilo- Be Elec- 

Line meters trifled 

Neuchatel-Chaux-de-Fond»-CoI- 

des-Roches 38 1930-31 

Delemont-Basel 38 1930-31 

Delemont-Delle 40 1931-32 

Wallisellen - lister - Rapperswil - 

Uznach-Ziegelbrucke 45 1 93 1-32 

Zurich-Affoltern-Zug 36 193 1-32 

Biel-Soncebo7,-Chaui-de-Fonds. . . 44 1932-33 

Berne-Lucerne 84 1932-34 

Rorschach-Buchs 49 1 933-34 

Gossau-Sulgen 23 1 934-35 

Neuchatel-les-Verrierefl 35 1934-35 

Sonceboz-Moutier 25 1935-36 

Guibiaeco-Locarno 18 1935-36 

» 476 

Sydney, Australia — Construction of 
Eastern Suburbs Electric Railway in 
New South Wales has been postponed 
owing to shortage of funds for new 
works. 



Paris Subway Fusion 

Takes Effect 

-Amalgamation of the Metropolitan 
and the Nord-Sud railways of Paris 
gives Paris a unified subway system 
with more than 200 stations and ap- 
proximately 70 miles of double track. 
There has always been a close working 
agreement between the two lines, with 
interchange of traffic. From the admin- 
istrative and operating standpoints, how- 
ever, useful economies may be expected. 
It has been reasonably claimed for Paris 
that, in proportion to its size and popu- 
lation, the city has a more closely-woven 
network of sub-surface railroads than 
any other city in the world, there being, 
roughly speaking, 1 mile of double-track 
underground railroad to every 42,857 of 
inhabitants. Yet in many respects com- 
parison between the underground trans- 
port system of Paris and similar sys- 
tems in other large cities cannot be 
justified, because at present, in the case 
of the French capital, all of the lines 
termiriate at the city boundary. In the 
not distant future, however, this condi- 
tion will be altered, for several lines 
which extend into the nearer suburbs 
are scheduled for early construction, and 
one is even now being built. There is 
also a larger project, which has been 
sanctioned by the Prefecture of the 
Seine, which will carry the lines still 
further afield, and thus bring Paris into 
line with large metropolitan centers 
elsewhere. 



Rome, Italy — Rome is at last to have 
its metropolitan subway system, the 
decision having been made at a recent 
meeting of the Superior Council of Pub- 
lic Works. The system will, when 
completed, consist of three lines, called 
A, B, and C. Line A's total length will 
be between 6 and 7 miles. It will cost 
$16,500,000. Line B will be 34 miles 
long. It will cost about $8,600,000. 
Line C will be nearly 5 miles long. It 
will cost $13,000,000. The project is 
particularly opportune at this moment, 
when it has been already decided to 
abolish the surface railways from the 
center of the city. With the abolition of 
the street cars, a so-called zone of 
silence is to be created in the center of 
the city. 



Manchester, England — Since bus traf- 
fic is eating into the tramway revenue 
the tramways committee has resolved 
to curtail the normal tram car building 
program and to reduce expenditure on 
tramway tracks. R. Stuart Pilcher, 
tramway manager, says that the number 
of tramway passengers during the year 
ended March 31, 1929, had decreased by 
more than 5,000,000 compared with the 
previous year, while the number of bus 
passengers had increased by about the 
same amount. Both undertakings are 
run by the municipality. Mr. Pilcher 
recommended improvement in the tram- 
way rolling stock, both as to seating and 
lighting. In a bill which the Man- 
chester Corporation is promoting it 
seeks authority to run buses beyond the 
city, to carry freight, to enter into work- 
ing agreements with other local authori- 
ties and with companies in reference to 
buses, and to substitute trolley vehicles 
or buses for existing tramways. Some 
of these powers are covered by the Gov- 
ernment's road traffic bill. 



Electric Railway Journal- 
115 



-February, 1930 



^112,000,000 in Subway 
Contracts in Year in New York 

The New York City Board of Trans- 
portation awarded more than $112,000,- 
000 in rapid transit construction con- 
tracts in 1929. Contracts for eleven sec- 
tions of the new city subway system and 
for equipment, cars, motors, signals, 
tracks and stations needed for its opera- 
tion accounted for $109,512,644 of this 
amount. The rest was allocated to work 
done on the B.-M.T. and I.R.T. sys- 
tems under their contracts with the citv. 

About $140,000,000 worth of contracts 
will be let during 1930. It is expected 
that within a short time, with the letting 
of the contract for the new bridge over 
the Gowanus Canal, an entire trunk line 
of the city's new subway system, except 
for a short link connection to the re- 
capturable B.-M.T. Culver line, will be 
under construction from Broadway and 
215th Street in Manhattan to the ocean 
front in Coney Island. The Manhattan 
division is now nearing completion, the 
spring of 1931 having been set as the 
date for operation of the line from the 
Harlem River to Chambers Street. 

According to the board the $5,000,000 
car shops, storage and repair yards at 
207th Street on the Harlem River water 
front will be finished before next spring. 



Columbia Abandonment Case 

Before Supreme Court 

The United States Supreme Court has 
consented to pass upon the suit between 
the state of South Carolina and the 
Columbia Railway Gas & Electric Com- 
pany which originated over the suspen- 
sion of railway operation in Columbia. 
The Supreme Court of South Carolina 
held that the franchise linked inseparably 
the operation of the electric street rail- 
way, light and power businesses — all pub- 
lic services — and that the railway service 
could not be separately abandoned. 
The company appealed to the Supreme 
Court from the decision of the state 
court. In their brief to the court re- 
questing that the appeal be dismissed, 
the state and the city authorities con- 
tend that they have never held that a 
unit charter requires railway operation 
at a loss. They contend, however, that 
the company has not made an honest 
effort to make the service pay. 



More Time Asked to Perfect 
Omaha Rerouting 

Growing dissatisfaction with the re- 
routing of the Omaha & Council Bluffs 
Street Railway System as a result of a 
traffic survey conducted by Ross W. 
Harris, resulted in a well-attended City 
Council meeting on Jan. 20, open to the 
public. Pressure was brought to have 
the Council at a forthcoming meeting 
instruct the company to restore the rout- 
ing in effect before Dec. 8. 

President Shannahan requested that 
90 days be allowed the company in 
which to make such changes as it found 
necessary to improve the new system, 
and also that the company's request for 
restricted parking on the main down- 
town streets during rush hours be 
granted. _ His request for the 90 days 
was denied, but the City Council passed 
an ordinance ordering only parallel 
parking on the main downtown thor- 
oughfares during rush hours This 



ordinance is to become operative on 
Feb. 1. Mr. Shannahan said: 

"In our opinion adequate and satisfac- 
tory service which will keep the present 
benefits can never be devised and sup- 
plied if changes are imposed upon the 
system each week. Attempts to give 
various groups of people exactly what 
they want, without reference to the rest 
of the system, will result eventually in 
no service to anybody." 

His position was that if the public 
was not disposed to permit the company 
successfully to work out the rerouted 
system, the only alternative was to re- 
turn to the old system. 



Rearranging Parked Area 
on Broadway 

W. G. Fullen, chairman of the New 
York Transit Commission, has proposed 
a plan for remodeling the park plots 
in Broadway, between Columbus Circle 
and 120th Street, to provide for inside 
entrance and exit on Broadway surface 
cars and elimination of the hazard to 
passengers presented by vehicular traffic 
in that thoroughfare. Police stanchions, 
forming safety zones for use of surface 
car passengers, have been found to af- 
ford inadequate protection. The Tran- 
sit Commission would cut down the 
park space in the centre of the roadway, 
with sidewalks 4i ft. wide installed on 
either side. Rearrangement of the doors 
on the_ surface cars, which officials of 
the Third Avenue Railway have agreed 
to make, will provide entrance and exit 
facilities on the "off" side. This new 
arrangement would permit several cars 
to stop in one block to take on and dis- 
charge passengers. 



Company Rejects Proposed 
Jacksonville Franchise 

Formal rejection by the Jacksonville 
Traction Company, Jacksonville, Fla., 
of the Miller draft of the proposed new 
franchise has been announced by J. P. 
Ingle, manager of the company. Mr. 
Ingle said in part: 

"The operations of this company for 
the year ended Sept. 30, 1929, resulted 
in a deficit of more than $60,000 after 
interest charges on its debt. No divi- 
dends have been paid on the preferred 
stock since 1916 and none on the com- 
mon stock since 1914. With the first 
mortgage bonds of the company matur- 
ing March 1, 1931, and its present fran- 
chise expiring Jan. 15, 1932, and with 
the present earnings, it will be impos- 
sible to provide new money to pay these 
bonds at maturity or to pay for improve- 
ments. Recognizing this situation, the 
company has sought honestly and 
earnestly for a new franchise fair to it 
and to the city. 

"The franchise recently prepared by 
the city attorney is even more burden- 
some than the present one. Under the 
proposed terms the company could not 
survive. 

"We desire earnestly to co-operate 
v^ith you in a fair solution of the situa- 
tion and will welcome an opportunity to 
negotiate with you on such a basis. We 
are convinced, however, that no solu- 
tion could be reached on any terms even 
approaching those in the proposed fran- 
chise and we therefore feel that an at- 
tempt to arrive at a workable franchise 
from such a base would be of no avail. 



"We hope sincerely that you will 
recognize the justice of our position and 
order a new draft prepared which will 
make possible the object we both wish 
to accomplish, namely, adequate service 
to the public on a fair basis." 



Attractive Transportation Guide 
to Binghamton 

The first issue of the "Triple Cities 
Transportation Guide," published by the 
Triple Cities Traction Company, Bingham- 
ton, N. Y., has been mailed to more than 
40,000 persons and concerns in the commu- 
nity, through the co-operation of the Bing- 
hamton Light, Heat & Power Company. In 
an introductory statement, attention is 
invited to the fact that the company serves 
a community of 130,000 population, has 
SO miles of trolley tracks, operates buses 
over routes aggregating 30 miles, and has 
a universal transfer system which allows 
patrons to complete their journeys by bus 
or trolley without additional cost. The 
guide lists all trolley and bus lines, with 
their transfer points, and gives time sched- 
ules. The last page of the folder carries 
a half-tone reproduction of a photograph 
of the first electric car in Binghamton, 
taken in July, 1886. - 



Status of Service-at-Cost 

at Rochester 

With the New York State Railways 
thrown into a receivership, status of the 
service-at-cost contract between the 
railways and the city of Rochester is 
doubtful. The contract would expire on 
Aug. 1, but under its provisions, in the 
event of a receivership, it becomes void 
unless the City Council passes special 
legislation to retain it. If the contract 
is declared void, a 5-cent fare auto- 
matically goes into effect under a strict 
interpretation of the terms of the docu- 
ment. Realizing that such a course 
would be ruinous to the company it is 
believed that the Council will authorize 
retention of the present contract until 
Aug. 1. It is expected that nego- 
tiations will be started at once 
toward drafting a new contract. A 
deadlock on all municipal legislation in 
1930 is threatened, with four regular and 
four insurgent Republicans, and the 
Mayor too ill to take part. 



No Hope for Seattle to Do 
Better on Purchase 

Councilman Blaine, head of the finance 
committee of the City Council of Seattle, 
^yash., who is on a visit to eastern 
cities, says that, in his opinion, Seattle 
has virtually no chance at this time of 
refinancing its municipal railway pur- 
chase debt with new bonds longer in 
life than those issued originally. He 
declares the two-year moratorium ar- 
ranged by Mayor Edwards with A. W. 
Leonard, president of the Puget Sound 
Power & Light Company, offers the 
city the only way out of the critical 
financial situation affecting the railway. 
During his absence, Mr. Blaine's col- 
leagues have passed an ordinance pro- 
viding for acceptance of the two years 
extension of time on the 1930 and 1931 
installments offered by Mr. Leonard. 
They are now considering passage of an 
alternative bill which would provide for 
actual retirement of the 1930 installment 
of $833,000 with new twenty-year bonds. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
116 



Renewal of Toledo Ordinance 
an Issue 

City officials of Toledo, Ohio, are study- 
ing the Milner ordinance, under which 
the Community Traction Company 
operates, in an effort to prevent any in- 
crease in the fare due to the provisions 
of the ordinance. After the expiration of 
the first ten years of its operation, the 
ordinance must be extended or an 
amortization fund be set up to retire 
the bonds and preferred stock of the 
Community Traction Company. Street 
Railway Commissioner E. L. Graumlich 
estimated that a fare increase of U cents 
over the present rates would be neces- 
sary to set up the required amortization 
fund. In the event that the Milner ordi- 
nance is extended, this amortization 
fund will not be necessary immediately. 
Martin S. Dodd, city law director, said 
the question of the necessity of submit- 
ting this ordinance to the people for 
renewal is debatable. 



Suggestions from Railway 
President on St. Louis Problems 

Stanley Clarke, president of the St. 
Louis Public Service Company, at a 
meeting of the Transportation Survey 
Commission, on Jan. 23 took issue with 
some of the recommendations made in 
the reports of R. F. Kelker, Jr., consult- 
ing engineer of the commission, relative 
to traffic improvements. At the sugges- 
tion of Mayor Miller, Mr. Clarke will 
submit a written report in which he will 
give his own suggestions for improving 
traffic conditions in the city. 

Mr. Clarke expressed the belief that 
Mr. Kelker was considering the question 
in terms of vehicles rather than of 
people. Wider streets and super-high- 
ways would serve to bring more 
vehicles into the congested districts, 
while the big problem was how to get 
more people into the business section. 
This could best be done by making it 
possible for street cars to move more 
freely. He said that street cars do not 
require wide streets if other vehicles are 
kept out of the way. 

Mr. Kelker concluded that subways 
downtown would not be of much benefit 
to street car riders, but Mr. Clarke held 
them of "immeasurable benefit." 

In discussing traffic conditions in the 
business district Mr. Clarke pointed out 
that 40 per cent of cars on the Olive 
Street lines frequently are rerouted at 
Twelfth Boulevard due to congestion 
east of that thoroughfare. 



South Shore Plans New Freight 
Terminal for South Bend 

Another step has been taken by the 
Chicago, South Shore & South Bend 
Railroad in its plan to eliminate freight 
traffic over the city streets in the 
recent acquisition of an lli-acre tract in 
South Bend for the construction of a 
new freight terminal. The acquisition 
and development of this property, ac- 
cording to plans of the line, will enable 
the company to offer shippers prompter 
and more convenient service, will 
eliminate the movement of freight over 
South Bend streets and will open up 
highly desirable sites for industries. 

The company will develop the_ site as 
a freight terminal and industrial site 
with inbound and outbound freight 



tracks and houses. All present buildings 
are to be reconditioned and made suit- 
able for the use of industrial tenants. 
The property is to be provided with ade- 
quate and suitable team tracks, and two 
large warehouses are to be reconditioned 
for use as inbound and outbound freight 
houses. 

When the new terminal is completed, 
the South Shore Line will abandon its 
present freight terminal on LaSalle 
Street, and will discontinue the present 
method of handling less-than-carload 
freight in tractor-trailers <jver South 
Bond Street from the old freight house 
at Orange and Olive Streets to the 
LaSalle terminal. 

Growth in freight business also has 
necessitated enlarging the South Shore 
Line's freight yard at Burnham, 111. At 
the present time the yard has a capacity 
of 110 cars on two tracks. When the 
added trackage is installed, the yard 
capacity will be 550 cars. The project 
includes installation of two new main 
line tracks on the north side, the use of 
the present main line tracks for freight 
service and the addition of a fifth freight 
track. The yard is used for the classi- 
fication of empty cars, to facilitate de- 
livery and movement. Work on this 
project is now 60 per cent completed. 



Abandonments in Indiana 

Arthur W. Brady, receiver for the 
Union Traction Company of Indiana, 
has announced that service on the 



Muncie-Union City division will be dis- 
continued on Feb. 8, and on the Ander- 
son - Middletown division, Feb. 28. 
Authority for abandonment of the two 
lines was granted on Jan. 23 by Judge 
Morrow in the Madison County Circuit 
Court. The Public Service Commis- 
sion approved the abandonment several 
months ago. The Muncie-Union City 
line is 32.6 miles long and the Anderson- 
Middletown division, 9.6 miles. Mr. 
Brady said: 

"The Muncie-Union City interurban 
line has been a factor of importance in 
the social and business life of the com- 
munities it serves for a quarter of a 
century, and it is with regret and re- 
luctance that the decision to terminate 
has been reached. That determination 
has been forced by conditions beyond 
the control of the company. In addition 
to the losses caused all railway lines by 
the constantly increasing use of auto- 
mobiles, this division has suffered 
acutely from the abandonment of the 
old Union City-Dayton line, with which 
for many years it interchanged a con- 
siderable volume of business. The large 
deficits due to these causes it has proved 
impossible to overcome through fare 
revisions, improved service or other 
means." 

Mr. Brady expressed appreciation for 
the efforts recently made by business 
men in communities along the line to 
canvass their towns for enough freight 
traffic to put the line on a profitable 
basis and thus forestall abandonment of 
the service. 



One-Man Car Case Won 

by Shreveport Railways 



As noted in Electric Railway Jour- 
nal News for Jan. 18, it has been in- 
dicated in a report of the District 
Court of the United States for the 
Western District of Louisiana, dated 
Jan. 6, in the suit in equity of the 
Shreveport Railways vs. City of Shreve- 
port to enjoin the enforcement of an 
ordinance requiring two men on each 
street car, that the decree will insure the 
use of one-man cars: "the type of car 
which will give the greatest safety and 
efficiency." The case is important not 
only in its bearing on the one-man 
ordinance, but also because the power 
of the police to enforce a requirement of 
this kind was questioned. The report 
was signed by District Judge Ben C. 
Dawkins. It states in part: 

No public service commission In any state 
now refuses to permit the use of one-man 
safety cars. Conditions are altogether ait- 
(erent from what they were in 1917, when 
the Supreme Court rendered a decision In 
the Sullivan case favorable to two-man 
operation. Then the one-man car was m 
its experimental stage; now the safety car 
appears as safe as those operated with 
two men. , ^ ,» ,■ 

A municipality's right under its police 
power to interfere In matters of this kind 
exists only when necessary to the safety 
and convenience of the public. The philos- 
ophy of our institutions warrants reason- 
able regulations only, and there must be 
some real justification for the exercise of 
the power. , ., , 

Street cars appear to be an essential 
means of transportation for a large portion 
of the population of cities and the loss of 
such service would be a serious handicap 
to a growing city. On the whole, I believe 
the refusal to allow the use of one-man 
cars of the latest type, at least until they 
can be properly tested, In the light of the 
proved experience of other cities, is arbi- 
trary and amounts to a taking of the rail- 
way's property without due process of law, 



results In confiscation, and the enforce- 
ment of the ordinances complained of will 
be enjoined. 

The comments of Judge Dawkins were 
preceded by a lengthy report of a master. 
Among his findings, included in the re- 
port, are : 

That the city ordinances existed and 
would be enforced as alleged, unless the 
court intervenes ; that the net return upon 
the present value of the railway was ap- 
proximately 0.0243 per cent; that the prop- 
erty was economically managed ; that oper- 
ating expense, exclusive of depreciation and 
taxes, was 0.2323 cent per car-mile, as 
compared to 0.271 cent for 24 similar com- 
panies ; that no dividends have been paid 
since 1923 ; that one-man operation will 
effect a saving of $93,922 a year In wages, 
and that it would not be necessary to dis- 
charge any employees In making the 
change. 

That, from the evidentiary facts, the one- 
man car, a modern safety car equipped with 
all the automatic safety devices, has been 
shown by a clear preponderance of the 
testimony to be safer than its predecessor, 
the two-man car. 

That the speed and schedules of street 
car systems have been Increased under one- 
man operation, that companies are able to 
operate more cars, that wages have been 
increased, and that operators become more 
efficient and better satisfied. 

That since 1917 no public service com- 
mission has refused to permit the operation 
of one-man cars, and since 1924, no com- 
mission has limited the right to use one- 
man cars subject to any particular condi- 
tions. 

The court reserved to the defendants 
the right to apply for a modification of 
the decree should the conditions warrant. 

The case for the company was most 
ably presented by W H. Armbrecht of 
Armbrecht, Hand & Twitty, Mobile, 



Ala., and A. B. 
Randolph, Rendell 
port, La. 



Freyer of Wis., 
& Freyer, Shreve- 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
117 



Southern Equipment Men 

Analyze Maintenance Practices 



No TYPE of equipment escaped 
analysis at the meeting of the 
Electric Railway Association of Equip- 
ment Men, Southern Properties, held 
at Birmingham, Ala., on Jan. 27, 28 and 
29. All were covered in the papers 
presented, either from the standpoint of 
their maintenance or their application. 
Papers on maintenance subjects covered 
armature room tests, car lubrication and 
inspection. Other papers covered a 
variety of subjects, including the new 
Pittsburgh car. 

Practically all of the second day was 
devoted to the discussion of the associa- 
tion's questionnaire. A total of S3 live 
questions were entered and each pro- 
voked many valuable ideas. 

Every detail of Pittsburgh's new 
aluminum car was given by D. H. Bell, 
engineer of equipment Pittsburgh Rail- 
ways, in the first paper presented. In 
introducing his subject Mr. Bell said: 

"There undoubtedly exists in the elec- 
tric railway industry today the economic 
need for a new vehicle to supersede the 
present street car. The need is para- 
mount on account of the increasing 
competition of the private automobile 
and the motor coach. Whether this new 
vehicle will operate on the rails or rub- 
ber tires is at present impossible to de- 
termine because of the many variable 
factors. There are, however, certain 
fundamental characteristics which any 
new vehicle should embody if it hopes 
to find its place and be adopted by the 
electric railways." 

An article describing the Pittsburgh 
car appeared in the Journal for July, 1929. 

Q. W. Hershey, supervisor of mainte- 
nance sales Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company, in his talk on 
co-operation between operator and 
manufacturer, declared that "Probably 
no other businesses in the world are so 
intimately interdependent as are the 
electrical equipment manufacturer and 
the operator utilizing this equipment in 
public service." 

According to Perkins Prewitt man- 
aging director Birmingham Safety Coun- 
cil "everything material wears out, and 
the only way to prevent accidents from 
equipment failures is to set a high stand- 
ard of maintenance and accompany this 
character of work with frequent inspec- 
tions." 

Some of the tests more commonly used 
in the armature room and the merits of 
each were outlined by R. S. Beers, 
General Electric Company. 

"Car Lubrication" was the subject of 
a paper prepared by A. T. Clark, super- 
intendent of rolling stock and shops 
United Railways & Electric Company, 
Baltimore. Summarizing the results of 
more than three years of use of a new 
lubrication, Mr. Clark stated: 

"Power consumption has been reduced 
and during the winter months shows 
only a slight increase over the summer 
months, improved lubrication as borne 
out by tests has resulted, cars drift and 
coast as never before due to better 
lubrication and greater air-brake piston 
travel, and the total cost of oils, wool 
waste and bearings on the car-mile basis 
is lower todaj' than it was in 1926, not- 



withstanding the use today of higher 
cost oil and all wool waste." 

"The urban transportation industry is 
confronted with a form of competition 
which came into being gradually and 
insidiously but which today is tre- 
mendously effective. I refer to the 
private automobile." With this intro- 
duction the paper on motor bus trans- 
portation, prepared by C. S. Sale, 
president of the American Car & 
Foundry Motors Company, and pre- 
sented by L. H. Hyneman, launched 
into an analysis of recent bus develop- 
ments. Mr. Sale referred to the diffi- 
culties surrounding rail operation in 
cities of from 50,000 to 75,000 in- 
habitants, and added that buses in many 
cases would reduce operating expenses 
and build up riding. The speaker also 
discussed the use of trackless trolleys 
for certain lines. 

That close inspection, other than re- 
ducing maintenance cost, is nothing 
more or less than a necessary part of 
meeting the ever present public demand 
for better service was the key thought 
expressed by J. J. 'Vaughan. master me- 
chanic Memphis Street Railway, in a 
paper on inspection. 

"A New Era in Street Car Mechanics 



and Operation" was the subject of a 
paper by N. R. Brownyer, railway engi- 
neer Timken-Detroit Axle Company, 
presented by H. J. Lidkea. "There has 
been much conversation on the subject 
of modernization in rolling stock," Mr. 
Brownyer stated, "but too often this led 
only to a revision in paint schemes, 
floor coverings or seat styles, while im- 
provements in the mechanics were in- 
variably neglected." Mr. Brown- 
yer outlined in detail the develop- 
ment of the new Timken-Detroit worm- 
drive truck and the features of the truck 
designed to reduce noise, lower main- 
tenance cost, increase efficiency, reduce 
the unsprung weight, increase braking 
rates and improve the performance. 

In discussing the possibilities of the 
electric coach, Walter S. Rainville, 
equipment engineer. New Orleans Pub- 
lic Service, Inc., said: 

"We feel that its future is assured 
because it is speedy, safe, comfortable, 
dependable, economical and modern in 
every respect. It is improbable that the 
electric coach will displace the street car 
for handling mass transportation on 
heavy lines, but there are lines on which 
travel is light, where the coach can be 
substituted profitably. It should also 
find application in • extensions to exist- 
ing lines where additional track would 
involve heavy first costs. 

Officers were re-elected at the open- 
ing of the third day. They are: A. Taur- 
man, president; W. H. McAloney, vice- 
president, and L. O. Eiflfert, secretary- 
treasurer. 



Conspectus of Indexes for January, 1930 

Compiled for Publication In Electric Railway Journal by 

ALBERT S. BICHET 

Electric Railway Engineer, 'Worcester, Mass. 



Street Railway Fares* 

1913 



4.84 



Electric Railway Materials* 

1913 = 100 



Electric Railway Wages* 

1913 



100 



Electric Ry. Construction Cost 

Am. Elec. Ry. Atsn. 1913 - 100 



General Construction Cost 

Eng'g News-Record 1913- 100 



Wholesale Commodities 

U. S. Bur. Labor Stat. 1926 • 



100 



Wholesale Commodities 

BradBtreet 1913 < 



9.21 



Retail Food 

U. S. Bur. Labor Stat. 



1913 



100 



Cost of Living 

Nat. Ind. Conf. Board 



1914 - 100 



Industrial Activity 

Eleo. World, kw.-hr. 1 923-25 



100 



Bank Clearings 

Outside N. Y. City 



1926 - 100 



Business Failures 

Number 

Liabilitiee, MOliona of Dollars 



Latest 



Jan., 1930 

7.85 



Jan., 1930 
144.4 



Jan., 1930 

231.3 



Jan., 1930 

204.5 



Jan., 1930 

209.0 



Dec., 1929 
94.2 



Jan., 1930 

11.68 



Dec, 1929 
158.0 



Dec 1929 

162.0 



Dec, 1929 
116.4 



Dec, 1929 

98.6 



Dec, 1929 

1827 

68.33 



Month 
Ago 



Dec, 1929 

7.78 



Dec, 1929 
144.9 



Dec, 1929 
231.1 



Dec, 1929 
205.1 



Dec, 1929 
209.5 



Nov., 1929 
94.4 



Dec, 1929 
12.24 



Nov., 1929 
159.7 



Nov., 1929 

163.3 



Nov., 1929 
122.9 



Nov., 1929 
111.2 



Nov., 1929 

1536 

53.86 



Year 
Ago 



Jan., 1929 
7.71 



Jan., 1929 

145.3 



Jan., 1929 
229.9 



Jan.. 1929 

204.5 



Jan.. 1929 

209.4 



Dec, 1928 
96.7 



Jan., 1929 
12.% 



Dec, 1928 
155.8 



Dec, 1928 
162.1 



Dec, 1928 
127.3 



Dec, 1928 
106.6 



Dec, 1928 

1673 

47.04 



Last Five Years 



High 



Jan., 1930 

7.85 



Dec, 1926 
159.2 



Jan., 1930 
231.3 



Nov., 1928 
205.7 



Jan., 1927 

211.5 



Nov., 1925 
104.5 



Dec, 1925 
14.41 



Nov., 1925 
167.1 



Nov., 1925 
171.8 



Feb., 1929 
140.4 



Oct., 1929 
111.8 



July, 1929 

1581 

102.09 



Low 



Jan., 1925 
7.24 



Feb., 1928 
139.5 



Jan., 1925 

221.0 



July, 1929 

199.0 



Nov., 1927 
202.0 



Apr., 1927 
93.7 



Jan., 1930 

11.68 



Apr., 1925 
150.8 



Apr., 1929 

159.3 



Aug., 1925 
94.3 



Nov., 1926 
94.0 



Sept., 1928 
1348 

23 13 



♦The three index numbers marked with an asterisk railway operation and maintenance, weighted accord- 
are computed by Mr. Richey, as follows: Fares index ing to average use of euch materials. Wages index is 
is average street railway fare in all United States relative average maximum hourly wage of motormen, 
cities with a population of 50,000 or over except New conductors and operators on 1 36 of the largest street 
York City, and weighted according to population, and interurban railways operated in the United 
Street Railway Materials index is relative average States, weighted according to the number of such men 
price of materials (including fuel) used in street employed on these roads. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
118 



PERSONAL MENTION 



L. G. Tighe, Assistant General 

Manager at Akron, Heads C.E«R» A. 



Lawrence G. Tighe was elected presi- 
dent of the Central Electric Railway 
Association at a meeting held in Cleve- 
land on Jan. 24. He is a director and 
assistant general manager of the North- 
ern Ohio Power & Light Company, 
Akron, Ohio, with which he has been 
connected since 1916. He went from 
the Consumers Power Company in 
Michigan to Akron as general super- 
intendent of production and distribution 
of the light and power division of the 
company. At that time the system in 
Akron was in a run-down condition. 
The equipment was not in good shape 




L. G. Tighe 

and the service was decidedly unsatis- 
factory. Mr. Tighe made a careful 
survey of the situation, and worked out 
methods whereby the system was gradu- 
ally brought up to its present state of 
efficiency. In recognition of that work, 
he was made assistant general manager 
of the company in January, 1925. 

Mr. Tighe was elected to the board 
of directors of the company at Akron 
in 1929 to take the place of Charles 
Currie, who died a short time before. 
Since his elevation to the position of 
assistant general manager, he has taken 
over the major part of the details con- 
nected with the operation of both the 
light and power division and the trans- 
portation division of the company. 

The new president of the Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association was born in 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y., on Oct. 10, 1886. 
He attended school in Schenectady but 
during the summer months he lived on 
his grandfather's farm near Saratoga. 
There he harbored the notion that he 
would like to become a real farmer. A 
few years in school aroused his interest 
in electricity with a consequent subjuga- 
tion of the impulse to farm it. When 
he finished school, he secured employ- 
ment in the works of the General Elec- 
tric Company at Schenectady. He stuck 
to the business and studied nights. In 
a few years the company sent him to its 
branch in Detroit where he remained sev- 
eral years and was then promoted to 
a position in the Jackson, Mich., plant. 
He remained with the General Electric 



Company until 1913 when he became 
connected with the Consumers Power 
Company in Jackson, controlled by 
Hodenpyl, Hardy & Company. 

Mr. Tighe is nothing if not persistent. 
He has never put the farm idea com- 
pletely out of his mind. So far, however, 
the nearest he has come to his original 
desire to become a farmer is to become 
the owner of some three acres of land 
just outside the city limits of Akron. 
There he has his home. He is very 
much interested in making this country 
place attractive and is a grower of 
flowers and shrubs. His chief recrea- 
tional diversion is golf. He is a mem- 
ber of the Elks, Fairlawn Golf, City and 
Kiwanis clubs. He is fond of music 
and has a reasonably good voice. He is 
known as a "bear for work" and is hap- 
piest when he is engrossed in analysing 
a knotty problem. 



F. H. Dohany on Detroit 
Commission 

Additional changes are announced in 
the personnel of the Detroit Street Rail- 
way Commission, charged with the re- 
sponsibility of operating Detroit's mu- 
nicipal street railway and bus lines. John 
J. Gorman has resigned from the com- 
mission and Frank H. Dohany has been 
appointed by Mayor Bowles to succeed 
him. Two months ago G. Ogden Ellis 
resigned as president of the commission. 
Commissioner John J. Barium succeeded 
him in that post. It is expected that 
Frank Couzens, successor on the board 
to Mr. Ellis, will be made vice-president 
of that body. 

Mr. Gorman was appointed during the 
administration of John W. Smith. In a 
formal letter to the Mayor, Mr. Gorman 
said that he wished to give up his com- 
missionship last fall, but at the time 
Mr. Barium, now president of the body, 
urged him to remain until the new 
Mayor took office. When he accepted 
the appointment 2i years ago Mr. Gor- 
man had just retired from active busi- 
ness and, having no immediate plans, 
welcomed the opportunity of rendering 
a public service. However, in the past 
year his mortgage banking business has 
grown to such proportions that it now 
requires all his time and attention. It 
will be recalled that last fall he presented 
a definite plan for the creation of a 
crosstown elevated highway over the 
right-of-way of the railroads. 

In addition to conducting an active 
law practice, Mr. Dohany, the new mem- 
ber of the commission, is a director 
of the American State Bank, a director 
and vice-president of the American Fort 
Street Company and president of the 
Southington Woods Company. He was 
born in Southfield, Oakland County, 55 
years ago. He acquired his education 
at the state normal school at Ypsilanti 
and the Detroit College of Law. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1895. 



G. W. Jones in Important Post 
in Brooklyn 

George W. Jones, who has been vice- 
president of the Brooklyn & Queens 
Transit Corporation since July 1, 1929, 
and who, prior to that time, was vice- 
president and treasurer of the Brooklyn 
City Railroad, was appointed vice-presi- 
dent also of the Brooklyn-Manhattan 
Transit Corporation, the New York 
Rapid Transit Corporation and the Wil- 
liamsburgh Power Plant Corporation, on 
Jan. 1, 1930. As indicated briefly in the 
Electric Railway Journal previously 
Mr. Jones will have charge of all con- 
tracts for materials and supplies for the 
four companies and will have direct 
charge of the purchasing department. 

Mr. Jones is a veteran of the Spanish- 
American War and after the war was 
connected with the Department of the 
Interior of the Insular Government of 
I'orto Rico for nine years. This de- 
partment had charge of all public utili- 
ties, public lands, public buildings, pub- 
lic roads and the telegraph system. 




G. W. Jones 

During his last two years on the island, 
Mr. Jones was assistant commissioner 
of the interior for Porto Rico. 

After returning to the United States, 
Mr. Jones was a member of the staff 
of the J. G. White Company for several 
years. Subsequently he joined the en- 
gineering firm of Sanderson & Porter. 
When the Brooklyn City Railroad re- 
sumed independent operation on Oct. 19, 
1919, Mr. Jones was elected treasurer 
and five years later was also made vice- 
president. On July 1, 1929, he became 
vice-president of the Brooklyn & Queens 
Transit Corporation at the consolidation 
of the various B.-M.T. surface operat- 
ing companies and the Brooklyn City 
Railroad into the Brooklyn & Queens 
Transit Corporation. 

-f 

Added Responsibility for H. W. 

Godfrey With P.R.T. 

H. W. Godfrey, superintendent of in- 
struction of the Surface Lines of the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa., has been appointed 
acting superintendent of instruction of 
the surface lines, buses and cabs, report- 
ing to R. F. Tyson, vice-president. 

F. G. Suria has been appointed as- 
sistant superintendent of instruction. 
The following chief instructors will be 
continued: J. W. Hall, chief instructor 
for the surface lines. F. Humphreys, 
chief instructor for the buses, S. Ed- 
wards, chief instructor for the cabs. 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1930 
119 



Miss Caroline Hein Secretary 

in Cincinnati 

Miss Caroline Hein has been elected 
secretary of the Cincinnati Street Rail- 
way, Cincinnati, Ohio, to succeed Joseph 
Nicholson, who died on Nov. 19, 1929. 
Miss Hein started her railway career in 
December, 1917, as secretary to Walter 
A. Draper when he was vice-president 
of the Cincinnati Traction Company. 
A few years later she was made assist- 
ant secretary of that company and of 
the Ohio Traction Company. 

When the Cincinnati Street Railway 
took over the operation of the street 
cars in Cincinnati in November, 1925, 
Miss Hein was retained as assistant 
secretary of the reorganized operating 
company. She served in that position 
up to her present promotion. She also 
acted as librarian for the railway and 
has established one of the best industrial 
libraries in Cincinnati. 



F. P. Royce Retires from 
Stone & Webster 

Frederick P. Royce is retiring as a 
vice-president of Stone & Webster, Inc., 
Boston. For the past two years Mr. 
Royce has devoted his time and atten- 
tion to executive matters, financial prob- 
lems and special studies for Stone & 
Webster, Inc. During 1919, in connec- 
tion with Stone & Webster activities in 
the railway situation in New York, he 
acted as general manager for the re- 
ceiver of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company, since succeeded by the Brook- 
lyn - Manhattan Transit Corporation, 
and assisted in examining the situation 
on the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company and advising about it. On 
Jan. 1, 1920, he became a partner in 
Stone & Webster in general charge of 
the securities division and for a year 
or more continued in advisory work in 
connection with the railway situation in 
New York. When Stone & Webster 
was incorporated, July 1, 1920, Mr. 
Royce became vice-president and con- 
tinued in charge of the securities di- 
vision until the firm of Stone & Webster 
& Blodgett was incorporated in January, 
1927. 

Mr. Royce became associated with 
Stone & Webster in 1909, acting first as 
division manager in the Management 
Association in charge of some of the 
New England companies, and shortly 
afterwards as vice-president of the 
management division, continuing with 
the New England companies, also 
the Minneapolis company, the two 
Houghton companies, and Paducah. He 
was also actively engaged in the de- 
velopment of new business. 

Howard L. Rogers and Frederick S. 
Pratt also are retiring as vice-presidents 
of Stone & Webster, Inc. 



C. M. Shelter Heads 

Stark Electric 

Curtis M. Shetler, Canton, Ohio, gen- 
eral counsel for the Suburban Light & 
Power Company and the Utilities Serv- 
ice Corporation, has been elected presi- 
dent of the Stark Electric Railroad. Mr. 
Shetler succeeds W. E. Davis, who has 
retired from the directorate of the com- 
pany. Other officers are Everett W. 
Sweezy, vice-president; C. E. Sperow, 
vice-president and general manager; O. 



K. Ayers, treasurer and assistant general 
manager and W. H. Grimes, secretary 
and auditor. At the same time the ap- 
pointment of Mr. Ayers as district 
manager for the Alliance division of the 
Suburban Light & Power Company was 
made public. He succeeds C. A. 
Thomas, chief engineer, who will devote 
his entire time to engineering work. 

The Stark Electric Railroad, a 
branch of the Utilities Service Corpora- 
tion, operates between Canton and 
Salem, a distance of 35 miles. Head- 
quarters are in Alliance. 



J. C. Newman Way Engineer 
at Richmond 

J. C. Newman was transferred from 
Norfolk to Richmond on Jan. 1, as engi- 
neer of maintenance of way for the Vir- 
ginia Electric & Power Company. Mr. 
Newman has been in charge of track 
maintenance on the Norfolk properties 
for several years. 




J. C. Newman 

Before coming to Virginia, he was 
engaged for three years by the Public 
Service Commission of New York, being 
in charge of track alignment and grades 
on the construction of rapid transit lines 
in New York City . 

He is a native Kentuckian and was 
graduated from the University of Ken- 
tucky. After finishing school, he was 
with an oil company in Illinois for a 
short while and later was engaged on 
special work design for the Lorain Steel 
Company at Johnstown, Pa. 

W. A. Robertson Appointed 
to Fort Worth 

W. A. Robertson, general superin- 
tendent of the Jacksonville Traction 
Company, Jacksonville, Fla., has been 
made general superintendent of the 
Northern Texas Traction Company at 
Fort Worth, Tex. Mr. Robertson went 
to Jacksonville 5 years ago from Beau- 
mont, Tex., where he was superintend- 
ent of railways for the Eastern Texas 
Electric Company. Prior to his work 
in Beaumont, he was superintendent of 
transportation for the Galveston- 
Houston Electric Company, operating 
an interurban between Galveston and 
Houston. Eight years before becoming 
connected with the interurban, he was 
employed by the Houston Electric Com- 
pany, in various capacities. He has been 
connected with companies operated by 
Stone & Webster, Inc., for nearly 
twenty years. 



Messrs. Burch and McWethy 
Consulting Engineers 

Edward P. Burch, for many years a 
consulting engineer of Minneapolis, and 
Harold E. McWethy, for the past 
three years valuation engineer of the 
Twin City Rapid Transit Company of 
Minneapolis, have become associated as 
consultants and analysts with offices in 
the Foshay Tower in Minneapolis. 

Mr. Burch has been engaged for 
more than 30 years as consultant for 
many railways, railroads, and power 
companies, on operation, valuation and 
consolidation questions, and in rate 
cases, at Minneapolis, Seattle and 
Everett, Detroit, and Cleveland. He is 
a director of the Minneapolis, Northfield 
& Southern Railway, and the receiver of 
the Minneapolis, Anoka & Cuyuna 
Range Railway. His book, "Electric 
Traction for Railway Trains," has been 
used as a text and reference work in 
many universities. 

Mr. McWethy has had a broad ex- 
perience in public utility valuation and 
statistical research. Following his gradu- 
ation from the University of Wisconsin 
Engineering College in 1909, he spent 
two years as an -apprentice with the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company. The next nine years he 
served as valuation engineer and case 
investigator for the Railroad Commis- 
sion of Wisconsin. Then followed two 
years of public utility valuation work 
in Nashville, Philadelphia, and in the 
state of Mississippi, and four years as 
street railway engineer of the Minnesota 
Railroad and Warehouse Commission 
before he became valuation engineer for 
the Twin City properties. 

Henry Bucher in Charge of 
Midland Properties 

Announcement has been made by 
Robert M. Feustel, executive head of 
the Midland United Company, that the 
operation of the railway properties in 
Indiana controlled by that company 
would be co-ordinated under Henry 
Bucher, Fort Wayne, as general railway 
executive. The company operates power, 
light, railway and gas utilities in north- 
ern Indiana, particularly in the eastern 
section of the state. 

Mr. Bucher has been railway man- 
ager of the Indiana Service Corporation 
for the last six years. He also had been 
manager of the Fort Wayne division of 
the Indiana Service Corporation. Mr. 
Bucher's office will be in Indianapolis. 
The position of division manager will 
be filled by H. E. Vordermark, who 
has been treasurer of the Indiana Serv- 
ice Corporation for many years and who 
for the last few years also has been 
vice-president. 

If the petition of the InsuU-controlled 
Central Indiana Power Company for a 
merger with the Terre Haute, In- 
dianapolis & Eastern Traction Company 
and the Terre Haute Traction & Light 
Company should be approved by the 
Indiana Public Service Commission, the 
direction of all the railways would be 
under the divisional management of Mr. 
Bucher. 

The Midland Company, an Insull 
holding company operating extensive 
properties in Indiana, also has made 
bids with bondholders for the purchase 
of control of the Union Traction Com- 
pany of Indiana, now in receivership. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
120 



E. K. Miles in Charge 
in Syracuse 

Earl K. Miles has mounted the business 
ladder from motorman to general manager 
of the Syracuse lines of the New York 
State Railways, to which post he was 
named on Dec. 23, at the same time that 
B. E. Tilton, vice-president and general 
manager of the system, was elected presi- 
dent of the company. Mr. Miles attended 
school at Adams and later at Albany Busi- 
ness College. His first real job was as a 
motorman in Syracuse. In 1916 he left 
the railway to become a mail clerk. On 
Jan. 1, 1919, he returned to the railway. 
The second step upward came in June, 
1922, when he was appointed division super- 
ifitendent of the Tallman division. Three 
years later he was made assistant to the 
general superintendent and shortly there- 
after was made superintendent of trans- 
portation. 



Jim Malone Assistant to A, D. 
McWhorter in Memphis 

Jim Malone — no one in Memphis 
would think of calling him anything 
else — has been appointed assistant to 
A. D. McWhorter in directing transporta- 
tion of the Memphis Street Railway, 
Memphis, Tenn. This step is a distinct 
promotion for Jim, and comes in acknowl- 
edgment of his capable work during the 
period that he has been associated with 
the office of Mr. McWhorter. 

Mr. McWhorter says that Jim knows 
every angle of street railway transporta- 
tion by experience. He also emphasized 
Jim's dependability at doing every job, 
large or small, committed to him. As 
general superintendent Mr. McWhorter 
has charge of two other departments 
besides transportation. Jim's duties, 
however, are as assistant to the trans- 
portation department. 

Jim became connected with the com- 
pany on Feb. 13, 1921, as traffic checker 
in the schedule department and has 
worked there in different capacities 
since that time. After completing a 
course in the Memphis Law School at 
night, he passed his bar examinations in 
June, 1929. 

This fall when instructors for the ruipn 
were being chosen to conduct educa- 
tional classes, Jim was selected as one 
of them and in this work he has demon- 
strated his faithfulness and ability. 



B. F. Braheney Elected 
Vice-President 

Bernard F. Braheney, elected vice-presi- 
dent in charge of accounting of the Byl- 
lesby Engineering Management Corpora- 
tion, Chicago, 111., has been with the Byl- 
lesby organization since 1910. He started 
as a clerk in the auditing department of the 
Northern States Power Company at Still- 
water, Minn. During the latter part of 
1910 and 1911 he served as bookkeeper of 
the South St. Paul office and the White 
Bear, Minn., office of the Northern States 
Power Company. In 1912 he was pay- 
master of the Appalachian Power Company 
at Bluefield, W. Va., and later in the year 
was bookkeeper of the Louisville Gas & 
Electric Company. 

In 1913 Mr. Braheney was made ac- 
countant of the Minneapolis General Elec- 
tric Company in the Northern States Power 
Company system, and in 1915 he became 



traveling auditor of the company. In 1915 
he was appointed assistant general auditor 
of the Northern States Power Company, 
which position he held until 1920 when he 
was made assistant general auditor of the 
Byllesby Engineering & Management Cor- 
poration with headquarters in Chicago. 
Since 1923 he has been general auditor of 
the company. 

-f 

F. K. Baker in Important State 

Post in West 

Fred K. Baker, Everett, Wash., is the 
newly appointed head of the Department 
of Public Works for the state of Wash- 
ington. This body regulates bus trans- 
portation as well as motor freight in 
that state, grants all certificates, passes 
on transfers and extensions, and makes 
rulings which have an important bear- 
ing on tht industry. Mr. Baker has 
served since last August as supervisor 
of transportation, but late in December 
gave up that post, and upon the resigna- 
tion of Judge Denney, who was then 
director, Mr. Baker was appointed to 
that post. 

■f 

Charles F. Scott Awarded the 
Edison Medal 

The Edison Medal of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers has 
been awarded to Prof. Charles F. Scott, 
New Haven, Conn., "for his contribu- 
tions to the science and art of polyphase 
transmission of electrical energy." 

The Edison Medal was founded by as- 
sociates and friends of Thomas A. Edi- 
son, and is awarded annually for "meri- 
torious achievement in electrical science, 
electrical engineering, or the electrical 
arts," by a committee consisting of 24 
members of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. 

Charles F. Scott is professor of elec- 
trical engineering at Yale University. 
He was born at Athens, Ohio, on Sept. 
19, 1864. He was educated at Ohio 
University in Athens, the Ohio State 
University, Columbus, from which he 
graduated in 1885, and Johns Hopkins 
University, where he engaged in grad- 
uate study for more than a year. 



H. O. Crews in New Post 

Halbert O. Crews, for seven years di- 
rector of public relations for the 
Chicago Surface Lines, was recently ap- 
pointed public administrator for Cook 
County by Governor Emmerson. He 
was sworn in on Jan. 24 and at once as- 
sumed charge of the office. Before his 
association with the Chicago Surface 
Lines, Mr. Crews was managing editor 
of a paper in Springfield, 111. He was 
also at one time superintendent of de- 
partmental reports under Governor 
Lowden of Illinois. 



W. W. Weddle Terre Haute 

Roadmaster 

W. W. Weddle, formerly assistant road- 
master of the Terre Haute, Indianapolis 
& Eastern Traction Company, Indianapolis, 
Ind., was promoted on Jan. 7 to the position 
of roadmaster. He succeeded John 
O'Laughlin, deceased. Mr. Weddle started 
work with the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 
Eastern Traction Company as a section 



laborer in 1907. He was made foreman in 
1912, supervisor in 1921 and assistant road- 
master in 1924. 



L. H. Seagrave Chairman of 
United States Electric Power 

Louis H. Seagrave, chairman of the 
board of the United States Electric 
Power Corporation, has been elected 
chairman of the board of the Standard 
Power & Light Corporation, which will 
control the Standard Gas & Electric 
Company. Victor Emanuel, president of 
United States Electric Power, has been 
elected president of Standard Power 
& Light. John J. O'Brien continues as 
president of Standard Gas & Electric. 
No changes will be made in the officers 
of the latter company, whose stock- 
holders also have approved the reorgani- 
zation plan announced at the end of 
last year. 

J. I. Foster in New Memphis Post 

J. I. Foster, for several years super- 
intendent of transportation with the 
Memphis Street Railway, Memphis, 
Tenn., h^s been appointed to direct the 
work of the welfare department, just 
established to provide a means by which 
the company may manifest its interest 
in the welfare of all employees. 

Mr. Foster knows more employees 
probably than any other official of the 
organization. He has given much of 
his time in the past to visiting the homes 
where sickness or distress have come. 

The company management considers 
the work so important and his own fit- 
ness for it so apt, that his transfer to 
it is to be regarded in the light of a 
promotion. 

Mr. Foster began his railway career 
in Chattanooga in 1883. In 1900 when 
the Memphis company desired to secure 
an active, dependable man to assist the 
general superintendent, Mr. Foster was 
recommended, and he came to Memphis 
at that time as the assistant to Frank 
Smith. 

R, B. Stearns Massachusetts 
Northeastern Receiver 

Federal Judge Brewster has appointed 
Robert B. Stearns of Boston receiver for 
the Massachusetts Northeastern Street 
Railway, Haverhill, Mass., operating more 
than 100 miles of electric railway. He 
was bonded for $35,000. Mr. Stearns was 
formerly vice-president, general manager 
and treasurer of the Eastern Massachusetts 
Street Railway, from which he withdrew 
as ar officer in January, 1929, after more 
than ten years of service with the com- 
pany. 

E. A. Mitchell, formerly in charge of 
taxicab inspection in the Public Utilities 
Department, has been appointed senior 
street railway inspector, and assistant to 
George B. Avery, superintendent of pub- 
lic utilities, Seattle, Wash. 
■f 

W. L. O'Brien has been appointed 
superintendent of transportation and 
traffic of the Rochester, Lockport & 
Buffalo Railway, Rochester, N. Y., suc- 
ceeding A. Blaine Miles, resigned. R. 
W. Travisee has been appointed assist- 
ant superintendent of transportation and 
traffic, succeeding W. L. O'Brien, 
promoted. 



Electric Railway Joxtrnal — February, 1930 
121 



OBITUARY 



A. T. Spencer 



Albert T. Spencer, general superin- 
tendent of construction and maintenance, 
Montreal Tramways, died at his home 
on Jan. 26, He had been ill about two 
months. 

Probably the best-known way engi- 
neer in Canada. Mr. Spencer had made 
a reputation for himself that was inter- 
national. He had held his position in 
Montreal since December, 1926, having 
come to it from the post of assistant 
to the general manager of the Toronto 
Transportation Commission. In May, 
1921, he had accepted the important 
position of engineer of way of the 
Toronto Transportation Commission in 
anticipation of the extensive program of 
track rehabilitation which began when 
the commission took over the street rail- 
way lines of Toronto the following 
September. Under his direction about 




A. T. Spencer 

200 miles of track was rebuilt according 
to the most modern standards, and con- 
siderable new track was laid. The work 
was done in a surprisingly short time, 
largely because Mr. Spencer made use 
of the latest types of construction ma- 
chinery and resorted to many novel 
methods. 

Following the completion of the 
rehabilitation program, Mr. Spencer was 
made assistant to the general manager 
of the Toronto Transportation Commis- 
sion in May, 1924, continuing in that 
position until his return to Montreal at 
the end of 1926, 

Mr. Spencer's engineering career 
began in 1900 with the Dominion Coal 
Company at Glace Bay, N. S., where 
he was engaged in general construction, 
mining and railway work. He was field 
engineer with the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way from 1903 to 1905, and until 1906 
was chief of party. In 1906 he entered 
the employ of the Montreal Street Rail- 
way as engineer of survey, location and 
construction of certain projected subur- 
ban electric lines. Following the com- 
pletion of this assignment he began 
regular work on the staff of the company 
and its successor, the Montreal Tram- 
ways, serving as assistant engineer in 
charge of maintenance of way. He left 
Montreal in January, 1921, to go with 
the Hydro- Electric Power Commission 
of Ontario as assistant engineer in the 
railway department. There he remained 
until his connection with the Toronto 



Transportation Commission later in the 
same year. 

For many years Mr. Spencer was 
active in the American Electric Railway 
Engineering Association. At the time 
of his death he was a member of the 
standing committee on way and struc- 
tures and of the committee on nomina- 
tions. He did nmch research on the use 
of special steels in trackwork and on 
methods of hardening rail. He was an 
associate member of the Engineering 
Institute of Canada, a member of the 
Association of Professional Engineers of 
Quebec, a member of the Association of 
Professional Engineers of Ontario and a 
member of the American Society for 
Municipal Improvements. 
-f 

Maurice A. Welsh 

Maurice .A. Welsh, superintendent and 
traffic manager of the Waterloo, Cedar 
Falls & Northern Railway, Waterloo, 
Iowa, died at the Chicago Memorial 
Hospital, Chicago, 111., on Jan. 18. 

Mr. Welsh's railroad service com- 
bined hard work and outstanding 
ability in a very unusual degree. To 
his originality he coupled force and 
energy, being persistent to translate his 
ideas into action. His ability to make 
and retain the friendship of all who 
knew him was evidence of his sincerity, 
good faith and unfailing geniality. He 
was unswervingly loyal to his railroad 
and to his superiors. He was fair to 
the public and never too busy to give 
intelligent and sympathetic consideration 
to every complaint. Above all, he tem- 
pered justice to his associates with real 
friendliness, so that he held the respect 
of all who worked under him, 

Mr. Welsh was born at Iron River, 
Mich., on March 4, 1887. He entered 
the service of the Illinois Central Rail- 
road in 1903 as special agent, in which 
capacity he was employed until early in 
1910. when he resigned to enter the 
Police Department of the city of Water- 
loo. In 1911 he accepted the position 
of special agent with the Waterloo, 
Cedar Falls & Northern Railway. On 
March 1, 1917. he was promoted to be 
superintendent with jurisdiction over 
the operating and claims departments, 
and on Dec. 20. 1922. his jurisdiction 
was extended to the traflfic department 
with the title of superintendent and 
traffic manager. 

■*■ 

H. C. Higgins 

Henry C. Higgins, who helped to 
build many electric railways in Iowa, 
Wisconsin and Illinois in his six decades 
of activity as a public utilities engineer, 
died on Jan. 22 in Centralia. 111., where 
he had resided for the past 23 years. 
Mr. Higgins began his career as a con- 
tractor on the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
road's western lines at the age of 21 
years, but afterward confined himself 
to the utility field. His last important 
executive positions were as manager of 
the Sterling. Dixon & Eastern Electric 
Railway and manager of the Lee County 
Lighting Company at Dixon. 111. He 
was part owner and an executive of 
these companies from the time of their 
inception until July, 1907. when he re- 
tired from active business. 



Julius Theobald 

Julius Theobald, general manager of the 
Springfield Railway, Springfield, Ohio, 
died at his home in that city on Jan. 15, 
following an illness of three months. Mr. 
Theobald was born in Columbus 54 years 
ago. He attended high school there and 
later went to Ohio State University from 
which he was graduated. He entered the 
utility field after finishing his college work, 
and his ability as a leader and executive 
was soon recognized. After a series of 
promotions he accepted a position as super- 
intendent of the Atlantic City Electric 
Light Company. Two years ago he went to 
Springfield to become general manager of 
the Springfield Railway. 
■f 

James A. Duffy 

James A, Duffy, superintendent of 
equipment for the Monongahela-West 
Penn Public Service Company, Fair- 
mont, W. Va., for ten years, died on 
Jan. 1. Mr. Duffy was born at West 
Newton, Pa., 57 years ago. In his early 
manhood he moved with his family to 
Pittsburgh and there he was located for 
many years. He was employed with 
the Duquesne Traction Company and 
the Fifth Avenue -Traction Company in 
Pittsburgh, later with the Pittsburgh 
Railways. From Pittsburgh Mr. Duffy 
went to Havana, Cuba, with the Green- 
wood Engineering Company, and was 
for some time engaged there in con- 
struction work as chief engineer, and 
he was also with the Havana Electric 
Railway in Cuba. On his return to Pitts- 
burgh from Cuba. Mr. Duf?y became 
master mechanic with the Pittsburgh 
Railways. He was also master mechanic 
of the Penn-Ohio System for seven vears. 

John O'Laughlin 

John O'Laughlin. roadmaster for the 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac- 
tion Company, Indianapolis, Ind., died on 
Ian. 2. Mr. O'Laughlin was 75 years old. 
He started in railroad work as a water 
boy. He helped to build the present lines 
of the Erie Railroad in New York State 
and was with the Erie for many years. 
Following this he served on the Ann Arbor 
Railroad for some time, but in 1912 joined 
the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Company as roadmaster. He had 
been a member of the Roadmasters and 
Maintenance of Way Association of Amer- 
ica since 1887. 

■f 

Charles A. Lux, a founder of the 
Rochester. Syracuse & Eastern Railway, 
Syracuse, N. Y., died in that city on 
Jan. 22. He was 70 years old. With 
William P. Gannon, Mr. Lux organized 
the electric railway, which began opera- 
tion in 1905. He also helped build 
other interurban lines in central New 
York. Later he entered the water 
power field. His holdings on the Salmon 
River were sold to the Niagara. Lock- 
port & Ontario Power Corporation. 
-♦- 

John B. Leighton, who served as 
claims adjuster for the San Francisco 
Municipal Railway System, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., from 191.3 to 1926, died in 
that city Jan. 20 at ttie age of 73. Mr. 
Leighton was a pioneer street railway 
man of San Francisco. He served for 
many years as secretary of the old 
Presidio & Ferries Railroad, which in 
1913 was absorbed by the Municipal 
System. 



Electric Railway Journal — Vol.74, No.2 
122 



Industry Market and Trade News 



Heavy Stocks of Materials 
Necessary to Insure Un- 
interrupted Service 

In order to maintain continuous and 
uninterrupted service on its street railway 
and motor bus lines which serve the greater 
part of Connecticut, the Connecticut Com- 
pany is obliged to carry in stock in its car- 
houses and other storage facilities, more 
than 10.000 different parts and items of 
equipment and a number of difTerent kinds 
of each. To keep this stock on hand at all 
times requires a continuous investment of 
more than $1,000,000. but the amount is 
necessary if the effects of wear and tear 
on equipment are to be offset by rapid 
repairs and replacements. 

Chief among the items of stock carried 
are rails, ties, poles and trolley wire, about 
100,000 ties being required each year for 
renewal to insure safety and riding com- 
fort. 

In the course of a year the company 
has to replace some 7,500 panes of car 
window glass, while the preservation of 
the appearance of its rolling equipment 
requires the use of about 10,000 gal. of 
paint and varnish. About 17,000 lb. of 
heavy grease and 20.000 gal. of oil are 
needed for lubrication. The number of 
electric lights burnt out and replaced on 
the company's equipment during a year 
would care for the renewals of 4.500 
families, while the trolley pole rope would 
have furnished each family with a clothes 
line and each could be furnished with a 
new broom from the stock of the latter 
required in cleaning the cars. 



To Hasten Work on 
New Subway 

The Board of Transportation of the 
city of New York will hold a public 
hearmg on Feb. 10 on the proposed new 
-Second .\venue trunk-line subway route 
linking new rapid transit lines in the 
ea.sterly part of the Bronx with another 
new rapid transit network in Brooklvn 
and Queens. The hearing will be one 
of a series to be held between Feb. 6 
and March 19 in the board's offices at 
250 Hudson Street on the 100 miles of 
proposed new subway routes included in 
the $800,000,000 project announced on 
Sept. 16 as the second stage of the 
city's subway construction program. 

The Board of Transportation plans to 
subniit definite routes to the Board of 
Estimate for approval this summer and 
expects to award about $25,000,000 in 
construction contracts by fall so that 
work may be started during 1930. The 
routes as outlined in the tentative pro- 
gram announced on Sept. 16 call for 294 
miles of track and the bare construction 
cost, exclusive of financing charges, 
equipment, power and other items, is 
estimated at $438,000,000. 



British Get Part of Buenos Aires 
Subway Car Order 

Ira W. McConnell, first vice-president 
of Dwight P. Robinson & Company, Inc., 
New York, says that not all the equipment 
of the Buenos Aires subway will be of 
British manufactin-e. Mr. McConnell said : 

"We placed an order with a British firm 



for 56 cars. The reason for placing the 
order abroad lay in the fact that we were 
able to obtain the cars for 15 per cent less 
from British manufacturers. The entire 
order amounts to approximately $1,000,000. 
The special equipment, or most of it, is 
being purchased from firms in the United 
States. 

"United States trade is maintaining its 
own m Argentina and home manufactur- 
ers who can prove the merit of their prod- 
uct are showing gains. Where there is a 
decided difference in price, of course, the 
purchasers buy abroad." 



Smaller Capacities Feature 
Recent Bus Orders 

Conspicuous among bus deliveries 
made during the past few weeks have 
been the number of units of from 18- to 
23-passenger capacity, numbers of which 
are being ordered for de luxe and semi- 
de luxe service on city and intercity 
routes The United Traction Company, 
of Albany, N. Y., has added three White 
Model 65 buses to its already extensive 
fleet, while the Denver Tramway Com- 



Use of Aluminum Alloys Reduces Weight of New Cars 
of British Columbia Electric Railway 

Additional details of the fifteen trolley 
cars recently delivered to the British 
Columbia Electric Railway by the Cana- 
dian Car & Foundry Company for service 
in \ancouver are now available. The 
cars, which are of the one-man two-man, 
single-end, double-truck type, embody cer- 
tain features of structure and design which 
are rather unusual. Underframes consist 
of pressed-steel shapes and rolled-steel sec- 
tions, with built-up body bolster, consisting 
of open hearth steel plates and cast-steel 
fillers. Sideframes consist of rolled-steel 
3-in. by 2-in. angle side sills, tee bar posts, 
rolled-steel belt rails, rolled-steel angle 
side plates, grade 17 Duralumin side gird- 
ers, with the same grade of material for 
letter boards. 

Floors consist of two thicknesses — lower 
floor I in. thick and top floor of 3-in. 
maple, with mats laid at standing spaces. 
Between the floors is laid a hot waterproof 
composition to deaden sound. Floors are 
screwed and nailed to stringers which are 
bolted to steel members in underframe. 
Roofs are of plain arch design, reinforced 
by rolled-steel carlines and steel frame 
bulkheads at each body end. Roof boards 
are tongue and groove, covered with cotton 
duck, laid in white lead. Trucks are of the 
latest design of the Canadian Car & Foun- 
dry Company, built for standard gage, 
with wheelbase of 5 ft. 4 in. They are 
equipped with a graduated spring system, 
said to make for easy riding qualities, and 
are built with particular attention to the 
elimination of noise. Complete weight of 
body and trucks is given as 39.000 lb., and 
the builder estimates a saving of 1,200 lb. 
through the use of Duralumin. Additional 
details of the equipment of these cars were 
supplied in the Annual Statistical Number 
of Electric Railway Journal, issued 
January, 1930, page 63. 




Rear section of Vancouver cars is equipped 
with upholstered forward-facing seats, 
while forward section, with longitudinal 
seats, provides ample standing capacity 



When used for two-man operation both 
forward doors are used for entrance, with 
the center and rear doors, which are pro- 
vided with treadles, for exits. The section 
of the car forward of the center door is 
used as a loading reservoir, the passengers 
paying only as they pass to the rear to take 
the cross seats or to leave the car. When 
used for one-man operation the forward 
section of the forward door, nearest the 
operator, is used for an entrance, the other 
section of the forward door, as well as the 
center and rear doors, being used for exit. 
If desired, the center door can be locked, in 
which case the rear door and the second 
section of the forward door would be used 
as exits. 




Side elevation of cars recently delivered to the British Columbia Electric Railway, 
showing unusual arrangement of exit doors 



Electric Railway Journal — February, 1920 
123 



pany and the Pittsburgh Motor Coach 
Company have taken one and two, re- 
spectively, of this type. Among buses 
of larger type to be noted in recent 
deliveries are five White Model 54 
buses to the Omaha & Council Bluffs 
Street Railway, for co-ordinated service 
in connection with its rerouted street 
railway service, two buses of the same 
type for the Baltimore Coach Company, 
and one for the Cumberland & Western- 
port Transit Company, of Frostburg, 
Md. This same company has also taken 
delivery of a Type Z 39-passenger Yel- 
low coach. Los Angeles Railway has 
received three White Model 54 buses 
and one Model 54A from the same man- 
ufacturer. Two White buses of large 
capacity have recently been placed in 
service by a subsidiary of the Grays 
Harbor Railway & Light Company be- 
tween the cities of Hoquiam and Aber- 
deen, Wash. 

Recent deliveries by the Mack-Inter- 
national Motor Truck Corporation in- 
clude one Mack Model BB four-cylinder 
177-in. chassis to the Peoples Motor 
Coach Company, of Indianapolis; two 
Model BC six-cylinder 33-passenger city 
type buses to the Hamburg Railway, 
Hamburg, N. Y.; and five Model BC 
six-cylinder 20-passenger buses to the 
Durham Public Service Company, of 
Durham, N. C. 

American Car & Foundries Motor 
Company has delivered two A.C.F. 23- 
passenger street car type coaches to the 
Stockton Electric Railway, Stockton, 
Cal., and four all-steel 40-passenger gas- 
electric metropolitan type coaches to the 
Boston Elevated Railway. General Mo- 
tors Truck Company reports delivery of 
one Type W city-service bus to the Erie 
Railway, Erie, Pa.; three Type Z 29- 
passenger buses to the Louisville Rail- 
way; two Type W city-service buses to 
the Oklahoma Railway, Oklahoma City; 
five Type W observation coaches to the 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Company; and nine Type Z buses to 
Public Service Co-ordinated Transport. 



Linde Oxygen Plant for 
Portland, Ore. 

The Linde Air Products Company an- 
nounces the opening of an oxygen plant at 
60 Knott Street, Portland, Ore. 

This plant, which started operations on 
Nov. 19, 1929, is located on a private sid- 
ing on the Oregon Washington Railroad. 

A. D. Davis is superintendent of the 
plant and D. F. Fox, whose headquarters 
are at 114 Sansome Street, San Francisco, 
Cal., is district superintendent. 

R. G. Daggett, with headquarters at the 
same address, is division superintendent. 

Brooklyn Surface Lines 
to Be Rerouted 

Plans to reroute surface lines in 
downtown Brooklyn at a cost of ap- 
proximately $100,000 were announced 
recently by William S. Menden, presi- 
dent of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Tran- 
sit Corporation, at a luncheon of the 
Downtown Brooklyn Association, at 
which transportation leaders and repre- 
sentative business men met to discuss 
the downtown district's transportation 
and traffic needs. 

Mr. Menden said that work on the 
installation of new curves and switches 
would begin immediately. He said that 
the B.-M.T. proposed to make the ex- 
penditure of $100,000 to try out a scheme 
which might simplify the operation of 
surface cars in downtown Brooklyn by 
eliminating crossings and left-hand 
turns. 

Merger in Electric and Hand Lift 
Truck Field 

A recent development of definite in- 
terest and importance to the materials 
handling equipment field is the linking 
together, in ownership and management, 
of Barrett-Cravens Company with 
Walker Vehicle Company, Chicago, and 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY MATERIAL PRICES— FEBRUARY 1, 1930 



Metals — New York 

Copper, electrolytic, delivered, cents per lb. 18.00 

Lead, cents per lb 6.25 

Nickel, cents per lb., ingot 35. 00 

Zinc, cents per lb 5.60 

Tin, Straits, cents per lb 38.75 

Aluminum, 98 to 99 per cent, cents per lb. . 24. 30 
Babbitt metal, warehouse, cents per lb.: 

Commercial grade 42. 00 

General service 3 1 . 00 

Bituminous Coal 

Smokeless mine run, f.o.b. vessel, Hampton 

Roads, gross tons $4.55 

Somerset mine run, f.o.b. mines, net ton 1 . 70 

Pittsb