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Full text of "Elegies; and other elegies included in the Theognidean sylloge. A rev. text based on a new collation of the Mutinensis M.S. with introd., commentary and appendices by T. Hudson-Williams"

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THE 



ELEGIES OF THEOGNIS 



G. BELL AND SONS, LTD. 

LONDON : PORTUGAL ST., KINGSWAY 
CAMBRIDGE : DEIGHTON, BELL & CO. 
NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 
BOMBAY : A. H. WHEELER & CO. 




THE 

ELEGIES OF THEOGNIS 

AND OTHER ELEGIES INCLUDED IN 
THE THEOGNIDEAN SYLLOGE 

A REVISED TEXT BASED ON A NEW COLLATION OF 

THE MUTINENSIS MS. WITH INTRODUCTION 

COMMENTARY AND APPENDICES 

'b BY 

T. HUDSON-WILLIAMS, M.A. 

PROFESSOR OF GREEK IN THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NORTH WALES 
BANGOR 





LONDON 

G. BELL AND SONS, LTD. 

1910 






OXFORD : HORACE HART 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



TO 

MY WIFE 



PEEFACE 

To Professor W. Rhys Roberts, of Leeds University, 
I owe a debt of gratitude which I can never adequately 
repay ; not only for the kindness with which he en- 
couraged and advised me in the course of my pre- 
liminary studies of the Theognidean question (1901-4), 
but also for many helpful suggestions made during 
the preparation of this edition ; and finally for his 
assistance in correcting the proofs when the book was 
passing through the press. 

I am also indebted for valuable assistance to my 
colleague Mr. W. H. Porter and to Mr. J. Maclnnes of 
Manchester University. 

T. HUDSON- WILLIAMS. 

March, 1910. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Bibliographical Note xi 

Editions xiii 

Abbreviations . . . . . . . xiv 

Introduction : 

Chapter I. History and Chronology . . 1 

Chapter II. Origin and Composition of the 

Theognidean Sylloge ... 12 

Criticism of various Theories. Catch- 
words, p. 13 ; Anthologies, p. 16 ; 
Schoolbooks, p. 19 ; Song Books, p. 
27 ; Eicienda, p. 30 ; Metrical Tests, 
p. 35 ; Linguistic Tests, p. 41 ; the 
Conservative Keaction, Harrison's 
Studies, p. 43 ; the Second Book, p. 54. 
Chapter III. Kesults and Conclusions . . 70 

Chapter IV. Testimonia ; discussion of refer- 
ences to Theognis in ancient literature 82 

Manuscripts 103 

Text and Critical Notes .... 107 

Explanatory Notes . . . . . . 171 

Appendix . 255 



BIBLIOGEAPHICAL NOTE 

Besides numerous articles in the classical journals (e. g. 
Philologus, Hermes, Classical Bevieio, &c.), I have consulted the 
following pamphlets : — 

Bernhardt, H., Theognis quid de rebus divinis et ethicis 

senserit. Vratislaviae, 1875. 
Cauer, F., Parteien und Politiker in Megara und Athen. 

Stuttgart, 1890. 
Corsenn, A., Quaestiones Theognideae. Leipzig, 1887. 
Criiger, 0., De locorum Theognideorum apud veteres scriptores 

exstantium ad textum poetae emendandum pretio. Regi- 

montii, 1882. 
Frese, H., Quae ratio intercedat inter librum Theognideorum 

priorem et posteriorem. Kiliae, 1895. 
Geyso, A. de, Studia Theognidea. Argentorati, 1892. 
Grafenhan, G., Theognis Theognideus. Mulhusae, 1827. 
Hartel, G., Analecta. Vindobonae, 1879. 
Heimsoeth, F., Emendationes Theognideae. Bonnae. Partes 

tres, 1873, 1874, 1875. 
Hei*werden, H. van, Animadversiones adTheognidem. Traiecti 

ad Rhenum, 1870. 
Holle, J., Megara im mythischen Zeitalter. Recklinghausen, 

1881. 
Jordan, H., Quaestiones Theognideae. Regimontii, 1885. 
Kiillenberg, R., De imitatione Theognidea. Argentorati, 1877. 
Lucas, J., Studia Theognidea. Berolini, 1893. 
Mey, H. van der, Studia Theognidea. Leiden, 1869. 
Muller, C, De scriptis Theognidis. Coronae Germanorum, 

1877. 
Peppmuller, R., In elegias Theognideas exercitationes criticae. 

Halle, 1887. 



xii BIBLIOGKAPHICAL NOTE 

Renner, J. G., Quaestiones de dialecto antiquioris Graecorum 

poesis elegiacae et iambicae. Lipsiae, 1868. 

tJber das Formelwesen im gr. Epos u. epische Reminis- 

cenzen in der alteren gr. Elegie. I, II. Freiberg, 1871, 

1872. 
Rintelen, C, De Theognide Megarensi poeta, Monasterii, 1863. 
Roche, J. La, Studien zu Theognis. 1, 11. Linz, 1891, 1892. 
Schafer, M., De iteratis apud Theognidem distichis. Halis 

Saxonum, 1891. 
Schneidewin, H., De syllogis Theognideis. Argentorati, 1878. 
De Theognide eiusque in Stobaei florilegio servatis. 

Stettin, 1882. 
Schomann, G. F., Schediasma de Theognide. Gryphiswaldiae, 

1861. 
Sitzler, J., Emendationes Theognideae. Aurelia Aquensi, 1878. 
Studien zum Elegiker Theognis. Tauberbischofsheim, 

1885. 
Studemund, G., Commentatio de Theognideorum memoria 

libris manu scriptis servata. Vratislaviae, 1889. 
Weber, C. F., De proverbio apud Theognidem (v. 17). Mar- 

burgi, 1853. 
WendorfF, F., Ex usu convivali Theognideam syllogen fiuxisse 

demonstratur. Berolini, 1902. 
Winter, W. M., Die unter dem Namen des Theognis liberlieferte 

Gedichtsammlung. Leipzig, 1906. 



EDITIONS 

The following are the chief editions containing the complete 
Theognidea : — 

Bekker, 1815, 2nd ed., 1827. Welcker, 1826. Schneidewin, 
F. G., in his Delectus Poetarum Graecorum, 1838. Orelli, J. G., 
1840. Bergk, in the Poetae Lyrici Graeci, 1843, 4th ed. 1882 ; 
also included (with revised text) in B.H.C. (see Abbreviations). 
Hartung, in Die Elegiker, vol. I, 1859. Ziegler, 1868, 2nd ed. 
1880. Sitzler, 1880. Harrison, 1902. 

Selections (annotated) from the Theognidea are included in 
StoU Anthologie griechischer Lyriker (2nd ed., 1857) ; Buchholz, 
Anthologie aus den Lyrikern der Griechen (revised by Pepp- 
muller, 1900) ; Tyler, Selections from the Greek Lyric Poets 
(revised 1906 : Ginn). 

An interesting but very fanciful study of Theognis will be 
found in J. H. Frere's Theognis Restitutus, Works, vol. II, 1872. 

A good account of the poet and his alleged writings is given 
in the histories of Greek Literature by Bernhardy, Bergk, 
Flach, Croiset, and in other well-known handbooks ; cf. also 
Cucuel, Thiognis de Megare et ses elegies (Annales de Bordeaux, 
1889) ; Felice Ramorino, Teognide di Megara (Rivista di 
Filologia, 1879) ; Couat, Le second livre d'Megies attribue a 
Theognis (Annales de Bordeaux, 1883). 

Of the numerous translations the most interesting are 
perhaps Frere's verse rendering in Theognis Restifutus, and that 
by Jacques le Gros (16th cent.), published for the first time in 
L'Annuaire de TAssoc. pour I'Encouragement des Etudes 
Grecques, 1882. 



ABBEEVIATIONS 

a = Theognis, Book I, viz. vv. 1-1230. 

Ale. = Alcaeus. 

Alcm. = Alcman. 

Anacr. = Anacreon. 

Anacrnt. = Anacreontea, formerly ascribed to Anacreon. 

A.P., or A.Pal. = Palatine Anthology. 

A.Plan. = Planudean Anthology. 

A.Pol. = Athenaion Politeia. 

A.Rh. = Apollonius of Rhodes. 

Ath. = Athenaeus. 

^' = Theognis, Book II, Musa Paedica, viz. vv. 1231-1389. 

Bek. = Bekker. 

Bgk. = Bergk. 

B.H.C. = Bergk's Anthologia Lyrica revised by Hiller and 

Crusius. 
C.R. = Classical Review. 

Callim. = Callimachus. 
Callin. = Callinus. 
Camer. = Camerarius. 
Diog. L. = Diogenes Laertius. 
Gild. = Gildersleeve. 

H., or H.H. = Homeric Hymns, ed. Sikes and Allen. 
Harr., or H. = Studies in Theognis by E. Harrison, 1902. 
Hds. = Herodas. 

Hdt. = Herodotus. 

Hes. = Hesiod, W(orks and) D(ays), Sh(ield), Th(eogony). 

Hesych., or Hes. = Hesychius. 
Hom. Ep. = Homeric Epigrams. 
I.D. = The Ionic Dialect by Weir Smyth. 

11. = Iliad. 

J.H.S. = Journal of Hellenic Studies, article on Theognis by 

T. Hudson- Williams in vol. xxii, Part I, 1903. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



XV 



L. and B. = Leaf and Bayfield's notes on the Iliad. 

M.P. = Musa Paedica, Theognis, Book II, viz. w. 1231 

1389. 

M.T. = Goodwin's Moods and Tenses. 

Mimn. = Mimnermus. 

N.J. = Neue Jahrbiicher. 

Od. = Odyssey. 

P.L.G. = Bergk's Poetae Lyrici Graeci. 

Pol. = Polybius. 

R.M. = Rheinisches Museum. 

Schol. = Scholiast. 

Scol. = Attic Scolia. 

Simon. = Simonides of Ceos. 

Sol. = Solon. 

Steph. = Stephanus, Thesaurus, ed. Haase. 

Stob. = Stobaeus. 




INTRODUCTION 

Theognis poeta vetus et prudms. — Ammianus Marcellinus. 
Theognis ivas a great and ivise man. — F. York Powell. 

CHAPTER I 
History and Chronology 

The two books of elegiac verse attributed to Theognis 
the Megarian contain poems known to liave been com- 
posed by Tyrtaeiis, Mimnermus, and Solon. As the 
Theognidea comprise more than half the extant remains 
of Greek elegy written before the Alexandrian period 
(from Callinus to Theocritus of Chios inclusive), it is 
by no means unlikely that they include a great number 
of poems by other authors whose identity may some day 
be revealed by a lucky find in the sands of Egypt. 
Before we can proceed to examine the internal evidence 
for questions connected with the poet's life, date, and 
political surroundings, we must first discover some test 
which will enable us to distinguish authentic poems of 
Theognis from those of other writers represented in the 
collection which bears his name. 

Many generations of Theognideans have been engaged 
in a stubborn dispute over the o-<^/or;yt9 mentioned in 
V. 19. The poet refers to this 'seal' as a device that 
will protect him against the depredations of the pla- 
giaiist ; for its presence will always betray the theft. 
Some suppose it to be the poet's name, and appeal 
to the practice of Herodotus and Thucydides who in- 
serted their names at the beginning of their historical 



2 INTEODUOTION 

works ; the addition of his own name by Timotheus 
in the closing section of The Persians has been adduced 
in support of this interpretation, which has been adopted 
by Welcker, F. G. Schneidewin, Hiller, Crusius, and 
Harrison. 

'It is the declaration of the author's name which is 
the seal, the hall-mark, the guarantee of merit, just as 
a great maker's name on a piano is a proof of good 
workmanship' (Harr., p. 246). But a hall-mark is of 
no use unless it is on every separate jewel ; the maker's- 
name must be on every piano. To suppose that any 
one would steal the whole collection is absurd ; against 
those who wished to appropriate single poems the mere 
insertion of the author's name at the beginning or end 
of the book would offer no protection. Thucydides and 
Herodotus wrote continuous histories and not detached 
elegies.^ Hipparchus, Demodocus, and Phocylides^ 
attached their names to single maxims of one or tivo lines. 
This fact is in itself a sufficient proof of the copyright 
claimed for their own productions by the gnomic poet& 
of early Greece ; for, as Wilamowitz-Mollendorif re- 
marks, Hhese poets took pains to perpetuate their names ' 
{Greek Reader, Engl, ed., vol. i, p. 3). So too Theognis, 
by the less clumsy expedient of adding the two syllables 
that made up the name of his young protege Cyrnus 
(always in the vocative), affixed his mark to many short 
elegies, and so made known the author's identity to 
every reader and hearer. He would be a poor elegist 
who used the same appellation over seventy-five times 



' Few would to-day be inclined to follow Hartung and others in 
supposing that the Theognidea once formed part of a continuous 
poem. They base their arguments on the expression 17 iroi'rjai^ in 
Xen. ap. Stob. See p. 86. 

^ Kal ToSe AtjixoSokov k.t.X., ^(tiKvXidea k.t.X., Mvrj/xa tu5' 'iTrnapxov 
(TTfix^ Sifcaia (ppovwv ; a method that demands too much space in 
the short compass of a hexameter or an elegiac couplet. 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 

merely because it served him as ' a convenient stop-gap ' ; 
so Mr. Harrison calls it in a note to his Studies (p. 133). 

Others regard afjip-qyl^ as 'the seal of silence' ('let 
them remain conceal'd and secret', Frere), comparing 
a couplet ascribed to Lucian (A. Pal. 10. 42).' Leutsch 
connected it with a section of the vojxo^, and the recent 
discover}^ of The Persians has led to the revival of his 
theory in a somewhat modified form. We know that 
the o-<^payt9 was the sixth division of the v6tx.o<i, coming 
immediately before the cVtAoyo?. In The Persians it 
contains the name of Timotheus with the addition that 
he was a native of Miletus. Such a o-^payis would not 
suit the purpose of the Megarian, who distinctly refers to 
it as a security against theft. There is a vast difference 
between a volume of loose elegies and a nomos with its 
complicated arrangement so ordered as to form one sym- 
metrical whole. The passages already adduced from 
Solon and Lucian favour the interpretation of the word 
in the ordinary sense of ' seal ' ; as a seal served to pro- 
tect the contents of a packet from being rifled, so too 
in the case of dispatches it afforded the best clue to the 
writer's identity. 

But whatever be our interpretation of the poet's words, 
it must be admitted that the presence of Kvpvi is the best 
criterion for distinguishing a genuine elegy by Theognis ; 
and this is recognized even by those who refuse to regard 
it as the ' seal '. Mr. Harrison, for instance, holds that 
Theognis himself inserted the address to Cyrnus in v. 1354 
because he wished to give a hint of his connexion with 
the Musa Paedica '^ ; and Nietzsche maintained that the 
composer of that book interpolated an elegy addressed 
to Cyrnus with the deliberate intention of bringing into 
discredit the stern moralist of Megara. 

^ 'A.pprjTan' eviwv yXwaar} o<ppayts ImKuaOoi \ Kpeiaaojv yap fivOojv ^ 
KTfavojv tjwKaicr]. Cf. also Cippayi^i rovs Kuyovi aiyrj. Solon ap. Stob. 
3. 79. - 'To set his seal on the second book' (p. 267). 

b2 




4 INTRODUCTION 

The identification of o-<^pryyts with Kvpve is found in the 
Latin translation^ (lacobo Schegkio interprete) pub- 
lished by Hertel with Vinet's edition of Theognis. It 
was also proposed by Hartung who did not add to its 
value by emending the text so as to read * Kvpve ' arocfiL- 
^ofjL€V(o ovofxa K.T.X. It was independently put forward 
by Sitzler who also quite needlessly prints the name 
between commas in v. 19. He has herein not been 
followed by Lucas and the others who accept his general 
explanation of the passage. 

Sitzler in his edition of Theognis certainly goes too 
far when he rejects almost every poem that does not 
bear this * seal ' ; an elegy may often be a mere fragment, 
and there is no need to suppose that the poet affixed 
his mark to everything he wrote. But as material to 
illustrate his life the remaining poems in the collection 
must be used with the greatest caution, and mere occur- 
rence among the Theognidea should never induce us to 
accept an elegy as authentic. 

Home of Theognis. 

Outside the Theognidea we have little trustworthy 
information about the poet himself, and every inference 
drawn from casual statements in the works of ancient 
writers has been hotly contested. The Greeks them- 
selves could not agree even on the question of his home 
and birthplace. In v. 23 he calls himself a ' Megarian '. 
The poems contain such clear references (e.g. 773 sqq.) 
to the Nisaean Megara on the Isthmus of Corinth that 
most modern scholars agree in regarding Theognis as a 
native of that town ; the use of Meyapiv^ without any 
distinguishing epithet points to the most famous Megara, 
and the political situation described in 53-60, &c., corre- 

' Dicenti mihi uera aderis suauissime Cyrne, 
nomine et obsigna ut sint bene tuta tuo. 




HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 5 

^ponds closely with the accounts of Megara Nisaea given 
by Aristotle and Plutarch. 

The ancients, it is true, were divided in their opinions, 
and some preferred the claims of Megara in Sicily. The 
latter had the support of Plato, who refers to Theognis 
as TToAiVr/s T(oi/ eV StKcAta Meyapcwv.^ Most modern critics 
endeavour to remove the difficulty by adopting the sug- 
gestion of a scholiast ; Plato, they say, knew that 
Theognis was a native of Nisaean Megara, and in the 
passage under discussion he tells us that the poet had 
received the franchise of the Sicilian city. Had Plato 
meant this, he would have added ycvofxevov to ttoXlttjv (as 
in the case of Tyrtaeus). Welcker, followed by Sitzler, 
removed the obstacle by making koL 17/^61? mean ^we, 
inhabitants of Attica '. This would certainly make 
everj'thing clear ; but such a translation is impossible. 
The Athenian speaker uses koI r}ix€i<s like t^/xcis 8e ye ^a/xei/ 
two lines before in the sense ' we and those who share 
our views '. Theognis is not brought upon the stage as 
a native of Attica against Tyrtaeus of Sparta ; such a 
contrast would be irrelevant, and Tyrtaeus himself has 
at the very outset been claimed as cfyva-ei 'AOrjvato^, The 
two poets are introduced to represent not two districts 
but two conflicting schools of thought. 

It must be admitted that the philosopher looked upon 
Sicilian Megara as the home of our poet. Didymus 
uttered a violent protest eTrt^vo/^evos tw HXdTwvt ws irap- 
urTopovvTL (schol. Laws 630) ; Harpocration endeavoured to 
refute Plato by an appeal to Th. 783. We can without 
hesitation reject the authority of Plato and accept the 
claims of Nisaean Megara. So strong is the evidence in 
its favour that even the two German critics (linger and 
Beloch) who refuse to regard the poet as a native of 

' Laics 629 A 'A^. irpoarrjowixida yovf Tvpraiov, tuv (pvan fiev 
' AOrjvatov, rwvde deiroKiTrjv yevofifvov . . . (630 A) 'A9. voiijT^v 5« kul 
jjfxfT^ fxapTvp' ixojj^iv, &eoyviv, itoKittjv tuiu (u 'SiKf\ia. Mtyapfuv. 



(5 INTRODUCTION 

N. Megara have found themselves compelled to connect 
him with that town and to admit that at least part 
his life was spent there. 

Bate of Theognis. 

In vv. 53-60 we hear that sovereign power had been 
taken away from the 'good' i.e. the nobles, and seized 
by the ' bad '. This is a reference to the introduction of 
democracy at Megara ; to fix its date we have but very 
scanty materials at our disposal ; but we may still attain 
a fair degree of certainty by examining the statements 
of the poet himself and stray bits of evidence from 
Aristotle and Plutarch. We must start with Theagenes, 
the exact length of whose rule is unknown ; but it is 
certain that he was already firmly established as tyrant 
of Megara when, not later than 624 b. c, he supplied his 
son-in-law Cylon with a body of mercenaries to join in 
an attack upon the freedom of Athens. Plutarch [Qit. 
Gr. 18) tells us that he was expelled by the people of 
Megara ; some scholars (e. g. Bergk) have assumed a 
connexion between his fall and the failure of Megara 
to save Salamis from the Athenians. As the capture 
of the island cannot have occurred before 600 b.c, we 
must reject this theory, for it would give Theagenes 
a reign of at least twenty-five years ; in that case we 
should have found his name in the catalogue of long 
tyrannies given by Aristotle {Pol. 1315 b), where the 
fourth place is occupied by the rule of Hieron and Gelon, 
which covered only eighteen years (including the reigns 
of both these tyrants). The tyranny of Theagenes must 
then have been of short duration, and we shall not be 
far wrong if we reduce its limits to five or six years. 

Plutarch {Qu. Gr. 18) tells us that after the tyrant's 
fall the Megarians enjoyed a ' short period of moderate 
government' (oAtyov XP^^^*^ i(T(ji(f>p6vr]<rav, cf. Th. 41); 



p 

■ final] 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 



finally, under the lead of demagogues ' who gave the 
people copious draughts of freedom's wine ' they became 
thoroughly corrupt (SiacfiOapivr€s, cf. Th. 45), assumed a 
brutal attitude towards the rich, and passed a measure 
compelling money-lenders to return the interest they 
had exacted. In Qu. Gr. 59 we hear again of rj dKoXao-ros 
BrjfXOKpaTLa, r) kol Tr]v iraXiVTOKiav eTTOtrjae koL rrjv lepoavXtav' 
Tu>v ^6 Mcya/aeooi/ ol OpacrvToroL fxeOvcrOivTe^ v^pei kol MfioTTjTi 
violently assaulted a Theoria from the Peloponnese. 
Similar expressions characterize this democracy in the 
two passages from the Qu. Gr. ; its traits are aaeXyeia, 
v^pLS, oipL6Ty]<i, and dra^ta ; it afforded the stock instance 
of mob rule at Megara, and it is distinguished from all 
others by the adjective aK6XaaTo<i. 

We next turn to the Politics (Ar. 1304 b). UapaTrXrja-Loy^ 
8e Koi 7] iv Meyctpoi? KareXvOr) ^-qp-OKparia' ol yap Srjp^ayMyoi, 
'I'va ^pi]p.aTa e;((ocrt 8Y]p.€veLV} i^ejSaXXov ttoXXovs twv yvcopLp^wv, 
ecos TToXXov? i-Trotrjcrav tov<s <fi€vyovTas, ot 8e Kariovre? ivLKYjcrav 
pa)(6p.€voL Tov hrjpiov koI KareaTrjaav ttjv oXiyap-^Lov. Again 
(1302 b) we read Iv rats S^y/xoKpaTtat? [o-Tao-td^ovcrti/] ot 
evTTopoL KaTacftpov^aavTCS riys dra^tas kol avap^ta^s, olov kol 

iv @T^/3aLS p.€Ta T7]V iv OlvOcfiVTOLS p-O-XW XaKWS iroXLT€VOp.€VOL<i 

7] h-qp.OKparia. SL€(fiOdprj, Koi 7/ M.eyap€(DV Si ara^iav koI avapxMV 
7)TT7]0€VTMV, KOL iv ^vpaKOvcraL<s irpo T7JS TeAcovos Tvpavvihos, Kol 
iv 'Po8<iJ 6 Srjp,os Trpo T^s CTravacTTdo-coos. 

The characteristics of this Megarian democracy agree 
with those in the passages quoted from Plutarch ; if 
Aristotle had not the dKoXao-ros 87)p.oKpaTLa in mind when 
he spoke of dae'Ayeta, dra^ia, avapxia, and confiscations, 
he would have let his readers know, as in the very same 
passage he is careful to specify the allusions to the other 
states, e. g. iv ©rj^at? /xem ttjv k.t.X. In the case of Megara 
there was no need of further description, as the reference 
was at once plain to all. Another passage in the Politics 
(1300 a) probably refers to the overthrow of this demo- 
cracy. Some refer 1300 a, 1302 b, 1304 b to the return 



8 INTRODUCTION 

of the exiles mentioned in Thucyd. 4. 74 ; but, as Schneider 
pointed out (Welcker, Prole(f. Theog. xii), this is incon- 
sistent with the expressions ivLKrja-av fxaxo/J-evot, -fiTrrjOivruDV, 
and o-v/x/x-ttxeo-a/xeVwv (1300 a) ; the exiles of 424 secured their 
return by peaceful means {KotyoXoyrjcrdixevoi KaTayova-t). 

We learn from Plutarch that the interval between the 
fall of Theagenes and the triumph of the masses witnessed 
a short period of moderate government. Combined with 
a sentence in the Poetics (3. 3) this may render service 
in fixing our date. The Megarians, so Aristotle informs 
us, claim Comedy as their own, dating its invention 
tVt T^s Trap' avTOL<s Si^/xoKparta?. The Parian Marble (264- 
263 B.C.) contains a reference to competitions in Comedy 
instituted by the people of Icaria between 581 and 562 
B. c. ; ^ Susarion is mentioned as the ' inventor '. With- 
out accepting this statement as historical, we can safely 
deduce the following inferences. Less than sixty years 
after Aristotle it was believed that comedies were per- 
formed in Attica before 562 b.c. In the time of Aristotle 
(without being contradicted by him), the Megarians 
claimed for themselves the invention of Comedy [Poetics 
3. 3). They would not be able to secure a hearing for 
their claim unless they asserted that comedies were 
represented at Megara before the commonly accepted 
date of the Icarian contests and Susarion. The date 
offered was iirl t^s -n-ap avrot? 8r)/xoKf)aTLa<i. It follows 
that this democratic rule must have been introduced at 
least before 570 b.c, probably many years earlier. What 
happened at Megara after the return and triumph of 

^ There was a definite date engraved on the marble ; but it is 
no longer legible. The entry comes between the archonship of 
Damasias and the rule of Pisistratus. 'A^' ov kv ^A6[rjv\ais ko}iio}[iZwv'\ 
[xo]/>[os iT^id-q l<TTT]']adv[TOJv iTpw'JTOuv 'iKapiiQJv evpuPTOS XovaapiojvoSy 
ical adKov triOrj irpuTov laxo.Sou[v'] dpaixo{s'] Kal ohov /^^[TjpT^Tjys, ed. 
H. V. Giirtringen, 1903. Some believe that the compiler derived 
his information from a pupil of Aristotle. The ancients ascribe 
a Meyapiojv iroKiTeia to that philosopher. 







HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 9 

he oligarchs cannot be determined. Welcker and 
others assume that the commons again came into power 
and retained their supremacy till 01. 89. 1. This is 
contradicted by a sentence in Thucydides, who dismisses 
his account of Megara in 424 b.c. with the remark : Kal 
irXexaTov 8r/ )(p6vov avrr] vtt eXa;^to-T(jov ycFO/xeVr; €k o-Xtto-ews 
/xeraorrao-t? ^vvefxcLvcv (4. 74). As this was written before 
396 B.C. (the probable date of the historian's death), the 
oligarchy of 424 must have broken the record when they 
had been less than thirty years in power. It is clear that 
there were several changes in government at Megara 
during the period claimed by Welcker for democracy 
alone. 

Poems undoubtedly composed by Theognis refer to 
a political situation similar to that described by Plutarch 
and Aristotle, and it can be proved that he wrote elegies 
to his young friend Cyrnus soon after the democratic 
revolution (vv. 53 sqq.). In announcing his intention 
of instructing Cyrnus, he adopts the attitude of a man 
possessing wide experience, and their relation is like 
that of father to son (27-30). We can therefore infer 
that he w^as over thirty years of age before 570 b.c, and 
about sixty by 545 b.c. This figure agrees with the 
statements of ancient chronologists and grammarians ; 
for they placed his floruit at 01. 59-7 ; e. g. Hieron. 
01. 59. 1 ; Chron. Pasc. 01. 57; Suidas yeyovw? iv rfj vO' 
'OA.v/x7rta8i (see infra p. 99) ; Cyril 01. 58, so too Eusebius. 

Those who contend for a later date base their argu- 
ments upon two elegies that occur about the middle of 
the collection, vv. 757-68, 773-82. The general tone 
of both is better suited to the dread ^ of a Persian invasion 
in 545 B.C. than to the years of actual fighting with 
a Persian army in Greece itself or the interval between 
the two campaigns of 490 and 480. In a poem composed 

^ Cf. reus Se ^v roiffi "EWrjai ical rovuofjia to M-ffSwu </>o)3os aKovaai. 
(before Maratlion), Hdt. 0. 112. 



10 INTRODUCTION 

after the battle of Marathon we should reasonably expect 
to find some allusion to the national deliverance and 
some expression of gratitude to the gods whose further 
protection was sought. Here there is neither. 

The two elegies should be dealt with apart from one 
another, and each discussed entirely on its own merits. 
Sitzler rejects both ; Hertzberg ascribes 757-68 to Xeno- 
phanes of Colophon. 

There is good ground for believing that they are not 
the work of the same poet. The second (773 sqq.) is 
certainly by a Megarian ; it contains an appeal to Apollo 
as the patron god of the city, and it is expressly stated 
that he built it an acropolis. The poem may well have 
been composed by Theognis ; at any rate we know of 
no other Megarian who could have written it. 

In 757-68 * Zeus and other gods immortal ' are en- 
treated to protect the folk; but Apollo is reserved for 
the petition: opOioa-ac yAwo-o-av KOL voov yjixirepov, which 
I take to imply that he stood in no special relation to 
the writer's home. There is no doubt that the lines 
were written to allay a scare, but the language is not 
what we should expect from a man w^riting during an 
actual invasion. The danger, we are reminded, is not 
worth a serious thought, and, as Mr. Harrison admits, 
'war with Medes is mentioned casually, together with 
old age and death, as a trouble to be forgotten at a season 
of drinking, song and talk.' 

The terror of 773-82 is indeed different. The Persians 
are referred to as o-rparos vftpio-ri^'s, and the poet is in 
great apprehension ; contrast 764 with 780. His fears 
are occasioned not by the presence of the enemy, but by 
the dissensions among his own countrymen. This fits 
in well Avith the excitement aroused in Greece by the 
sudden appearance of Cyrus and his conquests in the 
East, when Greeks of Asia had to abandon their homes 
and seek a refuge across the sea. So concerned was the 



HISTORY AND CHRONOLOGY 11 

greatest of Hellenic states that she sent an embassy 
calling upon the king to desist ; Sparta, they said, could 
not remain an indifferent spectator while any Greek 
city was being attacked (Hdt. 1. 152). The reply was 
a threat to supply the Spartans with ' woes of their 
own '. There was a lack of union among the Greeks at 
this date, Sparta being at war with Tegea and Argos 
over Thyreatis, and Pisistratus meditating an attack upon 
Athens. 

Christ {Gr. LiU.-G-esch. § 90) sees in vv. 891-4 a refer- 
ence to the Athenian expedition under the Cypselid 
Miltiades in 506 b.c. But no satisfactory explanation 
of the allusions in these two couplets has yet been offered, 
and it is far from certain that Theognis is their author. 
See notes on vv. 891-4. 

Beloch {N. J. 1888) holds that Megara had passed 
through its social revolution about the end of the seventh 
century b.c, and he admits that we must either assign 
the poet to that date or else remove his home to the 
Sicilian city. His interpretation of 773-82, in which he 
finds an allusion to the events of 480, compels him to 
adopt the latter course. The difficulty disappears if we 
refer the ' Persian elegies ' to 545 b. c, or reject both as 
spurious ; the former alternative is to be preferred. The 
chronology of Theognis does not depend upon these two 
poems ; the other evidence already adduced sufficiently 
vindicates the traditional date, floruit 545 b. c. 

The following may serve as a probable account of what 
occurred at Megara in the days of our poet. After the 
overthrow of Theagenes the nobles ruled the state and 
jealously retained their hereditary rights. This led to 
the conclusion of a temporary alliance between the rich 
capitalists of the middle class and the distressed peasants 
of the country districts. A revolution ensued and demo- 
cracy was established. Before long there was a split in 
the coalition, and the masses, disregarding all considera- 



12 INTKODUCTION 

tions of party, attacked all the rich alike, and passed 
measures of expropriation. The aristocracy and the 
nouveaux riches were now drawn together by commu- 
nity of interests, and a new political party was formed. 
Distinctions of birth tended to disappear ; but some of 
the nobles still held aloof and looked upon the breaking 
down of social barriers with dismay. 

Theognis could see no prospect of social and political 
salvation save in a return to the good old days when 
the nobles were supreme, and he uttered impassioned 
protests against the contamination of noble birth by 
marriage with ' bad ' men and ' low '. He was the pro- 
phet of a lost cause ; their common losses tightened the 
bonds of the alliance, and great numbers of both classes 
went into exile. Keturning with an army they attacked 
and defeated the disorganized democrats. A new con- 
stitution was drawn up in which political privileges 
were shared by all who had helped to restore the exiles 
(Arist. PoL 1300 a). 



CHAPTER II 

Origin and Composition of the Theognidean Sylloge 

In the following sections I have found it necessary to 
discuss in detail the various theories that have been put 
forward regarding the Theognidean question. Many of 
these hypotheses unaccompanied by any proof are dog- 
matically asserted in our leading textbooks on the history 
and literature of the Greek people. I have inserted a few 
references in the footnotes.' 

^ For literary appreciations, ethical discussions raised by the 
Theognidea, &c., see Symonds, Greek Poels, Series I ; Butcher, As2}ects 
of Greek Genius ; the Introd. to Grant's edition of Arist. Ethics ; 
Croiset, Hist, of Greek Lit. (large French edition), &e. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 13 

i. Catchwords. 

Many attempts have been made to discover some general 
plan in the arrangement of the poems. The whole collection 
is not arranged according to subject-matter, nor is there 
any reason to suppose that the elegies vrere once placed in 
alphabetical order. ^ The catchword theory has received 
much support ; it was first put forward with considerable 
hesitation by Welcker (1826), then worked out in detail 
and stoutly defended by Nietzsche, again further exempli- 
fied and somewhat modified by Fritzsche [PMlol. 29), and 
it is still held with some qualifications by J. Sitzler, whose 
edition of Theognis, in spite of many theories which can- 
not command our assent, is unsurpassed for convenience 
and completeness.^ 

Nietzsche maintains that ' our collection is arranged 
according to words [or expressions]. The fragments are 
linked together by catchwords, so that we find the same 
word [or similar expressions] in every pair of adjacent 
poems '. For instance, 1-18 are thus connected ; 1-10 Atos 
TCKO?, 11-14 Ovyarep Atos, 15—18 Kovpac A105 — ctto?, which 
joins the poem with the next ( = e-n-ea-Lv 20). Fritzsche fre- 
quently offers such feeble links as avSpc and dvOpo}7ro<s. The 
catchword need not come near the beginning and end of 
the poems connected. 

An examination of Nietzsche's scheme shows us that 
we find the most satisfactory catchwords in the groups of 
poems that deal with the same subject, the catchword 

' Occasionally, it is true, we find successive elegies beginning 
with the same letter, e. g. 73, 75, 77, 79 ; 611, 615, 617. Were we 
to arrange the whole book in this way, we should have to separate 
poems closely allied in subject-matter. 

2 Cf. R. M. 1867 (Nietz.). The Quart. Rev., vol. clxxxiv, p. 304, con- 
tains the following remarks on the author of Superman. ' From 
Pforta Nietzsche passed at twenty, in 1864, to the Univ. of Bonn. 
His last piece of school-work had been an essay upon Theognis of 
Megara, in which the old Greek moralist and tyrant was held up 
to admiration above the heads of the vile democracy.' 



14 INTRODUCTION 

being usually the very word we should naturally select as 
a heading for the section (e.g. <^tAo?, oho<;, ttXovtos) ; simi- 
larity of thought implies similarity of language. With 
very few exceptions we never get a strong link save where 
the subjects are the same ; where the sequence of ideas is 
broken, we have a very unsatisfactory catchword or else 
a gap in the scheme. The gaps are most numerous where 
there is a rapid change of theme and the poems are short ; 
the longer elegies frequently supply us with some word 
that may be pressed into service, e.g. ^017 1008 = v6ov 1016 ; 
wA.co-e 664 = ttTToAwAev 677. It is hard to see how such 
links as these could help any one to remember the 
sequence in which the poems followed one another. 

'It is a fact,' says Nietzsche in summing up, 'that a 
great number of the fragments (more than half) are con- 
nected by catchwords ; we therefore assume that the 
whole collection was once so arranged.' His fact is cer- 
tainly correct ; his conclusion by no means follows ; it 
must first be proved that the poems were intentionally 
arranged on this principle. If in the term ' catchword ' 
(Stichwort) we are allowed to include simple and trivial 
words, synonj^ms and homonyms that often bear only the 
faintest resemblance to one another in sound or meaning, 
without any distinction between the different parts of 
speech, however far apart from one another the words 
may be ; if, when it suits our purpose, we are allowed 
reasonable licence in combining or cutting up poems that 
deal with the same subject ; if we are permitted to fill up 
any gap that may still be left by the insertion of poems 
that have already been used or that occur later in the 
collection,^ then, with all these resources, which have 

^ N. claims that his theory accounts for the repetitions in the 
text of Theognis. When a catchword could not be found, the 
compiler selected a suitable poem from those already incorporated 
in the collection. Some of the repetitions inserted by N. to fill up 
his gaps come from later portions of the book. Besides, his hypo- 



OEIGIN AND COMPOSITION 15 

been abundantly used by those who advocate the theory, 
we shall always be able to prove an arrangement by catch- 
words in any collection of poems with a range of subjects 
as narroAV as that in the Tlieogoiidea, and generally with far 
greater success than has attended the efforts of Nietzsche, 
Fritzsche, Miiller, and others in the composition of their 
schemes. 

To satisfy myself on this point I took up the first col- 
lection of short poems that suggested itself to my mind, 
and I found them to be admirably suited for the purpose. 
The poems of Asclepiades had been taken by their editor 
from their various positions in the Palatine Anthology ; 
they amount to 180 lines, including 38 poems (all elegies, 
with a single exception) ; 25 of these contain 4 lines each, 
eight 6 lines, two 8 lines, two 2 lines, and one 12 lines. 
Nos. 1-24 deal with erotic themes, 25-27 are convivial, 
28-38 epitaphs and inscriptions. Without once resorting 
to Nietzsche's device of combining different poems I suc- 
ceeded, with only five gaps, in finding a series of catch- 
words quite as satisfactory as those provided by the chief 
advocates of the theory. 

Seeing that in a chance collection of 38 poems we have 
a series of catchwords broken in only five places,' we 
should not be surprised if we found a chance collection of 
370 poems connected by a series broken in fifty places 
alone. In the Theog^iidea, even if we accept all the 
catchwords admitted by Fritzsche, who allows greater 
freedom than his predecessor, the number of gaps is 112. 
We are therefore right in maintaining that this principle 
of arrangement was never applied to the Theognidean 
Sylloge. 

thesis does not explain (1) the minute variants presented by the 
text of the repeated elegies— in one case the catchword itself had 
to be restored by N. ; (2) the occurrence of repetitions in groups of 
several elegies not always themselves connected by catchwords. 

^ With a little more boldness in the use of synonyms the number 
of gaps may be reduced to one. 



16 INTRODUCTION 



4 



A slip made by Welcker shows what chance can do. 
He asserts {Proleg. cv) that not infrequently poems have 
been placed next to one another owing to similarity of 
wording alone. Among the proofs offered come 1223-4, 
1225-6, 1227 8: these give good catchwords. He had 
forgotten that these three poems do not occur in any MS. 
of Theognis. The first comes from Stob. 20. 1, the second 
from another section of the same authority (Stob. 67. 4) ; 
the two were first inserted by Vinet ; subsequently the 
last was introduced into the Theognidea by Grotius from 
Stob. 11. 1 (see p. 170).^ 

ii. Anthologies. 

Most students of Theognis hold the view that the first 
book (vv. 1-1220) of the collection which bears his name 
is an anthology culled from the genuine elegies of the 
Megarian poet, supplemented by additions from the work 
of other elegiac writers ; some are even inclined to regard 
the book as a representative selection of Greek elegiac 
poetry to the close of the fifth century b. c. Various 
explanations of its origin have been proposed, and dates 
have been confidently attached to the successive phases of 
its development by writers who base their theories on 
arbitrary inferences resting upon a too strict interpreta- 
tion of casual statements in ancient authors. A full dis- 
cussion of these passages will be found in a later section 
of this Introduction (p. 84). Some have stoutly main- 
tained that the two books in their present form cannot 
be older than the fifth century a. d. ; others with equal 
assurance assign them to the beginning of the fourth 
century b. c. ; and recently there has come forward in 
England an able critic who, as he himself puts it, ' makes 

^ For a fuller discussion see my article in the J. H. S. After it 
had been printed I discovered that Mr. Harrison had already 
applied a similar test to Latin and English collections of poetry, 
with most convincing results. See his Studies, pp. 170-210. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 17 

bold to maintain that Theognis wrote all or nearly all 
the poems which are extant under his name '. 

The practice of collecting striking passages from favour- 
ite authors is probably as old as Literature itself, and 
we know that extracts from prose and poetry were com- 
piled for public and private use in the time of Plato and 
Aeschines.^ 

(1) Theodor Bergk accordingly maintained that the First 
Book consists of genuine elegies by Theognis in a much- 
abridged and fragmentary form with a strong admixture 
of foreign matter - ; (2) others have seen in it a textbook 
based upon Theognis and compiled for the instruction of 
the young in the schools of Greece ; while (3) a third 
school of interpretation regards it as a collection of songs 
for use in convivial gatherings. 

Without some account of Bergk's wild speculations 
it would be impossible to grasp the principles that underlie 
his dealings with the text or to account for the frequent 
appearances of the hrevlator as deus ex macJiina in the 
critical notes of the Poetae Lyric'i. 

He regards the TJieognidca as a selection from early Bergk's 

breviator. 

^ Plato, Laics 811 a oAovs -noi-qras kKixavOavovras' ol 8e Ik rtavTwv 
ic€(pa.\aia (KXt^avTe^ Kcii rivas oKas pi'jaeis els ravTu ovvayayouTfS (Kfxav- 
Odvdv (paal Sffr (Is fxvrjfxrjv Ti6€fJ.€Vovs, el jueAXet rt? dyaOus rjfuv koX 
crocpvi (K voXvTTdpias Kat -noXvfxaOias yfviaOai. Xeil. Mem. 1. 6. 14 rovs 
Orjcravpovs twv irdXai ao(pu)v dvdpojv, ovs iKfivoi KaT€\ivov kv ^i0\iois 
ypd\pavT€s, dveXiTTojv Koivrj avu tois (pi\ois ^UpxoP'O.i, kox av ri opwfifi/ 
dyaOov, eK\(yufxc9a. Aesch. Ctes. 135 5id tovto yap, olfiai, 77/xas rraidas 
ovras rdj twv iroirjTcJv yvcufxai fKixavddvfiv i'u' avSpes ovres avrais x/«t'A*f ^"» 
A papyrus of the third century B.C. contains fragments of an 
anthology : cf. Flinders Petrie Papyri, tab. iii. See Isocrates quoted 
infra, p. 89. 

2 Jevons, Hist. Gk. Lit., p. 147, refers to the Th. as *an anthology 
of the older elegiac writers . . . addressed to aristocratic readers'. 
The fatal objection to this view lies in the fact that in our collec- 
tion one person stands out pre-eminently, olos irenuvTai, viz. the 
author of the Kvpve poems. Had the collection come down to us 
without a name the writer of the Kvpve elegies would certainly 
have been picked out as the one outstanding personality. 





18 INTEODUCTION 



1 



Greek elegy/ to which Theognis is the chief contributor. 
The whole collection is nothing but a mass of fragments ; 
Hhere is not a single complete elegy in the whole book.' 
In a list of those which he considers to have suffered 
least from mutilation he includes 237-52, 475-92, 699- 
718, 1135-50. The epitomator of Theognis aimed at 
eliminating all personal references and individual traits, 
keeping only general reflections and maxims in which 
the elegiac poetry of the Greeks so richly abounds.^ 
Sometimes the beginning and end of an elegy were alone 
retained; for example, 119-28 are the first lines of a 
poem that terminated with 963-70. Another poem 
began with 11-14; 783-6 are the beginning of an elegy 
that ended with 787, 788 ; 697-718 are fragments of a 
longer elegy by an unknown author. He believes the 
collection to contain poems by various writers ; it is 
impossible, he says, to piece together the bits that once 
formed complete poems ; but with some hesitation he 
suggests the following restoration of 'an elegy by Solon ' : 
373-82, a gap, 383-92, a gap, 315-18, 197-208, 731-42. 

Bergk's chief reason for regarding our collection as 
nothing but a series of fragments is that he cannot 
believe the elegiac poetry of the Greeks to have been so 
' trivial and meagre ' ; and he appeals to the long poems, 
* themselves fragments', which have come down to us 
under the names of Tyrtaeus, Solon, and Xenophanes. 
It is true that the Greeks of the sixth century b. c. wrote 
long poems ; it does not therefore follow that they never 

^ See his Gr. Litt.-Gesch. ii. p. 308, and Rheln. Mus. N. F. iii. 1845. 

^ Whatever else has disappeared from the poems of Theognis, 
personal allusions and reminiscences are still very frequent in the 
elegies addressed to Cyrnus. Bergk believes that changes were 
made in the text with the object of removing proper names ; 
e. g. 193 avTos toi ravrrjv, cr. n. Ipse Theognis nomina duo propria 
posuisse videtur. Hartung proposed Avto/c\^s Avyijv, which he has 
inserted in his translation, although in his text he has not departed 
so far from the MSS. tradition. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 19 

wrote short ones. Paradise Lost does not cast suspicion 
upon Milton's Sonnets, or upon the still shorter Hesperides 
of his contemporary Herrick. A long poem is not re- 
quired to express the needs of the moment, and most 
elegies in our Sylloge belong to the class of ' occasional 
poems '. Some are evidently little epistles like Solon's 
reply to Mimnermus (Sol. fr. 20 P. L. G) ; others were 
composed to describe the passing phases of current poli- 
tics, and some may well be styled manifestoes or a call 
to arms. Their conciseness and brevity should arouse 
no suspicion. Short pithy sayings were much appre- 
ciated in that age, as may be seen from the aphorisms 
of the ^ Seven Sages ' and the gnomes of Phocylides and 
Demodocus. What can be more to the point and com- 
plete than Th. 351-4, 503-8, 509-10, and 979-82? 

Lucas {Siudia Theognidea) follows Bergk in assuming Lucas. 
that the collection contains many fragments ; e. g. 77-8, 
233-4, 299-300, 371-2, 539-40, 655-6, 819-20. He 
regards as more or less suspect all ' monelegies ', i. e. 
Wersus qui spatio unius distichi sententiam continent 
ita ut primo obtutu speciem sententiae perfectae et abso- 
lutae praebeant.' Some of these are slightly adapted from 
longer poems ; e.g. the cou^Dlets 541-2, 1103-4, w^hich 
once formed part of the same elegy. Sometimes, he 
says, a distich was specially composed as a resume of 
a complete elegy, e. g. 117-18, 179-80, 335-6. But we 
do not know enough about the nature of early Greek 
elegy to justify the exclusion of poems on the ground 
of their being short or ' incomplete '. 

iii. The Theognidea not primarily a school texthooh 

References to Theognis in ancient literature make it 
probable that his poems were used as a textbook in the 
schools of Greece. In spite of the dogmatic assertions 
made by modern critics, not a single passage has yet been 

c2 



theories. 



20 INTRODUCTION 

adduced in which it is expressly stated that Theognis 
was read in the class-room (see ch. iv. passim). He was 
certainly regarded as an excellent teacher of practical 
morality and conduct ; Isocrates includes him among the 
apicTTOL crvfji^ovXoL ; Dio Chrys. refers to him in company 
with Phocylides as crvfx/SovXevcDV Kal irapaivoiv TOts TToAXot? Kol 
tSitoTttis ; Cyril (see p. 99) declares with a sneer that the 
verses of these two poets are oTrota -mp av koI TirOat Kopioi<; 
K(u jxrjv KOL TraiSaywyot (f>aL€v av vovOerovvTe'; ra [xupaKLa J and 
the common saying tovtI -^SeLV irplv ©eoyviv yeyovivai (Plut. 
phil. cumprinc. Ill c)^ is j)ossibly a reminiscence of school- 
days. 

Sitsler's Some scholars have therefore concluded that the pre- 

sent condition of the Theognidea is a direct result of 
adaptation for teaching purposes.^ In his exposition of 
this theory Sitzler declares that Hesiod and Theognis 
endured a similar fate ; the poems of both were re- 
arranged for the convenience of the schoolboy so as to 
provide a series of sections linked together by catchwords. 
The schoolmasters who first made the poems of Theognis 
a subject of instruction had access to all or most of his 
elegies. As books were scarce, they dictated lines to 
their pupils, and made them learn them ; each teacher 
made his own selection from the complete poems, guided 

Foreign by his own idea of what was suitable, rejecting what 
he regarded as unfit, inserting parallels of language or 
thought, as well as contradictory passages from other 
authors, and adding verses that contained a criticism of 
the ideas expressed in the preceding elegy of Theognis. 

^ Cf. also * hoc profecto nemo ignoravit et priusquam Theognis, 
quod Lucilius ait, nasceretur' (Gell. N. A. i. 3. 19). Curiously- 
enough Erasmus (Adagio) referred the allusion to Theognis ' Snow ', 
the poet ridiculed by Aristophanes. 

2 E. g. H. Schneidewin, A. and M. Croiset ; cf. ' Our MSS. of 
Theognis come from a collection made for educational purposes in 
the third cent. B.C., and show that state of interpolation which is 
characteristic of the schoolbook'. G. Murray, Anc. Gk. Lit, p. 84. 



elements in 
Theognis. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 21 

Pupils and masters alike composed verses in imitation imitations 
of the elegies in their textbook ; some of these made ''^ '^^^d^ts. 
iheir way into the text, and are still there. 

When a poem was studied, other passages from nepetiUom. 
Theognis bearing upon the same topic, expressing similar 
or conflicting views, were discussed and explained. For 
the sake of convenience these were first placed in the 
margin and afterwards admitted into the text. Some- 
times one or more elegies intervene between two poems 
connected by language or thought ; Sitzler explains this 
by the assumption that a poem originally written by the 
teacher in the margin had been afterwards inserted in 
the wrong place in the text. The first j^art of the book 
has suffered less from interpolation because the beginning 
of a school manual is less likely to be changed, and the 
further one gets in any book, the more material for 
repetition is at our disposal. The later sections of the 
* Complete Poems ' do not appear to have been so well 
suited for use in schools ; consequently there is a greater 
proportion of interpolated matter as we draw near the 
end of the book. 

Thus by degrees was produced ' a new Theognis, not 
everywhere the same', which was religiously copied, 
expanded, and handed down from generation to genera- 
tion. In the meantime the original Theognis had dis- 
appeared and perished of neglect ; for the school edition 
alone survived. Such was the popularity of the new 
textbook that the manuals compiled from the writings 
of other poets fell into disuse and were allowed to die ; 
Hesiod is the sole survivor. Traces of such books may 
still be detected in the numerous ancient controversies 
regarding the authors of certain well-known lines. Theo- 
phrastus, according to Michael of Ephesus, in one passage 
of his philosophical treatises assigned a popular proverb 
to Theognis, while elsewhere he refers to Phocylides as 
its author (Th. 147). Sitzler's explanation is that the 



22 INTRODUCTION 

gnome was included in two school handbooks based upon 
Theognis and Phocylides respectively. The philosopher 
was familiar with both, and when he used the quota- 
tion a second time, he had forgotten his previous mention 
of it, or else he would have added a discussion on the 
question of authorship. 
Sitzier^s Arguing from the references to Theognis in ancient 

theories. Greek writers, Sitzler has endeavoured to fix the date 
of the successive stages by which the Theognidea reached 
their present form. Beginning with Plato, Mono, 95 d, ' he 
takes oXiyov /;tcTa/?as to mean * a little lower down ', and 
finds the interval between Th. 36 and 435 too long ta 
suit this description. Therefore, he maintains, the two 
j)assages discussed by Plato stood nearer to one another 
in his copy of our poet ;- the difference in length is due 
to the presence of extraneous additions in our Sylloge ; 
remove the interpolations, and the difficulty caused bj^ 
the expression oXiyov /xera/Jas promptly disappears. The 
quotations in Aristotle make it clear that much of our 
Theognis was unknown to the philosopher. The refer- 
ences in Xenophon are of no use for our present purpose ; 
the extract attributed to him by Stobaeus (88. 14) is not 
genuine, but the words -rrepi ov8evo<s aXXov k.t.X. prove that 
the writer had in mind a Theognis very different from 
the one we know. The remarks of Isocrates on Theognis 
are inapplicable to our Sylloge, especially his description 
of the poet as one of the aptrrroi a-vjx^ovXoi. By the 
beginning of the first century a.d. Theognis had not 
suffered much from interpolation ; the additions were 
mostly ethical, and quite in keeping with the tone of the 
original. The first two centuries witnessed very little 
change besides the introduction of more sentcntiae. The 
edition which came into the hands of Plutarch did not 

1 The passages concerned are quoted in full infra, eh. iv. 

2 Counting the lines printed as genuine in Sitzler's text, we find 
that there are 182 between 36 and 435. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 23 

contain all the extracts from other poets that occur in 
the collection which we possess ; for when he quotes 
poems which our MSS. assign to Theognis, he gives 
them under the name of their original authors ^ ; our MSS. 
contain all the verses which he cites as the work of 
Theognis. The statements of Dio Chrysostom- prove 
that there were no erotic or sympotic poems in the 
Theognis known to his age. The third century witnessed 
sweeping and violent changes in the form of the book, 
including the admission of carmina amatoria et convivalia 
et alia id genus ; for the edition used by Athenaeus con- 
tained erotica and sympotica, as is evident from the quota- 
tions which (see ch. iv) he makes. But he had never seen 
the Musa Paedica, otherwise he would have referred to it 
in support of his attack upon the morality of Theognis. 
With the exception of this and a few lines not given by 
our MSS., the Theognis of Athenaeus was practically the 
same as ours ; the same aj)plies to Stobaeus (beg. sixth 
century). The second book {M. P.) was subsequently 
added to the collection, and is first mentioned by Suidas 
in the ' eleventh century '. 

Sitzler therefore rejects as spurious all the elegies that Evictions. 
fiill into any one of the following classes : (1) verses 
assigned by the ancients to other authors, (2) repetitions 
or imitations, (3) verses different in sentiment from those 
which are probably genuine, (4) all that embody a criti- 
cism of the preceding elegy, (5) amatory and convivial 
poems, aliaque ludicra. The poems that have survived 
the scrutiny are by no means all allowed to remain : 
many evictions follow the application of a further test. 
Sitzler firmly believes that Theognis attached his seal, 
(the o-</)pr;yts) ' Kvpve ' (cf. p. 4), to every poem which he 

^ So do modern students of ancient poetiy, in spite of the fact 
that the MSS. of the Theognidea claim the lines for the aristocrat of 
Megara. Plutarch was using other sources. 

'^ Born about the middle of the first century a. d. 



24 INTRODUCTION 



I 



published ; we should therefore expel all the elegies that 
do not bear the address to Cyrnus, unless we have good 
reason to suppose that they are fragments of elegies that 
once bore the required seal. To this class he assigns 
(1) all poems addressed to other persons, e. g. Poly- 
paides (for, like Welcker, he does not consider this to 
be another name for Cyrnus), Onomacritus, Argyris, 
Academus, Clearistus, and others ; (2) invocations of the 
gods, e. g. 1-18 (in spite of Aristotle's reference to 14), 
731-42, 773-82 ; (3) poems that for any other reason 
cannot have been addressed to Cyrnus, e. g. 1209-10 ; 
757-68, because they mention the Persian wars which 
Theognis cannot have lived to see ; 407-8 '^nam eiusmodi 
non est familiaritas quam aliis locis videmus Theognidem 
inter et Cyrnum intercedere '. Out of this ' baphometic 
fire-baptism ' emerge 330 lines ; of the 1389 verses (ex- 
clusive of repetitions) which make up the Theognidea these 
alone have attained to the honour of the large type with 
which Sitzler designates a genuine elegy ; all the rest are 
spurious and meet the reader in one of two varieties 
of small type chosen to indicate the supposed origin of 
the interpolation. 
Criticism If Sitzler's interpretation of the statements made by 

of izer. a^ncigj^t authors regarding Theognis is shown to be im- 
possible, and if he can fairly be accused of having put too 
narrow a construction upon the words of Theognis him- 
self with regard to his own methods of composition, then 
the theory of which I have just given an outline loses 
every vestige of support (see ch. iv). 

Sitzler was not the first to deal with the Theognidea 
in this fashion. As early as 1826, Welcker, the father 
of Theognidean criticism, rearranged the order of the 
poems, printing the ^genuine' elegies in two sections 
according to subject-matter, (1) Gnomes to Cyrnus, (2) 
Gnomes to Polypaides. He added in the following divi- 
sions poems classed as ' a Theognide aliena ' : Sympotica, 



OKIGIN AND COMPOSITION 25 

Epigrammata, Parodiae, Adespota, Musa JPaedica, and of 
course poems known to have been composed by Tyrtaeus, 
Mimnermus, and Solon. See an exhaustive discussion 
by Harrison (Studies, ch. iii). 

In stating his theory Sitzler lays great weight on the 
differences which our MSS. exhibit in the length of the 
Theognidean collection. But a brief examination of the 
contents and order of our MSS. is enough to prove beyond 
all doubt that we have before us a number of more or less 
varying texts which can only be accounted for on the 
assumption that they are all derived from one prototype 
differing little from our earliest and most complete MS. A. 
According to Sitzler's reasoning our MSS. represent dif- 
ferent stages in the later history of the school text ; we 
should therefore expect to find traces of the process of re- 
casting, omitting, and adding, by which, we are told, the 
book reached its present form. With one trifling exception 
A contains all that is given in the other MSS., and these 
differ from one another only in the occasional omission 
of some lines that are found in A, especially repetitions ; 
the order of the poems is the same in all. The mere 
omission of a great number of poems is irrelevant, as 
it cannot even be shown that lines of a certain tendency 
were cast out ; and there is no trace of the further 
addition of parallels and the insertion of imitations 
composed in the school-room. There is but one analogy 
that would support Sitzler's hypothesis, and this our MSS. 
do not supply ; for it would be idle to argue that they 
descend from various school-books based upon Theognis 
(the ^novus Theognis, non ubique idem' of Sitzler) 
produced independently of one another. Selections made 
by different masters and treated according to the method 
assumed by Sitzler would not be veiy like one another 
in arrangement and contents. No two teachers would 
-agree in giving in the same place extracts of the same 
length from the same poems of Theognis, arranged in 



26 INTRODUCTION 

the same order, with the same criticisms; nor would 
they always agree in choosing the same parallels from 
Mimnermus or Solon and inserting them in the same 
place ; and they would have passed well beyond the 
border-line of the miraculous if they agreed in giving 
the same repetitions with the same textual variations, 
of a trivial nature/ in the same place and in producing 
exactly the same imitations of the same elegies and 
letting them creep into the same place in the text. As 
this, and this alone, would afford the required analogy, 
it must be admitted that there is nothing in the relations 
of the surviving MSS. to one another to favour the theory 
which has received such wide support. 

Again, the contents of the book make it quite unfit for 
school use. Many of the elegies it contains are frag- 
mentary, disconnected, and, where they stand, almost 
unintelligible ; the subject they deal with is often trivial 
and of no general interest ; it is hard to see what possible 
use could be found for poems like 371-2, 407-8, 419-20, 
539-40, 579-80, 595-8, 599-602. The moral tone of the 
poems is often low ; ^ it is not likely that exhortations to 
a life of luxury, idleness, and dissipation, would retain their 
popularity with many generations of school teachers.^ It 

1 Cp. 115-16,043-4; 41, 1082 a. 

2 For a different view cf. * The extant lines of Theognis are often 
supposed to represent a school edition of the poet's works, con- 
taining the more improving portions.* Freeman, Schools of Hellas. 
* The hand of the schoolmaster seems to have been at work in the 
case of another j)oet much used in education, Theognis. Sucli 
parts of his poetry as are obviously unedifying ai-e relegated to a 
sort of appendix at the end of the book, and in many MSS. are 
omitted altogether.' G. Murray, Eisc of the Greek Epic, p. 133. 

3 Cf. Th. 503-8, 983-8, 993-6, 1007-12, 1039-40, 1063-8, 1129-32. 
Even if it could be shown that the poems are connected by means 
of catchwords, this would give no support to the school-book theory, 
as Sitzler himself extends the catchwords to the Musa Paedica (Bk. ii), 
which he does not believe to have been used in schools. With 
regard to the repetitions his theory fails to account for (1) the 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 27 

is curious that, while Sitzler denies to the Theognidea in 
their final form the moral excellences claimed for Theognis 
by Isocrates and others, he can still believe that they 
were good enough to improve the mind of the young for 
several centuries after the introduction of Christianity. 

iv. A Song Bool:. 

The view has been advanced that our book is a col- 
lection of drinking-songs specially designed for use at con- 
vivial gatherings, and attempts have been made to account 
for all its i^eculiarities by means of this hypothesis.^ 
There is no doubt that elegies of the most varied character 
were sung at banquets, and there is a reference to this 
practice in more than one passage of the Theognidea. In 
V. 239 we are told that Cyrnus will be on the lips of all 
men, and present at all feasts and banquets ; young men 
will sing his renown to the accompaniment of shrill- 
toned pipes. In V. 939 a guest offers an excuse for his 
inability to sing. From v. 943 we learn that the singer 
stood to the right of his accompanist. Athenaeus (p. 694) 
tells us that hortatory poems were most suitable for 
symposia, and an enumeration of the poetical qualities 
recommended in the Convivial Problems of Plutarch as 
most likely to produce the best impression upon the 
frequenters of convivial gatherings would furnish an 
excellent description of the didactic poems of Theognis. 

There are in the Attic Scolia (e. g. 8, 21, 22, 23, 26, 30, in 
P. L. G.) yvwfxai very similar to those of Theognis. The 

minute variants in their text, and (2) the occurrence in masses, 
towards the end of the book, of repeated poems that frequently 
liave no connexion with their neighbours. 

1 Keitzenstein, E2\ u. Sk. ch. ii, regards the Theognidea as a con- 
vivial hymn-book compiled from the works of many poets ; in its 
character of Commershiich he finds an argument in support of a fifth- 
century date. Wendorff's dissertation is entitled ex usu convirali 
Theognideam syllogen fluxisse demonsiratur. Wilamowitz also holds the 
Theognidea to be a Trinkliederbiich. Cf. Baumgartcn, Hell. Kultur, p. 208. 



28 INTRODUCTION 

word kraipo'; which occurs so frequently in our book was 
specially used in the sense of ' drinking-companion ' (cf. 
V. 115).^ Clubs of dyaOoi met to sing the praises of 
their own party and to commemorate their heroes of the 
past ; remains of such songs have survived in the Leipsy- 
drium Scolion (Ath. Polit 19) and in an elegiac couplet 
sung in honour of Cedon {Ath. Polit. 20). 

Some poems in the Theognidea appear to have been 
specially composed for use in social clubs, e. g. 579-80, 
sung by a woman, with the man's reply, 581-2 ; 1155-6 
is evidently an answer to 1153-4, if not by the same 
author, certainly by an imitator ; advocates of the Com- 
mershiich theory have extended this explanation to those 
pairs of elegies of which the second contradicts or criti- 
cizes the sentiment expressed in the first, e. g. 1003-6 
and 1007-12 ; cf. also 885-6, 887-8, 889-90 ; but these 
may also be accounted for by the practice of writing 
parallel or contrasted passages side by side in a common- 
place book. We might even admit that every single 
elegy in the collection with which we are now dealing- 
was intended by its author to be sung or recited in meet- 
ings of boon-companions ; it would not therefore follow 
that the collection as a whole was meant to be a hymn- 
book for habitues of such gatherings. 

Before we can make good this assumption we must 
show that the setting of the book is peculiarly appropriate 
to the purpose claimed for it, and that the poems are put 
together in a convenient way, for instance, either (1) dic- 
tionary-wise according to subjects alphabetically arranged, 
so that an elegy on any given theme could be immediately 
picked out from a group under that heading ; or (2) in the 
form of a continuous programme giving the order in 
which the poems are allotted to each singer in succes- 

^ Pind. 01. 9. 6 Koojxa^ovri (piKois 'EipapfiuCTcu crvv kraipois. Plat. Rep. 
568 E aiiro? T6 KOI oi avfiirorai t( Kai kraipoi koX kraipai : cf. the use 
of w kralpe in Attic Scot. 23. 



' ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 29 

sion. But there is in our book no grouping according 
to subjects, and no general principle of arrangement has 
yet been discovered. Geyso (Shidia), it is true, maintains Geyso. 
that what he regards to be the second division of the 
poems, viz. 757-1230, is drawn up on a definite principle,^ 
and he has attempted to show how each poem naturally 
calls forth the next. But his programme will not bear 
examination ; he is often forced to connect poems by 
means of fanciful resemblances or contrasts ^ ; a mono- 
tonous succession of elegies on similar subjects is suc- 
ceeded by a series of rapidly changing topics with no 
connecting link, and, in spite of transpositions in the 
order, there are still many gaps in the scheme.^ Here, 
as with the catchwords, the links fail where they are 
most required. 

Geyso lays great stress on the hymns addressed to the 
gods with which the alleged sympotic collection opens. 
But 769-72 can hardly be regarded as an invocation of the 
Muses; and 757 sqq., 773 sqq. , are poems composed for 
a special occasion, and ill adapted for constant use in con- 
vivial meetings. We get invocations of a far more suitable 
character at the beginning of our book (1-18), and these 
occur in a section for which Geyso does not claim a place 
at symposia. In spite of the praise lavished upon his 
dissertation in the preface to Bergk's Anthologla (ed. 
Crusius) it cannot be said that his main conclusions are 
likely to receive much support. 

1 ' Collector igitur haec carmina ex genuino ordine eripuit eaque 
in speciem certaminis convivalis collegit et suum in usum ordin- 
avit.' Studia, p. 64. 

2 e. g. * ad versus 787 sq. respondet alter symposiasta qui patriae 
laudi opponit virtutis et sapientiae laudem'. 895-902 ^-^fvwfirjs et 
avyyvwfiTjs virtus laudatur, ad quos alius vv. 903-30 adiungit aliam 
virtutem (ptiScuKiav laudans '. 

=« e. g. after 820 and 1190. 



30 INTKODUCTION 



V. FAcienda. 



Many attempts have been made to sift the foreign from 
the genuine element in the Theoynidea and restore the 
interpolated poems to their original owners. Their failure 
is due to the unsatisfactory nature of the criteria adopted ; 
there can be no finality in conclusions based upon (1) 
resemblances in language, tone, sentiment, and general 
situation ; (2) references to places and persons alleged to 
be inconsistent with what we already know about the life 
and fortunes of Theognis ; (3) contrasts to what are 
assumed to be his characteristic modes of thought and 
feeling. For instance, Wendorff (pp. 2 sqq.) holds that 
373-80 cannot have been composed by the author of 
1179-80, as in the latter elegy Theognis advises Cyrnus to 
revere the gods, while the other contains a savage indict- 
ment of King Zeus himself ; nor will he admit that the 
same man could have written the following pairs : 567-70 
(or 1119-22) and 527-8 (or 1351-2); 465-6 (or 629-30) 
and 1063-8 ; 1153-4 and 1155-6 (or 559-60) ; and several 
others. 
Hartung. The following is the black list drawn up by Hartung, 
who has actually printed the ^ restored' elegies among the 
collected fragments of their alleged rightful owners. 
Solon, on the ground of similarity in thought and diction, 
receives Th. 197-208, 605-6, 693-4, 847-50, 933-4, 945- 
54, 1155-6 ; Mimnermus is credited with 1007-24, 1069- 
70 ; Callinus gets 235-6 (for no apparent reason), 603-4 
because Athenaeus is supposed to allude to this couplet 
when he says that the elegies of Callinus contain a 
reference to the fatal effect of luxury on the citizens of 
Magnesia^; 257-66, 861-4, 1209-16, are assigned to 

1 12. 525 c diTuXovTO 5e koi MdyvrjTes ol irpos to) Matdj/Spo) hid ru 
irXtov dviOTJvai^ ws (prjai 'K.aXXTvos kv roTs k\eyfiois. But the woes of 
the Magnesians had become proverbial, and there is no reason 
whatever for holding, as many critics do, that the lines in question 



OEIGIN AND COMPOSITION 31 

Cleobulus, Cleobulina, or Eumetis, because they are known 
to have composed riddles in elegiac metre. To the 
Spartan sage Chilon he confidently attributes 879-84, 
which can only have been composed by a Laconian, and 
1087-90, because the author invokes the Spartan deities 
Castor and Polydeuces. 

Keitzenstein is more cautious, and offers the following Jieitsmstein, 
suggestions ; 579-80, 861-4, and 257-60 were composed 
by a woman ; to these he would also add 1043-4, where 
the corrupt MS. reading a(TTV(j)iXr]<; stands for the name of 
a woman ; further, 879-84, 997-1002, 1087-90 by a Laco- 
nian, 891-4 by a Euboean, 1209-10 by an MOmv living 
in Thebes, 1211-16 by an exile from a city in the Lethaeus 
region. He refers to the above as 'the undoubtedly 
un-Theognidean pieces'.^ The critical notes of Bergk's 
Lyric Poets contain a number of similar ejections incUid- 
ing the ascription of 533-4 to Archilochus.- In most 
of the above cases the difficulty disappears if we bear in 
mind the fact that elegies frequently reflected the passing 
moods of the moment, and that we are altogether ignorant 
of the situation which called them into being ; it is quite 
possible that the poet wrote for friends or imaginary 
characters of his own invention. The references in some 
of the rejected poems are too obscure to warrant any 
definite conclusions regarding their authors " ; and we 
should not forget that these early poets frequently imi- 
tated and appropriated the thoughts, expressions, and 

must have been written by an inhabitant of Asia Minor. See 
Appendix on 1103-4. 

^ He believes the collection to contain 'eine ganze Reihe fiir uns 
namenloser Dichter '. See his book Epigramm vnd Skolion. 

2 Mahaffy confidently assigns 757-68 to Bias. * I am persuaded 
that in Theognis, vv. 757-68, we have an actual fragment of Bias 
preserved, describing the blessings of the proposed Ionian settle- 
ment in Sardinia.' Gk. Class. Lit., Poets, p. 178, n. 1, 

3 1209-16 are perhaps not to be literally interpreted. See 
notes. 



32 INTRODUCTION 



even the general framework of the elegies written by 
their predecessors or contemporaries. For a discussion 
of the poems by Tyrtaeus, &c., see infra, pp. 44 sqq. 
Evcnvs. Theognis v. 472 is quoted three times by Aristotle. 

In two passages he refers the line to Euenus, in the third 
he introduces his quotation with the impersonal op^w? 
eiprjrai.^ Harpocration (probably second century a. d.), 
quoting Eratosthenes (born 275 e.g.), informs us that there 
Avere two elegiac poets called Euenus, and that both were 
natives of Pares ; he further tells us that the younger of 
the two alone attained to celebrity (yvoypL^eaOai). Syncellus 
(800 A.D.)^ had evidently the latter in mind when he said 
that about 01. 80 'E^vrjvo? eAeyeta? 7roLr}T7]<; lyvMpi'C^ro. 

We know from the writings of Plato that Euenus of 
Pares was a contemporary of Socrates and well known as 
a poet and sophist. We meet him in the Apology ^ as a 
teacher of * human and political virtue ' acting as tutor 
to the sons of Callias. In the Phaech^s he is referred to 
as o KttA.Aio-T09 Ilapto? Evr}vo<; in company with such dis- 
tinguished men as Tisias and Gorgias : he is cited as 
the inventor of certain innovations in rhetoric, and the 
allusion concludes with a passing reference to his poetry 
and his distinction as a 0-0(^09. He is also described 
as 6aviJia(TT(k by Hermias in a note on the PJiaedrus. 
His fame as a poet may be gathered from a passage in 
the I'Jiaedo ; Cebes, in the course of a conversation with 
Socrates, told him that Euenus wished to know what had 
induced him to write poetry in prison ; to this Socrates 
replied that it was not from any intention of competing 
• with Euenus, for that, says Plato, ' would be no easy 
matter.' 

» Eth. Eud.2. 7, MetaphA. 5, Rhd. 1. 11 ; 7r^7Ai' Arist.; XPW MSS. Th. 

^ 1. 484. €yvojpi^€To. as Bergk suggests, points to the younger 
Euenus ; in that case 01. 80 seems too early, and is perhaps due to 
an error. Suidas calls the historian Philistus a pupil of ' Euenus, 
the elegiac poet '. 

3 ApoL 20 A, Phaedrus 267 a, Fhaedo 60 d. 






ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 33 

The name Euenus is found four times in Aristotle. Two 
of the passages have already been given ; the third comes 
from the Nicomachean Ethics (7. 11), where two hexameters 
are quoted to illustrate a remark on ' habit being second 
nature ' ; the fourth quotation is a pentameter in the 
treatise On Virtues and Vices (p. 1251 a). Aristotle, then, 
writing on philosophical questions, refers several times to 
a poet bearing the name of a famous man mentioned by 
a brother philosopher as having earned distinction at 
Athens in philosophy as well as in poetry. The lines 
quoted contain more philosophy than poetry, and their 
abstract character almost betrays the sophist masquerading 
as poet. There can be no doubt that the Euenus of Aris- 
totle was the great sophist of Paros. In spite of the 
evidence, Bergk rejects his claims ; and, merely because 
he does not think that the philosopher would quote the 
authority of so recent a poet, he assigns all the quota- 
tions of Aristotle to his namesake, an obscure indi- 
vidual of whom nothing was known to a man of the 
widest encyclopaedic learning, Eratosthenes, librarian of 
Alexandria, probably the greatest scholar of his age, born 
less than fifty years after the death of Aristotle. 

Bergk's P. L. G. contains ten fragments under the name 
of Euenus.^ Nos. 1-5 he ascribes to the younger poet ; 
the elder receives Nos. 6-9, and, after some hesitation, 10. 
Nos. 7, 8, 9 occur in the quotations by Aristotle already 
mentioned. The remaining two (6, 10) come from Plutarch, 
who quotes one line under the name of Euenus in his 
Essay on the Love of Offspring (ch. 3), -and again cites 
Euenus as an authority on a question of natural science 
(Qu. PI. 10. 3). It is hard to see why the earlier poet 
should be credited with the former of these two quota- 
tions, especially as Hermias definitely assigns the line to 
the better known Euenus [Oavixaa-To^]. Summarily dis- 
posing of No. 6, Bergk finally decides to throw in 
' Besides ten ascribed to later poets of that name. 
D 



34 INTRODUCTION 

No. 10, on the ground that Plutarch never quotes the 
younger poet. Theognis 467-96, 667-82, 1345-50, are 
also sent to swell the collected remains of Euenus Maior. 

Hartung {Gr. Meg., vol. 1) is still more generous to- 
wards him, and shows greater consistency in fathering 
upon the same writer all the poetical fragments of an 
ethical and erotic nature ascribed to 'Euenus'; these 
include all the pieces printed as 1-9 by Bergk, except 
the two hexameters quoted by Aristotle (fr. 9, Nic. Etli. 
7. 11), which Hartung allows the sophist to retain. It 
is certainly impossible to detect any difference of tone 
between 1-5 and 6-9. To these Hartung adds the two 
elegies from Theognis, Book I, and nearly the whole of 
Book II [Musa Pacdka). 

The mere fact that Th. 472 was read among the poems 
of Euenus the sophist does not in itself entitle him to the 
whole elegy in which it occurs.^ But several other con- 
siderations point in the same direction, and it is highly 
probable that he composed the three poems assigned by 
Bergk to his older fellow-countryman and namesake 
(467-96, 667-82, 1345-50). The three are addressed to 
Simonides ; the first contains a line assigned by Aristotle 
to Euenus (472). In the second there is a reference ta 
the ' Melian Sea ' (672) ; assume the line to have been 
written by a Parian, and all difficulties raised by this 
perplexing expression at once vanish (see notes ad loc). 
The tone of 1345-50 fits in excellently with what we 
know about Euenus; Artemidorus {On. 1. 4) refers to 
erotic writings by him,^ and Epictetus probably had 

^ For single lines or phrases used by different authors cf. the 
saying of Aristodamus, xpi7A«aT' dvrjp in Alcaeus (fr. 50), and Pindar 
(Is. 2. 11) ; also Th. 17, Eur. Bacch. 881, Plat. Lijsis 216 c. 

2 There is an erotic couplet a^scribed to Euenus in the Musa 
Paedica Stratonis, A. Pal. 12. 172. * That the sophist is meant may 
be gathered from a reference to his erotic poems in Auson. Cent. 
Nupt, where we read that Menander called Euenus sajnens. For 
other poets of the same name see P. L. G. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 35 

these in mind when he rebuked a friend for abandoning 
Chrysippus and Zeno in favour of Aristides and Euenus 
(Epict. 4. 1). 6). We have, therefore, good grounds for 
holding that the Theognidea comprise poems by at least 
one elegist who lived long after Theognis. 

vi. 3Ietrical Tests. 

Metrical considerations have led Hartel {Analecta, 1879) HarfeL 
to reject or suspect of corruption many lines in the Theog- 
nidean collection. He condemns the hiatus in m dva (1), 
^o2^€ tti^a^ (5, 773), and acre avaKTa (987), on the ground 
that Theognis does not admit hiatus before ava$ and 
avda-ao). But ava^' is not elsewhere found in the Tlicog- 
nklea ; avaa-aoi occurs but twice,' and the two instances 
of its use have no bearing on the question. The Homeric 
parallels sufficiently justify the lines rejected b}^ Hartel. - 
He also objects to the lengthening of a short syllable as 
in Th. 2 Xtja-o/xaL dpx6iJL€vo<s ovS" d7ro7ravo/>tei/o9, and regards 
as corrupt every line in which a similar instance occurs.'^ 
There is no reason to suppose that the elegiac poets, 
whose language so constantly reflects the words and 
phrases of the Homeric poems, could not also have 
occasionally admitted their metrical licences, and Hartel 
is willing to allow this in certain cases of hiatus before 
a lost digamma. In each of the four lines which he has 
condemned the lengthening occurs before the caesura, and 
in three out of the four the short syllable is preceded by 
two other short syllables. * Hartel regards the lengthening 
in the two pentameters as the result of an attempt to give 
the colour of antiquity by imitating the language of the 

1 -((XCTIV ) 

i uvdaaeiis) 373, 803 ; cf. Od. 20. 112 Avdodjiroiaiv avdaaen. 

-01111/ ) V / 7 » 

- Zev dva, Od. 17.354; S) dva, H. ApoU. 179 ; ^oWe dra^, ih. 257 ; ol 
8( avaKTa ih. 372 ; x^^^P^ dva^, H. 15. 9, and elsewhere in the Hi/mns. 

^ viz. 329, 461, 1232 ; 440 is certainly corrupt. 

* Cf. //. Ap. 209 otiTTOJS fxvaiofjLfvos eKies 'A^avrtSa Kovp-qv ; H. Jlerm. 
23, IT. Aphr. 157, 199, 11. Ap. 491. 

d2 



36 INTRODUCTION 

Hymns. He brings a similar charge against o-eto (1), of 
which not a single instance occurs in the elegiac poets. 
But its presence should excite no surprise in an invocation 
that is almost entirely composed of phrases taken from the 
Hymns. 

In discussing the other cases of hiatus in Theognis, 
Hartel declares that very few of the verses in which they 
occur are free from suspicion ; if so, it is strange that 
textual corruption should have followed such definite 
conditions in its treatment of hiatus. Out of twelve^ 
instances in arsis, in nine the hiatus occurs at the caesura, 
and in four of these nine there is a pause in the sense as 
well ; one of the others comes before a proper name be- 
ginning with two short syllables ('ATaXavTi^). The same 
applies to the fourteen cases of hiatus in thesis ; eight 
occur at the caesura (three in ordinary, five in bucolic 
caesura) ; in six of these there is also a pause in the sense ; 
four of the others are Homeric, one comes after a vocative 
and a pause, and another after an imperative (irtid^o).'^ 
Lucas. I have carefully considered the detailed metrical analyses 

published by Lucas in his Studia Theognidea. In spite 
of the arguments invoked therein, the Theognidea appear 

1 In arsis 253, 315 (Solon), 478, 535, 621, 778, 957, 960, 1066, 
1283, 1291, 1341. In thesis 157, 232 (Solon), 236, 318 (Solon), 333, 
649, 831, 992, 993, 1085, 1141, 1195, 1287, 1351. For 236 see next 
note. The MSS. readings of 288 are certainly corrupt. In 1141 
tcpdirai should be read, and there is probably something wrong 
in 1287. For 232, 318, 992, and the readings of the best MSS., see 
cr. n. ad loc. and cf. Fhocyl. 15. 1 aAAore aWoi, Od. 4. 236 dWore 
aWof. Ten of the twelve cases in arsis avoid the recurrence of 
three shert syllables. 

* Cases of hiatus due to the loss of a digamma or other initial 
sounds are almost entirely confined to reminiscences of Homer, e.g. 
(5 (pbdv 105, 368, 573, 955, 1263, 1266, 1317. Kai ol (*su-) 405 ; cf. 
also 178, 391, 519, 1256, 1376. oUa 159, 375 ; cf. 11. 7. 237, Od. 14. 365. 
Ti dneiv 177; cf. 11. 4. 22. XPW^^^^^V «^'^<"'' ^89; cf. II. 10. 122. 
ovbe ixt oTvos 413 ; cf. II. 3. 269. cx^rXia epya 733 ; cf. Od. 22. 413. 
T^5e ddoi 52 ; cf. Od. 2. 114. Kvpve, aKuaonevri 236; cf. Of?. 5. 312. 
Supa iooTi(^vwv 250. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 37 

to be in line with the elegies of the fifth and the preceding 
centuries, and there is nothing in his statistics to prove 
that the lines do not belong to the age for which tradition 
has claimed them. 

The metrical investigations of J. Sitzler published in sitzUr. 
his Shfdien zum Elegilcer Theognis have also led their 
author to the eviction of many lines attributed to our 
poet. He starts with the statement that there is a sharp 
contrast between the early elegiac poets (i. e. down to 
500 B. c.) and those of the ' Attic ' period ; as Theognis is 
to be reckoned among the former, it follows that we must 
regard as spurious or corrupt all the lines that are not in 
metrical agreement with poems of the early period ; on 
these grounds he condemns a number of Theognidean 
verses. For instance, dealing with correption before the 
combination mute + liquid in the interior of a word, he 
quotes Hartel on the usage of Homer, viz. that lengthening 
is the rule ; exceptions are rare, and perhaps to some extent 
occur in later accretions to the text, and for the most part 
in compound words. Here the early elegists (excluding 
Theognis) agree with Homer. They offer but three 
instances of this correption in the hexameter.^ 

From the 'Attic' period we get thirty instances, 
including three compounds, eight proper names, and 
five augmented or reduplicated forms ; in the Alexandrian 
elegiac poets (i. e. those in Hartung's Elegiker, Callimachus 
ed. Meineke, and Theocritus ed. Fritzsche) we find sixty- 
nine instances, of which four are compounds, twenty- 
seven are proper names, and eleven augmented or redu- 
plicated forms. Theognis supplies us with seventeen 
cases ; of these Sitzler is willing to accept ten as metricallj^ 

^ (piKuxprjfiaTia in Tyrt. 3. 1. 'AcppoSiTT), Mimn. 1. 1, and Anacr. 94. 3. 
There is a fourth case in Erinna 4. 3 iypaipev ; this he dismisses, as 
he regards the poem in which it occurs to be the product of a later 
age. It should not be forgotten that Homer presents such cases as 
(papirpri II. 8. 323, h(Kpv\pe Od. 5. 488, fKMOr} Od. 19. 470. 



38 INTRODUCTION 

unobjectiunable (i. e. five compounds, three augmented 
or reduplicated, and aAAorpios owing to the Homeric 
precedent); the remainder he relegates to a later date.' 
Other lines he rejects on metrical grounds of a similar 
nature ; in the first half of the pentameter, for example, 
the early poets offer but two instances of correption within 
a word, the Attic period seven, Alexandrian thirteen ; 
Theognis presents six, all of which except one are regarded 
by Sitzler as ' suspicious ' (verdachtig), though he admits 
that three may possibly be allowed to remain. It will 
be seen that the dividing line throughout is drawn 
between the ' early ' period (before 500 b. c.) and the 
others, and the Theognidean verses are rejected because 
they violate the alleged metrical practice of that early 
period. But there is not sufficient material on which 
to base our conclusions regarding its metrical laws ; the 
Theognidea include more than two-thirds of the elegiac 
poetry assigned to the early period ; they also come at 
the end of it, and it might well be argued that their 
metrical rules represent the transition to the next age. 
We have quite as good a right to begin the 'Attic' 
period with Solon as with Simonides, and Sitzler him- 
self does this when it suits his purpose. Further, we 
must not expect all poets of the same period to observe 
rigidly the same exact limits in the use or extension of 
a metrical convenience already sanctioned to some extent 
by their predecessors and contemporaries ; nor shall we 
always find even the same poet imposing upon himself 

^ The ten instances are 417, 1105, 927, 931, 1181 compounds; 
55, 921, 1229 aug. or redupl., and aXXdrpios in 267, 1149. Eight of 
these ten lines, with the elegies in which they occur, are rejected 
as spurious for other reasons. 'Nach Ausschluss dieser bleiben 
7 Fiille iibrig, vv. 303, 351, 471, 479, 501, 559, 1143, die von der Ubung 
der iiltern Zeit abweichen und ganz an spiltere Zeit erinnern.' The 
last words are an excellent description of 351, as the form in question 
{dKVfis) is a conjecture made by Hartung and Meineke for the MSS. 
jxfVfis. In 471, 559, scan dypvm^eovTa, dcpveov. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 39 

tlie siime strictness in the observance of conventions that 
so readily admit of expansion.^ 

Sitzler finds further justification for his methods of 
ruthless surgery in the metrical use of /caAos, aver] and 

KaXos. He cites two instances of kSAos from Hesiod, 
and then dismisses them as due to the poet's native 
dialect.^ Mimnermus 1. 6 has y^pas 6' r' alaxpov ofjLws Kal 
KaXov avhpa riOil, which Sitzler emends by substituting 
Tokav. Erinna 6. 8 has KoXa aajxaO^ opcovn, Solon 13. 21 
Srjwo-a^ KaXa epya. In the ' Attic ' elegists tt is more 
frequent than d ; cf. Simon. 95. 1, Ion 1. 15 ; a is rare 
in the Alexandrian period. Sitzler therefore regards the 
following verses as ' certainly suspicious ' : Th. 282, 652, 
696, 960, 994, 1259, 1280. He finds another explanation 
for a in Th. 17: the hexameter ottl kuXov, (fitXov iart, 
TO 8' ov KaXov ov cfiiXov iaxLv was taken from an epic which 
dealt with the marriage of Cadmus and Harmonia, and 
its author, like Hesiod, used a as well as a. 

dj'tT), di/iT)p6s. avLTf always with I in the epic poets. [It 
occurs only once in Hesiod, viz. Th. 611.]^ The word is 
not found in elegy until the Alexandrian period ; Sitzler 
quotes five instances with I from hexameters in the works 
•of four poets of that age, and one with I from a penta- 
meter by another. From this he infers that the Alex- 
andrian elegists used I in the hexameter and I in the 
pentameter ; and he extends this usage to the early and 
Attic elegists, an inference of which he finds confirma- 
tion in Th. 1337, 76, 844, 872. This will serve as a good 

' Compare, e. g., the licence of Leonidas with the strictness of 
<Jallimachus. 

- Paley and others reject W. D. 63 as an interpolation. ' The 
short a in kuXuv is fatal to the genuineness of the verse ; in the 
early epic it is invariably /cdAoj. We have indeed in Thcoyowj 585 
avTfip (TT(i5fi Tev^e Ka\dv KaKov avT dyadoio, but there Hermann reads 
avrdp end rev^ev.^ Paley, 1. c. 

3 Pindar has dvfr], Sappho dvfai(n (1. 3). 



40 INTKODUCTION 

instance of the recklessness with which he argues from 
insufficient data. Had it not been for the solitary instance 
of t in an Alexandrian pentameter we might have found 
three Theognidean elegies rejected as late or even post- 
Alexandrian.^ 

d»'tr]p6s always with I in epic. In early elegy t in 
Archil. 10, I in Solon 13. 15. ' Both lines are hexa- 
meters, so that we at once get the riile : the elegiac 
poets use t anceps.' Had the case from Archilochus 
happened to be in a pentameter we should have had the 
same inference as for avtr] ; had fate preserved two 
instances of I alone from the early period, to judge from 
his treatment of similar cases, Sitzler would have branded 
as ' suspicious ' the two examples of t supplied by 
Theognis (276, 472). 

Ttv€iv. I in epic. Pindar, Pyth. 2. 24, has t : t in Solon 
13, 31. No other case occurs in the early period ; the 
word is not found in elegy of the Attic age ; i and Z in 
later elegy. Having got rid of the example of X from 
Solon ^, Sitzler extracts from the remaining data the 
extraordinary conclusion that 'as a poet of the first 
period, and not a native of Attica {Nicht-Attiker), Theognis 
in all probability always used tlvclv with I . . . Th. 740 is 
therefore suspicious ' {avTiTLveiv, which he regards as an 
* Attic compound ' ; cf. Eur. Med. 261). 

iriojxai. Athenaeus, p. 446 e, makes the statement : 
TTLO/JLai Sk av€v Tov V XeKTiov, €.KTiivov(Ti 8e TO t, and he quotes 
cases of I from Homer and Aristophanes ; he then con- 
tinues : cvtoTc Se KoX (Tva-TiXXova-L to l, with two instances 
from Plato Comicus. Sitzler adds examples of I from 

^ KciKiov always with t in Homer and epic, r in the Attic poets ; 
Theognis (811, 1175) has t in two elegies that are undoubtedly 
genuine ; i in 21, 1111. Had we not possessed such unimpeachable 
evidence for the authenticity of 811-14 and 1171-6, Sitzler's method 
would probably have led to their rejection. 

2 'Solon folgt hier dem attischen Dialekt ganz in derselben 
Weise, wie oben bei Ka\6s.' 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 41 

Sophocles and Pindar (OL 6. 86) and of t from Theocritus 
7. 69. Although he can only bring one instance (Th. 962) 
of t from the earlier or the Attic elegists, he feels compelled 
to assume that in early elegy the form with I alone Avas 
used. The shorter form, he tells us, first established 
itself in the Attic age.^ Therefore Th. 1129 (e/x7rto/xat) 
must belong to that age, or even a still later period. 
He closes the list with Tao^ — lcro<i. I always in Homer 
and Hesiod (except W. IT. 752, which he rejects in com- 
pany with the editors). Solon 24. 1 and Asius 1 have I ; 
in Attic t and t (the latter in Eurip. Epigr. 1. 2, Demosth. 
Epigr. 1. 1). He therefore rejects Th. 678. Pindar always 
uses t except in compounds, Sappho has t in 2. 1. 

vii. Linguistic Tests. 

Other conclusions published by Sitzler in the same 
pamphlet are equally unconvincing ; among these must 
be included his condemnation of the poems addressed 
to Polypaides'^ and his objection to certain linguistic 
features which they present. The following are the 
• numerous anomalies ' (manches Auffallige) which he 
adduces in proof of a later origin. 

Th. 23 : wo/xao-T09, though used by Homer and Hesiod, 
is not found in the sense of ' famous ' until Pindar (Pyth. 
1. 38) ; cf. also Here. Fur. 509, Herodotus, and the prose- 
writers. The first elegist to use the word was Posidippus 
(A . Pal. 12. 45. 3). The Theognidean lines are accordingly 
rejected because this use of the word is ' late ' and ' pre- 
dominantly Attic '. A similar objection is raised against 

' Ion 2. 10 lias TtUrai at the end of a pentameter. 

'^ It were idle to reject the lines containing the address UoKvirathri 
on the ground that the name is not included in the (x^pTjyh. The 
collocation Kvpv( IloA.. (or IloK. K.) is, unlike Zev KpoviSi], metrically 
impossible. YloXviraUrj in the latter part of an elegy frequently 
corresponds to Kvpvi at its beginning ; cf. ZcG 373 = Kpovidrj 377, and 
similar cases in Homer. 



42 INTRODUCTION 

the expression ouSci/ Oav^acrrov (25) which Sitzler declares 
to be ' exclusively Attic ' ; cf. Fhilod. 191. The word 
0avfjLa(TT6<; first occurs in H. Bemet. 10, then frequently 
in Pindar. It does not occur in pre- Alexandrian elegy. 
Why should this and oi/o/xao-ro's not have been used by 
Theognis ? His language has many points in common 
with Pindar, and in his sermones repcntes per humum we 
should also expect to find expressions picked up from 
the conversational language of the day. 

Th. 62 : xpettt is not found in epic ; it first occurs in 
Pindar, JSfem. 8. 42, in the sense * use ' (xp^ml 81 iravTolai 
cfitXwv avSpwv). In our passage it means ' need ', ' thing 
that one requires.' But this meaning is first found in 
Attic tragedy and comedy (cf. Philoct. 237), and so the 
line from Theognis is condemned because ' the earlier 
elegists, when they used the word, employed the epic 
form ' ; but no such instance of its use has come down 
to us, and Sitzler admits that Critias 1. 8 affords an exact 
parallel to Th. 62. 

Th. 63 : fXTTo yXo)crarj<i occurs in lies. W. D. 322 a-n-b 
yAwo-o-yy? XrjL(T(r€Tai, meaning ' with cunning ', as opposed to 
Xc/oo-l /8tr/ 321. In Aesch. Agam. 813 it is used as in Th. 
63, SiKas yap ovk airb yXwa-arjS Oeot kAiWtcs, which Dindorf 
explains ' non ex eo, quod dicitur, sed e re ipsa '. The 
preposition a-n-o is very frequently used by the tragedians 
and Attic prose-writers to denote the instrument. Sitzler 
therefore holds the expression (xtto yAwo-o-T/? <^tAos cTi/at to 
be later than the genuine Theognis, although he refers to 
Iliad 8. 279 and 24. 605 for a similar use of a-n-b with 
other words, and quotes cases of a-n-b yXi^a-a-ip with verbs 
of ' speaking ' from Pind. 01 6. 13 and elsewhere (see 
explanatory note on Th. 63). 

In Th. 61 avixfJiLyvvvai=^ avaKOLVovv. In Hdt. 8. 58 we 
have ecjbry iOekcLv ol kolvov Tt irprjyixa crvp.p2^at (cf. Plat. Legg. 
958 c) ; so Sitzler allows ' this rare expression to pass as 
Ionic '. He is more severe with regard to qtlovv. This is 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 43 

first found in Attic prose- writers (Thuc. Xen., &c.), in 
poetry only in Clouds 344 and Plutus 385 ov^' otlovv, 
•evidently from the language of the common people.' 
Theognis may well have borrowed it from a similar 
source. 

Th. 65 : oLCvpwv. This is the only known instance of this 
word in the sense of ' morally bad, wretched, detestahilis '. 
Homer, Hesiod, later epic poets, and comic poets, use it 
only with the meaning ' unhappy, unfortunate, sad '. 
There is no instance of its use in Pindar or the tragic 
poets ; it does not appear in elegiac poetry until the 
Alexandrian period, when it bears the same meaning as 
in Homer, Hesiod, &c. Th. 65 is therefore condemned. 

Th. 67 : TroXvTrXoKta is not found elsewhere. The adjec- 
tive 7ro\v7rXoKo<s occurs in Medea 481 and Plato Phaedrus 
230 A, meaning ' of many coils ', ' complicated ' ; it first 
occurs in the sense of ' cunning ' in Aristoph. ThesmopJi. 
434 [y^^^^ry], 463 [i/or//xa], and in late writers ; therefore 
Sitzler condemns the lines in which iroXvTvXoKia occurs 
-as the product of a later age. For a similar reason he 
finds ttoXvttXoko^ (Th. 215) ' suspicious '. 

Th. 191 : /xr/ 6avfxat,e c. acc. and infin. Sitzler com- 
ments : ' This construction is very rare. From the early 
period I know of no instance besides Iliad 5. 601. But 
later it becomes more frequent ; e. g. Soph. fr. 325. 1, 
Eur. Medea 268, Ale. 1130, and especially Su2)pl 909 ; 
also Xen. Hell. 2. 3. 36. The construction thus appears 
to have been very frequently used in the Attic period, so 
that the present passage is in agreement with those already 
discussed. It is not found in elegiac poetry.' He has not 
explained how it can occur in the Homeric poems. 

viii. TJie Conservative Reaction. 

In 1902 there appeared a book which contains an 
ingenious and able defence of a position that had long 
been regarded as altogether untenable. Mr. Harrison's 



44 INTRODUCTION 

Studies is a very valuable contribution to the literature of 
Theognis ; but on the main question the author has 
failed to justify the extreme conservatism of his attitude. 
He not only vindicates for Theognis ' all or nearly all the 
poems which are extant under his name,' but even main- 
tains that our edition of the Theognidea is practically the 
same as that published by the poet himself. This claim 
necessitates a defence of the Tyrtaean, Mimnerman, and 
Solonian accretions, as well as of the ' repetitions ' which 
are so frequent towards the end of the first book. With 
regard to the former, Mr. Harrison believes that Theognis 
published them as his own. ' Sometimes Theognis merely 
appropriates the lines of other poets, with only slight 
changes ; sometimes he incorporates them in his own 
work ; sometimes he gives them a new application by 
putting them in a new context ; sometimes he makes 
a vital change' (p. 112). 
Tyrtaeus. 1003-6, we are told, were ' borrowed ' from Tyrtaeus 

with one change (T. vew, Th. a-o<f>(o) ; to these, according to 
Mr. Harrison, Theognis added six lines of his own. * Let 
us suppose that Theognis saw here an opportunity of 
correcting the earlier poet, as Solon makes an amendment 
to Mimnermus' prayer for sixty years of life' (p. 101). 
This is no parallel. Solon's poem of four lines contains 
but one line from Mimnermus, and he addresses by name 
the poet whose work he is quoting. I can see no reason 
for supposing with Mr. Harrison that o-o(^a> is used here in 
a * contemptuous ' sense, nor can I consider the whole 
elegy (1003-12) either ' complete ' or ' well-turned '. 
1007-12 are printed as a separate poem by all the editors, 
and it is impossible to join them to the preceding elegy. 
Had any poet wished the lines to bear the meaning sug- 
gested he would have expressed the contrast between the 
wise man and the young man far more distinctly. If 
1003-12 form a single poem, we must naturally suppose 
that the author implies a contrast between ^vov...Tr6X'qi 



OKIGIN AND COMPOSITION 45 

(1005) and $vvbv 8' dvOpM-n-oi^ (1007), which is absurd. 
(Tocfjio was introduced to give the poem a general and 
universal application, and the elegy was inserted as a 
corrective to the teaching of the neighbouring elegies 
(e.g. 1007-12). 

933-8. 935-8 were ' borrowed ' from Tyrtaeus and 
' amended ' by Theognis. If we take these four lines by 
themselves, they are a mere fragment, and there is no 
meaning for /xtv in the first line. If we follow Mr. 
Harrison in joining them to the preceding couplet we 
are in a still worse predicament. The note of the first 
couplet (938, 4) is ' Blessed is the man who has both 
virtue and beauty ' ; the whole stress is laid on the 
possession of both these perfections, and it is implied that 
very little is gained if we possess one without the other. 
The next lines (935-8) enumerate the advantages such 
a man enjoys : young men, men of his own age, and old 
men make way for him ; on growing old he shines among 
his townsmen and none refuse him respect and justice. 
That would be an excellent though exaggerated picture of 
the blessedness of the virtuous man in an ideal state ; but 
where does the KotAAos come in ? We are not told the advan- 
tage of the combination of dperi] and KaAAo?. Tyrtaeus 
wrote the lines to describe the rewards of bravery in 
battle, and there is no trace of exaggeration in what he 
says. Torn out of their context and stitched on to 933, 4 
they give a grotesquely exaggerated account of the ' blessed- 
ness ' referred to, and at the same time show that the 
' poet ' quite failed to grasp the meaning of that couplet. 

1017-22. ' Stobaeus, cxvi. 34, has the last three lines Mim- 
under the title e/c Mcfjivepfiov Navj/ovs. There is no good 
reason for giving the first three lines to Mimnermus' 
(p. 104). The piece in Stobaeus is evidently a fragment,^ 

^ There is a slight diflference in the wording : Stob. has &pya\eov, 
Th. oif\6fi€Vov, Stob. yfjpas virtp KtcpaX^s avrix , Th. d. v. k. y. We 
should not forget that the elegies of Mimn. and his contemporaries 



46 INTRODUCTION 

and our three lines bear a striking resemblance in general 
expression to the extant elegies of Mimnermus. Cf. Mimn. 
El 2. 

793-6. 795, 6 belong to Mimnermus : the two couplets 
form a complete elegy, and I see no occasion for assuming 
with Mr. Harrison and Welcker that Theognis ' borrowed ' 
the second couplet and added the first to it. 
Sotow. 585-90 are found in Solon 13. 65-70. Here, besides 

a few insignificant changes in the wording, there are two 
important variations which cannot be due to chance^ and 
v/hich give quite a new turn to the main idea. Solon says 
that the man who tries to do good fails, and the man who 
does wrong succeeds and has not to suffer in consequence of 
his folly. The Theognidean version tells us that the man 
who tries to win fame fails, and that the man who does 
right succeeds. There is no doubt that these changes are 
intentional, and made as a protest to 'justify the ways of 
God to man '. But the Solonian form is much more in 
keeping with the teaching of Theognis himself (e.g. 133 ; 
cf. 373). This poem has suffered from its popularity and 
has been changed to suit the problem it discusses. The 
more popular a poem is, the more likely it is to be adapted 
to suit particular occasions or views : politicians on the 
platform, preachers in the pulpit, essayists and theorists 
of all descriptions, delight in distorting well-known 
poems for their own purposes, but they hardly go so far 
as to publish these * revised ' versions among their own 
poems. '^ Again, 719-28 * are closely related to the twenty- 
have only been preserved in the form of quotations made by ancient 
writers who do not profess to give the whole poem. A couplet by 
Solon ( = Th. 153, 4) was known only in this short form until the 
discovery of the Ath. Polit. Had this fuller version (four lines) 
been found in the Theognidea, Mr. H. could with equal confidence 
have claimed it for Theognis. 

^ Th. (vSoKiftetv . . . KaKcbs ttokvvti, Sol. eS fpSeiv . . . kokus tpdovTi. 

^ A philosopher corrected a popular quotation from Theognis, 
changing xM ^^virjv (pevyovra to XPV toLKiav (pfvyovra. On this 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 47 

fourth fragment of Solon '. (See my explanatory notes 
ad loc.) 

On Th. 227-32 - Solon 13. 71 6 Mr. Harrison has the 
following remark : ' Some of his changes are small, being 
due perhaps merely to a desire for just so much differentia- 
tion as would give his adaptation an air of novelty' (p. 106). 
On 315-18 : ' Perhaps Theognis took the lines bodily from 
Solon, with just this change [tol for yap] to make them 
stand alone, and others for the sake of differentiation' 
(p. 107). To 'adapt' a remark made elsewhere in the 
Studies (p. 229), ' this manner of dealing with earlier poets 
has the charm of simplicity.' One is almost tempted to ask 
why Theognis wrote any poems at all : may we not assume 
that we have before us a selection from earlier and con- 
temporary Greek poets, ' revised,' ' borrowed,' ' amended,' 
' corrected,' * adapted,' and * remodelled ' by Theognis ? 

It will be noticed that in most cases the textual dif- 
ferences are only such as are generally found in different 
MSS. of the same work. According to Mr. Harrison's prin- 
ciples we might frequently regard Stobaeus as the author 
of new poems ' modelled ' on Theognis : cf. 525, 6, which 
occurs in Stob. 91. 2 joined to 699-702 with the variants 
Kill yap Z€i>9...e8wK:ei/...(To</)w crv/xcfiopov. The variants are 
due to the use of different MSS., as is the case with 
Stob. 10. 23, /?ta vvv eXKer (Eur. lou), which reappears as 
K(u vvv icjiekKCT in Stob. 93. 4, where the same lines are 
assigned to Eur. Ion. 

A couplet which occurs in Th. Book II (1253) ' re- 
Mr. Harrison remarks (p. 121) : ' It resembles Solon's answer to 
Mimnermus, or Theognis' treatment of lines from Tyrtaeus, with 
this difference^ that while Solon and Theognis gave their correc- 
tions a place in their poetry, Chrysippus made his in conversation 
or in a prose treatise, not intending the poem as amended to have 
Jin indoj^endent existence.' That last remark makes all the dif- 
ference in the world. Theognis, if he 'borrowed' at all, must 
have 'borrowed' as a poet; the philosopher would never dream of 
claiming the new poem as his own ; all he cared for was the 
moral sentiment. 



48 INTKODUCTION 

sembles the twenty-third fragment of Solon '. There are 
two slight changes in language.^ But Theognis has made 
a * complete change in the sense'. How? According to 
Mr. Harrison by inserting the poem in the Paedica, ' by 
the simple device of putting Solon's couplet in a false 
context ' (p. 112). But that gives Theognis no right to 
the poem. One of the best instances of this kind of 
semi-parody is afforded when a passage of Dickens is 
applied to the pretensions of candidates at election times. ^ 
The quotation is then used in a totally new context and 
is exquisitely appropriate ; but what would be said if we 
discovered it standing alone in the political section of 
the 'complete works' of the man who first made the 
application ? 

153, 4, a couplet of Solon's with one important change, 
KaKii^ oXpo'i for TToXus 6X/3o^. ' Thus once again Theognis 
has borrowed and amended' (p. 113). What would be 
thought of a modern poet who borrowed a poem beginning 
with 'The good die young', changed ' good ' to 'bad ', and 
published the poem as his own ? Mr. Harrison finds his 
theory supported by what he himself (p. 115) calls 'an 
obscure expression in the middle of the book '. ' In 
769-72 Theognis says that the poet must not hide his 
light from the world.' 'By Troulv, then, he would seem 
to mean those poems in which he borrowed little or 
nothing from older writers.' ixwaOai, 'seek,' and SetKvwat, 
'illustrate,' denote two degrees of appropriation of the 
property of others. 'Tennyson, for example, has the 
best title that man can have to the full ownership of 
LoclisUy Hall ; his title to the Idylls of the King is not 
so good ; and his title to the Specimen of a Translation 

1 dijpevrai for dypevrai, and ^(voi dWoSanoi plur. instead of sing. 

2 Old Curiosity Shop, ch. xix. Codlin to Little Nell : ' I'm the best 
adviser that ever was and so interested in you . . . Codlin 's the 
friend, not Short ; Short 's very well as far as he goes, but the real 
friend is Codlin — not Short.' 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 49 

of the Iliad in Blanlc Verse is slighter still.' This is no 
parallel : for in the three cases the language is altogether 
Tennyson's own, and he makes no attempt to palm off 
his translations as original poems. If he had appro- 
priated whole stanzas from Byron, and, after making 
a few changes ' for the sake of differentiation ', inserted 
these in the midst of his own poems, we should have 
thought little of his honesty and less of his genius. 

Not content with appropriating and altering the pro- y/,^ j.^^g^^ 
perty of others, the poet, if we are to believe Mr. Harri- ^'"o'^s- 
son, aj^plied the same process to his own productions : 
Theognis, and no other, is responsible for the numerous 
repetitions which occur in the collection. ' The passages 
in which Theognis seems to repeat himself fall into two 
classes : first, those which show some variation of lan- 
guage ; second, those that show no variation or very 
little ' (p. 135]. He accounts for these repeated poems 
by supposing that Theognis either used the same poems 
in a new context, or else, after making the necessary 
changes, used old poems for new occasions. Instances 
of the latter kind are 39-42 = 1081-2 h, and 57-60 ^ 
1109-14. Of the latter Mr. Harrison says: '57-60 are 
in part the same as 1109-14; but the second version 
differs from the first by as many changes as could be 
made without altering the general cast of the language, 
and the thought is expanded by the insertion of a new 
couplet. It is this new couplet which justifies the semi- 
repetition. In the first case Theognis complains of the 
ill effects of the admission of serfs to the citizenship ; in 
the second he complains of no change so violent, but only 
of the rottenness of society and the overthrow of social 
conventions and distinctions ' (p. 137).^ 

' 57-60 form part of a longer poem 53-60, 1109-14 stand alone, 
and are an abridgement of 53-60. Kvpv 1 1 09 = Kvpv€ 53 ; the words 
Toi»s o.'yaQovs . . . rifxTJs (1111, 2) sum up the situation described in 
53-7, the rest of line 1112 is evidently an imitation of ix kukcv 

E 



50 INTRODUCTION 

That is, when Theognis wished to deal with a serious 
crisis in the history of his country, he was too lazy or 
too unimaginative to compose a new poem for the occasion, 
and contented himself with taking an old elegy, written 
at a previous crisis, and adapting it to meet the demands 
of the new situation by changing a word here and there 
and inverting the order of a few phrases. 

No one would be inclined to question the right of 
Pindar or Alcaeus to the poems in which they have 
incorporated proverbs or well-known saws (cf. Ale. 50, 
Pind. Is. 2. 11, xPW"-'^' avr/p). Theognis has made two 
popular maxims his own in 335, 336. But the poems 
defended by Mr. Harrison cannot in any sense be called 
new. We cannot save the situation by an appeal 
to the frequent repetitions in Homer. These do not 
occur as isolated poems augmented by the addition of 
a line or two : they are justified by their position in 
a new context into which they have been closely woven. 
Cf. ' Love is a boy by poets styled ; | then spare the rod 
and spoil the child ', Hudihras II. 1 ; so Burns has appro- 
priated Pope's line ' an honest man 's the noblest work of 
God'. The mere fact that ancient authors ascribed 
Th. 472 to Euenus should not be enough to justify the 
rejection of the whole poem ; the case for the Parian 
poet rests upon a combination of evidence. 
Vindication Mr. Harrison finds his theory supported by more than 
cfBook II. ^j^g allusion in the first book. In a discussion of vv. 19-26 

kaOXos iyrju^v (189) : for fivrjfxrjv (1114) cf. tSjv 5e KaKotv fivrjfit] 
yivtrai ovdffiia (798). I take 1109-14 to be the work of a person 
who intentionally changed the order of the words in 57-60 : 
cf. 57 dyaOoi . . . ol Se irplv kaOKol \ vvv SeiKoi : 1109 ol irpoaO' 
dyadol vvv av kokoi, ot Se icaKol irplv \ vvv dyadoi : 59 dwarcjaiv . . . 
yeXwvTfs : 1113 diraTWVTfs . . . yeXuxriv : 60 ovre KaKuiv . . . out' dyaOuiv : 
1114 ovT dyaOuv . . . ovre KaKwv. Is it likely that a real poet would 
resort to such childish variations? In 1071-4 we have 213-18 with 
the polypus eliminated. A judicious investigation of the MSS. 
and their variants would enrich Greek literature with an immense 
store of ' new poems ' by Th. himself or a subsequent * borrower '. 




OKIGIN AND COMPOSITION 51 

he claims that there is no antithesis to jxev (19)^ inside 
the poem ; 'we must therefore look outside.' o-o^t^o/xeVo) 
fji€v is explained as ' when I play the sage at least ', ' in 
my wiser vein.' 'The second half of the antithesis is 
not expressed in words ' : the /xeV is a hint that the poet 
has written something which does not entitle him to the 
epithet cro</)o?, viz. the poems in the Musa Paedica. Mr. 
Harrison sees a similar suggestion in v. 27, ev <^poveW. 
The ' special significance ' of these words lies in the fact 
that they ' appear in the imitation of this passage in the 
Birds'."^ He thinks that to the mind of Aristophanes 
the two words conveyed the meaning ' with quite honour- 
able intentions ', ' in contrast with some other poems in 
which the relation between Theognis and Cyrnus appeared 
in a less creditable light ' (p. 248). It is hardly correct 
to say that the two words e* <j>poviMv 'appear in the 
imitation ' ; and their meaning I take to be simply ' with 
good intent', 'solicitous for your welfare.' If the comic 
poet could understand these dark hints, it is very strange 
that they were all lost on such a careful student and 
devoted imitator of Theognis as Isocrates, who, as Mr. 
Harrison admits (p. 261), ' possibly ' did not know of the 
existence of Book II. Again, ' another suggestion of 
something less creditable than the first book is to be 
found in 367-70 ' (p. 248), where the words ovtc. ev epSow 
ovT€ KaKMs mean 'neither in my virtuous nor in my 
vicious style', the reference being to the difference in 
moral tone between the first and second book. But the 
passage means ' whatever I do, I cannot please the people 
of my town ', a complaint very frequent in the Theognidea 

1 The parallelism of the two clauses is a sufficient reason for the 
presence of /icV. ' I on the one hand seal my poems, they on the 
other will not get lost.' The emphatic words are not in both cases 
placed before fj.ev and Se any more than in Kpiovs fiiv . . . y^fxai 
34 183, and (va fxev . . . £(lvia dk irKevviaa' 521. 

2 1362, 1363 ool 5', w veaviaK, ov kukus vTroOrjaoixai, 

dW* oldvfp avTos efxaOov oT€ nais ij. 

e2 



52 INTRODUCTION 

(cf. 24, 799, 801). Finally, 'a new light is now thrown 
on the last line of the second book ' ^ ; 'by this word 
(ro(ji6<; the poet seems to echo the o-oi^t^o/xeVw of line 19/ 
The resemblance is too fanciful to need further com- 
ment. 

In Appendix VI Mr. Harrison endeavours to support 
the claim of Theognis to several contested elegies by an 
appeal to the use of the verb Oiopyja-ao). ' In line 842 Boiprjaaw 
means " to make drunk ". . . . The passive occurs four 
times, 413, 470, 508, 884, meaning "to become warmed 
with wine ", " to get drunk". Compare Pindar, fragment 
72.' Then he quotes Aristophanes, Acharnians 1135, but 
tries to minimize the importance of this passage by saying 
that 'though Aristophanes doubtless had this meaning 
of Omprja-a-oi in his mind, he could have used the word 
as he does here if it had never before been used with 
reference to drink. The scholiast on this passage has 
the following note : Biop-^^aaOaL ydp la-n TO KaOoTrXta-Orjvaij 
(lAXtt Koi TO TTiveiv Koi jXiOveiv ovTO) KaXova-LV, iTreiBr] Oo}pa$ 
Kol TO a-TrjOa' Sea to OepjxatveLv ovv to aTrjOos Ooip-^cra-ea' 
XiyovcTLV KOL TO fxcOviiv, KOI OiopaKa^ Tovs aKpofxeOvo-ovs CKctAow. 
K€)(pr)Tai 8e Trj Xi^ei /cat AvaKpcMV. f.aTi 8e 'Attikt/. Else- 
where Owprjo-a-M is used thus only in the medical writings 
of Hippocrates, Galen and Nicander' (p. 322). The 
above is not the only passage in which Aristophanes 
uses the word with this meaning.- Mr. Harrison thinks 
that in the above scholion ttj Ae^et refers to BwpaKa^ and 
not to Ooipr](Ta€Lv. and so he believes that Anacreon used 

^ Nietzsclie also saw an allusion to Theognis in aocpcs. For u 
defence of Mr. Harrison's main position cf. an article l)y Mr. T. W. 
Allen in C. B. Nov. 1905 ; and for a criticism of Harrison's Studies 
cf. a review by Prof. Weir Smyth, C. R. Oct. 1903. 

2 Cf. Pax, 1286. with Merry's note, 'The boy uses this word in 
its ordinary sense " they donned their bucklers " ; Trygaeus chooses 
to accept it in the sense (which may have been a piece of Athenian 
slang, cp. AcJt. 1135) of " buckling to the drink''.' Dindorf, Adnot. 
ad Ar., gives the same explanation. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 53 

the noun Ooypai- ' Probably from Kexpyrat onwards the 
scholiast is speaking of Oo)pa$, since Oiopa$, but not Owprja-a-w, 
is an Attic form.' All this is very unlikely ; for the main 
subject of the note is OMpTja-cretv, and Oo}paKa<; is probably 
a mistake for aKpoOt'ipaKa^} A word which Anacreon 
used cannot be exclusively Attic : both noun and verb 
are used in this connexion by Attic writers, and Xi^iq 
'Attikt; means here 'a favourite Attic expression.' Mr. 
Hai-rison claims for Theognis a peculiar use of the verb. 
To do this successfully he must first dispose of the 
claims of Anacreon, '■ contemporary with Theognis and 
Pindar ' ; for he can easily get rid of Pindar by assuming 
that he ' may have borrowed this, as he borrowed much 
besides, from Theognis '. To defeat the more dangerous 
rival, he tries to prove that Theognis used the word in 
a different sense from Anacreon, and that the latter used 
not the verb but the noun 6u)pa$, in the sense of 'drunkard'. 
Theognis, he says, borrowed the word from the language 
of medicine into which it had ' passed from slang '. The 
proof offered to us is hardly satisfactory, as the author 
begins by begging the question : ' Taken together the three 
words OMpTjo-croi^ 7]-n-iako<5, and ^ Ka-KX-qindhai suggest that for 
some reason or other Theognis felt more than an ordinary 
interest in medical matters.' Owpyorao) is first used in 
its medical sense by Hi|)pocrates, and there is no suspicion 
of any technical application of the word where it occurs 
in the Theognidea, Pindar, or Aristophanes. We have 
no right to credit our poet with * more than an ordinary 
interest in medical matters ' simply because he uses the 
word ryTTiaAos and refers to the 'Ao-KA>/7riaSai. We should 

^ Bergk, P. L. G. 2 ed., p. 803, reads aKpoOwpaKas (viilgo edupaxai) : 
he adds ' Cf. Suidas v. doufyrj^aaOai et Zonar. 1068, ubi Anacreonti 
tribui videntur verba (bare 0ajpaKi(T9rjvai '. The latter statement points 
to the use of a verb by Anacreon. For dKpo9wpa^{-rj^) cf. the ref. to 
Aristotle in Steph. Lexic. (Didot). The scholiast on Vesp. 1195 refers 
to the passage in Ach. and uses the words hia to dtppiaivfiv to aTTJdoi, 
jtal oLKpodwpijKas tovs aKpopaOvaovs kKakovv, 



54 INTEODUCTION 

be equally justified in making the same remark about 
the comic poet who uses yj-n-iaXos,^ rjinaXioi,^ Ooipai^ 
(= (rTrjOo<s), and Oiop-qao-o), and gives 'A(TKXr]7n6<s a promi- 
nent position in the Flutus. 

Of the five lines in which Oiopyja-a-o) appears, three 
occur in elegies which many critics refuse to regard as 
the work of Theognis. One of these Bergk assigns to 
Thaletas, ' contemporary with Lycurgus.' If, says Mr. 
Harrison, this word was ' the common property of Greek 
poetry' during the interval between Lycurgus and 
Theognis, Svhy does it survive nowhere but in the 
Theognidean collection?' Considering what scanty re- 
mains we possess of the Greek poets of that period who 
could have used the word, there is nothing strange in 
the supposition. But even if Mr. Harrison's argument 
is sound, it only proves that the word was not used 
before the time of Theognis. There is no need to suppose 
that it was a common word in poetry, and we shall not 
be wrong in assuming that the poets picked it up from 
the language of the common people.* 

ix. The Second Book (Musa Paedica, p). 

With the exception of our best and earliest MS. (A), 
first reproduced by Immanuel Bekker in his edition of 
Theognis (1815), not one of the MSS. takes us further than 
V. 1220. But the printed editions in existence before 
Bekker's time are slightly longer than this, as they contain 
after 1220 a few lines assigned to Theognis by Stobaeus 
and Athenaeus, but not included in any known MS. of the 
poet's works. It was discovered that the new MS. (A) 

1 Vespae 1088. ^ j^ch. 1165. » ves]oae 1194. 

■* It is not modern critics alone wlio assume an early origin for 
the word: cf. Eust. 166. 12 quoted by Eibbeck, Ach. 1087 (= 1135) 
"Ofxrjpos ii\v Oojp-qaaciv ad knl oirXiOfiOv (p-qoiv, ol be jxer avrov Koi evl 
ui6r}s 7r}V Xe^iv riOeaaiv, uOev nal Qwp-q^is Kara rots iraXaioiis oivorrocria 
ical aKparoTToaia, 



OKIGIN AND COMPOSITION 55 

printed by Bekker contained after 1220 a series of 
elegies amounting to 166 lines, introduced by the lemma 
e'AeyetW fi\ and evidently intended to form a collection 
of Paedica. The title preceding the first section of the 
Theognidea in A (viz. 1-1220) is Oeoyvtho^' eXeyetW a. 
Although the name of the poet was not added to the 
heading of the second book, there can be little doubt that 
the compiler of A regarded Theognis as the author of 
this Musa Paedica [M, P.).^ 

This ascription has been challenged on various grounds, Anthenti- 
and the evidence against the authenticity of the second ^^^'-^ ^^ ^ ' 
book is so strong that the great majority of editors and 
critics have had no hesitation in rejecting the claims of 
Theognis, and here there can be no doubt that they are 
right. They are, however, wrong in insisting upon the 
absence of the M. P. from all MSS. except A as evidence 
against its authenticity. A is much better and earlier 
than all the others ; it also contains a greater number 
of repetitions. In A O K Theognis comes immediately 
before Phocylides : it might therefore be argued that 
as the scribes of the younger MSS. dropped repetitions 
that are given by A, they also omitted the second book 
and excised the words cAeyeiW a, if they found these in 
the title of the books which they copied.^ It is of course 
equally possible that the compiler of A inserted the 
M. P. after the first book, and changed the original 
lemma to suit the new additions. 

There is far greater force in the other arguments 
usually emj^loyed. 

theognidis elegiu pnma' 

1 The MS. has 6e6yvi5os- kXeyeiav a' and + kKtydaJV B ; between 
+ and € there is an erasure leaving just sj^ace enough for a letter of 
the same size as e. Could this have been 6 ? The 9 of Oeoyvidos in 
the first lemma is no higher than the other letters. 

2 It seems piobable that the great variety of titles presented by 
our MSS. is due to the amplification of an original simple OioyviSoi 

or 94oyvis) which was retained by some MSS. (e.g. gt). 



56 INTRODUCTION 

The case (1) If we except two couplets/ one of which also 

against & . qqq^j,^ j^ a, there is no reference, direct or indirect, to 

the M. P. of Theognis or any poem which it contains, 

nor is there a single quotation from it in the work of 

any ancient classical author.- 

The second book was not known to Athenaeus, Julian, 
or Cyril, whose discussions touch upon topics connected 
with its subject-matter. A full examination of their re- 
marks will be found in a later section, where I shall also 
show that in all probability (i' was unknown to Suidas, 
although it is generally supposed that the first reference 
to the M. P. occurs in his article on Theognis. 

(2) The ascription to Theognis of such a book as y8' 
is irreconcilable with the high opinions entertained by 
the ancients regarding the moral worth of his poetry 
(see infra, p. 89). 

There is another important consideration which 
students of Theognis have almost entirely ignored. 
Many of the couplets in /3' hardly strike us as being 
appropriate for a collection of Paedica, and they would 
probably never have been so regarded had they not been 
inserted side by side with poems appealing for the favours 
of beautiful boys and bewailing the woes of love-sick 
poets. It is clear that we have often to deal with lines 
on friendship or love torn from their context and applied 
in a sense never intended by their original authors.^ 

In connexion with the irrelevance of many poems we 

^ 1238 ab = 1151-2 are quoted in A. Pal. x. 40 under the heading 
AAHAON. 1253-4 = Solon fr. 23. 

2 Ap. Rh. Argon. 4. 445 perhaps imitated the elegy which comes 
first in ^'. ax^TXi"'Epo}s, /xiya Trjjfxa. fxeya arvyos dvdpwnoiaiv (k aiOev 
ovKofifvai t' epiSe^ cTTovaxai re yooi re kt\. 

3 Cf. 1238 a-48, 1278 ab, 1288-94, 1351-2, 1353-6. There is no 
need whatever to see a reference to the love of hoys in 1231-4 
(a. poem on men ruined by the love of icomen), 1275-8, or 1386-8. 
The elegies beginning with w irai are more distinctly paederastic. 
In 1253-4 (= Solon fr. 23) the charm of boys is but one of several 
pleasures mentioned by Solon. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 57 

should also consider the striking differences which the 
collection exhibits in poetic and linguistic merit, ranging 
from the exquisite and simple beauty of 1231-4, 1275-8 
to the worst specimens of the bungler's art as seen in 
1259-62, and the wretched introduction 1283-7 attached 
to the charming lines on Atalanta, 1288-94. 

The M.P. is a compilation consisting of short poems 
and fragments taken from various sources. The com- 
piler may have composed some lines himself, but there 
is not a shadow of evidence to support those who 
regard p as the work of one person who assiduously 
imitated the first book of Theognis, and extracted a few 
loans from other poets as well. Poets do not always 
maintain the same high level of composition, it is true, 
but it is hard to believe that the same person could have 
written 1275-8 and 1259-62. The composite origin of the 
book would account for the conflicting views expressed by 
scholars regarding the literary value of ^'. The explana- 
tion of their diff'erences is that they have focussed their 
sight on the good or bad elements respectively, and, as 
they insist on assigning the whole book to one hand, 
they are compelled to make their description cover all its 
contents. Eegard /3' as a mass of heterogeneous poems 
by different authors, and there is abundant justification 
for the ' simple elegance' claimed by Hiller, and Welcker's 
references to * epigrammata amatoria quae quidem baud 
infimum in impuro suo genere locum tenent ' {Proleg. cii), 
while there remain elegies dull enough to deserve the 
censure of Couat and their other detractors. Couat 
insists on their dullness, from which he infers that the 
book was composed by a dull man ; he has quite failed 
to observe the beauty and elegance which caught the 
eye of Wilamowitz and Hiller.^ Although it is no longer 

^ Wilam. Textgesch. d, gr. Lyriker, p. 58 ' die reizvolle /xovaa naidt/cri '. 
Hiller, Fleck.-Jahrb. 1881, p. 471, refers to the * schlichte Elegaiiz 
der Darstellung '. Couat, Le Second Livre, &€., p. 287 'cela n'n ni 



58 INTKODUCTION 

possible to regard Theognis as the author of the Musa 
Date of fi'. PaecUca, it is tolerably certain that with one or two 
exceptions the book consists of fragments taken from the 
works of poets who wrote in the sixth, fifth, and possibly 
the fourth centuries b. c. As will be seen from a glance 
at my explanatory notes, /3\ like a, is full of Homeric 
reminiscences, and it bears a close resemblance in general 
diction and vocabulary to the extant remains of early 
elegiac poets ; the tone of the book is simple, and it is 
quite free from the conceits and abstruse mythological 
references which distinguish the productions of the 
Alexandrian age. 

The references to the rape of Ganymede (1345 sqq.) are 
quite in keeping with the oldest form of the legend. 
Oouat finds the marks of the Alexandrian age in 1231-4 : 
' Ce n'est que plus tard qu'on eut I'idee, comme I'a eue 
Fauteur de la piece [1231-4], d'attribuer a des aventures 
amoureuses la fin tragique des heros. Ce qui fut dans 
la suite un des lieux communs favoris de I'elegie alexan- 
drine, convenait peu au genie de Theognis.' ' But such 
a conception of love appears frequently in Anacreon ; 
cf . 48 /xeyaXw SrjvTe fx "Epco? cKOij/ev m(tt€ )(aXK€v<s j TreAe/cet, 
)(eLix€pLr] 8' ekovcrev iv )(apdSpr]. The heroes mentioned in 
1231-4 are Homeric characters, and it should not be 
forgotten that the love of Helen caused all the misery 
of the Iliad ; cf. 'EXevTy? filv aTrwXo/xeO^ eiVcKtt TToXAoi, Od. 
11. 438. Nor is there any need to follow Couat in 
assigning the lines on Atalanta to the Alexandrian 
period on the ground that they deal with the bending 

variete, ni verve, ni malice ; Fauteur s'y encourage au vice dans le 
ton de Vhomelie ; c'est un bourdonnement monotone comme celui 
d'un recueil d'oraisons. Ce sont les maximes qu'Arnolphe fait lire 
a Agnes, et dont il faudrait seulement changer le titre '. The last 
words describe their fate ; their title was changed and they were 
made to masquerade as Paedica. 

* He adds : ' Je doute qu'on eut rencontre dans ses vers la legende 
d'Ajax.* 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 59 

of the most stubborn natures under the influence of 
love. There is certainly a close connexion between 1231- 
4 and a passage in the Argonautica (quoted supra, p. 56), 
but it is impossible to decide which is the original, and 
both may be reminiscences of an older poem. We know 
that the second book contains one couplet by Solon 
followed by another written in imitation thereof. The 
antiquity of another distich is probably attested by an 
ancient painting. On the inside of a drinking-bowl 
discovered in a tomb at Tanagra is the picture of a 
man reclining on a couch and stroking a rabbit ; from 
his lips come the words o -n-ai^ov KaAXto-re. Kohler, who 
first published the bowl {Mitteil. d. Atlien. Instituts 9. 
1884), identified these words with Theognis 1365, which, 
according to him, the man was singing. In spite of the 
violent objections raised by several critics there is a very 
strong balance of probability in favour of this identifica- 
tion. Hiller ^ denies that the man was singing, and holds 
that a superlative in the vocative with w accompanied by 
a genitive is too common a feature in Greek literature to 
justify Kohler's conclusions. Against this we may urge 
(1) that the order in the present instance is unusual. In 
the seven instances quoted by Hiller (Theocrit., Soph., 
&c.) the superlative comes before the genitive.^ (2) The 
words are evidently the beginning of a hexameter. 
Wendorff (p. 41) refers to another drinking-bowl con- 
taining the inscription wSe ttot' iv TtpwOi ' ad imaginem 
canentis viri, cui etiam tibicen additus est, ita ut dubitari 
nequeat, quin cantet.' Both inscriptions, it will be 
observed, end at the caesura Kara rpirov rpoxouov. (3) 
The configuration of the man's lips shows clearly that 
he is singing, and not speaking. Kohler assigns the 
bowl to the beginning of the fifth century b. c. 

There is in ^' at least one genuine poem by Theognis 

1 Jahresher. f. Id. Altert. 188S. 

2 See Lucas, Shidia Tlieogn., p. 41. 



60 INTRODUCTION 

(1353-6) ; the fact that this bears the well-known address 
to Cyrnus, the absence in /?' of any other person's name 
besides Simonides, who is also addressed in a, the presence 
(sometimes in a longer form) of passages already included 
in the first book, and occasional parallels in style and 
diction, no doubt suggested the ascription of the whole 
book to the Megarian poet. 

Hiller and Herwerden have challenged the antiquity 
of the poems that compose the 31. P. on the ground of 
linguistic defects and alleged deviations in vocabulary 
and syntax from the general usage of early Greek elegy. 
Other critics, notably Couat, have advanced further 
arguments in support of a late date. It cannot be said 
that their attacks have been successful. I have discussed 
the linguistic questions in my notes to ^' ; it will be seen 
that the only serious offences against style and grammar 
occur in a few lines which I reject as the work of 
a late bungler. 

With the evidence at our disposal I hold it impossible 
to fix even approximately the date at which the second 
book was put together, but with the exceptions above 
noted the poems bear far greater resemblance to the 
elegies of the sixth and fifth centuries than to those 
of any other period in the literature of Greece. The 
occurrence of a few aTra^ A6yo/>t€i/tt and of words not else- 
where found until a late period should not be urged as 
a sign of late composition ; the remains of early Greek 
lyric poetry will supply numerous instances of the same 
phenomenon. 

In regard to the genesis of the collection, various 
theories have been put forward, and the date of its 
compilation has been assigned to periods ranging from 
the early sixth century b. c. to the Byzantine age. 
Nietzsche, for instance, holds Mimnermus to have been 
the author, and he explains the inclusion of the M, 1\ 
among the Theognidea as due to the wiles of a malicious 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 61 

detractor, who, wishing to bring discredit upon the 
moralist of Megara, inserted a poem addressed to Cyrnus 
and added the whole to the first book of the elegies. It 
is held by many, e. g. Couat, that p was j^roduced by The rela- 
an indifferent writer, who ruthlessly pillaged a, bodily J^^^/*^^ 
appropriated some of its contents, and generally used 
its materials for the composition of new poems on the 
love of boys ; to these he made some additions from the 
works of other writers. The arguments of this school 
rest upon the presence in /3' of (1) elegies addressed to 
Cyrnus and Simonides ; (2) lines and couplets supposed 
to have been borrowed from a ; (3) numerous general 
resemblances in language and style. 

The occurrence of ^ifXMvtSr} in 1345-50 affords no 
j)roof whatever of a connexion between a and jS'. It is 
quite possible that the compiler appropriated these lines 
from Euenus of Paros. Stiil less does 1353-6 [Kvpvc 
1354) warrant the conclusions of the critics. This little 
poem is in no sense paederastic ; it possibly owes its 
position in a 3f. F. to a misunderstanding on the part 
of a compiler, who stupidly took vioLaiv t/ow? to mean 
' love of young boys '. In construction and literary 
finish it is quite on a level with the poems addressed 
to Cyrnus in the first book. The first couplet contains 
a statement of the sorrows and joys that love has in 
store for young men until the moment of its realization. 
The arrangement of the words is worthy of notice, tti/c/jo? 
= aTrr/vTJs at either end of the line, with yAvKvs = dpTraXeos 
in between ; the next distich gives an ex^josition of the 
thesis enuntiated in its predecessor, and the last word 
recalls the first (auLrjpoTaTov = TriKpos). 

Couat brings the charge of faulty construction against 
these well-turned lines. * There is something awkward 
in the development of the second distich, and the idea 
is badly expressed; it is not "until it is satisfied'' that 
love is now bitter, now sweet, but according to the satis- 



62 INTRODUCTION 

faction attained. This lack of exactness in expression 
would perhaps justify our belief that the lines were 
not written by Theognis.' The critic has altogether 
missed the point. The poet was thinking of the con- 
flicting emotions and the changing moods of a man 
swayed by an unrealized passion ; the ' bitter ' and the 
' sweet ' are the alternations of hope and fear, the antici- 
pated joy of possession and the despair engendered by the 
prospect of failure. We have evidently before us a genuine 
poem by Theognis not included in a, and its presence 
in /3' affords a very fair argument against the alleged 
dependence of the second book upon the first. Like 
Stobaeus and Athenaeus, the unknown compiler of the 
M. P. deserves our gratitude for having added to the 
number of extant Theognklea, and his contribution, like 
those of Stobaeus, is furnished with the very best 
credentials. 

With regard to the alleged borrowings from a it 
should be noted that in some cases the lines are more 
appropriate where they stand in p ; there is one case in 
which ^' has preserved the longer form (1238 a sqq.), and 
there is nothing in the others that suggests any connexion 
between a and p except the use of a common original 
for their quotations. 

The words (w 7rai8a>r) Kd\Xi(TT€ Kol Ifx^poia-rare. TrdvTwv 
(1365) are far more appropriately applied to a fair boy 
than to the God of Wealth (1117)^ ; there is a suggestion 
of parody in the very ring of 1117, and this certainly 
adds to its piquancy. Again, 1353 is said to have been 
taken from 301 ; but in the latter position the line is verj- 
awkward, and hardly makes sense ; while we have alread}^ 
seen that 1353 forms part of a dainty little elegy by 



Cf. Oedipodia (ed. Monro) : 

dW' eVt KaWiarSv n kox If^cpoioTarov aWajv. 
TraTSa (piXov KpfioVT07 dfivfiovos, Atfiova diov. 




OEIGIN AND COMPOSITION 63 

Theognis himself. Again, 1238 ab = 1151-2 ; the latter 
stands alone, but the former is joined to another couplet 
which completes the sense, and adds a personal touch 
which was removed to produce the abstract gnome 
1151-2. We have here the longer form of the 'repeti- 
tion ' in /?', just as in another case it is preserved in a 
(949-54 and 1278 cd). 

Nor is there any ground for believing that the other 
'repetitions' in fi' have been taken from a. The follow- 
ing remain to complete the list: 1243 = 597; 1318 
ab = 1107-8 ; 1278 cd = 949-50, 1278 ab = 1101-2 ; 
1278 ab is incomplete in both a and p ; it was 
probably found quoted in this fragmentary form in 
some work from which the two compilers derived it. 
There is no more reason to suppose that /3' borrowed 
from a than there is to imagine that repeated poems 
in a were l^orrowed from their first position and 
inserted a second time in the same book. In both 
cases we have to deal with loans from a common 
source. 

We have next to deal with the argument based upon 
the general resemblances between the two books. The 
subject has been thoroughly handled by Corsenn {Quaes- 
tiones Theognideae), who has subjected the two collections 
to a microscopic examination ; the huge mass of materials 
which he has so laboriously collected serves but to prove 
the weakness of his conclusions. 

He stoutly maintains that the Musa Paedica is the 
work -of one single author whom he identifies with the 
person who compiled the first book of Theognis by 
combining two separate anthologies of which the second 
begins somewhere between vv. 878 and 1038. His theory 
rests on the following considerations : — 

(1) Besides containing several couplets and single lines Corsenn^s 
that also occur in a, yS' so frequently resembles a in 
language, vocabulary, and metrical position of words 



64 INTEODUCTION 

that these can only be accounted for as conscious imita- 
tions and plagiarisms.^ 

(2) The several poems of which /3' is composed present 
a number of recurring characteristic words, expressions, 
and similes which stamp the collection as the work of 
one author. 

(3) The invocation w ttol with which so many elegies 
begin can be nothing but a substitute for the frequent 
Kvpv€ of the first book. 

He has drawn up what appears at first sight to be 
a formidable list of resemblances between a and ^'. On 
closer examination its imposing character disappears ; 
it becomes evident that the number of undoubted imita- 
tions is remarkably small, and in more than one instance, 
as I have shown above, it is in a rather than /?' that we 
should look for the imitation. Many cases of alleged 
borrowing from a include combinations of words and 
even whole lines that had come to be regarded as common 
property ; stereoty]3ed collocations of this kind form a 
striking feature in the early elegy of the Greeks ; for 
the elegiac poets had no scruples in appropriating well- 
turned convenient expressions from one another as well 
as from the rich treasury of Horner.^ In the great 

' If the compiler of /3' used a' it is strange that he did not 
borrow other poems which have a more mai-ked paederastic ten- 
dency than the passages discussed above. Welcker has actually 
done this ; in his rearrangement of the Theognidea the section 
entitled IlaiSiK^ Movaa begins with seven couplets which he has 
removed from a', viz. 959-62, 1091-4, 1095-1100. 

2 Cf. Callin. 1. 15 ; Tyrt. 7, 2 ; Mimn. 6. 2 ; Sol. 20. 4 ; Tlieog. 340 
fioipa Kixot Oai-aTov at the end of a pentameter (Call. Kixfv, Theog. MSS. 
Kixv)- — A'"'^' TT(i9ufxevos{oi) end pent., Sol. 13. 12 ; 4. 6 ; Theog. 
1152, 1238 b, 1202; Simonides 93. The Homeric Kovpibirjs d\6xov 
occurs at the end of a pent., Call. 1. 7 ; Tyrt. 10. 6 (dative) ; Theog. 
1126. Archil. 9, 3 has the Hom. -noKvcpXo'i.a^oio OaXdaarjs at the 
end of a hex. as in Homer. Archil. 9. 7 dWore 5' dXkos cx^t in a 
hex. ; Sol. 13. 76, and 15. 4.=Theog. 318 (cf. 992) at the end of 
a pent. The Hom. movo^ l£ dSvroio II. 5. 512 (end hex.) reappears 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 65 

majority of the examples so confidently adduced by Cor- 
senn the resemblances are too vague and trivial. Certain 
words are by their very form adapted for certain metrical 
positions (e. g. -oavvr] at the end of a pentam.), and their 
constant recurrence in the same place should not be 
regarded as a proof of conscious imitation. Poems dealing 
with friendship will inevitably contain similar phrases, 
and we must not be surprised if we find again and again 
in different authors, ages, and languages, the same obvious 
reproaches and the same threats directed against an un- 
faithful favourite. It is the same here as with the 
catchwords of Nietzsche and his followers ; identity of 
expression accompanies identity of thought. 

Several couplets in f3' are certainly identical with 
verses assigned by a to Theognis ; it is also certain that 
one couplet in the same book was composed by Solon, and 
another elegy is probably the work of Euenus. It is likel}'^, 
then, that the M. JP. includes poems by other writers of 
the early period, and if we possessed another anthology 
of that date equal in length to the Theognidea and 
containing such a large proportion of lines on the 
mutual relations of friends, w^e should probably find other 
points of contact equally numerous with those collected 
by Corsenn. 

That Corsenn has greatly magnified the resemblances 



as TT. f£ dbvTov at tlie end of a pent, in Tyrt. 3. 3. and Theog. 808. 
Xprjfxoffvvri t ('Uajv Tyrt. 10. 8 and Theog. 389. avx^va Xo^uv ex^i 
Tyrt. 11. 2 and Th. 536 (both end pent.). Is Kopov yKaaare end pent. 
Tyrt. 11. 10 and Sol. {Ath. Pol. ch. 5). eV re niaoiaiv end hex. Th. 3 
iind Asius 3. yivtrai ovSfjxia end pent. Mimn. 12. 2 and Theog. 170. 
iraaiv d8(iv xaXeiruv Sol. 7 ; cf, Th. 24, 336. ovdev eirfan rt'Aos end 
of pent. Sol. 13. 58 ; cf. Th. 640. Compare Tyrt. 12. 30 Kal TraiSojv 
TtaiSfs Kal yevos f^omaoj with Sol. 13. 32 ^ -naiofs tovtojv ^ yevos l^oniffoj. 
We have probably another instance of a stereotyped expression in ft 
firj kfxijv yvcj fiT)v k^airaTuai 6eoi (540, 554), and dvBpunojv u-n&aovs-QiKios 
KaOopa (108, 850 ; cf. 616) ; such lines arc little more than adverbs 
or adjectives, 'probably,' 'all men in the world.' 

F 



6Q INTRODUCTION 

will be seen on comparing his examples with his conclu- 
sions. 

'Dubitaverit fortasse quispiam, num in parte eorum 
locorum, quos supra attulerimus, de usu vel recordatione 
cuiuslibet generis omnino possit cogitari ; sed, utut est, 
in his, quos allaturus sim, locis quodammodo fragmenta 
collectionis Theognideae exemplo fuisse ei, qui appendicis 
carmina condiderit, tarn certum esse mihi videtur, ut eos 
iam enumerare satis sit: 1237, 8 (1095, 6; 1086) 
1238 a b (1151, 2) ; 1242 (504) ; 1243 (597) ; 1245 (961) 
1247, 8 (325-7) ; 1257, 8, 1259-62 (213-18, 1071-4) 
1262 (1152); 1266 (253); 1267-70 (1157-60); 1271-4 
(36) : 1278 a-d (1101, 2 ; 945, 50) ; 1279-82 (325-7 ; 337) ; 
1310 (466); 1311 (599, 600); 1312 (326); 1318al> 
(1107, 8); 1323-6(343; 765-8); 1328 (1024; cf. 1279, 
80) ; 1333 (958) ; 1335, 6 (1063) ; 1337-40 (854) ; 1349- 
(25 ; 191) ; 1351, 2 (457 ; 526) ; 1353, 4 (301) ; 1356. 
(124 [201]) ; 1357 (1023, 4); 1361 (1099); 1363, 4 (101); 
1365 (1117) ; 1367, 8 (209) ; 1377 (31 ; 597) ; 1378 (546 ; 
508); 1379(1099); 1384(295).'^ 

With the exception of the repetitions and two other 
lines (1353, 1365) which we have already discussed, the 
above list of forty-five references to a oifers but eleven 
cases which can possibly be regarded as reminiscences of 
Theognis, and even these are by no means certain. All 
the other alleged resemblances are too commonplace and 
trivial to need further comment. With regard to the 
eleven that still remain, it should be noted that in 1237, 8 
(1095, 6 ; 1086) the pentameter is probably to be re- 
garded as common property, as also the pentameter 1356, 
which is actually found elsewhere (Tyrt. 10. 4) in a slightly 
different form, irdvrwv eo-r avLrjpoTaTov : as regards 1095, 6 
it should be noted that Homer has tol avayK-q at the 
end of a hexameter followed by an infinitive at the 

1 1262 = 1238 I), which is not derived from 1152 ; 1379 = 1361. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 67 

beginning of the hexameter that follows {IL 5. 633) ; ^ 
1267-70 and 1157-60 have nothing in common but the 
framework (ovre yap— dAAa — 0)9 8' avTois), which is too 
natural and simple to be classed as a proof of imitation ; 
in 1312 (326) we have the combination of apOfxios and 
<^tAo9, which is Homeric (cf. H. Herm. 524, ^ Aesch. P. V. 
193, Callim. fr. 199) ; 1323-6 may be a faint reminiscence 
of 765-8, and there is perhaps a close relation between 
1242 and 504, 1357 and 1023, 1377 and 31, 597. There 
is nothing in the above examples that adds the slightest 
support to the views of those who would assign all /?' to 
one author. 

Corsenn adds a great number of other less striking 
parallels ; the following may be taken as typical examples : 
1325 cf. 829 (dTTOTrave) ; 1325 cf. 342 (809 c. infin.) ; 1326 
cf. 1119 (/xeVp' ^^8779, which is Homeric). The cumulative 
evidence afforded by such insignificant resemblances 
has no value whatever for the purpose to which he 
applies it. On the other hand they throw interesting 
light on the common language of the early elegiac age. 
Frequently they are too vague even for this : e. g. -n-po- 
kiTTOva-a Uvat (351-2), and Oix^a-Oai TrpoXnrovG' (1102) are 
regarded as the originals of TrpoAtTrwv ctcriv (1277-8) ; on 
turning to the Index in Paley's Hesiod we get five refer- 
ences to TrpoAtTTwv, four with some form of cT/>ti, ep^opiai; or 
oixopat, and only one instance with any other verb. Cf. 
7rpoAi7ro{)o-a ^x^r 'AptaTrj, A. Pal 5. 16. With Th. 1296, 
974 cf. SC>fxa TO ^epaecfiovrj^, A. P. 11. 274. The A. p. 
will supply endless parallels similar to those for which 
such importance is claimed by Corsenn ; e.g. *ad verba 



^ The following are also probably to be classed as public 
property: kfiijs (piKoT-qros dfiapruv (1361, 1379, 1099), alaxpov vvados 
eX<y (1378, 546, 508), and xaAcTrcl/Taro^ dxeos (1384, 295). 

2 Cf. Sikes and Allen ad loc. Their note may well be applied to 
the case before us. 

f2 



68 INTKODUCTION 

/A€ 7rpo(f>€v^€ai (1299) cf. V. 1098 CK At/xi/779 yacyaA.7/s avSpa 
KUKov Trpocfivywv '. ^ 

Nor is there any validity in the metrical considera- 
tions urged by Corsenn. The Homeric Poems, the 
Hymns, Hesiod, Early Elegy, and the Palatine Antho- 
logy will afford innumerable instances of the parallels 
advanced to prove the dependence of (B' on a. Hexa- 
meters in both books (a and /?') end with some form of 
the following words ; dvayKr; 1237, 195, 387, 419, this is 
very frequent in Homer; StoS/cw 1299, 329 [Od. 5. 332, 
Hymn 9. 4, A. Pal. 12. 18, &c.) ; cjSiAott^t-— 1241, 1091 
(three times in Od.) ; wAeo-a? hex. 5th foot 1271, 43 {Od. 
9. 40). The A. Pal. and Early Elegy will supply 
numerous cases of pentameters ending with o-Te<^avos, 
axa.pl, acfjpoa-vvr}. From the elegists we may compare 
(at the end of hex.) ev re pL^a-oLa-iv Th. 3, Asius 3 ; 
(end of pent.) hxoa-Taa-irf Th., Sol. ; eveo-rt voos Th., Sol. ; 
ii€<fidvr) Th., Sol. ; Th. and A. Pal. end hex. with a/xap- 

Twi/, a/xot^ryv, 8ai7>to)j/, &C. ; J)ent. with iaopwv, eo-tScii/, 81'- 
va/xai, &C., &C. 

T/*e Second Book and a later parallel. 

The Muse of The twelfth book of the Palatine Anthology is entitled 
^TpaToivos Mova-a IlatStKr;, and contains 258 elegies, many 
of 'which bear the name of Strato himself (fl. under 
Hadrian). Alcaeus, Meleager, Ehianus, Callimachus, 
Asclepiades, and Posidippus, figure very prominently in 
this collection, but there is not a single line attributed 
to Theognis, nor a single anonymous quotation from his 
alleged works. 

The book opens with 'Ek Aios ap^wp-ea-Oa, KaOtb's eiprjKcv 
"Aparo?, and mention is made of Zeus, the Muses, Graces, 
Eros, and Bromius, in the first two elegies (cf. Th. 1-18, 

' w iraT is too common in Greek poetry (e. g. Simon. Am. 1, 
Anacr. 4, ad ink. vers.) to prove any connexion between Theognis 
fi' and a'. 



ORIGIN AND COMPOSITION 69 

1231). There are numerous resemblances to Th. f^, but 
the points of difference are still more striking. Some 
of the poems are couched in the most offensive terms 
(cf. 3, 6), and there is in many a total absence of that 
restraint and vagueness which characterize the collection 
assigned to the Megarian. There is more violent passion, 
and far more vivacity in the expression thereof. Favourite 
boys are mentioned by name ; descriptions abound, detail 
is added to detail, narrative is frequent, metaphor follows 
metaphor, there are more subtle conceits and quaint 
fancies,^ and although some poems were never intended 
for the purpose implied in the title,^ the great majority 
are far more definitely paederastic than the Theognidea. 

There is a very great variety of erotic terms, including 
the Theognidean reXeiv, atreti/, StSovv ; here we meet again 
and again with appeals to hard-hearted boys and warn- 
ings regarding the old age to come that begins about the 
twentieth year ; in 4 we are told that the best age is 
eighteen (cf. Th. Xeiav yivw 1327) ; in 10 the lover is 
more generous than the author of Th. 1327 and vows 
never to abandon the boy Kav irtli-ywy kuv Tpt^es ; the 
boy named in 12 has been overcome by the fate hinted 
at in Th. 1331-3. In the M. P. Stmt, the God of Love 
is no longer the dealer of death addressed in Th. 1231, 
or the mighty God with the axe who appears in the 
genuine Anacreon ; he is /xtK/aos "E/aw? elaborately equipped 
with TTTcptt, loSoKo? cfiaperpyji ro^a kol tot, and the like ; 
cpwres and TToOoL are common. The legend of Ganymede 
wears a later dress than Th. 1345 sqq. in 194, 220, 221, 
and elsewhere. The above differences point to the earlier 
origin of the Theognidean verses. 

1 Cf. 01 iraides \al3vpiv6os dv4^odos (Rhianus), 93 ; d/f/)09 ewfi ipvx^i 
€<TTt /xdyapos "Epojs (Meleag.), 92. 

2 173 discusses the charms of two women. 



70 



INTRODUCTION 



Repeated 
Poems. 



500-600 
600-700 
700-1000 



CHAPTER III 
Conclusions 
A good number of couplets and longer elegies occur, 
generally with minute variations,^ more than once in the 
course of the first book (eXeyctwi/ a'). A glance at the 
following table will show that with three exceptions 
all the repeated poems come towards the end of the 
collection, that is, between 1038 and 1220, and that 
about one half are first found near the beginning of the 
book, i. e. before 220. ^ 

Before 300 no repetitions. 
Between 300-400 332 ab = 209-10. 
400-500 none. 

509-10 = 211-12. 
643-4 = 115-16. 
none. 

/ 1038 ab = 853-4. 
1070 ab = 877-8. 
1071-4 = 213-18. 
1081-2 b = 39-42. 
1082 c-f = 87-90. 
1104 ab 1^571-2. 
1105-(6) ) "(417-18). 
1109-14 = 57-60. 
1114 ab = 619-20. 
1160 ab=: 1095-6. 
1161-2 = 409-10. 
1162 a-f= 441-6. 
1164 a-d = 97-100. 
1164 e-h = 415-18. 
1178 ab = 555-6. 
i 1184 ab = 367-8. ^ 

^ Besides ordinary variants we have a few cases due to a desire 
for abridgement and the elimination of metaphor and an inten- 
tional trifling with the order of words. Cf. 213-8 and 1071-4 ; 57- 
60 and 1109-14. 

2 As our earliest MSS. contain a greater number of repetitions 



1000-1220 



CONCLUSIONS 71 

Many modern scholars have taken the presence of the 
repetitions to prove the composite origin of the Sylloge, 
and this is the only satisfactory explanation that has yet 
been offered.' Owing to the trivial variations in the 
text, these repeated elegies cannot be due to the repetition 
of a poem for the purpose of supplying catchvi^ords, or 
to its insertion as a cross-reference under another title, as 
Oeyso'^ maintains when he claims that the collections 
■of Stobaeus afford instances of the same lines adduced 
under different headings. The differences in text are 
too slight to admit the explanation put forward by 
Mr. Harrison, viz. that the repetitions were issued as 
new jDoems by Theognis himself. It is evident that we 
have to deal with different versions of the same lines 
derived from different sources. The two examples chosen 
by Geyso to prove his hypothesis will serve as an excel- 
lent illustration of my contention. Stobaeus quoted 
Theognis 183 sqq. in the section entitled irepl /xviyo-rcta? 
And again under -n-epl euycvcta?. The text varies consider- 
ably ; in the first instance the lines are given in a detached 
quotation as 0eoyrt8os ; when they meet us again they 
occur in a long extract Hci^o^toi/ro? ck tov Trt/at 0coyi/t8os. 
His other example is Th. 35, 6, which comes in a long 
extract from the Memorabilia of Xenophon under the 
general heading -n-epl <fiLXoTrona<; : it is also included in a 
prose passage attributed to Musonius and placed in the 
section entitled Trcpt ycwpyia? on ayaOov. Here again 
diversity of origin accounts for diversity of text. 

than any of the others, it is not at all unlikely that the collection 
originally included a still greater proportion which were gradually 
thinned out by the copyists of successive generations. 

^ Studemund has attempted to account for the lack of arrange- 
ment in the order of the poems as presented in our MSS. by 
assuming that in the archetype their original order had been lost 
by the accidental transposition of the leaves on which they were 
written. He has not explained how tlie repeated elegies came to 
be grouped in masses towards the end of the book. 

'■^ Studia Theoynldea, p. 52. 



72 INTRODUCTION 

As most of the repetitions come after 1038 H. Sclineide- 
win^ holds that the first book is composed of two 
anthologies, the second of which begins somewhere 
between 878 and 1038. Van der Mey finds the beginning 
of the second about 769 ; Geyso, arguing from the 
prayer to the gods, draws the line at 756. They all 
agree in regarding 1231-1389 as an independent compila- 
tion. 
Book I These scholars have been too timid in applying their 

o/Antho-^ own principles ; for they have been content to leave 
logies. repetitions within the anthologies whose existence they 

claim to have established ; there are three cases of re- 
peated couplets before 650, and three lines occur twice 
in 1090-1170. My own view is that the first book of the 
Theognidea includes several collections of varying length 
supplemented by a number of separate elegies drawn 
from many different sources. The first portion 1-252 
is a well -arranged compilation complete in itself; it 
contains no repetitions, and the poems are carefully 
grouped under different headings that do not recur. We 
have first a series of opening invocations leading up to 
an introductory poem (19-26) addressed to Cyrnus and 
giving the author's name and method of composition. 
It is highly probable that we have in this section (Th. 1- 
26) the beginning of his book as arranged by Theognis 
himself. In 27-38 the poet declares his intention of 
instructing Cyrnus in the ways of the ' good ', and states 
his general maxim or text, 'always associate with the 
''good" and avoid the "bad."' He then proceeds to 
discuss the political situation (39-42, 43-52, 53-68), and 
shows how the ' bad ' are responsible for the ruin of the 
state ; the poet's young friend is told how to conduct 
himself under the new regime, and is warned against 
friendship with the city's new masters. 69-128 are all on 

^ Cf. H. Schneidewin, De Syllogis Theognideis, 1878 ; Van der Mey. 
StucUa Theognidea, 1869; Rintelen, De Theognide, 1863. 



CONCLUSIONS 73 

the subject of friendship ; 69-72 ' make friends of the 
'• good " ' ; 73-86, four elegies on the scarcity of faithful 
friends ; 87-100 tell us what qualities are desirable and 
undesirable in a friend ; 101-14, four elegies on the ' bad ' 
as friends ; 115-28, three on the difficulty of distinguish- 
ing between true and false friends ; 129-72 contain 
general remarks and reflections on human affairs, and 
deal with our relations towards the gods, and especially 
with our helplessness ; the dominant note is ' all is 
chance ! We know nothing ' ; 178 starts with a new 
subject ^ poverty ', which is discussed in three poems to 
be followed by three on its opposite ' wealth ' (183-208) ; 
209-36, eight elegies on miscellaneous topics ; 237-52 
form a closing elegy in which the poet informs Cyrnus 
of the fame he has won for him. 

My theory regarding the genesis of the Theognidean 
Sylloge would adequately account for : (1) the insignifi- 
cant variants in the text of the repetitions which generally 
look like readings from two closely-allied MSS. of the 
same poem or piece of prose ^ ; the MSS. of Theognis often 
differ more from one another than do the repeated 
poems ; (2) the form of one or two repeated poems that 
have been subjected to more drastic treatment ; (3) the 
recurrence of groups of elegies or single elegies dealing 
with a topic already treated ; (4) the disconnected 
appearance of some elegies that irresistibly remind us 
of the poems that make up ' the complete fragments ' of 
lost poets in collections like Bergk's Poetae Lyrici or the 
Fragmerda Comicorum ; in both cases we have bits of 



^ A careful comparison has convinced me that almost without 
exception the best text has been preserved where the repeated 
passages first occur ; and, generally speaking, the student will find 
that he is more frequently confronted with textual difficulties in 
the later portions of the Theognidea. Cf. the dissertations of 
H, Schneidewin and Schafer. and Van der Mey's Studia ; see 
Appendix on 211, 409. 



74 



INTRODUCTION 



I 



The Theoy- 

nidea an 

anthology 

o/pre- 

Alexan- 

drian 

elegies. 



poetry tliat were found as detached quotations in the 
works of ancient writers. 

There are two questions which now call for a solution. 
(1) To what period in the history of Greek Literature 
do the poems included in the Theogmdea belong? (2) 
When was our present collection put together ? 

We know that the Sylloge contains elegies or por- 
tions of elegies composed by predecessors of Theognis, 
viz. Tyrtaeus, Mimnermus, and Solon ; with the probable 
exception of Euenus the Parian, and one or two inter- 
polations and additions to incomplete elegies (cf. 253, 
1259), it cannot be proved that the collection contains 
anything later than the age of Theognis himself. There 
are, besides, many indications that point to an early 
date.^ There is no allusion to any event later than 
the Persian Wars, and before relegating any single poem 
in the second book to a, late period we should remember 
that paederasty was in vogue as early as the days of 
Solon. 

In language and vocabulary the Theognidea bear a 
striking resemblance to Homer and the early elegists ; 
again and again the same phrases recur and the same 
expressions are found in the same metrical positions. 
I have endeavoured in my Commentary, by means of 
numerous quotations and references, to illustrate the 
close dependence of our poems upon the language of 
Homer, as well as their connexion in general style, form, 
and diction, with the elegiac poets of the seventh and 
sixth centuries b. c. It is true that we occasionally meet 
with words that do not elsewhere occur until a compara- 

1 Bergk sees proofs of an early date in the reff. to the war- 
cliariot, 551, 889 (both very doubtful), and the early Sfinvov, 998 ; 
Gr. Lit.-Gesch. ii, p. 304. The Onomacritus addressed v. 503 may 
well be the famous forger of oracles, and there is no reason to 
believe that any of the other persons mentioned belong to a later 
age. Harrison has not produced sufficient evidence to connect 
them with Megara and Theognis. 



/ CONCLUSIONS 75 

tively Hie period ; the verses in which they are found 
should not on that account be condemned as late in- 
truders ; similar instances are not unknown in Homer 
and other early poets. For example, after Homer (inch 
the Hymns) there seems to be no instance of /Spwixr} until 
we come to Posidippus (fl. 270 b.c), and if we may trust 
the dictionaries, not again until Oppian (fl. 170 a. d.), and 
after him Quintus of Smyrna (fl. c. 400 a. d.). 

The dialect is just what we should expect in sixth- 
century non-Ionic authors, and the critics have signally 
failed in their attacks upon certain features in the ver- 
sification. The ideas and the dress they wear frequently 
remind us of Bacchylides, Pindar,^ Archil ochus, Phocy- 
lides, and the other exponents of that intensely practical 
gnomic wisdom which characterizes the century of Hip- 
parchus and Solon. 

Simple and straightforward in thought and diction, our 
elegies present none of those fanciful conceits and abstruse 
mythological allusions which are so distinctive a feature 
in the poetry of the Alexandrian age. As we possess but 
600 lines of elegiac verse from Simonides of Ceos to Theo- 
critus of Chios (inch), it would be rash to exclude the 
later fifth and the fourth centuries from our collection, 
especially as there is no strongly marked difference be- 
tween their elegiac remains and those of the preceding 
ages. But we may at any rate safely assert that we 
have to deal with an anthology of pre- Alexandrian verse. 

The book opens with a fitting introduction, which in- Theognis 
eludes three elegies of equal length addressed to deities 'i^?!."^ 
naturally associated with the poet's art. 5-10 is out of addressed 
place ; it disturbs the balance of the structure, and is an '^ Q/'*«wi.- 
interpolation probably taken from a Delian hymn. Be- 
ginning with a general prayer to Apollo and another to 
Artemis, we pass from the distinctively Theognidean 

^ For parallels in Pindar and Bacchylides see Harrison's 
Appendix V, and Jobb's Bacchylides, Introd., p. 64, and Index. 



76 INTRODUCTION 






maxim in v. 17 to the revelation of the j)oet's identity in 
19-26. For the authenticity of v. 14 we have the testi- 
mony of Aristotle, oVep Acyet ©eoyvt?, Etli. Eud. 7. 10. It 
is not unlikely, then, that we have in vv. 1-26 the begin- 
ning of a collection published by Theognis himself. He 
had already attained to national distinction as a poet (cf. 
23) when he gathered together a number of hortatory 
elegies addressed to Cyrnus and issued them to the public. 
We may infer from 237-52, which probably formed the 
epilogue to his book, that he intended these poems to be 
sung at convivial gatherings (239-42). The tone of these 
elegies would be strictly practical : the poet would 
instruct his young friend in the ways of life and point 
out the lessons to be drawn from current politics (cf. 27- 
42, «&c.).' 

This hypothesis ^ fits in well with the general opinion 
of the ancients regarding Theognis ; among the elegists 
he is the gnomic and paraenetic i^oei par excellence, and he 
holds a unique position side by side with Hesiod and 
Phocylides as one of the apto-rot avfx^ovXoi t(o jStio tw twv 
avOpioTTiov, TviojxoXoyLaL, vTroOrJKai, Tra/aatvcVct? are the most 
frequent descriptions of his work. A book entirely devoted 
to 'counsels' would attract greater attention and win for the 
author greater fame as a moralist than would a miscel- 
laneous assortment of elegies like the first book of our 
Sylloge. 

Athenaeus (c. 200 a. d.), to support a charge of luxurious 
living, quotes Th. 997-1002, and then incidentally adds 

^ There is no need to suppose that every poem contained the 
invocation Kvpvc, while it is certain that the series would not 
include elegies addressed to other persons. 1-252 contains foreign 
matter besides 5-10, viz. 153-4, 227-32 (Solon). 

^ We may still come across the title of the book To Cyrnus in the 
confused statements of Suidas, and it has been transferred to our 
Sylloge in the titles of several inferior MSS., e.g. Qeoyvidos Mtyapius 
yvco/xoXoyia vpds Kvpvov Ho\vnaidr}v rov kpija/xtvov, h, Qeoyvido^ yvw/xai 
rov Meyapeoos irpos Kvpvov rbv kavTov (p'lKoVy r. 



CONCLUSIONS 77 

another accusation based upon 993-6, which he also 
quotes. As I cannot follow Harrison in regarding these 
two elegies to be portions of one poem, I think it likely 
that Athenaeus found the verses in a collection ascribed 
to Theognis that may or may not be the First Book 
which we possess. He certainly was unacquainted with 
the 3hisa Faedica. Cyril (died 444 a.d.), replying to his 
opponent Julian, knew of none but the ^hypothetic' 
Theognis, else he could never have referred to his works 
as oTTOta TTCp tiv /cat TcrOaL Kopt'ois /cat /xrjv koL TraiSaytoyot 
(f>ai€v av vovOiTovvre^ ra /xctpctKta. Even if the bishop had 
never read a line of Theognis, he was thus at any rate, 
although with a disparaging turn of language, echoing 
the traditional opinion of classical antiquity. 

Our collection (Book I) was certainly used (occasionally, 
if not always) by Stobaeus (early sixth cent.), as is proved 
by the order in which he quotes certain passages ' and 
the fact that he assigns to Theognis poems which others 
(and in one instance Stobaeus himself) ascribe to Solon.^ 

There is no reason to suppose that the second book 
was known to him. With the doubtful exception of Suidas 
there is not a single reference to this collection (y8') in the 
whole body of ancient literature. By the time of Stobaeus 
* occasional ' poems ascribed to Theognis had been brought 
together, and fragments found as quotations in literary 
and philosophical works, besides the disieda membra of 
the original gnomology as well as a large admixture of 
foreign matter, had been incorporated in one compilation. 
This may explain how it is that, with the exception of 
three couplets addressed to Cyrnus and a fragment of two 
lines quoted as an example of ypicj>o% by Athenaeus, all the 

1 Stob. xviii. 14, 15, 16, 17 = Th. 479-86, 497-8, 499-502, 503-8. 
The order differs in St. 96, where we have 14 = Th. 649-52 + 
177-8 : 15 - 155-8 + 179-80: 16 = 175-6. 

2 Where tlie text differs from that of the original, Stobaeus agrees 
witli the version in the MSS. of Theognis. 



78 INTRODUCTION 

quotations from Theognis in ancient Greek authors are 
found in the first book that passes under his name. 
There is no need to assume that these missing verses, 
which are usually printed after v. 1220, were included in 
a lost section of Theognidea supposed to have originally 
formed the conclusion of eAcyetW a. The elegies quoted 
by Stobaeus may well have been inadvertently omitted by 
copyists in the course of the five centuries that elapsed 
between his day and the writing of our earliest MS. ; we 
know that 1157-8, which are preserved in Stobaeus alone, 
must have occurred in the archetype of all our MSS. or 
some other MS. of which it was a copy. It is also possible 
that Athenaeus was wrong in his ascription of 1229-30, or 
perhaps the person he meant was the other Theognis, the 
dramatist, nicknamed ' Snow '. 

The Argument from Dialect. 

The text of the Theognidea contains a number of non- 
Ionic forms that do not occur in the Homeric dialect. 
Some scholars regard these as the result of corruption 
in our MSS., and advocate their wholesale expulsion in 
favour of the genuine Ionic equivalents. A careful com- 
parison of Ionian and non-Ionian elegy will not justify 
this arbitrary method of dealing with the MS. evidence. 
I have collected all the instances of q and a after p or 
a vowel ^ in the elegies of Callinus, Asius, Mimnermus, 
Demodocus, Xenophanes, Archilochus, and Anacreon, 
and the genuine hexameters of Phocylides ; these were 
all natives of Ionia, and wrote before 500 b. c. The 
proportion of 77 to a forms is forty-two to two. From 
the elegiac poems of the non- Ionian Tyrtaeus and Solon 
we have thirty-nine to sixteen (Tyrt. 17 to 6, Sol. 22 to 10). 

^ I have not included datives in -irjci or proper names in -erjs. 
Several poets not mentioned in the above lists do not offer any 
specifically Ionic or Attic forms. I have omitted one or two cases 
in which the evidence did not seem decisive on either side. 



CONCLUSIONS 79 

In the next i^eriod I have taken from Bergk's Poetae 
Lyrki the elegies of Sophocles, Ion, Melanthius, Dionysiiis 
Chalcus, Agathon, Eiienus, Critias, Socrates, Antimachus, 
Plato, Zeuxis, Parrhasius, Aristotle, and Crates ; there 
is again a striking difference in the result : twenty-one 
■Y] forms, thirty a forms. 

There can be no mistake about the significance of 
these figures. The differences cannot be due to varying 
degrees of corruption in the MSS., as our sources for the 
text are practically identical in each of the three divisions, 
viz. quotations in Plutarch, Athenaeus, Stobaeus, «S:c. 
We have before us a clear proof of the encroachments 
of Attic vocalism upon the native Ionic of Asia and the 
Islands. In the first group we have evidently to deal 
with one or two Attic forms that have crept into the 
text and ousted the original Ionic vowels ; similar 
intruders meet us in the MSS. of Herodotus and Hippo- 
crates ; there is no reason to doubt that, except when 
composing a certain class of epigram, the Ionian elegists 
of the early period remained faithful to their native 
dialect. During the early period (i. e. before 500) we find 
foreign writers of Ionic elegy, like Tyrtaeus and Solon, 
indulging in occasional touches of local colouring ; by the 
end of the fifth century Atticism has invaded the very 
home of Ionic, and the Attic forms outnumber the others 
even in the works of Euenus the Parian and Ion of 
Chios. 

In the above investigation I have rigidly excluded all 
elegies that could be classed as dedications or epitaphs ; 
for it was the custom to introduce the dialect of the dedi- 
cator or the hero commemorated , e. g. Anacreon 102 (on a 
Corinthian) has ^ci8oAa linro's, KpovtSa, /xm/xa, apcTa? (all in 
one couplet), and 103 (rav x^-P'-^^ ^^^ "^"-^ ayeAai/. To the 
above cause is due the omission from my first group of 
(1) three couplets by Archilochus which contain five rj 
and no a forms; (2) Anacreon 100-110, with numerous 



80 INTRODUCTION 






Dorisms ; in the second group there are no omissions ; 
the omissions in the third are numerous, including the 
whole of Simonides and most of Plato. 

The same principle applies to the other cases of 
Atticisms in early elegy, e. g. ov for eu (co), &c. Such 
forms are alien to genuine Ionic, and should be removed 
as corruptions in the works of native lonians who wrote 
during the first period ; but where the MS. evidence is 
good, we cannot dispute their right to remain in the text 
of their non-Ionic contemporaries. Having once admitted 
this claim, the editor of Theognis must be content to 
accept the guidance of the most reliable MS. authority, 
and at the same time resign himself to the certainty of 
having admitted into the text, in company with Attic 
forms introduced by the original author, a small pro- 
portion of intruders, impossible to detect, smuggled in 
by scribes of a later generation.^ Of course some of the 
Ionic forms may be due to a similar corruption, as in 
Solon 13. 46, where the MSS. give us a pseu do- Ionic 
ovSefxLrjVf'^ and Th. 152, where A has ixrjScfjLtyjv. 

These Atticisms throw but little light on the com- 
position of the Theognidean collection. They may have 
been placed there by Theognis himself following the 
tradition inaugurated by Tyrtaeus and Solon ; for they 
sometimes occur in elegies of well-established authenticit}^ 
(cf. Th. 120, 429, 1220). It is equally possible that the 
poems in question are the work of earlier, contemporary, 

1 I have admitted non-Ionic forms into the text only wliere tliey 
are supported by unusually strong MS. evidence. Such forms must 
have the support of at least AO or A*. IIoAuTratST^s is of course 
a Doric formation ; Trdofiai = Kraofiai : forms like irpdyfia may owe 
their existence to Doric as well as Attic influence. 

2 I cannot follow Prof. Weir Smyth (I. D. 61, 189) in rejecting as 
pseudo-Ionisms all the forms with Ionic ij in the elegies of Solon, 
although even the earliest metrical inscriptions of Attica invariably 
present the corresponding Attic a : cf.-fj\iKias, C.I. A. 1.471, -rrpdyfi', 
ib. 463 (age of Solon'. See Schwyzer-Meisterhans, Gram. d. 
attischen lnschriften,\). 17. 




CONCLUSIONS 81 

or later poets. We should also bear in mind that in 
almost every instance, without doing violence to the 
metre, the genuine Ionic may be reintroduced to replace 
the Attic of the MSS. 

^Restored Fragments.'' 

Unsuccessful attempts have been made by Beschorner 
and others to recover lost lines of Theognis by recasting 
into metrical form some of the references in ancient 
authors. Out of Plato, Laws 630 C, Beschorner recovered 
a pentameter, -^v kc hiKaiocrvv-qv tl<; rcAeW KaXea-Y]. But 0J9 
(f>r}(TL in this passage refers to the words of Theognis 
already quoted, Trto-ro? dvrjp ktX. From Ar. Nic. EfJi. 
1177 he extracted xprj 8' avdpooTnva, J^vpvc, (ppovetv avOpioTTov 
iovra \ OvrjTa re tov dvrjrov. There is no need to suppose 
that Aristotle had Theognis in mind when he used the 
word TTapaivovvra^. See Sitzler in Bursian's JaJireshericht, 
1900. 

Bergk, B. M. 1845, claimed for Theognis a line twice 
quoted by Ar., End. Etli. 7. 2, 7. 10 ovk^tl yLyvwaKova-tv 
'AOyjvatoL Meyaprjas ; where it is first quoted by Aristotle, 
it is called Trapoi/xLa, an expression frequently applied to 
lines of Theognis. 

Hesychius alludes to a parody of Theognis. IIoAu7rat8i7s* 
TtapioSrjTaL e/c twv 0coyrt8o9 ^ofx^wv iTraivrjaai, for which 
Bergk reads BoX^bv iTraLvrja-w, JloXvirdiZ-q, a travesty of an 
elegy by Theognis now no longer extant. Geyso (Stud. 
Til., p. 17) discusses the passage with considerable detail, 
and concludes that the author parodied Antisthenes, who 
wrote a TrporpeTTTiKos on Theognis ; he corrects the text 
into Ik t(x)v irepl ©eoyvtSo?, and for ^ofx^wv suggests (Sopftov 
(= popiPvXLov), a narrow-necked drinking-vessel, praised 
by Antisthenes as a check against immoderate potations. 
Cf. Athen. 465. 



82 INTRODUCTION 

CHAPTER IV.— TESTIMONIA 
Quotations as Evidence for the Text 

Many editors have attached too great importance to 
the quotations from Theognis in ancient writers ; inter- 
esting they often are, but they contribute little to our 
knowledge of the text. As their readings are accessible 
to all in the pages of Bergk's P. L. G.,1 have not thought 
it necessary to record them in my critical notes, except 
where they present a striking difference or offer any help 
in cases of doubt. Bergk allowed himself to be unduly 
influenced by the antiquity of the books in which they 
occur, and by the consensus of opinion among the ancients 
regarding the form of certain much-quoted lines. For 
instance, because Th. 175 is frequently quoted in the 
form xPl T^€vtr)v (jievyovTa, he proposed to substitute this 
for the Theognidean version t)i/ ^t/ xp/ cfievyovra ; cf. also 
his inferences from Plato discussed in Appendix on 429. 

Wherever we find, whether in an anthology or else- 
where, a poem quoted for its own sake as a complete 
whole, it will often exhibit a sounder text than detached 
fragments of the same poem incidentally cited by very 
early classical writers. Frequently a line has to be 
changed before it can bear an independent existence ; 
W ^V XPV cannot stand alone ; XPV ^revtryv is an obvious 
emendation which admirably suits the requirements of 
its new position ; and koI yap av-qp ireviij ScS/xt^/xci/os (177) 
has been transformed into a complete sentence by the 
simple expedient of reading ttSs yap avrjp Trevcyj ScS/xT^/xeVo?. 
Cf. Eur. Medea 263 myav. ywij yap raAAa filv ^ofBov 

irXia which reappears in Stob. 73. 8 as ywr] yap icm roAAa 
fi€v (f)6^ov TrXca. Again cf. Kypvo-o-et jxaOciv \ rov evTt'xetv 
SoKOvvra /xr] ^yjXovv -rrplv av ktX, Eur. Het'Clcld. 865, and Toi' 
evTVX'^^v SoKovvra /xr] IrjXovre irpLv ktX (Stob. 105. 26). 

Sometimes it suits our fancy to change an independent 




TESTIMONIA 83 

sentence into a combination of nouns and adjectives. 
Keats wrote: 'A thing of beauty is a joy for ever' 
{Endym. 1) ; we frequently refer to an admired object 
as 'a thing of beauty and a joy for ever'. A mis- 
quotation occasionally seizes the popular fancy, fights 
its way into literature, and is perpetuated from age to 
age as a separate quotation, while the correct form 
continues to live on in the original context ; men quite 
familiar with the latter still do not scruple to adopt the 
usurper in writing as well as in conversation. We 
frequently read and hear of 'the man that hath no 
music hi Ms soul ' ; Shakespeare wrote in himself {M. of 
Venice, Act 5, Sc. 1) ; 'music,' we are told, *hath charms 
to soothe the savage heast ' ; the original has * a savage 
breast ' (Congreve, Mourning Bride, Act 1, Sc. 1) ; cf. 
' fresh fields and pastures new ' for ' fresh woods ' (Lycidas 
ad fin).^ 

The text of classical authors is often ' corrected ' by the 
use of semi-quotations found in early writers; the following 
example should serve as a warning. In Theophr. Hist. 
Plants 9. 15 we read Ka\ yap Ala-xvXo? iv rat? cAcy ciai9 o)? 
7ro\vcf3dp/XaKov Xeyet, rr]V TvpprjvLav, Tvpprjvov yevedv, <f>apjxaKO- 
TTOLov Wvos (=Aesch. fr. 446). Had not the words Trjv 
Tvp. been followed by the quotation, some editors would 
no doubt have been tempted to accept iroXvcf), as the 
word actually used by the dramatist ; and if we possessed 
a MS. of the poem in question, the correct reading 
cfiapfjLaKOTr. would probably have been ejected, and the line 
emended so as to admit the other adjective. 

1 For a fruitful discussion of all quotations ;from Theognis see 
Oscar Criiger's dissertation De loc. Th. ap. vet. script, 1882. 



84 INTRODUCTION 

QUOTATIONS BEARING ON THE HISTORY OF 
THE THEOGNIDEAN POEMS. 

Plato. 
Lmvs 680 A. Th. 77, 8 quoted under the 
name of Theognis. 

Meno 95 d. 

%WK. ®€oyvLV Tov TroL7]Tr)v oTcrO' on Tavra ravra Xeyei ; 
Mcv. iv TTOtots eTTCcrtJ/ ; 2w/c. er TOi<i eAeyet'ot? of' Xeyet 
Kol Trapa tolctiv ttivc koX iaOic, /cat fxera Tcncnv 

r^€ KOL avSave rot?, wv jmeydky] SvvafjLLs. 
icrOXiiiv jxkv yap air iaSXa StSd^cai' jjv Sk KaKouriv 
(TVfxp.Lcryr]<s, dTroAet? kol tov iovra voov [Til. 38-6]. 
oTdO^ OTL iv rovTOL^ [xkv ojs hihaKTOv ov(rr)S rrj? dp€Trj<; Aeyet ; 
MeV. (ftaLverat ye. 2(o/c. cf dWots 8e yc oXtyov /xera/Sa?, 

€t 8' ^1/ TTOITJTOV, <j>'q(rL, Kol tvOiTOV dv^pl VOTJfXa [Th. 435], 
Acyet TTWS OTL 

TToWovs av iJii(rOov<; kol /xeyaAov'? €<f>cpov [Th. 434J 
ot SvvdjjLevoL rovTo TroLecv, kol 
ov TTOT av i^ dyaOov Trarpo? eyevro KaKos, 

7r€L06fX€VO<S /XvOoLOTL (ra6cfipO(TLV. ttAAa SiSdcTKOJV 

ov 7roT€ 7roi7](T€LS TOV KaKov dvSp' dyaOov [Th. 436 8 J. 

ivvo€L<s OTL avTos avTw TrdXtv irepl tmv avrwv TdvavTia Ae'yet ; 
Mev. ^atVcTtti. 

8t8d|eai (Th. MSS. [xaOrjcreai) is probably due to the title 
of the discussion (d SiSaKTov rj dpeTy). For other questions 
arising out of the text see Appendix. 

The words iv ttolols e-rreatv have been taken as a proof 
that the published poems of Theognis were not confined 
to the elegiac couplet ; and, in defiance of overwhelming 
evidence to the contraiy, a statement by Clement of 
Alexandria has been brought in to supply the required 
verses. They are assumed to be the well-known and oft- 
quoted Pythian oracle containing the lines: v/xet? S\ ai 



TESTIMONIA 85 

Mcya/ocis, oi're rfjiroi ovre TcVaprot or're BvojSeKaTOi, ovt iv Xoya> 

oiV iv apiOfjiio (according to some versions they were ad- 
dressed to Atyi€€s and not to Mcyapct?) ; Clement alone 
{Stromat. 901) ascribes them to Theognis {(firja-lv o ©coyrts). 
There is not the slightest ground for allowing his authority 
to prevail against the numerous other writers who quote 
the oracle ; for a list of these cf. Leutsch-Schneidewin*s 
Paroemlogr. Graeci, note on Zenobius, 1. 48. 

The translation ^ In what kind of verses ' {metre) hardly 
suits the context. Socrates begins by declaring that 
Theognis contradicts himself on a question of education. 
Can we believe that Meno, who is keenly interested in 
the discussion, coolly interrupts the speaker with the 
totally irrelevant question : " What metre are these verses 
you refer to written in ? ' The ' kind of verse ' may refer 
not to the metrical form, l^ut to the s^ihjed-matter and 
'Wording, i.e. How does the poet express himself? Or 
cV TT. eTreo-iv may simply mean * Where ? ' ^ 

Many scholars take oAtyov iJL€Ta^d<; to mean ' slightly 
changing his point of view '. The fatal objection to this 
rendering lies in the words that immediate^ follow the 
quotations, ivvoec^s ktX. Would Socrates at one and the 
same moment refer to the poem of Theognis as showing 
* a slight change of standpoint ' and ' a direct self-contra- 
diction ' ? It is better to translate * after a slight digres- 
sion V" and this is supported by the wording of the two 
references made to Theognis. 

They are both arranged in the same way, (1) reference 
to the passage, (2) quotation, (3) criticism in the form of 
a question, with the same reply in each case (c^atVcrai). 
The inference is that the words oAtyov /^cra^as are a mere 

' Cf. Eur. Bacch. 1291, ttov 5' a-Aer*; ^ Kar' oTkov fi -noiois tuttois ; 
ovwfp KT\. h voiuis T6nois ; El. 622 = [ubi] ? For Uttt] cf. Th. 20, 22. 

,- fX(:Tal3. is used ])y Homer for a change of theme ; cf. dW' dyf Stj 
H(Td0T]ei Kal 'Ittttov leuofxov ddoov, Od. 8. 492 ; cf. Ihjmn Ajyhr. 29.'} atv 
S'fyu dp^djxfvos /xeralSTja'Ofiai dXXov h v/xvov. 



86 INTRODUCTION 

reference. Instead of saying iv uXXols ov Xeyei Socraf 
uses the expression 6X. fx^r. to emphasize his charge by 
showing that the poems are in the same book and not far 
from one another. The interval of 400 lines that sepa- 
rates them in our MSS. seems too long to suit this descrip- 
tion, and this makes it at least possible that Plato found 
them nearer one another in his copy of Theognis. The 
passage certainly proves the existence of a book of poems 
attributed to Theognis in the early fourth century, and 
this is perhaps all that it does prove ; the philosopher 
may have been quoting from memory, and we must there- 
fore not attach too much importance to his statements. 

Xenop1io7i. 

Sympos. 2. 4 quotes, under the name of Theognis, 35-6, 
in an ethical discussion on the question, * Can virtue be 
taught ? ' 

Memor. 1. 2. 20. The same lines are cited without the 
poet's name {to)v iroi-qroiv o T€ Acywv). 

* Xenophon ' hi Stobaeus 88. 14. 

When Welcker rearranged the Theoynidea and at- 
tempted to re-establish their original order, he placed 
at the beginning of the collection an elegy that in the 
MSS. stands as vv. 183-90. His argument is based on 
the wrong interpretation of the word apxr) in a passage 
quoted by Stobaeus under the lemma Hei/o^tovros eV- tov 
irepl ©coyvt8os. 

' 0eoyi/t8os cVtiv Ittt/ tov Mcyapcws-' ovro^ 8e 6 TrotT/r^? Trepl 
ov8€Vos oiXXov Xoyov TreTroirjTaL 17 Trepl aper^s kol KaKtas avO^pco- 
iroiVj Kol t(TTLV rj TTOL-qac^ (Tvyypa/jL/xa Trept dvOpioTTiDV' wcnrep et 

Tt5 tTTTTlKOS OiV (TVyypdlj/€L€ TTCpl tTTTTtK^S. y OVV d.p)^ JJLOL SoKcl 

TTJs 7roi>7<r€(os opOw^ e)(€LV' dp^eraL yap irpCiTOV oltto tov €v yevi- 
(rOat. (^ero yap ovre dvOpuiirov ovtc tCjv dWwv ovSev av dyaObv 
ctvat, €t fX7] TO. y€vi^(TovTa dyada ci'iy. cSo^ci/ ovv avrw irapa- 
ScLyfxacTL TOis aXXots ^wot? xPW"-^^"-h """^ M ^^'^^ Tp€<fi€Tai, 



TESTIMONIA 87 

dXka /zcTtt T€xvr]s CKacrra BepaTreveraL, ottojs yevvaioTara co-ovrat. 
HrjXol 8' cV TotcrSe rot? cTrecrf Kpiots /xej/ ktA. Th. 183-90. 

ravra ra tirq Acyct tov^ dvOpMirovs ovk liricrTaa-dai yei/vSv e^ 
dAATJAwv, Kara yiyv^a-Qai to yeVos tooi/ dvOpoiiroiv kolkiov del fxiyvv- 
fievov TO x^tpov Tw /^eXriovL. ol 8c TroAAot €/< tovtiov twv cttwi' 
olovTai Tov TTOirjTrjv T-oXvTrpayjxoa-virqv (?) twv dvOpMiroiv Karr]- 
yopeiv /cat di/rt xp-qiidfrow dyevetav kol kukluv dyriKaTaXkaTTea-Bai 
ctSdras* 6/>tot 8c 8oKct dyi/otai/ KarrjyopeLV Trcpt roi/ avrwv /3lov, 

The origin of the extract has been the subject of much 
controversy ; some stoutly uphold the claims of Xeno- 
phon, others with equal tenacity refuse to regard it as his 
work.i An attempt has been made to father the section 
on Antisthenes, and the title has accordingly been changed 
to read ^AvncrOevov^ Ik tov 77. 0, the treatise mentioned being 
one of the two books referred to by Diogenes Laertius (see 
infra, p. 96). Some (e. g. Eaiisch, Geyso) think that the 
name of Xenophon was introduced owing to a mistaken 
inference from the words et tis itttt/ko? ktA., in which they 
detect a reference to Xenophon's treatise -n-epl L7nrLKr]<i ; 
others hold it to be the title of a lost section that imme- 
diately preceded the quotation about Theognis. 

The integrity of this passage has also been contested, 
but I can see no reason to assume that the lines following 
the verses cited {ravTa to. c7rr/ ktA.) are an addition from 
another source. The extract cannot be derived from any 
treatise on Theognis : its whole tone and drift show it to 
be merely an incident in an ethical discussion similar to 
that which hinges on the poem of Simonides in the P>o- 
tayoras of Plato ; and it is clear from the final paragraph 
that the writer is more concerned with a vindication of 
his own theories than with the correct interpretation of 
the poet's meaning. The words ol hi ttoAAoI U tovtmv tmv 
iTrCov ktX. indicate that these lines of Theognis, like 33-0, 
1 75-8, 429-38, had found a place in many debates on 

1 Cf. an able essay by Tmmisch Xenophon iiber Theofinis. 



88 INTEODUCTION 



^ 



points of conduct and theoretical morality, and the author 
(or speaker) is eager to press his own views in opposition 
to current opinion. In such a context we need feel no 
surprise if we find the Theognidea loosely called an ' Essay 
on Goodness and Badness ' by a man who is capable of so 
grossly distorting the words of Theognis as to tell us that 
the object of the poet's attack is not avarice, but ignorance.^ 
It has more than once been suggested (e. g. by Holland ) 
that the fragment may possibly have occurred in a lost 
section of the Memorabilia ; this would sufficiently account 
for the absence of the alleged book on Theognis from the 
list of Xenophon's works as given by Diogenes Laertius. 
Possibly the original lemma had merely Hei/oc^cuvros and 
the other words were added as a guess from the substance 
of the extract to bring the title into line with those of 
the two preceding extracts ; or it may be that a word was 
lost after ck tov -n-ept and the gap filled when a later 
copyist adopted the simple and plausible remedy of re- 
peating the poet's name. As to the authenticity of the 
passage, our verdict must still be non liquet 

Objection has been raised to avyypafxixa on the ground 
that it means ' a prose treatise '. Like our word * com- 
position' and * essay' (cf. Pope's Essay on Man) it is 
occasionally used of poetry as w^ell as of prose. Cf. cKao-ra 
Twv a-vyypafjLfxdTiJiv (hexameters) Hdt. 1. 48 ; os Se koI /xovos 
i!r€fJLvrj(r6Yf "O/xrypos ov ttolvv aKpt^ws (rvviypaij/e Lucian V. H. 
2. 32 ; ncto-avSpos (an epic poet) a-wiypaif/ev Theocr. Epigr. 
22. 4. The author of Trc/or'Yi/^oi;? uses arvyypatpev^ for ' writer', 
e. g. 27. 1, followed by a quotation from Homer, cf. 22. 1, 
33. 1. The addition of rj ttoit/o-is makes a very great differ- 
ence." It would be wrong to say that Dante wrote a ' trea- 

^ How would he explain elSws in 193? Again in 195 avdyKT) is 
distinctly said to be responsible for a man's conduct. fifXedaivd 
(185), dvaivfTai (187), ^ovKerai (,188), Tifiuiai (,189) all point to the 
race for wealth. 

2 For the general description cf. Dio Chrys., who {Oral. 55) declares 
that Homer and Socrates fXfyiTijv nepl dpfTrjs dvdpumwv koX ntpl 



TESTIMONIA 89 

tise ' on The Religious Beliefs of the Middle Ages ; but it- 
would be quite correct to declare that Dante's poem is a 
' treatise ' on that subject. 

That r/ TTotT^o-t? (line 8) means ' the poetry of Theognis ' is 
clear from the expressions already used, 6 TroiT^T^s ir^pl ktX. ; 
this in turn fixes the meaning of tt/? 7roi>yo-eo)s ; we must 
translate r/ ovv afjxy ktX. : ' The starting-point of his 
poetry ' ... * for the poet starts with " good birth " : the 
subject of apxirai is the same as that of uJero. Whatever 
interpretation be attached to apxy the fact remains that 
tvyivita is the one essential quality in the social philosophy 
of Theognis. Even if we follow Bergk, Schumann, 
and other scholars in adopting the literal significance of 
a.pxfi ('opening lines of his poetry'), there is nothing in 
the extract above quoted to imply that the poem cited 
was that apxf] ; e* yevio-Oac may well be a reference to 
the dya^ot whose society is recommended to Cyrnus in 
the lines that come immediately after the introductory 
verses (1-26). 

I Socrates. 

Ad Nicoclen, p. 23. 'EttcI KaKuvo /xot Trpo^rjkov rir, oTt ra 
(Tv)x(iov\.€vovra kol twv TroLyjfxaTMV /cat rwv crvyypajxixdTOiv 
Xpyo-ifXMTaTa fxev aTrarrc? vo/xt^oucrtv, ov jxrjv TjSia-Ta y avriov 
uKOVovaLV, dXXa TreTrovOacTLv oTrep tt/oos tov<s vovOcTOvvras' 
KOL yap iK€LVOvs i7raivov(Tt fxiv, 7rXr](ridt,uv Sk fiovXovTai rot's 
<rvve^aixapTdvov(TLv, dXX^ ov rots dTroTpiirovcriV. (T7]fXi7ov o 
dv Tts TTOLyaatTO Tr]v 'HaLoSov kol ^eoyviSos koi ^iokvXlSov 
TTOi-qa-Lv' /cat yap tovtovs <^acrt jxkv dpia-Tovs yeyivrjcrOaL a~vfx- 
l3ovXov<; TO) /3iio TU) T(i)v dvdpdmoiv. ravra Se XeyovT^s alpovvrai 
(rvvhiaTpi^eiv rats dXXyjXoiv dvotats fxdXXov r/ rat? t/cavwv 

KaKias ; cf, also naaa fxtv rj TToirjais rw 'Ofirjpoj dpfr^i iariv tnaivos Kal 
vavra avrw irpos tovto (p(p(t, Basil D^. Leg. Libr. Gent, quoted by Geyso. 
Aristotle Bhef. iii. 3 quotes Alcida)na.s, wlio called the Odyssnj m\uv 
avdpojirivov Plov Karompov. 



90 INTKODUCTION 



vTroOtjKais. 'Itl K ct tis e/cAc^ctc koX ^ roiv 7rpoc;(ovT(ov TroirjTMV 
Ta<s KaXovfji€va<s yvio/xas, c<^' ats iKelvot fxaXiCTT icnrovSaa-ai', 
ofJiOLO)^ av Koi Trpos ravras SiaTC^eiev* ^Scov yap av /cco/xwSta? 
r*}? <l>avXoTdTr)<s rj rwv ovtoj T€)(ViK(i)<s TreTroLrjfxcvoiv aKov(raia'. 

There is nothing in the above passage or in Plato^ 
Lmvs, 811 (quoted on p. 17), to prove, as some have 
maintained, that Theognis was read in extracted 'gnomes' 
or had in any w^ay been ' boiled down ' by the time of 
Isocrates. The quotation from the latter implies a very 
clear distinction between the Tronqiiara of Theognis and 
his two fellows, and selected * gnomes ' from other poets. 
Plato would probably place him among the oAot TroL-qraL 
The two writers had evidently different types of collec- 
tions in mind ; the philosopher was thinking of choice 
passages running to considerable length such as may be 
found in the compilations of Stobaeus: Isocrates had 
wisdom tabloids in mind, moral tonics in the smallest 
possible doses, complete one-line gnomes from the poets 
corresponding to the yrw/xat ixovoa-Tixoi- of later ages. When 
he sent his sermon to Nicocles, anthologies were already 
common, as we may infer from the words of Plato ; but 
collections of short gnomes had not yet come into vogue. 

Isocrates places the works of Theognis, Hesiod, and 
Phocylides in the class of didactic and hortatory poems. 
All men, he says, are ready to admit the excellence of 
these poets as teachers of practical morality ; but they 
have no wish to make a closer acquaintance with their 
precepts. And if some one were to make a collection 
of * gnomes' even from the most eminent poets, men 
would still prefer comedy of the lowest type to such 
highly finished w^orks of art. 

Bergktook the Trpoexoi^res TroiT^rat to be Hesiod, Theognis^ 
and Phocylides, and believed that the hint dropped by 

1 Bekker, following G, omits Kai. The other MSS., including D, 
which is derived from the same original as G, read as above koI 



I 



TESTIMONIA 91 

Isocrates was adopted and a chrestomathy compiled con- 
taining moral maxims from the Megarian poet. In that 
case we should have expected the addition of some such 
word as tovt(dv or kKuvmv to t^v irp. TT. The poetry of 
Hesiod and the others is styled vTroOyjKac and included 
under to. a-vixfBovXevovra which all consider xp^ori/>twTaTa ; 
the authors are compared with ol vovO€tovvt€<: and ol a-n-o- 
rp€7rovT€<;, and are admitted to be apia-roi a-v/x^ovXoi ; but 
there is nothing whatever to justify us in assuming that 
the writer held them to be entitled to the rank of ot 
TTp. 7roL7]Tai. The contrast is not between vTroOrJKai and 
gnomes extracted from them, but between the writings 
of Hesiod, Theognis, and Phocylides as a whole, and 
choice moral selections culled from the most eminent 
poets of Greece ; the first class wrote with a didactic 
purpose, the second could supply extracts which would 
be useful for moral instruction. 

Isocrates implies that there was, in the didactic works 
of the poets he mentions, nothing to amuse their 
audience ; unlike the tragic dramatists they used no 
means rev? aKpoMfxevovs if/vxo-yoiy^'iv (p. 24). Theognis did 
not need an 'extractor'; others did. Had the works 
referred to resembled our Theognidean Sylloge in con- 
taining a sprinkling of convivial and erotic elegies they 
would have offered the sauce required to tickle the 
popular palate, and Isocrates could not have referred to 
them in the above terms. But his words would be most 
appropriate if the moral precepts of Theognis were all 
included in a separate collection, as. for instance, in the 
WorJcs and Bays. 

We may still believe that Theognis composed * occa- 
sional ' verses of a frivolous tendency ; our contention is 
that they formed no i^art of the vTroOyjKat irpo^ Kvpvov. 

Isocrates had a great admiration for our poet, and was 
intimately acquainted with his works, as is abundantly 
proved by the frequent reminiscences in his writings. 



92 INTEODUCTION 






Had there existed in the latter half of the fourth century 
a Musa PaecUca attributed to Theognis, it could hardly 
have escaped his notice, nor could he have drawn such fl 
a sharp distinction between its author and the (Tvve$a- 
/xaprdvovTes with their ai^oiat. 

Aristotle. ^ 

Uth. Nic. 1. 9, see App. on 255, 6 : ib. 5. 3 koI Trapot/xta^o- 
/xcvot <^a/>t€i/, Th. 147 : ib. 9. 9, an allusion to Th. 35 (by 
name) : 9. 12, a good commentary on Th. 31-8, uTro- 
fxaTTOVTai yap Trap' aXXyjXojv 6L<i apicTKOVTat, '60 ev " IcrdXwiV phf 
yap an iaOXd " (Th. 35, no name) ; he did not think 
it necessary to complete the quotation ; every reader 
could fill in the rest for himself ; a mere hint is enough 
to indicate a well-known reference, e. g. ' sour grapes,"" 
' dog in the manger.' Ib. 10. 10, a ref. to Th. 434 (name). 
Bgk. proposed to read dTro/x-a^eat in Th. 35. 

EtJi. Eud. 1. 1, see App. on 255, 6 : ib. 2. 7 (see p. 32) : 
3. 1, 'according to Theognis, to-^vs and trXovTO's— avhpua' ' 

Tras yap avr^p ir^virf 8e8/Ar;/xeVo5 (Th. 177) : 7. 2, Th. 125, 6 

(name) : 7. 10, Th. 14 (name). 

Ilcpt €vyeveLa<s ap. Stob. 86. 25, alludes to Th. 189 
(name). See also p. 32. 

Glearchus, a follower of Aristotle. 

A.p. A-then. 256 Ik J^v-n-pov to yeVos 6vT€<s, ttXA' ovK Ik TTj^ 
©CTTttAtK^? TpLKKr]<i, KaOdirep rtvcs clpyKaarcv, wv larpcGaai ttjv 
ayvoiav ou8' 'AaKXtjiridSais toGto yc ro/xt^co SeSoadai. On the 
ground of this and similar citations Bergk proposed to 
adopt ou8' as the original reading in the poem of Theognis 
(432). It is simply an easy means of converting 
a subordinate clause into an independent sentence (et 8' 
became ovh') ; this ^ quotation -form ' is the reading of one 
MS. (0). 

Scliol. Thucyd. 2. 43 (quoted by Poppo) 0eoyi/ts yap o 
TTOir^o-as ra? vTroOr/Ka^ cfirja-Li then Th. 175, 6. 

ScJiol. Sojjh. 0. Col., see App. on 425. 



TESTIMONIA 93 

Teles (end of third cent, b.c), ap. Stoh. 97. 31, quotes, 
without giving the author's name, the first four feet of 
Th. 109. 

FMlo (flor. 40 a.d.), ii. 469 quotes 535, 6, introduced 
by the words c/cetva c* TrecfiwvrjTaL. 

Bio Chrysostom (born midd. first cent, a.d., banished 
by Domitian). 

In Tr€pi pao-iXcias a' p. 2, he quotes Th. 432 (ov8') 
introd. by ws cftrjo-tv 6 Trotr/Trjs. In irepl paoriXcias P' p. 18 
Philip and Alexander discuss literature. Sia tc ttotc, w 
TTttt, (r(f>6Spa ovTOiS cKTreVAr/^at rbv "Ofirjpov, wcrre Starpt'/Jcts 
TTcpt (avTovy jxovov Twv TTOtrjTMv; ixPW f^^^TOL fJLrjSc T(x)v aAAwv 
d/xeAtos e;^€iv' o-o<^ot yap ol avSp€<s. kol 6 'AAe^avSpo? €^r/, 
oTt 8oK€t /xoi, w Trdrep, ov Tracra TrotrjcrLS ySacriAct TrpeVeiv, wcnrep 
ovSe cTToA^. ra p,cv o^v aAAa Troiiyp-ara, eycoye rjyov/xaL, to, 
p,€V crvfjLTroTiKa avTwv, to, 8e ipctiTLKa, to. 8e eyxw^ta a^Ay^Toii/ 

T€ Kat tTTTTWl/ VlK(x)VTO)V, TOL 8' €7rt TOtS TeOveMCTL 6pr]V0V<;' TO. 

8e yeAwTOS tVcKcv ^ Aoi8opta9 TmroirijXiva' wcnrep to. tcov 
Kco/x,a)8to8i8a(rKaAa)j/, Kat ra Tof; Ilaptou ttoltjtov. Icrois S4 riva 
avTwv KOi SrjfJLOTLKa XeyoLT av, crvfx(3ov\€vovTa kol Trapatvovvra 
rots 7roAAot5 Kat iStwrai?, KaOdirep oT/xat ra ^WKvAtSov Kat 
0coyvt8os* tt^' wv Tt av M(ji(XrjBrjV at hvvaiTo dvrjp rjfxiv o/xolos ; 
Further on he denounces Hesiod as a poet for shepherds 
and farmers. 

The above extract proves nothing. We have no right 
to treat it as if it were a carefully tabulated section in 
a literary text-book. Sitzler assumes that the genres 
mentioned are mutually exclusive, and therefore concludes 
that the Theognis known to Dio contained nothing but 
(rvfxpovXcvovTa kol TrapaLVOvvra. Archilochus {rov Uap. 
TToiTjT.) ^ is here mentioned as a writer of poems yeAwros 
h€K€v ; but we know that he also composed (T\^p.iroriKd 
(e. g. fr. 4) and, like Theognis, Trapatvovrra (fr. 56, 66). 

^ Cf. 'Apxif<oxos u Ilapios iroirjTrjs, Athen. 7 F. 




94 INTRODUCTION 

Again, what reason have we for supposing that Dio 
was thoroughly familiar with the works of Theognis? 
His knowledge of them may have been confined to 
extracts in ethical discussions and the general estimate 
of Theognis as a <rvfxftovXoq apL(rro<; in comi^any with 
Phocyl. and Hesiod. It is not improbable that he had 
in mind the passage from Isocrates already discussed ; 
in both cases ' the best reading for a king ' is the subject 
under discussion. 

Musonkis — teacher of Epictetus, banished in the reign 
of Nero — o^;. Stob. 56. 18, quotes Th. 33, 4 and again 35, 6 
(by name). 



Plutarch. 

Sol. 2, Th. 719-24.. ascribed to Solon; also Sol. 3, 
Th. 315-18. De aud. poet. 2 refers to the yi/(o/x,oA.oyiat (deo- 

yvLSo<s as Aoyoi kl^ulix^vol -jrapa TroirjTLKrjs wcnrep 6)(r]ixa to 
/xiTpov Kol Tov oyKov, iVtt TO TTc^ov hia<jivyoi(TLv. They are 
classed with the 'iir-q of Parmenides and Empedocles and 
the Theriaca of Nicander ; ib. 4 quotes with approval to 
TOV Btoji/o? Trpos TOV @€oyvLV XeyovTU (177, 8)* ttws ovv (tv Trevr)^ 
cov <f>Xvap€i<s ToaavTa koL KaraSoA.co'^ets yjfxwv ; 

De div. cup. 4, Th. 227 ascribed to Solon. 

Non posse suav. 21, Th. 472 ascribed to Euenus. 

De comm. not. 22. The Stoics condemn Th. as ayewy'js 
and p.LKp6<i for the sentiments of Th. 1 75, 6. 

De Stoic, rep. 14, Th. 175, 6 quoted (name). 

De mult. amic. 9, de soil. anim. 27, qitaest. nat. 19, Th. 
215, 16 (byname). In the last two passages we have the 
same variant iroXvxpoov (iroXv^povo^ in the first), due no 
doubt to the subject of the extracts (xp^ia) ; both evidently 
came from the same source, as the same quotations from 
Th. and Pindar occur together in each. 

Quaest. Plat. 1. 3, Th. 432, quoted as 6 Xoyo?. 



TESTIMONIA 95 

Lucian. 

Timon 26, De mere. cond. 5, AiJol de m. e. 10; dis- 
paraging references to Th. 175-7. He is classed with ot 

aycvvecTTaTOL tmv 7roiY)T0)v. 

De salt 67, like Plut. (de soil an.) quotes a fragment 
of Pindar, and refers to Th. 215, 6 (no name). 

SeJiol Apol. de mere. eond. 12, a very loose quotation 
of Th. 1155, 6 (name). 

Hermogenes (g. 160 a. d.), prog. 4, and other rhetoricians 
frequentl}'^ quote Th. 175, 6. 

Cert. Horn. Hes. See Appendix. 
Harpocration (second cent. a. d. ). See p. 5. 

Clement of Alexandria (died c. 215 a.d.). 

Stromateis (reif. ace. to the paging of Pott) quotes the 
following lines under the name of Theognis: 35, 6, p. 
677; 119-24, p. 747; 153, p. 740 (see App.) ; 175, 6, 
p. 574 ; 209, p. 740 ; 425-7, p. 517 ; 457, 8, p. 745 ; 509, 
10, p. 742. 

An oracle assigned to Th., see p. 84. 

No ancient author besides Clement quotes 119-24, 209. 
In several important points the readings in the Strom. 
are nearer to the MSS. of Th. than the citations in other 
writers : e. g. /xaOrja-eat 35, where others have SiSa^eat ; 
(SaOvKrJTea {/xeyaK-^Tea} 175 ; iravTuw {'ipxi^) ^25. For devia- 
tions from Th. cf. ia-opav (icTLSeiv) 426 ; avrio | ^rjTat [avTov \ 
TTivrj) 509-10 ; XPW'-/^^^ {(rvfJLcfiopov) 457. 

The following is interesting as a combination of Holy 
Writ and pagan wisdom : — 

Tiypairrai Se* fxcra avhpo^ dOioov dOQo? ^f^}h '^"'^ p-^Tu. iKXcKTov 
e/cA.CKTOs €(TY], Kttt pLCTa (TTpe^Xov Siaa-rpeij/CLS (LXX. Ps. 17. 26). 
KoXXdrrOaL ovv t()l<; dyiois irpocn'^Kii, ort ot KoXXiap^ivoL avrot? 
dyiUicrOrjaovTai' IvrevOev 6 ©coyvts ypdcfm' 

ifrOX(ov fxkv yap dir urOXd p.aOrj(T€aL ktX. (35, 6), StrO^H. 
p. 677. 



96 INTRODUCTION 

Sexius Empirims, p. 175 Bek. (end second cent, a.d.) 
quotes Th. 425 8 (no name). 

Diogenes Laertms {c. 200 50 a.d.), G. 1. 9, enumerates the 
works of Antisthenes, of which the to/xos 8ci;t€/)os includes 
TTcpt ^LKaioarvvT]^^ Kol dvSp€ta<i 7rpoTp€7rTLKo<; 7rptoT09, 8evT€po5, 
rptTo^, TTcpt 0€oyviSo9 8' c'. He further mentions a Kvpos y 
ipMfjLevo^ altered by some modern critics to Kvpvos. But 
the MSS. of Diogenes Laertius give Kvpo^ as the title of 
four other tracts by Antisthenes : ib. 10. 126, a criticism 
of Th. 425, 7 (no name) by Epicurus. 

Amm. Marcellinus {c. 390 a.d.), 29. 21, refers to Th. 
175, 6, Theognis poeta vetus et prudens. 

Athcnacus (c. 200 a.d.). 

P. 37, part of Th. 500 (no name). P. 310, ku'oi^ 
Kapxapias' Trepl tovto)v <fir](rLV 'Ap^crrrpaTog o rdv oij/offxiytov 
'Ha-LoSos r/ ©eoyvi?" yy 8c kol o 0coyv6s Trept rjSvTrdOeiav, ws 
awo? TTcpt avTOv <f>r](TLV 8ta tovtcov' TrJixo<s .... Koprj (Th. 997- 
1002). ovSk TO TratScpaoTctv OLTravaiviTai o cro^o? ovto<s' Aeyet 
yovv' d 0€tr)<; ktX. (993-6). Of. a similar attack upon Solon 
in Pint. Sol. 3. Having mentioned the name of Theognis, 
Athenaeus remembered that he had seen a poem which 
proved the moralist himself to be an epicure. This in 
turn reminded him of the elegy which immediately 
preceded it, and he hastened in passing to charge the 
poet with paederasty as well. The remark ovSk to t. 
ktX. suggests a novel accusation against one who had 
hitherto been regarded as a blameless teacher of morality. 
If the Second Book is authentic, it is strange that no 
attack upon its author has survived ; his name con- 
stantly meets us in ethical discussions ; there are extant 
many attempts to belittle his reputation ; we know that 
his doctrines were sharply criticized by Bion, Chrysippus, 
Lucian, and many other philosophers. Athenaeus dearly 
loved a bit of scandal, and knew all about the earlier 



TESTIMONIA 97 

poets, with their loves and mistresses, whose very names 
he can give us. A mere reference to the ilf. P. would 
have supplied far more damning evidence than the 
comparatively innocent lines quoted above. It is ex- 
tremely significant that the very existence of such a 
collection was unsuspected by a voracious reader like 
Athenaeus, who cites over 700 authors and quotes from 
more than 1,500 different works. 

p. 317. A quotation from Th. 215, 6 introd. by w? koI 
o Meyapev? ®€oyvL<s ^-qcrtv iv rat? eAcyctat? ; and again 
p. 513, Th. 215, Koi o 0£oyi/t9, 

p. 364. Hosts often insult their guests iirl vovv ov 

Xafx/SdvovTes ra elprj/xiva vtto tov tov Xetpwva ttcttoit/kotos, ctre 

^ipeKpaTrjs iaTiV etre NtK0/xa;)(09 6 pvOfiiKo^ ^ octtls Srj ttotc, 

fx-qSk (TV y avSpa cfyiXov KaAeVas 67rt Satra OdXcLav 

d)(6ov bpQiV Trapeovra' KaKos yap dvrjp roSc p^^€L. 

dXXd fxdX cvKr)Xo<i ripirov cf)peva reprrc t iKeivov. 

vvv 8e TOVTOiv fxev ovS* oXws jxefxvrjvraL, rd 8c e^i}s avTuiv e/c/x,av- 
Odvov(TLV, ttTTC/a TTttvra ck tQv eis 'HarioSov dva^cpo/xeVfov jjieydXoiv 
'Hotwv TreirapioSrjTat' yjuLiov 8' ^v rivd tl<s KaXicrrj ; a boorish 
host lets a guest see that his presence is not wanted ; the 
latter is about to leave, when another guest invites him 
to remain. 

o 8' d-^Oerai avrbs b Ovo)V (i. e. the host) 
TO) KaTaKtaXvovTL KOL €vOv<s cA-c^' eAcycta' 
fxrjSeva pJ]T dcKovra fxevcLv KarepvKe Trap rj/xLV, 
pnqO' evhovT iireyeipe, ^LjxwvtSy]. (= Th. 467, 469.) 

The IJoai were, of course, not iv eAeyeiats. 

We find then a quotation from the Theognidea in a 
parody of ' Hesiod ', and we can at once see that we have 
before us an elegy adapted to hexameter verse by omitting 
the pentameter. The expression cAe^' cAcycta precludes the 
possibility of vindicating the hexameters as original in the 
above * parody ', a proceeding to which Bergk would have 
resorted had it not been for these words (cAc^' cAcy.) 



98 INTEODUCTION 

Hesiod and Theognis are so often mentioned in close 
union with one another that it would not be rash to 
assume an insertion from the Theognidea in a parody of 
Hesiod ; cf. Ath. 428 c, where we have Sl6 koI 'Ho-io8o5 
ctTTci/ immediately followed by koI ©eoyj/ts 8e (ji-qa-iv and 
a quotation, Th. 477-86. 

p. 457. roiovTov i(TTL KOL TO ©eoyvtSo? rov ttoltjtov' "HBrj 
yap fX€ K€KXy]K€ kt\. arjfxaiveL yap kox^ov. These lines, 
usually printed as Th. 1229-30, may not be the work 
of the Megarian poet. Athenaeus refers to another 
Theognis without any descriptive epithet, but he mentions 
the work from which the quotation is taken : Trepl ov cf>r](n 
®€oyvLS iv ^ Trept t5>v Iv 'PoSw 6v(rLwv, p. 360. 

p. 559. A quot. of 457-60, introd. by rov MeyapiKov 
TTOirjTov 7rapdLvi(ravT09. 

p. 632. 'B€V0(f3dvrj<s Se /cat ^oXwv Kal ®eoyvLS Kal ^wkvXiSt;?, 
€TL Oe liepuavSpos 6 K.opLv6LO^ eAcyeiovrotos Kal tu>v Xolttojv ot fxr] 
7rpocrdyovT€s tt/jos to, ironqpLara /AcA-wStW, ^KirovovcTi rov^ (TTL)(pv<s 
TOiS dpLOfioL? Kal rrj rd^ei riov jxerpoiv kol (TKOTrovcrtv ottws avrStv 
/XTjOels P'TijTC dK€(j)a\os earai fxyre Xayapb<; /xrJT€ fxecovpos. 

Julicm {SS1-6S A. B.). 

Julian's defence of paganism is quoted by his Christian 
critic, Cyril of Alexandria, writing 429 a. d. 

Ct/r, Contr. Jul, vol. vii, p. 224 (Spanheim), where 

Julian says : 6 (ro(f>o)TaTOS ^aXo/nuiv Trapo/x-oios ccTTt Tw Trap' 
lEiXX7](TL ^(OKvXtSy •^ ©eoyvtSt rj 'Icro/cpctrct ; ttoOcv ; ct yovv irapa- 
fidXoLs Ta<s 'IfTOKparovs xapatvcfrcts rats Ikuvov Trapoifttat?, €vpoL<s 
av, €v olSa, Tov tov @eoSwpov KpecTTova rov crofjitardTov ySao-iXcw? 
. . . [os] ov Trepiyiyovev -^Sovrj's Kal yvvat/cos Xoyot tovtov 
Trap'^yayov. 

Would Julian have dared to use Theognis as a foil 
against Solomon, whom he accuses of yielding to his 
baser passions, had there been a chance of his being 
refuted by a mere reference to the Musa Paedica ? Had 



TESTIMONIA 99 

he been aware of its existence he would not have assumed 
ignorance of it in his opponents. The passage at any 
rate proves that the Second Book was not known to the 
reading public as the work of Theognis in the fourth 
century a. d. Cyril's reply certainly shows that he was 
totally unacquainted with the writings of Theognis and 
Isocrates, which he contemptuously dismisses as xpW^o- 
jxaOrj, il/iXa kol KeKOfUJ/evixeva, oTrota irep av kol TtrOaL KopCoiq 
KoX fxrjv KOL TraiSaycoyot (fiotev av vovO€TovvTi<s tol />t€t,paKia. As 
Mr. Harrison aptly says, 'if Theognis were to be made 
fit for the nursery, changes would be needed more sweeping 
even than Welcker's.' 

Stobaeus c. 500 a. d. 
The Florilegium contains fifty-six passages under the 
name of Theognis, including four couplets that are not 
found in any of our MSS. The value of these Stobaean 
quotations for the textual criticism of the Theognidea has 
been thoroughly discussed by H. Schneidewin and Oscar 
Ortiger (see BihliograpJiy). Welcker, it is true, had already 
pronounced his opinion, Stobaeum integriore et genuinae 
formae similiore quam quae nunc possideatur collectione 
usum esse ; but Bergk, Schneidewin, and others have 
emphatically expressed their dissent, and a careful study 
of the Stobaean readings brings us to the conclusion that 
there is but little exaggeration in Crliger's final verdict : 
niliil utilitatis Stobaeum ad Theognidem afferre. There are 
very few cases in which we get real help for the recon- 
struction of the text. 

Suidas {c. 976 a.d.). 
©€oyvi9, Mcyapet's rtov iv ^tKeXtct Meydpiov, yeyoi/ws cV Ty 
v& ^OXvixTndSL, €ypa\f/€v iXeyeiav ets TOv<i (TOiOivTas twv 2,vpa- 
KOV(Ti(x)v iv rrj TroXiopKia, yvwfxa^ 8l eXcyetas ct? iirrj po), Kai 
7rpo<s J^vpvov, Tov avTov ipw/xevov, yvoip-oXoytav Sl cAcyciwr, 
KOL cTcpas vTToOriKa^ TrapaiveTiKd<Sf to. iravra eTriKU)*;' on p-lv 
7ra/3atv€(rcts eypaij/i ©eoyvis* aXX' iv fJ-icrto TovTuyv Trap€<nrapfi€vaL 

h2 



100 INTEODUCTION 

fuapiai KOL TraiSiKOt epwrcs kol aAAa ocra 6 ivdp€TO<s aTroarpi- 
(j>€rai /3tos. 

The above paragraph is jDrobably composite ; after 
€is eirr} /3(i) comes a section which is simply a repetition 
of yvw/^a? Si iX. in an expanded form taken from some other 
source : the patchwork is betrayed by ra Trai/ra iinKws, 
a corruption of eirr} /So/ (Schomann e-n-r] fBw^') which was 
changed to Ittlkw with 9 added to make it look like sense ; 
we have perhaps a further proof of this in the use of 
8t' eXeyct'wv instead of 8t' eAcyeta? ^ ; koX . . . Kai = ' both 
. . . and ' introducing words in apposition to yvo)fxa<; 8t* 
eXey. ra Travra was added to make the meaning still 
clearer, ' in all amounting to 2,800 verses.' 

ri/co/xoAoytav Trpos Kvpvov is probably a reference to 
the collected gnomes designed for Cyrnus which once 
existed in a separate book published by the poet him- 
self. The words oVt fxev ktX. (some MSS. have kol 
Trapaivetrcts fteV) imply that the Gnomology to Cyrnus and 
the vTToO. irapaiv. were not known as such to Suidas, 
but were included in the compilation referred to as 
containing an admixture of less decent poems. These 
cannot be the M. P., for this comes after a', while the 
verses referred to by Suidas were Iv /xecrw tovt(dv Trapecnrap- 
fxivai. It has been suggested that in the MS. of Theognis 
used by Suidas, as in our Mut. MS. (A), the M. P. came 
between Theogn. a and the poems of Phocylides, which 
had no title and were accordingly taken to be the work of 
Theognis. Against this must be urged the fact that the 
TratStKot €pa)Tcs are not singled out for special mention ; 
they come after /xtaptat and are followed by aAAa oo-a ktA. 
There is quite enough in the first book to arouse the ire 
of a Christian like Suidas ; for similar language cf 
AovKtavog ^Aacr^^/xct rov ILpLcrrov 6 Tra/x/xtapog and 'IwcnyTros 
€vap€Tos Travv (Suid. quoted by Nietzsche, B. M. 1867). It 

1 Reitzenstein finds in the absence of hC eK(y. after vir. nap. a 
reference to poems by Theognis in metre other than elegiac. 



TESTIMONIA 101 

is just possible that there is a reference to the Second 
Book in tov avrov ipoy/xevov ] but it should be remembered 
that the expression would be readily applied to a blame- 
less friendship like that which subsisted between Theognis 
and the young noble whom he initiated in the ways of 
the •' good '. It also occurs in the title of the Theognidea 
given by some MSS., though they do not contain the 
M. P. 

As has been suggested in more than one quarter ^ the 
words €7rr) /3o)' (2,800 verses) are probably due to a 
mistake in the reckoning occasioned by the addition of 
two totals found in different sources. Our MS. A con- 
tains 1,254 lines belonging to the First Book ; the total 
might be raised to 1,400 by the addition of couplets no 
longer preserved in our MSS. (e. g. 1221-6), and a number 
of repetitions that were perhaps omitted in copying MSS. 
that preceded A, from which later scribes in turn excluded 
some of the repetitions that had been allowed to remain. 

rcyokws refers to the poet's floruit, not to his birth: 
cf. ^(jjKvXtSr]? cf)LX6(To<fio^ crvy)(povo<: 0eoyi/t8os* ^v Be eKctrcpos 
/x€Ta xt^t ^'''V ''■^'^ TpoiLKMV, 'OAv/xTTtaSt yeyovores vO' (Suidas 
on Phocyl.). Hellanicus makes Homer a contelnporary 
of the Trojan War, 1193-1188 b. c. Tatian equates 01 23 
with 500 post Troica (Hauvette, ArcMloque, p. 21). 

'EiriKws. One MS. reads eVtctKoj?, which Bergk accepts 
(Gr. Litt'Gesch.). Dilthey (B.M., N.F, 18) proposed 
rjOtKw^. F. G. Schneidewin [Delectus, p. 46), rejecting the 
explanation ' in epic dialect ', suggested cAcyetaKw?. 

Mr. Harrison {Studies, p. 295) has made use of the 
reference to the Sicilian Elegy of Theognis to support 
his views regarding the poet's date. 

'We know of no siege of Syracuse earlier than the 
famous siege which began in 414.' Sitzler and others 
ascribe the elegy to the Athenian Theognis, the butt of 

1 e. g. Birt, Das antike Buchwesen, p. 165 (edit. 1882). 



102 INTRODUCTION 



n 



Aristophanes.^ To this Mr. Harrison objects on the 
ground that it is not likely that ' his works survived or 
even their names. Moreover, if he wrote on those who 
were saved from the siege, they must have been the 
remnants of the Athenian army ' (p. 295). But the latter 
objection is equally applicable to Mr. Harrison's own 
explanation ; for he believes, with Welcker and others, 
that the elegy was written on the siege of Sicilian Megara 
by the Syracusan Gelon (483 b.c). As it stands, the 
passage will not bear this meaning, and various emenda- 
tions have been proposed ; ^ Mr. Harrison suggests the 
insertion of viro or a-Ko before rcov % Accept this con- 
jecture, and the fatal objection to ascribing the elegy 
to the Athenian Theognis disappears. Even with this 
correction the words are still unintelligible if we take 
them to refer to the siege of Megara, for the sense would 
not be complete without the addition of the words 
Mcyapewv or Meyapwi/, whereas in the case of an Athenian 
writing on the escape of his own countrymen from the 
siege of Syracuse itself, the meaning would be perfectly 
clear. ^ The whole passage is too obscure to justify 
Mr. Harrison in taking the statement of Suidas as *an 
additional reason for thinking that the literary activity 
' of Theognis lasted till the time of the Persian wars * 
(p. 297). 

1 The section on Theognis by Suidas is followed by another on 
Lis Athenian namesake, so that the remark about the second may 
have been accidentally transferred to the first. 

2 F. G. Schneidewin, Del. Poet. Eleg. (p. 46) has dvaXcvOivTas? 
Hecker ■^aarjOfVTas. K. 0. Miiller {Borier) suggests the impossible 
course of taking rwv 'XvpaKovaicov to be the subjective genitive with 
rf) iroKiopKia ' in the siege by the Syi-acusans '. 

3 Sitzler (p. 52) would read ds rovs ffcuOivTas €V tt/ voXiopKia toiv 
IvpoKovawv : Suidas, he thinks, had heard of an elegy composed by 
Theognis (' Snow ') on the survivors of the Athenian expedition. 
Cf. ' Quam vero facilis ac verisimilis sit confusio inter Theognidem 
Megarensem et Atheniensem quamque apta Suidae ingenio, non est 
quod moneam' (p. 52, adn. 27). 



TESTIMONIA 103 

Palatine Antliologij (early tenth cent.). 

9. 118 quotes Th. 527, 8 under the title Br^o-avnVov. 
In the Planud. Anth. (fourteenth cent.), the couplet is 
ascribed to Theognis. 

10. 40, Th. 1151, 2 (=1238 ab) as ^^-qXov. 

10. 113, Th. 1155, 6, as ah^a-iroTov ascribed by Plan, 
to Theognis. 

I have omitted to mention a few late writers who 
quote lines already cited in more ancient authors, and 
one or two others that are too late to be of any use for 
our purpose. 

Manuscripts. 

We have one excellent MS., A, and another, 0, inferior 
to A but far superior to all the rest. 

I. 

A. Paris Bibliotheque Nationale Suppl. Grec no. 388, 
called by Bekker Mutinensis ' non quod Mutina Parisios 
venisset, sed communi turn omnium, qui ex Italiae 
superioris bibliothecis minoribus Parisinae illati essent, 
nomine '. A beautifully written tenth-cent. MS. 

II. 

0. Vatic. 915, thirteenth cent., has disappeared since 
1889, according to Sitzler in his review of Harrison's 
Studies, WocJi.f. Kl. PMl, July 22, 1903. 

K. Venet. Marc. 522, fifteenth cent. A copy of ; 
where it differs from 0, except in omissions and errors, 
the readings are evidently due to conjectural restoration. 

I have therefore with rare exceptions taken no account 
of K in my critical notes. 

III. Inferior MSS. collated by Bekker. 



h. 


Par. B. N. 2008. 


i. 


Venet. Marc. 520. 


c. 


Par. B. N. 2551. 


I. 


Laurent, plut. 31, cod. 20. 


d. 


Par. B. N. 2739. 


m. 


Barberinus 206. 


e. 


Par. B. N. 2833. 


n. 


Vatic. 63. 


/ 


Par. B. N. 2866. 


p. 


Vatic. 1388. 


U- 


Par. B. N. 2883. 


a- 


Vatic. Palat. 102. 


h. 


Par. B. N. 2891. 


r. 


Vatic. Palat. 139. 



104 INTRODUCTION 

Bekker adds : ' Distinguunt sententias hdJiimnqr et in 
primo folio e \ The division of the elegies in these 
inferior MSS. offers no help to the student who wishes 
to pick out the individual poems. 

Bergk has some notes on the readings of s (Vindobon. 
331). Studemund, besides his ax^ographum of 0(1889) has 
also recorded a few readings from t (Laur. plut. 32, cod. 48). 

Bekker's notes on the readings of A have been cor- 
rected and supplemented in the collations published 
by (1) H. van Herwerden, Animadversiones Philologicae ad 
Theognidem (Traiecti ad Rhenum, 1870) ; (2) H. van der 
Mey, Studla Theognidea (Leidae, 1869), which contains a 
collation, not by Mey himself, of Th. 1-528, 1032-8, 
1054-end, and also in Mnemosyne viii, 1880, a facsimile 
of 529-1032, 1041-55 ; (3) E. von Leutsch in Philologus, 
XXIX, Heft 3, from a collation made by Pressel for 
Schneidewin. Unfortunately these correctors frequently 
' correct ' Bekker where there is nothing to correct ; they 
often contradict one another, and their collations are full 
of the most flagrant errors, due in most cases undoubtedly 
to the carelessness of the transcriber and occasionally, 
perhaps, to ' corrections ' made by the proof-reader ; for 
instance, out of ninety -five readings given by Herwerden 
as corrections of Bekker or Mey, forty- two are incorrect. 
The manuscript, it should be added, is beautifully written 
in a clear bold hand, and is as legible as a printed book. 
There is another collation published by Hiller in the 
K Jahrb. f. Fh. u. Fad., 123, 1881 ; this is remarkably 
accurate and trustworthy, but it gives no information 
on many important points. 

Many erasures and changes have been made in A since 
the date of Bekker's collations. Instances will be found 
in my critical notes (e. g. on v. 29). 

The editions of Theognis based on these collations are 
in most cases still more misleading than the collations 
themselves, as the editors have not shown sufficient 



I 



MANUSCRIPTS 105 

discrimination in using the information at their disposal. 
Readings from the text of Bekker (i. e. the MS. reading 
with the accents and breathings correctly placed, and 
a few obvious mistakes tacitly corrected) are recorded 
in the critical notes side by side with extracts from Mey's 
notes which profess to give all the peculiarities of the 
MS. in the omission of accents and breathings, spacing 
of words, &c. As the student has no means of dis- 
tinguishing the sources from which these readings are 
derived, the result is confusion. My own collation was 
begun in 1903, completed in 1907, and thoroughly 
revised in October, 1909, when my text and critical 
notes were passing through the press. Cf. a note in the 
C. B., July, 1903. 

The earlier portion of the book (vv. 1-256) and a few 
other passages are accompanied in A by an interlinear 
Latin translation ascribed by some to the fourteenth, by 
others to the twelfth century. 



eEOrNIA02 EAEFEION A 

'12 ava, K.r]Tom vie, Aib? reKo?, ovrroTe a-elo 
Xrja-o/xaL dp^ofiei^o^ ov8' aTroTravofievo^, 

dXX aUl TTpcoTOu re Kai va-Tarov eV re /xe(TOL(Tiv 
d€i(TCO' (TV Si fjLOL kXvOl kol eadXa SlSov. 

^oi^e dva^, ore fiiy ere Oea t€K€ iroTvia ArjTO) 5 

<poLVLK09 padLvrjs x^pcrlu ecpayjra/jieyr), 
dOavdroav KaXXicTTOv, €7rl Tpo-^oeiSei Xijivrj, 

irdcra [ikv eTrXrja-dr] AfjXos dTreipeo-Li] 
oSfirjs d/jLppocTLrjs, eyiXaaae 8e yaia neXooprj, 

yi]6r)(T€u Se /Sadvs ttovtos dXos noXifj^. 10 

"Apre/jLL Orjpocpour], Ovyarep Atoy, rju ' Ayafjiefjiifcov 
€L(rad\ OT €9 TpoLTjv eVXee yrjva-l Ooai9, 

ev)(^o/j.ei/(p jxoL kXvOi, KaKocs S' dno Krjpas dXaXKe. 
(Tol fikv Tovro, Bed, o-fiiKpoy, efxol 8e fieya. 

Symbols, vulg. = all MSS. * all (or nearly all) but the MS. 
adopted in the text and those mentioned in the notes. The 
readings in the text are those of A • exceptions to this are always 
noted by giving the reading of A in the cr. n. ; this does not apply 
to breathings, accents, and movable v. ||=an erasure; inf. = 
inferior; is not included among the inf. MSS. (sic) = exactly 
(i. e. without an accent, breathing, &c.). I have followed most 
editors in the regular use of movable v ; see Weir Smyth, Ionic 
Dialect, § 340. 

2. apxa^Kvos y i. 4. ixoi AO : jxev *. 6. /5a5tj/^s most inf. 

MSS. and (these MSS. nearly always omit adscript t). 12. 

iiaaO' dh : fiaaO' *. Some have wrongly given tiaad' as the 
reading of A, which has e'icrad', Lat. tr. cognovit. The scribe of A 
first wrote Ooais, then changed it to Oorjs ; there is an eras, between 
T) and s and clear traces of a under ?/ ; doais *. 14. 6ed, with 

an eras, after it, A. There is no trace of the er. letter; it may 
have been t or a. yuKpCv A : a;<- * and Aristotle, Eth. Eud. 7. 10. 



108 ©EorNiAo:^ 

Movaat kol XdpLT€9, Kovpai A169, ai ttotg KaS/jtov 
ey ydjiov eXOovcrai KaXov detaar eVoj* 

OTTL KOkoV, (pcXoi/ kaTLj TO 8' OV KaXov OV (piXoP kcTTLV. 

TOVT eVoy dOavdTcov rjXde Sid aroiidrcov. 

Kvpve, ao(f)i^ofjLii/(o fikv kfiol acpprjyh eTTiKeta-dco 

Tolas' erreaiv, XrjaeL 8' ovitot€ KX^TTTOjieua' 20 

ovSe TL9 dXXd^ei KdKiov TovaOXov TrapcouTOS- 
a)8e Se irds tls epei " SevyyiSo? kaTiv eTrrj 

Tov Meyapeo)?." irdvTas 8e kut di/9pco7rov9 ouo/jLaaTos 
da-Tolatv y ov ttco irda-iv dSeTv Svuafiai. 

0'u8ev OavfjLaaTov, UoXviratSi]' ovSe yap 6 Zei)? 25 

OvO' ixOV TTaVT^CTCr dv8dv€L OVT dvi'^cov. 

Soi 5' eyo) ^v (ppovicov VTToOrjcrofiaL, old Trep avTO?, 
K.vpu 5 dirb Tcov dyocdcoy naXs eV kcov e/iadou. 

irinvvo, /jLr]8' ala-^poiaiu err' epyfiaari fjir)8' dSiKOLo-iv 
TL/jLa? fJLTjS' dpeTas eXK^o p.rjS'' d(f)evo9. 30 

TavTa [xev ovtcos i<t6l. KaKoTcn 8e fir] TrpoaofjiiXeL 
dv8pdaLv, ctAA' aUl tcov dyaOccu f^eo* 

Kal /JL€Td TOLCriP TTLUe KOL €(t6i6, KOL /leTa TolcTLV 

i^€, Kal di/Saye tol9, 001^ fieydXr] 8vvaiiis. 
ka'6XS>v fikv yap air' kaOXd jiaOrjaeaL' rjv 8e KaKolaiv 35 
<TVfifiLa-yr]9, aTToXei? Kal tov kbvTa voov. 

19. acppayls 0. 20. KXeirrofieva : -ivt] *. 21. r ovaOXov A. 

22. iras epefi many inf. MSS. 23. bvonaarov most inf. MSS. 

21. aoTolai S' ov-rroj A with v add. by a later hand ( = Lat. tr.) : v om. 0. 
7' Dreykorn : 5' vulg. 26. -navnoa i A, i in a much brighter 

ink : Travras *. 29. iriirvvo Bgk. : Tr€irvv\\o (sic) with distinct 

remains of cr erased between v and 0, A (erased after Bek., see 
note in the commentary) : tttirvvao *. 33. itapa. for the first 

}iira Plato. 35. /xaOriafac vuJg. incl. A (Mey wrongly gives 

8i5d^eai A) Muson., Clem, and others. 8ida^(ai Xen. (twice), Plato, 
Hermog. cod. Par, 1983. 36. avfipnayrji A : avfifjiiayris Xen. 

(twice) : ovfiixLyrj^ Plat., Muson., Clem, and others : avfifux^fj^ * ' 
avfifii^Tjs Hermog. 



EAEFEmN A 109 

ravTa fxaOcbv dyaOotatv ofiiX^e, Kai wore <prj(reL9 
€v avfi^ovXeveii/ toIctl (pLXotcnu €fj,i. 

Kvpi^e, KV€L ttoXl? TJSe, SeSoLKa 8e /irj reKrj dvSpa 

evdvvTTJpa KaKTJs v^pios rjfjLeTepT]^. 40 

daTOL iikv yap 'i& o'lSe craocppoves, -qycfioues 8h 
TeTpd(paTaL ttoXXtju e? KaKorrjra ireauv. 

OvSefXLay TTCO, Kvpi^', dyaOol ttoXlv atXecrav duSpeS' 

dXX' orav v^pi^^Lv toIctl KaKola-ip dSrj, 
Sfjiiov re (pOeipcoa-i, dUas r dSiKoicn SiScoa-iu 45 

OLKeLCOf KepSicou eiueKa Kal Kpdreo?, 
€Xw€o fiTj Sripov Kuvr]v ttoXlv aTpefiuTa-OaL, 

fjLTjS' el vvv TToXXij KeiTaL kv rja-v^Lij, 
€VT dv TOLCTL KaKoiai (pLX* dvSpdaL TavTa yeprjTat, 

KepSea Srj/ioo-icp avv KaKM kpy^ofxeva. 50 

e/c tS>v yap crrdcrLh re Kal efxcpvXoL (povoL duSpwv 

lxovvap\OL &' a ttoXu fxi] wore TrjSe dSoi. 

Kvpv€, ttoXls /jLeu eO' ijSe ttoXl?, Xaol Se St] dXXoi, 

ot TTpoarO ovT€ SiKas rJSeorav ovre yo/iovs, 
dXX djjLcpl TrXevpaicTi Sopd9 alycou KariTpL^ov, 55 

e^ct) 5' <o(TT 'iXa(poL TrjaS' kviptovTO iroXeos. 
Kal vvv efcr' dyaOot, UoXvTTatSr]' ol 8k irplv eaOXol 

vvv SeiXoL. rk Keu ravr dve^oiT kcropoov ; 
dXX-qXovs S* diraTOdo-Lv kir dXXrjXoLai yeXoovre?, 

ovT€ KaKcov yvoofias €l86t€9 ovt dyaOcov, 60 

40. vjxiT^p-qs * (with T] above v in h). 42. ds A. 45. <pdfi- 

povai A, V in faint ink by a later (?) hand over an erasure ; evidently 
a; (qo) changed to ov. StSoCo-t A : in spite of the conflicting state- 
ments found in the edd. there is no doubt at all as to the readings 
of^. 46. /fe/)5a)j' all but ^0. 47. drpf/it crtr^at Bgk. : arpi- 

nUaOai vulg. 48. -ia 0. -rr. Keirai Epkema : k. v. vulg. 51. ardats 
kcTi *. 52. fxovvapxoi 6'' a Ahrens : fiovvapxoi 5c AO : -os di *. 

55. irKivpaiai AO : -jiai *. 56. Tr}vf . . . voKiv *. 



110 0EOrNIAOS 

MrjSiva ToovSe (fiCkov ttolgv, UoXvTratSr], daTcop 

e/c 6vjjlov, Xp^ir}S eiueKa fjLrjSe/iLrjs' 
dWa SoKEL fikv TTcia-Lv dno yXcocra-r]^ (piXo^ uvai, 

\pr\lia 8e avfifjLL^rjs firjSevl fir)8' otlovv 
anovBoLov' yvooa-rj yap oL^vpmv ^pevas dvBpoQV, 

&s (TCpLv kn epyoLCTLV ttlo-tl? eV ovSefiia, 
dXX^ SoXovs diraTas re TroXvTrXoKias r i^iXrjaay 

ovTOos o)? dvSpes firjKeTL acp^o/jiepoL. 

M77 TTOTC, K.vpu€, KaK^ 7rL(TVU09 ^ovXcve avv dvBpt, 
€VT dv cnrovSaiov TrprjyfM kOeXrjs TeXiaaL, 70 

dXXa fjier kaOXov icov ^ovXev kol ttoXXcc fioyfjaaL 
Koi fiaKpTju TToaa-iVy Kvpv, oBov eKTeXiaaL. 

JJpfj^LV fxrjSe (piXoiaii/ 0X009 dvaKOLveo irdcnv' 

TTavpot TOL TToXXcdV TTLCTTOV e\OV<TL VOOV. 

YlavpoKTiv Tri(Tvvos pteyd}^ dpSpdaiv epy e7rL)(^eLp€i, 75 
firj TTOT dvrjKea-TOv, Kvpve, Xd/Brjs dvirjv. 

ITfOTos dv7}p )(pva-ov re Kal dpyvpov dvTepvcTaaOaL 
d^Los kv ^(^aXeiTfj, Kvppe, Sixoa-Tacrir]. 

TIavpov? evprj(reL9f UoXviratSr], dvBpas iraLpovs 

TTLCTTovs kv ^aXeiTOLS IT p-qy p,a(n yipojjiej/ovSj 80 

0LTLU€9 dv ToXllStev, OfMO^pOVa 6vp.0U €^0VT€9, 

Idov Tcov dyadSiV tS)v re kukcov fji€Tk)(€Lv, 



61. fj.ci5eva corr. into fjLTjSiva by a later hand A. 62. XP^^V^ ■^' 

ovv€Ka A. fXT) Se fiia^ 0. 65. cnovSaiojv 0. 67. t' avaras elr. 

71. kaOXwv Of. fiovXeve : fiovXiveo *. Kai om. *. /loyrjaa with ff 
added partly over the final curve of a and an acute accent placed 
over the circumflex of 77^ : //07^(rat 0: Aio7T7(ray*. 72. (KreXeaasA, 

s is certainly a later addition over an erased / of which traces are 
still visible : kKxeXeoai : -iaas *. 



EAEFEmN A 111 

Toaaovs 8* ov)( evpOLS 8L^rjfjL€P09 ovS^ ewl iroivTas 
dvOpdoTTOvSj o^y vavs (ir] fxta irdvTas dyoi, 

oi(TLv kirl y\<x>(T(Trj re kol 6(pOa\fxoL(nu 'in^arLv 85 

al8m, ov8 aicr^pov \pr\iJL eiTL Kep8os dyei. 

M77 fjL 'iirecnv fikv (TTipye, voov 8' 'i^e kol (^piuas dWrj^ 
€1 lie (piXeis Kat aoi Tna-ros eueaTi uoos' 

Tj ii€ ^iXeL KaBapov 6efjL€P09 voov, rf p! aTroeLircbv 

<E')(6aLp , dii(f>a8Lr]v v^lkos d€ipdp,evos. 90 

o? 81 pifj yXd>(T(rr] 81^ e)(€i voov, OVT09 iTolpos 
8eLv6s, K.vpv , e^dpo? peXrepos 77 (f)iXo9 &v. 

^'Hj/ rty eiraLvrja-r} ae toctov ^povov 6(t<tov 6pd>r]9, 

voa-^LdOels 8' dXXrjv yXcoarcrav Ifjcn KaKrjv, 
TOLovTos TOL eTotpos dvTjp (piXos ovTL fidX' kcrOXoSi 93 

oy K €i7rr} yXcoaarj X^a, ^povfj 8' erepa. 
dXX* eirj TOLOVTOS kpLol (piXo?, 09 tov eTaipov 

yivooaKcov opyrjv kol papvv ovTa (pepei 
dvTi Kaa-LyvrJTOv. (tv 8i fioi, (J)lX€, tuvt hi Bvpco 

^pd^€0, Kat TTOT efjLov p,vrj<jeaL k^onia-co. 100 

y[r)8eLS (T dvdpcoTTCOv Treicrr} KaKov dv8pa (piX^crai, 
Kvpve- TL 8' e(TT ocpeXos 8(1X09 dvrjp (plXos oc)V ; 

ovT dv a e/c yaXeTrolo ttovov pvcraiTO koX dTr]9, 
ovT€ K€v kcrOXbv e\(ov TOV fjLeTa8ovv kOiXoi. 



83. Tuaaovs Bergk : tovtovs ovx (vpois (sic) A : tovtovs ovx 
fvpriaeis : tovs 8' ovx (vprjcreis *. 84. 01704 AO : -« *. 93. ijv 

Welcker : dv AO : et * : hiraiv-qou Oelp : -eaei *. opt^-q all but AO. 

94. aWri all but AO. Irjai Bek. : i-qoi vulg. 96. A^a Bgk. : Xwia 
AO : XwoTa *. <ppov^ Ai: (ppoveT*. 100. nora/xov corr. to 

irorefiovA. 101. <r' om. *. 102. Keiv 09* (for deiX.) : om. 0. 104. 
fieradovv Buttmann. kdfXoi Brunck. For the MSS. see Appendix. 



112 0EorNiAO:S 

AeiXovs ev epSovTi fiaTaiOTdTi] xdpLS edTLv 105 

l(TOV Kol (TTT^peLV TTOVTOV oKoS TToXltJS. 

ovT€ yap av ttovtov (nreLpcov ^aOxj XrJLoi/ dp.^9, 
ovT€ KaKovs ev Spoou €v irdXiv dvTLXdpoLS' 

dirX-qa-Tov yap e)(pvaL KaKol voov. rji/ 8* tu dfidpTrj?, 
Tcov irpoaOev irdvTcov eKKe^VTat (piXoTrj^* 110 

01 S dyaOoL TO ^eyiaTOv dfxavpia-Kova-L 7ra06i/T€9, 
fJLvrjfia 8e ^ovor dyaB(ou Kol ')(dpLV e^oiriaco. 

M77 TTore TOL KaKov di/Spa (piXov woLeLo-OaL iraTpov, 
dXX aid <pevy€iu coore KaKov Xifiiua. 

TloXXoL TOL TToo'Los Kal fipaxTios elcTLv iTaipoL, 115 

ef Se (TTTovSaia) TrprjyfjiaTi iravpoTepoL. 

KlP8t]Xov 8' dv8po9 yv(iivai yaXeirdiTepov ov8iy, 
Kvpy, ov8* evXal3ir]9 ecrrf ire pi irXiovo^. 

Xpvaov KL^8rjXoLo Kal dpyvpov dpa)(^6Tb9 aTr], 

Kvpve, Kal i^evpeiy pa8ioi/ dv8pl (rocpm. 120 

€L 8€ (ptXov v6o9 di/8pos ipl (TTrjBeaa-L XeXrjOrj 

'\jrv8pb9 ecou, 86Xlov 8' kv (ppealu rJTop €^?7, 
TOVTO Oeos KiP8r]X6TaTOv iroLrjae PpOTola-iv, 

Kal yvQdvai TrdvTCou tovt dvirjpoTaTOv. 
ov8e yap el8eLr]s dv8po9 voov ov8e yvvaiKos, 125 

irplv 7reLpT]6€Lr]9 cocrrrep vno^vyiov 



105. 8' eu *, cf. 955. 111. dfiavpicr/covai Ahrens : enavpi- 

GKovai vulg. 112. Se xoCo"' Williams: fivfj/xa 5' exovo'' vtdg. and 

edd. (8' exova' A). 113. toi Brunck : tuu vulg. kraipuv with u 

slight blot on the second portion of o> (00 ) correcting it into o, A. 
119. dj/axcTos i: dox^To^ A* and Clem, The Lat. tr. of A has 
written difficilis above this word. 121. \€\r)6r) A : \f\r]9ei : 

KeKrjOe * Clem. 122. if/evSovs : rpvSvos or ^eSi/os *. 125. 

ouSe yap ddurjs AO {ddoiijs 0) : ou yap av dSdrjs * Aristot. ovSi 

Aristot. : ovre vulg. 126. TTeipadeii]^ * Aristot. 






EAEFEmN A 113 

ovS€ K€i/ €iKd(r<rai9 coaircp ttot h coulop eXdcow 
TToWaKL yap yv<x)prjv e^anarcoa tSeai. 

MtJt dpETTju €vxov, noXvTratSr), '^ioxo? dvai 

prJT dtpevos: fiovvov 8' dvSpl yevoLTO TV^-q. 130 

OvSkv eV di^dpctiiTOiaL irarpos kol fzrjTpbs dfieii-ou 
eVAero, rots oairj, Kvpi/€, pifjLrjXe Sikt). 

OvSeis, Kvpv, drrjs kol KepSeos airios avTos, 

dXXd Oeol TOVToav ScoTope^ dp^oTepoov 
ovSe Tiy dvO pCiiTTcov kpyd^i.Tai kv ^p€<rlv elSco? 135 

€9 reAoy (lt dyaOov ytveTai €lt€ kukoi/. 
TToXXdKL yap SoKecou 6rj(TUv KaKov kaOXov edrjKiu, 

Kat TE 80KCOV Orjareiu kaOXov eOrjKe KaKov. 
ovSe Tco dvOpdinaiv irapayiv^Tai Sacra diXrjaiP' 

L(T\eL yap ^aXeTT^y irdpar dpL-qxaviris* 140 

dvBponTTOL 8e pdrata yopi^opep, €l86t€9 ovSev 

Oeol 8e Kara (T(j>eTepov irdvTa reXovcn voov. 

Ov8eL9 TTco ^elvovj TloXvnaC8r]^ k^anaTrjaa^ 
ov8' iKkr-qv OvTjTcov dOavdrovs eXaOeu. 

BovXeo 8* eva-elSicou oXlyoLS (tvv xprjpacnp OLKeTu 145 
rj 7rXovT€LU d8LK(os xpripara Tracrdp^vos. 

kv 8\ 8iKaioavpr} ovXXr}p8r}y irda dpeTr/ ' (ttlv, 
irds 8e T dvr]p dyaOSs, Kvpve, 8iKaL09 kd>v. 

\p7jpaTa p\v 8aLpcov Kal nayKaKco dv8pl 818(00" lu, 
Kvpv'- dp€TrJ9 8' oXiyoi? dv8pd(n poTp eTrerai. 150 

127. wviov Camer. : ttot* es wpiov vulg. (ecrupiov sCnd eight others). 
132. Tois Vinet : eirXero oTs vulg. : eir\(6' oaois uairjs . . . Siktjs Stob. 
139. oaaa OiXriaiv AO : oaa tdeXriffiv *. 146. ncurdfi. Brunck : 

naacrdfji, vulg. 147. dperrj eari Ahfgmn : dptr' iffri 0. 150. 

^ 8' d/)fT^ bXlyois dvSpaai Kvpv' encTai *. 



114 ©EOrNIAOS 

"XPpLv, Kvprc, 6eo9 irpSiTov kukco ^nacrcu duSpi, 
ov fxiXXeL X^PV^ fJLTjSe/jLLau Oifiepai. 

TiKTei TOL Kopos v^piv, oTav KaKOi oXpos €7rr]TaL 

dv6p0ii1T(O^ KOL OTCd flT) VOOS dpTlOS J] . 

Mrj TTore roi irevLrjy 6vp,o(j>66poi/ dv8pl ^oXcoOeh 155 

firjS' dxpr]jjL0(rvv7]v ov\op,ivr)u 7rp6(p€pe' 
Zei'S' yap tol to TaXavTov kitippeiru dXXore aXXo), 

dXXoTe pev irXovTCiy, dXXoTe prjSeu ex^fj^. 

M77 TTore, Kvpy\ dyopdardai eVo? piya- olSe yap ovSch 
dpBpdoTTCov 6 TL vif^ X^f^^PV av8p\ T^Xu. i6o 

YloXXoL TOL xp^^T^i- S^iXaTs ^peai, SaipovL 8* ecrdX^, 
0I9 TO KaKov SoKiou ytveTai ds dyaOov. 

dalv 8* ot ^ovXfj T dyaOfj Kat 8atpovL SeiX^ 
poxOi^ova-i, rlXoy 5' epypaaiu ov^ eVerai. 

OvSeh di/QpcoTTCou ovt' oX^los ovt€ irevixpos 165 

ovT^ KaK09 vocrcfiLv 8aipopo9 ovt* dya66?. 

''AAA' dXX(o KaKov ea-Ti, to 8' dTpeKes oAjStoy ov8€h 
dyOpatTTCou ottoctov^ rjiXios Kadopd. 

*Oi/ 8e deal Tipaxriv, 6 Kal pcopevpei/os alyel- 

dv8po^ 8\ airovSr] ytv^Tai ov8€p,ia. 170 

QeoTs €v\ov' deot? karTLv eiri KpaTOS' ovtol are/) 6eoi)v 
yivcTai dv6pco7roi9 ovt dydO* ovt€ KaKa. 

151. Kauo) As : kukov*. 152. fXTjSeixiTjv A. 6 4 fxevoy A, the corr. 

by a later hand : Ocfxevov and ten inf. MSS. : 64fi€vai *. 154. 

dvOpwwojv AO. 157. d'AAws Stob. 158. fiijdiv A Stoh. : S'ovdfv*. 

160. XV/^^P^ *• 162. yiverai : yiyvercu A*. 163. 8ei\w A : 

KaKw : <pav\(u *. 168. KaOapq, corr. by pr. m. into -opa A. 

109. o AO. 171. OeoTaiv km A: oh earl nparoi 0: oh €(Tti fx4ya 

Kparo': * : (cttip 'im Bgk. ovtl *. 






EAErEIXlN A 115 

"AuSp dyaOov Treyirj irdt/Toav SdfiUTja-t fidXicrra, 
KOL yrjpco? TToXiov, Kvpv€, Kal rjTTidXov, 

fjy Sr] ^pT] (j)€vyovTa Kal h ^aOvKrJTea ttovtov 175 

pLirrdv Kal Trer/oeo)*/, Kvpve, Kar 'qXiPdroav . 

Kal yap dvrjp irevirj SeSfirjuipo? ovTe tl elndv 
ov$* ep^aL SvvaTai, yXSxraa 8e ol SiSerac. 

Xpr) yap ofim kirl yrjv re Kal evpia vSiTa 6aXd(Tai]9 
Si^rjaBai )(^aX€7rrJ9j Kvpv€, Xvariv irivirj^. i8o 

TeOvdfievaL, 0tXe Kvpv€j ir^viy^pio jSeXrepop dvSpi, 

rj ^do€LV )(^aX€Trfj T€ip6/JL€J/0V TTeVLTJ. 

KpL0V9 [JlIv Kal 6i/ov9 Si^rJiieOa, Kvppe, Kal ittitovs 

evyei^ea?, Kai Tis povX^rai e^ dyaOSiv 
Prja-ea-Oar yfj/xai Se KaKrjv KaKov ov fxeXeSaivci 185 

ecr^Ao? di/rjp, tjv ol \prj/iaTa iroXXa 8l8^. 
ovSk yvvTj KaKOv dpSpbs dvalveraL ehai aKOLTLS 

irXovcTLov, dXX' d(pv€ov fSovXerai dvT dyaBov. 
Xprjfiara yap tl/jlcoctl, Kal €k KaKOv eaOXb^ eyqfjLip^ 

Kal KaK09 e^ dyaOov' ttXovtos ^fii^e yevos. 190 

ovT(o firi OavfJLa^e ykvos, UoXvTratSr), darcov 

fxavpovaOar avv yap /iLo-yeTaL kcrOXa KaK0i9. 

AvTo? TOL ravT-qv eiSoos KaKoiraTpLv kovaav 
e/y 0LK0V9 dyerai, ^prj/xaa-L ireiBofxei/oSj 

ev8o^o9 KaK68o^ov, kirii Kpareprj jilv dvdyKr] 195 

€PTV€L, T]T dv8po^ TXrjfiova OrJKe voov. 

173. hanvriai A. 175. PaOvKriTea A, Clem., Plut. cle Sloic. rep. : 

Ixi-yaK-qna * Plut. de comm. not, Schol. Thuc. 176. nerpiuv A : 

■niTpSjv *. Kaff ijKi^arojv A. ISO. bi^faOai *. x«^<'r^Jj 5 by 

a later hand, A. 183. Kvvas nlv 5^ vwi Stob. 185. ^rtdidBai 

hfmq : PiveaOai marg. q: KT-qaaadou *Xeii.' ap. Stob. 187. ovS^yvvrj 

A 'Xen.' : ov5e fxir} : ouSc/im *. 189, yap 'Xen.' : /xtV rulg. 

iKKov with n inserted between kk by a later hand, A. 195. 

l»'5o£os *. 196. IvTvd Brunck : Ivtvvh vulg. 

I 2 



116 0EOrNIAO2 

Xpfjfia S , o fiei^ Aiodeu kol avi/ Blktj dvSpl yivrjrai 

KOL KaOapm, aUl TrappLoui/xou TeXedei. 
€L 8' d8iK(os napa Kaipou dvrjp (piXoKepSii Bv/x^ 

KTrjaeTai, eid' opKco Trap ro SUaiov eXoiv, 200 

avTiKa ptev tl (pipeii/ Kip8o9 8ok€1, h 8e TcXevrrjv 

av6is eyei/ro KaKov, B€(£>v 8' vnepka^e v6o9. 
dXXa Td8 dj/OpSwcou diraTa voov ov yap kw avTOv 

TLVovraL paKape? irprjypaTOS dpirXaKia?, 
dXX 6 peu avTo? eria-e KaKov Xpeos, ovSe (pLXoicriv 205 

arrjp e^OTTiaco iraiah eTreKpepaaev 
dXXoi/ 8 ov Karepapyf/e 8LKr)' OdvaTos yap dvaL8r]s 

TTpoaOev kirl ^Xe^dpois '^C^to Ktjpa (pepcov. 

Ov8€i9 TOL (pevyouTi (piXo9 Kal incrTos iraTpos' 

T^y 5e ^vyfjs ka-rlu tovt dvi-qporepov. 210 

Oiuou TOL TTLveiv TTOvXvv KaKov rjv 8i T19 ai'TOV 
TrivT] e7rLaTapip(09, ov KaKos, dXX' dyaOo^. 

Kvpi/e, (piXovs Kara Trduras eTrfVrpe^e ttolklXov rfOos^ 

6pyr]v (Tvppia-ycov tjvtlv eKacTTos e^^i. 
TTOvXvTTOv 6pyr]v i(T\e iroXvirXoKOv , oy ttotI neTprj, 215 

TTj TrpocropLXrja-r], T0T09 I8uv kcfidvri. 
vvv pkv Tf}8' kcpeiTov, tot€ 8* dXXoio? XP^^ ylvov 

Kpecracou tol aocpLt] yii/erai drpoTTLrjs. 



197. XRVt^*^ 6' w '. x/J'yAtaTa 5' o5 *. 203. ctt' cegl : cV * incl. A, 

which has L. tr. adhuc. avrov Jacobs : avrovs vulg. : avruiv (corr.) I. 
204. dfiirXaKirjs *. 205. riae *. 206. vneKpefiaafv 0. 207. 

13. m. A wrote Karafiapif/e — a later hand corr. the second a into what 
seems to be rj or 6, so faintly w^ritten that only the portions outside 
a can be distinguished. 211. iroXvv AO. 213. Ov/jie A (L. tr. 

anime) : Kvpve *. 216. -770-77 gf Ath. : -770-64.4* 218. Kpamvuv* : 

KpHTTov 7p. I. yiverai : yiyvfrai A*. 



EAErEiriN A 117 

Mr]8ep dyap da')(^a\X€ Tapaa-cToiiivoiv TToXirjTeooi/ , 

Kvpu€, fiicr-qv 8' ep^ev ttju 686u, axrwep eyco. 220 

"Oa-TL? TOL 8oKe€i TOP irXr](Ttov iSfxevai ov8ij/y 

dX\' avTo^ povvos iroLKiXa 8r}i/€* e^ett', 
K€iv6s y' d(j>p<ov ea-Ti, voov ^^pXappevos kcrOXov. 

L(T<os yap irdvTes ttoiklX* eTriaTdpeda, 
dXX' 6 pkv ovK iOiXeL KaK0K€p8Lr]aLu 'iireaOaL, 225 

Ta> 8e 8oXoTrXoKiaL p,dXXov dinaTOL d8ov, 

YlXovTov 8 ov8eu reppa necpaapei/ou dudpcoiroLcnv 
ot yap vvu rjpoou irXdaTov 'i^ovai. ^loy, 

8i7rXd(TLOu a7r€v8ov(ri. tls dv Kopioreiep dirai/Ta^ ; 

XprjpaTd TOL BvqTOLS yiueraL dcppoa-vut]. 230 

drrj 8* €^ avTrJ9 dva^aLi^erai, ijy, on ore X^ifs 
Trepyjrrj TeipopevoLS, dXXore dXXos ex^i. 

'AKpoTToXi? Kal irvpyos ecoj/ K^ve6(j)povL 8rip(p, 
Kvpu, oXiy-qs TLpfJ9 eppopev kaOXos di/rjp. 

Ov8 eTL TL TTpineL rjpLP dr dv8pdcn acp^opiuoiaiy, 235 
dXX' o)? irdy^v zroXef, Yivpve, dXaxTopiyrj. 

%ot p\v eyo) Trreyo' €8coKa, (tvv oh kir dneipova ttovtov 
TTCoTrja-r) Kal yfjv 7rd<Tau deipop^yo?, 



219. TToXiraajv : -iijruv *. 220. epxov *. 222. ex^iv with v 

almost totally erased A. 225, -ijiaiv AOm Stob. : -urioiv*. 

228. piov all MSS., Lat. tr. in A divitias : voov in Bekker's text 
without any cr. note. 232. dWoTc r AO. 235. ov5* trt n 

Williams : ovh\v cniTpi-nd ■^fiiv (sic) A : ovSe n -npeTrfi v/juv (v proba- 
bilius quam jy Stud.) : ovde ri irpiirH fjniv el : ovh' en ye vpimi ijixtv * : 
^/iii/Herm. 236. dA\* ws TraYxu ""oAet Kvpvt aKojaofxfvij (sic) A, L. tr. 
destruetide : Kvuv ws ttoAccwj to'ixoi aKojaoiiivq^ c : -noKfos reixv 9 ■ ^^vfiv 
Kvpv' a/s Tr6\e' d\ajaofX(vr} *. 238. rruT'fjaei AO. Kai Bgk. : Kara 

viiUf. dfipapievos 0. For the transposition 239 sqq., see Notes. 



118 0EOrNIAOS 

Kvpif€, Ka& *EXXa5a yr\v a-Tpaxpcofievo? r)8' dva vq- 
(Tovs, 247 

l^OvoeuTa Trepwu ttovtov en oLTpvyeTov, 
ovy^ iTTTTODP vGi>TOLaLv k(j)rjiievoS' dWd (re TrefjiyjreL 

dyXaa MoucraoDz/ 85>poL iocTTecpcivcov 250 

prjiSicos, OoLvrf^ 8e Kal elXaTTivrja-i TTapeaarj 239 

ev TrdcraL?, ttoWcou Keljievos ev (TTO[Jia<jiv. 240 

Kai ae aifv avXicrKOLcn Xiyv^OoyyoLS veoL dvSpes 

evKoafJLoos eparol KaXd re Kal Xiyea 
aaovTai' Kal orav Svo^eprjs viro KevOeai yatrj^ 

PfjS TTOXVKODKVTOVS e/j ' AlSaO SofJLOVS, 

ovBe troT ovSe davoDV dTToXet^ /cXeoy, aXXa fMeXTjaeLS 245 

d(f>6iTou dvOpd>7roi9 aiev e^cou ovojia. 
irdai 8\ o<roi(TL fiefxrjXe, Kal ecraonevoia-iv doiSrf 251 

eaarj ofim, 6(pp' dv yrj re Kal rjeXio^. 
J^avTOLp eycbv oXtyqs irapd aev ov Tvyydvoa alSovSy 

aXX' axnrep ptLKpov iraTSa X6yoi9 fi aTraray.] 

KdXXiaTov TO SiKaioraTOVf X^arov 8' vyLalveiv 255 
TTpdyfia Se repirvoTaTov, tov ti9 epa, to TV)(ety. 

"Ittttos €ycb KaXrj Kal deOXirj, dXXd KdKiaTov 
dvBpa <pep(o, Kal fioi tovt ' di/irjpoTaTor. 

TToXXdKi 8* TjfjLeXXrja-a 8iapprj^a(Ta xaXivop 

^evyeVj dircnaaixevTi tov KaKov rjvto^ov. 260 



249. OvaToioiv for vutoloiv K. 239. doivrjs A : Ooivrjs : -ais *. 

241. Xiyv(p66yyoiai Al. 243. buo(pepfjs AO : -ois *. tcevOfiwai : 

KtvOfiaoi *. 245. ovde re Xr/Cfts : ov54 ye Xrjacis *. 251. ir. S' 

oa. Lachm. : irdai 5jos olai fie/xriXe (sic) A : L. tr, iovis above Sios : 
■ndoiv olai fi. : -ndai yap olfft *. doiS^ A. 256. irpdyfia AObcde/gMmn : 
nprj' *. ov * inch ace. to Stud.'s facsimile ; the edd. give tov AO. 
260. (pivyfv Bgk. : (pevyeiv dvwaanivq AO : (pivynv ua- *. 



EAEFEmN A 119 

Oi' /zot iriveTaL oho?, eird wapa naiSl Tepdvrj 

dWos dvrjp Karix^L rroXXou efiov KaKioav. 
-xjrvxpoi^ fXOL -napa rrjS^ (ptXoL ttluovo-l toktj^?, 

cwo-^ dfjLa 0* v8p€V€L KaL pe yoaxra ^epei, 
€v6a pe<rr}i/ nepl iraiSa ^aXcbu dyKoop* €(pL\rj(ra 265 

Seiprju, 7] Se repeu ^deyyer diro OToparos, 
TvoiTri TOL TT^vtri ye kol dXXoTpir] irep kovaa' 

ovT€ yap eh dyoprju (ipyeraL ovre SiKas- 
irdvTrj yap TovXaaaov e'xei, irdpTrj 8* eTripvKTos, 

TrduTT) S' exOpri 6pa>s yiverai, '4u$a wep rj. 270 

"la-oa? TOL TOL pev dXXa Oeol Outjtol? dudpcoirois 

yfjpds T ovXopevov Kal veorrjr eSoaav, 
TOdv wavTCdu Se KaKKXTOv kv dv6pa)TroLS, OavaTOv re 

Kal Traaecou vovcrcop ia-rl TroprjpoTaTOu, 
iraiSas cTret Bpeyp-aio Kal dppeva iravra irapdaxpiS, 275 

XprjpaTa 8* el KaTaOrjs noXX* dutrjpd TraOdtu^ 
Toy TTaTep' exOaipovaL, KaTapoovTai 8' dnoXeadai, 

Kal (TTvyeova- wairep TTTOd^pv ea-ep^opevoi/. 

EiVoy TOL KaKov dv8pa KaKcos to, 8LKaLa vopi^eiv, 

pr]8epiau KaTOTTLad' d^opevov vepea-iw 280 

8eLX^ yap t* dirdXapva l3poT(p irdpa noXX' dveXeaOai 

Trap 770869, TjyeLo-OaL 0' coy KaXd iravTa tlOci. 

265. napa * : fia\wv Herm. : Xafiwv vulg. 2(57. ^vwt ti (sic) A. 

76 Bek. : t€^: om. *. 269. imynKTos* {-ov 0). 270. ix'^pd*. 

yiverai AO : yiyv. *. 272. kclv veorijT edoaav (sic) A ; later i was 

inserted between a and v and a dot written above v. 275. em A. 
276. el KaraO^s Bgk. : A has e||tfaTa%s with an erasure between 6 and k 
and the remains of a letter attached to e. * have eyKaraOfis, and 
Bekker has no cr. note on the reading of -4 ; in view of similar cases 
it is certain that the erasure was made after he collated the MS. 
The erased letter was evidently 7 ; a portion of the down stroke 
is still attached to 6 and the erasure reaches so low as to delete the 
first t of exOaipovat in the next line. 278. inepx- *. 279. to* 

Epk. : Tot A with an erasure immed. after i (v erased after Bek.) : 
t6v *. 280. KaTomv *. 281. 0poTal (sic) A. 



120 0EOrNIAO^ 

*A(rTcc>u /jLrjSepi ttkttos koav iroBa TOovSe irpSPaive, 

firjO' opKO) TTLcrvvos fJLTjTe (piXrjfioo-vuT]. 
fiTjS* €L 7Lr]v ideXj] irapey^eLv ^aa-LXrja fieyiorTOP 285 

iyyvov ddaycLTCoy, irLdTa TiOeTu eOiXoop. 

Ki^ yap TOt TToXd §)8e KaKoyjfoyco avSavei ovSiu- 
cocrre Se (T^^eaBaL ttoXXol dvoX^orepou 

'^vv ^6 TO, Tcou dyaOcou KaKoc ytverai ecrOXa KaKOicnv 
dv8pS)V' rjyioPTai 8* eKTpaTriXoKn v6p,0LS' 290 

ai8a)9 fjLey yap oXcoXev, dvaiBett] 8e Kal v^pL^ 
PLKrjaaa-a 8iKr]v yrjv Kara irdaav '^X^i. 

OvSk Xioou alel Kpia 8atvuTai, dXXd piv efjLTrrjs 
Kai KpaTepov irep kov& aip€i dfi-q^avL-q. 

KcoTiXo) dudpcoTTO) (TLydv y^aX^TTonTaTOv ayfio's, 295 

^Oeyyofieuos 8' d8ari9 OL(ri irapfj TriXerai, 

€)(^daipov(rt 5e iravTes, dvayKair] 8' enifiL^i^ 
dv8pos ToiovTov a'VfnToaia> reXiOci. 

OvBeh Xfj (piXos elpai, enrju KaKov dv8pl yiurjTaif 
ov8' w K* eAc yacTTpos, Kvppe, iiids y^yovrj. 300 

YliKpos Kal yXvKVS i(t6l Kal dpiraXio^ Kal aTrrjvris 
XaTptat Kal 8p(0(rlv yeiToa-L t* dyy^iBvpois. 

Ov xprj KiyKXl^eiv dyaOov ^lopj dXX' aTpefii^eiv, 
TOP 5e KaKOu KLVHv, €(rT av e? 6p6a ^dXr)?. 

283. Twvdc Herm. : tovSc vulg. 285. (OeKd * (ertA-ei c). 288. 

QiaSfToaojacufi (sic) A: ws 51 rd awaai ot *. The reading adopted in 
the text was proposed by Schmidt. ' 290. yivovTai *. vojxos *. 

294. kovT atpei (sic) A. 296. ireKfrai Camer. : fxiKfrai vulg. 

297. navras A. 299. Xrj Bgk. : drj (sic) A : ou5e dfKci : ov8' 

(94\u *. 300. ovd' cvK^ €« (sic) A : ovd' fjv !« *. yeyuvri Turneb. : 
-ovt] A, -u*. 301. dpyaXfos*. 304. ySoA?;? Crispin : |la||»7s^two 
erasures with the trace of an erased accent above the first : \6,0rfs * ; 
Bek. prints Xaj8779 in his text with no cr. n. 



EAErEIXlN A 121 

Tot KaKol ov TToivTes kukoI Ik yaa-rpos yeyoi/aa-Lu, 305 
dX\ duBpecraL KaKoTs crvuOifxei^OL (pLXirji/ 

epya re SeiX' efiaOou Kal e-rrr) Sva^rjfjLa koI v^piv, 
€\7r6p,€i/OL K€Lvovs TToivTa Xiyeif ervfia. 

Ku fiev avacriTOtcnv durjp n€7rrvp.eyo^ ei'r], 

irdvTa Se fiiv \rj6eiy coy direoi^ra SokoT. 310 

€L9 8e ^epoL rd yeXoia, Svprjcpi 8e Kaprepo^ eirj, 
yipcocTKoov 6pyr]v tjvtlv e/caoroy e;(ef. 

'Ei/ fjikv p-aivofjiivois ixdXa fiaiuop-ai, h Sk ScKatoi^ 
TrdvTODv dv6pa)TT(cv dpi BiKaLOTaros. 

HoXXoL TOL 7rXovTOV(TL KaKOL, dyaOol Se irevoprar 315 
dXX rjpeh TOVTOLS ov SLap€L\jr6pe6a 

TTJ^ dp€TTJ9 TOV wXoVTOU, CTTCt TO pku epiTeSoV aUt, 

^prjpara 8* dpOpcowcov dXXore d'AAoy e^et- 

Kvpi/\ dyaOb^ pev durjp yj/coprjj/ e^ei epireSov aUij 
ToXpa 8* eV re KaKoh Keipevo^ iv t dyadol?. 320 

e/ 5e debs kukco dv8pi filov Kal irXovrov oTrda-a-rj, 
d^paLvciDV KaKiTju ov Svvarai Kare^eiv. 

M77 TTOT enl a-pLKpa 7rpo(pdo-ei (piXov dv8p aTroXeao-ai, 

neiOopevos \aXe7rfj, Kvpue, SLai^oXir]. 
ei T19 dpapTcoXfja-L cpiXcov eirl jravTi ^oXwto, 325 

ov TTOT dv dXXriXoLS dpdpiOL ov8e (J)lXol 



305. o£ *. 7rdj/T||s A : iravris in Bek.'s cr. ii. proves the eras, to 
be of later date : vavrm *. yeyovacriv final v almost totally 

erased -4. 309. e'irj Herm. : dvai A : ladi*. 310. hoKoliieel : 

8oKft A, with an accent erased above o : doicti 0: S6k(i *. 311. 

(pfpoi ra (sic) A : (f>€p(i rd Obfm : others (p4petv to. : (pfpoirai h. dvpn^i A. 
5e om. A. ti-qAO: cI't/s *. 318. aKKoTir'A. 321. 6vdaa(i*. 

322. ^ioTov for Kanl-qv Stob. 323. dTroKeaat]': *. 324. Siail3o\ir) 

Bgk. : SiaPoKiy vulg. 325. d/xaprcoKoiai 0. 



122 0EOrNIAOS 

eiep. afjLapTdiXal yap kv avOp^TTOKTiv enopTai 
6j/rjTOi9, Kvpve' OeoL S* ovk eOeXovat (fyepeiv. 

Kvpi/e, (Tvv evOeiri 6e5iu SiKrj dOavaTCOi/. 330 

'Ho-y^o?, co(T7rep eyco, fxia-arju oSov '^PX^^ woacriv, 
firjS' €T€poi(ri SlSovs, Kvpue, to, tcoi/ eTepoov. 

Ovk ecTTiu (fi^vyovTL (piXo? Kai ttktto^ eralpos' 332 a 
Ti]S Sk (pvy7J9 eaTii^ tovt dvirjpoTaTov. b 

M?7 TTore (p^vyovT di/Spa en IXttiSl, Kvpp€, (j)iXrj<rr}9' 
ovSe yap otKaSe ^as yiperai avT09 €tl. 

^rjSep dyav (nrevSeiv. iravTcav fiea dpLCTTa. Kal ovtcos, 
Kvpv\ €^€i? dperrju, rjvTe Xafielv x^Xeirov. 336 

Zei^y piOL tS)v re (f)tXcou Solt] tictiv, ol pe (juXevcnv, 
Tcov T k^Opcdv pei^ov, K^vpve, Svprja-opevov. 

XpvTcos dv 8oKioip,i per duOpcoTrcop deo9 elvai^ 

€L fi diroTLa-dpevov poTpa kixu Oavdrov. 340 

'AAXa, ZeUj riXea-ov poi, 'OXvpirie, Kaipiov ev^'^u, 

809 Se poL duTi KaKwu Kai tl TraOeTv dyaBov^ 
TeOvairp/ 8* , el pL-q tl KaKcov dpiravpa pepipLvkaov 

evpoiprjv, 8oLr]v 8' dvr dviSiV dvias' 
al<ra yap ovtoos e<TTi. rial? 8' ov ^aLverai rjpTp 345 

di'8pS>Vf ot Tapd )(p'qp,aT €)(ovaL /S/77 
avXija-aPTes' eyo) 8e kvcop kireprjaa x^pd8pr)i/, 

X^ipappa) TTOTapSt iravT dTroa-ua-dpevos. 

332. bl^ov Stob. 332 ab [ - 209-10] in A alone. 340. ci 

^l'ttO'. jjv*. Kixv 'vulg. : «txot Camer. 341. Zevs Obcefgm. 343. 
-i/ivaojv : -wv * : cf. 219. 344. Soiijv 8' Ae: 5oit]v t Og : 8011] t 

Icd/hmn. 347. x^P^^PV^ ^- 



EAEFEinN A 123 

TSiv €irj fjLfXau alfia Trieiv, knt r eadXbs opoiTo 

SaifJLOoVj 09 KUT kfiov vovv T€X€(r€L€ TocSe. 350 

'^A SeiXr] neuirj, tl fxipeis ; irpoXnrovaa Trap dXXov 
dv8p levaL. /jLtj Srju fi ovk iOeXovTa (fiiX^L, 

aXX' iBi Koi Sofioi/ dXXov e7roi)(€Oj fjLTjSe fieO' r)fMea>u 
aUl Svarrjifov TovSe /Slov /xere^e. 

ToXfia, Kvpue, KaKoiaLv, kn^l Kaa-dXoia-iv 'i^aipes, 355 

evTe ae Kal tovtoov ^olp knipaXX^v exeti^. 
0)9 8e irep e^ dya6a>u eXaj3e9 KaKOP, 009 Se Kal avTis 

€K8vyai 7r€Lp(o Oeoiaiu e7r€v\6jj,€vos. 
fjLTjSe Xir]v eni^aiue' KaKov Si tl, K.vpy , eTTi^aivoop 

iravpovs K-qSejiouas (rrjs KaKorrjTos €X^*^' 3^° 

* KvSpos TOL KpaSirj fjLii/vdeL fieya nrjfjLa iraOovToSi 

Kvpu' diTOTLvviiivov 8' av^erac k^oTriaroa. 

Eu /ccoTfAXe top kyOpov orav 8' viro^dpio^ ^XOrj, 
Tiaai VLV 7rp6<f)acnp iir)8^p,Lav Okfievos. 

"IcX^ ^oa>y yXcoacrrjs 8e to iidXi^ov ai\v kTrea-Tco- 365 
8€iXcop TOL TeXiOeL Kap8Lrj o^VTeprj. 

Ou 8vvafiaL yvooi/aL voov d(TTcov ovtlv 'i^ovcrLv 

ovT€ yap 6u €p8(ov dp8dvco ovTe KaKm. 
fia>fi€vuTaL 8i fie noXXoi, o/zco9 KaKoi rj8e Kal kaBXot' 

fiLfieicrOaL 8' ov8€h tcdv d<T6(ji(ov 8vvaTaL. 370 

M77 pL deKouTa fiirj k^vtcov vn dpa^av eXavvCy 
€L9 (piXoTTjTa Xirjp, Kvpve, npoaeXKOfiepos. 

349. dpoiTo *. 352. jut) Srjv /x' Williams : (i -qv ^v ovk (sic) A : 

Tt 817 /i' OVK : Tl 5e 817 fx" ovk *. <pi\u (sic) A : (piXiis *. 353. 

ijimv*. 355. KeadKoiaiv AO. 356. oiire A. 857. avdis A. 

358. Oeois A. 359. Se re A. enKpaivojv Brunck : -eiv vulg. 

363. 5* om. A. 364. fxrjSffJiirjv 0. 365. t^xt v6q) A : lax^ voov *. 

yXwffari *. (TTiaOoj *. 366. Kpahirj AOhcdfhmn. 368. dvSpavu A. 



124 0EOrNIAOS 

Zed 0iX€, Oavfxd^co ae' ai) yap TrdvTeacnv dudcrcrei 

TLfjLrji/ avTO^ e^cop Kal /X€yd\r]v SvvafiLV' 
dvBpd)7r(ov 5' eu olaBa voov Kal Ovfiov eKdcrrov 375 

(Tov 8e Kpdros TTdvT(ov ecrS' viraTov, PaoriXev. 
ircos Srj arev, Kpoj/iSr], roXfia voos dvSpas dXiTpovs 

€u TavTJj notpr] Tov re StKaiov ^X^i^'j 
-qi^ T eirl (rco(ppo(rvvr]u Tp€(pdf} 1/609, rfv re irpo^ v^pLv 

dpOpd)7rcop dSiKOLS €pyp,a(Tc ireiOofiivcoif ; 380 

^ov8e TL KeKpLp,evov irpos Sai/j-ovos eaTL PpoToia-iv, 

ov8' 680U ijvTLu looy dOavdroLcriv a5oi.] 
€fjL7n]9 8' oXPov 'i^ov(TLv dnrjiiova' toI 8* diro 8^lXS>v 

epyoou L(T)(ovr€S Ovfibu op.(os Trevirjp 
fjLTjTep' dfi7j)(^avL7]S eXajBoPj rd 8iKaia (piXevuTes, 385 

7]T du8pa>u irapdyu Ovfiov ey dfiirXaKtrjUj 
PXaiTTOvcT kv o-TrjOeaa-L (f)pivas KpaTepfjs vtt dvdyKr\9' 

ToXpa 8' ovK idiXoov aiay^^a -rroXXd ^epeiv, 
^prjixoarvurj eiKcoy, rj 8r) KaKCL iroXXd 8i8d(rKeL, 

'^€v8ed T k^airdras t ovXo/jiiua^ r €pi8a9, 390 

dv8pa Kal OVK kOeXovra' KaKov 8i ol ov8lv eoiKev 

rj yap Kal \aX^iTrr]v tiktci dprj^apiijv. 

'Ei' Trepirj 8* o re 8€iXbs dvrjp re noXXbu dpeivcoi/ 
(f>aLveTaij eur dv 8r] ^pripoavvq KaTe^rj. 

TOV pkv yap ra 8LKaLa (ppouei voos, ovre irep alel 395 
iOeia yvdofjLTj aTrjOea-Lu e/i7re0ur;* 

TOV 5' avT ovT€ KaKoTs €7r€Tai voos ovT dyaOoTcTip. 
TOV 8' dyadbv ToXjidv ^prj Td re Kal ra (p€p€Lu, 

378. TOV 56 A. 379. rpe(f>6^ Camer. : repcpO^ vuJg. 381. oans 

A (for kari). 382. 6S6v Abdfhmn: 686s*. nsl. 384. i^xovrai* 
(^some -a;-). ireviTjs* (though somewhat doubtful in 0). 386. 

irpodyei *. S95. rdSiKa (ppoviei *. 396. lOfirj 0. ifnrecl>viri A. 

397. av *. 398. Bekker is wrong when he gives tSl 8c as the 

reading of AO. 



EAEFEmN A 125 

alSeiaOai 8e <piXov9, ^evyeiu r oX^arjvopas opKovs . . . 
'EpTpd7r€X\ dOauccTcou fifjutv d\evd/j,€voy. 400 

MrjSeu dyav a-Tr^vSeiv' Kaipbs 5' €774 irdaLv dpL<TTos 
epy/jLaaiv duBpaoTrcow iroWdKL 8* eh dperrju 

anevSeL durjp KepSo? Si^rjuevos, ovTLva BaLfioav 
7rp6(ppoou eh fieydX-qv dfnrXaKirjv wapdyei, 

Kai ol edr)K€ SoKeiu, d /xeu ij KaKd, ravT dyd& elvai 
€v/iapia)9, d 8' du fi ^(^prjcrifiaj ravTa KaKd, 406 

^^IXTaTos oou T]p.apT€9. iyo) Si tol aiTLOs ov8ey, 
dXX' avT09 yj/co/jir)9 ovk dyaOrjs 'irv^e^. 

Ov8eva drjaavpou iraLcrlv KaTaOrja-i] dfieivo) 

ai8ov9, 7]T dyaOois dv8pd(TLy Kvpi/, eireTai. 410 

(JvSevos dpOpcoTTCov KaKLcou 8oKeL uvai iraipos, 
to yud)p.r] 0' emraL, Kvppe^ kol m Svpafits. 

Uiycou 8* ovy^ ovToas Ocoprj^o/jLaL, ov8i fie oivos 
e^dyei, coa-T eiTTeiu 8uvov enos irepl (rod. 

Ov8iu opoLov epol 8vvapaL 8L^rjp€uos evpeiu 415 

TncTTou eroLpov, orco prj ti? €V€(tti 86Xo9' 

h Pdaavov 8* ^XOobi' TraparptPopaL cwcrre poXi^Sco 
XpvaS^, V7T€pT€pLr}9 5' dppLv euecTTL X6yo9. 

UoXXd pe KOL avviivra irapipyjcTai' dXX* vn dvdyKr)9 
(TLyco, yLvcoaKCOV r]p€T€prju 8vvapLv. 420 



400. evTpenf 5' *. dXfvafxevos *. 404. « h. 407. aoi A. 

408. €t aficivoj for 4'tux<s A. 409. -er}a€i AO. 411. nrjStvds 

. . . 56k€i *. 413. ner' oJvos A : jxe y otvos 0. 418. v6o9 * 
(? \uyos d). 



126 0EOrNIAOX 

TloXXoi? dyOpcoTTCoi/ yXcoaa-r) Bvpai ovK iiriKCiVTaL 
dpfioSiaL, Kai acpiv ttoXX' dfiiXriTa /xeXer 

TToWaKL yap to KaKov KocTaKHfLepov ev8ov dp^LvoVj 
kaOXov 8* e^eXdoi^ Xcoiov [^ to /ca/coi^]. 

UdvTCDv p\v fit] (j)vvaL €7rL)^0ovioL(rLv dpicFTOv 425 

firiS^ eaiScTv avyas o^ios rjeXiov, 
(pvvTa B* oTTcoy wKiaTa n^Xa? 'AiSao ireprjaaL 

KOi K€i<r6ai iroXXrjy yrjv €7rafjL7j<Tdfi€vov. 

^v<Tai Kal 6pi\jrat paov ^poTov, rj (ppiuas e(r6Xds ^ 

epOifiep' ovSei? ttco tovto y eirecppdaaTo, 430 

oa-Ti? a-dxppov' eOrjKe tov d(ppopa KdK kukov kaOXov. 

€L 5' ' AarKX-qindSais tovto y e^co/ce ^eoy, 
idaOaL KaKOTtjTa Kal dTTjpds ^piuas dv8pS)v, 

TToXXovs dv fMiadovs Kal fieydXovs ecpepou. 
€L 8' rjv TTOL-qTov T€ Kal ivQeTOv dv8pl porjfjLa, 435 

ov TTOT dv e^ dyaOov TraTpbs eyeuTO KaKos, 
Treidopcuos pv6oi(n aao^poa-ip- dXXd SiBda-Kcop 

ov TTore TTOirja-eis tov KaKov dv8p dyaOov. 

^r}Tno9, OS TOV kjiov fiev e^et voov kv (j)vXaKrj(nv, 

tS)V 8' avTOV i8i(ov ovSev kiriffTpk^eTai. 440 

Oy^etff yap iravT kaTL jravoX^tos' dXX* 6 fiev kaOXos 
ToXpa 'iyoav TO KaKov^ kovk kTrL8r}Xo9 o/xcoj- 



421. dvOpwnojv AO Stob. : -ots *. 422. dXaKrjTa veXu Stob. 

424. k^eXOwv AOch (w corr. to u in A) : -etiv Stob. 427, 'AiSo 

hdfmn. 429. (^avaai A. 430. irco om. A. 431. oris (sic) A : 

offTis *. -va KOLKov A : kolk kukov : Kal kukov or -ov *. 433. 

dreipas AO. 438. ttocqaii A. 440. rwv S' ovtov K'ibiov (sic) A : 

Tuv S' avrov KtSiov : tov 8' avTov idiov * (some ai/rov) : iSiuv Jacobs. 
441. yap om. : rci *. 442. ex^iv all but A. 



EAErEIXlN A 127 

SeiXb^ 8' ovT dyaOoia-Lu kirtcrTaTaL ovre KaKoiaLv 
dvfiov o/xcoy /iLo-yeLu. dOavdroiv Se 86(T€19 

iravTolaL Ovt^tolctlv kirip^ovr- dW eiriroXfjidy 445 

y^pT) Scop* dBavdroav, ola SlSovctlj/ cvett^. 

Er fi eOeXei? nXvpeiv, KCCpaXrjs djitavTov air' ccKprj^ 

aUl XiVKov vSoyp peva-eTai r)/j.€T€prjs' 
€vprj(Tei? Si fie Trdcriv kw epy/jtaa-iv axnrep d7r€(f>dou 

-^pva-ov, kpvOpov ISeii/ TpLpofi^vov ^aaduco, 450 

Tov xpof^y KaOvTTcpOe fieXas ov^ dnTeTaL 109 

ovS* €vpco9, aUl S* dvOos e^ei KaOapov. 

"^IvBpayTT , ei yvcjofiris eXa^ey fiipos coarTrep dvoi-q^ 
Koi (TocKppcou ovTcos oocTTrep d(j)pcov kyevov, 

TToXXoTs dv ^rjXcoTo? kcfyalv^o TwuSe iroXiTwi/ 455 

oiVcoy a><T7r€p vvv ovSevbs d^Los 6t. 

Ov TOL avpcpopoi^ k(TTi yvvT) via dvSpl yipovTi- 

ov yap 7r7jSaXia> TreideTai co? aKaros, 
ovS' dyKvpai e^ovcnv diropp-q^aa-a Se Secrpd 

TToXXdKL? kK vvktS)v dXXov e^et Xip-iva. 460 

Mt; ttot kir dirprjKTOLcrL voou eye, /jLrjSe iievoiva, 
)(^prj/jLa<rL, tS>v dwcns yiveTai ovSejXLa. 

^vfiapioos TOL \pr\iia deol Soaay ovt kiTiSrjXoi/ 
OVT dyadov yaXeirSt S' epypaTi kv8o9 em. 

*A/ji(f) dp€Tfj TptPov, Kai Toi TO. SiKaia (piX eaTO), 465 
/jiTjSi are uiKaTco KepSos, t aicrypov erj. 

443. ovT€ tcaK . . , a-^aOl *. 444. €X<y»' ninvuv vulg. (incl. A) : 

ufjious fxiayeiv vulg. 1162 d. tc Abdfmn. 449. 8* «/*€ A. 

457. avu^pov tvean Adehn: av/juppovov tveari bf: avufpfpov iari g: 
avfjupopdt (art Eustath. : not legible in exe. (an. 463. oIjt 

(TriSijKov Hecker : ovre n 5fi\6v (^roi Ofn) vulg. 464. tx'* *• 

465. aoL *. 466. tOd. : eot *. 



128 OEOrNlAO^ 

MrjSei^a t5)v^ deKOvra fieuetv KarepvKe nap rjfiiv, 

/jLTjSe Ovpa^e KeXev ovk eOiXour Ikvai, 
firjS' evSopT €7rey€Lp€, ^l/icoi'iStj, ovtlv av rj/icou 

Ocoprj^OivT OLvcd fjLaXdaK09 v7ruo9 eXrj, 470 

p.7]8e Tov dypvTTveovTa KeXev d^KovTa KaOevSeiu- 

ndu yap dvayKalov xprjp! duirjpov €(pv. 
tS> ttlv^lv S' eOeXouTL irapacTTaSov oIvoxo^ltoh' 

ov irdaas vvKTas yiv^rai d^pa iraOuv. 
avTap eyco — jxerpov yap iyon fjLeXLTjSio^ oivov — 475 

VTTvov Xva-LKaKov fjLurja-ofiaL oiKaS' la>u, 
ij^co S' coy oIuo9 -^apdaraTOS dvBpl 7r€7r6(r6ar 

ovT€ TL yap u-q(f)Ct) ovT€ Xltjp fjLedvco. 
09 8' du v7rep/3dXXrj 7r6(no9 fierpov, ovKiri Keipo9 

TTJs avTou yXaxrar]? KapT€pos oifSe voov, 480 

fjLvOetTaL 5' dirdXafiua, rd PT](po(n ytveTai al(T\pd' 

alSeiTai 8 €p8cop ovSiu, orav /jieOvrj, 
TO TTplv kcbv aoo(pp(oi/, Tore vrjirio?. dXXd crv ravra 

yivaxTKoou firj ttlv oivov v7r€ppoXd8r)v, 
dXX 7] TTplv fie6v€Lv viravLo-Tacro — firj ere l3id<T6a> 485 

yacrTTjp axrre KaKov XdrpLv ecprjfiipLOv — 
rj 7rapea)v fir) mve. av 8' ey^ee tovto fidraLov 

KcoTiXXeL? aUt' TOvveKd Toi fiedveiS' 
Tf fikv yap (pepeTttL ^lXottjo-io?, 17 8k irpoK^LTai, 

Trjv 81 0€OL9 a-7r€v8€LS, TTjv 8' em xeipo9 e;(eiS'. 490 
dpveia-6aL 8' ovk oJ8a9' dviKrjTOS 8i tol ovto9, 

09 TToXXd^ 7TLva>v firi tl fidraiov epei. 



469. Bokker is wrong in giving /xtjO' as the reading of A. ovriva 
rjjMJv *. 476. ovKab' A : oUab' (sic) 0. 477. Set^cu eg. 481 . 

vq<povai y'lverai : vrjcpova' dScrai *. 483. Tore A Stob. : ovre eg : 

ore *. 485. aTraviaraao Ath . 487. 8' e'xe : 5^ t^^ bcdefhmn : 

S' ot 6X€ flr. 491. alu€i(T9ai A. 492. iroWov A. 



EAEFEmN A 129 

{fHU9 8' ev fivdeiaOe wapa Kprjrrjpi fiiuovreSy 

aXXrjXo)!/ kpiSos Srju direpyKOfievoL, 
e/y TO fiea-ov (pcovevuTes, Sfim iul kol avvdiTacTLv' 495 

XOVTC09 av/jLTToo-Lop ytveraL ovk dyapi. 

'Acppovo^ di/8po9 ofim KOI a-co^povo? olvos, orav St] 
TTiVT] vTrep jxerpov, kov^ov WrjKe poop. 

'Ev TTvpl fi\v XP^^^^ ^^ '^a^' dpyvpov iBpm dvSpes 

yivaxTKOvcr , duSpo? 8' oho? e^ei^e poop, 500 

Kal fxdXa irep ttlvvtov, top virep fjiirpop rjpaTO ttlpcop, 
a>aT€ Karaidxypoii Kal irplp kopra crocpop. 

OiPo^apeco KecpaXrjp, 'OpofiaKpire, Kai fie PiccTat 

OLP09, drap ypdo/xTj? ovk€t eyco rafiirj? 
rifieT€pr]9, to 8€ S(op.a TrepLTpe^eL' dXX* ay dvacTTas 505 

TreiprjOco, firj ttcos* Kal noSas oIpos e^ei 
Kal POOP kp (TTTJOeo-o-L. 8eSoLKa 8e p,rj tl fiaTaiop 

ep^o) OcoprjxOeh Kal fiey 6p€l8o9 €)((o. 

OIp09 7TIp6/J,€P09 TTOvXv? KaKOP' rjp 8i T19 aVTOP 

TTLPT) €7rL(TTap,epco9, ov KaKOP, dXX' dya66p. 510 

'HA^ey 8ri, KXedpcaTe, ^aOvp 8ia ttoptop dpv(raa9, 
kpBd8 €77 ov8\p e^oPT , oS TdXap, ov8ep e^o)^. 

pr]6? TOL TrXeuprjcrip {;7rb ^vya Orjorofiep r^fieh, 
KXedpiaO', oV e^op-ep ^S'la 818000-1 deor 



494, eptSa? *. 5tjv A. 495. ihAObdegln: ks*. avvairari A. 

497. dyav (for o/xa)?) Stob. 498. mvri Stob. : mvrjT A : irivrjO' Oel. : 

mv(e' *. 499. €fx TTvpi A. 503. -4oj A Stob. : -w *. fffpidrai A. 
504. 7||e<;||77s ^. The erased letters have left traces reaching in each 
case considerably below the line, the second erasure is wider than 
the first ; evidently v {p) fx; tlie down stroke of /x is still visible : 
yvwfXTjs vulg. Bek. prints yuw/xrjs with no cr. n. The eras, was made 
after his collation: yXwaarjs Bgk. Hecker. 513. vno (sic) A. 



130 0EOrNlAO^ 

ovTe TL Ta>v ovToav dTroOrjarofiaLf ovre tl fi^l^ov ^i^j 

(rrj9 eueKa ^€ULr}9 dXXodev ola-ojieQa. 518 

TOQV S' ovToav TapLCTTa 7rape^ofL€v rjy Si tls '^Xdrj 515 

(rev (piXos ooi', KardeKJ) o)? ^LXorrjTOS e^eis* 
rju Si TLS elpooTa Tou kp,ov ^tov, a>Si ol elTrelv 

coy eu fi\v ^aXeiTcos, coy )(^aXe7r6os Sk fidX' €v, 520 

w(r6^ eVa /zeV ^exvov Trarpmov ovk diroXeLTreLu, 

^etvLa Se TrXeouea-cr ov Svvaros irapi^uv. 

Ov (T€ /idrrju, co YlXovre, Oecou tl/jLcoctl /idXi<TTa' 
^ yap prjiSiODS ttju KaKOTrjra (pipei^. 

Kat ydp tol ttXovtov pkv c^eii/ dyaQolcriv 'ioLKeVy 525 
T) wei/it] Se KUK^ (rvp(popo9 dvSpl (pipeiv. 

"il poL eycbv TJ^T)? KOL yripaos ovXopivoLo, 
Tov pev eirep^opipov, rrjs S' dTrovia-opivrjS' 

OvSiva TTCo TrpovScoKa (piXoi' kol inaTov eraipov^ 

ovS' ev epfj yjrv\r} SovXlov ovSev 'ivL. 530 

KUt poL (feiXou rjTop latveTai, ottttot dKovcrco 
avXS>v (j)Oeyyopiucov Ipepoeo-aav oira. 

Xaipco S' ev ttlvcov kol vit avXrjTtjpos deiScDv, 
^aipQ) S' ev(j)6oyyou \ep(rl Xvprju o^icov. 



515. rapiara Bek.: ra dp. vulg. 81 rjs (?) A (the copyist has not 
made the letters sufficiently distinct). 516. KaTaufp' Sitzler : 

KaraKcia ojs (pcXorrjTO ex^'J (*^ic) -4 : icaraKeiG dis (piXorijTos cx^'^ *• 
517. fiei^Q) A. After transposing 517-18 as above I discovered that 
the same arrangement had been suggested by Hei-werden. 522. 
ttUov ear* AObcdefghlmn. 523. Oewv Stob. : 0poToi MSS. Th. 527. 
w fioi A. 528. dirovlao/xivrjs A : dnaviaTaixevrjs * (incl. possibly 

wh. is very illegible). 529. ttoj Bgk.: ovdeva irp. A: oid4 riva 0: 
ovT€ rivd *. 533. de'iZojv Pierson : dKovojv vulg. 



EAEFEmN A 131 

Ov noTe SovXeiT] Ke(j)aXr] lOela iricpvKeu, 53g 

dXX alel crKoXirjj Kavykva Xo^ov evei. 
cure yap Ik o-klXXtjs p68a ^veraL ovS' volklvOos^ 

ovT€ 7707 e/c SovXt)^ t^kvov kXevOepLov, 

OvTOS dvrjp, (piXe Kvpue, TriSas x^^f^^^^Tcci avT(d, 

€L fLTj e/jLYju yvco/XTju k^aiTaTcoaL O^ot. 540 

AeifjLaLuct) fxrj Trji/Se ttoXlv, YloXviratB-q, v/Spis, 
^nep K.€UTavpovs cofiocpdyovs oXecrev. 

\pri fxe napa (rrddfjLrjp kol yycofjLova TrjySe SiKdaa-ai, 
Kvpue, 8iKr]v, Torou r dficpoTepoiai So/iei/. 

jjLdvT€(yi T oldivois re koI aldo/iivoLS lepoTa-iVj 545 

6(f)pa fjLT] d/JL7rXaKLr]S al(T)(pbu oWi^oy e^co. 

MrjSiva TTO) KaKOTtjTL ^id^eo- tw Se SiKam 
Tfj9 evepyea-LTjs ovdev dpeiorepov, 

*'AyyeXo9 dcpOoyyos TToXefzov noXvSaKpvu eyeipei^ 

Yivpv , diro TTjXavyeos (paiuofieuos aK07nrJ9. 550 

dXX' LTTTTOLS e/jL^aXXe Ta^virTepvoLo-L y^aXivov^' 
Srjoav ydp crcp' dv8pS)v avTidaeLU SoKeco. 

ov TToXXrji/ TO pea-rjyij 8ia7rprj^ov(TL K^XevBov, 
el /irj efjLTju yvcofirju e^anaTcoa-L 6eoL. 

Xpr] ToXfidy ^aXeiroLa-Lv kv dXyeai KeLjievoi/ dpSpa, 555 
TTpos re deoou alrcTu eKXv<TLv ddavdrcoi/. 



535. cvOeia *. 537. ov5' Camer. : ovd' vulg. 538. ovrt Camor. : 

ouSc viilfj. 539. ovTis *. 542. uKfcev AO (0 omits v) : -(art *. 

M3. yvufirjv*. 545. /xdi/Tccrti' * (no t'). 6i8. (vyepyecirjs A, 

cf. 574. 551. 'iTTTTovs A. 553. ttoWtjv Brunck : -uv vnlg. 

k2 



132 ©EOrNIAO^ 

^pd^eo' KLvSvvos Toi €TTL ^vpov KrTaTai aKfirj^' 
dXXore ttoXX' €^€L9, aAXore Travporepa. 

Awa-Toi (re /iiJTe Xirju dcpveou KTcaTea-a-L yevea-Bai, 

/jLrJTe (re y e? TroWrjif ^prjfjioavurjv eXdcrai. 560 

Y.Lrj fioL TO, iiev avTov eyeiv^ to, 8e ttoXX' einSovuaL 
^p-qp-ara tS)v e^BpSiv TOL(n ^lXoktlv '^X^^^' 

}^eKXrj(T$aL 8' es Saira, irape^ecrOai Se nap ecrOXov 
dvSpa x/oeft>^ (Tocpirjv irddav e-mcTTdpevov . 

Tov (TWielvj oiroTav tl Xeyrj (T0(j)6v, o^pa SiBayOfis 565 
KoX TOVT eh oIkov Kep8o9 e^o)^ aTTiV/s. 

"HjS?7 repTTopevos irat^oo' 8r]pou yap evepBev 
yr\s 6Xe(ras y^rv^W KeicropaL cwo-re XiBo^ 

d(pBoyyos, Xeiyjrco 8 eparov (pdo9 rjeXioio, 

epTTT]? 5' e(rBXb9 ecbv o'^opat ovBev en. 570 

Ao^a pev dvBpd)7roLo-L KaKov peya, irelpa 8' dptcTTOP' 
TToXXol dTreiprjTOL 86^av ey^ova dyaBS>v. 

Y.V €p8(ov ev irdcrxe' tl k dyyeXov dXXov IdXXoLS ', 
Trj9 evepye(rLr]S prjBtr] dyyeXirj. 

or pe (piXoL TrpoBiBovcTLv, eirel tov y e^Bpov dXevpat 
cocTTe KvPepi/rJTr)9 \0Lpd8a9 elvaXta^, 576 

'Prj8ioi/ i^ dyaBov BeTvai KaKov rj 'k KaKov ecrBXov. 
prj pe BiBacTK' ov tol ttjXlko^ elpl paBeTv. 



557. fppa^eo S' o A. 559. Xwara trt Geel : ware oaeA : ware ere *. 

561. avTQJv A. 563. els Obdehn. irapi^eaOai A. 565. diZax^V ■^■ 
572. dirdprjTOV*. 573. irparTf*. taAActs *. 574. evyep-yeffirjs A. 

prjidiayyeXir) (sic) A. 576. civa\io\\s (sic) A ; o = co (oo) or a 

corrected to o : dvaXiovs (with some doubt). 577. Ofipai A. 



EAErEiriN A 133 

*ExOaLpco KUKOu duSpa, KaXv^afiht] Se Trdpei/jLi, 

(rfJLiKprJ9 6pui6os Kov(pov e^ovara voov. 580 

'ExOaipco Se yvvaiKa ireptSpopLov dvSpa re [idpyovy 
oy Tr]v aXXoTpirju ^ovXct dpovpav dpovu, 

'AAAa Ta p,kv TrpojSi^rjKev, dpiriyavov k(TTL y^vea-Qai 
dpyd' TO, S' e^oTTia-co, tcov (pvXaKrj fieXirco. 

Tlda-Lv TOL KLvSwos en epyfiaaiv, ovSi tl9 dlSeu 585 
TTTJ a^ria-eLv fieXXet 7rpriyp.aT0^ dp^ofxipov. 

dXX 6 pikv tv8oKL/x€Lu 7reipd)p,€i/09, ov wpouorjaas 
els fieydXrjp drrjv kol yaXeirriv eireaev 

TO) 8e KaXcos TTOievuTL Oeos nepl Trdvra riBrja-Lv 

<TVPTV)(^i7jv dyaOrju, eKXvaLv dcppoavvr]^. 590 

ToXjxdv xpri rd SlSovo-l deol OvqToTaL PpOTOLcnv, 
f5r]i8i(09 Se (j)epeLv dp-cjiOTepoav to Xdyos. 

MTyre KaKoTortu dcroa tl Xltji/ (ppepa, JjltJt dyaOoiaiv 
Tepcpdfjs e^aiTiurjs, irplv riXos dKpov IBelv. 

"AvOpooTT , dXXrjXoLorLP diroTTpoOev cofJLeu eralpoL' 595 

irXrjv ttXovtov wavTO? ^p^qpLaTos ecTTL Kopos. 

Srjv Sr) KOL (ptXoL (op,eu' drdp t dXXoLcriv opiXei 
dvSpdcTLv, dl TOP crbu pdXXov ia-aaL voov. 

Ov p,' eXaOes (pOLToov kut' dpa^LTOv, rfv dpa Kal irplv 
riXd(TTpeis, KXeTTTCOv rjpereprjv (piXtrjv. 600 



580. fiiKpTJs*. 582. d?^oTpiav A. 584. d/)7d Eldick : ^70 

vulg. (no accent in A). e^oariaoj A. ttj <pv\aK^ *, 6^. 

Trrj Ae : iroi *. 592. ajjupoTipoWv A. 593. aaw rt Bgk. : aacuvra 

(sic) A : voaovvra Xvrrov : voowv Xvnov * : cf. 657. 594. rep<pd^s 

S' A. 596, ttKovtov AO : rovrov *. 597. ufiiXftv *. 



134 0EOrNIAOS 

6/ope, Oeola-tv t e^^/oe /cat duOpcoTroKriu diria-Te, 
y^vy^pov ov kv k6\tt(o ttolklXov ^T')(ov 6(pLu, 

ToLciSe KOL M.dyvTjTa? dncoXea-eu epya Kal vfipis, 
oTa TO, vvv Uprjp TTJvSe ttoXlu KareyeL. 

ELoAAo) TOL TrXkovas Xifiov Kopo^ (wAecrei/ ijSrj 605 

duSpas, o(TOL fxoiprjs nXe'ioif €)(€Lv edeXov. 

'Ap^fj eVt "^evSovs piKpa ^dpiS' els Se reXevrrji/ 
ala-^pov Sr] Kep8o9, Kal KaKov d/jL^orepou 

ytveTar ov8* 'in KaXov, otco yjrevSos iTpo(Top.aprrj 

dvBpl Kal e^iXOrj irpmrou dno crropaTos. 610 

Ov yaXeirov yjri^aL rov rrXrja-iov, ovSe jikv avrov 

aiurja-ai' SeiXols dpSpdai ravra ftiXer 
(Tiydv 8' ovK ediXova-L KaKOi KaKa Xca-^d^oures- 

ol 8' dyaOol TrdvTODv p.eTpov iaaa-Lv 'k)(jELv. 

Ov8iua TrafJLTrrjSrji^ dya^ov Kal pirpLov dv8pa 615 

t5)v vvv dvOpooTTCov rjiXios KaOopa. 

OvTL pdX* dvdpooTTOLS KaTaQvpia irdvra TeXeTrar 
TToXXov yap Ovtjtoov Kpeaaoves dOdvaroi. 

IIoAX' kv dpr}^avir}(n KvXLv8opaL d-^vvpevos Krjp' 

dKprjv yap irevL-qv ou^ virepeSpafiopev. 620 

Hay TLS nXovaiov dv8pa tUl, driei 81 irevL^poV 
irdcTLV 8' dvOpcoTTOL9 avTos eveoTTL voos. 



(>01. t' om. AOel. 602. tv . . , dxov Sintenis : o? . . . €?x^s vulg. 

606. irXiov (sic) A : irXevv' kOtKovaiv ex^iv Stob. 607. niKpd AO 

Stob. : -pri *. €ts AO Stob. : Is *. 609. itpoaaiiapr^ A : irpoao- 

fxapTfi*. 610. KOLV*. 618. ttoKXwv Oel: iroAXSi Stob. (-cDi' 

Stob. B). 



EAEFEmN A 135 

JJaPToTai KaKOTrjTes eV dpOpcoTroicrip eacnv 
TTavTolaL 8' dpeTol kol ^lotov iraXdfjLai. 

'ApyaXioj/ (ppoveovTa irap' dcppoaL ttSW dyopeveiv 625 
Kal diydv aUi' \tovto yap ov SwarouX 

Alaxpou TOL peOvovra irap dv8pd(n vri<pO(nv ehaL, 
ala-y^pov 8' el i/rjcpcou nap fxeOvova-t fxevei. 

"Hprj Kal i/eoTT]^ emKoucpi^eL voov dv8p6s, 

TToWcov 8 k^aipei Ovfiov ks dp7rXaKir]v. 630 

"riiTLUL /XT] dvjjLov KpecTacoy 1/609^ alev kv drai^, 
K.vpve, Kal kv jieydXai^ KetraL diirjy^avtai^. 

^ovXevov 819 Kal rpts, 6 rot k irrl tov voov eXOrj' 
drrjpb? yap tol Xd^pos dvrjp reXeOei. 

Av8pd<TL T0L9 dyaOols erreTai yvd>p,r] re Kal alSoos' 635 

ot VVV kv TTOXXols dTp€Kk(09 oXtyoL. 

'YXwh Kal KLv8vvo9 kv dv6pa)7roL(nv o/xoior 
ovTOL yap )(^aX€7rol Saifioves dfKfyoTepoL. 

TloXXaKL Trap 86^av re Kal kXiriSa yiverai ev peiv 
epy^ dv8p(£)v, ^ovXals 8' ovk knkyevTo reXo?. 640 



627. vr}(poaiv eTvai A Stob. : vrjcpova' ttvai *. 628. txivoi /: 

//ej/7/, -6t, -01 Stob. 631. w rivi A : S) irep : unep, wancp or 

ovncp *. Kpeiaaojv 0. 632. Kvpv\\ Kai A. The erasure covers 

the same space as Kvp ; there is no trace of the missing letters. 
Ace. to Bek. A had KvpvaT Kai ; so we have another proof that the 
MS. has been defaced in the last century. Kvpve Kai Ohdhtnn : Kvpve 
Tt Kai g: Kvpvf toi Kai c. A MS. coll. by Brunck has Kvpv' oye Kai. 
iv /ley. Bgk. : ev om. vulg. : Iv dfiirXaKiais vulg. : aprix- Bgk. 636. 

o'l Stob. : ov vulg. kv A Stob. : fiiv *. d\iyoi A Stob. : 5' 0X17015 *, 
637. dfxoTa Stob. 630. €v ^eiv Emper, : evpetv (sic) A : evptiu *. 

itiO. ^ovKaio A. 



136 0EOrNIAO:S 

Ov TOL k' ei8ei7]9 out' evuovu ovre tov ex^pou, 
el fiTj (nrovSaiov irprjy/xaTo? dvTLTvxoiS. 

TloWol nap KprjTrjpL (piXoL yivovTai iraipoii 
kv 8\ (TirovSatco TrpjjyfJLaTi Travporepoi. 

Uavpovs KTjSe/JLoua? ttkttovs evpois Key eraipov? 645 
Keijievos ev fieydXr) Ovjjlov dfLrj-^avLr], 

^'H^t; pvu alScbs p-ev ev dj/dpcoiroia-Lu oXcoXev, 
avTocp duaLSeLTj yalav eiTLGrpe^eTai. 

^A heiXi] Trevtr], ti ep.0L9 einKeLpevr] Spots 

acojia KaTaL(T\uveLS kol voov rjpeTepou ; 650 

alaxpa 8e p,' ovk eOeXovTa pirj kol ttoXXol SiSda-Kei?, 

eaOXa /zer' dy6pa>7r<ov Kal KdX' eTn<TTdp,evov, 

Y^vdatpoiv ei7]v Kal Oeois 0fXos dOavaTOKnv^ 
Kvpv' dperfjs 5' dXXrjs ovSepifjs epap.aL. 

^vv TOL, Ku/ore, iraQovTL KaKcos duL(op,eOa irdvTes' 655 
dXXd TOL dXXoTpLov ktjSos e(f>r]pepLov* 

yir]Bev dyav xaXeTrola-Lv d<j(£> (^peva pr]^ dyaOoTatv 
Xat/o', €7ret ecTT'' dvSpos irdvTa (pipetv dyadov. 

OvS' opoaaL xpT] Tov0\ otl prjiroTe irpdypa t68' ecrrar 
6eoL ydp TOL vep-eaooa , oicnv eireaTt TeXoS' 660 



641. KTjdei {Kijoei 0) 6 th * exc. el wh. read Kv5i6r)s (so too h marg.). 
642. npayn. A. 644. Trpdyfi. A. 646. dv/xov all but AO. 

648. ovToip (sic) A. dvaiSirj 0. youav kirepxeO^ o/jlus Stob. 

649. enoTs kir. A Stob. : tfioTot Kadrjfievrj *. 651. KaKo, (for Kai) 
Stob. 652. ixer A Stob. : Trap *. 653. lee A. 654. 
ouSe/itas 0. 655. aoi *. 657. daw] -qyovv Xvnov marg. bdmn. 
659. Tovd' oTi Canier. : tovto ri (sic) A : ti om. : tovto ti *. npdyfia 
AO (-d- 0) : -^- *. 660. yap toi Camer. : yap tc AO : Kal yap *. 



EAErEIXlN A 137 

Kal npfJiaL fxipTOi tl. kul e/c KaKov kaOXov eyevro, 
Kal KaKov e| dyadov- kul re irevLXpos dvrjp 

alyjra /id\' inXovTrjae- Kal os fJidXa noXXd TrenaTai, 
e^aiTLvrjs irdyT ovv cwAeo-e vvktI fiifj. 

Kal (rd)^fXov rifiapre, Kal dcppovi ttoXXukl So^a 665 

ecTTTeTO, Kal tl/jL7J9 Kal /ca/coy a>v eXax^p. 

El fieu xPW^^t" ^xoLfJLL, ^ipcoi^iSr], old irep ijSrj 

ovK dv dvmfi-qv toIs dyadoca-i avudou, 
vvv Se fie yiudxTKouTa wapipx^Tai, dpi 8' dcpcouo^ 

XP^M-oavi^t}, TToXXcoi/ yi/ovs irep dpeivov €tl 670 

ovveKa vvv (pepopea-Oa KaO* larta XevKa ^aX6vT€S 

MrjXiov €K irovTOV vvKTa Sid Svo(f)€pr]V' 
avrXeiv S' ovk ideXova-tv virep^dXXeL Se ddXaaaa 

dp^orepcov roLX(ov. rj pdXa tls x^^^ttcSs 
a-(p^€TaLj ol €pSova-i. KvpepvrJTrjv pkv eiravaav 675 

kcrOXov, OTi? (pvXaKTjv ei'x^^ iincTTapivoos' 
XPW^T^ <^' dpnd^ovo-i ^irj, Koa-pos S' dnoXcoXev, 

Saapbs S' ovKeT Laos yiverai ks to peaov, 
^opTTjyol S' dpxovarij KaKol S* dyadcov KaOvnepOev. 

SeipaLvco prj 77009 vavv Kara Kvpa irtrj. 680 

Tavrd poL rjvLxOo) KeKpvppkva toXs dyaOoTa-LV 

yivd>a-KOL S* dv rty Kal KaKos, dv aocpos ^. 

IToXXoi ttXovtov exov(riv diSpies' ol Se rd KaXd 
^rjTOvaiv )(«X€7rg TeipopevoL irevL]]. 

661. fiiVTot A. 663. 5e A : Kai *. ■niirarai Brunck : Trf7ra||Tat 

A erased after Bek. who gives -ni-naarm for all MSS. (0 has -ctaTai). 
664. OTTO rovv (sic) A : vavra 0. fxia *. 666. rifiijs A Stob. : 

Tifi'q : '^v *. 667. ^5?; (sic) A : ySeiu *. 668. &v dvoifjiijv A : 

OVK dvicufXTjv 0. 670. yvovaav A : vep g : dv hde/hn : dv om. * incl. 
ace. to Stud. 675. oV <p5. Bek. : oi8' epSovai (sic) A : oi'8' tphovai : 
ol 5' fvhovai *. 676. 5' os : 7' ws /: 7' os *. 682. KaKos 

Brunck : KaKuv vuhj. 684. xa'^c"<"' ^' 



138 0EOrNIAO2 

'4p8eLv 8' dn(j)OT^pOLcrLv dfi-q^avLr] irapcLKeiTaL' 685 

etpyei yap rov9 [ilv ^prjfxaTa, tov9 Se 1/609. 

OvK ea-Ti BvqToTaL irpo^ dOavdrovs iia^ka-acrOai 
ovSe SiKTju €i7reTv' ovSei/l tovto Oi/jLL9. 

Ov X/Or) 7T7JfjLaLP€LP 6t€ jJLT] TTTJfjiaPTeOU €Lrj, 

ov8* ep8eLv TL fjLTj \a)Lov fj reXecraL. 69a 

KaLpcoi' eu reXia-eias 68oy fieyaXov Slo, ttoptov, 
Kai ere Hoa-eLSdcou ^dpfia ^lXol9 dydyoi. 

YI0XX0V9 TOL Kopos dv8pa9 dTTCoXecreu d(f)patvovTas' 
yvGivoLi yap ^aXeirov fierpov, 6t' kaOXa Trapfj. 

Ov 8vuajjLaL aoi, Ov/ie, irapacT^e'iv dp/xeua irdpTa. 695 
TeTXadr twu 8e KaXodu ovtl ai) fiovuos kpas. 

Eu ^ev €)(^ovT09 kfiov ttoXXol (j>lXol' rjv 8e tl 8eLvov 
(TvyKvpar], iravpoL Tria-Toif eyovcn voov 

HXrjOeL 8' dvBpodTTCov dperr] jila yiueTai i]8€, 

TrXovrecv tcou 8' dXXcop ov8ev dp r\v 6(p€Xo9, 700 
ov8* €L (Tcocppoavvrju [xev €\ol9 ^Va8aiidvBvos avTov, 

irXdova 8' el8etris Xi-crvcpov AloXi8€(o, 
ocTTe Kal e^ 'Ai8€co 7roXvL8pLr](TLu dyrjXdeu, 

irdaas Ilep<Te(f)6vriv aifivXtoKn X6yoL9, 
i]T€ PpoToh nape^et Xrjdrji/, ^Xdirrovaa voolo — 705 

dXXos 8' ov nd) ri? tovto y' ewecppda-aTO, 

689. iToifxaivfiv eg : iroifievrjv h, ore AObdefJim : o ti *. noifjiavTicu 
cgh. 690. ore Obdefhlm : '6 ti*. 692. dyayot A with 7 so 

erased as to read dvayoi ; the remains of 7 are still distinctly visible ; 
er. after Bek. : dyayoi * (-7/ 0). 693. dcppaivovras AO Stob. : 

acppaviovTas e: ocp- I: dippoviouras *. 696. fxuvos AOcl : fjiovvos*. 

697. ov A. 698. kyKvpari *. voov A. 699. Traaiv 5' dvOpwirois 

Stob. 702. 2. AtoAtSea; i Stob. : AtoA/5oy 2. *. 703. 'AtSao* 

705. vooio AO : vorjfjia *. 






EAEFEinN A 13^ 

ouTiva 8rj BavuTOio fxiXau vi(po9 d/jL^iKaXvyjrr), 

eXdr} 8 ey crKLepou ^copov aTTocpOL/iipcoVj 
Kvapea? re nvXas 7rapafjL€i\jr€Tai, aiT€ OavouToyp 

yjrvxcc^ dpyovdLv Kainep dvaLvofievas' 710 

d\\' dpa KOI Keideu TrdXiv ijXvde ^lctv^os rjpoo? 

69 (j)do9 tjcXlov <T(f)rj(n iroXvcppocrvvaLS' — 
ov8 el y\tev8ea pev noiois kTvpoia-Lv opola, 

yXcoacrav 'i^^^ dyaOrjj/ Niaropo? avTidiov, 
d>KVT€po9 8' etrja-Oa uoSas ra^emv 'ApirvLwv 715 

Kal 7rai8<ou Bopico, toou dcpap dcrl 7r68e9. 
dXXa )(pr] irdvTas yfcoprju Tavrrfv KaTadea-dat, 

coy ttXovto? irXeLar-qv ttolo-lv e;(6i 8vuapiv. 

*I(t6i/ TOL 1tX0VT0V(TLV, OTCO TToXvS dpyVpOS k(TTLV 

Kal )(pv(rd9 Kal yrj^ rrvpo^opov 7r€8ia 720 

LTTTTOL -qptovoL xe, Kal « TOL SiopTa irdpea-TLv, 

yaa-TpL re Kal irXevpah Kal ttoo-Ip d^pa waOeii/, 
7rai86? r' r]8€ yvvaiKo^* orav 8e Ke rcou d(piKr)Tai 

Q)prj, (Tvu 8 TJ^T] yii/€Tai dppo8La, 
TavT^ d<pevos OvrfTolcrL. rd yap irepLocxria irdvTa 725 

\pr\paT lyoav ov8eh epyjerai eh 'Ai^eco, 
ov8 dv diroLva 8l8ovs Bdvarov (pvyoL ov8e fSapeia? 

vov(TOV9 ov8e KaKov yrjpas eTrepyopevov. 

^pouTi8es dudpcoTTcou eXayov irrepd ttolklX eyova-ai, 
pvpopevai y\rvyr}9 etueKa Kal Plotov. 730 

707. -ipoi*. 708. /fpyepoi/ several inf. MSS. -(p$i/iivos (sic) A . 

711. Koi KuOev Bek. : KaKeWev vulg. ^\9e :Si(Tv<popos y ijpojs : ^iav<pos 
TTctKiv TjKvOev ijpojs *. 713. ttokis *. 71G. Boptov *. 721. 

Ttt \eovTa (sic) A : raSe iravTa Stob. 723. a<piKT]Tai vulg. : €</>. 

Stob. B. 724. rj^T) (sic) A. dpfioSia A Stol>. : dp/Ji6dtov : Appui- 

8ios *. 72G. 'A(Sco; AO : -rju * Stob. 



140 eEOFNIAO^ 

Zev TTarep, eWe yeuoiTo Oeois <pi\a tols jikv dXiTpois 

vppLv dSeiu, Kat acpiu tovto yevono (piXov 
Ov/JL^j a^irXia epya fiera (Ppeaiu 6(ttl9 ddeiprj^ 

kpyd^oLTo 6eS)V firjSev oiri^ofiei^os, 
avTov eTreiTa ttoKlv TicraL KaKa, fxrjS' er* oirta-a-oa 735 

iraTpos dTaa-OaktaL iraKxl yei/otvTO KaKov 
iraiBes S* o'It dSiKov naTpos rd SUaia voevvTe^ 

TTOLataij KpouiSrj, abu yoXov d^oji^voi, 
^i apX^^ "^^ ^iiicaia /zer' da-Toia-iu <pLXioPT€9, 

jirj TLv* virepPaaLrjv duTiTiueiu rraTepcou. 740 

TavT d-q fjLaKapea-a-L 6eoLS 0iXa- pvv 5* 6 fiev €pS<ou 

€K^€vy€L, TO KUKov 8* dXXo9 'iiT€LTa (pipei. 

Ka2 TovT*, dOavdroav ^aaiXev, ttq)? €(ttI BiKaLov, 

€pyOi>V OCTTLS durjp €KT09 eCDV dSlKOOV, 

firj TLv' v7r€p^a<Tirji/ Kari^cov fjirjS^ opKOP dXirpoVj 745 

dXXd SiKaios koav firj rd SiKaia irdOrj ; 
rty 8ri K€v ppoTo? dXXo9, 6pa>v npos tovtou, eTreira 

d^oLT dBavdrovSj kol rtva Ovjxbv 'ix<ov, 
onnoT durjp dSiKos kol dTdaOaXos, ovre rev dvSpo9 

ovT€ T€V dOavdrcov firjpiu dXevo/ievo?, 750 

v^pi^D 7rXovTa> K€Kopr]fjLiuo9, ol 8e SiKaioi 

Tpv^ovTai \aX€7rfj Teipo/jLevot nevirj ; 

TavTa fiaOcoUj cpiX' iraipe, SiKaLcos \prip,aTa woiov, 
a-dxppoua Ovfibv e^ccv eKTos dTaaOaXirj^, 



738. (Ppeaiv Cam. 5ta ra (pptai 5' (sic) A : fiera <{>ptal 5' * {Q' 0). 

a6\\\\r]S A ; er. after Bek. whose note runs adrjvrjs codices : ddeiprjs Bgk. 
736. -iai AO : -itj *. yevoiro *. 737. iraiSas I. r A : & 0. 

738. iraiwaiv A, 739. ret om. A. 743. ZiKaio\\v (sic) A, 

evid. 0} (oo) corr. to o. 745. fiT^S' Bek. : fjLTjO' vulg. 747. nai 

(for Kev) *. 750. ti *. 751. vfipiCei *. 



EAEFEmN A 141 

aUl ToouS* iiricov fx^iivrjiihos' eh Se reXeur^j/ 755 

aLurj(T€i9 fivOcp cra>(j)povi ireiOofievo?. 

Zei)y fi€i/ TTJa-Se ttoAt/o? vnup^^oi, alOept vaioav, 

aUl Se^LTeprjp x^V ^^' aTrrjfjLoa-vpTj, 
dXXoL T dOdvaroL jiaKapes Oeoi avrap ' AttoXKcov 

opOdxrat yXaxraau kol voov rjfjLeTepov. 760 

<p6pfMLy^ 8* av (pdiyyoiO' Upov fieXo9 rjSe koI avXo^y 

TjfieLS Se diTovBa^ Beoia-Lv dpetrad/jLeuoL 
TTiucofjLcv, yaptevTa fier' dXXrjXoicn Xeyovre?, 

fiTjSev Tou MrjScov SeiSioTes woXefiov. 
S>8* eiTj Key dfjLeLvow ev(f)popa Ovfiov e')(pvTas 765 

v6(T^L /jLept/JLvdoou €v^po(rvuco9 Bidyeiv 
repTTO/jLeuov? . . . r-qXov Se KaKas dno Krjpas dfivpai, 

yfjpds T ovXoiievov kol OavdroLo riXo^. 

Xp^ Mouccoi/ QepdirovTa kol dyyeXov, ei tl irepi(T(Tov 
elSeirj, (to^lt}^ firj ^Bovepov TeXeBeiv, 770 

dXXa TO. fiev fjLoxrBaij ra Se SuKvvvai, dXXa 8e ttouIv. 
TL a-(f)LV ^prjcrrjTaL fiovvos eTTLo-rdfiepo^ - 

^OL^e dva^, avros ^ev invpycoa-as ttoXlv ccKprjv, 

'AXKaB6a> HiXoTTOS waiSl \apL^6/j.€P09- 
avTos 8e (TTpaTov v^pia-Trji/ MrjScov direpvKe 'j'JS 

TrjarBe iroXevs, iva aoL Xaol kv ev^poavvr) 



755. ail A. eh AO : ts *. 757. urrtp- all but AO. 760. dpOpwaat 
(-a) Ocgln) *. 761. (popfuy^ Brunck : (popfnyy S' av (sic) A : <p6p/juyy' 

av *. <p6iyyoi6' Ocgn : -oicrd' A*. av\a> *. 762. dpfaaofifvoi AO 

(a erased to make o in A before Bek. whose cr. n. runs -ofifvoi AKO). 
764. To\\v . . . iro\f/M\\ Aco (cc) twice (partly) erased after Bek. who 
has ruiv A, -noXifuav A. 765. tuS' (trj k(v d/xeivov Bgk. : a»S' eiv koI 

dfxfivov cijcppova (sic) A (Kal abbrev.): c&5' dvai Kal dfieivova fixppova*. 
111. nownOai A. raZf b(iKvv\\\\ A er. after Bek. who has htiKvvdv 
AKO. 772. Tl II activ A : er. after Bek. who has t/s A. 



142 OEOrNIAOS 

-qpos kirepyofikvov KXeiras TrifiTTaxr' eKaTo/jL^as, 

TepTTOjxepoL KiBdprj koi eparfj Oaktr) 
iraLoiviov re ^opoTs la-^fjaL re aou irepl ^co/jlou. 

rj yap eycoye SiSoLK dcppaSirju k(Top5)v 780 

Kol (TTciaLV 'Y.Wriv(£>v XaocpOopov dXXd cru, f^oifie, 

iXao^ rjiierep-qv TrjvSe ^vXaorcre ttoXlv. 

^YiXBov fxev yap eyooye Kal e/s XLKeXrju irore yalavy 

r\XQov 8* Kv^OLTjs d/jLTTeXoeu neSiou 
XTTapTrju T KvpcoTa SovaKOTpd(pov dyXaov d(TTV 785 

KaL fi* €(pLX€vu 7rpo(pp6uQ)9 TrdvTes kirep^oiievov. 
aXX* ovTLS fJLOL Tepyfri^ ^irl (ppeuas rjXOev eKeiucov 

ovTCo^ ovSeu dp' rjv (piXrepov dXXo TrdTprjS- 

M97 TTore fioL jjLeXeSrjfia pecorepou dXXo (pavd-q 

dvT dpeTTJs (TO(j)Lris t\ dXXd t6S' alkv e-^oav 790 

repTTOifirju (popfxiyyi Kal 6p)(^ri6p^ Kal doiBrj, 
Kal fX€Td Tcov dyadcou kaBXov €)(OLpL voov, 

Mjjre TLvd ^ELPCoi/ SrjXev/jLevos epyfiaaL XvypoL9 

[I'flTe Tiu' evSrjfjLCou, dXXd SiKaios eoou 
Trjv aavTov ^piva repire. Sva-rjXeyicou Se ttoXltwv 795 

dXXo9 TOL cre KaKcoSi dXXos dfieivov epet. 

Tov9 dyaOoiis dXXos fidXa /jLe/jL(j)eTac, dXXos eTraii/er 
Ta>i/ Se KaKCdv p-vrjixr] yiv^rai ov8ep.La, 



178. Instead of /cat we have in A an erasure covering enough 
space for three or four letters, evidently erased after Bek. who has 
no cr, n. on this line. 779. iaxoici A : laxaiffi *. 785. S' AO. 

790. t' om. *. 792. \\\\ov A, a very dirty erasure ; there are 

traces of an acute accent over the letter before ; eras, after Bek. 
who has voov in the text, witli no cr. n. 793. ^hvov *. 796. 

roiaSf *. 



EAEFEmN A 143 

'Ap6pa>7r(Oj/ 8' d\lr€KTOS knl x^ovl yiv^iai ovSeis' 

dX\ m Xmou, el firj TrXeopeorai /leXoL. 800 

OvSeh di/0pa>7rot)v ovr' 'iaa^Tai ovre 7r€0u/cer, 

00-74? irda-Lv dScoj/ SvcreraL e/y 'AiScco' 
ovSe yap oy Outjtolo-l Kal dSavdroLcnv dvdadeL, 

Zez>y KpoptSr]?, Ovr^Toh irdcnv d8^7u Svi/araL, 

Topvov Kal (TTddfirjs Kal yj/co/iouos dvBpa Oecopov 805 

€vdvT€p01/ Xpr] €fl€U, Kvpj/€, <pvXa(r(T6fJL€l/0V, 

CO TLVL Kev UvOooi/L Oeov xprjoraa lepeia 

6fji(pr}v arjfxrji/rj ttlovos k^ dSvrov 
ovre TL yap TrpoaOeh ovSkv k en (papfxaKou evpoi^, 

ovT dcpeXcbu 7rpo9 O^cov diiirXaKL-qv TTpo^vyoLS. 810 

Xpfjfx knaBov Oavdrov p.€y deiKeos ovtl KdKiov, 
T(£)V S dXXcov TTavToav, Yivpv , dpLiiporaTot/. 

01 lie ^iXoL wpovScoKaw iyco 5' k-^Bpolcn ireXaa-Oeh 
elSi^aco Kal tcov outiu eyova-L voov. 

Bovs fiOL kirl yXcoao-Tj KpaT€pS> ttoSI Xd^ km^aivrnv 815 
. ^LCT^eL KOHTiXXeLv Katirep kTna-rdfjLevov. 

Kvpv'j €fjL7rr}9 8* tl fioTpa TraOdv^ ovk ead' vwaXv^ar 
oTTi 8€ fjLoTpa iraBeiu, ovtl 8i8oLKa iraBelv. 

Ey noXvdprjTOP KaKov iJKOfjLey^ evBa /xaXLcrTa, 

Kvpi^e, (Tvi^a/jL(poT€povs fioTpa Xd^oL Bavdrov. 820 



800. us \uiov, el Crusius : d\\ wau Xwiov (sic) A : us Xwios os K : 
ws Xwiov o 0: a/ (ws, ts) Xwiov ov *. fxfXot AO : fitXci * 802. 

'Aibov *. 805. 6ecop6v Vinet : -uv vulg. 806. entv Ahrens : 

XPV fiiv vulg. (no accents A). 807. Bios *. 810. ovV AO. 

811. fievoetKcos (sic) A. 814. t6v AO. 815. yXuaarjs *. 

819. voXv dppijTQV Ohdeflmn : -noXv apprjKTOv cgh. 



144 0EOrNIAO:S 

Oi 8* airoyTipdcTKovTas aTLfid^ova-L T0Krja9, 
TOVTCov TOL X^PV } Ku/DJ^', oXiyrj feXiOei. 

MrJTe TLv^ av^€ rvpavvov eTr' kXTriSi, K€pS€<rip dKOov^ 
firJT€ KTeiv€ Occov opKia avvOifjievo9. 

riooy vfiw T€tX7]K€u vn avXrjTrjpo? deiSeiu 825 

Bvfios ; 777? 5' ovpos (paLverai e^ dyoprj^, 

7]T€ Tpecpei KapTTola-Lv kv dXaTrivaLS ^opeovTas 
^audfjaLv re Kofiais 7rop(j)vp€ov9 (TT€^di'0V9. 

dXX' dye Srj, '%Kv6a, KeTpe KOfjLrjy, diroTrave Se K(op.ov, 
irevOei 8* €V(o8r] x^poy diroXXvpevov. 830 

YlicrTeL >^j077//ar' oXecra-a, din<TTLr) 8* kcrdaxra' 
yvd>/xr) 8' dpyaXerj yti/eraL diKporepcov. 

TldvTOL Td8' kv KopdK€(r(TL KOL kv (j)66pcp' ov8e rty rj/iTu 
aiTio9 dOavdTCov, Kvpv€, 6e5>v [laKdpcov, 

dXX dv8pS)v re pi-q kol Kkp8ea 8eLXa kol v^pt? 835 
TToXXcoi/ k^ dyadcou e? KaKorrjr' 'kpaXev. 

Aio'caL TOL TTocrio^ KTJpe^ 8eLXo?a-L ppoTolcnv, 
SLyjra re Xva-i/jieXrjs kol fikOvcri? x^Xenrj. 

TovToou 8* dv TO fxeaov aTpcocfyrjo-ofiai, ov8e fie TretVei? 
ovT€ TL jXT] TTLveiv ovTe Xiiju fieBveLv. 840 

Olvos k/jLol TO. fikv dXXa ^api^eTaL, e^ 8* d^dpiaTOS, 
evT dv dcoprj^as fi dv8pa Trpos k^Bpov dyrj. 

AXX' onoTav KaOvrrepBev kovO' virkuepOe yeurjTai, 
TOVTdKis 0LKa8' Lfiev iravordfieyoL ttoctlos. 

821. 01 Af' (sic) A : '' ovk vix o\k 0"' (Stud.). 823. lAm'St Bek. : 

(Xiriai vulg., cf. 333. KtpSeoi uvai *. 825. ■^n'lv *, 829. 

diroiravi corr. from dtroirave A, after Bek. who records dironave. 
830. x^P^^ ^- 832. dvya\iri yelvfTai A. 833. ^9opa *. 

835. TToAAd* (for SftAfi). 836. els A. 840. ovren (sic) A. 

841. dxapitTTOv A. 843. kuv9' Herm. : euv vulg. 



EAEFEmN A 145 

Ev fi\v KeiiM€vov dv8pl KaKcos Oefiep evfiapes k(TTLv, 845 
€v Se 6efj.€v TO KaKm Keiji^vov dpyaXeov. 

Aa^ kiTLpa Si^fjL(p K^ve6(ppovL, TVTrre Se KevTpcd 

d^ei, Kal ^evyXrju SvaXo^ov dp.(pLTiBet,' 
ov yap e^' evprjaeis Sfjpov (piXoBkcnroTOv 5)5e 

duOpcoTTcot/ oTToaovs rjeXio? KaOopa. 850 

Zev? dvBp' e^oXia-euu 'OXvfnno?, oy rov eTOLpov 

fiaXOaKci kwtlXXcoi/ k^airaTav eOeXei. 

"HiSea pkv Kal TrpoaOeu, drap ttoXv Xcoiou rjSr], 
ovueKa TOLS SeiXoTs ovS^pC ea-TL ^dpLS. 

HoXXaKLs rj ttoXl? ijSe Sl T}yepi6v(ov KaKOTrjra 855 

oocnrep KeKXifieur] pads irapa yfji/ eSpapep. 

Tooj/ Sh (piXcci/ el pip tls opa pi ti SeiXov exovra, 
av\ev* d7ro(TTpeyjra9 ovS' eaopdv eOeXci' 

rjp 8e Ti poL TToBev eaOXoj/, a wavpaKi ytveTai di/8pi, 
TToXXovs da-naapovs Kal (pLXorrjTas €)(a). 860 

Oi pe (ptXoi TTpoSiSova-L, Kal ovk kOeXovat tl Sovyai 
dv8pS>v (paivopiucow dXX' kyoa avTopdrrj 

ia-Trepirj r e^eipi Kal opOpir] avOis eaeipi, 
rjpo^ dXeKTpvovccu (pOoyyo^ kyeipopevoDv. 

TloXXoh d^prj(TTOL(TL 6eos SlSol duSpdo-iv oX/Sou 865 

kcrOXoUj 09 ovT^ avT^ jSeXre/DO? ovSku koov 

ovT€ (piXoiS' dp€TfJ9 Se piya KXeo? ovitot* oXeiTar 
aiy(^pr]Tr]S yap durjp yrju re Kal darv craoL. 

845. dvSpi Heriu. : dv8pa vidg. naXus A. 853. ^5ea Com- 

melin. : i]Sea with erasures (br. and accents) over ij e A : j^Sta *. 
Xojia br] vvv A : XwXa q vvv : Xwova rj vvv * : Xwiov ■^dr} AO infra 1038 a. 
854. Wovveica A eras, after Bek. : ovutKa : TovvfKa hcdcfghhnn (to 
which Bek. adds A). 855. voXXAklW ituXi\\ A or. after Bek. who 

has no cr. n. on these words. 857. h(iv6v *. 859. voXXaKi *. 

863. (icdfxi A. Sm. ovO' avTo) *. 868. oaoi all but 0. 



146 ©EOrNIAOS 

^'Ei/ fioL iir^LTa 7r€(T0L fiiya9 ovpavos €vpij9 VTrepOeUj 
)(^d\K€09, di'dpcoTTCop Seifxa )(^afiaiy€vea>u, 870 

€1 fl7] iyo) TOLCTLV fjL€P €7rapK€(TC0 01 fX€ (f)lX€V(TlV, 

roLS S' i^OpoTs duir] Kal jxeya TrrjfjL* 'i(Top.ai. 

Olre, TOL fiey a-' aivcoj to, Se /lefKpo/xaL' ovSe ae irdfiTrav 
ovT€ iroT e)(^daLp€Lv ovTe (piXeip 8vvap.aL. 

ka-QXov Kal KaKov ea-ai. ti9 av ae ye fKo/irja-aLTO ; 875 
T19 S' civ iTraLPTJa-ai fiirpov e^(ov (TO(j>Lris ; 

"Hpa fjioi, (piXe Ovfii. rdy^ av tlv€9 dXXoi eaorrai 
dpSp€9, eya) Se Oapcbu yala \ikXaiv^ €o■o/^a^ 

Yltv' oTvoi/j Tov ifjLol Kopv^rjs VTTO Trjuyiroio 

dfineXoL i^veyKav, tcls i^vrevcT^ 6 yepcoy 880 

ovp€09 kv Prja-a-pa-L, Beolcn ^iXos GeoTifios, 
€K YIXaTavLo-TovvTO? ylfvxpov vScop ewdycov, 

Tov TTLvaiv diro fikv xaXeiTas crKeSda-ei? fieXeScova^, 
Ocoprj^Ocl? S' icreai iroXXov kXacjipoTepos. 

KiprjuTj Kal 7rXovT09 ^Xol ttoXlv, 6(f)pa /jL€T^ dXXcou 885 
Kcofxd^oifjLL' KaKov 8* ovK epafxai iroXepov. 

MrjSe Xirjv KrjpvKos dv ov9 €^e p-aKpa poS>VTO^' 
ov yap 7raTpa)a9 yfjs irepL fjcapvapeda. 

'AAA' al(r\pov irap^ovTa Kal (okvttoScou eirijBdvTa 

LTTTTiov fir) iroXefLOu SaKpvoepT ecriSeTu. 890 



870. iraXaiyfviojv *. 873. ff€ for a A. 875. re (for ye) AO. 876. 
(iraivrjaai Brnnck: -H,-r)vulg.*. 877. ijfia fioi Bgk.: rjffavoi (sic) A: 
i)/3d 01 : ■^ficiois bdehlmn : ^fiwois *. rax' av A, circumflex by a later 
hand : av *. 879. Kopv<pris vito Hecker : -^s otto vulg. (ano A). 

884. eojprjx^V^ -A- eXaippdnpois (sic) A. 887. av\\ ovaW exc (sic) 

A ; the first eras, shows faint traces of t ; in the second remains 
of V are still quite clear ; er. after Bek. who gives aviovaiv A. 



I 



EAErEIXlN A 147 

Ol fiOL dva\KLr}S' dno fi\v Krjpiudo^ oXtoXev, 
ArjXdpTOV 8 dyaBov KeiperaL olvoir^Sov, 

ol 8' dyadoL (f)€vyovaL, ttoXlv 8\ KaKol 8uTrovcn,v. 
(wy 8r] Ku\lre\i8e(ou Zei)? oXiaeie yei/09. 

rya>fjLr]S 8* ov8eu ccfieivov durjp e^et avTos kv avrZ, 895 
0118' dyycofjLoarvvrjs, Kvpu\ oSvi/rjpoTepou. 

yLPCCXTKCOU KOL VOVV, olou €Ka(TTOS C^Ci 

avT09 eul (TTrjOea-cn, Kal epyfiara toov re 8iKaia)u 

T(ov T d8LKC£)V, piiya K€u Trrjfxa ^poTolcnv eTrfjy. 900 

"Y.<TTLv 6 pku ^etpCDv, 6 8^ dfieivcou epyov 'iKacrrov 
ov8eh 8 dudpooTTCou avTos dnavTa (T0(j)6s. 

' OoTiy dvdXaxTLv rrjpe? Kara \prip.aTa drjpcoy, 

Kv8L(TTr]v dpeTTju T0L9 (JVVL€L(nv e;(e(. 
d ixev yap KaTL8uv ^lotov t€Xo9 rjvj ottoctov ti9 905 

rjpeXX* eKTeXea-as €i9 *AL8ao nepdy, 
€LKos di/ rju, OS fJtei/ irXdco ^povov alaav efiifipeUj 

(p€i8€(TdaL fiaXXov tovtov lu' €L)(^e piov 
vvv 8' ovK 'i(TTLv. 8r] Kal efjLol fieya irevBos opcopeu, 

Kal 8dKvop.aL yjrv)(rji^, Kal 8i)(a Bvp,bi/ €)((o, 910 

€1^ TpLv8(£> 8' €a-T7]Ka. 8v €tal irpoaBep 68ol /xor 

(ppouTi^co TOVTCoy ijvTLv' ICO 7rpoTepr]v 

891. KTjpvvOos*. 894. Kv^fAtStW Bgk. : Kvipe\i^ajv An : Kv\p(\- 

\i^ov * : all but -4w om. dij. 895. avrvs om. *. tv yf kavro/ *. 

896. dviTjporepov *. 897. Z<vs Bgk. : Kvpv' el A : Kvpvt per} *. 

XaKeiraivev Herm. : -civ.vulg. 898. yivuxxKciv A. /fat Hartung: m 
mlfj. 899. tj/TosiT. to)*' /ctA. Herm. ; all MSS. have dat. sing, 

sa . . . rAhcdhmn : d^ . . . 8' Ofg : re . . .t *. 900. KfptA. 901. 
TO ixivhcdeg. x^'pof all but ^/(/. afxeivuvy'*. tKaarov'Bek.: -ovviil'j. 
902. aiaros A. 904. (tvuki (sic) A. 905. n A. ^ 90G. 

aiSaoj (sic) A, -rrepuiv 0. 907. irXeiov 0. 908. tovtoviv 

(sic) A : TovTov tV' Bek. : tovtov ov *. 910. tvxV^ A. 911. 

rb IT p. A. 

L 2 



148 0EOrNIAO2 

rj firjSev Sairavoiv Tpv^co ptov kv KaKOTrjTL, 

rj ^a>(o T€p7rvco9 epya TeXoou oXlya. 
dSov fikv yap €y(oy\ o? k(f)d8€To Kovnore yaaTpl 915 

alTOv kXevOepLov irXoixnos ^v kSiSov 
dXXa TTpLV kKT^XeaaL KarePr] Bojjlov '^Al8o9 €i(r(D, 

X/077/xara 8' dudpcowcov ovTTLTV^cbi/ eXa^eu, 
coaT 6? ccKaipa irovelv kol fir) 86fx^v do k kOiXoL ris. 

ei8ov 8' dXXov, oy fj yacrrpl xapi^6fji€i/09 920 

^p-fjixara p.ev BieTpiyfreu, 'i^r] 8' '* vTrdyco (ppiva Tep\jra9 "' 

7rTa)\€V€L Se (piXovs wdvTa?, ottov tlv i8r). 
ovTco, ATjfjLOKXeL^, Kara y^prnxar^ dpiarov aTrdpTcov 

rr)v Sandi/rjv 6i(rdaL Kal fxeXiTTjy k^€/i€v. 
ovT€ yap dv TrpoKap-Ctiu dXXco Ka/iaroy fX€Ta8oLr]9, 925 

ovr' dv 7rTco)(^€va>v 8ovXo(rvvr]v reXeoLS' 
ov$ el yrjpa? ikolo, to, ^prjjiaTa iravr' diroSpairj. 

kv 8k TOL(o8€ yiv€L ^pT^fiar' dpLorTOv e'x^^^* 
rjv fxev yap irXovrrjs, iroXXol ^lXol, rjv 8e wivrjai, 

wavpoiy KOVKiB* 6/JLC09 avTos dvrjp dyaOos. 930 

^d8e(r6aL p.\v dp,eLvov, knel ov8e Oavovr' aTroKXaUi 
ovSeis, rjv fJLT] Spa ^p-qpLaTa Xenrofjieva. 

Ilavpois dvOpooTTCov dperrj Kal KaXXos oTrrjBer 
oXpio^, 09 TOVTcav diKpoTepODV eXa^ev, 

TldvTes fjLLv TipaxriV 6p.co9 veoi ol' re Kar' avTov 935 

X^PV^ ^tKovcriv TOL re TraXaioTepoL. 
yr]pd(TK(ov 8' dcTTolcTL peTairpkireL, ovBe T19 avTov 

PXaiTTHv ovt' al8ovs ovre Blkyj^ kOeXei. 



914. repifvaiv A. 1)19. co k (OeKoi ris Bek. : oJKeOekr] tis A : worn 

e(\€i Tts : ws «' eeeXoi tis *. 920. ^v *. 927. ikoito all but AO. 

9L'9. (I . . . Tr\ovT(ts nil but^n. 934. afjLcpoTcpov A. 935. laoi for 
vioi *. 936. oi Odefghlmn. 937. S' add. Orelli : om. vulg. 



I 



EAEFEinN A 149 

Ov SvuafiaL (pcovrj \ty* deiSifieu coa-nep drjScov 

Kal yap ttju TTpoTeprjv vvkt kirl KCdfxov eprjy. 940 

ovSe Tov avXrjTTju Trpocpaa-L^of^ai- dXXd /xe yrjpvs 
e/fAe£7ref, (ro(j)i7]S ovk imSevo/jLei^oy. 

'Eyyvdey avXrjTrjpo9 deiarofjLai wSe KaTaaTas 
Se^Lo^, dOavaTOLS BeoTcrLv e7r€V)(^6/jL€P09. 

Fulfil irapa. arddfLrju opOriv 686vj ovSeTepcoa-e 945 

KXLv6p,€vos' xpT) yap p,' dprca iravra voely. 

IlaTptSa Koa/xrja-co, XiTraprju ttoXlv, out kirl Srjpo) 
Tpiyjras ovt^ dSiKOis avSpdai TT€L66p.evos. 

Ne^pop V7r€^ kXdcpoLo Xicou a>9 dXKL TreTTOi^coy 

irocrtrl KaTaLfidpyfras atfiaTOS ovk eiriop' 950 

T€i)(€(oi/ 8' v\jrr]X6ov kin^as ttoXlv ovk dXaira^a- 
(ev^dfievos 8' ittttovs dpparos ovk kirefiriv 

TTprj^as 8' ovk eTTpTj^aj Kal ovk iriXeara-a reXeo-o-ay 
8prj(Tas 8 ovk 'i8pr](T\ -^yvcra 8' ovk dvvaas. 

AeiXovs eu ep8ovTL 8vco KaKd' tcov re yap avTov 955 
\r)p(j!)cr€i TToXXcov, Kal \dpLS ov8€fiLa. 

F.L Ti rraOcby dir* ijx^v dyaOov peya fxr] xdpiu ol8a9, 

XPVC^^ r]fjL€T€pOV9 aV$L9 IKOLO 86p0V9. 

"E(TT€ p.lv avTos 'iiTLvov dwo Kprfvris peXavv8pov, 

r]8v Ti fxoL e86K€L Kal KaXou rjpev v8cop' 960 

rw 8 ri8ri TedoXcoraL, v8cop 8' dua/XLayeTai iXvl. 
dXXr)9 8r] Kpijj^rj^ WLO/jiaL rj iroTapov. 

939. Kiyvp *. auUfxiv Schneidewin : adeficv rulg. {dSefitv AO). 
941. ftc 7^/)i;s Emper. : fi kraipos vulg. 942. 67r<5€uo)uc»'oi' Emper. : 

-OS vulg. 944. dioh AO. 950. Karaf*. viilg. : infra 1278 d A 

has t added after writing afx. 955. 5* (v all Init A Stob., cf. 105. 

956. x'y/wcrts KTfdvQjv Stob. 960. tlfitv *. 961. iKvi Ah reus 

and Bgk. : vSet vulg. 



150 0EOrNlAO^ 

M?} TTor' kiraLvrjariSi irplv av elSfjs dvSpa cracprji/cos, 
opyrjv KOL pvBfibi/ Kal Tponov oi'Tiv' €^€U 

TToXXoi TOL KL^SrjXov eTTLKXoTrou TjOos e^opTes 965 

KpVTTTOVa , kvOejx^voL Ovfiou k<prjpL€pLov, 

TOVTODV 8' €K(paiJ^€L TTOLVTCOV ^pOVO^ 7}6oS iKcicTTOV. 

KOL yap eyft) yvcofjirj^ ttoXXou dp* €KT09 e^rju' 
€(f)6T]u alurja-as irptv aov Kara irdvTa Sarjuai 

ijdea. vvv 5' 1)87) V7]vs dO' eKcc? 8Le)^<o. 970 

Tl9 8* dpeTTj TTLVOVT kiTLOLVLov dOXov kXecrOaL ; 
TToXXdKL TOL VLKO, KOL KaK09 dv8p^ dyaBov. 

Ov8€h dv6poo7r(oj/, bu irpcoT knl yaia KaXv-^rj 
eiV t' ''Epepos Karapfj, 8d)fjLaTa YlepaecpSprjs, 

T€p7r€TaL ovT€ Xvpr)9 ovt' avX7]Tfjpo9 dKovcou, 975 

ovTe Aicopvaov 8S)pov deipofxeuos. 

Tavr' kcopcou Kpa8Lr]v €v TreLao/iai, 6(pp* eV kXacjypd 
yovvara Kal Ke^aXr]v drp^iikcos Trpo^kpco. 

M77 fxoL dpTjp €LTj yXdocro-T] ^1X09, dXXd Kal epyor 

\ep(TLv T€ (TTrevSoL ^prjp,a(TL t\ djKpoTepa' 980 

fjLr]8e jrapd KprjTrjpi Xoyoianv kfirjv (ppiua OkXyoL, 
aXX' €p8(0P (pttLPOLT, €1 TL 8vvaLT , dyaOov. 



963. aaiprjviws Floril. Monac. : avhphs dcpavicus Stob. 964. dvfjiov 

Stob. iJvTiv* €'x«t Stob. : oaris av ■^ vulg. 966. 6vtxo\\v A, i. e. 

CO (00) corr. to 0. 969. \\(pOr]v aivrjcras A. 5'alv. *. 970. 

vavs *. areKas A : a5' ewas *. 973. hv inei ttotc * (6V ttot' 

(■ni 0). -^xi Turneb. : -/et vulg. 976. Atovvoov Aehl. Zwpov 

aup. Bgk. : hwp eaaeipapevos vulg. A has o\\p., i. e. a corr. to o, after 
Bek. who does not distinguish between A and *. 977. KpaUri * 

(-77 0). o^p' €t' Schneidewin : 6(ppa t vulg. 978. drpopecuv all 

but -40. 980. aiT€v5ov A : -ei 0. 981. KXrjTTJpi A : fcpijTtjpai* 

(-pa- 0). eikyoi Bek. : Oekyois A : repiroi * (-ov m). 982. 

(paivoiW' hvvai\\' A ; the two erased t's are still visible, the second less 
distinctly than the first ; er. after Bek. who has no note on A. 



EAErElXlN A 151 

'H/^er? 8' h OaXirjaL (J)l\ov KaraBcojieOa OvfioVj 
o(pp €TL T€p7rcoXrJ9 €py epaTeiva ^iprj. 

aJy^a yap coore i/Srjfia irapepyeTaL dyXaos ijpr}' 985 
ov8 imroov 6pp,r] yiv^Tai Q)KVT€prj, 

aiT€ dvaKTa (pepovai Sopvaaooi/ cy ttovov dvSpOiv 
\dpp(0Sf 7rvpo(j)6pa> Tepiropeuai ir^Sim. 

UTv' OTTOTav TTLvoDaiv OTav 8e tl 6vp,ov darjOrj^, 

fjLr]8€h dvBp(ji)7ra)v yvat ae Papvv6p,ivov. 990 

'^AXXore tol irda-^oiv di/irjaeai, d'AXore 8' €p8(op 
yoLLprjo-HS' 8vvaTaL 8' dXXoT€ dXXo9 dvi)p. 

Ei Oeirjs, 'AKd8r]fjL€, i(pipepov vpvov dd8€Lv, 
aOXov 8' kv fi€(T(r(p wats KaXov dvOos e)((ov 

aoi T €iT] Kal efiol ao(f)tr]S nipi 8r}pLadvT0iv, 995 

yvoLrjs X o(T(Tov ovcov Kpeaaov^s tj/jliovoi, 

TrjfjL09 8' ^eXtoy fiku kv alOipL /jid)uv)(^as lttttovs 
dpTL napayyeXXoi fiicra-aTou rjnap €\oiiv, 

8eL7rvov 8r] XrjyotpeUj oaov Tivd Ovfxos dud>yoL, 

iravTOLCov dyaOcov ya^Tpl x^pi^opevoi. 1000 

X^epvLpa 8' alyjra Ovpa^e (pepoi, a-T€^av(opaTa 8 €L(7Q> 
€V€L8r]S pa8LvaLS X'^P^'' ^dKaiva Kopr}. 

''H5* dpeTrjj t68' deOXov Iv dvOpcoTroiaLu dpiaTOV 
KdXXiaTov re (jiepetv yiv^rai dv8pl aocp^. 

983. OcxXUaai A: -aiai 0: -rioi *. 985-6. om. A. ^ 987. 

air' dva(pip- : aire ittp dvSpa <p. * {yap g). 989. 5' tri A : rot 

Ocdfghn. 991. t' * (0' Ocg). 992. text Bgk. : x<^^PV^t dwarai 

d\\oT€ 5' dWos dv-qp A : x**'P'7<^*"' Zvva{a)ai dWore r* *. 993, 

((}yrjfX€pov A : -lov 0. 995. ri (for t') A. hrjpiadvrojv AO (-rja- 0). 

996. t' oaaov A : 0' oaaov 0. 997. rrinos AO Ath. : ^/xos * 

998. irapayyeXoi AObcfm. 999. brj Ath.j U AO'. t( *{toi g) 

\riyoi ixivos ov Ath. corr. by Schweighauser : onov vulg. dvujyfi ♦ 

1001. (ptpoi A Ath. : -« *. S' eiau A Ath. : 5^ aot *. 1002. (vfiSrjis 

A. paSiv^s Ath. 



152 GEOrNIAOS 

^vuoy S' e(T6Xov tovto ttoXtjl re iravTL re Si^fico, 1005 
0(TTLS dvrjp Sia^as ev 7rpofjLd)(OL(n fi^prj. 

^vuoy 8* dp$pco7roi9 vTroOrjaofxaL, 6(ppa tls rj^a, 
dyXaov du6o9 e^cou Kal c^pealv kaOXd rofj, 

T(ov avTov KTedvoav ev 7ra(Tyep.ev' ov yap dvrj^di' 

8is iriXcTat rrpoy deo^u ovSe Xvcri? Oavdrov loio 

OvrjToT? duOpconoKTi. KaXbu 8' knl yrjpas €Aey)(ef 
ovXofievou, K€(paXrJ9 8* dirTerat dKpoTdrr]^. 

'A fidKap ev8aLiicov re koI oX^los, octtis direipos 

dOXcov €L9 'Al8ov 8a}fjLa p.eXav Kajaprj, 
TTpiv T ky^QpovsTTTri^ai Kal vTrepjSfjvai wep dvdyKj], 1015 

k^^Tdcrai re ^tXoi;?, ovtlv e^ovdi voov. 

AvTiKa jioL Kara jilv XP^'-h^ /^^^* dcnreTOS L8poo9, 

TTTOic^fiaL 8* kcTOpcDv dvBo9 6/jLr]XiKirj9 
TepTTvov ofjim Kal KaXov, kirel irXeov oo(peXev dvai- 

dXX oXiyoxpovLov ylveraL oio-jrep ovap 1020 

riP-q TLp,T]€(T<Ta' to 8' ovXofiepov Kal d[xop(j)ov 

avTix V7r€p Kec^aXrjs yfjpa? vTrepKpi/iaTai. 

Ov7roT€ T0L9 IxPpolariv vtto ^vyov avykva Orjo-oi 
8vaXo(j>ov, ov8' €L fxoi Tp.coXo9 eirea-Ti Kaprj. 

AeiXot TOL KaKOTTjTL paratorepoi voov elalv, 1025 

TCdV 8 dyaOSiv aUl Trprj^ies IdvTepai. 

'Prji8i7j 70L Trprj^is kv dvOpdnroL^ KaKorrjTos' 

Tov 8' dyaOov xaXcirrj, Kvpue, TreXet iraXd/jirj. 

1006. fiivri Camer. : nha A : eVt *. 1007. ^0a Bgk. : ^0Tjsvulg, 

1011. Ka\6v Bgk. : Kavuv rulg. 1013. ws * (for a). lOU. 

Aidov A : "AtSou *. Kari^r] all but 0. 1016. St (sic) A. 1018. 

TTToiovfJiai *. (laopojv A. 1019. ufxws (sic) A : ofiSis (sic) 0. 

w(t>€i\€v AOc. 1020. -tos 0. 1023. viro^vyiov A. 1025. 

dci\ois *. vooi : yooi bcde/ghlmn. 



EAErEIXlN A 153 

T6X/ia, ^f/^e, KaKolaiy ofxcos drXrjTa neiroudm' 

SeiX^i^ roL KpaStrj ytveraL o^VTeprj. 1030 

firjSe av y dirprJKTOLaLi^ kn epyjxao-Lv dXyos de^cou 

oyO^i, fiTjS' a)(Oov, /X7]8e <pi\ov9 dvia, 
pr]8' exOpovs ev(f>paive. Oecou S' dpappeva Sa>pa 

ovK dv pr]L8iC09 6vr]T09 di/rjp irpocpvyoL, 
ovT dv TTop(f)Vper]9 KaraSv^ h nvOpeua Xipprjs, 1035 

ovO' OTav avTov 'i^rj Tdprapos rjepoei^. 

" hvSpa TOL k(JT dyaOov xaX^ircoTaTov e^aTraTrjaai, 
(wy er epol yudofirj, Kvpve, ndXaL KeKpLrai. 

"HiSea p,€y Kal irpoaOey, drdp ttoXv Xmov ijSr], 1038 a 
ovpeKa TOis SeiXo?? ovBejii eaTi xdpL9. ^ 

"Acppoves dvOpcuTTOL Kal urjirioi, oltiv€^ ohov 

fif] TTLvovor ddTpov Kal KW09 dp^opeuov. 1040 

Aevpo (Tvv avXrjTJJpL' irapd KXalovTL yeXcovTes 

1TLV<0p€V, KELPOV Krj8€(TL T€p7r6p€POl, 

I Y.v8(op€P, (pvXaK^ 8e woXev? (pyXaKeaai peXijaei 
d(rTV(p^Xr]s kpaTTJs 7raTpi8os -qp^repris. 

Nat pd Al , €L T19 Tcou8e Kal kyK^KaXvppiuos €v8€if 1045 
ripirepov Kcopov Si^erac dpTraXecos- 

I NtJi' pkv mvovTES T€p7r(op€$a, KoXd XeyovTes' 
d(T<Ta 8* €7r€LT ea-Tai, ravTa deoicri peXei. 



1031. t' AO: 7' *. 1032. oxOei Emper. : ex^ei htj8' tx^f* (sic) 

A : c'x^ft H^5' axOit : tx^fi fJf^rjh' dxOov *. 1033. evipprjve A : 

iX^p-qveO. 6e\cov A. lOSA. ^ijiSios A. 1038. €V ififj yvufxj) *. 

1038 a b [ = 853, 4] vulg. : ijUa vulg. ^ 1043. ir6K(ois A. 1044. 

a <Trv(l>(\rjs bcm and tin man. sec. : cu ar. efld and dn man. pr. 
1045. Tov5e ^0 (no ace. in ^). \0i9,. iiruO'' A. 



154 0EOrNIAO^ 

%0L 8 iyco old re TratSl irarrjp viroOrja-ojiaL avTos 

ea6Xd' (TV S' kv Svfico koI (Ppecrl Tavra fidX^v 1050 

/jLrj TTOT kiruyoixevos irpd^Ds KaKov^ dWa. ^aOeirj 
(Trj (ppevl fSovXevcrai a(p dyaBS> re voco. 

tS>v yap p,aLi/ofjLii/(oi/ TreTeraL Sv/jlo? re voos re, 
PovXt] 8' eh dyaOov kol voos eaOXo? dyeu 

*AXXa \6yov jikv tovtov eda-o/ieu, avrdp kjiol av 1055 
avXeij KOL M.ov(Ta>v pvr]a6p.eff dp^oTepoi. 

atrai yap Td8' 'i8(tiKav '^X^iv Ke^apia-pieva 8(iopa 
aol KOL epoL peXepep 8' dp(pi7r€pLKTio(np. 

Tipayopa, ttoXXcou opyrju dirdTepOev 6pS>vTL 

yLvaxTK^Lv ^aXeiroi^, Katirep kovTi ao^cp, 1060 

ol p,\v yap KaKOTTjTa KaTaKpvy^ravTes i)(ov(Tiv 
ttXovt(o, rol 8' dp€TT]v ovXopivrj nevir}. 

'ILv 8' rjPu irdpa pkv ^vv oprjXiKL iravvv^ov €v8€iv, 

IpepTcov epyoDi/ e^ epov lepevovj 
'i<TTL 81 Kcopd^oi/Ta p€T avXrjTTJpo? d€i8eLi/. 1065 

Ov8iv TOL TOVTOOl/ dXX kiTLTepTTVOTepOlf 

dv8pd(nv rj8e yvvaL^L tl pot ttXovtos re kol aL8(os ; 
TepncoXr) vlkS, irdvTa avif evcppoavi/rj, 

"A^poves duOpcoTTOL Kal vrjiTLOL^ o'lt€ BavovTas 

KXaiovcr', ov8' rj^rj? dvBos diroXXvpevov. 1070 



1049. aol 5' 17a; Bgk. : oot 56 toj (sic) A : {(t)u Se : aol Se * (aol ^^ 
K(v el). TTarrjp A : <piXa) * exc. wh. om. it. 3050. )3dA6 *. 

1051. TTpri^rfs all but AO. fiaOei-qs A. 1052. t' ayaOcv A. 

1053. fiapvafxevojv fidx^Tai *. 1054. voos eadKos Hartung : -ov 

-ov vulg. 1058. fx€\efiev S' Ahrens : fi€v8^ A : vvv : firjv * (^^j/ 

Kai eg). 1059. Tinayopa Camer. : t inayapano Wojv (sic) A : ri/xq. 

yap AiroWiov *. 1063. kclWiov * (KoXXiarov 0) for vav. 1066. 

*ou5. TOL T. H. Richards : tovtwv ovhiv roi vulg. : (toi om. A : ti Del.) 



EAEFEmN A I55 

Tepneo fioi, 0iXe Ovfie. Tcix av Tivh dWoLeaovTai a 
dp8p€9, eyo) Se Bavcou yaia fieXaiv eaofiau l> 

Kvpve, (j)iXov9 wpb? ndi/Tas eTrtcrrpe^e iroiKLkov ^dos 

av/ipicrycou opyrju oTos eKacTTOs €(pv. 
vvv pikv T^8* k(j>enoVy Tore 8' dXXoTo^ TreXeu opyrji/' 

Kpeiaaov tol aocpLY] kol fieydXrjs dperrj^, 

TIprjypaTos dTTprJKTOv yaXeirdiTaTov eaTL t^X^vttju 1075 
yvoivaij 07ra)9 piXX^i tovto 6eo9 reXiaaL. 

op^ur] yap TeraTat, npo 8e tov fieXXoi^To^ eaecrOat 
ov ^vuerd Oi^rjTot? iretpaT dprj^ai^irj^. 

OvSiya tS>v kyOpoov pcoprja-ofiaL kcrOXov kovTa, 

ov8e pev alvri(T(o SeiXov koura <j>lXov. 1080 

Kvpve, Kvet ttoXl^ ijSe, 8i8oLKa 8€ prj TeKt] dv8pa 

v^pLCTTriv, \aXe7rrj9 riyepova crTdaLos. 
dcTTol peu yap 'kacri aao^poveSj r}yep6ves 8e 1082 a 

TeTpd(j)aTaL ttoXXtjv ks KaKOTtjTa ireaelv. ^ 

M77 p^ eneo-Lu peu crripye, voov 8' exe kol (ppiuas dXXa^j ^ 
€1 pe (piXeh Kai (tol ttlcttos 'iveari 1/609. ^^ 

dXXd (piXei KaOapov depeuos voov, ij p aTroenroov <^ 

€)(^daip\ kp^avkoas veiKo^ deLpdpevo9, ^ 

OvTco x/OJ? TOV y ka-OXov kTnaTpkyjfavTa vorjpa 
'ipTT^8ov ai\v '^X'^Lv k? riXos dv8pl (piXco. 

Arjpcova^, (TOL TroXXd (pkpeiv fiapv' ov yap kniaTr} 1085 
TOvO* €p8eiv, Ti aoL prj KaraBvpiov fj. 

1070 ab [ = 877, 8] vulg. : AV* (for aZ). 1073. to5' (sic) A. 

1074. Kpeiaaojv 0. 1081. rUoi AObdelmn. 1082 ab [^41, 2] 

AObdfhlmn- also 1082 c-f [ = 87-90J. 1082 b. et's A. 1082 c. 

aWin * 1082 e. ij fxe for dWd *. d /*' an. A. 1082 f. d/x- 

<f>abir}v *. 1085. Arju. ooi Welcker : drjucova^ioi 5( iroWd A, accents 
er. above a^, oi : dfjuov 5' d^ioi noWd (ptpeiv fiapvs *. 



166 0EOrNIAO:S 

KdcTTOp Kal TIo\vS€VK€9, ol kv AaKeSaifjioui Sljj 

paieT eir Y^vpcora KaWipoco irora/Jiw, 
ei TTore povX^va-aifxi (f>L\(o kukov, avT09 exoifJ-r 

ei Si TL KeXvos ifiOL, Sh roaov avros e'xoi. 1090 

ApyaXicos fioi Oufibs €X€i irepl (rrJ9 ^lXottjtos' 
0VT6 yap e')(6aip^Lv ovt€ (fnXuv SvvafJLai, 

yii/axTKoou -^aXenov fiivj orav (pfXo^ dv8pl yiurjTai, 
€xOaip€iv, ;(aXe7roi' 5' ovk edeXoura (piXeLu. 

^/ceTrreo Si] vvv dXXov kpoi ye fikv ovtl9 dvdyKrj 1095 
TOvO epSeiP' Tcou fiot irpoaOe X^P'-^ riOeao. 

'^HSr] Kal TTTepvye<T(TLv kiratpoixai coarre weTCivoy 
€K Xi/jlv7]9 p,€ydXr]Si dvSpa KaKov TTpo(pvy(op, 

Ppoyov diToppri^as' (TV S* ifirj^ (j)iX6Tr}T09 dfiapTcbi/ 
v<TT€pov r)/i6T€pT]i/ yydxrrf eTTi^poarvurjy. iioo 

' 0(TTL9 (TOL povXevcrev kjiev irkpi, Kai or eKeXeva-ei^ 
Oi\€(rOaL TrpoXiTToyO* rjpeTeprji/ (piXi-qy. . . . 

"Tfipis Kal M.dyurjTa9 aTrcoXeae Kal ¥ioXo(j)(ova 

Kal Xfivpvrjv ndpT(09, Kvpue, Kal vpfx dnoXei. 1104 

Ao^a p,\v dj/dpco7roi(TL KaKov pkya, irdpa S' dpia-Tow ^ 
TToXXoi aTreiprjToi So^av expva dyaOoi. l> 

Eh Pdaavov 8* iXOcov TraparpL^ofjieuo^ re poXt^Sco 1 105 
Xpv(T09 d7r€<p6o9 kcby KaXos dnaa-Lv ea-Tj. 

Tl poL eyo) S^lXos- Kal St) Kardxappa pep exOpots, 
T019 Se (piXoLCTL TTOPOS SeiXd iraBoov yevoprjv. 



1093. yivojoKoj with an er, above the final <u ( = 5) ^. 1099. 

Ppoyxov cefgl : A has an eras, over the x of fipoxov. 1102. 

TTpoXiTTovT'' A. 1104. vixpa^ vKei*: vfxds el. 1104 ab [= 571, 2] 

AObde/hlmn : dyaewv *. 1105. fjioKv^Sw g. 1107. o'iixoi Acg. 

1108. (jiiXots 6 TTovos . . . yevoifJiTjv A. 



EAEFEmN A 157 

Kvpv , ol TTpSaO dyadol vvv av KaKoij ol 8e KaKol irplv 
vvu dyaOoL. tls K€j/ ravr dve^oir eaopcoi/, mo 

T0V9 dyaOovs fikv drLfiOTepovs, KaKL0V9 Se \a)(ovTas 
TLfirJ9 ; fjLvrjareijeL S' e/c KaKov e<rO\o? durjp. 

dXXrjXov9 S' d7raT<oPT€9 kir dXXrjXoKri yeXaxriv 
ovT dyaOcav /ii/rj/irju €l86t€9 ovt€ KaKCdv. 

IloXXa S' dfirj-^avLTia-L KuXiuSofiai d^vv[i^vo9 Krjp- 1114a 
dpxw y^P TT^vLr]s ovy^ VTrepeSpdpo/Mev. l> 

XprjfjLaT e^coi^ Trevirji/ jx (hveiSicras- dXXa ra fieu fioL 
ea-TL, ra 8' epydaofiai Oeolcnv enev^dfiei/os. 11 16 

nXoure, Oewv KaXXiare kol IfiepoiaTaTe wavToou, 
(Tvv (To\ Kal KaKos co^' yiv^Tai kcrQXos dprjp. 

''Hprjs ptirpov €)(OLiii, (piXoT 8e /xe ^oi^os ^AttoXXcop 
ArjTot8r)9 Kal Xevs, ddavaTCov IBacriXevs, 11 20 

ocppa 8LKrj ^(tioipi KaKcou eKTOcrOev aTravTcov, 
■fj^D Kal wXovTco Ovp-ov laLvofievos. 

M77 p.e KaKwu pL/ivr](rK€. ireirovOd tol old r ^OSvaa-evs, 
oar 'Ai8€(o piya 8(ojjl rjXvOej/ €^ava8v9, 

09 8r] Kal pvrjcTTfjpa? dueiXero i/TjXei OvfiSt 1 1 25 

Tlr]veX6'rr'q9 evc^pcoi/, K0VpL8Lr]S dXoyov, 

Tj pLiv 8r]0' vTri/xeiue 0/Xa) napa 7raL8l /xeuovaa, 
o^pa re yrj9 iirepr] 8€ifjiaX€OV9 re fiv^ovs . . . 



1114 jvb [-()10, 20] AOlmn. 1115. renenoi (sic) A (eras, 

above /xc) : to. fxivroi : ravra fiiv fioif. 1118. yiyvofiai all but 

AO. 1121. SiKT) A : fiiov *. 1123. tiifxvijafc' itrtvovda (sic) A : 

fxfixvrjaOf TtiTT.*-. 1124. 'At'Sou *. 1125. av€i\aTo A. x^^'^V 

(for Ovfiw) all but A. 1126. (fixf>pa:v *. 1127. ij fAfv *. irp6s *. 

1128. 5ci\a\(ovs (sic) A : StifjiaXeovi *. y( Obdhmn. 



158 ©EOrNIAO^ 

'K/MTTLO/jLai, TT€PLr]s Ov/xo(p06pov ov /xeXeSatvcou , 

ov8' dv8pS)v e^dpcoVy ol fie Xeyovari KaKm- 1130 

dXX* TjPrjv ipaTTjy oXo^vpofiat, rj fi eiTiXeLTret, 
KXaLCo 8* dpyaXiov yfjpa? kTTep^6p.evov. 

Kvpu€, Trapovai (piXoia-i KaKov Karairavaroii^v dp^rjp, 
^rjTa>p,€U 8' €Xk€L (pdpfiaKa ^vofiiuo). 

'EXTTtS" €1/ dvOpcoTTOiaL fiourj $€09 i(r6Xrj eVeoTtr, 11 35 
dXXoi 8' OvXvfjL7r6p8' kKirpoXnrovTe^ e^av. 

cayero p.\v rTiVri?, fieydXi] Oeos, (fx^^^ ^' dvSpwu 
Xco^pocrvurj' X.dpLTi9 t , co 0tX€, yrji/ eXnrou. 

OpKOL 8' OVK€TL TTLGTol kv dl/OpdoTTOLCTL 8lKaL0l, 

ov8e $€0V9 ov8€L9 d^€Tat dOavdrov^. 1140 

evaepicav 8' dv8p(ov yevos (^OiTaij ov8e Oe/jLia-Tas 

ovKeTL yivocxTKovar ov8\ p\v eva-epta^. 
dXX 6(ppa T19 C<o€i Kal Spa (pdo9 rjeXLoiOy 

€ucre/3€ft)t' Trepi deov^ 'EXTr/Sa TrpocryLterera), 
€V)(^i(Td(o 8€ BeoiaL kut dyXaa firjpia Kaicov^ "45 

'EXTTz'^i re Trpc^Tf} Kal irv/idTT) dverco. 
(ppa^iaOcD 8' d8iK(oy dv8pS)v (tkoXlov Xoyov aUt^ 

ot Beoov dOavdroav ov8\v oTTi^ojJLevoL 
ai\v eir dXXoTpioLS KTedvoLS i7r€)(^ov(TL uorjfxa^ 

aid^pa KaKOLS epyoi? av/JtPoXa OrjKdfiei/oi. 11 50 

M77 TTore Tov irapeovTa fiedeh (f>tXov dXXov kp^vva, 
8eLXS>v dvOpooTTcav prjfiaaL 7r€id6fieyo9. 

F.irj /jlol irXovTovvTL KaKCdv dirdTQpOe jxepiiiveoov 
^d>eiv dpXa^ico^, p.r}8\v typvTL KaKov. 

1129. (Xiriofiai : et tt. *. /xcXfSaivwu Ae : -w *. 1135. 

-ois fiovvTj Stob. 1136. -6vb' Gamer. : -ov vulg. 1141. tipOnai 

Schafer : -to vulg. 1148. {iwet A : ^woi 0: (wtj *. (pus A. 

1145. Kar' Schafer : «at vulg. 1148. firjdev *. 1153. ixepifivuv *. 



EAEFEinN A I59 

OvK epafiaL nXovTelv ov8' evxpiiai, dXXd fiot eir} 11 55 
^rj}/ dirb tcov oXiycov, firjSeu eyovTi KaKov, 

UXovTos Kal (To(pL7j 6vr]Toh diiaya>TaTov aid' 
ovT€ yap dv irXovrov Bu/jlou vTrepKopiaai^- 

d>9 8 aijTODS ao(pL7]v 6 (ro(pdoTaTOS ovk dirocpevyii, 

dXX' eparai, dvfjibu 8' ov 8vvaTaL reXea-ai. 11 60 

'fl uioL ol vvv dp8p€9, efjLOL ye /ih ovtls dvdyK-q 1 160 'i 
TavB' ep8eLV' tS>v fioi wpoaSe xdpiv riOea-o. b 

Ou8eva Orja-avpop KaraOrjaeLu Traialv dfieivov 1161 

ahovcnv 8' dyadoTs dv8pd(n, Kvpue, 8i8ov. 1162 

Ou8€h yap irdvT karl iravoXpios. dXX* 6 fieu eaOXo? ^ 
ToX/xa e)(ooi/ to KaKov, kovk €7ri8r]Xov 6fj.m' b 

ISeiXb? 8' ovT dyaOoiariv kirta-TaTai ovre KaKoTcriu ^ 

dvfJLou 6/icos fiLcryeLv. dBavaTcav re 86(r€i9 ^^ 

wapToTaL OvqTolcrLv kirkpyovr • dXX* kirLToXfidv e 

\pr] 86op' dOapdrcoVj ola 8l8ov(tli/ k^^ip. f 

O<p0aXfi0L Kal yXSxrara Kal ovara Kal v6o9 dv8pS)v 1163 
kv fieaa-Qi aTrjOioou €v^vpiTOL? (j)V€Tai. 1164 

ToiovTo^ TOL duTjp e(TT(o (ptXos, 09 Tov iraipop I 164 •«' 
yivdxTKcoi/ opyfjp Kal fiapvv ovra (jyepet b 

dvrl Kaa-LyvrJTOV. (tv 8e fioi, 0iXe, ravT kyl OvfiSi ^ 
(j)pd^eo, Kai Trore //oi; fjLvrja-eaL k^omaco. 'I 

OvTLv 6/xoiou kpol 8vuafiai 8L^rip.evos evpeip ^ 

TTLCTTOV iTaipOP, OTCO fJ.rj Tl? €U€(TTL 86Xo9' ^ 

1157,8. Stob. : om. vulg. IIOO. Koptaat Stob. 1160ab 

[ = 1095, Q]AObdefghlmn. 1161. itoualv Karae-qauv A. 1162 a-f 

[ = 441-6] i?M?gr. l\&2 a. iiTipx^rai 0. 1164. -tW ^ Stob. : 

-Sjv*. f y^ui/f tojs Bergk : -to? Stob. : evawfroTsvulg. 1164 a-d 

[ = 97-100] AObdefhmn. 1164 a. om. roi 0. 1164 e-h [«= 

415-8] AO. 



160 GEOrNIAOS 

€9 pdaavov S' eXOcou TrapaTpLpofi^vos re /io\iP8a> 

Xpvoros, VTrepTepirjs dju/iii/ eveaTL \6y09. ^^ 

T019 dyadoL9 avfjifiL(ry€j KaKolai Se jxrj noO' ofxaprei, 1 165 
€VT dv 680V (TTeXXrj repfiar kn i/jLTropLtju. 

Twu dyaOcou eorOXr) fikv diroKpKTLS, iaOXd 8e epya' 
Twv Se KaKcov duefiOL SeiXd (pepovaiu eiri]. 

'Y.K Ka)(€Taipir]s kukcl yiv^rai' ev Se kol olvto^ 

ypaxTfi, €7r€L fieydXov? t]Xlt€9 dOavdrav^. 11 70 

Ti'd>fir)i/, K.vpi/€, deoL Si/rjTOLcn SiSovaiv dpiaTov 
dvBpd)TT0L9' yvcofir) iretpaTa iravTOS '^X^'" 

CO jiaKap, oaTLS Srj jjllv e\eL (ppea-lv rj iroXv KpuacrcAv 
vfipLos ovXojiivqs XevyaXeov re Kopou, — 

€(rTL KaKOV Sh PpOTolai KOpOS , TCOU OVTL KaKLOV I I 75 

Trdaa yap €K tovt(oVj Kvppe, neXei KaKOTrjs. 

"El K ei'r]^ epyoau alaxpcou dTraOrj? kol d^pyos, 
K.vpv€, fieyia-Trjv Kev irelpav eypLS dperrj?. 

ToXfidj/ XPV X^^^'^^^^^^ ^^ dXyecTLU rjrop exoi^ra 1178 ^ 
TTpo? Se Seoou alreTv eKXvaLP dQavdroav. ^ 

Yivpve, Oeoifs alSov Koi SeiSiOi' tovto yap dvSpa 

elpyei p.ri6' epSeiv fJLrJTe Xeyeiv daepr]. 11 80 

Srip,o(f)dyov Se Tvpavvov, ottco? kOeXeis, KaraKXTpat 
ov vep.e(TLS irpos Oeooy ytveTai ovSe/iia. 

1164 g. T (for S') A. 1164 h. v6os 0. 1165. avfxfuye (sic) A. 
1166, odov ffreWr] Bgk. : dSovcrrfKef} A : odov TfXejjs * (-e'ois 0). 
Tepfiara t' kfx.nopiT]s*. 1168. k<T6\ael. 1169. Kax* (:Te pit) s (sic) A : 

Kax^raipfirjs*. 1171. apiarov Bek. : --qv vulg. • 1172. avOpwirois 

Bgk. : -OS AO : -ov *. 1173. piaKapos ris 5' -^pTv AO. (net (for ^) 

Obdefmn. 1175. tfaKwi' corr. to -oi' 0. 1177. d k' AOhdefhlmn : 

€10' *. 1178. {.leyiaTTjv kcv ireipav vidg. : ixcyiaTrjs Kev Tteipar Hecker 

and Hartung. 1178 ab [= 555, 6] AO. 1178 a. rjirap 0. 

1178 b. T€ . . . 8' alreiv 0. 1181. rvppavvov (sic) A. kOiXrjs 0. 



EAEFEmN A 16i 

OvSiva, Kvpu, avyal (j>ae(n[xPp6Tov rjeXioLo 
duSp k(j)OpS>(T\ a> [17] ii(£>ixos eTTiKpe/jLaTau 

K(ttS)V 8 ov SvvafiaL yvS>vaL voov ovtlv iyova-Lv 1184 a 
ovT€ yap eu epSoau avSdvco ovre /fax-coy. b 

NoOy dyaBov kol yXccxra-a- rd S' h iravpoLcn tt€(J)Vk^v 
dvSpdcriv, ot tovtcov dfi(poT€pcou raptai. ii86 

OvTLS diToiva 8iSov9 Odvarov cpvyoL ovSk ^apeiau 
^vcTTvxL-qVy €L j^Tj fxoTp inl T€pfjLa PdXoL. 

ov8' dv Sva-cppoavvas, ore Srj debs dXyea nifLTroLy 

di/rjTos dufjp ScopoL? lXd/Ji€i/os Trpo(j)vyoL. 1190 

OvK €pa/JLaL KXicrpcp Pa(nXr]L(o eyKaTaKeiaOat 
re^j/ecoy, dXXd tl jjloi ^mutl yivoLT dyaQov. 

dcrndXaBoL Be Tdwrja-Lu op.olov (TTpcofia OavovTi- 
\to ^vXov 77 (TKXr]pov ytverai rj /xaAa/cor]. 

MrJTt Oeods eniopKOv eTTofivvOL' ov yap dveKTCv 1195 
dOavdrovs Kpyy^raL \pelos ocpeiXofxevoy. 

"OpviBos (jxovrjv, TloXviratSr], o^v ^ocoarjs 
rjKOva i TfTe ppoTOis dyyeXos rjXB* dpoTOV 

wpaiov KUi jxoL KpaStrjv ewdra^e [leXaLvav, 

OTTL JJLOL evavBels dXXoi e^ovo'Lv dypovs, 1200 

ov8e fxoL rjpLouoL KV(pbu eXKOvcnv dporpov, 
TTJs ^dXXrjs pivr](TTrjs e'lveKa uavTiXirjS. 



1184 ab[ = 367, 81^0. 1185. dyaOos*. Tcib' Crisp.: tclt* A* 

(tout' Oc). 1188. -(W *. 1189. Trefivoi Bgk. : -rj A : -ei *. 

1190. iKdfievos suggested to Hiller by Bgk.'s conjecture tAa^utVas : 
PovKofxevos vulg. with /3 erased in A after Bek. : PovKofxai 0. vpo<pvyoi 
Camerar. : -vyr) A : -tiv *. 1195. fxrjTe*. i-niopKos A. 1198. 

dpuTpov *. 1201. T)iioxoi A. KV(p6v . . . aporpov AO : kv^uv' , . . 

dpuTpov *. 



162 0EOrNIAOS 

OuK elfi, ov8* {fir efjLOv KeKXrjareTaL, ov8' €7rl TVfipco 

oLjjLOi^deh TUTTO yfjv ela-L rvpavvos durjp. 
ov8' av €Keiyo9 ejxov reOvrjoTO? oijt (xpl^to 1205 

ovT€ Kara pXecjxipcov SaKpva Oepfxa jSciXoi, 

OvT€ (re K(o/jLd^€Lv direpvKoiiev ovre KaXovfiew 
dpyaXios irapedov, kol (J)lXos evT dv dirfis. 

AWcov fxev yevos dfit, ttoXlv 8' €VT€L)(€a Qrj^rjv 

oIkco, 7raTpa)a9 yrJ9 direpuKOfjievo?. 12 10 

fii] fjL a^eXcoy wai^ovaa ^iXovs 8evva^e TOKrja?, 

"ApyvpL' (Tol fikv yap SovXiov rjfiap eVi, 
rjfxTv 8' dXXa fiev iarTi, yvuaL, kukcc ttoXX', enH eK yijs 

(pevyo/JLci^, dpyaXir] 8' ovk eiri 8ovXoavvrj, 
ov8^ rjfids Trepydai' ttoXls ye /xei/ eaTi Kal rj/xTu 1215 

KaXrj, ArjOaicp KeKXifievq 7r€8L(p, 

Mrj TTore Trap KXaiovra Ka6e^6p.evoL yeXdacofieVf 
ToTs avrSiV dyadois, Kvpv, €7riT€p7r6/jL€i/oi. 

^K\6pbu pikv •)(aX€iTov Kal 8vcrfjL€veL k^aTraTrjaaL, 

Kvpve' (piXou 8€ (J)lX(o pa8Lov k^airaToiv. 1220 

HoXXa (pkpeLv eiooOe Xoyos OvrjTOicrL ppoTOicnu 
TTTaia/jLaTa Tfj9 yycofirjs, Kvpj/€, Tapa<rao/iipr}9. 

Ov8iv, K.vpu\ opyfjs d8iKd>T€pov, fj tov 'i'^fovra 
TTTjfjLaiveL^ Ovfji^ 8€LXd )(^api^op.iv7]. 



1203. many (incl. 0) have «j«\-. 1204. em *. 1205. reO- 

vfidros AO. 1206. 5. e. 13. Passow : 6. 13. 8. vulg. 1207. -ofiai, 

-ovfjiai *. 1208. napewv Camerar. : yap kuv vulg. 1211. -nal^ova 

A. S' €vva^€ (sic) A (' in lead over an eras.) : ^liva^i 0. 1212. 
av AO. 1215. ov5' Bek. : oie' vulg. 5e *. 1216. At^ato; 0. 

KfKpvfifjLevr) 0. 1217. KXaiovTi : -ovai *. 1219. hvapLiVii 

Bgk. : -n vulg. 1221-6 are from Stob. 



EAEFEmN A 163 

OifSeu, Kvpu , dyaOfjs yXvKepcoTepoi/ eari yvpaiKoS' 1225 
fjLoipTVS eycoj av 8' efiol yivov a\r]6 0(Tvvr]s, 

"HSr] yap fxe k€kX7jk€ 6a\d<r(rios oiKccSe veKpo?, 

Te6vr]Km CW (ji^^yyofJievos (TTOfxaTL. 1230 



EAEFEmN B 

"^^^tXi "Y^poas, pLavtai a eTLOrjprja-aPTo XaPovaai' 

€K a-ideu coXero fill/ 'IXlov aKpoiroXis, 
a)X€TO S' AlyetSrjs Srjaevs p^eyas, cwAero ^ Afay, 

iaOXos 'OiXidSrjs, (Tfj<riJ/ aTaa-OaXiaLS. 

^n TTOL, ocKovcrov €fi€v 8ap.d(Tas (j)pevas' ov tol dTreidrj 

pivBov epco Trj afj KapSir} ov8' d^apLv 1236 

dXXoL tXtjOl vocd (JvvuXv eiros' ov tol dvdyKrj 

TOvO* ep8€LV, 6 TL (TOL fJLT] KaTa6vp.L0V fj. 

M77 TTore Toi^ napcoPTa /xe^ets (piXov dXXov epevua, 1238 ^ 

8eiX6oi/ duOpooTTCov prjp,a(n iruOopLevos' ^ 

TToXXaKL TOL TTap €fioL KaTCL GOV Xk^ovcTL pidraia 

Kal irapa (toI Kar kp-ov' tS>v 8k av p,r] ^vuie, 1240 

Xaipij(T€i9 TTJ irpoaOe irapoLyoiiivrj ^lXottjtLj 
Trj9 8e 7rap€p)(^op.iu7]9 ovKer e<rj] raptris. 

Arjp 8rj Kal (piXoL a>p,ep' eireiT aXXoicnv o/jliXh, 
rj6o9 e^cou 86Xlov, irLdT^os dvTiTVTTOV. 



For 1227, 8 see p. 170. 1229, 30 from Ath. 1231-1389 

in A alone. 1236. KapSir) Bek. : KpaSin A. 1237. avvtuv 

Lachmann: awideiv {sic) A.' 1238 ab = 1161, 2. 1244. 

mareoWsA, i.e. cw (oo) erased to make o after Bek. who found iriffTKUi 
as he distinctly states in his cr. n. ; in his text he prints wlartos. 

M 2 



164 GEOrNIAO^ 

Ov iroB^ vScop Kai nvp avfifii^eTar ov8e tto& rjixeis 1245, 
TTLO-Tol €T dXXrjXoi9 Kal (piXoL ea-a-ofJLeda. 

^p6vTL(T0v e^6os kjiov Kal vTrep^acnv, l(t6l 8e 6v/jl^, 
COS cr €0' afiapTCoXfj Ticrofxat m Svva/jLaL. 

Ilai, (TV fikv avTcos lttttoSj eVei Kpidcoj/ eKopeadrj^i 

avdL9 €771 araOjiovs rjXvOes rjfjLerepovs, 1250 

rivLo^ov re irodccv dyaOov XeLfiooyd re KaXbu 
Kprjprjv re '^v)(pr)p dXa-ed re crKiepd. 

*'OX/Stoy, S TToiBes re 0/Xoi kol ficoi/v^e^ ittttol 
drjpevTat re /cwey Kal ^ivoL aXXoBairot. 

"OcTTLS fJLTj iralBds re ^iXe? Kal iioovvyas lttttovs 1255 
Kal KVvaSi ov Trore ol dvpb^ eu eixppoavvrj, 

^11 Traf, iKTivoLCTL TToXvirXdyKTOLcnv o/jlolo? 
opyrjvy dXXore T0T9 dXXore toIctl ireXas. 

^£1 naij TTjp fiop^rjv jikv e^vs KaXos, aXX' eTriKeiTat 
KapT€po9 dypd>jx(ov afj KecpaXfj arecpauo^' 1260 

Iktlvov yap €^€L9 dyy^L(TTp6(j)0v kv (ppealu ^609, 
dXXodv dvOpdnroav prj/xaa-L tt^lOoix^vos. 

'^n iraT, 09 €u epSovTi KaKrji/ dweScoKas dfiOL^rji/j 
ovSi T19 dvT dyaOcov earl X^P'-^ irapa <tol' 

ovSiu TTCO fjL oovria-as' eyo) ^e ae iroXXdKLS rjSrj 1265 ■• 

ev epScou alBovs ovSefxtrj^ eTV\ov, 



1246, 4't' Bek. : en (sic) A. 1247. ex^||os A, p still faintly 

legible ; Bek. found ex^/jos. 1262. d\o€a A. 1253. 4} Solon : 

S) A. 1257. 'iKTivoLcn Welcker : Kivdvvoiai A. 1258. rreXas 

Williams : (piXeiv A. 1263. ts evpSovn changed by a later Land 

to ev epdovTi : the same hand added t to afxo^rjv. 



EAEFEmN B 165 

naL9 T€ Kal LTTTTOS o/jlolov e)(^ei voow ovTe yap iniTos 

rji/Lo^ov KXaki Keifx^poi/ kv Kovirj, 
dXXa Tov va-Tepou duSpa (pepei KpiOaTa-L KopeaOeiS' 

0)9 S' avTC09 Kal nah tov irapeovTa (piXei. 1270 

'X2 TraT, iiapyoa-vvrjs olttq p.\v voov Q)Xeo"ay kaOXov, 

ala-x^v-q Se (J)lXol9 rjfjLeTepois kyivov, 
d/jL/i€ S' dvky\rv^as fiiKpou xpovov kK Se OveXXcov 

TjKa y kvcopfjLiaOrjy vvktos kweLyofiei/o?. 

^paTos Kal'^Kpay^ kircTiXXeTai, rjPiKa nep yrj 1275 

dvOeaLv dapLvols BaXXei de^OfLeprj' 
TfjfM09''Kpcos irpoXLTTcbu KvTTpou, TTepiKaXXka vrjdOVy 
ela-Lu kir dvOpooTrovs (nrepp,a (fyepoiv Kara y^y. 

' 0(TTLS (TOL fiovXevaev k/jL€v irkpi, Kai a kKeXevaei/ 1278 ^ 
OL^ecrOaL wpoXLTTOvO' r]fjLeT€p7]i/ (pLXirju. ... b 

^e^pbv vne^ kXdcpoLo Xkoav <»? dXK.1 TreTTOidco^ ^ 

7ro(T<rl KaraLfidp-^as aifxaro? ovk 'iirioy. d 

OvK kdiXo) ere KaKcos €pSeLi/, ov8' et fLOL d/jLeivov 

TTyooy Oeoou ddauaTcou ea-o-erai^ o) KaXe waT' 1280 

ov yap djiapToaXala-Lv km o-fiLKpaLcn KadrjfjiaL, 
TOdv Se KaXcoy iraiScov ov tlctls ovS* dSiKcov. 

'XI nat, p,rj p! dSUei — en aoi Karadvpios eivai 
PovXopLaL — evcppoavvrj tovto avveh dyadfj- 



1271. fxapyoavvr]s . . . fiev A : corr. Bek. 1273. diWwv A. 

1278 c. vire^acpolo (accent by a later hand) A. 1278 a b = 

1101, 2. 1278 cd =949, 50. 1278 d. Kurai., Karafx. was 

first written, then t in the same hand on the curve joining a to 
II A. 1282. ou Wats ou5' Boissonade : ovToatTovr' (aic) A. 1283. 
Kadvjjuos A. 



166 GEOrNIAOS 



I 



. . . TrapeXevaeai ov8* diraTrjaeLS' 128^ 

uiKrja-a^ yap €)(^ei9 to nXiov e^oma-co, 
dWd (T eyo) rpaxrco ^evyovToi p,e, cos irore ^aaiv 

laaiov Kovp-qv, irapOhov *\a(jtr]v, 
Q)paL7jv wep kovaav, dvaLvojieurjv ydpov dvSpcov 

^evyeiv ^coaapeurj 8* epy dreXecTTa reXeL, 1290 

iraTpos i^oa-^LO-deia-a Sopcov, ^avOrj 'ATaXduTrj' 

(p^(ETo 8 vyjrrjXas eh KOpvcpas opicov, 
(pevyova Ifxepoevra ydpov, \pva-rjs *A(ppo8iTr]9 

85)pa' TeXos 8' iyvoa kol pdX* duaivopeyrj. 

^X2 Tra?, (JLTJ fie KaKola-iv ev dXyeai Ovpov opivrjs, 129^ 
pLrj8i pe at) (ptXoTtjs 8a>paTa Uepa-ecpoprjs 

OL)(r]TaL TTpocpipova-a- Oeoou 8' kiroTrt^eo pfjpLv 
Pd^LV T dp6p(07r(oy, rjina vcoadpeuo9» 

'XI nai, pexpc tlvos pe Trpocpev^eai ; cw? tre 8id>KCi)y 

81^7] p- dXXd TL poL Teppa yevoiTO Ki^eTv 1300 

crrjs opyrjs' <rv 8e pdpyov e^oov kol dyrji/opa Ovpov 
(f)evyeL9, Iktlvov a^eTXiov rjdos e)((oi/. 

dXX* eTTtpeiyov, epol 8e 8l8ov y(dpLv, ovKeri 8r]pou 
e^eis Kvirpoyepovs 8copov loa-re^dpov. 

&vp^ yvovS) OTL iraL8eLas iroXvrjpdTov dvOos 1305 

coKVTepov (rTa8Lov, tovto avueh \dXa(TOV 

8e(rpov, prj wore kol av pirja-eai, o^pipe TraiSoDP, 
K.V7rpoyevov9 8* epyoop duTidaeis y^aXeTTcoUj 



1284. a very modern hand has added (in black ink) in the margin 
of Af after dyaOfj, the words ov yap toi fx, and in the next line 
(before Trap.) d6\(u ; ov yap toi fxe 5u\(u edd. 1290. -(vij Bek. : 

-ivTjv A. TcAcl (sic) A. 1295. -77s Bek.: -ais A. 1301. 

afjs dpyrjs Hermann : arjaoiy-q (sic) A. 1302. (pevyeis Bek. t 

<p€vyois A. 



EAErEiriN B 167 

too-Tre/) eyo) pvu q)8' inl aoi av 8e ravra (pvXa^ai, 
fMr)8e o-e VLKrjcrrj walS' dSarj KaKor-qs. 1310 

OvK eXaOes KXixjra?, w ttul' kol yap ere SioofjLiJLai' 

T0VT0L9, ola-Trep pvv dpd/iios rjSk (piXos 
inXev, e/jLrjv Se fjieOrJKas dTLfirjTou (piXoTTjra, 

ov iikv St) tovtol? y rjada (jyiXo? Trporepov. 
dXX' eyo) e/c TrdvToav (t eSoKovu 6rj(r€a0aL iTaipov 1315 

TTLOrrOV' KOL Sf} VVV dXXoU e)(€L(Tda (j)tXov. 

dXX' 6 [xlv eu €p8(£>v Keifxar o-e 5e /jLrJTLS dndvTCDv 
duOpooTTCou kcropcdv 7raL8o(pLXeTu ediXoL. 

''Xl fjLOL eyo) 8€iX6s' koI 8r] KardxccpfJia, fiev ixOpoT^jis^S ^ 
T0L9 Se (j)iXoL(TL TTOvos 8€iXa 7rada>v yevo/JLrjv, ^^ 

XI naif eirei tol 8cok€ Oea xdpiv Ijiepoecra-av 

Kv7rpL9, (Tov 8' €l8o9 TTd(TL pioLaL /xiXei, 1320 

Ta>v8 kirdKovaov ewoov Kal i/jLrjv \dpLv euOeo dv/xm, 
yvovs epos coy \aXe7rbv ytveraL dv8pL ^epeiv. 

KvirpoyipT), iravcrov fxe ttovoov, (rKe8a(rou 8e fiepifivas 
dv/xo^opovs, (TTpey^rov 8* avOis es* ev(j)po(Tvvas, 

liepixrjpas 8* dirSirave KaKas, 809 8' evcppoPL Ovp.^ 1325 
fX€Tp ij^rj^ TeXicrauT epy/xara a-oo^poavvrj^, 

'X2 TraT, eco? du exV^ Xeiav yeuvu, ov Trore (ralvcov 
7rav(70fjLai, ov8' ef pot popcnpSv kcTTi Oavdv, 



1309. cD5' Bek. : oib' A. 1310. TrarS' adarj Bgk. : uaihaX^ A. 

1311. Stw/xjwai Hermann : Stcuftat (sic) ^. 1312. ^tXosBek. : -o«j 

A. 1314. ou Hermann: av A. 7' Hermann : t' A. 1315. 

O-qataeai Seidler : o-qaadai (sic) A. 1316. -uaOa Bek. : -oiaOa A. 

1317. Kiiju A. 1318. iTai5o(pi\fiv Bek. : TraiSa (piKfiv (sic) A. 

1318 a, b = 1107, 8. 1318 b. roiai <pi\oi9 Sc ttovos A. 1320. 

vaci Bek. : naiffiveoiai (sic) A. 1325. fvcppovi Bek. : fv(f>p6avv 

(sic) A. 1327. \iiav Bek. : Kiav (sic) A. aaivuv (sic) A. 



168 GEOrNIAOS 



Xoi T€ 8l86vt eVi KaXou, efjLOL r ovk aia^pov kpwvTL 
alTUv aXKa yopeoop XLaaofiaL rjfieTepcoi/' 1330 

aiSio fjL , CO TTUL (^rrivBe) SlSov? X^P^^> ^^ Trore koX av 
[e^ei? Kv7rpoy€POV9 Bcopov locrTe(j)dvov^ 

XpriL^oav KOI kw dWov eXevcreaL* dXXd ae Saifxcou 
SoiT] Tcov avToov dvTLTV^elv €7ricoy. 

'^OX^LO? o(TTL9 kp5>v yvppd^^Tai, oiKaSe 8* eXOcov 1335 
evSet avv KaXS) TraiSl TravruxepLos. 

OuKeT kpco TTaiBos, ^aXenas S' dir^XdKTLor dpia?, 
po-^Oovs T dpyaXiovs dapevos k^icjivyov, 

kKXkXvpai 8e wodov 7rpo9 kvcTTe^duov KvOepeCrjS' 

(Tol 8\ CO nai, \dpL^ ear ovSepia TTyooy kpov. 1340 

AlaTj naiBbs epoo dnaXoy^poos, 6s pe (f>LXoL(nv 
irdaL pdX* kK(j)atveLi kovk kOiXouTos kpov. 

TXrjcropaL ov Kpvyjras deKovcna noXXa ISiaia' 
ov yap kiT alK^Xtco TraiBl Bapeh k^dvrji/. 

UaiBo^iXeTu 8i tl Tepirvouj knei irore Kal Tapvpi]8ovs 
rjpaTO Kal KpoviSrjs, dOavdrcov ^aaiXevSi 1346 

dpird^as 8' e? "OXvprrov dv-qyaye, Kal piv edrjK^u 
Baipova TraiBeLTjS dudo? 'i^ovT kparov. 

OVTOO pr] Oavpa^e, ^LpcoyLSrj, ovueKa Kaycb 

k^e8dprji/ koXov naiBbs 'kpcoTi Sapeis. 1350 

'n nai, prj Kcopa^e, yepouTt Se irdBeo dvBpi' 
ov TOL Kcopd^eiu (Tvpcpopov dvSpl vkcD. 



1329. hbovr' iTi KaXov {^\G) A '. StSow' Herm. : -SoCi/Bgk. 1331. 
<TJ7J/5f > Herwerden. 1335. 5' add. Bek. 1336. ivbeiv (sic) A : 

€v8ei Bek. 1341. Ataf Bgk. : alai A. 1343. dcKovaia Bois- 

sonade : ae/covai (sic) A. 1345. Se ri Bek. : S' en (sic) A, 1349. 
ovv€Ka (a over an eras.) A. 1352. cv/xcppov with an accent and o 

add. by a later hand A. 



I 



EAEFEmN B 169 

TiLKpos KOL y\vKV9 IcTTL Kol dpTTaXio? KOL dTrrjprjs, 

ocppa TeXetos erj, Kvpue, v^olctlv epcos' 
Tjv /i€u yap TeXio-rj, yXvKv ytveraL' rju Se Slookcoi^ 1355 

fit] reXearj, iroivTCdv tovt dvLrjpoTarov, 

AUl 7rai8o<pLXr)(nu iiri ^vyou avykvi KeiraL 
SvaXocpov, dpyaXeov fivrjpia (pLXo^evLrjs. 

\pr] yap tol irepl iraiSa TTovovfievou els (piXoTrjTa 
Sa-nep KXr]p.aTiv(D x^^P^ ^^i°^ irpocrdyeLv. 1360 

NaCy Trirprj Trpoa-iKvpaas e/ifjs (piXorrjTOS afxapTooi/, 
CO nai, Kal aairpov neLO'/jLaTos dvTeXdpov, 

OvSap.d a ovS' dTrecou 8r]Xr}(jop.aL' ovSi pe neiaei 
ov8eh dvBpd>TTCov cwore pe p-q ere (pLXelv, 

'XI TraiScop KdXXicTTe Kal ipepoeaTare irduTCjov, 1365 

CTTTJ^' avTOv Kai pov navp knaKOVo-ou eTrrj. 

TlaiSos TOL \dpLS kcTTL, yvvaiKL Se Tnaros eraipos 
ovSeis, dXX alel tov irapeovTa (piXel. 

UaiSbs epcos KaXos pev e^eiv, KaXos S' dnodecrOar 
TToXXov 8' evpea-Oac prjTepou rj reXeaai. 1370 

pvpia S* e^ avTov Kpeparai KaKd, pvpta 8 eaBXd' 
dXX ev TOL TavTTj Kai tls evecrTL ^dpLS. 

Ov8apd TTO) KaTepeLuas eprjp \dpLV, dXX xjtto Trdcrav 
alel (nT0v8aLr]v ep^eaL dyyeXlrju. 

1854. t€Khos Bek. : -eos A. 1358. dvaX. Ahrens : Sva/iopou (sic) A» 
1363. ov5' afxaaovd' (sic) A. 1364. ajaTCfX(/xT]C€ (sic) A. 1370. 

iroWrjv Bek, with no cr. n. on the reading of A : iro\\6v A. 



170 GEOrNIAO^ EAErEIXlN B 

''OA/3io? ocrrt? TraiSo? epcou ovk otSe OdXaa-cray, i375 
ov8i ol kv TTOvTco i/v^ kiTLova-a fxiXei. 

KaAoy ecbv KaKOTrjTi <j)pevcov S^lXolctlv o/JLiXeTs 
dvSpdcTL^ Kal Sid tovt ala^pov oueiSo? e^eiy, 

^ iraL' eyo) 8* deKcov rrjy afj9 (piXoTrjTOS afxapTooVj 

copTJfjLTju €p8(op old T kXevdepo^ coi/. 1380 

"AvOpojiroLCT k86Kovv y^pvarjs wapd 8S>pov €)(ovTa 
kXOuv KvTrpby€uov9 . . . 

. . . 8S>pOV L0(TT€(pdP0V 

ytueTai dvBpoi>TroL(nv ^X^'-^ xaXencoTaTov dyOo^, 

dv fXT] KvTrpoyeprjS 8(0 Xvcriu kK xaXeirooy. 1385 

KvTTpoyeve? Kvdepeia 8oXo7rX6K€, aoL tl irepLo-dov 

Zev? t68€ TLfJLrjcra? 85>pov €8(ok€v ex^iv 
8afiva9 5' dp6pd>7rooi/ TTVKLvds (jypkvas, ov8i tl9 kcTTLv 

OVTOiS L(J)6l/109 KUL (T0(p09 Sa-T€ <pvy€ll/. 

1377 (ppevuv Haupt : (fnfiov (sic) A. 1380. cuvrjixrjv (pSojv 

oioLT (sic) A. 1386. Ku7r/)07ej'6s KvOeipa A. 



NOTE. — Stobaeus 11. 1 under the heading Mfvavdpov Navuovs has 
the following lines : — 

'AkTjdfiT] Si irapiaTOJ 
aoi Kol (fxoi, ■navTwv XPVH^ SiKaioraTov. 
Owing to a slip on the part of Grotius, they were inserted in the 
Theognidea and are printed by the editors after v. 1226. For 
MevdvSpov leg. Mifxvepfxov (Passow). 



NOTES 

N.B. The symbol | denotes the beginning or end of a line. 

1. w ttva ad init. hexam. as H. Ap. 179, 526. dva is only used 
in addressing gods, in II. Od. only in addresses to Zeus, Zev dva 
II. 3. 351 ; dva^ occurs in addresses to gods and men, in II. Od. 
very frequently in addressing Apollo and Agamemnon. 

A. vU, . . . T€Kos. Apollo is Aids T€Kos II. 21. 229 ; Arjrovs Kot 
Aids vlusll. 1. 9 ; Atjtovs epiicvdios vius H. Ap. 182. For the combina- 
tion of vU and t(kos cf. Qrjaeojs irals, ^A/xa^ovos tokos Eur. Hipp. 10. 

2. \T|(ro(jiak : fxvrjaofxai ov8k KdOwfxai 'AiruWojvos eKaroio H. Ap. 1. 
Ap. Eh. begins with 'Apxofievos aeo, ^oW(, . . . fivrjcrofxai Arg. 1 ; 
'a te prineipium, tibi desinam' Verg. Eel. 8. 11 ; Tt kAxXiov dpxo- 
jXivoiaiv 7} KarairavofxivoKriv ■q ^aOv^ojvov re Aarou Kal Oodv 'iTnrojv 
kKdreipav dfiffai ; Pind. fr. 89, cf. Hymn 9. 8 ; ' Prima dicte mihi, 
summa dicende Camena, Maecenas ' Hor. Ep. 1. 1 ; cf. Hes. Th. 48. 

dTroTTav6p,€vos was changed by Turnebus to dvair- on the ground 
that dnoir- is usually accompanied by a genitive; but it is used 
absolutely II. 21. 372, 5. 288, and with a participle (dnuv) Theocr. 
7.90. 

3. Ml". Harrison (p. 223) has founded an interestingtheory on 'some 
obscure words' in this little poem (1-4). 'Having said " at the 
beginning and at the end ", why does the poet add *' iSlrst and last 
and in the middle " ? ku piiaoioiv has no counterpart in the second 
line, it is out of the logical order, and it is in a prominent place. 
. . . The poet [^.promises to sing of Apollo in three places, the 
beginning, the end [which H. assumes to be lost], and the middle 
[773]. . . . "First and last" might have become a meaningless 
form of words, but hardly ' ' first and last and in the middle." ' The 
alleged significance of kv jxiaoiaiv promptly disappears when we 
examine a few parallel cases. In Milton, P. L. 5. 164, 5 we read, 
' Join all ye creatures to extol Him first, him last, him midst, 
and without end.' Mr. Harrison endeavours to explain this away 
by saying that *tho addition and the position of the third clause are 
justified by the fourth '. If needed, a similar explanation could be 
offered for the passage in Theognis ; iv fiia. — ' him midst ', aUi = 
' without end '. 

But cf. €K Aius dpxojft€<T6a Koi. ks Aia X-qyerf, Moicai, . . . dvSpuiv 5* av 
TlToXefiaios kvl irpwroiai Xiyiadu \ koi Trvjxaros koI fiiaaos Theocr. 17. 
1, 4. In spite of the position of ixiaaos there is no special reference 
to Ptolemy in the middle of the poem ; nor is there any obscurity 
or hidden meaning in the words of Electra ; iUv riv dpx^v irpu/Td 
a' e^finoj KaKwv ; -noias rtXivrds; riva fX((Tov rd^oi Xoyov ; Eur. El. 907 ; 
cf. npoaOe Xicvv, 6in6ev de dpaKOJV, ixeacrj de x'A*"'P" 11- 6. 181 ; <i n^y 5^ 
Oeos, wffiTfp Kal u -naXaids Xoyos, dpxw ^e Kal reXivr^v Kal fiiffa rwv 
ovTojv dnavTOju ex*"' Plat. Laws 715 e. 



172 NOTES 

Te ; most editors have changed re into ce to supply an object 
dctVcw. I have retained the MSS. reading because (1) an object can 
be easily supplied from ouo ; (2) irp. re «. var. is the usual form, 

TJ^VitTTji TTpWTOV T6 tfOi vaTaTov aliV dfldd H. 21. 4. 

Tc ... «ai ... T6 as in Pind. Nem. 4. 9. 

«v T€ \x.. kv Sf fxecoiaiv | Asius : Ij/ Se )u. II. 11. 35. 

4. dcCo-w: adbr) Od. 17. 519; Theocr. 18. 7 ', "IXiov dLdScu Little 
Iliad 1. There is no need to reject the rare future deiaoo. It 
occurs in Sappho fr. 11 rdbe vvv (raipais rais '4/xaiai Tepirva KaXoJS 
dfiaoj, where it is rejected by Usener owing to the combination of 
vvv with a future tense ; but cf. vvv avr' tyx^^V Tr(^pr}<Top.aL II. 5. 279 ; 
vvv Toi 67a; ixavT6vaop.ai Od. 1. 200. Plato quotes an Orphic hymn 
beginning diiaoj ovveroiai ; cf. aeiaco Hom. Ep. 14. 1. In Eur. Here. 
F. 681 ddacio was changed by Elmsley to de/So;, and the correction 
has been accepted by most editors ; the occurrence in 679 of the 
present KeXaSti is not in itself, as some maintain, a sufficient reason 
for the emendation, as there is a frequent alternation of present 
and future in the passage : -navaopxii. 673, K(\aSei 679, deiaoj 681, 
KaTanavao/xfv 685, vfivovff' 688, KeXabrjaoo 694. The form is common 
in later poetry : Theocr. 22. 135 ; Callim. Apoll. 30. aaoj occurs 
Eabrius 12. 13 ; Aelian, H. A. 6. 1 ; its existence in classical Attic 
has been denied. The MSS. of PI. Laws 666 d have aaovm which 
some editors retain ; others read riaovai (Person). For dans (Arist. 
Peace 1297) some print dan (Dawes, Hall and Geldart). 

fiot k\v9i : cf. evxofJ.€vq) pioi K\vdi 13 (' precibus meis indulge *) ; 
h\vt€ fjLoi evxofJiiva) Sol. 13. 2, Ci'ates 1. 2 ; kKvOi pi€v evxopievov ( * audi 
me precantem *) Soph. ap. Ath. 592 a ; 6ed 5e ol iKkvtv dp^s Od. 
4. 767. 

«(r0XA, 'good fortune.' ool pitv vapd nal KaK^ kaOKltv €6t}K( Zivs 
Od. 15. 488, cf. Od. 8. 63; eaOKd ydp Otod dLdovros Solon 33.' 2 ; in 
a prayer alrov kadxd aoi irefxireiv Aesch. Pars. 222 ; no finds 'iaOi tuv 
iaOXwv dvoj Choeph. 147. 

5. I *oip€ dvag : 773 ; H. Ap. 257. 

- St€ jjiev without 5^, cf. 997, 931, 1249. 

T€K€ : €VT enl ArjKov e^aive pLoyoaruKos El\ei6via, | rrjv tuT€ 5^ tokos 
(iKe, pifvoivTjaev St TfKeaOai. \ dpupl Be (poiviKi jSdAc nrjx^^, jovva 5' epeiae | 
Kfifiwvi /xaKaK^' pLcidrjae Se 7^' vnivipBiv H. Aj3. 115-18, cf. Eur. 
I.T. 1097; Hec. 458; Ion 919; Scolion 4; Catullus 34. 6-8. The 
Ephesians put forward a counterclaim in favour of their town as 
the god's birthplace, Tac. Ann, 3. 61. 

TTOTvta Air)T(o I : H. Ap. 12. 

6. <})oCv. For this palm cf. Od. 6. 163 ; Callim. Del. 210 ; Cic. 
Laws 1.1; Ovid Met. 6. 335. Some versions prefer the olive. For 
primitive tree-worship see A. J. Evans, Mycenaean Tree and Pillar- 
ivorship ; cf. the Bo-tree of Buddhism. Sacred trees are a marked 
feature in the Old Testament ; ' the oak which was by Shechem ' 
Gen. 35. 4 ; ' Deborah, a prophetess dwelt under the palm-tree of 
Deborah ' Judges 4. 5. Boccaccio relates a legend telling how 
Dante's mother dreamed that she gave birth to her son under 
a lofty bay-tree by a clear stream. 

^aSuvfis. Some read ^adivijs with the inferior MSS. The use 
of padivos in Greek literature affords equal support to either reading ; 
(f>oivi^ is certainly occasionally used as a feminine noun when the 
female palm is implied, e. g. rriai fiaXavijcpopoiai rwv (poiviKojv . . . 




NOTES 173 

ol ipatves Hdt, 1. 193. The Delian palm was a female, at least it 
is represented with berries on an ancient painted vase. But there 
is no need to reject the reading of the best MS., especially as the 
absence of t (r;ts) in the others does not imply that the scribes took 
the form for a genitive, for adscript i is very frequently omitted. 
In 1002 we have pdbivais x^P'^'- ^^ exactly the same metrical position ; 
Hiller quotes a Carian inscription ending kXtjiBos paSivys x^P'^'-^ 
((paTTTOjXivriv. The word is frequently used with ttoScj, x^^P^'^) "tA. 
In II. Od. it occurs but once {IfiaaQXr) II. 23. 582). Cf. Troaalv 
vTTo paSivoTcriv Hes. Th. 195 ; ir. ^ H. Dem. 183 ; PpaSivav 5i' 
'A(pp6diTav Sappho 90; ^ x"> Ap. Eh. 3. 106, Theocr. 17. 37; 
p. Kv-napiaaoL Theocr. 11. 45. It is frequent in the A. Pal. as an 
epithet of Aphrodite and fair maidens; in our passage it denotes 
the beauty of her whose son was aOavaTOJv KaWiarot ; elsewhere 
she is described as -qvKOfxos, KaWmaprios, cf. XiVKujXivos "Hpr] kt\. 
Bergk finds a support for paSivrjs in (poiviKos viov epvos Od. 6. 163. 

6<|>ai|/. eOos earl rais Kvovaais rwv TtapaKdfxkvojv Xaix^avfaOac Kal 
diTOKovcpi^civ kavras tuiu dXyrjduvoov Schol. Ap. Rh. 1. 1131. See some 
very interesting remarks by Sikes-AWen on H. Ap. 117. 

7. de. KdX. : cf. 1117. 

Tpox. X. This is the first mention of the famous oval pond ; 
there is no reference to it in the H. Ap. It is about 100 yards in 
length and was used as a reservoir for storing rain-water, as there 
are but few springs in the island. The temple leased the fish. 
See the Appendix on Delos in Sikes- Allen, H. H. 

Tpox., ' round like a wheel.' Xifxvr] re €(Tti oaij irep rj kv A-qXcp -q 
TpoxoeiSris KaXfofi^vr] Hdt. 2. 170. Callim. calls it Tpoxocaaa (Del. 
261) and nepirjyrjs (Ap. 59). It is also mentioned Aesch. Eum. 9 ; 
Eur. Ion 167, I. T. 1103. Cf. rpoxoas fxo^i&dos Paul. Sil. A. P. 6. 
65 ; a Pythian oracle delivered to the Athenians refers to iroXios 
Tpoxoei54os oLKpa Kaprjva Hdt. 7. 140. 

8. dircip. = KVKXoTfprjs, cf. SaKTvXios drreipoiv Aristoph. Danaids. 
In the Hymns Delos has the epithets Kpavar] (H. Ap. 16), djxipipvrr) 
(ib. 27), TTep'iKXvaTos (ib. 181). 

9. 68. d(x. : II. Od. use dfx^. with x^i^tcu, rreirXos, vy^. For fragrance 
as a sign of divinity cf. uSfxfi 5' Ifiepdcaaa OvrjevTOiv dvb ireirXav OKiZvaro 
H. Dem. 277 (see Sikes- Allen). , 

k^kK Cf. oTivdxi^i 5k -iala ireXdjpr] Hes. Th. 858 ; yrjOrjaev 5k fitya 
ippial 7. IT. Hes. Th. 173 ; ykXaaae 5k Tracra irtpl x^<^v II. 19. 362. 
There is a striking parallel in H. Dem. 13, in which the three 
elements of our passage occur (65/x77, yaia, ttuvtos) tcwC ^St<TT oSfxr}, 
Trds 5' ovpavh ivpvs vnepde yaid re irda' kyiXaoai Kal dXfivpov oi5p.a 
OaXdaar^s ; cf. ai b' kyiXaaaav 'qioves vrjaoio Ap. Rh. 4. 1169 ; cf. 
riciere in Latin. 

^aia TT. occurs eight times in Hes. Th. n • ^ t u 

10. 7Tie. y-qdoavvri 5k OdXaoaa 5u(TTaTo II. 13. 29, on which L. 15. 
remark: 'This is the only passage in Homer whore a distinctly 
human emotion is ascribed to inanimate nature.' For sympathetic 
feeling in nature cf. H. Ap. 135 ; Eur. Bacch. 1084. On the birth 
of Ptolemy Koo;j 5' uXdXv^ev i5oTaa Theocr. 17. 64. 

IT. dX. IT. : II. 21.59. 

11. Cf. "Aprefxi, irorva did, Qvyanp Atos Od. 20. 61. 

0T,po«J>6vTi. This epithet is not found in Homor, who calls tho 



174 NOTES 

goddess TfOTVia 9i]pa>v, ayporepi], loxfaipa, ro^o<p6po^. Cf. OrjpoaKOi 
ro^ori KoiipT] A. P. 6. 240 ; OrjpSiv oXeKovcra ytveOXrju H. H. 27. 10. 

Bi-unck, regarding such forms as Brjpocpovq to be bad Greek, due 
to the invention of ignorant scribes, corrected it to 6r]po<p6v€ ; for 
the same reason he rejected deinvoXoxrjs in Hes. W. D. 704. The 
MSS. of Ar. have Orjpocpove -nai in Thesmoph. 320, which was changed 
by Hermann to -j;, a correction accepted by most editors. Cf. 
ArjfxrjTtjp ■noXv(p6p^r} (Hes. Th. 912) ; Topyocpova (Eur. Ion 1478). 
Pausanias (5. 3) refers to a woman called Q-qpocpovr] ; cf. ravpoiroKa 
Atoj''ApTe/itsSoph. Ajax 172 ; \aTovs Itrnoaoa Ovydrrjp Pind. 01. 3. 26. 
On the other hand we get 9-qpo(p6vov Ofav Eur. H. Fur. 378 ; iro\v(p6p^ov 
yair]s II. 14. 200, 301, but 7. iroKvfpop^rjv II. 9. 568. Cf. Bergk's note 
on this line, 

12. €io-a0'. Agamemnon built a temple to Artemis at Megara ; 
'ApTffxiSos lepov b 'Ayafii/xvcvv kiroiTjafv -qviica ijXOc KaAxai'Ta o'lKovvra Iv 
Meydpois Is ''IKiov eneaOai ireiawv Paus. 1. 43 ; ttjv uyafie/xvcuv ws 6 
fivdos ('iaaro Callim. fr. 76. 

The epic form was ((raaTo (Od. 16. 443), Anacr. epigr. Ill ; 
the participle dadfievos (Hdt. 1. 66) borrowed its €t from the indie. 
(W. Sm. Ion. Dial. § 630) : i]v itotc ©Tjaevs d'aaro Callim. Del. 309 ; 
ev6' ayvbv HoaeiSdcvvos 'iaaavr'' ilvakiov Tffifvos Pind. P. 4. 204. 

€TrX6€ includes the preparations for the voyage to Troy ; so we 
need not follow the commentators, who find here a reference to 
the detention of Agam. at Aulis as in Callim. Art. 228. 

13. Cf. 767; l^apdas KTJpas d\d\Koi II. 21. 548; KaK-qv S' ditb vovaov 
d\a\K€P Hes. Th. 527. Artemis here appears in the triple charac- 
ter of (1) huntress; (2) averter of evil, dKc^iKaKos, like her brother ; 
(3) protectress of sailors, vqoaaoos (Ap. Kh. 1. 570) receiving honour 
from Agamemnon. 

She is sometimes regarded as the wife of Apollo (Paus. 10, 
12.). Artemis and the Charites were the objects of joint worship 
at Athens. 

14. Odol 56 T6 wdvTa hvvavrai Od. 10. 306 ; ' in facili est omnia posse 
deo' Ov. Ars Am. 1. 562; 'quid tarn magnum? addons, unum 
me surpite morti ; dis etenim facile est, orabat ' Hor. S. 2. 3. 283. 

15. The Muses are Kovpai Aios II. 2. 598 ; Hes. Th. 25. 52 ; 
X.dpiTis Aios Kopai Sappho 65. The former were the d. of Z. and 
Mnemosyne (Hes. Th. 915), the latter of Z. and Eurynome (ib. 
907). The Muses, Charites, Apollo, and Artemis are mentioned 
in close connexion by Hes. Th. 907-20. 

For the marriage of Cadmus with Harmonia cf. Hes. Th. 937, 
975 ; Pind. P. 3. 91. On this occasion 'AiroWuva piiv Kidapiaai rds 
Sc Mouaas avKriaai. (Died. Sic. 5. 49). The gods were also present 
at the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis, II. 24. 62. 

16. aeCaar'. 'The Gods had to their marriage come, and at 
the banquet all the Muses sang,' Matthew Arnold, Cadmus and 
Harmonia. 

17. oTTi kt\. Eur. Bacch. 881-901 quotes this proverb in a choric 
song exulting in revenge most appropriate to the grandson of 
Cadmus. Cf. KivdvviveL Kara ttjv dpxaiav irapoipiiav rb Ka\dv (pi\ov flvai 
Plat. Lysis 216 c ; Kal firiv to yt KaKKiarov tpaaiiiwrarov Plat. Rep. 
402 D. Welcker concludes his note on this proverb with the 
words : ' Quam diversum Anglorum, handsome is that handsome 
does '. 



NOTES 175 

^ KaXos : cf. rd fif) m\a Ka\a nicpavTai Theocr. 6. 19 ; mKos 6 
vats, AxeAoJe, Xirjv kuXos Callim. A. P. 12. 51. 

La Roche holds that after 18 at least one couplet is missing 
in which the poet prays for Kraft und Anmuth ; Leutsch requires 
a couplet to explain 8id o-tojji. There is no difficulty if we regard 
deav. as emphatic, and its position justifies this ; the stress is on 
the divme origin claimed for the saying. Others (wrongly) trans- 
late ' This word of the immortals has passed through the lips of 
men ', i. e. 'has been widely quoted'. Cf. Sid S' dLOav^Tuv arouAToiv 
Xojpfi 6\o\vy^ Ar. Birds 220 ; ovS^ dicL (XTojxdroov ^\ee 04pT)\ov ^ttos 
Gregor. Theol. A. P. 8. 25. 2 ; also \4yei Ittos dioL arbyia. Aesch. 
Sept. 579. 

19-26. See Introd. p. 1. 

20. Toto-8' €ir. : dat. with €mK. ' on ' ; cf. 649, 1259. 
Some translate * by means of these lines'. 

kXcttt. : cf. v-RO vkov ovtos hjxov kypd^rj, Kai tis avro eKXeil/e ypa<biv 
Plat. Parm. 128 d. r ,r t 

21. dXX., with a genit. absol. instead of the usual d\A. ri tlvos ; 
for its use without a genitive cf. wv owck' eUos evnrbv oXKdfas cVw 
Eur. Bacch. 53. i ^ \ 

22. iras tis : cf. 621. Usenor and Immisch hold that ttos ris 
could not have been written in the age of Theognis ; but it is found 
in Sol. 27. 7 ; Pind. Is. 1. 49 ; Hdt. 6. 80. In Attic it is common, 
e. g. Eur. fr. 690, 1065. 

Cf. KoX rd fxtv (£>s TeAeotTo* Xeyoi Se tis av9(fjia \evacojv, rov Kvprjvaiov 
rovT 'EpaTOffOevfos Erat. Ep. ad Ptol. 17. 
23-6. Imitated in 801-4. 

irdvTas en dv6. is common in Homer, e. g. II. 10. 213 ; Kar dvBp. 
dXdX-qaOai Od. 15. 276 ; npocpavTOV aocpiq. Had' "EWavas eovra Pind. 
01. 1. 120. See note on 83. 

6vo|A. : note the play on words dvo/xaards darolmv ; cf. trhdos 
UivOfys in Eur. Bacch. 367 ; ojUaao 'Obvaaevs Od. 1. 62. In Homer 
and Hes. ovopL. is only used with ovk = nefandus. 

24. Cf. 368 ; epyp.acnv kv fxeydXois irdffiv ddeiv xaXetrov Sol. 7. 

25. x^ Zeiis dWoKa filv ireXfi a'iOpios, d'AAo/ca 5' vei Theocr. 4. 43 ; 
ov8' 6 Kpiiaaojv Zeii? lyuoO . . . ovt'' k^iiropifipwv ovt (vavxpi-ri(Tas (piXos 
Soph. fr. 470. 

26. dvcxwv, ' refraining ' (cf. Karexo- without an object, Theog. 
262) ; KcaXvovTas Kal dvexovras rfjv :SiKeXiav jxt] vn' avrovs eJvcu Thuc. 
6. 86, ' keeping back '. 

27. Cf. 1049 ; 6 acpiv (Vippoveaiv dyoprjaaro II. 1. 73 ; ffolS', S> viavioK, 
ov KaKws vnoOrjaofiai, dAA' otdirep avTos efiadov ore irats ^ Ar. Birds 
1362, 3. 

28. Cf. irais €T Iwv Od. 18. 216 ; xph TrarS' cV kovra KdXd SiSaaKepLfv 
epya Phocyl. 13 ; ov ttok' eovra TraT8' er eywv edidacKov Theocr. 5. 36. 

T. dyaQ., * the nobles ' ; cf. optimates, ol -naxfis, and the like. 

29. The reading ireirvvo was proposed by Bergk and adopted in 
his text before he discovered that a similar correction had been 
made in our best MS. A. Bekker's text reads veirvvao and he has 
no note on the reading of any MS. There is no doubt that the 
MS. A has in many places been defaced and 'corrected ' after Bokker 
had collated it. See my critical notes passim (e. g. on v. 29, and 
especially 276, 1244). After forming the above conclusion I dis- 
covered that it had already been arrived at by Jordan. 'The 



176 NOTES 



i 



V of TTfirvvfTo is always long'; Bgk. compares eaavo II. 16. 585; 
Od. 9. 447 ; Saiwo II. 24. 63. To these we might add (pao Od. 18. 
171 ; for the short vowel cf. ^e^Kijai II. 11. 380 ; double forms, 
H€HVT](Tai II. 23. 648, -T]ai II. 21. 442 ; 'ioraao (several times), but 
napiarao II. 10. 291 (ace. to Aristarchus, -cro MSS.). The -a- forms 
are the result of analogy. 

6ir' : fxiaOos yap dWos !(/)' epypiacTiv Pind. Is. 1. 47 ; ris K€v fjioi 
ToSe €pyov vnoax'^tJ'-^vos reXecreie Suipco em /xeyaXq} ; II. 10. 303. 

30. For the absence of a neg. before rifids cf. yrj 5' ovS" d^p ov5' 
ovpavbs ^v Ar. Birds 694 ; ovs Ipads ovb' 'EWrjvis Eur. Troad. 477. 

dperds, ' rewards,' cf. 624 ; Piiid. Nem. 10. 2, 5. 53 ; Is. 4. 17 ; Soph. 
Philoct. 1420; Plat. Symp. 208 d. See App. F in Bury's Isthmian 
Odes, where he suggests that there were two separate words (1) = 
njta connected with ddpoTrjs, dvrjp, ^vopirj, dpeiojv [Welsh ' north '], 
'manliness*; (2) connected with dpwfxai, dpiaai, 'compensation', 
'fee' ; cf. dperda}, ' I prosper,' Od. 19. 114; dperri, 'prosperity,' Od. 
13. 45 ; Boisacq, Diet, ^^tyrn., pi'otests against (1). 

31. alcra yap ovtcos kari 345. ravra fxlv ovtojs taOi Pythag. C. 
Aur. 9. The expression is frequently used in dismissing one 
subject and passing to a new one, as c&5' epbdv Hes. W. D. 760. 

irpoao^iXw is not found elsewhere until the Attic period. 
Cf. 1165, 6; Tavrd toi KaKoh u/xiKuv dvSpdaiv diddaKerai Aesch. Persae 
753. 

32. 'ASprjTov Xoyov ui ^raipe p.a9wv tovs dya9ovs (pi\(i, twv ddXuiv 
5' aTre'xov, 7i'oi>j on SfiKoTs oXiya x<^P'^ Praxilla ; firjdl KaKuv trapov 
fiT]5' eaOXujv veiKfcrijpa Hes. W. D. 716. 

34. }i6Y. 8uv. I 374. Kpucraov Se itXovtov Kal ^aOvaitopov x^^vos 
dvSpiJju SiKalojv ndyadojv upuXiai Eur. fr. 7. 

35. Cf. 563-6. oaris d' ofxiXuiv f^Serat kukols uvqp, ovttujitot TipuTTjaa, 
yiyvuKTKOJV on toiovtos kaO^ oioKTirep TJSerai ^vva/v Eur. fr. 809 ; <p9eipov- 
aiv rjO-q XPV<^^^ 6p.iXiai KOKai lb. 1013 ; yeypavTai de' fxerd dvdpos 
dBcoov dOwos ecrr/ Kal fierd IkXcktov (kXcktos ecrr} Kal yLird arpe^Xov 
Siaarpiipeis, KoXXdaOai ovv tois dyiois irpoa-fjKeif on ol KoXXdj/xevoi avrois 
dyiacrOrjffovTai' hrevOev 6 Qeoyvis ypd(pH' kadXwv fxlv . . . voov Clem. 
Alex. Strom. 5. 677. 

36. crvfJi(X. ovdcixia yap SeivoTepq. gov ^vpifxei^aa oTda yvvaiKi Ar. 
Eccles. 516. 

87. Cf 99, 100, 753. ovk dyaeotmv opuXeTs Od. 18. 383. 

K. IT. <|)T|<T. I Cf. tt/y iroT( (paaiv \ 1287 ; at ttotc KdS^iou | 15. 
39-42. See Introd., p. 49. 

Ktico is frequently used in oracles Ad/35a Kvti, ri^ei S' oXooirpoxov 
Hdt. 5. 92. It is used metaphorically to denote the * throes of 
composition', with and without an object; kv rats \pvxc^ts Kvovaiv 
Plat. Symp. 209 a. 

40. €v0vvTT]pa, 'a man who will guide, direct'; not = KoXaarrji 
here. Cf. oiaKos (vOvpTTJpos vardrov vecus Aesch. Suppl. 717 ; midaXiq) 
iOvvero Od. 5. 270 ; wad Kv^fpvrjra^ aocpbs vfxvodvaaa evOvve KXeioi 
vvv (ppivas d/xerepas Bacchyl. 11. 1 ; v4oi yap oiaKOVojxoi Kparova^ 
'OXvuwov Aesch. Prom. 149. 

iiPpwos : cf. 603, 835. 

41. darol oi8e 61, 283 ; without oi'Se 24, 367. 

i|Ye|A. : cf. 855 ; dvSpwv 5* l« /xeydXajv ttoAis oXXvTar els 5k fxo- 
vapxov dij/jios diSpiTj dovXoavvrjv erreaev Sol. 9. 3 ; brjiiov $' ■qyep.ovwv 
ddiKos voos Sol. 4. 7. 



NOTES 177 

<ra6<|>. : cf. rraocppoaiv (same pos.) 437 ; acu(ppojv 431, 454. 

42. T€Tp<i<|>., 'are set upon, inclined to,' with a notion of change, 
which is also suggested by tO'. aol 5' l^d K17S60 Bv/ids (verpairtTo 
OTovoivra upeaOai Od. 9, 12 ; tj8tj pot Kpabi-q reTpairro vitadai Od. 4, 
200 ; irparrovTO ra Trpdypara (vdiSuvai Thuc. 2. 65. 

cs K. IT. irinTfiv (h dvavdp'iav Eur. El. 982 ; ds dr]9iav Eur. Hel, 
418. , , • , , 

43. ol yap roioiSe Kal vuXds oIkovolv cS koi hupara Eur. El. 386. 

45. S-njiov here of the ' masses ' as in 233, 847, 849, 947 ; Sol. 5. 1 ; 
)( TtavTi re Srjpcp Th. 1005. 

<)>6eip. Some prefer the indie, and begin a new poem at 47. 
Hartung assumes an ellipse in 44 : 'Good men never ruin a state, 
but when the bad, &c., they ruin it and <p$iipovai «tA.' 

8tK., iusta inmstis dant ; for phrases with SIkt) cf. 292, 688, 544. 
€iT(i KaKhv dvSpa SiKaiov (ppevai, d pei^oj ye S'iktjv ddiKOJTepos (^fi Hes. 
W. D. 271 ; ot 5e St/ca? ^dvoiai koi kvhripoiai hihovaiv Iddas koX prj n 
irapfK^aivovcri SiKaiov, roiai TtOrjKc TroAtj, Aaoi 8' dvOfvaii^ ev avTr} . . . 
oh S' v0pis T€ pfprjKe Kanri koi ax^rKia epya kt\. Hes. W. D. 225 sqq. 
47. drpcfjictv is always intrans. and never used in the middle. 

dTp€\ii^eiv is trans. 303, in the middle it =quiescere. Cf. 6 yovv 
■ndvra adojv Kal drpcpi^oov Xen. ap. Clem. Str. 5. 714. -^pepi^fiv is 
trans., Xen. de re. equ, 7. 18 ; ijpepeoj is always intrans. "qpepi- 
i^eadai is found Aristot. Anal. post. 1. 29 and Themist. p. 55. So 
we have good parallels for drpepl^eaOac of which I have found 
no other instance. Schomann's drpepC taeoOai is also tempting. 
drpepas rjoOai might be read as II. 13. 280, 2. 200. 

49. For tvr'av following orav (before the apodosis) cf. the frequent 
repetition of d after the apod, in Homer. 

TttOra anticipates KtpSea 8.. as ravra pe\oi, KpvnTabirj (piKorrjs 
Mimn. 1. 2. 

50. 5ir)|jL. KaKov : Sol. 4. 27. 

51. 2. (^ wv ordaus lyyivovrai, (k de rwv araaioiv cpuvos, eK he rov 
ipovov direfi-q Is povvapxii]v Hdt. 3. 82 ; «£ uv ardaeis t€ €(pvr](rav, 81' 
avrds Kal <p6vos ttoKitikos, 6 pev epfpvXiots acpayais, v de ruv voXepiojv 
Flav. Jos. Ant. 18. 1. 1; ordais yap 'ep<pvXos noXepov upo<ppov4ovTOi 
TocrovTO) KaKLOv (OTi oacv iroXepos elprjvrjs Hdt. 8. 3 ; ax. ep<pvXos 
Sol. 4. 19 ; vPpis (pvrevei rvpavvov Soph. O. T. 873. 

jiotivapxos 5€ iroXei i all MSS. except AO) is very abrupt ; the 
reading I have adopted, following Ahrens, Bgk., and Harrison, 
has the advantage of being closer to the best MSS. oiBa was 
changed to oire which would be readily corrected into oide ; a 
singular subject was then found for dhoi (povvapxos). There is 
no contradiction between 44 and 52, as a (52) denotes jv step beyond 
the v^pis of 44 ; the poet's warning may stop the v&pis before it 
develops into or. ep(p. &c. 

54. ovre S'lKas ev elSora ovre Oepiarai Od. 9. 215, of the uncivilized 
Cyclops. 

55. Cf. w KdKiOT ditoXovpevoi SiKas Xeyovres irepiirareiTe SupOepas 
exovres Menand. Epitr. 12, implying that such persons have no 
right to meddle with SiKai. The Helots of Sparta wore a Si<peipa 
and KvvTJ (Athen. 657 d). The slaves at Sicyon were called Karoivn- 
KO(p6poi because they were dressed in a KarojvdKr}, a coarse frock, 
with a border of sheepskin (Theopomp. ap. Athen. 271 d), cf. Ar. 
Eccles. 721-4; Lysist. 1151. According to Suidas and Hesychius 

N 



178 NOTES 

Pisistratus compelled Athenians to wear a frock of this kind in 
order that the country people might be ashamed of their dress, 
and so keep away from town ! 

KaTCTpi|3ov, contemptuously, * rubbed ', ' wore out '. ws rwv 
irpoTepojv olov OKfvapiojv KaTarerpnniivoiv Plat. Alcib. 1, 113 E ; tKaarrjv 
Twv xpvx^v iroWa aajfuxra Karajpi^^iv Plat. Phaedo 87 D ; t^v ^ilv 
XA-afiv8a KaT€Tpi\pi Aapfios, ovk Is fiaKpdv, rrjv /xvfifirjv S' ov Karerpiipf 
r^s Supeds Themist. Or. 8, p. 110. For the subject cf. Arrian, 
An. 7. 9. 

56. Sarr — els as often in poetry, especially epic. 

(\a4>oi. : types of timidity. TeO-q-noTis i,vTi v(0poi II. 4. 243 ; 
Tpwas oi TO irapos rap tpv^aKivris (\a(])Oi(nv ko'iKiaav II. 13. 102 ; cf. 
Xayios Dem. De Cor. 263 ; ' vitas hinnuleo me similis, Chloe * Hor. 
Od. 1. 23. 1. "Roxtidin fugitivi were called cervi. 

cvcfi., ' lived,' with a suggestion of ' grazed like animals'. 

57. Cf. 1109. 

58. Cf. 780, 977, 1018. 

av 8* elnopoojv dvixiadai Od. 16. 277. 

59. 7€Xaj/ km II. 2. 270 ; Od. 20. 358, 21. 376. 

60. 'yvwp.T] = fvwpiafuiy * distinctive mark of good and bad men.' 
'Though they are now a-yaOoi they still behave like KaKoi (who 
ruin a state), for they do not know the difference between good 
men and bad.' 

Cf. oTav ttavras wai Pe0\T]KuT€s, ov paSiov yvcuvai rfjv rjXiKiav 8iu 
KOI \eyovai yvufxrjv c'xf"' orav a/3oA.os f, orav Se fiefiXrjKUJS, ovk t'x**" 
Arist. Hist. Anim. 576. 15 ; ' de dentibus equorum aetatem indi- 
cantibus.* 

62. Cf. 113, 979-82. ws kuI eyu Trjv \ «« ev/xov <pi\(ov II. 9. 342 ; 
t/f QvfM Sc tpiXivvTi Bion 6. 2 ; (« -navrbs v6ov Hdt. 8. 97. 

XpeiT) : Pind. N. 8. 42 ; see p. 42. 

63. diro y\. )( l« 6. * in word alone ' ; rep vZ 6' dfioioji Kand ttjs 
yXwcffTjs Kiyoj Soph. O. Col. 936. In Aesch. Agam. 813 )( 're ipsa' ; 
cf. Hes. W. D. 709 ; cf. anu aropiaros, (pcovTJs )( dnu KapSirjs. drr. y. also 
means *by word of mouth' {dire de louche) ; uaa re dnb yXwaarj^ 
uprjro avToTs unov Thuc. 7. 10 ; Hdt. 1. 123. 

64. xp- airov8. : H. Herm. 332. 

crw|i., ' share.' ovfi. avfxfi6\aia, ' form mutual contracts,' Plat. 
Laws 958 c. 

65. Yvtoo-n. Similar warnings 1100, 1170. 

oi^vpwv, * wretched,' iammer/<c/i. Cf. a similar use of Svarrjvos, 
miser, infelix. Somewhat similar is bi^vpri hvl /cwfir) Hes. W. D. 
639 ; ai^vpe Ar. Clouds 655. 

66. tn': cf. koKou uSos tV II. 3, 45; ovZiitori acpiv ovre ti ttrjiiavBrjvat 
em Seas ovt' dnoXeaOai Od. 8. 563, 

67. After SoXovs some add t' ; there is no need for it after the 
first of a series ; cf. II. 1. 37 ; Hes. Th. 339 ; Pind. 01. 9. 32. 

iroXvirXoKia, hap. leg. ; the adject, -kos is common (cf. 215), = 
dolosus, ' twisting, wily, slippery, shifty '. Orjpiov IvcpSivos -noKv- 
irKoKUTipov PI. Phaedr. 230 a ; ovito} ravTrjs ijKovcra iroXvvkoKojTfpas 
yvvaiKSs Ar. Thesm. 435. Hesych. equates it with iroKvTponos. 

«^iXT)o-av, ' have acquired a taste for ' ; it is not a gnomic aorist. 

68. \iii\Kir\. cr(fl6y.., perditi ; cf. 235, 288, 675. dvSpes o'iovs Sti 
(V iroXct rovs aajdrjco/xtvovs Plat. Theaet. 176 d; 5(T yap t^v irokiTfiav 
T^i/ fA(\\ov<Tav ocp^ioBai iravra fiovKtadoi rd jxiprj tiJs itiKeais itvai Kal Zia- 



NOTES 179 

fxevfiv TaitTCL Arist. Pol. 1270 ; al yap TrXuarai . . . iroXenovaai [ilv aui^ov- 
rat, KaraKTrjaafx^vat 8c Trjvapxw "-^oWwrai Arist. Pol. 1334 ; auCo/uai )( 
a\iaKOfiai Th. 236. acu^«j6ai ^ vyiaiveiv, 'to be well, prosper'; 
aof^vfifvov Of /cat vyiaivovra XRV^rat^Oai tois PiP\iois Hesych. a(^('. 
)( Su(TTi;xft> Ar. Frogs 1450. Here and in 235, 675 A has <t&;C.. 
acj^. : the readings of the other MSS. are not recorded. 
69. Cf. 284. 

71. \t.tr\ 'in quest of,' as in Homer. 

PovXcv, ' prefer.* Cf. end ttoKv PovKofiai avrrjv oikoi cYfii' II 
1. 112. See note on 146. 

Kai TToAA' (fioyijffa | II. 9. 492, Od. 5. 223 ; tt. fioyhaas I Od. 6. 
175, 23. 101. 

72. ohov tKTiktaavTes | Od. 10. 41. 

73. dvaKoiveo : cf. aiUo 1331. I have found no other instance 
of Koivfoj. Pind, uses icoivao). Koivcoveco is common ; dvaKOivojveofiai 
Plut. Brut. 12. Cf. piyuo}, -e'cy, uyKow, -ew, fiaanyoo} (Hdt. 7. 54) 
-iu (Hdt. 1. 114). 

74. Cf. 498, 580, 622, 698, 792, 814, ]016. 

75. eirix. more frequently with dat. or with irpos and accus. as 
Thuc. 7. 21 ; with em Plat. Menex. 241 d. La Roche is wrong in 
saying that this is the only instance of kmx- c. accus. Cf. hUaiov 
hmX' TTpayfia Plat. Crito p. 45 c ; iirex'^i-prjoas Kana Eur. Hipp. 707. 

nkya epyov (in a different sense) Od. 3. 261. 

76. dvrjKearov Xd^ev d\yos II. 5. 394. 

77. eyvojKws on KTrj/xdrcuv irdvTWV earl rifxtwrarov dv^p (piKos avverui 
re Kot evuovs Hdt. 5. 24 ; iriarus hv KaKois dvrjp Kpeiaaoiv yaXrjvijs 
vavTiKoiaiv eiffopdv Eur. Orest. 727. 

dvTtpv,, hap. leg. Cf. dvTiaTjKoaj, -(TTaOfii^a}, -rdKavrevw, -yLerpeu. 
Two constructions are jjossible — (1) dat. loith gold ; (2) gen. against 
gold. ov5' ei Kev a' avrov XP^^V ipvcaaOai dvuyoi II. 22. 351 ; dvri- 
orjKwaas Sf ae tpOeipei rrjs irdpoiO' fiinpa^ias Eur. Hec. 57. For the 
infin. cf. [/iwAv] x^^^^'^o'' ^e t' opvaaeiv Od. 10. 305, 

78. 8txo<rT., ' civil dissension ' ; 4^70 hixooTaairjs Sol. 4. 38. It is 
contrasted with dhe\<puv 6^io(ppoGvvr] by Plut. who (Mor. 479 a) 
quotes a proverb kv 5c hixoaTaaiig Kal 6 itdyKanos e/xfiope TifjLrjs. 

79. Cf. 645 ; iravpoi 5' kv iruvw maTol 0poTu>v Kap-drov peTa\ap$dveiv 
Pind. N. 10, 78 ; * diffugiunt cadis cum faece siccatis amici ferre 
iugum pariter dolosi ' Hor. Od, 1. 35. 26. 

civ8p. It. II. 16, 170. 

81. on. 0. ex- I II- 22, 263 ; dvSixa 0. ex- I Hes. W. D. 13 ; dKr/Sea 
e. ex. I W. D. 112 ; ra\aai<t>pova 6. c'x- | Tyrt. 5. 5 ; cf. Th, 765. 

82. (jLCTcxw not in Hom. or Hes., ircSc'xw is used by Alcaeus and 
Sappho, pier, by Pindar. It takes the thing shared in the genitive, 
the share in the accus. 

83. 8iSt|(ji€vos frequently in the same metrical position (cf. 183. 
403) in Hom. ; cf. Od. 15. 90, 21. 22, 23. 253. 

IT. eir* dvOp. Od. 1. 299 and often. 

84. |JLT| generic. 

uYOt : cf. ov Kev dhrjios e'lT] dvrjp £> rooaa yevono II. 9. 125; avhpl Si 
K ovK ei£eie . . . fis dvrjros r eirj Kal edoi ATjprjTfpos aKTrjv II. 13. 322. 
dyui, of a ship, Od. 7. 9, 24. 299. For the comparison cf. effri ydp 
dp(f)OTepoiciv oveiSea pvOrjaaaOai iroWd ptaX', ovh' d.v vrjvs eKaro^vyoi 
dxBoi apoiro II. 20. 247 ; ' una navis est iam bonorum omnium ' Cio. 
ad Div. 12, 25. 

n2 




180 NOTES 

85. For the eyes as the seat of aldujs cf. (jyaalv ovdeul ovrm kvarj- 
fiaiv€(T0at Trjv rivojv avaihfiav tlj iv roTs ocpOakixois' ' olvo0apis, Kvvoi 
ofifmr 'ixoiv * cpriaiv (II. 1. 225) On the Sublime, ch. 4. 4. 

87. jtT|, as often, qualifying two clauses introduced by /itV 
and Si. 

aK\r\ is better than aWas which is due to (ppivas (A infra 
1082^c). 

«X«) 'direct, turn'; TreStorS' e'xoj' clae'as 'iirrrovs II. 3. 263; tot' 
aWoa' avrbv o/xfia Oarepa Se vovv €XovTa Soph. Trach. 272. For the 
sentiment cf. II. 9. 313 ; Psalms 28. 3, 62. 4. 

88. Cf. 416, 622, 1372 ; KoOcpos 'iviffn vuos \ Sol. 11. 6. 

89. KaO. 0. v., ' sincerely ' ; Kai /xe KaX'q ywrj (popoirj KaOapbv Oefxtvij 
v6ov Scol. 20 ; 6. dyvafjiiTTov voov Aesch. Prom. 164. 

dir., ' give up' ; ixtjviv diroeiiruv II. 19. 35 ; fxrjviv direiirovTos II. 19. 
75 ; it also means 'disown' ; dir. rbv vlbv virb tcqpvKos Plat. Laws 928 d, 

90. Cf. TToXe/xov, ex^pctf aipeaOai. 

91. 8ixa voov, 'a forked, divided, deceitfvil mind'; )( p.ifj ; cf. 
910. Cf. niffTov yap ovdtv yXaxraa did arufxaTos \a\eT 8tx6fJiv6ov (xovaa 
Kaphiri voijfia Pittac. ap. Diog. L. 1. 4. 5 ; Sixovovs dolosus. The 
sense is different in Si'xo Ovfibv exovres II. 20. 32. 

93. 6p(pT]S : cf. ainv ot ecraeiTai . . . vrjas kvnrprjaai, ore /t^ avros ye 
Kpoviojv €fxPd\oi II. 13. 319; 'the clause is a relative conditional. 
ore fxrj = d fifj^ (Leaf and B.). 

The reading of -40 is better than that of the other MSS., 'as 
long as you can see him ', not * as long as he sees you'. 

94. voo-()>. : cf. 'absentem qui rodit amicum' Hor. Sat. 1. 4. 81. 
oXX-riv with KaK. in apposition is better than the redundant voacp. 
dWri (inf. MSS.). 

Ifjo-i : cf. oira Xfipioeaaav hiai II. 3. 152 ; yXuaaav ovKer 'Attikt^v 
teVTasSol. (A. Pol, 12). yXuxraa, 'language,* occurs in Hom. (Od. 19. 
1 75) ; * mere talk ' Hes. W. D. 709 ; oApevSei vpbs aK/xovi xa^«f ve 
yXwaaav Pind. P. 1. 88. 

95. Join It. dv. ' associate * ; <J>. ta-d. predicate. 

96. oir' €v fM^v $a(ovai, Kanm 8' vmOev cppovfovffi Od. 18. 168. 
X^a : see on 853. 

97. ToTos OS Od. 2. 286, 4. 826 ; roiodros os Soph. Antig. 691, Thuc. 
2. 60. 

98. opyVj * disposition ' as 214, 312, 964, 1059 ; Hes. W. D. 304 ; 
'bad temper 'Th. 1223, 1301 ; oUd ae pal fxd Oeovs zeal fiapvv ovra 
<p(pfiv (ae = Eros) Meleag. A. P. 12. 48. 

99. dvTt KaaiyvfjTov ^uvos 6' ik4t7]s tc rirvKrai Od. 8. 546. Hesiod 
gives different counsel. fjirjSk Kaaiyv-qro) Jaov iroieTaOai kraipov W. D. 
707 ; cf. 1050 and dW kvl dvfjLcy /3d\A.eu Od. 12. 217. 

100. I 4>pd^eo as 557 ; cf. ttppdaOr] Kal h dvfxbv k^dKero Hdt. 1. 84. 
€|oirio-o> I 112, 1286. 

101. p.ir]86is does not occur in Horn. /irjSev II. 18. 500. 

102. ai K u<pe\6s ri yeuojfxtOa II. 13. 236 ; but tcvv 5' dWcvv ovdiv dp* 
^v 6(p€\os Th. 700 ; tcDj/ 6(pe\os ovSiv Hdt. 8. 68. 

103. ov yap Kiv pvaairo tr' vitIk kukov Od. 12. 107. 
irov. xaX. : Od. 23. 249. 

104. €ar0\6v : cf. irvprjv t' (fXirKrjae/jiev eaOXwv Od. 11. 31. There is 
no doubt that originally A had fifyaSovvai ; this was changed into 
fitraSoiivai. The Latin translation has -ndare after an erasure ; 
evidently the translator found [xeyad. which he rendered by magnum 



NOTES 181 

dare. The correction in A is therefore later than the Latin transla- 
tion, which probably belongs to the twelfth century. Is the origin 
of fiiya to be sought in nkyiarov (111) ? For tov (demonstr.) cf. to 
250. See Appendix. 

105. Cf. 854, 955, 1367. 

106. Kai after Taos, ofxoios, avros, TrapairXrjaios = ac after aeque, &c. 
We have a-netpeiv awepfia tv yy (Plat. Rep. 497 b) as well as air. dpovpav 
Hes. W. I). 463. The poet was possibly thinking of the sea as 
cLTpvyfTos in the sense of ' unharvested ' ; firj Kanov ev ep^rjs' andpfiv 
laov ear evl ttovto} Ps.-Phocyl. 152 ; fh Trerpas re koi \idovs airdpovrts 
of fruitless marriage Plat. Laws 838 e ; ' Plena tot ac tantis referetur 
gratia factis, nee sinet ille tuos litus arare boves ' Ov. Trist. 5. 4. 
48 ; ' Quid harenae semina mandas ? non profecturis litora bubus 
aras' Ov. Her. 5. 116. 'Sancho, I have always heard it said that 
to do good to the vulgar is like throwing water into the sea ' 
JDon Quixote i. 19 ; and again ' The wicked are always ungrateful*. 

The Greeks had a great many proverbial expressions to denote 
useless labour, vXvvnv KiOov, &c. ; see Theocr. 16. 62 and Leutsch- 
♦Schneidewin, Paroemiographl Graeci, passim. 

107. /LidA-a K€V ^aOif X-qiov aUl j ds upas dfiaiev Od. 9. 134. 

108. irdXiv dvTiX., for the redundancy cf. Tia\iv avris Pind. 01. 1. 
f>S ; rrdhiv dva^Kineiv Ar. Plutus 95. 

dvTiX. is more common in the middle. It has been maintained 
that the word did not exist until the Attic period. Eur. uses the 
act. H. F. 646 ; airevdois dvriKafidv i-qv dn' €/x(v x^P^ff"- Longus, A. P. 
4>. 101. 8. 

109. 10. Cf. ^ A feller could do me ninety -nine good turns, and if 
he done me one bad one it would wipe 'em all out,' Sandy, by Mrs. 
Hegan Rice. 

110. €KK€X., ' wasted ' ; KUKxtoJ tu irdv aoipiafia Soph. Philoct. 13 ; 
o yap irdpos (h Kfvuu rjfiwv fjiux^os em ^i]pois eKKexvr' aiyiaXoh Epigr. 
Adesp. 

111. 12. No satisfactory explanation of these lines has yet been 
■offered. The Latin translation of 111 runs: ' boni maximum 
^audent patientes ' ; Welcker renders : * boni plurimum fruuntur 
beneficio accepto ' ; Dreykorn gives us : ^at probi homines maximi 
(commodi) participem faciunt ubi acceperunt ' ; Hartung prints 
rd ixeyiar (v vavp' laKovac iraOovTes which he translates, 'vergilt 
mit Wucher die kleinere Wohlthat*; others explain : 'having 
experienced the greatest benefit, enjoy it.' 

The contrast to t}v 5' ev dfidprris and eKKexvrai requires the 
general sense to be : ' the good do not take offence at the greatest 
of wrongs, but show gratitude for the good services they hav«' 
received'. The conjectures dfiavpicKovai (Ahrens) and eKa^pi^ovai 
(Bergk) are admirably suited to the context ; I have adopted the 
former (' blot out, hide ') as it is closer to the MSS. readings. Cf. 
ovre A070S eadKus ipavKTju wpTJ^iv d/xavpia/cei, ovre npfj^is dyadi) PKaacpijfxiy 
XvfxaiveTai Democr. ap, Stob. Append. Flor. § 14 ; evvofxia vavei 
Kupov, vfipiv d/j-avpoT Sol. 4. 35 ; ■nokXoi ye Ovqjwv rw Opdaei rds avfitpopdi 
^TjTova^ dixavpovv Kdiro/cpvirTeadai naicd Eur. fr. 420 ; ri /**7* = t. /li. 
KaKuv, or T. IX. KaKuis traO. as rd fxeyiara ev naOwv Dion Prus. Hunter 
§ 53 (in Wilamowitz Reader, vol. i). 

112. |ivtj|xa cannot = /Jivrnxr] as many commentators maintain 
.{nv. eX' = * remember '). I propos(^ the following : fivtjfia 5J xov*^'. 



182 NOTES 

'they pile up a memorial of thanks to good deeds.' Kai xap. (' vizr. 
thanks') hendyadys as 1040. Their gratitude is the monument 
which shows that they have not forgotten, to [xvij/xa iroWol x^o^ov- 
(Tiv d^'iQjs rifiwv Xen. Cyrop, 7. 3. 11. This reading suits dfiavpicKovaL; 
cf. kvrd(piov Se toiovtov ovt^ evpws ov6' o Travdafxarcop dfxavpwaei xp^vos 
Simon, ap. Diod. 11. 11 ; UarpoKkoio Td<pov fiv^fx efipifvai II. 23. 619, 
• something to remember the burial of P.' 

For the sentiment cf. dKearai roi (pptves kaOXwv II. 13. 115 ; « Et 
bene apud memores veteris stat gratia facti ' Verg. Aen. 4. 539. 

114. For nautical metaphors and comparisons cf. 458, 460, 576, 
856j 970, 1273, 1361. rois iroXXolai ydp fiporwv d-niaTos k<xO' kraipiias 
Ki/x-qv Soph. Ajax 683. 

115, 6 = 643, 4; Pseudo-Phocyl. 92 = Th. 115. La Koche objects 
to the genitives ir6(r. fip., on the ground *ein ahnliches Beispiel des 
Genetivs ist mir nicht bekannt '. There is no irregularity ; it is 
implied that they are companions of the meat and drink and not 
of the man himself (cf. ' disciples of the loaves ') ; cf. ^ov(p6v€, 
fxrjXavi^Ta, iroufVfi(ve, Sairbs eraTpe H. Herm. 436 : the lyre is called 
daiTus kraipT] ib. 31. 

117. Cf. 963 sqq. 

118. *Nor is there anything of greater value than caution.' 
Needless objection has been raised against this line ; the generali- 
zation is perfectly natural. ' Nothing is harder or worth more 
heed than to discover a counterfeit man' (Harr.) is hardly a 
possible translation ; it is a long way from irepl iroWov dvai to nept 
ttA. (v\a0. fJvai. It is far better to take euA. as genitive of the 
standard of comparison with nXiovos corresponding to dvdpos 
with Ktfid. ; various emendations have been proposed to secure the 
meaning, ' nothing requires more caution than such a man ' ; the 
best is Heimsoeth's ((t$' onep 77 ttAcovos or Peppmiiller's karlv uirep 
it\€OVo<>. vepl irXeovos like irepl ttoWov uvai Antiph. 1.3; nepl rrKdarov 
(Tvai Andoc. 1. 29 ; ntpl vavrus kiroiHTo Siairpd^aadai Xen. Cyr. 1. 4. 1. 

119. Owing to the repetition of Kvpve it is better to regard 
117, 18 as a separate poem. 

KipSiiXos, ' counterfeit, spurious' ; dpyvpiov Xen. Mem. 3. 1. 9 ; 
XpTicffMos Hdt. 1. 66. Pind. uses Ki^SaKos in a fr. ap. Athen. 455. 

avcrxcTos = dvaax^Tus — dvcKTos * endurable '. ov yap ir dvax^To. 
epya TtTeuxarat Od. 2. 63. 

Cf. Scol. 7. 

120. dvSpl o-o4>« I 1004. ao(p6s is not found in early epic with 
the exception of Margites 2. 

121. Cf. Kol v6ov kv ar-qeiaai 507 ; cf. 387, 899. 
\€X"f|0T|: cf. IrnXkhada Pind. 01. 10. 4. 

122. iv (ppeaiv dXKifiov rjrop II. 17. Ill; ^Top iv (TttjO. II. 1. 188, 
(V KpaSirf II. 20. 169. 86\iov : cf. 1244. 

i};v8p6s a rare word ; \pvdpaTai <p^pais Lycophron 235, which the 
Schol. explains, €ip€v<TfJi4vais \oidopiais; ^vdpaTai r ex^pav fx-qxo-vah 
dvairXtKuv ib. 1219. 

124. dviTipoTaTov I , frequently ; cf. 210, 258, 812, 1356. -n. ear' 
dv. \ Tyrt. 10. 4. 

125. Cf. 1059-62. For the optat. after another optat. cf. TtOvairjv 

(')T€ /XOl IXT]K€TI TOUTa p.6\oi MlmU. 1. 2. 

127. leg, wviov, 'a thing for sale ' ; ro rS/v d/viouv nX^Oos opSivrcs Kal 
TTjv ev€Tr}piai' t^v icard tijv dyopdv Domosth. Ph. 4. 55. The meaning i* 



NOTES 183 

• nor can you divine its quality when you have, as it were, come 
to buy it '. * You can no more test a friend before using him than 
you can test a cow which you see in tlie market before buying it.* 
The comparison with a urro^vyiov still continues ; ' you must first 
put the animal under the yoke, its appearance in the market is no 
guide, for things are not what they seem.' There is certainly 
a reference to the ' yoke of friendship '. 

128. yv., 'judgement'; t^. Oeoi \ 540, 554. Ihka here first. Pind. 
has it 01. 10. 103 ; cf. 'errorem blandis tardat imaginihus^ (reflection 
in the water) Propert. 1. 20. 42. 

129, 30. Cf. 653, 4. 

dp€TT|v, the qualities of an dya9us, * mental and corporal excel- 
lence.' €g. cf. dp€T^ 8' ^v €^0X0^ avToiv II. 14. 118 ; cf. the contrast 
between dpfrrj and ttXovtos in 315-18. 

131. Stobaeus gives a perverted version of this couplet. The 
meaning of Theognis is ' nothing on earth is better than pious 
parents ' ; he insists on the blessedness of having good parents to 
teach their sons (cf. 27, 1049). In Stobaeus it has been changed 
to mean ' There is nothing better than father and mother in the 
eyes of all pious men '. For the form of the couplet cf. 1223, 4, 
1225, 6. 

132. eirXeTO. eVAfTo epyov diranii/ II. 12. 271, 'there has come to 
be, there is' (L. and B). Our MSS. give (ir\fTo oTs. r was easily 
dropped after the preceding t. 

p,€|Ji. : cf. oh 5' ujSpis T6 fj.eixT]\€ KaKrj teal ax^rKia epya Hes. W. 
D. 238. 

133-42. Cf. 833-6, which give quite a different point of view ; 
both elegies are undoubtedly genuine ; cf. 1075-8. This proves 
that difference of standpoint should not be urged in proof of dual 
authorship. 

133 sqq. Cf. 164, 639, 660. Cf. Od. 1. 32-4; ovn fioi airirj kaai, 
9eoi vv fxoi a'irioi uaiv 11. 3. 164. 

134. SwTOpes : Swpa 8' dcpvKTa Oeuv yiyverai dOaudrcDV Sol. 13. 64 ; 
II. 24. 527 sqq. 

135. Cf. 585 ; | tirjSi riv dvOpcoTrctiv Od. 7. 31. 

136. Cf. 162. Join cs re\. dyad. ; cf. Sid yap 9eov Kal to KaKuv et? 
dyaOuv pitrei yiyvo/xevov Menander TlepiK. 49. 

TovTO 8' dfidxo.^ov evpeiv, o ri vvv (v /cat reXevra (piprarov dv5pl 
Tvxfiv Pind. 01. 7. 25. 

137. i. e. KaKov tcAos. KaKa> kaOKov idrjKC \ Od. 15. 488. 

139. Cf. 617 ; dA\' ov Zeus dvSpeam vorjfiaTa -ndvra rtXivra II. 
18. 328. 

140. io-x€i, ' keep back, prevent ' ; cf. | ?axei KcuTiWdv 816 ; iffx€ 
yap alSuJs Kal Sc'os II. 15. 657. 

ircipara, 'barriers' ; the phrase it. dfx, recurs at the end of a 
pentam. 1078 ; in 1172 the word has a different meaning. 

144. 0vTiTfa)v has been unnecessarily changed. It should not be 
joined to ovSds (as La Roche and Buchholz take it), but to f/fcTT/i/ ; 
its position near dOav. makes it very emphatic, 'A man who makes 
a request of men is regarded by the gods.' For the juxtaposition 
of ^i/. dd. cf. 1171. ^ , 

IK. : cf. Trjs yvvaiKus iKtrrjs yfvofxtvos Thuc. 1. 136 ; ^ Z€i/s 8 
imTifirjrtoplKCTduv re (uvuv re (eivios Od. 9. 270 ; taov 8' uiO' ik(TT}v oi 
T€ ^eiuov KaKbv ep^r} lies. W. D. 327 ; dvOpwirovi /xlv icws Krjafis aronoy 
Ti noiTjaai. ov Krjafu 5e 0(ols ovSi \oyt(uixtvos Lucian, A. P. 10, 27. 



184 NOTES 

145, 6. Cf. 753, 1153, 4, 1155, 6. 

146. For the consequences see 199. 
Xprj/MTa S' Ififipo} fxlv €'x«t»' ddiKois 5e TnirdaOai ovk kdeKu Sol. 13. 7. 
|3ov\o)Jiai r\ : cf. ^ovKo/x' kyoij \aup auov (jififvai rj diroXiadai II. 1 . 

117; Od. 17. 404; also iOkKuv rj, alpuoOai, Sex^oOai, Cv'^^^f ^ifcaiuv 
fan, XvciTfXei, e. g. TJpfiTO koi avv to) yevvaio) fiuoviKTuv ■q avv tw 
dSiKw irXiov c'xft" Xen. Ages. 4 ; 'volo quam' Livy 3. 68. 11 ; 'statuo 
quam ' Nepos, Dat. 8. 1; 'probo quam' Tacit. Ann. 1. 58; nee ^rihnv 
i'l Th. 577 ; Uiov v Plat. Gorg. 481 c. 

irao-d(ievos : Theocr. 15. 90 ; lirdaai Aesch. fr. 199. 
147 = Phocyl. 17. 

doKii pLOi rwv dvbpojy rdv hiKaioavvav fxarfpa re Kal riOdvav rdv 
dWav dpfrdv Polus ap. Stob. 9. 54 ; ' una excellentissima virtus 
iustitia ' Cic. Nat. Deor. 1. 2 ; ' nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus ' 
.Tuv. 8. 20. 

149. 50. Cf. 315-18, 683, 865. yn^ ttXovtov unrfs- ovxi Oav/xd^oj deuv 
ov x^ fcaKiaros paSiojs kKTrjaaro Eur. ap. Stob. 93. 9 ; ttXovtos 5e Kal 
8(i\oT<Tiv ofiikeT Bacchyl. 1. 51. 

150. ol tt\u<jtoi KaKoi Bias ap. Diog. Laert. 1. 5. 6. 

p.oip' cTreTau = fxereaTi, fxaipa — " dower, share ' ; cf. 606. ou5' 
alhovs fioipav Ixouo'ii' Od. 20. 171. €ir€Tat in this sense (' accompany') 
is common in Th. ; cf. 164, 410, 412, 635, with tv 327. 

151. 2. Cf. 321, 693, Hes. W. D. 213-18. 

KttK^ {A) should be retained ; the gods begin the ruin of a 
bad man by giving him vfipis ; he will then do the rest himself. 
WIT. Gnomic Aor. as 196, 329, 385, 463, 498, 500. 

152. wpT] as well as x'^'PV is used with this significance ('position, 
honour, regard, make of no account '). cuprj yap r oXiyrj ireXeTat 
. . . Stivi firi fiios Hvdov Hes. W. D. 30 ; d 5' outcd? dvSpos roi dXcjfiivuv 
ovSffii* wpr) Tyrt. 10. 11 ; ous /x(v dv vpah Trat/rey 'eXtjaOe dpxovras kv 
ovdffita X'^'P? (crovrai Xen. Anab. 5. 7. 28 ; ol ras fxiyioras x^pa^ (X^^'''^^ 
Pol. 1. 43. 1 ; ' Socrates volujitatem nullo loco numerat' Cic. De Fin. 
2. 28. Bergk quotes a gloss from Hesychius : dxojpos' kv Kardpa 
XiyiTai o fx-qre rd^iv Biov p.T}T€ Kardaraaiv o'lKias e'x't"', and adds : 
' videntur enim, cum quem diris devoverent et extorrem facerent, 
precati esse, ut scelerati hominis piTjdepia x'^P^ esset, quorsum etiam 
diSpvTos apud Cratinum et Aristophanem spectat. Atque Hesychii 
testimoniuna plane confirmat devotio, quam edidit Kumanudes in 
sj'lloge titulorum sepulcr. 2585 Kal ei' rt fieXXd kpyd^eaOai, dvuvrjTa 
avTa> yivoLTO Kal dxc^pa teal d/xoipa Kal d<pav7J ai/rw diravTa yivoiTO.^ 

153. 4. See Introd. p. 48. 
Cf. 751. 

Kopov vfipios vluv (oracle) Hdt. 8. 77. v0piv K6pov fiar^pa Opaav- 
HvBov Pind. 01. 13. 10, on which Gildersleeve comments : 'Theognis 
reverses the genealogy ; but that makes little difference, as ac- 
cording to Greek custom grandmother and gi-anddaughter often 
bore the same name. It is a mere matter of "Tfipis, Kupos, "Tfipis.' 
We should certainly start from Kupos ; cf. vl3piv n tiktci ttXovtov, 
ov (peiSoj fiiov Eur. fr. 441 ; upui 8e toTs voXXoiatv dvOpojirois kyw 
TiKTovaav vfipiv ttjv irdpoiO' evirpa^iav Eur. fr. 440. Diog. Laert. (1. 59) 
quotes as a saying of Solon's tuv /uv Kupov rov ttXovtov yivvdaOai, t^v 

3' V^piV VTTO TOV Kopov. 

154. See on 946. d>Tto fiSevai Od. 19. 248 ; dpTi(f>p(uv Od. 24. 261. 

155. Cf. 1115. irev. 0. same metric, pos. 1129. 



NOTES 185 

fujSf nor' oiKofijvTjv ntpitju evtxo<pe6pov avhpl rirXaff duaSiCuv 
fxaKapajv ddciv aiev eauTwv Hes. W. D. 717, 718. Homer has evu 
cixos, Kafxaros, <f>ap/j.aKa, o-fjfjiaTa. 

Xo\(i)0€is [. iraTpt xoKaiOi'is \ Od. 15. 254. 
156. dxpT]|x. Od. 17. 502 ; haii. leg. in Homer. 

Trp6<J>. ; ^77 HOI dwpa npucfxpe II. 3. 64. 

.-i^"* *7''Pf • '^"'^ ^^ '^^'^^ '**" vadovrnv /xaeeiv kntppinu Aescli. Agam 
2o0 ; ou Tdv BiKaius ttjS' kmpplvois nuKei htjuiv tip' fj k6tou riv ^ 
^Xa&rjv arpariv Aescli. Eum. 888 ; intrans. II. U. 99 

tA\. : cf. II. 8. 69, 22. 209. rak. dl^r), H. Herm. 324. aXX 
aAA. cf. a\XoT€ dWos t'x" 232, 318 ; aWore dWw | Od. 4. 236. oAAo; 
is better tlian aWas (^Stob.). The sense is : '' Do not cast a man's 
jioverty in his teeth. You may suffer a similar fate yourself. 
Zeus shifts the balance for one man now, for another at another 
time (and you may be that man), now for wealth, now for poverty.* 
d'AAcus would mean, ' Zeus may make him rich again.' 

159. n^Ya» ' boastful ' ; cf. Od. 3. 227, 16. 243, 22. 288 ; fxi-ya Uyuv 
Plat. Apol. 20 K. 

160. vi»g xw-y night first, as in vvkt€s t€ kqI -qpLtpai Od. 14. 93 ; 
Pind. Pyth. 4. 130 ; fxrjTe vv( /xt]6' ijixipa Imax^TOj Thuc. 1. 129. 

a^^' ■qt^fpo. Toi TToAAd uai /A(\aim vv^ riicTei fipoToTaiv Eur. fr. 102 ; 
III -qfiipa TO. fiiv KaOftKev vxpuOev, rd h' rjp dvcu Eur. fr. 424 ; ws 
ijHfpa K\iv€i T€ icdvayet irdKiu dvavra Taveptuircia Sojih. Ajax 131 ; cf. 
Th. 664. 

161. (Pp. uyaOfiai Od. 14. 421 ; kuk. 8ai/JUtiv Od. 10. 64. 
Menander protested against such views : dnavri Sai/xoov dvSpl 

avixirapiaTaTai evOvs yevofievqj, fivarayouyus tov 0iov, dyaOos' KaKbv yap 
daifiov' oil vofii(TT(ov fJvai ^iov pXairTOvra xpV'^tuv fr. incert. fab. 18. 

162. yiv. €is : cf. 136. 
164. Cf. 640, 660. 

166. Cf. drep Ofwu 171 ; dvev Oeov Od. 2. 372 ; )( aw dai/xovi II. 11. 
792 ; avv Oew II. 9. 49 

167. Cf. 441. ov yap tis knixOoviojy iravra y (vBaificov e(pv Bacchyl. 
o. 55. 

168. TidvTes uaovi Oi'tjtovs ijc'Aios icaOopa Sol. 14. 2 ; so ^^Ai09 
HarahipKiTai Od. 11. 16. 

169. ' The man who is actually («a/) blaming the favourite of the 
gods is at that very time praising him.' For the sequel will show 
that what was blamed really deserved praise ; the apparent blundera 
were but stejDs on the road to success. The antithesis is between 
gods and men as friends. It is the man whom the gods esteem 
that always succeeds ; the man helped by his fellow {dvbpos) leans 
on a broken reed. Beigk's reading (Tifiwa, ov) gives a similar 
sense, 'him a man praises even when blaming'. For anotlier 
explanation see Harr. p. 215. 

The text has been emended by some editors because they 
have assumed that o Kai = kuI u (cf. iv nai Pind. 01. 2. 31, Pyth. 
10. 58). 

Ttji, vv dv dOdvaroi Ti[fjUiiat, tovtoj'] kuI fiporwv <pr]fMV (nfcdai 
Bacchyl. 5. 1 93 ; dfol 5' orav Tifxuaiv, ovdtv deitpiXajv Eur. H. Fur. 1338. 

p,a)|i€V|xcvos. ' The existence of parallel forms in -aw, -«a; begins 
as early as Archilochos, though it is not till the New Ionic jjeriod 
that these puzzling forms appear in great number.s. The deny 
recognizes the existence of the -(co form in btit one verb (Th. 169, 
369)' W. Smyth, lojiic Dial § 49. 




186 NOTES 

Cf. Oeov yap ovScts x^pt? evrvx^i ^porujv ou5' e/s to fiei^ov Tj\0e' rai 
OurjTOJv 8' 170; xa'ipfiv k€\(voj OiGjv drep irpoOvfjiias Eur. fr. 1014. 

170. avOpw-nwv oXiyov fxev Kapros, dirpaKTOi 5k pcKijSuvfs Simonid. 
fr. 39. 

Yiv. ouS.l : 462, 798. 1182 ; Mimn. 12. 2. 

171. oTaiv etreari Kpdros H. Dem. 150 ; €v roi^ (Stoh) yap reKo^ 
larlv opus dyaOwv re kokcju re Hes. W. D. 669. 

174. YT|p&)s K. Tiir. in apposition to irdvTwu, ' including both old 
age, &c.' 

y. iroXiov Pind. Istlim. G. 15, Bacchyl. 3. 88 ; iroXioicpuratpov y. 
Bacchyl. fr. 21 ; dpyaXeoos (peperai ttoAjos xP'^^^^ -^' !*• ^- ^99. 1. Men 
assign the attributes of the effect to the cause ; death {pallida mors) 
looks like a dead person, old age like an old man ; cf. x^^P^^ ^^^^ 
Od. 11. 43. 

T|iriaXos was almost certainly malaria ; typhoid and Malta 
fever have also been siiggested by modern medical experts. ' There 
seems to be no hint in the ancient writings that malaria was 
caused by mosquitoes. But Mr. P. Giles writes to say that '' a 
Norse scholar has suggested that -qiriaKos is the same word as 
■q-nioKos, a moth which annoys bees, in Aristotle's Natural Histonj, 
viii. 154, pointing out that in Lithuanian and Lettish there is 
a word which means both fever and moth " ' ; Malaria by W. H. S. 
Jones, pp. 24, 37, 54. 

ipT]<xiv T6 p,(T aiiTov Tots '^md\ots eirix^iprioai irepvaiv Kal tois irvpeToiaiv 
Ar. Wasps 1038 ; one scholiast says -qiriaKoi 5e elcnv oi piyonvpfToi ; 
another has : -qmaXos to npd tov vvperov Kpvos' 'ApLaT0(pav7]sii«p(\ais 
Kal @e(Tfjio<f>opia^ovaais ^dpa d' TjniaKos irvpirov itpohpopos' . Hippocrates 
explains it as -nvpiTus. It also means 'nightmare'; cf. 'HmdXr^s o 
kmmTTTOJV Kal kcpepiroov tois Koipojpivois daip-cov' to Se 8id rov o eTcpov ti 
atjpaivu, TO KaXovpfvov piyonvpiTov Phryn. in Bekk. Anecd., p. 42. 

175. When quoted by itself this line was naturally given in the 
form xp^ TTevirjv ; see Introd., p. 82. 

<})€V'YOVTa. ovK d(pivos (pevyojv ovdl tt\ovt6v tc koi oK^ov dWd KaK^v 
TTfvi-qv Hes. W. D. 637 ; ' per max-e pauperiem fugiens, per saxa, 
per ignes' Hor. Ep. 1. 1. 46. 

Pa0vKT|T«O' ('with deep hollows') only in the best MS. {A). 
There is no ground for doubting the correctness of this reading ; 
the tendency of scribes (cf. cr. n. on 1125) would be to substitute 
the more common Homeric word /xeyoK. which meant ' of great 
capacity ', cf. fi. d€\<pis II. 21. 22, ' with mighty maw ' ; AaKtdaipwv 
Krjrweaaa Od. 4. 1, * full of hollows.* In the expression p. irovToi 
(Od. 3. 158) it was often wrongly explained as 'teeming with 
monsters ', cf. voKvKrjrea HfiKov Theocr. 17. 98. 

176. ^iTTTCiv only in pres. and imperf. ; it does not differ from 
piiTTeiv in meaning or construction ; intrans. cf. pinTovat 8e Kal 
els TTjv QaXaTTov Xen. Cyneg. 9. 20, but p. kavTov Xen. Cyr. 3. 
1. 25 ; $ovXoipr]V av fiTxpai t ks dXpk'qv KevKaSos uiTpas diro Eur. Cycl. 
166 ; (Is rov KvSvov itorapov piipavra Arrian, Anab. 2. 4. Lucian, 
on tliree different occasions, quoting or paraphrasing these lines 
of Th. has (1) ^iitniv intr. ; (2) trans, with reflex. ; (3) eppitf/av 
with reflex. 

ir€Tp. "nXip. : II. 16. 35, &c. ; Hes. Th. 675, &c. tjK is a word of 
uncertain derivation ; ' high, huge, deep,' suits the instances best 
(rocks, trees, cave, Tartarus, stone at the mouth of the cave where 



\ 



NOTES 



187 



the Cyclops dwelt). Some took it to mean 'ao high that the sua 
alone can traverse it' ; accordingly rov fi4v t' rjXip. II. 15. 273 wis 
changed to rbv niv 6' ^\i0., as we are told by a scholiast ; later Greek 
authors used it in that sense. Hesych. connects it with dXiiL ^ 
'a rock* (cf. ■^Xirturj^ Hes., Find.), so Wharton, Etyma Graeca- 
others with oAt^as, 'dry' (Plat. Rep. 387 c), or ^\6s, * erring'' 
• with treacherous foothold '. ' 

177. Kal -ydp dvT|p. All the ancient writers who quote this line 
(to SeS/i.) have changed Kai into irds ; this liad to be done if the 
words were to form a complete sentence and to receive a general 
application (' poverty makes cowards of us all '). We reverse this 
process when we mention an object as 'a thing of beauty and 
n joy for ever ' ; Keats wrote is. 

ir. 8e8|ji. Kafxaro) d. Od. 14. 318 ; ouSe rt eTne I II. 4 22 
^ 178. Cf. 268, 669, 815. rd <it6im fiov d^dcrai A. Pal. 11. 138; 
dWd KepSei /cat aocpia SeSerai Find. Pyth. 3. 54. For a criticism of 
Theognis see Eur. fr. 1055. 

173-8 is a complete eleg}-, 179, 80 does not belong to it. ' Seek 
an escape from poverty by land and sea ' is too feeble to come after 
175, 6. 

179. yrjv T. K.e. v. eaXdaa-q^ \ Hes. Th. 762 ; cf. Od. 3. 142. 

180. Xvicriv with genit. as in Od. 9. 421 (Oavarov . 

181. <|)tX. K. same pos. 539. 

182. Cf. 684, 752. 

183. l£ evyevuiv yivva Sosiad. (Sept. Sap. diet. ap. Stob. 3), cf. Eur. 
Androm. 1279 sqq., Elect. 1097-9 ; * nemo est tam noglegens quin 
summa diligentia eligat asinum qui suam saliat equilam' Varro, 
Sat. Men. 236 ; ' an si equam emisses quadripedem ut meo asino 
Reatino admitteres. quantum poposcissem dedisses equimenti?' 
ib. 502. 

Goethe in a passage of similar import wrote: * Rinder und 
Pferde so wie Schafe ' Herm. u. Dor. Erato 176. 

Stobaeus quotes 183 in the form «um5 fxiv S^ vm kt\. The dogs 
also appear in Plut. Lye. 15 iroWrjv d0€\Tfpiav Kal rvipov ev(upa tois 
irepl Tavra tSjv dWajv vo/xoOerrjixaaiv, ol Kvvas fxtv Kal ivrrovs vnu joh 
Kpariarois tSjv oxcicw ^ifid^ovaiv; again irpus rds dxdas tovs euYeveFs 
innovs Kal Kvvas uvovvrai Kal Kixp^vrai, dvOpojirov St ovStv 6(f>€\os vofii- 
iovatv (vyiveiav Plut. De Nobil. ap. Stob. 86 ; i'mrovs evyeveas Si^rju^da 
yeiapuras tc ravpovi vipirevovTas, drdp aKvXaKOJV iru8as dpyovs' yrjfiai 
5' ovK dyadijv kpibaivofxev dcppoviOVTis. ovhe yvvr] KaKov dvhp dvavaivfTai 
dipveuv (jvra Pseudo-Phocyl. 201 sqq. Plato (Rep. 459 a-d) has * dogs, 
birds, horses', in this connexion. In the popular adaptation of the 
Theognidean comparison the dogs had ousted the rams : the latter 
were certainly in the Megarian original. We have here an indication 
of the soundness of the text preserved in our MSS., as contrasted with 
the divergent versions presented by the quotations found in ancient 
writers (e. g. Stob.). Similar cases elsewhere in the Theognidea 
point to a continuous MSS. tradition as opposed to the form assumed 
by certain Theognidean lines which seized the popular fancy and in 
an adapted form were handed down from generation to generation 
as isolated proverbs and independent maxims. 'The man that 
hath no music in his soul ' has by this time established its right to 
exist as an expression sanctioned by use and custom ; the literary 
tr.adition has preserved the original ' music in himself '. 'Angeh' 




188 NOTES 

visits few and far between ' has long since parted company 
Campbell's * Angel visits, &c.' 

It would seem then that they are wrong who see in the 
Tlieognidea nothing but a collection of quotations and fragments 
culled at a late date from the works of philosophers, moralists, and 
* extractors ' of popular wisdom ; passages like the present point to 
the survival of Tlieognidea in two distinct lines of life which 
branched off from one another at an early date, (1) as proverbs 
and maxims adapted for use in common talk ; (2) as integral parts | 
of a continuous collection of elegiac verse. At the same time it ' 
cannot be denied that a few fragments have forced their way into 
our book. 

Megara was noted for its rams and the care taken to keep the 
breed pure ; the citizens worshipped De meter /iaAo^opo? (Pans. 1. 
44. 4 ; Diog. ap. Ael. V. H. 12. 56). The Cynic Diogenes (Plut. de 
Cup. Div. p. 52(5), said tliat it was better to be the ram of a 
Megarian tlian his son, 

184. povX. Pt|o-. ' We seek rams of noble breed, and a man wants 
them to pair with ewes of goodly stock ; but a noble man does not 
scruple to take to himself as wife an ignoble maid of ignoble stock.' 
The parallel expression yTJfxai kt\. requires that we should take 1^ 
dyadwv as the object and not the subject of ^rja. ; the subject is 
Tovs Kpiovs kt\. to be sui^plied from the preceding line. For 07ia. 
f^ dyad., we have an exact parallel in e/f Katcov eaOKos eyrj/xiv koX 
KaKus 6f dyaOov 189, 90, cf. 1112; e^ ffxev yrjtjuai, Ho marry my 
daughter.' Hdt. 6. 130 ; kbihoaav 5e koX ijyovTo t£ dK\rj\ojv Hdt. 5. 92, 
see also Hdt. 3. 84. 

Others explain ^8770-. as passive ' wishes his ewes to be mounted 
by rams of goodly breed ' ; Camerarius construes Tray ris eOeXei 
inifirjacaOai dyaOovs tSjv dpptvaiv (e£ dyaOwv ovras) rats avTov QijXiai. 
Weleker takes iS^a. as * factitivum ut fiifid^uv ', ' to set his horses on'. 

^■q<T€a6ai is probably an aoi-ist infinitive, cf. KarefirjaeTO Od. 
]. 330. It is also possible to regard it as a future; for in spite of 
the objections raised by many eminent scholars, the use of the 
future infin. with /3ouAo/tai, ireiBoj, dtofxai, &c., is well attested ; 
Pov\6fi(voi €^ ai/Teoju iraidas kKytvqaeadai Hdt. 4. 111. Most MSS. 
of Thuc. (including the best) read ifiovKovTO irpoTificjpriaeaBai (6. 57). 
All MSS. of Soph. Philoct. (1394) agree in giving ireiaeiv hvvqaoiifaOa : 
see Jebb's note. Cf. Goodwin, i¥. T. § 113 ; Gildersleeve, Gk. Synt. 
§ 326 ; and SiH*att's Appendix C to his edition of Thuc. 6. 

185. \x.e\tt. : c. genit. 1129, and Theocr. 9. 12. This word is fre- 
quently used by Ionic writers, e. g. Hdt. 8. 115. In Hippocr. 
it = (7Tifj.f\(ta6at, Oepanevo) ; to) ir]Tpcy tui ix€\e5aiuovTi avreov. 

187. dvaiv. : c. infin. II. 18*. 450 ;* c.'accus. Od. 4. 651, Th. 1289. 
189. Cf. 523, 700 sqq. ; dAA.' ov5kv -qvyivHa irpus rd xp^f^^'^a Eur. 
f r. 96. 

191. Cf. 1349. 

192. (lavp., 'is obscured, ruined, spoilt.' rd St (popri' dpLavpudtir} 
Hes. W. D. 693, cf. W. D. 325. 

fxefii^fTai kcdkd KaKoiaiv Hes. W. D. 179. For the position of 
<rvv apart from its verb cf. 671, 680, 947. 

193. auTos. Though the man himself knows, he still marries the 
woman. KaKow. : cf. KaKonaTpida Il'nTaKov Ale. 37 which some ex- 
plain as = • qui patriam vexat '. 



NOTES 1^ 

194. oI'k. for the plur. cf. the frequent use of UpLoi, duifMra. 

Xp. -n-eiO. 1 a very common ending in elegy ; see Introd. p. 64. 

195. €v8o|os and evSo^os both suit, as they are synonyms ; but the 
former has the support of the best MS., it is more common in 
early Greek poetry, and it affords a better antithesis to KaKoSo^ov. 

dvdYKT) which not even the gods can resist (Eur. I. T. 1486), 
KpaTcpfjs W dvdyKTjs \ 387 and Hes. Th. 517 ; Koareph dva-vKv I II. 6. 
458, cf. Th. 419. ' A- /- / in 

196. €VTi56t, 'urges, impels.' 'dvrvfv i'mrovs II. 5. 720; ScVa? S* 
evTvvov kKdoTcx} II. 9. 203 ; ivri viv 'ivrv dvayKa Pind. 01. 3. 28, on 
which Gild, remarks : ' the extension of evrvveiv from rrapacKcvi^dv 
to Sieyeipfiv is not Homeric' 

197. xp'HK'a' does not occur in the Iliad ; it is frequently used in 
the Od. (e.g. 2. 78). ^ For the sing. = ' wealth, money ', cf. xPVfJ^"-' 
irpdyixa, it\ovtos, ovaia, Kfj/xfia Hesych. ; to XPVt^ irapa /xiv avroh 
['ATTttfofj] CTTL Tov TTpdyfiaTos r) KTTjfj.aTO';, irapd Se roTs "lojai Kam ruv 
Xpr}t^o.TOJV Pollux ; iwl Kuaw dv xPVf^f-T'^ ^ovKoiaro tov? Trartpa^ Kara- 
OLTtiaOai Hdt. 3. 38 ; 6Vto? rov x/M/AtoTo? kv aaKKiois Diod. 13. 106 ; 
iTOjXrjaas rjveyKev ru xPVf^'^ Acts 4. 37. AioOev II. 15. 489 ; Hes. 
Shield 22. For the sentiment cf. 753 and Sol. 13. 7 ; xpWaTa 8' ovx 
dpnaKTOj 9c6a8oTa ttoXXov dixeivoj' d yap rn Kal x^P^^^ &h M«'7"'' oK^ov 
€\T}Tai ^ 6y dnu yXouaarjs hrjiffcrfTai . . . peTa Se fuv pavpovai deoi Hes. 
W, D. 320 sqq. For a similar sentiment cf. Eur. El. 941-4. irapp.. 
avv 6ea> yap rot <l>VTev9cis oA./3o? dvOpumoicri irapixovonrepos Pind. Nem. 
8. 17 ; cf. irapKXivQj (Hes.), -napuhw (Hom.). 

199. irapaKaipia pe^cuv Hes. W. D. 329 ; ' scelesta patrans,' cf. *im- 
portunum scelus '. 

200. KTrjo-crai, subjunct. opKcp, ' by a false oath,' cf. 399. 
KXeiTTOffvvr) 9' opKcv re Od. 19. 396 ; to pev avr'iKa /ikpSiov ovtoj 

opKcp viKYJaai Kal xp'7Ata7-a Xr)ia(Taa9ac Hdt. 6. 86 ; cf. the whole story 
told by Hdt., an excellent illustration of the present theme. 

201. auTiKa : cf. ft nep yap re Kal avTiK* 'OXvpmos ovk kreXfaafv, e/c 
T6 Kal oxpk nXiij avv n piydXoo direTicav II. 4. 160, 1. 

202. €Y- •<•: cf- 436, 661. ^^yevro Hes. Th. 199, 705; Pind. Pyth. 
3. 87. 

virep., * prevails.' 5oA^ Se tovs virepaxovTas Kparuv Aesch. Prom. 
215. In Hom. it is used in the literal sense, 'stood over,' ^eAto? 
virepeffx^O^ 70(77? (II. 11. 735;. 

203. Join €Tr' avr. irp. 

204. Cf. 386. dfxirX., cf. Pind. Pyth. 3. 13. Archil, has TJp0XaKov. 

205. Cf. Sol. 13. 29 ; Solon's poem affords a close parallel to the 
present elegy; cf. 'neglegis immeritisnocituram postmodo te natis 
fraudem committere ? ' Hor. Od. 1. 28. 30. 

Xpeos : cf. xp*:^(^'^ 1196. 

206. Cf. 1022. eircKp. should be retained. All MSS. have it 
except which has vneKpfpaaev (for virep-), cf. SoXto? aiwv trr' dvSpdai 
KpipnTat Pind. Is. 8. 14 ; 6 5' dcpvKTOs w/xo? k-niKptparai 9avaro^ 
Simon, ap. Plut. Moral. 107 ; virep9iv irtTprj kiriKptparai H. Apoll. 
284 ; for vnepK-, cf. drav 01 Ttar^p virfp Kpknaa^ Pind. 01. 1. 57, 
Th. 1022 (= Mimnermus). 

207. Kar., ' caught up in a race.' Kard yrjpas eftapipfv Od. 24. 390 ; 
Kal Kpkffffov' dvhpwv x^^P^^o^^ ((T(paX( rkx^o- Karafidpipaiaa Pind. ^^' ^^^ 
52 ; ' raro antecedentem scelestum deseruit pede poena claudo ' 
Hor. Od. 3. 2. 31. 



190 NOTES 

dvaiS., either (1) because it robs dV?; of her due, or (2) in 
xisual sense, 'relentless, stubborn.' 

208. 6irl p\. : of sleep II. 10. 26. 
T6\os OavoLTOio KaXv\p€v u(p6a\fiovs II. 16. 502 ; cf. II. 13. 580. 

209. ovSeCs toi is better than ovk (Ctiv (332 a), as the repetition 
of effTiv in. the pentameter would make the couplet feeble. Tli«' 
change is easy to account for ; ovSeis roi became ovS^aroi which was 
corrected to ovk ian. 

mar. It. \ : 529, 1367, 11. 15. 437. For the sentiment cf. 299; 
aadfVTji (pevyaiv dvrjp Eur. El. 236 ; to, <pi\cov 5' ovdev, ijv ris Svarvxv 
Eur. Phoen. 403. 

210. aviTipoTttTov (332 b) is far better than dvnrjpoTcpov (210) ; 
not 'worse than exile' but 'the most painful element in exile', 
' the most distressing thing connected with it '. The couplet is 
better suited to the context after 331, 2, where it precedes anothei- 
which is a pendant to it; (1) An exile has no friend (332 a b); 
(2) Do not befriend an exile (333, 4). 

211,12. See Appendix. 

212. ' He is not a bad man but a good man.' 

olvos fitv dvrjToTai Oeaiu ndpa bupov dpiarov, mvu/xfvos Kara, fxirpov 
vTTip fxirpov ht x^P^i-^v Panyasis. 

€TricrT.= 'discreetly ', Kara, fiirpov )( vntp /xirpov. Mr. Harrison 
offers an interesting explanation : ' " If a man drinks it wisely 
it is not a bad wine but a good." It is not strictly logical ; but 
probably Theognis was illogical of set purpose, meaning to suggest 
that it matters more how much a man drinks than what sort 
of wine. It is much as if Cyrnus had asked Theognis to recom- 
mend him a good wine, and Theognis had answered " Half a 
bottle ",' p. 138. 

213-18. A glorification of the Odysseus character ; 7r0A.u1rA.0K0s = 
TToKvTpoTTos acc. to Hesych. 

Sophocles, Antig. 705, is certainly a reminiscence of Th. 213. 
Antig. 707 = Th. 221. This may be an indication that Soph, 
found these elegies near one another as they now stand in the 
Theognidea. 

213. emo-Tp., ' cliange and vary to suit your friends.' The word 
often means ' turn back, change', kmorp. rds vavs Thuc. 2. 90. 

iroiK. is proleptic. 

■?j0os in this sense first used by Hes. In Hom. it = sedes, 
stdhulum. For the sentiment cf. ov yap toiovtojv Set toiovtos elfi kyu, 
spoken by Odysseus, Soph. Philoct. 1049. ravra pitv irpos dvSpos cart 
vovv ixovros . , . fieraKvXivSeiv avruv del irpos tuv ev rrpdrrovTa roixov 
fidWov ^ ytypapLjXivqv (ikuv kardvai Xa^uvO' tc axVH^' ''^ 5^ fura- 
aTpi(piadai irpvs to fiaXOa/cujTfpov de^iov npos dvSpus (an Ar. Frogs 
584 sqq. 

214. * Mingling your disposition ' as the polypus mingles its 
colour ; cf. Ovfidv ofiSis fiiayeiv 444. 

Vt. «k. €X- J : 312 ; cf. 814, 1016. 

215. dv^p iro\iTT]5 vovKvnovs is tovs rpuirovs Eupolis ; itovKvnos . . . 
ovno: 5' ^v irirpy 'iKfKos XP^^j rovviKa nai ynv aXerbs . . . Hfiapxljfy 
Antipat. Th. A. P. 9. 10. Aristotle refers to a rpex/^ixpcs variety 
of TToA. ap. Ath. 318 b. 

' These animals (octopus or cuttle-fish) also escape detection 
by a very extraordinary, chameleon-like power of changing their 



1 



NOTES 191 

colour. They appear to vary their tints according to the nature of 
the ground over which they pass; when in deep water, their 
general shade was brownish-purple, but wlien placed on the land, 
or in shallow water, this dark tint changed into one of a yellowish- 
green' Darwin, Voyage, ch. 1. 

For iTOTi iT€Tpxj, cf. ' By means of their long arms and suckers 
they could drag their bodies into very narrow crevices ; and when 
thus fixed, it required great force to remove them ' Darwin, 1. c. 

iroXutrX., ' of many twists,' often ' complicated '. trcaaSiv fjLop- 
ipaiai 7ro\vn\uKois Eur. I. Aul. 196 ; n. h onXoti rd^iv Xen. Eep. Lac. 
11. 5. 

ttotI it. I : Od. 5. 415. 

216. Toios, at the rock to which it adheres, it is like that rock, 
biit only as long as it remains there. 

TTpocr. , ' adheres,' used here to suggest companionship as in vp. 
T^ TToKffjLw Thuc. 1. 122. 

217. TTJSc (xpot) d\\oT€ 5' aWoiov Tf\(6eiv koI x^P'i ^"TfoOai Zenob. 
1. 21. 

218. dTpoiriT] ){vo\vTpomrj (Hdt. 2. 121), ' lack of flexibility,' 'stub- 
bornness' contrasted with oo(pir] and the idea of cunning associated 
with it. drpoira cVeo Pind. Nem. 7. 103, * inflexible ' (Bury) ; 
others render ' foolish '. p-ovurpo-nos, piaw IIpajTta itoXvpopcpov, ^iKw 
TO Kara 6(dv povurporrov Eustath. Opusc. p. 115. 53 ; ola Kal avrri arj 
■ndOov drpomri Ap. Kh. 4. 387 ' ruthlessness ' ; (TX(t\ioi drpomTjs nal 
dvT]\fes ib. 1047. 

219. 20. Cf. 331, 2, 335, and the notes. 

aa\. : '■ Do not be distressed overmuch, or roused to anger.* 

220. ' Keep to the middle of your path, without swerving to 
either side.' 

221-6. ' All men can be cunning and crafty ; but some men 
have moral principles that restrain them.' A counteiblast to 213- 
1 8 ; cf. oaris ydp aiirus ^ ippoveiv p.6vos 8oku rj yXuaaav ^v ovk dWos 
^ xfvxh^ '^X^tv, ovToi 8iaiTTvxO€VT€i wcpO-qaav Kevoi Soph. Antig. 707. 

222. With the exception of TToiKi\op.r]Tr]s Homer always uses 
TToiKiXos in its literal sense. Cf. itoiKiKo^ovXos Hes. Th. 521 ; IIpo- 
prj64a iroiKiXov, aloXoprfTiv Hes. Th. 511. 

8tiv ^«"'« ^vvio. olde II. 4. 361, Hes. Th. 236; d\o<pwta Sijj/co 
KipKTjs Od. 10. 289. 

223. voos €0-0., ' a noble mind '; 792, 1271 ; <l>p(Vfi iaexoi 429. 
PcpX. : cf. Tov ye deol pXanrovai Kf\(v6ov Od. 1. 195; vtwv 

(p6apevT€s Aesch. Pers. 451. 

224. ia(as = Taov not found in Hom. or Hes. ; cf. 271. 

225. KaKOK. : hap. leg. KOKOKepbiqi is found in late writers. 

226. BoXoirX. used by Hippocr. ; for the adj. cf. 1386. 
dmo-TOi, ' false,' II. 3. 106 ; dmarov uis yvvaiKfiov yivos Eur. I. T. 

1298. 

227-32. Part of a poem by Solon (13. 71-6). 

■Tr€<(>., 'visible.' Men cannot see the goal, those who have 

« massed most wealth double their speed. 

229. Cf. 403 ; els dcpevov avevSovra Hes. W. D. 24. ^ 

280. Solon had written KepSed roi evTjTOis witaaav dddvaroi. This 

was replaced by 230 to avoid holding the gods responsible. i<j)poo-., 

' a cause of madness ' ; XP^/*-> d<ppoa.y utt) form a sort of genealogy 

like K6po9, vfipis, drr] ; cf. 153. 



192 NOTES 

231. Cf. ava<p. oKfOpoi II. 11. 174 ; rlais S' ov (paiverai Tjp.iv Th. 

232. T€ip., ' wretched.' naonivriv (Sol. 13. 76) is far better. 

233. In Horn, the component parts of dKpoir. are often declined 
separately, tt. olk, II. 22. 383 (cf. Th. 773) ; 6lk. it. II. 6. 257, but 
aKpo-noKis Od. 8. 494, 504. 

irupY. ToTos fap a(f)iv irvpyos diruXeo Od. 11. 556 (Ajax) ; uairep 
yap (uv TTVpyov kv 6(p6a\[xoiaLV opojffiv Callin. 1. 20 ; oA/3os trvpyos 
dareos Pind. Pyth. 5. 56 ; avSpes yap iroXtos nvpyos dpevios Ale. new 
fr. II a. 10 ; teal iraTs fikv dparjv irarep^ e'xft vvpyov fiiyav Eur. Ale. 311 ; 
c. genit. Oavarotiv efxa X'^'P? trvpyos dviara Soph. 0. T. 1200 (Schol. 
dna\e^r]ais) ; €p/M (II. 16. 549), epvfia Eur. Med. 597 are used in 
a similar way ; so too kiqjv Pind. 01. 2. 90, Archil. 17. 

8. K€V€6«|). : 847. k€v. Pind. Nem. 11. 29. 

234. kv 5e dixoffraalri Kal u vdyKaKos efx/xope Tifxfjs Adesp. ; €/x/x. t. 
II. 1. 278. 

235. The reading best supported by all the MSS. is ov8' tn rt 
wpfirei ^/xiv. Everything points to a loss of n from ovSeTiTiirpfirci. 
Oel show no attempt to fill the gap ; the rest inserted ye with the 
exception of 'j^^'^-A ', which adoi)ted the simple expedient of chang- 
ing ovSeri into ovdev€TL ; a careless scribe then interchanged (in A) 
V and T, led by the resemblance to a well-known word emrpenei. 

In the older language ov54v is less frequent than ouSe ri. en 
adds considerably to the sense of the passage : * We can no longer 
regard ourselves as a healthy state.' 

■?IHiv, see W. Sm. Ion. Dial., p. 441. As in 40 the poet includes 
himself among the members of the state— there is no need for 

VfUV. 

For kviirp., cf. ouSe ri rot dovKeiov eTn-npeira elaopdaaOai tJSos Kal 
niyiOos Od. 24. 252. For the simple irpiirei cf. rreipwPTi 5e Kal xpv(Tus 
€v Baffdvoj TTpiiTH, Kal voos opOos Pind. Pyth, 10. 67. 

237-52. This elegy forms a fitting conclusion to the little collec- 
tion of poems 1-252. 237 is connected with 27 ; aol 6' kyw tv 
<f>povi(uv vno0r]ffofiai begins the lesson, aol fi\v kyoj irrep' eSooKa states 
the reward. As the lines stand in the MSS. they can hardly be 
taken to form a single poem. dWd ficX-fjaeis . . . arpoj^. . . . irepwv 
is a very harsh combination, and the repetition of details (247 sqq. 
= 237 sqq.) ajter death is inartistic. I have changed the order of 
the lines so as to read 237, 8, 247-50, 239-46, 251, 2. I regard 
253, 4 to be a clumsy interpolation of the same nature as many 
poems in fi (cf. 1265), 

Some editors (e. g. Ziegler) treat 247-54 as a separate poem 
with the beginning lost. I cannot accept this, as the explanation 
of 249, 50 is to be sought in 237. 

237. For similar intimations of immortality cf. Pind. 01. 9. 21 ; 
Hor. Od. 3. 30 ; Ovid, Met. 15. 871. 

TTTep' : cf. TToravd fxaxo-vd ( — poetry) Pind. Nem. 7. 22 ; l/xa 
Ttoravbv dficpl paxava Pyth. 8. 34. 

OTjv : to denote the instrument, avv tc uxccf OojprjxOevTes II. 8. 530 ; 
itKovtov iKT-qaoj ^vv aixpv Aesch. Persae 755. The notion of ' accom- 
panying' is still present in our passage, cf. -neijaf/ei 249, ^vv roTade 
ro^ois ^vv T kfiol rrepaas Soph. Phil. 1335. 
6Tr' dir. IT. I : II. 1. 350. 

247. * Hellas [in Homer] is still far removed from the extension 
which it attains as early as Theognis (247) and Pindar (Nem- 6. 



NOTES 193 

27) to embrace the Peloponnese and even in the latter author 
Magna Graecia (Pyth. 1. 75),' Geddes, Prohl. Horn. Poems, p. 68. 

248. nepdav (nl o'ii'ona irovrov \ II. 2. 613. 

IT. €ir' drp. : Od. 2. 370. it. 1x0. : II. 9. 4, 

249. iiTTT. V. may contain a reference to horses mentioned in 
some well-known myth ; or it may be that the author is criticizing 
a conception formed by a brother-poet, or perhaps he was thinking 
of some statue representing literary immortality 

250. Cf. 1804, 1332, 1383. dy\. 5. II. 24. 534 ; io<rTe<pduajy deav 
UaTiMoiaav Smion. 150. The dy\. 5. are the irrepd cf. 237; cf. eirj 
viv evipajvajv wTepvyeaaiv depeivT dyKaais niepiSwv Pind. Isthm. 1. 64 • 
fioff. as Bacchyl. 3. 2. ' 

239. aUl 5' (v dahrjai teal (WamvTjai Trapiarai II. 10. 217. 

240. travTOiv 8' 'EAA77i/cyi/ fieiao/xai Iv aTOfxaciv A. Pal. 9. 62 ; ' volito 
vivu' per ora virum ' Ennius ; ' volitare per ora ' Verg. Geor*'. 

241. Cf. vn avXrjTijpo^ deiSdv 825. Elegies were sung by young 
men at symposia to the accompaniment of the flute. Either ' they 
will sing these elegies addressed to thee ', or ' they will sing thy 
praises '. 

242. ^ €UK. €p. : ' in ihrer Sittsamkeit liebenswiirdig ' Stoll. Per- 
haps eiiK. refers to inner worth, epar. to outward beauty. evKoafxcoi 
(TTTJae Od. 21. 123 ; (pvrjv t' cpar^ kuI eldos d/xMixos Hes. Th. 259. 

243. Y- 8vo<J). : Hes. Th. 736. Homer has vv^ Zv. (as Th. 672) 
vSojp 8. 

'AiSao SSfiovs virb Kevdecri yairjs II. 22. 482 ; cf. Hes. Th. 300. 

244. iroXvK. : hap. leg. ; cf. noKvSdicpvTos, TroKvarevaKTOs. 

245. p-eX. : -ndai buKocaiv dvOpajvoiat [xikoj Od. 9. 20 ; ois av pitv ovhl 
Oavcjv uvou wXeaas dWd toi aiel irdvTas eir' dvdpwnovs k\(OS eaaercu 
Od. 24. 93. 

251. K. eaa. doi6. | : Od. 8. 580. dotS. is subject to fiifx. as well as 
predicate with eaari, eneffaoixevois Sk ycvoifxeOa irdaiv doiSd Theocr. 12. 
11 (addressed to ^iXe Kovpe). Cf. Juvenal's scornful ' ut declamatio 
fias' (10. 167). 

252. 64>p' dv : for the omission of the verb cf. 859, 864 ; kuv nuyojv 
KOLv tpixes A. Pal. 12. 10. 

253. 4. Mr. Harrison defends these lines : ' Here, as in a well- 
written epigram, the sting of the poem is in its tail. The de- 
scription of the fame which Theognis has given to Cyrnus only 
leads up to the complaint of the last couplet.' The length of the 
description and its enthusiastic tone make it very unlikely that 
it is merely a preparation for the tag at the end. 

255, 6. See Appendix. 

256. For the accusative after TVYX<iv€iv cf. ov yap dv rvxois rdbc 
Eur. Phoen. 1666 ; v(xa>v dfiapreiv tovto Soph. Phil. 231. 'The ace. 
TovTo is not directly governed by dfi., but is analogous to the ace. 
of pronouns or adj. which can stand, almost adverbially, after 
Tvyxdvo) and Kvpu>,' Jebb, 1. c. 

TO : cf. ovs anevSovTOs iSoi, tovs fjid\a OapavveffKc II. 4. 232. 
257-60. The author probably intended these lines to be sung 
by a woman at a symposium ; the sense is almost certainly 
erotic, like 261-6, which would be sung by a man ; for parallel 
expressions see 1249-52, 1267-70, and especially 469, 1099. It 
is, however, just possible that our elegy had a political moan- 



I 



194 NOTES 

ing ; then I'lTTros would signify a state ruled by a /ra/cos (or KaKoC)^* 
cf. 681. 

''Epojs 'ifxepov avioxei A. P. 12. 86 ; S) iraT, t^s hurjs ^vx^js •^viox^ven 
Anacr. 4. 

For a similar poem cf. Chansons clu XV^ siecle. No. CXLI, edited 
by Gaston Paris. 

d€0\. iirir., 'prize-winner'; Callim. Del. 118. i'lrnovs irqyovs 
d9\o(f)6povs oi deOKia iroaalv dpovro II. 9. 123. 

iTTTTOs is frequently used of a light woman. 

259. For the augment (^) cf. ijp^We 90G. 
ijfxeWe rcKiaOai Hes. Th. 478; rjfieWrjaa Xen. Cyr, 1. 3. 15. 

On Attic Inscr. fiovkojxai, Svvafxai, fxeWoj in the classical period 
have 6 augment, after 300 b. c. rj ; cf. ij<pepa ( = i<pepov) third 
centurj- a. d. 

260. For the Doric infin. cf. riixiv 960. The use of rjvioxo^, -evco in 
early Greek makes it likely that a charioteer rather than a rider 

is meant. ^H 

dirwdw : often in an erotic sense ; evKvra 5' ixvai arepyrjOpa (fypevuiv^M 

diro T oKTaaOai Kal ^vvruvai Eur. Hippol. 257. ^* 

261-6. Mr. Harrison has offered the best explanation of this 
puzzling poem ; * it accounts,' he says, ' for everything if one 
postulate be granted, namely that it was the practice in Greece 
to drink confusion to an enemy in cold water, not wine.' He 
translates : * It is not wine that is drunk to me when a man much 
worse than I is stablished by my fair lady's side. Cold water her 
parents drink to me before her, so that she both draws it for them 
and weeps for me as she brings it — in the house where once I 
threw my arm round her waist and kissed her neck, while she 
made a tender sound with her lips.' He also offers in a note 
the usual explanation, viz. ' my wine is untouched '. It does seem 
strange that the word for ' water ' is not expressed when the point 
lies in the substitution of water for wine, but perhaps, as H. 
suggests, i/5p6i;ei is a significant indication of the writer's meaning. 

262. KaT€X6t : either (1) 'stays'; cf. €v ToTaiv avroTi Sufxacriv Kard- 
XOfifv Eur. El. 1034 ; trpo^ivajv S* tV tov Kartcrxf^ ', Eur. Ion 551 ; 
'lodge,' properly 'put (a ship) to shore' Bayfield, I.e. ; vrjl Oofj 
QopiKovSe icaTtax^^ov H. Dem. 126; cf. the intrans. use of kvqKap.€v 
Od. 12. 401, kK0d\\Q} Eur. El. 96 ; or (2) ' is master ', as in Karix^t o 
Koyos 'prevails' Arrian 1. 11.6. 

263. \ovvTai ^vxpv Hdt. 2. 37 ; fidtrTovcn Oepfiw Ar. Eccles. 216. 
Hartung reads irpoirivovai, tr. ' frostiges Wasser kredenzen die 
Eltern mir ', anticipating Mr. Harrison's explanation of rrivovai. 

264. vSpcviu) Od. 10. 105 ; vSpevofxai is moi-e common. 

265. Cf. dn<l>l 5( rraiSl <pi\cu fidXe irrixef Od. 17. 38. 

266. Cf. 610. Kapd 5' diro aTondrojv (j>9ey^aT0 BaKxv^tSrjs A. P. 
9. 571. 

267. If the text is sound the line must mean : 'poverty can be 
easily recognized even in a neighbour, i. e. even when she has not 
visited you.'' For the sentiment cf. 419, 815, 16. Kal . . . irep as 
294, 501 ; Kaiirep 816, 1060 ; in Homer /cat , . . irep as a rule ; nal oxpi 
irep II. 9. 247 ; but nai -rrep iroWd iraOdvTa Od. 7. 224. 

268. The chief places of public resort; the poor man is an 
outsider like the peasants of 54. 



NOTES 195 

O.iol ^°^^* *^' ^^ ^" "'^"'^ '^' ^^^^' ''^°^'''"' *'X«'' ^i) WJ7 Hdt. 
cirfjivKTOs 7mp. ?e^. ' scorned,' almost = ' hooted ' ; al 8' ^n4uvfav 
Aerjuacrj re hoc Hprj II. 4. 20, 8. 457, ' murmured thereat ' ; we Sre 
. expressly told that Athene did not speak (d/«W ^v ovd4 n dnc II 4 

oil o^"'^':^"''^''^^''"'^''"-' Hesych. has lri>^,r aT*m7ao9/ ' 
2n. Spondaic endings 613, C.93, 715, 875, 995. 

0v. dv0p. I : II. 18. 404. 
272. ytip. ov\. : cf. 527, 768, 1011, 1021 ; H. Aphr. 243. 
2/3. I Twv IT. : II. 22. 424, Od. 4. 104. 

274 0avdT. KT\ are in appos. with t. ituvtuv. Trovrjp. is an 
afterthought cf. 174. 

275. Cf. 695, 01 pa fxiv iiaua^ovTo koX ap^fva iravra napetxov Hes. 
oh. 84. 

276. Karaeiadai Orjaavpovs h oikw Xen. Cyrop. 8. 2. 15. 

277. Karap. : for the inf. cf. KaTapdujAfvai \a0ecv avrvv (kcIvtiv irupav 
TovTcov Polyb. 15. 29. 14. > i r 

278.^ There is no need to change la. to tirepx. ; cf. irdurj 8' ov itot( 
STJP.OV (aipxerai Od. 15. 407. 

279-82. ' It is natural for a bad man to think badly of (i. e. to 
disregard) justice ; he is allowed to be successful in his crimes for 
the moment.' 

279. TO, SiKaia : cf. 885, 395 ; Xenophanes 1. 15. 

281. 'iTapa=--Trdp€aTi Od. 3. 324. 

dird\ap.va : (1) * criminal deeds ' with the notion (2) ' foolish ' 
also implied. In II. 5. 597 an. probably means ' shiftless '. 

(1) oTi 6av6vTojy fXiv evOdS' uvtik dirdKapii/oi <Pp(ves wotm? triaav 
('guilty') Find. 01. 2. 63; (2) Th. 481 ; Sol. 27. 12; so dndkauo^ 
Hes. W. D. 20. 

dvcX. 'undertake,' cf. dv. TroXepiov Hdt. 5. 36; Thuc. 6. 1. The 
idea of 'winning' a prize is also present, dtdAia /fdA' dveKiadai 
Od. 21. 117. 

282. irdp TToBos : for the first few steps he will be successful ; yvovra 
TO Trap vodus Find. Pyth. 3. 60, 'our nearest business' Gildersleeve ; 
TO npo TToSos xpVf^o. Isthm. 8. 13, ' what is present or instant,' 
Bury. Tvxcju Kfv dpnaXeav ox^Ooi (ppovriha Tav nap iroSvs' rd 5' ds ivi- 
avTuv drfK/AapTov npovofjaat Pyth. 10. 62 ; ' if he succeeds, he will seize 
with rapture on his immediate desire ; but what a year may bring 
forth, no sign can foreshow,' Jebb. Cf. mdpxf'P'^s Bacchyl. 13. 10. 

283. irio-Tos, hero act., ' trusting '; to^ovXkw Kr^fiari marovs Aesch. 
Pers. 55 ; cf. the active use of nvpyoSdlfCTOi Aesch. Pers. 104 ; 
HepLnroi Soph. Tr. 446 ; vnonros Thuc. 1. 90. 

iroSa TTpop. : cf. ov pancv nuSa Eur. El. 94, 1173 ; «/f/3ds nuSa Eur. 
Heracld. 802; npopds kwXov Sf^iuv Eur. Phoen. 1412. 

284. 4>iXt)p,., only here and on an early Attic inscription. 

285. Z. Pao-. : 1120. He is called ' king', Hes. W. D. 668 {d9. &aa.), 
H. Dem. 358, but never in II. Od. where he is frequently styled 
p.i'^iaros. 

Trap. nap. tovs tyyvijTas Plat. Laws 871 e. (y^vos instead of 
the more common lyyvTjrrjs. It also occurs Xen. Vectig. 4. 20, in 
Lysias, Aristotle and later Greek. 

286. irio-rd : cf. niard. Sidcuaiv avroh Xen. Cyrop. 4. 2. 8, 

287. KaKoij/oYiy {hap. leg.) has caused much offence, and many 
ingenious explanations and emendations have been offered. Ber^k 

o2 



196 NOTES 



I 



suggested <pi\o\p6y(i), ' fond of blaming,' Boissonade Ka\o\p6yq}, 
* blaming the /fa\ot.' Mr. Harrison comments : ' It naturally 
means "fond of blaming what is bad", ** stern in criticism -of 
faults " ; and of course it is here ironical (as with us * * critical " often 
means ''hypercritical") '. It is simpler to take it as = * maliciously 
blaming * ; cf. Kafcrjyopos, Kafco\6yos, KaKopprjfxojv, KaKoarofxos, €v6vSikos 
(Bacchyl. 5. 6). ' Compounds to which Kanos gives the first part 
are of two classes, according as the kuko- element is (1) adj. or (2) 
subst. In class (1) there are again two types. The commonest is 
that of /fa«o)3to? = k. 0. 4'xw, i. e. the compound denotes * possessing ' 
the substantive as qualified by /caKos.' Jebb on Soph. Philoct. 692. 
KaKo--ip6yos may represent KaKo. ipeyoj^ ' I make malicious state- 
ments in blame ' ; cf. alfid^eis wSas, * raise thy songs in blood,' 
Eur. Ion 168. 

288. <T<pJ|€<r0ai : cf. on 68 ; ' too stupid to keep the state in a 
sound political condition.' 

dv., ' foolish.' dvoX^ov dvSp evovOerei Soph. Ajax 1156 ; Antig. 
1026 ; cf. SvanoTfios Soph. O. T. 888. 

289. €0-0. K. I : Hes. W. D. 179. 

290. dvSpuv (MSS.) may possibly be due to a misunderstood 
abbreviation of dvbpdaiv ; cf. KaKoTai Se /i?) ■npoaopLikd | dvZpdaiv 32, 
598, 1186, 1378. < They rule with strange laws,' cf. 60. veoxp^oh 
vufxoii Zfvs Kparvvfi Aesch. Prom, 150. 

cKxpaircXos : 'turning from the common course, perverted, 
devious.' There may be here a reminiscence of fxvdoKXi okoKioTs 
kv6TTQ)v Hes. W, D. 194. In a scholion on Aristoph. k/cTpdneXa is 
explained as CKXr^pd, dTraidevra, dvujfiaXa. The word is used of 
monsters, itrepajTovs dvOpunovs Knl oAcw? avvOerd nva ^^a Kal eKTpditf\a 
oiov irriyaooi kol yopyoves koX Kevravpoi Kal aeiprjvcs Hermog. Lucian 
uses the adverb [ = enormiter) (adoov (KTpaneKojs crrondxcuv Kaicd 
A. Pal. 11. 402. 

291. 2. Cf. 647, 8. 

293. This couplet hints that the biter is sometimes bit ; cf. 
alpovvTcs ijprjfie9a. 

294. I Kal Kpartpus neo ewv II. 15. 195 ; H. Hei'm. 386. 'ipLfpos alpd 
II. 3. 446. 

295. KWTiX.: cf. 363, 816, 852. x*^- axO. 1 : 1384. 

296. d8aT|s : the meaning is perhaps 'if he talks, the chatterer 
shows his ignorance to the company '. Bgk.^ printed dh^s ; cf. 
Hesych. dSjys* drfpifqs. 

297. ' We must endure his company, he is a necessary evil ' ; or 
better, ' such a man is a torture (dvayKaiyf) in a convivial gathering.' 

eirijjii|is = lirt/xet^t'a ; jj ■noXiojv tmnH^ia iroXeaiv PI. Laws 949 E. 

eni/xv^is was once suggested by Bergk, but afterwards re- 
jected by him. Cf. iiripuKTos 269 in all MSS. except A, which 
retains the correct kiripLVKTos. 

299. Xfj is not a Doric form, cf. ^^. 

300. ouSeis . . . ov8' <£, ' no one, not even the one born of the 
same mother as the man in trouble.' The subject to yeyuvr) is the 
dvSpi of 299. For the dat. cf. ts kfiol [iids eyever' l« /xarpos Eur. 
Phoen. 156. 

301. Cf. 1353. 

302. dyX""©* • cf- dyxi6vpos vaioiaa Theocr. 2. 71 ; d7xt5o[/*ots] 
\kTaipa~\is Bacchyl. 12. 89. 



NOTES 197 

303. • Let well alone.' 

KiVKXifeiv : lit. ' wag, shake ' ; KiyK\or 6pv(cv wkvws r^v oipdiv 
KivovvTlesych, 'wag-tail'; he equates «t7/fA£'C6t with (roX6i;« novKivfi 
Kivd. Cf. noTfKi-^KXi^iv Theocr. 5. 117, 'twist yourself about' 
wriggle'. ' 

aTpejxifciv is here trans., 'keep steady' ; see note on 47. 

Tofs ivTVxovaiv avficptpei aTpefxi^Hv ml (pvkaaaciv ttjv irapovaav 
(virpayiav Antiphon Or. II. 9. 

304. €s6p0. p. : )( KaTa&dWuv (evertere), 'set it straight'. For S. 
cf. Trefiifu a' Tjirupuvde ^aXwv tv vrjl fxeXaivri Od. 18. 84 ; aunt's fx' is upOov 
arijaov Eur. Orest. 231. 

305. Cf. 'matris ab alvo'. 

According to Theognis some men are born kokoi, others become 
KaKot (by associating with kokoi 85), others have KaKor-qs thrust 
upon them (by Trevir}), so I prefer vavTfs {A) to ttclvtcvs. 

For the sentiment cf. Eur. El. 367-76, which is full of re- 
miniscences and criticisms of Theognis. 

306. o-vv. <|>. : cf. 824. ovpeefxevoi <piKiav Xen. An. 2. 5. 8, ^vpifiaxiav 
Thuc. 1. 115. 4. 

308. tXir., 'thinking.' 

309-12. Among boon-companions a man should be discreet and 
hide his curiosity under a mask of indifference ; he should con- 
tribute to the entertainment, and afterwards keep to himself the 
knowledge he has gained there, and profit by it when occasion 
oflers. TTCLVTuv olvos eSu^e voov. For another explanation see 
Harr., p. 325. 

310. ws dir., ' as if he were not there at all.' 

311. 6tipTi<}>i, 'outside.' ra t' 'ivhodi Kai ra Ovprjcpi Od. 22. 220. 
KapT€p6s eiT), 'let him restrain himself; cf. 480 which deals 

with a similar subject. 

312. Cf. 898. iQyovfiai cocpias dvai fxipos ovk eKaxiarov 6p6m yivwaKfiv 
oTos €KaaTos dvrjp Euenus 3. 

313. (xaivo|Aai, 'carouse,' * faire des folies'; * recepto dulce mihi 
furere est amico' Hor. Od. 2. 7. 27; ovv fioi fxaivofitvo) piaiveo, aiv 
aw(pp()VL o(U(pp6v(i Scol. 22. 

315-18 by Solon. 

315. TT^vojAai : not used by Hom. or Hes. in this sense ('I am 
j)Oor ' J ; common in Attic. 

316. Siafji. : cf. irpus AiOfirjSfa revx^ d/xeifie XP^^^^ X"^''**'^'' !'• 
6. 235 : for midd. cf. Plat. Laws 915 e. 

317. dperds ye fiiv ov pnvvdn fiporuv dfia awp.ari (piyyos Bacchyl. 
3. 90. 

318. Cf. Eur. El. 941-4. 

319. «|jiiT68ov ; cf. Th. 317, 1084. ' Keeps his resolution un- 
shaken ' ; cf. (fineSos vuos, <ppivis, ^rop (Hom. e. g. Od. 18. 215). For 
the sentiment cf. 355, 393-8, 441 sqq., 525, 555, 1029. 'Aequan» 
memento rebus in arduis servare mentem' Hor. Od. 2. 8. 1 ; 
dAA.' (V (pepeiv XPV (TVfjKpopds rov ivyevrj Eur. fr. 99. 

320. Some inferior MSS. and Stob. read tv t' dyad oh Kupavos tv t( 
KOKoTs of which Bergk approves ; but the words roKfx^ and ««t><i'ov 
are more applicable to bad than to good fortune, and if we begin 
with the bad the transition to the combination of tliese words 
with oiYoOois is less abrupt ; cf. or. n. 443. 

Cf. (5 Ktifxtvov 845. 



198 NOTES 



321. /3t'j/j/ Kai KvSos onaaaov \ II. 7. 205 ; cf. Od. 15. 320 ; Hes. 
W. D. 167 ; PioTov «at KrrjfMTaOd. 2. 128. 0ios = res in Hes. W. D. H89. 
' Beggars mounted run their horse to death*, 3 Henry VI, 1.4. 127. 

322. d4)p. : 693. 

KttT., • restrain ' ; k. Kupov Sol. 4. 9 ; ' superare satietatem ' Cic 
Pro Mur. 9. 21 ; lit. ' keep down ', h Kov\ea> KaTafrxoiaa ^iipos 
Find. Nem. 10. 6. 

Instead of /caKirjv Stob. has /Storoi/, * cannot keep their wealth.' 
KaKirjv is more Theognidean, and gives a better balance to the 
poem. yv. e'x. eyLtw. roXyL. )( dtppaivcuv, ov KaK. nar. 

(/)eu (f)€v' KaKoTaiv ws orav Saif^uv Sidw Ka\w9, vfipi^ova' ws dd irpd^ovTis 
tv Eur. Suppl. 463. 

323. eiri, "on account of; cf. i-nl fxcydKy koi (irl Ppaxtia ufio'ws 
■npoipdad fXT] ('i^ovTcs Thuc. 1. 141 ; irdw ent apmcpoh (vavTiov/xevr] Plat. 
Apol. 40 A. 

324. x°'^'» ' «ruel ' ; oveiBr), fivOos, lirea Horn. 

8iai|3o\i-[] : cf. KaraipLapxpas 950 ; irdpai^aTai II. 23. 132 ; napai- 
0u\a H. Herm. 56 ; KaTcu^aTai Od. 13. 110. 

hiai^oKidv restored by Bergk Pind. Pyth. 2. 76. 

325. dfiapToiXoiai (0) does not occur elsewhere in the Theog- 
nidea ; we find d^iapraiX-q (peccatum) Th. 327, 1248, 1281 ; the only 
other examples given by Stephanus (Thesaurus) are -fjcn vuoio 
Rhianus, four from Aretaeus, and a gloss from Hes. d^poTivq- 
dfxapTOjXi]. ' AfxapTOjKia, ' ApicTTocpdvrjs 'Elprjvrj, EuttoAis MapiKa Antiatt. 
Bekker, p. 79. 10; this confirms Bentley's vcp' dfxapTwKias Peace 415. 
dfmpTcoKuTcpov occurs in Arist. Nic. Eth. 2. 9, and possibly in the 
feminine d/iapTwA^ Ye/jft'" Aristoph. Thesm. 1111 (but some take this 
to be tlie noun = ^ a lump of sin '), and often in LXX and N. T. 

XoXwTo : in Horn. c. dat. of person and genit. of thing. Cf. a'lTHu 
8^ Sfi ovK <7ri Ttavri Theocr. 14. 64 ; )U7;5' exOaip^ (piKov abv dp-aprdSos 
(ivfKa fitKpTjs Pythag. Carm, Aur. 7; cjri TraiSl xoXovpfvos Batr. 109. 

326. up6|A. : here and 1312 c. dat. and joined to <pi\os ; cf. rjpiiu 
dpdpuoi ?iaav Od. 16. 427 ; Itt dpOpLw koX (piKurrjTi H. Herm. 524. 

327. Some construe ev dvOp. (' in the world ') dp.. 6v. en. (' accom- 
pany mortals'). Better, 'accompany, i.e. are naturally found, 
in tlic midst of or among mortal men.' tirfaOai with a simple dative 
is often used in a similar sense by Theognis (e. g. 150) ; cf. 'iinrai 
5' kv l/fdffTo; pLerpov vo^aai Se uaipos dpicros Pind. 01. 13. 47, where 
err. is used absolutely = knufxevov eari, * is meet ' (Gildersleeve) ; 
ev TTuKfi T€ KOI irdaais dpxais koi k^ovaiais drroKdnop.fvais dpfTTJs frrcrat 
Tu KaKOJs tipdmiv Plato, Alcib. I. 135 a, 'naturally follows'; cf. /zTjSei' 
d.pLapT(iv e<jTi 6fS}V Kal iravra KaropOovv Simon, ap. Demos, p. 322. 

328. 4)€p€iv, ' tolerate ' ; all men err ; they should therefore be 
charitable towards one another ; but the gods will not endure sin. 

329. €uPovXos : os in caesura as in 2, 461, 1232. Or should we 
read ISpabvs wv ev0ov\os e\ev (Jacobs) ? 

Cf. Kix^ivei roi Ppahvs wkvv, els koi vvv "H(paicrTos kujv 0pa8vs ciKev 
"Aprja Od. 8. 329 ; ' raro antecedentem scelestum deseruit pede 
poena claudo' Hor. Od. 3. 2. 31. 

330. Cf. l9eiT)m StKr/ai H. Dem. 152; diKrjv lOvvrara t'lnoi II. 18. 
508 ; )( GKoXiri'^i Uicriai Hes. W. D. 219. 

331. 2. Cf. 219, 20; riavxoi )( dcrxaAAe 219 ; 4>x- T^oaaiv, cf. vcpOaX- 
ptotaiv iSeaOat, &c., in Homer. 

332. Cf. 544. 






1 



NOTES 199 

333. in ik-nihi : cf. 823. 

334. auTos, ' the same ' ; cf. 622 ; Od, 8. 107, 10. 263 ; II. 12. 225. 
ovSds ai/Tos €1/ TTuvois T dvTjp orav t6 tt/jos tu dapaos (k <p6^ov neay Eur. 

335. 6. A good instance of the expression of popular saws in 
verse, as frequently in Pindar, cf. xPWara, xpVt^a-r' dvrjp Isthm. 2. 
11 ; cf. 401-6 ; fxrjSty ayav twv Inrd cocpwv 6 aofuTaTos iiTtiv A. P. 7. 
683 ; ixfTpa (pvXdacFfaOar icaipus 5' km irdaiu dpiaros Hes. W. D. 694 ; 
fiirpa n\v -yuwfxa Siwkwu, fierpa 8t Kal Karix^^v Pind. Isthm. 6. 71 ; 
■naai irapayyeWo) fiijSeu vrrep^ to fxerpoi/ A. Plan. 224 ; rroWd fieaoiaiv 
dpiara' fxeaos 6i\o) iv ttu\(i dvai Phocyl. 12 ; tuu yap dp. noXiv (vpiaKcuu 
Ttt fxeaa paoaovi ovv uK^w reOaXora p.€p(popi! ouoav rvpavvihojv Pind 
Pyth. 11. 52. 

335. irdvTWv, ' in all things,' as vdvrojv ixerpov dpiarov, vnep^aoiai 
5' dXeyeivai Pseudo-Phocyl. 36. 

336. dp6TT|v, ' success.' 

TTJs 8' dperfjs Idpura Oeol rrpoTrdpoideu eOrjKav Hes. W. D. 289 ; 
X<iXend rd Ka\d, 

337. Tio-iv, * requital ' of good or bad. Constr. twv re <pi\. . . . 
rwv t' ex^P' Ti-f^i-v- There is no need to change Svvrj<Tup.€vov, which 
explains rwv ix^. riffiv, i. e. ' by letting me at some future time 
have power over thein '. For the anacoluthon cf. vTrfari fxoi Bdpaos 
KXvovaav Soph. El. 480 ; XeXvrai ydp epoi yviwu puipLT) Trjvb' rjXiKiav 
€ol86vt^ darwv i. e. eaiSuvTa Aesch, Pers. 913. 

339. p.€Ta: c. genit. = 'among'; Od. 10. 320. Generally with 
a notion of sharing, here absent. 

Cf. "EKTopd 6' us Oeus eoKC per' dvSpdaiv II. 24. 258 ; (paiverai poi 
K^vos iaos Oioioiv Sappho 2. 

340. Retain kixxi> cf. f^v k(pfjs p.6i, Xi^aip! dv Soph. El. 554. 

dtroT. : cf. ri ro KdXXiov irapd Oewv yepas €V ^porois ^ X^V virtp 
Kopv<pds ruiv ex^P^^ Kpeiacra} Karex^tv ; Eur. Bacch. 877. 

Oavdx. : cf. p.. Xd^oi 6. 820. xeAos Oavdroio Kix^ir] II. 9. 416 ; 
fxoipa. K. e. I Mimn. 6. 2, Callin. 1. 15, Tyrt. 7. 2, Sol. 20. 4, Simon. 
122. 2, ' Arist.' Peplus 29. 2, &c. 

341. dXXd : in prayers II. 1. 508 ; Pind. 01. 2. 13 ; (nrjv^aTo, dXX', 
w ZeD, dya6d Soiev ol Oeoi Xen. Cyrop. 5. 4. 14. 

Kaipios. In Homer only in neuter, * fatal * ; here = opportunits, 
* in good time, before I die' ; cf. Aesch. Sept. 1 ; Hdt. 1. 125. 
343. Cf. TeOvaiTjv ore poi pr]KeTi ravra peKoi Mimn. 1. 2. 

d\LTT. : dp.Ttavpd re p.epyi-qpd(x}v Hes. Th. 55 ; ^piva dpnamas fiepipvdv 
Bacchyl. 5. 7. 

345. ato-a ~ TO KaOfJKOv, ' thus is it fitting * ; cf. kut alaav tdirov 
II. 10. 445 ; ouTws eo-rt cf. Sis 'iov II. 11. 762. 

<{>aiv. : ovKiTL (paiucTO nop-nr] Od. 10. 79. 

For the mixture of 1st pers. sing, and plur. cf. 415-18, 649, 50, 
1101, 2, yvcjp.r]s ovKtT kyw rapiiji r]p.iT€pi]s 504 ; 11. 3. 440 ; Theocr. 
8. 75. 

346. «X' retains its force here, '■ keep in their possession.' 

347. 8. We cannot connect these lines with any known fable 
about a dog and a river. There may possibly be a reference to a 
story about a dog that shook off vermin as it crossed a stream. 
irdvT diroor. cannot mean 'having lost my all', as many scholars 
assume ; the poet has already expj-essed that idea in (n;\T|o- '^*'® 
sense i)erhaps is ' after shaking off every burden ', i. c. * all my 



200 NOTES 






pursuers'; and this is the most frequent use of diroffeiofxa 
uTreaeiaaTo tov ^apvovxfo. Hdt. 7. 88 ; tt/v yvvaiKa eKKpefMfievrjv an. 
Lucian, Tox. 61. Or ktjuv may simply = * I, poor wretch ' ; for the 
introduction of the figure (kvqjv) without m or ware cf. 1361 ; kyw 
Kvcov vXaKTeoj Hds. 6. 14 ; Aesch. Pers. 87-90 ; epos Savr' triva^ev (fioi 
<pp6vas dvefxos kut' opos dpvaiv kfiirtawv Sappho 42 ; ' qui recte vivendi 
prorogat horam rusticus exspectat,' &c., Hor. Ep. 1. 2. 41. 

349. €iTi : c. inf. 561, 1153, 1155; Find. 01. 1. 118 ; Isthm. 1. 64. 
[I. a. TTiciv : cf. II. 4. 35, where Zeus tells Hera that she could 

only sate her rage hy devouring Priam raw {ujfxuv ^cPpwOois) ; see 
Achilles to Hector II. 22. 347, 8. tovtovs djjxovs Set Karacpayeiv Xen. 
Anab. 4. 8. 14 ; the subject population of Sparta * would gladly eat 
their lords raw ' Hellenica 3. 3 ; (/xvXrjaOrjTi /jlov mvojv KcKaivov 
alfxa Eur. fr. 688 ; * I would eat his heart in the market-place,* 
Beatrice in Much Ado about Nothing, Act IV, Se. 1. 

(icXav : of all dark coloui's ; Kvavos, olvos, at/xa in Horn. 

eiTi . . . opoiTO : ' watch over the fulfilment of this ' ; km 5' 
dvepcs €ad\oi opovrai Od. 14. 104. 

350. 01) Tt KaO' riniT€p6v ye voov II. 9. 108. 

351. jjievto with the infin. means 'I wait for something to 
happen'; so I cannot follow those who read fji4v€is Uvai = /xeAAcu 
('delay '), 'why do you put off leaving me and going to another ? * 
Others translate 7rpo\. Uvai, ' avoid going ' ; cf. ovd' kOeKoj irpoKinHv 
ToSe ft^ ov oTfvdxfiv Soph. Elect. 133 ; this is here unnecessarily 
harsh. Uvai : inf. for imperat. ; ■trpoXiir. )( cf)i\ei in the next line, 
it is appropriately used for the departure of friends and benefactors 
(here of course with a touch of humour), and this participle occurs 
very frequently with verbs of going e. g. a' (KtXfvaev oixeaOai -npoKi- 
irovd' Tjfxiripqv (piXiTjv 1102 ; -npoXirtwv uai 1277 ; kKirpoKnrovTts e^au 
1136 ; cf. Hes. Shield 1, and other instances in the Index to Paley's 
Hesiod, s. v. vpoXivdiv. 

352. SV : cf. 597, 1243. 

353. «iroiX€o : used in Horn, of ' begging ' and ' attacking ', 
e.g. II. 5. 330 ; also simply 'going to' II. 15. 676. 

355. Cf. 1029. 'Be steadfast.' To Theognis, who had suffered 
greatly from the shifting changes of Fortune, ' Endurance is the 
crowning quality,' and specially characterizes the dyaOos ; cf. 
Tennyson's ' O well for him whose will is strong ! He suffers, but 
he will not suffer long', &c. KaK. : cf. * aequam memento rebus in 
(irduis servare mentem ' Hor. Od. 2. 3. 1. 

€xoip. : dudaxov vdax<^v' dpajv yap exa-ipf^ Eur. fr. 1075. 

356. cTTcPaXXev : rovs Ae\(povi Se cTrc/SaAAe TerapTTjfiopiov irapaax^tv 
Hdt. 2. 180 ; Moipa (veaKrjtf/e Yltpaais ■noKip.ovs Sieirfiv Aesch. Pers. 
103. 

The word is more appropriate to misfortune ; the poet in using 
it with reference to good fortune wishes perhaps to remind Cyrnus 
that the same fate is now inflicting disaster upon him. 

357. Bgk.* needlessly proposed to change eXaffes into eXaxfs, cf. 
Xd^rj? dviTju 76, invir^v tXaliov 385. 

358. Cf. 944, 1116. €k8. : kukwu liroUaeai tjSt) Od. 20. 53 ; 
(Kdvfxev oXcOpov 11. 16. 99; f^edv d'lKrji Eur. Suppl. 416; 'ex malis 
emergere ' Ter. Andr. 3. 3. 30. There may be a ref. to escaping from 
' a sea of troubles ', a verj- common figure in Greek poetry, e. g. 
Aesch. Persae 600, Eur. Here. Fur. 1087. 



NOTES 201 

359 XCtiv is emphatic, 'Do not be too ready to publish your 
woes ; cf . 442, 655, 6. r j 

^ €m<|>.: ' superostendo, prae me fero,' Steph. The active ^in- 
ipatvw IS rarely found until the post-classical period, e. g. Lucian 
Alex. 12. For the midd. and pass. cf. Hdt. 2. 152, Time. 8. 42.' 
For the thought cf^ aWorpioKXiv jx^ irpocpaiveiv kt\. Find, fr! 
42 ; kKjxapTvpuv yap dvSpa ras avrov rvxas fh iravras dfxaOts, to 6* 
iTTiKpintTiaeai aocp6v Eur. fr. 557; cf. another excellent parallel 
Eur. fr. 463, 

360. KT]B., ' sympathizers with, persons concerned about ' ; cf. 645. 
In Homer = 'chief mourners,' II. 23. 163, 674. Cf. & irovu 8ixa 
KrjdffxoPQju, 'the woes he bears with none to tend him ' (Jebb), Soph. 
Philoet. 195 ; Antig. 549 ; ■^/xds Se oh K-qbepLwv ovdeh ndpeariv Xen. An. 
.'>. 1. 17, 'no one to plead our cause * (Jebb). 

361. Cf. 872, 900 ; ix4y. ir. II. 3. 50 ; ^wvQ^i intr. cf. nivieei tpy' 
dvepunuv (through floods) II. 16. 392 ; fiiv. ^rop kraipajv Od. 4. 374. 

363. KWT., ' cajole, deceive,' cf. 851, 2 ; be a ipikos d-nb yXwaarjs (63). 
Hesych. gl. kojt.' KoKaKsveiv, doXicus dirardv. fxrjSe yvurj 0( vuov vvyoaru- 
Ao? e^aTTaTaTO} alfxvKa KOJTiWovaa Hes. W. D. 373. 

vTTOx. : hap. leg. in Homer, orts x' viroYe/pto? eKOrj Od. 15. 448 : 
cf. Hdt. 1. 106. 

364. The meaning is not ' having admitted of no excuse ' (Banks), 
or 'gib keiner Entschuldigung Raum' (Hartung;, but 'offering no 
excuse in justification of your conduct'. This affords a better 
contrast to tv kwt. ' Lull your enemy's suspicions by fair speeches ; 
having once got him into your power, throw off the mask and take 
vengeance.' 

365. ' Check, restrain yourself with prudence.' 

l'o-x€ : intr. cf. laxf, i^v <p^^ov vikoj ttoXv Aesch. Choeph. 1052 ; 
X(i-i^(tivos laxovaiv, uXiyoi re yiyvovrai of Indian rivers Arrian 5. 9. 4 ; 
ouS' kbvvdadT] dvax^^^^i-v Od. 5. 320. The midd. is more common in 
this sense ; 'iax^o /xrjd' eOeX' otos €pi^€fx(vai ^aaiXfvdiv II, 2. 247. v6« : 
cf. 1237 ; vow Koi fiovXrj ^pa^ojxfOa Od. 3. 128, 

[iLiiX. : cf. fx. /xvOos, eiTos in Hom. 

y\. . . . eireaTCi) : cf. 85, 1024 ; 'OSvarji Kapt] w/xoiatv kndT] II. 2. 259. 
366 - 1030. 

367. 1184 a has the better reading. 

ovT. ex- V. 1 : 814, 1016; voov ovr. e'x- H. 22. 382. 

368. Cf. 24. 

369. The reason for jxcop,. is given by d(r6<(»(«)v ; cf. tu^u ris dfiaOu 
aocpd \4ycuv ovk ev (ppoviiv Eur. Eacch. 480 ; «a/<:os r/St koI (a$K6% \ II. 
9. 319. 

370. Cf. fxaj/x-qaerai ris fxdWov tj pitpL-qatrai (Diogenian 6. 74) said 
to have been inscribed on the paintings of ApoUodorus : it was also 
attributed to Zeuxis. For the play on sound cf. dpd ye yivuaKfis & 
dvayivwoKfis ; Acts 8. 30 ; Swao? ical "Xwaw aojTrjpia Tuvh' dveOrjKav, ScDcos 
fjiev (TQjOeh, ^ojaoi) 8' oti 'S.Sjaos iouOrj Simon. 167, with which we may 
compare an inscription on a Paris monument to Etienno Dolet, 
'noil dolet ipso Dolet sed pia turba dolet.' 

d(r6()>. : ao<pois Kdov<pois Find. 01. 3. 45. 
daofpia is used by Lucian. 

371. Cf. ?i\eev u fiovs vtt' dporpov tKovaios (erotic) Callim. Ep. 45. 
' By dragging me so violently into friendship you are simply driving 



202 NOTES 

ail unwilling animal under the car.' There is no reference to the 
' yoke of friendship ' here. 
d«K. p. : cf. 651. 

372. XiT]v with Trpoa. For the midd. -npoa. cf. Ar. Eccles. 909 ; SicL 
T7/J/ u/xi\iav Toiis fpaards npoafXKvaaaOai Athen. p. 600 f. 

373-92. These lines as they stand cannot form an unbroken 
whole. They may once have been parts of a complete poem ; if so, 
portions have dropped out before 383. The argument of 372-80 is : 
' Although Zeus has sovereign knowledge and sovereign power, he 
still makes no distinction between good and bad men. 383-92 
begins abruptly with epiirrjs oX&. ktK., words which cannot be directly 
attached to the preceding lines owing to the difference in tone and 
the impossibility of finding a subject for 'ixovoLv in 377-82. 379, 80 
ai-e simply an expansion of 877, 8. It may be that a couplet (or 
more) originally stood before 383 referring to the prosperity of the 
wicked, a subject that has no place in the preceding lines ; the 
rest of the poem deals with one theme : * good men are driven to 
sin through necessity ' ; the key-word is not -nivirj, but the aixrj- 
XavL-q that it engenders and the involuntary wrong-doing that 
ensues. 

Mr. Harrison is probably right in detecting a note of ' flippant 
earnestness ' in 373 sqq. ZeG <pl\(, he says (p. 192), 'is perhaps 
unique in serious poetry : ''my dear Zeus, I am surprised at you".' 
We may compare ^ pa fxdrTjv, Ztv </)tAe, fiovs kyivov Antip. A. P. 5. 109 ; 
"Axpi TtVos, Z(C, Zev (pi\€ ; (nyrjaoj, kuvtos kpdv efxadt^ ; Asclep. A. P. 
5. 167 ; Z(v </)<Af, TovTo fieya Callim. Ep. 6. 

373. dv. : c. dat. 803 ; irdvTiaai 5' dvdaauv \ II. 1. 288 ; after the 
epic period it is more frequently constructed with a genit. 

374. auTos, ' for yourself, without giving others a share ' ; cf. 959 ; 
II. 2. 233. 

Cf. cDi/ /xtydKij SwVa/Lus | 34. 

376. virax. : vnaroi X^x^^'^^ oTpo(po8ivovvTai Aesch. Ag. 50 ; cf. vnarc 
KpuvvTojv in Homer (e.g. Od. 1. 45). 

377. AXiT. j : cf. 731, 745. 

378. ""Afiaaiv kv ovh^p-irj /xoipr) fxeydXri r^yov Hdt. 2. 172 ; uTiixoTaTri 
evi fioipTj Theocr. 14. 49. 

379. Cf. ovt' (ttI yrjOoavvas TpdvfTO vvos Aj). Rh. 4. 618. 

380. Cf. 1262. 

381. ' Nothing fixed ', 'no definite rule laid down '. Cf. fiporajv 
y€ KiKpLTai vfipas ov ri Oavdrov, ' a certain goal of death is in no wise 
fixed ' (Gild.), Pind. 01. 2. 33. 

382. TivTiv' has been needlessly emended. A sing, subject can 
be easily supplied from ^poroiai, cf. 388 ; for the omission of ns 
cf. ov8e Kfv dWojs KpLvdjXiVo^ Kt^airo Kara tttuKlv dvSpas dpiarovs (sc. Tis) 
Od. 24. 108. For 6Suv tjvtiv' cf. ttKovtov 8' of fiev dcbai 6(ol Trapayiyverai 
dv8pl efXTifSoi Sol. 13. 9 ; rdaSe 5' dairfp dcropds x^^povai Soph. Trach. 
283. 

a8oi : for the opt. cf. ovk (ariv otw /xfi^ova fioipav udfjun/xi Aesch. 
P. V. 293, and Sidgwick's notes on this remote deliberative in Ap- 
pendix I to his edition of Agamemnon. 

'There are clear examples of the simple optative where a 
question as to the possible or conceivable is put in an abstract way. 
This optative may fitly bo called "dubitative", and is properly 
compared with the deliberative subjunctive ' Jebb on Soph. O. C 
170. 



NOTES 203 

383. Tol 8€ indicates that the subject of evoitrtz/ was 'wicked 
men '. 

^ "Tfc'^ 'unattended by woe'; dTrtjuoowr), 'protection from 
harm, 758. 

384. lo-x- : cf. 140, 816 ; dvfibv i'o-xftJ' iv arqefom {' restrain') II. 9. 
256; connect 'iaxovTfs ofxwi ; ofji. c. partic. ('although') as 1029 
and voawv ofiws Soph. Trach. 1115. ' 

ircviTjv : 6(01)9 5vo dxprjarovs Ufuirjv re Kal 'Afirjxavirjv Hdt. 8. 111. 
Alcaeus calls tliem sisters fr. 92. 

385. T. 8iK. jt. : cf. 465. 

386. There is no need to change dvSpaiv to dvdpus because it is 
followed by a sing. ToKfxq, cf. dxprjaToiaiv dvdpdaiv . . . avrw 865. 

irapdYei : cf. 404, 630. This word is not used bv Horn, or 
Hes. ooipia Se icXivru irapdyoiaa fivOois Pind. Neni. 7, 24 :'Hdt. 1 91 

387. Cf. 650. 

388. ToXjxa, 'he brings himself to bear the burden of.' 

<()€p€tv combines two notions: (1) cptp. nrjixa, &c., 'endure'; 
(2) <^. icapifov. 

389. \p'^\l.., ' poverty' ; cf. 394, 560, 670. We find one other ex- 
ample in Stephanus ; xPV^t^oavvT] is frequently used in the same 
sense. 

61KC0V : TTivirt ('ikojv diraTqXia &d^H Od. 14. 157 (the only instance 
of TT€vir] in Homer). Cf. Kepdeaiv eiKojv Th. 823. 

8i8. : cf. 651 ; dX\' ex^t voaov nevia, dtSdaKei 8' dvSpa tt) XP*'? 
KaKov Eur. El. 376. 

393-400 should not be joined on to 383-92. They have been 
placed here as a reply to the preceding lines ; 383-92 tells us that 
tlie good man is driven by poverty to forsake his principles and 
commit base actions. According to 393-400 it is endurance (see on 
355) that distinguishes good men from bad, and keeps them from 
transgressing the laws of justice and society even in the storms of 
calamity. The second poem appears to have been modelled on tlie 
first ; there is a striking similarity in diction, rd SiKaia ipiXtvvTts 
(385) no longer in poverty ; rd diKaia (ppovti (395) even in poverty : 
ToX/jia (388) — ToXfjidv xpn v^98), (pepfiv 388 and 398. rd Uk. is in 
each case followed by a form of oan ; lOda yvwfir) (396) is certainly 
an answer to fiKdrrTova'' tv aT.(f>pivas (887) ; KpaTfpfjs vn' dvdyKrjs (387) 
in contrast to aid (395), so also irapdya (386) )( iOeia yv. (396) which 
does not swerve aside. The 6vnus of one is driven (386), the other 
is guided by voos (395). In 383-92 poverty obliterates the differ- 
ence between good and bad ; ace. to 393-400 it only serves t»> 
accentuate it, and turns the searchlight ((paivfrai 394) on the 
excellence of the good man. Penury may liold him in her grij) 
{mr^xv ^^^)^ l^ut he does not yield to her {xPVf^- f'**^" 389\ and 
he is not driven to commit the kuku TroWd of 388, 9. 398-400 — 
388-90; aid. <pi\. (399) )( ovXof^. (pid. (390) ; </>• oKta. opK. (399) )( 
•i//6i;5(a r f^airdras t' (390). 

393. IT. a\idv. I : II. 6. 479, Hes. W. D. 19. 

394. <})aiv€Tai, * is clearly seen ' ; cf. 550. Ipwuv kuiuvtuu nvpd 
(paivfTo II. 8. 561. 

396. «p.ir€<}>., ' is implanted.' iXirls ^tc viojv arrjOtaiv ifjupvirai 
Simon. 85. 6. 

397. «Tr€T., 'cannot adapt itself to good or bad fortune.* Cf. 
443, 4. 



204 NOTES 



398. Cf. 658. TO, Kal ra, < this and that,' occurs frequently in 
Pindar ; it always means divers things ; according to the context 
these may all be good, or some may be good and others bad. Zevs 
TO, Tc Kal TO, vffiei Isthm. 5. 52; Pyth. 7. 24 (see Bury on Nem. 
1. 29). 

399. Cf. note on 200. oXeo-. cf. dXeaifx^poros Orph. Lith. 444. 
For the ruin wrought by opKos, cf. Hes. Th. 231, 2 ; W. D. 804. 

400. 'EvTp. is best taken as a proper name (Harrison). Bekker 
roads Evrp., Sitzler evrpaireK*. 

fVTpdireKos means * shifty ', erros Pind. Pyth. 4. 105 (other MSS. 
6PTp.) ; KepSea (v. 1. (vrp.) Pyth. 1. 92. B. H. C. acting on a sugges- 
tion made by Bgk.* in his cr. notes assume a lacuna after opKov^; 
the missing couplet lead up to evrpdneK' (? shameful), not an 
inappropriate word in this connexion. 

fxiiviv aX. : II. 5. 444. 

401. Cf. 335. voTJaai Se Kaipds dpiaros Pind. 01. 13. 48 ; /xijbiv dyav 
Kaipw TTOLvra irpoaeari Ka\d Sodamus ap. Sehol. Eur. Hipp. 263. 

403. Cf. 229. €£s dcpevov ainvbovT Hes. W. D. 24. 

404. irp., ' deliberately, intentionally,' as Hes. W. D. 667, or 
perhaps = (pi\6(t>pQ}v as in <pi\6(ppwv irapaaaivd "Ara Aesch. Pers. 97 
(MSS. napdyei) ; cf. Soph. Antig. 621-5, 

dp.7rX., here = * loss ' ( = drrj 631), as dpfr-q — ' success '. 

405. Cf. 6r]K€ viKaaai, ' made him conquer,' Pind. Nem. 10. 48. 

407, 8. 'Though most dear to me you failed (to get something); 
your failure is due to want of understanding on your part,' air., 
cf. ovTi fxoi airir) kaai, Oioi vv fioi aiTioi elaiv II. 3. 164. 

408, Cf. 77 S' ov Tt voTjfiaTos Tj/x^porev kffOXov Od. 7. 292. 

409, 10. See App. Kar., * lay by,' Hes. W, D. 601 ; naial St mScD 
Xpri rroWrju ov xp^^'^v Karakuituv Plat. Laws 729 B. 

411. ov jJLiv rt KaaiyvrjToio x^P^'^o^'^ yiyvfrai 6s K€v kraTpos ewv irenvv- 
fiiva dSrj Od, 8, 585; cf, 34-6 where the advantages of associating 
with dyaOoi are enumerated : (1) they have fjnydxt) Swa/xis ; (2) one 
can learn good lessons from them {laOXd fiad-qatai. 35) ; (3) with 
the KaKoi, dnoKus Kal tuv (ovra voov. For the value of yvu/xr), cf. 
1171, 2. 

413, 14. Cf. 470, 508, 842, 884. GcopTigojiai : see Introd., p. 52. 
For further exx, cf. inaippi^ovri iroToJ (ppeva OajprjxOivr es Nicander 
Al, 32 ; d\6x<if ttotc OcupaxOds ctt^x' dWoTpia Tlapiojv Pind. fr. 72 ; 
OwprjxOds' fifdvoOfh Phryn. in Bekk. Anecd., p. 43. Phryn, adds 
XPVf^V <^^ "^V tdroivos fxaWov, In Ath. Polit, ch. 34, we read that 
Cleophon appeared in the Ecclesia fxiOvuv Kal QupaKa kvdeSvKwSf 
where, I think, the writer hints at the other use of douprjaacu. 

414. €^dY€iv : in Hom. educere, here incitare. tirl rd vov-qporfpa 
l^TJyov rbv ox^ov Thuc. 6, 89 ; epojs tis k^dyu Eur, Ale, 1080, 

Seivov tiros : Od. 8, 408, 
417, 18, See on 447-52; cf, 119, 20, 499, 

' I am rubbed (on or with the stone) like gold side by side with 
adulterated gold (i.e. containing an admixture of lead}.' ev XiOivais 
aKovais 6 xpfO'oJ (^erdifrai Sidovs ^daavov <pav€pdv' kv St XP^^V dvSpwy 
dyadSjv Tf KaKwv re vovs (Sqjk eKeyxov Scol. by Chilon ap. Diog. 
Laert. 1. 71 ; tov xp^ffov rdv dK-qparov avrbv fiev kv tcuvrov ov Sia- 
yivuxTKOfxev^ kiredv S^ TrapaTpiif/CJ/Jiiv d\Xa> XP^'^V Siayit/ojcTKOfxev rbv d/xeivoj 
Hdt. 7. 10 ; irapd xpv<rbv i(p9bv aK-qparov ovde fjiu\vPSov ix<^v Simon. 
64, 'For the business of money-changing the bankers kept by 






I 



NOTES 205 

them scales and touch-stones {^aaavos),' Whibley, Comp. Gk. Shid 
§ 478. See on 450. 

417. jAoXipBos. Here and 1105 in view of the practically unani- 
mous testimony of the MSS. (all but g which has iioXi^hw 1105) 
I have accepted the form fioM^fico in preference to }jio\v05a, 
(Herwerden, Bergk, and others). The form with v was probably 
tlie only one used by native Ionic writers of the early period. In 
Homer wo have fxo\v05mva and fxuKiffos. Attic inscriptions present 
/3j^Aos (Ionic /3i;/3Aos) as early as 400 b. c. See Weir Smvth, Ionic 
Dialect, § 155. "^ ' 

418. €v. \6yos. As the metaphor is probably taken from bank- 
ing, we may take \6yos to mean * count, balance '. ' The balance 
of excellence is on our side.* Harrison explains ^0705 as ratio 
<■ claim ', ' ground '; it is rather ratio in the sense of < account^ 
credit '. Others hold X. •uircp. to be simply a periphrasis = vircp. ; 
if so, cf. ft? A.0701/ Ti/i^s, ' for honour,' Ignat. Ep. Philad. 11, ds \6yov 
Qfov, ' in the matter of God,' Ignat. Ep. Simjrn. 10. 

vTrepTcpiT) ( ^ i/TTfpoxT?) is lap. leg. in this sense. Homer uses it 
once to denote a part of a chariot, vircprfpos often = ^ more excellent ' 
in Homer (e.g. II. 11. 290, 786). Hesych. gives vneprepiriar i/^w- 
repiafxcis, vir(pr](f)aviais. 

419. ' Thougli I understand them, I let them pass by.' Cf. 267, 8, 
669, 70. J , , 

421. Qvp. ouK liTiK. Ovpai 5' eireiceivTo <f>auvai Od. 6. 19. 

ToSt fiev ovKiTi OTufxaTos iv -nvkais KaOe^oj bvafKirfparou u\odv KaKuf 
Eur. Hipp. 882 ; devpuaTOfios 'Axw Soph. Phil. 188 ; dnv\ojTov oroixa 
Ar. Frogs 838 ; Gov. Kupte, (pvXaKrjv tZ (TTofiari fxov Kal Ovpav nfpioxrji 
irepi rd x^^^V /^ov LXX Psalms 140. 3 ; yXuaar^s roi drjaavpos kv 
avOpujitoiaiv dpcaros cfxidcDXrjs Hes. W. D. 719. 

422. dpjji68., ' tight-fitting ' ; cf. 6vpas nvKivm dpapvias Od. 21. 236. 
d|i€XTjTOS, hap. leg., but cf. tcuv toiovtojv dfiiXrjTiov Isocrat. 

Evag. 8 ; dvrjp ovic dfjLeXrjTfos Luc. Tim. 9 ; dfxfKrjTi Luc. Tim. 12. 
' Men busy themselves with much that does not concern them.' 

424. r\ TO KaKov is certainly spurious, nor has any adequate 
emendation been suggested. It may be a gloss on Xwiov that has 
crept into the text or been inserted to fill in a lacuna ; or the whole 
line may be an interpolation. See on 1194. 

425 sqq. See Appendix. 

Pessimism begins with Homer, ov fiev yap ri irov iariv oi^vpSt- 
Ttpov dvdpos -ndvTCuv oaoa re yaiav ewi irveiei re Kal tpirei II. 17. 446 ; 
ov5(v aKihvoTipov yaia rpicpti dvOpwnoio vdvTwv . . . (pn(i Od. 18. 130; 
■nXeit] fifv yap yaia KaKwv TrKcirj Se OdXaaaa Hes. W. D. 101. 

426. o^ios I'/fXioio I : H. Ap. 374, < piercing ' ; cf. II. 14. 345. 

427. 6dirT€ fi€ oTTi rdxiora, irvKas 'Aidao trep-QCoj II. 23. 71. Tlie 
man's ipvxrj will go to Hades, and the man himself will lie under 
the earth heaped upon him ; cf. 568 ; II. 1. 3. 

428. Several edd. have abandoned the MSS. reading (or yaiav(<p(a- 
aa/xfvov (Sext. Empir. who quotes the line) or yrjv iitifaad^fvov, 
which occur often in Gk. Lit. Cf. 'Apydav yaiav i<pfaadfi(vos \ ^ 
(TTi 01 0a6vKo\nos d/xdaaro SdKpvai vvficpa A. Pal. 7. 446 ; Koivrj yrjv 
kniiaaaBai fidWov rj (rjv par alaxwofikvov aiffxwofitvr} Xen. Cyr. 6. 
4. 6 ; Pind. Nem. 1 1. 16 ; A. Pal. 7. 238, 299, 480. Objection has been 
raised against kirapirja. because the word generally refers to rehi- 
tivcs or friends of the dead, e. g. Hdt. 8. 24. But wo have an exact 



206 NOTES 



parallel to our passage in Homer where Odysseus made himself 
a bed to lie on, fvvrjv eirafxrjaaTo Od. 5. 482. So here, ' never to be 
born is best ; the next best is to dig a grave for yourself and lie in 
it.' Cf. avrbv kyKpvxpa's koI t^? <pv\\d5os oaov irKuarov ySwaro €</)' eavruv 
firafxrjffas Heliod. Aethiop. 2. 20. 
429 sqq. See Appendix. 

<t>p. «o-e. i: 11.17. 470. 
430. 4v9. : cf. (vOfh avveaiv Eur. Suppl. 203. 

o\<us fj.€u yap ovdefxiav ■qyovfxai rotavTrjV (Tvai rix^V^ V'"''-^ ^^^^ KaKws 
TrfcpvKoOLV (Tojfpoovvrjv av fcal diKaioawrjv IpLttofqanev Isocr. adv. Soj)h. 25. 
TovTO otTTis : for the construction cf. 705-7. 

432. 'Sons of Asclepius,' here = taT/)o/. In Homer Ascl. appears 
as a skilled physician, and his sons Podalirius and Machaon in- 
herit their father's skill (II. 2. 732). There were famous schools of 
medicine claiming descent from him in Rhodes, Cos, and Cnidus. 
Many renowned physicians from other districts put forward a 
similar claim. 

433. uTTip., 'ruined.' See on 634. 

439. vT|Trios (like ax^rXioi) is frequently used by Homer and 
Hesiod at the beginning of a verse as an exclamation without a 
verb, 'Ah ! foolish he ' . . .; cf. II. 2. 38 ; Hes. W. D. 40. 

440. tiricTTp. I : 648, ' pay heed to,' cf. roCSe eireaTptcpovTo Soph. 
Phil. 599 ; riji \fvKTJs KaKdfiTjs ovdev emcTTpecpofxai A. P. 5. 48. 

441. oi) yap tis enix&oviojv iravra y (vdaipojv €<pv Bacchyl. 5. 54 ; 
ovTi fxarav OvaroTaL (pans Toidde Podrai ws ov irdura 6(ol ndaiv idcoKav 
iX^iv A. Pal. 12. 96. 

iravoX^ios : H. Dion. 54 ; irdvoX^oi Aesch. Suppl. 582. 

442. onus is the reading of A ; the rest read opLOJs. 

€m8., ' making no display of it ' ; cf. kirKpaivco (359) and deXcav 
fif) eiridrjXos uuai roiai "EA.A7;ff( Hdt. 8. 97 ; KXiiTTOjv Sr/irof 'ot emdrjXos 
Ar. Eccles. 661. 

444. Cf. 214. 86a€is : cf. II. 20. 265, 6 ; H. Dem. 147, 8 ; II. 3. 65, 6 ; 
opus S' dvdyKT] irTjpovds ^poroTs <pfpeiv Oewv SiSovtojv Aesch. Pers. 293. 

445. itnr. : cf. ooi 5' (iriToXpdTOj Kpahi-q Kal Ovpos aKoveiv Od. 1. 
353. Corsenn (Quaest., p. 33) proposed to read Soats (way of giving) 
. . . fircpxirai because the 4th foot when followed by the Bucolic 
Caesura must be a dactyl ; but cf. ovStv kv dvOpwitoiGi p.eu(i xPVh 
e pnf Sov alii Simon. 85. 

447. Besides the lit. * wash ' there is also present the idea of 
'abuse', 'thrash', 'lather' cf. ' laver la tete a', and the Welsh 
' golchi ' ('wash '). The meaning is ' mud won't stick to me '. Cf. 
ttX. 'abuse ' Ar. Ach. 381 ; vKvuerai' XoiSopeirai, vPpi^fTai kukus Hes. ; 
cf. €Kder)p(, 'dusted,' Theocr. 5. 119. 

448. kiVKov v5wp, ' clear water.' vSan \evKa> II. 23. 282, Od. 5. 70. 
ptva-o\Kai is rare in Attic, frequent in the Ionic of Hippocrates. 

449. Cf. 499, 1105, 6. air., 'cleansed in the melting-pot,' Hdt. 
1. 50; cf. iToKvTipuTipov x^i^o't'ow tov drtoWvpivov bid Twpbs Se doKipa- 
^op.ivov 1 Ep. Peter 1. 7. 

450. See on 417, 18. Av5ia pev ydp Xido's pavvci XP^<^^^7 dvSpwv 
5' dpfTav ao(pia re nayKparrjs t' kXtyx^i d\d9eia Bacchyl. fr. 10. The 
lapis Lydius was a flinty slate, black, grey, or white, and the result 
was judged by the colour of the mark made, cf. Pliny 33. 8. 

451. xpci'Hj 'face, surface,' used with dvdos 1017. 






NOTES 207 

i6s : especially rust on iron or brass, which would be used to 
adulterate gold. 

452. €i)p(is, ' mould ' ; cf. Ai(is rrais 6 xP^f^os- kuvov oi ahs oi,^^ kU 
SaiTTfi Pmd. fr. 222, attrib. by some to Sappho. 

avOos,' brilliant colour'; used most frequently of rcf? cf. 
ipvOpov Ideiv 450 ; ^a-nruv d\ds noKi^s dvOeai Antip. A.P. 6. 206. ' 

KaOapov : as so frequently, the end of the elegy reverts to the 
beginning {k. == dfiiavrov 447). 

458. Xa^xavco : c. ace. in Homer, fx^pos = fxoipa, cf. 150. 

454. d4>p. : )( aa;</>/). as in 497. 

450. €1: according to Weir Smyth, 'Attic fT (morphologicallv 
an older form than ('is) has been introduced into Th. 456, Anaci'. 
57, Hdt. &e.,' Ion. Dial., p. 589. It also occurs Batrachom. 13.* 
But our poem may be of later dale than the genuine elegies of 
Theognis. "^ 

457. o-vp.<|)opov : j) Trfi^lr) . . . avix(pop6s {eari) 526 and Xijxds yap toi 
■ndfx-rrav dfpyw avfi(f>opos dvdpi Hes. W. D. 302. For the sentiment 
cf. TTiKpov via yvvaiKi irpcafivrrjs dvrjp Eur. fr. 804. 

458. dW OX) TTtjdaXioiaiv krreWeTo vrjvs evepy-QS H. Ap. 418. irr/daKioT = 
Xo\iv6$ in Aesch. Sept. 206, an excellent illustration of the promi- 
nent place occupied by the sea in the Greek mind. 

4:o9.ayK. is used metaphorically = 'support' in Eur. Hec. 80, 
Hel. 277 ; cf. eaxf^'^^f^'^^ V^V "^P^^ oX^ov fidWer' dyKvpav Pind. Is. 6. 12 ; 
ib. 01. 6. 101 ; oio/^evos cnl Svcrl ^ovXais wffirep dyKvpais vpfiovaav tjttov 
(V adKcv rriv vvKlv iaeaOai Plut. Sol. 19. Sens. erot. as in our passage, 
iXaprj KardaTTjOi (p'lXov irpbs dXXov vrjvs fiirji ew' dyKvpijs ovk dacpaXrjs 
upfiovaa Herodas 1. 41, and ' nam melius duo defendunt retinacuhi 
navim' (of a second lover) Propert. 2. 22. 41. 

diropp. Sco-fji., cf. (in a somewhat similar context) ^poxov 
diTopprj^as 1099 ; dv€v deajxoio fxevovffi vtj(s Od. 13. 100. 

460. «K vvKTwv : cf. 1^ rjhh^^, ' in the day-time,' Soph. Elect. 780 ; 
ndraios (k vvktcuv (pofios Aesch. Choeph. 287 ; (k fxfarjfxffpirjs Archil. 
74. 3 (at midday). 

461. ttTTpTiKT., 'that cannot be accomplished', 'impossible'; cf. 
1031 ; in 1075 it means 'not done'. 

Ti yap (Xaclipw 4't' kcTTiv atrpaKr* uhvpupavov Soveiv icapdiav ; 
Bacchyl. fr. 8. 

voov : in caesura ; cf. (v^ovXbs 329, 

tir' : cf. 1031, 1149. Itti (pycp 6vfidv e'xtut/ Hes. W. D. 444; enl 
fxfl^oai ydpiois ttjv Sidvoiav enix'^v Plat. Laws 926 b ; with simple dat. 
(veixf TO) rroXfficv rr]v yvojfiTjv Plut. Aem. P. S. 

For the interruption caused by jitjSe p,€voiva, cf. ov KaXu/s 0iois 
rrapdp.iV€ Kfvrvxfis rd iravra Sotades ap. Stob. 3. 39 ; rii/es Karfjp^av, 
TTuTfpov "EXXrjves, f^dxr^s ; Aesch. Pers. 351. Bgk.* quotes Theocr. 
29. 3, Theocr. Ep. 21. 1. 

463, 4. The emphatic words are cv|ji,apcws and x*^*'""^- ^ftAoi' 
(MSS.) is corrupt; we require a word implying greatness in good 
or bad ; we cannot twist XP' ^' ^^ mean * a great crime '. Hecker's 
(TTidTjXou, ' conspicuous, si)lendid, brilliant,' gives excellent sense, 
and is closer to the MSS. reading than Bgk.'s KaXov. A cnreies.** 
scribe wrote ddXuv because he was probably thinking of the con- 
stant combination of SeiX. and dy. in Theognis. 

464. tin, ' belongs to'; almost = iireTai 410. For tni -^ iirfari, cf. 
II. 21. 110. 



208 NOTES 

The opposite sentiment is expressed in Hes. W. D. 287 t^v 
/xtv roi KaKOTTjra koi l\addv 'iariv kXiadai prjidicvi. 

465. ' Wear yourself out in the pursuit of goodness ' ; or rp. 
' versari in', 'occupy yourself with, practise'. /xt/Sc rpiPtaOt 
icaKotai II. 23. 735. 

466. alaxp. k. : cf. 608. Cf. /x^ KaKo. KepSaivdV KaKo. K€p5ea la' 
arrjoiv Hes. W. D. 352 ; ixrjh' -q pia ae txrjSafjius viKijadroj roauvSe fxiaeiv 
Soph. Ajax 1334. €t, : cf. 1354 and Od. 19. 329. 

467-96. See Introduction, p. 97. 

The poet has left his seat ; he is now standing before the 
assembled company and addresses his first remark to the comrade 
who is presiding over the symposium. In 467-74 he tells him how 
to act in relation to his fellow-revellers, in 475-8 he dilates upon 
his own condition ; 479-92 contain good advice on moderation 
that is excellent from a man who is himself half-seas over. He 
then (493) turns to the company and exhorts them to practise 
brotherly love. The poem ends and begins with the same theme, 
' How to conduct a symposium.' 

467. Thei-e is no reason to suspect twvS' ; it means ' the friends 
I see here before me ' ; irap' I'uxiv, ' in our company.' 

fjir] PL iOtXovT Uvai KaTcpvKave II. 24. 218 ; laov toi kukov eaO' 
OS r ovK iOeXovra veecrOai ^(ivov enoTpvvci Kal 6s kaavfievov Kartpvicei 
Od- 15. 72. kpvKM c. infin. Find. Nem. 4. 33. 

470. (1) [xaXOaKos: cogn. Eng. mild. (2) fjiaXaKos : (1194) (-ogn, 
nutlceo, dfiaKos ; both = * soft '. /zaA.a«os vnvos II. 10, 2, evvrj II. 9. 618, 
Kuias Od. 3. 38 ; ^aXOaKus vnvoi Hes. ap. Ath. p. 428 ; pia\9. aixixr}Tris, 
' soft-hearted, coward,' II. 17. 588 ; vttvoj fiaXaKcvTepa (wool) Theocr. 
5. 51 ; J7 pLaXaKuTTjs virvos (soft things) Herodas 6. 72 ; ' somno mollior 
herba' Verg. Eel. 7. 45. 

472. TO rrp!js fiiav mvnv laov irecpvKe to) Si^rjv KaKuv So2)h. a p. 
Atli. p. 428. 

473. irapao-raBov, ' standing by* ; same pos. Od. 10. 173. 

olvox- The subject is frequently omitted when a particular 
person is naturally associated with the verb, here the oivoxoos ; cf. 
oivoxofvei without a subj. Od. 21. 142; xtwafTcwi' Od. 4. 214. Hdt. 2. 
38 has rpix"^ W ^^"^ A''"*' iSnrai (i. e. the official in charge) ; eneiddv 
cpT)Tai TOI' fiiWovTa KXrjpovadai tiv^ dpxv^ Ath. Pol. 7 ; TauTa 8' 
dvepuTTjaas ' icd\u ' <J>T](riv' ' tovs [xdprvpas ' ib. 55 ; sc. ' the official '. 
For a similar use of the plural cf. u-norav irivcaaiv ('men drink') 
Th. 989 and iirepojTwaiv 8* orav doKip-d^ajatv Ath. Fol. 55. 

474. Yiverai c. infin. : cf. 639. a|3p. ir. = genio indulgere. 

475. ji€Tpov, 'just enough ' ; )( vvlp. fx. 501 ; cf. 837, 844 ; Bdicxov 
fiiTpov dpiCTov b fifj TToKv nrjh^ kXdxiorov Euenus 2. 1. 

p.€Xi.-i]8. oiv. : Od. 18. 426 ; cf. fieKiippojv olv. Od. 7. 182 ; dWd TTf-nov, 
fiiTpov yap e'xf's yXvKfpoio ttotoiOj onix^ Fanyasis ap. Ath. 36. 

476. XvaiKaKov : cf. vnvos, Xvojv pLiXid-qpara Ovfiov, \vaip.€\Tjs 
Od. 20. 56 ; \v<niruvois OepaTruvreaaiv (relieving their masters) Find. 
Fyth. 4. 41. 

477. 8ei|u) (c{/) which Bgk.^ accepts, represents an attempt to solve 
the difficulty felt by a scribe who either did not understand q^oj 
or found €i£w( =t)^cu) in the text he was copying. Mr. H. Richai'ds 
reads ^koj, following Athenaeus, and he compares eS ^tceiVj KaKws 
TjKfiv and three similar uses of the verb by Sophocles. ' In 
Theognis w? otvo^ ktK. shews that this is the meaning ; he is 



NOTES 209 

just in the state which is (to use Hamlet's word) " most gracious " ' 
Mr. Harrison very pertinently asks : ' But will not the future ^£w 
serve? It means "I shall he in the most gracious state (when 
I reach home) " ' (p. 325). In estimating the value of Athenaeus 
for fixing our text, we should remember that his quotation begins 
with riKOJ, and in a passage detached from its setting the present 
might very naturally replace the future, as in the case of all who 
quote 175 fjv di) xp^ (pevyovra was changed to xM -"^viriv ... to 
make the line more adapted for a separate existence. The poet 
means that his present condition {ovre ri yap &c.) is an indication 
of his fitness for sleep when he gets home. 

r\^u>, sc. o'lvov : cf, x^PV^ wpiuv ^Kovaav om ofxoiojs Hdt. 1. 149 ; 
TTws dywvos TJKOfxey ; Eur. El. 751 ; rov 0iov ev tjkovti Hdt. 1. 30. 

478. Cf. 840. 

479. ' ac ne quis modici transiliat munera Liberi ' Hor. Od. 1. 18. 7. 

480. avTov = avTov : cf. rrjv 8* avrov iroXiv Tyrt. 10. 3 ; rfjv avrov 
(pL\iti II. 9. 342. KapT. : c. genit. 'Aairjs Kaprepo^ fXT]\oTp6<pov Archil. 
26; oifKeTi Haprepol acpcbv r/cfav Arrian 7. 11. 3 ; us apwv naprtpos etrj 
Theocr. 15. 94. 

481. dirdX., ' foolish ' ; see on 281. 

vTi(j)0(ri : (only here and 627) like evdaifxuai, kXaaaoai. Hesych. 
has vq(poves' vrjcpovres, 
483. Cf. 502. 

485. trirav. generally means ' rise as a sign of respect ' ; eSpas 
viraviaravTai fiaaiKei Xen. Rep. Lac. 15. 6 ; but cf. Cyrop. 2. 4. 19, 
where it is used of a hare rising ; cf. k^aviaraao irpb [xi$ris Isocr. 
ad Demon. 33. pido-0<o : cf. 466, 503. The Chinese Book of Odes 
takes a different view : ' Happily and long into the night we drink, 
And none go home till all be drunk.' 

486. €4>T])ji. ! : 656, 966, ' day-labourer '. ot iraXaiol ^rrapridrai rovs 
EiA-WTa? ev rah eoprais itoXvu dvayKa^ovrts trivnv aKparov, elarjyov (is 
TO. avfivoffia rots veois olov kari to fxeOveiv kniSeiKVWTes Plut. Demetr. 
1. 2. Noblesse oblige, drunkenness is ^dvavaos and dveKevOepos. 

YaaTT|p : cf. ttSjs yap octis ear' dv^p yvdOov re dovXos vrjbvos 
6' iQcrarjfxevos KTrjaair' dv 6X0ov ; Eur. fr. 284. 

487. r\ ft. \i. irive violates the convivial etiquette of the Greeks ; 
'lex in Graecorum conviviis optinetur ; " aut bibat, aut abeat ! " ' 
{rj mOi 7j dmdi) Cic. Tusc. 5. 41. 

€YX«« TovTo : for the position of tovto cf. * od\ rovr (ttos yvvai- 
KoirXije^s ofuXos drrvcov Aesch. Pers. 122 ; • /x7/««t' kaiXdris,^ rdSe (pwvaiv 
Agam. 1334. 

p.aTaiov I : 507 on a similar subject. 

489. 4)iXoTT|crios (fem. -ia also occurs) : sc. kvXi^, ' cup of friend- 
ship, loving-cup.' Aeschines awearffpavovTo Kal avvevatwvt^t ^iXinir<jp 
KOI (ptXoTTjaias TTpovtriviv, * drank his health,' Demosth. F. Leg. 
p. 380 ; (piXoTTjaiav irpomveiv -qviKa ris (v tw dploTO) (pi&Xrjs rd ftipos 
TTiwv TO Xonrov irapdaxxi <pi^<f tat t^v (pidXr]V x^P^f^o.^fvos Suidns. 

TTpoKciTai, ' is for a wager,' ' is a prize ' ; cf. roTai 5i koI itpov- 
Kiiro ixeyas rpiiros (vrds dyuvos Hes. Sh. 312. irpoKfififya 3.6Xa is 
common in classical prose. 

490. «m x«<^pos «X«is : ^ sub manu habes. (itl x^^^o^ "7<*y c^f" 
Bergkio Hiller, perperam ; nam ad labra dytt etiam riju <fnXor, 
ceterosque calices,' Crusius. 

491. leg. dpv«to-0at ; A {alvfiaOai) is carelessly written here; cf. 

P 



210 NOTES 



■noXXuv 492, avvaifari 495. The active alvdv is used in the sense 
* decline with thanks ' ; there is no instance of the middle with 
this meaning, but kiraiviiaOai { = kvaiviiv) appears to have been 
used by Themist. Or, 16. p. 200. Cf. vrf oKiyrjv alvdv, fKydKr) 
8' kvl (popria deodai Hes. W. D. 643. dviK. : a new definition of 
a victor in a drinking contest, viz. not the man v/ho can drink 
most, but the man who after very copious draughts can still 
control his tongue. dviK., ' invincible/ as in Pind. Pyth. 4. 91 ; 
cf. Th. 971. 

492. TToXXds: for the ellipse cf. ertpav e'yxcoi' Ar. Knights 121; 
ireirajK^v l« Kaivrjs Herodas 1. 25 ; cf. x'^'os (yKoipai {irXrjyds) ib. 5. 33. 

493. Cf. 1047, 981 ; Anacr. 94 affords a good parallel. 

494. €pi8os should be retained. I have found no instance of the 
middle dnep. with an accus. of the object (as MSS. Th. 1207, but not 
A) ; 'keeping from strife with one another/ 7^5 dnfpvKufifvos 1210, 
act. 775. For the genitives cf. Ilcvddpoio nor' epiv Corinna 21 ; /far' 
(piv TTjv 'AdTjvaiouv Hdt. 5. 88. 

8t|v, ' for a long time ' ; cf. 597, 1243. 

495. Cf. kvi eKaarq) iwv Is avvovairjv koi ovvdiraai Hdt. 6. 128 ; ws h\ 
dvb Sdnvov kyevovTOy oi ixvrjffTrjpes tpiv elxov dpicpi t€ fiovaiK^ nal tw 
\fyopivq) h ro piffov ib. 129. 

498. Cf. 580, 629; Kov<pov exo^v Ovpidv ttoAA.' dreXeara voti Simon. 
85.8. 

Cf. note on 622. 

499. Cf. oivos yap dvOpwirois hioirrpov Alcaeus 53 ; olvos, w (piXt nai, 
Kal dxd6(a ib. 57 (= Theocr. 29. 1) ; oTvos epuros fXeyxos Asclep. 
A. P. 12. 135 ; ohos kXiyxd rov rponov Callias A. P. 11. 232. 

i8pi€s dvSpcs I : Od. 7. 108. 

500. xpovos . . . dvSpos €5ei^€ voov Simon. 99. 

501. TJpaxo : cf. diipopLivos 976. dpaaOar irpoaevfyKauOar Kparivos 
Tpo<p(oviq}- oi) aiTov dpaffOe in an old Lexicon ; toiovtov oitov npoaKpi- 
peaOai Xen. Cyrop. 4. 2. 41 ; koi rov aKparov eXKoipev, KvXiKas pd^ovas 
alpofjifvoi Kuf. A. P. 5. 12. 

503. oivopapco) does not seem to be used elsewhere except in the 
Od., and there only in the form olvo^apeiuv, Od. 9. 374. olvofiaprjs 
occui's once in Hom. (II. 1. 225), Simon, uses it A. Pal. 7. 24. 5 ; 
cf. oivq) fie^apTjores Od. 3. 139. Cf. vino gravatus (Verg.), gravis (Ovid). 

504. -yvwjjiTjs is far better than yXwaa-qs which some have adopted ; 
voov in 507 is conclusive : I have no reason nor can I stand up 
straight ; wine may have intelligence and steady legs. 

Cf. 1186, 1242. Taixi-qs, * lord of, master over.' Zeus is r. noXlpioio 
(' dispenser of battle ') II. 4. 84. We have a closer parallel in 
T. Kvpdvas Pind. Pyth. 5. 62; rapiai Sn-dpras Nem. 10. 52; t^s 
T€ firiOvpias koi t^s rvxrjs tov avrov raplav y^veaOai Thuc. 6. 78. 3. 
I cannot see how Mr. Harrison, after citing this passage from Thuc, 
can find the use of t. in the Theogn. a ' peculiar ' one. 

otrTts aSyjv irivei, divas Si at t-nXiTO pidpyos, ovv 81 iroSas x^^pds re 
Sfei yXwaffdv t€ voov t€ deapois d^pdaroicri Hesiod, Eoiae ap. Ath. 428. 

505. Cf. 843. Trdvra wairfp roi/s wp4aaovTas irepicpfpopfva opdv Athen. 
p. 156 ; u S' ovpavos poi avpipi€piyp.evo5 SoKei ttj 77) (pfpecrOai Eur. Cycl. 
578 ; * cum iam vertigine tectum ambulat et geminis exsurgit mensa 
lucernis ' Juv. 6. 304. 

iriveiv oirSaov k(v ex^^ dcpiKOio dUdb' dvev irpoiroXov Xenophanes 
1. 17. See an excellent parallel Xen. Cyrop. 8. 8. 10. 






NOTES 211 

507. I K. V. kv. cT^eeaai Od. 20. 366. For the seat of intelligence 
cf. laevae parte mamilliie nil salit Arcadico iuveni ' Juv 7 159 

508. Cf. 546, 1.S78. 

511. Last words to a parting guest. 

An eclio^of | ^KOes, Tr]\efiax(, yXvKepuv <pdos Od. 16. 23, 
p. 8. IT. dv. : cf. fiaKpa Kikivda 5i7]vv(rav H. Dem. 380. 
V1JV9 dvvade OaXaaarjs vdajp Od. 15. 294. 

512. TttXav : the only form of rdKas in Horn. ; in addressing a 
guest Od. 18. 327, 19. 68. ^ 

513^ tvyd. If we read vno Orjaofiev (vyd, (a) tvy6L = ' props, stays ' ; 
but oia d. Ofoi IS hardly suited to such a context : or (6) we have 
here ' a metaphor to express his arrangements for the entertain- 
ment of the guest himself. ' Anchorage, be sure, I will give thee, 
such as I have and such as the gods vouchsafe ' (Harrison). I prefer 
to take vno ^vyd together, and translate ' At the sides of your ship 
under the benches I shall place the best gifts I have to give '. The 
reference would then be to the ^eivia given to a parting guest, and 
oTJi- ^evirjs (518) would mean Hhe giving of ^clvia to you', which 
formed an essential item in Homeric hospitality. 

vTTOTierjyn : the fut. midd. alone is used by Hom. and always in 
a metaphorical sense ('advise'). From the simple verb we get 
B-qoo), &c., used with viro in Uhvl' vnaWovar) Oifxevai II. 24. 644. When 
Alcinous presented gifts to Odysseus, the latter rd fxev KaredrjKe vrjoi 
vno (vyd, fxrj riv' eraipajv fikdiTTOi eKavvuVToju ottotc ampvoiaT kpiruois 
Od. 13. 20. 

515-18. Hitherto in MSS. and editions the order of these lines has 
been that implied by the numbering. The position of 517, 18 after 
516 has greatly increased the difficulty of explaining 516 which is 
undoubtedly corrupt. The first step towards a solution is the 
transposition of 515, 16 and 517, 18 as in the text above. After 
making this change I found that it had already been made in 
B. H. C. Anth. For the MSS. KardKda^ I have adopted Sitzler's 
KaTdei(f> ('tell him plainly'). The meaning will then be : ' I can 
entertain you, but if a friend of yours comes to you, tell him 
bluntly how you stand in my friendship. If any such friend asks 
you what sort of a life mine is, tell him that I can just afford to 
keep one old friend of the family, but that I cannot entertain a 
whole company.' KardK^ia* might represent an original KaTdKu<f>' 
with K for p as avrov kiSiov (440) and evyepyftr- (548, 574). Cf. 
dneinujv and dnoein. (note on 89). Peppmiiller's Karepets is also 
good. 

517. 'I shall not keep anything hidden in my larder, nor shall 
I send out for dainties.' 

515. Twv 6vT. : x^P'^C^/^^^V ifapiuvTuv in a like context Od. 4. 56. 

516. Cf. TTws (vfj.(V€ias roiaid' iv Sdfwis 4'x^ts ; Eur. Hel. 313 ; ws 
<vvoias ex^'' Thuc. 1. 22. 

520. Sc. fw, * wretchedly, if you compare me with the rich, quite 
well if you compare me with the poor'; 'for a life of luxury, it is 
very bad, for a life of hardship quite tolerable.' Mr. H. compares 
' ita sunt res nostrae ; ut in secundis, fluxae ; utin advorsis, bonae * 
Cic. ad Att. 4. 1. 8. 

521 diroX., < leave in the lurch, desert.' Cf. xaraX. (fivov II. 17. 
151. 

523,4. 'Wealth makes /fafJTiys tolerable.' 1117, 18. 'Wealth turns 
p 2 



212 NOTES 



a KaKos into an eaOKos.^ I have adopted Oeujv (Stob.) for the MSS, 
fijWToi. This adds point to the next line : ' Plutus endures KaKorrjs^ 
the other gods do not.' Can there be an allusion to 328 ? Some 
MSS. of Stob. read Oeoi, a change made to secure a subject for 
rifx. ; to give better sense this was probably altered to Pporoi. 
It is hard to see how any one could change fiporoi to Bewv. Join 
IxdXiara Oecuv. 

525. €oiK€v, 'decet' (= ovfKpopos). 

527, 8. Cf. 1107, 1131, 2. The ancients wrote w and ai ^loi. 
I u) fioi eyw II. 11. 404. 

528. Cf. viaerai Pind. 01. 8. 34; vt(Tofiai = vi-v(T-io-fxai a re- 
duplicated present, see Brugm. Gr. Gr., § 122. 

Cf. 728. kirepx-, of an enemy's sword II. 8. 536, of a lion, 
fir}\oi<nv kireXOwv 11. 10. 485. 

531. Cf. <pi\ov riTop Od. 1. 60 ; (pikov ktjp Od. 4. 270. 

iaiv. : cf. 1122. kKiridi Ovfxvv laivd Bacchyl. 12. 220 ; epos KapSiav 
laiv€i Alcm. 28 a. 

532. Ifxep. doidr) Od. 1. 421 ; H. 10. 5 ; t/jLtpoeu KiOdpiCc II. 18. 570; 
XwTos be (pOoyyov KfKddei Eur. El. 716. 

<})967Y' * cf. 761, ^iXr/s tx^^v ev x^P'^'-^ evcpOoyyov Xvptjv Margites 1. 

533. xcir. dei8. : cf. 825, 1065. qdojv h-n' av\T]T7Jpos Archil, fr. 123. 
536. o-K., 'crooked, not in a straight line with the body.' Xo^., 

' twisted, not facing forwards, but sideways.' Cf. (in a diff. sense) 
Zeus avxfva Xo^ov ex^i \, 'turned aside as a token of displeasure,' 
Tyrt. 11. 2. 
540 = 554. 
541. Cf. 603, 4. 

vPpis : sc. oXeari. For the omission of the subjunct. cf. 859. 
543. Cf. 805, 945. 

o-rdOp,., ' linea, a carpenter's or stone-mason's line, a string 
covered with chalk, and used for striking a straight mark upon 
a board or slab by which to direct the course of the saw ; or for 
measuring generally' Eich, Did. Antiqu. km ot. '16 we Od. 5, 
245 ; trapd <tt., 'beyond the right,' Aesch. Agam. 1045. 

-yvup,., ' a square.' Cf. kovwv koI yvujxojv rov fiiov Lvic. Hermot. 76. 
545. aie. Up. I : II. 11. 775, Od. 12. 362. 

After 544 a lacuna has been assumed by Bergk and Hartung. 

548. Cf. 574. ws KaKoepyirjs evepyeairj fxey' dfieivojv Od. 22. 374 ; 
cf. afxeivorepos Mimn. 14. 9 ; x^P^'-^'''^?^^ I^* 2. 248. 

549. dyy. d4>0., a beacon-light. iroXcji. iroXiiB. : II. 3. 165 ; 5a«- 
pvoevT^ Th. 890 ; TruXefxov 5' dXiaarov eyeipe | II. 20. 31. 

550. Cf. rrjXecpavus aKoitids Ar. Clouds 281 ; rrjXavyei -nap' oxOcjf 
Soph. Trach. 524. 

551. The ref. is not to the use of cavalry in battle ; scouts alone 
are meant, raxvirx., hap. leg. : cf. raxv-nov^ Eur. Bacchae 782 ; 
Tax^TTTcpoj Aesch. Prom. 88. 

iv 5e xa^»'oi'S yaf*<pv^vs el3aXov II. 19. 394 (of a chariot). 
553. According to the reading usualh^ adopted (iroXXov with 
a stop after fxia-qyv) we must render : ' The distance between is not 
great ; they will cover the course ' ; this is not satisfactory, unless 
we assume that there is a reference to some particular circumstance 
known only to the poet and his friends. I have adopted Bninck's 
emendation, ' They have not much ground to cover before they 
reach them.' troXXov is due to the proximity of to jjna-qyv. Cf. oti 






I 



NOTES 218 

iroXu not TO fxira^b yeurjaerai (of time) Argent. A. P. 5. 102- 
Siairprjaaojai Ke\ev9ov \ Od. 2. 213. * ' 

554. This does not seem an appropriate ending ; it may have 
been inserted here (from 540) to supply a missing pentameter. 

555. xaX. d\y. : II. 5. 384. 

556. Cf. 590. 

557. <t>pA5., • mark well' as | (fypdCeaeai (- imperat.) at the be<^in- 
ning of a section Hes. W. D. 448. 

em ^ This expression generally denotes not danger but un- 
certainty. The metaphor is taken from < a balance trembling how 
it will turn ' (Cholmeley on Theocr. 22. 6). It is often followed by 
two alternatives. Cf. vvu yap 5tj iravrfaaiv enl ^vpod 'laraTOi d/f/x^s 17 
imKa \vypus uXeOpos 'AxaioTi y€ ISiwvai II. 10. 173, where Leaf and Bay- 
field see ' the only allusion in Homer to the practice of shaving' ; 
quite unnecessarily. ^ Cf. cppuvei ^e^ws av vvv km ^vpov tvxtjs Soph! 
Antig. 996; enl ^vpov yap aK/xTJ^ ex^rai rjpxv ra nprjyfMTa ^ uvai 
€\€v6€poicn fj SovKoiai Hdt. 6. 11. 

KivSvvos, 'chance, change.' Cf. 585, 637 where it is contrasted 
with eXms ; cf. KivSwevei, ' is likely.' So Kivdvvos in Plat. Apol. 28 b. 

559. d^veov : cf. 188. dcpvetus in Hom. and Hes. For dat. cf. 
fxeydXais d(puHus dpovpais Theocr. 24. 108 ; genit. xp^f^oio Od. 1. 165. 

We may either follow B. H. C. in assuming a lacuna after 558 
(retaining ware aej-ulg.) or (with Bgk.*) accept Geel's AaJard ae. 

560. Xe'oTra e? irdcrav KaKurrjra eXdaai Hdt. 2. 124. 

(s Kopov TjXdaaTe Tyrt. 11. 10 and Sol. in Ath. Pol. 5. 

561. 'Some for myself, much for my friends.' €m8, : cf. k(\(v€is 
oiKoOev d'AAo emdovvai II. 23. 559 ; 'give from my store' ; it often 
means ^give freely ', )( da<p(puv (of a forced contribution). 

562. €X^>-v epexegetic. 

563-6. B. H. C. treat the poem as a fragment, 'in versibus e 
maiore carmine excerptis coniectura abstinendum.' * When you 
are a guest, sit by a good man ' ; a case of parataxis. 
irape^. for purposes of conversation II. 5. 889. 
565. ToO : emphatic ; cf. ixerd rotaiv mve /tal (gGk 33 ; cf. 1240. 
818. : cf. 35. 

567. iraiSoj : cf. Hes. Sh. 277, 282 ; Pind. 01. 1. 15. 
evepO^ 'AtSeoj II. 8. 16. 

568. wcrT€ = ws as often in Hom. XiOos, a frequent type of the 
inanimate, also of the stupid, to wamp Xi9ov ^fiv Plat. Gorg. 494 a ; 
Tt Kdd-qad' dl3€\T(poi, \i9oi, irpo^ar dWus ; Ar. Clouds 1202 ; \i605 tk, 
OX) 5ov\r], kv rfj oIkitj Ktiaiai) Herodas 6. 4. 

569. d4>9o-yYos : cf. drjpbv 8' d.J)6oyyos reTirjfxeur) ^<tt' (itI h'uppov 
H. Dem. 198. Leaving the light of day was regarded as among 
the bitterest woes of death ; it has frequently a pi'ominent place 
in the final speeches of dying heroes and heroines. 

570. There may be a reference to the popular etymology of 
'Aidrjs (d + ideiv). 

571. (1) ' Opinion is a great evil, trial is best ; many who have not 
tried them {d-nuprjroi) hold an opinion about "good men", or 
'' many good men have an opinion not based on trial {drruprjTov)".' 

or (2) 'Reputation . . . many good men untested have a re- 
putation {dnupijToi).' 

572. dTr€ip. : active frequently in Pindar c. genit. dir. Kokuv 01. 11. 
18 : cf. Isthm. 3. 48 : 01. 8. 61. In II. 12. 304 Leaf and B. traiiH. 



214 NOTES 






* without an effort '. For the sense ' have a reputation ' cf. ov Si* 
avTov €crxVK€ do^av Plut. Themist. 18, ' he did not owe his reputa- 
tion to himself.' For the sentiment cf. 17 56ktj(Tis dvOpwnois KaKuv 
Eur. fr. 279 ; hia-neipa roi fipoTwv eXeyxos Find. 01. 4. 20. 

573, 4. ' Bene fac, et tibi bene fiet.' (1) ' Get the reputation of 
being cvepyer-qs and you will need no other introduction to the 
man whose help you require ; your evepyeaiai will introduce them- 
selves ' ; or (2), ' If you have done a man a good turn, you need not 
even ask him to help you, he will do so of his own accord ; your 
kindness is in itself a sufficient message.' 

575. Cf. 813, 861. In spite of the objections raised by various 
editors the text is sound and the meaning perfectly clear. ' It 
is my friends who betray me ; for I can easily keep off my 
declared enemies, as a pilot can keep his ship clear of the reefs 
that stand out above the surface of the sea.' A false friend is like 
a hidden reef, xo'-p^s = * dorsum immane mari summo' Aen. 1. 110. 
A schol. on Eur. Androm. 1265 defines ^oipas as irdaa irerpa 
*f ^'x*"'*''" /^o' TTfpiKXv^ofjievT] OaXaaarj. Theocr. 13. 24 calls the Symple- 
gades xo'paSfs. The lapygian Islands were known as Choerades 
Thuc. 7. 33. False friends are not even x^^P- dpLvSpai (' faintly 
visible ') ; cf. d/xvSprjv xo»pa5' €^a\evfj.€ios Archil. 128. 

577. pT]8iov r\ see note on 146 ; cf. ptTa ij Ap. Rh. 2. 225. 

578. This verse seems to have been introduced for the sake of 
burlesquing a well-known line which may have been composed by 
Theognis. ttjK'ikos, c. inf. Od. 17. 20. 

579-84. Mr. Harrison following Leutsch regards these lines as 
a ' kind of dialogue '. The first two couplets represent the two 
sides of the quarrel ; the third contains the reconciliation ; cf. Hor. 
Od. 3. 9. The dvrip pt. of 581 would then be the cause of the lovers' tiff". 
irdpcip.i, 'cut' an acquaintance, with an implication of under- 
liand dealing as in irapfXcvaeai 1285 and cDs ovk ean Aio? K\eipai vuov 
ovde napexedv Hes. Th. 613. 

580. Cf. Kov(p. iOrjKev. | 498; dnrjveaOvfiuv 'exov(TaOd.23. 97; d'AAot 
8' ovais opviQis kv fivxois irirpas vT-q^avns Eur. Cyd. 407 ; Kov(j>ov 
(XOJv dvpLov Simon. 85. 8 ; Kov<pov6o:v cpvKov opviOwv Soph. Antig. 343. 

581, 2. Cf. ex^Q'/xK TO iToiT]fj.a to kvkXikvv, . . . fxiaio} koI ■ntpicponov 
fpu/jifvov, ovb' dno Kprjvrjs nivoj' (TiKxalvcu navra rd brjfxocria Calli- 
machus Ep. 28, where the reminiscences prove that Th. 581 (and 
? 579), and 959-62 were known to the Alexandrian poet. 

581. ircpi8pop,os, 'gad-about' )(domisecla. Cf. ?) S' %-mtov xo-'-'^V^^^'^V^ 
(vcpopos ^5(, TaxfTa, ircpiSpopos, eJdos dpiOT?) in the famous ' Mirror of 
Women ' by Phocyl. (3. 3). 

582. Cf. (with the same signific.)dAAoTptai' oTrfipuv Soph. Eleg. 4;. 
Kal (V dWodanais anippi! dpovpais Find. Fyth. 4. 255 ; dpouaipioi yap 
Xdrepuv elatv yvai Soph. Antig. 569 "(in 571 we read KaKds kyu) 
yvvaiKas vUai orvyw, ? a reminisc. of Th. 581, 2 ?) ' fundum alienuni 
arat ' Plant. Asin. 5. 2. 24 ; TavTT}v iraidav trr' dporcp aol Sidcupu 
Menand. Ilf piK. 363. 

584. dpyd, 'undone,' Eur. Phoen. 766 ; d(py6s, ' idle,' II. 9. 320. 

585-90. See Introd., p. 46, a popular revision of lines composed by 
Solon (13, 65-70). The Athenian reformer tells us that there is 
uncertainty in ereru action and no man knows where he will land * 
the morality of the act does not guarantee success ; good men fail,, 
bad men succeed. A later moralist distorted the original into 



NOTES 215 

a comparison of the ambitious and the virtuous man. It was easy 
to change KaKws into kuXuis, and the exei-cise of a little ingenuity 
discovered in ddoKifi. a fair substitute for cv epd. The verses in 
their original form are more in keeping with the views of Theo<»nis 
himself; cf. 133-42 ; cf. also 1075. * 

589. TTcpl irdvTa, ' in everything.' 

591. Bgk.* construes TohfMav xp^ (pipuv tcL 5., but it is better to 
keep To\fidv and (fxpeiv as parallels. 

592. djji4)6T€pa means ' the sum of Fortune's chances on either 
side ' ; cf. 934.^ 

593. Cf. ixi]5iv ayav xo-^^noiaiv daw <pp€va fxrjS' dyaOoiaiv x<*'P' ^^~ 5 
orav Se rt Ovfiuv affrjefis 989. \virov (O*) is a gloss on daai that has dis- 
placed \ir]v, which is certainly required here ( = dyav 657) ; for daw in 
657 bdmn have a marginal gloss ■^yow \virov, cf. darjdels- XvnrjOds Hes. 
In an early MS. daw n may have been carelessly written dawvn and 
the accusative substituted for the dative {aaouvra A). The active 
of daaifxai is not found ; this word is generally used with ifvx'7? ^"/los, 
cf. T^v ipvx^v darjOHT) Hdt. 3. 41. In medical lang. it = na^iseo 
(Hippocrat.). 

594. TcX. aKp., ' the end of the end.* dupos fiveXo^, ' inmost 
marrow/ Eur. Hippol. 255 ; irplu t. dV iS. | Simon. 126. 2. 

595-8 form one poem ; the emphatic words are dnSirpoOey and 
8171/. ' I am willing to be your friend as long as you like ; but 
never let me see your face again.' This explains Kai, which gave 
great offence to Bergk, who changed it to vaT here and 1243. The 
poem is an exact parallel to the proverb which he quotes from 
Phrynichus : rdWa Kal (piXufxeOa' vapoip.ia km tuiv kv filv roh dXAoi? 
cv-yx'^povi/TaJV, d ^ovKovrairivis,, kv\ Se rivi iJ.7]K€Tr rdWa <pi\oi wfifv Kara 
Sk TovTo bia<pfp6jti(da. ' Let us be friends in time (8171/) but not in space 
(dTTOTrp.).' There is an intentional contradiction in aTTon, kraipoi ('asso- 
ciates at a distance ') as in iroppo^Otv daird^faOai. The real meaning 
is expressed by the proverb ttjKov ipikoi vaiovrei ovk dalv <piXoi. 

596. Cf. 1157-60. -navraiv p.iv Kopos kari, Kot iinvov koi (piXoTrjTOSy 
TpcDes 5c fJ-dxi]^ dftopr^Toi '4aaiv II. 13. 636. 

597. drdp t' : II. 4. 484. 
597 = 1243. 

598. T. 0-. |i. i<r. voov : cf. (ppovfiv rd tuv (j>iXQ}v, and ijnta flBws, &c. 
599-602. Cf. Meleag. A. P. 5. 184. 

If we retain the MSS. reading we must assume that the poem 
refers to two faithless friends : (1) the dniaTos, who robbed the poet 
of his beloved ; (2) the snake cherished by (1). (piXiiju then -- 
' my friend ', * the affection that is mine by right '. 

But it is better to adopt the emendation proposed by Sintenis 
if/vxpov ov . . . eix^^' 

<J)oiT. . . . T|Xd(rTp. : in a metaphorical sense. 
600. kXcit., deceiving; as 1311. k. t^v ^vxr}v Soph. Philoct. 55^ 
cf. ib. 968. 

603, 4. Cf. 1103. See Appendix. 

604, Up. iroX. : II. 1. 366 (0i7i3»;). Pindar applies this epithet to 
Athens. Cf. Xinapr) Tr6x. Th. 947. 

605, 6. Cf. 693, 4. , , , , . 
607. ' In the beginning there is some gratitude in falsehood. 

Cf. iraiSos rot x«/"5 *<'"''* 1367. 



216 NOTES 

tm : cf. en rjnaiL II. 13. 234 ; Im vvkt'l II. 8. 529 ; els 8t tcX. I 755, 
Hes. W. D. 333. 

609. ' There is no success for the man, . . . when it has once 
left his lips.' Cf. ov riva irpuiTOV diTO(T(pr}\o}<Tiv aeWai Od. 3. 320 ; cf. 
TTpura Th. 973 ; oitojs irpwra Hes. Th. 156. 

TTpoo-ojAapTw, hap. leg. d/xapTU) occurs 1165. Cf. rrdpa 5' ov 
■npoaojfiiXrjaa ttoj Soph. Trach. 591, where Jebb cites yvfxvaaTiKTJ 
■npoaoixiKovvra Plat. Tim. 88 c. 

613. Xco-xa^t^, hap. leg., 'gossip.* Xeax"^'-^^ i^ used by Callim. 
ttoXKtjv TV(pehwva KeaX' (ap- Herodian). Xiaxoii-vovaa Kal aKovovaa KaXa 
Perictyone ap. Stob. 85. 19. 

615. iraiATTTiBTjv : oXoax^p^^s, TravTeXus Hes. ; Aesch. Pers. 729. 
617. KaraO. : cf. 1086, 1238, 1283 ; 'according to a man's desire.' 
In Hom. it means ' on or in one's mind ' ; e. g. II. 10. 383. For the 
meaning in Th. cf. rip yap 'lOoj/xaTa KaraOvfiios eirXiTO McDaa Eumelus. 
MapSovio) TO. acpayiaov bivarai KaraOvfxia yeveaOai Hdt. 9. 45 ; )( airoOvniov 
Hes. W'. D. 710. 

irdvr. T€\. 1 : II. 2. 330. 

619. Kv\. : cf. rovs ev duad'ia Kal TavdVoTi^Ti noXXfj KvXivSovfifvovs 
Plat. Polit. 309 a ; roiaiv yap fiiya "nrjpia KuXivderai Od. 2. 163. 

dxvvfjieva} Krjp | II. 19. 57. 

620. 'We have not yet ridden over the crest of Poverty's wave.' 
Cf. oi) yap vvfpddv KVfiaros aKpav SwdfXfad^' in yap OdXXu irevia Eur. 
fr. 232 ; viTfpOeovT aKpav Aesch. Eum. 526 (562) ; ' surmounting the 
crest of the billow,* a phrase for escaping from difficulties (Barnett, 
Eum. 1. c). The idea of a wave has already been suggested by 
KvXivS. Some take oiKp. =^ 'headland'. There is no need to change 
the MSS. aKprjv irevi-qv ; in the passage quoted above from Eur. we 
might also have had aKpov Kvfia, cf. vSaip aKpov, ' the surface of the 
water,' II. 16. 162 ; Itt' aKpois toTs kujXois Plat. Tim. 76 e ; en' 
aKpoTaroiai noSaiv Ap. Rh. 1. 219. 

621. Objection has been raised against drwi, owing to its irregular 
formation ; ace. to rule ' a is not used to form compound verbs, 
although verbs and substantives are formed from adjectives com- 
pounded with it' (Thompson, Gk. Gr., p. 416). Had the verb here 
stood alone, there would have been some validity in the criticism ; 
the presence of tCw more than justifies the negative compound. In 
English we frequently coin words with un- when we want an effec- 
tivecontrast, though we should never venture to use such expressions 
apart from their positive counterpart. Boisacq {Diet. Etym.) calls 
drtcy ' une creation temporaire qui s'explique par I'antithese '. 

Schulze reads drieT from driew. 
driw is also found Orphic. Lith. 62. 

dri^o} II. 20. 166. Leaf and B. call it ' quite an exception to 
the ordinary formation of compounds with a '. 

622. avTos, 'the same' ; cf. 580, Kovcpos eveon v6os \ Sol. 11. 6; 
oefivbs ev. v. | A. P. 5. 116. 

623. KaK6TT)T€S : cf. nprj^is KaKuTtjTos )( toC dyaOov naXafxr) 1028 ; here 
' phases of poverty ' ; as dperai, ' forms of success,* cf. 30 ; navToirjv 
dperrjv Od. 18. 205. 

624. p. iTa\a\i., ' means of gaining substance, roads to wealth ' ; 
lit. ' devices.' ^iavcpov nvKvurarov naXdfiais cLs Oeov Pind. 01. 13. 52 ; 
cf. Tifxdv 5' dXXos dXXolav e^ft [^fivpijai 5* dvdpcuv dperai, ' the forms of 
human excellence are countless ' (Jebb), Bacchyl. 13. 8. 



NOTES 217 

C25. dpY- : c inf. 846 ; | dpya\4ov . . . dyopedaai II. 12. 176. 

626. TovTo 7dp ov 8. is possibly a tag added to complete a 
fragment. 

629-34. Haste is the idea underlying these three couplets. It is 
due (1) to youth, (2) to anger, (3) to lack of counsel. 

629. Cf. alel 5' onXoTepcvv avtpwv <pphis -qfpiOovrai II. 3. 108. 
k-niKov^iUi here certainly = ' makes frivolous ', cf. kov(1>6vovs. 

Generally it means (1) ' lift ', Soph. Ajax 1411, (2) 'lighten (toil),' 
iTTLKovipi^ii ij Tifi^ Tovs TTovovs T^ oLpxovTi Xon. Cyrop. 1. 6. 25. 
(3) * inake cheerful ', vapaKaKa . . tw fxlv irpoauTTa) -napaOappivuv, raii 
5' kX-niaiv eviKovipi^cuv ib. 7. 1. 18. 

630. €|., 'impels.' a' k^aipn Oaveiv Eur. Hippol. 322. 

631. Cf. 1223 ; wpa <re Ovfiov Kpeiaaova yvufiTjv ex^iu Eur. fr. 715. 
oiT. : kjKupaas drriaiv Hes. W. D. 216. 

632. Cf. 646. 

Bergk * has probably restored the correct reading, A scribe 
wrote kv afxirKaKiaLS thinking of apLirXaKi-qv (630) and kv drats (631) ; 
a later scribe erased the first kv [/xcydKais'], and various devices 
were employed to restore the metre. 

634. 'An impetuous man is hurried on to ruin.' drTjp. = kv 
drais (631). aTTjpuv ^Xafiepov Hesych. ; used like iriaTus act. and 
pass. aTTjpus XdOpa Soph. Philoct. 1272, 'with treason in his heart' 
(Jebb). XdPpos ovpos, Kv/xa, Trora/ioj in Hom. ; (ppoveiv yap ol rax^is 
ovK dacpaXfii Soph. O. T. 617. 

637. Cf. 1135. KLvS., ' chance.' 6^., ' held in equal esteem.' 
639, 40 is a commentary on 637, 8 ; it was probably sung in 
response to it. 

639. Ytv. : c. inf. 474, where it means *it is possible' = -nap- or 
eiecTi, here ' it happens that ' ; cf. its use = avfilSaivci in Hellenistic, 
e.g. yiv€Tai yap kvTparrrjvai Par. Papyr. 49 (2nd cent. B. c). 

€v p€iv : cf. oTav 6 Saifiojv cvpofj Aesch. Pers. 601. 

640. )( 1054, cf. 164, 660. 

k-nky. : more frequently of misfortune as in kneyeyivjjTo ^vpKpopd 
Thuc. 8. 96. 

643, 4. Cf. 115, 16. 

646. Cf. KeiTai kv dXyeai OvpLus knel (fiiKov wXeo"' aKOiTTjv Od. 21. 88. 
Peppmiiller accordingly proposed to emend our line and read 
Kcipkvov kv fiey. Ovfiov d/x. But the author was probably intention- 
ally changing the Hom. expressions : cf. PaOvfcqrea for fxeyatc. 
(175). 

647. Cf. 291. tiSt] often with vvv in Hom. e.g. II. 1. 456. 

648. ' Wanders over.' yaiav kniOTpkcpirai Hes. Th. 753 of Day and 
INight alternately visiting the earth. 

650. Cf. 387. 

651. Cf. 388 ; ovic kOlXovra &iri in the same metrical position 
II. 13. 572. alffxpd Kal iroWd for the more common ir. k. alax. 
Cf. TTaXaid T€ TToXXd re dSujs Od. 2. 188, 7. 157 ; aKoand re noXXd t* 
rfdrj II. 2. 213 ; Seivd Kal iroXXd Isocr. de Pace 130 ; irpus ntydXa nal 
'iToXXd best MSS. of Plato, Politic. 262 a, so Burnet ; KaXovs ical 
TToXXovs KivSvvovs Dinarch. Ag. Demosth. 111. 

653, cp. de. Oioiai I Od. 10. 2. 

655, 6. A hint to Cyrnus not to harp too frequently upon Ills own 

misfortunes, cf. 1032; 655) ( 1042. ^ . . . . 

TO ydp oi/ceTov mk^ti -ndvO' dfxws' fv6vi 5' urrrjuajv HpaBia icaioi dft^ 



218 NOTES 

aWorpiQv, ' distress for a strangers sorrow soon passeth away 
the heart ' (Bury), Pind. Nem. 1. 54. 
657. Cf. 593. 

659. Cf, xPVf^^'''^^ deKiTTov ovdev kariv ou5' dnwfxoTov Archil. 74. 
' You must never swear that a thing is impossible, for that would 
be an insult to the gods, who can bring all things to pass ; and 
though they alone can accomplish, you must be up and doing 
(npfj^ai) ; anything may happen.' 

ojjivvjjLt with /jiTj and fut. inf. Od. 5. 178; for the indie, cf. 
ofxoffffey, iaro: Zeu?, . . . fxrj dvi)p enoxv(TeTai II. 10. 328. 

660. Cf. Tw Sf 9eoi vfixeaaxji Hes. W. D. 741 ; Kal rois ovhlv enecrri 
TcAos I Solon 13. 58, Camer. found ynp toi in some MSS. 

661. Connect xpil irp-fi^at. 

663. irinaaTai (MSS,") is due to the confusion of iraTiopai and 
ndo/Mi ; TTewajxai Pind. Pyth. 8. 73. 

664. Here the inferior MSS. have retained the original reading. 
We may account for A by supposing that a scribe wrote irdTovvy 
which was read varow and corrected into anorovv. iravra seems 
required to complete the sense. 

666. Cf. 1111, 12. 
667-82. See Introd. p. 34. 

There has been a change of government ; bad men are in 
power, and confiscations are the order of the day. All good men 
are helpless ; the author dare not in their company even express 
clearly his views on the situation ; poverty has robbed him of all 
power. This is but the beginning of evils ; worse is yet to come. 

He can see the ship of state foundering, but he must couch 
his warning in dark riddles to be read by the 'good'. 

The ship of state is frequently met with in Greek Literature, see 
Alcaeus fragments 18, 19. In Plato's ship (Rep. 488) the KvfiepvrjTrjs 
is one individual politician, the vavKX-qpos represents the democracy. 
There are several interesting parallels to the Theognidean version, 
especially in the relation of the ignorant popvilace to the skilled 
helmsman. Cf. also Pind. Pyth. 1. 86, 8. 98, 10. 71; Soph.O.T. 
23; Cic. Pro Sest. 9; ad Attic. 2. 7 ; Hor. Od. 1. 14. Aristophanes 
has an amusing continuation of the metaphor : a certain man 
had ivvitvLOv vepl rr^s -nuKiois rov (rndipovs oXov, and his companion 
says \ey€ vvv duvaas ri Tr)v rpo-niv rov Trpdy/xaTos Wasps 30. Early 
Christian writers often speak of the Church as a ship, and the 
comparison is frequently expanded in a very elaborate fashion ; 
see Appendix. 'The ship is one of the ornaments which Clem, 
of Alex, allowed a Christian to wear, doubtless as representing 
the Church' (Lightfoot on Ignat. Ep. Polyc. 2). 

The general situation is not unlike that described in 53-60. 
KvfiepvTjTTjv en. haOKov (675), KaKol 8' dy. KaO. (679) = oi h\ irplv taOKol 
vvv dfiKoi (57) ; Koafios 8* dir6\oj\(v (677) =59, 60, 67, 8. 

ola ktX. 'I should not feel the distress I now feel in the 
company of the good ' ; i. e. old -nep rfh-q dvicufxai. yivwaKovra (669) 
may have occasioned the change to yhuv (all MSS. except A). 
For the opt. cf. 'In Homer the present unreal condition is still 
expressed only by the pres. optat.' Goodwin, M. T. 434. ct piiv vvv 
ktrl d\K(t) deOkevoifjiev 'Axaioi, ^ t' dv (yui rd irpuira \a^wv K\i(Tii]vbe 
(pfpoifxrjv II. 23. 274. Ota after bucol. caes. as 27, 1123. 
668. dvicJji. : cf. dvldrai Od. 15. 335. 



I 
I 



NOTES 219 

G69, 70. Perhaps a reminiscence of 419, 20. 'Money cuts an old 
acquaintance (Yivcio-Kovra agrees with the subject of irapc'px ) 
' And so poverty makes me speechless, though I have seen better 
than many that the state is in danger.' 

a^xDvos : for this result of poverty cf. 173-8. 268. 

671. iaria \evK kpvaavTfs \ Od. 9. 77. 

672. M-rjX. ir., ' the sea near Melos ' ; cf. nieapiov irikayos (Hdt. 6. 96). 
The ship is being driven by a north wind from the islands to the 
open sea. There is no land between Melos and Crete. Some have 
explained M. ti. as the Malian Gulf {Ur^KiaKos koXitos), and see a 
reference to the dangerous promontories in that district. It is 
liard to see what Geddes means when he says that * the Melian 
deep is the stretch of sea on which his native Megara looked out 
as part of the Egean ', Problem H. Poems, p. 279. Cf. Kap-nadiov ne\ayos. 

I V. 8ia Sv. Od. 15. 50 ; cf. Hes. Th. 107. 

673. avrXeiv is also used by Alcaeus in his metaphor. 
iO(\. : sc. daTo'i. 

virepp. : generally c. accus. wj viTfp€0a\e tcls dpovpas of a river 
Hdt. 2. Ill ; for the genit. cf. epiyKov toGS' vTrep^aWoj voSi Eur. 
Ion 1321. Similarly used is km^. in rd KVfxaTa kire^aWfu (is rd 
ttKoiou Mark 4. 37. 

674. Totxos, 'side of a ship ' ; as in Kvpia vrjbs vutp toixcov Karafinfferai 
II. 15. 382 ; Od. 12. 420 ; Theocr. 22. 12. 

675-8. 'They have turned the "good" out of office,' the Kvp. 
being more probably a party rather than one individual. 

<T(a^fTai : see on 68. 

01 €p8ovo-i, ' to judge by their conduct ' = un roia tpS. ; cf. 
aipLarCs ds dyaOoio, (p'lKov refcos, at' dyopfveis Od. 4. 611. 

Kv^cpv. For the metaphor cf. dperd voKiv Kv^fpva Bacchyl. 12. 
185 ; offTis (pv\da(T€L irpdyos kv irpvfivri noKfus otana vojfxwv Aesch. 
Sept. 2 ; TToAts KaKuis KKvovaa Zid KvfifpvrjTT^v kokov Eur. Suppl. 880 ; 
cf. gubernator, governor. 

677. Kocrixos : ' discipline.' 

678. 8ao-p.6s : ' power is no longer fairly divided.' 

dfxcpl de TipLTiv iWaxev as rd irpwra didrpixo. Saafxvs eTvxOr} H. 
Dem. 86 ; Hes. Th. 425. ts to p-co-ov ' impartially ' cf. Is fjifaov 
djx(poT€poiai SiKatjaaTe II. 23. 574. 

679. 4)opTTi76s : generally = ' merchant ' ; (poprijyos vavs, ' a ship of 
burden,' viTo^vyiov tpopr-qyov, ' a beast of burden,' so here <popTy 
* men who carry burdens.' We must include this word in the 
metaphor, although many scholars regard it as a reference to the 
rich 'm.erchants' or poor 'porters* who had just secured political 
power. But the comparison with the ship and her crew is con- 
tinued to 680, and ^opr. probably denotes persons employed for 
menial sei*vices on board ship, ' carriers of burdens,' the lowest 
class of ships' servants, who have no knowledge of navigation ; 
their place is at the 'pumps' {dvTkfiv) and not on the quarter- 
deck. 

680. KaTo. irixi : cf. irXoia Oiovra iv ttj OaXdrTri (vbias Karatfivfrai 
KoX d(pavrj yiverai Aristotle Probl. 23. 5. 

681. xjvix^. : cf. TToAAa fxoi vn dyKwvos uKia $(Kr] llvSov hrl (papirpwi 
(puvdevra avviroiaiv 1$ 5^ to irdv kppi-qvicov xaTJ^'f* (foi* the 'general *, 
common herd)- aotpbs 6 iroWd dSus <pvq. Find. 01. 2. 91 sqq. ; of. 
Eur. El. 946. 



220 NOTES 

683. Cf. irXovreis' 6 ttXovtos S' dfiaOia oetXvv 6^ dfia Eur. fr. 237 ; 
ra KoKa cf. 696. 

684. Cf. 752. 

685. €p5. : ' for action, helplessness lies besides both ' ; oji. tt. = 
aixrjxovov hari ; cf. Od. 22. 65. irap. : frequ. = ' am a neighbour to'. 
6 irXovTOS dvev rds dperas ovk doivrjs rrdpoiKos Sappho 80 ; cf. Find. 
Pyth. 5. 1. 

686. xp^lP-aTa, voos : the so-called res pro rel defedu, to Kd-nov t^s 
vTToOeaecos, cf. Ka^iaTw dSrjKOTes ijde Kal i/Tri/o; II, 10. 98, where the 
schol. adds: vTrvos — dypvirvia. eyoij 8' tv oloa Kal avros voarov ejxoio 
duaKTos Od. 14. 366, 'how it is with the return, the matter of 
the return.' So here the difficulty in the way is ' a matter of 
money ' and ' a matter of brains '. ciV dp' 6 y evxo^^V^ (mpte/xcpfTai ud' 
e/fOTo/i/Srys, ' a matter of a vow or an hecatomb,' II. 1. 65. 

687. Cf. OVK dv eyojye Oeoioiv (novpavioKn p,axoinr)v II. 6. 129; XPV 
Se npos 6euv ovk (piC^tv Pind. Pyth. 2. 88. Fate is d^axos daifiuv 
Bacchyl. 15. 23. 

688. 8Ck. cItt. : here ^ ' argue with ' ; in II. 18. 508 it means ' give 
a decision '. 

689. For opt. cf. alvv ol (aafiTat ore nrj avros y€ Kpovicuv kfxBdXoi 
aWofifvov 8a\dv vrjfaai II. 13. 317. ' ot€ (jlt), " unless.'' * The clause is a 
relative conditional ; 0x6/177 = 61 jx-fj' Jj. Si B. 1. c. Cf. its use in Attic 
' where the relative clause depends upon a verb of obligation, 
propriety, &c.' ; dwodoTeov ov8' dirooaTiovv rore unoTe tis (j.^ acvippovcos 
diTaiToi ; Plat. Kep. 332 a (quoted by Goodwin, M. T. § 555). 

irT]p,. )( €p8. : 'undo' '( 'do'; cf. KiyKKi^dv 303. After mucli 
hesitation I have thought it best to retain the variation in mood 
and relative particle as given by A. 'You should not destroy 
where destruction is not required, nor should you do what is best 
left undone.' 

691. Sitzler treats Xaipwv as a proper name. 

692. X'^PK'-^ • cf. 1107 and the note on that line. 

There is no need to change ciyAy^'' i^^o dvaYot and to sup- 
pose that the meaning nnist be 'bring back to your friends here'. 
'OBva^a ^yayf Saificuv dypov en' (axo-Tirjv Od. 24. 149 (in ref. to his 
home-coming). 

694. dv8p. d<j)p. lack yvwfxr] and so cannot know when to stop. 

695. 0vjji€ : cf. dye dvfie Pind. 01. 2. 98; Archil. 66. irap. apji. it, 
cf. 275 ; Hes. Th. 639. 

696. ^H KaKos QeoKpiros' ov /lovos dvdpuiiruv epds (MSS. upas) Bacchyl. 
fr. 14. 

ovx dfuv Tuv "Epura ^luvois fVex'j ^^ tSoKevfJtes, oix dniv rd KaKd 
irpdrois KoXd <paivcTai elfiev Theocr. 13. 1, 3. 

697. Cf. 857-60, 929, 30 (a couplet of similar structure and senti- 
ment) ; W5 x"^^"'^'' f 'O'''' 0' <piXoi ol (paivonevoi -napaxpijfi' orav vparrrf tis 
ev Ar. Plutus 782. 

698. CTuyK. : cf. iroOeu /xoi avvtKvpa dSoKijTos ddovd ; Eur. Ion 1448. 
All the exx. of eyK. in Stephanus have the person suffering as subject 
and the misfortune in the dative. 

699-718. Compare a poem by Tyrtaeus (12), which oflfers a very 
close parallel in structure. 

Cf. 1003. irXT|0€i : dat. of ' the person judging '. x/"?/^"'"' ^VP 
was an apophthegm attrib. to Aristodemus, quoted by Alcaeus (50) 
and Pind. Isth. 2. 11. xp'HH-^'^o- ydp\pvx^''T(^(Tai dtiKoTai fipoToiai Hes. 
W. D. 686. 



NOTES 221 

700. Twv 8' d\X. : o ttAoCto?, dvOpconiffKe, tois ao(pois Oeos' ra S' dWa 
K6fJ.iT0i fcal \6fojv €vfxop(piai Eur. Cycl. 316 ; ov8h' jfV apa rdKKa it\^v 6 
Xpvaos Scol. 1. dpa, to denote a broken illusion, 11. 10. 46; Soph. 
Philoct. 1082. 

701. Ehad., son of Zeus and Europa, brother of Minos, dis- 
tinguished for his justice. Socrates, in the Apology, declares him 
to be the real SiKacrrrjs Plat. Ap. 41 a. 

702. Sisyphus : the type of shrewdness and cunning ; he is often 
mentioned in connexion with Odysseus, who was sometimes re- 
garded as his son (Soph. Philoct, 417) ; ■nuaOrjaotxaiydp wSe Ka^"Aidov 
Oavuv TTpos <pcus dve\9HV ojairfp ovkhvov -nar-qp Philoct. 624. Sisyphides = 
Ulixes Ov. Ars. Am. 3, 313. ' Ulixi Sisyphique prudentiam' Cic. 
Tusc. 1. 41. He is mentioned in conjunction with Rhadam., Plat. 
Ap. 41 ; what would a man not give for the privilege f^traaat 
'OZvaaia ^ Xiav^wv ? (Ap. 41 . Pindar calls him irvKvoTaTov -naKdnais 
ws 6i6v (01. 13. 52) which some regard as a reference to the popular 
etymology that connected the name with ai6s = 6€6s ; but the change 
of to ? is of much later date. Cf. II. 6. 153. 

703. 4. Sisyphus instructed his wife not to give his body burial. 
In the underworld he complained of her neglect, and persuaded 
riuto to let him return and punish her. He then refused to leave 
the upper world, and Hermes was sent to fetch him down. There 
is no reference to this legend in Homer or Hesiod. 

703. iroXvtS. : in the sense of ' cunning' ; cf. Od. 15. 459. Phryn. 
has cricrvcpi^dv' 8o\iajs ri vparruv ; Mark Antony had a clever dwarf 
whom he called Sisyphus. 

dvTjXG. : cf. dve^odos 'Axepojv Theocr. 12. 19 ; ' irremeabilis unda ' 
Verg. Aen. 6. 425 ; aTpairbv "ASccu rjvvaa ttjv ovttoj tis kvavriov ^\6(v 
ddiTTjs Philetas. 

704. alfx. \6yoi<n \ Od. 1. 56, H. Herm. 317. See on 808. 

705. When she so wills, she qan restore v6os cf. redvijuiTi voov n6p€ 
Ilepffecpoufia Od. 10. 494. 

707. Cf. irpiv 7' OTS 5^ Oavdroio fxeKav vitpos dfJKpeKaKwpev Od. 4. 180. 
709. 'irapa[jL6C»];€Tat : subjunctive as in Mimn. 2. 9. 

Kvav. TT. : cf. fji€\avTeix^o. Sofjiov ^€pa((p6vas Pind. 01. 14. 18 } 
*, Kvdveos edXa/xos Sappho 119 ; fxapudpeai ttvX. Hes. Th.811. 

713. v|;€ij8., 'fictions.' Cf. 'iaKe ipevSea iroWd Xeyoov eTViioiaiv ifiota 
Od. 19. 203 ; idfxev xpivdfa TTokXd \iyuv er. d(i., the Muses to Hes. 
Th. 27. 

714. N. dvTiG. : Od. 11. 512. N. lySucTr^s, \iyh UvXictiV dyoprjriis, roy 
Kal d-no yXwaaTjs fxfKiTos yXvKiojv petv auSjy II. 1. 248 ; ' licet eloquio 
fidum quoque Nestora vincat ' Ov. Met. 13. 63. 

715. €iTio-0a : for the form cf. ohda, 'ixf^ada (1316). 

The Harpies in Hom. are the 'seizors', storm-gods, bnngers of 
sudden death. One of them is called 'Swift-foot' {Uo^apyif) 1\. 16. 
150. 'A(\\6j t' 'CiKVTTiT-qv re, ai' p dvifxoji/ irvoiriai ml olojvoh dfx (novrat 
ujKUTis ifTepvyeacri Hes. Th. 267. ^ ^ ts a a 

'fjLT] fxoi ydv UeXonos, fxrj fxoi x/>i'<^f'« rdKavTa citj ex^iv fitjdi itpdaOf 
eUiv dvtuwv {' but thy love alone sufficeth ') Theocr. 8. 58. 

716. iraC8 Bop. : Zetes and Calais, who could outrace the Harpie?, 
Apollod. 1 . 9. 21. Pindar calls them dvSpas intpoiaiv vuna ito^ypiicovrai 
an^pw Ttopcpvpioi^ (Pyth. 4. 182) ; the present passage seems to imply 
that the wings were on their /eef. There is a very graceful picture 



222 NOTES 

of the Aquilonia proles in Prop. 1. 20. 25. For the comparison cf. 
piTTo. yap iaos Bopia Bacchyl. 5. 46 ; iruXov deXXoSpo/xav ib. 5. 39. 

d<}>ap 6i(ri : cf. d(pap Se re x^^P^^ dfxvveiv dot nal fjp.iv II. 13. 814, 
L. and B. tr. ' we have straightway* ; it is better to take it = ' hands 
quick to . . . ' ; we find a comparative dcpaprcpoi II. 23. 311. Adverbs 
are often used with yivop.ai, neXopai kt\. ; padicus ovffrjs r^y dvaxo^- 
prjaeoos Thuc. 4. 10. 

717. 0€o-8ai -yvwjJiTjv : Hdt. 7. 82 ; riva yv. eOevro Andoc. Or. 3. 21 ; 
oh TavTrj Kiirai voos Simon. 85. 11. We have an exact parallel in 
eToKprjai Toiavrrjv yvujij.r]v KaraOeadai ds piaov Dion. A. Rh. c. 4, p. 327. 

719-28. 719-24 were quoted by Plutarch as Solon's, and 725-8 
have been rightly restored to him. 

720. irvp. iT€8. : as 988. So II. 21. 602. 

721. TO, Scovra was probably the original reading; cf. 'pauper 
enim non est, cui rerum suppeHt usus ; si ventri bene, si lateri est pedi- 
busque tuis, nil divitiae poterunt regales addere mains ' Hor. Ep. 
1. 12. 4. Plutarch (Sol. 2) has pui/a ravra for Th. to. Ziovra. 

723. TraiSos ktX. with d^pd -naOdv, ' to have one's joy of. Cf. tcui' 
avTov KTedvwv tv -naax^R-^v 1009. I cannot understand why H. Richards 
{Journ. Phil, xxv) regards this to be an impossible use of the geni- 
tive ; in kovTuv cS iraOeii/ Pind. Nem. 1. 32 he sees a gen. absol. ; 
but it is far more natural to take it with tu it. ' Such expressions 
as xap'C^f**''/ irapiuvTasv are familiar ; Iovtoov ev -n. is the same con- 
struction in a passive form. The genitive is akin to the partit. 
gen. ; if grammarians seek a name for it, they might call it the 
genitive of Capital ' 'Rnxy on Pind. 1. c. ' When the time for these 
hath come (and a man's youthful vigour is a fitting companion for 
them), they make wealth for mortal men '. 

726. Cf. lyoj 5' Is "Ai8ijv ovre xpv<^<^v ovO' invov out' dpyvprjv d/ia^av 
(vxofJLtjv e\KCJv Phoenix fr. 2. 

Cf. dSojp SvcreTai ds 'At'Seo; | 802; imOuJi' (px^rai ds 'Aibrjv \ Tyrt. 
12. 38 ; Ipdpojv Kara yfjs epx^Tai ds 'AiSrjv Mimn. 2. 14. 

727 --= 1187. 

729. ' Cares with wings of varied hue have received men for their 
inheritance, whining as they tight for life and substance.' Cares 
feed on men as did the shades seen by Odysseus Od. 11. 42. 
Harrison offers another explanation : * Thoughts that weep for tlie 
soul and life ' ; * thoughts are imprisoned in men like birds in a 
cage '. According to Buchholz they weep because they have been 
driven out of Olympus ; Zeus, in his mercy, gave them mankind for 
their portion. For a curious modern parallel, cf. ' The microbes of 
disease swarming so thickly that you can almost hear the flapping 
of their wings ' G. S. Street, Books and Things. Cf. (Xrridfs dvOpwiruv 
(Ka(ppai Ofai Diet. A. P. 7. 420 quoted by Reitzenstein. 

In 731-56 we have two poems and a fragment. 731-42. ' May 
the wicked fill the cup of their iniquity ! May they reap their reward 
themselves, and may the just sons of the wicked not suffer for 
the crimes of their parents ! ' 

743-52. ' How can it be right for the good to suffer, and the 
wicked to prosper ? ' 753-6. ' Learn this lesson, and make money by 
honest means ; you will never be sorry that you have followed my 
advice.* Harrison connects 753-6 with the preceding lines by 
assuming that they are ' a sort of illogical (perhaps ironical) 
epilogue to 731-52 to which ravra fxaOwv and rwvb' (iriuv must 



NOTES 223 

refer; hence the echoes dTaaeaK'njs and Ovfibv 6xan''(p. 201) But 
the lines are too ' illogical ' to form part of the same poem, and we 
liave evidently to deal with a fragment. For the 'echoes' in different 
poems we can find parallels elsewhere, e.g. 205, 734, 5, 1148. 

731. For the neuter plural <})i\a, cf. Sr}\a yap '6n ovk 'av ^pna(ovTO 
Hdt. 1. 4 ; (fiOL 8* diropa direiu Find. 01. 1. 52 ; cf. dSvvara Pvth 
2. 81, (oitcdra Pyth, 1. 34. ^ 

732. a-^iv = 0(oTs, cf. ws ol ipiXov (irXeTo OvfiS) Od. 8. 571. 

733. leg. aQeip-i]<5 : Hesych. has deetpTjs- rl roi aTuprj's, rj d dyav 
BepiOTiKos rj vnepoirros rj OavfrnaTus. The Etym. Magn. gives derjpiis 
with several explanations, including v-rreponTrjs, avOdhrjs, vfipiarrfs ; 
it also mentions the adverb dduplws and dOnpis- to dupifie^. Bero^k 
connects the word with dOfpi^w and eOeipo:. '^ 

734. Cf. 1148. oiri^ : c. accus. in Hom., other poets use it c. 
genit., e. g. A. Rh. 2. 181 ; ovdev dm^ofxivi] \ex(oov Manetho 6. 218. 

737. iraiSes attracted into the construction of the relative 
sentence. 

740. Cf. vn(ppa<T'n]v diroTioai Od. 13. 193. 

744. oaris = ft rtj, ' the case of a man who, when a man,' cf. 
1006, and l/c tuiv kqKwu Kopirovai . . dvai to5', ooTts ravpov dpTap.fi 
KaXws Eur. Elect. 815 ; ovk eaO' ovtos epajs f'i tis KaXov eidos ^xovaav 
^ovKct' exfiv . . . dXX' octtjs KaKOfiopcpov ISwv . . . cripyd . . . ovtos 
tpcvs, TTvp TovTo Marc. Arg. A. P. 5. 89. 

€kt6s : cf. 754, 968. fiaiveiv l/croy tov KaXov Plat. Laws 793 b ; 
oiKd n(0' ■^fxwv fXTi 6vpa(e twv vopcuv Eur. Bacchae 331. 

745. KaT€'xo>v, ' harbouring ', ' being conscious of ', lit. ' keeping 
back', as in KaTtx^iv ttjv didvoiav Thuc. 1. 130. 

748. Kal Tiva 0vp,ov €X"v (ajoiro) ; * and how could he have the 
heart to ? ' 

750. jx-fjv. dXev. : Hom. 

751. K€Kop. : c. genit. Th. 1249, Od. 14. 46 ; c. dat. Th. 1269, 
II. 8. 379. 

756. For the par tic. after alvif|(r€is cf. Saifiova fnyavxr} Iovt alpeaar 
fK So/xajv Aesch. Pers. 642, where Sidgv^rick has the following note : 
* lit. approve him coming, i.e. suffer him to come (here only in this 
sense with part.).' Cf. tovs yap evcrefieis 6(ol OvrjOKovTas ov x^^^pov^^ 
Eur. Hipp. 1339. 

757. The appeal for protection is made to Zeus, and not to 
Apollo, to whom a petition of a different nature is addressed. 
This seems to indicate that Trjade ttoXtjos does not refer to Megara, 
whose patron god, Apollo, is invoked as such in v. 773. vndp 
and vTTfi/je'xcy in Hom. For the construction cf. dXX' (ti tjs Kal ifiuo 
deS)v vwepiaxfOf X^i"" I^* 24. 374, also vfipiv vvipaxv X^^P°- ^povicvu 
II. 4. 249. 

aie. vaCwv | : II. 2. 412, Hes. W. D. 18. 

758. €7r', * for, to secure.' 

d-n-TjjiooruvTj does not again occur in classical writers. 

759. aurap 'Air. |: II. 16. 728, 21. 538 ; jkIk. 0€oi II. 20. 54 ; dOiv. 
jxaK. 6(01 Theog. 834 ; piaK. dOdvaToi H. Ap. 316. 

760. 6p0. "yX. is very appropriate in a prayer to Apollo, the god of 
mental and moral purity, order and justice in human life. 

6p9. : lit. * set straight' ; cf. vvvh' wpOwaas aropiaTos yvwtirjv Aesch. 
Agam. 1475 ; itoXX* dpuxpruv ovSlv wpOouaas (ppfvi Aesch. Suppl. 916 ; 
vuos dp96s Find. Pyth. 10. 68. 



224 NOTES 

761. I, \i(\. : the Paean ; a libation was offered and a song sung 
at the beginning of a symposium. 

4)0€YY. '• cf. (l>6eyyofj.€vr] iravroia vucv X'^P'^^'^^ 5iSd(XK€i of the 
cithara H. Herm. 484 ; dye 8^ X^'^*' ^^^ ^''' (pwvd^aaa yevoio Sappho 
45 ; 'age die Latinum, barbite, carmen' Hor. Od. 1. 32. 3. 

762. (TirovSas dpecra. : ' having offered libations as a peace-offering 
to the gods.' As "\ve can have xaptCo/^"' "'""''' ''"''» ' I gratify a person 
with something,' and xap'Coy""' t^ rivi, 'I give as a gratification to,' 
so we can have dpecTKOfxai nvd nvi and ti nvi, ' give as a conciliatory 
offering to'; cf. /xrjTe r'l fxoi xpev^eaai x'^pi'C^o Od. 14. 387 ; dvfxw /xaraio/ 
/i?) xapt'C^o'^a' /^f^d Soph. Elect. 331 : infird ae 8aiTt dpiadaOoj II. 19. 179. 

763. xO'P^^vTa, ' plaisanteriesJ ol x^p'i-^vt €s often == ' the wits ' ; cf. 
Ka\d \iyovT€s Th. 1047. 

764. For Mt|B. ttoX. ' war brought by the M.', cf. 6€ol o'l not 
€(pd>pixj]ffav TTuKefxov iroXvbaKpvv 'Axaiouv II. 3. 165. 

765. €V({>pova has been needlessly changed to 6fx6(ppova (cf. 81). 
£v(f>poo-i)vcos in the next line further emphasizes the dominant note 
of this elegy, joy as expressed in ij.tj8. SdhuTes, npnonivovs ktX. 
Like the Hebrew Psalmist with his synonymous parallels, the 
Greek elegist loved to repeat in the pentameter what he had 
already said in the hexameter; e.g. 1141 begins with evac^eajv, 
1142 ends with (vae^ias. When the same words were repeated^ 
the ancients called such verses echoici. 

766. €V(|>p6o-vvos (-ws) does not seem to be used elsewhere till 
a late period ; (V(ppa>v, kvtppoviojv are the usual epic forms cf. Ovpidf 
itxpptav Od. 17. 531 ; kvcppaiuco and evcppaivoj, kv- and ivcppoavvq are all 
found in Hom. ; iixppwv II. 15. 99. 

v6<r<J)t p,epi(ji,. : cf. dirdrfpOe fxepifiVicov 1153. 
810,7(1 V : aiujva didyovcriv H. 20. 6. 

767. Cf. 883, 1047, Ttpn. and €V(f>. 1068. 

Bergk* remarks : ' post repirofifvovs videntur nonnulla omissa 
esse, nam deinceps ea enumerantur, quae poeta a diis petit ' ; he is 
certainly right in assuming a gap, but not necessarily after reprr. 
Some lines may have been omitted after Sidyeiv, and their loss may 
be due to a repetition of rfpnofx. As they stand, the words kuk. 
d. K. d/xdvai s\re too abrupt, unless we force them to mean * keep 
off all thought of. Heimsoeth suggests d7rt» k. ufioaaai {detestari), cf. 
KaKas vTTo KTipas dXv^as \ II. 12. 113 ; Kjjpas dfivvei \ II. 4. 11. 

768. I yrjpd's r ovXup.. Hes. Th. 225 ; Oavdroio t«Xos genit. of 
definition, the end is death, 'death at the last,' II. 3. 309; ripiia 
T^s aojTTjpias Soph. Oed. Col. 725; mortis finis Boethins. 

On these poems B. II. C. have the following note : ' 757 sqq., 
769 sqq., 773 sqq. quasi prooemia altera hymnis v. 1 sqq., similia.' 
So too Geyso. 

769. Movo-. dcpdir. Margites 1 ; doiSus Movffdoji' Oep. Hes. Th. 100 ; 
H. 32. 20 ; Aristoph. Birds 909. Archilochus (fr. 1) calls himself 
depdnojv 'HvvaXioio dva/cTus Kal Movcrecuv kparbv bojpov iiriardpievos. Kings 
are OepdnovTes Aios Od. 11. 255 ; warriors 9(p. "Aprjos II. 2, 110. 

€1 Tt irepio-iTov I : aoi t: it. | 1386. 

770. <J)0ov. Cf. Movdfojv 8' ov fidXa (petSbs kydi Callim. fr. 460. 
ao4>iT] : espec. of the poet's skill ; cf 995, and Pindar passim. 

771. \jLuxrQai ktX., 'search for new truths, point out to men 
truths already known, practise others in his own life ' (or possibly 
' make up into poetry '). The author was probably thinking of the 



I 



NOTES 225 

wise saws and practical character of the ' sages ', Solon, Pittacus 
&c. Plato Cratyl. 406 a derives MoCcm from /xa/aeai ; cf. quaerere* 
e.g. 'atque aliquid duram quaerimus in dominam ' Propert. 1.7. 6 ; 
' sed quasi poeta, tabulas quom cepit sibi, quaerit quod nusqua'mst 
gentium, reperit tamen ' Plant. Pseud. 401. 

See Harrison's explanation of these lines quoted in Introd. 
p. 48. 

773-82. A prayer to Apollo as patron and founder of Megara. 
Alcathous was the eponymus of the Acropolis on the hill to the west 
of the town, certainly built after the eastern citadel which was 
called the Carian. He was the son of Pelops. Having killed his 
brother Chrysippus in the chase, he fled from Elis to Megara, 
where he destroyed a huge lion that was ravaging the land, and 
finally espoused the king's daughter and won the crown. As 
a token of gratitude he built a temple to the gods of the chase, 
Artemis 'Afporipa and Apollo 'Aypaios. He is to be regarded as 
the Megarian counterpart of the Boeotian Heracles (cf. AkideSy 
Alcmene, ^^cathous). The sights of Megara included a stone that 
on being struck emitted a musical note ; it was here that Apollo 
had laid down his lyre (cf. Pausan. 1. 42. 2). The Megarians are 
called 'A\Ka66ov vacTTJpis in an ancient inscription ; the town 
itself was sometimes known as Alcathoe. Cf. Anth. Plan. 279 ; 
Eur. Heracld. 278. 

773. Iirup-ycoo-as : hap. leg. in Horn. (Od. 11. 264), there used in 
reference to the building of Thebes by Amphion and Zethus. 

iroX. ciKp. : always as two words in II. ir. d. H. 6. 88; a. ir. II. 6. 
257 ; oLKpoiToKis Od. 8. 494, &c. 

775. Cf. vPp. dvrjP II. 13. 633. 

776. tva : only here and 908 in Th. ocppa ( = ut) c. subj. 546, 565 ; 
c. optat. 885, 1121. 

«v €v<j). I : 1256. 

777. -fipos : in festivals celebrating the return of Apollo from the 
land of the Hyperboreans ; these represent the return of Nature 
and her reproductive powers. 

k\. iKar. I II. 4. 102. irenir. : cf. Zeu, aol irefiiroj ravrav vfivojv dpxdv 
Terpand. 1. 

778. €p. 0aX. : cf. ovfnroaiojv kparwv Bacchyl. fr. 3. 12. 

779. ir. xopv dances at which paeans are sung giving thanks for 
deliverance from trouble, as II. 1. 473 in a feast given by the 
Achaeans out of gratitude to Apollo for staying the plague, irepl 
P«(ji6v : cf. lies. Th. 4. 

781. Xao4>06pov : hap. leg. Cf. Xao^uvov 56pv Bacchyl. 12. 120 ; 
evpLO(pd6pov II. 6. 169 ; irdfi(l)0(pais OTaais Bacchyl. fr. 20. 

783. Cf. I dbov n\v yap eycuy 915. 
2t/f6A^ (yvvr)) Od. 24. 211. 

Sicily, Sparta, and Euboea are mentioned here as types of 
desirable residences ; one's native soil is sweeter even than these, 
just as Odysseus prefers his 'rugged Ithaca' to 'the odorous, 
amorous isle of violets' where dwelt Calypso, ^ 

784. Cf. 892. dfin. irtd. Pind. Isthm. 8. 49; vo\vaTd<pvK6y 6 
lariaiav II. 2. 537. Euboea was the home of a wondrous vine 
eari yap ns kvaXia Ev&oiis aJa' TrjSe /3<i/fX«»os fiorpvs iw' ^/tap I/wet 
Soph. fr. 239. , 

785. 8ovaKOTp6<i)os : Corinna 12. Evp. Sovok. Eur. I. Aul. 179 ; fioai 



226 NOTES 



Tou KaWiSovaKos Evpura Eur. Hel. 492, douaKox^oa Evpwrav I. Taur. 
399, dovaKOfVTos Evp. Hel. 208, rdv vSpoevra 56vaKi xKojpbv 'Evpourav 
Hel. 349 ; dovaKwdfa HciKov Bacchyl. fr. 22 ; 'Aacjnbv 5' ikovto 0a6v- 
axoivov Xix^TToir}v II. 4. 383. For the naming of a city from its river 
cf. aOTv Hiipavas (Corinth) Pind. 01. 13. 61 ; UpGjv Troraficov noXis 
(Athens) Eur. Med. 846 ; Upop oiKrjfxa irorafiov (Acragas) Pind. 01. 2. 
10, and the modern Conway which takes its name from the river, 

786, c<t>i\,, ' entertained.' Cf. irap" dfifxi (piXrjcreai Od. 1. 123. 
irpd(j>p. : cf. o(ppa 1143. 

788, Cf. 1066. ov8eu yKvKiov rjs naTplSos ovSe toktjojv yiyv€Tai Od. 
9. 34 ; Tt yap -narpcf as dv8pl <pi\T€pov x^o^Ss ; Eur, fr. 6. 

790. Tlie reading dpc-rqs is supported by dyaOwv and laOXbv vuov, 
some edd. read kpaTTJs aoipirjs. 

791. 6pxr]eixw Kal doLdfj \ Hes. Sh. 282. 

795. Cf. 921. arjv avrov cppevaTepne H. Herm. 565 ; kfiavra Sapph. 15. 

798. p.vif|p.iri, ' mention.' The icaKol are lost in the crowd. Cf. 
Sneer on Sir Fretful Plagiary : ' He is the sorest man alive, and 
shrinks like scorched parchment from the fiery ordeal of true criti- 
cism ; yet he is so covetous of popularity that he had rather be 
abused than not mentioned at all,' The Critic, Act i, Sc. 1. i^vqur] 
yiv. is the pass, of fivrjfirjv exct" Hdt. 1. 14, iroieTadai Hdt. 1. 15. 

799. di|;6KT0S : cf. dfxojpirjTov 5' ov8ev eyevro fiporoTs Parrhasius 2. 
6irl x9. : generally in this metrical position in Hom., e.g. Od. 

1. 196. 

800. * If . . .no man escapes blame, his fate is to be preferred 
who is not the subject of much talk ' ; cf. 1185, 6. 

802, UaopLai ds 'At'Sao Od. 12, 383. 

803, Cf. bs irdai Qvijt. k. dOavdr. dvaaaei II, 12. 242. 

804, I Z. Kpov. Hes. W. D. 158. ' 

806. 6|ji,6v (Ahrens) is better than ififv, which does not suit the 
words (jopvov kt\.) used in the preceding line ; the presence of -napa 
in 945 makes the case different, Cf. (v6vv xp^ tov kraipov €pifj.(v Scol, 16. 
<)>vXaa-o-., ' being on his guard.* For xPV ^^' f^V 540. 

807. We might also read k Iv Tlvduvi. Pindar has UvO. and also 
(V rr. 

808. rriovos (( dSvroio \ II. 5. 512. The end of an Hom. hexam. 
is often changed into the end of a pentam. by the substitution of 
a shorter case-ending ; e.g. vrjval Oojjai becomes vTjval 6oais, alfxvXioiai 
\6yoi<Ti = alu. \6yois Th. 704. Cf. Th. 802 and Od. 12. 383 (quoted 
supra). 

809. Cf. Apocalypse 22. 18, 19. 

810. ' Avoid the charge of sin made by the gods.' 
811-14. Cf. 1015. 

811. oUti k. I 1175. 

814. Cf. 1016, and v6ov ov nv '^xovaiv II. 22. 382. 

815. See on 847. Cf. Adf ttoSi Kivrjcas II. 10. 158. Bgk. objects 
to the dative yXuao]^ as inusitata structura ; he accordingly prints 
the reading of the inferior MSS. yKwaorjs. But cf. this proverb 
in the Agam. rd S' dWa aiyu' fiovs km yXwoari pieyas 0e0t]Kev (Ag. 36) ; 
ov yap fiovvov Itt' ocpOaKfiotaiv 'EpLvv<! Xd^ kuc^rj Ap. Rh. 2. 220. The 
accus. is also found Ad£ enl yaarkpa ^daa Theocr. 26. 23. km^. is 
frequently used with the simple dative. 

/Sous km. yXucraijs' irapoi/JLia km rwv fifj Bvvafikvojv irapprjffid^eaOai 
Zenob. 2. 70. No satisfactory explanation of its origin has yet been 






I 



NOTES 227 

oifered ; it was an enigma to the ancients themselves, t^toi Si^ t6 
&<t>a}Vov Tov (ojov fj dia rd tuiu 'Aerjvaiaju to vofxiafM ex^tv ^ovv kyKevapa- 
7/ifVoj/, oirep kKTivciv eSei roiis irepa tov SeovTos TrapprjffiaCoficvovsZenoh • 
im Twv 6^ai(pVTjs ciojitwvtwv dcopoSoKovfXfvoi kcndjirojv Apostol. 5. 2. Tlie 
faithful watchman in the Agamemnon can hardly be suspected 
of taking a bribe ; in our passage the context affords no clue 
Philostratus (Vit. Apoll. 6. 11) says that the expression was used 
by the followers of Pythagoras. ' Perhaps a metaphor from a heavy 
weight' (Jebb). Others take ^ovs to mean 'gag' or 'scourge' (//ms 
fiodos), cf. our 'cat'. There is a touch of humour in the two 
passages (Th. and Agam.), KcoTiXXctv, 'blab', 'chatter'; Kparepw 
iroSi = fX€yas_fiov9 (Again.). Cf. dW kffrl kol/xoI kXtjs knl yXwaari <f>vKoi 
Aesch. fr. 378. Traxvs vs eKeir' (nl OT6pa, used by Menander (ap. 
Ath. 549) in reference to persons cowed by a portly tyrant. 

816. lo-x. K. : verbs of hindering are followed by an infinit. with 
or without puf]. 

817. (xotpa: c, inf.. II. 17. 421. 

818. ' 565. ixaBeiv scripsi, legebatur 5. TTaOuv. Emendationem 
meam munire neglexi, ratus homines recti iudicii neque doctrinae 
expertes veritatis notas facile assecuturos esse' Bgk.*. He has 
spoilt a good couplet. The idea is : ' If I know that I must endure 
a thing, I can look forward to it without flinching.' It is suspense 
that unnerves us, the possibilitij of suftering that makes cowards of 
us all ; if Fate makes up our mind for us, we can then concentrate 
all our attention upon our will. 

Cf. vvv 5' efXTTTjs -ydp Krjpa k(p€(TTdcnv OavaToio pvpiai as ovk eart 
(pvyHu PpoTov ov8' vnaXv^ai II. 12. .326 ; Eur, fr. 757, 

819. TToXvdp. here = ' a subject of much prayer' ; generally it = 
' much desired '. 

821, aiipa 8e yqpdaKovTas dnp-qaovai TOKrjas Hes. W. D. 185; cf. lb. 187. 
diToyrjp. is used neither by Hom. nor Hes. 

diraTi/xdoj II. 13. 113. 

822. Cf. 152. Tivh Twv ras fxeylffTas X'^'pa? exovTOJv Polyb. 1. 43. 1. 
Camerarius takes the meaning to be 'their land becomes less'; 
cf. the fifth clause of the Decalogue. 

824. Cf. 306. piTj Tis VTr(pl3aairj Aids opKia 5r]\r]crr)Tai II. 3. 107. 

825-30. A reproach addressed to unsympathetic friends, ' How 
can you join the revellers when they are feasting on the fruits of 
my land, and wearing garlands of flowers plucked in my gardens 
which we can see from the market-place? Come, you Scythian, 
shear your locks, and mourn with me.' The poet's property had 
fallen into the hands of his enemies. 

827. dd(pva re xP^^^'i Kopias dvadrjffavTes clKamvd^oKTiv fvcppovoK 
Pind. Pyth. 10. 40. If we retain the MSS. reading we must take 
(V with |av0. Kop.. as well as with eiXair., 'at feasts and on their 
heads.' 

829. 5Kij0a : probably ' Scythian ', ' hard drinker '. TJiere is 
possibly also a reference to gkvO'l^o) = 'shave' (Eur. El. 241). All 
Scythians and Thracians, including women, dicpcncp itavrdiraai x/><*'- 
pLivoi Plat. Laws 637 e; 'S.KvdtKrjv -noaiv ■nap'' o'lvcp puKiTwixiv Anacr. 64. 9 ; 
KAeo/xfVea ^KvOrfcrt opiiKrjaavTa aKprjTonuTrjv yiviaBai . , . Itrtdv (up6- 
T€pov ^ovKojvTai TTieiv 'EiTiCKvOiaov Xfyovai Hdt. 6. 84 ; ^Kv6iari (po/vtt', 
of a drunken man, Athen. p. 221, who derives <r/fu^oy from aKvdos' 
Sid TO Tovs :SKv6as nfpaiTfpoj rov Uovtos pteOvafceaOai. Of course, tlie word 

<J2 



228 NOTES 

may be a proper name. Harrison refers to several persons bearing 
this name, e. g. the father of Cadmus, tyrant of Cos (Cadm. settled 
at Zanele in 494) ; another is the ' King of Zancle, who lost his city 
in 494 (Hdt. 6. 23) ', There can, then, be no validity in the reason- 
ing of Bergk, who rejects the word ' because it must be the name of 
a slave, and an aristocrat like Theognis would never have conde- 
scended to address so mean a person ' ; he suggests d\\' dye 8fj 'yKVTi 
K€ipf, ' close to the skin ' ; cf, x^'-''"'!^ "''■' ^1^^^ kyKvrl KCKapftevos^ 
Archil. 37. 

830. Cf. 1200. 

831. Cf. mareis yap rot ofiws Kai dinarlai wXtaav avBpas Hes. W. D. 
372 ; rfi dmaria k^iKXda6r}aav , av h\ rfj marti 'iarrjKas Paul, Ep. Rom. 
11. 20.' 

832. dpYuX. : inHom., 'unendurable,' Kd/xaTos, aT6vos^<p6^os. Tr. 
Hhe knowledge of both is bitter,' cf. ov yvwfxav i'orxf's l£ oicov Soph. 
Elect. 214, Schol. ov yiyvwaKus. Others explain, ' it is hard to 
decide, to choose between the two.' 

833. <|>0<Jpos : Bacchyl. 14. 61 ; Thuc. 2. 52. Cf. rpi^os and rpi^-q, 
the former in Aesch. Ag. 197. 

834. Cf. Od. 1. 32 ; A. v6k\', Sj reKvov, acpdWovcriv dvOpuwovs OeoL 
B. rd paoTOV (Inai alTidaaaOm Qtov^ Eur. fr. 256 ; 6. fxaK. II. 1. 339, 
Od. 8. 281. 

835. v^pis T€ /S/t; t6 Od. 15. 329. A common complaint in the 
Theognidea, cf. 40, 46, 50, 346, 677. 

837. 8. K-fjpcs, ' plagues connected with drink,' the positive and 
negative poles, the Scylla and Charybdis of wine. The sore of 
Philoctetes is called Krjp, TraXaia KTjpi (Soph. Phil. 42, 1166). There 
may be in our passage a reminiscence of the two Krjpes assigned to 
Achilles, alternatives in both cases. Mimn. 2. 5 speaks of two ic^pes, 
death and old age. SeiX. I3p. \ II. 22. 31, &c. 

888. Xvo-i|X€\tis, 'limb-exhausting.' A. tpos Hes. Th. 911; iroOos 
Archil. 85 ; Ku/fxa Ap. Rh. 4. 1523 ; XvcrifxeXovs Bdnxov kuI XvaifieXov^ 
'A<J)poSiTrjs yivvdrai Ovydrrjp XvffififXrjs noddy pa Hedyl. A. Pal. 11. 
414 ; cf. yvioKupovs fxeXtScuvas Hes. W. D. 66. 

839. BdKxov fiirpov dpiarov 6 ix^ ttoKv fxrjS' (Xaxicrrov. fan yap 17 
Xvirrjs aiTios fj fiavirjs Euenus 2 ; ovSi /x. it. \ II. 11. 648, and Th. 
1363. 

crTpci}<t>., dvd Tr)v ttoXiv (TTpojcpufjievai Hdt. 2. 85. 

841. Cf. 1224. 

dxipio-Tos : sc. eari. Bgk.* supports his conjecture dxapiaTcos by 
an appeal to firjSe rds xapf^oj dxapiorcus x"P'C'^A'*''o^ Isocr. ad Demon. 
31. We should then require an adverb (e. g. (v) with xc/^'C^Tat in 
contrast with dxapiarus : the same objection applies to dxdpiarov 
if translated * one ungracious gift it gives ' {dxdp. xo-p'^C^Tai). 

843. 4. A rejoinder to 841, 2. 

The MSS. reading would mean 'when a man above be- 
comes a man below ', i. e. drops under the table. The sense required 
is 'when we see things upside down, we shall stop and go home'. 
Cf. ' Et sane iam lucernae mihi plures videbantur ardere totumque 
triclinium esse mutatum ' Petron. Cena Tr. 64 ; cf. Juv. 6. 304. 

844. tovtAkis : Tovrdm Pind. Pyth. 4. 28. 

845. K€ip,. (pass, of ridr)p.i) is in itself colourless, cf. 48. ytr] Kiviiv 
<5 Kfififvov Plat. Phileb. 15 c. 

847. €mPo = Ittj/St/^j ; Kup-ac Xd^ km^aivi Kar' avx^vos, aypie daifxov 






NOTES 229 

Meleager; « et caput impositis pressit Amor pedibus* Propert. 
1. 1. 4. 

K€V€6<(>p. : avxai Find. Nem. 11. 29. 

848. 5€uyXii Hdt. 1. 31. 8vo-\o<J)ov 1024, 1358 ; 5v(T\o<pov Xiovri 
icpirjat xft>a Bacchyl. 12. 46, 'a crushing hand' ; lit. 'heavy on the 
neck', Jebb. Cf. dvanrnos x^pa ('hard for horses') Plut. Philop. 
14 ; Sva6cpea\fxoi (', offensive to the eye') Telest. ap. Athen. 616 f. 

849. <|>t\o5. : dv8pdnoda Hdt. 4. 142 ; (p. kvojv Ael. N. A. 6. 62. 

851. 11^ <pi\ov k^arrdTa was one of the maxims set up in public by 
order of the tyrant Hipparchus. 

852. \La\Q., ' soft words ' ; cf. e^aTraTara; aifxvKa KoinWovoa Hes. 
W. D. 373 ; aKKijpd /xaA^a/ccDj Xcyccv Soph. O. Col. 774. 

853. Cf. T)d(a fiiv . . . 6!5a Se vvv II. 14. 71 ; | ^dr) yap koI irpoaOiv 
Meleag. A. P. 5. 172 ; iilv. . . drap II. 1. 165 ; /xei/ . . . avrdpTh. 647. I have 
adopted the reading given 1038 a, where the MSS. have Xmov ■qSrj. 
In the present passage Xma is due to the change of r/Sea into lySe'a 
and the desire to find another neuter plur. adjective ('sweet' ( 
' more profitable ') : cf. rd \ma Theocr. 26. 32. A. B. Cook (quoted 
by Harr., p. 153) suggests that the use of Xuia as a comparative 
may be due to a 'mistaken remftiiscence of -noXv Xmov in II. 1. 229 
and Hes. W. D. 433 '. 

854. Cf. 956, 1340. 8€lXois dxiya x^pis Praxilla (Scol. 21). 

855. Cf. 47. 

856. kckXi^j... 'heeling over,' or ' leaving her course'. nXivofifvoi, 
* swerving,' 946. ISpajjiev : rpexoj is used of • running into danger'. 
rpix^iv n€pi ^vxv^ Hdt. 9. 37. 

857-60. Cf. ' Donee eris sospes multos numei-abis amices ; tempera 
si fuerint nubila solus eris * Ov. Trist. 1. 9. 5. 

859. For the omission of a verb after rjv cf. 541. 
iravpaKi, hap. leg., cf. oXiyaKis, TovraKii 844. 

860. da-nd^ofxai Kat (piXai is a frequent combination, e.g. Plat. 
Apol. 29 1). /3\€7r6T6 dnd rcbv ypafifxareoju twv OcXovtojv dauaafiovs Iv 
rai9 dyopais Mark 12. 38. For the plur. (piX. cf. dfifipoffidu (piXo- 
rdrajv Find. Nem. 8. 1. 

861-4. In spite of the ingenuity lavished upon it, this elegy is 
still an enigma. Of all the explanations offered the most probable 
is that which takes it to be the complaint of a meretrix ; cf. Geyso, 
p. 59 'Deserunt me amici (kpaoTai), nee volunt mihi gratificai'i 
(dvb. (paiv. verba obscura) ; tamen ego pro vetere consuetudine 
(avTOfidTrf) vespertine tempore dome egredior (ad symposia) ot 
matutino redeo '. The ' friends ' may be the lenones who refuse to 
give her anything, and dvS. <paiv. may mean ' when lovers present 
themselves '. 

It has been suggested by several scholars that the speaker 
is some domestic animal neglected by its owners. If so, the moan- 
ing might then be : ' My friends will not give me anything in the 
day (dvd. (paiv.), so I shall go out alone in the dark and come in at 
cockcrow '. dv8. 4>aiv. possibly -^ ' when men arc about ', cf. dyopdt 
vXr}9ovar]s, and this is perhaps the sense which we should attach to 
a marginal note preserved in bd, viz. ijyovv Kara ruv leaipdy rrji 
^fiipas, a gloss which led Hermann and Emper. to the conjecture 
darpajv (Ahrens Sddwv). This explanation would supply a fitting 
contrast to kairepii] . . . lyfipofxivcDv. 

Harrison connects 857-60 with 861-4. ' In 857-60 the poot 



230 NOTES 

complains that his friends are fair-weather friends ; in 861-4 he 
compares himself to a pet which is petted only when its masters 
have nothing better to do (" when visitors come in").' But I see no 
reason to suppose that the lines were intended to be an allegory. 

8G4. Cf. k^eypeaOaL irpos rj^iipav ■qSt] dXfKTpvovojv ddovroov Plat. 
Sympos. 223 c. 

865-8. Note the careful arrangement and chiasmus. 

865. 6\Pos is given to dxprjcrroi )( 868 every possessor of dperr] m 
■Xprjaros ; 866 oA/3os is wasted and lost )( 867 dpirij is never lost. 

axpTjo-Tos here in its usual sense of ' unfit for service ' )( 
alxM-TiTTis. 

866. ' Wealth which brings no profit to the man himself or to 
his friends, as it is lost on such a person ' ; lit. ' is of no worth ' 
{ovbev). uXPos, though in itself la^Aoy, becomes axpT/aros itself when, 
bestowed upon an dxpqaTos ; dpirr] can never be lost, as it never 
gets into the possession of an dxprjcrros. 

867. Cf. kX(os ovn. oA. ] II. 2. 325, 7. 91, Od. 24. 196. The same 
spirit of pride in one's fighting power is expressed by Archil. 
etf dopl fxev fxoi fxd(^a ixtpLayixivr], kv Sopl 5' oTvos 'lapiapiKos, nivcu 8' kv Sopi 
KCKXifievos fr. 2. 

868. Cf. 1006 ; for yviv and darv cf. ot rqvSe -noXiv koX yaiav exovaiv 
darv 8e pLoi Su^ov Od. 6. 177 ; d'AAo: 6' ot Kara darv Kai ot irfpivaieTdovaiv 
Od. 8. 551. 

do-TV, lit. ' town, as a dwelling-place ' ; root fas, Eng. I ^vas. 

869. eireiTa : anticipating an ci-claufre ; summing up an et-clause, 
Od. 1. 84, 2. 275. 

€v . . . ireaot : cf. Kvfxa kw vqi iricrrjai II. 15. 624. Alexander tovs 
KcXtovs TjpfTO o, Ti fxaXiara SeSiTTerai avrovs tSjv dvOpunivaiv kkiriaas on 
/ji4ya ovofxa to avrov . . . ecpaaav dfSiiyai iJ.r]TTOT€ 6 ovpavos avTois kpveaoi. 
He then sent them away, tooovtov vnanuv on dKa<^6v€s KcAtoi eiatv 
Arrian 1. 4. 

ov»p. €vp. vir. I II. 15. 36, Hes. Th. 110, 702, 840. 

ovp. x<3i^K. II. 17. 425 ; ffiSrjpeos ovp. Od. 15. 329 ; \x.iy. ovp. 

11. 1. 497. 

870. xa^atY. avOp. Hes. Th. 879 ; H. Aphr. 108. 

871. Cf. Ti XPV "^^^ *S vpdaaovTa fx^f/ npdaaovaiv ev (piXois enapKHi/ ; 
Eur. Hecub. 984 ; kirapK. c. ace. Orest. 803. 

872. )( 1107, 8 ; cf. (Antinous ref. to Odyss.) t/s Zaiixuv rohe trrjp.a 
TTpoarjyaye Sairoi dvirjv ; Od. 17. 446. 

873. firjbe a irdfinav \ II. 20. 108 ; ovb' o ye ir. \ II. 12. 406. 

874 = 1092 ; cf. et fxiauv irovos tari, (piKuv iruvos Euenus, A. P. 

12. 172. 

876. jjitTp. i\. <T0^. : cf. 1119. X'^^P^i 'HatoS', dvOpuinois fxirpov 
iXo^v oocpiTjs Pindar (?) ap. Proclum ad Hes. 

877. Tax' dvj all MSS. except A here and 1070 a, may be the 
right reading. 

dv c. fut. is frequent in Hom. and Pindar. See Goodwin^ 
31. T. 198. 

878. Y. F^a. Od. 11. 365. 

879-84. Assigned by Reitzenstein to a Laconian, an imitator of 
Tyrtaeus; he holds that the same poet also wrote 997-1002, 1087-90. 

881. I oijpeos kv ^-qaaris II. 3. 34, Hes. W. D. 510. 
Ai'oAos (pikos dOavaTOKri Oioiai Od. 10. 2 ; OeoTai (pi\aj ©ionupLnqj | . . ► 
iPvTevfiv Tyrt. 5. 1. 



NOTES 231 

882. nXar : a name found in more than one Peloponnesian 
locality: (1) a cape on the island Cythera, h nKaravcarovvra 
Fausan. 6.^6. 1 ; (2) nXaraviaTuv, a river in Arcadia, and another in 
Messenia, Pans. 4. 34. 4. Bergk* is probably right in his suggestion 
that our poet refers to a stream rising in Taygetus. 

iirAy. :^ cf. rd Ik rSiv Sicupvxojv kirdyovTfs vdfiara Plat. Critias 
118 E ; )( e^ayuv as els ttjv u8dv oKv-qaa to vh<up e^ayuv Demosth ag 
Callicles 18. * *" 

883. Cf. ohov . . . Oeol TToirjaav apiarov . . . diroaKeZdaai fifkcSSivas 
Cypria 7 ; < dissipat Euhius curas ' Hor. Od. 2. 1 1. 17. neXeS. : there 
were two words neKeSwv and n^Xibuvq, cf. neXfdwvas H. Ap. 532- 
fieXedwvai Theocr. 21. 5. Most edd. of Th. reject the MSS. -w'vas for 
-wvas (Camer.). 

884. As A accents (KacppoTfpoos it is better to assume that oj is due 
to a slip, and to read -os with the other MSS. 

885. Eirene, d. of Zeus and Themis ; her sisters were Eunomia 
and Dice, cf. Pind. 01. 1.3. 7. For the combination cf. ttAoCtos Sc 
Kal elprjvT) Od. 24. 486 ; Aina koi Eiprjva rapLiai avhpdai ttXovtov Pind. 
01. 13. 7 ; riKTei Se re Bvaroiaiv dprjva fxcyaKa ttXovtov /xfXiyKuaaMv t' 
doiSdv duOea Bacchyl. fr. 3. Plutus is addressed as Oeuiv KaWiaTe Th. 
1117, cf. T^i/ naWiaTTjv deouv Elprjurjv rifxwvTfs Eur. Orest. 1683. The 
famous statue of Eirene holding the infant Plutus was made by 
Cephisodotus in the fourth century. 

886. TToKefxoio KaKoio II. 1. 284. 

887. dv' €X€ : cf. dvix^^^^o-' ^vcv exovaa ws ev AvKOvpyq) AlaxvXos, 
aKove 8' dv^ ovs e'xw Schol. Soph. 0. Col. 674. 

p.aK. p. I : div Pocjarjs \ 1197. 

889. €7r. t., of a chariot ; as i'lnraju entPaii'efjKv II. 5. 255. 
iir. toKvir. II. 2. 383. 

If we regard 889, 90, as a reply to the preceding line, irop. is 
certainly not * languidum ' as Peppmiiller holds, to justify his con- 
jecture v€ov ovra (cf. Tyrt. 10. 27). ' We are not fighting for our own 
land,' says one. ' No/ says the other, 'but we are at the scene of 
battle.' 

890. iroX. 8aKp. II. 5. 737. 

891-4. It is difficult to connect Cerinthus in north-east Euboea 
with the expedition of the Cypselid Miltiades (506 b.c.\ nor does the 
reference fit in with what we know about the Persian invasion of 
the island. There may be an allusion to some incident in the long 
struggle between Eretria and Chalcis for the possession of the 
fertile Lelantian plain ; it is equally possible that the lines deal 
with an internal revolution in which the nobles were defeated by 
the masses, headed perhaps by an aspirant to tyranny, and dispos- 
sessed of their land. (Cf. the use oidyaOoi and KaKoi Th. 57. 49, &c.) 

We cannot point to any interference by the Cypselids or other 
Corinthians in the internal affairs of Euboea. The reading KvvpcXi- 
8€0)v is amply supported by an inscription on a golden colossus 
set up by Cypselus at Olympia d pL^ iyu xpvcrovs a<pvpii\aTos tlpi 
KoXoaaus e^cjXrjs fiTj Kvtpe\i8u)v ytver) ; the phrase rnay have become 
proverbial with the meaning 'a curse on all tyrants and thoir 
friends '. Cf. ird\ai ttot' rjoav d\Kipioi MiXfjatoi Ar. Plut. 1002 ; ' Queen 
Anne is dead,' 'Sister Anne is still waiting.' 

The Lei. Plain is first mentioned in H. Ap. 220 arrji 5' irri 
Arj\dvT(p TrfSiw. 



232 NOTES 

891. Kif|p. is included in the Catalogue with no\vcrTa(pv\os 'lariaia 
II. 2. 537. 

893. Sieir. , ' govern.' 

894. For u»s, cf. ws fx^ Odvoi oans . . . Od. 15. 359 ; Bergk compares 
Zev irartp, ws XaXv^uv -nav airoXoiro ytvos Callim. fr. 463, the German 
dass dock and the Latin ' ut ilium di perdant '. 

895. 6. For the form cf. 1223, 1225 ; for the sentiment cf. 1171. 

896. ayvoi\i., stoUdiias, Hdt. 4. 93. 

897. Zei/j ore 5rj p dvbpfcrai KOTeacrdfx,(vos x'^^^'^'H^V ^^' 1^* ^^6 
iravra = Im -navTi 325. 

902. Cf. dWov S' dWov eOrjKe Oeos kniSevea (pcuTuiv Theocr. 25. 50 
dX\' ov yap avTos Trdvr' hmaraaOai ^poTwv rrecpvKev' dWw S' dWo npoa 
KciTui yepas Rhesus 106 ; ' non omnia possumus omnes ' Verg. Eel 
8. 63; ovTOS fiev TTavdpiaros os auros -ndvTa vo-qari Hes. W. D. 293, 
aiTTos, * alone, unaided ' ; cf. 959. 

903-30. See Appendix. 

The general idea is : ' Don't squander, or you will become 
a beggar; don't scrape and stint, for you may not live to enjoy 
your wealth. When your income decreases, spend less; when it 
increases, you can afford to spend more ; always let your expendi- 
ture be proportionate to your means at that time.' 

903. 'Sees that his expenditure is according to his means, and 
follows on its track ' (ferreting out every item), i.e. he knows on 
what he has spent every farthing. 

904. Tots aw., ' in the eyes of the wise.' 

905. Cf. Ovarov (vvra XP^ ^iSvfiovs de^eiv yvwpias, on t' avpiov oipeai 
fiovvov d\iov 0dos, X'^''* ■nevTi^Kovr'' erea ^oudv ffaOvirXovTOv reXeis 
Bacchyl. 3. 78-82 ; cf. Lucian, A. P. 10. 26. 

906. Cf. eiKoai 8' (KreXeaais kviavTovs Pind. Pyth. 4. 104 ; tuv Piov 
ei€T^X€<T€v Diod. Sic. 1. 49. 

907. ' Who had a longer span of life before him.' 

908. toOtov, subject of 4>6t8. iva c. indie. ; tI ovk ippirf l^avrriv 
. . . oiToos aTrrjXXdyrjv ; Aesch. Prom. 747. 

909. o, ' on which account,' as Eur. Hec. 13 ; to II. 3. 176. 

910. Cf. dedrjy/jiai tj)v Kapbiav Ar. Ach. 1 ; 6vfiodaKris fivdos Od. 
8. 185. 

911. Of. KaOdiTfp Iv Tpiodcp yevufievos Plat. Laws 799 c. 
914. T€X. ?pY. Od. 2. 272. 

917. €KT6\., 'before accomplishing his purpose' (sc. v6ov), i.e. 
saving all he intended to save ; cf. ckt. epov ; or can it mean 
' before getting through all his money ' ? 

Cf. 974. KareXedvT' "AiSos eiaoj II. 6. 284. 
919. ^ K*, i. e. to himself. Bgk. compares * cuncta manus avidas 
fugient heredis amico quae dederis animo ' Hor. Od. 4. 7. 19. 

921. 8i€Tp., 'wasted, squandered'; usually 'delay', 'spend time'. 
vtTrdYw, 'I die', 'leave the woi-ld ', 'withdraw'; of an army 
withdrawing Hdt. 4. 120. 

924. \it\. ex. : twv npoaOev fxeXeTiju ex* Atf" o'lKriia OeaOai Hes. W. D. 
457. 

fieXeTT] = kmfi€X€La. 

925. ' By so doing you would neither toil for another and leave 
him the fruits of your toil, nor would you be a beggar and a slave.' 
irpo- = vnip, as in ov ci) noXXaKis r^v aijv -npordvajv irpovKafies ^^X^" 
Sopi Soph. Ajax 1270. 



NOTES 233 

fi€Ta8oiTis, 'give as a share ' not ' give a share of (Camer. read 
KanaTov) ; iVa jx^ fxeraSoifv to fiipos Xen, An. 7. 8. 11. Cf. fjnirtpov 
KanaTov edovaiv Od. 14. 417 ; so too ttoj/os, jwox^os, labores. 

926. 8ov\. TcX., < accomplish slavery,' like xeA. epyov, ' briiv 
about.' y^pai Oeol TeXeovaiv dpeiov Od. 23. 286. ° 

928. €v T. yivei, 'in this age or society of ours', 'among such 
a generation of citizens as the present'. Cf. 191, 1141. ovSiv Sikouov 
hjTiV kv tQ vyv 7ej/et Eur. fr. 696 ; rwv ye vvv a'i tis ernxdoviQiv Bacchyl. 
o. 4 ; ws Cfpohp' earl avfxcpepov to fi-ndev clokhv vyih Iv rai vvv ydvvw 
Ar. Plutus 50. . A/' . 

929. ^ p6\is (Lyvcxjs tovt cttos wj ouSets ou8«i/ e;^oi'Tt (piXos; Marc. Arg. 
A. P. 5. 113 ; Tuiv Ixoj'Tcuj' TrdvTis (pikoi Eur. fr. 465. 

930. Either ' You yourself are no longer regarded as such a good 
man ', or (?) ' a good man is no longer the same man as before '. 

931. 2. A cynical reply to the preceding. ' Even the man de- 
scribed in 915 sqq. gained something.' 

diroKXaiw, c. accus. Plat. Phaed. 117 c; so diroirevefiv nva Plut. 
Cor. 39. 

933. For the sing. vb. cf. 885. otttiB. | always in this position in 
Od. and Hymns (eight times), and II. 2. 184, 5. 216, 24. 368. So 
too the five examples in the Index to Paley's Hesiod, and all those 
given in Steph. from hex. or elegiac poetry. 

935-8 w^ere certainly not intended to follow close upon 983, 4. 
They are a fragment of a much longer poem quoted by Stobaeus 
under the name of Tyrtaeus. Our version differs in several respects 
from the Stobaeau text. No notice is taken of koXXos in 935-8, 
vv^hich deal with dp^Tq alone and were inserted as a commentary 
on the first element in 933. 

934. oXpios OS very frequently at the beginning of a line, 
unaccompanied by a verb, as 1253 ; Hes. Th. 954 ; Theocr. 12. 34. 
For this use of an adj. as predicate cf. vr]inos II. 5. 406 ; 8v<Tfiopoi 
Od. 20. 194. 

936. eiiteiv irpodvpov Od. 18.10. X"P^S, ' place ' ; arpeipfad' (k x<^pf]^ 
II. 6. 516. 

937. irdaiv be ixfTenpeTrev fiputaaiv II. 2. 579. 

939-42. It has been suggested that the singer is a maiden, 
abandoned by her lover ; but how would this explain Kal ^ap «7"A. ? 
The author feels like the man in Plat. Sympos. 176 a itdvv xaXi-nm 
eX^ i>^^ fov x^cs TTOTov Kal Seofxai dva\pvxv^ rivos. The poet is hoarse 
after the debauch of the night before. * I have no one to accom- 
pany me ', * I have a bad cold ', were then, as now, well-known 
■excuses. 

Harrison offers the following explanation of 939-44 : ' The scene 
is at a Ktbfios. The speaker at first declines to sing, but finally 
consents to join in a chorus {dOav. 6. itr. would be a chorus, not a 
solo, ace. to Dr. Jackson). It is not hard to fill up the gaps in the 
dialogue, of which we have only one side. " Will you sing iis 
something? " " I am afraid I am out of voice ; I was at a party 
last night." " The accompany ist perhaps does not satisfy you ? " 
*' I could not wish for a better. You should have a duet, only my 
friend, the knave, has left me in the lurch. But if you like I will 
lead off Auld Lang Syne.^^ ' 

939. AtV deidev Od. 10. 254. 

944. 0. €ir. I 1116. 



234 NOTES 

Se^ios, * on the right side,' as ahrds de^ius di^as II. 24. 320 
'sideos salutas, dextrovorsumcenseo'Plaut. Cure. 1. 1. 70; irpowoaeis 
dpiyeiv kmdS^ia Critias 2. 7. 

The singer stood on the right of the musician and turijed 
to the right to address the gods. Oeois hde^ia -naaiv olvoxoti II. 

I. 597 ; pi] S' ifi€v alTTjacov kvSe^ia (puira eKacrrov (Odyss. begging^ 
Od. 17. 365. 

945-8. There is no need to follow Bergk in assigning these lines 
to Solon ; they are certainly full of Solonian echoes. Cf. evOeiav 
eh €Ka(TTov apfxoaas b'lKTjv Sol. 32. 19 ; €vvo/j.ia d' evKOff/xa Koi dpria ttuvt' 
dTTO(f>aiv€i Sol. 4. 33 ; Srjuqt fiev yap eScvKa ruaov Kparos oaaov ktrapKU 
. . . out' k-nope^dfievoi . . . Kal tois ((ppaadfxtjv /A,T]5ev deiKes ex*"' • • • 
viKav S' ovK e'iaa' ovSerfpovs ddiKOJS Sol. 5 ; XP'Hl^^'- TrfiOofxevoi \ Sol. 4. 0. 

945. ^\6€ &(aiTr]TOi Kadapfjv u5uv Callim. Ep. 7 ; dpOdv Ki\(v$ov Iwv 
Find. Pyth. 11. 39; irpayfxaTojv bpOdv ohov Pind. 01. 7. 46. 

946. dpT., ' sound, true * ; dpr. Pd^eiv II. 14. 92 ; apr. fiijdd/jievos 
Pind. 01. 6. 94 ; v6os dpnos Th. 154. 

947. Koo-p.. : '■ set in order, govern, administer, act as magistrate 
over ' ; used by Hdt. in ref. to the rule of Pisistratus em roiai 
icaTeaTfuxTi evffie Tr)v noXiv Koafxecuv Ka\ws re Kal ev Hdt. 1. 59. Koap.o'i 
is used of a constitution (esp. oligarchical), fxeTacrrfjaai rbv Kocfiov 
Kal es drjfioKpaTiav rpexpai Thuc. 4. 76. The Cretan KotTfioi were olig. 
magistrates Arist. Pol. 1272 a. 

€m Tp. : ' yield to, put myself in the hands of,' cf. ou fiev 
fTTeTpeiTf yrjpai \vypw II. 10. 79 ; rais emOvjjiiai^ jxri kiriTpevovTes Plat. 
Laws 802 b. 

\nrapT|v. Pindar uses this adjective as an epithet of Marathon 
(01. 13. 110), Thebes (Pyth. 2. 3), Athens (Is. 2. 20). 

949-54. Two explanations have been suggested : (1) It denotes 
forbearance in the hour of victory. * He prides himself on not 
having used his power to make himself tyrant ' (Harr.). If so, 
cf. Plut. Sol. c. 14. Busolt {Griesch. Gech.) finds in 951 a reference 
to the restoration of the oligarchy during the lifetime of Theognis. 
But why should we attach a literal interpretation to this one line 
and regard the others as metaphors ? (2) The theme is a fruitless 
conquest. It is difficult to accommodate rrprj^as, reKeaaas, &c., to 
the case of a man ' entrusted with an elective tyranny, an 
ai<TVfivT)TT]s' (Harr.). They are better suited for a person who is 
unable to enjoy a victory. The first lines undoubtedly imply a 
conquest secured by force. ' My success after all was no success ' 
is the dominant note. There can be little doubt that we have 
before us the complaint of a baffled lover. It is significant that 
the first couplet reappears in the Musa Paedica (1278 c, d). Erotic 
poetry offers exact parallels to the language of this elegy. 

949. vePp. and Xewv proverbially designate a helpless victim and 
an omnipotent enemy; evXa^eiaOai fx-f] Kartvavra Xeovros vefipbs khdwv 
IxoTpav aipuaOai Kptwv Plat. Charm. 155 d ; Xecuv Sjs oKkI irenoiOojs | 

II. 5. 299, 17. 61, Od. 6. 130 ; dypevaas rbv vefipuv dirajXeaa (of an 
imsuccessful lover) Rhianus A. P. 12. 146 ; -qypevOr^v in an erotic 
sense A. P. 12. 23. 

950. Karaip,. cf. Siai^oXir} 324. aifiaros 6<ppa mco Od. 11. 96. 

951. T€LX. tirt. : cf. Kpoaadwv eirifiaivov II. 12. 444 ; iroXiv ovk 
dXand^ei? \ II. 2. 367. 

953. irpTj. erotic as in knpdxOr] rd fxeyiara Theocr. 2. 143 ; 'I'lpdad'qvy 



NOTES 235 

fcp'iKovv, 'JTVxov, Kareirpaf, dyanufiai A. P. 5. 51 ; ^fftra 8e fioi TiXiaaai 
BvyLos ifxfppii (erot.) Sapph. 1. 26. 

954. dvvaaafiev ^pyov epcoros Paul. Sil. A. P. 5. 275 ; i^vvaa iroWd 
Kafiwv (erotic) Rufin. A. P. 5. 75. 

955. Cf. deiXovs tS epdovn fxaTaioTCLTT} x^P^^ iffriv ovre yap av . . , 
dfiais 105-7. 

956. ' You will be deprived of much that belongs to you, and you 
will get no thanks.' xy]?^^-^^ fut. pass. (cf. n^riaofiai, (piK-qaonai, kc). 
The MSS. reading gives an exact parallel with 105-7 quoted above. 
I see no reason to change to the third person and read XJ/pe^fffi 
(Brunck), -he will be without' ; ^ avZpwv xvp^vei Od. 9. 124. xvpo^f^^^ 
(Stob.) may represent xw^o-€t$. 

958. I XPT/'C'"'' tKoio, cf. I xpvK^v eKfvaeai 1333. 

959. dird Kprjv. fi€\. I II. 16. 160, 21. 257 ; inl Kp. ft. \ (dat.) 
H. Pan 20. For the erotic figure, cf. 'The fountain from the which 
my current runs Or else dries up ; to be discarded thence ! Or keep 
it as a cistern, for foul toads To knot and gender in ! ' Othello to 
Desdemona (Act iv, Sc. 2). ireirtuKiv ev Kaivrjs of a faithless husband 
Hds. 1. 25. nivoj is frequently so used in A. Pal., e. g. fxeOvoj to 
(piKrjfxa ttoKvv tov epooTa ireTTojKws 5. 305 ; and again, in a similar sense, 
dnu 8e vdaros dWoTpiov diroaxov Kal aTTo Trrjyrjs dWorpias fxri Ttir}s Prov. 
9. 18 b. LXX. A spring of pure water is called by Aesch. 'irapOtvos 
vTjyT) (Pers. 613). 

960. Cf. iraidocfyiKetv Se ti rtpirvov 1345. 

961. T€06\. Cf. ol 6r]p(vovT€s doXovai to vScop Athen. 298 b ; fig. = 
• disturb ' ; OoXoT de KapSlav Eur. Ale. 1067. dva|x. : cf. dviniayf airo) 
(ftdpfiafca Od. 10. 235. 

For IXvt cf. rd Tfvxfa Ka\d, rd nov fid\a veioOi Xifivrji Kfiafd' Iv' 
l\vos KeKaXvyLfXiva II. 21. 317. 

962. moixevos Od. 10. 160 ; irUraL Ion 2. 10. 

There is no need to discuss the innumerable conjectures in- 
tended to supplant rl noTafiov. As Wendorff has pointed out, the 
key is to be sought in the difference of gender. The disgusted 
lover will seek another maid or bov. 

963. Cf. 117-28. 
aa(pr]V€a}i Hdt. 1. 140. 

964. ^v6|x6s' TpoTTos Hesych. ' tone ', cf. yivojcxe oioi fivafi6s 
dvdpwiTovs e'xft Archil. 66 ; oaoi x^oviovs ex^^'^'- pv(Jp-ovs koi xa^<^o«5s 
Anacr. 74. 2. 

965. €mK. -Jieos Hes. W. D. 67, 78. 

966. ' Putting on for the day,' cf. * ponit personam amici cum 
induit iudicis ' Cic. Offic. 3. 10. 

967. €k4)., ' publicly denounces, exposes,' cf. 1342. 

969. i^Qr\v alvT|o-as, being an explanation of the preceding line, 
does not require any connecting particle. Hartung aptly compares 
TO Se KaWiGTov, tu Se davixaOToraTov followed by an explanatory 
sentence not introduced by yap or Se. 

Kara it. Cf. 17 x°-^^^l «°Td iravra ^ikiaiiov Maecius A. P. 5. 114. 

970. 8t«x« (sc. vavv) without an expressed object like many other 
nautical expressions in Greek ; tr. ' I stand oif' , * give a wide berth 
to ' (Harrison), cf. Ziix^iv an' dWrjXwv Thuc. 2. 81, of two armies. 

971. 2. Cf. 699, 1003. 

cmoivtov ('a drunkard's prize ') seems to be the only instance of 
this form ; knoivios is given by Suidas, cf. ino'mov {jfivov d*i8fis Nonn. 



236 NOTES 

Dion. 11. 300 ; but we have emoivoxodjoi H. Aphr. 201. For the 
custom, cf. rjfxinpos u irvpayLovs Ar. Kts. 277. ' The cake was given 
as a prize to the banqueter who kept up the symposium all night, 
as the kaiXoKpaaia was the punishment for those who failed,' Neil 
on Kts. 1. c. 

973. irpwTa, cf. kv^v S^ vpura iSijaOe Od. 1. 414 ; Kara yaia KoKinmi I 
II. 14. 114. 

974. With KaraPfi supply os from the prec. line ; cf. os av Xaxxiai 
. . . iofi\e(papoi t€ kox cpepeorecpavoi Xapires ^dkaxxiv d/x(f)i tijmv 
vjxvoiaiv (supplying (S from os) Bacchyl. 18. 3. 

8. IIcpo-. I 1296 and ijassm A. Pal. 

975. 6. Cf. 1047, 8. 

976. dcip. : cf. rjpaTo mvcov 501. The reading Sup' kaaeip. is probably 
due to e<Topoji/ in the next line. The MSS. version might mean 
' after having had the gifts of D. brought in ' : 17 TpdncC daijpeTo 
Ar. Frogs 518, Schol. expl. eiae<{>(peTo. For dwpa cf. Suipa Aiwvvaov 
TToXvyrjOeos (= oJvos) Hes. W. D. 614. 

977. Cf. ovictTL yovvar kXacppd \ Tyrt. 10. 19 (a sign of old age) ; 
* dum virent genua ' Hor. Epod. 13. 4. 

979-82. Cf. 63. 

980. o-ir., -exert himself,' as II. 4. 232. 

dp.(t>6T€pa to be taken as a contained accusative with o-ircvSoi ; 
cf. 7re(j'o5 ^ vavTTjs 8i ireipav rrjvh' efxcupavev rdAay ; dfxcpuTepa. Aesch, 
Pers. 719, 20 ; II. 13. 166. 

981. Cf. aipLvXioiai Xoyoioi OeXyn Od. 1. 56. 

983. Kara©., 'set our heart on ', ' devote ourselves to '. 

984. T€pir. : 1068 ; Od. 18. 37. epv' epar. : cf. Ifiepruv epy. 1064 ; 
ifxepOevTa e. II. 5. 429. 

4>€p-[), 'as long as it can sustain, enjoy,' on the analogy of 
(pepeiv TTovov. 

985. Cf. Tttii/ vUs wKuai ws (t iTTCpov 7/1 vuTjfia Od. 7. 36 ; drrd x^ovus 
u)aT€ vol} pa elai H. Ap. 186 ; ws 8' uttut' wkv v6r)p.a Std orSpvoio ncprjcrj 
H. Herm. 43 ; m 8' or' av di^rj voos dvepos . . . us Kpanri/a/s II. 15. 80. 

d7\. T]P. : cf. 1008. We'findafem. form 07^001/ ^)8aj/ Bacchyl. 
5. 154. 

986. Cf. iraidfias iroXvrjpaTov dvOos uKVTepov aradiov 1306. 

987. Sopvo-., either * toil in which spears are hurled', or ' toil of 
spear-hurling men ' ; cf. dopvaauu 'Afi(piTpvo}vt Hes. Sh. 54 ; hopva- 
aorjTcuv p-oxOuv Soph. Aj. 1188 ; Xaoaaoos Hom. ; Imioaoas Pind. 
irovos : of battle as in Hom. (e.g. II. 6. 77; and Hdt. 8. 89. 

990. Cf. oiuu Pfpaprjores Od. 3. 139. 

992. x<>'i'P'n^^''S Bekker ; 8' dWore Bgk. 

993. e({)ifi. vpLVov dehris \ Theocr. 1.61. For a diff, use of deivai in 
this connexion cf. a'lKa Xrjs €pi(pov Oepiev (as an d9Xov) Theocr. 5. 21. 

994. Cf. 1008, 1305. 

997. Cf. fjpios 6' 'HeXios jxiaov ovpavbv dfKpifiefirjKei II. 8. 68. Join 
(y(uv jjiwv. iirir. 

999. The correct reading is attested by Athen. Xrjyoi fievos ov 
and by x^'P"* ^^P- <P^poi. The word X-qyoififv has a double function : 
(1) with deinuov, (2) with x'^^P'-i^P^^^^' 

1000. yaarpl xap. \ Juba A. P. app. 5. 29. 

1004. y. dvS. 0-. I : cf. 1322. 

1005. ttuXtji t6 iravTi re Srj/xcy | II. 3. 50. 



NOTES 287 

1006. €v SiaPas, 'with legs set firmly apart,' L. and B. II 12 
458 ; Tyrt. 11. 21. ' " 

1008. ecrOXd vofj, ' is merry.' 

1009. Cf. 722. Cf. dvbpl 5' ov Oifxis vo\iuv rrapivra yTJpas OaXeiay 
avTis dyKo/xiaaai ijfiav Bacchyl. 3. 88. 

dvTjPav, generally = imenesco, as Zev, o^h 8' dvriBrjaas Callim. 
Zeus 56 ; also use^ with ird\iv Ar. Lysistr. 669 ; 8ts Synes. Ep. 123. 
But elsewhere it = reiuvenesco without any word like 7rdA(j',cf. /xovos o 
vovs -rraKaiovfievos avrj^a Plut. De Educ. Puer. 8. 

1010. ireXeTai (= (^eari) : cf. yiverai 474. 

1011. Cf. atVxvi'ei T6 yevos Kara S' dyXadv elSos kkeyxfi (irepirf) Tyrt. 
10. 9. KaKov is so frequently connected with yrjpas that the original 
KaXov had to make way for it in our MSS. 

tm, 'besides.' cX^yx^'-j 'disfigures * ; ' dishonours' in Horn, and 
Find. Pyth. 11. 49. Stephanus gives but two instances of lir€\€7x<u 
(D. Laert. and Euseb.). 

1012. Old age makes one's hair turn Avhite. 

Cf. 'dffaeO' 6t' ov iriofxeaOa, voXvs ito\vs' dW' 07' kirciyov 77 avveTti 
KpoTd<pojv dv-TCTai -^/xeTtpajv Apollonidas A. P. 11. 25 ; ttoAj^ 7dp kneiyeTcu 
dvTi fxeXaivTjs 6pi^ 17877 awerrj^ ayyeXos ■^Kikitjs Philod. A. P. 5. 112. 
Another explanation is ' swoops down on our head like a bird of 

1015. TTTTio-o-a) : c. ace. in Hom. ; tt. Ovfxuv Axa'wj' ('cowed') II, 
14. 40. 

The three woes here mentioned are characteristically Theog- 
nidean, and are often attributed to irevir] : (1) having to cower be- 
fore one's enemies, cf. 345 ; (2) involuntary sin ; xPVI^o<^- ''o''^ iroWd 
SiSdaKd 389 ; (3) having to suspect one's friends 81 1-14. Correspond- 
ing to these we have three Theognidean ideals : (1) revenge 349 ; (2) 
riches that enable a man to do good 561, 686 ; (3) the possession of 
a faithful friend 97. Others take tnrcpp. to mean ' go over to one's 
enemies '. 

1018. -iTTOidw : cf. (iiToaffe Sappho 2. 6 ; ep<0Ti avrbs kirTodOrjs Eur. 
I. Aul. 586. 

ojATiXtKiTis. ' youth,' as iravres ofxafs ariXfiovTes o/iTjXiKiijv epareiv^v 
Orph. Arg. 1113. In Homer it is used like dfirjKi^ ; cf. II. 13. 431, 
485 ; Od. 3. 49, 6. 23. 

1020. Cf. (TKirj eiKeXov rj koX bviipcf Od. 11. 207 ; rdxa y&p ae vapip- 
Xerai w? ovap ^^rj Theocr. 27, 8. 6X170x9. Hdt. 1. 38. 

1023. Cf. km Cvy<^v avx^va Oeivai Hes. W. D. 815. 

1024. KdpT], here first. Hom. has mprjari, Kdprjn, Kpari, Kparfaifn. 

1025. nar!, 'foolish, futile.' 

1026. l0v)T., i.e. they go straight for the mark. 

1029. Cf. 355. rKridi \ioJv arKTjra iraduv t(t\t]uti ^u/xy (oracle) 
Hdt. 5. 56. 

1030 = 366. , X, .- ,00 

1031. nivOos d(^€i 1 Od. 11. 195 ; rr. hi ar-^jeeaaiv at^cuv H. 1/. 139. 

1032, 3. Cf. 1107. 6x0€«, cf. fiiy dxOriaas II. 1. 517, ' in great 

flifti'T*PSS 

1034. Cf. 1190. W9 ov firjiSi' €(TtI OfSiv ipiKvUa hwpa dvipaai yf 
dvnToiai Safirjfxevai ouS' vnouKeiv II. 20. 265. 

1035. 'To the bottom of the sea.' Cf. 'Ht'Xioj 8 iy6povat Ama/i^ 
■neptKaWU Xiiiv-qv Od. 3. 1 ; ^s /*' d</>' &\iit\6ov yka^vpas vtu^ (Is ol6fi 
aXin6p<pvpov Xi/xva^ (pi^av Arion 1. 18; <5 irovroixtSuy irop<pvpia<: Xifivai 



238 NOTES 



I 



Eur. Hipp. 744. For a similar combination of the sea and Hades cf. 
(av Kara^ai (h rov adrjv, ndpei , . . (av KaraaKrjvuaoj (Is to, €(TxaTa r^s 
OaXdaa-qs Ps. 138. 8, 9; dub rov vpoauirov aov tov (pvyoj ; ib. 7 = wpo- 
(pvyoi Th. 1034. 

1036. T. ^(pofVTa I II. 8. 13. 

1039, Cf. 1069. 

1040, -qKiOios oaris firj mojv kZ/xov cpiXd Eur. Cycl. 537 ; ' rapidus 
torrens Sirius ' Verg. Georg. 4. 425 ; reyye irXev/xova oivo)' to yap darpov 
■nepiTfWfTai Ale. 39. 1 ; olvos apiaros krrel KecpaX-qv koi yovvara 'S.eipios 
d^H Hes. W. D. 587. 

1041, 2. Cf. 1217, 18. 

Scvpo : without a verb ; cf. Sevpo, (piX-q, XeKrpovSe Od. 8. 292. 

1043. Cf. 763, 4, 887, 8. 

1044. do-T., ' not rugged,* )( Kpavar/ 'lOaK-q. Kpavdrj is the name of 
an island II. 3. 445 ; vijaU ofxaXri koX darvcpeXos Antiphil. A. P. 9. 413 ; 
OTvcpeXT) ^pepLci uKTrj A. Rh. 2. 323. The word causes no difficulty- 
whatever unless we insist on applying it to Megara. Eeitzenstein 
thinks that it conceals the name of some city. 

1046, Cf. dpnaXea S6ai9, ' a gift to be eagerly seized,' Pind. Pyth. 8. 
65 ; Kepbea dpn. Od. 8. 164, 

1049. Cf. 27. ws re var^p w iraidi Od. 1. 308 ; Kai viv ■ndvr 15/Sa^e 
iraT^p waet <piXov vUa Theocr, 13. 8 (Heracles and Hylas). 

1050. dXX' ivl OvfxS) ^dXXev Od. 12, 217 ; crv 5' €vl cppecrl PdXXeo 
oriaiv Hes, W. D. lOV ; ov St ravra Tea; eviKarOeo 6v/j.a) Hes. W. D. 27 ; 
cf. II. 4.39; Od. 11. 454. 

1051. Bergk needlessly changed KaKov to xP^'o? : /canov ){ dya6a> 
(1052) ; ineiyofMevoi )( ^aOeir}. Bgk. quotes eTretx^^i'at P-^v vvv vdv 
irprjyfxa tiktci atpdX/xara, iic rwv (rjfxiai f^eydXai (piXiovai yiveaOai Hdt. 
7. 10. 

<J)p, paO. II. 19. 125. Cf. PaevfxfJTa Pind. Nem. 3. 53 ; l3aevdo^os 
Pyth. 1. 66. 

1053. jjiaiv., here of haste and rashness; cf. irvp ovpeai fjLaivrjTai 
II. 15, 606. TTfT. : cf. vvv yap verei re Kal cf>povu)v ovdev (ppovus Eur. 
Bacch. 332. verofiai b' kXmaiv, ' 1 am fluttered with forebodings ' 
(Jebb), Soph. O. T, 487. 

1057. K6X. 8. II. 20. 298, ^pleasing gifts.' 

1058, The corruption evidently lies in what the MSS. reproduce 
by fiev, vvv, fxrjv. The S' in A is probably original ; it cannot be 
the result of an attempt to amend the metre, as the line is still 
incomplete (/x^r Kai eg does complete it). The best emendation is 
/jieXentv (Ahrens) ; the variants of the MSS. may be due to the 
absence of the first two syllables in the archetype ; it suits the 
context better than Hiller's fifXcfiev and has been adopted by 
Crusius in his revision of Hiller. ' For us to possess and for our 
neighbours to be interested in ' ; we must use our gifts for the good 
of others, cf. 769-72. fieXofitv might mean ' and we are the talk 
of the neighbourhood ; so it is high time to abandon our quarrel '. 

1061. * Keep hidden,' cf. KptnpavTcs yap exovoi Oeol ^lov dvdpanroicn 
Hes. W. D, 42 ; ovk epafxai iroXvv ev fxiydpo} ttXovtov Karatcpvipais fX^"' 
Pind. Nem. 1. 31. 

1063. Cf. 1335, 6, ojA-qXig is not necessarily masculine. 
irdvwxoi kyprjaaovres II. 11.551; v€ ndvvvxos Od. 14. 458; cf. 

(vdd iravrjpLfpios Th. 1336. 

1064. Cf €dr]Tvos If epov (vro II. 1. 469. 



NOTES 239 

1066. €mT., hap. leg., is rejected by many critics; but we have 
(mTfpiroixai 1218 ; kmTfpm'js H. Ap. 413. We might, however, read 
(TTi Tfpwv. with m. 

1067. I dv5. ^5. 7. Od. 19. 408. 
1070. Cf. 1131,2. 

1074. K. fi€y. dp. I A. P. App. 3. 39. 

1075. dirp., herfe certainly =- 'undone', as in e'i n tovtojv dnp. 
Demosth. F. Leg. 316. It has an active sense in dnpnKTov ye vhaOai 
11.14.221. 

1077. Cf. dKK' km vv^ dKor) Terarai SfiKoiai ^poToiai Od. 11. 19. 

1078. IT., 'barriers.' guv. is used actively as well as passively; 
(pwvdevTa avverotaiu Pind. 01. 2. 93, imitated by Bacchyl. (j>pov(ovt'i 
ovverd yapvcu (3. 85). 

1081. dvSp. v^pio-T. II. 13. 633. 

1083. 4 partly corrects 1071-4. ' If you do change your disposi- 
tion, you must still be true to a friend.' 

1084. Cf. 319. I €>7r. alev '^xaiu II. 16. 107. Is TtXos, ' for ever, 
always ' ; (s riKos ovfc d-naTrjaoo H. Herm. 462. 

1085. We know that the name Bemonax was borne by (1) a 
Mantinean, (2) a philosopher of whom a biography was written by 
Lvician, (3) a tragic poet. 

1086 = 1238. Cf. 1283. 

1087. Cf.'Ledaei Lacones' Martial 1. 36. 2; C. and P. are Aa/fcSat- 
novos l£ kpaTdvris II. 3. 239; Aa/c. hiav Od. 3. 326, 13. 440; S. of other 
places, e. g. Arisbe II. 2. 836, Elis II. 2. 615. 

1088. eir' : cf. km Kprjvrj vifieaOai Od. 13. 408. In Horn, we find 
puos 'AXcpeioio kt\. (II. 11. 726) ; there is no need to read Eipwra 
(Herwerden, followed by Bgk., and Crusius). 

Eurotas and Lacedaemon were the children of Taygeta, one of 
the Pleiads. 

1089. Cf. JW77 ixiv {eraipov) npoTepos kclkov ep^Tjs . . . €t he oe y dpxr) 
rf ri enos elnobv dnoOvfxiov ^e kol ep^as dls Tuaa rivvaOai fiefxvrjfievos Hes. 
W. D. 708. 

The invocation of the Dioscuri has led some critics to assign 
these lines to a Spartan poet (e. g. Chilon, ace. to Hartung). They 
are here invoked not as Spartan deities, but as the divine type of 
ideal friendship, to whom a petition affecting good faith between 
friends would be most appropriately addressed. 

1091. ' I am troubled about.' The only other examples of dpya\e<a% 
in Steph. are from the works of late writers as Manetho, Pollux, 
&c. dpyaKews (peperai iroXtos xP^vos Adespot. A. P. 9. 499. ex*" ^- ^^^^ 
is Homeric, vooKefieoos kx^H-^v II. 5. 492. 

1095. 6. Cf. 1151. I (TfceiTTeo vdv, MeveXae II. 17. 652. 

1096. xap'" deaeai Eur. Ion 1104. 

1097. There may possibly be a reference to a bird kept captive 
at the edge of a lake, and employed to fish for its master. No 
satisfactory emendation has been offered ; kx A.cixM'?^ fitydXrjs Herm. ; 
6/f Kiverjs vecpeKrjs Grafe. 

knaipoj Hdt. ; kiraeipa} Hom., Hdt. 

TTCTetvos Hdt. 2. 123 ; TreTerjvos Hom. ; TrerrjuSs {A B) Hdt. 8. 106 ; 
TT0Tav6i Pind. Nem. 3. 80. 

1099. Ppoxov : 'HatoSos kv rai Sevrepq' MfAa/xrroSmj, aiiv rSi v aKvn<pov 
Xiyei * nkijaas S' dpyvpeov (XKvir<pov (pept 5u/Ke 5' dvaicTi'' Koi irdKiv ' okxtk- 
<pov 6x«»' irepri'' dfioius de Kai 'Ava^ifMvSpos kv rji 'HpuoXoylff CKvw^pov 



240 NOTES 

Athenaeus 498 with further exx. from Anax. and Anacr. 
(paiox'iTcoves Aesch. Choeph. 1049, and ocpiv \ Iliad 12. 208 ; | Zicpvp'nj 
Od. 7. 119 ; I Setr/uov diToppr)^as (cf. Th. 459) of a runaway horse, 
II. 6. 507. Cf. 1361. 

1100. €m<})., 'wisdom,' Od. 5. 437. 

1101. Cf. 1239, 1262. 
1103. See Appendix. 

1106. ttTrao-iv: dat. of person judging as in 6 naai KKeivbs Oldiirovs 
icaKovixcvos Soph. 0. T. 8. 

1107. Cf. I w lioi (yoij 5ci\r] II. 18. 54 ; dvafxeviaiv /xlv x«PA»a I^^. 3. 
51 ; cf. dviT], TTTiixa frequently so used in Horn. 

KaTdxapp,a, hap. leg. : Karaxaipo} kol KaraKepTOfico} Hdt. 1. 129; 
cf. Hdt. 7. 239. 

1115. Most scholars, following Emper., read fxoi 6v. : cf. dX/cf/i' 
fx€v fioi irpuTov ovfidiaas II. 9. 34. Bergk even adds ' duplex accu- 
sativus hoc loco ferri nequit '. We have dv€i5i^a;v eva Plat. Apol. 
30 e; Toiavr' oveidi^eis fxe ('thus' contained ace.) Soph. 0. C. 1002. 
Here ' with regard to my poverty '. Cf. also rvcpXou pC wveidiaas Soph. 

0. T. 412. Hartung's rd pi-q ptoi gives excellent sense, but is not 
needed. 

1116. Cf. kpfaadpLfvov xp'y/^OTa jx^ydKa Hdt. 1. 24. 

1117. Cf. 1365. Plutus, son of Demeter and lasius, Hes. Th. 
969; ipos is fcaWiaros Hes. Th. 120; the author of the Oedipodea 
calls Haemon /cdWiaTov n real IpLipoicrraTOv dkXoov. Cf. av 8' S> Kpd- 
Tiarc HKovTi -navTcuv Zaip.6v(uv Ar. Plut. 230. 

1119. Tjp. |ji., 'the full bloom of youth.' ^'/St/j piirpov Xkovto Od. 11. 
317. *oipos ^Att. I II. 1. 43, 64. 

1120. A-qTotBTis first occurs H. Herm. 158. 
de. 0aa. I 1346. 

1121. KttK. cKT. &ir. [ Hes. W. D. 115. 

8iKT| = diKaicos 753 ; II. 23. 542 ; Soph. O. C. 760 ; cf. dfiKaPius 
1154. Most edd. read /3tW. 

With 1121, 2 cf. 1153, 4. ^Prj and ttA. are contrasted 1063-8. 

1124. Cf. 703. r\\vd. = dvT]\., 'returned,' cf. rrarpos (pxofxevoio Od. 

1. 408. [Acya 8. with c^avaSvs ; for a similar order of words cf. 
1136 wljere Ov\vp.ir6v5' goes with e0av though separated from it by 
€Kirpo\nr6vT€i. Others take p^ey. 5. as a reference to the house of 
Odysseus (accus. of ' motion to ' with TJKvOev). For the accus. cf. 
eKSvpLcv uXedpov II. 16. 99. 

1125. vTiX. 0. I Od. 9. 272, 287, 368 ; cf. v. xa^teZ \ Od. 4. 743. 

1126. I Kovp. d\6x. II. 7. 392, 19. 298. Frequently the beginning 
of an Horn, hexam. becomes the end of aTheogn. pentam, e.g. 1256. 

/f. dx. I Callin. 1. 7, Tyrt. 10. 6. 

€ti4>pu>v (II. 15, 99) is better than epitppoov which is commonly 
accepted. Od. 'joyfully slew the suitors of Pen.', 'dfxcjipojv was 
introduced because the scribes did not see that n-rjvcX. was to be 
taken with \Lvr]<n. e/t^pcui/ would be more applicable to Od, in a 
distant land before his return. 

1127. 8^8' = S^f, 'for a long time,' as II. 2. 435. 

1128. yairjs kmP-qpifvcu is an expression constantly used by Horn, 
in ref. to the prospect of Odysseus's return ; e.g. Od. 7. 196. After 
1128 I have assumed a lacuna not only on account of pivxovs, but 
also because the beginning of the elegy leads us to expect a further 
comparison of the poet with Odysseus. ' Do not remind me of my 



I 



NOTES 241 

woes ; I have suffered like Od. He returned and wrought vengeance 
on liis foes ; as for me, rims S' ov cpaivirai ijniv ' (345), or the like. 
There can hardly be a reference here to the Setj/os ixvxos of Hades" 
Attempts have been made to correct the line by reading 6<pp 'IdaKris 
ew(0r] SaidaKeov t( fivxov (Wassenbergh), remodelling the last words 
after the pattern of Od. 23. 177, 200 ; 6(pp' ^s 7^$ iir40r} daidaKiov 
T€ \(xovs (Bgk,). For the position of re (after 6>pa) of. 1146. 

1129. * It is not to drown my troubles that I drink, but because 
youth is short.' This is more satisfactory than the version usually 
accepted (el mofxai . . . fX€\eSaiva)). kfintofxai is a pres. tense, as irtofjiai 
Find. 01. 6. 86 (see W. Sm., Ion. Dial., p. 505) ; cf. rfo;. kfiw. means 
' drink deep ' ; efirreTTOJKuTfs (' drunk ') Ar. Eccles. 142. 

1131. Cf. 1348. €m\., ' leave in the lurch' ; yKavnes vfids ovitot km- 
\eiipov(Ti Ar. Birds 1106 ; fcivSvvevei 17 rod EvOvcppovus fie uovaa (m\€\oi- 
nevai Plat. Crat. 409 v. 

1 133, 4. ' We shall cease beginning to bring harm upon our friends 
while they are still with us, and let us seek a salve for the sore that 
is now forming.' €\kos, 'sore,' as '€\kos hjrrjp knifiaaaeTai II. 4. 190. 

1135. Cf. fiomij 8' avTudi 'E\ms . . . €ui/jivc in Pandora's casket, Hes. 
W. D. 96. 

1136. OvXvfxiTov MSS. S' probably omitted on account of the 
preceding 5' ; for the loss of 8' cf. ol'/caSe eXOuv 1335 ; Uirp. sc. 
dvBpouTrovs ; ep/cos irpoXinovTfs e$av Aesch. Pers. 18. 

The MSS. reading might be defended on metrical grounds {-uv at 
caesura, as -6s 2, 1232). For the accus. we could appeal to (^ikct 
OvXvfiTTov Hes. Sh. 471. 

1137. '€(TTi 54 Tis Hffxeais fieydXr] 6e6s Antimach. ; ISpvaavro yap ol 
'AttikoI Upbv UiaTfojs Diogen. 2. 80 ; ^ cana Fides', Verg. Aen. 1. 292. 
Return of Fides, Hor. Carm. Saec. 57. Cf. the departure oi riididtia, 
Juv. 6. 1, sqq. 

dvSpwv : genit. of separ. 

1138. For the benefits conferred upon man by the Oharites cf. 
Pind. 01. 14. 5 and ri yap Xap'iTojv dyain^rov dvdpdjirois dnavfvOev ; Theocr. 
16. 108. 

1139. irio-Tot and 8ik. are both epithets of opKoi, and not part of 
the predicate. 

1143. 6(ppa de /xoi ^wei nal dpa (pdos rjiXioio II. 18. 61. 

1144. eve. ire pi Oeovs Plato, Sympos. 193 a. irpocrjx., ' wait for,' Soph. 
El. 164. 

1145. dy. PL. ,c. I Hes. W. D. 337. 

1146. For the position of re cf. k-noiKTupuv r ifxi (p'lKov t 'Opia^iv 
Aesch. Ch. 130. 

1147. <|>p., 'beware of.' Cf. (ppdaaaaOai (v\iv6v t€ \uxov orac. Hdt. 
3. 57, ref. to by the historian as 4>v\d(aa6ai rov £. A. 

CKoKids Kpivwai Oipnaras II. 16. 387. 

1149, Cf. 461. 

1150, ' Forming disgraceful compacts (sealed) with evil deeds,' 
i. e. the evil deeds are the bonds that link them, and make them 
keep faith to one another ; a case of ' honour among thieves '. It 
is their oaths in a just cause {upKoi S'lKaioi) that are not iritrTot (1139). 
Others explain ' for the performance of evil deeds ' as if we had in'. 

1151, 2. Cf. 1313. xa'P«'"<" ^'^7 TToWd iovaa roir], X^^'W" ''"' ^^^ 
rjukaiv (pi\-qv dOpfiroj Hds. 6. 31. 

Tov IT. : cf. 1270, 1368. 



242 NOTES 



I 

mean ^ 



1152 - 1262. 

1154. dpX. here - 'without doing harm' ; it might also 
'without suffering harm', as Pind. Pyth. 8. 54; 01. 13. 27. en 
a^Xa^irjcri vooio, 'in innocence of heart,' H. Herm. 393 (Sike.s- Allen); 
d^Xafiecus vno vocralv (drjaaro, ' securely,' H. Herm. 83. Cicero (Tusc. 
iii. 8) gives d^\a.0€ia as the nearest equivalent of innocentia. 

1155. I ovK cp. : cf. 1191 and A. P. passim, tp. = kniOv/xoj. 

1156. Cf. (Jxov diTO OfxiKpwv oKiyov ^iov ovre ri davdv ^i^ojv ovt 
ddiKeuv oiiSeva Callim. Ep. 26. 1. 

1157-60. For a similarly constructed elegy, cf. 1267-70. Both are 
of the same length ; they begin with a statement proved by ovtc 
'idp and followed by us 5' avTws and dWd (cf. v-nepKopiaais 1158, 
KopeaOds 1269). 

dp.ax., ' irresistible ' ; in the sense that men have an irres. 
craving for them ; cf. to TravTcmv d^xaxcuTaTOv O-qpiov -^Sovriv Dio Chrys. 
Or. 9, p. 291 (Keiske) ; cf. Th. 227-30. 

1158. vircpKop. Pollux 7. 23 ; vntpKopos Athen. p. 438 f. For genit. 
cf. 1249, dat. 1269 ; Kpeiwv Kopfaaiaro Ovpvv Od. 14. 28. 

1159. I ws 8' avTcos : in Hom. always in this position, II. 3. 339, 
Od. 3. 64. 

1160. Cf. KoTov, xo\ov TfXfcrai II. 1. 82, 4. 178. 

1161. 2. See App. on 409, 10. 

1163. ' Wise men do not let others know what they see, say, hear, 
or intend.' 

1164. €tpg. : Ar. N. Ethics 6. 11. 

1165. op.., 'accompany,' c. dat. Hes. W. D. 196; cf. 36, 69, sqq. 

1166. ' When you are going to the end of a journey for business.' 
T€pp., ' end, goal ' (in a race II. 23. 757) ; ' mark in quoit-throwing' 
Od. 8. 193. o-TtX. : cf. ri S' opapaXov yrjs 6f(Tma)5du kaTciXTjs; Eur. Med. 
€68 ; the word is frequently used of a journey by sea, cf. (tt6\os ; 
«f. (VT dv Itt' ep.nopiT]V Tpeif/r)i dta'uppova Ovpov Hes. W. D. 646. 

1167. aTTOKpio-is here first ; Hdt. uses it twice for vnuKpiais (1. 49, 
5. 50). 

1168. eiros S' ei' Trip ri Pi^a/CTai dtivuu, dcpap to (pipoifv dvapird^aaai 
aeWai Od. 8. 408. 

The ' bad ' as well as the ' good ' may give a fair answer (e. g. 
to a request for help); the 'good' alone accomplish it ; for their 
-words remain. 

1169. Kax€T. : hap. leg,, cf. KaKopiXia Diod. 12. 12; KaxopuXos 
Philod. de Ira. 

1170. T^\iT6s: II. 9. 375. 

1171. Cf. 895, 6. 

1172. 'Can accomplish all things.' 

(f>rjpi yap tjSij rix^V^ fvprjaOat reppara rrja^e (ra(prj x<'/50J ixp' TjpfTfprjs 
Parrhas. ; ^pfTeprjs t^x^V^ Ttcipard (p-qaiv f'xfji' Zeuxis ; viktis veipara 
(vOeoiaiv II. 7. 102 ; Movaa, ov ydp ndaijs TTelpaT ex^i^ aoipirjs Pigres 2. 

There is no force in Bgk.'s objection to dvOpojirois, ' ita otiosum 
vocabulum obtineret locum insignem' ; it is quite common for 
dvSpdai, dy$p., &c., to stand in this position ; cf. 154, 290. 

1173. I S, pi. II. 3. 182. 

1177. €1 K€, c. opt. (i Sc Kev "Apyos iKoipLid' . . . , yap0pus Kev pioi 'loi 
II. 9. 141. 

1178. 'You would possess a very great proof of excellence,' i.e. 
have it within you, to appeal to when needed, tt. ex- is the result 



I 



NOTES 243 

of n. Sovvai or \a0(iv, '48wKas aavrov ireipav dpcr^s Plat. Laches 189 b • 
(u (fiavTO) ireipav Xa&wv Xen. Anab. 5. 8. 15. ' 

1181. Cf. dr]fio^upos ^affiXevs II. 1. 231 ; j8. Supocpayoi Hes.W. D. 39 
KaraKXivai, lit. ' bring do>yn '. orav /taTatcKiefj if KafxrjKos (Is'yovaTa 
Arist. Hist. Anim. 2. 1 ; vnd Svafxeviojv Sovpan KfKXififOa A. P. 7. 493, 

1182. ovp vi^l., c. infill, often in Horn. (II. 3. 156 ; Od. l' 350") 

1183. 4)a€o-ifjippv 'HeX. | Od. 10. 138, Hes. Th. 958. ' 

1184. e<^op., of the sun, II, 3. 277, &c. ; cf. KaOop^ 168. 

Cf. fxuiios l£ dWwv Kpffxarai (pdovcovrcov tois oh rroTiara^r} Xapis 
fiiKXea fiopcpdv Pind. 01. 6, 74; duKios ydpalcbv hn dvdpdoi KpepiaTou Isthm. 
8. 14. Simon. 5 refers to the seeker for a iravapiaifjios dvOpuvos] 
(vpviSovs oooi icap-nov alvvfXfOa x^ovos, as to fxri yeufoOai Svvarou S/^'j;! 
fievos. dfiojfxrjTov^ 8'^ ovStv eyevro Pporois Parrhasius 2. 4 ; ^porwv d^ 
/xwfios iravTCffai fiiv iariv kir' epyois Bacchyl. 12. 202. 

1189. 8vcr({>p. : Hes. Th. 528 ; cf. oJvov dfivvTopa Sva<ppoavvda)v Simon, 
ap. Ath. 447 a. 

1190. IXdjAcvos, 'propitiating.' Peppmiiller supports his conjec- 
ture \v6fxeyos by an appeal to eXvaaro Svacppoavvaojv Hes. Th. 528 

1191. tyKaraK. : Ar. Plut. 742. 

1193. do-irdX., ' thorns,' i>oisonous ace. to the Schol. on Theocr. 
4. 57. Plato says that in the lower world tyrants are tortured 
with dffTrdXaOoi (Kep. 616 a). 

1194. While I consider tw to be the correct reading, I i-egard the 
whole line as an interpolation introduced for the purpose of 
adding a pentameter to a quotation that originally ended with 
OavovTi. It is just as if ravra fX€v ovtojs 'ioBi had been prefixed to 
d\r]6(ir] Sc Trapeffroj to form a complete couplet out of the fragment 
wrongly placed among the Theognidea (1227). Part (or the whole) 
of 424 maybe due to a similar intention; so, too, 554 (=540), 
1332 ( = 1304). 

1195. €ir., ' an oath which you do not mean to keep ' ; the keeping 
of it is regarded as a debt dvie to the gods. emopK. II. 3. 279. cirojiv. 
Od. 15. 437. 

-01- ou : hiatus after a pause at the bucolic caesura. 
dvcKTOv, 'permitted,' should not be changed to dwaruv; cf. 
<p€vyfiv fi€V ovK dviicTov Eur. I. T. 104. 

1197-1202. These lines are evidently modelled on Hes. W. D. 
448 sqq., with a clear attempt at differentiation. opviOos <J>wvt|v«= 
yepdvov (pcuvrjv ; o^v Powcttjs — KeicXrjyviTjs ; r\Kov(r' = (iraKov<Tj)s ; t)T6 
PpoTOis dyyeXos r\\Q' dporov = t/t' dpuTcio re o^fia (pipd ; Kai p,oi 
KpaSi-qv «TrdTa|€ p.eXaivav -■- Hpadirjv 8' (Suk' ; otti jioi dXXoi tx- ''•'YP' = 
dvSpbs dPovTCQ}. 

1197. d^v fioTjaas | II. 17. 89. Cf. 6 \vkos rdv alya SiwKft, a 
yepavos rwporpov Theocr. 10. 30 ; cf. Ar. Birds 710. 

For the form powarfs cf. vaadfievos 1298, (0<ufff Hippon. 1, and 
vevojfiivos Anacr. 10. 

I ip. 1275, 1289 ; dpdrov . . . ] wpaiov Hes. W. D. 617. 

1199. Kp. p.«X. : cf. (ppives fiiXaivai II. 1. 103; fKKayx'iTOJV (pprjv 
Aesch. Pers. 115 ; KeKaiuoxpo}^ KapUa Aesch. Suppl. 785 ; ^iX. mpSia 
Pind. fr. 123. 

1200. Cf. (vuSrj x^pov 830. 

1201. Retain Kv4)dv {AO), bv in arsis at caesura: ace. to the Lcxien 
Kv4)u>v = stiva aratri^ but only here; elsewhere it denotes 'au inhtru- 
ment of torture, stocks, a curved stick, a kind of tunic'. 

r2 



244 NOTES 



I 



1203 sqq. It is clear from the i^arallelisin of 1205, G that no 
explanation of k^kX. will suffice unless the word is applied to the 
tyrant after death. Read either KiKX-qatrai (MSS.) as in Oavwv Sc 
ic\Tg^€Tai Ka6' 'EWdSa Eur, Hel. 132, or (and this gives a better 
parallel to SaKp. pAX.) KiKXavairai. dviwro corresponds to olp.a>x0eis. 

1206. I dcLKpva depfid x^ovt' Od. 4. 523 ; Sok. 9. muv Meleag. A. P. 
12. 132 ; but TOiiM. mr} baKpva \ Asclep. A. P. 5. 145. For pdX. cf. 
dcLKpv S' anb ^\e(pdpajv xa/^aSts /SdAe Od. 4. 114 ; /cot' oaawi' ^aKfiv 
SaKpv Eur. Hipp. 1396. 

1207, 8. ' You can stay if you like, but we do not invite you ; if 
you remain you will be regarded as a nuisance, but as a very good 
friend when you are not among us.' 

1209, 10. Reitzenstein assigns this couplet to an A'lOuu living in 
Thebes, and the next poem to an exile from the Lethaean region of 
Asia Minor. It is better to regard 1209-16 as one eleg3% 

AtOcov : Odysseus told Penelope that his name was A'lOcuv (Od. 
19. 183) ; and so with Harr. we may explain * I am an Incognito 
by race and I dwell in Thebe '. The poem (1209-16^ certainly 
begins and ends with a mystification (A'iOuv . . . ArjOaio)). After 
suggesting that ' the puzzle would then be to discover the author 
of the couplet, a puzzle which would be solved of coui'se when 
it was included in the collected poems of Theognis', Harrison 
discusses the possibility of a veiled allusion to the name Qeoyvis 
which might be contained in a conjectural a? Oewv or a Oeuv. 
But, as he rightly concludes, * any approach to certainty is beyond 
hope.' A'iOouv may contain a suggestion of bravery as in aiOwvos 
Se Kiovros e'xwi' kv oTqdeai dvfxov (.Tj'rt. 13) ; it was also the name 
of Hector's horse (II. 8. 185'. 

0tij3t], often used for S^fiai. There was a town called Thebe in 
the Troad, on the borders of Mysia, the residence of Eetion, the 
father of Andromache. It was destroyed by Achilles. So 'HeTicui' 
yfvos tlpii has been suggested. 

TToKiv (VTcixea irfpcas II. 16. 57. 

1211. d<|>eX(dS, 'foolishly, ignorantly ' ; d(pe\r]i, simple, foolish, 
Demosth. Epist. 4. 11 ; to oupeXws \€y€iv )( to y\a(pvp5>9 A. Dion. 
Comp. 3. 1 ; iSiwras avrovs koI dcpeXeis KaXovvri Socrat. Hist. Eccles. 
1. 8 ; 'iaov dv eir) to d^eAcu? to) ^17 8i7)p9poj/j.(vai^ pi.rjS' dnpi^ws dW' 
dT(x^(^^ ■'■f /^at x'yp's iTnaTTjjxrjs ditdarjs Galen 10. 

8€vva^€. 'taunt' ; KaKd 5. pqfiara Soph. Aj. 243; Rhesus 925: 
^vvd(T(is (fie Soph. Antig. 759. The noun dtvvos is used by Hdt. 
9. 107. 

1212. Anjyris, according to Wendorff ()>. 47^ was an ' kraipa quae 
convivio interfuit atque -ncu^ovaa j^oetam ingrate carpsit.' Frere 
{Theognis Resfitutus) takes her for the wife of Theognis. * The very 
rare name Argyris is found in an inscription from Oropus, circa 
B.C. 200, as well as in an inscription from Thera.' Harr. 

1215. ' I am not a slave, for I have a city.' In Plutarch's 
Themistocles (c. 1) we learn that the hero's mother was not a 
Thracian but a Carian ; 'SenvOrjs Se Kal iruKiv avrri t^j Kapta? 'AXiKap- 
vaaaov TtpoaTiO-qai \ 'a fixed city' Holden. Themistocles on being 
called an dvrjp d-rroXis, replied : ' we have left our houses, ovk 
d^ioiivTcs dif/vxojv (vcKa 5ov\(veiv, voXis 5' ■^fuv tan /xeyiaTT] tuiv 
'EXXijvidojv at SiaKuaiat rptripeis' ib. c. 11. 

121(). At]9. it., 'the plain of Oblivion.' 'A -nCoov yiO^cav viov 



I 



NOTES 245 

^fcaxfr dW ide ArjOijv vaUis dyXairjv Iv xOovl KaTOetihr] Agathias Schol. 
A. P. 7. 220. It is hard to connect this with the river Lethaeus 
near (^o)-tyn, or tliat near Magnesia. In the Frogs 186 we have to 
A^ei]9 TTcSiov mentioned with Cerberus, &c. Harr. also refers to 
tlie souls in the Rep. 621 a, that cross tu ttjs Arjerjs nebiov, and 
encamp vapd rbv 'AixeXrjTa norafj-ov. 

k€kX., generally = ' bordering upon '. ai 6' dXl KeKXiarai Od. 4. 
608. 

1219. Bergk's conjecture (\Qp6v Bvancvei is supported by the 
corresponding <|)i\ov 4>i\a> in the pentam. ' It is hard for an enemy 
to deceive a man who hates him, but easy for a friend to deceive 
a friend.' 

1221. ' Men are apt to say things that cause great harm, espe- 
cially when they are in a state of excitement.' Stobaeus inserted 
this couplet in the section entitled ntpl 5«Ata$ because he saw in it 
a suggestion that hesitation and talk lead to cowardice and flight. 
Editors have without sufficient reason changed X070S to Se'os or 

1226. dXTjeoo-. Eur. I. T. 1278 (XaOoavva MSS.). 

p-ctpT. : ' I testify to it myself, and you must also do so (by taking 
to yourself a wife).' 

1229, 30. Athenaeus 457 b quotes this as an example of a 7pr</)os. 
It was the practice to propound these at convivial gatherings : cf. 
eyw TTpuT(pov /xev tou? /eeXfvouTas Xeyciv ypi(povs irapd itotov (vofi-qv 
Xrjpfiv Antiphanes. When a man failed to solve the riddle he was 
(ialled upon to drink a bowl of wine as a forfeit. The present 
couplet does not look like a riddle : it is more probably a ' con- 
ceited ' four de force of the Alexandrian age, and the expressions 
it contains may be compared to the elaborate j)araphrases of the 
seventeenth century Prccieuses in France. 

Cf. dpri Se KVKveio) (pOeyyofxevrjv OTujxari Adesp. A. P. 7. 12 ; 
<TT€iva> ipdeyyofjLevT} arufxaTi | Adesp. A. P. 5. 135. 

Tepnvd 5t' dyXwaaov (p9. ar. \ Simmias, A. P. 7. 193. 

'EXeYciwv B'. 

It will be found that the notes on this section contain a great 
number of references to the First Book ; these are mainly the 
parallel passages adduced ])y Corsenn to prove the dependence of 
H' on a'. The reader will frequently find it liard to discover 
wherein the resemblance lies. 

1231-4. This poem was not originally connected with the love of 
boys. It was the love of woman that wrought the niin of Troy, 
Theseus, and Ajax. 

Theseus carried Helen off to Aphidnae. He descended to the 
lower world and joined his friend Pirithous in an attempt to seize 
Persephone. The two were fastened to a rock on which they wore 
condemned to sit for ever. They were V)oth in Hades at the tinu* 
of Odysseus' visit, but he did not see them (Od. 11. 631). Accord- 
ing to another version Theseus was rescued by Heracles ; on liis 
return he found that Aphidnae had been sacked by the Dioscuri, 
who had liberated their sister Helen and set a usurjK'r upr>n tlu- 
throne of Theseus. The latter then went to Scyros where lie wu^ 
treacherously muidered by King Lycomedes. The n'fen'n«'e in <.ur 



246 NOTES 

passage may be to the punishment inflicted upon him in Hades* 
for although he was then only helping his friend Pirithous, he was 
the more important personage of the two, and could justly be cited 
as a victim of Eros. But it is more probable that the poet had in 
mind the ruin caused by the amours of Theseus himself. 'On 
trouve chez les ehroniquevirs beaucoup d'anecdotes sur les amours 
de Thesee, mais nulle part cette idee que ces amours auraient ete la 
cause de sa mort ' (Couat) ; but cf. km -naai Se t^v 'EAci/t/s apnay^v 
iToKefiov filv kfjLTTkrjaai ryv 'Attiktjv, avTw Se ft? <pvy})v Kal oK^dpov 
T€\evTrj(Tai Plut. Thes. 29. 

Ajax, the Locrian, 'OiXiaSijs (II. 16, 330, 2.527). In the ardour 
of his passion he attacked Cassandra and dragged her from the 
statue of Pallas. On the voyage from Troy he was wrecked, but 
Poseidon f^iv l^eaauae OaXdcrcrrjs' Kai vv Kiv eKcpvye K^pa Kal kx^opL^vos 
irep 'AOrivrj (a reference to the outrage upon Cass. ?), el fir) vtr€p<piaKov 
f TTOs efc^aXe Od. 4. 500 ; he was then slain by the angry Lord of the 
Sea (by Pallas ace. to Verg. Aen. 1. 45). The motive of Athene's 
wrath was clearly stated by Arctinus in the Iliupersis. 

1231. Cf. (TxcrAt' 'Epctis, fiiya injpa, fxiya (TTvyos dvOpunoiaiv, l« criOev 
ov\6fX€vai t' eptSes (TTOvaxai re yooi re Ap. Rh. 4. 445. 

o-X€tX. in Hom. nearly always ad init. hex., often without 
a verb (cf. o\/3to? oans, v-qmos 6? ktX.), 'savage, merciless,' of 
Achilles, Hector, Cyclops. 

|jiaviai : cf. d-npoaiKrojv 8' kpurcuv o^vnpai fiaviai (' fits of madness 
Avrought by unattainable longings') Pind. Nem. 11. 48 ; darpaydXai 5' 
''EpcDTos elaiv piaviai tc Kal Kvboifxoi Anacr. 47 ; Tjparo 5' ov pidXois ouSe (toSof 
ouSe KiKivvois d\A* opOaTs p.aviais Theocr. 11. 10. There is no need to 
personify them here and write Maviai any more than there would 
be to write hiaivas in Theocr. quoted in the next note, although 
Pausan. speaks of a Oewv tcpov on the way from Megalopolis to 
Messene, KoKovai Se Kal avrd'i rds Beds Kal rrjv x^P<^^ t^v ^^P' to Updy 
M.avias' SoKei 54 fxoi Oewv tuiv EvfieviScuv (O'tIv kir'iKKrjais Pans. 8. 34. 1 ; 
cf. Quint. Sm. 5. 452. 

T10TJV. H. Dem. 142 ; 17 SijfioKpaTia raiv fjieydXoov dyaO^ riOrjvus, 
Tlepl "Tipovs 44. 2 ; vvv iyvcov ruv "EpojTa' ^apvs Oeos' ^ pa \eaivas 
fia^ov eOrjXa^f, dpvfxai re viv erpecpe p^dr-qp Theocr. 3. 15. 

1232. Cf. irpoheboaOai Ik Up-q^datnos Hdt. 3. 62 ; (tpiXqdev €k Aio? 
II. 2. 668. 

1233. 0. Aiy. II. 1. 265 (interpolated). 

1234. ocpereprjaiv aTacrOaKiriaiv oXovto Od. 1. 7. 

1235. * All I ask is a hearing, what I have to say will be enough 
to make you accept my proposal of your own accord.' 

8ap,. <j>p. : 'fais violence a tes sentiments' (Couat). Cf. d\\',. 
'AxtXeC, Sdfxaaov 6vpt.ov fiiyav II. 9. 496. 

dir€t0TJ, * unpersuasive, unpleasant ' ; elsewhere generally = 
* disobedient ' ; but cf. an. irpds rfjv yevaiv Ath, 87 c ; dir. rvxv Pind. 
fr. 15, * hard ' ; Kaxos Kal dir. x^po^ (Hades), ' unpleasant,' Hermesian. 
Ath. 597 B. Couat quotes diT€i6i)s Kal diriOavos (pavraaia Sext. Emp, 
Adv. log. 1. 169. In Pind. fr. 15 the MSS. have drrfvdqs. 
1237, 8. Cf. 1284, 1306, 1085, 6, 1095, 6, 690. 

vow, * in a reasonable spirit ' = Sa/x. <pp., cf. 365. 
1239, 40. Cf. 414, 796, 565. 

1241, 2. Cf. 528, 504,1186. 

1242. There is no need to read kiTfpxopivqs, ' the friendship that 



NOTES 247 

is to come ' ; the meaning is : ' The friendship of the past will be a 
joy to you, but you will have no control over that which is then 
passing you by ' (cf. 669), i. e. ' You may boast that I have been 
your friend in the past, but I will not be your slave in the future '. 
The pres. partic. irapep. denotes of course time contemporaneous 
with the main verb. 
1243 = 597. 

1244. Cf. 122. dvTiTviros, ' adversary,' cf. 6 Aius dvTiTvnos Aesch. 
Sept. 521 ; used of an echo ' striking back ', avTirvnov (pdoYtfjv 
e/xiraKiv a8ofx4vT]v Lucian A. Plan. 154. 2. 

1245. Cf. ^wwfxoaav yap, oures e'x^to-Tot to vfuv, irvp leal OaXaaaa 
Aesch. Ag. 650 ; Paley cps. ' water with fire in ruin reconciled ', 
Milton, P. R., 4. 412. The following is still closer to our passage : 
' It will be the mixing of fire and water if they two should make 
it up ', referring to a pair of lovers ill-suited to one another, 
Edith Kickert, The Reaper, ch. v. Cf. o^os t dKei<pd r eyx^as rai/Tq/ 
Kvrei SixoaraTovvT' dv ov (piXus ■npoaivviitois Aesch. Agam. 321. The 
right mixture is composed of two fires iSou hi^ufxi ttjuS^ (yu yvvaiKa 
aoL ^aiSpav €itI irvp St irvp eoLX rjK€iv dyoov Aristoph. fr. 453. 

1247. With tiircppao-iv supply kpirjv {objective genitive)^ ' the trans- 
gression against me ' ; the meaning is made quite clear by €4>* 
afjiapT. in the next line. 

1248. Cf. 327. 8, 1281. 

1249-52. Cf. 257-60, 1267-70 ; II. 6. 506 ; Anacr. 4, 75. 

1249. Bgk.* assumes a lacuna after 1249 ; nam haecfuit sententia ; 
ubi satiatiis es, abrunipis vincula el aufugis ; post, vbi fames te premit, 
redis ad pristimim dominum. That cannot be the meaning ; for the 
reason of -qX. i'ijact. is given by iroOwv «tA. ; the horse serves two 
masters ; from one he gets fodder, from the other enjoyment. The 
poet is reproaching the boy for letting his inclinations be overcome 
for a time by the gifts of a rival. In 1267-70 the reference is 
solely to the boy's readiness to desert. 

1253. The construction requires <|)iXot to be taken as an attribute 
with irat8€s ; the adjectives and nouns are carefully arranged 
IT. ^{X., uwv. ITT., 0T)p. K., g. aXX. (NA, AN, AN, NA). The next 
couplet shows that a new significance has been forced upon 1253, 4 
as by Plato. Lys. 212 e, <|>tX. being now regarded as a predicate. 
' Happy he who loves ' instead of ' Happy lie who has '. 1256, 6 
is modelled on this new interpretation. 

1256. I 6vix. hv €v<pp. Od. 10. 465. 

For the sentiment cf. aWovcriv ovk dpyvpiov ol XRV^^^^*^ (iroTSfs 
(puj/x€voi). Ti Sai ; o fxev tnnov dyaOuv, 6 S« Kvvas OrjpiVTtKas Aristoph. 
Plutus 157 ; ' gaudet equis canibusque ' Hor. A. P. 162. See some 
excellent remarks in Geddes, Probl. Horn. Poems, p. 235. 

1257, 8. Cf. 213-8, 1071-4. 

1257, 8, 1259-62 are the offspring of two crude attempts at verse- 
making. 

1257. If we retain Kivlvvoioi {A) we must translate wandering 
chances, vicissitudes', that come to men in turn. ^ 

iroXvirX., cf. yvwuai tt. ^poruv Bacchyl. 10. 35; ir. A>7t<TT7;p«s Otl. 
17. 425. , , ., , , , 

1259-62. The whole poem is bungler's work, and it wouiU r)e 
futile to concentrate our attack upon one or two expresHions niid 
(^ndeavour to amend these. Cf. 19, 421. There is ubundant 



248 NOTES 

support from Gk. literal, for tiriKeiTat ari^avos, which has been 
so violently criticized ; cf. knl arffpavrjv KopaKijcpiv dcipas O-qKaro II. 
10. 30 ; Kparl 5' knl Kvvirjv Oero II. 5. 743 ; in\i8iov Xa^cJv enl r^v 
KdpaKrjv Demosth. F. Leg. 255 (some inferior MSS. have TTcp'i) ; km 
Kparl OTf:(pavos Eur. Med. 1065 ; emKfi/xevos rfj K^ipaXri kvvtjv Paus. 5. 
27. 8 ; €7rt 5' eOevTO arecpavovs Eur. Bacch. 702 ; OT(<pavov kmOiadai 
PovKofiai Menand. UepiK. 349. kni was more frequently used in later 
Greek, cf. the Schol. on irfpiOov rovhe (rrrkcpavov) Ar. Thesmoph. 380, 
TO Se TTepiOov onep fjptiv avvqOis kmOov \eyfiv. 

1260. 'A crown of ignorance.' 

1261. Cf. 1302. ayx^oTTp., ' sviddeniy changing, wheeling round.' 
dyX' fieTafioKr) Thuc. 2, 53 ; a-yxi-OTpocpa fiovKevofiai Hdt. 7. 13. 

1262. Cf. 1152, 1238 b. 

1263-6. Cf. 105, 108, 253, 4, 368. 399. 
1267-70. Cf. 257-60, 1157-60, 1249-52. 

1270. Cf. 36, 1368. 

1271. Cf. 223, 792, 1054. 

1272. * Cum verbis alaxvvr] Sc ^tAois TjfjLerepois kyevov comparari 
potest 481 ' Corsenn. This alleged proof of connexion between 
Book I and Book II is afforded by rd vrjcpoffi Y^vtrai aiaxp^ • 

1273. Either ' You gave me the joys of love for but a short time, 
and when the storm came, I rushed to port ' ; or (possibly) ' You 
have put my ship on the beach high and dry (i. e. made me 
abandon your love), for when the storm came, I rushed quietly to 
harbour '. 

dvavl;vxo> means ' I draw up (a ship) on the beach, and let it 
dry ' Hdt. 7. 59. It also =' refresh ', av. <t>i\ov ^rop II. 13. 84 ; the 
Alexandrian poets used it often in an erotic sense, e. g. dvaipv^cu t^v 
Koprjv Heliod. Aeth. 8. 14. 

Cf. also "Hpa, 5v' olKTpuj (pwr' dvdipv^ov ttuvojv Eur. Hel. 1094. 
For the metaphor of the lover in tlie storm cf. ^vxfis irviyofjievrjs 
Kvpari KvirpiSicp' dW' kfie rov vavijyov kn ^neipoio (jtavevTa au>€ Tfouv 
M/xevoiv (vSo9i di^ajxkvr] Mac. Cons. A. P. 5. 235. 

1276. CLdvOtaiv clapivoTaiv | Cypria 2 ; | dvO^aiv ilapivois A..V.12.t^^. 

1277. irfpiK. Saprjv \ II. 3. 396 ; Venus Cyprum deseruit Hor. 
Od. 1. 19. 9. 

1279. ' I am not going to do you any harm, not even if the gods 
mean to grant me vengeance ; and I have a serious grievance, but 
beautiful boys are not chastised even when they have transgressed.' 

1281. K6.9y\\iai : as often = ' sit in judgement over ' ; cf. ov ydp km 
TovTw (neut.) KaBijTai 6 diKaarrji Plat. Apol. 35 c. 

1282. Cf. ov vepifats 1182. 

1283-94. From 1288 to the end we have a very beautiful and 
carefully arranged poem ; what precedes is mere rubbish, and was 
written to supply the required j^aederastic introduction to the 
story of Atalanta. There is a sliglit difference in the metrical 
construction of the two portions ; 1285, 1287 have the ' bucolic 
caesura ', of which there is no instance in the remainder of the 
poem. The original may have run -laaiov /covprj, . . . ^fvyei . . . 
t(\h (Historic presents). 

1283. Kar. See on 617. 

1284. TovTO = €Tt aoi kt\. cf. 1306. eLr4>poo-., ' be glad on that 
account.' 

1285. For the words oit yap rot fie doXcp printed by all the editors 



NOTES 249 

before irapeXevaeai t heie is no MSS. authority wliatever ; they should 
be treated as a pure conjecture ; they are written in the margin 
of ^ in a very late hand (prob. late eighteenth cent.), and the black 
ink seems quite fresh. They were there when Bekker used the MS. 
for his edition (1815) ; he printed them without comment iii 
the text of both editions (1815 and 1827% The transition from 
1284 to 1285 is too alirupt ; it is best tc^ssume the loss of several 
lines. Thej-e is no need to regard 1286 as corrupt ; the author 
probably intended the meaning to be ' for though you have con- 
quered you have your victories behind you (and no more to 
come)'. But €|om<ra> usually means 'in the future' (e.g. 206), 
though it is used for 'behind' (place) II. 11. 461. to itX. cf. 606, 
Hdt. 9. 70, )( rovKaaaov 269. Hartung conjectured ouS* aTtarriai vik. 
■nor €x^is ; there still would be the use of e'xft? for the future. 

1288. 'lao-iov . . . 'laaitiv. This repetition of cognate words, which 
is so characteristic of Greek poetry, has been rejected by several 
critics; Heimsoethjiroposed -rrapO. 'Ap/caSt/cTyr'.Hartung's text contains 
napOevLov Kar' opos ; cf. 6(us . . . 9(6v, vios . . . vtov, &c., at the 
beginning and end of lines in tragedy. Trans. ' daughter of lasius, 
lasian (i.e. Peloponnesian or Argive) maiden', (^f. "laoov "Apyos Od. 
18. 246. Steph. Byz. has'Iacro?' to "Apyos kqI 'Idaioi oi KaroiKovvrfs. 
'lasia virgo (lo)' Val. FI. 4. 353. Atalanta is called lasis by 
Propert. (1. 1. 10). 

Tradition assigned the name Atalanta to two heroines : (1) d. 
of Schoeneus the Boeotian, Hes. fr. 73; she was beaten in the 
race by Hippomenes ; (2) d. of lasius the Arcadian ; she was 
beloved of Milanion and took part in the Calydonian hunt. 
No. (2) is also called the d. of Schoeneus, the eponymous hero of 
Schoenus in Arcadia, an imigre fiom Boeotia. The race-course of 
Atalanta was one of the sights at Schoenus, Paus. 8. 35. 10. Cf. Diod. 
4. 65. 7 ; Stejjh. Byz. s.v. 'S.xoi.vovs. As a rvile her father's name is 
given in the form lasius, e.g. Kou/jt/s 'laaioio, Callim. Artem. 216, 
• Aristot.' Pepl. 44, but lasus in Apollod. 3. 9. 2. Her home was 
Maenalus, ace. to others Tegea and Mt. Lycaeus. Exposed by 
her father on Mt. Parthenium, she was suckled by a bear, and 
on reaching the age of womanhood she eschewed all intercourse 
with men and led the life of a huntress, until she surrendered to 
Milanion. 

1290. dr., 'fruitless, to no purpose,' as often in Horn. (e.g. 
II. 4. 26). Blaydes suggested ariXiaT lre\(i ; cf. vuW ar. voti \ 
Simonid. 85. 8. 

1291. According to the present passage she seems to have left 
her home to escape from her suitors. 

voa(pi^€iv rivd twos is common. Udpiv vooipius 0iov Sopli. Pliil. 
1427; irarpos voacp'tifai Od. 23. 98. It is also used (midd.) witli the 
accus., and some have proposed to change h6n>uv to So/ious in our 
passage. voa<piaaapLivr] Sw/xa Od. 21. 77, 104 ; voat^iaOuaa 0fujv dyopfjv 
H. Dem. 92. 

1293. Cf. IfXfpufVTa (pya ydfxoio II. 5. 429. 

Xp. 'A<|). pLiq pLoi hwp (pard irpu<p(p( \p. 'A</). II. 3. 64 ; x« 'A^^. | 
Mimn. 1.1; xp^"^^'^ Kvvpibos efX^ipi&poTov Bacchyl. 5. 174. 

1294. For 8wpa = 'a gift,' cf. XP^'^^^^ ^^P^ !'• -^- -^'^• 

1295. Cf. f(J7 fxoi fidWov tv dkytai Ovfiou u/mVt/v II. 24. 56H : ct. Od. 
21. 87. 



250 NOTES 



\iL€ . . . Qv\l6v partial appos. as so often in Homer. 

opCv., used of arousing emotion, e. g. ' pity ' II. 24. 467 ; ' anger ' 
II. 24. 568; 'grief II. 14. 459; here ' drive my soul to despair ', 
as II. 9. 243. 

1296. Cf. 974. jjiT,8€: cf. 1310. <T-f\ <j)., love for thee.' 

1297. I oix- irp. II. 6. 340, Od. 20. 64. 

6ewv S' kiToni^fo jxrjviv [JjjH. Aphr. 290; Ato? 5' eir. fx. \ Od. 5. 146.. 
Cf. 400, 750. 

1298. pd|is, not used by Hom. or Hes. ; cf. Kal fxiv kit' avSpwirovs 
fia^is €X^' x°^*^'7 Mimnerm. 15. 

vcoo-. : cf. fiouarjs 1197 ; riina ddevai II. 16. 73. 

1299. Cf. cD iraT, 5i^T]fxai ae, av ?' ov kUis Anacr. fr. 4. 

In the age of gold they were not so coy. rj pa tot' ^arav 
XpvcFfini ttolKiv dvdpes, o KavTccpiKija' 6 (fiiXrjOfls Theocr. 12. 16. 

1302. Cf. 1261, 1244, 965. 

1303. Cf. 1329. Cf. I d\k' dye vw Iniixeivov II. 6. 340. 
8. xap. 1331. 

1304 = 1332, cf. 1383. 

ioaT€<pdvov Kvdcpeirjs Hymn 6. 18 ; Kvirpis Ioct. Sol. 19. 4. 
Supov, i. e. beauty. 

1305. e. yv. : cf. Ovfjia, dSeir] II. 12. 228. 

iraiSeia: 1348. Harr. cps. la iraiSeias (piKos Lys. pro Polystr. 11 ; 
■rratSias eTrj Plat. Politic. 268 E. Hovir can Mr. Harrison tell us 
that ' examples of the meaning " boyhood " are not far to seek ', 
and then in the next sentence maintain that ' the two instances of 
this rare use in the M. P. point to a single author ' ? 

iroXvTip. ydfjLos Od. 15. 126 ; efSos Hes. Th. 908 ; ^Brj H. Aphr. 
225. 

1306. More often xct^w Sffffxa, but cf. <ppovqp.aTos xd\a Eur. fr. 
724. 

1307. |XT|, c. fut. (fearing), cf. <po0ovtiai fit) Tiva's ■^Sovds ^5ovai^ 
evprjaonev kuavrlas Plat. Phil. 13 A. For a combin. of fut. and subj. 
see Aesch, Pers. 121. 

PtT|o-€ai: fut. midd. in a pass, sense, cf. (pi\ria(ai Od. 1. 123 ; 
TinrjaecrBe H. Ap. 485 ; fiirjao/xai is act. Od. 21. 348 ; but pass. 
Hippocr. 8. 280 (see Veitch). The active fiiaoj is very rare. 

6pp. IT. : cf. a du\e ^eivojv Od. 14. 361. Here mock-heroic on 
the analogy of d^pipLoirdTpTj (II. 5. 747). 

1308. xaX. I 1385 ; epy 'A^t^poSiTrjs Hes. W. D. 521. 
dvT. : TToKkixoio, (pyoji^, in Homer. 

1309. €m, ' in your case.' 

1310. TratS' dSa-q, 'ignorant.' a ref. to yvovs 1305. Sitzler pro- 
posed (Bursian, Jahresbericht, 1900) imi8' uXorj. 

1311-14. Cf. 599-602. 

8tu)p,p,ai : vpwixai is regularly used as a deponent in Homer ; for 
the form cf. wixfxai Aristot. Meteor. 1. 6. 8 ; wn-rm Aesch. P. V. 998 ; 
KaTWTTTai Plat. Rep. 432 b (quoted by Veitch). 8iopd<o, ' see throvigh \ 
' see clearly' ; S. to dXijOes Plat. Pai'men. 136 c ; Siopdv tuv viov Kal 
Paaavi^eiv Philostr. p. 82. Here 8i«}jip,ai means * I know you 
thoroughly '. 

1312. dp9. T|84 4>iX. : cf. 326. 

1316. €X«io-0a : cf. ^aOa, olaOa ; efxeOfv 5' (x^^'^^°- ^a^«'' V ''"'' d^^oy 
(piKrjaea Sappho (?) 22, 23, quoted as nap AloXevaiv by Apollon. d& 
Pron. 343 b. 



J 



I 



NOTES 251 

1318. iraiSo^). : cf. 1345. Solon used this word {rraidoiptXriari 
fr. 25) ; Kayo) iraidocpiXrjaaj' ttoXv kolWiou 17 yafieiv (a song by) 
Seleucus ap. Ath. 697 d. Plat. Comic, (ap. Polluc. 3. 70) used the 
verb in tlie passive. 

1320. IT. V. \i(\i\. : cf. ov yap u irais ■^nios ou5' UKUKor dK\a fiiKoov 
TToWoiai, Kal ovK adiSaKTos IpwTOjv Diod. A. P. 5. 122. 

1321. eirdK. 1366.. €V0. 0. : (xvOov (vO^to OvfiQ Od. 1. 361 ; x^^ov 
Toi/5' €vdfo OvuS) (' cherish ') II. 6. 326. cfi. x- , ' the gratification of my 
passion.' 

1323. For the forms KvirpoYtvT), Kvirpoyiv-qs (H. 10. 1\ Kvirpoytvaa 
(Pind. Pyth. 4. 216), cf. "Icpifxidda, -idt], UrjVfXuneia, -unr], 'icpiyevfia, 
-yuvr}, 'AvTiyuvri, -yivrj, -yeveia, 'Hpiyovrj, -yiuna, KaWiyivrj ictX. Cf. 
■naviiv TivcL Kafidrov ktK. ; xO'^^'^a^ Se Xvaov Ik ufoiuvav Sapph. 1. 25. 

1325. diroir. : cf. 829. 

p.€p|XT|pas : fxepnTJpai- (ppovTiSes, PovXai, (Xfpijjtvat Hesych. ; Krjano- 
avvqv T6 Kanwv d^nravjxd re fXfpfj.r]pda}v Hes. Th, 55 ; fxip/jifpa epya 
II. 8. 453 ; ti(pfir]piCco Od. 6. 141. 

1326. Cf. 1119; 'give me the works of wisdom when I have 
tasted all the joys of youth.' For nXeaavr^a) cf. 338 and XiXvTat 
(^xot yvioov pujfx,i] rrjvb' r/XiKiav eaiSovr' daTuiv Aesch. Pers. 913 ; vmaTi 
fioi ddpcros /cXvovaav Soph. Elect. 480. It is possible to supply reXiaai 
(c/)7/x, cr.) from reXeaavr, if objection is raised against 80s 'dpyfrnra. 

1327. \fi. yiv. )( Xdaios yhvv A. P. 12. 25, a frequent theme in 
A. P. 12 ; the charm vanishes when the -narywv has come OKidaai 
yivvv (A. P. 12. 26). 

traivtov. As the MS. has the accent (t) we should not be justified 
in reading c' alvwv. aaivojv would of course have justified either 
form. The meaning is ' fawn on, coax, wheedle ', Pind. Pyth. 
1. 52 ; aaivoL kIv a eaiSoiaa nal olKocpvXa^ aKvXaKaiva Nossis, A. P. 
9. 604. 

1328. fjtopo-. : c. inf. II. 5. 674. 

1329. We might read hiZovn n {ZiUvt in. MS., cf, 8' fxt 1345 for 
Se Tt) ; KaXov ri, cf. rtpirvov ti 1345. The subject is airiiv, * my 
suit is a compliment to you the giver of favours, and to me 
the lover no disgrace.' 

Cf. ov dvvafjLai at OeXcuv OiaOat cpiXov ovre yap ahfis, out' ahovvTi 
S/So!?, ov9' a biSwfxi 8exV ■^' ^^' ^^- ^^• 

1330. Xio-o-oiJiai, absol., cf. AjWo/xat 7}/u«j/ Z^vosOd. 2. 68 ; generally 
A. irpus or vTTtp, e. g. II. 15. 660. 

1331. Cf. 1303, 1264. eaO' ure Kal av alrrjads roidvb' If hipuv 
Xdpna A. P. 12. 16. 

1332= 1304 borrowed to fill a lacuna. Couat suggests ij(€is XPV^- 
Coiv (cf. the frequ. tjkoj (pepcuv). A similar explanation might be 
given to «|€is, 'be afflicted with a constant longing for'; cf. tok 
davuvra iraripa KaTaarivovaiX^^s Eur. Troad. 317; Xiytrai u Z«us avrfti 
(paadeh t'xft" Plat. Cratvl. 404 c. 

1334. dvT. : cf. 642. 

1335. Cf. 1375, 1063. . ^ , . 

1337. dirfX.: fx^ 'iroXaKTlarji Ae'xos to Zt/vos Aesch. P. V. Gol. uno- 
XaKTiaaa' virvovEum. 141; ' d'noXaKTi^cj inimicosomnis* Plant. Epidic. 
5. 2. 13 ; 'ApiaroTiXrjs rjuds dinXdKriaf KaOdvtp rd vuXdpia ytryrjetfra 
TTjv fiTjripa Diog. Laert. 5. 2. 

1338. e^icpvyov davdrov riXos Archil. 6. 8. 

1339. Cf. 0-6 KaKuu (KXmopiai Od. 10. 286. 




252 NOTES 

(v(r. K. I Od. 8. 288, A. P. 5. 87. 

1341. Lit, it. Meleag. A. P. 12. 133 ; air. lies. W. D. 
Aphr. 14. 

1342. Cf. 967. (K(paiv€iv rhyia ov vvv lOeXds (Ba/f^f) Meleag. A. P. 
12. 119 ; KaKovs Se Ovtjtwv l^efrjve xpuvos Eur. Hippol. 428, 'expose.' 

1343. d€K. Hdt. 2. 162; Soph. Trach. 1263. 

1344. €iTi, * in tlie case of; some read vv\ as vnb iraihl Safx^vai 
Hes. Th. 464. vvoS/xTjeds sens. erot. A. P. 5. 300. 

aiKcXios : a parallel form to duKeXios (W. Sm. § 305). deiK. Od. 19. 
341, Sol. 4. 25 ; ddKeXicus ibajxaaOriv Od. 8. 231 ; aiKws Sopli. El. 102. 
aiKiXios has been restored Eur. Andr. 131 (MSS. duK.). 

1345. According to Homer Ganymede was carried off by the 
gods to be the cup-bearer of Zeus (II. 20, 232). Other early poems 
tell us that he was abducted by Zeus in person (H. Aphr. 202). 
The eagle was a later invention. Lucas refers to thirteen extant 
vases quae puerum ostendunt trochum et galhim tenentem lovemque cum 
sceptro puerum insequentem. Several of these belong to the late sixth 
or early fifth century. The eagle is not represented on vases illus- 
trating this legend until the fourth century. From the fourth 
century onwards the eagle always figures in the fable. There is 
then good evidence for the antiquity of the present poem. 

1346. dO. patr. | 1120. Bergk looks with suspicion upon the 
repetition of Kai. But the first Kal (Fawp,. introduces the com- 
parison with the poet's own case, in the next line it means * even ' 
the great son of Cronus himself. 

1348. Cf. 1305. Cf. €1 Tivd vov iraiSoov kparwrarov dvOos '^xovra eiSes 
A. P. 12. 151. 

1349. I ovroi ji. 0. 191. 

1350. Cf. 969, 1344. 

1351. Ktoji. : vlipi^iiv fx(Td ixiOrjs Hes, Here it may = i;/3/)t^€ ; but 
more probably the coujilet has been diverted from its original 
purpose (advice to a young man). irciOco dvSpi, hiatus after imperat, 
cf. -nave. oKoia Theocr. 15, 32. 

1352. Cf. 526, 1004. 

1353-6. This poem was never intended by its author to deal 
with paederasty, vcotaiv epws cannot possibly mean ' love of boys '. 
The idea is : ' Love is a doubtful quantity for young men.' Until 
it is perfected love is bitter and sweet according as hope or despair 
predominates ; successful love is all sweet, love unrequited is all 
bitter. 

1353 = 301. Cf. TO yXvKvm/cpov "EpwTos e'xcoi/ /StAos Meleag. A. P. 12. 
109; c^cts TO yXvKv rpavixa, Sj dvaipus. \d0p^ Kaiufjifvos fji(\iTi ib. 126, 
cf. ib. 154 ; "Epos Savre /x u XvaifxfXrjs Suva. yXyKviriKpov dfidxavov 
opnerov Sapph. 40. The nurse in Eur, Hipi:»ol. defines (pdv as 
ijdiajov, w irai, ravrov dXynvov Q^ dyaa. (348), 

1355. Cf. 1370 ; subject Tts, as often, to be supplied from a word 
already used {vioiaiv). 

1356. tovt' dv. i 332 b. 

Cf. "xaXiTiitiTf^pov h\ ndvTOJV dirorvyxdveiv cpiXovvra Anacrnt. 27 b, 

1357. TToiB. ('puerorum amatoribus'; : TTai5o<pi\ai is used in the 
same significance by Glaucus A. P. 12. 44, and again 145 (anon.), 
irai86<|>iXos is the commoner form, TtAAcus (an ogress) -naiSo^iXiorfpa 
Sapph. 47. Harrison refers to an instance of irai5o<f)i \7)s and an- 
other of yvvaiKO(pi\T]s ('both active in sense') quoted by Pollux 
from the Old Comedy. 



I 



NOTES 253 

1358. SvfffjLopov (A) is probably due to a carelessly written ,or 
read) ai-chetype ; for dvaXocpov cf. 1024. 

1358. p-v-qjia, * something to remind them of; * a painful souvenir 
of their hospitality,' reminding them how unfortunate they were in 
harbouring such a dangerous enemy, to; ypnrfi UiXdyuvi irarrjp 
€iTe6r)K€ MevioKOi iivprov icai /cwnav, fivd/xa KaKo^oins (' luckless life ') 
Sapph. 120. 

ipiXo^evia Bacchyl. 3. 16. 
(piXoidvos Bacchyl. 5. 49, 13. 23. 

1359. Cf. TTovfiv ■^decvs ds rd Toiavra Xen. Mem. 2. 1. 19. itoviiaOat 
TTcpi, common in Hom. ; here 'to be occupied with in order to 
secure' (c/s). 

1360. KX-njiaTivo) TTVpC : for the expression cf. ' pineus ardor ' Verg. 
Aen. 11. 786; kv irvpl Se Spvivo) x^P^*^ C" Theocr. 9. 19; Spvivoj 
an€v5up€vos )ueA.tTt Antipat. Ep. 28 (quoted by Cholmeley Theocr. 
1. c.) ; irpivivoi dv9paKes Ar. Acharn. 668. For the use of KX-qp.. cf. 
uKKuda iraKaiav KXrjfjiaTiSajv leal SaSus ycixiaavTfs (the fire-ship) Thuc. 
7. 53. 

1361. ' Yoii failed to *' fetch " my friendship and ran upon a rock, 
and then caught hold of a rotten rope (to pull your ship off) ' : for 
the metaphor cf. kv aol rdp-a, MviaKf, Piov TrpvpLvqai avfj-nTai Meleag. 
A. P. 12. 159 ; Ix'^A'^^o' ^^ tlvo's da<paKovs irda/xaTOi fm^alvcupcv ds rov 
vvv Xoyov PI. Laws 893 b ; ovto^ yap dvrjp \ip^v iricpavTai tuv ipwv 
^ovKivfxdrojv Eur. Med. 769 ; oO^v kn aov, 'ArroWwuie, viiap.a kyu 0d\- 
Xofiai Philosti'., p. 212 ; to -ndapa ttjs kavrov (pi\oao<piai l£ 'AKadrjufias 
(04l3\TjTo ib., p. 481. 

trpoo-cK., c. dat. : Kvdr)pois Hes. Th. 198. 
^jji. 4)iX. djji.: I 1099, 1379. 

1363. airewv ; ' *' out of sight, out of mind " is not true in this case ; 
I shall remain faithful to you even when away from you. No one 
shall persuade me not to love you.' 

o{j5€ ix€ ndaus I 839, and Od. 14. 363. 

1364. Harr. suggests a;? a epe . . . ^ no man shall persuade me 
not to love thee as some one has persuaded thee not to love me '. 
Bgk.* proposes war' epe, * to love you like my own self.'^ 

For neideiv ware, cf. ov yap €nu9e tou? Xtoi-s uare (qjvtq; Sovvat 
vias, SuPt} Is MvTi\rivr]V Kal (iieiae Ai(T0iovs dovvai oi vias Hdt. 6. 5, of. 
So^av ttfO-Te ; deijOevres uare Thuc. 1. 119. 

1365. See Introd. p. 62. 
Cf. 1117. 

1367, 8. Cf. 1267-70, 957, 854, 607. , 

mo-T. It., ' none of her companions trusts lior,' Harr. Ihis does 
not supply the contrast required by AXXA. A boy shows g»yt>tude 
towards a 'faithful friend' ; a woman regards no one as a fiuthful 
friend ', and so as worth retaining ; to her there is no difference 
between lover and lover ; all are alike, and faithful service has no 

reward. , t> i i i i 

1369-72 Cf. 1353-6. It is hard to see why Egk.-* prolcrred 
Xa\€ir6s to ica\6s: 'utroque loco xaAfTr^s scribendum osse suspicatuii 
sum'. HaX6siH supported by x^pts 1872 ; everything m naido^iKuy 
has its joys, even escape from it. 

diroO. : cf. noWdv diroOupav ( k<ppoZirav) Eur. I. Aul. 567. 
1370. €vp. ' It is easier to become afflicted with it than to sntinfy 
it,' cf. KaKov evpero Od. 21. 304. 



254 NOTES 

TtXeaai : cf. 1355. (KTfKfaai/xfv ruv epwra koi rwv iraidiKwv rwv 
avTov (Kaaros rvxoi Plat. Symp. 193 c. 

1372. €V anticipates i'vco-ri ; cf. er S' vntpas re kolKovs re -no^as r' 
(Vibrjaev hv avr'^ Od. 5. 260 ; av 5' 'OSvaevs vo\v/xr]Tis dviaraTo II. 23. 
709 ; or €v = ' besides ', as iv Se koX kv Meficjn Hdt. 2. 17G. 

TavTT) refers to the preceding line. 

Cf. ovb' 6 fjieKixpos "Epoos del jXvkvs' d\\- dvirjaas noWaKis jJSiW 
yiver' (puffi 6e6s Asclep. A. P. 12. 153. 

1373. Cf. 1303. ' You have never stayed for my sake, but you 
slip off at every eager message you receive from others.' Karap.. is 
always intr. 

Xapiv, ' for the sake of.' yXwaorjs x«P''' Hes. W. D. 709 ; XPV 
5' dKadeias X"/"" alveiu, 'for truth's sake,' Bacchyl. 5, 187 ; ficWovrcov 
Xapiv ib. fr. 7. 4. 
1375. Cf. 1335. 

1377. KttK. 4)p. : cf. 433. ri rrjs (vfiopfpias v^€\o$ oTai/ tis /xt) 
tppivas KaXds exv 5 Eur. fr. 552. 

8€i\. oji. : cf. 31, 597. 

1378. alo-x. 6v. €X. | 546. 

1380. u}v{]\it\v, aor. diruvrjTo Hdt. 1. 168; u/i^rjro PI. Meno 84 c, 
also uvdfiT]v Eur. H. F. 1368. Tr. * I have got my reward for acting 
like an honourable man ', i.e. I am not involved in your alax- ovcid. 
For the partic. cf. av ^fids uvlvrjs del vovOerwv Plat. Hipp. M. 301 c. 

1381. Join irap-ixovra. 

1382. Some lines have been lost here. After writing Kvirpoyevovs 
the scribe's eye fell on Saip. ioar. a few lines lower down ; he 
remembered the frequent combin. of K. Zwp. Ioar. and wrote what 
stands in our MS. It is not likely that the mistake was occasioned 
by the repetition of Kvnpoy. before hupov, as the name occurs again 
1385. 

1384. X- ax0. I 295. 

1385. Cf. 180, 556, 590, 1010. 

1386. KvTrpoY€viQS : first in Hes. Th. 199 ; ivarecpdvov KvQepel-qs 
Od. 8. 288. 

I Kvirpoyevrj KvOepaav H. 10. 1. 
8oXoir. ; S. 'AcppoSira Sapph. 1. 2. 

Cf. (i ri TTcpiaauv \ 769: ^v n n. | ktK. frequ, in A. P. e.g. 
5, 40. ' 

1387. Cf. T^v Se Zfvs Tifxrjae, itepiaad Zl Soup' dneSoJKfv Hes. Th. 399. 

1388. BajAvas : cf. dapivd 3rd sing. Od. 11. 221, but 2nd sing. II. 
14. 199. 

Cf. Tr69(p Sdfieiaa iraiSos Ppadiuav 5i' 'A(pp65iTav Sapph. 90. 
"Epos OS TrdvTOJV re Oewv ttdvTOJv r' dv6pu)va>v ddfivarai kv aTqOeaai 
voov Hes. Th. 122. 

yivos ovhtv €ts "'EpojTa' co(piij, rponos TroTt frat Anacrnt. 27 c. 



APPENDIX 

On Thcognis 104 in the MSS. 

In V. 104 A has toG /xer hovvai OeKoi with traces of other letters as 
4^xplained below. Between the c and 8 of fxer Sovvai there is an 
erasui-e which extends below the line on the right side of the 
vertical stroke of t and widens out considerably above the line so 
that part of the Latin interlinear translation has been removed ; 
thus, L. trans, above rod, hoc ; above e — 8 an erasure, then a frag- 
ment of n or rather m ( = magnmji) closely followed by dare ; above 
e€\oi, vein. There can be no doubt that the original reading was 
/x€7a bovvai diXoi. The change must have been made after the Latin 
translation was written. The whole of 7 except the right prong of 
the fork still remains. In making the erasure this right prong was 
scratched out (as we can clearly see on inspecting the MS.), and 
also the a of which little is left but its final curve ; the knife also 
scraped away the corner of the upper curve of 8 so that it now 
almost resembles b (0 with a grave accent). Then the lower vertical 
part of 7 (the handle of the fork) was prolonged upwards in a 
redder ink (which resembles that of the L. trans.) to form the up- 
stroke of T, and a cross-stroke was added in the same ink at right 
iingles to it from e. Cf. C. R., July, 1903. tov fxcydKov 5ovvat eiXei : 
Tov /xeya Sovv* eOiXei *. 



On Theognis 153-4. 

Theognis 153-4 : 

TiKTCi Toi icopos v^piv, oTav KaKO) oA^os '(n7]Tai 
dvOpwTTW, ical uTO} jx^ voos apnos p. 

In the Athen. Pol. ch. 12 we read under the name of Solon : 
df}fj.os 8' cDS' av dpiara avv T)y(fJ.uve(Taiv erroiTO, 

fi-qrf Kiav dveOeh fJ.r]T€ ^la^uufvos'^^ 
riKTU yap Kupos v^piv, orav ttoKvs u\fios 'tvqrai 
dvOpuiroKTiv oaois fx^ voos dprios rj. 

The second couplet of the Solonian version received a detached 
form by the substitution of toi for ydp, and a change in the sense 
was introduced in order to emphasize the effects of Hopos upon tho 
fcadman. When troXvs had given way to itaKcp, the plural in tho next 
line had to go, and the pentameter was recast into the lo"n pre- 
sented by the MSS. of Theognis. Clement of Alex, know that the 
popular version was ascribed to Theognis, and ho may have ivnci it 
himself in a MS. of the Mcgarlan poet. 1o\ojvo<: Si voij^aavrox 



256 APPENDIX 

' TiKTfL yap Kopos v^piv, vrav toKvs oA/3os enrjTai ' avriKpvs o Qfoyvis 
ypacpei ' tlktci roi Kopos v^piv, orav KaKai oAjSos 'inijTai ' Str. 6, p. 740. 

The lines passed into a proverb at an early date. The Schol. on 
Pind. 01. 13. 12 quotes the hexameter as Homer's. Diogen. 8. 22 
(= Macar. 8. 27") has orav kuk^ dv8pi rrapur] (= Apostol. 16. Go) ; cf, 
TiKTd yap Kupos v^piv w? o tu>v -naXaiwv \6yos Philo, Vita Mosis, p. 714. 

On Theognis 211-12, 509-10 ; Stohaeus 18. 12. 

Theognis 211-12: 

oJyuV TOL TTIV€IV ITOvKvV KaKUV T}V Se Ti? avTuv 

mvr) (TTiaTaf-ievais, ov kukus, dA\' dyaOos. 
Theognis 509-10 : 

oTvos mvofxivos irovXvs KaKuV ^v hi ris avrbv 
Trivrj kni(TTafx(vajs, ov kokov, dW' dyaOov. 

Aristotle (Probl. 3. 17), Arfemidorus (Oneir. 1. 66), Stobaeus 18. 12: 

oTvos invufi€vos irovKvs KaKus' "qv Se tis avTov 
■nivT} kiTiaTafAivcus, ov KaKos, dAA' dyaOos. 

Clement (Strom. 6. 742) has: 

KaKus' . . . auTo) | xprjTai . . . Kaicuv, dAA' dyaOvu. 

All the quotations agree in making olvos the subject ; these and 
Th. 509-10 represent a form of the original (211-12) more suitable 
for popular quotation ; the couplet became proverbial and enjoyed 
for generations a separate existence in that dress. 211-12 deal not 
with wine, but with conduct. ' To drink much is a bad thing, 
i.e. characteristic of .i bad man ; but he who di'inks in modei-ation 
is a good man.' 

0)1 Theognis 255-6. 

KaWiOTOV 7 hiKau'irarov Xaiarov 5' vyiaiveiv 
vpay/xa Se TipvvoraTov, rov tis kpa, to tvx^iv- 

Stobaeus (103. 8) quotes the couplet under the lemma @€uyvihos. 
For XZoTov the MSS. give ^aoTov, and the pentameter runs: ijdiaTov 
Se Tvxfiv Siv TIS €KaaTos tpa. Aristotle criticized the distinctions 
made in the poem. 

(1) Nic. Ethics 1. 9 : ''ApLarov dpa koI KaXKioTOv ical ijdiaTov fj evSat- 
fiovia, Kai ov diuipiaTai ravTa Kara to Arj\iaKuv (mypa/xfia' 

KaXXLOTOV TO diKaiuraTov' XwaTov 5' vyiaivfiv 
rjdicrTov Se iticpvx, ov Tis kp^, to tvx^iv. 

diravTa yap vvdpxd ravTa Tais dpiffTais kvepyeiais' TavTas 5e -q fx'iav tov- 
Tuv T'qv dplffT^v (pafj-tv etvai ttjv evSaif^ioviav. 

Two MSS. (Par. 2113 and marg. 2114) read tvx^Iv ov tis emffTOs kpq, 

(2) The Eudemian Ethics begin with the woi'ds : 

'O ix\v kv Ar]\Q} vap^ to) Oew tt]v aiTOv yvw^rjv d-nocpTjvdixevos aw- 



APPENDIX 257 

4ypaf€vkiTl t6 irpon^iKaiov rod Arjr^ov, Su\ibv ovx lir&pxovra irAvra rS, 

avTco, TO T6 ayaedv Kai ro KaXbv mt rb ^5iJ, iroi^aas' kAkKiotov kt\. * 

irdvTuv 8* Tjdiarov, ov tis epS, to tvx^iv. 

'Hfifts S* auTo) fifi avyxo^pi^fxiv V yap evSainovia KaWiarov Kai apiarov 
anavToju ovaa ijdiaTov iariv. 

Some MSS. have Iparai, all omit t6. 

Stobaeus in the same chapter {vepl EvSaifiovias 103. 15) quotes as 
^ocpoKKiovs Kpeovcrrjs : 

KdWiffTov kern tovuSikov necpvKevai' 
\ZaTov Se to ^rfv avoaov ^Skttov S' oto; 
rrdpeoTi Xrjif/is wv kpa KaO' ■^fiipav. 

A somewhat similar list occurs in a famous scolion attributed by 
some to Simonides, by others to Epicharmus (see Schol. on Plat. 
Gorg. 451 e) : 

vyiaiveiv n\v dpiarov dvdpl Ouarw, 
Sevrepov 5e <pvdv KaXbv yeveaOai, 
rb Tpirov hk irXovreiv ddoXcos, 
Kal TO TiTapTov fj^dv fxeTO, rSiv (pi\oJv. 

See the refs. collected by Weir Smyth in his notes on this scol., 
Melic Poets, p. 477. 

From the above quotations it will be seen that ^Skttov is at least 
as early as the time of Sophocles ; it occurs in every vei:sion ex- 
cept those given by the MSS. of Theognis ; rod is found only in 
Theognis AO ; it is certainly earlier than ov. 7re<^ux' (Eth. Nic.) 
cannot be original as it presupposes ov. All the versions agree in 
supporting epa.^ The words irpdyfia, npitvorarov, and Xaiarov are 
characteristic of Theognis and his age, and the evidence points to 
the couplet in our MSS. as the original from which the others are 
derived. I do not think it unnatural even to suppose that the 
Megarian poet composed an inscription for the sanctuary of his 
city's patron goddess at Delos; but it is also possible that a popular 
proverb, descending from the couplet of Theognis, was at a later 
period adopted as a suitable inscription for the Goddess of Healing. 
As the passages from the Ethics differ substantially in their cita- 
tion of the pentameter, it is not likely that Aristotle verified his 
version of an oft-quoted saying by comparing it with the actual 
words written on the Delian Propylaea ; he certainly did not 
trouble himself about exact accuracy in the matter ; so we have 
no right to invoke his authority against the identification of the 
couplet in our MSS. with the epigram at Delos ; our verdict can 
only be, non liquet. 

On Theognis 409-10, 1161-2. 

Theognis 109-10: 

ovSeva Orjaavpbv iraioiv KaTaOrjari dfidvoj 
aidovs, i]T dya$ois dvSpdai, Kvpv\ (nfrai. 

* u>v Tts (Kaaros epa and other variants (as ipdrai, Ipa irort in tho 
Th. MSS. and elsewhere) represent an endeavour to get rid of thr 
somewhat unusual rd (jvxfiv)- 



258 APPENDIX 

Theognis 1161-2: 

ovSeva Orjaavpbv KaraOrjcreiv itaialv a.fx,eivov 
ahovaiv S' dyaOois dvSpdai, Kvpve, Sidov. 

Stobaeus 31. 16 under the name of Theognis : 

ouSfVa 6-qaavpbv fcaraOrjcreai evSov d^ueiVw 
al8ovs "^v dyadoLS dvSpdai, Kvpve, didcvs. 

The Theognidean touch eTrerai proves Th. 409-10 to be the 
original. ' Your own good name is the best treasure you can lay- 
up for your children/ 1161-2 are a parody of this. By the exer- 
cise of considerable ingenuity (e.g. ahovaiv 8' for aiSovs ij r') the 
author has produced a ludicrous travesty of Theognis with a very 
slight deviation from his actual words. ' Don't lay up treasures 
for your children, but hand your cash over to good men when they 
want it.* dpLeivov takes an indirect command in the future in- 
finitive with ovSeva for ixrjdeva. It would have been easy to write 
ixrjhha . . . KaradiaOai d/xeivov ; but perhaps the writer preferred 
to adhere closely to the original, and he probably regarded the bad 
grammar as an addition to the joke perpetrated at the expense of 
a moralist he learned to hate in school. atS. did., which has caused 
great offence, is on the analogy of x'^P'-^ didovai. The change from 
alSovs ij to airovai was perhaps made after 77 had come to be pro- 
nounced like I. The version of Stobaeus is the result of eliminating 
iraiaiv to 'secure a more direct personal application of the maxim. 
The couplet in its new dress is very subtle. ' Generosity is 
the best savings-bank ; the best way to save is to give freely ' (evSov, 
storing at home ; SiSojs, giving to others). It is not unlikely that 
the Stobaean lines were known to the composer of the parody 
(1161-2), and that he borrowed a hint from Sidojs and possibly 
aldovs fjv (aiTovaiv). Both Stob. 31. 16 and Th. 1161-2 are too 
ingenious to be due to the gi-opings of a ' corrector ' wrestling with 
a corrupt text (so Bgk. accounts for 1161-2). 



On Theognis 425-8. 

irAvTwv \ii(v \jLr\ <}>vvai (MSS. Theogn.) is a much better reading than 
dpx^v fitv, although the line was more frequently quoted in the 
latter form (e.g. by Sext. Emi^ir., Diogenian, Certam. Hom. et 
Hes., Suidas, Macarius, Apostolius, Arsenius ; Clem. Alex, and 
Theodoretus have iravrc^). The very best thing is /x^ (pvvai, the next 
best is Trepfjcrai kt\. iravrcuv affords a better contrast than dpxqv 
(* not to be born at all '). Bergk holds that the two hexameters 
were originally composed for the Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi to which 
he assigns a very early date ; they were * imitated ' by Theognis 
who added two pentameters.^ But it is known that the Cert, was 
compiled in the reign of Hadrian, while the certamen proper which 

^ We should then have an example of the process adopted by 
Pigres, 6? t^ 'lAmSt irapeveffaXe Kara cttixov ekeyeiov, ovtoj ypd\f/as' 
firjviv dctSe, ded, IlJ/Aj^iaSeft; 'A\i\jjos, MoCaa, av yap TidxTTjs ireipar' e'x^'^ 
co<piT]s (Suidas). 



APPENDIX 259 

it includes can with certainty be traced to the Museum of Alcidamas/ 
a fourth century sophist from Elaea in Aeolis and a pupil of 
Gorgias ; see the articles *Ayuv and Alkidamas in Pauly-Wissowa. 
This disposes of the greater antiquity claimed by Bergk for the 
hexameters 425 and 427. He is also wrong in inferring that 
antiquity assigned these actual verses to Silenus ; at any rate, there 
is no proof of his contention in the following passages. Both 
certainly contain a reminiscence of the lines as given in the 
MSS. of Theognis, dvOpunois to irdvTOJv apiarov = irdvTOJv (mx^ovioiaiv 
dpiCTov. Bergk sees in -najXTrav a reflection of dpxr]v. In the 
Ciceronian passage longe = -ndvTOJv. 

ToCto ix\v l/fftVo; to) MiSa Kiyovcn Srjnov fifrcL rrjv drjpav, iis eKa/Be tuv 
^€i\r)v6v, SiepoDTuivTi Kal irvvOavofXiVcv ri wore eari to ^(Xtiov tois dvOpdu- 
TTOts Kal Ti TO TravTtov alpeTWTaToi', t6 pikv irpuTov ovStv kOiknv dirfiv, 
dWd (TiojTrdv dpprjTOJs. eTreiSrj di itot€ fxoKis irdaav /xrjxavrjv firjxavupLfvos 
vpocrrjyd'yeTO (pOky^aaOai ti irpbs avrov ovrcos dvayKa^op.ivos dniiv ' Aai- 
fiovo^ kiritrovov Kal tvx^^ x"^^^'?^ ecprj/xcpov airipfxa, tI fxe Pid^eaOe A€7e£i/ 
a vfxiv dpeiov fxf) yvaivai ; fxer dyvoias yap tSjv oiKeiojv KaKWv dXvnoTaTos 
u files' dvdpwnois Se vd/xnav ovk tdTi yeviaOai to irdvTWv apiarov, ou8^ 
/xeTafTxctV T^s Tov /SeATtarou cpvaeojs' dpiaTov ycip ndai Kal ndaais to /«i) 
yeveaOai' to fxiuTOi pLfrd tovto Kal to irpwTOV twv dWcuv dvvaTov, 
SevTfpov 5e, ri yevop.€vovs dvoOaveiv ws Tdxicrra. Aristotle quoted by 
Plutarch, Consol. ad Apoll. 27 d. 

' Affertur etiam de Sileno fabella quaedam : qui cum a Mida 
captus esset, hoc ei muneris pro sua missione dedisse scribitur ; 
docuisse regem, non nasci homini longo optimum esse ; proximum 
autem, quam primum mori ' Cicero, Tuscul. I. 48. 114. 

The omission of the pentameters in the collections of proverbs 
proves nothing at all; the hexameters alone would naturally 
suffice for the purpose of popular quotation, as the second and 
fourth lines add nothing to the substance of the thought. There are 
certainly traces of the first Theognidean pentameter in a passage 
of Bacchylides and perhaps in another from the Oedipus Coloneus : 
OvaTOiai ii-q (pvvai (pipiarov, nrjS" deAiov irpoaideiv (peyyos Bacch. 5. 160. 

fxfi (pvvat TOV a-iravra viKc \6yov' to 5', iird </)aj/p, 
Bijvai KeiOev o6ev ttco vKei ttoAu Sevrepov wj Taxiara 

Soph., Oed. Col. 1225. 

diravTa viko. \6yov = ndvTuv dpiffTOV (Th. 425). 

kirel (pavfi = cpvvra (Th. 427) with a probable echo of HT]b hiBuv 
KT\. (Th. 426). 

It will thus be seen that ndvTOJv is supported by Aristotle, Cicero, 
Sophocles, and the Schol. on 0. C. 1225 who cites irdvTuv . . . im- 
(ffadfi^vov as a well-known saying (to \ty6ntvov). ^ 

The following passage favours the reading dpx^v : 

noWois yap Kal crocpoh dvdpdaiv ws (prjffi KpdvTup, oh vGv, AAAA iroAai 

1 Stob. 120. 8 quotes Th. 425 dpx¥ «tX. as U roZ XaXKiSdfiavTos 
Movaiov. Tlie next extract (Stob. 120. 4) reads WcoTviJor 6px¥ 
filv... knafxrjadfxevov (Th. 426-8). Subsequent discoyerioB have oon- 
firraed the conjectures based on the title given by Stob. 1^0. 8 
(reading ifc rod 'AkKiS&navTOs Movafiov). 



260 APPENDIX 

KfKXavarou ravOpumva, rificopiav "^yovfxevois etvai rov Plov Kal apx^v to 
yeviaOai dvOpuvov avp.<pooa.v t^v peyicTTTjv Plut., Consol. ad Apoll. 27. 



On Theognis 4^29 sqg[. and Plato Meno 95. 

Bergk imagines that because Plato quotes d 5' ^v kt\. (435) before 
TToWovs av kt\. (434), this must have been the original order of the 
lines ; and in his critical note he confidently remarks, * itaque 
scripserat poel;^ : ouS' ^ A.<t KXrjmddaii . . . dvdpuiv,'' then a lacuna, ei 8' 
^u . . . voTjfjLa (435), iroWoiis dv . . . ecpepov, then a lacuna, kovttot dv 
(^ dyaOov ktX. But the change in order may be due to the fact 
that Plato was quoting from memory, and this would also account 
for the application of oXiyov fieraPds to an interval of 400 lines. 
It is also quite possible that he regarded ei S' ^v it. ktX. as a con- 
venient summary of the required protasis in the words of Theognis 
himself; it was more concise and effective than et 5' 'AokX. . . . 
dvdpwv. Bergk has also appropriated Kai (used by Plato to return 
to the apodosis as expressed by Theognis after his own gloss oi 
Swdfievoi TovTo iroieiv), and arbitrarily added it to the beginning 
of 436 (Kovnor'). 

On Theognis 903-30. 

Mr. Harrison calls this elegy ' the only poem in our collection 
which can safely be condemned on grounds of language '. There are 
others equally objectionable (e.g. 1259-62, 1283-6), and his stric- 
tures are not always justified, as the following considerations will 
show. 

903. 'dvdXcocriv appears only here and in Thuc. 6. 31. 5.' L. and 
Scott, it is true, give but two instances from classical Greek (and 
another from Just. Mart.); but cf. irepl dvaXwaecus xPVf^o.T(uv Plat. 
Crito 48 c, t^j/ aircuv kuI itotoiv dvdXcoaiv Laws 781 c, Kep. 591 e, 
Lucian, &c. 

904. ' Kv8. dpcT. may he defended by comparison loith Aesch. Suppl. 13 
KvdKXT dxfojv and Bacchyl. 1. 25 kXiridi. KvZporipa.* I see no reason 
to question its use in our passage ; /fyStoro? is Homeric. Cf. 
karetpdvojae Kvhifxojv deOXoov Pind. 01. 14. 24. * The dperrj with most 
Kv5os attached to it.' 

905. * In KariSeiv the prepos. has lost its force.' The word is really 
most effective in the present context, ' catches sight of ' as a aKorrds 
sees an enemy from his watch-tower ; it is used exactly as in the 
passage quoted by H. X^'^'- Ate^^f' xwiroQiv laairax cS naOopas Pind. 
Pyth. 9. 52. Xerxes sent a KardaKoiros who wj irpoa-qXaae tt/joj to 
CTparoiTedov kOrjeiro t6 Kal Kardipa vdv fxev ov to CTpaTonedov Toiis ydp 
eao) TfTayfievovs tov Tfi'xfos . . . ovk oTa Te ^v KaTiheaOai Hdt. 7. 208 ; opa 
ovv Kal trpodvpov KaTibiiv kdv vus irpoTepos €/xov tdris Plat. Kep. 432 c. 

908. While admitting that tovtov tV [tovtovlv A'] is ' to he preferred ' 
to TOVTOV 6V*, and suggesting that ' the slight change of tovtov to Tovrq/ 
would perhaps he an improvement \ he declares the poem to be 'so had 
that attempts to improve it by emendation are hardly justified '. tovtov is 
required for the sake of emphasis and is much better than the un- 
emphatic TouT(j; ('for that time '). 



APPENDIX 261 

913. 'Sairavav does not occur in the Horn, poems, Hesiod, Pindar 
Bacchylides, or the tragic poets. It belongs essentially to prose.' Its prosaic 
nature may be a sufficient explanation of its absence from dignified 
poetry ; the more homely elegy would readily admit a word 
common in the speech of everyday life. Pindar who uses Sairava 
seven times may well have hesitated before adopting a word not 
yet sanctioned by the higher poetry. 

* rpvx'^ P^ov must mean * ' drag out a dull existence ". There is perhaps 
no parallel to this in Gk. literature . . . Thus 913 presents a ridiculous 
ambiguity ' [because in Horn. rp. ^iov = ' waste my substance ']. But 
ftjyS. SttTT. removes all ambiguity. For rpvxoi cf. Tpvxovrai rfipofievot 
irevirf Th. 752 ; tttcox^v 5' ovk av ris KaXioi rpv^ovra I avrov Od. 17. 
387. Here ' make life a worry, spend a life of worry ', * lead 
a wearing life ' ; d Se tcikci ^lorav Seanoiva Eur. Med. 141 ; Ta/fcu 
olfiojydv Soph. El. 123 ; rpvxoi fiiov )( ^woj repirvm. Cf. rpvaifiios. 

916. * o-tT. eXevOepiov, food fit for an ekevOepos. Such an expression is 
almost incredible in Theognis, who uses kXfvdepiov once only, in 538, xohcre 
it has a very natural meaning.^ Cf. bovXiav rpocprju Soph. Aj. 499 
* the portion of a slave ' ; dovKiov ^fxap Theog. 1212 (* day of slavery') ; 
O^aaav rpdne^av Eur. Alcest. 2 ; diarpi^al kXevO. Plut. Themist. 2. 

918. * iinrvyxdvto does not seem to occur elsewhere before Euripides who 
uses it once only {Heracles 1248).' Cf. tcjv kmrvxovruv iraiSia Hdt. 2. 2; 

1. 68; 8. 101. It also occurs in an anonymous fragment quoted by 
Clem. Alex, and assigned to Bacchylides by Blass and Jebb ov yap 
iv fiicroiai kcitcu bwpa dvfffxdxrjra Moiaav TMmrvxovTi (pipav. 

919. *€S cLKaipa irovctv, '^ waste his labour." olk. Keyfiv and oKcupoK 
TToXiv oiKovpovvra are found in Aeschylus, but the combination Is dxaipa 
seems to be unexampled.' Cf. iroveiv ^Secu? ft? tcL Toiavra Xen. Mem. 

2. 1. 19; irovovfjievov ds (piXoTTjra Theogn. 1359. 

921. * iiirdYw intrans. is found only in prose, comedy, and satyric drama 
{Eur. Cycl. 52), but in early poetry only here.'' It is here intentionally 
colloquial, and quite on a level with the line from Eur. Cycl. 

922. < Elsewhere irTcoxciia) takes an accus. of the alms only, never of the giver.' 
But an accus. of the giver would be quite natural on the analogy of 
aheiv. Cf. TTTcjaaris dWorpiovs oUovs Hes. W. D. 395 which Tzetzes 
expl. by 7rTa>x€vi?s. Paley has the foil, note : * The accus. appears 
to depend on the implied sense of motion from one place to 
another combined with that of airSiv, Knrapojv, IvoxAftV, cf. Theognis 
918 ' (on Hes. W. D., 1. c). 

' 925-6 are unintelligible in the MSS., and the attempts tJiat have been 
made to emend them into some sense have not had much success.* See my 
explanatory notes. 

928. * €v Toi^Se yivii XP'HP'C^''" €xeiv has been taken to mean manage 
one's money on this principle ".' Ho then suggests a translation 
somewhat similar to the one offered in my notes and adds : ovon 
thus T. yiv. is strangely abrupt '. 

Keitzenstein may be right in assigning the poem to a person 
much influenced by the teachings and philosophical discussions of 
the Sophists ; at the same time we should not forget that tho 
elegists (e.g. Solon) were in many respects tho precursors of the 
Sophists, and that verse preceded prose as a vehicle for othloai 

discussions. . „ . , . ..- # *u-, 

In any case one may heartily agree with H.'8 description of the 

poem as < prosaic in the extreme ', though we cannot admit that ii 



262 APPENDIX 

' is unique in our collection for the badness of its language and 
style*, and 'probably the pastime of some late scholar moderately 
familiar with Homeric and Attic idiom but incapable of reproduc- 
ing it '. 



On TJieognis 1103-4. 

The * woes of Magnesia ' had already become proverbial when 
Archilochus composed the oft-quoted line K\aioj tcL Qaaicov, ov tcL 
MayvrjTOJv KaKo. (fr. 20). Aristotle (ap. Heracl.) is the first historian 
who refers to 'the woes of Magnesia': Md7j/7/Te? h' vncp^oX-^v 
arvxrjy^oLTOjv iroWa eKaKcuOrjcrav Kai irov Kal 'Apxi^oxos (prjcfi, fcXaio} ktK. 
Schneidewin explains drvx- as a euphemism for dac^TjfjiaTa, and 
this fits in with the interpretation of the proverb given by Suidas: 
Trap' ocrov ovtoi daePrjaavres els Oeov ttoWwv KanZv knapdOrjaav. The 
kings of Lydia probably added to the already numerous * woes of 
Magnesia '. We know that Gyges attacked Smyrna, Colophon, and 
Miletus ; and his alliance with a powerful Ephesian family would 
naturally lead him to attack their hated rival on the Maeander. 
This view is confirmed by the present passage (Th. 1103-4) in which 
Magnesia is mentioned in connexion with Smyrna and Colophon ; 
it is absurd to reject the claims of Theognis to these lines on the 
ground that they must refer to the recent ruin of Smyrna. That 
the fate of the Asiatic cities produced a lasting impression upon 
the Greek mind is clearly proved by another proverb used like 
our * Queen Anne is dead ', e. g. -ndKai ttot ^aav d\Kifxoi Mi\r]cnoi 
(Aristoph. Plutus 1002). Cf. my review of Hauvette's Archiloque 
in the C. R., August, 1907. 



The metaphor of the ship in Jewish and Christian Literature. 

"Ciamp ydp dpiaros Kv^cpvrjTijs 6 tov irarpus fip.(Jbv 'E\ea(j'apou Koyifffios, 
TfTjSaXiovxlJtiV rrjv rrjs ivaefifias vavv ev rw tojv iraOSiv neXdyfi, Kal KaraiKi- 
^6/xevos rats tov Tvpdvvov diTei\ais Kal KaravrXovfJievos rats rwv Paffduojv 
TpiKVfxiai'i, Kar ovhiva rpoirov fieTerpe^fv tovs t^s evae^das oiaKas, 'lojs 
ov enKevaev em tuv ttjs Oavdrov viktjs \ifiiva. Maccabees IV. 7. 1-3. 

'lyvdrios eKv^epva rrjv 'EKKKrjaiav ' PiVTioxecuv bs tovs -ndXai xf'A*^»'as 
fioXis irapayaywv twv iroWwv eirl Aofieriavov Sicvyfxuv, KaOdirep Kv^epvrjrrjs 
dyaOoi, rw oiaKi ttjs 7rpo(T€vxv^ Kal ttjs vrjaTcias Tfi crui/ex*'? '''V^ 8i5a- 
CKa\ias, tw Tovtp tw irvevfiaTiK^ irpos t^v ^aKrjv ttjs dvTiKdfievrjs duTeix^v 
dvvdfieojs SeboiKUJS firj Tiva twv oKiyoxpvx'^v rj dKcpaioTepcov dno^dXri. 

Martyrdom of Ignatius I. 



I 

I 



Third Edition, Post 8vo, 7s. 6d. 

The Idylls of Theocritus 

Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by 
R. J. Cholmeley, M.A. 

Late Professor of Classics at Rhodes University, Grahamstown. 



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' Though there are two or three good translations of Theocritus into 
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environment of Theocritus is masterly ; and the section on versification 
and dialect is equal to it in merit. The notes are just what is required 
to a rather difficult poet. They are very properly full, but they are 
free from irrelevant detail, and they never jar on the reader.'— 
Educational Times. 

' To Mr. Cholmeley's edition of the Idylls we may apply with truth 
a hackneyed phrase and say that it supplies a felt want. His intro- 
duction seems to embody much information that we have not before 
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The articles on the " Verse and Dialect" and on the '* Authenticity of 
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fancy that this work will hold the field for some Wmc.'— Saturday 
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' One finds in Mr. Cholmeley's work an edition worthy of the poet, 
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much indebted to the scholarship of the Continent. . . . The results 
which are so very necessary to a right understanding of Theocritus 
and his position in Greek poetry, are now for the first time introduced 
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dialect of the poet.' — Morning Post. 



To be completed in Six Vols. fcap. 4to 
15s. each 

The Plays of Aristophanes 

The Greek Text Revised and a Metrical 

Translation on opposite pages, together with 

Introduction and Commentary 

by 
Benjamin Bickley Rogers, M.A. 



The contents of the Volumes will be as follows :— 

Vol. I. The Acharnians, The Knights. 

II. The Clouds, The Wasps. 

III. The Peace, The Birds. 

IV. The Lysistrata, The Thesmophoriazusae. 
V. The Frogs, The Ecclesiazusae. 

VI. The Plutus, with the Menaechmi of Plautus, 
and Index. 

The Plays nmy also he had separately. 



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volume from Mr. Rogers.' — Classical Review. 

*It is difficult to be grateful enough to Mr. Rogers for his really- 
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'Mr. Rogers occupies a unique position among commentators of 
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western ideas make translation particularly difficult. Each stumbling- 
block Mr. Rogers has surmounted with admirable tact and spirit, two 
qualities not often combined. The real poetry of some of the Aristo- 
phanic lyrics has been admirably preserved, while the cut and thrust 
of the dialogue is as sharp and neat as English allows. Mr. Rogers's 
critical powers are also remarkable.'— ^^^^naewm. 







/ 



BINDINQ SECT. fEB 1 1980 



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