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Sr3 Z A-p-t Vck^-^ 






y^, witl voctbnlar;. 


DAVID KDTT, 370 Str&nd. DULAU li Co.. ST aaho Sqouw. 

SAHFBOir Low, KABSTON A Co.. Fstt« lue, I1««t BttMt. 


SlCnlouBqDue. IM Firth Jkieatie. NEWS OOUPANT, IB Park Place. 

B8 and 8G DuaiM Btnet. 


JULIUS oaoos. 





The GaBpey-OtU>-Sa««r Method has become my sole property by 
right of pimdiase. These books aie continually levised. All rights, 
especially those of adaptation and translation into any language are 
reserved. Imitations and copies are forbidden by law. Suitable 
communications always thankffaUy deceived. 

Heidelberg. Julitts Qrooa. 


Wh hr«v bnen iiidnced to issue the present elemen- 

iiy work in c(uiipliaiice with the repeated request of 

umy tHaclHis who have found the larger French gram- 

^iiar too clitficult for younger pupils. We deemed it ad- 

v!sjb'e to iiiake the Accidence fairly complete; only so 

urh of tlip Syntax has been introduced as was absolu- 

!y necessary for the understanding of a simple sentence. 

Tht' exnrcis^s are of a most elementary character, and 

• Jive been specially constructed so as to illustrate the 

Virions inflections. Although the conjugations have been 

^iven in full we thought it best to postpone the appli- 

«ation of the Subjunctive mood until the pupil is so far 

advanced as to be able to use the larger work. 


J. Wright 




Letters of the Alphabet .... 

Orthographical Signs 

Acceuiis ....... 

PronuDciation of the Vowels 

Compound Vowels and Diphthongs 

Pronunciation of the Consonants 

Pronunciation of the nasal sounds 

Pronunciation of the liqnid sounds 

Promiscnous Examples .... 

Of the «liaison» (linking) .... 

Orthography of words which are very similar in 













Definite Article 



Indefinite Article 



Indefinite Article (Continued) . 



Plural of Nouns 



t)eclension of Nouns .... 



Declension of Nouns (Continued) 



Partitive use of the Article 



Declension of the partitive Article 



Proper Nouns 



Auxiliary Verbs 



Conjugation of the Auxiliary . . . . 



The negative and interrogative forms of the 




Determinative Adjectives . . . . 



Possessive Adjectives 



Numerals. Cardinal numbers . . . . 



Ordinal Numbers 



Indefinite numeral Adjectives . . . . 






Adjectives (Continued) 



The place of Adjectives 






Lesson 21. 

Degrees ot Comparison 

• • • t 




Recapitulatory exercises . 

• • • « 




Exercise 45—46 

* • • 1 




Exercise 47—48 

• • • • 




Exercise 49—50 

• • • 4 




Regular Verbs . 

• • • i 




Remarks on the orthography 

of some verbs oi 

the first Conjugation . 

• • » 1 




Second Conjugation: jPtwir, to finish 




Third Conjugation: Vendre, to sell 




Pronouns .... 

• • • i 




Conjunctive personal Pronouns 




Demonstrative Pronouns . 

• • • • 




Interrogative Pronouns 

« • • • 




Possessive Pronouns. Relative Pronouns 




Indefinite Pronouns . 

• • t 1 




Exercise 69—71 

• • t 1 




Exercise 72—73 

• • • 




Passive Verbs . 

• • t 1 




Reflective Verbs 

• ■ • 




Impersonal Verbs 

• • • 




The irregular Verbs 

• • • 




Irregular Verbs. 1st Class. 





Irregular Verbs. Ist Class. 


, 101 



Irregular Verbs. 1st Class. 


. 103 



Irregular Verbs. 2nd Class. 


. 105 



Irregular Verbs. 3rd Class. 





Irregular Verbs. 3rd Class. 


. 109 



Irregular Verbs. 3rd Class. 


. 112 



Of the defective Verbs 

» • 9 * 




Promiscous Exercises 

• • • 



I. Nouns 120 

II. Adverbs 128 

III. Prepositions 133 

IV. Conjunctions 139 

PART m. 

Lists of useful words and phrases to be committed to memory 
Phrases for French Conversation 




§ 1. Letters of the Alphabet. 

The French Alphabet consists of 26 letters, which 
are represented as follows: 



A, a, 





B, b, 





C, c, 





D, d, 





E, e, 





F, f. 





G, g, 





H, h, 





I, i, 





J, ji 



, w, 


(K, k), 





L, 1, 




ee greek. 

M, m, 





Bey, cey etc. . . . are simple sounds, not diphthongs, 
the y only indicates that the preceding e is. long. Of the 
above letters, a, e, 1, O, u and y are vowels, the rest 
are consonants. Besides these, there are in French com- 
pound vowels, diphthongs and compound consonants. 

k and w only occur in words of foreign origin. 

§ 2. Orthographical Signs. 

1) The apostrophe, (') which denotes the elision of a 
vowel (a, e, or i) before a word beginning with a vowel 
or h mute as: Vor for: le or (gold); s^U for: si U. 

2) The diaeresis, (*•) which is placed over the vowels 
e, i and u to show that these vowels are to be pro- 
nounced distinct from the other vowels with which they 
are connected, as: hatr (to hate), Noel (christmas). 

otto-Wright, Elementary French Orammar. 1 

3) The cedilla, (J which is placed under the letter c 
before a^ O5 u to indicate that it has the same sound 
as 8 in English sit: nous plagons (we place), regu^ 

4) The hyphen (-), which joins two words as it 
were in one: as-tu? (hast thou?), ditril? (does he say?). 

§ 3. Accents. 

There are in French three accents. 

1) The acute accent, (') which is only placed over e, 
and indicates that the e has a close sound: as donne 
(given), verite (truth). 

2) The grave accent, (') when placed over e, indi- 
cates that the 6 has an open sound, as: pfere (father); 
mfere (mother) ; it is placed over a, n^ and sometimes e 
to distinguish words which are spelt alike: as ou (or), 
ou (where); la (the), la (there), des (of the, some), des 
(from, since). 

3) The circumflex accent, (*) which may be placed 
over any vowel to indicate that it has to be pronounced 
long: as pcUe (dough), bete (beast), gite (lodging), cote 
(coast), flute (flute). 

Tonic Accent. 

The tonic accent in French stands on the last syllable, 
as: nous aimons (we love), le cheval (the horse), except 
when the word ends in -6 mute; in this case the tonic 
accent is thrown back on the penultimate, as: table, 
aimable etc. 

§ 4. Pronunciation of the Towels. 

1) Simple Towelfl. 

A, a^ long or short a has the same sound as Eng- 
lish a in father: as dme (soul), 2a, the. 

E, e, represents various soonds. 

1) In unaccented monosyllabic words it has almost the 
same sound as e in German @illK^ or the sound of i in 
English hird^ but shorter: as U (the), me (me), etc. 

At the end of words of more than one syllable it is 
always mute: as table, rare^ etc. 

2) Marked with the acute accent it has a closed sound : 
as: danne (given), verite (truth). 

3) Marked with the grave accent or circumflex it has 
a more or less open sound, as: pere (father), tete (head). 

In the middle of words the unaccented e has the 
first of the three sounds when it closes a syllable, as: 
regard = re-gard: it has the second sound when fol- 
lowed by d, r, or z silent: as pied = pie, donner = 
donne, assez = asse. 

It has the third sound, when followed by r sounded 
or another consonant: fer = fere, vert = vere. 

Take care never to pronounce French e like a in 
English late. 

4) e has the sound of French a in femme^ sdlennel^ 
Tiennir and in adverbs ending in -emment: as pruidemment 

I5 i^ short i has the same sound as i in English give^ 
as: il (he), ceci, this. Long i has nearly the same sound 
as: English ee in feet^ as: gtte (lodging). 

0, 0, when long has the sound of in the English 
word note (but without the final short u of the English 
pronunciation): as rose^ cote (coast). When short it 
sounds nearly like in the English word: loss', as: mot 
(word), trop (too much). 

TJ, u, French u has no equivalent in English. It is formed 
by the u-rounding of the mouth combined with the i- 
position of the tongue: tu (thou), lune (moon). It is 
mute before q as: quatre (four), and between g and e 
or 1, as in guerre (war), guide; except in words ending 
in gue^ as: aigue (acute) (fern.). 

Yf y, occurs mostly in words of foreign origin^ and 
is pronounced like 1; as: syllahe; physique. 

§ 5. Compound Towels and Diphthongs. 

Ai, Ei, ai and ei represent the same sound ; namely 
fe when medial, and 6 when final; as: pair (egual) = pere, 
faire (to make), gai, gay; peine, trouble. 

An, Eau^ an^ eau are monophthongs, and have the 
same sound as French long : hauite, high (fern.); mcMXy 
evils; hateau, boat. 

Ay, ay, is pronounced like French al and i; as: pays 
(country) = pavis. 

When followed by another vowel, the second 1 has 
the sound of English y consonant; as: essay er (to try) 
= essairye. 

Eu, oeUf eu, and oeu have nearly the same sound 
as u in the English word hurt; {pen, little, cosuTy heart). 

Oi, Oe. The second element of these two diphthongs 
has the sound of a very short a; as: fai, faith, or some- 
what longer, as in poiley stove. 

On. Short on is like OO in English foot: vom, you; 
"toiix, cough. 

Long OU like 00 in English fool: cour^ court; 
croutey crust. 

Oy, TJy. There the y has the force of ii or rather of an. 
English y consonant joined to a French i. This i to- 
gether with the preceding or u forms the sound of the 
diphthong oi, or ui, and the second i takes the sound 
of the English y (in you): as foyer = foa-irye; appuyer 
to support. 

The other French compound vowels are ia^ le, leu, 
io, oui, ua, ue, ni. But as they present no difficulties, 
we shall not discuss them here. 

§ 6. Pronunciation of the Consonants. 

General rules. 

1) Consonants are generally sounded in the middle of 
words, except when the same consonant is doubled, in 
which case only one is sounded. 

2) Final consonants are generally silent, when not 
followed by a vowel. 

B, b, has the same sound as in English: has, low; 
bon^ good. It is mute when final: plomh^ lead. 

C, c, has the sound of Englich k, before a, ai, au, 
0, oe, on, u and consonants: car, because; caitse; clair, 
clear; it has the same sound at the end of a word: avec, 
with; due, duke; it is, however, often not pronounced 
at all at the end of a word, as: tdbac, tobacco; blanc, 
white. It has the sound of S in English sit^ before 6, i, 
j: as ee, this, iei, here; and when it has the cedilla, as: 
regu, received; legon, lesson, cc before fe and i has the 
sound of ks, as: smees, success; in other cases CC has 

the sonnd of k. ch has nsnally the sonnd of sh: chez^ 
at the honse of; chose, thing. 

D^ d^ has the same sonnd as in English; dur, hard; 
admis, admitted ; at the end of words it is silent, except 
in proper names, and when the next word begins with 
a vowel or h mute; in the latter case it has the sound 
of t: as grand homme = gran-tomme. 

F^ ff has the same sound as in English, as: faire, to 
make, frapper, to strike. Final f is mute in clef, key ; 
chef'd^oeuvre, master- piece; and also in the plurals: cerfsy 
ceufs, bceufs, nerfs, and in neuf (nine) before consonants. 

G^ g^ before a^ ai^ o, on, u and before all conso- 
nants is hard as in the English word garden, as: gare, 
gai, goutte^ gros, glace, guide^ guerre. — Before 6, i^ y, 
it has the soft sound of a sh or rather of S in «pleasure», 
the same as the French j. Ex.: gerbe^ gemir, gUet^ gele, 
George, gymnase, — It is generally silent when final, 
as: faubourg, sang, rang, bourg, long, hareng etc.; further 
in doigt, finger; vingf, twenty; legs, last will, and in 
signet. It is sounded in joug, yoke. See § 7. 

H; h is sometimes silent, as: homme, habit^ helas, 
herbe^ histoire, honnete^ horreur, humanite, and sometimes 
aspirate, as in la hache, le heros, le hibou, hideux, la 
haie, la halle, la hate, la honte, le hameau, le hasard, 
haiir, haut, hardi, hors, homard, heurter, hurler, hotte, 
haricot, harpe, Henri, hanneton, harangtie, hareng, houblon, 
houille, huit. 

3y j is sounded like a soft sh or as the letter 8 in 
pleasure, but softer, as: jadis^ jeune^ jour, jaune, joli. 

L^ I9 quite as in Enghsh: la hi, leur, aller, baUe. 
It is mute in le fiis (pronounce fiss), the son, and le 
pouh, the pulse. It is further mute at the end of most 
words ending in il, as: le fusil, (the gun); le barU, outU, 
persiX, gentil, etc. (see also § 8). 

M^ m and N, n^ as in English : ma, mer, marais, ami, 
mot; mappe^ nette, nid, annee. 

mn are pronounced nn in : automne (automn) and in 
condamner, to condemn. In other words both letters are 
articulated, as: Agamem-non, cahmnie^ insomnie, etc. 

For m and n nasal see § 7. 


P^ p corresponds in sound with the same letter in 
English: pas^ perCy part, peUe, apporier, appris. — It is 
not heard at the end of words, as: tro^ (pron. tro), too 
much; heaucoup (pronounce boku), much. — It is further 
mute in se^ (= set), hw^temej comfte^ dompter^ prom^pt; 
temfs, and some others. 

Ph^ ph is sounded as f^ thus: philosophe, phrase, 

Qa, qu has commonly the sound of k: qui (= ki), 
que, qiuxtre, quoi. At the end of the two words: le coq 
(the cock), and cinq (five) it loses its u, but sounds 
nevertheless as k. 

qua has the sound of koua in a few words of three 
and more syllables, thus in equateur (equator), quadrun 
pede, oqtMUiqtie, etc. 

R, r as in English: rare, rot, rougcy faire, mer, fer^ 
hi^r^*) noire, finir, — It is silent at the end of words 
of two and more syllables ending in er and ier, as: 
donner (pronounced donne)^ berger, parler, pommieTj 
prunier, ouvrier. — r is also silent in monsieur. 

Exceptions to this rule are the following words in which 
the final r is sounded: amer, bitter; Vhiver, winter; la cuUlery 
the spoon; Venfer, hell, and a few others less in use. 

rr is sounded as one r, when followed by an e mute, 
as: ^erre, 6arre, tonnerre^ bourre. 

8y S has two sounds, a hissing or hard = S^ and a 
soft one = z. It has the hissing sound, as in English, 
at the banning of words and before or after a conson- 
ant, as: sel, sur, soir, sable, sort, statue, esprit, danser, 
lorsque, assejs. — But it has the soft sound of z between 
two vowels**): rose, raser, raison, aise, misere. 

Sc before e, I and y is sounded as double 88: 
scene, Scipion, science. — But 8C before other vowels 
and 1^ r has the sound of sk^ as: scabreux, scorpion, 
esclave, scrupule. 

Final 8 is silent, as: repas, alors, mes, tes, cas. Us; 
livres, tapis, etc. 

*) hier, yesterday, is considered monosyllabic. 
**) Except in compound words, in which it has the hard 
sound, as: entre-sol, parasol. 

But it is sounded in le fils (pronounced fiss), the son; 
Yours, the bear; la vis, the screw; les mmurs, the manners; 
gratis, gratis; le lis, the lily, and in most foreign names, as: 
Mars, Pallas, V^us, Minos, Begulus, etc. 

Ty t has generally the sound of the English t^ as: 
ta, tasscj table, tres, tantot^ atteler. 

ti however is sounded like si: 1) in the final syl- 
lables: "tial, 'tiel, -tieux, -tie and -tion (not -stion\ as: 
partial (pronounce parsial), minutieux, inertie, Beotie, 
prophetie, nation, perfection; 2) in the words: initier, 
balbutier, poitient, patience^ satiate, insatiable, and some 
others, 3) final -tien is sounded sien, in names of nations 
and proper names, as: ilgyptien, Diocletien. 

t is not heard at the end of words, as: et, and; 
Vhabit^ plat, bout, tout*) 

Exceptions to this rule are: le fat, le but, sept, net, huit, 
la dot, direct, exact, brut, chut, strict, correct, suspect, in which 
the t is sounded. 

th is sounded as a single t: paihos, Thibet, theatre, 

V, V as in English: vase, vertu, verite, vrai, voute, 
vu, savant, avec, active. 

X^ X is sounded like gs at the beginning and in the 
middle of words, as : Xavier, axe, extreme, vexer, maxime, 
excuse. — It sounds like z in deuxieme, diodeme; as SS 
in dix, six, soixante, Bruxelles, Cadix, Xerxes = Xerces. 

X is mute at the end of words: deux, doux, voix, 
maux, travaux. — However, when before a vowel, it is 
sounded like S and carried over to it, as: dix'~^ans, deux 
enfants, un doux^accent, etc. 

Zy z as in English: jsele, gaze, zone, gazelle, Cortez. 
It is silent in assez, nez and chez, and in the 2nd pers. 
plur. of verbs: vous^avez, donnez-moi, etc. 

§ 7. Pronunciation of the najsal sounds. 

A nasal sound arises when m or n, preceded by a 
vowel, closes a syllable, unless there be a second m or 

*) ent is not sounded in the termination of the 3rd pers. plur. 
of verbs: ih parlent = il pari, they speak. 


n after it. As these sounds do not exist in the English 
langaage, they cannot be represented for want of ap- 
propriate signs. They must therefore be heard from the 
master and carefally imitated. 
They are the following: 


rampe, champ, camp, ambre^ Adam, 
dans, banc, lance, manger, vanter. 



em I remplir, temps, embarras, empire. 

en j en, mentir, engager, facilement, enlever. 







faim, essaim, daim. 

bain, pain, sain, craindre, crainte. 

<^ sein, ceinture, peindre, atteindre, feindre. 

imposer, importe, imbu, impie. 

ptn^ cnn, mn, tnconnu, nncer. 
thym, nymphe, symphonic. 

Ian = ian: viande, pliant, criant, souriant. 

ien = ian: in all nouns and adjectives, where ien is 

followed by any other consonant than n, as : 
science, patient, patience, expedient. 

len = iain: when n closes the syllable, as: bien, chiefly 

rien, ancien, and in the irregular tenses of 
the two verbs tenir and venir, as: tiens, 

ombre, plomb, compte, compris. 
bon, non, ronde, chanson, bonbons. 

action, passion, fluxion, talion, question, 
^^ parfum, humble. 
= eun brun, chacun, tribun, defunt, Vun. 
a jeun. 

oin between oam and oan: foin, coin, pointu, joindrcy 

lointain, moins, moindre. 

Bern arks. 1) The syllables am, an^ and im^ in^ do 
not take the nasal sound, when m or n are doubled, as: 
constammenty annee, imminent, inne^ immoler, innocent. Further 
in the proper names: S^Um, Ibrahim; but in Joachim and 
Benjamin im and in are nasal. 

2) This is also the case with the word ennemi; in all 
the other words enn takes the nasal sound: solennel (is pro- 
nounced: solannel), ennoblir, hennir, etc. 

3) In the words examen, mementOy agenda and Mentor, 
en has the sound of ain. 

§ 8. Pronunciation of the liquid sounds. 

There are two kinds of liquid sounds in French: 
1) i with 1 or lie, in which case it is called in French : 
"? mouilU^*, and 2) gn. 

1) 1 preceded by i, when final or double, is ordi- 
narily liquid as in the English word brilliant, only 
somewhat softer. As this sound is attended with some 
difficulty, it must be heard from a teacher. The liquid 
sound changes according to the preceding vowel, Ex.: 

ail, aill-: travail j hataille, caillou/') 
eil, eiVr: soleil, reveil, merveilleux. 
mil, euill-: deuil, vmtlle^, feuillage. 
ceil, ceill-: ceil, oeillet. 
mil, ouill'i fenouil, bouillon, brouillard. 

Exceptions. II and ill are not liquid, but fully pro- 
nounced in the following words: il, be; le fU, the thread; 
Veocilf the exile; vil, mean; tranquille, quiet; mil and mille, 
a thousand, etc.; further in all words beginning with ill-, 
mill' and vill-, as: illigal, illegal; un million, a million, la 
ville, the town; le village, the village, etc. 

2) gn has a liquid sound resembling the last syllable 
of the English word onion. Ex. : signal is pronounced, 
asif it were spelt sinwia?; thus: rogne, compagnon, joignee, 
poignard, saignee, mignonne; regne, peigne, ligne, digne, 
Cologne, oignon. 

§ 9. Promiscuous Examples. 

1) La mere, le pere, le frere, la soeur, les chats, les 
chiens, les vaches. — Apr^s, avare, porter, fer, boulanger, 
bannir, dirai, diront, epais, espoir, ete, livre. — Moi, 
beau, quand, personne, besoin, faux, peine, coeur, Dieu, 
bout, tout. — Notre, monde, mer, vallee, ancien, cheveu, 

2) Cote, cote, coton, rond, mentir, un, une, brun, 
brune, jatte, chatte, rouge, mouche, chose, rose, rosser, 
dix, dixaine, peril, sommeil, grille, compagnie, mouille, 
gagne, betail, linge, aigle, longueur, douze, nation, essen- 
tiel, ambitieux, profession, jardinage, malheureux, I'hiron- 
delle, choisir, grand, bain, pile. 

*) NB. The pupil is requested to observe that the i always 
stands before the liquid 1. 


3) Scorpion, calomnie, bapteme, cuiller, temps, cin- 
quieme, qui, que, quoi, pate, repete, bonnet, cap, verre, 
fier, abime, finirai, bateau, mantelet, paysan, oeuvre, ouvrage, 
montagne. Done, Chretien, hurler, apprentissage, poison, 
poisson, potion, population, le9on, gateaux, printemps, 
re9ois, jambon, agneau, Paris, Londres, Vienne, Venitien. 

§ 10. Of the ,,liaison'^ (linking). 

Euphony being one of the principal conditions of 
French pronunciation, words ending with a consonant 
are, in reading, generally carried over to the initial letter 
of the next word, when this begins with a vowel or li 
mute. Some words however, especially et (and), which is 
pronunced 6, should never be carried over. 

Beading Ezeroise. 

Les^hommes, les^enfants, des'^arbres, nos'^amis, vos^ 
habits, nous^avons, ils'^ont, pas^encore, avec'^un'^enfant, 
ses plus cruels'^ennemis ; songez^a vos^affaires. Vous^en 
souvenez-vous^encore? Elles^apprenaient^a lire. Pen de 
tem^s^apres. Vous^etes'^un^enfant. Les Hollandais sont^ 
industrieux. Cet^habit esf^a moi. Nous'^aurons" eu. Mon 
malheureux^ami. Un grand^homme. Ne vous^en^etes- 
vous pas'"aper9u? A laquelle de vos'^amies envoyez-vous 
cette rose? Cef^homme avait^ete autrefois^a Paris. 

§ 11. Orthography of words which are yery similar 

in both languages. 

1) Most words ending in -al, -ble, -ace, -ance, -ence, 
-ice, -acle, -age, -ege, -ge, -ile, -ine, -ion, -ant, -ent, 

are spelled alike in both languages, only, when French, 
the e at the beginning or in the middle of a word often 
takes an accent. Ex.: 

-ace: face, force, surface; ince: province. 

•acle: oracle, miracle, spectacle, obstacle. 

-age: page, rage, image, cage, bandage. 

-al: animal, moral, principal, cardinal. 

-ance: lance, complaisance, chance, ignorance. 

-ant: ^{^phant, constant, arrogant, ignorant, elegant. 

'ble: fable, bible, terrible, noble, double. 

-ege: collie, privilege, siege, sacrilege. 

-ence: diligence, patience, presence, prudence. 


-ent: compliment, frequent, content, dement, violent. 

-ge: charge, orange, d^nge, refuge. 

-ice: avarice, edifice, justice, precipice. 

Ale: docile, fragile, debile. 

4ne: mine, machine, marine, famine, heroine. 

-ion: nation, action, religion, legion, opinion. 

-ude: prelude, habitude, servitude. 

2) Many other words require only the change of 
termination, in the following manner: 

-ary into airCi as: military militaire. 

-ory s aire, as: glory gloire; history histoire. 

-cy » ce, as: constancy Constance. 

-ty » ^, as: liberty liberie; beauty beaute. 

-ons s evi^x, as: vigo(u)rous, vigoureux. 

-aur a eur, as: favour faveur; honour honneur. 

-Ive ' if, as: active actif; passive passif. 

-ry e rie, as: fury furie, 

•or s ewr, as: doctor docteur. 

3) Many English verbs ending in -ise, -use, -ute, 
become French by adding an r to the final, as: 

-ise: to baptise, to realise, — bapUser^ recdiser. 
-use: to excuse, to abuse, — excuser, abuser. 
-wfe;*) to dispute, to refute, — disputer, refuter. 

4) Most English verbs ending in -ate, -Ish and -fy 
become French by changing the final, as follows: 

-afeinto er: to abrogate, moderate, — abroger, moderer. 
4sh = in to abolish, accomplish, — abolir, accompUr. 
-fy « fier: to rectify, justify, — rectifier, jusHfier. 

*) The verbs ending in -bute and -ttUe are excepted from this 
rule and become French by changing -bute into -btter and -tiUe 
into 'ttier, as: to contribute, contribuer; substitute, aubstittier. 


^^.^•y-f lo 

PART n. 

Definite Article. 

In the French language there are only two genderSy 
viz. the mdsculine and feminine. This distinction applies 
also to inanimate objects, which are either masculine or 

1) To indicate this distinction of gender the definite 
article is prefixed to substantives, and has a peculiar 
form for each gender : le before a masculine, la before a 
feminine substantive ; les in the plural for both genders. 
Examples : 

Masc, Fern, 

le livre, the book. la rose, the rose. 

le pdre, the father. la mere, the mother. 

le roi, the king. la reine, the queen. 

2) The articles le and la in the singular lose their 
vowels and take the apostrophy (V)^ before a noun be- 
ginning either with a vowel or h mute, so as to form 
but one word. Ex.: 

Masc, Fern. 

Vami, the friend. Vamie, the (female) friend. 

Vhomme, the man. Vhistoire, (the) history. 

et, and ; bon, good ; le pain, the bread ; le chien, the dog ; de, of. 

Sing, J*ai, I have. Plur. nous^avons, we have. 

tu as, thou hast. vous'^avez, you „ 

2^} a, he, she or it has. %erlnt) ^^^^ - 

Exercise. 1. MArVfiT 

f Le roi a le bon chien. Nous avons le pain. La reine 

£ a le livre. Le p^re et la m^re ont le bon pain. L*ami de 
J la reine a la rose. EUe a le bon livre. Tu as Thistoire de 
y Thomme. 

r^.^iM Exercise. 2. M.)^.foy 4i 

i" I have the good book. The king and (the) queen have 
^ the rose. She has the rose of the queen. T 

Indefinite Article, o/u/: Z./^.^'Oy lo 

book of the man. Whe have the bread. The friend of the ' 
queen has the rose. 2. 


InAefin^ Article. 

The indefinite article a, an is expressed in French 
by nn for the masc. and nne for the fern, as: un roif 
a king; un ami^ a friend; une mere, a mother. 

Le chien, the dog. la fleur, the flower. 

le jardin, the garden. la tante, the aunt. 

Voncle, the uncle. la pomme, the apple. 

le cheval, the horse. vu, seen; donni, given; d, to. 

le frere, the brother. la scsur, the sister. 

Exercise. 8. 

J'ai un ami. Nous avons vu le roi et la reine. II a le 3 
bon ehien de la tante. Tu as donn^ la fleur h la sceur de 9 
la reine. J*ai nn bon cheval. Us ont donn^ une fleur k la /" 
m^re. Yous avez un bon p^re. lis ont une fleur. Bile a 6 
une pomme. L'oncle a le chien. La tante a vu le jardin. 7 
Le fr^re a un bon cheval. f 

^/3>'^W Exercise. 4. 

We have a good dog. I have seen the king. She has 7 
given the flower to the aunt. The king has a good horse. /« 
The man has given a rose to the queen. You have a good // 
father. The sister has given an apple to the man. They /z 
have seen the queen. The uncle has given a flower to the/j 
queen. I have the horse. The uncle has a good friend, /fc 
The father has the garden. /i^ 


Sing. Ai-je? have I? Flur. avons-notis? have we? 
as-tu? hast thou? avee-vous? have you? 

a-iril? has he? ont-Us? have they? 

a-t-eUe? has she? ow^-eWcjFhave they (f.)? 

et, and; aiissi, also; dans, in. 

Masc' Fern, 

man, my. ma, my. 

ton, thy. ta, thy. 

Sony his. sa, her. 

Exercise. 5. 

Avez-vons vu le roi et la reine? As-tu une fleur? Ont- /^ 
ib un bon p5re? Ai-je la rose? IL a donn^ une pomme ^ /y 


14 Lesson 6. 

/sa soeur. Mon p^re a un chien. Avez-vons anssi un chien? 

Z J'ai vu ma m^re dans le jardin. Ton &dre a an chevaL 

J A-t-il aussi an chien ? Mon oncle a donn^ ane rose h ma 

jrm^re. As-ta va ma tante? Mon frdre a va le cheval de 

S^ la reine. J'ai le chien de mon oncle. 

Exercise. 6. 

6 Have yoa seen my annt? My father has a good dog. 

7 Have they seen the king ? The queen has given a flower to 
fi- my mother. His brother has seen my uncle in the garden. 
9 Has he ^^bo seen my aunt? Have you seen my rose? I have 
^o a good bimher. Have they given my dog to the qaeen? We 
// have a good father. My sister has the rose. Yoa have given 
/t my flower to the queen. Has he a good horse ? My ancle 
ri has a good dog. We have seen the man in the garden. 
/ft Rer mother has a flower. 


Plurai of Nouns. 

General rule. The plural is formed in French as 
in English, by the addition of a silent S to the singular. 


Le p^re, Plur, les p^res. 
Vami, , les amis, 

la tante, „ les tantes. 

Exceptions to this rule. 

1) Nouns ending in 8^ x or z in the singular, ad- 
mit of no variation in the plural, as: 

le fUs, the son. Plur. les fits, the sons. 

la noix, the walnut. les noix, the walnuts. 

le nez, the nose. les neis, the noses. 

2) Words ending in an, eau, eie, ieu, c&u form their 
plurals by adding X instead of ^, as: 

le chapeau, the hat or bonnet. Plur. les chapeaux. 
le feu, the Are. les feux, 

le lieu, the place. les lieux. 

le vosu, te wish. les voeux. 

3. The following seven nouns in ou also follow this 
rule, taking x in the plural: 

le chou, (the) cabbage. le pou, the loose. 

le hijou, the jewel. le genou, the knee. 

le caillou, the pebble. le joujou, the plaything. 

le hibou, the owl. 

Plural; les cJioux, les hijoux, Us caiUoux, etc. 

Plural of Nouns. Om^-Va.^ 15 

The others ending in <m follow the general rule and 
take s in the plural, as: le clou, the nail, plur. les clous; Ic 
trou, the hole, plur. les trous, etc. 

4) Nouns ending in al and aiJ,, change these termina- 
tions into aux^ to form the plural, as: 

le cheval, the horse. Plur. les chevaux, the horses. 

Vanimaly the animal, beast. les'^animfiux, the beasts. 

le travail, the work. les travaux, the works. 

NB. This rule however has a few exceptions, which follow 
the general rule, simply taking s in the plural, as: le bal, 
the ball; le carnival, the carnival; le portail, the front-gate 
of a church ; le gouvernail, the helm ; VeventaU, the fan ; le 
detail, the particulars ; etc. Plur. : les bals, les carnqpals, etc, 

5) The following words form their plurals in an ir- 
regular manner: 

*Ze del, heaven. Plur. les cieux, heavens. 

^Iceil, the eye. les^yeux, the eyes. 

"^Vaieul, the great-grandfather. les^aleux, the ancestors. 

le hetaU, cattle. ^e^ bestiaux, the cattle. 

le canif, the penknife. le jeu, the play, game. 

la porte, the door, gate. le bras, the arm. 

la maison, the house. le palais, the castle. 

le chateau, the castle. deux, two ; trots, three ; quatre, 

le chat, the cat. four; cinq, five. 

Sing, favais, I had. Plur. nous'^avions, we had. 
tu avais, thou hadst. vous^aviez, you „ 

il avait, he had. ils \ • * xi. i, j 

elle avaU, she had. dies / "'"»^'' ^^"^ ^^- 

Exercise. 7. 

J'ai deux fr^res et quatre soeurs. Nous aviQUs vu le pa- I 
lais et le chd.teau. Hon p^re avait cinq amis. lis avaient t 
vu mon fils. Avions-nous les bijoux de la reine? lis avaient 3 
les chevaux. Le roi avait les joujoux. Mon oncle avait trois V 
chapeaux. Avaient-ils vu la maison de la reine? Vous aviez r 
deux chats. J'avais un bon canif. Tu avais deux noix. Ma C 
m6re avait vu le hibou. ^ , , « i 7 

Exercise. 8. 

I had four apples. His father has given a flower to my ^ 
sister. They had three friends. We had five horses and two f 

*) Those three words have also a regular plural with another 
signification; les dels signifies the skies in pictures and the 
testers of a bed; lea ceils de hoeuf mean ovals, and Us aUuls 
the great-grandfathers. See Appendix. 

16 Lesson 5. ^Ju^^y./^.f-US^ 

/ iiovses. Yoa had seen the castles. We have four hats. Have 
z yon seen the palace of the queen ? She had the roses. We 
3 have two arms. The sons of my aunt had three pebbles. 
yMy aunt hat two cats and five dogs. We had his penknife. 
5"Had they three sons? You have two uncles, and four aunts. 

Declension of Nouns. 

1) In French, strictly speaking, there is no declension 
of nouns as in Latin and German, because the cases do 
not admit of various terminations. The term declension, 
therefore, is to be taken in its wider sense, as simply 
implying the variation of the cases by prefixing certain 
prepositions together with the article to the noun. By 
these cases, the different relations which nouns bear to 
one another are expressed. There are four cases: 

the Nominative, le nominatif. 

the Genitive or Possessive, le genitif. 

the Dative, le datif. 

the Accusative or Objective case, Vaccusatif. 

2) The nominative and objective cases have exactly 
the same form, both in singular and plural, as: le pere^ 
un pere, la mere, une mere, les peres^ les m^res etc.j 
and can only be distinguished by their position in the 
sentence. In order to find the nominative, we must ask 
»who«; for the objective »whom« or ^what*. Ex.: 

La mere aime la fUle, the mother loves the daughter. 

Who loves the daughter? The answer is: the mother. 
La mere then is the nominative case or the subject. 
Whom or what does the mother love? Answer: the 
daughter. Consequently la fille is the accusative or 
the object. We see, in the natural construction, the 
nominative always precedes the verb, the accusative 
follows it. If we change that sentence, into: La fille 
aime la mere, then la fille is, according to its position, 
the nominative, and la mere the objective case, or accu- 

3) The genitive or possessive case replies to the 
question »whose«? »of whom« or »of which«? It 
i^ known by the preposition de (of) which appears either 
unchanged or contracted with the article. A contraction 

Declension of Nouns. 17 

takes place whenever de occurs before the article Is or 
les\ in the first case, it takes the fofm du (singular), in 
the second des (plural). Ex.: 

S. du roi (instead of de le roi), of the king or the king's. 
du phre (inst. of de le jp^e), of the father, the father's. 

Pi. des rois (inst. of de les rois), of the kings, the kings'. 
des meres (inst. of de les meres), of the mothers. 

4. Before la and V and before possessive adjectives 
as: mon^ ma, etc. de remains unaltered, as: 

de la m^re, of the mother or the mother's, 

de la chambre, of the room. 

de Vami, of the friend, the friend's. 

de Vhomme, of (the) man, the man's. 

de mon ami, of my friend. 

de ma mere, of my mother. 

5. Before the indefinite article 'Uti^ une^ anapostrophy 
is put instead of the e of de, as: 

d^un roi, of a king. 
d^xin^ami, of a friend. 

d^une reine, of a qneen. 
d^une amie, of a female friend. 

6. The dative case answers to the question. »to 
whom<? and is formed by putting the preposition h 
before the article, as: 

d un, roi, to a king. 
d une reine, to a queen. 

d Vhomme, to the man. 
d Vami, to the friend. 

7) Before 26, ^ is contracted with this article to au^ 
and in the plural d, and les into aux, as: 

au roi, to the king. 
au frhre, to the brother. 

auoG rois, to the kings. 
OMX frhres, to the brothers. 

Table of Deolension. 

1) With the definite Article. 
Fern, Mase, 

N 1 
A • } la mhre, the mother. 

G. de la m^re, of the mother. 
D. a la m^€j to the mother. 

^' S les mhres, the mothers. > les pires, the fathers. 

) le phre, the father. 

du pbre, of the fietther. 
au phre, to the £a.ther. 

G. des mhres, of the mothers. 
D. avM meres, to te mothers. 

des peres, of the fathers. 
aux ph'es, to the fathers. 

otto-Wright, Elementary French Grammar. 


Lesson 5. 

N \ 

/• > Vdme, the soul. 

G. de Vdme^ of the soul. 
D. d Vdme, to the soul. 


Vami, the Mend. 

de rami, of the friend. 
d Vam% to the Mend. 


* ' ; les dmes, the souls. 

G. des'^dmes, of the souls. 
D. auocTdmes, to the souls. 

^ les^amis, the friends. 


des^amiSy of the friends, 
aua^'^ami^y to the Mends. 

6) With the indefinite Article. 


une rose, a rose. 

d'une rose, of a rose. 
d une rose, to a rose. 


» • \ ttw jardin, a garden. ; 

G. d'wn jardin, of a garden. 
D. d ten jardin, to a garden. 


We think it proper to insert here the three following syn- 
tactical rules as indispensable for correct translation : 

1. The definite article must be used, in French, before 
all nouns used in a general sense, or denoting a whole species 
of objects, though in English the article is not employed, as: 

man, Vhomme, nature, la nature, 

life, la vie. summer, V6ti. 

fortune, la fortune, dinner, le diner. 

Hence the genitives: of man, of life, of fortune etc. are 
to be translated in French: de Vhomme, de la vie, de la far- 
tune etc.; the datives: to man, to life, to nature etc. = d 
Vhomme, d la vie, d la nature, 

2. In French, the article is to be repeated before each 
substantive of a sentence, as: 

the salt, pepper and vinegar = le sel, le poivre et le 

the men, women and children = les'^hommes, les femmes 
et les'^enfants, 

3. The possessor must, in French, follow the object possess- 
ed, and be preceded by the article; for example: the king's 
throne must be inverted as if it were: the throne of the 
king, and translated: le trdne du roi. Thus: 

the brother's coat = Vhdbit du frh'e, 

the princes' sisters = les soeurs des princes. 

the queen's apartments = les^appartements de la reme. 

the friend's name = le nam de Vami, 

Declension of Nouns. /♦^.^•^•^ 19 

Exercise. 9« 

La porte du palais. Aux rois. De roncle. De men ami. f 
Avez-vous les chiens du roi ? Tu as vu le jardin de son t 
p^re. II avait donn^ deux noix k rhomme. Le cheval de 5 
luon fr^re. La maison du roi a un jardin. J'ai donn^ la *f 
rose an fr^re de la reine. Jj^ami de son oncle a deux chevanx i^ 
et trois chiens. Avait-il un palais? Son fr^re avait trois ^ 
ch&teaux. Le p^re a donn6 deax fleurs aux bommes. 7 

Exercise. 10. 

You had given two roses to the king. He had seen my t 
brother in the garden of the ting. My father's friend ha^ j 
three castles. We have two houses and one garden. The /* 
king's son has a good dog. Have you seen my mother? I // 
had given my playthings to my uncle's fnend. The king's /^ 
brother had five palaces. My mother's aunt has a garden. 73 


Sing. Je suiSy I am. Plur. rums sommes, we are. 
tu es, thou art. vous etes, you are. 

il est, he is. Us \ , . , 

elle est, she is. eUes I ^^^^' ^^^^ ^^' 

V enfant, te child. grand, large, great, tall. 

Voiseau (masc), the bird. id, here ; heureux, happy. 

la fille, the daughter, girl. Veau (fem.), the water. 

la vUle, te town. la chambre, the room. 

le monde, the world. ou ? where ? non, no ; oui, yes. 

Exercise. 11. 

Oii est mon p6re ? Est-il dans la chambre ? Non, il est ff- 
dans le jardin de son ami. Le cheval est-il bon ? Mon fr^re 'i' 
a deux oiseaux. La fille de ma tante a une fleur. Oil /h 
avez-vous vu I'ami du roi? Nous avons vu la m6re des/^ 
enfants. Le cheval est un bon animal. lis sont dans la/> 
ville. Tu as I'eaii. J'ai donne mon chien h la fille de mon /f 
.ami. Ton chat est dans ma chambre. Ont-ils un ami? Oui, -lo 
ils ont quatre amis. L'ami de ton p^re a un grand cheval. U 

Exercise. 12. 

I am tall. My uncle's friend is in his garden. The ^^ 
queen's daughter had two roses. Where are my father and «-3 
mother? Have they a dog? Yes, they have three dogs. The z9 
king's daughter has a rose. We are in the garden. The 2^^ 
man's brother is tall. Where is my uncle's dog? I have 2^ 
two sons and three daughters. They . are here. We are zy 
happy. Are you happy? The world is large. 1.8 



Partitive use of the Article. 

1. This form is used to denote a part of a totcHity; 
but without specifying precisely how nmch or how many. 
It answers to the Elnglish some or a/ny before a nonn, and 
is expressed in French by du before a noan masculine 
banning with a consonant, by de la before a noon 
feminine beginning with a consonant, and by de V before 
a noun of either gender boning with a vowel or an 
h mute. Ex.: 

du pa^^ some (or any) bread. 
du tnny some (or any) wine. 
de Vargent, some money (silver). 

de la btdre, some beer. 
de la viande, some meat. 
de VhuUe, some oil. 

In the plural, the partitive article is des for both 
genders, as: 

des livres, (some) books. des fleurs, flowers. 

des enfants, children. des roses, roses. 

Note. Some is not always used in English, whereas du, de Ic^ 
de V, des, most always be added to the noun. 

2. In questions, the English use any instead of some; 
in French it must be rendered by the same article; as: 

Have you any bread? avee-votis du pain? 
Is there any water? y a-t-il de Veaul 

3. The partitive article must be used whenever in 
English some or any is expressed or understood before 
a substantive; it must be repeated before every substan- 
tive in a sentence, as: 

Have yon bread and cheese? 
Avez-vous du pain et du fromage? 

Bring me some mustard, oil and vinegar. 

Apportee-moi de la moutarde, de VhuUe et du vinaigre. 

4. However, when the substantive is preceded by an 
adjective, the simple preposition de or d' takes the place 
of the partitive article, in the singular as well as in the 
plural, as: 


I de hon vin, some or any good wine. 
N., A. de bonne viande, some or any good meat. 
& Q. ' de mauvais cafi, some or any bad co£fee. 

d^exceUente hitre, some or any excellent beer. 

Partitive use of the Article. 21 


N A f **^ 6ow5 livres, some or any good books, 
/ ' p ' I de belles fleurs, some or any beautiful flowers. 
' I d'excellents vaisseaux^ some or any excellent vessels, 

Exereise. 18. 

Avez-vous de bons livres? Nous avons de bonne viande. ( 
A-t-il du pain? J'ai des fleurs. Mon ami a de la bi^re. i- 
J'ai de Targent. Avez-vous des fleurs? Oti est mon p6re? 3 
A-t-elle de Tencre? Son p^re a de bon fromage? L'en&nt a ^ 
de bonnes noix. 5" 

Exercise. 14. 

We have some good cheese. Have you any books? Yes, ^ 
I have four books. My father's friend has some good bread. 7 
Had they any beer? Bring me some bread and cheese. They ^ 
have some beautiful roses in the garden. Has he any money? 1 
Yes, he has money and friends. The bread is good. They^^ 
had dogs and cats. She has some good wine and beer. <"/ 
Where is my dog? It is in the garden. /z.. 

LESSON vra. 

Declension of the partitive Article. 

The partitive article, too, is capable of declension, 
that is, it has a peculiar form for the genitive and dative. 

1. The genitive consists of the noun alone, to which 
the preposition de (d') is prefixed, as: de viande, of meat; 
d' argent^ of money; de livres, of books. 

2) The dative is formed by the addition of k before 
the nominative, but it is seldom used, a.s: a du pain^ to 
bread; a de V argent, to money; a des livres^ to books. Ex.: 

Tu penses toujours k du vin et k de la bih^e. 
You always think of wine and beer. 

Table of Declension. 

Masc. Singular. Fern. 

A ' / du pain, (some) bread. ^ de la viande, (some) meat. 

G. de pain, of bread. de viande, of meat. 

D. d du pain, to (some) bread, d de la viande, to (some) meat. 

Thus : du beurre, some butter. Thus: de la farine, some flour. 

du vin, some wine. de la bi^re, some beer. 



Masculine and feminine. 

* ' / de Vargemt, (some) money. 

G. d^argeni, of money. 
D. dde Targentf to money. 
Thus: de For, some gold 

) de Vencre, (some) ink. 

d^encre, of ink. 
d de Vencre, to ink. 
Thus: de Veau, some water. 

(The plural is the same for both genders.) 

A • > des livres, (some) books. 

G. de livreSf of books. 

D. adeslivres, to (some) books. 

Thus : deapays, (some) countries. 

\ des plumes, (some) pens. 

de plumes, of pens. 
iL des plumes, to (some) pens. 
Thus: despierres, (some) stones. 

3. As it appears from the foregoing table, the geni- 
tive case of the partitive article in all the genders and 
numbers is simply the word de. This form {de alone) 
is used without any distinction of gender or number: 

a) as in English, after nouns expressing measure, 
weight, number, as: 

une houteille de vin, a bottle of wine. 
un morceau de pain, a piece of bread. 
im€ livre de sucre, a pound of sugar. 
une paire de has, a pair of stockings. 

6) after the following adverbs of quantity: 

assez, enough. 

heaucoup, much, many, a great 

many, a great deal. 
combien, how much, how many. 
peu, little, few. 
plus, more. 

moins, less, rien, nothing. 
quelque cJwse, something. 
frop, too, too much, to many. 
trop peu, too little, too few. 
tant, so much, so many. 
autant, as much, as many. 


Assez de vin, wine enough {assez before the noun). 
Combien d^argent, how much money? 
Tant de fleurs, so many flowers. 
Trop de fautes, too many mistakes. 

c) After adverbs of negation, as: pas, point. Ex.: 

Je n'ai pas de sucre, I have no sugar. 
N'avez-vous point d'encre? have you no ink? 

d) The partitive genitive de or d' in French is also 
used in the place of adjectives denoting a material, as: 

une bague d'or, a gold ring. 

une cuiUer d^argent, a silver spoon. 

une bourse de soie, a silk purse. 

Proper Nouns. 23 

tm chapeau de velours, a velvet bonnet. 
une table de hois, a wooden table. 

Note. After numerals no article at all is used, as: 
DeuaT' enfants, two children. | IHx^icdUers, ten pupils. 

Exercise. 15. 

II a assez de pain. Apportez-moi nne bouteiUe de bi^re. / 
Hon fr^re a beaucoup de fleurs. Combien d*enfants avez- t 
vous? L'ami de rhomme avait de bon vin. J*ai une bague ^ 
d'argent. Ton oncle a peu d'amis. A-t-elle beaucoup d'argent? 9 
Combien de fleurs avez-vous dans le jardin? Son p5re avait r 
trop d'amis. Ma soeur a un chapeau de velours. La reine 6 
avait beaucoup de bijoux. Ton ami a une belle table de bois. II 7 
a une bourse de soie. Le roi avait une bague d'or. lis ont f 
cinq livres de sucre. L'enfant a deux paires de bas. Tu as 9 
un morceau de fromage. Les hommes avaient tant de cuillers /o 
d'argent. // 

Exercise. 16. 

We have some good bread. His father had many friends. /z- 
My friend has Ave pupils. The king has many good horses /3 
and dogs. How much money have you ? They had few friends, /f 
Has he any flowers? Yes, he has many flowers in his garden. /r 
I have two pounds of sugar. My sister has a beautiful silk /i 
purse. They had a bottle of wine. Tbe king's friends have // 
many palaces. Bring me four pens. I have some good ink./t- 
Have they money enough? His brother has a silver ring.^/ 
She has few books. The man had too many friends. HerM 
aunt has a silk bonnet. Had you any money ? We had V 
money enough. My brother has ten pairs of stockings. rZ 


Proper Nouns. 

A proper noun is the name of any particular person 
or place. A distinction must be made : 1) between names 
of persons and totons; 2) names of countries, provinces, 
mountaim, rivers, lakes. 

1) The former admit of no article; to form their 
genitive case, they take de^ and for the dative a. 

Table of declension. 


N \ 

A * / Charles, Charles. 

G. de Charles, of or from Charles. 
D. d Charles, to Charles. 

/ Marie, Mary. 

de Marie, of or from Mary. 
a Marie, to Mary. 


^•J Paris, Paris. 

G. de Paris, of or from Paris. 
D. d Pam, to, at or in Paris. 

Lesson 9. 


Londres, London. 

de Londres, of or from L. 
a Londres, to or at London. 

1) Christian names. 

Frediric, Frederick. 
GruUlaume, William. 
Henri, Henry. 
George, George. 
Bobert, Robert. 
Jean, John. 
JuUs, Julius. 

Vienne, Vienna. 
Geneve, Geneva. 
Lyon, Lyons. 
Borne, Eome. 
Naples, Naples. 

Frangois, Frank. 
£Use, Eliza, Lizzy. 
Helene, Helen, EUen. 
Sophie, Sophia. 
Caroline, Caroline. 
Louise, Louisa. 
Jeannette, Jane. 

Names of towns. 

Bruxelles, Brussels. 
Florence, Florence. 
Berlin, Berlin. 
Francfort, Frankfort. 
New- York, New- York. 


1) We must except from the above nile: a) the names 
of several Italian authors before which the article is used : 
le Tasse, Tasso (gen. du Tasse etc.); VArioste, Ariosto; le 
Bante, Dante; h) titles of books or plays, as: le Telemaque 
de FinSlon, VAthalie deBacine etc.; c) some names of towns, 
as: le Havre, Havre; le Caire, Cairo; la Mecque, Mekka. 

2) In English the genitive is often put first. This trans- 
position of words is not allowed in French, for ex.: *Henry's 
hat' must be translated as if it were : the hat of Henry 
= le chapeau de Henri; Byron's works = les oeuvres de 

2) Proper names of countries, provinces, rivers and 
mountains, have the definite article in French, as: 


la France, France. 
la Belgique, Belgium. 
VAngleterre, England. 
V£cosse, Scotland. 
la Bussie, Eussia. 
V Italic, Italy. 
la Suisse, Switzerland. 
VAllemagne, Germany. 
VEspagne, Spain. 

la Hollande, Holland. 
VAutriche, Austria. 
VEurope, Europe. 
YAsie, Asia. 
VAmMque, America. 

la Suhde, Sweden. 

These are declined as common names: 
Gen. de la France, of Prance. 
Dat. d la France, to France. 

la Seine, the Seine. 
la Thamise, the Thames. 
le Bhin, the Rhine. 
les^Alpcs, the Alps, etc. 


Proper Nouns. . ^ 25 


1) Nevertheless, the names of countries and provinces 
take no article, when they are preceded by the preposition 
enf which corresponds to both to and in. Ex.: 

Je vais'^enTItalie, I am going to Italy. 

II demeure enTAllemagne, he lives in Germany. 

2) To and at or in, before names of cities, towns 
and villages, are rendered by d. Ex.: 

Je vais'^d Londres, — d, Paris, — d Bade etc, 
I go to London, — to Paris, — to Baden etc. 

MonToncle demeure d Berlin, — d Lyon etc. 

My uncle lives in (at) Berlin, — in (at) Lyons etc. 

Le gant, the glove. la poche, the pocket. 

la poire, the pear. le maUre, the master. 

la plume, the pen. la table, the table. 

mangi, eaten. sur, on, upon. 

regu, received. demeure, lives. 

donnez, give. lu, read; HS, been. 

Monsieur, M^- , Sir. d qui est? to whom belongs? 

Madame, Madam, M'"* connait, knows. 

Mademoiselle, Miss. trouv^ found. 

Exercise. 17. 

J'ai deux paires de gants. Donnez la plume h Tenfant. ' 
Mon oncle demeure k Paris. Avez-vous lu les ceuvres de I 
Byron? J' avals la plume de Guillaume. U a vu Henri k 3 
Eome. lis ont vu les chevaux de Monsieur Smith. Oil esty 
Mademoiselle Louise? EUe est dans sa chambre. Son ami a ^" 
^t^ en Italic. Nous sommes k Yienne. Le maltre a donn6 C 
deux livres (books) k Jean. Madame Johnson connait la soear / 
de la reine. L'Allemagne est un grand pays. J*ai beaucoup t 
d'argent dans ma poche. Je vais en France. Monsieur Brown f 
a trouv6 mon livre sur la table. Donnez-moi deux poires. ^^ 
Nous avons vu le chateau du roi de Belgique. // 

Exercise. 18. 

Where is my uncle's book? To whom belongs this palace ?/i 
M^' Smith lives in Germany. Have they been to Brussels?/ 3 
He has read the works of Racine. I am going to Berlin./^ 
Miss Jones has many friends in Frankfort. They had been/i* 
in America. Her aunt was in France. We have eaten some/^ 
good apples. Has he seen M^* Williams ? George is my fidend. // 
We have seen Spain and Italy. Have you been to Geneva ?/f 
Frederick and Henry have eaten many apples and pears./ 9 
Where is my father? He is in Lyons. Have you seen the 2.0 
king of Spain? 


AuxiUary Verbs. 

Avoir, to have. 

Indicative Mood. (Indicatif.) 

Preseot Tense. (PrSsent). 

tPai, I have. PL nous^avons, we have. 

tu as, thou hast. votis^avee, you have. 

il a, he as or it has. Us'^ont, { ^^ ^^^ 

elle a, she has. eUes^ont, / ^ 

on a, one has. 

Imperfect. (Imparfait,) 

tP avals, I had. nous^avions, we had. 

tu avals, thou hadst. vous^avlez, you had. 

U avatt, he had. ils^avalent, \ ., j^ 

elU avaU, she had. dles^avalentj ^ 

Preterite. (DSfini,) 

J'eus,*) I had. nous'^eumes, we had. 

tu eus, thou hadst. vous^eutes, you had. 

U cut, he had. ils^eurent, they had. 

Future. (Futur,) 

3^ aural, I shall or will have. nous^awrons, we shall have. 
tu auras, thou wilt have. vous^aurez, you will have. 

U aura, he will have. ils^auront, they will have. 

l^t Conditional. (Cond. Phent,) 
Taurais, I should have. nous^aurlons, we should h. 

tu aurals, thou wouldst have. t;ow;8f'"a«*nc;?, you would have. 
U aurait, he would have. Us^auralent, they would h. 

Compound Tenses. 
JEu, had. 
Perfect. (Posad indifinu) 
tPal eu, I have had. wous^avows'"ct«,wehavehad. 

tu as^eu, thou hast had. t;o«*5'^ai;e;8f'^ew, you have had. 

U a eu, he has had. ils^ont^eu, \ .1^ 1 i^ 

eWe a eu, she has had. eUes^oiUreu, I ^ 

Pluperfect. (Pluaqueparfait,) 
J' avals'^ eu, I had had. wou«^at;w)ns^et*,wehadhad. 

tuas'^eu, thou hadst had. vous^awjer^ew, youhadhad. 

U avait^eu, he had had. eZs^araicn^^ew, they had had. 

*) Pronounce as if it were: fue, tu ues etc. 

Auxiliary Verbs. 27' 

2nd Pluperfect. (Pwsi anUrieur,) 

tPeus^eu, I had had. nous^eiimes'^eu, we had had. 

tu eus^eu, thou hadst had. vous^e^Ues eu, jou had had. 
il etU^eu, he had had. Us^eurent^eu, they had had. 

2nd Future. (Futur antirieur passi,) 

J^aurai eu, I shall have had. 
tu auras'^eu, thou wilt have had. 
il aura eu, he will have had. 

nous^aurons^eu, we shall have had. 
vous'^aurez'^eu, you will have had. 
Us^auranf^eu, they will have had. 

2nd Conditional. (Cond, Paasi,) 

tPaurais^eUf I should have had. 

tu aurais^eu, thou wouldst have had. 

U aurait^eu, he would have had. 

nous^aurions^eu, we should have had. 
vous'^auriez^euy you would have had. 
Us^auraienf^ eu, they would have had. 

Imperative Mood. (ImpSratif.) 

Aie, have. ayons, let us have. 

{qu^U ait, let him have.) ayez, have (you). 

Subjunctive Mood*). (Subjonctif,) 


Q^e faie, that I (may) have, que nous ayon8,thB,twema.jh2LYe. 
que tu aies, that thou have, que vou^ ayez, that you have. 
qu^U ait, that he have. quHls aient, that they have. 


Qus feusse, that I had or might have. 

que tu eusses, that thou hadst. 

quHl eut, that he had or might have. 

que nous eussions, that we had or might have. 

que vous eussiee, that you had. 

quHls eussent, that they had or might have. 

Perfect. (Passi,) 

Que faie eu, that I (may) have had. 

que tu aies^eu, that thou (mayest) have had. 

quHl ait^eu, that he (may) have had. 

que nous^ayons^eu, that we (may) have had. 
que vous^ayez'^eu, that you (may) have had. 
qu'Us^aient^eu, that they (may) have had. 

*) The Subjunctive Mood may be learnt later. 

Lesson 10. 


Que feusse eu, that I (might) have had. 

que tu eusses^eu, that thon (migfatst) have had. 

qu^U eut^eu, that he (might) have had. 

que nous'^eussions^eu, that we (might) have had. 
que vous^eussiez^eu, that you (might) have had. 
qu'Us^eussent^eu, that they (might) have had. 

Infinitive Mood. (Infinitif.) 

Present. Past. 

Avoir, I Avoir eu, \ 

d'avoir, ) to have. d*avoir eu, ) to have had. 

d avoir, ) it avoir eu, } 

Participles. (Partidpes,) 

Present. Past. 

Ayant, having. eu, f, eue, had. 

ayant^eu, having had. 

Note 1, Avoir also means: to receive, to get, espe- 
cially in the Future, as: 

tPaurai de Vargent, I shall get some money. 

Note 2, It would be a good plan to conjugate the whole 
verb avoir together with a noun, as : fai une pomme, favaia 
une pomme, etc, — After that, with the pronouns V (le), it, 
and les, them, as: je Vai, I have it; tu Vas, U Va, etc.; — 
je les^aurai, tu les^auras, etc, 

JPerdu, lost. de, of, from. 

le chapeau, the hat. hier, yesterday. 

vendu, sold. aujourd'hui, to-day. 

Exereise. 19. 

/ Nous avons perdu beaucoup d*argent. J'avais un bon 
2. ami en Italie. Tu auras un chapeau. J*ai vu ton onclehier. 
J Us ont vendu les chevaux. Les enfants auront de bon fromage. 
y Le fils du roi avait un bague d*or. Combien de chapeaux 
^ avez-vous vendus ? Elle aura une rose aujourd*hui. J*ai re^u 
^ un chien du roi d^Espagne. U aura une belle fleur. Oti avez- 
7 vous vn la reine? Nous avons vu la reine dans le palais. 
r Mes fils ont assez de pain. Tu as eu un bon ami. L'homme 
f avait eu une bouteille de vin. Elle aura un chapeau de soie. 
/6 Le fir^re du roi a vendu son palais. Nous avons ^t^ k Paris. 
*' Le p^re avait donn6 deux plumes aux en&nts de son ami. 

Exercise. 20. 

^^ They had many friends in England. You have a pair 
H of stockings and three hats. M'- Smith has been to London. 

Auxiliary Verbs. .29 

I have had some pears. She will have many flowers. Wei 
have five peDs and two books. Give me a bottle of wine.!. 
Yoa have had wine enough to-day. They will have firiends. 3 
She has been in France. My nncle will have had money y 
enough. He will have been happy. Tou have had my penknife. 5^ 
They have seen the flowers in the garden. We have had ^ 
four apples and three pears. Where have you seen my friend? 7 
To whom have they given my horse? Henry's aunt lives in t 
London. Charles' dog is lost. I have had many books. 9 


Conjugation of {he Auxiliary^ 

J^re, to be. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Je 8uis, I am. nous sommes, we are. 

tu es, thou art. vous^etes, you are. 

il est, he (it) is. Us \ ^^ ., 

eZZe est, she is. eOesf ^^' *^®^ ^^' 

tPitais, 1 was. nous Hions, we ^ere. 

tu Hats, thou wast. vous^itieg, you were. 

U itaU, he (it) was. Us^Haient, \ ., 

eUe 6taU, she was. eUes'^etaient, f ^ 

Je fus, I was. nous fumes, we were. 

tu fus, thou wast. vous ftUes, you were. 

U fut, he was. Us furent, they were. 

Je serai, I shall be. nous serons, we shall be. 

tu seras, thou wilt be. vous serez, you will be. 

U sera, he (it) will be. Us seront, they will be. 

Ist Conditional. 
Je serais, I should be. nous serums, we should be. 

tu serais, thou wouldst be. vom seriee, you would be. 
U seraU, he (it) would be. Us seraieni, they wotdd be. 

Compound Tenses. 

Ji!tS, been. 

J^ai HS, I have been. nous'^avons^iti, we have been. 

tu as^iti, thou hast been. vous^aveg'^iti, you have been. 
U a 6ti, he has been. Us^ont^UL \ . i. i. v 

eOeaiti, , has been. eUes^onTiU, f ^^^^ ^*^^ ^^^- 


30 Lesson 11. 

Pluperfect. . 

'J^aivais^eUy I had been. nous avions^Hi, we had been. 

tu avais^iti, thou hadst been, vous ame^^iU, you had been. 
il avaW^itS, he had been. Us avaient^HS, they had been. 

Compound of the Preterite. 

J'etis'^iti, I had been. notis eumes^eti, we had been. 

tu eus^ete, thou hadst been, vous etUes'^etS, you had been. 
il eut^et6, he had been. Us eurent^^S, they had been. 

2nd Future. 

Taurai itej I shall have been. 
tu auras'^He, thou wilt have been. 
U aura it^, he will have been. 

nous aurons US, we shall have been. 
vous aurez Sti, you will have been. 
Us auront ete, they will have been. 

2nd Conditional. 

J'aurais^StSy I should or would have been. 
tu aurais Sti, thou wouldst have been. 
U auraU He, the would have been. 

nous aurions SU, we should have been. 
vous auriez eti, you would have been. 
Us auraient^etS, they would have been. 

Imperative Mood. 

Sots, be. soyons, let us be. 

qulU soU, let him be. soyez, be. 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que je sois, that I (may) be. que nous soyons, that we be. 
que tu sois, that thou be. que vous soyez, that you be. 
qtCU soU, iJiat he be. quHls soieni, that they be. 


Que je fusse, that I were. que nous fussians, that we were 
que tu fusses, that thou werest. qu^ vous fussiez, that you were. 
qu'U fbU, that he were. qu'Us fussent, that they were. 

Que faie Sti, that I (may) have been. 
que tu aies MS, that thou (may est) have been. 
qu'U aU its, that he (may) have been. 

que nous ayons itS, that we (may) have been. 
que vous ayez HS, that you (may) have been. 
qu!Us aient Sti, that they (may) have been. 

Auxiliary Verbs. ^ , 31 


Que feusse ite, that I (might) have been. 

que tu eusses etS, that thou (mightst) have been. 

qu^U eM as, that he (might) have been. 

que nous eussions etS, that we (might) have been. 
qus V0U8 eussieg Sti, that you (might) have been. 
qu'Us eiMsent ete, that they (might) have been. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Past. 

jS^re, to be. Avoir ete, \ to have been. 

d^etre, of being, to be. d'avoir eU, > of having been, 

d etrey to be. d avoir StS, I to have been. 

Present. Past. 

jStant, being. iJte, been. 

apant eU, having been. 

ce, f. ceitCj this. malctde (pi. -s), ill. 

trhsy very. utUe (pi. -5), useful. 

jeune (pi. -5), young. petit (pi. -s), small. 

demaifiy to-morrow. ici, here. 

fits, son. /^2^e, daughter, girl. 

Exereise. 21. 

Je suis jeune. Les amis de mon oncle sont malades. ( 
Nous serons h Berlin demain. Mon p^re et ma m^re sont ^ 
ipi. Oti est Jean? Nous ^tions malades. Ce jardin est trds 3 
. petit. £)tes-vous heareux ? Oui, nous sommes tr^s heureux. y^ 
J'^tais dans le jardin de ton fr^re. Les chevaux sont utiles, y 
Cette fille ^tait malade. - J'ai 6i6 k Borne. Le fils de ma & 
tante sera ici aujourd'hui. Mon fr^re serait heureux, si (if) y 
son ami ^tait ici. Tu seras malade. L'oncle de cette fiUe a ^ 
^te en France. Oii ^tiez-vous hier? Nous sonunes heureux f 
par ce que (because) vous aurez beaucoup de joujoux. /o 

IBxercise. 22. 

His father will be here to-morrow. Where were you '' 
yesterday? The king's' son is ill. Louisa is very young, tz, 
John is my friend. They were iU. They would be happy. \ 3 
We shall be in Paris to-morrow. Your (votre) brother was/^ 
here yesterday. He has given some flowers to my sister. />" 
You would be very happy. The king's brother' was in the ^b 
palace. Have they.been in my room? The bread and cheese // 
were on the table. Where is her sister ? The dogs were / 1 
useful to the queen's friend. I am happy. We were young. /y 
His son is small. They will have had moneys enough. ^^ 


The negative and interrogative forms of the Auxiliaries. 

Whereas in English the negation is simply expressed 
by the particle not, the French make it of two negative 
words, viz. ne and pas^ the first of which is placed be- 
fore the simple verb, the other after it, as: je ne suis 
2^(18^ I am not. — In compound tenses, the participle 
follows pas, as: Je n^ai pas eu, I have not had. 

In interrogations, the pronoun which is the subject 
of the verb, is placed after it, and they are joined by 
a hyphen, as: as4u? ave^-vous? — When the third per- 
son singular ends with a vowel, -f- is placed between 
the verb and il, elle or on: art4l? a-t-elle? aura-t-on? 


1) Negative form of the auxiliaries. 
Indicative Mood. 
Avoir, to have. J^tre, to be. 

Present Tense, 

Je fCai pas, I have not. 
tu n'as pas, thou hast not. 
U rCa pas, he has not. 
eUe n^a pas, she has not. 

nous n'avons pas, we have not. 
voiM n*avezpas, you have not. 
Us n'ont pas, they have not. 

Je ne suis pas, I am not. 
tu n'es pas, thou art not. 
U vCest pas, he or it is not. 
eUe rCesi pas, she is not. 

nous ne sommes pas, we are not. 
vous n^Hes pas, you are not. 
Us ne sont pas, they are not. 

Imperfect. . 
Je n^avais pas, I had not, etc. | Je h'itais'pas, I was not, etc* 

Je n^eus pas, I had not, etc. | Je ne fus pas, I was not, etc. 


Je n'aurai pas, I shall not Je ne serai pas, 1 shall not be, 
have, etc. etc. 

1st Conditional. 

Je riaurais pas, I should not 
have, etc. 

Je ne serais pas, I should not 
be, etc. 

Compound tenses. 

Je n'ai pas^eu, I have not 
had, etc. 

Je n^ai pas'^iUy I have not 
been, etc. 

Auxiliary Verbs. 



Je fCavais pas eu, I bad not 
bad etc. 

Je ri avals pas itS^ I bad not 
been etc. 

2nd Future. 

Je n'aurai pas eu^ I shall not 
bave bad etc. 

Je n'aurai pas itS, I shall not 
have been etc. 

2nd Conditional. 

Je n^aurais pas eUy I should 
not have had etc. 

Je n'auraispas Hi, I should not 
have been etc. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Que je fCaie pas^ that I (may) 
not have etc. 

Que je ne s&is pas^ that I (may) 
not be etc. 


Que je n^eusse pas, that I 
might not have etc. 


Queje ne fusse pas, that I were 
not etc. 

Que je vCaie pas eu, that I 
(may) not have had etc. 


Queje n'aiepas He, that I (may) 
not have been etc. 

Que je fCeusse pas eu, that I 
(might) not have had etc. 

Qt^ je n'eusse pas itS, that I 
(might) not bave been etc. 

Imperative Mood. 

N'aie pas, have not. 
n'ayons pas, let us not bave. 
fCayez pas, have not« 

'He sois pas, be not, do not be. 
ne soyons pas, let us not be. 
ne soyez pas, be not. 

Infinitive Mood. 

W avoir pas, \ ^ ^ ^ N'Stre pas, \ ^ ^^ ^ 

ne pas avoir f ne pas etre, I 

W avoir pas eu, not to have had. | N' avoir pas iti,Jxot to have been. 

N'ayant pas, not having. | N'Mant pas, not being. 

^d^an^jposet^y not having had. | ^a^an^^a^^, not havingbeen* 

Otto-Wrlght, Elementary French Grammar. 


Lesson 12. 

2) Interrogative form of the two Auxiliaries. 

Indicative Mood. 

Suis-JBy am I? 

Airje, have I? 
a^tt, hast thou? 
a4-U, has he? 
Cht-elle, has she? 
avons-nofiSi have, we? 
aveis-vous, have you? 

^X ) »>-« '^^y' 

Avais-je, had I? etc. 
Dus-^je, had I? etc. 

es-4Uy art thou? 
est'il, is he? 
est-dle, is she? 
sommes-nouSf are we? 
etes-vom, are you? 


I J^tais-je^ was I? etc. 


I Fus-je, was I? etc. 

Aurai'jey shall I have? etc. | Serai-je, shall I be? etc. 

1st Conditional. 
Aurais-je^ should I have? etc. | Serais-je, should I be? etc. 

Airje eUy have I had? etc. | Airje Hi, have I been? etc. 

Avai^-je eu, had I had? etc. | Avais-je it6, had I been? etc. 

2nd Future. 
Aur airje eu, shall I have had? | Aurai-je SU, shall I have been ? 

2nd Conditional. 

Aurais-je eu, should I have 

Aurais-je iti, should I have 
been? etc. 

3) Negative and interrogative form. 

Indicative Mood. 

ITai-je pas, have I not? 

n'aS'tu pas, hast thou not ? 

n'a-t-U pas, has he not? 
. n^avons-nouspas, have we not ? 
\n^a/vez-v(mspas, have you not? 
i^n'oni^ pas, have they not? 

Ne Suisse pas, am I not? 
n'es'tu pas, art thou not? 
n'est'U pas, is he not? 
ne sommes-nouspas, are we not? 
fCetes-vous pas, are you not? 
ne sont^ pas, are they not? 

N^avais-je pas,h2A^ not? etc. | N'Hais^epas, was I not? etc 

Auxiliary Verbs. Vi'^V'fc^o 35 

N^eus-je pas, had I not? etc. | Ne fus-je pas, was I not? etc- 

Ist Future. 

N'aurai-je pas , shall I not 
have? etc. 

Ne serai'je pas, shall I not 
be? etc. 

1st Condicional. 

N^auraiS'je pas, should I not 
have? etc. 

Ne serais-je pas, should I not 
be? etc. 

Gomponnd Tenses. 


^'oi-^/e^a^ew, havelnothad? ! ^'oi-Jg 2^05^^, have I not been? 

etc. i etc. 


N^avaiS'je pas eu, had I not 
had? etc. 

N^avaiS'je pas He, had I not 
been? etc. 

2nd Future. 

N'aurai-je pas eu, shall I not 
have had? etc. 

N^aurai-je pas US, shall I not 
have been? etc. 

2nd Conditional. 

N'auraiS'je pas eu , should I 
not have had? etc. 

Waurais-jepas etS, should I not 
have been? etc. 

La maison, the house. une douzaine, a dozen. 

le voisin, the neighbour, le verre, the glass. 

la fenetre, the window. le drap, the cloth. 

chez, at the house of. la montre, the watch. 

le crayon, the pencil. paresseux, idle. 

le gargon, the boy. content, contented. 

Exercise. 23. 

II n'^tait pas chez mon p5re. Ce gargon n'a pas 6t6 ' 
paresseux. Je ne suis pas jeune. Yous n^avez pas de pain . u 
Je n'ai pas eu un verre de vin. Aurez-vous une montre d'or ? ^ 
Nous ne serons pas contents. Ont-ils de bon drap ? Le petit y 
gar9on a 6t6 malade. Avez-vous eu du fromage ? Cette mai- >^ 
son a cinq fenStres. Seront-ils ici demain? Nous n'avons ^ 
pas vu cette fille. lis n'auront pas de bon drap. Son oncle 7 
n'aura pas vendu les maisons. Vous n'^tiez pas ici hi6r. r 
N'6tes-vou8 pas contents? Nous ne sommes pas contents. ^ 
Tu n'^tais pas malade. Mon fils n*a pas ^t^ en Italic. Au- lo 
ront-ils de bon pain? Ne seront-ils pas heureux? EUe ne " 
sera pas malade. Nous avons eu une douzaine de bouteilles de 'Z, 
vin. Aurai-je une montre d'argent ? Nous n'avions pas ' 3 
mang6 de pain. N'a-t-elle pas eu deux livres de sucre? /^ 


36 Lesson 18. 

Exercise. 24. 

/ Have you not seen his dog? They were not ill. We 

t were not contented. Will they have money enongh? Were 

3 they here yesterday? I am not very happy. The boys 

y would not be idle. Will he be here to-morrow? Have they 

^ not taken i^gris) my pencil? My uncle was not in his gar- 

6 den. You will not be happy. The king has not sold his 

y (ses) castles. Is he not my neighbour's son? Her daughter 

f- is not ill. They have not seen his dog. Will they not have 

f two gold watches? We wore not at the house of his friend. 

^0 Have you not seen the boy's pencil? We shall not be con- 

/"/ tented. Has he not received many pears? How many i^ples 

/Z, had you? 

LESSON xin. 

DeterminaUve Adjectives. 

These words always take their place before a sub- 
stantive and are declined with de and a. They are 
divided into four classes: demonstrative, interroga- 
tive, possessive and numeral adjectives. 

1) Demonstrative Adjectives. 

These are: 

ce fem. cette, this; plur. ces, these. 

ce — d, y, cette — ci, this (here) ; 9 ces — ci , these. 

ce — Id, „ cette — Zd, that ; » ce* — Id, those. 

le mime, „ la meme, the same; „ les memes. 


Ce chapeau, this hat. ces homines, these men. 

cette vUle, this town. le meme livre, the same book. 

ce gargon-ci, this boy (here). ce gargon4d, that boy. 

c^e /l^mme-d, this lady (here), cette femme-ld, that lady, 

ces ar&r6*«a, these trees (here), ces arhres-ld, those trees. 


Q. de ce chapeau, of this hat. D. d ce chapeau, to this hafc. 

NB, Before a masculine noun which begins vrith a vowel 
or h mute, cet is used instead of ce; in the plural there is 
no difference. Ex.: 

cet'^arhre, thb tree (instead of ce arhre). 
cet^enfant, this or that child (instead of ce enfa/n^. 
Pi. ces'^arhres, these trees. ces'^habUs, these coats. 

Possessiye Adjectives. 41 u,^lO 37 

2) Interrogatives Adjectives. 

This is in the singular quel, fern. queUe; plor. quels, 
fern. queUes, which? what? Ex: 

quel livre, which book? pi. quels livres, which or what 
quelle fleur, which or what flower? [books? 

quelle heure est-U? what o'clock is it? 

It answers also to the exclamative what a — ! Ex. : 
qud beau tableau! what a beautiful picture! 

La fabUj the fable. riche (pi. — s) rich. 

la capitale, the capital. toujours, always. 

autrefois, formerly. le pays, the country. 

Vencrier (m,), the ink-stand. wais, but. 

U matin, the morning. U soir, the evening. 

Exercise. 25. 

/ Ce garden est tr^s jeune. z. Get homme n'a pas d'enfants. 

3 Quel livre avez-vous lu ce matin? f Je serai ici ce soir. ^Vous 
n'^tes pas toujours contents. ^ Ce pays est tr^ riche. ^ Nous 
avons lu ces fables, f^ Quelle femme avez-vous vue? f Nous 
avons vu son ami chez mon p^re./oCette fille-1^ est malade. 

// Ces hommes-ci ont ^t^ h Bome. /tQael encrier avaient-ils ? 

o Nous ne sommes pas riches. /f>Ce gar9on-ci a perdu son crayon. 

/r Aurez-vous le m^me livre? /4Tu ne seras pas paresseux. //J'ai 
vu des arbres dans le jardin de son ami. 

Exercise.* 26. 

/ Have you read Fontaine's fables? tThis boy's father is 
ill. 3 That girl has lost her watch. yThis man is not rich. 

^•^What book have you read? 61 have not read these bobks. 

y Paris is the capital of France. {'These men are idle. ^Those 
girls are young./ ^Where have you been to-day ?//rhe8e chil- 
dren have lost many pens. /tWe are not always happy. /jfPhese 
boys were here this morning. /yWould they not be rich?<^his 
girl's father is ill./4His uncle's friend has many trees in his 
garden. /^That lady is ill. fir John has lost his inkstand. >^Will 
they have read these fables ? f oYou were formerly very happy. 

t/ To whom does this dog belong ? rtJhese stockings are not 
good (bons).i^They are not rich, but they are happy, t^ave 
you not seen this girl's pencil ? z/Which pen has he ? t^He 
has my pen. 


Possessive Adjectives. 

These are called in some other grammars conjunctive 
possessive pronouns. They are: 


Lesson 14. 

man, fern. 
ton, „ 



plur. mes, 
„ ies, 
„ ses, 

his, her, its. 

notre, „ 


n nos. 


voire, „ 
leur, „ 


„ vos, 
„ leurs, 



Mon p^re, ta m^re, ses fr^res, notre ami, vos livres, 
leurs parents. 


N. d: A. mon p^re, — ta m^re, — ses fr^res, etc. 
Qen, de mon p^re, — de ta m^re, — de ses fr^res, etc. 
Bed. k mon p^re, — k ta soeur, — k leurs parents, etc. 


1) The possessive adjectives are repeated in French before 
each substantive, and agree with it in gender and number : 

mon frere et ma soeur, my brother and sister. 

2) Mon, ion, son are used instead of ma, ia, sa before 
feminine words beginning with a vowel or h mute, in order 
to avoid the hiatus which would result from the meeting of 
the two vowels. Ex.: 

man amie, my (female) friend. mon dme, my soul. 

3) Son, sa, ses mean both his and her, and agree in both 
meanings with the following noun, as: 

Le phre aime son fUs, the father loves his son. 
La mere aime son fUs, the mother loves her son. 
La mhre aime son fUs et sa fille, the mother loves her 
son and her daughter. 

4) In French voire is, from politeness, often preceded by 
the words: Monsieur, Madame, Mademoiselle; plur. Messieurs^ 
Mesdames, Mesdemoiselles, which are not expressed in Eng- 
lish, as: 

monsieur voire phre, your father. 
mademoiselle voire soeur, yonr sister. 
messieurs vos frbres, your brothers. 

Exercise. 27. 

/ Votre p^re et votre m^re sont ici. <- Leurs amis ^taient 
malades. 3 Les enfants ont perdu leurs livres. y Ses fr^res ne 
sont pas riches.r Oii sont mes bas? ^Le p^re aime ses fils. 
^Avez-vous vu mes fleurs? IrJe n'ai pas vu vos fleurs, mais 
j'ai vu vos livres. y Notre oncle est k Lyon./^Oti est mon 
amie?//Elle est dans sa chambre. / £Oes enfants ne sont pas 
heureux, leurs parents sont morts (dead)jl^oirQ oncle a vendu 

Numerals. 89 

sa maison. / Ton fr^re et ta soenr seront ici ce soir. cNoos 
avons re^n ces flenrs de notre tante. 3 J^aurai la montre d'or 
de ma soeur.^ Nous ne somines pas contents, j^ II a donn^ on 
encrier k ma soenr. JbOti est monsieur voire fr^re?^No8 amis 
ont re^n qnatre bonteiUes de vin. 

Exercise. 28. 

S^My brother and sister are here. ^Where is your uncle? 
/oHe is in London. //Have you seen his pen?/tPur friends will 
be here to-morrow. /j We have sold our house. //<His brother 
was rich./rYour neighbour will have many roses. <feTheir father 
and mother are in Paris. f^Mj neighbour's child is ill. /{These 
boys have lost their hats. /^Our sistei*s have found their 
books. 2,oI have not seen his uncle and aunt. 2/Your master 
has ten pupils.^^ These boys have lost their father. ijDur uncle 
yr^LS here yesterday .z.^his father loves his children, z^hat 
man has lost his wateh.ZAMy friends are in Germany. L>C>ur 
pupils are younfjc-z-t^is sister's child is ill. x-^We were in our 
heigboxir*s garden.30The king has given two horses to our 



There are in French three kinds of numeral adjec- 
tives, viz. cardinal, ordinal and indefinite numerals, 

1. Cardinal Numbers. 

Un, unCy one. vingt, twenty. 

deux, two. vingt et un, twenty-one. 

trois, three. vingt-deux, twenty-two. 

qualre, four. vingt-trois, twenty-three. 

dnq, five. vingt-quatre, twenty-four. 

six, six. vingt'Cinq, twenty-five etc. 

sept, seven. trente, thirty. 

huit, eight. quarante, forty. 

neuf, nine. cinquante, fifty. 

dix, ten. soixante, sixty. 

on^e, eleven. soixante-dix, seventy. 

dauze, twelve. soixante-onze, seventy-one. 

treize, thirteen. soixante-douze, seventy-two. 

quatorze, fourteen. soixante-treize, seventy-three. 

quinze, fifteen. soixante-quatorze, seventy-four. 

seize, sixteen. soixante-quinze, seventy-five. 

dix-^ept, seventeen. soixante-seize, seventy-six. 

diX'huit, eighteen. soixante-dix-sept, seventy-seven. 

dix-neuf, nineteen. soixante-^ix-huit, seventy-eight. 

40 Lesson 15. 

soixante-dix-neuf , seventy- quatre^nfft4rei0e, ninety three 

nine. cent, a hundred. [ete. 

gmtre-ifingt (s), eighty. cent un, a hundred Mid oae. 

qtuxtre^f^-un, eighty-one. cen^cfeuo;, a hundred Mid two, ete. 

quatre-vinfft-^euXf eighty-two deux cents, two hundred. 

etc. trois cents, three hundred, etc. 

quatre-vingt'dix, ninety. ^in^re oen^^, fifteen hundred, etc. 

qtiatre-vingt-onze, ninety-one. rnUle, mU, a thousand. 

quatre-^ngt-douze,nmeij-two. (un miUion, a million). 


Oinq enfants, five children. 

trente-six chevaux, thirty six horses. 

trois cent quatre-vingt-quinze aunes, 395 yards. 


1) Et, and, can be expressed before un after vingt, irenie, 
quarante, cinquante and soixante: trente et un etc, 

2) The cardinal numerals do not admit of a change in 
their terminations, except cent and quatre-vingt. — Cent takes 
an 8, when several hundreds, not followed by another number, 
are mentioned, as: 

trois cents francs, 300 francs. 

sept cents personnes, 700 persons. — But: 

sept cent vingt personnes, 720 persons. 

3) Quatre-vingts loses its s, when followed by another 
numeral. Ex. : 

quatre-vingts icoliers, 80 pupils. But: 
quatre-vingt'deux aunes, 82 yards. 

4) Cent and mUle are never accompanied by the indefinite 
article as in English. Ex.: 

a hundred or a thousand pounds, cent ou miUe Uvres. 

5) When one thousand is used for dates, it is rendered 
in French by mil, with one I only, thus: 

en mil huit cent cinquante-huit == in the year 1858. 

6) The expression: ,1 am 20, 30, 40 etc. years old*, 
cannot be rendered literally, but must be expressed thus: 
fiPai vingt ans, — trente ans, etc. — How oldareyont is 
translated: Quel dge avee-^ous? Ex.: 

Quel dge a votre frhre? how old is your brother 9 
II a dix'huit ans, he is eighteen years old. 

7) Collective numbers are: 

une huitaine, a series of eight. 

une dixaine, half a score. une ceniaine, the hundred. 
une doueaine, a dozen. ten miMier, tiie thousand* 

une vingtaine, a score. un miUion, a million. 

Ordinal Numbers, a t*\mt 41 

L^habitant (m.), the inba- n^, fern, nie, bom. 

bitaat. la semaine, the week. 

la vUley the town. le mois, the month. 

Je jour, the day. le marchand, the merchant. 

2a nuitj the night. Viglise (fern.), the church. 

fonif make. 

Exercise. 29. 

/ Deux et trois font cinq, t Ce mois a trente jours. 3 lis 
ont re^n onze aunes de drap. ¥■ Quel d,ge a votre ami ? i^Il a 
qnarante-six ans. ^Son p^re est n^ en 1835. /Oombien d'ha- 
bitants a cette ville?f'tJne semaine a sept jours. ^ L'an 1887. 
^© Notre ville a deux cent cinquante eglises.'*' 68 et 42 font 
110. '^Les enfants de cet homme ont trente-deux francs. <3Notre 
roi a 265 chevaux. '^La ville de Liverpool avait en 1881 plus 
de (more than) 500,000 habitants. 

Exercise.^ 80. r ^ > 

V ' We have 84 pupils. * 395. ' 763. ^ 300. 80. 62. 91. 
78. ^They have seen 21 merchants. ^ This town has 263,721 
inhabitants. ''He is 34 years old. ''^Her father was bom in 
1847. ''^We have a score roses. '^The year 1863. ''They were 
4 nights in that house. My friend has 9 children, 5 sons 
and 4 daughters. ''^London has more than 10,000 churches.'^* 71 
and 84 make 155.^^They have 293,421 francs. 


2. Ordinal Numbers. 

Except le premier and le second, the ordinal numbers 
are formed from the cardinal by changing e mute into 
ihne, and by adding this syllable to those which end in 
another consonant. Among these, however, cinq takes 
u before ieme (cinquieme)^ and neuf changes the f into v 
(neuvieme). They are as follows: 

le diocieme, the tenth. 
le onzieme, the eleventh. 
le douzihme, the twelfth. 

U premier, \ ^^e first. 

la premiere, / 

le second, \ 

la seconde, > the second. 

le, la demihne, ) 

te troisieme, the third. 

le quatri^me, the fourth. 

le cinquieme, the fifth. 

le siankme, the sixth. 

le septi^me, the seventh. 

le hmiiUme, the eighth. 

le neuvi^me, the ninth. 

le treizieme, the thirteenth. 
U quatorzi^me, the fourteenth. 
le quinzieme, the fifteenth. 
le seizieme, the 16th. 
le diX'Septieme, the 17th. 
le dix'huiti^me, the 18th. 
le dix-^neuvidme, the 19tL. 
le vinffti^tne, the 20th. 
le vingt-unidme, the 21st. 


Lesson 16. 

le vingt-deuxihme, the 22nd, etc. 
le trentihme, the 30th. 
le quarantikme, the 40th. 
le cinquantieme, the 50th. 
le soixantieme, the 60th. 
le soixante-dixidme , the 70th. 
le soixante-onzihne, the 71st. 
le soixante-doueieme, the 72ndy 

le quatre-vingtibme, the 80th. 
le quatre-vinfft-uni^me, the 81st. 

lequatre^nffMixihme;tke 90th. 
le centime, the lOOfch. 
le cent et unihne^ the lOlsL 
le cent deiixUmCj thel02nd9 etc 
le cent vingtidme, the 120th. 
le deux centihme, the 200th. 
le six cent soixante^uingidme, 

the 675th. 
le miUieme, the 1000th. 
le dernier J the last. 


1) Unihme, is used only after vingt, trente, quarofUe cfe., 
Charles est le vinfft-uni^me de sa dasse, 

2) Days of the month (except le premier and le dernier) are 
expressed by cardinal numbers, as : 

the first of April, le premier avrU; but: 

the 2nd, 8rd, 4th etc. of May, le detix, trots, quatre etc, 

mai (or de mai). 
the eleventh of March, U onze (without apostrophe) mars. 
the twentieth of June, le vingt juin. 

The question: „What day of the. month is it to-day?* 
is translated: Qtid jour du mois avons-nous at^ourd'hui? or: 

Quel quantihme sommes-nous? 

Answer: CPest aujourd'hui le dix, or: 

Nous sommes le dix, or: nous avons le dix. 

The English „on the sixth' etc. is rendered in French 
le six. Ex.: On the sixth of May, le six mai. 

3) Proper names of princes, too, take in French the car- 
dinal numbers without the article, except the first and 
sometimes the second, as: 

Henri premier, Henry the first. 

Henri second or: deux, Henry the second. 

Henri quatre, Henry the fourth. 

Louis quatorzQ, Lewis the 14th. 

Note. The German emperor Charles V bears in French the 
name of Charles-Quintf and Pope Sixtus V that of Sixte-Quini. • 

4) The distinctive numbers (adverbs of number) are 
formed from the ordinal by adding -ment or -ement to the final: 

premi^ement, first. deuxi^mement, secondly. 

troisihnement, thirdly, etc. 

5) Fractional numbers are expressed by ordinal numbers, 
as in English, but only from five upwards, as: 

Ordinal Numbers. 43 

un cinquibme, a fiftb. un huiti^me, an eigbtb. 
un sixieme, a sixtb. un dixi^me, a tentb. 

The otbers are as follows: 

a half = un demi. f. une demie, \ tbe half = la moitii, 
a tbird = un tiers. \ a quarter or fourth, un quart. 

one pound and a half = une livre et demie. 

6) Tbe hours of tbe day or night are expressed thus: 

two o'clock, deux heures. 

a quarter past two, deux heures et (un) quart. 

half past two, detcx heures et demie. 

a quarter to three, trois heures moins un quart. 

at twelve o'clock (at noon), a midi. 

at twelve o'clock (midnight), d mmuit. 

7) Proportional numbers which express a quantity multi- 
plied, are: 

simple, simple. quadruple, fourfold. 

double, twofold. centuple, centuple, a hundred- 

tripU, triple, threefold. fold. 

Names of tbe months. 

Janvier, Januaiy. juUlet, July. 

fSvrier, February. ao^t, August. 

mars, March. septembre, September. 

avrU, April. octobre, October. 

mai. May. novembre, November. 

juin, June. dScembre, December. 

en Janvier, in January. 


Names of the days. 

Dimanche, Sunday. jeudi, Thursday. 

lundi, Monday. vendredi, Friday. 

mardi, Tuesday. samedi, Saturday. 

mercredi, Wednesday. on Tuesday, (le) mardi. 

Exercise. 31« 

/ Quelle heure est-il? ^11 est cinq heures et quart. 3 Nous 
avons achet^ (bought) une livre et demie de sucre. y F^vrier 
est le second, juillet le septi^me et d^cembre le dernier mois 
de Tannic (year), i^ Jeudi est le quatri^me jour de la semaine. 

* En novembre les jours sont courts (short). 7Mon fr^re Jean 
est n6 (was born) le vingt-six mai, mil buit cent soixante-dix. 

VUn jour est la septi^me partie (part) de la semaine./ La 
semaine est la cinquanti6me partie de Tannic. ^•Nous avons re9n 
deux livres et demie de pommes de ce marcband. //Cinq est 
la dixi^me partie de cinquante. 

44 Lesson 17. 

Exercise. 82* 

^ What day of the month had we yesterday? ^Yesterday 
was the sixteenth. sHe has bought 4Vs pounds of pears for 
(pour) his children, y August is the eighth month in the year. 
f^We received many friends on Wednesday. 6 On the fifth of 
June. 7 The days are not short in June and July. yWhat 
o* clock is it? fit is a quarter to six. ^4)ecember is tiie last 
month in the year ; January is the first. //To-day is the 
nineteenth of March. /^My father will be in London on the 
tenth of September./) Henry VIII, king of England./yFonr is 
the half of eigth/^aturday is the last day of the week. 
/* Give me three pounds and a half of sugar, /f^e shall have 
a holiday (un congH) on the twentieth of June./tHi8 brothers 
will be here on Saturday.^ fit is twenty five minutes (minuieSf 
fem.) to three. loThey have given the half of that cheese to my 
neighbour.!/ On the fifth of November 1603. 


Indefinite numeral Adjectives. 

These words are sometimes classed among the pro- 
nouns, as some of them may be so used. The indefinite 
numeral adjectives take their place before the noon and 
agree vrith it in number and gender. 

CJiaque m., and f. each. 
tout, f. toute, all, every. 
aucun, —e \ . 
nut, nuUe } "°* «"«• '"'' 
maint, — e, many a. 

quelque, some, any. 
certain, — c, a certain. 
plusieurs, m. & f., severaL 
divers, f. diverses \ Jiir^^^x 
diffirents, f. --entesl^''^^ 


quelque temps, some time. 
quelques pommes, some or a 

few apples. 
plusieurs hommes, several men, 


Chaque maison, each house. 
toute vUle, every town. 
aucun pays, no country. 
nuUe rhgle, no rule. 
maint homme, many a man. 


1) Tout has the double meaning of every, and all or whole; 
in the latter case, it is accompanied by an article or a pos- 
sessive adjective. Toute viUe, every town. ToiUe la mUe^ 
all the town or the whole town. The plural of tout is taua 
and of toute, toutes, 

Tous les hompnes, all men. 
Toutes les lettres, all the letters. 
Tous ses enfants, all his children. 

Indefinite numeral Adjectives. 45 


2) Aucun and ntd can only be used of individual things, 
and answer to the English 'not one'. They require the par- 
ticle ne before the verb. The English 'no' is mostly trans- 
lated by: pas de or paint de: 

Je fCai 0HCune faute^ I have not one mistake. 

Je n'ai jiew de (or point de) faute, I have no mistake. 

Lieu, Gbd. appliqui (pi. — «) diligent. 

la version^ the translation. facile, easy. 

U nam, the name. la faute, mistake, fiEialt. 

la dasse, the class. le siede, the century. 

U y a, there is, there are. fait, makes, made. 

le plaisir, the pleasure. le temps, time, weather. 

Exercise. 88. 

i Chaque homme a ses fautes. t J'ai vn tonte la ville. 

5 Donnez-moi quelques crayons. yTous les hommes sont mortels 
(mortal) J^Oe garden a fait plusieurs fautes dans sa version. 

* Maint ^colier n'est pas appUqu^. 7 II connalt tout le monde 

(everybody), ^Ils n'avaient aucone faute. fJe suis le premier 

-de ma classe./*Mon fr^re ^tait ici quelque temps. //Toute la 

nnit ^tait froide (coZe^). ^z-Cette version n'est pas facile, /i^ous 

vivons (live) dans le dix-neuvi^me si^cle. 

Exercise. 84. 

^9^ There are twenty one pupils in my class. />6od is the 
father of all men./6We have seen the whole (aU the) town. 

/y Several men were here yesterday. /sMany a man is happy. 

/fl have no mistakes In my translation. LcGive me a few pens. 
t/Every boy was diligent. tzAll his children were ill. ajSeveral 
men have the same namciyNo country is without (sans)^e has given all his money to these men.24Some 
men are not happy^We have received all the letters this 
morning (mo^m). 2^rneir neighbour has sold a few flowers. 

z>^Have they made no mistakes in their translation ? i<i3ring me 
several pounds of sugar.v Each boy has received seven francs. 

|£He has no friends. )^ou have several friends in Parisjy^here 
are many men who (qui) have the same name. 

LESSON xvm. 


Adjectives are liable to the changes of gender and 

A. The feminine of French adjectives. 

General rule. The feminine of adjectives is fonn- 
eA by adding an 6 to the masculine termination, if 
this does not end in e mute. Ex.: 

46 Lesson 18. A u,*7// 

petit f small, little; fern, petite, 
grand, great, large; ,, grande, 
jolt, pretty; „ jolie, 

appliqui, diligent; „ appliquee. 

Particular rules. 1) Adjectives which end in e 
mute, are alike in the masculine and feminine gender: 

facile, easy; fem. facile, 
sage, wise; „ sage, 

2) Adjectives ending in el^ eil and n, further, mo- 
nosyllables ending in s and t double their final consonant 
before e mute of the feminine, ^as: 

cruel, cruel; fem. crueUe. 
bon, good; fem. bonne, 
bas, low; fem. basse, 
gros, big; fem. grosse, 
sot, stupid; fem. sotte. 

To these belong also the following: 

^pais, fem. ^aisse, thick. 
expr^s, fem. expresse, express. 
muet, fem. muette, dumb. 

3) Adjectives which end in f, become feminine by 
changing jf into ve^ as: 

vif, quick, lively; f. vive. actif, active; f. active, 
neuf, new; f. neuve. bref, short; f. breve. 

4) Adjectives ending in a;, change this x into ^e, as: 

heureux, happy, lucky; f. heureuse, 
jaloux, jealous; f. jalouse, 
paresseux, lazy ; f. paresseuse, 
faux, false, makes its fem. fausse, 

5) Adjectives which end in er and et, take in the 
feminine the grave accent, as: 

Uger, light; f. Ughre, 
amer, bitter; f. ambre, 
inquiet, uneasy; f. inquiMe, 

6) Of the adjectives ending in c, the three following 
change this c into che^ as: 

blanc, white; f. blanche, 
franc, frank ; f. franche. 
sec, dry; f. s^che. 

The others ending in c take -giee, as: 
turc, Turkish; f. turque, 
public, public; f. publique, 
grec, Greek, has in the fem. grecque. 

Adjeciiyes. 47 

7) The following adjectives do not quite agree with 
the foregoing rales: 

long, long; f. longue. doux, sweet, soft; f. douce, 

aigu, acute; f. aigtiB. malin, wicked; f. maligne. 

frais, fresh; f. fraiche. bininj benign; f. binigne, 

8) The following are more irregular in the formation 
of their feminine, as: 

beau (bel)y beautiful; f. beUe, 
nouveau (nouvel), new; f. nouvelle. 
mou (mol), soffc; f. moUe, 
fou (fol), foolish; f. folle. 
vieux (vieil), old; f. vieUle. 

Nate, The above words in parenthesis bel, nouvd etc. are 
used before masculine nouns beginning with a vowel or h 
mute, as: un bel arbre, a fine tree; un nouvd ordre, a new 
order; un fol espoir, a foolish hope. 

B. The plural of Adjectives. 

The rules given for the plnral of substantives apply 
also to adjectives. Ex.: 

grand, f. grande; plur. grands, f. grandes. 
appliqui, f. appliquee; „ appliquis, f. appliquSes. 
gras, f. grasse, fat; „ gras, f. grasses, 

royalj f. regale, royal; „ royau/oc, f. rogales. 
beau, f. belle, beautiful; „ beaux, f. belles, 
vieux, f. vieiUe, old; „ vieux, f. vieiUes. 

fou, mou and bleu make in the plural fous, mous and bleus. 

C. Concord of Adjectives. 

The adjective must agree in gender and number with 
the substantive or pronoun which it qualifies, as: 

La grande maison, the large house. 

La maison est grande, the house is large. 

Les maisons sont grandes, the houses are large. 

When the same adj. refers to nouns of different gen- 
ders, it is put in the masculine plural. 

Exercise. 85. 

i Ge cheval est vieux. ^ Cette maison n*est pas grande. J Ce 
drap est tr^s ^pais. y Ces enfants-lk sont inquiets. <^La fiUe de 
notre voisin est muette. 6 Le p^re est bon, la m^re est bonne. 

^ Sa soenr n^^tait pas paresseuse. f Cette bi^re est am^re. / Sojez 
bons, mes petits enfants. /^Nous avons rcQu une jolie rose. 

//n J a hoit grandes fendtres dans notre maison. /zTous les 
^coliers de cette classe sont appliqui. /j Ta version est facile. 

48 Lesson 19. 

I Elle a nn chapeau neaf.^ Cette fil]e est jalouse. 3 J*ai on liyre 
grec. y Le temps est bref. ^^Donnez-moi de Teau fralche. <Notre 
trbre est gros. y Yos chiens sont bons. B lis ont du drap blanc. 

Exercise. 86. 

? This boy is happy. /• That girl is not happy. />'Our house 
is old. /tThis man's son is dumb. /j The water is fresh. //These 
roses are pretty ./rThey have given some beantifnl flowers to 
our neighbour's children./^The church is very old.z/This clotii 
is white, ^n'hose men are idle./f These girls are diligent. e#My 
penknife is new. i/ The weather is beautiful. it-This man is 
foolish. 13 We have a beautiful tree in our garden.<.><rhe mas- 
ter has good pupils. u^is sisters are here.i«Time is short. 
17 That man is lively, c^y pen is light. i.9Give me a good pen. 


Le soleil, the sun. le couteau, the knife. 

la lune, the moon. la terre, the earth. 

un haW, a coat. courts short. 

une orange, an orange. Vete^ summer. 

une plume, a pen, feather. VMver, winter. 

le papier, the paper. la montagne, the mountain. 

Exercise. 87. 

juLes nuits sont courtes en ^t^.j/Son habit est neofjcCette 
orange est amdre.33La nuit est longue.jf^Les jonrs ne sont 
pas longs. irCette plume est l6g^re.9CCe papier est blancS^La 
terre est grande. 3^Le soleil est plus grand {greater) que (Man) 
la lune. 3>fCet homme n'est pas tr^s b^nin.f«Les montagnes 
de ce pays sont hautes (/ti^/t).v/Les filles de notre voisin sont 
tr^ appliqu^es.f2j'ai une belle montre d'or.^^Ces maisons 
sont vieilles.f^Nous avions cet ^t6 de grandes pommes dans' 
notre jardin.i^rQuelle belle histoire I ^6La terre n*est pas si 
{so) grande que {as) la lune.)c^Cette histoire est longae.fiyMon 
p^re est ma m^re sont vieux.^oLes filles de cet homme sont 
paresseuses.jToLa maison royule est It Londres.^/Le canif de 
ce petit gar9on est beau.iz Cette bonne mdre a daux bons fib. 

Exercise. 88. 

rs There are many beautiful trees in this garden^/^V^Tliera 
is my father's good dog?4TThis coat is new.^The d^ys are 
short in winter, and long in snmmer.r^His uncle's horse is 
old.^'tHave you seen this beautiful tree ?jrf These monniaiiis 
are low.^^'That boy's sister is dumb. ^Your coat is liglit. 
<»Z.These girls are foolish. ^30ur translation is easy.^^! have 
received a beautiful rose from his aunt.^'Our brothers ars 

The place of Adjectiyes. 49 

very active. / My sister is not happy, z The parents of those 
children were uneasy, i Those hats are low. ^ Give me some 
good butter. 5- Their neighbour's sons are wicked. 6 Bring me 
a Greek book. 7Have you any good oranges? ^We have some 
good apples and pears. ^This boy's hat is new.^'^Where is 
my father's large knife ///These parents are not happy; their 
cluldren are iU. 

The place of Adjectives. 

The place of adjectives is not, as in English, always 
before the noun; on the contrary, most of them are 
placed aftier it. The following are the principal rules: 

A, Adjectives placed before the substantive. 

£eau, beautiful, fine. 
ban, good. 
grand, great, large. 
gros, big. 
jeune, young. 

joU, pretty. 
mauvais, bad. 
meilleur, better. 
moindre, less. 

petit, little, small. 
saint, holy, saint. 
tout, all. 

vieux, vieille, old. 
vrai, true. 


Un beau pays, a fine country. 

Un hon ami, a good friend. 

Vne grande vUle, a large town or city. 

Un jeune lion, a young lion. 

Un mauvais lit, a bad bed. 

Un meilleur avis, a better advice. 

Un vieux soldat, an old soldier, etc. 

Note. Grand is placed after its noun, when it signifies tall: 
un homme grand, a tall man. 

NB. It is to be observed, that substantives preceded 
by an adjective, when used in the partitive sense, take 
only de before them, for both genders and numbers, in- 
stead of dw, de la or des. (See p. 20, 4); ex.: 

de hon vin, (some) good wine. 
de mauvaise encre, (some) bad ink. 
de belles fleurs, beautiful flowers. 
de grands vaisseaux, large vessels. 

J5. Adjectives placed after the substantive. 

1) Those which denote a figure, colour or taste. Ex.: 

une table ronde, a round table. 
un habit noir, a black coat. 

otto-Wright, Elementary French Grammar. ^ 

50 Lesson 20. 

une robe blanche, a white dress. 
de Veau chaude, warm water. 
un fruU amer, a bitter fruit. 
le del bleu, the blue sky. 

2) Those of nations. Ex.: 

la langue fran^ise, the French language. 
un vaisseau anglais, an English vessel. 
un soldat prussien, a Prussian soldier. 

NB, Adjectives denoting nationality are not written with a 

3) The participles used as adjectives. Ex.: 

un livre armisant, an amusing book. 
ma fille cherie, my beloved daughter. 

G. The following adjectives have a different meaning 
according as they stand before or after the nonn. 

Mon cher ami, my dear friend. Un livre cher, a dear (costly) 


Un honnete homme, a good Un homme honnete, a polite 

man. man. 

Un brave homme, an honest Un homme brave, a brave man« 


Un grand homme, a man of Un homme grand, a tall man. 


Un petit homme, a little (short) Un homme petit, a mean man. 


Exercise. 89. 

/ Les soldats fran^ais sont braves. ^Nous avons In nne 
histoire amusante. 3 J*ai un habit noir. yH demeure dans nn 
bean pays. ^11 s avaient de beau fruit dans leur jardin.^Ces 
eniunts sont sages.^Les vaisseaux anglais sont grands. /Aveai- 
vous vu le joli chien du roi?/Il a perdu son chapean nenl 
^^Donnez-^moi de bon drap noir./^'Le chapeau de cet enfiEUit est 
noir./z.Mon cher ami est en Espagney^ Son oncle est nn homme 
honnete. /Mvez-vous bu (drunk) de bon vin?^/lje vin n^^tait 
pas donx./6Fitt ^tait un grand homme. >^0nt-il8 vn le petit 
chat?/^s-tn de I'eau chaude ?^L'eau est froide.i-oOiL avez- 
vons achet^ ce chapean rond?2/Donnez-moinne paire de gants 
blancs.i4ja robe de sa m^re est blanohe.^5La langne fran9aiBe 
est facileA^A-t-il lu ce livre amn8ant?2K)ette femme-ci a perdu 
son fils ch^ri.i^Les gants sont noirs.z-TOti a-t-elle perdu son 
bean chapeau de soie?2fCet homme-lk n'est pas fnuic. 

Exereise* 40* 

^71 have some fresh frnit.JoHave they bought some white 
cloth ?3/ Greek soldiers are brave.3^e had some Turkish firniL 

Degrees of ComparisoD. 51 

/ These oranges are not very sweet. tThe sky was blue yester- 
day. 3 This town has many good churches, y Do yon like 
(aimess-votis) Greek wine ?J^This woman has lost her dear son. 

^My uncle has bought a pair of black gloves. ^ We have seen 
some large lions. ^Has your neighbour many good friends 
(v. vols. cht'ilJ^yYes he has many English friends. /£l^ive me 
four pounds of good apples. // Have they round hats?/^hese 
children had a bad bed./jThose men have given some good 
advice to the old soldier. 

le plus haut [ ^ ^^^^ 
la plus haute, I '^ 


Degrees of Comparison. 

The two degrees of comparison are the compara- 
tive (k comparatif) and superlative (le superUxtif). 

1) The comparative is formed by placing the adverb 
plus, more, — the latter by placing le plus^ f. la plus^ 
before an adjective. 

Comparative. Superlative. 

Haut, high, plus haut, higher, 
fem. haute, plus haute. 

Mauvais, bad; comp. plus mauvais, e, worse; fem. mauvaise, 
plus mauvaise, worse; sup. leplus mauvais, la plus mauvaise, 
the worst. 

Grand, e, large, great; com^, plus grand, f, plus grande, larger; 
sup. le pltis grand, la plus grande, the largest. 

BeiU, e, little, small; com^p. plus petit, e, smaller; sup. leplus 
petU, f. la plus petite, the smallest. 

Note, When a possessive adjective is placed before the 
superlative, the article le, la, les, is dropped, as: 
mon plus jeune frdre, my youngest brother. 

2) There is in French also: a lower and lowest 
degree which is effected by the words moins, less," for 
the comparative degree; and le moins, f. la moins^ the 
least for the superlative. 

Cruel, 4e, cruel; comp. moins cruel, f. moins crueUe, less cruel 
or not so cruel; sup. le moins cruel, f. la moins crueUe, 
the least cruel. 

Laid, e, ugly; comp. moins laid, e, less ugly; sup. le moins 
laid, f. Ui moins laide, the least ugly. 

3) The following three adjectives have an irregular 


52 Lesson 21. 

ban, f. bonne, good; comp. meiUeur, e, better; sup. le meiUeuTj 

la meUleure, the best; 
(mauvaiSf e, in the meaning wicked); comp. pire, worse; 

sup. le pire, f. la pire, the worst ; 
(petit, e); comp. moindre, less; sup. le moindre, f. lamoindre 

the least; 

4) As before an adjective is rendered aussi; 'as^ after, 
it, and 'than^ are both translated qtie. Ex.: 

H est aussi heureux que moi, he is as happy as I am. 
Jean est plus fort que son frere, John is str^^nger than 
his brother. 

Exercise. 41. 

/ Ge gar9on est plus grand que son fr^re. z. Le marchand 
est plus riche que vous. 3 Cette fiUe est la premiere de sa 
classe.^Le lion est plus fort (stronger) que le chevaU^Londres 
est la ville la plus grande du monde.4* £tes-yons plus appliques 
que las fils de notre maltre?/ Cette femme est moins riche 
que votre fr6re. g^Ma plus jeune soear est tr6s malade./'Oe 
vin est meilleur que cette bi^re./oCes roses sont jolies./cAvez- 
vous achet^ le meilleur fruit ?/i.Ces pommes-ci sont pires que 
ces poires-lk./j Charles est le moindre de sa classe./^e vingt- 
deux juin est le jour le plus long de Tann^c/^Sa tante est 
plus heureuse que ma m^re./^Les jours en hiver sont plus 
courts que les nnits.z/Les poires de cette femme sont les 
meilleures./rLe drap blanc est moins utile que le drap noir. 

Exercise. 42. 

/^/William is the first in his class, z «We have bought some 
better fruit than you.i/A lion is very strong. t^This cat is 
not so strong as that dog.z.lMy parents are less, rich than 
your friends, but they are happier and more contentedj^These 
girls are more diligent than those boys.ii^William is as idle 
as John.'^^We have received two pounds of the best apples. 
^^Lonisa is smaller than her sister. 2^he highest mountains are 
in Asia (AsieJ.i^Mj youngest sister is in ParisooThey have 
bought the largest housc^^Has he sold his best horse ^London 
is larger than Paris.35Are you as diligent as John?j^f^e8e 
children are the prettiest in the town.ii^Will they have recei- 
ved better pens than you?36They have received the worst 
pens j^ My translation is easier than yours (la vdtre)^fTheaiQ 
books are dearer than those inkstandsw3/My sister is happier 
than I.^tThe master has lost his best pupils^'i^ave you more 
money than his brother ?^^I have not so much money, but 
I have more book8.f3How many good books have youff^ffia 
has read the worst books.^il am not so (si) young as your 

Recapitulatory exercises. 53 

fidend. / I am 22 years old, and he is 19 years old. i Which 
is the youngest pupil in your class? 


The following four lessons form a recapitulation of 
the preceding 21 lessons. 

Exercise. 43. 

\3 Nous avons beaucoup de fleurs dans notre jardin.yQuel 
cheval ont-ils achete?5''J'ai trois plumes et huit crayons. ^Don- 
nez-moi du pain. ^ Ce chien est petit. / Avez-vous mang^ de 
bon chou?^Il y a beaucoup de cailloux dans cette Yille./£Les 
joujoux de ces enfants sont jolis,//J'ai sept clousy2Le cheval 
est un animal tr^s utile/^Ils out rcQu deux chapeaux et trois 
paires de gants noirs./xLes voeux de cet homme ne sont pas 
bons/^Les yeux de ce gar^on sont bleus/^es cieux annoncent 
(announce) la gloire (glory) de Dieuy/Il y a deux trous dans 
mon gant. /^Avez-vous vu ce joli hibou?//ljes bijoux de la 
reine sont beaux. *^A-t-il mang^ les bonnes noix?e/As-tu tu 
la porte de cette maison?zzIl y a beaucoup de beaux chd.teaux 
dans cette ville. 

Exercise. 44. 

^3 There are 25 cabbages in this garden. M<rhese girls' hats 
are whitc-^xHave you eaten any walnuts ?z<I have 29 pebbles 
in my pocket.^ He has given these flowers to our neighbour's 
children.2^My friend's brother is ill. i^P Will they have seen 
the king's horses ?3oHe will have received a pair of new gloves. 
5/ The life of man is short.^tMy brother's coat is old.sjThey 
have lost a large fortune, j^hese children have had a good 
dinnera^y uncle's apartments are not large. 34He has forgotten 
(oubliS) his friend's namej^Have you enough salt and pepper? 
sffiave they not seen the king's throne ?i^How many birds has 
heVV'^This water is not fresh.<<^My brother's room is very 
beautiful. v^Were they here yesterday ?yjMy friends will be 
here to-morrow.v/6ive me some bread and cheese. ^ave you 
any oil in that bottle ?#*Has she any money ?fj;Will they have 
had any friends ?^Is there any good water in this house? 
9f Bring me a half a pound of mustard^^'England has better 
vessels than France-i^Had they had any coflfee?i^The coffee 
was very bad. 



Exercise. 45. 

/ Nous avons de bons livres. ^ A-t-il de la viande fralche? 

3 Cette eau n^est pas chatide.yCet homme connalt tout le monde. 

j*J'ai bu (drunk) de mauvaise bi^re. 0II y a trop d'^coliers 
dans cette classe. 7* lis auraient eu peu d'amis. ^Ma m^re a 
achete une table de bois. / N'avez-vous pas de sncre?/«Il a 
vendu toutes ses maisons.// Donnez-moi quelques livres./xCet 
homme a beaucoup d^amis a Parisy3 Cet enfant a mang^ un 
morceau de pain./v'Il y a neuf bouteilles de vin dans ma 
chambre. /i^Combien d'argent a-t-il?/Gll a soixante-dix francs. 

/yMes ^coliers ne sont pas appliques. / SrElle a perdu sa bague 
d'argent.'7 Mon oncle a une montre d'or.tAJean est k New- 
York.i^ Jeanette a rcQu dix fi*ancs de son oncle. ziMa tante 
demeure h Lyon. 

Exercise. 46. 

li Give these books to that boy.ifHave you read the works 
of Bacine ?2XThere are many books on my table. tjcHow many 
pears have you eaten (mangees) ^1 have eaten 6 pears and two 
applesi^I have a pair of new white glove8.2.jWhere is the master of 
this class ?^ He is in his room. j/ They will have had much 
pleasure. J» My children would have been diligent J3 He would 
have eaten some bread. *y We had lost our hats J^ Would he 
not have been here^^He will be here to-morrow j/ His sister's 
children had had much money .JH am not diligentJl/You will 
be happy .i^He would have been happy .le^Has she not received 
a present (cadeau mj from her father ?ftThese children's 
mother was very ill.KSMy sister's friend has a useful book. 
Vy Would they not be contented ?f»i have lost my gloves. 


Exercise. 47. 

^^ Qaels livres avez-vous lus aujourd'hui?f^Les montagnes 
de ce pays sont tr^s hautes.ffNous sommes toujours ici.iiGes 
hommes-lk sont riches^ lis ^taient tr^ heureuxi^ Quelle near 
avez-vous ?n-Cei arbre est beau /3 Quelle heure est-ilTlMl est 
deux heures moins quart.iyil a lu les mdmes livres que vous. 

SXOh est Monsieur votre p^re?y>Il est dans sa chambreXfLeurs 
enfants sont appliqu^s/fMon p^re et ma m^re sont k Londres. 

^•Cet homme aime ses fils.t/L'an mil huit cent quatre-vingt- 
sept^LQuel d,ge a votre s(Biir?CJElle a dix-huit ans.6|^ou8 
avons achete treize aunes de drap noir.65*0et homme a deux 
mille livres.^ Ces arbres sont gros. 

Regular Verbs. 55 

Exercise. 48. 

/ 19 days.^ 12 months.'' 81 years. ^ 763 soldiers.^' 200 horses. 

t There are 12974 houses in this town.7The 11*^ day of the month. 

jf The 9*^ man. John is the 5*^ in his class. f William is the last.'^9V8 
pounds of butter.// The 24*J» of March 1884/^ A week is the fifty 
second part of a year .^3 7 nights and 3 days.^28 times (fois) 
6 make 140.^*^The 21^* of January.^* On Friday the 14**^ of 
August./? William HI, king of England./I- Fifthly. //Lastly. 

t# Twenty-five minutes to ten.i/ 5 is the 9**» part of 45.tiWe see 
(voyiyns) our father every day.oHe has lost all his money ^fWhere 
have you seen all those soldiers ?zrMany a child is contented. 

tcGive me a few books. z/ Each boy has a franc. z*He has made 
several mistakes in his translation. 


Exercise. 49. 

Lf Ces poires ne sont pas Ces chapeaux sont tr^s 
baM/ Les arbres dans notre jardin sont jolis. 3^Cette femme 
est vieillejj Gette fiUe est folle.3>dje soleil est plus grand que 
la luneji*La lune est plus grande que la terre.34Ce papier est 
mauvais.j^Ces couteaux sont neufs.Jf-Le ciel est bleu.j^Son 
habit est noir.v<»Avez-vous de bonne encre?/|/Mon cher ami 
est ^ Londres. 

Exercise. 50. 

f^i How many soldiers have you seen (vus) ^jWe have seen more 
than (de) 10,000.^/ What day of the month is it ?wTo-day is 
the 28**^y4He will be at the house of my friend to-morrow. 
^71 have read this beautiful book.<^tThey have given a pair of 
stockings to that little boy.f^His mother will be here on 
Monday, the 18*^-5X)How old is your sister's child ?iv We shall 
have had much pleasure/rHas he not received a present from 
his master ?5^0ur uncle's friends are in America.iy Which is 
the best pupil in this class ?iT Give this black hat to that 
child^My sister is younger than my brother^ Are there 
many birds in this garden ?rtWhich bread is the bestWWhat 
book have you?6^This table is long V This merchant has lost 
all his money .62. My pen is worse than my pencils 12 times 
(fois) 12 are (make) 144. 

Regular Verbs. 
§ 1. True verbs, in opposition to the auxiliaries, 

are divided: 

56 Lesson 26. 

1) according to their form, into regular and ir- 
regular verbs; 

2) according to their termination, into the first, 
second and third conjugation; 

3) according to their signification, into actiVe, 
passive, neuter, reflective and impersonal verbs. 

§ 2. There are, in French, only three regular con- 
jugations, viz. those ending in er, ir and re. Verbs 
in "tyf/r belong to the irregular ones, -as their root 
undergoes manifold changes. The infinitive mood is to 
be considered as the radical part or ground-form, 
on which the conjugation depends. What precedes the 
termination ar, ir or re, is the root, which, with regular 
verbs, always remains unaltered. To this are added the 
different terminations*), by which persons, tenses and 
moods are distinguished, and which are common to all 
the verbs of that same conjugation. 

§ 3. Formation of the tenses of the regular verbs. 

There are primitive tenses and derived tenses. 
The primitive tenses are: 

1) the infinitive (Vinfinitif)^ 

2) the participle present (le participe present)^ 

3) the participle past (le participe passi)^ 

4) the present (Ze present), 

5) the preterite (le passe defini). 

1) From the infnitive present are formed! the 
Future (le futur), by adding ai, and the Conditiotial 
(le conditionnel) by adding ai5, as : Inf. donner^ Fut. je 
donnerai, and Cond. je donnerais;. from finir: Fnt.Je 
finirai^ Cond. je finir ais. In the 3rd conjugation the 
final e is dropped: from vendre: Fut. je vendrai^ Cond. 
je vendrais. 

2) From the participle present: .The present 
of the subjunctive, by changing ant into 6, as: from 
donnant: que je donne; from finis sant: que je finiMe^ 
from vendant: que je vende. 

3) With the participle past are formed all the 
compound tenses, by means of the auxiliaries aivair 
or etre^ as: Part, past: d(MnS, fini, vendu — : j'ai danni, 
j'avais fini, faurai vendu, etc. 

*) In this grammar all the variable terminations of reffolar 
verbs are in the paradigms printed in larger Italics, -tnt is silent. 

First Coiyagation. 57 

4) Prom the present oi the Indicative, viz. from its 
1st person singular and the 1st and 2nd persons plaral, 
the Imperative is formed, by suppressing the pronoans 
je, nous, vom, as: donne (give), donnons, donnez\ finis 
(finish), finissonSi finissez etc. 

5) Prom the preterite is formed the Subjunctive 
imperfect, by changing the final ai into cisse for the 
verbs of the 1st conjugation, and is into isse for the 
2nd and 8rd coojugation. Ex. : from je donnai: que je 
donnasse; from je finis: que je finisse; from je vendis: 
que je vendisse. 

First conjugation: Donner, to give. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Je donne, 1 give. P\.nous donnona, we give. 
tu donnes, thou givest. vous donnez, you give. 

U donne, he gives. ils donnent, \ ., 

eUe donne, she gives. elles donnent,] ^^ ^^^®* 


Je donnais, I gave. PI. nous donnions, we gave. 

tu donnais, thou gavest. vous donniez, you gave. 

il donnait, he gave. ils donnaient, they gave. 


Je donnai, I gave. PI. nous donndmes, we gave. 

tu donnas, thou gavest. vous donndtes, you gave. 

U donna, he gave. ils donnhrent, they gave. 

1st Future. 

Je donnerai, I shall give. nous donnerons, we shall g. 

tu donneras, thou wilt give. vows e?<?w»ere«, you will give. 
it donnera, he will give. ils donneront,ihejyn\l give. 

1st Conditional. 

Je donnerais, I should give. nous e2on/ierion«, we should g. 
tu donnerais, etc. vous donneriez, etc. 

U donnerait, etc. Us donneraient, etc. 

Imperative Mood. 

Donne, give. donnons, let us give. 

(donnes-^n, (*) give of it). donnez, give. 

*) The Imperative Mood of the first conjugation takes an s, 
when followed by en (of it, of them), or y (to or of it, to them). 
Ex.: offres'en, offer of it; penses-y, think of it. 

58 Lesson 26. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Donner, to give. de or a donnefy to give. 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que je donne, that I (may) give. que nous donniona, that we 
que tu donnes, etc. (may) give. 

qu'U donne, etc. quevous donniez, etc. 

quUs donnent, etc. 


Que je donnasse, that I (might) que nous donnasaiansy that 

give. we might give. 

quetudonnasaeSf etc. qus vous donnassiez, 

qu'U donndt, etc. quHls donnassent, 

Present. Past. 

Donnantf giving. DannS, f. donnSe, given. 

en donnant, by giving, etc. 

Compound Tenses. 

In active verbs, these are formed with the Part, past 
and the auxiliary avoir, to have. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Avoir dannS, to have given. 

Indicative Mood. 

Perfect (Compound of the Present), 

J^ai donne, I have given. 
tu as donnij thou hast given. 
il a donne, he has given. 

nous avons donni, we have given. 
vous avez donne, you have given. 
Us ont donne, I .i. i. 
dies ont donk ] *^«y ^*^« «>^«°- 

Pluperfect (Compound of the Imperfect), 
tPavais donni, 1 had given, etc. 

Compound of the Preterite. 
J^eus donne, I had given, etc. 

2nd Future (Compound of the Future). 
J'aurai donni, I shall have given, etc. 

2nd Conditional. 
tPaurais donni, I should have given. 

First Conjugation. 59 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Que faie donni, that I (may) have given. 
Que tu aies donni, that thou (mayest) have given, etc. 

Que feusse donne, that I (might) have given, etc. 

Ayant donni, e, having given. 


1) There is but one way to render the expressions: I 
give, I do give and I am giving, donne: — I was 
giving or I used to give = je donnais, etc. 

2) In the interrogative and negative form, the auxiliary 
to do is not expressed. Ex.: 


Est-ce que je donne ? do I give ? pi. donnons-nous ? do we give ? 

donneS'tu? dost thou giye? donnez-vous? do you give? 

donne-t-U? does he give? donnent-ils? l^othevcive? 

donne-t-elle? does she give? donnent-elles? ] ^°^ 

Je ne donne pas, I do not give. 
tu ne donnes pas, thou dost not give. 
il ne donne pas, he does not give, etc. 


JEst'Ce que je ne donne pas? do I not give? 
ne donnes-tu pas? dost thou not give? 
ne donne-t-il pas? does he not give? etc. 

Ai'je donne? as-iu donni? a-t-il donne? etc. 
Have I given or did I give? 

Je n^ai pas donne, tu n'as pas donni, etc, 

ITai-je pas donne? n'as-tu pas donni? etc. 

Conjugate in the same manner: parler, to speak; porter, 
to carry, to take; admirer, to admire; aimer, to love, etc. 
NB. Je is apostrophed before a vowel, as: j*aime, j^admire. 

Aimer, to love, like. desirer, to desire. 

apporter, to bring. couter, to cost. 

pleurer, to cry. cacher, to hide, 

manger, to eat. trouver, to find. 

quand? when? souvent, often. 

demeurer, to live, dwell. acheter, to buy. 

go Lesson 27. 

Exercise. 51. 

/ Nous aimons nos parents, z Ce livre cotite trois firancs. 

J Je mangerai de bon pain, ylls apporteront ces gants anx hommes. 

3^Nous parlions avec (with) eet enfant. i^Quand mangerez-yons ce 
fruit? 7 Les maltres aiment leurs ^coliers. ?Cet enfant pleure-t-il 
souvent ? f Oil ont-ils cache mes livres ?/aPortez ce crayon k mon 
fr^re.//N*ayez-yoas pasmang^ de bonne yiande?>tNoas mangerons 
ces pommes ce soir (evening) ys D6sirent-il8 ces plumes ?^^n 
tronvera son ami dans la chambre de son p^re.^'^Les fillesde 
ce marchand pleurent souvent. ^^Tu manges tonjours.^Aimez 
Yos parents, mes enfiants. /^Je portais cette lettre k notre 
voisinyf De qui (whom) parliez-vous ce matin (moming)%mSon^ 
parlions de notre oncle.vQuand avez-vous trouvd cechapeau? 

u.Qu'il parle.z3Qn*il parld,t.^^Vous trouv&tes.trll apportaje^Ils 

Exercise. 52. 

V This woman loves her son.^Do you eat pears ?^ We find 
our books JoShe speaks French ji/ Does he often cry?jtLet him 
speak4&We should love our parents.j^You will eat some good 
cheese. 3i*They were speaking to my father. j^Whero did he 
hide your pen?^How much did this house and garden cost? 

SJ-Did they not speak to this man?3^Do you like fruit? f^^e 
shall eat some bread«^I was admiring that flower. fccOarry 
this letter to his friend. ^3How much did that inkstand cost? 

vj^It cost 21 francs in Lyons. y^id they find their friends? 

^toThey found their friends in our garden.^^^^Do these children 
often cry?vfMy neighbour's child was crying. y^e found this 
dog in the street (la rue). s^Jjo. which street does your uncle 
live?s7l have not spoken to the master. 5Z You will find your 
books on the tablcn Bring ns 4 pounds of pears»Do your 
friends live in this street ?i^'We shall buy many presents for 
(pour) our children^Would they not have bought this palaoe? 

f7My uncle used to live in this street. iieM'* Smith has bought 
all these trees.^;^ That gold watch has cost too much money. 

♦* Where did they hide my hat?^When shall you desire this 
book?ciThey would buy some black cloth. <*AVhere did you 
find these white gloves ?^Let us buy some oranges. 


Bemarks on the orthography of some verbs of the first 


Certain regular verbs in -er are, for the sake of 
euphony, liable to the following modifications. 

Remarks to the Ist Co^jngation. 61 

1) Some verbs ending in -fer as: jeter^ to throw; 
rejeter, to throw back; and those polysyllabic verbs end- 
ing in e?er, as: appder, to call; venouvehr, to renew, 
etc., doable the t or {, when they are followed by an e 
mate. This is the case in some persons of the Present, 
Fnture and Imperative, viz.: 

Present, Imperative. Future. 

Je jeWe — nous jetons. je*fe. je jefferai. 

tu je^tos — vous jetez. pi. jetons. tu jefferas. 

il jette — ils je^tent. jetez. etc. 

J*appe2le — nous appelons. appe^e. j'appellerai. 

tn appeites — voas appelez. pi. appelons. tu appelteras. 

il appelle — ils appei^i^ent, appelez. etc. 

NB, The verb acheter, to buy, is not coDJugated in this 
manner; it never doubles the t, but takes the grave accent d: 

Pres. j^achdte, tu achates, il ach^e, nous achetons, vous 
aehetez, ils ach^ent. 

Fut. j'ach^erai. Imper. ach^e, pi. achetez. 

2) Dissyllabic verbs ending in eler^ as: geler^ to 
freeze, and all others that have an a mate in the last 
syllable bat one, such as: 

mener, to lead; lever, to lift up, 

take the grave accent hy when the final consonant of the 
root is followed by an e mate. Ex.: 

Infinitive: mener, to lead. 

Pres, Je mdne, tu mdnes, il mdne, nous manons, vous menez, 
ils mdnent. Imper f. Je m^nais, tu menais etc. 

Fut, Je mdnerai, tu mdneras. Imp. mdne, menons, menez. 

The same change takes place with those verbs which 
have on the last syllable bat one the accent aigu. They, 
however, retain the e in the Future and Conditional. 

Infinitive: espSrer, to hope. 

Pres, J'esp^re, tu espdres, il esp^re, nous esp^rons, vous 
esp^rez, ils esp^ent. Imperf. J'esp^rais. 

Imper. Esp^e, esp^rons, esp^rez. Fut. J'^spererai. 

Such are: prSferer, to prefer; possider, to possess etc. 

3) In verbs ending in -grei*, es: juger^ to judge; par- 
tager^ to share or divide, the e is retained in those tenses 
where g is followed by the vowels a or o, in order to 

62 Lesson 27. 

give the g the same soft sound as in all other tenses 
and persons. Ex.: 

Infinitive: manger, to eat. 

Pres, Je mange, — pi. nous mangcons. P. pr, mangeant. 
Impf. Je mangeais, ta mangeais, il mangeait, nous mangions, 

vous mangiez, 0s mangeaient. 
Pret, Je mangeai, tu mangeas, il mangea, nous mange&mes, 

vous mang6^tes, ils mang^rent. Imp. mangeons. 
Part. past. mang^. 

4) In verbs ending in -cer, as: commencer^ to begin, 
a cedilla must be placed under the c, when this letter 
is followed by a or o. Ex.: 

Infinitive: pUicer, to place. 

Pres. Je place, tu places etc. — pi. nous plapons etc. 
Impf. Je pla(».is, tu plapais, il pla^^it, nous placions, vous 

placiez, ils plapaient. Imper. plains etc. 
Pret. Je pla$;ai, tu pla^^s, il pla(^, nous pla^mes etc. 
Part. pres. pla^ant. — Pari, passe: plac^. 

5) Verbs ending in ^ayer^ ^oyer^ "V/yer change the 
y into i, whenever the letter y is immediately followed 
by an e mute. Such are: 

payer, to pay. employer, to employ. 

effrayer, to frighten. essuyer, to mpe. 

Pres. Je paie, tu paies, il paie, pi. nous payons, vous payex, 
ils paient. Part. pr. pay ant. P. passi: payi. 

J^emploie, tu emploies, il emplolent, pi. nous employons, 
vous employez, ils emploient. P. pr. employant. 

J'essnie, tu essuies etc. — pL ils essuient. ^, 

Impf. Je payais etc. — pi. nous payions, vous payiez etc, 

J'employais etc. — pi. nous employions etc. 

J'essuyais etc. — pi. nous essuyions etc. 
Fut. Je paierai etc.; j'emploierai etc.; j^essulerai etc. 
Imper. Paie — payez ; employe — employez ; essuie — essnyez. 

6) Verbs which in the Infinitive end in ier, as: prier, 
to pray; crier, to cry, are in some cases spelt with a 
double ii. This takes place in the 1st and 2nd persons 
plural of the Imperfect of the Indicative, and of the 
Present of the Subjunctive. Ex.: 

Infinitive: aublier, to forget. 

Indie. Imperf. pi. nous oubHions, vous onbliiez, ils oubliaient. 
Suljj. Pres. pi. que nous priions, que vous priiez etc. 

Second GonjugatioD. 63 

La cerise, cherry. la pierre, the stone. 

le cousin, \ - penser d, to think of. 

la cousine, fj ^°^®^^* prefSrer, to prefer. 

la mart, death. regarder, to look at. 

V6cole (f.), school. presque, almost. 

la main, hand. travaiUer, to work. 

tovjours, always. 

Exercise. 58. 

/ J*ach^te des cerises. tNoas menons ce chien k cet homme. 

3 A qui (whom) pensez-vous?^Ne jetez pas ces pierres. ^-Ce 
gar^on jette des pierres dans le jardin du roi. ^Mon fils tra- 
vaille toujoiirs. 7 Begardez cette femme-lk. ^Ils poss^dent nne 
belle maison.f II pr6f6re ces livres./^Esp6re.//Esp6rons./?Mon 
cousin et ma cousine mangent de bon pain./jll ne mangea 
pas^yN^ous commencerons demain'.^ous commeuQons aujourd'hui. 

/* Tu pla9a8. /^e marchand emploie beaueoup d*hommes./fNous 
mange&mes./f Essuie. ^^ous oubliiez. 

Exercise. 54. 

'Z'/How many pupils are there in this school ?i£rhere are 
342.L%He was always thinking of his friend. 2 vHe prefers 
death.2rThose men are always working.24He has given almost 
all his money to our neighbour's children.z^How many men 
does this merchant employ li^o not throw stones. ijThis man 
possesses many horses. joHe hopes to have some new books. 

J/They are leading this horse to my cousin. 3 i-Lift up your 
hands. I^et us not judge. J^hich book does he prefenjiThey 
hope^We hope.37We shall buy some cherries. j^ou would 
buy some apples. ^^ Shall we not eat?^^ placed this book on 
the table. V^hey commenced yesterday. ^(zWe commence to-day. 

V3Do not frighten those birdsi^i^How much did he pay for this 
book?frGive me some money. y4This girl always forgets her 
books.y>Did they employ many men?v|Pray to God. 

Second Conjugation: ftnir, to finish. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Je finis, I finish. PI. nous finissons, we finish. 
tu finis, thou finishest. vous finissez, you finish. 

U finit, he finishes. Us finissent, \,, « • u 

eOe fifUt, she finishes. elles finissent, f ^'^^^ ™^^*^- 

64 Lesson 28. 


Je finissais, I finished. notis finisHans, we finished. 

tu fmissais, etc. vous finissiez, etc. 

U finissait, etc. Us finissaientf etc. 


Je finiSf I finished. nous fintmes, we finished. 

iu finiSy etc. ' vous finttes, etc. 

il finit, etc. Us finirent, etc. 

1st Future. 

Je fmirai, I shall finish. ntms/iniroiM, we shall fifush. 

tu finiraSf etc. vous finirez, etc. 

tZ finira, etc. tZ^ /^niron^, etc. 

Ist ConditionaL 

Je fmirais, I should finish. nous Hnirians, we should f. 

tu fmirais, etc. wti^ finiriez, etc. 

fi finirait, etc. iZ$ /^niraien^, etc. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Finir, to finish. cZ6 or d /$nir, to finish. 

Imperative Mood. 

FiniSf finish. finissanSj let ns finish. 

finissez, finish. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. , 

Que je finisse, that I (may) que nous finiMions, thAt wq " 

finish. finish. 

que tu finisses, etc. que vous finissiez^ etc. 

quHl finisse, etc. qu^Us finissentf etc. 


Qtie je finisse, that I (might) que nous finissionSf that we 

finish. (might) finish. 

que tu finisses, etc. que vous finisaiez, etc. 

qu'U fintt, etc. qu'Us finissent, etc. 

Present. Past. 

Finissantf finishing. JF^ni, f. finie, finished. 

en finissant, by finishing, etc. 

First Conjugation. 65 

Gpmpotind Tenses. 

Infinitive Mood. 
4.P^r fini, to have finished. 

Indicative Mood. 


J^ai fini, 1 have finished. 

tu (18 fini, thou h9At finifiih^d, 

il a fi^i, he has finished. 

fums awms fini, we have finished, etc. 

J^Qvai9 fi^if I had finished, etc. 

Compound of the Preterite. 
JTeus fini, I had finished, etc. 

2nd Future. 
J^aurai fini, I shall have finished, etc. 

2nd Conditional. 
J'aurai fini, I should have finished, etc. 

Snbjnnctive Mood. 

Qm faie fim, that I (may) have finished, etc. 

Qt4e feusse fim, that I (might) have finished, etc. 


Ayant fim, having finished, etc. 

Conjugate in the same manner: hdtir, to build; choisir, 
to choose; remplir, to fill, fulfil, etc. 


The verb hair, to hate, loses in the Present and 
Imperative singular its diaeresis. Otherwise it is quite regu- 
lar and retains the two dots. 

Pres. Je hais, tu hais, 11 hait, nous haYssons, vous halssez, etc. 

Imper. Hais; pi. halssons, ha^issez. Pret. Je hats, I hated. 

Punir, to punish. le devoir, the duty. 

choisir, to choose. le theme, the exercise. 

bdtir, to build. on, one (pronoun), they, people. 

scUir, to soil, dirty, le travaU, the work. 

otto-Wright, Elementary French Grammar. 5 

66 Lesson 29. 

Exercise. 55. 

/ Hon oncle bditira nne belle maison. ^Le maltre punit les 
^coliers.3 Avez-vous choisi du drap ? y Yons saJirez vos habits. 

jr Jean a fini son th^me. i» Eemplissez tos devoirs, y Nous bau- 
sons cet bomme. (^uand finira-t-il sa version?^ J'ai cboisi 
nne belle rose. /o On bditira ici.//Qael cbapeau cboisira-t-il ? 

^vNous punissons ce gar9on./sNons n'avons pas fini nos tb^mes. 

Exercise. 56. 

/¥ Wben will be build his house ?/rI have fulfilled my 
duty. / 4 We have punished this bad hoy, //We dirtied our 
coats and hats. /f-They will build several houses in this street. 

/^Have they not finished their exercises? 2 ol shall finish my 
translation in a half an hour. i/ Has he not finished his work? 

22. They are choosing some black cloth.xiLet us fulfil our duty. 

^JiDo not dirty your hats.z5*They were building many new 
houses. 2 4They did not choose the best apples. e^Did the master 
punish the idle boy?zf-Would they build some large houses? 


Third Conjugation: Vendref to sell. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present Tensse. 

Je vends, I sell. nous vendons, we sell. 

tu vends, thou sellest. vous vendez, you sell* 

U vend, he sells. Us vendent, \ ,, « 

elle (on) vend, she (one) sells, elles vendent, I ^ 


Je vendais, I sold. nous vendions, we sold. 

tu vendais, thou soldst. vous vendiez, you sold. 

U vendait, he sold. Us vendaient, they sold. 


Je vendis, I sold. nous vendimes, we sold. 

tu vendis, etc. vous vendues, etc. 

U vendit, etc. Us vendirent, etc. 

1st Future. 

Je vendrai, I shall sell. nous vendrans, we shall sell. 

tu vendras, etc. vous vendrez, etc. 

U vendra, etc. Us vendrant, etc. 

1st ConditionaL 

Je vendrais, I should sell. nous vendrians, we should selL 
tu vendrais, etc. vous vendriez, etc. 

U vendrait, etc. Us vendraient, etc. 

Third Conjugation. 67 

Imperative Mood. 

VendSj sell. vendans, let ns sell. 

vendez, sell. 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que Je t^ende, that I (may) sell, que nam vendiona, that we 

(may) sell. 

gue tu vendee, etc. que vous vendiez, etc. 

gu'U vende, etc. qu'Us vendent, etc. 


Qiie^6t;enc2i«86, that I might sell, que nous vendissians, 
que tu vendisses, etc. que vous vendisaiez. 

qu'U vendtt, etc. quHls vendissent. 


Present. Past. 

Vendant, selling. Vendu, f. vendtie, sold. 

en vendant, by selling. 

Gompoand Tenses. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Avoir vendUf to have sold. 

Indicative Mood. 


eT'ai vendu, I have sold. 

tu as vendu, thou hast sold. 

U a vendu, he has sold. 

nous avons vendu, we have sold, etc. 

J^avais vendu, I had sold, etc. 

J* BUS vendu, I had sold, etc. 

2nd Future. 

J'aurai vendu, I shall have sold, etc. 

2Dd Conditional. 

J'aurais vendu, I should have sold, etc. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Que faie vendu, that I (may) have sold, etc. 


68 Leseon 29. 

Qiie feusse venulUj that I (might) have sold, etc 


Ayavd vendu, having sold. 

Conjugate after this model : perdre, to lose, aUendre, to wait, 
to expect; r^ondre, to answer, etc. 


1) The verb battre, to beat, is regularly coxgngated, 
only in the singular of the Present Indicative and in the Lih 
perative mood it loses one of its two tt. 

Pres. Je bats, tu hats, il bat, nous battons, vooa battea^ itc 
Imper. Bata. Fart. Battu. 

2) The verb rwnpre, to break, is conjugated in the 
Pres, Indicative as follows: 

je romps, tu romps, it rompt, n(ms rompons^ etc. 

3) The verb Hre, to laugh, is also conjugated after the 
8rd conjugation: 

Pres. Je ris, tu m, U rU, nous rions, vous riee, Ua rimii, 
Pret. Je ris, tu ris, it rit, notis rimes, vous rites, Us rirmit. 
Fui. Je rirai etc. 
The Part, past is ri, Part. pres. riant. 

In the same manner: sourire, to smile. 

4) Candure, to conclude, is regular, as: 

Pres. Je conclus, tu conclus, U conclut, n(ms conchums, etc. 
Fut. Je conclurai. 
Part. past. Conclu. 

Only in the Preterite, it makes je condus (not je candnUs). 

Entendre, to hear. descendre, to come down* 

attendre, to wait for, expect, perdre, to lose. 

dSfendre, to forbid, defend. Vennemi, m., the enemy. 

ripondre, to answer. le Soulier, the shoe. 

le taUleur, the tailor. la hotte, the boot. 
pauvre, poor. * le bruit, the noise, report. 

le fusit, the gun. pourquoi? why? 

Exercise. 57. 

/ J'entends un grand bruit, til perdit tout son argent. 

^ lis vend rout leurs maisons et leurs jardins. vCe marchand vend 
beaucoup de drap.i^Votre pdre a-t-il vendu son chfttean? 

C Les soldats d^fendent la ville. 7 N'avez-vous pas r^pondn k 
cette lettre ? ? Quand descendrez- vous ? f L*ennemi a perdu 
2463 soldats./ oAvez-vous entendu le bruit de ce fusil?// Le 

Pronouns. 69 

tailleur yendait de bon drap. I Bs ont vendn lenr chevanx. 
£^Ils perdirent leurs souliers. 3 Oil a-t-il perdu ses bottes? yCes 
pauvres femmes ont perdn lears enfants. i^ Vous perdez vos 
livres toujours. Ulls n avaient pas vendu lenrs maisons. y Get 
faomme perdit sa montre. Sils vendraient leurs chftteaox. 

Exercise. 58. 

f We shaU sell our horses. /oHe sells wine. //Does she not 
sell flowers ? /iWould the merchant sell his cloth ? laHe sold 
all his cloth yesterday./)^ This man used to sell boots and 
shoes.//"I have not sold all the trees in the garden. /6Did she 
not hear the noise of those boys? //That poor old woman will 
have sold her fruit./^ heard a great noise in the street. 

'f Answer his letter to-morrow. idPV^e shall answer his letter 
to-day. 27 Why has the tailor not sold all his cloth ?2e0ur 
soldiers will defend the town.zjWhere did he lose his hat? 

% He lost his hat in the street. z^We heard the report of a 
gmut^Those boys are always laughing. 2yWhy did she laugh? 

If" When will he sell his watch ? xf^^ expect our friends to-day. 

yo Did they not expect their father ? j/This poor tailor has lost 
much money.izDo you hear that noise in the street? 3 il have 
not laughed. 3^e smiled.3S^Why did they beat that poor dog? 

34D0 not beat that poor animal. 3^ shall wait for my brother. 

^^Would they have sold their houses if {si) we had been here ? 

I^We lose too much time, y^he would answer your letter if she 
had any paper. 


There are six sorts of pronouns called : 1) personal 
pronouns, 2) demonstrative, 3) possessive, 4) in- 
terrogative, 5) relative, 6) indefinite prononns. 

Personal Prononns. 

Personal pronouns are those which directly refer to, 
and supply the place of a person or a thing. There are 
three persons: the first is the person who speaks; the 
second is the person spoken to; the third is the person 
spoken of. With these pronouns it must be observed 
whether they are intimately connected with, or governed 
by a verb, as: I speak, we go, I give you etc.; if this 
be the case, they are conjunctive (pronomB eonjtmts); 
or if they are employed by themselves or with a pre- 
position; in this case they are termed disjunctive 
(pronoms disjoints). We begin with the latter. 

70 Lesson 30. 

Deolensioii of the ditsQiiiiotiTe personal Pronouns. 

Ist Person. 

G. de nun, of or from me. G. de fWUSj of or from us. 
D. d moif to me, me. D. a nous, to us, us. 

2nd Person. 

S. N. \ -^ / thou. PL N. \ ^ 

A. / ^' { thee. A. / ^^' ^^^^ 

G. de My of or from thee. 6. de vous, of or from yotu 

D. d <oi, to thee. D. d vows, to you. 

8rd Person. 

G. de luiy of or from him. G. e?'cw:p, of or from them. * 

D. d 2ui^ to him, him. D. d e««a;, to them, them. 


G. ffdle, of or from her. G. d'eUes, of or from them. 

D. d e^, to her. D. d e/Z^a, to them. 

Sing, and PZur. Masc, and ^em. 

N. & A. Sai, one's self, itself, etc. 

Gen. de soi, of or from one's self, etc. 

Dat. d soi, to one's self, to itself, etc. 


Qui a dU cela? Moi, lui, elle, nous, — Pas moi, etc. 

Who has said this? I, he, she, we, — Not I, etc. 

Cest pour moi, — pour toi, — pour elle, etc. 
That is for me, — for thee, — for her, etc. 

Je parle de toi, de vous, d'elles, d'eux, etc, 

I speak of thee, of you, of them, of them, etc. 

Nous pensons d lui, d vous, d eux, etc. 
We think of him, of you, of them, etc. 

1) All these disjunctive pronouns may, in all casee^ 
take -meme, pi. -memes, whenever in English the word self 
is joined to a pronoun. Ex.: 

S. moi-^neme, (I) myself. PI. nous-memes, ourselves. 
toi-meme, thyself. vous-meme, yourself. 

lui-meme, himself. vous-'tnemes, yourselves. 

eUe-meme, herself. eux-mimes, { ., , 

soirfneme, one's self. elles-memes, I ®"^®^v®8- 

ConjnnctiTe personal Pronouns. 71 

2) When stress is laid upon personal pronouns, they are 
often preceded by c'est, c'etait etc., as in English: 

S. c*est maif it is I. PI. c'est nous^ it is we. 
c'est toi, it is thou. c'est vaus^ it is you. 

e^est luiy it is he. ce sont eux \ -x • ^ 

c'est eUCj it is she. ce sont elks, / " ^ ^^^ 

Interrog. Est-ce moi? Is it I? Est-ce vous? Is it you? etc. 

3) 8oi is only used of mankind in a general sense, and of 
inanimate objects in the singular. Ex.: 

DoU-an toujours penser a soi? Ought one always to think 
of one's self? 

Le iMy tea. avec, with. 

le cafe, coffee. entre, between. 

la hofirsCy purse. qui? who? 

la legon, the lesson. ni — wi, neither — nor. 

le paysan, the peasant. sans, without. 

dg^, old. 

Exercise. 59. 

/ Qui a feit ce bruit ? t Moi, toi, lui. 3 H parle de moi. 
y Donnez-lui de I'argent. y II est plus ftg6 que moi. (o Nous 

n'avons pas pens6 k toi.^Ni moi ni lui. ^Qui a de bon th6? 
f Elle, eux, elles. /# Avec vous. // Entre nous. / zSans lui. / iD'est 

moi./f^Qui a perdu cette bourse ?/rElle./^on p6re et moi 

nous avons vu ce chien. 

Exercise. 60. 

/^Who has done that?/fl, he, she./SJohn is older than we. 
l,oDo not always think of yourself. i/Does your cousin live with 
you?2.2yes, he lives with us. i^ho is this man?^JHas John 
finished his exercise ?^s his lesson easy?^4Did you like the 
coffee ?ijMy brother and I have bought a large house. tiDid 
he speak of me or {ou) of you ?2L9He spoke of her. jdtVho is 
there (Za)?3/It is I, we.jds it you, John?j]5Ve have eaten 
the fruit ourselves. 3yrhis hat is for her. jjN^either you nor I. 


ConjnnctiTe personal Pronouns. 

These are declined as follows: 

1st Person. 2nd Person. 

S.N.Je, I. PI. nous, we. 
G. (wanting). 

D. me, (to) me. nous, (to) us. 

A. me, me. nous, us. 

S. Tu, thou. PI. vous, you. 

te, (to) thee, vows, (to) you. 
te, thee vous, you. 

72 Lesson 31. 

8rd Person. 
Maac. Fenu 

S. Elle, she. PI. eOes, they. 

(en), of her. (en), of them. 

lui, (to) her. Zettr,totheni. 

la, her, it. les, tkem. 

S. N. II, he. PI. ifo, they. 
G. (en), of him. (eu), of them. 
D. ^m, (to) him. Zct*r, to them. 
A. le, him, it. les, them. 

ifo^c. and Fern. 

N. on, one, they, man. 

D. se, to one*s self, to themselves. 

A. se, one's self, itself, themselves. 

The difficulty in the use of the conjonctiV^ personal 
pronouns is merely in their proper position. The prin- 
cipal rules are these: 

A. With one pronoun. 

1) The nominative cases je, tu, U, eUe, nous^ vaus^ 
Us or eUes, usually precede the verb of which they are 
the subject; in an interrogative sentence, however^ they 
are placed immediately after the verb. Ex.: 

Je pense, I think. nous parlons, we speak. 

tu esperes, thou hopest. vaus jouee, you play. 

Interrog. Finis-tu, dost thou finish? 
Jofie-t-eUe, does she play? 
Parlee-vous frangais, do you speak French? 

2) The dative and accusative are placed imme- 
diately before the verb in a simple tense, and before 
its auxiliary in a compound one. Ex.: 

Tu me dis, you tell me. 

Je v€ms donne, I give you. 

Elle m^a ripondu, she has answered me. 

Charles nous a dit, Charles has told us. 

Je les ai vus, I have seen them. 

3) If the sentence is negative, ne is put directly after 
the subject before the governed pronoun, as: 

Je ne vous donne pas, I do not give you. 
Tu ne me connais pas, you do not know me. 
Vous ne les avez pas mi,s, you have not seen thenL 
ElU ne m'a pas r^ondu, she has not answered me. 
Charles ne nous avait pas dit, Charles had not told us. 

4) In the interrogative form, the accusative or dative 
precedes; then follows the verb with its subject. H the 
question is a negative one, ne begins the sentence: 

Me connaisseg-vous, do you know me? 
Me bldme-t-U, does he blame me? 

Conjanctive personal Pronouns. 78 

Les vo%84u, do you see them? 

Vou8 a-t-U ripondu, has he answered you? 

Ne vau8 a-t-il pas repondu, has he not answered you? 

5) When the verb is in the Imperative affirma- 
tive, the governed prononns are pat after it, in French 
as in English. In this case me and te are changed into 
moi and toi for the dative and accusative. Ex.: 

danneg'tnai, give-me. apportez-lui, bring (to) him. 

tnangeS'leSy eat them. parlez-leur, speak to them. 

6) But when the Imperative is negative, the governed 
pronoun precedes the verb. Ex.: 

Ne me donnez pas, do not give me. 
Ne lui apportez pas, do not bring him. 
Ne lea mangez pas, do not eat them. 
Ne leuT parlez pas, do not speak to them. 

B. With two pronouns. 

1) When a verb, which is not in the Imperative affir- 
mative, governs two pronouns, they are both placed 
immediately before the verb, so that the dative comes 
first, and the accusative follows. Ex.: 

Je te le donne, I give it to thee (you). 

H me le donne, he gives it me. 

Louis ms la prete, Lewis lends it me. 

Louis ne m.e la prete pas, Lewis does not lend it to me. 

H nous Vapporte, he brings it (to) us. 

Niyus les apportera-t-il? will he bring them to us? 

Ne nous V apportera-t-il pas? will he not bring it tons? 

On vans le dira, they will tell (it) you. 

On ne vans le dira pas, they will not tell (it to) you. 

2) An exception to the foregoing rule are the two 
datives lui (to him, to her) and leur (to them), which 
always follow the other governed pronoun. Ex.: 

Je le lui donne, I give it him or her. 
Je ne le lui donne pas, I do not give it him. 
Elle les lui donne, she gives them to him. 
Elle ne le lui donne pas, she does not give it (to) him. 
La lui donne-t-elle? does she give it him? 
La leur donnera-t-il? will he give it to them? 
Je ne la leur ai pas donne, I have not given it to them. 
Pourquoi ne la leur pretez-vous pas, why do you not 
lend it to them? 

3) Of two personal pronouns governed by the Im- 
perative affirmative the dative always stands last: 

74 Lesson 32. 

DonneZ'le-maij give it me. 

Apportez-leS'lui (leur), bring tbem to bim (to thenU. 

Pretez-la-nou8, lend it to ns. 

4) Is the Imperative negative, both of them precede 
the verb according to 6), (p. 73) and lui and leur follow 
the accusative according to B, § 2. Ex.: 

Ne me le donnez pas, do not give it me. 

Ne la lui apporfez pas, do not bring it to him. 

Ne les leur envoyez pas, do not send tbem to them. 

Note. Observe that, inanimate things in French being either 
masculine or feminine, the pronouns il, eUe, plur. USy eRes^ 
Ace. le, la, are used accordingly in speaking of such. ThuSi 
speaking of a flower or of flowers {fleur, /*.), we say: 

It is beautiful, eUe est belle. I see it, je la vais, 
T b e y are beautiful, elles sont belles. 

Exercise. 61. 

/ Do they love him? z.Wben shall you sell your houses? 

& We shall not sell them, y He does not know me. ^'^We have 
seen you. t Will he not blame me ? 7 1 shall give you some 
money. I^Did they answer us ? / You will find him in our 
house. /<> Have your finished your lesson ?//No, but I shall finish 
it this evening. /£She would blame me. /jWe gave them ten 
francs. /yi have not seen her. /d)id you not hear him?/4Ha8 
he forbidden it?/^We have not written to her/^His brother 
will expect me to-morrow. //Speak to her.^•Do not speak to 
them.iyGive them some good wine. ^^ Do not give him any 
wine. luring him a new hat.zyDo not give her all the bread. 

2|We have not seen them here. 

Exercise. 62. 

z%He will have given it to me.t^We shall lend them to 
her.irt gave it to Rim.^fWe lent you them.J#Will she have 
given it to them ?j/ Would she not have given it to them? 

JL Do not send them to him.JIS Is that rose beautiful ?i)^ Yes, it 
is very beautifuUi"Why have you not lent it to them ?|$ Has 
he given him these gloves? 3^ Yes, he has given him them. 

I^^He has not given them to her.'^^He has lent me five francs. 

V^dl should not have given him all my money. 

LESSON xxxn. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

Masc. Fern. 

Celui, cdle, this, that. 

PI. ceux, cedes. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 7^5 

Maac. Fern, 

celui'Ci, ceUe-ci, this, the latter. 

PJ. ceux-ci, ceUes-dy these. 

celui'lct, ceUe-ldy that (one), the former. 

PI. ceuop-ld, celles-ld, those. 

(Gdui qui is rendered he who, the one which). 

Ce, c* and cela (abridged go), that; ced, this. 

NB, The pronouns he, she, — they, preceding a relative 
must be translated by celui, celle, — ceux, ceUes. Ex. : celui 
qui, he who, ceUe qui, she who, or that which; ceux qui, ceUes 
qui, they who, or those which. 

1) These pronouns are used with the preposition de, 
instead of the English possessive case, when the govern- 
ing noun is not expressed. Ex. : 

Mon chapeau et celui de mon frhre. 

My hat and my brother's (that of my brother). 

Je parle de celuird, vous parlez de celui-ld. 
I speak of this, you speak of that one. 

2) Ge, c* (with the verb etre) this or that; ced, this, 
and cela, that, are a sort of neuter pronouns: 

Est-ce Id voire plume? is that your pen? 

Out, c'est ma plutne, yes, this is my pen. 

Sont-ce Id, vos gants? are these your gloves? 

Ce sont mes gants, these are my gloves. 

Je ne veux pas ceci, I do not want this. 

§wc dites-vous de cela^ what do you say of that? 

3) In place of the genitive and dative of ce, ceci, cela, 
ceuoHii and ceux-la, two other conjunctive pronouns, are 
used, viz. en and y. 

a) En is rendered in English by some, of it, of 
them, about it, about them etc. Ex.: 

Voici du jambon: en voulez-vous? 
Here is ham, will you have some? 

tPen prendrai un petit morceau. 
I shall take a little bit o^ it. 

Je lui en ai donnS. I have given him some of them (it). 

JDonnez-m' en — dormez-lui^en. 
Give me some — give him some. 

b) Y corresponds to the English to it, to them, in 
it, in them, therein etc. Ex.: 

Voire pere est-U au jardin ? — Oui, U y est. 

Is your father in the garden? Yes, he is there. 

76 Lesson 33. 

Ty vais aussi, I shall go there, too. 
T pensez-vous? Do you think of that? 

La visite, the visit. void, here is, here are. 

fe champ, field. presque, almost. 

la couleur, the colour. dejd, already. 

le mois, the month. frapper, to strike. 

la vie, life. porter, to wear. 

Exercise. 68. 

/ Voici votre chapeau et celui de votre fr^re. ^.U a sa 
montre et celle de son p^re. 3 Est-ce Ik votre hapie on celle 
de votre m^re ? / Geux qui sont contents, sont toujours heureux. 
i" Heureux celui qui trouve un vrai ami 1 6 Ce qui est beau 
n'est pas toujours utile. > Celui qui a vendu ce champ , est 
riche. t Get homme a fait une visite h, notre voisin. / Aimez- 
vous la couleur de ces fleurs?/^Nous I'aimons beaucoup. y^La 
vie de Thomme est courte./iNous avons vendu nos maisons 
au mois de mai/jMa tante est-elle d^j^ ici?/>'Il porte un 
chapeau blancv^/^Qui a frapp^ h, cette porte (e^r)?/4 Presque 
tons ces hommes-ci ont perdu leur argent. 

Exercise. 64. 

/7 My brother has lost his pen and his sister's.//rhey have 
lost my gloves and his/^I shall sell my house and my cou- 
sin's. 7 oiBe who is diligent will have much pleasure. ^This 
ink is blacker than that.z^hese hats are white, those are 
black./ vAnswer him who callszyl shall give this watch to 
him who is diligent.^^'To whom do these boots belong ?ztf hey 
are my brother's. 2.>[ prefer the colour of this rose to that. 

tfif (d) you have ^me good wine, bring me a bottle of it. 

2^Have you thought of my gloves ? 3«^es, I have thought of them. 

3/ Were you in the garden? 3 2.Yes, I was there.|5lf you have 

any pears, give me some of them.3yThis is very Deautifdl. 

35^Did you speak of this or of that y4 We spoke neither of this 
nor of that.37Do not give him any. 

LESSON xxxni. 

Interrogative Pronouns. 
1) Lequel? 


Masc. Fern, 

N. dt A, Lequel ? laquelle ? 

6en. duquel? de laquelle? 

Dot. auqnel? k laquelle? 



If am. 







Interrogative Pronouns. 77 

This pronoun is uaad either withoat a noun, or is 
at least separated from it by de; bat it agrees with it 
iu gender and nomber. When iiie pronoun which (of) 
is used interrogatiyely, it is always expressed by legptdf 
hqudU etc, as: 

Foict deux qppartements, iequei choisireM-vous? 
Here are two apartmente, which wilJ you choose? 

Une de ses sceurs est mariee. IMqueUe (est-ce)? 
One of his sisters is married. Which is it? 

IsoquMe de vos icolih'es est tnalade? 
Which of your pupils is ill? 

2) Qui? Quoi? Que? 

Maac, dt Fern. Neuter. 

N<mi. Qui, who? 
0, (Abl.) dequi, whose, of whom, 

from whom? 
Dat. d qui, to whom, whom? 

Ace. qui, whom? 

Que, quoi, what? 

^o ^*,^- I of what? 
d quoif to what, at what? 
que, quoi, what? 

1) The interrogative pronoun qui? is only used of 
persons. Ex.: 

Qui est Id? who is there? 

A qui pretez^ous cela? to whom do you lend this? 
Qui cherchez-vous? whom are you looking for? 
I^r qui est ce crayon? for whom is that pencil? 

2) Whose, when used interrogatively, must be ren- 
dered in French by a qui. Ex.: 

Whose book is this? d qui est ce livrel 

3) Q^e and quoi are neuter. Quoi^ what, is disjunc- 
tiye and used either by itself, or after a preposition, as : 

De quoi parlee-voits? of what are you speaking? 
Sur quoi, upon what? Avec quoi, with what? 

4) Qus? what? is conjunctive^ and is only used before 

verbs, as: 

Que voulez-vous? what do you wish or want? 
Que dit-on? what do people say? 
Que demande-t^l? what does he ask? 

La nation, the nation. la liberU, liberty. 

le chagrin, grief. mdlheureux, unhappy. 

la foret, forest. ohHssant, obedient. 

Varmee, f. army. pas encore, not yet. 

78 Lesson 84. 

Exercise. 65. 

f Whose son is this? I With whom do yon wish to speak? 

J Which of yonr pupils has received a present ?^Here are two 
new books, which do you prefer? 5^hich of these two na- 
tions is the larger? 6Who is there? ^It is an English sol- 
dier, g^o whom did you give this ring ? ^ Of what were you 
speaking ? /^iVTiich of these books have you read? //With what 
have you done that?/LWhich of his sisters has lost her book? 

/ 3 Which of your brothers has not yet finished his exercise? 

//^Who is at the door?/#Which army is itV^ln what forests 
have you been ?/^ Who does not love liberty ?/?Why were 
these children not obedient ?/^o which of these girls have 
you given a franc ?2aPor whom is this new black coat? 

2/What does this merchant sell?l2Whom were they looking 
for?L3To which girls have you lent my pens ?i;^ What book 
have you?zfWhy did this poor woman have so much grief? 

Possessive Pronouns. 

1) The possessive pronouns are formed from the pos- 
sessive adjectives mon, ton, son^ etc. 



Le mien, 

la mienne, mine (my own). 

le tien, 

la tienne, thine. 

le sien, 

la sienne, his, hers, its own. 

le ndtre, 

la ndtre, ours. 

le vdtre, 

la vdtre, yours. 

le leur, 

la leur, theirs. 

PI. les miens, 

les miennes. 

les ndtres 


2) They agree in gender with the object possessed. 


J^ai ma montre, avez-vous la vdtre? 
I have my watch, have you yours? 

Tai la mienne, I have mine. 

Ma sceur a la sienne, my sister has hers. 

Vos frhres ont les leurs, your brothers have theirs. 

Relative Pronouns. 

The interrogative pronouns qtd, quoi and lequd serve 
at the same time as relative pronouns, when they have 
a reference to some other noun or pronoun preceding. 

Relative Pronouns. 79 

The declension ofleqi/telsLndqiwi is the same as on p. 76—77. 
That of quij when relative, diflfers slightly from that of 
the interrogative qui? viz.: 

Sing, and Plur, Mo^c. and Fern, 

Nom. Qui, who, which, that. 

Gen. de qui and dont, whose, of (from) whom, of which. 

Dat. d qui, to whom. 

Ace. que, whom, which, that. 

3) The Nominative qui and the Accusative que are 
indiscriminately used of persons and things for both 
genders and numbers. Ex.: 

Un enfant qui pleure, a child that cries. 
La parte qui est ouverte, the door which is open. 
Le voyayeur que fai quittS, the traveller whom I have left. 
Le chapeau que fai achete, the hat (which) I have bought. 
Les maisons que vous avez vues, the houses (which) you 
have seen. 

j^^. The relative que, whom, which or that, is sometimes 
understood in English, but must always be expressed in French. 

4) The Gen. dont, whose, of which, is used for 
persons and things of both genders and numbers; but de 
quiy from whom or of whom, which is sometimes re- 
quired instead of dont, has only a reference to per- 
sons. Ex.: 

Vhomme — les hommes dont vous parlez. 
The man — the men of whom you speak. 

La lettre — Us lettres dont vous parley. 
The letter — the letters of which you speak. 

V Anglais dont le fUs est ici, the Englishman whose 
son is here. 

Je con/nais la femme dont vous avez regu la lettre, 
I know the woman from whom you have received 
the letter. 

NB. Observe that the noun which is limited by whose, 
must be preceded by the article. If the noun is the object 
of a verb, it must come after that verb, and not immediately 
after dont, as in English. Ex.: 

Le livre dont je ne connais pas le titre (title). 

5) The DcMve to whom referring to persons, is 
rendered by d qui; but when animals or inanimate things 
are spoken of, the Dative to which is rendered by aw- 
quel, a laqueUe, plur. auxquds, auxqudles. Ex.: 

go Lesson 34. 

VoM Vhomme d qui fai prHi mon Uvre. 

There is the man to whom I have lent my book. 

C'est le chien auqtiel vous avez donni d mtmger. 
That is the dog to which you gave to eat. 

VoUq> une occasion d laquelle je ne pensais pas. 
There is an opportunity, I did not think of. 

6) After prepositions, qui is employed of persons, 
hqtidj laquelle of things. Ex: 

Le marchand avec qui fai voyagL 

The merchant with whom I travelled. Bat: 

L^arhre sur lequ^l (not sur qui) je numtai. 
The tree upon which I climbed. 

La clef avec laquelle on ouvrit la porte. 
The key with which they opened the door. 

7) Lequel, laqueUe etc. must also be used instead of 
qui in the Nominative, when the relative is separated 
from its noun by another substantive to which it might 
seem to relate. Ex.: 

La tante de mon ami laquelle demettre d Baris, 
My friend's aunt who lives at Paris. 
(Qui demeure d Paris might relate to «mofi ami*^). 

8) That which, and what, meaning that thing 
which, are expressed by ce qui (or the Nominative, and 
ce que for the Accusative. All that is rendered: Noul 
tout ce qui, Ace. toiU ce que, Ex.: 

What renders men miserable, is cupidity. 

Ce qui rend les hommes miserables, &€k la cupidiU. 

I like all that is fine, faime tout ce qui est beau. 

Do what I tell you, faites ce que je vous dis. 

Exercise. 66. 

f My brother is older than yours. 1 His sister is younger 
than mine.>J John has lost his pens and ours.f^ Here is the 
man who has bought this house. 5^ I have seen the garden 
which they have sold. 6 Our dogs are better than yours. 

^Here are our exercises, where are theirs? PThe boy who 
laughed will be punished./ I have read your letter and his. 

/©Where is your pen, and where is mine? //The man of whom 
you are speaking, is ill. fiTo whom did you sell this dotii? 


Indefinite Pronouns. 

These are used by themselves, without a noon sub- 
stantive. They are: 

on or Von, one, they, people. 

toiU le monde, everybody. 

chacun, f. chacune, each, every-one. 

au<yun, f. auctme, (with ne), none, not one. 

qtielqu^un, f. qttelqu^une, some one, somebody, anybody. 

pi. qmlques^ns, f. qtielques-iineSy some. 

personne (with ne), nobody. 

Vun, e, — Vautre, the one — , the other. 

pi. les uns (unes), — les autres, the one — , the others. 

Vun (Vune) et Vautre, both. 

Vun (Vune) ou V autre, either. 

ni Vun (Vune) ni Vautre, neither. 

Vun (Vune) Vautre, Gen. Vun de Vautre, \ each-other. 

pi. les uns (les unes), les autres, f one another. 

un autre, f. une autre, another. 

d^auires, pi. others, other people. 

autrui (Gen. d'autrui, Dat. d autrui), others, another. 

tel, f. telle, many a (man). 

plusieurs, several. 

la plupart, most (with a following Genitive, as: la 

plupart des hommes, most men). 
quiconqu^e, whoever. 
tout f. toute, all, everything, 
pi. tous, toutes, all. 
quelqu>e chose, something, anything. 
rien (with ne), nothing. 
le, la meme, the same. 


1) L'on is employed instead of on, for the sake of eu- 
phony, after et, si, ou, ou and sometimes after que and mais, Bs.: 

8% Von voit, if one sees. 

But on never takes an V, when followed by le, la or les. Ex. : 

si on le voit, not si Von le voit, 

2) Several of the indefinite numerals (see p. 44) have 
been ennn;Lera.ted here again among the indefinite pronouns, 
because they may be used as such, viz. : aucuM, plusieurs, tout 
and le meme. Ex.: 

Comhien de plumes avez-vous, how many pens have you? 
Je n'en ai aucune, I have none. 
tPen ai plusieurs, I have several. 

Otto-Wright, Elementary French Grammar. Q 

Wi:- h^ 







• • 



1- 1 

r;'.7'«r^, : 




>;. for. 

?2 Lemon 35. 

J.7>^r-r:'Bi.5 aij'fil'i fous les emfamtSg have joa called all the 

r.V - ■« 'v^^'wi i 

'.'■h^. .'f r^ Ji ajj'fui^s toMS, jes, I have called them all. 
? 'W"^*-$?9i9if and riffi are used by themselves, they 
:-.^^7:i t^kr ♦,/, :-: reiain their negatiye meaning, as: 

Vij jr>fr-c»:*.* rrfsvfc^W,^ IVrsoftn^. 


difficile^ difiScult. 
Venrie, f. envy. 
fiMe, faithful. 
la famille, the &mily. 
Tamitie, f. friendship. 

Exercise* 67. 

■ HjTr yru ary:i:i2i^? il have nothing. 5 Everybody likea niju.i. Several :: :iir friends are here.^ Who sung that 
i:«ea-Tinil scnz'r^ have you met?>We have met several 
:: c-r pupils.t Nrb^iy likes ibis K->y.^ Have they any horses? 
oThey have s:ld a", of them. //Was he there ?/«yes, he was 
there. ',> These children love eaoh others Which exercise is the 
most diti:eiili?ArM:s: men think of him./«>How many Mends 
Lis he?/^He has none. ^^ Some are too young, others are too 
cld./'^She has spoken of nobxiy. ztflas he many friends ?2/He 
has a few.iiJ have seen nobody. i3ln this world the one is 
rich, the other p:or. and noK-^dy is contented with (de) what 
he has.iyWhy were they jealous of each other ?2$Has anybody 
been here?2fcGive me a few of those beautiful apples.^ What 
are they doing there ? :#This master does not know all the 
pupils in the school, but he knows several of them.z/One 
ought (doit) to be contented. J oWhoever dirties his copy-book 
(le cahien, will be punished. j^Has he met anyone ?Jt Have 
you seen those two boys?d3l have seen neither of them. 

Exercise. 6$. 

jyHave you seen our new carriage ?«fl have not seen it. 

3^ I shall give them them.yls his uncle far from here%|^ive 
me that letter.3/I shall not give you it.i^oWho is there ?^It 
is I.Vilt is she.fcjit is they.y^Does he love them?1itfHe loves 
nobody. 4«<>Here is a present for you and your sister.^The 
envy of this man is greatyfis this dog faithful ?4(fiave you 
seen the whole family ?5'«We have seen him ourselves.5/Which 
of these books have you read^jtJWhose hat is this %^ To whom 
did they give that inkstand ?5>'I have lost my watch and my 
brother' s.5?sWhat is the name of this child ?5Vl8 this your pen? 

r^It is not mine, it is hers.5^he boy whom we love, is ill. 

ApKHere are two ro8e8.4K>Which of them will you have?%/We 
have not seen the garden which yon have sold.%2That which 


Lesson 36. 83 

is beantifal, is not always good. / 1 shall give this book to him. 
2. Who is the most diligent tJ These girls do not loye each other. 

Exercise. 69.^ 

^ How many trees are there in this garden ? 5*There are 19. 

6 Does he speak English or French ?^He speaks neither. Hs this 
wine old? 9 How old is your father ^cfHe is 52.//In what year 
did you see (have seen) the queen? /J saw her in August 
1867/3 Has this merchant many children ?/yHe has 8, 5 sons 
and 3 daughters. /i*We have bought several yards of black 
cloth from this tailor./lJohn is the 3^** in this class ;/^illiam 
is the last./f-This water is fresher than that./^Thw hat is 
better than yoursa.oDid they not speak to the queen ?2/rhey 
have not spoken to her.z^zjiow many horses shall you buy? 

lH shall buy three.i-jHave these children lost their playthings? 

ijrYes, they have lost them.24Did not our ancestors buUd those 
beautiful cai8tles?i7Have you read the works of Milton ?2^We 
have read some of them.i^All these soldiers have fulfilled their 
duties jD When are the days the shortest ?^/You will lose your 
whole fortune.jijhis man is taller than that.33Give them some 
cold water .3jfts there any oil in that bottle ?jyWe have given 
him some money. 34When will she sing this song? 

Exercise. 70. 

JT? These children are always throwing stones. 3 |Was there 
not too much water in that bottle ?5^ have as many friends 
as you.voYou have made too many mistakes. i»/ Has he no 
money ?vi^es, he has money enough. v^Their sister's friend will 
build a beautiful house in this town.vyThis man has a new 
silk hat.vrl have received something from himi/tWhat have you 
received ?*V[ have received a gold ring.vjWhere did he lose 
his purse? 4Have they not been to Francfort?*TDWhich is the 
larger country, Germany or France ?r/I am going to America 
to-morrow.j*Lln summer we shall live in Paris. 5*3He knows 
that (que) I have not seen her.^Be diligent, my children! 
t^*I am younger than his brother.4-<.Are the windows in this 
house large ?5^ou lose too much time. 

Exercise. 71. 

it\ am not idle.^^he is not idle. 4 Why was she not happy? 

^fl^This tree is very old.iiWhat o'clock is it?63lt is a quarter 

past seven.^^His sister and her father are in the garden. 

yt 80 days.^tThe seventeenth of February 1871j^;'When shall I 

haye my book?6f On Wednesday. ^How many weeks are there 

in a year?7oThe inhabitants of this town are very poorJ/What 


84 Lesson 37. 

day of the month is it to-day?^ To-day is the 25*^^ iAll the 
men are here, ils that orange bitter?^ No (nan), it is very 
sweet.^ The life of man is short. feDo you like white wine? 
7 Yes, I like it.i^ Is your exercise easy or difficult? fit is not 
difficult. /^hese women are old. //Has he a black cosbi^/Ses, 
he has one. 

LESSON xxxvn. 

Exercise. 72. 

/ 3 Did they not give him good advice ?^J«We have seen several 
large vessels/fHow much does this coffee cost?/56lt costs three 
francs./? I have lost my dear friend. /fWas he a brave man? 

/^He was a very good man.2oA mean man is always discon- 
tented. 2/ This pen is better than that.uB[e is happier than I. 

^3These men are not as rich as you.i.yWhere do we find the 
highest mountains ? 2rHis youngest brother has received a 
beautiful present.tikis it prettier than mine?2>It is prettier 
than yours. II- We have eaten some good butter.^^ Would they 
not buy a large house ?joThey have not any money.)/ This 
merchant employs many menjzPo not eat these pears; they 
are bad.^^I think of you. 3^0 not look at him.jf»Toa have 
dirtied your hat.34Are these cherries fresh ?j5Yes, they are 
fresh.3|fl prefer these pens to those. a^When shall you finish 
your exercise?^ shall finish it in a half an hour. y/They 
were building a church in this street. yiWhy do they build 
here?^3^!ere are two pens; which of them will you choose? 

VyWe were laughing.f4T)o not laugh. ^W^ith what did he beat 
that dog?v^Have you answered his letter ?yf Yes, I have 
answered it.^9You will lose everything. 

Exercise. 73. 

ST^ Have they concluded peace ?57The tailor is waiting for 
youjxl heard a great noise.5^Will these soldiers defend the 
town%j«Is it you, John?^>iVhich do you prefer tea or coffee? 

f%l neither drink (bois) tea nor coffee. dJ^Who speaks of me? 

^*|>I speak of you.i^ Speak to them. ^0 Do not speak to them. 

to/ Will he not give those books to us?*2He will give them to 
you.to3Send him three pounds of cherries.6>rDo they like this 
beer^tofNo, they do not like it.66This book is mine, that is 
yours.4^Is that your pen?6^o, it is hers.4ft^Do you like. the 
colour of this cloth ?7tfYes, I like it. JV Whose pen is thi8^2Jt 
is mine.^^iOf what shall I speak ?^Speak of him^yHow many 
soldiers are there in this army?x3?bere are 90,000.^:Hav6 you 
seen the merchant with whom I travelled?/^ A have not seen 
hiuL^^To which of his daughters did you give a franc? g/Co 

Passive Verbs. 85 

which of these two boys have you given a book? /I have 
given a book to neither of them. i.We thought of our friends 
who were in Paris, j Give a few of these cherries to those 
children. yDo not give any to them. i^They are not as dili- 
gent as our neighbour's children. 

LESSON xxxvm. 

Passive Verbs. 

Passive verbs are formed, in French as in English, 
by joining the Participle past of an active verb to the 
auxiliary verb etre, to be; for instance: of the verb 
donner, the passive voice is itre danne^ to be given; 
of finir: Stre Jini^ to be finished, etc. It is to be ob- 
served, that in French, the Participle past varies accord- 
ing to the gender and number of the noun or pronoun 
which stands as the nominative to the verb. 

Conjugation of a passiye Verb. 

Infinitive Mood. 
TStre louS, to be praised. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Je suis louS or louSe, I am praised. 

tu es loue or lou^y thou art praised. 

%L est louS, he is praised. 

die est lotiee, she is praised. 

fuyus sommes hues or louees, we are praised. 

votis etes loms or louees, you are praised. 


J'ttais huS or louee, I was praised. 
tu itais loue or louee, etc. 

it itait loue, etc. 

eUe itait louee, etc. 

Je fu8 hue or hu^e, I was praised, etc. 

1st Future. 
Je serai hu6 or louee, I shall be praised, etc. 

1st Conditional. 
Je serais hue or louee y I should be praised, etc. 

86 Lenon 38. 

Imperative Mood. 

Sois hmS or louSe, be praised. 

9ey(m$ Umis or louSes, let ns be praised. 

soye$ l(m6 or Umie, be praised. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Qtie je sois lou6 or latiie, that I (may) be praised^ etc. 

Qtie je fusse lotti or lauSe, that I (might) be praised, etc. 

iMnt lou6 or loide, being praised. 

Compoond Tenses. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Av^r it€ iauS, e, to have been praised. 

Indicative Mood. 


cTai its louS, e, I have been pi-aised. 

tu as M hid, e, thou hast been praised, etc. 

tPavais Sti louSy e, I had been praised, etc. 

Compound of the Preterite. 
J*eus etc lotd, e, 1 had been praised, etc. 

2nd Future. 
J^aurai Hi loui, e, I shall have been praised, etc. 

2nd Conditional. 
J'aurais Hi Umi, e, I should or I would have been praised, etc. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Que faie iti loui, e, that I (may) have been praised, etc. 

Que feusse iti hue, e, that I (might) have been praised. 

Participle. Past. 
Ayant iti hue, e, having been praised. 

The English preposition by, with the passive voice, is 
to be rendered by de, when the verb denotes a sentiment or 
an inward act of soul, and by par, when it expresses an 
outward action, which is mostly the case. Ex.: 

Passiye Verbs. 87 

He is esteemed by everybody. 
II est estimi de tout le monde. 

The city of Troy was taken by the Greeks. 
La vUle de Traie fut prise par les Grece, 

H enter or intransitiTe Verbs. 

Among the neuter verbs there are some which take 
Mre in the compound tenses instead of avoir. Ex. : Hre 
arrive^ to have arrived. These are conjugated as follows. 

Pres. J'arrive. Fut, J'arriverai. 

Imperf. J'arrivais. Cond, J'arriverais. 

Pret, J*arrivai. 


Je 9ui8 arrivi or anrivie, I have (am) arrived. 
tu e$ arrivS or arrivee, etc. 

J^itais arrivS or arrivSe, I had arrived, etc. 

2nd Future. 
Je serai arrivS or arrivee, I shall have (be) arrived, etc. 

2nd Conditional. 

Je serais arrivi or arrivee, I should have arrived, etc. 

Such are: eire dlU, to have gone. 

etre sorti, to have gone out. 
etre tomhe, to have fallen. 
etre venu, to have come. 
etre reste, to have remained. 

Tuer, to kill. le hot, the ball. 

inviter, to invite. demolir, to demolish. 

blesser, to wound. la hataille, the battle. 

maltraiter, to ill-treat. 

Exercise* 74. 

/ Cette fille est lou^^ de tout le monde.2.Dix mille soldats 
furent tu^s dans cette bataille.j Ces maisons sont d^molies. 
yPar qui avez-vous ^t^ maltraite ? rJ'ai ^t^ maltrait^ par cet 
homme-la.ibJ'ai ^t^ invito au bal; ma soeur etlt ^t^ invitee 
aussi, si elle n^^tait pas malade. > La maison qui a ^t^ d^molie, 
a 6t6 rebfttie (rebuilt), ^Yos amis sont-ils arrives ?^Nous 
sommes rest^s k la maison (at home). 

Exercise* 75. 

/oMj sisters stayed at home. //How many soldiers were 
killed in that battle? /cWill your brothers be invited to the 

88 Lesson 39. 

ball?/ The young man whom you praised, has gone to Italy. 

l^ When did your sisters come ? jWhy did your brother not stay 
at home?ytMany soldiers were wounded by the enemy. ^<rhis 
little boy was ill-treated by his father.^The pupils were prais- 
ed by their master. 7 This girl is esteemed by everybody. 

^My aunt has fallen, f This king was loved by his soldiers. 

/oBy whom were these houses sold?// They were sold by the 
rich merchant who lives in our street. /{These poor men have 
been wounded. /^They will not yet have arrived./jflVe should 
not have been praised/^'^^These houses will be rebuilt. 


Beflective Verbs. 

These verbs are called reflective or reflected 
because their subject and object are the same person or 
thing, so that the subject acts upon itself, and is, at the 
same time, the agent and the object of the action. 
Reflected verbs, therefore, have always, besides the subject, 
another personal pronoun, viz. me, te, se^ (myself, thyself, 
himself, herself, itself) for the singular; nous, vous, se^ 
(ourselves, yourselves, themselves) for the plural. But it 
frequently happens, that, in English, the second pronoun 
is only implied, whereas it must be expressed in French. 
Ex.: to repent, se repentir; Pres. I repent, je me 
repens, etc. 

Observe that all reflected verbs, without exception, 
are conjugated with the auxiliary itre^ as: I have hurt 
myself, je me suis bksse, and not: je wiai blessS, 

The conjugation of the following verb may serve as 
a model for all the reflected verbs. 

Se rijouir, to rejoice. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Je me rijouis, I rejoice. 

tu te rijouis, thou rejoicest. 

U (die) se rijouU, he (she) rejoices. 

nous nous rejouissons, we rejoice. 
vous vous rijouissez, you rejoice. 
Us (eUes) se rijouissent, they rejoice. 

Je me rijouissais, I rejoiced, etc. . 

Reflective Verbs. 89 

Je me rijouis, I rejoiced, etc. 

let Future. 
Je me rijauirai, I shall rejoice, etc. 

let ConditionaL 
Je me rijouirais, I should rejoice, etc. 

Imperative Mood. 

B^ouis-toi, rejoice. 
rijouissons-nouSf let us rejoice. 
r^ouiasez-vous, rejoice. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Q^e je me rejouissc, that I (may) rejoice, etc. 

Que je me rSjouisse, that I (might) rejoice, etc. 

Se (me, te etc.) rejouissant, rejoicing. 

Componnd Tenses. 

Infinitive Mood. 

S'itre rijauiy e, to have rejoiced. 

Indicative Mood. 


Je me suis rejoui, e, I have rejoiced. 
tu fea rejoui, e, thou hast rejoiced. 
U s'eat rejoui, he has rejoiced. 
eUe s'est rejouie, she has rejoiced. 

fuma nous samtnes rejouis, ies, we have rejoiced. 
V0U8 votis ites rejoui(s), ie(s), you have rejoiced. 
Os se stmt rSjouis, \ ., , reioiced 
eaes se sant rejouies, f ^^^^ ^^^^ rejoicea. 


Je m'itais rejoui, e, I had rejoiced. 

tu fitais rSjoui, e, thou hadst rejoiced, etc. 

Compound of the Preterite. 

Je me fus rejovi, e, I had rejoiced. 
tu te fus rijoui, e, etc. 

2nd Future. 

Je me serai rejoui, i, I shall have rejoiced. 
tu te sems rijoui, e, etc. 

90 Lesson 39. 

2nd Conditional. 

Je me serais rSjoui, e, I shonld have rejoiced. 
tu te serais rijoui, e, etc. 

Second compound of the Preterite. 
Si je me fusse rijoui, e, if I had rejoiced, etc. 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que je me sois rijoui, e, that I (may) have rejoiced. 
que tu te sais rijoui, e, etc. 

qu'U se soit rijoui (qu'elle se sait r^ouie), etc. 


Q^le je me fusse rijoui, e, that I (might) have rejoi 
que tu te fusses rijoui, e, etc. 

S'Stant (m'itant etc.), rijoui, e, having rejoiced. 

With interrogation. 


Me rijouis-je (better: est-ce queje merijouis), do I rejoi 
te rijouis-tu (or est-ce que tu te rijouis), dost thou rejoi 
se rijouit-il (or est-ce quHl se rijouU)^ etc. 

nous rijouissons-nous? etc. etc. 

vous rijouisseZ'VOus? etc. 

se rijouissent-ils (-elles)? etc. 


Me suis-je rijoui, e, have I rejoiced? 

i^es-tu rijoui, e, hast thou rejoiced? 

s^est'il rijoui, has he rejoiced? 

nous sommes-nous rijouis, ies, have we rejoiced? 

vous etes-vous rijoui(s), ie(s), have you rejoiced? 

se sont-ils rijouis, \ , ,, reioiced? 

se sont-elles rijouies, I ^^^^ ^^^^ rejoicear 

With negation. 


Je ne me rijouis pas, I do not rejoice. 
tu ne te rijouis pas, etc. 

il (elle) ne se rijouit pas, etc. 

nous ne nous rijouissons pas, etc. 
vous ne votis rijouissez pas, etc. 
ils (dies) ne se rijouissent pas. 

Reflective Verbs. 91 


Ne te rijauis pas, do not rejoice. 

ne nous rejouissons pas, let us not rejoice. 

ne vau8 r^ouissez pas, do not rejoice. 


Je ne me suis pas rSjoui, e, I have not rejoiced. 
tu ne fes pas rSjoui, e, etc. 

U (eUe) ne s^est pas rijoui, e, etc. 

nous ne nous sommes pas rSjouis, ies, etc. 
vous ne vous etes pas rejoui(s), ie(s) etc. 
Us (eUes) ne se sent pas Hjouis, ies, etc. 


Ne pas se rijouir, not to rejoice. 

ne pas s'etre rejoui, e, not to have rejoiced. 

With negation and interrogation. 


Ne me rSjouis-je pas? or \ j t x • • o 

EsUe que je ne me rejouis pas? I ^^ ^ ^^* '®J^'^^^ 
ne te rijouis-tu pas? dost thou not rejoice? 
ne se rijouit-U pas? does he not rejoice? etc 


Ne me suis-je pas rSjoui, e? have I not rejoiced? 

ne fes-tu pas rSjoui, e? etc. 

ne s'est'U (-eUe) pas rijoui, e? etc. 

ne nous sommes-nous pas rejouis, ies? etc. 

ne vous etes-vous pas rijoui(8), ie(s)? etc. 

ne se sont-Us (-elles) pas rSjouis, ies? etc. 


A great many verbs having no pronouns in English, 
are reflected in French. The following are the most used : 

a) Regular reflective Verbs of the Ist Conj, 

ffaffHger, to be soitj. 
s'approcher, to come near. 
s^arreter, to stop. 
se baisser, so stoop. 
se coucher, to go to bed. 
se dipecher, to make haste. 
s^ecrier, to exclaim, cry out. 
s^enrhumer, to catch cold. 
s^etonner, to wonder. 
s^eveiUer, to awake. 
se fier, to trust. 

se figurer, \ to fancy. 

sHmaginer,! to imagine. 

se hater, to make haste. 

se lever, to rise, to get up. 

se niarier, to marry. 

se moquer, to mock, scoff. 

se promener, to take a walk. 

se reposer, to rest. 

se soucier, to care. 

se tromper, to be mistaken. 

se vanter, to boast. 

b) Irregular reflective Verbs. 

S'apercevairy to perceive. 
s'asseoir, to sit down. 
s'en aller, to go away. 
s^endormir, to fall asleep. 
s'entreteniTy to discourse with. 

se plaindre, to oomplaiii. 
se repentir, to repent. 
se soumettrBy to submit. 
$e souvenir, to remember. 
se taire, to be silent. 


I rise, I get up, je me leve. — Get up, levee-ffous! 

I have risen or got up, je me suis levS, 

We have stopped, nous novs sommes arriUs, etc. 

2) Observe also these expressions: 

How are you? comment vous portez-vous? 

I am well, je me porte bien. 

I am mistaken, je me trompe, 

I have been mistaken, je me suis trompi. 

He is silent, U se tait. Be still! taisez-vausl 

Exercise. 76. 

/ We get up at 7 o*clock. tWe used to get up at a qnarte^^ 
to 8. a These men were rejoicing, fc Did she not rejoice ?J^Afc 
what o'clock will they go to bed ?6 His brothers are mistaken .«. 

y Make haste. ^When will they be married?/They would liav0 
been married yesterday. /O I shall catch cold. //They will hav0 
caught cold. /{.Charles has wounded himself with a penknife. 

/3 Shall we not take a walk in the garden ?/$^ey had noi> 
taken a walk./rShe has been mistaken. /tfSTon were mistaken. 

/7Why does he boast ?/W!'our sisters will rejoice. /^hey will 
not make haste.zoYou are always imagining something. 


ImpersoncH Verbs. 

§ 1. There are some verbs which relate to no per- 
son or thing, and which are only conjugated in the third 
person singular. They are called impersonal verbs. 
The compound tenses are formed by means of the auxi- 
liary avoir. Such are: 

neiger, to snow; Pres. U neige, it snows. 

pl^oir^ to rain; U pleut, it rains. 

grUer, to hail; U grile, it hails. 

tanner, to thunder; il tonne, it thunders. 

faire des Mairs, to lighten; il fait des idairs, it liglitens. 

geler, to freeze; il ghU, it freezes. 

digder, to thaw; il dighU, it thaws. 

importer, to matter; U importe, it matters. 

Impersonal Verbs. 


§ 2. Several other verbs may become impersonal, 
when employed in the same manner. Ex. : 

^ suffU, it suffices. 

^ seniUe, it seems. 

^ vatU mieux, it is better. 

^ «•« tarde, I long. 

U convient, it is convenient. 
U arrive, it happens. 
il s'agit, it is the question. 
U reste, there remains, etc. 

Models of Conjugation. 

1) Neiger^ to snow. 

Ind icative. 
Present. H neige. 






II neigeait, 
II neigea, 
II neigera, 
H a neige, 
II avait neige. 


Qu^U neige, 
qu'U neigedt. 

qu'U ait neige. 
quHl eut neigS. 

Comp. Pret. II eut neige. 
2nd Future. II aura tieige. 

Interrogatively. Neige-t-il ? neigeait-il ? a-t-il neigS ? etc. 

Pres. II neigerait. 2nd Cond. II aurait neige. 

Pres. Neigeant, Past. Ayant neige. 

2) It y a, there is, there are. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Y avoiVf there to be. 

Indicative Mood. 

H y a, there is, there are. 

II y avait, \ . , , i 

n y eut I ^"^^^^ ^^^» there were. 

II y aura, there will be. 

II y a eu, there has or have been. 

r? f. ^.a ^.. ) there had been. 
11 y eut eu, f 

II y aurait, there would be. 

II y aurait eu, there would have been. 
Interrogatively. Y a-t-U? is there? are there? 
Negatively. II n'y a pas, there is or are not. 

Negat. interrog. ITy a-t-U pas? is or are there not? 

Comp. Pret. 
1st Cond. 
2nd Cond. 


Lesson 40. 


Subjnnctiye Mood. 

Qu'il y ait, that there (may) be. 
QhCU y eiUy that there (might) be. 
^Hl y ait eu, that there (may) haT» been. 
QuHl y eut eu, that there (might) have been. 

Note 1, This verb in English is used in the pluraH, when 
followed by a plural subsfcantive ; in French, it remains always 
in the singular, as: 

There are birds which etc., U y a des oiseaux qui etc. 

Note 2. It often happens that the verb U y a \a rendered 
„ago, these or for these." Ex.: 

II y a deux mois que je Vai vu, 

I saw him two months ago. 

II y a huit jours que je suis malade. 

1 have been ill these eight days (or this week). 






Thus: il fait 
The English 

3) It faU froid. 

II fait froid, it is cold. 

II faisait froid, \ ., , , 

II fit froid, i ^^ ^^ ^^^• 

II fera froid, it will be cold, etc. 

H a fait froid, it has been cold, etc. 

chaud, it is warm ; il fait jour, it is day-light. 
„it is said** is rendered in French: on dit. 

4) H favt. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Falloir, to be needful, necessary, must. 

Indicative Mood. 
n faut, it is necessary. 

n ffi- ) i* -- --««^- 

H faudra, it will be necessary. 
n a fallu, it has been necessary. 

II avait fallu, \ u \.»a v^^^ ^^^^iu.'^ 
n eut faUu, ) '* ^^ ^^'^ necessary. 

H aura fallu, it will have been necessary. 
II faudrait, it would be necessary, (. . . ought to). 
II aurait fallu, it would have been neoosaary. 

Interrogatively. Faut-U? faUait'U?faUut4l?a44lfaIlu? 
(Is it necessary? was it necessary? has it been necessary?) 

1st Future. 
Comp. Pret. 
2nd Future. 
1st Cond. 
2nd Cond. 

Impersonal Verbs. 95 

Subjanctive Mood. 

B. Qu^iL faiUe, that it (may) be necessary. 

if. Qu'il faUiU, that it (might) be necessary. 

it Qu^U ait fcUlu, that it (may) have been necessary. 

pL Qu*U eiU fMu, that it (might) have been necessary. 

18. wanting. Past. A^ant faUu, 


) The learner must observe that the above verb falloir 
kbsolutely impersonal throughout all its tenses. When its 
ject is a personal pronoun, as: I must, you must, etc., 
may add for the first person me, for the second te, for the 
rd lui, in the plural nous, vous, leur. More frequently 
rever, que with the Subjunctive mood is preferred. Ex.: 
5. 1 must read : il tne faut lire or il faut que je lise. 

thou must read: il te faut lire or il faut que tu lises, 

he must read: I ^ 7 • /% / /vg / *^ f^^^ 5^'^ ^^^' 
she must read : / ' \ il faut qu^elle lise. 

we must read: il nous faut lire or U faut que nouslisions. 
you must read : U vous faut lire or il faut que vous lisiez. 
they must read : U leur faut lire or il faut qu'Us lisent, 
f. I have been obliged to read: il nCa fallu lire, etc, 

I) When the subject is a noun, que with the Subjunctive 
>d must be used. It must further be observed that, when 
verb falloir is used in the Present or Future tense, the 
owing verb must be put in the Present of the Subjunc- 
>; but when it stands in the Imperfect, Preterite or Con- 
onaly the verb following it, must be rendered by the Im- 
pfect of the Subjunctive. Ex.: 

The boy must work, il faut que le gargon travaiUe, 

The boy will be be obliged to work. 
II faudra que le gargon travaille. 

The boy h ad to work, il faUut que le gargon travaUldt. 

The soldiers were obliged to retire. 

11 faUait or U fallut que les soldats se retirassent, 

i) When the verb U faut is followed immediately by a noun 
etaniive, it signifies towant, need; here also one of the 
noims me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur, according to tbe person, 
Bt be inserted. Ex.: 

I want (must have) a hat, il me faut un chapeau. 
He needs some money, U lui faut de V argent. 
We want some bread, U nous faut du pain, 
I want another pen, il me faut une autre plume. 
Did you want some books? vous fallait-il des livres? 

96 Lesson 41. 

Exercise. 77. 

/ It has snown. ^ It will thunder, jit was fireezing this 
moming.y Does it lighten ?j^It will thaw to-morrow.^ There 
will be many soldiers in that town. >There were many pupils 
in that class. (^There would have been too many pupils in 
that class. ^ Was there anyone at home (d la mai8(m)^^JN2i^ 
there no water in that bottle?// We commenced our lesson 
an hour ago./2.She has been ill a week./3lt is very warm 
to-day. /ylt is said that he will come./^^t is said tluit (que) 
our soldiers would have lost many men./4(Was it cold yester- 
day ?/> It will be very warm./Jrlt was not day-light when 
(lorsqtie) they got np./^My brother must be very diligent, 
iol want a new book. 2/ Will they want any books ?ziSVe were 
obliged to work. 2j|We must finish our work before (avcmt) 
6 o*clock.2^What must he do?lx^here are streets in London, 
which are very long. 

The irregular Verbs. 

Those verbs are commonly called irregular which 
deviate from the three regular conjugations. This 
deviation is of three kinds. 

1) Such verbs as take the terminations corresponding 
to the ending of their Infinitive mood, but change their 
root. Ex.: of the verb coudre^ to sew, the radical is 
coud^; this final c2 is, in some persons and tenses, 
changed into 8, for instance in the plural : nous cansons^ 
we sew. These are the easier ones, and are therefore 
put in the first class. 

2) Verbs which preserve their radical syllable 
throughout unchanged, but take flexions that do not 
accord with the ending of their Infinitive. For instance 
the verb coiiV'tr^ to run, ending in -ir, ought to take 
the flexions of the second conjugation (fimr). But this is 
not the case; it takes the flexions of the third conjugation 
(vendre); the Present is not je cour-is, tu couriSf etc., 
but je cours^ tu cours^ etc. ; P. p. couru like vendu* 
Verbs of this kind we assign to the second class. 

3) A certain number of verbs offer both these ano- 
malies at the same time ; i. e. they undergo some changes 
in their root and are conjugated with other flexions 
than those corresponding with the ending of their Infini- 

The irregular Verbs. 97 

tive. For instance the verb mau/riVf to die, ought, 
according to its Infinitive termination -^t*, to take the 
flexions of finir. This is not the case; it is in most 
tenses conjugated like vendre, and, besides, its root mauT- 
is, in certain tenses and persons, changed into meur-^ 
as: Pres. je meurs^ tu meurs^ etc. Such verbs, to 
which also belong those ending in olr^ constitute the 
third class. 

To facilitate the study of the irregular verbs, it is 
essential to distinguish the primitive tenses from the 
derived ones. The latter have generally a regular in- 
flexion, whereas the former alone are subject to irregu- 
larity. As already mentioned, the primitive tenses are: 

1) the Infinitive mood; 

2) the Participle present; 

3) the Participle past; 

4) the Present of the Indicative mood; 

5) the Preterite (Passe defini). 

From these, the other tenses and moods are derived, 
as it is explained p. 56, § 3. The derivative tenses 
are formed regularly, and therefore seldom mentioned in 
the following list. 

To aid the pupil's memory, the following hints will 
prove useful: 

1) The present of the Subjunctive is sure to be found 
by dropping the final nt of the 3rd person plural Indicative, 
as: from ils ecrivent — que fiorive; from its prennent — que 
je prenne; from ils hoivent — qu^ je boive. 

2) The plural of the Present Indicative, the Participle 
present and the Imperfect of the Indicative have the same 
radical, as: nous mourons, we die, P. pr. mourant; Imperf. 
je mourais; — nous craignons; P. pr. craignant; Imperf. 
je craignais; — nousallons; P. pr. allant; Imperf. /aWais, etc, 

3) The Future and Conditional are formed from the In- 
finitive; most of them are therefore regularly formed; the 
following however have an irregular formation, as: je courrai 
(instead of courirai), je tnourrai, je verrai, j'enverrai, 
j^ewquerraiy je pourraiy je saurai, je voudrai, il faudra, 
je viendraiy je tiendrai, je ferai and jHrai. 

4) When the Participle past ends with the sound of i 
(i, is or it), the Preterite generally ends in is. Ex.: Part. p. 
sortif gone out; Pret. je sortis; — Part. p. dit, said; Pret. 
je dis; — P. p. pris; taken; Pret. je pris, etc. 

otto-Wright, Elementary French Grammar. 7 

98 Lesson 41. 

5) But when the Participle past ends in Uj the Preterite 
usually ends in us. Ex.: P. p. eru^ believed; Pret. jecrua; 
P. p. lu, read; Pret. je lus; — P. p. conwUj known; Pret. 
je connus, etc. 

A list of all tbe Irregilar Verbs, 

to the three Classes of irre^ridAiitj* 

First Class. 

Containing the verbs in -re which take the corresponding 

terminations of the third conjugation like vendre^ but 

whose radical is somewhat changed. 

(1—7. Insertion of an «.) 

7 1) Luire, to shine. Part. pres. luisant. Part. past. lui. 

Pres, Je luis, tu luis, il lait, nous luisons, vous luisez^ 

ils luisent. Subj. Que je luise. Imperf. Je luisais. 
Pret. wanting. Fut. Je luirai. 

Conjugate in the same manner: reluire, to glitter. 

•/t 2) Suffire^ to suffice. P. pr. suffisant. P. p. suffi. 

Pres. Je snffis, tu suffis, il suffit, nous suffisons, etc. 
Stibj. Que je suffise. Imperf. Je suffisais. 
Pret Je suffis, tu suffis, il suf&t, nous sufilmes, etc 
Fut. Je suffirai. 

In the same manner: canftre, to preserve, to pickle, atid 
circoncire, to circumcise, except in the Part. past. The 
Participle of the former is confit, of the latter eireoneis 

f'/t 3) Nnire, to hurt, injure, P. pr. nuisant. P. jp. nui, 

Pres. Je nuis, tu nuis, il nuit, nous nouisons, vous nnises^ 

ils nuisent. Stibj. Que je nuise. Impf. Je nnisais. 
Pret. Je nuisis. Fut. Je uuirai. 

'^ 4) Cnire, to boil, to bake (bread). cuisant. P.p.emU^ 

Pres, Je cuis, tu cuis, il cuit, nous cnisons, etc 
Pret. Je cuisis. Fut. Je cuirai. 

Thus also: recuire, to boil once more. 

ff.y/t 5) Condnire, to conduct, to lead. P. pr. oondniMint. 

P. p. conduit. 
Pres. Je couduis, tu conduis, il conduit, nous condni* 
sons, etc. Pret. Je conduisis. FtU, Je conduirai. 

99f Thus: secanduire, to behave; recofMltf<f*e^ to reconduct^ 

to see home; d^duire, to deduct; end^ire, to plaster; 

f^ induire, to lead into ; irUroduire, to introduce ; prodndrep 

toT produce; reproduire,^ to produce again; riduiril to 
reduce; siduire, ti seduce; trtuUiire, to traDskree. 

'fir /, 

Irregular Verbs. Ist Class. 99 

6) Instmire, to instruct. P.p. instmisant. P. p. instruit. ff^t 

Pres. J^instruis, tu instruis, 11 instmit, nous instruisons, 

Yous instruisez, lis instruisent. 
Hret, J*instruisis. Fut. J'instruirai. 

In the same manner: cimstrtiire, to build; d^ruire, to 

7) Dire, to say, to tell. P. pr, disant. P. p. dit. ff-i 

Pres. Je dis, tu dis, il dit, nous disons, vous dites, ils 

Subj. Que je dise. 
Pret. Je dis, tu dis, il dit, nous dimes, vous dltes, ils 

Imperf, Subj. Que je disse. 
Fid. Je dirai. Imper. Dis, disons, dites. 

Conjugate in the same manner: redire, to say again, to 

As for the other compounds of dire, viz.: contredire, to /.ff.3 
contradict; dSdire, to unsay, and se d^dire/ to retract; 
interdire, to%rbid; midire, to slander, B.nd prSdire, 
to foretell, they do nof form their 2nd person plural of 
the Present Indicative with the termination "tes, but 
"SeZt as : vous contredisez, vous mSdisez, vous interdisez, etc. 
— JBH^udiret to curse, takes 88 in the following forms : 
Plur.' nous maudissons, vous maudissez, ils maudissent. 
Part. pr. maudissant Imparf. je maudissais. 

Bien, well. ancien, ancient. 

la dette, the debt. pret, -e, ready. 

Exercise. 78. 

/ Tell me what you have seen.^^I shall not tell you every- 
tbmg.^Did he not contradict me?vHas he behaved himself? 

5*^1 shall translate this letter into English. ^ Introduce him to 
that lady. 7 The moon was shining, fi^e will instruct us.^Is 
it forbidden ?/oYou would not hurt anybody //I told him that 
(^pie) you were here./^All his fortune will not suffice to (pour) 
pay his debts./>$Has she baked any bread ?/^I told him that 
you were ill./iK)onduct him into the drawing-room (le salon). 

«4»He will instruct us./^iVhy did you not introduce him to us? 

/^Tell him that I am ready. 

Irregolar Verbs. First Glass continned. . 

(8 — 17. Change of the final root-consonant.) 

8) Traire^ to milk. P. pr. trayant. P. p. trait. 

Pres. Je trais, tu trais, il trait, nous trayons, vous 
trayez, ils traient. 


100 Lesson 42. 

. Imperf. Je trayais. Pret. wanting. Fut. Je iraiiaL 
/^mi-y Thus also: distriUre, to distract; extraire, to extract; 
soustraire, to substract, to withdraw. 

9) Sniyre, to follow. P, pr. suirant. P. p. suivi. 

Pres, Je suis, tu suis, il suit, nous snivons, youb snivez, 

ils suivent. Subj. Que je suive. 
Fret. Je suivis, Fut. Je suivrai. 
Imper. Suis, suivons, suivez. 

Thus: ponTsuivre, to pursue; s^enstiivre, to ensue. 

10) Vaincre, to conquer. P, pr. vainqnant. P. p, vaincu. 

Pres, Je vaincs, tu vaincs, il vainc, nous vainqnons, 

V0U8 vainqnez, ils vainqnent. 
Pret, Je vainqnis. Fut. Je vainerai. 
Imper, Vaincs, vainqnons, vainqnez. 

In the same manner: convaincre, to convince. 

11) Condre^ to sew. P. pr. cousant* P. p. couau, 

Pres, Je couds, tu couds, il coud, nous cousons, vons 

cousez, ils consent. Subj, Que je couse. 
Pret, Je cousis. Fut, Je coudrai. 

Thus: dicoudrCf to unsew; recoiidre, to sew over again. 

12) Mondre^ to grind. P. pr, moulant. P. p, mauiu. 

Pres. Je mouds, tu mouds, il mond, nous moulons, vons 

moulez, ils moulent. Subj, Que je moule. 
Pret, Je moulus. Fut, Je moudrai. 

In the same manner: imoudre^ to grind (knives eta), to 
sharpen, and remoudre, to grind again. 

13) B^soudre^ to resolve. P, pr, resolvant. P. p. risolu 

(or r^sout). 
Pres, Je r^sous, tu r^sous, il r^sout, nous r^solvonSf vons 

resolveZj ils resolvent. Subj, Que je resolve. 
Pret, Je ri^solus, tu r^solns, etc. 
Fut. Je r^soudrai. Imper, R^sous, resolvonSt risol/veB. 

Thus: absotidrey to absolve, and dissoudre, to dissolve. 
These two compounds have no Preterite, and make their 
Participles: absous, f. abaoute, and disaous, f. diasouU, 

14) Peindre^ to paint. P, pr, poignant. P. p. pein$. 

Pres. Je peins, tu peins, il peint, nous peignons, vons 

peignez, ils peignent. Subj,- Que je peigne. 
Imperf. Je peignais. 

Pret. Je peignis, tu peignis, il peignit, nous peigrnlmes, etc. 
Fut, Je peindrai. Imper, Peins, peignons, peignei. 

Thus: ceitidre, to gird. Feindre, to feign; dSpeindre, to 
depict. Teififlre, to dye; d^tei7idre, to discharge colonr; 
atteindre, to attain, to reach ; ^teindre, to extinguish. Be^ 
strehulre, to restrain. Enfreitidre, to infringe, transgress. 

Irregular Verbs. Ist Class. 101 

15) Craindre^ to fear. P. pr, craignant. P. p. craint, 

Pres. Je crains, tu crains, il craint, nons craipions, etc. 
Pret, Je craignis. Fut. Je craindrai, etc. 

Thus also: pUUndre, to pity; se'plaindre, to complain; 
cantraindre, to compel, to constrain. 

16) JoiBdre^ to join. P, pr. joignant. P. p. Joint. 

Pres, Je joins, tu joins, il joint, nous joignons, vous 
joignez, ils joignent. Subj, Que je joigne. 

Thus : rejoindre, to rejoin ; enjaindre, to enjoin ; disjoindre, 
to disjoin. Poindre, to dawn, break. Oindre, to anoint. 

17) ificrire, to write. P. pr. ^crivant. P. p. Scrit. 

Pres. J'ecris, tu ^cris, il derit, nous ^criyons, vous ^criyez, 

ils ^criyent. Subj, Que j' derive. 
Pret. J'ecrivis, tu ^crivis,, il ^criyit, etc. 
Fut. J'^crirai. Imper. Ecris, 6crivons, ^crivez. 

htoi'Vf Thus: d^crirey to describe; circonscrfre, to circumscribe; 
inscrire, to inscribe; prescrire, to prescribe, to order; 
rScrire, to write again, to answer; souscrire, to subscribe; 
transcrire, to transcribe. 

La vache, the cow. Vitude, f. study. 

le ble, the com. la chandeUe, the candle. 

Exercise. 79. 

/ 1 am painting a picture. 2He will paint. 3D0 not follow 
him. yYou will not convince me.PHe will pursue his studies 
in Paris.jbHe is grinding some corn.^Sbe is distracted, f^ilk 
that cow, John. ^ Will our soldiers conquer? /^e followed 
him. //His sister was sewing in the drawing-room. /iWe are 
convinced. /jWill they not milk those cows?/^Shall we not 
follow you?/5sEIave you sharpened these knives ? /4Have you 
extinguished the candle? />He was feigning. /fThey will 
compb>in/^Do not complain. 2()I am writing a long letter to 
his father who is in London. V^he feared him. i^e shall 
write to him to-morrow. ^jWhy do you fear this man?z.)<De- 
scribe that battle to us. 

Irregnlar Verbs. First Glass continued. 

(18 — 26. The vowel of the root is changed into u, in 
the Part, past and Preterite^ 

18) Lire^ to read. P. pr. lisant. P. p. lu. 

Pres. Je lis, tu lis, il lit, nous lisons, vous lisez, ils 

Pret. Je lus, tulus, il lut, nous Itimes, vous Mtes, etc. 

102 Lmmo 4S. 

Imperf Sutj. Qae je losse. 

Fut, Je liraiy tu luras, il lira, etc. 

Thus also: Siire, to elect; rMirt, to re-elect; reilr6^ to 
read (over) again. Imper. BeUsgz, etc 

19) Boire, to drink. P. pr, bnvani, P. jp. &u. 

Pr«^. Je bold, tu bois, il boit, nous bmyons, vons baTez, 

ils boirent. 
Subj. Qae je boire, qae ta boiTes, qa*il boiye, qae noos 

bmiions, que vons bmTiez, qa'ila boirent. 
Imperf. Je bavais. 
Pret. Je bus, ta bos, il but, nous bAmes, Tons bQtes, 

ils barent. Fut Je boirai, ta boiras, etc. 
Imper. Bois, biiTons, burez. 

20) Croire, to believe, think. enfant. P.p.cru, 

Pres, Je crois, ta crois, il croit, nons crojons, yotis 

croyez, ik croient. 
Subj. Que je croie, que ta croies, qa*il croie, que nous 

croyions, que yous crojiez, qu'ils croient. 
Pret. Je crtts, tu cms, il crut, nous crtimes, vous crdtes, 

ils crurent. Fut. Je croirai, etc. 

Thus also: faire accroire qch. d qn., to make one believe. — 
NB. Accroire is used only in the Infinitive. 

21) Croitre, to grow. P. pr. croissant. P. p. crik. 

Pres, Je crois, tu crois, il crolt, nous croissons, tou8| 

croissez, ils croissent. 
Pret. Je criis, tu crOs, il crtlt, nous crtlmes, etc. 
Fut Je croltrai. 

Thus: (iccroUre, to increase; dScroUre, to decrease; recnMre^ 
to grow again. 

22) Plaire^ to please. P. pr, plaisant. P. p. piu. 

Pres. Je plais, tu plais, il plait, nous plaigons, vons 
plaisez, ils plaisent. Subj. Que je plaise, etc 

Pret. Je j7Zt«^; *tQ plus, il plut, nous pltlmes, vouspltlteSy 
ils plurent. Fut. Je plairai, tu plairas, etc. 

Thus: se complaire, to delight in . . .; dSplaire, to displease. 
{ffU vous plait = if you please.) 

23) Taire^ to conceal. P. pr. taisant. P. p. PA. 

Pres. Je tais, tu tais, il tait, nous taisons, vous taisez, 

ils taisent. 
Subj. Que je taise, que tu taises, quMl taise, etc. 
Pret. Je tus, tu tus, il tut, nous ttlmes, vous ttltes, ils 

turent. Fut. Je tairai. 

Thus: se taire, to be silent. Pres. Jt me tais, I am silent. 
Imper. Tais-toi, taisez-vous. Pret. Je me t%i8, I was silent. 
Gomp of the Pres. Je me suis tii, I have been silent. 

Irregular Verbs. Ist Class. 103 

24) Paraitre^ to appear. P. pr. paraisaant. P. p.paru. 

Ptes, Je parais, tu parais, il paralt, nous paraissons, 

Yous paraissez, ils paraissent. Stibj. Qae je paraisse. 

Pret, Je parus, tu parus, il parut, etc. Fut Je paraitrai. 

Thus: apparattre, to appear; comparaUre, to appear 
before the judge; disparaitre, to disappear; reparattre, to 

25) Paitre, to graze. P. pr. paissant. P. p. pH, 

iVes. Je pais. Like parattre, but no Pret. 

Thus: repaUre, to feed, with the Pret. Je repu$. 

26) Connaitre^ to know. P. pr, connaissant. P. p. connti. 

Pres. Je connais, tu connais, 11 connalt, nous connaissonSy 

YOUS connaissez, etc. Imp^ Je connaissais. 
JFVe^. Je connus, Fut. Je connaitrai. 

Thus: m^connaUrey to mistake, not to acknowledge; recon' 
nattre, to recognize, to know again, to acknowledge. 

Satwent, often. le champ, the field. 

Vhistoire, f. the history. la conduite, the conduct. 

Exercise. 80. 

/ We shall read that book to-morrow. 2.Does he often 
read?^He was reading the works of Byron. ^ I shall drink a 
glass of wine with him.j^Do you drink tea or coffee ?4l drink 
neither.^ They would have drunk some fresh water, but they 
had noi^. j-I do not believe him. /Did she believe you?/ol 
know that man very well. //We shall read the history of 
France./ iPo not drink that water, it is not fresh./ jGive him 
two fnuics, if you please./yThe cows were grazing in the 
field^l)o you know him?'6Be silent/zDid you recognize them? 

f J' They pleased us//Read this book over again.ZjdWhy did you not 
read the history of England ?Vl have already read iti-jWhat 
does he drink in summer ?tjThey did not believe what I said. 

zyDo you believe that his conduct was good?«^ do not believe it. 

Irregalar Verbs. First Glass continued. 

27) Faire, to do, to make. P. pr. faisant. P. p. fait. 
I^es. Je fais, tu fais, il fait, nous faisons, vous faites^ 

ils font. 
Pres. Subj. Que je fasse, que tu fasses, qu*il fasse, que 

nous fassions, que vous fassiez, qu'ils fassent. 
Imperf. Je faisais, tu faisais, il faisait, etc. 
Pret. Je fis, tu fis, il fit, nous fimes, vous fUes, ils 


104 IiMoii 44. 

Imperf, Suij, Qae je fisse, que ta fisaes, qo^il hi^ qne 

noas fiasions, qae vons fissiez, qa'ils fissent. 
Fut. Je feraif ta feras, etc Imper, Fais, fidsons, faUes. 

CoDJogate in the same manner tlie Gompoonds of faire, 
tIz.: dSfaire, to undo, to loosen; emdrefmire, to conn- 
trefeit; rtfmrty to do again; saHsfaire, te aatitfy; surf aire, 
to exact, charge too mnch, to OTercharge. 

28) Mettre, to put. P. pr, mettant. P. p. nUs. 

Pres. Je mets, ta mets, il met, noos mettoiiBy voos 
mettez, ils mettent. Pres. Subj, Qae je mette, 

Imperf, Je mettais. 

Pret. Je mis, ta mt>, il mil, noas ntlmtf^, vons m^USf 
ils mirent Imperf. Subj. Qae je fiiiffse, qae ta misseSy 
qu'il mit, etc. 

Fut. Je mettrai, ta mettras, etc. 

Thos: adtnettre, to admit; eommettre, to commit; dimeUre, 
to tnm oat; amettre, to omit; permettre, to permit, to 
allow; promettre, to promise; compromeUre, to compromise, 
to expose; remettre, to pnt again, to replace, to hand 
over; soumeUre, to submit; transmeUre, to transmit, to 

iS^e mettre a signifies to begin, as: I'enfant se mit i^pUurer, 
the child began crying. 

29) Prendre^ to take. P. pr. prenant. P. p, pHs, 

Pres, Je prends, ta prends, il prend, noas prenons, yoos 
prenez, ils prennent. Pres. Subj. Qae je premie, qne 
ta prennes, qa*il prenne, qae noas prenions, qae vons 
preniez, qa'ils prennent. Imperf. Je prenais. 

Pret. Je pris, ta pris, il prit, nous primes, voos piltes, 
ils prirent. Imperf. Subj. Que je prisse. 

Fut. Je prendrai. Imper. Prends, prenons, prenez. 

Conjugate in the same manner the compounds of prendre: 
apprendre, to learn; dhapprendre, to unlearn; rapprwr 
dre, to learn over again; catnprendre, to understand; 
entreprendref to undertake; mSprendre, to mistake; 
reprendre, tp take again, to reply, to chide; aurprendrif 
to surprise. 

30) Naitre, to be born. P. pr. naissant, P. p. nS, 

Pres, Je nais, tu nais, il nait, nous naissons, vous naiflses, 
ils naissent. Imperf. Je naissais. 
Pret. Je naquis (I was bom), ta naquia, il magwt, 
noas naqutmes, vous naquUeSy ils naquirent. 

Fut. Je naltrai, tu naltras, etc. 

Thus also: renattre, to be bom again. 

31) Tivre, to live. P. pr. vivant. P. p. v€eu. 

Pres. Je vis, tu vis, il vit, noas vivons, vous vivez, lis 
vivent. Svibj. Que je vive; hence the expremona: 
Vive! pi. vivent! long live! hail! 

Irregular Verbs. 2nd Glass. * 105 

Imper, Vis, vivons, vivez. Imperf. Je vivais. 
Fret. Je vicus, tu vicus, il vicut, nous victimes, etc. 
Fut, Je vivrai. 

Thus also: aurvivre (d qn,), to survive; revivre, to revive. 

La tasse, the cup. le poisson, the fish. 

Tas^ie^, f. the plate. 

Exercise. 81. 

/ When were you born ? ll was born on the 25*^ of October 
1873. ^What was he doing? yHe was translating a book. 
iHBave yon done you^: exercise? 4Yes, I have done it an hour 
ago. 7l shall make several visits to-day. $rI>o not make so 
.much noise, boys !^ I shall take a lesson to-morrow. /«Does he 
take tea?//Put this plate on the table, /^here has he put 
my gloves ^XyHe has put them in your room. //Will they permit 
US to stay here^C^Do you understand this man?^-4 understand 
him very well./?The children began to ciy./^Where do fish 
liyeV^Fish live in water. zcLong live the king! 

Irregnlar Verbs. Second Glass. 

Verbs ending in ir. 
(32—41. Verbs having the flexions of the 8rd Conjugation.) 

32) lidr, to shun, to flee. P. pr. fuyant. P, p, fui, 

Pres. Je fuis, tu fuis, il fuit, nous fuyons, vous fuyez, 

ils fuient. Imperf. Je fuyais. 
Pret, Je fuis. Fut, Je fuirai. 

Conjugate in the same manner: 8*enfuir^ to run away. 
Pres. Je m'enfuis, Comp. of the Pres. Je me suis enfui, 
I have run away. 

38) V^tir, to clothe. R pr. vfitant. P. p. vStu. 
H'es. Je vfits, tu vets, il vfit, nous vfttons, etc. 
Pret. Je vfitis. Fut Je v6tirai. 
Thus also: dSvStir, to divest; reveUr, to invest. 

34) Senrir (qn.), to serve, to help to. servant. P. 

p. servi. 
Pres. Je sers, tu sers, il sert, nous servons, vous servez, 

ils servent. Subj. Que je serve. 
Pret. Je servis. Fut. Je servirai. 
Thus also : desaervir, to clear the table; se servir, to make 

use of, to use. 

35) Domiir^ to sleep. P. pr. dormant. P. p. dortni. 

106 Lesson 45. 

Hres. Je dors, in dors, il dort, nous dormons, Tonsdor- 

mez, ils dorment. Siibj. Que je dorme. 
Fret. Je dormis, etc., like servir. 

Thus: endormir, to lull asleep; a^endamUr, to fSftll as- 
leep; se rendormir, to fall asleep again. 

36) Partir, to set out, to leave. P. pr. partant. P. p, 

Ptes. Je pars, tu pars, il part, nous partons, etc., as 
servir, Perf. Je suis parti, 

/^/o7 U Thus: repartir, to set off again, to reply. Not to be con- 
founded with rSpartir, to distribute, which is regular. 

37) Mentir, tolie,tellalie. P, pr, mentant. P. p. menU, 

Pres, Je mens, tu mens, il ment, nous mentons, etc., as 

Thus also: dimentir, to give the lie. 

38) Sentir, to feel, to smell. P, i^r. sentant. P. jp. senU. 

Pres, Je sens, tu sens, il sent, nous sentons, etc., as 

Thus: con^en^r, to consent; preaaentir, to foresee; re«- 
senUrj to feel. 

39) Se repentir de qch., to repent. P, pr. se repentant. 

P, p. repenti, 
Pres. Je me r^ns, I repent, etc., as sentir. 

40) Sortir^ to go out. P, pr, sortant. P, p. sorti. 

Pres, Je sors, tu sors, il 5or#, etc., as servir. 

Thus : ressartir, to go out again. Ressortir, to resort, and 
assortir, to assort, are regularly conjugated like /Sntr. 

41) Conrir^ to run. P. pr, courant. P. p. cov/ru. 

Pres. Je cours, tu cours, il court, nous courons, vous 

courez, ils courent. Suhj. Que je coure. 
Pret. Je courus, tu courus, il courut, nous coortbnes, 

vous couriites, ils counirent. 
Fut. Je courrai, tu courras, il courra, nous coorronfl, 

vous courrez, ils courront. Imper. Cours, couronfl, 


Thus: accourir, to run to; cfmcotirir, to compete; dJto- 
couriVf to discourse; encourir, to incur; pcMroouHr, 
to run over; recourir, to have recourse; secaurir, to 


42) Cneillir^ to gather. P. pr. cueillant. P. p. cueiUi, 

Pres. Je cueille, tu cueilles, il cueille, nous cueillons, 

vous cueillez, ils cueillent. Subj. Que je cueille. 
Pret. Je cueillis. Imper. Cueille, cueillons, cueillez. 
Fut. Je cueillerai. 

Thus: a>ccueillir, to receive; recueiUir^ to gather. 

Lrregalar Yerbe. 2iid CIam. 107 

48) MHr, to offer. P. pr. offrant. F, p. c#er#. 
IVes. J'offre, ta ofim, il offire, nous offrons, etc« 
IVirf. J^offiis. iM|»r. Offire, offrons, offrez. JW. J^offrirai. 

44) S^vftrlr^ to suffer. P. pr. souffrant. P. p. so%tff^ri. 

iVes. Je souffre, ta souffres, etc., like offrir. 

45) OaTrir, to open. P. pr. onvrant. P. p. aurert. 

IVw. «roaYTe, etc., as offrir. 

Thus: rotfrr tfr, to open again; entr'ottvHr, to open a 

46) ComTiir^ to cover. P. pr. couvrant. P. p. cotfverf. 

Thus: dSconnrir, to discover; recouvrir, to cover over. 

47) Tressaillir^ to startle. P. pr. tressaillant. P. p. 

iVes. Je tressaille, tn tressailles, il tressaille, etc. 
Prei. Je tressaillis, etc. 
Fut. Je tressaillerai and je tressaillirai. 
Thus: €iS9€UUiT, to assault. 

48) Saillir, to jut out, project. P. pr. saillant. P.p. 

Pres. 3rd pers. II saille, pi. ils saillent, as tressaiUir; 
but it is used only in the 3rd pers. sing, and plur. 

N6. SaUHr = (jailHr), to gush, ir regular. 

Cette nuU, last night. la sottise, the folly. 

la convention, the agreement. 

Exercise. 82. 

/ We shall leave here to-morrow. jWe slept well last night. 

3 Clear the table.y You told him a lie. ^^We did not consent. 

^When shall yon set off again ?^he enemy flee, rt'hey clothe 
the poor. ^ He shunned me./oWhy did they run away? //I 
shall clothe this poor boyv2.Shall you sleep in this bed?/yrhe 
children have fallen asleep again. />Oo not let them fall asleep. 

/i^Will he not repent his folly ?/60pen the window. ^/The 
window is open./8i)id you offer them any money ?/^I offered 
them some, but they would not take it.£oXjet us gather these 
beantiful flowers, zy Why does he run?LzWill he consent to 
our agreement ftij You startled usi^e shall run.i^^hey would 
not run. 


Lregolar Verbs. Third Glass. 

(49—53. Verbs in ir chaDging their radical \rowel and taking 
the flexions of the 8rd CoDJogation. 

49) Monrir^ to die. Part, pres, monrant. Part past. movU 

Pres. Je meurs, tu meurs, il meurt, nous mourons, vons 
mourez, ils meurent. Subj. Que je nieure, que tu 
meures, qu'il meure, que nous mourionSy que vous 
mouriez, qu*ils meurent. 

Imper, MeurSj mourons, mourez. 

Pret. Je mourns, tu monrus, il mourut, nous mourfimes, 
vous mourutes, ils moururent. 

Fut. Je moun-ai, tu mourras, il mourra, etc. 

Thus also: se niotiHr, to be near dying, to be fainting. 
Pres. Je me meurs etc. 

50) Bouillir, to boil, (neut. v,) P. pr. bouillant. P. p. 


Pres. Je bous, tu bous, il bout, nous bouillons, vous 

bouillez, ils bouillent. Subj. Que je bouille. 
Pret. Je bouillis. Fut. Je bouilllirai. 

T o b i I , as an active verb, is rendered faire bauiUir, 
as: to boil potatoes, faire bouillir des pommes de terre. 

51) Venir, to come. P, pr. venant. P. p. venu. 

Pres. Je rienSy tu viens, il vient, nous venons, vous 
venez, ils viennent. Pres. Subj. Que je vienne, que 
tu viennes, qu'il vienne, que nous venions, que vous 
veniez, qu'ils viennent. Imperf. Je venais. 

Pret. Je rinSy tu vins, il vint, nous vinmes, vous vtntes, 
ils vinrent. Imperf. Subj. Que je vinsse, que tu 
vinsses, qu'il vint, que nous vinssions, etc. \ 

Perfect. Je suis venu, I have come; tu es venu, etc. 

Fut. Je viendraL tu viendras, etc. Cond. Je viendrais. 

Imper. Viens, venons, venez. 

NB. Venir de with an Infinitive mood forms idiomatic 
past tenses and corresponds to the English to have just. Ex.: 

Je viefis d'arriver, I have just arrived. 
Elle rient de sortir, the has just gone out. 

Conjugate in the same manner: convfnir, to agree, to / 
l^y«f /o^to suit; deve^iir, to become; parvenir, to attain, to 
reach; priremr, to be beforehand with, to inform; 
provenir, to arise, spring from, to proceed; se aouvC" 
nir, to remember; subvenir, to relieve; revetUr, to 
come back (again). 

52) Tenir, to hold. P. pr. tenant. P. p. tenu. (Like venir): 
Pres, Je tiens, tu tiens, il tient, nous tenons, vous 
tenez, ils tiennent. Subj, Que je tienne. 

Irregalar YerU. 3rd CUss. 109 

JFVe^. Je tins, ta tins, il timU nous tinmes, vons tintes, 

ils tinrent. Fut. Je tiendrai. 
Imper. Tiens, tenons, tenez. 

Thus also: appartenir, to he]oiig; s^absiewir, to abstain; 

eantenir to contain; dSienir, to detain; emtretenir, to 

A /Of' /I keep np; maitUenir, to maintain; obienir, to obtain; 

reienir, to retain; sautenir, to sustain, uphold, support 

53) Aeqn^rir, to acquire. P. pr. acqu^rant. P. p. ocgufo. 

JVe5. J'acguier^, tu acqniers, il acquiert, nous acqn^rons, 
Yous acqu^rez, ils acqui^rent. Pres. Subj, Que j*acqai^re, 
que tu acqui^res, qu'il acqui^re, que nous acqu^rions, 
que vous acqu^riez, qu'ils acqui^rent. 

Pret. J*acquis, tu acquis il acquit, nous acquimes, vous 
acquites, ils acquirent. Imper f. Subj, Que j*acquisse. 

Fui. yacquerrai, tu acquerras, il acquerra, etc. 

Imper. Acquiers, acqu^rons, acqu^rez. 

Conjugate in the manner: conqu^rir, to conquer, P. passe 
canquis, HeconqHiHrj to conquer again; reqtiSrir, 
to request, and a^enqnSrir, to enquire. — QuSrir, to 
fetch, is used, in familiar conversation after aller, venir, 
envoyer, as: aHez querir, go and fetch. 

Exercise. 88. 

/Henry VIII died in 1547. iDoes the water boil? J We 
shall come to-moiTow. y He has just arrived. j'^They had just 
gone out.^My father has come back from America. / She 
will die. g He is dead.^Boil these potatoes, if you please. 

/o Gome with nsJ/Do you remember him ?/^^e maintained the»e 
poor children. /s5They held him./yThis house belongs to that 
merchant. /5Do not detain us^/^Where did she obtain this 
book?/Srhi8 hat suits you. /^ill his father come back to-day? 

/^This man has acquired a great name. iJ/Vil\ he become a 
great man? 

Irregiilar Verbs. Third Glass continued. 

Verbs in -oir* 

(54—66. Cctatraction of the root and the terminations. 

Past, part, and Pret. in u.) 

54) BeToir, to owe, (ought to). P, pr, devant. P, p.dfi, 

Pres. Je dois*) tu doiSy il doity nous devons, vous devez, 

ils doivent, Pres, Subj. Que je doive. Imp, Je devais. 

*) Je dois, followed by a verb, corresponds to the English: 
I am to, I must. 

110 Lesson 47. 

Pfet, Je dus, tu dus, il dut, nous dtlmeSy voas dtltes, 

ils durent. Imperf. Subj. Que je dusse. 
Fut. Je devrai, tu devras, etc. Cand. Je devrais.*) 

55) BeceToir, to receive. P. pr. recevant. P. p. re^. 

Pres. Je regoiSy tu regois, il rejoin, nous recevons, voua 

recevez, ils resolvent. 
Fret. Je re^ns, tu re^ns, il re^nt, nous re^ftmes^ vous 

re^fites, ils re^tirent. 
Fut, Je recevrai, tu recevras, il recevra, etc. 

Thus also: dScevoir, to deceive; apercevoiVt to perceive; 
concevoir, to conceive; percevair, to collect (money). 

56) B^choir^ to decay. (No Part. pres.). P. p. dichu. 

Pres. Je dechois, tu d^chois, il d^choit, nous d^hoyons, 
vous d^choyez, ils d^choient. Suhj. Que je d^choie. 

Pret. Je d^chus, tu d^chus, il d(§chut, nous d^chtUnes, 
vous d6chtites, ils d^churent. 

Fut. Je d^cherrai, tu d^cherras, il d^cherra, nous d^ 
cherrons, vous d^cherrez, ils d^cherront. 

Thus: Schair, to fall to, to expire; P. pr. MUant; P. p. 
ichu. It is now only used in the 3rd pers. sing.: U or 
eUe Schoitf il ichut, etc. Chair is only used in the In- 
finitive mood. 

57) Falloir^ to be necessary, is an impersonal verb, the 

conjugation of which has been given p. 94. 
Pres. II faut. Imperf. II fallait, etc. 

58) Monvoir^ to move. P. pr. mouvant. P. p, mu. 

Pres. Je meus, tu meus, il meut, nous mouvons, yous 
mouvez, ils meuvent. Subj. Que je menve, que to 
meuves, qu'il menve, que nous mouvions, que voos 
moQviez, qu'ils meuvent. 

Pret. Je mus, tu mus, il mut, nous mtlmes, vons mtites 
ils murent. Fut. Je mouvrai. 

Thus also: Smouvir, to move, to excite, stir up; s^^mou^ 
voir, to be moved, affected. 

59) Plenvoir, to rain (impers.). P. pr. pleuvant. P.p.pUt, 

Pres. II pleut. Suhj. Qu'il pleuve. Imperf. II pleuvait. 
Pret. II plut. Suhj. Imperf. Qu'il pint. Fut. II pleuvra. 

60) Pourvoir,**) to provide. P. pr. pourvoyant. P. p. 


Pres. Je pourvoiSy tu pourvois, il pourvoit, nous pour* 
voyons, vous ponrvoyez, ils pourvoient. 

Thus : privair, to foresee, which has in the Pret. : je prM$» 

•) Je devrais = / ought to, I should. 

**) like 65) Voir, except the Pret. and Fut. 

Irregular Verba. 8rd Class. lU 

61) PouToir^ to be able. P. pr. pou ant. P. p. pu, 

Pret. Je peux (or je puis)*), t^ petix, il peut, nous 
pouvons, vous pouvez, ils peuvent. Pres, Subj. Que 
je puisse, que tu puisses, qa*il puisse, que nous 
puissionSf que vous puisskZy quails puissent. Imperf, 
Je pouvais. 

Pret. Je pus, tu pus, il pnt, nous ptlmes, vous p^tes, 
ils purent. Imperf Subj. Que je pusse. 

Fut. Je pourrai, tu pourras, il pourra, nous pourrons, 
vous pourrez, ils pourront. Cond. Je pourrais. 

Note. May, expressing a wish, is rendered by the Present 
tense of the Subjunctive. Ex.: Puisse-t-il Hre heureux, 
may he be happy! 

62) Savoir^ to know. P. pr. sachanf P. p. su. 

Pres. Je sais, tu saiSy il salt, nous savons, vous savez, 
ils savent. Subj. Que je sache, que tu saches, qu'il 
saehe, que nous saehions, qus vous saehiez, qu*ils 
saehent. Imperf. Je savais, tu savais, etc. 

Pret. Je sus, tu sus, il sut, nous stimes, vous s^tes, ils 
surent. Fut. Je sanrai, tu sanras, etc. 

Imper. Sache, sachons, sachez. 

Note. There is also an old form of the Pres. Ind. Je 
sache. The Cond. Je ne saurais (without ^hxs) signifies : 
I cannot, as: Je ne saurais Tons dire, I cannot tell you. 

63) Valoir, to be worth. P. pr. valant. P. p. valu. 

Pres. Je vauXy tu vaux, il vaut, nous valons, vous valez, 
ils valent. Subj. Que je vaille, que tu vailles, qu'il 
vaiUe, que nous valions, que vous valiez, qu'ils vaiUent. 

Imperf. Je valais. 

Pret. Je valus, tu valus, il valut, nous vaMmes, etc. 

Fut. Je vaudrai, tu vaudras, etc. Cond. Je vaudrais^ 

Observe the expression: il vaut mieux, it is better, etc. 

Conjugate in the same manner: prSvalair, to prevail; but 
it makes in the S u b j. p r e s, : que je prSvcUe (not prSvaUle), 
que tu privales, qu'U private, que nous prSvalions, que vous 
prSvalieZf quails prevalent. 

64) Vonloir, to be willing. P. pr. voulant. P. p. vaulu. 

I^es. Je veuXf tu veux, il veut, nous voulons, vous vou- 
lez, ils veulent. Subj. Que je veuille, que tu veuUles, 
qu'il veuille, que nous vou lions, que vous vouliez, 
qu'ils veuillent, Imper. (Veuille), veuUlez, be so kind as. 

Imperf. Je voulais, = I chose. 

I^et. Je voulus, tu voulus, il voulut, nous voultlroes, etc, 

*) Puis is only used in the 1st pers. sing. / cannot is mostly 
expressed by: je ne puis (without p<M), or: je ne peux pas. 

112 Lesson 48. 

Fut, Je voudrai, tu voudras, etc. 
Cond. Je vondrais, I should like to. 

65) Yoir, to see. P. pr, voyant. P. p. vu. 

Pres, Je vols, tu vois, il voit, nousvoyons, vous voyez, 

ils voient. Imperf, Je voyais, tu voyais, etc. 
Pret, Je vis, tu vis, il vit, nous vlmes, vous vltes, etc 
Fut Je verraif tu verras, il verra, etc. 
Imper, Vois, voyons, voyez. 

Thus: revoir, to see again; entrev^r, to have a glimpse 
of. Yov^ pour voir y and pr^voiiFy see Nr. 60. — AUer 
voir and venir voir qn. ai^ rendered: to call upon a 

66) S'asseolr, to sit down. P. pr, s'asseyant. P.p. assis, 

Pres, Je m'assieds, tu t'assieds, il s'tzssied, nous nous 
asseyons, vous vous asseyez, ils ^^asseieni, 

Imperf, Je m'asseyais. 

Pret. Je m^assis, tu t'assis, il s'assit, nous nous asslmes, 
vous vous assites, ils s'assirent. 

Fut, Je vDiassierai, tu VassiSras, il s^assiera, etc. (or 
je m'asseierai, tu t'asseieras, il s*asseiera, etc.). 

Imper, Assieds-toi, asseyons-nous, asseyez-vons. 

Le danger, the danger. 

Exercise. 84. 

/We ought to write a letter to our brother. 2.When shall 
you receive some money ?3l received some yesterday.^ She 
ought to be happy. j^They owe me several francs. ^It would 
be necessary to see him. ^ They have moved the table. Wt 
will not rain. P We foresaw the danger ./<May they be happy! 
// I cannot see nim./flVe shall be able to do it.^jDoes he ^ow 
his lesson ^/He will know it in a half an hour. //flow much 
is this horse worth ?/4lt is worth 1000 francs. pWhe shall see 
her to-morrow. /^it down./fWe shall not sit down, ^i^hey 
would sit down.i/I sat down.tzHe was sitting down-WWiU 
you tell him that I was here?2i£lan you see them?^! can 
read English. ZiJ have found his watch, and shall send it to 
him.2^an you lend (preter) him some money, he has none. 

Irregular Verbs. Third Glass continued. 

The following three may be added here: 

67) Eire, to laugh. P, pr, riant. P, p. ri, (See p. 68.) 
Pres, Je ris. Imperf, Je riais. 
Pret, Je ris, tu ris, il rit, etc. Fut, Je rirai. " 

Lrregalar Veibs. 3rd Class. 1 13 

68) EBToyer, to send. P. pr, envojant. P. p. ent^oy^. 

i¥c5. tTenvoie. Imperf. J'envoyais. Pret, J'envojai. 
JFW. J'enverral. to eDverras, etc. Cond. J'enverrais. 

69) AUer^ to go. P. pr. allant. P. j). alU, 

Pres. Je ra«9, tn vas, U va, nous allons, vous allez, ils 
vant, Pres. Subj. Que yaUle, que tu aiUes, qu'il atWe, 
que nous allions, que vous alliez, qu'ils aUlent 

Imperf, tPallais, tn adlais, il allait, etc. 

Pret. J'allai, tn alias, il alia, nous all&ines, vous all&tes, 
ils all^rent. 

Imperf. Subj. Que j'allasse, que tu allasses, qu'il all&t, etc. 

Imper. Va, allons, allez. Perf, Je siiis aX\6, I have gone. 

Fut. J'irai (I shall go), tu iras, il ira, nous irons, vouh 
irez, ils iront. Cond. J'irais, tu irais, etc. 

NB, The Present and Imperfect of a 1 1 e r before an In- 
&iitive often form idiomatic futures and correspond to the 
English to be going. Ex.: 

Je vais dSjeHner, I am going to breakfast . 
Nous €iUon8 danser, we are going to danee. 

Coign^ation of s'en. a.llex*, to go away. 

We give the reflective verb s'en aller, to g(; away, at 
full length, because its conjugation is rath()r difficult on acc.ount 
of its two pronouns. Observe that en is never HefMirated from 
the accusative m\ t\ 8\ nous etc.; hence it followM, that tlin 
compound or Perfect must not be written : je me suis en all/'t 
but je m^en suis alle, tu t^en es alU, etc. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 

Je m'en vais, I go away. Pi.nousnousen allons, M>(?//oa//;a//. 
tu ifon vas, etc. . vous vous en allez, etc. 

il s'en va, etc. ils s'on vont, «to, 

Neg. Je ne m'en vais pas. M'envais-jeV dolgoat0(it/'('i)ir.. 

tu ne t'en vas pas, etc. Ne m'en vais-je pasV et(5. 


Je m'en allais, I went away. M'en allais-je? did I go away? 
tu t'en allais etc. Ne m'en allais-je pas? 

Neg. Je ne m'en allais pas. 


Je m'en allai, I went away. M'en allai-je? 

Neg. Je ne m'en allai pas. Ne m'en allai-je pas? 

otto-Wright, Elementary French Grammar. g 


Lesson 48. 


Je m'en irai. M'en irai-je? 

Neg. Je ne m^en irai pas. Ne m'en ind-je pas? 

Imperative Mood. 


Va-t'en, go away, he off! 
(qu'il s'en aille). 
(qn'ils s'en aillent). 


Ne t'en va pas, do not goaiway, 
(qn'il ne s'en aille pas), 
ne nous en allons pas. 
ne Yous en allez pas. 
(qn'ils ne s'en aillent pas). 

Compound of the Present. 

Je m'en suis all^, I have gone PI. nous nous en sommes allds. 

ta t'en es all^. [away, vous vous en 6tes all^s). 

il s'en est all^. ils s'en sont all^. 

elle s'en est all6e. elles s'en sont all to. 


Je ne m'en suis pas all^. nous ne nous en sommes pas all^ 

tu ne t'en es pas all^. vous ne vous en 6tes pas all6(s). 

il ne s'en est pas all6. ils ne s'en sont pas all^. 

M'en suis-je all^? 
t'en es-tu alle? 
s'en est-il all6? 


nous en sommes-nons aU63? 
vous en fites-vous all^s)? 
s'en sont-ils all^? 

Negative -Interrogative. 

Ne m'en suis-je pas all^? ne nous en sommes-nous p. allds ? 
ne t'en es-tu pas all6? ne vous en 6tes-vous pas all^(8)? 

ne s'en est-il pas all^? ne s'en sont-ils pas all^? 


Je m'en itais all^. M'en ^tais-je all^? 

N, Je ne m'en ^tais pas all^. Ne m'en ^tais-je pas all^? 

Subjunctive Mood. 


Que je m'en aille. que nous nous en allions. 

que tu t'en allies. que vous vous en alliez. 

qu'il s'en aille. qu'ils s'en aillent. 


Que je m'en allasse. 
que tu t'en allasses. 
qu'il s'en aU&t, etc. 


Que je m'en sois all^. 

Que je m'en fosse all^. 

Of the defective Verbs. 1 15 

Infinitive Mood. 
Pres. S'en aller, to go away. — Pa^t. S'en 6tre all^. 

Pres. S'en allant, going away. — Past. S'en ^tant all6. 

Le thidtre, the theatre. 

Exercise. 85. 

I I am sending him a present. rWe shall send yon some 
money. 3 Shall you go to the theatre this evening? /^They are 
going to Paris.i^Come with us.feThey have gone./I am going 
away to-morrow. rDo not go away. ^Where is he going ?/aHe 
is going to London. // Will they not go away?/2They are 
going to dance. /3I shall not go with her. /^hey will laugh. 
fyThej would not send us any money. 


Of the defective Verbs. 

Verbs whereof some tenses or persons are wanting, are 
defective Verbs. They are as follows: 

70) Braire^ to bray. 

Pres. II brait, ils braient. Fut. II braira. 
Cond. II brairait. 

71) Bmlre, to roar. P. pr. bruyant. 

Imperf. II bruyait; pi. lis bruyaient. 

72) Choir, to fall. P. p. chu. 

73) Clore, to close. P.p. clos. 

Pres. Je clos, tu clos, it cl6t. 

Fut. Je clorai, tu cloras, etc. Cond. Je clorais. 

74) Colore, to be hatched. P. p. ^clos. 

Pres. II eclot; pi. lis ^closent. Subj. Qu'il 6close; pL 

Qu'ils ^closent. 
Fut. II ^cl6ra ; pi. lis ^cl6ront. — Its compound tenses 

are formed with etre. 

75) FaiUir, to fail. P. pr. (faillant). P. p. failli. 

Pres. II faut. 

Pret. Je faillis, tu faillis, il faillit, nous failllmes, vous 

faillltes, ils faillirent. 
Perf. J'ai failli, I had nearly. 

Thus: ciSfaillir, to faint. 

76) F^rir, is used only in the expression: sans coup fSrir, 

without striking a blow. 


116 Lesson 49. 

77) Frire, to fry. P. pr. wanting. P. jp. frit. 

Pres, Je £ns, tu fris, il frit. Fl, wanting. 

Fut. Je frirai. Cond, Je frirais. Ferf. J'ai frit, etc. 

78) G^sir^ to lie. P, pr. gisant. 

Pres. d-glt, here lies; pi. ci-gisent (used on tombstones). 
Further: nous gisons, yoas gisez, ils gisent. 
Imperf. ci-gisait; pi, ci-gisaient. 

79) Issir^ to be born, is used, in the P. p. issu only. 

80) Onir^ to hear. P. p. ovd. 

Fret, J'ouis, tuouis, etc. Imperf, Subj. Que j'onisse, etc. 
Further the compound tenses, as: fai ou%, 

81) Sonrdre, to rush out of the ground, as water, has only 

the Infinitive and the Pres.: eUe sourd, elles sourdent, 

82) Seoir^ to fit. P. pr, s^ant. P. p, sis. 

Ind, pres, II sied. Fut, II siera. Cond. H si^rait. 

83) Snrseoir^ to put of f. P, p, sursis. 

Prts, Je surseois. Fret. Je sursis. 

Note, Most of these verbs are not much in use. 

An alphabetical list 

of all the French irregular and defective Verbs.*) 

(Containing their five primitive Tenses.) 

Infinitive, Pres, Pr, part. Past, p, Pret. Nr. 

Absoudre, absolve j^absous absolvant absous wanting 13. 

Acqudi-ir, acquire j'acquiers acqu^rant acquis, e j^acquis 53. 

Aller, to go je vais allant all^, e j*allai 69. 

u45sai7Ztr, to assail j'assaille assaillant assailli j^assaillia 47. 

S^asseoir, to sit jem^assieds s'asseyant assis, e je m^assis 66. 

u4^^^>?i(2r^; to attain j'atteins atteignant atteint j'atteignis 14. 

JSoire, to drink je bois buvant bu, e je bus 19. 

Bouillir, to boil je bous bouillant bouil1i,e je bouillis 50. 

Braire, to bray il brait — wanting wanting 70. 

Bruire, roar Imp, il bruyait bruyant — — 71. 

Ceindre, to gird je ceins ceignant ceint, e je ceignis 14. 

Choir, s^ed^choir — — — 56. 

Circonciref to cir- je circoncis — circoncis je circoncia 2. 


Clore, to close je clos — clos — 73. 

CowcerotV, conceive je con9ois concevant con9U, e je con9U8 55. 

Conclure**) con- je conclus concluant conclu,eje conclus. 


*) The derivatives which are not in this Table, will be found 
with the primitives, under their respective number. 
*♦) See p. 68, 4. 

Irregnlar Verbs. 



Confire, pickle 
CannaUre, know 
Caudre, to sew 
Caurir, to run 
Cauvrir, to coyer 
Craindre, to fear 
Croire, believe 
CroUre, to grow 
Cueillirj gather 
Cuire, to boil 

I>ichoir, to decay 
Devoir^ to owe 
Dire, to say 
Dartnir, to sleep 

J^hoir, expire 
J^lore, be hatched 
j6crire, to write 
EnvoyeVy to send 

Faire, to make, do 
FaiUir, to fail 
FaUoiVf must. 
Feindre, to feign 
FMr, strike 
Frire, to stew 
jPwtr, to flee 

OSsir, to lie 

JToindre, to join 

Tssir, to issue 
Instruire, teach 

X«r«, to read 
Luire, to shine 

JHentir, to lie 
Mettre, to put 
Maudre, to grind 
MouriVf to die 
Mouvoir, move 

JVb$/re, to be bom 
Nuire, to injure 

O/frtV, to offer 
Oindre, to oint 
Ow»V, to hear 
Ouvrir, to open 

I^l/r«, to graze 
Paral/r«, appear 
Partir, to set out 
Peindre, to paint 
Plaindre, to com- 

je confis 
je connais 
je couds 
je cours 
je couvre 
je crains 
je crois 
je crois 
je cueille 
je cuis 

je d^chois 
je dois 
je dis 
je dors 

il ^choit 
il ^cldt 

je fais 
il faut 
il faut 
je feins 

je fris 
je fuis 

il git 

je joins 


je lis 
je luis 

je mens 
je mets 
je mouds 
je meurs 
je meurs 

je nais 
je nuis 



je pais 
je parais 
je pars 
je peins 
je plains 

Pr. part. Past. p. 

confisant confit, e 
connaisssantconnu, e 

cousant cousu, e 

courant coam, e 

couvrant convert 

craignant craint, e 

croyant cm, e 

croissant crt, e 

cueillant cneilli, e 

cuisant cuit, e 

d^chu, e 

dit, e 








^crit, e 

fait, e 
feint, e 


je confis 
je connns 
je consis 
je cooros 
je convris 
je craignis 
je cms 
je criis 
je cneillis 
je cuisis 

je d^chus 
je dus 
je dis 
je dermis 

il ^chut 


je fis 
je faillis 
il fallut 
je feignis 

— frit, e — 
fay ant fui je fuis 

gisant — — 

joignant joint, e je joignis 

— issu, e — 
instruisant instruit j^instmisis 

lisant In, e je Ins 

luisant lui — 




on V rant 






menti je mentis 
mis, e je mis 
mouln, e je moulns 
mort, e je mourns 
je mus 

mu, e 

n^, e 




je naqnis 
je nuisis 

•• • 


ouvert, ej'ouvris 


je pams 
je partis 
je peignis 
je plaignis 
























Lesson 49. 


Plaire, to please 
Pleuvair, to rain 
Prendre, to take 
Poindre, to point 
Pourvoir, supply 
Pouvoir, to be able 

JRecevoir, receive 
PeperUir, se, to 

Bestreindre, to 

Birej to laugh 

Saillir, stand out 
Savoir, to know 
Sentir, to feel 
Seoir, to fit 
Servir, to serve 
Sortir, to got out 
Souffrir, to suffer 
Sourdre, spring 
Suivre, to follow 
Suffire, to suffice 
Surseoir, put off 

Taire, to be silent 
Teindre, to dye 
Tenir, to hold 
Traire, to milk 
Tressaillir, startle 

Valoir, be worth 
Famcr«, conquer 
F(gn«V, to come 
Fi^^tr, to clothe 
T7rr«, to live 
Fotr, to see 
Voidoir, to wish 

je plais 
il pleut 
je prends 
je poins 

Pr, part. 


Pctst. p. 


Pret. Nr, 

je plus 22. 

il plut 59. 

je pris 29. 

(je poignis) 16. 

je pourvois pourvoyantpourvu je pourvua 60. 
jepeux(puis)pouvant pu je pus 61. 

je re9ois recevant re9u je re9a8 55. 
j e me repens repentant repenti j e me repentis 39. 

je restreins — restreintjereBtreigni8l4. 











su, e 
senti, e 
sis, e 
servi, e je 
sorti je 
souffert je 


je ris 

il saille 

je sais 

je sens 

il sied 

je sers 

je sors 

je souffire 

elle sourd — — 

je suis Buivant suivi je 

je suffis suffisant suffi je 

je surseois sursoyant sursis jo 

je tais taisant tii, e je 

je teins teignant 

je tiens tenant 

je trais trayant 

j e tr essaille tressaillant tressailli j e tressail] is 

venu, e je vina 
vStu je vfitiB 
v^cu je v4cus 
vu, e pe vis 
voulu, e je voulus 

ta, e 
teint, e je 
tenu, e je 












valant valu 
vainquant vaincu 

je vaux 
je vaincs 
je viens 
je v§ts 
je vis 
je vois 
je veux 

bientdt, soon. 














Exercise. 86. 

/ Can you read this letter? i-I can not read it. ^300 you 
wish to see his uncle? VI do not wish to see him. i"*Why were 
they silent? 4 They have suffered much. 7 This boy does not 
know his lesson, but he will know it soon.? Will they not 
repent? fit has been raining. /o He did not please us. //Why 
do you complain ? /zThey set out yesterday, and will return 
on Thursday./ 5 They opened the door./ y Will you open this 
window ?/5 "I can not open it.^^They told us that you were 
ill, but we did not believe them.'7All men will dieyfiHe would 
not have gone if you had been here. //We were reading this 
book, i^ Has she not instnicted your brother ?|, /Here lie many 

Promiscaoos Exercises. 119 

soldiers. /We do not shun them. i. Must we go awa7?jWhat 
were they doing? y They would have written to yon. 5* We 
were asleep when onr father came back. 4 Tell me what he 
said. 7 Yon tell me nothing. f Do not believe these men; they 
wish to deceive yon. £^ Does he know my uncle's friend ?/«We 
shall sit down herev^Has this merchant acquired much money? 
/Z.They departed without striking a blow. 


PronUsctiotiS Exercises. 

Exercise. 87. 

H Which men have you 8een?/J<I have not enough cheese. 
/j^Has he as many pens as pencils ?/<»K you have any money, 

g've me some./^If you have any pens, give us some of them, 
oes she want a new hat? /fWhoae book are you reading? 
t-oWhose house is this ?i/ Did you receive this watch from your 
uncle ?vtWhy does she not shut the door ?l3[ shall write him 
a long letter.iyl wish to see you^i^Those men were rejoicing. 
t^Do they wish to drink some wine?^! can not conceive what 
this boy is doing. 

Exercise. 88. 

tS I do not understand what this man says.i/The water 
will soon boil.joBoil me some waternJ/Why did your brother 
put this letter on the table ?3L Will you go with us to the 
theatre ?AjThey had ju^t arrived. j^hich book would he read? 

JS"We coula not believe himJ4The children will soon fall asleep. 

J7Will it be necessary to tell him that I have seen you ^ /He 
will offer me some money, but I shall not take it j^ Those 
boys were instructed by this man.^^He was loved by every- 
body who knew him.f/It was raining and snowing. <tilt will 
freeze to night.V3Why would your uncle' not sell his house? 

VyHe went away to-day. M^ You are always complaining. ^They 
would not complain, if you would stay with them. 



The genders of Substantives. 
I. Rules on the gender of simple Nouns. 

§ 1. Hasculine by their signification are: 

1) The names of all masculine beings, as: Henri, 
Henry; Vempereur, the emperor; le maUre, the master; 
le Frangais, the Frenchman; le taureau, the bull, etc. 

2) The names of countries, places and rivers not 
ending in e mute, as : le Portugal^ le Wurtemberg, le beau 
PariSj le Bhin. 

3) The names of metals, trees, seasons, months and 
days, as: le fer^ iron; le chene, the oak; le printemps, 
spring ; le joli mai, (the) fine May ; (le) lundi, Monday, 
on Mondays, etc. 

4) All words that are made substantives by prefix- 
ing the article, as: le vert, the green (colour); le noir, 
the black; le hien, the good; le hoire et le manger^ drinking 
and eating ; le oui et le non, the yes and no. 

§ 2. Mascnline by their termination are: 

1) All nouns ending with the liquid -iZ, not -He*), 
as: le detail, the detail; le soleil, the sun; le recueU, the 
collection; Vceil, the eye; le fusil, the gun, etc. 

*) See p. 8, 1, and p. 122, § 4, 2. 

2) Nouns ending with a nasal sound**) as: le 
volcan, the volcano; le vent^ the wind, le moment^ the 
moment; le daim, the buck; le sein, the bosom; le vin, 
the wine; le fond, the bottom. 

**) See p. 8 and 9. 

Except: la main, the hand; la faim, hanger; la dent, 
the tooth ; la legon, the lesson, and all nouns ending in '80 n 
and -ion. 


1p juwiiZ. iiK ifoo.. t: t vrvn*^, 

ir ^roHK. ite- ana. «^ «' marmr isa^ ii!n i « «- 

dz 1b flsL mat,. cr- ^^ ]r»«r lu^^ tfbkbstl 

^r ]p MBR. iiK MBi o e oo.: ta^ una: 

f S- PHHHK irr Firx2T'jC4:*ic»i: are: 

1^ .411 jmmsB xr f emik'i^ wrhmn anL t.iiijLLk,i*.. ae: 

2j Tbe JOBIRK of fruiife. f^rv^rf ant ki^rtit.. »': 
Ik jmrEL 1^ peer: k; ^nmrntt. Hut mm*^: Ic ruifL. iut r^Mt^: 

le rcMML i^ p^p^ '• t**^ cf&rrm:. ax aprie^ : tMs asiU^. i. pizu: : 
If lie, liie lih-. and b ^pw murt. ue fi&cumn uf ibBir luah- 
enfiiie -bemmoEUaiL (b» | li. B;. 

3) Tie miDeE of conntneB. plaoBF and rrrerf finoiitg 
m e KutCL ac: !a Framot. la Prus»u Tamckmmt homt. la 
Imrt, la Semu etc 

EECfipt: If Hammovrc. le Mexiqmt. 2f I^amnA^ It Ekt^mt. 

1) £xce|yt: Im cb.^ tbe cage; Timmpt, 1 the imse-e. pictJnre; 
1« pmpe^ the ja^ (of a book); 2m pimfgy the fitaajid; U rmpe, la^; 

rent, t ihc wwier, 

U emu, 

la tmery the 

la Muris^ the mouse; !• &reU«, a sheep; la rst 

(pnmoance risse), the screw. 

6) Except: la nuit^ the night. 

7) Except: la dct (pronounce itolft), the domry, portion. 

8) £xc3P^* Ui cour, the court; la tour, the tower. 

2) Except 
t) Except 

4) Except 

5) Except 




§ 4. Feminine by their termination are: 

1) All nouns ending with e mute preceded by another 
vowel, as: lavie^ life; latme^ the sight; Vepee^ we sword. 

Except: le foie, the liver; un incendie, a fire. 

2) The nouns ending in the liquid sound -iRe, as: 
la fUle^ the daughter; la feuUle, the leaf (see 6). 

3) Those ending in: 

ace: la glace ^), the ice. 

ade: la salade, the salad. 

aine d; eine: la plaine, the 
plain ; la peine, the trouble. 

ance: la Constance, (the) con- 

ence d; ense: V innocence^), 
innocence; la defense, de- 

ande, ante d; ente: la viande, 
meat, la tante, the aunt; 
la tente, the tent. 

ete : la tete, the head. 

eur: la douleur^) the pain; la 
grandeur, greatness. 

i^c: la lumUre% the light. 

ine: la famine, ihe famine. 

ion: r action, the action. 

ote: la pelote, the ball. 

son: la maison, the house; la 
chanson, the song ; la moisson, 
the harvest. 

ti: la bonis ^), the kindness. 

tiS: VamitU, friendship. 

ude: gratitude, gratitude. 

une : la lune, the moon. 

ure: la piqure% the sting. 

4) These four words ending in i are feminine : 

la foi, faith. la four mi, the ant. 

la loi, law. la merci, mercy. 

5) Most nouns ending in oire (not oir) are feminine, as: 

la gloire, glory. la victoire, victory. 

Vhistoire, f. history. la machoire, the jaw. 

6) Feminine are those which have two consonants 
of the same kind before e mute: {-asse, atte, elle, esse, 
ette, amme^ emme, omme, onne, oils, oUe, ouMe^ arre^ 
erre^ ourre^ etc.). 

1) Except: Vespace, m. the space. 

2) Except: le silence, silence. 

3) Except : le bonheur, happiness ; le malheur, misfortune ; VhoH' 
neur, the honour ; le dSshonneur, disgrace ; le cceur, the heart, and 
all masculine names and appellations, as: le tailleur, the tailor; 
le professeur, the professor, etc. 

4) Except: le cimetikre, the church-yard. 

5) Except: U c6tS, the side, le pdti, the pie; le traiU, the 
treaty; VSii, the summer; le comtd, the county. 

6) Except: le murmure, murmur; le parjure, perjury. 

Nouna. 123 


la chasse, hunting. la somme, the snm. 

la natUy a mat. la lionne, the lioness. 

la chapelle, the chapel. la carotte, the carrot. 

la charrette, the cart. la goutte, the drop; gont. 

la noisette, the hazelnut. le harre, the bar. 

la femme, the woman. la terre, the earth. 

la gomme, Indian rubber. la pierre, the stone, etc. 

Exceptions: Vhomme, m. man; le somme, the nap, sleep; 
le verre, the glass ; le tonnerre, the thunder; le beurre, the butter. 

n. Gender of compound Substantives. 

This depends upon the manner of their composition. 

1) When the first component is a noun, it determines 
the gender of the whole, as: 

tm cerf-volant, the stag-beetle. 
le chou'fleur, the cauliflower. 
un arc-en-ciel, a rainbow. 

2) When they consist of a preposition and a noun, the 
gender of the noun remains for the whole, as: 

le contre-coup, the counter-buff. 
Vavant-hras, m. the fore-arm. 
Vavant-main droite, f. the right fore-hand. 

3) Those nouns compounded with a verb and noun 
are always of the masculine gender, as: 

le porte-manteau, the portmanteau. 

le tire-bouchon, the corkscrew. 

le porte-feuille, the portfolio (though feuille is feminine). 

in. Double gender of some Nouns. 

§ 1. The following nouns have a double gender: 

Vaide, m. the assistant, — Vaide, f. the help, support. 

Vaigle, m. the eagle, — Vaigle, f. the standard. 

Vaune, m. the alder tree, — Vaune, f. the ell, yard. 

un couple, a couple, husband — une couple , a brace, two of a 

and wife, sort. 

un enseigne, an ensign, — — une enseigne, a sign. 

le foret, the gimlet, la foret, the forest, wood. 

le garde, the keeper, la garde, the guard, watch. 

le guide, the guide, la guide, the rein in driving. 

le livre, the book, la livre, the pound. 

la manche, the handle of a tool, la mancJie, the sleeve. 

le memoire, the memorandum, la memoire, the memory. 

le mort, a dead man, la mort, death. 



le mousse, the cabin-boy, — — 
Vorgue, m. sing, the organ, 
le page, the page to a prince, 
un paillasse, a merry andrew, 
Pdqiies, pi. m. Easter, 
le poele, the stove, 
/epos^, the post, military post, 
un somme, a nap, slumber, 
le tour, the trick, turn, 
le trompette, the trumpeter, 
une voile, a veil. 

la mousse, the moss. 

les orgues, pi. organ, is feminine. 

la page, the page (of a book). 

une paiUasse, a straw-bed. 

la pdque, the Passover. 

la poele, the frying-pan. 

la poste, the post-office. 

la somme, the sum. 

la tour, the tower. 

la trompette, the trumpet. 

une voUe, a sail. 

§ 2. There are in French some nouns which have 
no particular form for the feminine and remain always 
masculine, even when applied to a woman. Such are: 

un auteur, \ c n .1 .i 

.s^ A^^A..J^ / m. & f. an author, a writer. 
un ecrtvatn, f ' 

un orateur, m. & f. an orator. 

un peintre, m. & f. a painter. 

un sculpteur, m. & f. a sculptor. 

un temoin, m. & f. a witness. 

Note, Sometimes the word femme may precede, ae : une femme 
auteur, les femmes pottes. 

§ 3. On the contrary, there are a few feminine 
nouns which apply also to male individuals: 

la caution, the bail. la basse, the bass. 

la pratique, the customer. la sentinelle, the sentry. 

IV. Formation of female appellations. 

Many appellations of male individuals allow also a 
female appellation to be formed from them, by changing 
the termination. 

§ 1. Male appellations which are originally ad- 
jectives, form their feminine according to the mles on 
the adjectives (see p. 45 — 47), as: 

Masculine. Feminine. 

le Frcmgais, the Frenchman, Zai^ran^at^e, the Frenchwomaiu 
un Busse, a Russian, une Russe, a Russian lady. 

un juif, a Jew, 
Vepoux, the husband, 
le veufy the widower, 
le Grec, the Greek, 

une juive, a Jewess. 

Vepouse, the wife. 

la veuve, the widow. 

la Grecque, the Greek woman. 



§ 2. Those ending in one of the nasal sounds an, 
on^ ten (not in), and those in t double their n or t before 
the feminine 6, as: 

le paysany the peasant, 
le lion, the lion, 
le chritien, the Christian, 
le baron, the baron, 
le chien, the dog, 

§ 3. Nouns ending in e 
feminine in esse^ as: 

le comte, the count, 
le negre, the negro, 
le maitre, the master, 
le prince, the prince, 
Vdne, the ass, 
Vahbe, the abbot, 

la paysanne, a peasant woman. 
la lionne, the lioness. 
la chrHienne, the Christian wo- 
la baronne, the baroness, [man. 
la chienne, the bitch. 

mute or e. form their 

la comtesse, the countess. 
la negresse, the negress. 
la maitresse, the mistress. 
la princesse, the princess. 
Vdnesse, the she-ass. 
Vabbesse, the abbess. 

§ 4. Those in -eur change this termination into -ewsc; 

le danceur, the dancer, la danseuse, the dancer, f. 

le chasseur, the hunter, la chasseuse, the huntress. 

§ 5. Those in -teur change it into 4rice, as: 

Vacieur, the actor, Vactrice, the actress. 

le bienfaifeur, the benefactor, la bienfaitrice, the benefactress. 

le tuteur, the guardian. la tutrice, the tutoress. 

§ 6. The following nouns form their feminine in an 
irregular way: 

le dieu, the God, — — 

le due, the duke, 
Vempereur, the emperor, 
le roi, the king, 
le hSros, the hero, 
le gouverneur, the tutor, 
le serviteur, the man-servant, 
le pecheur, the sinner, 
le compagnon, the companion, 
le larron, the thief, 
le loup, the he-wolf, 
le muUt, the mule, 
le dindon, the turkey-cock, 

la deesse, the Goddess. 
la duchesse, the duchess. 
rimperatrice, the empress. 
la reine, the queen. 
Vheroine, the heroine. 
Za gouvernante, the governess. 
2a servante, the maid-servant. 
Za picheresse, the sinner, /*. 
to compagne, the companion, /*. 
to larronesse, the thief, /*. 
to towve, the she-wolf. 
to wttZe, the mule, f. 
la dinde, the turkey-hen. 

126 Appendix. 

Flnral of Nouns. 

(See Lesson IV.} 

The general rules on this subject have already been 
given in lesson IV, p. 14, 15. We have to add here 
the following particulars: 

§ 1. Nouns of two and more syllables, ending in 
-ant and -ent are spelled by some French writers in the 
plural -ens, and -ans, instead of -ents and -ants^ as: nuh 
mens for moments, enfans for enfants. This orthography 
however is not to be recommended. 

§ 2. The following nouns in al and aU do not form 
their plural in atuv, but take an 8: 

le half the ball. V&oentail, m. the fan. 

le cal, callus. VepouvantaU, m. the scare-crow. 

le chacal, the jackal. un portail, a portal, door-way. 

le carneval, the carnival. le poitrail, poitrel. 

le regal, the regale. le serailj the seraglio. 

le detail, the particular. VaU, garlic (has in plur. both 

Ze ^ot«t;ernaiZ, the helm, rudder. les ails and les iaux). 

Plurals: les hols, le cals, les details, les iventails, etc. 

Note. Le hStail, cattle, makes in the plural lea bestiaux, 

§ 3. The usual plural of ciel is deux, the heavens; 
there is however a regular plural: Us dels^ meaning 1) the 
testers, 2) the climats, 3) the skies of pictures. 

§ 4. L'osU, the eye, has in the plural les yeux; — 
aieul takes an s in its plural, when it means grand- 
fathers or grandmothers, taken in the particular sense, 
and dieux^ when in the sense of ancestors. 

§ 5. How compound words form their plural. 

1) When a word is composed of a substantive and an 
adjective or of two substantives, both take the mark of 
the plural. Ex.: 

les heaua^freres, the brothers-in-law. 

les belles'sosurs, the sisters-in-law. 

les chouic-fleurs, the cauliflowers. 

les chefs-lieux, the chief-towns (of counties). 

2) But when a word is composed of two substantives 
separated by a preposition, the first alone takes the plu- 
ral termination. Ex.: 

les chefs-d'oeuvre, the master-pieces. 
les arcs-en-ciel, the rainbows. 



3) When a word consists of a substantive and a verb 
or preposition, the sabstantive alone can take the sign 
of the plaral, if required by the sense. Ex.: 

les tire-bottes, the boot-jacks. 
les essui-mains, the towels. 
les garde-fous, the balusters. 

4) When there is no substantive in the compound 
word, none of the components ean take the mark of the 
plural. Ex. : 

le passe-partout (not passe-partouts), the master-keys. 
les forte-piano, the pianos. 

5) The words: la grand' mere, the grandmother; la 
grand'tante ^ grand-aunt; la grand' rue, the main street; 
la grand'route, the highway, have in the plural les grand'- 
meres, les grand'tantes^ etc. 

§ 6. The following nouns have in the plural another 

meaning than in singular: 

Singular. Plural. 

le dseau, the chisel, — — les ciseaux, the scissors. 

la lunette, the telescope, 

le fer, iron, 

la grdce, grace, pardon, 

le gage, the pawn, pledge, ' 

la mesure, the measure, 

Vherbe, grass, 

la viande, meat, 

la troupe, the troop, 

la lumiere, the light, 

Vaboi, m. the barking, 

la defense, the defence. 

les lunettes, the spectacles. 

les fers, the fetters, chains. 

les grdces, grace, charms. 

les gages, the wages. 

les mesures, the measures, steps. 

les herbes, herbs. 

les viandes, meats, food. 

les troupes, the troops. 

les lumidres, knowledge. 

les abois, agony. 

les defenses, the tusks, fangs. 

§ 7. Substantives which have no singular in French: 

les annates, f. the annals. les gens, m. people. 

les ancetres, m. the ancestors, les hardes, f. clothes. 

les alentours, m. \ the en- les legumes, m. vegetables. 

les environs, m. / virons. les matMmatiques, tma.themB,tiCB. 

les broussaUles, f. brush-wood, les materiaux, materials 

les decombres, m. rubbish. les moeurs, f. the manners. 

les debris, m. the remains. 

le depens, m. cost. 

les entrailles, f. the entrails. 

les frais, m. expense(s). 

les funeraUles, f. funeral rites. 

les mouchettes, f. the snuffers. 
des mouchettes, a pair of snuffers. 
les pleurs, f. the tears. 
les tenures, f. darkness. 
les vivres, m. victuals. 


128 Appendix. 


Adverbs are divided into the following classes: 1) ad- 
verbs of quality, 2) place, 3) time, 4) number, 5) quan- 
tity, 6) affirmation and negation. 

1) Adverbs of quality. 

Adverbs of quality serve to modify a verb or an 
adjective. Most of the French adjectives become ad- 
verbs by adding the syllable -ment, according to the 
following rules: 

1) Adjectives ending in a vowel, simply add the final 
syllable -ment, as: 

facile, easy; adv. facilement, easily. 
poliy polite; „ poliment, politely. 
vraie, true; „ vraiment, truly. 

2) Adjectives which do not end in a vowel, add the 
syllable -ment, to their feminine termination, as : 

haut, f. haute, high; adv. hautement, aloud. 
doux, f. douce, soft, sweet, mild; adv. doucementf softly. 
franc, f. franche, frank ; adv. franchement, frankly, freely. 
heureux, f. Jieureuse, happy; adv. heureusetnent, happily. 

NB, To this rule belong also the adjectives, nouveau, new; 
fou, foolish, and mou, soft; adv. nouveUement, foUemeni, 

3) Adjectives which end in -ant, or -ent, become ad- 
verbs by changing the final -ant into -amment, and -€it^ 
into -emment, as: 

constant, constant; adv. constatntnent* 
prudent, prudent; „ prudemment. 
patient, patient; „ patiemment. 

NB, Exceptions to this rule are: lent, slow; adv. lentemeni, 
and present, present; adv. prSsentenient, actually. 

4) The following adjectives take an e accented before 
the final -ment, as: 

profond, deep, profound; adv. profondiment, deeply. 

commode, comfortable; „ commodiment, 

commun, common; „ communement, 

precis, precise; „ prSdsement, 

enorme, enormous; „ Snormhmnt. 

exprhs, express; „ expressSment. 

impuni, unpunished; „ impunement. 



le plus facUement, 
le plus eommodimeni. 
le plus souvent. 
le plus longtemps. 
le plus loin. 

5) All these derived adverbs, as well as some others 
are compared, as: 

facUement; plus facUement; 

commodiment; plus commodiment; 
souvent, often; plus souvent; 
lonfftemps; long; plus longtemps\ 
lain, far; plus loin; 

Note. This superlative of adverbs never takes la instead of 
le. Ex. : Marie est venue le plus souvent. 

6) The following adverbs deviate from others in the 
formation of their comparatives and superlatives: 

Comp. Sup. 

hien, well; mieux, better; le mieux, (the) best. 

mal, badly; pis, worse; 

peUj little; mains, less; 

heaucoup, much; plus, more; 

tant mieux, is rendered „so much the better.'' 
tant pis, so much the worse. 

7) The following adjectives are used adverbially with- 
out taking an additional termination, as: 

vite, quick, fast. exprhs, purposely. 

fort, very. soudain, suddenly. 

haut, loudly. droU, straightways. 
has, in a low voice. 

2) Adverbs of place. 
Ou, where ? whither ? a cdti, d part, aside, by. 

le pis, the worst. 
le mains, the least. 
le plus, (the) most. 

d'oil, whence. 

ici, here, d^ici, hence. 

Id, there. 

de Id, hence. 

Id-bas, there below, yonder. 

pres d^id, near here. 

^, there, therein. 

par ici, this way. 

par Id, that way. 

par-ci, par Id, here and there. 

ga et Id, to and fro. 

ailleurs, elsewhere. 

dessous, \ J XI. 

par dessous, / '^"demeath. 

dessus, \ above, 

par dessus, f over 
en haut, above, up stairs. 
en has, down stairs, below. 

dedans, \ .,i . • -j 

en dedans, ) '"'^^> >"«'•*«• 

dehors, without, out of doors. 

derribre, behind. 

par derrih-e, from behind. 

devant, \ , . 

par devant, f *^^^^®- 

dega, en dega, on this side. 

deld, en deld, on that side. 

pres, auprhs, near. 

proche, close by. 

tout au tour, round about. 

qtielque part, somewhere. 

partout, everywhere. 

nulle part, nowhere. 

jtisqu'ou? how far? 

loin, far, far off. 

ensemble, together. 

otto-Wright, Elementary French Grammar. 




3) Adverbs of time. 

un jour, one day. 

autrefois^ jadis^ formerly. 

auparavantf previoasly, before. 

alors, puis, tiien. 

apr^, after, afterwards. 

ensuUe, afterwards. 

enfin, at last, at length. 

de bonne heure, early. 

de meUleure h&ure, earlier. 

(tdt, soon.) 

plus tdt, sooner. 

souvent, often. 

lonfftemps, long. 

toujours, always. 

Vautre jour, \ the other day. 

dernidrement, > lately, 

naguere, j of late. 

dijd, already. 

encore, still, yet. 

pas encore, not yet. 

jamais, ever. 

ne — jamais, never. 

d jamais, \ ^ 

pour toujours, / 

Remark. Place of Adverbs. 

1) In the simple tenses the adverb is placed inmie- 
diately after the verb which it modifies: 

She always cries, die pleure tonjours. 

I often take a walk with my friend. 
Je me promhne souvent avec mon ami. 

2) When the verb is in a compound tense, the adverb 
generally comes between the auxiliary and the partidple, as : 

Je Vai toujours respecU, I have always esteemed him. 

Je me suis souvent promene avec mon mattre, 
I have often taken a walk with my master. 

NB. Hier, avant-hier, aujourd'hui, demain, aprhs-^emakh 
tantdt, tdt and tard, and nearly all compound adverbs follow 
the participle. 

4) Adverbs of number. 
Premierement, first. quatrihnement, fourthly. 

deuxiimement, \ j| cvnquihnement, fifthly. 

secondement, ( ^^^^ y* sixi^mement, sixthly, etc. 
troisi^mement, thirdly. comhien de fois, how often? 

une fois, once; deux fois, twice; trois fois, three times. 

Quand, when? 

comhien de temps, how long ? 

aujourd'hui, to-day. 

hier, yesterday. 

avant'hier, the day before 

demain, to-morrow. 
demain matin , to-morrow 

apreS'demain, the day after 

hientot, soon. 
trap tot, too soon. 
tantdt, by and by. 
aussitot, directly. 
tard, late. 
d^abord, at first. 

disormais, Uenceforth. 
dorenavant, I 
deS'hrs, from then. 
depuis, since. 
d present, \ now. 
maintenant, / at present. 
quelquefois, sometimes. 



5) Adverbs of quantity and comparison. 
Commefd, how? presque, almost. 

combien, how much, how many ? 
beaucoup, much, many. 

bien (vnth du, de l\ des follow- 
ing), a great deal or many. 
trap, too much, too many. 
tant, so much, so many. 
€isse0, enough, pretty. 
peu, little, un pen, a little. 
ne — gtih'e, hardly. 

trhs, / very. 
fort, I 
plus, more. 
davantage, still more. 
mains, less. 

tout, \ quite, wholly, 

tout-d'fait, I entirely. 

6) Adverbs of affirmation and negation. 

^^peu-pr^, } ^^^*- 

si, so, ainsi, thus. 

aussi, as, also. 

Sgalement, likewise. 

autant, as much, as many. 

d'autantplus, so much the more. 

plutdt, rather. 

surtout, above all. 

au plus, \ , , 

tout au plus, I ^^ °^^^^- 

du mains, au mains, at least. 

seulement, \ , 

^e - qm, I ""^y- 

meme, even. 

pas meme, \ . 

■^ 1 ± I not even. 

pas seulement. 

Oui, yes. Si, yes. 
certes, certainly. 
peut-etre, perhaps. 
certainement, \ certainly. 
assurement, I to be sure. 
nan, no. 

ne — pas, not. 
ne — plUrS, no more. 
nan plus, nor . . . either. 
ne — paint, not, no. 
pas du taut, \ , . ,, 
point du tout, ( °^^ *^ ^^^• 
presque jamais, scarcely ever, ne — rien, nothing. 

7) Besides these, there are many adverbial locu- 
iions of which we will mention only those most in use. 

Such are: 

taut-d'fait, quite, entirely. 
par C(Bur, by heart. 
d peine, scarcely. 
en effet, really. 
sur-le-champ, directly. 
peu d peu, by degrees. 
dans peu, or sous peu, soon. 
d dessein, on purpose. 

sans doute, no doubt. 
en general, generally. 
comme cela, like that, so. 
en vain, in vain. 
de bonne heure, early. 
de meUleure heure, earlier. 
(d) ban marchS, cheap. 
a fond, thoroughly. 

en meme temps, at the same par an, yearly; par jour, daily. 


d la fois, at once, at a time. 
taut d coup, suddenly. 
taui d^un coup, all at once. 
d droUe, to the right. 
d gauche, to the left. 
peLe-mete, pell-mell. 

par mois, monthly. 

tout d Vheure, presently. 

tout de suite, immediately. 

par hasard, by chance. 

en attendant, meanwhile. 

de temps^en temps, \ from time, 

de temps'^ d autre, /to time. 


132 Appendix. 

Of negation. 

1) The adverb *not* renders an English verb nefj^ative. 
It is translated into Erench by ne, which is placed before 
the verb, and pas or point after it, in simple tenses. 
The auxiliaries <do» or <did» are not expressed in French. 
Examples : 

Je ne veux pas, I will not, I do not wish. 
Je ne sais pas, I do not know. 

2) In compound tenses, ne comes before the auxiliary, 
and pas after it. Ex. : 

Je n^ai pas vu, I have not seen. 
Elle n^a pcis parU, she did not speak. 

3) Ne is employed without pas^ if there is in the sen- 
tence a pronoun or adverb expressing negation, such as 
personne, nul^ rien, jamais, ni, ne — plus, point. Ex : 

Je ne connais personne, I know nobody. 

Je ne veux rien, I wish for nothing. 

Je ne sais plus, I no more know. 

Elle n^a jamais dit cda, she never said so. 

4) If one of the negations is followed by a noon in 
the partitive sense, this noun is simply preceded by de: 

Affirm.: J'ai du pain, I have some bread. 
Negat.: Je n'ai pas de pain, 1 have no bread. 

Affirm.: Avez-vous de V argent? have you any money? 
Negat.: Je rCai pas or point d^argent, I have no money. 

5) With the Present Infinitive, ne pas or ne point are 
not separated, as: 

ne pas se venger, not to revenge one's self. 
ne plus icrire, to write no more. 
ne rien manger, to eat nothing. 

6) If the verb is in the Perfect of the Infinitive, it is 
optional to separate them or not, as: 

not to have slept. \ "f ^'^ avoir dormi. 

^ ^ In avoir pas dormi, 

7) Without a verb, the negatives stand without ne, as: 

pas a la fois, not at once. 

pas moi, not I. 

pas beaucoup, pas trop, pas tant, pas aujourd^hui, etc. 

8) Non plus, nor . . . either, requires the full negation 
ne — pas before it, as: 

Je ne le veux pas non plus, nor will I have it either. 

Prepositions. 138 

9) If nor — either is connected only with a nonn 
or pronoun, withont a Terb, the noun or the pronoun is 
preceded, in French, by m, as: 

nor Charles either, ni Charles non plus, 

10) Observe the expression ne — qtie for only, as: 
Je n'ai que deux soeurs, I have only two sisters. 

n vCa qvHun morceau de pain, he has only a piece of bread. 
Ellen' a apportS qu^une assiette, she brought but one plate. 
L* enfant n^a que dix ans, the child is only ten years old. 
II rCest que six heures, it is only six o'clock. 


A preposition serves to express the relation which 
certain words bear to one another. It always precedes, 
in French, the word which it governs, and must be 
repeated before every one. 

Prepositions are indeclinable, and may be divided 
into the three following classes: 

1) Simple Prepositions. 

d (before le =^ au; before en, in, within, into, to. 

les = aux), at, in, to. entre, between. 

apr^Sj (denoting time), after, envers, to, towards. 

avant (denoting time), before, hors, \ except, besides. 

avec, with. hormis, j save. 

ehee, at, at the house of. outre, besides. 

eantre, against. malgrS, in spite of. 

dans, in, into. moyennant, by means of. 

de (before le = du; before par, trough, by. 

les = des), of, from. parmi, among. 

depuis, since. pour, for. 

derriere, behind. sans, without, but for, 

d^, from. sous, under. 

cfet;aw^(denoting place), before, selon, \ ^^^^,.j-„^ x^ 

pendant, \ ^^ . suivant, / ^^^^^^g ^• 

durant, / ^^^°S* ^^.^ q^^ upon, vers, towards. 

2) Compound Prepositions which govern 

the Accusative. 

D'apr^s, according to. de devant, from before. 

dCavec, \ ^ de dessus, from off. 

de chee, f ^^' de dessous, from under. 

de derriere, from behind. de par, in the name of. 

134 Appendix. 

par-dessu8, over. jusque dans, \ «« fo« -« 

d travers, trough. jusque sur, j 

jusqu'd, till, as far as. (il y a, ago), 

3) Snch as govern the G^enitive. 

d c6U de, by, beside. au-^ssus de, above, upon. 

d cause de, on account of. au-<lessous de, below, under. 

au travers de, through. loin de, far from, 

ate milieu c^, in the middle of. au moyen de, by means o£ 

au lieu de, instead of. en dega de, on this side of. 

au haut de, on the top of. par deld de, \ .^. . , 

du haut de, from above. au ddd de, f ^ ®' 

hors de, out of. vis-cHns de,\ 'i n \ 

au dehors de, outside, without, eh face de, ] PP^®^ ® ^)' 

autour de, around, about. le long de, along. 

pres de, \ by, next to. d Vigard de, with regard to. 

auprh de, /near, close to. fav;te de, for want of. 

au'devant de, before, to meet, en vertu de , in consequence o£i 


A la porte, at the door. Tecris d mon ftls, I write to 
my son. Elle est d la maison (or che^f die), she is at home. 
Au jardvn, in the garden, d la main, in the hand, d FariSf 
at Paris, a la campagne, in the country. Je vais d Berlin, 
I am going to Berlin. A six heures, at six o^clock. 

Chez, de chex. 

II est chee moi, he is with me. Je vais chez Monsiewr A., 
I am going to Mr. A.'s. Ma tante demeure chee un Itbraire, 
my aunt lives at the house of a bookseller. Je mens de eheM 
mon oncle, I come from my nucleus. 

Pr^8 de, awpr^s de. 

Frh de (or auprhs de) la colline, near the hill. tTai gagni 
prks de cent florins, I have won nearly a hundred florins. 

Dans, en. 

Dans la chambre, in the room. Dans la main, in the 
hand. Dans la prairie, on the meadow. Dans une Ue, on 
an island. Dans mon voyage, on my journey. En iti, in 
summer. En Italic, in or to Italy. En France, in or to 

NB. In before personal pronouns, is translated en: en luip 
en nous ete. 

Prepositionfi. 135 

Avanty devant. 

Avant le lever du soleU, before sun-rise. Avant la legon, 
before the lesson. Devant la porte, before the door. Devant 
les ennemis, before the ennemj. 

Apr^y selan, suivcmt* 

Aprhs la hataUle, after the battle. Apr^s vous, after jon. 
Seilon (or suivcmt) le temps, according to the weather. &ilon 
les drconstances, according to circumstances. 

Cantre, envers, vers. 

H poussa contre la porte, he pushed against the door. 
Le phre est fdchS contre son fits, the father is angry with 
his son. 8oye0 polls envers vos maitres, be polite to your 
masters. Vers le soir, towards (the) evening. Vers la montagne 
(direction), towards the mountain. 


Tai regu ce livre de ma mhre, I received this book from 
my mother. Nous venons du spectacle ^ we come from the 
theatre. De qui parlez-vous ? whom are you speaking of? 
Je suis content de votre travail, I am satisfied with your work. 
Couvert de neige, covered with snow. De cette maniac, in 
this manner. La hataiUe d^ Austerlitz, the battle of Austerlitz. 


Ce cadeau est pour vous, this present is for you. Pour 
combien de temps, for how long ? Pour toujours, for ever. — 
Four with the verb partir is rendered for or to: Je pars 
pour VAm^rique, I set out for America. Charles est parti 
pour Munich, Charles has gone to Munich. 


La reine a passe par cette vtHe, the queen has passed 
through this town. Je Vai appris par le courrier, I have 
learnt it from the messenger. Par ordre du roi, by the king's 
command. Cet homme a voyagS par terre et par mer, this man 
has travelled by land and by sea. Par faiblesse, by (from) 
weakness. Par miprise or par mSgarde, by mistake. Mener 
par la main, to lead by the hand. Jeter par la fenetre, 
to throw out of the window. 


Crimper sur un arbre, to climb up a tree. Ecrivee sur 
ce papier, write on this paper. Sur les hords du Bhin, on the 
banks of the Rhine. J^ai de Vargent sur moi, I have some 
money about me. 



8ou8j au'dessous, — JESntre, pamU, 

Le chien est sotis la table, the dog lies under the table. 
Porter sous le bras, to carry under the arm. Cei enfant est 
avrdessous de dix ans, the child is under ten years. Aurdessaus 
du pont, below the bridge. II y a une grande diffirence entre 
les deux frhres, there is a great difference between the two 
brothers. J^ntre autres, among others. Entre la viXU et la 
riviere, between the town and the river. Parmi les ouvriers, 
amongst the workmen. Parmi les vivants, among the living. 

Note. Many prepositions come in English after a verb making 
a part of its signification. These must not be expressed in French 
as: to pull down ddrndir, to look at regarder, to wait for attendre, 
to get up 86 lever, etc. 


Conjunctions are used to connect either words or 
sentences. They are either simple or compound; the 
simple consist of one word for each clause, the compound 
are formed of two separate words. 

Et, and. 

et — et, both — and. 

aussi, also, too. 

tantdt — tantdt, sometimes — 

ou, or. 
ou — ou, either — or. 
plt^ — plus, the more — the 

plus — , mains, the more — 

the less. 
moins — mains, the less — 

the less. 
autant — cmtant, as much as. 
sait — soit, be it — or. 
ni — ni, neither — nor. 
comme, as. 
comment, how? 
or, now. 

done, consequently. 
done, then. 
ainsi, thus, so. 
puis, ailars, then. 

1) Simple Conjunctions. 

qm, that. 

que, than (after a comparative). 

car, for. 

mais, but. 

*^^f^'. \ however. 

cependant, / 
pourtant, jet, still. 

neanmoins, nevertheless. 

d'aiUeurs, besides, moreover. 

si, if, whether. 

sinon, if not. 

quand, when? 

ou, where? 

d^ou, whence? 

puisque, since, as. 

larsque, when, as. 

quaique (with the Subj.), though. 

pourquai, why? 

savoir, videlicet, namely. 

pour, in order to. 

Conj unctions. 137 


1) Among these simple conjunctions there is only one which 
governs the Subjunctive mood, viz.: quoiqiie, though or 
although, and one used with the Infinitive, viz.: pour, in 
order to or simply to. Ex.: 

Quaique je sois malade, though I am ilL 

J^ai dit cela pour vous bldmer. 
I said so (in order) to blame you. 

2) Si denotes a condition or supposition: s^U vient, 
if he comes; si vous voulez, if you like. When si is followed 
by an Imperfect or Pluperfect, these tenses are always in 
the Indicative mood, as: 

if I had, si favais; if I were, si fitais. 

if I had seen him, si je Vavais vu. 

Note, The i in si is cut off before il and ih, but nowhere else, 
as: s't7 avait, — but si elle avait, etc. 

3) Qtumd, on the contrary, denotes time and corresponds 
with the English when: quand je le vis, when I saw him. 

4) The conjunction ni — ni requires ne before its verb, and 
the noun which follows it, commonly takes no article, as: 

Je n'ai ni pere ni mhre, I have neither father nor mother. 

5) The conjunction que sei*ves to connect two ideas so as 
to form of the two one sentence, as: 

Je crois qtte vous avez raison, I believe you are right. 

In English the conjunction that is almost always under- 
stood, whereas que is not only always expressed in French, 
but repeated before each member of the proposition, as: 

Je crois que vous avez raison et que vous reussirez, 
I think you are right and that you will succeed. 

6) When a conjunction governs several verbs, it is placed 
before the first verb only, and que is used instead before the 
other verbs. Ex.: 

As he is diligent and takes pains. 

Comtne U est applique et quHl prend de la peine. 

If you are diligent and take pains. 

Si vous etes appliqui et que vous preniez de la peine, 

2) Componnd Conjunctions. 
(Conjunctive phrases). 

These conjunctions consist of at least two words. 
Most of them are adverbs or prepositions attended by 
que or de. Instead of dividing them according to their 



meaning into copulative, disjunctive, adversa- 
tive, conclusive etc., it will be much more impor- 
tant for the learner to understand, that different conjunc- 
tions require different moods of the verb. Some 
require the following verb in the Indicative mood, others 
in the Infinitive^ and others again in the Subjunctive, 

1) Compound Conjunctions with the Indicative. 

Ou bien, or, else. 

ni — nonplus, neither . . nor 

au contraire, on the contrary. 
nan seulement, — mais encore, 

not only — but also. 
de plus, moreover. 
autant que, as much as. 
aprhs que, after, after that. 
quand meme, although. 
si toutefois, if however. 
c' est'drdire, namely. 

c est que, j 

tandis que, whereas. 

pendant que, while, whilst. 

as soon as. 


tant que, as long as. 

aussUdt que, \ 

dbs que, j 

de meme que, \ 

ainsi que, f 

du teste, \ , 

. > however. 
au reste, f ""''*~* 

de Id, hence it follows. 

d peine —, que, scarcely — , when, 

c'est pourquoi, therefore. 

par consiquent, consequently. 

comme si, as if. 

de meme, thus, in the same way. 

sans cela, otherwise, else. 

depuis que, since. 

tout — que, however . . . , as. 

2) Conjunctions with the Infinitive mood. 

de peur de, \ ^ n j? 
de cramte de, / ^""^ f«*' «^- 
loin de, far from. 
plutot que de, rather than. 

d moins de, unless. 

avant de, before. 

au lieu de, instead of. 


3) Conjunctions with the Subjunctive mood. 

Afm que, \ ., . i^ order that ^^ ^^' ^^* ^ ^^• 
pour que, f " ^ ^ "' non obstant que, notwithstand- 

ing that. 

pour peu que, however little. 

pourvu que, provided (that). 

quelque — qvs, however . . . ., 

sans que, without that, [though. 

si ce n'est que, unless, till. 

soit que, whether — or. 

4) Besides the above mentioned conjunctions, there 
are other conjunctive expressions (locutions conjoncHves)^ 
which have been borrowed from other classes of words 
and to which the conjunction que is added. Such are: 

avant que, before. 
d moins que, \ ^ 
que — ne, I » 

bien que, \ though. 
quoique, I altough. 
jusqu'd ce que, till, until. 
loin que, far from. 

Conjanctionii. 139 

d condition que, on condition that . . . 
•de peur que, 1 ,^ 
*de crainte que, J ^■ 
de maniire que, \ . ., . 

j„ Zj 1 80 as to, 80 tiuit . . . 

ae or en sorte que, I 
*au cos que, in case that . . . 
*SupposS que, supposing that . . . 
*malgre que, for all that, notwithstanding. 
toutes les fois que, as often as, ever; time. 
peut-Hre que, perhaps that . . . 
attendtt que, considering that . . . 
d ce que, according as, as fiir as, etc. 
S. Those marked with an asterisk* govern the SabjnnctiTe. 

PART m. 

Lists of nsefal words and phrases to be 
committed to memory. 

1. I/nniyers. The oiiiYerse. 

la mofUagne, the mountam. 
la coUine, the hill. 
la valUe, the valley. 
la plaine, the plain. 
la forHy the forest. 
le chemin, the road, way. 
la route, the highway. 
le sable, the sand. 
U mitaly the metal. 
VoTy (m.) gold. 
Vargenty (m.) silver (money), 
fe cuivre, copper. 
le fefy iron. 
Vaciery steel. 
Vitainy (m.) tin. 
plomby lead. 

Le mondey the world. 
le Old, the sky. 
le soleUy the son. 
les planUeSy the planets. 
une HoiUy a star. 
la Iwney the moon. 
le feu, the fire. 
Vair, (m.) the air. 
la terre, the earth. 
Veau, (f.) the water. 
2a mer, the sea. 
««« riviere, a river. 
t«n rui556at«, a brook. 
un rocher, a rock. 
ime He, an island. 


2* Les plantes. Plants. 

Le champ de hU, corn-field. 

le bU, com. 

le seigle, rye. 

le frometd, wheat. 

Verge, (f.) barley. 

Vavoine, (f.) oats. 

la farine, flour. 

le rig, rice. 

Us pais, (m.) peas. 

Ze8 petUs ports, green-peas. 

Us haricots, (m.) beans. 

U bli de TurJHe, Indian com. 

le houblon, hops. 

le li/n, flax. 

le chanvre, hemp. 

la toils, linen. 

U tahac, tobacco. 

fumer, to smoke. 

les legumes, (m.) vegetables. 

des asperges, (f.) asparagus. 

Zes ipinards, (m.) spinage. 

26 c^km, cabbage. 

les fleurs, flowers. 

des choux-fkurs, cauliflower. 

le navet, turnip. 

la carotte, carrot. 

la pomme de terre, potato. 

la rave, radish. 

des radis, (m.) salmon radishes. 

la laitue, lettuce. 

la salade, salade. 

le concombre, encumber. 



la cUrauiUet pumpkin. 
un oignon, onion. 
le persU, parsley. 

le cresson, cress. 
le trifle, clover. 
Vherbe, (f.) grass. 
le foin, hay. 

8* Arbres et Cmits. Trees and fruits. 

L'arbre, (m.) the tree. 

Varbusie, (m.) shmb. 

la radne, root. 

U tronc, trunk. 

la branche, branch. 

le rameau, twig. 

la feuUle, leaf. 

le hoiSf wood. 

U chene, oak. 

le gland, acorn. 

le hetre, beech. 

fo sapin, fir-tree. 

le pin, pine. 

U hoiUeau, birch. 

le peuplier, poplar. 

le tiUetU, lime-tree. 

le satde, willow. 

Tarbre fruitier, fruit-tree. 

le pommier, apple-tree. 

la ponime, apple. 

le poirier, pear-tree. 

la poire, the pear. 

le cerisier, cherry-tree. 

la cerise, cherry. 

le noyer, walnut-tree. 

la noix, walnut. 

la noisette, hazel-nut. 

le figuier, fig-tree. 

la figue, fig. 

le chdtaignier, chestnut-tree.' 

la chdtaigne, chestnut. 

Vabricotier, apricot-tree. 

Vabricot, apricot. 

le prunier, plum-tree. 

la prune, plum. 

la vigne, vine. 

le raisin, grape. 

la groseUle, currant. 

la groseille verte, goose berry. 

le framboisier, raspberry-shrub. 

la framboise, raspberry. 

la fraise, strawberry. 

4. QnadrnpMes. Qoadropeds. 

Le rhgne animal, the animal le lievre, hare. 

kingdom. le lapin, rabbit. 

V animal, (m.) animal. la taupe, mole. 

unan%mdLdomestique,^omQ^\A(i VecureuU, squin*el. 

animal. le rat, rat. 

le cheval, horse. la souris, mouse. 

unchevaldeselle,QeLddlehorse. le chat, cat. 
tm cheval blanc, a white horse. 
le cheval noir, black horse. 
une jument, mare. 

le poulain, filly; colt. 

le bosuf, ox. 

le taureau, bull. 

la vache, cow. 

la come, horn. 

le sanglier, wild-boar. 

le cerf, stag. 

le bois, antlers. 

le chevreuU, deer. 

le veau, calf. 
le chien, dog. 
le castor, beaver. 
la peau, skin. 
le cuir, leather. 
Vdne, donkey, ass. 
Vdnesse, she-ass. 
la ch^Cn goat. 
le bouc, he-goat. 
la brebis, sheep. 
le mouton, ram. 
Vagneau, (m.) lamb. 



la lainSf wool. 

le cochon, pig. 

le renard, fox. 

le loup, wolf. 

Vours, (m.) bear. 

le singe, monkey, ape. 

le lion, lion. 

le tigre, tiger. 
le Uopard, leopard. 
la pantMre, pantber. 
Vhyene^ (f.) hyena. 
U renne, rein-deer. 
le chameau, camel. 
Velephant, (m.) elephant. 

U rhvnociros, rhinoceros. 

5. Oiseanx. Birds. 

Voiseau, (m.) the bird. le chardonneret, gold-finch. 

Vaile, (f.) wing. 

une plume, feather. 

le bee, beak, bill. 

le nid, nest. 

Voeuf, (m.) egg. 

la coquille, egg-shell. 

la poule, hen. 

le poidet, pullet, fowl. 

le coq, cock. 

le canard, duck. 

Voie, (f.) goose. 

la basse-cour, poultry-yard. 

le pigeon, la colombe, pigeon. 

le cygne, swan. 

serin de Canarie, canary. 

le rouge-gorge, robin. 

le colibri, Voiseau-mouchefhxuDr 

le moineau, sparrow. 
Vhirondelle, (f.) swallow. 
le coucou, cuckoo. 
la pie, magpie, jay. 
le corbeau, raven. 
le hibou, owl. 
le paon, peacock. 
le faisan, pheasant. 
la perdrix, partridge. 
le bScasse, snipe. 

Voiseau chanteur, Qvnging-hird, la cigogne, stork. 

la caUle, quail. 

Valouette, (f.) lark. 

le merle, thrush. 

le rossignol, nightingale. 

la fauvette, hedge-sparrow. 

le serin, green-finch. 

le perroquet, parrot. 

le faucon, falcon. 

Voiseau de proie, bird of prey. 

U vautour, vulture, hawk. 

Vaigle, (m.) eagle. 

Vavtruche, (f.) ostruch. 

6. Poissons^ reptiles et insectes. Fish, reptiles and iisectei 

Le poisson, the fish. 

la baleine, whale. 

le poisson de mer, sea-fish. 

Vicaille, (f.) scale. 

le requin, shark. 

la morue, stock-fish. 

un kareng, herring. 

le saumon, salmon. 

la truite, trout. 

Vanguille, (f.) eel. 

la carpe, carp. 

le brocket, pike. 

tme sardine, sardine, sprat. 

le fUet, net. 

Vhamegon, (m.) fishing-hook. 

la ligne, fishing-rod. 

pecker, to fish. 

le peckeur, fisherman. 

la pecke, fishing. 

U homard, crab, lobster. 

VScrevisse, (f.) craw-fish. 

rkuUre, (f.) oyster. 

une tortue, tortoise, turtle. 

un Uzard, lizard. 

un serpent, serpent, snake. 

le ver, worm. 

le ver d soie, silk-worm. 

la soie, silk. 

la fourmi, ant. 

Varaignie, (f.) spider. 



le harmeton, cock-chafer. 
la cheniUe, caterpillar. 
le papiUan, butterfly. 
le crapaud, toad. 
la grenouUle, frog. 
la sangsuCf leech. 

VdbeiUe, bee. 

le miel, honey. 

la cire, wax. 

la guepe, wasp. 

la sauterdle, grasshopper. 

le frelon, hornet. 

7* De I'homme. Man. 

L*dme, (f.) the soul. 

Vesprit, (m.) spirit, mind. 

U corpSf body. 

la chaiff flesh. 

la peaUy skin. 

le sang, blood. 

la veine, vein. 

la tHe, head. 

lea cheveux, (m.) hair. 

U front, forehead. 

lea traUs, (m.) features. 

le visage, face. 

le sens, sense. 

Vml, eye. 

Vorgane, (m.) organ. 

fe5 sourcils, (m.) eyebrows. 

^5 paupieres, (f.) eyelids. 

7e5 d?^) (m.) eyelashes. 

le nez, nose. 

Vadorat, (m.) smell. 

2e5 y{mc5, (f.) cheeks. 

Voreille, (f.) ear. 

^ bouche, mouth. 

la dent, tooth. 

la langue, tongue. 

le menton, chin. 

la barhe, beard. 
le cou, throat. 
la nuqtie, neck. 
les epaules, (f.) shoulders. 
le dos, back. 
la poitrine, breast. 
le ventre, belly. 
le bras, arm. 
la main, hand. 
2a main droite, right hand. 
Za doigt, flnger. 
le pouce, thumb. 
Vongle, (f.) nail. 
la cuisse, thigh. 
le genou, knee. 
Za jambe, leg. 
Z6 mollet, calf of the leg. 
Ze i?ic<?, foot. 
le doigts du pied, toes. 
les OS, bones. 
les nerfs, (m.) nerves. 
un muscle, muscle. 
Vestomac, (m.) stomach. 
le poumon, lungs. 
le foie, liver. 

les reins, (m.) kidney, loins, 
le cceur, heart. 

8. Des T^tements. Clothinj^. 

Un vetement, a garment. 

le tailleur, tailor. 

le drap, cloth. 

r^offe, (f.) stuff. 

im i^odi^, dress. 

2e man^eat^, cloak, mantle. 

le paletot, over-coat. 

la redingote, frock-coat. 

Thabit, (m.) coat. 

la manche, sleeve. 

le coUet, collar. 

le bouton, button. 

la boutonnih'e, button-hole. 

la doublure, lining. 

la poche, pocket. 

un gilet, waistcoat. 

la cravate, neck-tie. 

un pa/ntalon, trowsers. 

le calegon, drawers. 

la chemise, shirt. 

la toUe, linen. 

le col, shirt-collar. 



le parasol, parasol. 

le bonnet, cap. 

un fichu, neck-handkerchief. 

un chdle, shawl. 

la robe, gown, dress. 

le jupon, petticoat. 

le corset, stays, 
pair of un tdblier, apron. 

le ruhan, ribbon. 

la ceinture, shas, girdle. 

un bracelet, bracelet. 

une brocke, brooch. 

un coUier, neck-tace. 

les boticles d*oreiUes, ear-rings. 

la bague, ring. 
une paire de bottes, pair of la coiffure, head-dress. 

boots. une epingle d cheveux, hair-pin. 

les pantoufles, slippers. une boucle, a carl. 

le chapeau, hat. la brosse d cheveux, hair-bmsh. 

unchapeaudepaUle, strsLW-h&t. brosser, to brush. 
le gant, glove. le peigne, comb. 

la montre, watch. peigner, to comb. 

la chaine de montre, watch- la pommade, pomatum. 

la poudre a dents, tooth-powder. 

la brosse d dents, tooth-brush. 

le savon, soap. 

le ligne, linen. 

la coutufHdre, dress-maker. 

le mouchoir, pocket-handker- 

le foulard, silk pocket-hand- 

le bas, stocking. 

une paire de bas, 

la laine, wool. 

le coton, cotton. 

la maiUe, stitch. 

les jarretieres, (f.) garters. 

les chaussons, socks. 

le Soulier, shoe. 


la canne, walking-stick. 
le parapluie, umbrella. 

le lavoir, wash-hand-basin. 

9. De la famille. The famUy. 

La famille, the family. la fUle, daughter. 

un ph'e de famille, father of le petit-fUs, grand-son. 

a family. 
le chef, head of the family. 
les parents, parents. 
les ancetres, ancestors. 
le grand'-pere, grandfEither. 
la grand' -mere, grandmother. 
le phre, father. 
la mhre, mother. 
Voncle, uncle. 
la tante, aunt. 
Vepoux, man, husband. 
Vipouse, wife. 
le beau'pere, father-in-law. 
la belle-^re, mother-in-law. 
Venfant, child. 
le fits, son. 

la petite-filU, grand-daughter. 

le gendre, son-in-law. 

la belle-fille, daughter-in-law. 

le frere, brother. 

la sosur, sister. 

le beau-frkre, brother-in-law. 

la belle-sosur, sister-in-law. 

le neveu, nephew. 

la ni^ce, niece. 

le cousin \ 

7 / cousin. 

la coustnef 

le gargon, boy. 

la fille, girl, maiden. 

le fiance, bridegroom. 

la fiancee, bride. 

Us noces, wedding. 



le mariage, marriage. 
le veuff widower. 

la veuve, widow. 
Vorepkelin(e), orphan. 

10. De la demevre. Dwelling. 

L'appartement,\the appartment. un rideau, curtain. 

la demeure, /dwelling. 

un Edifice, building. 

un palaiSf palace. 

une maison, house. 

le toUf roof. 

le ffrenier, loft, garret. 

Vescalier, (m.) stairs. 

lerez-de-chaussee, ground-floor. 

le premier etage, the first-floor. 

le second etage, second story. 

la chambre, room, chamber. 

la chambre d coiicher, bed- 

la salle a manger, dining- 

le salon, drawing-room. 

un cabinet, cabinet. 

la porte, door. 

la serrure, lock. 

la clef, key. 

la fenetre, window. 

le contrevent, shutter. 

le plancher, floor. • 

le plafond, ceiling. 

le mur, wall. 

la sonnette, bell. 

le tableau, picture. 
un miroir, looking-glass. 
les meubles (m.) furniture. 
Var moire, (f.) wardrobe. 
la commode, chest of drawers. 
le tiroir, the drawer. 
la table, table. 
la chaise, chair. 
le fauieuU, arm-chair. 
le sofa, sofa. 
le tapis, carpet. 
le lit, bed. 

la paillasse, straw-bed. 
le matelas, mattress. 
Voreiller, (m.) pillow. 
un drap de lit, sheet. 
la couverture, blanket. 
le bereeau, cradle. 
la table de nuvt, night-table. 
une chandeUe, candle, light. 
eclairer, to light. 
un chandelier, candlestick. 
une bougie, wax-candle. 
les mouchettes, (f.) snuffers. 
les allumettes, (f.) matches. 
une lampe, lamp. 
le poHe, stove. 

11« ]>e U enisine. The kitchei. 

La cuisine, the kitchen. 

Voffice, (f.) pantry. 

les viandes, food, dishes. 

fe cuisinier, \ ^^ 

la cutstntere, I 

le foyer, fire-place. 

la cheminee, chimney. 

le feu, fire. 

la fumee, smoke. 

les charbons, coals. 

les bois, wood. 

la cendre, ashes. 

les pincettes, (t) ifjngn, 

une poele, pan. 

otto-Wright, n&tatfnUkry 

une casserole, sance-pan. 

frire, to cook, fry. 

le pot, pot, 

le pot a Veau, water-pot. 

une cruche d eau, jug, pitcher. 

une cuvette, water-pail. 

la cuiUer d pot, ladle. 

un plat, dish. 

une assiette, plate. 

la soupiere, afmp'inreen, 

la vaisnelk, ve*»el, plate. 

le Hfdfiflier, Halad-dinh. 

Ui cuilier, Mp<xin. 

la ffmrcliette, ff/rk. 



le cotdeau, knife. 

la serviette, napkin. 

la nappe, table-cloth. 

le sel, salt. 

la salibre, salt-cellar. 

le poivre, pepper. 

la poivfiere, pepper-box. 

la moutarde, mustard. 

le moutardier, mustard-pot. 

le vinaigre, vinegar. 

VhuUe, (f.) oil. 

Vhuilier, (m.) oil-bottle. 

la bouteille, bottle. 

la carafe, water-bottle. 

le bouchon, cork. 

le tire-botuihon, cork-screw, 

le verre, glass. 

la tasse, cup. 

le Sucre, sugar. 

le sucrier, sugar-basin. 

la cafetidre, coffee-pot. 

la theiere, tea-pot. 

la houUloire, tea-kettle. 
12. Aliments et boissons. Food and drinL 

Les aliments, (m.) dishes, 

les mets, (m.) food, meats. 
les vivres, (m.) victuals. 
la nourriture, food. 
la faim, hunger. 
Vappetit, (m.) appetite. 
la soif, thirst. 
un r&pas, meal. 
le dejeuner, breakfast. 
le diner, dinner. 
le gouter, lunch. 
le souper, supper. 
le pain, bread. 
du pain blanc, white bread. 
du pain frais, new bread. 
du pain rassis, stale bread. 
la viande, meat. 
du bceuf, beef. 
le bouilli, boiled-meat. 
le bouillon, broth. 
la soupe, soup. 
le potage au riz, rice-soup. 
du veau, veal. 
du veau roti, roast veal. 
les cdtelettes, (f.) chops, cutlets. 
du mouton, mutton. 
un gigot, leg of mutton. 
du pore, pork. 
le lard, bacon. 
du jambon, ham. 
une saucisse, sausage. 
un boudin, blood-pudding. 


du gibier, game. 

du chevreuil, vension. 

du likvre, roast-hare. 

de la volatile, poultry. 

du poisson, fish. 

une omelette, pancake, omelet. 

Us legumes, (m.) vegetables. 

des (Bufs, (m.) eggs. 

des boulettes, (f.) dumplings. 

des vermicelles, (m.) vermicellL 

le dessert, dessert. 

le gdteau, cake. 

le gdtea^ aux pomtnes, 


de la pdtisserie, pastry. 
une tarte, tart. 
des gaufres, (f.) wafers. 
des bonbons, (m.) sweets. 
du fruit, fruit. 
des amandes, (f.) almonds. 
des raisins de Corinthe, currants. 
d^ la confiture, sweet-meats. 
le beurre, butter. 
une beurrie, bread and bntter. 
le fromage, cheese. 
du fromage de Suisse, Swiss 

la boisson, drink. 
le vin, wine. 
la bi^e, beer. 
Veau, (f.) water. 
Veau-de-vie, brandy. 
le punch, punch. 



la limonade, lemonade. le chocolate chocolate. 

U cafS, coffee. le lait, milk. 

le thS, tea. la cr^me, cream. 

prendre du cafS, to take coflfee. 

18. Le 

La saison, the season. 
le printemps, spring. 
I'ite, (m.) summer. 
Vautomne, (m. f.) autumn. 
V hirer, (m.) winter. 
Van, Vannee, year. 
six Mois, half-year. 
trois mois, quarter. 
tm mois, month. 
guinze, jours, fortnight. 
Janvier, January. 
fevrier, February. 
mars, March. 
avrU, April. 
mai. May. 
juin, June. 
juUlet, July. 
aoiU, August. 
septemhre, September. 
octohre, October. 
november, November. 
dicembre, December. 
une semaine, a week. 
dimanche, Sunday. 
lundi, Monday. 
mardi, Tuesday. 

temps. Tine. 

mercredi, Wednesday. 

jeudi, Thursday. 

vendredi, Friday. 

samedi, Saturday. 

U y a huit jours, a week ago. 

le jour, la journie, day. 

le matin, morning. 

le midi, mid-day. 

le soir, la soiree, evening. 

le coucher du soleU, sun -set. 

la nuit, night. 

minuit, mid-night. 

le lendemain, the following day. 

aujourd'hui, to-day. 

hier, yesterday. 

avant-hier, day before yesterday. 

deniain, to-morrow. 

apres'demain , day after to- 

une heure, hour. 

une demi'heure, half an hoar. 

un quart d'heure, quarter of an 

la minute, minute. 

un instant, moment, moment, 

14. Dn temps. The Weather. 

Le temps, the weather. 

le beau temps, fine weather. 

U fait mauvais temps, it is 

bad weather. 
le vent, wind. 

le vent du nord, north wind. 
le vent du sud, south wind. 
une tempete, storm. 
la pluie, rain. 
une averse, shower. 
un arc-en-del, rain-bow. 
le nuage, cloud. 
un orage, thunderstorm. 
le tonnerre, thunder. 

Viclair, (m.)\ ,. , . . 
la foudre, / ^^^^^- 
U fait des eclairs, it lightens. 
la chaleur, heat. 
le froid, cold. 

la temperature, temperature. 
le thermomttre, thermometer. 
le degre, degree. 
la gelee, frost. 
la glace, ice. 
la neige, snow. 

des flocons de neige, snow-fleaks. 
une pelote de neige, snow-ball. 
les patins, (m.) skates. 



Phrases for French Conyersation. 

patiner, to skate. 

le tratneau, sledge, sled. 

la grele, hail. 

le brouUlard, fog, mist. 

le degel, thaw. 

la geUe blanche, hoar frost. 

15. De Pinstmction. Instniction. 

L^universUe, the university. 

le courSy lecture. 

le professeur, professor. 

Vitudiant, student. 

le collegey college. 

Vecole, (f.) school. 

rScolier, \ -i 

Vecoliere, I P'^P^' 

le tMme, exercise. 

la legon, lesson. 

la version, \ . alat'on 

la traduction, / 
le dictionnaire, dictionary. 
une grammaire, grammar. 
une carte geographique, map. 
un modele, copy. 
un jcahier, copy-book. 
un cahier d'ecriiure, writing- 
Vecriture, (f.) writing. 
la copie, copy. 
VScritoire, (f.) writing-stand. 
Vencre, (f.)» ink. 
Ve^wrier, m. inkstand. 
la plume, pen. 

le papier, paper. 

du papier d ecrire, writing p. 

du papier brouiUard, blotting p. 

une ardoise, slate. 

un crayon d* ardoise, slate pencil. 

un crayon, lead-pencil. 

un porte-crayon, pencil-case. 

Vetui d, plume, pen-case. 

le tableau noir, back-board. 

la craie, chalk. 

V6ponge, (f.) sponge. 

un porte-feuiUe, portfolio. 

une regie, ruler. 

un canif, penknife. 

une lettre, letter. 

du papier a lettre, note paper. 

un billet, note, ticket. 

Vadresse, (f.) address. 

une enveloppe, envelope. 

le cachet, seal. 

le pain a cacheter, wafer. 

la cire a cacheter, sealing-wax. 

un timbre-poste, stamp. 

affranchir, to pay the postage. 

Phrases for French Conversatioii, 

/ Avez-vous un livre? 
I Oui, j'ai un livre. 
J Quel livre avez-vous? 
yj'ai votre livre. 
rAs-tu ma plume? 
6 Non, je n*ai pas ta plume. 
J Quelle plume as-tu? 
> J'ai ma plume. 
J N*est-ce pas la mienne ? 
^0 Non, ce n*est pas la tienne. 


I "1 

1. - - M'A'^'^^t^^'^'^ 

Have you a book? 
Yes, I have a book. 
What book have you? 
I have your book. 
Hast thou my pen? 
No, I have not thy pen. 
What pen hast thou? 
I have my pen. 
Is it not mine? 
No, it is not thine. 


Phrases for French Gonyersation. 149 

Have you your pencil? 
No, I have not my pencil. 
What pencil have you then? 
I have my sister*8 pencil. 
How many books have you? 
I have two. 
Who has a stick? 
The young boy has a stick. 
What has thy father? 
He has two or three sticks. 
Has your father a friend? 
Yes, my father has many friends. 


ez-vou8 votre crayon? 

n, je n*ai pas mon crayon. 

el crayon avez-vous done? 

A le crayon de ma soeur. 

mbien de livres avez-vous ? 

i deux livres. 

i a nne canne? 

jeohe garQon a une canne. 

'a ton p^re? 

a deux ou trois Cannes. 

•tre p^e a-t-il un ami? 

i, mon pdre a beaucoup 


mbien d'amis avez-vous? 

li cinq ou six amis. 

tre maltre a-t-il un cha- 


i, 11 a un chapeau de paille. 

ez-YOus da pain? 

i, j^ai nn morceau de pain. 

pain est-il bon? 
i, il est trte bon. 
'ec^YOus aussi du beurre? 
n, je n*ai pas de beurre. 
uleE-vons du beurre? 
I vous plait. 

petit garQon a-t-il aussi 
In pain? 

on, il n*a point de pain. 
on, il n*en a point. 
m veut-il pas? 
en a d^jk eu; il Ta ddijk 

t»il en assez de pain ? 
eH a eu on gros morceau. 

fromage est-il bon aussi? 

ne le trouve pas bon. 
dlez-YOUB du lait? 
Qnez«m'en, 8*il vous plait. 
1 veut du lait? 
\ ^nfiEUits-venlent da lait. 
eE-vooB du vin? 
i, nous en avons. 
dl vin avez-vons? 
SB en avons du rouge et 
la blanc. 

How many friends have you? 
I have five or six friends. 
Has your master a hat? 

Yes, he has a straw hat. 


Have you any bread? 
Yes, I have a piece of bread. 
Is the bread good? 
Yes, it is very good. 
Have you also some butter? 
No, I have no butter. 
Will you have some butter? 
If you please. 

Has the little boy also any 
bread ? 

\ No, he has none. 

Does he not want any? 

He has had some already; he 

has already eaten ir. 
Has he had enough bread? 
He has had a large piece. ^ 
Is the cheese also good? 
I do not find it good. 
Will you have some milk? 
Give me some, if you please. 
Who wants some milk? 
The children want some milk. 
Have you any wine? 
Yes, we have some. 
What kind of .wine have you? 
We have both red and white 


150 Phrases for French Conversation. 

/ Voulez-vous un verre de vin ? Will you have a glass of wine ? 
I Donnez-moi nne bouteille de Give me a bottle of wine. 

J Voulez-vous du vin rouge? 
y Non, donnez-m'en du blanc. 
r Trouvez-vous le vin bon? 

6 II n'est pas tr^s bon. 

7 Voulez-vous me donner un 

verre d'eau? 
^ Voici un verre d'eau fralche. 

? Qu'avez-vous perdu? 
^^ J'ai perdu ma bourse. 
V Qui a perdu quelque chose ? 
/2- Mon ami a perdu quelque 
''^Qu'a-t-il perdu? [chose. 

^y II a perdu sa bague. 
^rQui a trouve une bague? 
^^ Un petit garQon a trouv6 une 

//Est-ce Ik votre bague? 
/^ Oui, c'est ma bague. 
/^Avez-vous vu mon parapluie? 
2* Non, mais j'ai vu votre pa- 
^^ Qu'avez-vous achet^? 
ti J^ai achet^ du papier. 
2^ Quelle sorte de papier avez- 

vous achet^? 
zy J'ai achet^ du papier k lettres. 
2rPour qui Tavez-vons achete? 
24 Je Tai achete pour ma mere. 
2 7 Avez-vous vendu votre cheval ? 
?^Oui, je Tai vendu. 
i^A qui avez-vous vendu votre 

maison ? 
Jo Mb. maison? Je ne Tai pas 

encore vendue. 
•J / Mais qu' avez-vous done vendu ? 
JZ-J'ai vendu la maison de mon 

J J Avez-vous rcQu une lettre ? 
jyOui, j'ai re9u une lettre. 
jf'De qui avez-vous re^u une 

34 j'en ai re^u une de ma ni^ce 


Will you have red wine? 

No, give me white. 

Do you find the wine good? 

It is not very good. 

Will you give me a glass of 

water ? 
Here is a glass of iresh water. 

«. t 

What have you lost? 
I have lost my purse. 
Who has lost anything*? 
My friend has lost something. 
What has he lost? 
He has lost his ring. 
Who has found a ring? 
A little boy has found a ring. 

Is that your ring? 

Yes, that is my ring. 

Have you seen my umbrella? 

No, but I have seen your pa- 

What have you bought? 

I have bought some paper. 

What sort of paper have you 
bought ? 

I have bought some letter paper. 

For whom have you bought it ? 

I have bought it for my mother. 

Have you sold your horse? 

Yes, I have sold it. 

To whom have you sold your 
house ? 

My house? I have not yet 
sold it. 

But what have yon sold then? 

I have sold my uncle's house. 

Have you received a letter? 
Yes, I have received one. 
From whom have you received 

I have received one from my 

niece Julia. 

^. f .5*3 ' ^ '' " ^A. ...- m < - ; " 


^Non, je Be rȣ pH ti la- 3i-_ Z iL: i* r -^ 11:11 -*-.-arT 


J L'aTeK-TOus va aosr* Im —1 «* iim ^*?ft«rtii^ * 

y OiD, je r» ▼« 2DSC. - **. r *▼ r:ii ;.*3*r**r'ta; 

^QiiiaTaLisoBSr%asOiar.«!f« ^ "^li-. lar -»wa Viiii"-r**f • v-ir.*ji *- 

fr Je Be Tai pa* "rut. I i;i-*t ij " -^^a. r. 

^ £fit-ee me ikks* Tx* !• r i r- .: ▼ir. 1 * 

^ Non c'eat loe sijBzn i" ij- Ti - -- i. -iL-'-sl- vi-vji. 


7 A-tril aasa vae *aa;:3fft t*» rLu i*% i^*?'. i. ** u\*jx *asika, \ 


''0 Ooi^ a a use ^fii£a& T-.r. :'*«. 11*11*^1 r j- viajx 

/tOiD, je Tai £u:. y*?i. I la^* i.!ii* -. 

'l/Aa-in fium? ^ ^^ ^ _^^ ^ 

/VlATtt^Toos fium? "•'* ''^ ^"'"^rrj , 

/rOiii,j'aifium(i"aigT*aiiiL=: . :V. I ici i^r/j ivivrrr. 

^(Atqb-toqs »«f? A'* 7.'; '^.rr.j'f 

/yOni, BOOS avcm ^.^ iV, \r* i,-* *z:.r^j. 

/fNous aTQiu toajfOHTs n^v.^i, Vi'* -^-> fc.»-iT> r^'i*.. 

^Qid a ea ten. v#v, »i^, wr'^ir > 

t^L'tadier a ea tort* 7:^ -,^;^„ wi* -ir.".r;r, 

2tQiii a en nuson? V/- wi* r^i;^.".? 

t J Le maltre a ea rabcA. Ti^ it-a-vs- Wi> r:;?> t, 

ticLes en&ats ont-iU £k:x >:; Aj-* tv: ';.'.:.':."«: t:iji;mr or 

aoif? tL;r*rT? 

2rlls OBt &im et soil Tr,-^ art hcn^rry and 

ZC rr<»i-]]6 encore rien man^ff^? Hjsit-; tW d<A eatwi anj- 

17 lis out Biang^ an petit mor- Tnej hare eaten a small piece 

oeau de pain. of bread, 

'^ Qu a mang^ ma pomme? Who hia^ eaten my apple? 

z f Loom a mang^ ta pomme, Ix>iiij, haa eaten it. 

J* Gonnaigsez-Toas ce monsieurV Di you know thU gentleman 

J / Nop, je ne le connai« pas. No, I do not know him. 

J^^ est-ce? Who is he? 

J 3 0*081 un stranger. He in a foreigner. 

lyEstree on Pran9ai3 on an Is he a Frenchman or an 

-A-nglais? " 'shman? 


/ Ce n'est ni nn Fran9ais, ni 
nn Anglais ; c'est un It alien. 

I Parle-t-il fran^ais? 

jOui, monsieur, iJ parle bien 

V Parle-t-il anssi anglais? 

^^ Je ne crois pas. 

/b Savez-vous I'italien , made- 
moiselle ? 

7 Je le parle un pen. 

S- Apprenez-vous le fran^ais ? 

f Oui, je Tapprends. 

Phrases for French Conversation. 

He is neither French nor Eng- 
lish; he is an Italian. 
Does he speak French? 
Yes, he speaks French well. 

Does he also speak English? 

I believe not. 

Do you understand Italian, Miss? 

I speak it a little. 

Are you learning French? 

Yes, I am learning it. 

/oDepuisquandT apprenez-vous? How long have you learnt it? 
'-^ JeTapprendsdepuissix mois. I have learnt it for half a 

year (these six months). 


What day is to-day? 
To-day is Monday. 
What day will it be to-morrow? 
To-morrow will be Tuesday. 
Which are the other days of 

the week? 
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, 

Saturday and Sunday. 
When did your cousin arrive ? 

He arrived last Friday. 
When will he go away? 
He will set of next Tuesday. 
Why does he not stay till 

Wednesday or Thursday? 
He cannot stay any longer; 

he has some business. 
What day of the month have 

we to-day? 

( To-day it is the sixteenth. 

Was it not the fourteenth 

yesterday ? 
I beg your pardon, it was 
the fifteenth. 


*/ Comment avez-vous dormi How did you sleep last night f 

cette nuit? 
30 Je vous remercie , j'ai tr^s Thank you, I slept very well, 

bien dormi. 

/2.Quel jour est-ce aujourd'hui? 

/3 Aujourd'hui c'est lundi. 

/y Quel jour sera-ce demain? 

/^Demain ce sera mardi. 

/4 Quels sont les autres jours de 
la semaine? 

/? Ce sont: mercredi, jeudi, ven- 
dredi, samedi et dimanche. 

^^Quand votre cousin est-il 
arrive ? 

'f II est arrive vendredi dernier. 

t.0 Quand partira-t-il ? 

t./ II partira mardi prochain. 

ti Pourquoi ne reste-t-il pas 
jusqu'k mercredi ou jeudi? 

2 J II ne pent pas rester plus long- 
temps; il a des affaires. 

Ly Quel quanti^me avons-nous 
(sommes-nous) aujourd'hui? 

' ^ f Aujourd'hui nous avons le seize, 

'•^^Aujourd'hui c'est le seize. 

t^W etait-ce pas hier le quatorze? 

^^ Pardon, (monsieur), c'^tait 
hier le quinze. 


I Oombien de temps avez-vons 
dormi ? 

L J'ai dormi sept heures. 

J Trouvez-vous que ce soit long- 

y Non, je ne trouve pas ; moi, 
je dors ordinairement hnit 

rVotre fr6re dort-il encore? 

6 Je crois qu'il est ddijk lev^. 

^Vraiment, il est lev6? 

^ Je vais voir s'il est lev6. 

f A quelle heure vous levez- 

/i^Je me l^ve en hiver k sept 

Phrases for French Conversation. 

How long did you sleep? 


I slept seven hours. 
Do you think it long? 

No, I do not think it too long ; 
I usually sleep eight hours. 

Is your brother still sleeping ? 
I believe that he is already up. 
Is he really np? 
I will see directly if he is up. 
At what o'clock do you get up? 

I get up at seven o'clock in 
heures, en ^t^ & six heures. winter; and at six o'clock 

in summer. 
Will you breakfast with me? 

f/ Voulez-vous ddjeuner avec 

/tVous 6tes bien aimable; j'ai 

d^jk d^jeuu^. ' 

/I Qu'avez-vous pris ? 

f^Tdii pris une tasse de th^. 

^i^Quand les jours sont-ils le 

plus longs? 
^6 En ^t^, au mois de juin. 

O Quel est le jour le plus long 

de Tann^e? 
^ f Le vingt-deux juin. 
^o Comment sont les jours en 

t« En hiver les jours sont courts. 
zt Et comment sont les nuits? 
i\ Les nuits sont trds longues. 
2 jQuand aurons-nous le jour le 

plus court et la nuit la plus 

^yC% sera le vingt-deux ou 

vingt-trois d^cembre. 
2i*Combien de mois y a-t-il 

dans une ann^e? 
ft^Une ann^e a donze mois. 

You are very kind; I have 

already breakfasted. 
What have you (drunk) or 

taken) ? 
I have taken (drunk) a cup 

of tea. 


When are the days longest? 

In summer, in the month of 

Which is the longest day in 

the year? 
The 22nd of June. 
How are the days in winter? 

In winter they are short. 

And how are the nights?- 

They are very long. 

When shall we have the shor- 
test day and the longest 
night ? 

That will be on the 22nd or 
23rd of December. 

How many months are there 
in a year? 

A year has twelve months. 

I Combien de jours y a-t-il 

dans un mois? 
I Qiielques mois en ont trente, 

d'autres trente-et-un jours; 

f^vrier n'en a que vingt- 

3 Quels sont les noms des 

y Janvier, f^vrier, mars, avril, 

mai, juin, juillet, aotlt, 

septembre, octobre, no- 

vembre, d^cembre. 

Phrases for French Conversation. 

How many days are there in 

a month? 
Some months have 30, others 

81 days; February has only 


What are the names of the 
months ? 

January, February, March, April, 
' May, June, July, August, 
September , October , No- 
vember, December. 


y Qu'est-ce que TAnglais vous 

a promis hier? 
^ II m'a promis de venir me 

voir aujourd'hui k dix heures. 
7 A-t-il tenu sa promesse? 
^ Oni, ii Ta tenue. 
f A-t-il et^ chez vous k dix 

^o II est venu h. dix heures pr6- 

// Qu'a-t-il d6sir6? 
/^ II m'a communique une lettre 
de Paris. 

/ 3 Est-ce qu'elle contenait quel- 

que chose de nouveau? 
^y Oui, elle contenait quelque 

chose de tr^s important. 
/ <"* Est-ce un secret ? 
/^ Pas pr^cis^ment. Je puis vous 

le dire, si vous d^irez le 


What did the Englishman pro- 
mise you yesterday? 

He promised me to call npon 
me at ten o'clock to-day. 

Did he keep his promise? 

Yes, he did. 

Was he with you at ten o'clock? 

He came punctually at ten 

What did he want? 
He communicated to me (fif 

imparted to me) a letter firom 

Did it contain any news? 

Yes, it contained some yexy 

important news. 
Is it a secret? 
Not exactly. I can tell it to 

you, if you wish it. 

>^7Avez-vous froid? 

^B Oui, j'ai froid. Je tremble de 

// D'oii venez-vons done? 

z • Je viens de faire une prome- 

^f N'aviez-vous pas peurde sor- 
tir par ce grand froid? 

z^Non, je sors tons les jours, 
qu'il pleuve ou qu'il neige. 


Do you feel cold? 

Yes, I feel cold. I tremble {pf. 

I shake) with cold. 
Where do you come from? 
I have just been out for a 

Were you not afraid to go out 

in this severe cold? 
No, Sir, I go out every day, 

whether it rains or snows. 

PhisMB for French ConTenatioiL 


I Mais poforqiioi ne Toua habil- Bat why are yon not more 

lez-Yons pas pins chande- warmly clothed? 

L Je n'aYais pas pens^ qn*il fit I did not think that it was so 

si firoid. 


' Ne Yonlex-vons pas Tons ap- Will yon not come a little 

procher nn pen dn po^le? nearer to the stove? 
V Non, merci je crains d^avoir No, thank you, I am afraid of 

des engelnres. 

getting chilblains. 

^ La neige est^lle profonde sor Does snow lie deep on the 

It is scarcely 30 centimetres 

la rente? 
^ II y a k peine nn pied de 

7 I'nis-je yons offiir mon man- May I offer yon my cloak? 

f JeTonsremercie, je serai chez Thank you, I shall be at home 

moi dans nn instant. 


f Ponrqnoi 6tes-yons si mouill6 ? 
^0 J'ai 6t^ monill^ par la pluie. 

vPlent-il done? 

/t Gertainement, il plent assez 

^3N'aviez-vons pas de para- 

'f'Non, je n'en avais point avec 

'** Ponrqnoi n'en avez-vous pas 
pris, lorsque vons sortites 
de chez vous2 
^^ Lorsqne je sortis de chez moi, 

il ne pleuvait du tout. 
^7Au mois d'avril, il ne faut 
jamais sortir sans prendre 
nn parapluie. 
/^ !6tes-vous bien mouill6? 
/9 Je snis tremp^. 

^* Puis-je vous oflfrir mon para- 
pluie ? 

2/ Je Taccepterai avec recon- 

2-2. Voyez-vous Tarc-en-ciel ? 

t^sAh oui, qu'il est beau! 


Why are yon so wet? 

I have been made wet by the 

Does it rain then? 
Certainly, it rains rather fast. 

Had you no umbrella? 

Non, I had none with me. 

Why did you not take one with 
you, when you left home? 

When I left home, it did not 

rain at all. 
In April one should not go out 

without an umbrella. 

Are you very wet? 

I am wet through and through 

(or throughout). 
May I oflfer you my umbrella? 

I will accept it with thanks. 

Do you see the rain-bow? 
Ah! yes, how beautiful it is 


Phrases for French Conyersation. 

/ Croyez-vons qu*il continuem 

de pleuvoir? 
I Je ne crois pas — , et comme 
je vols, la pluie a ddjk cess^. 
J Oil sont les enfants? 
^ lis sont dans la conr. 
<* Ou sont les ^coliers? 

6 lis sont k r^cole. 

7 Est-ce que Louise a 6t6 a la 

promenade ? 
5 Oui, elle a 6te se promener. 

/ Qui Ta accompagnee ? 
/^ Sa cousine ^tait avec elle. 

/^ N'a-t-elle pas 6t6 chez sa 
tante ? 

^^ Non, elle n*y a pas t§t^. 
^ y Pourquoi n'y a-t-elle pas ^t^? 
^ Elle n'en a pas eu le temps, 
/r A-t-elle trouv6 des fleurs? 
^^ Elle a trouv^ beaucoup de 

^7 N'a-t-elle pas trouv6 de rose? 
^^ Oui, elle avals aussi une rose. 
^^^Qui lui a donn^ cette rose? 
2^ C*est son cousin qui la lui a 

Do you think that it will rain 

much longer? 
I think not, and I see that 

the rain has ceased (already). 
Where are the children? 
They are in the yard. 
Where are the pupils? 
They are at school. 
Has Louisa been out for a walk? 

Yes, she has been a walking 

(or she has taken a walk). 
Who was with her? 
Her female cousin was with her. 
Has she not been at her aonVs ? 

No, she was not there. 
Why was she not there? 
She had no time. 
Did she find any flowers? 
She has found many violets. 

Has she not had a rose? 
Tes, she had a rose too. 
Who gave her this rose? 
Her cousin gave it her. 

^^ L*6tranger est-il arrive? 
^^ Oui, il est arrive hier (au) 
2 3 Est-il arrive seul? [soir. 

tyNon, il a plusieurs domes- 

tiques avec lui. 
*^' Combien de domestiques a-t-il 

avec lui? 
^ 1\ en 3, deux ou trois. 
z7 Est-ce que le prince est parti? 
2^ II n'est pas encore parti. 
2f Quand partira-t-il ? 

JO II partira demain. 

J/ A quelle heure partira-t-il? 

•^2-11 partira k huit heures. 

33 Oil va-t-il? 

^y II va k la campagne. 


Has the stranger arrived? 
Tes, he arrived last night. 
Did he arrive alone? 
No, he has several servants with 

How many servants has he 

with him? 
He has two or three. 
Has the prince gone away? 
He has not yet set off. 
When will he go away or 

He will go away to-morrow. 
At what o'clock will he set 

He will leave at 8 o'clock. 
Where is he going? 
He is going into the country. 

Phi^ases for French Gonyersation. 157 

/ A-t-i] un chateau h, la cam- Has he a castlein the conntry? 


t II y poss^de un tr^s beau He has a very beautiful castle 

cha,teau. there. 

J Qui habite ce chftteau-lk? Who lives in that castle? 

f» La princesse y passe T^t^. The princess lives there in 


i" Oii demeure-t-elle en hiver? Where does she live in winter? 

^ En hiver elle habite la ville. In winter she lives in town. 


^Le soleil est-il grand? 

^ II est tr6s grand ; il est bien 

plus grand que la terre. 
f Ija, lune est-elle aussi plus 

grande que la terre? 
^ ^Au contraire, la terre est plus 

grande que la lune. 
^^ Es-tu plus petit que ton fr^re 

Adolphe ? 
/I An contraire, mon fr^re est 

plus petit que moi. 
O Est-il plus kg6 que toi? 
/^Il est de deux ans plus tg^ 

que moi. 
'TQuel age avez-vous, Charles? 
^^Z^ai treize ans. 
/^ Quel age a votre fr^re? 
^/Il a quinze ans. 
/^Quand est-il n^? 
xoll est n^ le dix Janvier mil 

huit cent soixante-huit. 
^ Et vous, dans quelle ann^e 

etes-vous n^? 
^ZMoi, je suis n6 en mil huit 

cent soixante-dix. 
2 J Quel jour? 
zfJjQ vingt-quatre avril. 

Is the sun large? 

He is very large ; he is much 

larger than the earth. 
Is the moon also larger than 

the earth? 
On the contrary, the earth is 

larger than the moon. 
Are you smaller than your 

brother Adolphus? 
On the contraiy, my brother 

is smaller than I. 
Is he older than you? 
He is two years older than I. 

How old are you, Charles? 
I am thirteen years old. 
How old is your brother? 
He is fifteen years old. 
When was be born? 
He was bom on the tenth of 

January 1868. 
And in what year were you 

I was born in the year 1870. 

On what day? 

On the 24th of April. 


/r^Qui a pris mes ciseaux? 
2i& G*est mademoiselle Elise qui 

les a pris. 
V'Pourquoi les a-t-elle pris? 
^EUe n'a pas trouv^ les siens. 
afVoulez-vous me prater les 

vCtres ? 
»^ Avec plaisir; les voici. 

Who has taken my scissors? 
Miss Eliza has taken them. 

Why has she taken them? 
She has not found her own. 
Will you lend me yours? 

With pleasure; here they are. 


^ Avez-vous besoin de votre i6 ? 

Z Oui, j'en ai besoin. 

•3 Voulez-vons coudre quelque 

y Je vais condre des chemises. 

Phrases for French Cronyersation. 

Do yon want your thimble? 

Yes, I want it. 

Will yon sew anything? 

^ Chez qui avez-vous appris k 

coudre ? 
* Chez une couturi^re. 
y Avez-vous d^jk cousu des 

chemises ? 
^ J'en ai fait ddjk plusieurs 

? Pour qui les avez-vous faites? 
^^ J*en ai fait une douzaine pour 

mon fr^re et les autres pour 
, moi-m6me. 
/^ Etaient-elles faites de toile 

ou de calicot? 
^? La premiere douzaine dtait 

faite de toile de Hollande, 

les autres de calicot. 
O De quelle 6tofFe seront celles 

que vous allez coudre 

^^ Celles-ci seront de toile de 


I will sew (or make) some 

From whom have yon learnt 

to sew? 
From a seamstress. 
Have you sewn (or made) shirts? 

I have already made seyeral 

For whom did you make them? 
I made a dozen for my brother, 

and another dozen for myself. 

Were they made of linen or 

The first dozen were of Dutch 
linen and the others of ca- 

Of what stuff will those be, 
which you are now going to 

They will be of Silesian linen. 


''•^Avez-vous beaucoup k faire? Have you much to do? 
^^ Oui, nous avons beaucoup k Tes, we have a great deal to 


Have you always so many 
exercises to do? 

Not always. 

Hfbve you a French translation 
to do? 

We have to do a translation 
every day. 

Have you also any words to 

Certainly, we can nnderstand 
no language without learn- 
ing words. 

How many words have yon to 
learn every day? 

It depends on circumstances. 
Sometimes 15 to 20, some- 
times also more. 

^ Avez-vous toujours tant de 

td.ches k faire? 
'^^Pas toujours. 
/^Avez-vous une version fran- 

^aise k faire? 
*^ Nous avons tons les jours une 

version k faire. 
V Avez-vous aussi des mots k 

2-1 Certainement, on ne pent pas 

comprendre une langne sans 

apprendre des mots. 
^■'Combien de mots avez-vous 

k apprendre chaque jour? 
V^ C*est selon . Quelquefois quinze 

a vingt, quelquefois davan- 


^v;^-V*tfo Phrases for French Conyersation. 


f Avez-vous quelque chose k 

t J*ai toujours quelque chose h, 

3 Qu*avez-vous k faire k pre- 
y J*ai un th^me k faire. 
j-^Qu'est-ce que votre fr^re a a 

faire ? 
^ II a une lettre a copier. 
y Pour qui a-t-il une lettre k 

^ Pour mon p6re. 
a A-t-il encore autre chose k 

6crire ? 
/oNon, il n*a pas autre chose 

k faire. 
^Ne va-t-il pas k T^cole? 
/z Non, il ne va plus k T^cole. 

yj Pourqoui ne va-t-il plus k 

^5^ II est maintenant dans un 

/r Qu'y fait-il? 
/^Il est ai^renti en commerce. 
/jrCombien de temps son ap- 

prentissage durera-t-il? 
^^11 durera trois ann^es. 
ff Trouvez-vous cela long? 
kr Je ne le trouve pas trop long. 

Have you anything to do? 

I always have something to do« 

What have you to do now? 

I have an exercise to write. 
What has your brother to do? 

He has a letter to copy. 

For whom has he a letter to 

For my father. 
Has he any other things to 

write besides? 
No, he has nothing else to do* 

Does he not go to school? 
No, he does not go to school 

any more. 
Why does he not go to school 

any longer? 
He is now in a counting-house 

(or office). 
What is he doing there? 
He is a tradesman's apprentice. 
How long will his apprentice-^ 

ship last? 
It will last three years. 
Do you think that long? 
I do not think it too long. 

j/ Voulez-vous faire une pro- 
menade avec moi k pr^ent? 

^ Je suis bien fd/ch^, mais je 
n'en ai pas le temps k 

Z3 Voulez-vous faire une pro- 
menade avec moi apr^s 

tft Avec plaisir; je viendrai vous 

^f" A quelle heure viendrez-vous ? 

t6 Je viendrai un peu apr^s six 

l>Aimez-vous la promenade? 


Will you take a walk with me 

I am sorry, I have no tima 


Will you take a walk with me. 
after dinner? 

Willingly, I shall come for you^ 

At what o'clock will you come? 
I shall come a little after six«. 

Do you like to walk (out)? 



Fhrft for Fr h Uonrenati 

I Je fais nne promenade tous 

les jours. 
2- Avec qui vous fites-vous pro- 

men6 hier? 
3 Je me suis promen^ avec mon 

y Votre neveu n'est-il pas en- 
core parti? 
^ Non, il est encore ici. 
h Quand partira-t-il ? 
7 Le jour de son depart n'est 

pas encore fix^. 
5 Pera-t-il un long voyage? 
f II voyagera en France, et il 

ne sera pas de retour avant 

deux mois. 

I take a walk every day. 

With whom did you take a 

walk yesterday? 
I took a walk with my nephew. 

Has your nephew not yet left? 

No, he is still here. 

When will he set out? 

The day of his departure is not 

yet fixed. 
Will he make a long journey? 
He will travel in France, and 

will not be back a^n for 

two months. 

^^ Ne savez-vous pas oti est 

mon chapeau. 
// Non, je ne (le) sais pas. 
n Le doraestique sait-il oil il 

^^ II ne le sait pas non plus. 
^f Lui avez-vous d^jk demands? 
fs^ Oui, je lui ai d6ja demands. 
''* Peut-^tre que la servante le 

^7 II est possible qu'elle le sache, 

parce qu'elle a nettoy^ votre 

^^ Appelez-la, je vous prie. 
^f Qii'y a-t-il pour votre service, 

monsieur ? 
^^ Oil avez-vous mis mon cha- 
t/Je Tai mis dans I'armoire. 
iiDans quelle armoire? 
2.1 Dans cette armoire-ci. 
*yEst-ce qu*il n*y est plus? 
^^ Je n'y ai pas encore regards. 
U»Ou est la clef? L'avez-vous 

6t6e (retiree)? 
*-7Je Tai retiree, comme j'ai 

coutume de le faire. 
<**Oti Tavez-vous mise? 
a^Je Tai pendne au clou. 


Do you not know where my 

hat is? 
No, I do not. 
Does the servant know where 

it is? 
He does not know either. 
Have you asked him already? 
Tes, I have already asked him. 
Perhaps the maid - servant 

knows ? 
It is possible that she does, 

because she has cleaned your 

Call her, please. 
What is your pleasure, Sir? 

Where have you laid mj hat? 

I have put it in the wardrobe. 

In which? 

In this wardrobe. 

Is it no longer there? 

I have not yet looked there. 

Where is the key? Have yon 

taken it away? 
I have taken it out, as I 

usually (or use to) do. 
Where have you put it? 
I have hung it up on the naiL 


Phrases for French Conversation. 


/Mais elle n'y est plus. It is not hanging there. 

Z Dans ce cas elle sera tomb^e Then it must have fallen down. 

par terre. 

\f La voilk. There it lies. 

yRamassez-la, je vous prie. Pick it up, if yon please. 


y* Qni a bftti cette maison? Who has built this house? 

h Tin certain monsieur Mllller. A certain Mr. Mtlller. 

7 Est-cequ'iirhabitelui-m6me? Does he inhabit it himself? 

i Non, il n'y habite pas lui- No, be does not live in it 

m6me. himself. 

^ Oil demeure-t-il done? Where does he live then? 

/^ II demenre dans une autre He lives in another street. 


// A-t-il encore d*autresmaisons? Has he any other houses? 

^^ Oui, il en a trois autres. Yes, he has three others. 

/3 Bst-il riche ? Is he rich ? 

/9 On le dit, mais je ne le crois They say so ; but I do not 


believe it. 

'^^^Pourquoi ne le croyez-vous Why do you not believe it? 

^^ Parce que je sais qu'il a aussi Because I know that he is 

des dettes. 
^^D'oti savez-vous cela? 
/^Un de mes amis me Ta dit. 

deeply in debt too. 
How do you know that? 
A friend of mine has told 

me so. 
^/Comment votre ami peut-il How can your friend know it? 

le savoir? 
^^11 faut bien qu*il le sache, He must know it well, since 

puisqu'il est un de ses he is one of his creditors. 

2-/ Sa femme vit-elle encore? 
^2 Non, elle est morte. 
X J Y a-t-il longtemps qu'elle est Is it long since she died ? 

*y Elle est morte il y a trois It is three years since she died. 

Is his wife still living? 
No, she is dead. 

2r A quel ftge? 
z^ A r&ge de trente-sept ans. 


What was her age? 
She was thirty seven years of 


i> Savez-Tous que mon voisin Did you hear that my neigh- 
est mort? hour has died? 

i«*^ Non, je ne Tai pas entendu No, Sir, I have not heard of 
dire; quand est-il mort? it; when did he die? 

* ^ II est mort cette nuit. He died last night. 

otto-Wright, Elementary French Grammar. W 

162 Phrases for French Conyersation. 

/ De quelle maladie est-il mort ? 
t II est mort d'une fi^vre ty- 

J Combien de temps a-t-il 6t6 

malade ? 
^ II a 6t6 malade pendant six 

^ fltes-vous alU le voir quel- 

quefois ? 
^ Je suis all6 le voir presque 

tous les jours. 
^ Etait-il de vos amis? 
P Qui, c'dtait mon meilleurami. 
^ Ou avez-vous fait sa connais- 

sance ? 
^^ J*ai fait sa connaissance k 

// Avez-vous beaucoup de con- 

naissances h Hambourg? 
/2 J'en ai bien peu; la plupart 

sont mortes. 
^-3 Avez-vous 6t6 longtemps k 

Hambourg ? 
^J'y suis rest^ dix-huit mois. 

Of what illness did he die? 
He died of the typhus fever. 

How long was he ill? 

He was ill for six weeks. 

Did you sometimes go to see 

I called on him almost every 

Was he your friend? 

Yes, he was my best friend. 

Where did you make his ac- 
quaintance ? 

I made his acquaintance at 

Have you many acquaintances 
at Hamburgh? 

I have very few; most are 

Were you long at Hamburg? 

I lived there one year and a 

half (eighteen monUis). 


[Will you come to me (or to 
see me) to-morrow? 

^^ jViendrez-vous chez moi de- 

I main ? 
/^ jViendrez-vous me voir |de- 

( main? 

//Oui, si j*ai le temps. Yes, if I have time. 

/^ Votre belle-sceur viendra-t-elle Will your sister-in-law oome 

aussi ? too ? 

^/Je ne crois pas qu*elley aille; I believe that she will not 

mais mon beau-fr^re ira 

vous trouver. 
^^ Seriez-vous venu me voir, si 

vous aviez su que j*6tais 

malade ? 
^f Certainement, je serais slU 

vous voir, si j'avais su que 

vous fussiez malade. 
2 Z,Auriez-vons achet^ ce cheval, 

si vous aviez su qu*il ^tait 

k vendre? 
^ 3 Non, je ne Tanrais pas achet^; 

il ne me plait pas. 

come; but my brother-in- 
law will come with me. 

Would you have visited me, 
if you had known that I 
was ill? 

Certainly, I would have vi- 
sited you, if I had known 
that you were ill. 

Would you have bought this 
horse , if you had known 
that it was to be sold? 

No, I should not have bought 
it; it does not please me. 


Phrases for French Conversation. 


f Parleriez-vous toujours fran- 

9ais, si vous saviez cette 

Z Je ne parlt^rais pas tonjours, 

mais je parlerais quelque- 

J Ne parlez-vous pas fran9ais ? 
y Non, monsiear, mais je parle 

anglais et italien. 

Would you always speak French, 
if you knew it? 

I should not always speak it, 
but sometimes. 

Do you not speak French? 
No, Sir, but I speak English 
and Italian. 

^^ Avez-vous encore besoin de 
ma clef de montre? 

^ Non, je n'en ai plus besoin. 

y Avez-vous perdu la v6tre? 
9" Je ne puis la trouver. 

f Ce gar9on a-t-il besoin de 

sonliers neufs? 
/'^ II lui faut une paire de bottes 

^^ Les siennes sont-elles d^chi- 

^ 2. Oui, elles sont toutes troupes. 

' 3 Depuis combien de temps les 

porte-t-il ? 
^y II y a deux mois qu'il les 

'^ N'a-t-il pas aussi besoin 

d*habits neufs? 

^^ Oui, il lui faut une redingote 
et un pantalon. 

/'^^Est-ce que son gilet est en- 
core en bon 6tat? 

' ^ II est encore assez bon. 

// Combien de paires de bas vous 

■^-^ II m'en faut six paires. 
tf Voulez-vous les acheter vous- 
m^me, ou faut-il que je les 
achate pour vous? 

^ 2. Je vous serais bien oblige, si 
vous vouliez avoir la bont6 
de les acheter pour moi. 


Do you still want my watch- 

No, I do not want it any 

Have you lost yours? 
I cannot iind it. 

Does this boy want new shoes ? 

He wants a new pair of boots. 

Are his torn {or worn out)? 

Yes, they are quite full of 

How long has he worn them ? 

He has worn them two months. 

Does he not also want new 

Yes, he wants a new coat 
and a pair of trowsers. 

Is his waistcoat still good? 

It is still pretty good. 
How many pairs of stockings 
do you want? 

I want six pairs. 

Will you buy them yourself, 

or shall I buy them for 


I should be much obliged to 
you,' if you would be o'^ 
kind as to buy them i 


•. ^' 


Phrases for French Conversation. 


/ A quoi pensez-vous? 
X Je pense k mon avenir. 
3 Qu'est-ce qui vous fait penser 

k votre avenir ? 
*i II faut que je choisisse un 

S" Qui vous demande cela? 
^ Men p^re le demande. 
y Vous laisse-t-il le choix libre ? 

What are you thinking of? 

I am thinking of my fntnre. 

What makes you think of your 
future ? 

I must now choose a profes- 

Who desires you to do so? 

My father does. 

Does he leave you a free choice ? 

^ Ilm*adit: „Monfils,choi8issez He has said to me: j,My son, 

un 6tat (une profession) choose yourself a profession, 

vous-m6me; je ne vous I will prescribe nothing to 

prescrirai rien." you." 

? fites-vous maintenant d^cid6? Are you now decided? 

/o Non, je ne me suis pas en- No, I have not yet decided. 
core d^id^. 

^^ Oh, que je vous plains! Oh! how I pity you! 

/i Pourquoi me plaignez-vous Why do you pity me? 

^3 Farce que rienne rend Thomme Because nothing makes a man 

si malheureux que Tindeci- 

^Y Vous vous trompez, monsieur, 

je ne suis pas ind^cis; mais 

je ne veux pas pr^cipiter 

ma decision. 
/5"A la bonne heurel 

^ ^ Si vous me demandiez mon 

avis, je vous conseillerais 

de vous faire negociant ; car 

. c'est au commerce que le 

monde appartient. 

/^Je vous remercie de votre 

/ ^ Quel conseil avez-vous donn^ 

k votre ami ? 
/?Je lui ai conseill^ d'aller en 

^^ Pourquoi ne lui avez-vous pas 

donn^ un meilleur rouseil? 
2 / Je croi« que c*(^tait le meilleur 

que j^ensse pu lui donner. 
liSuivra-t-il votre conseil? 

so unhappy as indecision. 

You are mistaken, Sir. I am 
not undecided, but I will 
not hurry my decision. 

Very good! (That is a dif- 
ferent thing.) 

If you ask my advice, I should 
advise you to be a merchant; 
for the whole world is open 
to commerce (or trade). 

I thank you for your advice. 


What advice have you given to 

your friend? 
I have advised him to go to 

Why have you not given him 

better advice? 
I think it was the best I could 

give hiiTi 
WUl he advice f 


PhraseB for Frencli Oonyenation. 


' II m'a dit qa*il le sniyrait. 

t Combien de temps met-on 

pour aller en Am^rique? 
J Dans un bateau k vapeur on 

met 12 k 14 jours, et dans 

un vaisseau k voile on met 

4 ou 5 semaines. 
V Le voyage par mer est-il 

5" Trds agr^able, quand le temps 

est favorable. 
(e> Avez-vous dejk fait an vojage 

en Am^rique? 
7 Oui, j*ai 6t6 k New- York 

Tann^ derni^re. 
i" Combien de temps y fttes-vous 

f Je n'y suis rest^ que deux 


He told me tbat be would fol- 
low it. 

How long does one require to 
go to America? 

In a steamboat from 10 to 14 
days are required, in a sailing- 
vessel from 4 to 5 weeks. 

Is tbe voyage pleasant? 

Very pleasant, if the weather 

is favourable. 
Have yon already made a voyage 

to America? 
Yes, last year I went to New 

How long were you there? 

I only stayed there two months. 



1. French-EDglish Fwt 

abandonner to forsake. 

abeiile f. hte. 

^ li maison ai home, 

acbeter to hup. 

admirer to mdmirf.^ *« 

&ge m. age* 

&^\ -e dd. 

aimer to lore, to like. 

aleul m. grtat-grandfather. 

kme i. sohJ. 

amer. -^re hitter. ^7,%-^^,^, 

ami m. friend. 

amie f. (female) friend. 

amitie f. friendship. 

ancien, -ne ancient. V^./ 

*^ne m. oj^. 

animal m. animal^ heast. S'l /z 

annoncer to announce. 

bataiUe f. hatOe.^'''^^ 
b&tir to huOd.^'^ 

^'^^ belle ftMu^/uZ 

b^tail m. caHU. 

bearre m. hutter,s^.fo 

bien tceil. 

bibre f. 5e«r. 

bijou m, jewel, f^S'Z' If 

bl&mer to liame. ja, ^ 

ble m. eonu/o!' 4 

blesser to wound, S^J--' 

bleu blMe, St •v. 

bois m. foood. ^^'^^y 

bon ^oorf. Jl-'7"^''* 

bord m. toitX?. 

botte f. ftoo^.^fi^ 

bourse f. purse. 

bouteille f. hottle. TS i^r 

appartement m. apart ment.Lfi ■ ? •. -bras m. arm. 

appartenir /o helona. /ry.'^ bruit m. noiM, rfpor*. 49^^'^*^^ 

-^ • "^* ^ ^' bu drMnt. '<*«:' 

Cacher to hide.(^'Tf^^ ^ 

cadeau m. present, fU- y/"^^" 
cafe m. coffee. *rV-'V 
cahier m. copybook . J^*^* 

applique diligent, fyt fr 
apporter to bring. b«*' 
arbre m. ^-r^. ^^.4*^*'«b^ 
ar^nt m. mori^, silrer. 
armee f. armg. 

as$iette f. plate, /os • ^.,, _ .,, ,^ >,.^ 

attendre ff^H for, e^P^M^r^^^Sir-^^fl^^U^, 

capitale f. capital, J^(y 
ce, cette this, ' 

ai\jourd*hui to^ag. 
autrefois formerlg. ^y t 
a rant before (time!) 
a Tec with, 

avis m. advice. ^#3 
avoir raison fo 6< ri^A/. 
axoir tort to he wrong, 

Bagne f. ring, ^y . «' j 

bal m. haU, %^-^ 

bM m. stoMng. t/ti. 

cette nuit /a«< night. 
cerise f. eh$rrg< d'^ 
chagrin m. ^m/'. 
chambre f. room.SH-t^ 
champ m. fieUd, ys^y-^iOl^ff 
chandelle f. candle, 
chanson f. 9ong, 
chanter to sing. 

French-English Part. 


chapeau m. hat, bonnet. 
chat m. eat. Si^^^ 
ch&teaa m. cciatle, 
chaud, -e frarm.ry3-/o./j 

cheyal m. horse. 

chez at the house of. 

chien m. dog. 

classe f. doss. S\»%*fl^ff 

clef f. key. 

clou m. nail, f^'l^- ff 

choisir to choose. 64-? 

chou m. cabbage. S^'f 

ciel m. heaven. SI»U, 

cinq five. 

circonstance f. circumstance. 

colline f. hill. 

commencer to begin. 65-^^ 

condaite f. conduct. 

cong^ m. hcHiddy. Vf*// 

(U) connalt (he) knows. 

content contented.$t,M 

convention f. agreement. /oy.zx, 

conleur f. colour, yh-^ 

ooorrier m, messenger. 

oonrt, -e short, 

cousin m. cousin. 

cousine f. cousin. 

couteau m. knife. A ST.^y^Of'ii^ 

cotter to cost. Q0'Z.^z}^ 

crayon m. pencil. 

cupidity f. cupidity. 

cuiller f. spoon. 

De of. 

danger m. danger, //z.* f 
d^fendre to forbid, defend.^^.(o 
d^jk already. 
demain to-morrow. 
demeurer to live, dwell. 
d^molir to demolish. 91' i 
d^sirer to desire. ^i%^^i 
descendre to come down.^-f 
dette f. debt. {^-fiiV 
deux two. 

devoir m. duty.^^^m 
Dieu God. 

diffi^rence f. difference. 
difficile difficult, i^'^ 
diner m. dinner, sv* If 
donn^ given. 
douzaine f. dozen. 
drap m. cloth, ff/hd^^ 

Eau f. water. 
6eo\e f. school. 

^colier m. pupil. 

effrayer to frighten. ^3*V3 

^glise f. church. /uffl-V/'^^ 

^l^ve m. pupil. 

employer to employ. ^■^'^ 

encre f. ink. K^-i^i 

encrier m. inkstand. /^ ST.* ^2^ 

enfant m. child. 

ennemi m. enemy, ^f -f-'f**/ 

entre between. 

entendre to hear.6>^l 

envie f. envy. 

envoyer to send. 7V 3V -^//L'tG 

esp^rer to hope.^^'/o 

essuyer to wipe.^lff 

et and. 

^t^ m. summer. f^«JO 

^t^ been. 

^tude f. study. {\ > j" 

excellent excellent. 

Fable f. fcMe.fSf<{ 

f&cb^ angry. ^ 

facile easy. S^S/ *^i'/l'iV'Z3 - 9^^'Sr 

faiblesse f. weakness. 

fait makes, made, 

famille f. family, i-V H f 

farine f. flo^r. 

faute f. mistake, fault. HS^'f-lr 

femme f. lady, wife, woman, /^.^fy 

fen^tre f. window. 

feu m. fire, 

fidble faithful. 

fiUe f. daughter, airl. 

fils m. son. fc*// 'fk> 

fleur f. fiower. /i'ht'^ 

(ils) font (they) make. 

forSt f. forest. 

fort, -e strong, SX'ti^Si^W 

fortune f. fortune, s^i , j j 

f rapper to strike. ^4/6- 

frbre m. brother. ^-35 y-^. VV-/*^ 

froid, -e cold. Hsr'f\^sO't9 

fromage m. cheese. ^ 

fruit m. fruit, n*^ -so^sysx i^ 

fusil m. gun. y^uo 

Gant m. glove. 

gar9on m. boy. 

genou m. knee. 

gloire f. glory. 

grand large, great, tall. iO«/« 

grimper to climb. 

Habit (r) m. coat. i^-SC— <>» - 
)iabitaut (1*) m. inhabitant 

168 T« 

JS/i-heurem, -s« happg.ST'^~ ij'i' 
liibou (le) oiel. s-i-ie 
hier yesterday. 
*!■ il hifltoire (!') f. history. fi--ifjr 
hiver {!') m. mnter, 
horn me (1') m. man. 
huile (1') f. oil. i'if^y 
loi here. 
He {. isZand. 
il ; a there is, there art. 


Jardin ni. gardtn. 

ji.,. m. play.aami, 

jeune youug^AV-f-"-'' 

joujou m. plaglhing. fi-to 

jout m. day. 

juger to judge. 

L&ngae t. language, fo-z-^ 

le9on f. lesson, )/.ti-. f^, ii -loT^ri' 

lever lo lift up. 

tever m. du soteil niN-riM. 

liberty f. liberty. JV-i/ 

libniire m. bwAtell^r. 

lioD m. lioH.'ftM^ -f^n-y 

lit m. Serf. J-(.T.-r/-il. 
livre f, pound. 
livre m. 6«>4. 
loin far. 
lorsque when. 

lane f. moon. 

Main f. A and. 

maia but. 

maiaon f. Aouw. 

maltre id. matter, 

malode ill.S^ 

mal hen reus, -ae unAappy. 

maltraiter /<j iU-treat.fJ.f,!)' 

manger fo «<><. 

mani>re f. manner. 

marchaod m, merfhatU. VJ'/o 

mari^, -e married. 

nwtin m. morning, j} ./i 

mener to lead. 

m^prige /. miataJce. 

mbre f. mother. 

minute f. minate. 

miserable miserable. 

moiB m. month. ^'^ 

monde m. ieorld.fX'3- ''i'' 

,^montagae f, mouitlai*. ^-^^^ 
'montei; to eliaib. 
montre f, uiateh. 
morceau m. piece. rf-lZ- 
mort, -e dead. 
mort f. death. 
mort el mortal. 
moutarde f. muttarA, 
Nation f. nation. 
nature f. nature. 

ueige f. tnoio. 

noix f. M)alnui.f^ni.o 
nom m. nttrnt. 
Don no. 

nnit f. night.1itX^ 
r Ob^issant obedieJtt. 78-1 f 
OocaaioQ f. opporttmUjf. 
rail m. eye. 

oiseau m. bird. rZ-if~LS^r) 
on one, they, people. ' 

oucle m, uncle. 
or m. gold. 

orange f. orange, ff^tt, 
ordre m. command. 
oil? whtre? 
oublid forgotlrn. 
oublier (o forget. tZ'V^ 
oui yea. 
ouvrier m. irorimoN. 

Pain m. ftrwrf-TW-^^ , 

paire f. pair.H4if.n-'^ 

palaiB m. castle. 

papier m. paper. 

parce que beeauee. 

pareaaeux, -Be idU, _ 

parler lo speak, 6"'* 

partager lo share, diwify, 

paa eocore not yet. 

pauTre piwr. fft-'-s 

pajer to pay. tj-yl^-ff''*- 

pajs m. country, 

pajBan m. peatant. 

penier b to think of. fc3'«-"'» 

perdre to toae. rl»«-*'i'"-*»*V-" 

perdu hist. 

pbre m. father, 

petit, -e irnoU. ^'f? 

pierre t, etone. ^6J V 

pUcer place. (,s/^ 

Freneh-Esglkh Part. 


plaisir m. pUcLsure, s*f 3 ' 

pleurer to cry. 6(7 f 

plume f. |wi, ftather. f^f^^" 

plus de more than, 

plosieura several, ft%*y 

poche f. pocket. 

poire f. pear, 

poiBBOn m. fish. /OS^'/l 

poi^re m. pepper, ^b ^ 

poll, -e polite, 

pomme f. apple,ff4o 

pont m. bridge, 

porte f. door, gate, 

porter to carry , take, wear, (0*^ ft 

po68^der to possess, ^7<»-i^ 

pou m. louse, 

pour for, 

pourquoi? tchy? 

pouBser to pui^, 

prairie f. meadow, 

pr^f^rer to prefer, (^i J 

prendre de la peine to take pains. 

presque almost, 63- z^ ^ 

prety -e ready, 

prdter to lend, y>^,- 

prier to pray. 

prince m. prince, 

punir to punish, 6^'^' S ' ' 

Qnand? when[? 
quatre four. 
qui? who? 

Reb&tir to rebuild, 
roQU received. 

re^arder to look at, 637-^^3* 
reme f. queen. 
remplir to fulfil. <c(^^ 
rencontrer to meet, 
r^pondre to answer, <o^»^ 
rester to stay, remain. 


Bomxt sister, h'^^'^'f^''^^''-^ 

Boir m. evening, ^1^^ 

Boldat m. soldievf4'0$%l^tt.i\^ 

Boleil m. suv^. 

Bottise f. foUy. 

Boulier m. shoe, /^U9-2. 

sou vent often, (oO'S' 

spectacle m. theatre. 

Sucre m. sugar, 

Bur on, upon. 

Table f. taUe. r¥' ^ 

tailleur m. tailor, ^fi 

tante f. aunt, 

tasse f. cup, 

temps m. time, weather. */S'Z,f 

terre f. earth, 

th^ m. tea. 6 m. theatre. 

thbme m. exercise, 

titre m. title. 

tou jours always, 

tout le monde everybody. 

travail m. work. Cfiy 

travailler to work, 4»3Cr 

trbs very. 

trois three. 

trou m. hole. i*S'/7 

trouv^ found, 

trouver to find,yj/y,i9 

tuer to kill. ' 

Utile useful, SX'it-^ltL 

Yache f. cow.f^foi'"^ 

vaisseau m. vessel, ship, z^-^^y 

velours m. velvet. ' 

vendu sold. 

verre m. glass. 

version f. translation, 

viande f. meat. 

vie f. life. fZZ' 

ville f. town. 

vin m. wine. 

^f'^^^/tJr.zy y 

r^nssir to suci^d, , vi 

^ riche rich. LSt^ll-f^-^^' ^y^'i^l- 

nviere i. rtver. vinaigre m. vinegar, 

robe f. dress, SX>-l-l visite f. visit. 7^ v 

roi m. ktng. ^-^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

rose t. rose, ^^^ ^^ ^;^^ Arj /f^ 

rue f. street, ^'<^f ^oj^i here is, here are, 

Salir to soU, dirty, C^-y-^^-^-'^^voisin m. neighbour, 
Balon mj^ drawing-rootn. ff,/f^ voiture f. carriage. S^t'Sf 
sans without, vr' -//^. ^^ votre your. 

voyager to travel, 
voyageur m. traveller, 
vn seen. 

m. salt. 5^3 • Sy 
8i so, if. 

semaine f. week,^f'g 

sibcle DL century, yr-/^ 



2. English-French Fart. 

Admire admirer, 
advice avis, conseilSn. 
agreement convention f. 
almost presque. 
already dSji, 
also aussi. 
always toujours* 
animal animal m. 
apartment appartemeni m. 
apple pomme f. 
arm bras m. 
army arm^e f. 
arrive arriver, 
at home d la maison. 
at the house of chez, 
aunt tanie f. 

Ball bal m. 

battle batailU f. 

beautiful beau, belle, 

bed lit m. 

beer 6t^re f. 

before avant {time), devant (lieu), 

bird oiseau m. 

bitter amer, amhre, 

bonnet chapeau m. 

book livre m. 

boot &o«c f. 

bom nS, -e. 

bottle bouteille f. 

boy gargon m. 

bread ^atn m. 

bring apporter, 

brother frh^e m, 

build M/»V. 

butter beurre m. 

buy acheter. 

Candle chandelle f. 
capital eapitale f. 
carriage voiture f. 
carry porter. 
castle palais m. 
cat cAa^ m. 
cheese fromage m. 
cherry cerise, 
child enfant m. 
church ^^;i8« f. 
class c/a89e f. 
cloth (?rap m. 
coat habit (V) m. 
coffee eaf<^ m. 
colour covHeur f. 

commence eommencer, 
conduct conduite f. 
contented cotttent, -e. 
com &Z^ m. 
cost coiUer. 
cow t^ocAtf f. 
country pays m. 
cry crtcr. 

Dance danser, 
danger danger m. 
daughter fUh f. 
debt (^e^ttf f. 
desire dSsirer, 
difficult (?»/ff>ae. 
diligent appliquS, -e, 
dinner diner m. 
discontented m^onUnt, -e, 
dog chien m. 
drawing-room m^ m. 
(I) drink j6 dois. 
duty devoir m. 

Easy /b(Ct{«. 
eaten mangS, 
employ employer, 
enough assez, 
envy envie f. 
esteem estimer, 
exercise thkme. 

Fable /a2^ f. 

faithful^ fidHe, 

family yamille. 

father ph'e m, 

fault faute f. 

find trouver, 

five ems'. 

fish poisson m. 

flower /?tfMr f. 

folly sottise f. 

for poMr. 

forest forit f. 

forgotten oublii, 

formerly autrefois. 

fortune fortune f,, bien m. 

four quatre, 

fresh frais, fratehe. 

friend ami m., amie f. 

frighten effrayer. 

frait fruit m. 

fulfil remplir. 

Ckirden jardin m. 
given <foif;i^. 

EDgliah-Franoh Part. 


glass verre m. 
ffloYO gant m. 
God Dieu, 
gold or m. 
good hon, -ne. 
grief chagrin m. 
£pm fusil m. 

Happy heureux, ^se, 

hat ehapeau m. 

here tet . 

hide tfocAer. 

high Aati^y -«; ^/^t?^, -«. 

his ses. 

holiday congS m. 

hope espdrer, 

horse cheval m. 

honse matson f. 

Idle paressetix, 'se, 
if w. 

ill malade, 
ill-treat maUraiter, 
inhabitant hahitant m. 
ink ertcf'e f. 
inkstand encrier m. 
invite inviter. 

Kill ^wer. 
king m m. 

Last night cette nuit 
lend prifer. 
lesson legon f. 
letter lettre f. 
liberty Itberti f. 
life wc f. 
liffc up lever, 
like atmer. 
lion {ton m. 
live defneurer, 
long live! vivef 
look fbr ehercher, 
lost perdu. 
love aimer. 

Man hamtne (V) m. 
many beaucoup. 
merchAntf marchand m. 
minute minute f. 
mistake /au^^ f. 
money argent m. 
month mots m. 
morning ma^tn m. 
mother m^r^ f. 
mountain montagne f. 
mustard moutore^ f. 

Name itom m. 
nation nation f. 
neighbour vcisin m. 
neither — nor «» — fi*. 
night nuit f. 
no yion. 
noise bruit m. 

Obedient obHasant. 
oil Aui7e r7V f. 
on 8ur. 
or OM. ?/. c ^- 
orange orange f. 

Pair patre f. 

paper papier m. 

part partie f. 

pay jt>rty«r. 

pear potre f. 

pebble caillou m. 

pen plume f. 

pencil crayon m. 

penknife cam/ m. 

pepper poivre m. 

picture tableau m. 

place placer. 

plate assiette f. 

plaything joujou m. 

pleasure plaisir m. 

poor pauvre. 

possess posseder. 

potato pomme f. de ^«rr«. 

pound Wrre f. 

praise 7ower. 

pray prier. 

prefer prdfdrer. 

present cadeau m, 

pupil ^7^176 m. 

purse bourse f. 

Queen reitie f. 

Beady jt>r^^, -e. 
rebuild rebdtir. 
received regu. 
report bruit m. 
rich riche. 
ring bague f. 
room chambre f. 
rose rose f. 

Salt seZ m. 

school Scole f. 

see (we) iioms voyons. 

seen vu. 

shoe Soulier m. 

short cour^, -e. 



silk 8oie f . 
silver argent m. 
sky eid m. 
small peUt, -e, 
sold vendu. 
soldier soldat m. 
son fils m. 
soon bientdt. 
speak parler. 
stay Tester, demeurer, 
stocking bas m. 
stone pierre f. 
street rue f. 
study ^/tt(?« f. 
sugar sucre m. 
summer iti m. 

Table <ai>?« f. 

tailor tailUur m. 

taken pris. 

tall grand, -e. 

tea f/r^ m. 

that que. 

theatre thidtre m. 

think penser, 

three ^roi's. 

throne trdne m. 

throw Jrter. CS'</ 

time temps m. 

to-day aujourd^hui. 

to-morrow demain. 

to whom belongs? d ^ est^ 

town riUe t 
translation version f, 
tree arbre m. 
two <2«aup. 

Uncle oneie m. 

(I) used to live je demeur€Us» 

oseftil utile. 

Very trh. 

vessel vaisseau m., navire m. 

visit visifo f. 

Walnut noix f. 

water eau f. 

watch iium/re 1 

weather temps m. 

week ««ffiatfie f. 

when lorsque, 

where? oi^? 

white hlanc, blanehe. 

window fenStre f. 

wine vin m. 

winter hiver (V) m. 

work travail m, 

work ceuvre f., auvrage m. 

world monde m. 

wotlnd blessure f. 

wound hlesser. 

Yesterday hier. 

young jeune, 

yours /e, la v&tre, Us v&tres. 

Printed by 0. F. 1 ber, nn«tadt. 






(26 f^vrier 1901) 

t publique entendu, 
Arrgte : 

Article ler. _ Dans les examens ou concoiirs dependant dn 
Hioiat^re de I'lastruction publique, qui comportent des ^preu'ves 
sp^cialeB d'ortbographe, il ne sera pas compt6 de t'autes anx 
candidats pour avoir us6 des tolerances indiqu^es dans la liste 
annex^e au present arrete. 

La rafime dispgsition est applicable au jugement des diverses 
compositions r^dig^es en kngue fran^aise, dans les examens 
ou concours dependant dit Minist^re de I'lnstruction publique 
qui ne comportent pas une gpreuve sp^ciale d'ortbographe. 

Art. 2. — L'arrfitS du 31 juHlet 1900 est rapports. 

Georges Levgues. 

Liste annex^e k I'arret^ du 26 f^vrier 1901. 


Plurtel ou singulter. — Dans toutes les constructions oii ie sens 
permet de comprendre le substantif complement aussi bien au 
singulier qu'au pluriel, on tol^rera I'emploi de I'un ou de Taatre 
nombre Ex.: liee hahits de femme o\\ de feminea ; — dea cotifiturea 
de groaeille on de groseittes; -~ des pritres en bonnet carri ou 
en bonnets carria; — Us onl vU Uiir chai>eau OU leura chupeanx. 

— 2 


1. Aigle. — L'usage actuel donne h ce snbstantif le genre mas- 
culin, sauf dans le cas ou il d^signe des enseignes. Ex.: ^^s 
aigles romaines, 

2. Amour, orgue. — L'usage actuel donne k ces deux mots le 
genre masculin au singulier. Au pluriel, on tol^rera indif- 
f(6remment le genre masculin ou le genre f^minin. Ex.: les 
grandes orgues; — un des plus beaux orgues; — de folles amours; 
— des amours tardifs. 

3. Delice et d^lices sont, en r6alit^, deux mots diff^rents. 
Le premier est d*un usage rare et im peu recherche. II est 
inutile de s^en occuper dans Tenseignement ^16mentaire et dans 
les exercices. 

4. Automne, enfant. — Ces deux mots 6tant des deux genres, 
il est inutile de s'en occuper particuliferement. II en est de 
meme de tons les substantifs qui sent indiff^remment des deux 


5. Gens, orge. — On tol6rera, dans toutes les constructions, 
Faccord de I'adjectif au f^minin avec le mot gens, Ex.: in- 
struits ou instruites par Vexpiriencej les vieilles gens sont soup- 
gonneux ou soupgonneuses. 

On tol^rera Tempi oi du mot orge au f 6minin sans exception : 
orge carree, orge mond^e, orge perUe, 

6. Hymne. — II n'y a pas de raison suffisante pour donner 
k ce mot deux sens diff^rents, suivant qu'il est employ^ an 
masculin ou au feminin. On tol^rera les deux genres, aussi 
bien pour les chants nationaux que pour les chants religieux. 
Ex.; un hel hymne ou une belle hymne, 

7. P&ques. — On tol^rera Temploi de ce mot an feminin anssi 
bien pour designer une date que la f^te religieuse. Ex. : h Pd^ 
ques prochain ou h Pdques prochaines. 


Pluriel des noms propres. — La plus grande obscurity re- 
gnant dans les regies et les exceptions enseign^es dans les gram- 
maires, on tol^rera dans tons les cas que les noms propres, pr6c6- 
d^s de Tarticle pluriel, prennent la marque du pluriel. Ex. : U$ 
Corneilles comme les Gracques, — des Virgiles (exemplaires) 
comme des Virgiles (Editions). 

II en sera de mdme pour les noms propres de personnes 
designant les ceuvres de ces personnes. Ex. : des Meissoniers, 

-- 3 - 

Pluriel des noms empruntes & d'autres langues. — Lorsque 
ces mots soDt tout a fait entr6s dans la langue fran^aise, on 
tol6rera que le pluriel soit forin^ suivant la rhgle g^n6rale. 
Ex.: des exeats comme des deficits. 


Noms composes. — Les memes noms composes se rencon- 
trent aujourd'hui tantot avec le trait d'union, tantot sans trait 
d^union. II est inutile de fatiguer les enfants a apprendre des 
contradictions que rien ne justifie. L'absence de trait d'union 
dans Texpression j^omme de terre n'empeche pas cetle expres- 
sion de former un veritable nom compose aussi bien que chef- 
d^ceuvrey par exemple. Ces mots pourront toujours s'6crire sans 
trait d'union. 


Article devant les noms propres de personnes. — L'usage 
existe d'employer I'article devant certains noms de famille ita- 
liens: le Tasse, le Correge, et quelquefois a tort devant des 
prenoms: (le) Dante, (le) Guide. — On ne comptera pas comme 
faute I'ignorance de cet usage. 

II regne aussi une grande incertitude dans la manifere d'^crire 
Particle qui fait partie de certains noms propres franpais: la 
Fontaine, la Fayette ou iMfayette. II convient d'indiquer, dans 
les textes dict^s, si, dans les noms propres qui contiennent un 
article, I'article doit etre s6par6 du nom. 

Article supprim^. — Lorsque deux adjectifs unis par et se 
rapportent au meme substantia de maniere a designer en r6a- 
lit6 deux choses diflP^rentes, on tol6rera la suppression de I'ar- 
ticle devant le second adjectif. Ex : rhistoire ancienne et mo- 
derne, comme Vhistoire ancienne et la moderne. 

Article partitif. — On tolerera du^ de la, des, au lieu de de 
partitif, devant un substantif prec^d6 d'un adjectif. Ex. : de ou 
du hon pain, de honne viande ou de la bonne viande, de ou des 
hons fruits. 

Article devant /j/ws, moins, etc. — La rhgle qui veut qu'on 
emploie le plus, le moins, le mieux, comme un neutre invariable 
devant un adjectif indiquant le degre le plus 61eve de la qua- 
lite poss^d^e par le substantif, qualifie sans comparaison avec 
d'autres objets, est trfes subtile et de pen d'utilit^. II est su- 
perflu de s'en occuper dans I'enseignement 616mentaire et dans 
les exercices. On tolerera le plus, la plus, les plus, les moins, 
les mieux, etc., dans des constructions telles que: on a abattu 
les arhres le plus ou les plus exposis h la tempete. 

ils soot multiplies par un autre nombre. On 

1 de vingt et de cent, tngtne loraque ces mots 

n autre adjectif numeral. Ei,: qualrc vingt oa 

K hommes ; — qiialre cent ou quatre cente Irente 

i d'union ne sera pas exig^ entre le mot designant les 
et le mot d^signant les dizaines. £x.: dix sept. 
taOK U di'si^ation du millesime, on tolerera tnille an lieu 
9 dans I'expression d'un nombre. Ex. : I'an mil 
qiinli'C eiiifft'dix OU I'an mi lie huil cents quatrt 


J. _ On tolerera la reunion des particules ci et W avec le 
pronom qui les precede, sans esiger qii'on distingue qu'esl ctci, 
qu'esf de qii'esf ce ci, qu'est ce Ih. — On tolerera la sup- 
pression du trait d'union dans ces constructions. 

Hfime. — Apr^ un substantif ou un pronom an plnriel, on 
tolerera I'accord de meme an pluriel et on n'exigera pas de 
trait d'union entre mime et le pronom. Ex.: noug tnimet, les 
dieux mimti. 

Tout. — Devant un nom de ville, on tolerera I'accord du mot 

tout ayec le nom propre, sans chercher A etablir one difference 
un peu Kubtile entre des constructions comme toute Borne et 
lout Rome. 

On ne comptera pas de faute non plus £i ceux qui ecriront 
indifferemment, en faisant parler une femme, je suit tout h vous 

Lorsque tout est employe avec le sens indefini de ehaque, on 
tolerera indifferemment la construction au singulier ou au plu- 
riel du mot tout et da substantif qu'il accompagne. Ex.: des 
maj-chnndises de toute sorte ou de toutes sortes ; — la sotliie est 
de tout (tons) temps et de tout (tous) pays. 

Aucun. — Avec une negation, on tolerera I'emploi de ce mot 
anssi bien au pluriel qu'au singulier. Ex. : ne faire aucun projei 
ou aueuns projets. 

Chacuil. — Lorsque ce pronom est construit apres le verbe 
et se rapporte a un mot pluriel sujet ou complement, on tole- 
rera indifferement, apres chncun, le poasessif son, sa, ses ou le 
possessif leur, leurs. Ex.: »78 sonf sortis chaeun de son cM 
ou de leur cdti; — remettre dea tivres chaeun h so place OU 
a leur place. 


Verbes composes. — On tolerera la suppression de Tapos- 
trophe et du trait d'union dans les verbes composes. Ex.: en- 
trottvrir, entrecroiser. 

Trait d'union. — On tolerera Fabsence du trait d'union entre 
le verbe et le pronom sujet place aprfes le verbe. Ex.: eat il? 

Difference du sujet apparent et du sujet reel. — Ex.: sa 
maladie sont des vapeurs, II n'y a pas lieu d^enseigner de re- 
gies pour des constructions semblables, dont I'emploi ne pent 
etre etudie utilement que dans la lecture et Texplication des 
textes. C'est una question de style et non de grammaire, qui 
ne saurait tigurer ni dans les exercices elementaires ni dans 
les examens. 

Accord du verbe prec6d6 de plusieurs sujets non unis par 
la conjonction et, ~ Si les sujets ne sont pas resumes par un 
mot indefini tel que tout, rien, ehacun, on tolerera toujours la 
construction du verbe au pluriel. Ex.: sa hontS, sa douceur le 

font admirer. 

Accord du verbe pr^c^de de plusieurs sujets au singulier 
unis par niy comme, avec, ainsi que et autres locutfons 6qufva- 
lentes. — On tolerera toujours le verbe au pluriel. Ex.: ni la 
douceur ni la force n*y peuvent Hen on n'y peut rien; — la 
santd comme la fortune demandent h Stre menagiea ou demande 
h Stre m^nagie; — le giniral avec quelques officiera sont aortis 
ou est sorti du camp; — le chat ainsi que le tigre sont des 
carnivores ou est un carnivore. 

Accord du verbe quand le sujet est un mot collectif. — Tou- 

tes les fois que le collectif est accompagne d'un complement 
au pluriel, on tolerera Taccord du verbe avec le complement. 
Ex.: un peu de connaissances suffit ou suffisent. 

Accord du verbe quand le suiet est plus d'un, — L'usap^e 
actuel etant de construire le veroe au singulier avec le sijjet 
2)lus dUm^ on tolerera la construction du verbe au sinffulier, 
meme lorsque plus d*un est suivi d'un complement au pluriel. 
Ex.: plus d^un de ces hommes 4tait ou dtaient h plaindre. 

Accord du verbe precede de un de ceux (une de celles) qui. — 
Dans quels cas le verbe de la proposition relative doit-il Stre 
construit au pluriel, et dans quels cas au singulier? C'est une 
deiicatesse de langage qu'on n'essaiera pas d4ndroduire dans 
les exercices elementaires ni dans les examens. 

C'est, ce sont. — Comme il regne une grande diversite d'nsage 
relativement k Temploi regulier de c^est et de ce sont, et que les 

- 7 -. 

meilleurs anteurs ont employe c'est pour annoncer un snbstantif 
au pluriel ou un pronom de la troisi^me personne au pluriel, 
on tolerera dans tous les cas Pemploi de c'est au lieu de ce sont, 
Ex. : c^est ou ce sont des montagnes et des precipices. 

Concordance ou correspondance des temps. — On tolerera 
le present du subjonctif au lieu de rimpariait dans les propo- 
sitions subordonnees dependant de propositions dont le verbe 
est au conditionnel present. Ex.: // faudrait qu'i/ vietine ou 
qu'il v^nt. 


Participe present et adjectif verbal. — II convient de s'en 
tenir a la regie generale d'apres laquelle on distingue le par- 
ticipe de Padjectif en ce que le premier indique Taction, et le 
second I'etat. II suffit que les eleves et les candidats fassent 
preuve de bon sens dans les cas douteux. On devra 6viter 
avec soin les subtilites dans les exercices. Ex.: des sauvages 
vivent errant ou errants dans les hois. 

Participe passe. — II n'y a rien a changer a la rfegle d'aprfes 
laquelle le participe passe construit comme epithfete doit s'accor- 
der avec le mot qualifie, et construit comme attribut avec le 
verbe etre ou un verbe intransitif doit s'accorder avec le sujet. 
Ex.: des fruits g die's; — ils sont tombe's ; — elles sont tomhees. 

Pour le participe passe construit avec I'auxiliaire avoir, lors- 
que le participe passe est suivi soit d^un infinitif, soit d*un 
participe present ou passe, on tolerera qu'il reste invariable, 
quels que soient le genre et le nombre des complements qui 
precedent. Ex.: les fruits que je me suis laisse' ou. la isse's pr en- 
dre; — les sauvages que Von a trouve ou trouves errant dans 
les hois. Dans le cas ou le participe passe est precede d'une 
expression collective, on pourra k volonte le faire accorder avec 
le collectif ou avec son complement. Ex.: la foule d'hommes 
que fat viie ou vus, 


Ne dans les propositions subordonnies. — L'emploi de cette 
negation dans un trfes grand nombre de propositions subordon- 
nees donne lieu a des regies compliqu6es, difficiles, abusives, 
souvent en contradiction avec I'usage des 6crivains les plus 

Sans faire de regies diiferentes suivant que les propositions 
dont elles dependent sont affirmatives ou negatives ou inter- 
rogatives, on tolerera la suppression de la negation ne dans 
les propositions subordonnees dependant de verbes ou de locu- 
tions signifiant: 

Empecher, de'fendre, e'viter que, etc. Ex.: defendre qu'on vienne 
ou qu'on ne vienne ; 

— 8 — 

Craindre, desesperer, avoir peur, de peur que, etc. Sz. : de 
peur quHl aille ou quHl n'aille; 

Douter, contester, nier que, etc. Ex. : je ne doute pets que la 
chose soil vraie on ne soit vraie; 

II tient h pen, il ne tient pas h, il s*en faut que, etc Ex. : il 
ne tient pas h mot que cela se fasse ou ne se fasse. 

On tolerera de m^me la suppression de cette negation apr^s 
les comparatifs et les mots indiquant une comparaison: autre, 
autrement que, etc. Ex.: PannSe a eti meilleure qu^on Vespirait 
ou qu^on ne Vesperait; — les risultats sont autres qu^on le cro^ait 
ou qu^on ne le croyait, 

De meme, apr^s les locutions h moins que, avant que, Ex.: h 
mains qu'on accorde le pardon ou qu^on n'accorde le pardon. 


II conviendra, dans les examens, de ne pas compter comme 
fautes graves celles qui ne prouvent rien centre Tintelligence 
et le veritable savoir des candidats, mais qui prouvent seule- 
ment Tignorance de quelque finesse ou de quelque subtilit6 
gram mat icale. 

Vu pour gtre annexe a Tarr^te du 26 f6vrier 1901. 

Le Ministre de VInstniction publique et des Beaux^Arts, 

Georges Leygues. 


Lomlon, lUmte'i Im*. httirliM, IMRntL 

Parit, a l« Jkdk. 

Roihe, M7 Gtm Dakcti L 

St. Petorsburgh,HI«nU-Fnqwkt. 


Edneational Works and Class-Bookfl 

Method Gasfet-Otto-Saueb 
fob the studt of kodebit lahotuoib. 


•Wltb CAch Dewly-letrot laDgoage aii« wlni ■ neir soul.* OhCriM V, 
• At tlM end of tbe IS" ntnlmj the world tt rolad bj ths IntuaM for 
tiods and ti«ffie; It brukB thronsh the burlan wblob w^anta 
tbe people! and tiei up new reUdoni betwaen tha iiatloni.> 

itJuliua Oroog, Fublishtr, ha» for the last thirty gears bten dtvottng hi* 
apeeial attention to edveational uwks on modem Imiguages, and hatptMithsd 
a large number of ekusi^dks for the study of ihose modern langvagtt mott 
generally epolcen. In Ihie parlieular department he is in, our opinion tinstir- 
pasged by any other German publisher. The series consists of ISO oobimM 
of different sizes lehick are all arranged on ihe same system, as is easily 
seen by a glance at the grammars whieh so elosely resenAle one another, 
that an acguainianee with one greatly facilitates the study of the others. 
7%(s IS no small advantage in these exacting times token the IcnoK^edge of Otte 
language alone is hardly deemed sufficient. 

The textbooks of the 6aspey-Otto-Sauer method have, tdthin the 
last ten years, acquired an universal reputation, increasing in pro- 
portion as a knowledge of living languages has become a necessity of modem 
life. The chief advantages, by which they compare favorably teith thous<md» 
of similar books, are lourneas of price and good appearance, the happy union 
of theory and practice, the clear scientific basis of the grammar proper com- 
bined milh practical conversational exercises, and the system, hers 
eonceired for the first time and evitsistently carried out, by which the pupil is 
really taught to speok and write the foreign language. 

The grammars are aU divided into two parts, commencing with a 
systematic explanation of the rules for pronunciation, and are again Mit- 
dipided into a number of Lessons. Each Part treats of the Parts of Speech 
in succession, the first giving a rapid sketch of the fundamental rules, tehiek 
are explained more fully in the second. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Sauer 

for the study of moderi langiiages. 

The rules appear to us to he dearly given, they are explained by exampta, 
and the exercises are quite sufficient. 

To this method is entirely due the enormous success with tchi^ ih$ 
Qaspey^Otto-Sauer textbooks have met; most other grammars either 
content themselves with giving the theoretical exposition of the graimhatUal 
forms and trouble the pupil with a confused mass of the most far-'fMied 
irregiUarities and exceptions without ever applying themh or go 
to the other extreme, and simply tea^h him to repeat in a p ai ' rd ■ 
like manner a few colloquial phrases without letting him grasp the 
real genius of the foreign language. 

The system referred to is easily discoverable: 1, in the arrangemsmi nf 
the grammar; 2. in the endeavour to enable the pupil to understand a 
regular text as soon as possible^ and above all to teach him to speah iks 
foreign language; this latter point was considered by the authors so parHst^ 
larly characteristic of their works^ that they have styled them — to disiingttisk 
thetn from other works of a similar kind — Conversational. €hra/nMn0T9% 

TJie first series comprises manuals for the use of JSnglishtnen and 
consists of 38 volumes. 

Our admiration for this rich collection of works, for the method dfiV 
played and the fertile genius of certain of the authors, is increased tchen tfis 
examine the other seines, which are intended for the use of foreigners. 

In these works the chief difficulty under which several of ike authors 
hare laboured, has been the necessity of teaching a language in a foreign 
diom; not to mention the peculiar difficulties which the German idiom offers 
in writing school-books for the study of that language. 

We must confess that for those persons who, from a pracHcoi point 
of view, wish to learn a foreign language sufficiently well to enable (hem to 
ivrite and speak it with ease, the authors have set down the grammatieal 
rules in such a way, that it is equally easy to understand and to leam thsm. 

Moreover, we cannot but commend the elegance and neatness of the typ9 
and hlnding of the books. It is doubtless on this account too that these 
volumes have been received with so much favour and that several havereaeksd 
such a large circulation. 

We willinghf testify that the wJwle collection gives proof of much ears 
and industry, both with regard to the aims it has in view and the wag in 
which these have been carried out, and, moreover, reflects great credit on iks 
editor, this collection being in reality quite an exceptional thing of its kind." 

(Extract from the Literary Review^ 
All books boiiiMl. 

»A. Parlt. Rome. St. PetertbnrKh. H»id«lbtrff. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Saner 

for the stDdy of niodfro laDinages. 

Elementary Modern Armenian <rrammar by Guliau .... 

Biteh Con rereat ion- Gram mar by Vi»\-tte. _. KJ 

XVtotheDotch Convers.-(«raiiiiiiar li^v VHlfttr 

l^Wi Reader bv Valett**. 2. VA' 

ftcieh Conversation-' i ram mar by otto. 11. EJ 

KiJ to the French C«»iiver9.-<irainiiiar liv oitn. Kil 

Elementary French Gran mar by Wriijbt. 'J. K 1 

Miteriala for transl. Knu'li.^h into French by Otto. 4. Kd. .... 
I^reneh Dialogues by utto-r'orknin 

Aeman Conversatiou-^irammar by < ►tto. *2S. Kd 

Kij to the German Conver.» -dauiiiiAr by Oiin. -.0 Kd 

Elementary German Grammar by « ►tto. 7. Kd 

Knt German Book by ntti.. ?^.' Kd 

fieroan Reader. I. ''. Kd.; H. :>. Kd.; III. 2. Kd. by »Uto a . . . 
JliterialB for tr. Enj^l. int.. <;..'rni. bv <Jtto- Wright.* Part I. 7. Ed. 

J«y to the Mater, f. tr Kng:. i <nrni. I f.y otto. 3. Kd 

fcteriala for tr. Kujrl. into Germ, by Otto. Part 11. 3. Ed. . . . 

ficHDan Dialoprues by <)tto. 1. Kd 

Accidence of the German lanj:ua;ip by ntt«i-Wrii:ht. 2. Ed. . . . 

^ttdbook of English and German blioms by I^iciro 

wman Verbs with tlieir appropriatf i»rei»otitiou3 etc. by Tebbitt . 

Itftlian Conversation-* iriimmar by SauiT. *^. Kd 

||ty to the Italian Coiivers -(;raiii]iiar by Suiier 7. Kd 

Hementary Italian Grammar h\ Mutti. 'J. Kd 

Italian Reader by Cattaneo 

fcJian Dialogues by Motti 

'•dern Persian Convrrsation-Grammar by St. Clair-Tisdall 
*<ytothe Mod. Persian Con vers -Gramnjar by St. Clair-Tisdall 

*6rtn^^ef$e Conversation-Grammar by Konlgien and Kunow 
^y to the Portuguese CoiiVi-r.s. (Iraininar by Konlgit-nand Kunow 

Russian Conversation-Gnimmar by Motti. 2. Kd 

^ to the Russian Convers -(iiainiuar bv M">tti. :?. Kd 

Elementary Russian Grammar by Motti. *2. K'l 

*<y 10 the Elementary Rnssian (iran*iiiifir by Motti. ■.' Kd 

fitttsian Reader by Werkliaii]it and Knller 

Spanisb by Saner - de Art«'api. 7. Ed. 
^?y to the Spanish Convert. -(iraii!ii:ar by Sauor-df Ar!tjiq:a. .">. Kd. 

fiementary Spanish Gramm-ir i»y I'avia 

Spanish Reader by Sauer-Kuliricii. 2. K.l 

Spanish Dialogues by SaiKT-turkran 

Elementary Swedish Gramnuir by F<;rt 

s. d. 

3 - 

5 — 
»■ — 

5' — 

2 . - 

2 — 
2: 6 
2 — 

5 — 

2 : — 


1 ^ 

2; 6 

2 6 

2 ! — 

2 6 

1! 6 
1! 6 


5' — 
2 i — 
2 — 
2. 6 
2 — 

10 - 
2 — 

5 — 

o _ 

6 — 
2 - 
2 — 

1 — 


2 — 
2 — 
4 — 
2 — 

Heine ddlt^clie SpracbU'la*^ tiir Aral -or vii Ibirtmanii 

A.TTiioiiian l{]clitic>n. 

Elementary ISn^Iiflh (Irammar lor Armenians by Gulian 

3 - 


Jnlivs 8r008, London. Paris. Rome. St. Petersbnrgh. Heidelberg. 

Method Gaspey-Otto-Saner 

for the stady of modern languages. 

n iElditioii. 

Kleine dentsclie Sprachlehre fiir Bulgaren von Gawrijskj 

Grei*ma.ii Bditions. 



Arabische Eonversations-Grammatik v. Harder 10 

SchlQssel daza v. Harder .... 8 

Cbinesische Eonversatious-Grammatik v. Seidel 8 

SohlUssel dazu v. Seidel ^ i 

Eleine chinesische Sprachlchre v. Seidel 2 

Schlttssel dazu v. Seidel 1 

^Danisclie Eonversations-Grammatik v. Wied 5 

Schliissel dazu v. Wied S 

!Dnala Sprachlehre und W5rterbuch von Seidel 2 

£ng;Iische Eon versat ions- Grammatik v. Gaspej-Runge. 23. Aufl. 4 

Schltissel dazu v. Runge. (Nur flir Lehrer nnd zum Selbstunterricht.) 8. Aufl. I S 

Englisches EonverBations-Lesebuch v. Gaspey-Runge. 6. Aufl. . . I 3 

Kleine englische Sprachlehre v. Otto-Runge. 5. Aufl ii 2 

Englische Gesprache v. Runge. 2. Aufl. ij 2 

Materialien z. tJbersetzen ins Englische v. Otto-Runge. 3. Aufl. . . ! 2 

Englische Chrestomathie v. Siipfle-Wright. 9. Aufl ! 4 

Franz<$sische Eonversations-Grammatik v. Otto-Runge. 27. Aufl. i 4 

Schltissel dazu v. Runge. (Nur fttr Lehrer und zum Selbstunterricht.) 4. Aufl. j 8 

Franz. Eonv.-Lesebuch I. 9. Aufl., II. 5. Aufl. v. Otto-Runge. k . . 2 

Franz. Eonv.-Leseb. f. Madchsch. v. Otto-Runge I. 5. Aufl., II. 3. Aufl. k 2 

Eleine franzosische Sprachlehre v. Otto-Runge. 7. Aufl 2 

Franzosische Gesprache v. Otto-Runge. 7. Aufl 2 

Franzosisches Lesebuch v. Siipfle. 11. Aufl 3 

Japanisclie Eonversations-Grammatik von Plant ,',6 

Schliissel dazu von Plaut 

Italienisclie Eonversations-Grammatik v. Sauer. 11. Aufl. . . 
Schlttssel dazu v. Cattaneo. (Nur ftir Lehrer und zum Selbstunterricht.) 8. Aufl. 

Italienisches Eonversations-Lesebuch v. Sauer. 5. Aufl 

Italienische Chrestomathie v. Cattaneo. 2. Aufl 

Eleine italienische Sprachlehre v. Sauer. 8. Aufl 

Italienische Gesprache v. Sauer Motti. 4. Aufl 

t^bungsstiicke zum tjbers. a. d. Deutschen i. Ital. v. Lardelli. 4. Aufl. 

BTengriechische Eonversations-Grammatik v. Petraris . . . . 

Schliissel dazu v. Petraris 

Lehrbuch der neugriechischen Volkssprache v. Petraris 

HfiederlUndifiche Eonversations-Grammatik v. Yalette. 2. Aufl. 

8ehia«sel dazu v. Valette 

Niederl§,ndisches Eonv.-Lesebuch v. Valette. 2. Aufl 

Eleine niederlandische Sprachlehre v. Valette. 2. Aufl 

Polnische Eonversations-Grammatik v. Wicherkiewicz. 2. Aufl. . 
Schltissel dazu v. Wicherkiewicz. 2. Aufl 

Portafciesisclie Eonversations-Grammatik v. Eordgien. 2. Aufl. 
Schltissel dazu v. Kordgien. 2. Aufl 

Eleine portugiesische Sprachlehre v. Eordgien. 3. Aufl 

Rassische Eonversations-Grammatik v. Fuchs-Wyczliriski. 4. Aufl. 
Schltissel dazu v. Fnchs-Wyczliuski. 4. Aufl 

Russisches Eonversations-Lesebuch v. Werkhaupt 

Eleine russische Sprachlehre v. Motti. 2. Aufl 

Schltissel dazu v. Motti. 2. Aufl 


















Jnlint OrooB, London. Paris. Borne. St. Peterabnrgh. HeiAellifif. 

Method Oaspey-Otto-Saaer 

Germtui EIciitlonB. 

tcbiredJi»rhe Sotttenatioiu-Gnuiinuitik *. Wktler . . 

UQaael dsi" '' Wkller ...... 

iwi-discbe Spmehlehre t. Fort 

nlsche KonTeraationt-Gmnmatik i. Swier-Ropfiert 

■el dMu T RappttL 2 AbI! . 

icbeB Leaebnch r. SaueT-BOhrich. 2. AoK. 

eine epaniEohe Spracblebre v. San^r. 6. Anfl 

hniuhe Geepr^he i. Sauei. 3. AiiS '. . . 

■" s Rektioiuline r. Sauer-Kordgien 

I KoDTPreationi-GTammatik t. Seidd 

Ian T. sadel . 

i WOrterboch ». Seidel 

rlti«cbe Eoarereationi-GreDimatik t. Jehlitachka 


jDeine nngarlMcbe l^prachlebre t. Xagjr . 

1 4 - 

French Editions. 
nmaire Allemsnde puc Otto-Xicolas. 17. Ed. .... 

" « dea xbemini de la Gr«nini«lfe lUeniaDde par Otlo-ShwlM. ». £d. . . ■ = — 

_ ) grammaire allemaode par Otto-Verrier. 0. Ed • I 3 — 

Btores allemnadef far Otto. I. part. 6. fcl 2 — 

Btoret allemaades par i.Hto. IT. part. 5. Ed ■ "£■ — 

ireB allemaades par Otto. Ill part. 2. Ld 9 — 

^m~-i* deiit«ches Lesebucb von Verrier ,2 o 

JoaTe^atioDa allemandes par Ott«. 4. Ed i 3 '— 

■ammaire anglalHe par Mauron -Verrier. 9. td ' ♦'"^ 

^.jrrtBt dea tb^mes de la Crammaire anglalse par MaarDD-Yerrier. S. £d . . i >t . 

petite grammatre anglaiae par Mauron. 5. fM I 8 1 — • 

,eotiirea anglaigeg par Mauroo. 2. id S — 

lonveriations anglaisea par Corkran 12, — 

; itall^nne par Saner, 10. 6d. .- * I ~ 

jprrlg* des thttnes de la Grammaire llalienne par Saper. 6 fcf. i\ — 

^petite gramniaire italiean? par Uotti. 3. Ed 2 ' — 

BCbreatomatbie itabeaite par Cattaaeo. 2. £d I 2 j — 

"ton'erBations italieones par Molti I 2i — 

lOrammaire Deerlandai«« par Valette. 2. Ed i 5 — 

I CoiTlgA ilea tbemts de la flrammalre n^erUndalse par Vatette ... ii - 

J Iiecturea n^etlandaisea par Valette. 2. Ed i ^ ' 

Gra-mmaire portagaise par Armez 

' Cotrigt de la UramiDBire portagaise par Annex 

Or&mmaire rnSMe par Fucbs 3. ^ 

OorriB^ dee themes St la Graininaire ruahe par Fachs. 3, td. . 

Petite grammaire nisee par Motti 

Corrlg^ dea Ih^mea de la petite grammaire nisse par MotU 

LectnreB ruBaei par Werkbaupt et Roller 

Gramniaire enpagnole par Saner-Serrano, a. id. . 
Corrlg^ des tbtoies de la srsmni. eapaj^n. par Sauei-SerraDO. 4 

Petite grammaire espagnole par Tanty 

Lectures espagoolea par Sauer-Rehrich, 2. 1^. . . . 

Petite graimnaire 8n£doiKC par Fort I ^ ' 

. Patla. Sobs. St. Pitwabortta. Bail 

Method Graspey-Otto-Saner 

for the study of modem laDguges. 

Grreels Editions* 

Eleine dentsclie Sprachlehre fiir Griechen von Maltos 
Deutsche Gesprache fiir Griechen von Maltos .... 



Ita^lian JBditions. 

Grapamatica tedesca di Sauer-Ferrari. 6. Ed 4 

Obiave della Grammatica tedesca di Sauer-Ferrari. 2. £d ;! ff 

Grammatica elementare tedesca di Otto. 5. Ed j 2 

Letture tedesche di Otto. 4. Ed ,] 2' 

Antologia tedesca di Verdaro * 8 

Conversazioni tedesche di Motti. 2. Ed 2 

Avviamento al trad, dal ted. in ital. di Lardelli. 4. Ed 2 

Grammatica inglese di Sauer-Pavia. 4. Ed. . 
Chiave della grammatica inglese di Sauer-Pavia. 2. £d. 
Grammatica elementare inglese di Pavia. 3. Ed. 

Grammatica fraiicese di Motti. 2. Ed 

Cbiave della grammatica francese di Motti 

Urammatica elementare francese di Sauer-Motti. r, Ed. 

Grammatica spagnnola di Pavia. 2. Ed 

Cbiave della Grammatica spagnuola di Pavia 

Grammatica elementare spagnuola di Pavia. 2. Ed. . 

I>iitchL Edition > 

Kleine Hoogdnttsche Grammatica door Schwippei-t. 2. Dr. . 

Polish Edition. 

Kleine dentsche Sprachlehre fiir Polen von Paulns . . . . 

I*or*tn.2m.ese Editions. 

Grammatica allcma por Otto-Prevot. 2. Ed. . . . 

Cbave da Grammatica allemfi por Otto-Prevot 

Grammatica elementar allema por Otto-Prevot. 2. Ed. 

Grammatica franceza por Tanty 
Cbave da Grammatica franceza por Tauty 

I? Editions* 

Gramatic^ g^erniana de Lcist 

Cbeea gramaticii germane de Leist 

Elemente de gramatica germanii de Leist. 2. E i. 
ConversaJiunT germane de Leist 

(iramatic^ franceza de Leist 

Cbeea gramaticii francese de I^elst 

Elemente de gramatica francesa de Leist. 2. Ed. 
Conversa^iiml francese de Lei.<t 
















Julias Oroos, London. Paris. Rome. St. Petersbnrgh. HeldelHrg; 

Soint, St. FaWnlrartk. Hsid 

Method Graspey-Otto-Saner 

for the study of modern langaages. 

teacher is of any use. But the number of those who write grami 
the late respected Dr. Ahn down to those who merely write in oi 
let their own small light shine is too large. Their aim, after all, 
place the pupil as soon as possible on his own feet i. e. to render a 
superfluous, and to save time and money. 

Then the saying holds good: «They shall be known by their 
and for that reason we say here a few words in favour of the books 
Gaspey-Otto-Sauer Method which have been published by Mr. Julius 

Valuable though these books have proved themselves to be forj 
use at school, it is for private tuition that they are absolutely indii 
They just contain what I claim for such books, not too much 
little. The chapters of the various volumes are easily comprehended 
are arranged in such a way that they can well be mastered {ro^i 
lesson to the other; besides, the subject-matter is worked out so as to 
the pupil from the commencement to converse in the foreign tongue. 

What success these books have met with will best be seen from the 
increasing number of their publications which comprise, in different grooi 
lating to Englishmen, Germans, Frenchmen, Italians, Spaniards, Bussians eto. i 
not less than 160 works the following volumes of which I have sue 
used myself and am still using for the instruction of Germans: — the Ft 
grammar (24*^ edition), the English grammar (21**. edition), the Si 
Italian, Dutch, and Russian grammars ; for English and French studei 
the German grammar, not to mention minor auxiliary works by the same 

It is surprising what splendid results one can obtain by means <tf 
method in a period of 6 to 12 months. After such a course the 
is enabled to instruct himself in commercial correspondence in a fc 
language without a master's helping hand.» ( . . . . 

The Publisher is untiringly engaged in extending the range of 
tional works issuing from his Press. A number of new books are x 
course of preparation. 

The new editions are constantly improved and kept up to date. 

Tnllna Amno T.n«i4nn l>a««la llnma 84: PAf^valm wli . 'aUi 



■ • 'I