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Cfte gtftenaum ffrtgg 



During the European war old pupils of the authors, in 
service in France, repeatedly wrote for copies of the former 
edition of this book, that they might furbish up their rusty 
knowledge of French from its familiar pages. Others reported 
finding grimy copies passing from hand to hand in the bomb- 
proofs of the first-line trenches. Such continued loyalty from 
former pupils has given the greatest satisfaction to the 
authors of this book. These friends, and the many others who 
as teachers or pupils have used " Elementary French " since 
it was published fifteen years ago, have encouraged them to 
prepare this new edition, entirely rewritten and containing 
several new features of promise. 

The general plan of the former volume, which has com- 
mended itself so widely, is rigorously retained. As before, the 
work in content covers the elementary French requirement as 
generally understood. The book is adapted either to serve in 
a secondary school or to constitute the nucleus of the first 
year's work in a college course that does not demand French 
for entrance. Pupils in the third year of the high school or 
at a more advanced stage can complete the work in a single 
year, and have sufficient time left for the reading of simple 
French texts. 

The modifications that characterize this revision lie along 
three lines. By further subdividing certain topics, especially at 
the start and when dealing with critical subjects, and by post- 
poning certain exceptions in syntax to later supplementary 




pages, the ground covered by separate lessons is reduced. 
The admission into the Models of a larger and more varied 
vocabulary, especially of everyday words and phrases, per- 
mits much greater flexibility and vividness in the French 
employed. Pictures and other forms of illustration, drawn 
to an unusual degree from scenes of daily life, bring to the 
pupil the characteristic atmosphere of the vivacious and 
intellectual people whose language he is learning. 

Special attention is called to the following features, most 
of which this edition shares with its predecessor : 

i. Unity and system are secured by grouping the succes- 
sive lessons in natural relations around a common topic, 
such as the verb, the pronoun, etc. 

2. The statement of principles of grammar is adapted 
to the point of view of the English-speaking pupil, without 
assuming, however, that he is a master of English syntax. 

3. The French text of each lesson consists of a connected 
paragraph, narrative or descriptive, v dealing more and more, 
as facility increases, with the situations of everyday life. 

4". Each Model is the center of abundant exercises, which 
continually emphasize the essential points of the lesson. 
These are set in a great variety of forms, including exercises 
for thorough drill and in supplying omitted words and in 
making the substitutions that are today considered so valuable, 
and also giving a considerable amount of connected discourse. 
Every task propounded has a definite aim. Plenty of material 
is offered for constant and effective review. 

5. A serious effort is made to teach the inflection of the 
verb by developing it from the principal parts. For the use 
of those who prefer to memorize from visualizing, the para- 
digms and the irregular verbs are given in full in the 


6. The sentences and other matter taken directly from 
college papers will prove of great assistance in preparing for 
entrance examinations. 

v 7. The illustrations are connected in nearly every instance 
with the subject matter with which they are placed, forming 
thus an integral part of the course. Each is explained by a 
paragraph in ordinary French. No attempt is made to limit 
the phraseology of these explanations to words that the pupil 
has at the time mastered. It is believed that many a student, 
at times out of mere curiosity, will be tempted by the pictures 
to set himself at unraveling the meaning of the attached para- 
graphs. For this purpose the general vocabulary is ample. 
These paragraphs can also be assigned at the end of the course 
for additional translation. 

8. To bring the flavor of French life and thought more fully 
before the pupil, the pictures are supplemented by proverbs, 
by a menu, by French posted signs, by models of correspond- 
ence, by classroom phrases, and by other similar matter. 

9. Not only the illustrative material mentioned in the last 
paragraphs but also the theme and construction of the main 
exercises readily lend themselves to the molding hand of 
the instructor who strives to impart a practical command of 
the living language. Oral exercises form a part of each lesson. 

10. The phonetic alphabet of the International Phonetic 
Association is fully developed in the Introduction, and abun- 
dant material for practice is placed in the Appendix, including 
the phonetic reproduction of the first twelve models. The body 
of the book and the vocabularies are free from this notation, 
except to indicate the sound of words pronounced irregularly. 

1 1 . The completeness and analytical clearness of the 
English-French vocabulary will prevent many an error in 
the pupil's work. 


Only the more mature and energetic classes will find it 
practicable to take a whole lesson at a single session. A con- 
venient point of division into two parts is at the end of the 
Model ; into three, after the Drill and the Theme. A con- 
cise and yet thoroughly complete and unified course can be 
secured by assigning only the Resume, in connection with 
the grammar. Some, on the contrary, may prefer to omit 
the Resumes until a certain portion, or even the whole book, 
has been covered, and then assign them in connection with 
the review work. Such a plan, moreover, easily adapts the 
book to serve as a text for a second review course. 

The authors, themselves bringing to their task long experi- 
ence, partly in college and partly in secondary schools, and 
combining in their equipment both a native and an acquired 
knowledge of the language, have been aided by multifold 
suggestions from numerous colleagues and friends. They 
desire to acknowledge with gratitude the valuable aid fur- 
nished among others by Professor Sidney C. Hazelton of 
Dartmouth College and by Professor H. H. Arnold of the 
Pennsylvania State College. They are much indebted also to 
the accurate scholarship and resourceful suggestions placed at 
their command by the editorial department of the publishers. 




List of Abbreviations x 

Introduction i 


I. Gender — The Articles 25 

II. Contraction — Possession 29 

III. Verb and Subject — Etre 33 

Review — Lessons I-1 1 1 38 

IV. The Negative — Avoir 39 

V. Interrogative Forms 44 

VI. Present Tense Forms 48 

Review — Lessons IV- VI 53 

VII. Plural of Nouns 55 

VIII. Agreement of Adjectives 60 

IX. Position of Adjectives 64 

X. Irregular Adjectives 71 

Review — Lessons VI I-X 75 

XL Comparison of Adjectives yj 

XII. Adverbs and their Comparison 82 

XIII. The Partitive Construction 89 

XIV. Uses of the Articles 94 

Review — Lessons XI-XIV 99 

XV. Regular Conjugations — Present Indicative 102 

XVI. Principal Parts — The Imperfect 107 

XVII. The Past Definite 115 

Review — Lessons XV-X VI I 122 

XVIII. The Future 124 

XIX. The Conditional 129 

XX. The Imperative 135 

XXI. Subjunctive — Simple Verbs Completed 140 

Review — Lessons XVIII-XXI 147 





XXII. Inflection and Use of Avoir 149 

XXIII. A voir in Perfect Tenses 155 

XXIV. Etre in Perfect Tenses 163 

XXV. Agreement of Participles 167 

Review — Lessons XXI I-XXV 174 

XXVI. Interrogation 177 

XXVII. Negation 183 

Review — Lessons XXVI, XXVII 190 

- XXVIII. Conjunctive Personal Pronouns 192 

XXIX. Disjunctive Personal Pronouns 199 

— XXX. V and En 204 

-» XXXI. Possessives 211 

Review — Lessons XXVIII-XXXI 219 

XXXII. Demonstratives 221 

XXXIII. Relative Pronouns 229 

XXXIV. Relative Pronouns (continued) 237 

XXXV. Interrogatives 244 

Review — Lessons XXXI I-XXXV . . ... . . 250 

XXXVI. Numerals — Cardinals 253 

XXXVII. Numerals— Ordinals 258 

XXXVIII. Numerals in Expressions of Time, etc 263 

Review— Lessons XXX VI-XXXVI 1 1 .... 270 

- XXXIX. Reflexive Verbs 273 

_^, XL. Passive Voice 280 

XLI. Special Uses of the Passive and the Reflexive . . 286 

Review— Lessons XXXI X-XLI ...... 292 

XLI I. Orthographic Changes in the First Conjugation . . 294 

XLIII. Irregular Verbs in er 300 

XLIV. Irregular Verbs in ir 308 

Review — Lessons XLI I-XLIV 314 

XLV. Irregular Verbs in oir 316 

XLVI. Irregular Verbs in oir 322 

XLVII. Irregular Verbs in re 328 

XLVIII. Irregular Verbs in re 334 

XLIX. Faire and its Construction 339 



Review — Lessons XLV-XLIX 346 

L. Dependent Infinitives 348 

LI. The Subjunctive Mood 355 

LII. The Subjunctive in Object and Adjective Clauses . . . 361 

LIII. The Subjunctive in Adverbial Clauses 368 

Review — Lessons L-LIII 375 

LIV. Supplementary — Inflection 378 

LV. Supplementary — Articles, Pronouns 383 

LVI. Supplementary — Word Order, etc 388 

Sentences for General Review 395 


I. Drill Sentences from College Papers 399 

II. Material for Phonetic Practice 415 

III. Gender of Nouns • 428 

IV. Plural of Nouns 429 

V. Formation of Adverbs 430 

VI. Verbal Endings 431 

VII. Regular Conjugations 432 

VIII. Irregular Verbs 440 


French-English 457 

English-French 502 

General Index 533 


adj. sb adjective 

adv. = adverb 

ant. = anterior 

art. = article 

cond. = conditional 

conj. sa conjunction 

conj. pron. = conjunctive pronoun 

def. = definite 

dir. = direct 

disj. = disjunctive 

f. = feminine 

Fr. s= French 

fut. = future 

imp. = imperfect 

imv. = imperative 

ind. =53 indicative 

indef. = indefinite 

indir. = indirect 

inf. SB infinitive 

int. =s interrogative 

inten. = intensive 

intj. ss interjection 

intr. ss intransitive 

irr. ss irregular 

m. s= masculine 

n. ss noun 
neg. = negative 
num. = numeral 
obj. = object 
p. ss page 
part. = participle 
pass. =s passive 
per. 53 person 
perf. = perfect 
pers. = personal 
pi. (plu.) = plural 
pluperf . = pluperfect 
poss. =s possessive 
prep. =B preposition 
pres. = present 
pret. = preterit 
pron. ss pronoun 
refl. = reflexive 
rel. = relative 
Sec. ss Section 
sing. = singular 
sub. = subject 
subj. = subjunctive 
tr. ss transitive 
v. = verb 




1. French and Latin. The French language is one of 
the forms of modern Latin now spoken in those parts of 
Europe which the Romans conquered, colonized, and ruled 
in the days of Julius Caesar and his successors. These forms, 
called collectively the Romanic or Romance languages, com- 
prise French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, the four most 
important ; Provencal, the old language of the south of 
France ; Rhaetian, used in parts of the Alps ; and the speech 
of Rumania. There is an unbroken continuity between the 
Latin of the Roman Empire and these languages, so much 
so that one cannot tell just where Latin leaves off and the 
others begin. French, therefore, is Latin as it has been 
modified, on the soil of France, by twenty centuries of 
influences, internal and external. 

The student of French who is familiar with Latin will 
see many obvious resemblances between the two languages ; 
others are apparent when suggested. Of the elaborate Latin 
inflection not much remains except in the verb. The great 
essential qualities that characterized Latin persist, however, 
and the pupil will realize more and more that in French he 
has a language unsurpassed for clearness of expression and 
for artistic value. 



2. The Alphabet. The letters of the French alphabet are 
the same as those of the English. K and w are used only 
in a few words borrowed or formed from other languages. 

3. The French Names of the Letters are 














double ve 
















i grec 





















Note. In oral spelling the consonants are sometimes pronounced 
with the sound of mute e. Thus d is pronounced de ; g, gue orje ; etc. 

4. Vowels and Consonants. The alphabet is divided into 
vowels and consonants. 

The letters a, e, i, o, u, and y are vowels ; the rest are 

Note. I, o, u, and y often have the value of consonants when they 
precede a vowel sound. See Sees. 34-37. 


5. Capitalization. The French use of capital letters is 
the same as the English, except that proper adjectives, the 
names of months and days, titles of rank or office, and the 
personal pronoun je (I) are not capitalized. 

Note. In titles of books, names of corporations, and the like, French 
aims to capitalize one main word, generally the first noun unless it is 
preceded by a preposition. To this one capital there is added a capital 
on any adjective preceding the noun, on nouns connected coordinately 


with the capitalized noun, and on any adjective preceding this second 
noun. If an article is used as the first word of a title, it is not capitalized 
unless it begins a sentence. 


6. Accent Marks. There are certain marks in written 
French, called accents, placed over vowels. These are not 
used, as in English, to indicate that the syllable where 
they stand is to be pronounced more strongly, but they 
serve in general to distinguish the sounds of the vowels. 

7. The Three Accents. There are three accents : the 
acute (aigu) ('), the grave {grave) (*), and the circumflex 
(circonflexe) (") : 6tant, pere, tete. 

Note i. The acute accent occurs only on e; the grave on e, and 
rarely on a or u to distinguish words otherwise spelled alike; the 
circumflex on any vowel (except y). 

Note 2. The circumflex accent is usually a sign of contraction in the 
formation of the word, especially of the omission of an s : for example, 
fete, from Latin festa; compare English "feast." 

Note 3. Vowels, except e, usually omit their accent when capitalized. 

8. The Other Orthographic Marks are 

a. The cedilla (cidille) (J, placed under c to indicate a 
soft sound : 5a. 

b. The diaeresis (trema) (*"), placed over the second of 
two consecutive vowels to denote that it does not unite 
with the first to form a digraph, but is pronounced 
separately : Noel. 

Note. A diaeresis over an i crowds out the dot : hair. 

c. The apostrophe (apostrophe) ('), which indicates the 
omission of a vowel : j'ai. 

d. The hyphen (trait d'union) (-), which is used to join 
words in close connection : avez-vous ? 



9. Syllabication. The correct division of words into 
syllables is more important in French than in English, 
because it not only shows where words are to be divided 
at the end of lines, but it also often determines how a 
letter or group of letters is pronounced. 

10. Number of Syllables. There are as many syllables in 
a word as there are vowels (or digraphs) : a-mi, par-lent, 
cou-pe-rai, vic-toi-re, pro-pri-£-tai-re. 

Note i. E and u, when added as explained in Sec. 50, &, Note, 
do not form a syllable : man-gea, guer-re. 

Note 2. A mute e (Sec. 22) in the middle of a word, following 
a vowel, does not form a syllable: joue-rai. 

Note 3. I, y, 0, ou, and u, when preceding other vowels, are often 
sounded as consonants (Sec. 4, Note; Sees. 34-37), and then do not 
form a syllable : bien, 6-tions, yeux, loin, fouet-ter, lui, 6-cuel-le. 

Note 4. Observe that final mute e, though usually not pronounced, 
is regarded as forming a syllable : no-te, ra-re, pat-te. It has full syllabic 
value in the meter of poetry and songs. 

11. A Single Consonant (except x) at the point of division 
belongs to the following syllable : a-mi, a-vant, pa-ro-les, 
i-nS-ga-li-te" ; but, ex-a-men. 

Note. At the end of a line in writing or printing, division is usually 
avoided between x and a vowel. See Sec. 62. 

12. Treatment of Two Consonants. When there are two 
consonants at the point of division, the break is generally 
made between them : ad-mi-ra, es-poir, par-la, don-nai. 

Combinations of two consonants, however, which can be 
pronounced together, are not divided. Such pairs are treated 
as a single consonant and so go with the following syllable : 
ta-ble, mai-grir, cou-vrit, a-che-ta, ga-gna. 


Note i . Such pairs are those ending in 1 or r (but not rl, lr), and ch, 
ph, th, and gn. 

Note 2. Since h, unless aspirate (Sec. 52), has no consonantal value, 
a preceding consonant is put with such an h in the syllable that follows : 

13. Three Consonants. In groups of three (or more) 
consonants, the last consonant, or the last two when they 
form one of the special combinations mentioned in Sec. 12, 
go with the syllable that follows : trans-po-ser, com-bla, per-dre. 


14. Pronouncing French. One of the elements involved in 
pronouncing French is the ability to utter the sounds correctly. 
Few of these sounds have an exact counterpart in English ; 
many are strikingly strange. The task, for one whose habits 
of speech are formed, demands persistent and well-guided 
effort. It is necessary to hear and imitate a person who 
pronounces the language correctly. An understanding of 
the positions assumed by the vocal organs is also a great aid. 

15. Characteristics of Spoken French, important for the 
attention of an English-speaking pupil, include 

a. More energetic action of the vocal organs, especially 
of the lips and tongue. 

b. Pure vowel sounds. Many English vowels are not pure, 
but begin with one sound and glide into another at the end. 
That is, they are really diphthongs. The i in "bite," for 
example, is a combination of a in "far" and e in "meet" 

c. The grouping of a medial consonant with the following 
syllable. The impression upon the ear of the French ci-t6 is 
very different from the English cit-y. See Sec. 1 1 . 

d. The absence of strongly accented syllables in words 
and word-groups. 



16. Sounds of Letters. Another element in pronunciation 
is knowledge of what sounds the various French letters 
represent in their different positions. French has greater 
regularity in this respect than English ; still there are 
numerous exceptions to the rules. 

17. A Phonetic Alphabet, in which a certain written 
character always represents a certain sound, obviates the diffi- 
culties involved in an ordinary unphonetic alphabet. The 
following alphabet of the International Phonetic Association 
is in general use, and is employed here to supplement the 
discussion of sounds and to indicate irregular pronunciations. 

The " Description of Sound " in the list below is only 
approximate ; later sections give more accurate descriptions. 



Description of Sound 

Regularly Represented by 

a. Pure Vowels 


open a ; between a in 
" father " and a in 
" fat " 

a, Sec. 1 8, a 


closed a ; a in " father " 

a, a, Sec. 18, b 


closed e ; a in " fate " 

4, Sec. 19 ; final er, Sec. 21, 
Note 1; ai, Sec. 29, a 


open e\ e in " met " 

e, e, Sec. 20; e, Sec. 21 ; ai, 
Sec. 29, b\ ei, Sec. 30 


mute e\ e in "the man" 

e, Sec. 22 


i in " machine n 

i, Sec. 23 ; y, Sec. 27 


closed o ; o in " holy " 

6, Sec. 24 ; 0, Sec. 25, a ; au, 
Sec. 31 


open o ; o in " wholly " 

0, Sec. 2 5 , £ ; au, Sec. 3 1 , Note 


oo in " moon " 

ou, Sec. 33 



Description of 


Regularly Represented by 

b. Rounded Vowels 


rounded [e] 

eu, Sec. 32, a 


rounded [e] 

eu, Sec. 32, b 


rounded [i] 

u, Sec. 26 

c. Nasal Vowels 


nasal [a] 

an, en, etc., Sec. 40 


nasal [e] 

in, etc., Sec. 40 


nasal [o] 

on, etc., Sec. 40 


nasal [oe] 

un, etc., Sec. 40 


Consonantal Vowels 


y in " yes " 

h y, Sec. 35 ; 1, Sec. 54 


w in " was " 

ou-, 0-, Sec. 37 


French u before vowel 

u-, Sec. 36 

e. Consonants 


b in " bad " 



d in M dim " 

d, Sec. 48 


/in "fan" 



g in " get " 

g, Sec. 50, b 


s in " measure 


g, Sec. so, a- j, Sec. 53 


k in M kit " 

c, Sec. 46, b ; qu, Sec. 58 


/ in M lid " 

1, Sees. 48, 54, Note, 55 


m in " man " 



n in " nap " 

n, Sec. 48 


p in " pie " 



r trilled 

r, Sec. 59 


j- in M so " 

s, Sec. 60 ; c, 9, Sec. 46, a ; 
t, Sec. 61 


/in "tin" 

t, Sea 48 


p in " vine " 



s in " rose " 

s, Sec. 60 ; z 



Description of Sound 

Regularly Represented by 


sh in M shall " 
ny in " canyon " 

ch, Sec. 47 
gn, Sec. 51 

/. Quantity 


a long vowel 

This symbol is placed 
after the vowel af- 
fected; Sec. 42 

Note 1 . Phonetic symbols in this book are inclosed in brackets. 

Note 2. In this volume, to aid the beginner, a hyphen is used to 
separate the syllables of a word or word-group, a usage not general in 
technical works on phonetics. 


18. A has two sounds. 

a. It usually has a sound between a in "father" and a in 
"fat" : ami, malle, malade, page, table, la. 

This is known as open a. The mouth is widely open, and the 
tongue lies flat. Its phonetic symbol is [a]. Thus : ami [a-mi], 
malle [mal], malade [ma-lad], page [pa^], table [tabl], la [la]. 

b. When it has the circumflex accent, or is followed by 
s, it usually has a sound much like a in " father " : ame, 
batir, base, classe, pas. 

This is known as closed a. The mouth is less open than for 
open a, and the tongue is drawn farther back. Its phonetic symbol 
is [a]. Thus: ame [a:m], batir [ba-ti:r], base [ba:z], classe [kla:s], 
pas [pa]. 

Note i. A is closed also before ille: paille [pa:j]. 
Note 2. A circumflex in the verb endings ames, ates, at is open : 
donnames [do-nam], donnat [do-na]. 
Note 3. A is silent in aout [u]. 


19. E acute (e) has the sound of a in li fate," without the 
vanishing sound of e in "meet" which is heard in. long a in 
English : 6t6, c6da. 

This is known as closed e (eferme). Its phonetic symbol is [e]. 
Thus : 6te" [e-te], c6da [se-da]. 

20. E grave (e) and e circumflex (e) have a sound much 
like e in "met," often somewhat prolonged : leve, tete. 

This sound is known as open e (e ouverf). Its phonetic symbol 
is [e]. Thus : leve [lev], tete [te:t]. 

21. E unaccented, when not at the end of a syllable, has the 
same sound as e (e in " met," Sec. 20): tel, pressa, mer, cadet. 

Thus : tel [tel], pressa [pre-sa], mer [me:r], cadet [ka-de]. 

Note i . Er, when final in words of more than one syllable, has the 
sound of closed e (Sec. 19), the r being silent. Thus: parler [par-le], 
dernier [der-nje]. In the following words, however, final r is sounded 
and the e is open (Sec. 20): amer [a-me:r], cuiller [kqi-je:r], enfer [a-fe:r]. 

Note 2. E is closed (Sec. 1 9) in final ez, and, among other words, 
in the final sounds of pied [pje], assied(s) [a-sje], clef [kle], and et [e]. 

Note 3. E in femme has the sound of French open a [fam]. 

22. E mute. Unaccented e at the end of a syllable is 
sounded as little as possible, whatever sound it has approxi- 
mating that of e in the expression " the man " when fluently 
pronounced. This sound is known as mute e (e muef). 

The phonetic symbol for mute e is [9]. 

Three positions in which mute e occurs must be noted. 
a. At the end of a word of one syllable it is sounded 
fully : le, me. 

Note. When such words as le and me are closely connected in 
thought with other words, as is almost always the case, the e is more 
or less obscured. Thus in le pere the e in le is sounded but slightly. In 
je le fais the e in le is silent when the expression is uttered fluently [3al-fe]. 


b. At the end of a word of more than one syllable it is 
silent : malle, apporte, table. 

c. When it is not at the end of a word, the fullness of its 
pronunciation is determined by the character of the sounds 
that precede and follow it. It is sounded rather clearly in 
regarda, pesa ; it is sounded slightly in petit, sera ; it is silent 
in samedi, appela. 

Phonetically, the examples above are represented as follows : 
le [b] apporte [a-port] pesa [pa-za] samedi [sam-di] 

me [ma] table [tabl] petit [pa-ti] appela [a-pla] 

malle [mal] regarda [re-gar-da] sera [s9-ra] 

Note i. In es at the end of a word of more than one syllable, and 
in ent at the end of the third person plural of verbs, the e is mute, and 
the final consonants are silent : tetes [te:t], paries [pari], parlent [pari]. 

Note 2. See Sec. 50, Note, for silent e after g. 

23. I (with or without accent) has the sound of i in 
" machine " : il, ile, midi. 

Avoid the vanishing sound of y in "yet" usually heard in English. 
The corners of the mouth should be drawn out. The phonetic 
symbol of this sound is [i]. Thus : il [il], ile [il], midi [mi-di]. 

24. circumflex (6) has the sound of in " holy," without 
the vanishing sound of 00 in " moon " heard in long in 
English : cote, notre. 

This sound is known as closed 0. The lips are tensely rounded 
(puckered) and protruded. The phonetic symbol is [o]. Thus : 
cdte [kot], notre [no:tr]. 

25. unaccented has two sounds. 

a. When it is the final sound of a word, it has the sound 
of 6 (0 in "holy," Sec. 24) : mot, cachot. 

Phonetically : mot [mo], cachot [ka-Jo]. 


b. When it is not the final sound of a word, it has a 
more open sound, somewhat like o in the Yankee pro- 
nunciation of M wholly " : fol, robe, notre, or. 

This sound is known as open o. The lips are less strongly- 
rounded than in closed o; the back of the tongue is lower. The 
phonetic symbol is [o]. Thus: fol [fol], robe [rob], notre [notr], 
or [o:r]. 

Note. is closed (Sec. 24) in the terminations ome and one, before 
the ending tion, and before the sound of z [z]: tome [torn], notion 
[no-sj5], chose [Jo:z]. 

26. U (with or without accent) has no equivalent in 
English. To produce its sound, round or pucker the lips 
as if to pronounce 00 in " moon," and then try to pronounce 
e in M meet " : du, sucre, mur. 

The phonetic symbol is [y]. Thus: du [dy], sucre [sykr], 
mur [my:r]. 

Note. See Sec. 50, Note, for silent u after g. 

27. Y has the sound of French i: 'style. 

Phonetically : style [stil]. 

Note. Y between vowels, and in pays and derivatives, is equivalent 
to i-i. The first i goes with the preceding vowel (Sec. 28); the second, ex- 
cept in pays etc., is consonantal (Sec. 35): asseyant {assei-yant [a-se-ja]), 
appuyai (appui-yai [a-pqi-je]), pays {pai-i [pe-i]). 


28. The Digraphs. The vowels in the common groups 
ai, ei, au (eau), eu (ceu), ou, however, are not sounded as 
above, but each group represents a single sound. These 
are called compound vowels or digraphs (or, when there 
are three, trigraphs). 


29. Ai has two sounds. 

a. When final in verbs, it has the sound of e* (a in "fate," 
Sec. 19) : parlai. 

Phonetically : parlai [par-le]. 

Note. Ai has the sound of e" also in gai [ge], quai [ke], sais, sait [se]. 

b. Elsewhere it has the sound of e (e in "met," Sec. 20) : 
vrai, faible, mais, parlais, aimer. 

Phonetically: vrai [vre], faible [fe:bl], mais [me], parlais [par-le], 
aimer [e-me]. 

Note. In faisant and derived forms ai has the sound of mute e 
(Sec. 22, c): faisant [fa-za]. 

30. Ei has the sound of e (e in "met," Sec. 20) : reine. 
Phonetically : reine [rem]. 

31. Au and eau usually have the sound of 6 (o in " holy," 
Sec. 24) : autre, chaud, beau. 

Phonetically: autre [otr], chaud [Jo], beau [bo]. 

Note. Au has the sound of open (Sec. 25, b) in mauvais [mo-ve], and 
in aurai [o-re] and related forms. 

32. Eu and oeu have a sound somewhat like 11 in " fur." 
More exactly, they have two distinct sounds, formed as 
follows : 

a. When they are the final sound in a word, or are before 
t or a z sound, round the lips as if to pronounce o in " holy " 
(Sec. 24) and pronounce e* (a in " fate," Sec. 19) : feu, veux, 
meute, creuser. 

The phonetic symbol is [0]. Thus : feu [f0], veux [v0], meute 
[m0:t], creuser [kr0-ze]. 


b. When they precede a pronounced consonant (except t 
or one that has the sound of z), round the lips as if to 
pronounce in " holy " (Sec. 24) and pronounce e (e in 
" met," Sec. 20) : neuf, jeune, sceur. 

The phonetic symbol is [ce]. Thus : neuf [noef], jeune [3cen], 
soeur [soe:r]. 

Note i. Eu, and also oe and ue, when before the liquid sound 
(Sec. 54), have the sound [ce]: feuille [fce:j], ceil [ce:j], orgueil [or-gce:j], 
cueillir [kce-ji:r]. 

Note 2. Eu in all forms of the verb avoir has the sound of the 
French u (Sec. 26) : eut [y], eussions [y-sj5]. 

33. Ou (with or without accent) has the sound of 00 in 
" moon " : tour, gout. 

The lips are tensely rounded. Avoid carefully the vanishing 
sound of u in "must." The phonetic symbol is [u]. Thus: tour 
[tu:r], gout [gu]. 


34. Consonantal Vowels. When i (or y), 0, u, or ou 

precede a strongly uttered vowel sound, they take on a 
value approaching that of a consonant. They then give rise 
to three well-distinguished sounds. 

Note. These sounds are often called semivowels. Observe that 
these letters (except in ou) cannot begin a digraph. 

35. Consonantal i or y gives a sound much like y in 
*' yes " : viande, ciel, yeux. 

The sound is formed by blending naturally the sound of i with 
the following vowel. The phonetic symbol is [j]. Thus : viande 
[vja:d], ciel [sjel], yeux [J0]. 


36. Consonantal u has nothing corresponding to it in 
English. The sound is almost inevitably formed when the 
French u is blended with a following vowel : lui, suis. 

The phonetic symbol is [q]. Thus: lui [lip], suis [suj]. The 
rounded characteristic of the u must be preserved. 

37. Consonantal ou or o gives a sound much like w in 
" was " : oui, nouer, oasis. 

The sound is formed by blending naturally the sound of ou or o 
with the following vowel. The phonetic symbol is [w]. Thus : 
oui [wi], nouer [nwe], oasis [wa-zis]. 

38. Oi is conveniently classed with the consonantal vowels. 
It has the sound of wa> the a being usually open (Sec. 18, a) : 
moi, poire. 

Phonetically it is represented by [wa]. Thus: moi [mwa], 
poire [pwa:r]. 


39. Nasal Vowels. A vowel or digraph followed im- 
mediately in the same syllable by a single m or n acquires 
a nasal quality. The m and n are silent : bon, mon-trer, 
temps, faim. 

The nasal quality is produced by leaving the opening from the 
pharynx to the nasal passage open, thus allowing a part of the air 
of expiration to escape through the nose. 

Note i. From the rule for dividing words into syllables (Sec. ii), 
it will be seen that (disregarding a few exceptions) m or n must be final 
or followed by a consonant to produce the nasal sound. 

Note 2. If the m or the n is doubled, the preceding vowel is 
usually not nasal : bonne [bon]. 


40. The Four Nasal Vowels are represented and sounded 
as follows : 













Have the sound of a in M far " (more exactly, the 
sound of a of Sec. 18, b) pronounced through the 
nose : dans, chambre, enfant, temple. 

Have the sound of a in w fan" (more exactly, the 
sound of e, Sec. 20) pronounced through the nose : 
fin, simple, nymphe, pain, faim, plein. 



Have the sound of aw in " fawn " (more exactly, 
the sound of of Sec. 25, b) pronounced through 
the nose : Don, nom, tromper. 



Have the sound of u in M fur " (more exactly, the 
sound of eu of Sec. 32, b) pronounced through 
the nose : brun, humble, jeun. 

No trace of the m or n should appear in the pronunci- 
ation of the nasal vowels, except in liaison (Sec. 65, Note). 

The phonetic symbols of the four nasal vowels are respectively 
[a] [e] [5] [«]. 

Thus, the examples above are represented as follows : 
dans [da] fin [fe] faim [fe] tromper [tr5-pe] 

chambre [Ja:br] simple [se:pl] plein [pie] brun [brde] 
enfant [a-fa] nymphe [ne:f] bon [b5] humble [ce:bl] 

temple [ta:pl] pain [pe] nom [n5] jeun [362] 

Note i. Final en after i or y has the sound of the nasal in; also 
nasal en after i everywhere in the verbs tenir and venir: bien [bje], 
moyen [mwa-je] ; tiens [tje], viendra [vje-dra]. 

Note 2. Before the nasal in, has its consonantal sound of w in 
"was ' (Sec. 37): loin [lwe], moins [mwe]. 

Note 3. On in monsieur has the sound of mute e : [ma-sje]. 

Note 4. For final ent in verbs, see Sec. 22, c, Note 1. 



41. Quantity. The extent to which a vowel sound is 
prolonged is called its quantity. It varies according to its 
position, and is styled long or short. 

Note i. Similar variations occur in English, though less markedly. 
Compare " I am sad " (the a short in quantity) with " I am mad " (the 
a longer in quantity). 

Note 2. The length of vowels is not so important for the attention 
of a beginner as getting the correct and pure sounds. 

42. The Phonetic Symbol for a long vowel is [:], placed 
after the vowel affected : reine [re:n], Mtir [ba-ti:r]. 

43. Rules for Quantity. Long vowels occur only in the 
last stressed (Sec. 63) or clearly pronounced syllable of a 
word. Hence short vowels predominate. 

The following vowels are long : 

a. Vowels in final syllables before an r pronounced : fer [fe:r], 
finir [fi-ni:r], fort [foir], noir [nwa:r]. 

b. Certain vowels in the next to the last syllable of words that 
end in a mute e syllable, namely : 

(1) Vowels with a circumflex accent: ame [a:m], tete [te:t], 
notre [no:tr]. 

(2) Nasal vowels: chambre [ja:br], prince [pre:s], ronde [ro:d], 
humble [ce:bl]. 

(3) Vowels when followed by the sounds [v], [z], [3], [j], [r] : 
rive [ri:v], chaise [Je:z], rouge [111:3], fille [fi:j], terre [ten:]. 

Note i. The vowels [o], [0], [a], and [e] are often long in the situ- 
ation of b even when other consonants than those of (3) follow them : 
faute [fo:t], meule [mo:l], tasse [ta:s], reine [re:n], dixieme [di-zje:m]. 

Note 2. Vowels other than those mentioned in a and b above are 
usually short. In particular, vowels that constitute the final sound of a 
word are short : donne" [do-ne], chat [Ja], enfant [a-fa]. 



44. Consonants in General have approximately the same 
sounds as in English. The principal differences are given 

45. Final Consonants are not sounded except c, f, 1, and r. 
Likewise of final groups of consonants only c, f, 1, and r are 
sounded : nid, trop, des (silent) ; sec, vif, nul, pour (sounded) ; 
neufs (f sounded) ; corps (r sounded). 

Phonetically : 

nid [ni] 

sec [sek] 

pour [pur] 

trop [tro] 

vif [vif] 

neufs [noef] 

des [de] 

nul [nyl] 

corps [ko:r] 

46. a. C before e, i, and y, and likewise 9, have the sound 
of c in " certain " : cette, ca. 

This is the soft c. The phonetic symbol is [s] : cette [set], ca [sa]. 

b. C in other positions (except in ch) has the sound of 
c in M cast " : col, avec. 

This is the hard c. The phonetic symbol is [k] : col [kol], 
avec [a-vek]. 

Note i . Final c, usually sounded, is silent after nasal n : blanc [bla] ; 
also in clerc [kle:r], estomac [es-to-ma], pore [po:r], tabac [ta-ba], and in 
a few other words. 

Note 2. C in second has the sound of g (Sec. 50, b) [so-g5]. 

v 47. Ch usually has the sound of sh in " shall " or ch in 
" machine " : chat, chercher. 

The phonetic symbol is [j] : chat [Ja], chercher [Jer-Je]. 

Note. In some words, mostly those derived from Greek, ch has the 
sound of k : chr6tien [kre-tje], dcho [e-ko]. 


48. In pronouncing the English d, 1, n, and t, the tip of the 
tongue is placed against the hard palate some distance back of the 
roots of the upper teeth. In French it is generally placed against 
the upper teeth. An appreciably different sound is produced : 
dame [dam], ronde [r5:d], les [le], aller [a-le], nette [net], donner 
[do-ne], tete [tat]. 

49. Final f, usually sounded, is silent in clef [kle], and' in the 
plurals bceufs [b0], nerfs [ne:r], ceufs [0]. 

50. a. G before e, i, and y has the sound of s in " meas- 
ure " : geler, large, gilet. 

The phonetic symbol is [3] : geler [sjS-le], large parg], gilet [3i-le]. 

b. G in other positions (except in gn) has the sound of 
g in "get": gai, grand. 

The phonetic symbol is [g] : gai [ge], grand [gra]. 

Note. After g, e is often inserted before a, 0, and u, to indicate the 
first sound of g ; u is often inserted before e, i, and y, to indicate the 
second. The e and the u are silent : mangea [ma-3a] ; guerre [ge:r]. 

51. Gn represents a single sound, much like the last part 
of ny in " canyon " : gagner. • 

The phonetic symbol is [p] : gagner [ga-ne]. 

52. H is never sounded : homme, the\ 

In some words, however, initial h has sufficient force to 
prevent elision and linking, as in huit, haut. The h is then 
called aspirate ; otherwise it is called mute. 

Phonetically: homme [5m], the" [te] ; le huit [te-qit], le haut [b-o]. 

Note. Among the commonest words beginning with aspirate h are 

haine hardi haut honte 

hair haricot Havre hors 

halle hasard hlros huit 

hangar hate hibou hurler 

Consult a lexicon for others. 


53. J has the sound of s in " measure " : je, jardin. 

The phonetic symbol is [3] : je [39], jardin [3ar-de]. 

54. Liquid L. Final il preceded by a vowel has the so- 
called liquid sound. In this position il is sounded much like 
the English consonant y in " yes." The preceding vowel 
(or digraph) does not unite with the i, but retains its indi- 
vidual sound, the e of the ending eil having the sound of e 
([e], Sec. 20) : travail, sommeil, seuil. 

This is called liquid 1 (1 mouille). The phonetic symbol is [j] : 
travail [tra-va:j], sommeil [sD-me:j], seuil [soe:j]. 

Ill, when not initial, has also in most words the liquid 
sound explained above, that of English y : veille, fille. 

Phonetically : veille [ve:j], fille [fi:j]. 

Note. In the following words ill is not liquid: mille [mil], ville 
[vil], tranquille [tra-kil]. 

55. In Final il preceded by a consonant, the 1 is some- 
times sounded, as in fil, mil, civil; sometimes silent, as in 
gentil, fusil. 

Phonetically: fil [fil], mil [mil], civil [si-vil] ; gentil [3a-ti], 
fusil [fy-zi]. 

Note i. For the tongue position in 1, see Sec. 48. 
Note 2. In fils (meaning " son ") 1 is silent : [fis]. 

56. M is silent in automne [o-ton]. For m and n nasal, see 
Sees. 39 and 40. For the tongue position in n, see Sec. 48. 


57. P is silent in sept [set] and compter [k5-te]. 

58. Qu generally has the sound of k : quel, quoique. 

Phonetically : quel [kel] ; quoique [kwa-ka]. 


59. R is pronounced more prominently than in English : 
rose, tres, tenir, irai. 

Phonetically : rose [ro:z], tres [tre], tenir [ta-ni:r], irai [i-re]. 

Note i. Two different sounds of r are in common use in France. 
One is a trill of the tip of the tongue, the other a trill of the extremity 
of the soft palate. Either is correct, though the best usage perhaps now 
favors the latter. 

Note 2. R is silent in monsieur [ma-sje]. 

Note 3. For final er, see Sec. 21, Note 1. 

60. S is usually sounded like English initial s, but between 
two vowels it has the sound of z : salle, pense, classe ; rose, 

Phonetically : salle [sal], pense [pais], classe [kla:s] ; rose [ro:z], 
maison [me-z5]. 

Note. Final s, usually silent, is sounded in 
fils [fis] lis [lis] {usually) ours [urs] 

heias [e-la:s] mars [mars] sens [sa:s] {usually) 

jadis [3a-dis] mceurs [mcers] tous [tus] {as a pronoun) 

61. T in the combinations tion, tial, tiel, tieux, and tie 
usually has the sound of s. This is true especially in words 

L'INSTITUT ET LE PONT DES ARTS. Pour conserver les belles traditions 
de la langue frangaise et pour l'embellir (y compris meme les questions d'or- 
thographe, d'accentuation, etc.), il y a une fameuse institution connue sous 
le nom d'Academie frangaise, reconnue par le parlement en 1637. Elle est 
composee de 40 membres, generalement connus sous le nom d' « immortels ». 
lis sont ordinairement choisis a cause de leur talent litteraire, et, quand un 
membre meurt, les survivants elisent son successeur. Les ecrivains francais 
se considerent tres honores d'etre admis au sein de cette assemblee. L'Aca- 
demie publie le Dictionnaire, code de la langue frangaise. 

Les seances de cette Academie ont lieu au palais de l'lnstitut, situe sur 
la rive de la Seine, en face du pont des Arts. Dans le meme edifice se 
reunissent aussi les quatre Academies consacrees aux arts et aux sciences, 
lesquelles avec l'Academie frangaise forment l'lnstitut de France. 


that correspond in form and meaning to English words in 
which t has the sound of sh (not ch), or is represented by 
soft c : nation, partial, essentiel, ambitieux, democratic 

Phonetically : nation [na-sjo], partial [par-sjal], essentiel 
[e-sa-sjel], ambitieux [d-bi-sj'0], democratic [de-mo-kra-si]. 

Note i. Final t, usually silent, is sounded in dot [dot], est [est] 
(point of compass), net [net], ouest [west]. 

Note 2. For the tongue position in t, see Sec. 48. 

Note 3. Since h is always silent, th is sounded like t: the* [te]. 

62. X usually has the sound of ks: luxe, exposer. It has 
the sound of gz in ex initial before a vowel or mute h : 
exemple, exhaler. 

Phonetically: luxe [lyks], exposer [eks-po-ze] ; exemple [eg-za:pl], 
exhaler [eg-za-le]. 

Note. X has the sound of s in six [sis], dix [dis], soixante [swa-sa:t], 
Bruxelles [bry-sel] ; the sound of z in dix-huit [di-zqit], dix-neuf [diz-ncef ], 
deuxieme [d0-zje:m], sixieme [si-zje:m], dixieme [di-zje:m]. 


63. Stress. As indicated in Sec. 15, d, French words do 
not, like English, have a strong accent, but each syllable (ex- 
cept those containing mute e) is clearly pronounced. There 
is, however, an apparent stress of voice that normally falls 
on the last syllable. Phrases likewise have a stress falling on 
the last syllable of their last word. 


64. Liaison. A final consonant before an initial vowel 
sound is often pronounced with this vowel sound when 
the two words are closely connected in thought. The 


result of this is that the words are run together and pro- 
nounced as one. This is called linking (in French, liaison) : 
beaucoup"a faire, es£il. 

Phonetically: beaucoup a faire [bo-ku-pa-fe:r], est-il [e-til]. 

65. Consonant Changes in Liaison. When carried over, 
a final d is sounded like t : gramTenfant ; 

a final f is sounded like v : neufhommes ; 

a final g is sounded like k : longpiiver ; 

a final s or x is sounded like 2 : les"amis, dixlunis. 

Phonetically: grand enfant [gra-ta-fa], neuf hommes [noe-vom], 
long hiver [l5-ki-ve:r], les amis [le-za-mi], dix amis [di-za-mi]. 

Note. M and n in nasal groups are carried over. The nasal quality 
of the vowel is then largely lost, except in un and a few other words. 
Monlimi [mo-na-mi], un~nomme [ce-nom]. 

66. Omission of Liaison. Some words, notably et, and, 
never permit their final consonant to be carried over to a 
following word. 


67. Elision. A final vowel is often dropped before an 
initial vowel or mute h, an apostrophe taking its place. This 
is called elision : j'ai, s'ils, l'homme. 

68. Cases of Elision. The following words alone, undergo 
elision : 

a. All monosyllables ending in mute e. 
p. Jusque ; also lorsque, puisque, and quoique before il, ils, 
elle, elles, on, and un. 

c. La, both the article and the pronoun. 

d. Si, before il and ils. 

e. A few special cases, such as quelqu'un. 




69. Punctuation in French follows in the main the same 
principles as in English. 

The use of the dash ( — ) to denote a change of speaker 
in a conversation is to be noted. The whole conversation 
quoted may then be inclosed in quotation marks. For 
many purposes the place of the dash is taken by les points 
suspensifs (. . .). 

70. The French Names 

marks are — 

the period 

the comma 

the semicolon 

the colon 

the dash 

the quotation marks 

the interrogation point 

the exclamation point 

for the common punctuation 

le point 

la virgule 

le point et virgule 

les deux points 

le tiret 

les guillemets 

le point d' interrogation 

le point d' exclamation 



71. Gender of Nouns. In French all nouns, whether the 
names of persons, animals, or things, are either masculine 
or feminine. There is no neuter gender. The gender of 
names of persons or animals of definite sex is determined, 
as in English, by that sex. The gender of other nouns 
seems arbitrary, and must be learned for each word. 

Note i. Nouns ending in certain letters are apt to have the same 
gender; likewise the names of certain classes of things. See page 427. 

Note 2. French nouns derived from Latin masculines and neuters 
are regularly masculine in French ; those from Latin feminines are 
regularly feminine. 

72. The Definite Article the is expressed 

a. With masculine nouns in the singular by le. 

b. With feminine nouns in the singular by la. 

c. With all nouns in the plural by les. 

the father, leph-e the fathers, lesperes 

the mother, la mere the mothers, les meres 

73. L' in Elision. Before words beginning with a vowel 
or mute h, le and la become P. 

the child, Venfant the children, les enfatits 

the man, Vhomme the men, les hommes 

Notei This dropping of a final vowel before an initial vowel sound 
for the sake of euphony, and the substitution of the apostrophe, is called 
elision. It takes place in several other short words ; for example, de, of. 
See Sec. 68. 

2 5 


74. The Indefinite Article a or an is expressed 

a. With masculine nouns by un. 

b. With feminine nouns by une. 

a brother, unfrere a sister, une sceur 

75. Repetition of Articles. The definite and indefinite 
articles are repeated before each noun to which they belong. 

the father and brother, le pere et lefrere 
a brother and sister, unfrere et une soeur 

76. The Plural of Nouns is regularly formed by adding 
s to the singular. 

le mari, the husband les maris, the husbands 

la femme, the wife les femmes, the wives 

l'enfant, the child les enfants, the children 


a, has le frere, the brother 

aussi, also le garcon, the boy 
avec, with l'homme, the man 

de, of le mari, the husband 

deux, two la mere, the mother 
l'enfant m.f, the child ont, have 

est [e], is ou, where 

et [e], and le parent m.f, the parent 

la famille, the family le pere, the father 

la femme [fam], the woman, the qui, who 

wife la sceur, the sister 

la fille, the girl sont, are 


I . Prefix to the following nouns the proper word for the : 
pere garcons filles parents homme 

mere enfant mari sceur hommes 


2. Prefix to the following nouns the proper word for a : 

garc,on enfant homme 

soeur mere parent 

3. Change to the plural form — 

le frere la femme la soeur 

le mari l'homme l'enfant 

4. Translate into French — 

two boys of the man 

two girls also a father and mother 

the brother has a man is 

the brothers have the men are 

who has a sister ? where is the boy ? 

of the girl where are the children ? 

of a girl the husband and wife 

of a husband with the women 


Une Famille 

Un gargon et une fille sont avec un homme et une femme. Le 
gargon est le frere de la fille. Le gargon a une soeur. La fille a 
un frere. Le gargon est le frere de la soeur. La fille et le gargon 
ont deux parents. L'homme et la femme sont les parents. Les 
parents ont deux enfants. Les enfants de l'homme et de la femme 
sont le gargon et la fille. Les enfants ont un pere et une mere. 
La mere est la femme de l'homme. L'homme a une femme. La 
femme de l'homme est la mere de la fille. Le frere de la fille 
est aussi l'enfant de la mere. Le mari de la mere est le pere. 
Le pere et la mere sont les deux parents. Ou est le pere? Le 
pere est avec la mere. Oil sont les enfants ? Les enfants sont 
avec les parents. Qui sont les enfants? Le gargon et la fille 
sont les enfants. Qui sont les parents? 



A man is with a boy and a girl. The boy and the girl are the 
children of the man. The boy is the brother of the girl. The boy 
has a sister. The girl is the sister. The girl has a mother. The 
mother of the girl is the wife of the man. The man has a wife. 
The wife of the man is the mother of the girl. The father of the 
girl is the husband of the woman. The father and mother have 
two children. The children are the boy and girl. Who is the 
brother of the girl ? The boy. The man has two children. Where 
is the sister of the child ? The girl is with the boy. The children 
are with the man. W 7 ho is the man ? The man is the husband of 
the woman. The father and mother are the parents of the girl. 
The boy and the girl have a father and mother. 


i. Qui est avec l'homme ? 2. Qui est le frere de la fille ? 
3. Qui a une sceur? 4. Oil est la sceur? 5. Qui a deux parents? 
6. Qui sont les parents ? 7. Qui a deux enfants ? 8. Qui sont les 
enfants de la femme? 9. Qui est le pere de la fille? 10. Qui a 
une femme? 11. Qui est le mari de la mere? 12. Oil sont les 
enfants ? 13. Oil est le frere de la fille ? 14. Qui a un pere et une 
mere ? 15. Oil sont le garcon et la fille ? 


1. The boy has a sister. 2. The woman has a husband. 3. The 
boy and girl are the children. 4. Wiho are the parents of the child ? 
5. Where is the child of the man ? 6. The father and mother are 
the parents of the child. 7. The boy has a brother and sister. 
8. Who is the girl with the woman ? 9. The man has two children. 
10. The children have a father and mother. 11. Who is the 
brojher of the girl? 12. The man is the father of two children. 
13. The woman is with the boy and girl. 14. Where is the mother 
of the child? 15. The two children have a brother and sister. 




77. Contraction with the Article. Whenever the prepo- 
sitions de and a directly precede the articles le and les, they 
contract as follows : 

de + le = du a + le = au 

de + les = des a 4- les = aux 

of the father, dupere to the father, aupere 

of the fathers, des per es to the fathers, aux pe res 

the son of the father, lefils dupere 

Note. No contraction takes place before la and 1\ 

of the family, de lafamille to the man, a Vhomme 

78. Possession is not expressed in French by 's, but by 
the preposition de, of. 

John's friend, Pami de Jean 
the girl's father, le pere de lafille 
the boy's sister, la sceur du gar con 
the children's uncle, Poticle des en/ants 

79. Some Possessive Adjectives. Possessive adjectives, 
like the articles, change in form according to the gender 
and number of the nouns they modify. Among them are 




Masc. Sing. 

Fem. Sing. 






his, her 








Note. Possessive 

adjectives, like articles, are repeated before each 

noun they modify. 


father and mother, 

mon ph~e et ma mere 



a, to 

l'ami m., the friend 
Berthe, Bertha 
cher, dear 
le cousin, the cousin 
dans, in 

la fille, the daughter, girl 
le fils [fis], the son 

Jean, John 

Marie, Mary 
l'oncle, the uncle 
la tante, the aunt 



I. Prefix to the nouns below the proper form for (a) my 
(b) your, (c) his, (d) the, (e) her : 


2. Express in French 

of the father, 
of the mother 
of the child 
of the children 
to the father 
to the mother 
to the child 



to the children 
of the uncle 
to the son 
to the men 
of the sisters 
of a wife 
to an aunt* 

UNE HUMBLE FAMILLE DE PAYSANS. Dans la gravure, a l'autre page, 
assise sur le tronc d'arbre, est la grand'mere, un fichu sur la tete, coiffure 
plutot commune des femmes de la campagne. A cote d'elle est sa bru, la 
femme de son fils, l'homme qui se tient debout a ses cotes. C'est la fin 
d'une dure journee de travail, et ils se reposent dans la cour de la ferme 
avec leurs enfants, apres le repas du soir. Face a leurs parents et a leur 
grand'mere nous voyons la fille la plus agee, son frere sur les genoux et sa 
petite soeur a cote d'elle. La famille est pauvre, et cependant c'est par le 
labeur de ces gens honnetes et economes que la France est ce qu'elle est. 


3. Translate into French — 

my brother your aunt 

my father's brother the boy's aunt 

my cousin's brother a friend's wife 

my cousins' brother dear to the son 

the child's brother dear to her son 

John's brother dear to his mother 

Ma Famille 

Dans une famille le fils et la fllle sont les enfants du pere et de 
la mere. Le fils est cher au pere et a la mere aussi. Le fils est 
cher aux deux parents. Les parents sont le pere et la mere. La 
mere est la femme du pere. Le pere et la mere sont les parents 
des enfants. Dans ma famille mes parents ont deux filles et un 
fils. Mon pere a une femme. Sa femme est ma mere. Mon pere 
est le mari de ma mere. Mon pere et ma mere sont mes parents. 
Mes sceurs, Marie et Berthe, sont les filles de mes parents. Mon 
pere a une sceur. Ma tante est la sceur de mon pere. Ma tante 
a un mari. Son mari est mon oncle. Les enfants de mon oncle 
sont mes cousins. Mon cousin Jean est cher au frere de mon oncle. 


John is my friend. My friend has a father and mother. His 
father and mother are his parents. My friend has two sisters, 
Mary and Bertha. The sisters are the children of the parents. 
John's father is my mother's friend. My mother has a brother. 
My mother's brother is my uncle. Who is your uncle's wife ? 
My aunt is my uncle's wife. My uncle and aunt have a son. An 
uncle's son is a cousin. John has a cousin also. The cousin's 
mother is John's aunt. John is dear to the cousin and to the 
cousin's family. The girls with John are his sisters. Who is dear 
to John's sisters ? 



1. Qui sont les enfants ? 2. Qui sont les parents ? 3. Qui est la 
femme de votre pere ? 4. Qui sont les parents des enfants ? 5. Qui 
est votre pere ? 6. Qui a une femme ? 7. Qui est votre mere ? 
8. Qui sont les filles de votre mere ? 9. Qui sont Marie et Berthe ? 
1 o. Qui est la femme de votre oncle ? 1 r . Qui est votre 
cousin? 12. Qui est la mere de votre ami ? 13. Qui est le fils de 
votre oncle? 14. Qui sont les parents de votre cousin? 15. Qui 
est cher aux parents ? 


1. My friend has an uncle. 2. His uncle's wife is his aunt. 
3. My cousin has two children, a son and a daughter. 4. My uncle 
is my father's brother. 5. My friend's wife is your mother's sister. 
6. The children of John's parents are my cousins. 7. The son is 
dear to the father. 8. The son is dear to the friends of his family 
also. 9. Who is the father of the boys? 10. The boys are with 
my cousin John. 11. Where are the children's parents? 12. My 
friend has a boy and girl in his family. 13. The child is dear 
to the mother. 14. The boy is the son of my father's sister. 
15. Mary and Bertha are the daughters of my brother's friend. 



80. Present Tense of itre, to be. 

je suis, I am nous sommes, we are 

tu es, thou art vous etes, you are 

il (elle) est, he (she) is ils (elles) sont, they are 

Note i. This tense illustrates the fact that in French, as in English, 
the form of a verb changes with the person and number of its subject. 
Note 2. Observe that je is not capitalized. See Sec. 5. 


81. It and They, French, having no neuter gender, has 
no special form for the subject pronoun it. II or elle is 
used according to the gender of the word to which the it 
refers. Likewise they is ils or elles as the gender demands. 

I have a book ; it is here. J'ai tin livre ; il est ici. 

I have a pen ; it is here. fai une plume ; elle est ici. 

She has two pencils ; they are Elle a deux crayons ; ils sont ici. 


He has two pens ; they are here. 77 a deux plumes ; elles sont ici. 

82. Subject Noun. When the subject of an affirmative 
sentence is a noun expressed, a subject pronoun does not 
accompany the verb. 

My brother has two books. Monfrere a deux livres. 

The men are here. Les hommes sont ici. 


a, at, to la fenetre, the window 
fe banc [ba], the bench, settee ici, here 

le bureau, the desk (of the le livre, the book 

teacher) le maitre d'&ole, the school- 
le cahier [ka-je], the notebook teacher m. 

la classe, the class la maitresse, the teacher f. 

le crayon, the pencil la plume, the pen 

dans, in, into la porte, the door 
derriere, behind pour, for 

devant, before, in front of le pupitre, the desk (of the 
l'e*cole/, the school pupil) 

al'&ole, at school quatre, four 

l'eleve m.f., the pupil la salle de classe, the classroom 
etes-vous, are you sur, on 

le fauteuil, the armchair, chair le tableau, the blackboard 

(of the teacher) un, une, (as a numeral) one 




i. Translate into French — 

a. of the boy 
of the girl 
cf the man 
of the men 
to the boy 
to the girl 
to the man 
to the men 

b. the teacher 

the school-teacher 

to the teacher 

the desk (of the teacher) 

the desk (of the pupil) 

the class 

c. the armchair, it is here 
a pen, it is here 

one pen 

one of the windows 

2. Give the full tense of — 

of the parents 

to the teachers 

of the pens 

to the book 

of the pupil 

at the blackboard 

at the window 

at one window 

the classroom 

of the classroom 

the school 

at school 

in the school 

on the blackboard 

the notebooks, they are 

the pens, they are here 
the pens are here 


je suis ici, tu es ici, etc. 

je suis a l'ecole 

je suis devant la fenetre 

Ma Salle de Classe 

Je suis a l'ecole avec mon frere. Nous sommes ici. Nous sommes 
dans la salle de classe. Elle a deux portes et quatre fenetres. Le 
fauteuil et le bureau devant le tableau sont pour le maitre d'ecole ; 
les bancs et les pupitres pour les eleves de la classe. Les livres et 
les crayons du maitre sont sur le bureau. Ses plumes sont aussi 


sur son bureau. Les cahiers des e'leves sont sur les pupitres. Le 
maitre est au tableau derriere son bureau. Une eleve est devant 
le bureau du maitre. Deux des eleves sont aux fenetres. «Ou 
sont vos livres ? — * lis sont sur le pupitre de mon frere. — Oil sont 
vos plumes ? — Elles sont sur mon pupitre. » 


We are at school. The teacher and the pupils are in the class- 
room. The classroom has four windows. It has also two doors. 
One pupil is at the board. The teacher has the pupil's notebook. 
I am in front of the teacher. " Who has my books ? " " I have 
my books. They are here on the teacher's desk." The pupils' pens 
and pencils are in the desks. The teacher has his book on his desk. 
The teacher's desk and chair are in front of the blackboard. The 
blackboard is behind the teacher. Are you behind the teacher ? 


i. Ou etes-vous? 2. Sommes-nous dans la salle de classe? 
3. Ou est le fauteuil du maitre? 4. Qui a un pupitre? 5. Qui 
a un bureau? 6. Ou sont les livres du maitre? 7. Oil est le 
crayon de l'eleve ? 8. Qui a vos livres ? 9. Ou sont les cahiers 
des eleves? 10. Etes-vous a. l'ecole ? 11. Qui est au tableau? 
12. Qui a la plume? 13. Etes-vous dans le fauteuil? 14. Oil est 
votre livre ? 15. Qui est dans la salle de classe ? 

1 A dash in French usually indicates a change of speaker. See Sec. 69. 

UNE SALLE DE CLASSE. Cette gravure represente une salle de classe 
dans une ecole primaire, oil les petits garcons sont generalement en tablier 
noir, en pantalon court, et portent des chaussettes. Ici Tun d'eux, debout 
entre son banc et le pupitre, et le livre a la main, lit pendant que les autres 
suivent. Son voisin de droite, cependant, cherche quelque chose dans son 
pupitre ouvert. Derriere eux, au mur, nous voyons une couple de cartes, 
et des gravures pour venir en aide aux descriptions que pourra leur faire 
le maitre. Les petits Francais apprennent tous le dessin, et le relief en 
platre est la pour servir de modele. 




i. Are you also at school with your brother and sister? 2. The 
two windows of the classroom are behind the teacher's desk. 
3. The pupil's pen and pencil are here. 4. Four of the books are 
■for the school-teacher. 5. We are at the blackboard behind the 
door. 6. The pupils have the notebooks on the benches. 7. The 
man's son and daughter are at school. 8. I have her pencils ; 
they are on my desk. 9. One of the pupils of the class is his 
sister. 10. Where is the pen? It is in my desk. 11. I am the 
teacher's son. 12. The classroom has four windows and two 
doors. 13. Who is the man at the window? 14. Where are the 
notebooks? They are on your desk with the books. 15. The 
teacher has her chair before her desk. 


(Lessons One to Three) 
A. General Drill 

1 . Give all forms of the French words for the, a, my, 
his, your, her. 

2. Give the gender of the following nouns and state in 
each case how the gender is known : 

pere fille famille 

plume eleve livre 

3. Place before the nouns below the proper form for 
(a) the, (b) his, (c) to the, (d) your, (e) of the. Also, when 
the number allows, for (f) a, (g) two. 

sceur tantes e'leve 

tableau fen£tre livres 

4. Illustrate by examples elision and contraction. 


5. Continue je suis a l'ecole, tu es a Pecole, etc. 

6. Fill in the blanks : 

Ou est livre ? est sur bureau. Ou est 

plume? est sur pupitre. Ou est oncle? 

est avec femme. Oil sont enfants? sont sur 

bancs. Nous dans salle. Vous devant - 

fenetre. Le cahier garcon. Les cahiers Aleves. 

, B. Translate into French 

1. Mary has a brother and sister. 2. Her father and mother 
are her parents. 3. The man and woman have a family of two 
children. 4. The child is dear to the father. 5. My brother and 
sister are at school. 6. The school-teacher is dear to the pupils. 
7. The boys are at the windows. 8. Where are Bertha's pens? 
They are on her desk. 9. The pupil has one pen ; it is here. 
10. The boys' notebooks are on the desk. 11. Four of the pupils 
at the blackboard have a book. 12. Who is at school with the 
children ? 13. The teachers have the books and pencils. 14. Where 
are the girls? They are behind the armchair. 15. Who is at the 
door ? My uncle and aunt. 



83. The Negative ne . . . pas. The ordinary form for not 
with a verb is ne . . . pas, ne before the verb and pas after it. 

I am not in the yard. Je ne suis pas dans la cour. 

He has not the pen. // n*a pas la plume. 

The men are not seated. Les homtnes ne sont pas assis. 

Note. Observe that ne undergoes elision. 



84. Present Tense of erre, Negatively. 

je ne suis pas, / am not nous ne sommes pas, we are not 

tu n'es pas etc. vous n'etes pas etc. 

il (elle) n'est pas ils (elles) ne sont pas 

85. Present Tense of avoir. 

a. Affirmatively : 

j'ai, I have 

tu as, thou hast 

il (elle) a, he (she) has 

b. Negatively : 

je n'ai pas, I have not 
tu n'as pas etc. 
il (elle) n'a pas 

nous avons, we have 
vous avez, you have 
ils (elles) ont, they have 

nous n'avons pas, we have not 
vous n'avez pas etc. 

ils (elles) n'ont pas 

86. The Present of avoir with Past Participles of other 
verbs forms a compound tense, the past indefinite, which 
represents sometimes the English perfect, sometimes the 
English simple past. 

J'ai trouve" la regie. 
P211e a trouve" sa plume. 
Nous n'avons pas apporte les 

/ have found (I found) the ruler. 
She has found {she found) her pen. 
We have not brought (did not 
bring) the books. 

Note. Observe the position of pas, directly after the form of avoir 
and preceding the past participle. 

apportS, brought 

apres, after 

assis, seated, sitting 
le bras, the arm 
la carte, the map 


la cloche, the bell 
la cour, the yard 
debout, standing 
donne, give, gives 
l'encre /., the ink 



l'encrier [a-kri-e] m., the ink- 
la France, France 
la lecon, the lesson 
mais, but 

montre, shows, is showing 
le porte-plume, the penholder 

quand, when 
la regie, the ruler 
sonne, rings 
sous, under 
trouve\ found 
voici, here is 
vont, go ( 3dpi.) 



1. Translate into French — 


I am 

he has 

you are 

I have 

he is 

the man has 

they have 

she is 

the men are 

they are 

we have 

we are 


I have found 

we brought 

she gives 

I found 

they have found 

they go 

we have brought 

they brought 

he gives 

2. Put into French negatively, the expressions in 1 , a and b. 

3. Continue — 

j'ai un encrier je ne suis pas debout 

je n'ai pas le porte-plume j'ai trouve' un crayon 

4. Read the Model below, making the affirmative sen- 
tences negative, and the negative affirmative. Make no change 
in the questions, nor in expressions beginning with voici. 


Une Salle de Classe 

Le maitre est avec ses e'leves dans la classe. II n'est pas assis. 
II est debout devant ses eleves. II a une regie sous le bras ; un 
eleve est au tableau. Le maitre montre une carte de France a 
l'eleve. Deux eleves sont assis devant le tableau. lis ont un porte- 
plume et un cahier. L'encre est dans l'encrier. Nous sommes assis. 


Je donne une plume a un eleve. II a un porte-plume. Je n'ai pas 
mon cahier. II n'est pas ici. Void un cahier. « Avez-vous un 
crayon? — Je n'ai pas trouve mon crayon, mais j'ai apporte ma 
plume. Elle est dans mon pupitre. » Apres la lecon, la cloche 
sonne. Les eleves vont dans la cour. « Ou est la cour ? — Elle 
est derriere l'ecole. Nous ne sommes pas dans la cour. » 


11 Who is in the yard ? " M The pupils are in the yard. The 
yard is not in front of the school. We are not with the teacher." 
M Where is the teacher ? " " He is at the window of the class- 
room." The bell rings. When it rings, the pupils go into the 
class. The teacher is standing at the blackboard. He has his 
ruler. He is showing the map to the pupils. The pupils are not 
at the blackboard. My uncle's son is not at school. He has not 
his books. I have brought my books, but I did not bring my pencil. 
I have found a penholder on the teacher's desk. Where is the 
inkstand ? The teacher has not his book. A pupil gives a book 
to the teacher. 


i. Avez-vous trouve le maitre dans la gravure (picture) ? 2. Qui 
est dans la salle de classe ? 3. Qui est debout ? 4. Qui a une regie 
sous le bras? 5. Qui est au tableau? 6. Qui montre la carte? 
7. A qui (whom) ? 8. Ou sont les eleves ? 9. Qui a un porte- 
plume ? 1 o. Ou est l'encre ? 11. Avez-vous apporte vos livres ? 
12. Ou vont les eleves apres la classe? 13. Oil est la cour? 
14. Qui est dans la cour quand la cloche sonne? 15. Qui est 
avec les e'leves dans la cour ? 


1. The ink is in the inkstand on the pupil's desk. 2. My sister 
gives a penholder to her son. 3. The pupils are standing behind 
the armchair in the classroom. 4. The children are not in the yard 


Le maitre demande a l'eleve t « Quel est le pays represente au tableau ? 
— La France, monsieur » , repond l'eleve 


with your brother. 5. We found his pen, but we did not find her 
notebook. 6. Here is the woman; she brought the books to the 
teacher. 7. The teacher is showing the map to the pupils. 8. The 
boy and girl go into the classroom when the bell rings. 9. She has 
found the ruler. It is on her desk. 1 o. Who has John's pencils ? 
They are not on the bench. 11. Two of the men are seated at the 
window. 12. Who is the man standing in front of the blackboard ? 

13. Mary did not find her father and mother after the lesson. 

14. Here is the teacher's son; he rings the bell. 15. The school- 
teacher gives a lesson to the class. 



87. The Interrogative Form of a sentence with a personal 
pronoun as subject is made by placing the pronoun after 
the verb and joining the two words by a hyphen. 

Is he in the room ? Est-il da?is la chambre f 

Have you not two brothers ? JV'avez-vous pas deux freres ? 
Have you found a pen ? Avez-vous trouve une plume ? 

88. Present Tense of itre> Interrogatively. 

o. Affirmatively : 

suis-je ? am I? sommes-nous ? are we ? 

es-tu ? etc. etes-vous ? etc. 

est-il(elle) ? sont-ils(elles) ? 

b. Negatively : 

ne suis-je pas? am I not? ne sommes-nous pas? are we not? 

n'es-tu pas ? etc. n'etes-vous pas ? * etc. 

n 'est-il (elle) pas ? ne sont-ils(elles) pas ? 



89. Present Tense of avoir, Interrogatively. 
a. Affirmatively : 

ai-je ? have I? 
as-tu ? etc. 
a-t-il(elle) ? 

b. Negatively : 

n 'ai-je pas ? have I not ? 

avons-nous ? have we ? 
avez-vous ? etc. 
ont-ils(elles) ? 

n'avons-nous pas ? have we not 1 

Note. The presence of t in the forms a-t-il and a-t-elle is in order 
to prevent the succession of two vowels. 

90. Interrogative Form with Subject Nouns. A sentence 
whose subject is a noun is made interrogative, among other 
ways, by placing the subject first, and repeating it by the 
proper form of the subject pronoun placed after the verb. 

Are the men in the room ? 

Has his sister found the two 

Have not your sisters my book ? 

Les hommes sont-ils dans la 

chambre ? 
Sa sceur a-t-elle trouve les deux 

plumes 1 
Vos saeurs n'ont-elles pas mon 

livre ? 


aujourd'hui, today 
la chaise, the chair 
la chambre, the room 
la grand' mere, the grandmother 
le grand-pere, the grandfather 
le jardin, the garden 
la maison, the house 

le neveu, the nephew 
la niece, the niece 

non, no 

ou, or 

oui, yes 

qui, who, 



table, the table 

a la maison, at home, at the house 



i. Translate into French — 

have you a cousin ? the inkstands are not here 

has John a cousin ? are not the inkstands here ? 

has John's father a cousin ? has she ? 

is she at home ? are they not ? 

is Mary at home ? am I not ? 

is your sister at home ? have I not ? 

is Mary's sister at home ? have they not found ? 

the children are here the men who are here 

are the children here ? the tables which are here 

2. Change into questions — 

Marie est debout Nous ne sommes pas k la maison 

La niece de Jean a une sceur Son tils n'est pas ici 

3. Continue — 

Suis-je a la maison ? Ne suis-je pas avec Marie ? 

N'ai-je pas une table ? Ai-je trouve le crayon ? 

4. Change, in the Model below, the affirmative sentences 
(except voici . . .) into negative, omitting the words oui, non, 
and mais. 

Model L A Famille a la Maison 

« Etes-vous a. Pe'cole aujourd'hui ? — Non, nous ne sommes pas 
a l'ecole ; nous sommes a la maison. — Vos parents sont-ils avec 
vous ? — Oui, ils sont aussi a la maison. — Oil sont-ils ? — lis 
sont dans ma chambre. Voici ma chambre. — A-t-elle une table ? 
— Oui, elle a une table, deux chaises et un fauteuil. J'ai aussi un 
bureau dans ma chambre. — Etes-vous debout devant votre 
bureau ? — Non, je suis assis dans mon fauteuil. — Votre grand- 
pere est-il dans la maison ? — Non, il est assis dans le jardin avec 
mon cousin Jean. — Votre cousin est-il l'enfant de votre oncle? 


— Oui, et il est aussi le neveu de mon pere. — Votre cousin 
n'a-t-il pas une ou deux sceurs ? — II a deux soeurs qui sont les 
nieces de mon pere. — Ne sont-elles pas dans la cour qui est 
derriere la maison ? — Marie est dans la cour, mais sa sceur est 
ici avec sa grand 'mere. » 


" Has your grandmother a husband ? " M My grandmother has 
a husband, who is my grandfather." "Is not your grandfather 
seated with his wife on a bench in the garden ? " " No, he is in 
my brother's room. My grandmother is with my cousin in front 
of the house." M Is not your cousin at school today ? " M No, my 
cousin John, and Mary, John's sister, are at home today. John is 
my father's nephew ; Mary is my father's niece." M Is the family 
at home ? " M Yes, it is at home." M Are not your uncle and your 
cousin John in the yard ? " M Yes, they are in the yard which is in 
front of the house." "Has your room an armchair? Has it a 
blackboard ? " 


1. Etes-vous a l'e'cole aujourd'hui ? 2. Ou sont vos parents? 
3. Ou est votre chambre ? 4. Votre chambre a-t-elle une table ? 
5. N'a-t-elle pas aussi deux chaises ? 6. Avez-vous un pupitre dans 
votre chambre? 7. Votre grand-pere est-il a la maison? 8. Votre 
grand-pere a-t-il une femme ? 9. Qui est le neveu de votre pere ? 
10. Votre maison a-t-elle une cour? 11. La cour n'est-elle pas 
derriere la maison? 12. Marie est-elle dans la cour? 13. Qui est 
Jean ? 14. Ou est Jean ? 15. Jean est-il le frere de Marie ? 


1. My mother is at home with her children. 2. My father's 
mother is one of my grandmothers. 3. Here is John's chair behind 
the door in my room. 4. Is Mary in the house with her cousin ? 
No, she is here in the garden. 5. Where is your nephew's 


penholder? It is in my desk. 6. Who is the man who rings the 
bell at school? 7. My uncle is my aunt's husband, and he has a 
son and daughter. 8. Are you seated before the class or standing 
at the blackboard ? 9. Are not my books on the table which is in 
John's room? 10. Mary, John's niece, is his brother's daughter. 
1 1. Has he not brought the pens to his uncle's children? 12. Did 
the pupil bring a pencil and a notebook to school today ? 13. Yes, 
and he found also the teacher's inkstand on his desk. 14. Is my 
grandfather's chair in front of the window? 15. The teacher is 
showing a map of France to his class. 



91. The Present Tense (indicative) is treated in full later. 
In the majority of verbs it follows the model below. 

je donne, I give nous donnons, we give 

tu donnes, thou givest vous donnez, you give 

il donne, he gives ils donnent, they give 

Note i. The pupil is already familiar with the irregular presents of 
etre and avoir. Others will be given from time to time in the lesson 

Note 2. Interrogative forms of the present are made in accordance 
with Lesson Five. Thus : 

nous donnons 


donnons-nous ? 

il ecrit 


ecrit-il ? 

il donne 


donne-t-il ? 

l'eleve lit 


l'eleve lit-il ? 

92. Auxiliary Forms in English often correspond to the 
French simple present. Thus : 

je donne, I give, I am giving, I do give 


Likewise, in negative and interrogative forms : 

il ne donne pas, he is not giving, he does not give 

donne-t-il ? is he giving ? does he. give t 

ne donne-t-il pas ? is he not giving ? does he not give ? 


la craie, the chalk mademoiselle, Miss 

difficile, difficult monsieur [mo-sjo], Mr., sir 

l'exemple m., the example, illus- je montre, etc., I show, etc. 

trative sentence montrez-moi, show me 

facile, easy le morceau, the piece 

francais, French la phrase, the sentence 

la grammaire, the grammar la regie, the rule 

la lecture, the reading au tableau, on (at) the blackboard 

madame, Mrs., madam je trouve, etc., I find, etc. 

lecon de grammaire, grammar lesson 
lecon de lecture, reading lesson 
livre de francais, French book 

Note i . These last three phrases illustrate a common French usage 
in which two nouns connected by de correspond in English to a noun 
preceded by an adjective. 

Note 2. Livre de francais means a book of French, that is, a French 
textbook ; livre francais. an expression with which we are soon to become 
familiar, means a book that is printed in French or that has some French 

Irregular Presents 

je lis, / read nous lisons, we read 

tu lis, thou readest vous lisez, you read 

il lit, he reads ils lisent, they read 

j'ecris, I write nous ecrivons, we write 

tu ecris, thou writest vous e'crivez, you write 

il ecrit, he writes ils ecrivent, they write 





i . Translate into French — 

a. he shows 
she reads 
he writes 
we give 

we are giving 
are we giving ? 
do we give ? 

b. a book 

a French book 
a reading book 

c. Mr. Lacour 
Mrs. Lacour 

Miss Lacour 

yes, sir 

no, sir 

I am here, sir 

are we not giving ? 
does he read ? 
does the pupil read ? 
are they showing ? 
have I found ? 
did he find ? 
does he find ? 

the grammar lesson 
the grammar rules 
my French lesson 

yes, Mrs. Lacour ! 
no, Miss Lacour 
yes, Mr. Lacour 

2. Continue — 
je montre 

je donne les regies 
je ne donne pas 
je lis la lecon 

3. Fill the blanks : 
nous montr— la phrase 

montrent carte 

elle donn regies 

vous lis--- grammaire 

je trouve 

je n'ecris pas mes phrases 
n'ai-je pas trouve la grammaire ? 
suis-je au tableau ? 

don— elle cahier? 

ils lis lecon 

_ enfants ecriv-- la regie 

je ne donn deux legons 

4. Replace in the following Model the subjects of the verbs 
by je, whenever the meaning allows, making the corresponding 
changes in the verbs. Replace them likewise by vous ; elles. 

1 In conversation the French say oui, madame, not out, Madame Lacour \ 
similarly with mademoiselle and monsieur. 


Model La Leqon 

« N'avez-vous pas votre livre de francais ? — Oui, monsieur, il 
est sur mon pupitre. » Le maitre donne une leQon de grammaire 
aux e'leves. 11 lit les regies, et il e'crit les exemples au tableau avec 
un morceau de craie. II montre les exemples aux eleves. J'e'cris 
dans mon cahier avec ma plume. Nous ecrivons les phrases qui 
sont sur le tableau. Mon frere n'ecrit pas les exemples. II a sa 
grammaire, mais il n'a pas apporte son cahier. « Montrez-moi la 
lecon. La lecon est-elle difficile ? — Non, elle est facile. » Apres 
la lecon de grammaire nous avons la le^on de lecture. Les e'leves 
n'e'crivent pas. Le maitre lit devant les e'leves. Nous lisons apres 
le maitre, et nous ecrivons les exercices a la maison. 


Today we have a reading lesson. The teacher is standing in 
front of the class. We read the lesson with the teacher. My 
cousin is not at his desk. He is at the board and he is writing 
the exercise. "Is not your brother writing with the chalk ? " 
M Yes, sir ; he is writing with a piece of chalk." " Have we not 
a grammar lesson ? " M Yes, sir." The teacher gives the rules of 
the lesson to the pupils and they write the examples in a notebook. 
M Where are the examples ? " " They are on the blackboard." 
" Show me the examples." After the lesson the children go home 
and write the exercises. We show the exercises to the teacher. 
M Show me your notebook." 


1. Montrez-moi votre livre de francais. 2. Oil est-il? 3. Qui 
donne la lecon de grammaire? 4. Le maitre ecrit-il les regies 
au tableau? 5. ficrit-il les regies au tableau avec un crayon? 
6. Les enfants lisent-ils les regies ? 7. Votre frere a-t-il apporte sa 
grammaire? 8. La lecon de grammaire n'est-elle pas difficile? 



9. Avons-nous une le- 
c,on de lecture aujour- 
d'hui ? 1 o. Qui lit apres 
le maitre? 11. Ou 
sont les exemples de la 
lecon? 12. Les eleves 
ecrivent-ils au tableau ? 

13. ficrivez-vous vos 
exercices a l'ecole ? 

14. A qui (whom) les 
eleves donnent-ils les 
exercices ? 15. Les en- 
fants vont-ils dans la 
cour apres la lecbn ? 


1. The pupils are 
writing the grammar 
lesson on the black- 
board. 2. When does 
he give the French 
lesson to the children? 
' 3. I am giving a map 
of France to my sister's son. 4. The teacher is reading the rules 
of grammar to his class. 5. Is the lesson for today easy? No, 

1 L'histoire d'Alphonse Daudet, La Demttre Classe, dont nous repro- 
duisons ici quelques paragraphes, est un incident de cette epoque : 

« Mes enfants, c'est la derniere fois que je vous fais la classe. Le nouveau 
maitre arrive demain. Aujourd'hui, c'est votre derniere lecon de francais. » 

Tout a coup l'horloge de 1'eglise sonna midi, puis PAngelus. Au meme 
moment, les trompettes des Prussiens qui revenaient de l'exercice ecla- 
terent sous nos fenetres. . . . M. Hamel se leva, tout pale, dans sa chaire. 

« Mes amis, dit-il, mes amis, je . . . je . . . » Mais quelque chose l'etourrait. 
II ne pouvait pas achever sa phrase. Alors il se tourna vers le tableau, prit 
un morceau de craie, et, en appuyant de toutes ses forces, il ecrivit aussi 
gros qu'il put : « Vive la France ! » 


A la suite de la guerre de 1 870, l'Alsace et la Lor- 
raine devinrent allemandes, et la langue fran- 
caise cessa d'etre enseignee dans les ecoles 1 


sir, it is difficult. 6. Do you read the reading lesson after the 
teacher ? 7. Yes, Miss Hamel, but we write the exercises at 
home. 8. Miss Riou writes the sentences in her notebook. 9. At 
school the teachers write the examples with a piece of chalk. 
10. After the lesson the boys and girls go into the yard. 11. Mr. 
and Mrs. Riou, John's father and mother, are in the house. 
12. Show me the French books which are on your desk. 13. Mary 
is showing her French exercises to the pupils. 14. When the bell 
rings, my brother and sister go to school. 15. Here is the man 
who found the pencils ; they are on the table. 


(Lessons Four to Six) 
A. General Drill 

1. Complete the present indicative of (a) je montre, 
(b) j'&ris (neg.), (c) j'ai (neg.-int), (d) je suis (int.). 

2. Express in French — 

(7. she gives she has found she writes 

she has she found she is 

b. did she bring ? does she bring ? is she giving ? 
has she brought ? is she ? is she reading? 

c. we are not showing we do not show 
we did not show we have not found 

d. do you not read ? did you not find ? 

have you not found ? are you not giving ? 

3. Change to the interrogative — 

vous etes il n'a pas trouve 

les chaises sont le maitre lit 

les hommes ont la fille n'e'crit pas 


4. Translate into French — 

he is reading the grandfather or the grand- 
he is sitting in the chair mother 
we are standing she is at home 
they go to school a grammar lesson 
yes or no .a French grammar 
here is a penholder show me the map 
where is it ? a map of France 

5 . Replace, below, je by il ; by nous ; vous ; elles ; l'61eve ; 
ses freres. Then, with each subject, change to the negative 
form ; to the interrogative ; negative-interrogative. 

je suis a l'e'oole je lis la lecon 

j'ai un livre je montre la carte aux eleves 

j'ecris les exercices 

B. Translate into French 

1. John is not with his brother and sister. 2. Are you writing 
the grammar lesson on the blackboard? 3. Here is the girl who 
found the teacher's pencils. 4. The school-teacher is showing his 
map of France to the pupils. 5. Where did you find my pen? 
It is here on my desk. 6. Where is the French lesson ? We have 
a reading lesson today. 7. The man who rings the bell is not my 
uncle. 8 % Show me your notebook ; I am writing my French 
exercise. 9. Did the boy bring his French book to school today ? 
10. Are you reading the book which is on your desk? 11. Do you 
write your exercises with a pen or with a pencil? 12. Are the 
children at home today? No, sir, they are at school. 13. The 
pupil who is sitting on the bench is reading his grammar lesson. 
1 4. The girl who is standing in front of the teacher's desk is your 
niece. 15. Mr. and Mrs. Lebon, Mary's father and mother, are 
standing at the window. 




93. Irregular Plurals. It has been stated in Sec. y6 that 
nouns in French regularly form their plural by the addition 
of 8.. The following exceptions are important : 

a. Nouns ending in s, x, or z remain unchanged. 

le fils, the son les fils, the sons 

la noix, the nut les noix, the nuts 

le nez, the nose les nez, the noses 

b. Nouns ending in au and eu, and seven in ou, add x. 

Poiseau, the bird les oiseaux, the birds 

le neveu, the nephew les neveux, the nephews 

le bijou, the jewel les bijoux, the jewels 

The seven nouns in ou are 

le bijou, the jewel le hibou, the owl 

le caillou, the pebble le joujou, the plaything 

le chou, the cabbage le pou, the louse 

le genou, the knee 

Note i. The h in hibou is aspirate : therefore, le hibou. See Sec. 52. 
Note 2. Other nouns in ou add s. 

le trou, the hole les trous, the holes 

c. Most nouns ending in al change this termination to aux. 
le cheval, the horse les chevaux, the horses 

Note. For exceptions to this see Sec. 311. 

d. The following nouns have irregular plural forms : 

le del, the sky les cieux, the skies 

Poeil, the eye les yeux, the eyes 




l'all<§e/., the path 
l'animal m., the animal 
l'arbre m., the tree 

le bois, the wood 

la bonne, the maid, nursemaid 

le chapeau, the hat 

le gateau, the cake 

gns, gray 
le journal, the newspaper 
le manteau, the cloak 
le monsieur [ma-sjo], the gentle- 
le pare [park], the park 
le sac, the bag 

je chante, etc., I sing, etc. 

a cote* de, beside 

en face de, opposite 

voila, there is (are) {calling attention to an object) 

il y a, there is (are) (merely stating existence of an object) 

Note. Other words used in the exercises below will be foui 

in Sec. 93. 


I. Give the plural of — 

le nez la niece 


le journal votre fils 

le ciel 

la noix le caillou 

son ceil 

le fils l'homme 

un bijou 

le neveu mon animal 

le chapeau de Jean 

2. Give the singular of — 

ses chevaux mes yeux les hiboux 

ves manteaux 

les enfants les nez deux bras 

les sacs 

3. Continue — 

j'ai deux yeux 

je n'ai pas deux nez 

je donne un sac de noix 

je ne chante pas 

je lis les journaux 

ne suis-je pas dans les bois ? 


4. Translate into French — 

there 's my horse he is singing 

there is a horse in the park does he sing ? 

behind the trees the owl is gray 

beside the tree the owl's hole 

opposite the park the owls' holes 

5. Take from the Model below each noun with the modi- 
fying word (if any) that precedes it, and then change each 
from the singular to the plural and vice versa (change un to 
deux, deux to un). 

Model Le Parc 

Je suis dans le parc avec les neveux de mon pere. Le parc est 
en face de ma maison. Les oiseaux chantent dans les arbres. 
Dans le bois il y a deux hiboux. Le hibou est un oiseau. Voila 
un homme qui lit ses journaux sur le banc. A cote de l'homme il 
y a une bonne et les fils de l'homme. Un des fils est sur les 
genoux du monsieur. Les yeux de l'enfant sont gris. Son chapeau 
est derriere le banc sur les cailloux de l'allee. Les joujoux et les 
manteaux des enfants sont dans les bras de la bonne. Elle donne 
aux enfants les noix et les gateaux qui sont dans son sac. Dans 
l'allee pour les chevaux il y a un homme et son cheval. 


There is a park opposite my house. In the woods there is a 
path for the horses. The two horses of my nephews are not in 
the park. There is a bench! On the bench a maid is reading 
a book to a child. The child's eyes are gray. He is in the arms 
of the maid and he has two cakes. The maid reads the lesson 
on the animals and birds. M Here are two owls. The owl is a 
bird." Beside the maid, on the bench, are the children's cloaks, 
hats, and playthings. There 's a gentleman and his sons. He is 
reading his newspapers. 



i. Le pare est-il en face de votre maison ? 2. Les oiseaux sont- 
ils dans les arbres ? 3. Ou sont les arbres ? 4. Le hibou est-il un 
animal? 5. Lisez-vous les journaux? 6. Ou est la bonne? 7. Qui 
est sur les genoux de la bonne ? 8. L'enfant est-il dans les bras de 
la bonne ? 9. 11 est l'allee pour les chevaux ? 10. Votre livre est-il 
sur vos genoux? 11. Vos yeux sont-ils gris? 12. Les chapeaux 
des eleves sont-ils dans la classe ? 13. Vous et votre frere etes-vous 
les fils de vos parents? 14. Avez-vous deux genoux? 15. Avez- 
vous deux nez? 


1. The maid who is on the settee is reading a French book. 
2. The man gives the nuts to the children. 3. My nephews found 
the birds in the trees of my uncle's garden. 4. My aunt is giving 
the jewels to my sister. 5. My father's horses are in the woods 
which are opposite his house. 6. Has the man two noses? No, 
sir, but he has two eyes and two knees. 7. The skies are gray, 
and the children are not going (vont) to school. 8. There are two 
owls in the holes of the trees in front of our house. 9. There is 
the gentleman who brought the cakes and playthings to the pupils. 

10. The reading lesson is on the animals and it is not difficult. 

1 1. The maid is singing to the child who is in her arms. 12. Where 

LA FONTAINE DE MEDiCIS. Paris est fameux pour ses pares, dont 1'un 
des mieux connus et des plus beaux est celui du Luxembourg. II est situe 
pres du Quartier Latin, oil demeurent beaucoup des etudiants de Paris, et 
est tres frequente par les etudiants eux-memes ainsi que par les enfants 
du voisinage, ces derniers visitant surtout la partie du pare reservee pour 
leurs jeux. Le jardin est orne de statues et d'autres oeuvres d'art, parmi 
lesquelles se detache la fontaine de Medicis, encadree de grands arbres, 
que vous voyez dans la gravure d'a cote. Le batiment que Ton distingue 
derriere est le palais du Luxembourg, ou le Senat tient ses seances. Ce palais 
fut construit de 1615 a 1620 pour Marie de Medicis, femme de Henri IV, 
et fut habite par divers princes et princesses jusqu'a la Revolution. 



are the children's hats and cloaks? They are not here. 13. Did 
not the boy find the cabbages in the gentleman's garden ? 1 4. My 
son is standing on the pebbles in the path and is singing to his 
mother. 15. Here is the gentleman who reads his newspapers in 
the park. 16. He has also a bag of nuts for the animals. 17. Is 
the French teacher giving a reading lesson or a grammar lesson 
to his class today? 18. Did you give the French books to the 
pupils who are seated on the benches? 19. The boys found 
the nuts which are on the table. 20. Here is the park ; are the 
birds singing in the woods ? 



94. Agreement of Adjectives. Adjectives in French vary 
in form to agree with the gender and number of the words 
they modify. 

95. The Feminine of Adjectives is regularly formed by 
adding mute e to the masculine. 

le grand jardin, the large garden la grancle cour, the large yard 

96. The Plural of Adjectives is generally formed in the 
same way as the plural of nouns of similar ending. 

le petit garc,on, the little boy les petits gargons, the little boys 

le gros chien, the big dog les gros chiens, the big dogs 

la grande ville, the large city les grandes villes, the large cities 

Note i. Bleu, blue, however, takes s in the plural. 

Note 2. An adjective has, therefore, normally four forms : masculine 
singular and plural, feminine singular and plural ; for example, grand, 
grands, grande, grandes. 


97. Double Agreement. When the same adjective modi- 
fies nouns of different gender, it takes the masculine form. 
His son and daughter are small. Sonjils et sajille sont petits. 

98. Feminine of Nouns. A few nouns which may be 
applied to either sex have a feminine form made in the 
same way as the feminine of adjectives. 

le cousin, la cousine, the cousin un ami, une amie, a friend 

Note. Enfant and many other nouns of this type have the same form 
for both genders. 


l'ami (/. amie), the friend je joue, etc., I play, etc. 
beau, beautiful, handsome long, long 

bleu, blue parce que, because 

charmant, attractive petit, small, little 

le chien, the dog la piece, the room 

le ciel, the sky plein, full 

content, glad pourquoi, why 

la cuisine, the kitchen je represents, etc., I represent,^. 

je demeure, etc., I dwell, live, etc. le rideau, the curtain 

la feuille, the leaf rond, round 

la fleur, the flower la rue, the street 

gai, cheerful le salon, the parlor 
grand, large seul, only, alone 

gros, big le tableau, the picture, blackboard 

haut (Note), high le vase, the vase 
l'herbe/, the grass vert, green 

joli, pretty la ville [vjl], the city 

la chambre a coucher, the bedroom 
la salle a manger, the dining-room 
etre de retour, to be back 
de quelle couleur ? of what color ? 

Note. The h in haut. is aspirate; see Sec. 52. 



i. Give all forms (both numbers and genders) of — 

petit le votre son 

joli charmant bleu mauvais 

francais plein seul gai 

2. Translate into French — 

a large table a big dog 

the window is round two beautiful curtains 

the pretty leaves the skies are blue 

his cousin (/) is attractive full of pictures 

the grass is green your friend (/) is glad 

the flower is blue the boy and girl are pretty 

my little room his brother and sister 

3. Replace in the following sentences, making all neces- 
sary changes in agreement, Jean by Marie ; by vos neveux ; 
by mes cou sines. 

Jean est mon petit ami. II n'est pas grand, mais il est bon. II 
est ici. II a deux gros chiens. Est-il seul ? 

Model _ _. 

La Maison 

Jean est de retour a la maison. Son oncle a une grande maison 
parce qu'il a une grande famille. Le salon est tres joli. II a deux 
grandes et hautes fenetres. Les longs rideaux des fenetres sont 
tres beaux. Voici une petite table. Elle est ronde. Un tableau 
represente un jardin. Le ciel du tableau est tres bleu. II y a deux 
charmants enfants dans le tableau. Le garcon est debout et joue 
avec un gros chien. La petite fille est assise sur l'herbe. L'herbe 
est tres verte. Les arbres et les feuilles sont verts aussi. Le jardin 
est plein de jolies fleurs. Le salon n'est pas la seule piece de la 


maison. II y a aussi une salle a manger et une cuisine. Les 
chambres a coucher sont petites mais gaies. La cousine de Jean 
a apporte un vase de fleurs. 


My aunt is your friend. My uncle's large family lives in a street 
where the houses are high. We are back at home. Here is the 
parlor. It is large and has two large and high windows. The long 
curtains are very beautiful. On the table, which is round, there 
is a pretty flower in a little vase. The flower is blue. The 
dining-room and kitchen are small. My bedroom is very cheerful. 
We are back in the parlor. There 's a beautiful picture ! It repre- 
sents two children, a little boy and a little girl, who are in a garden 
full of pretty flowers. On the grass the boy is playing with a big 
dog. The little girl is seated in the grass under the trees. 


1. Oil l'oncle de Jean est-il? 2. Pourquoi l'oncle de Jean a-t-il 
une grande maison? 3. De'crivez (describe) les rideaux du salon. 

4. Decrivez la table. 5. Oil est le beau tableau? 6. Le tableau 
represente-t-il un pare? 7. Qui est dans le jardin de l'oncle? 
8. Le jardin est-il petit? 9. Avec qui le petit garcon joue-t-il? 
10. Nommez (name) les pieces de la maison. 11. Votre maison 
est-elle haute ? 12. Votre pere a-t-il une grande famille ? 1 3. Avons- 
nous une table dans la classe ? 1 4. De quelle couleur est le ciel ? 
15. De quelle couleur est l'herbe? 


1. The gardens of the city are small, but the grass in the park 
is green. 2. Did you find the boy's big dog in the street? 3. The 
sky is blue today and the little boys are going to school. 4. The 
beautiful birds are singing in the large trees of the woods. 

5. The windows of my cousin's bedroom are high, but the cur- 
tains are not long. 6. I live in a house which has a large kitchen 


and an attractive dining-room. 7. There is a vase full of pretty 
flowers on the table of the parlor. 8. We are back at home, and 
are glad because the rooms are very cheerful. 9. The picture rep- 
resents a large room with four windows and a table. 10. The 
table is round; a little girl is sitting in an armchair. 11. The 
leaves of the trees in the yard are very green. 12. A boy is 
standing under the trees and is playing with a small dog. 13. My 
friend lives alone in an attractive house of four rooms. 14. Here 
is the man who found the horses ; they are behind the house. 
15. Of what color are your mother's jewels? They are blue and 
green. 16. The curtains for the windows of Mary's room are blue. 
17. The bedrooms of my uncle's house are not large, but they are 
cheerful. 1 8. Why are the pupils going to the woods today ? 19. The 
flowers in the girl's garden are blue ; she is giving a flower to her 
teacher. 20. We are playing in the park, where the grass is high. 



99. Position of Adjectives. Qualifying adjectives, as a 
rule, follow the word they modify. 

l'arbre vert, the green tree 

les tables rondes, the round tables 

100. Thirteen Adjectives that Precede. Several of the 
most common adjectives regularly precede their noun. 
Among the most important are 

beau, beautiful grand, large vieux, old 

joli, pretty gros, big jeune, young 

vilain, homely petit, little nouveau, new 

bon, good long, long 

mauvais, bad court, short 


une jolie femme, a pretty woman 
deux petits enfants, two tittle children 

Note. The position of adjectives is further discussed in Sec. 326. 
The beginner should put every adjective after its noun unless he knows 
a definite reason to the contrary. 

101. Tout and tel. The irregular adjectives tout (tous, //.; 
toute, toutes, /.), all, every, and tel (telle, /.), such, require 
special attention in regard to their position when used with 
an article. 

tout le pays, the whole country, all the country 
tous les arbres, every tree, all (the) trees 
tout le monde, everybody (all the world) 
un tel homme, such a man 
une telle femme, such a woman 

102. Adjectives used as Nouns. The noun which an 
adjective modifies is often omitted, and the adjective, pre- 
ceded by an article, then stands alone, taking the gender 
and number of the noun it represents. This construction 
is most frequent with nouns that denote persons. 

Le Francais est ici. The Frenchman is here. 

Une Francaise est ici. A Frenchwoman is here. 

Les Francais ont un beau pays. The French (people) have a 

beautiful country. 

II est avec la petite. He is with the little girl. 

J'ai deux pommes ; une verte et / have two apples ; a green one 
une rouge. and a red one. 

Note. Proper adjectives are not capitalized in French when used as 
adjectives ; they are capitalized when used as nouns. See Sec. 5. 

les enfants francais, the French children 
les Francais, the French (people) 




j 'admire, etc., I admire, etc. 
l'arbre (m.) fruitier, fruit tree 

bon, good 
la campagne, the country (Note) 
la cerise, the cherry 
le cerisier, the cherry tree 
le chemin, the road 

chez, at (to) the house of 
la ferme, the farm 
le feuillage, the foliage 
en fleur, in bloom 
la foret, the forest 
le gout, the taste 

jeune, young 

maintenant, now 

mauvais [mo-ve], bad 
le monde, the world 

mur, ripe 

nouveau, new 
le noyer, the walnut tree 

le pays [pe-i], the country (Note) 

plusieurs, several 
la poire, the pear 
le poirier, the pear tree 
la pomme, the apple 
le pommier, the apple tree 
il pousse, etc., it grows, etc. 

rouge, red 
je sSpare, etc., I separate, etc. 
souvent, often 

tel (/ telle), such (Sec. 101) 
tendre, delicate, tender 
tout (m. pi. tous), all, every 

(Sec. 101) 
tree, very 
le verger, the orchard 
le vert, the green 
vieux, old 
vilain, homely 
le village [vi-laig], the village 

tout le monde, everybody 
a la campagne, in the country 
chez son oncle, at (to) his uncle's 

Note. Pays, a geographical unit ; campagne, the rural district, n6t 
the city. 


I. Give the four forms of the French words for 

bad such all blue 

ripe glad round green 







2. Give the French for — 
the round window 

a green forest 

the French children 

my good uncle 

3. Translate into French — 

a. he lives in a beautiful country 
he lives in the country 

the apples on the apple trees 
we admire his farm 
the country is in bloom 
the pears are not ripe 

b. all the trees 
the whole forest 
every orchard 

4. Continue — 

the red apples 
a delicate green 
a new teacher 
a very green pear 

several roads . 

several streets 

it has a good taste 

at John's house 

at my friend's (house) 

at John's father's 

such a picture 

such a flower 

all flowers 

all my friends 


j 'admire un grand arbre 

je ne demeure pas a la campagne 

suis-je chez ma tante ? 

je ne suis pas grand 

je lis dans la foret 

A la Campagne 

Aujourd'hui Jean est a la campagne. Tout le pays est en fleur. 
Son ami a une grande ferme dans un joli petit village. II y a deux 
hommes chez son ami, un vieux et un jeune. Le jeune est francais. 
Le Francois n'est pas ici. II est maintenant dans les bois. Le 
chemin separe la ferme de la foret. Nous admirons souvent les 
beaux arbres qui ont un feuillage d'un vert tres tendre. Tout 
le monde admire une telle foret. Les arbres fruitiers ne poussent 
pas dans les bois. lis poussent dans le verger. Dans le verger il 


yaun cerisier, un gros noyer, plusieurs pommiers et un poirier. 
Toutes les cerises sont rouges. Elles ont un bon gout quand elles 
sont mures. Elles ont un mauvais gout quand elles sont vertes. 
Les noix dans ma poche sont les noix du* noyer qui est devant 
vous. Les gros arbres du verger sont tres vieux. 


John is with a young Frenchman at my friend's farm. The 
French have a beautiful country, but the little village where my 
friend has his little farm is beautiful also. The whole country is 
now in bloom. My friend's apple trees, pear trees, and little 
cherry trees are in the orchard behind the barn, but the big 
walnut trees are in the forest. There is a ripe pear. It has a 
good taste. Everybody admires such a pear. Are his pears large 
or small ? The cherries on the table are red. The old walnut tree 
produces (gives) the nuts which are on the table of the dining-room. 
There 's a bad nut, but all the nuts are not bad. The walnut tree 
is a fruit tree which grows in the woods. The foliage of the 
beautiful trees beside the road that separates the forest from the 
farm is of a very delicate green. 


i.Jean est-il a l'ecole aujourd'hui? 2. Le pays est-il beau? 
3. Oil est la grande ferme de l'ami de Jean ? 4. Qui est a. la 
ferme ? 5. Le Francais n'est-il pas dans le bois ? 6. De quelle 

photographie prise d'un aeroplane, laquelle represente a la lettre un pay- 
sage tel qu'on ne manque pas, pour ainsi dire, de voir a quelque endroit de la 
France qu'on aille. Les ecuries, les etables, les hangars forment generale- 
ment un groupe au centre duquel se trouve la cour, l'abreuvoir, etc. La photo 
montre bien le morcellement considerable de la propriete en France, beau- 
coup de ces lots separes les uns des autres par les routes nombreuses qui 
sillonnent le pays. Tout le terrain est cultive, et, sauf les vergers et une foret 
par-ci par-la, il n'y a pas d'espaces cultivables qui ne soient pas utilises. 


couleur est le feuillage des arbres? 7. Ou les 1 arbres fruitiers 
poussent-ils ? 8. Les * noyers ne poussent-ils pas aussi dans le 
verger? 9. Les 1 pommes vertes ont-elles un bon gout? 10. De 
quelle couleur sontles * cerises mures ? 1 1 - Toutes les fleurs sont-elles 
rouges? 12. Le Francais est-il vieux ou jeune? 13. Les Francois 
n'ont-ils pas un beau pays ? 1 4. Etes-vous chez votre oncle ? 15. Jean 
n'est-il pas chez son ami avec le Frangais? 16. Admirez-vous le 
pays des Francois ? 17. Demeurez-vous a la campagne ? 


1. In every country all the orchards are full of fruit trees. 

2. There are, in his orchard, several trees which are now in bloom. 

3. All the good pupils write the French exercises at home. 4. When 
the apples are green, they have a bad taste. 5. Of what color are 
(the) cherries when they are ripe ? 6. The old curtains which sepa- 
rate the parlor from the dining-room are very homely. 7. Who 
gave to the teacher the pretty flowers in the vase which is on her 
table ? 8. The little girl found the large nuts in the forest under the 
old walnut trees. 9. All the houses in the little French village are 
very attractive. 1 o. Do you not admire my sister's pretty cloaks ? 
1 1. All her children are now at her father's in the country. 1 2. John's 
teacher often 2 reads the French lesson to his pupils. 13. Such a 
teacher is dear to the pupils of every school. 14. In my new 
orchard every pear tree is full of pears. 15. Everybody admires 
the cherry tree which is growing in our yard. 16. There is a big 
tree beside the path which separates the garden from the yard. 
17. He found the apples under the apple tree, a green one and a 
ripe one. 18. I admire the delicate green of the foliage of the 
apple trees. 19. Are they going to school today? No, sir, they 
are going to his uncle's. 20. There is the Frenchman who gave 
th French books to John's brother. 

1 See Sec. 119. 2 See Sec. no. 




103. Irregular Feminines. French adjectives regularly 
form their feminine, as stated in Sec. 95, by the addition 
of mute e. The following exceptions are important : 

a. Adjectives already ending in mute e remain unchanged. 

le jeune homme, the young man 
la jeune femme, the young woman 

b. Adjectives ending in f change the f to v on adding e. 

II est actif. He is active. 

Elle est active. She is active. 

c. Most adjectives ending in x change the x to 8 on 
adding e. 

II est heureux. He is happy. 

Elle est heureuse. She is happy. 

d. The following adjectives, among many others, present 
special irregularities : 








big, stout 
























sweet, gentle 



Note i. The first four of these adjectives, as well as those of 
Sec. 1 04 below, illustrate a common tendency to double a final consonant 
on the addition of the e. 

Note 2. For a more complete list of irregular feminines see Sec. 3 1 2. 

104. Two Masculine Forms. The following adjectives, 
among other irregularities, have two forms in the masculine 
singular. Of these two forms, the first is used before words 
beginning with a consonant ; the second, before words be- 
ginning with a vowel sound. 




beau, bel 


nouveau, nouvel 


vieux, vieil 


fou, fol 


mou, mol 


Sing. Plu. 

belle belles 

nouvelle nouvelles 

vieille vieilles 

folle folles 

molle molles 

un beau tableau, a beautiful picture 
un bel arbre, a beautiful tree 






l'air m., the air 

l'ecurie/., the stable (for horses) 
ratable/., the stable (for cattle) 
la ferme, the farmhouse, farm 
fort, strong, loud 
large, broad 

neuf, new (Note 2) 

noir, black 
le pr6, the field, pasture 

pur, pure 
la vache, the cow 
la voix, the voice 

de qui ? of (by) whom ? whose ? 

a haute voix, aloud 

a voix basse, in a low voice 

Note i . For other adjectives used in this lesson see Sees. 1 03 and 1 04. 
Note 2. Neuf, new, in the sense of newly made ; nouveau, new, in 
the sense of different, newly acquired. 




i. Give all forms of the French words for 
thick . 

2. Give a French sentence or phrase containing — 
blanches nouvel jeune deux 










new {two words) 





3. Translate into French — 

the cow's stable a thick leaf 

the horses' stable she is reading aloud 

a large farm a dry nut 

a broad path a new friend 

4. Continue — 

je suis heureux 

je chante a voix basse 

je ne demeure pas dans une e'curie 

je n'admire pas tout le monde 

n'ai-je pas trouve une pomme rouge ? 





a new house 


a dear 1 aunt 

an old aunt 

an active aunt 


A la Ferme 

La ferme de M. Leblanc, le bon ami de Jean, est une belle 
maison blanche. Elle est neuve. Dans la cour, qui est longue et 
large, sont les grandes etables pour les grosses vaches et les 
ecuries pour les beaux chevaux de la ferme. A cote du verger 
le gros cheval noir de M. Leblanc est dans le pre oil T'herbe 

1 Dear precedes its noun when it means beloved. 


est e'paisse. La petite fille de M. Leblanc est sous le feuillage 
epais du vieil arbre de la cour. Elle lit a haute voix le nouveau 
livre d'Anatole France, et elle est heureuse. La petite, assise sur 
une chaise basse, a une voix tres douce et est Pamie de tout le 
monde. Son pere est vieux et gros, mais il est tres actif. Sa mere 
n'est pas tres vieille, et elle est active aussi. lis sont heureux. 


M Where is the little daughter of Mr. Lebon ? " M She is in the 
yard seated with her mother on a very low bench." Mary is a good 
little girl. She is very beautiful and gentle. Mary is everybody's 
friend. Under the thick foliage of the old tree of the yard she is 
reading aloud to her mother the new book by (of) Anatole France. 
The mother of the little girl is an active woman ; she is not old. 
Her husband is old. He is stout, but he is active also. Mr. Lebon's 
farmhouse is new. It has a beautiful yard. The big cows are not 
in the stable, which is long and low. They are in the thick, green 
(thick and green) .grass of the field. Two of the cows are black. 
The air of the country is dry and pure. 


i. De quelle couleur est la maison de M. Leblanc? 2. Est-elle 
vieille ou neuve? 3. Oil sont les etables de la ferme? 4. Les 
beaux chevaux de M. Leblanc sont-ils a l'ecurie? 5. M. Leblanc 
a-t-il un enfant ? 6. Ou est sa petite ? 7. Lit-elle a haute voix ou 
a voix basse? 8. De qui est le livre? 9. A qui lit-elle? 10. Pour- 
quoi la petite est-elle heureuse ? 11. A-t-elle une forte voix ? 1 2. Sa 
mere est-elle jeune? 13. Votre pere est-il vieux? 14. Etes-vous 
assis sur une chaise basse ? 15. Votre mere est-elle active ? 


1. In the orchard the leaves of the trees are fresh and green. 

2. My uncle's black cows are in the pasture behind the farmhouse. 

3, My friend's new house is in a pretty French village beside an 


attractive road. 4. Mr. Lebon's daughter has a sweet voice ; she 
is reading aloud to her father. 5. A Frenchman gave (to) my 
nephews the white horses which are in the stable. 6. In the country 
all children are strong because the air is pure. 7. My dear mother 
often sings to her children when they are at home. 8. The old 
man who is standing at the window is the friend of all the animals. 

9. A crazy woman lives in the white house behind the woods. 

10. The apples which are on the trees are red, but they are not 
ripe. 1 1. Show me the new book by (of) Rend Bazin which is on the 
round table. 12. The little boy sitting in front of the low table is 
everybody's friend. 13. We have two big cows in the stable, a red 
one and a white one. 1 4. John's sisters are now writing the long 
French exercises. 15. In the field the grass is green and thick. 
16. My aunt lives in a small house, but she is happy and cheer- 
ful. 17. Where did you find the red flowers? They are very 
beautiful. 18. The Frenchwoman is not young, but she is strong 
and active. 19. He is reading the French lesson in a low voice 
before the class. 20. The old owls are in the holes of the old tree. 


(Lessons Seven to Ten) 
A. General Drill 

1. Give the exceptions to the regular formation of the 
plural of nouns and adjectives. Illustrate. 

2. Give the list of nouns ending in ou that form the plural 
by adding x. 

3. Give the plural of — 

homme ciel genou joli votre 

bras trou ceil tout nez 

doux animal heureux beau assis 

7 6 


4. Give the feminine singular of — 
jeune actif le 

cher sec bon 

fou tel vieux 

5. Give all the forms of — 
mauvais vieux tout 
rouge blanc nouveau 

6. Express in French — 
a young man 
the white horse 
your pretty house 

7. Translate into French 
the leaves are green 
two eyes 
a French picture 
every house 


a low voice 
a new friend 
my dear friend 









a new house 
a short road 
a long lesson 

such a house 
all houses 
all the house 
the old woman 

the new cloak and the old one 

we are back 

a house of four rooms 

a beautiful dining-room 

the white owl 

there is a boy 

here is a good pear 

there 's a bad pear 

there is a tree in the yard 

parentheses by the correct 

8. Replace the words in 
French forms : 

Le (old) homme est (happy). (His good) femme est (old), mais 
elle est (beautiful). (Her) fils a (two young) filles. (They) sont 
(small), mais tres (sweet) et (pretty). (The whole) famille demeure 
dans une (new white) maison sous un (old green) arbre. 

B. Translate into French 

1. The old woman lives alone in the white house. 2. Such a 
girl is everybody's friend. 3. All the pupils are reading the French 
lesson aloud. 4. Is the stable for the horses in the yard ? 5. All 


the birds are now in the thick forest. 6. Where are the child's 
playthings ? 7. Do you not write the French exercises at home ? 
8. In my new orchard all the cherry trees are in bloom. 9. There 
are two cows in the pasture, a white' and a black one. 10. When 
the apples are ripe they are of a red color. 11. Everybody admires 
her beautiful black eyes. 12. We are writing the long grammar 
lesson on the blackboard. 13. Such a woman is a friend of all the 
children of the village. 14. In the country the grass is now fresh 
and green. 15. The Frenchman is showing the French books to 
his friends. 1 6. John's father and mother are old, but they are very 
active. 17. The leaves of the pear tree are dry, but the pears are 
sweet and good. 18. All the girls are back at home and they are 
happy. 19. Show me the old owls which are in the old walnut tree. 
20. The maid is singing in a low voice to the children. 



105. Regular Comparison. The comparative degree of 
adjectives is regularly formed by prefixing plus, more ; the 
superlative, by prefixing the proper form of the definite 
article to the comparative. Thus : grand, plus grand, le plus 
grand, large, larger, largest. 

grand cheval, large horse 

plus grand cheval, larger horse 

le plus grand cheval, largest horse 

une belle dame, a beautiful lady 

une plus belle dame, a more beautiful lady 

la plus belle dame, the most beautiful lady 

deux jolis enfants, two pretty children 
deux plus jolis enfants, two prettier children 
les plus jolis enfants, the prettiest children 


Note i. The prettier picture of two and the prettiest picture of 
more than two are alike in French, le plus joli tableau. 

Note 2. An adjective that follows its noun in the positive follows 

it also in the comparative and superlative. Observe the repetition of 

the article. 

le ciel le plus bleu, the bluest sky 

Note 3. When a possessive adjective is used before a superlative, 
the definite article is not required. 

mon plus cher ami, my dearest friend 

106. Irregular Comparison. The following three adjec- 
tives are usually compared irregularly : 

bon, good meilleur, better le meilleur, best 

mauvais, bad pire, worse le pire, worst 

petit, little moindre, less le moindre, least 

Note. Petit is compared regularly when it means small in size. 
My house is smaller. Ma maison est plus petite. 

But the least occasion la moindre occasion 

107. Comparison Downward. To express less and least 
degrees, moins, less, and le moins, least, are prefixed. 

II est moins poli. He is less polite. 

Son frere est le moins poli. His brother is least polite. 

108. Comparative Connectives. In comparative sentences 
than is expressed by que, as ... as by aussi . . . que, so . . . 
as, in negative expressions, by si . . . que. 

The boy is taller than his sister. Le gar con est plus grand que sa 

He is as rich as his brother. II est aussi riche que son frere. 

She is not so beautiful as her Elle n'est pas si belle que sa 
mother. mere. 

Note. In after superlative expressions is de. 
The most beautiful woman in (of) La plus belle femme de la ville. 
the city. 



Page m., the age malade, sick 

ag£, old (in years) (Note) meilleur (le), better (best) 

agreable, pleasant moindre (le), less (least) 

aimable, kind naturellement, naturally, of 

attentif , attentive course 

avanc£, advanced l'occasion/., the occasion 

le camarade, the chum, comrade paresseux, lazy 

cependant, however pire (le), worse (worst) 

enclasse, in class poli, polite 

aucontraire, on the contrary riche, rich 

different, different robuste, sturdy 

gai, cheerful, merry studieux, studious 

grand, tall, large je tombe, etc., I fall, etc. 

intelligent, bright toujours, always 

Jeanne, Jane vif, lively 
bien (mal) 61ev6, well-bred (ill-bred) 
a la moindre occasion, on the least occasion 

Note. Age" is used to define anyone's age, whether old or young; 
vieux means advanced in years, not young. 

jy ... EXERCISE 

i. Compare upward and also downward — 
grand beau cher avance 

petit bonne mauvais vive 

2. Compare (upward simply) — 

vieille dame belles filles un homme aimable 

mauvais garcon la chambre haute ma petite sceur 

3. Form sentences or phrases in French containing — 
moins belle si grand que meilleurs agee 
aussi petit que bien e'levees la pire plus polis 


4. Translate into French — 

he is better than you she has a better book than you 

he is not so good as you she has the best book 

the best boy in the class the pretty house 

she is not so attractive as your the prettier house (of the two) 

friend the prettiest house (of all) 

John is older than Charles my best friends 

5. Continue — 

je suis plus grand que l'enfant 

suis-je aussi robuste que vous ? 

je ne suis pas si riche que son frere 

j'ai le banc le plus bas de la salle de classe 

Model l es Deux Camarades d'Ecole 

J'ai deux camarades, Jean et Charles. Jean demeure a Paris, 
la plus belle ville du monde. Charles demeure dans une ville plus 
grande mais moins belle. Jean est riche ; ses parents ont une 
grande maison. Charles n'est pas si riche que Jean. Sa maison est 
moins grande ; elle est cependant aussi belle. Elle n'est pas si vieille. 
Jean est plus age que Charles. II est grand et robuste. Charles 
est aussi grand mais moins fort. II est bien eleve, poli, et toujours 
aimable. Jean, au contraire, est mal eleve. II n'est pas si agreable 
que son camarade et est moins poli. En classe il est paresseux. 
Charles est plus studieux. Jean est naturellement moins avance' 
parce qu'il n'est pas si attentif en classe. II est cependant aussi in- 
telligent que Charles. Charles est le meilleur des deux et mon plus 
cher ami. Jean n'est pas cependant le pire des garcons de son age. 


Jane and Mary are two well-bred girls, but very different. Jane 
is very merry and lively ; Mary is not so pleasant. Jane is the 
younger and the less strong. She is less sturdy than Mary, who 


is the taller and also the elder of the two. Mary is not so kind as 
Jane, who is more attractive than she. Jane is, however, less 
handsome. The two girls sing well. Mary has the stronger voice, 
but her voice is less pleasing. Jane's voice is less strong. Jane is 
not so sturdy as Mary. She falls sick on the least occasion. Mary 
is the brighter of the two, but she is not the best pupil in her class. 
She is, however, not so attentive as Jane, who is always more 
studious. They live in the most beautiful street in the city. 


i. Jean n'est-il pas riche? 2. Qui est le plus riche, Jean ou 
Charles? 3. La maison de Charles est-elle aussi grande que la 
maison de son camarade ? 4. Qui est le plus age, Jean ou Charles ? 
5. Charles n'est-il pas le plus jeune? 6. Est-il plus grand que 
Jean ? 7. Jean est-il aussi bien eleve que Charles ? 8. Qui est le 
moins studieux, Jean ou Charles ? 9. Jean n'est-il pas aussi avance 
que Charles ? 1 o. Qui est le meilleur des eleves, Jean ou Charles ? 
1 1. Pourquoi Charles est-il plus avance que Jean ? 12. Demeurez- 
vous dans la plus belle rue de la ville? 13. Etes-vous aussi age 
que le maitre ? 14. Tombez-vous malade souvent ? 15. Etes-vous 
tou jours attentif en classe ? 


1. His sons are better than his nephews. 2. Who has the most 
beautiful jewels in the city ? 3. He falls sick when the teacher 
gives a long French lesson. 4. The boys are younger than the 
girls and are also more active. 5. The grass is greener in the 
meadow than in the forest. 6. Is she more attentive in class than 
your daughter? 7. Jane is less studious than Mary, but more 
lively. 8. Her sons, on the contrary, are lazier than your children. 
9. Bertha is the least intelligent girl in the whole class. 10. Natu- 
rally she is less advanced than the girls of her age. 1 1. The French 
woman is as tall as my mother. 12. Mary is the elder of the two 


sisters. 13. My chum is, however, the eldest in the family. 14. Jane 
is very different from her younger sister. 15. His horses are the 
largest in the world. 16. On the least occasion he reads aloud his 
grammar lesson. 1 7 . Everybody admires a well-bred child. 18. Such 
a son is, of course, dear to his parents. 19. The best nuts are dry 
when they are ripe. 20. The merriest pupils are not always the 



109. Formation of Adverbs. Many French adverbs are 
formed by adding ment to an adjective. 

This syllable ment is added 

a. To the masculine of an adjective when it ends in a vowel. 

joli, pretty joliment, prettily 

b. To the feminine when the masculine ends in a consonant. 

doux, douce, sweet doucement, sweetly 

Note. French has, of course, many adverbs not thus formed from 
adjectives; for example, bien, well) tre3, very. 

110. Position of Adverbs. An adverb modifying a finite 
verb usually directly follows it ; it never directly precedes 
it, as it does sometimes in English. 

He writes at the board well. 77 ecrit bien au tableau. 

We often read. Nous lisons souvent 

Note. In a compound tense, as the past indefinite, short, simple 
adverbs are usually placed between the form of avoir and the past 

You wrote well. Vous avez bien ecrit. 

You wrote at length. Vous avez ecrit longuement. 



111. Comparison of Adverbs. Adverbs are compared in 
the same way as adjectives. As they undergo no variation 
for agreement, the form of the article in the superlative is 
always le. 

souvent, plus souvent, le plus souvent, often, qftener, oftenest 

112. Irregular Comparison. The following four adverbs 
are compared irregularly : 

beaucoup, plus, le plus 
bien, mieux, le mieux 
mal, pis, le pis 
peu, moins, le moins 

much, more, most 
well, better, best 
badly, worse, worst 
little, less, least 

113. Adverbs of Quantity. The following common ad- 
verbs denoting quantity are often used with the force of 
nouns. In this construction they take de before a following 

assez, enough 

autant, as much, as many 

beaucoup, much, many, a great 

combien? how much? how many? 

Le maitre a beaucoup d'eleves. 
Elle a trop d' argent. 
II a autant de fils que de filles. 
J'ai assez d'argent. 

J'ai peu de livres. 

moins, less, fewer 

peu, little, few 

plus, more 

tant, so much, so many 

trop, too much, too many 

The teacher has many pupils. 
She has too much money. 
He has as many sons as daughters. 
I have money enough {enough of 

I have few books. 

Note. When these words are used in a strictly adverbial sense, 
without a dependent noun, they do not require de. 

II ecrit trop souvent. 
II lit assez bien. 

He writes too often. 
He reads well enough. 

8 4 



l'argent m., the money 

autre, other 
le chateau, the castle 
la chose, the thing 
la croix, the cross 

donne\ given 
de droite, right-hand 

encore, still, yet 

fier [fje:r] (/. fiere), proud 
en France, in France 

g6ne*ral, general 

g6ne>eux, generous 
la guerre, the war 

jaloux, jealous 

leur {pi. leurs), their 
la page, the page 

Note. For additional words 

pauvre, poor 

pendant, during 
je pense, etc., I think, etc. 
le plaisir, the pleasure 

que, that (conj.) 

quelquefois, sometimes 

rare, rare 
la robe, the dress 

seulement, only 
le soldat, the soldier 

sur, sure 
la tour, the tower 
je travaille, etc., I work, etc. 

travail^, worked 

un, one, a 
les vetements m., the clothes 

see Sec. 113. 


1. Compare 


bien souvent petit beaucoup mal 

bon peu sur mauvais rarement 

2. Form the adverbs meaning — 

actively dearly 


prettily surely 


3. Express in French — 

he reads much more friends 

less money 

much money more attractive 

fewer benches 

a little money apples enough 

as much money 

a little boy less attractive 

too many rules 

how much money a great deal of chalk 

too surely 


4. Translate into French — 

she is better than Mary on the left-hand page 

she is the best girl in the city he rarely works 

she rarely reads he worked well 

she gives generously she is sure of her friend 

she has several dresses she surely is jealous 

she has many dresses I have too many pleasures 

she has money enough I am too poor 

they are proud of their clothes you are less advanced 

in France you have less ink 

5. Continue — 

j'ai trop de leQons 

n'ai-je pas assez d'amis ? 

je suis le meilleur e'leve de la classe 

je travaille le mieux 

Model L ES Riches et les Pauvres 

Dans tous les pays il y a generalement beaucoup de pauvres 
et peu de riches. Les pauvres ont peu d'argent ; les riches ont 
beaucoup d'argent. Les riches ont plus d'argent que les pauvres. 
Les pauvres ont moins d'argent que les riches. Les pauvres n'ont 
pas assez d'argent. lis pensent quelquefois que les riches ont trop 
d'argent, de maisons et de beaux vetements. lis sont jaloux des 
riches. Les pauvres ont souvent autant d'amis que les riches, mais 
ils n'ont pas tant de plaisirs. Les pauvres sont souvent aussi 
heureux que les riches; ils ne sont pas cependant si fiers. Les 
femmes des riches ont beaucoup de beaux bijoux et de belles 
robes. Les enfants des pauvres ont moins de joujoux que les 
enfants des riches. Les riches donnent beaucoup de joujoux et 
d'autres choses aux petits enfants des pauvres. Pendant la grande 
guerre les riches et les pauvres ont donne tres ge'nereusement 
aux soldats et aussi a la Croix-Rouge. Naturellement les riches 


ont donne plus que les pauvres. Les petits ont donne moins 
que leurs parents. En France les riches ont beaucoup de chateaux. 
Voici, sur la page de droite, un des grands chateaux. Combien de 
tours a-t-il ? Est-il plus beau que les maisons de votre pays ? 


The rich live most often in the prettiest houses in the city. 
They do not always work the most; they have, however, more 
money than the poor. The poor have naturally fewer pleasures 
because they have not so much money. They have generally not 
enough money. They have very often a large family, and have 
rarely too much money. Happily the rich, who are sometimes 
generous, give much to the children of the poor. The children 
of the poor have few playthings, and their mothers have still 
fewer jewels, but they are happy and have as many friends as the 
rich. On the other page there is a castle. It is surely very 
beautiful. Has it enough towers? How many towers has it? 
The richest man in my country has a castle also. He has given 
a great deal to the soldiers during the great war. 


i. Qui a le plus d'argent, les riches ou les pauvres? 2. Les 
pauvres ont-ils plus de vetements que les riches ? 3. Ne sont-ils 
pas jaloux des riches ? 4. Ont-ils moins d'amis que les riches ? 
5. Ont-ils autant de plaisirs? 6. Les femmes des riches ont-elles 

LE CHATEAU DE CHAUMONT. La France est parsemee, particulierement 
au centre, d'un grand nombre de chateaux. Quelques-uns de ces chateaux 
etaient autrefois des forteresses, mais furent plus tard amenages pour 
servir de residences. lis furent construits, pour la plupart, aux quinzieme 
et seizieme siecles. Leur exterieur imposant et l'interieur richement decore 
ont ete une inspiration aux architectes, un grand nombre de proprietes 
americaines en montrant les traits caracteristiques. Un des chateaux les 
plus interessants de la region de la Loire est celui de Chaumont. 


assez de robes ? 7. Qui a le plus de joujoux, les enfants des riches 
ou des pauvres? 8. A qui les riches donnent-ils ge'nereusement ? 
9. Quand les riches ont-ils donne aux soldats ? 10. Ont-ils donne 
seulement aux soldats? 11. Les petits ont-ils donne autant que 
leurs parents ? 12. Combien de tours a le chateau de la page 87 ? 
13. N'a-t-il pas trop de f enetres ? 14. A-t-il autant de portes? 
15. Qui est l'homme le plus riche de votre pays ? 


1. Her youngest brother has more horses than John. 2. Here 
is one of* the most beautiful castles in the world. 3. The Red 
Cross gave many things to the soldiers during the war. 4. The 
rich have rarely too much money. 5. The girl surely has as many 
pleasures as a boy. 6. The generous women of the city are giving 
many playthings to the children. 7. How much money does he 
have ? 8. There are generally more boys than girls in my French 
class. 9. Does Mary sing better than the other sisters? 10. John 
is the least studious boy in the whole school. 1 1 . Jane reads badly, 
but Mary reads the worst of all the girls. 12. The French woman 
has more beautiful dresses than my sister. 13. His eldest son has 
not clothes enough for his children. 14. We think that he is still 
the richest man in the country. 15. At school we sometimes read 
aloud the reading lesson. 16. You have few books, but Jane has 
fewer books than you. 17. The beautiful castle on page 87 has 
many high towers. 18. Most often I write my French exercises 
at home. 19. Their nephews work a great deal in the country. 
20. There are still more castles in France than in my country. 


C'est le premier pas qui coute. 
fc Le chemin le plus long est souvent le plus court. 

Plus on se h&te, moins on avance. 
Le mieux est Tennemi du bien. 




114. The Partitive Idea. The use of a noun to represent 
an indefinite part of its class of objects is called the parti- 
tive use. In English this idea is expressed by some or 
any, which, however, are often omitted when the thought 
is clear without them ; thus, / have some bread, or / have 
bread \ I have not any bread, or I have no bread. 

115. The Partitive Construction. The partitive idea is 
expressed in French by de with the proper form of the 
definite article. The contractions noted in Sec. yy take place. 

some (any) bread, du pain some (any) water, de Veau 

some (any) meat, de la viande some (any) books, des livres 

She has some coffee. Elle a du cafe. 

You always have friends. Vous avez toujours des amis. 

Have you (any) apples ? Avez-vous des pommes ? 

He gives money to the children. 71 donne de V argent aux enfants. 

Note. The partitive sign is repeated before each noun. 

There are bread and meat on the II y a dupain et de la viande sur la 
table. table. 

116. Article Omitted. The partitive idea is expressed by 
de alone, without the article, 

a. When the noun is the direct object of a negative verb. 

I have no (not any) bread. Je n'ai pas de pain. 

I have no (not any) ink. Je n'ai pas d*encre. 

He has no (not any) pen. 77 n^a pas deplume. 

There are no (not any) pens. II rty a pas de plumes. 



&. When the noun is preceded by an adjective. 

I have (some) good bread. fai de bon pain. 

There is some old wine on the II y a de vieux vin sur la tablt. 

But when the adjective follows the noun, the article is used. 

I have some fresh water. fai de Veau fraiche. 

Note. The use of de without the article after adverbs of quantity 
(Sec. 1 1 3) must not be confused with the partitive construction. 

John has many books. Jean a beaucoup de livres. 

John has some books. Jean a des livres. 

117. Nouns of Measure or quantity are followed by de 
without the article. 

a pound of meat, une livre de viande 
a glass of water, tin verre d'eau 


achetS, bought 
j'aime, etc., I like, love, etc. 
l'assiette/, the plate 

autour de, around 
la banane, the banana 
le bceuf , the beef 
la bouteille, the bottle 
le cafe\ the coffee 

chaque, each 
le couteau, the knife 
la cuiller [kiri-je:r], the spoon 
le cuisinier, the cook (m.) 
la cuisiniere, the cook (/) 

d6ja, already 
le dessert, the dessert 
le diner, the dinner 

l'eau/, the water 
les 6piceriesy!, the groceries 

6t6, been 
la fourchette, the fork 
le fruit, the fruit 
les fruits, the fruit (collectively) 
le haricot vert, the string bean 
la laitue, the lettuce 
le legume, the vegetable 
le marchi, the market 
au marchi, to market 
la nappe, the tablecloth 
notre (pi. nos), our 
l'orange/., the orange 
le pain, the bread 
la place, the place 



la pomme de terre, the potato 
je prepare, etc., I prepare, etc. 

pr6par£, prepared 

quant a, as for 
la salade, the salad 

la serviette, the napkin 
la tasse, the cup 
le verre, the glass 
la viande, the meat 
le vin, the wine 



1. Translate into French — 

a. he has a horse 

we have some horses 
has he any white horses ? 
she has horses 
you have no white horses 
they have no horse 

b. some red apples 
some red wine 
some red fruit 

" some bad fruit 
enough fruit 

c. around the house 
each knife 

each fork 

as for the dessert 

our meat 

I have some good horses 
we have no coffee 
she has coffee 
she has black coffee 
she has good coffee 
have we the coffee ? 

too much fruit 

a glass of water 

the water 

little cups 

a bottle of black coffee 

our spoons 

I have been in France 
she bought a dress 
she brought a dress 
do you like my salad ? 

2. Replace the parentheses by French forms : 

II a (some) cafe. Elle a (no) viande. J'ai (no) assiette. Ont-ils 
(any) cuillers ? Vous avez (little) viande. J'ai (little of the) salade. 
Elle a (not any) legumes. lis ont (some) bon bceuf. A-t-elle (any) 
fleurs blanches ? 


Model Le Diner 

Mon pere a des amis a diner aujourd'hui. II a donne de l'argent 
a ma mere. Elle a ete au marche et a achete beaucoup de choses 
pour le diner: des epiceries, du pain, des legumes, de la viande 
et des fruits. Elle n'a pas achete de cafe. Elle a assez de cafe 
a la maison. Pour legumes il y a des pommes de terre, des haricots 
verts, et de la laitue tres fraiche pour la salade. Quant a la viande, 
ma mere a achete du bceuf. Elle n'a pas achete beaucoup de fruits 
parce qu'ils sont chers. Pour le dessert elle a achete seulement 
des pommes, de bonnes oranges, de belles bananes et une bouteille 
de bon vin. Notre salle a manger est grande. Autour de la table 
ronde il y a des chaises. Sur la table il y a une nappe blanche et 
de belles serviettes ; a chaque place une assiette, une fourchette, 
un couteau, de grandes et de petites cuillers et des verres. Nous 
avons de bonnes choses pour le diner. II est ge'neralement bon 
parce que nous avons une bonne cuisiniere. 


Today my mother has been to market because we have friends 
of my father at dinner. My father gave some money to my 
mother, and with the money she bought some fresh vegetables, 
meat, bread, groceries, and good fruit. My mother did not buy any 
coffee; she has coffee enough for the dinner. After (the) dinner 
we always have black coffee. Do you not like a cup of black coffee 
after your dinner ? As for meat, my mother bought some beef. We 
like (the) beef much. She found good vegetables, new potatoes, 
very tender string beans, and lettuce for the salad. The lettuce 
is very fresh. We have fruit from our orchard, but my mother 
has bought good oranges, and also some bananas, which are very 
dear. Of course she bought a bottle of wine, which is already on 
the table of the dining-room. A large white tablecloth and some 
napkins are on the table, and at each place there are plates. 



1. Qui (whom) votre pere a-t-il a diner aujourd'hui ? 2. Oil votre 
mere a-t-elle e'te ? 3. A-t-elle achete de la viande ? 4. Les fruits 
sont-ils chers ? 5. Pourquoi votre mere n'a-t-elle pas achete de cafe? 
6. A-t-elle trouve' des le'gumes ? 7. Votre mere n'a-t-elle pas assez 
de fruits dans son verger? 8. Vos parents ont-ils une bonne 
cuisiniere ? 9. La nappe est-elle sur la table de la salle a manger ? 
10. De quelle couleur est la nappe? 11. Oil sont les serviettes? 
12. Les cuillers sont-elles petites ou grandes? 13. Qui a prepare 
la salade ? 1 4. Avez-vous du vin sur la table de votre salle a manger? 
15. Avez-vous toujours de la viande ? 


1. Do you have friends at dinner today? 2. Yes, sir, and our 
mother has already been to market. 3. The cook has bought fresh 
lettuce for the salad. 4. Happily she has found some good string 
beans. 5. Did not your mother buy any potatoes today ? 6. As 
for the fruit, she. found only some big red bananas. 7. At each 
place there is a knife, a fork, and some spoons. 8. The large glasses 
are for the water and the smaller ones for the wine. 9. Show me 
your pretty white tablecloth and your beautiful napkins. 10. In 
our dining-room there are always chairs around the table. 1 1 . The 
cook is preparing beef and vegetables for the dinner. 12. We are 
having some large sweet oranges for (the) dessert. 13. Often we 
like some fresh nuts with the oranges. 14. The cook has brought 
a piece of tender beef on each plate. 15. After a good dinner do 
you not like a cup of black coffee? 16. There is no fresh water 
in the house. 17. My father found many big cabbages at the other 
market. 18. Have you fresh bread enough for the dinner? 19. I 
like a dinner in the woods with the whole family. 20. Did your 
cook also buy some groceries for your mother ? 




118. Articles in French are used, in the main, as in Eng- 
lish ; important cases where the two languages differ follow. 

119. The General Sense. Common nouns take the defi- 
nite article in French when they are used in a general or 
inclusive sense ; that is, when they refer to the whole of a 
class of objects. 

Men are mortal. Les hommes sont mortels. 

Glass is useful. Le verre est utile. 

Ripe strawberries are red. Les /raises mures sont rouges. 

I love good children. J'aime les bons enfants. 

Vice is odious. Le vice est odieux. 

Life is short. La vie est courte. 

Note i . The last two sentences above illustrate the general use of 
the article with abstract nouns, which represent an entire quality or con- 
ception rather than a class of objects. ' 

Note 2. The general sense must be carefully distinguished from the 
partitive use. 

She loves flowers (as a class). Elle aime lesfleurs. 

She has (some) flowers. Elle a desfleurs. 

Birds {general) have wings (parti- Les oiseaux ont des ailes. 


Note 3. The use of the article in French is so extensive, for one 
reason or another, that the student should never use a common noun 
without an article, possessive adjective, or some similar word, unless he 
has a definite reason for such omission. Such reasons are found in 
Sees. 121 and 149. 

We have meat for dinner. Nous avons de la viande pour le diner. 

Morning is the best part of the day. Lemattn est la meilleure partie du jour. 


120. Proper nouns take the definite article in French 

a. When preceded by a title or adjective (except in 
direct address). 

Marshal Foch, le marechal Foch 
little Charles, le petit Charles 
beautiful France, la belle France 

b. When they are the names of countries or other large 
geographical divisions. 

France is beautiful. La France est belle. 

America saved Europe. L'Amerique a sauve VEurope. 

Note. Most names of countries ending in e are feminine; most 
others are masculine. Before feminine singular names of countries, in 
and to are expressed by en ; before masculine and plural names of 
countries, by a. The definite article is omitted after en, and also after de 
when it means/raw, with feminine names of countries ; but with mas- 
culine and plural names the article is used. 
London is in England. Londres est en Angleterre. 

He is going to Italy. // va en Italic 

She is coming from Germany. Elle vient d'Atiemagne. 

They live in Canada. Its demeurent au Canada. 

We live in the United States. Nous demeurons aux iZtats-Unis. 

He is coming from Japan. # // vient dujapon. 

121. The Indefinite Article is not used in French before 
an unmodified predicate noun denoting profession, rank, 
nationality, and the like. 

I am a soldier. Je suis soldat. 

She is a queen. Elle est reine. 

His friend is an Englishman. Son ami est anglais. 

Note. The small a of anglais shows that in such a sentence the 
word appears to the French as an adjective. 

But the article is used when the predicate noun is modified. 
My friend is a good teacher. Mon ami est un bon maitre. 

John is a soldier of France. Jean est un soldat de la France. 

9 6 



les Alpes/., the Alps 
americain, American 
anglais, English 
l'Angleterre/., England 
le Canada, Canada 
la capitale, the capital 
dit, says, said 
en, in, into, to 
les Etats-Unis /#., the United 
l'&ranger (/ -ere), the for- 
l'Europe/, Europe 
le fleuve, the river (Note) 

jamais, ever 
le lac, the lake 

Londres m., London 
le marshal, the marshal 

le mont, the mount 

la montagne, the mountain 

odieux, odious 
Fouest [west] m., the west 
h l'ouest, in the west 

Paris m., Paris 
la population, the population 

quel ? (/. quelle ?) what ? 
la riviere, the river (Note) 
la Seine, the Seine 

servi, served 
la Tamise, the Thames 
le Texas, Texas 

utile, useful 

va, goes, is going 
le vice, the vice 

vient, comes, is coming 

visiter, to visit 

Note. Fleuve generally means a large river ; riviere, a smaller one. 


I . Express in French — 

a. horses are useful 

good students are attentive 
boys are taller than girls 
vice is odious 

c. he is a teacher 

his brother is a teacher 
John is a good teacher 
we have a teacher 


b. they have horses 
he has good pupils 
some boys are here 
I have no fork 

d. she is French 

she is an American 
she is a French cook 
we have a French lesson 


2. Express in French — 

is she in France ? in Canada 

she is in France he is going to Germany 

in the United States it is in the city 

in England from Paris 

3. Translate into French — 

leaves are green from England 

he is a soldier France is rich 

England is small little John 

owls have big eyes his father is a polite man 

4. Select all the nouns in the Model that are used in the 
general sense ; in the partitive sense. 

Model La France 

La France est un tres beau pays. Elle est a l'ouest de l'Europe. 
Elle est beaucoup plus petite que les litats-Unis. Elle est plus 
petite que le Texas, mais sa population est plus grande. Les 
Francais sont vifs et gais. La France est un vieux pays. En 
France il y a des montagnes qui sont tres hautes. Les montagnes 
sont toujours tres jolies aux yeux des etrangers. La plus haute 
montagne est le mont Blanc. La France a de grands fleuves. II 
n'y a pas de grands lacs. Paris est la capitale de la France. Paris 
est sur la Seine. Les villes qui sont aussi belles que Paris sont 
rares. Londres, sur la Tamise, est en Angleterre et est la capitale 
du pays. Les Anglais vont souvent en France. II y a des 
Francais a Londres et des Anglais a Paris. Avez-vous jamais 
visite Paris ? II y a des Francais aux £tats-Unis. J'ai un ami qui 
a ete soldat pendant la grande guerre. II a servi sous le mare'chal 
Foch. Le marechal Foch est un grand general. Les bons generaux 
sont rares. 

9 8 



France is an old country. Paris, which is the capital of the 
country, is on the Seine. Foreigners often visit Paris. There 

are many Americans in Paris, 
and there are French people 
(Sec. 102) in the United States. 
The English often go to France 
too. There are English who live 
in Canada. Your brother is not 
an American. He comes from 
Canada, where he is a soldier. 
He has been in France. He 
says that war is odious. France 
is in the west of Europe. The 
country is smaller than Texas, 
but it has a greater population. 
In France there are very high 
mountains. Mont Blanc is the 
highest mountain in the Alps. 
France has great rivers. Rivers 
are useful. 


1. Votre ami est-il soldat? 

2. Qui est le mare'chal Foch ? 

3. La France est-elle plus grande 
que les fitats-Unis ? 4. Oil est 
la France ? 5. La France a-t-elle 
des fleuves ? 6. Les fleuves ne 
sont-ils pas utiles? 7. Quelle est 

le marfxhal foch 

Foch, general en chef, commandant 
les armees de tous les Allies a la fin 
victorieuse de la grande guerre, op- 
cupait encore dans Parmee franeaise, 
en 191 4, une position subordonnee. 
II s'etait consacre, toute sa vie, a 
Petude et a. l'enseignement des tac- 
tiques militaires. Ses qualites de com- 
mandant devinrent si evidentes que 
son elevation au supreme commande- 
ment etait inevitable. II a ete fait, de- 
puis, marechal de France et membre 
de PAcademie. Voir page 20 

la capitale de la France ? 8. Sur 
quel fleuve est Paris? 9. N'avez-vous pas ete a Paris? 10. Les 
etrangers ne visitent-ils pas Paris? 11. Etes-vous francais ou 


americain? 12. Le Canada est-il en Amerique? 13. Avez-vous 
ete au Canada ? 1 4. Quelle est la capitale des fitats-Unis ? 


1. All Americans love France. 2. Good apples are dear now. 
3. There are often little lakes on high mountains. 4. In the west 
of Europe there are four long rivers. 5. All countries are not so 
small as England. 6. Paris, the largest city of France, is on a long 
river. 7. Friends are useful ; have you many friends ? 8. Marshal 
Foch, one of the best generals of the great war, is a Frenchman. 
9. Foreigners do not always love the United States. 10. Such men 
are odious to all friends of America. 1 1 . The population of France 
is less than the population of the United States. 12. He is at 
Paris, but his sister is in England. 13. Little Charles has the best 
books in the house. 1 4. Englishmen admire the Thames ; they 
love also forests and mountains. 15. My aunt is a teacher and 
reads French books well. 16. Young Leblanc is a good soldier; 
he served in France under General Pershing. 17. Canada is larger 
than England; many French live in Canada. 18. I have a friend 
who visits Europe often. 19. Chalk is useful to pupils at school. 
20. My chum has some good nuts, but he has no big oranges. 


(Lessons Eleven to Fourteen) 
A. General Drill 

1. Compare the French adjectives meaning — 

pretty poor proud 

good little bad 

2. Compare the French adverbs meaning — 

often little badly 

well proudly much 


3. Compare downward — 

grand cruellement age 

4. Form the adverbs meaning — 

richly happily rarely 

prettily usefully jealously 

5. Define the partitive construction. How is it expressed 
in French ? When is the article omitted ? 

6. 1/anslate into French, and complete by inserting in 
the blanks in turn the word for bread, meat, water, apples : 
we have some more 

he has enough 

has she any ? how much (many) ? 

I have no most 

you have some good good 

7. Give three cases where the definite article is used in 
French but not in English. Illustrate. 

8. Give French sentences containing — 

meilleures sur jouent 

agee Canada mieux 

leurs en ete 

sur pires dit 

9. Translate into French — 

the most attractive lady in England 

she sings most sweetly in the United States 

she is young in the room 

she is younger than you in the country 

she is as young as you young Peter 

she is not so young as you I am a merchant 

the best pupils in the school my father is a rich merchant 

horses are useful he is an Englishman 

chalk is white France and England 


General Montcalm much less badly 

she has no friend on the least occasion 

fresh water enough . I often play 

the prettier of the two he has played often - 

the prettiest of all a glass of v/ine" 

10. Rewrite correctly the words in italics : 
Les hommes aime des montagnes. II y ont beaucoup des mon- 
tagnes dans France. France a-t-i/ de pres verts ? Les Francais 
enfants sont bien eleves. Aimez-vous des petits enf antes'! Avez 
vous plus des cousins que votre vieux ami, Marie ? Etes-vous plus 
age de la petite fille? Avez-vous ete en Canada et en Paris? 
licrivez-vous mauvais ? 

B. Translate into French ♦ 

i. My uncle is the oldest man in your city. 2. My friend is a 
good teacher and he has many friends in England. 3. Many rich 
men have beautiful houses. 4. I have much less money than you. 
5. Such attentive girls are always bright pupils. 6. The Thames, 
the largest river in England, is not very long. 7. All the children 
have bread enough, but we have little meat. 8. Good fresh water 
is better than tea or coffee. 9. Are all the generals brave ? No, but 
they are dear to the soldiers. 1 o. You have too much mpney, but I 
do not have money enough. 11. He has big bananas and sweet 
oranges, but there is no lettuce for the salad. 12. Wood is more 
useful than glass, and it is less dear. 13. Does the little girl write 
better than her older sister? Yes, and she reads better also. 14. His 
brother, who is an English soldier, has been in France. 15. The 
Frenchman is not so tall as his English friend. 16. London is one 
of the oldest cities in Europe. 17. John's mother has bought some 
new dresses and many beautiful jewels. 18. Are there any owls 
in the holes of the old trees in the garden ? 19. America is larger 
than France and has more beautiful lakes. 20. My friend lives in 
the country ; she has some white horses and many beautiful cows. 





122. The Three Conjugations. The infinitive, which in 
French as in English is the fundamental form of the verb, 
ends in either er, ir, or re. This infinitive ending determines 
the conjugation, or system of inflection, to which a verb 
belongs. There are three such systems, or conjugations, in 
French verbs. 

First Conjugation 

Infinitive ending in er : donn-er, to give 


Second Conjugation 
Infinitive ending in ir : fin-ir, to Jifiish 

Third Conjugation 
Infinitive ending in re : vend-re, to sell 

Note. That portion of a verb to which the endings are added is* 
called the stem. 

123. Formation of Present Indicative. The endings of 
the present indicative of the three regular conjugations are, 
reading vertically, 













124. Present Indicative of the Three Conjugations, illus- 
trating the endings above : 

donner (1st) finzr (2d) vendre (3d) 

je donne je finis je vends 

tu'donnes tu finis tu vends 

il donne il finit il vend 

nous donnons nous finissons nous vendons 

vous donnez vous finissez vous vendez 

ils donnent ils finissent ils vendent 

Note i. Observe the connecting syllable iss in the plural of the 
second conjugation. The i in the singular of this conjugation is also a 
sort of connecting vowel. For a complete rule for the formation of this 
tense see Sec. 1 28. 

125. The Translation of the Present Indicative often 
leads to auxiliary forms in English, such as are briefly 
mentioned in Sec. 92. 

a. In progressive and emphatic forms : 

je donne, I am giving, I do give 
il donne, he is giving, he does give 

b. In negative sentences : 

*!"''« f He is not giving 

II ne donne pas^ ,, _ \ . 
[ He does not give 

c. In interrogative sentences : 

_ f Are you giving? 

Donnez-vous?i ^ . _ 

{Do you give? 

, T , A ., , [Are they not giving? 

Ne donnent-ils pas?^ ^ , y „ . J 
[Do they not give ? 

Note. In translating a compound English verb form into French, 
the pupil should observe that the auxiliary, in the present tense and in 
other forms to be met later, is expressed merely by the proper tense 
ending of the French verb. 

We are giving. Nous donnons. He will give. // donnercu 




aimer, to love, like 

aimer mieux, to prefer 

arranger, to arrange 

Particle m., the thing 

le bl£, the wheat 

le boucher, the butcher 

le boulanger, the baker 

choisir, to select 
le comptoir, the counter 
la corbeille, the basket 

demander, to ask (for) 

d^penser, to spend 

descendre, to go down, come 

donner, to give 
l'emplette/., the purchase 

emporter, to carry away 

enfin, finally, at last 
PSpicier m., the grocer 

faire, to make 

fait, makes 

le filet, the net-bag 

finir, to finish, end 
le fruitier, the fruit dealer 
le magasin, the store 
la monnaie, the change 

montrer, to show 
le mouton, the mutton 

obligeant, obliging 

p£trir, to knead 

pour, for, in order to, to (Note) 

que, that, which, (as object) • 

rendre, to give back 
le sel, the salt 
la sorte, the kind 
le sucre, the sugar 

tendre, to hand out 
le thS, the tea 
la tomate, the tomato 

tomber, to fall 

trouver, to find 
le veau, the veal 

vendre, to sell 

la farine, the flour 

garcon de magasin, clerk 

descendre en ville, to go down town 

chez le fruitier, etc., at the fruit dealer's, etc, 

Note. To, when it means in order to, is always pour. 



I. Give the present indicative in full of — 

trouver rendre choisir 

pe'trir aimer descendre 


2. Complete these forms in the present tense : 

tu montr— ils fin— 

ils emport— 

vous tend— elle arrang— 

vous chois— 

j'aim— je chois— 

elles demand — 

il rend— nous pe'tr— 

ils rend— 

3. Translate into French — 

she comes 

we < 

io not show 

we are not finding 


is going 

they choose 


are not finding 

he is going down 


r are giving back 

she kneads 

I do not love 

you do spend 

she does not carry away 

he comes to sell 


tea that I like 

4. Give the full tense of — 

je rends la monnaie 
je choisis une corbeille 
je n'aime pas le mouton 

5. Use successively je, nous, vous, tu, elles, as the sub- 
jects of the italicized verbs in the Model below, making the 
corresponding changes in the verbs. 

Model Au Marche 

Ma mere descend en ville pour faire des emplettes. Le fruitier 
montre a ma mere les beaux fruits murs et les legumes frais qui 
sont dans des corbeilles et dans de grands sacs. Ma mere choisit 
des poires, des tomates, et des pommes de terre nouvelles. Le 
fruitier donne une belle pomme rouge & ma mere. Elle emporte 
ses emplettes dans un filet. Chez Pepicier, qui vend du sucre, du 
cafe et beaucoup d'autres epiceries, elle demande du the et du sel. 
Le garcon de magasin, qui est tres obligeant, arrange les articles 
sur le comptoir. Ma mere tend de l'argent a l'e'picier, qui rend la 


monnaie. L'epicier ne vend pas de pain. Le boulanger fait le pain 
avec de la farine de ble', qu'il petrit avec de l'eau. Le boucher vend 
du boeuf, du veau et du mouton. Ma mere depense beaucoup 
d'argent chez le boucher parce que la viande est chere. Y&zfinit 
enfin ses emplettes. Elle est de retour a la maison. Elle a achete 
beaucoup de choses. 


At the market we bought many things today. The butcher 
generally has beef that we like. Do you like beef as much as veal ? 
I prefer veal. The butcher sells also mutton. Meat is dear now. 
At the fruit dealer's, where we often find beautiful fruit that he 
arranges well on the counters, we bought pears and cherries. We 
always choose the best ones. The fresh vegetables that we also 
find at the fruit dealer's are in baskets or in large bags. The fruit 
dealer is very obliging. The grocer is opposite the fruit dealer. 
He sells sugar and coffee. He has two kinds of coffee. We 
choose the best. We hand out money to the clerk, who gives back 
the change to my mother. At the baker's we bought bread. We 
always spend much money when we go down town to make our 


i. Ou notre mere descend-elle ? 2. Pourquoi descend-elle en 
ville ? 3. Quels legumes votre mere choisit-elle ? 4. Qui montre 
les legumes a votre mere ? 5. Choisit-elle seulement des legumes ? 
6. Ou sont les legumes et les fruits ? 7. L'epicier vend-il seulement 
du cafe ? 8. Le garcon de magasin est-il aimable ? 9. Qui vend du 
pain? 10. Quelle viande le boucher vend-il? 11. Pourquoi votre 
mere depense-t-elle beaucoup d'argent chez le boucher? 12. Ou 
a-t-elle demande du the ? 13. Aimez-vous le mouton mieux que le 
veau? 14. Quel fruit aimez-vous le mieux? 15. L'e'picier vend-il 
du pain ? 



1. Children like apples or pears for (the) dessert. 2. My mother is 
asking for tea and coffee. 3. The cook does not find any sugar. 
4. The fruit dealer does not sell bread ; he sells fruit. 5. My father 
always spends more money than my mother. 6. We found our 
purchases at last and carried away the things in our baskets. 
7. Do you like oranges as much as bananas ? 8. Does he not sell 
many groceries to the women of the city? 9. The grocer is 
showing (to) my mother some fine white flour. 10. My aunt hands 
out some money to the obliging boy, and he gives back the change. 

11. Did you buy bread and some other things at the baker's? 

12. Are you going down town to buy vegetables ? 13. Do parents 
always choose good toys for their children ? 1 4. You are finishing 
your grammar lesson ; I am writing my French exercise. 15. Does 
the teacher give long lessons to the pupils that he likes ? 1 6. Are 
the cooks kneading bread for dinner ? 17. Do not apples fall from 
trees when they are ripe? 18. Many women like tea better than 
coffee. 19. Does he work at the butcher's or at the fruit dealer's ? 
20. When we are at the market we choose fresh veal or mutton. 



126. Principal Parts. Before proceeding to other tenses, 
attention must be given to those basal forms from which 
the rest of the verb is derived by the application of certain 
rules. These are called the principal parts. They are five 
in number in the French verb, namely, 

Infinitive, Present Participle, Past Participle, First Person 
Singular of the Present Indicative, First Person Singular of 
the Past Definite. 



127. The Principal Parts of the Model Verbs of the 
three regular conjugations are 

First Conjugation 



to give 

Pres. Part. 



Past Part. 



Pres. Ind. 

je donne 

I give 

Past Def. 

je donnai 
Second Conjugation 

I gave 



to finish 

Pres. Part. 



Past Part. 



Pres. Ind. 

je finis 

I finish 

Past Def. 

je finis 
Third Conjugation 

I finished 



to sell 

Pres. Part. 



Past Part. 



Pres. Ind. 

je vends 

I sell 

Past Def. 

je vendis 


Note. Observe that the present participle always ends in ant 
that it has the connecting syllable iss in the second conjugation. 


128. Present Indicative and Principal Parts. The present 
indicative, already given in Lesson Fifteen, is formed from 
the principal parts by the following rules : 

a. The first person singular of the present indicative is 
itself one of the principal parts. It ends (in regular verbs) 



in e, is, or s. The corresponding sets of endings for the 
singular of this tense are, reading vertically, 










Note. Another series of endings, x, x, t, is found in some irregular 

b. The plural of the present indicative is formed by- 
dropping the ending ant of the present participle and adding 
ons, ez, ent. 

129. The Imperfect is formed by dropping the ending ant 
of the present participle, and adding ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, 
aient. Thus : 

First Conjugation 

je donnais 

/ was giving; I used to give, etc. 

tu donnais 

thou wast giving, etc. 

il donnait 

he was giving, etc. 

nous donnions 

we were giving, etc. 

vous donniez 

you were giving, etc. 

ils donnaient 

they were giving, etc. 

Second Conjugation 

je fin-iss-ais 

I was finishing, etc. 



Third Conjugation 

je vendais 

/ was selling, etc. 





130. The Imperfect expresses 

a. What is thought of as continued, repeated, or habitual 
in past time. 

He was spending his money. 
He did not love his children. 
They used to sell meat. 
She often kneaded bread. 
We would ask for money every 

The Gauls used to worship many 

// depensait son argent. 
II n'aimait pas ses enfants. 
lis vendaient de la viande. 
Elle petrissait souvent du pain. 
Nous demandions de V argent tous 

les matins. 
Les Gaulois adoraient beaucoup 

de dieux. 


b. What is thought of as going on when something else 
happened or was going on. 

I was going down town when I 

found the money. 
I was working when you were 

going down town. 
Caesar attacked the Gauls when 

they were divided. 

Je descendais en ville quand fat 
trouvk V argent. 

Je travaillais quand vous descen- 
diez en ville. 

Cesar attaqua (past def.) les Gau- 
lois quand Us etaient divises. 

Note. The use of the imperfect includes the expression of a past 
mental state. 

The soldiers thought that he was Les soldats pensaientqu , il etait brave. 


adorer, to worship 

autrefois, formerly 

Cesar, Caesar 
le chef, the chief 
les cheveux m., the hair 

comme, like, as 

couvert de, covered with 
le dieu, the god 

diviser (en), to divide (into) 

le druide, the druid 
le duel, the duel 

6tais, etc. [imp. of etre), was, etc. 
le festin, the feast 

former, to form 
la Gaule, Gaul (the country) 
le Gaulois, the Gaul (a person) 
l'habitant m., the inhabitant 

habiter, to inhabit 


le heros, the hero 

hospitalier (/. -iere), hospi- 

inde*pendant, independent 

inviter, to invite 

Jules, Julius 
la justice, the justice 
* le mar&age, the swamp 

mener, to lead 
le moment, the moment 
la moustache, the mustache 
•la nation, the nation 

national, national 

le nom, the name 

le nombre, the number 

la peau, the skin 

penser, to think 
le peuple, the people, tribe 

porter, to bear, wear 

premier (/. -iere), first 
le pretre, the priest 

rendre, to render 

rude, rude 
le siecle, the century 

sombre, dark, gloomy 
la vie, the life 

jr) n 7/ EXERCISE 

1. Give the principal parts of the regular verbs former, 
choisir, tendre, adorer, perdre. Give their imperfect in full ; 
their present indicative. 

2. Give the imperfect of the verbs whose present participles 
are allant, 6tant, prenant, e*tudiant, punissant. 

3. Translate into French — 

a. you give 

you were giving 
you gave 
you used to give 
you are giving 
do you give ? 
you do give 

b. she used to worship 
they have not sold 
we were not 

does he not love ? 
I was not showing 

were you giving ? 

you have given 

you are not giving 


you were not giving 

do you not give ? 

to give 

she handed out a pen 

you were asking for a basket 

he was leading a rude life 

are they finishing ? 

they were going down town 


4. Give the full tense of — 

je vends du bois 

j'ai vendu du bois 

je choisissais un bon livre 

je descendais en ville 

je rends la justice 

Model Les Gaulois 1 

Autrefois la France portait le nom de Gaule. Elle etait 
couverte de forets et de marecages. Les habitants, les Gaulois, 
ne f ormaienU pas une nation comme les Francais d'aujourd'hui.' 
lis etaient divises en un grand nombre de petits peuples inde- 
pendants. Leurs pretres, les druides, rendaient la justice. Les 
Gaulois etaient grands et forts. lis etaient braves, genereux, et 
hospitaliers. lis aimaient beaucoup la guerre et avaient de nom- 
breux duels apres leurs festins. lis choisissaient pour chefs les 
plus braves de leurs soldats. lis adoraient de nombreux dieux 
et menaient une vie simple et rude. Leur peau etait blanche, leurs 
cheveux blonds et longs, et ils portaient de longues moustaches. 
lis habitaient des maisons basses et sombres. Au moment de 
l'invasion de la Gaule par les Romains, Jules Cesar avait une 
armee mieux disciplined que les legions du chef gaulois Vercinge- 
torix, le premier heros national de la France. Apres d'heroiques 
efforts Vercingetorix est vaincu, et la Gaule est romaine pendant 
quatre siecles. 


Vercingetorix is the first national hero of France. He was chief 
of the Gauls. He wore a (the) long mustache ; his hair was long 
also. Gaul was formerly the name of France, and it was not the 
beautiful country that it now is. The inhabitants were divided 

1 A few words appearing in this model, but not elsewhere in this lesson, 
must be sought in the general vocabulary, at the end of the book. 



into independent tribes and 
did not form a nation. They 
liked war very much. They 
were hospitable and used 
to invite strangers to their 
feasts, which ended often 
in {par) duels. They in- 
habited houses which were 
low and dark. The Gauls 
led a rude life in a country 
covered with many great 
forests. Their priests, who 
bore the name of druids, 
rendered justice. The Gauls 
worshiped a great number 
of gods. 


1. Quel nom la France 
portait-elle autrefois? 2. La 
Gaule etait-elle comme la 
France de notre temps ? 

3. Quel nom portaient les 
habitants de la Gaule? 

4. Les Gaulois formaient- 
ils une nation? 5. Qui ren- 
dait la justice ? 6. Decrivez 
les Gaulois. 7. Quelle vie 
menaient-ils ? 8. Leursche- 
veux etaient-ils courts ? 
9. Les Frangais portent-ils 
la moustache? 10. Quelles 
maisons les Gaulois habi- 
taient-ils ? 11. Qui etait 


Ceux qui ont etudie la conquete des Gaulois 
par Cesar connaissent le nom de Vercin- 
getorix. Sa defense d'Alesia est un des 
hauts faits d'armes de l'histoire. Pres de 
remplacement probable d'Alesia, Napo- 
leon III fit eriger une statue heroique de 
ce chef, le premier a concevoir les avan- 
tages de l'union de toutes les tribus gau- 
loises contre l'envahisseur, avantages si 
bien demontres par ses paroles gravees 
sur le piedestal de la statue : « La Gaule 
unie,formant une seule nation animee d'un 
meme esprit, peut defier l'univers » 


Jules Cesar? 12. Qui etait Vercingetorix? 13. Pourquoi les 
Francois aiment-ils Vercingetorix? 14. Les Francais d'aujourd'hui 
sont-ils grands ? 15. Nommez un ou deux de leurs heros. 


1. I am working; you were working. 2. The Gauls used to 
inhabit France. 3. Formerly Gaul was divided into small tribes. 
4. Did the inhabitants of Gaul wear long mustaches ? 5. The 
priest would render justice to the Gauls. 6. Every feast would 
end in (par) a duel. 7. Vercingetorix, who was their first 1 chief, 
is now a national hero of France. 8. The Gauls inhabited houses 
that were low and dark. 9. The father was working and the sons 
were spending his money. 10. Gaul did not form one nation like 
France of today. 11. They used to sell good wood. 12. Caesar 
used to select the bravest men for his soldiers. 13. The clerk was 
handing back the change to the little girl. 14. My grandfather's 
hair was black when he was young. 15. The inhabitants of Europe 
used to lead a rude life. 1 6. Were all the mountains covered with 2 
thick forests? 17. The druids thought that their gods were 
stronger than men. 18. He would often fall when he came down 
from his room. 19. Was the cook preparing vegetables for the 
children's dinner? 20. The apples were ripe and were falling 
from the trees. 

Mots Celebres 

J'y suis et j'y reste. (MacMahon a Sevastopol.) 

La garde meurt et ne se rend pas. (Cambronne a Waterloo.) 

On ne passera pas. (L'armee francaise a Verdun.) 

Tout est perdu fors l'honneur. (Francois I a. Pavie.) 

1 For position of the adjective see Model. 

2 See Model ; de alone expresses the with and the partitive. 




131. The Past Definite (or the preterit) is the other 
simple past tense. Its first person singular is itself one of 
the principal parts, and ends (in regular verbs) in either ai 
or is. The other five forms of the tense are made by 

ai to as, a, ames, ates, erent (first conjugation) ; 

is to is, it, imes, ites, irent (second and third conjugations). 

Note. A third set of endings, us, us, ut, etc., is found in certain 
irregular verbs. 

132. The Past Definite of the Model Verbs, in accordance 
with the above rule, is 

First Conjugation 

je donnai, I gave, I did give nous donnames, we gave, etc. 

tu donnas, thou didst give vous donnates, you gave, etc. 

il donna, he gave, etc. ils donnerent, they gave, etc. 

Second Conjugation 

je finis, I finished, I did finish nous finimes 
tu finis etc. vous finites 

il finit ils finirent 

Third Conjugation 

je vendis, I sold, I did sell nous vendimes 

tu vendis etc. vous vendites 

il vendit ils vendirent 



133. Use of Past Definite. The past definite expresses 
an act thought of as taking place once in past time. 
Cassar attacked Vercingetorix at Cesar attaqua Vercingetorix a 

Alesia. Alhia. 

She left France forever. Elle quitta la France pour tou- 

He was sitting in his room when // etait assis dans sa chambre 

he heard the bell. quand il entendit la cloche. 

134. Past Definite and Imperfect. The following sen- 
tences illustrate the fundamental difference between the 
past definite and imperfect. 

He did not sell houses. • 77 ne vendait (imp.) pas de 

maisons. • 
He did not sell his house. II ne vendit (past de/.) pas sa 

Joan often heard voices. souvent des voix. 

One day Joan heard a voice. Un jour Jeanne entendit une voix. 

Note. The imperfect is often called the descriptive past, and the 
past definite the narrative past. Essentially, as these names suggest, the 
former describes, the latter narrates. The past definite is also frequently 
called the preterit. 

135. The Past Indefinite, a compound of the present of 
avoir with past participles, has been used since Lesson Four. 
Besides expressing the English perfect it serves as a 
substitute for the past definite, a substitution that becomes 
the common usage in colloquial or informal style for most 
cases where the past definite may be used. 

I finished my work. faifird mon travail. 

He worked four days. // a travailli quatre jours. 

We saw your son yesterday. Nous avons vu voire Jils hier. 

I sold the house last year. Jai vendu la maison Vannee 




Note i. The past indefinite is mentioned above as a substitute for 
the past definite. Theoretically the past definite, like the English past, 
locates the action at a definite point in a period of time fully elapsed ; 
the past indefinite, much like the English perfect, locates it somewhere 
in time previous to the present. This distinction is reflected in the 
names past definite and past indefinite. From its formation as a com- 
pound tense, the past indefinite is often called the perfect. 

Note 2. The following is a practical working rule for the beginner, 
in his choice of the correct tense to represent the English past. If the 
verb has the active auxiliary was, were, or is preceded by used to; if it 
expresses a habit; if it describes a situation in which or along with 
which an action takes place, use the imperfect. Elsewhere use the past 
indefinite, reserving the past definite for formal narrative and matters 
of historical importance. 

Note 3. The past definite will, of course, be regularly met in French 
texts, since these are generally in formal literary style. Even here the 
past indefinite is the prevailing tense in the conversational portions. 


x ardent, burning 
1'arniee/, the army 

attaquer, to attack 
le Bourguignon, the Burgundian 

bruler, to burn 

chasser, to drive (out) 

comment, how 
le courage, the courage 

ctesirer, to desire 

dix (Sec. 216, a), ten 
la domination, the control 

entendre, to hear 
la foi, the faith 

fut, was 

Jeanne, Joan, Jane 
le jour, the day 
le maitre, the master, teacher 

Orleans, Orleans 

partir, to start, set out 
le paysan (f. -nne), peasant 

pleurer, to weep 

presque, almost 
le prisonnier (f. -iere), prisoner 

prit, took 

ranimer, to revive 

regarder, to look at (upon) 
le roi, the king 
le saint (/. sainte), the saint 
le sorcier (/. -iere), the sorcerer 
le sort, the fate 

sur, over, on 

triste, sad 

vif, alive 

vu, seen 





i. Inflect in full the forms thus far given of — 

(a) entendre, penser, p6trir ; (£) the verb whose principal parts 
are coudre, cousant, cousu, je couds, je cousis. 

2. Locate (that is, give tense, person, and number of) — 
pleurerent finissent hesitiez finirent 













3. Give the forms for — 

pres. 3d sing, of demeurer 
imp. 2d sing, of tendre 
past def. 2d pi. of trouver 
pres. 3d pi. of finir 

4. Translate into French — 

you finish 

they were finishing 

he showed 

he does not hear 

you were thinking 

imp. 3d pi. of choisir 
pres. 3d sing, of entendre 
past def. 3d pi. of montrer 
pres. 2d pi. of finir 

are we not carrying away ? 

we chose 

was he not selling ? 

you are selling 

are they not kneading ? 

5. Supply the correct forms of the verbs in the paren- 
theses, successively in the present, imperfect, and past 
definite tenses : 

Nous (entendre) un enfant. II (pleurer) et (demander) des jou- 
joux. Ses parents (demeurer) a la campagne. lis (finir) leur 
travail. Le pere (vendre) du bois. La mere (petrir) du pain. 
Elle ne (etre) pas gaie. (Penser) vous qu'elle (choisir) du fruit ? 


Model Jeanne d'Arc 1 

A une certaine epoque, la France etait presque sous la domi- 
nation anglaise, quand parut Jeanne d'Arc, une jeune paysanne de 
Domremy en Lorraine. Elle avait vu tres sou vent les habitants 
des villages fuir devant les Anglais, et elle pleurait sur le triste sort 
du pays. Elle desirait voir l'ennemi chasse de France. Un jour 
elle entendit, pensa-t-elle, 2 des voix celestes, qui inspirerent a la 
jeune fille une foi ardente et un grand patriotisme. Elle ranime le 
courage du peuple. Elle partit trouver le roi pour obtenir une 
armee. II hesita longtemps, mais enfin il consentit. Elle attaqua 
Orleans, qu'elle prit dix jours apres. A Compiegne, Jeanne, pri- 
sonniere, est vendue aux Anglais par les Bourguignons, leurs allie's. 
Elle fut brule'e vive comme sorciere h Rouen. Les Francais, encore 
aujourd'hui, regardent Jeanne comme une sainte. 


Joan of Arc lived with her parents at Domremy in Lorraine. 
The English, who were masters of France, often attacked the 
country of Domremy. Almost all France was under their con- 
trol, and Joan wept over the sad fate of the country. Joan had a 
burning faith. She desired to drive the English from France. The 
king finally gave an army to Joan. She revived the courage of her 
soldiers, who attacked Orleans and took (prirenf) the city ten days 
after. At Compiegne the Burgundians sold Joan, their prisoner, 
to the English. The English burned alive, in Rouen, the young 
peasant, whom they thought to be a sorceress. 


1. Ou avez-vous vu un portrait "de Jeanne d'Arc? 2. De quel 
pays etait Jeanne ? 3. fitait-elle vieille ou jeune ? 4. £tait-elle 
generalement gaie ? 5. Pourquoi ? 6. Qui etait maitre de la 

1 Consult the general vocabulary for new words not found in the vocabu- 
lary of this lesson. 2 See Sec. 328, a. 


Une paysanne de Domremy, Jeanne d'Arc, possedant, selon la tradition et 
les croyances de sa chere France, un pouvoir surnaturel d'esprit et de 
volonte, est reconnue, par tous les historiens, comme ayant ete animee par 
un amour de la patrie et un desinteressement de caractere remarquables 
au plus haut degre. Femme qu'elle etait, elle ne pouvait esperer acquerir 
des benefices personnels, et prouva jusqu'au bout son devouement et sa 
Constance envers son roi, lequel personnifiait un pays sur le point de ceder 
sans resistance a l'ennemi. « Tout ce que j'ai fait, j'ai bien fait de le faire », 
fut sa replique a ses juges 


France? 7. Qu'entendit-elle un jour? 8. Qui Jeanne partit-elle 
trouver? 9. Que desirait-elle ? 10. Le roi donna-t-il une armee 
a Jeanne ? 11. Quelle ville attaqua-t-elle ? 1 2. En combien de jours 
Jeanne prit-elle la ville? 13. A qui les Bourguignons vendirent- 
ils Jeanne ? 14. De qui Jeanne e'tait-elle la prisonniere ? 15. Com- 
ment la France regarde-t-elle Jeanne ? 


1. Joan used to hear voices during the war. 2. One day Joan 
heard voices. 3. I heard your voice in the classroom today. 
4. When Joan was living with her parents, the English attacked 
her village. 5. The soldiers burned many of the peasants' houses. 
6. The young girl often wept over the sad fate of the king when 
the English would attack her country. 7. With her little army 
she drove the English from the city. 8. Soldiers sold Joan to the 
English, who burned alive their prisoner. 9. Peasants almost 
always live in the country or in small villages. 10. Joan had 
courage and much faith. 11. When the French army took the 
city, the Englishmen started for England. 12. Everybody loves 
the young peasant of Domremy. 13. Faith revives the courage 
of soldiers. 14. The French looked upon Joan, the peasant girl, 
as a saint. 15. Your sister asked for a new dress and some 
jewels. 16. He did not give as much money to his sons as to his 
daughters. 17. The teacher would show a new map to his pupils 
every day. 18. Did Joan show great courage when the English 
army took the city? 19. He thinks that I found the nuts in the 
forest. 20. The English and French used to burn sorcerers. 



(Lessons Fifteen to Seventeen) 
A. General Drill 

1. Name the five principal parts in order. 

2. Give the ending of the infinitive of the three conju- 
gations ; of the present participle ; of the past participle. 

3. Name four verbs of the first conjugation ; of the 
second ; of the third. Give the principal parts of a verb 
from each conjugation. 

4. Give the endings of the present indicative plural ; of 
the imperfect. 

5. Give the sets of endings of the present indicative 
singular ; of the past definite. Which sets are used in each 
conjugation ? 

6. Give the endings of the whole present indicative in 
each conjugation ; of the past definite. 

7. Give the principal parts and the three tenses thus far 
treated of pleurer, entendre, punir. 

8. Give the past indefinite of the three verbs of 7. 

9. Give the three tenses thus far treated of the verb 
whose principal parts are mettre, mettant, mis, je mets, je mis. 

10. Give the forms in these three tenses of — 

2d plu. of rendre 

1 st plu. 

of vendre 

3d plu. of tomber 

3d sing. 

of punir 

2d sing, of p&rir 

3d plu. 

of entendre 

11. Give French sentences 

containing - 










12. Translate into French — 

she is hearing we were not asking 

they used to build is he showing ? 

is he weeping ? do you like ? 

does it not burn ? he is going down 

were you inviting ? we have given 

13. Translate into French — 

we worship one god , Joan selected a white horse 
we are worshiping our god I selected a good book 

the Gauls worshiped many gods she would often worship 
Joan was worshiping in the garden her parents loved Joan 

14. Supply the proper form of the verbs in the parentheses, 
first in the present tense, and then in the imperfect. 

Nous (depenser) beaucoup d'argent quand nous (acheter) des 
legumes. Ma mere (choisir) des pommes et (tendre) Pargent a 
l'epicier. Je (porter) les choses a la maison. Les garcons (aimer) 
aller au marche. 

1 5 . Correct the following : 

Mon ami emportent ses livres. II a beaucoup des livres. II 
aimes des livres. II desires a avoir des bons livres. II est vendant 
un nombre des livres que il ne desires pas. 

B. Translate into French 
1. I was playing, but he was working in the garden. 2. Do 
teachers always punish lazy pupils ? 3. He does not read as well 
as you, but he reads better than his brothers. 4. Does your brother 
go to school every day? 5. The boys used to bring ripe apples to 
the house when they were in the country. 6. Many birds would 
sing in our orchard behind the house. 7. The children often found 
beautiful flowers in the meadow. 8. Joan used to hear voices in 
the trees when she was living in Domremy. 9. When the French 
attacked the English they drove the soldiers from the country. 


10. When do you carry back the playthings to the children? 

1 1 . Did you find any nuts under the old nut tree in the woods ? 

12. The Gauls would often choose a soldier for their chief. 13. My 
sister bought two dresses yesterday, a white one and a red one. 

1 4. He sold his horses to my friend, who is now living in Canada. 

15. Did you see the little boy who was sitting on the bench? 

16. My best friend did not prepare his lessons and was always 
looking at the teacher. 1 7. We are choosing your French grammar 
because we desire the best orte. 18. The soldiers burned many 
houses when they were in our country. 19. Did the king finally 
give an army to the young French girl ? 20. Formerly he went to 
town every day and spent more money than his friends. 



136. Formation of the Future. The future tense is 
formed by adding the endings ai, as, a, ons, ez, ont to the 
r of the infinitive, a final e being dropped as the endings 
are added. Thus : 

First Conjugation 

je donnerai, I shall give nous donnerons, we shall give 

tu donneras, thou wilt give vous donnerez, you will give 

il donnera, he will give ils donneront, they will give 

Second Conjugation Third Conjugation 

je finirai, I shall finish je vendrai, I shall sell 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 

I shall leave the city soon. Je quitterai la ville bientbt. 

If he arrives today, I shall stay. SHI arrive aujourd'huije resterai. 

Note. The i of si elides before il and ils. See Sec. 68. 



137. Future after Quand, etc. While the uses of the 
French future are mainly the same as in English, the 
following peculiarity must be noted. After quand, when, 
aussitot que, as soon as, and other like words, the future 
must be used when the verb denotes future time. Similar 
constructions in English are usually in the present. 
He will leave the room when li quittera la salle quand elle 

she sings. 
As soon as he arrives (shall 
arrive) I shall close the 

A ussitbt qu 'il arrivera, jefermerai 
la /entire. 

But when future time is not implied, the future is not used. 
He leaves the room when(ever) 77 quite la chambre quand elle 
she sings. chante. 


accompagner, to accompany 
aller, to go 
l'annSe/., the year 
arriver, to arrive 
v aussitot que, as soon as 
les bagages m., the baggage, 
bientot, soon 
au bord de, on the edge of 
le buffet, the lunch counter 

chercher, to look for, seek 
le cocher, the coachman 
compter, to intend 
dejeuner, to lunch, break- 
fast * 
dernier (f, -iere), last 
ensemble, together 

TStude/, the study 
la fois, the time 
la gare, the (railway) station 
heler, to call, hail 
il y avait, there was 
le lieu, the place 
le monde, the world 
du monde, people, company 
monter a cheval, to ride 

nager, swim 

passer, to pass, spend (time) 
i p£cher, to fish 
pendant que, while 
porter, carry 
pr£t (a), ready (to) 
prochain, next 



quitter, to leave 
la salle d'attente, the waiting- 
le s6jour, the stay 
la semaine, the week 

sur le point de, on the point of, about to 

Note. Phrases like last week, etc., take the article, 
last week, la semaine demiere next year, Vannee prochaine 

je serai, I shall be, etc. 

si, if 
les vacances/!, the vacation 

vite, quickly 
en voyage, on a journey 


1 . (a) Inflect the future of passer, choisir, entendre, etre, dire. 
(b) Inflect all forms treated thus far of finir, compter, tendre. 

2. Locate (that is, give tense, person, and number of) — 
vendrons vendions vendons 
vendant vendent vendront 
comptes compteras comptas 

3. Translate into French — 







a. will they arrive ? 
do they think ? 
we shall not seek 
does he not leave ? 

b. I shall call the coachman 
they will fish in the river 
shall you not leave the house ? 
when he wept I heard 

c. last week 
next week 
the last time 
ready to fish 

were we choosing ? 
did she lunch ? 
were they asking ? 
have you heard ? 

when he arrives we go down 
when he arrives we shall go down 
as soon as he arrives I shall leave 
if we seek, we shall find 

I shall spend my vacation here 
in order to give 
I intend to give 
while she wept 

4. Change to the future the verbs (except avoir) in the 
Model on page 119. 


5. Give the full tense of — 
je vendrai du ble 
je ne petrirai pas de pain 
je ne serai pas pret a partir 

Model Mes Vacances 

Mon ami a fini ses e'tudes et il est sur le point de partir 1 en 
voyage. II quittera la ville la semaine prochaine pour passer ses 
vacances a la campagne. II cherche un lieu agreable. L'annee 
derniere il e'tait dans un joli petit village au bord d'un lac. Aussitot 
que ses vacances arriveront, il preparera ses bagages. Quand ses 
bagages seront prets, il he'lera un cocher pour aller k la gare. 
J'accompagnerai mon ami. La derniere fois que nous e'tions a 
la gare il y avait beaucoup de monde dans la salle d'attente. Dans 
deux semaines je compte aller visiter mon ami. Quand j'arriverai, 
il sera a la gare. Nous dejeunerons ensemble au buffet Pendant 
mon sejour chez mon ami nous monterons a cheval, nous pecherons 
et nagerons dans les eaux du lac ou du fleuve. Nos vacances 
finiront trop vite. Quand je suis a la campagne, les semaines 
passent toujours trop vite. 


I shall soon finish my studies. I shall leave the city in order to 
go to the country. I shall spend my vacation in a pleasant place 
on the edge of a lake where I was last year. I shall start next week 
if I am ready. I shall prepare my luggage today. The coachman 
will carry my luggage to the station. The waiting-room is large 
and beautiful. When I arrive in the country, I shall find my 
friend, whom I shall accompany to the waiting-room. We shall 
look for the lunch counter and we shall lunch together. My stay 
will be very pleasant because I shall ride horseback often. While 

1 Infinitives following a preposition must often be translated into English 
by a present participle. See Sec. 298. 


my friend fishes, I shall swim in the waters of the lake. Last year 
I was often in the water. I intend to spend my vacation agreeably. 
My stay will end too quickly. When I spend my vacation in the 
country, it always passes too quickly. 


i. Pourquoi votre ami est-il sur le point de partir ? 2. Partira-t-il 
aujourd'hui ? 3. Oil passera-t-il ses vacances ? 4. Ou etait-il Panne'e 
derniere? 5. A-t-il trouve' le lieu ou il desire aller? 6. Quand 
pre'parera-t-il ses bagages ? 7. Ses bagages sont-ils prets? 8. Pour- 
quoi votre ami helera-t-il un cocher ? 9. Ou est la salle d'attente ? 
10. Qui comptez-vous visiter? 11. Serez-vous seul quand vous 
arriverez a la gare ? 12. Ou nagerez-vous quand vous serez a la 
campagne? 13. Les semaines passent-elles vite a la campagne? 
14. Passerez-vous vos vacances ici? 15. Montez-vous a cheval? 


1. My friend spends his vacation in the country. 2. His parents 
used to spend their vacations in Canada or in Europe. 3. Do you 
intend to spend your next vacation on the edge of a river ? 4. Did 
my friend and his coachman leave the waiting-room together? 
5. Joan left her parents and accompanied the army. 6. I shall 
accompany my friend to the station when he leaves the school. 

7. When they desire to go to the station, they will hail a coachman. 

8. We shall start next week, and shall soon arrive at my friend's 
home. 9. The friends will swim in the pure waters of the lake. 
10. Do coachmen often spend a day at home ? n. She would ride 
horseback almost every day in the park. 12. I shall soon finish 
my studies and shall leave the city for my vacation. 13. Did you 
breakfast sometimes at the lunch counter when you were about to 
start on a journey? 14. The first time that we were on the edge of 
the lake, we saw some large birds on the water. 15. Cities gener- 
ally have large railway stations. 16. While we were breakfasting 


at the lunch counter last week, we heard the coachman's voice. 

17. The pupil was sitting before the teacher's desk to hear better. 

18. Is she not yet ready? They will soon be here. 19. As soon 
as he is ready, we shall start. 20. He spent last week at the lake 
with his parents, who always have company. 



138. Formation of the Conditional. The conditional mood, 
which has but one simple tense, is formed by adding the 
endings ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient to the r of the infinitive, 
a final e being dropped as the endings are added. Thus : 

First Conjugation 

je donnerais, I should give nous donnerions, we should give 

tu donnerais, thou wouldst give vous donneriez, you would give 
il donnerait, he would give ils donneraient, they would give 

Second Conjugation Third Conjugation 

je finirais, I should finish je vendrais, I should sell 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 

Such a man would love the sea. Un tel homme aimerait la mer. 

Note i. Observe that the endings of the conditional are the same 
as those of the imperfect. 

Note 2. The conditional is a sort of past to the future, as, in English, 
would and should are the past of will and shall. The following sen- 
tences illustrate this relation : 

I think that he will give some Je pense qtSil donnera de I 'argent. 


I thought that he would give some Je pensais qu'il donnerait de P argent. 



139. Conditions in French. Neither the future nor the 
conditional may be used in a clause introduced by si, if. 
The verb in a French conditional clause is 

a. Present, when the English verb is present or future. 
If the child falls, he weeps. Si V enfant tombe, il pleure. 

If the child falls (shall fall), he Si /'enfant tombe, il pleurera. 
will weep. 

b. Imperfect, when the English verb is past, or is com- 
pounded with should or would. 

If the child fell (should fall), he Si Penfant tombait, il pleurerait. 

would weep. 

If the child were falling, he Si V enfant tombait, il pleurerait. 

would weep (be weeping). 

Note i . Classical students will observe that the first of the construc- 
tions above corresponds to both the simple present and the more vivid 
future conditions; the second to both the less vivid future and the 
unreal conditions. 

Note 2. As illustrated above, the conclusion of a conditional sen- 
tence usually corresponds in tense and mood to the English form. 

Note 3. When si has the meaning whether, the future or condi- 
tional may follow it. 

He is asking whether (if) you will II demande si vous resterez. 

He was asking whether (if) you 77 demandail si vous resteriez. 

would stay. 


acheter, to buy dit {past part), said, told 

admirer, to admire les Economies/, savings 

le bord de la mer, the seashore les grands-parents, the grand- 
la chance, the good luck parents 

chasser, to hunt, drive l'hotel m., the hotel 

combien de temps ? how long ? intgressant, interesting 

demain, tomorrow l'itine"raire m., the itinerary 



jamais, ever 

la, there 

libre, free 

longtemps, long (adv.) 
le matin, the morning 
la mer, the sea 

midi, noon 
le mois, the month 
la necessity/., the necessity 
la peche, the fishing 

le point, the point, place 
quelques, a few 
rester, to stay, remain 
les richesses/., the wealth 

je sais, I know 
vous savez, you know 
surtout, especially 

le temps, the time 
tracer, to trace out 
voyager, to travel 


i. Give the conditional of — 

(a) chasser, choisir, descendre ; (p) the verbs whose infinitives 
are dire, prendre. 

2. Give all the forms thus far treated of — 

(a) admirer, p£trir, rendre ; (b) the verb whose principal parts 
are taire, taisant, tu, tais, tus. 

3. Translate into French — 
he will carry 
he would carry 
he did carry 
he does carry 
if he finds, he sells 

if he finds, he will sell 
if he found, he would sell 
when he finds he sells 
when he finds he will sell 
as soon as he finds he sells 

4. Supply the forms of the verbs in the parentheses, 
successively in the present, future, conditional, past definite, 
and past indefinite. 

Je (passer) quelques jours chez mon oncle. II (demeurer) a la 
campagne. Je (admirer) sa ferme. Nous (chercher) des fleurs et 
(entendre) les oiseaux. Mon oncle et ma tante (choisir) des 
tableaux. (Aimer) vous les tableaux? Nous (descendre) au lac 
et (pecher). Mes vacances (finir) vite. 



Le Voyage a la Campagne 

Demain matin nous partirons pour la campagne. J'ai dit a mon 
frere que, s'il e'tait libre, nous resterions a la campagne quelques 
jours. J'ai trace' l'itineraire. Si nous avons de la chance, nous 
arriverons a midi. Le lieu est si joli que nous resterions Ik un 
mois si nous avions le temps. Je ne passe pas toujours mes 
vacances a la campagne. L'anne'e derniere j'etais au bord de la 
mer. L'annee prochaine je passerai un mois chez mes grands- 
parents. Si j'etais chez mes grands-parents avec mon frere, nous 
monterions a cheval, nous chasserions ou nous pecherions. J'aime 
la peche. Quelquefois nous nagerions dans le lac. Si j'etais riche, 
je voyagerais beaucoup. Je visiterais surtout la France. Je 
choisirais les meilleurs hotels. Je visiterais tous les points inte- 
ressants et admirerais les richesses du pays. Mais je ne suis pas 
riche. Si j'ai de l'argent, je depense mes economies pour les 
necessites de la vie. Je ne sais pas si je serai jamais riche. 


We should pass good vacations if we had much money. We 
should travel much and we should admire the wealth of the country 
that we should visit. We should remain especially in France, where 
we should choose the best hotels. We should visit the big stores 
and should spend much money. Our vacation would end too 
quickly. But we are not rich. With my savings I shall start 
tomorrow for the seashore if I am free. My friend said that if he 
were free he would set out also. We have traced out an itinerary. 
I do not know whether we shall remain a long time. If we had 
time, we should pass a few days at a place where we were last year. 
I should hunt and, as I like fishing, 1 1 should fish. We should ride 
horseback and should visit all the interesting points. We should 
find much which we should admire. 

1 See Sec. 1 19. 


Les Americains qui voyagent maintenant en France sont naturellement 
attires vers les champs de bataille de la grande guerre. En jetant un coup 
d'ceil sur la carte, notamment sur Paris, on se rend compte de la proximite 
dangereuse des lignes ennemies pendant ces annees de guerre. La distance 
entre le front de bataille du 15 juillet 1918 et celui du moment de l'armistice 
montre jusqu'a quel point les Allemands ont ete repousses pendant le 
temps de la cooperation des troupes americaines. Les noms de Cantigny, 
Chateau-Thierry, foret de l'Argonne, resteront a jamais fameux dans 
l'histoire de la participation des litats-Unis dans la grande guerre 



i. Quand partirez-vous pour la campagne ? 2. Combien de jours 
resterez-vous a la campagne ? 3. Avez-vous souvent de la chance ? 
4. Quand arriverez-vous a la campagne ? 5. fitiez-vous a la cam- 
pagne l'annee derniere ? 6. Combien de temps passerez-vous chez 
vos grands-parents l'annee prochaine ? 7. Montez-vous a cheval ? 
8. Monteriez-vous a cheval si vous habitiez la campagne ? 9. Pour- 
quoi ne voyagez-vous pas beaucoup ? 10. Voyageriez-vous si vous 
etiez riche? 11. Quel pays visiteriez-vous ? 12. Quels hotels 
choisiriez-vous ? 13. Depensez-vous toutes vos economies? 


1. My father will pass his vacation in the country if he has 
money enough. 2. My father will visit the seashore when he is 
free. 3. He would stay longer at the seashore if he had more 
money. 4. If I finish my studies, I shall start on a journey next 
week. 5. We should visit Europe and especially France next year 
if we had the time. 6. When I was living in the country, I used to 
fish a great deal in the lake. 7. If I were living in the country 
now, I should fish every day. 8. If the boy should not work in the 
store tomorrow, he would hunt with his father. 9. He said that 
he would give some money to the boy if he finished his lesson. 
10. He said that he would give some money to the boy if he would 
stay at home tomorrow. 1 1 . Do you know whether your brother 
will ride horseback today ? 12. Children like oranges for breakfast 
in (omit) the morning. 13. Have you not all your savings there in the 
desk ? 14. How much money would you spend if you lived at the 
best hotels? 15. Would he ever trace out an itinerary for his 
friends ? 1 6. If he finds a pleasant place, he will stay in the moun- 
tains two months. 17. How long did you travel in France with 
your grandparents ? 18. If I have good luck, I shall start at noon. 

19. If I were staying at the seashore, I should swim every morning. 

20. The king did not give Joan great wealth. 




140. Formation of the Imperative. The imperative has but 
three forms : second person singular, first and second persons 
plural. These forms are the same as the first person singular 
and the first and second persons plural of the present 
indicative, the pronoun being omitted. Thus : 

First Conjugation Second Conjugation 

donne, give finis, finish 

donnons, let us give finissons, let us finish 

donnez, give fati&s&z, finish 

Third Conjugation 

. vends, sell 
vendons, let us sell 
vendez, sell 

141. The Translation of the Imperative, which expresses 
a command or exhortation, is illustrated by the following : 

Parlez frangais. Speak French. 

Ne parlons pas anglais. Let us not speak English. 

Ne tombe pas. Do not fall. 

142. Tu and Vous. The second person plural subject 
pronoun vous is generally used (like the English pronoun 
you) in addressing one person as well as more than one. 
Tu, however, is used in addressing in the singular near 
relations, intimate friends, small children, and servants ; in 
general, those whom one may address in English usage by 
the first name. 



John, you speak well. 

Mr. Leblanc, you speak well. 

My friends, you speak well. 

Jean, tu paries bien. 

M. Leblanc, vous parlez bien. 

Mes amis, vous parlez bien. 

Note. An adjective or a participle in agreement with the subject 
pronoun vous is singular when vous refers to one person, plural when 
it refers to more than one. 

Mon ami, vous etes fort. 
Mes amis, vous etes forts. 

My friend, you are strong. 
My friends, you are strong. 

143. Imperative Singular and Plural. The imperative, 
likewise, uses the second singular in situations where tu 
would be used in address, the second plural where vous 
would be used. 

John, speak more loudly. 
Explain the lesson, sir. 

Jean, park plus haut. 
Expliquez la lefon, monsieur. 


absent, absent 

ah! ah! 

apprendre, to learn 

bien I good ! 

ce, this 
la conjugaison, the conjugation 

conjuguer, to conjugate 

deranger, to disturb 

deuxieme, second 

donne-moi, give me 

eaniter, to listen (to) 
* ensuite, afterward 

e*tudier, to study 

expliquer, to explain 

ferme, hard 
le futur, the future 

haut, loud, loudly 

Henri, Henry 
J hier, yesterday 
l'indicatif m., the indicative 
le mot, the word 
le nom, the noun 

nommer, to name 
de nouveau, again 

parler, to speak 

Pierre, Peter 
le pluriel, the plural 
le present, the present 

primaire, elementary 

prononcer, to pronounce 
la prononciation, the pronunci- 


reciter, to recite ton, ta, tes, your, thy (Note 2) 

rep£ter, to repeat le verbe, the verb 

le soir, the evening J le voisin, the neighbor 

gtudier le frangais, to study French 

en frangais, in French 

parler frangais, to speak French 

s'il vous (te) plait, if you please 

Note i. Names of languages are masculine, do not begin with a 
capital, and require the definite article, which is omitted, however, after 
en, and preferably after parler. 

Note 2. Ton is used, not votre, when tu is the form of address. 


1. (a) Give the imperative of montrer, entendre, choisir, 
both affirmatively and negatively. 

(b) Give all forms thus far treated of punir ; of the verb 
whose principal parts are lire, lisant, lu, je lis, je lus. 

(c) Give the conditional of rendre, neg. ; the future of 
tendre, int. ; the past definite of e*couter, neg.-int. 

2. Express the following to a person addressed as tu : 

listen give back the change 

finish the lesson love your neighbors 

do not fall name the months 

3. Express the foregoing phrases to one addressed as vous. 

4. Translate into French — 

let us speak he speaks French 

my father, you are kind she is studying English 

my friend, you are kind choose an orange, if you please 

John, pronounce this word again does she not read French ? 

Mr. Ledoux, speak more loudly love thy neighbor 


Model l a Le^on a l'Ecole prim aire 

Nous sommes de nouveau en classe. Nous etudions nos legons. 
Travaillons ferme. Quel livre as-tu sur ton pupitre ? J'ai ma 
grammaire francaise. Donne-moi ton livre un moment, s'il te 
plait. Je desire chercher une regie. Si nous etudions bien, nous 
parlerons bientot frangais. Notre maitre parle frangais parce qu'il 
est frangais. Ah! voici le maitre. II explique la lecon. Jean, 
prononce les mots de ta lecon. Bien, ta prononciation est bonne. 
Charles, ecris l'exercice au tableau. Henri, reste a ta place et lis 
tes regies de grammaire. — J'etais absent hier, monsieur; je ne 
sais pas la page. Montrez-moi la page, s'il vous plait. — Voici 
la legon. Maintenant, donne le pluriel du mot cheval. Nomme 
deux verbes de la deuxieme conjugaison. Conjugue le present de 
I'indicatif du verbe finir. Recite aussi le futur du verbe vendre. 
Bon. Donne du papier a Henri, qui n'a pas apporte son cahier. 
Passons a la lecture, et ecoutez bien. Jean, quand tu liras, parle 
plus haut. Tu lis mal. Jean, ne parle pas si haut a. ton voisin. 
Tu deranges la classe. Mes enfants, demain etudiez mieux ou 
je punirai toute la classe. Quand vous serez chez vous ce soir, 
travaillez bien. 


Henry, write the first sentence of the lesson on the board, and 
John will write the last. You have no chalk? John, give some 
chalk to Henry and afterward read the new rules of grammar. 
Do not read the last rule. Good. Charles and Peter, you are not 
listening. If all the pupils were like you, they would not learn their 
lessons. Peter, recite the first rule. Now finish the lesson in your 
notebook and do not disturb the class. Charles, you do not listen 
and you read very badly. Read aloud and Henry will repeat the 
sentences. Now conjugate the present indicative {Model) of the 
verbs. Look at the master when you recite. If you spoke more 


loudly, the class would listen better. For tomorrow all the pupils 
will study the plural of nouns. Work hard when you study your 
lessons this evening at home. If you are not absent too often, 
you will soon speak French. Always listen well when the master 
explains the lessons. 


1. Ob sommes-nous maintenant? 2. Les eleves travaillent-ils 
ferme ? 3. Pourquoi un eleve demande-t-il le livre d'un autre eleve ? 

4. Le professeur trouve-t-il que la prononciation de Jean est bonne ? 

5. Votre maitre est-il francais ou ame'ricain ? 6. Donnez le pluriel 
des mots cheval, general. 7. Nommez deux verbes de la deuxieme 
conjugaison. 8. ficoutez-vous toujours quand vous etes en classe ? 

9. Parlez-vous a haute voix ou a voix basse quand vous re'citez? 

10. Le maitre parle-t-il plus haut que vous? 11. Lisez-vous bien 
ou mal ? 12. Lisez-vous plus vite que le maitre ? 13. Ou preparez- 
vous vos lecons ? 1 4. Aimeriez-vous le maitre s'il donnait de longues 
lecons? 15. Le maitre punirait-il les eleves s'ils n'e'tudiaient pas? 


1. My brother is back from his vacation and is again at school. 
2. He is studying French, but he does not pronounce the words 
well. 3. Today the teacher said, " Henry, work well, and you will 
soon learn French." 4. Repeat the last sentence, Miss Riou, you 
were not attentive. 5. John, if you do not recite all the rules 
of grammar well, the teacher will give a longer lesson for to- 
morrow. 6. Let us leave the classroom and play under the trees. 
7.. Peter, look at your book, and do not speak to your chum when 
he is writing his exercise on the board. 8. The teacher said to her 
French class, u Study better or I shall punish every pupil." 9. We 
should not disturb the school so much if we were studying the 
English lesson. 10. Give the present indicative {Model) of this 
verb, please. 11. Charles, you pronounce badly; read the French 



aloud in your room every evening. 12. If you would study the 
rules more, you would finish the French lesson today. 13. Write 
the future of the verb vendre for the next lesson. 14. John, 
you were absent yesterday; study hard today. 15. Do not 
speak so loudly ; the class will hear if you read in a low voice. 
16. Would Americans learn French verbs well if they studied 
more? 17. (My) children, always listen to the gentleman when 
he is reading French to the class. 18. Who will name all the 
verbs of the .second conjugation which are in the lesson ? 
19. Peter, how many nouns did you find in the reading lesson 
this morning? 20. There are many French people in the United 
States who speak English as well as they speak French. 



144. The Subjunctive Mood, a discussion of whose uses 
is reserved for later lessons, is introduced here to complete 
the verb. It has two simple tenses. 

145. The Present Subjunctive is formed by dropping the 
ending ant of the present participle and adding e, es, e, 
ions, iez, ent. Thus : 

First Conjugation Second Conjugation Third Conjugation 

je donne je finisse je vende ■ 

tu donnes tu finisses tu vendes 

il donne il finisse il vende 

nous donnions nous finissions nous vendions 

vous donniez vous finissiez vous vendiez 

ils donnent ils finissent ils vendent 


146. The Imperfect Subjunctive is formed by dropping 
the final letter of the first person singular of the past 
definite and adding sse, sses, A t, ssions, ssiez, ssent. Thus : 

First Conjugation Second Conjugation Third Conjugation 

je donnasse 

tu donnasses 

il donnat 
nous donnassions 
vous donnassiez 

ils donnassent 

je finisse 

tu finisses 

il finit 
nous finissions 
vous finissiez 

ils finissent 

je vendisse 

tu vendisses 

il vendit 
nous vendissions 
vous vendissiez 

ils vendissent 

147. The Synopsis. The formation of all the simple 
tenses of the active voice has now been treated. A concise 
outline of the conjugation of a verb is furnished by the 
so-called synopsis, which consists of the first three principal 
parts and the first form in each tense, in order. 

Pres. Inf. 
Pres. Part. 
Past Part, 
ist Sing. Pres. Ind. 
ist Sing. Imp. Ind. 
ist Sing. Past Def. Ind. 
ist Sing. Future Ind. 
ist Sing. Conditional 
2D Sing. Imperative 
ist Sing. Pres. Subj. 
ist Sing. Imp. Subj. 

Synopsis of donner 

French Name 
Infinitif Present 

Participe Present 
Participe Passe 
Indicatif Present 
Passe Defini 

Subjonctif Present 
Imparfait du Subj. 

je donne 
je donnais 
je donnai 
je donnerai 
je donnerais 

je donne 
je donnasse 

Note i . The synopsis of donner in the third person singular, for 
example, would be il donne, il donnait, etc. 



Note 2. A summary of the rules by which the several tenses are 
formed is given on pages 300 and 301. For a table of verb endings, see 
page 431 ; for a fully inflected model of regular verbs, see page 432. 

Note 3. The following table summarizes the derivation of the verb 
from the five principal parts : 


Pres. Part. 

Past Part. 

Pres. Ind. 

Past Def. 


Pres. Ind. PI. 
Imperative PL 
Pres. Subj. 

All com- 

Pres. Ind. Sing. 
Imperative Sing. 

Past Def. 
Imp. Subj. 


aimer a, like to 

allemand, German 

apprecier, to value correctly 
l'artillerie/., the artillery 

Brienne, the seat of a French 
military school 

comment 1 what ! why 1 
l'&olier m., the student 

eh bien ! well ! 
l'empereur, the emperor 
l'examen m., the examination 

facile, easy 

futur (adj.), future 
l'imb&ile m., the dunce 
l'inaptitude/., the inaptitude 

inspirer, to inspire 

ironique, ironical 
la langue, the language 

lourd, heavy 

M., abb. for monsieur 

mais, why ! but 

le mathe*maticien, the mathe- 
les matbimatiques/!, the mathe- 
le mgpris, the scorn 
le m6"rite, the merits 
Fofficier m., the officer 
peut-6tre, perhaps 
le professeur, the professor 
profond, deep 

quelque chose, something, 
la remarque, the remark 
re*pondre, to reply 
saisir, to grasp, seize 
il sait, he knows 
je savais (imp.), I knew 
un seul, a single one 
subir, to undergo 
supposer, to suppose 
vaut, is worth 


j)rill EXERCISE 

1. (a) Give the present subjunctive of ecouter, subir, r£pondre. 
(J?) Give the imperfect subjunctive of porter, choisir, tendre. 

2. (a) Which forms of the present subjunctive of donner differ 
from the corresponding forms of the present indicative ? Which of 
finir ? of vendre ? 

(&) Which forms of the imperfect subjunctive of finir differ 
from the corresponding forms of its present subjunctive? 

3. Locate in all possible places — 

parle vendiez repondent montreras joua 

subissent rendons vende subi jouera 

subissant petrit donniez finis rendissent 

4. Give all the forms of the verb whose principal parts are 
battre, battant, battu, je bats, je battis. 

5. Give the synopsis of subir ; of descendre in the second plural. 

Model Napoleon Eleve 

« Un homme qui sait deux langues vaut deux hommes » , dit un 
jour Napoleon quand il etait empereur. Cependant, a l'ecole, le 
jeune Napoleon ne saisissait pas facilement les langues etrangeres. 
Un seul des professeurs de Napoleon, M. Bauer, gros {Sec. 314) et 
lourd professeur d'allemand, n'apprecia pas le me'rite de son eleve, 
qui n'aimait pas 1'allemand. L'inaptitude de l'e'leve avait inspire 
le plus pro fond mepris k M. Bauer, qui supposait que son eleve 
n'etait pas intelligent. Un jour le futur officier n'etait pas a sa place. 
M. Bauer demanda 011 il etait. Un eleve repondit qu'il subissait peut- 
etre son examen pour rartillerie. « Mais sait-il quelque chose ? » dit 
ironiquement M. Bauer. — « Comment, monsieur, mais Bonaparte 
est le plus fort mathematicien de l'e'cole. » « Eh bien, je savais bien 
que les mathematiques etaient seulement pour les imbeciles ! » 



Napoleon was (a) student at Brienne and later at Paris. He had 
for professor of German M. Bauer, a {Model) man big and heavy. 
M. Bauer was a German. The professors of the school appreciated 
much the merits of their student, but as Napoleon did not grasp 
the German grammar very well, M. Bauer had only scorn for the 
future officer. Napoleon did not like to study foreign languages, 
and showed naturally much inaptitude in the study of German. 
He was, however, intelligent, and knew that a man who knows 
two languages is worth two men. One day, as Napoleon was not 
in (at) his place, M. Bauer supposed that he was perhaps in the 
country. Napoleon was undergoing a difficult examination for the 
artillery. M. Bauer did not know that Napoleon was the best 
mathematician in the school, and the thing inspired the professor 
with {Model) the ironical remark that mathematics was only 
for dunces. 


i. Qui etait Monsieur Bauer ? 2. Decrivez le monsieur. 3. Mon- 
sieur Bauer e'tait-il francais ? 4. Napoleon saisissait-il facilement 
les langues etrangeres ? 5. Pour qui M. Bauer avait-il du mepris ? 
6. Pourquoi avait-il du mepris pour Napole'on ? 7. Ou le futur 

NAPOLEON A BRIENNE. Bonaparte fut etudiant a Brienne depuis l'age 
de neuf ans et demi jusqu'a quinze ans. II n'etait pas populaire parce 
qu'il etait moins riche que ses camarades, et ceux-ci le taquinaient a cause 
de son accent, qui etait celui de la Corse, son pays natal. Tout ceci lui fit 
hair la France, et il en vint meme a regretter que la Corse fut devenue 
francaise. Son talent pour les mathematiques et les sciences militaires 
etait si evident qu'on vit bientot en lui un chef. En general, il ne se 
joignait pas a ses camarades pour jouer et passait plutot ses heures de 
loisir a lire, ses auteurs favoris etant Homere et Plutarque. Chose inte- 
ressante, alors qu'il etait etudiant, il critiquait le mode d'education, qui 
developpait, pensait-il, l'amour de la gloire. Cet amour, plus tard dans 
sa vie, semble avoir ete son motif principal. 


officier n'etait-il pas un jour? 8. Pourquoi? 9. Subissez-vous 
souvent des examens? 10. Napoleon etait-il bon mathematicien ? 
1 1. M. Bauer aimait-il les mathe'matiques ? 12. Etes-vous francais ? 
13. fitudiez-vous les langues etrangeres ? 14. La langue francaise 
est-elle plus facile que la langue anglaise ? 15. Combien vaut un 
homme qui sait deux langues ? 


1. We are studying two languages, but we like the French 
language best. 2. Do all pupils grasp foreign languages easily? 
3. M. Bauer did not like Napoleon because he did not study 
German. 4. Students like professors who give short examinations. 
'5. In school we used to undergo examinations in (de) mathematics 
often. 6. When the officer asked where Napoleon was, the other 
student did not reply. 7. Work hard and you will like all your 
studies well. 8. Good boys and girls will be in (a) their places 
every day when the bell rings. 9. If I were not a mathematician, 
my teacher would think that I was a dunce. 10. He will perhaps 
write the French exercises on the blackboard for the class tomorrow. 
11. Always speak French in class; do not speak English. 12. If 
the emperor had soldiers enough, he would drive out the English. 
13. Miss Leblanc, you are very bright; you are much more 
studious than the other girls. 1 4. Shall you carry something to my 
nephews when you go down town ? 15. If my friend had as much 
money as you, he would pass his vacation in Europe. 16. He 
intends to visit France every year if his savings are large enough. 

17. How many horses shall you sell to my friend when he arrives ? 

1 8. John, listen to the teacher or you will not learn French. 1 9. When 
we are in school, let us not carry our books home evenings. 
20. (My) children, when the lesson is long, write the exercises in 
your notebooks. 



(Lessons Eighteen to Twenty-One) 
A. General Drill 

1 . Give the endings of the future ; of the conditional ; 
of the present subjunctive ; of the imperfect subjunctive. 

2. Give the rule for forming the imperative. 

3. What forms of the verb are derived from the infinitive ? 
from the present participle ? from the first person singular of 
the present indicative ? from the first person singular of the 
past definite ? 

4. Name the tenses in order. 

5. Give other names for the imperfect and past definite. 

6. Give the full conjugation of the verb whose principal 
parts are suivre, suivant, suivi, je suis, je suivis. 

7. Name in proper order the forms that constitute the 
synopsis of a verb. 

8. Give the synopsis of vendre, choisir, chasser; of the verb 
whose principal parts are mettre, mettant, mis, je mets, je mis. 

9. Give the — 

fut. of adorer imp. of Studier 

pres. subj. of punir imp. subj. of tendre 

imv. of rester cond. of lire 

1 o. Locate (in all possible places) — 
porte aimes tracez rendit 

punis punissent rendit emportons 

11. Translate into French — 
let us carry carry away the books, John 

he will not stay carry away the chairs, sir 

I shall not reply do not come down 


12. Translate into French — 

if he speaks, I shall reply he would always reply 

if he speaks, I reply he would reply if he heard 

if he spoke, I should reply they are asking if he will sell 

if he should speak, they would as soon as she arrives, I shall 

reply speak 

he will reply when they speak I was speaking when he arrived 

13. Supply the proper forms of the verbs in parentheses : 

Je compte (quitter) la ville demain avec un ami. Nous (passer) 
nos vacances a la campagne. II (aimer) a entendre les oiseaux ; 
je (aimer) a nager. Nous avons souvent (visiter) la campagne. 
Si vous (visiter) la campagne, (chercher) nous. Si j'avais un bon 
cheval, je (monter) a cheval. Avez-vous jamais (monter)? Jeanne 
d'Arc (monter) toujours a cheval quand elle (attaquer) ses ennemis. 
Elle (chasser) les Anglais de son pays. 

• 14. Change the verbs in turn to the imperfect, past 
definite, future, conditional, imperative, and past indefinite : 
J'etudie le frangais. Saisissez-vous facilement les langues ? Les 
eleves subissent un examen. lis passent beaucoup de temps a 
Tecole. Nous entendons les eleves. Une des eleves regarde son 
cahier. Elle rend le cahier a sa voisine. Jean, finis-tu ta lecon ? 

B. Translate into French 
1. Tomorrow I shall ask whether the teachers give long lessons. 

2. I think that I shall like the school if the boys are studious. 

3. If we study hard, we shall finish in four years. 4. The girl was 
singing sweetly when he arrived. 5. You will pronounce French 
well if you read your lesson aloud every day. 6. My father used 
to live in a large city when he worked for my uncle. 7. As soon as 
he leaves the house, I shall close the doors. 8. The teacher always 
gives the pupils longer lessons when they do not study. 9. As soon 
as he finishes his lessons, he swims in the lake. 10. If I should 


pass my vacation in the country, I would bring some apples to the 
children. 1 1 . Punish the lazy pupils ; do not punish the attentive 
ones. 12. Let us not always choose the easy lessons. 13. When 
the nuts fall from the trees, they are usually ripe. 1 4. If my friend 
spoke, I should hear his voice. 15. You would speak French 
better if you studied your grammar lessons more. 16. My father 
will sell his horses to the Frenchman if he will give money enough. 
17. Good pupils will pronounce well the new words in every 
lesson. 18. There are many beautiful birds in the forest; they 
sing sweetly every morning. 19. He was asking if I would not 
give back the money to the poor man. 20. John, write on the 
blackboard the future of the verb vendre. 



148. The Verb Avoir, to have, is inflected as follows 

Principal Parts 
avoir, to have ayant, having eu, had 

j'ai, I have j'eus, I had 

Present Indicative 

j'ai, I have 

nous avons 

tu as 

vous avez 


ils ont 


Past Definite 

j'avais, I was having 

j'eus, I had 





j'aurai, I shall have 

j'aurais, I should have 






aie, have 



us have 






nous ayons 


tu aies 

vous ayez 


il ait 

ils aient 

ayez, have 

Note. The tenses of which the first person singular alone is given 
are to be completed by the addition of the regular endings. 

149. Avoir in Idioms. Av6ir is used with nouns in the 
following idiomatic expressions, where in English is found 
the verb to be with adjectives, the subject being a person 
or animal : 

avoir chaud, to be warm (hot) 
avoir froid, to be cold 
avoir faim, to be hungry 
avoir soif, to be thirsty 
avoir sommeil, to be sleepy 

I am warm. 

Are you hungry ? 

I am not afraid of the cold. 

I am too warm. 

I am in need of (I need) some 

He is colder than the others. 

avoir raison, to be right 
avoir tort, to be wrong 
avoir honte, to be ashamed 
avoir peur, to be afraid 
avoir besoin, to be in need, need 

fai chaud. 

Avez-vous faim ? 

fe n'ai pas peur du froid. 

fai trop chaud. 

fai besoin d'argent. 

II a plus froid que les autres. 

Note. Observe the absence of the partitive sign in the last sentence 
but one. When the word which governs a noun used partitively itself 
requires de, the whole partitive construction (de and the article) is 
omitted. Observe also in j'ai trop chaud that a simple adverb (without 
de) is used. Similarly, j'ai tres chaud, j'ai plus froid que .... 



150. II y a. The third person singular of the various 
tenses of the verb avoir in connection with the pronoun y, 
there, has the following special meanings : 

il y a, there is (are) 

il y avait, there was (were) 

il y eut, there was (were) 

il y aura, there will be 

il y aurait, there would be 

il y ait 

il y efit 

II y a un arbre dans le jardin. 
II n'y avait pas de bois. 
Y aura-t-il une lecon demain ? 
N'y a-t-il pas de vin ? 
II y a eu un festin hier. 

il n'y a pas, there is (are) not 


y a-t-il ? is (are) there ? 


n'y a-t-il pas ? is (are) there not ? 


There is a tree in the garden. 

There was ?io wood. 

Will there be a lesson tomorrow f 

Is there no wine ? 

There was a feast yesterday. 

Note. To express there is with accented there, calling attention to 
an object or stating its location, voila is used. II y a merely affirms the 
existence of the object. 

There is your horse (see your horse) . 
There is a horse in the street. 
There *s a bad pen. 
There is my desk ; here is John's 

Voila votre cheval. 
H y a un cheval dans la rue. 
Voila une mauvaise plume. 
Voila mon pupitre ; void le pupitre 
de Jean. 


le bruit, the noise 
fermer, to close 
l'heure/., the hour 
l'ignorance /, the igno- 
manger, to eat 
ouvert (past part.), open 
la punition, the punishment 

rentrer, to go back in, enter 

six (Sec. 216, a), six 
la sortie, the leaving, dismissal 
le souper, the supper 

tout, all, everything 
le travail, the work 

voici, here is, now is 

Note. Faim and other words used after avoir are to be found in Sec. 1 49. 




i. Give the synopsis of avoir; its synopsis in the first 
person plural. 

2. Give all the forms of il y a, (a) affirmative, (b) nega- 
tive, (c) interrogative, {d) negative-interrogative. 

3. Translate into French — 

we should not have should we not have ? 

I had I have had 

he would have thou wilt have 

let us have does he have ? 

4. Translate into French — 

there was a king is there a pen ? 

there were kings was she afraid ? 

there were bad kings there are the chairs 

there was no king there are chairs in the room 

there were no kings I need some bread 

are you hungry ? had he no money ? 

is he not right ? now (it) is the hour 

there 's your brother is there no money ? 

would there be a school ? here is the pen 

we were ashamed he is not thirsty 

5. Give the full tense of — 

je n'avais pas peur 

n'ai-je pas besoin de plumes ? 

6. Give the form in the various tenses of — 

il y a des enfants ici 
il n'y a pas de viande 
n'y a-t-il pas d'eau la? 
y a-t-il beaucoup de bruit ? 


Model En Classe 

Quand nous arrivons en classe, nous trouvons les fenetres 
ouvertes, mais si nous avons froid, nous fermons les fenetres 
et les portes. II y a six fenetres et deux portes dans ma classe. 
Dans la salle de classe oil j'etais l'annee derniere il y avait dix 
fenetres et quatre portes. Nous fermons les fenetres si nous 
avons froid, et si nous entendons trop le bruit des autres classes, 
nous fermons aussi les portes. II y a un tres mauvais eleve dans 
ma classe. II n'a pas peur du maitre. II n'etudie pas ses lecons, 
et a toujours besoin des exercices des autres quand il travaille. II 
re'cite tres mal, mais il n'a pas honte de son ignorance. J'aurais 
honte si je ne savais pas mes lecons. J'aurais peur des punitions. 
J'ai souvent sommeil quand j'etudie a la maison, mais je reste a 
mon travail. Voici l'heure de la sortie. Nous avons tres faim et 
tres soif, et nous mangerons bien. Nous aurons besoin de beau- 
coup de choses, mais il y aura assez de tout. Si nous n'avons pas 
trop sommeil apres le souper, nous jouerons un peu. Quand nous 
aurons chaud, nous rentrerons. 


Last year, in my class, there was a bad student who was not 
ashamed of his poor work. He was always in need of the other 
pupils' exercises. When he did not know his lessons, he was not 
afraid of punishment(s). Would you not be ashamed of your igno- 
rance ? Yes, you would study hard and you would be right. The 
pupils who do not study are wrong. When we need the master, 
he explains the rules of the lesson. We play a little after the 
lesson, at the hour of leaving. I am often very hungry after 
school, but there is always enough of everything on the table 
at home. If I am cold, I close the windows; but we like the 
windows open when we are warm. When I am warm, I am thirsty 
also. Is there any water on the table? Yes, there is enough water 
for you. There is a glass. 



i. Combien y a-t-il de fenetres dans la classe? 2. Les fe- 
netres sont-elles ouvertes ou ferme'es ? 3. Quand fermez-vous les 
fenetres ? 4. N'y a-t-il pas du x bruit dans l'autre classe ? 5 . Entendez- 
vous du bruit ? 6. Avez-vous besoin des exercices de votre cama- 
rade quand vous travaillez ? 7. Votre camarade travaille-t-il ferme ? 
8. Entendez-vous bien ou mal ? 9. Le maitre donne-t-il des puni- 
tions quand vous ne savez pas vos lecons ? 1 o. Avez-vous sommeil 
quand vous avez fini votre travail ? 11. Restez-vous en classe a. 
l'heure de la sortie? 12. Avez-vous besoin d'encre pour e'crire ? 


i. If you are cold, close the windows. 2. The lazy pupils said 
that the teachers gave too long lessons. 3. My uncle has sold all 
his black horses to the French officer. 4. Now is the hour of 
dismissal from the school. 5. If we were hungry, we should find 
enough of everything in the kitchen. 6. Are there not too many 
knives and forks on the table? 7. Charles and Mary, when you 
are hungry, do not eat too fast. 8. John, if you do not pronounce 
French well, you will be ashamed of your great ignorance. 9. My 
friend has already wealth enough ; now he needs a larger house. 
1 o. Were there any lazy boys in your class when you were at school ? 
1 1 . After (the) supper I shall read my French book if I am not 
sleepy. 12. When Napoleon was a student at Brienne, he did not 
like all his studies. 13. When you are thirsty, you will find fresh 
water enough in the dining-room. 14. You are right; there are 
many large streets in the city of Paris. 15. Peter, do not play so 
much; finish your work quickly. 16. Yesterday we were warm in 
the house, and we had the doors open all the morning. 17. How 
many American soldiers were there in France? 18. Do not be afraid 
of the animals which are in this park. 1 9. There has been much noise 
in the classroom today. 20. The lessons will be longer tomorrow. 

1 Du, because the thought is really affirmative. See Sec. 116, a. 




151. Perfect Tenses are made, as in English, by combin- 
ing the forms of an auxiliary verb (usually avoir) with past 
participles. The compound tense made of the present of 
the auxiliary has already been treated in Sec. 135. Below is 
given the synopsis of the perfect active tenses of donner. 

Perfect Infinitive (Fr., infinity passe) 
avoir donne to have given 

Perfect Participle (Fr., participe passe compose) 
ay ant donne having given 

Past Indefinite (Fr., passe indefini) 
j'ai donne I have given 

Pluperfect (Fr., plus-que-parfait) 
j'avais donne I had given 

Past Anterior (Ft., passe anterieur) 
j'eus donne I had given 

Future Perfect (Ft., futur anterieur) 
j 'aurai donne / shall have given 

Conditional Perfect (Fr., conditiofinel passf) 
j 'aurais donne / should have given 

Perfect Subjunctive (Fr., subjonctif passe) 
j'aie donne 

Pluperfect Subjunctive (Fr., plus-que-parfait du subjonctif) 
j'eusse donne 


Note i . The past indefinite is sometimes called the perfect. 

Note 2. Observe that the perfect conjugation has nothing corre- 
sponding to the past participle or the imperative. 

Note 3. The past indefinite, pluperfect, past anterior, and future 
perfect are tenses of the indicative mood. 

152. Pluperfect and Past Anterior. In the synopsis above 
there are two forms for had given. The past anterior is 
used only in clauses introduced by quand, when, aussitot que 
or des que, as soon as, and other words or phrases indicat- 
ing immediate priority of action. Elsewhere the pluperfect 
is used. 

Quand il eut parle*, il quitta la When he had spoken, he left the 

salle. room. 

II apporta son cahier aii maitre He brought his notebook to the 

aussitot qu'il eut fini son teacher as soon as he had 

exercice. finished his exercise. 

II avait travaillS hier. He had worked yesterday. 

153. Word Order in Perfect Tenses. The rules of order 
given for simple tenses apply also to perfect tenses, provided 
that we consider the auxiliary alone as the verb. Thus, 
the negative forms are made by placing ne before the 
auxiliary and pas after (between the auxiliary and the past 
participle) ; interrogative forms by inverting a subject pro- 
noun and the auxiliary. See also Sec. no, Note. 

He had not spoken. 77 ri avait pas parte. 

Had he spoken ? Avait-il parte f 

Had he not spoken ? N' avait-il pas parte ? 

He would have spoken well. II aurait bien parte. 

154. Special Rules for Perfect Tenses. The principles 
already laid down for governing the tense in subordinate 
clauses apply equally to perfect tenses, but concern here 


only the auxiliary, the participle being invariable from the 
point of view of tense. This must be observed especially in — 

a. Future clauses introduced by quand, etc. (see Sec. 137). 

He will give back the money II rendra V argent quand il aura 
when he has (shall have) vendu la maison. 

sold the house. 

Note. Often in this construction the English omits even the have 
and translates the above, . . . when he sells the house. 

b. Conditions (see Sec. 139). 

If they have not eaten, they will S'ils n'ontpas mange, Us auront 

be hungry. faim. 

If they had not eaten, they would S'ils n'avaient pas mange, Us 

have been hungry. auraient eufaim. 

155. Construction with depuis. The following tense usage, 
at variance with English, demands special mention. 

a. When an action or state has begun in the past and 
continues into the present, the present tense is used, followed 
by depuis, since, for. 

I have been speaking (for) an Je park depuis une heure. 


I have been at home (for) two Je suis a la maison depuis deux 

days. jours. 

How long have you been here ? Depuis quand etes-vous id ? 

Note i . When the action is completed in past time, a past tense is 
used, either alone or with pendant, during, for. 

He worked (for) two hours this // a travaille {pendant) deux heures 

morning. ce matin. 

How long did you work ? Combien de temps avez-vous travaitle? 

Note 2. Alternative forms : 

I have been speaking an hour. II y a une heure que je park. 

He had been here an hour. 77 y avait une hetire qu'il etait ici. 


6. When an action or state is continued in. the past up 
to a definite past time referred to, the imperfect is used for 
the English pluperfect, similarly with depuis. 

I had been speaking (for) three Je parlais depuis trois heures. 


How long had you played (been Depuis quand jouiez-vous quand 

playing) when he spoke ? il a parte ? 

Note i. How long is expressed by combien de temps except in 
cases where the corresponding answer demands depuis. It is then 
expressed by depuis quand. 

Twill you speak ? f parlerez-vous ? 

How long \ do you speak ? Combien de temps •{ parlez-vous ? 

[_ did you speak ? ^ avez-vous parle ? 

f have you been speaking ? _ . , (parlez-vous? 

How long < . , , i . -, Depuis quand <\ ... „ 

° (^ had you been speaking? * 1 yparhez-vous ? 

Note 2. Observe that when depuis is required the English usually 
has the word been. 


Pamusement m., the amuse- un jour, one day, some day 

ment puis, then 

l'an m., the year le repos, the rest 

&onomiser, to save retourner, to return, go back 

§tre en vacances, to have a tot, soon 

vacation en ville, in town 
il y a un mois, a month ago 


i. Give the synopsis of the perfect tenses of saisir and vendre. 

2. Inflect the perfect tenses of regarder throughout. 

3. Give the pluperfect of tendre, neg. ; future perfect of subir; 
past definite of trouver, neg. -int. ; past anterior of rendre; plu- 
perfect subjunctive of Studier; conditional perfect of entendre, neg. 


4. Translate into French — 

he would have finished I shall not have chosen 

they had not said as soon as he listens 

will you not have visited ? as soon as he had heard 

had she shown ? we have worked 

when you had sold we worked 

let us not speak we were working 

she had not had working 

5 . Translate into French — 

how long did he work ? how long do you sing every 

he worked for an hour morning ? 

how long have they been work- I sing an hour every morning 

ing ? how long will they stay ? 

they have been working two hours they will stay a long time 

how long has he been working ? he has been studying a month 
he had been working many days (two ways) 

6. Locate the verbs in the Model below. 

Model L ES Vacances 

Mon oncle demeure a la campagne. II est Ik depuis dix ans. II 
y avait six ans qu'il etait en ville quand il a achete sa ferme. 
II n'aime pas la ville autant que la campagne. II dit qu'il aurait 
achete sa ferme plus tot s'il avait e'te plus riche. Aussitot qu'il eut 
economise assez d 'argent, il quitta la ville. Je suis chez mon oncle 
depuis deux semaines. Je ne sais pas si je resterai encore long- 
temps. J'e'tais en vacances depuis une semaine quand j'ai quitte 
la ville. Ma sceur n'est pas ici. Quand elle aura passe la semaine 
au bord de la mer, elle voyagera un peu, puis passera quelques 
jours ici. Nous retournerons ensemble a la maison. Quand ma 
sceur arrivera ici, elle aura voyage beaucoup et aura besoin de 
repos. Ma tante a prepare la plus belle chambre de la maison. 


Quand ma sceur aura eu assez de repos, nous comptons passer le 
temps agreablement. Depuis deux jours nous preparons toutes 
sortes d'amusements. Notre sejour aura e'te trop court. 


Last year, as soon as I had finished my studies, I visited the 
country, where my uncle has a beautiful farm. Formerly he lived 
in town, but, as he needed the air of the country, he left the city 
as soon as he had saved enough money (in order) to buy his new 
house. He did not like the city much, and would have left Paris 
sooner if he had been rich enough. He had been in the city for 
six years. My father intends to live some day in the country when 
he has worked enough. I do not know whether my mother would 
prefer to remain in town ; she has been there so long. When I 
have finished my studies, I shall pass a few weeks at my uncle's. 
I shall have much rest. My sister, who is now at the seashore, 
where she has all kinds of amusements, will also have spent 
happy days. 


i . Ou demeure votre oncle ? 2 . Y a-t-il longtemps qu'il est Ik ? 

3. Depuis quand etait-il en ville quand il a achete sa ferme? 

4. Aimeriez-vous mieux la ville ou la campagne? 5. Pourquoi 

FERME DE NORMANDIE. Les paysans represented plus de la moitie 
de la population de la France. Le paysan francais est simple dans sa 
maniere de vivre et est satisfait de son sort tres humble, lequel a ete celui 
de ses ancetres et sera vraisemblablement celui de ses enfants. II est 
econome. Cette qualite en fait le sauveur de son pays dans les crises 
economiques ; il l'est aussi par sa bravoure et son patriotisme quand le 
pays est en danger. La gravure montre certaines caracteristiques par- 
ticulieres au paysan : la nature substantielle de sa demeure construite 
de pierres rugueuses; le bonheur apparent des membres de la famille, 
tous, hommes, f emmes et enfants ayant leur part des travaux de la ferme ; 
la carrure de tous et leurs vetements simples mais durables. 

ivood & Underwood 



votre oncle n'a-t-il pas achete sa ferme plus tot ? 6. Quand quitta- 
t-il la ville ? 7. Depuis quand etes-vous chez votre oncle ? 
8. Resterez-vous la longtemps ? 9. Votre sceur est-elle avec vous ? 
1 o. Ne passera-t-elle pas quelques jours avec vous ? 11. Restera- 
t-elle chez votre oncle quand vous partirez ? 12. Quelle chambre 
votre sceur aura-t-elle chez votre oncle? 13. Qui aura prepare la 
chambre ? 14. N'aurez-vous pas besoin de repos quand vous aurez 
fini la lecon? 15. Combien de temps etudierez-vous votre lecon 
pour demain ? 


1. Have your parents been living in the United States long? 
2. My uncle used to pass his vacations at the seashore. 3. As 
soon as he has saved enough, he will have a vacation. 4. As 
soon as he had selected a house in the country, he sold his store. 
5. How long did you travel in Europe last year? 6. How long 
had you been studying French when you left the United States ? 
7. If you work too long, you will need rest. 8. My friends were in 
Paris a week several years ago. 9. The American officer will be 
in England for two months. 10. The pupils were singing loudly 
when the teacher returned. 11. How long is he intending to stay 
at his cousin's today? 12. My uncle and aunt have been traveling 
in Canada for several weeks. 13. If you are too cold, I will close 
the window. 1 4. How long shall you remain in Paris next year ? 

1 5 . My friends have been desiring to go to France for many years. 

16. My brother and sister will return together when they finish 
their work. 17. John, how long have you been writing on the 
board? 18. Peter, you have been speaking to your chum too 
long ; study your lesson. 19. Do you know whether there will be 
any students at school tomorrow? 20. The poor man would have 
bought more clothes if he had had the money. 



156. The Inflection of the Verb etre, to be, is as follows : 

Principal Parts 

etre, to be etant, being ete, been 

je suis, I am je fus, I was 

Present Indicative 

je suis, I am 

nous sommes 

tu es 

vous etes 

il est 

ils sont 


Past Definite 

j'etais, I was 

je fus, I was 


etc. (Sec. 131, Note) 



je serai, I shall be 

je serais, I should be 




sois, be 


let us be soyez 

Present Subjunctive 

Imperfect Subjunctive 

je sois nous soyons 

je fusse 

tu sois vous soyez 


il soit ils soient 

Note. The forms not given are made regularly. 

157. Etre in Perfect Tenses. £tre, as well as avoir, is used 
as an auxiliary in the formation of perfect tenses. Avoir is 
used with the great majority of verbs ; etre with certain 


intransitive verbs of motion and transition. The. following 
are the past participles of the most important of these verbs : 

alle', gone arrive, arrived 

venu, come entre, entered 

devenu, become reste, remained 

revenu, come back tombe, fallen 

parti, started ne, born 

sorti, gone out mort, died 

I have come. Je suis venu. 

He had started. H etait parti. 

158. Below is given the synopsis of the perfect active of alter : 

Perf. Inf. etre alle, to have gone 

Perf. Part. etant alle, having gone 

Past Indef. je suis alle, I have gone 

Pluperf. Ind. j'etais alle, I had gone 

Past Ant. je fus alle, I had gone 

Fut. Perf. je serai alle, I shall have gone 

Cond. Perf. je serais alle, I should have gone 

Perf. Subj. je sois alle 

Pluperf. Subj. je fusse alle 


d'abord, (at) first le client, the customer, client 

l'accident m., the accident le commercant, the business 

les affaires/, business man, merchant 

arriver, to arrive, happen diner, to dine 

l'avocat, m., the lawyer entrer (dans), to enter (tr.) 

de bonne heure, early gros (/. grosse), great, big 

le bureau, the office lu, read (past part.) 

la chute, the fall la suite, effect, continuation 

parler d'affaires, to talk business 
des suites de, because of, from 
aller en ville, to go to town 



1 . Give the synopsis of Stre ; its synopsis in the third plural. 

2. Give the synopsis of the perfect tenses of rester; of 
partir ; of alter in the third singular. 

3. Translate into French — 

he has gone out had she had 

they have seen had I not come ? 

I had remained as soon as I had arrived 

has he not become ? let us be useful 

we should have been be not lazy 

will he be ? there will be 

had he not started ? they will be 

they were not did we not read ? 

4. Supply the French for the words in parentheses. 

Je (have) un client. II (has) alle en ville. II (had) lu que les 
commercants (have) de nouvelles e'toffes. II (had) parti quand 
son ami (arrived). II ne (had) pas assez d'argent. Je (had) tou- 
jours de l'argent. Quand je (have) de l'argent, je (shall be) con- 
tent^). Quand je (have) de l'argent, je ne (am) jamais honte. 
Mon ami (has had) beaucoup d'argent. II (has) devenu riche. II 
(would have) parle aussitot qu'il (had) entre', s'il (had had) l'argent. 

Model M ON Pe RE au Bureau 

Mon pere, qui est revenu hier d'un long voyage, est alle en 
ville ce matin. II est sorti pour aller a ses affaires. Je suis sorti 
aussi pour aller a l'ecole, mais mon pere est parti plus tot. II aime a 
arriver a son bureau de bonne heure. Mon pere est avocat II est 
alle, d'abord, acheter un journal. II a lu que son ami qui etait 
venu ici l'anne'e derniere etait mort des suites d'une chute. II est 
tombe de son cheval. II etait devenu un gros commercant et serait 


reste encore longtemps dans les affaires si l'accident n'etait pas 
arrive. Quand mon pere est arrive a son bureau, il a trouve un 
de ses clients, Monsieur Leblanc, qu'il n'avait pas vu depuis long- 
temps. Comme Monsieur Leblanc est en ville pour quelques heures 
seulement, mon pere est revenu diner a la maison avec son client. 
Quand je suis rentre de l'ecole, j'ai trouve mon pere dans le salon. 
II parlait d'affaires avec Monsieur Leblanc. lis parleraient encore 
si ma mere n'avait pas dit que le diner etait pret. 


My father, who is a lawyer, came back early from his office.' 
He was back when my brother arrived from school. He did not 
remain long in town. He had been in his office an hour when one 
of his clients, whom he had not seen for a long time, came in. 
They talked business, and, as Mr. Leblanc was in town for a few 
hours only, he left soon after. My father went out to buy a news- 
paper. He read that an accident had happened to one of his friends, 
Mr. Leroux. This gentleman, who had become a great merchant, 
fell from his horse and died an hour after from the effects of the 
fall. He had been in business a long time. Last year he came to 
spend a week here. My father would have gone to his friend's 
during his vacation if the accident had not happened. 


i. D'ou votre pere est-il revenu hier ? 2. Est-il reste a la maison 
ce matin? 3. Pourquoi est-il sorti ? 4. Est-il sorti le premier? 
5. Etes-vous arrive a l'ecole de bonne heure ? 6. Qui est mort 
des suites d'un accident? 7. L'ami de votre pere etait-il avocat? 
8. Qui votre pere a-t-il trouve h son bureau ? 9. Depuis quand 
n'avait-il pas vu son client? 10. Monsieur Leblanc est-il en ville 


pour longtemps ? 11. Votre pere est-il revenu seul ? 12. Etes-vous 
jamais tombe de votre cheval ? 13. Etes-vous alM a l'ecole hier? 
14. Votre diner sera-t-il pret quand vous rentrerez? 15. Etes-vous 
alld a la campagne l'annee derniere ? 



1. My brother started for his office early this morning. 2. My 
uncle entered the house an hour ago. 3. He would have come 
home sooner if he had finished his business. 4. When John arrived 
home, his brother had gone to school. 5. An accident happened 
to my friend when he was in Paris. 6. One of his sons died from 
a fall from a horse. 7. He would be speaking yet if a customer 
had not entered the store. 8. The merchant was talking business 
with the clerk. 9. Peter, you are lazy, you did not go to school 
today. 10. He would have stayed longer if he had had more 
money. 11. Your grandfather was born more than a century 
ago. 12. Mr. Leblanc, do you know that (the) dinner is ready? 
13. He read in the newspaper that the American general had 
returned from France. 14. My father arrived this morning after a 
short stay in London. 15. How long did you stay in England last 
year? 16. There used to be many castles in this country. 17. The 
officer became ill when he was in England. 18. He bought play- 
things for the children when he went to town. 19. The child had 
not seen his father for a long time. 20. As soon as the emperor 
had gone out, the soldier entered the room. 



159. Variable Form of Participles. The participles, pres- 
ent as well as past, are often used as adjectives, and in cer- 
tain cases, as explained below, they take a feminine ending 
in e and a plural in s, in accordance with the regular rules 
for adjectives. Thus : 

charmant, charmante ; charmants, charmantes 
blesse, blesse'e ; blesses, blessees 


160. Agreement after Auxiliary etre. When etre is the 
auxiliary, the past participle agrees in number and gender 
with the subject. 

Elle est arrived. She has arrived. 

lis sont venus. They (m.) have come. 

Elles sont entries. They (f .) have entered. 

161. Agreement after Auxiliary avoir. When avoir is the 
auxiliary, the past participle does not vary unless a direct 
object precedes the verb, in which case the participle agrees 
with this object. 

J'ai trouve* la plume. / have found the pen. 

La plume que j'ai trouvee. The pen which I have found. 

Les livres qu'il a ported. The books which he carried. 

Note. The past participle, when used as an adjective, agrees with 
the noun it modifies. 

une salle 6clair6e, a lighted room 

162. The Present Participle is used 

a. As in English, to denote an attendant circumstance. 
It is then generally introduced by the preposition en, which 
in this use may be translated while, in, by. Sometimes 
the en is emphasized by prefixing tout. In this use the 
participle is invariable. 

Elle est entree en parlant. She entered (while) speaking. 

En Sconomisant il est devenu By saving he has become rich. 


Elle a repondu, tout en pleurant. She replied (even) while weeping. 

b. As a simple adjective. It then agrees with the noun 
it modifies, and usually follows it. 

II a deux enfants charmants. He has two attractive children. 

De l'eau courante. Running water. 




" alors, then 

attendre, to await, wait for 
l'automobile m.,the automobile 
boncte (de), crowded (with) 
border (de), to border (with) 
le bureau de poste, the post office 
la chaussee, the roadway 
les chaussures/, the shoes, foot- 
le commerce, the business 
continuel (/. -elle), continual 
crier, to shout, cry 
la devanture, the show window 
a droite, to (at) the right 
Sclairer (a), to light (by) 
l'Slectricite* /, the electricity 
e*lectrique, electric 
entre, between 

1 'Stage m., the story (of a house) 
Staler, to display 

a gauche, to (at) the left 
le gaz [gaz], the gas 
le long de, along 
le marchand, the merchant 
le marchand ambulant, the push- 
cart peddler 
la marchandise, the merchandise 

marcher, to walk 
le mouvement, the moving about 
la paire, the pair 

particulier (/ -ifcre), private 
la personne, the person, people 
le piSton, the pedestrian 

rencontrer, to meet 
le restaurant, the restaurant 
le Soulier, the low shoe 
le tramway, the (street) car 

traverser, to cross 
le trottoir, the sidewalk 
la voiture, the carriage 

Note. In is often to be rendered in French by a rather than dans, 
as has already been seen in special expressions. Dans denotes position 
inside of, as dans la maison, in the house ; a denotes position at or 
near, as a la devanture, in the show window. 


1 . Give all the forms (both genders and both numbers) of 
the participles trouvS, vendu, subi, eu, criant, mort. 

2. Give the synopsis of the perfect tenses of entrer in the 
third plural. 

3. Give the past indefinite of sorti ; perfect subjunctive of 
aller ; pluperfect indicative of venu, neg. ; conditional perfect 


of parti, int. ; past anterior of passer, neg.-int. ; future perfect 
of 6tre ; future perfect of mort, neg. 

4. Translate into French — 

a. she has remained we shall have examined 
we fell they {/.) had come 

they had not started as soon as they had come back 

we shall have arrived had you not become ? 

b. the pen which I have bought she has entered 

the books which I had sold she has entered the room 
I had sold the books the lesson which she will give 

5. Give the full tense of — 

je suis reste depuis longtemps 
j'ai ecoute longtemps 
je suis alle a. la maison 
la plume que j'ai trouvee 

Model . La Rue 

La rue 011 je demeure a de larges trottoirs. Les pietons marchent 
sur les trottoirs. Entre les trottoirs il y a la chausse'e. La rue est 
eclaire'e au gaz et a l'electricite. Les trottoirs sont borde's de hautes 
maisons. Ma maison a seulement deux etages. II y a beaucoup 

LE BOULEVARD DE LA MADELEINE. Le boulevard de la Madeleine 
forme une partie de la grande artere de Paris appelee « les grands boule- 
vards)), qui vade la place de la Concorde a la Bastille. Cette artere est sur 
l'emplacement des anciens boulevards de l'enceinte fortifiee demolie sous 
Louis XIV. Le boulevard dont il est question ici commence la serie. Sur 
les trottoirs d'une ample largeur s'y promenent une foule de gens affaires 
ou de promeneurs attires la par les magasins, les cafes et restaurants qui 
bordent cette avenue spacieuse, theatre fidele de la vie parisienne. A 
Tangle gauche de la photographie nous voyons un coin de la Madeleine, 
une des eglises principales et des plus belles de Paris. Entouree qu'elle 
est d'une majestueuse colonnade, elle affecte la forme d'un temple grec. 


de maisons particulieres dans la rue oil je demeure. Ce matin il y 
avait un mouvement continuel de voitures et d'automobiles. Les 
marchands ambulants criaient leur marchandise. Beaucoup de 
personnes attendaient les tramways electriques, qui etaient toujours 
bonde's. Ma mere est allee faire ses emplettes. Les fruits qu'elle 
a vus etales a la devanture du fruitier etaient tres beaux, et elle a 
achete des poires et des bananes qu'elle a emportees dans son filet. 
Ma mere et ma sceur sont alors sorties. Elles ont traverse la rue 
en regardant a droite et a gauche. Tout en passant le long des 
magasins elles ont rencontre deux de leurs amies, et elles sont 
entrees dans un restaurant, ou elles ont dine. Chez le marchand de 
chaussures ma sceur a demande plusieurs paires de souliers, qu'elle 
a examinees. La paire qu'elle a choisie est chere. Ma mere et ma 
sceur sont revenues en passant par (by) le bureau de poste. 


Do not cross the street. Look to the right and to the left 
because there is a continual moving about of carriages. There 
is an automobile that is passing by. This push-cart peddler cries 
his merchandise while walking on the roadway along the sidewalk. 
The sidewalks are crowded with pedestrians, who look at the show 
windows of the stores while speaking. There are many pretty 
things displayed in the show windows. There 's a restaurant. A 
lady has gone in with her daughter. The lady has a net bag in 
which (ou) are the things that she bought. She went to the shoe 
dealer's (Model) and bought low shoes. The pair that I bought last 
month was better than the pair in the show window of this store. 
The whole street is bordered with stores better lighted than the 
rooms of the house where I live. They are lighted with gas. 


i. Les pietons marchent-ils generalement sur la chaussee? 
2. Les trottoirs sont-ils aussi larges que la chausse'e ? 3. Decrivez 
une rue. 4. Ou votre mere a-t-elle vu des fruits ? 5. D'oii votre 


mere et votre soeur sont-elles sorties ? 6. Qui ont-elles rencontre ? 
7. Ou ont-elles rencontre' ces personnes ? 8. Les chaussures sont- 
elles cheres maintenant ? 9. Comment votre mere est-elle revenue ? 
10. Ou achetez-vous vos chaussures? 11. Y a-t-il des marchands 
ambulants dans votre rue? 12. Ne demeurez-vous pas dans une 
maison particuliere ? 13. Y a-t-il seulement des maisons particu- 
lieres dans votre rue? 14. Avez-vous dine au restaurant hier? 
15. Comment la classe est-elle eclairee ? 


1. I did not see the horses which my friend sold. 2. Shall you 
not need a new pair of shoes next week ? 3. The hats which we 
saw at the store were very expensive. 4. My aunt would always 
look to the right and left when she went out. 5. My sister had 
been visiting for two weeks when she became ill. 6. As soon as 
my mother had died, we sold all the jewels that she had bought. 
7. Merchants always like to display their merchandise in show 
windows. 8. How long have you been waiting for the street car ? 
9. In our city the streets are always crowded with people. 1 o. There 
were no seats {places) in the street car when she entered. 11. The 
house which I gave to my son is lighted by electricity. 12. My 
brother and sister returned from Europe a week ago. 13. Have you 
found the newspapers which the lawyer read? 14. While going 
down the street I saw my friend in his automobile. 15. Are there 
attractive pictures in every room of your house ? 16. While speak- 
ing to my brother she went out of the railway station. 17. The 
leaves have been • dead for a long time and the apples have 
already fallen. 18. Where did she go? She started for (the) school. 

19. Did you look at the castles which the Englishman sold? 

20. My mother lived ten years in the house where she was born. 



(Lessons Twenty-Two to Twenty-Five) 

A. General Drill 

i. Give the synopsis of avoir; present subjunctive of 
avoir ; imperative of avoir ; all the forms of il y a ; all the 
forms of il y a, neg.-int. 

2. Give the synopsis of 6tre ; present subjunctive of 6tre ; 
imperative of etre. 

3. Name, in proper order, the forms that constitute the 
synopsis of the perfect tenses of a verb. 

4. Give the synopsis of the perfect forms of apporter, 
arriver, avoir. 

5. Give the — 

perf. subj. of tomber pluperf. ind. of choisir, neg.-int. 

past ant. of traverser, neg. cond. perf. of entrer 

imp. subj. of penser pluperf. subj. of rendre, neg. 

perf. ind. of rester, int. past ant. of punir, neg. 

fut. perf. of avoir imp. subj. of etre 

6. Give the list of past participles that take etre as 

7. State both cases of agreement of the past participle, 
and illustrate each. 

8. Give complete French sentences containing respec- 
tively the following forms : imperfect ; past definite ; per- 
fect indicative ; pluperfect indicative ; past anterior ; future 
perfect ; conditional ; conditional perfect ; imperative. 

9. Give complete French sentences containing all6s ; aurait 
vu ; depuis ; achet&s ; tout en ; traversant ; furent. 


10. Translate into French — 

did you see ? they talked would there not be ? 

he is wrong was he thirsty ? we are not afraid 

is there not ? there was not would she have fallen ? 

has he not ? I had not said had they not started ? 

had you heard ? had she gone out ? while going 

1 1 . Translate into French — 

there is a book on the desk if he had bought, he would have 

there 's your book sold 

here 's my pen they saw some fields 

does he need a dog ? the fields which they saw 

does he need some horses ? the field which I saw 

as soon as he had bought, he sold many months ago 

if he has bought, he will sell he lived in the country 

r 12. Express and answer in French — 

how long will it burn ? how long had it been burning ? 

how long has it been burning ? has it been burning long ? 
how long did it burn ? will it burn long ? 

13. Rewrite, translating the English words into French: 

1. II a une femme (loving). 

2. II (is crossing) la rue. 

3. Tout en (crossing) la rue, elle (fell). 

4. Nous (entered) la chambre. 

5. Les chaussures que nous avons (sold). 

6. II aura (sold) les chaussures. 

7. En (selling) des bijoux, elles (became) riches. 

8. Une femme (obliging) a (given) les choses que j'ai (saw). 

9. Quand nous (arrived), nous avons (found) notre tante. 

10. En (inspiring) ses enfants avec ces (inspiring) mots, la (in- 
spired) femme (inspired) des amis que son mari n'avait pas (inspired). 


B. Translate into French 

i. I have been living at home with my father and mother for 
ten years. 2. If he studies well, the teacher will speak of his work 
to his father. 3. My sister has been at school for three weeks, and 
she is very happy with her friends. 4. She had been visiting here 
two weeks when she died. 5. There are some beautiful leaves on 
the table; they fell from the old tree in the yard. 6. We shall 
have money enough when we sell the house. 7. When he had fin- 
ished his lesson, he closed the book. 8. I had not seen the horses 
which you had sold. 9. Where did you buy the playthings which 
you brought to the children ? 1 o. If his parents had not come, he 
would have gone to his uncle's. 11. There's John's youngest 
sister; are not her black eyes beautiful? 12. My sisters arrived 
from Europe yesterday and brought some pretty things to my 
mother. 13. I have been hot and thirsty for an hour, and now I 
am also sleepy. 14. My father thinks that old lawyers are oftener 
right than wrong. 15. If you had no pencil, I should be ashamed 
of you. 16. Children, study more and you will speak French well 
when you are in France. 17. When my aunt went to town, she 
would remain for hours in a store. 18. How long have the birds 
been singing in the old tree? For more than an hour. 19. Were 
the children afraid of the animals which they saw in the park ? 
20. He reads a great deal, even while waiting for the street car. 


En forgeant on devient forgeron. 
Loin des yeux, loin du cceur. 
A chaque jour suffit sa peine. 
Qui donne aux pauvres prete a Dieu. 
9 II n'y a pire eau que l'eau qui dort. 

Les petits ruisseaux font les grandes rivieres. 
Tout ce qui brille n'est pas or. 




163. Direct Questions with Pronoun Subjects. When the 
subject is a personal pronoun, a sentence is made interroga- 
tive by inverting the subject and the verb (the auxiliary in 
a compound tense), and connecting them by a hyphen, as 
already explained in Sec. 87. 

Do you sing ? Chantez-vous ? 

Have you sung ? Avez-vous chante ? 

Has she sung ? A-t-elle chante ? 

164. Est-ce que. If, however, the subject is in the first 
person singular, this inversion usually does not take place, 
but est-ce que, is it that, is prefixed to the affirmative order. 
Do I sing ? Est-ce que je cha?ite ? 

Note i. The following tenses illustrate the application of the 
principles above to the conjugation of a simple and a compound tense: 

Present Indicative of chanter, Interrogatively 
est-ce que je chante? do I sing? am I singing? 
chantes-tu ? dost thou sing ? art thou singing ? 
chante-t-il ? does he sing ? is he singing ? 
chantons-nous ? do we sing ? are we singing ? 
chantez-vous ? do you sing ? are you singing ? 
chantent-ils ? do they sing ? are they singing ? 

Pluperfect Indicative of chanter, Interrogatively 
est-ce que j'avais chante? had I sung? had I been singing? 
avais-tu chante ? hadst thou sung ? etc. 
avait-il chante ? had he sung? 
avions-nous chante ? had we sung? 
aviez-vous chante? had you sung? 
avaient-ils chante ? had they sung ? 


Note 2. Certain monosyllabic forms of the first person singular of 
the present indicative are regularly inverted in questions. Prominent 
among these are j'ai and je suis. Thus, in conjugation : 

Present Indicative of etre, Interrogatively 

suis-je ? am I ? 
es-tu ? art thou ? 
etc. etc. 

Past Indefinite of chanter, Interrogatively 

ai-je chante? have I sitng? did I sing? 

as-tu chante ? hast thou sung? didst thou sing? 

etc. etc. 

165. Direct Questions with Noun Subjects. When the 
subject is a noun, a sentence is made interrogative 

a. By placing the subject first and repeating it by the 
proper form of the personal pronoun after the verb, as 
explained in Sec. 90. 

Is the overcoat beautiful ? Le pardessus est-il beau ? 

Is the carriage new ? La voiture est-elle neuve ? 

b. By prefixing est-ce que to the declarative order. 
Is the sky blue ? Est-ce que le del est bleu ? 

Note. The construction with est-ce que is especially used, with either 
a noun or a pronoun subject, when the question involves surprise. 
Isn't he here ? Est-ce qu'il n 'est pas ici ? 

166. Questions introduced by Interrogative Words, such 
as quand, ou, combien, take the inverted order if the subject 
is a personal pronoun ; if the subject is a noun, they take the 
inverted order or the order explained in Sec. 165, a. 

Where is he? Oil est-il? 

{Ou est mon pere ? 
Mon pere ou est-il ? 
Oil mon pere est-il ? 


How long does he work ? Combien de temps travaille-t-il 1 

f Combien coute le livre ? 

How much does the book cost ? i Le livre combien coiite-t-il 1 

[ Combien le livre coiite-t-il 1 

When did he start ? Quand est-il parti 1 

xiu, a a u ^ -^ (Votrefrere quand est-il parti? 

V\ hen did your brother start ? < _ . J * s 

[ Quand votre frere est-il parti ? 

167. N'est-ce pas. Any question to which the answer 
yes is expected may be asked by adding n'est-ce pas, is it 
not so, to the affirmative statement. 

I am rich, am I not ? Je suis riche, n'est-ce pas ? 

Are they not rich ? lis sont riches, n'est-ce pas ? 

He talks well, does he not ? II parte bien, n'est-ce pas ? 
You will listen, won't you ? Vous kouterez, n'est-ce pas 7 


annoncer, to announce le domestique, the servant 

apporter, to bring le gant, the glove 

k bientot, will see you again merci, thank you 

soon oter, to take off 

bonjour, good morning j'ouvre, I open 

la carte, the (visiting) card il ouvre, he opens 

ce (/. cette), this, that le pardessus, the overcoat 

chez lui (elle), at his (her) la peinture, the painting 

home la province, the province(s) 

comment allez-vous ? how are au revoir, good-by 

you ? sonner, to ring (a bell) 

couter, to cost trois, three 

je dois, I must la visite, the call 

Present Indicative of aller, to go, to be (in health) 

je vais nous allons 

tu vas vous allez 

il va ils vont 



i. Conjugate interrogatively the present indicative of 
entendre ; future perfect of finir ; pluperfect of aller ; imper- 
fect subjunctive of choisir ; past indefinite of tomber ; past 
definite of couter. 

2. Make interrogative — 

je sonne j'ai regarde 

votre pere etait venu vos amis ont achete une maison 

elle serait entree mon chien est blanc 

les oiseaux chantent sa soeur n'est pas belle 

les gar^ons entreront les enfants auraient etudie 

3. Translate into French — 

when did the child fall ? why do birds sing ? 

she will sing, won't she ? where are the men ? 

how much did they sell ? will John enter ? 

are the boys good ? she is here, isn't she ? 

didn't he come ? had she started ? 

4. Give the full tense of — 

quand suis-je parti? 
est-ce que j'aurai trouve ? 
pourquoi avais-je vendu ? 
est-ce que je depensais tout ? 

Model Xj NE Visite 

Je sonne a la porte de Monsieur Leblanc. Le domestique 
ouvre et j'entre dans la maison. « Monsieur Leblanc est-il chez lui ? 
— Oui, Monsieur Leblanc est chez lui. Qui annoncerai-je, s'il vous 
plait? — Voici ma carte. » J'ote mon chapeau, mes gants et mon 


pardessus. Monsieur Leblanc entre bientot dans le salon. « Bon- 
jour, Henri ; comment allez-vous ? — Je vais tres bien, merci, et 
vous ? — Bien, merci. Quand etes-vous arrive de Paris ? — Je suis 
arrive hier. — Et votre mere est-elle revenue aussi ? — Non ; elle 
n'est pas encore revenue. — A-t-elle quitte Paris ? — Oui, et elle 
est allee a Londres. — Quand quittera-t-elle cette ville ? — Aussi- 
tot que sa sceur sera revenue. — Votre voyage a-t-il ete agre- 
able ? — Oui, merci, tres agreable. — Combien de temps etes-vous 
reste en France? — Trois mois. — Vous avez visite Paris et la 
province, n'est-ce pas ? — Oui, je suis alle en Touraine. J'ai 
achete' de beaux tableaux. — Est-ce que les tableaux sont chers 
en France? — Oui, ils sont aussi chers qu'ici. Voila deux pein- 
tures que j'ai apportees. — Combien coute la plus grande des 
deux ? — Elle est moins chere que l'autre. Voila ma voiture. Au 
revoir. — A bientot. » 


Yesterday I (/.) went to Mrs. Leblanc's. On arriving I rang 
the bell. The servant who opens the door is very kind. On 
entering I asked, M Is Mrs. Leblanc at home ? " and I gave my 
card to the servant. I entered the parlor. M Did you wait a long 
time?" " No, Mrs. Leblanc arrived soon after." 

" Good morning, Mrs. Lenoir. How are you ? How long 
have you been back from France? Did your husband come 
back with you ? " " No, my husband remained in Paris, where 
he has still some business." " Is his mother there also ? " w Yes, 
she is not well, but as soon as she is (Sec. 137) better, she will 
set out to visit the provinces with her son if he has finished his 
business." "You liked your trip, didn't you?" "Very much, 
thank you ; I found France very beautiful. But I must leave. 
Is not my carriage at the door ? " w Yes, it has been there a few 
minutes " (see general vocabulary). M Good-by, madam ; my visit 
has been very pleasant." 



i. Quand le domestique ouvre-t-il la porte ? 2. Que demandez- 
vous au 1 domestique ? 3. Pourquoi donnez-vous votre carte au 
domestique? 4. Dans quelle salle entrez-vous? 5. Entrez-vous 
la avec votre pardessus ? 6. Est-ce que vous attendez longtemps 
M. Leblanc ? 7. Depuis quand M. X est-il arrive de Paris ? 8. Sa 
mere est-elle revenue aussi ? 9. Pourquoi ? 10. Combien de temps 
M. X a-t-il ete parti {gone) ? 11. A-t-il visite seulement la capitale ? 
12. Le cocher n'attend-il pas M. X a la porte? 13. Comment 
M. X quitte-t-il M. Leblanc? 14. Otez-vous votre chapeau en 
entrant k l'ecole ? 15. Comment votre ami va-t-il aujourd'hui ? 


1. Did you see the visiting card which he brought? 2. Who is 
ringing the bell ? Mr. Leblanc, who desires to come in. 3. Good 
morning, Mr. Leblanc, is your daughter at home ? 4. The woman 
said, " How are you ? " when she entered the room. 5. How long 
did your sisters remain in England last year ? 6. Where did your 
brother buy the gloves which he was wearing this morning? 
7. Come in, sir, and take off your overcoat, please. 8. When did 
your aunt and uncle start for England ? 9. Peter, you are speaking 
to your neighbor again, are you not ? 1 o. Is the gentleman at home ? 
I thought that he had gone to town. 1 1 . The birds have been singing 
for a long time, have they not ? 1 2. Stay to dinner, Mr. Leblanc, if you 
desire. 13. No, thank you, I am waiting for my carriage. 14. Has 
not Miss Riou returned yet? 15. Did I speak French in Paris? 
Certainly, everybody speaks French there. 16. How much did 
the shoes cost which you are wearing? 17. Were automobiles as 
dear in Europe as in America during the war ? 18. When the boys 
went out, they said, "Good-by, see you 2 tomorrow." 19. Are you 
better today? I am better, thank you. How is your family? 
20. You will sell this painting which you bought, won't you ? 

1 To ask a person, demander h une personne. 2 Compare a bientSt. 




168. Negatives with a verb are expressed in French by 
two words. The first of these is ne, which always precedes 
the verb. The second word differs to express different nega- 
tive ideas. The commonest of these negative expressions are 

ne . . . pas, not ne . . . guere, scarcely 

ne . . . point, not at all ne . . . rien, nothing 

ne . . . plus, no more, no longer ne . . . personne, nobody 

ne . . . jamais, never ne . . . que, only 

I was not speaking. Je neparlais pas. 

He never speaks. 77 ne parte jamais. 

Has he nothing ? N'a-t-il rien 1 

He has only four pencils. II n'a que quatre crayons. 

Note i . Point, plus, etc. are not accompanied by pas, but replace it. 
Note 2. When two of these negative expressions occur together; 
one of them corresponds to an affirmative word in English. 

Elle ne visite jamais personne. She never visits anybody. 

II n'a plus rien. He no longer has anything. 

Note 3. The following examples illustrate the use of the negative 
in the conjugation of simple tenses : 

Present Indicative of chanter, Negatively 
je ne chante pas, I am not singing, I do not sing 
tu ne chantes pas, thoti art not singing, etc. 
il ne chante pas, he is not singing, etc. 

Present Indicative of chanter, Negative-Interrogatively 

est-ce que je ne chante pas ? am I not singing? etc. 
ne chantes-tu pas? art thou not singing? etc. 
ne chante-t-il pas ? is he not singing ? etc. 


169. Negatives without Verbs. In a negative expression 
in which the verb is omitted the ne also is omitted, and 
the second part of the negative alone is used. 

No more pencils. Plus de crayons. 

When will he be here ? Never. Quand sera-t-il id ? Jamais, 

Note. Ne . . . que is used only with a verb. Elsewhere only is 
expressed by seulement. 

170. Position of Negatives. In compound tenses the 
second part of the negative is placed between the auxiliary 
and the past participle. Personne, however, takes the posi- 
tion of the corresponding English word, and que immediately 
precedes the word whose meaning it restricts. 

He has not been here. 77 n'a pas tie id. 

He has heard nobody. 77 n'a entendu personne. 

He sold yesterday only a few II n'a vendu hier que quelques 
pencils. crayons. 

Note. The following examples illustrate the application of this 
principle to the conjugation of perfect tenses: 

Pluperfect Indicative of chanter, Negatively 

je n'avais pas chante, I had not sung. 
tu n'avais pas chante, thou hadst not sung 
il n'avait pas chante, he had not sung 

Pluperfect Indicative of chanter, Negative-Interrogatively 
est-ce que je n'avais pas chante ? had I not sung? 
n'avais-tu pas chante ? hadst thou not sung? 
n'avait-il pas chante ? had he not sung ? 

171. Neither . . . nor is expressed 

a. With two verbs in simple tenses by ne before the first 
verb and ni ne before the second. 
She neither speaks nor hears. Elle ne parle ni rientend. 


b. In other situations by ne before the main verb and ni 
before each of the words affected. 

He has neither the pencil nor // n'a ni le crayon ni la plume. 

the pen. 

Neither the boys nor the girls are Ni les gar cons ni les filles ne so fit 

here. %ici. 

He has neither bought nor sold. // n*a ni achete ni vendu. 

Note. After ni neither de nor the article is used in the partitive sense. 

U n'a ni crayons ni plumes. He has neither {any) pencils nor 

(any) pens. 


l'automne [o-ton] m., the Thiverp-veir] ;«., the winter 

autumn, fall la n&essite\ the necessity 

cesser, to cease la neige, the snow 

le champ, the field la nuit, the night 

deserter, to desert par, through, by 

durer, to last le parfum, the perfume 

l'6te* m., the summer partout, everywhere 

le fermier, the farmer le printemps, the spring 

la fin, the end reverdir, to grow green again 

les gens m., the people la saison, the season 

la glace, the ice le voyage, the journey 

au printemps, in (the) spring 

en £te* (automne, hiver), in (the) summer (fall, winter) 

Note i. Additional new words will be found in the list of negatives 
in Sec. 168. 

Note 2. Names of the seasons take the definite article except after en. 

Present Indicative of vouloir, to wish, want 
je veux nous voulons 

tu veux vous voulez 

il veut ils veulent 



1 . Give the imperfect of punir, neg. ; past indefinite of 
entrer, neg.-int. ; past anterior of rendre, neg.-int. ; imperfect 
subjunctive of Studier, neg. ; pluperfect of §tre, neg. 

2. Express in French — 

a. he has not he gives nothing 
he has not fallen he gives to nobody 
he has never studied he has given nothing 
he will study no more he has only one brother 

b. have you never ? have you saved nothing ? 
had he never seen ? have you found only one ? 
shall you work no longer ? did he see nobody ? 

3. Translate into French — 

she has worked well he punishes neither the good 

she does not sing at all nor the bad 

in the spring there is no longer he sells neither bread nor meat 

any snow in winter 

we don't want to go the summer has been hot 

I neither give nor sell winter is the cold season 

4. Supply the French for the words in parentheses : 
J'ai (never) vu votre pere. II vient ici (no more). II (never) 

veut (anything). II travaille (not at all). Va-t-il (no longer) a la 
campagne ? A-t-il ete' (only) a Paris ? (Nobody) veut rester en 
ville. Ici je vois (only) quelques enfants. lis (scarcely) etudient. 
lis (neither) lisent (nor) e'crivent. Quand parleront-ils f rancais ? 
(Never). Sont-ils (never) alles a l'ecole ? 

Model L ES Quatre Saisons 

II y a quatre saisons dans Fannee et chaque saison dure trois 
mois. Au printemps nous n'avons guere de neige, et les nuits ne 
sont plus si longues qu'en hiver. Nous ne portons plus de lourds 


vetements. Les champs et les bois reverdissent. II y a des gens 
qui trouvent le printemps la plus belle de toutes les saisons. En 
ete les jours sont longs et chauds, et les nuits ne sont jamais 
froides. Nous avons souvent chaud et soif. Les gens riches 
desertent la ville pour aller a la campagne ou au bord de la mer. 
La, ni les jours ni les nuits ne sont aussi chauds qu'en ville. Le 
travail des fermiers ne cesse qu'avec la nuit. L'ete est aussi la 
saison des vacances. II n'y a alors personne a l'ecole. Personne 
n'est au tableau. Nous n'e'tudions ni ne re'citons. Les enfants ne 
veulent que jouer. Nous sommes maintenant en automne, la 
saison des fruits. II y aura plus de pommes que l'annee derniere. 
Les fleurs sont encore belles, mais elles n'ont plus leur parfum. 
Les enfants n'aiment point la fin des vacances. En hiver il y a 
de la neige partout. Plus de fleurs dans les jardins. Les gens ne 
quittent la maison que par necessite. Comme j'ai toujours froid, 
je n'aime point l'hiver. Je n'aime ni la neige ni la glace. Est-ce 
que je demeurerai dans les pays froids ? Jamais 1 


There are only four seasons in the year. The pupils like 
summer better than the other seasons because they do not study 
at all. Then nobody gives any lessons. Neither the old nor the 
young remain in town. Many visit the country. Next year I shall 
desert the city for the seashore, where I have already been. In 
autumn there are more fruits than flowers. Apples are never so 
good as now. However, the apples which are in that basket are 
scarcely ripe. My father, who has only two weeks of vacation, is 
at his farm. The days are still beautiful, but they are no more 
so long as in summer. My cousin will not like winter here. Does 
he never want to come here ? No, never. We did not have any- 
body here last winter. When it is (we are in the) spring, there 
will no longer be any snow or ice. Many people like that season 
better than the others. 



i. Combien de saisons y a-t-il ? 2. Combien de temps dure 
chaque saison? 3. Quand les nuits sont-elles plus longues que les 
jours ? 4. Dans quelle saison sommes-nous ? 5. Y a-t-il beaucoup 
de neige au printemps ? 6. Les champs sont-ils encore blancs au 
printemps ? 7. Quelle est la plus belle des saisons ? 8. Dans quelle 
saison n'avez-vous jamais froid ? 9. Au bord de la mer, les jours et 
les nuits sont-ils aussi chauds qu'en ville ? 1 o. Les enf ants veulent-ils 
reciter pendant les vacances ? 1 1 . Y a-t-il beaucoup de personnes 
au bord de la mer en hiver ? 1 2. Y a-t-il encore des fleurs en hiver ? 
13. Dans quelle saison n'y a-t-il ni neige ni glace ? 


1. There are not as many days in autumn as in summer. 2. In 
the winter pupils go to school every day and work never ceases. 
3. There was no wheat at all in our country last year. 4. Are the 
nights ever longer than the days in summer? 5. Children prefer 
summer because teachers give no lessons then. 6. The English 
army found nothing in the city when it arrived. 7. The countries 
which she visited have no longer any castles. 8. During the season 
of snow(s) there are neither flowers nor leaves in the garden. 
9. The grass in the meadow is no longer green and it is every- 
where dry. 10. Now students want neither to play nor to sing in 
the yard of the school. 11. Neither horses nor men like to work 
in the fields during the winter. 12. Spring is the season of birds 
and flowers, and you will now find nobody at home. 13. When will 
the students finish the lesson ? Never. 1 4. No more apples on the 
trees ! No water in the river ! 15. He wishes neither to give nor to 
sell bread to the poor. 1 6. In the spring we have scarcely any snow 
in the city. 17. Neither old nor young wish to remain in town during 
the summer. 18. John does not want to write anything in his note- 
book today, does he? 19. The days are no longer so cold as for- 
merly. 20. Animals no longer find anything to (a) eat in the forest. 


! a/ ■■■2k. 

41* ', 


© Underwood & Underwood 


La France a la bonne fortune d'etre baignee au nord et au sud par la mer, 
ce qui attire les gens pendant la belle saison. La cote du midi, appelee 
Riviera ou Cote d'Azur, est aussi attrayante l'hiver que l'ete. C'est un veri- 
table paradis terrestre. Le bleu de la mer et du ciel laisse au visiteur une 
impression inoubliable et fait de cette cote le rendez-vous, en hiver, de 
l'aristocratie du monde entier. Sur cette cote se trouve l'etrange petite 
principaute de Monaco qui, quoique n'ayant que huit milles carres de su- 
perficie et une population de quelques milliers d'habitants, forme encore 
un etat independant gouverne par un prince absolu. La principaute fait 
saillie dans la Mediterranee et est enclavee dans le departement des 
Alpes-Maritimes. Elle contient Monte-Carlo connu surtout a cause de 
ses maisons de jeu 



(Lessons Twenty-Six and Twenty-Seven) 
A. General Drill 

1. Give the synopsis of entrer, compound (perfect) tenses, 
neg.-int. ; finir, simple tenses, int. ; tendre, compound tenses, int. 

2. Give the — 

pres. subj. of couter, neg. pluperf. subj. of tomber, neg. 

fut. of perdre, int. past indef. of avoir, neg.-int. 

past def. of vendre, neg.-int. past indef. of batir, int. 

past ant. of acheter, neg. cond. perf . of arriver, neg.-int. 

3. Give the present indicative negative of the verbs mean- 
ing to go, to wish, to read, to write, to have, \ to sell. 

4. Make interrogative — 

il a achete un habit il n'aime pas ses amis 

il n'a pas achete un habit j'entends les oiseaux 

votre pere a achete un habit je suis entre dans le restaurant 

votre pere n'a pas achete un je n'entends pas les oiseaux 

habit votre pere aime ses enfants 

il aime ses amis votre pere n'aime pas ses enfants 

5. Translate into French — 

when do you work ? when did you stay here ? 

when does your friend work ? when did your friend stay here ? 

6. Give a French sentence containing est-ce que; n'est-ce pas. 

7. Modify (a) le garcon entend, (b) les garcons ont entendu, 
by adding the following negatives : never, nothing, no longer, 
scarcely, not at all, nobody. 


8. Translate into French — 

they finished only one lesson he has neither brothers nor 
they finished yesterday only one sisters 

lesson no more snow ! 

he has neither seen nor heard are you going to go ? 

he is neither working nor playing in the street car 

he loves neither his father nor in the window 

his mother no, sir, thank you 

B. Translate into French 

1. I saw nobody and I found nothing. 2. Has he sent any play- 
things to the boys ? 3. There are only a few red flowers in your 
garden, but you have many white • flowers. 4. His nephews are 
rich, are they not ? They have many jewels and beautiful carriages. 
5. Tomorrow I shall pass the day in the country if the snow does 
not fall. 6. Does your friend stay long ? No, she will stay only a 
week. 7. Who carried any red apples to the grocer's ? Nobody. 
8. Nobody is hungry, but everybody prefers to eat now. 9. We 
sell neither bread nor meat. 10. Was I not talking about our 
country's flag ? 11. Did not the teacher's daughter enter the class- 
room an hour ago? 12. I shall neither lose nor sell the books 
which you have chosen. 13. There is snow in summer there, is 
there not? 14. Had you never met that merchant in the post 
office? 15. If you had never entered the store, you would not 
have seen the new overcoats. 16. We no longer have anything in 
our room. 17. Never shall 1 1 visit France and the provinces again. 
18. Good-by, I am going to live in England this winter. 19. On 
starting for the seashore I shall visit only my best friends. 
20. How long will the snow which has fallen remain? 

1 See Sec. 328, b. 





172. Personal Pronouns are divided into two classes, con- 
junctive and disjunctive. 

Conjunctive pronouns are used as subject, direct object, 
and indirect object of a verb expressed. In all other cases 
the personal pronoun has the disjunctive form. 

Note. By the indirect object is meant the object before which in 
English the preposition to (or for) is expressed or understood : as, / 
gave it to him (indir. obj.); I give him (indir. obj.) the book. 

173. List of Conjunctives. Conjunctive pronouns have 
distinct forms for subject, direct object, and indirect object. 
The forms are as follows : 

Sing. < 

ist Per. 
2d Per. 


[3d Per. ^ 

r ist Per. 
\ 2d Per. 

3d Per. j , 







je, / 

me, me 

me, to me 

tu, thou 

te, thee 

te, to thee 

il, he, it 

le, him, it 

lui, to him 

elle, she, it 

la, her, it 

lui, to her 

nous, we 

nous, us 

nous, to us 

vous, you 

vous, you 

vous, to you 


X \i] tkem 

• >to them 

Note i . Of the two forms for the object pronoun it, the gender of 
the word to which the it refers determines the choice. Compare Sec. 8 1 . 
Where is the ribbon ? I want to Oil est le ruban ? Je veux le regarder. 

look at it. 
Where is the silk? I am going to Oicestlasoie? Jevais vous lamontrer. 

show it to you. 

Note 2. Le, la, me, and te elide before a vowel or mute h. 
II m'aime. He loves me. 


Note 3. De and a do not contract before le and les when the latter 
are pronouns. 
II aime a le montrer. He loves to show it. 

174. Position of Conjunctives. Conjunctive object pro- 
nouns directly precede the verb of which they are the object, 
except in the affirmative imperative, where they follow. 
When the objects thus follow the verb, they are connected 
with it by a hyphen, and me and te become moi and toi. 

II nous aime. He loves us. 

Je lui ai donne un livre. / have given him (her) a book. 

Le trouvera-t-il ? Will he find it ? 

II ne l'aime pas. He does not like it. 

Entendez-le. Hear him. 

Regardez-moi. Look at me. 

Ne les portez pas. Do not carry them. 

Me voici. Here I am. 

lis veulent me voir. They want to see me. 

Note. Observe that these pronouns precede the auxiliary in a com- 
pound tense, that they also precede in questions, and that they follow ne. 
In the last illustration me is the object of voir, not of veulent. Voila and 
voici, like verbs, are preceded by object pronouns. 

175. Two Conjunctives. When two conjunctive pronouns 
are objects of the same verb, the one in the third person is 
placed nearer the verb. If both are third person, le, la, les 
precede lui, leur ; it happens that they are then arranged in 
alphabetical order. 

II me le montre. He shows it to me. 

Montrez-le-moi. Show it to me. 

Ne nous le montrez pas. Do not show it to us. 

II le leur donne. He gives it to them. 

Donnez-le-leur. Give it to them. 

Ne les lui donnez pas. Don't give them to him {her). 

Le lui donne-t-il ? Is he giving it to him (her) ? 



Note. The following table presents, in a form for memorizing, all 
possible combinations : 

rle fie -le "] -le 

me-j la nous-< la -la >>-moi -la }■ 

lies lies -lesJ -les. 



-le 1 

-le 1 

te ■ 


vous < la 




► -vous 

le - 




la >■ leur 
les J 

-les J 
-le 1 

-les J 
-le 1 




► -lui 


► -leur 

les . 


-les J 

-les J 

176. Pleonastic Use. In order to avoid repetition, the 
conjunctive object pronoun is often used to represent a 
preceding word or phrase. If the conjunctive object stands 
for a definite noun or pronoun, it agrees in number and 
gender. If it stands for an adjective or a whole phrase or 
clause, it is always le. 

Etes-vous Phomme ? Je le suis. 
Etes-vous sa mere ? Je la suis. 
Etes-vous heureux ? Je le suis. 
Le vendra-t-il ? Je le pense. 

Are you the man t I am (he). 
Are you his mother? I am (she). 
Are you happy ? I am (it). 
Will he sell it? I thi?ik so (it). 


bon marchg, cheap 
la caisse, the cash window 
le caissier, the cashier 
ensuite, then, afterwards 
envelopper, to wrap up 
l'Stoffe/, the piece of goods 
les 6toffes, the goods 
la fille de magasin, the clerk 
le franc, the franc (coin, par 
value about twenty cents) 
garnir (de), to trim (with) 

le magasin de nouveaut£s, the 
department store 

la modiste, the milliner 
passer, to pass, go by 
payer, to pay (for) (Note i) 
pris (past part.), taken 
quel ! (/. -lie) what ! what a ! 

le rayon, the department, counter 
reporter, to take (carry) back 

le ruban, the ribbon 

la soie, the silk 


a mon gout, to my taste 

je vous prie, please (I beg of you) 

voulez-vous ? are you willing ? will you ? (Note 2) 

entrer chez la modiste, to enter the milliner's 

combien le vend-il ? at how much does he sell it ? 

Note i. After payer, the thing paid for is the direct object ; the per- 
son paid, the indirect. I paid her for the dress (paid the dress to her), je 
lui ai paye la robe. But also, I paid her the money, je lui ai paye' Pargent. 

Note 2. Vouloir, in the sense of to be willing, must be distin- 
guished from the future. 

Are you willing to stay ? (Will you stay ?) Voulez-vous rester I 

Are you going to stay? (Shall you stay ?) Resterez-vous ? 

Compare English shall and will. 

Present Indicative of dire, to say, tell 
je dis nous disons 

tu dis vous dites 

il dit ils disent 

Present Participle Past Participle Imperative 

disant dit dis, disons, dites 


1 . Give the present indicative of dire, neg. ; of dire, neg.- 
int. ; the future perfect of dire. 

2. Supply the French for the words in parentheses, placing 
them in the correct position : 

Une dame demande a (her) modiste de montrer (her) quelques 
chapeaux. La modiste montre (them to her) et dit : « Ne trouvez- 
vous pas (them) a (your) gout ? — Oui, mais ces autres chapeaux, 
pourquoi ne montrez-vous pas (them to me)? Montrez (them to 
me). » La modiste dit : « Je vendrai (them to you) bon marche. » 
La modiste enveloppe (them for her), et la dame paye (her for them). 


3. Express in French — 

she gives it tell it to us 

she gives him a franc do not tell me 

she gives it to him do not tell it to her 

she has given it to him tell it to him 

she did not give it to them he gives them the books 

does he carry it back ? he gives them to them 
has he not carried them back ? he gives them to us 

tell me he gave them to us 

4. Translate into French — 

I want it he sells them cheap 

I do not want them give them to me, please (two 

where is the pen ? I have it ways) 

my daughter, do you love us ? she thinks so 

she wants to hear me are you sick ? I am 

he will show it to us are you the milliner ? I am not 

my friend, you are tall I will pay him 

had he not given it to us ? I will pay for them 

my son, stay here I will pay her for them 

have you the book ? I want it what a good store ! 

have you the notebooks ? I will you look at me ? 

brought them shall you look at me ? 

have you seen her ? she entered the milliner's 

Model Dans les Magasins 

Ce matin nous sommes parties de bonne heure faire nos 
emplettes. Ma cousine nous a accompagnees pour nous montrer 
les beaux magasins. Comme une voiture passait, nous l'avons 
prise. Nous sommes d'abord entrees chez la modiste. Elle nous 
a montre plusieurs chapeaux, mais nous ne les avons pas trouves 
a notre gout. Ma cousine cependant a achete un chapeau garni 
de fleurs et de rubans que la modiste lui avait montre ensuite, 


mais elle ne l'aime plus. Elle le lui reportera demain. Nous 
sommes allees ensuite dans un magasin de nouveautes. En entrant 
ma mere dit a une fille de magasin : « Etes-vous la fille qui m'a 
vendu des e'toffes hier ? » Elle a repondu : « Oui, madame, je la 
suis. — Montrez-moi, je vous prie, le rayon des e'toffes de soie. 

— Le voila, a droite. Vous le trouverez facilement. — Quelles 
belles etoff es ! » La fille de magasin les leur montre en disant : 
« Regardez cette etoffe. Examinez-la. Ne la trouvez-vous pas tres 
belle ? Je vous la vendrai bon marche. » En regardant une autre 
etoffe ma mere a dit : « Combien nous la vendrez-vous ? — Dix 
francs. — Tresbien. Enveloppez-la-moi. Voici l'argent. — Voulez- 
vous payer a la caisse, s'il vous plait, madame ? Voila le caissier. 

— Marie, voici l'argent. Donne-le-lui. » Marie le lui a donnd et 
nous sommes sorties. 


I entered a department store yesterday and I asked a store 
clerk : M Where is the silk-goods department ? " She showed it 
to me. And what beautiful goods ! I like to examine them all. 
The (store) clerk shows the customers the goods. When the 
customers have chosen the goods that they want, she wraps them 
up for them, saying to them, " Will you pay at the cash window, 
if you please ? " But I want to go to the milliner's now. There 
she is opposite this store. M Here I am, madam." li Show me 
a few hats, please." " Here is a beautiful hat trimmed with ribbon 
and flowers. How do you like it ? " "I do not find it to my taste." 
" Is it too cheap ? " "I think so ; where are the winter hats (hats 
of winter) ? " M Here they are. I want to show them to you." 
The milliner gives them to me and I choose at last a very wide 
hat, which I shall take back if I do not like it any more on arriving 
home. The milliner accompanies me to the door. M There 's a 
carriage (which is) passing. Do you want it ? " " Please." I 
shall arrive home early. 



i. Quand etes-vous parties faire vos emplettes ? 2. Etes-vous 
allees seules en ville ? 3. Pourquoi vous a-t-elle accompagne'es ? 
4. Comment etes-vous allees en ville? 5. Chez qui etes-vous 
entrees? 6. Que (what) vous a montre la modiste? 7. Les avez- 
vous trouves a votre gout ? 8. Votre cousine a-t-elle achete un 
chapeau ? 9. L'aime-t-elle encore ? 1 o. Reportera-t-elle le chapeau 
chez la modiste ? 1 1. Ou etes-vous allees ensuite ? 1 2. A qui votre 
mere a-t-elle parle ? 13. La fllle de magasin aime-t-elle a montrer 
les etoffes aux clients ? 1 4. Aussitot que votre mere eut choisi une 
etoffe, qu'a-t-elle dit a la nlle de magasin ? 15. Les etoffes de soie 
sont-elles bon marche ? 


1. My brother had a large red apple, but he gave it to me. 
2. Will you sell me the new dress which you bought ? 3. Where is 
the cash window ? Show it to me, please. 4. The milliner has 
many beautiful hats, but we do not want to buy them. 5. I shall 
pay him for the meat if he brings it tomorrow. 6. What a kind 
teacher! He never gives us long lessons. 7. My father bought 
some oranges yesterday and gave them to me. 8. Are teachers 
rich ? They are not. 9. Do you not say so too ? 10. My parents say 
that they do not want to give it to him. 11. His father says that he 
will not give his son any more money. 1 2 . My sister did not pay 
me for the silk that I bought her in town. 13. Did the shoes which 
he bought her cost only ten francs ? 1 4. Do you know the mer- 
chant's name? No, sir, he did not tell (it to) me. 15. They want 
to sell him the horses which they bought ; look at them. 1 6. When 
you buy things at the grocer's, always pay him for them. 17. If my 
friend had found any flowers in the woods, he would have brought 
them to me. 18. Here I am ; have you been waiting for me long? 
19. Show them my jewels, but do not give them to them. 20. Is 
the house that he has bought old ? I do not think so. 



177. The Disjunctive Personal Pronouns are 

Singular Plural 

First Person moi nous 

Second Person toi vous 

Third Person \ , 

\j. elle elles 

178. Uses of the Disjunctive. The general use of the 
disjunctive pronouns has already been defined in Sec. 172. 
They are employed in every case where a personal pronoun 
is needed except when such pronoun is the subject, direct 
object, or indirect object of a verb expressed. The most 
frequent occasions for their use are 

a. As the object of prepositions. 

for me, pour moi behind him, derriere lui 

b. As the predicate nominative after forms of etre. 

it is I, Jest moi it is you, Jest vous 

it is he, Jest lui it is she, Jest elle 

Note. //, in sentences like the above, when it is the subject of Stre 
followed by a noun or pronoun, is ce (c' before a vowel). 

c. In shortened expressions in which the verb is omitted. 
He is more active than they (are). // est plus adif qu'eux. 

d. When the subject or object (direct or indirect) of a 
verb consists of two pronouns or a noun and a pronoun. 
The two words are often summed up, especially when they 
are of different persons, by the proper conjunctive pronoun. 


He and I spoke also. Lui et moi, nous avons parte 

He and she spoke. Lui et elle ont parlk. 

Henry and I both spoke. Henri et moi, nous avons parlk 

tons les deux. 
I heard thee and him. Je vous ai entendus, toi et lui. 

I gave it to her and to them. Je Vai donne a elle et a eux. 

179. Intensive Pronouns. The intensive pronouns are 
formed by adding meme (//. memes), even, sarne, to the dis- 
junctive pronouns. Thus : 

lui-meme, himself eux-memes, themselves 

Je l'ai vendu moi-meme. / sold it myself. 


asseyez-vous, sit down, seat mais oui, yes indeed 

yourself messieurs, gentlemen 

bien entendu, of course pres de, near (to) 

boire, to drink promis {past part.) de, prom- 

le cigare, the cigar ised to 

fumer, to smoke • sans, without 

fumer la pipe, to smoke a pipe la santS, the health 

heureux (de), happy (to) sur moi, about (on) me 

inviter (a), to invite (to) voir, to see 

tous (toutes) les deux, both 

demander a quelqu'un de, to ask somebody to 

Note. Observe the construction with demander : 

I ask him for it (ask it to him),/<? le lui demande 
I ask him for the book,/*? lui demande le livre 
I ask him to com&,je lui demande de venir 

Present Indicative of venir, to come 
je viens nous venons 

tu viens vous venez 

il vient ils viennent 




i. Continue through all the forms of the pronouns in 
heavy type — 

elle est partie avant moi (toi, etc.) 
il est plus grand que moi 

2. Express in French — 

I hear him 
I gave him a cigar 
I was near him" 
he himself is here 

3. Translate into French 

it was she 

he and she are here 

he heard me himself 

did he not lead them ? 

with her 

more happy than I 

it will be he 

they came themselves 

I saw you and him 

her father 
I hear her 
I told her 
she is coming herself 

he has started 

in order to hear them 

you and I will find them 

in front of her 

she asked them to write 

sit down, please 

they invited me to see 

(Sec. 173, Note 3) 
she promised to see him 


4. Supply the French for the words in parentheses : 

Voulez-vous donner (me) cinquante francs ? Us ne sont pas 
pour (me) mais pour (her) et pour (them). (It is she) qui a 
demande (me for them). Comme je n'avais pas (them) sur (me), 
j'ai dit (her) d'attendre et que je demanderais (you) de donner 
(them to me). Je donne (them to you) volontiers, (to you), mais 
pas (to her), et je dirais bien (her so myself). Je n'inviterai pas 
(her) (to) aller avec (me) ou (to) etre pres de (me). 


Model tj ne Autre Visite 

Aujourd'hui j 'attends une visite. Deux de mes amis m'ont 
promis de venir chez moi. lis sont partis de chez eux il y a deux 
mois, et ne sont revenus que la semaine derniere. Je les ai invites 
a venir me voir et ils seront bientot ici. Les voila a la porte ! Ce 
sont eux. Mais ils ne sont pas seuls. N'est-ce pas Jean avec eux ? 
Mais oui. « Mes amis, je suis heureux de vous voir. — J'ai demande 
a Jean de venir avec nous. Nous ne sommes pas venus sans lui. 
— Vous avez bien fait (done). Asseyez-vous la; vous, Charles, 
devant moi, et Henri a cote de vous ; Jean, ici pres de moi. Je 
vais vous chercher des cigares. Je n'ai rien sur moi. Les voici. 
Moi, je ne fume jamais de cigares, mais la pipe. Qui veut boire une 
bonne tasse de cafe ? — Nous tous, bien entendu. — Marie, apporte 
des tasses. Moi, j'apporterai le cafe'. Jean, qui est plus grand que 
nous, aura la plus grande tasse. Messieurs, a votre bonne sante. » 


Yesterday I had two friends at my house. I did not wait for 
them long because they had promised to come early. I was happy to 
see them. It is (sont) they who were in Europe for three months. 
They had invited me to go with them and I have been wrong 
to (de) stay here. John, Peter, and I have often traveled together. 
When they entered the parlor, I said to them, " Sit down," and I 
gave them some cigars that I had about me. I smoked my pipe. 
I spoke with them of many things. Peter likes coffee, and Mary 
brought some very large cups for him, and for us too, of course. 
We like coffee almost as much as he. On giving them their cups, 
I said, " To your good health." Peter remained at my house an 
hour and then he went home. John and I remained yet a while 
(un moment). He spoke of his business ; so did I (I too). I still 
had a cigar about me, and I gave it to him. Then he went out, 
but without me. I did not go out with him. My wife and I said to 
him, " Good-by, will see you again soon." 



1. Qui a promis de venir vous voir? 2. Quand sont-ils partis de 
chez eux pour 1' Europe ? 3. Combien de temps sont-ils restes en 
Europe ? 4. Depuis quand sont-ils chez eux ? 5. Qui avez-vous 
invite' a venir vous voir? 6. Sont-ce (is it) eux a la porte? 7. Pour- 
quoi Jean est-il venu aussi ? 8. Aviez-vous des cigares sur vous 
quand vos amis sont arrives? 9. Fumez-vous ? 10. Pour qui 
Marie a-t-elle apporte' des tasses ? 11. N'a-t-elle apporte' que 
des tasses ? 12. Qu 'avez-vous dit en donnant du cafe a vos amis ? 
13. Qui est a cote de vous en classe ? 14. Le tableau est-il derriere 
moi? 15. Montrez-le-moi. 


1. Where are John's sisters? He came without them. 2. Are 
the apples which you found for me or for him ? 3. It was he, was 
it not ? He is younger than I. 4. Both Henry and she have gone 
to the city. 5. Punish her yourself if you wish, but do not punish 
him. 6. When the French soldiers came to the city, they found 
the German army in front of them. 7. First John and I started ; 
then my father and mother came. 8. You and Mary arrived home 
without us, didn't you ? 9. We found you and them behind the 
house. 10. Stay near me, my son, if you are afraid of dogs. 1 1. I 
am happy to see you and Peter this morning. 12. Many men died 
in France for you and me. 13. Jane, here are newspapers on the 
table ; carry them to your father yourself. 1 4. The general's army 
came with him from Paris yesterday, and he is going now to 
Orleans. 15. Mr. Lebon brought some cigars which he bought 
in Paris. 16. My friend is coming tomorrow, and she will stay 
for a week. 17. Her parents say that they are going to the 
seashore without her. 18. I am going to ask him to read it to 
the class himself. 19. Miss Riou, did she invite you to accompany 
her to Europe? 20. He promised it to the boy when he should 
ask for it. 




180. The Pronoun Y is used to take the place of the 
preposition a (sometimes en and dans) and an object pro- 
noun when the pronoun refers to a thing (rarely when it 
refers to a person). This occurs with all the various mean- 
ings of a, to, at, in, etc. Thus : 

a. When a means to. 

Repondez-vous a la lettre ? J'y Are you replying to the letter ? 
reponds. I am replying to it. 

b. When a means at. 

J'etais a Paris; mon pere y I was at Paris ; my father lives 
demeure. there (at it). 

c. When a means in. 

Etes-vous a l'ecole? J'y suis. Are you in the school ? I am there 

(in it). 
Note. Observe that y often translates there. When there is em- 
phatic, la must be used ; otherwise y. 

I am here, but he is there. Je suis ici, mats il est Id. 

I was at home and he was there too. fetais & la maison et il y itait aussi. 

181. The Pronoun En is used to take the place of the 
preposition de and an object pronoun when the pronoun 
refers to a thing (rarely when it refers to a person). This 
occurs with all the various meanings of de, of (including the 
partitive use), from, with, etc. Thus : 

a. When de means of (not partitive). 

Voilk le livre ; il en a parle. There is the book ; he has spoken 

of it 



Voila mes bijoux ; elle en parle. 

Avez-vous mon livre ? J 'en ai 

b. When de is partitive. 
Avez-vous de Pargent ? J'en ai. 

En a-t-il ? 
II n'en a pas. 

Combien de livres avez-vous ? 
J'en ai deux. 

c. When de means from. 

Est-il parti de la maison de son 
ami ? II en est venu hier. 

There are my jewels ; she speaks 

of them. 
Have you my book ? I need it 

(have need of it). 

Have you any money ? I have 

some (of it). 
Has he any (of it) ? 
He has none (of it). 
How many books have you ? I 

have two (of them). 

Has he started from his friend's 
house? He came from there 

(it) yesterday. 

182. Y and En in Verbal Idioms. Occasions for the use 
of y and en are found after certain verbs that are followed 
by de or a. Such constructions are often at variance with* 
the English idiom. 

Among these verbs are 

jouir de, to enjoy 

remplir de, to fill with 

remercier de, to thank for 

penser a, to think about, of (fix the mind on) 

penser de, to think about, of (have an opinion of) 

J'aime le cafe ; remplissez-en / like coffee ; fill my cup with it 

ma tasse. 
Je vous en remercie. I thank you for it. 

J'aiune longue lecon ; j'y pense. I have a long lesson; I am 

thinking about it. 
Qu'en pensez-vous ? What do you think about it? 


183. Position of Y and En. Y and en are really conjunc- 
tive object pronouns, and precede or follow the verb accord- 
ing to the principle laid down in Sec. 1 74 for such pronouns. 
If used with other object pronouns, y and en follow. If 
they are used together, y precedes en. 

Je les y porterai. I shall carry them there. 

Je leur en apporterai. I shall bring them some (of it). 

II y en a ici. There is some here. 

Vendez-en. Sell some. 

Note i. Before y and en, contrary to Sec. 174, we have m' and t' 
instead of moi and toi. 

Donnez-m'en. Give me some. 

Note 2. The rules for the order of the ordinary elements of a sen- 
tence may be summarized thus : 


















Je ne le lui ai pas encore donne. 

II ne nous en avait pas encore donne. 


l'addition/, the bill penser, to think (Sec. 182) 

de bon app&it, with a good ap- placer, to place 

petite le poisson, the fish 

le fromage, the cheese le pourboire, the tip 
le garcon, the waiter, boy recu (past part.), received 

garder, to keep remercier (de), to thank (for) 

jouir (de), to enjoy remplir (de), to fill (with) 

la lettre, the letter le rosbif, the roast beef 

le menu, the menu la soupe, the soup 



Present Indicative of prendre, to take 
je prends nous prenons 

tu prends vous prenez 

il prend ils prennent 


1. Translate into French - 

have you any pens ? 

I have enough (of them) 

I have ten 

give me two 

give me some 

he was thinking of me 

I was speaking of him 

give her some . 

do not give him any 

there are some 

I shall be there 

you have some letters, reply to 

he has two brothers, I have one 


bring the fruit here, not there 

he is going to her 

is there none ? 

I give some to him 

he carried them there 

look for some 

bring me some 

do not bring me any 

I will fill the bottle with it 

there was some 

there was some there 

I replied to him 

I thank you for it 

I enjoy summer 

2. Answer the following, using en or y in each reply : 

A-t-elle des robes ? 
Pensez-vous a la neige ? 
Avons-nous peur des chiens ? 
Pourquoi aimez-vous votre ville ? 
Repondez-vous a mes lettres ? 

Chantait-elle chez elle ? 
Demeurait-il a Londres ? 
Combien d'yeux avez-vous ? 
Sont-elles parties du chateau ? 
Jouent-ils a la campagne ? 

Inflect through the tenses — 
il y en a 

n'y en a-t-il pas ? 
il n'y en a pas. 


4. Supply y, en, or 1&, as the meaning requires : 

Ce restaurant, que pensez-vous ? £tes-vous jamais 

venu ? Je viens souvent. Void une table ; mettons-nous 

Oil est le menu? — — voila un. II etait , sous 

l'assiette. Donnez me un. Voila du potage ; prenez 

Remplissez votre assiette. Moi, je ne veux pas. Ne me 

donnez pas. Et la salade ? Je pense. 

Model Au Restaurant 

Je dine au restaurant avec mon ami quand lui et moi n'avons 
pas le temps de retourner chez nous. II y en a un pres d'ici. 
« Entrons-y. — J 'en suis bien content parce que j'ai faim. — Cette 
table est trop petite. — En voila une plus grande pres de la 
fenetre. Allons-y. — Garcon, donnez-moi le menu. » Le garcon 
nous le donne. « Le voici, messieurs. » Nous le lisons. Le garcon 
nous apporte des assiettes, des verres, des cuillers, des fourchettes 
et des couteaux, qu'il place devant nous sur la table. II y place 
aussi des serviettes. « Qui est ce monsieur en face de nous ? 

— Monsieur Lenoir. II est alle a Paris cette anne'e. Son pere y 
demeure. — Depuis quand est-il revenu d'Europe ? — II en est 
revenu le mois dernier. Voici le menu. — Choisissez vous-meme. 

— De la soupe ? qu'en pensez-vous ? II n'y a que du rosbif et du 
veau. — Du rosbif pour moi. En voulez-vous aussi ? — Avec plaisir. 

— Garcon, un peu de poisson, du rosbif et des pommes de terre. Y 
a-t-il de la salade ? - — Oui, monsieur, il y en a. — Apportez-nous-en 
alors. — Et le dessert, Charles ? — J'y pense. Nous en voulons un 
peu, n'est-ce pas ? Le fromage est-il sur le menu ? Ah ! oui, il y 
est. — Garcon, n'en apportez que pour monsieur. — Et le cafe noir ? 

— Surement. — J'ai dine de bon appetit. Garcon, l'addition. — 
Charles, j'ai de l'argent. En avez-vous ? — Oui, mais je n'en aurai 
peut-etre pas assez. — En voici. — Non, gardez votre argent. Je 
n'en ai pas besoin. J 'en ai assez. Donnerons-nous un pourboire 
au garcon ? — Oui, donnons-lui-en un. » 

Y AND EN 209 


Service a la carte a toute heure 

Dejeuners et diners Dejeuners et diners 

a 2fr. jo a jfr. 50 

Potage ou hors-d'oeuvre Potage ou hors-d'oeuvre 

Deux plats au choix Deux plats au choix 

Legume ou poisson Deux legumes ou poisson 

Salade ou dessert Salade et dessert 

£ bouteille de vin £ bouteille de vin 

Pain a discretion 



Consomme de volaille Puree de haricots aux croutons 

Huitres d'Ostende en coquille Saucisson de Lyon Celeri 

Maquereau frais a la maitre d'hotel Homard mayonnaise 


Bceuf, sauce tomate Navarin de mouton Pigeon aux petits pois 

CEufs a la coque Omelette aux champignons 


Veau aux carottes Bceuf braise a la jardiniere Rosbif au jus 

Poulet, pommes nouvelles 


Pommes de terre en robe de chambre Choux-fleurs, sauce blanche 

Tomates farcies 


Laitue, sauce mayonnaise Chicoree frisee Tomates au persil 

Creme fouettee aux fruits Compote de pommes 

Vin Biere (voir liste) Cafe The 



" Where is there a good restaurant ? I am hungry." M There 
are some everywhere. There is one. I have been dining there 
for a long time. Let us go in. Here is a table." " Is there not 
a smaller one ? " " Oh ! yes. There 's one near the window. 
We shall like that place better. Let us go there. Where is the 
menu ? " " There {emphatic) are several of them. Give me one, 
please. W T e are going to dine well. Don't you want a little soup ? 
There is your plate. Pass it to me." ■* Don't give me too much 
of it, please. But I have no spoon. Oh ! yes, here is one beside 
my fork. This roastbeef is very good/ What do you think of it ? " 
" Very good." " Do you want some more ? " M No, thank you, 
I do not want any more, I have enough. I should like some 
tea. Is there any green (tea) ? " w Yes, there is. Waiter, bring 
us some." " I like tea. Fill my cup with it." w What do you 
think of this green tea? There is cheese. Do you want any?" 
"If you please." "Waiter, cheese and the coffee." "Do you 
give the waiters tips here?" "No, I never give them any. I have 
dined with a good appetite. Let us return home. Do you still 
live in Thiers Street (la rue Thiers) ? " " Why (mais) yes, I still 
live there. I have been there for ten years." 


i. Dinez-vous toujours chez vous ? 2. Entrez-vous souvent dans 
un restaurant ? 3. Que demandez-vous au garcon ? 4. Quels sont 
les choses que le garcon place sur la table? 5. Ou les place-t-il? 
6. Nommez deux sortes de viande. 7. Qu'aimez-vous le mieux ? 
8. Comment les Francais finissent-ils leur diner ? 9. Que demandez- 
vous au garcon apres le diner ? 1 o. Que lui donnez-vous ? 1 1 . Dinez- 
vous gendralement de bon appe'tit? 12. Pensez-vous a vos lecons 
quand vous etes chez vous ? 13. Que pensez-vous de cette lecon ? 
14. Avez-vous de l'argent sur vous? 15. Re'pondez-vous a toutes 
les questions du maitre ? 



i . Have you any good fruit ? Yes, I have some. 2. Give me some, 
but do not give him any. 3. If you have any fresh water, give me 
a glass of it. 4. Don't give me any flowers ; I have enough, keep 
some for Mary. 5. Your letter arrived last night and I answered it 
this morning. 6. I thought of you often when you were studying 
in Europe. 7. If you wish coffee, the waiter will fill your cup with it. 
8. Are you enjoying your wealth ? Yes, sir, I have been enjoying 
it for a long time. 9. If my son does not take any, I will take some 
myself. 10. I want to thank my father for the oranges that he 
bought me. 1 1 . He says that he has only a little meat, and that he 
will not sell any to his customers. 12. When I go into a restaurant, 
I always take some fish if there is any. 13. Boy, bring me a menu, 
please. Yes, sir, here is one. 1 4. If you have no good wood at 
home, I will bring you some there. 15. If you have too many 
horses, sell me one. 16. His father is coming to see him, but he is 
not going to give him any money. 17. If you need hats when you 
come to town, I will show you some. 18. If there are no automo- 
biles in your city, do not ask me to go there. 19. What beautiful 
horses! What do you think of them? 20. How many cousins do 
you have ? I have two, and my sister, of course, has as many. 



184. Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns. In French, as 
in English, there are both adjectives and pronouns used 
to denote possession. Possessive adjectives are used to 
limit an expressed noun; possessive pronouns are used to 
take the place of a noun that is. omitted. Thus: 

my (adj.) book the book is mine (flron.) 


185. The Possessive Adjectives are 

Singular Plural 

(First Person mon 
Sing. J Second Person ton 


M. AND F. 









his, her, its 










I Third Person son 

(First Person notre 

Pl. J Second Person votre 

\Third Person leur 

Note. The distinction between ton and votre corresponds to that 
between tu and vous. See Sec. 142. 

186. Possessive Repeated. A possessive adjective modi- 
fying more than one noun is repeated before each. 

my coat and vest, mon habit et mon gilet 

187. Possessive before Vowels. The feminine forms ma, 
ta, sa cannot stand before a vowel or mute h ; the forms 
mon, ton, son are used instead. 

mon ecole, my school 

188. Article for Possessive. The definite article is com- 
monly used in French, instead of a possessive adjective, 
with predicate nouns denoting the parts of the body or 
something closely connected with it. When the meaning 
would not be clear, an indirect object pronoun referring to 
the owner is used in addition to the article. 

He is closing his eyes. Ilferme lesyeux. 

He lost his left arm. 77 a perdu le bras gauche. 

The dog bit his arm. Le chien lui a mordu le bras. 

He lost his life. II a perdu la vie. 

(With) his hand in his pocket, La main dans lapoche, il y etait 
he sat there. assis. 



Note. A similar construction, in which the definite article is used 
after avoir in describing parts of the body, is illustrated by the following: 

She has a small hand. Elle a la main petite. 

You have blue eyes. Vous avez les yeux bleus. 

189. The Possessive Pronouns are 







f 1. le mien 

la mienne 

les miens 

les miennes 


Sing. J 2. le tien 

la tienne 

les tiens 

les tiennes 


[3. le sien 

la sienne 

les siens 

les siennes 

his, hers 

f 1. le notre 

la notre 

les notres 

les notres 


Pl. J 2. le votre 

la votre 

les votres 

les votres 


[3. le leur 

la leur 

les leurs 

les leurs 


His book and mine. 

Son livre et le mien. 

Your house is red, 

his is white. 

Votre maison est rouge^ 
est blanche. 

la sienne 

190. Ownership. After the verb etre, ownership is ex- 
pressed by the preposition a with a disjunctive pronoun. 
The cow is mine (belongs to me). La vache est a moi. 

Note. The distinction between the use of a with the disjunctive and 
that of the possessive to express possession is important. The former 
expresses simple ownership ; the latter distinguishes one from another. 
For example, with the question whose cow is it ? the answer, the cow 
is mine, is la vache est a moi. V/hen the question is which cow is 
mine ? the answer, the red cow is mine, is la vache rouge est la mienne. 

191. Agreement of Possessives. Note that the possessives 
agree with the thing possessed and not with the possessor. 

Son jardin may be translated her gardai as well as his garden, 
son, not sa, being used because jardin is masculine; while to trans- 
late his pen, we must say sa plume because plume is feminine. 
Also, mon livre et le sien, my book and hers ; not la sienne, because 
livre is masculine. 




le bal, the ball 

le bas, the stocking 

le bouton, the button 

le chapelier, the hatter 

la chaussette, the sock 

la chemise, the shirt 

le costume, the suit 

la couturiere, the dressmaker 

la cravate, the necktie 

la dentelle, the lace 

double* de, lined with 
le faux-col, the collar 
le feutre, the felt 
le gilet, the vest 

Phabit m., the dress coat 
la jaquette, the coat (woman's) 

la jupe, the skirt 
la laine, the wool 
la manche, the sleeve 
la manchette, the cuff 
le manteau, the cloak 

meme, same 
le mouchoir, the handkerchief 
de la nuit, the night long 
le pantalon, the trousers 

perdre, to lose 
la poche, the pocke 

recommencer, to begin again 
le tailleur, the tailor 
la tete, the head 
la toile, the linen 
le veston, the coat 

le costume de ville, the street suit 

Present Indicative of mettre, to put, put on 

je mets 
tu mets 
il met 

nous mettons 
vous mettez 
ils mettent 

Note. En is used to express material : a silk skirt, une jupe en soie ; 
the skirt is (of) silk, la jupe est en soie. De sometimes replaces en. 


i . Prefix to the nouns below the proper forms for (a) his, 
(b) our, (c) their, (d) her: 

mere bras amies 

dcole yeux cheveux 


2. Insert in the blanks below the proper form for 
{a) yours, {b) hers, (c) theirs, (d) his, (e) ours : 

mes livres et ma plume et 

mes plumes et mon cheval et 

3. Translate into French — 

thy school your mother 

your sisters did he lose his life ? 

this dog is mine the black horse is mine, the 

he has black hair white horse is yours 

their father and mother his mother 

my house is black, his is white her father 

your best pupils their fathers 

close your book his friend and ours 

do not close your eyes our friends 

4. Continue the following through all the forms of the 
pronouns in heavy type : 

j'ai perdu la mienne (la tienne, etc.) 

j'aime mon (ton, etc.) pere 

les miennes sont utiles 

ce lit est meilleur que le mien 

je mets un chapeau de feutre 

Model L ES Vetements 

Je suis alle chez mon tailleur chercher le costume qu'il m'a fait. 
Le veston de mon costume a deux boutons. II est double. J'ai un 
gilet que je porte quand je n'ai pas assez chaud. II n'a pas de 
manches. Mon pantalon n'est pas si large que le votre. J'ai 
un mouchoir dans la poche de mon pantalon. Mon mouchoir, mon 
faux-col et les manchettes de ma chemise sont en toile. Votre 
faux-col est plus haut que le mien. Que pensez-vous de ma 
cravate ? La mienne est plus sombre que la votre, mais je l'aime 


mieux. Le chapeau que j'ai sur la tete est en feutre. J 'en porte 
toujours un en feutre en hiver. Je l'ai achete chez le meme 
chapelier ou mon frere a achete le sien. Mon frere va au bal ce 
soir, et il ne fermera pas les yeux de la nuit. II prepare son habit. 
Le pardessus qui est sur ce fauteuil est a lui. Le mien est a cote 
du sien sur la chaise avec les chaussettes que j'ai achete'es ce 
matin. Ma sceur, qui va au bal avec lui, a une robe de soie garnie 
de dentelle. La couturiere qui la lui a faite lui a aussi fait son 
dernier costume de ville. La jupe et la jaquette de son costume 
sont en laine. Ce chapeau n'est pas a elle. II est a ma mere. Le 
sien est encore plus beau. Dans son sac a cote de son manteau 
double de soie sont les bas et les gants qu'elle portera ce soir. 


In winter we wear thicker clothes than in summer, and if we go 
into the street we wear an overcoat. Mine is very heavy. The 
suit which I am wearing is of a dark color. My tailor, who made it, 
also made one for my brother. His is not finished yet. It will be 
finished when his school begins again. My coat has short sleeves. 
I haven't long arms. They are not so long as yours. Your coat is 
lined and has three buttons. Mine has only two. I have a vest, but 
I never wear it. My trousers are of the same goods as yours, but 
mine are not so wide. This handkerchief is mine. It is of linen like 
my collar and the cuffs of my shirt. Yours is of silk. It is prettier 
than mine. When I go to the ball, I wear a dress coat. My sister 
went down town with your mother this morning. She bought socks 
for me, and a silk dress trimmed with lace for herself (elle-meme). 
That street dress there is hers. Her dressmaker made her the skirt 
and the coat. Her woolen cloak lined with silk is on the chair. 


i. Qui vous a fait votre costume? 2. Combien de boutons a 
votre veston ? 3. Portez-vous un gilet ? 4. Mon pantalon est gris. 
De quelle couleur est le votre? 5. Ou est mon mouchoir? 6. La 



chemise du maitre est- 
elle en soie ? 7. Votre 
faux-col est-il plus haut 
que le mien ? 8. Votre 
robe est-elle moins 
longue que la mienne ? 
9. Que pensez-vous de 
ma cravate ? 1 o. Quel 
chapeau portez-vous en 
hiver? 11. Ou avez- 
vous achete votre cha- 
peau? 12. Portez-vous 
un habit quand vous 
allez dans les maga- 
sins? 13. Quelle sorte 
de robe votre sceur 
porte-t-elle au bal ? 

14. Le tailleur a-t-il 
fait votre costume de 
ville, mademoiselle X ? 

15. Ce livre est-il a 
vous ? 


1. My sister is a 
teacher; she closed her 
school a week ago. 
2. Your cousin is not 
studious, but her father 
never wants to punish 
her. 3. John gave me 
this necktie ; where is 
yours? It is on the 


La Bretagne, province du nord-ouest de la 
France, fait saillie dans l'ocean Atlantique. 
La race bretonne retient ses habitudes tradi- 
tionnelles de penser, de vivre et de s'habiller 
plus religieusement que toute autre partie de 
la France. « FJeve sur une terre ingrate qui 
produit a peine ce dont il a besoin pour se 
nourrir, habitue sur mer a affronter le danger, 
le Breton vit dans la pauvrete, dans la crainte 
et dans la pensee de la mort. II n'a que deux 
moyens pour echapper a la dure realite : la 
religion et le monde de l'imagination. Aussi 
voyons-nous que cette population qui est la 
plus pauvre de la France est en meme temps la 
plus religieuse et l'une des mieux douees pour 
la poesie. La Bretagne a ete de tous les temps 
la terre des legendes. » (F. Le Bourgeois) 


table. 4. My arms are short, but they are longer than yours. 
5. Both Charles and I have new socks ; his are white but mine 
are black. 6. There are two dresses in the room ; the green one 
is mine and the blue one is my mother's. 7. Peter has woolen 
shirts, but he always wears a silk one in summer. 8. My automo- 
bile, yours, and his are in front of my house. 9. The hat which my 
brother has in his hand is felt, but his son has a woolen one. 
10. A friend has invited him to the ball, and he will not close his 
eyes the night long. 11. His aunt has already returned from 
France, but mine arrives from there tomorrow. 12. My teacher 
and his wife went to Europe last week and will remain there a 
year. 13. My two brothers went to (the) war, and one of them lost 
his life in it. 14. John is putting on his dress coat and is going 
down town to see his friend. 15. Gentlemen, take off your over- 
coats and stay an hour with us. 16. We are putting on our cuffs 
and soon we shall be ready. 17. When I put money in my pocket, 
I always lose a little during the day. 18. This hat is his, but mine 
is beside yours on the table. 19. Is this pen hers? It is neither 
hers nor yours ; it is mine. 20. Neither my cuffs nor my new shirt 
are here ; I do not want to go to the ball. 

Jeux d'Esprit 

Cinq voyelles, une consonne, 

En franc,ais composent mon ncm ; 

Et je porte sur ma personne 

De quoi l'ecrire sans crayon. (Oiseau.) 

Si mon premier est precieux, 
Mon dernier habite les cieux, 
Et mon tout est delicieux. (Or-ange.) - 



(Lessons Twenty-Eight to Thirty-One) 
A. General Drill 

1. Give the list of (a) conjunctive direct object pronouns; 
(b) conjunctive indirect object pronouns ; (c) disjunctive pro- 
nouns ; (d) intensive pronouns. 

2. Give the rule for the position of conjunctive object 
pronouns (a) with reference to the verb ; (b) with reference 
to each other. 

3. Translate into French — 

have you fallen, my son ? sell it to him 

have you fallen, my friend ? do not sell it to him 

have you fallen, my friends ? he sold them to them 

he is punishing them he did not sell them to me 

he is selling them a horse if you have the newspaper, bring 

will they like it ? it with you 

do not sell them are you his sister ? I am not 

they did not see her will he punish them ? I think so 

sell it to me is she pretty ? he thinks so 

do not sell it to me do they not want me ? 

will you sell it to me ? will you give them to me ? 

will he sell it to me ? shall you give it to her ? 

4. Give four French sentences, illustrating as many uses 
of disjunctive pronouns. 

5. Translate into French — 

I shall visit him I saw you and them 

I shall visit with him she found it herself 

he started without me before tomorrow 

it is I before the palace 


it was not he near the garden 

he is taller than I I shall ask the tailor for it 

she and I entered the room I asked her for it 

6. Explain the exact nature of en and of y. 

7. Translate into French — 

there is my farm I have some chairs 

are you going there ? have you any ? 

were you speaking of it ? has he none ? 

were you not thinking of it ? how many do you want ? 

there 's my uncle fill the cart with them 

were you speaking of him ? there are some books there 

are you going to him ? bring some, bring the best 

will you give it to him ? carry some to them there 

8. Give a complete list (a) of possessive adjectives; (b) of 
possessive pronouns. 

9. Give French sentences containing la leur ; les siennes ; 
les votres ; notre ; notre. 

10. Translate into French — 

his house his book and theirs 

her father' thy father and brother 

my school he will save her life 

your best friend I closed my eyes 

the book is mine they have black eyes 

this book is mine you have a long arm 

1 1 . Supply the French for the words in parentheses : 
(My) tailleur, (who) demeure pres de (my) ecole, a fait (me) un 

costume. (My) veston a plus de poches que (yours), mais (mine) 
sont plus petites. II a fait (it for me) cOmme j'avais demande 
(him to). Charles a un neuf (one). (His) est different de (mine). 
(John's) costumes sont differents aussi. (His) sceur a perdu (her) 
vie. II aimait (her) et a donne (her) (her) beaux bijoux. 


B. Translate into French 

i. Give it to me, but do not give any to him. 2. He and I 
studied our lesson two hours this morning. 3. If you had found 
the watch which I had lost, I should have been very happy. 
4. Did you send any money to my niece's friend ? 5. If they had 
any, they would give me a little. 6. I heard you and John in the 
garden when I entered. 7. If you have too many dogs, give me 
one. 8. I am going to him, but I am not going to give much to 
him. 9. When you arrive at the city and need some good fruit, I 
will bring you some. 10. Is the sea always blue there? I do not 
think so. 11. He gave her the silk which I sold him. 12. They 
bought it for us, but we gave it back to them. 13. I used to have only 
a few good friends in France, but now I have many. 14. Bring it 
back to me when you have finished it. 15. Their horses, his, and 
yours too, all used to be mine. 16. That fruit is good, but it is not 
mine ; it is theirs. 17. I am thinking about my new hat; what do 
you think of it? 18. She had on her head some red leaves. 



192. Demonstratives Defined. Words used closely to 
define or point out an object, such as this and these in 
English, are called demonstratives. There are two kinds 
of demonstratives, adjectives and pronouns. The former 
are used with a noun expressed ; the latter to take the 
place of a noun omitted. 

193. The Demonstrative Adjectives are 

Singular Plural 

Masculine ce (cet before a vowel or h mute) # ces 

Feminine cette ces 


ce gant, this (or that) glove ces gants, these (or those) gloves 

cet habit, this (or that) coat ces habits, these (or those) coats 

cette plume, this (or that) pen ces plumes, these (or tfrose) /£#.$• 

194. Suffixes ci and /a. Special emphasis upon the 
demonstrative adjective is expressed by the adverbs ci, here, 
and la, there, placed after the modified noun and connected 
with it by a hyphen. Such emphasis is especially involved 
in contrasts. This usage serves to distinguish this from that 
when such distinction is necessary. 

Cet homme-ci est grand, mais ces This man is tall, but those boys 
garcons-la ne sont pas grands. are not tall. 

195. The Demonstrative Pronouns are 

Singular Plural 

Masculine celui, this, that , ceux, these, those 

Feminine celle, this, that celles, these, those 

196. Uses of Demonstrative Pronouns. Demonstrative 
pronouns, used, as stated above, without a noun, are always 
followed by some defining construction. This may be 

a. A possessive phrase introduced by de. 

ma serviette et celle de Marie my napkin and Mary's (that of 


b. A relative clause. In this use the demonstrative pro- 
nouns not only represent the English demonstratives, that, 
the one, those, etc., but also the English third personal pro- 
nouns, he, him, she, her, they, a conjunctive pronoun never 
being used as the antecedent of a relative. 

Ma plume est bonne, mais celle My pen is good, but that {the one) 

que vous avez est meilleure. which you have is better. 

Celui qui est riche est heureux. He (the one) who is rich is happy. 


Ceux qui sont beaux ne sont Those (the ones) who are beauti- 
es toujours bons. ful are not always good. 
J'aime celle que vous punissez. / love her (the one) whom you 

are punishing. 

c. The suffixes -ci and -la, forming celui-ci {this, this one), 
celui-la {that, that one), etc. 

Cette maison-ci est bonne, mais This house is good, but that {one) 

celle-la est meilleure. is better. 

Voici deux chambres ; celle-ci Here are two rooms ; this one is 

est grande, celle-la est petite. large, that one is small. 

Note. When referring to a preceding word, celui-la is often to be 
translated the former; celui-ci, the latter. 

Jean et Marie sont ici ; celui-la est John and Mary are here; the former 
riche, celle-ci est pauvre. is rich, the latter is poor. 

197. Ceci and cela (ca colloquially) are employed as neuter 
pronouns to express this and that when used to refer to 
something clearly understood but not definitely mentioned. 

I heard that. fat entendu cela. 

Give me this. Donnez-moi ceci. 

198. Ce as Representative Subject. The neuter pronoun 
ce is used as the subject of etre to replace the personal 
pronouns il, ils, elle, elles, and the demonstrative pronouns, 
when etre is followed by a noun, a pronoun, or a superlative 

It (this) is a handkerchief. C'est un mouchoir. 

She is my sister. C'est ma seeur. 

It is I. C'est moi. 

It (this) is the most beautiful C'est la plus belle etoffe. 


But when other constructions follow etre, the personal 
pronouns are used. 

She is rich. Elle est riche. 

Where is the book? It is Henry's. Oil est le livre ? U est a Henri. 

Note. In this construction the verb always agrees with ce in the 
third person singular except when the predicate is in the third person 
plural, in which case the verb itself is usually in the third person plural. 

It is he. C'est lui. 

It is we. C'est nous. 

It is they. Ce sont eux. 

These are my brothers. Ce sont mes freres. 


l'amabilite* /, the kindness en haut, upstairs 

en bas, downstairs la lumiere, the light 

la bibliotheque, the library naturel (/ -lie), natural 

confortable, comfortable le rayon, the shelf 

couteux, expensive nous recevons, we receive 

electrique, electric au rez-de-chauss6e, on the 

l'£tage m., the floor, story ground floor 

en face, opposite la salle de bain, the bathroom 
trois fois par (or le) jour, three times a day 

Present Indicative of voir, to see (past participle, vu) 

je vois nous voyons 

tu vois vous voyez 

il voit ils voient 



i . Prefix the proper form of the demonstrative adj ective to — 

vie tete souliers 

homme livre ecoles 


2. Translate into French — 

this glove did he say that ? 

that glove my pens and the ones which 

my glove and John's you have 

my glove and his our dresses and Mary's 

this is good, that is poor she who is here 

a book better than my mother's the ones which you want 

3. Translate into French — 

it is his he is one of my friends 

it is a library he is a good boy 

it is new she is our sister 

it is a new coat it is I 

they are old it is they 

they are pupils it is good 

it is John's it is better 

this is John's it is the best 

4. Continue c'est moi through the forms of the disjunctive. 

5 . Supply the French for the words in parentheses : 
J'aime (this) maison mieux que (that). Entendez-vous (that)? 

(It) est une maison blanche. (It) est neuve. (It) est (the one that) 
vous voyez (there). (There are) beaucoup de fenetres en haut. 
(Those) fenetres sont plus hautes que (these). Je parle de (those) 
qui sont ouvertes. Ma tante, (yours) et (John's) demeurent (there). 
(There they are). (They are) de cheres femmes. 


Ma Maison 

Je demeure dans cette maison-la. C'est celle de mon pere. tile 
n'est pas grande, mais elle est confortable. C'est une maison de 
deux etages. Entrons-y. Elle a huit pieces. Celles-ci sont: le 
salon, la bibliotheque, la salle a manger et la cuisine au 
rez-de-chaussee. En haut, il y a quatre chambres a coucher et 


aussi une salle de bain. C'est au salon que nous recevons nos 
amis. Dans notre bibliotheque il y a beaucoup de livres francais. 
Je suis entre dans celle de mon maitre d'ecole ; il en a beaucoup 
aussi. Je passe beaucoup de temps dans la bibliotheque. Dans 
cette piece il y a un pupitre, celui de mon pere. Les livres qui 
sont dans cette piece ne sont pas tous a lui ; ceux qui sont sur les 
rayons a gauche sont a moi, ceux-la a mon pere. C'est dans la 
salle a manger que nous allons trois fois par jour. Nous avons 
de la lumiere electrique dans notre maison. Dans celle que nous 
habitions il y a deux ans il y avait le gaz. Cette chambre-ci est la 
mienne, et celle-la a droite est celle de ma sceur. Elle est plus 
gaie que la mienne. Celle qui est la devant vous est celle que 
mes parents ont choisie pour eux-memes. Cela est naturel. C'est 
la plus grande. C'est Ik, en face, qu'est la salle de bain. « Tout 
ceci est tres bien. Je vous remercie de votre amabilite. » 


That house opposite ours is my rich neighbor's. It is he who is 
in the garden. He has other houses. That one beside his is also 
his. It is not so pretty as the other, but it is as comfortable (as 
that). It is (c'est) there that my friend, Mr. Leroux, lives. Those 
windows on the right of the door on the ground floor are those of 
his parlor. Behind that tree is the library. The shelves are filled 
with books. Many of those that he has are French. That man 
likes French. It is he who gave me that one that I showed you 
this morning. It is an interesting book. It is very expensive. My 

SALON DE ROUSSEAU -LES CHARMETTES. Le salon est la chambre 
de la maison ou Phote recoit ses visiteurs. Le mobilier modeste represente 
dans la gravure d'a cote est peut-etre typique de celui d'une maison fran- 
caise ordinaire. Le salon que nous voyons ici est celui d'une maison en 
Savoie, connue sous le nom des Charmettes, et occupee pendant huit ans 
par Jean-Jacques Rousseau, penseur et ecrivain francais, dont les idees 
originales furent le point de depart d'importants changements en litterature, 
en politique et en pedagogic 


friend has a very fine dining-room. I dined there twice last week. 
He has a good cook. The kitchen is larger than ours. Upstairs 
there are sleeping rooms. There is electric light in all those rooms. 
That window 7 , on the left, is that of the bathroom. If I were as 
rich as my friend, I too would have a house like that one. That 
is sure. 

Oral 1 

i. Demeurez-vous dans la maison de votre camarade qui est a 
votre gauche? 2. Combien d'etages a votre maison? 3. Celle 
de votre tante en a-t-elle deux ? 4. Quelles 1 sont les pieces du 
rez-de-chausse'e ? 5. Dans quelle piece recevons-nous nos amis? 
6. Quelles chambres y a-t-il en haut chez vous ? 7. Qu'y a-t-il dans 
votre bibliotheque ? 8. Avez-vous visite' celle de votre maitre ? 
9. Avez-vous plus de livres anglais que de livres francais ? 10. Ces 
livres-ci sont-ils a vous ? 11. Vos livres sont-ils sur le pupitre de 
votre voisin ? 12. Combien de fois par semaine etes-vous a l'e'cole ? 
13. Y a-t-il le gaz chez vous? 14. Ces fen£tres-ci sont-elles' plus 
petites que celles de votre maison? 15. Cette lecon est-elle facile ? 


1. These collars and cuffs are mine ; where are yours ? 2. I am 
putting on my blue silk dress ; it is prettier than Mary's. 3. He 
is taking these shoes because they are cheap ; those are more 
expensive. 4. John used to wear all kinds of hats, but now, he 
wears only felt (ones). 5. While speaking of this house he was 
looking at his neighbor's. 6. The new horses which my father 
gave me are in the stable; these are my mother's. 7. Our house 
in the country is low, but the one in town is of three stories. 
8. My sister's children are studious, but mine are more attentive 
in class. 9. Show me this, but do not show my sister that. 10. My 
friend says that there is a bathroom on every floor of this house. 

1 Use pronouns in the replies when possible hereafter. 


11. These are the pens which I found; they are John's, are they 
not? 12. Do you see this beautiful forest? It is the largest in the 
country. 13. This man used to have more money and often 
filled his son's pockets with it. 14. Peter, do you see the apples? 
These are all John's ; those are mine. 15. It is not my sister who 
arrived, but his ; she is upstairs. 16. Who is downstairs ? It is I ; 
do not be afraid. 17. His uncle and aunt came from different 
countries; the former is French, but the latter is English. 
18. What do you think of his gloves? They are good, but the 
ones that I have cost more. 1 9. Those who are rich are not always 
the happiest 20. Are you going to see his pictures today? Yes, 
and also those which you brought 



199. The Common English Relatives, who, whom, which, 
and that, are expressed in French by qui, que, or lequel, 
according to the following tabular arrangement : 

> (persons, animals, and things) 

Subject of a verb 
Object of a verb 

Object of a preposition 1 ? , . ' . ■ - . ■ * 

L lequel (persons, animals, and things) 

my friend who is here mon ami qui est id 

the man whom I love Vhomme quefaime 

the man for whom I work Vhomme pour qui (or lequel) je 


the pencil which is here le crayon qui est id 

the pen which I lost . la plume que fai perdue 

the book in which I study le livre dans lequel f etudie 

the picture that I find le tableau que je trouve 


200. Lequel is formed by the union of the definite article 
le and the adjective quel. It therefore varies to agree in 
number and gender with its antecedent. Its forms are 
lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles. 

la chaise devant laquelle je suis the chair before which I am 
les salles dans lesquelles j'ai ete the rooms in which I have been 

Note i. All relatives except lequel are invariable in respect to 
number and gender. 

Note 2. The le of lequel contracts with a preceding de or a in con- 
formity with the rules laid down in Sec. 77, forming duquel, desquelles, 
auquel, auxquels, etc. 

le cMteau duquel nous parlions, the castle of which we were speaking 

201. Lequel with Ambiguous Antecedent. The variable 
lequel is often used, instead of the invariable qui and que, in 
order to show more clearly in ambiguous cases which word 
is the antecedent. 

the wife of the doctor who is la femme du medecin lequel (or 

here qui) est id 

the doctor's wife, who is here la femme du medecin, laquelle est 


202. Relative Never Omitted. The relative must never 
be omitted in French, though it often is omitted in English. 

the carpet (which) I sold le tapis que j'ai vendu 

the boy (who is) with you le garcon qui est avec vous 


ancien (/. -nne), old, former la couronne, the wreath 
l'artiste m., the artist l'Sdifice m., the building 

au centre de, in the center of KEgypte/., Egypt 

contemporain, contemporary, exprimer, to express 

modern le guide, the guide, guidebook 



l'hotel (m.) de ville, city hall 
huit, eight 

lequel ? which (one) ? 
le libraire, the bookseller 

loin, far 
le monument, the monument 
le musee, the museum 
l'obelisque m., the obelisk 
Toeuvrey!, the work 
la paix, the peace 
le palais, the palace 
la partie, the part 

le patriote, the patriot 

la perte, the loss 

la photographie, the photograph 

la place, the square 
poser, to place 
public (f. publique), public 
renfermer, to contain 

la rive, the shore, bank 

la signature, the signature, sign- 

la statue, the statue 

le tre*sor, the treasure 

Present Indicative of faire, to do, 7nake (past participle, fait) 
je fais nous faisons 

tu fais 
il fait 

vous faites 
ils font 

7-) •/» EXERCISE 

i. Supply in the following blanks the proper relative word : 

la chaise vous avez la montagne sur je suis 

les chaises sont dans la le patriote de nous parlions 

chambre l'avocat a vous parliez 

la chaise est devant la table la sceur du garcon est ici 

2. Write French sentences containing respectively each 
of the following words or phrases 




laquelle auxquels 

3. Translate into French — 


the tailor who makes coats 
the tailor whom I saw 

the palace of which I speak 
the man of whom I am thinking 


the tailor for whom he works the mountains to which he is 

the statue which is in the park going 

the statue which they admire my uncle's house which is 

the statue in front of which she opposite 

is standing which house is yours 

4. Give the present indicative of faire, neg.-int. ; past 
anterior of faire. 

5. Continue — 

la ville que j'aime (tu aimes, etc.) 
la fille que j'ai vue 

Model a TRA vERS Paris 

Me voici a Paris depuis hier, et aujourd'hui mon ami, qui a deja 
visite cette ville, m'accompagne pour me montrer les monuments 
et les edifices interessants que Paris renferme. Le libraire dans le 
magasin de qui je suis alle hier avait un tres bon guide de Paris. 
Je l'ai achete et je l'ai lu hier soir. « Quelle partie de Paris me 
montrez-vous d'abord ? — Nous visiterons un peu les deux rives 
de la Seine, qui traverse la ville. Allons d'abord sur la rive droite. 
Nous voici devant l'Hotel de ville. — Oh ! le bel edifice ! — Mais 
voici le Louvre. C'est dans cet edifice, qui e'tait l'ancien palais des 
rois de France, que sont les ceuvres des artistes anciens. Sur 
l'autre rive est le musee du Luxembourg. — Quel musee est le plus 
grand ? — Celui du Louvre. C'est dans celui du Luxembourg que 
sont les tresors des artistes contemporains. Ce musee est dans le 
jardin public qui porte le meme nom. Auquel de ces musees 
aimeriez-vous mieux aller un jour? — Au Louvre. — Ce jardin 
que nous traversons est celui des Tuileries. Ah ! voici la place de 
la Concorde. Les huit statues qui sont autour de la place repre- 
sented les grandes villes de France. Celle-la est celle de Strasbourg. 
— Laquelle ? — Celle que regarde cette dame en blanc. Avant la 
signature de la paix elle etait couverte de couronnes que des 


patriotes posaient la pour exprimer les regrets que leur inspirait la 
perte de cette ville. Get obelisque qui est au centre de la place et 
que vous regardez etait autrefois en £gypte.» 


" You who have already visited Paris, do you want to accom- 
pany me today ? " " With pleasure." " To what interesting point 
do you want to go ? " " Paris contains many of them. The Place 
de la Concorde is not far from here. Let us go there. I saw the 
picture of it at the bookseller's. In his store there were many 
people who were buying guidebooks of Paris. Oh ! the beautiful 
square ! It is this square which is the most beautiful in Paris, is 
it not ? " " Yes, and also the largest." M But what is that statue 
which those people are looking at ? " M It is the statue which 
represents the city of Strasburg. Before the signing of peace, the 
loss of Strasburg used to inspire in (a) patriots regrets which they 
expressed by laying wreaths on the statue of the city. It now 
belongs to France." M What do those other statues represent ? " 
" They represent the great cities of France, and there are eight of 
them. That monument beside which that lady is, 1 is an obelisk. It 
was formerly in Egypt. There's the garden of the Tuileries, which 
we shall cross to go to the Louvre. The Parisians have made of 
the palace of the Louvre a museum, which many strangers visit. 
The works that it contains are those of ancient artists. Those 
of the modern are in the Luxemburg on the other bank of the 
river. The building I shall show you after that of the Louvre is 
the beautiful Hotel de Ville." 


1. Depuis quand etes-vous a Paris? 2. Visiterez-vous seul la 
capitale ? 3. Oil avez-vous trouve' un guide ? 4. Qu'en avez-vous 
fait ? 5. Quel fleuve traverse Paris ? 6. Quel est le fleuve sur la 

1 See Sec. 328, c. 

o o 


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rive duquel est le Louvre ? 7. Sur quelle rive de la Seine est 
l'Hotel de ville ? 8. Le Louvre a-t-il toujours ete un musee? 
9. Quelles oeuvres sont dans ce muse'e ? 10. Lequel est le plus 
grand, le Louvre ou le Luxembourg? 11. Oil est le Luxem- 
bourg ? 12. Dans lequel sont les oeuvres des contemporains ? 
13. Quelle est la statue la plus interessante de la place de la 
Concorde? 14. Pourquoi ? 15. Decrivez la place de la Concorde. 


1. Did you see the woman who arrived from France this 
morning ? 2. Here are the books which I bought at a bookseller's 
near the square. 3. The statue before which she is standing is 
that of the peasant maid of Domremy. 4. The work of which 
you are speaking used to be the emperor's. 5. He is the man to 
whom I gave the photograph. 6. The museum (into) which we 
are entering is the best in France. 7. Will you accompany her 
to show her the most interesting things in the city ? 8. What do 
you think of the obelisk ? It is the one the French brought from 
a foreign country. 9. He is speaking to me of the journey around 
the world he is making. 1 o. The palace to which I went is on the 
right bank of the Seine. 11. This is the bookseller to whom I was 
speaking yesterday. 12. They are showing him the photographs 
they bought. 13. Have you seen the house in which Joan used to 
live ? 1 4. Are you doing nothing at all today ? I am examining 
the books I read yesterday. 15. Have you visited the museum in 
which there are so many beautiful statues? 16. Did you see the 
teacher's daughter, who arrived this morning? 17. When you saw 
me an hour ago, the man with me was my brother. 18. Foreigners 
want to see the treasures which are in the palace. 19. It is the 
wreath which the patriot placed on the statue. 20. I bought at 
the bookseller's a guidebook of Paris, without which I never leave 
the hotel. 




203. Dont. Instead of de (in all its meanings) and an 
object relative, dont is very generally used. 

l'e'glise dont (or de laquelle) je the church of which I speak 


les pommes dont (or desquelles) the apples with which he filled the 

il a rempli la corbeille basket 

204. Whose. The English relative whose is equivalent 
to of whom or of which. It is expressed, therefore, either 
by dont, or by de with qui or lequel. The noun modified by 
whose takes the definite article, and if it is the object of a 
verb it must follow the verb. 

the man whose son (of whom Fhomme dont (or de qui) le fils 

the son) is here est id 

the man whose son I punished Fhomme dont (or de qui) j'ai 

(of whom I punished the son) puni lefils 

Note. For a case where dont may not be used, see Sec. 321, b. 

205. Ou as a Relative. The adverb ou is often used in 
cases in which a preposition with an object relative in 
English is equivalent to where or when. 

the house at which (where) la maison ou elle est 

she is 
the day on which (when) he le jour ou il est parti 

the parlor in which (where) I le salon oufetais 



206. What. The English relative what is equivalent to 
that which. In French there is no one word for this con- 
struction, both parts being expressed. Thus : 

Subject of a verb ce qui 

Object of a verb ce que 

Object of a preposition ce . . . quoi 

I am selling what (that which) Je vends ce qui est id. 

is here. 
I am selling what (that which) Je vends ce quefai. 

I have. 
He gave me what I was think- // m?a donne ce a quoi je pensais. 

ing of (that of which I was 


Note. In phrases in which the relative ce . . . quoi is used with the 
preposition de, the de quoi becomes dont in accordance with Sec. 203. 

You have done that of which I was Vous avezfait ce dont je parlais. 


I will give you what you need (that Je vous donnerai ce dont vous avez 

of which you have need). besoin. 

207. Summary of Relatives. The following table contains 
concisely the gist of the statements above : 

who (that) = qui 

7 /„ a f que, object of a verb 
whom (that) = \ . ' r , 

v / Lqui, object of a preposition 

f qui, subject of a verb 
which (that) = < que, object of a verb 

[lequel, object of a preposition 

whose (of whom, of which) = dont 

what— that which [qui, subject of a verb 

that = ce, which = <: que, object of a verb 

[quoi, object of a preposition 



l'acteur m., the actor louer, to praise 

Tare m., the arch magnifique, magnificent 

la beautS, the beauty la memoire, the memory 
le bout, the end monter, to go up (upstairs), 

la cathgdrale, the cathedral climb 

classique, classical le president, the president 
le dome, the dome principalement, mainly 

en effet, in fact le repertoire, the repertory 

Y6glisef., the church la rgpublique, the republic 
entier (/ -ere), entire superbe, superb 

eriger, to erect le theatre, the theater 
l'escalier m., the stairs, the le tombeau, the tomb 

staircase le triomphe, the triumph 

f rapper, to strike la victoire, the victory 

le haut, the top la vue, the view 

Present Indicative of savoir, to know 
je sais nous savons 

tu sais vous savez 

il sait ils savent 


1. Write French sentences containing respectively each 
of the following words or phrases : 

ce que dont 011 ce a quoi 

ce qui ce dont duquel que 

2. Supply in the following blanks the proper relative 
word or phrase : 

j'ai entendu il a dit il vendra est a lui 

je ne sais pas a fait le bruit la ville elle demeure 

je ne sais pas a vous donnez-moi tout vous avez 

pensez le gar^on j'ai vu le frere 


3. Translate into French — 

the artist of whom I spoke the countries she visited 

he will sell what he makes give back what is in your pocket 

the man he saw I saw what I had spoken of 

all he bought the victory of which I was 

the avenues of which we spoke thinking 

the teacher whose pupils I saw what is mine is yours 

the teacher whose pupils are the actor's wife, who praised the 

good theater 

4. Continue — 

(a) je sais ce que je veux 

(p) je ne sais pas ce qui m'a frappe 

Model A TRAVERS p ARIS (Suite) 

Non loin du Louvre est la Comedie francaise dont les Frangais 
sont si fiers. Les acteurs de ce theatre, lesquels tout le monde 
admire, jouent principalement le repertoire classique. Cette avenue 
ou nous sommes maintenant est l'avenue de l'Opera, au bout de 
laquelle est le the'atre le plus beau du monde. Ce qui frappe 
surtout les etrangers, c'est son superbe escalier. A notre gauche 
nous avons l'eglise de la Madeleine, dont vous avez deja vu une 
photographic Nous voici bientot dans les Champs-filysees, la ma- 
gnifique avenue ou demeure le president de la republique, et au 
bout de laquelle est l'Arc de Triomphe de l'fitoile. Le voila. Je sais 
(ce) a quoi vous pensez. Vous pensez aux victoires de Napoleon a la 
memoire desquelles il a ete' erige. Du haut de ce monument, vous 
avez une vue superbe. Montons-y. En effet la vue que nous avons 
d'ici est surement belle. Oh ! Voila la tour Eiffel et, derriere, les 
Invalides. C'est la, sous le dome, qu'est le tombeau de Napoleon. 
Demain nous visiterons les autres e'difices de la rive gauche de la 
Seine. Ce que j'aimerais a visiter aussi un jour, c'est Versailles, et 
aussi Reims, dont le monde entier admire la cathedrale. 



Tomorrow we shall be in Versailles to see there the treasures 
the beauty of which you have so often praised. It is (/est) what I 
have been desiring to do for a long time. Another day I shall visit 
also Rheims, whose cathedral used to be so beautiful. But today 
we visit what we have not seen on the right bank of the Seine. 
Here is the Arch of Triumph, erected to the memory of Napoleon. 
It is a magnificent arch, from the top of which (Sec. 321, b) you 
will have a superb view of Paris. What you are looking at, there, 
is the Hotel des Invalides, under whose dome is the tomb of 
Napoleon, of whom we were speaking a moment ago. That 
beautiful avenue in front of you is that of the Champs-filyse'es, at 
the end of which is the Place de la Concorde. Is it not on {dans) 
that avenue that the president lives (Sec. 328) ? Yes, it is what I told 
you the other day. At the left of the Place de la Concorde is the 
Madeleine Church, that one of which I was speaking yesterday. 
Farther (on) is the Opera, in the avenue which bears the same 
name. What is certain is (/est) that it is the most beautiful theater 
in the world. What foreigners speak of most is its great staircase. 
All I saw or all of which you spoke to me is surely very interesting. 


1. De quoi les Parisiens sont-ils fiers ? 2. Quel repertoire jouent 
les acteurs de ce theatre ? 3. Oil est l'Ope'ra ? 4. Que pensent les 
etrangers du grand escalier? 5. Avez-vous jamais vu une photo- 
graphic de la Madeleine ? 6. Y en a-t-il une dans ce livre ? 7. Que 
savez-vous de Tavenue des Champs- £lysees ? 8. Pourquoi l'Arc 
de Triomphe a-t-il ete erige ? 9. Que savez-vous des Invalides ? 

10. Du haut de quel monument la vue de Paris est-elle belle? 

1 1. Au bout de quelle avenue est la place de la Concorde ? 12. De 
quoi avez-vous besoin pour ecrire ? 13. Est-ce mon livre que vous 
avez ? 14. Tqus les livres que vous avez sont-ils a vous? 15. A 
qui est-ce qui est sur le bureau devant le tableau ? 



i. This is the cathedral of which I was speaking to you. 2. The 
public buildings with which the city is filled are very beautiful. 

3. The man whose son is now president is standing behind me. 

4. At the end of that street is the church, the doors of which are 
very magnificent. 5. Here is the boy whose uncle I saw in Europe. 

6. The merchant with whom I am going to France is very rich. 

7. A rich Englishman bought the palace which we entered last 
week. 8. Many foreigners visit the village where Joan used to 
live. 9. Do you know the day when he arrived from England? 
10. The theatre in which we heard that actor is one of the most 
beautiful in the world. 1 1. Show me what you have in your pocket. 
12. What is in his house is mine, and I shall sell it. 13. My father 
gave me what he had bought in town. 1 4. Tell her what you were 
thinking of when she entered. 15. First give me what I need ; then 
I will leave the house. 16. Does he know what I think of the 

LA PLACE DE L'ETOILE. La place de l'£toile, heureusement situee au 
sommet d'une legere eminence, est ainsi nominee a cause des douze 
avenues imposantes qui en rayonnent. Au centre est le colossal Arc de 
Triomphe, construit d'apres les arcs romains mais les surpassant tant en 
magnitude qu'en grandeur architecturale. II commemore les victoires 
de Napoleon. Commence par lui, en 1806, apres Austerlitz, il ne fut 
termine qu'en 1836. Sous l'Arc ne peuvent passer que les armees triom- 
phales, et l'amertume d'avoir vu faire cela par les Allemands a la fin de 
la guerre de 1870 a ete compensee par le passage des forces victorieuses 
de la France et de ses allies apres la guerre recente. Dans la photographie, 
les avenues dont les extremites jointes passeraient sous la plus grande 
ouverture de l'Arc sont, a gauche, l'avenue des Champs-Elysees, qui 
conduit a la place de la Concorde, et a droite celle de la Grande Armee. 
Les deux a angle droit de celles-ci et, pour ainsi dire, formant la continua- 
tion des plus longues dimensions de l'Arc, sont au premier plan l'avenue 
de Wagram, et a l'arriere-plan, a gauche, l'avenue Kleber. Celle bordee 
d'une double rangee d'arbres et laquelle se voit le mieux de toutes dans la 
photo est l'avenue du Bois de Boulogne, conduisant a ce fameux pare, 
promenade favorite de la societe parisienne. L'avenue plus etroite, remon- 
tant vers le haut de la photographie, est l'avenue Victor Hugo. 


victory? 17. Americans enjoy the view from the top of the dome 
of the cathedral near the square. 18. Will you tell me what you 
are looking at in that window? 19. These are the French books 
I want; will you sell me all you have of them ? 20. My father's 
sister who left yesterday is going to Canada. 



208. Who and Whom, as Interrogative Pronouns, are 

expressed by qui. 

Who is doing that ? Qui fait cela ? 

Who is this man ? Qui est cet homme ? 

Whom did you find ? Qui avez-vous trouve ? 

Of whom are you speaking ? De qui parlez-vous ? 

Note. Whom in sentences of the type below, in which it is without 
an antecedent, is an interrogative pronoun used in an indirect question. 
Use, therefore, the interrogative qui and not the object relative que. 
He is asking whom you want. 77 demande qui vous votdez. 

209. Whose y as an Interrogative Pronoun, is expressed 
by a qui when it denotes possession, by de qui when it 
denotes relationship. 

Whose book is this (to whom is A qui est ce livre ? 

this book) ? 
Whose husband is he (of whom De qui est-il le mart ? 

is he the husband) ? 
Whose son is that boy ? De qui ce garcon est-il lejils ? 

210. What, as an Interrogative Adjective, is expressed 
by quel, quelle (/.), plural quels, quelles (/.). 

What man ? Quel homme ? 

What women ? Quelles femmes ? 


Note i . This is true even when the noun that what modifies does 
not immediately follow it, and it is thus apparently a pronoun. 

What (color) is the color of this Quelle est la couleur de cette maison ? 
house ? 

Note 2. Quel has the meaning what a in exclamatory sentences. 
Quel soldat ! What a soldier! 

211. What, as an Interrogative Pronoun, is expressed 
variously, as shown in the following table : 

Subject of a verb, qu'est-ce qui 
Object of a verb, 


Object of a preposition, quoi 

Predicate nominative, 

What is growing there ? Qu'est-ce qui pons se la 1 

What is your father doing ? Que fa it voire perel 

What will death be ? Que sera la mort 1 

Of what are you speaking ? De quoi parlez-vous ? 

212. Which is expressed — 

a. When an interrogative adjective, by the proper form 
of quel. 

Which book ? Quel livre ? 

Which houses ? Quelles maisons ? 

b. When an interrogative pronoun, by the proper form 
of lequel. 

Which (man) is your uncle ? Lequel est votre onele 1 

Do you love your niece ? Which Aimez-vous votre niece ? La- 
one ? quelle ? 

Which (pupil) of your pupils is Lequel de vos Sieves est le 

the best ? meilleur ? 

Which (pupils) of your pupils Lesquels de vos eleves sont les 

are the best ? meilleurs 1 


213. Summary of Interrogatives. The following table 
contains concisely the gist of the statements above: 

who — qui 
whom = qui 

^={, que \ adjective 

[lequel, pronoun 

C qu'est-ce qui, subject of verb 

I que, object of verb 
what = i \ ' ■ £ 

quoi, object of preposition 

^quel, adjective 

fa qui, to denote ownership 

~~ [de qui, to denote relationship 

Note. Other composite forms, similar to qu'est-ce qui above, are 
often substituted for various interrogative pronouns; for example, 
qu'est-ce que, what, as object of a verb. See Sec. 323. 


l'attaque/, the attack l'elan m., the dash, enthusiasm 

Australien (/ -nne), Aus- esperer, to hope 

tralian juillet, July 

l'auteur m., the author la mort, death 

avoir lieu, to take place prendre part a, to take part in 

la bataille, the battle rencontrer, to meet, come 

la cause, the cause, reason across 

commander, to command, order la response, the answer 

le cdte\ the side seVere, severe, rigorous 

le drapeau, the flag la tuerie, the slaughter 

Present Indicative of pouvoir, to be able, can 

je puis, peux nous pouvons 

tu peux vous pouvez 

il peut ils peuvent 



i. Give English sentences containing — 

who (re/.) which (re/.) what (int.pron.) 

who (int.) which (int.pron.) what (int. adj.) 

whom (re/.) which (int. adj.) whose (re/.) 

whom (int.) what (re/.) whose (int.) 

Translate these English sentences into French. 

2. Give French sentences containing respectively each of 
the following interrogatives : 

quels de qui laquelle 

que quoi a qui 

qu'est-ce qui oil est-ce que 

3. Translate into French — 

whom do you want ? what a boy ! 

what have you ? who are they ? 

to whom are you singing ? whose horse is this ? 

whose son are you ? what are you making ? 

what is under the tree ? which is your niece ? 

which pen have you ? what is he thinking of ? 

what is the color of the sky ? what is this ? 

what makes the snow ? what battle is this ? 

4. Supply the French for the words in parentheses : 

(Which) livre est k vous ? Je veux (the one which) vous avez, 
et aussi celui (in which) elle lit. (Whose) plume est (this) ? (Where) 
est l'eleve (whose pen) j'aime ? (Which) de ces plumes est (yours)? 
Pour (whom) l'avez-vous apportee ? (Whom) avez-vous vu ? (What) 
avez-vous vu ? Savez-vous (what) j'ai vu ? (What) vue admirez-vous ? 
(Who) a vu l'epicier? (What a) homme! De (what) parle-t-il? II a 
deux magasins ; (of which) pense-t-il ? (What) est en face du magasin ? 


Model Cantigny » 

Qui e'tait avec vous ce matin ? — C'etait mon neveu Charles. 

— De qui est-il le fils ? — De ma soeur Marie. — Et de quoi 
parliez-vous quand je vous ai rencontres? — II me parlait de 
Cantigny, oil il etait entre un jour. — Qu'est-ce qu'il a dit? 

— Que c'etait la qu'avait eu lieu une des premieres batailles oil les 
Americains ont pris part. C 'e'tait en juillet de la derniere annee de 
la grande guerre. — Quelles armees des Allies y avait-il dans 
la* bataille ? — II y avait des Americains et des Australiens. 

— Lequel de nos generaux commandait? — Le general Bullard. 

— Lesquels des soldats furent les plus braves ? — La re'ponse est 
difficile. lis e'taient tous braves, mais les notres ont e'te superbes. 
Quels soldats! Avec quel elan ils sont alles a Fattaque! Quels 
sont ceux qui auraient fait mieux ? Les Allie's e'taient fiers d'eux. 
Mais a quoi pensez-vous ? — Je pense au grand nombre de 
ceux que la mort a emportes. C'etait pour une bonne cause, 
mais quelle tuerie ! Que sera la punition des auteurs de cette 
guerre ? — Severe, esperons-le. 


" What are you doing ? " "I am looking at a photograph." " Of 
whom ? " "Of soldiers." " From what country ? " " From the 
United States. Do you want to see it ? Here it is." M Why, it 
is a photograph of American soldiers in France ! Whose is it ? " 
M It is mine." " It is very interesting. What men ! In what place 
are they ? " M They are in Cantigny, where they entered with 
much dash." " What other soldiers were there with them ? " M The 
Australians." "Which army lost the greater number of men?" 
M Which one ? It is difficult to (a) say. Death carried away many 
on both {des deux) sides." "Who commanded our soldiers? Was 
it not General Bullard ? " " Yes, it was he. My nephew was one 
of his officers." " Whose son is your nephew ? " " My youngest 
1 See Frontispiece. 


sister's. It was she who was with me the other day." " What 
were you speaking of when I met you ? " M We were speaking of 
her son and of the war." M What did she think of the authors of 
the war ? " " She hoped that their punishment would be severe 
and that there would never again be a slaughter like that one." 


1. Qu'est-ce qui est sur la table devant vous ? 2. Quel livre est 
le votre ? 3. Lequel est votre grammaire ? 4. A qui est cette 
grammaire ? 5. De quoi parlons-nous en classe? 6. A quoi pensez- 
vous maintenant ? 7. A qui pensez-vous le plus sou vent ? 8. Lequel 
de vos parents est le plus grand ? 9. Lequel est le plus vieux ? 
10. De qui etes-vous le fils? 11. A qui re'citez-vous la lecon? 
12. Qu'est-ce que vous avez la? 13. Quelle est la couleur de votre 
livre? 14. Lequel est le plus difficile, l'anglais ou le francais? 
15. De quel village parlons-nous dans la lecon? 


1. Who is making so much noise in the classroom ? 2. Who is the 
girl who entered with my mother? 3. Whom did you see in town 
yesterday ? 4. To whom did you give the pens you bought ? 5. The 
teacher asks me whom I want to see. 6. Can you tell me whose 
French books these are? 7. Do you know whose niece this girl is? 
8. Whose sister is that attractive woman ? 9. What do you do when 
you have a vacation ? 1 o. What are these two Frenchmen doing in 
the United States ? 11. Which was the greatest battle in the war? 
1 2. What were the generals' names of whom you spoke ? 13. Which 
officers did you meet in France ? 14. Which statues do you hope 
to see in Paris ? 15. What was the answer that he gave ? I don't 
know what he said. 16. What can you tell me of this magnifi- 
cent attack ? Which one ? 17. Which of the armies were the best ? 
18. What do the Americans think of what has taken place in 
Europe? 19. Which soldiers took part in the battle of Cantigny? 
20. Of what were they thinking when they entered the city ? • 



(Lessons Thirty-two to Thirty-five) 

A. General Drill 

i. Give the list of (a) demonstrative adjectives, (b) de- 
monstrative pronouns. 

2. When and how are the particles ci and la added (a) to 
demonstrative adjectives ? (b) to demonstrative pronouns ? 

3. Give French sentences containing — 

cet celle ceux ceci 

celle-ci cela celle-la ces 

4. Translate into French — 

it is I the former and the latter 

it is mine this is a new book ; that is very clear 

it is good my work and my brother's 

it is better my pen and the one which she wants 

it is the best he who had arrived 

it is they I told you that 

it was we yours is smaller than Mary's 

that was my mother mine is the smallest 

5. Give the list of the relative pronouns, and illustrate 
each in a French sentence. 

6. Give the French for — 

who (re/.) which (re/.) what (int. adj.) 

who (int.) which (int. firon.) what (int. pron.) 

whom (re/.) which (int. adj.) whose (re/.) 

whom (int.) what (re/.) whose (int.) 

7. Give a French sentence containing each of the words 
in 6, 



8. Give French sentences containing — 
dont auxquels duquel 
ou cela quels 

ou quoi ce . . . dont 

9. Translate into French — 

the man who is here 
the friend whom I love 
I want what is here 
the room in which I was 
I want what I have 
the child I want is here 

she loves all that is beautiful 

I hear him whom I am seeking 

the man with whom I live 

the man whose son is here 

the merchant whose horse I bought 

they who are poor are often happy 

10. Translate into French 

what was here ? 
what was it ? 
whose pencil is it ? 
whose daughter is 

pretty girl? 
who is here ? 
whom do you hear ? 
what do you hear ? 

with whom is he ? 
of whom is he thinking ? 
what were your friends doing ? 
that which son is it ? 
what a big tree ! 
which of your eyes ? 
what is the lesson ? 
what is he doing ? 

1 1 . Replace the words in parentheses by the correct 
French words : 

1 . (What) belles rues ! 

2. (Which) gants sont (yours) ? 

3. (This) plume, (hers,) et (my sister's). 

4. (It) est lui (who) a fait (that). 

5. (Which) de vos amies a (these) fleurs ? 

6. (She) est la dame a (whom) j'ai parle. 

7. Je sais (that) (that) livre est (the one) (that) (that) homme veut. 

8. (What) peut lui donner (what) il veut ? 

9. (There are) des chaises (there), dans (their) chambre. 


B. Translate into French 

i. What was growing there in their aunt's garden? 2. What 
was there in the field where he and your brother were playing 
yesterday ? 3. This man has black eyes, that one has blue. 
4. Whose house is this ? It is the oldest in the country and its 
windows are very low. 5. Which is the little girl for whom he 
made those new shoes? 6. Whom did you see in the carriage 
in which we came ? 7. My friend's cousin, who has been traveling 
in France for many months, gave me this statue. 8. I shall never 
ask him what he is thinking about. 9. I should have heard that 
myself, if she had not spoken of it. 10. Which cathedral was it of 
which he praised the dome so much ? 1 1 . Of whom was that boy's 
aunt who was here speaking? 12. Did you praise the wreath she 
brought me? Which one? 13. This artist whose works the 
French love so much lived in Rheims. 1 4. They see this light, but 
they do not see that. 15. Charles, do you know the museum in 
which these statues are? 16. They who have long vacations are 
happy. 17. Who has lost his necktie and collar? Is it you, sir? 

18. He who takes wine often, white or red, will have a red nose. 

19. I know that that handkerchief that is there is hers. 20. Give 
her her guidebook which she lost. Where is yours ? 

Affiches — Avis au Public 













214. Cardinal Numbers. The following examples will be 
sufficient to illustrate the formation of all cardinal numbers : 

1 , un (f . une) 

21, wag* *tf «« 

81, quatre-vingt-un 

2, deux 

22, vingt-deux 

82, quatre-vingt-deux 

3, trots 

23, vingt-trois 

83, quatre-vingt-trois 

4, quatre 

30, /razte 

90, quatre-vingt-dix 

5, cinq 

31, /razte <?/ #/z 

9 1 , quatre-vingt-onze 

6, six 

32, trente-deux 

92, quatre-vingt-douze 

7, sept 

40, quarante 

97, quatre-vingt-dix-sept 

8, huit 

50, cinquante 

IOO, <T£#/ 

9, neuf 

60, soixante 

101, d?«/ #« 

10, dix 

70, soixante-dix 

125, *#/*/ vingt-cinq 

1 1 , onze 

71, soixante et onze 

200, dfew.*: r^/j- 

12, douze 

72, soixante-douze 

205, dtez/.* art/ «*«^ 

13, treize 

73, soixante-treize 

1000, »m7/<? 

14, quatorze 

74, soixante-quatorze 

1 1 5 , fti&fe quinze 

15, quinze 

75, soixante-quinze 

1400, #«//<? quatre cents or 

16, seize 

76, soixante-seize 

quatorze cents 

17, dix-sept 

77, soixante-dix-sept 

2000, */<?## /#*//<? 

18, dix-huit 

78, soixante-dix-huit 

4235, quatre mille deux cent 

19, dix-neuf 

79, soixante-dix-neuf 


20, &Mg? 

80, quatre-vingts 

1,000,000, «« million 

215. Peculiarities in Numerals. Observe in the fore- 
going list that 

a. Numbers less than 0;^ htmdred formed of more than 
one word always have a connective. In twenty-one, thirty- 
one, forty-one, fifty-one, sixty-one, and seventy-one it is et ; 
elsewhere it is a hyphen. Numbers greater than 0;^ hundred 


have no connective other than the one required between the 
tens and units. 

b. Vingt and cent are made plural when multiplied, if no 
number follows. 

c. Cent and mille are used without the indefinite article. 

d. The numbers are invariable for gender, except un. 

Note. Un million, and un milliard, a billion, take de before a 
following noun. 

216. Pronunciation of Numerals. Note that 

a. The final consonant of cinq, six, sept, huit, neuf, and 
dix is sounded when counting or at the end of a phrase, 
final x being sounded like s. Before a word beginning with 
a vowel sound the regular rules of linking prevail. Before 
a word beginning with a consonant these final letters 
are silent. 

b. There is no elision before huit and onze. 

General Note. From this point no lesson vocabularies are given ; 
the general vocabulary on pages 457-533 must be consulted. How- 
ever, idiomatic forms and phrases that will be met in the English- 
French parts of the exercises will be given from time to time. 



1. Count from i to no. Count backward from 20 to 1. 

2. Express in French — 

82 780 1400 397 3677 

121 7 1 59 483 5°5 

3. Give in French — 

(a) The multiplication table of five (cinq fois un font cinq, cinq 
fois deux font dix, etc.) ; the table of three ; of seven ; of eight. 

(b) The division table of six (six divise* par six fait un, etc.). 



4. Fill the blanks : 

dix et huit font 

quarante et un et vingt-six 

quinze moins trois font 


cinq fois douze font 

cent trente moins quatre-vingts 

quarante-deux divise par 




vingt fois vingt font 

Model L E p A ys de France 

La France a une superficie de cinq cent trente-six mille quatre 
cent huit kilometres carres, et sa population est d'environ trente- 
neuf millions d'habitants. Sa plus grande longueur, du nord au 
sud, est de neuf cent soixante-quinze kilometres ; sa plus grande 
largeur est de huit cent quatre-vingt-huit. Paris, qui en est la 
capitale, avait recemment deux millions huit cent quatre-vingt-huit 
mille cent dix habitants. Avant la Revolution de dix-sept cent 
quatre-vingt-neuf , la France e'tait divisee en provinces telles que la 
Normandie, la Bretagne, la Champagne, etc., tandis que main tenant 
elle est divisee en quatre-vingt-sept departements, divises eux- 
memes en trois cent soixante-deux arrondissements, deux mille 
huit cent quatre-vingt-dix-neuf cantons, et trente-six mille cent 
soixante-dix communes. 1 Le preset administre le departement, le 
sous-prefet l'arrondissement, et les maires les communes. Le pou- 
voir legislatif est place entre les mains du senat et de la chambre 
des deputes. II y a six cents deputes, elus pour quatre ans par 
tous les citoyens de vingt et un ans, et trois cents senateurs, elus 
pour neuf ans par les deputes et d'autres delegues. Le pouvoir 
executif est exerce par le president de la republique et ses mi- 
nistres au nombre de douze. Le president est elu pour sept ans 
par la chambre et le senat re'unis en congres. Les colonies de la 
France sont importantes. Leur superficie est d'environ quatre 
millions de milles carres; leur population quarante-cinq millions. 

1 L' Alsace et la Lorraine, de nouveau francaises depuis 191 8, non 



France, whose area is about 204,20c 1 square miles, has, since 
the war, a little more than forty million inhabitants. Alsace and 
Lorraine, which were German after the war of 187 1, are again 
French. They have an area of 14,518 square kilometers, and a 
population of 1,820,400. Of their four important cities, the largest 
is Strasburg. With Strasburg there are thirteen cities in France 
which have more than 100,000 inhabitants. All the departments 
are almost of the same size, but there are some which are more 
populous than others. Thus the department of (le) Pas-de-Calais has 
1,068,200 inhabitants, while that of (la) Vendee has only 438,500. 
France has not always been divided into departments. Formerly 
it was divided into thirty-three provinces, some larger than others. 


1 . Quelle est la superflcie de la France en kilometres carres ? 
2. Et en milles carres ? 3. Combien y a-t-il d 'habitants en France ? 

4. Quelle est la plus grande longueur du pays ? 5 . La population 
de Paris est-elle moins grande que celle de Boston ? 6. Quelle est 
celle de New York ? 7. La France a-t-elle to uj ours ete divise'e en 
departements ? 8. Combien y a-t-il de departements ? 9. En quoi 
sont-ils eux-memes divises? 10. Qui administre le de'partement ? 
l'arrondissement ? la commune? 11. Combien y a-t-il* de deputes 
et de se'nateurs? 12. Par qui est exerce' le pouvoir executif? 
13. Qui est le president actuel ? 14. La France a-t-elle des colonies ? 
15. Combien de lecons avons-nous de'ja e'tudiees ? 


1. 154, 281, 800, 555. 2. 1521, 2999, 21,371. 3. What part 
of 1000 is 100? 4. A year has twelve months or 365 days. 

5. Every four years it has, however, 366. 6. In the United States 
there are forty-eight states, the largest of which is Texas. 7. We 

1 All numbers in this lesson should be written out. 


l'Allemagne, Germany 

PAngleterre, England 

la Belgique, Belgium 

la Bourgogne, Burgundy 

la Bretagne, Brittany 

l'Espagne, Spain 

la Flandre, Flanders 

la Gascogne, Gascony 

l'ltalie, Italy 

la Manche, the English Channel 

Lyon, Lyons 

Marseille, Marseilles 

la Normandie, Normandy 

Pocean Atlantique, the Atlantic 

le pas de Calais, the Straits of 

la Picardie, Picardy 
Reims, Rheims 
le Rhin, the Rhine 
la Savoie, Savoy 
la Suisse, Switzerland 


have now had thirty-six lessons; how many more will there be? 

8. The grammar that you were studying last year had 480 pages. 

9. That of my friend has only 329. 10. But we hope that the new 
one will not have more than 300. 11. The little village in which 
I live has scarcely 2000 inhabitants. 12. But the city in which I 
was staying has almost 125 times as many. 13. In my library 
there are about 2500 books. 14. Whom did the French elect 
president ? Was he a general or a senator ? 15. The United States 
has an area of 3,026,789 square miles. 16. The thirteen colonies 
had less than 4,000,000 inhabitants. 17. The area of the French 
colonies is 21 times that of France in Europe. 18. What makes 
the citizens of France so proud of their country ? 19. Washington, 
the capital of the United States, had 331,069 inhabitants when I 
was living there. 20. Of what was the deputy speaking when you 
entered the Chamber ? 



217. Ordinal Numbers. Ordinals are formed from car- 
dinals by adding teme, omitting final e if there is one. 

troisieme, third quatrieme, fourth 

vingt et unieme, twenty-first 

The exceptions to this rule are 

premier, premiere (/.), first 

second, seconde (f), second (in a series of two) 

deuxieme, second (in a series of more than two) 

cinquieme (u inserted), fifth 

neuvieme (/changed to v), ninth 

quatre-vingtieme (s omitted), eightieth 


Note. The abbreviated forms of the ordinals are 

premier, i« dixieme, io e 

premiere, i* ra centieme, ioo e 

deuxieme, 2« etc. 

218. Fractional Parts with denominators greater than 
four are expressed by ordinals. 

one fifth, un cinquieme three eighths, trots huitiemes 

The following are the other fractional parts : 

one half, un demi one third, un tiers 

one fourth, un quart 

Note. When demi precedes the noun, it is connected by a hyphen 
and is invariable ; when it follows the noun, it is variable. 

une demi-heure, half an hour 

une heure et demie, one hour and a half 

219. Units of Measure. Observe that 

a. In expressing the price of a thing, the definite article 
is used before the noun denoting the unit of measure. 

This cloth cost five francs a Ce drap cofde cinq francs le 

meter. metre. 

I sell eggs at four francs a Je vends les ceufs quatre francs la 

dozen. douzaifie. 

But observe 

The French sell cloth by the Les Francais vendent le drap au 
meter. metre. 

b. Par (or sometimes le) is used before a unit of time. 

He earns ten francs a day. 77 gagne dix francs par (or le) 

He sings twice (two times) a II chante deux fois par semaine. 



c. The size of an object is expressed as follows : 

Cette table a deux metres de 

This table is two meters long. 

How long is this table ? 

longueur (or long). 
Cette table est longue de deux 

( Combien de longueur a cette table ? 
J Quelle longueur a cette table ? 
[De quelle longueur est cette table ? 

meilleur marchg, cheaper 
le franc, the franc, the unit of the 
French monetary system 
(par value about twenty 

le centime, the 

centime, one 
hundredth of a franc 
de plus en plus, more and more 
pour dix francs, ten francs' 


1. Give the ordinals from 1st to noth. 

2. Fill the blanks : 

le tiers de vingt-sept est deux cinquiemes et sept di- 

le huitieme de cent quatre xiemes font 

est le demi d'un onzieme est 

les trois cinquiemes de quinze six fois trois septiemes font 

sont deux fois dix francs cinquante 

les deux tiers de trois quarts font 

sont centimes font un franc. 

3. Express in French — 
the ninth class 
a half century 
a century and a half 
my first pair of shoes 

the second volume 
the twenty-first year 
the eightieth 
the eighty-first 


4. Express in French — 

two francs a meter to earn a hundred francs a week 

three francs a dozen he sells cheese by the kilo 

twice a day four times a year 

Model Au Marche 

Je suis allee en ville faire mes emplettes, et voici mon filet plein 
des choses que j'ai achetees. Tout etait horriblement cher. Le 
franc, a cause de la guerre, a perdu conside'rablement de sa valeur. 
Et mon pauvre mari, qui ne gagne que vingt-cinq francs par jour ! 
C'est la quinzieme anne'e qu'il travaille Ik. Enfin ! Je suis entree 
d'abord chez le tailleur pour m'acheter du drap. Ce drap, qu'il 
vend au metre, est tres joli, c'est vrai, mais le prix est joli aussi ; 
quinze francs le metre 1 Et encore c'etait le drap le meilleur marche 
qu'il avait. Ce morceau que j'ai apporte a trois metres de long 
et j'en aurai assez. C'est juste ce dont j'ai besoin. Je suis passee 
chez l'epicier. J'y ai pris deux livres de beurre a trois francs la 
livre, six francs ; une livre et demie de fromage, un franc cinquante ; 
pour cinq francs de sucre, le sucre coute de plus en plus cher ; un 
paquet de sel, vingt centimes ; une douzaine et demie d'ceufs a deux 
francs cinquante la douzaine, trois francs soixante-quinze. Cela fait, 
en tout, seize francs quarante-cinq que je lui ai payes. Les legumes 
etaient assez bon marche, mais je n'en avais pas besoin. Dans une 
demi-heure mon mari sera de retour. Je lui ai rapporte* de la 
bibliotheque le troisieme volume des « Miserables » , car il a deja 
fini les deux tiers du precedent. 


With the 7800 francs that my husband earns a year we have 
not much money left at the end of the year. It is the first year 
that we have been (are) in- this house, and we give a quarter of 
what he earns to the landlord. Living is dearer and dearer. The 


same cloth which used to cost me 10 francs now costs about 18 
francs a meter, and as I need three or four yards for a dress, that 
makes from 54 to 72 francs. The last shoes I bought last month 
cost me 2 5 francs a pair. The grocer, who came half an hour ago, 
brought me butter at two francs fifty a pound, eggs at one franc 
seventy-five a dozen, wine at two francs a liter, and other things 
still. I gave him twenty francs, and all the change he gave me 
back was three francs sixty for what would have cost me formerly 
one third (de) less than what I paid. Let us hope that everything 
will be cheaper soon, or what we earn a year will never be enough 
to live on (pour vivre). 


1. Ou votre mere est-elle allee aujourd'hui et pourquoi ? 2. A-t-elle 
trouve les choses bon marche ? 3. Combien gagne votre pere ? 
4. Chez qui votre mere est-elle d'abord entree ? 5. Comment le 
tailleur vend-il son drap ? 6. Quelle longueur a le morceau de drap 
que votre mere a achete? 7. Ou est-elle passee ensuite ? 8. Qu'y 
a-t-elle achete ? 9. A-t-elle trouve le sucre meilleur marche ? 10. A 
combien etaient les ceufs ? 11. Quel est le nume'ro de votre lecon ? 
12. Combien de lecons de francais avez-vous par semaine ? 13. La 
legon finira-t-elle dans une demi-heure ? 1 4. Quelle longueur a le 
pupitre de votre maitre ? 15. Est-ce le troisieme jour de la semaine 
aujourd'hui ? 


1. The first month of this year has 31 days, but the second has 
only 28. 2. Who knows the name of the twenty-first day of this 
month? 3. Do you need any cheese today? Yes, I want two 
pounds. 4. The merchant sold me two dozen (of) eggs at 
five francs a dozen. 5. How much did these shoes cost? Only 
twenty-five francs a pair. 6. Are there not more than 100 centimes 
in a franc ? 7. Which is the ninth month of the year ? 8. Merchants 


sell butter by the pound and cloth by the meter. 9. £ and f make 

1 J. 10. I paid 25 centimes a kilogram for the potatoes I bought. 
11. The merchant of {chez) whom she was buying groceries asked 

2 francs 25 a pound for sugar. 12. Which is the general whose 
soldiers took the city yesterday*? 13. My father used to earn $40 a 
month, but he earns more now. 1 4. He asked me of (chez) whom I 
had bought the jewels which he had seen. 15. Which of the ladies 
was the one to whom you sold 80 meters of that cloth? 16. Of 
what are you thinking? Do not ask me of what I am thinking. 
17. £ of § is ^. 18. Can you tell me what is the ninth part of 27 ? 
19. When he came to see me this morning he stayed two hours 
and a half. 20. Do you know the number of the first house on (of) 
this street ? 



220. Years in Dates, when above 1000, may be expressed 
in two ways. Thus, 1920 may be either mil neuf cent vingt 
or dix-neuf cent vingt, the latter being on the whole the 
more common usage. Mil, rather than mille, is the form 
generally used for one thousand in 4ates. 

Note i. In before the number of a year is en. 

He was born in 1815. 77 naquit (past def.) en mil huit cent quinze. 

She died in 1856. Elle mourut (past def.) en dix-huit cent cinquante-six. 

I was born in 1905. Je suis ni{e) en dix-neuf cent cinq. 

The year 192 1. Van dix-neuf cent vingt et un. 

Note 2. When a person is no longer living, the French generally 
use the past definite (or the past indefinite in familiar style) to express 
was bom, etc. When a person is still living, the past indefinite is 
ordinarily used. 



221. The Names of the Months, written without capitals 

























Note. In before names of months is en. 

222. The Days of the Week, written without capitals : 
Monday lundi Thursday jeudi 











223. In Dates the cardinals are used except for the first, 
the masculine definite article always preceding. No prepo- 
sition is used in connection with them. 

November 8th le huit novembre 

the twenty-fifth of December le vingt-cinq decembre 

the first of March le premier mars 

on the fourth of July le quatre juillet 

224. Time of Day. In expressing the time of day, heure, 
hour, is used for o clock. Time past the hour is expressed by 
the number for the hour and et ; time previous to the hour, 
by the number for the hour and moins. The et is usually 
omitted before minutes. 

one o'clock 

two o'clock 

half past three 

(a) quarter past five 

(a) quarter of ten 

five minutes past eleven 

une heure 

deux heures 

trois heures et demie 

cinq heures et (or un) quart 

dix heures moins le (or un) quart 

onze heures cinq (minutes) 


six minutes of eight huit heures moins six (minutes) 

9 a.m. neuf heures du matin 

9 p.m. neuf heures du soir 

What time is it ? Quelle heure est-il ? 

It is a quarter past six. // est six heures et quart. 

I shall start at four. Je partirai a quatre heures. 

Note. Twelve o'clock is never expressed by douze heures, noon 
being midi, midnight minuit. 

half past twelve (p.m.), midi et demi 

225. Age of Persons. In expressing a person's age, avoir 
is used and not etre. 

How old are you (what age Quel dge avez-vous ? 

have you)? 
I am thirty years old (I have faitrenteans. 

thirty years). 
She is six. Elle a six ans. 

Note. She is six years old may also be expressed elle est agee de 
six ans. 

226. In Titles of Sovereigns the cardinals are used except 
for first, in which case the ordinals are used. 

Louis I Louis premier (L er ) 

Louis II Louis deux (LL) 

Henry IV Henri quatre (LV) 

Louis XV of France Louis quinze (XV) de France 

Note. Observe that the definite article is omitted with names of 
countries used in connection with a sovereign. 


il y a, ago etre a l'heure, to be on time 

huit jours, a week d'aujourd'hui en huit, a week 

il y a huit jours, a week ago from today 




i. Express in French the dates — 

March 2, 1872 
July 4, 1840 
August 1, 1 180 
December 26, 1533 

2. Express in French — 

it is nine o'clock 
half past eight 
quarter past seven 
quarter of six 
ten minutes after five 
twenty minutes of four 

3. Translate into French - 
our school finishes in June 

we go home Fridays 

the second of May 

my chum was born in 1905 

Lincoln was born on February 

12, 1809 
William II of England 
a century and a half 
we remain at home Saturdays 

January 13, 1771 

the date of your birth 

the date of today 

George Washington's birthday 

3.47 A.M. 

2.o8 P.M. 

half past twelve (two ways, a. m. 

and p. m.) 
we dine at seven 
we dine at noon 

the first of April 

in December 

in the book 

in the city 

in 1898 

Louis XI 

the fifth day 

the second president 

he came (on) Tuesday 

Model tj ne L E g N d'Histoire 

Cinq jours de la semaine nous sommes en classe, mais le samedi 
nous n'y allons pas. Le lundi, par exemple, nous dejeunons de 
bonne heure, a sept heures et demie, pour etre a l'heure a l'ecole, 
car les legons commencent a huit heures et demie. Elles durent 
jusqu'a midi. De midi a une heure nous sommes chez nous. A 
une heure nous retournons a l'ecole, ou nous restons jusqu'a quatre 


heures et demie. Le soir nous etudions nos lecons. Ainsi pour 
demain, mercredi, nous avons une lecon d'histoire. Hier, lundi, le 
maitre nous a donne une idee de l'histoire de France de Louis XIV 
a nos jours. Louis XIV naquit le 16 septembre 1638, et mourut 
le premier septembre 17 15. II n'avait que cinq ans quand il devint 
roi, et son regne a dure soixante-douze ans, presque trois quarts 
de siecle. Sous le regne de Louis XVI eclata la Revolution, qui a 
dure presque six ans. Apres la Revolution le general Bonaparte, 
ne le 15 aout 1769, est devenu le maitre de la France a Page de 
trente ans. II fut couronne empereur, en 1804, sous le nom de 
Napoleon I er . II mourut en 182 1 a l'age de cinquante et un ans. 
La France est devenue republique pour la premiere fois en 1792, 
mais elle l'a e^e en nom seulement. La deuxieme republique a 
dure moins de cinq ans. Sous Napoleon III dclata la guerre entre 
la France et l'Allemagne, qui dura du 15 juillet 1870 au 28 Janvier 
187 1. Enfin la France est devenue republique pour la troisieme 
fois, et Test encore. D'aujourd'hui en huit ce sera le quatorze 
juillet, la fete nationale. Ce sera aussi mon anniversaire de naissance. 
J'aurai seize ans. 


Today (it) is Thursday, the first of June. A week ago it was 
my birthday. I was born May 26, 1904. I am now fifteen years 
old. My brother is only twelve. My sister would be seventeen if 
she were still living. She died eight years ago. A week from today 
will be my brother's birthday. It is a quarter of twelve, and in a 
quarter of an hour we shall dine. We dine generally between 
twelve and half past twelve. This afternoon we have a history 
lesson, the reign of Louis XVI. He was born on the 23d of 
August, 1754, and became king at the age of twenty. It was 
under his reign that the Revolution of 1789 broke out. He was be- 
headed on January 21,1 793. In a month we shall be having a vaca- 
tion. We do not go to school in July or August. But what time is 


it ? Twenty minutes past twelve, and dinner is not yet ready ! Shall 
I be at school on time ? I have only three quarters of an hour. 


i. Quel jour de la semaine est-ce aujourd'hui ? 2. Quel jour de 
la semaine etait-ce hier ? 3. Quel jour de la semaine sera-ce demain ? 
4. Quelle date est-ce aujourd'hui ? 5. fitait-ce le douze hier ? 6. Quels 
sont les mois du printemps ? 7 . En quel mois est votre anniversaire ? 
8. Quel age avez-vous ? 9. Quand etes-vous ne ? 10. Quel age a 
votre pere? 11. Combien d'heures y a-t-il dans un jour? 12. Quelle 
heure est-il maintenant? 13. Sous le regne de qui eclata la Revo- 
lution francaise, et en quelle annee? 14. A quel age mourut Napo- 
leon I er ? 15. Depuis quand la France est-elle une republique ? 

en 1638, roi en 1643, mor t en 17 15) est une des figures les plus grandes de 
la longue liste de rois de France. Pendant son long regne, sa cour brillante 
fut un centre de litterature, de politique et de culture, et lui-meme fut 
rincarnation de la phrase souvent a lui attribute : « L'fitat, c'est moi.» 

Louis XVI succeda, en 1774, a son grand-pere Louis XV, qui lui-meme 
av'ait succede a Louis XIV. Durant le regne de Louis XV, les institutions 
politiques et autres, fondees sur le faux idealisme du temps de Louis XIV, 
se desintegrerent graduellement et surement. La catastrophe etait reservee 
au faible mais bien intentionne Louis XVI, dont le regne se termina avec 
sa propre execution sur l'echafaud au milieu des exces de la Revolution 

Marie-Antoinette, princesse autrichienne, la belle et gracieuse femme 
de Louis XVI, devint de bonne heure impopulaire a cause de son extra- 
vagance irreflechie et de son manque de sympathie envers le peuple. Son 
influence funeste precipita la chute du roi, qu'elle partagea . . . car elle fut 
guillotinee neuf mois apres. 

La Fayette, brillant et liberal Francais, de sang noble, vint en Amerique 
a l'age de vingt ans et servit effectivement avec Washington pendant la 
Revolution americaine. Rentre en France, ses sympathies, quoique libe- 
rales, n'etaient pas extremes, et il ne joua pas dans la Revolution le role 
important qu'on attendait de lui. Dans la recente guerre, son nom a souvent 
ete mentionne en parlant de l'amitie traditionnelle des deux republiques. 







i. My brother was born on the ioth of August, 1858. 2. This 
bookseller used to enter his store every morning at 7.50. 3. What 
part of 28 is 7 ? One fourth, is it not? 4. In France, Monday is 
the first day of the week and Sunday the last. 5. The reign of 
William I, one of the greatest kings of England, lasted from 1066 
to 1087. 6. There are thirty minutes in a half hour, and ninety 
minutes make an hour and a half. 7. Your sister arrived at 
12.15 p.m. yesterday, did she not? 8. Will you tell me what 
time it is (what is the time), please? 9. It is now quarter of 
five; he is coming early. 10. His aunt died in 1899, in her 
eightieth year. 11. My father was 69 years old when he died. 

12. Of what were you speaking to John? Of the age of his son. 

13. How old is the youngest of your children? He was ten 
January 1 st. 1 4. Can you tell me how old the president is (Sec. 328)? 

15. The teacher asked us who the oldest boy in school is (Sec. 328). 

16. Neither my brother nor my sister is the tallest in the family; 
it is I. 17. The 21st of June is generally the longest day of the 
year. 18. He is reading French to a child only six years old. 

19. We intend to leave the city Friday at 12.15. a. m. if all goes well. 

20. It is now 1.30 ; do you know at what time dinner will be ready ? 


(Lessons Thirty-six to Thirty-eight) 
A. General Drill 

1. Count up to 21. Pronounce the numbers up to 21 in 
connection with ami(s) ; in connection with maison(s) ; in con- 
nection with hibou(x). 

2. When are connectives used to join the words of which 
a numeral is composed ? What connectives are used ? When 
are numerals pluralized ? 


3. Count from 80 to 102. 

4. Give the ordinals up to twenty-second. 

5. Give the names of the months ; the names of the days 
of the week. 

6. Give French sentences containing respectively — 

demie tiers mil midi 

cents en {prep.) age metre 

seconde en (pron.) nee francs 

7. Express in French — 

1 58 1 on the second of September 

it is 10.20 o'clock Henry VIII of England 

it is 12.03 P - M - Peter the First 

it was 2.15 f, §>¥ 

is it 7.55 ? a billion francs 

how old is he ? more than ten 

he is thirty-one she was born in 1887 

eggs cost a franc a dozen she died in 1903 

sugar is sold by the pound he sings Sundays 

he came twice a week I shall arrive on Thursday 

this room is ten meters long they came in October 

how long is this street ? last July 

Aug. 11, 1906 the year 1899 

8. Replace the parentheses by French words : 

1. II a (a) femme, (one) fils, mais pas (any) filles. 

2. Quarante (one) ou quarante (two). 

3. (Fifteen) jours, (sixteen) heures, et (seventeen) minutes. 

4. lis ont vendu leur (first) maison juillet (first). 

5. J'en finirai un (fifth) mars (fifth). 

6. (A half) heure n'est pas si longue qu'une heure et (a half). 

7. Nous etions (on) le bateau (on) le quatre juillet. 

8. Les (four) eleves sont venus a (four) hier. 


9. (How old) a la (old) dame ? 

10. II a demande « quelle (time) est-il » dix (times) ou peut-etre 
dix (times) dix. 

B. Translate into French 

1 . How many pupils have you in your school ? I have less than 
two hundred in mine. 2. Last Friday, December 21st, was the 
shortest day in the year. 3. How many pounds of butter have 
you ? I have more than seventeen. 4. There are fifty-two weeks 
and one or two days in a year. 5. There are three months in 
summer, June, July, and August ; June, the shortest, is the most 
beautiful month in the year. 6. One third of three fourths is seven 
eighths of what number ? 7. My cousin is twenty-seven years old. 
He was born on October 29, 1894. 8. A hundred years ago, in 
18 1 4, France was attacked by many enemies. 9. They left for 
Paris in 1903, when their little daughter was only five years old. 
10. We went to Domremy on the twelfth of September, n, He 
goes out every day at 10 a.m. 12. Moliere was born in Paris two 
hundred and ninety-nine years ago. 13. In 19 16 there were more 
than four million men in the French army. 1 4. These oranges are 
dear. They cost three francs a dozen. 15. I shall not arrive there 
early, but I shall be on time. 16. George V is now king of Eng- 
land. His father was Edward VII. 17. Eighty-one divided by 
twenty-seven is three. 18. A billion is a thousand times a million. 
19. He will return at 12.30 p.m. 20. What letters are in the 
twentieth word and what in the twenty-first? 

A chaque jour sa tache. 
Tel qui rit vendredi, dimanche pleurera. 
Une hirondelle ne fait pas le printemps. 

Ne remettez pas au lendemain ce que vous pouvez faire la veille. 
Pierre qui roule n'amasse pas mousse. 
Quand le chat n'y est, les souris dansent. 





227. A Reflexive Verb, or pronominal verb, is one which 
has for its object a personal pronoun referring to the same 
person or thing as the subject : he cuts himself. 

228. Reflexive Pronouns. The object pronouns used 
with reflexive verbs are called reflexive pronouns. They are 

Singular Plural 

First Person me, myself nous, ourselves 

Second Person te, thyself vous, yourselves (yourself) 

C himself 

Third Person se-j herself se, themselves 


229. The Position of Reflexive Pronouns is the same as 
that of conjunctive object pronouns (Sees. 174, 175). Se, 
however, precedes all other object pronouns. 

II se lave. He washes himself. 

Vous ne vous habillez pas. You do not dress yourself. 

II se le chante. He is singing it to himself 

230. Auxiliary with Reflexives. The auxiliary used in 
conjugating reflexive verbs is always etre. When the reflexive 
pronoun is the direct object of the verb, the past participle 
agrees with it. When the pronoun is the indirect object, 
the participle is invariable. 

Elle s'est couple. She has cut herself. 

Elle s'est casse* le bras. She has broken her arm (to 

herself has broken the arm). 
Nous ne nous y etions pas perdus. We had not lost ourselves there. 



231 . Synopsis of a Reflexive. The synopsis, together with 
the present indicative in full, of se trahir, to betray ones self, is 

Simple Tenses 

Infinitive se trahir, to betray one's self 

Pres. Part. se trahissant, betraying one's self 

Pres. Ind. je me trahis, I betray myself 

tu te trahis, thou betrayest thyself 

il se trahit, he betrays himself 

nous nous trahissons, we betray ourselves 

vous vous trahissez, jy^w betray yourselves {yourself) 

ils se trahissent, they betray themselves 

je me trahissais, / was betraying myself 

je me trahis, I betrayed myself 

je me trahirai, I shall betray myself 

je me trahirais, I should betray myself 

trahis-toi, betray thyself 

je me trahisse 

je me trahisse 

Perfect Tenses 
s'etre trahi, to have betrayed one's self 
s'etant trahi, having betrayed one's self 
je me suis trahi, / have betrayed myself 
tu t'es trahi etc. 

il s'est trahi 

nous nous sommes trahis 
vous vous etes trahi(s) 
ils se sont trahis 
Pluperf. Ind. je m'etais trahi, I had betrayed myself 
Past Ant. je me fus trahi, I had betrayed myself 

Fut. Perf. je me serai trahi, I shall have betrayed myself 

Cond. Perf. je me serais trahi, I should have betrayed myself 
Perf. Subj. je me sois trahi 

Pluperf. Subj. je me fusse trahi 

Past Definite 
Pres. Subj. 
Imp. Subj. 

Perf. Inf. 
Perf. Part. 
Past Indef. 


Note. A reflexive pronoun used as the object of a dependent infini- 
tive takes the person and number of the subject of the governing verb. 

We do not wish to hurry. Nous ne voulons pas nous dipicher. 

232. Interrogative and Negative Forms. The rules given 
already for the formation of negative and interrogative 
conjugations apply without change to reflexives. The fol- 
lowing examples are sufficient to illustrate : 

Present Indicative Pluperfect Indicative 

Interrogative • 

est-ce que je me trahis ? est-ce que je m'e'tais trahi ? 

te trahis-tu ? t'etais-tu trahi ? 

se trahit-il ? s'e'tait-il trahi ? 

etc. » etc. 


je ne me trahis pas je ne m'etais pas trahi 

tu ne te trahis pas tu ne t'etais pas trahi 

il ne se trahit pas il ne s'etait pas trahi 

etc. etc. 


est-ce que je ne me trahis pas ? est-ce que je ne m'e'tais pas 

trahi ? 
ne te trahis-tu pas ? ne t'etais-tu pas trahi ? 

ne se trahit-il pas ? ne s'e'tait-il pas trahi ? 

etc. etc. 

233. Reflexives and Intensives must be carefully dis- 
tinguished. The latter were introduced in Sec. 179. A re- 
flexive is always an object and refers to the subject ; an 
intensive emphasizes an expressed noun or pronoun. The 
following illustrations show the distinction : 



He loves himself (ref.) 
He did it himself (inten.) 
They burned Joan herself (inten.) 

234. Reflexive and Simple Verbs 

// s'aime. 

II Pa fait lui-mime. 

lis bruVerent Jeanne elle-meme. 

Careful attention must 

be given to the difference in use and meaning between a 
simple active verb and its reflexive. 

arreter, to stop (a thing, a per- s'arreter, to stop (one's self) 

coucher, to put (a person) to bed 

approcher, to bring (a thing) 

235. Idiomatic Reflexives. 

se coucher, to put (one's self) to 

bed, go to bed . 
s'approcher de, to bring one's 

self near, approach 

A French reflexive verb is 

often equivalent to an English int/ansitive verb or verbal 
phrase. Among these are 

s'amuser, to have a good time 

se coiffer, to fix one's hair 

se depecher (de), to hurry, 

hasten (to) 
s'habiller, to dress (one's self) 

See also Sec. 234. 

se lever, to arise, get up 
se peigner, to comb one's hair 
se promener, to take a walk 
se re'veiller, to waken 
se trouver, to be 



i. Give the full conjugation of trahir in the simple tenses. 
2. Give the — 

past definite of se coucher 
conditional of s'arreter, neg. 
past indefinite of se trouver, 

present of se laver, neg. -int. 
imperfect of se perdre 

present subjunctive of se trahir, 

imperative of se coucher 
past anterior of se louer, neg.-int. 
synopsis of se rendre 
imperative of se coiffer, neg. 



3. Express in French — 
he had found 

he had found himself 

she has found herself 

he punishes himself 

he punished his children himself 

we were stopping 


let us hurry 

shall I show myself ? 

4. Express in French — 
he stopped the horse 

he stopped near me 

he put the child to bed 

he went to bed 

he brings the child near the door 

he approaches the door 

did he love himself ? 
did he not love himself ? 
we shall find ourselves 
we shall find it ourselves 
we found ourselves 
had she betrayed herself ? 
he is talking to himself 
he said it to himself 
he himself said it 

he arises 

he raises the bag 

she is having a good time 

she wakens early 

take a walk 

hasten to start 

5. Continue — 

je m'approche de la foret 
je ne me punis pas 
je lave les fen£tres moi-meme 
ne me suis-je pas deja couche ? 

Model La Journee 

Quand je me reveille le matin a sept heures, je me frotte les 
yeux. Puis je m'approche du lit de mon frere et le reveille aussi. 
II se leve (Sec. 248) bien vite et nous allons dans la salle de bain 
pour nous laver les mains et la figure avec de l'eau et du savon. 
Nous nous brossons les dents avec notre brosse a dents. Ensuite 
nous nous brossons les cheveux avec la brosse a cheveux et nous 
prenons le peigne, avec lequel nous nous peignons. Lorsque nous 


nous sommes coiffes, nous nous depechons de nous habiller, et en 
une demi-heure nous sommes prets. A sept heures et demie nous 
nous trouvons dans la salle a manger, ou nous trouvons nos parents 
qui nous attendent. Quand nous avons fini, nous allons alors a 
Pecole. Le soir apres le souper, quand nous avons e'tudie les 
lecons que le maitre nous a donnees pour le lendemain, nous nous 
couchons. Hier c'etait dimanche. Nous nous sommes leves tard, 
et dans l'apres-midi nous nous sommes promenes avec nos parents. 
Nous nous sommes arrete's une heure chez des amis de mon pere. 
Nous nous sommes bien amuse's. 


This morning I awoke late. It was already half past seven when 
I got up. I went at once to the bathroom to wash my hands and 
face. My brother was (se trouver) there, and had already washed. 
"Let us hurry," said he to me (Sec. 328, a), "or we shall not be on 
time at school." While I was washing my face, he took the comb 
and the brush to fix his hair. As 1 could not find my toothbrush, 
I did not clean my teeth. I dressed in ten minutes, and at ten 
minutes of eight I found myself in the dining-room, where the 
others were waiting for me. M You will not go to bed so late any 
more," said my father to me. M Hurry and (to) eat, you and your 
brother, and do not stop on the way to {pour) school." We arrived 
on time, but we surely should have arrived late if we had played a 
minute or two on the way. 


1. Qui vous reveille le matin? 2. Vous levez-vous 1 de bonne 
heure ou tard ? 3. A quelle heure vous etes-vous reveille dimanche 
dernier? 4. Pourquoi allez-vous dans la salle de bain? 5. Avec 
quoi vous lavez-vous ? 6. De quoi avez-vous besoin pour vous 
brosser les dents? 7. Que faites-vous avec le peigne? 8. Que 

1 The reply, je me leve, has the accent (Sec. 248). 


faites-vous quand vous vous etes lave et coiffe ? 9. Ou se trouve 
la salle a manger ? 10. Quel jour de la semaine vous amusez-vous ? 

11. Vous etes-vous promene dans le pare dimanche • dernier ? 

12. Combien de personnes y a-t-il dans votre f amille ? 13. Com- 
ment trouvez-vous le f rancais ? 1 4. Vous amusez-vous en classe ? 

15. Vous trompez-vous souvent quand vous recitez? 


1. He betrays himself when he says that. 2. They dressed 
themselves and went to the ball. 3. The army is rapidly approach- 
ing the city. 4. They went to bed at six o'clock, but they are still 
sleepy. 5. He cannot brush his teeth because he has no tooth- 
brush. 6. He used to get up at 6.15 every morning. 7. My sister 
put her children to bed at 12.15 A - M - 8 - Children like neither to 
wash their faces nor to comb their hair. 9. The doctor's wife, who 
came this morning, will stay here a week. 10. We were taking a 
walk when we met you and your sister. 11. We can never find 
what we need in this store. 12. They have with them the books 
they bought for themselves. 13. It is 7.45 ; wake up quickly, 
breakfast is ready. 14. At what time do you intend to go to bed 
this evening ? 15. Which of the boys will stop at the store for me ? 

16. This man never betrays himself; will he betray his friend? 

17. The little girl fell from the tree and broke her arm. 18. Hurry, 
we have been waiting for you a long time. 19. 'Are you not 
stopping her ? Surely you are not afraid of our dog, 20. Had they 
dressed when the bell rang ? 


Qui s'excuse, s'accuse. 

Au dela des Alpes se trouve ITtalie. 

A qui se leve matin, Dieu prete la main. 





236. The Passive Voice of transitive verbs is formed in 
French by combining the past participle with the auxiliary 
6tre. Thus, the synopsis of the passive of sauver, to save, is 

Simple Tenses 


£tre sauve 

to be saved 

Pres. Part. 

e^ant sauve 

being saved 

Pres. Ind. 

je suis sauve 

I am saved 


j'etais sauve 

I was being saved 

Past Definite 

je fus sauve 

I was saved 


je serai sauve 

I shall be saved 


je serais sauve 

I should be saved 


sois sauve 

be saved 

Pres. Subj. 

je sois sauve 

Imp. 'Subj. 

je fusse sauve 

Perfect Tenses 

Perf. Inf. 

avoir ete sauve 

to have been saved 

Perf. Part. 

ayant ete sauve 

having been saved 

Past Indefinite 

j'ai ete sauve 

J I have been saved 
\ I was saved 

Pluperf. Ind. 

j'avais ete sauve 

J had been saved 

Past. Ant. 

j'eus ete sauve 

I had been saved 

Fut. Perf. 

j'aurai ete sauve 

I shall have been saved 

Cond. Perf. 

j'aurais ete sauve 

I should have been saved 

Perf. Subj. 

j'aie ete sauve 

Pluperf. Subj. 

j'eusse ete sauve 

237. Agreement in Passive. In the passive voice the 
past participle must agree with the subject, Stre being the 
auxiliary (see Sec. 160). 



Elle est perdue, 
lis ont e'te trouvgs. 

She is lost. 

They have been found. 

238. The Tenses in the Passive have the same distinc- 
tions as in the active. 

TT , [ II a ete sauve (Sec. 1 x <:)• 

He was saved. « -_ * , v O0J 

y II Jut sauve. 

He would be saved. // serait sauve. *• 

He would have been saved. II aurait ete sauve. 

239. The Interrogative and Negative Forms of the passive 
voice are made according to the rules that apply to perfect 
tenses. The following examples are sufficient to illustrate : 

Imperfect Indicative 

Pluperfect Indicative 

est-ce que j'etais sauve ? 
etais-tu sauve ? 
etait-il sauvd ? 
e'tions-nous sauves ? 

je n'etais pas sauve 
tu n'etais pas sauve 
il n'e'tait pas sauve 
nous n'etions pas sauves 


est-ce que j'avais e'te sauve? 
avais-tu ete sauve ? 
avait-il e'te sauve ? 
avions-nous ete sauve's ? 


je n'avais pas ete sauve 
tu n'avais pas ete sauve 
il n'avait pas ete sauve 
nous n'avions pas ete sauves 


est-ce que je n'etais pas sauve ? 
n'etais-tu pas sauve ? 
n'etait-il pas sauve ? 
n'e'tions-nous pas sauves ? 

est-ce que j e n'avais pas ete sauve ? 
n 'avais-tu pas ete sauve ? 
n'avait-il pas ete sauve ? 
n'avions nous pas ete sauves ? 


240. Agent after Passives. The agent or instrument after 
a passive verb is expressed 

a. By par when the verb denotes a specific action. 
He was bitten by the dog. II a ete mordu par le chien. 

b. By de when the verb denotes an emotion or an habitual 
action or state. 

He is loved by his friends. II est aime de ses amis. 


car, for (conj.) d^pendre de, to depend upon 

pour, for {prep.) eMter de (+ inf.), to avoid 

a regard de, with regard to rendre responsable de, to hold re- 
en gtat de, in a state of, under sponsible for 

d£fendre a ... de, to forbid ... to servir de, to serve for (as) 


1. Give the full passive conjugation of punir (a) in the 
simple tenses, (b) in the compound (perfect) tenses. 

2. Give the — 

present passive of choisir, neg. pluperfect subjunctive passive 

imperfect passive of donner, int. of aimer 

future passive of trouver, neg.- conditional perfect of se vendre, 

int. neg. 

past anterior active of se trouver, imperative passive of sauver 

int. present subjunctive passive of 

future passive of entendre punir, neg. -int. 

3. Express in French — 

he saves she saved they will find 

he is saved she was saved they will be found 

he has saved she had saved they will have found 

he has been saved she has been saved they will have been found 


4. Translate into French — 

the desk was broken by the boys the suit was made by the tailor 
the general was loved by his it is forbidden to enter 
soldiers I shall be held responsible 

5 . Supply the French for the ^ords in parentheses : 

Je (was) chez moi hier. Je (was hungry), et apres que la lecon 
(was finished), je (was reading) en attendant le diner. Ma soeur 
(was) huit ans (old) quand elle (was) mordue (by) un chien. Nous 
avons envoye chercher un medecin, et sa vie (was saved). 

Model tj ne Proclamation Allemande 

Pendant la grande guerre des proclamations furent africhees par 
les Allemands dans les villes qu'ils avaient prises. Le 8 septembre 
19 1 4, le commandant Mager donna l'ordre d'afficher a Soissons 
celle dont la photographie est a la page 285. Cette photographie 
nous sert de modele. Traduisons la proclamation. 


The German invasion of France took place in August, 19 14. 
Each time that a city was taken, proclamations were posted on the 
walls of the public buildings of the city. In the proclamation which 
is found in this lesson it was said that after eight o'clock in the 
evening it was forbidden to the inhabitants of Soissons to move 
about in the streets of the city. This proclamation was signed by 
Commander Mager, who represented the German military authority. 
The proclamation added that any person would be immediately 
imprisoned if he was found in the streets after that hour without 
a special authorization. When the enemy entered a city, the inhab- 
itants had {devaient) to avoid any threat or hostile act with regard 
to the enemy's troops. This is what was recalled to the inhabitants 
of Soissons. The children were (devaient) to be kept at their 
parents'. If the latter did not avoid letting them wander about, 


they would be made responsible for the misdeeds which might be 
(have beenj committed by their children. The parents did not let 
their children wander about, for the latter would have been held 
under arrest if they had been met wandering about in the streets. 


i. Par ordre de qui la proclamation a-t-elle ete affichee ? 2. Pour 
qui la proclamation a-t-elle ete affichee ? 3. Ou a-t-elle ete affichee? 

4. Apres quelle heure etait-il defendu de circuler dans les rues? 

5. Que devaient avoir les habitants pour circuler dans les rues apres 
huit heures ? 6. Si vous etes trouve dans la rue apres huit heures 
ce soir, serez-vous incarcere ? 7. Que devaient eviter les habitants 
de Soissons ? 8. De quoi dependait la se'curite ? 9. Oil les enfants 
doivent-ils etre garde's pendant une invasion ? 1 o. Que doivent 
eviter les parents ? 1 1 . De quoi sont-ils rendus responsables ? 
i2.*N'etes-vous pas prevenu que vous serez puni si vous n'etudiez 
pas votre lecon? 13. Est-il de'fendu de parler anglais en classe? 
14. Etes-vous rendu responsable de vos actes a Fecole ? 15. Seriez- 
vous puni si vous n'arriviez pas a l'heure ? 


1. My little sister is lost ; have you seen her ? 2. The table was 
finished when I arrived. 3. The boys had not been found this 
morning when the teacher left. 4. The man was attacked by the 
dog, was he not ? 5. These books were not given to you but to 
me. 6. These big red apples had been given the children by their 
parents. 7. Were these the jewels which were bought by your 
aunt ? 8. When will the lesson be finished ? 9. If I had not arrived, 
my house would not have been saved. 10. The city of Soissons 
was taken by the Germans in 19 14. 11. He was stopped at the 
door by the men. 12. It is forbidden to leave the city. 13. It was 
forbidden to move about in the streets. 14. Nobody was seen in the 
streets after eight o'clock during the German invasion. 15. Every- 
body in the city is kept under arrest. 1 6. Many people were punished 


S Septerabre 1944. 

La population de Soissons est prevenue que, par ordre de 
I'Aulorile mililaire allemande, il est expressement defend u de 
circuler dans les rues de la Ville apres huil heures da soir. Toute 
personoe trouvee dans Jes rues apres huil heures du soir, saos 
aulorisation speciale du Commandant des troupes allemandes, sera 
immediatement incarceree. 

II esl rappele dune facoo expresse que (a population de la Ville 
doit eviler d'uoe facon absolue loute menace, violence ouacle hostile 
a legard des Aulorites el des troupes allemandes. La securile el la 
vie des auteurs de ces acles en depend. 

Les parents doivenl garder leurs enfanls chez eux, eviter de les 
laisser vagabonder Les parents seront rendus responsables de tous 
les mefaits, delils el contraventions commis par leurs enfanls. Si 
ceux-ci sont rencontres errant ou vagaboodaot dans les rues, ils 
seront maintcnus en elat d'arrestation jusqu'a ce que les parents 
viennent les reclamer. 

Le Comite de Secours. a 



in Soissons by the Germans. 17. The parents would be held 
responsible for their children. 18. Were you seized by the officer 
when you were walking ? 19. Joan of Arc was burned by the Eng- 
lish, May 30, 1 43 1. 20. She was much loved by all her soldiers. 



241. The English Passive. The passive voice is used less 
freely in French than in English. In English it has two uses : 
first, to denote an action that is in progress, as the windows 
were being closed when I approached, or windows are closed 
(habitually) when it begins to rain ; second, to denote a 
completed action or a state, as the windows were closed by the 
time I arrived, or windows are {kept) closed in winter. The 
second of these alone may be represented in French by the 
passive form of the verb. 

The boy is found. Le garcon est trouvi. 

The lesson was finished. La lecon itaitfinie. 

This castle is well known (state). Ce chateau est bien connu. 

Note. A test for the second of the types above is that when such 
expressions, denoting action, are transposed into the active form, they 
call for a perfect (or pluperfect) tense. The first two sentences above 
thus become, respectively, they have found the boy, they had finished 
the lesson. On the other hand, when being can be prefixed to the English 
verb, it marks the first type, where the French passive is impossible. 

242. French Substitutes for the Passive. The first construc- 
tion of § 241 — when an action is actually being performed, 
either at a definite time or habitually — is expressed 

a. By the reflexive. This is found especially in expres- 
sions denoting that the action spoken of is permanent. 


French is spoken in Brussels. Lefrancais se parte a Bruxelles. 

Many verbs are conjugated with Bien des verbes se conjuguent avec 
etre. etre. 

b. By the use of the indefinite pronoun on (one, we, you, 
they) and the third person singular of the active verb. In 
such expressions the subject in English becomes the direct 
object in French. 

Wood is sold (one sells wood). On vend du bois. 

French is spoken here. Ici on parte /ran fats. 

She was often punished. On la punissait souvent. 

The book will be given to the boy. On donnera le livre au gar eon. 

c. By a transposition to the active voice, the agent being 
made the subject. 

The house was being built by Monfrere batissait la maison. 
my brother. 

243. On as Indefinite Subject. On is also used for an 
indefinite subject. 

On parle. Somebody speaks. 

Onnetravaille pas les dimanches. People do not work Sundays. 

On ne fume pas ici. No smoking here. 

Fume-t-on ici ? Do they smoke here ? 

Note i. In the matter of position on is treated as a personal pronoun. 

Note 2. On frequently becomes l'on when preceded by et, si, oil, ou, 

or que ; seldom, however, when a word closely following begins with 1. 

Elle ne restera pas si l'on fume She will not stay if there is smoking 
dans votre chambre. in your room. 

Note 3. Since on is always grammatically of the third person, the 
corresponding possessive adjective is son; the corresponding reflexive 

On aime ses amis. We love our friends. 

On peut se passer de cafe. You {people) can do without coffee. 




accrocher a, to hang on 
assister a, to be present at, attend 

les meubles m., the furniture 
se passer de, to do without 


1 . Give the present indicative passive of punir ; the present 
indicative active of se couper. 

2. Give the synopsis of se rendre in the active ; in the 

3. Express in French — 
he found a flower 
he had found a flower 
the flowers were found 
flowers are 'found in gardens 

4. Translate into French — 
somebody is singing 
birds are found in forests 
the rich attend the theater often 
English is spoken here 
the chair was broken by your 

do you like my furniture ? 
no playing in this room 
the windows are closed at six 

were they closed when you came 



you found my flowers 
you (they) put flowers in vases 
these flowers were found by him 
(two ways) 

you cannot live in one room 

we love our friends (two ways) 
we love John 
people flatter their friends 
the house was sold while he 

stayed there 
horses are sold there 
she is loved by all 
no passing here 
he will not stay if they smoke 


Les Chateaux 

Les chateaux de France sont connus de beaucoup de monde. 
Quelques-uns furent construits par des rois et d'autres par des sei- 
gneurs. Leur architecture est beaucoup admiree, et les decorations 


de l'inte'rieur furent concues par des artistes de grand merite. 
Les environs du pays 011 s'elevent ces chateaux sont generalement 
tres jolis. On ne peut pas visiter tous ces chateaux, mais quelques- 
uns sont ouverts au public. Les visiteurs peuvent ainsi voir les 
reliques et les meubles anciens qui s'y trouvent, ainsi que les 
tableaux et tapisseries qui sont accroches aux murs. On ne trouve 
pas facilement le sujet de ces tableaux dans les musees, parce que 
les scenes qui y sont repre'sente'es sont souvent un incident de la 
vie de ces seigneurs. L'un des plus beaux de ces chateaux est 
celui de Chenonceaux. II a l'air d'etre construit au milieu du 
fleuve, et Ton ne se trompe pas, car il Test. II a ete construit sous 
Francois I er , qui le donna a Diane de Poitiers. II fut occupe aussi 
par Catherine de Medicis. Le chateau a ete achete recemment 
par un riche industriel francos. Un autre chateau de la Renais- 
sance se trouve au milieu de la plus belle foret de la France. C'est 
celui de Chambord, qui fut bati aussi par Francois I er . En entrant 
par une porte qui ne s'ouvrait qu'aux rois, on trouve dans une des 
salles des reliques du comte de Chambord, lequel, autrefois, etait 
conside're comme roi legitime par les royalistes. C'est dans une 
des salles du chateau que Moliere donna des representations aux- 
quelles assista Louis XIV. 


In 1 the center of France are found some of the superb build- 
ings of the Renaissance. Their beauty is spoken of throughout 
(in) the entire world. They were built centuries ago. There the 
kings enjoyed themselves a part of the year among the pretty 
gardens which were to be found all around these castles. One of 
these castles whose architecture is much admired is that of 
Chambord, which Francis the First built. It was occupied under 
Napoleon the Third by the count of Chambord, whom the royalists 
considered as the legitimate king. In 2 one of the rooms of this 

1 It is in the center of France that ... 2 It is in one . . . that . . . 


castle Louis the Fourteenth was present at several performances 
which were given by Moliere. One of these castles also is erected 
in the village of Chenonceaux. It was given to Diane de Poitiers 
by Francis the First, for whom it had been built. A rich French 
manufacturer is the owner of it now. He is enjoying himself in 
the same parlors which were opened formerly only to the kings 
and the lords, and where are still found relics and old furniture. 
The life of the visitors of today is quite different from that of the 
persons who are represented in the pictures or on the tapestries 
hung on the walls. 


i. Ou le francais se parle-t-il ? 2. Parle-t-on francais chez vous ? 
3. Chez qui vend-on des livres ? 4. Parle-t-on francais chez votre 
libraire? 5. Travaille-t-on le dimanche? 6. Fume-t-on a l'eglise? 
7. Peut-on se passer longtemps de manger? 8. De qui le maitre 
est-il obei ? 9. Ne vous trompez-vous pas souvent en classe ? 
10. L'encrier se casserait-il s'il tombait? 11. Quand l'ecole sera- 
t-elle fermee? 12. Par qui fut bati le chateau de Chambord ? 
13. Le musee est-il ouvert au public le dimanche? 14. Avec quel 
verbe auxiliaire se conjugue le verbe a//erl 15. Parle-t-on francais 
au Canada? 


1. The little girl was found by her mother. 2. All these castles 
were burned in the fifteenth century. 3. It is forbidden to smoke 
in this room. 4. They were speaking of their friends when I 
entered. 5. Shall you attend the ball which will be given Janu- 
ary 6th? 6. Beautiful palaces are seen everywhere in Europe. 
7. Is there much smoking in the cities of France ? 8. More verbs 
are conjugated with avoir than with etre. 9. Fresh water can 
always be found in this garden. 10. At what time are these 
museums closed to the public? 11. French is still spoken in 


Nous avons parle des chateaux de France a la page 288. Un de ces chateaux 
fameux est celui de Chambord. C'est le plus beau monument de la Renais- 
sance en France. Son exterieur se distingue par son systeme de tours. A 
l'interieur, entre autres choses, il y a un escalier unique quant a sa con- 
struction. C'est un double escalier en spirale, les deux parties s'entre- 
croisant de telle facon que deux personnes peuvent l'une monter et l'autre 
descendre en meme temps sans se rencontrer 


several cities of the United States. 12. Can all these palaces be 
visited Saturday evenings? 13. Do you like to see the old furni- 
ture which is found in these stores ? 1 4. The sad fate of Joan of 
Arc is well known by almost everybody in this country. 15. There 
is singing here Wednesdays at 8.30 p.m. 16. If you cannot walk, 
why are you getting up? 17. He said that Napoleon I was born 
in 1768, but he was mistaken. 18. Bring the chairs near this 
table, but do not approach me. 19. He asked me how old 
Henry II was when he died. 20. This castle was built by 
Francis I ; that one by Louis XIV. 


Lessons Thirty-nine to Forty-one 
A. General Drill 

1 . Give the list of reflexive pronouns. State their position 
in respect to the verb and to other pronouns. 

2. Give French sentences containing the translation of 
himself and herself (a) as a reflexive pronoun ; (b) as an 
intensive pronoun. 

3. When may passive sentences in English be translated 
by the passive in French ? Illustrate by sentences the French 
substitutes for the passive voice. 

4. Name and illustrate three different uses of etre as an 

5 . Give French sentences, equivalents of the passive voice 
in English, containing se, on, sont, de (by), par, a 6te\ 

6. Give the synopsis of se couper in simple tenses ; se couper 
in perfect tenses ; perdre in simple tenses of the passive voice ; 
perdre in perfect tenses of the passive voice. 


7. Give affirmatively, negatively, interrogatively, negative- 
interrogatively, the cond. of se mordre ; the pluperf . of s'arreter ; 
the past def . pass, of trouver ; the past indef . pass, of faire. 

8. Translate into French — 

does he forget himself ? I hurt his head 

look at yourself, John were you hurt by the carriage ? 

she is mistaken she was carried to her room 

she had broken her arm many lessons are forgotten 

they love themselves no crossing here 

we stopped somebody is knocking 

we stopped the cow people love their friends 

I don't want to go to bed she arose early 

wait for me I cannot do without it 

are you well ? he forbade me to enter 

she was satisfied with it I shall be present (there) 

9. Rewrite the following, using (a) the past definite; 
(b) the future : 

elle s'arrete devant la maison 

ses freres se levent 

on leur de'fend de sortir 

la lecon est finie 

les eleves se trouvent dans la cour 

les fenetres sont ferme'es 

les portes se ferment 

B. Translate into French 

1. Books have been made in this street many years. 2. You are 
mistaken ; William II of England was killed in an English forest. 
3. I shall carry away what he gives me, and I shall be satisfied 
with it. 4. When he fell he hurt his arm and lost his watch. 
5. Many houses are built of wood. 6. In this castle one sees many 
old pictures. 7. France was invaded by many enemies. 8. I found 


that he was wounded. 9. He was wounded while he was crossing 
the river. 10. The letters are well written; they were finished 
while he was at school. 1 1. Many crimes were committed by their 
army. 1 2 . Would they not be warned if the proclamation had been 
posted? 13. People cannot visit those castles; they have not yet 
been opened. 14. Let us all hasten to dress and go to walk. 



244. Orthographic Changes. Certain verb stems of the 
first conjugation undergo modification when the endings are 
added, in order to prevent violation of fundamental laws of 

Note. The full conjugation of these verbs is given on pages 438-439. 

245. Verbs ending in cer take a cedilla under the c 
wherever a or follows. This is in order to keep the soft 
sound of the c of the infinitive throughout all forms. 

Nous commencons {inf. com- We commence. 

Je plafais (inf. placer). I was placing. 

246. Verbs ending in ger take an e after the g wherever 
a or follows. This is in order to keep the soft sound of 
the g of the infinitive throughout all forms. 

Nous partageons (inf. partager). We share. 

Je mangeais (inf. manger). / was eating. 

247. Verbs ending in oyer and uyer change y to i before 
mute e. Verbs ending in ayer may or may not undergo 
this change. Verbs in eyer do not change. 


J'appuie (inf. appuyer). I lean. 

lis emploient (inf. employer). They employ. 

1 pafera* } ^ paye ^* He wiU pay ^ or ^' 

Note. Such a mute e occurs in the endings e, es, ent, and in the er 
of the future and conditional. 

248. Verbs in e + consonant + er. Verbs having in the 
next to the last syllable of the infinitive an unaccented e 
followed by a single consonant take a grave accent over this 
e before a syllable containing mute e. This is in order that 
the word may not have two mute syllables in succession, a 
combination that French seeks to avoid. 

The following forms of lever, to raise, serve as illustrations : 

f je leve 

nous levons 



\ tu leves 

vous levez 

[fl leve 

ils levent 


je leverai 



je leverais 

f levons 
\ levez 

f je leve 

nous levions 



\ tu leves 

vous leviez 

il leve 

ils levent 

Note. Instead of taking the grave accent over the e, verbs in eler 
and eter double the 1 or t before mute e. However, acheter, to buy, 
geler, to freeze, and a few rare verbs do not double the consonant, but 
follow the rule. 

J'appelle {inf. appeler). I call. 

Ils jetteront {inf. jeter). They will thrcnv. 

II achate {inf. acheter). He buys. 

249. Verbs in e + consonant(s) + er. Verbs having an € 
in the next to the last syllable of the infinitive change this 


6 to e before a syllable containing mute e except before er in 
the future and conditional. 

Je cede (inf. ceder). I yield. 

II regne (inf. regner). He reigns. 

Je oSderai. I shall yield. 

Note. Verbs in which the e* is not separated from the ending er by 
a consonant retain the 6 throughout. 

II cr6e (inf. creer). He creates. 


amener, to bring, take (a per- envoyer chercher, to send for 

son) esp£rer, to hope 

s'appeler, to be named partager, to share 

apporter, to bring (a thing) pr£ferer, to prefer 

avancer, to put forward au revoir, good-by 

s'effrayer, to be frightened par ici, this way 

enlever, to take off (away) avoir mal a la tete, to have the 
ennuyer, to tire headache 

s'ennuyer, to be lonesome tater le pouls, to feel the pulse 
je m'appelle, etc., my name is 

*x •«* EXERCISE 

1. Give the full conjugation of marcher in the simple 
active tenses. 

2. Select the forms of the following verbs that undergo 
the orthographic changes which are mentioned in this lesson, 
and tell what the change is in each case : 

placer ennuyer amener preferer partager 

3. Give the (a) present indicative first plural of — 
avancer manger appeler placer 

(b) Present indicative first singular of — 

payer jeter 
amener penser 
regner acheter 







) Future first singular of — 

lever employer 
ceder partager 



4. Give the — 

synopsis of partager 
synopsis of aboyer 
synopsis of c&ler 
past definite of placer 
present subjunctive of acheter 

5. Write in French — 

what is his name ? 
will you get up early ? 
they used to eat late 
he is paying for the medicine 
would not the king yield ? 
they are bringing some wood 
he will bring her with him 
was the boy's name John ? 

present indicative of employer 
present subjunctive of se lever 
conditional of appeler 
imperfect of manger 
present subjunctive of payer 

let us share our money 
I paid for the books 
send for the book 
I paid him for the fruit 
I paid him for them 
I have a headache 
I sent for him 
near the castle 

6. Write the sentences below, using the correct verb form, 
(a) in the present tense ; {b) in the future tense, wherever 
possible ; (c) replacing je by nous, by il : 

Je me (lever) tard. Je (etre) malade. Je (employer) un medecin. 
II (s'appeler) le D r Lebon. Je le (payer) bien. Si je (s'ennuyer), 
on (amener) mes amis, et nous (manger) ensemble. 


Model Les Malades 

Quand on est malade, on appelle un medecin. Les medecins 
sont tres occupes, surtout quand les maladies qui regnent sont 
nombreuses. lis cedent gene'ralement s'ils sont appeles pour des 
cas graves. Les gens s'effraient trop facilement cependant. Quand 
il arrive, le medecin enleve son chapeau, ses gants et son manteau. 
II s'approche du lit du malade, de qui il tate le pouls et a qui il 
demande de lui montrer la langue. II y jette un coup d'ceil. II 
demande ensuite au malade ce qu'il a, s'il a mal a la tete, a la 
gorge, s'il a des douleurs, des maux d'estomac, des eblouissements, 
et quand ils ont commence ; s'il a bon appe'tit, et ce qu'il mange. II 
appuie son oreille sur la poitrine et sur le dos du malade si celui-ci 
a un rhume. Alors il prescrit de la medecine, que Ton envoie 
chercher chez le pharmacien. Le docteur se leve et dit qu'il 
espere que le malade se portera mieux bientot. On le paie ge'ne- 
ralement une fois par an. Quand le pharmacien a envoye la pres- 
cription, nous plagons la me'decine sur une table que nous avancons 
pres du lit. Si le malade s'ennuie, nous lui amenons des amis, ou, 
s'il le prefere, nous lui achetons des revues et il emploie ainsi son 
temps agreablement. 


" Good morning, (M. le) doctor." " How do you do, sir ? What 
brings you here ? " "I have not been well at all for a few days. 
I am not easily frightened, but I prefer to ask you what the matter 
is with me." " You are right ; however, there are many people 
who call me for nothing. Take off your coat. Approach nearer. 
I am going to feel your pulse. Very well. Show me your tongue 
now. I will glance at it. Do you have headaches ? " "I have had 
dizzy spells. I have no appetite. Formerly I used to eat much 
more." " Well, you have only a cold ; I am going to prescribe 
medicine for you. Buy it at Mr. Gerard's. He is a good drug- 
gist. I buy everything at his store. Go to bed early and get up 


late. Walk a little, but if it freezes too much, stay at home. If 
you hope to be better, yield to my advice." M I shall do so, and 
I shall use my time as you ask me to (me it)." " How is your 
friend who had broken his leg ? " " He is better, thank you. He 
is lonesome at home, but he still leans on the furniture to walk. 
I am not paying you today, doctor. I shall pay you when I bring 
my friend. Good-by, and thank you." 


1. Que fait-on quand on est malade? 2. Les gens qui appellent 
le docteur souvent sont-ils toujours malades ? 3. Que fait le mede- 
cin en arrivant pres du malade? 4. Avez-vous souvent mal a la 
tete? 5. Mangeons-nous bien quand nous sommes malades? 
6. Quand avez-vous meilleur appetit, le matin ou le soir? 7. Dans 
quelle saison a-t-on facilement un rhume ? 8. Que present le doc- 
teur et chez qui les envoyez-vous chercher ? 9. Quand paie-t-on le 
medecin? 10. Les medicaments vous effraient-ils ? 11. Cedez-vous 
toujours aux conseils de vos parents? 12. Gardez-vous votre 
manteau en classe ? 13. Esperez-vous employer votre temps 
agreablement dimanche prochain ? 1 4. Ne vous ennuyez-vous pas 
quelquefois ? 15. A quelle heure vous levez-vous ? 


1 . Everybody likes this cloth ; let us place some in the window. 
2. At what hour of the morning does he get up generally ? 3. Is 
your father's name Henry or John? 4. Teachers used to begin 
their work at nine o'clock in (of) the morning. 5. If he asks him 
for the money, will he pay him today ? 6. I am buying a hundred 
pounds of sugar at a franc a pound. 7. I should throw the papers 
into the street if they were mine. 8. God created all there is in 
the world. 9. We are hungry; let us eat all there is on the 
table. 10. Don't lean your head on the table; go to bed if you 
are sick. 1 1. If your throat is sore, I shall call the doctor. 12. Will 
you employ me ? I am sure I can earn twenty francs a day. 13. As 


soon as the boy arrives, I will bring him to you. 14. Where is 
the medicine which you bought for yourself at the druggist's? 
15. Louis XIV had been reigning for seventy-two years when he 
died. 16. John, have you washed your face this morning? 17. I 
hope the tailor will clean my dress coat today ; I need it. 18. My 
aunt is taking a walk now, but will soon be back. 19. Are many 
large trees still to be found in this old forest ? 20. Let us divide 
the nuts which were given us by your father. 



250. Irregular Verbs. There are in French many verbs 
which are not inflected exactly like the model of any one of the 
three conjugations. These are called irregular verbs. The 
great majority of their forms, however, may be made by know- 
ing their principal parts and applying the rules by which regu- 
lar verbs are conjugated. The rules by which simple tenses 
are formed are repeated here with some further observations. 

251. Rules of Verb Formation, a. The principal parts 
are the infinitive, present participle, past participle, first 
person singular of the present indicative, first person 
singular of the past definite. 

b. The first person singular of the present indicative ends 
in e, s, or x. The corresponding sets of endings for the three 
singular forms of this tense are, reading vertically, 










Note. If c, d, or t precedes s in the first person singular of the 
present indicative, no t is added to the third person singular. 


c. The plural of the present indicative is formed by 
dropping the ending ant of the present participle and adding 
ons, ez, ent. 

d. The imperfect is formed by dropping the ending ant of 
the present participle and adding ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient. 

e. The first person singular of the past definite ends in 
ai, is, or us. The other five forms of the tense are made 
by changing 

ai to as, a, ames, ates, erent (first conjugation) 

is to is, it, imes, ites, irent (second and third conjugations) 

us to us, ut, umes, utes, urent (many irregular verbs) 

/. The future tense is regularly formed by adding ai, as, a, 
ons, ez, ont to the infinitive. When the infinitive ends in 
mute e, this e must be dropped before the endings are added. 

g. The conditional is regularly formed by adding ais, ais, ait, 
ions, iez, aient to the infinitive. When the infinitive ends in 
mute e, this e must be dropped before the endings are added. 

Note. If the future is irregular, the conditional is always similarly 

h. The imperative is the same as the first person singular 
and the first and second persons plural of the. present 

i. The present subjunctive is formed by dropping the 
ending ant of the present participle and adding e, es, e, ions, 
iez, ent. 

Note. Certain irregular present subjunctives are as if formed from 
the third plural of the present indicative by dropping the nt. 

/. The imperfect subjunctive is formed by dropping the 
final letter of the first person singular of the past definite 
and adding sse, sses, A t, ssions, ssiez, ssent. 


252. Certain Modifications of the Stem of irregular verbs 
are so uniform that familiarity with the situations that 
occasion them is useful. 

a. Y changes to i before a mute e. 

b. When the stem of the first person plural of the present 
indicative differs from that of the singular, the third person 
plural generally reverts to a form similar to the singular. 

c. A similar correspondence of the third plural and the 
singular is apt to be found in irregular present subjunctives. 

d. Stems ending in a single consonant preceded by a 
mute e often double the consonant before a mute e ending. 

e. Sometimes the stems of d modify the stem vowel also. 
/. Stems ending in 1 are apt to develop a liquid sound 

before mute e. 

253. Irregular Forms. In this and the succeeding lessons 
on irregular verbs are given the tenses that involve any form 
not made in accordance with the rules of Sec. 251. Tenses 
not given are regular in all respects. 

Note i. The only tenses that ever offer any irregularity after the 
first person is known are present tenses, that is, the present indicative 
and subjunctive, and the imperative. The past definite of venir and 
tenir are apparent exceptions. 

Note 2. Observe particularly that if the first form of the future has 
an irregular stem, the irregularity prevails not only through the future 
but through the conditional also. 

Note 3. The full inflection of regular verbs will be found on 
pages 432-433- 

254. Compound Verbs. Verbs formed by combining a 
preposition or other prefix to a verb stem usually follow in 
conjugation the peculiarities of the main verb : thus devenir, 
to become, from venir; renvoyer (re-envoyer), to send back, 
from envoyer. 


255. Envoyer, to send, envoyant, envoys, envoie, envoyai. 

Pres. Ind. j 'envoie nous envoyons 

tu envoies vous envoyez 

il envoie ils envoient 

Fut. j'enverrai 

Pres. Subj. j 'envoie nous envoyions 

tu envoies vous envoyiez 

il envoie ils envoient 

Note. See Sec. 252, a. 

256. Aller, to go, allant, alle", vais, allai. 

Pres. Ind. 

je vais 

nous allons 

tu vas 

vous allez 

il va 

ils vont 






Pres. Subj. 


nous allions 

tu ailles 

vous alliez 

il aille 

ils aillent 

Note. All verbs ending in er except envoyer and aller are regular. 

257. Idioms with Aller, Aller in the sense of going to is 
often used before an infinitive to express an immediate 
future. Aller governs a following infinitive directly, that is, 
without requiring a preposition. 

I am going to send (I shall send). Je vais envoyer. 

I was going to send. fallais envoyer. 

I am going to hear him. Je vais V entendre. 

I will go (and) speak to him. J'irai lui parler. 

Note. The use of aller in salutations has been met in Lesson 26. 

How are you ? Comment allez-vous ? 

I am very well. Je vais trh bien. 



aller, to go ; be (of health) ; suit, 
be becoming, fit well 

cela va sans dire, that goes with- 
out saying 

s'en aller, to go away 

les affaires/, the business 
la journe*e, the day (when dura- 
tion or content is implied) 
en outre, besides 
pas du tout, not at all 



i . Form all the simple tenses of the verb whose principal 
parts are vaincre, vainquant, vaincu, vaincs, vainquis. 

2. Give the — 

synopsis of aller 
synopsis of s'en aller 
past definite of aller, int. 
present subjunctive of envoyer 
past anterior of s'en aller 

3. Write in French — 

he is going to send 
he is going to the city 
he is going away 
he is going to bed 
send me something 
go away 
do not go away 
she went away alone 
go and speak to him 
somebody will go 
did she not go away ? 
he will send for me 

present subjunctive of s'en aller, 

imperfect subjunctive of s'en 

aller, neg.-int. 
imperative of s'en aller 

I shall go for the children 


last night 

it goes without saying 

he is well 

his health is good 

it is not good at all 

would he not go ? 

they are sending 

a good watch 

how are you ? 

how is she ? 


4. Write the paragraph below, using correct verb forms, 
(a) in the present, (b) past, (c) future : 

Quand on me (envoyer) chercher, j'y (aller). Je (s'en aller) 
sou vent. II (aller) partir de bonne heure. lis (arriver) tard. 

Model Le TheAtre 

Tiens, bonjour, mon ami ; votre chapeau neuf vous va tres bien. 
Comment va la sante ? — Je vais mieux que la semaine derniere, 
merci. — Et les affaires ? — Elles vont mal, mais elles iront 
bientot beaucoup mieux. — Cela vous irait-il d'aller au theatre ou 
a l'opera ce soir ? — Avec grand plaisir. — Jean, apporte-moi le 
journal du matin ; je veux voir les annonces des theatres. — Une 
tragedie ne me va pas du tout. Je suis alle en voir une avant-hier. 
— J'y serais alle avec vous si vous m'aviez envoye # un message 
quelconque. — J'allais le faire, mais je ne pensais pas que vous 
e'tiez libre. — Allons a la Comedie-Francaise. On y joue une 
piece de Moliere. — Allons-y. — Je vais envoyer chercher des 
billets, deux fauteuils d'orchestre. — A quelle heure le rideau se 
leve-t-il ? — A huit heures. — Et les acteurs sont bons ? — Cela 
va sans dire; les meilleurs du pays. — Allons chercher nos 
billets nous-memes. Si ma montre va bien, il est deja dix heures, 
et les places vont etre bientot prises. — Allons, depechons-nous. 
Apres la representation nous irons au cafe de la Paix. — Tres 
bonne idee. Allons-nous-en. Jean, si mon pere envoie chercher la 
lettre dont il m'a parle', dis-lui que je la lui enverrai en rentrant. 


Day before yesterday my cousin (/.) sent me a letter, asking 
me if it (cela) would suit me to (de) go and see a play with her 
at the Comedie Franchise. That suited me perfectly, be sure of it. 
We went and we enjoyed ourselves very much. My cousin had a 
beautiful dress which became her very well. The orchestra seats 


that they had given us were well situated. She had gone to get 
the tickets herself, because when they send them to her the seats 
do not always suit her. It goes without saying that the performance 
was very good. With such good actors it is natural. If they are 
still giving that play next week, I shall send for some tickets in 
order to take my friend John to it. He likes the theater, but he has 
not been for several weeks because his business is not going well 
at all. Besides, he Qui, sec. 3 1 7 , b) is not well. He was much healthier 
a year ago. I should go to see him if I were free. I went to his 
home a few days ago. I had seen in the paper an advertisement 
of the Come'die Francaise, and they were going to give a play of 
Rostand, but on arriving at his house I found that he had gone 
away for the day. 


1. Ou allez-vous le dimanche ? 2. Iriez-vous si vous n'alliez pas 
bien ? 3. Allez-vous mieux qu'il y a un an ? 4. Cela vous irait-il 
d'aller au theatre ce soir ? 5. Y etes-vous alle la semaine derniere ? 
6. Qu'allez-vous faire ce soir? 7. Geleriez-vous si vous alliez a 
l'ecole sans manteau en hiver? 8. A quelle heure vous en allez- 
vous chez vous ? 9. Vous en iriez-vous si la lecon etait finie ? 
10. Ne va-t-il pas sans dire que cette lecon est difficile ? 11. Avez- 
vous envoye une lettre hier? 12. Le maitre envoie-t-il les eleves 
au tableau pour reciter ? 13. Y en a-t-il envoye ce matin ? 14. Qui 
envoyez-vous chercher quand vous n'allez pas bien? 15. L'en- 
verriez-vous chercher si vous n'aviez qu'un rhume ? 

L'OPERA: LE GRAND ESCALIER. L'Opera, qui fut treize ans a cons- 
truire (1861-1874), est un des theatres les plus fameux du monde. Son 
exterieur est on ne peut plus imposant, mais l'interieur est encore plus 
renomme. Le Grand Escalier, represente ici, et le Foyer ou les spectateurs 
se rendent pendant les longs entr'actes, n'ont pas d'egaux. Le gouverne- 
ment considere le travail de l'Opera comme etant une partie de Peducation 
du peuple et lui accorde une subvention annuelle. 




i. Is your brother at home ? I am sending him a letter. 2. He 
hopes to go to the theater this evening if all goes well. 3. When 
is he going away ? He hopes to leave before ten o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 4. My brother was going to send for her when she 
entered the room. 5. Are you hungry ? Let us go to the restaurant 
and eat something. 6. Our friends went away a week ago 
Thursday. 7. He is buying a gold watch; the one he has does 
not suit him. 8. Which of the senators is going to speak Monday 
evening? 9. If my son does not come home soon, I shall send 
him two hundred francs. 10. Children, you are making too much 
noise; go away at once. 11. Of what are you thinking? Of the 
price of hats and shoes. 12. He is taking his sister to the ball 
this evening. 13. If our mother had not gone away, we should have 
stayed in town. 1 4. Get up quickly ! We are going to the country. 

15. Where, is John's grammar? I am going to send it to him. 

16. If I had money enough, I should go to the seashore. 17. We 
never find what we need in this store ; let us go home. 18. He will 
call you when they start if he is not too sleepy. 19. Are you going 
to the theater? What is being played there? 20. Tragedies are 
often seen there ; one of them is being played there now. 



258. Partir, to start, partant, parti, pars, partis. 
Similarly dormir, to sleep ; mentir, to lie ; sentir, to feel, 

smell ; servir, to serve ; sortir, to go out ; se repentir, to repent. 

259. Courir, to run, courant, couru, cours, courus. 

Fut. je courrai 


260. Ouvrir, to open, ouvrant, ouvert, ouvre, ouvris. 
Similarly couvrir, to cover ; offrir, to offer ; souffrir, to suffer. 

261. Venir, to come, venant, venu, viens, vins. 



je viens 

nous venons 

tu viens 

vous venez 

il vient 

ils viennent 



je vins 

nous vinmes 

tu vins 

vous vintes 

il vint 

ils vinrent 


je viendrai 



je vienne 

nous venions 

tu viennes 

vous veniez 

il vienne 

ils viennent 

Note. See Sec. 252, b, c, d, e. 
Similarly tenir, to hold. 

262. Venir de with an infinitive signifies to have just. 

Je viens de partir. / have just started (am coming 

from starting). 

Je venais de partir. / had just started (was coming 

from starting). 
Note. Venir is also followed by the infinitive directiy. 

Venez acheter des livres. Come to buy (and buy) some books. 

II est venu l'acheter. He came to buy (and bought) it. 

263. Mourir, to die, mourant, mort, meurs, mourns. 

Pres. Ind. je meurs nous mourons 

tu meurs vous mourez 

il meurt ils meurent 

Fut. je mourrai 

Pres. Subj. je meure nous mourions 

tu meures vous mouriez 

il meure ils meurent 
Note. See Sec. 252, b, c. 




a peine, scarcely 
appartenir, to belong 
apres que, after (conj.) 
devenir, to become 
s'endormir, to go to sleep 
se repentir de, to repent of 

se sentir bien, to feel well 

se servir de, to use (serve one's 

self with) 
tenir a, to insist upon, be eager 

y compris, including 

jl *»f EXERCISE 

i. Give the — 
synopsis of tenir 
synopsis of mourir 
present indicative of mentir 
past definite of tenir 
present subjunctive of offrir 

2. Translate into French — 

we have suffered 

present indicative of servir 
conditional of mourir 
imperfect subjunctive of mourir 
present indicative of se repentir 
past indefinite of s'ouvrir 

he sleeps 
she would run 
they come 

3. Give the — 

pres. ind. 3d sing, of sentir 
pres. subj. 2d plu. of courir 
past participle of offrir 

4. Translate into French 
he has just died 

he had just died 
he is going to die 
it belonged to us 
they are becoming old 
does he use his carriage ? 

you will die 
you came 

I am covering 
thou dost lie 
she has gone out 

pres. subj. 3d sing, of venir 
pres. ind. 3d plu. of mourir 
past def. 2d plu. of venir 

I used my two hands 

he used to repent of it 

they insist on running 

come and eat 

do you repent of your vices ? 

go to sleep 


5. Replace in this paragraph je in turn by il, nous, elles, 
making all necessary changes : 

Je viens de me lever. Je me repens de m'etre endormi. Je dors 
toujours mal. J'ouvrirai la porte. Je tiens a m'en aller. Je vais 
partir bientot. Je me sers du cheval blanc. Je meurs de faim. 

Model Mon Frere revient de France 

Mon frere Georges vient d'arriver de France, d'011 il e'tait parti 
il y a onze jours. II ne se sent pas tres bien. II ne dort pas assez. 
II souffre de la grippe. Malgre cela il ne se repent pas de son 
voyage. II a bien employe son temps, et s'il a couru pour ainsi dire 
par toute la France, y compris la Bretagne, ses visites lui ont offert 
l'occasion de voir de belles choses. En deux mois il a couvert beau- 
coup de terrain, et il ne ment pas quand il dit qu'il a vu presque 
tout. II tient k retourner en France aussitot que possible. Je 
ne sortirai pas dimanche prochain parce qu'il viendra probable- 
ment me voir. Je sors rarement le dimanche soir. II aura beau- 
coup de choses a. me dire. Je viens de relire quelques-unes de ses 
lettres. J 'en ai encore une ouverte sur la table, dans laquelle il se 
sert de termes eloquents pour decrire ce qu'il a vu. II parle aussi 
d'un de ses amis qui est mort en France. Cet ami venait a peine 
d'arriver pour parler d'affaires qu'on lui avait offertes. II sortait 
souvent sans manteau, et un jour comme il n'etait pas assez couvert, 
il a attrape un rhume. Cela sert a montrer qu'on ne peut jamais 
se repentir d'etre trop prudent. % 


I rarely go out before nine o'clock. I slept badly last (this) 
night ; I was not feeling very well. I have suffered and do suffer 
a little yet from the grippe. I fell asleep a few minutes after 
the clock had struck two (o'clock). I opened my eyes early, and 
as breakfast is served early at my house, I went down to the 



i Underwood & Underwood 


Les ponts de Paris ne manquent pas d'attirer 
l'attention des voyageurs. Le pont Alexan- 
dre III, le plus nouveau des trente et un 
ponts qui ont ete jet^s sur la Seine, est fait 
d\me seule arche d'environ cent vingt metres. 
II est orne de groupes allegoriques qui en 
embellissent les quatre coins. II fut construit 
pour l'Exposition de 1900 et est ainsi nomme 
en souvenir de l'empereur de Russie qui 
fit avec la France un traite d'alliance lequel 
durait encore en 1914. Beau en meme temps 
qu'utile, ce pont reunit les Champs-filysees 
aux Invalides 

dining-room, where I 
found a letter from my 
brother, which had just 
arrived. I opened it 
at once. He will come 
back from France in a 
month. He has just 
left Paris, where he 
had gone to see one 
of his friends who was 
suffering from a seri- 
ous sickness and who 
died recently. My 
brother had been eager 
to see him, for he liked 
him very much. In this 
country they used to 
go out always together. 
My brother has cov- 
ered much ground since 
he has been in France. 
He chases (courir) from 
one end of the country 
to the other, and one 
feels in his letters that 
he does not regret his 
travels. When he dies, 
he will have seen many 
things. I am eager to 
see all that myself. 
The opportunity will 
come for me perhaps 
some (un) day. 



1. Quand partez-vous de chez vous pour l'ecole? 2. Est-ce que 
je pars de l'ecole avant ou apres que les eleves sont partis? 
3. Courez-vous si vous etes en retard pour l'ecole ? 4. Courriez- 
vous si vous e'tiez en retard ? 5. A quelle heure avez-vous ouvert 
les yeux ce matin ? 6. A quelle page ouvrez-vous votre livre pour 
la lecon d'aujourd'hui ? 7. M'offririez-vous une chaise si j'allais 
vous voir ? 8. Vous a-t-on offert une place au the'atre pour ce soir ? 
9. Viendriez-vous ici si vous ne vous sentiez pas bien ? 10. Qui 
enverriez-vous chercher? 11. Qu'est-ce que je viens de vous de- 
mander? 12. Veniez-vous de chez vous quand vous etes arrive ici 
ce matin ? 13. Viendriez-vous me voir si j'e'tais malade? 14. Tenez- 
vous a rester ici pendant les vacances? 15. De quoi vous 
servez-vous pour ecrire? 


1 . Does he not start for France at 9. 1 5 this morning ? 2 . I always 
sleep late mornings, especially Sundays. 3. The soldiers have just 
arrived from France, where they have been two years. 4. When 
they need hats, they will come and buy them at my store. 5. While 
running to school he fell and broke his leg. 6. John has just taken 
my book, and I am using his. 7. Do you know the name of the 
grammar his class used last year ? 8. My father is suffering from 
the grippe ; have you ever suffered from it ? 9. The houses which 
we have just bought were built a hundred years ago. 10. Many 
people die from accidents every year in large cities. 11. Children 
are never eager to get up early mornings. 12. George Washington 
was president for eight years, and died Dec. 14, 1799. 13. Have 
you ever used the book of which I was speaking to you ? 1 4. Don't 
be afraid ; he will not die from his cold if he is prudent. 15. The 
friend whom I met in Canada is coming to visit me on the 9th of 
August. 16. Tomorrow evening I will come and describe to you 
what I saw in Europe. 17. The clock had just struck three when 


she started. 18. We have just closed the window; now we are 
going to bed. 19. If he is not too sieepy, he will run to the fire. 
20. When he lies, he always repents of it. 


Lessons Forty-two to Forty-four 
A. General Drill 

1. Name all forms in which verbs in cer and ger undergo 
orthographic change. 

2. Name the mute endings found in the first conjugation. 

3. What change occurs in conjugating verbs ending in yer? 
Where does it occur ? How does it depend on the preceding 
vowel ? 

4 . How does the inflection of verbs having i in the last syllable 
but one differ from that of verbs having e in that position ? 

5. What verbs ending in ler and ter are exceptional in 
conjugation ? 

6. Name verbs that illustrate respectively Sec. 251, g, 
Note; 252, #; b\ c; d\ e. 

7. Give the principal parts of partir, sortir, tenir, ouvrir. 

8. Give the synopsis of aller, envoyer, s'appeler, courir, venir, 

9. Give the — 

pres. subj. of aller pres. subj. of mener 

imv. of aller pres. ind. of tenir 

imp. of manger pret. of venir 

pres. subj. of renvoyer cond. of espe*rer 

pres. ind. of s'en aller, int. pres. subj. of mourir 

pres. ind. of payer pres. ind. of mourir 

pres. ind. of mentir imv. of s'appeler 


10. What verbs are inflected like partir ? ouvrir ? 

1 1 . Translate into French — 

he was going to send it the boat used to belong to me 

they were going to send it back bring me the book 

do you like to go to bed early ? bring him with you 

his name is John does he get up early ? 

he has just offered it he is coming to visit me early 

you had just eaten I went for my chum 

come and pay us for these books send for me 

she had gone away I shall never pardon them 

let us go away she asked me for the flowers 

I have used the boat they insist on stopping 

12. (a) Insert the correct verb forms in the paragraph 
below ; (b) change hier to demain and rewrite ; (c) change ma 
sceur to nous and rewrite : 

Hier ma sceur (partir) pour la ville. Elle (se lever) a six heures. 
Elle n'avait pas bien (dormir). Elle (s'habiller) vite, et (manger) 
peu. En (sortir) elle est (tomber), mais elle (tenir) a (partir). 
(Arriver) a la ville, elle (employer) une modiste, qu'elle (payer) 
tout de suite. Celle-ci (s'appeler) M me Lapaille. Elle (venir) de 
(arriver) de Paris. Alors ma sceur (s'en aller). 

B. Translate into French 

1 . There 's the school to which he used to send his children 
years ago. 2. We are poor, but we are satisfied with what we have. 

3. My friend went away at half past four, as soon as she had arisen. 

4. What is your name, my little girl ? What a pretty hat you have ! 

5. These men have no money ; we just gave them some bread and 
meat. 6. You will not get up early if you go to bed so late, my 
son. 7. As soon as I call, send him to me. 8. I am going to start 
today at a quarter of five, if all goes well. 9. Let us not forget that 
God has given us all that we have. 1 o. Many dogs that bark bite 


also, but not all. n. He has employed two of his clerks for more 
than (de) eleven years; he cannot do without them. 12. If you 
bring it to me this evening or tomorrow morning, I shall be at 
home, and I will pay you for it. 13. He has hurt himself and has 
sent for a doctor. Which, the old one or the young one ? 14. My 
father had formerly the most beautiful black hair, but it has be- 
come white now. 15. Will he not use the gifts which somebody 
has given him ? 



264. Devoir, to owe, devant, du (/. due), dois, dus. 

Pres. Ind. je dois nous devons 

tu dois vous devez 

il doit ils doivent 

Fut. je devrai 

Pres. Subj. je doive nous devions 

tu doives vous deviez 

il doive ils doivent 

Note. See Sec. 252, £>, c. 

265. Devoir is used 

a. To express obligation from the standpoint of duty. 
If a general principle is involved, the present is always 
used ; if a particular instance, the conditional is more 
commonly found. 

People ought to (should) go to On doit se coucher de bonne heure. 

bed early. 

He ought to go to bed now. II devrait se coucher maintenant. 

He ought not to have remained. II n 'await pas du rester. 

b. To express a probability which is inferred from known 


It is very late ; you must be 7/ est tres tard; vous devez avoir 

sleepy. sommeil. 

You must have wept when you Vous avez du pleurer quand vous 

heard that avez entendu cela. 

c. To express what is to be done in accordance with 
some destiny or plan. 

I am to start tomorrow. Je dots partir demain. 

I was to start yesterday. Je devais partir hier. 

266. Recevoir, to receive \ recevant, recu, recois, recus. 

Pres. Ind. je recois nous recevons 

tu recois vous recevez 

il recoit ils recoivent 

Fut. je recevrai 

Pres. Subj. je recoive nous recevions 

tu recoives vous receviez 

il recoive . ils recoivent 

Note i . Before and u the c takes a cedilla. Also see Sec. 252, b, c. 
All verbs ending in cevoir are similarly conjugated. 

Note 2. Verbs like recevoir, including devoir, are sometimes classi- 
fied as a distinct conjugation. 

267. Pouvoir, to be able, can, pouvant, pu, peux (puis), pus. 

Pres. Ind. je peux (puis) nous pouvons 

tu peux vous pouvez 

il peut ils peuvent 

Fut. je pourrai 

Imv. (wanting) 

Pres. Subj. je puisse nous puissions 

tu puisses vous puissiez 

il puisse ils puissent 

Note. See Sec. 252, b. 


268. Savoir, to know, sachant, su, sais, sus. 



je sais 
tu sais 
il sait 


je savais 


je saurai 



nous savons 
vous savez 
ils savent 


Note i. When can in English signifies mental ability in the sense 
of know how to, it is rendered in French by savoir, followed by an 
infinitive directly. 

Je sais parler fra^ais. I can (know how to) speak French. 

Je suis malade et je ne puis I am sick and I cannot (am not able 

parler. to) speak. 

Note 2. With pouvoir and savoir the pas of the negative ne . . . pas 
is often omitted. See Sec. 330. 

269. Voir, to see, voyant, vu, vois, vis. 

Pres. Ind. je vois nous voyons 

tu vois vous voyez 

il voit ils voient 

Fut. je verrai 

Pres. Subj. je voie nous voyions 

tu voies vous voyiez 

il voie ils voient 

Note. See Sec. 252, a. 


apercevoir, to perceive la boite aux lettres, the letter box 

a temps, on time le bureau de poste, the post office 

la-bas, over there, yonder mettre a la poste, to post 

revenir, to come back faire recommander, to have 

le jour de Pan, New Year's registered 





1. Give the — 
synopsis of savoir 
synopsis of recevoir 
imperfect subjunctive of aper- 


2. Translate into French — 

present indicative of devoir 
present indicative of pouvoir 
present subjunctive of savoir 
present subjunctive of revoir 

he will be able 

they would know know 

they see thou shalt owe 

I receive they are perceiving 

3. Give the — 
pres. subj. 3d sing, of devoir 
past def. 3d sing, of recevoir 
pres. subj. 2d plu. of pouvoir 
imperative of pouvoir 

4. Translate into French - 
he owes a hundred francs 
we ought to speak well 
he ought to speak well now 
he ought to have spoken better 
he must speak 
he is to speak 
he was to speak 
he can speak 

5 . Insert in the parentheses the correct verb forms (a) in 
the present tense ; {b) in the imperfect ; (c) in the future : 

Je (savoir) e'crire. Je (pouvoir) ecrire sur ce papier-ci. Je 
(recevoir) bien des lettres. J 'en (voir) une. Elle (devoir) etre de 
Jean. Je (aller) a la poste. Je (acheter) des timbres. Le courrier 
(partir) bientot. 

you can 

we were knowing 

past def. 1 st plu. of voir 
past participle of devoir 
imperative of voir 
pres. ind. 3d plu. of savoir 

he is sleepy and he can't speak 

he is going to speak 

he has just spoken 

New Year's 

he can come back 

he could come back 

he should come back 

he will come back 


Model La Poste 

Je viens d'ecrire des lettres et des cartes postales a mes amis 
qui demeurent en France. Elles doivent partir bientot. Elles 
devraient (ought) meme deja etre parties ou mes amis ne les 
recevront pas a temps pour le jour de Fan. Je n'aurais pas du 
attendre si longtemps. J 'en recois beaucoup, et j'en recevrais 
encore plus si je pouvais m'habituer a y repondre tout de suite 
apres qu'elles ont ete lues. Je vais mettre dans les enveloppes les 
lettres que vous voyez la. Je n'ai pas de timbres. Je n'en ai pas 
achete hier et je m'en repens aujourd'hui. Si je savais ou il y en 
a dans la maison, je m'en servirais. Voyons si Marie est la. « Y 
a-t-il des timbres de cinq sous ici ? — Pourquoi de cinq sous ? — 
Parce qu'on doit mettre un timbre de cinq sous sur les lettres et 
de deux sous sur les cartes pour les pays etrangers. — Je n'en ai 
que deux. — Eh bien ! J'irai moi-meme mettre mes lettres a la 
poste parce qu'il y en a une que je vais faire recommander. Le 
courrier part a cinq heures, je pourrai arriver a temps. Vois-tu mes 
gants dans le salon ? — Non, je ne peux pas les trouver. — Non ? 
Ah ! les voici. Viens avec moi. Heureusement (que) le bureau de 
poste n'est pas loin, autrement nous ne pourrions y arriver avant 
cinq heures. Nous y voici. J'ai mes timbres que j'ai achetes au 
guichet. Ou y a-t-il une boite aux lettres ? Ah 1 en voici une.. II 
est quatre heures et demie. Le courrier n'est pas encore parti. » 


"Ah! Here is the postman, who has just put some letters 
in our letter box. We receive the mail three times a day. Here is 
an envelope with a five-cent stamp. It must come from France. 
It is from my friend Charles, from whom I received another letter 
two weeks ago. Let us see what he has to say. He does not 
know whether he will be able to come back in (avant) two months. 
He will, however, come back in time for New Year's. I see that 
he is enjoying himself. I am going to write him a long letter, 


which I shall afterward go to mail. I shall thus be able to buy 
some postal cards ; I have n't any more. I have also another letter 
which I am to have registered. I ought to have sent -it sooner, but 
my father will receive it on time. It is money I owe him. He will 
receive it with pleasure, for I have been owing it to him for a long 
time. Let us go to the post office. There is the stamp window. 
If we only knew where the clerk is, we could ask him for what 
we want. There he is. Six five-cent stamps and a two-cent one, 
please. Could I ask you where the box is ? " "Do you not see 
it over there near that door, sir }" "I see it, thank you." 


1. Savez-vous bien cette lecon? 2. La sauriez-vous si vous ne 
Paviez pas etudie'e? 3. Combien de temps devez-vous l'etudier 
pour la savoir ? 4. Devez-vous de l'argent a quelqu'un ? 5. Payeriez- 
vous votre tailleur si vous lui en deviez? 6. Me recevriez-vous 
si je venais vous voir? 7. Avez-vous recu une lettre ce matin? 
8. Combien de fois par jour voyez-vous le facteur ? 9. Recevez- 
vous du courrier le dimanche ? 1 o. Me verrez-vous ici dimanche ? 

1 1. Que doit-on faire quand on a une lettre importante a envoyer ? 

12. Pouvez-vous aller d'ici au bureau de poste en cinq minutes? 

13. A quelle heure auriez-vous du partir de chez vous pour arriver 
ici a sept heures et demie? 14. Devons-nous quitter la classe 
bientot? 1 5 . Savez-vous chanter ? 


1. My brother is to start for Europe next Friday. 2. The ball 
was to take place in this room. 3. Children ought to get up early 
to be well. 4. My mother is sick and I ought not to stay longer. 
5. You ought to have gone to the post office before 7.30. 6. We 
should use all that we have for our friends. 7. Are you to see him 
tomorrow at 11. 15 a. m. ? 8. I cannot come down now; I am 
dressing. 9. I ought to know how to speak French soon. 10. He 
will not be able to go to the theater if his dress suit does not 


come. ii. You have eaten nothing today; you must be hungry. 
12. People ought not to be ashamed of what they do. 13. Will 
you send me. the photographs as soon as they come ? 1 4. He can 
work, but he cannot build a house. 15. There is the man of whom 
I was just speaking. 16. I receive some letters, but I should re- 
ceive more if I answered them. 17. I have no stamps ; I ought to 
go to the office and buy some. 18. He hopes that I shall see him 
in two weeks. 19. Do you know how many times a day the post- 
man comes ? 20. Please pay what you owe when you go to town. 



270. Valoir, to be worth, valant, valu, vaux, valus. 
Pres. Ind. je vaux nous valons 

tu vaux vous valez 

il vaut ils valent 

Fut. je vaudrai 

Pres. Subj. je vaille nous valions 

tu vailles vous valiez 

il vaille ils vaillent 
Note. See Sec. 252,/i 

271. Vouloir, to wish, want, voulant, voulu, veux, voulus. 



je veux 

nous voulons 

tu veux 

vous voulez 

il veut 

ils veulent 


je voudrai 


veuille (veux) 

veuillons (voulons) 
veuillez (voulez) 



je veuille 

nous voulions 

tu veuilles 

vous vouliez 

il veuille 

ils veuillent 


Note i. See Sec. 252, b, c,f. 

Note 2. The forms of the imperative inclosed in parentheses are 

rarely used. Its other forms have ordinarily the meaning please, be good 
enough to. 

Veuillez me le donner. Please give it to me. 

Note 3. Will you have in the sense of do you wish is translated 
by vouloir. 

Will you have some bread ? Voulez-vons du pain ? 

272. Asseoir, to seat, asseyant, assis, assieds, assis. 

Fut. j'assierai (asseyerai) 

Note. Y does not change to i before mute e. 

273. Falloir, to be necessary, (pres. part, wanting), fallu, 
il faut, il faUut. 

Imp. il fallait 

Fut. il faudra 

Pres. Subj. il faille 

Note i. See Sec. 252,/ 

Note 2. Falloir is an impersonal verb ; that is, it is found only in 
the third person singular. 

274. Falloir is followed by the subjunctive (Sec. 303) when 
there is any emphasis on the person concerned, as always when 
this person is expressed by a noun and often when it is ex- 
pressed by a pronoun. It is followed by the infinitive in gen- 
eral statements, and also sometimes with unemphatic pronouns. 
II faut que Jean parte {subj.). It is necessary that John start 

{John must start). 
II faut qu'ils partent {subj.). They must start. 

II faut partir a temps. It is necessary to start on time. 

II me faut partir a six heures. / must start at six o'clock. 
Ilfaudraquenouspartions(.fz^'.). We shall have to start. 
II a fallu le payer. We had {it was necessary) to pay 

for it. 



Note i . Falloir must be carefully distinguished from devoir. Falloir 
denotes obligation from the standpoint of necessity ; devoir, from the 
standpoint of duty. 

You ought to (must) obey God. Vous devez obeir a Dieu. 

The law must be obeyed. Ilfaut obeir a la loi. 

You must start early. H vous faut partir de bonne heure. 

Note 2. Falloir is translated need when a noun directly follows. 
He needs another (one more) pencil. H lui faut encore ten crayon. 
I need another (a different) horse. II me faut tin autre cheval. 
My father needs a coat. Ilfaut un habit a mon pere. 


borgne, blind in one eye 
de nouveau, again 
ob&r a, to obey 
voler a, to steal from 
s'asseoir, to sit down 
valoir mieux, to be better 

vouloir bien, to be willing 
vouloir dire, to mean 
vouloir rire, to joke 
en vouloir a, to have a grudge 

etre en vente, to be on sale 


1. Give the — 
synopsis of vouloir 
synopsis of s'asseoir 
present indicative of valoir 
present subjunctive of vouloir 

2. Locate — 

faudra voudrait 

vaudras je m'assis 

3. Give the — 
imv. 2d sing, of vouloir 
conditional 3d plu. of asseoir 
pres. subj. 3d sing, of falloir 
imp. subj. 3d plu. of s'asseoir 


present indicative of asseoir 
present subjunctive of s'asseoir 
present subjunctive of valoir 
conditional of falloir 



imp. 1st plu. of valoir 
pres. subj. 1st plu. of vouloir 
pres. ind. 3d plu. of vouloir 
pres. ind. 3d plu. of valoir 


4. Translate into French — 

it is worth ten francs you ought to run now 

it is better to work you had to run 

he wants to work you will have to run 

he is willing to work he needs another cup 

I mean your brother shall you buy a cup ? 
I have a grudge against your will you bring a cup ? 

brother • will you have a cup of tea ? 
he has a grudge against them please stay 

he was seated it belongs to her 

he was sitting down he obeys the teacher 

you must run he stole the horse 

you have run he stole it from him 

your friend must run you are joking 

Model . Le Cheval Vole 

On avait vole' a un paysan un cheval, qui valait deux cents francs. 
Comme il en voulait un autre, il lui fallut se rendre a une foire 
pour l'acheter. Pendant qu'il parcourait le champ de foire, il vit 
enfin son cheval vole parmi ceux qui etaient en vente. « Ce cheval 
est a moi » , dit-il a l'homme qui etait assis pres du cheval pour le 
garden « On me Fa vole il y a trois jours. — Vous voulez rire», 
repondit Fautre, « je Fai depuis trois ans. — Impossible » , repondit 
le paysan en placant tout a coup les mains sur les deux yeux du 
cheval. « Voyons, de quel oeil est-il borgne ? » La dispute com- 
mencait a attirer une foule assez grande, et le voleur devait 
repondre sans hesitation. « De Foeil gauche » , dit-il. Le paysan 
ota sa main et cet oeil gauche e'tait clair et brillant. « Oh ! je me 
suis trompe » , re'pondit Fautre tout de suite ; « je voulais dire de 
Foeil droit. — Vous mentez. II vaudrait mieux vous taire. Le 
cheval n'est borgne ni de Foeil droit ni de Foeil gauche » , dit alors 
le paysan, otant Fautre main. «I1 est evident que vous 6tes un 



voleur. II faut que vous 
me rendiez mon cheval, et 
que vous alliez avec moi 
devant un magistrate 


Several years ago a 

man stole a horse from a 


peasant. The latter, who 
wanted another one, for 
he needed it to work in 
the (aux) fields, looked 
for it a long time, and one 
day when (que) he had 
just arrived at a fair, he 
found the horse they had 
stolen from him. The 
horse was on sale, and 
the man who had it said 
it was worth much money. 
The peasant went and got 
a magistrate, and the two 
approached the animal. 
" It is my horse," said the 
peasant, "and the man 
who is seated there is the 
thief." The other replied 
immediately, when he saw 
the magistrate, " This 
horse is mine, and it has 
belonged to me for three 
years." " Let us see," continued the peasant, and he covered both 
eyes of the horse. " The horse is blind in one eye ; which is it, 


Tres pittoresques ces foires a bestiaux, 
principalement en province. Les paysans 
se rendent, a une date donnee, sur une des 
places du village ou de la ville, oil les ache- 
teurs peuvent apprecier, par comparaison, 
les qualites des bestiaux a vendre. Ces 
maquignons et fermiers, en blouse bleue, qui 
leurvient generalement aux genoux, ont un 
langage quelquefois bien amusant a ecouter, 
surtout lorsque l'acheteur ne peut se decider 
d'une facon ou d'une autre. La discussion 
se continue souvent au plus proche cabaret, 
oil, sous l'esprit de camaraderie que cree la 
chaleur du vin, le fermier espere conclure 
le marche avec son client recalcitrant 


the left one (that of left) or the right one ? " M The left," said the 
other, without hesitation. "You are mistaken," replied the peasant. 
"I meant the right," said the man, who already knew by the glances 
they were casting on him that he could not lie much longer. " You 
must guess again," replied the peasant, and he showed both eyes 
of the horse, which were clear and brilliant. It was evident that 
the man had stolen the horse and that it belonged to the peasant. 


1. Combien vaut ce livre? 2. Vaut-il mieux mettre un manteau 
quand il fait froid ? 3. L'or vaudrait-il autant s'il y en avait beau- 
coup? 4. Combien valait ce cheval vole? 5. Voulez-vous savoir 
quand est mort Napole'on ? 6. Voudriez-vous aller au theatre si 
je vous y invitais? 7. Veuillez me donner votre livre. 8. Que 
dites-vous a une personne pour savoir si elle a besoin de pain ? 
9. Mangez-vous debout? 10. A quelle heure vous etes-vous assis 
en classe ce matin ? 11. Que vous f aut-il f aire pour savoir vos 
lecons? 12. Que f aut-il pour s'asseoir? 13. Les soldats doivent-ils 
obeir k leurs chefs? 14. En voulez-vous a votre maitre quand il 
dit que vous ne savez pas votre lecon? 15. A qui un e'leve en 
veut-il souvent ? 


1. It is necessary to send for the doctor this morning. 2. Sit 
down, if you will ; I prefer to sit down myself. 3. I need another 
napkin ; bring me one. 4. I am willing to go and eat my breakfast 
at once. 5. I did not know what you meant when you spoke. 
6. My sister came in when we were sitting around the fire. 7. You 
must be hungry; it will be better to eat a good dinner than a 
luncheon. 8. We need another spoon and a large cup. 9. The 
ladies seated themselves in the parlor after supper. 10. I have a 
grudge against the merchant who sold me this cloth. 11. Will 
your mother need more than seven dozen eggs ? 12. Will you sell 


the tablecloth that you bought? 13. It is not necessary for us to 
become rich. 14. They had to ask him for some money, but they 
did not wish to do it. 15. Here are the stamps which I bought 
for myself; will you have some? 16. I do not know what you 
need; do you want what we have ? 17. Soldiers must always obey 
their officers. 18. I will not sit down; I have to be in town before 
eight o'clock. 19. The boy says that he has to go for the doctor. 
20. Please give me the papers of which I was speaking. 



275. Naitre, to be bom, naissant, n6, nais, naquis. 

Pres. Ind. je nais nous naissons 

tu nais vous naissez 

il halt ils naissent 

Fut. je naitrai 

Note. The stem syllable has ai before t. 

276. Connaitre, to know, connaissant, connu, connais, connus. 

Pres. Ind. je connais nous connaissons 

tu connais vous connaissez 

il connait ils connaissent 

Note i. The stem syllable has ai before t. 

Note 2. Connaitre, to know a person ; savoir, to know a fact. 

Similarly paraitre, to appear. 

277. Mettre, to put, mettant, mis, mets, mis. 

278. Craindre, to fear, craignant, craint, crains, craignis. 
Similarly all verbs ending in aindre, eindre, oindre. 


279. Prendre, to take, prenant, pris, prends, pris. 
Pres. Ind. je prends nous prenons 

tu prends vous prenez 

il prend ils prennent 

Pres. Subj. je prenne nous prenions 

tu prennes vous preniez 

il prenne ils prennent 
Note. See Sec. 252, d. 

280. Dire, to say, tell, disant, dit, dis, dis. 
Pres. Ind. je dis nous disons 

tu dis vous dites 

il dit ils disent 

Note. Compounds of dire are regular in the second person plural 
of the present indicative, except redire, to say again. 

281. £crire, to write, Scrivant, 6crit, 6cris, £crivis. 

282. Lire, to read, lisant, lu, lis, lus. 


admettre, to admit de vue, by sight 

atteindre, to reach pendant que, while 

peindre, to paint se mettre a, to begin 

comprendre, to understand se moquer de, to make sport of 

apprendre, to learn entendre parler, to hear tell 

enseigner, to teach aux d^pens de, at the expense of 


i. Give the — 

synopsis of prendre present subjunctive of ecrire 

synopsis of atteindre imperfect subjunctive of lire 

present indicative of paraitre present indicative of mettre 

past definite of craindre present indicative of naitre 

present indicative of dire present subjunctive of prendre 


2. Translate into French — 

he knows me 
she puts 
fear not 
they are taking 
you say 

3. Give the — 

pres. subj. 3d plu. of craindre 
pres. subj. 1st plu. of prendre 
past def. 2d plu. of dire 
pres. subj. 2d sing, of £crire 

4. Translate into French 

the king was born there 

I was born here 

I know you 

take the horse from the barn 

we begin to fear 

we began to read 

do you understand this ? 

we say 

I was writing 

he had written 

are you reading ? 

does he know what you say ? 

imp. 2d plu. of naitre 
imp. subj. 3d sing, of admettre 
pres. subj. 3d sing, of com- 

he is learning the verbs 
he will teach them 
say that to her 
tell him that 
you appear sick 
during the day 
while the day lasts 

5. Write, inserting correct verb forms, (a) in the present 
tense ; also, except in the case of infinitives and participles, 
(b) in the past indefinite, and (c) in the conditional : 

II nous (falloir) (ecrire) nos exercices. Nous (savoir) (lire) le 
fran'cais. Nous (lire) une histoire. En (lire) on (apprendre) (lire). 
Nous (vouloir) (finir) cette histoire aujourd'hui. II (valoir) mieux 
bien (travailler). Nous (craindre) le maitre, que nous (connaitre) 
bien. II (paraitre) nous en (vouloir). Nous lui (obe'ir) toujours. 
Ne le (dire) vous pas ? 


Model Complet 

Les omnibus et les tramways a Paris n'admettent qu'un nombre 
fixe de voyageurs. Quand la limite est atteinte, le conducteur met 
a la portiere une pancarte sur laquelle est ecrit le mot Complet. 
Ce mot veut dire que Ton n'admettra personne. Un voyageur 
americain qui ne connaissait pas cette coutume dit un jour a un 
de ses amis, au commencement de son sejour h Paris : « Que veut 
done dire ce mot Complet que je vois si souvent sur les omnibus ? 
— Comment, dit Pautre, qui vit l'occasion de s'amuser aux depens 
de son ami, comment, vous ne Pavez pas encore visite ? — Visite 
quoi ? — Mais, Complet ! C'est un endroit charmant ; il vous faut 
voir cela, mon cher. » L'Americain se mit a suivre quelques jours 
chaque omnibus qui portait ce mot, mais le conducteur ne l'admettait 
jamais. Enfin il lui fallut quitter Paris, et il n'a point vu « Complet*. 


A friend of mine, who was born like me in Boston, has heard 
tell of an American who was visiting Paris and who did not know 
French very well. He could not understand what the word 
M Complet " meant, which he often saw on the omnibuses of the 
city. One day he said to a gentleman whom he knew by sight: 
w Where is ' Complet ' ? Please tell (it to) me at once. It must be 
a charming place because so many tramcars go there." M What! " 
replied the gentleman, M have you not been there yet ? " "I have 
wanted to go there many times, but the conductor would not 
admit me," said the American, sadly. " Visit it while you are in 
Paris," continued the gentleman. "All the Americans visit it. 
Take an omnibus or a tramcar on which is written the word 
1 Complet,' and you will easily find the place." All that the gentle- 
man had said appeared true to him, and he began to follow each 
omnibus and each tramcar which led, as he thought, to that famous 
place. At last he saw that the gentleman had made fun of him 
and he left the city ; but he had not seen " Complet." 



i. Quand etes-vous ne ? 2. Me connaissiez-vous il y a trois 
ans? 3. Connaissez-vous le president de vue? 4. Savez-vous com- 
ment il s'appelle ? 5. Cette lecon vous parait-elle facile ? 6. Savez- 
vous peindre? 7. Quels habits mettriez-vous si nous etions en 
hiver ? 8. A quelle heure vous mettez-vous a etudier ? 9. Craignez- 
vous les punitions? 10. Comprenez-vous tout ce que je dis? 
11. Qu'est-ce que vous appreniez la semaine derniere ? 12. Quels 
verbes venez-vous d'apprendre ? 13. Que- dis-je quand on me 
donne quelque chose? 14. Que dit-on quand on rencontre une 
personne que Ton connait? 15. £crivez-vous tout le francais que 
vous lisez? 


1. When he begins to read, the boys make fun of him. 2. Which 
teacher taught him French grammar ? 3. Has the little girl learned 
the names of all the kings of England yet ? 4. I know your father ; 
he has just entered the house. 5. He wished to take all that was 
given him. 6. They have gone away ; let us eat all the fruit on 
the table. 7. Put on your coat if you are cold; do not close the 
doors. 8. Marie Antoinette was born November 2, 1755, and died 
October 16, 1793. 9. Does he fear the man who gives him all the 
money he needs ? 10. Please sit down ; I want to show you what 
he wrote me. 11. Did you put any oranges on the table? Yes, I 
put some there. 12. If I knew how to speak French well enough, 

LES OMNIBUS PARISIENS. Le systeme de transportation de Paris etait 
jusque dans ces dernieres annees compose principalement d'omnibus a 
chevaux, suivant des trajets r^guliers et ne s'arretant qu'aux stations 
designees. Le conducteur ne laissait monter qu'un certain nombre de 
personnes, et lorsque le nombre de celles qui desiraient monter excedait 
celui des places vides, il ne les admettait que dans l'ordre numerique des 
billets qu'elles avaient prises. L'autobus a maintenant remplace en grande 
partie les anciens vehicules. 


I would take some friends to Paris next summer. 13. Have you 
read all the letters that she wrote you ? 1 4. I will call you if you 
will tell me at what time you wish to get up. 15. My friend needs 
more money in order to go to Europe. 16. As soon as they had 
seated themselves,* the teacher entered. 17. Did they take all the 
apples he gave me ? 18. He says that he shall have to start before 
noon in order to arrive in time. 19. What does this word mean? 
Ask him who knows (it). 20. The American began to follow the 



283. Suivre, to follow, suivant, suivi, suis, suivis. 

284. Vivre, to live, vivant, v6cu, vis, v&us. 
Note. Vivre, to live, exist ; demeurer, to live in, dwell. 

285. Plaire, to please, plaisant, plu, plais, plus. 

Pres. Ind. je plais nous plaisons 

tu plais vous plaisez 

il plait ils plaisent 

286. Taire, to be silent about, taisant, tu, tais, tus. 

287. Boire, to drink, buvant, bu, bois, bus. 
Pres. Ind. je bois nous buvons 

tu bois vous buvez 

il boit ils boivent 

Pres. Subj. je boive nous buvions 

tu boives vous buviez 

il boive ils boivent 

Note. See Sec. 252, b, c. 


288. Croire, to believe, think , croyant, cru, crois, crus. 

Pres. Ind. je crois nous croyons 

tu crois vous croyez 

il croit ils croient 

Pres. Subj. je croie nous croyions 

tu croies vous croyiez 

il croie ils croient 

Note i. See Sec. 252, a. 

Note 2. Observe the following idiomatic use of the infinitive after 
croire and other verbs of believing, etc. : 

Je crois etre ici. I think I am here. 

Je crois l'avoir vu. / think I have seen him. 

But when the subject changes, the infinitive is not used. 

Je crois que Jean est ici. / think John is here. 

Je crois que Jean l'a vu. I think John has seen him. 

289. Conduire, to lead, conduisant, conduit, conduis, conduisis. 
Similarly all verbs ending in uire except luire, to shine, 

and nuire, to injure, which differ only in having as past 
participles lui and nui. 


a demain, good-by till tomorrow prevenir, to warn, notify 
suivant(e), following convenir a, to suit 

sous peu, shortly, before long plaire a, to please 
une heure de l'apres-midi, one in se tirer d'affaire, to get along 
the afternoon . se taire, to be silent 

prendre (se donner) la peine de, to take the trouble to 


I. Give the — , 
synopsis of croire present indicative of plaire 

synopsis of vivre present subjunctive of croire 


present indicative of suivre imperfect subjunctive of conduire 

past definite of vivre past definite of se taire 

present indicative of boire principal parts of nuire 

2. Translate into French — 

she would think she pleases 

you are following they believe 

follow I had led 

he lives I had been led 

3. Give the — 

pres. ind. 1st sing, of suivre past def. 3d sing, of voir 

pres. ind. 1st sing, of etre pres. subj. 2d sing, of plaire 

pres. ind. 3d sing, of vivre past participle feminine of croire 

imp. subj. 3d sing, of conduire pres. subj. 3d plu. of luire 

4. Translate into French — 

he still lives the following week 

he lives here they were silent 

does she please your father ? it suits my friend 

I think he is sick he will take the trouble to come 

I think I am sick I shall get along 

5. Write, inserting correct verb forms, (a) in the present 
tense ; {b) in the imperfect ; (c) replacing ils by je : 

lis (croire) que le voleur (demeurer) la, mais ils se (taire). 
Ils le (suivre) depuis deux jours. Ils (esperer) le surprendre. Ils le 
(conduire) devant le juge, qui le (mettre) en prison. Les voleurs 
(boire) du vin quand cela leur (plaire). Ne le (croire) vous pas ? 
Oui, il (falloir) le croire. 

model L A Visite au Professeur * 

Pardon, mademoiselle, est-ce ici que demeure M. Marechal ? 

— Veuillez vous donner la peine d'entrer. Qui dois-je annoncer ? 

— Je m'appelle Leroux. Je viens voir M. Mare'chal pour des 


le9ons. — Je crois qu'il est chez lui. Asseyez-vous dans le salon, 
s'il vous plait. Je vais le prevenir. — Bonjour, madame, qu'est-ce 
qui me vaut le plaisir de votre visite ? — Je suis venue vous 
demander si vous pourriez me donner quelques lecons de francais. 
Je voudrais surtout converser, car je sais assez bien la grammaire 
et je lis facilement. J'espere aller en France dans trois mois, et , 
comme je crois y rester quelque temps, je tiens a pouvoir me servir 
de la langue aussitot que j'arriverai. J'ai suivi des cours, mais la 
methode des professeurs ne me plaisait pas. La methode que 
vous employez me plaira, et si vous croyez etre libre une heure 
par jour, cela me plairait beaucoup. — Je crois pouvoir vous 
donner une lecon par jour, et si vous suivez mes conseils, vous 
saurez vous tirer d'affaire sous peu, car vous parlez deja assez 
couramment. Avez-vous jamais vecu en France? — Mon pere 
m'y a conduite quand j'etais petite. II m'a fallu aller a l'ecole 
pendant six mois, mais comme je comprenais tres peu, je me taisais 
quand j'aurais du repondre, et par consequent je ne parle pas 
aussi couramment que je devrais le faire. — Eh bien, si cela vous 
convient, nous commencerons lundi prochain a dix heures, et les 
jours suivants a une heure de l'apres-midi. Le prix est de dix 
francs par lecon. — Tres bien, monsieur. A lundi prochain. 


This morning I went to my new French teacher's. His name is 
Marechal and he is French. He gave me my lesson at ten o'clock, 
but tomorrow and the following days I shall go to see him at half 
past two in the afternoon. He asks ten francs a lesson. He 
pleased me much, and if I am to believe him, I shall speak fluently 
soon. What pleases me is the method that he uses. I follow his 
advice, and through {par) the conversation, which he leads skillfully, 
we live for (during) an hour as if we were in France. I read a 
little. I also wrote a page from a book, which I translated after- 
wards into English. Believe me please (if you will), I did not use a 


word of English. As I hope to go to France next year, I shall use 
the language as much as possible. If I knew grammar better, I 
should learn still more quickly. He warned me that I should have 
(falloir) to study it hard. I shall take that trouble, be sure of it, 
for I am eager to converse in that language, which I like so 
much. I want to speak like my friend George. 


i.. Ou demeurez-vous ? 2. Y demeurez-vous depuis longtemps? 
3. Les Gaulois vivaient-ils dans des villes ? 4. Combien de temps 
vecut George Washington ? 5. Comment invitez-vous une personne 
a s'asseoir ? 6. Suiviez-vous des cours de francais l'annee derniere ? 
7. Combien de lecons avez-vous par jour? 8. Vous tireriez-vous 
d'affaire en France si vous ne parliez pas la langue ? 9. Cela vous 
conviendrait-il si Ton vous invitait a aller au theatre ce soir? 
10. Suivez-vous bien votre maitre quand il lit a haute voix en 
classe ? 11. Qu'avez-vous bu a votre dejeuner ce matin? 
12. Boiriez-vous si vous aviez soif ? 13. Croyez-vous tout ce que 
vous lisez dans les journaux ? 14. Que font les eleves qui ne 
savent pas repondre ? 15. Combien de phrases avez-vous traduites 
aujourd'hui ? 


1. Finally he enters the house and his friend follows him. 
2. I do not want to live if he has to die. 3. He is hoping to be 
able to converse in French soon. 4. He thinks that his new teacher 
will please him. 5. It is necessary to know how to talk French to 
get along in Paris. 6. John is in Paris and he believes that he shall 
stay there a year. 7. Sit down, please; I shall be back before 
long. 8. He thinks he saw her starting from the city early yester- 
day morning. 9. I am not drinking wine now ; the doctor says I 
must drink only water. 10. I do not understand why the French 
language appears so difficult. 11. The army is approaching the 
city; who will follow it? 12. He has been studying German for 


some time and thinks he can speak it. 13. I get up early in order 
to arrive at the office on time. 14. We are eager to know foreign 
languages in order to travel in Europe. 1 5. He has just come to ask 
me to go for the doctor. 16. Shall we go to bed now ? Not at all ; 
I am not sleepy. 17. The method which he is employing pleases 
me much. 18. Which book ought I to use? I do not know; 
choose for yourself. 19. Be silent ; I want to hear what he is say- 
ing. 20. This road leads to the village in which he used to live. 



290. Faire, to make, do, faisant, fait, fais, fis. 

Pres. Ind. je fais nous faisons 

tu fais vous faites 

il fait ils font 

Fut. je ferai 

Pres. Subj. je fasse 

291. Faire Causative. Faire, in the sense of to make 
(have) a person do a thing or to have a thing done, governs 
an infinitive. This infinitive follows the faire directly. 

I make them study. Je les fais etudier. 

I am having a house built. Je fais bdtir tine maison. 

Note. Faire and the dependent infinitive are separated by the 
negative pas, and in the affirmative imperative by an object pronoun. 
I shall not make him read. Je ne le ferai pas lire. 

Have him come. Faites-le venir. 

292. Objects with Causative faire. This construction 
involves two objects, the person who is made to act and the 
thing upon which the action is performed. 



a. If only one of these objects is expressed, its construc- 
tion is that of a direct object, and thus, when a pronoun, it 
precedes the faire. 

I am having him write (causing 

him to write). 
I am having my friend write. 
I shall have it sold (cause some 

one to sell it). 
I am having a letter written. 
I had a coat made. 

Je lefais krire. 

Jefais krire mon ami. 
Je le (ld)ferai vendre. 

Jefais krire une lettre. 
J'ai fait faire un habit. 

b. If both objects are expressed, the person made to act 
becomes an indirect object. If it is a pronoun, the special 
form for the indirect object is available ; if a noun, the 
preposition a is employed. 

I am having him read the book. 

I am having him read it. 

I am having my pupils write 

the exercises. 
I am having my pupils write thenl. 
Have him write them. 

Je luifais lire le livre. 

Je le luifais lire. 

fefais krire les exercices a mes 

Je lesfais krire a mes eleves. 
Faites-les-lui krire. 

Note. Par is often used in this construction, instead of a, especially 
to avoid a possible ambiguity. Thus, je fais Scrire une lettre a mon fils 
might be understood / am having a letter written to my son, as well as / 
am having my son write a letter. Hence, to express the latter without 
question, we say je fais Scrire une lettre par mon fils, which order sug- 
gests the English passive form, I am having a letter written by my son. 

293. Construction with laisser, etc. Laisser, to let, en- 
tendre, and voir likewise govern object infinitives in connec- 
tion with one or two objects. The construction is similar 
to that with faire. 

I heard him speak. Je Vai entendu parler. 

I saw him do it. Je le lui ai vu faire. 


Note i. With these verbs a pronoun object of the person may be 
either direct or indirect when the other object is a noun. 
I shall let him read the book. Je lui (le) laisserai lire le livre. 

Note 2. An infinitive after entendre and voir often represents an 
English present participle. 

I see him running. Je le vois courir. 

I heard him coming in. Je Vai entendu entrer. 

294. Expressions of the Weather contain many idioms 
with faire. Among these are 

It is fine weather. 77 fait beau {temps). 

It is hot. II fait chaud. 

It is cold. Ilfaitfroid. 

It is windy. II fait du vent. 

It is mild. II fait doux. 

It is lightning. II fait des kclairs. 

It is thundering. II fait du tonnerre. 

It is cool. II fait frais. 


aller, to fit (of clothes) se souvenir de, to remember 

se faire, to take place se mettre au beau, to bfecome fine 

la pluie tombe a verse, it pours 


1. (a) Give the synopsis of faire, of voir, of entendre. 
(b) Give the — 

present indicative of faire conditional of faire 
present subjunctive of faire present subjunctive of voir 

2. Express in French — 

(a) I shall have him study I shall have the pupil read it 

I shall make her study I shall have her read the lesson 


I shall have the boy study I shall have the lesson read to 
I shall have the lesson read the pupils 

I shall not have it written I shall have the pupils read the 
I shall have him read it lesson 

(b) I saw him • I heard the book read to the 
I saw him read teacher 

I saw him read the book I heard the book read by the 
I heard the book read teacher 

I heard the teacher read the I heard you talking 

book have her read it 

(c) it is cold it was fine weather it thundered 
I am cold it will be hot it was cool 
the room is cold it lightens the day is cool 

3. Supply the French for the words in parentheses : 

II (will have me) vendre la maison que je (have just had built). 
Je (had him sell) la maison qu'il (had). lis (had made him sell) 
l'habit qu'il (had had made). J'allais (to sell it). Je (made him 
buy) le chateau. II (will let me) entrer. (Let's enter). (Let's let 
him) dire ce qu'il (made them make). Une paix (is being made). 

Model Les Saisons 

C'est au mois de mai que le printemps est le plus beau. La 
nature qui dormait redevient gaie. Les jours s'allongent. Le temps 
se met au beau. II fait doux. On ne craint plus le froid. Nous ne 
remettrons plus avant l'hiver les lourds vetements que nos parents 
nous ont fait oter. Les oiseaux reviennent des pays chauds. On 
les entend chanter partout. On les voit batir leur nid. C'est la 
saison 011 Ton seme. Peu a peu nous nous approchons de la saison 
chaude. Alors le soleil se leve de tres bonne heure. Les chauds 
rayons du soleil font murir les bles et les fruits. La moisson se 
fait en cette saison. Les paysans se rendent aux foires avec les 



HiiB^^Jk ^trf? 


f flfl 



ii^^^ ^SE^^P^'i -1 



Une ou deux fois par semaine, selon les localities, les fermiers et fermieres 
se rendent sur la place du marche avec tout ce qu'ils ont a vendre. Tres 
pittoresques ces marches en plein air ou, selon les saisons, on trouve des 
amoncellements de fruits et de legumes frais de toutes sortes. Chaque 
marchand dispose autour de lui, a ses pieds ou sur des caisses, les mar- 
chandises qu'il a apportees dans des paniers ou dans des corbeilles. Rien 
ne se vend a prix fixe. Les citadines marchandent sans relache, ce qui 
donne lieu h des reparties de la part des paysans, lesquelles ne manquent 
pas d'attrait. Au printemps et en ete, le marche aux fleurs a lieu aussi en 
plein air, en general simultanement avec le marche ordinaire. Une ou 
deux fois par mois, le marche aux legumes donne place a la foire a bestiaux. 
Dans son cadre de maisons attrayantes, la place du marche offre alors un 
aspect plus rural encore ou le.malin paysan se mesure avec l'acheteur 



produits de leurs terres. L'ete dernier il a fait tres chaud. Nous 
avons souffert beaucoup de la chaleur. Les gens boivent beaucoup 
en e'te, car la chaleur est accablante. C'est la saison des orages. Le 
ciel se couvre de nuages. On les voit s'amonceler. Tout a coup 
le tonnerre gronde. 11 fait des e'clairs, et des gouttes de pluie se 
mettent a tomber. Les gens ouvrent leur parapluie ou se mettent 
a l'abri. II fait encore plus de tonnerre; et la pluie tombe a, verse. 
Mais bientot le soleil se montre de nouveau, et le temps se remet 
au beau. En automne il fait frais matin et soir, et quelquefois il 
y a du brouillard et les jours se font courts. Mais voila l'hiver. 
Le vent est piquant. On a froid si Ton n'est pas bien couvert. II 
gele tres souvent. Pour l'hiver prochain je me suis fait faire un 
bon manteau par mon tailleur. II n'allait pas tres bien d'abord. 
Je le lui ai fait voir. Le tailleur me l'a fait essayer, et maintenant 
qu'il Pa arrange' il me plait. 


It is now spring. The weather has become fine very rapidly. 
Today it has been very mild. Last week, however, the wind was 
still biting. But the cold that we feared so much last month does 
not frighten us any more. The beautiful weather has made me 
take off the big overcoat that I had had made in November. Nature 
is not sleeping any longer. It has become gay again. The birds 
which had gone away where it is warmer have come back, and 
from my window I hear them singing. Soon summer will come. 
The sun will rise still earlier, and its burning rays will ripen the 
wheat, which the farmer will carry to the mill to have flour made 
of it. I suffer a little from the heat, and that is why I hope that 
it will not be too warm this year. I remember a thunderstorm 
which took place last year. There has, I believe, never been seen 
so much lightning or (nor) rain. It poured for two hours. Yesterday 
morning, as the children were going away to school, I did not 
want to let them go (depart) when I saw the rain falling. 



1. Quand les jours s'allongent-ils ? 2. Quand le temps se remet-il 
au beau ? 3. Craignez-vous le froid ? 4. Ou vont les oiseaux quand 
il fait froid? 5. Les entendez-vous chanter en hiver? 6. Dans 
quelle saison seme-t-on? 7. Le soleil se leve-t-il tard maintenant? 
8. Qu'est-ce qui fait murir les bles ? 9. La moisson se fait-elle en 
mai? 10. Pourquoi porte-t-on le ble au moulin? n. Decrivez un 
orage. 12. Dans quelle saison les jours se font-ils courts ? 13. Que 
vous fait faire votre tailleur pour savoir si votre manteau vous va ? 
1 4. Vous etes-vous fait faire un manteau l'hiver dernier ? 


1. The teacher is having him read the lesson aloud before the 
class. 2. They were having a new house built when I saw them 
last year. 3. He ought to study, but his parents cannot make him 
do it. 4. I would have William write his French exercise if I could. 
5. Beautiful things are to be seen everywhere in Paris; I shall 
show you many of them next week. 6. I need a new hat, and 
I must have another pair of shoes. 7. My mother has never had 
your daughter make her a dress. 8. My friend is trying to write 
a French letter, but he does not know how to do it well. 9. John 
has a new French book, but he never lets his sister read it. 1 o. My 
father is suffering from a cold; have the doctor come at once. 
11. It is generally cold in the winter and people want to stay in 
the house. 12. It is fine today, and I am going to town to shop. 
13. When I see him enter the house, I will inform you. 14. If you 
study too late, it will hurt your eyes. 15. My father has just come 
in ; he will let you take his umbrella. 1 6. Do you know Senator X ? 
I hope to hear him speak soon. 17. Wheat begins to ripen in June 
in our country. 18. The sky is covered with clouds and rain is 
already falling. 19. The sun rises early now, and its rays are 
making the leaves grow little by little. 20. We used to use the 
book on the table when I was going to school. 




Lessons Forty-five to Forty-nine 
A. General Drill 

i. Give the principal parts of 










nopsis of — 







3. Give the present indicative of — 

apercevoir valoir naitre 

savoir asseoir connaitre 

4. Give the present subjunctive of — 

devoir valoir s'asseoir 

pouvbir vouloir prendre 

5. Give the imperative of — 

savoir vouloir 

6. Give the — 

fut. of revoir pret. of plaire 

cond. of asseoir imp. subj. of naitre 

imp. of savoir imp. subj. of valoir 

pret. of suivre pres. subj. of boire 

7. What verbs are conjugated like — 

recevoir craindre conduire 







8. Locate — 

sait vais 

soit vaut 

vit (two places) veut 

vois craint 

croit fut 

suis (two places) devenait 

fit devinait 

fut devait 

9. Give the past participle and the first person singular 
past definite of — 

devoir mettre faire lire 

savoir craindre dire conduire 

voir prendre ecrire luire 

10. Write French sentences containing respectively some 
form of — 

devoir pouvoir 

connaitre entendre dire 

falloir savoir 

entendre s'asseoir 

1 1 . Translate into French - 

I can read 

it will be hot 

I can run as fast as he 

it was cold 

I could write a year ago 

this season is cold 

the sun shines, it must be warm 

are you cold ? 

they must follow him 

I hear him talking 

John must follow him 

I saw him fall 

I had to follow him 

he was to write that 

will you have some water ? 

she obeys hef mother 

I knew my lesson 

I need another plate (two ways) 

I knew your aunt 

it is better to run away 

I am having a house built 

tell me that 

I had him build a house 

he took a pencil from his pocket 

I shall not have my brother build 

he let us come 

a house 

let us sing (two ways) 

I had him build it 

I think I see the moon 

I shall have her make it 

I think you can see the stars 


B. Translate into French 

i. I shall send my brothers all the money I can when they go 
away. 2. We ought to do all we can for others in this life. 3. If 
one wishes to be happy, he must obey God's laws. 4. We had 
just arrived when it began to snow. 5. They were to come before 
eight o'clock, but they have not yet arrived. 6. I know the man 
well, but I do not know where he lives. 7. You must run to the 
store and buy me some silk. 8. Sit down to the table at once; 
you must be hungry. 9. I heard him say that he wishes to use 
these knives. 10. The lawyer whom you used to know is a brother 
of mine. 11. In what part of the forest did you lose your dog? 
I think I saw him yesterday evening. 12. We both need a hat; 
do they sell them here? 13. The priest has been writing a long 
time, and he will write several hours yet. 14. Do you know what 
I mean ? 15. I shall tell him to have her do it to-day. 



295. Prepositions with Infinitives. An infinitive depend- 
ent upon another verb may or may not be connected with it 
by a preposition. This is determined by the governing verb. 
The usage with .each verb must be learned. It may be 
found by observing French texts or by consulting a lexicon. 

a. The following verbs, among many others, generally 
govern the infinitive directly : 

aimer mieux, to prefer to espSrer, to hope to 

aller, to go to (and) faire, to make, cause to 

compter, to intend to falloir, to be necessary to 

de*sirer, to desire to oser, to dare to 

devoir, to be to, ought to pouvoir, to be able to 



savoir, to know how to venir, to come to (and) 

valoir mieux, to be better to vouloir, to wish to 

Je desire aller chez moi. / desire to go home. 

b. The following verbs, among many others, generally 
require de before a dependent infinitive : 

cesser de, to cease to 

commander de, to command to 

craindre de, to fear to 

d£fendre de, to forbid to 

demander de, to ask to 

se d£pecher de, to hasten to 

dire de, to tell to 

empecher de, to prevent from 

Je crains d'aller avec lui. 
Je lui dirai d'aller a Paris. 

essayer de, to try to 

finir de, to finish 

ne*gliger de, to neglect to 

oublier de, to forget to 

permettre de, to permit to 

promettre de, to promise to 

refuser de, to refuse to 

venir de, to have just 

I fear to go with him. 

I shall tell him to go to Paris. 

Note. Finir par, when it is followed by an infinitive, is translated 
finally, at last. 

Nous finirons par le croire. We shall finally believe it. 

c. The following verbs, among many others, generally 
require a before a dependent infinitive : 

aider a, to help to 
aimer a, to like to 
apprendre a, to learn to 
s'attendre a, to expect to 
commencer a, to begin to 
consentir a, to consent to 

II a consenti a venir. 
II a renonce* a venir. 

d&ider a, to persuade to 
enseigner a, to teach to 
inviter a, to i?ivite to 
se mettre a, to begin to 
renoncer a, to give up 
r^ussir a, to succeed in 

He consented to come. 
He gave up coming. 

296. Infinitives of Purpose. When a dependent infinitive 
denotes purpose, it must be preceded by pour, in order to, to. 
One must eat to live. Ilfaut manger pour vivre. 


297. Infinitive for Finite Verbs. When the subject of an 
English subordinate clause is the same as the subject of 
the principal clause, an infinitive generally replaces the 
finite construction in the subordinate clause. 

I hope that I am better. fespere alter mieux. 

I hope that he is better. fespere qu'il va mieux. 

298. Verbal Nouns. When a verb is used as a noun in 
French, the infinitive is the form employed except after the 
preposition en, when the present participle is used. In this 
use it often represents an English present participle. 

To travel (traveling) is pleasant. Voyager (/)est agreable. 

I love to read (reading). faime a lire. 

He entered without speaking. 77 est entre sans parler. 

He departed after speaking II est parti apres avoir parle. 
(having spoken). 

But after en : 

He entered while speaking. 77 est entri en parlant. 

299. Negative Infinitives. When an infinitive is made 
negative, both negative words generally precede the infinitive. 

He prefers not to come. 77 aime mieux ne pas venir. 

I fear I shall never see her. Je crains de ne jamais la voir. 

les honoraires ni., the fee aller chercher, to go for 

faire une question, to ask a question 
faire de son mieux, to do one's best 
tenir sa promesse, to keep one's promise 
d£fendre a quelqu'un de, to forbid some one to 





1. Express in French — 
to dare to lie 

to go to speak 

to go in order to speak 

to fear to lie 

to be able to read 

to try to run 

to teach to write 

to begin to study 

2. Express in French — 

to cease to speak 
to cease speaking, 
to love to read 
to love reading 
while traveling 

3. Translate into French — 
I forbid her to come 

will you permit them to follow ? 
she had just arrived 
he taught me not to lie 

to learn to read 
to consent to come 
to come and (to) see 
in order to help 
to know how to cure 
to neglect to study 
to want to go 
to be able to read 

by working 
without stopping 
before eating 
being silent is telling 
to be silent is to tell 

he will succeed in paying for it 

he will finally pay for it 

he finally fell 

shall you keep your promise ? 

4. Fill the blanks with the proper preposition (or other 
word), when one is required : 

j'aime* lire 

je sais lire 

je lu la lettre 

je viens la lire 

il me faut la lire 

lisant j'ai appris lire 

il vaut mieux la lire 

je n'ai renonce le 


j'ai fini le lire 

j'aime mieux ne le lire 

je veux le lire 

je lui dirai le lire 

je vais le lire 


apres lu la lettre, je lui ai j'espere il le lira 

defendu la lire je l'ai entendu lire 

j'ai reussi la lire la lettre a lue 

je commencerai lire le livre je devrais lire 


Un homme qui demeurait au Canada desirait voir guerir sa 
femme, qui etait tres malade. Elle ne pouvait plus faire la moindre 
besogne, et elle avait meme cesse de sortir depuis longtemps. Les 
medecins de son pays ne pouvaient la guerir, et son mari fink par 
croire qu'il valait mieux la conduire aux fitats-Unis. II e'tait oblige' 
de quitter ses affaires, mais comme il craignait de perdre sa femme, 
il se depecha de partir avec elle. En arrivant a destination il alia 
chercher le medecin qu'on venait de lui indiquer. II lui demanda 
de bien examiner la pauvre femme. Le medecin se mit a interroger 
et a examiner la malade, mais tout en causant il laisse pressentir 
la crainte de ne pas etre convenablement remunere de ses soins. 
« J'ai cinq cents francs, dit le mari ; je promets de vous les donner 
si vous la guerissez, et si vous la tuez vous pouvez vous attendre 
a les recevoir de meme. » Le medecin esperait bien reussir a 
sauver la malade. II fit de son mieux, mais la femme finit par 
mourir. Plus tard il demanda ses honoraires. « Vous avez fini de 
soigner ma femme. Je de'sire tenir ma promesse. Mais permettez- 
moi, d'abord, de vous faire deux questions : Avez-vous tue* ma 
femme ? — Tue ! Comment tue ! Assurement non. — Tant 
mieux. L'avez-vous guerie ? — Non, helas ! — Eh bien, vous venez 
d'admettre ce que je voulais vous faire dire, et je renonce a vous 
payer. » Apres avoir entendu cela le medecin sortit sans repondre. 


You ask me to tell you an anecdote. Here is one which is 
worth the trouble of being heard. When you have a doctor who 
cannot cure you, you try to find another one. A woman had 


neglected to care for herself and she finally fell sick. Her hus- 
band had a doctor come. The latter promised to cure her, but he 
did not succeed in doing it. The husband, who feared he should 
lose his wife, went without hesitating to get another doctor, who 
hastened to come to examine the sick woman. On arriving, the 
doctor began to talk with the patient in order to know what the 
matter was with her. However, even while he was talking, 
the fear which he allowed to be seen that he would not be 
properly paid, caused the husband to say that he had enough 
money. He persuaded the doctor to care for the sick one by 
promising to give him two hundred and fifty francs if he cured 
her and even if he killed her. The doctor expected indeed to 
save the patient, and the husband hoped to see her up (debout) 
soon. After doing his best the doctor did not prevent the woman 
from dying. When he came to ask for his fee, the husband, who 
wished to keep his promise, permitted himself to ask him if he 
had killed his patient. The doctor hastened to say, " Why, no ; 
assuredly not." w Then, you must have cured her." M Alas ! no." 
" You see well that I owe you nothing." 


1. Saurez-vous parler francais dans un an ? 2. Allez-vous faire 
un voyage cette annee ? 3. Ne craignez-vous pas d'oublier les 
propositions qui suivent les verbes ? 4. Qui vous enseigne a lire et 
a ecrire le francos ? 5. Que vaut-il mieux faire, vivre pour manger 
ou manger pour vivre ? 6. Que vous faut-il faire pour savoir votre 
lecon? 7. A quelle heure devez-vous vous lever pour arriver ici 
a l'heure ? 8. Qui fait-on venir quand on est malade ? 9. Votre 
maitre vous permet-il de parler anglais en classe? 10. Qu'est-ce 
que je viens de demander ? 1 1. Quand avez-vous fini de dejeuner 
ce matin ? 12. Oublieriez-vous de vous reveiller si on ne vous 
appelait pas le matin? 13. Reussiriez-vous a repondre h. mes 
questions sans avoir etudie votre lecon ? 14. Etes-vous entre ici 


sans oter votre chapeau ? 15. Que demanderiez-vous a votre maitre 
de faire si vous ne compreniez pas la lecon ? 


1. My friend hopes that he can come and visit me next week. 
2. It is better to know how to speak French before traveling in 
France. 3. My son is trying to write a French letter ; who will 
help him do it ? 4. If it is fair tomorrow, I expect to invite my 
friend to go to town with me. 5. The doctor persuaded me to 
give up smoking because it was hurting me. 6. By reading, chil- 
dren learn to read without knowing it. 7. After paying the bill we 
went out of the store to find our automobile. 8. If you tell me to 
do it often enough, I expect I shall finally do it. 9. We must eat 
to live, but we ought not to live to eat. 10. It is beginning to rain ; 
I think I prefer not to go out tonight. 1 1 . When I was in town, 
I thought I saw you going into the church. 12. To write French 
without studying it is not easy. 13. Will you promise me never to 
do it again if I give you a thousand francs ? 1 4. He had scarcely fin- 
ished writing his French exercises when (gue) the bell rang. 1 5 . He 
asked me to teach him to read French, and I consented to do it. 
16. Children like to eat apples in school if teachers will let them 
do it. 17. Our teacher told us that he was expecting to use your 
grammar next year. 18. The men have just refused to work any 
longer because they have not been paid. 19. He did not know 
that the generals had forbidden the 'soldiers to go to England. 
20. We had the doctor come, but he did not succeed in saving 
our mother's life. 


II f aut battre le fer quand il est chaud. 
Si jeunesse savait, si vieillesse pouvait. 
Pas de nouvelles, bonnes nouvelles. 




300. Subjunctive and Indicative. The fundamental dis- 
tinction between the indicative and the subjunctive is that 
the former is used to express a certainty, the latter an 
uncertainty or an idea that lies in the mind as possible or 
impossible, desirable or undesirable, etc. 

With one apparent exception the subjunctive is used only 
in subordinate clauses. 

301. Optative Subjunctive. The present subjunctive 
(rarely the imperfect) is used in principal clauses to ex- 
press a wish or a command. It is then usually introduced 
by que, and is called the optative or hortatory subjunctive. 
Among other uses it supplements the imperative in the 
forms that the latter lacks. It is today met most frequently 
in conventional expressions. 

Qu'il vienne. Let him come. 

Vive le roi I (Long) live the king ! 

Sauve qui peut {that is, qu'il se Every one for himself (let him 
sauve qui peut). save himself who can). 

Note. This construction is in reality a subordinate clause following 
a verb of wishing understood. See Sec. 304, b. 
(Je veux) qu'il vienne. (/ wish) that he may come. 

302. Sequence of Tenses. The tense of the subjunctive 
in a subordinate clause is determined by the verb in the 
principal clause. If the principal verb is present or future, 
a following subjunctive is put in the present tense ; if the 
principal verb is a past tense or the conditional, a following 
subjunctive is put in the imperfect tense. 


Note i. This rule applies to compound tenses in a subordinate 
clause if the auxiliary alone be considered the verb, the full resulting 
forms being respectively the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive. 

Note 2. In ordinary discourse the present (or perfect) subjunctive 
is often used where the rule above requires the imperfect (or pluperfect) 

303. Subjunctive after Impersonate. The subjunctive is 
used in subject clauses after most impersonal verbs that do 
not denote certainty. The most common impersonals that 
require the subjunctive are 

il faut, it is necessary il convient, it is suitable, fitting 

il semble, it seems il vaut mieux, it is better 

il importe, it is important il est possible, it is possible 

It is necessary that the doctor 77 faut que le medecin vienne. 

come (the doctor must come). 
It was not possible for John to II rfetait pas possible que Jean 

come (that John should come). vint. 

Note i . When used with an indirect object in positive assertion, il 
semble takes the indicative. 
It seems to me that you are wrong. 77 me semble que vcus avez tort. 

Note 2. When the subject of the verb following falloir is a pronoun, 
an infinitive often replaces the subjunctive clause. The pronoun is made 
the indirect object of falloir. Compare Sec. 274. 

f 77 luifaut s'en alter. 
Hemust *°- {/tfautqu'ils'enaille. 

His friend must go. II faut que son ami s'en aille. 


d'avance, in advance faire une malle, to pack a trunk 

des ennuis m., trouble fermer a clef, to lock (close with 
chemin (m.) de fer, railroad a key) 

indicateur (m.) de chemin de fer, munir de, to furnish with 

railroad time-table se procurer, to procure, get (for 
avoir 1' intention de, to intend to one's self) 


2) n *// EXERCISE 

1. Inflect falloir in full. 

2. Express in French the words in parentheses: 

(a) il faut que l'homme (come) je savais qu'il (would come) 

il est sur que l'homme (will il vaut mieux qu'il (should come) 
come) il est possible qu'il (may come) 

je sais qu'il (will come) je voudrais qu'il (would come) 

(b) il faut que Jean (read) il fallait qu'il (should have fur- 
il fallait que Jean (should nished) 

read) il a convenu que mon ami (should 

il faudra que Jean (read) consult me) 

3. Express in French — 

may we live long John must pack the trunk 

it seems that he is here it is necessary to avoid colds 

it seems to me that he is wrong I intend not to be useless 

long live France let them do it 

let him talk God be praised 

you must pack the trunk to get along without money 

4. Insert the correct forms of the verbs in parentheses. 
Then change faut to fallait, and insert the proper verb forms. 

II faut que mon pere (aller) a Paris. II me faut y (aller) aussi. 
II faut que mon pere (prendre) un billet. II faut qu'il (faire) ses 
preparatifs. II faut que les voyageurs se (munir) de passeports. 
II faut qu'un voyageur (etre) sur qu'il (avoir) assez d'argent. II faut 
qu'on (ecrire) a ses amis. 

Model Preparatifs de Voyage 

Si vous avez l'intention de voyager en pays etrangers, il faut 
d'abord que vous fassiez vos preparatifs. II importe que vous 
consultiez les guides et les indicateurs de chemins de fer, et si 


vous n'etes pas renseigne sur le pays que vous comptez visiter, 
il vaut mieux que vous demandiez des renseignements a ceux de 
vos amis qui les connaissent. Si vous vous munissez d'un passeport, 
il est possible que vous vous evitiez beaucoup d'ennuis. II est a 
propos aussi que vous vous procuriez de l'argent des pays que vous 
etes sur le point de parcourir. Pour cela il faut aller chez un 
changeur. Quand vous saurez la date de votre depart, il faudra 
que vous fassiez vos malles, dans lesquelles vous n'oublierez pas 
de mettre les vetements necessaires, votre linge et vos articles de 
toilette. II faut que vous soyez sur que votre malle ferme a clef. 
II est prudent que vous ne fassiez votre valise qu'a la derniere 
minute, car on oublie toujours de mettre dans sa malle certaines 
choses qu'on aurait du y mettre. Que ne puissions-nous (if we 
could only) nous passer de bagages ! II faudrait que nous eussions 
besoin de moins de choses pour cela. 


I must go to France in a week, and it is time that I make my 
preparations. I have been to the money changer's. If one wishes 
to avoid trouble, it is better to procure French money here. The 
first time that I went to France I had been told that it would be 
preferable for me, before my departure, to go and see a friend of 
mine who knew the country well, to obtain as much information 
as possible on what it is necessary for one to do in order to get along. 
"It is fitting that you should provide yourself with a passport," 

PAUILLAC — LA GARE. En route pour Bordeaux, un grand nombre de 
soldats americains, en remontant la Gironde, ont vu la petite ville de Pauillac, 
dont nous voyons ici la gare. A cote se trouve la gare de marchandises. 
Sur le quai, parmi les voyageurs, a cote de l'homme au chapeau de paille, 
on peut y voir le chef de gare. II demeure generalement au-dessus des 
bureaux. La ligne de chemin de fer qui dessert Pauillac est une ligne 
secondaire de peu d'importance. Sur les grandes lignes, les trains sont 
mfis par des locomotives, lesquelles, si elles ne sont pas aussi grandes que 
les locomotives americaines, sont cependant du meme type. 


he said to me (Sec. 328, a); "otherwise it is possible that you may 
have trouble. If you intend to visit Europe some day, as I did (comme 
mot), it will be important that you should buy guidebooks, to be 
posted in advance on the countries that you are going to visit." 
I got myself a time-table this morning. It seems preferable that I 
should take the train for New York next Friday at five o'clock. 
I shall pack my trunk in three or four days, and it will be better 
for me to put in it all that I shall need except the most necessary 
things, which must go in my valise. That is why it is more prudent, 
it seems to me, to lock one's trunk only at the last minute. It may 
be that I shall not be back before the month of March, but it 
would perhaps be better for me to come back sooner. 


1. Quand fait-on des preparatifs de voyage ? 2. Que faut-il que 
vous consultiez ? 3. Que faites-vous si vous ne connaissez pas le 
pays que vous allez visiter ? 4. De quoi vaut-il mieux se munir ? 
5. Qu'eviterez-vous si vous vous en munissez ? 6. Chez qui vous 
procurez-vous de l'argent francais ? 7. Que dit-on pour indiquer 
que nous placons dans la malle tout ce qu'il nous faut pour le 
voyage ? 8. Serait-il preferable que nous nous passions 1 de bagages ? 

9. Semble-t-il inutile que je rdpete tant de fois la meme chose? 

10. Ne vaut-il pas mieux que vous <£tudiiez les verbes un peu plus ? 

11. Convient-il que vous arriviez ici a l'heure ou en retard ? 12. Ne 
vaudrait-il pas mieux pour vous qu'il fit chaud toute l'annee ? 13. Les 
Francais disaient : « yive le roi ! » Que dites-vous quand les vacances 
sont arrivees ? 1 4. Est-il possible que vous ayez des visites ce soir ? 
15. Serait-il possible que vous eussiez un rhume s'il faisait froid ? 


1. It is necessary for you to learn tomorrow's French lesson 
better if you expect to get along in France. 2. Rain is beginning 
to fall; we shall have to give up going to the ball. 3. The army 

1 See Sec. 302, Note 2. 


must finish eating quickly if it expects to arrive in time. 4. Formerly 
when the king died they would say : " The king is dead. Long 
live the king ! " 5. During the great war we often heard Americans 
using the words, " Long live France ! " 6. Let them come ! I have 
no fear of them or of their friends. 7. His mother had gone away, 
and it was not possible for William to go to school. 8. It is 
important for you to choose good vegetables when you go to 
market. 9. When you have only a little money, it is better not 
to spend too much. 10. It will be better for him not to buy so 
much if he cannot pay what he owes. 1 1 . My mother is suffering 
from the grippe ; the doctor must come at once. 12. People would 
have to take less baggage if they desired to do without trunks. 
13. You must be sure that one lesson is well understood before be- 
ginning another. 1 4. He says that he will be here, and it is certain 
that he will come. 15. It seems to me that it is beginning to be very 
warm. 16. It seems that he could not come because he was starting 
on a journey. 17. Is it always suitable for one to wear a dress coat 
to a ball ? 18. He said that it would be necessary for us to provide 
ourselves with guidebooks before leaving the United States. 19. It 
will not be possible for him to go to Europe with his family. 20. Let 
him go out ! We do not wish to try to make him remain. 



304. Object Clauses. The subjunctive is used in object 

a. After verbs and expressions denoting emotion, such 
2&joy, sorrow, fear, surprise, and expectation. 
I am glad that you have come. Jesiiisbienaiseqiievoiissoyezvenu. 
I did not fear that he would lie. Je ne craignais pas qu'il mentit 
I am surprised that he is coming. Je m'etonne quHl vienne. 


b. After verbs and expressions of wishing, ordering, per- 
mitting, and their opposites. 

I wish him to come (that he come). Je veux qu 'it vienne. 

I wished him to come (that he Je voulais quHl vint. 

might come). 

The king ordered him to come Le roi ordonna quHl vint. 

(that he should come). 

I shall not permit him to come Je ne permettrai pas quHl vienne. 

(that he come). 

c. After verbs of thinking and believing when they are 
used negatively or interrogatively. 

I do not believe (that) he is right. Je ne crois pas qiiil ait raison. 
Do you think (that) he is coming ? Croyez-vous quHl vienne t 

When these verbs are affirmative, the indicative is used in the 
object clause. 

I think he is coming. Je crois quHl vient. 

Note i. If the speaker expresses himself as certain in his own mind 
that the matter referred to is a fact, the indicative is used. 

She does not believe that her father Elle ne croit pas que son pere est 
is dead (but I know he is). mort. 

Note 2. After verbs of knowing and saying the indicative may be 
used in nearly all cases. 

Did you say that he had come ? Avez-vous dit quHl itait venn ? 

Note 3. Verbs of doubting and denying, since in their affirmative 
sense they amount respectively to interrogative and negative verbs of be- 
lieving, likewise require the subjunctive in a following dependent clause. 

I doubt whether (that) he will come. Je doute qiSil vienne. 
I deny that he is faithful. Je nie qu'il soitfidele. 

305. Pleonastic ne. In the following constructions the 
subjunctive in an object clause is accompanied by ne, which 
is not to be translated : 


a. After affirmative verbs of fearing and equivalent 

I fear that he will come. Je crains quHl ne vienne. 

I do not fear that he will come. Je ne crains pas qu'il vie?me. 

I fear that he will not come. Je crains qu'il ne vienne pas. 

I am going away lest (for fear Je m'en vais de crainte qu'il ne 
that) he (will) come. vienne. 

b. After negative or interrogative verbs of doubting and 
de7tying and equivalent expressions. 

I do not doubt that he will come. Je ne doute pas qu'il ne vienne. 

c. After empecher, to prevent (which is followed by the 
subjunctive in accordance with Sec. 304, b). 

He prevented John from coming. 77 a empeche que Jean ne vint. 

Note. Ne is also used in a clause after an affirmative comparative. 
Sheismorebeautifulthanshethinks. Elle est plus belle qu'elte ne (te) pense. 

306. Adjective Clauses. The subjunctive is used in ad- 
jective clauses (those introduced by a relative pronoun) 

a. When the antecedent is modified by a superlative or a 
word of similar restrictive meaning, such as seul, premier, etc. 

It is the best book I have read. Cest le meitteur livre quej'aie lu. 
He is the only man I know Cest le seul homme que je con- 
here. naisse id. 

b. When the antecedent is something desired or hoped for. 

Buy me a house which is (may Achetez-moi u?ie maiso?i qui soit 

be) beautiful. belle. 

I want some fruit that is better Je veux des Jruits qui soient 

than his. meilleurs que les siens. 

Note. When the antecedent is definite, the indicative is used. 
He bought me a house which is Ilm'aacheteunemaisonquiestbelle. 




en avance, ahead of time 6tre Men aise, to be glad 

beaucoup de monde, many people monter en voiture, to get into a 
etre fach6, be sorry carriage 

douter que, to doubt that prendre un billet, to get a ticket 

billet de premiere classe, first-class ticket 



i . Translate into French - 

I am sure he is here 
I fear he is dead 
I fear I am sick 
I shall ask for a ticket 
I shall ask him to leave 
I want him to stay 
I wanted to stay 
I think it is cold 

2. Translate into French - 

I shall prevent Mary from writing 
she writes better than I thought 
it is the best seat in the theater 
it is the best seat I could find 
I took all the tickets I could get 
he has a carriage that is new 
find me a seat that is not occupied 

I do not think it is cold 

do you think it is cold ? 

I think I am wrong 

I know you are wrong 

I doubt whether he has arrived 

I deny that he said so 

he permitted the child to get up 

he permitted himself to get up 

I want a seat that is more com- 

he has the seat that is most 

I prevented him from falling 

she is older than I thought 

she is younger than I 

3. Insert the correct forms of the verbs in parentheses. 
Then rewrite, putting the main verbs in a past tense. 

Je veux qu'il (venir). J'ai peur qu'il ne (£tre) pas k temps. Je 
ne crois pas qu'il (avoir) recu ma lettre. II lui faut (se depecher). 


C'est le seul medecin qui me (plaire). II empeche que ses malades 
ne (mourir). Croirez-vous .qu'il me (faire) (se coucher) ? Je doute 
qu'il (pouvoir) me (guerir). Au moins, qu'il ne me (tuer) pas ! 

Model Le Depart 

Le jour de mon depart est arrive. Je viens de fermer ma 
malle a clef. Je suis content que mes preparatifs soient enfin 
finis. J'aurais bien voulu que ma malle fut un peu plus grande, 
mais comme il me semble que c'est la meilleure que j'aie, je ne 
regrette pas de l'avoir employee. II faut que je fasse venir la 
voiture. Jean, dites au cocher qu'il vienne me chercher a trois 
heures et demie. Je ne crois pas qu'il soit occupe a cette heure- 
la. Quand il viendra, je doute qu'il puisse porter la malle tout 
seul. Aidez-le a la mettre dans sa voiture. Je suis fache que mon 
ami n'ait pu (Sec. 330) se decider a m'accompagner. Ses affaires 
empechent qu'il ne vienne. II craignait que nous ne restions 
partis trop longtemps. C'est dommage que ses affaires le retien- 
nent ainsi. A l'heure du depart je monterai en voiture. Je ne 
crois pas qu'il faille plus d'une demi-heure pour aller a la gare. La, 
je descendrai de voiture et j'irai au guichet chercher mon billet. 
II faut quelquefois qu'on attende son tour, mais je doute qu'il y 
ait beaucoup de monde qui voyage main tenant. II vaudra mieux, 
je crois, que je demande un billet de premiere classe, parce que je 
veux une place qui soit confortable. Apres me l'etre procure il 
faudra que je fasse enregistrer mes bagages, et si je suis encore 
en avance, j'irai dans la salle d'attente, ou je m'assierai quelques 
minutes si je pourrai trouver un siege qui ne soit pas occupe'. 


I told John to go and get me the carriage. It will be here at 
a quarter past four. If I have sent for it at that hour, it is because 
I believe that the coachman is not busy. When he comes, it 
will be necessary for John to help him carry my trunk to the 


carriage. I feared that my trunk would not be large enough, 
and I am very glad that everything could go in (enter) it. I have 
just locked it. I am going to leave alone. I had asked a friend 
of mine to come with me. He hoped he would be able to accom- 
pany me, and he regretted that his business prevented him from 
coming. I wish (should have wished) his business permitted him 
to take a vacation, for Henry is the best friend that I have. When 
the hour of departure comes, one gets into a carriage to go to 
the station. It is necessary to leave early if one has not bought 
one's ticket, because there are often people at the ticket-window 
who are waiting for their turn. One must not arrive at the station 
at the last minute if one fears there will be too many people. 
" Did you say you would accompany me to the station ? Would 
it not be better for me to buy a first-class ticket ? " " Yes, if you 
fear there will not be enough seats in the second class, for those 
of (the) first class are not the only ones which are good." For my 
part (as for me) I doubt whether the first-class ones are much more 
comfortable than the second. When one is ahead of time, one sits 
down in the waiting-room if one can find a seat which is not 
occupied, but only after having procured one's ticket and after 
having had one's baggage checked. 


i. Que fait-on si Ton ne veut pas marcher jusqu'a la gare? 

2. A quel endroit de la gare allez-vous chercher votre billet? 

3. Faut-il qu'on attende son tour s'il y a du monde? 4. Oil 
va-t-on pour attendre l'arrivee du train? 5. Quel est le meilleur 
livre que vous ayez jamais lu ? 6. Seriez-vous bien aise de trouver 
un maitre qui puisse vous enseigner le francais en deux semaines ? 
7. Semble-t-il que cela soit possible? 8. Croyez-vous qu'il fasse 
beau cet apres-midi? 9. Que faut-il qu'on fasse pour savoir sa 
lecon ? 1 o. Vos maitres permettent-ils que vous parliez anglais en 
classe ? 1 1. De crainte de quoi prenez-vous un parapluie ? 12. La 


ville de New-York n'est-elle pas la plus grande qui soit aux £tats- 
Unis? 13. Croyez-vous qu'il faille moins de cinq jours pour aller 
de New- York a Paris? 14. N'ai-je pas dit que le subjonctif 
s'employait apres vouloir que? 15. Votre maitre empeche-t-il 
que vous ne parliez a vos voisins ? 


1. I wish that my father would send me some money. 2. Are 
you surprised that my preparations are not yet finished ? 3. May 
she be always happy and beloved. 4. He did not doubt that his 
friend betrayed him, but he did not speak of it. 5. I know that 
he would send for a carriage if I wanted one. 6. Her sister has 
the largest trunk I have ever seen. 7. I desire him to learn only 
the last two lessons. 8. May God fill your life with peace. 9. I 
do not think he has more books than I. 10. Go get us a carriage 
that we shall like. it. I fear that he will not know me. 12. I re- 
gretted very much that I did not have my trunk checked. 13. He 
prevented my father from stopping for fear that he would arrive 
at the station too late. 14. She and I doubt whether he knows 
what he is saying. 15. This is the only verb in the lesson that is 
in the (au) subjunctive. 16. If we must go away, let us be good 
friends. 17. He asked me how I could do without a first-class 
ticket. 18. I shall not permit you to stay in the waiting-room any 
longer. 19. The class must leam tomorrow's lesson better. 20. It 
was not possible for him to find a seat that was more comfortable. 




307. Adverbial Clauses. The subjunctive is used in the 
following adverbial clauses : 

a. In clauses of concession or proviso. These are intro- 
duced by 

bien que, although sans que, without that 

quoique, although suppose* que, supposing that 

pourvu que, provided that a moins que, unless 

I did not see him although he Je neVai pas vu quoiqu'il fiitici. 

was here. 

He will come provided that it is // viendra pourvu qu'il ne fasse 

not cold. pasfroid. 

Note. In a clause introduced by a moins que the subjunctive is 
accompanied by ne. Compare Sec. 305. 

He will come unless it is cold. //viendra a moins qu'il ne fasse froid. 

b. In clauses of doubtful time. These are introduced by 
avant que, before, jusqu'a ce que, tintil, etc. 

I will start before it is cold. Jepartirai avant qu'il fasse froid. 

They will not work until I come. fls ne travailleront pas jusqu'a 

ce queje vienne. 

c. In clauses of purpose. These are introduced by pour 
que or afin que, in order that. 

I give you the book in order Je vous donne le livre afin que 
that you may read it. vous le lisiez. 

d. In clauses introduced by an indefinite relative pronoun 
or adjective, such as qui que, whoever, quoi que (pron.) or 
quel que (adj.), whatever. 


I will speak to him whoever he Je lui parlerai qui qu'il soit. 

may be. 

I will speak to him whatever he Je lui parlerai quoi qu'il fasse. 

may do. 

I will speak to him whatever be Je lui parlerai quelle que soit 

his native land. sa patrie. 

308. Unreal Conditions. In conditions contrary to fact 
the subjunctive (imperfect or pluperfect) may be used in 
either clause or in both clauses. This use is rather infre- 
quent in ordinary style. Its most common occurrence is in 
conditions expressed by an inversion and not by si. 

If he had come, I should not S'/7 fitt venu,Je nefusse pas reste. 

have stayed. 

Were he here, I should be glad Fut-it id, J' en serais bien aise. 

(of it). 

309. Infinitives and Subjunctives. In the following cases 
where the rules of this lesson and those of the preceding 
require the subjunctive, the infinitive is generally used 
instead : 

a. In most of the constructions of Sees. 304 and 307 if 
the subject of the dependent clause is the same as the subject 
of the main clause. 

b. In the constructions of Sec. 303 if the subject of 
the dependent clause is the person to whose standpoint 
the impersonal verb or expression refers. 

The contrast in these constructions is shown in the 
parallel columns below : 

I must eat before I start, it me I must eat before he starts, il me 

faut manger avant de partir. faut manger avant qu y il parte. 

I want to read, je veux lire. I want him to read, je veux qu'il 




I came in order to eat, je suis 
venu {pour) manger. 

It is important to him to be here, 
il ltd est importa7it d'etre id. 

I came that he might eat, je suis 
venu pour qu'il mangeat. 

It is important to him for me to 
be here, il lui est impoiiant 
que je sois id. 

Note. The infinitive in these cases is introduced (if by anything) by 
a preposition and not by a conjunction. Observe the following list of 
conjunctions and the corresponding prepositions, their forms being similar 
but not identical. 

(used with subjunctive) 


in order that (to) 



avant que 
pour que, ajiu que 
jusqu'a ce que 
sans que 

(used with infinitive) 

avant de 
pour, a fin de 


une feuille de papier, a sheet of coiffer, to fix the hair 

paper etre press£, to be busy 

s'appreter a, to get ready to 


i. Translate the following expressions into French after 
il viendra : 

because it is cold 
although it is cold 
when it is cold 
unless it is cold 
before it is cold 
as soon as it is cold 
if it is not cold 
to see if it is cold 

in order that he may not catch 

provided that it is cold 
in spite of the cold 
until it is cold 
where it is cold 
whatever he has 
whoever is with him 


2. Translate into French — 

I will tell him, whoever he be I ran in order to escape 

I will buy it, whatever it is he would not sing unless I sang 

I will return, whatever be the he ran as if he were afraid 
road had he fallen, I should have fallen 

3. Translate into French — 

before the war until noon 

before the house until he comes 

before he comes without a friend 

before starting without spending 

in order to work without his seeing me 

in order that he may work unless he comes 

4. Insert the correct verb forms. Then rewrite, putting 
the main verbs in a past tense. 

II ira quoiqu'il ne le (vouloir) pas. II restera si nous le (vouloir). 

II dinera ici pourvu que nous le (recevoir) bien. II aura peur de 
(arriver) tard. II aura peur que nous (arriver) tard. II nous 
visitera avant que je (s'en aller). II viendra parce qu'il (vouloir) nous 
(voir). II restera pour que ses amis le (voir). II parlera jusqu'a ce 
que nous (avoir) sommeil. 

Model Hugo et le Coiffeur 

Quelquefois, e'crit le journaliste, je rencontrais M. Victor Hugo 
chez le coiffeur Brassier. Un jour je dis a Brassier : « Eh bien ! 
l'ouvrage va-t-il? — Parfaitement, monsieur. Qa va trop bien 
meme. A moins que nous ne nous de'pechions, je ne sais pas 
comment mes garcons et moi nous nous tirerons d'affaire aujour- 
d'hui. Voici une liste de trente dames qu'il faut que nous coiffions. 
Quoi qu'il arrive, elles devront etre coiffees avant que six heures 
aient sonne. » Quelques jours apres je revins chez Brassier. « Et 
vos trente dames de l'autre jour ? — II ne m'a pas ete possible 


d'en coiffer plus de la moitie. Et cela a cause de M. Victor Hugo. 
Quelques instants apres votre depart, il entra chez moi, et avant 
que j'eusse eu le temps de me retourner, il se posta dans ce 
fauteuil pour que je lui fasse la barbe. Je m'appretais a le raser, 
lorsque lui, d'un geste brusque, m'abaissa mon bras et me dit 
d'attendre. II prit un crayon de sa poche et fouilla dans celles de 
son habit sans y trouver ce qu'il cherchait. Enfin il vit une feuille 
de papier sur cette commode, s'en saisit et se mit a ecrire. Moi, 
bien que je fusse presse, j'attendais qu'il eut fini. Apres avoir 
attendu longtemps je me hasardai a lui dire que j'etais presse, mais 
lui, l'esprit occupe', se leva et s'en alia sans se faire raser. Mes- 
sieurs, dis-je a mes garcons, il faut que vous vous rendiez aux 
adresses que je vais vous donner. Nous cherchames la liste sans 
que personne put la trouver. C'etait ma liste que Hugo avait 
emportee. — Allons, mon brave Brassier. " Calmez-vous. Suppo- 
sons que ce morceau de papier ne se f (it pas trouve la pour que le 
poete put y inscrire le resultat de son inspiration, la poesie francaise 
y aurait perdu de fort beaux vers. Vous avez 6te ce jour-la le 
collaborates de M. Victor Hugo. » 


Mr. Brassier, (a) hairdresser, was one day the collaborator of 
Victor Hugo without the latter's suspecting it, and that because of a 
piece of paper which, if it had not been found there, would have 
prevented the poet from writing the result of his inspiration. This 
inspiration, however, cost (to) Brassier the loss of about fifteen 
customers. This is how : Let us suppose that we are at the hair- 
dresser's. Mr. Hugo comes in (there) to have the hairdresser shave 
him. Without anybody's inviting him to sit down in front of the 
bureau, he sits down in an armchair and waits until the hair- 
dresser is ready. Although the latter is very busy, he approaches 
the armchair and gets ready to shave the poet. Before the hair- 
dresser is able to set to work, Hugo takes out a pencil from his 


Victor Hugo, genie litteraire de premier ordre, qui naquit a Besancon en 
1802 et mourut a Paris en 1885, se fit remarquer comme romancier, drama- 
turge, poete lyrique, critique, et aussi comme satiriste politique. II devint 
extremement populaire parmi le peuple, pour l'avoir compris et chante 
ses tristesses et ses joies. II devint, pour ainsi dire, le champion du genre 
humain. Quoique les critiques trouvent beaucoup de d^fauts dans son 
ceuvre, il fut en Europe un des grands ecrivains du dix-neuvieme siecle. 
II est connu des Americans surtout par son roman Les Misirables 


pocket. Then he searches in those of his coat in order to find 
there what he needs. The hairdresser waits until he has finished. 
Hugo, not finding what he is looking for, takes a sheet of paper 
which he sees on the bureau and begins to write. " Unless he 
finishes soon," says the barber to himself, " I shall never fix the hair 
of all my customers." At last he ventures to say to Hugo that he 
is in a hurry. The latter, his mind occupied, goes out then before 
being shaved. After the poet's departure, Brassier looks for the 
list of addresses of his customers, but without finding it. Mr. Hugo 
had taken it with him. 


i. Pouvez-vous repeter l'anecdote bien qu'elle soit un peu 
longue ? 2. Les eleves peuvent-ils savoir leur lecon a moins 
d'etudier beaucoup ? 3. A quelle condition la sauront-ils ? (Pourvu 
que . . .) 4. Suppose qu'on vous invite a aller en France cet ete, 
accepteriez-vous ? 5. Vous laisserait-on voyager sans que vous 
eussiez votre billet ? 6. Ne viendriez-vous pas ici demain a moins 
que vous ne fussiez malade ? 7. Venez-vous a l'ecole avant que vos 
parents vous aient donne votre dejeuner ? 8. Jusqu'a quand resterez- 
vous ici? 9. Allez-vous dehors quelque temps qu'il fasse? 10. Ne 
craignez-vous pas d'avoir froid si vous sortez sans etre assez 
couvert ? 1 1 . A quelle heure partez-vous de chez vous afin d'arriver 
ici a l'heure ? 12. fitudierez-vous le francais jusqu'a ce que vous le 
parliez bien? 13. Commencons-nous les exercices avant que le 
maitre ait explique la lecon ? 14. Aviez-vous deja etudie le francais 
avant de venir ici? 15. Etes-vous bien aise d'avoir fini cette 
derniere lecon ? 


1. The pupils will work until they finish the whole lesson. 

2. What poet is not forgotten although he died many years ago ? 

3. I ought to go to town, but shall not go unless it is fine. 4. Had 
Hugo not taken the list, the barber would have been able to keep 


all his promises. 5. This is the best grammar that I have ever 
used, isn't it ? 6. He has just come in, but he must go out again 
at once. 7. Whoever they may be, I shall not let them enter the 
town. 8. We do not expect to go to the hairdresser's unless 
it is fine. 9. They hope to go to the theater tonight provided 
they have money enough. 10. My father refused to let me go out 
although I had finished writing my exercises. 11. His mother 
would never permit the teacher to punish him whatever he might 
do. 12. He tried to write a poem without the barber's knowing it. 
13. We are anxious to arrive home before it is too cold. 14. It is 
necessary for him to study his lesson before going to class. 
15. My parents are not to return from their vacation until snow 
falls. 16. Were days longer, it would be possible for me to 
do more. 17. He is afraid I am sick, and I am afraid he is sick. 

18. Hadst thou been here, my brother would not have died. 

19. Whoever he be, I will speak to him in French. 20. I fear 
that there are some pupils here who cannot yet write (the) 
French easily. 


(Lessons Fifty to Fifty-three) 
A. General Drill 

1 . Name five verbs that govern an infinitive directly ; 
five that require de ; five that require a. 

2. What form of the verb is used as the object of a 
preposition ? Illustrate. 

3. Give French sentences containing respectively (a) a 
present participle without agreement ; (b) a present participle 
which agrees ; (c) a past participle without agreement ; (d) a 
past participle which agrees. 



4. Give sentences containing an infinitive ' preceded by 
pour ; a ; sans ; de ; apres ; d' ; pas ; par ; fais ; vais ; vois ; vous ; en. 

5. When is the subjunctive used in a principal clause? 

6. Give the first person singular of the present subjunc- 
tive of aller, etre, finir, craindre, croire, avoir, faire, prendre, 
vouloir, mener, tenir, savoir, sauver, dire, devoir, vendre. 

7. How is the tense of the subjunctive in a subordinate 
clause determined ? 

8. What is an impersonal verb ? What construction 
follows ? 

9. Give four impersonal verbs or phrases. 

10. When is the subjunctive used in relative clauses? 

1 1 . What is the construction after although ? unless ? 
until ? in order that ? in order to ? becatise ? Illustrate 

12. Give the cases where ne is used and not translated. 

13. Give French sentences containing — 

tout en avant jusqu'a pendant que 

pour avant de quand a moins que 

pour que avant que lorsque mette 

car devant pendant fit 

14. Complete these sentences : 

je suis bien aise que vous il avait peur que je 

je suis bien aise de 

je ne doutais pas que les 


je veux qu'il 

il fallait que mon ami — — 
je sais que la maison 

c'est un plus grand pays que 
c'est le plus grand pays que 

il m'aime bien que 

s'il fait beau 

je le veux, quoi que 

je jouais tandis que vous - 


15. Translate into French — 

I forbid him to come I shall finally remain 

I shall prevent him from coming I gave up remaining 

I think he will do it he told me to remain 

I thought he would do it can you not remain ? 

do you think he will do it ? I think I know her 

I started before it snowed I think he knows her 

I shall start before it snows I shall not try to fall 

I wish to remain I shall try not to fall 

I fear to remain may it be warm 

I like to remain when shall we finish this lesson ? 

I came in order to remain we should finish the book 

B. Translate into French 

1. I fear that he will never learn to read and write. 2. I shall not 
go down until it ceases to rain. 3. While she was running to school, 
she almost fell in the street. 4. Buy me an umbrella that is more 
useful than this one. 5. Let us stay in the country, where we are 
this summer. 6. My brother must have a new coat made. before 
his best friend comes. 7. France is more beautiful than I thought. 
8. Would you like this English grammar ? It is the best that I have 
ever used. 9. They came to France in order to see her, but she had 
already started for the seashore. 10. He prefers to write nothing 
while he is in the country. 1 1. Let us hope it will be fine when we 
start for Europe. 12. I feared that he would not introduce her to 
me, although I asked him to. 13. My father has given my sister 
many books, and I should have given her some too if she had asked 
me for them. 14. I did not make him go out, but I permitted him 
to remain where he was. 15. If he must go away, let him go away, 
and may God be with him. 16. Try to prevent him from coming, 
if you can. 17. They fear you may all believe it. 18. I was told 
that you wanted some one to come. 19. Did you fear we would 
never finish the book ? 20. Long live the French language ! 




310. Supplementary Lessons. Certain matters which prop- 
erly fall within the province of elementary French, but 
which have not been included in the preceding sections, 
are now presented in three supplementary lessons. 

311. Irregular Plurals. Supplementary to Sees. 76, 93, 
and 96. 

a. The following nouns ending in al form their plural 
by adding s : 

bal, ball carnaval, carnival narval, narwhal 

cal, callosity chacal, jackal regal, feast 

b. The following nouns ending in ail form their plural 
by adding s : 

detail, detail, fan portail, portal 

e'pouvantail, bugbear gouvernail, rudder serail, seraglio 

c. The plurals of words ending in au, eu, and ou may be sum- 
marized as follows : nouns and adjectives in au, nouns in eu, 
and seven nouns (Sec. 93) in ou form the plural by adding x. 

Note. A few unusual irregular plurals are grouped on page 428. 

312. Irregular Feminines. Supplementary to Sec. 103. 
c. For the feminine of adjectives ending in e, f, and x, 

see Sec. 103, a, b, c. 

&. Adjectives ending in eur in the masculine usually 
change eur to euse ; but majeur, major, mineur, minor, meilleur, 
better, and all adjectives in erieur form their feminine by 
adding e. Examples: flatteur,/*. fl&tteusQ, flattering ; exterieur. 
f. extSrieure, outer. 



c. Adjectives ending in er in the masculine terminate in 
the feminine in ere ; a few in et (namely, complet, complete ; 
concret, concrete, discret, discreet, inquiet, anxious, replet, fat, 
secret, secret) terminate in the feminine in ete. The addition 
of the grave accent is in order to comply with the rule of 
French euphony by which a word may not end in two mute 
syllables. Examples : cher, f. chere ; complet, f. complete. 

d. Many adjectives ending in a single consonant preceded 
by a vowel double the final consonant on the addition of the 
mute e. The following, and some others of similar termination, 
fall under this rule : 

e*pais, thick 
gentil, pretty 
gros, big 
italien, Italian 
moyen, middle 

e. The following unclassified list of adjectives presents 
special irregularities : 

ancien, aficient 
bas, low 
bon, good 
cadet, younger 
chretien, Christian 
cruel, cruel 

net, clear 
nul, no 

pareil, similar 
sot, foolish 
sujet, subject 
vermeil, vermilion 









beau, bel 
























* favori 



fou, fol 

























mou, mol 



nouveau, nouvel 





















vieux, vieil 



313. Additional Irregular Verbs. Supplementary to 
Lessons Forty-Three to Forty-Nine. 

a, AcquSrir, to acquire, acqu^rant, acquis, acquiers, acquis. 

Pres. Ind. j 'acquiers 
tu acquiers 
il acquiert 
Fut. j'acquerrai ' 

Pres. Subj. j'acquiere 

tu acquieres 
il acquiere 

nous acquerons 
vous acquerez 
ils acquierent 

nous acquerions 
vous acqueriez 
ils acquierent 

Similarly, compounds of querir. 

b. Assaillir, to assail, assaillant, assailli, assaille, assaillis. 
Similarly, tressaillir, to be startled. 
C. Bouillir, to boil, bouillant, bouilli, bous, bouillis. 
d. Cueillir, to gather, cueillant, cueilli, cueille, cueillis. 
Fut. je cueillerai, not je cueillirai. 


e. Faillir, to fail, faillant, failli, faux, faillis. 

Note. Many forms of this verb are not in use. 

/. Fuir, to flee, fuyant, fui, fuis, fuis. 
g. Hair, to hate, haissant, hai, hais, hais. 

Note. There is no diaeresis in the singular of the present indicative 
or imperative. 

' h, Vetir, to clothe, vetant, vetu, vets, vetis. 
1. Mouvoir, to move, mouvant, mu (/. mue), meus, mus. 

Fut. je mouvrai 

Pres. Subj. je meuve nous mouvions 

tu meuves vous mouviez 

il meuve ils meuvent 

Note. There is no accent in the past participle of compounds of 

/. Pleuvoir, to rain, pleuvant, plu, il pleut, il plut. 

Fut. il pleuvra 

Note. Pleuvoir is an impersonal verb. 

k. Pourvoir, to provide, pourvoyant, pourvu, pourvois, pourvus. 

/. Battre, to beat, battant, battu, bats, battis. 

m. Conclure, to conclude, concluant, conclu, conclus, conclus. 

n, Coudre, to sew, cousant, cousu, couds, cousis. 

0. Croitre, to grow, croissant, cru (/. crue), crois, crus. 

p. Maudire, to curse, maudissant, maudit, maudis, maudis. 

q. Moudre, to grind, moulant, moulu, mouds, moulus. 

r. Resoudre, to resolve, solve, resolvant, r6solu, r6sous, r^solus. 

5. Rire, to laugh, riant, ri, ris, ris. 

t, Sumre, to be sufficient, suffisant, sum, sufBs, suffis. 

1/. Vaincre, to conquer, defeat, vainquant, vaincu, vaincs, 



combattre, to fight se r^soudre a, to be resolved to 

s'Smouvoir de, to be stirred by (se) rire de, to laugh at 

j'ai failli partir, I nearly started (failed to start) 
je faillis tomber, I almost fell (came near falling) 


i. My favorite sister was suddenly assailed by some soldiers. 

2. A dog barked and the Italian woman was very much startled. 

3. Girls carry fans to balls. 4. The twin sisters have been gather- 
ing flowers for half an hour. 5. The armies of today are clothed 
better than the ancient (ones). 6. I, at least, will not flee. 7. They 
often give feasts to the Turkish women in the seraglios. 8. She 
is discreet and works well and will acquire much money. 9. The 
water is boiling; now we will drink some tea. 10. Those who 
are treacherous always hate their friends. 11. I am glad it is 
raining now, because everything is extremely dry. 12. When we 
are hungry again, who will provide us with good things ? 13. The 
whole country has been stirred by this complete victory. 14. The 
English will learn the details of the battle. 15. The peaches on 
the trees are growing every day. 16. She was sewing secretly 
to make a present for her husband. 17. The Turkish army does 
not fight better than the Greek. 18. Go away and be resolved to 
become a man. 19. They are to fight tomorrow; will they defeat 
the Italians ? 20. They will conclude peace this evening, and this 
city will no longer be subject to the king. 21. The sailors were 
cursing because the vessels had lost their rudders. 22. That sly 
girl is laughing at me now. 23. Are not two carnivals a year too 
many ? 24. He almost fell at the outer door. 25. He was grind- 
ing the wheat in order to make fresh bread. 26. Their sharp 
voices made me flee into my quiet room. 27. Your younger sister 
heard what I said ; that is sufficient. 




314. Apposition. The definite and indefinite articles are 
omitted before nouns used in apposition merely to add, in pass- 
ing, an incidental fact or a causal relation. Compare Sec. 121. 

Paris, the capital of France, Paris, capitate de la Frafice 
the Seine, a river of France, la Seine, fleuve de la France 
(Being) a soldier, he loves war. Soldat, il aime la guerre. 

However, if the function of the appositive is to distinguish 
or define, the article is used. 
My best friend, John's brother, Mon meilleur ami, le frere de 

is here. Jean, est ici. 

315. Article with Names of Relatives. The definite 
article is used in familiar style when one speaks of his 
relatives. Compare Sec. 120, a. 

Uncle Peter is here. L'oncle Pierre est ici. 

316. Partitive Idioms. Supplementary to Sec. 116. 

a. After bien, much, many, and la plupart, {the) most, the 
partitive construction (de with the article) is used before a 
dependent noun, rather than de alone, which is the usage 
after the other adverbs of quantity (Sec. 113). 

bien des hommes, many men 

la plupart des hommes, most men 

b. When a succession of nouns used partitively becomes 
a mere list or enumeration, the partitive sign (de with the 
article) is omitted. 

We have here bread, meat, apples, Nous avons ici pain, viande, 
wine. pommes, vin. 


c. Quelque, some (or a) little, some (or a) few, expresses a 
more limited quantity than de. 

quelque argent, some (or a) little money 
de V argent, some money 
quelques pommes, some (or a) few apples 
des pommes, some apples 

317. Disjunctive Pronouns. Further uses of the disjunc- 
tives, not mentioned in Sec. 178, are 

a. With a to express an indirect object accompanying a 
direct object pronoun other than le, la, les. 

He will introduce me to him. // me presentera a lui. 

He will introduce you to us. // vous presentera a nous. 


He will introduce her to them. // la leur presentera. 

b. Together with a conjunctive subject or object pronoun 
for emphasis. 

I am here. » Moi, je suis ici. 

Henry insulted me. Henri m'a insulte, moi. 

He is here. Lui est ici. 

Observe that the disjunctive subject lui may stand alone 
without a conjunctive form. 

318. En with Possessive Force. En is regularly used for 
its (or their) when the word modified by its is a direct 
object or is the subject or predicate of etre. 

Vosvilles sont belles; j'en aime Your cities are beautiful; I like 
les jolis jardins. their pretty gardens 

J'aime Paris; les rues en sont I love Paris; its streets (the 
belles. streets of it) are beautiful 


319. Of mine, etc. Phrases like of mine, of yours, etc. are 
expressed in French in two ways, depending on the thought. 
A friend of mine told me so. Un de mes amis me Va dit. 
John is a friend of mine. Jean est mon ami. 

320. His and Her, Whenever, to avoid ambiguity, it is 
necessary to distinguish between his and her, recourse is had 
to the disjunctive. 

his garden, son jar din a lui 
her garden, sonjardin a elle 

321. Lequel is the relative that must be used 

a. As the object of the prepositions entre, between, and 
parmi, among, even if they refer to persons. 

my friends, among whom I count you, mes amis, parmi lesquels je 
vous compte 

b, As the object of de, instead of dont, to express whose 
when the modified noun is itself the object of a preposition, 
the man to whose son I speak, Vhomme aufils duquel je parte 

322. Ou after Prepositions. D'ou, from where, whence, 
from which, and par ou, through which, are often used 

instead of duquel, par lequel, etc. 

la maison d'ou ils sont venus, the house whence they came 

la ville par ou nous sommes venus, the city through which we have come 

D'ou venez-vous ? Where do you come from ? 

323. Compound Interrogative Pronouns. Instead of the 
simple forms qui, que, quoi, interrogative phrases of the type 
of qu'est-ce qui in Sec. 211 are very frequently used. These 
phrases consist of est-ce preceded by an interrogative pronoun 
and followed by a relative. In determining the proper form 
of these, the regular rules of Lessons Thirty-Three and 
Thirty-Five apply. 



The phrase qu'est-ce qui in the French for what is grow- 
ing there (Sec. 211) means in full what is it that. What, 
being an interrogative pronoun in the predicate nominative, 
becomes que (qu') ; that, being a subject relative, becomes qui. 

The predicate nominatives who and what are usually still 
further developed, as shown below, an extra que introducing 
the real subject. 

Who is doing that? (Who is it 

that is doing that ?) 
Who is this man ? (Who is it 

that it is, namely, this man ?) 
Whom did you find ? (Who is 

it that you found ?) 
Of whom are you speaking? 

(Of whom is it that you are 

speaking ?) 
What is this thing ? (What is it 

that it is, namely, this thing ?) 
What is that ? (What is it that 

it is, namely, that ?) 
What is your father doing ? (What 

is it that your father is doing ?) 
Of what are you speaking ? (Of 

what is it that you are speak- 
ing ?) 

Qui est-ce qui fait cela ? 

Qui est-ce que c'est que cet 

homme ? 
Qui est-ce que vous avez trouve ? 

De qui est-ce que vous parlez ? 

Qu'est-ce que c'est que cette chose f 
Qu'est-ce que c'est que cela ? 
Qu'est-ce que voire p ere fait ? 
De quoi est-ce que vous parlez ? 

324. Soi, ones self, itself, is a sort of disjunctive reflex- 
ive of the third person, rarely used except after prepositions 
in general statements. 
On ne doit pas penser a soi. One ought not to think of himself. 

But in a specific case the intensive form is used. 
Jean ne doit pas penser a lui- fohn ought ?iot to thi?ik of him- 

meme. self. 


325. Reciprocal Pronouns. The plural reflexive pronouns 
are often used to denote reciprocal action. To distinguish 
this from the reflexive use, l'un Pautre, the one the other, in 
the case of two persons, or les uns les autres, the ones the 
others, in the case of more than two, is often added. 

We love each other. Nous nous aimons. 

They (two) love each other. 77s s'aiment l'un I'autre. 

They (several) flatter one another. J7s seflattent les uns les autres. 

They (two) are giving presents Us se donnent des cadeaux l'un 
to each other. a I'autre. 


ne . . . aucun(e), no one, no ma propre plume, my own pen 

un autre, another, a different nous autres soldats, we soldiers 

encore un, another, one more de quoi manger, something to eat 

que f aire ? what 's to be done ? 

il n'y a pas de quoi, it 's not worth mentioning 

a l'heure qu'il est, at the present time 


1. His brother, an English soldier, is here. 2. Most cities are 
on large rivers. 3. He has some watches and a few jewels. 4. John 
insulted him ; what 's to be done ? 5. This little child is a brother 
of his. 6. Of whose brother are you speaking ? 7. The painter, of 
whose picture I am talking, has just died. 8. Let us praise each 
other, but let us not praise ourselves. 9. No teacher can teach his 
own children. 10. London, the capital of England, is the largest 
city in the world. 1 1. Uncle William, who lives near us, was intro- 
duced to you. 12. If you speak to him, he will introduce you to 
me. 13. I have only a few pieces of it; give me another. 14. All 
these children love one another. 15. Have you been in the city 
long ? Do you like its stores ? 16. What is that ? Didn't you hear 


it? 17. She was traveling among the Greeks. 18. Of what did 
the poet write ? Of what country? 19. Does she sew all the time ? 
That is another story. 20. My own friend, your younger cousin, 
said so (it). 21. Will you not introduce me to her? 22. Is there 
a friend here? Yes, he is here. 23. The house is pretty, but its 
windows are very small. 24. Were not he and she in his garden ? 
25. I too had just left the city from which he came. 26. Who is it 
that you saw in the Greek city? 27. One ought not to love him- 
self more than others. 28. Don't thank us ; it 's not worth men- 
tioning. 29. At the present time he has most of the money. 30. We 
pupils cannot learn everything. 3 1 . Every one works for himself. 
32. A neighbor of his provided him with what he needed, meat, 
potatoes, bread, milk, and sugar. ^^. Another man would have 
paid her another franc for her flowers. 34. What are the two rivers 
between which this city is built? 35. Who are these children? 
Where did they all come from ? 



326. Position of Adjectives. Specific preliminary direc- 
tions for the position of descriptive adjectives were given 
in Sees. 99, 100. Some insight into the underlying prin- 
ciples is now desirable. 

a. Adjectives that distinguish an object from others of its 
group (or a subgroup from a larger group) follow the noun. 

Adjectives that add a quality which the judgment or 
emotion of the speaker leads him to mention tend to precede. 

un cheval blanc, a white horse (not black) 
la blanche neige, the white snow (which I admire) 
la ville anglaise, an English city (tells its nationality) 
Pillustre Hugo, the famous Hugo (as men esteem him) 


b. Adjectives whose meaning regularly brings them after 
the noun include (1) those denoting color, shape, and 
other physical conditions ; (2) those denoting nationality 
or party. 

une robe noire, a black dress 
la table ronde, the round table 
le parti liberal, the Liberal party 

c. Adjectives of participial derivation, especially past parti- 
ciples, are apt to have a force that causes them to follow. 

une fenetre ouverte, an open window 
des e'toiles filantes, shooting stars 

d. Certain adjectives of everyday use have come to pre- 
cede even when they distinguish. A list is given in Sec. 100. 

e. Adjectives used figuratively imply a judgment or opinion 
and therefore regularly precede. 

un noir caractere, a black character 

f. Certain adjectives differ considerably in meaning as 
they precede or follow. Among these are 

Before its Noun 

After its Noun 


worthy, good 



dear (beloved) 

dear (costly) 


the last (of a series) 

last (just passed) 












newly' made 


poor (pitiable) 



small, short 

petty, mean 








poor sort of 



g. Considerations of euphony, emphasis, and other influ- 
ences cause usages at variance with the principles men- 
tioned above. In particular, long adjectives and those 
modified by long adverbs or phrases follow. 

un enfant extremement joli, an extremely pretty child 
un fils digne de son pere, a son worthy of his father 

The whole matter of the position of adjectives is very 
idiomatic. Observation of French usage is the surest guide. 

327. Position of Adverbs. Exceptions to Sec. no. 

a. The adverbs hier, aujourd'hui, demain, ici, la, and partout 
never come between the auxiliary and the past participle. 

II est venu hier. He came yesterday. 

b. Short, simple adverbs that modify an infinitive are apt 
to precede it. 

Je n'ose trop parler. I dare not speak too much. 

c. For rhetorical effect an adverb that modifies the verb 
is sometimes placed at the beginning of a sentence. y avait des soldats. Everywhere there were soldiers. 

d. The negatives rien and personne, being originally nouns, 
may be used as the subject of a sentence. In this case they 
stand first in their clause, the ne having its normal position. 
Personne n'est ici. Nobody is here. 

328. Subject after Verb. In addition to the interrogative 
construction, the subject follows the verb 

a. Regularly with verbs of saying when the quotation or 
a part of it precedes. 

"I see you," said the mother. aje te vois », dit la mere. 

M Come here," said he, " and sit aVenez ici», dit-il, net asseyez- 
down." vous.% 


Note. In parenthetical constructions like the above the past definite 
is generally used, rather than the past indefinite. 

b. Often when an adverb or other part of the predicate 
precedes for rhetorical effect. 

Soon the son too arrived. Bientbt arriva lefils aussi. 

Scarcely had she entered. A peine fut-elle entree. 

c. Often when a relative is the object of its clause. 

the book that my younger brother was reading, le livre que lisait 

mon frere cadet 
I will do all that a brave man can do. Jeferaitout ce que peut f aire 

un homme brave. 

d. In the object clause in indirect questions when the 
subject of the clause is a noun (not a pronoun), especially 
when this subject has a long modifier. 

I don't know where the man Je ne sais pas ou est Vhomme qui 
who lives here is. demeure id. 

329. Tout as Adverb. Tout is often used as an adverb in the 
sense of quite, all. It then agrees with a following feminine 
adjective beginning with a consonant, but not with a mascu- 
line adjective or a feminine one beginning with a vowel. 

Elles etaient toutes rouges. They were quite red (blushing). 

Les gar^ons sont tout pales. The boys are quite (alt) pale. 

Sa femme est tout aimable. His wife is very (quite) kind. 

330. Omission of Negative pas. After the verbs cesser, 
to cease, oser, to dare, pouvoir, to be able, and savoir, to 
know, the pas of the negative not is very frequently omitted. 
Je n'ose parler. I dare not speak. 

331. Que for Other Conjunctions. Que is very generally used 
to avoid repetition of a conjunction. The subjunctive is 
required when que replaces si, if. 


Quand vous arriverez et que vous When you come and (when you) 

lui parlerez. speak to him. 

Si vous en voulez et que j'en aie. If you want some and if I 

have any. 

332. Si meaning yes. After an expressed or implied 
negation si is used for yes. 

You didn't say so? Yes, I did Vous nePavez pas difi Si,jeVai 

(say so). dit. 

He isn't coming ? Yes, indeed. 77 ne vient pas ? Mais si. 

333. Historical Present. In animated narration in French, 
as in English, the present is often used instead of a past tense. 

II faisait froid. Le paysan met ft was cold. The peasant puts on 
son habit; il sort au plus vite. his coat ; he goes out as quickly 

as he can. 

334. A, Dans, En. Among the numerous idiomatic dis- 
tinctions in the use of prepositions, those between a, to, at, 
in, dans, into, and en, in, present some difficulty. 

A denotes position at ; dans, position inside of ; while en 
forms with its object an expression equivalent to an adverb. 

Jean tient un livre a la main. fohn holds a book in his hand. 

Jean est dans sa chambre. John is in his room. 

II les vend en gros. He sells them wholesale (in great 


335. Compound Nouns. Nouns are frequently combined 
by the use of de and a. 

a. De is used when the second noun expresses the material, 
place of origin, or contents of the first. 

une fourchette d'argent, a silver fork 
le fromage de Suisse, Swiss cheese 
un ver de terre, an earthworm 
un verre de vin, a glass of wine 


Material is often, perhaps more commonly, expressed by en. 
une montre en or, a gold watch 

b. A is used when the second noun denotes the purpose, 
use, or means of motion of the first. 

un verre a rin, a wineglass 

un couteau a papier, a paper-knife 

un bateau a vapeur, a steamboat 


1. The poor ought not to buy the dearest meats. 2. He is the 
only man who dares not laugh at us. 3. The two sad little girls 
were alone under the blue sky. 4. I almost forgot what my friend, 
who had just returned from Switzerland, told me. 5. He is a 
polite boy, a son worthy of his honest father. 6. Among the 
famous cities through which he traveled, the Turkish capital 
pleased him best. 7. I cannot praise the Christian emperor too 
much. 8. Who is the tall man who has a long nose ? 9. If you 
have many, and will sell them at wholesale, I shall buy some. 
10. The wicked king had a shining gold crown on his head, a 
spear in his right hand. 11. Let us use the silver cup for a 
teacup. 12. The faithful Joan could not save her beloved France. 
13. Who is it that saw the last shooting star last night? 14. The 
cook had an extremely pretty daughter. 15. M Do you want," he 
asked, M your own fork or my clean knife ? " 1 6. Most poets 
prefer not to live in a large city. 17. They have often visited 
the battlefield where many poor soldiers fell. 18. The stolen 
cloth was found on the steamboat. 19. He could not introduce 
you to me in all that crowd. 20. Hardly had he the wineglass 
in his hand when his host brought a gold cup. 21. Uncle 
John and two twin cousins of mine were in the dining-room. 
22. When my father was in business, the last man that he hired 
was a poor sort of workman. 23. Cursing each other furiously, 


the sailors quickly fled. 24. I tell her not to go further; every- 
where wounded soldiers are dying. 25. He came yesterday, but 
nobody was here to receive him. 26. Never 'will I introduce you to 
the Italian girl of whose black eyes you wrote me. 27. The good 
priest lived in a white house ; he loved to see the white snow. 
28. He can't read the Greek language? Yes, he can. 29. She 
was all pale ; the girls all pitied her. 30. M You cannot yet write 
French well," said the teacher. w Yes, indeed, I can," I replied. 


Salutations : 

Mon cher ami Ma chere amie 

Cher monsieur Chere Madame X 

Phrases de commencement de lettres : 

Je m'empresse de repondre a votre lettre du 5 courant. 
J'ai ete bien heureux de recevoir de vos nouvelles. 
Je prends la liberte de vous faire savoir que . . . 

Phrases defin de lettres : 

Bien a vous. Votre bien sincere 

Je vous serre cordialement la main. 

Recevez, monsieur, l'assurance de ma consideration distinguee. 
Veuillez agreer, madame, Fexpression de mes sentiments les 
plus devoues. 

Instructions : 

Aux soins de . . . 

Priere de faire suivre. 

Poste restante. 

Repondre par retour du courrier. 


The pupil will not have all the material required for these sentences 
until he has completed the lessons. 

i. I must be in Boston tomorrow at noon. 2. You are right. 
I didn't come for fear that it would rain. 3. She does not believe 
that her mother has come. 4. I fear that you will stay longer 
than they want you. 5. She loves flowers so much, and these are 
the most beautiful I have ever seen. 6. As soon as I had gone to 
bed, it began to rain. 7. How long did you stay at your aunt's? 
I didn't know that she had come home. 8. Did you and he wait 
for me long ? I did not want to come too early. 9. When will 
your brother begin to grind that wheat? 10. We ought not to 
tell all we know. n. Have you not done all you can for the poor 
of the city? 12. I was replying to his letter when you came in 
and spoke to me. 13. Do you think that what you have done 
pleases him ? No, I don't think so. 1 4. The old horse used often 
to be beaten to make him work. 15. Give me back my pen when 
you find yours, for I need mine very often. 16. When I was 
young, I knew how to speak French, but now I have forgotten 
how (it). 17. I have only a few pictures, but a friend of mine 
has his house full. 18. You will have to come. A dog has bitten 
my hand and I can scarcely write. 19. It has snowed for several 
days, but I see now a little blue sky and I hope it will soon be 
clear. 20. We cannot get along without eating and drinking if we 
wish to live. 

21. We have resolved not to start until it is fine. 22. He needs 
some money at once ; it will be better to come to him while he 
stays at my house. 23. I am going to tell you something which, 



I hope, will make you very happy. 24. I arose early and went to 
have my watch cleaned. 25. Wood is more useful than gold or 
silver, but it is not worth so much. 26. Nobody can prevent my 
father from saying what he thinks. 27. The table before which 
you were seated used to belong to my father many years ago. 
28. When the sun rises, we will try to finish the work which we 
began last evening. 29. The snow has closed both the road to 
(of) the city and that to the mountains. 30. I saw a friend of 
yours on the steamboat, but she did not speak to me. 31. During 
the war of 1861 each army lost more than 500,000 men. 32. It 
was the wife of the doctor whom you know who sent me this 
book. 33. If you are afraid, close your eyes and give me your 
hand. 34. He stayed several years at my house, but I never 
knew whose son he was. 35. While I was at the window, I saw 
her approach the door. 36. I was mistaken ; it was not my keys, 
but my father's, which I had lost. 37. They say that you let your 
sick father remain alone. What were you thinking of? 38. We 
ought to love those who hate us, and give to those who injure us. 

39. What a beautiful red flower ! Have you many in your garden ? 

40. I have lived in this room for a long time, and I love it more 
than one would think. 

41. I have just seen him, but I did not know how to tell him 
what I wanted. 42. This man lost more money than that one had. 

43. He who has money ought to be willing to pay what he owes. 

44. They are to eat at our house tomorrow if they don't have to 
go to the city early. 45. Nobody will know what I was think- 
ing of when you entered my poor room. 46. I heard that you 
had brought many things with you, and I came to see what you 
bought at Paris. 47. Don't try to do more than you can, but do 
well what you do. 48. He reads only Sundays, and cannot read 
the tenth part of the books that are given him. 49. Everybody 
ought to use all that God has given him, in order to be useful. 
50. When you need anything, ask me for it. 51. I will hurry as 


much as I can, but I fear I shall arrive there too late. 52. " The 
king is dead ; long live the king," they began to exclaim. 53. When 
winter comes, all the leaves will die and the trees will no longer 
be beautiful. 54. I wish that I might see my father again. 55. If 
you find us a book that we like, we will get up early to read it. 
56. He is leading such a life that it would be better for him to 
die. 57. We gather apples in autumn and keep many until spring 
comes. 58. It was not possible to learn what his name is. 59. I 
am glad that you have found my pencil ; I feared it would never 
be seen. 60. He was not willing to come at all, for he was afraid 
it would be cold. 

61. I shall not go away unless it be necessary. 62. Bring me 
some wood that is cut easily, and I will make you a boat. 63. We 
came here to buy some presents, but each of us is too tired. 
64. Provided he can start this evening, he will be with you 
tomorrow morning. 65. The victory would have been ours before 
night had fallen, if all the generals had not been killed. 66. Did 
he not almost freeze before he finished his work ? 67. Whatever 
you do, remember that you are a Frenchman. 68. Eat a good 
breakfast before starting, and you will not be cold. 69. The sol- 
diers ought to cover their fires and go to bed early this evening. 
70. Although I pity him, I cannot give him any money, for I have 
none. 71. When I finish reading these books, I will send them to 
you. 72. Where are the oxen and the sheep that belong to me? 
Try to find them. 73. I shall never be able to persuade him to 
cease smoking. 74. As for me, I am resolved to do it, and no- 
body can prevent me. 75. She is to go to see him, although he 
refused to let her enter. 76. Peaches grow in every country where 
the winters are not too cold and the summers too hot and dry. 
77. Let him take what he wants ; there will be enough for me. 78. 1 
shall obey my father, although I expect never to see him again. 

79. I will have him make the table if he can do it better than I. 

80. Do you wish coffee every morning while you live at my house? 


Le tricentenaire de Moliere, acteur, directeur et dramaturge, est tombe le 
15 Janvier 1922. On a honore sa memoire dans les theatres de France, 
surtout a la Comedie francaise (appelee Maison de Moliere), et aussi en 
Amerique. II est reconnu comme etant le plus grand auteur comique de 
tous les temps et de tous les pays. Parmi ses pieces les mieux connues 
sont VAvare, Le Bourgeois gentilhomme et Le Malade itnaginaire. Moliere 
a ete le peintre de la nature humaine. La plupart de ses personnages 
sont devenus des types imperissables. Nul n'a enrichi la langue d'autant 
de vers, de mots et de locutions devenues proverbes. Apres sa mort, son 
buste fut place dans la salle de l'Academie francaise avec cette inscription : 
a Rien ne manque a sa gloire ; il manquait a la notre » 



The following sentences are selected from college entrance examina- 
tion papers given within the last few years in this country. 

The Partitive Construction 

i. There are easy words and difficult ones. 2. There were 
many books on the table. 3. Some bread but not much meat. 4. 1 
have no friends in this city, but I have some in America. 5. Do 
you want some coffee ? No, I do not want any. That is fortunate, 
for there isn't any. 6. How many letters have you received today ? 
We have received three. 7. He never has any pens ; he takes ours. 
8. The old soldier tells the children long stories of the war. 9. If 
you have plenty of books, give him some and give them some too, 
but do not give her any. 1 o. Have you any friends in that town ? 
Yes, I have many there, n. You gave me some bread, but did 
you give her any ? 12. He has several hats, many books, a dozen 
cravats, and little money. 13. How many books have you there? 
We have more than ten. 1 4. How many brothers have you ? I 
have three. 15. She asked me to give her some money, but I told 
her I had none. 16. We have meat, potatoes, and good bread, but 
we have neither butter nor milk. 17. He has much money, and he 
gives some to these poor people. 18. Where can I buy some fine 
red apples ? I am told there aren't any more. 19. How many pens 
have you ? Give me some. I have none. Well, here are some good 
pens. 20. Do you say that you have some fine horses? No, I 
haven't any horses, but I know a man who has some. 21. W T e 
shall give them some meat, some good bread, and some fresh water. 



22. I am going to ask him for some money. I have not any books. 

23. Have you any paper ? If you have enough, will you not give 
me some? 24. We have pencils, but we have brought no pens. 
Will you lend me one? 25. There is no smoke without (a) fire. 
26. It is true he has none, but he has money and can easily buy 
some. 27. He had no pens either, but he had some good pencils. 
28. I bought some French books yesterday. 29. We had a great 
deal of snow last winter, didn't we ? 30. There we found some 
friends whom we had known for a long time. 

Agreement of the Past Participle 

1. Have you received the letter which I wrote to you yesterday ? 
2. The books which I have read are very interesting. 3. She has 
gone to the address which you had given to her. 4. She saw them 
at the market this morning. 5. Has he read the letter that she 
has written him ? 6. Our sisters have gone away ; they will be at 
home on Thursday. 7. The lady you saw at your aunt's yesterday 
has come here too. 8. Give me back the four letters which I gave 
you yesterday. 9. All the flowers that we had planted had per- 
ished. 10. They were sorry that their friends had departed. 
1 1. Didn't you bring the books I saw last evening ? 12. Here are 
two letters I have received this morning. 13. She has cut her 
finger. 14. Mary and John have arrived. 15. Did she remember 
what I told her ? 1 6. We didn't see them at the theater last evening. 
17. Why did she go downstairs a few minutes ago? 18. He is 
reminding me of the French lessons that he has given me. 
19. That's the window he broke this afternoon. 20. I do not 
believe that they have arrived. 

Negation and Interrogation 

1. I have never traveled in Europe. 2. He has neither friends 
nor money. 3. He has so many friends there that I think he will 
not stay here much longer. 4. There is never anybody at your 


house. 5. Are not horses useful animals ? 6. Nobody has found 
her. 7. She has seen nobody. 8. Nothing has been done. 9. I 
told it only to my father. 10. Don't do that now. 11. Where did 
you see all those boys? 12. Is the Italian language difficult? 

13. We shall speak to you no more. 14. Did he not speak to you 
of me? 15. Nobody has been forgotten. 16. I do not speak Eng- 
lish; I have said nothing. 17. He is no longer my friend. 
18. Who is there? Nobody. 19. Nothing that he says is true; I 
have never said it 20. Whom have you seen today ? I have seen 
no one and I have done nothing at all. 

Personal Pronouns 

1. Take it to him, if you please. 2. I will give it to him when 
I see him this evening. 3. When will he give it to you ? 4. This 
pen is not very good ; do not give it to him, give it to me. 5. I 
have seen many of them there. 6. He will give it to me. 7. Where 
are the letters ? Have you given them to her ? 8. I have given 
her all that you gave me. 9. He does not send it to you. 1 o. I 
have brought them to you. 1 1. Has he sent her to them ? 12. Give 
them some. Do not give them any. 13. She has put herself there. 

14. I have introduced myself to you. 15. You have introduced 
yourself to her. 16. I gave her a book. They did not give her a 
book. 17. Give it to me ; don't give it to him. 18. He and I are 
going to see them there. 19. Introduce them to him; she has 
introduced herself to me. 20. I have spoken of it to her and to 
them. 21. He is taller than I, but I am stronger than he. 
22. Give one of them to your brother, but do not give him more 
than one. 23. Look at me; look at him. 24. Do not give it to 
us ; give it to them. 25. I will speak to her about it if you want 
me to. 26. I shall have a new hat; my mother has promised it 
to me. 27. Will you not give me this apple ? 28. You and he were 
there, were you not ? 29. Give me the grammar you promised me 
and of which I spoke to you yesterday ; I will return it to you. 


30. If you do not (do it), I shall oblige you to give it to him. 31. I 
will give it to you if I do not need it myself. 32. Have you given 
the toys to the children ? Yes, I have given them to them. 33. You 
have given them to him as well as to me, and he follows you. 
34. Do not send them to us. 35. I love you and I will show it to 
you. 36. That book is very instructive ; lend it to me. Will you 
not lend it to her? 37. I speak of these books, not of that one 
there ; John gave them to me. 38. Give it to me in spite of him. 
39. While I was out, she came in. 40. Can he send it to her ? Yes, 
he can. 41. They haven't given him any. 42. Give her some 
money. No, don't give her any. 43. Here are some apples ; look 
at them, but don't eat any. 44. We shall never give them to him. 
45. She is not going, nor I either. 46. He gave it to her himself. 
47. It was John who introduced me to you. 48. Do not speak to 
me of him. 49. She has hurt her hand. 50. Do not send it to him 
today ; he is not at home. 


i. This book is mine, but that is my sister's. 2. Your city is large 
and beautiful; our village is small and pretty. 3. This picture is 
handsome ; I do not like that one. 4. There are some books on 
the table; the red ones are his, the blue ones are yours. 5. This 
morning I washed my hands. 6. These are serious orders. Give 
them to her, but do not give them to me. 7. Yes, she is pretty and 
happy ; indeed, she is the best of the family. 8. My house is pret- 
tier than his, but his is larger than mine. 9. Is this table yours or 
mine? 10. My house is larger than yours, but yours is finer than 
mine. 11. This wine is cool, but this water is not cool. 12. I like 
this one better than that one. 13. My house is larger than yours. 

14. Paul's letters and William's; Paul and William's letters. 

15. Give her this book and those of the teacher, they are more 
interesting than hers ; they are good French books. 16. Is it your 
aunt who lives there? 17. His exercises are good, but hers are 


always better. 18. These apples are better than those, but I have 
some which are best of all. 19. Is this pen yours? No, sir, it is 
his. There is mine on the table. 20. They have black hair and 
blue eyes. 21. She has cut her hand. 22. Is that book yours or 
your brother's ? 23. To whom does this hat belong ? It belongs to 
my brother. 24. Is this your book, or is it hers? 25. That man 
has spent his fortune and that of his wife. 26. Your house is small, 
but ours is smaller still. 27. Here is my book; there is theirs. 

28. His house is already finished ; they have not yet begun hers. 

29. We have lost our horse, but we have my brother's. 30. It is 
not a good pen; I cannot use it. 31. His house is near mine; 
where is yours ? 32. These buildings are taller than those. 33. My 
book and hers are on the table. 34. I am going to see her and her 
sister; I shall give her this. 35. These roses are white, but those 
which are on the table are red. 36. My dress and my mother's were 
bought in Paris last summer. 37. Don't give me this book; give 
me that one. 38. Uncle's house is not so large as the one we saw 
the other day. 39. He is my best friend; don't you think so? 
40. A friend of mine told me he would come to see me at five o'clock. 

Relatives and Interrogatives 

1 . What is that large building on (de) the other side of the street ? 
2. Which of these gentlemen is the one who was at your house last 
night ? 3. I know what amuses you. 4. Of what are you thinking ? 
5. To which one of his children did he leave the principal part of 
his fortune ? 6. I saw him who was with you day before yesterday. 
7. Whom have you seen ? Nobody. 8. What have you seen ? I have 
seen nothing. 9. Which of the two shall I give you ? 10. It was he 
who told me that. 1 1. Here is the man of whom we were speaking. 
12. Which one of these young girls is your sister ? 13. Who is the 
gentleman of whom you spoke ? 14. What do you see ? We do not 
see anything. 15. What have you done? Whom have you seen? 
16. Which book do you prefer, this one or that one? 17. Where 


did you find the book which you are reading? 18. What is the 
project of which you were talking? 19. We have not yet received 
what we have been promised. 20. Of which table are you speaking ? 
21. Did you see what he had? 22. What have you told her? 
23. What is that? Is it mine or yours? 24. What pleases you? 
25. What is the boy doing? 26. Do you know what that is? 
27. Do you know of whom she is speaking ? 28. The lady of whom 
we are speaking is the one who came here for you last night. 

29. What have they read? I know what they are reading now, 

30. Who has come ? Whom have you seen ? 31. What is happen- 
ing ? Tell me what has happened. 32. Who is it ? It is I. 33. She 
who plays does not always dance well. 34. I want to know of what 
you are thinking. 35. What pleases me does not please everybody. 
36. You do not know what you are talking about. 37. I know the 
man whose son is your friend. 38. Is the book in which you are 
reading interesting ? 39. The person of whom I spoke has come ; 
all she said was reasonable. 40. Take a book. Which one do you 
prefer? 41. What is her name? What is your name? What a 
pretty name ! 42. To which of the children did he give the cake ? 
43. This is the house of which you have spoken. 44. The persons 
you are speaking of have not arrived. 45. I looked for the house 
in which he lived, but I had forgotten on (in) which of the streets 
it was. 46. With whom did you go to school ? 47. I saw the lady 
to whose son you gave money. 48. There's a man whose son I 
know. 49. Is the church of which you have spoken near your 
home? 50. What fell then? I don't know what fell. 51. Who 
spoke to you and what did he say to you? 52. Who is the man 
who just entered the room ? It is the painter of whom I was 
speaking. 53. Have you seen the picture by which he became so 
famous? 54. What amuses them does not amuse me. 55. Every- 
body likes a child whose face is always clean. 56. What is not clear 
is not French. 57. Who opened the door? Whom did you see 
(the) first ? 58. What was on the table ? 



1. How many young persons are there here? Eighty-one, I 
believe, or ninety-one. 2. It was June fourth, 1898. 3. Charles 
XII, king of Sweden, was born on the 27th of June, 1682. 4. He 
lost his mother in his eleventh year and was barely fifteen years 
old when his father died. 5. That tree is thirty feet high. 6. In 
1877, on the third of July, this old city of Louis XIV had 253,796 
inhabitants. 7. In half an hour we shall have been here an hour 
and a half. 8. At what o'clock did your mother go out ? 9. Gam- 
betta was born April 3, 1838, and died on December 31, 
1882. 10. At what time did she arrive? At half-past twelve. 
11. What time is it? It is already eleven o'clock. 12. Corneille 
was born at Rouen the 6th of June, 1606. 13. How old is that 
little child ? 14. How many men did you see in the street ? I saw 
987. 15. The fifteenth of July, 1876. 16. It is a quarter past two ; 
no, it is a quarter to three. 17. Were you in Paris the thirteenth of 
last month? .18. What day of the month is (have we) today? 
19. Today is the seventh of August. 20. How wide is this room ? 
It is ten feet wide. 21. Eggs cost a franc a dozen. 22. Sugar is 
sold by the pound. 23. He came twice a week. 24. This room is 
ten meters long. 25. If I am ill tomorrow, I shall go to bed at six 
o'clock. 26. Daudet was born at Nimes on the thirteenth of May, 
1840 ; he died in 1897. 27. At what time does the train start for 
Paris ? At ten minutes of eight. 28. He has been living there since 
August 21, 189 1. 29. A hundred years ago, in 18 14, France was 
invaded by many enemies. 30. The armistice which ended the 
" Great War " was signed November 11, 19 18. 

Verb Idioms 

1. Are your brothers in the garden ? No, they are reading in the 
parlor. 2. How long have you lived in France ? 3. What do you 
call this child ? He is called Paul. 4. Come ! Let us hurry. Do 


not give it to him. 5 . If it were not so hot, I should go out. 6. Here 
is the letter I have just received from them. 7. Did you read the 
newspapers every day when you were in the country ? 8. If I were 
you, I wouldn't do that. 9. When you go home, tell your brother I 
should like to see him. 10. We are not going for a drive ; we prefer 
to go for a walk. 1 1. W T hen it rains, the grass grows everywhere ; 
we must run and get umbrellas. 12. It is easy to read French. It 
is not easy to speak it. 13. He is hungry; let him eat. 14. It is 
the land I used to love. 15. You are right and I am wrong. 16. I 
am going out ; I go to see the man every week. 1 7. The two cousins 
loved each other when they lived in this city, but they have not 
written to each other for years. 18. They have just decided this 
matter. 1 9 . Do you know that gentleman ? 20. Let us speak French. 
2 1 . I have not yet read the paper, but I am going to read it immedi- 
ately. 22. You will have left the city before midnight. 23. They 
have been in Paris since Wednesday. 2 4. How long did your sisters 
stay in Paris ? 25. Are you enjoying yourself ? 26. An old woman 
came to see me. 27. I see that the window is open. Have it closed. 
28. I should set out tomorrow if I were rich enough. 29. As soon 
as you are there and have time, will you go and see my brother ? 
30. We have been told that our friends were deceived. 31. We had 
been in Paris several months when our friends arrived. 32. When 
you have completed your exercises, I will correct them for you. 
33. How long have you been living in America ? 34. While I was 
at church, my brother was taking a walk on the mountain. 35. W T hen 
it is fine weather, we shall go to France. 36. She likes French better 
than German. 37. We had just read your letter when you entered 
the house. 38. Go and study your lesson. 39. They have just arrived; 
I saw them running. 40. If we wished to do it, we could. 41. We 
make them do their work. 42. We ought to have done so. 43. I 
shall make him do what I wish him to do. 44. The whole book was 
torn by the children. Why didn't you take it away from them ? 45. 1 
must go out whether it rains or not. 46. The children went to bed 


at eight o'clock and they will get up at six. 47. I intended to start 
on the first of January, but I had to wait until the third. 48. I had 
just heard the news when your letter came. 49. If I am not mistaken, 
you are very sleepy. 50. Did they not fall asleep as soon as they went 
to bed? 51. He ought to have arrived there last week. 52. After 
having walked two hours, we sat down. 53. Make her sing. Make 
her sing this song. 54. How warm it is I Are you warm ? 55. After 
looking at the books he bought them. 56. I went and saw him and 
had him make me a coat. 57. She ought to have gone to see them 
yesterday. 58. I am cold ; the water is cold too ; it is cold today. 
59. Don't you need your hat when it is cold ? 60. Are you going 
to have a house built this year ? 

The Subjunctive Mood 

1. He is the richest man I know. 2. I am afraid you will succeed. 
3. Do you think I am right ? 4. There are two apples which she has 
bought. 5. Whatever men may do, they cannot escape death. 6. I 
am afraid my father is not well enough to go with us. 7. I doubt 
whether he will be able to come. 8. I have told him nothing which 
could deceive him. 9. Whatever she says, do not answer. 10. I 
never hear from my aunt unless I write to her. 1 1. I do not think 
she was here ten days ago. 1 2. I am not afraid of him, though he is 
older than I. 13. Do you think it will be cold tomorrow ? 14. How 
many books have you read since you have been here? 15. I am 
afraid he will find the horse when he arrives. 1 6. Everybody desires 
that the war may soon be finished. 17. She was glad that her father 
had come. 18. At what time do you think he will come ? 19. I think 
he will not come before eight or nine. 20. We wished that he might 
come. 21. It is not possible for us to be at your house on Saturday 
next. 22. We regret that you have not received our letter. 23. You 
must work until I am ready. 2 4. I fear that he cannot, will not, or 
does not know how to do it. 25. I do not doubt that he too has the 
courage to (de) do the same thing. 26. He has not a single friend who 


is true to him. 27. She was sorry you had left before she came. 
28. Those he brought us are the finest I ever saw. 29. Do you wish 
to go yourself or do you wish us to go ? 30. I doubt whether he will 
be willing to give it to you. 31. It is possible that it may rain, but 
I do not think it will. 32. We fear we may not be forgiven this 
time. 33. I am sure that you could not have written your exercise 
in half an hour. 34. I regret that you have not received your letter 
in time. 35. However rich they may be, they cannot lend you all 
the money you need. 36. Although he is only twenty years old, he 
is a captain in the army. 37. Give me your hand and let us be 
friends. 38. I fear that it is neither mine nor yours. 39. It is the 
finest thing one can see. 40. The crowd was so great that they 
could hardly cross the street. 41. Do you think it will be colder 
tomorrow than it has been today ? 42. He is looking for some one 
who knows him. 43. When you enter the dining-room, you will see 
your friend in front of the window. 44. I do not want to tell you 
what I have just done. 45. He ate very little although he was 
hungry. 46. Tell them what happened on the 24th of February. 
47. Whoever he is, have him come in. 48. He wants me to cut the 
grass in the yard. 49. That's the finest thing I have ever seen. 
50. I want a servant who will always be polite. 


1. Do you study your lessons in the morning i I do every day. 
2. These apples are mine ; those are yours. Which do you like 
better ? 3. Henry d'Albret was the grandfather of Henry the Fourth 
of France. 4. This old house is the priest's ; you must visit it with me. 
5. We are going to have some friends at dinner this evening. 6. I 
have bought some trees and I have set them out. 7. Where are the 
six roses I bought this morning ? 8. Here are four of them ; I gave 
two of them to your sister. 9. She was sewing when we came. 
10. Tell him so if you wish to ; he will not believe it. 11. Mr. White 
is the richest man in our city. 1 2. What is the matter with that boy 


this morning? 13. Are they not all good friends? Some are, but 
others are not. 1 4. Do you not hear the noise in the street ? It is 
the soldiers who have just arrived. 1 5. Do you not know any stories ? 

16. If he could search three days, he would not find his friends. 

17. There are few old books in our house now, but there were many 
a year ago. 18. The man who was looking at the horse in the street 
was near the window. 19. Victor Hugo, the greatest French poet of 
the last century, was born in France in 1802. 20. Of what were you 
thinking when I spoke to you of the books that you had lost? 

21. That young girl is intelligent; she has beautiful blue eyes. 

22. Will you come with me into the garden ? 23. The population of 
France is larger than that of Italy, but not so large as that of the 
United States. 24. 1 see a book on the table ; whose is it ? It is your 
brother's. 25. We were going to leave the house when he arrived. 

26. I shall buy that picture for them. 27. These are the books 
which were given me. 28. He has not seen so much of it as I. 
29. He is an American, and Americans like to travel. 30. Since my 
arrival in Paris I have been so busy that I have-not found time to 
make any calls. 31. As soon as I have read the books which you 
sent last week, I will return them to you in order that you may lend 
them to other friends. 32. When we finish our lessons, we go into 
the orchard and eat ripe apples. ^^. Have you told them that we 
cannot see one another ? 34. How many times have you been to the 
city this week ? 35. Your brother brought us some roses this morn- 
ing, and he would have brought some to them if they had asked him 
for any. 36. Are you always at home on Sunday, or do you go away ? 
37. Have the kindness to bring me my hat. 38. I show it to you, but 
he shows it to them. 39. That does not please him. 40. It is a good 
picture, in which one sees blue sky, green water, and some pretty 
ships. 41. If you have books and if you have no friends, come to 
me and speak to me of it, but do not speak to them. 42. They have 
been obliged to go to her brother's. 43. Do you know which of the 
horses your father sold yesterday ? 44. The man of whom you speak 


is my friend. 45. Have you told them that I am here ? 46. The 
weather is fine, but I wish it were not so hot. 47. They have no 
more money, and so they must stay at home. 48. I promised him to 
do it, and I must do it. 49. I liked that book so well that I had my 
pupils read it. 50. There are several steamboats on the blue waters 
of the sea. 

51. They say that this little child speaks English as well as 
French. 52. His name and his father's are better known than mine. 
53. If I were in good health, I should often go to Europe and I should 
always spend a few months in Paris. 5 4. We shall set out for London 
on the twenty-first of June. 55. Good day, sir. Good evening, madam. 

56. How long have you been here ? I have been here three weeks. 

57. How old are you? I am older than my brother. 58. Your 
brother has your pencils, but I have some paper and pens. 59. The 
coats are for sale, but not the dresses ; the latter are new, the former 
old. 60. What are you looking at ? I am looking at these flowers. 
61. I asked her for the salt, but her friend gave me bread. 62. If I 
had a great deal of money, I should go to Europe. 63. We cannot 
find them where you left them, although we have searched for them. 

64. Mary is the youngest of all the children, but she is not the best. 

65. Must you go away at once ? 66. If she had written me, I should 
have answered her letter. 67. It is easy to do that, for it has already 
been done. 68. Do you think he is richer than the king ? 69. The 
gentleman for whose house I offered so much has bought another. 
70. The water which you see had risen from the earth to the sky, 
whence it has just fallen again. 71. This is indeed the best grammar 
I know. 72. His mother was born in France. 73. The man of whom 
you speak has just gone out. 74. Do you wish us to go there for 
him or do you wish him to go himself ? 75. The two men are older 
than their sister. 

76. Do not deceive yourself by thinking that your rich brother 
is the only man who knows it. 77. Which of these comedies have 
you read ? 78. The reign of Louis the Fourteenth is the longest reign 


in the history of France. 79. Why have you not liked each other ? 
80. The man of whom you spoke is my brother. 81. We should like 
the best there is ; that is the least you can do. 82. Perhaps you had 
not been told so. Well, it 's true and I'm glad of it. 83. Do not speak 
to me until you can speak to me in French or German. 84. Your 
brother must not go before I return. 85. Francis the First was 
twenty years of age when he began to reign. 86. You must finish 
this letter, not that one. 87. Your sister was one of my best pupils. 
88. Which of those young girls is her niece ? The one to whom you 
were speaking just now. 89. If you have some of those books, and 
if you have plenty, give him some and give them some too, but do 
not give her any. 90. I am very hungry ; will you please give me 
some bread, some water, and some apples ? 91. Have your friends 
gone away ? Yes, but they will return Monday. 92. One cannot do 
without money ; it is useful everywhere. 93. What have you done 
with the books which you have read ? John asked me for them and 
I gave them to him. 94. Here is my uncle's son of whom you have 
just spoken to me. 95. The eleventh of September, 1698. 96. This is 
a book which is interesting. 9 7 . Who wants this pretty flower ? Give 
it to me, but do not give it to them. 98. He has some money, but he 
would like to have more. 99. I think I can do it. 100. The soldiers 
who were entering the town knocked at the first door they saw. 
1 01. What were you doing here when I came in an hour ago ? 

102. Nobody is hungry, but everybody would prefer to eat now 
because it is half-past six and one ought to eat and drink something. 

103. She held in her hand a small white flower and some large red 
leaves. 1 04. Who told you that we were going away next Monday ? 
He ? 105. I got up this morning with a headache. 106. What are 
you looking f or ? I am looking for a man to help me in my business. 
107. If he had never been idle, he would not be poor now. 1 08. The 
republic is loved and praised by everybody. 109. If you come to 
see me, do not come too late. no. Have they already read the new 
French novel ? Lend it to them when you have finished it. Let him 


see it also. 1 1 1. My brother has told me the precise hour at which 
he was at the tailor's. 112. You and John have been walking here 
for an hour and a half. 113. Do not give them to them. 114. Have 
you found any metals in those mountains ? We have found very 
little iron there. 115. If they should come alone, I could not help 
seeing them. 116. We have just written a long letter. 117. I fear 
that he cannot do all that he wishes for us and for the others whom 
he has known. 118. He took off his hat when he came into the room. 
119. Should you have gone to bed so soon if I had come ? 120. He 
says he gave it to her. 121. If that letter is longer than this, give it 
to me to read. 1 2 2. I was yesterday asking myself whether we might 
hope to see him before autumn. 123. If he has no money, I will lend 
him all he needs. 124. When my friend spends the evening with us, 
we always read one of his stories. 125. I wish you to finish that 
exercise at once. 

126. I shall go to France and England in two months, and I 
shall remain in Paris twelve days. 127. Do you often hear from your 
cousin's children ? 128. John, with his brother, started on the prin- 
cipal road in order to arrive home easily before seven o'clock. 
129. We had not forgotten how much we used to enjoy ourselves 
when we were children. 130. My brother and sister have gone away ; 
they will not be back until Wednesday next. 131. Few boys play 
the piano ; most girls play it. 132. The man whom you see there is 
one of my friends. 133. Who has my pen ? Did I not give it to 
you? No, sir, you gave it to them. 134. We think of them and 
often speak of them. 135. Those are the gentlemen of whom we 
were speaking yesterday. 136. Does he think that we always tell 
him what we are going to do ? He is mistaken. 137. There were 
many people in town last night. 138. I knew that man ten years 
ago. 139. What a beautiful woman I saw this morning ! Who was 
she ? 140. Give me this book. I will give it to you. 141. She can 
hardly be found by those who do not know her. 1 42. Gold and silver 
are products of the earth. 1 43. When you went to the house, we 


remained here. 1 44. Kindly read this for me ; it is very easy. 
145. They go to see him to carry him flowers and books. 146. I 
saw many of them in France. 147. This gentleman is a Frenchman 
from the south of France. 1 48. What prevents him, then, from going 
to Europe if he pleases and when he pleases ? 149. There is much 
difference between the customs of the French and ours. 150. I have 
left all our books at school. 

151. Whom do you desire to see ? Is it I or my brother ? It is 
you whom I desire to see. 152. The man who is speaking is my 
friend. 153. This is my youngest brother ; but perhaps you already 
know him. 154. You have excellent pens and very good paper; 
give me some, if you please. 155. Today they are visiting their 
friends ; tomorrow they will have left for France, from whence they 
will go to England. 156. I will write him a letter and you can send 
it to him on arriving at Boston. 157. Are you hungry ? No, but I 
am quite thirsty. 1 58. I fear he will come too early. 159. It seems 
to me that you are never at home. 160. If it were not so cold, it 
would rain. 161. He has been in Paris several months, has he not ? 
162. Let us not take a walk; it is two o'clock and we shall dine 
soon. 163. Try to prevent him from coming. 164. My friend, you 
must study all these verbs. 165. This apple is bad; don't give 
it to him. 166. If he is at home, he will receive it at five o'clock. 
167. Are there any good pens with which I can write? No, sir, I 
have none. 168. People say that they love one another. 169. W T hen 
one seeks truth, one finds it. 1 70. I intend to go to the country if it 
is hot. 171.1 have bought some flowers to decorate the table because 
we are going to have some friends to dinner this evening. 172. I 
neither hope nor fear. 1 73. If you love me, show it to me by coming 
to see me often. 174. If it rains tomorrow, we shall not go until it 
stops raining. 175. Neither he nor I could read the newspapers 
which they sent us. 

176. Did your friend come to tell you the news I had just told him ? 
177. 1 doubt he has the courage. 178. My brother has just arrived. 


179. I am ashamed of your conduct. 180. I will send another letter, 
for I said nothing of our departure in the one I sent him yesterday. 
181. 1 will give them to them, for they are hungry. 182. If you wish 
to study, I shall lend you some books. 183. He spoke very loud, 
which made us smile, didn't it ? 184. When I see her,T shall speak 
to her about it. 185. My good old uncle has very interesting books 
in his little brown house. 186. I went to bed at eleven o'clock. 
187. She has just arrived from London. 188. They arose at twenty 
minutes after six. 189. Are these the children to whose father I 
have written ? 190. If she had brought me cherries, I should have 
eaten them. 191. These histories are longer and less interesting than 
those novels. 192. I went to New York yesterday. 193. Where is 
the old lady whom I have seen with you ? She has gone to France 
also. 194. Are they not French? They are, and I am very glad 
they are not English. 195. The Alps are the highest mountains in 
Europe. 196. I have introduced her to you. 197. I shall not give 
it to you ; I shall give it to this boy. 198. Tell it to him now if he 
is not asleep ; but if he is, do not tell it to any one. 199. I wish I 
had one of the English novels I saw on your writing table some time 
ago. 200. Why don't you go and see him ? Have you thought of it ? 

Questions Personnelles 

Repondez en francais aux questions suivantes par des phrases 
completes, en ecrivant les nombres en toutes lettres : 

1. Depuis combien d'annees etudiez-vous le francais? 

2. Pourquoi etudiez-vous le francais ? 

3. Que faut-il faire pour apprendre une langue? 

4. Quels livres avez-vous lus cette annee ? 

5. Quel livre de frangais avez-vous etudie ? 

6. Quelle e'tude pre'ferez-vous et pourquoi ? 

7. Dans quel pays et a quelle date etes-vous ne' ? 

8. Quelle est la date de cet examen ? 


1. Test Questions on Sounds 
These are taken largely from college admission examinations. 

1. What are the most striking characteristics of French pro- 
nunciation ? 

2. What are the four nasal sounds? What combinations of 
letters may represent each? Give words containing each of the 
four nasal sounds. 

3. In what positions are il and ill liquid? Give words con- 
taining each when liquid and also when not. 

4. Give words containing mute e, soft c, hard c, soft g, hard g, 
initial h aspirate, initial h not aspirate, 8 sounded like z, final 8 
sounded, final e sounded, final e not sounded, t sounded like 8. 

5. How are e, au, oi, gn, ais pronounced ? 

6. Explain how u, eu, au, en, in are pronounced. 

7. Lesquels des six mots suivants ont une voyelle ou syllabe 
qui se prononce comme u dans du ? 

eu eut bleu heureuse but bout 

8. In which of the following words is 1 (or 11) sounded as in 
the French word il? 

lafille la vieille le village gentil 

la ville lefils tranquille mille 

9. What are the nearest English equivalents of the sounds au, 
ou in bout, eu in heure, oi in voix ? 

10. Represent, by the use of e* and e where possible, the proper 
sound of ai in mauvais, mat, and travail, and of e in complet, 
chanter, fer, nez. 

11. Tell how parlai differs in sound from parlais ; how saute is 
distinguished from sotte ; how neuf is pronounced in the phrases 
neuf garcons, neuf hommes , f en ai neuf. 


12. Indicate by phonetic characters, or otherwise, the pronun- 
ciation of — 

a. ville, veille, travail, Jits, bien, ne, nez, loin, sceur, leur. 

b. chaise, cuisine, premiere, fille, quarante, chez. 

c. patrie, vous avez, gagnaient, dava?itage, mort, Us partent. 

13. Compare in respect to pronunciation (using the interna- 
tional phonetic notation, if possible) the letters in heavy type in 
each of the following groups : 

a. ceder, cede-, bon, bonne; corde, cote; cher, chercher; chaise, 

b. appeler, age ; etait, etre ; notre, le nbtre. 

c. mz,fer, venir. 

14. Indicate,, by underscoring, the silent letters in the following 
words and phrases : aimer, amer, cerf, estomac, sec ; les fils, les 
hommes, elles viennent ; il est, Us etaient venus ; bout, heure, escalier ; 
tout a coup. 

15. Indicate the silent letters in the phrase « 77 en est temps 
encore », me disaient-elles, supposing the phrase to be read aloud 
or spoken. 

16. Indicate the silent letters in Nous sommes partis de chez eux 
le quatre juillet mil neuf cent quinze. 

17. Copy the following sentence, and cross out the silent con- 
sonants, underline the nasal vowels, and- indicate by h the sounds 
of the open e : C'est bien peu, meme en province ; a Paris, ce n'est 
presque rien, surtout quand, comme moi, on a une fille de dix- 
huit ans. 

18. Copy the Model on page 97 as far as ttrangers (line 6). 

a. Indicate by e, e, 9 respectively all sounds of 6 (closed e), 
6 (open e), and e mute. 

b. Indicate all nasal sounds, stating which nasal each is. 

c. Mark all silent letters. 


19. Copiez les six premieres phrases du modele a la page 105 
(commencant par Ma mere descend et finissant par du sel) et 
indiquez — 

a. Tous les cas de liaison qu'on ferait en lisant ces phrases a 
haute voix. 

b. Toutes les consonnes qu'on ne prononcerait pas. 

20. Dans les phrases suivantes effacez toutes les lettres qu'on 
ne prononce pas en lisant les phrases, et soulignez toutes les 
voyelles qui ont un son nasal : 

a. II est alle en haut pour trouver la clef. 

b. Les huit petits en/ants donnaient a manger aux animaux dans 
les champs. 

c. Void mesjils, Us sont tous tres gentils. 

21. Indicate the pronunciation of the French cardinal numbers 
from 1 to 20. Explain the three ways in which six and dix are 
pronounced, and give a phrase containing each. 

22. What is the cedilla? Where does it occur and what effect 
has it on pronunciation ? Give three examples. 

23. Explain the aspirate h and its effect on pronunciation. Give 
two words in which initial h is aspirate ; two words in which it is 
not aspirate. 

24. Explain the term liaison (or linking). Give five phrases of 
two or three words each, illustrating liaison. 

25. Indicate the liaisons that should be made in reading aloud 
the following : de temps en temps ; onze heures et demie ; cher cousin 
et ami ; mats oui ; on est a Paris en un rien de temps. 

26. State the main principles of dividing French words into 
syllables. Copy the first five lines of the Model on page 112, 
dividing all the words into syllables by vertical lines. 

27. How does the rule for dividing a French word into syllables 
help to determine when an initial vowel is nasal and when it is 
not? Illustrate by inutile and indiscutable. 


28. Copy the following words and divide them into syllables: 
ennemi, americaifi, emmener, combien, i?ioui, ho?iteux. 

29. Divide into syllables the first stanza of the Marseillaise, on 
page 425. 

30. Write in phonetic notation the first five lines of the Model 
on page 127; also of other Models. 

2. Transcription of Models, Lessons I-XII 

In the following transcriptions, division between the words as units 
is entirely disregarded. Groups of syllables that are normally pro- 
nounced together without pause (breath groups) are connected by 
hyphens. These groups are made gradually longer, to be adapted to 
the pupil's increasing rapidity in reading. A single space is left between 
breath groups ; a double space where longer pauses occur, as at the 
end of sentences. 

I. yn-fa-mi:j 

oe-gar-s5 e-yn-fi:j s5-ta-vek-6e-nDm e-yn-fam b-gar-s5 el-fre:r dla- 
fi:j b-gar-s5 a-yn-soe:r la-fhj a-6Mre:r b-gar-s5 el-fre:r dla-soe:r la- 
fi:j el-gar-s5 5-d0-pa-rd bm-e-la-fam s5-le-pa-rd le-pa-ra 5-d0-zd-fd 
le-zd-fd-dbm e-dla-fam s5-b-gar-s5 e-la-fi:j le-zd-fd 5-tce-pe:r e-yn- 
me:r la-me:r e-la-fam-dbm bm a-yn-fam la fam-dbm e-la-me:r 
dla-fi:j b-fre:r-dla-fi:j e-to-si ld-fd dla-me:r b-ma-ri-dla-me:r el-pe:r 
b-pe:r-e-la-me:r s5-le-d0-pa-rd u-el-pe:r b-pe:r-e-ta-vek-la-me:r u-s5- 
le-zd-fd le-zd-fd so-ta-vek-le-pa-rd ki-s5-le-zd-fd b-gar-s5 e-la-flij 
s5-le-zd-fd ki-s5-le-pa-rd 

II. ma-fa-mi :j 

dd-zyn-fa-mi:j b-fis e-la-fi:j s5-le-zd-fd dy-pe:r e-dla-me:r b-fis 
e-je:r o-pe:r e-a-la-me:r o-si b-fis e-Je:r o-d0-pa-rd le-pa-rd s5-b- 
pe:r e-la-me:r la-me:r e-la-fam-dy-pe:r b-pe:r e-la-me:r s5-le-pa-rd 
de-zd-fd dd-ma-fa-mi:j me-pa-rd 5-d0-fi:j e-ce-fis m5-pe:r a-yn-fam 
sa-fam e-ma-me:r m5-pe:r el-ma-ri do-ma-meir m5-pe:r e-ma-me:r 
so-me-pa-rd me-sce:r ma-ri-e-bert s5-le-fi:j d9-me-pa-rd m5-pe:r 


a-yn-sce:r ma-td:t e-la-soe:r da-mo-peir ma-td:t a-ce-ma-ri s5-ma-ri 
e-m5-n5:kl le-zd-fd d9-m5-n5:kl s5-me-ku-ze m5-ku-ze-3d e-Je:r-o-fre:r 

III. ma-sal-d9-kla:s 

33-sqi-za-le-kol a-vek-m5-fre:r nu-som-zi-si nu-som dd-la-sal-do- 
kla:s el-a-d0-port e-kat-fa-ne:tr la-fo-toe:j el-by-ro do-vd-la-ta-blo so 
pur-la-meitr-de-kol le-bd e-le-py-pitr pur-le-ze-le:v dla-kla:s le-li:vr 
e-le-kre-j5 dy-me:tr s5-syrl-by-ro se-plym s5-to-si syr-s5-by-ro le-ka-je 
de-ze-le:v s5-syr-le-py-pitr ta-me:tr e-to-ta-blo de-rje:r-s5-by-ro yn-e- 
le:v ed-vdl-by-ro dy-me:tr d0-de-ze-le:v s5-tof-ne:tr u-s5-vo-li:vr il-s5 
syrl-py-pitr d^-m5-fre:r u-s5-vo-plym el-s5 syr-m5-py-pitr 

IV. yn-sal-d9-kla:s 

ta-me:tr e-ta-vek-se-ze-le:v dd-la-kla:s il-ne-pa-za-si il-ed-bu da-vd- 
se-ze-le:v il-a-yn-re:gl sul-bra ce-ne-le:v e-to-ta-blo b-me:tr m5:tr- 
yn-kart-d9-frd:s a-le-le:v d0-ze-le:v s5-ta-si da-vdl-ta-blo il-z5-tde- 
port-plym e-de-ka-je ld:kr e-dd-ld-kri-e nu-som-za-si 39-don-yn-plym 
a-oe-ne-le:v il-a-ce-port-plym 39-ne-pa-m5-ka-je il-ne-pa-zi-si vwa-si- 
ce-ka-je a-ve-vu-zde-kre-j5 39-ne-pa-tru-ve m5-kre-j5 me^e-a-por-te 
ma-plym el-e-dd-m5-py-pitr a-pre-lal-s5 la-kbj-son le-ze-le:v v5-dd- 
la-ku:r u-e-la-ku:r el-e-de-rje:r-le-kDl nun-som-pa-dd-la-kuir 

V. la-fa-mi:j a-la-me-z5 

eit-vu-za-le-kol o-3ur-dqi n5 nun-som-pa-za-le-kol nu-som-za-la- 
me-z5 vo-pa-rd s5-til-a-vek-vu wi il-s5-to-si a-la-me-z5 u-s5-til il-s5< 
dd-ma-Jd:br vwa-si-ma-Jd:br a-tel-yn-tabl wi el-a-yn-tabl d0-je:z 
e-oe-fo-toe:j 3e-o-si-6e-by-ro dd-ma-Jd:br e:t-vud-bu da-vd-votr-by-ro 
n5 39-sqi-za-si dd-m5-fo-toe:j votr-grd-pe:r e-til-dd-la-me-zo n5 il-e- 
ta-si ddl-3ar-de a-vek-m5-ku-ze-3d votr-ku-ze e-til-ld-fdd-vo-tr5:kl wi 
e-il-e-to-si tan-v0 d3-m5-pe:r votr-ku-ze na-til-pa-zyn-u-d0-sce:r il-a- 
d0-soe:r ki-s5-le-nje:s-d9-m5-pe:r no-s5-tel-pa dd-la-ku:r ki-e-de-rjeir- 
la-me-z5 ma-ri-e-dd-la-ku:r me-sa-soe:r e-ti-si a-vek-sa-grd-me:r 


VI. Ial-s5 

na-ve-vu-pa votr-li:vr-cta-fra-se wi m9-sj0 il-e-syr-m5-py-pitr b- 
me:tr don-yn-b-s5d-gra-me:r o-ze-le:v il-li-le-re:gl e-il-e-kri le-zeg- 
zdpl-o-ta-blo a-vek-ce-mor-sod-kre il-m5:tr le-zeg-zdpl o-ze-le:v 3e- 
kri-dd-mo-ka-je a-vek-ma-plym nu-ze-kri-v5-le-fra:z ki-s5-syr-b-ta-blo 
m5-fre:r ne-kri-pa-le-zeg-zdpl il-a-sa-gra-me:r me-zil-na-pa-za-por-te 
s5-ka-je m5:tre-mwa-lal-s5 lal-s5 e-tel-di-fi-sil n5 el-e-fa-sil a-pre- 
lal-s5d-gra-me:r nu-za-v5 lal-s5-dlek-ty:r le-ze-le:v ne-kriv-pa b- 
me:tr lid-va-le-ze-le:v nu-li-z5-za-prel-me:tr e-nu-ze-kri-v5 le-zeg-zer-sis 

VII. la-park 

33-sqi-dal-park a-vek-len-v0d-m5-pe:r b-park e-td-fas<b-ma-me-z5 
le-zwa-zo fd:t-dd-le-zarbr ddl-bwa il-ja-d0-i-bu b-i-bu e-tde-nwa-zo 
vwa-la-de-nDm ki-li-se-3ur-no syrl-bd a-ko-te-dbm il-ja-yn-bon e-le-fis- 
dbm de-de-fis e-syr-le3-nu dy-m3-sj0 le-zj0-dld-fd s5-gri s5-ja-po 
e-de-rje:r-b-bd syr-le-ka-ju-dla-le le-311-311 e-le-md-to-de-zd-fd s5-dd- 
le-bra-dla-bon ekbn-o-zd-fd le-nwa-ze-le-ga-to ki-s5-dd-s5-sak dd-la- 
le-pur-le-Jvo il-ja de-nom-e-sS-Jval 

VIII. Ia-me-z5 

3d-e-dr3-tu:r a-la-me-zo s5-n5:kl a-yn-grd:d-me-z5 pars-kil-a-yn- 
grd:d-fa-mi:j b-sa-15 e-tre-30-li il-a-d0-grd:d-e-ot-fa-ne:tr le-15-ri-do- 
def-ne:tr s5-tre-bo vwa-si-yn-pa-tit-tabl el-e-r5:d de-ta-blo ra-pre- 
sd:t-de-3ar-de b-sjel-dy-ta-blo e-tre-bl0 il-ja-d0-jar-md-zd-fd ddl-ta-blo 
l3-gar-s5-ed-bu e-311-a-vek-de-gro-jje lap-tit-fi:j e-ta-si:z-syr-lerb lerb- 
e-tre-ve:rt le-zar-bre-le-foe:j s5-ve:r-o-si b-3ar-de e-pled-30-li-floe:r b- 
sa-b ne-pa-la-soel-pjes-dla-me-z5 il-ja-o-si yn-sal-a-md-ge e-yn-kiji-zin 
le-Jd:br-a-ku-Je s5p-tit me-ge la-ku-zin-d9-3d a-a-pDr-te de-va :z-d9-floe:r 

IX. a-la-kd-paji 

o-3ur-dqi 3d-e-ta-la-kd-pari tul-pe-i-e-td-floe:r s5-na-mi-a-yn-grd:d- 
ferm dd-zde-3D-lip-ti-vi-la:3 il-ja-d0-z3m-Je-s5-na-mi ce-vj0-e-(£-3oen 


l9-3oen e-frd-se ta-frd-se ne-pa-zi-si il-e-met-nd-dd-le-bwa ls-Jme se- 
pa:r-la-ferm-dla-fD-re nu-zad-mi-r5-su-vd le-bo-zarbr ki-5-tce-foe-ja:3 
dce-ve:r-tre-td:dr tul-m5:d-ad-mir-yn-tel-fD-re le-zarbr-frqi-tje na-pus- 
pa-dd-le-bwa il-pus-ddl-ver-je ddl-ver-3e il-ja-ce-sri-zje de-gro-nwa-je 
ply-zjoe:r-pD-mje e-ce-pwa-rje tut-le-sri:z s5-ru:3 el-z5-tce-b5-gu kd- 
tel-s5-my:r el-z5-toe-mD-ve-gu kd-tel-s5-ve:rt le-nwa-dd-ma-poj" s5-le- 
nwa-dy-nwa-je ki-ed-vd-vu le-gro-zarbr-dy-ver-3e s5-tre-vj0 

X. a-la-ferm 

Ia-ferm-d3m-sj0-l9-bld l9-b5-na-mid-3d e-tyn-bel-me-z5-bld:j" el-e- 
noe:v dd-la-ku:r ki-e-l5:g-e-lar3 s3-le-grd:d-ze-tabl pur-le-gro:s-vaJ 
e-le-ze-ky-ri pur-le-bo-Jvo-dla-ferm a-ko-te-dy-ver-3e l3-gro-Jval-nwa:r- 
d3m-sj0-l9-bld e-ddl-pre u-lerb-e-te-pe:s Iap-tit-fi:j-d3m-sj0-ta-bld e-sul- 
foe-ja:3-e-pe dy-vje:j-ar:br-dla-ku:r el-li-ta-ot-vwa ta-nu-vo-li:vr-da-na- 
tol-frd:s e-el-e-toe-r0:z lap-tit a-siz-syr-yn-Je:z-bas a-yn-vwa-tre-dus 
e-e-la-mid-tul-m5:d s5-pe:r-e-vj0-e-gro me-zil-e-tre-zak-tif sa-me:r-ne- 
pa-tre-vje:j e-el-e-tak-ti:v-osi il-s5-toe-r0 

XI. le-d0-ka-ma-rad-de-kDl 

3e-d0-ka-ma-rad 3d-e-Jarl 3dd-moe:r-a-pa-ri la-ply-bel-vil-dy-m5:d 
Jarld-moe:r-dd-zyn-vil-ply-grd:d me-mwe-bel 3d-e-riJ se-pa-rd-5-tyn- 
grd:d-me-z5 Jarl-ne-pa-si-riJ-k9-3d sa-me-z5 e-mwe-grd:d el-es-pd- 
dd-to-si-bel el-ne-pa-si-vje:j 3d-e-ply-za-3ek-j'arl il-e-grd e-n>byst 
Jarl-e-to-si-grd me-mwe-fD:r il-e-bje-nel-ve po-li e-tu-3u:r-ze-mabl 3d 
o-k5-tre:r e-mal-el-ve il-ne-pa-si-a-gre-abl-ka-so-ka-ma-rad e-e-mwe- 
po-li d-kla:s il-€-pa-re-s0 Jarl-e-ply-sty-dj0 3d-e-na-ty-rel-md-mwe- 
za-vd-se pars-kil-ne-pa-si-a-td-tif-d-kla : s il-es-pd-dd-tosi-e-te-li-3dk-Jarl 
Jarl-el-me-joe:r-de-d0 e-m5-ply-je:r-a-mi 3d-ne-pas-pd-dd ta-pir-de-gar- 

XII. le-rij e-le-po:vr 

• dd-tu-le-pe-i il-ja-3e-ne-ral-md bo-kud-po:vr-e-p0-driJ" le-po:vr-5-p0- 
dar-3d le-rij-5-bo-ku-dar-3d le-riJ-5-ply-dar-3d-kle-po:vr le-po:vr-5 
mwe-dar-3d-kle-rij le-po:vr-n5-pa-za-se-dar-3d il-pd:s kelk-fwa-kle- 



rij-o-tro-dar-gd da-me-zo ed-bo-veit-md il-s5-3a-lu-de-rij le-po:vr 
5-si>va-to-ta-da-mi-kle-riJ me-zil-n5-pa-tdd-ple-zi:r le-po:vr s5-su-vd- 
to-si-oe-r0-kle-rij il-n9-s5-pa-spd-dd-si-fje:r le-fam-de-rij 5-bo-kud-bo- 
bi-3u-ed-bel-rob le-zd-fd-de-po:vr S-mwed-gu^u-kle-zd-fd-de-riJ le-rij 
don-bo-kud-ju^u-e-dotr-Joiz op-ti-zd-fd de-po:vr pd-dd-la-grd:d-ge:r 
le-rij-e-le-po:vr 5-dD-ne-tre-3e-ne-roez-md o-sol-da e-o-si-a-la-krwa-ru:^ 
na-ty-rel-md le-rij-o-do-ne-ply-kle-poivr lep-ti-z5-do-ne-mwe-kloe:r-pa- 
rd d-frd:s le-rij-5-bo-kud-Ja-to vwa-si syr-la-pa:3-d9-drwat ce-de-grd- 
Ja-to k5-bjed-tu:r-a-til e-til-ply-bo-kle-me-zod-votr-pe-i 

3. Classroom and Conversational Phrases 

[b5-3u:r Good morning, everybody. 

Bon jour, tout le monde 

II est temps de commencer. [il-e-tci 

Est-ce que tout le monde est ici? 

[es-ka-tul-m5:d e-ti-si] 
II ne manque personne, je crois. 

[il-n9-ma:k-per-sDn 39-krwa] 
C'est juste; toute la classe est a 

l'heure ce matin. [se-3yst tut-la- 

kla:s-e-ta-loe:r s9-ma-te] 
Ouvrez (fermez) vos livres, s'il 

vous plait. [u-vre(fer-me)-vo-li:vr 

Quelle est la lecon pour aujour- 

d'hui? Quelle page? [kel-e-lal-so 

pu:r-o-3ur-dqi kel pa:3] 
Nous sommes reste's hier a la 

page douze. [nu-SDm-res-te-i-e:r 

Combien de lignes lisons-nous? 

[k5-bjed-lip li-z5-nu] 
Jusqu'au bas de la page de droite, 

n'est-ce-pas ? [3ys-ko-bad-la-pa:3- 

d9-drwat nes-pa] 

// is time to begin. 

Is everybody present ? 

Nobody is missing, I think. 

That \? right, the whole class is 
on tune this morning. 

Open {close) your books, if you 

What is the lesson for today ? 
What page ? 

We stopped yesterday at page 12. 

How many lines do we read? 

To the foot of the right-hand 
page, don't we f 



Y a-t-il des questions sur la lecon 

du jour? [i-a-til-de-kes-tj5 syr- 

Oui, monsieur; il y a une chose 

qui m'intrigue. [wim-sjo il-ja- 

yn-jo:s ki-me-tri:g] 
Veuillez eclaircir ce point pour nous. 

[vce-je-e-kler-si:r sa-pwe-pu:r-nu] 
Levez-vous, maintenant, et pronon- 

cez le modele. [ta-ve-vu-met-na 

Continuez ; traduisez-le en anglais. 

[k5-ti-nqe tra-dqi-ze-ta a-na-gle] 
Comprenez-vous tous les mots? 

[k5-pr3-ne-vu tu-le-mo] 
ficoutez, et re'pe'tez-les apres moi. 

[e-ku-te e-re-pe-te-le a-pre-mwa] 
Pardon ; vous lisez trop vite ; je 

ne puis vous suivre. [par-d5 vu- 

li-ze-trD-vit 33n-pqi vu-sqi:vr] 
Eh bien, je vais le relire ; et cette 

fois plus lentement. [e-bje 33-vel- 

ra-liir e-set-fwa ply-la:t-ma] 
C'est assez ; asseyez-vous. [se-ta-se 

Allez au tableau et e*crivez le 

resume, [a-le-zo-ta-blo e-e-kri- 

Faites attention aux accents, [fet- 

za-ta-sj5 o-zak-sa] 
N'y a-t-il pas encore quelque chose 

a corriger ? [nja-til-pa-zd-ko:r 

Cela suffit; c'est tres bien. [sla- 

sy-fi se-tre-bje]. 
Ramassez les devoirs et mettez-les 

sur le bureau. [ra-ma-se-led-vwa:r 

e-me-te-le syrl-by-ro] 

Are there any questions on the 
lesson of the day f 

Yes, sir; there is one thing that 
puzzles me. 

Please clear up this point for us. 

Rise, now, and pronounce the 

Go on; translate it into English. 

Do you understand all the words ? 

Listen and repeat them after me. 

Pardon, you read too fast ; I 
cannot follow you. 

Very well, I will read it again, 
and this time more slowly. 

That \r enough; sit down. 

Go to the board and write the 

Pay attention to the accents. 

Isn't there something else to cor- 
rect ? 

That is sufficient; it \r very good. 

Pick up the papers and put them 
on the desk. 



Enfin lisez votre exercice k haute 

voix. [a-fe li-ze-votr-eg-zer-sis a- 

Vous faites des progres sensibles. 

[vu-fet de-pro-gre-sa-sibl] 
Prenez la lecon prochaine pour 

demain. [pra-ne lal-s5 pro-jen 

fitudiez -bien la grammaire. [e-ty- 

dje-bje la-gra-me:r] 
ficrivez les verbes. [e-kri-ve-le-verb] 
Nous servons-nous d'un crayon? 

[nu-ser-v5-nu doe-kr£-j5] 
Comme vous voulez. Qa. m'est e*gal. 

[kom-vu-vu-le sa-me-te-gal] 
La classe est finie. [la-kla:s-e-fl-ni] 

Finally, read your exercise aloud. 

You are making noticeable Prog- 

Take the next lesson for to- 

Study the gra?nmar well. 

Write the verbs. 
Shall we use a pencil ? 

As you wish; it V the same to 

The class is dismissed. 

Bonsoir, monsieur (madame, Made- 
moiselle Amiel). [b5-swa:r ma-sjo 
(ma-dam, mad-mwa-zel-a-mjel)] 

Comment vous portez-vous? [ko- 

Je me parte bien, merci ; et vous ? 
[33m-port-bje mer-si e-vu] 

Permettez-moi de vous debarrasser 
de votre pardessus. [per-me-te- 
mwa da-vu-de-ba-ra-se ds-votr- 

Vous etes bien aimable, mais j'ai 
peur de vous ddranger. [vu-ze:t- 
bj£-ne-ma:bl me-je-poe:r da-vu-de- 

Pas du tout; ne vous genez pas. 
[pa-dy-tu n3-vu-3e-ne-pa] 

Permettez-moi de vous presenter 
a mon ami. [per-me-te-mwa da- 
vu-pre-za-te a-mo-na-mi] 

Good evening, sir (madam, Miss 

How do you do ? 

I am well, thank you ; and you ? 

Allow me to take your overcoat. 

You are very kind, but I am 
afraid it will trouble you. 

Not at all; make yourself at 

Allow ?ne to introduce you to my 




Avec plaisir ; charme de f aire votre 

connaissance. [a-vek-ple-zi:r jar- 

Plait-il ? Je n'ai pas compris. [pie- 
til 33-ne-pa-k5-pri] 
Parlez-vous f rancais ? [par-le-vu- 

Un peu seulement ; je suis anglais. 

[oe-po soel-ma 39-sqi-za-c(le] 
Je vous demande pardon. [33-vud- 

Ce n'est rien ; il n'y a pas de quoi. 

[sne-rje il-nja-pad-kwa] 
II est tard ; il me faut partir. [il-e- 

ta:r il-m3-fo-par-ti:r] 
Mes compliments a madame votre 

mere. [me-k5-pli-ma a-ma-dam- 

Bien des choses de ma part a 

votre frere. [bje-de-jo:z da-ma- 

pa:r a-votr-fre:r] 
Au revoir; a demain matin, [or- 

vwa:r ad-mg-ma-te] 

With pleasure; delighted to ?nake 
your acquaintance. 

Pardon. I didn't understand. 

Do you speak French ? 

Only a little ; I am English. 

I beg your pardon. 

That '.$■ nothing; don't mention it. 

It is late ; I must go. 

Give my regards to your mother. 

My best wishes to your brother. 

Good-by ; see you tomorrow morn- 


Allons, enfants de la patrie, 
Le jour de gloire est arrive ! 
Contre nous de la tyrannie 
L'etendard sanglant est leve. 
Entendez-vous dans les campagnes 
Mugir ces feroces soldats ? 
lis viennent jusque dans nos bras 
figorger nos flls, nos compagnes ! 
Aux armes, citoyens ! formez vos bataillons ! 
Marchons ! Marchons ! 
Qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons ! 


Amour sacre de la patrie, 
Conduis, soutiens nos bras vengeurs ! 
Liberte ! Liberte cherie ! 
Combats avec tes def enseurs ! 
Sous nos drapeaux, que la victoire 
Accoure a nos males accents ! 
Que tes ennemis expirants 
Voient ton triomphe, et notre gloire ! 
Aux armes {etc., repeated from first stanza) 

Rouget de Lisle 


a-15-za-fa da-la-pa-tri-a 
l3-3u:r-d3-glwa:r e-ta-ri-ve 
k5-tr3-nu d3-la-ti-ra-ni-3 
le-td-da: r-sa-gla-te-ta-ve 
a-ta-de-vu da-le-ka-pa-ns 
my-giir se-fe-ro-sa-sol-da 
il-vje-na 3ys-k3-da-no-bra 
e-gor-3e-no-fis no-k5-pa-p9 
o-zar-m9 si-twa-je for-me vo-ba-ta-j5 
mar-j5 mar-jo 
kce-sa-ke-py:r a-brce:-vo-no-si-j5 

a-mu : r-sa-kre do-la-pa-tri-9 
k5-dqi su-tje no-bra- va-3ce:r 
li-ber-te li-ber-te-Je-ri-9 
su-no-dra-po ko-la-vik-twa-ra 
a-ku:r a-no-ma-b-zak-sa 
vwa-t5-tri-5:f e-no-tro-glwai-ra 
o-zar-ma (etc.) 


L'hymne connu sous le nom de Marseillaise fut ecrit, paroles et musique, 
en 1792, par Rouget de Lisle, officier du genie a Strasbourg. La musique 
et les paroles entrainantes de cet hymne, d'abord appele Chant de guerre 
de Parmee du Rhin, en firent le cri de ralliement des revolutionnaires 
francais et, chante a Paris par un regiment de Marseille a l'attaque sur les 
Tuileries, prit desormais le nom de Marseillaise. Depuis lors, non seule- 
ment les Francais mais d'autres peuples y ont trouve l'expression de 
leurs penchants pour la liberte. Pendant la derniere guerre, l'hymne est 
devenu bien familier aux Americains et les a enthousiasmes a un point 
inconnu jusqu'alors 



No rules can be given to determine the gender of all French 
nouns. While it must be understood that there are exceptions to 
each of them, the following rules cover the great majority of cases : 

A. Gender determined by derivation. See Sec. 71, Note 2. 

B. Gender determined by meaning. 

1. Nouns are usually masculine that are the names of 

(a) Males (human and animal). 

(b) Trees, shrubs, and metals. 

(c) Seasons, months, days, and the points of the compass. 

Infinitives and other parts of speech when used as nouns are 

2. Nouns are usually feminine that are the names of 

{a) Females (human and animal). 

(p) Fruits and flowers. 

(c) Countries, cities, and rivers, ending in mute e. 

C. Gender determined by ending. See Sec. 7 1 , Note 1 . 
When the gender is not determined by the meaning, the fol- 
lowing rules and exceptions hold very generally : 

1. Nouns are masculine when they do not end in mute e. 

Exceptions. Nouns ending in ion, son, te\ and tie\ and abstract 
nouns in eur, are feminine. 

2. Nouns are feminine when they end in mute e (especially if 
preceded by a double consonant or a vowel). 

Exceptions. Nouns ending in acle, age, asme, isme, ege, erne, tere, 
are masculine. 

D. Gender of compound nouns. 

The gender of compound nouns is determined as follows : 
1. If they consist of two nouns, they have the gender of the 
first part. Ex., le chou-fleur, the cauliflower. 


2. If they consist of a noun and another part of speech, they 
have the gender of the noun, except compounds of a noun and a 
verb, which are always masculine. Ex., le sous-sol, the basement; 
le porte-manteau, the portmanteau. 

3. If they consist of two words of which neither is a noun, 
they are masculine. Ex., le passe-partout, the master-key. 

The plural of nouns has been treated in Sees. 76 and 93. 

A. The following nouns present special irregularities : 

aieul | aieuls grandfathers 

\ a'ieux ancestors 

Detail . bestiaux cattle 

ciel / C * e * S artificial skies, climates 

Lcieux skies, heavens 
.. J ceils (in compound words) 

lyeux eyes 

travail I travails <#«'*/ re P orts 

\ travaux works 

B. The plural of compound nouns is formed as follows : 

1. If they consist of two nouns, or a noun and an adjective, 
both parts take the plural form. Ex., le chou-fleur, the cauliflower \ 
pi. choux-fleurs. 

2. If they consist of two nouns separated by a preposition, the 
first noun alone takes the plural form. Ex., l'arc-en-ciel, the rain- 
bow ; pi. arcs-en-ciel. 

3. If they consist of a noun and some other part of speech, not 
an adjective, the noun alone takes the plural form. Ex., le sous- 
sol, the basement ; pi. sous-sols. 

Note. Most compound nouns formed by joining a shortened form 
of a verb with a following noun that is the object of the verb may be 
used in the plural without change. Ex., le coupe-tete, the headsman ; 
pi. coupe-tete or coupe-tetes. 


4. If they consist of two words, neither of which is a noun, 
the plural is like the singular. Ex., le passe-partout, the master- 
key ; pi. passe-partout. 

The formation of adverbs has been treated in Sec. 109. 

A. When the masculine of an adjective ends in a vowel, the 
corresponding adverb is formed by adding ment to the masculine. 
Ex., joli, pretty ; joliment, prettily. 

B. When the masculine of an adjective ends in a consonant, 
the corresponding adverb is formed by adding ment to the femi- 
nine. Ex., doux, sweet \ doucement, sweetly. 

C. The following irregularities must be noted : 

1. Some adjectives change a mute e to e* on the addition of 
the ending ment. The more common of these are aveugle, com- 
mode, commun, conforme, confus, 6norme, obscur, precis, profond, 
uniforme. Ex., aveugle, blind \ aveugl£ment, blindly. 

2. When the masculine of an adjective ends in ant or ent, these 
endings are changed to am and em respectively before the addi- 
tion of ment. Ex., m&hant, wicked; m&hamment, wickedly. 

3. Adjectives having two forms in the masculine singular form 
the adverb by adding ment to the feminine. Ex., fou, mad; 
follement, madly. 

4. The following special irregularities deserve notice : 

Adjective Adverb 

bref brievement 

gentil gentiment 

impuni impune'ment 

traitre traitreusement 




« s 

to to 

8 8 




4-> CO 

<rt rt 

















<fcS .22 




co to 

.22 .22 




— CO 








V -2 


.22 .22 






4> S 



• .2 


# cu 







4) $ 


a) .2 





















to CO 

•3 -a 

co a> 


■M C 

CS .«ji 

v <o 








re .i-i 
.55 -J3 






co to 

're "c3 

re .2 






cjJ rt 
CO co 



CJ o 










rt 9 



•a a 


re O 


















rt re 


re <rt 





■JJ J 




*, 6 








+* c 







"? •? 







22 22 
're "re 


aJ re 

•« .« 





.22 .22 



re .2 










• f 


4> CO 


V o 







4J CO 





co co 

1 o 



























Rules for Formation 

Prin. Parts 

The Prin. Parts are : 
Present Participle 
Past Participle 
ist Sing, of Pres. Ind. 
i st Sing, of Past Def. 

Pres. Ind. 

Endings of Sing. : 

es s s 
e t - 

The PI. is formed by omitting the ending ant of the Pres. Part, 
and adding ons, ez, ent. 

(Des. Past) 

Omit the ending ant of the Pres. Part, and add ais, ais, ait, 
ions, iez, aient. 

Past Def. 
{Narr. Past) 

Endings : 

ai is is 
as is is 
a it it 
ames imes imes 
ates ites ites 
erent ifent irent 


Add to the Inf. (omitting a final e) 
ai, as, a, ons, ez, ont. 


Add to the Inf. (omitting a final e) 
ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient. 


Same as the Pres. Ind. rst Sing, and ist and 2d PI. 

Pres. Subj. 

Omit the ending ant of the Pres. Part, and add e, es, e, ions, 
iez, ent. 

Imp. Subj. 
{Past Subj.) 

Omit the last letter of the ist Sing. Past. Def. and add sse, sses, 
*t, ssions, ssiez, ssent. 




ist Conjugation 

ad Conjugation 

3d Conjugation 










je parte 

je finis 

je vends 

je parlai 

je finis 

je vendis 

je parte 

je finis 

je vends 

tu paries 

tu finis 

tu vends 

il parle 

il finit 

il vend 

nous parions 

nous finissons 

nous vendons 

vous parle z 

vous finissez 

vous vendez 

ils parlent 

ils finissent 

ils vendent 

je parlais 

je finissais 

je vendais 

tu parlais 

tu finissais 

tu vendais 

il parlait 

il finissait 

il vendait 

nous parlions 

nous finissions 

nous vendions 

vous parliez 

vous finissiez 

vous vendiez 

ils parlaient 

Us finissaient 

ils vendaient 

je parlai 

je finis 

je vendis 

tu parlas 

tu finis 

tu vendis 

il parla 

il finit 

il vendit 

nous parlames 

nous finimes 

nous vendime's 

vous parlates 

vous finites 

vous vendites 

ils parlerent 

ils finirent 

ils vendirent 

je parlerai 

je finirai 

je vendrai 

tu parleras 

tu finiras 

tu vendras 

il pariera 

il finira 

il vendra 

nous parlerons 

nous finirons 

nous vendrons 

vous parlerez 

vous finirez 

vous vendrez 

ils parleront 

ils finiront 

ils vendront 

je parlerais 

je finirais 

je vendrais 

tu parlerais 

tu finirais 

tu vendrais 

il parlerait 

il finir&it 

il vendrait 

nous parlerions 

nous finirions 

nous vendrions 

vous parleriez 

vous finiriez 

vous vendriez 

ils parleraient 

ils finiraient 

Us vendraient 










je parte 

je finisse 

je vende 

tu paries 

tu finisses 

tu vendes 

il parte 

il finisse 

U vende 

nous parlions 

nous finissions 

nous vendions 

vous parliez 

vous finissiez 

vous vendiez 

ils parlent 

ils finissent 

ils vendent 

je parlasse 

je finisse 

je vendisse 

tu parlasse S 

tu finisses 

tu vendisses 

il parlat 

il finit 

il vendit 

nous parlassions 

nous finissions 

nous vendissions 

vous parlassiez 

vous finissiez 

vous vendissiez 

ils parlassent 

ils finissent 

Us vendissent 



I. Perfect Tenses. The perfect tenses of a verb are formed 
by prefixing to its past participle the various simple tenses of 
avoir, " to have " (sometimes etre, " to be "). Avoir and etre, 
when thus used in the formation of compound tenses, are 
called auxiliaries. Their conjugation, which is irregular, is 
given on the opposite page. The perfect conjugation with 
both auxiliaries, together with the tense-names, is given in full 
on page 436. 

Note. — Eire, instead of avoir, is used as the auxiliary in 
forming the perfect tenses of the following intransitive verbs 
denoting motion or change of condition: aller, fiartir, sortir, 
venir, devenir, revenir, arriver, entrer, rester, tomber, naitre, 
mourir (rarely of a few others) ; also of reflexive verbs. 

II. Passive Voice. The passive voice of a verb is formed by 
prefixing to its past participle the various tenses, simple and 
perfect, of the auxiliary etre, "to be." The passive conjuga- 
tion is given in full on page 437. 

III. Agreement of Past Participle. When etre is the auxil- 
iary, whether in the perfect or in the passive conjugation, the 
past participle varies like an adjective to agree with the sub- 
ject in number and gender. It then adds s in the masculine 
plural,- e in the feminine singular, and es in the feminine 

Note i. Past participles ending in s are alike in masculine 
singular and plural. 

Note 2. In ordinary conjugation it may be assumed that the 
subject pronouns are masculine. In the plural, however, atten- 
tion must always (when etre is the auxiliary) be paid to the 
agreement of the past participle. 








Prin. Parts \ 




fr 1 

je suis 


j eus 

je fus 


tu as 

je suis 
tu es 

Pres. Ind. 


il est 

nous avons 

nous sommes 

vous avez 

vous etes 

P :■ 

ils ont 

ils sont 



tu avais 

tu etais 


il avait 
nous avions 

il etait 
nous etions 

vous aviez 

vous ^tiez 

ils avaient 

ils etaient 



tu eus 

tu fus 

Past Def. 

il eut 
nous eumes 

nous fumes 

vous eutes 

vous futes 

ils eurent 

ils furent 


je serai 

tu auras 

tu seras 


il aura 

il sera 

nous aurons 

nous serons 

vous aurez 

vous serez 

ik auront 

ils seront 


je serais 

tu aurais 

tu serais 

il aurait 

il serait 


nous aurions 

nous serions 

vous auriez 

vous seriez 

ils auraient 

ils seraient 

aie • 





ayez , 



je sois 

tu aies 

tu sois 

Pres. Suij. 

il ait 

il soit 

nous ayons 

nous soyons 

vous ayez 

vous soyez 

ils aient 

ils soient 


je fusse 

tu eusses 

tu fusses 

Imp. Subj. 



nous eussions 

nous f ussions 

vous eussiez 

vous fussiez 

ils eussent 

ils f ussent 




With avoir 

With etre 

Prin. Parts 
The first two are called 
respectively Perf. Inf. 
and Perf. Part. 

avoir sauve" 
ayant sauve" 

j'ai sauve* 
j'eus sauve* 

etre alle" 
etant alle" 

je suis alle" 
]e fus alle" 

Past Indef. 
(Per/. Ind.) 
Pres. Ind. of auxiliary + 
Past Part. 

j'ai sauve" 
tu as sauve* 
il a sauve" 
nous avons sauve" 
vous avez sauve" 
ils ont sauve 

je suis alle" 

tu es alle 

il est alle" 

nous sommes altes 

vous etes allds 

ils sont alles 

Plufierf Ind. 
Imperfect of auxiliary + 
Past Part. 

j'avais sauve" 
tu avais sauve 
il avait sauve" 
nous avions sauve" 
vous aviez sauve" 
ils avaient sauve" 

j'^tais alle" 
tu &ais alle" 
il &ait alle" 
nous ^tions alles 
vous &iez alles 
ils etaient alles 

Past A nterior 
Past Def. of auxiliary + 
Past Part. 

j'eus sauve" 
tu eus sauve* 
il eut sauve" 
nous eflmes sauve" 
vous elites sauve" 
ils eurent sauve" 

je fus alle" 
tu fus alle" 
il fut all* 
nous fumes altes 
vous fGtes all^s 
ils furent alles 

Put. Perf. 
Fut. of auxiliary + Past 

j'aurai sauve 
tu auras sauve" 
il aura sauve" 
nous aurons sauve" 
vous aurez sauve" 
ils auront sauve" 

je serai alle" 
tu seras alle" 
il sera alle" 
nous serons allds 
vous serez altes 
ils seront all£s 

Cond. Perf. 
Cond. of auxiliary + Past 

j'aurais sauve" 
tu aurais sauve" 
il aurait sauve" 
nous aurions sauve" 
vous auriez sauve" 
ils auraient sauve" 

je serais alle" 
tu serais alle" 
il serait alle" 
nous serions altes 
vous seriez all£s 
ils seraient all£s 


. wanting 


Perf Subj. 
Pres. Subj. of auxiliary 
+ Past Part. 

j'aie sauve" 
tu aies sauve* 
il ait sauve" 
nous ayons sauve" 
vous ayez sauve" 
ils aient sauve 

je sois alle" 

tu sois alle" 

il soit alle" 

nous soyons allls 

vous soyez allds 

ils soient alles 

Pluperf. Subj. 
Imp. Subj. of auxiliary 
+ Past Part. 

j'eusse sauve" 
tu eusses sauve" 
il eut sauve" 
nous eussions sauve" 
vous eussiez sauve" 
ils eussent sauve 

je fusse alle" 
tu fusses alle" 
il f ut all* 

nous fussions alles 
vous f ussiez alles 
ils f ussent alles 




Simple Tenses 

Perfect Tenses 

Prin. Paris 

e'tre sauve* 
eUnt sauve" 

je suis sauve" 
je fus sauve 

Prin. Parts 

avoir 6t6 sauve 
ayant ete sauve" 

j'ai &e" sauve" 
j'eus 6t6 sauve* 

Pres. Ind. 

je suis sauve" 

tu es sauve 

il est sauve 

nous sommes sauves 

vous etes sauves 

ils sont sauves 

Past Indef. 

j'ai iti sauv£ 

tu as &e" sauve" 

il a 6t6 sauve" 

nous avons e^e" sauves 

vous avez ete sauves 

ils ont ete sauves 


j'e"tais sauv£ 

tu etais sauve 
il ^tait sauv^ 
nous etions sauves 
vous &iez sauves 
ils etaient sauves 


j'avais 4te sauve" 
tu avais 6te sauve" 
il avait ete sauve 
nous avions ete sauves 
vous aviez iti sauves 
ils avaient it6 sauves 

Past Def 

je fus sauve" 

tu fus sauve 

il fut sauve 

nous f times sauves 

vous f Cites sauves 

ils f urent sauves 

A nterior 

j'eus 6li sauve" 
tu eus &l€ sauve" 

il eut ete" sauve 
nous eumes ete sauves 
vous eutes 6t6 sauves 
ils eurent £t£ sauves 


je serai sauve" 

tu seras sauve 
il sera sauve" 
nous serons sauves 
vous serez sauves 
ils seront sauves 

Fut. Per/. 

j'aurai ete sauve" 
tu auras e"te" sauve 
il aura ete sauve 
nous aurons ete sauves 
vous aurez 6t6 sauves 
ils auront ete sauves 


je serais sauve" 
tu serais sauve 
il serait sauve 
nous serions sauves 
vous seriez sauves 
ils seraient sauves 

Cond. Per/. 

j'aurais e"te" sauve" 
tu aurais ete sauve 
il aurait 6t& sauve" 
nous aurions ete" sauves 
vous auriez 6t6 sauves 
ils auraient iti sauves 


sois sauve" 
soyons sauves 
soyez sauves 



Pres. Subj. 

je sois sauve" 

tu sois sauve 

il soit sauve 

nous soyons sauves 

vous soyez sauves 

ils soient sauves 

Per/. Subj. 

j'aie 6ti sauve" 
tu aies ete sauve 
il ait ete sauve 
nous ayons 6te sauves 
vous ayez 6t6 sauves 
ils aient ili sauves 

Imp. Subj. 

je fusse sauve" 

tu fusses sauve" 

il fut sauve 

nous fussions sauves 

vous f ussiez sauves 

ils f ussent sauves 


j'eusse ete" sauve" 

tu eusses ete sauve" 

il eut ete sauve 

nous eussions ete sauves 

vous eussiez ete sauves 

ils eussent ete sauves 




Prin. Parts 

Pres. Ind. 


Past Def . 
Imp. Subj. 





to place 







placerent (3d PL) 
















to eat 







mangerent (3d PI.) 












to clean 





















to pay 


















to lead 




menant * 








menai . 






to caN 


















to throw 


















to yield 



















Pres. Subj. 




Placer is a model of verbs ending in 




cer, in which C takes a cedilla 
before a and 0, to show that it 



remains soft. 





Manger is a model of verbs ending 

» etc. 



in ger, in which e is added before 
a and 0, to show that the g remains 








Similarly all verbs ending in oyer 




and uyer change y to i before an 
ending or a syllable whose vowel 





is a mute e. 






Similarly all verbs ending in ayer 




generally change y to i before an 


ending or a syllable whose vowel is 
a mute e. Sometimes, especially 







in older French, the y is retained 





Similarly all verbs ending in e-con- 




sonant-er (except those ending in 
eler and eter) change e to e before 





an ending or a syllable whose 




vowel is a mute e. 



Similarly most verbs ending in eler 




double the 1 before an ending or a 


syllable whose vowel is a mute e. 




Geler, modeler, and peler (which 




are conjugated like mener) are 


the commonest exceptions. 



Similarly most verbs ending in eter 




double the t before an ending or 


a syllable whose vowel is a mute 



e. Acheter (which is conjugated 




like mener) is the commonest ex- 






Similarly all verbs ending in e-con- 



sonant (or consonants)-er, change 


6 to e before an ending whose 




vowel is a mute e. No change 




occurs here in Fut. and Cond. 




Prin. Parts 

Pres. Ind. 


Past Def . 
Imp. Subj. 



allai s 


to go 






alle - 












to send 






envoye - 












to acquire 


















to assail 



















to boil 


















to run 


















to gather 

















to sleep 



















Pres. Subj. 












Forms its perfect 
tenses with etre. 











Similarly renvoyer. 











Similarly all verbs 
ending in quenr . 






Similarly tressaillir. 











Similarly parcourir 
and other com- 






Similarly recueillir 
and accueillir . 






Similarly endormir 
and other com- 




Prin. Parts 

Pres. Ind. 


Past Def . 
Imp. Subj. 


to fail 











to flee 











to hate 










to die 











to offer 
off rant 











to open 











to start 











to feel 









sentisse s . 






Pres. Subj. 






There is also found a Fut. 
faillirai, etc., and a sim- 
ilar Cond. Many forms of 
this verb are no longer in 











Similarly s'enfuir. 






On account of the diaeresis 
the circumflex accent is 
omitted in all forms. 











Forms its perfect tenses with 






Similarly souffrir. 






Similarly COUvrir, and com- 






Similarly f its compounds 
except repartir. Partir 
forms its perfect tenses 
with §tre. 






Similarly mentir . se repen- 
tir, and compounds. 




Prin. Parts 

Pres. Ind. 


Past Def . 
Imp. Subj. 





to serve 


















to go out 

















tins (see Remarks) 

to hold 

















vins (see Remarks) 

to come 


















to clothe 


















to seat 


















to have 


















to owe 



















Pres. Subj. 







Similarly desservir. 






Similarly ressortir, to go 
out again. Both form 
their perfect tenses with 











Past Def. tins, tins, tint, 
tinmes, tintes. tinrent. 
Similarly its compounds. 





• vienne 

Past Def. vins, vins, vint, 
vinmes, vintes. vinrent. 
Similarly its compounds. 
Venir forms its perfect 
tenses with etre. 






Similarly its compounds. 






Other forms are often found, 
especially Pres. Part, 
assoyant, and derived 
forms accordingly. Sim- 
ilarly seoir and its com- 











Similarly ravoir. Avoir is 

conjugated in full on page 











Past Part. f. due. Sim- 
ilarly rede voir. 




Prin. Parts 

Pres. Ind. 


Past Def . 
Imp. Subj. 


to be necessary 

il faut 

il fallait 

il fallut 


il faut 

il fallut 

il fallflt 





to move 















to rain 


il pleut 

il pleuvait 

il plut 

il pleut 

il plut 

il plflt 





to provide 
















peux (puis) 



to be able 






pU / • X 



peux (puis) 









to receive 


















to know 


















to be worth 



















Pres. Subj. 


il faudra 
il faudrait 


il faille 

An impersonal verb. 











Past Part. f. mue. Simi- 
larly its compounds, ex- 
cept that in these the 
Past Part, lacks circum- 
flex accent. 

il pleuvra 
il pleuvrait 


il pleuve 

An impersonal verb. 






























Similarly all compounds of 





















Similarly its compounds ex- 
cept prevaloir, which has 
in Pres. Subj. private, 




Prin. Parts 

Pres. Ind. 


Past Dei . 
Imp. Subj. 





to see 


















to wish 


















to beat 


















to drink 


















to conclude 


















to lead 


















to know 


















to sew 



















Pres. Subj. 












Similarly entrevoir and re- 











A second form for the 

Imv. is veuille, veui lions, 






Similarly abattre and other 











Similarly its compounds. 











Similarly all verbs endinp in 
uire except luire, reluire, 
and nuire. 






Similarly paraitre, paitre, 
and compounds. 






Similarly its compounds. 




Prin. Parts 

Pres. Ind. 


Past Def . 
Imp. Subj. 





to fear 


















to believe 


















to grow 


















to say 
















. dcrivais 


to write 


















to be 


















to make 











. etc. 







to join 



















Pres. Subj. 







Similarly all verbs ending in 
















Past Part, f . crue. 






Similarly redire. Other 
compounds of dire have 
-disez in the 2d pi. ©f the 
Pres. Ind. and Imv. For 
maudire see page 452. 






Similarly decrire and all 
other verbs ending in 











Conjugated in full on page 






Similarly satisfaire and 
other compounds. 






Similarly all verbs ending in 




Prin. Parts 

Pres. Ind. 


Past Def . 
Imp. Subj. 





to read 


















to shine 














to curse 


















to put 


















to grind 


















to be born 


















to paint 



















to please 




plaisant • 















Pres. Subj. 







Similarly its compounds. 






Similarly reluire and nuire. 
The latter however has 
Preterit nuisis, etc. 











Similarly commettre and 
other compounds. 






Similarly its compounds. 






Similarly renaitre. Both 
form their perfect tenses 
with e"tre. 






Similarly all verbs ending 
in eindre. 






Similarly its compounds. 




Prin. Parts 

Pres. Ind. 


Past Def . 
Imp. Subj. 





to take 


















to resolve 


















to laugh 


















to follow 


















to be sufficient 


















to be silent 


















to conquer 


















to live 

vis *" 






vivons - 




etc. - 








Pres. Subj. 












Similarly apprendre and 
other compounds. 











Similarly sourire. 






Similarly poursuivre. 
















Similarly convaincre. 






Similarly its compounds. 


Elle se dresse sur Pemplacement de la Bastille, ancienne prison d'litat, 

prise par le peuple le 14 juillet (1789). Cette date est devenue celle de la 

fete nationale 


This vocabulary is designed to cover only the words and forms of 
words actually used in the French portions of this book. Peculiarities 
of inflection of the words included are in general added. 

The plural form is given of all nouns and adjectives whose plural is 
different from the singular and not formed by adding s. The feminine 
form is given of all adjectives whose feminine is different from the mascu- 
line and not formed by adding e. The principal parts of the irregular verbs 
are given. Moreover there are inserted in the proper alphabetical places 
those irregular forms of verbs and other words whose initial letters 
separate them from the basal word. Isolated forms used in the earlier 
lessons in advance of their full inflection are included also. Irregular 
pronunciations are indicated by phonetic spelling. 

The mark <*> means repetition of the word in black type at the head of 
the paragraph ; e^e under droit means droite. 

a, fires, avoir, has ; il y ~, there is 

(are), ago 
a, to, at, in, into, on, with ; with 

measures, by ; <*> la (mode de), 

in the style of 
abaisser, draw down 
abord : d'~, at first 
aboyer, bark 
abreuver, water, soak 
abreuvoir m., watering trough 
abri m., shelter; a !'«*, under 

shelter; se mettre a l'~, take 

absent, absent 
absolu, absolute 
absolutisme m., absolutism 
acad^mie^, academy 
accablant, oppressive 

accent w., accent ; word, strain 

accentuation/, accentuation 

accepter, accept 

accident m., accident 

accompagner, accompany 

accorder, grant 

accoure,j£ra-. subj. accourir, hasten 

accrocher (a), hang (on) 

accuser, accuse 

achetS, bought 

acheter, buy 

acheteur m., buyer 

achever, finish 

acque*rir (acquerant, acquis, ac- 

quiers, acquis), acquire 
acte m., act 

acteur m. (f. actrice), actor 
actif (/ -ve), active 




addition/, bill 

admettre (admettant, admis, ad- 

mets, admis), admit 
administrer, administer 
admirer, admire 
adorer, worship 
adresse/i, address 
adversaire m., adversary 
aeroplane m., aeroplane 
affaire /., trouble, matter; se tirer 

d'cv>, get along ; parler d'^s, talk 

affaire\ busy 
affecter, take on, assume 
affiche/, poster, bill 
afficher, post (bills) 
affronter, face 
afin : ~ de, in order to ; «o que, in 

order that 
age «*., age ; quel 03 avez-vous ? 

how old are you ? 
age\ aged, old ; etre 03 de, be . . . old 
agrSable, pleasant 
agreablement, agreeably 
agrSer, accept 
ah! ah! 

ai, pres. avoir, have 
aide /I, aid, assistance ; venir en ~ 

a, come to the assistance of, 

aider, help 

aie, aient, pres. subj. avoir (to have) 
aigu {f. aigue), sharp 
aile/, wing 

aille, pres. subj. aller (to go) 
aimable, kind 
aimer (a), love, like (to) ; ~ mieux, 


ainsi, thus; e» que, as well as; 
pour ~ dire, so to speak 

air m., air; avoir Pcv> (de), seem, 
appear (to), look ; en plein ~, in 
the open air 

aise, glad ; bien ~, glad 

ait, pres. subj. avoir (to have) 

Al£sia_/^, a town in ancient Gaul 

allS, past part, aller, gone 

allee/, path 

Allemagne/, Germany 

allemand adj., German 

allemand m* t German (the lan- 

aller (allant, alle\ vais, allai), go; 
be (of health); fit (of clothes), 
become, suit ; s'en e*, go away ; 
cv) chercher, go for 

alliance/!, alliance 

allie" m., ally 

allonger, lengthen ; s'c*>, grow 
longer , 

allons 1 why ! come ! 

alors, then ; ~ que, when 

Alpes///., Alps 

Alsace f., a province in northeast 

alsacien (f. -nne), Alsatian 

amabilitS/i, kindness 

ambigu (f. ambigue), ambiguous 

ambitieux (f. -se), ambitious 

amenager, arrange 

amener, bring (a person) 

amer [a-me:r] {/. -ere), bitter 

americain, American 

AmSrique/, America 

amertume/, bitterness 

ami m. {/. amie), friend 



amiti^/, friendship 

amonceler, heap up ; s'~, gather 

amoncellement m., pile, heap 

amour m., love 

ample, generous, full 

amusant, funny, amusing 

amusement nt., amusement 

amuser, amuse ; s'<*>(de), enjoy, be 
amused (at), have a good time 

an m., year; jour de l'~, New 
Year's Day ; avoir dix ~s, be 
ten years old 

ancetre m., ancestor 

ancien (f-nne), ancient, old, former 

anecdote f, anecdote 

Angelus [a-3e-lys] m., angelus (a 
religious service) ; bell announc- 
ing the service 

anglais adj., English 

anglais m., English (the language) 

Anglais m., Englishman 

angle m., angle, corner ; a <» droit 
de, at right angles to 

Angleterre/i, England 

animal m. (pi. -aux), animal 

animg (de), inspired (with) 

annee/!, year ; l'~ passed, last year 

anniversaire *•., birthday, anni- 

annoncej^, advertisement 

annoncer, announce 

annuel (f -lie), annual 

aout [u] m., August 

apercevoir (apercevant, apercu, 
apercois, apercus), perceive ; s'~ 
de, perceive, notice 

apparent, apparent 

appartement m., apartment 

appartenir (appartenant, appar- 
tenu, appartiens, appartins), be- 

appeler (appell- before a utute 
syllable), call; s'<~, be named; 
comment vous appelez-vous ? 
what is your name? 

app€tit m., appetite; de bon ~, 
with a good appetite 

apporte\ brought 

apporter, bring (a thing) 

apprecier, value correctly, appre- 

apprendre (apprenant, appris, ap- 
prends, appris), learn 

appreter, prepare (tr); s'~, pre- 
pare (intr.) 

approcher, bring nearer; &>™ de, 

appuyer (appui- before a mute 
syllable), lean, bear on 

apres, after ; d'~>, according to ; ~> 
que, after 

apres-midi in., afternoon, p.m. 

arbre «., tree 

arc in., arch 

arched, arch 

archeveche" m., archbishop's resi- 

architecte m., architect 

architectural (pi. -aux), architec- 

architecture/!, architecture 

ardemment, fervently 

ardent, ardent, burning 

arenesy^ pi., arena, amphitheater, 
" stadium," " bowl " 

argent in., money ; silver 



Argonne /, a forest region in 

France where Americans fought 

in 1918 
aristocratic/!, aristocracy 
arme/i, arm, weapon 
armee/, army 
armistice »., armistice 
armoire/i, closet 
arranger, fix, arrange 
arrestation/, arrest 
arreter, stop (tr.) ; s'cv>, stop (intr.) 
arriere-plan 7n., background 
arrivee/i, arrival 
arriver, arrive, happen 
arrondissement m.\ arrondisse- 

ment (division of a French 

art m., art 

artere/^, thoroughfare, artery 
article m., article, thing 
artillerie/, artillery 
artiste m. andf., artist 
as, fires, avoir, have, hast 
aspect m., appearance 
assaillir (assaillant, assailli, as- 

saille, assaillis), assail 
assemble /., assembly, society 
asseoir (asseyant, assis, assieds, 

assis), seat ; s'e*>, sit down ; etre 

assis, be seated; asseyez-vous, 

sit down 
assez (de), enough ; quite, rather 
assierai, fut. asseoir (to seat) 
assiette/, plate 
assis, fiast fiart. asseoir, seated, 

assister (a), be present at, attend 
assurance/, assurance 

assur^ment, certainly 

Atlantique, Atiantic 

attaque/, attack 

attaquer, attack 

atteindre (atteignant, atteint, at- 

teins, atteignis), reach 
attendre, wait (for), expect, await; 

s'~ a, expect 
attendrir, move (in feelings) 
attente /, waiting; salle d'~, 

attentif {/. -ve), attentive 
attention/, attention 
attirer, attract 
attrait m., charm, interest 
attraper, catch 
attrayant, attractive 
attribue\ attributed 
au, contraction ofhle 
aucun {/. -e), any one, no one; 

ne . . . ~, no one, no 
auditeur m, % hearer 
aujourd'hui, today; d'~ en huit, 

a week from today 
auquel, contraction ofk lequel 
aur-, fut., cond. avoir (to have) 
aussi, also, too ; as, so ; ~ . . . que, 

as ... as 
aussitot que, as soon as 
Austerlitz [os-ter-litz] «., the 

place where Napoleon conquered 

australien (/ -nne), Australian 
autant (de), as much, as many 
auteur m., author 
autobus [o-to-bys] m., autobus 
automne [o-ton] m., autumn ; en 

«x>, in (the) autumn 



automobile m. andf., automobile 

autorisation/, authorization 

autorit£/, authority 

autour (de), around 

autre, other, different; nous «*>s, 
we (apart from others) 

autrefois, formerly 

autrement, otherwise 

autrichien {f -nne), Austrian 

aux, contraction of a les 

auxiliaire, auxiliary 

auxquels, contraction of a. lesquels 

avais (-ait, etc.), imp. avoir, had 

avance /, advance ; d'<~>, in ad- 
vance ; en <*>, ahead of time 

avanc^ advanced 

avancer, advance, put forward 

avant, before (in time) ; <~> de, be- 
fore {with inf.) ; ~ que, before 

avantage m., advantage 

avant-hier [a-va-tje:r], day before 

avare m., miser 

avec, with 

avenue/, avenue 

avez, pres. avoir, have 

avis m., notice 

avocat m., lawyer 

avoir (ayant, eu, ai, eus), have ; il 
y a (avait, etc.), there is (was, 
etc.) ; ago ; since, for ; qu'avez- 
vous ? what 's the matter with 

avons, pres. avoir, have 

avril [a-vril] m., April 

ayant, pres. part, avoir, having 

ayez, pres. subj. avoir (to have) 

azur m., blue, azure 

bagages m. pi., baggage, luggage 

baigner, bathe 

bain m., bath; salle de ~, bath- 

bal m., ball (dance) 

banane/, banana 

banc [ba] m., bench, settee 

barbe/, beard ; faire la ^, shave 

bas adj. (f -sse), low 

bas m., stocking; bottom, foot; 
en cv>, downstairs 

base/, base 

bataille/, battle 

bataillon m., battalion 

bateau m. {pi. -x), boat; ~ a 
vapeur, steamboat 

batiment «*., building 

batir, build 

battre (battant, battu, bats, battis), 
beat, strike; se <*>, fight 

beau {before a vowel bel ; / belle, 
m. pi. beaux), beautiful, hand- 
some; il fait ~ (temps), it is fine 
weather ; se mettre au <~, become 
fine (weather) 

beaucoup (de), much, many 

beaute* /, beauty 

bel, see beau 

belle,/ of beau 

benefice **., advantage, benefit 

Berthe, Bertha 

Besancon m., a city in eastern 

besogne/, work, task 

besoin m., need {noun); avoir ~ 
(de), be in need, need 

Detail m. {pi. bestiaux), cattle, 



beurre m., butter 

bibliotheque/, library 

bien, well ; much, many ; good ; <*> 

des, many ; eh ~ ! well ! good ! 

<v> que, although 
bientot, soon; a ev>, will see you 

again soon 
biere/, beer 
bijou m. (pi. -x), jewel 
billet m., ticket ; prendre un <~>, get 

a ticket 
blanc [bla] (f. blanche), white 
bl6 m., wheat 
blesser, hurt 
bleu, blue 
blond, light, blond 
blouse/, blouse 
bceuf m., beef; ox [.pi. bo] 
boire (buvant, bu, bois, bus), drink 
bois m., wood ; de cv>, wooden 
Bois de Boulogne, a famous park 

in Paris 
boisson/, drink 
boite/i, box ; cv> aux lettres, letter 

boivent, pres. boire, drink 
bon (f. -nne), good ; good-natured, 

Bonaparte, surname of Napoleon 
bonde* (de), crowded (with) 
bonheur ?n., happiness 
bon jour m., good morning 
bonne f., maid (servant) 
bord m., edge, shore ; ~ de la mer, 

border (de), border (with) 
borgne, blind in one eye 
bouche/i, mouth 

boucher m., butcher 

bouillir (bouillant, bouilli, bous, 

bouillis), boil 
boulanger m., baker 
boulevard w., boulevard ; rampart 
bourgeois, of the middle class, 

Bourguignon in., Burgundian 
bourse/, purse 
bout jw., end 
bouteille/, bottle 
bouton m., button 
braise\ braised, panned 
bras **., arm 

brave, brave ; good, worthy (326,/) 
bravoure/i, bravery 
bref (/ breve), short 
Bretagne/, Brittany, a province 

in northwest France 
breton (f. -nne), Breton, of Brittany 
Brienne/i, the seat of a French 

military school 
brillant, brilliant 
briller, glitter 

brosse/, brush ; ~ a dents, tooth- 
brush ; ~ a cheveux, hairbrush 
brosser, brush 
brouillard m., mist, fog 
bru/i, daughter-in-law 
bruit »., noise 
bruler, burn 
brusque, quick 
Bruxelles [bry-sel]/!, Brussels, the 

capital of Belgium 
bu, past part, boire, drunk 
buffet m., lunch counter 
bureau m., desk (of a teacher); 

office ; 03 de poste, post office 



buste *«., bust 
but m., goal, aim 

C', elided form ofce {pron.) 

5a, that 

cabaret m., inn 

cacher, hide 

cachot m. % cell, prison 

cadeau m. {pi. -x), present, gift 

cadet (/. -tte), younger 

cadre m., frame 

caduc {/. -uque), infirm 

cafe" »., coffee ; restaurant, cafd 

cahier m,, notebook 

caillou m. {pi. -x), pebble 

caisse/, cash window 

caissier m., cashier 

cal m., callosity 

calmer, calm 

camarade m., companion, comrade, 

chum ; ~ d'e'cole, schoolmate 
camaraderie/, comradeship 
Cambronne, a French marshal 
campagne/1, country (apart from 

city), country district ; a la ~, in 

(to) the country 
Canada m., Canada 
Cantigny m., a French town where 

Americans fought in 1 9 1 8 
canton m., canton (division of a 

French arrondissement) 
capitate/.", capital 
car, for 

caractere m n character 
caracteristique/, characteristic 
carnaval m. % carnival 
carotte/, carrot 
carre\ square 

carrure/i, build, physique 

carte f, map ; card, menu ; ~ de 

visite, visiting card 
cas ///., case 
casser, break (tr.)\ se ~, break 

catastrophe/!, catastrophe 
catheMrale/, cathedral 
cause f, cause, reason ; a ~ de, 

because of 
causer, talk 
ce pron., he, she, it, they ; this, 

that, these, those ; ~ que, what, 

that which; ~ qui, what, that 

which ; ~ . . . quoi, that which ; 

est-~ que, is it that ( 1 64) ; n'est- 

~ pas, is it not (167) 
ce adj. {before a vowel cet ; f 

cette, pi. ces), this, that 
ceci, this 
c6der, yield 
cela, that 
celebre, famous 
celeri m. t celery 
celeste, heavenly 
celle,/ 0/celui 

celui, this, that, the one; he, him 
cent, (a) hundred 
centime m . , centime (one hundredth 

of a franc) 
centre »., center ; au ~ de, in the 

center of 
cependant, however, yet 
cerise/, cherry 
cerisier »., cherry tree 
certain, certain 

ces, pi. ofce {adj.), these, those 
Cesar, Caesar (the Roman general) 



cesser (de), cease (to) 

cet, see ce (adj.) 

cette,/^ ofce (adj.) 

ceu.x,pl. of celui, these, those, the 
ones ; they 

chacal m., jackal 

chacun (f -e), each one 

chaired, desk 

chaise f, chair 

chaleur/!, heat 

chambre f, room ; <*> a coucher, 

champ m., field ; ~ de foire, fair- 

Champagne f, a province in north- 
east France 

champignon m., mushroom 

champion m., champion 

Champs-Ely se'es 7r1.pL, an avenue 
in Paris 

chance f, good luck 

changement m., change 

changeur m; % money changer 

chant m., song 

chanter, sing 

chapeau m. (pi. -x), hat 

chapelier m., hatter 

Chapu, a modern French sculptor 

chaque, each 

Charles, Charles 

charmant, attractive 

charm6, delighted 

chasser, expel, drive (out) ; hunt 

chat m, t cat 

chateau m. (pi. -x), castle 

Chateau-Thierry m., a French 
town where Americans fought 
in 1918 

chaud, warm, hot; avoir ~, be 

warm (hot) ; il fait ~, it is warm 

chauss£e_/l, roadway, street 
chaussette/i, sock 
chaussures f. pi., shoes, footwear 
chef m. % chief ; ~ de gare, station 

chemin m., road, way ; «v. de fer, 

chemise/], shirt 
cher (f. -ere), dear, beloved ; costly 

chercher, look for, seek, get ; aller 

~, go for ; envoyer ~, send for 
ch£ri, beloved, dear 
cheval m. (pi. -aux), horse; 

monter a ~, ride horseback 
cheveux m. pi., hair ; brosse a ~, 

Chez, at (to, in) the house (home, 

store) of; «v moi (etc.), at my 

(etc.) house 
chicor£e frise'e/i, endive 
chien m., dog 
choisir, choose, select 
chose /., thing; quelque <*>, some- 
chou m. (pi. -x), cabbage 
chou-fleur m. (pi. choux-fleurs), 

chre'tien[kre-tje](/: -nne), Christian 
chute/, fall 
ci, abbreviation for ici ( 1 94) ; par- 

~ par-la, here and there 
ciel m. (pi. cieux), sky 
cigare m., cigar 
cinq [sek ; 216, a], five 



cinquante, fifty 

cinquieme, fifth 

circuler, circulate, go about 

citadin m. (f. -e), city person 

Cit6/!, the old central part of Paris 

citoyen (f. -nne), citizen 

civil [si-vil], civil 

clair, clear 

classe f. t class ; classroom ; salle 

de ~, classroom 
classique, classic 

clef [kle]/, key ; fermer a ~, lock 
clerc [kle:r] *»., clerk 
client m. {/. -e), customer ; client 
cloche/, bell 
cocher m., coachman 
code m., code, laws 
cceur m., heart 
coi {/. coite), quiet 
coiffer, dress the hair ; ~ de, wear 

on the head ; se ~, fix one's hair 
coiffeur »»., hairdresser, barber 
coiffure/, headdress 
coin m. t corner 
colere/, anger 
collaborateur m, t collaborator 
college m., college 
colonie/i, colony 
colonnade f., colonnade 
colonne/, column 
colossal, colossal 
combat m,, contest 
combats, zmv. combattre, fight 
combien (de), how much, how 

many ; at what price ; ~ de 

temps, how long 
Comgdie Francaise f., a famous 

French theater 

comique, of comedy, comic 
comite" «., committee 
commandant **., commandant, 

commander, major 
commandement «*., command 
commander, command, order 
comme, like, as 
commemorer, commemorate 
commencement m., beginning 
commencer (a), begin (to) 
comment adv., how, what 
comment intj., what ! 
commercant m., business man, 

commerce m., business 
commis, past part, commettre, 

commode f., bureau, chest cf 

commun, common 
commune f., commune (division 

of a French canton) 
compagne/i, wife, consort 
comparaison/!, comparison 
compenser, make up for . 
Compiegne/, a city in France 
complet (f. -ete), complete, full 
compliment »*., compliment 
compost, compound 
composer, compose, make up 
compote f., sauce 
comprendre (comprenant, compris, 

comprends, compris), understand; 

compris, past part, comprendre, 

understood ; y <*>, including 
compte [ko:t] m., account; se rendre 

~, have an idea, realize 

4 66 


compter [ko-te], intend ; count 

comptoir [ko-twa:r] m., counter 

comte m., count (a title) 

concert m., concert 

concevoir (concevant, concu, con- 
cois, concus), conceive 

conclure(concluant, conclu, conclus, 
conclus), conclude 

Concorde/!, peace ; place de la Con- 
corde, a famous square in Paris 

concret {/. -ete), concrete 

concu, past part, concevoir, con- 

condition/], condition 

conducteur m., conductor 

conduire (conduisant, conduit, con- 
duis, conduisis), lead; take (a 

confier, intrust 

confortable, comfortable 

congres m., national assembly, 

conjugaison/;, conjugation 

conjuguer, conjugate 

connais-sance/;, acquaintance 

connaitre (connaissant, connu, con- 
nais, connus), be acquainted with, 

connu, past part, connaitre, known 

conquSrir (conqufrant, conquis, 
conquiers, conquis), conquer 

conquete/, conquest 

consacrer, consecrate, devote 

conseil ?/?., advice 

consentir (consentant, consenti, 
consens, consentis), consent 

consequent : par «<*, consequently 

conserver, preserve 

consideration/!, esteem 
consid^rer, consider 
consoler, comfort 
consomme m., broth 
consonne/;, consonant 
constance_/\, constancy 
construction/;, construction 
construire (construisant, construit, 

construis, construisis), construct 
consulter, consult 
contemporain, contemporary 
content, glad; satisfied; ~ de, 

satisfied with 
contient, pres. contenir, contains 
continuation/., continuation 
continuel {/. -lie), continual 
continuer, continue (tr.), go on ; se 

<~>, continue (intr.), be prolonged 
contraire m., contrary ; au ~, on 

the contrary 
contravention/;, violation (of law) 
contre, against 
convenablement, suitably 
convenir (a) (convenant, convenu, 

conviens, convins), be suitable 

(to), suit 
converser, converse 
cooperation/;, cooperation 
copier, copy 
coque/;, shell 
coquille/;, shell ; en ~, on the half 

corbeille/;, basket 
cordialement, heartily 
corps ///., body 

correspondance/;, correspondence 
corridor m., corridor, hall 
corriger, correct 



Corse /, Corsica 

costume m., suit 

cote/, coast 

cote" m.,side ; a ~ de, beside ; a ses 

~s, at one's side; d'a~, adjoining 
coucher, put to bed; se ~, go to 

bed ; chambre a ~, bedroom 
coudre (cousant, cousu, couds, 

cousis), sew 
couleur/, color 
coup m., stroke, blow; ~ d'ceil, 

glance ; tout a ~, suddenly 
couper, cut (off) 
couple/, couple, two 
cour/, yard, court 
courage m. t courage 
couramment, fluently 
courant, current ; le ~, the present 

courir (courant, couru, cours, cou- 

rus), run 
couronne/, crown 
couronner, crown 
courrier m. t mail 
courriez, cond. courir, would run 
cours ;/z., course, schedule; pi., lec- 
tures, lessons 
court, short 

couru, past part, courir, run 
cousin m. (f. -e), cousin 
couteau m. (pi. -x), knife 
couter, cost 
couteux (f. -se), costly 
coutume/, custom 
couturiere f. , dressmaker 
couvert (de), covered (with) 
couvrir (couvrant, couvert, couvre, 

couvris), cover 

craie/, chalk 

craindre (craignant, craint, crains, 

craignis), fear 
crainte/, fear; de ~ que, for fear 

that, lest 
cravate/, necktie 
crayon m., pencil 
cr&lule, credulous 
creer, create 
creme/, cream 
crever, burst, break 
cri m. % cry 
crier, cry, shout 
crise/, crisis 
critique m. t critic 
critiquer, criticize 
croire (croyant, cru, crois, crus), 

believe, think 
croitre (croissant, cru, crois, crus), 

croix/, cross 

crouton m., fried bread crumbs 
croyance/, belief 
croyez, pres. croire, believe 
cruel (/ -He), cruel 
cruellement, cruelly 
cueillir (cueillant, cueilli, cueille, 

cueillis), collect 
cuiller [kqi-je:r] /, spoon 
cuisine/, kitchen 
cuisinier m. (/ -ere), cook 
cultivable, arable, cleared 
cultiver, cultivate 
culture/, culture 

d\ elided form of&e 
dame/, lady 
danger m., danger 



dangereux (f -se), dangerous 

dans, in, into, among 

danser, dance 

date/, date 

davantage, more 

de, of, from, with ; after superla- 
tives, in ; partitive, some, any, 
a ; with inf., to, by ; followed 
by a numeral, than ; ~ la (P), of 
(in) the; some, any; ne . . . pas 
~>, not any, no, not a 

d£barrasser, relieve 

debout, standing 

d&embre m., December 

decider (a), persuade (to) ; se ~ (a), 
decide (to) 

decoration/!, decoration 

d^corer, decorate 

decrire (d£crivant, d&rit, decris, 
d£crivis), describe 

decrivez, describe 

defaut m., defect 

defendre (a quelqu'un de), forbid 
(somebody to) 

defense f, defense ; prohibition ; 
~ d'afficher, post no bills ; ~ de 
fumer, no smoking 

dgfenseur m., defender 

d^fier, defy 

degre* m., degree 

dehors, outdoors 

d£ja, already ; meme ~, before this 

dejeuner, lunch, breakfast 

dej'euner m., breakfast, luncheon 

dela, beyond ; au <~ de, beyond 

del^gue* m., delegate 

delicieux (/ -se), delicious 

delit m., misdemeanor 

demain, tomorrow ; a ~, good-by 

till tomorrow 
demander, ask, ask for ; ~ a, ask of 

(a person); ~de {wit h inf.), ask to 
demeure verb, live, lives 
demeure^, home, dwelling 
demeurer, dwell, live 
demi, half (218) 
de*mocratie f , democracy 
d^molir, tear down, demolish 
d£montrer, set forth 
dent f, tooth ; brosse a ~s, tooth- 
dentelle/, lace 
depart m., departure ; point de ~, 

starting point 
departement m., department (one 

of the 87 main divisions of 

depecher, hasten (tr.) ; se ~, hurry, 

hasten (intr.) 
d^pendre (de), depend (upon) 
depens m. pi., expense ; aux ~ de, 

at the expense of 
d£penser, spend 
depuis, since, for; ~ quand, how 

depute* m., deputy 
d£ranger, disturb 
dernier (f -ere), last, recent (3 26, f) 
derriere, behind 
des, contraction of de les, of (in) 

the ; some, any 
des que, as soon as 
descendre, go down, come down, 

descend ; <~ de voiture, get out of 

a carriage ; ~ en ville, go down 




description f. , description 

deserter, desert 

d£signe\ appointed, fixed 

d£sint£grer, break up (tr.) ; se <*>, 
break up (intr.) 

d£sint£ressement »*., disinterest- 

d£sirer, desire 

d^sormais, henceforth 

desquels, contraction of&e lesquels 

dessert verb, clears off (a table) 

dessert «r., dessert 

dessin m., drawing 

destination /., destination ; a <~, 
at one's destination 

detacher, detach ; se t», stand out 

detail m., detail 

detruit, past part, d6truire, de- 

deux, two ; tous les ~, both 

deuxieme [do-zjeim], second 

devait, devaient, imp. devoir 

devant, before (in place), in front 

devanture/i, show window 

deVelopper, develop 

devenir (devenant, devenu, deviens, 
devins), become 

devenu, past part, devenir, become 

devez, pres. devoir 

deviez, imp. devoir 

deviner, guess 

devint, devinrent, past def. deve- 
nir, became 

devoir (devant, du, dois, dus), owe, 
must, ought ; be to ; see 265 

devoir /«., exercise 

devourment //z., devotion 

&evr-,fut., cond. devoir 

dictionnaire **., dictionary 

dieu m. (pi. -x), god ; mon Dieu ! 

heavens! goodness! 
different, different 
difficile, difficult 
digne, worthy 
dimanche ft*:, Sunday 
dimension/;, dimension 
diner, dine, eat dinner ; ~ en ville, 

dine out 
diner #z., dinner 
dire (disant, dit, dis, dis), say, tell ; 

~ a, tell ; entendre ~, hear (by 

report) ; sans ~ 5 without saying ; 

vouloir ~, mean 
directeur m., director 
dis, pres. ind., imv. dire, say 
discipline, disciplined 
discret (f. -ete), discreet 
discretion : a ~, as much as one 

discussion/I, discussion 
disent, pres. dire, say 
disposer, arrange 
dispute/., dispute 
disputer, dispute ; se e*>, dispute 
distance/;, distance 
distinguer, distinguish 
dit, pres. dire, says ; past def. dire, 

dit, past part, dire, said, told 
dites, pres. dire, say 
divers, different 
divise* (en), divided (into) 
dix [dis; 216, a\ ten 
docteur in., physician, doctor 
doigt m., finger 



doit, pres. devoir 

doivent, pres. devoir 

dome «., dome 

domestique m. andf., servant 

domination/, control 

dommage «., harm, loss ; c'est ~, 

it is a pity 
Domremy m., birthplace of Joan 

of Arc 
done, then 
donne, give(s) 
donne\ given 
donne-moi, give me 
donner, give; se ~ la peine (de), 

take the trouble (to) 
donnez-moi, give me 
dont, of whom, of which, whose 
dormir (dormant, dormi, dors, dor- 
mis), sleep 
dos m. t back 
double, double 
double" (de), lined (with) 
douce,/, oj doux 
doucement, sweetly, softly 
doue\ endowed, gifted 
douleur/, pain 

doute m., doubt ; sans ~, doubtless 
douter, doubt; ~> que, doubt 

doux {/. douce), sweet, gentle; il 

fait <*>, it is mild 
douzaine/, dozen 
douze, twelve 
dramaturge m., dramatist, play 

drap ?/z., cloth 
drapeau m. (pi. -x), flag 
dresser, raise ; se <~>, stand 

droit, right ; a ~>e, to (at, on) the 
right; a angle ~ de, at right 
angles to ; de ~e, right-hand 

droit ?n., right 

druide m., druid (a Gallic priest) 

du, contraction of He le, of (in) the ; 
some, any 

du (f. due), past part, devoir 

duel m., duel 

duquel, contraction of&e lequel 

dur, hard 

durable, durable 

durer, last, be in force 

eau/ (pi. -x), water 

6blouissement m., dizzy spell 

£chafaud m., scaffold 

Schapper (a), escape (from) 

Eclair *»., flash ; il fait des <*>s, it 

Sclaircir, clear up 

Sclairer (a), light (by) 

£clater, break out 

6cole_/!, school ; a l'~, at school 

6colier m. (f. -ere), student, school- 
boy (-girl) 

£conome, economical, thrifty 

Economies///., savings 

6conomique, economic 

£conomiser, save 

Scouter, listen (to) 

Verier : s'~, exclaim 

£crire (Scrivant, 6crit, 6cris, Scrivis), 

£cris, pres. ind., imv. Scrire, write 

£crit, pres. emre, writes 

6crit, past part. 6crire, written 

6criv-, pres., imv. ecrire, write 



Scrivain m., writer, author 

gcrivit, past def Scrire, wrote 

earned, stable (for horses) 

Edifice m., building 

Education/;, education 

effacer, erase 

effectivement, effectively 

effet m., effect ; en <~>, in fact, in- 

effort m., effort 

effrayer (effrai- before a mute syl- 
lable), frighten ; s'cv>, be fright- 

6gal {pi. -aux), equal ; c'est <~>, it 's 
all the same 

6gard m., regard; a l r «w de, with 
regard to 

£glise/, church 

egorger, slaughter, cut the throat of 

Egypte/, Egypt 

eh bien 1 good ! well ! 

elan m., dash, enthusiasm 

electricite* f, electricity 

electrique, electric 

elevation/!, elevation, promotion 

eleve m. and f, pupil 

eleve\ brought up, bred ; bien <*>, 
well-bred; mal ~, ill-bred 

elever, raise ; .s'<*>, arise 

elire (elisant, elu, 61is, elus), elect 

elle, she, it; disj., her 

elle-meme, herself 

elles, they; disj., them 

elles-memes, themselves 

eloquent, eloquent 

elu, past part, elire, elected 

embellir, beautify, adorn 

eminence/!, elevation 

emouvoir (emouvant, emu, emeus, 
emus), move (in feelings); s'~ 
de, be moved (stirred) by 

empecher (de), prevent (from) 

empereur m., emperor 

emplacement m. t site 

emplette f, purchase ; faire ses 
<*>s, do one's shopping 

employer (emploi- before a mute 
syllable), employ 

emporter, carry away 

empresser : s'cv., hasten 

en pron., of it (them), from it 
(them), with it (them); some, 
any ; <*> . . . le (la, les), its (3 1 8) 

en prep., in; while, by; with 
words denoting material, see 
33 5 » a 'i tout <*>, while 

encadrer (de), frame (with) 

enceinte f, inclosure 

enclaver, inclose 

encore, still, again, yet; ~ un(e), 
another, one more ; ~ une fois, 
once more 

encre/, ink 

encrier m., inkstand 

endormir (endormant, endormi, en- 
dors, endormis), put to sleep; 
s'os, go to sleep 

endroit **., place, spot 

enfant m. andf, child 

enfin, finally, at last 

enlever, take away (off) 

ennemi adj., hostile 

ennemi m., enemy 

ennui m., trouble 

ennuyer (ennui- before a i?iute syl- 
lable), tire ; s'<~>, be lonesome 



enregistrer, check (baggage) 

enrichir, enrich 

enseigne/, sign 

enseignement m., teaching 

enseigner, teach, inform 

ensemble, together 

ensuite, afterward, then 

entendre, hear; ~ dire, hear (by 
report) ; ~ parler, hear tell ; bien 
entendu, of course 

enthousiasmer, fill with enthu- 

entier {/. -ere), entire 

entourer, surround 

entr'acte «?., intermission 

entrainant, inspiring 

entre, between, in, among 

entrecouper, intersect 

entre-croiser, cross 

entree/!, entrance ; entree 

entrer, enter (intr.); ~ dans, enter 
{tr.) . 

envahir, invade 

envahisseur m. , invader 

enveloppe/.', envelope 

envelopper, wrap up 

enverrai, enverriez,yW., cond. en- 
voyer (to send) 

envers prep., toward 

envers m., wrong side ; a P~, up- 
side down 

environ, about; d'~, about 

environs m. pi., vicinity, suburbs 

envoyer (envoyant, envoy6, envoie, 
envoyai), send ; ~ chercher, send 

6pais (f. -sse), thick 

Spaule/, shoulder 

epiceries f. pi., groceries 

Spicier m., grocer 

epoque/i, epoch, period 

£pouvantail m., scarecrow 

Sriger, erect 

errer, roam 

escalier m., stairs, staircase 

espace m., space 

esperer, hope 

esprit m., mind, spirit 

essayer, try, try on 

est, pres. etre, is ; ~-ce que, is it 
that (165); n'~-ce pas, is it not 

estomac [es-to-ma] M., stomach ; 
mal d'~, stomach ache 

et [e], and 

Stable/, stable (for cattle) 

£tage m., story (of a house) 

6tais (-ait, etc.), imp. etre, was, were 

etaler, display 

etant, pres. part, etre, being 

etat m., state ; en ~ de, in a state of 

Etats-Unis m. pi., United States 

etc., et cetera, and so forth 

£te\ past part, etre, been 

et£ m., summer ; en ~, in (the) 

etendard m., banner 

etes, pres. etre, are 

etions, imp. etre, were 

^toffe^, piece of goods; pi., goods 
(in general) 

6toile /., star ; ~ filante, shooting 

£tonner, astonish; s'~, be sur- 

Stouffer, choke, stifle 



Strange, queer 

Stranger adj. (f -ere), foreign 

Stranger m. (/ -ere), foreigner 

etre (6tant, 6t6, suis, fus), be ; as 
active auxiliary, have ; ~ a, be- 
long to 

Stroit, narrow 

Stude/, study 

Studiant m., student 

Studier, study 

eu, past part, avoir, had 

eurent, past def. avoir, had 

Europe/, Europe 

euss- [ys-], past subj. avoir (to 

eut [y], past def. avoir, had 

eut [y], past subj. avoir (to have) 

eux, them, they 

eux-memes, themselves 

eVSnement m., event 

eventail m., fan 

Evident, evident 

eViter (de), avoid 

exact, exact 

exactement, exactly 

examen m., examination 

examiner, examine 

excSder, exceed 

excellent, excellent 

exces m., excess 

excuser, excuse ; s'~, make excuses 

executif (/ -ve), executive 

execution/!, execution 

exemple m., example, illustrative 
sentence ; par ~, for instance 

exercer, exercise 

exercice «r., exercise, drill (military) 

expirer, die, expire 

expliquer, explain 
exposition/, exposition 
expres (f. -esse), positive 
expressement, expressly 
expression f. , expression 
exprimer, express 
extSrieur m., exterior 
extravagance/., extravagance 
extreme, extreme 
extremement, extremely 
extrSmitS/, end 

face/, face, front ; <*> a, facing, in 
front of ; en ~ (de), opposite, in 
front (of) 

fache\ sorry 

facile, easy 

facilement, easily 

facon /, fashion ; de telle ~, in 
such a way ; d'une ~, in a fashion 

facteur m., postman 

faible, feeble 

faille, pres. subj. falloir (to be 

faillir (f aillant, failli, faux, faillis), 
fail ; with inf., almost, nearly 

f aim/, hunger ; avoir <*>, be hungry 

faire (faisant, fait, fais, fis), make, 
do ; with inf., have, cause, 
make ; se ~, take place, be- 
come : que ~ ? what 's to be 
done? ~ la classe, hold the 
class ; ~ de son mieux, do one's 

faisait [fa-ze], imp. faire, made, 

fait, pres. faire, makes, does ; past 
part, faire, made, done 



fait in., fact, point, deed ; en <~>, in 

fact ; en ~ de, for ; ~ d'armes, 

warlike exploit 
faites, pres. ind., imv. faire, make 
f a lloir ( , f allu, il f aut, il f allut), 

be necessary, be obliged to, must, 

have to, need (274) 
fameux (f -se), famous 
familier (/ -ere), familiar 
famille/, family 
farci, stuffed 
farine/i, flour 
fasse, fassiez, pres. subj. faire (to 

fatiguS, tired 
faudra, faudrait, fut., cond. f alloir 

(to be necessary) 
fausse,/.' ofiaMx 
f aut, pres. f alloir (to be necessary) 
fauteuil in., chair, armchair ; seat 

(in a theater) 
faux (f -sse), false 
faux-col m., collar 
favori (/. -ite), favorite 
feliciter, congratulate 
femme [fam]/, wife ; woman 
fenetre/, window 
fer 7n., iron ; chemin de ~, railroad 
ferme adj., hard 
ferme/, farm, farmhouse 
fermer, close, shut ; ~ a clef, lock 
fermier m, (f -ere), farmer 
f£roce, savage 
festin m., feast, banquet 
fete/"., feast, holiday 
feu in. (pi. -x), fire 
feuillage in., foliage 
feuille/, leaf, sheet 

feutre m., felt 

feVrier m., February 

fichu in., neckerchief 

fidele, faithful, true 

fier [fi-e:r] (-ere), proud 

figure/!, face, figure 

filet m., net bag 

fille/i, daughter, girl ; ~ de maga- 

sin, clerk, salesgirl 
fils [fis] m., son 
fin_/i, end ; a la ~, at last 
finir, finish, end; ~ de + inf., 

finish ; ~ par + inf., finally 
firent, past def faire, made, did 
fit, past def. faire, made, did 
fit, past subj. faire (to make, do) 
fixe, fixed, limited 
flatter, flatter 

fleur/, flower ; en ~, in bloom 
fleurir, bloom 
fleuve m., river (large) 
Foch, commander of the Allied 

armies at the end of the World 

foif, faith 

foire f, fair ; champ de ~, fair- 
foisj^, time; une ~, once ; deux~, 

twice ; encore une ~, once more 
fol, see fou 
folle,/ of fou 
fonder, found 
font, pres. faire, make, do 
fontaine f, fountain 
force/, might ; force (troops) ; de 

toutes ses ~s, with all his might 
for§t /, forest 
forger, forge 



forgeron m., blacksmith 

forme f. t form, shape 

former, form 

fors, except 

fort adj., strong, loud 

fort adv., very (much) 

forteresse/, fortress 

fortifier, fortify 

fortune/, fortune 

fou {before a vowel f ol ; f. f olle, fous), crazy 
fouetter, whip 
fouiller, search 
foule /, crowd 
fourchette /, fork 
foyer m., lobby 

fr., abbreviation for franc (noun) 
frais (f. fraiche), fresh, cool; il 

fait <~>, it is cool 
fraise/i, strawberry 
franc adj. (f franche), frank 
franc m., franc (a French coin, par 

value about 20 cents) 
francais adj., French 
francais «r., French (the language); 

livre de ~, French textbook 
Francais m., Frenchman 
France/!, France 
franchement, frankly 
Frangois, Francis; ~ I, king of 

France (1 5 1 5-1 547) 
frapper, knock, strike 
Fr&teric, Frederick 
frequenter, frequent, visit often 
frere m., brother 
froid adj., cold 

froid m., cold ; avoir ~, be cold 
froidement, coldly 

fromage m., cheese 

front m., front line 

frotter, rub 

fruit m., fruit (of one sort); pi., 
fruit (collectively) 

fruitier adj. (f. -ere), fruits-bear- 

fruitier m., fruit dealer 

fuir (fuyant, fui, fuis, fuis), flee 

fumtef, smoke 

fumer, smoke ; ~ la pipe, smoke 
a pipe 

funeste, fatal 

furent, past def etre, were 

fusse, past subj. etre (to be) 

fut, past def. etre, was 

fut, past subj. etre (to be) 

futur adj., future 

futur m., future (tense) 

gagner, earn, gain, make 

gai [ge], cheerful, merry 

gant m., glove 

garcon m., boy, waiter; ~ de 

magasin, clerk 
garde f, guard (body of troops) 
garder, keep, guard 
gare/i, railway station ; chef de ~, 

station agent 
garnir (de), trim (with) 
gateau m. {pi. -x), cake 
gauche, left; a ~, to (at, on) the 

left ; de ~, left-hand 
Gaule/, Gaul 
gaulois adj., Gallic 
Gaulois m., Gaul (person) 
gaz [ga:z] m., gas 
geler, freeze 



gener, impede ; se ~, stand on 

general m. (pi. -aux), general 

g6ne>alement, generally 

g£n£reux (f. -se), generous 

g&lie »., genius ; engineers 

genou m. (pi. -x), knee 

genre m., race ; ~ humain, mankind 

gens m. and/, pi., people 

gentil [3a-ti] (f. -lie), well-behaved 

gentilhomme m. (pi. gentils- 
. hommes), gentleman, nobleman 

geste #*., gesture 

gilet m., vest 

Gironde/!, a broad river in south- 
west France 

glace/!, ice 

gladiateur m., gladiator 

gloire/!, glory 

gorge /., throat ; avoir mal a la ~, 
have a sore throat 

Goth m., Goth 

gout m., taste 

gouter m., luncheon 

goutte/, drop 

gouvernail m., rudder 

gouvernement m., government 

gouverner, govern 

gracieux (f. -se), gracious, graceful 

graduellement, gradually 

grammaire /!, grammar; lecon de 
<*>, grammar lesson 

grand, large, tall (326,/) 

grandeur/!, grandeur 

grand'mere/!, grandmother 

grand-pere m., grandfather 

j-parents m. pi., grand- 

grange/, barn 

gras (f. -sse), fat 

grave, serious 

graver, carve 

gravure/!, picture, engraving 

grec (f. grecque), Greek 

grippe/!, influenza 

gris, gray 

gronder, roar, rumble 

gros (f. -sse), big, stout; en ~, 

groupe m., group 

guere, but little ; Be . . . «&, scarcely 

guerir, cure 

guerre/!, war 

guichet m., (stamp) window; sta- 

guide m., guidebook, guide 

guillotiner, guillotine 

habiller, dress (/r.); s'~, dress 

habit m., (dress) coat 
habitant 711., inhabitant 
habitation/!, residence, dwelling 
habiter, inhabit 
habitude/!, habit 
habituer, accustom; s'~, become 

*haine/!, hate 
*hair (hai'ssant, hai, hais, hai's), 

*halle /., market; ~ aux vins, 

wine market 

An aspirate h (52). 



*hangar m., shed 

*hardi, bold 

* haricot m. % bean ; ~ vert, string 

*hasard m., chance 
*hasarder, risk ; se ~ (a), venture 

(to), chance (to) 
*hate/i, haste 
*hater, hasten (tr.)\ se ~, hasten 

*haut, high, loud; loudly; en ~, 

*haut m. t top 
helas 1 [e-la:s] alas ! 
*heler, call, hail 
Henri, Henry; ~ IV, king of 

France ( 1 5 89- 1 6 1 o) 
herbe/, grass 
hSroique, heroic 
*heros m., hero 
hesitation/, hesitation 
hesiter, hesitate 
heure /., hour ; o'clock, time ; <~>s 

de loisir, leisure time; de bonne 

~, early; a P~, on time; V<*> 

qu'il est, the present time 
heureusement, happily; ~ que, 

lucky that 
heureux (/ -se), happy; ~ de, 

happy to 
*hibou m. {pi. -x), owl 
hier [i-e:r], yesterday ; avant-~, day 

before yesterday ; ~ soir, last 

night, yesterday evening 
hirondelle/., swallow 
histoire/i, history, story 

historien 0*., historian 

hiver [i-ve:r] m., winter ; en «*>, in 

(the) winter 
*homard m. t lobster 
Homere m., Homer, the Greek poet 
homme m., man 
honnete, honest; polite (326,/) 
honneur m., honor 
honoraires m, j>/., fee 
honorer, honor 
*honte /., shame; avoir <*>, be 

horloge/, clock 
horriblement, horribly 
*hors, out (of) 
*hors-d'ceuvre m., side dish 
hospitalier (/ -ere), hospitable 
hostile, hostile 
hote m. t host; guest 
hotel «., hotel; ~> de ville, city 

hall ; Hotel-Dieu, hospital 
*Hug0 (Victor), a great French 

writer of the last century 
*huit [qit ; 216, a J, eight ; ~ jours, 

a week 
*huitieme, eighth 
huitre,/ oyster 
humain, human 
humble, humble, lowly 
hymne [imn] m., hymn 

ici, here ; par ~, this way 
idealisme m., idealism 
idee/, idea 

ignorance /., ignorance 
il, he, it 

An aspirate h (52). 



He/., island 

illustre, famous 

illustre\ illustrated, with pictures 

ils, they 

imaginaire, imaginary 

imagination /, imagination 

imbecile m., dunce 

imm&liatement, immediately 

immortel {/. -lie), immortal 

imparfait m., imperfect . 

imperatif m., imperative 

impenssable, imperishable 

impopulaire, unpopular 

important, important 

importer, be important 

imposant, imposing 

impossible, impossible 

impression/^, impression 

impur, impure 

inaptitude/, inaptitude 

incarc£rer, imprison 

incarnation / , i ncarnation 

incident «*., incident 

inconnu, unknown 

inddpendant, independent 

indicateur m., guide; «o des che- 
mins de fer, railroad tjme-table 

indicatif m., indicative 

indiquer, point out 

industriel m., manufacturer, busi- 
ness man 

inevitable, inevitable 

infinitif m., infinitive 

influence/, influence 
ingrat, sterile (of soil) 
inoubliable, never to be forgotten 
inquiet (/ -ete), uneasy 
inscription/, inscription 

inscrire (inscrivant, inscrit, in- 
scris, inscrivis), inscribe 

inspiration/, inspiration 

inspirer (a), inspire (in) 

instant m., moment 

institut m., institute 

instituteur m., teacher 

institution/, institution 

insulter, insult 

intelligent, bright 

intention /, intention ; avoir l'~ 
(de), intend (to) 

intentionne\ intentioned 

interessant, interesting 

inteneur m., interior; a l'~, with- 
in, inside 

interroger, question 

intriguer, puzzle 

inutile, useless 

invalide, disabled; h6tel des In- 
valides, Soldiers' Home (at Paris) 

invasion/, invasion 

inviter (a), invite (to) 

ir-,fut., cond. aller (to go) 

ironique, ironical 

ironiquement, ironically 

irr^flgchi, thoughtless 

Italie/, Italy 

italien (/ -nne), Italian 

itineraire m., itinerary 

j\ elided form ofje 

jadis [3a-dis], formerly 

jaloux (/ -se), jealous 

jamais, ever, never ; a ~, forever; 

ne . . . <*>, never 
jambe/, leg 
Janvier m. 7 January 



Japon m., Japan 

jaquette/i, (woman's) coat 

jardin m., garden 

jardiniere : a la ~, with vegetables 

jaune, yellow 

je, I 

Jean, John 

Jeanne, Joan, Jane ; ~ d'Arc, the 

French heroine 
jeter (jett- before a mute syllable), 

jeu m. (pi. -x), game, sport; ~ 

d'esprit, riddle; maison de <*>, 

gambling house 
jeudi m., Thursday 
jeun : a ~, fasting 
jeune, young 
jeunesse/, youth 
joie/, joy 
joindre (joignant, joint, joins, 

joignis), join (tr.) ; se ~ a, join 

joli, pretty 
joliment, prettily 
jouer, play 
jouir (de), enjoy 
joujou m. (pi. -x), plaything 
jour m., day; un~, some day; huit 

<~s,aweek; denost*>s,inourday; 

~ de Pan, New Year's Day 
journal m. (pi. -aux), newspaper 
journaliste m., journalist 
journeX/1, day (with its happenings) 
juge m., judge 
juillet m., July 
juin m., June 
Jules, Julius 
Julie, Julia 

jumeau (/ jumelle), twin 

jupe/, skirt 

jus ;//., juice, gravy 

jusque, up to, even ; jusqu'a, even 

to, as far as, until ; jusqu'a ce 

que, until.; jusqu'alors, up to 

that time 
juste, just ; c'est ~, that 's right 
justice f, justice ; rendre la «~, 

administer justice 

kilo m., kilogram (2.2 pounds) 
kilometre m., kilometer (.62 miles) 

1', elided form ofle and la 

la,/! ofle : art., the ; pron., her, it 

la, there (1 94); par-ci par-~, here 

and there 
la-bas, over there, yonder 
labeur **., labor, toil 
lac m., lake 
laine/i, wool 
laisser, let 
lait m., milk 
laitue/i, lettuce 
langue/i, language; tongue 
laquelle,/! ^/"lequel 
large, broad, wide 
largeur/, width 
laver, wash 

le art. (f la, pi. les), the 
lepron. (f la, pi. les), him, it; so 
le$onf, lesson 
lecture /, reading ; lecon de ~, 

reading lesson 
16gende/, legend 
\6ger (/ -ere), light, slight 
legion/!, legion 



legislatif (/. -ve), legislative 
legitime, legitimate 
legume m., vegetable 
lendemain m., next day 
lequel int. ftron. (f. laquelle, pi. 

lesquels, lesquelles) ; which 
lequel rel. ftron. (f. laquelle, ftl. 

lesquels, lesquelles), which, that, 

who, whom 
les, ftl. ofle, la : art., the ; ftron., 

lesquels, ftl. of lequel 
lettre /., letter ; a la ~, literally, 

exactly ; boite aux ~s, letter box ; 

en toutes ~s, in full 
leur fters. ftron., to them, them 
leur ftoss. adj. {ftl. -s), their ; le ~ 

ft oss. ftron., theirs 
lever, raise ; se ~, arise, get up 
liberal (ftl. -aux), liberal 
liberty/, liberty 
libraire m., bookseller 
libre, free 
lieu m. (ftl. -x), place; avoir ^, 

take place ; donner ~ a, give 

rise to 
ligne/i, line; pecher a la ~, fish, 

limited, limit 
linge m., linen 
lire (lisant, lu, lis, lus), read 
lis, fires, ind., imv. lire, read 
lis [lis] m., lily 

lisant, ftres. ftart. lire, reading 
lisons, lisez, lisent, ftres. lire, read 
liste/, list 
lit, ftres. lire, reads 
lit m., bed 

litre m., liter (about a quart) 

litt^raire, literary 

literature f. , li terature 

livre m., book 

Xxvxef., pound 

locality/, locality 

locomotive /., locomotive 

locution/], saying 

loif., law 

loin, far 

Loire /., Loire, a large river in 
central France 

loisir m., leisure ; heures de ~, 
leisure time 

Londres m., London 

long adj. (f. longue), long 

long m., length ; le ~ de, along, by 

longtemps, long, a long time 

longuement, at length 

longueur/, length 

Lorraine /., a province in north- 
east France 

lors, then ; ~ de, at the time of 

lorsque, when 

lot m., parcel, lot 

louer, praise ; rent 

Louis, Louis; ~ XIV, king of 
France (1643-17 15); ~ XV, 
king of France (1 7 1 5-1 774); ~ 
XVI, king of France (1 774— 
1792); ~-Philippe, king of 
France (1830- 1848) 

lourd, heavy 

Louvre m., a famous museum in 

lu, ftast ftart. lire, read 

lui, to him, him, to her, her, to it; 
disj., he, it 



lui-m§me, himself, itself 

luire (luisant, lui, luis, luisis), shine 

lumiere/, light 

lundi m., Monday 

lune/, moon 

luxe «., luxury 

Luxembourg m., a famous palace 

and garden in Paris 
Lyon m., Lyons, an important 

French city 
lyrique, lyric 

M., abbreviation for monsieur 

m', elided form, of me 

ma,/ of mon, my 

MacMahon, a French marshal 

madame f {pi. mesdames), Mrs., 

Madeleine/., a church in Paris 

mademoiselle f. {pi. mesdemoi- 
selles), Miss 

magasin m., store ; fille de ~, 
clerk, salesgirl; garcon de ~, 
clerk ; ~ de nouveautSs, depart- 
ment store 

magistrat m., magistrate 

magnifique, magnificent 

magnitude/, size 

mai m., May 

main/, hand 

maintenant, now 

maintenu, past part, maintenir, 

maire m., mayor (administrator of 
a French commune) 

mais co?ij., but 

mais intj., why ! ~ oui (si) ! yes 
indeed ! 

maison [me-z5] /, house ; a la ~, 
at home 

maitre in., teacher (of a primary 
school) ; e* d'£cole, schoolmaster ; 
e>» d' hotel, steward 

maitresse/, schoolmistress 

majestueux (/ -se), imposing 

majeur, important, great 

mal adv., badly, ill 

mal m. {pi. maux), evil, harm, 
pain ; faire «• a, hurt ; avoir ~ a 
la gorge, have a sore throat ; avoir 
<X5 a la tete, have a headache ; ~ 
d'estomac, stomach ache - 

malade adj., sick 

malade m. andf, patient 

maladie/, disease 

male, vigorous, manly 

malgre\ in spite of 

malin (/ maligne), mischievous, 
sly, shrewd 

malle/, trunk ; faire une ~, pack 
a trunk 

manche/, sleeve 

manchette/, cuff 

manger, eat; salle a ~, dining- 

maniere/, manner 

manque m., lack 

manquer (de), fail (to) 

manteau m. {pi. -x), cloak 

maquereau m. {pi. -x), mackerel 

maquignon m., dealer, jobber 

marchand m., merchant; <*> ambu- 
lant, pushcart peddler 

marchander, bargain, haggle 

marchandise /, merchandise ; 



marche" m., market; bargain; au 
~, to market ; bon ~, cheap ; ~ 
aux fleurs, flower market 

marcher, walk, march 

mardi m., Tuesday 

marecage m., swamp 

marechal m., marshal 

mari m., husband 

Marie, Mary ; ^-Antoinette, wife 
of Louis XVI, an Austrian by 

maritime, maritime 

mars [ma:rs] m., March 

Marseillaise /.', French national 

Marseille f, Marseilles, a city in 
southern France 

math^maticien m., mathematician 

math£matique/!, mathematics 

matin adv., early 

matin m., morning, a.m.; le ~, 
in the morning, mornings 

maudire (maudissant, maudit, 
maudis, maudis), curse 

mauvais [mo-ve], bad 

maux, pi. ofmal 

mayonnaise, mayonnaise 

me, me, to me ; refl., myself 

m£chant, naughty, wicked, poor 

m£decin m., doctor, physician 

m^decine/, medicine 

medicament m., medicine 

M^dicis m., Medici, a famous Ital- 
ian family 

M£diterran£e_/;, Mediterranean 

m£fait m., misdeed 

meilleur, better ; le ~, (the) best 

membre m., member 

meme, same, self, even; en <*> 
temps, at the same time ; ~ de"ja, 
before this ; un ~, one and the 
same ; de <*>, likewise 

rnkmovref, memory 

menaced, threat 

mener, lead 

mens, mentez, pres. mentir, lie 

mentionner, mention 

mentir (mentant, menti, mens, 
mentis), lie (tell a falsehood) 

menu m., menu, bill of fare 

m£pris **., scorn 

mer/, sea 

merci, thank you 

mercredi m., Wednesday 

mere/], mother 

m^rite m, t merit 

m£riter, deserve 

mes, pi. 0/"mon, my 

mesdames, pi. of madame 

mesdemoiselles, pi. of mademoi- 

message m., message 

messieurs,//, 0/" monsieur 

mesure/i, measure ; sur ~, made 
to order 

mesurer, measure 

met, pres. mettre, puts 

m^thode/;, method 

metre m., meter (39.37 inches) 

mettre (mettant, mis, mets, mis), 
put, put on, place ; se ^ a, begin 
to; se ~ au beau, become fine 

meubl6, furnished 

meubles m. pi., furniture 



meurs, meurt, pres. mourir, die, 

meutey^, pack (of hounds) 
midi m., noon, twelve o'clock 
mien : le ~ (f. la mienne), mine 
mieux, better, preferable; le ~, 
(the) best; faire de son ~, do 
one's best ; valoir ~, be better, 
be preferable 
mil [mil], thousand (in dates) 
milieu /«., middle ; au ~ de, in the 
middle of; tout au ~, right in 
the middle 
militaire, military 
mille [mil], (a) thousand 
mille [mil] m., mile 
milliard [mi-lja:r] m., billion 
millier [mi-lje] m., thousand 
million [mi-lj5] m., million 
mineur, lesser, smaller 
ministre m,, minister 
minuit m., midnight, twelve o'clock 
miserable, miserable, wretched 
mit, past def mettre, put 
M Ue , abbreviation for mademoi- 
MM., abbreviation for messieurs 
M me , abbreviation for madame 
mobilier m., furnishings, furniture 
mode m., method ; mode, mood 
mode/;, fashion, style 
modele m., model 
moderne, modern 
modeste, modest 
modiste m. andf, milliner 
moeurs [mce:rs]_/^/., morals 
moi, me, to me, I 
moi-meme, myself 

moindre, less ; le ~, (the) least 

moins (de), less, fewer ; le ~, (the) 
least, fewest ; au ~ } at least ; a 
~ que, unless 

mois m., month 

moisson/i, harvest 

moitte/, half 

mol, see mou 

Moliere /«., a great French drama- 
tist of the seventeenth century 

molle, fof mou 

moment /«., moment, while 

mon (f ma, pi. mes), my 

monde m., world, people ; tout le 
<*>, everybody ; du ~, company 

monnaie/, change, money 

monsieur [ma-sjo] m. {pi. mes- 
sieurs), Mr., sir ; gentleman 

mont m., mount 

montagne/, mountain 

monter, climb, go up(stairs); get 
in ; cv. a cheval, ride horseback 

montre verb, show(s) 

montre/!, watch 

montrer, show ; montrez-moi, show 

monument m., monument, object 
of interest 

moquer : se ~ de, make fun of 

morceau m. (pi. -x), piece ; selection 

morcellement m., parceling out, 

mordre, bite 

mort, past part, mourir, died, dead 

mort/, death 

mortel (f -He), mortal 

mot m., word, saying 

motif m., motive 



mou {before a vowel mol ; f. molle, 

m. pi. mous), soft 
mouchoir m., handkerchief 
moudre (moulant, moulu, mouds, 

moulus), grind 
moulin m. t mill 
mourir (mourant, mort, meurs, 

mourus), die 
mourut, past def. mourir, died 
mousse/., moss 
moustache/, mustache 
mouton m., mutton 
mouvement m., moving about, 

mouvoir (mouvant, mu, meus, mus), 

moyen adj. (f. -nne), average, 

moyen m., means, way 
mugir, bellow 
multitude/, multitude 
munir (de), furnish (with) 
mur m., wall 
mur, ripe 
murir, ripen 
musee m., museum 
musicien m., musician 
musique/, music 

n', elided form ofne 

nager, swim 

naissance/, birth 

naitre (naissant, n£, nais, naquis), 
be born 

Napoleon, Napoleon ; «»' I (Bona- 
parte), emperor of France (i 804- 
1814); ~ HI, emperor of the 
French (1852-1870) 

nappe/, tablecloth 

naquit, past def naitre, was born 

nasal {pi. -aux), nasal 

natal, native 

nation/, nation 

national {pi. -aux), national 

nature/, nature 

naturel (/ -He), natural 

naturellement, naturally, of course 

navarin m., stew, ragout 

ne, not; not translated, see 305 

and 307, a, Note; «> . . . pas, not 
ne*, past part, naitre, born 
ne*cessaire, necessary 
n£cessit6/, necessity 
n£gliger, neglect 
neige/, snow 
neiger, snow 
net [net] (/ -tte), clear 
nettoyer, clean 

neuf (/ neuve), new (newly made) 
neuf (216, a), nine 
neuvieme, ninth 
neveu m. {pi. -x), nephew 
nez m., nose 
ni, nor ; ne . . . ~ ne, neither . . . 

nor ; ne . . . ~ . . . ~, neither . . . 

nor ; see 1 7 1 
nid m., nest 
niece/, niece 
nier, deny 

Nimes/, a city in southern France 
noble, noble 
noir, black 
noix/, nut 
nom m., name 
nombre m., number 
nombreux (/ -se), numerous 



nommer, name 

nommez, name 

non, no 

nord /«., north 

nord-ouest [nor-dwest] m., north- 

Normandie/i, Normandy, a prov- 
ince in northern France 

nos, pi. #/"notre, our 

notamment, notably 

notre^w. adj. {pi. nos), our 

notre : le ~ poss. pron., ours 

Notre-Dame/, a cathedral in Paris 

nouer, tie 

nourrir, feed, support; se ~ de, 
live upon 

nous, we, us, to us ; d/sj., us, we ; 
refl., ourselves ; ~ tous, we all, 
all of us 

nous-memes, ourselves 

nouveau {before a vowel nouvel ; f. 
nouvelle, m. pi. nouveaux), new, 
different (326,/); de <*>, again 

nouvel, see nouveau 

nouvelle,/ ^/ nouveau 

nouvelles /.pi., news ; recevoir de 
vos ~, get news from you 

novembre m.\ November 

noyer m., walnut tree 

nuage m., cloud 

nuire (nuisant, nui, nuis, nuisis), 

nuit /., night ; de la *», the night 

nul {/. -He), no 

numenque, numerical 

numero m., number 

nymphe/, nymph 

oasis [wa-zis]/, oasis 
ob&r (a), obey 
obelisque m., obelisk 
oberleutenant m. {a German- 

Fre?ich word), first lieutenant 
obligeant, obliging 
obliger, oblige 
obtenir (obtenant, obtenu, obtiens, 

obtins), obtain 
occasion/^, occasion, chance; a la 

moindre ~, on the least occasion ; 

d'~, second-hand 
occidental {pi. -aux), western 
occupy, busy, occupied 
occuper, occupy 
ocean ///., ocean 
octobre «r.j October 
odieux {/. -se), odious 
ceil m. {pi. yeux), eye ; coup d'~>, 

OBuf m. {pi. ceufs [0]), egg 
ceuvre/!, work 

offert, past part, offrir, offered 
officier m. t officer 
offrir (offrant, offert, offre, offris), 

oh! oh! 

oiseau m. {pi. -x), bird 
omelette/, omelet 
omnibus [om-ni-bys] m.: ~ a che- 

vaux, omnibus drawn by horses 
on, one, we, you, they ; somebody, 

people (242, 243) ; l'~, see 243, 

Note 2 
oncle m., uncle 
ont, pres. avoir, have 
onze, eleven 
op£ra m., opera, opera house 



orw., gold ; d'~>, gold, of gold 
orage m., storm 
orageux (f. -se), stormy 
orange/, orange 
orchestre m., orchestra 
ordinaire, ordinary 
ordinairement, ordinarily 
ordonner, order 
ordre m., order ; donner P~ (de), 

give orders (to) 
oreille/, ear 

original (pi. -aux), original 
Orleans m., Orleans, a city in France 
orner (de), ornament (with) 
orthographe /., spelling, orthog- 
os [ds] m. (pi. os [o]), bone 
oser, dare 
Ostende/, Ostend, a Belgian town 

on the North Sea 
oter, take off 
ou, or 
oil, where ; at which, in which ; 

d'~, whence, from where; par 

«>, through which 
oublier, forget 
ouest [west] m., west; a l'~, in 

the west 
oui, yes ; mais <*> ! yes indeed ! 
ours [urs] ?n., bear 
outre : en ~, besides 
ouvert, past part, ouvrir, opened, 

ouverture/, opening 
ouvrage m., work 
ouvrir (ouvrant, ouvert, ouvre, 

ouvris), open 
ovale, oval 

page/, page 

paie, pres. payer, pay(s) 

paille/, straw 

pain m., bread 

paire/, pair 

paix/, peace 

palais m., palace 

pale, pale 

pancarte/, placard 

panier m., crate, basket 

pan talon m., trousers 

papier m., paper 

paquet m., bundle 

par, through, by; with units of 

time, 2l\ ev>-ci ~-la, here and 

there ; ~ ici, this way 
paradis m., paradise 
paragraphe m., paragraph 
paraitre (paraissant, paru, parais, 

parus), appear 
parapluie m., umbrella 
pare m, t park 
parce que, because 
parcourir (parcourant, parcouru, 

parcours, parcourus),pass through 
pardessus m., overcoat 
pardon m., pardon 
pardonner (a), pardon 
pareil (f. -lie), like, similar 
parents m. pi., parents 
paresseux (/ -se), lazy, idle 
parfaitement, excellently 
parfum m., perfume 
Paris m., Paris 
parisien (/ -nne), Parisian 
parlement m., parliament 
parler, speak, talk ; ~ de, talk about, 

speak of ; entendre ~, hear tell 



parmi, among 

parole/, word 

pars, pres. partir, start 

parseine" (de), dotted (with) 

part, pres. partir, starts 

part /., part, share ; prendre ~ a, 
take part in ; de la ~ de, on the 
part of ; de ma ~, from me 

partager, share 

partez, pres. partir, start 

parti, past part, partir, started 

parti m., party (political) 

partial, partial 

participation /, participation 

participe m., participle 

particulier (/ -ere), private, pe- 
culiar, particular 

particulierement, particularly 

partie/, part; party, game 

partir (partant, parti, pars, partis), 
start, leave 

partout, everywhere 

parut, past def. paraitre, appeared 

parvis m. y space before a church 

pas adv., not ; ne . . . ~, not ; ne 
. . . ~ de, no, not any, not a ; 
~ du tout, by no means 

pas m., step ; strait 

passage m. t passage 

passe" adj., past, last 

pass6 «., past 

passeport m., passport 

passer, pass, go by ; spend (time) ; 
se ~ de, do without 

patrie^, native land 

patriote m., patriot 

pauvre, poor; needy (326,/) 

pauvret6_/i, poverty 

Pavie,/, Pavia, a city in Italy 
payer (pai- before a mute syllable), 

pay, pay for 
pays m., country 
pay sage m. t landscape 
paysan m. (f. -nne), peasant 
peau/ (pi. -x), skin 
pechey^, peach 
peche/, fishing 

pecher, fish ; ~ a la ligne, fish, angle 
p<§dagogie/, pedagogy 
peigne m, t comb 
peigner, comb ; se ~, comb one's 

peindre (peignant, peint, peins, 

peignis), paint 
peine f., trouble ; a ~, scarcely ; 

prendre (se donner) la cv> (de), 

take the trouble (to) 
peintre ;;/., painter 
peinture/, painting 
penchant ///., inclination 
pendant, during, for ; ~ que, while 
pens^e/i, thought 
penser, think ; ~ a, think of, think 

about (put the mind on) ; ~ de, 

think of, think about (have an 

opinion of) 
penseur m. t thinker 
pension/!, boarding house 
perdre, lose 
pere m., father 
permettre (permettant, permis, 

permets, permis), permit 
persil [per-si] m. t parsley 
personnage m., personage 
personnel, person ; m., anybody, 

nobody ; ne . . . ««, nobody 



personnel (f. -lie), personal 

personnifier, impersonate 

perte/i, loss, casualties 

petit, little, small ; petty (326,/) 

pgtrir, knead 

peu (de), little, few ; ~ a ~, little by 

little, gradually ; sous <*>, shortly 
peuple m., people, tribe 
peupler (de), people (with) 
peur/!, fear ; avoir ~, be afraid 
peut, pres. pouvoir, can ; on ne ~ 

plus, exceedingly, extremely 
peut-etre, perhaps 
peux, peuvent, pres. pouvoir, can 
pharmacien m., druggist 
photo f., photo, photograph 
photographie/i, photograph 
phrase f., sentence, phrase 
piano m., piano 
piece f. } piece ; room 
pied m., foot 

pedestal m. {pi. -aux), pedestal 
Pierre, Peter 
piston 7//., pedestrian 
pigeon m., pigeon, squab 
pipe f., pipe ; fumer la <~>, smoke 

a pipe 
piquant, sharp 
pire, worse ; le <v } (the) worst 
pis, worse ; le «», (the) worst 
pittoresque, picturesque 
place/!, seat (in a theater); place, 

space, room ; square (in a city) ; 

os du parvis, church square 
placer, place 
plaire (plaisant, plu, plais, plus), 

please (intr.) ; ~ a, please {tr.) 
plaisir m., pleasure 

plait, pres. plaire, pleases; s'il 
vous (te) plait, if you please; 
~-il ? what did you say ? 

plan m., plan, ground; arriere-~, 
background ; premier ~, fore- 

plat m., dish, plate; deux ~s au 
choix, choice of two dishes 

platre m., plaster 

plein, full 

pleurer, weep 

pleuvoir (pleuvant, plu, il pleut, il 
plut), rain 

pluie/, rain 

plume/, pen 

plupart f*, greater part, most ; la 
«*> (des), most (of) ; pour la ~, 

pluriel »»., plural 

plus (de), more (105); no more, 
no longer ; le ~, (the) most ; ne 
... ~, no more, no longer ; de 
~ en <x>, more and more 

plusieurs, several 

Plutarque m., Plutarch, a Greek 

plutot, rather 

poche/, pocket 

poesie_/i, poetry 

poete m., poet 

point adv., not at all ; ne . . . <~>, 
not at all 

point m., point, place ; sur le *» de, 
on the point of, about to 

poire/, pear 

poirier m., pear tree 

pois *»., pea: petits ~, green 



poisson m., fish 

poitrine/, chest 

poli, polite 

politique adj., political 

politique/, politics 

pomme /., apple; *a de terre, po- 
tato ; ~s nouvelles, new potatoes 

pommier in., apple tree 

pont in., bridge 

populaire, popular 

population/^, population 

pore [po:r] m. t pig ; pork 

portail in., front, portal 

porte/, door 

porte-plume m., penholder 

porter, carry, bear, wear ; se ~, 
be (of health) ; comment vous 
portez-vous ? how do you do ? 

portiere f., door (of an omnibus) 

portrait m., portrait 

poser, put, place 

position/!, position 

posse'der, possess 

possible, possible 

postal (pi. -aux), postal 

poste/i, post; bureau de ~, post 
office ; mettre a la ~, post, mail ; 
~ restante, general delivery 

poster, place, station, post 

potage in., soup 

pou m. (pi. -x), louse 

poulet »»., chicken 

pouls [pu] m. t pulse 

pour, for; with inf., in order to; 
~ que, in order that; <*> dix 
francs, ten francs 1 worth 

pourboire m., tip 

pourquoi, why 

pourr-, fut., cond. pouvoir (to be 

pourvoir (pourvoyant, pourvu, 

pourvois, pourvus) (de), provide 

pourvu que, provided that, if only 
pousser, grow 
pouvoir (pouvant, pu, peux (puis), 

pus), be able, can 
pouvoir ;//., power 
pre" m., field, pasture, meadow 
precedent, preceding 
precher, preach 
pr&ieux (f. -se), precious 
pr£cipiter, hasten 
pr^dicateur m., preacher 
prefecture (f.) de police, police 

pr^f^rable, preferable 
pr^f^rer, prefer 
pr£fet 111., prefect (administrator 

of a French department) 
premier (f. -ere), first; ~ plan, 

prendre (prenant pris, prends, pris), 

take, get ; ~ a, take from 
preparatif in., preparation 
prepare, prepared 
preparer, prepare 
pres de, near 

prescription/, prescription 
prescrire (prescrivant, present, 

prescris, prescrivis), prescribe 
present m., present (time) 
presenter, introduce 
president m., president 
presque, almost 
presse, hurried, in a hurry, busy 



pressentir (pressentant, pressen- 
ti, pressens, pressentis), foresee, 

pret (a), ready (to) 

preter, lend 

pr£tre m., priest 

preVenir (prevenant, pre>enu, pr6- 
viens, pre>ins), inform, tell 

prier, pray, beg; je vous prie, 
please (I beg you) 

priere f., prayer ; ~ de ne pas, 
please not 

primaire, elementary 

prince m., prince 

princesses, princess 

principal (pi. -aux), principal 

principalement, principally, mainly 

principaut^/i, principality 

printemps m. t spring; au ~, in 
(the) spring 

pris, past part, prendre, taken 

prise f. t capture 

prison/:, prison 

prisonnier m. (f. -ere), prisoner 

prit, past def. prendre, took 

prix m., price 

probable, probable 

prochain, next 

proche, near 

proclamation/:, proclamation 

proclamer, proclaim 

procurer, procure 

produit, past part, produire, pro- 

professeur m., professor 

profond, deep 

progres, m., progress 

promenade^, walk 

promener, walk, take for a walk ; 

se ~, take a walk 
promeneur m. and/., pedestrian 
promesse/:, promise; tenir sa <~, 

keep one's promise 
promettre (promettant, promis, 

promets, promis), promise; ~ 

de, promise to 
promis, past part, promettre, 

prononcer, pronounce ; se 03, be 

prononciation/:, pronunciation 
propos m., purpose; a ~, fitting, 

propre, own; clean (326,/) 
proprtetaire *»., landlord 
propriety:, property, estate 
prouver, prove 
proverbe m., proverb 
province/:, province(s) 
proximity/:, nearness, proximity 
prudent, careful 
Prusse/:, Prussia 
prussien (f. -nne), Prussian 
pu, past part, pouvoir (to be able) 
public adj. (f. publique), public 
public m., public 
publier, publish 
puis, then 

puisse, puissions, fares, subj. pou- 
voir (to be able) 
punir, punish 
punition/:, punishment 
pupitre in., desk (of the pupil) 
pur, pure 
purge/, soup 
put, imp. stibj. pouvoir (to be able) 



qu', elided form of que 

quai [ke] m., quay, wharf, plat- 

quality/, quality 

quand, when 

quant a, as for 

quarante, forty 

quart m., quarter, fourth 

quartier m., quarter, section 

quatorze, fourteen 

quatre, four 

quatre-vingts, eighty 

quatrieme, fourth 

que int. pron., what; qu'est-ce qui, 
what (323); qu'est-ce ~, what 
(323); qu'est-ce que c'est que 
cela ? what is that ? 

que rel.pron., which, whom, that; 
ce **>, what, that which 

que conj., that, than, as ; with 
subj., may, let; ne . . . ~, only 

quel (f. -He), what, which, what a; 
«v> que, whatever 

quelconque, any whatever, of any 

quelque, some little, some; pi., 
a (some) few, some, several ; ~ 
chose, something, anything ; 
■w . . . que, whatever 

quelquefois, sometimes 

quelqu'un (/ -e), somebody, any- 
body ; pi. quelques-uns, some 

question yC, question; etre ~, be 
a question ; faire une c*>, ask a 

questionnef, question 

qui int. pron., who, whom ; a <>>, 
whose ; de ~, whose ; ~ est-ce <~, 

who (323); ~ est-ce que, whom, 
who (323); <*> que, whoever 

qui rel. pron., who, whom, which, 
that ; ce ~, what, that which 

quinze, fifteen 

quitter, leave 

quoi int. pron., what 

quoi rel.pron., what; 00 • > . «», 
what, that which; de <~, some- 
thing ; ~ que, whatever ; il n'y 
a pas de <*>, it 's not worth men- 

quoique, although 

race/!, race 

raisin m., grape 

raison/, reason ; avoir ~, be right 

ralliement m. t rallying 

ramasser, collect 

rangtef, row 

ranimer, revive 

rappeler, recall, remind of 

rapporter, bring back, carry back, 

take back 
rare, rare 
rarement, rarely 
raser, shave 
rayon m., department, counter, 

shelf; ray 
rayonner, radiate 
reality, reality 
recalcitrant, stubborn 
re"cemment, recently 
recent, recent 
recevoir (recevant, recu, recois, 

recus), receive 
reciter, recite 
reclamer, claim 



recois, regoit, fires, recevoir, re- 

recommander, register (of mail) 

recommencer, begin again 

reconnu, recognized 

recu, fiast fiart. recevoir, received 

redevenir (redevenant, redevenu, 
redeviens, redevins), become 

redire (redisant, redit, redis, redis), 
say again 

refuser, refuse 

r£gal «*., feast, treat 

regarder, look, look at (upon) 

regiment m., regiment 

region/!, region 

regie /., ruler, rule 

regne »., reign 

r£gner, reign 

regret in., regret 

regretter, regret 

r£gulier (f. -ere), regular 

Reims [re:s] m., Rheims, a cathe- 
dral city in northern France 

reined, queen 

relache m., respite, rest 

relief m., relief 

religieusement, religiously 

religieux (/ -se), religious 

religion/!, religion 

relique/, relic 

relire (relisant, relu, relis, relus), 

remarquable, remarkable 

remarque/i, remark 

remarquer, notice ; se faire ~, at- 
tract notice 

remercier (de), thank (for) 

remettre (remettant, remis, remets, 
remis), put again, put on again ; 
postpone ; se ~ au beau, become 
fine again 

remonter, go up, ascend 

remplacer, replace 

remplir (de), fill (with) 

r£mun£rer (de), pay (for) 

renaissance /, rebirth; Renais- 
sance, the revival of art and liter- 
ature in the sixteenth century 

renard ///., fox 

rencontrer, meet, come across (tr.) ; 
se ~, meet (i?itr.) 

rendez-vous ?/z., meeting place 

rendre, give back, render; se ~, 
surrender ; se ~ a, go to, repair 
to ; ~ la justice, administer jus- 
tice ; ~ responsable (de), make 
responsible (for) ; se <~ compte, 
have an idea, realize 

renfermer, contain 

renomine\ renowned 

renoncer (a), give up 

renseignements m. fi/., informa- 

renseigner, inform, post 

rentrer, return, go back (into), 
enter again 

renvoyer (renvoyant, renvoyS, ren- 
voie, renvoyai), send back 

repartie/i, reply, retort 

repas m., meal 

repentir (repentant, repenti, repens, 
repentis) : se ~> (de), repent (of) 

repertoire m., repertory, list 

r£p£ter, repeat 

replet {/. -ete), corpulent 



replique/, reply 
r£pondre, reply (to), answer 
r£ponse/;, reply, answer 
reporter, take (carry) back 
repos m., rest 

reposer, rest ; se <*>, rest (mtr.)i 
repousser, drive back, repulse 
representation/, performance 
repr^senter, represent, perform 
reproduire (reproduisant, reproduit, 

reproduis, reproduisis), reproduce 
r£publique/;, republic 
re"server, reserve 
residence /., residence 
resistance /., resistance 
r£soudre (r£solvant, r£solu, resous, 

resolus), resolve; se ~ a, be 

resolved to 
responsable, responsible; rendre 

~ de, make responsible for 
ressembler (a), resemble 
restante : poste ~, general delivery 
restaurant m., restaurant 
rester, remain, stay 
r£sultat m, t result 
retard : en ~, late 
retenir (retenant, retenu, retiens, 

retins), retain, keep back 
retour m., return ; etre de ~, be 

retourner, return; se ~, turn 

r£unir, unite, join; se ~, meet, 

r£ussir (a), succeed (in) 
reVeiller, wake ; se ~, wake up 
revenir (revenant, revenu, reviens, 

revins), come back 

revenu, past part, revenir, come 

reverdir, grow green again 
revient, reviennent, pres. revenir, 

come(s) back 
revins, past def. revenir, came back 
revoir(revoyant, revu, revois, revis), 

see again ; au ~, good-by 
revolution/!, revolution 
reVolutionnaire m., revolutionist 
revue/!, magazine 
rez-de-chauss£e ;//., ground floor 
Rhin m. t Rhine 
rhume m., cold (disease) 
riche, rich 
richement, richly 
richesses f. pi., riches, wealth 
rideau m. {pi. -x), curtain 
rien, nothing, anything ; ne . . . ~, 

rire (riant, ri, ris, ris), laugh ; se ~ 

de, laugh at 
rive/;, shore, bank 
riviere/;, river (small) 
robe /, dress; pommes de terre 

en ~ de chambre, potatoes served 

in their skins 
robuste, strong, sturdy 
roi w., king 
role m., role, part 
romain adj., Roman 
Romain m., Roman 
roman «., novel 
romancier m., novelist 
Rome/;, Rome 
rompre, break 
rond, round 
rosbif m., roast beef 



roti m., roast 

Rouen m., a city in northern France 

rouge, red 

rouler, roll 

route f., highway, road ; en <*> pour, 

on the way to 
roux {/. -sse), red, tawny 
royal {pi. -aux), royal 
royaliste m., royalist 
ruban m., ribbon 
rude, rude, uncouth 
rue/!, street 
rugueux (/. -se), rough 
ruisseau in. {pi. -x), brook 
rural {pi. -aux), rural 
Russie/i, Russia 

s', elided form ofse and si 

sa,/! of son, his, her, its 

sac m., bag, valise 

sacr£, holy, sacred 

sais, sait [se],pres. savoir, know(s) 

saillie/;, projection ; faire ~, pro- 

saint m. {/. -e), saint 

saisir, seize, grasp ; se ~ de, take, 

saison/;, season 

salade/:, salad 

salle f, room ; <~ de classe, class- 
room ; ~ a manger, dining-room ; 
~ d'attente, waiting-room 

salon m., parlor 

salutation/!, salutation 

samedi «*., Saturday 

sang m., blood 

sans, without (a, any); <~> que, 

sanUf, health 

Sarrasin in., Saracen 

satiriste m., satirist 

satisfait (de), satisfied (with) 

sauce/!, sauce, dressing 

saucisson in., sausage 

sauf, except 

saur-,/«/., cond. savoir (to know) 

sauver, save ; se ~, run away 

sauveur m., savior 

Savoie f, Savoy, a province in 
southeast France 

savoir (sachant, su, sais, sus), 
know ; faire ~, inform 

savon m., soap 

scene/!, scene 

science/!, science 

se, himself, herself, itself, them- 
selves ; each other, one another 

stance/!, sitting, meeting 

Sevastopol m., a fortified seaport 
in the Crimea, Russia 

sec {/. seche), dry 

second [ss-go], second 

secondaire [s9-go-de:r], secondary 

secours in., safety, aid 

secret {/. -ete), secret 

sicnritif, safety 

seigneur in., lord, noble 

sein in., bosom ; midst 

Seine/!, a river in northern France 

seize, sixteen 

sSjour m., stay 

sel m., salt 

selon, according to 

semaine/;, week 

sembler, seem 

semer, sow 



se*nat m., senate 

secateur m., senator 

sens [sa:s] m., sense 

sensible, noticeable 

sentiment *r., sentiment 

sentir (sentant, senti, sens, sentis), 

feel, smell ; se ev>, feel (of health) 
separer, separate 
sept [set ; 216, a], seven 
septembre m, t September 
serai, sera,////, etre (to be) 
s£rail *f., seraglio • 

serait, cond. etre, would be 
serez,/w/. etre, will be 
serie/, series 
seriez, cond. etre, would be 
seront,/#A etre, will be 
serrer, press; ~ la main, shake 

sers, sert, fires, servir, serve(s) 
servez, fires, servir, serve 
servi, fiast fiart. servir, served 
service m., service 
serviette/;, napkin 
servir (servant, servi. sers, servis), 

serve ; ~ de, serve as ; se ~ de, 

ses, fit. of son, his, her 
seul, alone; only, (a) single one 

seulement, only 
severe, severe 

si adv., so ; yes ; ~ . . . que, so ... as 
si con/., if, whether 
siecle m., century 
siege m., seat 
sien : le <~> (/ la sienne), his, hers, 


signature/, signature 

sillon m., furrow 

sillonner, mark, streak 

simple, simple 

simultan£ment, simultaneously 

sire m., my lord 

situ.6, situated 

six [sis ; 216, a\ six 

sixieme [si-zje:m], sixth 

soci£t6/, society 

soeur/, sister 

soi, one's self, itself 

soie/, silk 

soient, fires, subj. etre (to be) 

soif /, thirst ; avoir ~, be thirsty 

soigner, tend 

soin 711., care, service ; aux ~s de, 

in care of 
soir m., evening; le ~, in the 

evening, evenings ; hier ~, last 

soiree/, evening (with its happen- 
Soissons m., a city in northern 

soit, fires, subj. etre (to be) 
soixante [swa-sa:t], sixty 
soldat m., soldier 
solde m., remnant; vente de ~s, 

clearance sale 
solde/, wages 
soleil m., sun 
sombre, dark, gloomy 
sommeil m., sleep; avoir <~, be 

sommes, fires, etre, are 
sommet m., summit, top 
son (/ sa, fil. ses), his, her, its 



sonne, rings 

sonner, ring, strike (of a clock) 

sont, fires, etre, are 

sorcier m. {/. -ere), sorcerer 

sors, sort, fires, sortir, go(es) out 

sort m., fate 

sortait, imp. sortir, went out 

sorte /., kind ; de ~ que, so that ; 

de toutes ~s, of all kinds 
sortez, pres. sortir, go out 
sorti, past part, sortir, gone out 
sortie /, leaving, dismissal; exit 
sortir (sortant, sorti, sors, sortis), 

go out 
sot {/. -tte), stupid 
sou m., sou (one twentieth of a 

franc), cent 
souffrir (souffrant, souffert, souffre, 

souffris), suffer 
Soulier m., (low) shoe 
souligner, underscore 
soupe/, soup 
souper m., supper 
souris/, mouse 
sous, under ; <*> peu, shortly 
sous-pr6fet m., subprefect (ad- 
ministrator of a French arron- 

soutiens, imv. soutenir, sustain 
souvenir (souvenant, souvenu, sou- 

viens, souvins), remember ; se ~ 

de, remember 
souvenir m., memory 
souvent, often 

soyez, pres. subj. etre (to be) 
spacieux (/ -se), roomy, spacious 
sp&ial (fit. -aux), special 
spectacle m., show, spectacle 

spectateur m., spectator 

spirale/, spiral ; en ~ 5 winding • 

station/, station 

statue/, statue 

Strasbourg m., Strasburg, a city 
in Alsace 

studieux (f. -se), studious 

style «*,, style 

stylo m., fountain pen 

su, fiast fiart. savoir, known 

subir, undergo 

subjonctif m., subjunctive 

subordonng, subordinate 

substantiel {/. -lie), substantial 

subvention/, subsidy 

succ£der, succeed 

successeur m., successor 

sucre m., sugar 

sud [syd] m., south 

suffire(suffisant, sutfi, suffis, suffis), 
be sufficient 

suis, fires, etre, am 

suis, fires, suivre, follow 

Suisse/, Switzerland 

suite /, succession, effect, con- 
tinuation ; a la ~ de, after ; des 
<v>s de, because of, from ; tout de 
<*>, immediately, at once 

suivant, following 

suivre (suivant, suivi, suis, suivis), 
follow ; ~ un cours, take a 
course ; faire ~, forward (mail) 

sujet adj. (/ -tte), subject, liable 

sujet m., subject; person 

superbe, superb 

superficie/, area 

supposer, suppose; suppose* que, 
supposing that 



supreme, supreme 

sur prep., on, over; ~ moi, about 

sur adj., sure 
surement, surely 
surnaturel (f. -lie), supernatural 
surpasser, surpass 
surprise^, surprise 
surtout, especially 
survivant m., survivor 
syllabe/, syllable 
symbole m., symbol 
sympathies, sympathy 
systeme «., arrangement, system 

t, see 89, b, Note 

t\ elided form ofte 

ta,f of ton, your, thy 

table/, table 

tableau m. (pi. -x), blackboard, 
picture ; au ~, on (at) the black- 

tablier m., apron 

tache/, task 

tactique/, tactics 

tailleur in., tailor 

taire (taisant, tu, tais, tus), say 
nothing of ; se ~, be silent 

talent m., ability 

Tamise f, Thames (the English 

tandis que, while 

tant (de), so much, so many ; ~ 
mieux, so much the better 

t&n-tef, aunt 

tapis m., carpet 

tapisserie/, tapestry 

taquiner, tease 

tard, late 

t&ssef, cup 

tater, feel 

te, you, to you, thee, to thee ; refl., 

thyself, yourself 
tel (f. -lie), such ; un <*>, such a ; 

~ que, such as; de ~le facon, 

in such a way 
temple m., temple 
temps in., time; weather; a <~, 

on time ; combien de ~, how 

long ; de tous les ~, at all times ; 

en meme ~, at the same time 
tendre verb, hand out 
tendre adj., delicate, tender 
tenir (tenant, tenu, tiens, tins), 

hold; ~ a, insist on, be eager 

to; ~ sa promesse, keep one's 

promise ; se <» debout, stand 
terme m., term 
terminer, finish, complete 
terrain in., ground 
terref, land ; pomme de cv>, potato 
terrestre, earthly 
tes, pi. 0/~ton, your, thy 
tetef, head ; mal a la ~, headache 
Texas in., Texas 
the* in., tea 

theatre in., theater, stage 
tiea : le tien (_/.' la tienne), thine, 

tiens, intj., well ! 
tiens, tient, pres. tenir, hold(s) 
tiers adj. (f tierce), third 
tiers in., third 
timbre in., stamp 
tirer, draw ; se ~ d'affaire, get 




toi, you, to you, thee, to thee, thou 

toile/, linen 

toilette/, toilet 

toi-meme, thyself 

tomate/, tomato 

tombeau m. (pi. -x), tomb 

tomber, fall 

ton (f. ta, pi. tes), your, thy 

tonnerre in., thunder ; il fait du «*>, 
it is thundering 

tort in., wrong ; avoir «*>, be wrong 

tot, soon 

toujours, always, ever 

tour in., turn 

tour/, tower 

Touraine/, a province in central 

tournelle/, little tower 

tourner, turn (/r.); se «>, turn (intr.) 

tout adj. andpron. (f. toute, 
tous (60)), all, every, everything, 
any; ~ le, the whole; tous les, 
every, all ; tous les deux, both ; 
<v. le monde, everybody; » ce 
qui (que), all (that) 

tout adv., entirely, very ; ~ a 
coup, suddenly ; ~ de suite, im- 
mediately, at once ; <~> en, (even) 

tracer, trace out 

tradition/, tradition 

traditionnel (/ -He), traditional 

traduire (traduisant, traduit, tra- 
duis, traduisis), translate 

trag^die/, tragedy 

trahir, betray 

trait m., feature, trait 

traite* in., treaty 

traitre (/ -resse), treacherous 

trajet m. % journey, route 

tramway m., street car 

transportation/, transportation 

travail m. {pi. -aux), work 

travaille\ worked 

travailler, work 

travers m. t width, breadth ; a ~, 
through, across 

traverser, cross 

treize, thirteen 

trente, thirty 

tres, very, very much 

tr£sor in., treasure 

tribu/, tribe 

tricentenaire m., tercentenary 

triste, sad; poor sort of (326,/) 

tristesse/, sorrow 

triomphal (pi. -aux), victorious 

triomphe m. t triumph 

trois, three 

troisieme, third 

tromper, deceive; se <*>, be mis- 

trompette/, bugle 

tronc [tro] m., trunk 

trop (de), too much, too many ; too 

trottoir m., sidewalk 

trou m., hole 

troupes/^/., forces, troops 

trouve, find(s) 

trouve\ found 

trouver, find ; se ~, be found, be 

tu, you, thou 

tuer, kill 

tuerie/, slaughter 

Tuileries/ pi., former palace and 
present park in Paris 



turc (f. turque), Turkish 
type, /«., type 
typique, typical 
tyrannies, tyranny 

un art. (f. -e), a, an 

un num. (f. -e), one; <~ meme, 
one and the same ; P<*>, one ; V<*> 
l'autre and les ~s les autres, see 
325 ; les ~s des autres, from 
each other ; P~ et l'autre, both 

uni, united 

union/, union 

unique, unique 

univers m., universe 

university/!, university 

user, wear out 

utile, useful 

utiliser, utilize 

va, fires, aller, goes, is going 

vacances f. pi., vacation ; etre en 
~, be on (a) vacation 

vache/i, cow 

vagabonder, wander 

vaincre (vainquant, vaincu, vaincs, 
vainquis), conquer, defeat 

vaincu, past part, vaincre, con- 

vais, pres. aller, go 

valait, imp. valoir, was worth 

valise/, valise 

valoir (valant, valu, vaux, valus), 
be worth, bring; ~ mieux, be 
better, be preferable 

vapeur f., steam; bateau a ~, 

vas, pres. aller, go 

vase m., vase 

vaudrait, cond. valoir, would be 

vaut, pres. valoir, is worth 
veau m. {pi. -x), veal 
v£cu, past part, vivre, lived 
v£cut, past def. vivre, lived 
v£hicule »., vehicle 
veille/, the night before 
venais, venait, imp. venir, came 
vendre, sell ; a ~, for sale 
vendredi w., Friday 
vengeur (f. vengeresse), avenging 
venir (venant, venu, viens, vins), 

come; ~ de + inf., have just; 
, faire «v>, send for (and get) ; en 

~ a, come to the point of 
vent ft*., wind ; il fait du ~, it is 

vente/, sale ; en <*>, on sale 
venu, past part, venir, come 
ver m.j worm 
verbe m., verb 

Vercing£torix m., a Gallic chief 
Verdun m., a town in France, he- 
roically defended in the World 

verger m., orchard 
veritable, real, true 
vermeil (f. -lie), vermilion 
verre m., glass ; ~ & yin, wineglass 
verrez, fut. voir, will see 
vers prep., towards, to 
vers m. f verse, line 
Versailles m., a city near Paris, 

formerly the royal residence 
verse : a ~, in torrents 
vert adj., green 



vert m., green 

vertu/, virtue 

veston m., (business) coat 

v^tements nt. pi., clothes 

vetir (vetant, vetu, vets, vetis), 

veuillez, imv. vouloir, please, be 

good enough to 
veulent, pres. vouloir, wish 
veux, veut, pres. vouloir, wish(es) 
viande/i, meat 
victoire/, victory 
victorieux (f -se), victorious 
vide, empty 
vie/!, life 
vieil, see vieux 
vieille,/ of vieux 
vieillesse/, old age 
viendra, viendriez, fut., cond. 

venir (to come) 
vienne, pres. subj. venir (to come) 
viens, pres. ind., imv. venir, come 
vient, pres. venir, comes 
vieux {before a vowel vieil; f. 

vieille), old 
vif (f vive), lively, alive 
vilain, homely 
village [vi-la:3] m., village 
ville [vil] f, city ; a la ~, in the 

city; en ~, in (to) town; descendre 

en ~, go down town 
vin m., wine ; verre a ~, wineglass 
vingt, twenty 
vint, past def venir, came 
violence f, violence 
visite/, call, visit 
visiter, visit, call 
visiteur m., visitor, caller 

vit, past def. voir, saw 

vit, pres. vivre, live 

vite, fast, quickly 

vivre (vivant, v&u, vis, v6cus), 

live, exist ; vive ! long live ! 
voici, here is (are), now is 
voient, pres. voir, see 
voila, there is (are) ; see ! 
voir (voyant, vu, vois, vis), see; 

faire ~, show, display 
vois, pres. voir, see 
voisin m. (f -e), neighbor 
voisinage m., neighborhood 
voit, pres. voir, sees 
voiture f, carriage ; descendre de 

<*>, get out of a carriage ; monter 

en ~, get into a carriage 
voix f, voice ; a haute ~, aloud ; 

a ~ basse, in a low voice 
volaille^C, poultry, fowls 
voler (a), steal (from) 
voleur m., thief 
volonte*/, will 
volontiers, willingly 
volume m., volume 
vont, pres. aller, go 
vos, pi. of votre, your 
votre poss. adj. {pi. vos), your 
votre : le ~ poss. pron., yours 
voudrait, voudriez, cond. vouloir, 

would wish 
vouloir (voulant, voulu, veux, vou- 

lus), will, wish, want ; <*> Men, be 

willing; <~> dire, mean; ~ rire, 

joke; en ~ k, have a grudge 

vous, you, to you ; dz'sj., you ; refl., 

yourself, yourselves 



vous-meme(s), yourself, yourselves vue f., sight, view ; de ~, by sight 
voyage m., journey; en ~, on a 

journey * 

voyager, travel 
voyageur ?n. (/. -se), traveler 
voyelle/, vowel 
voyez, voyons, pres. voir, see 
voyons intj., see ! come now ! 
vrai, true 

vraisemblablement, probably 
vu, past part, voir, seen 

Waterloo m., a Belgian town, 
scene of Napoleon's final de- 

y, at it (them), to it (them), in it 
(them), there ; il ~ a, there is 
(are) ; ago, since, for ; j'~ suis, 
I'm here 

yeux, pi. of oeil, eyes 

Parmi les monuments les plus importants et les mieux conserves qui nous 

restent de la domination romaine (Sec. 1) il y a les arenes de Nimes. 

Leur construction ressemble beaucoup aux arenes modernes des colleges 

des Etats-Unis 


The plural is indicated, in the French, of all nouns and adjectives 
whose plural is different from the singular and not formed by adding s. 
The feminine is indicated, in the French, of all adjectives whose feminine 
is different from the masculine and not formed by adding e. Adjectives 
for which no position is designated regularly follow the noun with which 
they are used. All verbs not marked irregular belong to the regular con- 
jugations. Section numbers appended to a word indicate the section where 
it is explained or discussed. An asterisk is used before aspirate h ; see, for 
example, *honte under ashamed. 

a, un(e) ( 1 2 i ) ; with units of meas- 
ure, le (219, a); with units of 
time, par, le (2 1 9, b) ; describing 
parts of the body, le (188, Note); 
not cv>, ne . . . pas de (1 16, a) 

able : be ~ (to), pouvoir, v. irr. 

about, on one^s person, sur ; with 
numerals, environ ; ~ to, sur le 
point de ; think ~, fix the miiid 
on, penser a. ; have an opinion 
of, penser de; talk (speak) ~, 
parler de 

absent, absent 

accident, accident m. 

accompany, accompagner 

acquire, acqueVir, v. irr. (313, a) 

act, acte m. 

active, actif (f. -ve) 

actor, acteur m. 

add, aj outer 

address, adresse/ 

admire, admirer; I ~, etc., j'ad- 
mire, etc. (91) 

admit, admettre, v. irr. (2.77) 
advance verb, avancer, stem irr. 

advance noun : in ~, d'avance 
advanced, avance 
advertisement, annonce/] 
advice, conseils m. pi. 
afraid : be ~, avoir peur 
after prep., apres; conj., apres que 
afternoon, apres-midi m. ; in the ~, 

de l'apres-midi 
afterwards, ensuite 
again, encore, de nouveau ; see ~, 

revoir; will see you ~ soon, a 

age, age m. 
a g0» il y a (precedes the expression 

of time); a week ~, il y a une 

agreeably, agrdablement 
ah! ah! 

ahead of time, en avance 
air, air m. 




alas ! helas ! 

alive, vif (f. vive) 

all, tout ( tous), tous les ( 1 o 1 ) ; 

<*> (that), tout ce qui (que); not 
at ~, ne . . . point ; at ~, after 

neg., du tout 
ally, allie ;//. (/. -e'e) 
almost, presque; faillir, v. irr. 
alone, seul 
along, le long de 
aloud, a haute voix 
Alps, A\pes, f. pi. 
already, deja 
also, aussi 

although, quoique, bien que (307, a) 
always, toujours 
A. M., du matin 
am, suis; as auxiliary, see 125, 

ambiguous, ambigu (/ -gue) 
America, Ame'rique/] 
American, americain 
among, parmi 
amuse, amuser ; be ~>d at, s'amuser 

amusement, amusement in. 
an, un(e) 

ancient, ancien (f. -nne) 
and, et 

anecdote, anecdote/ 
animal, animal m. {pi. -aux) 
announce, annoncer, ste?n irr. (24 5) 
another, one more, encore un(e); 

a different, un(e) autre; one <v>, 

les un(e)s les autres (325) 
answer verb, repondre (a) 
answer noun, rdponse/i 
anterior, anterieur 

anxious, inquiet (/. -ete) ; be ~ to, 

tenir k 
any adj., du, de la, de 1', des (115); 

de(i 16); pron.,en (181, b); not 

«», ne . . * pas de (116, a) 
anybody, quelqu'un(e) 
anything, quelque chose ; not <*>, 

ne . . . rien 
apothecary, pharmacien m. 
appear, paraitre, v. irr. (276) 
appetite, appetit m. ; with a good 

~, de bon appetit 
apple, pomme f. ; ~ tree, pom- 

mier in. 
appreciate, appr^cier 
approach, s'approcher de 
April, avril m. 
architecture, architecture/ 
are, sommes, etes, sont (80); as 

auxiliary, see 1 25, 236 
area, superficies 
arise, se lever, stem. irr. (248) 
arm, bras m. 
armchair, fauteuil m. 
armistice, armistice ;//. 
army, armde/ 
around, autour de 
arrange, arranger, stem irr. (246) 
arrest : under <*>, en etat d'arresta- 

arrival, arrivee/ 
arrive, arriver {fierf. auxiliary 

art, es ; as auxiliary, see 1 25, 

article, article m. 
artillery, artillerie/ 
artist, artiste m. 



as, que, comme; <*> . . . ~, aussi 
. . . que ; ~ much (many), autant 
(de); ~ much (many) ~, autant 
que ; ~ soon ~, aussitot que, des 
que ; ~ for, quant a 

ashamed : be ~, avoir *honte 

ask (to), demander (de) (295, b) ; ~ 
for, demander; ~ a question, 
faire une question ; ~ somebody 
(to), demander a quelqu'un (de) 

asleep : fall ~, s'endormir, v. irr. 

assail, assaillir, v. irr. (313, b) 

assuredly, assurement 

at, a ; with units of price, see 
219; ~ all, du tout; «* the, 
au, a la, a V, aux; <*> it (them), y ; 
~home, a la maison, chez moi, 
etc. ; ew school, a l'ecole ; ~ the 
house (home) of, chez ; ~ his 
home, chez lui; ~(to) the fruit 
dealer's, chez le fruitier 

attack verb, attaquer 

attack noun, attaque_/! 

attend, assister a 

attentive, attentif (f. -ve) 

attractive, charmant 

August, aout m. 

aunt, tante_/! 

Australian, australien (f -nne) 

author, auteur m. 

authority, autarke"/! 

authorization, autorisation/! 

automobile, automobile m. andf. 

autumn, automne m. ; in (the) ~, 
en automne 

avenue, avenue/! 

avoid, eViter (de) 

await, attendre 

away, prefix en- (em-); carry ~, 
emporter; go ~, s'en aller; run 
~, se sauver; take ~ (from), 
enlever (a) 

back, prefix re- ; be ~, etre de re- 
tour; bring ~, rapporter; give 
<~, rendre ; send ~, renvoyer 

bad, mauvais {precedes noun) 

badly, mal 

bag, sac m. 

baggage, bagages 7n. pi. 

baker, boulanger m. 

ball, bal m. 

banana, banane_/! 

bank, rive f. 

barber, coiffeur m. 

barely, ne . . . guere 

bark, aboyer, stem irr. (247) 

barn, grange/! 

basket, corbeille/! 

bath, bain m. ' 

bathroom, salle de bain 

battle, bataille/! 

battlefield, champ de bataille 

be, etre, v. irr. (156); se trouver; 
with nouns of feeling, avoir 
( 1 49) ; expressing dimension , 
avoir (219, c)\ of health, aller, 
se porter; of weather, faire (294) ; 
~ to, devoir ; <~ present at, assis- 
ter a ; <*> back, etre de retour 

bean, *haricot in. • string ~, *hari- 
cot vert 

bear verb, porter 

bear noun, ours m. 

beat, battre, v. irr. (313, /) 



beautiful, beau (bel, f belle, 

beaux ; precedes noun) 
beauty, beaute/ 
because, parce que ; ~ of, des 

suites de, a cause de ; it is ~, 

c'est que 
become, devenir, v. irr. (261) {perf. 

auxiliary etre); se faire ; of 

dress, aller ; ~ again, redevenir ; 

~ fine, of weather, se mettre 

au beau; ~ fine again, se re- 

mettre au beau 
become past part ':, devenu 
becoming : be ~, aller 
bed, lit m.\ put to ~, coucher, 

mettre au lit ; go to ~, se coucher 
bedroom, chambre a coucher 
beef, bceuf m. 
been, 6t6 
before prep., hi place, devant; in 

time, avant; before inf., avant 

de ; 00 long, avant peu ; conj., 

avant que 
begin (to), commencer (a), stem 

irr. (245 ; 295, c)', se mettre (a) 

(277; 295, c)\ ~ again, recom- 

behead, de'capiter 
behind, derriere 

believe, croire, v. irr. (288 ; 304, c) 
bell, cloche/i 
belong, appartenir, v. irr. (261); 

~ to, etre a 
beloved, bien-aime', cher (f -ere) 
bench, banc m. 
Bertha, Berthe 
beside, a cote de 
besides, en outre 

best (the) adj., le meilleur {pre- 
cedes noun) ; adv., le mieux ; do 
one's ~, faire de son mieux 

betray, trahir 

better adj., meilleur {precedes 
noun) ; adv., mieux ; be ~, va- 
loir mieux 

between, entre 

big, gros {f. -sse; precedes noun) 

bill, addition/! 

billion, milliard m. 

bird, oiseau ///. {pi. -x) 

bite, mordre 

biting, piquant 

black, noir 

blackboard, tableau m. {pi. -x) 

blind, aveugle; ~ in one eye, 

bloom verb, fleurir 

bloom noun : in ~, en fleur 

blue, bleu 

boat, bateau m. {pi. -x) 

boil, bouillir, v. irr. (313, ^r) 

book, livre m. 

bookseller, libraire m. 

border (with), border (de) 

born ne; be~, naitre, v. irr.{2j$); 
was^estnd, naquit(220, Note 2) 

both, tous (toutes) les deux, les 
' deux, l'un(e) et l'autre 

bottle, bouteille/; 

bought past part., achete' • 

boy, gargon m. 

brave, brave 

bread, pain m. 

break, casser ; »= out, eclater 

breakfast, dejeuner m. 

brief, bref (/. breve) 



bright, intelligent 

brilliant, brillant 

bring, a thing, apporter ; a person, 

amener, stem irr. (248) ; ~ back, 

rapporter; ~ near, approcher 

broad, large 
brother, frere m. 
brought, apporte 
brown, brun 
brush verb, brosser 
brush noun, brosse/I 
Brussels, Bruxelles/ ,. 
build, batir 

building, edifice m. t batiment m. 
bureau, commode,/] 
Burgundian, Bourguignon ;//. 
burn, bruler 

burning adj., ardent, brulant 
business, affaires fpl., commerce 

m.\ oa man, commergant m., 

industriel m. 
busy, occupe 
but, mais 

butcher, boucher m. 
butter, beurre m. 
button, bouton m. 
buy, acheter, stem irr. (248, Note); 

a ticket, prendre 
by, par, de (240, b); with units 

of measure, a ; before pres. 

part., en 

Caesar, Cesar 
cake, gateau m. {pi. -x) 
call verb, appeler, stem irr. (248, 
Note); hail, hdler, stem irr. 
call noun {visit), visite/I 

can, of physical ability, pouvoir, 

v. irr. (267); of mental ability, 

savoir, v. irr. (268) 
Canada, Canada m. 
cannot, see can and not 
capital, capitale/ 
captain, capitaine m. 
car, street, tramway m. 
card, visiting, carte/! 
care for, soigner 
carnival, carnaval m. 
carpet, tapis m. 
carriage, voiture/] 
carry, porter ; ~ away, emporter ; 

~ back, rapporter 
cart, charrette/1 
cash window, caisse/ 
cashier, caissier m. 
cast, jeter, stem irr. (248, Note) 
castle, chateau m. {pi. -x) 
cathedral, cathedrale m. 
caught past part., pris 
cause, cause/! 

cause to, faire, v. irr. (290, 291) 
cease (to), cesser (de)(295, b; 330) 
cent, sou m. 
center, centre m. ; in the ~ of, au 

centre de 
centime, centime m. 
century, siecle m. 
chair, chaise/.' 
chalk, craie/i 
chamber, chambre/! 
chance (to), se *hasarder (a) 
change, monnaie/] 
Charles, Charles 
charming, charmant 
chase, courir, v. irr. (259) 



cheap, bon marche 

check, enregistrer 

cheerful, gai 

cheese, fromage in. 

cherry, cerise/] ; ~ tree, cerisier m. 

chief, chef m. 

child, enfant m. and/. 

choose, choisir 

Christian, chre'tien (/ -nne) 

chum, camarade m. 

church, eglise/; at ~, a l'eglise 

cigar, cigare m. 

circulate, circuler 

citizen, citoyen m. (f -nne) 

city, viWef; in the ~, a la ville 

class, classe/!; in ~, en classe 

classical, classique 

classroom, classe f. 

clean verb, nettoyer, stem irr. (247) 

clean adj., propre 

clear, clair, net (f -tte) 

clearly, clairement 

clerk, gargon (fille) de magasin; 

employe* m. 
client, client m. 
cloak, manteau m. (pi. -x) 
clock, horloge/i 
close, fermer 
cloth, drap m. 
clothe, vetir, v. irr. (313, h) 
clothes, vetements m. pi. 
cloud, nuage m. 
coachman, cocher m. 
coat, dress, habit m.\ business, 

veston m. ; woman's, jaquette/i 
coffee, cafe* m. 
cold adj., froid : be ~, avoir froid ; 

it is ~, of weather, il fait froid 

cold noun, froid in. ; disease, 

rhume m. 
coldly, froidement 
collaborator, collaborates in. 
collar, faux-col m. 
colony, colonie/ 
color, covXqmx/. 
comb, peigne m. ; <~ one's hair, se 

come, venir, v. irr. (261) (per/. 

auxiliary etre); intj., allons ! 

<*> and, venir + inf. ; ~ across, 

rencontrer ; ~ back, revenir ; ~ 

down, descendre ; ~ in, entrer 
come past part., venu (157); «*> 

back past part., revenu 
comes, is coming, vient 
comfortable, confortable 
command (to), commander (de) 
commander, commandant m. 
commence (to), commencer (a), 

stem irr. (245 ; 295, c) 
commit, commettre, v. irr. (277) 
companion, camarade m. 
company, du monde 
Compiegne, Compiegne/! 
complete verb, finir 
complete adj., complet (f -ete) 
compose, composer 
comrade, camarade m. 
conclude, conclure, v. irr. (313, 

conditional, conditionnel in. 
conduct, conduite/! 
conductor, conducteur m. 
conjugate, conjuguer 
conjugation, conjugaison/! 
conquer, conquerir, v. irr. (313, a) 



consent (to), consentir (a), v. irr. 

(258; 295,0 
consider, considerer, stem irr. (249) 
contain, renfermer 
contemporary, contemporain 
continual, continuel (/. -lie) 
continuation, suite/ 
continue, continuer 
contrary : on the ~ 5 au contraire 
control, domination/ 
conversation, conversation/ 
converse, converser 
cook, cuisinier m. (/ -ere) 
cool, frais {/. fraiche) ; be ~, faire 

correct, corriger, stem irr. (246) 
cost, couter 
could, was able, pouvais, etc. ; 

would be able, pourrais, etc. 
count, nobleman, comte m. 
counter, comptoir m. 
country, division of territory, 

pays m. ; not the city, cam- 

pagne/ ; native land, patrie/ ; 

in the <*>, a la campagne 
courage, courage m. 
course : of <*>, bien entendu 
court, yard, cour/ 
cousin, cousin m. (f -e) 
cover, couvrir, v. irr. (260) ; ~ 

much ground, parcourir du pays 
covered (with), couvert (de) 
COW, vache/ 
cravat, cravate/ 

crazy, fou (fol,/ folle, m.pi. fous) 
create, crder, ste?n irr. (249, Note) 
cross verb, traverser 
cross adj., mechant 

cross noun, croix/ 

crowd, foule/ 

crowded (with), bonde (de) 

crown verb, couronner 

crown noun, couronne/ 

cry (out), crier 

cuff, manchette/ 

cup, tasse/, coupe f. 

cure, guerir 

curse, maudire, v. irr. (313,/) 

curtain, rideau ?n. {pi. -x) 

custom, coutume/ 

customer, client m. 

cut, couper ; ~ off, couper 

dare, oser (330) 

dark, sombre 

dash, elan m. 

daughter, fille/ 

day, divisio?i of time, jour m. ; 

with its happenings, jour nee/ ; 

~ before yesterday, avant-hier ; 

good ~, bonjour ; one (some) ~, 

un jour 
dead, mort 

deal : a great ~ of, beaucoup de 
dealer, marchand m. ; shoe 03, mar- 

chand de chaussures 
dear, cher (f -ere) 
death, mort/ 
deceive, tromper 
December, decembre m. 
decide, decider 
decorate, decorer 
deep, profond 

defeat, vaincre, v. irr. (313, u) 
definite, defini 
delicate, tendre 



deny, nier 

depart, partir, v. irr. (258) 

department, of France, departe- 
ment m. ; of a store, rayon m.\<*> 
store, magasin de nouveautds 

departure, depart m. 

depend (upon), dependre (de) 

deputy, depute in. 

descend, descendre 

describe, decrire, v. irr. (281) 

desert, ddserter 

deserve, meriter 

desire (to), de*sirer (295, a) 

desk, pupil's, pupitre in:, teacher's, 
bureau in. 

dessert, dessert in. 

did, as auxiliary, see 86 

die, mourir, v. irr. (263) 

died past part., mort (157); past 
tense, est mort, mourut, etc. 

difference, difference y^ 

different, different 

difficult, difficile 

dine, diner 

dining-room, salle a manger 

dinner, diner m. ; at ~, au diner 

discreet, discret (f -ete) 

dismissal, sortie/ 

display, etaler 

distinguish, distinguer 

disturb, deranger, stem irr. (246) 

divide (into), diviser (en) 

dizzy spell, e"blouissement in. 

do, faire, v. irr. (290) ; as auxil- 
iary, see 125,141, 164; ~with, 
faire de; ~ without, se passer 
de; ~ one's best, faire de son 
mieux ; how ~ you ~ ? bonjour 

doctor, medecin m., docteur m. 

does, as auxiliary, see 125, 164 

dog, chien m. 

dome, d6me m. 

done, fait ; what 's to be <~> ? que 

faire ? 
donkey, ane m. 
door, porte/i 
doubt, douter 
down : come ~, descendre ; sit ~, 

s'asseoir; upside ~, a l'envers 
downstairs, en bas ; go (come) ~, 

dozen, douzaine/] 
dress verb, tr., habiller; intr., 

dress noun, robe/i; streets, cos- 
tume de ville 
dress coat, habit m. 
dressmaker, couturiere/I 
drink, boire, v. irr. (287) 
drive : go for a ~, se promener en 

voiture ; cv> out, chasser 
druggist, pharmacien m. 
druid, druide m. 
dry, sec (f. seche) 
duel, duel in. 
dunce, imbecile m. 
during, pendant 
dwell, demeurer ; I ~, etc., je de- 

meure, etc. (91) 

each, chaque; ~ one, chacun(e); 

~ other, l'un(e) l'autre 
eager : be ~ to, tenir a. 
ear, oreilley^ 

earlier, de meilleure heure 
early, de bonne heure 



earn, gagner 

easily, facilement 

easy (to), facile (de) 

eat, manger, stem irr. (246) 

edge, bord m.; on the ~ of, au 

bord de 
effect, suited 
egg, ceuf m. 
Egypt, figypte/ 
eight, *huit 
eighteen, dix-huit 
eightieth, quatre-vingtieme 
eighty, quatre-vingts 
either, after ?ieg., non plus 
elder, plus age 
electric, electrique 
electricity, e'lectricite/ 
eleven, onze 
eleventh, onzieme 
emperor, empereur m. 
employ, employer, stem irr. (247) 
employee, employe m. 
end (in) verb, finir (par) 
end noun, fin/, bout m. 
enemy, ennemi m. 
England, Angleterre/ 
English, anglais 
Englishman, Anglais m. 
enjoy, jouir de; ~ one's self, 

enough, assez (de) (113); be good 

<*>, veuillez (271, Note 2); ~ to 

live on, de quoi vivre 
enter tr., entrer dans (chez) {perf. 

auxiliary etre); intr., entrer; 

~ again, rentrer 
enthusiasm, elan m. 
entire, entier (/. -ere) 

envelope, enveloppe/ 

erect, eriger, stem irr. (246); con- 

struire, v. irr. (289) 
escape tr., echapper a; intr., 

especially, surtout 
Europe, Europe/ 
even, meme 
evening, division ofthne, soir m. ; 

with its happenings, soiree/!; 

~s, le soir; in the ~, le soir; 

yesterday ~ ? hier soir 
ever, jamais, toujours 
every, tous (toutes) les; tout ( 

tous) ; ev one for himself, sauve 

qui peut 
everybody, tout le monde 
everything, tout 
everywhere, partout 
evident, evident 
examination, examen m. 
examine, examiner 
example, exemple m. 
except, excepte 
exercise, exercice m. 
expect (to), s'attendre (a) (295, c) 
expel, chasser 
expensive, couteux (/ -se) 
explain, expliquer 
express, exprimer 
extremely, extremement 
eye, oeil 7n.{pl. yeux) 

face, figure/ 
fact : in ~, en effet 
fair, foire/ 
faith, foi/ 
faithful, fidele 



faithfully, fidelement 

fall verb, tomber (per/, auxiliary 

etre); I «3, etc., je tombe, etc. 

(91); ~ asleep, s'endormir 
fall noun, chute/! 
false, faux {f -sse) 
family, famille/ 
famous, fameux (f. -se) 
fan, eVentail m. 
far, loin 
farm, ferme/ 
farmer, fermier m. (f. -ere) 
farmhouse, ferme/ 
farther, plus loin 
fast, vite 
fat, gras {f -sse) 
fate, sort in. 
father, pere m. 
favorite, favori {f -ite) 
fear (to) verb, craindre (de), v. irr. 

(278; 295, b); avoir peur (de) 
fear noun, peur/i ; for ~ that, de 

crainte que 
feast, festin m., regal m. 
February, feVrier m. 
feel, sentir, v. irr. (258); tater; ~ 

well, se sentir bien 
fees, honorairesy]//. 
felt, feutre m. 
few, peu (de) (113); a ~, quelques, 

peu (de) ; some ~, quelques 
fewer, moins (de) (113) 
field, champ m., pre* m. 
fifteen, quinze 
fifth, cinquieme 
fifty, cinquante 
fight, se battre, v. irr. (313, /) 
fill, remplir ; ~ with, remplir de 

finally, enfin; finir par (295, Note) 

find, trouver 

fine, beau (bel, f. belle, m. pi. 
beaux; precedes noun); be e*>, 
of weather, faire beau; become 
<*>, of weather, se mettre au 
beau; become ~ again, se re- 
mettre au beau 

finish, finir (de) (295, b) 

fire, feu m. {pi. -x); {conflagra- 
tion) incendie f. 

first, premier (f -ere); at ~ r 
d'abord; ~-class ticket, billet 
de premiere classe 

fish verb, pecher 

fish noun, poisson m. 

fishing, peche/ 

fit, aller, v. irr. (256) 

fitting : be <*>, convenir, v. irr. (261 ) 

five, cinq 

fix the hair, (se) coiffer 

flag, drapeau in. {pi. -x) 

flatter, flatter 

flattering, flatteur {f -se) 

flee, fuir, v. irr. (313,/) 

floor {story), etage in. 

flour, iarinef. 

flower, fleur/ 

fluently, couramment 

foliage, feuillage in. 

follow, suivre, v. irr. (283) 

following, suivant, qui suit 

foot, pied in. 

for prep., pour; with expressions 
of time, depuis, pendant, il y a 
( l 55)'j go ~, aller chercher ; send 
~, envoyer chercher 

for conj., car 



forbid, ddfendre ; ~ some one to, 
defendre a quelqu'un de 

foreign, Stranger {f -ere) 

foreigner, etranger m. {f -ere) 

foresee, pre voir, v. irr. (269) 

forest, foretj^ 

forget (to), oublier (de) (295, b) 

forgive, pardonner (a) 

fork, fourchette/! 

form verb, former 

form noun, taille/i 

former adj., ancien (f. -nne ; pre- 
cedes noun); the ~, celui-la, etc. 
(196,^, Note) 

formerly, autrefois 

fortunate, heureux {f -se) 

forty, quarante 

found, trouvd 

four, quatre 

fourteen, quatorze 

fourth, quatrieme ; in fractions, 
quart m. ; in dates, quatre m. 

franc, franc m. 

France, France/^ 

Francis, Francois 

frank, franc {/. franche) 

free adj., libre 

freeze, geler, stem irr. (248, Note) 

French, francais; ~ book, about 
French, livre de francais; in 
French, livre frangais 

Frenchman, Frangais m. 

fresh, frais {f fraiche) 

Friday, vendredi m. 

friend, ami m. (f. amie) 

frighten, effrayer, stem irr. (247) 

frightened : be ~>, s'eff rayer, stem 
irr. (247) 

from, de ; ~ the, du, de la, de 1', 

des ; ~ it (them), en 
front : in «* of, devant 
fruit adj., fruitier {f -ere) 
fruit noun, of one sort, fruit m. ; 

collectively, fruits m. pl.\ ~ 

dealer, fruitier m. (f -ere) 
full, plein 
fun, plaisanteriej^; make ~ of, se 

moquer de 
furnish (with), munir (de) 
furniture, meubles m. pi. 
future adj., futur 
future noun, futur m. 

Gallic, gaulois 

garden, jardin m. 

gas, gaz m. 

gather, cueillir, v. irr. (313, d) 

Gaul, the country, Gaulef; a per- 
son, Gaulois m. 

gay, gai 

general adj., general {pi. -aux) 

general 7ioun, general m. {pi. -aux) 

generally, gdneralement 

generous, gdndreux (/ -se) 

gentle, doux {f douce) 

gentleman, monsieur m. {pi. mes- 

German, allemand 

Germany, Allemagne/ 

get, chercher, procurer; prendre, 
v. irr. (279) ; of weather, se faire ; 
«N3 along, se tirer d'affaire ; ~ into 
{a vehicle), monter en ; ~ out of, 
descendre de ; ~ up, se lever 

gift, cadeau m. {pi. -x) 

girl, fllle/, jeune fille 



give, donner ; I ~, etc., je donne, 
etc. (91); <*> back, rendre; ~ up, 
renoncer a 

glad, content, bien aise 

glance verb, jeter un coup d'ceil 

glance noun, coup d'ceil {pi. coups 

glass, verre tn. 

gloomy, sombre 

glove, gant tn. 

go, aller, v. irr. (256) (perf. auxil- 
iary etre); ~ and, aller + itif. 
(256; 295, a); ~ away, s'en aller ; 
~ back in(to), rentrer dans; 
«a by, passer ; <~> down(stairs), 
descendre; <v> down town, de- 
scendre en ville ; ~ for, aller 
chercher ; ~> into, entrer dans ; 
~ out, sortir; ~ to, aller (257); 
~ to bed, se coucher ; ~ to sleep, 
s'endormir ; ~ to town, aller en 
ville ; ~ up(stairs), monter 

go, J dpi., vont 

god, dieu m. (pi. -x) 

goes, is going, va 

gold adj., d'or 

gold noun, or tn. 

good, bon (f. -nne; precedes noun); 
«3 morning, bonjour; be <*> 
enough to, veuillez (271, Note 2) 

good-by, adieu tn. (pi. -x),au revoir 

goods, piece of, dtoffe /.; cloth, 

gone, alle (157); ~ out, sorti (157) 

grammar, grammaire/ 

grandfather, grand-pere m-., aieul 

grandmother, grand'mere/ 

grandparents, grands-parents tn. 

grape, raisin tn. 
grasp, saisir 
grass, herbe/ 
gray, gris 

Greek, grec (f. grecque) 
green, vert ; grow ~ again, reverdir 
grind, moudre, v. irr. (313, q) 
grippe, grippe/, 
grocer, epicier tn. 
groceries, e'piceries/ pi. 
ground, terrain tn. ; ™ floor, rez-de- 

chaussee tn. ; on the ~ floor, au 

grow, crottre, v. irr. (313, 0); 

pousser ; I ~, etc., je pousse, 

etc. (91) 
grudge: have a ~ against, en 

vouloir a 
guess, deviner 
guide, guide tn. 
guidebook, guide tn. 

had, avais, etc. (148); ai eu, etc. 

(80) ; as auxiliary, see 151,152; 

<*> to, falloir, v. irr. (273, 274) 
hail, call, heler, stem irr. (249) 
hair, cheveux m. pi. ; fix one's ~, 

se coiffer 
hairbrush, brosse a cheveux 
hairdresser, coiffeur tn. 
half, demi (218, Note); ~ an hour, 

une demi-heure 
hand, main/ 
hand out, tendre 
handkerchief, mouchoir tn. 
hang on, accrocher a 



happen, arriver (perf auxiliary 

happily, heureusement 

happy, heureux (f -se; precedes 

hard, ferme 

has, a ; as auxiliary, see 157; *» 
to, falloir, v. irr. (273, 274) 

hast, as 

hasten (to), se depecher (de) 

hat, chapeau m. {pi. -x) 

hate, *ha*ir, v. irr. (31 3,^) 

hatter, chapelier m. 

have, avoir, v. irr. (148); ai, avons, 
avez, ont (85); as auxiliary, 
see 157; causative, faire (291, 
292); op just, venir de + inf. 
(262); ~ to, falloir (273, 274); 
will you ~, do you want, 
voulez-vous (271, Note 3) 

he conj. pron., il ; disj., lui ; ce 
(198); cvj who, eelui qui 

head, tete/I 

headache, mal h la tete 

health, santef. ; be in good ~, etre 
en bonne sante, se porter bien 

healthy : be ~ } etre en bonne santd 

hear, entendre; (by report) en- 
tendre dire (293) ; ~ from, rece- 
voir des nouvelles de; ~ tell, 
entendre parler 

heat, chaleur/! 

heavy, lourd 

help, aider (295, c) 

henceforth, ddsormais 

Henry, Henri 

her pers. pron., dir. obj., la; indir. 
obj., lui ; obj. of prep., elle ; poss. 

adj., son, sa, ses ; lui (se) . . . le 

(la, les) (188); cv, who, celle qui 
here, ici ; ~ is (are), voici 
hero, *heros m. 
hers, le sien (f la sienne) (189); 

a elle ( 1 90, 319) 
herself refl., se (228); intetisive, 

elle-meme (233) 
hesitate, hesiter 
hesitation, hesitation/! 
high, *haut ; grand (precedes 7101m) 
him dir. obj., le ; indir. obj., lui ; 

obj. of prep., lui 
himself refl., se (228); intensive, 

lui-meme (233) 
his poss. adj., son, sa, ses ; lui 

(se) . . . le (la, les) (188); poss. 

pro?i., le sien (f la sienne) (1 89); 

a lui (190, 319) 
hold, tenir, v. irr. (261); maintenir 
hole, trou m. 
home : at ~, a la maison, chez soi 

(moi, etc.) ; to (at) my (his, etc.) 

~, chez moi (lui, etc) 
homely, vilain (precedes noun) 
hope (to), espe'rer, stem irr. (249 ; 

295, a) 
horse, cheval m. (pi. -aux) 
hospitable, hospitalier (f -ere) 
hostile, hostile 
hot, chaud ; be ~, of weather, faire 

chaud (294) ; be ~, feel hot, avoir 

hotel, hotel m. 
hour, heure /! 
house, maison/! ; at (to) the ~ of, 

chez; at (to) my (his, etc.) ~, 

chez moi (lui, etc.) 



how, comment : ~ are you ? com- 
ment allez-vous ? comment vous 
portez-vous? ~ long, depuis 
quand, combien de temps (155); 
~ much (many), combien (de) 
(113); know ~, savoir 

however, cependant 

hundred, cent (215, b); a ~, cent 

hunger, faim/ 

hungry : be ~, avoir faim 

hunt, chasser 

hurry (to), se depecher (de) 

hurt, blesser, faire mal a 

husband, mari m. 

I conj. pron., je; disj., moi 

ice, glace/ 

idle, paresseux (f -se) 

if, si (68, d) 

ignorance, ignorance/: 

ill, malade 

ill-bred, mal e'leve' 

illustrated, illustre' 

illustrative sentence, exemple m. 

immediately, tout de suite 

imperative, imperatif m. 

imperfect, imparfait m. 

important, important; be ~, im- 

imprison, incarcerer 

in, dans, en (332); after superla- 
tive, de(io8); before names of 
countries, en, a ( 1 20, b, Note) ; 
before natnes of cities, a ; before 
years and names of months, en ; 
~ it (them), y ; «• the city, a la ville 

inaptitude, inaptitude/ 

indeed, en effet 

indefinite, indefini 
independent, independant 
indicative, indicatif m. 
infinitive, infinitif ;//. 
inform, faire savoir 
information, renseignements 
inhabit, habiter 
inhabitant, habitant m. 
injure, nuire, v. irr. (289) 
ink, encre/ 
inkstand, encrier m. 
insist (upon), tenir a 
inspiration, inspiration/ 
inspire, inspirer 
intelligent, intelligent 
intend (to), compter ; avoir l'inten- 

tion de 
interesting, interessant 
into, dans, en 
invasion, invasion/ 
invite (to), inviter (a) (295, c) 
ironical, ironique 
is, est; as auxiliary, see 125, 241 ; 

~ it not? n'est-ce pas? ~ it that, 

est-ce que ; here <x>, void ; there 

~, il y a, voila (150, Note) 
island, ile/ 
it sub., il, elle ; ce (1 78, b) ; obj. of 

verb, le, la ; obj. of prep., lui, elle ; 

of (from, with) ~, en (181); to 

(at, in) ~; y (180) 
Italian, italien (/ -nne) 
Italy, Italie/ 
itinerary, itine'raire m. 
its, son, sa, ses; en -. . . le (la, les) 

(3l8) ,V.,'':^ 

itself refl., se, soi(228, 324); inten- 
sive, lui-meme, elle-meme(233); 

5 i6 


January, Janvier m. 

Japan, Japon m. 

jealous, jaloux (f. -se) 

jewel, bijou m. (pi. -x) 

Joan, Jeanne 

John, Jean 

joke, vouloir rire 

journey, voyage m. ; on a ~, en 

joyfully, avec joie 
Julius, Jules 
July, juillet m. 
June, juin m. 
just : to have ~, venir de (262) ; 

~ now, tout a l'heure 
justice, justice/ 

keep, garder; ~ one's promise, 

tenir sa promesse 
key, clef f. 
kill, tuer 

kilometer, kilometre m. 
kind adj., aim able 
kind noun, sorte/* 
kindly read, veuillez lire 
kindness, amabilite/! ; have the ~ 

to, veuillez (271, Note 2) 
king, roi m. 
kitchen, cuisine f. 
knead, petrir 
knee, genou m. (pi. -x) 
knew, savais, etc. 
knife, couteau m. (pi. -x) 
knock, frapper 
know, a thing, savoir, v. irr. (268); 

a person, connaitre, v. irr. (276); 

~ how to, savoir 
know(s), sais, sait 

lace, dentelle/! 

lady, dame/ 

lake, lac m. 

land, terre/ ; native ~, patrie/ 

landlord, proprietaire m. 

language, langue/ 

large, grand (precedes noun) 

last verb, durer 

last adj., dernier (f. -ere); just 

passed, passe ; at ~, enfin ; ~ 

Monday, lundi dernier ; ~ night, 

hier soir ; ~ year, l'anne'e passee 
late, tard ; to be ~, etre en retard 
latter : the ~, celui-ci, celle-ci, etc. 

(196, c, Note) 
laugh, rire, v. irr. (313, s); ~ at, 

(se) rire de 
law, \oif. 
lawyer, avocat m. 
lay, placer, stem irr. (245) 
lazy, paresseux (f. -se) 
lead, mener, stem irr. (248) ; con- 

duire, v. irr. (289) 
leaf, feuille/ 

lean, appuyer, stem irr. (247) 
learn (to), apprendre (a), v. irr. 

(279; 295,0 
least : the ~ adj., le (la) moindre 

(precedes noun) ; adv., le moins ; 

at ~, au moins 
leave, quitter 
leaving, sortie/! 
left past part., parti de 
left adj., gauche ; to (at) the ^, a 

gauche ; to be ~. 5 rester (a) ; (I) 

have ~, il (me) reste 
left-hand, de gauche 
leg, jambe/ 



legitimate, legitime 

length, longueur/i ; at ~, longue- 

less adj., moindre {precedes noun); 

adv., moins (de) (113) 
lesson, lee, on/I ; grammar ~, lecon 

de grammaire ; reading ~ ? lecon 

de lecture 
lest, que . . . ne, de crainte que 

(with subj., 304); de crainte de 

{with inf.) 
let, as auxiliary in imv., see 140 ; 

que (with subj., 301); laisser(20,3) 
letter, lettre f ; ~ box, boite aux 

lettuce, laitue/ 
library, bibliotheque/; 
lie, mentir, v. irr. (258) 
life, vie/; 

light (by) verb, eclairer (a) 
light nou?i, lumiere/; 
lighten, faire des eclairs 
lightning, e'clairs m. pi. 
like (to) verb, aimer (a) (295, c) ; 

should (would) ~, cond. <?/vouloir 
like/r^., comme 
line (with), doubler (de) 
linen, toile/ 
list, liste/; 
listen (to), dcouter 
liter, litre in. 
little adj., petit {precedes noun); 

adv., peu (de) (113); some ~, 

quelque ; ~ by ~, peu a peu 
live, dwell, demeurer; exist {on), 

vivre (de), v. irr. (284) ; enough 

to ~ on, de quoi vivre ; long ~ 

the king ! vive le roi ! 

lively, vif (/ vive) 

living, vie/. 

lock, fermer a clef 

London, Londres m. 

lonesome : be <*>, s'ennuyer, stem 
irr. (247) 

long adj., long (f. longue ; precedes 
noun); adv., longtemps; how~, 
in expressions of ti?ne, depuis 
quand, combien de temps (1 55, b, 
Note); in dimensions, combien 
de longueur; a ~ time, long- 
temps ; be . . . cv>, in dimensions, 
avoir . . . de long (longueur); ~ 
live I vive! 

longer : no ~, ne . . . plus 

look : £*> at (upon), regarder ; ~ for, 

lord, seigneur m. 

lose, perdre 

loss, perte/; 

loud, fort, haut; out ~, a haute voix 

loudly, haut 

love, aimer; I 00, etc., j'aime, etc. 

low, bas (f. -sse) 
luck (good), chance/; 
lucky, heureux (f. -se) 
luggage, bagages m. pi. 
lunch, ddjeuner m. ; ~ counter, 

buffet m. ; ~ room, restaurant m. 
luncheon, gouter m. 
Luxemburg, Luxembourg m. 

madam, madame, M me (pi. mes^ 

dames, M mes ) 
magistrate, magistrat m. 
magnificent, magnifique 



maid, bonne/ 

mail verb, jeter a la poste 

mail noun, courrier m. 

mainly, principalement 

make, faire, v. irr. (290, 291, 292); 
in profits, gagner ; ~ responsible 
for, rendre responsable de 

makes,' fait 

man, homme m. ; young men, 
jeunes gens m. pi. 

manufacturer, industriel m. 

many, beaucoup (de) (113); bien 
(des); as~,autant(de)(ii3); how 
~, combien (de)(i 13); so ~, tant 
(de) (113); too ~, trop (de) (113) 

map, carte/ 

March, mars m. 

market, marche" m. ; to ~, au 

marshal, marechal m. 

Mary, Marie 

master, maitre m. 

masterpiece, chef-d'oeuvre m. 

mathematician, mathematicien m. 

mathematics, mathematique / 

matter, affaire / ; what is the ~ 
with me (you, etc), qu'ai-je 
(qu'as-tu, etc.) 

may, pouvoir, v. irr. (267; 295, a); 
as sign of subj., que (301); <v> 
be, se pouvoir 

May, mai m. 

me obj. of verb, me, moi ; obj. of 
prep., moi 

mean, vouloir dire 

meat, viande/ 

medicine, me'decine /, medica- 
ment m. 

meet, rencontrer 

memory, m^moire/ 

menace, menace/ 

menu, menu m. 

merchandise, marchandise/ 

merchant, marchand m., commer- 

cant m. 
merit, merite m. 
merry, gai 
meter, metre m. 
method, methode/ 
middle, milieu m. {pi. -x) 
midnight, minuit in. 
might, pouvais, etc. ; pourrais, etc. 
mild, doux (f douce); be ~, of 

weather, faire doux 
mile, mille m. 
military, militaire 
milk, lait m. 
mill, moulin in. 
milliner, modiste/ 
million, million in. 
mind, esprit m. 
mine, le mien (/ la mienne) ( 1 89) ; 

a moi (1 90); a friend of ~, un de 

mes amis (3 1 9) 
minute, minute/ 
mischievous, malin (/ maligne) 
misdeed, rndfait m. 
miss, manquer 
Miss, mademoiselle, M Ile (pi. mes- 

demoiselles, M 1Ies ) 
mistaken : be ~, se tromper 
model, modele in. 
modern, contemporain, moderne 
Moliere, Moliere 
moment, moment m. 
Monday, lundi m. 



money, argent m. ; ~ changer, 

changeur in. 
month, mois m. 
monument, monument m. 
moon, lune/ 
more, plus (de) (113); ~ and «», de 

plus en plus ; no <*>, ne . . . plus 
morning, matin in. ; ~s, le matin ; 

in the ~, le matin; good ~, 

mortal, mortel {/. -lie) 
most (the), le (la) plus, la plupart 
mother, mere/. 
mount, mont m. 
mountain, montagne/ 
mouth, bouche/ 
move, mouvoir, v. irr. (313, * ) : ~ 

about, circuler 
moving about, mouvement m. 
Mr., monsieur, M. {pi. messieurs, 

Mrs., madame, M me {pi. mes- 

dames, M mes ) 
much, beaucoup (de) (113), bien 

(des); as ~, autant (de) (113); 

how ~, combien (de) (113); so ~, 

tant (de) (113); too ~, trop (de) 

(113); very ~, fort 
museum, musee m. 
must, necessity, falloir, v. z'rr.{2J3; 

295, a; 303, Note 2); inference, 

devoir, v. irr. (264; 295, a) 
mustache, moustache/ 
mutton, mouton m. 
my, mon, ma, mes ; me . . . le (la, 

myself refl., me; intensive, moi- 


name verb, nommer 

name noun, nom in. ; my ev> is, je 

named : be ~, s'appeler, stem irr. 

(248, Note) 
napkin, serviette/ 
Napoleon, Napoleon 
nation, nation/ 
national, national {pi. -aux) 
native land, patrie/ 
natural, naturel (/ -lie) 
naturally, naturellement 
nature, nature/ 
naughty, me'chant 
near (to), pres (de) 
necessary, ne'cessaire; be~, falloir, 

v. irr. (27 3; 295, a-, 303, Note 2) 
necessities, ndcessites///. 
necktie, cravate/ 
need verb, avoir besoin de ; falloir, 

v. irr. (273) 
need noun, besoin m. 
neglect, negliger, stem irr. (246; 

255, b) 
neighbor, voisin m. {/. -e) 
neighborly, voisin 
neither . . . nor, ne . . . ni ne, 

ne . . . ni . . . ni (171) 
nephew, neveu m. {pi. -x) 
net bag, filet m. 
never, ne . . . jamais (168); jamais 

new, different, nouveau (nouvel, 

/ nouvelle, m. pi. nouveaux; 

precedes noun)-, newly made, 

neuf (/ neuve) 
news, nouvelle/ 
newspaper, journal m. {pi. -aux) 



New Year's, jour de Tan 

next, prochain ; ~ week, la semaine 

niece, niece/ 
night, nuit/; last ~, hier soir; 

the «b long, de la nuit 
nine, neuf 
nineteen, dix-neuf 
ninety, quatre-vingt-dix 
ninth, neuvieme 
no, non ; partitive, ne . . . pas 

de(n6, a)-, pas de (169); adj., 

nul (f -lie); ~ longer, ne . . . plus 

(168); ~more, ne. . . plus (168); 

plus de (169) 
nobody, ne . . . personne (168); 

personne (169) 
noise, bruit m. 
none, n'en . . . pas (181, b) 
noon, midi m. 
nor : neither . . . ~, ne . . . ni ne, 

ne . . . ni . . . ni (171) 
nose, nez m. 
not, ne . . . pas ( 1 68) ; ~ a, i;e . . . 

pas de (116); ~any, ne . . . pas 

de (1 16) ; ~ at all, ne . . . point 

(168); pas du tout 
notebook, cahier m. 
nothing, ne . . . rien (168); rien ( 1 69) 
noun, nom m. 
November, novembre m. 
now, maintenant ; <*> is, voici 
number, nombre m. 
nursemaid, bonne/ 
nut, noix/ 

obelisk, obelisque m. 
obey, obeTr a 

oblige (to), obliger (a), stem irr. 
(246) ; be ~d to, falloir, v. irr. 
(273, 274) 

obliging, obligeant 

obtain, obtenir, v. irr. (261) 

occasion, occasion/; on the least 
~, a la moindre occasion 

occupy, occuper 

o'clock, heure / ; two <*>, deux 
heures; twelve ~, noon, midi 
m. ; midnight, minuit m. 

October, octobre m. 

odious, odieux (/ -se) 

of, de; in dates, see 223; with 
nouns of material, en, de 
(335> a )\ ~ the, du, de la, de 1', 
des; ~ it (them), en (181); ~ 
which, dont (203) ; think ~, fix 
the mind on, penser a ; have an 
opinion of, penser de ; quarter <~ 
ten, dix heures moins le(un) quart 

off : take cv>, 6ter 

offer, offrir, v. irr. (260) 

office, bureau m. 

officer, officier m. 

often, souvent 

old, vieux (vieil ; / vieille; pre- 
cedes ?iouri), ancien (/ -nne); 
in years, age* ; how ~> are you ? 
quel age avez-vous? I am ten 
years ~, j'ai dix ans; je suis 
igd de dix ans 

omnibus, omnibus m. 

on, sur ; in dates, see 223 

once, une fois ; at <*>, tout de suite 

one nu?n. adj., un (/ une) ; indef. 
pron., on (242, 243); ~ another, 
les un(e)s les autres; ~'s self, 



se; soi(324); the ~> who (which), 

celui (celle) qui 
only adv., seulement ; ne . . . que 

(168, 170); adj., seul 
open verb, ouvrir, v irr. (260) 
open adj., ouvert 
open(s), ouvre 
opera, opera in. 
opportunity, opportunity/ 
opposite, en face de 
or, ou 

orange, orange/! 
orchard, verger m. 
orchestra seat, f auteuil d'orchestre 
order, ordonner; in ~ to, pour, 

afin de; in ~ that, pour que, 

afin que (307, c) 
Orleans, Orleans m. 
other, autre ; each ~, l'un(e) l'autre ; 

some . . . ~s, les un(e)s . . . les 

otherwise, autrement 
ought, devoir, v. irr. (264; 295, a) 
our, notre, nos; nous . . . le (la, 

les) (188) 
ours, le (la) n6tre (189); a nous 

ourselves rejl., nous (228) ; inten- 
sive, nous-memes (233) 
out, dehors ; break ~, exlater ; go 

~, sortir, v. irr. (258) 
outer, extdrieur 
over, sur ; ~ there, la-bas 
overcoat, pardessus in. 
owe, devoir, v. irr. (264) 
owl, *hibou m. (pi. -x) 
owner, propridtaire m. 
ox, bceuf m. 

pack, a trunk, faire une malle 
•page, page/ 
painting, peinture/ 
pair, paire/ 
palace, palais m. 
paper, papier m. ; news~, journal 

tn. (pi. -aux) 
parents, parents m. pi. 
Paris, Paris m. 
park, pare m. 
parlor, salon m. 
part, partie/; take <v> in, prendre 

part k 
participle, participe m. 
pass (by), passer 
passport, passeport m. 
past, passe; half ~ three, trois 

heures et demie (224) 
pasture, pre m. 
path, a\\6ef. 

patient, a sick person, malade in. 
patriot, patriote m. 
pay, payer, stem often irr. (247) ; 

~ for, payer 
peace, paix/! 

pear, poire/! ; ~ tree, poirier m. 
peasant, paysan m. (f. -nne) 
pebble, caillou m. (pi. -x) 
pedestrian, pieton m. 
pen, plume/ 
pencil, crayon m. 
penholder, porte-plume m. * 
people, les gens in. on 

(243) ; tribe, peuple m. 
perceive, apercevoir, v. irr. (266) 
performance, representation/ 
perfume, parfum in. 
perhaps, peut-etre 



perish, peVir 

permit, permettre, v. irr. (277; 

295, V) 
person, personne f. ; young ~s, 

jeunes gens 
persuade (to), decider (a) (295, c) 
Peter, Pierre 

photograph, photographies 
phrase, phrase/! 
picture, tableau m. (pi. -x), gra- 

piece, morceau in. (pi. -x) 
pity, plaindre, v. irr. (278) 
place verb, placer, stem irr. (245) 
place noun, place /., lieu in. (pi. 

-x), endroit m., point m. ; take 

«», avoir lieu, se faire 
plate, assiette/ 
play verb, jouer ; play a musical 

instrument, jouer de ; I «v>, etc., 

je joue, etc. (91) 
play noun, piece/! 
plaything, joujou m. (pi. -x) 
pleasant, agrdable 
please intr., plaire, v. irr. (285); 

tr., plaire a; veuillez (271); if 

you <v>, s'il vous plait, je vous prie 
pleased with, content de 
pleasure, plaisir m. ; with ~,- avec 

pluperfect, plus-que-parfait m. 
plural, pluriel m. 
P. M., de l'apres-midi, du soir 
pocket, poche/ 
poet, poete m. 
point, point m. 
polite, poli 
poor, pauvre 

population, population f. 

populous, peuple 

portrait, portrait m. 

possible, possible 

post, afficher; mail, mettre a la 

postal card, carte postale 
posted (on), renseigne (de) 
postman, facteur m. 
post office, bureau de poste 
potato, pomme de terre (pi. 

pommes de terre) 
pound, livre/ 
pour, rain, pleuvoir a verse; it ~s, 

la pluie tombe a verse 
praise, louer 
prefer, aimer mieux; preferer, stem 

irr. (249) 
preferable, preferable ; be ~, valoir 

preparation, preparatif m. 
prepare tr., preparer ; intr., se 

preparer h, s'appreter h; I ~, 

etc., je prepare, etc. (91) 
prescribe, prescrire (like ecrire, 

present adj., present; be ~ at, 

assister k 
present noun, present m. ; gift, 

cadeau m. (pi. -x) 
president, president m. 
prettily, joliment 
pretty, joli (precedes noun) 
prevent (from), empecher (de) 

(295,^; 305,^) 
priest, pretre m. 
prince, prince m. 
princess, princesse/! 



prisoner, prisonnier m. (/. -ere) 
private, particulier (f. -ere) 
proclaim, proclamer 
proclamation, proclamation/; 
procure, procurer 
professor, professeur m. 
promise verb, promettre, v. irr. 

(277; 295, £); keep one's ~, 

tenir sa promesse 
promise noun, promesse f. 
pronounce, prononcer, steni irr. 


pronunciation, prononciation/! 

properly, bien 

proud, fier (f. -ere) 

provide, pourvoir, v. irr. (313, k)\ 
~d that, pourvu que (307) 

province, province f. 

prudent, prudent 

public, public {/. publique) 

pull out, tirer 

pulse, pouls m. 

punish, punir 

punishment, punition/I 

pupil, eleve m. and/. 

purchase, emplette/ 

pure, pur 

purse, bourse f. 

pushcart peddler, marchand ambu- 

put, mettre, v. irr. (277); ~ on, 
mettre; ~ to bed, coucher, 
mettre au lit 

quarter, quart m. 
queen, reine/ 
quickly, vite 
quite, assez 

railroad, chemin de fer ; ~ time- 
table, indicateur des chemins de 

railway station, gare/ 

rain verb, pleuvoir, v. irr. (313,7) 

rain noun, pluie/i 

raise, lever, stem irr. (248) 

rare, rare 

rarely, rarement 

ray, rayon m. 

read, lire, v. irr. (282) 

read past part., lu 

reading, lecture/ 

reads, lit 

ready (to), pret (a) 

reason, cause/! 

recall, rappeler, stem irr. (248, 

receive, recevoir, v. irr. (266) 

received past part., regu 

recent, rdcent 

recently, re'cemment 

recite, reciter 

red, rouge 

refuse (to), refuser (de) (295, b) 

regard : with ~ to, a l'egard de 

register, recommander ; have ~ed, 
faire recommander 

regret verb, regretter 

regret noun, regret m. 

reign verb, regner, stem irr. (249) 

reign noun, regne m. . 

relic, relique/ 

remain, rester {per/, auxiliary 

remark, remarque/i 

remember, se souvenir de, v. irr. 

Renaissance, Renaissance/ 



render, rendre 

repeat, repe'ter 

repent, se repentir, v. irr. (258) 

repertory, repertoire m. 

reply, rdpondre, repliquer 

represent, representer ; I «w, etc., 

je represente, etc. (91) 
republic, rdpublique/^ 
resolve, rdsoudre, v. irr. (313, r); 

be ~d to, se re'soudre h (295, b) 
respect, dgard m.\ with ~ to, a 

l'egard de 
responsible, responsable ; make ~> 

for, rendre responsable de 
rest, repos m. 
restaurant, restaurant in. 
result, resultat in. 
return, come back, rentrer; revenir, 

v. irr. (261) (perf. auxiliary 

etre) ; go back, retourner ; give 

back, rendre 
revive, ranimer 
ribbon, ruban in. 
rich, riche 

ride horseback, monter a cheval 
right, droit ; to (at) the <*>, a droite ; 

be ~, avoir raison 
right-hand, de droite 
rigorous, seVere 
ring, a bell, sonner ; I ~, etc., je 

sonne, etc. (91) 
ripe, mur 
ripen, murir 
river, fleuve m., riviere f. (p. 96, 

road, chemin m., route f. 
roadway, chausse'e/ 
roast beef, rosbif m. 

room, chambre_/i, salle/!, piece /.; 

lunch 03, restaurant in. 
roommate, camarade de chambre 
rose, rose/! 
round, rond 
route, itine'raire m. 
royalist, royaliste m. 
rude, rude 
rule, regie/ 
ruler, regie f. 
run, courir, v. irr. (259); <*>away, 

se sauver 
running, courant 
Russia, Russie_/i 

sad, triste 

sadly, tristement 

said past part., dit 

saint, saint in. (f. -e) 

salad, salade/ 

sale, vente f. ; on ~, en vente ; 

for ~, a vendre 
salt, sel m. 

same, meme (precedes noun) 
satisfied with, content de 
Saturday, samedi m. 
save, sauver, economiser 
savings, Economies 
say, dire, v. irr. (280); ~ again, 

redire (280, Note) 
says, dit 
scarcely, ne . . . guere (168); a 

school, dcole/. ; at (to) ~, a l'dcole 
school-teacher, maitre d'e'cole 
scorn, rndpris m. 
sea, merf. 
seacoast, c6te/ 



search, fouiller ; ~ for, chercher 
seashore, hord de la mer 
season, saison/ 
seat verb, asseoir, v. irr. (272) 
seat noun, place/!, siege m. 
seated past part., assis; be ~, 

second, in series of two, second ; 

in longer series, deuxieme 
secret, secret (f. -ete) 
security, se'curite'/ 
see, voir, v. irr. (269; 293); behold, 

voila; ~ again, revoir; «* you 

again soon, a bientot 
seek, chercher 

seem, sembler ; it ~s, il semble 
seen, vu 
Seine, Seine/ 
seize, saisir 
select, choisir 
self, -meme 
sell, vendre 
sells, vend 
senator, se'nateur m. 
send, envoyer, v. irr. (255); ~ back, 

renvoyer; <*> for, envoyer cher- 
sentence, phrase/ 
separate adj., se'pare' 
September, septembre m. 
serious, serieux (f. -se) 
servant, domestique m. 
serve, servir, v. irr. (258) 
served past part., servi 
set: <~ out, partir, v. irr. (258) 

(Perf. auxiliary etre); ~ to 

work, s'y prendre 
seven, sept 

seventeen, dix-sept 

seventy, soixante-dix 

several, plusieurs 

severe, severe 

sew, coudre, v. irr. (313, n) 

shall, see 136 

shame, *honte/ 

share, partager, stem irr. (246) 

sharp, aigu (f. aigue) 

shave, faire la barbe, raser 

she, elle, ce (198); ~ who, celle 

sheet, of paper, feuille/! 
shelf, rayon m. 
shine, luire, v. irr. (289) 
shirt, chemise/ 
shoe, Soulier m. ; ~>s (footwear), 

chaussures f pi. 
shop verb, faire des emplettes 
shore, rive/ 

short, court (precedes noun) 
shortly, sous peu 
should, see 138, 139; 265, a; 308 
shout, crier 
show, montrer, faire voir ; I ev>, etc., 

je montre, etc. (91) 
show window, devanture/ 
shut, fermer 
sick, malade 
sickness, maladie/ 
side, cote m. 
sidewalk, trottoir m. 
sight, vue/ ; by ~, de vue 
sign, signer 
signature, signature/ 
silent : be ~, se taire (286) 
silk, soie/ 
silver, argent m. 



since ft rep., depuis ; conj., depuis 

sing, chanter ; I ~, etc., je chante, 

etc. (91) 
single, seul 

sir, monsieur (pi. messieurs) 
sister, soeur/! 
sit down, s'asseoir, v. irr. (272); 

imv., asseyez-vous 
situated, situd 
six, six 
sixteen, seize 
sixty, soixante 
size, grandeur f 
skillfully, adroitement 
skin, peau/: (pi. -x) 
skirt, jupe/; 
sky, ciel m. (pi. cieux) 
slaughter, tuerie/ 
sleep verb, dormir, v. irr. (258); 

go to ~, s'endormir 
sleep noun, sommeil m. 
sleeping room, chambre a coucher 
sleepy : be ~, avoir sommeil 
sleeve, manche/i 
small, petit (precedes noun) 
smell, sentir, v. irr. (258) 
smoke, fumer ; ~ a pipe, fumer la 

snow verb, neiger, stem irr. (246) 
snow noun, neige/C 
so, si, le (176); cv> . . . as, si . . . 

que ; ~ much (many), tant (de) 
sock, chaussette/i 
soft, mou (mol, f molle, m. pi. 

sojourn, sejour m. 
soldier, soldat m. 

some adj., du, de la, de 1', des; 

pron., en (181); ~ little (few), 

quelque(s)(3i6, c); ~ . . . others, 

les un(e)s . . . les autres ; ~ day, 

un jour 
somebody, on (243), quelqu'un(e) 
something, quelque chose 
sometimes, quelquefois 
son, fils ;//. 
soon, bientSt, tot ; as ~ as, aussitSt 

que, des que (137, 152) - 
sorcerer, sorcier (f. -ere) 
sou, sou m. 
soup, soupe/i 
south, midi m. 
Spain, Espagne/: 
speak, parler ; I <*>, etc., je parle, 

etc. (91) ; 03 about, parler de ; so 

to ~, pour ainsi dire 
special, special (pi. -aux) 
spell : dizzy ~ ? e'blouissement m. 
spend, money, de'penser; time, 

spite : in <*> of, malgre' 
spoon, cuiller/; 
sport: make <~ (of), se moquer 

spring, printemps m. ; in (the) <~, 

au printemps 
square adj., carre 
square noun, of a city, place f 
stable, for cattle, Stable f ; for 

horses, €c\xnz f 
stairs, staircase, escalier m. 
stamp, timbre m. ; ~ window, 

guichet m. 
standing, debout 
star, e'toile/ 



start, partir, v. irr. (258) (per/. 

auxiliary etre) 
started past part., parti; ~ from, 

parti de 
state, etat m. ; in a ~ of, en etat de 
station, railway, garef 
statue, statue/: 
stay verb, rester (per/, auxiliary 

stay noun, sejour m. 
steal, voler ; ~ from, voler a 
still, encore 
stirred : be ~ by, s'emouvoir (313, 

i, Note) de 
stocking, bas m. 
stop tr., arreter; intr., s'arreter 
store, magasin m. 
story, of a house, dtage m. 
stout, gros (f. -sse ; precedes noun) 
stranger, etranger (/ -ere) 
strawberry, f raise/? 
street, rue/ ; ~ car, tramway m. ; 

<*> dress, costume de ville 
strike, f rapper; of a clock, sonner 
strong, fort 

student, ecolier m. (f -ere) 
studious, studieux (f -se) 
study verb, etudier 
study noun, etude f 
stupid, sot (/. -tte) 
sturdy, robuste 
subject, sujet (/ -tte) 
subjunctive, subjonctif m. 
succeed (in), rdussir (a) (295, c) 
such, tel (f -lie ; precedes noun) 
(101); ~ a, un tel (f une telle) 
suddenly, tout a coup 
suffer, souffrir, v< irr. (260) 

sufficient : be ~, suffire, v. irr. 

sugar, sucre m. 

suit verb, aller, v. irr. (246) ; con- 

venir a 
suit noun, costume m. 
suitable : be ~, convenir, v. irr. 

(261 ; 303) 
summer, ete m. ; in (the) ~, en 6te 
sun, soleil m. 
Sunday, dimanche m. 
superb, superbe 
supper, souper m. 
suppose, supposer 
supposing that, suppose que (307) 
sure, sur, vrai 
surely', surement, vraiment 
surprised : be ~ (at), s'etonner (de) 
suspect, soupqonner 
swamp, marecage m. 
sweet, doux (f douce) 
sweetly, doucement 
swim, nager, stem irr. (246) 

table, table/ 

tablecloth, nappe/ 

tailor, tailleur m. 

take, prendre, v. irr. (279); aper- 
so?i, amener, stem irr. (248); <>o 
along, emporter ; ~ away, enle- 
ver ; ~ back, reporter ; 03 from, 
prendre a ; ~ oflf, 6ter ; ~ part 
in, prendre part a; ~ place, avoir 
lieu, se faire; ~ the trouble, 
prendre (se donner) la peine ; ~ 
a walk, se promener 

taken past part., pris 

talk, parler, causer ; ~ about, parler 
de ; cv> business, parler d'affaires 



tall, grand 

tapestry, tapisserie/i 

taste, gout m. 

teach (to), enseigner (a) (295, c) 

teacher, of a primary school, 

maitre m. (f -resse) ; of a higher 

school, professeur m. 
tell, dire, v. irr. (280; 295, b); a 

story, raconter 
ten, dix 
tender, tendre 
Thames, Tamise/ 
than, que ; followed by a numeral, 

thank (for), remercier (de) ; ~ you, 

that rel. pron., qui, que, lequel 

(laquelle, etc.) (199, 200); ~ 

which, ce qui, ce que, ce . . . quoi 

(206) ; all ~, tout ce qui (que) 
that dem. adj., ce, cet, cette (193); 

emphatic, ce (cet, cette) ... -la 

(194); dem. pron., celui, celle 

(195); cela, ?a(i97); ce (198); 

emphatic, celui-la (celle-la)( 1 96, c) 
that conj., que 
the, le, la, 1', les 
theater, theatre m. 
thee, obj. of verb, te, toi ; obj. of 

prep., toi 
their, leur (185 ; see 188); en . . . 

le (la, les) (318) 
theirs, le leur (1 89) ; a eux, a elles 

them, dir. obj., les ; indir. obj., 

leur; obj. of prep., eux, elles 
themselves refl., se ; intensive, 

eux-memes, elles-memes (233) 

then, alors, puis, ensuite 

there, la, y (180, Note), la-bas; 
ev. is (was, etc.), il y a (avait, etc) 
(1 50) ; calling attention, voila ! 

thereupon, la-dessus 

these adj., ces; emphatic, ces . . . 
-ci (194); pron., ceux, celles 
(195); ce(i98); emphatic, ceux- 
ci (celles-ci) (196, c) 

they conj. pron., ils, elles ; disj., 
eux, elles; ce(i98); indefinite, 
on (243); ~ w ho, ceux (celles) 
qui (196) 

thick, <£pais (/ -sse) 

thief, voleur m. 

thine, le tien (/ la tienne) (1 89) ; a 
toi (190) 

thing, chose/ 

think, penser ; croire, v. irr. (288); 
I ~, etc., je pense, etc. (91); 
oa about (of), fix the mind on, 
penser a; have an opinion of, 
penser de 

third, troisieme ; infractions, tiers 

thirst, soiffi 

thirsty : be ~, avoir soif 

thirteen, treize 

thirty, trente 

this adj., ce, cet, cette (193); em- 
phatic, ce (cet, cette) . . . -ci 
(194); pron., celui, celle (195); 
ceci (197); ce (198); emphatic, 
celui-ci (celle-ci) (196, c) 

those adj., ces ; emphatic, ces . . . 
ce (198); emphatic, ceux-la 
(celles-la) (196, c) 

thou conj. pron., tu ; disj., toi 



though, quoique, bien que (305) 

thousand, mille; in dates, mil 
(220) ; a 05, mille 

threat, menace/ 

three, trois 

throat, gorge/ ; sore ~, mal a la 
gorge; my ~ is sore, j'ai mal a 
la gorge 

through, par ; ~ which, par ou (322) 

throw, jeter, stem irr. (248, Note) 

thundering : be «w, f aire du tonnerre 

thunderstorm, orage m. 

Thursday, jeudi m. 

thus, ainsi 

thy, ton, ta, tes {see 1 88) 

thyself refl., te; intensive, toi- 
meme (233) 

ticket, billet m. ; ~ window, gui- 
chet m. 

time, temps m., occasion/I, fois/ ; 
have a good ~, s'amuser ; in «v>, 
a temps; on ~, a l'heure, a 
temps; a long ~, longtemps; 
what ~ is it ? quelle heure est- 
il ? three ~s a day, trois fois par 
jour ; two cxjs two, deux fois deux 

time-table, railway, indicateur des 
chemins de fer 

tip, pourboire m. 

tired, fatigue 

to, a ; as sign ofindir. obj., see 1 72, 
173; with names of countries, 
en, a ; in order to, pour, arm de 
(309) ; ~ the, au, a la, a 1', aux ; 
<v> it (them), y (1 82) ; ev the house 
of, chez 

today, aujourd'hui; m is Monday, 
c'est aujourd'hui (le) lundi 

together, ensemble 

told past part., dit 

tomato, tomate/i 

tomb, tombeau m. (pi. -x) 

tomorrow, demain; ~ morning, 
demain matin 

tongue, langue/! 

too, trop ; also, aussi ; ~ much 
(many), trop (de) (113) 

took, prit, prirent (279) 

tooth, dent/ 

toothbrush, brosse aux dents 

top, haut m. 

tower, tour/ 

town, ville/ ; in (to) ~, en ville 

toy, joujou m. (pi. -x) 

trace out, tracer, stem irr. (245) 

tragedy, trage"die/ 

tramcar, tramway m. 

translate, traduire, v. irr. (289) 

travel verb, voyager, stem irr. 

travel noun, voyage m. 

traveler, voyageur m. (f. -se) 

treacherous, traitre (f. -resse) 

treasure, tresor m. 

tree, arbre m. 

tribe, peuple m. 

trim (with), garnir (de) 

troop, troupe/ 

trouble, peine /, des ennuis m. 
pi. ; take the ~ (to), prendre (se 
donner) la peine (de) ; be worth 
the ~, en valoir la peine 

trousers, pantalon m. 

true, accurate, vrai ; loyal, fidele 

trunk, malle/ 

truth, ve'ritd/ 



try (to), essayer (de), stem some- 
times irr. (247 ; 295, b) 

Tuesday, mardi m. 

Turkish, turc (f turque) 

turn, tour m. 

twelve, douze ; o'clock, {noon) midi 
m., {night) minuit m. 

twenty, vingt 

twenty-first, vingt et unieme 

twenty-one, vingt et un 

twice, deux fois 

twin, jumeau (/. -elle ; -x) 

two, deux 

ugly, vilain (precedes noun) 

umbrella, parapluie m. 

uncle, oncle m. 

under, sous 

undergo, subir 

understand, comprendre, v. irr. 

United States, fitats-Unis m. pi. 

unless, a moins que (307) 

until con/., jusqu'a ce que (307); 

prep., jusqu'a (309, Note) 
up, out of bed, leve, sur pied 
upside down, a l'envers 
upstairs, en haut 
us, nous 
use, employer, stem irr. (247); 

se servir de 
used to, see 130 
useful, utile 
useless, inutile 
usually, d'ordinaire 

vacation, vacances f pi. ; have a 

~, etre en vacances 
valise, valise/ 

value correctly, apprdcier 
vase, vase m. 
veal, veau m. 
vegetable, legume m. 
verb, verbe m. 
very, tres ; ~ much, fort 
vest, gilet m. 
vice, vice m. 
victory, victoire/ 
Vienna, Vienne/i 
view, vuef 
village, village m. 
violence, violence^ 
virtue, vertu/ 
visit verb, visiter 
visit nou?i, visite/ 
visitor, visiteur m. (f -se) 
voice, voix f. ; in a low ~, k voix 

wait, attendre; 0= for, attendre; 
~ until, attendre que (307) 

waiter, garcon m. 

waiting-room, salle d'attente 

waken, se reveiller 

walk, marcher; se promener, stem 
irr. (248); go for a ~, se pro- 
mener (a. pied); take a ~, se 

wall, mur m. 

walnut tree, noyer m. 

wander about, vagabonder 

want, vouloir, v. irr. (271 ; 295, a) 

war, guerre/! 

warm, chaud; be <~>, of a person, 
avoir chaud; of the iveathe?', 
faire chaud 

warn, avertir 



was, e"tais, etc. ; ai ete, etc. ; as 
active auxiliary, see 1 30 

wash, laver 

watch, montre/ 

water, eau/ {pi. -x) 

way, chemin m., route/.; on the 
~, en route, chemin faisant; 
this (that) ~, par ici (la) 

we, nous ; indefinite, on (243) 

wealth, richesses/i//. 

wear, porter 

weather, temps m. ; be fine ~, 
faire beau temps 

Wednesday, mercredi m. 

week, semaine f., huit jours ; last 
~, la semaine derniere, la se- 
maine passee ; a ~ from today, 
d'aujourd'hui en huit 

weep, pleurer 

well adj. : be ~, aller, v. irn ; se 

well adv., bien ; intj., eh bien ! 

well-bred, bien eleve 

were, e'tions, etc. ; avons ete, etc. ; 
as active auxiliary, see 130 

west, ouest m. ; in the ~, a l'ouest 

what rel. pron., ce qui, ce que, ce 
. . . quoi (206) ; int. pron., que, 
quoi, qu'est-ce qui, qu'est-ce que 
(21 1, 323); int. adj., quel (f. -lie) 
(2 1 o) ; intj., comment ! ~ a, quel 
(f. -lie) (2 10, Note 2); ~ is that? 
qu'est-ce quec'est que cela? (323) 

whatever pron., quoi que (307, d); 
adj., quel que (307, d) 

wheat, ble m. 

When, quand (137, 152), lorsque, 
ou ; int., quand 

whence, d'ou (322); from ~, d'ou 

where, ou ; from ~, d'ou (322) 

whether, si (139, Note 3), que 
(304, Note 3) 

which rel. pron., qui, que (199); 
lequel (laquelle, etc.) (200); int. 
pron., lequel (laquelle, etc) 
(212, b); int. adj., quel {/. -lie) 
(2 1 2, a) ; of (from, with) ~, dont 
(203) ; duquel (de laquelle, etc.) 
(200, Note 2) ; to (at, in)~, auquel 
(a laquelle, £/<:.) (200, Note 2); ou 
(205) ; through ~, par ou (322) ; 
that of ~, ce de quoi, ce dont, 
ce h. quoi (206) 

while, time, pendant que; con- 
cession, tandis que ; with pres. 
part., en, tout en (162, 298) 

white, blanc (f. blanche) 

who rel., qui (199); int., qui (208); 
qui est-ce qui, qui est-ce que 


whoever, qui que (307) 

whole : the ~, tout le (101) 

wholesale, en gros • 

whom rel., que, qui (199); int., qui 
(208); qui est-ce que (323); of 
(from, with) ~, dont (203); de 
qui; duquel (de laquelle, etc.) 
(200, Note 2) 

whose rel., dont, de qui, duquel 
(de laquelle, etc) (203 ; 200, 
Note 2); int., (possession) a qui, 
(relationship) de qui (209) 

why, pourquoi; intj., comment! 
mais ! 

wicket, window, guichet m. 

wide, large 



width, largeur/ 

wife, femmej^ 

will, see 136 

William, Guillaume 

willing : be ~, vouloir bien, v. irr. 

(271); are you «*, voulez-vous 

(271, Note 3) 
wind, vent m. 
window, fenetre/ 
windy : be oa, f aire du vent 
wine, yin m. 
wineglass, verre a vin 
wing, ailef 
winter, hiver m. ; in (the) ~, en 

wish, vouloir, v. irr. (271 ; 295, a; 


with, avec ; ~ it (them), en 

without {&)prep., sans (298); con/., 
sans que (307) ; do ~, se passer 
de ; ~ saying, sans dire 

woman, femme/ 

wood, bois m. 

wooden, de bois 

wool, laine/ 

word, in speech, parole f. ; gram- 
matical linit, mot m. 

work verb, travailler; I ~, etc., je 
travaille, etc. (91) 

work noun, travail m: {pi. -aux); 
(of art) ceuvre/; 

world, monde m. 

worse adj., pire {precedes noun) ; 
adv. pis 

worship, adorer 

worst (the) adj., le pire {precedes 
noun) ; adv. le pis 

worth: be ~, valoir, v. irr. (270); 

be ~ the trouble, en valoir la 

would, see 130, 138, 139 
wrap up, envelopper 
wreath, couronne/] 
write, e'cris, etc. (p. 49); ecrire, 

v. irr. (281) 
writes, ecrit 
wrong, tort ; be ~, avoir tort 

yard, coury: 

year, as a date, an m.\ as a 

whole, anne'e_/\ 
yellow, jaune 
yes, oui ; si (330); ~ indeed, mais 

yesterday, hier; ~ evening, hier 

soir; day before ~, avant-hier 
yet, encore 

yield, cdder, stem irr. (249) 
yonder, la-bas 
you, vous; familiar, tu, toi (142); 

indefnite, on (243) 
young, jeune {precedes noun) 
younger, cadet (/ -tte) 
your, votre, vos (185, 188); 

familiar, ton, ta, tes (142, 185, 

yours, le v6tre (189); a vous ( r 90) ; 

familiar, le tien {f la tienne) 

(189); a toi (190) 
yourself refl., vous; fa?niliar, te; 

intensive, vous-meme (1 79); fa- 
miliar, toi-meme 
yourselves refl. % vous; intetisive, 

vous-memes (179) 


References are to pages 

a, contractions with, 29, 193 

distinguished from dans, en, 
169, 392 

in compound nouns, 392 

with geographical names, 95 

with units of measure, 259 
a moins que, 368 
a qui, 244 

abstract nouns, article with, 94 
accents, 3 
acquerir, 380, 440 
address, titles of, 49 
adjectives, agreement of, 60 

comparison of, 77 

demonstrative, 221 

feminine of, 60, 71, 378 

interrogative, 244-246 

plural of, 60 

position of, 64, 388 

possessive, 29, 212 

used as nouns, 65 
adverbs, comparison of, 83 

formation of, 82, 430 

of quantity, 83 

position of, 82, 390 
affiches, 252 

afin de, with infinitive, 370 
afin que, subjunctive after, 368 
age, expression of, 265 
ag6 and vieux, 79, 265 
agreement, of adjectives, 60 

of participles, 168, 434 

of possessives, 213 

of verbs, 33, 224 

aller, conjugation of, 303, 440 

idioms with, 303 
alphabet, 2 
anterior, past, 156 
apostrophe, 3 
apposition, omission of article in, 


articles, for possessives, 212 
forms of, 25, 26 
repetition of, 26 
special uses of, 94 
with names of languages, 137 
with names of relatives, 383 
with names of seasons, 185 
with titles of sovereigns, 265 

aspirate h, 18 

assaillir, 380, 440 

asseoir, 323, 444 

aussi . . . que, 78 

aussitot que, 125, 156 

auxiliaries, perfect tenses, 155, 163, 

with reflexive verbs, 273 

avant que, subjunctive after, 368 

avoir, as auxiliary, 155 

conjugation of, 149, 435 
idiomatic uses of, 150, 260 
with parts of the body, 2 1 3 

battre, 381, 448 

bien, used with de, 383 

boire, 334, 448 

bon, comparison of, 78 

bouillir, 380, 440 




ca, 223 

campagne and pays, 66 

capitals, use of, 2 
cardinal numbers, 253 

in dates, 264 

in titles, 265 
ce, use of, 222, 223 
ce dont, 238 
ce que, 238 
ce qui, 238 
ce quoi, 238 
ceci, 223 
cedilla, 3 
cela, 223 
celui, 222 
celui-ci, 223 
celui-la, 223 
cent, 254 
ci, 222 

classroom phrases, 422 
combien, as adverb of quantity, 83 

in interrogative sentences, 179 
comparatives, followed by ne, 363 
comparison, of adjectives, yy 

of adverbs, 83 
compound nouns, formation of, 392 

gender of, 428 

plural of, 429 
compound tenses, 155, 163, 434, 

compound verbs, 302 
concession, clauses of, 368 
conclure, 381, 448 
conditional, conjugation of, 129 

formation of, 129, 301 

uses of, 129 
conditions, expression of, 130, 157 
conduire, 335, 448 
conjugation, of irregular verbs, 300- 
341, 440-455 

of regular verbs, 102-141, 432, 


conjunctions, compared with prep- 
ositions, 370 

conjunctive pronouns, 192 

connaitre, 328, 448 

consonantal vowels, 13 

consonants, sounds of, 17-22 

contractions with the article, 29 

conversational phrases, 424 

coudre, 381, 448 

countries, prepositions with names 
of, 95 

courir, 308, 440 

couvrir, 309, 443 

craindre, 328, 450 

croire, 335, 450 

croitre, 381, 450 

cueillir, 380, 440 

dans, distinguished from a, en, 169, 

39 2 

dates, expression of, 263, 264 

days of the week, 264 

de, contractions with, 29, 193 
in compound nouns, 392 
to express in, j8 
to express material, 214 
with adverbs of quantity, 83 
with geographical names, 95 
with nouns of measure, 90, 260 
with passive voice, 282 

de qui, 237, 244 

definite article, contractions of, 29 
forms of, 25 
inclusive use of, 94 
partitive use of, 89 
possessive use of, 212 
uses of, 94, 95 

demander, construction with, 200 

demi, 259 

demonstrative adjectives, 221 

demonstrative pronouns, 222 

dependent infinitives, 348 



depuis, 157 

des que, with past anterior, 1 56 
descriptive past, see imperfect 
devoir, 316, 444 
diaeresis, 3 
digraphs, 1 1 
dire, 329, 450 

disjunctive pronouns, 199, 384 
dont, 237 
dormir, 308, 440 

doubting, clauses following verbs 
of, 362 

e mute, 9 
6crire, 329, 450 
elision, 23 

empecher, use of ne after, 363 
en, preposition, distinguished from 
a. dans, 392 
preposition, to express mate- 
rial, 214, 393 
preposition, with dates, 263 
preposition, with names of 

countries, 95 
preposition, with present parti- 
ciple, 168 
preposition, with seasons, 185 
pronoun, position of, 206 
pronoun, possessive use of, 384 
pronoun, use of, 204 
endings of verbs, 431 
entendre, construction following, 

341 • 

envoyer, 303, 440 

est-ce que, 177 

etre, as auxiliary, 163, 434 
conjugation of, 163, 435 
to express ownership, 213, 244 

faillir, 381, 442 
faire, conjugation of, 339, 450 
idiomatic uses of, 339, 341 

falloir, conjugation of, 323, 446 

uses of, 323 
fearing, construction following 

verbs of, 361, 363 
feminine, of adjectives, 60, 71, 378 

of nouns, 61, 428 
final consonants, linking of, 22 

pronunciation of, 17 
first conjugation, 103, 108, 433 

irregularities of, 294, 438 
fleuve and riviere, 96 
fractions, 259 
fuir, 381, 442 
future, conjugation of, 124 

formation of, 124, 301 

uses of, 125 

gender of nouns, 25, 428 
geographical names, 95 

h, aspirate, 18 

hair, 381, 442 

heure, 264 

huit, no elision before, 254 

hyphen, 3 

ilya, 151, 157 

imperative, conjugation of, 135 

formation of, 135, 301 

translation of, 135 

use of singular and plural, 
imperfect, conjugation of, 109 

formation of, 109, 301 

use of, no, 116 
imperfect subjunctive, conjugation 
of, 141 

formation of, 141, 301 
impersonal verbs, construction 
after, 356 

definition of, 323 
inclusive article, 94 



indefinite article, forms of, 26 

omission of, 95 
indicative, use of, contrasted with 

subjunctive, 355 
indirect object, 192 

after special verbs, 195, 200 
infinitive, after prepositions, 350 

as noun, 350 

denoting purpose, 349 

dependent, 348 

distinguished from subjunctive, 


endings of, 102 

for finite verb, 350 

negativing an, 350 

with a, 349 

with de, 349 

without preposition, 348 
intensive pronouns, 200 
interrogation, 44, 177 
interrogative adjectives, 244-246 
interrogative pronouns, 244-246, 385 
interrogatives, order with, 178 
intransitive verbs, perfect of, 164, 

inversion of verb and subject, 390 
irregular verbs, conjugation of, 303- 

341, 440-455 
it and they, 34, 192, 199, 223 

Latin and French, 1 
le, definite article, 25 

to avoid repetition, 194 
lequel, interrogative, 245 

relative, 229, 230, 385 
letters, names of, 2 
liaison, 22 
lire, 329, 452 
l'on, 287 
luire, 335, 452 

map of France, 257 

Marseillaise, 425 

material, nouns of, 90, 214, 393 

maudire, 381, 452 

measure, expressions of, 90, 259 

mentir, 308 

menu, 209 

mettre, 328, 452 

mil, 263 

mille, 254 

milliard, 254 

million, 254 

models of correspondence, 394 

months, names of, 264 

moudre, 381, 452 

mourir, 309, 442 

mouvoir, 381, 446* 

mute e, 9 

jeux lV esprit, 218 
joindre, 328, 450 

jusqu'a ce que, subjunctive after, 

1, liquid, 19 

V, in elision, 25 

la, 204, 223 

laisser, construction following, 340, 

languages, names of, construction 
with, 137 

naitre, 263, 328 

narrative past, see past definite 

nasal sounds, 14 

ne, after comparatives, 363 

in negative expressions, 183 

omission of, 184 

pleonastic, 362 
ne . . . que, 183, 184 
necessity, expression of, 324 
negation, 39, 183 
negatives, 183 
n'est-ce pas, 179 



neuf and nouveau, 72 

ni, 184 

nouns, as adjectives, 49 
feminine of, 61, 429 
gender of, 25, 428 
plural of, 26, 55, 378, 429 
position of, when subject, 178, 

nuire, 335, 453 
numerals, cardinals, 253 
ordinals, 258 

object pronouns, position of, 193 

offrir, 309, 442 

on, uses of, 287 

onze, no elision before, 254 

order of elements in sentence, 206 

ordinal numbers, 258 

orthographic marks, 3 

irregularities in first conjuga- 
tion, 294, 438 
Oil, in interrogative sentences, 178 

used as a relative, 237, 385 
ouvrir, 309, 442 
ownership, expression of, 213, 244 

par, in expressing units of time, 259 
with faire and infinitive, 340 
with passive voice, 282 

paraitre, 328, 449 

participle, agreement of, 168 
past, endings of, 108 
present, after en, 168 
present, endings of, 108 

partir, 308, 442 

partitive construction, 89, 150, 20 ', 

pas, omission of, 318, 391 
passive voice, agent after, 282 
agreement in, 280 
conjugation of, 280, 437 
on used for, 287 

reflexive used for, 286 

.tense usage in, 281 

use of, 286 
past anterior, 156 
past definite, conjugation of, 115 

formation of, 115, 301 

uses of, 116 
past indefinite, 116, 117' 
payer, construction with, 195 
peindre, 328, 452 
pendant, 157 
penser with a or de, 205 
perfect tenses, 436 

formation of, 155, 163 

uses of, 156 
personal pronouns, 192-200 
personne, 183, 184, 390 
petit, comparison of, 78 
phonetic alphabet, 6 
phonetic material, 415 
phonetic transcription of models, 418 
plaire, 334, 45 2 
pleuvoir, 381, 446 
plupart, 383 
pluperfect, 156 
plural, of adjectives, 60 

of nouns, 26, 55, 378, 429 
position, of adjectives, 64, 388 

of adverbs, 82, 390 

of conjunctive personal pro- 
nouns, 193, 206 

of en and y, 206 

of negatives, 184 

of reflexive pronouns, 273 
possession, expression of, 29, 213 
possessive adjectives, agreement 
of, 29, 213 

article used for, 212 

list of, 212 

use of, 211, 385 
possessive pronouns, 213 
pour, with infinitive, 104 



pour que, subjunctive after, 368 

pourvoir, 381, 446 

pouvoir, 317, 446 

premier, subjunctive after, 363 

prendre, 329, 454 

prepositions, before infinitives, 370 

compared with conjunctions, 370 

with geographical names, 95 
present indicative, conjugation of, 
102, 103 

formation of, 102, 108, 300 

uses of, 48, 103 
present subjunctive, conjugation of, 

formation of, 140, 301 
preterit, see past definite 
price, expression of, 259 
principal parts of verbs, 107, 108, 

142, 300 
pronouns, demonstrative, 221-224 

intensive, 200 

interrogative, 244-246, 385 

personal, 192-200 

possessive, 211, 213 

reflexive, 273 

relative, 229-238 
pronunciation of French, 5 
punctuation, 24 
purpose, clauses of, 368 


with future, 125, 157 

with past anterior, 1 56 
quantity of vowels, 16 
que, for other conjunctions, 391 

interrogative pronoun, 244, 385 

meaning than, 78 

relative pronoun, 229, 238 

with subjunctive, 355 
qu'est-ce qui, 245, 385 
quel, 244 
quelque, 384 

questions, method of asking, 177-179 
qui, interrogative pronoun, 244, 385 

relative pronoun, 229, 238 
qui est-ce qui, 385 
quoi, interrogative pronoun, 245 

relative pronoun, 238 

recevoir, 317, 446 
reciprocal use of reflexives, 387 
reflexive pronouns, agreement of, 275 
distinguished from intensives, 


list of, 273 

position of, 273 

used as reciprocals, 387 
reflexive verbs, conjugation of, 274 

idiomatic use, 276 

used for passive, 286 
regular verbs, 102-141, 432 
relative pronouns, 229-238 
repentir, 308, 442 
rSsoudre, 381, 454 
rien, 183, 390 
rire, 381, 454 

savoir, 318, 446 

se, 273 

sentir, 308, 442 

sequence of tenses, 355 

servir, 308, 444 

seul, subjunctive after, 363 

si, 130, 369, 392 

si . . . que, 78 

size, expression of, 260 

soi, 386 

sortir, 308, 444 

souffrir, 309, 443 

sounds, of consonants, 17-22 

of vowels, 8-1 5 
sovereigns, titles of, 265 
stem of verb, 102 
stress, 22 



subjunctive, after impersonal verbs, 

after superlatives, 363 
after verbs of doubting, etc., 363 
after verbs of emotion, 361 
after verbs of thinking, etc., 362 
after verbs of wishing, etc., 362 
in adjective clauses, 363 
in adverbial clauses, 368 
in concessive clauses, 368 
in conditional clauses, 369 
in indefinite relative clauses, 368 
in object clauses, 361 
in principal clauses, 355 
in purpose clauses, 368 
in relative clauses, 363 
in subject clauses, 356 
in time clauses, 368 
imperfect, conjugation of, 141 
present, conjugation of, 140 
tenses of, 140, 355 
use of, compared with indica- 
tive, 355 
use of, compared with infini- 
tive, 369 
use of ne with, 362, 363 

suffire, 381, 454 

suivre 334, 454 

syllables, 4 

synopsis, 141, 155, 164 

taire, 334, 454 

tel, 65 

tenir, 309, 444 

tenses, in subordinate clauses, 125, 

13O' *57 

of the subjunctive, 355 
time, clauses of, 368 

of day, expression of, 264 
titles, of address, 49 

of sovereigns, 265 
tout, 65, 391 

tressaillir, 380, 441 

trigraphs, 11 

tu, contrasted with vous, 135 

un, article, 26 

numeral, 253 
unit of time, expression of, 259 

vaincre, 381, 454 

valoir, 322, 446 

venir, conjugation of, 309, 444 

idiomatic uses of, 309 
verbs, agreement of, 33 

conjugation of, 102-141, 301- 
341, 43 2 -455 

endings of, 43 t 

formation of, 300-302 

impersonal, 323 

irregular, 303-341 

prepositions that follow, 349 

principal parts of, 107, 108 

pronominal, see reflexive 

reflexive, 273 

regular, 1 02-1 41 
vetir, 381, 444 
vingt, 254 
vivre, 334, 454 
voici, 151, 193 
voila, 151, 193 
voir, 318, 448 

construction following, 340 
vouloir, 195, 322, 448 
VOUS, contrasted with tu, 135 
vowels, sounds of, 8-15 

weather, expression of, 341 
wishing, subjunctive after clauses 
of, 362 
subjunctive in clauses of, 355 

y, position of, 206 
use of, 204 

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