ELEMENTARY CALCULUS
BY
FREDERICK S. WOODS
AND
FREDERICK H. BAILEY
PIlOlfMSSOUS 0V MATHEMATICS IN THK MASSACHUSETTS
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
GINN AND COMPANY
ItORVOK NI3W YORK OHtCAGO LONDON
ATLANTA AM.A8 COLUMBUS SAN PBANOISOO
COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY FREDERICK 8 WOODS
AND FREDERICK H BAILEY
ALL BIGHTS RESERVED
PRINTED IN THB UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
I
82611
153
GINN AND COMPANY . PRO
PRIETORS BOSTON > V.S.A.
PKEFACB
This book is adapted to the use of students in the first year
in technical school or college, and is based upon the experience
of the authors m teaching calculus to students in the Massa
chusetts Institute of Technology immediately upon entrance.
It is accordingly assumed that the student has had college
entrance algebra, including graphs, and an elementary course
in trigonometry, but that he has not studied analytic geometry.
The first three chapters form an introductory course in
which the fundamental ideas of the calculus are introduced,
including derivative, differential, and the definite integral, but
the formal work is restricted to that involving only the poly
nomial. These chapters alone are well fitted for a short course
of about a term.
The definition of the derivative is obtained through the
concept of speed, using familiar illustrations, and the idea
of a derivative as measuring the rate of change of related
quantities is emphasized. The slope of a curve is introduced
later. This is designed to prevent the student from acquiring
the notion that the derivative is fundamentally a geometric
concept. For the same reason, problems from mechanics are
prominent throughout the book.
With Chapter IV a more formal development of the subject
begins, and certain portions of analytic geometry are introduced
as needed. These include, among other things, the straight line,
the conic sections, the cycloid, and polar coordinates.
The book contains a large number of wellgraded exercises for
the student. Drill exercises are placed at the end of most sec
tions, and a miscellaneous 'Set of exercises, for review or further
work, is found at the end of each chapter except the first.
ui
iv PREFACE
Throughout the book, the authors believe, the matter is pre
sented in a manner which is well within the capacity of a first
year student to understand. They have endeavored to teach
the calculus from a commonsense standpoint as a very useful
tool. They have used as much mathematical rigor as the
student is able to understand, but have refrained from raising
the more difficult questions which the student in his first
course is able neither to appreciate nor to master.
Students who have completed this text and wish to continue
their study of mathematics may next take a brief course in
differential equations and then a course in advanced calculus,
or they may take a course m advanced calculus which includes
differential equations. It would also be desirable for such stu
dents to have a brief course in analytic geometry, which may
either follow this text directly or come later.
This arrangement of work the authors consider preferable to
the one for a long time common in American colleges by
which courses in higher algebra and analytic geometry precede
the calculus. However, the teacher who prefers to follow the
older arrangement will find this text adapted to such a program.
F. S. WOODS
F H BAILEY
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I. EATES
SECTION PAGE
1 Limits . 1
2 Average speed . . . .... 3
3. True speed ... . 5
4. Algebiaic method . .... . 8
5 Acceleiation . ....... 9
G Rate of change ........ .11
CHAPTER II. DIFFERENTIATION
7 The derivative . . . . . .... .15
8. Differentiation of a polynomial ... 18
9 Sign of the derivative ... . . . .... 20
10 Velocity and acceleration (continued) . ... 21
11 Rate of change (continued) . ... ... 24
12 Graphs . .... .... 27
13 Real roots of an equation 30
14 Slope of a straight line . .... .31
15 Slope of a curve ... . 36
16 The second derivative . . , .39
17. Maxima and minima . . ... 41
18 Integration ... ... 44
19 Area . 47
20 Differentials ...*... 50
21. Appioximations ... . ... 53
General exercises .... . . . .  . .55
CHAPTER III. SUMMATION
22. Area by summation . . . ... 00
23. The definite integral .... . 62
24. The general summation problem .66
25. Pressure 68
26 Yolume . 71
General exercises ... 76
T
vi CONTENTS
CHAPTER IV. ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
SECTION PAGE
27 Distance between two points ... . . . . 79
28. Circle ... . .... ... 79
29. Parabola ... 81
30 Parabolic segment . 83
81. Ellipse ... 85
32 Hyperbola . . 87
33. Other curves 91
34 Theorems on limits . . .93
35. Theorems on derivatives .... 94
36. Formulas 101
37 Differentiation of implicit functions ... 102
38 Tangent line ... . 104
39. The differentials dx, dy, ds 106
40. Motion in a curve ... ... 107
41. Related velocities and rates Ill
General exercises . 113
CHAPTER V. TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
42. Circular measure . .... ... 119
43 Graphs of trigonometric functions . . ... 121
44. Differentiation of trigonometric functions 124
45. Simple harmonic motion . .... 127
46 Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions 130
47 Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions . . 131
48. Angular velocity . . ... . ... . 185
49. The cycloid . . .... ... . 137
50. Curvature 189
51 Polar coSrdinates , 142
53. The differentials dr, dO, ds, in polar coordinates . . . 146
General exercises . . . . 149
CHAPTER VI. EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
53. The exponential function .... 154
54. The logarithm . . 154
55. Certain empirical equations 159
56. Differentiation . . 163
57. The compoundinterest law 166
General exercises 168
CONTENTS vii
CHAPTER VII. SERIES
SECTION PAGE!
58. Power series . . . . . 172
59. Maclaurm's series . 173
60. Taylor's seuos . . . 177
General exercises . . ... 179
CHAPTER VIII. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
61 Partial differentiation . . . 181
62. Higher partial denvatives . 184
63. Total differential of a function of two variables . . . 185
64 Rate of change ... .189
General exercises . . . 191
CHAPTER IX. INTEGRATION
65. Introduction . . . 194
66. Integral of u n . . 195
6768 Other algebraic integrands 199
69 Integrals of trigonometric functions ... 205
70. Integrals of exponential functions . . ... 207
7172. Substitutions . . . 208
7374 Integration by parts . . . 212
75 Integration of rational fractions ... . 216
76. Table of integrals . . 217
General exercises ... .... . 220
CHAPTER X. APPLICATIONS
77. Review problems . ... 225
78. Infinite limits, or integrand 229
79. Area in polar cobrdmates . 230
80. Mean value of a function . .... 233
81. Length of a plane curve 235
82. Work 237
General exercises ... . . ... 239
CHAPTER XI. REPEATED INTEGRATION
83. Double integrals ... . . . . 244
84. Area as a double integral . . . . . . 246
85. Center of gravity . 249
yiii CONTENTS
SECTION PAGE
86 Center of gravity of a composite area . . . 255
87 Theoiems . . . 257
88. Moment of inertia 260
89 Moments of inertia about parallel axes . 266
90 Space cooidinates 269
91. Certain sui faces . .... 271
92. Volume . . . .... .277
93 Center of gravity of a solid . 282
94 Moment of inertia of a solid . . 283
General exeicises . . . . . 286
ANSWERS 291
INDEX 315
ELEMENTARY CALCULUS
* CHAPTER I
RATES
1. Limits. Since the calculus is based upon the idea of a
limit it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the word.
Two examples already familiar to the student will be sufficient.
In finding the aiea of a circle m plane geometry it is usual
to begin by inscribing a regular polygon in the circle. The area
of the polygon differs from that of the circle by a certain
amount. As the number of sides of the polygon is increased,
this difference becomes less and less. Moreover, if we take any
small number 0, we can find an inscribed polygon whose area
differs from that of the circle by less than e\ and if one such
polygon has been found, any polygon with a larger number of
sides will still differ m area from the circle by less than e. The
area of the circle is said to be the limit of the area of the
inscribed polygon.
As another example of a limit consider the geometric progres
sion with an unlimited number of terms
The sum of the first two terms of this series is 1, the sum
of the first three terms is If, the sum of the first four terms
is 1J, and so on. It may be found by trial and is proved in
the algebras that the sum of the terms becomes more nearly
equal to 2 as the number of terms which are taken becomes
greater. Moreover, it may be shown that if any small number
e is assumed, it is possible to take a number of terms n so that
the sum of these terms differs from 2 by less than e. If a value
of n has thus been found, then the sum of a number of terms
1
2 RATES
greater than n will still differ from 2 by less than e. The
number 2 is said to be the limit of the sum of the first n terms
of the series.
In each of these two examples there is a certain variable
namely, the area of the inscribed polygon of n sides in one case
and the sum of the first n terms of the series in the other case
and a certain constant, the area of the circle and the number 2
respectively. In each case the difference between the constant
and the variable may be made less than any small number e by
taking n sufficiently large, and this difference then continues
to be less than e for any larger value of n.
This is the essential property of a limit, which may be defined
as follows:
A constant A is said to be the limit of a variable Xif, as the vari
able changes its value according to some law, the difference between
the variable and the constant becomes and remains less than any
small quantity which may be assigned.
The definition does not say that the variable never reaches its
limit. In most cases in this book, however, the variable fails to
do so, as in the two examples already given. For the polygon is
never exactly a circle, nor is the sum. of the terms of the series
exactly 2. Examples may be given, however, of a variable's
becoming equal to its limit, as in the case of a swinging pendulum
finally coming to rest. But the fact that a variable may never
reach its limit does not make the limit inexact. There is nothing
inexact about the area of a circle or about the number 2.
The student should notice the significance of the word
" remains" in the definition. If a railroad train approaches a
station, the difference between the position of the train and
a point on the track opposite the station becomes less than any
number which may be named ; but if the train keeps on by the
station, that difference does not remain small. Hence there is
no limit approached in this case.
If X is a variable and A a constant which X approaches as a
limit, it follows from the definition that we may write
X**A + e, (1)
SPEED 3
where e is a quantity (not necessarily positive) which may be
made, and then will remain, as small as we please.
Conversely, if as the result of any reasoning we arrive at a
formula of the form (1) where X is a variable and A a constant,
and if we see that we can make e as small as we please and
that it will then remain just as small or smaller as X varies,
we can say that A is the limit of X. It is in this way that we
shall determine limits in the following pages.
2. Average speed. Let us suppose a body (for example, an
automobile) moving from a point A to a point B (Fig. 1), a
distance of 100 mi If the automobile takes 5 hr. for the trip,
we are accustomed to say that it has traveled at the rate of
20 mi. an hour. Everybody knows A p Q B
that this does not mean that the ' ' '
automobile went exactly 20 mi. in
each hour of the trip, exactly 10 mi. in each half hour, exactly
5 mi in each quarter hour, and so on. Probably no automobile
ever ran in such a way as that. The expression " 20 mi. an
hour " may be understood as meaning that a fictitious automobile
traveling in the steady manner* just described would actually
cover the 100 mi. in just 5 hr. ; but for the actual automobile
which made the trip, " 20 mi. an hour " gives only a certain
average speed.
So if a man walks 9 mi. in 3 hr., he has an average speed of
3 mi. an hour. If a stone falls 144 ft. in 3 sec., it has an average
speed of 48 ft. per second. In neither of these cases, however,
does the average speed give us any information as to the actual
speed of the moving object at a given instant of its motion.
The point we are making is so important, and it is so often
overlooked, that we repeat it in the following statement:
If a "body traverses a distance in a certain time, the average speed
of the body in that time is given ly the formula,
, distance
average speed =
time
but this formula does not in general give the true speed at any
given time.
4 KATES
EXERCISES
1. A man runs a half mile m 2 mm and 3 sec. What is his
average speed m feet per second ?
2. A man walks a mile m 25 min. What is his average speed in
yards per second ?
3. A train 600 ft. long takes 10 sec. to pass a given milepost.
What is its average speed in miles per hour ?
4. A stone is thrown directly downward from the edge of a
vertical cliff Two seconds afterwards it passes a point 84 ft down
the side of the cliff, and 4 sec after it is thrown it passes a point
296 ft. down the side of the cliff What is the average speed of the
stone in falling between the two mentioned points ?
5. A railroad train runs on the following schedule :
Boston
10 00 A M.
Worcester
(45 mi.)
11.10
Springfield
(90 mi )
12.35 P M.
Pittsfield
(151 mi.)
225
Albany
(201 mi.)
355
Find the average speed between each two consecutive stations and
for the entire trip.
6. A body moves four times around a circle of diameter 6 ft in
1 min. What is its average speed in feet per second ?
7. A block slides from the top to the bottom of an inclined
plane which makes an angle of 30 with the horizontal. If the top
is 50 ft. higher than the bottom and it requires f mm. for the block
to slide down, what is its average speed in feet per second ?
8. Two roads intersect at a point C B starts along one road
toward C from a point 5 mi. distant from C and walks at an average
speed of 3 mi an hour. Twenty minutes later A starts along the
other road toward C from a point 2 mi. away from G At what
average speed must A walk if he is to reach C at the same instant
that B arrives ?
9. A man rows across a river $ mi. wide and lands at a point
mi. farther down the river. If the banks of the river are parallel
straight lines and he takes ^ hr. to cross, what is his average speed
in feet per minute if his course is a straight line ?
SPEED 5
10. A trolley car is running along a straight street at an average
speed of 12 mi. per hour. A house is 50 yd. back from the car track
and 100 yd. up the street from a car station. A man comes out of
the house when a car is 200 yd away from the station What must
be the average speed of the man m yards per minute if he goes in
a straight line to the station and arrives at the same instant as
the car ?
3. True speed. How then shall we determine the speed at
which a moving body passes any given fixed point P in its
motion (Fig. 1) ? In answering this question the mathema
tician begins exactly as does the policeman in setting a trap for
speeding. He takes a point Q near to P and determines the
distance PQ and the time it takes to pass over that distance.
Suppose, for example, that the distance PQ is ^ mi. and the
time is 1 min. Then, by 2, the average speed with which
the distance is traversed is
mi.
= 30 mi. per hour.
hr 
This is merely the average speed, however, and can no more
be taken for the true speed at the point P than could the 20 mi.
an hour which we obtained by considering the entire distance
A3. It is true that the 30 mi. an hour obtained from the
interval PQ is likely to be nearer the true speed at B than
was the 20 ini. an hour obtained from AS, because the interval
PQ is shorter.
The last statement suggests a method for obtaining a still
better measure of the speed at P ; namely, by taking the interval
PQ still smaller. Suppose, for example, that PQ is taken as
fa mi. and that the time is 6J sec. A calculation shows that the
average speed at which this distance was traversed was 36 mi.
an hour. This is a better value for the speed at P.
Now, having seen that we get a better value for the speed at
P each time that we decrease the size of the interval PQ, we
can find no end to the process except by means of the idea of a
limit denned in 1. We say, in fact, that the speed of a moving
body at any point of its path u the limit approached ly the average
6 RATES
speed computed for a small distance beginning at that point, the
limit to be determined by taking this distance smaller and smaller.
This definition may seem to the student a little intricate, and
we shall proceed to explain it further.
In the case of the automobile, which we have been using for
an illustration, there are practical difficulties in taking a very
small distance, because neither the measurement of the distance
nor that of the time can be exact. This does not alter ^
the fact, however, that theoretically to determine the speed
of the car we ought to find the time it takes to go an
extremely minute distance, and the more minute the dis
tance the better the result. For example, if it were possi
ble to discover that an automobile ran ^ in. in ^^g sec.,
we should be pretty safe in saying that it was moving at p
a speed of 30 mi. an hour. _p
Such fineness of measurement is, of course, impossible ;
but if an algebraic formula connecting the distance and
the time is known, the calculation can be made as fine as
this and finer. We will therefore take a familiar case in
which such a formula is known ; namely, that of a falling body.
Let us take the formula from physics that if s is the distance
through which a body falls from rest, and t is the time it takes
to fall the distance s t then
s = 16* 3 , (1)
and let us ask what is the speed of the body at the instant
when t SB 2. In Fig. 2 let be the point from which the body
falls, % its position when t 2, and 7 its position a short time
later. The average speed with which the body falls through the
distance PP Z is, by 2, that distance divided by the time it
takes to traverse it. We shall proceed to make several succes
sive calculations of this average speed, assuming 7^ and the
corresponding time smaller and smaller.
In so doing it will be convenient to introduce a notation as
follows : Let ^ represent the time at which the body reaches 2?,
and t a the time at which it reaches J%. Also let ^ equal the
distance OP^ and a the distance OP a . Then s^s^P^ and
SPEED 7
tf 2 ^ is the time it takes to traverse the distance P^. Then the
average speed at which the body traverses Ufa is
So Si
(2)
Now, by the statement of our particular problem,
Therefore, from (1), s 1= 16 (2) 2 = 64.
We shall assume a value of t a a little larger than 2, compute
s a from (1), and the average speed from (2). That having been
done, we shall take t z a little nearer to 2 than it was at first, and
again compute the average speed This we shall do repeatedly,
each time taking t a nearer to 2.
Our results can best be exhibited in the form of a table, as
follows :
t a L
2.1 70.56 .1 656 656
201 646416 01 .6416 64.16
2 001 64.064016 .001 064016 64 016
2.0001 64 00640016 .0001 .00640016 64 0016
It is fairly evident from the above arithmetical work that as
the time i? 3 ^ and the corresponding distance s s s x become
smaller, the more nearly is the average speed equal to 64.
Therefore we are led to infer, in accordance with 1, that the
speed at which the body passes the point J$ is 64 ft. per second.
In the same manner the speed of the body may be computed
at any point of its path by a purely arithmetical calculation. In
the next section we shall go farther with the same problem and
employ algebra.
EXERCISES
1. Estimate the speed of a falling body at the end of the third
second, given that s = 16 t z , exhibiting the work in a table.
2. Estimate the speed of the body in Ex. 1 at the end of the
fourth, second, exhibiting the work in a table.
8 RATES
3. The distance of a falling body from a fixed point, at, any th
is given by the equation s = 100 + 16 t*. Estimate the speed of t
body at the end of the fourth second, exhibiting the work in a tab
4. A body is falling so that the distance traversed in the tiuu
is given by the equation s = 16 1 2 + 10 1 Estimate tho speed of 1,1
body when t = 2 sec , exhibiting the work in a table.
6. A body is thrown upward with such a speed that at. any tin
its distance from the surface of the earth is given by tho equsitu
s = 100 1 16 t a . Estimate its speed at the end o a sexumd, exhibi
ing the work in a table.
6. The distance of a falling body from a fixed point a,t any tiin
is given by the equation s = 50 f 20 1 + 16 1*. Estimate its spee
at the end of the first second, exhibiting tho work in a table.
4. Algebraic method. In this section we shall show how it i
possible to derive an algebraic formula for the speed, still con
fining ourselves to the special example of the falling body whos<
equation of motion is ., , 2 ^
s = i.o t . (1
Instead of taking a definite numerical value for f t , wo dial
keep the algebraic symbol t r Then
Also, instead of adding successive small qimntit,ie,s to t to
get 2 , we shall represent the amount added by the al
symbol^. That is, , . , .
and, from (1), s z== 16 (
Hence * 2  ^ = 16^+ A) 2  10 tf. 82
This is a general expression for the distance / t V* in Ffj.
Now t z t : = Ti, and therefore the average speed with
body traverses %P S is represented by tho expression
It is obvious that if Ji is taken smaller and smidH Iho nver
age speed approaches 32 ^ as a limit, In i'aufc, tho quantity 83^
ACCELEKATION 9
satisfies exactly the definition of limit given in 1. For if e
is any number, no matter how small, we have simply to take
10 Ti < e in order that the average speed should differ from 32 ^
by less than e ; and after that, for still smaller values of h, this
d iff 01 once remains less than e.
We have, then, the result that if the space traversed by a
1 ailing body is given by the formula
the speed of the body at any time is given by the formula
It may be well to emphasize that this is not the result which
would be obtained by dividing s by t.
EXERCISE
Find the speed in each of the problems in 3 by the method
explained in this section.
5. Acceleration. Let us consider the case of a body which is
supposed to move so that if s is the distance in feet and t is the
time in seconds, s = t s (V)
Then, by the method of 4, we find that if v is the speed in
feet per second, = 3 i 2
We see that when t = 1, v = 3 ; when t = 2, v 12 ; when t = 3,
v = 27 ; and so on. That is, the body is gaming speed with each
second. We wish to find how fast it is gaining speed. To find
this out, let us take a specific time
(,4.
The speed at this time we call v lt so that, by (2),
i= = 3 (4) 2 = 48 ft. per second.
Take * 2 =5;
then v = 3 (5) 2 ~ 75 ft. per second.
10 RATES
Therefore the body has gained 75 48 = 27 units of speed in
1 sec. This number, then, represents the average rate at which
the body is gaining speed during the particular second con
sidered. It does not give exactly the rate at which the speed
is increasing at the beginning of the second, because the rate
is constantly changing.
To find how fast the body is gaining speed when ^ = 4, we
must proceed exactly as we did in finding the speed itself.
That is, we must compute the gain of speed in a very small
interval of time and compare that with the time.
Let us take t.= 4.1.
a
Then 2 = 50.43
and ^^=2.43.
Then the body has gained 2.43 units of speed hi .1 sec., which
2 43
is at the rate of ~ 24.3 units per second.
Again, take 2 =4.01.
Then v 2 = 48.2403
and ^^=.2403,
A gain of ,2403 units of speed in .01 sec. is at the rate of
' . =24.03 units per second. We exhibit these results, and
one other obtained in the same way, in a table:
4,1 60.43 .1 2.48 24.3
4.01 48.2403 .01 .2403 24,08
4.001 48.024003 001 .024003 24.003
The rate at which a body is gaining speed is called its
acceleration. Our discussion suggests that in. the example before
us the acceleration is 24 units of speed per second. But the
unit of speed is expressed in feet per second, and so we say
that the acceleration is 24 ft. per second per second.
KATE OF OHANGE 11
By the method used in determining speed, we may get a
general formula to determine the acceleration from equation (2).
We take , , r
Then v a =
and v z ~Vi=
The average rate at which the speed is gamed is then
h,
and the limit of this, as h becomes smaller and smaller, is
obviously 6t t .
This is, of course, a result which is valid only for the special
example that we are considering. A general statement of the
meaning of acceleration is as follows:
. , ,. ,. ., , change in speed
Acceleration = limit of . 5
change in time
EXERCISES
1. If s = 4 1*, find the speed and the acceleration when t = # r
2. If s = rf 8 + 1*, find the speed and the acceleration when t = 2.
3. If s = 3 t z + 2 1 + 5, how far has the body moved at the end
of the fifth second ? With what speed does it reach that point, and
how fast is the speed increasing ?
4. If s = 4 i 8 + 2 1 3 + 1 + 4, find the distance traveled and the
speed when t = 2.
5. If s = $ t 6 + 1 t 10, find the speed and the acceleration when
t=z>2 and when t = 3. Compare the average speed and the average
acceleration during this second with the speed and the acceleration
at the beginning and the end of the second.
6. If s = at + &, show that the speed is constant.
7. If at 2 + to + G, show that' the acceleration is constant.
8. If s = at* + bt* + ct +/, find the formulas for the speed and
the acceleration.
6. Rate of change. Let us consider another example which
may be solved by processes similar to those used for determining
speed and acceleration.
L2
KATES
m the
A stone is thrown into still water, forming ripples which
,ravel from the center of disturbance in the form of circles
Tig. 3). Let r be the radius of a circle and A its area. Then
J "J /I N
A=irr. (1)
We wish to compare changes in the area with changes
adius. If we take r t = 3, then A^ 9 TT; and if we take
,hen ^t a = 167T. That is, a change
)f 1 unit in ?*, when r 3, causes
i change of 7 TT units in A. We are
^empted to say that A is increas
ng TTT times as fast as r. But
jefore making such a statement it
s well to see whether this law holds
'or all changes made in r, starting
'rom r 1 = 8, and especially for small
jhanges in r.
We will again exhibit the calcu ^ IQ 3
ation in the form of a table. Here
^=3, A^Qnr, and r z is a variously assumed value of r not
nuch different from 3.
1
01
.001
9.61 TT
9.0601 TT
9,006001 f
.1
.01
001
A,, A!
.01 TT
.0001 7T
000001 IT
r a  r x
ITT
6.01 TT
6 001 TT
The number in the last column changes with the number
a r^ Therefore, if we wish to measure the rate at which A is
3hanging as compared with r at the instant when r = 3, we must
bake the limit of the numbers in the last column. That limit is
abviously 6 TT.
We say that at the instant when r 8, the area of the circle is
changing 6 TT times as fast as the radius. Hence, if the radius
Is changing at the rate of 2 ft. per second, for example, the area
is changing at the rate of 12 TT sq. ft. per second. Another way
of expressing the saine idea is to say that when, r ts 3, the rate
RATE OF CHANGE 13
of change of A with respect to r is 6 TT. Whichever form of expres
sion is used, we mean that the change in the area divided by
the change in the radius approaches a limit 6 TT.
The number 6 TT was, of course, dependent upon the value
r = 3, with which we started. Another value of ^ assumed at
the start would produce another result. For example, we may
compute that when r x = 4, the rate of change of A with respect
to r is 8rr; and when r^= 5, the rate is 10 ?r. Better still, we
may derive a general formula which will give us the required
rate for any value of r^.
To do this take
Then A 2 = TT (r* + 2 rji + A 2 )
and A z  A 1 = TT (2 r x h + 7i 3 ) ;
A A
SO that 2 l = 2 TH* + 7i7T.
T V
'z 'l
The limit of this quantity, as Ti is taken smaller and smaller, is
Hence we see that from formula (1) we may derive the fact
that the rate of change of A with respect to r is 2 TIT.
EXERCISES
1. In the example of the text, if the circumference of the circle
winch bounds the disturbed area is 10 ft and the circumference is
increasing at the rate of 3 ft. per second, how fast is the area
increasing ?
2. In the example of the text find a general expression for the
rate of change of the area with respect to the circumference.
3. A soap bubble is expanding, always remaining spherical. If
the radius of the bubble is increasing at the rate of 2 in. per second,
how fast is the volume increasing ?
4. In Ex 3 find the general expression for the rate of change
of the volume with respect to the radius.
5. If a soap bubble is expanding as in Ex. 3, how fast is the
area of its surface increasing 9
14 BATES
6. In Ex. 5 find the general expression for the rate of change
of the surface with respect to the radius
7. A cube of metal is expanding under the influence of heat.
Assuming that the metal retains the form of a cube, find the rate of
change at which the volume is increasing with respect to an edge.
8. The altitude of a right circular cylinder is always equal to
the diameter of the base. If the cylinder is assumed to expand,
always retaining its form and proportions, what is the rate of change
of the volume with respect to the radius of the base ?
9. Find the rate of change of the area of a sector of a circle of
radms 6 ft with respect to the angle at the center of the circle.
10. Find the rate of change of the area of a sector of a circle
with respect to the radius of the circle if the angle at the center
7T
of the circle is always j. What is the value of the rate when the
radius is 8 in. ?
CHAPTER II
DIFFERENTIATION
7. The derivative. The examples we have been considering
in the foregoing sections of the book are alike in the methods
used to solve them. We shall proceed now to examine this
method so as to bring out its general character.
In the first place, we notice that we have to do with two
quantities so related that the value of one depends upon the
value of the other. Thus the distance traveled by a moving
body depends upon the time, and the area of a circle depends
upon the radius. In such a case one quantity is said to be
a function of the other. That is, a quantity y is said to be a
function of another quantity, x, if the value of y is determined ly
the value of x.
The fact that y is a function of x is expressed by the equation
y=/<v>,
and the particular value of the function when x has a definite
value a is then expressed as /(a). Thus, if
f(x) = x* 3 aM42j + l,
/(2)=23(2) 3 +4(2) + l = 5,
/(0)=03(0) + 4(0) + 1 = 1.
It is in general true that a change in x causes a change in
the function y, and that if the change in x is sufficiently small,
the change in y is small also. Some exceptions to this may be
noticed later, but this is the general rule. A change in a; is
called an increment of x and is denoted by the symbol Ao? (read
" delta x "). Similarly, a change in y is called an increment of
y and is denoted by Ay. For example, consider
15
16 DIFFERENTIATION
When = 2, # = 12. When a? =2.1, y = 12.71. The change
in x is .1, and the change m y is .71, and we write
Aa = .l, Ay = .71.
So, in general, if a^ is one value of a;, and x z a second value
of #, then
Ax = xs, i x l1 or #2=0^4 Are; (1)
and if y x and y 2 are the corresponding values of y, then
ty=y z Vv <* y 2 =y a 4Ay. (2)
The word increment really means "increase," but as we are
dealing with algebraic quantities, the increment may be nega
tive when it means a decrease. For example, if a man invests
$1000 and at the end of a year has $1200, the increment of his
wealth is $200. If he has $800 at the end of the year, the
increment is $200. So, if a thermometer registers 65 in the
morning and 57 at night, the increment is ,8. The incre
ment is always the second value of the quantity considered minus
the first value.
Now, having determined increments of x and of y, the next
step is to compare them by dividing the increment of y by
the increment of x. This is what we did in each of the three
problems we have worked in 36. In finding speed we began
by dividing an increment of distance by an increment of time,
in finding acceleration we began by dividing an increment of
speed by an increment of time, and in discussing the ripples in
the water we began by dividing an increment of area by an
increment of radius. .
The quotient thus obtained is  That is,
Ax
Ay _ increment of y _ change in y
AJC increment of x change m x
An examination of the tables of numerical values in 3, 5, 6
shows that the quotient ^ depends upon the magnitude of Asc,
and that in each problem it was necessary to determine its limit
DEEIVATIVE 17
as A# approached zero. This limit is called the derivative of y
with respect to x, and is denoted by the symbol ~ We have then
fy v j. Ay v , change in v
~ = limit oi ~ = limit of . . a
ax Ax change in x
At present the student is to take the symbol ^ not as a
dx
fraction, but as one undivided symbol to represent the deriva
tive. Later we shall consider what meaning may be given to
dx and dy separately. At this stage the form ^ suggests simply
A (%>*Xs
the fraction ^, which has approached a definite limiting value,
The process of finding the derivative is called differentiation,
and we are said to differentiate y with respect to x. From the
definition and from the examples with which we began the book,
the process is seen to involve the following four steps :
1. The assumption at pleasure of Ax.
2. The determination of the corresponding Ay.
Aw
8. The division of Ay by Aa: to form *
Ax
4. The determination of the limit approached by the quotient
in step 3 as the increment assumed in step 1 approaches zero.
Let us apply this method to finding J* when y   Let x t
be a definite value of x, and y, the corresponding value of y.
x i
1. Take Ax = 7i.
Then, by (1), x^x^h.
2. Then ^l^J.;
11 h
whence, by (2), Ay
3. By division, T^ = . . 7
J Ax asf+AiS
18 DIEFEBENTIATION
4. By inspection it is evident that the limit, as h approaches
zero, is 5 which is the value of the derivative when x=x*.
xl
But x^ may be any value of x ; so we may drop the subscript 1 and
write as a general formula
dx 3?
EXERCISES
Pind from the definition the derivatives of the following ex
pressions :
6. yrf + i.
2
2. y = *+2a*+i. e y=2+*
3. y = a: 4 ~a 8 . 7. y = "+ \x*+ x  5.
i =i 8 = 3a;2 + 1 .
y ~~ x s y ~~ x
8. Differentiation of a polynomial. We shall now obtain for
mulas by means of which the derivative of a polynomial may be
written down quickly. In the first place we have the theorem :
The derivative of a polynomial is the sum of the derivatives of
its separate terms.
This follows from the definition of a derivative if we reflect
that the change in a polynomial is the sum of the changes in its
terms. A more formal proof will be given later.
We have then to consider the terms of a polynomial, which
have in general the form #af. Since we wish to have general
formulas, we shall omit the subscript 1 in denoting the first
values of x and y. We have then the theorem:
If y =s ax*) where n is a positive integer and a is a constant, then
(1)
dx ^ '
To prove this, apply the method of 7 :
1. Take Aa?=A;
whence jc a = x + h.
POLYNOMIAL 19
2. Then y 3 =ax2 = a(z + A)";
whence Ay == a (x + A)" are"
.4
3. By division, ^ = a(nx^ l + n ^ n ~ 1 ^ tf'h + . . . + A"" 1 )
ZA3/ j >
4. By inspection, the limit approached by > as Ji approaches
zero, is seen to be anx n ~ l .
Therefore ~ = anx n ~\ as was to be proved.
dx
The polynomial may also have a term of the form ax. This
is only a special case of (1) with w = l, but for clearness we
say explicitly:
If y = ax, where a is a constant, then
 (2)
dx
Finally, a polynomial may have a constant term. c. For this
we have the theorem:
If y = G, where c is a constant, then
f^O. (3)
ax
The proof of this is that as c is constant, A<? is always zero,
no matter what the value of A is. Hence
and therefore = 0.
ax
As an example of the use of the theorems, consider
y
We write at once
^
ax
20 DIFFERENTIATION
EXERCISES
Find the derivative of each of the following polynomials :
1. 3.2 + a 3. 6. x 1 + 7 x s + 21 8  14 as
2. o; 8 +2a; + l. 7. x* x* + 4a  1
3. o: 4 + 4a5 8 +6a; 2 +4a; + l. 8. 3
4. x 6 + a: 4 +2a; 2 +3. 9. aa
5. a; 6 4a: 4 + a: 2 4a; 10. a + bx z + ca; 4 + ex 6 .
i
9. Sign of the derivative. If ~ is positive, an increase in the
dx , dy .
value of x causes an increase in the value of y. If ~ is negative,
dx
an increase in the value of x causes a decrease in the value of y.
To prove this theorem, let us consider that jj is positive.
Then, since ~ is the limit of > it follows that is positive
dx A A
for sufficiently small values of Aa;; that is, if A# is assumed
positive, ky is also positive, and therefore an increase of x
causes an increase of y. Similarly, if j is negative, it follows
Aw
that is negative for sufficiently small values of Aa: ; that is,
if Arc is positive, A?/ must be negative, so that an increase of x
causes a decrease of y.
In applying this theorem it is necessary to determine the
sign of a derivative. In case the derivative is a polynomial, this
may be conveniently done by breaking it up into factors and
considering the sign of each factor. It is obvious that a factor
of the form x a is positive when x is greater than a, and
negative when x is less than a.
Suppose, then, we wish to determine the sign of
There are three factors to consider, and three numbers are im
portant ; namely, those which make one of the factors equal to
zero. These numbers arranged in order of size are 3, 1, and 6.
We have the four cases :
1. x< 3. All factors are negative and the product is
Dative.
VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION 21
2. 3 < x < 1, The first factor is positive and the others
are negative. Therefore the product is positive.
3. 1 < x < 6. The first two factors are positive and the last
is negative. Therefore the product is negative.
4. x > 6. All factors are positive and the product is positive.
As an example of the use of the theorem, suppose we have
# = X s  3; y*Q x + 27,
and ask for what values of x an increase in y will cause an
increase in y. We form the derivative and factor it. Thus,
^==3a a 6a39==3(a: + r)(a;3).
//*
Proceeding as above, we have the three cases:
1. x< 1. ^ is positive, and an increase in x therefore
dx
increases y. _
2. 1 < x < 3. ^ is negative, and therefore an increase in x
, dx
decreases y. _
3. a; > 3. ^ is positive, and therefore an increase in x in
creases y.
These results may be checked by substituting values of x in
the derivative.
EXERCISES
Pind for what values of x each of the following expressions will
increase if x is increased, and for what values of x they will decrease
if x is increased :
1. a! > 4aj + 6. 6.
2. 3a a +10a; + 7. 7. x a  x* 5x + 5
3. l + Ssca: 2 . 8. 1 + 6x +12a: 2 + 8oj 8 .
4. 7_3a._3a; 2 9. 6 + 60; + 6a a  2 3  3
5. 2 je 8 +3a; a  12 + 17. 10. 12  12a  6a; 2 + 4a; 8 +
10. Velocity and acceleration (continued). The method by
which the speed of a body was determined in 4 was in reality
a method of differentiation, and the speed was the derivative of
the distance with respect to the time. In that discussion, how
ever, we SQ arranged each problem that the result was positive
22 DIFFERENTIATION
and gave a numerical measure (feet per second, miles per hour,
etc.) for the rate at which the body was moving. Since we may
now expect, on occasion, negative signs, we will replace the word
speed by the word velocity, which we denote by the letter v.
In accordance with the previous work, we have
da , N
* a)
The distinction between speed and velocity, as we use the
words, is simply one of algebraic sign. The speed is the numer
ical measure of the velocity and is always positive, but the
velocity may be either positive or negative.
From 9 the velocity is positive when the body so moves that
s increases with the time. This happens when the body moves in
the direction in which s is measured. On the other hand, the
velocity is negative when the body so moves that s decreases
with the time. This happens when the body moves in the direc
tion opposite to that in which s is measured.
For example, suppose a body moves from A to B (Fig. 1), a
distance of 100 mi., and let P be the position of the body at a
time t, and let us assume that we know that AP = 4 1. If we
measure s from A, we have
ds
whence v =  = 4.
dt
On the other hand, if we measure s from J5, we have
whence v  = 4.
dt
"We will now define acceleration by the formula
dv
*=w
in full accord with 5 ; or, since v is found by differentiating s,
we may write
VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION 23
where the symbol on the right indicates that * is to be differ
entiated twice in succession. The result is called a second
derivative,
A positive acceleration means that the velocity is increasing,
but it must be remembered that the word increase is used in
the algebraic sense. Thus, if a number changes from 8 to
5, it algebraically increases, although numerically it decreases.
Hence, if a negative velocity is increased, the speed is less. Simi
larly, if the acceleration is negative, the velocity is decreasing,
but if the velocity is negative, that means an increasing speed.
There are four cases of combinations of signs which may
occur :
1. v positive, a positive. The body is moving in the direction
in which s is measured and with increasing speed.
2. v positive, a negative. The body is moving in the direction
in which s is measured and with decreasing speed.
8. v negative, a positive. The body is moving in the direction
opposite to that in which s is measured and with decreasing
speed.
4. v negative, a negative. The body is moving in the direc
tion opposite to that in which 8 is measured and with increasing
As an example, suppose a body thrown vertically into the air
with a velocity of 96 ft. per second. From physics, if s is meas
ured up from the earth, we have
From this equation we compute
v = 96  32 t,
When t< 3, v is positive and a is negative. The body is going
up with decreasing speed. When t > 3, v is negative and a is
negative. The body is coming down with increasing speed.
On the other hand, suppose a body is thrown down from a
height with a velocity of 96 ft. per second. Then, if 8 is measured
24 DIFFERENTIATION
down from the point from which the body is thrown, we have,
from physics, 8 = Wt+lQt*,
from which we compute
v = 96 + 32 1,
= 32.
Here v is always positive and a is always positive. There
fore the hody is always going down (until it strikes) with an
increasing speed.
EXERCISES
In the following examples find the expression for the velocity
and determine when the body is moving in the direction in which
s is measured and when in the opposite direction .
1. s = t* 3t + 6. 3. s = t* Qt* + 24* + 3.
2. s = 10*  tf 4. 's = 8 + 12*  6i 2 + < 8 .
5. s = 25 4 
In the following examples find the expressions for the velocity
and the acceleration, and determine the periods of time during which
the velocity is increasing and those during which it is decreasing .
6. s = 3z54i + 4 8. s = %t* 2 2
7. s = 1 + 5t  #. 9. s = t*  5t* + St + 1.
10. s = 1 + 4 + 2t* t 8 .
11. Rate of change (continued). In 6 .we have solved a
problem in which we are finally led to find the rate of increase
of the area of a circle with respect to its radius. This problem
is typical of a good many others.
Let x be an independent variable and y a function of x.
A change Aa; made in x causes a change Ay in y. The fraction
compares the change in y with the change in x. For exam
ple, if Aa; = .001, and Ay = .009061, then we may say that the
change in y is at the average rate of ' = 9.061 per unit
change in x. This does not mean that a unit change in a? would
actually make a change of 9.061 units in y, any more than the
RATE OF CHANGE
25
statement that an automobile is moving at the rate of 40 mi. an
hour means that it actually goes 40 mi. in an hour's time.
The fraction then gives a measure for the average rate at
which y is changing compared with the change in x. But this
measure depends upon the value of A#, as has been shown in
the numerical calculations of 6. To obtain a measure of the
instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x which shall
not depend upon the magnitude of A#, we must take the limit
of ~ t as we did in G.
Ax
We have, therefore, the following definition :
Tlie derivative j measures the rate of change ofy with respect to a\
ax
Another way of putting the same thing is to say that if ^
has the value m, then y is changing m times as fast as x.
Still another way of expressing the same idea is to say that
the rate of change of y with respect to x is defined as meaning
the limit of the ratio of a small change
in y to a small change in x.
We will illustrate the above general
discussion, and at the same time show
how it may be practically applied, by the
following example, which we will first
solve arithmetically and then by calculus.
Suppose we have a vessel in the shape of
a cone (Fig 4) of radius 3 in. and altitude
9 in. into which water is being poured at
the rate of 100 cu. in. per second. Re
quired the rate at which the depth of the
water is increasing when the depth is 6 in.
From similar triangles in the figure, if h is the depth of the
water and r the radius of its surface, r . If Fis the volume
of water, w , . i , ,^
FlG. 4
We are asked to find the rate at which the depth is increasing
when h is C in. Let us call that depth
so that 7^= 6. Then
26 DIFFERENTIATION
y = 8 TT. Now we will increase \ by successive small amounts
and see how great an increase in V^ is necessary to cause that
change in \ ; that is, how much water must be poured in to raise
the depth by that amount. The calculation may be tabulated as
follows .
A h AF AT
A /i
.1 .407 IT 4 07 ir
01 04007 TT 4.007 v
.001 0040007 TT 4.0007 TT
The limit of the numbers in the last column is evidently 4 TT.
Therefore the volume is increasing 4 IT times as fast as the
depth. But, by hypothesis, the volume is increasing at the rate
of 100 cu. in. per second, so that the depth is increasing at the
rate of  = 7.96 in. per second.
47T
We have solved the problem by arithmetic to exhibit again
the meaning of the derivative. The solution by calculus is much
quicker. We begin by finding
dV 1 , 3
aTe**'
This is the general expression for the rate of change of V
with respect to A, or, in other words, it tells us that V is instan
taneously increasing \ rf times as fast as li for any given A.
Therefore, when A = 6, V is increasing 4 TT times as fast as A,
and as V is increasing at the rate of 100 cu. m. per second, A is
increasing at the rate of  = 7.96 in. per second.
4 7T
EXERCISES
1. An icicle, which is melting, is always in the form of a right
circular cone of which the vertical angle is 60 Find the rate of
change of the volume of the icicle with respect to its length.
2. A series of right sections is made in a right circular cone of
which the vertical angle is 90 How fast will the areas of the sec
tions be increasing if the cutting plane recedes from the vertex at
the rate of 3 ft. per second ?
GRAPHS 27
3. A solution is being poured into a conical filter at the rate of
5 cc per second and is running out at the rate of 1 ce. per second
The radius of the top of the filter is 10 cm. and the depth of the
filter is 30 cm Find the rate at which the level of the solution is
rising in the filter when it is one fourth of the way* to the top.
4. A peg in the form of a right circular cone of which the ver
tical angle is 60 is being driven into the sand at the rate of 1 m.
per second, the axis of the cone being perpendicular to the surface
of the sand, which is a plane. How fast is the lateral surface of the
peg disappearing in the sand when the vertex of the peg is 5 in.
below the surface of the sand?
5. A trough is in the form of a right prism with its ends equi
lateral triangles placed vertically The length of the trough is 10 ft
It contains water which leaks out at the rate of cu ft per minute.
Find the rate, in inches per minute, at which the level of the water
is sinking in the trough when the depth is 2 ft.
6. A trough is 10 ft. long, and its cross section, which is vertical,
is a regular trapezoid with its top side 4ft. in length, its bottom
side 2 ft , and its altitude 5 ft. It contains water to the depth of
3 ft , and water is running in so that the depth is increasing at the
rate of 2 ft. per second. How fast is the water running in ?
7. A balloon is in the form of a right circular cone with a hemi
spherical top. The radius of the largest cross section is equal to
the altitude of the cone. The shape and proportions of the balloon
are assumed to be unaltered as the balloon is inflated. Find the
rate of increase of the volume with respect to the total height of
the balloon.
8. A spherical shell of ice surrounds a spherical iron ball concen
tric with it. The radius of the iron ball is 6 in. As the ice melts,
how fast is the mass of the ice decreasing with respect to its thickness ?
12. Graphs. The relation between a variable x and a function
y may be pictured to the eye by a graph. It is expected that
students will have acquired some knowledge of the graph in
the study of algebra, and the following brief discussion is given
for a review.
Take two lines OX and 07 (Fig. 5), intersecting at right
angles at 0, which is called the origin of codrdinates. The line
called the axis of as, and the line 0rthe axis of y ; together
28 DIFFERENTIATION
they are called the coordinate axes, or axes of reference. On OX
we lay off a distance OM equal to any given value of x, measur
ing to the right if x is positive and to the left if x is negative.
From M we erect a perpendicular MP, equal in length to the
value of y, measured up if y is positive and down if y is negative.
The point P thus determmed is said to have the coordinates
x and y and is denoted by (x, y). It follows that the numerical
value of x measures the distance Y
of the point P from OY, and the
numerical value of y measures the
distance of P from OX. The coor
dinate x is called the abscissa, and
the coordinate y the ordinate. It is p
evident that any pair of coordinates
(x, y) fix a single point P, and that
any point P has a single pair of M ^
coordinates. The point P is said to _, g
be plotted when its position is fixed
111 this way, and the plotting is conveniently carried out on
paper ruled for that purpose into squares.
If y is a function of x, values of x may be assumed at pleasure
and the corresponding values of y computed. Then each pair of
values (x, y) may be plotted and a series of points found. The
locus of these points is a curve called the graph of the function.
It may happen that the locus consists of distinct portions not
connected in the graph. In this case it is still customary to say
that these portions together form a single curve.
For example, let  ... _
r y~bz ar. (1)
We assume values of x and compute values of y. The results
are exhibited in the following table :
i o l 2 8 4 6 ' o
2/60 4 6 6 4 00
These points are plotted and connected by a Smooth curve*
giving the result shown in Fig. 6. This curve should have the
GEAPHS 29
property that the coordinates of any point on it satisfy equa
tion (1) and that any point whose coordinates satisfy (1) lies
on the curve. It is called the graph both of the function y and
of the equation (1), and equation (1) is called the equation of
the curve.
Of course we are absolutely sure of only those points whose
coordinates we have actually computed. If greater accuracy is
desired, more points must be found y
by assuming fractional values of x.
For instance, there is doubt as to the 7 .
shape of the curve between the points 6 / \
(2, 6) and (3, C). We take, therefore, 4 ' >
#=2^ and find / = 6. This gives 3 (
us another point to aid us in draw 2
ing the graph. Later, by use of the 1
calculus, we can show that this last 1 0^1 2 8 4 5
point is really the highest point of " 2
the curve. s
The curve (Fig. 6) gives us a ~ 4
graphical representation of the way "^
in which y varies with x. We see, for
example, that when x varies from 1
to 2, y is increasing; that when x
varies from 3 to 6, y is decreasing; and that at some point
between (2, 6) and (3, 6), not yet exactly determined, y has its
largest value.
It is also evident that the steepness of the curve indicates in
some way the rate at which y is increasing with respect to x.
For example, when # = 1, an increase of 1 unit in x causes an
increase of 6 units in y ; while when a =1, an increase of 1 unit
in x causes an increase of only 2 units m y. The curve is
therefore steeper when x = 1 than it is when x = 1.
Now we have seen that the derivative  measures the rate
ax
of change of y with respect to x. Hence we expect the derivative
to be connected in some way with the steepness of the curve.
We shaft tihmwfnro /iianr.. *Hr. ^ QTL m gs \%. and" 15.
USc Lib B'lore Q
515N22 ! 13838
in IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIII ~
30 DIFFERENTIATION
1 EXERCISES
Plot the graphs of the following equations :
1. y = 2x 3. 4. ?/ = a; 2 5a; + 6. 7. y = zc 8 .
2. y = 2x + 4. 5. y = a; 2 + 4 a; + 8 8. y = x* 4aj a
3. y 5. 6. y 9 3 a; a; 2 . 9. j/ = a: 8 1.
10. What is the effect on the graph of y mx + 3 if different
values are assigned to m ? How are the graphs related ? What
does this indicate as to the meaning of m ?
11. What is the effect on the graph of y = 2x + J if different
values are assigned to b ? What is the meaning of & ?
12. Show by similar triangles that y = mx is always a straight
line passing through 0.
13. By the use of Exs. 11 and 12 show that y = mx + b is always
a straight line
13. Real roots of an equation. It is evident that the real roots
of the equation f(x) determine points on the axis of x at
which the curve y=f(x) crosses or touches that axis. More
over, if x 1 and 2 ( t <* 2 ) are two values of x such that f(x^)
and/( 2 ) are of opposite algebraic sign, the graph is on one side
of the axis when x = x i , and on the other side when ic = a; 2 .
Therefore it must have crossed the axis an odd number of times
between the points x = z l and x = x z . Of course it may have
touched the axis at any number of intermediate points. Now, if
f(x) has a factor of the form (x a) 1 , the curve y =/(#) crosses
the axis of x at the point x = a when k is odd, and touches the
axis of x when k is even. In each case the equation /(#) = is
said to have Jc equal roots, x a. Since, then, a point of crossing
corresponds to an odd number of equal roots of an equation, and a
point of touching corresponds to an even number of equal roots,
it follows that the equation f(x) = has an odd number of real
roots between x^ and x z if /(#,) and / (:c 2 ) have opposite signs.
The above gives a ready means of locating the real roots of
an equation in the form /(z) = 0, for we have only to find two
values of x, as x l and a? 2 , for which f(x) has different signs. We
then know that the equation has an odd number of real roots
STEAIGHT LINE 31
between these values, and the nearer together x l and # 2 , the
more nearly do we know the values of the intermediate roots.
In locating the roots in this manner it is not necessary to con
struct the corresponding graph, though it may be helpful.
Ex. Find a real root of the equation X s + 2 x 17 = 0, accurate to two
decimal places.
Denoting x 3 + 2 x 17 by f(x) and assigning successive integial values
to x, we find/(2) = 5 and/(3) = 16 Hence there is a leal root of the
equation between 2 and 3.
We now assign values to x between 2 and 3, at intervals of one tenth,
as 2 1, 2 2, 2.3, etc., and we begin with the values nearei 2; since /(2) is
nearer zeio than is/(3). Proceeding in this way we find jf (2.3) = 233
and/(2 4) = 1.624 , hence the root is between 2.3 and 2.4.
Now, assigning values to a? between 2 3 and 2.4 at intervals of one hun
diedth, we find /(2.31) =  .054 and /(2.32) = 127, hence the root as
between 2 31 and 2.32.
To determine the last decimal place accurately, we let x = 2.315 and
find /(2.315) = .037. Hence the root is between 2 31 and 2 315 and is
2.31, accurate to two decimal places
If /(2 315) had been negative, we should have known the root to be
between 2 315 and 2.32 and to be 2 32, accurate to two decimal places.
EXERCISES
Find the real roots, accurate to two decimal places, of the follow
ing equations :
1. a 8 +2a;6 = 0. 4. j* 4a 8 + 4 = 0.
2. a 8 + o;+ll = 5. a: 8  3ic 2 + 60:  11 = 0.
3. *lla: + 6 = 0. 6.
14. Slope of a straight line. Let LK (Figs. 7 and 8) be any
straight line not parallel to OX GS OY, and let J? (a^, y^ and
P 2 (# 2 , y 3 ) be any two points on it. If we imagine a point to
move on the line from P 1 to P^ the increment of x is # 2 x and
the increment of y is y^y^ We shall define the slope as the
ratio of the increment ofy to the increment ofx and denote it by m.
We have then, by definition,
82
DIFFERENTIATION
A geometric interpretation of the slope is easily given. For
if we draw through JFJ a line parallel to OJf, and through J^ a
line parallel to OF, and call R the intersection of these lines,
then x z x l = P 1 E and y^y^RP^ Also, if $ is the angle
which the line makes with OX measured as in the figure, then
: tan 0. C )
It is clear from the figures as well as from formula (2) that
the value of m is independent of the two points chosen to define
it, provided only that these are on the given line. We may there
fore always choose the two points so that y^y^ is positive.
EIG. 7
FIG. 8
Then if the line runs up to the right, as in Fig. 7, # 2 a^ is
positive and the slope is positive. If the line runs down to the
right, as in Fig. 8, x z o^ is negative and m is negative. There
fore the algebraic sign of m determines the general direction in
which the line runs, while the magnitude of m determines the
steepness of the line.
Formula (1) may be used to obtain the equation of the line.
Let m be given a fixed value and the point I^(x^ y^) be held
fixed, but let Ji^ be allowed to wander over the line, taking on,
therefore, variable coordinates (a?, y). Equation (1) may then
be written yy^m(x ^). (3)
This is the equation of a line through a fixed point (a^, y^
with a fixed slope m, since it is satisfied by the coordinates of
any point on the line and by those of no other point.
STRAIGHT LINE 33
In particular, P^ (x^ y^) may be taken as the point with coor
dinates (0, i) in which the line cuts OY. Then equation (3)
becomes y = mx + l. (4)
Since any straight line not parallel to OX or to OY intersects
OY somewhere and has a definite slope, the equation of any
such line may be written in the form (4).
It remains to examine lines parallel either to OX or to OF. If
the line is parallel to OX, we have no triangle as in Figs. 7 and 8,
but the numerator of the fraction m (1) is zero, and we there
fore say such a line has the slope 0. Its equation is of the form
y = , (5)
since it consists of all points for which this equation is true.
If the line is parallel to OY, again we have no triangle as in
Figs. 7 and 8, but the denominator of the fraction in (1) is zero,
and m accordance with established usage we say that the slope of
the line is infinite, or that m=oo. This means that as the position
of the line approaches parallelism
with OY the value of the fraction
(1) increases without limit. The
equation of such a line is
x = a. (6)
Finally we notice that any equa
tion of the form
^ + 5y + (7=0 (7)
always represents a straight line. This follows from the fact that
the equation may be written either as (4), (5), or (6).
Tbe line (7) may be plotted by locating two points and
drawing a straight line through them. Its slope may be found
by writing the equation in the form (4) when possible. The
coefficient of x is then the slope.
If two lines are parallel they make equal angles with OX.
Therefore, if m l and m z are the slopes of the lines, we have,
from (2), m z =m,. (8)
If two lines are perpendicular and make angles <^ and ^> s
respectively with OX, it is evident from Fig. 9 that < a = 90+ ^ ;
34 DIFFERENTIATION
whence tan $ == ~ cot $ = Hence, if m^ and m a are th
slopes of the lines, we have
It is easy to show, conversely, that if equation (8) is satis
fied by two lines, they are parallel, and that if equation (9) i
satisfied, they are perpendicular. Therefore equations (8) am
(9) are the conditions for parallelism and perpendiculant
respectively.
Ex. 1. Find the equation of a straight line passing through the pom
(1, 2) and parallel to the straight line determined by the two points (4, 2
and (2,  3)
By (1) the slope of the line determined by the two points (4, 2) am
_ g _ 2 5
(2, 3) is =  Therefore, by (3), the equation of the requiiei
line is n R / i\
y  2 = i (a;  1),
which i educes to x 2y 1 = 0.
Ex. 2. Find the equation of a straight line through the point (2, 3
and perpendicular to the line 2 a: 3 ?/ + 7 =
The equation of the given straight line may be written in the forn
y = 3 x + , which is form (4). Therefore m = . Accordingly, by (0)
the slope of the required line is By (3) the equation of the requim
line is
y + 3 = (a;2),
which reduces to 3 x + 2 y  0.
Ex. 3. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the poinl
( 3, 3) and the point of intersection of the two lines 2 a? y 3 = anr
The coordinates of the point of intersection, of the two given lines musl
satisfy the equation of each line. Therefore the codrdinates of the poinl
of intersection are found by solving the two equations simultaneously,
The result is (1,  1)
We now have the problem to pass a straight line through the points
( 3, 3) and (1,  1). By (1) the slope of the required line is J* + 1 =  1.
Therefore, by (3), the equation of the line is
which reduces to x + y = 0.
STRAIGHT LINE 35
EXERCISES
1. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through
(2,  3) with the slope 3
2. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through
( 3, 1) with the slope $
3. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the
points (1, 4) and (f , ).
4. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the
points (2, 3) and ( 3,  3).
5. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the
point (2, 2) and making an angle of 60 with OX.
6. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the
point Q, ) and making an angle of 135 with OX.
^7. Find the equation of the straight hue passing through the
point ( 2, 3) and parallel to the line x + 2 y + 1 = 0.
8. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the
point ( 2, 3) and perpendicular to the line 3 a; + 4 ?/ 12 =0.
9. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the
point (, ) and parallel to the straight line determined by the two
points (f, ) and (J,  )
10. Find the equation of the straight line passing through
(i ~ i) an( ^ perpendicular to the straight line determined by the
points (2, 1) and ( 3, 5).
11. If /? is the angle between two straight lines which make angles
#j and < 2 (<j!> 2 > <j) respectively with OX, prove from a diagram similar
to Fig 9 that /3 = <f> 2 < r If tan t = m^ and tan tj> z = w a , prove by
trigonometry that
tan ft = . f l
1 + m 2 Wj
12. Find the angle between the lines # 2?/fl=;0 and
13. Find the angle between the lines 2x 4^ + 5 = and
y 6= 0.
14. Find the angle between the lines y = Sas + 4 and a?H3yf7=0.
15. The vertex of a right angle is at (2, 4) and one of its sides
passes through the point ( 2, 2). Find the equation of the other side.
16. Find the foot of the perpendicular from the origin to the line
36 DIFFERENTIATION
15. Slope of a curve. Let An (Fig. 10) be any curve serving
as the graphical representation of a function of a\ Let 1\ be any
point on the curve with coordinates y; l = OM^ t //,= yl/j/J. TU\o
l^xM^ and draw the perpendicular J/ a /j, fixing the point / a '
on the curve with the coor
M in Q^OQ *T* (iT(/T Q/ " 1\/T T* * s O
LiiixajUco ^jj"""" ''' 2* ,yjj """ *'*j*j" jr ^r>
Draw ^J? parallel to OX. /R
Then
PR W.M".. = ArK. p
V" K
7jj J5 = Jlf.,Pa M, 1 1 = A?/, ^
\ a , r>t> /
and
Ax
* /
Draw the straight line / ^ ^
j, prolonging it to form a JT IU . to
secant J? Then, by 14, ^ is the slope of the secant J>8, and
may be called the average slope of tho curve between the points
JJ and P v
To obtain a number which may be used for tho actual slope
of the curve at the point / it is necessary to uso tho limit
process (with which the student should now bo familiar), by
which we allow kx to become smaller and smaller and the point
P z to approach P l along the curve. Tho result is tho derivative
of y with respect to #, and we have tho following result :
The slope of a curve at any point u yiven, ly the value of tfo
derivative ^ at that point.
dx f
As this limit process takes place, tho point / approaching t!u
point Py it appears from the ligure thai, the secant 7A' approaches
a limiting position 1{T. The line 1\T is called a tanymt to 1,lu>
curve, a tangent Iriny then by deflnitwn the Una approached an tt
limit by a secant throuc/h two point* of the curve a tht* two point*
approach coincidence. It follows that tho slope* of tho tangent is
the limit of the slope of the secant, Therefore,
slope of a curve at any point in the mme an the dope of tfta
*angent at that point,
SLOPE OF A CUEVE 37
From this and 9 AVO may at once deduce the theorem :
If the derivative is positive, the curve runs up to the right.
If the derivative is negative, the curve runs down to the right. Jf
the derivative is zero, the tangent to the curve is parallel to OX.
If the derivative is infinite, the tangent to the curve is perpendic
ular to OX.
dif
The values of x which make ~~ zero or infinite are of par
dx
ticular interest m the plotting of a curve. If the derivative
changes its sign at such a point, the curve will change its cliiec
tion from down to up or from up to down. Such a point will
be called a turningpoint. If y is an algebraic polynomial, its
derivative cannot be infinite; so we shall be concerned in this
chapter only with turningpoints for which
^ = 0.
Ax
They are illustrated m the two following examples:
Ex. 1. Consider equation (1) of 12,
y = 5 x a; 8 .
Plere ^ = 5  2 a: = 2^
dx \2
Equating ~ to zero and solving, we have x =  as a possible turning
point It is evident that when x< , is positive, and when #> ~ is
2 dx 2 dx
negative Therefoie x = \ corresponds to a turningpoint of the curve at
which the lattei changes its direction from up to down It may be called
a high point of the cmve
Ex. 2. Consider
Here ^ = (* a  2*  3) = (a:  3) (a + 1).
(IX o o
Equating f ~ to zero and solving, we have x = 1 and x = 3 as possible
dv
turningpoints From the factored form of ^, and reasoning as in 9,
we see that when y < 1, ~ is positive ; when 1< c < 8, ^r is negative ;
38
DIFFERENTIATION
when x > 3, is positive. Therefore both x 1 and x = 3 give turmng
dx
points, the former giving a high point, and the latter a low point
Substituting these values of x in the equa
tion of the curve, we find the high point to
be ( lj 4f ) and the low point to be (3, ).
The graph is shown in Fig 11
It is to be noticed that the solu
tions of the equation do not
^ dx
always give turningpoints as illus
trated in the next example.
Ex. 3. Consider
Here
dx
= x z  6 x + 9 = (x 3) 2
Solving = 0, we have x = 3 ; but since the derivative is a perfect
dx
square, it is never negative Therefore x = 3 does not give a turningpoint,
although when x = 3 the tangent to the curve is
parallel to OX. The curve is shown in Fig. 12.
The equation of the tangent to a curve
at a point (a^, y x ) is easily written down
We let ( ^ ) represent the value of ^ at
VaaJ/! ,, . dx
the point (a^, y x ). Then m = f^j, and, n I, I X
from (3), 14, the equation of the tangent is
Ex. 4. Find the equation of the tangent at (1, 1) to the curve
We have
and
dx
Therefore the equation of the tangent is
wljich reduces to
1 = 0.
SECOND DERIVATIVE
From (2), 14, it also follows that if $ is the angle which
the tangent at any point of a curve makes with OX, then
EXERCISES
Locate the turningpoints, and then plot the following curves :
1. 2/ = 3a a f4a: + 4. 4. 2/ = a 8  6 # a + 9 a; + 3.
2. ?/=3 + 3a!2a; a . 5. 2/ = (2o; 8 + 3a: 2 12a; 20)
3. 2/ = ce 8 3a: 2 j4. 6. ?/ = 2 + 9ce f 3a; a x*
' 7. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y 3 2x f a 2
at the point for which x = 2
8. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve 2/=l+3a: as 2 3a; 8
at the point for which x = 1.
9. Find the points on the curve y = a 8 + 3a: 2 3a; + 1 at which
the tangents to the curve have the slope 6
10. Find the equations of the tangents to the curve
y = x s + 2x*  x + 2
which make an angle 135 with OX
11. Find the equations of the tangents to the curve y =a5 8 fa; a 2x
which are perpendicular to the line 3: + 2y + 4 =
12. Find the angle of intersection of the tangents to the curve
y = oj 8 } as 2 2 at the points for which x = 1 and x = 1 respectively.
16. The second derivative. The derivative of the derivative
is called the second derivative and is indicated by the symbol
=(] or , We have met an illustration of this in the
ax \dx/ ax*
case of the acceleration. We wish to see now what the second
derivative means for the graph.
Since ~ is equal to the slope of the graph, we have
dx
d*y d , , ^
j& ^ = (slope).
dor dx
40 DIFFERENTIATION
From this and 9 we have the following theorem :
If the second derivative is positive, the slope is increasing as x
increases ; and if the second derivative is negative, the slope is de
creasing as x increases.
We may accordingly use the second derivative to distinguish
between the high turningpoints and the low turningpoints of
a curve, as follows:
If, when x a,  = and r is positive, it is evident that
/7 du
^ is increasing through zero ; hence, when x < a, ~ is nega
dx d <lr
tive, and when x > a, j is positive. The point for which x = a
Cu3s
is therefore a low turningpoint, by 9.
d'ii d^y
Similarly, if, when x = a, ^ and ~ is negative, it is
du
evident that & is decreasing through zero ; hence, when x < a,
j CbX J
Z is positive, and when x > a, ? is negative. The point for
dx dx
which x = a is therefore a high turningpoint of the curve, by 9.
These conclusions may be stated as follows:
If j and =* is positive at a point of a curve, that point
^ "^ " rlai fj^itl
is a low point of the curve. If J = and ~ is negative at a
CliK ClX
point of a curve, that point is a high point of the curve.
In addition to the second derivative, we may also have third,
d?u d^ti
fourth, and higher derivatives indicated by the symbols ,'{> '^
etc. These have no simple geometric meaning.
EXERCISES
Plot the following curves after determining tlieir high and low
points by the use of ^ and r :
dx dor
= 3a; 8 x 2 3. y = 7 18x 3a a H 4,r 8 ,
MAXIMA AND MINIMA 41
17. Maxima and minima. If f(a) is a value of /() which
is greater than the values obtained either by increasing or by
decreasing x by a small amount, /(ff) is called a maximum value
of f(p). If /() is a value of /(#) which is smaller than the
values of f(j) found either by increasing or by decreasing x by
a small amount, /(a) is called a minimum value of /(a?).
It is evident that if we place
and make the graph of this equation, a maximum value of /(of)
occurs at a high point of the curve and a minimum value at a
low point. From the previous sections we have, accordingly,
the following rule for finding maxima and minima:
To find the values of x which give maximum or minimum lvalues
of y, solve the equation
^ = 0.
dx
If x = a is a root of this equation, it must bo tested to see
whether it gives a maximum or minimum, and which. We have
two tests :
TEST I. If the sign of ^ changes from + to as x increases
Cv*&
through a, then & = a (jives a maximum value of y. If the sign of
~ changes from to + as x increases through a, tJien x = a gives
(K&
a minimum value of y.
H'U d^ii
TEST II. If x = a makes ^ = and ~~ netHttive. then # = #
dx do* , ,
/y y / ff *aj
gives a maximum value of y, Jf x a mal(e ~ = and ~~.
ty^fj cfj
positive, then x a gives a minimum value of y.
Either of these tests may be applied according to convenience,
It may be noticed that Test I always works, while Test II fails
d\i
to give information if ^ = when x a. It is also frequently
CtJs
possible by the application of common sense to a problem to
determine whether the result is a maximum or minimum, and
neither of the formal tests need then be applied.
42 DIFFERENTIATION
Ex. 1. A rectangular box is to be formed by cutting a square from
each, corner of a rectangular piece of cardboard and bending the resulting
figure. The dimensions of the piece of cardboard being 20 in by 30 m.,
required the largest box which can be made.
Let x be the side of the square cut out. Then, if the cardboard is bent
along the dotted lines of Fig 13, the dimensions of the box are 30  2 x,
20 2 x, x. Let V be the volume of the box.
Then p = (20  2 a:) (30  2 *)
8Q&3D
7V
= 600  200 x + 12 a; 2 . "j
dx
fiy I  .  1 
Equating ___ to zero, we have
13
whence x = 25 5 = 3.9 or 12 7.
The result 12.7 is impossible, since that amount cannot be cut twice
fiom the side of 20 in The result 3.9 corresponds to a possible maximum,
and the tests are to be applied.
dV
To apply Test I we write in the factored form
dx
dV
when it appears that  changes from + to , as x increases through 3.9
ax
Hence x = 3.9 gives a maximum value of V.
d s V
To apply Test II we find  =  200 + 24 x and substitute x = 3.9.
dyr
The result is negative. Therefore x = 3.9 gives a maximum value of V.
The maximum value of V is 1056 + cu. in., found by substituting
x =s 3.9 in the equation for V.
Ex. 2. A piece of wood is in the form of a right circular cone, the
altitude and the radius of the base of which are each equal to 12 in. What
is the volume of the largest right circular cylinder that can be cut from
this piece of wood, the axis of the cylinder to coincide with the axis of
the cone ?
Let x be the radius of the base of the required cylinder, y its altitude,
and V its volume. Then
V= vx*y. (1)
We cannot, however, apply our method directly to this value of V, since
it involves two variables x and y. It is necessary to find a connection
MAXIMA AND MINIMA 43
between x and y and eliminate one of them. To do so, consider Fig. 14,
which is a cross section of cone and cylinder. From smiilai triangles we have
FE _AD t
EC DC'
that18 '
whence
y 12 x.
Substituting in (1), we have
whence
dV
dx
24 vx 8 irx*.
dV
Equating to zero and solving, we find
dx B
x = or 8. The value x = is evidently not a
solution of the problem, but x = 8 is a possible
solution.
Applying Test I, we find that as x increases through the value 8,
dx
changes its sign from + to . Applying Test II, we find that
24 ir 6 irx is negative when x = 8. Either test shows that x = 8
(IX
corresponds to a maximum value of V. To find V substitute x = 8 in the
expression for V. We have V = 256 ir cu. in.
EXERCISES
1. A piece of wire of length 20 in. is bent into a rectangle one
side of which is a:. Find the maximum, area.
2. A gardener has a certain length of wire fencing with which to
fence three sides of a rectangular plot of land, the fourth side being
made by a wall already constructed. Required the dimensions of
the plot which contains the maximum area.
3. A gardener is to lay out a flower bed in the form of a sector
of a circle. If he has 20 ft. of wire with which to inclose it, what
radius will he take for the circle to have his garden as large as
possible ?
4. In a given isosceles triangle of base 20 and altitude 10 a rec
tangle of base x is inscribed. Find the rectangle of maximum area.
6. A right circular cylinder with altitude 2 as is inscribed in a
sphere of radius a. Find the cylinder of maximum, volume,
44 DIFFEEENTIATION
6. A rectangular box with a square base and open at the top is
to be made out of a given amount of mateiial. If no allowance is
made for the thickness of the material or for waste in construction,
what are the dimensions of the largest box that can be made ?
7. A piece of wire 12 ft. in length is cut into six portions, two
of one length and four of another Each of the two former portions
is bent into the form of a square, and the corners of the two squares
are fastened together by the remaining portions of wire, so that the.
completed figure is a rectangular parallelepiped Find the lengths
into which the wire must be divided so as to produce a figure of
maximum volume
8. The strength of a rectangular beam, varies as the product oE
its breadth and the squaie of its depth Find the dimensions of the
strongest rectangular beam that can be cut from a circular cylindri
cal log of radius a inches
9. An isosceles triangle of constant perimeter is revolved about
its base to form a solid of revolution. What are the altitude and
the base of the triangle when the volume of the solid generated is
a maximum ?
10 The combined length and girth of a postal parcel is 60m.
Find the maximum volume (1) when the parcel is rectangular with
square cross section , (2) when it is cylindrical
11. A piece of galvanized iron 5 feet long and a feet wide is to be
bent into a Ushaped water drain I feet long. If we assume that the
cross section of the drain is exactly represented by a rectangle on
top of a semicircle, what must be the dimensions of the rectangle
and the semicircle in order that the drain may have the greatest
capacity (1) when the drain is closed on top 9 (2) when it is open
on top ?
12. A circular filter paper 10m. in diameter is folded into a
right circular cone. Find the height of the cone when it has the
greatest volume
18. Integration. It is often desirable to reverse the process of
differentiation. For example, if the velocity or the acceleration
of a moving body is given, we jftay wish to find the distance
traversed ; or if the slope of a curve is given, we may wish to
find the curve.
INTEGKATION 45
The inverse operation to differentiation is called integration,
and the result of the operation is called an integral. In the case
of a polynomial it may be performed by simply working the
formulas of differentiation backwards. Thus, if n is a positive
integer and ,
then
The first term of this formula is justified by the fact that if it
is differentiated, the result is exactly aa?. The second term is
justified by the fact that the derivative of a constant is zero.
The constant may have any value whatever and cannot be
determined by the process of integration. It is called the constant
of integration and can only be determined in a given problem by
special information given in the problem. The examples will
show how this is to be done.
Again, if
^ = ,
dx
then ;/ = ax + C. (2)
This is only a special case of (1) with n = 0.
Finally, if
= a Q r n + a^" l + + a n ^x + a n ,
ax
C8)
Ex. 1. The velocity v with which a body is moving along a straight
line AB (Fig. 15) is given by the equation
How far will the body move in the J'IG. 15
time from * = 2 to * = 4?
If when t = 2 the body is at P v and if when t = 4 it is at P B , we are
to find P,P S .
(IV
By hypothesis, j = 10 1 + 5.
Therefore s  B i* + 5 1 + C. (1)
46
DIFFERENTIATION
have first to determine C. If s la measured from P v it follows that
when t _ 2> s  o.
Therefore, substituting in (1), we have
= 8(2) 2 + 5 (2) + C;
whence C=42,
and (1) becomes s = 8 i 3 + 5 1  42. (2)
This is the distance of the body from P l at any time /. Accordingly, il>
remains for us to substitute t = 4 m (2) to find the loquiied distance 1\I\,
Thei e results _ 2 _ 42 _ 106>
If the velocity is in feet per second, the required distance is in foot.
Ex. 2. Required the curve the slope of which
at any point is twice the abscissa of the point.
By hypothesis, j = 2 x
CIX
Therefore y = JB* + C
(1)
Any curve whose equation can be derived
fiom (1) by giving C a definite value satisfies
the condition of the problem (Fig. 16) If it
is required that the curve should pass through
the point (2, 3), we have, from (1),
3 = 4 + <?;
whence C = 1,
and therefore the equation of the curve is
PICK 10
But if it is required that the curve should pass through ( 8, 10),
we have, from (1), 10 = 9 + C;
whence C = 1,
and the equation is y = 2 + 1
EXERCISES
In the following problems v is the velocity, in feet per second, of
a moving body at any time t
l. If v = 32 1 + 30, how far will the body move in the time from
AEEA 47
2. If v = 3 1* + 4 1 + 2, how far will the body move in the time
from t = 1 to t = 3 f
3. If v = 20 + 25, how far will the body move in the fourth
second ?
4. If v = t 2 2 1 + 4, how far will the body move in the fifth
and sixth seconds ?
5. If v 192 32 1, how far will the body move before v 9
6. A curve passes through the point (1, 1), and its slope at
any point (x,y) is 3 more than twice the abscissa of the point.
What is its equation ?
7. The slope of a curve at any point (aj, y) is Go; 2 + 2x 4, and
the curve passes through the point (0, 6) What is its equation ?
8. The slope of a curve at any point (x, y) is 4 3# jc 2 , and
the curve passes through the point ( 6, 1). What is its equation ?
9. A curve passes through the point (5, 2), and its slope at any
point (05, y) is one half the abscissa of the point What is its equation ?
10. A curve passes through the point ( 2, 4), and its slope at
any point (x, y) is a; 2 x + 1. What is its equation ?
19. Area. An important application of integration occurs in
the problem of finding an area bounded as follows :
Let US (Fig. 17) be any curve with the equation y =/(&), and
leitkED and BC be any two ordinates. It is required to find the
area bounded by the curve RS, y
the two ordinates J3D and J3C,
and the axis of x.
Take MP, any variable or
dinate between MD and J3<7,
and let us denote by A the
area EMPD bounded by the
curve, the axis of #, the fixed
ordinate J8I>, and the variable Q jj jf jy" B ^
ordinate MP.
jUlG J7
It is evident that as values
are assigned to a; =OJf, different positions of MP and correspond
ing values of A are determined. Hence A is a function of x for
dA
which we will find r
ax
48 DIFFERENTIATION
Take MN=Ax and draw the corresponding ordinate NQ.
Then the area MNQP=&A. If L is the length of the longest
ordinate of the curve between MP and NQ, and s is the length
of the shortest orduiate in the same region, it is evident that
s A# < Au4 < L Aa;,
for L&x is the area of a rectangle entirely surrounding AJ, and
is the area of a rectangle entirely included m A^t.
Dividing by A&, we have
. A.1 r
s < < i.
Aa;
As Aa; approaches zero, JVQ approaches coincidence with MP,
and hence * and L, which are always between NQ and MP,
approach coincidence with MP. Hence at the limit we have
~ = MP^ y =/(*). (1)
Therefore, by integrating,
A=F(x) + C, (2)
where F(x) is used simply as a symbol for any function whose
derivative is /(#)
We must now find C. Let OE = a. When MP coincides with
ED, the area is zero. That is, when
x = a, A = 0.
Substituting in (2), we have
whence C = F(a),
and therefore (2) becomes
^=^(00^(0). (8)
Finally, let us obtain the required area JSBCD. If OB ft, thin
will be obtained by placing x = b in (3). Therefore we have,
finally> JFta). (4)
AEEA 49
In solving problems the student is advised to begin with
formula (1) and follow the method of the text, as shown in
the following example:
Ex. Find the area bounded by tho axis of x, the curve y = ^x z , and the
ordmates x = 1 and x = 3.
In Fig 18, BE is the line x = l, CD is the line x = 3, and the required
area is the a.re&J3CDE Then, by (1),
~dx = S X *'
whence A ~ \ x 8 + C
' When a; = 1, A = 0, and therefore
whence C = J,
and A = J a: 3 %
Finally, when ^
x s=3,
EXERCISES
1. Find the area bounded by the curve y = 4 a 1 a; 2 , the axis of
x, and the lines x = 1 and a: = 3.
2. Find the area bounded by the curve y = s* + 8 a; + 18, the
axis of x, and the lines x = 6 and x = 2.
3. Find the area bounded by the curve y = 1C + 12 x x s , the
axis of x, and the lines x = 1 and a; = 2
4. Find the area bounded by the curve y + a; 2 9 = and the
axis of x. .
5. Find the area bounded by the axis of x and the curve
y = 2 x a; 2 .
6. Find the smaller of the two areas bounded by the curve
y = 5 x* x a , the axis of x, and the line x = 1.
7. Find the area bounded by the axis of x, the axis of y, and the
curve Ayx 3 605 + 9.
8. Find the area bounded by the curve y = x*~ 2 3 <taj + 8
and the axis of x.
50 DIFFERENTIATION
9. If A denotes the area bounded by the axis of y, the curve
a; =/(y), a fixed line y ~ b, and any variable line parallel to OX,
prove that 7
10. If A denotes an area bounded above by the curve //=/(*")>
below by the curve y = F(x), at the left by the fixed line x = (t,
and at the right by a variable ordinate, prove that
20. Differentials. The derivative has been denned as the limit
of and has been denoted by the symbol ~. This symbol
Aa? clx
is in the fractional form to suggest that it is the limit of a
fraction, but thus far we have made no attempt to treat it as
a fraction.
It is, however, desirable in many cases to treat the derivative
as a fraction and to consider dx and dy as separate quantities.
To do this it is necessary to define dx and dy in such a manner
that their quotient shall be the derivative. We shall begin by
defining dx, when x is the independent variable; that is, the
variable whose values can be assumed independently of any oilier
quantity.
We shall call dxth& differential of x and define it as a change
in x which may have any magnitude, but which is generally
regarded as small and may be made to approach aero as a
limit. In other words, the differential of the independent variable
x is identical with the increment of x ; that is,
dx sss A*. (1)
After dx has been defined, it is necessary to define dy so
that its quotient by dx is the derivative. Therefore, if y =/(V)
and j =/'(;), we have
dx dy
t
That is, the differential of the function y is equal to the derivative
times the differential of the independent variable x.
DIFFERENTIALS 51
In equation (2) the derivative appears as the coefficient of dx.
For this reason it is sometimes called the diff&renticd coefficient.
It is important to notice the distinction between dy and Ay.
The diff erential dy is not the limit of the increment A#, since both
dy and ky have the same limit, zero. Neither is Ay equal to a very
small increment A#, since it generally differs in value from Ay.
It is true, however, that when dy and Ay both become small, they
differ by a quantity which is small compared with each of them.
These statements may best be under
stood from the following examples :
Ex. 1. Let A be the area of a square with
the side x so that
If a; is increased by Ao; = dx, A is increased
by A.4, where
A4 = (a? + dxf  x* = 2 x dx + (dx) a . & ^
Now, by (2), dA = 2zdx, FNJ. ig
so that A.I and dA differ by (dx)' 2
Referring to Fig 19,. we see that dA is represented by the rectangles (1)
and (2), while A.4 is represented by the rectangles (1) and (2) together
with the square (3) , and it is obvious from the figuie that the square (8)
is very small compared with the rectangles (1) and (2), provided djc is
taken small. For example, if x = 5 and dx = .001, the rectangles (1)
and (2) have together the area 2 z die = .01 and the square (3) has the
area .000001.
Ex. 2. Let s  16 t s ,
where $ is the distance traversed by a moving body in the time t
If t is increased by Al = dt, we have
As = 10 (t + dt)*  1C &  32 tdi + 16 (dt}\
and, from (2), ds = 32 1 dt ;
so that As and ds differ by 16 (dt) z The terra 16 (rf/) a is very small com
pared with the term BZtdt, if dt is small. For example, if f = 4 and
dt  .001, then 32 tdt = ,128, while 16 (eft) 2 .000016
In this problem As is the actual distance traversed in the time dt, and
da is the distance which would have been traversed if the body had moved
throughout the time dt with the same velocity which it had at the begin
ning of the time dt.
52
DIFFERENTIATION
In general, if y=f(%) and we make a graphical representa
tion, we may have two cases as shown in Figs. 20 and 21.
In each figure, WN = PR &v = dx and RQ=ky, since HQ
is the total change in y caused by a change of dx = M.N in x.
If PT is the tangent to the curve at P, then, by 15,
so that, by (2), dy = (tan HPT) (P7?) = R T.
R
M
N
C M
N
FIG. 20
PIG 21
In Fig. 20, dy < A#, and in Fig. 21 dy >&y; but in each case
the difference between dy and Ay is represented m magnitude
by the length of QT.
This shows that RQ = Ay is the change in y as the point JP is
supposed to move along the curve /=/(^') while RT dy is
the change in the value of y as the point P is supposed to move
along the tangent to that curve. Now, as a very small arc docs
not deviate much from its tangent, it is not hard to see graphi
cally that if the point Q is taken close to P, the difference between
RQ and RT, namely, QT, is very small compared with RT.
A more rigorous examination of the difference between the
increment and the differential lies outside the range of this book.
EXERCISES
1. If y = x 6  3ic 2 + ix + 1, find dy.
2. If y = x 4 + 4 8  x* + 6.B, find dy.
3. If V is the volume of a cube of edge x, find both AF and dV
and interpret geometrically.
APPROXIMATIONS 53
4. If A is the area of a circle of radius r, find both Avl and dA.
Show that A.4 is the exact area of a ring 1 of width dr, and that dA
is the product of the inner circumference of the ring by its width.
5. If V is the volume of a sphere of radius r, find AF and dV.
Show that A V is the exact volume of a spherical shell of thickness
dr, and that dV is the product of the area of the inner surface of
the shell by its thickness.
6. If A is the area described in 19, show that dA = ydx Show
geometrically how this differs from A/i
7. If s is the distance traversed by a moving body, t the time,
and v the velocity, show that ds = vdt. How does ds differ from A& 9
8. If y = x z and x = 5, find the numerical difference between
dy and A?/, with successive assumptions of dx = 01, dx, = .001, and
dx = .0001.
9. If y = x 8 and x = 3, find the numerical difference between dy
and Ay for dx = .001 and for dx = 0001
10. For a circle of radius 4 in. compute the numerical difference
between dA and AJ. corresponding to an increase of r by .001 in.
11. Eor a sphere of radius 3 ft. find the numerical difference
between dV and A V when r is increased by 1 in.
21. Approximations. The previous section brings out the fact
that the differential of y differs from the increment of y by a
very small amount, which becomes less the smaller the incre
ment of x is taken. The differential may be used, therefore, to
make certain approximate calculations, especially when the ques
tion is to determine the effect upon a function caused by small
changes in the independent variable. This is illustrated in the
following examples:
Ex. 1. Find approximately the change in the area of a square of side
2 in. caused by an increase of .002 in. in. the side.
Let x be the side of the square, A its area. Then
A = x 2 and dA = 2 xdx.
Placing x 2 and dx =* .002, we find dA = .008, which is approximately
the required change in the area.
If we wish to know how nearly correct the approximation is, we may com
pute A4 = (2.002) 8  (2) 2 = .008004, which is the exact change in A. Our
approximate change is therefore in error by .OOOQOAj a very email amount.
54 DIFFERENTIATION
Ex. 2. Find approximately the volume of a sphere of radius 1.9 in.
The volume of a sphere of radius 2 in. is ^ TT, and the volume of the
required sphere may be found by computing the change in the volume of
a sphere of radius 2 caused by decreasing its radius by .1.
If r is the radius of the sphere and V its volume, we have
F= Tjr 8 and d V = 4 vr*dr.
Placing r = 2 and dr .1, we find dV= 1.6 TT. Hence the volume
of the required sphere is approximately
To find how much this is in error we may compute exactly the volume
of the required sphere by the formula
V= ^7r(1.9) 8 = 9.1453 ir.
The approximate volume is therefore in error by .0786 TT, which is less
than 1 per cent of the true volume.
EXERCISES
1. The side of a square is measured as 3 ft. long. If this length
is in error by 1 in , find approximately the resulting error in the area
of the square.
2. The diameter of a spherical ball is measured as 2 in., and the
volume and the surface are computed. If an error of ^ in. has boon
made in measuring the diameter, what is the approximate error in
the volume and the surface ?
3. The radius and the altitude of a right circular cone are meas
ured as 3 in. and 5 in. respectively. What is the approximate error
in the volume if an error of ^ in. is made in the radius ? What is
the error in the volume if an error of ^ in. is made in the altitude ?
4. Find approximately the volume of a cube with 3.0002 in. on
each edge.
5. The altitude of a certain right circular cone is the same as
the radius of the base. Find approximately the volume of the cono
if the altitude is 3.00002 in.
6. The distance * of a moving body from a fixed point of its
path, at any time t, is given by the equation $ = 16 t a f 100 1 50.
Find approximately the distance when t s= 4.0004.
7. Find the approximate value of v? + x 2 when x =s 1,0003.
8. Find approximately the value of as* + * a + 4 when = .99989.
GENERAL EXERCISES 55
9. Show that the volume of a thin cylindrical shell is approxi
mately equal to the area of its inner surface times its thickness.
10. If V is the volume and S the curved area of a right circular
cone with radius of its base r and its vertical angle 2 a, show that
V s= I 7n <s ctn a and S = irr 1 esc a Thence show that the volume of
a thin conical shell is approximately equal to the area of its inner
surface multiplied by its thickness.
GENERAL EXERCISES
Find the derivatives of the following functions from the definition
3 + 2x 1 6. VJB>
' ' *
2. ! 4.
a x
8. Prove from the definition that the derivative of  is , 1
C C
9. By expanding and differentiating, prove that the derivative
of (2 x + 5) 8 is 6(2a; + 5) 2 .
10. By expanding and differentiating, prove that the derivative
of (a 2 + 1) 8 is 6 a; (a 2 + 1) 2 .
11. By expanding and differentiating, prove that the derivative
of (a; + a) n is n(x + a)"" 1 } where % is a positive integer.
12. By expanding and differentiating, prove that the derivative
of (a; 2 + a s ) n is 2 nx(x i + a 2 )" 1 , where n is a positive integer.
13. Find when x*+ 8 a; 8 4 24 a 8 + 32 a + 16 is increasing and
when decreasing, as x increases.
14. Find when 9 x* 24 of 8 x* f 32 x + 11 is increasing and
when decreasing, as x increases.
15. Find a general rule for the values of x for which ace 2 + bx + e
is increasing or decreasing, as x increases.
16. Find a general rule for the values of x for which x* a?x + 1
is increasing or decreasing, as x increases.
17. A right circular cone of altitude x is inscribed in a sphere of
radius a. Find when an increase in the altitude of the cone will cause
an increase in its volume and when it will cause a decrease,
AB
* HINT, In these examples make use of the relation vA'vIt =
56 DIFFERENTIATION
18. A particle is moving in a straight line in such a manner that
its distance x from a fixed point A of the straight line, at any time t,
is given by the equation x t s 9 & + 15 1 + 100. When will the
particle be approaching A ?
19. The velocity of a certain moving body is given by the equation
v = t z 7 1 f 10. During what time will it be moving in a direction
opposite to that in which s is measured, and how far will it move ?
20. If a stone is thrown up from the surface of the earth with a
velocity of 200 ft. per second, the distance traversed in t seconds is
given by the equation s = 200 1 16 z5 a . Find when the stone moves
up and when down
21. The velocity of a certain moving body, at any time t, is given
by the equation v = t 2 8 1 + 12 Find when thu velocity of the
body is increasing and when decreasing.
22. At any time t, the distance s of a certain moving body from a
fixed point in its path is given by the equation s = 16 24 1 f 9 tf 2 f.
When is its velocity increasing and when decreasing ? When is its
speed increasing and when decreasing ?
23. At any time t, the distance of a certain moving body from a
fixed point in its path is given by the equation s t 6 6 1* j 9 1 + 1
When is its speed increasing and when decreasing ?
24. A sphere of ice is melting at such a rate that its volume is
decreasing at the rate of 10 cu in. per minute. At what rate is the
radius of the sphere decreasing when the sphere is 2 ft. in diameter ?
25. Water is running at the rate of 1 cu. ft. per second into a
basin in the form of a frustum of a right circular cone, the radii of
the upper and the lower base being 10 in and 6 in. respectively, and
the depth being 6 in. How fast is the water rising in the basin wluw
it is at the depth of 3 in. ?
<. 26. A vessel is in the form of an inverted right circular cone the
vertical angle of which is 60. The vessel is originally filled with
liquid which flows out at the bottom at the rate of 3 cu. in. per minutw.
At what rate is the inner surface of the vessel being exposed when
the liquid is at a depth of 1 ft. in the vessel ?
27. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through
the point (4, 6) with the slope .
28. Find the equation of the straight line through the points
(2,  3) and ( 3, 4).
GENERAL EXERCISES 57
29. Find the equation of the straight lino determined by the points
(2, 4) and (2, 4).
30. Find the equation of the straight line through the point,
(1, 3) and parallel to the line a? 2 y f 7 =
31. Find the equation of the straight lino tli rough the point
(2, 7) and perpendicular to the lino 2 . f 4 // + 9 =
32. Find the angle between the straight lines 2,r  3// + H =
and y + 3 x f 1 = 0.
Find the turningpoints of the following curves and draw the
graphs
33. y=3 asai"
34. 2/ = 16c a 40a + 25
35. y } (x 2  4 x  2).
36. y = a*  6 a*  15 x + 5.
37. y = 3 3 + 3 as* 9 a: 14.
38. Find the point of intersection of the tangents to the curve
y = x + 2 a; 2 x s at the points for which y = 1 and a? = 2
respectively
39. Show that the equation of the tangent to the curve y = o" 2
+ 2bx + G at the point (x 1} y^) is y = 2 (ca^f /;), a,r, a + 0.
40. Show that the equation of the tangent to the curve y a* a
+ ax + fi at the point (a^, y a ) is y = (3 a a + )*" 2 , _ />.
41. Find the area of the triangle included between the coordintitc
axes and the tangent to the curve y = a; 8 at the point (2, 8).
42. Find the angle between the tangents to the curve //=2./'"
f 4 a; 2 x at the points the abscissas of which arc 1 and 1
respectively.
43. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y =s x n 3 a; 9
+ 4.x 12 which has the slope 1.
44. Find the points on the curve ;// = 3 .r, B 4 a*, 2 at which the
tangents are parallel to the lino x y = 0.
V 1 46. A length I of wire is to be cut into two portions which aw to
be bent into the forms of a circle and a square respectively. Show
that the sum of the areas of those figures will bo least when the wire
is cut in the ratio IT : 4.
58 DIFFERENTIATION
46. A log in the form of a frustum of a cone is 10 ft. long, the
diameters of the bases being 4 ft. and 2 ft. A beam with a square
cross section is cut from it so that the axis of the beam eoiuuidos
with the axis of the log. Find the beam of greatest volume that
can be so cut
47. Required the right circular cone of greatest volume which can
be inscribed in a given sphere.
48. The total surface of a regular triangular prism is to be Jt. Find
its altitude and the side of its base when its volume is a maximum.
49. A piece of wire 9 in. long is cut into five pieces, two of ouo
length and three of another Each of the two equal pieces is bent
into an equilateral triangle, and the vertices of the two triangles are
connected by the remaining three pieces so as to form a regular
triangular prism. How is the wire cut when the prism has the largest
volume ?
50. If t is time in seconds, v the velocity of a moving body in
feet per second, and v = 200 32 1, how far will the body move in
the first 5 sec. ?
51. If v = 200 32 1, where v is the velocity of a moving body
in feet per second and t is time in seconds, how far will the body
move in the fifth second ?
62. A curve passes through the point (2, 8), and its slope at
any point is equal to 3 more than twice the abscissa of the point.
Find the equation of the curve.
53. A curve passes through the point (0, 0), and its slope at any
point is oj a 2 x + 7. Find its equation.
54. Find the area bounded by the curve y + s a 16 = and llio
axis of ao,
5 5 . Find the area bounded by the curve y = 2 as 8 15 a? a 4. 3G + 1 ,
the ordinates through the turningpoints of the curve, and OX.
56. Find the area between the curve y x a and the straight lint?
y x f 6.
57. Find the area between the curves y =* jc a and y = 18 a 8 .
58. The curve y = ax* is known to pass through the point (h, Jc),
Prove that the area bounded by the curve, the axis of a, and the
line x = h is hk.
59. Compute the difference between &A and dA for the area 4 of
a circle of radius 5, corresponding to an increase of .01 in the radius.
GENERAL EXERCISES 59
60. Compute the difference between AF and dV for the volume V
of a sphere of radius 5, corresponding to an increase of 01 in the
radius
61. If a cubical shell is formed by increasing each edge of a cube
by dx, show that the volume of the shell is approximately equal to
its inside surface multiplied by its thickness.
62. If the diameter of a sphere is measured and found to be 2 ft ,
and the volume is calculated, what is the approximate error in the
calculated volume if an error of in has been made in obtaining
the radius ?
63. A box in the form of a right circular cylinder is 6 in deep
and 6 in. across the bottom. Find the approximate capacity of the
box when it is lined so as to be 5 9 in deep and 5 9 in across the
bottom.
64. A rough wooden model is in the form of a regular quadran
gular pyramid 3 in. tall and 3 in. on each side of the base. After it
is smoothed down, its dimensions are all decreased by .01. What is
the approximate volume of the material removed ?
65. By use of the differential find approximately the area of a
circle of radius 1.99. What is the error made in this approximation ?
66. Find approximately the value of a; 6 + 4 C 8 + a when x = 3.0002
and when x = 2.9998.
67. The edge of a cube is 2.0001 in. Find approximately its surface.
68. The motion of a certain body is defined by the equation
s = i 8 + 3 i* + 9 1 27. Find approximately the distance traversed
in the interval of time from t = 3 to t = 3.0087.
CHAPTER III
SUMMATION
22. Area by summation. Let us consider the problem to find
the area bounded by the curve y ^ # 2 , the axis of r, and the
ordmates x = 2 and x 3 (Fig. 22). This may be solved by the
method of 19 ; but we wish to show that it may also be considered
as a problem in summation, since the area is approximately equal
to the sum of a number of rectangles constructed as follows :
We divide the axis of x between x = 2 and x 3 into 10 parts,
3 2
each of which we call A#, so that Ax = r =.1. If x l is the
first point of division, x a the second point, and so on, and
rectangles are constructed as shown in the figure, then the
altitude of the first rectangle is (2) 2 , that of the second rec
tangle is z 2 =(2. 1) 2 =.882, and so on. The area of tho
first rectangle is ^(2) 2 Ao;=.08, that of the second rectangle is
J 1 2 Aa; = (2.1) 2 A=.0882, and so on.
Accordingly, we make the following calculation:
s = 2, (2) 3 Aa;= .08
0^=2.1, %(xy&x= .0882
# 2 =2.2, (z 2 ) 2 Az = .0968
z 8 =2.3, l(xy&x= .1058
z 4 =2.4, %(xy&x= .1152
aj a =2.5, O 6 ) 2 Aa= .1250
a; 6 =2.6, %(x^&x= .1352
z 7 =2.7, (r 7 ) 2 A^= .1458
z 8 =2.8, (z 8 ) 2 Aa;= .1508
tf=2.9, f Ar= 1G82
. ^
i his is a first approximation to the area.
For a better approximation the axis of x between #= 2 and 05= 3
may be divided into 20 parts with Aa;= .05. The result is 1.241 8.
60
ABJEA
61
FIG. 22
If the base of the required figure is divided into 100 parts with
Az = .01, the sum of the areas of the 100 rectangles constructed
as above is 1.26167.
The larger the num
ber of parts into , which
the base of the figure is
divided, the more nearly
is the required area ob
tained. In fact, the re
quired area is the limit
approached as the number
of parts is indefinitely "~ Q
increased and the size of
A approaches zero.
We shall now proceed to generalize the problem just handled.
Let LK (Fig. 23) be a curve with equation y =/(), and let
OEa and OB b. It is re
quired to find the area bounded
by the curve LK, the axis of #,
and the ordmates at E and B.
For convenience we assume
in the first place that a < b
and that f(x) is positive for
all values of x between a and b.
We will divide the line EB
into n equal parts by placing
and laying off the
E MI M e
Jf J/ Mj M t B
FIG. 28
n
lengths EM^
Let
_ 1 J5=Aa: (in Fig. 23,n=9).
. ., Jf^A* parallel to OX.
/(a)Aa;=:the area of the rectangle
/(#].) AOJ = the area of the rectangle
/(* 2 ) As? = the area of the rectangle
_ 1 ), and
Then
alsc
the area of the rectangle
62 SUMMATION
The sum
/(a) A* +/(aOA* +/(aA* + . . . +/(^_ 1 )Aa; (1)
is then the sum of the areas of these rectangles and equal to
the area of the polygon EDR^R^ . . . R^^^li^B. It is evident
that the limit of this sum as n is indefinitely increased is the
area bounded by ED, EB, BC, and the arc DC.
The sum (1) is expressed concisely by the notation
where S (sigma), the Greek form of the letter S, stands for the
word " sum," and the whole expression indicates that the sum
is to be taken of all terms obtained from/(,)Aa; by giving to i
in succession the values 0, 1, 2, 3, ., n 1, where x ~a.
The limit of this sum is expressed by the symbol
C b
Ja
where /is a modified form of S.
Hence / /(#)<fa; = Lim^/(a; f )A:c=:
i/a isO
area
It is evident that the result is not vitiated if ED or J3C is of
length zero.
23. The definite integral. We have seen in 19 that if A is
the area EBCD of 22,
where F(x) is any function whose derivative is/(). Comparing
this with the result of 22, we have the important formula
r h
J a
The limit of the sum (1), 22, which is denoted by C /(*) dx,
Jn
is called a definite integral, and the numbers a and b are called
DEFINITE INTEGKAL 68
the lower limit and the upper limit*, respectively, of the definite
integral.
On the other hand, the symbol I f(x)dx is called an indefinite
integral and indicates the process of integration as already de
fined in 18.
Thus, from that section, we have
+ 0,
G,
and, in general, \ f(x)dx=F(x)+ C,
where F(x) is any function whose derivative is /(#)
We may therefore express formula (1) in the following rule :
To find the value of \ f(x)dx, evaluate \f(x)dx, substitute
x = b and x: = a successively, and subtract the latter result from
the former.
It is to be noticed that in evaluating I f(x)dx the constant
of integration is to be omitted, because if it is added, it dis
appears in the subtraction, since
In practice it is convenient to express F^ F^a) by the
symbol [^ ()]> so that
Ex. 1. The example of 22 may now be completely solved. The required
area is
27 8 10
* The student should notice that the word "limit" is here used In a
quite different from that in which it is used when a variable is said to approach
a limit (1).
64
SUMMATION
The expression /(a;) dx which appears in formula (1) is called
the element of integration. It is obviously equal to dF(x). In
fact, it follows at once from 19 that
dA=ydx = f(x) dx.
In the discussion of 22 we have assumed that y and dr are
positive, so that dA is positive. If y is negative that is, if the
curve m Fig. 23 is below the axis of x and if dx is positive,
the product ydx is negative and the y
area found by formula (1) has a nega
tive sign. Finally, if the area required
is partly above the axis of x and
partly below, it is necessary to find
each part separately, as in the follow
ing example:
Ex. 2. Fmd the aiea bounded by the
curve y = x 3 a; 2 6 x and the axis of a
Plotting the curve (Fig 24), we see that
it crosses the axis of x at the points
B (2, 0), 0(0, 0), and C(3, 0). Hence
part of the area is above the axis of x and
part below. Accoidingly, we shall find it
necessary to solve the pioblem in two parts,
first finding the aiea above the axis of x
and then finding that below To find the
first area we proceed as in 22, dividing
the area up into elementary rectangles fox
each of which
dA = ydx = (a. 8 a; 2  6 *) dx ,
whence A C\x* x*Qx)dx = [I* 4  jj 3?
o
FIG. 24
Similarly, for the area below the axis of x we find, as before,
dA = tlx = x s x s
But in this case y = x s jc z G x is negative and hence dA is negative,
for we are making x vary fiom to 8, and therefore dx is positive, Tlioio
foie we expect to find the result of the summation negative. In faot,
we have s
A  I (X s  x*  6 x^dx = [ a: 4 ~ J as* ~
J o
^(3)3(3)]0 = 15i
DEFINITE INTEGRAL
65
.8
As we aie asked to compute the total aiea bounded by the ciuve aud
the axis of x, we discard the negative sign in the last summation aud add
5J and 15 f, thus obtaining 21 ^ s as the required result.
If we had computed the definite integral
i 8 x z 6 a.) dx,
we should have obtained the icsult 10 fy, which is the algebraic sum of
the two portions of area computed separately.
Ex. 3. Find the area bounded by the two curves y = .r 2 and y = 8 a; 2 .
We diaw the curves (Fig 25)
?/ = r a f\ "\
y x (.*}
and y = 8  a; 8 , (2)
and by solving their equations we
find that they mtcisect at the points
P x (2, 4)aud> 3 (2,4)
The reqiuiod area OP^JIP^O is evi
dently twice the area OJ\liO, since
both ciuves aie symmetiical with le
spect to OY. Accoidmgly, wo shall
find the area OP^BO and multiply it
by 2. This lattei area may be found
by subtracting the aic>a ON^P^O from
the area ON^P^BO, each of these areas
being found as in the pievious example ;
or we may proceed as follows :
Divide ON^ into n parts dx, and
through the points of division draw
stiaight lines paiallol to OY, intersect
ing both curves. Let one of those lines
be M^ Q l Q 2 Through the ] 101 nts Q : and
(2 2 draw straight linos parallel to OX
until they meet the next vortical line to the right, thcnoby forming
the rectangle Q^SQy, The aroa of such a rectangle may be takon as
dA and may be computed as follows: its base is ih % and ids altitude IH
Q^ = A/^ M^Q,! = (8 j 8 ) j" u =8 2 .c a ; for M^Q^ is tho ordinato
of a point on the curve (2) and J/j^ the ordinate of a point ou (1).
Thcicfore , , ,
A
Finally, tho required area is 2(10) = 21 }
= C \R  2 r a ) rl,r =[83 ?, 3*]
66 SUMMATION
EXERCISES
1. Find the area bounded by the curve 4 y as 2 2 = 0, the axis
of x, and the lines x 2 and x = 2.
2. Find the area bounded by the curve y = a? 7 X* + 8 a + 16
the axis of x, and the lines x = 1 and as = 3
3. Find the area bounded by the curve y = 25 x 10 a; 2 f oi 8 and
the axis of a.
4. Find the area bounded by the axis of x and the curve
y = 25  a 2 .
5. Find the area bounded by the curve y=4aj 2 4aj 3 and
the axis of x.
6. Find the area bounded below by the axis of x and above by
the curve y = # 8 4 a 2 4 x + 16.
7. Find the area bounded by the curve y = 4 as 8 Sec 2 9cc+18
and the axis of #.
8. Find the area bounded by the curve x* + 2y 8=0 and tho
straight line x)2y 6 = 0.
9. Find the area bounded by the curve 3y aj 2 = and the
straight line 2x + y 9 =
10. Find the area of the crescentshaped figure bounded by the
two curves y = x* + 7 and y = 2 x z f 3
11. Find the area bounded by the curves 4y=sa3 a 4 a; and
a 2 4o: + 42/ 24 = 0.
12. Find the area bounded by the curve o; + 3 = 2/ a 2y and
the axis of y.
24. The general summation problem. The formula
F(a) (1)
rf
J a
has been obtained by the study of an area, but it may be given
a much more general application. For if f(x) is any function
of x whatever, it may be graphically represented by the curve
y =/(). The rectangles of Fig. 23 are then the graphical rep
resentations of the products f(z)dx, and the symbol f f(x)dx
J a
GENERAL PROBLEM 6T
represents the limit of the sum of these products. We may
accordingly say:
Any problem which requires the determination of the limit of the
sum of products of the type f(x) dx may be solved by the use of
formula (1).
Let us illustrate this by considering again the problem, already
solved in 18, of determining the distance traveled in the time
from t = t t to t = 3 by a body whose velocity v is known. Since
ds
"*#'
we have ds = vdt,
which is approximately the distance traveled in a small interval
of time dt. Let the whole time from t = t^ to t = t z be divided
into a number of intervals each equal to dt. Then the total dis
tance traveled is equal to the sum of the distances traveled in
the several intervals dt, and hence is equal approximately to the
sum of the several terms vdt This approximation becomes better
as the size of the intervals dt becomes smaller and their number
larger, and we conclude that the limit of the sum of the terms vdt
is the actual distance traveled by the body. Hence we have, if s
is the total distance traveled,
a = I vdt.
A
If, now, we know v in terms of t, we may apply formula (1).
Ex. If v = 16 1 + 5, find the distance traveled in the time from t = 2 to
* = 4.
We have directly
s = f *(16 1 + 5) dt = [8 1* + 5 *] = 106.
EXERCISES
1. At any time t the velocity of a moving body is 3 & 4 2 1 f t. per
second. How far will it move in the first 6 sec.?
2. How far will the body in Ex. 1 move during the seventh second ?
3. At any time t the velocity of a moving body is 6 + 5 1 & ft. per
second, Show that this velocity is positive during the interval from
t = 1 to t f= 6, and find how far the body moves during that interval.
68 SUMMATION
4. At any time t the velocity of a moving body is 4)5 3 24 f +11 ft.
per second. During what interval of time is the velocity negative, and
how far will the body move during that interval ?
6. The number of foot pounds of work done in lifting a weight in
the product of the weight in pounds and the distance in feet through
which the weight is lifted. A cubic foot of water weighs 021 lb.
Compute the work done in emptying a cylindrical tank of depth 8 ft.
and radius 2 ft , considering it as the limit of the sum of the jnort'rt
of work done in lifting each thin layer of water to the top of the tank.
25. Pressure. It is shown m physics that the pressure on
one side of a plane surface of area A, immersed in a liquid tit a,
uniform depth of h units below the Kinface of the liquid, is equal
to wJul, where w is the weight of a unit volume of the liquid.
This may be remembered by noticing
that wliA is the weight of the column "
of the liquid which would be supported
by the area A.
Since the pressure is the same in
all directions, we can also determine ^ IQ 2Q
the pressure on one side of a plane
surface which is perpendicular to the surface of the liquid and
hence is not at a uniform depth.
Let ABC (Fig. 26) represent such a surface and RS the line of
intersection of the plane of ABC with the surface of the liquid.
Divide ABC into strips by drawing straight lines parallel to Jttf.
Call the area of one of these strips dA, as in 28, and the depth of
one edge h. Then, since the strip is narrow and horizontal, tho
depth of every point differs only alightly from 7i, and tho pres
sure on the strip is then approximately wMA, Talcing P m tho
total pressure, we write ^p_ j 3*
The total pressure P is the sum of tho pressures on the several
strips and is therefore the limit of the sum of terms of tho
form whdA, the limit being approached as the number of tho
strips is indefinitely increased and the width of each indefinitely
decreased. Therefore /
P= I wlidA,
PEESSUKE 69
where the limits of integration are to be taken so as to include
the whole area the pressure on which is to be determined. To
evaluate the integral it is necessary to express both h and dA
111 terms of the same variable.
Ex. 1. Find the pleasure on one side of a rectangle BCDE (Fig 27),
wheie the sides BC and ED aiu each 4 ft. long, the sides BE and CD are
each 8 ft. long, immersed in watei so that the plane of the rectangle is
peipendiculai to the surface of the
water, and the side BC is paiallel &
to the surface of the watei and 2 ft.
below at
In Fig. 27, LK is the line of inter
section of the surface of the water
and the plane of the rectangle. Let M * N
be the point of intersection of
LK and BE produced Then, if x is
measured downward from along E D
BE, x has the value 2 at the point B ^
and x has the value 5 at the point E.
We now divide BE into parts dx, and through the points of division
draw straight lines parallel to BC, thus dividing the given rectangle
into elemental y rectangles such as MNP.S
Therefore dA = area of MNR S = MN  MS  4 dx.
Since MN is at a distance x below LK, the pressure on the elementary
rectangle MNRS is approximately wx(4: dx'). Accoidmgly, we have
and P = f G 4 nxdx = [2 vxffe* 2 w(6)  2 w(2) 2 = 42 20
t/2 ^
For water, w  02 J Ib = ^ T.
Hence we have finally
P = 2625 Ib. = 1 T % T
Ex. 2. The base CD (Fig. 28) of a triangle BCD is 7 ft., and its altitude
from B to CD is 5 ft This triangle is immersed in water with its plane
perpendicular to the suiface of the water and with CD parallel to the sur
face, and 1 ft below it, B being below CD Find the total pressure on one
side of this triangle.
Let LK represent the line of intersection of the plane of the triangle
and the surface of the water. Then B is 6 ft below LK Let BX be per*
pendicular to LK and intersect CD at T We will measure distances
from B in the direction BX and denote them by x. Then, at the point B,
x has the value , and at T, x has the value 5.
TO SUMMATION
Divide the distance BT into parts dx, and through the points of divi
sion draw straight lines parallel to CD, and on ouch of these linen n
lower base construct a rectangle such as MNJR8, where J'l and F sire
two consecutive points of division %
onBX. L K
Then BE = x, G \
EF = dx,
and, by similar triangles,
whence
CD BT
MN x
and
Then dA = the area of MNRS = J xdx,
Since B is C ft. below LK, and BE = x, it follows that E is (fl  a;) ft.
below LK.
Hence the pressure on the rectangle is approximately
dP = (& a" ?*) (6 or) w = (V 1 war $ ?/JJK S ) rfj?,
/*"
/o
= (105 to  iJA w)  = JL^  to  2010^ Ib. = Ii4 T.
EXERCISES
s/ 1. A gate in the side of a dam is in the form of a square, 4 ft.
on a side, the upper side being parallel to and 1C It. bolow the surfaoo
of the water in the reservoir. What is the pressure on the gate '(
v* 2. Find the total pressure on one side of a triangle of base 6 ft.
and altitude 6 ft., submerged in water so that the altitude is vertical
and the vertex is m the surface of the water.
</ 3. Find the total pressure on one side of a triangle of base 4 ft.
and altitude 6 ft., submerged in water so that the base is horizontal,
the altitude vertical, and the vertex above the base and 4 ft, from tlio
surface of the water.
e base of an isosceles triangle is 8 ft. and the equal sidas
6 ft. The triangle is completely immersed in water, its baae
allel to and 6 ft. below the surface of the water, its alti
g perpendicular to the surface of the water, and its vertex
uc.ijmg ,uove the base. Find the total pressure on one side of the
triangle.
VOLUME 71
v 6. Find the pressure on one side of an equilateral triangle, 6 It.
on a side, if it is partly submerged in water so that one vortex is
one foot above the surface of the water, the corresponding altitude
being perpendicular to the surface of the water.
\s. The gate in Ex. 1 is strengthened by a brace which runs
diagonally from one corner to another. Find the pressure on each
of the two portions of the gate one above, the other below, the
brace.
7. A dam is in the form of: a trapezoid, with its two horizontal
sides 300 and 100 ft. respectively, the longer side being at the top ;
and the height is 15 ft. What is the pressure on the dam when the
water is level with the top of the dam ?
8. What is the pressure on tho dam of Ex. 7 when the water
reaches halfway to the top of the dam ?
9. If it had been necessary to construct the dam of Ex. 7 with
the shorter side at tho top instead of the longer side, how much
greater pressure would the dam have had to sustain when the
reservoir is full of water ?
10. The center board of a yacht is in the form, of a trapezoid in
which the two parallel sides are 3 ft and 6 ft., respectively, in length,
and the side perpendicular to these two is 4 ft. in length. Assuming
that the lastnamed side is parallel to the surface of the water at
a depth of 2 ft., and that the parallel sides are vertical, find the
pressure on one side of the board.
11. Where shall a horizontal lino be drawn across tho gate of
Ex. 1 so that tho pressure on the portion above tho lino shall equal
the pressure on the portion below ?
26. Volume. The volume of a solid may be computed by di
viding it into n elements of volume, dV^ and taking the limit*
of the sum of these elements as n is increased indefinitely, tho
magnitude of each element at the same time approaching aero.
The question in each case is the determination of the form of
the element dr. We shall discuss a comparatively simple case
of a solid such as is shown in Fig, 29.
In this figure let Olf be a straight line, and let tho distance
of any point of it from be denoted by h. At one end tho solid
is bounded Tby a plane perpendicular to OH at <7, where 00 ~ a>
72
SUMMATION
and at the other end it is bounded by a piano perpendicular to
OH at B, where OS = 5, so that it has parallel bases.
The solid is assumed to be such that the area A of any plane
section made by a plane perpendicular to Oil at a point distant
h from can be expressed as a func
tion of h.
To find the volume of such a solid
we divide the distance CB into n parts
dh, and through the points of division
pass planes perpendicular to OH. We
have thus divided the solid into slices
of which the thickness is dh
Since A is the area of the base of a
slice, and since the volume of the slice
is approximately equal to the volume
of a right cylinder of the same base
and thickness, we write
dV=Adli.
The volume of the solid is then the limit of the sum of terms of
the above type, and therefore
/"'
F= I Adh.
Jo.
It is clear that the above discussion is valid even when one
or both of the bases corresponding toh=a and 7t = fi, respectively,
reduces to a point.
Ex.1. Let OY (Fig. 30)
be an edge of a solid such
that all its sections made
by planes perpendicular to
OFaie rectangles, the sides
of a rectangle in a plane
distant y fiorn being re
spectively 2 y and y z We
shall find the volume in
cluded between the planes j, IO go
# = and?/ = 2 J.
Dividing the distance from # = 0toy = 2& into n parts <li/, and passing
planes perpendicular to OY, we form rectangles such as MffttS, wlioro, if
VOLUME 73
OM = y, MN  y* and MS = 2 y Hence the area MNRS = 2 y s , and the
volume of the elementary cylinder standing on MNRS as a base is
thatls '
Therefore V =
Ex. 2. The axes of two equal light circular cylinders of radius o inter
sect at right angles. Required the volume common to the two cylinders.
Let OA and OB (Fig. 31) be the axes of the ^
cylmdeis and OY the common perpendicular to
OA and 013 at then point of intersection 0. Then
OA D and OBD are quadrants of two equal chcles
cut from the two cylinders by the planes through
OY perpendicular to the axes OB and OA, and
OD = a Then the figure represents one eighth
of the requned volume.
We divide the distance OD into n parts dy,
and through the points of division pass planes per
pendicular to OY Any section, such as LMNP,
is a square, of which one side NP is equal to
V OP Z ON* OP = a, being a radius of one of the cylinders, and hence,
as ON= y, _
NP = Va 2  f
Accordingly, the area of LMNP = a z y z , and the volume of the ele
mentary cylinder standing on LMNP as a base is
whence V = f "(a a  y^ dy  [a 2 //  J y] = a 8 .
Hence the total volume is  1 / a 8 .
t
This method of finding volumes is particularly useful when
the sections of the solid made by parallel planes are bounded
by circles or by concentric circles. Such a solid may be gen
erated by the revolution of a plane area around an axis in its
plane, and is called a solid of revolution. We take the following
examples of solids of revolution :
Ex. 3. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about OX
the area bounded by the curve ?y 2 = 4 *, the axis of x, and the line x = 8.
The generating area is shown in Fig. 32, where AB is the line a = 8.
Hence OA s= 3,
74
SUMMATION
Divide OA into n parts dx, and through the points of division pass
straight lines parallel to OY, meeting the curve. When the area is revolved
about OX, each of these lines, as MP, JVQ, etc., generates a circle, the plane
of which is perpendicular to OX The area ^
of the circle generated by MP, for example,
is irMP z , which is equal to iry z = 7r(4 x), if
Hence the area of any plane section of
the solid made by a plane perpendicular to
OX can be expressed in terms of its dis
tance from 0, and we may apply the pievious
method for finding the volume.
Since the base of any elementary cylinder
is 4 TTX and its altitude is dx, we have
Hence V=f*4 vxdx = [2 ** = 18 .
Ex. 4. Find the volume of the ring surface generated by revolving about
the axis of x the area bounded by the line y = 5 and the curve y = 9 x~
The line and the curve (Fig 33) are
seen to intersect at the points P l (2, 5) ^
and P z (2, 5), and the ring is generated
by the area P^BP^P^ Since this area is
symmetrical with respect to OY, it is evi
dent that the volume of the ring is twice
the volume generated by the area AP Z BA.
Accordingly, we shall find the latter volume
and multiply it by 2.
We divide the line OM Z = 2 (M z being
the projection of P 2 on OX) into n parts
dx, and through the points of division draw
straight lines parallel to OY and intersect
ing the straight line and the curve One
of these lines, as M QP, will, when revolved
about OX, generate a circular ring, the
outer radius of which is MP = y = Q~x*
and the inner radius of which is MQ *=.y = 5
Hence the area of the ring is jjf M 'M
Accordingly,
= TT (56  18 x 9 + a?<). FIG
dV = TT (56  18 w 2 + a;*) dx
S3
Accordingly, the volume of the ring is 2 (70$ w) = 140$ TT.
VOLUME 75
EXERCISES
1. The section of a certain solid made by any plane perpendicular
to a given line Oil is a circle with one point in OH and its center
on a straight line OB intersecting Oil at an angle of 46 If the
height of this solid measured from along Oil is 4ft., find its
volume by integration.
2. A solid is such that any cross section perpendicular to an
axis is an equilateral triangle of which each side is equal to the
square of the distance of the plane of the triangle from a fixed point
on the axis. The total length of the axis from the fixed point is 5.
Find the volume.
3. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about OX
the area bounded by OX and the curve y = 4 as a 2 .
4. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about OX
the area included between the axis of x and the curve y 2 3 x*
5. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about the
line y = 2 the area bounded by the axis of y, the lines x = 3
and y = 2, and the curve y = 3 a: 2 .
6. On a spherical ball of radius 5 in. two great circles are drawn
intersecting at right angles at the points A and B* The material of
the ball is then cut away so that the sections perpendicular to AB
are squares with their vertices on the two great circles. Find the
volume left.
7. Find the volume generated by revolving about the line x = 2
the area bounded by the curve if 8 a?, the axis of a?, and the
line x = 2.
8. Any plane section of a certain solid made by a plane perpen
dicular to OF is a square of which the center lies on OY and two
opposite vertices lie on the curve y = 4 as 2 . Find the volume of the
solid if the extreme distance along OYis 3.
9. Find the volume generated by revolving about OY the area
bounded by the curve y 2 8 x and the line x = 2.
10. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about OX
the area bounded by the curves y = 6 x as 2 and y s= flj 8 6 a? + 10.
11. The cross section of a certain solid made by any plane perpen
dicular to OX is a square, the ends of one of whose sides are on the
curves 16 y = y? and 4 y = y? 12, Find the volume of this solid
between the points of intersection of the curves.
T6 SUMMATION
GENERAL EXERCISES
1. The velocity in feet per second of a moving body at any
time t is t* 4 1 + 4 Show that the body is always moving in
the direction in which s is measured, and find how far it will move
during the fifth second
2. The velocity in feet per second of a moving body at any time
t is t* 4 1. Show that after t = 4 the body will always move in
the direction in which s is measured, and find how far it will move
in the time from t = 6 to t = 9.
3. At any time t the velocity in feet per second of a moving
body is t z 6 1 + 5 How many feet will the body move in the
direction opposite to that in which s is measured?
4. At any time t the velocity in miles per hour of a moving body
is t* 2 1 3. If the initial moment of time is 12 o'clock noon, how
far will the body move in the time from 11.30 A M. to 2 p M. ?
y 5 . Find the area bounded by the curves 9 y = 4 x z and 45 9 y = a: 3 .
6. Find the total area bounded by the curves ?/ 2 =4a; and
T/ 2 = 4 a 8 4 ax.
'' 7. Find the total area bounded by the curve y = x B and the
straight line y = 4 x.
8. Find the total area bounded by the curve y = x (x 1) (03 3)
and the straight line y = 4 (a; 1).
9. ABCD is a quadrilateral with A 90, J3 = 90, AB 5 ft.,
BC = 2 ft., A D 4 ft. It is completely immersed in water with AB
in the surface and AD and BC perpendicular to the surface. Find
the pressure on one side
10. Prove that the pressure on one side of a rectangle completely
submerged with its plane vertical is equal to the area of the rectangle
multiplied by the depth of its center and by w (consider only the
case in which one side of the rectangle is parallel to the surface).
11. Prove that the pressure on one side of a triangle completely
submerged with its plane vertical is equal to its area multiplied by
the depth of its median point and by w (consider only the case in
which one side of the triangle is parallel to the 1 surface).
12. The end of a trough, full of water, is assumed to be in the
form of an equilateral triangle, with its vertex down and its plane
vertical. What is the effect upon the pressure on the end if the
level of the water sinks halfway to the bottom?
GENERAL EXERCISES 77
13. A square 2 ft on a side is immersed in water, with one vertex
in the surface of the water and with the diagonal through that
vertex perpendicular to the surface of the water. How much greater
is the pressure on the lower half of the square than that on the
upper half?
14. A board is symmetrical with respect to the line AJB, and is of
such a shape that the length of any line across the board perpendic
ular to AB is twice the cube of the distance of the line from A.
AD is 2 ft. long The board is totally submerged in water, AB being
perpendicular to the suiface of the water and A one foot below the
surface. Find the pressure on one side of the board.
15. Find the pressure on one side of an area the equations of whose
boundary hues are x = 0, y = 4, and v/ 2 = 4 x respectively, where the
axis of x is taken in the surface of the water and where the positive
direction of the y axis is downward and vertical.
16. Find the volume generated by revolving about OX the area
bounded by OX and the curve 4 y = 16 a; 2 .
I, 17. Find the volume generated by revolving about OX the area
bounded by the curve y = a 2 + 2 and the line y = 3.
18. Find the volume generated by revolving about OX the area
bounded by OX and the curve y = 3 x x 8 .
19. Find the volume generated by revolving about the line y = 1
the area bounded by the curves 9 y = 2 x* and 9 y = 36 2 a; 2 .
20. An axman makes a wedgeshaped cut in the trunk of a tree.
Assuming that the trunk is a right circular cylinder of radius 8 in.,
that the lower surface of the cut is a horizontal plane, and that the
upper surface is a plane inclined at an angle of 45 to the horizontal
and intersecting the lower surface of the cut in a diameter, find the
amount of wood cut out.
21. On a system of parallel chords of a circle of radius 2 there
are constructed equilateral triangles with their planes perpendicular
to the plane of the circle and on the same side of that plane, thus
forming a solid. Find the volume of the solid.
22. Show that the volume of the solid generated by revolving
about OY the area bounded by OX and the curve y = a Ix* is
equal to the area of the base of the solid multiplied by half its altitude.
23. In a sphere of radius a find the volume of a segment of one
base and altitude /*.
78 SUMMATION
24. A solid is sucli that any cross section perpendicular to an axis
is a circle, with its radius equal to the square root of the distance of
the section from a fixed point of the axis. The total length of the
axis from the fixed point is 4. Find the volume of the solid.
25. A variable square moves with its plane perpendicular to the
axis of y and with the ends of one of its diagonals respectively in
the parts of the curves y* = 16 x and ^ = 4 x, which are above
the axis of x Find the volume generated by the square as its plane
moves a distance 8 from the origin.
26. The plane of a variable circle moves so as to be perpendicular
to OX, and the ends of a diameter are on the curves y = a; 2 and
y = 3 cc 2 8 Find the volume of the solid generated as the plane
moves from one point of intersection of the curves to the other.
27. All sections of a certain solid made by planes perpendicular
to OF are isosceles triangles. The base of each triangle is a line
drawn perpendicular to OY, with its ends in the curve y = 4 a: 2 . The
altitude of each triangle is equal to its base Find the volume of
the solid included between the planes for which y = and y 6.
28. All sections of a certain solid made by planes perpendicular
to Y are right isosceles triangles One leg of each triangle coincides
with the line perpendicular to OY with its ends in OY and the curve
y* 4 x. Find the volume of the solid between the sections for which
y = and y = 8.
29. Find the work done in pumping all the water from a full
cylindrical tank, of height 15 ft. and radius 3 ft., to a height of
20 ft. above the top of the tank.
30. Find the work done in emptying of water a full conical
receiver of altitude 6ft and radius 3ft., the vertex of the cone
being down.
CHAPTER IV
ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
27. Distance between two points. Let P 1 (a^, / x ) and P z (r z , / a )
(Fig. 34) be any two points in the plane XOY, such that the
straight line P^P Z is not parallel either to OX or to OY. Through
P! draw a straight line parallel
to OJT, and through P 2 draw a
straight line parallel to OY, and
denote their point of intersection
by R.
iPlTATl T^ 7? Al 1 * "" 1"  ty
JL UOll JL^J.V * Al*t/ t'g " " *t*j
and
In the right triangle P^RP Z
whence
If
C 1 )
is parallel to 0JT, and the formula reduces to
J?J = JBa ! (2)
In like manner, if ^x^ P^ is parallel to OF, and the
formula reduces to
28. Circle. Since a ciVc?e is the locus of a point which is
always at a constant distance from a fixed point, formula (1)
27, enables us to write down immediately the equation of P
circle.
Let C(h, 7c) (Fig. 35) be the center of a circle of radius r.
Then, if P(x, y) is any point of the circle, by (1), 27, a? and
y must satisfy the equation
^ a =^ (1)
79
80 ALGEBKAIC FUNCTIONS
Moreover, any point the coordinates of which satisfy (1),
must be at the distance r from C and hence be a point of the
circle. Accordingly, (1) is the equation of a circle.
If (1) is expanded, it becomes
! 2Aa;2^ + A 2 +F r 2 =0, (2)
an equation of the second degree with no term in xy and
with the coefficients of a; 2 and / a
equal.
Conversely, any equation of the
second degree with no xy term and
with the coefficients of a; 2 and y*
equal (as
O
where A, G, F, and are any con ^ 1Q g5
stants) may be transformed into
the form (1) and represents a circle, unless the number cor
responding to r z is negative (see Ex. 3, page 81), in which
case the equation is satisfied by no real values of x and y and
accordingly has no corresponding locus.
The circle is most readily drawn by making such transfor
mation, locating the center, and constructing the circle with
compasses.
Ex.1.
This equation may be written in the form
(x*2x ) + (y24y ) = 0,
and the terms in the parentheses may be made perfect squares by adding
1 in the first parenthesis and 4 in the second parenthesis As we have
added a total of 5 to the lefthand side of the equation, we must add an
equal amount to the righthand side of the equation The result is
Cr a  2a: + 1) + (f  4?/ + 4) = 5,
which may be placed in the form
(l) + <ya)5,
the equation of a circle of radius V5 with its center at the point (1, 2).
CIRCLE 81
Ex. 2. 9 a: 2 + 9 f  9 x + 6 y  8 = 0.
Placing 8 on the righthand side of the equation and then dividing by
9, we have ** + ,**+ 3, = ,
which may be treated by the method used in Ex. 1. The result is
the equation of a circle of ladius JV5, with its center at (\, i).
Ex.3. 9a; 2 + 9y 2 6a;12y + ll =
Proceeding as in Ex. 2, we have, as the transformed equation,
an equation which cannot be satisfied by any real values of js and y, since
the sum of two positive quantities cannot be negative Hence this equation
corresponds to no real curve.
EXERCISES
1. Find the equation of the circle with the center (4, 2) and
the radius 3
2. Find the equation of the circle with the center (0, 1) and
the radius 5.
3. Find the center and the radius of the circle
9 = 0.
4. Find the center and the radius of the circle
 6v  15 = 0.
5. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the
center of the circle
and perpendicular to the line
2aj + 3v/ 4 =
6. Prove that two circles are concentric if their equations differ
only in the absolute term
29. Parabola. The locus of a point equally distant from a fixed
point and a fixed straight line is catted a parabola. The fixed
point is called the focus and the fixed straight line is called the
directrix,
82 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
Let F (Fig. 36) be tho focus and A\V the directrix of a
parabola. Through F draw a straight line perpendicular to
ftS, intersecting it at JP, and let this lino be the axis of jr.
Let the middle point of T>F be taken as 0, tho origin of coordi
nates, and draw the axis QY. Thon, if tho distance, PA* is 2 <, Urn
coordinates of F are (0, 0) and tho equation of H$ is sr ~  r.
Let /^(.r, y) be any point of tho parabola, and draw Uu
straight line FP and tho straight lino NP gy
perpendicular to US.
Then NP = + ,
and, by 27, FP V(' <0 2 + //* /J
whence, from tho definition of tho parabola,
(a*)** if Or +<0"
which reduces to ,?/ 2 = 4 6'a;. (1 ) ** p x(li ,w
Conversely, if the coordinates of any point /* satisfy (1), it
can be shown that the distances FP and NP aru equal, and
hence P is a point of the parabola.
Solving (1) for y in terms of a, we havo
y = 2VS, (2)
We assume that e is positive. Thon it is evident that if a
negative value is assigned to #, y is imaginary, and no correspond
ing points of the parabola can bo located. All poKitivo vahu'M
may be assigned to JR, however, and hence tho parabola IICH
entirely on the positive sidtj of tho axis OF.
Accordingly, wo assign positive valuos to #, compute tho nor
responding values of y, and draw a smooth curve through tho
points thus located.
It is to be noticed that to every value tWHigncd to w lhro aro
two corresponding valuos of ?/, equal in magnitude and opposite
in algebraic sign, to which there correspond two points of tho
parabola on opposite sides of OX and equally dintant from it.
Hence the parabola is ttymmMoal with rospect to CUT, and ac
cordingly OX is called the gunk of the parabola.
The point at which its axis intersects a parabola is called the w
tew of the parabola. Accordingly, is the vertex of the parabola.
PARABOLA 83
Returning to Fig. 36, if F is taken at the left of with the
coordinates ( c, 0), and RS is taken at the right of with the
equation x = c, equation (1) becomes
f = kcx (3)
and represents a parabola lying on the negative side of OY.
Hence we conclude that any equation in the form
f=fa, (4)
where k is a positive or a negative constant, is a parabola, with
(k
Z'
and its directrix the straight line x'^*
Similarly, the equation x*= Icy (5)
represents a parabola, with its vertex at and with its axis coin
ciding with the positive or the negative part of OY, according
as & is positive or negative. The focus is always the point
0, ^ j and the directrix is the line y =  whether k be positive
^"Y "i
or negative.
30. Parabolic segment. An important property of the parabola
is contained in the following theorem :
The square of any two chords of a parabola which are perpen
dicular to its axis are to each other as their distances from the
vertex of the parabola.
This theorem may be proved as follows :
Let %(%!, #j.) and P z (x^ 7/ 3 ) be any two points of any parab
ola /= Tex (Fig. 37).
Then y*= lex^
and yl 7c a ;
y\ X*
whence , ~
yl **
whence
84
ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
From the symmetry of the parabola, 2# 1 =
But a? = OM^ and x,== OM Z , and hence
(1) becomes
and 2# 2 =
FIG. 37
and the theorem is proved.
The figure bounded by the parabola
and a chord perpendicular to the axis
of the parabola, as Q^OP^ (Fig. 37),
is called a parabolic segment. The
chord is called the lase of the segment, the vertex of the
parabola is called the vertex of the segment, and the distance
from, the vertex to the base is called the altitude of the segment.
EXERCISES
Plot the following parabolas, determining the focus of each :
1. !/* = 8x 3. 2/ 2 =:6a5.
2. cc 2 =42/. 4. aj 2 = 7y.
5. The altitude of a parabolic segment is 10 ft., and the length of
its base is 16 ft. A straight line drawn across the segment perpen
dicular to its axis is 10 ft. long. How far is it from the vertex of
the segment ?
6. An arch in the form of a parabolic curve, the axis being
vertical, is 50 ft. across the bottom, and the highest point is 15 ft.
above the horizontal. What is the length of a beam placed horizon
tally across the arch 6 ft. from the top ?
7. The cable of a suspension bridge hangs in the form of a
parabola. The roadway, which is horizontal and 400ft. long, is
supported by vertical wires attached to the cable, the longest wire
being 80 ft. and the shortest being 20 ft. Find the length o a
supporting wire attached to the roadway 75 ft. from tho middle.
8. Any section of a given parabolic mirror made by a plane
passing through the axis of the mirror is a parabolic segment of
which the altitude is 6 in. and the length of the base 10 in. Find
the circumference of the section of the mirror made by a piano
perpendicular to its axis and 4 in. from, its vertex
ELLIPSE 85
9. "Find the equation of the parabola having the line x = 3 as its
directrix and having its focus at the origin of cooidmates.
10. Find the equation of the parabola having the line y 2 as
its directrix and having its locus at the point (2, 4).
31. Ellipse. The locus of a point the sum of whose distances
from two fixed points is constant is called an ellipse. The two
fixed points are called the foci.
Let F and F' (Fig. 38) be the two loci, and let the distance
F'F be 2 c. Let the straight line determined by F' and F be
taken as the axis of x, and the
middle point of F'F be taken
as 0, the origin of coordinates,
and draw the axis OY. Then
the coordinates of F' and F
are respectively ( c, 0) and
(*, 0).
Let P(x, y) be anj' point
of the ellipse, and 2 a repre n'
sent the constant sum of its 00
Ju ICr uO
distances from the foci. Then,
from the definition of the ellipse, the sum of the distances F'P
and FP is 2 a, and from the triangle F'PF it is evident that
2 a > 2 G ; whence a > c.
By 27,
and FP=
whence, from the definition of the ellipse,
V(sM) 2 +# 2 W(ac) a +/= 2  (1)
Clearing (1) of radicals, we have
O 2  c a > 2 + ay = a 4  aV. (2)
Dividing (2) by a* aV, we have
86 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
But since ><?, a* c* is a positive quantity which may be
denoted by J 3 , and (3) becomes
Conversely, if the coordinates of any point P satisfy (4), it
can be shown that the sum of the distances Jf'P and FP ia 2 a,
and hence P is a point of the ellipse.
Solving (4) for y in terms of #, we have
y=s >/** (5)
It is evident that the only values which can be assigned to x
must be numerically less than a; for if any numerically larger
values are assigned to r, the corresponding values of y are
imaginary, and no corresponding points can be plotted. Hence
the curve lies entirely between the lines x = a and x = a.
We may, then, assign the possible values to #, compute the
corresponding values of y, and, locating the corresponding points,
draw a smooth curve through them. As in the case of the pa
rabola, we observe that OX is an axis of symmetry of the ellipse.
We may also solve (4) for x in terms of y, with the result
as = 5^^. (0)
From this form of the equation we find that the ellipse lies
entirely between the lines ,y = iandy = 5 and is symmetrical
with respect to OY.
Hence the ellipse has two axes, A' A and B'JB (Fig. 88), which
are at right angles to each other. But A 1 A = 2 a and JR'13 = 2 1) ;
and since a > 5, it follows that A' A > B'B, Hence A' A is called
the major axis of the ellipse, and fl'JJ is called the minor axis
of the ellipse.
The ends of the major axis, A' and A, are called the wrtwes of
the ellipse, and the point midway between the vertices is called
the center of the ellipse ; that is, is the center of the ellipse,
and it can be readily shown that any chord of the ellipse which
passes through is bisected by that point.
ELLIPSE 87
From the definition of />, c=* Va a #*, and the coordinates of
the foci are ( V<r A 9 , 0).
OF
The ratio  (thai is, the ratio of the distance of the focus
from the center to the distance of either vertex from the center)
is called the eccentricity of the ellipse and is denoted by t>. lint
M'^VtfCjS, (7)
Vrt a i*
and hence c    > (8)
\ /
whence it followa that the eccentricity of an ellipse is always
less than unity.
Similarly, any equation in form (4), in which I' 2 > a 2 , represents
an ellipse with its center at 0, its major axis on 6>J", and its
minor axis on CLY. Then the vertices are the points (0, &),
~
the foci are the points (0, vV *), and e =
In either case the nearer the foci approach coincidence, the
smaller e becomes and the more nearly b = a. Hence a drde
inat/ le considered an an ellipse with dointxdfnt fovi and equal axes.
Its eceentrieity is, of course, zero.
EXERCISES
Plot tho following ellipses, finding the vertices, the Toci, and the
eceentrieity of eaoh :
1. 9 ^ a + 1 if 144. 3. 3 tc 8 + 4 ?/ 2.
2. 9 w! 8 + 4 ?/ 30. 4. 2 a; 3 + 3 y a s= 1.
6. Find tho equation of the ellipse winch lias its foci at tlie points
( 2, 0) and ((>, 0) and which has the sum of the dis lances of any
point on it from the foci equal to 10.
6. Find the equation of the ellipse having its food at the points
(0, 0) and (0, ) and having the length of its major axis equal to 7.
32. Hyperbola. The locus of a point the difference of whose
, distances from two faced points is constant is called a hyperbola.
The two fixed points are called the foci*
88
ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
Let F and F' (Fig. 30) be the two foci, and lot tho distance
F'F bo 2 0. Let the straight line determined by F' and F bo
taken as the axis of .P, and the middle point of F'F be taken
as 0, the origin of coordinates, and draw the axis O Y. Then
the coordinates of F 1 and
F are respectively ( <?, 0)
and (c, 0).
Let jP (a;, ?/) be any point
of the hyperbola and 2 a
represent the constant dif
ference of its distances from
the foci. Then, from the
definition of the hyperbola, . ,
the difference of the dis '
tances F'P and FP is 2 a,
and from the triangle F'PFii is evident that 2 < 2 , for the
difference of any two sides of a triangle IH loss than the third
side ; whence a < a.
1?ia * 80
By 27,
and
whence either
;*+;
2 (1)
or V(* + 0'+^V(? ::: ^+72a, (2)
according as JRP or ^"/* in the groatcsr diHtance.
Clearing either (1) or (2) of radicals, wo obtain tho aamo
result :
Dividing (3) by a* V, we have
i it _ "1 fA.\
' "T a * * \*J
cr r
But since <c, 2 * is a negative quantity whiuh may bo
denoted by ft a , and (4) becomes
HYPJEEBOLA 89
Conversely, if the coordinates of any point P satisfy (5), it
can be shown that the difference of the distances F'P and FP
is 2 a, and hence P is a point of the hyperbola.
Solving (5) for y in terms of #, we have
y = ^i?d\ (6)
In this equation we may assume for x only values that are
numerically greater than a, as any other values give imaginary
values for y. Hence there are no points of the hyperbola be
tween the lines t = a and x = a. The hyperbola is symmetrical
with respect to OX.
As the values assigned to x increase numerically, the corre
sponding points of the hyperbola recede from the axis OX. We
may, however, write (6) m the form
5?
(7)
Now if y x and i/ a are the ordinates of points of (7) and of
the straight lines y = x respectively, then
w 7
oa
whence Lim (# a
Hence, by prolonging the straight lines and the curve indefi
nitely, we can make them come as near together as we please.
Now, when a straight line has such a position with respect
to a curve that as the two are indefinitely prolonged the dis
tance between them approaches zero as a limit, the straight line
is called an asymptote of the curve. It follows that the lines
y = x and y => as are asymptotes of the hyperbola (Fig. 39).
(t CL
If we had solved (5) for a in terms of y, the result would
have been
(8)
90 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
from which it appears that all values may be assigned to #, and.
that OT is also an axis of symmetry of the hyperbola.
The points A' and A in which one axis of the hyperbola inter
sects the hyperbola are called the vertices, and the portion of the
axis extending from A' to A is called the transverse axis. The
point midway between the vertices is called the center ; that is,
is the center of the hyperbola, and it can readily be shown
that any chord of the hyperbola which passes through O is
bisected by that point. The other axis of the hyperbola, which
is perpendicular to the transverse axis, is called the conju
gate axis. This axis does not intersect the curve, as is evident
from the figure, but it is useful in fixing the asymptotes and
thus determining the shape of the curve for large values of x.
From the definition of 5, c = Va 2 + 6 2 , and the coordinates of
the foci are (V 2 +5 2 , 0). Therefore
If we define the eccentricity of the hyperbola as the ratio
OF , , _
> we have a = ^+* ( 1 0)
a quantity which is evidently always greater than unity.
Similarly, the equation 2
is the equation of a hyperbola, with its center at 0, its trans
verse axis on OF, and its conjugate axis on OX. Then the ver
tices are the points (0, 5), the foci are the points (0, V& 2 +a 2 ),
the asymptotes are the straight lines y = #, and e = 7"
Cv
If 5 = a, in either (5) or (11), the equation of the hyperbola
assumes the form
a 2 2/ 2 =a 2 or ya^=:a a , (12)
and the hyperbola is called an equilateral "hyperbola. The equa
tions of the asymptotes become y =* x ; and as these lines
are perpendicular to each other, the hyperbola is also called a
rectangular hyperbola.
CURVES
EXERCISES
91
Plot the following hyperbolas, finding the vertices, the foci, the
asymptotes, and the eccentricity of each .
2. 9o; a 4?/ a =36. 5.
3. 32/ a 2jc a =6 6.
7. Find the equation of the hyperbola having its foci at the points
(0, 0) and (4, 0), and the difference of the distances of any point on
it from, the foci equal to 2.
8. The foci of a hyperbola are at the points ( 4, 2) and (4, 2),
and the difference of the distances of any point on it from the foci
is 4. Eind the equation of the hyperbola, and plot.
33. Other curves. In the discussion of the parabola, the ellipse,
and the hyperbola, the axes of symmetry and the asymptotes
were of considerable assistance in constructing the curves ; more
over, the knowledge that there could be no points of the curve
in certain parts of the plane decreased the labor of drawing
the curves. We shall now plot the loci of a few equations,
noting in advance whether the curve is bounded in any direc
tion or has any axes of symmetry or asymptotes. In this way
we shall be able to anticipate to a con ^
siderable extent the form of the curve.
Ex. 1. (y + 3) a = (x  2) a (a; + 1).
Solving for y, we have
In the first place, we see that the only
values that may be assigned to x are greater
than 1, and hence the curve lies entirely on
the positive side of the line x = 1. Further
more, corresponding to every value of a?, there
are two values of y which determine two points at equal distances from
the line y = 8. Hence we conclude that the line y 8 is an axis of
symmetry of the curve.
Assigning values to x and locating the points determined, we draw the
curve (JFig. 40).
< 49
92 ALGEBKAIO FUNCTIONS
Ex. 2. xy = 4.
4.
Solving foi y, we have y = 
x
It is evident, then, that we may assign to x any real value except xero,
in which case we should be asked to divide 4 by 0, a process that cannot
be carried out. Consequently, there can be no point of the curve on the
line # = 0; that is, on OY. We may,
however, assume values for x as near
to zero as we wish, and the nearer they
are to zero, the nearer the corresponding
points are to OF; but as the points
come nearer to OY they recede along
the curve. Hence OF is an asymptote x^
of the curve.
If we solve for x, we have
Fm. 41
and, reasoning as above, we conclude
that the line y = (that is, the axis OX) is also an asymptote of the curve.
The curve is drawn in Fig. 41. It is a special case of the curve
xy = k, where k is a ical constant which may be either positive or negative,
and is, in fact, a i octangular hyperbola leferiod to its asymptotes as axes.
It is customaiy to say that when the denominator of a fraction is SMTO,
the value of the fraction becomes infinite The curve just constructed
shows graphically what is meant by such
an expiession.
Ex. 3. sry + 2 or + y 1 = 0.
Solving for y, we have
y
from which we conclude that the line
a? = 1 is an asymptote of the curve.
Solving for x, we have
Fio. 42
2+y
from which we conclude that the line ?/= 2 is also an asymptote of the curve.
We accordingly draw these two asymptotes (Fig. 42) and the curve
through the points determined by assigning values to either x or y and
computing the corresponding values of the other vai table.
The curve is, in fact, a rectangular hyperbola, with the lines x 1
and y SB 2 as its asymptotes.
CUEVES
Ex.4.
a 8
X
Solving for y, we have
Vx*
5 '
2a~a;
whence it is evident that the curve is sym
metrical with respect to OX The lines x
and x = 2 a, corresponding to tlie values of a?
which make the numuiatoi and the denomi
nator of the fraction under the ladical sign
lespectively zero, divide the plane into three
stups; and only values between and 2 a
can be substituted for y, since all other values
make y imaginaiy. It follows that the curve
lies entirely in the strip bounded by the two
lines x and x 2 a.
By the same reasoning that was used in
Exs 2 and 3, it can be shown that the line
x = 2 a is an asymptote of the curve.
The curve, which is called a cuboid, is drawn
in Fig. 43.
EXERCISES
Plot the following curves :
1. 2/ a =o; 8
2. 2/ a =aj a (te + 4).
3. 2/ a =4(o;8).
4. y a =a: a 5ccf 6.
6. y z = a) (a? 2 4).
6. / a =aj 8
FIG. 43
7. y a =
8. 7/ 2 =4 a?.
9. xy 5.
10. 3y oj// =
11. xij 2aj +
34. Theorems on limits. In. obtaining more general formulas
for differentiation, the following theorems on limits will be
assumed without formal proof :
1. The limit of the sum of a finite number of variables is equal
to the. sum of the limits of the variables.
2. The limit of the product of a finite number of variables is
egual to the product of the limits of the variables.
94 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
3. The limit of a constant multiplied by a variable is equal to
the constant multiplied by the limit of the variable.
4. The limit of the quotient of two variables is equal to the
quotient of the limits of the variables, provided the limit of the
divisor is not zero.
35. Theorems on derivatives. In order to extend the process
of differentiation to functions other than polynomials, we shall
need the following theorems :
1. The derivative of a constant is zero.
This theorem was proved m 8.
2. The derivative of a constant times a function is equal to the
constant times the derivative of the function.
Let u be a function of x which can be differentiated, let c be
a constant, and place ,. _ .
* U ^ G&6i
Give x an increment Ax, and let AM and Ay be the corre
sponding increments of u and y. Then
Ay = c (u + AM) cu =s c AM.
TT Ay AM
Hence  = <,
Ax Ax
and, by theorem 3, 34,
T . Ay T . AM
Lim T C Lim 
Ax Ax
Therefore ~i~ c T~
ax dx
by the definition of a derivative.
Ex. 1. y = 5 (a; 3 + 3 x z + 1).
3. The derivative of the sum of a finite number of functions is
egual to the sum of the derivatives of the functions.
Let M, v, and w be three functions of x which can be differen
tiated, and let
DERIVATIVES 95
Give x an increment Aa;, and let the corresponding increments
of u, t>, w, and y be AM, Av, Aw, and A#. Then
Ay = (M H Aw + v + At) + w + Aw) (w + v + w)
= Aw + Aw + Aw ;
1 Ay AM , Aw , Aw
whence ^ = 7 + T~~ + 7
A# Aa; Aa; Aa;
Now let Aa; approach zero. By theorem 1, 34,
, . Ay T . AM , T A0 . 7 Aw
Lini ^ = Lim   + Lim  + Lim  ;
Aa; Ax Ax Ax
that is, by the definition, of a derivative,
dy __ du dv dw
duo dx dx dx
The proof is evidently applicable to any finite number of
functions.
Ex. 2. y = x*  3 x s + 2 x z  7x.
4. The derivative of the product of a finite number of functions
is equal to the sum of the products obtained "by multiplying the
derivative of each factor by all the other factors.
Let u and v be two functions of x which can be differentiated,
andlet y = uv.
Give x an increment Aa;, and let the corresponding increments
of u, v, and y be Aw, Av, and A#.
Then Ay (it + Aw) (v + Av) uv
= u Av + v AM + AM Av
, Ay Av Au . AM A
and = w * + T~ + T" ^
Aa? Ax Ax Ax
96 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
If, now, Ax approaches zero, we have, by 34,
r Aw T . Aw , T Aw , T . AM T . A
Lim ~ = u Lim  + v Lim  + Lim  Lim Aw.
Ao; Aa; Aa; Are
But Lim Aw = 0,
. ,, P dy dv , du
and theretore ^ = w 4 w
ax ax ax
Again, let y = uvw.
Regarding uv as one function and applying the result already
obtained, we have
dy dw , d(uv)
JL = m  + w +
dx ax at
dw \ du . <
= uv=)w\u + v
dx \_ dx t
tu?
dw dv du
= UV + UW f VW r
ax dx dx
The proof is clearly applicable to any finite numbers of factors.
Ex. 3. y = 3a:
dx
= (3 x  5) (z" + 1) (3 a; 2 ) + (3 x  5)a; 8 (2 a;) + (a: 2 + I)* 8 (3)
= (18 a; 8  25 a; 2 + 12 a:  15)a: 2
5. The derivative of a fraction is equal to t7ie denominator times
the derivative of the numerator minus the numerator times the deriva
tive of the denominator, all divided ty the square of the denominator.
nt
Let y > where u and v are two functions of x which can be
v
differentiated. Give x an increment Aa;, and let Aw, Av, and A?/
be the corresponding increments of w, v, and y. Then
. _ u + Aw _ u _ v Aw w Aw
vfA'y w w a +'uAw
An Az>
w  u
and % = A.; A^^
Ao: v a + w Aw
DERIVATIVES 97
Now let A* approach zero. By 34,
T . AM T . A?J
v Liin   u Lim 
A/ A Aa;
Lim  = ,, T . , >
Aa; tr+vLmiAv
du dv
01 _________ rilj _ l rty ,
efa/ <fcc difo
whence  =
dx v*
T 8 1
Ex.4. y = ~ ~
J x* + l
(^_(a, 2 + l)(27:)(a; 2 l)2r_ 4 .1?
dx (x* + I) 3 (a,' J + I) 2
6. TJie derivative of the nth power of a function is obtained ly
multiplying n times the (nT)th power of the function ly the
derivative of the function.
Let y = u n , where u is any function of x which can be differ
entiated and n is a constant. We need to distinguish four cases :
CASE I. When n is a positive integer.
Give x an increment Aa, and let AM and A?/ be the corre
sponding increments of u and y. Then
Ay = (u 4 Aw)" u n ;
whence, by the binomial theorem,
A?/ n _iAw , n(n 1) B _ 2A AM ,
^L = nu n l ~ H ft y w w 2 Au h .
Aa; Aa? 2 Aa; ' Aa;
Now let Aa;, AM, A?/ approach zero, and apply theorems 1 and
2, 34. The limit of ^ is ^ the limit of ~ i s ^*, and the
Aa; a* Aa; ajc
limit of all terms except the first on the righthand side of
the last equation is zero, since each contains the factor AM.
Therefore d du
^. = nw n ~ 1  T  <
ax dx
08 ALGEBKAIC FUNCTIONS
CASE II. When n is a positive rational fraction.
ny
Let n = where p and q are positive integers, and place
By raising both sides of this equation to the gth power, we have
y=u.
Here we have two functions of x which are equal for all
values o x.
Taking the derivative of both sides of the last equation, we
have, by Case I, since p and q are positive integers,
^1^==*^.
yy dx P dx
Substituting the value of y and dividing, we have
f^itf 1 **.
* dx q dx
Hence, in this case also,
dy _ ,du
^ nu n ~ l
dx ax
CASE III. When n is a negative rational number.
Let n m, where m is a positive number, and place
ys=U~ m s= 
9 u m
Then ^= ** (by 5)
dx u zm
mu m ~ l
= (by Cases I and II)
u
mu~ m ~^~r
dx
Hence, ui this case also,
d_ _i^w
dx dx
DERIVATIVES 99
CASE IV. When n is an irrational number.
The formula is true in this case also, but the proof will not
be given.
It appears that the theorem is true for all real values of n.
It may be restated as a workingrule in the following words:
To differentiate a power of any quantity, bring down the exponent
as a coefficient, write the quantity with an exponent one less, and
multiply ly the derivative of the quantity.
Ex. 5. y = (x s + 4 x*  5 x + 7) s .
^ = 3 (a: 8 + 4 a 2  5 x + 7) 2 f (a; 3 + 4 x z  5 x + 7)
tlJG U3S
= 3 (So; 2 + Bx  5) (.e 3 + 4a: 2  5 x + 7) 3 .
Ex. 6. y = Vtf + . = ^ + x
*
dx 3
2 3
*'
Ex. 7. y = (a: + l)Va; 8
= (z + 1) [ J (a; 2 + I)" *  2 ar] + (a 2 +
1
(a 2 + !)
2 a 8 + x 4 1
Y /Li
100 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
7. If y is a function of x, then x is a function of y, and the
derivative of x with respect to y is the reciprocal of the derivative
of y with respect to x.
Let A# and A?/ be corresponding increments of x and y. It is
immaterial whether b*.x is assumed and A?/ determined, or A#
is assumed and Aa; determined. In either case
A.r 1
A^~"Ay'
Aa;
. _. A,r 1
whence Lun = A ;
Ay T A?/
' Lim 
Aas
dx 1
that is,  = 
8. If y is a function of u and u v' function of a*, then y is
a function of x, and the derivative of y with respect to x is equal
to the product of the derivative of y with respect to u and the
derivative of u with respect to x.
An increment Aa; determines an increment Aw, and this in turn
determines an increment Ay, Then, evidently,
A?/ __ A?/ Aw
Ax Aw A:#
, T . Aw , . A?/ T . AM
whence Lim ~ = Lim  Lim . ;
A:B A?t Arc
, , , . dy dy du
that is, ^ .X. .
dx du dx
Ex. 9. w a u 3 + 8 u + 1, whoro w = 
1+
The same result is obtained by fmbHtituting in the expression for y the
value of u in terms of a; and then differentiating.
DERIVATIVES 101
36. Formulas. We may now collect our formulas of differen
tiation in the following table :
^ = 0, (1)
dx
rf co = tf *, C2 )
dx dv
d(u4v) _du dv n
dx dx dx
d Cuv) dv , du , , ,
\  U T + V 1T' ( 4 )
dx dx dx
, /?/\ du dv
d() v  M
\v/ dx dx
dy^y. d* t /g)
dx du dx ^ ^
dy
^ = (9)
dx dx
du
Formula (9) is a combination of (7) and (8).
The first six formulas may be changed to corresponding for
mulas for differentials by multiplying both sides of each equation
by dx. They are 7 n _<  v
J J da = 0, (10)
(11)
Zw, (12)
d (uv) udv + v du, (1 3)
w\ vdu udv
102 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
EXERCISES
Find ~ in each of the following oases :
2. y s (a; 2  2 1 + 3) (a: 3 +60: + 9).
14.
Hl
"**
7 .
8 X?/ = (4 jr fl + 3 x + I) 3 
4 X* + 1.
16. > re V<.)
17 ' '/ = (' +
18.
37. BijEferentiatlon of implicit functions. Consider any equa
tion containing two variables a? and ,?/, If one of them, EH jr, in
chosen as the independent variable and a value is assigned in
it, the values of y are determined, Hence tho given equation
defines y as a function of rr. If the equation is solved for y in
terms of a, y is called an earpKoit function of x, If the equation
is not solved for y, y is (jailed an implidt function of #* For
example, ^+8aM4y + 4^ + 2^ + 4^0,
which may be written
# 9 + (4 aj + 2)y + (8 .K 9  4 4 4) 0,
defines y as an implicit function of a?.
If the equation is solved for y, the renult
# 2j lVa^T8
expresses y as an explicit function of #.
IMPLICIT FUNCTIONS 103
If it is required to find the derivative of an implicit function,
the equation may be differentiated as given, the result being an
equation which may be solved algebraically for the derivative.
This method is illustrated in the following examples :
Ex. 1. z 2 + 2 = 5.
If x is the independent variable,
that is, 2 x + 2 y = 0,
dx
whence Jl = .
dx y
Or the derivative may be found by taking the differential of both sides,
as follows: + /) = d(5) = 0;
that is, 2 xdx + 2 ydy = 0,
whence ^=_.
dx y
It is also possible first to solve the given equation f or y, thus .
y = V5ff 2 ;
whence
rfa; V5 a: 8
a result evidently equivalent to the result previously found.
The method of finding the second derivative of an implicit
function is illustrated in the following example :
Ex. 2. Find ^f if a a + f = 5
(IJS
We know from Ex. 1 that ^L = _ 2 .
dx y
Therefore fSUfLft
dor ax \y/
.**(!)
_ ?y a + a 8 _ 5
f 2/ 8 '
since ^ 2 + a; 2 = 5, from the given equation
104 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
EXERCISES
"Find ~ from each of tho following equations :
CtJC
1. a* + /  3 *y = 0. 3. v/ = ~~
j  //
2. aj 2 // f 4 V = 8 a 9 . 4. V // + ' + V ^ ,r  .
Pind ^ and l ~. from each oJ' tho following (wuiationa :
6. 2x a
6. 4 a 3 9v/ a =3C.
7 . ai+jfa. io 
8. a* + * = <A 11.
38. Tangent line. Let J^C^'j, ^O bo a clioHou point, of any
curve, and lot (^) bo the value of '/ when aj=sw ( . and ;/://,.
V ^V v / // >* ^ ^
/x..\ VWi <M
Then f^J is the slopo oC tho curve at, iho point J^ and also
\dx/\
the slopo of tho tan gout line ( 1H) to tho ourvo at that point,
Accordingly, tho equation of the tangout line at J{ m ( 15)
Ex. 1. Find tho equation (if tho lungojit lino to tho parabola / 8 ss JJ .r at
tho point (3, ).
By differentiation wo have
whence //SB.'.,
. ti //
Hence, at tho point (3, JJ), tho Hlopn of tho tangont lino is J, and itH
equation is y31 (*)
or ar 2 ?/ + 3 = 0.
The angle of mteraeotion of two curves is tho angle betwoon
their respective tangontu at the point of iutenwotiun. The
method of finding tho anglo of intersection i illustrated in the
example on. tho following pago*
TANGENT LINE 105
Ex. 2. Find the angle of intersection of the cncle # 2 + # 2 = 8 and of
the parabola ar 2 = 2 y. v
The points of intersection are P l (2, 2)
and />( 2, 2) (Fig 44), and fioiu the sym ^
nietry of the diagram it is evident, that the
angles of intersection at P l and P z aie the
same.
Diffeientiating the equation of the circle,
we have 2 JT + 2 y = 0, whence = ;
' (Ijc ux y
and differentiating the equation of tlTb pa
labola, we find = i. Fid 44
Hence at P i the slope of the tangent to the circle 1 is 1, and the slope
of the tangent to the parabola is 2
Accordingly, if /? denotes the angle of intersection, by Ex 11, p 35,
or y = tan~ 1 3.
EXERCISES
1. Find the equation of the tangent lino to the ourve x 8
+ 16 y  8 = at the point (2, 2).
2. Find the equation of the tangent lino to the p,urve 5 a; 2 4 a 2 //
= 4 y 8 at the point (2,1).
3. Find the point at which the tangent to the curve 8 y = a; 8 at
(1, &) intersects the curve again.
4. Find the angle of intersection of the tangents to the curve
y z = x 9 at the points for which x = 1
9T If
5. Show that the equation of the tangent to the ellipse ~j + ^ = 1
at the point (a^, y,) is + M = L
6. Show that the equation of the tangent to the hyperbola
  j = 1 at the point fo, ^) is ^  %& = I.
Y. Show that the equation of the tangent to the parabola ?/ = kx
1:
at the point (x lt y^ is y$ = ^ (as + a 1 ,).
Draw eacli pair of the following curves in one diagram and deter
mine the angles at which, they intersect :
106 ALCKEBRAK! FUNCTIONS
8. a: 9 + y j = S, a 9 + if  U ^ H 4 >/  f> 0.
9. a; a = 3 #, U // a 8 a.
10. y fl ~ 4 '; <* 'I' //"  fi
11. y = 2.r, .<// 18.
12. x 4 // J 0, .r   1 j' 4 if 0.
13. aj a +y 9 ~2, l >, .<' a // ".
39. The differentials <?#, dy, ds. On any given <uw lit tin
distance from somo Jixod initiul point moasmvd alnnjjf the cur\i
to any point P bo donoiwd by , whcro is posit.ivt* if /' lifs in
one direction from the initial point, and negative if /' lies in I In
apposite direction. Tho (jlit)ico of tho ^
positive direction is purely arbitrary. ./
We shall take as the positive direc
tion of the tangent that which shown
the positive direction of the ourvo,
and shall denote the angle between //
the positive direction of (L\ and the '
positive direction of the tangent by 0,
Now for a fixed curve and a fixed
initial point the position of a point /' p, (Ji
is determined if a is given. Hence &
and y, the coordinates of J\ are functions of which in
are continuous and may bo differentiated. \V Hhall now Mhuw tlmt
dx , dy . ,
7 COS G>,  aa BUI O,
ds </
Let arcP0=Afl (Fig. 45), whenj 7* and Q are so <hnm thai
As is positive. Then 1'R AJJ and A*<y A^/, and
'/f
As arc /'( tiro /%; chord /</
" 00
Aa
chord PQ
MOTION IN A CURVE 107
We shall assume without proof that the ratio of a small chord
to its arc is very nearly equal to unity, and that the limit of
"=1 as the point Q approaches the point P along the
curve. At the same time the limit of RPQ = <f>. Hence, taking
limits, we have dx d
^ = cos & ^ = sm ^ (1)
ttrO l*O
If the notation of differentials is used, equations (1) become
dx = ds cos 0, dyds' sin $ ;
whence, by squaring and adding, we obtain the important equation
ds = dx + dy . (2)
This relation between the differentials of #, y, and s is often rep
resented by the triangle of Fig. 46. This figure is convenient as a
device for memorizing formulas (1) and (2), but it should be borne
m mind that RQ is not rigorously y
equal to dy ( 20), nor is PQ rigor
ously equal to ds. In fact, RQ = Ay,
and PQ = As ; but if this triangle is
regarded as a plane right triangle,
we recall immediately the values of
sin^>, cos<, and tan< which have
been previously proved.
40. Motion ia a curve. When a o JL
, , . .IT FIG. 46
body moves m a curve, the discus
sion of velocity and acceleration becomes somewhat complicated,
as the directions as well as the magnitudes of these quantities
need to be considered. We shall not discuss acceleration, but
shall notice that the definition for the magnitude of the velocity,
or the speed, is the same as before (namely,
ds
V=S 3I'
dt
where s is distance measured on the curved path) and that the
direction of the velocity is that of the tangent to the curve.
108 ALGEBRAIC I UNCTIONS
Moreover, as the body moves along a curved path through a
distance PQ=&s (Fig. 47), x changes by an amount PII&K,
and y changes by an amount
RQ=&y. We have then
Lim = ^ = <y = velocity of
A at
the body in its path,
Ax dx ,
Lim = 7 = v x = component
At dt
of velocity parallel to OX,
Lim ^ = ^ = v v = component
At dt J r FIG 47
of velocity parallel to Y.
Otherwise expressed, v represents the velocity of P, v r the
velocity of the projection of P upon 03T, and v v the velocity
of the projection of P on OY.
Now, by (8), 36, and by 39,
_ dx _ dx ds
x dt ds dt
= V COS <, (1)
, dy dy ds
and v. . ~ = *
y dt ds dt
= v sm <p. (2)
Squaring and adding, we have
v*=v*+ V ;. (3)
Formulas (1), (2), and (3) are of especial value when a par
ticle moves in the plane XO F, and the coordinates x and y of
its position at any time t are each given as a function of t. The
path of the moving particle may then be determined as follows :
Assign any value to t and locate the point corresponding to
the values of x and y thus determined. This will evidently be
the position of the moving particle at that instant of time. In
this way, by assigning successive values to t we can locate
other points through which the particle is moving at the corre
sponding instants of time. The locus of the points thus deter
mined is a curve which, is evidently the path of the particle.
MOTION IN A CURVE 109
The two equations accordingly represent the curve and are
called its parametric representation, the variable t being 1 called a
parameter.* By (9), 36, the slope of the curve is given by
the formula j al
dx d v x
dt
In. case t can be eliminated from the two given equations, the
result is the (#, /) equation of the curve, sometimes called the
Cartesian equation; but such ehmmation is not essential, and
often is not desirable, particularly if the velocity of the particle
in its path is to be determined.
Ex. 1. A particle moves m the plane XOY so that at any time t,
a; = a + bt, y = c + dt,
where a, &,' c, and d are any real constants Determine its path and its
velocity in its path
To determine the path we eliminate t from the given equations, with
the result
d f ..
y c = (x d),
the equation of a straight line passing through the point (a, c) with the
i d
slope 
In this case the path may also be determined as follows Fiom the given
equations we find dx l dt, and dy ddt\ whence = ' As the slope of
/ rA *'
the path is always the same (that is, I, the path must be a straight line
which passes through the point (a, c) the point determined when t = 0.
To determine the velocity of the particle in its path we find, by differ
entiating the given equations,
dx , di/ .
v *=jr l > v = dt = d >
whence, by (3), v = V& 2 H d\
Hence the particle moves along the straight line with a constant velocity.
* It may be noted m passing that the parameter in the parametiic represen
tation of a curve is not necessarily time, but may be any third variable in terms
of which a and y can be expressed.
110 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
Ex. 2. If a projectile starts with an initial velocity v in an initial direc
tion which makes an angle a with the axis of x taken as horizontal, its
position at any time t is given by the parametnc equations
x v t cos a, y = v t sin a \ gt z .
JTind its velocity in its path.
dx
We have v x = = v cos a,
at
dy
v v = ~f t ~'
Hence = Vi> 2 gv t sin a + g*P.
EXERCISES
1. The coordinates of the position of a moving particle at any
time t are given by the equations x = 2 1, y t s Determine the path.
of the particle and its speed in its path
2. The coordinates of the position of a moving particle at any
time t are given by the equations x t 2 , y = t + 1 Determine the
path of the particle and its speed in its path.
3. The coordinates of the position of a moving particle at any
time t are given by the equations x = 2 1, y == f t $ t*. Determine
the path of the particle and its speed in its path.
4. At what point of its path will the particle of Ex. 3 be moving
most slowly ?
5. The coordinates of the position of a moving particle at any
time t are given by the equations x = ? 3, y t 9 + 2. Determine
the path of the particle and its speed in its path
6. The coordinates of the position of a moving particle at any
time t are given by the equations x = 4 &, y 4 (1 t) 2 . Determine
the path of the particle and its speed in its path.
7. Find the highest point in the path of a projectile.
8. Find the point in its path at Trhich the speed of a projectile
is a minimum.
9. Find the range (that is, the distance to the point at which
the projectile will fall on OX), the velocity at that point, and the
angle at which the projectile will meet OX.
10. Show that in general the same range may be produced by
two different values of a, and find the value of which produces
the greatest range.
11. Find the (a, y) equation of the path of a projectile, and plot.
VELOCITIES AND RATES 111
41. Related velocities and rates. Another problem of some
what different type arises when we know the velocity of one
point iii its path, which may be straight or curved, and wish to
find the velocity of another point which is in some way con
nected vviUi tho first but, in general, describes a different path.
The method, in general, is to form an equation connecting the
distances traveled by the two points and then to differentiate
tho equation thus formed with respect to the time t. The result
is an equation connecting the velocities of the two points.
Ex. 1 A lump is 00 ft. above tho ground. A stone is let drop from a
point on tho same lovol us the lamp and 20 ft, away from. it. Find the speed
of the stone's shadow on the ground
at the end of 1 HOC., assuming that the
distance traversed by a falling body in
the time t is 1(5 < a .
Lot A C (Fig, 48) be tho surface of
tho ground which is assumed to be a
homontal plane, L the position of the
lamp, the point from which the stone
was dropped, and S the position of the _
stone at any time t. Then Q is the posi ^ I0 4g
tion of the shadow of S on the ground,
LSQ being a straight line. Let OS = x and BQ, = ?/. Then L = 20, BO = 60,
and BS = 60 a?. In the similar triangles LOS and SBQ,
whence y SB ~ 20. (2)
7 ^ 3
We know x =16 < a , whence ~ = 82 1 ; and wish to find ?, the velocity of Q.
at at
Difterontiating (2) with respect to t, we have
dt x* dt
When / s= 1 sec,, x =s 16, and ~ =s 82 ; whence, by substitution, we find
at
~& ss 150 ft. per second.
dt
The result is negative because y is decreasing as time goes on.
In 6 and 11, if the rate of one of two related quantities
was known, we were able to find the rate of the other quantity.
112 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
This type of problem may also be solved by the same method
by which the problem of related velocities has been solved.
We shall illustrate by taking the same problem that was used
in 11.
Ex. 2. Water is being poured at the rate of 100 cu. in. per second into
a vessel in the shape of a right circulai cone of radius 3 in. and altitude
9 iu. Required the rate at which the depth of the water is increasing when
the depth is 6 in.
As in 11, we have V = ^ irh a ;
dV 1 , z d1i
whence ^ = * ^
We have given = 100, h = 6 ; from which we compute
^ = 25 =796 .
dt v
EXERCISES
1. A point is moving on the curve y 2 = sc s The velocity along
OX is 2 ft. per second What is the velocity along OY when x = 2 ?
2. A ball is swung in a circle at the end of a cord 3 ft long so
as to make 40 revolutions per minute. If the cord breaks, allowing
the ball to fly off at a tangent, at what rate will it be receding from
the center of its previous path 2 sec after the cord breaks, if no
allowance is made for the action of any new force ?
3. The mside of a vessel is in the form of an inverted regular
quadrangular pyramid, 4 ft square at the top and 2 ft deep. The
vessel is originally filled with water which leaks out at the bottom
at the rate of 10 cu. in. per minute. How fast is the level of the
water falling when the water is 10 in. deep ?
4. The top of a ladder 20 ft long slides down the side of a ver
tical wall at a speed of 3 ft per second. The foot of the ladder slides
on horizontal land. Find the path described by the middle point of
the ladder, and its speed in its path.
5. A boat with the anchor fast on the bottom at a depth of 40 ft.
is drifting at the rate of 3 mi per hour, the cable attached to the
anchor slipping over the end of the boat At what rate is the cable
leaving the boat when 50 ft of cable are out, assuming it forms a
straight line from the boat to the anchor ?
GENERAL EXERCISES 113
6. A solution is being pouied into a conical filter at the rate of
5 cc per second and is running out at the rate of 2 cc. per second.
The radius of the top of the filter is 8 cm and the depth of the filter
is 20 cm. Find the rate at which the level of the solution is rising
in the filter when it is one third of the way to the top.
7 . A trough is in the form of a right prism with its ends isosceles
triangles placed vertically. It is 5 ft long, 1 ft across the top, and
8 in. deep It contains water which leaks out at the rate of 1 qt.
(57 cu. in ) per minute Find the rate at which, the level of the
water is sinking in the trough when the depth is 3 in.
8. The angle between the straight lines AB and BC is 60, and
AB is 40 ft. long. A particle at A begins to move along AB toward
B at the rate of 5 ft per second, and at the same time a particle at
B begins to move along BC toward C at the rate of 4 ft per second. At
what rate are the two particles approaching each, other at the end
of 1 sec *
9. The foot of a ladder 50ft. long rests on horizontal ground, and
the top of the ladder rests against the side of a pyramid which makes
an angle of 120 with the ground. If the foot of the ladder is drawn
directly away from the base of the pyramid at the uniform rate
of 2 ft. per second, how fast will the top of the ladder slide down
the side of the pyramid ?
GENERAL EXERCISES
Plot the curves :
1. 3 a 2 + 7 f = 21 9. ? / 2 (4 + or 2 ) = cc 2 (4  a 2 ).
2. 4?/ a == 9.r. z a, x
* 10. ?/ = a; a  .
3. 9a; 2 y*=lG. a + x
4. 2/ a  2 y = a; 8 + 2 a?  1. n
_ 8 a 8 12.
y rf+4a"' IS.
6.
7, (7/a J ) 2 =9a ! 2 > == ^T4*
8. (* + yf f(y + 2). 15. xY + 36 = 16 f
Find the turningpoints of the following curves and plot the curves
16. y = (2 + oO(4  a,) 2 . = (x  I) 3
17. y = (x + 3) 2 (a:  2). ' J JB + 1 '
a 03 ,
 at
x
114 ALGKEBBAIC FUNCTIONS
20. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve f = x z ~
/ 3 a 6a\
the point ( g> ~6/
21. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x* + y* = *
at the point (a;.,^, 3^).
22. Prove that if a tangent to a parabola ?/ 2 = 7o has the slope ?;?,
its point of contact is (j 5, ^) and therefore its equation is
A 4 VTE 7/t' J& tfvj
a 2
JE ?/
23. Prove that if a tangent to an ellipse + ~ = 1 has the slope m,
ft U
its point of contact is ( * m ,^ , & 2 ) and therefore
^ \ Vrt 2 ?^ 2 + 6 2 V arm 2 + 67
its equation is y = wcc Va 2 m 2 + i 2
24. Show that a tangent to a parabola makes equal angles with
the axis and a line from the focus to the point of contact.
25. Show that a tangent to an ellipse makes equal angles with the
two lines drawn to the foci from the point of contact
Find the angles of intersection of the following pairs of curves .
26. , =
~
28. a; 2 =
29. a: 2 4y4=0, a? + 12y  36 = 0.
30. 2/ ! =o; 8 } 2/ ! =(2a;) 8 .
31.
32.
33. The coordinates of a moving particle are given by the equa
tions x tf 3 , y = (1 tf 2 )^. Find its path and its velocity in its
path.
34. A particle moves so that its coordinates at the time t are
2
x = 2t, y = . . Find its path and its velocity in its path.
35. A projectile so moves that x = at, y = bt ^g^. Find its
path and its velocity in its path.
GENERAL EXERCISES 115
36. A body so moves that x = 2 + tf$, y = 1 f t. Find its path
and its velocity in its path.
37. A particle is moving along the curve if 4. x; and when as = 4,
its ordmate is increasing at the rate of 10 ft. per second. At what
rate is the abscissa then changing, and how fast is the particle moving
in the curve ? Where will the abscissa be changing ten times as fast
as the ordmate ?
38. A particle describes the circle o; a +y a =a 2 with a constant
speed v . Find the components of its velocity.
39. A particle describes the parabola y 2 = 4 ax in such a way that
its acomponent of velocity is equal to ct Find its ycomponent of
velocity and its velocity in its path.
40. A particle moves so that x = 2 1, y = 2 "Vt & Show that it
moves around a semicircle in the time from t = to t = 1, and find
its velocity in its path during that time.
41. At 12 o'clock a vessel is sailing due north at the uniform rate
of 20 mi. an hour. Another vessel, 40 mi. north of the first, is sailing
at the uniform rate of 15 mi an hour on a course 30 north of east.
At what rate is the distance between the two vessels diminishing at
the end of one hour ? What is the shortest distance between the
two vessels ?
42. The top of a ladder 32 ft. long rests against a vertical wall,
and the foot is drawn along a horizontal plane at the rate of 4 ft.
per second in a straight line from the wall. Find the path of a
point on the ladder one third of the distance "from the foot of the
ladder, and its velocity in its path.
43. A man standing on a wharf 20 ft. above the water pulls in a
rope, attached to a boat, at the uniform rate of 3 ft. per second Find
the velocity with which the boat approaches the wharf
44. The volume and the radius of a cylindrical boiler are expand
ing at the rate of .8 cu. ft. and .002 ft. per minute respectively. How
fast is the length of the boiler changing when the boiler contains
40 cu. ft. and has a radius of 2 ft. ?
45. The inside of a cistern is in the form of a frustum of a regular
quadrangular pyramid. The bottom is 40 ft. square, the top is 60 ft.
square, and the depth is 10 ft, If the water leaks out at the bottom
at the rate of 5 cu. ft. per minute, how fast is the level of the water
falling when the water is 5 ft, deep in the cistern ?
116 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
46. The inside of a cistern is in the form of a frustum of a right
circular cone of vertical angle 90. The cistern is smallest, at the
base, which is 4 ft in diameter. Water is being poured in at the rate
of 5 cu ft. per minute. How fast is the water rising in tho cistern
when it is 2 ft deep ?
47. The inside of a bowl is in the form of a hemispherical sur
face of radius 10 in If watei is running out of it at the iat,o of
2 eu in. per minute, how fast is the depth of the water decreasing
when the water is 3 in deep ?
48. How fast is the surface of the bowl in Ex 47 being exposed ?
49. The inside of a bowl 4 in deep and 8 in. across the top is in
the form of a surface of revolution formed by revolving a parabolic
segment about its axis Water is running into the bowl at the rate
of 1 cu in per second How fast is the water rising in the bowl
when it is 2 in deep ?
50. It is required to fence off a rectangular piece of ground to con
tain 200 sq ft , one side to be bounded by a wall already constructed.
Find the dimensions which will require the least amount of fencing.
51. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is given. Find the other
sides if the area is a maximum
52. The stiffness of a rectangular beam varies as the product of the
breadth and the cube of the depth. Find the dimensions of the stiffest
beam which can be cut from a circular cylindrical log of diameter 18 in.
53. A rectangular _plot of land to contain 384 sq. ft. is to be in
closed by a fence, and is to be divided into two equal lots by a fence
parallel to one of the sides What must be the dimensions of tho
rectangle that the least amount of fencing may be required ?
54. An open tank with a square base and vertical sides is to havo
a capacity of 500 cu ft Fiud the dimensions so that the cost of
lining it may be a minimum
55. A rectangular box with a square base and open at the top is
to be made out of a given amount of material. If no allowance is
made for thickness of material or for waste in construction, what are
the dimensions of the largest box which can be made ?
^ 56. A metal vessel, open at the top, is to be cast in the form of a
right circular cylinder. If rt is to hold 27 TT cu in , and the thickness
of the side and that of the bottom are each to be 1 in, what will be the
inside dimensions when the least amount of material is used ?
GENERAL EXERCISES 117
57 . A gallon oil can (231 cu in ) is io be made in the form, of a
right chcular cylinder. The material used for the top and the bottom
costs twice as much per square inch as the material used for the
side What is the radius of the most economical can that can be
made if no allowance is made for thickness of material or waste in
construction ?
58. A tent is to be constructed in the form of a regular quadran
gular pyiauucl Find the ratio of its height to a side of its babe when
the air space inside the tent is as great as possible for a given wall
surface
59. It is required to construct from two equal circular plates of
radius a a buoy composed of two equal cones having a common base.
Find the radius of the base when the volume is the greatest
60. Two towns, A and I>, are situated respectively 12 mi. and
18 mi. back from a straight river from which they are to get thoir
water supply by means of the same pumpingstation. At what point
on the bank of the river should the station be placed so that the least
amount of piping may be required, if the nearest points 011 the river
from A and B respectively are 20 mi. apart and if the piping goes
directly from the pumpingstation to each of the towns 9
61. A man 011 one side of a river, the banks of which are assumed
to be parallel straight lines mi apart, wishes to reach a point on
the opposite side of the river and 5 mi. further along the bank If
he can row 3 mi. an hour and travel on land 5 mi. an hour, find the
route he should take to make the trip in the least time.
62. A power house stands upon one side of a river of width I miles,
and a manufacturing plant stands upon the opposite side, a miles
downstream. Find the most economical way to construct the con
necting cable if it costs m, dollars per mile on land and n dollars a
mile through water, assuming the banks of the river to be parallel
straight lines.
63. A vessel A is sailing due east at the uniform rate of 8 mi.
per hour when she sights another vessel B directly ahead and 20 mi.
away. B is sailing in a straight course S. 30 W at the uniform rate
of 6 mi per hour. When will the two vessels be nearest to each other?
64. The number of tons of coal consumed per hour by a certain
ship is 0.2 + 0.001 v* } where v is the speed in miles per hour. Find
an expression for the amount of coal consumed on a voyage of
1000 mi. and the most economical speed at which to make the voyage.
118 ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS
65. The fuel consumed by a certain steamship in an hour is pro
portional to the cube of the velocity which would be given to the
steamship in still water. If it is required to steam a certain distance
against a current flowing a miles an hour, find the most economical
speed. a 2
66. An isosceles triangle is inscribed in the ellipse ^ 4 ~~ = 1,
Ct ()
(a > 6), with its vertex in the upper end of the minor axis o the
ellipse and its base parallel to the major axis Determine the length
of the base and the altitude of the triangle of greatest area whiuli
can be so inscribed.
CHAPTER V
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
42. Circular measure. The circular measure of an angle is the
quotient of the length of an arc of a circle, with its center at
the vertex of the angle and included between its sides, divided
by the radius of the arc. Thus, if 6 is the angle, a the length
of the arc, and r the radius, we have
~ CD
The unit of angle in this measurement is the radian, which
is the angle for which a r in (1), and any angle may be said
to contain a certain number of radians. But the quotient  in
r
formula (1) is an abstract number, and it is also customary to
speak of the angle 6 as having the magnitude  without using
the word radian. Thus, we speak of the angle 1, the angle ,
the angle > etc.
In all work involving calculus, and in most theoretical work
of any kind, all angles which occur are understood to be ex
pressed in radians. In fact, many of the calculus formulas would
be false unless the angles involved were so expressed. The
student should carefully note this fact, although the reason for
it is not yet apparent.
From this point of view such a trigonometric equation as
y = sin x (2)
may be considered as defining a functional relation between two
quantities exactly as does the simpler equation y a; 3 . For
we may, in (2), assign any arbitrary value to x and determine
the corresponding value of y. This may be done by a direct
119
120 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
computation (as will be shown in Chapter VII), or it may be
done by means of a table of trigonometric functions, in which
case we must interpret the value of x as denoting so many radians.
One of the reasons for expressing an angle in circular measure
is that it makes true the formula
*T bill fv *4 xrtx
Lim  = 1, (3)
A+0 fl
where the lefthand member of the equation is to be read
" the limit of ^y as h approaches zero as JB
a limit."
To prove this theorem we proceed as
follows: >. Ti '
Let h be the angle A OB (Fig. 49), r the ^ % \ x j //
radius of the arc AB described from as "" x ^j/
a center, a the length of AB, p the length B '
of the perpendicular BC from B to OA,
and t the length of the tangent drawn from B to meet OA
produced in D.
Revolve the figure on OA as an axis until B takes the position
B'. Then the chord BGB'=2p, the arc BAB' =2 a, and the
tangent B f D=tliG tangent BD. Evidently
BD + DB' > BAB' >BCB';
whence t>a>p.
Dividing through by r, we have
r r r
that is, tan h > h > sin h.
Dividing by sin A, we have
cos h sin A '
or, by inverting, cos h < ^ ^ < 1.
h
GRAPHS 121
Now as h approaches zero, cos h approaches 1. Hence r
ft
which lies between cos h and 1, must also approach 1 ; that is,
A  o n
This result may be used to find the limit of k as It
approaches zero as a limit For we have l
c\ a fl n /I 'I/
2 sin 3  sin 2  sm
1 cos h _ 2 2 _ h 2
A ~ h I 2 7t
2 2 ,
. h
sm
Now as h approaches zero as a limit, approaches unity,
by (3). Therefore h
r 1 cos h A . , .
Lira =0. (4)
AO 7i V '
43. Graphs of trigonometric functions. We may plot a trigo
nometric function by assigning values to x and computing, or
taking from a table, the corresponding values of y. In so doing,
any angle which may occur should be expressed in circular
measure, as explained m the previous section. In this connec
tion it is to be remembered that TT is simply the number 3.1416,
and that the angle w means an angle with that number of radians
and is therefore the angle whose degree measure is 180.
The manner of plotting can be best explained by examples.
Ex. 1. y = a sin fa
it is convenient first to fix the values of x which make y equal to aero
Now the sine is zero when the angle is 0, IT, 2 w, 3 IT, TT, 2 TT, on , iu
general, kv, where k is any positive or negative integer. To make y = 0,
therefore, we have to place bx = kv, whence
2w IT n TT 2ir 8w
* > r > U, ~)  , ~j > '.
b b b b b
The sine takes its maximum value + 1 when the angle has the values
if 5 TT OTT TT 5 TT TT
e>'~2"' ~n~' eifcc< a * * s > * n *k is case > "when x = > , ~, etc. For these
values of or, w = a
122
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
O rr .
The sine takes its minimum value 1 when the angle is ',  . etc. ,
q 17 _ ii 2
that is, in this case, when x = '  etc Foi these values of r, y = a.
20 2o
These values of x for which the sine is 1 lie halfway between the
values of x for which the sine is
7
FIG 50
These points on the graph are enough to determine its general shape
Other values of x may be used to fix the shape more exactly The graph
is shown in Fig 50, with a = 3 and I = 2 The curve may be said to repre
sent a wave. The distance from peak to peak, , is the wave length, and
the height a above OX is the amplitude
Ex 2. y = a cos Ix.
As in Ex 1, we fix first the points for which y = Now the cosine of
an angle is zero when the angle is > , , etc ; that is, any odd
multiple of \> We have, therefore, y = when
At
26'
STT
26'
Y
2b
FIG. 61
Halfway between these points the cosine has its maximum value + 1
or its minimum value  1 alternately, and y = a. The graph is shown
in Fig 51, with a = 3and& = 2
GKRAPHS
128
Ex. 3. y = a sin (bx + c).
We have y = when bx + c = 0, TT, 2 TT, 3 rr, c>tc.; that is, when
7 T
2ir
]?i&. 52
Halfway between these values of x tho HHIQ has its maximum value + 1
and its minimum value 1 alternately, and y db a. Tho tmvvo is tho
same as in Ex. 1, but is shifted ~ units to the loft (Fig. 52).
Ex, 4. y sin a; + 4 sin 2 ,x.
The graph is found by adding the ordinatcs of tho two curves y = sin x
and y ^ sin 2 x, as shown in Fig. 58.
Y
sin x+i sin 8*0
3?io. 68
EXERCISES
Plot the graphs of the following equations :
1. y us 2 sin 3 a:. 6. y
2. 7/ = 3oos 7  y
8, y
3. Ssinfaj ~V 9. 2/
^x 10. y
j. 11. y
tan 2 SB,
SOOCB.
4. ^2008
vers jr.
6. y *a 3 sin (as 2),
12,
gin
4. s i n
124 TKIGONOMETKIC FUNCTIONS
44. Differentiation of trigonometric functions. The formulas
for the differentiation of trigonometric functions are as follows,
where u represents any function of x which can be differentiated :
d . du
sinM = cosM 
dx dx
d du
cosM = sinw >
dx dx
d . 2 du
tan u = sec u >
dx dx
A ct n W = csc 2 w^, (4)
dx dx
d , du XCN
sec u = sec u tan u ( o)
dx dx
d , du X /J N
esc u = esc u ctn u (6)
dx dx
These formulas are proved as follows:
1. Let y sin w, where u is any function of a; which may be
differentiated. Give x an increment A and let AM and Ay be
the corresponding increments of u and y. Then
Ly = sin (u f Aw) sin w
= sin w cos AM + cos u sin A% sin u
= cos u sin AM (1 cos Aw) sin u ;
. AV sin AM 1 cos AM .
whence  = cos M sm M.
Au AM AM
Now let Ar and therefore AM approach zero. By (3), 42,
T sinAit ^ , , , A ^ , T . 1 cosAw A m . .
Lim  = 1, and, by (4), 42, Lim A = 0. Therefore
AM Aw
<fo/
~ = cos u.
du
But by (8), 36, ^ = K
dx dudx
and therefore ^ = cosw^
aa: dx
3
2. To find cos w, wo write
= sin u
rrn d d /
Then 7 cos u = ~ sm
?23 tfo
/7T \
?/ )
\2 /
'7T
= coal
3. To find  tan 7/, wo write
djc
, sin ?/
tan?< =
cos ?/,
,, . a
Then  tan u = ~
dx cos u
d , d
cos u  sin ? sin u ~ cos ?*
eos 4 tt
VVH .
cos 2 w ^ y
f?.
;i
4. To find ~^~ cinu. wo write
j?
, COS 7^1
ctn u = i
sin u
rn , d . d cosw
I hen ctn ?/ = . :
d.r, ax Bin u
, d d .
sin u  cos w cos u = fiin M
126 TRIGONOMETBIC FUNCTIONS
5. To find sec u, we write
ax
1 , ^1
secw =  = (COSM) \
cos u
Then sec w =  (cos )~* cos u (by (6), 36)
sum <2
j
6. To find esc w, we write
aa;
esc u =  = (sin. u)~\
sin M
3 7
Then esc u = (sin w)~ 2 sin u (by (6), 36)

Ex. 1. y = tan 2 a; tan 3 a; = tan 2 x (tan a:) 8 .
^ = sec 2 2 xj (2 a)  2 (tana) tana;
dx dx^ ' v J dx
= 2 seo 2 2 a; 2 tan a; sec 2 a:.
Ex. 2. y = (2 sec*ar + 3 sec a a;) sin x.
= sin a: ^8 sec 8 *! (see a) + 6 sec x ~ (sec a) J + (2sec*a: + 3 sec 2 a:)^(sina;)
= sin x (8 sec*a; tan x + Q sec 2 a; tan a:) + (2 sec*a; + 3 sec s a:) cos x
= (1 cos s a:) (8 sec 6 a; + 6 sec 8 a;) + (2 sec s a: + 3 sec a;)
= 8 sec 6 a: 3 sec ar.
EXERCISES
nd in each of the following cases :
y = 2 tan 6. y = & sin 8 5a!  sin5 .
sw.*2x. 7. ^rs
s a 5aj. 8 . .
SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 127
9. 2/ = cos 8 2cos. 11. y
2 . , o * x ,o sec a* + ton as
10. y  ctn + 2 ctn . 12. y =
13. y = sin (2 a? + 1) cos (2 a; 1).
14. y = tan 8 3 a; 3 tan 3 x + 9 ie.
15. y = see 2 a: tan 2 x.
16. y = ^ (3 cos 6 2 8 5 cos B 2 os).
17. sin 2 a + tan 3 ?/ = 0.
18. asy + ctn xij = 0.
45. Simple harmonic motion. Let a particle of mass m move
in a straight line so that its distance s measured from a fixed
point in the line is given at any time t by the equation
s s=a G sin Si, (1)
where c and b are constants. We have for the velocity v and
the acceleration a v ^ cbcos ^ (2 )
a sss c6 2 sin Ztf. (3)
When 0, 8 a and the particle is at (Fig. 54), When
t = j^r* s =s c and the particle is at A t where OA** o,
2 o
When t is between and v is positive and a is negative,
>a y
so that the particle is moving from to A with decreasing speed.
When t is between and T v is i A
25 o
, , ,. ,, , ]?i<*. 64
negative and a is negative, so that
the particle moves toward with increasing speed. When
71"
==, the particle is at 0.
8
As * varies from ? to ^?? the particle moves with decreasing
b 26
speed from to J?, where OJ? =* o.
Finally, as varies from ^ to , the particle moves back
2o o
from J5 to (9 with increasing speed.
128 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
The motion is then repeated, and the particle oscillates between
B and A, the time required for a complete oscillation being, as
27T
we have seen, = The motion of the particle is called simple
harmonic motion. The quantity c is called the amplitude, and tho
2 7T
interval = after which the motion repeats itself, is called
the period.
Since force is proportional to the mass times the acceleration,
the force F acting on the particle is given by the formula
F kma = kmcb s sm bt= Jcmb*s.
This shows that the force is proportional to the distance s
from the point 0. The negative sign shows that the force pro
duces acceleration with a sign opposite to that of s, and there
fore slows up the particle when it is moving away from arid
increases its speed when it moves toward 0. The force is there
fore always directed toward and is an attracting force.
If, instead of equation (1), we write the equation
s = c8mb(tt Q ),  (4)
the change amounts simply to altering the instant from which the
time is measured. For the value of s which corresponds to t t
in (1) corresponds to t = t l +t in (4). Hence (4) represents
simple harmonic motion of amplitude c and period
But (4) may be written *
s = G cos fa sin bt o sin bt cos bt,
which is the same as
s = A sin bt + B cos bt,
where A = c cos bt , B = c sin bt .
A and B may have any values in (5), for if A and B are given,
we have, from the last two equations,
c=V^ a +5 2 , tanfa = ,
which determines G and t in (4).
SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 129
Therefore equation (5) also represents simple harmonic motion
2 7T
with amplitude VA z +jB a and period 7
In particular, if in (5) A = and 33 = c, we have
8 = G COS It. (6)
If in (4) we place t =  ' , it becomes
*j &
* =<! cos fi (*), (7)
which differs from (6) only in the instant from which the time
is measured.
EXERCISES
1. A particle moves with constant speed v around a circle.
Prove that its projection on any diameter of the circle describes
simple harmonic motion
2. A point moves with simple harmonic motion of period 4 sec.
and amplitude 3 ft Find the equation of its motion.
3. Given the equation s = 5 sin 2 1 Find the tune of a complete
oscillation and the amplitude of the swing.
4. Find at what time and place the speed is the greatest for the
motion defined by the equation s = G sin It Do the same for the
acceleration.
5. At what point in a simple harmonic motion is the velocity zero,
and at what point is the acceleration zero ?
6. The motion of a particle in a straight line is expressed by the
equation s = 5 2 cos 3 *. Express the velocity and the acceleration
in terms of s and show that the motion is simple harmonic.
7. A particle moving with a simple harmonic motion of amplitude
5 ft has a velocity of 8 ft. per second when at a distance oj! 3 ft.
from its mean position. Find its period.
8. A particle moving with simple harmonic motion has a velocity
of 6 ft. per second when at a distance of 8 ft. from its mean position,
and a velocity of 8 ft. per second when at a distance oC 6 ft. from its
mean position. Find its amplitude and its period.
9. A point moves with simple harmonic motion given by the
equation *= # sin et. Describe its motion,
130 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
46. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. The equation
x = sin y (1)
defines a relation between the quantities x and y which may be
stated by saying either that x 'is the sine of the angle y or that
the angle y has the sine x. When we wish to use the latter form
of expressing the relation, we write in place of equation (1)
the equation y = sm ^, (2)
where 1 is not to be understood as a negative exponent but as
part of a new symbol sin" 1 . To avoid the possible ambiguity
formula (2) is sometimes written
y = arc sin x.
Equations (1) and (2) have exactly the same meaning, and
the student should accustom himself to pass from one to the
other without difficulty. In equation (1) y is considered the
independent variable, while in (2) x is the independent variable.
Equation (2) then defines a function of x which is called the
antisine of x or the inverse sine of x. It will add to the clearness
of the student's thinking, however, if he will read equation (2)
as " y is the angle whose sine is x."
Similarly, if a = cos#, then y = GOS~' L x; if x ioxiy, then
y tan" 1 a; ; and so on for the other trigonometric functions. We
get in this way the whole class of inverse trigonometric functions.
It is to be noticed that, from equation (2), y is not completely
determined when x is given, since there is an infinite number
of angles with the same sine. For example, if # =  #=> >
STT 18 IT , _.. . t 2 . &
~> ft > etc. 1ms causes a certain amount of ambiguity in
using inverse trigonometric functions, but the ambiguity is re
moved if the quadrant is known in which the angle y lies. We
have the same sort of ambiguity when we pass from the equa
tion x = y* to the equation y = Va;, for if x is given, there
are two values of y.
To obtain the graph of the function expressed in (2) wo
may change (2) into the equivalent form (1) and proceed as
GRAPHS 131
in 43. In this way it is evident that the graphs of the inverse
trigonometric functions are the same as those of the direct func
tions but differently placed with reference to the coordinate
axes. It is to be noticed particularly
that to any value of x corresponds an
infinite number of values of y.
X
FIG. 55 FIG 56
Ex. 1. y = sin 1 *
From this, x = sin y, and we may plot the graph by assuming values of
y and computing those of a (Fig. 55).
Ex. 2. y = tan 1 *.
Then x == tan y, and the graph is as in Fig. 56.
EXERCISES
Plot the graphs of the following equations :
1. y tan 1 2 x. 3. y = sin" 1 (a: 1). 5. y =1+ cos" 1 :*;.
2. y =3 ctn^cc. 4. y = tan 1 (* + 1). 6. y = ^tan" 1 ^
7. ?/ = cos^jc 2). 8. y sin^S x 4. 1)  
47. Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions. The
formulas for the differentiation of the inverse trigonometric
functions are as follows:
1. 7 sin"" 1 ^ = . r when sin"" 1 ^ is in the first or the
ax vl w a <*x ,. , , , ,
x u lourth quadrant ;
i diL
i when sin^f is in the second or
A/ "I M_ QI^ QiX ,t i t i
x w the third quadrant.
132 TKIGONOMETKIC FUNCTIONS
2.  cos" 1 ^ = , 7 when cos" 1 ** is m the first or the
^ x vlw second quadrant;
i (Jtjf
= when cos" 1 ^ is m the third or the
VI  u 2 dx f ourth quadrant
d L. 1 du
O ~z
dx 1 + w z ax
A d . _j 1 du
4. ctn u= 3
dx 1 +
5. sec" 1 ?* = when sec" 1 ^ is in the first or the
dx u^/u 2 l dx
= when sec" 1 u is in the second or
uvu I ^ ie f our tli quadrant.
fj J. el/Mi
6 CSC" I M= . 7 when csc" 1 ^ is in the first or
x uvu 1 .j ie third quadrant;
= , r when csc"" 1 ^ is in the second or
The proofs of these formulas are as follows:
1. If y = sin~X
then sin y = u.
TT i P A A dy du
Hence, by 44, co S2 ,^ = ;
cfc 1 du
,
whence
 
dx cos y dx
But cos y = Vl u 2 when # is m the first or the fourth quad
rant, and cosy = Vl u 2 when y is m the second or the third
quadrant.
2. If y = cos" 1 ^,
then cos y u
Hence _ sin ^ = ^ ;
9 dx dx
whence *
eta sin #
DIFFERENTIATION 183
But sin y Vl M a when y is in the first or the second quad
rant, and am y = Vl u 2 when y is in the third or the fourth
quadrant.
3. It' y tan' 1 it,
then tan y = u.
it 2 d?t d u
1 1 ence sec u ~^~ ;
/yif> /yVp
dv*t Lt*v
, dy 1 du
whence ~ =
dx 1 + u dx
4. If yssctir 1 !/,
then ctn ?/ = w.
V T 41 (iV (/ ( V UV
, (??/ 1 du
whence ~ = = ; 7
a 1 + w" are
5. If yssseo'X
then sec ?/ = M.
1 1 ence sec y tan ?y ~ = r ;
ti*y* ft'V
. d'i/ 1 <??*
whence  = , =*
djc sec ;y tan y dx
But Rcoyss?/, and tan,y = V?^ a l when ?/ is in the first or
the third quadrant, and tan ?/:=~vV 1 when y is in the
second or the fourth quadrant.
M T$ /j/ rtiart '""'J'^f
then esc y = ?/,.
_ r . dy du
Hence esc y otn y j~ =s y ;
rvM/ \4iJu
whence f = , r
?a; esc y ofo&y dx
134
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
But cscy = w, and ctn^=Vw 2 1 when y is in the first or
the third quadrant, and ctn# = Vw 2 1 when y is in the
second or the fourth quadrant.
If the quadrant in which an angle lies is not material in a
problem, it will be assumed to be in the first quadrant. This
applies particularly to formal exercises m differentiation.
Ex. 1. y = sin" 1 Vl x z , where y is an acute angle
dv 1 . .fLn. a>\ ^
L(la 2 ) dx
dx
Vl 
This result may also be obtained by placing sin 1 Vl x z = cos" 1 a:.
Ex. 2. y = sec" 1 V4a: a + 4ar + 2.
dy dx
dx V4 x* + 4 x + 2 V(4 a, 2 + 4 x + 2)  1
~ ~2a; 2 + 2a,
EXERCISES
Find 7^ in each of the following cases :
2. y = sin" 1 .
_ ift 3
. y _ sin g
i 3a;
4. y = cos 1
11. y = COS~
2
5. y = tan~ 1
6. y = tan" 1 Vcc 2 2 x.
7. y = ctn 1 ^
8. y = sec" 1 5 a.
9. y = csc~ 1 2aj.
, . a; + 6
10, ytan>
13. y = tan" 1 Va 3  1 +
16. y =
2\a a;/
18. y ss Vl aj 9 +a5003~ 1 Vl w a
ANGULAR VELOCITY 135
48. Angular velocity. If a line OP (Fig. 57) is revolving in
a plane about one of its ends 0, and in a time t the line
OP has moved from an initial position OM to the position OP,
the angle MOP = 6 denotes the amount of rotation. The rate
of change of with respect to t is
called the angular velocity of OP. The
angular velocity is commonly denoted
by the Greek letter < ; so we have
the formula JQ
In accordance with 42 the angle 8
is taken in radians ; so that if t is in
seconds, the angular velocity is in
radians per second. By dividing by 2Tr, the angular velocity
may be reduced to revolutions per second, since one revolution
is equivalent to TT radians.
A point Q on the line OP at a distance r from describes
a circle of radius r which intersects OM at A. If s is the length
of the arc of the circle A Q measured from A, then, by 42,
s = rO. (2)
ds
Now r is called the linear velocity of the point $, since it
dt
measures the rate at which s is described ; and from (2) and (1),
ds d0
showing that the farther the point Q is from. the greater is
its linear velocity.
Similarly, the angular acceleration, which is denoted by oc, is
denned by the relation , , 2 ,,
J aft> a o
This is connected with the linear acceleration =5 by the
formula
136
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Ex 1. If a wheel revolves so that the angular velocity is given by the
formula u> = 8 1, how many revolutions will it make in the time from t = 2
to t = 5 ?
We take a spoke of the wheel as the line OP Then we have
dQ = 8 tdt
Hence the angle through which the wheel revolves in the given time is
B = C 6 B tdt = [4 fif =100  16 = 84.
1/2
The result is in radians. It may be reduced to revolutions by dividing by
2 ir. The answer is 13.4 revolutions
Ex. 2. A particle traverses a circle at a uniform rate of n revolutions
a second Determine the motion of the projection of the particle on a
diameter of the circle
Let P (Fig 58) be the particle,
OX the diameter of the circle, and
M the projection of P on OX Then
x = a cos 6,
where a is the radius of the circle.
By hypothesis the angular velocity
of OP is 2 nir radians per second
Therefore ,
o> = = 2 mr ;
dt
whence
FIG. 68
If we consider that when t = 0, the particle is on OX, then (7 = 0.
Therefore /,
x = a cos 8 = a cos 2 rart = a cos <at.
The point M therefore describes a simple harmonic motion In fact,
simple harmonic motion is often defined in this way
EXERCISES
1. A flywheel 4ft in diameter makes 3 revolutions a second.
Find the components of velocity in feet per second of a point on the
rim when it is 6 m above the level of the center of the wheel.
2. A point on the rim of a flywheel of radius 5 ft which is 3 ft.
above the level of the center of the wheel has a horizontal component
of velocity of 100 ft per second Find the number of revolutions
per second of the wheel.
CYCLOID 1
3. If the horizontal and vertical projections of a point descr
simple harmonic motions given by the equations
x = 5 cos 3t, y = 5 sin 3 1,
show that the point moves in a circle and find its angular velocity
49. The cycloid. If a wheel rolls upon a straight line, ea
point of the rim describes a curve called a cycloid.
Let a wheel of radius a roll upon the axis of #, and let
(Fig. 59) be its center at any time of its motion, JV its point
N
FIG. 59
contact with 6L3T, and P the point which describes the cycloi
Take as the origin of coordinates, 0, the point found by rollu
the wheel to the left until P meets OX.
Then ON= arc PN.
Draw MP and CN, each perpendicular to OX, PR parallel
OX, and connect C and P. Let
angle NGP <j>.
Then x = OM = 0ZV JfJV
= a<j> a sin <.
a a cos $
Hence the parametric representation ( 40) of the cycloid
a&=a(<f> sin<),
# = (! cos<).
138 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
If the wheel revolves with a constant angular velocity to = ^
we have, by 40,
i) = a, C\. cos <f>") * = Q>* (1 cos <p),
?; = a sm <j> If = am sw. <f> ',
at
whence v a = a 2 co 2 (22 cos <) = 4 a 2 6) 2 sin 2 1
v = 2 aco sm ^>
as an expression for the velocity in its path of a point on the
run of the wheel.
EXERCISES
A
1. Prove that the slope of the cycloid at any point is ctn ^
2. Show that the straight line drawn from any point on the rim
of a rolling wheel perpendicular to the cycloid which that point is
describing goes through the lowest point of the rolling wheel.
3. Show that any point on the run of the wheel has a horizontal
component of velocity which is proportional to the vertical height of
the point
4. Show that the highest point of the rolling wheel moves twice
as fast as either of the two points whose distance from the ground as
half the radius of the wheel
5. Show that the vertical component of velocity is a maximum
when the point which describes the cycloid is on the level of the
center of the rolling wheel.
6. Show that a point on the spoke of a rolling wheel at a distance
b from the center describes a curve given by the equations
x = a<f> b sin <, y = a b cos <j>,
and find the velocity of the point in its path. The curve is called a
trochoid.
7. Find the slope of the trochoid and find the point at which the
curve is steepest.
8. Show that when a point on a spoke of a wheel describes a
trochoid, the average of the velocities of the point when in its highest
and lowest positions is equal to the linear velocity of the wheel
CUJftVATUKE
139
50. Curvature. If a point describes a curve, the change of
direction of its motion may be measured by the change of the
angle < ( 15).
For example, in the curve of Fig. 60, if AJ%= s and ./J^ = As,
and if fa and fa are the values of <j& for the points P l and P z
respectively, then </> 2 ^ is the total change of direction of the
curve between J? and P y If Y
fafa = A<, expressed in
circular measure, the ratio
is the average change
As
of direction per linear unit
of the arc PJ\. Regarding
as a function of s, and
taking the limit of as
As
As approaches zero as a
limit, we have f> which is called the curvature of the curve at
as
the point P. Hence the curvature of a curve is the rate of change
of the direction of the curve with respect to the length of the arc.
If is constant, the curvature is constant or uniform ; other
ds
wise the curvature is variable. Applying this definition to the
circle of Fig. 61, of which the Y
center is C and the radius is a,
FIG CO
we have A<
As = a Arf>.
di

P^CP^, and hence
Therefore  = 
j As a
Hence  and the circle is
as a
a curve of constant curvature equal
to the reciprocal of its radius.
The reciprocal of the curva
ture is called the radius of cur
vature and will be denoted by p. Through every point of a curve
we may pass a circle with its radius equal to p, which shall have
the same tangent as the curve at the point and shall lie on the
FIG. 61
140 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
same side of the tangent. Since the curvature of a circle is
uniform and equal to the reciprocal of its radius, the curvatures
of the curve and of the circle are the same, and the circle shows
the curvature of the curve in a manner similar to that in which
the tangent shows the direction of the curve. The circle is
called the circle of curvature.
From the definition of curvature it follows that
_ ds
If the equation of the curve is in rectangular coordinates,
ds
by (9), 36, p = ~
dx
To transform this expression further, we note that
,2 , 2 . ,2
whence, dividing by dx* and taking the square root, we have
Since <j> = tan 1 , (by 15)
dx 3
<
dx ^ . fdy\
\dx,
Substituting, we have p = ^ 2 x
d y
dx*
In the above expression "for p there is an apparent ambiguity of
sign, on account of the radical sign. If only the numerical value
of p is required, a negative sign may be disregarded.
CUBVATUEE 141
3,2 y2
Ex. 1. Find the radius of curvature of the ellipse + *j = 1.
dy & a a:
Here f =  =
da; a a y
Therefore P
Ex. 2. Find the radius of curvature of the cycloid ( 49).
We have ^ = a(l cos<) = 2asin 2 2,
a<p <s
d?/ . n A i
^ = a sin /> =s 2 a sm J cos ^
d<p it &
Therefore, by (9), 36,
f^ = ctn^.
dx 2
and
EXERCISES
1. Find the radius of ourvature of the curve y* fa a*.
222
2. Find the radius of curvature of the curve x* + y * =
3. Find the radius of curvature of the curve y taa^a; 1)
at the point for which x 2
/ 7T\ 3
4. Show that the circle ( x r ) + y 2 = 1 is tangent to the curve
y = sin a; at the point for which x = jr, and has the same radius of
curvature at that point.
B. Find the radius of curvature of the curve x = cos t, y = cos 2 1,
at the point for which t = 0,
6. Find the radius of curvature of the curve x = a cos < {
a< sin A, y =s a sin <]!> a<j! cos <.
7. Prove that the radius of curvature of the curve as = o.cos 8 <,
lias its greatest value when <j> =
TT
142 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
51. Polar coordinates. So far we have determined the posi
tion of a point in the plane by two distances, x and y. We may,
however, use a distance and a direction, as follows :
Let (Fig. 62), called the origin, or pole, be a fixed point, and
let OM, called the initial line, be a fixed line. Take P any point
in the plane, and draw OP. Denote OP by r, and the angle M OP
by 6 Then r and 6 are called the polar coor
dinates of the point P(r, 0), and when given
will completely determine P.
For example, the point (2, 15) is plotted
by laying off the angle MOP =15 and meas
uring OP= 2.
OP, or r, is called the radius vector, and
6 the veotorial angle, of P. These quantities may be either
positive or negative. A negative value of 6 is laid off in the
direction of the motion of the hands of a clock, a positive angle
m the opposite direction. After the angle 6 has been constructed,
positive values of r are measured from along the terminal
line of 0, and negative values of r from along the backward
extension of the terminal line. It follows that the same point
may have more than one pair of coor
dinates. Thus (2, 195), (2, 165),
(2, 15), and ( 2,  345) refer to
the same point. In practice it is usu
ally convenient to restrict to positive
values.
Plotting in polar coordinates is facili
tated by using paper ruled as m Figs. 64
and 65. The angle 6 is determined from " ElG 63
the numbers at the ends of the straight
hnes, and the value of r is counted off on the concentric circles,
either toward or away from the number which indicates 6,
according as r is positive or negative.
The relation between (r, 0) and (x, y) is found as follows :
Let the pole and the initial line OM of a system of polar
coordinates be at the same time the origin and the axis of # of a
system of rectangular coordinates. Let P (Fig, 63) be any point
POLAR COORDINATES
143
of the plane, (a;, #) its rectangular coordinates, and (r, 0) its
polar coordinates. Then, by the definition of the trigonometric
functions,
XJ X
cos 6 = 
sm = 2.
Whence follows, on the one hand,
x = r cos
y = r sin i
and, on the other hand,
sin0 =
cos =
(1)
(2)
By means of (1) a transformation can be made from rectangular
to polar coordinates, and by means of (2) from polai to rectangular
coordinates
When an equation is given in polar coordinates, the corre
sponding curve may be plotted by giving to 6 convenient values,
computing the corre
sponding values of r,
plotting the resulting
points, and drawing a
curve through them.
Ex. 1. r a cos $
a is a constant which
may be given any con
venient value We may
then find from a table of
natural cosines the value
of r which corresponds
to any value of 9. By
plotting the points cor J *
xesponding to values of 6 FIG 04
from to 90, we obtain
the arc ABCO (Fig. 64). Values of 6 from 90 to 180 give the arc ODEA.
Values of 6 from 180 to 270 give again the arc ABCO, and those fiom 270
to 860 give again the arc ODEA. Values of 6 greater than 360 can clearly
give no points not already found. The curve is a circle.
aw
MS
144
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Ex. 2. r= a sin 35.
As 6 increases from to 30, r increases from to a ; as 9 increases
from 30 to 60, r decreases from a to , the point (r, 0) traces out the loop
040 (Fig. 65), which is evidently symmetrical with respect to the radius
OA. As 6 increases from
60 to 90, r is negative
and decreases from to
a ; as increases from
90 to 120, r increases from isoj
a to ; the point (r, 0)
traces out the loop OBO
As & increases from 120
to 180, the point (r, 6}
traces out the loop OCO.
Larger values of & give
points already found, since
sin 3 (180 + 5) =  sm 3 6.
The three loops are congiu
ent, because sm,3 (60 + 0) =
sin30 This curve is called
a rose of three leaves.
r = i a V2 cos 2 0.
Ex. 3. r 2 =
Solving for r, we have
Hence, corresponding to any values of 9 which make cos 2 9 positive, there
will be two values of r numerically equal and opposite in sign, and two
corresponding points of the curve symmetrically situated with respect
to the pole If values are assigned to 9 which make cos 2 9 negative, the
corresponding values of r will be
imaginary and there will be no
points on the curve.
Accordingly, as 9 increases  ^  $f
from to 45, r decreases numer
ically from aV2 to 0, and the
portions of the curve in the first
and the third quadrant are con
structed (Fig 66) ; as 9 increases from 45 to 135, cos 2 9 is negative, and
there is no portion of the curve between the lines 9 = 45 and 9 = 135 ,
finally, as 9 increases from 135 to 180, r increases numerically from to
aV2, and the portions of the curve in the second and the fourth quadiant
are constructed The curve is now complete, as we should only repeat the
curve already found if we assigned further values to 0, it is called the
lemniscate.
FIG 06
GRAPHS 145
Ex. 4. The spiral of Archimedes,
r = a8.
In plotting, 6 is usually considered
in cncular measuie When &= 0, r = ,
and as 6 mci eases, ? inci eases, so that
the cuive winds an infinite uiuubei of
times around the ongin while leced
ing from it (Fig 67) In the flgme the
heavy line represents the poitiou of
the spiral coriespondmg to positive values of 0, and the dotted line the
portion coriespondmg to negative values of 6
EXERCISES
Plot the graphs of the following curves
a
1. r = a sm 6 9. r = a sin 8 
2. r = asm 20
10. ?' 2 = a 2 sin
3. r = a cos 30
11. ?* =
4. r = a sin 12. ,, = a (l _ cos 2 0).
13. r = a(l+2cos20)
5  r=acos 2 ' 14. r =atan0
6. 7 = 3 cos + 5 15. r = a tan 2
7. ?' = 3 cos + 3.* 1
16 r = t
8. r = 3 cos + 2 ' 1 + cos
Find the points of intersection of the following pairs of curves :
17. r = 2 sm 0, ? = 2x/S cos 0.
18. r 2 = a 2 cos 0, ; 2 = a 2 sin 2
19. r = 1 + sin 0, r = 2 sin
20. r 2 =a 2 sin0, ' 2 =a 2 sm30
Transform the following equations to polar coordinates .
21 . .r?/ = 4. 23. x z + y*2ay = 0.
22 . a; 2 + f  4 </a?  4 ay = 24. (a* + 2/ 2 ) 2 = a a ( a  Z/ 2 )
Transform the following equations to rectangular coordinates :
25. r= ft sec 6 27. r = atan0.
26. r = 2 n cos 28. r = a cos 2
* The curve is called a cardioid
t The curve is a parabola with the ongui at the focus.
146 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
52. The differentials <?r, d9, ds, in polar coordinates. We have
seen, in 39, that the differential of arc in rectangular coordinates
is given by the equation
(1)
If we wish to change this to polar coordinates, we have to
place
x = r cos 0, y r sin 6 ;
whence dx = cos 6dr r sin 6 d6,
dy = sin Qdr + r cos 6d6.
Substituting in (1), we have
ds* = dr z + r*d6 z . (2)
This formula may be remembered by means of an " elemen
tary triangle " (Fig. 68), constructed as follows :
Let P be a point on a curve r =/(0), the coordinates of P
being (r, 0), where OP = r and MOP = 6. Let Q be increased
by an amount d0 t thus determining another
point Q on the curve. From as a center
and with a radius equal to r, describe an
arc of a circle intersecting OQ in R so that
O.E = OP = r. Then, by 42, PR, = rdd. Now
EQ is equal to Ar, and PQ is equal to As. ^ 6g
We shall mark them, however, as dr and da
respectively, and the formula (2) is then correctly obtained by
treating the triangle PQJR as a right triangle with straightline
sides. The fact is that the smaller the triangle becomes as Q
approaches P, the more nearly does it behave as a straightline
triangle ; and in the limit, formula (2) is exactly true.
Other formulas may be read out of the triangle PQR. Let us
denote by i/r the angle PQJR, which is the angle made by the
curve with any radius vector. Then, if we treat the triangle PQR
as a straightline rightangle triangle, we have the formulas :
. (3)
dr k J
DIFFERENTIALS 147
The above is not a proof of the formulas. To supply the
proof we need to go through a limit process, as follows:
We connect the points P and Q by a straight line (Fig. 69)
and draw a straight line from P per
pendicular to OQ meeting OQ at S.
Then the triangle PQS is a straight
line rightangle triangle, and therefore
,
chord PQ
SP arcPg
arc PQ ' chord PQ'
FIG. 69
Now angle POQ = A0, arc PQ = As,
and, from the right triangle OSP, SP = OP sin POQ = r sm A0.
Therefore
rsuiA * arcP r
Ag chord P<2 A0 As chord PQ
Now let A0 approach zero as a limit, so that Q approaches P
along the curve. The angle SQP approaches the angle OPT,
where PT is the tangent at P. At the same time ap
A/9 rlfi
proaches 1, by 42 ;  approaches by definition ; and
T>/~) ^
aic '' approaches 1, by 39. In this figure we denote the
CllOlXl JL ty
angle OPT by >/r and have, from (4),
. . dB ,CN
smf = r , (5)
which is the first of formulas (3). It is true that in Fig. 69 we
have denoted OPT by ^ and that in Fig. 68 ^ denotes OQP.
But if we remember that the angle OQP approaches OPT as a
limit when Q approaches P, and that in using Fig. 68 to read off
the formulas (3) we are really anticipating this limit process, the
difference appears unessential.
The other formulas (3) may be obtained by a limit process
similar to the one just used, or they may be obtained more
148 TEIGONOMETEIC FUNCTIONS
quickly by combining (5) and (2). For, from (2) and (5),
we have
whence cos \lr = . (6)
ds
By dividing (5) by (6) we have
rdd /7N
CO
dr
In using (7) it may be convenient to write it in the form
tan i/r = , (8)
dr
d0
since the equation of tho curve is usually given in the form
t?rt
r =/(#), and  is found by direct differentiation.
cLu
Ex. Find the angle which the cmve 1 = a sin 4 makes with the radius
vector 6 = 80
Here ^ = 4 a cos 4 0. Therefore, fiom (8), tan ^ = " sin 4 ^ = i tan 'I 6
do ^ T 4 cos 4 6 4
Substituting 6 = 30, we have tan ^ = * tan 120 =   V3 =  4 MO
Therefore j/r = 156 35'.
EXERCISES
1. Find the angle which the curve r = a cos 3 makes with the
radius vector 6 = 45
2. Find the angle which the curve r = 2 + 3 cos makes with the
radius vector 6 = 90
A
3. Find the angle which the curve r = a 2 sin a makes with the
initial line.
9 6
4. Show that for the curve r = a, sin 8 5 j i/r = 
o 3
5. Show that the angle between the cardioid r = a(l cos 0) and
any radius vector is always half the angle between the radius vector
and the initial line.
GENEHAL EXERCISES 149
6. Show that the angle between the lemniscate r 2 = 2 . 2 cos 2 9
TT
and any ladms vector is always plus twice the angle between the
radius vector and the initial line
7. Show that the curves r a = a a sin 2 6 and ? 2 = a 2 cos 2 6 inter
sect at right angles
GENERAL EXERCISES
Find the graphs of the following equations :
a 1 4 1 * o / L ^
1. ?/ = 4sm  5. y = Ssmlas + TT )
2. y = cos (2 x 3) 6. vy a = tan x.
3 . y = tan 7 y = 2cos2(o!  2)
4. ys= Jsin2aj + ^8in8a5. 8. ?/ = 3cos3h + ^
Find f^ in the following cases :
CtttXj
9. y = 2x
10. y = ,J tan (3 K + 2) + J tan 8 (3 x + 2).
12. tan (x + ?/) + tan (x y) = 0.
13. y=3ctn fi  + 5ctn 8 . 21. y =
14. ?/ = csc a 4 x + 2 ctn 4 x 22. ?/ =
16. ?/ = sm a 4 x cos*2 a; 23> V cos ~ a .a__ 4 >
 cos 8  2 cos ~ 24. v = ctn" 1 Vsc 2 2x.
17. ?/ =
2
18. ?y=atan 8 2a! ^tan2C+03. 25. 2/ = csc" 1 1
t SC "y" X
19. y = sin
20. ?/ = cos" 1 3
28. A particle moves in a straight line so that s = 6
Show that the motion is simple harmonits and find the center about
which, the particle oscillates and the amplitude of the motion.
150 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
20
?/
29. A particle moves on the ellipse i + ^ = 1 so that its projeq
tion upon OX describes simple harmonic motion given by x = a cos kt.
Show that its projection upon OF also describes simple harmonic
motion and find the velocity of the particle in its path.
7T
30. A particle moving with simple harmonic motion of period r
has a velocity of 9 ft per second when at a distance of 2 ft. from its
mean position. Find the amplitude of the motion.
31. A particle moves according to the equation s = 4 sin \t +
5 cos t. Show that the motion is simple harmonic and find the
amplitude of the swing and the time at which the particle passes
through its mean position.
32. Find the radius of curvature of the curve y = x sin at the
2 x
point for which x =
7T
33. Find the radius of curvature of the curve ?/ = at the
7!!
point for which x = TT
34. Find the radius of curvature of the curve y a sin' 1 ' V, 2 .r*
CL
at the point for which x = r
35. Find the radius of curvature of the curve x => a cos <, y = I sin <{>,
IT
at the point for which <j> = r
Plot the graphs of the following curves .
a
36. r ! =a 2 sm 41. r =120.
42. r a =
37. r a = a 2 sin40 .. ,
43. r*=
38. r =a(lsin0). .
v ' 44. r =l + sm s .
39. r =a(l+cos20). ^
30
40. r = a(l + 2 sin 0). 45. r =* 1 + sin 7p
Find the points of intersection of the following pairs of curves ;
46. r*=3cos20, ? s = 2cos a 0.
47. r BS a cos 0, r 2 BB a 2 sin 2 0.
48. r 2 sin 0, 7' B* 4 sin 2 0.
49. r ~a(l + sin 20), r 2 =? 4 a'siii 2 0.
GENERAL EXERCISES 151
Transform the following curves to polar coordinates :
50. = "
Transform the following curves to ^coordinates
52 ?' 2 =2a a sm20. 53. r = a(l cos0)
54. Find the angle at which the curve r = 3 + sin 2 6 meets the
circle r 3
55. Find the angle of intersection of the two curves r = 2 sin 6
and r 2 = 4 sin 2
56. Find the angle of intersection of the curves r = a cos and
r = a sin 2 B.
57. If a ball is fired from a gun with the initial velocity v , it
as?
describes a path the equation of which is i/ = x tan a '
r i J
where a is the angle of elevation of the gun and OX is horizontal
What is the value of a when the horizontal range is greatest ?
58. In measuring an electric current by means of a tangent galva
nometer, the percentage of error due to a small error in reading is
proportional to tan x + ctn x. For what value of x will this percent
age of error be least ?
59. A tablet 8 ft high is placed on a wall so that the bottom of
the tablet is 29 ft. from the ground. How far from the wall should
a person stand in order that he may see the tablet to best advantage
(that is, that the angle between the lines from his eye to the top and
to the bottom of the tablet should be the greatest), assuming that
his eye is 5 ft. from the ground ?
60. One side of a triangle is 12 ft. and the opposite angle is 36
Find the other angles of the triangle when its area is a maximum
61. Above the center of a round table of radius 2 ft is a hanging
lamp. Plow far should the lamp be above the table in order that
the edge of the table may be most brilliantly lighted, given that
the illumination varies inversely as the square of the distance and
directly as the cosine of the angle of incidence ?
62. A weight P is dragged along the ground by a force F. If
the coefficient of friction is k, in what direction should the force be
applied to produce the best result ?
L52 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
63. An open gutter is to be constructed of boards in such a way
,hat the bottom and sides, measuied on the inside, are to be each
3 in wide and both sides are to have the same slope How wide
should the gutter be across the top in oider that its capacity may
je as great as possible ?
64. A steel girdei 27 ft long is to be moved on rollers along a
Dassageway and into a corridor 8 ft. in width at right angles to the
Dassageway. If the horizontal width of the girder is neglected, how
vide must the passageway be in order that the girder may go around
he corner 9
65. Two particles are moving in the same straight line so that
iheir distances from a fixed point are respectively x = a cos kt and
e' = acosud f qOj & and a being constants Find the greatest
hstance between them
66. Show that for any curve in polar coordinates the maximum
Liid the minimum values of r occui in general when the radius vector
s perpendicular to the curve.
67. Two men aie at one end of the diameter of a circle of 40 yd
adius. One goes directly toward the center of the circle at the
miform rate of 6 ft. pei second, and the other goes around the
.ircumference at the rate of 2 TT ft per second How fast are they
eparatmg at the end of 10 sec. 'f
68. Given that two sides and the included angle of a triangle are
> ft , 10 ft , and 30 respectively, and are changing at the rates of
 ft , 3 ft , and 12 per second respectively, what is the area of the
riangle and how fast is it changing ?
69. A revolving light in a lighthouse mi offshore makes one
evolution a minute If the line of the shore is a straight line, how
ast is the ray of light moving along the shore when it passes a
ioint one mile from the point nearest to the lighthouse ?
70. BC is a rod a feet long, connected with a piston rod at C, and
t B with a crank AB, b feet long, revolving about A. Find C's
elocity in terms of All's angular velocity.
71. At any time t the coordinates of a point moving in the ajyplane
re x = 2 3 cos t, y = 3 + 2 sin t Find its path and its velocity in
,s path. At what points will it have a maximum speed?
72 . At any time t the coordinates of a moving point are x = 2 sec 3 1,
= 4 tan 3 1. Find the equation of its path and its velocity in its path.
GENERAL EXERCISES 153
73. The parametric equations of the. path of a moving particle are
O3 = 2cos 8 <, 2/=2sin 8 < If the angle < increases at the rate of
2 radians per second, find the velocity of the particle in its path
74. A particle moves along the curve y = smo3 so that the
acomponent of its velocity has always the constant value a Find
the velocity of the particle along the curve and determine the points
of the curve at which the particle is moving fastest arid those at
which it is moving most slowly
75. Find the angle of intersection of the curves y = smx and
y = cos x
76. Find the angle of intersection of the curves y = sma; and
/ , ^
2/ = sm(a: + ^ )
77. Find the angle of intersection of the curves y since and
y = cos 2 x between the lines x = and ce = 2 TT.
78. Find the points of intersection of the curves T/ = since and
y = sin 3 x between the lines x = and x = TT Determine the angles
at the points of intersection.
79. Find all the points of intersection of the curves y = cos x and
y = sin 2 x which, lie between the lines x = and x = 2 TT, and
determine the angles of intersection at each of the points found.
CHAPTER VI
EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
53. The exponential function. The equation
/ = *,
where a is any constant, defines y as a function of x called the
exponential function.
If x = n, an integer, y is determined by raising a, to the nth
power by multiplication.
If #=* a positive fraction, y is the jth root of the plli
power of a.
If x is a positive irrational number, the approximate value of
y may be obtained by expressing oc approximately as a fraction.
If x = 0, y = a=l. If x = m, y = a~ m =
The graph of the function is readily found.
Ex. Find the gi aph of y = (1 5y. By giving convenient values to x
we obtain the curve shown in Fig 70 To determine the shape of the
curve at the extreme left, we place a equal to a large negative number,
say x =  100 Then y = (1.5) = ^ J ,
which is very small It is obvious that the
larger numencally the negative value of x
becomes, the smaller y becomes, so that the
curve appi caches asymptotically the negative _.
portion of the a:axis. O
On the other hand, if # is a large positive
number, y is also large. FIG. 70
54. The logarithm. If a number N may be obtained by placing
an exponent L on another number a and computing the result,
then L is said to be the logarithm of .2V to the base a. That is, if
N= d>, (1)
then L = log a JV. (2)
154
LOGARITHMS 155
Formulas (1) and (2) are simply two different ways of ex
pressing the same fact as to the relation of ,JV" and L, and the
student should accustom himself to pass from one to the other
as convenience may demand.
From these formulas follow easily the fundamental properties
of logarithms; namely,
M = log
=log a N, (3)
log a l=0,
log a  = log JV.
Theoretically any number, except or 1, may be used as
the base of a system of logarithms. Practically there are only
two numbers so used. The first is the number 10, the use of
which as a base gives the common system of logarithms, which
are the most convenient for calculations and are used almost
exclusively in trigonometry.
Another number, however, is more convenient in theoretical
discussions, since it gives simpler formulas. This number is
denoted by the letter e and is expressed by the infinite series
where 21=1x2, 31=1x2x8, 41=1x2x3x4, etc.
Computing the above series to seven decimal places, we have
e = 2,7182818....
An important property of this number, which is necessary in
finding the derivative of a logarithm, is that
156 EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
To check this arithmetically we may take successive small
values of h and make the following computation :
When &=.!, (1+ A)*= (1.1) 10 = 2.59374.
When h =.01, (1+ A)*=(1.01) 100 = 2.70481.
When h = .001, (1 + hy= (1.001) 1000 = 2.71692.
When h =.0001, (1+ hy= (1.0001) 10000 = 2.71815.
i
Working algebraically, we expand (1+A) A by the binomial
theorem, obtaining ... . _._. ...
 11 if i~1 V  2
A*
2! 8!
where JS represents the sum of all terms involving A, 7i a , 7i 8 , etc.
Now it may be shown by advanced methods that as h approaches
zero, B, also approaches zero ; so that
When the number e is used as the base of a system of loga
rithms, the logarithms are called natural logarithms, or Napierian
logarithms. We shall denote a natural logarithm by the symbol
In*; thus,
N ~*> (4)
then L = In N.
Tables of natural logarithms exist, and should be used if
possible. In case such a table is not available, the student
* This notation is generally used by engineers. The student should fenow
that the abbreviation "log" is used by many authors to denote the natural
logarithm. In this book " log " is used for the logarithm to the base 10.
LOGAEITHMS
157
may find the natural logarithm by use of a table of common
logarithms, as follows
Let it be required to find In 213.
If x = In 213,
then, by (4), 213 = e v ;
whence, by (3), log 213 = a? log e,
or
log 213 2.3284
Iog2.7183 0.4343
Certain graphs involving the number y
e are important and are shown in the
examples.
o
Ex. 1. y = In or.
Giving x positive values and finding y, we
obtain Fig 71.
Ex. 2. y = e*? I FIG. 71
The curve (Fig 72) is symmetrical with respect to OY and is always
above OX. When a; = 0, y = 1 As a: increases numerically, y decreases,
approaching zero. Hence OX is an asymptote ^
FIG. 72
FIG. 73
Ex.3. y =
This is the curve (Fig. 73) made by a cord or a chain held at the ends
and allowed to hang freely. It is called the catenary.
Ex. 4. y e ~ *" sin Ix.
The values of y may be computed by multiplying the ordmates of the
curve y = <s~ oa! by the values of sin bx for the corresponding abscissas. Since
the value of sinZw oscillates between 1 and 1, the values of e
158 EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
cannot exceed those of e** Hence the graph lies in the portion of the
plane between the curves y = e~ ax y
and y = e ~ ax . When a: is a mul
tiple of , y is zero. The graph
therefore crosses the axis of x an
infinite number of times Fig. 74
shows the graph when a = 1, b = 2 TT
Ex. 5. y e x
When x approaches zeio, being
positive, y increases without limit 1 ''
When x approaches zero, being neg
ative, y approaches zeio , for example, when
x = Ttnjff' y = e1000 ' and when x ~ ~~ "W
11 = e  1000 =  The function is therefore
J glOOO
discontinuous for x
The line y  1 is an asymptote (Fig. 75),
for as x increases without limit, being posi
tive or negative, approaches 0, and y
appioaches 1.
Ex. 6. r = e a .
The use of r and 6 indicates that we are
using polar coordinates.
When 6 = 0, r 1. As increases, r in
creases, and the curve winds around the origin
at increasing distances from it (Fig 76).
When 6 is negative and increasing numer
ically without limit, r approaches zero.
Hence the curve winds an infinite number
of times aiound the origin, continually ap
proaching it The dotted line in the figure
corresponds to negative values of 6
The curve is called the logarithmic spiral
EXERCISES
Plot the graphs of the following equations
! y = ()* 5  y = x&x 
?a*
74
X
75
M
3. y= B
4. y
7. y = log2o:.
1
'a:
8. =
FIG. 76
9. y = log sin x.
10. y = log tan ar.
11. y = e~ 2ar sin4ai.
12. y = e~ x cos 3 a;.
13. r=e* e .
EMPIKICAL EQUATIONS 159
55. Certain empirical equations. If x and y are two related
quantities which are connected by a given equation, we may
plot the corresponding curve on a system of ^coordinates, and
every point of this curve determines corresponding values of
x and y.
Conversely, let x and y be two related quantities of which
some corresponding pairs of values have been determined, and
let it be desired to find by means of these data an equation con
necting x and y in general. On this basis alone the problem
cannot be solved exactly. The best we can do is to assume that
the desired equation is of a certain form and then endeavor to
adjust the constants in the equation in such a way that it fits
the data as nearly as possible. We may proceed as follows :
Plot the points corresponding to the known values of x and y.
The simplest case is that in which the plotted points appear to
lie on a straight line or nearly so. In that case it is assumed
that the required relation may be put in the form
y = mx + *, (1)
where m and I are constants to be determined to fit the data.
The next step is to draw a straight line so that the plotted
points either lie on it or are close to it and about evenly dis
tributed on both sides of it. The equation of this line may be
found by means of two points on it, which may be either two
points determined by the original data or any other two points
on the line.
The resulting equation is called an empirical equation and
expresses approximately the general relation between x and y.
In fact, more than one such equation may be derived from the
same data, and the choice of the best equation depends on the
judgment and experience of the worker.
Ex. 1. Corresponding values of two related quantities x and y are given
by the following table :
ai 1 2 4 6 10
y 1.8 2.2 2.9 3.9 6.1
Find the empiucal equation connecting them.
160 EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
We plot the points (a;, y) and draw the straight line, as shown, in
Fig. 77. The straight line is seen to pass through the points (0, 1) and
(2, 2). Its equation is therefore
T7"
?/ = 5 x + 1,
which is the required equation
111 many cases, however,
the plotted points will not
appear to lie on or near a
straight line. We shall con
sider here only two of these ~o i
cases, which are closely con  FIG ?7
nected with the case just
considered. They are the cases in which it may be anticipated
from previous experience that the required relation is either
of the form y=db*, (2)
where a and b are constants, or of the form
y=atf, (3)
where a and n are constants.
Both of these cases may be brought directly under the first
case by taking the logarithm of the equation as written. Equa
tion (2) then becomes
log y = log a, + x log 6. (4)
As log a and log I are constants, if we denote log y by y',
(4) assumes the form (1) in x and y\ and we have only to
plot the points (#, y'~) on an o^'system of axes and determine
a straight line by means of them. The transformation from. (4)
back to (2) is easy, as shown in Ex. 2.
Taking the logarithm of (3), we have
log y = log a + n log x. (5)
If we denote logy by y' and logo; by x\ (5) assumes the form
(1) in. a/ and /, since log a and n are constants. Accordingly
we plot the points (V, y r ~) on an a/?/system of axes, determine
the correspond ing straight line, and then transform back to (8),
as shown in Ex. 3.
EMPIKICAL EQUATIONS 161
Ex. 2. Corresponding values of two related quantities x and y are given
by the following table .
a; 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
y 3.2 40 73 98 152 240 364
Find an empirical equation of the form y = dbf*
Taking the logarithm of the equation y = ob*, and denoting log y by y',
we have '
if = log a + x log i.
Determining the loganthm of each of the given values of y, we form a
table of corresponding values of x and y', as follows :
x 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
if = logy 5051 6028 8633 9912 1.1818 1.3909 15611
We choose a largescale plottingpaper, assume on the y'axis a scale
four times as laige as that on the
oraxis, plot the points (x, /), and
20
J,
point. Its equation is 10 >
tour times as laige as tnat on tne *
oraxis, plot the points (x, /), and i j
draw the straight line (Fig 78) 20 I
HiivMinli +.Vo fifaf. o.nrl tliA HTvKh i e
through the first and the sixth 15
' = .08858 x  .20354. 5
m
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 *
Therefore log a = 20354 = FlG ?g
9 7965  10, whence a = .626 ; and
log & = .08858, whence & = 1 22. Substituting these values in the assumed
equation, we have
as the required empirical equation The result may be tested by substitxit
ing the given values of x in the equation. The computed values of y will
Le found to agree fairly well with the given, values.
Ex. 3. Corresponding values of pressure and volume taken from an
indicator card of an air compressor are as follows:
p 18 21 205 33.5 44 62
v .035 .656 .476 .897 .321 .243
Find the relation between them in the tormpv" ~ c,
162 EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
Writing the assumed relation, in. the form p = cv~ n and taking the
logarithms of both sides of the equation, we have
log p =n log v + log c,
or
where
y = log jtjj x = log v, and 6 = log c.
The corresponding values of x and y are
 4012 .4935  6144
1 5250 1 6435 1 7994
x = logu 1972
y = logp 1 2553
 2549  .3233
1 3222 1 4232
For convenience we assume on the araxis a scale twice as large as that on
the yaxis, plot the points (x, ?y), and diaw the straight line as shown in
Fig 79 The construction should
be made on largescale plotting
paper. The line is seen to pass
through the points ( 05, 1 075)
and ( .46, 1.6) Its equation is
therefore
y= 128 x +101
Hence n 1 28, log c = 1 01,
c = 10 2, and the required rela
tion between p and v is
pv
i as = 10 2
) .5550 lt5WSSSO~25015 10 OS
FIG. 79
EXERCISES
1. Show that the following points lie approximately on a straight
line, and find its equation :
4
21
46
13
7
20
12
22
12 9
25
14,5
30
18.2
2. For a galvanometer the deflection D, measured in millimeters
on a proper scale, and the current /, measured in microamperes, are
determined in a series of readings as follows :
D 291 48.2 72.7 92.0 118.0 140.0 165.0 109.0
I 0.0493 0.0821 0123 0.154 0197 0234 0.274 0328
Find an empirical law connecting D and /.
EMPIRICAL EQUATIONS '  , 163
3. Corresponding values of two related quantities x and y are
given in the following table
x 01 03 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1 3 1.5
y 3316 4050 4046 0.6041 0.7379 9013 1 1008 1.3445
Find an empirical equation connecting x and y in the form y = ab*.
4. In a certain chemical reaction the concentration c of sodmm
acetate produced at the end of the stated number of minutes t is
as follows :
* 1 2 8 4 5
c 00837 00700 00586 00492 00410
Find an empirical equation connecting c and t in the form c = atf
5. The deflection a of a loaded beam with a constant load is
found for various lengths I as follows
Z 1000 900 800 700 600
a 7.14 5.22 3.64 242 1.50
Find an empirical equation connecting a and I in the form a = nlf 1
6. The relation between the pressure j and the volume v of a gas
is found experimentally as follows :
p 20 23.5 31 42 59 78
v 0019 0.540 0.442 0358 0277 0219
Find an empirical equation connecting p and v in the form pv n = c.
56. Differentiation. The formulas for the differentiation of
the exponential and the logarithmic functions are as follows,
where, as usual, u represents any function which can be differen
tiated with respect to #, In means the Napierian logarithm, and
a is any constant:
d , log a e du ,1 .
rlog a tt = fi a r (1)
das u da
d , 1 du ^ o ^
 In u =  3, (2)
aa? u ax
164 EXPONENTIAL AND LOaAEITHMIC FUNCTIONS
dx" ~ ~dx (3)
d u B du
dx dx' ^ '
The proofs of these formulas are as follows:
.j
To find  log a M place y = log M.
Then, if u is given an increment AM, y receives an increment
Ay, where
Ay = log a (M + AM)  log M
Aw, A , AM\ A
) '
u /
the transformations being made by (3), 54.
Then
AM
Now, as AM approaches zero the fraction may be taken
A of 54. u
as A of 54.
u
Hence Lim fl 4 Y "= e.
A0\ M /
and
2. If y = hi u, the base a of the previous formula is e ; and
since log e=l, we have
dy _ 1 du
dx u dx
DIFFERENTIATION 165
3. If # = ",
we have In y = In a u = u In a.
Hence, by formula (2),
1 dy , du
 = lna ;
y ax ax
. dy ul du
whence ~ = a In a 
ax ax
4. If y = e w the previous formula becomes
^ = e ^.
dx dx
Ex. 1. y = In (a; 2 4 a + 5).
dy _ 2 x 4
da; a; 2 4 a; + 5
Ex.2. y = '
Ex. 3. y = e
^ = cos bx (e~
dx dx
EXERCISES
Find in each of the following cases :
dx
 I~sin2aj
2. y*=
3. JJ^. .
4. y = a sln ""X 12. y = e" a>e sin 3 cc.
5. /
. y^ln
6. y = lnV2a; a +6a; + 9. *
, a;  3 14. y  6 8a (9 a 2  6ai + 2).
7 . w == J In  5
x + 3 _ 16. y e* x (2 sin a:  cos ).
8. = ln(flj + Vaj 8 + 4). a: 9
9. 3/ =
17. y = sec x tan 03 + In (sec a? f tan *).
. VaTTl1
18. v In
166 EXPONENTIAL AND 'LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
57. The compoundinterest law. An important use of the ex
ponential function occurs in. the problem to determine a, function
whose rate of change is proportional to the value of the function.
If y is such a function of #, it must satisfy the equation
where ~k is a constant called the proportionality factor.
We may write equation (1) in the form
ld V7 f .
r /fc ,
ydx
whence, by a very obvious reversal of formula (2), 56, we have
In y = kx 4 (7,
where C is the constant of integration (18).
From this, by (1) and (2), 54,
Finally we place e c =A, where A may be any constant, since
C is any constant, and have as a final result
(2)
The constants A and Jc must be determined by other condi
tions of a particular problem, as was done in 18.
The law of change here discussed is often called the compound
interest law, because of its occurrence in the following problem :
Ex. Let a sum of money P be put at interest at the rate of r% per annum.
A
The interest gained in a time Ai is Pr^ Ai, where A* is expressed in
years. But the interest is an increment of the principal P, so that we have
In ordinary compound interest the interest is computed for a certain
interval (usually onehalf year), the principal lemaming constant during
that interval The interest at the end of the half year is then added to the
principal to make a new principal on which interest is computed for th.9
COMPOUNDINTEREST LAW 167
next half year. The principal P therefore changes abruptly at the end of
each half year.
Let us now suppose that the principal changes continuously ; that is,
that any amount of interest theoretically eained, in no matter how small
a time, is immediately added to the puncipal. The average rate of change
of the principal in the peuod Ai is, fiorn 11,
* = lL m
Ai 100 ( }
To obtain the rate of change we must let A< approach zero in equation
(1), and have dp ? ,
From this, as in the text, we have
r
P=Ae lo . (2)
To make the problem conci ete, suppose the original principal were $100
and the rate 4%, and we ask what would be the principal at the end of 14 yr.
We know that when t = 0, P = 100. Substituting these values in (2), we
have A = 100, so that (2) becomes
JL, 1
P = 100e 100 =100e 20
Placing now t = 14, we have to compute P = 100 ei e The value of P
may be taken from a table if the student has access to tables of powers of e
In case a table of common logarithms is alone available, P may be found
by first taking the logarithm of both sides of the last equation. Thus
logP = loglQO + it loge = 24053;
whence P = $254, approximately
EXERCISES
1. The rate, of change of y with respect to x is always equal to
\ y, and when x = 0, y = 5. Find the law connecting y and x,
2. The rate of change of y with lespect to x is always 0.01 times ?/,
and when x = 10, y = 50. Find the law connecting y and x.
3. The rate of change of y with respect to x is proportional to y,
When x = 0, y = 7, and when x = 2, y = 14 Find the law connect
ing y and x.
4. The sum of $100 is put at interest at the rate of 5% per annum
under the condition that the interest shall be compounded at each
instant of time. How much will it amount to in 40 yr.?
168 EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
6. At a certain date the population of a town is 10,000. Forty
years later it is 25,000. If the population increases at a rate which
is always proportional to the population at the time, find a general
expression for the population at any time t.
6. In a chemical reaction the rate of change of concentration of
a substance is proportional to the concentration at any time. If the
concentration is y^ when t = 0, and is T T when t = 6, find the law
connecting the concentration and the time.
7. A rotating wheel is slowing down in such a manner that the
angular acceleration is proportional to the angular velocity. If the
angular velocity at the beginning of the slowing down is 100 revolu
tions per second, and in 1 min. it is cut down to 50 revolutions per
second, how long will it take to reduce the velocity to 25 revolutions
per second ?
GENERAL EXERCISES
Plot the graphs of the following equations :
i i
1  y = ($)"* 4  y el ~ x  ? y e?.
2. y = e 1 *. 5. y = (e* + *). 8. y = aser*.
3. y = e S GOSX. 6. y= ~ 9. y=*y?&*.
J e'+e"* J
10. For a coppernickel thermocouple the relation between the
temperature t in degrees and the thermoelectric power p in micro
volts is given by the following table :
t 50 100 160 200
P 24 25 26 26.9 27.5
Find an empirical law connecting t and p.
11. The safe loads in thousands of pounds for beams of the same
cross section but of various lengths in feet are found as follows :
Length 10 11 12 18 14 16
Load 123.6 121.5 111.8 107.2 1018 90.4
Find an empirical equation connecting the data.
GENERAL EXERCISES 169
12. In the following table s denotes the distance of a moving
body from a fixed point in its path at time t
t I 2 4678
s 10 4 6400 0.1024 0410 0164
Find an empirical equation connecting s and t in the form s = ab*.
13. In the following table c denotes the chemical concentration of
a substance at the time t .
t 2 4 6 8 10
c 00060 00048 0.0033 0.0023 00016
Find an empirical equation connecting c and t in the form c = ah*.
14. The relation between the length I (in millimeters) and the
time t (in seconds) of a swinging pendulum is found as follows :
I 634 805 90.4 1013 107.3 1406
t 0.806 0892 0.960 1010 1038 1.198
Find an empirical equation connecting I and t in the form t Td n .
15. For a dynamometer the relation "between the deflection 8,
2ir
when the unit 6 = rrri and the current I, measured in amperes, is
as follows :
6 40 86 120 160 201 240 280 320 362
I 0.147 0215 0.252 0293 0.329 0360 0.390 0.417 0442
Find an empirical equation connecting J and 6 in the form I k$"
16. In a chemical experiment the relation between the concen
tration y of undissociated hydrochloric acid and the concentration x
of hydrogen ions is shown in the table
x 1.68 1.22 784 426 0.092 047 0096 0.0049
y 1 82 676 216 074 0085 0.00815 0.00036 00014
Find an empirical equation connecting the two quantities m the
form y = kx n .
170 EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
17. Assuming Boyle's law, pv = c, determine o graphically from
the following pairs of observed values :
39.92 42.17 45.80 48 62 51 80 (J0.47 CMS 1)7
40.37 38.32 85.32 33.29 31.22 2080
Tind J in each of the following cases :
CCSs
. Bx2
18. =
19. y = In sin a.
e _ e 
20. ?/ = tan" 1
&
21. y = In (2as + V4 aj a l) + 2a osc"^ a;.
_a
22. y = x z e x .
23. = l
24. y = I tan 2 oas + In cos ax.
25 . y = x tan 1 ^ $ In (1 + a; 2 ).
26. A substance of amount x is being decomposed at a rate which
is proportional to a;. If x = 3 12 when t = 0, and cc == 1.30 whun
t = 40 min., find the value of x when t = 1 hr.
27. A substance is being transformed into another at a rate whiith
is proportional to the amount of the substance still imtranafovnuid,
If the amount is 50 when t = 0, arid 15.6 when t = 4 hr., lind how
long it will be before y^ of the original substance will rumain.
28. According to Newton's law the rate at which tho temperature
of a body cools in air is proportional to the difference botwoou tho
temperature of the body and that of the air. If the tempwraturo of
the air is kept at 60, and the body cools from 130 to 120" in 300 sue.,
when will its temperature be 100 ?
29. Assuming that the rate of change of atmospheric prnssuro p
at a distance h above the surface of the earth is proportional to tho
pressure, and that the pressure at sea level is 14.7 Ib. per square inch
and at a distance of 1COO ft. above soa level is 18.8 Ib. per square
inch, find the law connecting^ and h.
GENERAL EXERCISES 171
30. Prove that the curve y = e~ Zx sm Sec is tangent to the curve
y = e 2 * at any point common to the two curves.
31. At any time t the coordinates of a point moving in a plane
are x = a~' 2t cos 2 1, y o~' 2t sin 2 1. Find the velocity of the point at
any time t Find the rate at which the distance of the point from
the origin is decreasing. Prove that the path of the point is a loga
rithmic spiral.
32. Show that tho logarithmic spiral r = e" 9 cuts all radius vectors
at a constant angle
33. Find the radius of curvature of the curve y = e~ Za sin 2x at
7T
the point for which x =
ft ( 5
34. Show that tho catenary y n^+e n and the parabola
1 ^
y = a f  a; 3 have tho same slope and the same curvature at their
i Q>
common point.
35 . Find the radius of curvature of the curve x =s e t sin t, y = e* cos t.
36. Show that the product of the radii of curvature of the curve
X
y =s ae " at the two points for which x = a is a?(e + e" 1 ) 8 .
37. Find the radius of curvature of the curve ?/ = In a; and its
least value.
38. Find the radius of curvature of the curve y = e r cosaj at the
7T
point for which x = =
\
n )
CHAPTER VII
SERIES
58. Power series. The expression
a fl + a : x + ajK? + a$+ ajf\  , (1)
where a Ql a^ a z , are constants, is called a power series in x.
The terms of the series may be unlimited in number, in which
case we have an infinite series, or the series may terminate after
a finite number of terms, in which case it reduces to a polynomial.
If the series (1) is an infinite series, it is said to converge
for a definite value of x when the sum of the first n terms
approaches a limit as n increases indefinitely.
Infinite series may arise through the use of elementary opera
tions. Thus, if we divide 1 by 1 a; in the ordinary manner,
we obtain the quotient
and we may write
LX
(2)
^ '
Similarly, if we extract the square root of 1 + x by the rule
taught in elementary algebra, arranging the work as follows;
l+x
2 + 
V
1 4
a+ I
a 2
4
2?
a; 8 x*
4"
"8 + 64'
172
POWER SERIES 173
the operation may be continued indefinitely. We may write
The results (2) and (3) are useful only for values of x for
which the series in each case converges. When that happens
the more terms we take of the series, the more nearly is their
sum equal to the function on the left of the equation, and in
that sense the function is equal to the series. For example, the
series (2) is a geometric progression which is known to con
verge when x is a positive or negative number numerically less
than 1. If we place x = % in (2), we have
"
which is true in the sense that the limit of the sum of the terms
on the right is f . If, however, we place x 3 in (2), we have
which is false. A reason for this difference may be seen by
considering the remainder in the division which produced (2)
but which is neglected in writing the series. This remainder is
after n terms of the quotient have been obtained ; and if
lx
x is numerically less than 1, the remainder becomes smaller and
smaller as n increases, while if x is numerically greater than 1,
the remainder becomes larger. Hence in the former case it may
be neglected, but not in the latter case.
The calculus offers a general method for finding such series
as those obtained by the special methods which led to (2) and
(3). This method will be given in the following section.
59. Maclatirin's series. We shall assume that a function can
usually be expressed by a power series which is valid for ap
propriate values of x, and that the derivative of the function may
be found by differentiating the series term by term. The proof
of these assumptions lies outside the scope of this book. Let us
proceed to find the expansion of sin x into a series. We begin by
writing $oLv s *A+Bx + Cx*+Dx*+Ex*+Fx*+   , (1)
where 4, J?, (7, etc. are coefficients to be determined.
174 SERIES
By differentiating (1) successively, we have
 5 . 4
cosa;=3.2. J> + 4.3 . 2.Je + 5.
sin z = 4 3 2 J+5. 4 3 . 2 . Jfc
3 
By substituting x = in equation (1) and each of the fol
lowing equations, we get
.4 = 0, 5=1, C=0, 3.2.D = 1, J?=0, 5.4.3.2.^ = 1;
whence JL = 0, 5 = 1, tf= 0, O = ^ T #=<>, ^=^
o I o
Suhstitutuig these values in (1), we have
8 , X 6 SQ^
sma; = a; __ + __..., (2)
and the law of the following terms is evident.
The above method may obviously be used for any function
which may be expanded into a series. We may also obtain a
general formula by repeating the above operations for a general
I auction /(a;).
We place f(x) = A + Bz + C3?+J)x*+lSz l +  (3)
and, by differentiation, obtain in succession
f"(x) = 3 ! Z> + 4 3 2 . Ex+ . .,
where f f (x), /"()/'"(); and/ v (a;) represent the first, second,
third, and fourth derivatives of /(#).
We now place a; = in these equations, indicating the results
of that substitution on the left of the equations by the symbols
MACLAUKIN'S SERIES 175
> f" ()> etc  We thus determine A, B, C, D, E, etc.,
and, substituting in (8), have
A*) =AOHAO>+^AoX+^/"(OX+ ^<oy+   (4)
This is called Madaurin's scries.
Ex. 1. Find the value of sin 10 to foui decimal places.
Wo tuny use sones (8), but have? to remembei ( 42) that x must be in
eiivuhii measure. Hence wo i>lace x = ~~ 17458, where wo take five
loO
significant figmes in ordei to insure accuracy in the fomth significant
iigiU'O of the result.*
Subntibutmg in (2), we have
. TT ,_,_ f.17458) 8 ,
sin = .17451} v ' + 
ia O
= .17458  00089 = .17804.
Ilonco to four decimal places am 10= .1736.
We have u.scd only two terms of the series, since a rough calculation,
which may bo made with a = 2, shows that the third term of the series
will not affect the fourth decimal place.
Ex. 2. Find the value of sin 61 to four decimal places.
In radians the angle 01 is ~.TT= 1.0647. If this nuxnbei were sub
luO
Htituted in the sonos (2), a great many terms would have to be taken to
include all which affect the first four decimal places. We shall therefore
find a series for 8in(~+oA and afterwards place o: = j~(=l). We
chow the angle ~^(~ (10) because it is an angle near 61 for which we "
know the nine and cosine. The series may b(5 obtained by the method by
which (2) was obtained, For variety we shall use the general formula (4).
Wo have then . \ i _.
/(O) . tnn = V;
This JH not a general rule. In other cases the student may need to cany
two or men three more significant figures in the calculation than are needed
in the result.
176 SERIES
Therefore, substituting in (4), we have
In this we place x = ^ = .01745 and perform the arithmetical calcula
loO . .
tion. We have sin 61= sin(^ + ~}= 8746.
\o 180/
Ex. 3. Expand In (1 + a)
The function In x is an example of a function which cannot be expanded
into a Maclaurm's series, since if we place /(a;) = In a;, we find /(0),/'(0),
etc to be infinite, and the series (4) cannot be written We can, however,
expand ln(l + a;) by series (4) or by using the method employed in obtain
ing (2). The latter method is more instructive because of an interesting
abbreviation of the work We place
ln(l + a;) = A + Bx + Cx z + Dx 3 + Eat + .
Then, by differentiating,
= B + 2 CJB + 3 Dx* + 4 Ex s +  .
1 + x
But we know, by elementary algebra, that
  =1 x + x z x s +
1 + x
Hence, by comparing the last two series, we have
JB=1, C = k Z>=, E=%, etc.
By placing x = in the first series, we find In 1 = A, whence .4 = 0. We
have, therefore, ^ 8 ^
In (1 + a;) = x _ + __+....
EXERCISES
Expand each, of the following functions into a Maclaurin's series :
1. d*. 2. cossc. 3. tan a;. 4. sin" 1 ^.
5. tan" 1 ^ 6. sinfj + a?). 7. ln(2 + aj).
8. Prove the binomial theorem
t . ... i , n(n 1) . n(n 'IVw 2) , .
(a + o;) n =a' l +wa n  1 aj4 v / a n ~ 2 a5 2 + v O y . v / a n  8 a5*4 .
i\ O\
9. Compute sin 5 to four decimal places
10. Compute cos 62* to four decimal places.
TAYLOR'S SERIES 177
60. Taylor's series. In the use of Maclaurin's series, as given
in the previous section, it is usually necessary to restrict our
selves to small values of x. This is for two reasons. In the
first place, the series may not converge for large values of x\
and in the second place, even if it converges, the number of
terms of the series which it is necessary to take to obtain a
required degree of accuracy may be inconveniently large. This
difficulty may be overcome by an ingenious use of Maclaurin's
series as illustrated in Ex. 2 of the previous section. We may,
however, obtain another form of series which may be used when
Maclaurin's series is inconvenient.
Let f(x) be a given function, and let a be a fixed value of
x for which the values of /(#) and its derivatives are known.
Let * be a variable, or general, value of x which does not differ
much from a ; that is, let x a be a small number, positive or
negative. We shall then assume that/(a;) can be expanded in
powers of the binomial x a ; that is, we write
f(&=A+(xa) + C(xa)*+I)(xa) 8 \ , (1)
and the problem is to determine the coefficients 4, B, C, .
We differentiate equation (1) successively, obtaining
In each of these equations place x = a. We have
f(a)~A, /< = , /"(a) =2,1 (7, etc.;
f" (ch f" (a\
whence 4=/(a), B =/'(), C^^f 2 ' #= 8 , ' et <>
Substituting in equation (1), we have as the final result
a)^   .. (2)
This is known as Taylor's series. Since, as has been said, it
is valid for values of x which make x a a small quantity, the
SERIES
function /(a?) is said to be expanded in the neighborhood of
x a. It is to be noticed that Taylor's series reduces to
Maclaurin's series when a = 0. Maclaunn's series is therefore
an expansion in the neighborhood of x 0.
Ex. Expand In a; in the neighborhood of x = 3.
Here we have to place a = 3 in the general formula. The calculation of
the coefficients is as follows :
/():= In a, /(3) = ln3,
and therefore
1 f~ QNfl
BT (  3 )
This enables us to calculate the natural logarithm of a number near 3,
provided we know the logarithm of 3. For example, let us have given
In 3 = 1 0986 and desire In 3. Then x  3 = , and the series gives
= 1.0986 + 1667  .0139 + 0015  .0002 + . . .
= 1 2527.
The last figure cannot be depended upon, since we have used only
four decimal places in the calculation.
EXERCISES
Expand each of the following functions into a Taylor's series,
using the value of a given in each case :
1. In*, a = 5. M TT
4. cos a;, a 
2. j a = 2.
. TT
3. sin x, a =
8. Compute sin 46 to four decimal places by Taylor's series.
9. Compute cos 32 to four decimal places by Taylor's series.
10. Compute e 1  1 to four decimal places by Taylor's series.
GENERAL EXEECISES 179
GENERAL EXERCISES
Expand each of the following functions into series in powers of a;
1. ln(l a?). ,1+as . fir
' 4. ln= 6. sm(v +
2. seco;. 1 a? \b
3. ,~ 6. cos(7r + ). 7. /z 3'
8. Verify the expansion of tan a? (Ex 3, 59) by dividing the
series for sin x by that for cos x.
9. Verify the expansion of sec x (Ex. 2) by dividing 1 by the
series for cos x.
1 x
10. Expand 1 by Maclaurin's series and verify by dividing
JL ~T~ tC
the numerator by the denominator
11. Expand e* cos x into a Maclaurin's series, and verify by
multiplying the series for & by that for cosaj.
12. Expand e^sime into a Maclaurin's series, and verify by
multiplying the series for tf* by that for sin a;.
13. Expand e T ln(l+aj) into a Maclaurin's series, and verify by
multiplying the series for e 00 by that for ln(l K).
14. Compute cos 15 to four decimal places
15. Compute sin 31 to four decimal places
16. Compute e* to four decimal places by the series found in
Ex. 1, 59.
17. Using the series for ln(l+ x~), compute Inf to five decimal
places.
18. Using the series found in Ex. 4, compute In 2 to five decimal
places, and thence, by aid of the result of Ex. 17, find In 3 to four
decimal places.
19. Using the series found in Ex. 4, compute In  to five decimal
places, and thonce, by aid of the first result of Ex. 18, find In 6 to
four decimal places.
20. Using the series found in Ex. 4, compute ln$ to four decimal
places, and thence, by aid of the result of Ex. 18, find In 7 to three
decimal places.
21. Compute the value of TT to four decimal places, from the ex
1 IT
pansion of sin 1 a5 (Ex. 4, 59) and the relation sin 1 ^ = g
180 SEEIES
22. Compute the value of IT to four decimal places, from the ex
pansion of tan 1 ;*; (Ex. 5, 59) and the relation tan 1  + 2 tan" 1  =
23. Compute v/17 to four decimal places by the binomial theorem
(Ex. 8, 59), placing a = 16, x = 1.
24. Compute "\/26 to four decimal places by the binomial theorem
(Ex. 8, 59), placing a = 27, x = 1.
/"* X o\r\ /*
25. Obtain the integral / dx in the form of a series
pansion. J x
26. Obtain the integral I e'^dx in the form of a series
pansion. ^
f*x C&C
27. Obtain the integral / in the form of a series expansion.
Uo * ~T" *
28. Obtain the integral / 5 in the form of a series expansion.
i/o x
expansion
CHAPTER VIII
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
61. Partial differentiation. A quantity is a function of two
variables x and y when the values of x and y determine the
quantity. Such a function is represented by the symbol /(#, #).
For example, the volume V of a right circular cylinder is a
function of its radius r and its altitude h, and in this case
Similarly, we may have a function of three or more variables
represented by the symbols /(a;, #, z),f(x, y, 2, w), etc.
Consider now /(*, jr), where x and y are independent varia
bles so that the value of x depends in no way upon the value
of y nor does the value of y depend upon that of x. Then we
may change x without changing y, and the change in x causes
a change in /. The limit of the ratio of these changes is the
derivative of / with respect to x when y is constant, and may
/ JTJ?\
be represented by the symbol ( ) v^
\ dx J v
Similarly, the derivative of / with respect to y when x is
constant, is represented by the symbol ij Y These derivatives
\dy/x
are called partial derivatives of / with respect to x and y re
spectively, The symbol used indicates by the letter outside
the parenthesis the variable held constant in the differentiation.
When no ambiguity can arise as to this variable, the partial de
ftf flf
rivatives are represented by the symbols and ^, thus:
dx \dx A**!) Aa;
+ A ^>
Ay
181
182 PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
So, in general, if we have a function of any number of variables
f(x, y, ., 2), we may have a partial derivative with respect to
each of the variables. These derivatives are expressed by the sym
QJ? rvj* A /
' ' ' ' *' orsometimesb y/*C*> y>   *
To compute these derivatives we have to apply the formulas
for the derivative of a function of one variable, regarding as
constant all the variables except the one with respect to which
we differentiate.
Ex. 1. Consider a perfect gas obeying the law v = We may change
P
the temperature while keeping the pressure unchanged. If A* and AJ> are
corresponding increments of t and v, then
P P P
, 8v c
and =  .
dt p
Or we may change the pressure while keeping the temperature un
changed If Ap and Ai? are corresponding increments of p and v, then
A
and *L = .
dp p*
Ex. 2. /= a; 8  3 x*y + y, Ex. 3. /= sin (re 2 + y 2 ),
?L = 3 a; 2  6 xy, % = 2 a; cos (x* + w 2 ),
 v ^ y
Ex. 4. In differentiating in this way care must be taken to have the
functions expressed in terms of the independent variables. Let
x r cos 9 t y = r sin 6
Then ,
or or
fa A fy A
 = r sin 6, ~ = r cos 6,
c9 dd
where r and 6 are the independent variables.
PARTIAL DERIVATIVES
183
Moreover, since r
8r
Sx
where x and y are the independent variables.
fix
= sin0,
(2)
It is to be emphasized that in (1) is not the reciprocal of in (2).
ftr
j /ON r i
and,in(2), = (
T . j /IN
In fact, in (1), =
^ ' dr
and because the variable held constant is differ
ent in the two cases, there is no reason that
one should be the leciprocal of the other. It
happens in this case that the two are eqiial, but
this is not a general rule. Graphically (Fig. 80),
if OP = r is increased by PQ = Ar, while 6 is
constant, then PR = Aa: is determined Then
9j, fdx\ PR
= ( )
\drja
Sr
T n
Lim.   = cos 0.
PQ,
Moreover (Fig. 81), if OM = x is increased by
MNPQ, = Aa;, while y is constant, then R Q= Ar
, . , m,
is determined Then
dr /dr\ T .
= ( ) = Lim
8x \dx/v
ST f^y fix
cos0. It happens here that = But 5?
 or ox co
in (1), and , in (2), are neither equal nor
reciprocal.
EXERCISES
n
Jx
31 ,
t J35 ZS.M
and ~ in each of the following cases
6 . , =
C y
2ajv
6. sm  Ji
9, If * = ln<X  2xy + 2/ a + 3aj 
K 2
10. If = Va; 2 + 2/ 2 e r , prove a; + y
prove ^
*.
=
184 PAETIAL DIFFERENTIATION
62. Higher partial derivatives. The partial derivatives of
/(#, y) are themselves functions of x and y which may have
partial derivatives, called the second partial derivatives of /(a, y~).
rrn, d /3A /2A 2 /9A 2 /9A T> 4. 4. vi
They are r ( )' ( TT ) TT( )' ^ ut ^ mav b shown
17 dx\dxj 8y\dx/ 8x\dy/ dy\dy/ J
that the order of differentiation with respect to x and y is imma
terial when the functions and their derivative fulfill the ordinary
conditions as to continuity, so that the second partial derivatives
are three in number, expressed by the symbols
a/8/\ 3/3A a 2 /
dx\Zy) dy\dx] dxcy
Similarly, the third partial derivatives of /(#, /) are four in
number; namely,
\ j 3 /gA
"" "
So, in general, T; signifies the result of difEerentiating
y) p times with respect to a?, and g times with respect to
, the order of differentiating being immaterial.
In like manner, p 9r signifies the result of differentiating
/(#, y, g) jp times with respect to #, q times with respect to y,
and r times with respect to 2, in any order.
TOTAL DIFFERENTIAL 185
EXERCISES
1. If = (x z + 2/ 2 ) tan 1 ^ find
x &
2. If e"sm(x y), find ^3
3V
3. If =
Verify ^^] = ^[^ m each of the following cases :
17 &e\<ty/ By\faJ
i x
4. * = a:?/ 2 + 2 ye 1 . 6. s = sm 1 .
y
K g  y + y 7  *
O. w I is> ,
te y Vflj 2 4 j/ 2
, 82 &*
8. If^ = tan
9. If In (a; 2 a 2 /), prove a 2 ji gg = 0.
O2 / r/\
10. If V = i cos w<, prove n*r ^^ ^ + w (w + ^)ii = ^
63. Total differential of a function of two variables. In 20
the differential of a function of a single variable, y =/(), is
defined by the equation ay=f'(x)dx, (1)
where /* (#) is the derivative of y.
But /(aO=Lim; (2)
and hence, according to the definition of a limit ( 1),
2=/0) + e, (8)
where e denotes the difference between the variable ^ and its
limit f (x) and approaches zero as a limit as A > 0.
Multiplying (3) by As, we have
Ay=/(a;)Aa? + Ac. (4)
But Az = dx and Ay =/( + Aas) /(), so that (4) may be
written in the form
/(SB) =/ () * + e <n (5)
186 PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
In the case of a function of two variables, /(, y), if x alone
is changed, we have, by (5),
f(x + Az, y) /(a, y) = ^dfc + e^ (6)
the theory being the same as in the case of a function of one
OJJ
variable, since y is held constant. The term dx may be denoted
by the symbol d x f.
Similarly, if x is held constant and y alone is changed, we have
/(a, y + Ay) /(*, y) = ^ dy 4 e 2 cZy, (7)
df
and dy may be denoted by the symbol d f.
dy
Finally, let x and y both change. Then.
A/=/CB+AZ, y+Ay)/(a;, y)
==/(+ Aas, y+ Ay)/(z+ As, y)4/(z+ Az,y) /(,y> (8)
Then, by (6),
/(a + As, y) /O, y) =  <fc + ^db; (9)
and similarly, by (7),
/(as + As, y + Ay) /<> + As, y) = ^dy + e/rfy, (10)
OJ? *
where is to be computed for the value (a? + Aa;, y). But if
of y
is a continuous function, as we shall assume it is, its value
oy
for (x + A#, y) differs from its value for (x, y) by an amount
which approaches zero as dx approaches zero. Hence we may
write, from (8), (9), and (10),
A/= dx + y + ^rfg + e 3 rfy, (11)
cj? ay?
where both ^ and ^ are computed for (x, y\
dx dy ^ aj
We now write df = j dx + % dy, (1 2)
ox dy
so that A/= 4f+ e^ + e t dy, (13)
and ?f is called the total differential of the function, the expres
sions dfc/ and ^ being called the partial differentials.
TOTAL DIFFERENTIAL 187
It is evident, by analogy with the case of a function of a
single variable, that a partial differential expresses approximately
the change in the function caused by a change in one of the
independent variables, and that the total differential expresses
approximately the change in the function caused by changes in
both the independent variables. It is evident from the defini
tion that , ,. , ,, , ,. ._, A ,.
v f. (14)
Ex. The period of a simple pendulum with small oscillations is
whence g
Let I = 100 cm with a possible error of ^ mm in measuring, and
T = 2 sec. with a possible error of ^ $ y sec. in measuring. Then <ll = ^
Moreover, dg =  dl =j dT,
and we obtain the largest possible error in g by taking dl and dT of oppo
site signs, say dl = ^, dT = j^.
Then dg = ^ + *r a = 1.05 v* as 10.36.
The ratio of error is
<!l = ^ _ 2 ~ = .0005 + .01  .0105 = 1.05%.
g I T
EXERCISES
1. Calculate the numerical difference between A and dz wlien
s=s 4 icy a 8 y a , a = 2, ?/ = 3, Aas = cZaj s= 01, aud Ay = dy =.001
2. An angle < is determined from the formula < = tan" 1 ^ Toy
x
measuring the sides x and y of a right triangle. If x and, y are
found to be 6 ft. and 8 ft. respectively, with a possible error of one
tenth of an inch, in measuring each, iind approximately the greatest
possible error in <.
3. If C is the strength of an electric current due to an electro
motive force E along a circuit of resistance R, by Ohm's law
188 PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
If errors of 1 per cent are made in measuring E and R, find
approximately the greatest possible percentage of error in com
puting C
4. If F denotes the focal length of a combination of two lenses
in contact, their thickness being neglected, and / x and / 2 denote the
respective focal lengths of the lenses, then
I = l , i
* A /.'
If / x and/ 2 are said to be 6 in and 10 in respectively, find approx
imately the greatest possible error in the computation of F from the
above formula if errors of .01 in. in / t and 0.1 in. in f z are made
5. The eccentricity e of an ellipse of axes 2 a and 2b (a > I) is
given by the formula .
The axes of an ellipse are said to be 10 ft. and 6 ft. respectively.
Find approximately the greatest possible error in the determination
of e if there are possible eriors of .1 ft. m a and .01 ft. in 5.
6. The hypotenuse and one side of a right triangle are respectively
13 in and 5 in. If the hypotenuse is increased by .01 in., and the
given side is decreased by 01 in , find approximately the change in
the other side, the triangle being kept a right triangle
7. The horizontal range R of a bullet having an initial velocity of
v , fired at an elevation a, is given by the formula
Ji =
9
Find approximately the greatest possible error in the computation
of R if v = 10,000 ft per second with a possible error of 10 ft per
second, and a 60 with a possible error of 1' (take g = 32).
8. The density D of a body is determined by the formula
* ,
w w'
where w is the weight of the body in air and w 1 the weight in water.
If w = 244,000 gr. and w'= 220,400 gr., find approximately the
largest possible error in D caused by an error of 5 gr. in w and an
error of 10 gr. in w',
HATE OF CHANGE 189
QJ7
64. Rate of change. The partial derivative  gives the rate
ox
of change of / with respect to x when x alone varies, and the
partial derivative j gives the rate of change of / with respect
to y when y alone varies. It is sometimes desirable to find the
rate of change of/ with respect to some other variable, t. Ob
viously, if this rate is to have any meaning, x and y must be
functions of t, thus making/ also a function of t. Now, by 11,
the rate of change of / with respect to t is the derivative .
at
To obtain this derivative we have simply to divide df, as given
by (12), 63, by dt, obtaining m this way
dt 8x dt By dt
The same result may be obtained by dividing A/, as given by
(11), 63, by At and taking the limit as At approaches zero as
a limit.
Ex. 1 If the radius of a right circular cylinder is increasing at the rate
of 2 in per second, and the altitude is increasing at the late of 3 in per
second, how fast is the volume increasing when the altitude is 15 in. and the
radius 5 in ?
Let V be the volume, r the radius, and h the altitude. Then
_ ,
y W ' dt ~ dr dt dh dt
dr . nd7i
+ 7ir a ~.
dt dt
By hypothesis, ~ = 2, ~ = 3, = 5, 7t = 15. Therefore ~ = 375 IT cu. in.
T dt dt dt
per second.
The same result may be obtained without partial differentiation by ex
pressing V directly in terms of t. Foi, by hypothesis, r = 5 + 2 1, 7i =15 + 3 1
if we choose t = when r = 5 and 7i = 15. Therefore
7= (8 75 + 375 t + 120 i a +12 * 8 )7r;
whence ~ = (375 + 240 1 + 36 2 ) *.
When t 0, * = 375 TT cu. in. per second, as before.
dt
190 PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION
Ex. 2. The temperature of a point in a plane is given by the formula
1
The rate of change of the temperature in a direction parallel to OX is,
accordingly, &*__ 2*
to ~"~ (a: 2 + jr 2 ) 2 '
which gives the limit of the change in the temperature compared with a
change in x when x alone varies
Similarly, the rate of change of u in a direction parallel to OF is
Jw _ 2 ?/
Suppose now we wish to find the rate of change of the tempei ature in a
direction which makes an angle a with OX From Pig. 82, if P^(x v y^) is
a fixed point, and P (x, y) a moving point _
on the line through P x making an angle a
with OX, and s is the distance P^P, we have p
P! R = x x 1
jo
whence x = x t + s cos a, "
y = y^ + s sin a, ^.
, dx dy
and  = cos a, ^ = sma. PIGI 82
Replacing t by s in formula (1), and substituting the values of  and
dii d s
~ which we lust found, we have
as
du du du
= cos + sin a
as dx dy
_ _ 2 x cos ex + 2 y sin ex
Formula (1) has been written on the hypothesis that x and y
are functions of t only. If x and y are functions of two vari
ables, t and s, and (1) is derived on the assumption that t
alone varies, we have simply to use the notation of 61 to write
at once
a
which may also be written as
dt dx dt %y dt
GENERAL EXERCISES 191
EXERCISES
1. If 2 = e tan x } x = sin tf, y = cos t, find the rate of change of
with respect to t
1 f x
2. If = tan" 1 : ~ ) x = sin t, y cos t, find the rate of change
of with respect to t when t
jL
3. If V= (a * 6""*) cos ay, prove that V and its deiivatives m
any direction are all equal to zero at the point ( 0, )
4. If F= ) find the rate of change of V at the point
Va; 2 + y z
(1, 1) in a direction making an angle of 45 with OX.
5. If the electric potential Fat a,ny point of a plane is given by
the formula V= In Vcc a + y 2 , find the rate of change of potential at
any point (1) in a direction toward the origin ; (2) in a direction at
right angles to the direction toward the origin
B. If the electric potential F at any point of the plane is given
\/(g> _ ff*) 2 + W 2
by the formula F= In , * ? find the rate of change of
V(o;Ha) 2 y 2 b
potential at the point (0, a) in the direction of the axis of y, and at
the point (a, a) in the direction toward the point ( a, 0).
GENERAL EXERCISES
, TJ! xy 1 80 fa A
1. If = sin , . > prove x z  y 5 = 0.
xy + 1 i ox ^ oy
"i /?/ /i
2 ' If = S
3. If at = f + ye* prove oj 2 f y
r\2 O2
4. If # = ey cos a (7c cc), prove that jrj 4 ^ = 0.
B. If 3 = ecwx s i n / CCj p rov e that f t = <*. 1
6. If * = e**sin (TO?/ + x Vft 2 , 2  7c 2 ). prove that
v ' x *
2 P
a W'
rtrr fc /IN *T. * ^^ , ! Sfr , 1 A
7. If F= <?**cos (a In r), prove that 55 4 ~ H 1 575 == 0.
N ' or r 0>' ir 0*
192 PAETIAL DIFFEKENTIATION
8. A right circular cylinder has an altitude 8 ft. and a radius
6 ft. Find approximately the change in the volume caused by de
creasing the altitude by .1 ft. and the radius by .01 ft.
9. The velocity v, with which vibrations travel along a flexible
string, is given by the formula
where t is the tension of the string and m the mass of a unit length.
of it Find approximately the greatest possible error in the compu
tation of v if t is found to be 6,000,000 dynes and m to bo .005 gr.
per centimeter, the measurement of t being subject to a possible
error of 1000 dynes and that of m to a possible error of .0005 gr.
10. The base AB of a triangle is 12 in. long, the side AC is 10 in.,
and the angle A is 60. Calculate the change in the area caused
by increasing A C by 01 in and the angle A by 1. Calculate also
the differential of area corresponding to the same increments.
11. The distance between two points A and B on opposite sides
of a pond is determined by taking a third point C and measuring
AC = 90 ft , BC = 110 ft , and BCA = 60. Find approximately the
greatest possible error in the computed length of AB caused by
possible errors of 4 in. in the measurement of both AC and BC.
12. The distance of an inaccessible object A from a point B is
found by measuring a base line B C 100 ft , the angle CBA =s<x= 45,
and the angle BCA = 0= 60. Find the greatest possible error in
the computed length of AB caused by errors of 1' in measuring both
a and
13. The equal sides of an isosceles triangle are increasing at the
uniform rate of .01 in. per second, and the vertical angle is increas
ing at the uniform rate of .01 radians per second. How fast is the
area of the triangle increasing when the equal sides are each 2 ft.
long and the angle at the vertex is 45 ?
14. Prove that the rate of change of * = In (a; JVjc a + f) in the
direction of the line drawn from the origin of coordinates to any
point P(x, y) is equal to the reciprocal of the length of OP.
15. The altitude of a right circular cone increases at the uniform
rate of .1 in per second, and its radius increases at the uniform rate
of .01 in. per second How fast is the lateral surface of the cone
increasing when its altitude is 2 ft. and its radius 1 ft.?
GENERAL EXERCISES 193
*t  ffi ~\ JL* >
16. Given = tan" 1 ; 1 tan" 1 Find the general expres
sion for the derivative of along the line drawn from the origin of
coordinates to any point. Find also the value of this derivative at
the point (1, 1).
17. In what direction from the point (3, 4) is the rate of change
of the function tt kzy a maximum, and what is the value of that
maximum rate ?
18. Find a general expression for the rate of change of the func
tion u s= &v sin x +  e*v sin 3 cc at the point ( 77 ) ). Find also the
3 \ 3 /
maximum value of the rate of change.
CHAPTER IX
INTEGRATION
65. Introduction. In 18 and 23 the process of integration
was defined as the determination of a function when its deriva
tive or its differential is known. We denoted the process of
integration by the symbol /; that is, if
then Cf(x) dx = F(x) + C,
where C is the constant of integration (18).
The expression f(x) dx is said to be under the sign of inte
gration, and/(a;) is called the integrand. The expression J<\J'} + ('
is called the indefinite integral to distinguish it from the definite
integral defined in 23.
Since integration appears as the converse of differentiation,
it is evident that some formulas of integration may bo found
by direct reversal of the corresponding formulas of differentia
tion, possibly with some modifications, and that the correctness
of any formula may be verified by differentiation.
In all the formulas which will be derived, the constant C will
be omitted, since it is independent of the form of the integrand;
but it must be added in all the indefinite integrals found by
means of the formulas. However, if the indefinite integral is
found in the course of the evaluation of a definite integral, the
constant may be omitted, as it will simply cancel out if it has
previously been written in ( 23).
The two formulas / *
I cdu = c I du (1)
ft
and
i >,   .^
/
194
](du + dv + dw\ ) = Cdu + Cdv + Cdw + . (2)
INTEGEAL OF w* 195
are of fundamental importance. Stated in words they are as
follows :
(1) A constant factor may be changed from one side of the sign
of integration to the other.
(2) The integral of tJie sum of a finite number of functions is
the sum of the integrals of the separate functions.
To prove (1), we note that since c du d(cu), it follows that
I cdu = I d (cu) cu = c I du.
In like manner, to prove (2), since
du H dv + dw + . . . = d(u + v + w +...),
we have
/ (du + dv + dw H ) = I d (u + v + + )
u + v + w+
I du H I dv + I dw + . . .
The application of these formulas is illustrated in the follow
ing articles.
66. Integral of u". Since for all values of m except m =
/w m \
or d )=w m ~
\m/
it follows that Cu m ~ l du = .
J m
Placing m == n +1, we have
/or aZZ values of n except n s= 1.
In the case %= 1, the expression under the sign of inte
gration in (1) becomes , which is recognized as
Therefore
T = lnw. (2)
196 INTEGRATION
In applying these formulas the problem is to choose for u
some function of x which will bring the given integral, if pos
sible, under one of the formulas. The form of the integrand
suggests the function of x which should be chosen for u.
Ex. 1. Find the value of JY aa; 2 + Ix +  + J dx
Applying (2), 65, and then (1), 05, we have
fft
J \
= afx z (lx + bj'xflx + cf ( ~ + k JV
The fiist, the second, and the fourth of these integrals may be evaluak'tl
by formula (1) and the thud by foirnula (2), wheie u = x, the icsults beiny
11 &
respectively  ax 9 ,  bx*,  , and c In a..
 ,
o &
Therefore C lax* + lx +  + ^ } dx = ~ ax* + J lx z + c In i   + C
J \ x a,*/ 3 2 x
Ex. 2. Find the value of J*(z 2 + 2)ar<fo.
If the factors of the integrand are multiplied together, we have
f (a; 2 + 2) xdx = f(x s + 2 a;) dx,
which may be evaluated by the same method as that used in Ex 1, the
result being z 4 + x z + C.
Or we may let x 2 + 2 = , whence 2xdx = du, so that xdx = % du. Hence
22
Comparing the two values of the integral found by the two methods of
integration, we see that they differ only by the constant unity, which may
be made a part of the constant of integration.
Ex. 3. Find the value of C(ox z + 2 bz) a (ox + &) dx.
Let GKC 2 + 2 bx = u Then (2 ax + 2 fydx = du, so that (ox + &) dx = J rfw.
Hence J" (oa; 2 + 2 fcc) 8 (aa: + l)dx = C %u*du
1 / 7 1 u 4 ,
=s / M B du = . + C
2J 24
INTEGRAL OF M" 197
Ex. 4. Find the value of C 4 < + *] dx
J ax 2 + 2 fa;
As in Ex. 3, let ax z + 2bx = u. Then (2 ax + 2 b) dx =* du, so that
Ilence
= 2 In w + C
s= 2 In (az 2 + 2 to) +
Ex. 5. Find the value of C (e +
Let e * + & = u. Then e ax adx = tfu.
Hence J(e + 6)cdiB J^ jf
If the integrand is a trigonometric expression it is often pos
sible to carry out the integration by either formula (1) or (2).
This may happen when the integrand can be expressed m terms
of one of the elementary trigonometric functions, the whole
expression being multiplied by the diffeiential of that function.
For instance, the expression to be integrated may consist of a
function of smo; multiplied by cosEefe, or a function of cos a;
multiplied by ( sma^a;), etc.
Ex. 6. Find the value of [ Vsm x coa s xdx.
Since d(smx) = oosxrfx, we will separate out the factor cosrcrfar and
express the rest of the integrand in terms of sin a:.
Thus Vsinxcos s xdx = Vsirue (1 sm s ;c) (cosxdx).
Now place sin x = M, and we have
198 INTEGRATION
Ex. 7. Find the value of Jsec 6 2xdz.
Since d(tan 2 a:) = 2 sec 2 2 xdx, we separate out the factor sec 8 2 rdc and
expiess the rest of the integrand in terra a of tan 2 a:
Thus
sec 2 x dx = sec* 2 x (sec 3 2
= (1 + tan 8 2 a:) 2 (sec 3 2 a:r/
= (1 + 2 tan 2 2 ar +*tan*2 a;) (se
Now place tan 2z=su, and we have
fsec 6 2 xdx =
= Jtan2a:
EXERCISES
Find the values of the following integrals
*6 M 4 sec 3 ace
tan ax
+ C.
. C
j=\dx.
C( r 1 \^
J [xvx j=]dx.
J \ x~vx/
r?**
C tffa
"J^T
i. C(x* + l)*xdx.
I Vo 4 + 4x 8 t7a;.
/.
c
J 2 a; f sin 2 a;'
in f 1cosa;
!. I . . .,dx.
J (aj sinaj) 4
/:
12.
13
dx.
&r.
sin ax
rfa;.
e 8 *^
e* x + &
_ , 1 + COS 2 G ,
9. I    ote.
fif
J 1 + cos aa
14. I cos 8 2 as sin 2 OJ$B.
16. I sin 3 3 a; cos 3 xdx.
16. / sin (x + 2) cos (a  2) Ja;.
17. / cos^3 x sin 3 *c?a;.
18. I sec 4 3ic^a5.
J
19. rctn 2 (2a;l)cso !1 (2aj
"*/'
ALGEBKAIC INTEGRANDS 199
67. Other algebraic integrands. From the formulas for the
differentiation of sm~ 1 M, tan" 1 ^, and sec'w, we derive, by re
versal, the corresponding formulas of integration :
du
== sin" 1 ?/,
du
and
These formulas are much more serviceable, however, if u is
/
replaced by  (a > 0). Making this substitution and evident
fit
reductions, we have as oar required formulas
du . ,u .^ N
== sin" 1  (1)
<J <J /y NX
a u a
L
_,  ON
= tan 1 > (2)
2 s y
and
+ a 2 a a
du
/du 1 *u s Q ~
^sec" 1  (3)
wV w a  a* a
Referring to 1, 47, we see that sin" 1  must be taken in the
Uf
first or the fourth quadrant; if, however, it is necessary to
u
have sin" 1  in the second or the third quadrant, the minus sign
must be prefixed. In like manner, in (3), sec" 1  must be taken in
the first or the third quadrant or else its sign must be changed.
/fix
__ Letting 2
Vj) 4 a: 2
r fa _. f \& u
J y/9 _ 358 J V9 ~ M 3
/fix
__ Letting 2 x = u, we have du = 2 dx ;
whence dx = ^ du, and Vj) 4 a: 2
200 INTEGRATION
dx
Ex.2 Find the value of f , * Jf we let V:JW~ M, UHJ
J jt V;} j, a  4
t
du = V3 rfj; ; whence <ir = = f/, and
Va
/^j _ r __ <lu
x V3 x 2 4 ^ w vV~~4
/ rfr
Ex. 3. Find the value of I /.
17
Since V4 a; js z = Vd (r 2) 2 , we may lot w =s a 2 ; whttiusH ^/.r  */, and
C ^ C _ ~ t
J  2 "^ ^*
S1J1,
i + C'
6
x ~ 2
Ex. 4. Find the value of C <lx
J 2 .r + 3 u, + 5
We may first write the integrand in the form
1 1 = 1 1
2 aJ+x+ 2'*
and let u = x + I Then du = dj.,
J 2 2 + 3 x + 5 = <>J (.r + ^) B +"Y
= ~f
2J i
1 X s ton'JL
4 4
_ 2 t 4tt
~r~ au v" f 5f +r

Vai
/
ALGEBBAIC INTEGRANDS 201
5z2 ,
Separating the integrand into two fractions
5z _ 2
2o; a 43 2a; 2 +3'
and using (2), 65, we have
2 / 5xdx r 2dx
__ /
J
If we let rz = 2 a; 2 + 3, then du = 4 artfo
5a;c?a; 5 /vM 5, 5
and if we let u V2 x, then rfu = V2 dx
, r 2dx AT / du /= 1 . . it Vo. ,a;Vo
and I i4 = V2 I  = V2  tan 1 ^ = tan 1 
J2a; 2 +3 Ju*+$ V3 3 3
Ex. 6. Find the value of
There is here a certain ambiguity, since tan 1 V and tan~ 1 ( 1) have
each an infinite number of values. If, however, we remember that the graph
of tan~ 1 a; is composed of an infinite number of distinct parts, or Iranches
(Fig 56, 46), the ambiguity is removed by taking the values of tan 1 Vs
and tan 1 ( 1) from the same branch of the graph For if we consider
 1 ^ tan x o and select any value of tan~ 1 a, then if & = a,
/

Ja
a X + 1
tan~ l 6 must be taken equal to tan 1 ^, since the value of the integral is
then zero. As & varies from equality with a to its final value, tan x & will
vaiy from tan 1 a to the nearest value of tau a &.
The simplest way to choose the proper values of tan 1 ?* and tan~ 1 is
to take them both between and Then we have
/'Va dx _ v __ / TT\ _ 7
./i a 2 + 1 ~ 3 \ i/~ 1
TT
12*
The same ambiguity occurs in the determination of a definite integi al
by (1), but the simplest way to obviate it is to take both values of sin 1
7T 7T
between ^ and The proof is left to the student.
B
202
EXERCISES
Find the values of the following integrals :
r dx r dx
l ' J Vl6  9 a? ' J
V5 x  3 a/
dx dx
/dx C B
a  12. /, 
/dx C (?SK
13 I
a:V4a; 2 9 ' J 3e 3  4 a; + 2*
ra.r + 11
x 1^
16 '
7
'
a
^
J
10
'
r / * 19 r
J VGasa* 19 ' J_
T ^ o
J V6*4a*
68. Closely resembling formulas (1) and (2) of the last section
m the form of the integrand are the following formulas ;
+o. (1)
/du> . / /
^r^^ (u+ ^ u ^ (2)
and
These formulas can be easily verified by differentiation and
this verification should be made by the student '
ALGEBRAIC INTEGRANDS 203
/f/1"
.
Letting V2 a; = u, we have du = "v2dx ; whence dx = du, and
,;= du
= _JL T rfu
= i In [M + Vu*8] + C
Va
= 4= ln C' ^2 + Va x a  3] + a
rfe
/(/
~ ~
Vy a B
As in Ex. 4, 07, we may write tho integrand in the form
Va Vx a f 3 a? Va V(j; + ^) a ~ $
and lot M = x + S ! whence rfw = rfx,
/__.4!L _JL T  ^ ;
V3 a: a + 1 x VJJ ^ V(,^ + *j) a  J
V8^ Vu a ^
" vl n w
"vl
~ Lin (3 + 2 + VO a; 2 + 12 *) +K>
Vi)
where C =  In 8 + A".
Va
/
o i IK
z a;" 8 + * JLO
Writing the integrand in the form
I ^j 1 ,..^ "S
we let * x Hh 1 ; whence rf ss rfa?.
204 INTEGRATION
r dx _ 1 f* <lf
J 2s* + a: 15 ~ 2 J (* + i) a W"
2 2(V) + V
llnljli + C
11 a + 3
It I >1 '
11 X + i)
where C = j^ In 2 + K.
EXERCISES
Find the values of the following integrals :
1 r *" 11 r~ /* ~
j.i  . * J.J.. i , 
J V^T2 J 3^ + 6
2 c dx 12 r ^
J V9rfl' Jo*3(B +
3 r *" 13 r rfa!
' J V3 2 4 ' J *+
* C dx C <fa
' J Va^a" ' J 4if2* 
5. f ^ IB f* rf f
' J V3jc a +2a3 + 3 ' J V5""4'
6 C dx r* dx
J***M ' J VOSTT'
r dx
' I oa i' 1
^ 2a ^ 1
'a 8'
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 205
69. Integrals of trigonometric functions. Of the following for
mulas for the integration of the trigonometric functions, each
of the first six is the direct converse of the corresponding for
mula of differentiation ( 44), and the last four can readily be
verified by differentiation, which is left to the student.
/ sin udu cos M, (1)
I cos udu = sin w, (2)
I seu"ud (, = tan u, (8)
/Qscfudu = ctn w, (4)
v J
sec u tan u du = sec it, (5)
esc u ctn udu = esc u, (6)
I tan udu = hi sec u, (7)
I ctn udu = In sin it, (8}
 sec udu = In (sec u h tan it), (9^
I esc udu = In (esc it ctn u) .
Ex. 1. Find the value of Tsui 7a.v7a;.
If we let 11=7,1:,
then du7dr;
whence dx = \ du,
and Cs\n7x dx = T sin ( f/u)
=3 ^ I sin udu
= \ cos + C*
= Jcos7a? + C,
206 INTEGRATION
Ex. 2. Find the value of f sec (2 x + 1) tan (2 x + 1) dx
If we let w = 2 a; f 1, then du = 2 dx,
and Tsec (2 x + 1) tan (2 x + 1) cfo = f sec M tan du
= ^secu + C
= sec (2 a; + 1) + (7.
Often a trigonometric transformation of the integrand facili
tates the carrying out of the integration, as shown in the
following examples:
Ex. 3. Find the value of f coa z axdx
Since cos s ax  (1 + cos 2 ax),
Ccos*ax dx = f ( J + J cos 2 aar) dx
= Tdk + ^ Tcos 2 aacfo
J i /
= o x + T~ sin 2 aa: + C 1 ,
A T CZ
the second integral being evaluated by formula (2) with M = 2 ax.
Ex. 4. Find the value of f Vl + cos arcfo.
Since cos x = 2 cos 2  1,
ii
Vl + cosa;=v / 2cos,
 ib
and f Vl + cos xdx ~ C V^ cos  </j;
Ex. 5. Find the value of Aan 2 3 xdx,
Since tan 2 3a; sec a 3  1,
Jtan 2 3 arcfa: = J*(sec 2 3 a:  1) da:
= Csec*3xdx Cdx
= Jtan3a; a;,
bhe first integral being evaluated by formula (3) with v*=
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 207
EXERCISES
Find the values of the following integrals :
,, 1. /sin (3 a; 2) die.
13. I cos^dte.
t 2.  cos (4 2x)dx.
/y 3. jpxa
14. I (sin^ + cosj dx.
3. 1 sec(3a: l)tan(3a; l)da;
/(
* 2aA s
tan T j
i 4. / sec a Tdo;.
J 4
16. fain 2 ! cos a 
dx.
* f+ 3a; j
^6. 1 tan % dx.
17./^ 1+ eos =
5x
6. I ctno'ajcfa;.
18. 1 Vl COS '
7 .Jcse ( 2* + s)<fc.
c* .
19. I sin oxdx.
Jo
SJcscfctnl^
C\ ai
20. I tan 75 aa;.
Jo 2
9. I sec(4a; + 2)<c.
Tw /
21. J tan ( cc "~
v/O ^
.=)*.
22.
a;.
v'10. Jose 9 (3 2 a:) da
rr
,, /*cos2o; , 23. I (
.yll. I : dx. ] ir
* J smaj J~i
r . * r*i
12. I sin a 7rdaj. 24. J
J 2 Jis
70. Integrals of exponential functions. The formulas
/ It J M XI \
and  a v du*=. a* (2)
J In a
are derived immediately from the corresponding formulas of
differentiation.
208 INTEGRATION
Ex. 1. Find the value of C$ x djc
If we let 3 x = u, we have
Ce 8x dx
/*/B
JLrrfa;.
x z
x i i
If we place V 5 = 5"" and let = u, we have
. _/*.
EXERCISES
!Fmd the values of the f ollowing integrals :
1. ie^^dx. 6. f(a + )<&. 9. f 10* dx.
//g2x _ a2as /
e^ajtfo;. 6. / _ a , rf. 10. / 2 00
11. C\***dx.
. f V ~ *"'rfaj.
Jo ^+0"*
8.
4. e^f+txfa Qt +e"dx. 12
71. Substitutions. In all the integrations that have been
made m the previous sections we have substituted a new vari
able M for some function of x, thereby making the given integral
identical with one of the formulas. There are other cases in
which the choice of the new variable u is not so evident, but
in which, nevertheless, it is possible to reduce the given integral
to one of the known integrals by an appropriate choice and wh>
stitution of a new variable. We shall suggest in this section a few
of the more common substitutions which it is desirable to try,
I. Integrand involving powers of a + U. The substitution of
some power of 2 for a f bx is usually desirable.
SUBSTITUTIONS 209
Ex. 1. Find the Value of f ^^ , .
J (1+2*)*
Here we let 1 + 2 x = s? ; then x = ^ ( 8  1) and dx = % z*dz.
Therefore C x * dx =  f(z<  2 * + z) tls
17 (1+2 a?)* 8J
Eeplacing a by its value (1 + 2 #)* and simplifying, we have
= (1 + 2 B) * ( " 12 * + 2 ^ + c '
II. Integrand involving powers of a + ?;#". The substitution
of some power of for a + frr 71 is desirable if the expression
under the integral sign contains x n ~ l d& as a factor, since
= bnx n ~ 1 cfo.
/x/j.2 J. x 2
rfa;.
a;
We may write the integral in the form
and place a a + o 2 = a . Then xdx = sdz, and the integral becomes
Replacing s by its value in terms of x, we have
x 2 Va a + a 2 + a
Ex. 3. Find the value of fjs 6 (l + 2 spfidx.
We may write the integral in the form
and place 1 + 2 a; 8 = 2 . Thou xhlx = ifisdz, and tho now integral in z ia
fr J(*<  * a ) ds = n^ s (3 * 2 ~ 5) + C.
Replacing z by its value, we have
Cx 6 (1 + 2 a)icfa ~ ^ (1 + 2 3 8 )8 (3 a 8  1) + C.
X
210 INTEGRATION
III. Integrand involving Va 2 ar 2 . If a right triangle is
constructed with one leg equal to x and
with the hypotenuse equal to a (Fig. 83),
the substitution x = a sin is suggested.
Ex. 4. Find the value of fVa 8 a: 2 da;. _, gg
Let a; = a sin <. Then dx = a cos <f> d<f> and, from the triangle, V 2 a; a
= a cos <.
Therefore C^/a?x*dx = a 2 f cos 2
But
and
for, from the triangle, sin d> =  and cos <& =
a a
Finally, by substitution, we have
J 2 \ a/
IV. Integrand involving V^+a 3 . If a right triangle is
constructed with the two legs equal to x
and a respectively (Fig. 84), the substitu
tion x = a tan <f> is suggested.
Ex. 5. Find the value of f dx
i/ /* o * ^o\ $
Let i = a tan < Then dx = a sec 8 <tf< and, from the triangle, V# a + a a
= a sec <f>.
Therefore f
But, from the triangle, sin <f> = * ; so that, by substitution,
Va; 8 + flr a
*
SUBSTITUTIONS 211
V. Integrand involving V# a a 2 . If a right triangle is
constructed with the hypotenuse equal to
x and with one leg equal to a (Fig. 85),
the substitution x = a sec <#> is suggested.
*f r
r a
Ex. 6. Find the value of / a 8 Vo: 2 a?dx " ^^ ge
Let as = a sec <. Then dx = a sec < tan < d< and, from the triangle,
Va; 2  a 2 = a tan
Therefore fa 8 Vj; 2  a 2 dx = a
= a G J"(tan 2 </> + tan 4 <) sec 2
.J. _ j
Exit, from the triangle, tan <j> = , so that, by substitution, we have
J> V* 2  a a rf.c = T V (2 a a + 3 a; 2 ) V(a; 2  a 2 ) 8 + C
We might have written this integral in the form fa; 2 Va; fl cPfxdx) and
solved by letting z a = a; 2 a 2 .
72. If the value of the indefinite integral is found by substitu
X6
f(x)dx may be
performed in two ways, differing in the manner in which the
limits are substituted. These two ways are shown in the solutions
of the following example:
Ex. Find f Va".ida;.
Jo
By Ex. 4, 71,
Va x*dx = i/a Va  x* +
Therefore C "
212 INTEGRATION
Or we may proceed as follows Let x = a sin < When x = 0, = ;
and when x = a, < = , so that < varies from to  as x vanes fiom to a.
Accordingly, " v
4
The second method is evidently the better method, as it obviates the
necessity of replacing z in the indefinite integral by its value in tenna of
x before the limits of integration can be substituted.
EXERCISES
Find the values of the following integrals :
1. \ X . * 6. I ~~ . 11
'/(**
7. r **<
J (3
/,
\J &
9. f *
J (V 5 
5  I . . , 10. I aV2a; $dx. 15
73. Integration "by parts. Another method of importance in
the reduction of a given integral to a known type is that of
integration by parts, the formula for which is derived from the
formula for the differential of a product,
d (uv) = udv + v du.
From this formula we derive
uv = / udv + f vdUy
which is usually written in the form
I udv = uv I vdu.
INTEGEATION BY PAETS 213
In the use of this formula the aim is evidently to make the
original integration depend upon the evaluation of a simpler
integral.
Ex. 1. Find the value of Cxe*dx,
If we let x = u and cPdx = dv, we have du = dx and u = e*.
Substituting in our formula, we have
j x&dx = are 1 j e x dx
It is evident that in selecting the expression for dv it is desirable, if
possible, to choose an expression that is easily integrated.
Ex. 2. Find the value of Csm
Here we may let sin 1 x = u and dx = do, whence du = rx and v = x.
Substituting in our formula, we have "^ 1 ~~ x *
xdx
sinixdx = x sin 1 a: {
J Vlo; 2
= x sin 1 ^ + l a; 2 + C,
the last integral being evaluated by (1), 66
Sometimes an integral may be evaluated by successive inte
gration by parts.
Ex. 3. Find the value of Cx*e*dx.
Here we let x z = u and eFdx = do. Then du ^xdx and = e 31 .
Therefore C
The integral f xeF dx may be evaluated by integration by parts (see Ex. 1),
so that finally
Ja;V= dx = x*<*>  2 (ar  1) e* + C = eP (a; 2  2 x + 2) + (7.
Ex. 4. Find the value of je" sin&zda:.
" sin bx = u and' c** rfz = dv, we liave
=  *<"* sin &K fc 8 * cos Ba; ?.
a v
214 INTEGRATION
In the integral Ce 01 cos bxdx we let cos bx = u and e ax dx dv, and havi
/I b /*
e"* cos bxdx  e"* cos fa +  / e** sin Sards.
a a w
Substituting this value above, we have
/e"* sin bxdx =  e 01 sin &e  (  eP* cos &r +  fc * sin bx dx\
a a\a aJ )
Now bringing to the lefthand member of the equation all the terms
containing the integral, we have
(1 + ) fe * sin bxdx =  e"* sin bx  e 031 cos bx,
\ a?/ J a a?
t. r __ , , fi** (a sin bx b cos bx)
whence I e"* sin bxdx = v '
J a z +b*
Ex. 5. Find the value of fVa; 2 + a?dx.
g
Placing Va; 3 + c 2 = w and <?a; = fo, whence rf =
we have Va; B + o a
and w = a,
Since a; 2 = (a^ + a 2 ) a 2 , the second integral of (1) may be written as
/a; 2 + a 2
which equals
z 2 +
a s /*
Evaluating this last integral and substituting in (1), we hare
whence JVa; 2 + a?dx =s $ [a Var 2 + a a + a a In (x +
74. If the value of the indefinite integral f/O) ** is found
by integration by parts, the value of the definite integral
r*
I f(z)dv may be found by substituting the limits a, and I in
va
the usual manner, in the indefinite integral.
INTEGRATION BY PARTS 215
IT
Ex. Find the value of C*x*sinxdx.
Jo
To find the value of the indefinite integral, let a; 2 = and sin a; da; = dv.
Then J a; a sm xdx = a? 2 cos x + 2 J x coaxdx.
In / a; cos a, dx, lot a; = u and cos xdx = do.
Then \x cos x dx x sin x i sin x dx
= x sin a; + cos x.
Finally, \ve have
I x*ainxdx = ar a cosa, + 2 a? sin a: + 2 cos a; + C.
IT
"" P Ha
Hence C*j? sinarda; a; 2 cos x + 2 x sin x + 2 cos a;
= 2.
The better method, however, is as follows: .
l$.f(x)dx is denoted by udv, the definite integral \ f(x)dx
stb Jo.
may be denoted by I udv, where it is understood that a and b
t/a
are the values of the independent variable. Then
/& . s*b
I udv=z\uv~\ n I vdu.
Jo, v a
To prove this, note that ib follows at once from the equation
, /^6 />fc /*! /&
** / / / /
i/a yo /o vo
Applying this method to the problem just solved, we have
IT
v r 13 ir
r'5'a; a sina?afa;= a; 2 cosa; + 2 C^xciOBxdx
/* * j
Jo
["J W
2a;sina: 2 C*&inxdx
w
STTf 2 cos a: I
L Jo
216 INTEGRATION
EXERCISES
Find the values of tho following intftfra
. CynP'tlr. 5. I .rscc" 1 !}^//^. 9. I ./ *V.r.
. I stP<i* L (?x 6. I (In Hindoos ;'(/.r. 10, / ,i"'lu.i'f/>.
. COOB I X<?JK. 7. I/' 9 "Von .r /.i'. il. / Mr "J, !/,!.
 tair~ 1 3a:</J3 8. / ,r uos 3 '^ <Ar. 18, / VPOH JJuv/.i".
4.
75. Integration of rational fractions, A rtttwixtt fwrfiHit i.s it
fraction whose numerator and denominator ur polynomials. Il
can often be integrated by expressing it UH tho twin of
fractions whoso denominators are faotoi'H of th
of the original fraction. Wo .shall illustrate only tin* inw in
which the degree of the numerator is lews thun tho th'gm* of tin*
denoiuinator and in which the ftu'torH of tho tlmitmunutur m*
all of the first degree and all different,
Ex. Find tho value of f~^ f ^}'\" </''
The factors of tho denominator arc x + tt, x 2, a<l x + 2, Wo ftHwtmo
(x + 8)(j 4) ""a + aB^ + a
whojo J, /?, and ^7aro constants to bo (lotonniucd.
Clearing (1) of fmclions by uiuUiplyuig by (ja + n)(x 9 4), w
or
l, /J, and (7 firo to bo datidrmmnd so thai Iho righWrnml memhr
of (3) .shall bo identical with th k'fthand nuwnbcr, lhn <'<*iHj5iHtu( wf
powers of a: on the two sides of tho equation muni Iw tujual.
Therefore, equating the ooeffieimitH of liku powors of / in (Jl),
theequatzons
 1 A + <t 7i ~ G ~ li,
whence we find ^t = ~ 2, Ji 2, r, Y = 1,
RATIONAL FRACTIONS 217
Substituting these values in (1), we have
a? 8 + 11 x +14 _ 2 2 1
=  2 In (x + 3) + 2 In (a;  2) + In (a, + 2) + C
EXERCISES
Find the values of the following integrals
i r a;+i 7 A r
*' J ?"o7+8 '^ 4 ' J (
2) (*
Bas+l
T __ 2 5a! + 5 T
' J ( iC .l)(a J ~2)( a! 3) rfa;  6> J
76. Table of integrals. The formulas of integration used in
this chapter are sufficient for the solution of most of the prob
lems which occur in practice. To these formulas we have added
a few others. In some cases they represent an integral which
has already been evaluated, and in other cases they are the
result of an integration by parts. In all cases they can be
verified by differentiating both sides of the equation.
These collected formulas form a brief table of integrals which
will aid in the solution of the problems in this book. It will be
noticed that some of the formulas express the given integral only
in terms of a simpler integral.
I. FUNDAMENTAL
1.  cdu=sc I du.
2. I (du + Av + dw ) = I du +  dv + I dw .
8. / udv sauv I vdu.
213 INTEGRATION
II. ALGEBRAIC
4. / u n du = . (n = 1)
J n + l
C du
5. I = mu.
du 1
p^ = ln
r
A I
' J
_ r du _ 1 , u a
' \ ~o 5 o ^ ! '
J u a za u\a
8. / vfls u du = ( u ~\a?
J V 2V
9. JWa 2 w a dM = i.O a _t
ju^a*u*du=> w + 2
sm~
19.
w
10.
12.
13.
I __ / t>.
n n
/ . _
14.
15.
16.
/du
Va 2 
fl 2 /*
L
s*
I u^/u z a z du = % (w 2
TABLE 219
_. du 1 ,M
20. I . =seo 1 
/,
. I V2 au u*du =  (w a) V2 au w 2 + a 2 sin" 1
/.
22. / t ""* = sm 1 
V2 aw  w 2 a
III. TRIGONOMETRIC
23. I smudu=x cosw.
ft . /* . , , u 1
24. I sm waw ==  r sm 2 w.
J 24
/I w, 1 /*
sm n udu = sin""^ cos w H I sin"" 2 wcZM. (n 3= 0)
w w J ^ J
26.  cos udu SB sin w.
/w 1
cos 2 wdw ==  + T sill 2 w.
2 4
/I 7i _ i /
coa*udu BBS  cos n  1 w sin w H I cos" ~ a w^. (w ^ 0)
n n J
29. I tan udu In sec w.
/tan'*"''^ C H /\\
tan w w?w s= rf I tan w "" udu. (n l^* 0)
n1 J
81. f ctnw rfw sss In sin w.
/r*i"n " *** i/ /**
ctn n w^  r  I ctn 11  3 wc?w. (n  1 + 0)
n1 J
88. I sec wrfti a= In (sec t* + tan w).
34. Jseo'wtfw =s tan M,
85, Jcso WC^M In (cso w  ctn ).
86, I cso a wc?'M! ctaa w.
220 INTM! RATION
37. I sec u tau u du HUC w.
38. I oso ? ctn w tft* = <IBO ?f.
/"
/
/Hin mfl ?M'0,s" 1 U H  I r .
Hill m WCt)S n ?/,(Zjts=S" ''.,} / ,sh'"M riLS* "'/0/,
m + w / 1 ><</
( i i it a )
I  I U 1 'll"*1/ I"*/ VU*' O/ //')/ "   j., U4_ i I Wtll // 4*1 i 1 !* J/ */Jjf
* v I niix c* ^v'Ci (v vvCv "*"*^ T i Ji i * F**' I ~ *i**
J si ,
n I , j M111
41 . I Hill"' W C50S" U dlt,*x
42. Tsii
m + 1
IV. EXPONENTIAL
r<'"?MM".
4. Ca*du**~a H .
J In a
43.
44.
45.
46.
A*
,
I WCOH" H M
< H 1
{/ f 1 / >
GENERAL EXERCISES
Find the vaJuos of tho following mtgralH t
I. J (3 aj 8 4 4  ^ 3 ~ ^ flfaj. 4, f(j f
. f2aj a
J
GENERAL EXERCISES 221
7. f(2
9. f i+ * 2 * w r
J (3x + xrf J
r^. 27. r
J as  1 J (
//
n(8.l)orf(8.l)*, " J (
IS.
13.
dx
dx
/C dx
GSG^4; C l/C 30 I *
/ "\/ 1\ 'V* r   11 '>*
i/ v ti a/ " t*/
11. fsec 8 (2Han 8 (:2)daJ. 31. C , dx
J V ' J V342ajo; a
15. / ctn (a; 1) sec 4 (a; 1) dx. 32 . 
J J W .
1C. f oso 8 2ajctu s 2a;^sB. 33. J
17. J tan'SajyseoSarZa. 34 . T &
/H UJlu.iniLJ.UI
(itn 2 IB V(!HO '2xdx. 35.
/.. ..IIU.J. rt
CMC* fiaJ"V(!t,u 5 "/?. 3g / _
* I . .<!()
J '
/* **" *? *"" $$, o*y I
siu*4aj " J 4. s
/CHC 4 5 C /*
^ 38t /
v tan 8 Sir J >!'
M.J *. v 39 '/9> + 1
19
20.
222 INTEGRATION
58.
*
54.
55,
/
42. I
69 ' / 9 a 7'
/dx
x Vcc* 6
60. / f .
,y oar 4
c dx
J x Vce 6 4
61 /4*6^
45. I
J Vl~12a; 2 4aj 4
"/Wl"*
46. fl^T^dx
r dx
., r 43oj ,
47. 1 . dx
J V92a; 2
fl7C
/dx
&5 'J9x*(>x
Va: 2 7
49. f dx
J V4a: 2 +3
661 J 4a; 2 4aj
O.J V3 * .
67. r 2 da;
' J V4a; 4 5'
i dx
52 f f*^ .
J Vo; 8 +7
69. 
/ 5 2 + 2x '.
53. / '*,&, 70t / ^
/
/^fal "71 I
V3a: 2 + l ' /J "J
/<a; ^
V2a; a  3aj' 72 ' J seo(a! )<fa.
56. /^ dx _ ^8^43;^
/ v4.'r a _L /Lo _l_7 ' d< I ?T~ <W5>
* yv * a; T*a:f< ^y cos 2 x
/OnK SI t
. . w . i / sin 2 a/ cos
/w a / 4 I I  _^ j_
"V n <T^ _I_ /Lrw'i * ^ * I I , ***"' ' "
voa+4a;l J \ Sinas COSJB
75.
Cam*~dx
GENERAL EXEECISES
91. Cx5*+*dx.
223
. ri 008405,
76. / da;.
J l+cos4aj
92. 1 xVda;.
/" cos4a; 7
77. j da;.
J cos 2 x sin 2 a;
/cc
a? tan" 1 ^*
78. da;.
x x
94. 1 aj 3 sm3fl3daj.
i cso ~ H~ ctn jr
79. 1(860*2 a? tan*2 a;) <fcc.
80. I Vl + sm 2 a; da;.
81. 1 Ve s daJ.
95. I (In 2a:) a da5.
96.  In (3 ; + V9o; a 4)
97. r a xdx
J '
82. I xtyefidx.
M /"i". *
88 /i
,/ "i
s*. r "^ '.
100. 1
J (ox j~l)*
86. 1 a; 6 *^a5 8 + 2 das.
/"a; 8 6 j a 9 x + 24
i/ "~" """ ow
86. 1 ^ 
102. r a y ?~
Ja V aj a  9
87. r 2 ^ 1 
103 ' Ji V4  a; 8 *
8s  r r
J (laj 3 ) 8
^jTe^..
/ 3 daj
105. 1 no' H i ' ft'
89.
106.
224
107.
INTEGEATION
ptan(as
J \ Q
na
108.
109.
110.
111
112
Bx , Bx
114. 
i/S
* .
a; V a; 8 4 9
115 
116.
118.
ofo:
JV
t/Q
I ~~zz"
J* e
J^J* g tanla
119. 1
*sQ
120. 1
Jo
l+x* dX
/a" JP^tC
4
123. I acHarr^cfaj.
. 1
Jo
CHAPTER X
APPLICATIONS
77. Review problems. The methods in Chapter III for de
termining areas, volumes, and pressures are entirely general,
and with our new for y
mulas of integration we can
now apply these methods
to a still wider range of
cases.
Ex. 1. Find the area of the
x* i/"
ellipse ^ + ~ = 1.
It is evident from the sym
metry of the curve (Fig. 86)
that one fourth of the required
aiea is bounded by the axis of p IG< gg
y, the axis of x, and the curve.
Constructing the rectangle MNQ,P as the element of area dA, we have
dA**ydx = VtPaPdx.
a
Hence
5ST
Ex.2. Find the area bounded by the ~
axis of x, the parabola y 9 =a kx, and the
straight line y + SfffrssO (Fig. 87),
c
The straight line and the parabola intersect at the point C ( j s ) > and
/, \ \4 i/
the straight line intersects OX at B (  , j . Draw CD perpendicular to 0Z.
If we construct the elements of area as in Ex, 1, they will be of different
226
APPLICATIONS
form according as they aie to the left or to the right of the line CD] fc
on the left of CD we shall have
dAydx k*x*dx,
and on the right of CD we shall have
dA = ydx = (k 2 a:) dx
It will, accordingly, be necessary to compute sepaiately the areas ODi
and DBC and take their sum.
Area
Area DBC = J* 3 (X:  2 x) dx = \kx  a; 2 ! 2 = & k*.
1 4
Hence the required area is 7 S k s It is to be noted that the area DBC
since it is that of a right triangle,
could have been found by the formulas ^
of plane geometry ; for the altitude
D C =  and the base DB = l~^~,
2 z 2 4 4
and hence the area =
16
Or we may construct the element
of area as shown in Fig 88
Then, if x 1 and z 2 are the abscissas
respectively of P a and P t ,
.
2 4 3k 48
Ex. 3, Let the ellipse of Ex 1 be represented by the equations
x = a cos <f>, y = l sin <.
Using the same element of area, and expressing y and dx in terms of
we have , , ,, . ....
dA = (b sin </>) ( a sin
As x vanes from to a, </ varies from to ;
A
hence
=4 f
t/O
= 4
EEVIEW PROBLEMS
227
It is evident from foimula (1), 23, that the sign of a definite integral
is changed by interchanging the limits. Hence
A =
irab
Ex. 4. Find the volume of the ring solid generated by revolving a
ciicle of radius a about an axis in its plane b units fiorn its center (b > a)
Take the axis of i evolution Y
as OY (Fig. 89) and the line
through the center as OX. Then
the equation of the ciicle is K
(r&) 2 + y 2 =a 2 .
' M"
A straight line parallel to OX
meets the circle in two points .
P v where a, = x i b Va 2 y*, and
P 2 , where x = x z = b + Va 2 ij\
A section of the requned solid
made by a plane through P 1 P 2
perpendicular to OY is bounded
by two concentric circles with
radii MP l = x v and M P z = x z respectively. Hence, if dV denotes the
PIG. 89
element of volume,
dy=
The summation extends from the point L, wheie y = a, to the point If,
where y = a. On account of symmetry, however, we may take twice the
integral from y = to y = a. Hence
V 2 C
Jo
PIG. 90
Ex. 5. Find the pressure on a
parabolic segment, with base 2 b and
altitude a, submerged so that its
base is in the surface of the liquid
and its axis is vertical
Let RQ.C (Fig. 90) be the parabolic segment, and let CB be drawn
through the vertex C of the segment perpendicular to RQ, an the surface of
the liquid. According to the data, RQ = 2 ft, CBa. Draw LN parallel
to Tti, and on LN as a base construct an element of area, dA. Let
CM=x.
228 APPLICATIONS
Then dA *=(LN)ilje.
r> , *
But, from 30,
whence
a
2/; I
and therefore dA =  <to.
*
The depth of Zi^V below the surface of the liquid is CH ( W  ,r ;
hence, if 10 is the weight of a unit volume of tho liquid,
tip sz 1 $* (a x) wdxt
a*
, .. r a 2biii i, x ,
and P  { r j? 1 (  .r) of.c
Jo
EXERCISES
1. Find the area of an arch of tho curve y = sin *.
w / * _ > \
2. Find the area bounded by tho catenary y = A v'"Hh " % fcliw
axis of a?, and the lines r = /*.
3. Find the area included between tho curve ?/ =  .. * . ., and
.... * 7 r + 1 rt^
its asymptote.
4. Find the area of one of the closed figurus boundtul by Uit*
curves if = 16 a? and ?/ 2 = sc 8 .
6. Find the area bounded by the curve 2/ a sss2(ce 1) and tilio
Iine2a; 3?/ =
6. Find the area between the axis of SB and ono arch of tht
cycloid a; = a(j!> sin ^), y = a(l COH 0).
7. Find the volume of tho solid generated by revolving about OY
the plane surface bounded by OY and the curve* a$ j ^ s 3,
8. Any section of a certain solid made by a piano pM'pwulinulnr to
OX is an isosceles triangle with tho ends of its busa r8tint? on Ihw
ellipse 1 4 '4 = 1 an d its altitude equal to tho distance of tho plane
from the center of the ellipse. Find the total volume o tho Bulid,
9, Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving about tho
line 2 y + a the area bounded by 0110 arch of tho curve y m sin as
and the axis of x.
REVIEW PROBLEMS 229
10. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving about the
line y + a = the area bounded by the circle a 8 + t/ 2 = a 2 .
11. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving about the
line x a the area bounded by that line and the curve ay 2 = x 3 .
12. A right circular cone with vertical angle 60 has its vertex at
the center of a sphere of radius a Find the volume of the portion
of the sphere included in the cone.
13. A trough 2 ft. deep and 2 ft. broad at the top has semielliptical
ends If it is full of water, find the pressure on one end.
14. A parabolic segment with base 18 and altitude 6 is submerged
so that its base is horizontal, its axis vertical, and its vertex m the
surface of the liquid Find the total pressure.
15. A pond of 15 ft. depth is crossed by a roadway with vertical
sides. A culvert, whose cross section is in the form of a parabolic
segment with horizontal base on a level with the bottom of the
pond, runs under the road. Assuming that the base of the parabolic
segment is 4 ft. and its altitude is 3 ft., find the total pressure on
the bulkhead which temporarily closes the culvert.
1. Find the pressure on a board whose boundary consists of a
straight line and one arch of a sine curve, submerged so that the
board is vertical and the straight line is in the surface of the water.
78. Infinite limits or integrand. There are cases m which it
may seem to be necessary to use infinity for one or both, of the
limits of a definite integral, or in which the integrand becomes
infinite. We shall restrict the discussion of these cases to the
solution of the following illustrative examples :
Ex. 1. Find the area bounded by the curve y = ^ (Fig. 91), the axis of
x, and the ordinate x = 1. x
It is seen that the curve has the axis of x as an asymptote ; and hence,
strictly speaking, the required area is not completely ^
bounded, since the curve and its asymptote do not
intersect. Accordingly, in Fig. 91, let OM=l and
0JV = ft (& > 1) and draw the ordinates MP and
'
If the value of b is increased, the boundary line NQ, moves to the right;
and the greater b becomes, the nearer the area approaches unity.
230 APPLICATIONS
We may, accordingly, define, the area boundt'd by the eune, Ihe u\i* of r,
and the oidinate .r = 1 as tlw hunt of the area Mj\Ql*\w It tm'tcnst's indeti
nitely, and denoto it by the symbol
'f = Lim f ft '('' . 1.
Ex. & Find the, area bounded by the eurvt' //  ^ (KU?. tiiJ), tlw
axis of X) and the oidinatoH JK and u'  . v "" " '"
Sinco the line u = <t is an jwyinptntc' of Ihc eum*, //~~ * when i
fmthtiimoH 1 , ilic area in not, ntneUy speukiuj, hounded. We IIH ( \, lun
find the area bounded on thci ri^hl by the tirdinuto
a; = a Ji, where ft is a Htuall quantity, with the lesult
If A M), Hin~ l
a A
' (I
7T
Hence wo may regard J as tlui vahu of th> area
required, and express it by tlw
if **(/" "*~~* M ""jj" 1
ii * Ftu. UiJ
Ex. 3. Find the valuo of J ' "f,
Proceeding as in Ex, 1, w( plaoo
/ f(JG * . /* * w J*
/  7 a Lim / , .
^i V / h **<' i Vj
But
an expression which increases Indeflnifcely m * Voo } hrn^o th* givt*n
integral has no finite value,
We accoidmgly conclude that in ranli aawt w rntiut dftermiuo n limit,
and that the problem has no solution if wt* cannot find a
79. Area in polar coordinates, Let (Fig, 98) he thn po! mid
OH the initial line of a system of polar noSniinatai (r, &}< nf>
and 0% two fixed radius vectors for which 0*0 and Bmi
respectively, and P& any curve for which the aquation Ift
Requirod the area JJOE
AREA IN POLAR COORDINATES
231
To construct the differential of area, dA, we divide the angle
into parts, dd. Let OP and OQ be any two consecutive
radius vectors ; then the angle POQ = d0. With as a center
and OP as a radius, we draw the arc of a circle, intersecting OQ
at R. The area of the sector
It is obvious that the re
quired area is the limit of the
sum of the sectors as their
number is indefinitely in
creased. Therefore we have
and
FIG. 93
This result is unchanged
if P l coincides with 0, but
in that case OP l must be tangent to the curve. So also P z may
coincide with 0.
Ex. 1. Find the area of one loop of the curve r = a sin 3 (Fig 65, 51)
As the loop is contained between the two tangents 0=0 and 6 = , the
required area is given by the equation 8
= f
Jo
12
Ex. 2. Find the area bounded by the lines 0= ~ and 0=~t the curve
~
44
r = 2 a cos 0, and the loop of the curve r = a cos 2 6 which is bisected by
the initial line.
Since the loop of the curve r = a cos 2 Q is tangent to the line OL
(Fig. 94), for which =  ~, and the line ON, for which 6
f it is evi
dent that the required area can be found by obtaining the area OLMNO,
bounded by the lines OL and ON and the curve r 2 a cos 6, and subtract
ing from it the area of the loop. The area may also be found as follows :
Let OPjPg be any radius vector cutting the loop r = a cos 2 Q at P t and
the curve r = 2 a cos 6 at P a . Let OP l = r t and 0P 2 r v Draw the radius
232
APPLICATIONS
vector OQ^jj, making an angle dd with OP^P^ With OP l and OP S as
radii and as a center, constiuct arcs of circles niti'iaoetouft O(^l^ at A\
and J2 2 respectively. Then the area ot the sector J\01fi IH ^ rfilQ and tho
area of the sector P Z OR S is ^ r dd. We ^y
may now take the area P 1 / > 3 JB a /'
and have
Then ^ =
/ __ 7T ,_
4
01, since the required area is symmetrical
with respect to the line OM, wo may place
(>2*i)0. FIG, 04
From the curve r = 2 a cos0, we have rf = 4 a 8 cos s 0, and from the curve
r = a cos 2 0, we have r a = a 2 cos 2 2 0; so that finally
 a a cos 2 2 ^) <W
e?'22
2 8
EXERCISES
1. Find the total area of the lemniscato ?' a = 2 2 cos 2 0,
2. Find the area of one loop of the curve r =s a sin n 0,
3. Find the total area of the cardioid r = a(lf COB 0).
4. Find the total area bounded by the curve ? a 6 + 3 <uw 0.
5. Find the area of the loop of the curve r* t a" cos 2 non 3
which is bisected by the initial line.
6. Find the area bounded by the curves r = a cos 8 and r == .,
7. Find the total area bounded by the curve r = 3 + 2 COB 4 0.
8. Find the area bounded by the curve ?cos a ^=sl and the
7T *
lines = and = 75
.
9. Find the area bounded by the curves r ^ 6 + 4 cos and
r s= 4 cos
10. Findtheareaboundedbythecurvesr=acos0andr a =:a 8 cos2^
MEAN VALUE
233
B
80. Mean value of a function. Let f(x) be any function of x
and let y =/() be represented by the curve AB (Fig. 95), where
OM=a and ON=b. Take the points M^ M z , , M n _ r so as
to divide distance MN into
n equal parts, each equal to
dx, and at the points M, M^ M z ,
' , M n _ l erect the ordinates
2/0' y t y> ' &.! Tlien the
average, or mean, value of these
n ordinates is
M
This fraction is equal to
ndx
, dx\
b a
If n is indefinitely increased, this expression approaches as a
limit the value
This is evidently the mean value of an " infinite number " of
values of the function / (x) taken at equal distances between
the values x = a and x = 6. It is called the mean vafote of the
function for that interval.
Graphically this value is the altitude of a rectangle with the
base MN which has the same area as MNBA which equals
/
/a
We see from the above discussion that the average of the
function y depends upon the variable x of which the equal
intervals dx were taken, and we say that the function was
averaged with respect to x. If the function can also be averaged
with respect to some other variable which is divided into equal
parts the result may be different. This is illustrated in the
examples which follow.
234 APPLICATIONS
Ex. 1. Find the mean velocity of a body falling from rest duimg the
tune t i if the velocity is averaged with respect to the tune.
Here we imagine the time from to ^ divided into equal intervals dt
and the velocities at the beginning of each interval averaged. Proceeding
as in the text, we find, since v gt, that the mean velocity equals
1
Since the velocity is gt^ when t = t v it appears that in this case the
mean velocity is half the final velocity.
Ex. 2 Find the mean velocity of a body falling from rest through a
distance s 1 if the velocity is averaged with respect to the distance.
Here we imagine the distance from to s 1 divided into equal intervals
ds and the velocities at the beginning of each interval aveiaged Pro
ceeding as in the text, we find, since v = V2 y$, that the mean velocity is
Since the velocity is v^2 gs v when s = s v we see that in this case the
mean velocity is two thirds the final velocity.
EXERCISES
1. Find the mean value of the lengths of the perpendiculars
from a diameter of a semicircle to the circumference, assuming the
perpendiculars to be drawn at equal distances on the diameter.
2. Find the mean length of the perpendiculars drawn from the
circumference of a semicircle to its diameter, assuming the perpen
diculars to be drawn at equal distances on the circumference
3. Find the mean value of the ordmates of the curve y = sm x
7T
between x = and x = 5 , assuming that the points at which the
ordmates are drawn are at equal distances on the axis of x.
4. The range of a projectile fired with an initial velocity V Q and
v^
an elevation a is sin 2 a. Find the mean range as a varies from
TT ff
to 7p averaging with respect to a.
6. Find the mean area of the plane sections of a right circular
' cone of altitude h and radius a made by planes perpendicular to the
axis at equal distances apart.
LENGTH OF PLANE CURVE 235
6. In a sphere of radius a a series of right circular cones is
inscribed, the bases of which are perpendicular to a given diameter
at equidistant points. Find the mean volume of the cones
7. The angular velocity of a certain revolving wheel varies with
the time until at the end of 5 mm. it becomes constant and equal to
200 revolutions per minute If the wheel starts from rest, what is its
mean angular velocity with respect to the time during the interval
in which the angular velocity is variable ?
8. The formula connecting the pressure p in pounds per square
inch and the volume v in cubic inches of a certain gas is pv = 20.
Find the average pressure as the gas expands from 2^ cu in. to 5 cu. in.
9. Show that if y is a linear function of aj, the mean value of y
with respect to x is equal to one half the sum of the first and the
last value of y in the interval over which the average is taken.
81. Length, of a plane curve. To find the length of any
curve AB (Fig. 96), assume n 1 points, J?, J?, , _ r be
tween A and B and connect each pair of consecutive points by
a straight line. The length of AB is
then defined as the limit of the sum
of the lengths of the n chords AQ,
%%, ]%PV , X^.iB as n is increased
without limit and the length of each
chord approaches zero as a limit. By
means of this definition we have already
shown ( 39 and 52) that " FIG. 96
d8**^dy?+df (1)
in Cartesian coordinates, and
<2 = V,fr a 4rW (2)
in polar coordinates.
Hence we have s = I ^dx*+ dy* (3)
and s => CVdr* + r*d6\ (4)
To evaluate either (3) or, (4) we must express one of the
variables involved in terms of. the cither, or both in terms of a
third* The limits of integration may then be determined.
236 APPLICATIONS
Ex. I. Find the length of the parabola y 2 = kx from the vertex to the
point (a, 6).
From the equation of the parabola we find 2 ydy = kdx Hence formula
(3) becomes either
Either integral leads to the result
Ex. 2. Find the length of one arch of the cycloid
x = a(<jf> sm<), y = a (1 cos <).
We have dx a (1 cos <) dtp, dy a sin <j> d$ ;
whence, from (1), ds = a V2 2 cos <j>d<j> = 2a sin 2 rf<ji>.
/* 27r <i
Therefore s 2 a  sin d<& = 8 a.
/o 2
EXERCISES
v 1. Find the length of the curve 3y*(x I) 8 from its point of
intersection with OX to the point (4, 3").
af  ^
w 2. Find the length of the catenary y ~\e a + e ") from x =
to ai = h.
v 3. Find the total length of the curve
4. Find the total length of the curve x = a cos 8 ^>, y = a sin 8 <.
5. Find the length of the curve
x = a cos <f> } a<l> sin <, y = a sin < a< cos <,
from < = to j! = 4 TT.
6. Find the length of the curve x e~*cos t, y= e*sin#, between
7T
the points for which t = and t = ^ .
7. Find the length of the curve r = a cos 4 j from the point on
the curve for which 6 ~ to the pole
8. Find the total length of the curve r = a (1 cos 5).
9. Show that the length of the logarithmic spiral re a between
any two points is proportional to the difference of the radius vectors.
of the points,
WORK 237
82. Work. By definition the work done in moving a body
against a constant force is equal to the force multiplied by the
distance through which the body is moved. If the foot is taken
as the unit of distance and the pound is taken as the unit of
force, the unit of measure of work is called & footpound. Thus
the work done in lifting a weight of 25 Ib. through a distance
of 50 ft. is 1250 ftlb.
Suppose now that a body is moved along 0JT(Fig. 97) from
A (x = a) to B (x = b") against a force which is not constant but
is a function of a;, expressed by /(). Let the line AB be
divided into intervals each equal A i j/W J> x
to dx, and let one of these inter
vals be MN, where OM x. Then
the force at the point M is /(a?), and if the force were con
stantly equal to f(x) throughout the interval MN, the work
done in moving the body through MN would be/ (x) dx. This
expression therefore represents approximately the work actually
done, and the approximation becomes more and more nearly
exact as MN is taken smaller and smaller. The work done in
moving from A to B is the limit of the sum of the terms f(x) dx
computed for all the intervals between A and B. Hence we have
and
/>
= /
Jit
Ex. The force which resists the stretching of a spring is propor
tional to the amount the spring has been already sti etched. Foi a cer
tain spring this force is known to be 10 Ib. when the spring has been
stretched & in. Find the work done in stretching the spring 1 in. from
its natural (unstretched) length.
If F is the force reqmied to stretch the spring through a distance x,
we have, from the statement of the problem,
and since F ~ 10 when x = %, we have k = 20. Therefore F = 20 x.
Reasoning as in the text, we have
w~C\
Jo
238 APPLICATIONS
EXERCISES
1. A positive charge m of electricity is fixed at 0, The repulsion
on a unit charge at a distance x from is 3 Find tho work done
33
m bringing a unit charge from infinity to a distance a from 0.
2. Assuming that the force required to strotdi a wiro from the
*t*
length a to the length a + x is proportional to 'j and that a foixio
if*
of 1 Ib stretches a certain wire 36 in in lungth to a length .0,'i in.
greater, find the work done in stretching that wiro from M in, to 40 in.
3. A block slides along a straight line from O against a resistance
ka?
equal to . a ? where 7c and a are constants and or, is the distance
(K j" Cb
of the block from at any time. Find the work done in moving the
block from a distance a to a distance a V from 0.
4. Find the footpounds of work done in lifting to a height of
20 ft above the top of a tank all the water contained in a full cylin
drical tank of radius 2 ft. and altitude 10 ft.
5. A bag containing originally 80 Ib. of sand is liftod through a
vertical distance of 8 ft. If the sand leaks out, at such a rato that while
the bag is being lifted, the number of pounds) of sand lost is wjual to a
constant times the square of the number of foot through which the bag
has been lifted, and a total of 20 Ib. of sand i& lost during the lifting,
find the number of footpounds of work done in lifting tho bag,
6. A body moves in a straight line according to the formula c ef,
where x is the distance traversed in a time t. If tho resistance of the
air is proportional to the square of tho velocity, find tho work done
against the resistance of the air as the body moves from != to ft* a.
7. Assuming that above the surface of the earth the form* of the
earth's attraction varies inversely as tho square of the diBtanca from
the earth's center, find the work done in moving a weight of w pounds
from the surface of the earth to a distance a miles above the surfaca.
8. A wire carrying an electric current of magnitude C is bent
into a circle of radius a. The force exerted by the current upon a
unit magnetic pole at a distance a from the center of the circle in a
straight line perpendicular to the plane of the circle is known to be
27rCa s
(a?+ ^ ' done in brin g in 8 a ttnit magnetic pole from
infinity to the center of the circle along the line just mentioned,
GENERAL EXEKClSES 239
9. A piston is free to slide in a cylinder of cross section S The
force acting on the piston is pS, where p is the pressure of the gas
in the cylinder, and is 7.7 Ib. per square inch when the volume v is
2 5 cu in. Find the work done as the volume changes from 2 cu. in. to
6 cu. in., according as the law connecting p and v is (1) pv k or
(2)X* = *
GENERAL EXERCISES
1. Find the area of the sector of the ellipse 4oj 2 +9y 2 =36
cut out of the first quadrant by the axis of x and the line 2 y = x.
2. Find the area of each of the two parts into which the area of
the circle a; 3 + if = 36 is divided by the curve y 2 = a; 8 .
3. Find the area bounded by the hyperbola xy = 12 and the
straight line x + y 8 = 0.
4. Find the area bounded by the parabola a; 2 =4 ay and the
8 a 8
5. Find the area of the loop of the curve ay 2 = (x a) (x 2 a) z .
6. Find the area of the two parts into which the loop of the
curve y* = cc 2 (4 a;) is divided by the line x y = 0.
7. Find the area bounded by the curve ary* + a 2 6 2 = a 2 2/ a and its
asymptotes.
8. Find the area bounded by the curve 2/ 2 (aj a + & 2 ) = <&& and its
asymptotes.
9. Find the area bounded by the curve a? = a cos 6, y = b sin 8
10. Find the area inclosed by the curve x = a cos 8 0, y = a sin 8 0.
11. Two parabolas have a common vertex and a common axis, but
lie in perpendicular planes. An ellipse moves with its plane perpen
dicular to the axis and with the ends of its axes on the parabolas.
Find the volume generated when the ellipse has moved a distance
h from the common vertex of the parabolas.
12. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving about the line
a; = 4 the figure bounded by the parabola y*= 4 x and the line x = 1.
13. A right circular cylinder of radius a, is intersected by two
planes, the first of which is perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder
and the second of which makes an angle with the first. Find the
volume of the portion of the cylinder included between these two
planes if their line of intersection is tangent to the circle cut from
the cylinder by the first plane.
240 APPLICATIONS
fn O
., w. u^ U.UU.UJLU w*.^c* U w ~~ ~ + y* a? as a base,
an isosceles triangle is constructed with its altitude equal to the
ordinate and its plane perpendicular to the plane of the curve. Find
the volume generated as the triangle moves from x = a to x = a.
15. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving about
8 a 8
the line OF the figure bounded by the curve y = 2 . and the
line y o,.
16. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving about the
line x = 2 the plane area bounded by that line, the parabola y z = 3x,
and the lines y = 3.
17. Find the volume formed by revolving about the line x = 2
the plane figure bounded by the curve y 3 = 4 (2 a;) and the axis of y.
18. The sections of a solid made by planes perpendicular to OF
aie circles with one diameter extending from the curve ^ 4 a; to
the curve y 2 = 4 4 x. Find the volume of the solid between the
points of intersection of the curves.
19. The area bounded by the circle x* + $ 2 ax = is revolved
about OX, forming a solid sphere Find the volume of the two parts
into which the sphere is divided by the surface formed by revolving
3.8
the curve y 2 = about OA'
y 2a x
20. Find the volume of the two solids formed by revolving about
Y the areas bounded by the curves ar 8 f # 2 = 5 and g/ 2 = 4 ai.
21. Find the volume of the solid formed by revolving about OX
the area bounded by OX, the lines x = and x == a, and the curve
z
y = x + ae a .
22. The three straight lines OA, OB, and OC determine two planes
which intersect at right angles in OA. The angle A OB is 45 and the
angle AOC is 60. The section of a certain solid made by any plane
perpendicular to OA is a quadrant of an ellipse, the center of the
ellipse being in OA, an end of an axis of the ellipse being in OB, and
an end of the other axis of the ellipse being m OC. Find the volume
of this solid between the point and a plane perpendicular to OA at
a distance of two units from 0.
23. The section of a solid made by any plane perpendicular to OX
is a rectangle of dimensions a? and sm x, x being the distance of the
plane from O. Find the volume of this solid included between the
planes for which x = and x = IT.
GENERAL EXEECISES 241
24. An oil tank is in the form of a horizontal cylinder the ends
of which are circles 4 ft. in diameter. The tank is full of oil, which
weighs 50 Ib. per cubic foot Calculate the pressure on one end of
the tank.
25. The gasoline tank of an automobile is in the form of a hon
zontal cylinder the ends of which are plane ellipses 20 in high and
10 in broad. Assuming w as the weight of a cubic inch of gasoline,
find the pressure on one end of the tank when the gasoline is 15 in
deep.
26. A horizontal gutter is Ushaped, a semicircle of radius 3 in ,
surmounted by a rectangle 6 in wide by 4 in. deep If the gutter is
full of water and a board is placed across the end, how much pressure
is exerted on the board ?
27. The end of a horizontal gutter is in the form of a semicircle
of 3 in. radius, the diameter of the semicircle being at the top and
horizontal. The gutter receives water from a roof 50 ft above the
top of the gutter. If the pipe leading from the roof to the gutter is
full, what is the pressure on a board closing the end of the gutter ?
28. A circular water main has a diameter of 5 ft. One end is closed
by a bulkhead, and the other is connected with a reservoir in which
the surface of the water is 20 ft above the center of the bulkhead
Find the total pressure on the bulkhead.
29. Find the area of a loop of the curve ?* a = a? sin n6.
30. Find the area swept over by a radius vector of the curve
IT
r a tan as $ changes from to
4 4
31. Find the area inclosed by the curve r = H .. and the
. J 1 cos $
curve r = H ,
1 + cos 6
32. Find the area bounded by the circles r=a cos 6 and r= a, sin 6.
33. Find the area cut off from one loop of the curve r 2 = 2 a 2 sin 2 6
by the circle r a
34. Find the area of the segment of the cardioid r = a (1+ cos 0)
cut off by a straight line perpendicular to the initial line at a dis
tance  a from the origin 0.
35. Find the area cut off from a loop of the curve r = a sm 3 6 by
. , . ,
the circle r s=
242 APPLICATIONS
36. Find the area cut off from the lemniscate r 2 = 2 a 2 cos 2 by
_/*>
the straight line r cos = 75 '
37. Find each of the three areas bounded by the curves r = a
and r = a (1 + sin 0). 8
38. Find the mean height of the curve y 2 . 2 between the
lines x = 2a and aj = 2 a.
39. A particle describes a simple harmonic motion defined by the
(792i?/ \
~9~)
during a complete vibration is half the maximum kinetic energy iL
the average is taken with respect to the time.
40. In the motion defined in Ex 39 what will be the ratio of
the mean kinetic energy during a complete vibration to the maxi
mum kinetic energy, if the average is taken with respect to the
space traversed?
41. A quantity of steam expands according to the Iawj0v 08 =; 2000,
p being the pressure in pounds absolute per square foot Find the
average pressure as the volume v increases from 1 cu. ft. to 5 cu. ft.
a 2
42. Find the length of the curve y = a In 2 . from the origin
a ^
to the point for which x = ~
43. Find the length of the curve y = Li' x  between the points
for which x =sl and x = 2 respectively. ~~
44. Find the total length of the curve x = a cos 8 <, y = b sin*<.
a
45. Find the total length of the curve r = a sin 8 ^
46. Find the length of the spiral r = aO from the pole to the end
of the first revolution.
JA
47. If a center of force attracts with a magnitude equal to r>
SC#
where x is the distance of the body from the center, how much work
will be done in moving the body in a straight line away from the
center, from a distance a to a distance 8 a from the center ?
48. A body is moved along a straight line toward a center of
force which repels with a magnitude equal to 7ccc when the body
is at a distance x from the center. How much work will be done
in moving the body from a distance 2 a to a distance a from the
ter?
GENERAL EXERCISES 243
49. A central force attracts a body at a distance x from the center
7c
by an amount j Find the work done in moving the body directly
away from the center from a distance a to the distance 2 a.
50. How much work is done against hydrostatic pressure in rais
ing a plate 2 ft. square from a depth of 20 ft. to the surface of the
water, if it is kept at all times parallel to the surface of the water ?
51. A spherical bag of radius 5 in. contains gas at a pressure
equal to 15 Ib. per square inch. Assuming that the pressure is in
versely proportional to the volume occupied by the gas, find the
work required to compress the bag into a sphere of radius 4 in.
CHAPTER XI
REPEATED INTEGRATION
83. Double integrals. The symbol
nv t
f(x, y) dxdy, (1)
_ 4
in which a and b are constants and y^ and y^ are either con
stants or functions of x, indicates that two integrations are to
be carried out in succession. The first integral to be evaluated is
where x and dx are to be held constant. The result is a func
tion of x only, multiplied by dx; let us say, for convenience,
;) dx.
The second integral to be evaluated is, then,
F(x) dx,
which is of the familiar type.
Similarly, the symbol
6 /*x s
f(x, y) dydx, (2)
where a and b are constants and ^ and # g are either constants
or functions of #, indicates first the integration
in which y and dy are handled as constants, and afterwards
integration with respect to y between the limits a and b.
244
ft n 2
Ex. 1. Evaluate / I xythdy.
The first integral is
j scydxily
The second integration is
DOUBLE INTEGRALS 245
s /.a
Ex. 2. Evaluate f f "' O 2 + y*)<lr.dii
Jo Jix ^ '
The ni*st integration is
The second integration is
Ex.3. Evaluate f^" f**jpdyt?jc.
Jo i/o
The first integration is
v 3 r n j/ a
( u y*<lytlx = ?/ 2 ^/y * = /.//.
1/0 L Jo <l '
The second integration is
r 2a ^ y= rir a = ! a 4
Jo 4a '' LaOoJo 6
A definite integral in one variable has been shown lo be the
limit of a sum, from which we infer that formula (1) involves
first the determination of the limit of a sum with respect to ;/,
followed by the determination of the limit of a sum with respect
to x. The application of the double integral comes from it
interpretation as the limit of a double summation,
How, such forms arise in practice will be illustrated in the
following sections,
EXERCISES
Find the values of the following integrals ;
a"%/ / 8 r*
^dydx, 3. / /
Ji J,,
n\
xydoady. 4.
'
246
5.
REPEATED INTEGRATION
dydx
8.
/ /as
 I
c/O ^/o
rf r
Jo /o
r 8
a(l + coi S)
? sin Odddr.
r*d$dr.
r cos 6dOdr
84. Area as a double integral. Let it be required to find an
area (such as is shown in Fig. 98) hounded by two curves, with
the equations y^~f^(x) and y 2 =/ 2 () intersecting in points for
which x a and z=b respectively. Let the plane be divided into
rectangles by straight lines parallel to OX and OT respectively.
Then the area of one such rectangle is
where dx is the distance between two consecutive lines parallel
to O Y 3 and. where dy is the distance between, tw,o consecutive
lines parallel to OX. The sum of the rectangles which are either
AKEA AS DOUBLE INTEGRAL 247
wholly or partially within the required area will be an approx
imation to the required area, but only an approximation, because
the rectangles will extend partially outside the area. We assume
as evident, however, that the sum thus found becomes more
nearly equal to the required area as the number of rectangles
becomes larger and dx and dy smaller. Hence we say that the
required area is the limit of the sum of the terms dxdy.
The summation must be so carried out as to include every
rectangle once and only once. To do this systematically we
begin with any rectangle in the interior, such as PQJRS, and add
first those rectangles which lie in the vertical column with it.
That is, we take the limit of the sum of dxdy, with x and dx
constant and y varying from y^f^(x) to 2/ 2 =/ fl (X). This is
indicated by the symbol
/"
vt/.
x = [/ 2 (x) /,()] dx. (2)
This is the area of the strip TUVW. We are now to take
the limit of the sum of all such strips as dx approaches zero
and x varies from a to 5.
We have then
^ <= /"<>, ^ ^ = f V, (x) / x <V>] dx. (3)
Jo. J a
If we put together what we have done, we see that we have
n s
dxdy. (4)
_.
This discussion enables us to express the area as a double
integral. It does not, however, give us any more convenient way
to compute the area than that found in Chapter III, for the result
(2) is simply what we may write down at once for the area of a
vertical strip (see Ex. 3, 28).
If it should be more convenient first to find the area of a
horizontal strip, we may write
n*
dy dx. (5)
248
BEPEATED INTEGRATION
Consider a similar problem in polar coordinates. Let an
area, as in Fig. 99, be bounded by two curves r^/X^O
and r 2 =/ s (0), and let the values of corresponding to the
points B and be l and a respectively. The plane may be
divided into foursided figures by circles with centers at and
straight lines radiating
from 0. Let the angle
between two consecu
tive radii be d6 and
the distance between
two consecutive circles
be dr. We want first
the area of one of the
quadrilaterals such as
PQRS. Here OP = r,
= dr, and the angle
POS=d0. By geom
etry the area of the
sector POS=^r 2 d0 and
A
the area of the sector
FIG. 99
therefore PQRS = J (r + dr)*d6  J r*d0 = rdrd0 + % (dr)*d0.
Now as dr and d0 approach zero as a limit the ratio of the second
term in this expression to the first term also approaches zero,
since this ratio involves the factor dr. It may be shown that the
second term does not affect the limit of the sum of the expression,
and we are therefore justified in writing as the differential of area
dA = rd0dr. (6)
The required area is the limit of the sum of these differ
entials. To find it we first take the limit of the sura of the
quadrilaterals, such as PQRS, which lie in the same sector UO V.
That is, we integrate rd0dr, holding and dd constant and al
lowing r to vary from r^ to r. We have
/
^r.
(7)
which is the area of the strip TUVW.
CENTER OF GRAVITY 249
Finally we take the limit of the sum of the areas of all such
strips in the required area and have
(8)
If we put together what we have done, we may write
dOdr. 9
/*s /"a
= I I r
t/0 t J>i
It is clear that this formula leads to nothing which has not
been obtained in 79, but it is convenient sometimes to have
the expression (9).
85. Center of gravity. It is shown in mechanics that the cen
ter of gravity of n particles of masses m^ w 2 , , m n lying m a
plane at points whose coordinates are^, y x ), (x z , / 2 ), , (#, y^)
respectively is given by the formulas
=
ss
\m n
This is the point through which the resultant of the weights
of the particles always passes, no matter how the particles are
placed with respect to the direction of the earth's attraction,
We now wish to extend formulas (1) so that they may be
applied to physical bodies in which the number of particles may
be said to be infinite. For that purpose we divide the body
into n elementary portions such that the mass of each may be
considered as concentrated at a point (or, y). Then, if m is the
total mass of the body, the mass of each element is dm. We have
then to replace the m's of formula (1) by dm and to take the
limit of the sums involved in (1) as the number n is indefinitely
increased and the elements of mass become indefinitely small.
There result the general formulas
/ xdm I ydm
 X = J , 9 ,J . (2)
I dm I dm
250
REPEATED INTEGRATION
To apply these formulas we consider first a slender wire so
fine and so placed that it may be represented by a plane curve.
More strictly speaking, the curve may be taken as the mathe
matical line which runs through the center of the physical wire.
Let the curve be divided into elements of length ds. Then,
if c is the area of the cross section of the wire and D is its
density, the mass of an element of the wire is Dads. For con
venience we place DC = p and write
where p is a constant. If this is substituted in (2), the constant
p may be taken out of the integrals and canceled, and the
result may be written in the form
sx
= ixds, sy = I yds,
(3)
where a on the left of the equations is the total length of the
curve. These formulas give the center of gravity of a plane curve.
Ex. 1. Find the center of gravity of one fourth of the circumference
of a circle of radius a.
Here we know that the total length is
\ rrax = Cxds, vay = Cyds.
To integrate, it is convenient to in
troduce the central angle <j> (Fig 100),
whence x = a cos <j>,y = a sin <f>, ds = ad<j>.
7T
Then irox= l*a*cos<f>dd>,
Jo
,
whence
we , so that, from (3), we have
2a
FIG. 100
Consider next a thin plate, which may be represented by a
plane area. Strictly speaking, the area is that of a section
through the middle of the plate. If t is the thickness of the
plate and _D its density, the mass of an element of the plate
with the area A A is DtdA. For convenience we place Dt = p
and write
dm pdA,
CENTER OF GEAVITY
251
where p is a constant. If this is substituted in (2) and the p's
are canceled, we have
i = I xdA, AyI ydA,
(4)
where A is the total area. These formulas give the center of
gravity of a plane area,
Ex. 2. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the parabola
y* = kx, the axis of x, and the ordmate through the point (a, b) of the
parabola (Fig 101)
We place dA= dxdy in (4) and have
A js = C Cx dx dy, Ay = Cfy dx dy.
To evaluate, we choose the element dxdy
inside the area in a general position, and first
sum with respect to y along a vertical strip.
We shall denote by y l the value of y on the _ i .
parabola, to distinguish it from the general ^
values of y inside the area The first integra
tion gives us, therefore, respectively
C Vi xdxdy = xy 1 dx and C l ydxdy \y* dx,
so that we have Ax Cxy^dx, Ay = C^y* dx
J /
On examination of these results we see that each contains the factor
y^dx (which is the area ( 22) of an elementary vertical strip), multiplied
respectively by a? and ^ y v which are the coordinates of the middle point of
the ordmate y r These results are the same as if we had taken dA = y t dx in
the general foimula (4), and had taken the point (x, y) at which the mass
of dA is concentrated as (z, y x ), which is in the limit the middle point of
dA. In fact this is often done in computing centers of gravity of plane
areas, and the first integration is thus avoided.
Kow, from the equation of the parabola y% = kx, and to complete the
integration, we have to substitute this value for y t and integrate with
respect to x from x = to x = a We have
AS =
* from the
/** yfco"
Ay i i kxdx <
of the curve, k = and, by 23, A ~  <
fl O
252 REPEATED INTEGRATION
Substituting these values and i educing, we have finally
x =  a, y=&b
In solving this problem we have carried out the successive mtegratioii.s
separately, in oider to show clearly just what has been done. If now we
collect all this into a double integral, we have
Ax=f a f ''xdxdy. /ly=f"f 'ytlxda.
Jo Jo Jo Jo
Ex. 3. Find the center of gravity of a sextant of a circle of radum a
To solve this problem it is convenient to place the sextant so that the
axis of v bisects it (Fig. 102) and to use ._
polar coordinates.
From the symmetry of the figure the
centei of gravity lies on OX, so that we
may write at once y = 0. To find a take r
an element of area ? dddr in polar cooi
dinates and place x = r cos We have
then, from (4),
a
/" r ^
/ r 2 cos 6 dddr,
rr Jo
~6
where A = lira?, one sixth the area of a
ciicle In the first integration 6 and dO
are constant, and the summation takes
place along a line radiating from with
r varying from to a The angle then varies from   to ~ , and thus the
entire area is covered The solution is as follows . 6
liraPx =J 8 a 3 cos Odd
whence
6
_ 2a
Consider now a solid of revolution formed by revolving the
plane area (Fig. 103) ABCD about Y as an axis. It is assumed
that the equation of the curve CD is given. It is evident from
symmetry that the center of gravity of the solid lies on OY, so
that we have to find only y.
Let dFbe any element of volume. Then dm = pdV, where p is
the density and is assumed constant. Substituting in (2), we have
(5)
CENTER OF GRAVITY
253
Let the solid be divided into thin slices perpendicular to
as was done in 26, and let the summation first take place over
one of these slices. In this summa
tion y is constant, and the result
oL the summation is therefore y
times the volume of the slice. It is
therefore u(^r'^^y) We have now
to extend the summation over all
the slices. This gives the result
r b
Vy = / ir^ydy, (G)
/
TIG. 103
where OA = a and 07? = &.
It is to be noticed that this result
is what we obtain if we interpret
dm in (2) as the mass of the slice and consider it concentrated
at the middle point of one base of the slice.
Ex. 4. Find the centei of gravity of a light cucular cone of altitude 6
and radius (Fig. 104)
This is a solid of revolution formed by revolv
ing a light triangle about OF. However, the
equation of a straight line noed not be used, as
X CL
similar triangles are simpler. We have  =  >
y b
whence x y. The volume V is known to be
b
J 7r 8 6. Therefore, from (G), we have
f*mP aj
= J  fdy =
whence
FIG. 104
EXERCISES
1. Show that the center of gravity of a semicircunifereuce of
o a
radius a lies at a distance of from the center of the circle on
7T
the radius which bisects the semicircumference.
2, Show that the center of gravity of a circular arc which subtends
an. angle <x at the center of a circle of radius a lies at a distance sin ~
from the center of the circle on the radius which, bisects the arc,
a
254 EEPEATED INTEGRATION

3. A wire hangs so as to form the catenary y ~ (/* 1 ").
Find the center of gravity of the piece of the curve between Iho
points for which x = and x = a.
4. Find the center of gravity of the arc of the cycloid
x = a(<[> sm$), y = a(l coB<f>), between the first two sharp
points.
5. Find the center of gravity of a parabolic segment of base, 2 b
and altitude a.
6. Find the center of gravity of a quadrant of the area of a circle.
7. Find the center of gravity of a triangle.
8. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the ourvo
y = sin x and the axis of x between x = and x = IT.
9. Find the center of gravity of the plane area bounded by tho
two parabolas y* = 20 x and a? = 20 y.
10. Find the center of gravity of a figure which is composed of
a rectangle of base 2 a and altitude I surmounted by a semicircle
of radius a
11. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the Ihvst
arch of the cycloid (Ex. 4) and the axis of aj.
12. Show that the center of gravity of a sector of a circle lies at
4 a a
a distance ~ sin from the vertex of the sector on a line bisecting
the angle of the sector, where a is the angle and a the radius.
13. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the cardioid
14. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the curve
r = 2 cos & + 3.
15. Find the center of gravity of a solid hemisphere.
16. Find the center of gravity of a solid formed by revolving
about its altitude a parabolic segment of base 26 and altitude a.
17. Find the center of gravity of the solid formed by revolving
about OF the plane figure bounded by the parabola y*** fee, the axis
of y, and the line y = k.
18. Find the center of gravity of the solid bounded by the sur
faces of a right circular cone and a hemisphere of radius & with the
base of the cone coinciding with the base of the hemisphere and the
vertex of the cone in the surface of the hemisphere
CENTER OF GRAVITY 255
86. Center of gravity of a composite area. In finding the cen
ter of gravity of a body which is composed of several parts the
following theorem is useful:
If a body of mass M is composed of several parts of masses
M^ Mf  , M n , and if the centers of gravity of these parts are
respectively (x f ^), (z a , / ? ), .,(# w , #), then the center of grav
ity of the composite body is yiven by the formulas
+ J
C ;
We shall prove the theorem for the % coordinate. The proof
for y is the same.
By 85 we have, for the original body,
MX
 fxdm, ' (2)
where the integration is to be taken over all the partial masses
M v Jf a , , M n into which the body is divided. But we have also
where the subscripts indicate that the integration in each case
is restricted to one of the several bodies. But formula (2) can
be written r C C
MX = / x^m^ I x^dm^} + / ^dm n ;
and, by substitution from (3), the theorem is proved,
x. Find the center of gravity of an area bounded by two circles one
of which is completely inside the other.
Let the two circles be placed aa in Fig. 105, where the center of the
larger circle of radius a is at the origin, and the center of the smaller
circle of radius o is on the axis of $ at a distance o from the origin*
256
REPEATED 1NTE( 1 RAT U )K
The area which can be considered as composed of two ]>jut.n i that of
the larger circle, the two paits being, fust, the smaller eirde and, wroucl, UN
irregular ring whose centei of gravity
we wish to find Now the center of
gravity of a circle is known to be at
its center, Theiefore, in the formula
of the theoiem, we know (T, J/), which
is on the left of the equation, to bo
(0, 0), and (~c v yj to be (c, 0), and wish
to find (7 2 , T/ z ).
Since we are dealing with aieas,
we take the masses to be equal to the
ai eas, and have, accordingly, M = ira z
(the mass of the larger ciiclc), M = irb z
(the mass of tho smallei cncle), and
My, = if ( a ft a ) (the mass of tho ring).
Substituting in the formula, we havo
jor>
= IT/A + TT (<r  A 1 ) r a ;
whence, by solving for ,r a
It is unnecessary to find y i} since, by Hyiniuctiy, Mi coutiM of
lies on OX
EXERCISES
1. Show that if there are only two component masses fl/^ mul. JHf^
in formulas (1) of the theorem, the center of gravity of tho oomjxmto
mass lies on the line connecting the centers of gravity of tho com
ponent masses at such a point as to divide that hue into sogmtmlH
inversely proportional to the masses.
2. Prove that if a mass M^ with center of gravity (.r^ //j) haw <m(,
out of it a mass M z with center of gravity (i? 9 , y a ), tho coiiUu 1 of gravity
of the remaining mass is
MiMt
J/ t  M t
and r s aro tangtnit oxtonuJly. Find
3. Two circles of radii
their center of gravity
4. Find the center of gravity of a hemispherical hol3 boundod
by two concentnc hemispheres of radii r^ and r^
5. Place r 9 = ^ + A^ m Ex. 4, let A?' approach xero, and thus iind
the center of gravity of a hemispherical surface.
CENTER OF GRAVITY 25Y
6. Find the center of gravity of a hollow right circular cone
bounded by two parallel conical surfaces of altitudes 7^ and A 2
respectively and with their bases in the same plane.
7. Place \= /^H A/i in Ex 6, let A/t approach zero, and thus
find the center of gravity of a conical surface
8. Find the center of gravity of a carpenter's square each aim
o which is 15 in on its outer edge and 2 in wide
9. From a square of edge 8 in a quadrant of a circle is cut out,
the center of the quadrant being at a corner of the squaie and the
radius of the quadrant being 4 in. Find the center of gravity of the
figure remaining
10. Two iron balls of radius 4m and 6 in respectively are con
no uted by an iron rod of length 1 in. Assuming that the rod is a
cylinder o radius 1 in., find the center of gravity of the system.
11. A cubical pedestal of side 4 ft. is surmounted by a sphere of
radius 2 ft Find the center of giavity of the system, assuming
that the sphere rests on the middle point of the top of the pedestal.
87. Theorems. The folio wing theorems involving the center
oi' gravity may often ho used to ad Q
vantage in finding pressures, volumes x
c>I solids of revolution, or areas of
surfaces of revolution.
I. The total pressure on a plane sur
faae immersed in liquid in a vertical
position is equal to the area of the sur
face multiplied ly tlw pressure at its
center of gravity.
Let the area he placed a in Fig 106, ETO< 106
where the axis of K is in the surface
of the liquid and where the axis of y is measured downward.
Then, by 25, 
/* I yO p a fl! i)^> '*'
which may be written IIH a double integral in the form
p = CCwydydx => w nydxdy, (2)
258 BEPEATED INTEGRATION
In fact, this may be written down directly, since the pressure on
a small rectangle dxdy is its area, dxdy, times its depth, T/, times w.
Moreover, from 85, we have
Ay
CCydxdy. (3)
By comparison of (2) and (3) we have
P = wyA.
But wyis the pressure at the center of gravity, and the theorem
is proved for areas of the above general shape. If the area is
not of this shape, it may be divided into such areas, and the
theorem may be proved with the aid
of the theorem of 86.
Ex.1. A circular bulkhead which closes y="b
the outlet of a reservoir has a radius 8 ft ,
and its center is 12 ft below the surface of
the water. Find the total pressure on it
Here A = 9 it and the depth of the center
of gravity is 12. Therefore
P = 108 irw = VTrtons = 10.6 tons.
II. The volume generated by revolving
a plane area about an axis in its plane
not intersecting the area is equal to the area of the figure multiplied
by the circumference of the circle described by its center of gravity.
To prove this take an area as in Fig. 107. Then, by 26, if
V is the volume generated by the revolution about OY,
(4)
which can be written as a double integral in the form
F=27rf C\dydx. (5)
t/ i/,
By 85, J&= C C\dydx;
Ja u/jTj
and, by comparison of (4) and (5), we have
V~
which was to be proved.
THEOREMS OF PAPPUS 259
Ex. 2. Find the volume of the nag surface formed by revolving about
an axis in its plane a circle of radius a whose center is at a distance c from
the axis, where c > a.
We know that A = sra 2 and that the center of gravity of the circle is
at the center of the circle and therefore describes a circumference of length
2 ire. Therefoie F = 2ir 2 ffl 2c.
III. The area generated by revolving a plane curve about an
axis in its plane not intersecting the curve is equal to the length
of the curve multiplied by the circumference of the circle described
by its center of gravity.
To prove this we need a formula for the area of a surface of
revolution which has not been given. It may be shown that if
S is this area, then r
S^Zirlxds. (6)
A rigorous proof of this will not be given here. However, the
 student may make the formula seem plausible by noticing that
an element ds of the curve will generate on the surface a belt
of width ds and length 2 irx. The product of length by breadth
may be taken as the area of the belt.
Moreover, by 85, we have
sx I xds; (7)
and comparing the two equations (6) and (7), we have
which was to be proved.
Ex. 3. Find the area of the ring surface described in Ex. 2.
We know that s  2 TTO and that the center of gravity of a circumfer
ence is at its center and therefore describes a circumference of length 2 ire
Therefore 5 = 4 ^ac.
Theorems II and III are known as the theorems of Pappus.
EXERCISES
1. Find by the theorems of Pappus the volume and the surface
of a sphere.
2, Find by the theorems of Pappus the volume and the laterax
surface of a right circular cone.
260 .REPEATED INTEGRATION
3. Find by the theorems of Pappus the volume generated by
revolving a parabolic segment about its altitude.
4. Find by the theorems of Pappus Iho volume generated
by revolving a parabolic segment about its base.
5. Find by the theorems of Pappus the volume geru>ratod by
revolving a parabolic segment about the tangent at its vortex
6. Find the volume and the surface generated by revolving a
square of side a about an axis in its piano perpendicular to one. of
its diagonals and at a distance b\b> ;= } from it,s center.
V V2/
7. Find the volume and the area generated by revolving' a right
triangle with legs a and b about an axis in its plane ]>urullel to the
leg of length a on the opposite side from the hypotenuse and at a
distance c from, the vertex of the right angle.
8. A circular water main has a diameter of 4 ft. One end IH
closed by a bulkhead, and the other is connected with a reservoir
in which the surface of the water is 18 ft. above the center of the
bulkhead Find the pressure on the bulkhead.
9. Find the pressure on an ellipse of semiaxos a. and I completely
submerged, if the center of the ellipse is o units below the surface of
the liquid.
10. Find the pressure on a semiellipse of semiaxes a and I (a > />)
submerged with the major axis in the surface of the liquid and the
minor axis vertical.
11. Find the pressure on a parabolic segment submerged with the
base horizontal, the axis vertical, the vertex above the base, and the
vertex c units below the surface of the liquid.
^ 12. What is the effect on the pressure of a submerged vertical area
in a reservoir if the level of the water in the reservoir is raised by c feet ?
88. Moment of inertia. The moment of inertia of a particle
about an axis is the product of its mass and the square of its
distance from the axis. The moment of inertia of a number
of particles about the same axis is the sum of the moments of
inertia of the separate particles abont that axis. From these
definitions we may derive the moment of inertia of a thin plate.
Let the surface of the plate be divided into elements o
area cU Then the mass of each element is pdA, where p is the
product of the thickness of the plate and ita density. Lot M bo
MOMENT OF INEETIA 261
the distance of any point in the element from the axis about
which we wish the moment of inertia. Then the moment of
inertia of clement is approximately
I?p dA.
We say " approximately " because not all points of the element
are exactly a distance R from the axis, as R is the distance ot
some one point in the element. However, the smaller the ele
ment the more nearly can it be regarded as concentrated at one
point and the limit of the sum of all the elements, as their
size approaches zero and their number increases without limit,
is the moment of inertia of the plate. Hence, if I represents the
moment of inertia of the plate, we have
= f
(1)
If in (1) we let /o = l, the resulting equation is
1= C&dA, (2)
where I is called the moment of inertia of the plane area. When
dA in (1) or (2) is replaced by dxdy or rdrdd, the double
sign of integration must be used.
Ex. 1. Find the moment of inertia of a rectangle of dimensions a and 6
about the side of length &
Let the rectangle be placed as in Fig. 108. Let it be divided up into
elements dA ~ dfdg. Then a is the distance of some point in an element
from OY. Hence, in (2), we have y
JR SB x and dA = fatly. Therefore
y=b
We first sum the rectangles in
a vertical strip, w y ranges from
to &. We have
This is the moment of ineitia of j. IG< IQ%
the strip MN, and might have been
written down at once, since all points on the lefthand boundary of the
strip are at a distance x from OY and since the area of the strip is Idx
262 KEPEATED INTEGRATION
The second integration gives now
Jo
If, instead of asking for the moment of inertia of the area, we had asked
for that of a plate of metal of thickness t and density D, the above result
would be multiplied by p = Dt. But m that case the total mass M of the
plate is aab, so that we have
I \ Ma?
Ex. 2. Find the moment of inertia of the quadrant of an ellipse
r 2 7/ 2
}. >L 1 (a > 6) about its major axis
If we take any element of area as dxtly, we find the distance of its
lower edge from the axis about which we wish the moment ot ineitia
to be y (Fig 109). Hence R = y and ^
I
It will now be convenient to sum first
with respect to x t since each point of a
horizontal strip is at the same distance from
OX "We therefore write
Jffffy**. FIG. 109
Now, indicating by a^ the abscissa of a point on the ellipse to distinguish
it from the general x which is that of a point inside the ellipse, we have
for the first integration
For the second integration
/
To integrate, place y = I sin <j> Then
TT
= afc 8 f * s
/o
16
If, instead of the area, we consider a thin plate of mass M, the above
result must be multiplied by p, where M = irabp , whence
The polar moment of inertia of a plane area is defined as the
moment of inertia of the area about an axis perpendicular to
its plane. This may also be called conveniently the moment
MOMENT OF INERTIA 263
of inertia with respect to the point in which the axis cuts the
plane of the area, for the distance of an element from the axis
is simply its distance from that point. Thus we may speak,
for example, of the polar moment of inertia with respect to
an axis through the origin perpendicular to the plane of au
area, or, more concisely, of the polar moment with respect to
the origin.
If the area is divided into elements dxdy, and one point in
the element has the coordinates (#, #), the distance of that
point from the origin is Vi?+]A That is, in (2), if we place
(lA dxvly and J2 a =o; 2 +y 2 , we shall have the formula for the
polar moment of inertia with respect to the origin. Denoting
this by J , we have
(3)
This integral may be split up into two integrals, giving
(4)
where the change in the order of the differentials in the two
integrals indicates the order in which the integration may be
most conveniently carried out.
The first integral in (4) is the moment of inertia about OY
and may be denoted by / ; the second integral is the moment
of inertia about OX and may be denoted by I K . Therefore
formula (4) may be written as
so that the problem of finding the moment of inertia may be
reduced to the solving of two problems of the type of the
first part of this section.
Ex, 3. Find the polar moment of inertia of an ellipse with respect to
the origin,
In Ex. 2 we found I K for a quadrant of the ellipse. For the entire
ellipse it is four times as great, since moments of inertia are added by
definition. Hence
264 REPEATED INTEGEATION
By a similar calculation I y 
Theiefoie ^0=4 ffa * ( 2 + &*)
If the area is leplaced by a plate of mass Af, this result gives
/ = \. M(a* + I")
If polar coordinates aie used, the element of area is rd6d
and the distance of a point in an element from the origin is
Hence, in (2), dA = rdBdr and R = r. Therefore
r (6
In practice it is usually convenient to integrate first wit
respect to r, holding 8 constant. This is, in fact, to find tr
polar moment of inertia of a sector with vertex at 0.
Ex.4. Find the polar moment of inertia of a cncle with lespect to
point on its circtimference
Let the circle be placed as in Fig 110 Its equation is then (Ex 1, 5]
r = 2 a cos 0, where a is the radius If we take any element rdQdr an
find I for all elements which lie in the
same sector with it, we have to add the
elements i*dQdr, with r ranging from to
t v where r t is the value of ? on the cncle ,
and therefore > l = 2 a cos We have
f Vrffltft = i 7 * (IB = 4 a 4
/o 1
We have finally to .rm these quantities,
with 1 anging from to +  We have
** *
I =J*la*cQ&6d6= I
~I TIG. 110
If M is the mass of a ciicular plate, this result, multiplied by p,
Ex. 5. Find the polar moment of inertia of a cucle with respect to i
centei.
Heie it will be convenient first to find the polar moment of inertia of
ring (Fig 111). We integrate first with respect to 6, keeping r constan
We have
MOMENT OF INERTIA 265
which is the approximate area of the ring Swrdr multiplied by the
square of the distance of its inner cucumference from the center We
then have, by the second integration, ^
= f a
Jo
If M is the mass of a circular plate, this
result, multiplied by p, gives
I / / f\ S \ U \\ \
X
The moment oE inertia of a solid
of revolution about the axis of revo
lution is the sum of the moments of
inertia of the circular sections about
the same axis ; that is, of the polar ]FIG< m
moments of inertia of the circular sections about their centers.
If the axis of revolution is OY, the radius of any circular
section perpendicular to OF is x and its thickness is dy. Its
mass is therefore pirx*dy ; and therefore, by Ex. 5, its moment
of inertia about Y is \ pirtfdy. The total moment of inertia of
the solid is therefore
X\pTr \ x*dy.
Ex. 6. Find the moment of inertia of a circular cone about its axis.
Take the cone as in Ex. 4, 85. Then we have
But, if M is the mass of the cone, we have M =
Therefore / = fa Ma*.
EXERCISES
1. Find the moment of inertia of a rectangle of base & and alti
tude a about a line through its center and parallel to its base.
2. Find the moment of inertia of a triangle of base b and altitude
a about a line through its vertex and parallel to its base.
3. Find the moment of inertia of a triangle of base & and alti
tude a about its base.
4. Find the moment of inertia of an ellipse about its minor axip
and also about its major axis,
266 REPEATED INTEGRATION
5. Find the moment of inertia of a trapezoid about its lower base,
taking the lower base as b, the upper base as a, and the altitude as 7*.
6. Find the moment of inertia about its base of a parabolic seg
ment of base b and altitude a.
7. Find the polar moment of inertia of a rectangle of base I and
altitude a about its center.
8. Find the polar moment of inertia about its center of a circular
ring, the outer radius being r z and the inner radius r r
9. Find the polar moment of inertia of a right triangle of sides
a and b about the vertex of the right angle.
10. Find the polar moment of inertia about the origin of the area
bounded by the hyperbola xy=6 and the straight line aj+y 7=0.
11. Find the polar moment of inertia about the origin o the area
bounded by the curves y=x z and y = 2 as 2 .
12. Find the polar moment of inertia about the origin of the area
of one loop of the lemniscate r 2 = 2a? cos 2 0.
13. Find the moment of inertia of a right circular cylinder of
height Ji, radius r, and mass M, about its axis.
14. Find the moment of inertia about its axis of a hollow right cir
cular cylinder of mass M, its inner radius being r v its outer radius r a ,
and its height h.
15. Find the moment of inertia of a solid sphere about a diameter.
16. A ring is cut from a spherical shell whose inner and outer radii
are respectively 5 ft. and 6 f t , by two parallel planes on the same
side of the center and distant 1 ft and 3 ft respectively from the
center Find the moment of inertia of this ring about its axis
17. The radius of the upper base and the radius of the lower base
of the frustum of a right circular cone are respectively r^ and r# and
its mass is M. Find its moment of inertia about its axis.
89. Moments of inertia about parallel axes. The finding of a
moment of inertia is often simplified by use of the following
theorem ;
The moment of inertia of a body about an oasis is equal to its
moment of inertia about a parallel axis through its center of gravity
plus the product of the mass of the body ly the square of the
distance between the axes.
MOMENT OF INEKTIA 267
We shall prove this theorem only for a plane area, in the
two cases in winch the axes lie in the plane of the figure or
are perpendicular to that plane. We shall also consider the
mass of the area as equal to the v
KT *
area, as in 88.
Case I. Wlien the axes lie in tJie
plane of the Jiyure.
Let the area be placed as in
Fig. 112, where the center of grav
ity (^ #0 lf} taken as the origin
(0, 0) and where the axis of y is
taken parallel to the axis LK, L
about which we wish to find the
moment of inertia. Let x be the distance of an element dxdy
from OF, and ^ its distance from LK. Then, if I g is the
moment of inertia about OF, and J z the moment of inertia about
LK, we have ^^
1=11 x*dxdy, It i I xldxdy. (1)
JJ JJ
Moreover, if a is the distance between OF and LK, we have
so that, by substituting from (2) in the second equation of (1),
we have rf * **. np
Ji x*dxdy + 2 a I I xdxdy + a* I dxdy. (3)
Now, by 84, ndxdy^Ai by 85, \( xdxdy = Ax = 0, since
by hypothesis x = ; and, by (1), the first integral on the right
hand of (8) is I g . Therefore (8) can be written
7,7,+ oU, (4)
which proves the theorem for this case.
Case II. When the axes are perpendicular to the plane of
the figure.
We have to do now with polar moments of inertia. Let the
area be placed as in Fig. 118, where the center of gravity is
268 REPEATED INTEGRATION
taken as the origin, and P is any point about which we wish
the polar moment of inertia. Let I g be the polar moment of
inertia about 0, and I p the polar moment of inertia about P.
Draw through P axes PX' and ,
PY 1 parallel to the axes of coor
dinates OX and OY. Let I x and
I tl be the moments of inertia
about OX and OY respectively,
and let 1^ and J tf / be the moments
of inertia about PX' and PY'.
Then, by (5), 88, / /
J
J.
Moreover, if (a, 6) are the coordinates of P, we have, by
Case I, 1^ = 1^ a *A, /,=/ + VA. (6)
Therefore, from (5), we have
/,==/,+ <V+&V> (7)
which proves the theorem for this case also.
The student may easily prove that the theorem is true also
for the moment of inertia of any solid of revolution about an
axis parallel to the axis of revolution of the solid.
Ex. Find the polar moment of inertia of a circle with respect to a point
on the circumfeience.
The center of gravity of a circle is at its center, and the distance of any
point on its circumference from its center is a. By Ex 5, 88, the polar
moment of a circle about its center is ira*. Therefore, by the above
theorem, I, = i* + o (F) t *.
This result agrees with Ex 4, 88, where the required moment of inertia
was found directly
EXERCISES
1. Find the moment of inertia of a circle about a tangent.
2. Find the polar moment of inertia about an outer corner of
a picture frame bounded by two rectangles, the outer one being of
dimensions 8 ft. by 12 ft, and the inner one of dimensions 5 ft. by 9 ft.
SPACE COORDINATES 269
3. Find the moment of inertia about one of its outer edges of a
carpenter's square of which the outer edges are 15 in. and the inner
edges 13 in
4. Find the polar moment of inertia about the outer corner of
the carpenter's square in Ex. 3.
5. From a square of side 20 a circular hole of radius 5 is cut,
the center of the circle being at the center of the square. Find the
moment of inertia of the resulting figure about a side of the square.
6. Find the polar moment of inertia about a corner of the square
of the figure in Ex. 5.
7. Find the moment of inertia of a hollow cylindrical column
of outer radius r a and inner radius 1\ about an element of the inner
cylinder.
8. Find the moment of inertia of the hollow column of Ex. 7
about an element of the outer cylinder.
9. Find the moment of inertia of a circular ring of inner radius ^
and outer radius ? a about a tangent to the outer circle.
10. A circle of radius a has cut from it a circle of radius 75 tangent
i
to the larger circle Find the moment of inertia of the remaining
figure about the line through the centers of the two circles
11. Find the moment of inertia of the figure in Ex 10 about a
line through the center of the larger circle perpendicular to the line
of centers of the two circles and in the plane of the circles.
90. Space coordinates. In the preceding pages we have be
come familiar with two methods of fixing the position of a
point in a plane ; namely, by Cartesian coordinates (x, y), and
by polar coordinates (r, 0). If, now, any plane has been thus
supplied with a coordinate system, and, starting from a point
in that plane, we measure another distance, called 0, at right
angles to the plane, we can reach any point in space. The quan
tity will be considered positive if measured in one direction,
and negative if measured in the other. We have, accordingly,
two systems of space coordinates.
1. Cartesian coordinates. We take any plane, as 3T0F, in which
are already drawn a pair of coordinate axes, OX and OF, at
right angles with each other, Perpendicular to this plane at
2TO
BEPEATED INTEOKATION
z
the origin we draw a third axis OZ (Fig. 114). If P is any
point of space, we draw PM parallel to OZ, meeting the plane
XO Y at Jf, and from M draw a line par
allel to OF, meeting OX at L. Then for
the point P (#, y, z), OL x, LM y,
and MP = z. It is to be noticed that
the three axes determine three planes,
XOY, YOZ, and ZOX, called the coor
dinate planes, and that we may just as
readily draw the line from P perpendic
ular to either the plane YOZ or ZOX and
then complete the construction as above.
These possibilities are shown in Fig. 115, where it is seen that
x = OL = NM= SE = TP, with similar sets of values for y and s.
2. Cylindrical coordinates. Let XOY
be any plane in which a fixed point
is the origin of a system of polar coor
dinates, and OX is the initial line of that
system (Fig. 116). Let OZ be an axis
perpendicular to the plane XOY at 0.
If P is any point in space, we draw
from P a straight line parallel to OZ
until it meets the plane XOY at M. y
Then, if the polar coordinates of M in
the plane XOY are r = OM, 6 = XOM, and we denote the dis
tance MP by s, the cylindrical coordinates of P are (r, 0, g).
It is evident that the axes OX and
OZ determine a fixed plane, and that
the angle 6 is the plane angle of the
dihedral angle between that fixed plane
and the plane through OZ and the
point P. If SP is drawn in the latter
plane perpendicular to OZ, it is evident
that OM= SP = r and OS = MP = z,
The coordinate r, therefore, measures
the distance of the point P from the axis OZ, and the coordinate
2 measures the distance of P from the plane
Z
116
SUEFACES
271
If the line OX of the cylindrical coordinates is the same as
the axis OX of the Cartesian coordinates, and the axis OZ is the
same in both systems, it is evident, from 51, that
a; = r cos 0, y == r sin 0, = z. (1)
These are formulas by winch we may pass from one system
to the other. It is convenient to notice especially that
(2)
91. Certain surfaces. A single equation between the coordi
nates of a point in space represents a surface. We shall give
examples of the equations of certain surfaces which are impor
tant in applications. In this connection it should be noticed
that when we speak of the equation of a sphere we mean the
equation of a spherical surface, and when we speak of the
volume of a sphere wo mean the volume of the solid bounded
by a spherical surface. The word sphere, then, indicates a sur
face or a solid, according to the context. Similarly, the word
cone is used to denote either a conical surface indefinite in
extent or a solid bounded by a conical surface and a plane
base. It is in the former sense that we speak of the equation
of a cone, and in the latter sense
that we speak of the volume of
a cone. In the same way the
word cylinder may denote either
a cylindrical surface or a solid
bounded by a cylindrical surface
and two piano bases. This double
use of these words makes no con
fusion in practice, as the context
always indicates the proper mean
ing in any particular case.
1. Sphere will center at origin. Con
sider any sphere (Fig. 117) with its center
at the origin of coordinates and its radius
equal to a. Let P be any point on the surface of the sphere. Pass a plane
through P and OZ, draw PS perpendicular to OZ, and connect and P.
Then, using cylindrical co6rdinates, in the right triangle OPS, OS=z, SP^r,
and OP as a, Therefore . 8s= a 9 . (1)
FIG. 117
272
REPEATED INTEGRATION
This equation is satisfied by the cyhnducal coordinates of any. point on
the surface of the sphere and by those of no other point Jt is therefore
the equation of the sphere in cylindrical
coordinates.
By means of (2), 90, equation (1)
*"** *+? + *,* (>)
which is the equation of the sphere in
Cartesian coordinates.
2. Sphere tangent at origin to a cooi 1 
dinate plane. Consider a sphere tangent
to the plane XOY at (Fig 118). Let
P be any point on the surface of the
sphere Let A be the point in which the
axis OZ again meets the sphere Pass a
plane through P and OZ , connect A. and
P, and P , and diawPS perpendicular
to OZ Then, using cylindrical coordi
nates, OS = z, SP = i, and OA = 2 a,
where a is the radius of the sphere
Now OA P is a right triangle, since it is inscribed in a semicircle,
and PS is the perpendicular from the vertex of the right angle to the
hypotenuse. Therefore, by elementary plane geometry,
~SP*=OS' SA = OS(OA  08)
Substituting the proper values, we have
X
FIG. 118
Z
(3)
which is the equation, of the sphere in cylindrical
coordinates.
B J ( 2 ) 90 > equation (3) becomes
# a + f y a +2 2 2 a? = 0, (4)
which is the equation of the sphere in Cartesian
coordinates.
3 Right circular cone. Consider any right circular
cone with its vertex at the origin and its axis along
OZ (Fig 119). Let a be the angle which each element
of the cone makes with OZ. Take P any point on the surface of the cone,
pass a plane through P and OZ, and draw PS perpendicular to OZ. Then
SP
SP = r and OS = z. But = tan SOP  tan a Therefore we have
C/o
r = gtano (5\
\ V J
as the equation of the cone in cylindrical coordinates,
FIG. 119
SURFACES
273
By 2, 90, equation (.">) becomes
0, (6)
as the equation of the cone in Cartesian coordinates,
As explained above, we have heie used the word cone in the sense of a
conical surface If the cone is a solid with its altitude h and the radius of
its base a, then tan a  In this case equation %
li
(5) or (6) is that of the curved surface of the
cone only.
4. Surface of revolution. Consider any sur
face of revolution with OZ the axis of revolution
(Fig 120). Take P any point on tho smface
and pass a plane through P and OZ In the
piano POZ draw OR peipendicular to OZ and,
fiom P, a straight line perpendicular to OZ
meeting OZ in S If we regard OR and OZ as
a pair of i octangular axes foi the plane POZ,
tho equation of the cuive CD in which the
plane POZ cuts the surface is FIG 120
=/(r) f (7)
exactly as y ~f(x) is the equation of a curve in 12
But CD is the same curve in all sections of the surface through OZ
Therefore equation (7) is true for all points P and is tho equation of the sur
face in cylindrical coordinates. Whan the plane POZ coincides with the
plane X OZ t r is equal to x, and equation (7) becomes, z
for that section, z= .ff y .\ > /g\
Hence we have the following theorem :
The equation of a surface of revolution formed by
revolving about OZ any curve in the plane XOZ may
be found in cylindrical coordinates by writing rfor x
in the equation of the curve.
Tho equation of the surface in Cartesian coor
dinates may thtn be found by placing r = Vr* + y*.
For example, the equation of the surface formed
by revolving the parabola 2 =4o: about OZ as
an axis is z a as 4 ? in cylindrical co&rdinates, or
s*sBlO(.e fl + y 8 ) in Cartesian coordinates.
5. Cylinder. Consider first a right circular cylinder with its axis along
OZ (Fig. 121). From any point P of the surface of the cylinder draw 7 J S
perpendicular to OZ. Then 8P is always equal to , the radius of the
cylinder. Therefore, for all points on the surface,
reo, (9)
121
274
REPEATED INTEGRATION
which is the equation of the cylinder in cylindrical cobrdinates. Reduced
to Cartesian coordinates equation (9) becomes
x*+y*=a?, (10)
the equation of the cylinder in Cartesian coordinates.
More generally, any equation in x and y only, or in r and 6 only, repre
sents a cylinder. In fact, either of these equations, if interpreted in tho
plane XOY, represents a curve, but if a line is drawn from any point in
this curve perpendicular to the plane XOY, and P is any point on tins lino,
the coordinates of P also satisfy the equation, since z is not involved in
the equation. As examples, the equation y a =4:x xepresputs a parabolic
cylinder, and the equation r = a sin 3 & represents a cylinder whoso base is
a rose of three leaves (Fig. 65, p. 144).
6 Ellipsoid Consider the surface defined by the equation
c 2
(11)
If we place z = 0, we get the points on the surface which Ho in tho XO I'
plane These points satisfy the
equation . *
 + *= = ! (12) _.^
and therefore form an ellipse.
Similarly, the points in the
ZOX plane lie on the ellipse
S + 7 3 = 1 > (13)
and those in the YOZ plane lie
on the ellipse
6 s c 2
(14)
FIG. 122
The construction of these
ellipses gives a general idea of
the shape of the surface (Fig 122). To make this more precise, let UH
place * = j in (11), where z x is a fixed value. We have
which can be written
c 2
==1,
(16)
SURFACES 275
As long as z < c 3 , equation (16) represents an ellipse with semiaxes
a v'l " and b A/1 ^ By taking a sufficient number of these sections
we may construct the ellipsoid with as much exactness as desired.
If z = c 8 in (16), the axes of the ellipse reduce to zero, and we have a
point If Sj a > r a , the axes are imaginaiy, and there is no section.
1 Elliptic paraboloid. Consider the surface
where we shall assume, foi defimteness, that c is positive.
If we place z = 0, we get 2
 2 + f 8 = >
^ ft A /ift
(17)
(18)
which is satisfied in real quantities only by x and y = 0. Therefore the
XOY plane simply touches the surface at
the origin
If we place z = c, we get the ellipse
1
'
(19)
which lies in the plane c units distant from
the XOY plane
If we place y = 0, we get the parabola
and if we place a? = 0, we get the parabola
FIG. 123
The sections (10), (20), and (21) determine the general outline of
surface. For more detail we place z = s x and find the ellipse
c c
so that all sections parallel to the XOY plane and above it are ellipses
(Fig. 123).
8. Elliptic cone. Consider the surface ,
I 3 !!
0.
(23)
Proceeding as in 7, we find that the section z = is simply the origin
and that the section, z = cis the ellipse
276
REPEATED INTEGRATION
If we place x 0, we get the two straight lines
i =t*
and if we place y = 0, we get the two stiaight lines
a = z
c
(25)
(20)
The sections we have found suggest a cone with an elliptic baso. To
prove that the surface really is a cone, we change equation (SJiJ) to cylin
cotirdmates, obtaining
^ + E^\ r a = ~ nm
2 /i2 / /(2 V <*
B I/ / C
Now if 6 is held constant in (27), the coefficient of r z is constant, and thi
equation may be written T
1 J r = kz, (28)
which is the equation of two straight hues in the plane through OK
Z Z
FIG 124
determined by & = const Hence any plane trough OZ cuts the surface
two straight lines, and the surface is a cone (Fig. 124).
9. Plane Consider the surface
n
Ax + ED + Cz f D = 0. /29\
The section z = is the straight hne ffff (P lg 1 25 ) with the equation
Ax + Vy + DssQ, (80)
the secfcon y = is the straight line LH with the equation
At + a+DszO, (31)
and the section , = ia the straight hne L/C with the equation
By + Cz + T) = 0.
VOLUME 277
The two lines (31) and (32) intersect OZ in the point L (O, 0, J ,
unless C = 0. Assuming for the present that C is not zero, we change
equation (29) to cyhndncal cooidmates, obtaining
(.4 cos 6 + B sin d)r + Cz + D = 0. (33)
This is the equation of a stiaight line LN in the plane B = const It
passes through the point L, which has the cyhndncal coordinates r = 0,
2 _ ~i ; and it meets the line KH, since when z = 0, equation (33) is the
same as equation (30). Hence the sui face is covei ed by straight lines which
pass through L and meet KH. The locus of such lines is clearly a plane
We have assumed that C in (29) is not zero. If C = 0, equation (29) is
Q. (34)
The point L does not exist, since the lines corresponding to HL and KL
are now parallel. But, by 5, equation (34) lepresents a plane parallel to
OZ intersecting XOYm the line whose equation is (34) Theiefoie we
have the following theorem
Any equation of the first degree represents a plane.
92. Volume. Starting from any point (#, y, z) in space, we
may draw linos of length dx, dy, and dz in directions parallel
to OX, OF, and OZ respectively, and on these lines as edges
construct a rectangular parallelepiped. The volume of this fig
ure we call the element of volume dV and have
(1)
For cylindrical coordinates we construct an element of volume
whose base is rd6dr( 84), the element of plane area in polar
coordinates, and whose altitude is dz. This figure has for its
volume dV the product of its base by its altitude, and we have
d7=rd0drdz. ( 2 )
The two elements of volume dV given in (1) and (2) are
not equal to each other, since they refer to differently shaped
figures. Each is to be used in its appropriate place. To find
the volume of any solid we divide it into elements of one of
these types. ,
To do this in Cartesian coordinates, note that the acoordinate
of any point will determine a plane parallel to the plane YOZ
278
REPEATED INTEGRATION
and x units from it, and that similar planes correspond to the
values of y and & We may, accordingly, divide any ruquirotl
volume into elements of volume as follows:
Pass planes through the volume parallel to Y0% ami <ta*
units apart. The result is to divide the required volume into
slices of thickness dx, one of which #
is shown in Fig. 126. Secondly,
pass planes through the volume
parallel to JTO^and dy units apart,
with the result that each slice is
divided into columns of cross sec
tion dxdy. One such column is
shown in Fig. 126.
Finally, pass planes through the
required volume parallel to XQY
and dz units apart, with the result
that each column is divided into
rectangular parallelepipeds of dimensions das, dy, and fe, One
of these is shown in Fig. 126.
It is to be noted that the order followed in the above
explanation is not fixed and that, in fact, the choice of be
ginning with either a or y or 4 and the subsequent order
depend upon the particular volume z
considered.
A similar construction may be
made for cylindrical coordinates.
In this case the coordinate &
determines a plane through OZ.
We accordingly divide the volume
by means of planes through OZ
making the angle d0 with each
other. The result is a set of slices
one of which is shown in Fig. 127 Fro. 127
VOLUME 279
Finally, these columns are divided into elements of volume
by planes parallel to XOY at a distance dz apart. One such
element is shown in Fig. 127.
When the volume has been divided in either of these ways,
it is evident that some of the elements will extend outside the
boundary surfaces of the solid. The sum of all the elements
that are either completely or partially in the volume will be
approximately the volume of the solid, and this approximation
becomes better as the size of each element becomes smaller.
In fact, the volume is the limit of the sum of the elements.
The determination of this limit involves in principle three in
tegrations, and we write
= I   dxdyds
(3)
or V= CCCrd6drdz. (4)
In carrying out the integrations we may, in some cases, find
it convenient first to hold z and dz constant. We shall then
be taking the limit of the sum of the elements which lie in a
plane parallel to the XOY plane. We may indicate this by
writing (3) or (4) in the form
V=* Cdz CCdxdy or V= Cdz CCrdOdr. (5)
But, by 84, 1 1 dxdy = A and \\rd6dr~A, where A is
the area of the plane section at a distance from XO Y. Hence
(5) is r
F= / Adss, (6)
in agreement with 26. **
Hence, whenever it is possible to find A by elementary means
without integration, the use of (6) is preferable. This is illus
trated in Ex. 1.
In some cases, however, this method of evaluation, is not
convenient, and it is necessary to carry out three integrations.
This is illustrated in Ex. 2.
280
REPEATED INTEGRATION
Ex. 1. Fmd the volume of the ellipsoid +
=1.
By 6, 91, the section made by a plane parallel to XOY is an ellipse
with semiaxes a %/! ^ and Z> %/!  ^ Therefore, by Ex. 1, 77, its area
/ z a \ c
is waft (1 1 Hence we use formula (6) and have
\ c 2 /
r e l s a \ 4
V = irab I 1 1 ]ds=: irdbc.
J_ c \ c 2 / 3
Ex. 2. Find the volume bounded above by the sphere a: 2 f ?/ a + s 2 = 5 and
below by the paraboloid a; 2 + y z = 4 z (Fig 128).
As these are stu faces of i evolution, this example may be solved by
the method of Ex. 1, but in so doing we need two integrations one
foi the sphere and the other foi the paraboloid We shall solve the
example, however, by the other method in order to illustrate that method
We fii st reduce our equations to cyhn ^
dncal coordinates, obtaining lespectively
r* + z* = 5 (1)
and r 1 = 4 z (2)
The surfaces intersect when r has the
same value in both equations; that is,
when z* + 4 z = 5, (3)
which gives z=loiz = 5 The latter
value is impossible , but when z = 1, we
have r = 2 in both equations Theiefore
the surfaces intersect in a circle o radius 2 in the plane z = 1
lies duecHly above the circle r = 2 in the XOY plane.
We now imagine the element tdQdrdz inside the surface and, holding
r, 0, dd, dt constant, we take the sum of all the elements obtained by varying
z inside the volume These elements obviously extend from 2 = s l in the
lower boundary to z = z 2 in the upper boundary. From (2), z 1 = and,
from (1), 2 2 V5 r 8 . The first integration is therefore
This circle
rdddr
MOdr.
We must now allow 6 and r so to vary as to cover the entire circle ? == 2
above which the required volume stands.
' If we hold Q constant, r varies from to 2. The second integration is
therefore
VOLUME 281
Finally, 9 must vary from to 2 IT, and the third integration is
/5V5
If we put together what we have done, we have
/>2ir /.a ft
F=f / /
Jo Jo t/,
EXERCISES
1. Find the volume bounded by the paraboloid = y? + ^ and
the planes x = 0, y = 0, and g = 4.
& C^ 9*2
2. Prove that the volume bounded by the surface  = 5 4 fa
and the plane * = c is one half the product of the area of the base
by the altitude.
3. Find the volume bounded by the plane = and the cylinders
SB B f f = 2 and y* = a* az.
4. Find the volume cut from the sphere r 2 4 2 = a 2 by the cylinder
r = a cos 6.
5. Find the volume bounded below by the paraboloid r* = a and
above by the sphere r 2 4 2 2 a# =
6. Find the volume bounded by the plane XOY, the cylinder
aa {> 2/a _ 2 ax = 0, and the right circular cone having its vertex at 0,
its axis coincident with OZ, and its vertical angle equal to 90
7. Find the volume bounded by the surfaces r a = &, = 0, and
y sa a COS 0,
8. Find the volume bounded by a sphere of radius a and a right
circular cone, the axis of the cone coinciding with a diameter of the
sphere, the vertex being at an end of the diameter, and the vertical
angle of the cone being 90 .
9. Find the volume of the sphere of radius a and with its center
at the origin of coordinates, included in the cylinder having for its
base one loop of the curve i* ;= a 2 cos 2 6.
10, Find the volume of the paraboloid a? 4 f = 2 * cut off by the
plane #~x 41.
11. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the paraboloid
1 and the plane * = *.
dm
282 EEPEATED INTEGRATION
93. Center of gravity of a solid. The center of gravity of a solid
has three coordinates, x, % z, which are defined by the equations
I xdm I ydm I
*= J ' ' v = J r ' 
I dm I dm I
where dm is the mass of one of the elements into which the
solid may be divided, and #, y, and a are the coordinates of the
point at which the element dm may be regarded as concentrated.
The derivation of these formulas is the same as that in 85
and is left to the student.
When dm is expressed in terms oi space coordinates, the
integrals become triple integrals, and the limits 'of integration
are to be substituted so as to include the whole solid.
We place dm = pdF, where p is the density. If p is constant,
it may be placed outside the integral signs and canceled from
numerators and denominators. Formulas (1) then become
7x= CxdV, Vy=CydV, Vz*= CzdV. (2)
Ex. Find the center of gravity of a body bounded by one nappe of a
right circular cone of vertical angle 2 a and a sphere of radius a, the center
of the sphere being at the vertex of the cone.
If the center of the sphere is taken as the origin of coordinates and the
axis of the cone as the axis of 2, it is evident from the symmetry of the
solid that x = y = Q. To find z we shall use cylindrical coordinates,
the equations of the sphere and the cone being respectively
r 2 + z 2 =s o a and r z tan a.
As in Ex. 2, 92, the surfaces intersect in the circle r a sin a in
the plane z = a cos a. Therefore
/>2r a a tin a />Va 8 r 8
V=\ I / rdOdrdz = S Tra 8 (1  cos a)
JO /o t/rotnar o \ ./
n nZv n a sin a /\/a 2 r*
and \zdV\ \ \ rzdOdrdz = Iwa 4 sin a cr.
t/ i/O /0 t/rctnrt w
Therefore, from (2), 5 s? f a (1 + cos a).
CENTER OF GRAVITY 283
EXERCISES
1. Find the center of gravity of a solid bounded by the paraboloid
y 7 /
 = ' f 7; and the plane = c
c a 2 1r L
2. A ring is cut from a spherical shell, the inner radius and the
outer radius of which are respectively 4 ft. and 5 ft., by two parallel
planes on the same side of the center of the shell and distant 1 ft
and 3 ft. respectively from the center. Find the center of gravity of
this ring.
3. Find the center of gravity of a solid in the form of the frustum
of a right circular cone the height of which is h, and the radius
of tho upper base and the radius of the lower base of which are
respectively r^ and ?' 2 .
4. Find the center of gravity of that portion of the solid of
Ex. 2, p. 73, which is above the plane determined by OA and
OB (Fig. 31).
5. Find the center of gravity of a body in the form of an octant
Qn A
a i * ej*
of the ellipsoid ~ + 73 + = = 1.
e a? o* <?
6. Find the center of gravity of a solid, bounded below by the
paraboloid az r* and above by the right circular cone * + f = 2 a.
7. Find the center of gravity of a solid bounded below by the
cone * SB r and above by the sphere r* + # 2 = 1.
8. Find the center of gravity of a solid bounded by the surfaces
JB = 0, i* + * a ** i 3 , and r =
94. Moment of inertia of a solid. If a solid body is divided
into elements of volume c?F, then, as in 88, the moment of
inertia of the solid about any axis is
1= CtfpdV** p C&dT, (1)
where JB is the distance of any point of the element from the
axis, and p is the density of the solid, which we have assumed
to be constant and therefore have been able to take out of the
integral sign. If M is the total mass of the solid, p may be
determine^ from the formula JtfwpK
284 REPEATED INTEGRATION
If the moment of inertia about OZ, which we shall call 1^ is
required, then hi cylindrical coordinates JR = r and dV= r$6drdz,
so "that (1) becomes
I z = p CCCr*d0 drds. (2)
If we use Cartesian coordinates to determine /,,, we have
and dV= dxdydz, so that
'xdydz. (3j
Similarly, if I y and I x are the moments of inertia about OY
and OX respectively, we have
f\ f\ SI
(4)
In evaluating (2) it is sometimes convenient to integrate
with respect to z last. We indicate this by the formula
I a = p Cdz CCr 9 dO dr. (5)
But I I i^dddr is, by 88, the polar moment of inertia of a
plane section perpendicular to OZ about the point in which OZ
intersects the plane section. Consequently, if this polar moment
is known, the evaluation of (5) reduces to a single integration.
This has already been illustrated in the case of solids of revolution.
A similar result is obtained by considering (3). In fact, the
ease with which a moment of inertia is found depends upon a
proper choice of Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates and, after
that choice has been made, upon the order in which the integra
tions are carried out.
Equation (3) may be written in the form
>WCy*dxdydt, (6)
and the order of integration in the two integrals need not be
the same. Similar forms are derived from (4).
The theorem of . 89 holds for solids. This is easily proved
by the same methods used in that section.
MOMENT OF INERTIA 285
Ex. Find the moment of inertia about OZ of a cylindrical solid of
altitude h whose base is one loop of the curve r a sin 3 6,
The base of this cylinder is shown in Fig 65, p. 144. We have, from
formula (2),  In8fl
wheie the limits are obtained as follows:
First, holding r, 6, d6, dr constant, we allow z to vary from the lower
base s = to the nppei base z = li, and integrate. The result phr a dOdi is
the moment of inertia of a column such as is shown in Fig 127. We
next hold and d& constant and allow r to vary from its value at the
origin to its value on the curve r = a sin 3 0, and integrate. The result
\ /7i 4 ain 4 3 Qd& is the moment of inertia of a slice as shown in Fig. 127.
Finally, we sum all those slices while allowing to vary from its smallest
value to its largest value ^ The result is zz
The volume of the cylinder may be computed from the formula
a" 1 * /idBinSO nh
V = I f i rdBdrdz = A
Jo Jo Jo
Therefore Af= faphePir and J s =JI/ 2 .
EXERCISES
1. Find the moment of inertia of a rectangular parallelepiped
about an axis through its center parallel to one of its edges.
2. Find the moment of inertia about OZ of a solid bounded by
the surface t= 2 and $ = r.
3. Find the moment of inertia of a right circular cone of radius a
and height h about any diameter of its base as an axis.
4. Find the moment of inertia aboxit OZ of a solid bounded by
2 Q
the paraboloid * =* ~ + ^ and the plane = e.
5. Find the moment of inertia of a right circular cone of height li
and radius a about an axis perpendicular to the axis of the cone at
its vertex.
6. Find the moment of inertia of a right circular cylinder of
height h and radius a, about a diameter of its base.
7. Find the moment of inertia about OZ of the portion of the
sphere ?* 4 *" ~ a a out out by the plane and the cylinder
r ** a cos 6.
286 REPEATED INTEGRATION
8. Find the moment of inertia about OX. of a solid 'bounded by
the paraboloid r* and the plane = 2.
9. Find the moment of inertia about its axis of a right elliptic
cylinder of height h } the major and the minor axis of its base being
respectively 2 a and 2 b.
10. Find the moment of inertia about OZ of the ellipsoid
t+t + t =i
I ' 7,2 ' 2
^ GENERAL EXERCISES
n n n
1. Find the center of gravity of the arc of the curve x* I y* = *,
which is above the axis of x.
2. A wire is bent into a curve of the form 9y 2 = a? 8 . Find the
center of gravity of the portion of the wire between the points for
which x = and x = 5 respectively.
3. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the curve
ay* = a? and any double ordmate.
4. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the axis
of x, the axis of y, and the curve j/ 2 = 8 2 x>
5. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the curves
y = x 9 and y = 5 > the axis of x, and the line x = 2
6. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the axes
of x and y and the curve x = a cos 8 ^, y = a sin s <
7. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the ellipse
jg2 &
~z + a =1 ( a > *) tlie <Hfle as 2 + y 2 = a , and the axis of y.
8. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the parabola
v? = 8 y and the circle cc a + f = 128
9. Find the center of gravity of the area bounded by the curves
** ~ a (y  &) = 0, a 2 ay = 0, the axis of y, and the line = o,
^ 10. Find the center of gravity of an area in the form of a semi
circle of radius a surmounted by an equilateral triangle having one
of its sides coinciding with the diameter of the semicircle.
11. Find the center of gravity of an area in the form of a rec
tangle of dimensions a and I surmounted by an equilateral triangle
one side of which coincides with one side of the rectangle which is
b units long.
GENERAL EXERCISES 287
12. Find the center of gravity of the segment of a circle of
radius a cut off by a straight line b units from the center.
13. From a rectangle b units long and a units broad a semicircle
of diameter a units long is cut, the diameter of the semicircle
coinciding with a side of the rectangle. Find the center of gravity
of the portion of the rectangle left.
14. Find the center of gravity of a plate in the form of one half of
a circular ring the inner and the outer radii of which are respectively
' x and >
15. In the result of Ex. 14, place r z = r^ + AT and find the limit as
Ar vO, thus obtaining the center of gravity of a semicircumference.
16. Find the center of gravity of a plate in the form of a Tsquare
10 in across the top and 12 in. tall, the width of the upright and
that of the top being each 2 in.
17. From a plate in the form of a regular hexagon 5 in. on a side,
one of the six equilateral triangles into which it may be divided is
removed. Find the center of gravity of the portion left.
18. Find the center of gravity of a plate, in the form of the ellipse
r o/
~ + 75 = 1 (a > i), in which there is a circular hole of radius c,
the center of the hole being on the major axis of the ellipse at a
distance d from its center.
19. Find the center of gravity of the solid formed by revolving
!K 2 ?/ 2
about OY the surface bounded by the hyperbola j j$ =1 and the
lines ?/ = and y = &. a
20. Find the center of gravity of the solid generated by revolving
about the line % = a the area bounded by that line, the axis of a;, and
the parabola y a = hx.
21. Find the center of gravity of the segment cut from a sphere of
radius a by two parallel planes distant respectively \ and h z (h z > 7^)
from the center of the sphere.
22. Find the moment of inertia of a plane triangle of altitude a and
base b about an axis passing through its center of gravity parallel to
the base.
23. Find the moment of inertia of a parallelogram of altitude a
and base b about its base as an axis,
288 BEPEATED INTEGRATION
24. Find the moment of inertia of a plane circular ring, tho inner
radius and the outer radius of which are respectively 3 m and 5 in.,
about a diameter of the ring as an axis.
25. A square plate 10 in. on a side has a square hole 5 in. on a
side cut in it, the center of the hole being at the center of tho jilafco
and its sides parallel to the sides of the plate. Find the moimmt of
inertia of the plate about a line through its center parallel to ouo
side as an axis.
26. Find the moment of inertia of the plate of Ex. 25 nbout one of
the outer sides as an axis.
27. Find the moment of inertia of the plate of Ex. 20 about one
side of the hole as an axis.
28. Find the moment of inertia of the plate of Ex 2tf about ono
of its diagonals as an axis
29. A square plate 8 in. on a side has a circular hole 4 in. in
diameter cut in it, the center of the hole coinciding with tho cuntor
of the square Find the moment of inertia of the plate about a lino
passing through its center parallel to one side as an axis.
30. Find the moment of inertia of the plate of Ex. 29 about a
diagonal of the square as an axis
31. Find the moment of inertia of a semicircle about a tangent
parallel to its diameter as an axis.
32. Find the polar moment of inertia of the plate of Ex. 25 about
its center.
33. Find the polar moment of inertia of the entire area bounded
by the curve T 2 = a? sm 3 6 about the pole.
34. Find the polar moment of inertia of the area bounded by tho
cardioid r = a ( 1 + cos ff) about the pole.
35. Find the polar moment of inertia of that area of tho circle
r = a which is not included in the curve r a, sin 2 6 about tho
pole.
36. Find the moment of inertia about OF of a solid bounded by
the surface generated by revolving about OY the area bounded by the
curve </ x, the axis of y, and the line y 2.
37. A solid is in the form of a hemispherical shell the inner
radius and the outer radius of which are respectively and r , Find
its moment of inertia about any diameter of the base of the shell as
an axis.
GENERAL EXERCISES 289
38. A solid is in the form of a spherical cone cut from a sphere
of radius a, the vertical angle of the cone being 90. Find its
moment of inertia about its axis.
39. A solid is cut from a hemisphere of radius 5 in by a right
circular cylinder of radius 3 in, the axis of the cylinder being
perpendicular to the base of the hemisphere at its center Find its
moment of inertia about the axis of the cylinder as an axis.
40. An anchor ring of mass M is bounded by the surface generated
by revolving a circle of radius a about an axis in its plane distant
b(b > <i) from its center. Find the moment of inertia of this anchor
ring about its axis.
oj2 ?/"
41. Find the moment of inertia of the elliptic cylinder + 77 =1
a* (r
(a > ft), its height being h, about the major axis of its base.
42. Find the center of gravity of the solid bounded by the cylinder
= 2 a cos 0, the cone ss = r, and the plane x =
43. Find the moment of inertia about OZ of the solid of Ex. 42.
44. Find the volume of the cylinder having for its base one loop
of the curve r = 2 a cos 2 0, between the cone = 2 r and the plane
=
46. Find the center of gravity of the solid of Ex. 44.
46. Find the moment of inertia about OZ of the solid of Ex. 44.
47. Find the volume of the cylinder having for its base one loop
of the curve r ss a cos 2 & and bounded by the planes = and
ft =s x + 2 a.
48. Find the moment of inertia about OZ of the solid of Ex. 47
49. Find the volume of the cylinder r = 2 a cos included between
the planes * = and * =s 2 x + a.
60. Find the moment of inertia about OZ of the solid of Ex. 49.
61. Through a spherical shell of which, the inner radius and the
outer radius are respectively r l and r a , a circular hole of radius
a (a < fj) is bored, the axis of the hole coinciding with a diameter
of the shell. Find the moment of inertia of the ring thus formed
about the axis of the hole.
ANSWERS
[The answers to some problems are intentionally omitted.]
CHAPTER I
Page 4 ( 2)
1. 21^. 4. 100ft per second 7. 2J
2. l^jj. 5. 88 07 mi. per hour for entire trip. 8. l^mi per hour.
3. 40J\>. 6. 1,26. 9. 08.4.
Page 5 ( 2)
10. 106 8.
Page 7 ( 3)
1. 06 ft. per second. 2. 128 ft. per second.
Page 8 ( 3)
8. 128 ft. per second. 5. 68 ft per second.
4. 74 ft pci bccoud. 6. 52 ft. per second.
Page 11 ( 5)
1, 12 ii ; 24 j. 8. 85 ; 82 ; 6. 5. 5, 4, when t = 2 ; 10, 6, when t = 3
2. 16 j 14. 4, 42 5 57. 8. 8ai a + 2M + c ; 6at + 26.
Page 13 ( 6)
1. i sci. ft. per second. 2, 0. 3. 87rr a cu. in. per second.
TT 2?r
4, 4wr a . 5, 167irsq. in. per second.
Page 14 ( 6)
6. 8irr. 7. 8 (edge) 3 . 8, birr*. 9. 18. 10. 2ir.
CHAPTER II
Page 18 ( 7)
3. 4fc B 2. 4. : 5. 2 ;
8, ,_ S . 7. tf + B+1. 8, 8~
201
292 ANSWERS
Page 21 ( 9)
1. Increasing if x > 2 ; decreasing if x < 2.
2. Increasing if x > g , decreasing if x < .
3. Increasing if x < ; decreasing if x > .
4. Increasing if a < , decreasing if sc > .
5. Increasing if aj < 2 or x > 1 , decreasing if 2 < K < 1.
6. Increasing if x < 5 or x > S , decreasing if 5 < x < 8.
7. Increasing if < 1 or a: > ; decreasing if 1 < x < fj.
8. Always increasing.
9. Increasing iftc< lor ^<a<l; decreasing if 1 < x < J or a; > 1.
10. Increasing if x > 1 , decreasing if x < 1.
Page 24 ( 10)
1. When t <  1 or t > I , when !<<!.
2. When 5 ; when t > 5.
3. When t < 2 or t > 4 ; when 2 < i < 4.
4. Always moves in dnection in winch a is measxirod.
5. When t > f , when < $.
6. Always increasing.
7. Always decreasing
8. Increasing when t > 2 , decreasing when t < 2.
9. Increasing when t > , decreasing when i < $
10. Increasing when < < f , decreasing when < > .
Page 26 ( 11)
1. TrA 8 . 2. 6 irh sq. ft. per second.
Page 27 ( 11)
8. 2 cm. per second. 5. 0.20 TT
4. 20 9 sq in. per second. 6. 64 cu. ft per second. Tl 3 8 (t tal hol ff ht >*'
8. 4 TT (2 + 12 ( + 36) , t is thickness.
Page 31 ( 13)
1. 1.46. 3 0.46; 2.05. 5. 2.41.
2.  2 07. 4. 1.12 ; S 93. G. 2.52.
Page 35 ( 14)
1. 8a;y_9 = 0. 6, + y + l = *12. tanij.
2. 2x + Sy + 3 = 7. aj + 2y + 8 = 0. 18, tan*12.
3. 21aj2y13 = 0. 8. 4x Sy1 = 0. 14.*.
4  J/ + S = ,_ M.4y.60. W. i.SyMo.
6. V3a;y2V32= ! 0. 10. 5a:  Qy  4 = 0. W, (Itfr, 2ft)*
*The symbol tan 1 jj represents the angle whose tangent is \ (cl. 46).
ANSWEES
293
Page 39 ( 15)
1. ( I >).
2, (2, 4J).
3. (0, 4), (2, 0).
4, (1, 7), (3, 3).
6. ( 2, 0), (1,  0).
6. (1,  3), (3,29).
Page 43 ( 17)
1. aSsq.in.
2. Length is twice breadth.
Page 44 (5 17)
6, Depth is onehalf side of base.
7, 2 portions 4 ft. long ; 4 portions 1 ft. long
o jjt.
8, Breadth =
9. ( 3, 10), (1, 2)
10. 278 + 27^86 =
11. 18a5
18. tanijj
3. 5ft.
4. 50.
  28 = 0.
5.
, ..
; depth =
9, Altitude = ^f 5 base  ? (P  perimeter)
4 4
10, 2000 cu. in. ; 2547 cu. in
1L Height of rectangle = radius of semicircle , semicircle of radius,
5
12. 7= in.
VS
Page 46 ( 18)
1, 426ft.
Page 47 ( 18)
8. 40ft. 5. 676ft.
7. y = 2x 8 + x a 4x+6.
3, 05ft.
4, 88$ ft.
Page 49 ( 19)
1. 7$. 2. 1
Page 53 ( 20)
8. 0.0001 ; 0.000001 ; 0.00000001
9. 0.000009001 ; 0.000000090001.
3, 62J. 4. 36. 5.
Page 54
1. 72 sq. in.
8,
16
Sir
cu. in.
6.
10. 000003 sq. in.
11, 456 58 ou. in.
4. 27.0054 ou. in.
5. 28.2749 cu m.
6. 606 0912.
7. 0012.
8. 5.99934
294 ANSWERS
Page 55 (General Exercises)
_
'
o 2a A 4 x g _ j t 13. Increasing if x > 2 ,
' (a  x) 2 " ' (x 2 + I) 2 ' ' 2 Vajs ' decreasing if <  2.
14. increasing if f<o;<ora;>2, decreasing if a; < f or <j < x < 2.
15. Increasing if x >  , decreasing if y, <  .
2 o, 2(t
16. Increasing if x < ^= or x > ~ , decreasing if ^= < x < =
V3 V3 V3 V3
4/7 4 ft
17. Increase if x <  , decrease if x > 
3 o
Page 56 (General Exercises)
18. 1< t < 5 19. 2 < * < 5 , 4.
20. Up when < i < 6 J , down when 6 < < 12.
21. Increasing when t > 4 , decreasing when t < 4.
22. D increasing when < 3, v deci easing when t > 3 , speed increasing when
2<i<3ori>4, speed decreasing when !S<2or3<i<4
23. Increasing when !<<2ori>3, decreasing when *<lor2<i<3
24. 0055 in. per minute
25. 8 6 in. per second 27. x + 2 y + 6 = 0.
26. 1 sq in per minute. 28. 7x+
Page 57 (General Exercises)
29. x 2 = 31. 2xy + 3 = 0. 83. (, 8).
80. x  2y  7 = 0. 32. tanl 34. (lj, 0)
35. (2,  2). 41. 10.
36. ( 1, 13), (5,  95). 42. tani T V
37. ( 3, 13), (1,  19). 43. x  y  11 =
38. ( 4, 20). 44. (1,  1), ( J, 
Page 58 (General Exercises)
46. 6f ft. long 52. y  x 2 + Bx  IB
47. Altitude of cone is  radius of sphere. 53. y = x 8 x* + 7 x
54.85^.
i** a ^ *u
48. Altitude= ; sideof base =^_ M 2g
49. 2 pieces 3 in long, 3 pieces 1 in. long 56. 20 1
50 600ft. 57. 72.
51. 56ft 59. 0.0003.
Page 59 (General Exercises)
60. 0.00629. 64. 0.09 cu in 67. 24.0024 sq. in.
62. 288 TT cu in. 65. 0.0003. 69, 0.4698.
63, 161. 16 cu. in, 66. 854.1028j 353.8972,
Page 66 ( 23)
1. 8J 3. 52 T S .
2. 23,} 4. 166f r
Page 67 ( 24)
1. 160ft
Page 68 ( 24)
4. When m
Page 70 ( 25)
1. 8$ T.
Page 71 ( 25)
6. Approx. 2418 Ib.
6.
ANSWEES
29i
CHAPTER IH
6. 5 7. 36i
6. 42 1 8. 2J.
. 9. 96. 11. 42 J
10. 10. 12. 10.
2. 140ft.
; 83ft.
3. 57Jft.
5, 8000irft.lb.
2. 2JT.
3. 3T.
Page 75 ( 26)
1. 21 TT.
625V8
~~
7. 585}T.
11. 2 1 ft. from upper side
8. 84 A *.
4. l^w.
5. 6577r.
cu in.
7. 8
8. 2
Page 76 (General Exercises)
1. 6Jft. 5. 20.
2. 81ft.
3. 10 ft "' ~3~
4. 8JJ mi ' 8.
Page 77 (General Exercises)
13. Twice as groat. 17.
14, Jft T.
16. 16 to. 35
16. 68 ^TT 19. 96 IT.
Page 78 (General Exercises)
24. STT. 26. 115J. 26.
29. 728,049 ft.lb.
Page 81 ( 28)
1. & a + i/ 8  8as f
CHAPTER IV
11 cs 0.
0.
6, 8a~
9. 234 T
10. 2 T.
9. 25f IT
10. 213 JTT.
11. 38
8.
9. JfT
12. Reduced to  original
pressure
20. 34lcu.m.
21.^1
28. (aft 2  Jft")ir
27. 9 28. 204
80. 5301 ft Jb.
3. (3, 5); 5.
*.( *.!);
296 ANSWERS
Page 84 ( 30)
M2,o). MO, if) 7. as/, ft
a (o.i). 5. 8H ft. . iom/5
MH,0). 6. lOVlOft. 8. i m
Page 85 ( 30)
9. y 2 + 6a;9 = 0. 10. x*4x12y + 16= 0.
Page 87 ( 31)
2 (0, 3), (0, V6),
5. 9x 2 + 25^a  36x  189 =
6. 49a; 2 + 24 y2 _ 12 0y _ 144 _ .
Page 91 ( 32)
I (3,0), (
4 . o, f
2  (2,0), (Vl3, 0), 3a;2y=0; 1
3. (0, V2), (0, V5),
4. (2V,0); (4,0),
Page 102 ( 36)
1. 18s 2 + 22a;_3
8). 9
_
' ~(a; 2 9) 2 ' 11. .
21
12.
13.
7 2a! _i + ^
* 2 ^' 14 .
8. '
ANSWERS 297
15 " . . 18.
' 3i tr  i>) \' (x ~"a) (JR  6) V(a a + x 2 ) 8
ii . M 1 jr8
11 *"' . 19. , 22.
v'W.tfi (x + l)Vx a l V(x 2 +9) 8
' r ~ ] . 20.
v** vV + 8)* V(l + x)*
Page 104 ( 37)
<tt/ je a Vi/ + x Vy x __x 2 2a 8 x
* ""' U , 1/& ai
a/// g !_. 8> " i' '
'* *" J i ^ ,,'S* ""ftw* 8u 8 ' xa 2X2
e ' 3 !
Page 105 (38)
Sa O. 2, x~7y + 5 = 0. 3. (2.1). 4.
PAgel06(88)
. 10, tan18. 12.
8.*". . 5 5 ton" 1 A 11. tani. 13.
"i *
Page 110 (40)
1. xr 8 5 V44.9tK ,. fo a Bin )
a, x^d/!)' 4 , V4tf+i. \ 20 20
3. x*0x + = 0j SVll748t + l6i a . B a sill 2a
4. (8,1). 9 '
'4*
11. yaa
\ "aj
8V i Moond. 2. 12.6 ft, per second. 3, ^u, perminute.
4, Circle; ! 5 fl, per secona (x distance of point from *dl).
x
, 2,64 ft. per second.
Pftge 113 (41) permi nute. 8. 6.6 ft. per second.
6. 0.18 cm. por second. ?, 0.21 in. per mumi*.
, ^ti^t.per 8 ccond, where, is the distance of top of ladder, and IB
^dtonoe of foot of ladder, fromDase of pyramid.
298
ANSWERS
Page 114 (General Exercises)
20. 3
21. x
8
27. tan
' ^ "
28. ; tan 17.
2i
30. tani .
5
35.
81. , tan 1 
2' 2
~ 7T
On i n 11
32. ,lan
33. x$ + ifi
= 2 ato  <W8?
' OJ 2 1 4 ' (i 2 + I) 2
Page 115 (General Exercises)
37. 20 ft per second ,
lOVEft per second, (100,20).
1 a ' v a
39. Velocity in path = VCKC + a 5
40.
Page 116 (General Exercises)
46. 08 ft. per minute
47. 01 in. per minute.
48. f sq in per minute
49. 04 in. per second.
50. Length is twice breadth
51 Other sides equal.
Page 117 (General Exercises)
57. 2 64 in 58.
41. 6 8 mi per houi , 28 8 mi
42.
43.
t 4 2503i a _
' 3 \ 04 1 3
ft pei second, whore
3s
Vs 2  400
s is length of lope from man
to boat.
44. 06 ft per minute
45. sJu ft per minute.
52. Breadth, 9 m , depth, 9V3 in.
53. Length =  bieadth
54. Side of base, 10 ft ,
depth, 5 ft
55. Depth = ^ side of base.
56. Radius, 3 in. , height, 3 in.
1
Vi'
60. 8 mi from point on bank nearest to A.
bm , , bn ,
a mi. on land , mi in water
59.
61. 4 1} mi tiavel ou land
Vn 2 m 2
63. l^fhr.
Page 118 (General Exercises)
Vn 2 
mr
64. v/lOO mi per hour.
Page 126 ( 44)
1. 15 cos 5 x
2. sec 2 .
3. 2sm 2 2zcos2x.
4. 5 sin 10 x.
65. Velocity m still water = mi per hour
66. Base = aVI , altitude =  b
CHAPTER V
6. 5 sin 2 5 x cos 8 5 aj.
_ o60!, &X
7. 5 sec 2 tan .
2 2
8. 8csc 8 3a;ctn3x.
ANSWERS
299
Page 127 ( 44)
9. hin 1 .
10.
11.
12. 2 sec x (sou x + tana) 2 .
Page 129 ( 45)
. S_. Mil
3. 7T, 5.
4. At moan point of motion ; at
extreme points of motion.
2
13. 2 cos 4 x.
14. 9tan 4 3aj.
15 . 2 sec 2 x (sec 2 2 x + tan 2 2 x)
16 sm 8 2 a; cos 2 2 a;
17.  ? }
18. ?.
5. At extieme points of motion, at
moan point of motion.
6. 2V(fc  3) (5  s) ; 4(48)
7. TT.
8. 10, 2?r.
Page 134 ( 47)
3
7. JfL.
1
8. ( *
1
0.  V !L
8 "
' Vxx a
x v 4 x a
8
4 ' Vl2x ( .)x a
10 ' n
i
5,  1
11. 
2 + 2 x + a
(x + 1) "V
1
n *
12.  , l
18.
Page 136 ( 48)
1. 1)3. = 9.42 ft. per second ; % = =F 86.40 ft. per second.
Page 137 ( 48)
3. 8 radians per unit of time.
Page 138 ( 49)
a b cos <t) '
Page 141 ( 50)
17V17
2. 63
6.
300
ANSWERS
Page 145 ( 51)
17. Origin , (V3, j). 18. Origin , ( a^j, ) . 19. Origin , (2, 
21. ^8^20 =
22. r
23. r
24. r
25. x  a =
26. x 2 + V*  2 ax =
27.
28.
Page
Page
9.
10.
11.
18.
19.
148 ( 52)
149 (General Exercises)
2(l + sec 2 2x).
sec 4 (3x + 2).
cos 2 (2 3 x).
sec 2 (x y) + sec 2 (x + y)
sec 2 (x y) sec 2 (x + y)
1 .x
1. IT tan* 1
3. 0.
21.
20. 
tan 4 2 a;.
l _
(x + 1) Vx
 1
V2 + x  x 2
27.
2(x + l)Vx
1
xV49x 2 l
4
ig t
5 5
14 8csc 2 4x(ctn4x + l)
15. a tan ox sec 2 ox.
16. 8 cos 8 2 x sin 4 a; cos 6 x.
1
. x)Vx 3 2x
2
V34x4x 2
2~3x
Vo x 2
24.
25.
26.
Page
29.
30.
31.
(x 2 l)Vx 2 2
150 (General Exercises)
fc Va 2 sm 2 ^ + 6 2 cos 2 ^.
2^_
V41,
5 = 3; 2
35.
j 47. Origin ; / ^
""*" O * / A.
34. 2aVi. 48. Origin; (^,tani 2 ).
49. Origin;
Page 151 (General Exercises)
51.  =
COS(?
52.
53. (x 8 + y 2 ) 2 + 2 aa;(x a + y 2 )  a
54, tani.
s= 0.
ANSWERS 301
65. 0) tan12 57. . 59 IflVift
56. 0, :,toni8V5. Kg* 6 ' 72 '
2 68 '4 61. V2ft
62. At an angle tan 1 /*; with ground.
Page 152 (General Exercises)
63.12m. 65. a. 68. 15 sq ft , 10.04 sq. ft. per second.
64. sVBft. 67. 0.1 ft per second. 69. 26 7 mi. per minute.
nn /i /i , & 2 8in0COS(? \ . . ,.., ,
70. / b sin & + , ) times angular velocity of AS. where = angle
\ Va a 6 a sin 2 0/
CL4.B.
71, <* ~ 2 ) 2 + fa  3 ) 2  1 ; V9 sin 2 * + 4 cosat , where I = (2 k + 1) 
78. 5^^ = 1 ; OsecSiVtan 2 3< + 4sec 2 3<.
Page 153 (General Exercises)
73. sin 20. 75. tan^Vi
74. aVl+cos 2 o5, fastest when 75. tan 1 ^
x = far; most slowly when 77. 0, tan 1 3 Vs.
a5 = (2A! + l). 78. tani^, tani4V2
2 79. tani3; tariij.
CHAPTER VI
Page 162 ( 55)
(The student is not expected to obtain exactly these answers , they are given
merely to indicate approximately the solution.)
1. y =0.62 x 0.70. 2. 1 = 0.00172)
Page 163 ( 55)
3. ^=s0.80(2.7)^. 4. c=0.010(0,84). 5. a=0.0000000048Z3'o. 6 j" = 10.
Page 165 ( 56)
1 1 12. e 2ac (3cos3a; 2sin8x).
" ~* < n j. 1
13, Ctll"" 1 !!/.
14.
3. 2 a; a** Una. "' Vi^"+~4* 16,
4. a n ^ _., 9 16.
e" + e
5 rf j. A . i ' 10.  4 sec 2*. W 2 see's.
20:4.8 n 2(e 8a! e 2a? ) ig. J; .
   "' ' eaa+eis* ' asVx + l
302
Page 167 ( 57)
ANSWERS
2. ?/ = 45.22e oola: .
4.
Page 168 ( 57)
5. P = 10000 e 022 9* 6. c = 0.01e n44B <. 7, 2 mm,
Page 168 (General Exercises)
*10. p = 0.018 1 + 24. *11. Load = 102  6 6 length.
Page 169 (General Exercises)
*12. s = 25 (0 40)' *14 t = 1 Vl.
*13. c = 010 (0.83)* *15. 1= 0.023 V0
Page 170 (General Exercises)
18. ?/ =
"17. pv = 1620
21. 2 csc 1 2 a;.
25. tan~^x.
18 l .
2
22. 2 (x + 1) e
26 0.898
' 9 a: 2  4
19. ctn x
23. * .
27. 16 8 hr
o
g2 i . fijX
28. 1000 sec
20.
24. a tan 3 ox.
29. p = 147i
Page 171 (General Exercises)
31. 2"\/2e~ 2i , 2e~ 2 * 33.
87. (l + 1) *
35. Vic*.
x ' 2
38.
Page 176 ( 59)
CHAPTER VII
3.8

2.
, , a; 8 . 2s 5 , 17x7
3. a; + H  h
8 15 ^ 315
2i 41 61
4 ^
"4" "" L.  ____  ____ __ JL
2 324 6 + 2 . 4 6 7
e.
V2

2 2 2 s 3
3 T 5 7 T '
X ~2l~3! + " j
* Statement in regard to answeis to exeicises in 55 is true of tins answer,
9. 0.0872
10, 4695,
ANSWERS 303
Page 178 ( 60)
5 2 5 2 8 5 8
___ + .___ _____ + .
8
/ ir\ 8
1 V V
,
oy 2 21 2 si
6 E + i to
+
2 2! 2 31
8. 0.7193 9, 0.8480 10. 8.0042
Page 179 (General Exercises)
_ +
' 5 ~ 2 * 5 ' 2 1 2_ ' 8 I
a j.^  1 ^!_I^ ?!.
1 z %~ x a '21 2*31
10. 1  2cc + 2 2  2fc 8 + . . 14. 9659.
11 i j. 2aj 8 4a* 15. 0.61CO.
u . a H . x  + ...
T 21 8! 5!^ ' 18. 0.69815; 10986.
13 3.4.?! + ! + ^!+..., 19>  22 314; 1.6094.
Page 180 (General Exercises)
88, 2.0805. 2e a;8 a 6 _ a 7
M, 2.9625. ' "*" 3 5(2 I) "" 7(8 !)
304 ANSWERS
CHAPTER VIII
Page 183 ( 61)
8j/ 2 , .
xy x 2 ' xy y 3
5. y X
6.
,
(K + y)* x + y '
s._L_, *_. 7 i *
x 2 +2/ 2 ' x 2 +i/ 2 y ' tf
y x 1
4. , > , s. , ;
VI x a y 2 Vl x 2 ^ 2 v x 2 + y a
Page 185 ( 62)
x 2 y*
1. 5 5 2. e" sm (x y) 3,
Page 187 ( 63)
1. 000061 2. 0012. 3, 2^
Page 188 ( 63)
4.0.018m 5.00105 6.0015m. 7. 6320ft. 8.0.0064.
Page 191 ( 64)
1. 2. 2.  4.  5.  J . o. 6. 0;0
Vx 2 + y 2
Page 192 (General Exercises)
8.  14.33 cu ft. 10. 0.5655 sq. in.; 11. 3.0 in 13. 2.206 sq. in. per second
9l 1735 05756sq.m 12. 035m, 15. 4.4 uq. in. per second.
Page 193 (General Exercises)
16. _iyJ5. 17 /ytania fit ia J V5 .
5 a tan A , &*. is. cos a . 'Sina, 1.
CHAPTER IX
Page 198 ( 66)
. p if* p uiiiij,. 7. i(x* + 4)a. 14 1 , .
2. g \(3x+7)x4 8. llnWim. ' ~a ln ( 1 + c ^).
9. ^In(2x + sin2x) 14. ~Jcos*2x.
10.  1 W
4. i nz __! L. 3(xsmx) 16
a: 2. 758 .1
1)]. a 17. _
12. ln(x 8 + Sx 2 + 1). ig,
i. 20.
ANSWERS
805
Page 202 ( 67)
, 1 ,3x
1. sin 1 
3 4
i
.sin 1
Vs
4. sec 1 xV8.
i a
5.
' V7 V?
V21
4x3
3
6x5
11. ^smi
Vs 5
V3
*5
=.
VlO
12.
13.
V5
V2
V2
16.?
17. ~.
4
Page 204 ( 68)
3.
5.
. Jln(8a+Vo"l).
p
n
r
15 5sm 1 2V4x 2 .
ft
18. v. 19. ~ 2C
36
11.
In (3
1 . 2x6
20 U 2x + 5'
7.
8.
9.

2 VlC 8X+V15
 7 :
2 Vi5
~
w, 4 to ..
Page 207 ( 69)
1,  ^ COB (S 052).
2, ~Jsin(4~2x).
3, Jsec(8x 1).
4, 4tan?.
4
2 8x
6. $ln sin 6 as,
7.
3a; + 5
12. ^Lln*" 7
V5 2 x  8 + V5
' V33 2 x + 5 t V33_
1 . 4xlVl3
14. =rln _
2 VlS 4xl + Vl3
8 + V5
15.
16,
18. 4=1]
V2
19. ln;
20. iln
8. 2 esc 
9. ^ln [sec (4 x + 2) + tan (4 a + 2)].
10. ctn(82a).
11. In (esc x etnas) + 2 cosx.
13.
14, a cosx.
306
ANSWERS
15. 3 tan  sec 
\ O d 1
X. io> waaui, aa, in
V2 2 1 + V2
19 s  ^.
16. (x sin x)
\J* ii 7J*
20. In j S3< 4*
, w 4V2 3x
17.  Sill
8 4
21. V3l^ 24. 3
iii
Page 208 ( 70)
1, l e 2a: + 5
5. ^(eaaea^+aa;. 3
Sai 5 *
6. eF + e 35 . ' 2 In 2
S^iic i
7. ln(#l)x. n. i (e1)
e+l
g. 2(e^ fi~^). c a j, i
go + &z c + to
99 12 I"  '
' ft(Hlnc)
' In 10
Page 212 ( 72)
_
4. Vx 2 1 tan 1 V.e 2 1
8. 
5.
x ,x
6 sin 1 
V4X 2 2
9. 
4Vx 2 4
10. . 11.. 12. 18. ^(9\/810V5). 14.. 15. 2
Page 216 ( 74)
1. (8 x 1) e 3 * 7. J (2 cos + sin a) e 2 *.
8. J(x 2 + 2xsincc + 2cosx).
9. 42Ve
10. J (81 In 8 96).
11. i(2).
12. l(7T2).
2.
3. zcosix Vl x 2
4. xtan 1 3aj^ln(l+ 9a 2
5. la^Beo^x
6. sin z (In sin a; 1)
Page 217 ( 75)
4. In
X 2 l
2) 2
2.
Page 220 (General Exercises)
.
a; 2 as 2
5. In'
ANSWERS
307
Page 221 (General Exercises)
T. /, (2 + C ST ) S . 9. \/8 a; + x a
8. ij (1 + 2s + a;*)*. 10. z a + a: + In (a  1).
11. n \, [B fdu (2 z  1)  3 sm (2 1 1) ] .
12.  un  /3 COB*  + 4 cos 2  + B\.
8 f>\ 5 5 /
13. a 1 ,) ctn 4 x (] 5 + 10 ctn 2 4 x + 3 ctn 4 4 a) .
14. ,V, t 8 HucB ( c  2)  5 suc (a  2)].
15. i tau (jt  1) + In tan (.r  1)
16. Ju (7 c\sc fi 2 x 5 c'sc 7 2 tr) .
11 i(MoSa7)v / 8ee8j.
18. Vcac2x
19. ~?% (8 ctn 5 x + 8 ctn 3 5 a:) Vctn 6 x
20. T jt,j(lB3 34sin a 4o; + Own 4 4 a) \/wn4a5.
21.  7 ' fl (9 ctn 5 x + 4 ctn 6 a 1 ) \/ctn 8 5 x.
23, sin 3
V5
1 . 2 sr + 8
 sec 1 !
5
24. ^sini^.
s aVa
,. JL O 35
25   i ppf**" J i , *
' V6 V6
4 2
21 i B eci^ti.
2 2
28. Jseci^li.
'sVs Vs
5
2;r5
,2J!1
OB
35.
Vl6
30. sin 1
31.
00 i ,23; + 8
33. = sin 1 =
V2 V8
36.
_
Vo
38
39.
Vn
Vc
Vn
2V6 V5
Page 222 (General Exercises)
41.
ft 1 . a 2
42  Rl Tl **" 1 i"T rrmi
2 2
1 12
43. isoci^.
aVo V6
1 9S
.  JL nv
** "^T SGC "*"* *
48. ln(ojVx a 7).
49.
45, 4 1
46.1
VlO
51.
62. i Inj^h Va lfi + 7). _
53, 2 V(c a + 4 + In (a; 4 V a + 4).
54. V8ic a +l 
4r1
V21
55, i= In
8 +
Ox).
308 ANSWERS
1
57. =ln(5x + 2 + V25x 2 + 20 x 5)
VH
58. ln(3x4 + V9x 2  24x + 14)
4 V6 x V&  2
i ^ ^
62.
59.

6V? 8x+V7
^in^? 2 .
4 Vo x V5 + 2
2V21
63. ln.
6 x
.. 1, 2x5
64. In
5 x
.^
2V6
70. l
__ 1 , x1
bo. in
12 3x +
4V6 2x
67.
15
5" x + 2
Page 223 (General Exercises)
75
3 3 .a; x 9 . 2a;
x sm 8 cos sin .
8 4 3 3 16 3
68. ta
71. (tan3x ctnSx).
72. In [sec(xg) + tan ( aj  )]
73. cos2x.
74. ln(secx + tanx).
Gx3)
76 Jtan2x x
as. ^ (x a + 4) taivi a
i.
77. (sm2x cos2x).
94. ^ (29 x 2 ) cos 3 a; +
x sin 3 x
78. x f 2 ( ctn esc 1
\ 9 O /
95. x[(ln2x) 2 21n2x
f2]
\ /
79. tan2x x
96. x In (8 x +V9 x 2  4) J V x a  4.
80 smx cosx
1 4/ 0\
/ *
81. 2Ve=
98 In '* '
82. f v^ 1 .
'2 (x + 8) 8 '
83. x Jln(l + e 2z ).
99. In fa" 2 ) 2 .
V4x 2 9
85. ^ (2 x 8 + x s  6) v^x 8 + 2.
100. ^ i n I 2 x + J ) ( 2 x + s ) :
8 2r 1
86. f Vx + 3
u At ifi ~~" JL
87. ^x 1 l s ln(2x + l).
101. lin^^fa + S)^
88. Z ~
2 (x  3) 2
3(lx 2 )!
102.^
12
89. a8
27(4x 2 +9)f
103. *.
12
90 (2x 2 + 25)Vx 2 25
104 ^Infl.
1875 x 8
105. 4 In 4
91.
(In 5)8 '
106.
ANSWERS 809
Page 224 (General Exercises)
107. V52 112. 6? 118.
V5 ' 113. 7. 119 .
108 '0 114.^11X2.
109>c2 ~ e  1 9 + 4V2 WO
110. ~^j . ' ^^/g n 14 ' 121. 2  In 3.
, I / ! \ 116. STT 122.
Til ... ........ V A" i t ft*/
' lu 5 ' 117. UvS. 123.
CHAI?TEB X
Page 228 ( 77)
1. 2.
4.
(h A\
5.
e e y
6.
3, 47ra a
7.
Page 229 ( 77)
10. 2w 2 a 8 . 2 ?H^V2 A/8^ 13> T ^ T 16<
11. Jjfira 8 ' ~8" 14. 259jw. 16. JTTW.
Page 232 ( 79)
1. 2a 2 . T 2 5 a a V2 7, HTT. ^
2 7m_ 2 'JJ," 3 8. J. 10. 4(7T2).
4n' 4. ~~. 6. 7ra 2 9. 407T. *
2
Page 234 ( 80)
1. ^L. ; ft is radius of semicircle. 2. ; a is xadius of semicircle.
2 2u 3
IT 7T0
Page 235 ( 80)
6. 7ra 8 . 7. 100 revolutions per minute. 8. 5.64 Ib. per square inch,
Page 236 ( 81)
8), 4. Ca. 7.
I 5. STr'a.
310 ANSWERS
Page 238 ( 82)
l m vka 5 686 1 ft.lb
'a '12 6. 2kca 2 , k is the con
2, 22f ft.lb 4. 196,350 ft.lb stant ratio
7.  mi.lb ; B is radius of earth in miles 8. 2 irC
R + a
Page 239 ( 82)
9. 1.76ft.lb., 1 56ft.lb.
Page 239 (General Exercises)
1 Ssmi 3. 16 12 In 3 6. 1^ , 15 T \
~
,
5_
_. 9V3
247T +  .
5 15
10 ^TTCE 2 _
11. ^ Trfc 2 Vi^jj , fe t and k z are the values for k in the equation j/ 2 =
12. .. 13.
15
Page 240 (General Exercises)
14. dfrrf. 15.4FGn4l) 16 17.
19.
5
.,
15 15 ' 23. _ 4
Page 241 (General Exercises)
24. 400irlb. 28. 123 T 31. 21 J.
.
26. 441b. n 8
34. (8ir+9V3) 35. '
J.D '
Page 242 (General Exercises)
861 4 37. ^(8+7T), (57T8), (87T)
88 ' T* ^ * 41.950 42. (In 91).
ANSWERS 311
48, 
45. ""
2 8a3
Page 243 (General Exercises)
q T.
49. ~. 50. 50,000 ft.lb. 51, 438,1 ft.lb.
a a*
CHAPTER XI
Page 245 ( 83)
1.80 In 8. 2. In 3. 8. 2Jf. 4. IT 1
Page 246 ( 83)
6. 14. ' T" ' 4 "~ ' ' ~6~"
10, ~ (22  TT). 11, Va (IT V2  4). 12. .
y 30
Page 254 ( 85)
(2 cz (i (f^ 4 4 c" 1^\ 4 a 'N/S
~~r> . /0 . ) 6. On axis of qxxadrant, from
e+l 4e(e 8 l) / ? . . ' Sv
' . v 7 center of circle.
4. lira, ~ r \ 7. Intersection ot medians.
8. /, \.
5, On axis, ~ from vertex. \ 2 8 /
10. On axis, distant 4 a * + 3 f + 0fca fr0 m L!!'
16. On axis, distant (radius) from base. ir. On axis, distant  from base.
a
16. On axis, distant  from base. 18. Middle point of axis.
Page 256 ( 86)
3, On line of centers, distant (ri *"*,? from center of circle of radius r,.
r x 2 + r
4, On axis of shell, distant ^ a ~~ *' from common base of spherical surfaces.
5, Middle point of axis. 8 ( r *" ^ )
Page 257 ( 86)
6, On axis, a 1  distant from base,
7, On axis, $ of distance from vertex to base.
8, (4$, 4), the outer edges of the square being; taken as OJTand OF.
312 ANSWERS
9. On axis, distant 4 8 from corner of square
10. On axis, distant 3.98 m from center of cylinder in direction of larger ball.
11. On axis, distant 8.4 ft. from base of pedestal.
Page 260 ( 87)
3. base x altitude
4. ^ , a = altitude and 26 = base of segment.
15
5 7rg ; a = altitude and 26 = base of segment.
5
6. 27ra 2 6, 8ira6.
7. ^(b + Sc), 7r[2ca + 26c + 6 2 + (6 + 2c) Va 2 + 6 2 ]
ii 4u>a6 /Kr4q\
3
a = altitude and 26 = base of segment 12. cw (area) .
11. (0 C t O CM ,
15
Page 265 ( 88)
1. j\Ma*.
2. %Ma z .
3. Ma 2 4iJfaMJft
Page 266 ( 88)
^.A 2 (6+3a)
6(6 + a)
9.
10.
JJf(a 2 +6 2 ). 14. ^Jlf(r 2 2 +r 2 ).
145 f 15. Jfa 2 ,a=radms.
6. ^.Ma 2
11
8 1J' 16. 6757r.
7. 1 J 3 3f(a2 + 6 2 )
12.
13.
T~ 17 S 3f ^ ~ TI
iJfr 2 . ' 10""r ri 8
Page 268 ( 89)
1 McP, a = radius.
Page 269 ( 89)
3. 2284$.
4. 4569.
5. 44,990
Page 281 ( 92)
1. 2?r.
S .
4
6. 89,980
7 ^Jf(r 3 2 
8. llf^H
B 77ra 8
o.
6
9
10.
11.
4) 6 32a8
9
7 Sffffl4
326
8. Tra 8 9. (37T + 20 16V2). 10. u,
ANSWERS 313
Page 283 ( 93)
2t On axis of ring, distant 2ft. from / Q a *
center of shell. 6 f^i ^ V
3. On ax 1S , distant 7i ( r ' + 2 Vt + '.") / 6 + 8
4W + V. + T/) ?. (0,0, +
from upper base
, , 8/00 8 2 ( 2b2  2 ) \
4. On axis, from base. Ot ( u u . (
' 8 \ 8[b 8 (b 2 a a )&]/
Page 285 ( 94)
1. ^5 Jlf (a 2 + 6 2 ), where Jf is mass, and a and & are the lengths of the sides
perpendicular to the axis.
2. Atf M.
8, jf M(3 a 2 1 2 W) 5. ^ M(a + 4 /i) 2 a 2 (15 TT  26)
4. J Jfcf (a 8 + 6 2 ). 6. ^ M (8 a 2 + 47i). ' 25 (3 TT  4)
Page 286 ( 94)
14.9T
8. i^..
3
Page 286 ( General Exercises)
.
8. .. 9. }flf(a 2 + & 8 ). 10.
3
. f , oV a; =
\ 7 /
6 is the ordhiale. 852
10. On axis, distant _ from base of triangle and away from
.
semicircle.
11, On axis, distant 4a *+ 2ab ^ + & * from base.
Page 287 (General Exercises)
18, On axis of segment, distant ^ T.IL1'" ^ from center
of circle, 8 ( 7m8
314 ANSWERS
18. On axis, distant , , ~~ from center of semicircle.
8(86 Tra)
. ! J 7* f J f^\
14. On axis of plate, distant * v ' a 1J from center of circles.
gp V 2""" I/
15. On axis, distant 1 from center of circle
7T
16. On axis of square, 8 in. f lorn bottom.
17. On axis, distant  in. from center of hexagon
o
c 2 d
18. On axis, distant from center of ellipse
ab ~ C 96
19. On axis of solid, distant from smaller base
16
20. On axis, distant from base ^ of distance to top.
21. On axis of segment, distant l ~ * 2 ~" ll '" fmrn ofmtnr
4T^n^fh Ji ~\ f] 8 'ii **"* \jouuv3i
of sphere 21 2
22. T^lfa 2 23,
Page 288 (General Exercises)
24. *j2l. a*
25. JJL5 u 31> S7 ( 15 ^  32 )J 34.
16
26. *fM. a 1S radius.
27. &&M 35.
32. %JiM. 30
29 XPJli_4 4 86 '
30, uyi_4Tr] 33. ~. 37t
Page 289 (General Exercises)
38 3Q185V2;. 42. (^,0,
39. J/i&M 43.
40.
1 1 ly/OLO . y in, 44
48 ' 32 + 3465 ' 49 ' 3ira8 80.
51. ^ __
^13838
103
INDEX
(The numbeis refer to the pages)
Abscissa, 28
Acceleration, 9, 21, 186
Algebraic functions, 70
Amplitude, 128
Angle, between curve and radius
vector, 140
between curves, 104
between straight lines, 35
vectonal, 142
Angular velocity and acceleration, 185
Antisine, 180
Approximations, 53, 187
Arc, differential of, 106, 146
Archimedes, spual of, 145
Area, as double integral, 246
of ellipse, 225
of plane curve, 47, 225
in polar coordinates, 280
by stimulation, 60
of suiface of revolution, 259
Asymptote, of any curve, 80, 02
of hyperbola, 90
Average value See Mean value
Axis, of cooidmates, 28
of ellipse, 86
of hyperbola, 00
of parabola, 82
Cardioicl, 145
Cartesian equation, 100
Cartesian space coordinates, 260
Catenary, 157
Center of _ gravity, of any solid, 282
of circular arc, 258
' of composite area, 255
of half a parabolic segment, 25f
of plane area, 251,
Center of gravity, of plane curve,
250
of quarter circumference, 250
of right circular cone, 253
of sextant of circle, 252
of solid of revolution, 252
Circle, 79, 148
of cuivature, 140
Circular measure, 119
Cissoid, 98
Compoundinterest law, 166
Cone, circular, 272
elliptic, 275
Constant of integration, 45, 194
Coordinates, 27
cylindrical, 270
polar, 142
space, 269
Curvatuie, 189
Curves, 91
Cycloid, 137
Cylinder, 278
Cylindrical codrdinates, 270
Definite integral, 62, 194
Derivative, 15
higher, 40
partial, 181
second, 39
sign of, 20, 40
Differential, 50
of arc, 106, 146
of area, 64
total, 185
Differential coefficient, 51
Differentiation, 15
of algebraic functions, 94
815
316
INDEX
Differentiation, of exponential and
logarithmic functions, 163
of implicit functions, 102
of inverse trigonometric functions,
131
partial, 181
of polynomial, 18
of trigonometric functions, 124
Directrix of parabola, 81
Distance between two points, 79
Double integration, 244
e, the number, 155
Eccentricity, of ellipse, 87
of hyperbola, 90
Element of integration, 64
Ellipse, 85
area of, 225
Ellipsoid, 274
volume of, 280
Elliptic cone, 275
Elliptic paraboloid, 275
Equation of a curve, 29
Equations, empirical, 159
parametric, 109
roots of, 30
Equilateral hyperbola, 90, 92
Exponential functions, 154
Palling body, 6, 8
Focus, of ellipse, 85
of hyperbola, 87
of parabola, 81
Force, 128
Formulas of differentiation, 101, 124,
131, 163
of integration, 195, 199, 202, 205,
207, 217
Fractions, partial, 216
Functions, 15
algebraic, 79
exponential, 154
implicit 102
inverse trigonometric, 130
logarithmic, 154
trigonometric, 119
Graphs, 27
of exponential functions, 157
of inverse tiigonometnc functions,
130
of logarithmic functions, 157
in polar coordinates, 142
of trigonometric functions, 121
Hyperbola, 87
Implicit functions, 102
Increment, 16
Indefinite integral, 63, 194
Infinite integrand, 229
Infinite limits, 229
Integral, 45, 194
definite, 62, 194
double, 244
indefinite, 68, 194
Integrals, table oJ, 217
Integrand, 194
Integration, 45, 194
collected formulas, 217
constant of, 45, 194
by partial fractions, 216
by parts, 212
of a polynomial, 45
repeated, 244
by substitution, 208
Inverse sine, 130
Inverse trigonometric functions, 130
Lemniscate, 144
Length of curve, 235
Limit, 1
of
of (1 + h)\ 156
theorems on, 93
Limits of definite integral, 63
Line, straight, 81
Linear velocity, 135
Logarithm, 154
Napierian, 156
INDEX
317
Logarithm, natural, 156
Logarithmic spual, 168
Maclaurm's series, 173
Maxima and minima, 41
Mean value, 233
Measure, circular, 119
Moment o inertia, 200
of circle, 204
polar, 202
ol quadrant of ellipse, 262
of rectangle, 201
of solid, 283
of solid of revolution, 265
Moments of inertia about parallel axes,
260
Motion, in a curve, 107
simple harmonic, 127
Napierian logarithm, 166
Ordinate, 28
Origin, 27, 142
Pappus, theorems of, 259
Parabola, 81, 146
Parabolic segment, 83
Paraboloid, 275
Parallel lines, 38
Parameter, 109
Parametric representation, 109
Partial differentiation, 181
Partial fractions, 216
Parts, integration by, 212
Period, 128
Perpendicular linos, 84
Plane, 276
Polar coordinates, 142
Polar moment of inertia, 202
Pole, 142
Polynomial, derivative of, 18
integral of, 46
Power series, 172
Pressure, 68
theorem on, 267
Projectile, 110
Radian, 119
Eadms of curvature, 139
Eadius vector, 142
Bate of change, 11, 189
Revolution, solid of, 73
surface of, 259, 273
Hoots of an equation, 30
Rose of three leaves, 144
Second derivative, 89
sign of, 40
Segment, parabolic, 83
Senes, 172
Maclaurm's, 173
power, 172
Taylor's, 177
Sign of derivative, 20, 40
Simple harmonic motion, 127
Slope, of curve, 86
of straight line, 31
Solid of revolution, 73
Space coordinates, 269
Speed, average, 3
true, 6
Sphere, 271, 272
Spiral, logarithmic, 158
of Archimedes, 145
Straight line, 81
Substitution, integration by, 208
Summation, 66
Surfaces, 271
of revolution, 273
Table of integrals, 217
Tangent line, 88, 104
Taylor's series, 177
Total differential, 185
Trigonometric functions, 119
Trochoid, 138
Turningpoint, 37
Value, mean, 238
Vector, radius, 142
Vectonal angle, 142
Velocity, 21, 107
angular, 135
318
Velocities, related, 111
Vertex, of ellipse, 86
o hyperbola, 90
ot paiabola, 82
of parabolic segment, 84
INDEX
Volume, of any solid, 277
of solid with parallel bases, 71
of solid of revolution, 73
Work, 237