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le Cleik'i Office of the District Coatt of Mftine. 



The unrivalled repntadon of Kuhner as a grammariaii in both 
the Greek and Latin languages, renders it unnecessary that anj 
apology should be made for presenting to the American public the 
following translation of his Elementary Latin Grammar. His mer- 
its, before- Known to a few of our riper scholars, have lately been 
made familiar to all through the excellent translation of his Greek 
School Grammar by Messrs. Edwards and Taylor. It is understood 
also, that the same gentlemen have in preparation his Elementary 
Grreek Grammar. 

It seemed but proper, therefore, that a beginning should be made 
towards Ininging before the public some of the results of his gram- 
matical labors (equally profound and ingenious) in the Latin lan- 
guage. And no one, it is to be presumed, who duly considers the 
state of Latin learning among us, will deem it improper that a begin- 
ning has been made with an elementary treatise. The publication, 
within a few years past, of a translation of Krebs' Guide for Writ- 
ing Latin and a new and enlarged edition of Beck's Latin Syntax, 
has done much towards supplying American students with the gram- 
matical helps for studying the language critically. But with the ex- 
ception of the Ciceronian by Dr. Sears, which, admirably adapted 
as it is to its purpose, is not designed to supply the place of a gram- 
mar, nothing of importance has been published during this period to 
supply the deficiencies for elementary instruction. 

There is needed then, more especially, an elementary work on 
Latin Grammar, which shall give a,.right start to our scholars and 
put them in possession of the essential principles of the language in 
the shortest and most effectual way. Such a grammar, it is believ- 
ed, the present will be found to be. No one can take a class over 
it, without being impressed with its admirable order, precision and 
adaptedness to the purposes of elementary instruction. The pupil 


will here find the most happj arrangemeDt of parts, each preparing 
the way for the following, the simplest and most philosophical state- 
ment of principles, and every expedient resorted to, which genius 
and skill could invent, to aid the understanding and the memory. 
While it does not profess to embrace every minute principle of the 
language, it presei)^ a selection of {»*ineiples so judiciously made, so 
comprehensively stated and so extended withal, that it is believed, 
that it will be found to contain quite as many principles, applicable 
in reading the strictly classical writers of Latin, as many much more 
extended grammars ; certainly enough to meet the demands of ordi- 
nary students in the usual course of preparation for college. 

The plan of the work, as given by the author, is briefly as foUows. 
Every grammatical form or principle of syntax, as soon as learned, 
is to be rendered practical and fixed in the mind, by translations 
first from the Latin into the English, and then from the English into 
the Latin. To prepare the pupil for these exercises in transla- 
tion, such forms of the verb as are requisite for constructing the sim- 
plest sentences are given at the outset, and a few simple rules of syn- 
tax as they are required, while on almost every page, lists of L^atin 
words with their definitions are given to be committed to memory, 
most of which, also, are collected and arranged in alphabetical Vo- 
cabularies at the end of the book. As many of the examples for 
translation as possible, were selected unaltered from the classics, oth- 
ers were slightly altered to suit the cases for which they were em- 
ployed, and the remainder composed by the author, yet always so as 
to embody classical ideas and turns of thought The examples in 
English may be translated into LaUn, either viva voce or by writing} 
at the discretion of the teacher. 

The translation here presented is from the second edition of the 
original work, puUished in 1844 Previously to receivmg this edi- 
tion, the translator had completed, within a few p^es, the entire trans- 
lation of the fii^t ; but on comparing the two editions^ the alterations 
were found to be so great as to make the last almost a new work. 
He abandoned, therefore, his first translation, and commenced with 
the second edition de novo. Although this has delayed the publica- 
tion of the work a few months, no one, it is presumed, will r^ret it, 
when he reflects, that he is thereby put in possession of a vastly bet* 
ter book, and probably of a somewhat better transla;tion. During 
the interval between the publication of the first and second editionsy 

the aatlKNrluHl prepared a larger Latin Gramiaar and been daily em- 
ployed in teaching Ids elementary work^ all which prepared him for 
fluduDg rery important ehangeg in a seooiid edition. By this pro- 
eesB, the book has been brought to the h%h state of p^eotion in 
which it here appears. Besides its general office as a grammar^ it 
is designed to eontam all that the pupil will need during the fint 
year or more of has study of the language^ serriagas grammar, read* 
ing-book and lexicon. The adaptedness of sucii a book to the wants 
of beginners, the experienced teacher will not fail to perceive. 

It should be stated, however, that while the translation has 
been made from the second edidon throughout, the translator has ta- 
ken the liberty to introduce a few remarks and paragn^phs (in one 
or two instances with slight modifications) from the first edition, 
which had been omitted in the second, apparently, because they were 
considered more appropriate to the author's larger grammar to which 
this was to serve exclusively as an introduction. The difierent po- 
sition which the book wiU occupy in this country rendered it proper 
that these should be retained in the translation, even though, in one 
or two instances, they may appear a Jittle inconsistent with the gen- 
eral plan of the work. For the same reason, the translator has ad- 
ded three short Appendices, chiefly from Kiihner's larger Latin 
Grammar, of which that on Prosody, as it will be perceived, is de- 
signed only for the scanning of Hexameter verse. 

With regard to the mode of using the book, the intelligent teach- 
er will be the best judge. The author, however, suggests that, after 
completing the Etymology, the pupil should conmience the more 
simple of the Latin reading lessons in connection with the study of 
the Syntax. And it may be added, that in some cases it will prob- 
ably be found best,' to take the pupil over the first and perhaps the 
second Course, omitting the English exercises at first, and then re- 
turn and take them up in connection with a thorough review of the 
whole. Perhaps also, a judicious teacher, following out the general 
plan of the author, of diminishing difficulties by division and distrir 
bution, will think best, with very young pupils in particular, to 
omit some other things the first time over and take them up at sub- 
sequent reviews. But whatever course is pursued in teaching the 
book, a complete mastery of all that it contains should be aimed at 
from the beginning, and should be actually attained before it is 



In oonclosion, the translator would express his obligations to the 
Bey. Dr. Sears, of the Newton Theological Institataon, who vety 
kindlj listened to the reading of the greater part of the manuscript 
and suggested such corrections ad his superior knowledge of Gierman 
enabled him to do, and to Mr. James £L Hanson, Principal of the 
Waterville Academy, who has given very important assistance in 
correcting the sheets as they passed through the press. 

Waterville Coliege, 
JM. 1845. 






Or TBK Sounds a«d Lkttkrs of tbx La««<jacix. 

DinsionoftheLeiten fl 

Pronanciation of the Letter! 2 


Of Stllablxs. 

OftheMeaaare or Quantity of Syllablei 3 

OfAcceot * 

OftheDiviaion of Syllables ^ 


Parts of Spxxcb. — Ihflxctiok ... 6 

Partial treatment of the Verb 7—11 

First Conjugation ^ 

Second Conjagation ® 

Third Conjugation ^^ 

Fouith Conjugation *^ 

Of the Substantive and Adjective. 

Classification of Substantivea ^ 

Gender of the Substantive *^ 

Number, Case and Declension 

Gender and Declension of the Adjective 

First Declension J^ 

Second Declension ' 

Third Declension lo— Sll 

• • • 


Paradigms of Adjectives of the Third Declension . . . § 22 

Foarth Declension 23 

Fifth Declension . . . . 24 

Comparison of Adjectives and Participles 25 


Of the Adverb. 

Classification and Formation of Adverbs 26 

Comparison of Adverbs 27 


Of the Pronoun. 

Personal Pronouns 2S 

Demonstrative Pronouns . . . # 29 

Relative and Interrogative Pronouns 30 

Indefinite Pronouns 31 

Correlative Frottoonv 32 


Of the Numerals 33 


Table of the Prepositions 34 

SECOND course: 

Greek Nouns of the First Declension 35 

Of the Gender of the Second Declensioa ^ 36 

Remarks on. Particular Case-endjngs of the Third Declension . . 37 
Of the Gender >of the Third Declension . . . .. . 38^40 

Masculine 38 

Feminine • . . ... . 39 

Neutei 40 

Of the Gender of the Fourth Declension 41 



Of the Verb. 

Classes of Verbs 42 

Tensesof the Verb 43 

Bloctes of the Verb 44 

Infinitive, Participle, Supine, G«rund and Gerundive ... 45 



Persons and Nambera of the Verb | 46 

CoDJagation 47 

Formation of tbe Tenses 48 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary verb tvM 49 

Active of the Four Regular Conjugations ..... 50 

Passive .51 

Inflection of Verbs in to aAer the Third Conjugation ... 59 

Deponents of tbe Four Conjugations 53 

Periphrastic Conjugation 54 

Catalogue of verbs which vary in the formation of their tenses fVom 

the paradigms given in § § 50 and 51 55—69 

First Conjugation 55.-57 

Second Conjugation 58 — 60 

Third Conjugation 61 — 68 

' Fourth Conjugation 69 

Particular Irregular Verbs 70 — 76 

1) Possum 70 

2) Edo 71 

3) Fero 72 

4) Volo, nolo, malo 73 

5) Eo 74 

\ 6) Queo, noqueo - . . 75 

7) Fio 76 

I Defective Verbs 77 

Impersonal Verbs 78 

pREPosiTioir. — CoHJUHCTioH. — Intekjectioit .... 79 

F The Formation of Words 80 


Sentence. Subject. Predicate ....... 81 

'Limitation of the Subject and Predicate 83 

Agreement 83 

Double Nominative 84 

Classes of Verbs 85 

Tenses of the Verb 86 

Modes of the Verb 87 

Of the Cases 88—91 

Genitive 88 

Accusative 89 

Dative 90 

Ablative . * * 91 


Construction of names of Towns § 92 

Remarks on the use of the Prepositions . . . . 93 

Of the use of the Pronouns 94 

Of the use of the I'^umerals 95 

Infinitive 96 

Supine 97 

Gerund ^98 

€rerundive 99 

Participle 100 


A. Coordinate Sentences 101 

B. Subordinate Sentences 102 

Of the use of the Modes in Subordinate Sentences . . . 10!) 

Succession of the Tenses in Subjunctive Subordinate Sentences 104 

I. Substantive Sentences 105 — 108 

A. Accusative with the Infinitive . . . . 105 

B. Ut, ne, ut ne, ut non, with the Subjunctive . . . 106 

C. Quo, quominus, quin, with the Subjunctive . . 107 

D. Quod, that, with the Indicative ..... 108 
II. Adjective Sentences 109 

III. Adverbial Sentences 110 — 114 

a. Adverbial Sentences of Time 110 

b. Causal Adverbial Sentences Ill 

c. Conditional Adverbial Sentences 112 

d. Concessive Adverbial Sentences 113 

e. Adverbial Sentences of Comparison . . . .114 

Of Interrogative Sentences 115 

Of the Form of Obli^de Discourse 116 

First Appendix. 
Of Prosody : 

OfSyllables 117 

Hexameter Verse 118 

Scansion 119 

Second Appendix. 

Of Abbreviations 120 

Third Appendix. 

Of the Roman Calendar 121 

Colleetion of Latin Reading Lessons. 



Of the Sounds and Letters of the Language. 

§ 1. Division of the Letters. 

1. The Latin Language has as signs of its sounds, 
t^'^enty-five letters, viz. six vowels and nineteen consonants. 

nopq rs t uvzyz 

Remabk 1. The capital letters are used only : a) at the beginning 
of a sentence, afler a period, an interrogation or exclamation point and 
after a colon (:), where the words of another are quoted •, — b) in proper 
' names, as : Romulus. — ^Tbe letter k is used in but very few words. 

2. The vowels are either short or long. The short vowels 
are distinguished by u, the long ones by -, as : a, a, perpla- 
ces. The sign u signifies, that the vowel over which it 

^ stands can be used either as short or long, as : a. 

3. The Latin Language has the following diphthongs : 
ae. oe. au. eu. et, e. g. aequitas, equity y foedus, league^ 
aurum, gold^ Eurus, the east tvindy hei, alas. 

Rem. 2. When ae and oe are to be pronounced Hparcddyy this is in- 
dicated by two points (puncta diaeresis, points of separation) placed over 
the second vowel (e), as : aer, iht air, poeta, a poet The diphthong eu 
is found in only a few Latin, but in many Greek wonls, as : Eurotas ; 
in general, therefbre, eu should be separated in pronunciation, as: 
deus (pronounced, dius) God, In like manner, also, must et be almost 
invariably pronounced separately, as: dei (pronounced, cf^t) of God, for 
ei as a diphthong occurs in but a very few words, as : hei, aUti. 


4. The consonants, according to the greater or less influ- 
ence of the organs of speech in their pronunciation, are 
divided into : 

a) Liquids: 1, m, n, r; 

b) Spirants :• h, s, v, j ; 

c) Mules : b, c, d, f, g, k, p, q, t, x, z. 

§ 2. Pro7mneia4ian of the Letters. 

C before e, t, y, ae, oe, eu, is pronounced like 5, but' in 
other cases like A:, as : celsus (selsus) cicer, cymba, caecus, 
ceu, coelum ; but, caro (karo), collum, custos, clamor ; 

Ch is pronounced like k; 

Gu before a vowel in the same syllable likegta^ as : lingua ; 

Ph like our/, as : pharetra ; 

Rh as a simple r, as : Rhea ; 

Sch like sk, a3 : schola (skola) ; 

Qa is pronounced like kw, as : aqua ; 

Su before a vowel in the same syllable like sio, as t suHsor ; 

Ti before a vowel is pronounced like «Af, as: actio 
(acshio). But if the i is lonff^ the hissing sound disappears, 
as : totius. Besides, ti (with the i short) is pronounced 
without the hissing sound : a) if there is immediately be- 
fore the t another t^ an 5, or an a:, as : Attius, ostium, mix- 
tio ; b) in Greek words as : Miltiades, tiaxa. 

Of Syllables. 

§ 3. O/* the Measure ar Quantity of Syllables. 

1 . A syllable is short by nature^ when its vowel is short 
and this short vowel is followed either by another vowel or 
a single consonant, as : deus, Ood^ piXer, father. 

2. A syllable is lonff by nature^ when its vowel is long, 
as : mater, a mother^ murus, a wall. Particularly, all sylla- 
bles are long in which there is a diphthong, as : plausus, 

* SpirantSy i. e. fetters fonned principally by the breath. — Tr. 

f 4.] QUAKTITT. — ^ACCENT. 13 

appUmse^ and in which two vowels are contracted into one, 
as: lacus, of a lake^ (contracted from lacuisy the original 
form of the genitive of lacus, a lake). 

3. A syllable, which ends with a long vowel, is short by 
position, i. e. by the position of the vowel, when the follow- 
ing syllable begins with a vowel, as : de in deamlulo, I 
take a walk^ pro in proavu, a great-grand-father^ prae in 
praeacutus, very sharp. 

4. A syllable with a short vowel is long' by position^ 
when this short vowel is followed by two or more conso- 
nants, or by j, or x, or z, as : per in perdo ; alicujus ; but 
in the compounds oi jvgum^ the vowel before y remains 
short, as : bijugus. fl" with a consonant, forms no position, 
as: stomachus, the stomach. 

Remask. The podtton befbre a mute wUk a liquid (§ 1, 4), for the 
most part, does not make the short vowel long, as : cerebrum, the hramj 
arfoitror, / ikink, locilplea, rich. But in two cases the position of a 
mute with a liquid nounkes the preceding short vowel long : a) in com- 
pounds, as : abrumpo, from db ; b) when one of the three liquids : ^ m, 
n, follows one of the three mutes: bj d, gjSBi hiblus, agmen, a monk 
(from dgo\ magDus, grtaJL 

§4. OfAccerd."^ 

1. Monosyllables with a vowel short by natwrCj are pro- 
nounced with the acute accent ('), monosyllables with a 
vowel long by nalvre, with the circumflex accent (a), as: et, 
vir (vTri), (it, diix (ducis) ; m&s (moris), jus (juris), lex (legis), 

2. Dissyllables have the accent upon the penult, and in- 

a) The acute accent, when the penult is short by nature, 
as: virum (i), ducem (u), homo (o), arte; or when the ulti- 
mate is long, whether the penult is long or short, as : Musae 
(v) mores (6) bohae (5) ; 

b) The circumflex accent, when the permit is long by 
nature and the ultimate short, as : mater (a), Miisa. 

3. Words of three or more syllables have the accent : 

* This paragraph may be passed o?er, provided the teacher will see that 
the right pronunciation of the words is given in reading. 



a) Upon the cmtepenult, and indeed, the acute accerUj 
when the pemilt is shorty whether the last syllable is short or 
long, as : homine, homines, hominibus, medioeris, tenebrae ; 

b) Upon the penult^ and indeed, the acute a4;cent, when 
both the penult and ultimate are long, as : acuto (u), amarea 
(a) ; or when the penult is long only by position^ in which 
case the ultimate may be either long or short, as : amantur, 
amantes ; — ^but the circumflex accent^ if the penult is lotig by 
nature and the ultimate shorty as : acutus, amare.* 

Rebiark. The short monosyllabic endUia (i. e. particles which 
always stand annexed to other words, and therefore lose tbejr accent) : 
que, ve, ne, ce, md, etc. draw the accent of the word to which they are 
attached from the jmlq>envU to the ukiinate, as : sc61era sceler&que, 
h6raine8 homin^sque, hominibus hominibiisque. But if the accent is 
upon the penult, the drawing back of the accent to the last syllable, 
ti^es place only when this is already long, or by its union with the 
enclitic becomes long by position; but if die last syllable is short and 
remains so, the accent does not change syllables, as : scel^tus scelee- 
tiltsque, scelesta scel^st&que, plertque plera^ue pl^r^ue, i^tr&que ut- 

§ 5. Of the Division of Syllables.^ 

1. General Rule. Syllables end with a vowel, and be- 
gin with a consonant When, therefore, a consonant stands 
between two vowels, it belongs to the following syllable, 
as : pa-ter, a-ma-mus. 

2. Subordinate Rule. When two or three consonants, 
with which a Latin word can begin, stand between the 
vowels of two syllables, they are to be joined to the second 
syllable. The most common combinations of consonants 
are : a mute with a liquid, and s with a mute or with a 
mute and a liquid, as: ma-gnus, greats 2i-gn, fields, pe-stis, 
plague, a-stra, the stars. In all other cases, the consonants 

* That is to say, inffeneral, if the penult is long it has the accent, but if 
not, the antepenult, — Tr. 

t These rules for the division of syllables aie drawn from the ancient 
grammarians and are generally observed in Europe. In this country, it is 
more common (and perhaps better, especially for be|rinners) to follow the 
analogies of our own lan^usjgre in dividing a Latin word into syllables. For 
a fuller account of the pnnciples of division here adopted, see Appendix to 
Beck's Latin Syntax. — Tr. 

i 6.] PAET8 OF 8PBB0H. — ^IMFLBOTIOH. 15 

between two vowels are divided, as : aa-nas, a pear^ ara- 
nis, a river ^ mon-tes, m/cmniains. 

Remark. A compound word must be divided according to its com- 
ponent porta, as : ab-^vus, a gnat-great-grandfather. If a letter Is in- 
serted, it is attached to the first word, as : prod-esse, to profit 


§ 6. Parts of Speech. — Inflection. 

1. The Substantive designates an object (a person or 
thing), as : fnmij woman, house. 

2. The Verb expresses an action (something which an 
object does), as: to bloom, to da/nce, to sleep, to love, to 
praise, e. g. the rose blooms ; the boy dances ; the child 
sleeps ; God loves men ; the teacher praises the scholars. 

3. The Adjective expresses a property or quality, as: 
sm^l, g'reat, beautiful, e. g. a smnll boy ; a beautiful rose ; a 
great house. 

4. The Adverb expresses the way and manner in which 
an action takes place, as ; beautifully, sweetly, e.' g. the rose 
blooms beautifully; the child sleeps sweetly. 

Rem. J. There are adverbs also, which express the place where, and 
the time vahtn the action takes place, as : hare, there, yesterday, to-day. 

5. The Pronoun points to an object, as : /, thou, he, this 

6. The Numeral expresses number or multitude, as : one, 
two, three, m4my,few. 

7. The Preposition is a word which stands before a noun, 
and expresses the relations o{ place, of time and other rela- 
tions which an object sustains to an action, as : the boy 
stands before the house; the child laughs /or joy. 

8. The Conjunction is a word which serves to connect 
words and sentences, as : and, but, because. 

Rem. 2. Besides, there are other words which are barely signs of 
emotion, and are called Literjection& 

9. By inflection we understand the variation or modifica- 



[« 7, 8. 

tion of a word in order to express a particular relation, as : 
thou love^f, he love5, the child'5 clothes, the man'5 bat 
The inflection of the substantive, adjective, pronoun anci 
numeral, is called declension^ that of verbs, conjugation. 
The remaining parts of speech do not admit of inflection. 

§ 7. Partial Treatment of the Verb, 

All the verbs of the Latin Language are divided into 
four classes or conjugations, which are distinguished by the 
termination of the infinitive as follows: 

First Conjugation : — are as : amdre, to love, 
Second " — fere " mon^re, to admonish, 

Third * — 6re " reg?re, to govern, 

Fourth " — ire ^ audire, to hear. 

§ 8. First Conjugation : amare, to love. 








amo, / love 
anuU, thou loved 
Hiadt, he, lAe, U loves 
Bmdmus, toe love 
amdiis, you love 
nxnant, they love. 

anid, love Ihou 
sxaade, love ye. 

amor, 1 am loved 
aofidm, ihou mi loved . 
SiVQaiwr, he, the, it is loved 
amdmiur, toe are loved 
suDdmlni, you are loved 
axoemkar, (hey are loved. 

L Words to he learned and Exercises for trantiation. 

aro 1. I plough. 
delecto 1. 1 deUgkt. 
eddco L T bring up. 
laudo 1. I praise. 

Laudo. Vitup^ras. 

vexo 1. I annoy. 
vigilo 1. I watch. 
, vitiip^ro 1. I censure. 
vuln^ro I. / toound. 

orno ]. I adorn. 
pugno 1. I fight. 
salto 1. I dance. 
tento 1. I try. 

Saltat Vigilamus. Pugnatis. Arant Lauda. 
Pugnate. Tentat saltare. Delector. Vulneraris. Vexatur. Lauda- 
mur. Vituperamini. Omantur. Laudaris. Educamini. Vitupera- 
mur. EdQcor. Edilcantur. Delectdmur. Omaris. Saltatis. Vul- 
nerantur. LaudaminL Vigila. Saltate. 

I watch. Thou figbtest He ploughs. We praise. You censure. 

♦ 9.] 



They dance. Fight thou. Pimifle ye. They tiy to fight I am 
praised. Thou art oensured. He is adorned. We are delighted. 
You are wounded. They are annoyed. They are praised. Thou 
art brought up. They are censured. We are brought up. You praise. 
We are adorned. He is wounded. They praise. 

§ 9. Second Chnjugation : monere^ to admonish. 

Indicative. Indicative. 



moDeo, / admonM 
monfSj thou admarMai 
moneij he, tkty U admonishes 
monimuSj toe admonish 
monfHsy you admonish 
mouent, they admonislu 

mon^, admonish thou 
mon€<e, admonish yt. 

moneor, I am admonished 
moniris, thou art admonished 
monitur^ htysheitts admomAed 
mon^mur, we are admoni^ied 
monAnlm, you are admonished 
monen/ur, they art admonished. 

n. Words to he teamed and Exercises for iransiaiion. 

D#b€o 2. / must, ought. 
doc^o 2. Iteathf instrucL 
exerc6o 2. / exercise. 
fl€o 2. / u>eep. 
florSo 2. / Uoom. ' 

gaudto 2. Ir^oice. 
man^o 2. / remain. 
mord^ 2. / Ute. 
movCo 2. / move. 
par6o2. lohey. 

riddo 2. 1 laugh. 
tBLc6o 2. / am silent. 
terrfto 2. Ifriglden. 
etj and. 
si, iT. 

Docto. Taces. Ridet GaudSmus. Ezerc^tis. Flent Tace. 
Man^te. Tac^re debes. TerrCor. Ezerc^ris. Movfetur. Doc^mur. 
MordeminL Docentur. Doces. Tac^raus. Doc^ris. Par^redebent 
Florent. Exerctoiur. Manetis. Educaris et doc^ris. Moventur. 
Tacent. Par^te. Si paretis, laudamlni. Si tac^mus, laudamur. Salr 
tamus et gaud^mus. Tentate doc^re. Mordentur et vulnerantur. 

I rejoice. Thou ezercisest He weeps. We teach. You are silent 
They laugh. Remain thou. Be ye silent You must remain. I am 
bitten. Thou art frightened. He is instructed. You teach. I am 
silent We are moved. We must be silent le^fercisemyself («am 
exercised). Rejoice ye. You are brought up and instructed. I am 
instructed. I laugh. Obey thou. If thou obeyest thou art praised. 
You dance and rejoice. We try to teach. We are bitten and wound- 
ed. If you weep you are censured. 





§ 10. Third Conjvgation : regcre^ to gvpem. 








rego, I govern 
regiSf thou govemui 
regit, he, she, it goverm 
FBgfifittf} we govern 
regiUs, you govern 

regi, govern thou 
i^gUe, govern ye. 

regor, I am governed 
regeris, ihou art governed 
regf/tir, ht, the, it is governed 

regimim, you are governed 
reguntur, (hey aregovemed, * 

nL ffords io he learned and Exercises for translation. 

cano 3. 1 sing, 
c^o 3. 1 give way. 
defendo 3. / defend. 
diligo 3. / esteem, love, 
edo 3. / eat. 

fallo 3. / deceive. 
laedo 3. / hurt. 
l£go 3. / read. 
ludo 3. IpUxy. 
pingo 3. 1 paint. 

pungo 3. 1 pride, sting. 
scribo 3. / write. 
yinco 3. / conquer, van- 

bene adv. well. 
male, adv. iU, badly. 

Scribo. Legis. Laedit Canimus. Edttis. Bibunt Pinge. Scri- 
bite. ScnbSre debes. FaUor. Vinc^ris. Defendttur. Diligfmur. 
PungiminL Laeduntur. Ede et bibe. Lude. Legite. Can^re ten- 
tat Pingis. Defendimur. Dilig£ris. VincimlnL Si vincUis, lauda- 
minL Bene scribunt Laed^ris. Edunt Si cedis, vinc^ris. Si male 
floribSs, Titupf rariB. Si bene pingltis, laudamlni, 

I sing. Thou eatest He drinka We write. You read. 'Riey 
defend. Write thou. Paint ye. You niust read. I am esteemed. 
Thaa art stung. He is hurt We are deceived. We are vanquished. 
You def^d. They esteem. Eat ye and drink. He is conquered. 
Play ye. They try to read. You paint They are defended. You 
are esteemed. If thou mngest well, thou art praised. He writes well. 
You are hurt If you write well you are praised. If you give way 
jou are conquered. If you wrile badly you are censored. 


paHtial trbatkbnt op thb vxbb. 


§ 11. Jbterti Omftigutian : andm, to hear. 







audio, / htar 
audi«, thou hearesl 
audit, Ae, «Ae, U kean 
audimtw, tot Aeor 
»i^Mi$ you hear 
9Mdiunif ihejf hear. 

. Imperative, 
audi, liear thou 
aud2<e htar ye. 

audtor, / am htard 
audirit, thou art heard 
audUur, ht^ she, U is heard 
audfiftKr, we are heard 
audimifit, ^oti art heard 
audtMfUiir, th^ are heard. 

Besides, the following forms of the irregular verb sum 
should be noted : 

est, he, she, ii is, sunt, thy are, esse, to 6e, 

erat, he, she, U was, erant, ^ley were, 

rV. Wards to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Custddio 4. I guard. 
dormio 4. I sleep. 
erOdlo 4 I instruct, 
ferio 4. I beat, strike. 
iiildfo 4. I support. 

Erudio. Garris. 

ganf o 4. / (hatter. 
nutrSo 4. / nourish. 
punio 4. I punish. 
reperio 4, IJind. 

s&Hoi. Heap. 
vei^o 4. I come. 
vestio 4. / doihe. 
vincio 4. / bind, chain. 
valde adv. greaUy. 

Dormit Ferimus. Punitis. Sallunt VenL 
Salite. Tento reperii^. Vincior. Custoduis. Feritur. Vestimur. 
NutrimTni. Fulciuntur. AudL Dormite. Bene emdimur. Si bene 
erddis, laudaris; si male enidis, vitiiperAris. Si vinciris, yinciris. 
Vestiuntur. Si male scribimus, pununur. Bene custodimlni Bor- 
mfmua Salitis. Bene enidiuntur. Audite. Vincimus. Vincimua. 
Valde ferimur. Valde vituperamini et puniminL 

I strike. Thou punishest. He leap& We instruct You chatter. 
They sleep. Leap thou. Come ye. They try to ins^'uct. I clothe 
myself (=B am clothed). Thou art nourished. He supports himself 
(=is supported). We are bound. You are guarded. They are 
beaten. Hear ye. You are well instructed. He leap& He is well 
instructed. If you are vanquished, you are bound. We are weU 
guarded. He clothes himself (=» is clothed). They are badly in- 

1 praise, I teach, I give way, I guard. Thou praisest, thou teachest, 


thou givest way, thou guardest He praises, he teaches, he gives 
way, he guards. We censure, we exercise, we read, we sleep. 
You censure, you exercise, you read, you sleep. They censure, 
they exercise, they read, they sleep. Adorn diou, obey thou, write 
thou, punish thou. Adorn ye, obey ye, write ye, punish ye. We 
must adorn, we must obey, we must write, we must punish. I 
am annoyed, I am bitten, I am pricked, I am bound. Thou art an- 
noyed, thou art bitten, thou art pricked, thou art bound. He is an- 
noyed, he is bitten, he is pricked, he is bound. We are well brought 
up, we are greatly frightened, we are greatly esteemed, we are well 
instructed. You are well brought up, you are greatly frightened, you 
are greatly esteemed, you are well instructed. They are well brought 
up, they are greatly frightened, they are greatly esteemed, they are 
well instructed. 


Of the Substantive and Adjective. 

§ 12. Classification of Substantives. 

1. The substantive (§ 6, 1.) is called concrete^ when it 
designates a person or thinff which has an acttial and inde- 
pendent existence, as: maw, lion, flower, army; it is called 
abstract, on the contrary, when it signifies an action or qual' 
ity conceived of as independent of a subject, as : virtue, 

2. The Concretes are : 

a) Appelative nouns, when they indicate a whole spe^ 
cies, or an individual of a class, as : man, woman, flower, 

b) Proper nouns, when they designate only single per- 
sons as things which do not belong to a class, as: Marius, 

c) Material nouns, when they indicate the simple m^a- 
terial, as: milk, dust, water, gold; 

d) Collective nouns, when they designate a number of 
single persons or things as one whole, as : army, cavalry, 
fleet, herd. 


§ 13. Gender of the Substantive. 

The Grender of Substantives, which is three-fold, as in 
English, is determined partly by their meaning and partly 
by their endings. The rules of gender founded upon the 
endings will be treated of under the particular declensions. 
With reference to the meaning the following general rules 
obtain : 

1. Of the masculine gender, are the names and designa-^ 
tions of males, nations, winds, months, most rivers and 

2. Of the feminine gender, are the names and designa- 
tions of females, of most countries, islands, towns and 
trees, shrubs and small plants. 

Of the neuter gender, are the names of the letters of the 
alphabet, the infinitive, all indeclinable words (excepting, 
however, the names of persons from foreign languages) 
and every word used as the mere symbol of a sound, as : 
man is a monosyllable. 

4. Of the common gender, are the names of persons 
which have but one form for the masculine and feminine, 
as : dux, a male or female leader. 

1. Nations, men, rivers, winds 
These and months are masevii'MS. 

2. Women, isles, lands, trees and town' 
These ^Afeffdmnt are found. 

3. Whatever cannot he declined 
This is of the ntvier kind. 

4. Chmmon is whatever can 
Include a woman and a man. 

§ 14, Number^ Case and Declension. 

1. The substantive and adjective have, like the verb, two 
numbers, the Sing., which denotes a unity ^ and the Plur., 
which denotes a plurality >^ and six cases in each number, 

1. Nominative, answering the question who ? or tohai ? 

2. Genitive, answering the question, whose ? 

22 FiaST DECLENSION. [H 15, 16f 

3. Dative, answering the question, to or for whom? or 

what ? 

4. Accusative, answering the question, tahom ? t)r whcU ? 

5. Vocative, the case of direct address ; 

6. Ablative, answering the questions, whence? ivhere' 
with ? whereby ? when ? at lohat time^ etc. 

Remark. The Nom. and Voc. are called casus recti; the othfr 
cases, casus ohllgui. Substantives and adjectives of the neuter gender 
have the Nom. Ace. and Voc. alike. 

2, The Latin language h^sfive declensions. 

§ 15. Gender and Declension of the Adjective, 

1. The adjective, in Latin, agrees with its substantive in 
gender, number and case, as: filia bona, the good daughter^ 
filia est bona, the daughter is good, &lius bonus, the good 
son, &Lius est bonus, the son is good, beUum mali^m, the evil 
war, beUum est malum, the war is evil. 

2. Hence, the adjective, like the substantive, has a three- 
fold gender. Still, not all adjectives have separate forms 
for the three genders, but many have only two distinct end- 
ings, viz. one for the Masc. and Fem. and the other for the 
Neut, some, indeed, have only one form for all genders. 

3. The declension of the adjective corresponds with the 
first three declensions of nouns. 

§ 16. First Declension. 

Nouns of the first declension ending in a are all femi- 
nine. The feminine of adjectives of the second declension 
is declined like nouns in a, see § 17. 

Rem. I. Exceptions to this rule occur only out of regard to the gen- 
eral rules of gender (§ 13.), thus, e. g. agricdla, a husbandman, is Masc. ; 
so also are most names of rivers of this declension, as : Matr5na, ihit 
Mame, Trebia, Sequ&na, the Seine. But the names of mountains, as : 
Aetna, Ossa, remain Feminine. 






NominatiTe k 






























mens^ ike table 

mensoe, the tables 


meDBoe^ of the table 

mensdnim, of the tables 


mensae, to the table 

mensiff, to the tables 


mensdm, the table 

menseU, the tables 


mensd, table 

mensoe, tables 


mensd, by the table. 

mensif, by the tables. 

Rem. 2. As the Latin language has neither the definite article the 
nor the indefinite article a or an, mensa may signify either in a general 
sense table^ or a table, or (he table. 

Rem. 3. Some nouns are used only in the plural, as : nuptiae, a 
wedding, nuptiarum, of a wedding, * 

Rem. 4. The dative and ablative plural have the ending dbus (for u) 
in : dea, a goddess, fiiia, a daughter, when they are to be distinguished 
from corresponding masculine forms, e. g. fiiiis et filiabus, to sons and 
daughters, diis et deabus, to gods and goddesses. 

Rem. 5. Concerning Greek nouns of the first Dec. see § 35. 

V. Words to be learned and Exercises for transioHon. 

Agricdla, husbaruknan. 
aqua, water. 
ciconia, a stork. 

querela, complaint, a gigno 3. / beget, pro- 

plaintive cry. 
rana, a frog. 

copia, abundance, muUir terra, the earth. 

herba, an herb. 
planta, a plant. 
procella, a storm. 

coaxo 1. I croak. 
dev5ro 1. / devour. 
turbo 1. I disturb. 

pulchre, adv. beautiful- 

quam, how ! ^ 
a, ah (with the abl.) by 

(a stands only before 

noceo 2. / injure. 

Rule of Stntax. Every sentence, e. g. fht plant blooms, the meadow 
is green, has two parts : 




a) The subject, i. e. the person or thing of which something is as- 
serted (the plant ; the meadow) ; 

b) The predicate, L e. that which is asserted of the subject (hloama ; 
is green\ 

The subject is commonly a substantive and stands in the nomina- 
tive ; the predicate is commonly a verb (e. g. Uoomi), or an adjective 
in connection with the verb to be [e, g. is green). 

Rana coaxat. Agric5la delectatur querela ranae. Ciconia nocet 
ranae. Ciconia dev6rat ranam* O rana, coaxa ! Aqua turbatur a 
rand. Plantae florent Terra vestitnr copid, phmtarum. Pfocellae 
nocent plantis. Terra gignit plantas. O plantae, quam pulchre oma- 
tis terram ! Terra vestitur plantis. 

The plant blooms. The herb of the plant blooms. The storm 
injures the planL I love the plant. O plant, how beautiiidly thou 
bloomest I am delighted with (abl.) the plant The firogs croak. 
The plaintive cry of the frogs delights the husbandmen. The storka 
injure the frogs. The storks devour the frogs. O frogs, croak ye. 
The water is disturbed by the firogs. 

§ 17. Second Declension. 

Words of the second declension (substantives and ad- 
jectives) end in the Nom. in «/5, er, ir, and fw», of which 
those in us^ er, and ir are of the masculine and those in um 
of the nevter gender. For the exceptions see § 36. 





Cls (£r, ir) , dm 



















6 (6r, ir) ; iSm 













N.'hortii^, the garden puSr, the boy 9ig6T^ the field ylr, tk* man 

G. hotti^of the garden puSri, of the hoy a^rrf, of the field Tin, of the man 

D. horts^to the garden palrd, to the boy agrd, to the field Tird, to fAe mow 

A. horUim^he garden puSriilni, the boy agrftm, thefUld yirftiii, tke i 

y. hort;, O garden pufir, Aoy >g^ri field tIt, O man 

A. hoTiO^bvUiestarden pufird, 6y Me 6oy agr^i ^^ the field yirtf, 6y Me 





hortf ,of Me garden 
horttf ,Co Me garden 
hortfim^Me garden 
hort;, O garden 
hoiiQ ^by die garden 


horti, Me gardens puSrf , Me boys agrf , the fields yin, Me men 
hoTidriim, of the puCr^riim, of the agr^rftm, o^ Me Tirprlnn^ ef tks 

gardens boys fields men 

horti5, to the gar- puSri#, to the boys ngris, to the fields wiiUi to the men 

horlssj the gardens puSr^tf, Me hoys ^gros^ the fields yir^, Me mem 
horti, gardens pudrf , boys agH, fields yirf , O men 
hoTtiSy by the gar- p\x6ns,bythe boys* agri«, by the fields Tiri#,6y the 






belliim, Me loar 
belli, ojTMe war 
bello, to Me tear 
bellUm, the war 
bellfim, war 

bonii5, ^<HH^ 






belld, 6y Me war, bono 

bellA, Me wars 
beWorUm, qf the 

bell{5, to Me loorj 
bellA, Me wars 
beUdy Owars 
be11i«, by the wars. 



bond, ^00^ 






































lib^n libSroe lib«rd 

liberdr&m liberdriim liberdrttm 
lib€ri5 libSri^ lib^ri^ 
Iib6rd5 Yxh^TOs libSrd 
liben libSroe lib6rd 

libSriJ liberie libdru. 






























In like manner decline : 

Vir bonus, a good man, femtna bona, a good woman, exemplum bon- 
um, a good example, hortus pulcher, a beautiful garden^ rosa pulchra, a 
heauHful rose, ovum pulchrum, a heautipul egg, ager fecundus, ihe pro- 
ductivejidd, vir liber, a free man, scriba bonus, a good scribe. 

Rem. 1. Most words in er reject the e in all the oblique cases except 
in the vocative singular, as : ager, G. agr-i ; only the following retain 
the e : puer, G. pu6ri, socer, father-inrlaw, gener, son-dn-law, vesper, 
evening, lib^ri, children, and the adjectives: asper, asp^ra, asp^rum, 
rough, lacer, torn, liber, yree, miser, miserable, prosper, fortunate, tener, 
tender, and the compounds offer and ger, as: &u^£er,fruit hearing, 
comiger, homed. Dexter, right, has both forms : dexter, dextra, dex- 
trum, G. dextri, dextrae; also, though less frequently: dexter, dextSra, 
dextfirum, G. dext£rij«t 

Rem. 2. The Voc. Sing. ofJUius, (a son) is^t and that of meus (my) 
18 mi, as : O miJUi, (but, O mea JUia, O meum officium). This Voc in i 
also, is found in proper names in lus, aius and eius, hence : I (for ie), 
al (for aie), el (for eie), as : Tulllus Ikdli, Virgilius FirgU'L Mercurius 
Mermrl, Antonlus Antonl, Gains Gal, Pompeius Pompix, 

Rem. 3. The word deus (God) is dtus also in the Voc. ; in the plu- 
ral it is thus declined : N. dii, G. deorum, D. diis, Ace deos, V. dii, 
Abl. diis. 

Rem. 4. The Gen. plural of some nouns has the ending um (for 
orum), e. g. nummum (from nummus), of money, talentum (from Uden- 
ium\ of talents. 

Rem. 5. Some Greek words, but rarely except in poetry, have the 
ending os (Ace on) for the masculine and feminine, and on for the 
neuter gender, as : Ilios, Ilion, Greek words in eus (one syllable) are 
thus declined: N. Orpheus (two syllables), G. Orph^i, D. Orph^o, Ace. 
Orph^um, Voc Orph6u (two syllables), AbL Orph^o. 

VL Words to he homed and Exercises for transU^ion, 

Equus, i, m. horse, roolestus, a, um, iroubh- committo S, I commit 

frumentum, i, n. grain, some, to, 

granum, i, n. com, varius, a, um, various, curro 3. / run, 
juba, ae,/. mane, vireo 2. Ifhvrish, hinnio 4. I neigh, 

musca, ^e,ffiy, colo 3. / attend to, cvl- celeriter, adv, swiflty, 

fecundus, a, um, pro- tvvate, honor, revere, in (with the abl.), m, 
dudvoe, upon. 

Rule of Syntax. A noun in the Gen., Dat, or Ace, which is con- 
nected with the predic^e and limits it, is called the object ; e. g. in the 
sentence : the man guides Ihe horse, " man" is the subject and " horse** the 
object which limits ** guides." When the noun is in the Ace it is called 
the steering object (receiving the direct action). 

Equus hinnit Juba equi est pulchra. Muscae sunt molestae eque 

i n.] 8BC0ND DS0LEN8I0N. 27 

Vir regit equum. Eque, celerlter curre. Equo pulehro detector. 
Agri sunt iecuDdi. Herbae agrorum sunt variae. Agricdla committk 
agris grana frumentL Agricdla colit agroa. Agri, quam puldure ▼irft- 
tis ! In agris multae herbae florent 

* The field is productive. The herbs of the field are various. The 
husbandman commits the corns of grain to the field. The husband- 
man cultivates the field. O field, how beautifully thou flourishest ! 
Various herbs bloom in the. field. The horses neigh. The mane of 
the horse is beautiful. Flies are troublesome to horae& Men govern 
horses. O horses, run swiftly. We are delighted with (abL) beauti- 
ful horsea 

Vn. JFordi to he learned and Exercm$for tranMion. 

Deus, see Rem. 3. mundus, i, m. world, magnus, a, um, greoL 

dea, see § 16. Rem. 4. praesidium, i, n. pro- propitius, a, um, pro- 
filius, see Rem. 2. tectum, aid. pttiouSj favorable, 

filia, see § 16. Rem. 4. templum, i, n. temple, meus, a, um, see Rem. 
levir, i, m. brother^n- benevoleutia, ae, f. be- 2. 

law. nevolenee. miser, ^n,6rvLm,wretcK- 

socer, i, m. father-in- carus, a, um, dear. ed. 

law. imprObus, a, um, wuk- praebeo 2. / afford. 

gener, i, m. sonrinAaiw. ed. exstrdo 3. / huild. 

Dii mundum regunt Deos propitlos colite* Praebe, o deus bone, 
mis^ris praesidium. Dii imprdbos punlunt Diis et deabus templa 
exstruuntur. Benevolentia deorum est magna. Filius levtri bene legit 
Soc^ro est bortus pulcher. Boni viri bonis viris cari sunt Filia gen- 
^i pulchre pingit 

The gods are propitious to men. Good men are dear to the gods. 

* With regard to the arrangtment of the words in forming a Latin sen- 
tence, the teacher must be the principal auide. The rigid laws of arrange* 
ment in the English language, allowed of but little being done in the wa^ of 
imitating the Latin arrangement in the English exercises. Something, 
however, has been attempted in this way, which, together with a desire to 
preserve a strictly literal and grammatical expression of the thoughts, will 
account for the apparently awkward construction of many of the sentences. 
— It may be suggested, also, that a close study of the position of the words 
in the Latin exercises, will very of\en guide the student in translating the 
English exercises. As to particular rules on this subject, it would not be 
proper, perhaps, to state more than the following, applicable where no em* 
phasis rests upon any word in the sentence. In this case, 1) The predicate 
follows the subject, as in English, 2) the adjective, or noun in the Genitive, 
comes after its noun, 3) the verb follows the case or cases which it governs, 
4) the adverb precedes the word which it limits. But when these words 
are emphatic, the order in each case is reversed. For fuller directions on 
this subject, see Krebs' Guide for writing Latin, §§ 466 — 514. — ^Ta. 




The wicked are ponishecl by (ab) the gods. Tlie world is governed 
by (ab) the gods. Afford, O good gods, protection to the wretched. 
The gods honor the temple& The gods love the good. O God, pun- 
ish tlie wicked. Write, my sons. Sons-in-law are dear to iathers-in- 
law. God is propitious to good sons and good daughters. Write, my 
«on, paint, my daughter. 

§ 18. Third Declension, 
1. The third Declension has the following case-endings : 






es Mvt, & (i&) 




Hm (ium) 






era, Nivi, like Nom. 


6s & (i§) 


like the Nom. 


6s a (i^) 





Rem. I. In the Nom. the pure stem is often changed. It may al- 
ways be found, however, by removing from the Gen. t», the ending of 
that case, as : rex, king^ G. reg-t9 the stem therefore is rtg. Also i, d^ 
n and n/, are rejected from the stem in the Nom. before «, as : laus, 
praise, G. laud-is, stem : laud ; Salamis, G. Salamin-is, Atlas, G. Atlant- 
is. The r, of the stem, often passes over into s, as : mos, custom, G. 
mor-is. Most masculines and feminines whose stem ends in n, have 
rejected this letter in the Nom. as : leo, a lion, G. leon-is. Greek proper 
names whose stem ends in orU reject the t in the nominative, as : Xen- 
ophon, Xenophont-is. 

Rem. 2. Neuters, as a general thing, present the pure stem in the 
Nom., as: exemplar, a pattern, G. exemplar-is. Still, variations fix>m 
this are introduced into many words out of regard to the laws of eu- 
phony in the Latin language, as : carmen, a poem (for carmin), G. carmin- 
is, ebur, ivory (for ehor), G. ebdr-is, corpus, the body (instead of corpor)^ 
6. corpbr-is, caput, the head (for capit), G. captt-is. When the stem 
of a Greek word ends in at, the t is rejected iu the Nom., as : poema 
(for poSmat), a poem, G. poemat-is ; so also in the neuters : cor, cord-is, 
lAe heart, lac, lact-is, milk. 

Rem. 3. Concerning the endings e and t, a and to, urn and ttfm, see 
5 37. 

2. Concerning the gender^ the following general rules ob- 
tain : 

1) Of the masctdine gender are the nouns in o, or, 05, 
er, and imparisylldbles^ m es. 

Rem. 4. Parisyllahlea are words with the same number of syllables 
in the Gen. as in the Nom., as : nubes, a doud, G. nubis ; imparisylkh 

ff 19—20.] 



hU$y on the contraryi are words which have more syllaUes in the Gen. 
than in the Nom., as : miles, mtldier, G. militis. 

2) Of the feminine gender are nouns in, as, is, aus, tu 
{Qen, fdis or udis), x, s with a consonant before it and pari- 
syllables in es. 

3) Of the neuter gender are nojins in a, e, c, /, en, or, ur, 
ut and us (Gen. oris, eris, uris). 

ItBM. 4 For the exceptions to these rules see §§ 38—40. 


19. L The NomincUive presents tht pwe 


colour (m.) 

g009t (fit.) 


ofUfiurf (n.) 




































































A. colorl&uf 




§ 20. IL The Nominative presents the stem changed OA^cordf 

ing to the laias of euphony. 


namt (ngl) 

lion (m.) 



S. Nom. and Voc 

























P. N. Ace. and V. 










Dat. and Abl 









§ 21. IIL The Nominative adds s to the ^m. 



praise (f.) 

doud (/.) 

S. Nom. and Voc. 

























P. N. Ace. and V. 










Dat and Abl. 





Rem. 1. Nouns in Ur and &er, as: pater, ^otW, mater, mother ^ frater, 
Iroiher, as well as adjectives in her and ccr^ as: celeber, ceUhraied, acer, 
^uarpf reject the e in the oblique cases ; see paier above. 

Rem. 2. Greek proper names whose stem ends in dn or dn, in good 
prose, form their Nom. almost always in o, as : Agamemno, G. dn-is ; 
Plato. Solo, Bito, G. on-is ; those, on the contrary, whose stem ends in 
orU form their Nom., in the best writers, in on, as : Xenophon, G. 

VnL Words to he learned and Exercises for trandatum. 

Dolor, Oris, m. jpoin, suf- popillus, i, m. people, vester, tra, trum, your. 

fering, tormentum, i, n. torture, praedico 1. / extoL 

orator, oris, m. orator, acerbus,a,um,jmng'en/. tol^ro 1,1 endure, 
^imus, i, m. soul, mindj disertus, a, um, eloquent, succumbo 3. / sink 

courage, [quence, ignavus, a, um, indo- under, 
eloquentia, ae, /. eUh- knt, cowardly, 
fiicundia, ae, /. fluency praeclarus, a, um, noUe, 

of speech, tuus, a, um, thy, 

num^rus, i, m, numher, noster, tra, trum, ovr, 


Orator est disertus. Eloquentia oratoris movet animos nostros. Ora* 
tori paret popiUus. Oratorem praedicamus ob facundiam. O orator^ 
quam praeclara est tua eloquentia ! Ab oratore populus regitur. Do- 
Idres sunt acerbi. Num^rus dolorum est magnus. Doloribus succum* 
bitis. Vir patienter tol6rat dolores. O dolores, quam graviter pungitis ! 
Doloribus vincuntur ignavi viri. 

The pain is pungent Bear ye the tortures of the pain. Thou sink- 
est under the suffering. The man endures the pain patiently. O pain, 
how violently thou stingest A cowardly man is vanquished by (abl.) 
pain. Orators are eloquent The eloquence of the orator movies our 
minds. The people obey the orators. Orators are extolled on ac- 
count of their fluency of speech. O orators, how noble is your elo- 
quence ! The world is governed by (ab) the orators. 

graviter, adv, heavily^ 

patienter, patienUy, 
ob, on account of. 




§ 22. Paradigms of Adjectives of the Third Declension. 

Preliminart Remark. The following paradigms present the forms 
of the three classes of adjectives of the thii d Dec with one, two and 
three endings. • Mjtdtves of one ending terminate in 2, r, «, x, and par" 
tic^ftUs (Present Participles only) in fit, 6. fiirt, as : amans, laving^ O. 
amantis. For the irregular adjectives of the second Dec. : unus, uUus, 
etc., duo and ambo, see § 33. 


N. and V. 





N. V.&Ac. 


(m.) (f.} (n.) 

acer acrii acre 

acria acrii acri* 

acri acri acri 

acrem acrem acre 

acri acri acri 

(m. A fT) (B.) 
suavis auave 
tuavif soavif 
fuavi laavi 
suavem saave 
auavi luavi 


acres acres acna 
acriam acrium acri am 

D. A Abl. acribus acribus acribus 

saaves suayia 
saavium taaviam 
suavibus suavibus 

(m. A f.) (B.) 
major majus, 
ma^ris ma^ris 
ma^ori majori 
majorero majas 
majdre majdre 

majCres majCra 
majorum majorum 
majorlbus majorlbus. 

Norn. & Voc. 
Dat. & Abl. 


audaz {m.f. n.) bold 



aadacem (fit./.),aadaz (n.) 


audaces (m./.) audacia (it.) 
aadacium aodaciam 
aadacibus audacibus 
andaces audacia. 

In like manner decline : 





odor acer, sharp odor^ 
odoris acris 

campus virldis, green 
campi virldis [field, 

vir major, greater many 
viri majoris 

miles audaz, bold sol- 
militis audacis Idicr, 

aqua acris, sharp toater, 
aquae acris 

silva virfdis, green 
silvae virldis [tooody 

femtna major, greater 
feminae major is [toomen 

leaena audaz, bold lion- 
leaenae audacis [ess. 

acetum acre, sharp vin* 
aceti acris [^^^r, 

pratum virlde, green 
prati virldis [meadow^ 

corpus majus, greater 
corporis majoris [body^ 

animal audaz, bold an- 
animalis audacis [imal. 

Remark. For the Abl. Sing, in % and e, the Nom. Plur. in ia and a, 
and the Gen. Plur. in turn and urn, see § 36. 

IX. Words to he teamed and Exercises for translation, 

Alicer, cris, ere, lively, litt^rae, arum,yi lUera- virtus, Otis,/ virtue, 

spirited ture, vox, dcis,/ voice, 

fortis, e, brave, * discipillus, i, m. scholar, consto 1. 1 consist in, of 

gravis, e, severe, serious, fundamentum, i, n. habeo 2. / have. 

mortalis, e, mortal, foundation, 

immortalis, e,tmmortoZ. avis, is,/. &tr(2. 
omnis, e, each, the whole, homo, inis, m. man, 
plur. alL hostis, is, m. enemy. 

industria,ae,/ industry, mos, dris, m. custonu 

pittas, &tis,/ piety. 

incumbo 3. (with in and 
the ace.) / apply my^ 
self to. 

non, not. 

ne fwith the Imper.) 




Miles forti animo pugnare debet Siiavi avium voce delcctainur. 
Discipaii laus constat bonis moribus et acri industria. Pittas est funda- 
mentum omnium virtutum. Viri fortes non vincuntur doloribus gravi- 
bus. Ne cedrte hostibus audacibus. Puer al&cri animo in litt^ras in- 
cumb^re debet Homines corpdra mortaiiahabent, animos immortales 

§ 23. Fourth Declension. 

Nouns of the fourth Dec. have in the Nom. the two end- 
ings : us and t^ of these the first is of the masculine and the 
last of \hQ.^$$mmde gender. For the exceptions, see § 41. 




as; Nevi, 


Plur. Nom. 





Os; Qs or 






lU or Q; 























Plural. 1 


fructu« (nu\ fruit 

comu (n.), horn. 





cornu« or u 




fructui or u 












. fructui 







Rem. 1. The following words in the Dat and Abl. Plur. have the end- 
ing ubu8 for 1bu8 : &cus (f ), a needltj arcus (m.), a how, artus (m.), a 
joint, limb, partus (m.\ a hirth, lacus (m.), a lake, pond, quercus, (f.), the 
oak, specus (m.), a den, grotto, tribus (f.), a tribe, company, p€cu (n.), cat- 
tle, (as a species), and v6ru (n.), a spit. Ficus (f ), us, afigpree, forms 
the Dat and AbL Plur. according to the second Dec. : ficis. 

Rem. 2. The word ddmus (f.) a house, is declined as follows : 

Sing. N. V. 


Plur.N. V. 





domuuifi and domorum 








domd9 rarely domuf 





The form dovA is used only in the meaning at home, at the house ; 
thus : domi meae, domi tuae, donii ali^nae, at wy, thy, another's house. 


X. Words to he learned and Exerci$e$for trandation, 

Luctus, 08, m, grief. amarus, a, um, bitter, indulgeo2. Igvoe nqfwjf 

]uflU8, as, m. sport, gratus, a, urn, agreeable, vp to, 

sensus, as, m. sense, grateful, frango 3. / break, break 

feeling, praeditus, a, um, (with down, 

bestia, ae.yi animal, Abl.) endowed with, fuccumbo 3. 1 sink UHr 

vis (only Ace. vim and quactus, a, um, how der, 

Abl. vi) potDer, force, great, libenter, adv. wUh dO' 

might puerilis, e, ckHdish, light, 

voluptas, atis, / pleas- sapiens, tis, wise ; subst suaviter, adv, pleasantly, 

tare, a toise man, vehementer, adv, vio- 

genus, ^ris, n, gender, evito 1. 1 avoid, lenily, 

kind, pejro ^, I provide, 


Lusus pu^ris gratus est Genera lusOs sunt varfa. Pu^ri libenter in- 
dulgent ]usuL Vir gravis evitat lusum puerilem. O lusus, quam sua- 
viter animos puerorum delectas ! Pu^ri delectantur lusu. SensQs sunt 
acres. Vis sensuum est magna. Vir fortis non succumbit sensibus 
doloris. Bestiae habent sensQs acres. O sensQs, quantas voluptates 
bominibus paratis ! Animalia sunt praedita sensibus. 

The feeling of pain is bitter. The power of grief is great The 
brave man does not sink under grief. The wise man endures grief 
patiently. O grief^ how violently thou tormentest the minds of men ! 
The wise man is npt broken down by (abl.) grie£ The qx)rt8 of chil* 
dren are agreeable. There are various kinds of sport The bojrs give 
themselves up to sports with delight The serious man avoids child* 
ish sports. O sports, how pleasantly you delight the minds of boys! 
hi (abl.) sports the boys are delighted* 

XL Wards to be teamed and Exercises for translaiion. 

Fremitus, lis, m. noise, tuus, a, um, thy, resdno 1. / resotmd, 

genu, us or 0, n. knee, noster, tra, trum, oter. vacillo 1. / waver, 

tODltru, tis or Ci, n. thun- vester, tra, trum, your, permdveo 2. / move, 

der, validus, a, um, sirong, antec^do 3. 1 precede, 

vigor, oris, m, power, horribilis^ e, frightful, extimesco 3. 1 fear, 

fulmen, iuis, n. light- terribilis, e, terrible, flecto 3. / bend, 

ning, supplex, icis, nij3;p/ian< ; procumbo3.//a^(2t)trfi. 

robur, dris, n. strength, subst. the suppliant, in (with Ace, and AbL) 
multus, a, um, much, indico 1. / tndisate, in, upon, 


Tonitru terribile animos hominum permdvet Fremitus tonitrOs 
(tonitru) est horribllis. Fulmen antec^dit tonitru. Multi homines ex- 
timescunt tonitru. O tonitru, quam horribihs est fremitus tuus. Do- 


mus resdnat tonitru. Genua virorum sunt valida. Vigor geDuum indi- 
cat robur corpdris. Magna vis est genibus. Supplices procumbuut in 
genua. O genua, ne vacillate ! In genibus est magna vis. 

The knee of man is strong. Power of the knee indicates strength 
of body. The knee has great power (»= to the knee there is great 
poww). The suppliant bends the knee. O knee, waver not! In the 
knee is great power. The thunder is terrible. The noise of the 
thunder is firightfUL Lightnings precede the thunders. Fear thou 
not the thunder. O thunder, how terrible is thy noise. The house re- 
sounds with (abl.) frightful thunderings (= thunders). 

Xn. Words to he learned and Exerdaeifor transUdion, 

Pinus, Qs,/|nne. pemiciosus, a, um, de- sedeo 2, 1 sit 

puella, ae,yi girl. gtrtutive, cingo 3. / gird^ tuT' 

sagitta, ae.yi arrow. timidus, a, um, timid. round. 

frater, tris, m. brother, insignis, e, remarkable. contremiacoS. ItremibUj 
Boror, oris,/ sisUr. aedifico 1. / build. quake. 

imber, bris, m. rain. habito 1. / dwell. pingo S. I paint ; acO 
piscis, is, m.Ji$h. adj&ceo 2. (with Dat.) / pingo, I embroider. 

rex, regis, m. king. lie by. saepe, adv. often. 

venator, OHs, m. hunUr. contorqueo 2. / hud^ sub (with AbL), under. 
contindus, a, um, con* shoot, 

Aestate sub querci&bus et in specdbus libenter sedftmus. Hortus 
Ips omatur multis pinlbus, ficis et lacdbus. Puellae acdbiis pingunt 
Oratores timidi saepe omnibus artAbus contremiscunt Venatores ar- 
eilbus sagittas contorquent DomOs altitOdo est insignis. Doraui no0- 
trae adj&cet lacus. Frater aedificat domum. Magnus num^rus est 
domilum (domorum) in urbe. Domlbus perniciosi sunt imbres con- 
tindi. Domds regis ciiigunt multae pinus. 

Oaks and pines surround our house. The king dwells in a beauti- 
ful house. We dwell in beautiful houses. The height of the house 
is remarkable. In the lake are fishes. The king has many and beau- 
tiful houses. I tremble in all [my] limbs. A great lake lies by our 
houses. My sisters embroider. Many houses are built in the city 
My brothers sit in the garden under oaks, and my sisters in grottos. 
Many arrows are shot by bows. 

§ 24. Fifth Declension. 

All nouns of the fifth declension end in the Nom. in es 
and axe of ihe feminine gender. 




ExeqiHons: Miuculwe are, dies, a day, and meridles, mdrday; yet 
(&9 in tbe Sing, isybmiiuie when it signifies a d^hniU day, a dayfiBtd 
upon or appainttd, as: dies dicta, dies constitQta, a day appoinJUd, also, 
when it signifies Ungth of timty as: dies perexigua, a vtry short space; 
still, in both these meanings it is sometimes used as mascuiint. 

Case-Endings and Paradigms. 

qffair, (king. 


S. N. 68 

PL te 

S. riSy 

PL n!* 

dks, PL di^ 

G. Si 




din dierikm 

D. ei 




dia diihCi 

A. 6m 




diim dies 

V. fts 




d\es dies 

dk e^ehns. 





Rem. 1. The e in ei^ the ending of the Gen. and Dat is short when 
a consonant stands before it, as : r6i, fid6i ; but long when a rowel 
stands before it, as: di6i, faci6L 

Rem. 2. Only res and dies form all the cases of the Sing, and Plur. ; 
all the other nouns of the fifth declension are destitute of the Gen., Dat 
and AbL Plur., these cases being supplied by the corresponding cases 
of synonymous nouns of the other declensions. 

XHL Words to he learned and Exercises for trantlaiion. 

Spes, 6i,/. hope. ad versus, a, urn, ad- dulcis, e, stoeet. 

nenimDa^aieJ'. hardship, verse; res adversae, felicior, m. and/, feli- 

trotMe. adversity. cius, n., Oris, more 

rita, ae,/ life. certus, a, um, certain. fortunate. 

solatium, i, n. consokt- incertus, a, um, uncer- afilicto 1. / overuhelm. 

lion. tain. recr6o 1. / rtfrtth. 

conditio, dnis, f. con- dubius, a, um, doublftd, amitto 3. / lose, 

diiion, stale, humanus,a,um,Auman. oppono 3. 1 oppose. 

tempus, dris, n. time. vanus, a, um, vain, facile, adv, easily. 

Spes incerta et dubia est Vis sp6i est magna in animis hominum. 
Homines facile indulgent 8p6i vanae. Spem felicidrum tempdrum non 
deb6mus amiit6re in aerumnis vitae. O spes, duici solatio animos mis- 
erorum hominum recr6as ! Spe vana saepe fallimur. Res humanae 
sunt incertae et dubiae. Conditio rerum humanarum est dubia. Re- 
bus adversis opponite virtQtem. Ne extimescite res adversas. O res 
humanae, quam saepe animos hominum falKtis ! Animus sapientis 
non afilictatui rebus advei^s. 


XIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Fides, ^\,f,Jidelity, rarus, a, um, rare, servo 1. 1 preserve. 

amicitia, ae, f. Jriend- serious, a, um, bright, debeo 2. / owe. 

skip. tutus, a, um, «a/e. conquiesco3. //inJMrf- 

exemplum,l,n.eIralnp2e. verus, a, um, ^rtte. is/action. 

salus, uti8,yi safety ytoel' tristis, e, hxvery^ sad. succedo 3. IfoUow. 

fare. avdio 1. 1 fly atoay, van- clto, adv, swifUy. 

▼er, fins, n. spring, ish, cupide, adv. eagerly. 

adventus, Cis, m. arrival, convdco I. / caU togeth- etiam, conj. also. 
portus, Os, m. haven. er. modo — mode, now — 

incorruptus, a, iim, un- exspecto 1. / expect, now. 

corrupted. await. 

The fidelity of friends refreshes our minds in the hardships of life. 
Examples of true fidelity of fiiendship are rare. To the fidelity of 
our friends we owe our safety. The true friend preserves [his] fidelity 
also in adversity. O fidelity, thou providest for unfortunate men a 
safe haven ! In the fidelity of friends we find satis&ction. The days 
are now bright, now lowery. The arrival of the bright days of spring 
are to all men agreeable. Lowery days follow bright day& We 
eagerly await the bright days of spring. O ye beautiful days of spring, 
how swiftly you fly away! In (abl.) the bright days of spring we are 
delighted. Mid-day is bright On (abl.) a certain day, the soldiers 
of the city are called together. 

§ 25. CompoHson of Adjectives and Participles. 

1. There are three degrees of quality : 

1) The positive^ as : the man is learned (vir est doctus); 

2) The comparative^ as : the father is more learned than 
the son (pater est doct-ior quam^Zm^) ; 

3) The superlative^ as : Cicero was the most learned of 
all the Romans (Cicero erat doct-issimus omniam Roman* 

2. The superlative, in Latin, is also used to express in 
general, a verp high degree of a quality, eis : pater tuus est 
doct'issimuSj thy father is verp learned. 

3. For indicating the comparative and superlative, the 
Latin language has the following forms : 

a) For the comparative : Irw", Masc. and Fem., itis, neuter; 

b) For the superlative : issimus^ isstma^ issimum. 


4. These endings are joined directly to the stem, which 
may be found, in all cases, by removing, in words of the 
second Declension, the Nominative-ending uSj and in those 
of the third, the Grenitive-ending w, as : 

Laet-us, joiifvl 


. laet-Wy ius 


laet-tmimit, a, « 

doct-us, Uamed 

— — 




pudic-u8, baahfldfmodut 





imbecill-u8, feeble 





lev-is, light 





fertXl'iB^ fertile 





dives (G. divlt-is), rich 





prudeos (G. prudent-is), 






amans (G. ainaDt-is), 






felix (G. fellc-is), happy 





5. Adjectives in er have the ending rimttSj a, um in the 
superlative, as : 

miser (G. mis^r-i), a, um [unhc^ffpy) celer (G. cel^r-is), is, e, (ft^j^ 
miser-ior, ius celer-ior, ius 

mi8er-rlmt<«, a, um ; celer-mit», a^wn; 

pulcher (G. pulchr-i), a, um (beatdl- pauper (G. paup€r-is), (poor) 

ftfi) pauper-ior, ius 

pulchr-ior, ius pauper-rtmttf, a, um. 

pukher-nmti^, a, um. 

So also : vetus, G. vet^r-is, M (Comp. veterior, ius, is rarely used) 
Sup. veter-rimus; and nuper-us, a, um, recent, (Comp. v^raotiog) Sup. 

6. The six following adjectives in tlis form the superla- 
tive by adding limus to the stem, viz : facilis, easj/j difficilis, 
difficult, similis, likey dissimilis, wdike^ gracilis, slim^ slender^ 
and humilis, JmOy as : 

iacil-is, e C. facil-ior, ius S. fiicil-4imi4«, a, wnu 

7. Compound a:djectives in dicus fxcus and volus, form 
the comparative by adding entior^ ius, and the superlative 
by adding entissimus^ a, um to the root, as : 

maledicus, slanderous C. maledic-eYiiior S. maledtc-en/tmintt^ 
magniftciis, magnificetd roagnific-en^r magnific-en<t«nmti« 

benevOlus, htMOolad benevol-enttbr benevol-entiMimtif 



But those in dicus (i long) are compared regularly, as : 
pudicus, bashful, modest, pudte-ior, pudic-issimus. 

S. Besides, the following adjectives of irregular compari- 
son are to be observed : 

bonus, good C. md-ior, iuSf better S. optlmus, a, urn, bed 

ma]u8, bad pej^or pesslmus 

m&gDUBj great mcQ-or moxfrntu 

parvus, 8mall mm-or minlmuB 

multus, much pius (neutr.) more plwimuSt most - 

pUires (m. and f,)fpiura plvrUniy most 

nequam, widud C. iM^u-tbr, S. nequissimuM 

senex, old sen-tor, wanting 

juv^nis, young junior wanting 

ezt^rus, outward exter-ior, extrimus, outermost 

inf^rus, bdow infisr^ior, ^ inftmus and imus, UnoeBt 

sup^rus, above super-ior, suprimus, and summus 

postfirus, kind posterior ^ postrimus, Jdndermost 

9. Finally, there are several adjectives of which the posi- 
tive is wanting, e. g. : 

(citra, on this side) citer-ior, ius citTmus, nearest 

(intra, urithin) inter-ior, ius intimus, inmost 

(ultra, beyond) ulter-ior, ius ultifmus, last 

(prope, near) prop-ior, ius prozimus, next 

Rem. 1. Instead of the comparison by terminations, the Latin lan- 
guage often expresses the comparative by the positive with magis 
(more), and the superlative by the positive with maxime (most). This 
periphrastic form is necessary in those adjectives which want the ter- 
minational comparative and superlative. 

Rem. 2. Some adjectives have a superlative but not a comparative 
form, as: novus, new, novissimus; invictus, invincible, invictissimus. 
On the contrary, others have a comparative but not a superlative form, 
as : diuturnus, lasting, diutumior, maxime diuturnus ; proclivis, sloping^ 
inclined, proclivior, maxime proclivis ; especially, nearly all in "dis, 'dis, 
dlis, bilis, as : agilis, nimble, agilior, maonme agilis. 

Rem. 3. To the adjectives which have not the terminational com- 
parison, belong: a) those which have a vowel before the ending us, as; 
idon^us. Jit, magis idoneus, maxime idoneus ; plus, pious, affectionate ; 
perspicilus, c^eor ; egregius, erceZ/en^ ; necessarius, neceMor;^; — b) nearly 
all in, icus, "tmus, inus, ivus, erus, undus, andus, bundus, as : lubricus, 
slippery ; legitimus, lawful, matutinus, early, fugitivus, fugitive, canorus, 
hcarmonious, venerandus, worthy of veneration, moribundus, dying ; — c) 
several of no particular class, as : almus, nouriskif^, canus, hoixry, cicur, 
tame, claudus, lame, compos, powerfid, impos, in^tent of, curvus, bent, 


ferns, i^H gnann, aequainied wUk, medidcris, medioere, memor, mmd- 
fid qfy minis, vMndtrfid^ par, tqaaky proeditus, etufoMccf trti^ rudis, rude, 
etc. j-r—^nally, some, which, on account of their signification, admit of 
no degrees; e. g. those which denote a material; those compounded 
with petf prae (except praedarut) and sub, as : permagnus, very great, 
praedives, very rich, subdifficilis, Mometohat d^ffieuU ; those having the 
diminutive form, as : parvCdus, tiny, vetulus, oldUk, 

XV. Words to be learned and Exercises fiw transiation, 

Beneficentia, &e,f, he- lux, lucis,/ light. muniftcus, a, um, m%^ 

n^icence. '^ratio, onis,/. reaton. nyUxnt, 

luna, ae,yi (he moon, simulatio, dnis,/. pre" secundus, a, um,yboor- 
natOra, ae,^ natttre, tenee. able; res secundae, 

8apientia,ae,yi tmclbm. sol, soils, m. sun. prosperity. 

odium, i, n. hatred. sonitus, ds, m. sound. amabilis, e, amiabiU. 

amor, Oris, m. hve. accommodatus, a, um, velox, dcis, sujiJL 

hirundo, inis, f. suxd- suUed to. nihil, inded., nothing. 

low. garhUus, a, um, d^atter- quam, eoty., than. 

liberalitas, atis,yi liber- ing, loquacious. 

Nihil est natCkrae hominis accommodatius, quam beneficentia. Nihil 
est aroalnlius, quam virtu& Lux est velocior, quam sonitus. Nihil est 
melius, quam sapientia. Multi magis garnili sunt, quam hirundlnes. 
Paup^res saepe sunt munificentiores, quam divites. In adversis rebus 
saepe sunt homines prudentiores, quam in secundis. Divitissimorum 
vita saepe est miserrima. Simulatio amdris pejor est, quam odium. 
Nihil est melius, quam ratio. Sol miyor est, quam terra ; luna minor 
est, quam terra. 

XVL Words to he learned and Exercises Jar trantiation. 

Patiia, ae, yi native adulatio, 6nis,/.yZa<^ beneficus,a,um,6en^ 
country. ry, icent. 

poeta, ae, m. apod. similitodo, inis,yi simi- Graecus, a, um, Greek. 

simia, ae,/. an ape. larity. suus, a, um, his, her, 

Syracusae, arum, f. valetado, Inis,/. health, its. 

Syracuse. afiinltas, atis,/ rdatton- niger, gra, grum. Hade. 

corvus, \,m. a crow. ship. cel^ber, bris, bre, yre- 

malum, 1, n. evil. ^irgo, Inis, f. a young quented. 

mums, 1, m. a wall. woman. brevis, e, short. 

Hom^rus, i, m. Hotner. cms, uris, n. shin, leg. simplex, tcis, simple. 

Lacedaemonlus, i, m. beatus, a, um, peactful, valeo 2. / am strong, 
a Lacedemonian happy. avaU. 

labor, oris, m, labor. contemno 3. / despise. 

Omnium beatissimus est sapiena Hom^rus omnium Graecorum 


poetarum est veterrimus. Adulatio est pessimum malum. Urbs Syra- 
cusae maxima et pulcherrima erat omnium Graecarum urbium. Pes- 
simi homines sunt maledicentissimi. In amicitia plus valet similitQdo 
morum, quam affinitas. 

Nothing is better than virtue. God is the greatest, best aiid wisest 
of all. The customs of the Lacedemonians were very simple. The 
horse is very swift Crows are very black. The haven is very much 
frequented. The father is very benevolent and very beneficent The 
king is building a very magnificent palace (=house). Young women 
should (3= must) be very modest The ape is very much like man. 
The leg of the stork is very slender. Nothing is sweeter than fiiend- 
«hip. The Lacedemonians were very brave. Light is very swift. 
Nothing is worse than the pretence of love. The sun is very great 
The life of man is very short . The richest are often the most wretch- 
ed. The poorest are often the happiest The labor is very easy. The 
customs of men are very unlike. The king is very munificent The 
worst men are often very happy. The best men are often despised 
by (cdi) the worst The health of my fi*iend is very feeble. The 
garden of thy father is very beautifuL The labor is very hard. The 
walls of the city are very low. Most men love their native country. 


Of the Adverb. 
§ 26. Classification and Formation of Adverbs. 

1. The common endings of adverbs (§ 6, 4.) are e and er 
^^ter) ; those derived from adjectives of the second declen- 
sion, are formed by annexing e to the root of the adjective, 
as: clarus, clar-e, liber (G. liber-i), liber-e, pulcher (G. pul- 
chr-i), pulchr-e. Only bem (well) from bonuSy and male 
(badly), from malus have a short e, 

2. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the third declen- 
sion are formed, by adding er to the stem of those in ans 
and ens^ and iter to the stem of all others, as : 

clar-us, a, um, dear^ renowned clar-e 

liber, a, um, (G. \i\3^r-i\ free libfir-e 

J 27.] 



pulcher, chra, chrum (6. pulchr-i) pulchr-e 
prudens (G. prudent-is), knowing prudent-fr 

amans (G. amant-is), loving amant-fr 

fords (G. fort-is), brave ibrt-Uer 

Audaz (G. audac-is), holdy has audac-(er (for audaolUry 

3. Besides adverbs of the above-named endings, there 
are a number which have the termination of neater adjec- 
tives in either the accusative or ablative case, as : multum, 
tntich, plurimum, most, solum and tantum, onlj/, facile, easily^ 
difficile (and difficulter), with difficulty, recens, recently ;^-^ 
tuto, safely, raro, rarely, continue, immediately, crebro,/rc- 
quently, faho, falsely, subito, ^t^{2efen/;^, perpetuo, contimuMy. 

4. There are still other adverbial terminations, as : coel- 
Uus, from heaven, pent^it^, deeply, entirely; sensim, by de^ 
grees, passtm, everywhere; caterva/tm, by troops, grega^tm, 
by flocks, etc. 

§ 27. Comparison of Adverbs. 

Adverbs derived from adjectives use for the comparative, 
the neuter singular of the comparative of the adjectives 
from which they are derived, and in the superlative change 
us of the superlative of their adjectives into e, as : 

doct-^, learnedly 
lev-iter, lighUy 
felic-iter, happily 
magnific-^, magmficenUy 
simil-iter, alike 
beD-€, toeU 
mal-^, badly 

Comp. laet-ttif 

Sup. ketHMlme, mostjoyfuBy 





nUy magnific-en^iK 


md-ius better 

optime, best 








Of the Pronoun (Corap. § 6, 5). 
§ 28. I. Personal Pronouns. 

a. Substantive Personal Pronouns. 







mei, ofmt 


sui, of himself, her- 


mihi, to me 


self etc. 


iu6, me 

te, thee 

sibi, to himself etc. 




se, himself, etc. 
s6, &y himself, etc 




nos, t£« 

yds, you 



noetii^ of ua 

yestri, of you 

sm, ofihemsdves 

nostrum, of, among 

yestrum, qf, among 




ndbiSjfo us 

yobis to you 

sibi, fo iAem«e2ve« 


nos, U8 

yos, you 

86, (AemM2t;e9 


ndUs, hyus. 

yobis, &y 2/oti. 

s6, &y themselves. 

Rem. 1. The Voc. of all the pronouns, if used, is like the Nom. 
The preposition cum (with), which goyems the Abl., is joined to me, <e, 
etc., thus : mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, yobiscum, with me, xoUk 
thee, with one^s self, unth us, unth you. 

Rem. 2. In order to give more emphasis to the personal pronouns, 
the syllable met is added to all the forms giyen in the aboye table, with 
the exception of tu and the Gen. Plur. of ego and ^u, as : egdmet, te* 
met, sibimet, nosmet, vosmet ;— ^-to tu is added ti : tut£, thou ihyseif 
-— «e is doubled to render it more emphatic : sese. For the difference 
of meaning between nostri, vestri and nostrum, vestrum, see § 94. 

b. Adjective Personal Pronouns or Possessive 

Prono uns. 

Adjective-personal pronouns are formed from the Gren. 

of Substantive-personal pronouns. They are called pos- 

sessive, because they represent an objectjpas the possession 

of an individual of the first, second or third person. 

From mei comes mens, mea, meum, my. (For the Voc. ffit see § 

t7. Rem. 1.) 

— tut — tuus, tua, tuum^ ihy. 

^^ sui — suus, sua, suum, hxs, her, its. 
•— nostri — noster, nostra, nostrum, our. 

— vestri — vester, vestra, vestnun, your^ 


Remark 3. For giving greater force and emphasis, the ending pU 
is joined to the AbL Sing, ofsuus, as : suopU manu, unth Ms (own, very) 
hmdf suopte gladio (with Ms sword). For the same reason also, met 
(see Rem. 2) is joined to the oblique cases ofauus, as : suUmd capitibus. 

XVn. fForda to be learned and Exerdteifor tranttation. 

Magister, tri, m. teacher, aequalis, e. equal, laboro 1. / labor, 

praeceptum, i, n. pre- sahitaris, e. mhdary, narro 1. 1 relate, 

cept, principle, [er, canto 1. / sing, voco 1. / caU, 

piaeceptor,6ris, fiLfeoc^- clamo 1. I cry, doleo 2. 1 grieve, 

tractatio, onis, f, hand- imp^ro I. (with Dat) / disco 3. 1 learn, 

Ung, pursuit. , command, govern, ludo 3. 1 play, 

Veritas, atis,/. truth, imperium, i, n, com- attente, ado. attentively, 
gratus, a, um, agreeable, mand, dominion, inter, j?ra^. (with •^oc), 

iratus, a, um, offended^ betu>eeny among, 


Rule of Stntax. The personal pronouns in the Nom., ego, tu, etc, 
are used only when there is some emphasis to be placed upon them, 
hence especially in antitheses. The same is true of the possessive 
pronouns, meus, tuus, etc., e. g. m^is frater diligens est, tuus piger; but: 
firater me amat (not : frater meus me amat). 

Ego canto, tu clamas, amicus vocat Nos narramus, vos saltatis, 
fratres laborant Ego fleo, tu rides, frater dolet Nos, praeceptores, 
doc^mus, vos, discipdli, discltis. Ego ludo, tu discis, soror acu pingit 
Nos scrihimus, vos legitis, fratres pingunt Ego salio, tu feris, puer 
dormit Nos, magistri, vos, o discipuli, erudimus ; vos, boni discipuli, 
attente auditis praecepta nostra. Virtutes inter se aequales sunt Im- 
perare sibi maximum imperium est Iratus non est apud se. Tracta- 
tio lltterarum nobis salutaris est Veritas semper mihi grata est 

XVHL fFords to be learned and Exercises for transiation. 

Modus, ], m, measure, proxlmus, a, um, next, obr^po 8. (with dat.) 1 
manner. par, aris, equal. creap up, steal upon, 

vitium, i, n. a fault, dimico 1. Ifght. acriter, adv. spiritedly. 

civis, is, m. citizen, discordo 1. I am at va- per, praep. (with ace.), 

parentes, ium, m, pa- riance with, ihrough. 

rents. porto 1. / bear, carry, propter, praep. (with 

caput, itis, n. head. faveo 2. 1 favor. ajcc), on account of. 

cantus, as/fH^ongf. splendeo 2. I shine,- de, |?ra^. (with obi), of, 

redrtus, us, m. return, expfito 3. / strive to ob- concerning, over, at, 


Vitia nobis virtQtum nomine obr^punt Nos fiivfimus vobis, vos &- 
v6tis nobis. Tu me amas, ego te amo. Mihi mea vita, tibi, tua cara 
est Virtus splendet per se semper. Cantus nos delectat Parentes 


a nobis diliguntur. O mi fill, semper mihi pare ! Frater me et to 
amat Eg6met mihi sum proximus. Tute tibi impSra. Virtus prop- 
ter sese colitur. Suapte natura virtus expetitur. Gives de suismet 
capitibus dimicant. Sapiens omnia sua secum portat Nos vobiscum 
de patris reditu gaudtoius. Tu tecum pugnas. Oratio tua tecum pug- 
nat Deus tecum est Saepe animus secum discordat Hostes nobia- 
cum acriter pugnant 

I relate, thou dancest, the brother labors. We sing, you vrrite, the 
friends calL I, the teacher, teach; thou, the scholar, learnest We 
weep, you laugh, the brothers grieve. I write, thou readest, the broth- 
er paints. We play, you learn, the sisters embroider. I, the teacher, 
instruct thee, O scholar ; thou, O good scholar, heafest attentively my 
precepts. The enemies fight spiritedly with you. Angry [men] are 
not in titeir right mind (== by themselves). God is with us. You re- 
joice with us at the return of [our] father. 

I carry aU my [secrets] with mysel£ O my son and my daughter, 
always obey me ! You love us, we love you. Our life is dear to ua» 
yours to you. Bad men are always at variance with ^emselvea The 
pursuit of literature is salutary to me. Truth is always agreeable to 
us. Our parents love thee and me in (abl.) like (= equal) manner. 
Men love themselves. Virtue is beautiful in (per) itsel£ I favor thee, 
thou favorest me. Our native country is dear to us. 

XDL TFords to he learned cmd Exercises for translation, 

Cura, ae, f. carey con- industrius, a, um, in- imm^mor, dris, ufir 

cem, dustrious, dUigtnt, mindful qf, 

ira, ae,/. an{rer. minis, a, um, wonder- potens, ntis, powerful^ 

desiderium, L n, long- July extraordinary, master of, 

ingy desire, perfidus,a, um, /it^ impdtens,ntis,nof/M>tiv 

conservatrix, icis, f, less. erfuLy not master of, 

preserver, absens, ntis, absent, teneo 2. / hold, possess, 

judex, icis, m, judge, insipiens, ntis, unwise, ango 8. 1 trouble, 

benignus, a, um, kind, memor," dris, mindful 



Omnis natAra est conservatrix sui (preserver of herself). Ikftrum 
desiderium urbis, meorum et tui me tenet (longing afler the city, etc.). 
Pater vehementer tua sui memoria delectatur (by thy remembrance of 
him). Ira est impdtens sui. Sapiens semper potens sui est Vestri 
ciura me angit (concern for you). Omnes homines sunt benigni judi- 
ces'sui. Vehementer grata mihi est memoria nostri tua (thy remem- 
brance of us). Amicus mei et tui est memor. Pater absens magno 

♦ 29.] 



deeiderio ten^tur mei, et tui, mi fititer, et vestri, o 0or5re8. Amicisunt 
Dostii memOres. Multi vestrum mihi placent Plurimi nofltnim te 
Talde dllTgunt 

The absent fiither has a great concern ybr us {^ of us). The unwise 
[man] is not master of himself. The faithless friend is unmindful of 
me. Your remembrance of me is very agreeable. Care about (hte 
(= of thee) troubles me. The most of you, my scholars, are diligent 
The most of us love [our] native country. 

§ 29. IL Demonstrative Pronouns. 

Singular. | 


IS, e&, id, htf she, U; the same 

i-dem, e&-dem, I-dem, lAe very 


ejus, of Mm, her, it; of the 

ejus-dem, of the very same 


ei, to him, her, it; to the same 

ei-dem, to lAe very same 


eum, earn, id, kim, her, it ; the 

eun-dem, ean-dem, idem, the 


very same 


eo, ea, ed, hy him, her, it; by 

eo-dem, ea-dem, ed-dem, by the 


very same. 



ii, eae, e&, they ; the same ii-dem, eae-dem, e&-<lem, the 

very same 


eorum, earum, edrum, ofihem ; 

eorun-dem, earun-dem, eorun- 

of the same 

dem, of the very same 


iis (seldom eis), to them; to 

iis-dem (eis-dem), to the very! 

the same 

same 1 


eos, eas, efi, them ; the same 

eos-dem, eas-dem, e&-dem, M^ 
very same 1 


iis (seldom eisj, by them ; by 

iis-dem (eis-dem), by^ verA 

ihe same. 

same, 1 

Remark. 1. The pronoun iff, ea,id may be translated as follows: 
1) the same (the one just mentioned) ; 2) Gen. e. g. filius ^us, his or her 
ton. Dat, to him, to her, to it Ace Mm, her, it ; Plur. Nom. thty, Gen. 
e. g. filius torUm or earum, their son, Dat to them, Ace. thein ;— 3) in 
connection with a noun : this, e. g. eum regem, this Hn^ ; — 4) he, she, 
it (who). In the oblique cases, it is distinguished from sui and suus in 
meaning, by not referring back, as they do, to the subject of the 










istS, ist&, istdd, this, that 

istlus, of tkiSf of that 

ittl, to this, to that 

istum, istam, istud, this, tfiat 

isto, ista, isto, by this, by that. 

ills, ill&, iimd, that 

illius, of that 

illi, to that 

ilium, illam, illud, that 

illo, ilia, illo, by that. 

Plural (after the II. Dec.) 

N. isti, ae, a; G. istorum, arum, orum ; D. and Abl. istis; A. istos, as, a ; 
N. illi, ae, a ; G. illorum, arum, orum ; D. and Abl. illis ', A. illos, as, a. 



hic, hiec, hoc, this 
hujus, of this 
huic, to this 

tpsg, ips&, ipsum, self 




hunc, hanc, hoc, this 
hoc, hac, hoc, by this. 

ipsum, tpsam, ipsum 
ipso, ipsa, ips5. 



N. hi,bae,Aaec; G.horum,harum,horum; D.and Abl. his; A. hos, has, Aaec; 
N. ipsi, ipsae, ipsa ; G. ipsorum, arum, orum; D. and Abl. ipsis; A. ipsos,a8,a. 

Remark 2. The enclitic ce is joined to kicy haec, hoe in order to in- 
crease its demonstrative power : hicce, haecce, hocce, this here ; the 
following forms occur most frequently : bujusce, hosce, hisce. From 
these forms connected with the interrogative particle ne we have : hic- 
dfne, haeccine, hocclne, (^? but in general only after a foregoing c 
Also from the connection of this oe with iste and Hie we have the fol- 
lowing forms : Sing. N. istic, istaec, istuc ; illic, illaec, illQc ; Ace. ie- 
tunc, istanc, istOc ; illunc, illanc, illQc ; Abl. istoc, istac, istoc ; illdc, iliac, 
illoc ; PL N. and Ace. Neut istaec, illaec. 

The student may decline : 
idem equus, the very same horse, eStdem rana, ihe very same frog, idem 

yitium, the very samefcmlt, G. ejusdem equi, ejusdem ranae, ejusdem 

vitii ; 
iste vir, this man, ista femlna, this woman, istud nomen, ikis name^ istlus 

viri, istius feminae, ietius nominis ; 
hic puer, this hoy, haec puella, ihis girl, hoc praeceptum, this precefi^ 

hujus pueri, hujus puellae, hiyus praecepti ; 

ille sensus, ihat jeding, ilia res, thai thing, illud comu, thai horn, 

illius sensOs, illius rei, illius cornQs (d). 

Rem. 3. IKc, haec, hoc, refers to an object in the presence of the one speak- 
ing, which pertains to the one speaking or which he calls attention to ; iste, 
ista, istud refers to an object in the presence of (he one addressed or which 
pertains to (he one addressed; tUe, iUa, tUud refers to an object which lies 
remote from the speaker and forms a contrast with hic^ haec, hoc* 



XX. Words to he learned and Exercises /or translation, 

Diligentia, ae, / dili" dux, uc\8ym.Uader,gm- mendaz, acis, lying, 

genety exactness, eraL liar, 

igna^ia, ae,/. indolence. Xenophon, ontis, m. heb^to 1. / Uunt, en- 

littSrae, arum, /. a letter, Xenophxfn, ftebk. 

memoria, ae,jC memory, carmen, inis, n. |N>efii. firmo 1. / make firm, 

schola, ae,/. a school, addictus, a, um^ devoted strengthen, 

sententia, ae,/. canton, to, vito ]. I avoid. 

view, fidus, a, \xm,fiaihful. placeo 2. 1 please. 

flcriptor, dris, m. fmter. saevus, a, um, fierce, dispKceo 2. / displease. 

auctoritas, atis, /. oti- cnuL fiiveo2. lamfiworakU 

thorOy. el^gans, litis, eleganL to. 

tarditas, atis, / siauh iners, ertis, awkward, credo 3. / beUeve, trusL 

ness, indolence. inactive, 

Xenophon est elegantissimus scriptor; ejus llbros llbenter lego. 
Amicum fidum babeo ; ei addictissimus sum. Fratris carmen valde 
mihi placet ; lege id. Ignavia corpus hebStat, labor firmat ; illam vita, 
hunc exp^te. Hae littftrae graviter me movent Haec carmina suavis- 
rima sunt Isti homini mendaci ne erode. Huic duci milites libeoter 
parent HU viro omnes fiivent Praeclarum est istud tuum pra^eptum. 
Qaec sententia mihi placet, ilia displicet Hoc bellum est saevissi- 
mum. Hie puer industrius est, ille iners. Memoria teneo praeclarum 
illud praeceptum. Iste tuus amicus est vir optimus. Ista vestra auc- 
toiltas est maxima. Hujus discipuli diligentiam laudo, illius tarditatem 
vitupero; illi schola est gratissima, huic molestissima. 

XXL Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

FortQna, ae,/, fortune, dams, a, um, dear, re- tracto 1. 1 pursue, 

Alexander, dri, m. •^leX' nowned. obsideo 2. / besiege. 

ander. Delphicus, a um, Del- studeo 2. / strive. 

Pomp^ius, i, m. Pom- pMc fido 3. I trust, 

pey, inimicus, a, um, hostile ; diffido. / distrust. 

factum, i, n. deed. subst. enemy, nosco 8. / am acquaint- 

meritum, i, n. deserL seditiosus, a, um, sedi- ed vnlh, know, 

oraciilum, i, n. orade. iious, agnosco 3. lunderstand. 

Caesar, Uris, m. Caesar, admirabiiis, Oy wonder- resisto 3. Iresist. 

imperator, dris, m. genr ful, sentio 4. / fed, tkink, 

-n^cral, laudabilis, e,praisewor- judge. [/or. 

virtus, fitis,/. bravery, thy, pro, praep, (with abl.) 

opus, £ris, n. v)ork. expugno 1. / capture, quia, conj, because, 

Multi homines de iisdem rebus eodem die non e&dem sentiunt In- 
sipiens eidem sententiae modo fidit, modo diffidit Ipsi imperatori se- 
ditiosi milites resistunt Animus ipse se movet Virtus est per se ipsa 




laudabilis. Saepe nihil est homini inimicius, quam sibi ipse. Omne 
animal se ipsum dillgit Carior nobis esse debet patria, quam nosmet 
ipsi. Praeclarum est illud praeceptum oraciili Delphici : Nosce te ip- 
sum. Mendax saepe sibi ipsi diffidit 

Xenophon is a very elegant writer, I read him with very great de- 
light (libentissime). The brother and his friend are very dear to me. 
The teacher praises and censures the scholars according to {pro with 
abl.) their desert We perceive God from his works. We honor [our] 
parents, because their deserts to (de with abl.) us are very great The 
enemies besiege the city and strive to capture it 

This book I read with delight This poem pleases me, that dis- 
pleases. I praise the industry of this scholar. The deeds of that great 
Alexander are extolled by (ab) all writers. Caesar and Pompey were 
very renowned generals ; to that, fortune was more favorable than to 
this ; the bravery of this and that [one] was wonderful. 

The king himself is leader of the army. Thou dost not always 
judge the very same concei-ning the very same thing. The father ajid 
the son pursue the very same literary studies (== literature). The 
virtues are of (per) themselves praiseworthy. Man loves himself 
[Thy] Native country ought to be dearer to thee than thou thyjtol£ 
Understand yourselves. Liars oflen distrust themselves. 

§ 30. III. Relative Pronouns. IV. Interrogative Pronouns. 


qui, quae, qu5d, whoy which 
cujus, whosCf ofwhonif of which 
cui, to whom, to which . 
quem, quam, quod, whom, which 
quo, qua, quo, by whom, hy which 


qui, quae, quae, who, which 
quorum, quarum, quorum, 

whose, of whom, of which 
qiiibus, to whom, to which 
quos, quas^ quae, mhom, which 
quibus, hy whom, by which. 

quis(m. &/.),. quid, who ? whaf^ 
cujus, whose^ of whom ? of what ? 
cui, to whomf to what^ 
quem, quam, quid, whom ? whatf 
quo, qua, quo, hy whom, by what ? 

qui, quae, quae, whof vjhaif 
quorum, quarum, quorum 
whose'^ ofwhomf ofwhat^ 
quibus, to tchom 9 to what 9 
quos, quas, quae, whom f what ? 
quibus, by whom ? by what f 

Rem. 1. The preposition cum is joined to the Abl., as: quocum, for 
which gtdcum is oflen used. 

Rem. 2. In quisquis(quaequae rare), 9wujgutrf(whoever, whatever) both 
pronouns are declined, as : quoqiu>, quibitsguibus, e. g. quoquo mode 


res 9e habet, in whaUHr wa^ (he Hang km iimiff; quiequid id eit, u iU# 
ever it is ; On the contrary, in qmeunque^ qtaaeamque^ quodcwnqui (which* 
soever, whatsoever) cunque is barely annexed to the different caaes of 
qm^ quatj quod, as : G. ct^useunque, etc 

Rem. 3. Qtctlv, q^dd, are u^ed subtlanticebfy as : qias scribit ? quid 
Bcribitur ? So also in the Ace, as : quid agis ? The remaining fonn» 
do not differ from qui, quae, quod used interrogatively ; but qtd, quae^ 
quod in this case, is always an a^tdvot, e. g. quern vides ? whom do yoiv^ 
9U f quern hominem vides ? yiKai man do you fee ? For the purpose or 
strengthening the interrogation, nasi is annexed to the above mention^ 
ed interrogative pronouns, as: quisnam danaat? tMe criu out themf 
quidnam agie? u^t do you do thtnf quinam homo damat? quaenaii^ 
mulier venit ? quodnam genus est ? and so through all the cases. 

XXQ. Words io be learned and Exerdsetfor tramUUon, 

Civitas, atis,/. state. probus, a, urn, uprigkL hondro 1.1 honor, 

lex, egis,/. law. sanctus, a, urn, sacred, gero 8. 1 carry ml 

mors, rtis,/ death, ~ mitis, e, miUL auceurro 9. / assisi. 

immatarus, a, um, tm- euro 1. (with ace.) I exaudio 4. 7 iiifen Io. 

timely. care for, look out for, ardenter, adv, ardeMf^. 

Justus, a, um, just. devasto 1. Ilay toaste. eagerly, 
maleHcus, a, um, evU ; gubemo 1. / govern, 

subst. evUrdoer, rvk. 

Rex, qui civitatem gubemat, civium salOtem curare debet Regi, cu- 
jus imperium mite et justum est, omnes cives libenter parent Regem^ . 
cui leges sunt sanctae, cives colunt Felix est rex, quem omnes cive» 
anuHat O rex, qui civitatem nostram gubemas, hondra bonos cives^ 
ten^'ktoaleficos, succurre misSris, exaudi probos ! Acerba et immatOra 
est mors eorum^ qui immort&le opus parant Non semper est illud 
bc|^am, quod. ardenter expetlmus. Beati sunt ii, quorum vita virtioitis 
pi^i^ceptiB regitur. Hostis, quocum helium gerltur, terram nostram de- 

The kings who govern the states, ought to look out for (ace.) the 
welfere of the citizens* The kings, whose government is mild and 
just, all citizens obey widi delight The kings, to whom the laws are 
sacred, are obeyed by all the citizens. The kings are fcHtunate, who 
are loved by all the citizens. O kings, who govern our states, honor 
the good citizens, frighten the evil, assist the wretqhed, listen to the 
upright ! The enemies, with whom you carry i)tx war, lay waste our 

XXin. Words to he learned and Exercises for trondatUn, 

Luscinia, ae, /• mght- pecc&tum,i,n.An,,/%(tift. honestus, a, um, t^fti- 
ingale, opinio, onis, /. opinion, o%ts, 



&lsu8, a, um, false, cogfto 1. lihink of. iodulgeo 2, 1 am indul- 
iDgratus, a, um, disa- excnicio I. I torment. gent to, 

greeabUj tmgratefxd. repugno h I am rtpug- ago 3. I drive, do, treat. 
utrlis, e, useftd, nant to. dico 3. / say, teU. 

ainMlo 1. 1 go io walk, habeo 2. / have; me quaero 3. I se^ 

take a walk. habeo, / have myself, ccir, why. 

Quia me vocat ? Quid agis^ mi amice ? Quis* ecribit has litt^ras ? 
Quid cogitas ? Quid ago ? cur me excnicio ? Quae amicitia est inter 
ingratos ? Quod carmen legis ? Quis homo venit ? Quis poeta dul- 
cior est, quam Hom^rus? Cujus vox suav^or est, quam vox lusciniae? 
Quibus peccatis facilUme indulgemus ? 

Quicquid est honestum, idem est utile. Quicquid vides, currit cum 
tempdre. Quoquo modo res sese habet, ego sententiam meam defen- 
do. Quaecunque opinio veritati repugnat, falsa est 

What sayest thou ? Who is that man ? Who is that woman ? 
With whom does thy friend go lo walk ? Whom seekest thou ? What 
book readest thou ? To whom dost thou write this letter ? In what- 
ever manner the thing has itseli^ we praise thy view. 

§ 31. V. Indefinite Pronouns. 

1) quis, qua, quid, amj one, any things (substantively), 
Ace. quem, quam, quid. Nom. PI. qui, quae, qua ; the re- 
maining cases are the same as those of the relative qui^ 
quae^ quod ;--^\x\, quae, quod, any one, any thinff, (adjective- 
ly), is declined like the relative qui, quae, quod; 

2) aliquis, aliqua, aliquid, some one, somethings (substan- 
tively). Ace. aliquem, aliquam, aliquid, Nom. PI. aliqui, 
ae, a ; — aliqui, aliqua (aliqua very seldom), aliquod, (used 
adjectively). Pi. ajiqui, ae^ a; 

3) quispiam, quaepiam, quidpiam, a/ny one^ some one^ 
any thing, some thing (i. e. any one, etc., indifferently from 
a larger number), used substantively; — quispiam, quaepiam, 
quodpiam, (used adjectively), G. cujuspiam, etc. ; 

4) quisquam, quicquam, (scarcely, hardly,) one, any one, 
any thing, used substantively; quisquam, (quaequam rare), 
quodquam, used adjectively, G. cujusquam, etc.; this pro- 
noun is used principally in negative sentences ; 

5) ecquis, ecqua, ecquod, tohether any one ? any thiiig ? 


used substanUvelp ; ecqui, ecquae, ecqQod, used adjectively^ 
G. eccujus, etc ; 

6) quidam, quaedara, quiddam, a certain one, a certain 
things used svistantivelp ; quidam, quaedam, quodam, used 
adjectively^ G. cujusdam, etc.; 

7) quisque, quaeque, quidque, (as svbst), and quodque, 
(as adj.) each one, each, G. cuj usque, etc.; unusquisque, 
unaquaeque, unumquidque (as suist), and unumquodque, 
(as adj\), ea^h one (to a man), G. uniuscujusque, etc.; qui- 
vis, quaevis, quidvis (as subsL), and quodvis (as adj,), any 
one, any thing you choose, without exception, G. cujusvis, 
etc. ; quilibet, quaelibet, quidiibet ^as subst.), and quodlibet 
(as adj.), amy one, any thing you please, indifferently, G. cu- 
juslibet, etc. ; 

8) alius, alter, uUus, mdlus, neuter, see in ^ 33, Rem. 5. 

XXIV. Woirds io be learned and Exerckeffar trandalion. 

Graecia, ae,/ Greece, dignitas, atis,/. c^gti%. impeDdeo 2. I threaten, 

pecimia, ae,y! money, mens, tis,/. understcmd- inhaereo 2. 1 inhere. 

locus, i, m. a placey ait' ing, inUUecL adlmo 3. / take away. 

vation. jus. Oris, n. tohat iijnsL tribuo 3. 1 give. 

augurium, i, n. premge. justitia, B/eyf.jtmtioe. ideirco, adv. <m this ac- 
saecillun], i, n. hundred futaru% a, um, fvivru eumtd, 

yeargj an age. insitus, a, um, inborn, quasi, adv. as \f. 

terror, oris, m. terror. 

Si mortem timftmus, semper altqui terror nobis impendet Si cui- 
piam pecuniam fbrtQna adimit, ideirco miser non est Graecia parvum 
quendam locum Europae tenet Inhaeret in mentibus nostris quasi 
quoddam augurium futurorum saeculorum. In unoquoque virorum bo- 
norum habitat deu& Justitia jus unicuique tribilit pro dignitate cujus- 
que. Cuique nostrum amor vitae est initftu& 

' ^ 

§ 32. Correlative Pronouns. 

Under correUUive pronouns are embraced all those pro- 
nouns which express a reciprocal relation {correlation) to 
each other and exhibit this relation by corresponding forms. 
Thus e. g. 

6% OF THE NVMBftAL. [i 32. 

Interrogative. Demonstrat indefinite. Relative. Indef. Relative. 

qualis, o/ urAdrf talis, of «ttcA quali8,o/toAa< quarmcunque, of 

kind? ■ a kindyiuch kind, as tohatevtr kind 

quantuBf Aoto tantus, so aliqaantus, quantus, as quantuscunque, 

great f . great somewhat great however great 

^eat .1 

quot,* how tot,*#o many aliquot,* quot,* as quot;^nque*, or 

manyt totidem,*ju#f some many quotquot,* how 
so many ever many. 

XXV. Words to ht learned and Exerciset/or irandaUon. 

Sonum, iffL iht good, respublica, reipublicae, pnnceps, Ipis, iil Jirsij 

Aristides, is. m. Msti- the staU, prince, [fauU. 

des, permultus, a, um, very pecco 1. Isin^ commit a 

fgrex, egis, m. a herd, much^ many, soleo % lam accustomed, 

imitator, dris, m. imikh fragilis, e, perishable, exsisto 3. / exid, am, 

tor, quod, oof^, because, thai. 

Quot sunt homines, tot sunt sententiae. Non tantum malum est hoc, 
•quod peccant piincipes, quantum illud, quod permulti imitatores prin- 
•dfpum exsistunt Quot genera orationum sunt, totidem oratorum ge- 
nera reperiuntur. Quales sunt duces, tales sunt milites. Qualis est 
rex, talis est grex. Quales in republica sunt principes, tales solent 
«8se elves. Ne contemne homines mis^os, qualescunque sunt Cor- 
pus et fortunae bona, quantacunque sunt, incerta ac fragilia sunt. 
Quotquot homines sunt, omnes vitam amant Quotcunque sunt scrip- 
46res, omnes Aristidis justitiam praecBcant 


Of the Numeral. 

§ 33. Classification and Tabular View of the Numerals. 

Numerals (§ 6, 6) according to their meaning, may be 
divided into the following classes : 

a) Cardinals J which answer the question, how many? 
quot ? as : one, twOy etc. 

^ III! I I I 11 I — ^W^^^^—^M^ 

* All these words are indeelinable and are used onl^ in the plural, ai : 
quot homines sunt .' tot hominum numerus ; aliquot hominibus ; tot homines, 
«quot video, so many men as I see; homines, quotconqoe or quotquot video, 
•omnes .boni sunt 

183.] OP tn mniSKAL. K 

RxM. 1. Tlie first three cardinal numbers are declined (Benaarka 
5 and 6, pp. 56, 57) ; but fii>ni 4 to 100 they are indeclinable, while 
firoRi 200 to 900 they are declined like the plural of adjectives <^ direo 
ending|9 in i, ae, a. For mUU see Renn. 4. p. 56. 

b) Ordinals J which answer the question, which in order? 
which in a series? quotus? as: yir^f, second^ etc 
They are all declined like adjectives of three endings 
in tiSj a, um. 

c) Distributives^ which answer the question, hew many 
at a time ? how mani/ orpiece ? quoteni ? as : one by 
oncy two by tiaoy etc 

d) Numeral adverbs^ which answer the question, how 
many times ? quoties ? as, once^ twice^ etc* 

Eem. 2. /fhe numeral adverbs derived fit>ni the ordinals ; viz. : pri- 
mum (rarely priwio), aecundo (for which iUirum is generally used ; ja- 
eurubam is very care), tmtium, quartum, etc., answer the question, what 
pkuxtn order f BB I in the Jintplaet, second placey etc. 

e) MuUipUcatives^ which answer the question, hoto many 
fold? quotuplex. They end inplex and are declined 
after the third Dec as: duplex (for all genders), two 
fold^ double^ O. duplicis. 

f ) Proportionals^ which answer the question, how many 
times as great ? quotuplus ? They end in plus^ pla^ 
plumj as : duplus, a, um, twice as greaty (as something 
else taken as a unit of measure). 

All these classes of numerals, (except the last two, which 
are merely numeral adjectives and but little used in com- 
parison with the others, are exhibited in parallel columns 
in the following table. 






Cardinal (how manj ?) I Ordinal (what one in order ?) 







2,000 000. 

anus, a, um, one 
duo, ae, o, two 
tres^ iti, three 
sex, #iz 
septem, seven 
octo, eight 
noyem, nine 

decern, ten 
undScim, eleven 
duodScim, twelve 
tredSciin, thirteen 
quatr uordgcim, /our^een 
qu\nd^c\m^ Jifteen 
■eddcim, sixteen 
septendgcim, seventeen 
duodevi^inti, eig/Ueen 
undevi^nti, nineteen 

viginti, twenty 

unus (a, um) et viginti or w, un. 

duo (ae, o) et viginti or v. d. 












centum et unus (a, um) or c. un. 

centum et duo (ae, o) or c. d. 

ducenti, ae, a ' 









duo milla ; 3000 tria milia, etc. 

centum milia 

decies centum milia 

vicies centum milia. 

primus, a, \im, first 
secundus, second 
tertlas, third 
quwciuBy fourth 
seztus, sixth 
Septimus, seventh 
octftvus, eighth 
nonua, nitUh 

deolmus, tenth 
undectmus, eleventh 
duodeclmus, twelfth 
tertius (a, um) declmus (a, ilm) 
quartus decTmus,/ottrteen^A 
quintus decimu8,./i^«eii^ 
seztus decimus, sixteenth 
Septimus declmus, seventeenth 
duodevicesimus, eighteenth 
undevicerimus, nineteenth 

vioesTmus, twentieth 

unus (a, um) et vicesimus (a, um) 

alter (a, um)et vicesimus (a, um)^ 





qui nquageslmus 







c. (a,um) et primus (a,um)or 

C/ (a, um) et alter (a, um) or c.alt. 










bis millesimus ; 3000 ter m. etc. 

centies millesimus 

decies centies milleslmus 

vicies centies millesimus. 

' Or vicesimus (a, mn) et alter (a, am). 

♦ 33.] 




Distribu, (bow manj at a time ?) 

Adverhiat (how inanjr times ?) | | 

sin^li, ae, a,* one at a time 

semel, once 


bini, ae, a, ttoo at a time 

bit, twice 


terni, three at a time 

ter, thrice 


qaaterni, /our at a time 

quater,/otcr a'fiie# 


qaini, jEv« at a time 

quinquleayiv^ timM 


seni, six at a time 

sezies, six times 


•epteni, seven at a time 

■eptles, seven times 


octoni, eight at a time 

octles, eight times 


nov6Di, nine at a time 

novlea, nine times 


deni, ten at a time 

declea, ten times 


undeni, eleven at a time 

undeciea, eleten times 


duoddni, twelve at a time 

daodecies, twelve times 


terni deni, thirteen at a time 

terdecies or tredeoiea 


qaaterni den\, fourteen at a time 



qaini denij fifteen at a time 



seni deni, sixteen at a time 



aepteni, deni, seventeen at a time 



duodeviceni, eighteen at a time 



undevic^ni, nineteen at a time 



▼iceni, twenty at a time 

vicTes, twenty times 


viceni (ae, a) ain^li (ae, a) 

▼icies semel or semel et ?ioiea 


viceni (ae, a) bini (ae, a) 

vicies bis 



































centeni (ae, a) sin^li (ae, a) 

centies semel 


centeni (ae^ a) |iini (ae, a) 

centies bif 


























singiila milia 


M. or do. 

bina milia ; 3000 tema m., etc. 

bis m lilies; 9000 ter m., etc. 

IIM ; lUM. 

cent^na milia 

centies millies 


decies centena milia 

decies centies millies 


▼icies centena milia 

▼icies centies millies. 


S) Stit^iM, a, urn is not used in the 

06 M^VBBALfl. [f 33. 


■ f , 3. The compound numbers into which 8 and 9 enter as one of the 
components, are expressed in a subtrtictivt form^ as : 38, duodequadra- 
ginta, duodeqnadragesirous, 99 undequatkaginta, undequadragesimuSy 
48 duodequinquaginta, duodequinquagesimus, 59 undesexaginta, unde- 
fiexagesimuB, etc. 

2. In the other compound nund)eni from 13 to 17, the smaller number 
IS placed first widiout ef, as : Sedecim ; but from ^ to 100, either ik» 
smaller number is placed first with ef following it, or the larger without 
€f, as: 

23 tres et viginti «r viginti tres 

tertius et noesimus or vicesimus t^rtim 

3. In compounding smaller numbers with hundreds and thouaandSp 
the smalkr number follows either with or without et, as : 

103 centum et tres or. centum tres, 

centesimus et tertius or centesimus terdus, 


If, however, such a number contains a unit and a ten, the unit is 
placed last without e^ as : 

486 quadringenti et octoginta sex or quadringenti octoginta sex, 
quadringentesimus et octogesimus 

sextus or quadringentesimus acUy 

gesimus sextue. 

4. Mille, a thousand (i. e. on» thousand) is indedintdde, as : dux cunx 
mUle militibus ; but the Plur. ndUa (always of more than one thousand), 
[is a neuter noun of the third Dec. and is followed by a noun in the 

^'Gen. case, as: tria ndlia hominumi cum tribus tnUibus mUitunL 

5. The nine following numeral adjectiyes in us, a, urn, and er, a, um 
form their Gen. Sing, in all three genders in lus* and their Dat Sing. 

unus, uUuSf nuUuSf 
solus, iotuSf alius, 
uter, eUter, neuter, 
and the compounds of il^, as : dterque, alterdter ; 

!EL g. solus, a, um, G. solius, D. soli— Alius has aliud in the neutw 
and in ihe Gen. alius (for alHus), in Dat aUu In the compoimdse 
uterque, utervis, utercunque, uterlibet, uter is declined and que, cunque, 
etc. are joined to the different cases, as : ufnt^que, utr'mB, ti^fncun- 
que utrolibet In alteruter (one of the two), commonly only uter is de- 
•elined and alter is placed before it without change ; but sometimes 
both alter and uter are declined, thus : 

commonly: alterdter, alterCktra, alteriitrum, G. alterOtrius, 

lOccasionally : alter ilter, altera dtra, altfirum dtrum, G. alterius utrius. 

■ ■ III 11 II ii> I II II. 

'* So also alterius, not fas is inferred from the poets) alterius. 

i 33.] IIITMSSALS. 67 

AKut, 9^ attody «»- I6tus, a, urn, tht wUe. uterllbet, utrilTlMt, 

otktr uUuB, a, urn, oiiy om. utrurakbet, m/^cmTi 

alter, £ra, Srum, Me one unua, a, um, one, whichever {you ^e^m 

or Ou other qf tioo. dter, tra, trum, tdbtdb o/* qflhetwo. 

neuter, tra, trum, neUh- (he two9 uterque, utrftque, 

er of (he two. utercunque, ntracun- ' utrumque, eadk^l^ 

Bullufl, a, tun, fia one; que, utrumcunque, Iwo, hM, 

fio. UMoeoer, innoinwr, ty 

a5lufl, a, um, ofone. Ae Iim. 

6L The numerals: duo, two^ ambo, 5o<% and tree^ fhrtt^ are declined 
as fiillowa: 

Nom. and V. 


D. and AbL 


(fuo, ixDO duae, Aao 
dudrum, duArum, dudrum 

dudbuM. dudhuMm. duJih%iM 

(fuo and duos, duas, duo 
So : ambo, ae, o, both. 

trtij three N. tria 



ires, tria • 

Like tria is declined the 

PU of miUe: mOia, 

XXVL Tf^onb te be learned and Ezercitesfar tronshoion, 

Hora, ae,/ ^ur. mensis, is, m. moriih. . pono 3. 1 ptaoe^ arrange, 

summa, ae,/ tufii. hebddmas, &dis,/ week, sepdno ^ Ilmf aside, 

annus, i, m. year. nux, ucis,/ mrf. jam, oA^. drtoAf^ now, 

ealcdlus, i, m. a j^We. in promtu esse, to he in menMriter, adv, from 

Cardlus, i, m. Choarlet, rtadm^i, . memory, 

codicilli, orum, m. tm^ exspecto L / wait^ paulisper, adv, a UtUe, 

ffig' tabid, await, recte, adv. eorreetbf, 

thal^rus, i, wl dettar, respondeo 2l laneuet, deinde, adw, then^ (hert^ 

cer&sum, i, n. chtny, resporisio, 6nis, / an- t^pon. 

malum, i, n. apple. ewer, denlque, adv.finalljf, 

pirum, i, n. pear, addo 3. I add to, porro, ado, beiidei, 

prunum, i, n. plum, attendo 3. I give attenr tum, adv, then, 
exemplum, i, n. txam- Hon, 


Pater, Attende, mi fiU ! Scribe in codiciUos tuos hoc exemplum; 
Si babes decern mala, tria pruna, unum pirum, sex cerftsa ; et his ad- 
duntur duo mala, quattuor pruna, septem pira, Octo cerftsa ; deinde 
quinque mala, novem pruna, sed^eim pira, und^clm cerftsa ; tum duo- 
d£cim mala, quind6cim pruna, tredteim pira,-quattuord€cim cerftsa; 
porro viginti mala, undeviginti pruna, diiodeviginti pira, septend^im 
cerftsa ; denique quattuor et viginti mala, unum et viginti }Mruna, duo 
et viginti pira, tria et viginti cerftsa: quot sunt mala? quot pruna? 
quot pira ? quot cerftsa ? CariUut, Exspecta paulisper, mi pater ! Jam 
respoosio est in promtu. Sunt tria eiiipetuaginta mala; unum et sep- 
tua^nta pruna; septem et septuaginta pira; novem et septuaginta 

68 NTTMERAL8. [i 33. 

ceidsa P. Recte, mi CarMe! Jam sepdne codeillos et memoifter 
mihi responde: Quot meiraes habet unus annus? C DuodCcim. 
P. Quot hebdomSides habet unus mensis ? C. Quattuor. P. Quot 
dies habet unus annus ? C. Trecentos sexaginta quinque. P. Quot 
boras habet unus dies? C. Quattuor et viginti. P. Quot dies habent 
tres anni ? C. MiUe nonaginta quinque. P. Quot boras babet unus 
annus ? C. Octo milia septingentas sexaginta. P. Si tres nuces quater 
ponis, quanta summa exsistit ? C. Dnodecim. P. Si quinque calcO- 
ios ter millies sexcenties quinquagies septies ponb ? C Duodeviginti 
milia ducenti octoginta quinque. P. Si septingenta quadraginta tria 
milia trecentos quinquaginta duo thal^ros bis ponis ? C. Decies cen- 
tum milia qua<kingenta octoginta sex milia septingenti quattuor. 

FcUher. Give attention, my son! write upon your writing-tablet the 
following (?= this) example : If thou hast 20 apples, 6 plums, 2 pears, 
12 cherries, and to these are added 4 apples, 8 plums, 14 pears, 16 
cherries ; then 10 apples, 18 plums, 32 pears, 22 cherries ; then 24 
apples, 30 plums, 26 pears, 28 cherries; besides, 40 apples, 38 plums^ 
36 pears, 34 cherries ; finally, 48 apples, 42 plums, 44 pears, 46 cher- 
ries : how many apples are [there]? how many plums? how many 
pears? how many cherries ? — Charles* Wait a litde, my father! al- 
ready is the answer in readiness. There are 146 apples, 142 plums, 
154 pears, 158 cherries. — Father, Correctly, my Charles ! 

XX YII Words to he learned cmd Exercises for translation. 

Incdla, ae, m. inhabi- jor(natu)oMer, minor annum ago, / am %n 

iant, (natu) yovnger, the year. 

victoria, ae,yi victory, fides, ^i, /. fidelity ; ^'- irrumpo 3. / make an 

pretium, i, n. voZue. dem habeo, I have irruption, 

assentator, oris, m^Jtat- confidence tn. nunc, adv, novo, 

terer, cognltus, a, um, known, vix, adv, scarcdy, 

moderator, dris, m. gov*- infidus, a, um, vnfaiJOir de (with aJbL\ of^ coti- 

emor, Jkd, cerning, 

eques, itis, m. AorMatnaiL natus, a, um, hem; ex (with a&L)^fit. 

pedes, Itid, m, footman, post Christum na- post (with occ) after, 

pars, tis,/. part^ side, tum, ctfler the birth of et — et, hoth—^nd, 

soci^tas, litis,/. aUianee, Christ, [tohat ? neque, and not ; neque 

exercitus, ds, iit.i antty, quotus, a, um, what one, — neque, nettAer— ^nor. 

natus, us, m. ^tH^ ,v ma- ago S* I drive, pass; . 

Quota bora est ? Decima. Annus, quo nunc vivimus, eist milleiA- 
mus octingentestmus quadraeeslmus tertius post Christum natum* 
Pater meus agit annum ^tuunRni et sexagesimum (or sexagesimum 

i 34.] PEBPOSITIONS. 59 

qoartun); mater octavum et quinquagenmuin (or quinquageilmum oc- 
tayum) ; frater major natu tertium et tncesimum (or tricemmuni ter- 
tiiim) ; frater minor natu aherum et tricesimum (or tncefiimum alter- 
um) ; Boror major duodetriceslmum ; soror minor vicesimum. In urbe 
sunt miUe milites. Duo milia hostium urbem obaident 

The enemy makes an irruption into our country (>=■ land), with 
10,000 soldiers. A thousand soldiers defend the city. 28,000 footmen 
and 13,000 horsemen defend the country. 

My father is in [Ms] sevenfyj^ year (= is passing his seventy-fiflh 
year) ; my mother in her sixty-second ; my older brother in his forty- 
first ; my younger brother in his thirty-ninth ; my older sister in her 
thirty-fourth and my younger sister in her twenty-sixth. What hour 
is it? the eleventh hour. How old art thou? (»> what year art thou 
passing?), My-eight years old (= I am passing the fifly-eighth year). 

Aliud alii placet (one thing pleases one and another another), aliud 
alii dispHcet Milites utriusque exercitus sunt fortissimL Utrumque 
est vitium : et onmibus credere, et nullL Perfidus homo vix ulli fidem 
habet Unius fidi homoris amicitia habet phis pretii (has more yalue), 
quam multorum infidorum socifitas. Soli sapienti vera vis virtutis est 
cognfta. Inc61ae totius urbis de victoria exercitus laeti erant Nuttius 
hominis vita ex (in) onmi parte beata est Habeo duo amicos ; ambo 
valde diligo. Amicus meus habet duo filios et duas filias. 

We trust to neither of the two, neither to the wicked [man] nor the 
flatterer, the life of no man is more peaceful than the life of the wise 
[man]. God is the governor of the whole world. The fiither goes to 
walk with [his] two sons and [his] two daughters. Two faithful 
friends are as it were (quasi) one soul in two bodies. Two thousand 
soldiers (gen.) defend the city. 


§ 34. Table of the Prepositions, 

1. Prepositions governing the Accusative. 

Ad, tOy unto, according propter, near by^ on ac- ante, before, 

ioyfor, at, count of, post, behind, after, 

apud, a<, &y. penes, tiri^ (in the pow- secundum, a/7er, ofoYig, 
juxta, next to, by, er of some one). according to, 

prope, near by, ob, btfore, on account of, versus, towards. 

60 PEs»»inoif«. [i 34. 

adreraCM and adver- cis, Qitra, on <^ tide, extra, (ayonii, mt^bout 

Bum, agcdfuil, ■ trans, owar, on ^ud nde. infra, hmeathj bdiw. 

contra, contrary to, on ultra, beyond, on (hat aupra, over, above, 

(he contrary y againgt. tide, per, through, 

ergBiy towarda, [around, mter^bdweeny among, jpraeieryhardby^beaides. 

circa, circum, about,* intra, tm^n. 

Rem. 1. Versus generally stands in connection with the prepositions 
ad or in ; the Ace. is placed between ad (in) and versWf as : in Italiam 
versus, ad Oce&num versus, towards Italy, totvards the Ocean, But with 
names of cities ad and'tn are omitted, as: Romam versus, towards 

2. Prepositions governing the Ablative. 

A, ab, ahSffionij by, prae, before, by redsan of, sine, without, 
de, doum from, aufay pro, btfore,for, clam, unthout (he know^ 

from, qf, concerning, coram, btfore, in (he ledge of, 
over* prese$iee of tenus, up to, 

e, ex, out (fffrom. cum, with. 

Rem. 2. A and e never stand before a vowel or h ; dhs is rarely used, 
most frequently before. <. — TeAua is placed after the AIL For the 
forms mwum^ tecum, quocum, etc, see § 28. Rem. L and § 30* Rem. !• 


3. Prepositions governing' the Abl. (in answer to the 
question where^) and the Ace. (in answer to the 

question, whither^) 

In, c abl. in, at, by, upon ; c. ace super, over, concerning (generally 
into, upon, against, towards, with ace in answer to both ques- 

sub, under, tions). 

subter, beneath, (generally with ace, 
m answer to both questions)^ 

XXVIII Words to he learned and Exercises for translation, 

Ripa, ae,/. bonl:. libertas, atis, /.yreetfom. effundo 3. I pourout^ 

via, ae,/ way, altus, a, um, high, deep, discharge, ^ 

castra, orum, n. camp, video 2. / see, - fugio 3. 1 fee, 

agger, 6ris, m. mound, duco 3. / lead, pello 3. / drive, repd, 

pes, edis, nufoot, muuio 4. 1 fortify, 


Promiscuouis examples from dXl the Dedensions. 

Frogs live in the water and upon (in) the land. The soldiers $ght 
spiritedly against (in) the enemy. The enemies make an irruption lato 
our borders. In the fields, bloom various herbs. In (abL) summer we 
sit with delight under oaks. The enemies flee within (as among) the 
walls. Parents are loved by (ab) good sons and daughters. Orators 


we extol on account of (ib) fluency of q^ieech. The earth moyes («> i» 
moved] around the sun. Repel caret from [your] miuda. Suppliants 
Ml down upon the kneea. Eloquence adorns those with (penes)* 
whom It is. Livdk thou according to nature. The soldiers fight be- 
fore (pro) the camp. The river is discharged over the banks. Virtue 
has all [things] beneath (subter) itself. Who is peaceful without vir» 
tue ? Above the city is a very high oak. Below our garden a very^ 
magnificent house is built 
'^ (' The army marches (iter fiicit) towards Rome. The general leads 
the soldiers against the city. Near by the walls of the city, the enemies 
fortify the camp. The enemies build a high mound around the city. 
Our soldiers fight with the enemies very spiritedly. The citizens fight 
spiritedly for the fi^edom of their native country. The enemies flee 
over the river. On account of virtue men are esteemed. The ene- 
mies within the walls of the city fortify a camp. The love of parents 
towards [their] children is very great Many men act contrary to (con- 
tra) the precepts of virtue. On this side of the city a camp is fortified 
by (ab)the enemies. '^ Frogs live within and without the waten All the 
citizens were joyful' concerning (de) the victory of our soldiers. The 
way, which leads fi'om the city up to our garden, Is very beautifiiL 
Avoid the man, who by reason of (prae) anger is not in his right mind 
(as with himself). Before (ante) our house are many pines, behind the 
same, is a very beautifiil garden. Often we do not see that which is 
before (ante) our feet Between the city and our garden are v^ry 
beautiful fields. The enemies flee tlurough the city. Who is peace- 
fill besides the wise [man] ? 


§ 35, Greek Notms of the First Declension. 

Several nouns adopted from the Greek, have in the Nom. 
the ending, e Fern., as and es Masc. The declension of 
these differs from the Latin first Dec., only in the Sing.; in 
the Plur. they are the same. 






Sing. N. cramW, cabbage 
G. crambo, of cabbage 
D. crambae, to cabbage 
A. cramb^n, cabbage 
V. crambo, cabbage 
A. crambo, by cabbage* 

Aen^ds, Mntoa AncYA^s^nchista 
Aeneae Anchisae 
Aeneae Anchisae 
Aen^am Anchiscn 
Aen^d Anchis^ 
Aen^. Ancbis^. 

XXIX. Word8 to be teamed and Exercises for translation. 

Aide, ^B,f the aioe, com^tes, ae, m. comet, erraticus, a^ um, tvan- 
Circe, ^8,f, Circe, planetes, ae, m. planet, deting, 

astutia, ae,yi ciinmng. Bor^s, Epaminondas, tener, £ra, 6nun, ^eTteZer. 
coqua, ae, f, (female) Gorgias, Pythagdras, celfibro 1. I celebrate, 

cook Orestes, Pyl&des, ae, abstineo 2. (with abl,) 

cu\insLya,eyf, kitchen, m. are proper names I abstain from. 

gloria,, ae,yi renotim. • and remain as in strideo 2. / ti;^t«^ 
historia, ae,/. history, Latin. antepono 3. 1 prefer, 

Stella, ae,/. star, crinitus, a,um, loith long coquo 3. / cook, 

nexLta, ae, m, sailor, hair, iiie,adv, tenderly ^ously. 

Aide est amara. Aloes herba est amara. Crambae est ten^ra herba. 
Cramben coqiia in culina coquit O Circe, quanta erat astutia tua ! 
Crambe ten^ra delectamur. Boreas yexat nautas. Boreae procellae 
nautis pemiciosae sunt Boream fugiunt nautae. O Borea, quam ve- 
hementer strides ! A Borea vexantur nautae. Planetes est Stella er- 
ratica. Com^tes est Stella crinita. Oresten et Pyl&den ob amicitiam 
proedicamus. O Epaminonda, quanta est tua gloria ! Anchises pie 
amatur ab AeuS, Pytbagdrae sapientia praedicatur. O Anchises, 
quani pie amaris ab Aento ! Epaminondam et Pelopidam omnes 
scriptores celebrant 

Cabbage ip tender. The herb of cabbage is tender. The aloe is 
a bitter herb. We prefer the tender cabbage to the bitter aloe. 
O Circe, how by (abl.) thy cunning thou deceivest the minds of men ! 
We abstain from the bitter aloe. Gorgias had (erat with dat) great 
eloquence. The cunning of Circe was great iEneas loves Anchises 
tenderly. Pythagoras we extol on account of [his] wisdom. O Ores- 
tes and Pylades, how great was your friendship! Concerning (de) 
Orestes and Pylades, concerning Epaminondas and Pelopidas history 


§ 36. Of the Gender of the Second Declension. 


Us^ er and ir are masadinej 
But um is of the neuter kind. 


Isles, lands, towns and trees in ut^ 
These axeftmtnine in use. 
Also cdvuSf coluB^ kumvw^ 
Vannus, ptri6dui and carbdiUMf 
Dipihongus too and dialedus. 

The neuter has but three in us: 
ViruSf vulguSy ptldgus. 

Alvus, i, f, belly, periddus, i,/. period, virus, i, n. juiee^ poison, 

colus, i,/. distaff, carb&sus, i,/ Uneru vulgus, i, n. £Kte ooiii- 

humus, i, /. ground^ dipthongus, L /. diphr mon people. 

earth, . thong, pel&gus, i, n. (a poetic 

yannus, i,f, comrfan, dialectus, i,f, didlecL word) tea. 

Remark. The following are masculine contrary to the general rule 
(§ 13.) for countries, towns and trees: Pontus, Hellespontus, Isthmus, 
Bospdrus ; also plurals in t, as : Delphi, Delphorum ; also names of 
trees in er, as : oleaster, tri, unld olive tree. Besides, all names of coun- 
tries, cities and mountains in um (on), G, t, and plurals in a, G. orum 
are neuter, as: Latium, Saguntum, Pelion, Leuctra (drum.) 

XXX. Wards to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Lingua, ae, /. tongue, pints, i, pear4ree, ign&vus, a, um, indoknt, 

language, prunus, i, plum-tree, lazy, cowardly, 

silva, ae,/. a wood, ulmus, i, an eUn, lignftus, a, um, wooden, 

cibus, i, m./oo<£. avidus, a, um, (with of wood, 

Aegyptus, i. Egypt, gen,), greedy, longus, a, um, long. 

Delus, i, Delos (island). frugifer,6ra,^rum^ui^- matOrus, a, um, ripe^ 
Rhodus, i, Rhodes (an ful, early, 

island). compositus, a, um, com- procerus, a, um, sUm, 

popdlns, i, apoplar, posed, rotundus, a, um, round. 

cer&sus, i, cherry-tree, fecundus, a, um, pro- stultus, a, um, foolish, 
fagus, i, beech-tree, ductive, compesco 3. / cheeky 

malus, i, apple-tree, humidus, a, um, moist, curb, 

Vulgus est stultum. Diphtbongus est longa. Periddus bene com- 
posita est Popdli sunt proc^rae. Ignavi pdpiili facile vincuntur. In 
silvis sunt ulmi et fagi altae. Vanni sunt ligndae. In horto nostro 


magnus est num^rus frugiferarum cerasorum, malorum, pirorum et 

la our garden are many cherry-'trees, many apple-trees, many plum- 
trees and many pear-trees. The foolish people (vulgus) are easily de- 
ceived. Diphthongs are long. The periods are well composed. The 
poplar is slim. A cowardly people (populus) is easily conquered. In 
our garden are many slim poplars. The corn-fan is of wood. 

MatCira cer&sa, mala, pira, pruna sunt dulcia. Virus est perniciosum. 
Humus hi^mida varias plantas gignit Alvus est ciborum avida. De- 
lus est clara. Coli sunt rotundae. Dialect! sunt variae. Carbftsus 
«st ten^ra. 

Avoid the pernicious poison. One language has many dialects. 
The linen is beautifbL Egypt is productive. These apples, cherries, 
plums and pears are beautiflil. See those high elms and slim poplars. 
Rhodes was renownedt The distaff is round. The earth (humus) is 
productive. Check the greedy appetite (»* belly). 

§ 37. Remarks on the several Case-ending's of the Third 


1. Gen. Sinff, Proper names in es often have in the Gen. 
the termination i instead of is, as : Ulixi, also, Pericli, Aris- 
toteli, Neocli, Carneadi, etc. ' Some Greek nouns in o (but 
only of the feminine gender) as : Argo, Sappho, echo, lo, 
have us in the genitive as : echus from echo, Argus from 
Argo (the remaining cases are like the Nom. or are formed 
with Latin endings, as Dido, -onis, -oni, -onem, -one.) 

* Greek noans, sometimes, but generally only in poetry, retain their pecu- 
liar terminations in Latin, viz., Gren^ o$ for ia ; Ace. a for em, or in (^), en 
for im^ idem, em ; Voc. t, y (from Nom. w, ys) for t>, ys ; Abl. i for ide Trare). 
Plur. Nom. Neut. i (from Nom. Sinff. 68) \ Gen. On for um (rare and only 
poetic) ; Dat. si, sin for dibits, tibus, wus (rare and only poetic) ; Ace. o^for 
-es. Thus : Gen. Sing. Palldd-os (from Pallas), Pan-os (from Pan), Thety-os 
{from Thetys^j ; Ace. Platona (from Plato), Lyeorlda (from LycOris), basin 
(basis), Parm (Paris), Thttyn; Voc Lycdri, Coty; Abl. Daphni for ide, 
rlur. Nom. Neut. mele, ep€ (from melos, epos) ; Gen. Ckalybdn (Chalybs) ; 
Dat. Drydsi (Dryas, hd'ia), metamorpkosesi ; Ace. Sendnas (Senones), Cycldpaa 
(Cyclops.) The C^en. eos, for is from Nom. is as : baseos for basis is not 
classical, and from Nom. 'Sus only poetic, as : Peleus, Pelids (in prose, Pe- 
leus, Pelfii). Good prose rejects the Greek genitive-form inos; the Ace. 
in a, in, yn, en is very rare in good prose, as : Pana, oetABra, Zeuxin, po€sin, 
SopMclen. The Ace. Plur. in as is found in prose writers of the golden 
period of the Latin language, only in barbarous names, as : SenOnas, Mlo^ 
ordgas, Caet. — Kihner*s Larger Latin Orammar, 


2. Acc^ Sing". The Ace has in the following nouns in is 
6. isj the ending im ((gt em). First, invariably in : 

amussisy/. a rule, ravis,/ hoarseness, tussis,/. a cough, 

hur'iB^ f, a plough^aiL sinapis,/ mtutoniL viB,/.ybrce,/>oiMr, oftim- 
cann^bis,/. Aen^. sitis,/. t^^irit. dance^ muitUude. 

Second, commonly in : 

febris,/ a fever, puppis,/. (Ae jiem ^a secaris,/ on axe. 

pelvis, yi a hasm, skip, turrisj/. a tower. 

resti8,yi a itjpe. 

Also in the following names of rivers : Albis, the Elbe. 
Athesis, the Adige^ Araris, the Saone, Liris, the Liris^ Ta- 
mesis, the Thames^ Tiberis, the Tiber, Tigris, the Tiger, Vi- 
surgis, the Weser (all Masc. according to § 13) ; and finally, 
in Greek nouns in is Gen. is, as : basis, /. (a pedestal), 
basim, and in several words in is G. idis, as : Paris, Parim, 

3. Voc, Sing. The vocative of Greek nouns in s with a 
vowel before it, commonly drops the 5, as : O Pericle but 
also Pericles, O Socrate also Socrates, O Perseu also Per^ 
setis, O Pari also Paris, The same is true of those in as 
G. antis, as : Atla ; others in as, but with a different form of 
the Gen., have the vocative like the nominative. 

4. AM, Sinff, The ablative has the ending e in most 
nouns ; but in a few it has the ending 1, and indeed inva- 
riably : 

a) In neuters in e, al, G. dlis, ar, G. arts, as man, anima- 
If, calcarf. But those in ar, Gr aris have e, as : nectar (nec- 
tar), nectare. 

Exceptions : sal (salt), far, and the names of towns in e, as : Praneste, 
Caere, have e in the ablative. 

b) In nouns in is which always have im in the Ace. as : 
vis, vim, vi, 

5. The following nouns in is G. is have i oftener than e, 
or 1 and e together : 

civis, m. a citizen, ignis, nufire, pelvis,/, a basin, 

clavis,/. a key, navis,/ asMp, puppis,/. ihz stem, 

febris,/. a fever. neptis, /. a grand- secCiris,/ an axe, 
fiistis, m. a dub, daughUr, turris,/ a tower. 


66 oASX^BNDnres of the TmaD hvclensioic^ [i 37. 

RtvL h Also the names of riT«» snumerated inNo. 3. ImTe in gen- 
eral i. 

6, In the Nom. Ace. and Voe. Plur. neuters in c, aZ, G. 
alisy ar G. arts have ia instead of a^ as : tnaria^ ammcdia^ 

7. In the Gen. Plm. the following have ium instead of um: 

a) Neuters in c, al^ G. alis^ ar^ G. am, as : marium, anima- 
lium, calcarium. Lar, lar (lar-is), a household-god^ the fire" 
placcy has Lamm and Larium ; 

b) Parisyllables in e$ and t5, as : navium (navis), nu- 
bium, and in er : imber, rain^ linter, a booty uter, leather boffy 
venter, the belli/ ; but, canis, a dog, panis, breads proles, an 
offsprings strues, a heapj vates, a prophet^ juvenis, a yOuth^ 
and commonly, apis, a bee^ volucris, a birdy have um; 

c) Monosyllables in s and x with a consonant preceding 
them, as : mons, montium^ arx, arcium ; (but, [ops] opes, 
poxoety has opum and lynx,/, lyncum); and the following: 
[faux] fauces, the throaty fauciunty glis, a dormouse^ glirium^ 
lis, strife, litium, mus, a mouse, murium, nox, n^A/, noctium. 
Strix, a horned otal, strigium; on the contrary, di^x, (a lead- 
er) has ducum, vox, the voice has vocum, nux, a n2^ has nu- 
<:wm, and so of others with a vowel before the x; 

d) Words of more than one syllable in s, or x, with an 
r or n preceding them, as: cohors, a cohort, cohortium^ 
cliens, a client, clientium, quincunx, quincuncium ; common- 
ly q\so, parentium {pdivens), of parents, sapientium (sapiens), 
ofioise men, adolescentium (adolescens), of the youth; final- 
ly, always, compedium (from compes, generally in the plural 
compedes), of fetters ; on the contrary, pes, pedum; 

e) For the most part gentile nouns (national denomina- 
tions) in as, atis, is, itis, as : Arpinas, Arpinatium, Samnis, 
Samnitium, So also nostras, optim^as pendtes, as : nostra^ 
tium, finally, civitas, a state, civitatium. 

8. In the Dat. and Abl, Plur, Ghreek neuters in ma have 
mat-is more commonly than mat4bu8, c. g. po'ematis, instead 
of poematibus. - 

{ 37.] oA8i-Bin>iir«s or tbm tbixd acouuimom. 07 

9. Concerning the case-endings 6f adjectives^ the follow- 
ing rules may be given : 

a) The AbL Sinff. of all adjectives, even when used as 
nonns, has the ending i, as: acri, factliy pari (from par)^ 
fetidi memori (see § 22.) ; naiali from naidlis (viz. cUes)^ 
birth-day^ Aprlli from Aprilis (viz. mensis), April, Decembri 
from December* 

"Exctmovn. The AbL has t in the following cases : 1) Juv^nis, a 
jf&ltng marly aedilis, edUt^ and the adjectives in i$ used as proper names, 
as : Marti&lis, MartiaU ; 

2) The foUowlDg adjectives of one ending : 

caeiebe, Ibis, umuv i it d. dives, itis,rtdL \guuL princeps, tpis, <kitf* 
cicur, Oris, iame. hospes, itis, forngny a pauper, ^ris, jnor, 

compos, dtis, f^wtrfidy pubes, £ris,gr»tim up, sospes, itis, «a/e, jeciire. 
possessed qf, impObes, firis, beardless, superstes, itis, suivky 

impos, dtis, impotent paiticeps, ipis, partak- ing, 
deses, Idis, idk. ing of, 

3) ComparaiiveSy as : major, miyus (greater) fmi^dre ; 

4) Compounds of eorpus^ color and pes^ as : bicorpor (having two 
bodies), hvcoirpdre^ discdlor (variegated), dLscolire^ bipes (two-footed), hir 

5) Adjectives of one ending used as nouns, as : sapiens, a unse maUf 
in&ns, a ckUdy Pertinax, Clemens, Felix, AbL— e ; 

6) Participles in ns have as participles e, but as adjectives, generally 
t, as : JlorenU rosa, (he rose kloomingy in JbrenH rosa, in a Uooming rose* 

h) The Nom, Ace, and Voc, Plw, NetU,^ have in adjec- 
tives and participles, the ending ia, and the Gen, Plur. the 
ending ium^ as : acria, facilia, felicia, acrium, facilium, feli- 
cium (§ 22.), hebetia, ium (from hebes). 

Remark. In the strictly classical period, all adjectives which have the 
Gen. Plur. in ium, had the Ace Plur. Masc and Fem. in t9, as : omnia 

Exceptions. Vetiis, old, has vetira, veUrum and all comparatives, as: 
majora, majorum (but plus, plura has plurium) ; complures, very many, 
several, has complura and ia (Gen. always, con^iarium). Besides, the 
following have um in Gen. : celer, sunft, censors, partaking of, deg^ner, 
degenerate, dives, rich, inoyts, hdpless, memor, immfimor, supplex, sup' 
pliant, uber, rich, vigil, toatching. To these may be added compounds 
in ceps sndfex, as : anceps, two-fold, doMe, uncertain, G. PL aneipUum, 
artifex, akUful, artist, artificum; finally, all which have only e in the 
AbL, as : pauper, paupirum. 


XXXI Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 
The words introdaoed on the three preceding pages, are omitted. 

Fama, ae, / r^ri^ re-* fundamentum, i, n. exascio 1. 1 hew (rough- 
noun, foundation. ly.) 
Btatiia, ae,/. sUdue. lignum, i, n. wood. levo l.Il%ghtm^ 
carpentarius. i, m. a cos, otis,/ wkd-slont. mitigo 1. / soJUn^ miiJti- 

whed-unight. quiee, etiB,/. quiet. gate. 

funambiilus, i,. m. rope- durus, a, um, hard. navigo 1. Inavigate. 
dancer. argentSus, a, um, of sil- oppugno 1. laasavU. 

laurus, iyf. laurel. ver, silver. [iron. acQo 3. 1 sharpen* 

fiiber, bri, m, artisan. ferrous, a, um, of iron,, expello 3. lexpeL 
fiiber lignarius, carpen^ dono I, I present inc^o 3. 1 walk vpon. 

ter. eddlo 1. / hew properly, peto 3. / seeL 

folium, i^ n. leqf. fashion. . ' sero 3. / sow., 

Echus vox saepe homines fallit ^gus navis fama est magna. Vis 
imn expellit SUim tolerare difficile est Faber lignarius ad amussim 
lignum exasciat Hi pueri ad ravim clamant Carpentarius hwrim e 
dura ulmo eddlat Agricdla hwrim regit Agnc61a c a n n & b i m serit 
Folia lauri tusssim levant FtJbrvni qui^te mitigamus. Pater matri pd- 
vim argent€am donat FunambQli per reslim incedunt Per .^^ffi, 
TanUsint, Visurgim, Tigrim multae naves navlgant Milltes oppugnant 
altam twrrim. Secwrim ferrfiam cote acuimus. Fundamentum statu- 
arum vocamus hasim. Apes petunt sinapin^ 

The poetbs of Sappho wmw very delightful. The wanderings 
(error, oris) of lo weite related by (ab) many poets. By (abl.) the echo 
we are oflen deceived. Against (contra) hoarseness, cough and fever, 
thou must apply (adhibeo 2.) fitting (aptus, a, um) remedies (remedium, 
i, n.) The soldiers defend spiritedly the high tower. The statue 
has a solid pedestal. The wood (plur.) is hewed by (ab) the carpen- 
ter according to (ad) rule. The carpenter handles (tracto 1.) the sharp 
axe with a skilful hand. Soldiers must endure hunger (^mes, is) and 
thirst patiently. 

XXXII. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Porta, ae,/. gale. onus, firis, n. had. incito 1. Iwrge on. 

tragoedia, ae/I ^rfl^crfy, nectar, &ris, n. necter, laborol.f with a6.)/«4/- 

humfirtis, i, w. shoulder, (drink for the gods). fer (fi*om something). 

gul)ertiator, oris, m. pi- acutus, a, um, sharp. prospeeto 1. / look 

lot dignus,a,um,(witha62.) fortii. 

vigil, ilis, m. watchman, worthy, des&rving of. abigo 3. 1 drive away. 

sal, nlis, m. salt. frigidus, a, um, cold. claudo 3. / dose. 

admiratio.6nis,yia(ff?tt- summiis,a,um, ^fte«^. occludo 3. / 2ocfc. 

ration. mordax, acis, hiting^ conspergo 3. / sprinidt. 


O Socr&te^ quam salutiris erat gen^ri humiiio tua Mpientia ! O 
Soj^ylkUj tragoediae tuae smnnia adimradoDe dignae suiit O Ma^ 
quantum onus bum^ris tuia poitas ! Cakdri iucitamus equoa. AW» 
tart delectantur diL iSSti^ conspergimua cibofl* . Hostea «i ia vrbem 
irruuipunt. Clavi porta clauditur. Febri laborat ^Xer, I^uH abigi- 
mus canes niordaces. ^prd coquimua cibos. A bono cwi patria amft- 
tur. Ex alta turri vigiles prospectant In puppi aadet gubemalor. 
AcQta seciari faber lignarius lignum exasciat 

Force expels force by (abl) force. The customs of men are oAener 
improved by admonition and example than by force. When (quum) 
thou art suffering (as sufferest) from (abL) a fever, abstain from cold 
water. O lliemistocles, O Pericles, O Socrates, your deserts rdaUoe to 
(de) the city of the Athenians were very great The pilot, who sits 
upon the stem, governs the ship. With (abl.) a sharp axe we split 
(diffindo 3.) the wood (plur.). In a civil war (helium civile) citizen 
fights against citizen. With (abl.) an iron key we lock the gate. The 
enemies lay waste the country with (abL) fire and sword. 


XXXIIL Words to be learned and Ezercises/or translation. 

Satira, ae,/ satire, aetas, atis,/ age, procOro 1. IJvmish, 

ludus, i, m. sporL hiems, ^mis,/. mrUer, per&go 3. / carry 

Komanus, \j tn, a JRo- longinquus, a, um, dis- through, perform, 

man, tant, perstringo 3. / graxe^ 

ingenium, i, n. gentut, publicus, a, um, pvbUe, satirize, 

intdled, docilis, e, teachahU. vebo 3. / eorry, 

merx, cis,/ wares, aestimo 1. / vatue^ et- spernQ 3. 1 spurn* 

mercator, Oris, m. tro' teem, sed, conj, hui, 

der, markanL 

Avus cum nepii ambCilat Mercator navi merces in longinquas terras 
vehit Discipiili in schola non gen^re, sed bonis moribus, docUi in- 
genio, et acri industria aestimautur. Hostes celeri pede fugiunt 

XXXIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for transhJAon. 

Autumnus,i,m. autumn. nepos,dtis,m.gran(iMm. juventus, Qtis,yi yotidL 
coelum, i, n. Me «^. parentes, ium, m. par- juvenilis, e, yovO^vL 
initium, i, n. beginning, ents. senilis, e, advanced, 

gaudium, i,, mensis, is, m. a month, aetas senilis, old age. 

monumentum, i, n. munus, 6ris, n. service^ exhll&ro 1. / exhilarate, 

monument, qfficet present ddighL 

negotium, i,n, business, gelidus, a, um, cM, saevio 4. 1 rage, 
oblectamentum, i, n. cfe« insipiens, ntis, unmse, 



Mense Maitio initium est veris, mense Jtinio aest^tis, mense Sep- 
Umbri autumni, mense Dtctmhri hi^mis. Boni regis naidli omnis civi- 
tas laeta est Mense t^rUi coelum modo ser^num est, modo triste. 
Mense Nbvtmbri gelidae procellae saeviunt. JuvtnUi aetate alacriort 
animo difficilia negotia peragimus, quam stnUi, A JuvendUj satirarum 
Bcriptdre, Romanorum vitia perstringuntur. Ab aedile ludi publtci pro- 
curantiir. A juvint saepe virorum praecepta spemuntur. 

XXXV. Words to be homed and Exercises for tratislatiori. 

Culpa, ae,/. guiU, - acceptus, a, um, re- expers, tis (c. gen.), 

immodestia, ae, f, im' ceived. [humblest. destitute of, without, 

modesty, infimus, a, um, loufest, pertinax, acis, obstinate, 

beneficium, i, n. kind- demens, lis, mild, dispar, &ris, unequal^ 

ness, favor, censors, tis (c. gen.), different, 

consilium, i, n. counseL sharing in, domo 1. / tame, 

Btudium, i, n, effort^ exsors, tis (c. gen.)^ tracto 1. / treat, 

study, zeaL destitute of unihout atque, and ; 2) as, 

A sapienie bona praecepta disclmus. Quicquid agis, sapienti consilio 
age. A Felice felici fbrtuna bellum geiitur. A Clemente c/ementi animo 
infimi homines tractantur. A Pertindce pertindci studio urbs defendl- 

The grand-father is delighted by (ab) the little grand-son and the 
neat grand-daughter. Old age ought to be. honored by the young 
man. A good boy, on (abl.) his birth, day, is delighted by (abl.) pre- 
sents firom (ab) his parents. When the state is ruled by (ab) a wise 
king, it is happy. By (ab) a wise man virtue is loved. 

Virtus amatur ab homine rationis participey contemnitur ab homine 
rationis experlu A viro virtQtis compdte deus pie coKtur. Praeceptor a 
discipalo beneficii accepti memdri colitur. Abstlne amico beneficidrum 
acceptorum immemdru Gaud^mus amico omnis culpae exsorti et 
laborum nostrorum consorti. Virtus pari studio a princlpe et divite, at- 
que ab humUi et paupire colitur. Discipi&li dispdri studio htt^ras 
tractant Magiii viri dignl sunt gloria vitae suae supersttte, De sospUe 
amico gaud^mus. Hospes ab hospfUe colitur. Et in impuhire, et in 
pubire aetate displicet immodestia. 

XXXVL Wards to be leaamed and Exercises far translation, 

VeiaiaijajQyf feather, emolumentum,i.n.tfM, ru^ (of mountain), 

campus, i, m. plain, advantage, saxum, i, n. rock, 

detrimentum, i, n. in- horr^um, i, n. granary, vinum, i, n. tmne. 

jury, disadvantage, jugum, i, n. yolcs, top, venator, dris, m. hunter. 


amDis, is, m. stitamf lociiples, 6ti8 (c aU.), rediindo 1. / rtdound. 

river. wealthfj rich, volito 1. IJbf aromuL 

rupes, is,/ rock, petQlans, Dtis, lieen- abhorreo 2. (ab) Ihtwe 

agmen, Inis, n. band, tious. cm avertion to, 

fiodc praeceps, cipitis, tn^ provldeo 2. Iforetu, 

ezamea, iDis, n. svxvrm. dined, sUqt. ^ alo 2, 1 nourish, siqtporl 

rete, is, n. net, UnL praecox, dcis, pi^ma- (keep), 

discdlor, oris, party- ture, "^ teodo 3. / gtrtUh, e«- 

colored, variegated, occClpo ]. I take posses- tend, 
hebes, 6tis, obtuse, duU, sum of, 

Venator retia tendit Hebel^ ingenia a litter&rum studio abhorrent. 
Saxa suDt praecipitUL OnSra sunt gravUi, Horr^a frumentis locupUHa 
sunt. Pira praecedla non sunt dulda, Cervus et equus sunt ceUria 
animaHa, Disparia sunt hominum studia. Haec Tina sunt vetira, 
Majora emolumenta, quam detrimenta, a bestiis ad homines redundant 
Cui plura beneiicia deb^mus, quam diis ? Complura (comjiuria) sunt 
genera avium, * 

Good scholars keep the precepts of [their] teachers with (abL) 
thoughtful (memor) minds. By (ab) rational (rationis particeps) men, 
iirational (rationis expers) animals are tamed. The virtues of great 
men are adorned by (abL) a renown surviving their life. The way 
leads over (per) steep rocks (saxum). The ancient (vetus) monu- 
ments of the Greeks and Romans are worthy of admiration. In the 
blooming age of youth very many (complures) delights are afibrded us. 
The life of good and wise men has more and greater joys than the 
life of the wicked and unwise. 

Plurimarum avium pennae sunt discoldres. Rupium juga hostis 
occOpat Venatores magnum canum numSrum alunt Multdrum 
juv^num animi sunt petulantes. Vatum anihii futOra provident Nubes 
magnam imbrium vim effiindunt lAnirlum magnus in amne num^rus 
est Multa apum examina per campos volttant Multa agmlna vdu- 
arum in silvis sunt 

XXXVn. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation, 

Grallia, ae,/. GauL paa^ acis,/.^Mice. * ignorani of, titioc- 

ten^brae, arum,/. (iorA;- regio, onis,/. r^'on. quairded vnih, 

ness, ' via, ae,/. way, consultus, a, um (c. 

ars, artis,/ art, viator, 6ris, m, traveller, gen ),acquaintedwUh, 

&uges,um, ffruit. conscius, a, um (c. cupidus,a, um (c. gen.), 

gens, gentis,/ people, gen.), conscious of, desirous, 

improbitas, atis,/ U7tc^ inscius, a, um (c. gen.), gnarus, a, um, (c 



gen.), acquamUd g^en.), vened in, skU- fertflis, e (e. gen.), pro- 

ufi^ fuL dtidive* 

ign&rus, a, um, (c. plenuB,a, um (e. gen.), rudis, e (c. gen.), rudtf 

gen.), unacqamnted full, ignorant of , 

vM, Btudiosus, a, um (c. rem^o 1. Irdunu 

infinnus, a, um, toediE. gen.), zittAous; stu- que (always attached to 

pauci, ae, a, a fiw, dious sum (c. gen.), a word), and, 

peiitus, a, um, (c I pursue earnestly, 

Ingrati nobis stmt homines, qui lUium sunt cuptdl Divites foajorum 
opum avidi sunt Haec regiofaucium plena est Bonus discipiilus lit- 
ter^um axfiumque est studiosus. Gallia frugum hominumque feiUlis 
est SapienRum et bonorum hominum animi nullius improbitatis sunt 
conscii. Samnttium gens belli perita erat JVbstraCium pauci littera- 
rum ignari sunt Civitatium Airidamenta infirma simt, si ciyes belli 
pacisque arUum rudes sunt JbpinaJtlum cives erant Marius et Cicero ; 
Marius belli artium^ Cicero pacis artium gnarus erat OpHmaUum in 
civitate auctoritas magna est, si juris atque eloquentiae consulti sunt 
JSToeilum ten^brae viatoribus viae insctis pemicidsae sunt 

There are many (complures) kinds of (gen.) dogs. Jn (abl.) the 
month [of] November great flocks of birds of passage (vflTucris adven- 
titia) return from our regions to warmer. Upon (in) the Thames, the 
Weser and the Elbe there are a great number of great ships and small 
boats. The people of the Samnites were very brave. Boys of a lively 
genius and happy memory, apply themselves zealously to (in) the 
study of literature and the arts. The fame of Marius and Cicero^ 
citizens of^^rpinum (Arpinas) was different 

XXXVni. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Capra, ae,/ g^>af. aedeB,ium,f house, Romanus, a, um, i2o- 

custodia, ae, f guard- celeritas, atis, f, swift- man, 

ianskip, ness, ingens, ntis, very great^ 

misericordia, ae,/.|?%. consuetQdo, tnis, /. imi^ense, 

nundinae, arum, f practice^ intercourse, prudens, ntis, tcise, m- 

marketffair, cacOmen, inis, n. top. teUigent ; c, gen, vers- 

lib^ri, orum, m, children culmen, ipis, n. top, ed in, 

(in relation to their f^ftitudo^is,/. 57^di)ve^ frequenio* 1. /yregf/ctrf. 

parents). ry, [erUs, nidifico 1. / make a 

consilium,!, n.m€am<re. parentes, ium, nc. pot*- nest, 

fatum, i, n. fatCj for- idon^us, a, um^ fUed, tego 3. / cover, 

tune. obscCrus, a, um, oh- minus, adv. less, 
Achilles, is, m. MnUes. scure. 


Caprae wtonitum caeumina petimt Muhi corvi nidiftcant in altinmi 
eardum culminibus. Focum multa geiU&ra sunt CrUfium magnas est 
Dumdrus. Ingens murium numftrus in horrfiis est Strigitun vox in- 
grata est Romanarum cohorHum fortitodo ab omnibus scriptoribufl 
praedicatur. PartnHum in lib£ros amor est magnua 'Compediiun fer« 
rearum onus grave est Pedum celeritate Achilles insignis erat Pe*- 
mMiun custodiae aedes committuntur. 

Hominum juris jvrudenftum consiliis ci vitas regitur. .^{acHtMi diser- 
pulorum ingenia ad litterarum studia aunt idonSa. Cdtht'iwm urbium 
Dundlnae a multis hominibus frequentantur. CeUrum equorum cnum 
sunt tenSra. Amicorum laboris nostri amaortum consuetudine delecti- 
mur. Hominum omnis amicorum consuetudinis exaortum* fortOna mis- 
€ra est Degen^um filiorum patres misericordia noslH digni sunt 
SuppUcum preces exaudi. Url)s plena est locupUtum hominum. Hom- 
inum artificum op^ra laudamus. Praecipitum montium juga nubibus * 
teguntur. AncipUum &tdrum via est obscOra. 

The captives are pressed by (abL) the load of hard fetters. On (ad) 
the banks of the Rhine (Rhenus, i) are a great number of ancient (vetus* 
tm) castles (arx). The works of the ancient (vetus) artists are 
worthy of admiration. Human life is full of (gen.) uncertain (ancep«) 
fortunes. The way leads over (per) the ridge of steep rocks. Ths 
friendship of men sharing in (consors) all our toils is a very great 
good. Great presents from (gen.) the rich, often delight our minds less 
than small presents from |gen.) the poor. 

XXXIX. Words to be homed cmd Exercises for trdnslatiof^ 

fikitiae, arum,/, riches, levTtas, atis,/ levity, immoderatus, a, unr, in- 

Centaurus, i, m. centaur, pavo, onis, m, peacodu temperate. 

donum,i,n.gifty present, sors, rtis, f, lot, optabilis, e, (2Mtra&2e. 

oracCilum, i, n. orac/e, Delphicus, a, um, Del- vigeo 2. I am strongs 

announcement, phic, adivef vigorous. 

certamen, inis, n. con- moderatus, a, um, tern- ut, aSj even o^,— Ha, so^ 

ieHyJight. perate, thusi 

Cicurum elephant6rum ars magna est Bicorp&rum Centaurorum 
multa a poetis narrantur certamina. Discolorum pavonum pennae pul- 
chrae sunt. Hominum virtatis compdtum vita laudabilis est Puero- 
rum impuhirum le vitas a praecept6re coerc^tur. Ut hominum rati6nia 
particlpum vita moderata est, ita hominum ratidnis expertium immoder&- . 
ta est Hominum gloriae suae superstUum sors non est optabllis. Pu- 
hirum et corpdra et anlml vigent PrudentiorUm hominum consilio pa- 

* Or exsortium is doubtful. 


74 KASOULIlfE. [}38. 

ff^re deb^mus. Plmtium h<MiiInum animi diyitfas mftgis, qoun virtQtem 
expCtUDt Complurlum discipuldhim ingenia a litterarum studio ab- 
horrent Poimdtia delectamur. OracOla Delphica similia simt ob- 
cnOris aenigmaiiB. 

Who in not delighted by (abl.) the poems of Horace? The num- 
ber of men surviving their fame is very great Obey, O boys, the pre- 
cepts of wise and virtuous (=i possessed of virtue, conypos) men ! 
Many of the tame elephants walk upon (per) a rope. As we pronounce 
!(praedico) happy the fife of those sharing in friendship, so we de* 
|>lore the life of those destitute of friendship. . The announcements of 
liie ancient prophets were often ambiguous (anceps) and like enigmas. 

Determination of Gender according to the 
v.. "^ • endings. . .1 

§ 38. . Masculine, 

Of the masculine gender are the nouns ia : o^ or^ 0$^ er, 
and wipcmsyllables (§ 18. Rem. 4.) in es, 

Examples. 1 ) O: le-o generdsus, the mqignanimotui lion ; 2) Or : 
dol-or acerbus, a severe pom ; 3) Os : H-os pnlcher, a beautiful fixyuoer ; 
4) Er: agg-er altus, a high mound; 5) Earn imperisgUables : pari-^et 
altua^ « high waiL 

1)0; 1)0; 

Feminine are echo, cdro^ Cardo, Inis, m, a hinge* 

Also noons in : db, gt>, I0 ; 4»i>o, 'oamis,/.^/L 

But masculine : cardoy harpdg&^ echo, echus,/. reverberation^ echo, 
Margo too, and ordoy UgOj harp^go, onis, m. a grappling hooL 

Together with concretes in to* ligo, onis, m. ahoe; mattock, 

margo, inis^ m, a margin, edge, 
ordo, Inis, m. order, series, rank, 

'Rcif. 1. The feminimes in io are either abstract or collective nouns, 
as : actio, an action, legio, onis, a legion, natio, onis, a nation ; -still some 
have acquired a concrete meaning, as : regio, aregion, (originally, a direct- 
ing or direction). The concretes in io are all masculine, as : scipio, a stcff^ ' 
papilio, a butterfly, pugio, a dagger, 

2) Or: 2) Or: 

Of the yetmmne gender is, Ador, dris n. spelt. 

Barely, arbor, arboris ; aequor, dris, n. a level surface, (es- 

The netx<er has but four in or ; pecially of the sea). 

JHbrffior, aitqyuor, ador, cor, arbor, dris,/ a tree, 

cor, cordis, n. {he heart, 
marmor, dris, n. marhtu 




3) Of: 

Of ihefamtdne are in m, 
Only these two : cot and d6$. 

(Hf a hone^ and oe, ihtfaet^ 
These are of the neuitr class, 

4) Er: 

The ntuter has many in, er, 
Ver, ccutdveTy itarj ttAetj 
Cioery pipdr, ftKr, tiitr. 
Zingiber, pa^ver, nhtr^ 
Acer, siler, verber, spirdher. 
But only feminiM is Ztnter. 

5^ EahnpcarimflMt: 

hnparisyUabUs in e9, 
Gire but one as neuUr : ae$; 
But B.S feminine we have merces, 
Quteff, re^ulef and con^^et, 
^so, siges, tigeSy marges. 

8) Of : 

Cda, dtis,/ a jStni-iioiie, ttMitone. 
dos, Otis,/, dbuiry, jwfibfi. 
5S| ossis, n. a bone, {pL ossa, lum). 
ds, oris, n. tAe cownUnanot, hmo, 

4) Er; 

Acer, Sris, n. a mapU4ree. 
cadaver, €ri8, n. a corjm. 
eicer, ^ris, n. a Mchfeeu 
iter, itindria, n. a wey^ jownuy^ 

linter, tris,/! a (oof, <%t^ 
papaver, €ris, n. a poppy, 
piper, ftris, n. pepper, 
siler, £ris, n. t^ vnUow. [res, m), 
siser, ftris, n. a cant>< (bat pi. ft»e- 
spinther, ftris, n. a hraaiet 
suber, ^ris, n. the^cork-tree, 
tuber, £ria, n. Junior, ihimf». 
uber, Sris, n. a dug, udder, 
ver, ^s, H. (Ac 4priii|f. 
verfoer, (commonly plun verfo^^) 

n. ^(r^Mt, Uoiat . 
zingiber, Una, n. ginger. 

5) ImparisyUables in e^. 

Aes, aeris, ». &r<uf. merges, itis,/! a sheqf. tH^g&s, ^tis,/! a crop. 
com])es, €dis,/.ye^era. quies, 6tis,/ ^ft^et. t£ges, €tis, jC a mot. 

merces, fedis, f, recom- requies, fetis (ace. requi- 
pense, em),f,re8t,rdaxcition, 

Reikark 2. Contrary to the general rule (§ 13.), some names of cities 
in remain masculine, as : Croto ; also, those in as, G. antis, as : Taras, 
antis, Tarentum ; those in es, G. itis, as : Tunes, 6tis, Tunis, and those 
in us, G. untis, as : Selinus, untis. 

XL. •W^d^ to be leanrned wad Exercises for traatsloUion, 

Assyria, ae,/ Assyria, amoenus, a, \xm,f^MS' existlmo 1. I judge, re- 

senator, oris, ??k«encrfor. aitd, gardas, 

eburn^us, a, lun, of judico 1. I judge, re- 

inory, ivory, ' gard as. 

regius, a, um, royal, nomino 1. / call, 

resdous, a, um, rever- habeo 2. / have, regard 

berating, as, 

superbus, a, um, froud, maneo 2. / remain, 

vmgn^fiotnL *"' 

scipio, onis, m. a ticff, 
legio, onis,/ a legion, 
imago, mis, image, 
insigne, is, n. badge, 
caput, itis, n, head, 
aetemufl, a, uxOyetgrnaL 

7fi MASCULINE^ [f38. 

(Comp. §§ 84, 89. 5.) 

Pavo vocattir superbus. Echo resdna ab Horatio yocis imago voca- 
tur. Hirundinem vocamus garrOlam. Legionuni Romanarum gloria 
manet aetema. Babylon, caput Assyriae, nominatur superba. Mala 
consuetudo saepe hominibus exsistit peniicidsa. ScipTo ebuni^us in- 
signe regium hab^tur. RegioDes moDtium plenas judicamus amoenas. 
^natorum ordo existimatur sanctus. 

I The peacock we call proud. Horace calls the reverberating echo 
the image of the voice. Swallows are called loquacious. Babylon, the 
chief city of Assyria, writers call proud. The citizens regard the or- 
der of senators as sacred. The ivory staff we regard as a royal badge. 
Avoid, O boys, a bad practice 1 The bravery of the Roman legions id 
•extolled by (ab) writers. This region is very pleasant 

XXiL Words to be homed and Exercises for transiation, 

Pugna navalis, nawd natio, onis,/. notion. firmus, a, um,,/£Kfiv' 

haUU. « origo, ini8,yi origin, modestus, a, um, mod- 

vlicca, ae,^ eow. papilio, onis, m. ImUer- est, 

fluvius, i, m. river, fly, \thjagt, opulentus, a, um, jm>u^ 

vitCdus, i, in. etdf. Caathdgo, inis, / Cca>:, trfxd^ rich, 

vitulinu8,a,uni,qf Cfli2^. Croto, onis, m. Croton, pallidus, a, um, pcde^ 

agger, Sris, m. a ram' amplus, a, um, jpoctot^, livid, 

part, extended, liberal, sapidus, a, um, gcgnd. 

honos, oris, m. honor y conspicdus, a, um, con- ruber, bra, brum, red. 

post of honor, spicuous, *> hostilis, e, hostile, 

procures, um, m. chief extrfemus, a,^'um,^^iiter- efiundo, I pour forth, 

men, most, last, 

Croto erat clarus. Carthago opulenta erat Caro vitulina ten^ra eat 
Multarum nationum ac gentium origo obscClra est A deo omnia on- 
ginem suam ducunt Fluvius super extr^mum marginem efiunditur. 
Portae cardlnes sunt firmi. Harpagone fen^o in pugna navali hostdes 
naves petuntur. Discolores papiliones sunt pulchrL 

Milo (Milo, onis) was a citizen of the renowned Croton. Writers 
call Carthage powerful. The origin of the Roman natioi#is obscure. 
Upon (in) the remotest margioH>f the river tllere are many trees. The 
hinges of the door are iron. The variegated butterfly is beaudful. 
The grappling hooks are of iron. 

Multae procirae arbdres in silva sunt Procures hondrum dignitate 
eonspicCii sunt Sorores fratnbus carae sunt Marmor est splendidum. 
Corda rubra sunt. Camporum aequor amplum est Ador maturum 
est Mores hominum varii sunt Dura cote acuimus secOrim ierr^am. 
Filia a parentibus ampla dote donatur. Durum est ds. Juv^nis ds 


modestom esse debet Ver nobis gretutn est Muhae lintres in flnvio 
siMt Mater lib^ns cam est Ganrilli sunt ansferes. Hostes circa or* 
bem ag gdrem dtam exstrdunt Cadav^ra sunt pallida. Zingiber est 
sapidum. Vacca vkdlo turglda libera {naebet 

High trees surround the house of my father. The udder of the cow 
is swollen. The corpse is pale. A high rampart is built by (ab) the ene- 
mies around the city. The heart is red. The bones are hard. The 
countenances of men are Tarious. The gooee is cackling (^ loqua- 
cious). The good customs of men are praised, the bad are censured. 
Wi^ delight we take a walk in (afaL) the sfning over (per) the extended 
sur&ce of the pleasant plains. Splendid marble adorns the palace 
(i= house) of the king. Whetstones are hard. The parents present 
the daughter a liberal dowry. The pleasant spring exhilarates our 
minds. On (in) the pond in (gen.) our garden, are many and beauti- 
ful boats. 

XLII Words to be learned and Exercises for trandation, 

Cameius, i, m. camd. domesticus, a, um, do- pilOsus, a, um, covertd 

condimentum, i, n. mmik^ private. unih hair, hairy. 

Ma90fmg. fessus, a, um, wearied, pretiosus, a um, jprt- 

membrum, i, n. jnem&er. houestus, a, um, horir dous, cosUy, 

paries, ^tis, m. wall, (of arable. crud^lis, e, crud. 

house). noctumus, a, um, noe- excdlo 3. / cutiivaie. 

celebiitas, atis,/ am- twmaL infligo 3. (with dat) / 

course, muUitude. uyUd upon. 

Sorores meae j^inthSm aur6a~habent Iter est longum. Siser est 
dulce. Sil^ra sunt utilia. Oam^lus habet tub^ra pilosa. Sub^ra sunt 
dura. Piper est acre. PapavSra rubra sunt pulchra. CicCra panra 
sunt Ac^ra sunt dura. Crud^lis homo equo dura verb^ra fusti in- 
fligit Orator non intra domesticos pari^tes excolitur, sed in luce vitae 
et hominum celebritate. A&rs. varia sunt Campi seg^te laeta oman- 
tur. Comp^es durae sunt Liabdrum requies grata est Quiete noc- 
tuma hominum fessa membra recreantur. Merces laborum honesta 
existimatur. v 

The sharp pepper and sapid ginger are regarded as the seasonings 
of food (plur.) The walls of this house are high. The brass is splen- 
did. The carrot is sweet The cork tree is hard. Ohickpeas are 
round. The ass endures hard blows patiently. Maple trees are hard. 
My sister has a golden bracelet Long is the way through precepts, 
short and effectual through examples. The red poppy te beautiful. 
The wiUow is usefuL Recompense {or (gen.) labor (pi,) we rejgai^ as 

7* • . %#^-' ^ 

•.. ^ 


78 FSMiiaNS. [i39. 

honorable. Nocturnal rest refreshes the wearied limbs of men. Iron 
fetters press tender feet Sleep is an agreeable (gratus, a, um) relaxation 
from (gen.) cares. The hump of the camel is hairy. Joyful crops adorn 
the plains of the extended coontry. The wiUow is usefliL 

§ 39. Feminine, 

Of the feminine gender are nouns in : as, is, aus^ y^j G. 
utis Orudis, x, those in $ with a consonant before it and pari" 
syllables (§ 18. Rem. 4.) in es. 

Examples. 1) ^: aest-of calida, a warm summer; 2) b: aV-« 
pulchra, a heauH^ bird ; 3) Aus , l-aua magna, great praise ; 4) Us^ 

,' G.uUs^ wUs:. juvent-4i«(Qti3) laeta, jo2{/u/ youth, inc-us (udis) ferrea^ iron 
anvUy pal-u9, (udis) alta, deep pool, pec-u« (udis), single head ofcaitte, but 
pefiiJbS, pec^ris (cattle); 5) X: lu-x clara, dear light; 6) iS» with a con- 

' sonant before it : hie-m9 asp^ra, rough wirder ; 7) Es m parisyllables : 

nub-ea nigra, hlack doud, 

■' -jj' . • 


'' l)As: l)Jk: 

l^ree are masculine mas: AdSonas, antis, m. a diamond. 

As, ixdamas and diphas, as, assis, m. an as (a coin). 

And one is neuter namely, vas. el^phas, antis, m. (commonly ele- 

phantus, i, m.) ei^hant, 
vas, asis, n. a vessd, vase, 

1i)ls: 2)7*; 

Masculine are these in is : Amnis, is, m. a river, 

Panis, pisdsy crinis, finis, axis, is, m. an ojddree, 

Jgnis, lapis, pvlvis, dnis, callis, is, m. afooppath, path, 

Orbis, amnis and caneUis, canalis, is, m. canal, water-course. 

Sanguis, unguis, glis, annalis, cassis, generally plur, casses, ium, 
Fasds, axis, funis, ensis, m, hunter* s nd, [cabbage, 

Fu^tis, vedis, Dermis, m/ensis, caulis, is, m. a stalk, cabbage-stalk, 

Postis,foUis, cucumis, cinis, 6ris, m. ashes, •^^ 

Cassis, caUis, coUis, collis, is, m. a hiU, 

tSentis, caulis, poUis, crinis, is, m, hair, 

cucumis, ^ris, m, acu- glis, iris, m, a dormouse, pulvis, ^ris, m, dust, 

cumber, ignis, is, m.^e. satiguis, inis, m. &^0(f. 
ensis, is, m. a sword. lapis, idis, m. a stone, sentis, is, m. a bramble, 
fascis, is, m. a bundle, mensis, is, m, a month, generally plur, sen- 
finis, is, m. i%e end; orbis, is, m. a circle, tes, a ihom buslu 
plur. borders, terrtto- panis, is, m, bread, unguis, is, m. a natl, 
ry, piscis, is, m. a fish, daw, 
foUis, is, m, bdhws, pollis, inis, m^finefixiwr vectis, is, m. a 2ever, 
funis, is, m. a rope, cable, (Nom. wanting). boU, 

fustis^ is, m. a dvb, postis, is^ i^i. a post, vermis, is, m, worm, 

'* •• ^ • 




Scrobis, is, a jnl and torquis, a nedt-dmin are mosdy M ase. bat aome- 
times Feminine. 


Masculine there are in x^ 
Fornix, onjfx and coZir, 
Varixy calyx, coccyx, oryx, 
Trtulux, hombyx, also aorix; 
Add to these most in ex, 
Grex, apex, codex, and nttirer, 
Gatukx,Jrutex,pollex,pulex, . 
Sorex, vervex ; and then in ax 
All Greek nouns, except dimax^ 

Apex, icis, m. a ttfft, summiL 
bombyx, ycis, m. i%e sUk-toornL 
calix, icis, m. a cup^ 
calyx, ycis, m. a bud, $hdL 
caudex, icis, m. trunk of a tree, 
climax, &cis,yi a ladder, dwuac 
coccyx, ygis, m. a ctic&oo. 
codex, icis, m. a hook, 
fornix, Icis, m. arch, vault. 

firutex, ids, mfa dtruh, onyx, ychis, m. (he onyx, aorix or sourix, icis, m, 

plur. a tkidcet, oryx,ygis,iii. iktgaxdle, a kind qfoujL 

grex, 6gis, m. a Jlock, poliex, icis, m. (^umfr. 

crowd, pulex, icis, m. a^/Zeo. 

murex, icis, m. a pur- sorex, icis, m. ,/£e2d- 
pie Jiah, purple, mouse. 

tradux, dcis, m. a vtne- 

varix, icis, m. a varix, 
vervex, 6cis, m,awether. 

Hemark. Styx, Stygis, a river in the lower world, contrary to the 
general rule (§ 13.) is o f ihe feminine gender. 

4) Es parisyUUMe : 

Masculine paritnflMes in es. 
Are only two: palumbes and vi- 

5) SwUh a consoneml before iL 

Masculine are 'utons and ens, a 
Fons, mons, pons, dens, cof^iUns, 
Bidens, tridens, ocdldens, ^« • 
Rudens, torrens, miens ; 
Two in ops and ybs. 
Hydrops and duSlybs, 

mons, tis, m. a moun- 

4) Es parisytkible : 

palumbes, is, m. wood-pigeon, 
vepres, is, m. a bramble. 

5) 5 with a consonant before it, 

bidens, tis, m. a hoe, mattock, 
chalybs, ybis, m. steeL 
con^Qens, tis, m. a cof^uence. 
dens, tis, m, a tooth, 
fons, ti^ m. afowdam. 

hydrops, dpis, 

sun-rise, the east,^east' toi^^^^il amnis), a 

em countries, torrent, impetuous 

occidens, (sc. sol), tis, pons, tis, m, a bridge, sflream, 

m, sun-sd, (he west, rudens, (sc. funis), tis tridens, tis, m. a trident, 
western countries, m, a rope, cable, 
oriens (sc. sol), tis, m, 

XLIIL Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Nummus, i, m, money, Tib^ris, is, m. Tiber, Venus, €ris,/. Venus, 
aurum, i, n. gold, anas, Mis,/, a duck, angustus, a, um, nor' 

Albis, is, m. Elbe, cassis, ldis,f, hehneL row, contracted. 

80 psximMX. p39. 

flavus, ra, um, yeSawj occuitus, ^ um, ctm^ gesto L Imrry, hmr. 

Jlaxtn, ceakcL cresco 3. / ^tfffw. 

latus, a, um, &roadL sordidus, a, van, foul, yolvo 3^ IroU; volvor, 

limpidus, a, um, dttir. sacer, cra,crum, sacred. lam rolled, rolL 

Anas dmlda est Verftas auro digna est Albis latus habet ripas 
^undas. Tib^ris est flavus. Aprilis sacer est Ven^rL Ad Homanus 
parvus est nummus.' AdHmas durissimus est Vas est aur^um. Im- 
perator Bui^m cassidem geetat Multae aves -pulohre canuHt Venoo 
tor in ako coQe occiiltos casses tendit In patrk bovto siulti cuocnn^ 
res crescunt Amnis est Ihnpfdus. Amnis ahus mnltos aMt ptsces, 
Callis est angustus. Multi parvi vermes in sordido pulv^re volvontur. 
Validi sunt portarum postes. Vectis est ferreus. 

The mfoe is broiad. The worm is BoonlL lliQie |£ths iove YBTf 
narrow. Many ^h are in that dear riv^. That gate has -strong 
posts. The ducks are timid. The general wears ^9= bears) a golden 
ne(^-chain. This river is broad and deep. The cucumbers in the 
garden of my fether, are ripe. Diamonds are very hard. The rivers 
are clear. These cucumbers are ripe. These hills are very high. 
Upon that high hill the nets concealed by the hunter are spreSd. 
The helmet of the general is o/'g'oW(= golden). These yases are 
very beautifoL In this wood are many burds. Tfaeae bolts are of iron 
( = iron). Old i^e is strong, youth weak. Anvils are qfiron (=& koB). 
These pools «re very deep. 

XLIV. Words to be learned cmd JExerdsesfor tr<mdcUi(m, 

Biblioth6ca,ae^itk*a- Apollo, inis^^ w^{p«jto. tritio€«g, a, um, .^ 

ry^ _ Juno, dais,/ Jimo. itoheai, ui^eaien, 

chorda, e^frefmd^ ovis, is,/, sheep* t4^ universus, a, um, i&e 

columba, ae,/. dove, deneus, a, um, dense, ukide, 

ecclesia, ae,/. diuriii. excelsus, a, um, lojty. asper,dra,£nim,rot^. 

India, ae,/. JUj^L ferus, a, um, vnUL collustrol^tZ/tmiifuile. 

rosa, ae,/. '*<^^^^( frondosus, a, um, leafy, dilac^ro L / tear in 

musicus, i, m^tKRan. ign^us, a, um,/6ry. pieces. 

Vesuvius, i, m. Tiesit- lapid^us, a, um, </ excito 1. / excUe, rain* 

vvu^ • stone. converto 3.* / turn 

sarmentum, i, n. tung, opimus, a, um, fat. around. [forffi, 

branch. rapldus, a, um, rapid. ev6mo 3. / emit, bekh 

solum, i, n, the ground, tortus, a, um, twiked. tango 3. / touch. 

Leo ten^ram ovem imgue acato dilac^rat Sanguis ruber est Milies 
ensem ferrfium gestat Torquis est aureus. Sentes asp^ri sunt 
Scrobis est altus. Panis tritic^us est dulcis. Universus terrarum 
orbis sole co^Uustratur. Meneis Junius a^ Junone nomen habet Oc- 


coitus est canAlis. Laf^des sunt durL ^nlt magnus in monte aho 
excitatur. Foliis est plenus veDtL Fu^is est durus. Funis tortus 
est Hostes in fines uostros inrumpunt Mors omnium malorum cer- 
tus finis f St £ silvis multi sarmentdrum fasces portantur. Poetae 
ApoUini flavos crines tribdunt Vesuvius ign^os cinSres e?6mit Cau- 
les ten^ri sunt Terra circum axem suum summ& celerit&te converti- 

The teeth of the Hon are sharp. ^The tender sheep are torn in 
pieces by (ab) the lions. Man has red: blood. Axle-trees are round. 
The sword is sharp. This cabbage is tender. From VesuTius, fiery 
a9hes are belched forth. Avoid ye the rough thorn-bushes. The end 
of life is uncertain. The s(ddiers defend our borders against (contra) 
the enemiea Flaxen hair (plur.) is given to Apollo by (ab) the poets. 
This bread is good, that bad. The ropes are tveisted. The sun illu- 
minates the whole circle of the worid. The clubs are hard. The 
month [of] June is very pleasant. The bellows are full of wind (gen.). 
The enemies raised a great fire in the city. The canals are concealed. 
High stones surround that way. Bundles [of twigs] hound wUk lavrd 
(laureatus, a, um), with the Romans, were a badge of a victorious 
(victor, oris) general ^ 

Nox est nigra. Leges sunt justae. In excelso mentis apice est 
turns a)ta. PuUces molesti vexant columbano. Magnus avium grex 
petit fi'utices frondosos. Verv^ces opimi sunt Timidos'Mrlctf petunt 
avidi sorices. In India sunt muM bombyces. Traddces tenures s(rfo 
ins^rimus. Murex est pretiosus. Varices sanguinis pleni sunt Musi- 
cus docto poUice tangit chordas. Oryges sunt velocissimi. Onyx est 
pulcherrimus. Alti sunt ecclesiae fomices. 1^ bibliothtea regis mag- 
nus optimorum codicum numSrus est Rosae calyx pulcher est Calix 
est plenus vinL 

The cups are full of wine (gen.) The nights are dark (=» black). 
Just laws are salutary to the state. My father has many books. On 
(in) the plains are many flocks of (gen.) sheep. The shrubs are leafy. 
In the church are high arches. Onyxes are very beautiful Silk- 
worms are very useful The varix is full of blood (gen.). Vine- 
branches are tender. Purple-fishes are very costly. Field-mice are 
very timid. Husband-men have many wethers. The depressed (pres- 
sus, a, um) thumb was a sign of fiivor (&vor, dris) to the Romans* 
The trunks of trees are full of branches (^ branchy, ramosusy a, um). 
The gazelle is very swift The wealthy husbandmen nourish many 
flocks of (gen.) sheep. 




Nubes sunt iugrae. Pahimbes sunt tin^di. Vejnres sunt denat, 
Hiema est asp^ra. limpIduB fons in alto monte est Super repidum 
terrentem pons lipid^us ducit Ongaes ferae bestiae duros et acutos 
dentes habeot. Durus est chalybs. Muhi nautae ab extreme/ oriente 
ad extr^tnum occidentem zuLTigaDt Rudentes torti sunt NeptOnus 
magiiaiii tridentem geslat 

The cloud is black. The wood-pigeon is timid. The cable is 
twisted* Dense brambles 8url*ound the clear fountain. This bridge 
is of stone. Many wares are carried (veh^re) by (ab) the traders, fix)m 
the remotest east to (ad) the remotest west and from the remotest west 
to the remotest east The teeth of wild beasts are hard and sharp. 
Torrents are rapid. The rough winter is disagreeable. Clear foun- 
tains are upon that high mountain. Steel is very hard. 


§ 40. Neuter. 

Of the nevier gender are nouns in : a, e, c, Z, en, avy wr, 
wty us, G. em, oris, uris. 

ExABiPLES: 1) A: po^'m-a pijlchrum,a beautiftd poem ; 2) E: mar- 
e magnum, a great sea; 3) C: only la-c (lact-is), and ale-c (^cis), end in 
this letter, as : lac tepidum, warm mUk, alec sapidum, sdU Jish-brxne ; 
4) L: fe-l am&rum, hitter gall; 5) En nom-en clarum, a renowned 
name ; 6) Ar : calc-or acatum, a sharp spwr ; 7) Ur : rdh-ur (6ris) mag- 
num, great ftrength ; 8) IJl : caput humanum, a human head ; 9) Ua : 
gen-ttf (^ris) clarum, a renowned race. 

Ezc£pnoira : 

Furfur, (iris, m, bran. 
Iep(i8, drie, m. a hare. 
lien, £nis, m. (ancient form for 

8plen)y the spleen. 
mus, uris, m. mouse. 
pectin, inis, m. comb. 
rftn, commonly phar. r^nes, kidney. 
sal, is, m. saU, wit 
sol, is, m. sun. 
spl^n, ^nis, m. spleen. 
tellOs, unSff. Vue earth. 
turtOr, dris, m, turtU-dove. 
yultur, ilris, m. a vuUure. 

Remark. Contrary to the general rule (§ 13.) the names of cities in 
e remain neuter, as: Praeueste, and besides, Anxur, Tibur ; also, robur, 
dris, live-oak. 

From the neufer are rejected, 
By the maseuiinie accepted, 
Two in I : sol and sal, 
With four in en : 
Ren, spkn, pectin, lien. 
Masctdine too are three in ur .* 
Furfur, twiw and vuiUvr ; 
Add to these two words in Mt : 
LepuSy UpSris and mus. 
But ymtmne there is in us. 
Barely the single word tdius. 


XLV. Words to be leanud and Exercises for translatum. 

Liber, bri, m. hook, fulgur, (iris, n. light- pavidus, a, uni, shf. 

lector, oris, m. reader, nmg, rutilus, a, Qm,Jknf red, 

lapoTf drie, m. pUasani- Atticus, a, tun, Mic mollis, e, soft, 

ry,jeei, dent&tua, a, um, (oo^Ml perr6do 3. / gftaw 

HaoDibal, Idis, m. Han- festima, a, uin, delieaU. ^ormg^L 

wbaL joc68U0,a,um,/aDe<<aii9. 

Calcaria sunt ac&ta. Sol igni^us est Sal«0t sapidua. Sales Plauti, 
poetae comici Romanorum sunt, valde jocosi. Splen tener est Renes 
humidi sunt Pecteo est dentatus. Fulgur est xutilum. Hannib&lis 
nomen est clarum. Furfur tritic^us est mollissimus. VultCkres saevi 
unguibus dHac^rant turtAres pavidos. Juv^num corpdra sunt raHda. 
llBiidos l^^dtts wnator quaekit in ailt is, leativos lep^ns lector in IRmtm. 
Mwres pand saepe validos fitiirof perrodunt 

The sapid salt serves (=> is) for many disbes (as foods) for season- 
ing. Attic wit (plur.) is extolled by writers. Vultures are destructive 
to turtle-doves. Mice are very sooaB. Turtle-doves and wood-pigeons 
are very ahy. Harea ai« very swift. TJbe warm aun illumiiiates the 
whole circle of the earth. Combs are toothed. 

§ 4L Cy the gender of the Fourth Declension. 

Us of the fourth is fuaseuline^ 
And u is of the neuter kind ; 
IRxxi feminine there are in us : 
Tfibus^ acus, porticusy 
DomuSy id»s and tnarms. 

Tribus, Os,/ tnhef com- domus, us, / house^ May, July and Oct, 

pony. pedace. but 13th of the oth- 

acus, US,/, needle. idus, uuro,/ ^ Ides er months). 

porA^UB, 08,/. portico. (15th day of March, manus, as,/. /korui. 

XLVL Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Anus, Qs, old^man, Juppiter, Jovis, m. Ju- urbanus, a, um, of tte 

nurus, us, daughter-in- piter (abl. Jove), cUy, 

law, mar morbus, a, um, o/* certo 1. /confemf. 

socrus, Os, mother-in- marhlef moHde, aut, or ; aut — aut, etlfc- 

loM. rusticus, a, um, of the er-^-^w, 


Magnificam regis domum amplae et raarmor^ae omant portlcus. 
Tribus sunt aut urb&nae, aut rusticae. In aUv a sunt multae vetustae 


et altae quercus.' Anus sunt garrillae. Socribus came sunt Durus 
bonae. Puella actktam acum perita manu regit Cuiq rusticis tribd- 
bus eertant urbanae. 

Tbe magnificent palace of the king is adorned with (abl.) spacious 
and marble porticos. The royal palaces are surrounded by (abL) high 
pines. The portico of tbe royal; palace is very magnificent Dogs 
guard our houses. The king is building (= builds) a very magnificent 
palace. The Ides are sacred to Jupiter. 



Promiscuous examples from all the Declensions. 
XLVIL Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Aquila, ae,/. e^jjgfo. jficiir, jecdris or jeci- vis,/piMi«r^rcc,gi«/m- 

insidiae, ammj^snares, ndris, n. liver, tity, (forms only aee, 

ambush, nix,nivis^.9nou^(abl.e). vim and abl,\i\ pi, 

petulantia, ae, /. licen- pectus, dris, n. breast, vires, powers^ virium, 

tiousness, wayward- Mars, tis, m. Mars, etc). 

ness. ' [cury, sedes, is,/, a seat. clausus, a, um, shut up, 

Mercurius, i, m. Mer- s^nex^ s^nis, oldy old contentus, a, um, (c« 

rustifcus, L m. farmer , man, {abl, s^ne ; pL abl.), contented, 

rustic s6nes, s^num, etc.). promtus, a, um, ready, 

pratum, i. n. meadow, supellex, ecttlis, f, viiidis, e, green, 

btlis, is,/, bik, household furniture, compleo 2. 1 JUL 

bos, bdvis, c, ox, cow ; utensils (aU, -e. gen, tumeo 2. 1 swell, 

pU bdves, boum, bo- pi, -ium). pasco 3. 1 pasture, 

bus or bubus. 

Sapiens parva supeUectile e^ contentus. Divttes magnam habent 
copiam supellectiliunL Juvenilis aetas viget corpdris viribus. In sene 
valde displTcet petulantia. Hi^me terra nivibus completur. A Jove 
coelum, terrae et maria reguntur. Jecindra saepe tument bile amara. 
Rustici multos boum greges alunt Agriodlae bobus agros arant 
Multi homines aliud clausum in pectdre habent, aliud promtum in 
lingua. Primus hebdom&dis dies appellati^r dies Lunae, alter dies 
Martis, tertius dies Mercurii, quartus dies Jovis, quintus dies Veneris, 
Septimus dies Solis. 

The powers of the lion are great To Jupiter the eagle is sacred. 
There are various kinds of house-furniture (pL). Keep, O boys, in (abL) 
memory, the precepts of wise old men. Modest manners (= customs) 
please in the boy, the young man and the old man. In the months 
November and December the clouds discharge a great quantity (vis) of 
(gen.) rain (plur.) add snow. In the liver is the seat of anger. Lions 


prepare mares for cows. Upon (in) the green meadows are pastured 
a great herd of (gen.) cows. 

XL VIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translatum, 

Praemium, i, n. reward, voluntas, atis,/. wUL lavo 1. Iwa^ 

principium, i, n. begin- casus, Qs, m. Jail, ca- ]inniineo2. Itkreaien* 

ntnpr. lamUy, chance, elfgo 3. 1 dioose, 

viocCtliim, i, n. hond^ consensus, Os, m. ogree- quotidie, <icfo. (iot^. 

ekain, tnerd, autem, eonj. huL 

hebddmas, ftdis,/ week, ardCtus, a, um, d^ffieuU, an (in questions), or, 

vitiosttas, atis,/ wst, appelTo 1. 1 eaU, 

Certus amicus in re incerta cemitur. Menus manum lavat Honos 
praemium virtutis est Mmv profKer incertoe casus quotidle nobis 
immtnet Omnium rerum a deo immortali principia ducuntur. Nul- 
lum est certius amicitiae vinculum, quam consensus et soci^tas const^ 
liorum et voluntatum Duae sunt vitae riae : virtutis et vitiositatis ; 
alterCitram elig^re debes, o puer ! 

Finn (»* certain) fHends are seen in an uncertain thing. There 
are two ways of life, of virtue and of vice ; the way of the one (alter) 
is troublesome and difficult, but leads to a p^eaceful life ; the way of 
the other (alter) is easy and agreeable, but leads to a wretched life ; 
which way (utra via ^ whick i^fthe two ways) dost thou choose, [that] 
of virtue, or [that] of vice ? 



Of the Verb. 
§ 42. Classes of verbs^ (§ 6, 2.). 

a) Active verbsy or the form expressing activity ^ as : laudoj 

floreo ; those active verbs which take an object in the occur 

sative, are called transitive^ as : laudo puerum ; all other 

active verbs are called intransitive^ as : floreo, dormio, pareo 

(alicui), gaudeo (de aliqua re). 

b) Passive verbSy or \he form expressing p^^rmY^ or ^Ae 
receiving of an action. 


86 TENSES. — MODES. — ^INFINITIVE, ETC. [W43, 44, 45. 

c) Deponent verbs are such as have the passive fonn but 
the active signification. 

§ 43. Tenses of the Verb> 

L 1) Present, am-o, Ilove^ 

2) Perfect, am-a-vi, I have loved; 

IL 3) Imperfect, am-a-bam, /toverf, t«Ta5 tovtng*, 

4) Pluperfect, am-a-veram, /Aad toverf; 

III. 5) Future (simple), am-a-bo, I shall love^ 

6) Future Perfect, am-a-vero, I shall have loved. 

Remark. The Pres., the Perf. and the two Futures are called prinor 
pal fefiMff, the others kuUnical or narrative tenses. — The Perf. in Latin, 
is used in a two-fold way ; a) like the English Perf. as : deus mundum 
ereavit, {God has created the earth) ; b) like the English Imperf. in nar- 
ratings as : Romulus Roman condldity (Romulus built Rome). In the 
first case it is called the Perf. present, and is considered as belonging 
to the principal tenses, in the last the Perf hiUorical^tuad belongs to the 
AiitortcaZ tenses. 

§ 44. Modes of the Verb. 

I. The Indicative, which expresses a fact, phenomenon^ 
reality, as : the rose blooms, bloomed, will bloom ; 

IL The Subjunctive, which expresses what is imagined^ 
supposed, conceived of, as : he may come, he might come not' 

IIL The Imperative, which is used in direct expressions 
of the will, as: hear thou, teach thou. 

§ 45. Infinitive, Participle, Supine, Gerund a/nd Gerundive. 

Besides the Modes, the verb has the following forms : 

a) The Infinitive, which is of an intermediate nature be- 
tween the verb and the noun, as : cupio te adspice- 
re, I desire to see thee (comp. cupio adspectum tui, I 
desire a sight of thee) ; 

b) The Participle, which presents the idea of the verb in 
the form of an adjective, as : puer scribens (the boy 
vmting), filia anuUa (the daughter beloved) ; 

c) The Supine in um and ti, which presents the idea of 


the verb in the fonii of a noun in either the Ace 
or Abl. case, as: canes venatum duco, / take the dog$ 
to hunt (to hunting,) or, res est jucunda auditu^ the 
thinff is pleasant to hear (in the hearing) ; 

d) The Gerund, which also presents the idea of the verb 
under the form of a noun, and indeed, in all the 
cases, as : Nom. scribendum est, tae (one) must loritey 
Gen. ars scribendi^ the art of loriting^ or to tarilej Dat. 
scribendo aptus est,yK for writing'^ or to write j Ace. 
with a preposition, inter scribendum^ while wriHtiff^ 
Abl. scribendo exerceor, / am exercised by (in^ etc) 

e) The Gerundive (or Part. Fut Pass.), which presents 
the idea of the verb in an adjective form, precisely as 
the Gerund presents it in a substantive form, as: 
epistola scribenda est, the letter is to be written^ and 
so through all the cases. 

Remark. The Indicative, Subjunctive and Imperative are called die 

finxU or definite verb, because tbey always refer to a defiDite subject; 

the Inf. Part Sup. Ger. and Gerundive, on the contrary, are called the 

indefinite verb, because these forms, on account of their meaning, do 

not admit of such a reference. 

§46. Persons and Numbers of the Verb. 

The verb has, like the noun, two numbers. Sing, and 
Plur., and three persons both in the Sing, and in the Plur., 
as : /, thotf^y he {she, it) and ive^ you^ they, which are express- 
ed by the endings, as: scnh-imus, toe write. 

Remark. Those verbs which are used only in the third person Sing, 
are called Impersonal verbs, as : pluit, it rains, tonat, it thunders, 

§47. Conjugation. 

Conjugation ig the inflection of a verb according to its 
Persons, Numbers, Modes, Tenses and Voice. The Latin 
language has /cmr Conjugations, which are distinguished ac- 
cording to the ending of the Inf. as follows : 

88 FOBMATiail OF THE TENSBS. [i 48. 

L Conj.: — ^are, as: am-are, to love, Characteristic: a 

II. " — ere, " mon-ere, to admonish^ " e 

IIL " —ere, " reg-ere, to govern, " e 

IV. " —ire, " aud-Ire, to hear. " i. 

Rebl 1. In parsing a verbal form, the beginner should accustom 
himself to observe the following order : a) (h^ person^ b) ihe numbtTy c) 
iht modty d) iht tense, e) the voictf f)jrom whf/t varb, g) the meaning, E. g. 
What kind of a verbal form is amdtis^ Aniatis is Sec. Pers Plur. of 
the Indie. Pres. Act. from the verb : amo, amavi, amatum, am&re, to lovt. 

Rem. 2. Every verbal form consists of two parts, the stem, which 
is the ground-form of the verb, remaining unchanged through all its 
modifications, and the inflection-ending which varies to express the 
number, person, etc. The last letter of the stem is called the chnrae- 
teristic to which the inflection-endings are joined sometimes with and 
sometimes without change. In the paradigms of the verbs, the char- 
acteristic and inflection-endings are printed in italics. 

§ 48. Formation of the Tenses. 

In every verb there are four forms to be observed, from 
which, by adding different endings, all the remaining forms 
are derived, viz. : 

1) fnd, Prta. Ad. 2) Ind. Perfect Ad. S) Stqnne. A) Infinitive Ad. 

I. amo amavi amatum amare 

II. moneo monui monitum monere 

IIL rego rexi rectum regere 

IV. audio audivi auditum audire. 

A. From the IndieaHve Present Active : amo ; moneo ; rego, capio (I 

take) ; audio, as the stem, are derived : 

a) IndieaHve Present Passive : amor; moneor; regor, capior; audior; 

b) Subjundive Present Adive and from this SubJ. Pres. Pass. : amem; 
moneam ; regom, capiam ; audiom ; — amer ; moneor ; regor, ca- 
pior; audior; 

c) Fid. Adive and Passive: regom (e«, rf, etc.), capiom; audiom; — 
regor (feris, etc.), capior; audior; — ama&o; mon^.&o; — araa&or; 

iQ Indicative hnperfed Active and Passive : amaftom ; mon^bam ; reg^- 
6om, capi;6om ; audi^&om; — amabor; mon^W; reg^&or, capitfior ; 
audi^6or ; 

e) Participle Present Active: aman^; monen#; regeiw, capietu; au- 

i 48.] FOEMATION Or THX TBN8B8. 89 

/) Gerundive and Gerund: amanifiit, Bmandum; monendim; regtn- 
duSf CBpitndui; audiemlii«. 

B, InfinUive AcHve : amdre ; mon^re ; reg^re, capiire ; audire, as Btem, 

are derived : 

a) Imperative •Active : ama ; moD^ ; reg^ cap6 ; audi ; and hqteroL 
Passive^ which agrees in form with the Infin. Act : amare ; mon^ 
re ; regSre, cap^re ; audire ; 

b) Infinitive Present Pass, of L, II. and IV. Conj. : am&ri, monfiri, 
audin; the IIL Conj. adds to the stem the ending t.* reg», capt; 

e) Suhjund, Imperf, Ad, and Passive : amarem ; mou^rem ; reg^rem, 
cap^rei/i; audirem;— amdrer; monftrer; reg^rer; cap^rer; audirer. 

C From the Perfed Active: amavi; monui; rexi, cepi; audivi, as a 

stem, are derived : 

a) Subjundive Perfed Adive: amai^nut; monK^rtfii; rejc^rim, ce- 

pirim; audiv^rim; 
h) Indicative Pluperfed Active: amaviram; monuiram; rexiram^ ce- 

piram; audiv^rom; 

c) fWiire Perfed : amav^ ; monu^ ; rex^ro, cep^ro ; audit^ro ; 

d) Infin, Per/. AcL : amavlMe ; monuuve ; rextMe, cepifve ; auditnlife ; 

e) Subjundive Ptuperfed Active: amavissem; monuissem; rexissemf 
ceptMem; audmssenu 

D. From the Supine : ani&tum ; monttum ; rectum, captum ; auditum, 

as a stem, are derived : 

a) Partic Perf, Pass, : amktus ; monf tia ; rec(u#, capful f audiftit ; 

b) Part, Fid, Ad,: amaturus; monitHwus ; rectisnu ; audilumt. 






of the Amxiliartf Verby sam, fai, 
ett»e, to be. 

This verb itt extensively employed in forming the tenses 
of the verb in Latin, both by furnishing various endings to 
the stem of the verb, and by being joined to the participle of 
the verb. Thus e. g. amav-t5^t«, you have lovedy is com- 
posed of the stem amav and estis (you are), amav-cram, of 
amav and eranij so: by #|iamatu8 svm^ I have loved^ etc 


fa-m, I am 
Ss, thou art 
es-t, /te, #Ae, U U 
■a-mCU, toe art 
es*tl8y yott ore 
iu-nt, tAey are 

Sr-a-e, lAoii ioojC 
Sr-i-t, Ae, #Ae, if iom 
Sr-a-mu8, loe toere 
Sr-a-tis, yotf teere 
£r*a-nt, they loere 

fii-I, 7 hone keen 
ftl-isil, <Ami Aa«< 6eei» 
f)&-Tt, Ae, #Ae, t£ has been 
fb-TmCLs, toe Aat^e 6een 
fii-istis, you have been 
fti-erunt (ere), ^ey Aaoe 6eefi 

ili-Sr&-in, / had been 
fli-6rft-8, thou hadst been 
fb-dri-t, Ae, Me, t£ Aa<2 6een 
fti-drft-miig, toe had been 
f)&-€rft-tT8, ^tc had been 
Al-^ra-nt, they had been 



■I-io, I may be 
iI-8, thou mayett he 
■It, Ae, Me, t< may ^ 
■I-m<l8, we may lie 
8i>tl8, you may be 
■i-nt, <Aey may be, 


e8-8d«m, I might be 

68-86-8, Mom mighteet he ^ 

e8-8£*t, Ae, Me, t< mi^At be 

68-86-11)08, toe HR^^ Ae 

e8-s6-tt8, you might be 

6s-se-nt, they might be. 


fli-^rf-m, / may have been 
fii-6rI-8, thou mayest have been 
f)i-6rl-t, Ae, Me, U may have been] 
ftl-6rt-mu8, toe may have been 
^ fli-dri-ti8, you may have been 
ftl-dri-nt, they may have been* 


Ai-issd-m, / fittj^Ac Aai^e Aeen 
fii-Isse-8, tftou mfghtest have been 
f%l-i88€-t, Ae, Me, it might have been 
ftt-issd-mOs, loe might have been 
f%k-isse-Us, you might have been 
ftk-i88e-Dt, they might have been. 




Sr4S, / shall be 
dr-I-8, Uiou toUt be 
dr-I-t, hey shey it wiU he 

Future Indicative.* 

Sr-I-miis, toe shall be 
Sr-I-tii, you will be 
Sr-u-nt^ lAey wU be. 

Fvture Perfect Indicative.* 
ni-«r8, / shdU have been fil-grt-miis, we shall have been 

ftl-Sri-s, thou wilt have been fU-Srl-tli, you will have been 

fll-€ii-t, Ae, she, it will have been ft-6ri-nt, they wiU have Ifeen. 

2. Ss, be thou 

2. efl-tO, thou shouldest be 

3. es-tS, he should be 


2. es t8, be ye 

2. es-UHS, you should be 

3- 8u-nt5, they should be. 




essS, to be 
fuissS, to have been 

futarus, a, urn esse, to will he, ^that something) wiU be, 
first of these forms is not used in English. 

only : ahsen^, absent, from absum ; prae^en^, present, from praes- 

sum = praesto sum. 
futarus, a, um, one who (what) will, is about to be, elBO,future, 

* The 8ubJ. of the Fat is wanting. See Rem. 1 to the following taUe of paradigms. 

Rem. 1. In the compound pro-sum (I benefit)^ in all the forms where 
a vowel follows pro, d is introduced between them, as : pro-d-esse, 
pro-d-es, pro-d-est, pro-d-^ram, pro*d-6ro, pro-d-essem. 

Rem. 2. Besides the abov^-mentioned forms, two others occur, viz. : 
forem (fores, fbret, etc.), I loould he, and the corresponding Infin.ybre in- 
stead ofj^durum esse, 

XLIX. Words to be learned and Exercises for transhuion. 

Absum, abfUi, abesse, prosura, profi&i, prod- foris, adv, wUhouL 

I am absent, removed esse, / am useful, heri, adv, yesterday, 

from. ben^, (see Rem. 1). longe, ado, far. 

adsum, affili, adesse, concilio 1. / unite, per£gre, adv, abroad. 

I am presenL fera, ae,/. wild beaai. quamdiu, adv. and eonj. 

intersum, ftii, esse, (c. pugna, ae,/.^^, fro^ife. how long; so (as) 

dat) to be in, present arma, orum, n. arms, long as. 

at (something). oratio, onis, /. speech, ubi, adv, where, 

praesum, ftli, esse, lam discourse. dum, conj. while. 

before, preside over, magistrati]s,Cls, m. mag*- nisi, con/. un^eM. 

attend to. istrate, magistraof. quum, cor^, when, as. 

Deus omnibus locis adest Parvi pretii sunt (oris arma, nisi est con* 
nlium domi. CkMDtenmuntiu* ii, qui nee aibi, nee alt^ri prosunt Ut 

VERB mm. ■_ [i 49. 

magistrallhua leges, its popdio praeeunt magietr&tiu. Ratio et oraiio 
coDcUiaDt mter Be hotniaea, Deque uUa re lon^us absanius h nntum 
feranim. Ego laetue euni, tu trisiriB es. Si eorte vestra coDtenti eBtia, 
beat! eaiie. 

Dum ego, tu et amicus in Bcholn tramvt, eororea nostrae in bono 
erant Quum tu et Cariilua heri domi noetrae erdlia, ego perSgre eram. 
Quamdiu tu et frater luus domi DOetree traitt, tu hetus eras, sed frater 
tuus triads eraL Quamdlo tu el pater oimitu, ego et &ater tristea 

Cur heri in achola Don fuisti ? Quia cum patre per^gre fui. Quam- 
dlu tu et pater tuua domo abfiiieiia ? Sex meDBes abfuimus. Cur mil- 
itea noetri pugnoe noo interfueninl? Quia kmgius abfu£ruiit. UU 
heri fufiros, quum domi tuae eram P 

I am useful to ibee, and tbou to me. Wherefore are you sad ? We 
are jojrfliL IT tbou art contonh ut bappy. While 

I waa in the school, my sister t \a yesterday thou 

tnst at home, 1 was abroad ^ not in the school 

yesterday? because we were (f ng hast thou been 

absent from [abl) home? 1 ml been absent 

Where bad you been yesterday, as we were in your house ? While 
we and you were in the school, our sisteA were in the garden. Wbile 
you and Charles were iji <(nr bouse yestwday, we were abroad. 

L. Words to be homed and Etxraaetfiyr trandaiion. 

Desum, defili, deesab, aetas, atis, f. agt,gen- antSa, ode. htfon, 

I am taai^ng. (ration. post^ rafe. afUrwardt. 

'obsum, fill, esse, / am nemo (tuirij, no^mdif, nuper, adn. laUly. 

agairut, injure; no one. repente, adv. tuddenis. 

XKcflpo 1. / lakt pot- aegrotua, a, um, »ick. propterCa, adti. for thi* 

tation of, teae. ararus, a, um, aoari- rtaeon. 

pericQlum, i, n. daitgtr. dovt. [ble. qui> — eo (with compa- 

praedium, i, n./orm. invictus, a, um,innna- tire), Ihe — to much 
adolescens, lis, ■ m. atrox, dcie, temble, the. 

yowig man, youiJi. blootbf. 

Quamdiu felix eris, tijuiti tibi erunt amici. Tota civitas in summa 
laetitia fberat, quum repente ingens terror omnium animos occilpet. . 
Pugna fiiit atrocissima, propterfa quod ulriijeque exercitus milites for- 
tisHimi fufirant Ante belli iuitium in urbe fueramus. Demosthenia 
aetate multi oratores magni et dart fuArunt, et antes fuCrant, nee 
pastes defuerunt Ante tree annos spud amicum fui, in cujus praedto 
fiuper per duo mensea fueriUis. Haec res non {wofuit nobis, sed (^ 


(hit Quo minuB hoDdris apud Romanot erat poetii, eo mindra itudia 
fufjunt Si quia yirtOtia coinpoa erit, ■emper be&tua erit Quamdiu 
softe nMa contentus ero, feUx ero. Qualia io alioa Mris, lalea hi in to 
eruDt Si in biM^ Tita aemper virtutia atudioai fbecimuay etiam poal 
mortem bead erimua. 

So loDg as you shall be ibrtunate, you will not want fHenda. The 
upright always benefit the upright My enemies (immicus) liaYe not 
injured me, but benefited If men will be virtuous, they will be happy. 
So long as we shall jt^icontented with our lot, we shall be happy. If 
men always shall hifye been virtuous, the reward of virtue will not 
fidl them. 

Rule of Stittax. In questions, to which the asker expects an an- 
swer by yes or no, the interrogative particle ne is attached to the word 
upon which the emphasis of the question is placed, as: Fuirilnt heri in 
Bchola ? wast thou in school yesterday ? 

Erasne in schola, quum heri domi tuae eram? EIram. Miseme 
sapiens erit, quum pauper erit ? Non erit Laetusne, an tristis es ? 
Unusne, an plures sunt mundi ? Cur heri in schola non fiiisti ? Ae- 
grotusne fuisti ? Non, sed quia cum patre per^gre eram. Fuerasne 
nuper in horto nostro ? Deeritne tibi hominum laus, si semper pro- 
bus fu^ris? 

Were you in school, as* we were at your house yesterday ? Yes 
(sB we were). Will the wise be unhappy, if they shall be poor ? No 
(=s jthey will not be). No one of (gen.) us is the very same in old-age, 
wl^ch he was (perf.) [as] a young man. Pelopidas was in (perf.) all 
dangers. Aristides was in (perf.) the haiUt of Salamia (pugna Salami- 
iHift). Poets not merely delight, but also benefit us. 

Yesterday I was (perf.) at thy house, but thou wast abroad. The 
avaricious in the abundance of all things, will be very poor. Thou, 
thy father and thy mother have benefited us much (multum). We, 
you and your sister were very joyful yesterday, as we were at your 
house. Were you yesterday abroad, as I was at your house ? Yes 
(^ we were). While my brother was in the garden, I was in the 
school. Were our soldiers in the battle ? No (=s they were not in 
it). We were (perf.) not at home yesterday, but abroad. 

Our soul after death will be immortal. So long as we shall be con- 
tented with our fortune, we shall be happy. Where had you been 

^ * For the reason of using as in this and many other places in these exer- 
cises, where when would seem to be required, see Synt. § 110, 1, 1. — Ta. 

d4 THE AXJXILIABT VERB Stim, [{ 49. 

yesterday, as I was at your house ? We had been abroad. So \oug 
as thou hadst been fortunate, thou hadst had (=: there were to thee) 
many friends. The more modest thou shalt be, so much the more 
agreeable thou wilt be to men. If I shall benefit others, they [also] 
will benefit me. 

As (qualis) I shall have been to {in with ace.) others, so (talis) they 
will be to me. If we shall have benefited others, they [also] will bene- 
fit us. If thou, in this life, sh^lt have zealously pursued virtue, thou 
shalt also, after death, be happy. 


LL Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Cogito 1. / ihink^ r^fUd nescius, a, um, igno- attentus, a, um, otfen- 

tc/ion. romi; non sum ne- Hvt, 

dubito 1. I dovbt. scius, I know per- praeteritus, a, um,j9a^. 

pond^ro 1. 1 toeighycon- f telly toeU, eras, adv, to-morrow. 

Mer, parsimonia, ae, f, fru- parum, adv. too little, 

provideo 2. I fore^ ; gality. prius, adv. previottsly. 

c. dat look out for. meus, tis, /. state of plane, adv, wholly. 
intelligo 3. / under- mind. ne — quidem, not in- 

stand. vectigal, alis, n. tax, in- deed, not even, 

rep^to 3. / run over, come. turn, then. 

Bcio 4. / know, victor, oris, m. conquer-^ non solum — sed etiam, 

Descio A. I do not know, or, not merely , hvl also. 

Rule of Syntax. In questions which depend upon a foregoing 
sentence (indired questions), the subjunctive* is always used, as : Narra 
mihi, \x\i\fiUris, rdate to me, where thou hast been, — In indirect questions 
the enclitic ne is translated by whether^ as: Dubito, laetusne sis, I doubt, 
whether thou art joyful. 

Non sum nescius, qua mente tu et prius in no8 fuiris, et nunc sis, et 
semper futurus sis. Non eram nescius, qua mente tu et prius in nos 
fuisseSf et turn esses, et semper futurus esses, Qualis sit anirnus, ipse 
animus nesdt. Deus non est nescius, qua mente quisque sit. CogUa, 
quantum nobis exempla bona prosint. Prae gaudio, ubi sim, nescio, 
Non intelltgunt homines, quam magnum vectigal sit parsimofiia. Non, 
quantum quisque prosit, sed quanti pretii quisque sit, pondera. Quo 
quisque ani mo yu^uru9 s\t, nescio. Incertus eram, profuturusne tibi essem. 
Saef>e ne utile quidem est scire, quid futurum sit. Pecunia, hondres, 
valetQdo quamdiu affutwra sint, incertum e^ Incertus eram, et ubi 
essHis, et ubi fuissetis. Ndrro tibi, et ubi heri/Mcnwiiw, et ubi eras 
futuri simus. Dubiiamus,fuerin(ne milites nostri in pugna laiide digni. 

* As the subjunctive form is not so extensivefy used in English as in 
Latin, the Subj. must oflen be trnnwlated into Entr'Ush by the forms of the 
Indie, as will be seen in the following examples. — Ta. 


Dubium eratj civesne nostri, an hostes in ilia pugna victdres Jvi$9mL 
Dubium eratj pv/tns9etne Alcibi&des patriae suae, an o^uis9eL 

What to-day is and yesterday was (perf ), we know ; but what will 
be to-morrow, we know not How long we shall be in this life, is un- 
certain. I knew perfectly well, both ofiwhat state of mind towards us 
you then were, and had been previously, and always would be (»» were 
about to be). I rejoice, when I thiuk, how much you have benefited 
the state, both now and before, and still will benefit [it]. It was un- 
certain, where the enemies were and had been, and where they would 

Adestote omnes animis, qui adestis corporibus ! Attenti este, dis- 
cipCtli ! Homines mortis memdres sunto. Contenti estdte sorte vestra ! 
Parum provident multi tempdri futOro, sed plane in diem vivunt Vir 
prudens non solum praesentia curat, sed etiam praeterita mente rep6tit 
et futara ex praeteritis providet. 

Scholars, not merely with (abl.) the body (plur.), but also with the 
mind (plur.), should be in the school. Man should be mindful of 

In school, you should be attentive, O scholars ! Thou shouldest be 
contented with (abl.) thy lot! Men should always be mindful of the 
precepts of virtue. 




§60. AC 

Of the four regular 

Preuminaet Remark. The following parftdigms need not all be 

1. A mo, dviy AtncUum, amdre. 
Charactetistic : a long. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present, 

anid, I loTe 
amcU5, thou lovest 

amd-C) he, fthe, it 

amd-m&9, we love 

tLUki^tUj jou love 

amo-fit, they love 

ami-m, I may love 
am^-tf, thou mayest 

dimi-t, he, ' she, it 

may love , 
Bxn€-mii8j we may 

a^.ii«, you may 

nme-nt, they may 


II. ImperfecL 

Amd-bdm, I loved, 
was loving 

ftmcl bdSf thou lov- 
edst, wast loving 

amd-6d<, he, she, it 

loved, was loving 

amd-^dm&9, we lov- 
ed, were loving 

timd'bdtU, jovL lov 
ed, were loving 

tLmd-batUf they lov 
ed, were loving 

amd-r^m, x might 

^md-ris, thoil 

mightest love 
amd-r^t, he, she, it 

might love 
tLvad-remitSy we 

might love 
Bjoad-rftis^ you 

might love 
amd-rent, they 

might love. 

II. Moheo, monfit, mon{/Km,.monere. 
Characteristic : e long. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present. 

moneo, I admonish 

mon£«,thou admon- 

monitj he, she, it 

monfmu^, we ad- 

mon€tis^ you ad- 

mon«n^, they ad- 

III. Future {Indicative), ^ 

amieU&d, I shall love 
amd-M^, thou wilt love 
amd-M<, he, she, it will love 
aLmd-bimiiSj we shall love^ 
amd^riti^, you will love 
amd-6u?U, they will lore. 

, IV. Perfect. 


amd-vi, I have lov- 

amd-(oi)jtf{, thou 
hast loved 

amd-vl£, he, she, it 
has loved 

amd-i7{mfi5, we 
have loved'(vi)stis^ you 
have loved 

they have loved 

amd-(v2)rYiii, I may 

have loved 
amd-(v2)H>, thou 

mayest have 1. 
amd-(v2)r<<,he, she, 

i'r may have 1. 
amd-(v2)r{m^, we 

may have loved 
imd'{vi)rUis, you 

may have loved . 
iaad-{vi)rinti they 

may have loved. 

monednt, I may ad. 

monedSf thou may- 
est admonish 

monedty^ he, she, it 
may admonish 

monedmti5, we may 

monedtis, you may 

moneonf, they may 

11^ fmperfeet. 

monf^am, I admon- 
ished, was ad. 

monibas^ thou &d- 
monishedst, was a. 

mouibuty he, she, it 

mon€bdmus^ we ad- 
monished, were a. 

Taon€bdtis^ you ad- 
monished, were ii. 

mon£6afU, they ad- 
monished, were a. 

monfrem, I might 

monEres^ thou 

mightest ad. 
moneret, he, she, it 

might admonish 
monfrfmifff, we 

might admonish 
mon€r€tisy you 

might admonish 
mon;r«nt, they 

might admonish. 

III. Future (Indicative), > 

mon£6o, I shall amonish 
monebiSy thou wilt admonish 
monebit, he, she, it will admonish 
monebiinuSf we shall admonish 
motUfbUiSy you will admonish 
manebunty they will admonish. 

IV. Perfect. 

monitt, I have ad- 

monuistiy thou hast 

monttit, he, she, it 
has admonished 

montiim«5,we have 

monui^^w, you 
have admonished 

'mioauirunt («re), 
they have ad. 

monv^rtm, I may 

have admonished 
monitem, thou 

mayest have ad. 
monumf, he, she, 

it may have ad. 
monueHmuSy we 

may have ad. 
monuerltisy you 

may have ad. 
montimnt, they 

may have ad. 






learned at once but in' the order of the exercises which follow. 

ill. KegOj rexi, reotem, regire, 
Churacteristio : e short. 



I. Pr§smU, 

rego, I govern 
regl#, thou govern- 

legl^ be, she, it 

leglnittf, we govern 

^f^i you govern 
regva^, they govern 

regdm,! maygovem 
regdtf, thou mayest 

reg^, he, she, it 

may govern 
regdmusj we may 

regd^, you may 

regoYif, they may 


II. ImperfeU 

tegibam^ I govern 
ed, was gov. 

reg;6a«, thou gov- 
ernedst, wast g. 

ngfbat^ he, she, it 
governed, was g. 

Kgebdmusj we gov- 
erned, were gov. 

ngehdtisy you gov- 
erned, were gov. 

Kglbantj they gov- 
erned, were gov. 

III. Future (IndicoHvy 

regdm, I shall govern 
rege*, thou wilt govern 
regW, he, she, it will govern 
regfmu^, we shall govern 
reg«i>, you will govern 
^gentf they will govern. 

IV. Perfect, 

regireniy I might 

reg^re9,thou might- 

est govern 
reg^ret, he, she, it 

- might govern 
Tegir€muSy we 

might govern 
regiretisy you 

might govern 
reg^renf, they 

might govern. 

IV. Audio, audm, audUtcm, audir«. 
Characteristic : t long. 

Ihdiojltivs. Subjuhctivb. 
1. PrcMiit. 

audl4>, I hear 
aud{#, thou hearest 

andK, he, she, it 

andlmuf^ we hear 

audUt#, you hear 

audltmt, they hear 

audldm, I may hear 

audfdf, thou may- 
est hear 

aodia/, he, she, it 
may hear 

audfdiiMtr, we may 

audliUir, yon may 

audlan/, they may 

II. Imperfect. 

mudUhum, I heard, 

was hearing 
audt;6a9,thou heard 

est, wast heariujET 
Viudiebaty he, she, it 

heard, was h. 
AudifbdmuSy we 

heard, were h. 
nndUbdtis, you 

heard, were h. 
tiUdUbanty they 

heard, were h. 

audfrem, I might 

audirM, thou 

audfret, he, she, it 

might hear 
nndlr€mus, we 

might hear 
hudlretis, you 

might hear 
aud{r«n<, they 

might hear. 


rexi, I have govern- 

Kxistiy thou hast 

rezif, he, she, it 
has governed 

nximusy we have 

Kxistis, you have 

fexirunt (ire), they 
have governed 

rez^rim, I may 
have governed 

rexeri^, thou may- 
est have govern. 

rexeri^, he, she, it 
may have gov. 

TCTLerimuSy we may 
have governed 

rexerl^, you may 
have governed 

rezmnt, tbey may 
have governed. 

Ul. Future (huUeutivey 

audYdm, I shall hear 
audiftf, thou wilt hear 
audi^t, he, she, it will hear 
audifmt£5, we shall hear 
tiVLdietis, you will hear 
audi«n<, they will hear. 

IV. Perfect. 

audifi, .(audit) . 

have heard 
audt(vi)5<i, thou 

hast heard 


audivit, he, she, 

has heard 
tiudivimus, we 

have heard 
audi(i7i)5^i9, you 

have heard 
audi (v) €ruat {€re), 

they have heard 

audi(t))ifrim, I may 

have heard 
audi(v)eW^, thou 

mayest have h. 
audi(i7)eri<, he, she, 

it may have h. 
audi(i7)«r{mu5, we 

may have heard 
audi(t))criri5, you 

may have heard 
audi(v)<rifi<, they 

may have beard. 






L Amo, amavt, amahim, amdre. 
Characteristic : a long. 

II. Moneo, nuNifie, moni/um, monfre. 
Characteristic : e long. 

Indicjltite.^ Subjunctive. 
V. Pluperfect. 

amd-(t)2)rd?ft, I had 

taika-(vt)r&3^ thoa 

haclst loved 

it had loved 
amd-(v2)rdm4i«, we 

had loved 
hxnd-{v^)r&ti8^ you 

had loved 
amd-(t)^)ran<, thej 

had loved 

am<i-(m)55^m, I 

might have loved'{vi)s8€8^ thou 

mi^htest have 1. 
it might have 1. 
wa\a-{vi)s8€miiSy we 

might have loved 
Kma^m)8sEtiSy you 

might have loved 
amd-(m)Men<, they 

might have loved. 

VI. Future Perfect* 

amd-(c2)rd, 1 shall have loved 
amd-(i7^)rl», thou wilt have loved 
%m&-{vt)rit^ he, she, it will have loved 
amd-(v^)rimt<5, we shall have loved 
amd-(v2)ri<l», you will have loved 
amd-(v^)nYi<, they will have loved. 


amd, love thou 

amd-to, thou shouldest love 

amd-to, he, she, it should love 

amd-<^, love ye 

amd-^<£, you should love 

amd^nto^ they should love. 


1) amd-^iim, in order to love 

2) amd-tfl, to love, be loved. 


Pre8, annA-ri, to love 
Petf. aLmcL-{vi)ssiy to have loved 
Fut. amd-<tlril5, a, um, esse, to will 
love,* (that one) will love. 


Pre8. ama-fitf, loving 
Fui. amd-2uni5, a, um, intending, 
wishing, about to love. 


Non^. hma-ndum est, one (we) must 1. 
Geii. o,ma-ndiy of loving* or to love 
Dat. Rma-ndOf to loving, or to love 
Ace. wako-ndum (e. g. ad)f loving 
Abl. amo-n/fo, by loving. 

Jndicativk! Subjunctive. 
V. Pluperfect, 

monu^ram, I had 

monuera^, thou 

hadst admonished 
monuerot, he, she, 

it had admonish, 
monuerdmu^, we 

had admonished 
moniterd<t5, you 

had admonished 
monuerant^ they 

had admonished 

motim88em^ 1 might 

have admonished 
motuisses^ thou 

mightest have ad. 
monuwet, he, she, 

it might have ad. 
monuissemus^ we 

might have ad. 
moiiui88€ti8^ you 

might have ad. 
xskonuisaeiU^ they 

might have ad. 

VI. Future Perfect.* 

monu^ro, I shall have admonished 
monueriff, thou wilt have admonished 
monum^, he, she, it will have admon. 
monuerimutf, we shall have admonished 
montierKtf, you will have admonished 
monumn^, they will have admonished. 

Imperative. ' 

taoii€y admonish thou 

mon^/o, thou shouldest admonish 

monfto, he, she, it should admonish 

mon^^e, admonish ye 

mon^^d^e, you should admonish 

monen^o, they should admonish. 


1) moh{<um, in order to admonish 

2) monita, to admonish, be admon. 

monfre, to admonish 


monuisse, to have admonished 
monituru^y a, urn, esse, to will 
admonish, (that one) will ad. 


Pres. monen^, admonishing 
Fut. moniturus, a, tim, intending, 
wishing, alsout to admonish. 


N. monendum est, one (we) must ad. 
G. monen<:^i, of admqinishing, or to ad. 
D. monendo^ to acfinonishing, or to ad. 
A. mon6ndum (e: g. ad), admonishing 
A. monendo, by admonishing. 

*) The Subjunctive Future is expressed periphrastically : amattlrus, monitarasi 
rectatus, auditarus (a^vm) sim, sis, etc., I will love, thou toilt love, etc., or aina- 
turus, etc., essem, / topuld love. *) Also the Future Perlect has no Subjunctive. 





ill. Rego, rext, reoticm, legire. 
Characteristic : e short. 

Indicative. Subjuhctiyk. 

V. Pluperfect. 

rexiram, I had 

rexeras, thou hadst 

rexeratf he, she, it 

had governed 
rexerdmuf, we had 

lexerdtis, vou had 


rexiMcm, I might 

have governed 
rexisseSf thou 

mightest have ^. 
rexisset, he, she, it 

might have gov. 
rexiss€mus, we 

might have gov. 
rexissitUj you 

might have gov. 

IV. Audio, audivi, audKvfii, audire. 
Chmracteristio : t long. 

rexeron^, they had rexissent, they 
governed | might have gov 

Ihdicativx. Subjujictivs. 
V. Plupeffect, 

VI. Future PerfeU* 

rexiro, I shall have governed 
rexert«, thou wilt have governed 
rexerit, he, she, it will have governed 
lexerimus, we shall have governed 
rexer{<u^, you will have governed 
rexertn^, they will have governed. 


reg^, govern thou 

regiio, thou shouldest govern 

regito, he, she, it should govern 

regime, govern ve 

regltotef you should govern 

reguitto, they should govern. 


1) rectunij in order to govern 

2) rec/tt, to govern, be governed. 


Pres. regire, to govern 
Perf. rexisse, to nave governed 
Fut. recturus, a, um esse, to will 
govern,* (that one) will gov. 


Pres, regens, governing 
Fut, recturus, a, um, intending, 
wishing, about to govern. 


N. regendum est, one (we) must gov. 
G. legendi^ of governing, or to govern 
D. regendoj to governing, or to govern 
A. regendum (e. g. ad), governing 
A. regendo, by governing. 

audi(«)ifraiii, I had 

audi(v)era«, thou 

hadst heard 
audi(v)era<, he,8he, 

it had heard 
nxidi{v)erdmus, we 

had heard 
audt(v) erd<i«, you 

had heard 
audt( v)eran<, they 

had heard 

audt(vt)j«eiii, I 

might have h. 
audt(i»)j»es, thou 

mightest have h. 

it might have h. 
nxidi(vi)8s€mus, we 

might have h. 
9.xidi^)8$€tiSf you 

might have h. 
wkdi(vi)ssentf they 

might have h. 

VI. Future Perfect.* 

audt(v)^ro, I shall have heard 
audi(v)eri9, thou wilt have heard 
audt(t))eri<, he, she, it will have heard 
audt(v)erlinM#, we shall have heard 
audt(o)eriH#, you will have heard 
audi(v)miU, they will have heard. 


audi, hear thou 

audito, thou shouldst |iear 

audUo, he, she, it should hear 

audi<0, hear ye 

huditdtey you should hear 

audttmto, they should hear. 


1) auditum, in order to hear 

2) audUtt, to hear, be heard. 


Pres. audfrtf, to hear 
Perf. audt(in)w«, to have heard 
Fut. tiudituruSj a, um esse, to will 
hear,* (that one) wiU hear. 


Pres, auditfitf , hearing 
Fut, nuditurus, a, um, intending, 
wishing, alM>ut to hear. 


N. hvidiendum est, one (we)'nust hear 
G. tiudiendi, of hearing, or to hear 
D. fiadiendo, to hearing, or to hear 
A. hudiendum (e. g. ad), hearing. 
A. fiMdiendo, by hearing. 

") These four imperatives without e are to be noted : die, duc,fac^er, from: di- 
CO, duco, facio, fero. *) The English language has no Infin. Future (to will 
love) but uses in its stead the Inf. r resent. 





§ 51. PAS 


Indicative. SuB^runcTivi. 
I. Present. 

aradr, I am loyed 

am&r%8y ^ou art 

ttmtU^j he, ahe, it 

is loved 
amdmi^, we are 

amamlnl, yon are 

amanei^, thej are 


am^, I may be 

amffri5(e), thou 

mayest be loved 
amf^fir, he, she, it 

may be loved 
amfmilr, we may 

be loved 
amfm¥ni, you may 

be lovea 
tunentHkr, they may 

be loved. 

II. JmperfeeL 

am€l6dr, i was 

^mdbdris (e), thou 

wast loved 
9xaAbdtitr, he, she, 

it was loved 
amd^amftr, we 

were loved 
amcl6dm{n{, you 

were loved 
a.mdbantiiir, they 

weie loved 

amdr^, I might be 

amArer(5(e) thou 

mightest be 1. 
BmdretHTy he, she, 

it migfht be loved 
^mAremHTf we 

might be loved 
tundremtni, you 

might be loved 
amdrerUiirf they 

might be loved. 

ill. f\ttur$. 

am<S6dr, I shall be loved 
amo^^ri^ (e), thou wilt be loved 
amd6{<&r, he, she, it will be loved 
urndbimUtr, we shall be loved 
amd^imini, you will be loved 
amd^un^'fir, they wiU be loved. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 
I. Present. 



mon^or, I am 

monffnV, thou 

moneturj he, she, 

it is admonished 
monfmur, we are 

monfmmi, you are 

raonentur, they are 


mon^Ar, 1 may be 

monidris{e), ihou 

mayest be ad. 
monidtur, he, she, 

it may be ad. 
mon^dmur, we may 

be admonished 
mon^dmtni, you 

may be admon. 
moniantur, they 

may be admon. 

II. Imperfect. 

moTk€bar, I was ad- 

monebdris(e), thou 
wast admonished 

monibdtur, he, she, 
it was admon. 

mon^Admur, we 
were admonished 

mon^^dmin£, you 
were admonished 

monebantury they 
were admonished 

monffrer, I might 

be admonished 
moner€ris(e)y thou 

mightest be ad. 
mon^rf ^r, he, she, 

it might be ad. 
monirimur, we 

might be ad. 
moneremini, you 

might be ad. 
monerentur, they 

might be ad. 

III. Futurt. 

mon;6dr, I shall be admonished 
mon€biris(e)^ thou wilt be admonished 
monebitiir, he, she, it will be admon. 
monebima^y we shall be admonished 
montbiminl, you will be admonished 
mon£6i£iUtir, they will be admonished. 

IV. Perfect. 
a) Indicative. 











sUm, I have been loved 
is, thou hast been loved 
est, he, she, it has been loved : 
«fiinbfi«, we have been loved 
estis, you have been loved 
sunt, they have been loved. 






b) Bubjunetive. 

Sim, I may have been loved 
Hs, thou mayest have been 1. 
sit,he, she, it may have been U 
simUs, we may have been 1. 
siiXs, you may have been 1. 
sint, tney may have been 1. 







sum, I have been admonished 
es, thou hast been admonished 
est, he, she, it has been ad. 
sumtts, we have been admon. 
eatis, you have been admon. 
sunt, they have been admon. 

Sim, I may have been admon 
sis, thou mayest have been ad 
5i£,he,she, it may have been a 
simus, we may have been ad. 
sitis, you may have been ad. 
sint, they may have been ad. 

J 51.] 





I. Present. 

regor, I am govern- 

reg«rw, thou art 

re^^iir, he, she, it 
18 gOTerned 

regimwr, we are 

regimlni, you are 

leguntur,. they are 

reg4r, , I may be 

regdrt«(e), thou 

mayest be gov. 
regd^ur, he, she, it 

may be governed 
regaimer, we may 

be governed 
regamtm, you may 

be governed 
xeQontur, they may 

be governed. 

11. Imperfect. 

Tegebar^ 1 was gov- 

Tegebdri^(e), thou 
wast governed 

n^ebdtur, he, she, 
it was governed 

rege6dmur,we were 

Tegebdmlm, you 
, were governed 

Teg€bantury they 
were governed 

reg^rer, I might be 

Teggriris(e), thou 

mightest be gov. 
legiretur, he, she, 

it might be gov. 
reg^rtfmi/r, we 

might be gov. 
regir€minif you 

might be gov. 
Tegirentur, they 

might be gov. 


Indicative. Subjumctitk. 

1. PresetU, 

audu^, 1 am heard 

audim, thou art 

audi/vr, he, she, it 

is heard 
audifnvr, we are 

audimtnt, you are 

audntnticr, they are 


audtdr, I may be 

audidri9(«^ thou 

mayest be heard 
audicUvr, he, she, 

it may be heard 
audtdmur, we may 

be hekrd 
audidmtm, you 

may be heard 
audutntur, they 

may be heard. 

II. Imperfect, 

III. Future. 

regcEr, I shall be governed 
Tegfris{e)j thou wilt be governed 
reg«iir, he, she, it will be governed 
TegemUkr, we shall be governed 
regiminl, you will be governed 
Tegeruar^ they will be governed. 

aud»;6ar, 1 was 

iL}idiibdris(e)j thou 

wast heard 
^udiebdtur, he, she, 

it was heard 
audi^ddmur, we 

were heard 
audt^amtnt, you 

were heard 
undiebantur, they 

were heard 

audirer, 1 might be 

audlrfm(«), thou 

mightest be heard 
audirf^tcr, he, she, 

it might be heard 
audlrfmvr, we 

might be heard 
audirfmim, you 

might be heard 
audlren^r, they 

might be heard. 

III. Future. 

audidr, 1 shall be heard 
audifm(e^, thou wilt be heard 
aude££t£r, he, she, it will be heard 
audt^mur, we shall be heard 
audtfmtni, you will be heard 
audien/ur, they will be heard. 

IV. Perfect. 
a) Indicative. 












\sumf I have been governed 
\e8j thou hast been governed 
est, he, she, it has been govern 'd 
sumuSj we have been governed 
estiSy you have been governed 
sunt, they have been governed 






sum, I have been heard 
es, thou hast been heard 
est, he, she, it has been heard 
sumus, we have been heard 
estis, you have been heard 
sunt, they have been heard. 

b) Subjunctive. 

sim, 1 may have been governed 
sis, thou mayest have been g. 
sit, he, she, it may have been g. 
simus, we may have been g. 
sitis, you may have been g. 
sirU, they may have been g. 







sim, 1 may have been heard 
sis, thou mayest have been h. 
sit, he, she, it may have been h. 
simus, we may have been h. 
sitis, you may have been h. 
\sint, they may have been h. 


»«M1V> Df IBS sewB. 




V. Plupeffect. 
a) Indicatiye. 







irdm, I bad been loved 
irds fihon hadst been loyed 
ir&t, he, she, it had been loved 
irdmi^, we had been loved 
iraUs, you had been loved 
fyrani, titey had been loved. 





b) Subjunctive. 

«Biatu8, [essim, I might have been loved 
a, esses, thou mightest have been 

um sssHt, he, she, it, might have 
been loved 
amati, 6ss€7»^r we might hove been 
ae, ess€tis, vou might have been 1. 
a essttU, they might have been L 





eram, I had been admonished 
eras, thou hadst been ad. 
erai, he, she, it had been ad. 
eramus, we had been ad. 
gratis, you had been ad. 
erant, they had been ad. 

esssm, I might have been ad. 
esses, thou miffhtest have been 

esset, he, she, it might have 

been admonished 
essemus, we might have been 

essetis,yofi might have been ad. 
w«sfiX,they might have been ad. 

YI. FtUure Perfect, (Indicative). 





^ravl shall have heen loved 

itis, thou wiH have been 

irit, he, she, it will have been 

irlwiAs, we shall hftve been 

iritis, yofL will have been 

Urunt, they will have been 



timdri, be ikoo, loved 
amd^dr, thou shouldest be loved 
amdtdr, he, she, it should be loved 
amdminf , be ye loved 
amdmlndr, you should be loved 
tanantdr, they should be loved. 

Pres. amdrf, to be loved 
Perf, amcUt^, d, itm esse, to have been 

Fut. fuxxatum I'rl,* to will be loved, 

(that one) will be loved. 

Perf. amdilw, d, iiw^, loved 
Fut. simandus, 4, *wi, what should be 

monitus, era, I shall have been admon- 
eris, thou wilt have been ad- 
um erit, he, she, it will have been 
moniti, erimus, we shall have been ad- 
ae« eritis, you will have been ad- 
erunt, they will have been ad- 


monfre, be thou admonished 
monitor, thou shouldst be admonished 
monitor, he, she, it should be adm'd 
mon€mini, be ye admonished 
moneminor, you should be admonished 
monentor, they should be admonished. 


Pres. moniri, to be admonished 

Perf monittLs, a, um esse, to have been 

Fut, monitum iri,^ to will be admonish- 
ed, (that one) will be admonished. 


Perf. ukonitus, a, um, admonished 
Fut. monendus, a, um, what should be 
I admonished. 


*) amatum, monltum, rectum, auditum are Supines and hence cannot be de- 














V. FiMpafeeL 

a) indicative. 

eram, I had been ^verned audltna, 
•ra«, thou hadat bc«n goyerned a, 
erat^ he, she, it had been g. um 

eramusy we had been governed audjti, 
eradg, you had been governed ae, 
«r«fi<, they had been go«enie<H * 

b) Subjunctive. 

essem, I might have been g. auditus, 
usts, thou mightest l^a^e peen a, 

essetj he, she, it might have nm 

been governed 
essemusj we might have been" auditi, 

tssetiSy you might have beep g> ae, 
esserU, they might have been g.| a 

eram, I had been heard 
i^as, thou hadet been heard 
erat^ he, she, it had been heard 
eramuM, we had been heard 
eratiSy you had been heard 
erant^ they hm^ been heard, v 

es$emy 1 might have been heai4 
utes, thou migbleet have been 

heard ^ 

sjvsC, he, she, it might hava 

been heard 
esMemus, we might have beea 

esuiis, you might have, been h. 
essentf they might have been h. 

VI. Future Perfect, (Indicative). 





ero, 1 shall have been gov> 

em, thou wilt have been gov- 

erit, he, she, it will have been 

erimuSj we shall have been 

entis, you will have been gov- 

encRt, they will hate been 



reg^re, be thou gorerned 
regi^or, thou shoujdst be governed 
regUor, he, she, it should be governed 
regiminif be ye governed 
regimiiier, you mould be governed 
reguntor, they shiHild be governed. 


Pres. regi, to be governed 

Perf. rectus, a, um esae, to have been 

Fut. rectum iri,^ to will be governed, 

(that one) will be governed. 


Perf, reetti5, a,Km, governed 
Fut. regenduSf a, um, what ahooM 
be governed. 




erOf I shall have been heard 

en#, thou wilt have been heard 

erit, he, she, it will have been 

erimus, we shall have been 

erUis.j vou 

eruntj they 


will have been 
will have been 


aodire, be thou beard 
aud{^^, thou shouldst be heard 
auduor, he, she, it should be heard 
audimfnt, be ye heard 
audiminor, vou should be heard 
audlitntor, ihey should be heard. 


Pres. audin, to be heard 

Perf. nuditus, a, um esse, to have been 

Fut. nuditum iri,^ to will be heard, 

(that one) will be heard. 


Perf. tiudUus, a, um heard 
Fut. AVkdienduSf a, um, what should 
be heard. 

clined. That the. English language has no Inf. Fut. has already been stated. 




§ 52. Inflection of verbs in io of the Third Conjugation. 

ACTIVE, Infin. capire, to take. PASSIVE, Infin. capL | 





cap-imusj capitia 







cap-iris, cap-Uur 
cop-tmur, oa/HMm 









cap-i-ain, -i-es, etc 

cap-i-ar, -i-feris, etc 

aqhi, cap->itOj cap-Hit^ cap^UotCy 

cap-ire, cap-Wr, cap-mini, 
cap-imlnor, cap-i-untor. 

rres, cap-i-^ns, Fut cap-turus 

Per£ cap4u8y Fut capHf-endus 

Supine : ccg94vm, cap-tvu 1 

LII Wards to be 

Decerto 1. / contend, 
elaboro 1. (in c. abl.) 

/ labor (zealously), 
flo 1. / hloiOy wave. 
intro 1. (c. ace) / go 

into, enter, 
liber, 6ra, 6rum,^ec. 
libfiro 1. / deliver, 
navb 1. / pwrsvjb som/t' 

thing ardently; op^- 

leamed a/nd Exercises for translation. 

ram Davo (c dat) / interitus, tis, m. destruc- 

occupy myself wUh, tion. 

num^ro 1. 1 number. aptus, a, um, Jitted. 

op^ra, ae,/. toil, labor, placidus, a, um, gentle. 

somnus, i, m. deep. veh^mens, tis, violent. 

ventus, i, m. wind. potissimum, adt, es- 

timor, ons, m.fear, pedaUy, 

cupiditas, atis,yi desire, quomddo, in what man- 

passion. ner, how. 


Quum milites urbem intra bant, omnes cives timoris pleni erant 
Quum in silva ambulabamus, vehemens ventus per altas quercus 
flabat QuamdiU tu in horto ambulabas, ego domi litt^ris op^ram 
navabam. Dum nos placTdus somnus recreabat, vos vjgilabatis. 
Quomddo is lib^ro imperabit, qui non suis cupiditatibus imp^rat? 
Ad quas res aptissimi erimus, in iis potissimum elaborabimus. Quam- 
diu eris felix, multos amicos numerabls. Bonos semper laudabo, 

I 5U.] riKtT OOnSVQATtOK, 105 


imprSbos Mmper witMiperkho. Si aeifter •rmbi deeerlabldB, o miHtMy 
pttriam db imeiitii liberabilii. Si virtutem amftbii, onmes boid te 

LIU. Wards to be learned and Epcercisesfor tramilatian, 

CompitK) 1. / pnpan, philosophia, ae, / phi- jucandui, a, uin, jrfM»- 

acquire. lo9ophf. ant, agreeable. 

conjiigo 1. / Join to- career, Sris, m. prison, adliuc, ode. sliU. [oSy. 

gdher, unite, narratio, onis,/. narra- perpetQo, adv. conUnw 

dey6co 1. / cdU doum, Hve. tanquam, ae^fyae. 

migro 1. 1 migrate. rus, runs, it. country; num, (an interrogative 

emigro 1. Imavemd. mri, in libe eountnfy word ueed when a 

ewdlo h I Jhf o^ Jrom^ rureyfram tkt country, mgalive answer it 

eea^. ace rua, into the expected]^ i* it poB- 

interrdgo 1. / asL country. mbU (hali 

observo 1. / observe. 

£a est jucundissima amicitia, quam sioiilitCido morum conjug6vit 
Vivunt ii, qui ex corpdrum vinciilis, tanquam carc^re, evolaTferunt 
Socr&tes primus philosc^biam devocavit e coela Quia semper virtu- 
tis praecepta observascis, magnam vobis laudem comparastis. Cur per 
totem noctem vigilasti ? Praeceptores meos semper amavL Acriter 
contra hostes pugnavimus. Quum milites urbem intravt^rant, ingens 
terror omnium civium animos occupabat. Narcatio, quam mihi nuper 
narrav^ras, vebementer me deleotavSrat Quum ezercitus bostilis 
urbem oppugnav^rat, nos jam emigraveramus. Si animum Tirtutibus 
omay^ris, semper beatus eris. Ut alios homines tractayerlmus, ita hi 
nos tractabunt Si quis te interrogav^rk, qualis sit animus, num dubia 
erit responsio ? Si perpetCU) in hac nta virtutum serraveritis, etiam 
in altera vita beat! eritis. Quum bostes agros devaatav^rinl, urbem 
ipeam oppugnabunt Quum ego rus migravSro, tu adhuc in urbe 

LIV. Words to he learned and Exercises far translation. 

RecHo 1. 1 read to. supplicium, i, n. cc^ scdus, ^ris, n. offence, 

revdco 1. / recaU. Ud punishment, 2) crime. 

caussa, ae, / cause ; (any severe) punish- quaestus, Qs, m. g'oui. 
abl. caussd with geru, menL diligenter, adv. dUigent- 

an account of. Atheniensis, is, m. hf, car^uUy. 

fiophista, ae, m. sopMst. an Mienian. fortiter, adv. bravely. 

Francogallus, i, m. approbatio, onis, / op- studiose, adv. zeahudy. 
FVenckman. [num. probation. [tation, 

Grermanus, i, m. a Ckr- ostentatio, 6nis,/. oden- 

How many has the fear of the divine punishment reclaimed (safe- 
called) from crimes ! The Germans have fought bravely against the 

106 ACTIVE VOICE. [{ 50. 

French (= Freiichiiien)^ So long as we frequented flcho<^ we pnr- 
aned literature diligently. The Alheniana called those sophists, who 
for the sake of ostentation or gain pursued philosophy. To-morrow we 
will celebrate the birth-day of our father. So long as you shall be 
fortunate, you will number many friends. The more any one (qute) 
shall love virtue, so much the more peaceful he will be. The more 
zealously thou shalt occupy thyself with literature, so much the more 
agreeable wilt thou be to thy teachers. When [their] native country 
shall be in danger, the citizens will fight spiritedly against the ene- 

As thou shalt have treated others, so will they treat thee. We have 
always loved our teachers. Because thou hast always kept the precepts 
of .virtue, thou hast acquired for thyself great praise. As the hostile ar- 
my were enteiing the city, all the citizens were full of (gen.) fear. You 
have fought spiritedly against the enemies. When we shall have migra- 
ted into the country, you will still be in the fity. When the hostile army 
shall have laid waste the fields, it will assault the city itself. If you shall 
have adorned [your] souls with virtues, you will always be happy. 

As the enemies had assaulted the city, a great part of the citizens 
had already moved out While thou wast watching, me gentle sleep 
refreshed. While we were taking a walk in the garden, you occupied 
yourselves with literature. The whole day I have eagerly expected 
my friend. When the enemies shall have assaulted the city, the con- 
dition of the citizens will be very wretched- If I shall have carefully 
observed the precepts of virtue, the approbation of the good will never 
be wanting to me. Scarcely hadst thou read to me the letter of the 
friend, as he entered (perf ) my house (ace). If thou shalt pursue lit- 
erature diligently, I shall praise thee. 

L V. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Opto 1. / wish, mihi est, / am anX' utilitas, atis, /. adoan- 

persano I. / cure per- iotis. tage, 

ftdly, &billa, Vie^f. fable. statio, onis,/. posL 

postdlo 1. / demand, opera, ae,/. pains ; op- animal, alis, n. living 

redSuno 1. / love in re- feram do, I take pains, being. 

turn. occupy myself with. rectus, a, um, right ; 

YO%o \. I erdreai, ask. condiscipCilus, i,^ conscientia recta, a 

8up€ro 1. / surpass, hw-student. good conscience. 

overcome. medicua, i,m. physician, persaepe, adv. very qf" 

ev^ott, 4. t^ happens. cognitio, onis, /. knouh ten. 

conscientia, ae, f. con- ledge. ut (with Subj.), (hat, in 

sdousness, conscience, honestas, cttis, 'f. up* order (fiat. See Synu 

cura, ae,/. care ; curae rightness. § 106. 


Persaepe evtoit, ut u^tas cum honestate certet AHlde, ne pecces 
coDtra virtutis praecepta. OmneB parentes optant, ut filii litt^ris dili- 
genter op^ram navent. Ita viv^re deb^mus, ut in omni re rectam con- 
scientiam serv^mus. Omnibus yiribus elaborate, ut littftras diligenter 
tract^tis. Medicus omnem curam adhibet, ut aegrotum persanet Ni- 
hil magis mihi curae est, quam ut animum virtutibus omem. Amo te, 
ut me red&mes. Cura, ut condiscipCllos bonis moribus et diligentia 
sup^res. Dux imperavit, ut milites stationes suas servarent Quam- 
diu scbolam frequentabamus, nihil magis nobis curae erat, quam ut 
animos bonarum rerum cognitione omar^mus. Heri ambulabam, ut 
tristem animum exhilararem. Exercitus noster acerrime pugnHbat, ut 
urbera ab interitu servaret 

Every living being looks to Has (id agit), that it may preserve itselC 
Tou ought to take pains, that you acquire for yourselves the praise of 
the good. You love us, in order that we may love you in return. I 
labored (peif.) with all [my] powers, in order that my teachers might 
praise me. The laws of this state demand, that the citizens should 
obey them (sibi). I entreat thee, that thou wouldst relate to me the 
feble. I pursue literature very zealously, in order that I may delight 
my parents. We ought always so to live, that we may obserye the pre- 
cepts of virtue. 

We fought very spiritedly, in order that we might save our native 
country from destruction. You were more anxious for nothing, than 
that you might adorn [your] souls with virtues. The general com- 
manded (perf), tliat the army might enter the city (ace). So long as I 
frequented the school, I labored with all [my] powers, that I might 
adorn [my] mind with (abL) the knowledge of literature. 

LVL Words to he learned cmd Eooerdses for translation, 

Accel^ro ^,Ihaaien. perturbo 1. / Ihrow inr scholastlca, scholastic 

advento 1. / approach^ to confusiorL instruction. 

arrive, specto 1. / behold, con- multitodo, inis,yi mui' 

castigo 1. / rqnwe, template, tUvdc [tadcing. 

punish, vasto 1. 1 lay wade. oppugnatio, onis, /. of- 

colloco 1. (in aliqua re) mittod. I send, dispatch, oitus, us, m, rising, 

I place, bestow (upon uva, ae,/. grape. risus, Os, m, laugh, 

something). argumentum, i, n, con- praepropfire, adv. pre- 

congrSgo 1. / assemble, tents (of a book). dpitatdy, [lously. 

delibSro 1. / ddiberate. auxilium, i, n. aid, religiose, adv. scrupu- 

explico 1. / explain, institutio, onis, /. tn- ubi, where ; when, so 

gusto 1. / taste, rdi^ strudion ; institutio (as) soon as. 

Rule of Stntax. The conjunction quin, with the meaning that, takes 

108 AOTIVB VOIOB^ [i (50. 

the mbjvndive after: non dubito, I do noi douJtif Bomo dubitet, nohotfy 
daubtSy dubkim non est, His not dovhytd^ and quis dubitat? tohodoubUf 
See Syntax § 107, a 

Non est dubium, quin cives, ubi patria in pericdlo futAfa sit, fortiter 
pugnatOri sint Quis dubitat, quin e scholastica institutione pulebeni- 
mus ad pu^ros redundatQrus sit finctus? Dubium non est, quin bono- 
rum aniffli post mortem in sedem beatorum migratOri sint Non dubi* 
to, quin milites nostri bostes superav£rint Non dubitabam, quin vos 
patriam a servitQte liberatdri ess^tis. Cui dubium erat, quin exereituB 
noster omnes labores et aerumnas fiicile toleratCirus esset ? Quis dubi- 
tat, quin Hannibal contra Romanes fortissimo pugnav^it ? Non dubi- 
tabitis, quin ego yos semper amav^rim. Quis di^Mtat, quin bonos sem- 
per laudaverlmus, males semper vituperav^mus ? Non est dubium, 
quin in omni vitae conditione fidem servai^tis. Non dubito, quin lit- 
tfiris maidmam op^ram navaris. Nemo dubitabat, quin bostes urbem 
expugnarissent Neniini civium dubium erat, quin pro patriae libertate 
acerrime pugnayiss^tis. Nemo dubitabat, quin omnem op^ram in eo 
coUocaviss^mus, ut bostes superar^mus. Quum bostes urbem oppug- 
n&bant, non erat dubium, quin ingens terror omnium civium animos 
occupavisset. Nemo dubitabat, quin tu risum ilium excitasses. Ne- 
m!ni eorum qui ad^rant, dubium erat, quin recte de ilMus libri argu- 
mento judicavissem. 

It is doubtful to no one of those who are present, that concerning 
(de) the character of that man, thou hast judged correctly. Nobody 
doubts, that the enemies have taken the city. It is not doubtful, that 
from scholastic instruction the fairest advantages (as fruits) redound to 
the young. Who doubts, that we shall deliver the land from servitude ? 
Nobody doubted, that all citizens, so soon as then* native country should 
be in danger, would fight bravely. Who doubts, that you have raised 
a laugh ? Nobody doubts, that our army will endure all the toils and 
hardships of war patiently. It is not doubtful, that the attacking of 
the city, has thrown all the citizens into confusion. No one of (gen.) 
us doubted, that our soldiers had overcome the enemies. No one of 
the Romans doubted, that Hannibal had fought very bravely against 
tbem (se). Who doubts, that we have bestowed all pains upon this 
(in eo), that we might overcome the enemy ? Who doubts, that I have 
always loved thee ? Nobody doubted, that we had always praised 
the good, [but] had always censured the bad. Who doubts, that I 
have kept my word (»■ fidelity) ? Nobody doubted, that thou hadst 
occupied thyself earnestly with literature. To no one was it doubtflil, 
that you had always kept the precepts of virtue. 

i§0.] ACTIVS TOIOX. 100 

Dil^iiter euia, mi amice, valetudbiem toam ! N» praeproptoe de 
rebus jiidicate,.o pueri ! Ne dubita de animorum immortalit&te ! Per- 
petilo seirato, mi fili, conacientiam rectam ! DiscipCllua am&to prae- 
ceptores. Laudaldte probos homines, oaatigal6te impr6bo8 ! Omiiea 
amasto deum. 

Look out carefully, fKends, for your health ! Judge not precipitate- 
ly concerning men and things, O boy! Doubt ye not concerning 
the immortality of the soul (plur.)! Scholars should Ioto their teach- 
ers, llion shouldest praise the upright, [but] reprove the wicked. 
You should always, my sons, preserve a good conscience. 

(Comp. Sjvit. § 97.) 

Parentes mei in urbem migrav^runt habitatuno. Legati in urbem 
nostram accelerav^runt auxilium postulatum HannibSdem invictum 
cives sui ex Italia revocav^runt patriam ab hostibus liberatum. Hoa- 
tes pacem postulatum legatos ad noa mittunt Exercitus bostilis ad- 
ventavit agros nostros vastatum. Ingens hominum multitude in urbem 
congregatur ludos publicos spectatum. 

Uva immatOra est peracerba gustatu. Multa sunt dura toleratu. 
Quaestio de animi natOra difficillima est e^licatu. Sitis non fiicilis 
est toleratu. Pira dulcia sunt gustatu. 

The soldiers hastened (perf.), in order to relieve the city from 
the. siege of the enemies. The ambassadors assembled themselves • 
(as were assembled), in order to deliberate concerning the peace. The 
bostOe army approached, in order to assault the city. To-morrow my 
parents will go (= migrate) into (ace.) the country in order to dwell 
[there] through the summer. 

A ripe grape is sweet to taste. The rising of the sun is beautiftil to 
behold. This diing is easy to explain. 

L VH Words to he kamed and Exercises for translation. 

Duro 1. / endure^ oot»- avaritia, ae,/. avarice, cnnatus, as, m. oma- 

tinue. momentum, i, n. cir- ment, 

exprbbro 1. / reproach cumaiance^ particular, ali^nus, a, um, ybrc^gn. 

(one)ybr. officium, i, n. duiy^ ser- exigdus, a, um, Uttk, 

investigo 1. 1 trace outj vice. odiosus, a, um, odwus. 

inveatigate. calamitas, atis, f. losSy teter, tra, tnim,fovl. 

mico 1. I glitter. misfortune. coelestis, e, heavenbf. 

obtemp^ro 1. 1 obey, actio, onis,/. action. praesertim, adv* espe- 

sudo 1. / stoeat. po|ltio, onis,/. drinking^ cmi%. 

Bui^Uco 1. limplare, drink, 

Luscinia cantans animos nostros ddtectat Coelum plenum est stel- 



larum niicaDtiuin. Nullum vitium tetrius est, quam avaritia, praeser- 
tim in principibus rem publicam gubeniantibiis. Cogitantes coelestia, 
haec nostra ut ezigua et minima contemnimus. Odidsum est genus 
hominum officia exprobrantium* £x (after) labore sudanti frigldae 
aquae potio perniciosissima est Vir bonus viro bono non supplicanti 
succurrit. Rei veritatem investigatOri omnia ejus momenta ponderare 
deb^mus. Sapiens bona sibi comparare studet perpetuo duratOra. 
Ciconiae, in alienas terras migraturae, in unum locum congregantur. 
Ingens hominum multitudo in urbem congregatur ludos publicos spec- 

How great is the wisdom of God who governs (= governing) the 
whole world ! The larks sing as they Jly (= flying). Man does not 
love God, when he does not observe (= not observing) the precepts of 
virtue. The power of virtue is very great, ^nce it adorns (== adorning) 
the souls of men with the fairest ornaments. How great are the bene- 
fits of the sun, since it iUuminates (^^ illuminating) the whole earth ! 
The citizens fought spiritedly with the enemies, who were assaulting 
(= assaulting) the city. The hostile army came up in order to assault 
(= intending to assault) the city. The invincible Hannibal, his fellow- 
citizens (= citizens) recalled from Italy, (hat he might deliver (= about 
to deliver) his native country from the enemiea 

Rule of Stntax. The Gerund takes the same case as its verb. 

• In the Nom. with est and the Dat. of the agent^ it should be translated 

by : / (thou, he) must, ought, should, toe (you, they) must, ought, should, 

etc. ; but without the Bat of the agent by : one (we) mujtt, ought, 

should (comp. Synt § 98.). 

De animorum immortalitate nobis non est dubitandum. Obtempe- 
randum est viitutis praeceptis. Propter belli calamitates multis civibus 
e patria in alienas terras migrandum est Si beati esse stud^mus, dili- 
genter nobis est elaborandum, ut in omni actione virtutis praecepta 
observ^mus. Quis dubitat, quin nobis pro patriae libertate pugnan- 
dum sit 


LVIII. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Avdco 1. Icdll away, fortem), / 5^11; my- occasio, onis, f, occa- 

dijudico 1 . 1 distinguish. self ( brave). sion, 

nato 1. / swim. teneo 2. / hold, under- planities, ei,/. plain. 

praebeo, 2. / afford; stand. [kctics. idon^us, a, um, mi^edL 

praebeo me (e. g. dialectifca, ae, f. dia- prudenter, adv, wisely. 

Rule of Syntax. The oblique cases of the Gerund form the cases 
of \he Infinitive ; the Ace, however, can be used only in connection 
with a preposition. Comp. Synt § 98. 

4 51.] PASSIVE VOICE. Ill 

Nom. Ndiart est utile, swimming is uitfuL 

Gen. Ndiandi sum peritus, / am akUful in swimiming^ or to amm ; natan- 
di ars utilis est, tht carl of swimming or to stohn is ustftd, Ars 
civitatem gubemandi, the art of governing a state is djfficulL 

Dat JVatando homo aptus est, man is fitted to swimndng, or to sttim. 

Ace. MUdre disco, I learn swimming or to sunm, but : ad natandum ho- 
mo aptus est, man is fitted for swimming or to swim. 

AbL Naiand^ corpdris vires exercentur, by swimming the powers of (he 
body are exercised, 

Navigare utilissimum est, sed ars navigandi est difficillima. Boui 
discipuli cupidi sunt litt^ras diligenter tractandi. Pribcipes civitatis 
periti esse debent civitatem gubernandi. Dialectica est ars vera ac 
falsa dijudicaudi. Haec planities apta est ppgnando. Ego fratrem 
tuum natare doceo, gaudeoque, quod tam aptum se praebet ad natan- 
dum. Pauci homines idon^i sunt ad aliis imperandum. Virtus hom- 
ines avdcat a peccando. Acriter pugnando milites urbem ab interitii 

To govern a state, is very difficult; [only] a few understand the 
art of governing a state wisely. Avoid thou every occasion of sin- 
ning. Thy brother is very skilful in (gen.) riding. The human intel- 
lect is nourished by (abl.) thinking. 

LIX. Wards to be learned and Exercises /or translation, 

Crucio 1. 1 torment. person and abl. of ef[&sus, a, um, unre- 

cruciatus, us, m. torture. thing), / deprive of. strained, 

emendo i. I improve. poena, aoj /. punish- piger, gra, grum, indo- 

nuntio 1. / announce. ment. lent, slothful. 

obscCkro 1. 1 obscure. morbus, i, m. disease. benevdle, adv. kindhfy 

probo 1. / approve ; incendium i, n. eonfla- benevplenUy. 

probor (e. dat.) I gration. hodie, adv, to-day, 

please. oblivio,dnis,/o52tvum. miaHre, adv. wrdchedlyy 

spolio 1. (with ace of decus, dris, n. honor. in a wretched way, 

R) Passive or the First Conjugation. 

Quum urbs ab hostibus oppugnabatur, omnium civium anirai ingen- 
ti terrore occupabantur. Dum ego cantando delectabar, tu saltando 
delectabare (delectabaris). Quum pugna atrocissima erat, sol nubibus 
obscurabatur. Quamdtu virtus decdre et dignitate sua non spoliabitur, 
tamdiu homines virtutis compdtes etiam in summis cruciatibus beati 
erunt Malefici post mortem justis poenis castigabuntur. Ut alios 
tractaveritis, ita ab iis tractabimini. Si litt^ris diligenter op^ram nava- 
verimus, a parentibus nostris pulchris muneribus donabimur. Quo re- 

. # 



112 FIB9T OONJUOATION. [i 61. 

ligiosius virtOtiB praecepta servabo, eo magis deo probabor. Quum 
urbt ab bostibus expugData erat, onmes cives acerbissimo dolore cra- 
oiabantur. Si libdri Testri bene a vobis educati erunt, magna ad vos 
laus redundabit. 

As yesterday thou wast with me, I was tormented by (abl.) violent 
pains, but to-day I am delivered from them. If thou lovest (== shalt 
love) men, thou wilt be loved by them. The remembrance of renowii- 
ed men is obscured by (abl.) no oblivion. The wise will even then be 
happy, when they shall be tormented by the severest (acerbus) pains. 
While we delighted ourselves (= were delighted) in (abL) song (Ge^ 
rund), you delighted yourselves in the dance (Gerund). The more 
scrupulously you shall observe the precepts of virtue, so much the 
more will you please God. As the victory of our army was announc- 
ed, unrestrained joy prevailed (agitari) through the whole city. As 
the city had been taken possession of by the enemy, at (abl) the very 
same time three conflagrations were raised. Rejoice, boys, lo-morrow 
Christmas (= the birth day of Christ) will be celebrated, and by your 
good parents you will be presented with (abl.) beautifbl presents. If 
thou shalt please (fut perf.) all good men, thou wilt also please God. 
The more kindly I shall have treated others, so much the more kindly 
shall I also be treated by them. As thou enteredst the house (ace.) 
thou wast delighted by (abL) the arrival of thy &ther. 

LX. Words to be learned and Exercises/or translation, 

Confbrmo 1. I form, metus, Os, m. apprehend ignavia, ae,/. cowardiee* 

obsto 1. / oppose, am a sion^Jear. otium, i, n. ecue. 

hindrance. officio 3. / kinder, stand infirmitas, atis,/. weak- 

pnepkco L I prepare. m the way. [tirms. ness. 

reporto 1. / hear off. pergo 3. I go on, con- timiditas, ads,/. Umiidi' 

aollicito 1. 1 disturb. impedio 4. IprevenL iy. 

sollicitus, a, um, dis- impedimentum, i, n. divinus, a, um, dmnt. 

turbed, apprehensive. hindrance ; impedi- immanis, e, crud. 

expleo 2. Ifut/U. mento est, it is a terrestris, e, earthly. 

prohibeo 2. 1 prevent. hindrance. temfere, adv. inconsid- 

metuo 3. / apprehend, constantia, ae, f.firmr erateity, tmihout rear 

Jear. ness. son. 

Rule of Syntax. The conjunction quoimmts with the Subj. stands 
after the verbs and phrases which signify a hindrance, and is to be 
translated into English by that.* (Comp. Synt § 107, 2.)^ 

* Or more elegantly, oflen, by the prepositions, of, from, to, with a corres- 
ponding modification of the words which stand in connection with it. — Tr. 

i 51,] PASSIVE VOICE. 113 

Levitas animi multis pu^ris impedimeDto est, quominus eorum 
mores emendentur et ingenia litterarum studio conformentur. Mili- 
tum ignavia obstabat, quominus hostilis exercitus superai^tur. Unius 
duels constantia obstabat, quomiDus cives ab immanibus militibus mi- 
s^re vexarentur. Terrestrium rerum cura saepe probibet, quominus 
res divinae a nobis curentur. Infirmitas vocis et timidttas animi saepe 
oraturi officiunt, quominus laude dignus judic^tur. Senectus non im- 
P^dit, quominus litterarum studia studiose a nobis tractentur. Timidi- 
tas saepe imp^dit, quominus animus noster contra pericCUa, quae nobis 
inmiinent, praepar^tur. 

Weakness of voice stood in the way ofyotar being accounted (= hin- 
dered you, that you should be accounted) a great orator. The firm- 
ness of the general alone prevents the citizens from being annoyed by 
the cruel soldiers. Already has levity been an hindrance to many 
boys, that their manners should be improved and their minds be formed 
by the study of literature. The cowardice of the soldiers hindered, 
that the hostile army should be overcome. 

Rule «»■ Syntax. After the words and phrases which express year 
or apprehensionf ne with the Su\^. is to be translated by that^ and ut with 
the Subj. by {hat not (Comp. Synt § 106, 3.). ^^ 

Piger discipdlus semper metuit, ne a praeceptoribus castig^tur. Me- 
tuo, ne a te vitup^rer. Timeo, ut victoria ab exercitu nostro de hos- 
tibus report6tur. Si tam forttter contra hostem dimicare pergimus, 
non est pericdlum, ne ab iis superSmur. Si officia vestra semper reli- 
giose expl^tis ; ne metuite, ut omnibus probemlnL In metu eramus, 
ut morbo liberareminL Veh^mens cura animos nostros sollicitabat, ne 
ab hostibus vexar^mur. Sollicitus eram, ne in qtio turbarer, ^ 

I was in apprehension that I should be censured by thee. I appre- 
hended, that I should be disturbed in my ease. The soldiers were in 
apprehension that victory over the enemy would not be borne oflf. A 
violent apprehension (= care) disturbs our minds, that we may be an- 
noyed by the" enemies. Why did they apprehend, that they should 
not be delivered from sickness? If thou hast always fulfiUed thy 
duties, do not fear that thou mayest not please (probor) all. If our 
army continues to fight so bravely against the enemies, there is no 
( = not) fear, that it may be overcome by them. Indolent scholars always 
fear, that they shall be punished by [their] teachers. We were in ap- 
prehension, that we i^ould be accounted ungrateful by you. Not with- 
out reason so oppressive an apprehension seized you, that you would 
be annoyed by the enemies. 



LXI Words to be learned and Eacerdsesfor transkodon. 

Contamlno 1. / coip- ignominia, ae,/. ignd- aeqtnis, a, iim, eqwd; 

tandnaU, mimf, eequus animiify ' 

exdro 1. IjnwaU upon flaj^tkini, i, n. foul equanifmfy, 

by entreaty. deed, sceleratus, a, urn^ 

migro 1. c. ace I trans- prodltor, oris, m. traitor, wicked. 

gress. splendor, oris, m. sjden- sancte, adv. sacredly. 

multo LI punish. dor. sanctitas, atis,/ «acre(^ 

noto 1. Itnark, brand, eivitas, fitis, / dtken- ness. 

occo 1. / harrow. ship^ right of dtaen- ain, co9^. but ^ 

rep£u*o 1. / rqHxir. sk^. 

Si industrius «8, laudator ; sin pig«r, Tituperator ! Si leges eivitatiB 
migrayeritis, multaHibior ! Ager justo tempdre ar&tor e^ occator ! Pro- 
ditores patriae civitate spoliaDtbr! Vosf o scelerati ciires, ignominii. 
iK>taiB!nor ! Leges dii^ae ab hominibus sanete obsenrantor 1 Si qmi. 
peccaTiSris, aequo animo Tituperare! EitoramSDi, o mei parentes! 
O mi puer, delectare litterarum. studio ! Precibus nostris exorare, o 
judex! Ne flagitiis contanniiamiaor I 

Be prevaHed upon by entreaty, my &ther ! O my boys, delist 
yourselves (= be delighted) in (abL) the study of literature. If you 
have committed a &x^ (flit perf.) allow yoursekes to be (»= be ye) cen- 
sured with equMiimky! Thou shouldest not be contaminated with 
foul deeda If you are diligent, you i¥ill be praised ; but if you are 
indolent, you trill be censured* Virtue should always be sacredly 
observed. The fields, . at the right time, should be ploughed and 
harrowed. If diou transgressest (fut perf) the laws of the state, thou 
shouldst be puniMied. Thou, O wicked citizen, riioul<kt be branded 
with ignominy! 

LXn Words to be learned and Exerdses/or translation. 

Adaequo 1. IleveL spero 1. 1 hope. humanitas, atis,/ hu- 

appropinquo ]. / tjqfh vi61o 1. Iviomte. manity. 

proach. succenseo 2. lam qffm- pernicies, 6i,/. dislrue- 

exstirpo 1. / extirpate. ded, tion. 

eztermino 1. 1 expel. accldo 3. 1 happen. ezimius, a, um, distin- 

fundo 1. 1 found. dimitto 3. T (Hsmiss. guishedf excellent. 

labefacto 1. / shake. efforesco 3. 1 flourish, jam pridem, adv. long 

muto 1. / change, ex^ ruo 3. / rush. since. 

change. pueritia, me^f. bcyhood. hiterdlu, ode. by day, 

regno 1. / mJe, reign, sdum, Lnythe ground, 

Melior est certa pax, quam sperata victoria. Terra mutata non 

} 5L] rA^SIYS TOICS. Hi 

mutas mores. Mulla in hae vka aecidant tton «aaqw6tatft. Oiibm« 
dolores padeiM^ tolerati tniiiUB acerbi sunt Dux dimitdt militeB ob 
eziiniam TOtutem laudatos. Muhi juv^nes, in prima pueritia a paren- 
tibuB male educati, in perniciem ruunt (J 

The friendship finrnied (=» united) between good and wise [men] is 
disturbed by (abL) notiiing (as no thing). Dangers, which totrt not t3> 
peded (^= not expected) by us, discompose our minds more (magis) 
than dangers Which were long since expected, ffhen ihou art cmiur- 
td (s= having been censured) on account of a fiiult, be not offended at 
the censurer (asthe one censing). J3^Uriht walls had been kvded 
(=s the walls having been leveled) to the ground by the enemies, they 
are repaired by the citizens. By day we do not see the stars, btcanue 
(hey are obscured (as they having been obscured) by the splendor of the 

(Coneeming the MmtiM nbsolmU Gomp. Synt 100, 4, b). 

Regnante Xerxe^), Graeci de Persis splendidisrimam victoriam r&- 
pertav6runt Inter boooe viros et deura amicitia est, conciliante nato- 
rk^ Appropinqusnte hitoie'), multae ores mitiores regiones petunt 

Recuper&ta pace^), artes efflorescunt Regibus extermin&tis^), Rio- 
TBBm Mbdram rempubfteam fUudav€runt Terri mut&ta*), mores homi- 
BUffl non mutantnr. Legibus divinis sancte observatis'^), vita nostra 
beats erit 

While Numa Pompilius reigned, the Romans were very prosperous. 
While the larks sing, we go to walk over (per) the plains. While Au- 
gustus reigned, the splendor of the empire was the greatest When 
a just king administers the state, the laws also are just. When the 
swallows migrate into milder regions, winter approaches. 

After the plains were laid waste, the enemies assaulted (perf.) the 
city. When the sacredness of the laws is violated, the foundation of 
tiie state is shaken. When ibe city had been taken, an immense oon- 
iagration was raised. 

LXIIL Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Ooerceo, iii, itum 2. / del^o, 6vi, 6tum 2. / par^o. Hi 2. I ohey^ am 
restram, destroy, obedterUf/oUow. 

*) Whiie Xerxes retffned, or : under the reign o£ Xerxes. *) Since na- 
ture forms (it). •) When the winter approaches, or : on the approach of 
winter. *) After peace is restored, or : on the restoration of peace. •) After 
the kings had been expelled, or : after tlie expulsion of the kings. ') When 
the country has been exchanged, or : after an exchange of countries. ^) 
"When the divine laws are sacredly observed. 


patfio, tli 2. / dand instrCio, uxi, uctom 3. conjuratio, dnis,/. con- 

vpon. to fumiahj to arrange, tpuwy, 

val^o, di, itum 2. / am scribo, psi, ptum 3. to aditus, Qs, m. approach, 

strong J weU. write, acies, 6i,/. 1) edge; 2) 

absumo, sumpsi, sump- esuiio 4 / hunger, line-of-battle, 

turn S, to consume, sitio 4. 1 third, teniiis, e, Udn, 

ciDgo, Dxi, nctum 3. corona, ae,/ garland, quoad, conj, so long ai. 

to surround, membrana, ae,/. mem- fere, adv, cdmost, 

det^go xi, ctum 3. to brane, probe adv, excellenUy, 

detect. ocillus, i, fTi. eye, properly, 

excello, ui 3. to be dis- incendiiim, i, n. cor^lar 

anguished, gration, 

C) Parallel exercises for all the Conjugations. 
a) Indicative Preseni, Imperfect and Future Active qfaUtht Conjugations, 

Laudo, ezerc^o, duco, erudio. Laudat, exerces, ducis, erCidis. 
Laudat, exercet, ducit, ehidit Laudabam, exerc^bam, duc^bam, 
erudiebam. Laudabas, exerc^bas, duc^bas, erudi^bas. Laud^bat, 
exerc^bat, duc6bat, erudiebat. Laudabo, exerc^bo, ducam, erudiam. 
Laudabis, exerc^bis, duces, erudies. Laudabit, exerc^blt, ducet, 
erudlet Gaud^bara, quod tu et pater tuus yalebati& Dum ego pin- 
g^bam, tu Bcrib^bas, et firater leg^bat. Milltes nostri castra InuIu6ba^t. 
Hostes aciem instru^bant 

Praeceptor gaud^bat, quod yob ejus praeceptis parebatis. Dum nos 
legebamus, vos scribebatis et sorores acu pingSbant. Quum hostes 
urbem Lostram obsidione cingebant, cives earn custodiebant Tibi 
plac^bas, aliis displic^bas. Dum tu dormi^bas, ego te custodi^bam. 
Omnes boni legibus divinis semper par^bunt Quoad vives, bene 
vives. Dum tu dormies, ego te custodiam. Virtutis honorem nulla 
obllvio delebit Si virtu tem colitis, aditus in coelum vobis patSbit 

We praise, we exercise, we lead, we instruct You praise, you 
exercise, you lead, you instruct They praise, they exercise, they lead, 
they instruct We praised, we exercised, we led, we instructed. You 
praised, you exercised, you led, you instructed. They praised, they 
exercised, they led, they instructed. We will praise, w^ will exercise, 
we will lead, we will instruct You will praise, you will exercise, you 
will lead, you will instruct They will praise, they will exercise, they 
will lead, they will instruct We rejoiced, that (quod) thou wast well. 
While we wrote, you read, and the brothers painted. 

While the enemies were arranging the line-of-battle, our soldiers 
fortified the camp. The teachers rejoiced, that (quod) the scholars 

i 60.] ACTIVE VOICE. 117 

obeyed their (eorum) precepts. While I was singing, thou wast learn- 
ing, and the sister eipl^roidering. While the enemy surrounded our 
city with a blockade, ^e guarded it You (leased yourselves, others 
you displeased. While you slept, we guarded you. So long as you 
i^all live, you will live weU. While you shall deep, We ¥rill guari 

b) IncRcative Perfect Active qfaUfhe Cot^ugaiions. 

liaudavi, ezercui, duxi, erudiv^ Lauda(vi)Bti, exercuisti, duxist^ 
erudi(?i)8tL Laudavit, exereuit,*duxit, entdivit Graecia onmibus 
artibus floruit Hostes aciem instrux^runt Milites per totum diem 
siti^runt et esuri^runt Laudo vos, quod mentes vestras in litterarum 
studio probe exercuistis. Multas lltt^ras hodie scripe£mu& NatOra 
ocillos tenuisslmis membranis vestivit Duces cupiditates militum 
coercu^runt Bellum atrocissimun^ gessimus. Cur domOs vestrae 
pariStes coronis omavistis et vestivistis? Cur taciiistis? Bellum 
urbis nostrae opes absumpsit Cic€ro conjurationem Catilinae detexit 
Incendium totam fere urbem absumpsit 

We have praised, we have exercised, we have led, we have instruct- 
ed. You have praised, you have exercised, you have led, you have 
instructed. They have (nraised, they have exercised, they have led, 
they have instructed. The generd has arranged the line of battle before 
(ante) the city. The Greeks were [pexCj cbstinguiabed by (abL) 
the gloiy of [their] arts and literature. I praise thee, that (quod) thou 
bast exercised thy mind properly in the study of literat^por I had 
written the letter. The general has restrained the passions of the 
scddiera. We have carried on a very bloody war. Wherefore hast 
thou adorned and hung (as clothed) the walls of thy house with g»^ 
lands ? Why hast thou been silent ? The wars have consumed our 

LXIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Convdlo 1. I fly togdhr excdlo, oliii, ultum 3. temeritas, atis,/ mcof^ 

CTf hasten together, to cuUivate, siderateness, rashness, 

specto 1. / heholdy have metilo, Hi 3. to fear, diu, adv, long time, 

in view. negltgo, exi, ectum 3. vix, adv, scarcely, 

cav6o, cavi, cautum 2. to neglect, priusquam (or prius, 

to be on on^s guard, expedio 4. I disentan- quam) conj, sooner 

c(»tenmo,mpsi,mptum gle, get ready, . . . Hum, 

3. to dtspise, finio 4 I endy conclude, simuktque, co^, so 

edQco, xi, ctum 3. to obSdio 4 I obey, (as) soon as, 

lead out. 


c) Indkaiive Pluperfect Active qfaUihe Conjugations. 

Lauda(y^)ratn, exercu^ram, dux^ram, erudi(v)6ram. Lauda(y£)ras, 
exercu^rasy dux^ras, erudi(v)6ra8. Laudafv6)rat, exercu^nit, dux^rat 
erudi(v)6rat Haec civU^s diu floni^rat, quia semper legibus paru^rat 
Vix Caesar aciem instrux^rat, quum hostes in unum locum convola- 
v^runt Praeceptoribus vestris pla^ueratis, quia semper eorum prae- 
ceptis obedieratis. Tu nobis valde nocu^ras, quia temeritatem tuam 
Don coercu^ras. Incendium totM fere urbem absumps^rat Vix 
milites nostn castra muniv^rant, quum Caesar aciem instruxit 

We had praised, we had exercised, we had led, we had instructed. 
You bad praised, you had exercised, you had led, you had instructed. 
They had praised, they had exercised, they had led, they had instruct-' 
ed. Why hadst thou been silent ? Scarcely had the enemies arrang- 
ed the line of little, as Caesar led out (perf ) the soldiers from the 
camp. The war had consumed the resources of our state. Thou 
hadst pleased thy teacher, because thou hadst always obeyed his pre- 
cepts. You had injured that [man] greatly, because you had not res- 
trained your rashness. 

d) Indicative Future Perfect Active ofaUihe Corrugations. 

Lauda(v6)ro^exercu6ro, duxCro, erudi(v)6ra Lauda(v€)ris, exercu€- 
ris, dux^ris, erudi{v)6ris. Lauda(v6)rit, exercuCrit, dux^rit^ erudi(v)6rit 
Nisi virtutis praec-ep'tis parueritis, aditus in coelum vobis non patfebit 
Divites eritis, si divitias contempseritis. Non prius dormi^mus, quam 
negotia nostra flnierimus. Si cupiditates vestras coercueritis, bead 
eritis. Simulatque littfiras scripserimus, ambulabimus. Quum milites 
castra muniv^rint, ad pugnam se expedient 

We shall have praised, we shall have exercised, we shall have led, 
•we shall have instructed. You will have praised, you will have exer- 
cised, you will have led, you will have instructed. They will have 
praised, they will have exercised, they will have led, they will have 
instructed. If thou shalt have obeyed (parfere) the precepts of virtue, 
thou wilt be loved by all. Thou wilt be rich, if thou shalt 'have 
despised riches. Not sooner shall I sleep, than I shall have concluded 
my business (plur.). If thou shalt have restrained thy passions, thou 
wilt be .peaceful. So soon as I shall have written the letter, I will go 
to waQc. So soon as the soldiers shall have got ready for battle, the 
general will lead them out of the camp. ' 

) 50.] ACTIVE VOICB. 1 19 

e) Subjunctive Present and Imper/ed Active of all the Conjugations, 

Curo, ut pu^ri mores emendem, corpus exerc£am, aniinuin excdlam, 
inentem erudtam. Curo, ut piWi itAe^ ^meoiBS, corpus exerceas, 
animum excdlas, mentem ^u^ia&vv^Curo, ut praeceptor pueri mores 
emendety corpus exerceat, animum excdlat, mentem erudiat Cura- 
bam, ut pueri mores emendarem, corpus exerc^rem, animum excol^ 
rem, mentem erudirem. Curabam, ut pueri mores emendares, corpus 
exerc^res, animum excol^res, mentem erudires. Curabam, ut praecep- 
tor pueri mores emendaret, corpus exerc^ret, animum excol^ret, men- 
tem erudiret Non dubitamus, quin nobis fidem habeatis. Moneo 
vos, ne parentium praecepta negligatis. Cav^te, pueri, ne garriatis ! 
Lacedaemoniorum leges id spectant, ut laboribus erudiant juventatem. 
Metu^bam, ne vobis displic^rem. Tim^bam, ne inimicus mihi noc^ret 
Metuebam, ne tac6res. Cur metuis, ne taceam ? Hostes timent, ne 
dux milites e castris edOcat. 

We look out [for this], that we may improve the manners of the 
boys, exercise [their] bodies, cultivate [their] minds, instruct [their] in- 
tellects. We look out [for this], that you may improve the manners of 
the boys, exercise [their] bodies, cultivate [their] minds, instruct [their] 
intellects. We look out [for this], that the teachers may improve the 
manners of the boys, exercise [their] bodies, cultivate [their] minds, 
instruct [their] intellects. We looked out [for this], that we might im- 
prove the manners of the boys, exercise [theur] bodies, cultivate [their] 
minds, instruct [their] intellects. We looked out [for this], that you 
might improve the manners of the boys, exercise [their] bodies, cul- 
tivate [their] minds, instruct [their] intellects. We looked out [for this], 
that the teachers might improve the manners of the boys, exercise 
[their] bodies, cultivate [their] minds, instruct [their] intellects. 

I doubt not, that thou hast confidence in me. I admonish thee, th/xt 
thou shouldept not (ne) neglect the precepts of thy parents. Be on 
your guard, boy, how (= that, ne) thou chatterest The laws of the 
Lacedemonians had this in view, that they might instruct youth in la- 
bors. We feared, that*(ne) we might displease you. We feared, that 
(ne) the enemies might injur* us. We feared, that (ne) you might be 
silent Why did you fear, that (ne) we might be silent ? The ene- 
mies feared, that (ne) the general might lead- out the soldiers from the 
camp. I fear, that (ne) I may displease you. Why dost thou fear, that 
(ne) thou mayest displease us ? 


LXV. Words to be learned cmd Exercises/or translation. 

Constat l.U 18 knotoru lenio 4 I rdieve^ soothe, aeger, gra, grum, dck 

puto 1. 1 believe, thipJc mollio^.^/ rmder pli^ (of the mind), 
adspick), spexi, b)^c* /f •artt$,0Aefi,\ • ^ gn&yfterj adv, zealously, 

turn 3. to look at, nuntius^ i^ nu rmmt^ unde, adv.whtnce. 

oombOro, ussi, ustuiii consoktio, 6nis,/. con- 

3. to bum i^. aoUxtion. 

conigo, exi, ectum 3. longinquitas, &tis, /. 

to correct, improve, length, distance, 

f ) Subjunctive Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Jidive qf aUthe Om- 


Nemo dubitat, quin ego puenim semper bene educa(v4^)rim, benerdle 
monu^rim, diligenter correz^rim, gnaviter custody v)^m. Nemo du* 
bitat, quin puerum semper bene educa(y€)ris, benerole monuSris, dili- 
genter correx^ris, gnaviter custodi(v)£ris. Nemo dubitat, quin pater 
puerum semper bene educa(v6)rit, benevole monu^rit, diligenter cor- 
rexSrit, gnaviter custodi(v)6rit. Nemo dubitabat, quin puerum semper 
bene educa(yi)ssem, benevole monuissem, dilligenter correxissem, 
gnaviter cu8todi(vi)ssenL Nemo dubitabat, quin puerum semper bene 
educa(vi)sses, benevole monuisses, diligenter correxisses, gnaviter cu- 
stodi(vi)sses. Nemo dubitabat, quin pater puerum semper bene edu- 
ca(vi)sset, benevole monuisset, diligenter correxisset, gnaviter custodi* 

Nescio, cur tacueri^s. Metuimus, ne hostes urbem combuss^rint 
Narrate mihi, qua consolatione aegrum amici animum leniveritis. Non 
dubito, quin dux temeritatem militum coercu^rit Nescio, cur puerum 
puniveiitis. Narrate nobis, quid parentis scrips^rint Nesclmus, 
unde amici hunc nuntium audiv^rint Non dubito, quin pueri prae- 
cepta mea memoria custodi^rint. Hostes timent, ne dux milites e 
castris edux^rit. Nesciebam, cur tacuissetis. Metuebamus, ne hostes 
urbem obsidione cinxissent. Non dubitabam, quin praecepta mea 
memoria custodivissetis. Non dubito, quin puerum bene educaturus 
sis. Non dubito, quin dux temeritatem militum coercitarus sit Ne- 
mo dubitat, quin hostes urbem obsidione cincturi sint. Non dubita- 
bam, quin longinqultas tempdris dolorem tuum mollitura esset Non 
dubitabam, quin praecepta mea memoria servaturus esses. 

Nobody doubts, that we have always brought up the boys well, have 
kindly admonished them, have carefully corrected them, have zealous- 
ly guarded them. Nobody doubts, that you 'have always brought up 
the boys well, have kindly admonished them, have carefully corrected 

{50.] ACTIVE VOIOB. 121 

them, have zealously guarded them. Nobody doubts, that the teachers 
have always brought up the boys well, have kindly admonished them, 
have carefully corrected them, have zealoudy guarded them. Nobody 
doubted, that we had always brought up the boys well, had kindly ad- 
monished them, had carefully corrected them, had zealously guarded 
them. Nobody doubted, that you had always brought up the boys 
well, had kindly admonished them, had carefully corrected them, had 
zealously guarded them. Nobody doubted, that the parents had al- 
wajTS brought up the boys well, had kindly admonished them, had care- 
ftdly corrected them, had zealously guarded them. 

We know not, why thou hast been silent. I feared, that (ne) the 
enemy had burned the city. Relate to me, by (abl.) what consolation 
thou hast relieved the sick mind of thy friend. I doubted not, that the 
general had restrained the rashness of the soldiers. We know not, 
why thou hast punished the boy. Relate to me what the father has 
written. I know not, whence the enemies have heard the news. I 
doubt not, that the boy has kept my precepts in (abl.) remembrance. 
The enemies feared, that the general had led out the soldiers from the 
camp. We knew not, why thou hadst been silent We feared, that 
the enemies had surrounded the city with (abl.) a blockade. I doubted 
not, that thou wouldst bring up the boy well. I doubted not, that the 
general would restrain the rashness of the soldiers. We doubted not, 
that the enemies would surround the city with a blockade. I doubt 
not, that length of time vnll abate thy suffering. 

g) BnperaHve and Supine Active of all (he Ckmjvgalions. 

Lauda, exerce, scribe, ob^. Laudato, exerc^to, scribito, obedito. 
Praeceptor puerorum mores emendate, corpora exerc^to, animoe exco- 
Uto, mentes erudito ! Tac^te, pueri ! Disce, puer ! Ne garrite, pueri ! 
Liiberi parentibus obediunto. Coelestia semper spectato, humana con- 
temnito ! Cupiditates coercitote ! Puer, ne contemntto praecepta ma- 
gistrorum tuorum ! Die, quid pater scripserit Educ nos, O dux, con- 
tra hostes ! Venio te rogatum, ut mecum ainbdles. Uva matura dul- 
cis est gustatu. Cupiditates difficiles sunt coercitu. Haec regio pul- 
chra est adspectu. Vox lusciniae est suavis auditu. 

Praise ye, exercise, write, obey. You should praise, exercise^ write, 
obey. Teachers should improve the manners of the boys, should ex- 
ercise [their] bodies, should cultivate [their] minds, should instruct 
[their] intellects. Be silent, boy! Learn, O boys! Do not chatter, 
boy! The boy should obey the precepts of [his] teachers. You 



i^oiild alwa3rs regard heaTBoiy, [but] despue httmaii [things]. ThoU 
shouldst restrain the passions. Say, what thou hast written. Lead, O 
general, the soldiers against the enemies. We come, in order (Supini^) 
to ask you, that you would go to walk with us. An unripe grape is pun- 
gent to taste. The rashness of the scddiers was d^cult to restraim 
These regions are beautifid to lock at The city is difficult to guard. 

h) Porftc^, Qenmdand h^viwtivt Mwe ofdl ikt CofngugaUont^ 
Exercitus pugnans urbem intrayit. Animus, se non tridene, alitt 
cemit Miles, se forfiter contra hostes defendens, laudatur. Hostes, 
urbem oppugnaturi, castra muniverunt Sapiens bona semper placitu- 
ra laudat Hostes yeniunt, urbem obsidione cincturL Venio auditu-> 
itts, quid pater scrips^rit Ars nayigandi utilisskna est Sessus vi^ 
dendi acenlmus est Sapientia est ars yiyendL Obediendum eift 
praeceptis yirtutis. Hostes urbem nostram expugnare student Cupi- 
ditates coerc^re deb^mus. LibSri parentes suos colore debent Mi- 
lites urbem custodire debent 

The soldiers fighting entered the city. Souls, not seeing themselyes, 
see other [things]. The soldiers, who defend (=s defending) themselyes 
brayely against the enemies, are praised. Boys, v^ chatter (= chat- 
tering) in school, are troublesome. The enemies come wishing to as' 
sault the city. Strive, O boys, to obtain goods, ever about to please. 
The enemies came wishing to assault the city. We come wishing to 
hear what the friend has written thee. The art of writing is yery 
difficult By thinking and learning, the intellect (mens) is nourished. 
The opportunity to hear (ss of hearing) is rarer than the opportunity 
to see (a* of seeing). 

(Concerning the Aoc. with the Infin., eomp. Synt. § 106.) 

Scimiis, deum mundum gubemare (we know that God governs the 
world). Credo, meum consilium tibi plac^re (I belieye diat my plan 
pleases thee). Credo, fratrem ping^re. Audimus, hostes ante lurbem 
castra munire. Audiyi, milites nostros acerrime pugnasse. Quis nes- 
cit, Socr&tem semper yirtutis praeceptis paruisse ? Constat, Cicer5nem 
conjurationem Catilinae detexisse. Credo, te dormisse. Spero, yos 
consilium meum probaturos esse. Credimus, ducem temeritatem mil- 
itum coerciturum esse. Puto, patrem eras scripturum esse. Onmes 
ci;res sperant, milites urbem custodituros ease. 

I belieye, that thou approyest my plan. I know, that you obey nae. 
I believe, that the fitther writes. I believe, ^ot the boy sleeps. The 

f 51.] PASSITB VOICS. 123 

brother relates to me, that thou hast ^>proved my plan. We hear, 
that the general has resd'aiiied the raalmesa of the aoldien* We be- 
lieve, that the &ther has written. We have heard, that the enemief 
have Ibrtified a camp before the cky. I believe, that the soldieni will 
fight spiritedly. I hope, that the plan will please thee. All Romans 
hoped, that Cicero would detect the conspiracy of CSatiline. I hope, 
that I shall soon hear thianews. 

LXYL Words to be kaamedand Exercises for translation, 

Desp^ro 1. 1 despair, jungo, nn, nctam 3. natur&lis, e, naiwraL 

mgeo, xi, ctum 2, lis iojoin^ oomied. eztemplo, mi», Mime- 

intreasty enridL vivo, xi, ctum 3L (o lioe, diatdy, 

de^^rreo % I JrighUn propositum, i, n. pur- streoue, adv. vigorous- 

from. IfiU^ pose. bf. 

bppleo, ^vi, ^tum 2. to difficultas, atis, f. d\ffir postquam, eoty. qfler 
conspicio, exi, ectum 3. cuHy. IhaL 

io discover, subitus, a, um, sudden, 

i) Micative Present^ Jbnperfed and Future Passivt f^aUthe Qn^ugatunis. 
Ijtudor, ezercdor, ducor, erudior. Laudaris, exerc^ris, duofiris, em- 
dbntL Laudilur, ezjerc^tur, ducitur, eruditur. Laudabar, exero6bar, 
diicebar, erudidbac Laudab6re, exerceb&re, ducebaie, erudiebare. 
lAudabatur, exercebatur, doceb&tur, ^xidi^batur. Laudabor, exerc^ 
bor, duear, erudlar. Laudab^re, exerceb^ra, duc^re, erudiftre. Lau- 
dabitus, exercebitur, duofetur, emdi^tur. 

We are praised, we are exercised, we are led, we are instructed. 
You are praised, you are exercised, you are led, you are instructed. 
They are praised, they are exercised, they are led, they are instructed. 
We were praised, we were exercised, we were led, we were instruct- 
ed. You were praised, you were exercised, you were led, you were 
instructed. They were praised, they were exercised, they were led, 
i^ey were instructed. We shall be praised, we ^lall be exercised, we 
«liaH be led, we sfaidl be instructed. You wUl be praised, you virill be 
exercised, you vnll be led, you vnll be instructed. They vnll be prais- 
ed, they will be exercised, they will be led, they will be instructed. 

Quum in litt^ris exerc^mur, animi nostri multarum rerum utillum 
cognitione augentur. Quum subito pericCilo terr^mur, non debemus 
extemplo de salute nostra desperare. Quoad litt^ris honos suus erit, 
Graeci et Latini scriptores in scholis legentur. Si semper bene 
vix^ris, ab omnibus dilig€re. Virtutis honos nulla oblivione delebitur. 
Quum urbs ab hostibus oppugnabatur, a civibus aciiter defendebatur. 


When you are exercised in literature, your souls are enriched by 
(abl.) the kno.wledge of many useful things. When thou art frighten- 
ed by (abl.) a sudden fear, thou shouldest not immediately despair of 
thy safety. The Greek and Latin writers are read in the schools. If 
you shall always have lived well, you will be esteemed by all. The 
city which was assaulted by the enemies, was defended spiritedly by 
the citizens. 

k) Sulyundive Present and haperfed Passive of all the ConjugaHons, 

Pater curat, ut ego bene eddcer strentle exercear^ probe excdlar, dil- 
igenter erudiar. Curo, ut bene educ^re, strenue exerce&re, probe exoo- 
lare, diligenter erudiare. Curo, ut puer bene educ6tur, strenue exer- 
ceatur, probe excolatur, diligenter erudiatur. Pater curabat, ut ego 
bene educarer, strenue ei^erc^rer, probe excoterer, diligenter erudirer. 
Curabam, ut bene educar6re, strenue exercer^re, probe excoler^re, dil- 
igenter erudir^re. Curabam, ut filius tuus bene educar^tur, strenue 
exercer^tur, probe excoler^tur, diligenter erudir^tur. 

Our father looks out [for this], that we may be well brought up, 
"vigorously exercised, properly cultivated, carefully instructed. Your 
fitther looks out [for this], that you may be well brought up, vigorously 
exercised, properiy cultivated, carefully instructed. Parents lo<& out 
[for this], that the manners of [their] children (lib£ri) may be improved, 
[their] bodies vigorously exercised) {then*] minds properly cultivated, 
[their] understandings carefully instructed. Our father looked out [for 
this], that we might be well brought up, vigorously exercised, proper- 
ly cultivated, carefully instructed. Your father looked out [for this], 
that you might be well brought up, vigorously exercised, properly cul- 
tivated, carefully instructed. The parents looked out [for this], that 
the manners of [their] children might be improved, [their] bodies 
exercised, [their] minds cultivated, [their] understandings instructed. 

Quis nescit, quam praeclaris fructibus animi nostri in litterarum 
studiis augeantur ? Tim^mus, ne exercltus noster ab hosttbus vinca- 
tur. Omnes dives metuebant, ne urbs ab hostibus obsidione cingerfe- 
tur. Lacedaemoniorum leges id spectabant, ut laboribus erudir^tur 
juventus. Curae mihi est, ut a te diligar. Gives metuunt, ne castra nb 
hostibus ante urbem muniantur. 

I doubt not, that the soul may be enriched with (abL) exceUent firuit 
in the study of literature. We feared, that our army might be con- 
quered by the enemies. All citizens fear, that the city may be sur- 
rounded by the enemies with (abl.) a blockade. We look out [for 

^51.] PA8SIVS VOICS. 125 

this], thai the youth may he instructed in (abL) labora. We are anx- 
ious, that we may be esteemed by you. The citizens apprehended, 
that a camp might he. fortified by the enemies befbre the city. 

1) IruUcative and Subjunctive Perfed, Plupeifed and Future Perfed 

Passive qf aUihe Coryugatums. 

Milites ob fortitud&ieDi a duce laudati sunt Pueri in litterarum 
cfodiis gnayiter exerciti sunt Coojuratio CatiMnae a Cicerone detecta 
est OeiUi tenuissimis membr&nis a natura vestiti sunt Cupiditates 
mifcttim a duce ftirtissimo coercitae 9unt TVia beUa atrodssima gesta 
sunt inter Romanes et CiUthaginienses. Quum rex urbem intrabal, 
omfiiiiim eivium domus ooronis et floribus vestitae et omatae arant 
Maximo ineendie Iota fere urbs absumpta erat Vix acaes a Caesfire 
iostrucca emt, qimm hostes in UBum iocum convolav^runt Non ens 
dives, nisi divitiae a te eontemptee enint 

Non prius dormi^mus, quam negotia vestra finita erunt Beati noo 
eilds^ nisi cupiditates wemns a vobis coercitae erunt Simulac castra 
munita, -erunt, milites ae ad pilgiiam e^qtedient Labor voluptasque 
OftturiU quadam soeietate inter se juncta sunt Multae urbes ab 
hostibus combustae sunt Vix hostes conspecti erant, quum milites a 
duce e castris in aciem educti sunt Metuebamus, ne urbs ab hostibus 
obsidione cincta esset Die mihi, quid tibi a sorore scriptum sit Die 
nobis, qua cQpsolatione aeger amici animus lenitus sit Die, cur puer 
pumtus sit Afetuo, ne milites subito pericillo ternti sint 

I have been tormented by (abL) the most pung^t paki& The en- 
xnies hsLwe be&i fiightened by (abL) sudden fear. The upright maa 
h0i^4)een lovdd jiuid esteemed by all. The sick mind of the friend has 
* been soothed by (abL) our coesolatioB. I doubt not, that the pasdons 
■of the soldiers have been restrained by the bravest generaL The solr 
diers have been led out of the eamp by the generaL I know not, why 
the b^ys have been (eubj.) punished by you. We apprehended, that, 
(ne) the soldieni had been fiightened by (abL) the sudden danger. 

I know not what may have been written you by the sister. Wc 
fear, that (ne) die city may be encompassed by (abl.) a blockade. The 
enemies were discovered (perf.) before (ante) ^e gates of the city. 
After my business, (plur.) shall be concluded I will go to walk. So 
soon as the enemies shall be iseen, we will get ready for battle. I 
doubt not, that riches have been despised by thee. We feared, that, 
by the confiagration, many houses had been consumed. We fear, that 
many cities have been burned up by the enemies. 

11* 4^ • • 


m) Imperative, Infinitive and Participie Passive of all the Conjugations. 

O puer, bene educare, strenue exerc6re, probe excolfire, diligenter 
erudire ! O puer, bene educator, strenue exerc^tor, probe excolltor, 
diligenter eruditor ! Puer bene educator, strenue exercfetor, probe ex- 
colltor, diligenter eruditor. Si quid peccav^ris, aequo animo castigare. 
Ne rerum difficultatibus a propoato deterremini ! Deus pie colitor ! 
Ne yincimini cupiditatibus. Leges divinae ne contemn untor. Imprd- 
bi puniuntor. Temeritas ratione coercfetor. O puer, strenue exercere 
in litterarum studiis ! Bonus discipCilus studet laudarL Boni disci- 
puli student exercSri in litterarum studiis. Sapientes semper ratione 
regi student 

Bonus discipulus litterarum cognitidne erudiri studet Puer, bene 
educatus, omnibus placet Hostes territi in castris manent Urbs, 
obsidione cincta, multis malis vexatur. Homoeruditus non solum sibi, 
sed etiam aliis prodest Pueri bene educandi, strenue exercendi, probe 
excolendi, diligenter erudiendi sunt 

Scimus, mundum a deo gubemari. Audimus, castra ab hostibns 
ante urbem munirL Constat, conjurationem Catilinae a Cicerone de- 
tectam esse. Speramus, vos rerum difficultatibus a proposfto deteni- 
tum non in. 

O boys, be ye well brought up, vigorously exercised, properly culti- 
vated, carefully instructed! O boys, you should be well brought up, 
vigorously exercised, properly cultivated, carefully instructed ! Boys 
should be well brought up, vigorously exercised, properly cultivated, 
-carefully instructed. If you shall have committed a fault in anything 
(quid), be reproved with equanimity. Be thou not frightened from 
thy purpose by (abl.) the difficulty of the thing. Be ye guided by (ahj.) 
reason. Be thou not overcome by the passions. The oivine law * 
should not/ be despised. The impious [man] should be punished. 
The passions should be restrained by (abL) reason. 

O boys, exercise yoursdves (=he ye exercised) vigorously in the 
study of literature ! Gopd scholars seek to be praised. The good 
scholar seeks io exercise himsdf(^s^ to be exercised) in tlie study of 
literature. The wise [man] seeks, always to be governed by (abl.) rea- 
son. Good scholars seek to be instructed in (abl.) the knowledge of 
literature. Well-brought-up boys please all. The frightened enemy 
remains in the camp. Cities encompassed by (abl.) a blockade are 
annoyed by (abl.) many evils. Instructed men. benefit not merely 
themselves, but others also. The boy is to be brought up well, to be 
vigorously exercised, to be properly cultivated, to be carefully in- 

{ 50 — 52.] SECOND CONJUGATION. 127 

We hear, that a camp is fortified by the enemies before the city. 
We hope, that the conspiracy will v^ detected. We believe that we 
have not been firightened fit)m our purpose. 

LXVIL Words to be learned and JBxercises/or translation. 

Careo 2. (c. abl.) / toanL capio, c^.pi, captum 3. machinatio, dnis, f, 

cohaereo, haesi, hae- to toAe. machinaHony ar^Ust, 

sum 2. U> hold to- duco, xi, ctum 3. to diutumus, a, um, long 

gether. lead; 2) to bdUve, to continued. 

jaceo, u\ 2. to li€y he in account (as some- ne&rius, a, um, execra- 

a low state. thing)* ble. 

permaneo, mansi, man- caussa, ae, / a reason^ stabilis, e, staUe^Jbrm. 

sum 2. to last. cause ; ea caussa, ob nimium, adv. too much. 

torpeo, ui2i to he torpid, eam caussam^ybr this eo, adv. on this accounL 

inactive. reason, nam, conj.for. 

Dj "Exercises to the Second Conjuoation in particular. 

a) Active of the Second Conjugation. 
(Concerning the conjunction quod (that), see Synt. § 108.) 

Multa sunt admirabilia, sed nihil magis, quam quod ita stabilis est 
mundus atque tarn praeclare cohaeret ad permanendum. Non ea res 
me deterruit a proposito, quod civium ne&riorum contra me machina- 
tiones tim^bam. Gaudeo, quod tu et pater tuus val^tis. Non vUupiro 
te, quod tuum tibi consilium maxime placet ; nam plurimi nihil rectum, 
nisi quod placilit sibi, ducunt Vehementer dolebdmus, quod litt^rae ob 
diuturnum helium jac^bant Laudo te, quod mentem tuam in littera- 
rum studio tam probe exercuistL 

Omnes cives gaudent, quod duces militum cupiditates coercu^runt. 
Magna laude digni estisy quod maleficos detemiistis, quominus ne&ria 
consilia contra rempublicam caperent Ob earn caussam aliis displic^.bas, 
quod tibi ipsi plac^bas. Ingens in urbe laetitia erat, quod milites fortis- 
simos se praebu^rant Haec civitas ed caussd diu floru^rat, quod sem- 
per legibus paru^rat jE7o me deterrueratis a proposito meo, quod 
ignavia torpebatis. Tu nobis ea re nocu^ras, quod temeritatem tuam 
non coercu^ras* Gaud€hant parentes, quod ego tibi placu^ram. 

I rejoice, that thou hast always followed the precepts of thy teach- 
ers. I rejoiced, that thou and thy father were well. On this account 
(eo) he has displeased us, because he pleased himself too much. This 
thing has fi*ightened me from my purpose, that thou hast wanted all 
courage. I rejoice, that you have maintained (tenure) well your 
opinion. We praise you, that you had always obeyed the precepts of ^ 

126 ffSCOIfP OOJXJVQATIQM. [i 60^-^}. 

jour ptfentiu We griere, that thou haat disploMed tk^r teacher. The 
firther rejoiees, that [his] sona hflPalways afaowo themelFee di}ige«t 
schotars in school. I have fpneved^ that my eounsel has displeased 
tiiee. The teacher praised me, that I had obeyed his precepts. We 
grieve, that we have not obeyed the precepts of our parents. 

LXVIH Words to be learned and Exercises for trsnslatium. 

Place 1. lapptast, persuadeo, si, sum % nervus, i, fit. nervty 

veto, ui, itum 1. to (c dat), to persuade nnue. 

forbid, convince, impius, a, um, {mpious* 

audeo, ausus sum, pigritia, ae, / dofftful' nullus, a, um, no one ; 

aud^re, to dart, ness, nuUus non, every one, 

emineo, m 2, to he emi- prudentia, ae, / prt^ praeseos, ntis, present, 

nent, denety wisdom, nunquam, ado, never, 

jubeo, jussi, jussum 2. satis, ado, enou^ 

to bidy command 

Le^ divinae et huminae omnes paribuat, qui seeuadum'^turam 
viv^re stud^bunt Si virtutis praeoeptis semper parkins, in coelum 
tibi aditus patfebit Si ignavia torpebitis, praeclaris rebus nunquam 
eminebttis. Si virtute carebimus, bonis non placebimus. Si cupiditdr 
tes vestras coercueritis, in virtutis via nunquam vacillabitis. Quo quia 
magis mentem litterarum studio exercuSrit, eo magis iis delectabitur. 
Quo plura beneficia parentibus nostris debuerimus, eo gratiores ani- 
mos in eos habere debebimus. Si milites nostri fortes se in pugna 
praebu^rint, victoria non erit dubia. 

The more we shall have ezerc«9ed our minds in the atudy of litent^ 
ture, so much the more shall we be delighted by (abl) the saxne^ if 
you shall not have obeyed the j»ecepts of virtue, you Will not please 
good men. If thou ab$k have shown thyself an upright man, thoa 
wife i^ase all the good. Jf I shall have afforded refiige and consolv 
tion to my enemies, they will restrain their anger against me. 

Vide, ne ob pigritiam a praeceptoribus castigfirei Pte^te, pueri! 
Blud ten^te, nervos atque artus esse sapientiae, non tem^re credere! 
Impius ne aud^to ]dacare donis iram deorum ! Pueri mentes litt£ris 
exercento ! Ut oeiilus, sic animus, se non videns, alia oemit Metus 
est opinio magni mali impendeotis, et ae^rntado est oipinio magni midi 
praesentis. Nulli non ad nocendum satis virium est. Aeerrimus ex 
omnibus nostrts sensibus est sensus videndL Prud^itia ex proyiden* 
Ao est af^llata. Lex est recta ratio in jubendo et vetando. LibM 
parentibus parfire debent Persuad^to tibi, tuum consilium mbi 
vehemeiiter et placuisse, et semper placiti3urum esse ! 

{ 50 52.] SECOND CONJUGATION. 129 

Be silent, bojrs ! See [to it], that, on account of [your] slothfulness, 
you are not censured by your teachers. Thou shouldest obey thy 
parents and teachers. The boy should exercise [his] mind in litera- 
ture. The impious should not dare to appease the anger of God by 
presents. The citizens feared the threatening danger. Youth is a 
thing, destined (as about) ever to please, never to displease. 

LXIX. Words to be homed and Exercises for translation, 

Concito li I ram. torqueo, rsi, rtum 2. exercitatio^ onis, f. 
ejiUo 1. / eamplain, to twisty torment^ tor- exerdaty practice, 

repdto 1. / consider, tun, seditio, onis,/. sedition, 

commdneo 2. / remind, video, vidi, visum 2. impetus, us, m. atta4^ 

comm5veo, ovi, dtum to see; videor, / am obitus, as, m, departure^ 

2. to move, seen, seem, death, 

eddceo, cui, ctum 2. concordJa,ae,/. Aormo- pristinus,a,un],ybrm«r. 

to instruct, inform, ny, diligens, tis, dUigent. 

misceo,miscui,mi8tum discordia, ae,/. (fiscoref. coutm\lo,adv,forlhunth, 

orm[xtam,tondx^iS' fuga, &e,f, fight, seddlo, oc^. (tmij;^. 

turb, moeror, oris, m. grief, mirifice, adv, wonder" 

p^terreo 2. to frighten, crudelitas, atis,/ crvd" . fjdty, 

put in fear, ty, quoque, eoty. aJM. 

b) Passive of the Second Conjugation, 
(Concerning the temporal conjunction quum (when, as), see Synt. § 110. 1.) 

Quum docimur, tacirt debimus. Quum optdmus, ne respublica mis- 
ceatur, civium concordiam omnibus modis servare dehemus, Quum in 
schola diligens em, duhitahisne, quin bonus discipulus a praeceptori- 
bus habeare ? Quum nobiscum reputamus, quantis et quam praeclaris 
fi*uctibus animi nostri in litterarum studiis augeantur, mirifice deUcta- 
mur, Quum magnorum virorum laudes legimus, optamus, ut eadem 
gloria nos quoque digni habeamur. Q;uum militum crudelitas ducis 
coDsilio coercebdtur, tota civitas laeta erat. Litt^rae, quum ob ^llum 
^ujacuerunt, nunc, recuperate, pace, eo acriore stpdio exercenturl. 

Quum hostes urbem oppugnav^rant, omnes cives maximo timor^ 
opplebantvr, Quum acerbissimae calamitatis nuntio terrebar, onme 
meum perfugium ac solatium in te collocatum esse existimdbam, Quum 
tristissimo de amici carlssimi obitu nuntio gravlter. commjovebdre animo, 
etiam nos moerore (^Uhdmur, Quum de culpa nostra a parentibus 
eommonebdmur, acerbus dolor animos nostros occupdbat Quum artes 
atque litt&rae in civitate nostra ^r^&tin^, ejus splendor at^bltur, Quum 
milites nostri de hostium adventu edocebuntur, pugnandi ard6re./fogfm- 
bunL Ne turn quidem ^vldbo, quum acerbissimis doloribus torquibor. 


ifuum hodtium imp^tu perternbimXiniy urbi nottrae nmgmmn pericAlttm 

i^um miiites seditiimem condtasamty ducii consilio et yirtatBcoirdUi 
nmL Quum hoetes tenUi es$trd et jam in fugam te darmt^ dux etm 
wumuUy lit pristfDM virtutis memdres esaent Q^iiiin exercitus de Ikw* 
tium adventa edoeerHur, eontkiup auinmo pugnandi ardors Jhgi^ML 
Ne turn quidem ^vldvi, qmm acerbissimia doloribua torquirer. 

When thou art taught, thou ougbtest to be silent The wise [man] 
is happy, even when he is tortured. When good sdiolars are ^cer- 
cised in literature, they are delighted. When I see by how great 
pains thou art tortured, I am deeply (=» violently] moved (cotnmoveo). 
When you consider by (as with) yourselves, how many (quot) and hwf 
grtai (quantus) toils and cares have been bestowed by your pfM^ents 
^ y^iPsgood (sB welfare); 3rou ought to be moved by (abL) gratitude. 
When thou dialt see how actively I am exercised in the Latin language, 
thou wilt rejoice. As we were pressed by the severest (acerbus) mis- ^ 
fortune, we placed' (colldco) our whole hope in {in with abL) our fiiends. 
As the enemy seemed to approach the cily, each one (umisquisque) 
of the citizens was itted with fear. As you were informed of the ar- 
l^val o( the enpmies, you were not^ frightened. As I read the life of 
Agriodla, I was violently oooved within (animus). As thou wast tor- 
tured with severe pains, I was filled with pity. 

As the cruelty of the soldiers was restrained (subj.) by the wisdom 
and firmness of the general, [there] was (perf.) great joy in the city. 
As the city was assaulted (subj.) by the enemies, all the citizens were 
put in fear (perf) As the camp of the enemies was moved (subj.), we 
exulted (perf). As we were fi*ightened from (subj.) our purpose by 
the difficulty of the thing, thou hast recalled us to the same. As I 
was moved (subj.) within (animus) by the sad news of the death of my 
fiiend,*thy pity was very agreeable to me. As thou seemedst (subj.) 
to desert us, I was grieved (perf) very much. 

When the army ^all be informed of the arrival of the enemies, it 
will bum with a desire to fight (gen. of Ger.). Wise n;ien will be 
happy, even if tottuffed: oy the bitterest pains. When we shall be put in 
fear by tne attack jj^^S^, enenues, great danger will threaten our«city. 
If thou shalt be lapsus (ss partaking of virtue), thou wilt not even 
then complain, wh^ thou shalt be tortured by the severest pains. 

Ne rerum difficultiEtibus a propee^ deterr^re ! Miiites, ne bostium 
impetu perterremini! ^ puer, strenue elierc^tor m htterarum studiia ! 
Miiites, ne inani tim6re opplen^fnor! Le^es civitatis ne discordia 

f 50-^2.] TKimD COHJVGATION. 131 

oifiiiin miseeiitor! Terrids hoetibiis, noBtii mililes vktoriam reporta- 

Be ye not frightened from [your] purpose by the difficulty of the 
thing. Soldiers, you should not be put in fear by the attack of the 
enemies ! The evil passions should be restrained by the reason. It 
is known, that all the powers of the body and of the soul are strength- 
ened (a> increased) by exercise* 

LXX Wards t» be karmd and Eurciaes far trwulcUi^ 

Verso l./f«m;TenM)r, surge, surrexi, surree^ perv^iiltas, fttis,/jMr- 

/ itam mfi^f fmd turn 3. <o urtie. vwnmu. 

fi»fky, live. Bugo, zi, ctum 3. to pravitas, &tis, / jmt- 

confligo, ZI, ctum 8. ndt, jvdk out venefua, widbtdneis. 

IJighL pomuniy i, n. wUHbU paene, adv. wtaiy^ hi- 

decerpo, pel, ptum 3. frmi; plur.yhat. matt 

iopludcoff, payor, dris, m. JrigMy proflnuSf ado* JMhwWi 

pergo, perrezi, perrec- tr^idaHon, statim, adik mmedieife- 

tum 3. to go, con- lac, ctis, n. mSk, h^ 

Immml nutrix, icis,/ nwrwe* ut, eof^. juti a«, at. 

E) EzERcts&s TO THS TniRD Conjugation in pa&ticulaIu 

a) Mwe qfihe Jlnrd Conjttgaiion, 

(Concerning the temporal conjunctions postquam^ tit, «6t, simtdae^ see Syni, 

1 110, ».) 

Hostes, M primum nostros equltes eonipexirunt, (eos) celeifter per- 
turbaverwU. Vi «urreximti«, protinus ad te perreximus, Simtdatque lu- 
cem oibpeximttf, in omni continC&o pravitate et in summa opinionum 
perversitate verMimir, ut paene cum lacte nutriois errorem suzisse 
tide&mur. Podquam Caesar aciem ttMfrtmt, onmes hostes in unnm 
locum convoUwirunl. Ut nostri cum hostibus cof^/Hxirunt, magnus eos 
occupdvU payor. Stmulac litt^ras scripsi, cum fratre ambuldm. Post- 
qiuhn amicum in hortum duxero, dicam tibi, quid pater mihi scripsSrit. 
Ubi poma decarpstnimuSf etkmus, Ul surrexistiSf statim ad negotia yestra 
acced^re debiHs. 

LXXI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

• • 

Exploro 1. / March out, elicio, CU, itum 3. to recipio, c6pi, ceptum 

examine. draw out, dicit. 3. to receive, se reci- 

propulso 1. Irepd. coquo, xi, ctum 3. to p€re, to betake ofnis 

afficio, exi, ectum 3. to cook, sd/badc 

draw lo, otture; but, ningo, xi a to tnow. restinguo, nxi, nctum 

132 THIRD CONJUGATiaK. [i 50 — 52. 

3. to extinguish, put coen^^, ae,/ a meed. pluvidsas, a, um, rainy, 

ovt, eoMicitado^inis,/. solid- beate, adv, peactfvUy* 

relinquo, Kqui, lictum tude. ant^quam, con;, btfort 
3. to leave behind, de- tempestas,ati8,/.t(^ea<%- that, ere, before, 
sert. er, storm* 

(Concerning the particles of time : priusquam and antequam, see Synt. § 


a) Pnusqtutm animutn tuum soUicitudine angas et crudes, explo- 
rare debes, quid sit, quod te angat et cruciet 

h) Priusquam bellum atrocissimum gessinvas, artes et Htterae in 
civitate nostra floru€runt •^iquam bellum urbis nostrae opes db- 
sumpsit, pbtentissima fuit Antequam ninxit, tempestas fuit yalde 

c) Non beate viv^.tis, antequam omninm cupiditatum arddrem res- 
tinxerttis. Non dives eris, priusquam divitlas contempseris, Non prius 
ed^tis} quam coqua coenam cox^rit. Non prius te illi relinquent, quam 
te ad misericordiam aUex^rint, Exercitus noster non prius domum se 
recipiet, quam hostes ad pugnam elicuirit, 

d\ Hostes propuisati sunt, anUquam urbem obsidione dngi^renL 
Milites nostri urbem liberavirunt, priusquam eam hostes combussissenL 
Dies obrepsit hostibus, priusquam agg^rem exstruxissent, 

LXXIL Wards to he learned and ^zeroises for tramlation, 

ContrSlho, xi, ctum 3. figOra, ae, f, figure, donee, cori/. so (as) long 

to draw together, form. as, until, until that, 

demo, mpsi, mptum, 3. conjuratus, i,m. a con- even until. 

to take away. spirator. dum, conj. uMe, so (as) 

describo, psi, ptum 3. gladius, i, m. sword. long as, unHl, tmtU 

to describe, point out. matbematifcus, i, m. ihat 

stringo, inzi, ictum 3. maihem^iJIidan. quoad, conj. so (as) long 

to touch upon, to geometricus, a, um, as, until, until thdt^ 

draw (a sword). geometrical. even until that. 

copia, ae,yi abundance ; nobilis, e, knoum, re- tamdiu, adv. so long as. 

plur. troops. noumed. 

(Concerning the particles of time : dum, quod, donee, see Synt. § 110. 4, 5.) 

Dum ego scribebam, tu leg^bas, et frater lud€bat Dum nos canebd- 
mus, vos discebatis, et sorores ping^bant QuooJ vives, omnibus tuis 
gratusviv^s. Homines, dum docent, discunt Archimedes, nobilissi- 
mus mathematicus, dum in pulv^re figuras geometricas descrilnl atten- 
tius, Syracusae a Romanis expugnatae sunt Dum consul litteras 
legU, coDJurati gladios strinxdraut Dum dux aciem instrHU, hostis 
totam urbem cinxfirat Cicero onmi qui^te abstinC&it, donee Catilinae 

^ 50 52.] THIRD CONJTTOATIOH. 133 

ccmjunitioaem ddexissd. £xEq)ectaina8, dum nobis diedtiSy quid paren- 
tes scripflSriDt Milites cupide expectabaot, dum dux se e castris con- 
tra hostes edudrd, Tamdiu interrogasti, quoad onmem mearo aenten- 
tiam dicuuH, Tamdiu man^bo, dum omnem sollicitudiDem tibi demp^ 

Wbile I waa singidg, thou wast leaniingy and: the sister was paint- 
ing. While we were writing, you were rea^g, and the brothers 
were playing. So long as Cicero lived, he occupied himself with 
(novo operam c. dat) literature. So long as I live, I shall be mind- 
Ail of this kindness. ' While the general arranged the army in order of 
battle, the enemies had drawn together all [their] forces. Wait, until 
we tell you, what the fiither has written. The general waited, until 
the enemies had placed the army in order of battle. I waited, until 
thou saidst to me what the father had written. 
. As soon as I had arisen (perf), I went (perf ] immediately to yoo. 
After Caesar had led out (perf.) the soldiers, the enemies arranged 
[their] army in order of battle. As soon as we shall have written, we 
will take a walk with you. As soon as thou art arisen, thou ou^test 
to go (acced^re) forthwith to thy business. Before the enemies had 
drawn together (perf) their troops, Caesar had captured (perf) the city. 
Thou wilt not live peacefully, before thou shalt have extinguished the 
ardor of all passions. You will not be rich, before you shall have de- 
i^is^d riches. My friend will not leave thee, before he shall have 
moved (s: allured, dUic^re) thee to sympathy. Our soldiers will not 
betake themselves home, before that they have allured the enemies to 
battle. Before we trouble and torpient our mind with solicitude, we 
ought tOtoinquife what [it] may be, which vexes and troubles us. Thtt 
enemies were repelled (perf), before they had arranged the army in 
order of battle. Night overtods: (perf) us, before we had extinguished 
the conflagration. ^ 

LXXIIL Words to be kamed and Exercises for translatiofu 

Sep&ro 1. / s^^araUj fobric&tor, dris, m. arcanus, a, um, secret; 

dhide. Jramer. arcanum, i. n. a 

benef^cio, feci, &ctum sermoj onis, m. conver- secret, 

S.todo todl. sation, speech, cetSri, ae, a, the rest, 

circumspicio, spexi, af&bilitas, atis, f, qffa- perfoctus, a, um, per- 

spectum 3. to look hUxty, fed, 

around^ regard. comitas, atis,/. cowrie- ante, adv. heforCy rather, 

maledico 3. (c. dat) ousness, quantop^re, adv. how 

I reproach. facultas, atis,/yacti% ; much, 

praedico 3. 1 foretell. plur. means, simpliclter, adv. simphf, 
vesper, 6ri, m. evening, 


134 THIRD CONJUGATION. [{ 50 52. 

IgDis urbem absumpsit Mihi crede, Dunquam vir perfectus fortunae 
maledixit Nimium ne crede colori ! Fac, ut ante circumspicias, qui- 
buscum edas et bibas, quam quid edas et bibas ! Die, quid patri sc^ip- 
s£ris ! O stulte, ne praedic futura ! Ne credite mendaribus ! Pueri, 
strenue litteras discitote ! Puer in schola attendlto ! Principes civita- 
tis concordiae consulunto ! Difficile dictu e8t,quantop6re conciliet ani- 
mos hominum comltas affabilitasque sermonis. Mendaci homini, ne 
verum quidem dicenti, credere solemus. Venio dbi dicturus, 'quid 
amicus mihi scrips6rit. Deus, fabricator mundi, nulla re magis homi-. 
nem separavit a ceteris animalibus, quam dicendi ^cultate. Ex di^ 
cendo maxima ad nos redundat voluptas. Optimus est orator, qui di- 
cendo animos nostros et docet, et delectat, et permdvet Mores puero- 
rum se inter ludendum simplicius det^unt Hominis mens discendo 
et cogitando alitur. Tamdiu discendum est, quamdiu vivas. Pul6hrum 
est e virtute (conformably to virtue) viv€re. Scisne, patrem scrpisisse ?^ 
Quis scit, se ad vesp^rum esse victurum ? Speramus, nos vobis area* 
na elicituros esse. 

Eat and drink thou, moderately. Trust ye not too much to color. 
Do thou well to try friends. Tell me, what the father has written 
thee. Boy, thou shouldst zealously learn literature. The boys should' 
be attentive in schooL It is incredible to say (Sup. in u), how bravely 
our soldiers have fought with the enemies. Lying men we are not 
even accustomed to believe, when they teU the truth (part.). We cosqfijn 
order to tell (= wishing to tell) thee, what our brothers have written 
(subj.) us. By diligently learning (gerund), scholars acquire for them- 
selves the approbation of [their] parents and teachers. 

LXXIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Urgeo, ursi, ursum 2. 3. to break; mola waiUing^; c. dat to 

to press, oppress. frang^re, to grind, neglect, 

conjuDgo, nxi, nctum frigo, xi, ctum 3. to mola, ae,yi mtZ2. [lance. 

3. to join (together), roast, parch. vigilantia, ae, /. vigi- 

expingo, pinxi, pictum, insculpo, psi, ptum 3. gladiator, oris, m. fen- 

3. to paint out, draw. to engrave. cer, gladiator. 

fingo, finxi, fictum 3. ungo, xi, ctum S, to novus, a, um, neti;. 

to form, feign. anoint. profecto, adv. surely. 

firango, fregi, fractum desum, fui, esse, to he quoniam, conj. because. 

b) Passive of the Third Conjugation. 

(Concerning the conjanctions : quod, quia, quoniam, (because), see Synt. 

§ 111) 

Quia semper e virtutis praeceptis vixisti, ab olnmlM]^ dilig^ris. Ci- 

♦ 50 52.] THIBD CONJTTGATION. 135 

yes summa inopia urgebaDtur, quia omnes eorum facilitates bello ab- 
sumptae erant Quoniam de hac re satis dictum est, jam accedamus 
ad no vara. Cicero paier patriae appellatus est, quod ejus consilio et 
yigilantia conjuratio Catilinae detecta est Omnes OMreftangebantur, 
quia metu^baot, ne urbs ab hostibus obsidione cinger^tur. 

Muhae fiibulae a poetis fictae sunt Gladiatores uncti decert&bant 
Apud Hom^rum omnia ita descripta sunt, ut quasi expicta videantur. 
Oranibus in animo quasi insculptum est, esse deum. Omnia sunt pro- 
fecto laudanda, quae conjuncta cum virtute sunt, et, quae cum vitiis (sc 
conjuncta sunt), vituperanda. Quoad urbs obsidione cingebatur, mag- 
no metu angebamur. Milites cupide exspectant, dum a duce e castris 
contra hostes educantur. Cave, ne fallar^! Timebamus, ne exercitud 
noster vincer6tur. Nihil magis mibi curae est, quam ut a te diltgar. 
Si ceditis, metiao, fte\incaniini. Non dubito, quin fortiter a militibus 
defendamur. Quum milites nostri conspicerentur, hostes ingens pa- 
yor occupavit Quoad honeste vives, omnibus dilig^re. Exercitus 
noster, quoad bonus dux ei prae^rit, non vinc^tur. Ab onmibus con- 
temnemini, si offieiis vestrts deentis. Quamdiu tu ab^ris, ego de te an- 
gar et cruci&bor. Si tam ibrtiter pugn&re perg^mus, non vinc^mur. 
Postquam hostes conspecti erunt, nostri milites e castris educentur. 
Postquam hord§um frictum erit, molis fragStur. Ubi poma decerpta 
erunt, a nobis edentur. 

Take care (= be on thy guard), that thou art not troubled without 
reason. I fear that(ne)I shall be deceived. We are more anxious for 
nothing than that we shall be esteemed by you. If we give way, I fear 
that we shall be conquered. It often happens (accidit), that the good 
are inpred by the bad. I was troubled, because I feared that I should 
be deceived. We feared that the city would be burnt up by the enemies. 
All desired (opto), that the conspirators might be discovered. We wait- 
ed anxiously, until we were led against the enemies. The enemies did 
not doubt, that we should be conquered. Why didst thou fe^r^ that thou 
shouldst be injured by us ? So long as the city was surrounded by a 
blockade, you were oppressed with great want So long as the ene- 
mies were seen, our [soldiers] remained in the camp. So long as the 
war was carried on, literature was in a low state. So long as the ene- 
mies besieged the city, we were troubled with great fear. As, lately, 
■ thou wast sick, thou wast very much troubled. If you shall continue 
to fight so bravely, you will not be conquered by the enemies. So 
long as you shall be absent, we shall be troubled concerning (de) you. 
Thou wilt be despised by all, if thou shalt neglect (desum) thy duties. 
Our soldiers will not be conquered, so long as a good general shall 

136 THIED COMJUGATION. [{ 50 52. 

preside over them. Homer will always be read in the schools. As 
soon as the letter shall be written, we will take a walk with you. 
When the army shall be led out from the camp, it will fight with the 

LXXV. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation, 

Administro 1. / man- detr^o, xi, ctum ^ lucrum, i, n. gain^ ad- 

age, to draw away, remove. vantage, 

peip^tro 1. I perform^ distr^o, xi, ctum 3. existimatio, onis,/. e^- 

perpetrate, to draw asunder, Hmation, opinion, 

praesto, iti, itum or waste, obsessio^ ODis,yi siege, 

-atum 1. (c. dat) to tingo, xi, ctum 3. to facinus, Oris, n. deed, 

•be superior to, color, form. foul deed. 

«dduco 3. to lead to, elegantia, ae, /. elt- appetitus, Os, m. desire, 

move. gance, *l&nging, 

eomo, compsi, comp- fortuna, ae,/. ^rfune; diversus, a, um, <;{tver9e, 

turn 3. to con^, adorn. plur. gifts of fortune. different, 

eonsumo,mpsi,mptum \uxurieL, Be, f, luxury, finitimus, a, um, ne^^- 

3. to consume, miseria, ae, f, misery, boring. 

conv^ho, xi, ctum 3. toant, uiUdua, a, uin, splendid. 

to bear together, bring providentia, s.e,f,fort- innumerabilis, e, innu- 

together, ^bt, providence. merabk. 

destruo, xi, ctum 3. curriciilum, i, n. circuit, tantop^re, adv. so much. 

to destroy, course. 

RegSre ratione ! Ne angitor, amice ! O cives, ne lucri cupiditate, 
sed yirtutis studio regimlnor ! Animi appetitus ratione reguntor ! Ju- 
T^nis, litterarum morumque elegantia tinctus, omnibus placebit Com- 
busta urbe, omnes cives maxima miseria vexantur. Romani multis 
rebus praeclare gestis summam sibi comparav^runt gloriam. Coitemp- 
ta virtute, vita beata nulla est. Multi homines, omnibus fortunis per 
luxuriam consumptis et distractis, reliquaro vitam miserrime agunt 

Dempta omni sollicitudlne, laetitiae indulgeamus ! Isocr^tes in di- 
Terso gen^re dicendi nitidus fuit et comptus. Aciem instructam dux 
contra hostes eduxit Frumento ex finitlmis regionibus in urbem con- 
vecto, cives urbis obsessionem acquis animis exspectaverunt Caesar, 
contractis copiis in unum locum, hostium imp^tum exspectavit Stric- 
to gladio, dux milites contra hostes eduxit Urbs, obsidione cincta, 
multis malis urg^tur. Gloria detracta, quid est, quod in hoc tam ex- 
iguo vitae curriculo tantis nos in laboribns exerceamus ? 

Si bona existimatio divitiis praestat, et pecunia tantop^re expetitur ; 
quanto gloria magis est expetenda ! Justitia propter sese colenda est 
Certum est, universum mundum dinna providentia regi et administrari* 
Quis ignorat, innumerabiles urbes a Romanis destructas esse ? Om- 


[♦ 50 — 62. rouETH cowjtjgation. 137 

Des sciunt, viros bonos nunquam spe merc^dis adductum iri, ut &cIdu8 
aliquod perp^trent 

Be thou not conquered by the passious. Be ye governed by reason. 
Thou shouldst not be governed by the desire of gain, but by the pur- 
suit of virtue. You should not be troubled, friends. The divine law 
should not be despised. Parents should be honored by children. I 
hope that all solicitude will soon be taken away from thee. The ora- 
tions of Isocrates were splendid and adorned. The soldiers believed, 
that the troops of the enemies would be drawn together. The soldiers 
having been led out of the camp, fought (perf ) bravely with the ene- 
mies. In Homer, we see all things not described, but, as it were, 
painted out. Who does not know, that all the virtues are connected 
unUi each other (inter se). I hope, that you will be led to my views. 

LXXVL Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Degusto, 1. / taste, gestio 4. / demean my- meni ; plur. demen- 

contingo, tigi, tactum sdf^ am transported, tary principles, 

3. to touch ; contin- sep^lio, ivi, ultum 4. aequitas, atis, /. equity, 

git, it falls to my lot. I inter, bury, jucundltas, atis, /. de- 

licet 2, it is permitted, servio 4. / serve, Hghtfulness, agreeo' 

minClo, ai, utum 3. / dr- iracundia, ae,/. trtwci- Ueness, 

minish, make less, hHUy, anger, accuratus, a, um, aocu- 

fastidio, 4 (c. ace) / num^rus, i, m. number ; rate, 

fed disgusty spurn, 2) harmony, rhythm, grammaticus, a, um, 

elementum, i, n. ele- grammaiicaL 

F) Exercises to the Fourth Conjugation in PARTtcuuLR. 

Sic vive cum hominibus, tanquam deus videat ; et videt Cave, ne 
tanquam parva fastidias grammatica elementa ! Philosophiae servire 
debemus, ut nobis contingat vera libertas. Nullus dolor est, quem non 
longinqultas temp6ris ininiiat ac molhat Nihil magis mihi curae est, 
quam ut obediam praeceptis magistrorum meorum. 

Quura milites nostri castra muniebant, hostes aciem instru6bant 
Dura urbem nostram custodiebamus, hostis eam oppugnare non and6- 
bat Celeritas equitum nostrorum impedi^bat, quominus hostis se ad 
pugnam expediret Quum milites ducem sepelirent, ingens luctus om- 
nium animos occupavit Litterae tuae mihi tam gratae fu^runt, ut lae- 
titia plane gestirem. Semper op^ram navavimus, ut orationem nostram 
verborum numerorumque jucunditate condir^mus. 

Nihil vos impedivimus, qiiominus negotia vestra finir^tis. Nescivi, 
cur tantop^re laetitia gestires. Scisne, cur hunc puerum puniv^rim? 
Nescio, unde hunc nuntium audiv^ritis. Dicam tibi, cur domum nos- 



138 FOURTH CONJUGATION. [f 50 52. 

tram cordnis orDaverlmus et vestiverlmus. Die, cur ferieritis hunc 

Placebas praeceptoribus tuis, quia semper eorum praeceptis obe- 
di^raB. Vix milites uostri castra muniSrant, quum hostis conspectus 
«st Jam laetitia gestieramus, quum repente tristissimus nuutius ani- 
mos Dostros summo moerore oppl6vit Quum milites totum diem siti- 
yissent et esurivissent, ue nocte quidem qui^ti indulgSre lis liciiit. 
Quum hostis se ad pugnam expedivisset, milites uosUi laetitia gesti6- 

Non prius dormiam, quam negotia mea fiuiv^ro. Quum exercitus 
castra muniv^rit, se ad puguam expediet Si grammatica elemenla 
fastidies, nunquam accuratam linguae Latinae cognitionem tibi compa- 
rabis. Si quid novi audiverimus, curabimus, ut brevi sciatis. Non 
dubitabam, quin, si semel philosophiam degustavisses, toto animo ei 
lervitCirus esses. Ne garri, puer! Audite, pueri: si praeceptoribus 
yestris obedieritis, a parentibus vestris praemiis omabtmlni ! Puer obe- 
dito praeceptoribus ! Homo ne servito cupiditatibus ! Milites urbem 
custodiunto ! 

Puer, in scholis ganfens, molestus est Bonus discipillus semper 
praeceptis magistrorum obedire studet Quis nescit, Ciceronem toto 
animo philosophiae servisse ? Spero, vos grammatica elementa non 
esse fastidituros. Prohibenda est ira in punienda Optandum est, ut 
ii, qui praesunt rei publicae, legum similes sint, quae ad puniendum 
non iracundia, sed aequitate ducuntur. Legend! semper occasio est, 
audiendi non semper. 

Terra vestita est floribus, herbis, arboribus, frugibus. Urbs a mUiti- 
bus custoditor. Speramus, urbem a militibus custoditum in. 

To good parents, nothing is a source of greater care (est with dat), 
than that they may instruct their children in (abl.) literature. Be on 
your guard, boy, that thou dost not chatter ! I punished the boy, be- 
cause he chattered. As the enemies were discovered, our soldiers 
were transported with (abl.) joy. So long as I was in school, I was 
anxious (= it was for a care to me), that I might obey the precepts of 
my teachers. Many with their whole soul, have given themselves up 
to (e= served) philosophy. Often already has length of time abated 
the severest sufferings. We have kept in memory the precepts of our 

Tel] me, whence thojrip^ heard this news. I doubt not, that the 
teachers have punished|HBjnKs.vrith(abL), justice. The soldiers had 
hungered and thirsted the v^le day. Scarcely had our soldiers got 
ready for battle, when the enemies were discovered (perf .). As the 

i 50 — 52,] rouBTH conjtjoation. 139 

king entered into the citj, all the citizens had adorned (»■ clothed] the 
houses with flowers and garlands. The soldiers did not doubt, that the 
enemies had already fortified^ [their] camp. I knew not whence thou 
hadst heard this news. ^ 

The good will always obey the principles of virtue. Length of time 
will abate thy sufiering. The precepts of our teachers are alivays 
kept in (aU.) rememtomce. When you shall have heard this news, 
you will be transported with joy. If we shall always have obeyed the 
principles of virtue, the approach to heaven will stand open to us. 

Serve wisdom, not the passions. Do not chatter, boys. Thou 
shouldst not rage against (in c. ace.) the enemies, O soldier. You 
should obey [your] teachers and parents. The scholar should keep 
the principles of his teacher in remembrance. Men should not serve 
their passions. The boys, who chaUer (part) in school, are troublesome 
to the teacher. Soldiers ought (oportet) to guard the city. I hope that 
length of time will abate thy suffering. Hast thou heard, thnt the 
enemies have fortified the camp ? We come in order to (sup. in um) 
guard the city. A thoughtless boy is difficult to instruct (sup. in u). 
We must (gerund) serve virtue. 




§ 53. DEPO 

Of the four 

1. Hortor, hoiiatus sam, hortdri. 
Characteristic : a long. 

Xndicatite. Sub/unctits. 
X. Present. 

hortor, I exhort 

hortd*t^«, thou ex- 

horta-<«r, he, she, 
it exhorts 

horto-m'&r, we ex- 

hortd-tnlni, yoa ex- 

horta-n^ftr, they ex- 

hort^-r, I may ex- 

hort£-m(e), thou 
mayest exhort 

hort^-iwr, he, she, 
it may exhort 

hortf -mi^, we may 

hort^-mlnf, you 
may exhort 

hortc-nt&r, they 
may exhort. 

II. Veretfr, yetUua sum, ver«ri. 
Characteristic : e loDg. 

Indicative. Subjuhctiys. 
I. Present, 

II. Imperfect. 

horta-6dr, I exhort- 
ed, was exhorting 

hortd-6dH*(c), thou 
exh., wast exh. 

hort^-r^r, I might 

hoTiO"r€r\s{e)^ thou 

mightest exhort 
hortd-6d^i^r,he, she, horta-r€^tftr, he,8he. 

it might exhort 
hortd-rtfwwr, we 

might exhort 
hortd-r^minl, you 

might exhort 
hortd-reniiir, they 
r might exhort. 

it exh., was exh. 
hortd-^dr/iitr, we 

exh., were exh. 
hortd-6dminf, you 

exh., were exh. 
hortd-6a9ttftr, they 

exh., were exh. 

III. Future {^Indicative). ' 

hortd-6dr, I shall exhort 
horia-birls^e)^ thou wilt exhort 
hortd-ftifitr, he, she, it will exhort 
hortd-^imjir, we shall exhort 
hortd-6imim{, you will exhort 
hortd-6un^iir, they will exhort. 

ver^-or, X rever- 

▼ertf-rw, thou rev- 

vere-twr, he, she, 
it reverences 

ver€^-mur, we rev- 

verff-mlni, you rdv- 

vere-«^wr, they rev- 
erence . 

ver^-dr, I may rev- 

verl-dri*(e) thou 
mayest rev. 

ver^-d^ur, he, she, 
it may reverence 

verlf-dmur, we may 

ver^-dwlni, you 

ver^-ttJtfMr, they 
may reverence. 

II. Imperfect. 

yere-har, I reveren- 
ced, was rev. 

yexe-bdris^e), thou 

reverenc'dst,wa8t r 

veri-bdlur, he, ^he, 
it rev. was reV. 

verff-6dm«r,we rev. 
were rev. 

ver^-2>dm{nt, you 
rev. were rev. 

vetirbantur, they 

vertf-rer, I might 

vertf-rffrw(«) thou 

mightest .rev. 
Yer€-r€tur, he, she, 

it might rev. 
vertf-rffmwr, we 

might reverence 
vere-rimlni, you 

might reverence 
yeif-rentur^ they 

might reverence. 










sUm^ I have exhorted 

is^ thou hast exhorted 

est, he, she, it has exhorted um 

sUmiiSy we have exhorted verT-ti, 

estis, you have exhorted ae, 

sunt, they have exhorted a 

b) Subjunctive. 

s%m, I may have exhorted vert-tus, 

sis, thou mayest have ex. &? 

sit, he, she, it may have ex. um 

slmiLs, we may have exhorted verl-ti, 

sltis, you may have exhorted ae, 

sint, they may have exhorted. a 

rev. were rev. 

III. Future (Indicative). * 

Ycre-bdr, I shall reverence 
verff-^grw(c),.thou wilt reverence 
yere-bUvr, he, she, it will reverence 
yere-bimur, we shall reverence 
yeri'bimini, you will reverence 
yere-buntur, they will reverence. 

IV. Perfect. 

a) Indicative. 


sum, I have reverenced 
es, thou hast reverenced 
est, he, she, it has reverenced 
sumus, we have reverenced 
estis, you have reverenced 
sunt, they have reverenced 

sim, I may have reverenced 
sis, thou mayest have rev. 
5i<,.he, she, it may have rev. 
simus, we may have rev. 
sitis, you may have rev. 
sint, they may have rev. 





III. Fangor, fanc/ttf sum, fungt. 
Characteristic : e short. 

Indicative. Subjukctite. 

I. Pres§nt, 

Aing^or, I manage 

fung-^rl^, thou 

fung-l/vr, he, she, 

it manages 
fung-imiir, we 

fung-imtiu, you 

fung-uR^r, thej 


fang-dr,I maj man- 

fang-<Im(e), thou 

majest manage 
fung-dtttr, he, she, 

it may manage 
fung-dmicr, we 

maj manage 
fung-dm<nt, jou 

may manage 
fung-afitvr, Uiey 

may manage. 

11. Imperfect. 

fang-ebar^ I man- 
aged, was m. 

managedst^was m. 

it m., was m. 
fung-ebdmur^ we 

managed, were m. 
fang-sS&minif you 

managed, were m. 
fiing'€oanturj they 

managed, were m. 

111. Ftiture {lndieative.y 

fung-dr, I shall manage 
{iiug'€ris{e)y thou wilt manage 
fung-ftur, ne, she, it will manage 
fung-^mur, we shall manage 
fung-^mint, you will manage 
fung-efUtir, they will manage. 

fung-^rer, I might 

fvLng^ir€ris(e) , thou 

mightest manage 
iung-iriturjhey she, 

it, might manage 
fung-lrfmvr, we 

might manage 
fving'ireminij you 

might manage 
CvLng-irentur^ they 

might manage. 

IV. Partior, paitUv^ sum, partin. 
Characteristic : t long. 

Ihdicatitb. Subjunctitb. 
1. Presemt, 

parU-or, 1 divide 

partl-ntf, thou di- 

parti-^ur, he, she, 
it divides 

partf-mtcr, we di- 

jMurti-mlfit, you di- 

partt-KiUur, they 

parU-dr, 1 may di- 

partt-4lm(e), thou 
mayest divide 

partt-J/ur, he, she, 
it may divide 

partt-Amtir, we 
may divide 

partt-dmint, yon 
may divide 

parti-an/Mr, they 
may divide. 

11. Imperfect, 

partl-rer, 1 might 

partl-r^ntf(«), thou 

mightest divide 
parti-r^tMf, he, she, 

it might divide 


was dividing 

dividedst, was d. 

it divided, was d. 
partt-^dmur, we 

divided, were d. 
parti-^frdmint, you 

divided, were d. 
parU-^6afUttr, they 

divided, were d. 

III. Future {lndwUif>e.y 

partt-dr, 1 shall divide 
^Kt\x-eris{e\ thou wilt divide 
partt-fter, he, she, it will divide 
partt-€miir, we shall divide 
parti-^mtnt, you will divide 
part»-«n<i<r, tney will divide. 

IV. PerfeeL 

a) Indicative. 

partl-r^mvr, we 
might divide 

parti-r^mim, yon 
might divide 

partl-renttir, they 
mig^t divide. 











mm, I have managed parti-tus, 
es^ thou hast managed a, 

est^ he, she, it has managed um 

aumusy we have managed partl-ti, 
uiiSy you have managed ae, 

5tfft<, they have managed. a 

b) Subjunctive. 

^fn, 1 may have managed partl-tus, 
sis^ thou mayest have m. a, 

5t£, he, she, it may have m. um 

eimus^ we may have m. partl-ti, 
siHe^ you may have managed ae, 
sirUf they may have managed. a 

sum, I have divided 
es^ thou hast divided 
est^ he, she, it has divided 
sumus^ we have divided 
tstis, you have divided 
sarU^ they have divided. 

5tm, 1 may have divided 
ntf, thou mayesthave divided 
sity he, she, it may have d. 
simusy we may have divided 
sitis, you may have divided 
sitU, they may have divided. 













irdm, I had exhorted 
irdSj thou hadst exhorted 
irdt^ he, she, it had exhorted 
irdmiiSy we had exhorted 
irdtiSf you had exhorted 
iraniy they had exhorted 

V. Pluperfect. 
a) indicative. 






eram, I had reverenced 
eras, thou hadst reverenced 
erat, he, she, it had rev. 
eramus, we had reverenced 
eratis, you had reverenced 
erant, they had reverenced. 

b) Subjunctive. 






essim, 1 might have exhorted veri^tus, 

esses, thou migbtest have ex. a, 

essit^^he,ii mic'ht have ex. um 

essfmiis, we might have ex. verX-ti, 

essitis, you might have ex. ae, 

esserU, they might have ex. a 

V[. Future Perfect (Indicativey 

essem, 1 mi^ht have rev. 
esses, thou migbtest have rev. 
e5#e<,he,8he,it miffbt have rev. 
essemus, we might have rev. 
essetis, you might have rev. 
essent, they might have rev. 

iro, I shall have exhorted 
iris, thou wilt have exhorted 
irit, he, she, it will have ex. 
irimlis, we shall have ex. 
^rUi«,you will have exhorted 
irunt, they will have ex. 

hort5-rl, exhort thou 
hortd-<dr, thou sbouldest exhort 
hortd-tdr, he, she, it should exhort 
bortd-minl, exhort ye 
hortd-mindr, you should 6xbort 
hort^nt^, they should exhort. 

Pres. hortcl-ri, to exhort 
Perf horiA-tiM, d, Htm^ esse, to have 

Fut. horia-tftriis, d, ttm, esse, to will 
exhort*, (that one) will exhort. 


Pres. horta-it9, exhorting 

Perf hortd-Xtttf, d, ^m, having exhorted 

Fut. 1) ,Act. horid'tHrUks, d, 6m, intend- 
ing, wishing, about to exhort 

Fut. 2) Pass, horia ndlJts, d, Um, what 
should be exhorted. 


N. hoiia-ndum est, one (we) must ex. 
G. horta-n^i, of exhorting, to exhort 
D. horU?''n(/o, to exhorting, to exhort 
A. horia-ndum (e. g. a</), exhorting, 

to exhort 
A. horta-fufo, by exhorting. 


,^ce. hotid-t^m, in order to exhort 
Abl. hortd-/&, to exhort, be exhorted. 





verl-tus, ero, I shall have reverenced 
a, eris, thou wilt have rev. 

erit, he, she, it will have rev. 
erimus, we shall have rev. 
eritis, you will have rev. 
erufU, they will have rev. 


vere-re, reverence thou 
ver«^-tor, thou sbouldest reverence 
ver^-tor, he, she, it should reverence 
yere-mini, reverence ye 
yere-minor, you should reverence 
yeie-ntor, they should reverence. 


Pres. yeH-ri, to reverence 

Perf. ver-Uus, a, um, esse, to have rev- 

Fut. yeri-tftrus, a, um, esse, to will 

reverence*, (that onej will rev. 


Pres. yere-nsi reverencing ' 
Perf, veri-tu^, a, Km, having reverenced 
Fut, 1) ,Sct. yeri'tHrus, a, um, intend- 
ing, wishing, aboutto reverence 
Fut. 2) Pass, yere ndus, a, um, what 
should be reverenced. 


N. yere-ndum est, one (we) must rev. 
G. yere-ndi, of reverencing, to rev. 
D. yeie-ndo, to reverencing, to rev. 
A. yere-ndum (e. g. ad), reverencing, 

to reverence 
A. yete-ndo, by reverencing. 

Supine. ^• 

Ace. yexX-tum, in order to reverence 
Ml. ver<-ttf,to reverence, be reverenced. 

') The Subjunctive of both the fiitures is wanting. Bed Remark 1) and 2) to $ 50.— «) See 










V. Pluperfect, 
a) IndicatiTe. 





eram^ I had mana^d 
eras, thou hadst managed 
erat., he, she, it had managed 
eramusy we had managed 
eratisy you had managed 
erant^ thej had managed 

b) Subjunctive. 

essem, 1 might have managed partl-tus, 
esseSy thou mightest have m. a, 
esaet, he,8he, it might have m um 

essemiASj we miffht have m. parti'ti, 
essetiSy you might have m. ae, 

extent, they, might have m. a 

«ra«», I bad divided 
eras, thou hadst divided 
erat, he, she, it had divided 
eramuSy we had divided 
eraiis, you had divided 
erantf they had divided. 

essem, 1 might have drvided 
esses, thou mightest have d. 
essetj he,she, it might have d 
essemus, we might have d. 
essetis, you might have d. 
essent, they might have d. 

VI. Future Petfeei (Indicative).^ 






ertf, I shall have managed 
firis, thou wilt have managed 
mt, he, she, it will have man. 
erimus, we shall have man. 
eritisj you will have man. 
erunt, they will have man. 


fung-Kre, manage thou 
fung-i^or, thou shouldest manage 
fung-¥tor, he, she, it should manage 
fung-imim, manage ye. 
fung-iminor, you should manage 
fung'Untor, they should manage. 


Pres. fung-i, to manage 

Perf. func-^ai«, a, um, esse, to have 

Fut. fimC'tHrus, a, um, esse, to will 

manage', (that one) will man. 


Pres. fung-en^, managitig 

Perf. TunC'tus, a, um, having managed 

Fut. 1) ^ct. futtC'tiirus, a, um, intend- 
ing, wishing, about to manage 

Fut. 2) Pass, {iing-endus, a, um, wMt 
should be managed. 


N. fang-endum est, one (we) must m. 
G. fung-endi, of managing, to manage 
D. fung-ende, to managing, to manage 
A. fung-endum (e. g. ad), managing, 

to manage 
A. fung-endo, by managing. 


Jice. fanc-tum, in order to manage 
^bl. func-<t<, to manage, be managed. 

Remark 4) to $ 50. 





ero. 1 shall have divided 

eris, thou wilt have divided 
erit, he, she, it will have d. 
erimus, we shall have divided 
eritis, you will have divided 
erunt, they will have divided 


parti-re, divide thou 
parii-tc/r, thou shouldest divide 
parti-tor, he, she, it should divide 
parti-mim, divide ye 
parti-minor, you should divide 
parti-untor, they should divide. 


Pres. parti-r», to divide 

Perf parti-tus, a, um, esse, to have 

Fut. ^nxii-tHms, a, um, esse, to will 

divide', (that one) will divide. 


Pres. parti-en5, dividing 

Perf parti-<M5, a, um, having divided 

Fut. 1) .^ct. partl-itirtt*, a, um, intend- 
ing, wishing, about to divide 

Fut. 2) Pass, parti-endus, a, um^ what 
should be divided. 


N. parti -cnrftim est, one (we) must d. 
G. pSirVt-endi, of dividing, to divide 
D. pfLTii-endo, to dividing, to divide 
A. parti-cnrfwm, (e. g. ad.), dividing, 

to divide 
A. parti-eni2o, by dividing. 


Ace. partl-twm, in order to divide 
\Abl. part{-<u, to divide, be divided. 



LXXVII. Words to be learned and Etxerdsesfor translation, 

Adnuror 1. ladmirt. conor 1. 1 attempt, vtn- somnium, i, n. dream. 
asperaor 1. 1 spurn. lure, pulchritodo, inis, /. 

eowltor 1, 1 accompany, interpreter 1. / inUT- heatUy, 
contemplor 1. Icontem- pret, demum, ado, frsly at 

platCy consider. coDsigno 1. 1 point out. length. 


Quia non admir^tur splendorem pulchritudinemque virtutis ? Dux 
milites hortatus est, ut hostium aciem pertubare conarentur. Jam hos- 
tes urbem oppugnare conati erant, quum repente a civibus propulsati 
sunt Turn demum beatus eris, quum aspematus eris Toluptatem. Con^ 
templamlnor praeclara virtutis exempla, quae in histoiia consignata 
sunt! Venio te comit&tum in hortum. Somnia difficilia sunt inter- 

We admire the splendor and the beauty of virtue. The general ex- 
horted the soldiers, that they should attempt to throw the line of 
battle of the. enemies into conAision. I have accompanied the lnt>ther 
into the gsu-den. The enemies have ventured to assault the city. Thou 
shouldst contemplate the noble examples of virtue, which are pointed 
out in hi^ry. The citizens apprehended, that the enemies might as- 
sault the city. I doubt not, that thou hasi interpreted the dream right- 
ly. Tell me, why thou hast not accompanied the father into the gar- 

LXXVII L Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Fateor, fassus sum, fa- aggr^dior, gressus, grg- labor, lapsus sum, labi 

teri 2. to acknowledge, di 3. to attack, 3. to glide, faU. 

admit. expergiscor, perrectus Idquor, locutus sum, 

tueor 2. 1 keep, protect, sum 3. to awaken. loqui 3. to speak. 

intueor 2. / look upon, finor, fructus or frui- morior, mortuus sum, 

contemplate. tus sum, frui 3. (c. mori 3. to die (part, 

misereor, misertus or abl.) to enjoy (part flit moriturus). 

ritus sum, miser^ri fut, JruUurus). s^quor, secOtus sum, 

2. (c. gen.) to pity. fimgor, functus sum, sequi 3. (c. ace.) to 
poUiceor 2. 1 promise. funj^ 3. (c* abl.) to follow. 

abator, Cisus sum, Qti administer. inops, 6^\r, destitvJU. 

3. (c. abl.) to abuse, irascor, iratus sum 3. audacter, ado. boldly, 
adipiscor, adeptus sum to he angry, confidently. 

3. to obtain. 


Artes se ipsae tuentiir. Semper miaerorum hominum miserebimury 
VeremiDi, o pueri, senectOtem ! Fat^tor, o puer, verum ! Miseremi- 
nor indpum ! Discipilli verentor praeceptores. Non dubfto, quin tuura 
praesidium mihi polliciturus sis. Cum magna voluptate intii^mur prae^ 
clara virtutis exempla, quae in historia consignata sunt 

Quis nesqit, quam multi eloquentia abutantur 2 Per multos annos 
pace fruiti sumus. Omnes cives metuunt, ne bostes urbem aggredian- 
tur. Simulatque experrecti sumus, ad negotia nostra accedfmus. Ci« 
ves, libertatem adepti, summa laetitia ihientur. Succurre lapsis^ 
Tam audacter cum amico loqu^re, quam tecum. Ne irasciminor iis, 
quos amare deb^tis ! Si virtutis viam semper sequ^mur, aditus in coo- 
lum aliquando nobis pat^bit. Mun^re tuo bene fungftre. Metuo, ne 
amicus moriatur. 

The arts themselves will always protect themselves. I doubt, not, 
that thou wilt always pity the poor. Reverence, O boy, old age ! The 
rich should pity the destitute. You should acknowledge the truth 
(sswhat is true,) O boys ! A good scholar will always reverence his 
teacher. I doubt not, that thou hast promised thy protection to the 
destitute friend. Contemplate ye die noble examples of virtue, which 
are pointed out in history. Many have abused eloquence. We desire 
(opto), that we may enjoy peace. All the citizens apprehended, that 
the enemies might attack the city. You are &llen. You should speak 
with a friend as confidently, as with yourselves. Thou shouldstnot be 
angry with those, whom thou oughtest to love. I doubt ne^ that thou 
wilt always follow the way of vutue. All know, how well thou hast 
always managed thy office. 

LXXIX. Words to be learned and Eocerdses for translation, 

Dilabor, lapsus sum, ficisci 3. to depart^ mentior 4 / lie. 

labi ^ to go to ruin. proceed^ march. metier, mensus sum, 

obliviscor, litus sum, li- assentior, sensus sum metiri 4 to mtasiure. 

visci 3. (c. gen. and 4 to assent to, decet 2. (c. aco. pers.) 

ace.) to forget. blandior 4 I fatter, it is ft. 

obs^uor, secutus sum, experior, pertus sum modestia, ae,/. modestly.. 

s^qui 3. to comply 4. to try. umbra, ae,/. shade. 

wiih, obey. largior 4. / give fredy^ commendatie, onis, f. 
proficiscor, iectus sum, bestow. commendation. 

Qmun aegrotus es, obsSqui debes praeceptis medici. Stulti aliorum 
vitia t;emunt, obliviscuntur sudrum. Prima pueri commendatio profi- 
ciscitur a modestia. Concordia res parvae crescunt, discordia maxYmae 
dilabuntur, Gloria virtatem tanquam umtoi sequitur. 



Ne blandire malis hominibus! Pder, ne meDtitor! NatAra honimi- 
bus multa bona largita est Magnos bomiDes virtDte metiincir, non fbr- 
tOni. Voluptas blanditursensibus Dostris. Postquam orator orationem 
finivit, omnes ejus sententiae assensi sunt Omnia prius experiri reikis, 
quam armis, sapieutem decet 

I doubt not, that thou wilt obey me. We shall nearer forget thee. 
Tell me, why thy father has proceeded to (in) Italy. We feared, 
that by (abl.) discord the resources (opes) of the citizens might go to 
ruin. Boys, you should not lie ! Who does not know, how often the 
discourse of men deceives (ss lies)! Measure men according to (abl.) 
virtue, not according to fortune. Always follow the way of virtue. 


a) Deponents op the First Conjugation. 
LXXX Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Adalor I. (c. dat or opitAlor ^. I lend aid. libido, XmSff.un r e s h mn - 

ace.) IflaikT, reccHrdor 1. (generally ed dtnrty caprice* 

arbitror \. I think, with ace,) I remem- eventus, us, m. eoenL 

auspicor 1. I comimmct, her, Ijbens, tis^ delighUd 

auxilior 1. / aid, innocentia, ae,yi tnno- aliquando, adv, some" 
dominor 1. 1 reign, cence, time, 

mod^ror I.e. dat Imod- angor, oris, m. vexaHon, altter, adv. otherwise, 

erate; c,eLCCgm>erj%, rite, adv, properly, 

Boni viri non voluptate, sed officio consilia moderantur. Homo im- 
pr5bus aliquando cum dolore flagi^ sua recordabitur. SocrSLtes totius 
mundi se incdlam et civem arbitrabatur. Disce libens : quid dulcius est, 
quam disc^re muha ? Discentem comitantur opes, comitantur bono- 
res. Ubi libido dominatur, innocentiae leve praesidium est Eventus 
fallit, quum aKter accidit, atque homines arbitrate sunt AttXcus poten- 
ti Antonio non est adulatus. Nihil rite sine dei immortalis ope, con- 
siiio, honore auspicab^re. 

LXXXI. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Aemtllor 1. (c. ace.)/ cunctor 1. /i/eJc^ ven^ror 1. /revere. 

emtdate, imitor 1. (c. ace) lim- venor 1. I hunt, 

augdror 1. Idivine,fore- itate, occulto L / conceaL 

tell, jocor 1. 1 jest, rivillus, i, m. stream, 

aversor I. I tumfrom^ laetor 1. (c. abl.) Ire- majores, um, ancestors, 

shun, joice, medideris, e, moderate, 

j consector 1. 1 pursue, |M-ecor 1. lenJtretA. quotidie, adv, daOy, 


VeDer&re deum, ?enerare pareDtes. Virtutes majorum atfmokiiiiiii, 
▼jtia eorum ayersamini ! In silvis ^ vendtor venatur lepdres ; in acholis, 
pueri, venainim leporee ! Ubi rea bona tractanda est, ne cunctator ! 
DiscifHili bonos condtscipCklos imitantor, malos avenantor. Quotklie, 
puer, precator a deo immortali, ut servet tibi tuos parentea ! Tardi in- 
genii est, HvCilos consectari, fbntes rerutn non vid^re* Nulla re tarn 
laetari soleo, quain meorum officiorum conacientid. In ira moder&ri 
animo et orationi, non medidcris ingenii est Nescisne, Socritem in 
carc^re paucis diebus ante mortem joeatum esse ? Quia speret, se an- 
guratQrum esse ea, quae menti humanae a deo sunt occultita. 

LXXXIL Words to be karned and Exercises for transUxdon, 

Adhortor 1. lencotaragej insidior 1, 1 lie in wcai immodestus, a, um, tm- 

tJihorL for, modeH. 

eohortof lu I encQuragt. auspicor 1. I suspect ingendus, a, um, iio&/€- 

e^ortor 1. I vncour- ctmjecture* bomy dignified, 

^ agty exhort, vagor 1. 1 toander, proRisus, a, um, unrt' 

consoler 1. / console: praeclQdo 3. / dose, strained. 

conspicor 1. 1 discover, temperantia, ae,yi tern- nemo non, every one, 

see, [Ude, perance, moderation, excors, cordis, senseless, 

gratCilor 1. I congratu- aper, pri, m. vnld boar, admddum, adv, very, 

indignor 1. (with ace, legatus, i. m. ambassar aperte, adv, openly, 

or de with abK) lean dor, nequicquara, adv, in 

dissaH^/kd with some- &cetus, a, um, deUcaUy vain, to no effecL 

thing, mtty, 

Aperte adulantem nemo non vidit, nisi qui admddum est excors. 
Menti nihil est tam inimicum, quam voluptas ; nee enim, libidlne domi- 
nante, temperantiae locus est Caesar, cohortatus milites, ut acriter 
contra hostes dimicarent, urbem oppugnavit Aliorum miseriam con- 
solaturi exempla laudare debemus vy^rum fbrtium, qui in acerbissimis 
fbrtunae tormentis non sunt indignati sortem suam. Genus jocandi non 
profusum, nee immodestum, sed ingenC^um et &c6tum esse debet A 
venatore insidiandum est apris. Multi legati congregati sunt in urbem 
ad gratulandum nobis de recuperata libertate. Quem neque gloria, ne- 
que pericula excitant, nequicquam hortere : timor animi au];es praeclu- 
dJt Narra, ubi per tam longum tempus vagatus sis. Non dubitabam, 
quin hujus hominis consuetudinem aversatus esses. Non dubito, quin, 
latum adolescentem conspicatus, contindo de ejus ingenio praeclarum 
quiddam suspicaturus sis. 

We rejoice at.(abl.) the joy of friends in like manner (aequae) as (ac) 
at our own (kmb ours), and grieve in like manner at [their] grief 
(«s vexations). Be convinced that thou art dear to me, but that thou 


wilt be much (multo) dearer, if thou wih rejoice in good principles. 
The example of the leader encouraged (perf.) the soldiers, that they 
might imitate him. I doubt not,* that thou wilt ever assist the good, 
[but] wilt shuD the bad. I doubted not, that he would sometime remem- 
ber his foul deeds (ace.) with pain. Flatter thou not a powerful [man] ! 
Be convinced that you will commence nothing properly without the 
«id, counsel [and] honor of God. I exhort thee, that thou shouldst im- 
itate good men, [but] shun the bad. Relate to me, why thou hast been 
dissatisfied with thy fortune. I doubted not that the enemies had 
lain in wait for thee. 

When thou pursuest history, O boy, thou shouldst contemplate both 
the examples of virtue and of vice, and emulate those, [but] shun these. 
In a good thing, thou shouldst not delay. The rich should leqd aid to 
the destitute. The soldiers hasten, in order to lend aid (sup.) to us 
against the enemies. When evil desires reign (abl. abs.), there is no 
(=sr not) place for (dat) virtue. 

b) Deponents of the Second CoNJtroATioN. . 

LXXXIIL Words to be learned cund Exercises for translation. 

Confiteor, fessus sum reor, r&tus sum, reri, venia, ae,/ pardon, 

2. to confess, 2. to think, exemplar, aris, n. paU 

profiteer, fessus sum 2. dubito 1 . c. inf.* / hesi- tern, model, 

to acknowledge fredy, tale, entertain scru- cunctus, a, um, aU 

promise, pies, (combined), whole, 

medeor (without perf,) imp^ro 1. / obtain* inanis, e, emphf, vam, 

c. dat. to cure, rem- imploro 1. 1 implore. cito, adv, quickly; ci- 

edy, informo hfinstnut, tius, more quickly ^ 

mereor, itus sum 2. to nego 1. 1 deny, more easily, 

deserve; dealiquare, trado, didi, ditum 3. to liberaliter, adv, freely, 

to deserve of some- deliver up, give up to, nondum, adv, not yet, 

thing, malitia, ae, f, wvcked- penitus, advJthorov^dyy 

ness. wholly. 

Vix peccatum tuum fassus eras, quum pater tui inisertus est Jam 
te errasse confessus eras, quum denuo negasti. Nondum vestrum au2df- 
lum imploraveramus, quum jam id nobis professi estis. Vix inopiara 
nostram fassi eramus, quum liberalissime vestrum praesidium nobis 
polliciti estis. 

Magna est vis philosophiae, quum med^tur animis, inanes sollicitudi- 
nes detr^hit, cupiditatibus lib^rat. Aites magnu^ nobis praebent prae- 
sidium, quum se ipsae per se tuentur «ingO]ae. Praeclare de patria 
merentur praeceptores, quum juventutem bonarum litteranim studiis 


Rule of Syntax. When the coDJUDCtion qwm expresses a ttip- 
pMtd ground and may be tranriated by the causal mnce (seeing that,) 
or aUbovghj it is connected with the suhjundwe. (Coo^). Synt 110, 1.) 

Qtium phik>sophia animis medtdtur, totos nos penitusque ei trad^re 
debSmus. Omnes miserebantur yestri, quum non propter maiitiam, sed 
propter fcurtanam in miseriis es$Ui$, QutMi railites pericilla ver&renhar, 
non aud^bant cum hostibus eonflig^re. Qfium is, qui verum amicum 
intu^tur, tanquam exemplar aliquod tnhiedfur sui ; talem amicum aequo 
ac nosmet ipsos amare deb^mus. Avarus, quum in omnium rerum 
affluentia sk, fatebitume, se esse satiatum ? Qtium, virtutem satis in 
se praesidii habere ad vitam beatam, yo/edre ; etiam confiteb^re, sapien- 
tem in cruciatibus beatum esse. Id si confessus eris, non ticrtiito, quin 
jNiofessarus sis, sapientem in omni Titae conditione beatufn esse. 

When we freely acknowledge our guilt, we more easily obtain par- 
don. Since you have acknowledged, that virtue may have in itself 
sufficient of (gen.) protection for a happy life, you will also confess, 
that the wise [man] may be happy under (in) tortures ; and when 
you shall have confessed this, I doubt not, that you will freely acknow- 
ledge, that the wise [man] is happy in every condition of life. Scarce- 
ly had I acknowledged my fault to thee, as I obtained (perC) pardon 
from thee. Thou hast acquired for thyself great praise, tnofmucft at 
(quum) thou hast pitied the destitute citizens. 

Miserere nostri! Medeminor, O cives, inopiae nostrae! Suum 
quisque tu€tor munus. Nemo, cunctam intdens terram, de divina pro- 
Tidentia dubitabit. Gives, hostes urbem oppugnatdros esse, rati, eos 
acriter propolsare studuftrunt Venio meum praesidium tibi pdllicita- 
rus. Omnibus modis a vobis inopiae civium medendum est Adol- 
cscentis offieium est, majdres natu ver^ri. Quis nescit, te praeclare de 
repubKca merltum esse ? Spero, te mei misertarum esse. 

Reverend, O boy, old age ! Pity ye me ! Thou shouldst cure the 
want of others. The scholar should reverence his teacher. Shall we, 
when we contemplate (== contemplating) the whole earth, doubt as to 
(de) the foresight of Grod ? Thinking (part.per£), that thou hast prom- 
ised me thy protection, I have not hesitated to undertake (acced^re) the 
business. BeMeve me, who will fredy acknowledge (part frit) what is 
true ! Thou must remedy (Ger.) the want of thy friend. I hope, that 
thou wilt promise to me thy protection. It is beautiful, to remedy the 
vvant of others. Who does not know, that Cicero deserved nobly of 
the Roman state ? 




c) Deponents of the third Conjuoation. 
LXXXIV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation, 

Complector, plexus adnitor 3. 1 endeavory reddo, didi, ditum 3.^ 
fium, piecti 3. to em- exert myself. restore ; 2) to make, 

hrace. paciscor, pactus sum, gratia, ae/ t&anib. 

eongr^dior, gressus pacisci 3. to make an angalus, i. m. comer, 

sum, gr^di 3. to en- agrumtnt philosdphus, i, m. p/dr 

gage. reverter, pf, reverti, losopher* 

nascor, natus sum, nas- part, reversus, tr^ pestis, is, f, pest, de- 
ci 3. to &e horn, to reverti 3* to return, stritdion. 

spring from, (part ulciscor, ultus sum, ui- semen, inis, n. seed, 

iut naseitttrus). cisci 3. (c. ace.) to visum, i, n. cqfpearcmce, 

umascor 3. to be in' avenge on^s sdf on detestabilis, e, detestor 
horn, implanted, one, hie. 

niter, nixus or*nisus cumxAo 1, 1 heap, load, superior, us, superior; 

"Sum, niti 3. (c abl.), persevfiro 1. 1 continue, conqueror, 

to rest upon; 2) ad discedo, cessi, cessum quotiescunque, conj, 
aliquid, to strive c^ler S, togo uway, depart, however oJUn, 

Salus hominum non veritate solum, sed etiam &ma niHtur. Gives, 
cum hostibus pacti, pace firuiti sunt Deum et divinum animum cogi- 
tatione compiectimur. Lacte, came multisque aliis rebus vesclmur. 
Ne ulciscimini inimicos vestros! Romani Numtdis polliclti sunt, si 
perseverarent bello urg^re Carthaginienses, se adnisQros esse, ut bene 
cumulatam gratiam redd^rent Nemo parum diu vixit, qui virtutis per- 
fectae perfecta functus est mun^re. Simulatque experrecti sumus, visa 
in somnio contemnimus. Aristot^les, Theophrastus, Zeno, innumera- 
biles alii pbilosdphi nunquam domum revert^runt. Nulla tam detes- 
tabilis est pestis, quae non bomini ab homine nascatur. Non sum uni 
angCilo natus : patria mea totus hie est mundus. Sunt ingeniis nostris 
rsemina innata virtutum. Hannibal, quotiescunque cum Romanis con- 
gressus est in Italia, semper discessit superior. 

LXXXV. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Defetiscor, fessus sum, patior, passus sum, pati stultitia, ae,ffolly, 

fetisci S,tohe weary, 3. to suffer, dominus, i, m. lord, 

tired out, exc^do, cessi, cessum master, \Ur, 

elabor, lapsus sum, la- 3. (c. abl.) to retire, proelium, i, n. enjcoun' 

bi 3. to glide away, tendo, tetendi, tentum diuturnltas, BX\&,f,Umg 

enitor, nisus or nixus 3. to stretch out ; ad continuance, 

sum, niti 3. to exert aliquid, to strive after vicinitas, atis, f, neigh- 

one^s se{f, something, horhood. 


iie&a(indecL),n.ufrong» quo, adv, ufhUhar. gentium, uhtrever tn 

proprius,a,uin(cgen.), ubicuuque, adv. uher^ Iht world, 
one^s otouj peculiar, ever; ubicunque. 

Optiini cujusque animud maxime ad immortalem gloriam niUtur. 
Hostes, diutumitate pugoae defessi, proelio exced^bant. Qui virtutem 
adeptus eiit, ubicunque ertt gentium, a nobis dilig^tur. Avida est pe« 
ricilli virtus, et, quo tendat, non quid passQra sit, eogltat Augustus 
dominum se appeliari non est passus. Animalia alia sunt rationis ex- 
pertia, alia ratione utentia. Animo elapso, corpus nihil valet Valet 
apud nos clarorum hominum memoria, etiam mortuorum. Rjsg" 
ia res est, succurr^re lapsis. Proprium est stultitiae, aliorum vitia 
cem^re,. oblivisci suorum. Ut plurimis prosimus, eniti deb^mus. 
Irasci iis nefas est, quos amare deb^mus. Amicitiae, consuetudtnes, 
vicinitates quid habeant voluptatis, carendo magis iutelligimus, quam 
fhiendo. Juv^ni parandum, seni utendum est Suo cuique judicio 
utendum est 

LXXX VL Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Ingredior, gressus sum, accQso L / complain of, usitatus, a, um, usual, 

gr^di 3. (c ace.) Jgt> accuse, common, 

into, enter, enter upon, deflagro 1. / bum up diu, adv. long time ; 

perfungor, functus (intrans.). diutius, longer. 
sum, fungi 3. (c. abl.) vices plur, {gen, not intemperanter, adv, in- 
to pass through. used,) f- vicisitudes. temperately, without 

persfequor, cutus sum, perexigilus, a, um, very moderation, 

sequi 3. to pursue, smaU, plerumque, adv. gen- 

All wish, that they may reach (adipisci) old age, but when ihty have 
reached (= having reached), they complain of it The soldiers tired 
out by the long march, gave themselves up to rest Boys, you should 
follow the example of the good. We have enjoyed a long-<x>ntioued 
peace. Common things escape easily from the memory, remarkable 
and new things remain longer. Many abuse without moderation 
leisure and literature. Those appear to me to have lived happily, to 
whom it has been permitted to enjoy the praise of wisdom. We favor 
those, who have entered upon the very same dangers which we have 
passed through. All strive after joy, but many do not know, whence 
they may obtain permanent (stabilis, e) and great joy. Alexander pur- 
sued (perf.) the enemies eagerly. Fortune is not merely blind itself 
but it generally makes those blind also, whom it embraces. Man is 
not bom for himself alone, but for his country and for his [friends], 
80 that (ut) a very small part is left to himself Tlie condition of 


mortals has fuch (is) vicisitudes, tliat adversity (res adversae) springs 
from prosperity (res secundae), and prosperity from adversity. He 
lives the best, who obeys the laws pot on account of fear, but follows 
them, because he thinks that this may be most salutary. In (abi.) the 
very same night in which Alexander was bom, the temple of th« 
fiphesian (Ephesios, a, um) IKana burned up. 

d) Deponents of the fourth Conjugation. 

LXXXVIL Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Potior 4. (c. abL) I pos- tempt), which fol- calor, oris, nu htatL 

aess myself of » lows throughout the frons, tis, f, forehead, 

opperior, pertus sum, fourth Oooj. praeparatio,^ onis, f, 

periri 4. to await. coorior 4. 1 arisen break preparation. 

ordior or exordior, or- out, break forth, vultus, us, m. exprea- 

sus sum, ordiri 4. exorior 4. / appear, sion, countenance, 

to begin, spring from, arise, privatus, a, um, />rivafe. 

orior, ortus sum, oriri demolior 4. 1 demolish, ferox, 6ci8,Jierce. 

4. to spring fr^m, rise eblandior 4. 1 obtcdn by necesse est (c. sub- 

from ; part fut. ori- Jlattery. jimctive or c. ace. et 

turus (not ortuarus); praeloquor, lociitus infl), it is necessary, 

the Ind. Pres. fol- sum,ldqui3. top*em- eo, adv. thither, so foar, 

lows the third Conj. ; tse. grate, adv. graitftdty. 

or^ris, oritur, on- animadverto, ti, sum tamen, cor^. yet. 

mur; so its com- d. to observe, perceive, vero (after the first 

pounds except ado- praeda, ae,yi booty, word of its clause) 

rior (I attack, at- tergum, i, n. frocX^ conj. bvi. 

Frons, ocdh, vultus persaepe mentiuntur, oratio vero saepissime. 
Quicquid orUur, qualecunque est, caussam habeat a nmura necesse 
est Sol universis eandem lucem eundemque calorem largitur. Quam 
multi indigni luce sunt ! et tamen dies oritur. Undo tandem tarn re- 
pente nobis exoreris ? Milites, si feroci imp^tu in hostem coorimvr, 
victoria in msoiibus nostris est! Dum urbem oppugnare adortmury 
hostes a tergo nos aggressi sunt Suo quisque metu pericCkla metitur. 
Sapiens et praeteilta grate recordatur, et praeseutibus ita potttur, ut 
animadvertat, quanta sint ea quamque jucunda. 

"^Cave, ne honores eblandiare! Oratores, priusquam exordiantur, 
quaedam praeloquuntur. In omnibus negotiis, priusquam ordiamur, 
adhibenda nobis est praeparatio diligens. Omnes cives domes suas 
floribus et coronis omav^rant et vestivferant, quia regem opperiebantur. 
Dum exercitus hostilis urbis d<Hnos privatas publicasque demoUeb&tur, 
cives maximo moerore opplebantur. Quum hoetes praedam inter se 
partiebantur, nos vehementissimo imp^tu eos adoriebamur. Dux mill- 


tes cohortatus^ est, ut omnia experirentiir, quibus urbem obsididoe lib- 
erarent Quum saeva tempestas coorii^tur, iogens pavcnr onmes nau- 
taa occupavit 

LXXXVIIL Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Emeutior 4. I state conservo 1. / preserve, prodigidsus, a, um, 

falsely, commodltas, atis, /. wonderful, 

emetior, mensus sum, convenience, lidicillus, a, um, ricficu- 

metiri 4. / measure ubertas, aXiBjf, bountu lous, 

offf travel through, fulness, taotus, a, um, so great* 

molior 4. to moijCj ex- adspectus, Os, m. consulto, adv, designed' 

cUcj attempt, sight, ly, 

adv6lo 1. 1 fly upf has- usus, us, m. use^ want, fortuito, adv» by chance, 
ten up, 

Ridiculi sunt, qui, quod ipsi experti non sunt, id docent cetfiros. 
Omne animal se ipsum diligit ac, simulatque ortum est, id agit, ut se 
conservet Ad bominum commoditates et usus tantanr rerum uberta- 
tem natura largita est, ut ea, quae gignuntur, d«nata consulto nobis, 
non fortuito nata Tideantur. Heroddtus, multaa^erras emensus, multas 
quidem res prodigiosas narravit, sed eas non ipse emtntitus est, sed 
alii, ex quibus audivit Jam per tres menses opperti eramus amicum, ^ 
quum nobis eius mors nuntiata est Repente Romanis Sulla exortus et 
atrocissimum bellum civile exorsus est ^ 

Sapiens nunquema mails hominibus blandi^tur, nunquam aliquid 
fiilsi ementi&tur, nunquam fortunam experi^tur, nunquam aliis calami* 
t^tem moli^tur. Si celeriter hostem adori^mur, non est dubium, quin 
brevi tempdre urbe potitCiri simus. Simulatque sol ortus erit, pro- 
ficificemur. Ne blandire malis hominibus. Ne opperimlni fortunam ! y 
Hostes advolavArunt urbe potitum. Numevits aequalis facilis est par- 
6tii. Sole oriente, prefect! sumus. Coort& saevi tempestate, omnes 
n^utas ingens pavor occupftvit Solem ortiiarum cum maxima volup- 
tate spectd.mus. *^ 

The sun does not always rise and set in the yerig sifloe piac^l^s.^^^ n^ 
Scarcely had the enemy been (discovered, as we ttose ({i?rf) and at-^ 
tacked (perf.) them spiritedly. ,^1^ measure the y^r by (abl.) the re-^ 

turn of the sun, 

•* --■ r • 

Nothing prevented you, that you ^ should begin your business. 
21iree days long (es through three days) have we awaited the arrival of 
the friend. Every living being, as soqj^ it is bom (= sprung), loves 
(diligo) both itself and all its parts. "Iffany having travelled through 
many countries, have stated falsely mi^^.^^^^®^^^^^"^^^ History 




relates, that Sulla arose (perf.) suddeDly against (dat) the Romans and 
began (per£) the civil war. Tell me, why thou hast not assented to 
my opinion. Hast thou heard that the enemies have tried all [means], 
in order to possess themselves o/* (= ad with gerund) the city ? 
^^^^.^Z^We will not begin a new business^ before that the previt>U8 [business] 
shall have been completed. When the camp shall be fortified, tlie 
soldiers will attack the «nemy. If thou sbalt lie, nobody will trust 
thee, even (/"(etiaiiisi) thou speakest (subj.) the truth. Our soldiers did 
not doubt, tliat, if they attacked (subj.) the enemy quickly, they might 
in (abl.) a short time possess themselves of the city. Await thou not 
fortune ! Flatter ye not bad men ! As the sun vQse (abl. abs.), the 
soldiers marched agaipst the enemies. The sun, on the point of rising 
(= about to rise), presents a splendid sight. I hope, that thou wilt 
never lie. All believed, that a storm would arise. 

§ 54. Periphrastic Conjugation. 

By joining the verb esse with the participles and with the 
gerund, a new conjugation is formed, called the periphraS' 
tie conjugaiion ; under this the following forms are to be 

1) Amaturus, a, um sum, I taishy intend^ am ahmtt to 
(will) love. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 


amaturus sum, lam ahout to {will) SLma.taru8 9im,Imayheahoutto(will) 
amatin*us es, [love, amaturus sis, [love. 

amaturus est, amaturus sit, 

hortaturi sumus,u^ art abovl to (tviU) hortaturi simus, toe may he ahout to 
hortaturi estis, [exhort, hortaturi sitis, [(will) exhort. 

hortaturi sunt hortaturi sint 

moniturus eram, I would admonish, moniturus essem, I would admonish. 

veritaru3fui,JtrotiZ(2Aave reverenced, veriturus fiieiim, T would have rev. 

recturas fueram, I would have gov. recturus fuissem, I would have gov. 

fimcturus ero^ shaU be about to manage. wanting. 

4 54.J 



jFWtire PtrftcL 

auditurus fuero, / ahaU have been wanting, 

partiturus fu^ris. [about to hear. 


Pres. amaturus esse, to he about to (vnU) love 

Petf, amaturus fuisse, to'^have been aboiU to love 

Fid amaturus fore, to mil love, (that one) toiU be ready to love. 

2) Amandus^ a, urn sum, / must be loved, one must love 











amandus sum, / must be loved, 
one must love me 

amandus es, thou must beloved, 
one must love thet 

amandus est, he must be loved, 
one muM love him 

hortandi sumus, u^ must be ex- 
horted, one must exhort us 

hortandi estis, you must be ex- 
horted, one must exhort you 

hortandi sunt, they must be ex- 
horted, one must exhort them. 

monendus eram, / was to be 
admonished, one was to ad- 
monish me 

verendus fui, / should have 
been reverenced, one should 
hceoe reverenced me 

regendus fueram, I ought to 
have been governed, one ought 
to have governed me ^ 

persequendus ero, I shall be 
to be pursued, one unll be un- 
der obligation to pursue me 

audiendus fuero, / shaU have 
been to be heard, one will have 
been under obligation to hear 

metiendus fli^ris, thou wilt have 
been to be measured, one wiU 
have been under obligation to 
measure ihez. 

amandus esse, to be under obligation to be loved, 
amandus fuisse, to have been under obligation to be loved. 
amandus lore, to wiU be under obligaH&n to be loved, (that one)etc. 


amandus sim, / must be loved, 
one must love me 

amandus sis, thou must be loved, 
one must love thee 

amandus sit, he must be loved, 
one must love him 

hortandi simus, ux must be ex- 
horted, one muH exhort us. 

hortandi sitis, you must be ex- 
horted, one must exhort you 

hortandi sint, they must be ex- 

I horted, one must exhort them. 

monendus essem, / might be to 
be admonished, one might be 
to admonish me 

verendus fuerim, / may have 
been to be admonished, one 
may have been to admonish me 

regendus fuissem, I might have 

been to be admonished, one 

might have been to admonish me. 





3) Amandum est one must love^ mihi amandum est, / must 
' ^ Comp. Synt. § 98. 




um est, one mud love 
amandum est, I mtut love 
tibi hortaDdmn est thou must 

illi timendmn est, Tte must fern" 
nobis fatendmn est, ufe must 

vobis legendmn est, you must 

illis loquendum est, (key mttst 

puera audiendmn est, the boy 

ndum est, the man 
rat, one was to love 

mihi amandmn erat, I tvas to 

amandwn fuit, one should have 

amandum fuerat, one ought to 

have loved 
amandum erit, one shaU he to 

amandum fuerit, one shaU have 

been to love, \ 


lunandum sit, one should love 
mihi amandum sit, I should love 
tibi hortandum sit, thou shovldst 

illi timendum sit, he should fear 
nobis &tendum sit, we should 

vobis ]egendum sit, you should 

illis loquendum sit, (hey should 

puero audiendum sit, (he boy 

should hear 
viris experiendum sit, men 

should try. 
amandum esset, one might be 

be to love 
amandum fuerit, / may have 

been to love 
amandum fuisset, / might have 

been to love, 



Patria amanda est, * one's native country should be loved, one should 

love his native country ;' 
patria nobis amanda est, ' we should love our native country f 
hie liber tibi kgendus est, ' thou shouldst read this book ;* 
milites dud adhortandi fueruntf * the general should have incited tho 


Examples for the Gen,, Dot., Ace, and AU, oftht Gerundive, Comp. 

Synt ♦ 99. 

Ars navis gubemandae, * the art of governing a ^ip f 
peritus sum equorum regendorum, * I am skilfkl in governing horses ;* 
asitius idonius est magnis oneribus portandis, * the ass is fitted to bear- 
ing great loads,' or, * to bear great loads.' 
corporis exercitationes plurimum valenl ad valetudinem firmandam, ' exer- 
cise of the body avails much for confirming the health.' 


^ ^ 55. I. The Perfect tcUi 

^^^ Remahk. The reduplication id do, en 
^^^konaouoDt of the atem witb t, but in fto, 
^^^Ipnants of the Btem with t, and then tlu 
^^^Bence : tttti for tU-iti. Comp. apttndeo, i] 
^^r ]• 1^1 didi, datum, dare, to gi 
ff^ syllable is short throughoat, as : < 

cept das and (fa. 

So its compounds of which the first p 

as : circumdo, circumdSdi, circumdlUuin, 

compounds witb mono^ftabUt, on the 

-ditum, -dere, and follow- the third Coi 

addere, io add. 

• 3. Sto, stlti, statum, siAre, to sta 
at the easpense of, cost). 

Its compoundi with miynoiylUAie prepositions have (flft in the PeHI, 
as : adsto (I stand by), odriUi, but those compounded with diaxifiaJM 
prepositions retain the tt^K,aB: circumsto (I stand around), etmim- 
ttiti. The Sup. of only a few of the compounds is used and is tla- 
tam ; only prauio (to atand before, bestow), has both prneifUum and 
praatdivm. The Part. Fut on the contrary, is always «(a(uruf, as : 
praeetaturuB, constaturus, obstaturus, etc 

LXXXIX ^HVtfe to be learned and Ezerdsesfor transiaivm." \ 

Circumdo, dedi, datum, atum 1. to^ndhe- restia, is,/ g-armeni. 

dftre (c. dat et ace, /ore, be dJMlingviiihr coDserratio, ODts,/.j)re- 

or c. BCG. Vt abi.), to td; c. dat to nur- gervalion, 

«urr(M»u/ (something jkim, to maice good, invitus, a, am, nnteit- 

with something), io piy; se praestare (e. Hug. 

I place (something g. fortem) to lAotc insp^raus, tis, not tiop' 

around something). on^i telf(lravt). ing, contrary to rx- 

coDBtO, Iti, atum 1. (c. forum, i, n. tnarkd, peelalitm, 

abl.) to atmut tf, to siipendium, i, n.uKigM. uber, Gris, c. rxA, vol- 

he gamed at (he tx- interfector,driH,m.mur- vahlt. 

peate of, coH. derer. certo, adv 

perato, rii, atum 1, Io propugnator, diis, m. extriitsCcuB, t 

pertiti. . ^mpvm. out 

• praesto, tti, Itnm and classis, hM,f.JUtt. . 


an, quoi nihil eat pneatandoa. Hullo Ban- 
Hater omnium bonanim artium Bapieotia 
lortali uberius, nihil pmeatabiliuB hominum 
Fpus, ut quandam restem, animo circumdfi- 
Quorain patres, aiU majoree aliqiia glorift 
enunque eodem id genfire laudis excelKre. 
e deMmua, quod ab iie nobis vita tradita en. 
1 inTituB protQit Quinam magia sunt ti 
tm iDBperantibufl reddt^sti ? Civea ace 
ie Be praeBtittntDt Ingens faominum mula 
iimstfitit. Quid est tarn inhumlDum, c 
aaliltem liorninum et a<I cooBervationem da-^ 
L pesteib peraiciemque convertfire ? Quum Blipen- 
oB eiwet praestltum, sedilio inter milites orta 
fldem preeetBtunim egae. Credo, niliil nobis 
la vicloriam a^piacamur. Non dubitab&mns, 
fbrtium morte victoria colietatuni eeset. Nea- 
lenientia tua. 

Iperf) to Hiltiadee n fleet of (gen.) 70 ehipK 
No peat haa cost the human race {= race of men) more (pluris) than 
anger. Dariua promised, that he would give 1000 talents to the mur- 
derer of Alexander. What of (gen.) time ia given to each one for liv- 
ing, with (abL) this he should be contented. Who does not know, that 
Socrates surpasaed (perf) all the pbiloaophera of antiquity in (abl.)wia- 
dom ? I fear, that the victory will coat ua much blood. The "bp^, 
as a garment, haa been placed by God around (dat.) the soul, ^ou 
should hold [join:] parents very dear, because they have given (trado) 
life to you. Who is more thine, than_[lje], to whom, contrary to ex- 
pectation, thou bBSt-iSBtored Iife(bfl'^f3iji)?i Ifistoty relates, that 
Hannibal, ao long aa he cobs have been in Italy, surpaeeed (perf. aubj.) 
all the Roman generals. Since the general for (ex) a long time had 
BOt paid the aoldiers [their] wages, a sedition arose (perf.) among them 
Bgiunat him. I doubt not that thou witt make good thy word (= fidel- 
iQr). Believeat thou, that thy brother wilt persist in his opinion? 

§56. II. Perfect: — ut; Si^ne: — %tum, 
1. Crepo, crepui, creptfum, crepare, to creak. 
3. Ciibo,cubui, cubitum, cuftore, to recline, 

fc-- • — ^ 

H , > than which («Dui). ■ tbm which (TFiadom). 

i 56.] FIB8T OONJUOATIOR. 159 

3, Domoj domuij domttuni^ domare^ to tame, curb, 

4, MicOj mtcuij Sup, wanting, mcare, to glitter ; 

So: emico, tmlcui^ emicdtum, emUdre, to gush Ibith; but, di- 
mico, I fight, has dimicavi, atum, are. 

5, PlicOy plicdvi and plicuiy ptxcatum and pllcttum^ 
pKcare, to fold. This verb is u$ed on^ in compo- 
sition, as : exd|||kavi and ui, atum and itum, are, to 
explain. CmUKKtkra the regular fetm : — avi, atum:. 

6, Sonoy so nut, somtiimy sondre^ to sound, (but Part. Fut 
sonaturus). ' * 

• 7. ToTU), tonuij (Sup. wanting),' tonare, to thunder. 
8. Veto, vetui vetitum, t;e^are, to forbid. 

XC. Words to he learned and Exen^esfpr transUxtUm, 

iDcrSpare, to reproojck. pbf ont^a m^f (to verecundia, ae^/*. tie- 
percrj^.pare, to resound, something). aped, " 

acciihare, to recline by; complicare, to fold to- notio, 6Di8,yi notion, 

to sit at table, gdher ; complicatus, sg^turigo, inis, /. 

excQbare, to keep watch, complicated, obscure, spring, 

perddmare, curb, sub- repUcare, to roll backj gemitus, as, m. groan, 

due, recaU, nutus, Os, m. nod, com- 

applicare, to lean upon ; cremo 1. 1 bum up, mand, 

se applic, to ap- aduro, ussi, ustum 3. ploratus, as, m, cry, 

proach,to aUqffi one^s to set onfire, to^bum passim, adv, far and 
sey (to one), to ap- up, [3. to unfold, wide, 

«¥olvo, volvi, volatum 

Quis venit ? Fores crepu^runt Dux milites vehementer increpiiit 
Tota urbs vocibus civium de victoria ex hostibus reportata exsultantium 
percrepdit Age, cubitum discedamus! Romani multas gentes ac 
nationes armis perdomu^runt Doc^mur auctoritate nutQque legum, 
domltas habere libidlnes, coerc^re omnes cupiditates. £x hoc fonte 
ingentes scaturiglnes aquae emicu^runt. Indorum sapientes, quum ad 
flammam se applicavirunt, sine gemitu aduruntur. Cicero Rhodi^ ad 
Molonem philosdphum se applicdvit. Sapiens studet animi sui compH- 
cdtam notionem evoIvSre. Quum memoriam tempdrum replicaveris, et 
virtutum et vitiorum multa exempla reperies. Quum urbs expugnata 
esset, omnia passim muli^rum puerorunaque ploratibus sonu^runt 
Terr^mur, quum ser6na tempestate tondit. Nitimur in vftl^in. An- 

^■— p^— — ■— ■— >^— ^ I ■■■■ ■ I ■■■>■ I II ■ — ■ ■ ■■■■■■■■ I I II ■■ ■ I ■ I II ■— — *— .i«^»^ ■ I »■ ■ 1 1^— ^■^■^■^a— ^ 

1 at Rhodei. See Synt. § 92. 

160 IRREGULAR VERBS. [i 57. 

gii8CU8 carmina Yirgilii cremari contra testamenti ^us vereciindiam 

I have forbidden thee to go to walk, but precisely because (ob id ipsum, 
quod) I have forbidden [it], thou hast striven against (in)vrhat has been 
forbidden (= the forbidden). The question concerning (de) the im- 
mortality of the^oul (plur.), is nobly explained by Cicero in the first book 
of the Tusculan Disputations. Cicero applied (perf.) himself with 
{bis] whole soul to the study of eloquence. ^|b[e(e hundred soldiers kept 
watch before the camp. Who does not fl^^%kt many nations and 
peoples were subdued by the Romans. If thoii shalt have curbed thy 
passions (libido) and restrained (teneo) thy desires, thou wilt live hap- 
pily. Already we were sitting (pluperf.) at the table, when suddenly i^ 
flame gushed forth (perf. of emSco) from the roof Scarcely had we 
retired (disced^re) to sleep (= in order to recline, sup,\ when the whole 
city resoimded (perf. of j^ersdno) with discordant cries. Thy brother 
related to me, that it thundei^d (perf) yesterday in (abl.) clear weather. 
As th^oors had creaked (subj.), I doubted not (perf) that thou wast 

§67. IH. Perfect: — ui; Supins :'---4um. 

1. Ffico^ fricui, fricdtum (raxelj fricttim)^ fncarej to 

2. NecOy 5vf, dtumjdre, to kill; but enecOj enecui, ene* 
cturrij enecdrey to .kill by inches, to vej to death, to 
entirely exhaust. 

3. Seco, secui, sectum^ sicdre., fb cut (but Part Fut 

IV. Perfect:-^!; Supine: — turn. 

1. Juvo^ juvij jutum, juvdre (c. ace), to aid, assist 

2. LdvOy Idvi, Idvdtum and lautuniy Idvdre^ to wash. 

XCI. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

Adjdvare (c. acc^), to refiicare, to rvh again, ol^um, i, n. oU, 

aid, assist, support, renew. principium, i, n. begin" 

des^care, to cut qffi alligo 1. 1 bind. ning; principio, in 

res^care, to cut off, re- coeno 1. 1 sup. the beginning, 

move, attingo, tigi, tactum 3. garrulitas, atis, f, to- 

perfiricare, to rub {hor- to touch, [fetch, quaeity. 

ougKly, peto, ivi, itum 3. to seek, purus, a, um, pure. 




BolQtu8,a,um,tfiiftoiiiui ed; summa aqua, vivus, a, um, Iwing^ 
summiis, a, um, high- wrfact of (he toater, frah, 

frustra, ado. m vaiiu x. 

Verier, ne refiicu^run meis littfiris desiderium ac dolorem tuum. 
Dubium non est, quia tuis scelenbus reipublicae praeterita fata refii- 
catCirus sis. TantUus summam aquam attingens, eoectus siti fin^tur 
a poetis. ife^isne, quantop^re garrdlus iste homo me ganiendo en- 
ecu^rit ? Caius Marius quum decarfetur, principio vetilit se alligari, 
nee quisquam ante Mariwn solotus dicitur esse sectus. Agiicdlae fiii- 
menta desecta in horr6a cong^runt Nisi libidiDes resecu^ris, frustra 
fitud^bis beate viv^re. Quis nescit, quantop^re Cicero patriam suam 
juY^rit ? Non solum fbrtuna, sed etiam tua industria te in negotio tuo 
adjavit Si quid fortuna milites nostros adjuvant, non dubitamus, quin 
splendidam de hostibus reportaturi simus victoriam. Exercitus maxi- 
ims itineribus profectus est, cives obsidione cinctos adjatum. Ne prius 
coena, quam manus lav^ria Corpus layatOrus aquam puram e vivo 
flumine pete. 

Boys, rise r^hi early (bene mane), wash yourselves, and, when you 
have washed (fut perf.), proceed immediately to your business. This 
(iste) man has vexed me to death by his loquacity. Afler the soldiers 
had marched (per£) the whole day, they were (perf.) entirely exhausted 
by hunger and thirst It is known, that the gladiators of the Romans 
and Greeks, rubbed (perf.) their bodies thoroughly with oiL If we 
shall be assisted (fut perf) by fbn^une, we shall bear off a q^lendid 
victory over (de) the enemy. It is known, that Cicero assisted (perf) 
his native country venf much (permultum). By (abL) the war carried 
on between Caesar and Pompy, the recollection of the horrid (foedus, 
a, um) war of Marius and Sulla was (perf) renewed. The farmers 
have already cut the grain. Unless the passions and denres are re- 
moved, we strive in vain to live happily. 


§58. I. Perfect I'-^i; Supine :^-4vm. 

Preliminart Remark. Many verbs of the second Conj. have no 
Sup., viz. those from which adjectives in use, chiefly in Idxu^ are form- 
ed, as : horreo, ui, to shudder^ horridus, hideoxUy paveo, pavi, to dreadj 
pavidus, timid. 

1. Arceo, arcui, (Sup. wanting), arcere, to keep from. 

^he'l^art artuf, (strait), is used as an adjective. The com- 
pounds, in which a of the stem passes into e, follow moneoy as : 
coerceo, ui, itum, ^re, to ibep togdhtr. 

, I 


2. DociOj doctdj doctum^ docere (with two ace), to 

3. MtsceOy miscuiy mixtum and mistunij miscerey 
to mix. / 

4. TlrUo, ti^nuij tenturriy ^^wcre, to hold. 

5. Torr^o^ torrui^ to stum, torrire, to dry, ))ake. 

11. Perfect :— Sf ; Supine :^-um, only : 
CensiOj censui, censum, censere, tp rate, judge. 

So its compounds, but with the associate form of the Sup. in 
Uum, as : recenseo, recensui, recensum and recensitum, to txam- 
amnt ; except stuxenaire, (to be displeased), |iercen9^>% (to examine 
accurately, go through), which have no Sup. 

Remark. Taedet (it disgusts), has together with taeduity also taesum 
tti, but this is not used in the classical language ; the compound j^er- 
iaedet^ has in the Perf. only pertaesum e^, e. g. pertaesum est (me) levi- 
tatis, whence by later writers perttuauSf a, urn (c. gen. or ace), disgusted. 

IIL Perfect: — evi; Supinum: — etum. 

1. Delio, evi, etum, ere, to destroy. 

2. Flere, to weep. 

3. Nere, to spin. 

4. The compounds of the obsolete plere (to fiU), as : com* 
plere. Here belongs the compound of the obsolete 
oleo (I grow) : 

5. Aboleo, abolevi, abolttum, abolere, to abolish; 
still this verb does not occur till after the Augustan 

Finally we have in this class : 

6. Ciio, clvi, cttum, a^re, to stir, raise. 

So also the compounds, as : conci^o, ivi, itum, iSre, or regu- 
lar, according to the fourth Conj. : concio, ivi, itum, ire, to excUe^ 
exci^o, ivi, itum, iSre or excio, ivi, itum, ire, to arouse, perci^o, 
ivi, itum, i^re or percio, ivi, itum, ire, to stir up, raise ; but, accio, 
accivi, accitum, accire, to send for, desire to come, is of the fourth 
Conj. alone. 

IV. Perfect:-^; Supine :^~4um. 

Preliminary REiiABx. The short vowel of the stem is lengthened 
in the Perf 

1. Caveo, cdvi, cautum, cav^re, to be on one's guard 


(ab aliquo, against some one) ; to give security, pro- 

2. FaveOjfavi^ {fautum rare) /av^rc (c. dat), to be 
favorable, to favor. 

3. Fiveoj fo V t, fotum^ fovrre^ to warm, nurse, cherish. 

4. Moveo movi mdtum, mor^re, to move. 

5. VSveOj vovi^ v 5 turn, vovire^ to vow, offer. 

Also the following without a Supine : 

6. FerveOjfervi and/er6wt,/err*r€, to boil. 

7. Paveo, pavij pavere, to dread (commonly expaves^ 

8. Conniveo, (•nlvi and ^ntxi, neither of them used in 
good prose), conntvete^ to close (the eyes)^ wink. 

XCIL Wards to he learned and Exercises for translation, 

Admisc^re, to tntermixy deprebendo, di, sum 3. gravitas, atis,/. gravity , 

mingle, [occupy, to seize, take, dignity, 

distin^re, to hold <spartj exclQdo, si, sum 3. to testis, is, c witness, 

Bustin^re, to bear, exdude, hakh, ascensus, as, m. ascent, 

remdv^re, to remove, gallina, ae,/. a ^^ anxie, adv, anxiously, 

dedico 1. 1 consecrate, vigiliae, axum, f,watdir horno, adv, this year, 

implico 1. / involve, es, night watches, publice, adv, publidy^ 

respiro 1. / hreatht, pullus, i, m, the young on (he part qf Oit 
sedo ]. I quiet, (of animals), chicken, stale, at the expense 

amplexor 1. I embrace, clades, is,/. defeoL of the state, 

Ciceronem Minerva omnes artes edocilit Gravitas modestiae mista 
maxime admirabilis est. Tot tantisque negotiis distentus sum, ut mi- 
hi non liceat lib^re respirare. Nescisne, quot labores, quot pericCila, 
quot miserias milites in itin^re sustinu^rint? Si virtus te a malis cu- 
piditatibus arcu^rit, vita tua beata erit Cic§ro, per legates cimcta 
edoctus, praetoribus imp^rat, ut in ponte AUobr6ge3 deprehendant 
Quo minus animi se admiscu€rint atque implicav6rint hominum vitiis 
atque erroribus, eo facilior iilis ascensus in coelum erit Simplex ani- 
mi natura est, nee habet in se quicquam admixtum. Vesciraur uvis 
sole testis. Homo multas uvas torruimus. Cato, Carthaginem delen- 
dam esse, censuit Quinto quoque anno tota Sicilia censa est 

Duae urbes potentissimae, Carthago et Numantia, a Scipione sunt 
del^tae. Graecorum Romanorumque gloriam nulla unquam oblivio 
detevit, nee unquam delebit Deus bonis omnibus mundum irapl^vit, 
mali nihil admisciiit Dum i^st dux, milites seditionem civ6runt 

164 lEREOTTLAR VS&BS. [i 59. 

Nuntiata olades miij<H«in, quam res erat, terrdrem in urbe exdvit 
Catilina neque vigiliis, neque quietibus sedabatur: ita conscientia men- 
tem excitam vastabat 

Cautum est legibus, ut moitui poet tertium diem sepelirentur. Non 
dubito, quin semper ab hominum impmt>rum consuetudine cav^s. 
Non igDoro, te mihi meisque semper favisse. Pulli a matribus exclusi 
fbtique anxie custodimitur. Dubitabisne, quin summum semper in te 
foy^rim amorem ? Me sic amplexati estis, sic in manibus habuistis, 
sic fovistis, ut nunquam illius diei oblivisc^rer. Brutus et Cassius, 
interfectores Caes^s, ingens bellum mov^runt Ingratus est, qui, re- 
mdtis testibus, agit gratias. Multi Romanorum imperatores pro salGite 
patriae sua capita voverunt fk)dem anno tria templa sunt publice 
Yota et dedicata. 

Cicero was instructed (perf.) by Minerva in (ace.) all literature. 
Tell me, who has taught thee (ace) grammar. If thou shalt have join- 
ed (= mixed) dignity with modesty, thou wilt please all. If thou hadst 
abstained from the intercourse of bad men, thou wouldst now be con- 
tented with thy lot If virtue had restrained thee from bad passions, 


thou wouldst now be happy. By the war all [things] have been con- 
fbunded (=«= mixed). Knowest thou not, that we have dried many 
grapes this year ? Under the reign of Augustus (abl. abs.) the Roman 
empire was rated (perf.). 

All the senators judged (perf), that they should (Grerund) lend aid to 
the citizens of the city destroyed by the enemies. It is known, that 
Scipio destroyed (perf) two very powerful cities, Carthag^ and Numan- 
tia. Tell me, why thou hast wept. The death of the good king has 
been lamented (= wept) by all the citizens. When I shall have spun 
two hours, I will take a walk. The world is filled (complere) by God 
with all good [things], nothing of evil is intermixed. When thou hast 
filled thy body with food and drink, thou wilt not use thy mind well. 
Hast thou heard that the soldiers have raised a conspiracy against the 
general ? It is not [possible] to quiet a mind stirred up by an evil 

: When I shall have sent for (accio) you, you will not delay to come. 
My brother, sent for by a letter, will come to-morrow. Philip, king of 
the Macedonians (Mac6do, dnis), sent for (perf) Aristotle [as] teacher 
for his son Alexander. The laws have established, that (ut) the dead 
should be buried afler the third day. I know, that thou hast always 
been on thy guard against the intercourse of bad men. It was es- 
tablished (perf)»by the will of the king, that grain should be distribu- 


ted to the destitute citizeos on his birth-day. I rejoice, that (quod) 
thou hast always favored me aiid my studies. I know that thou hast 
always cherished great love for (m c. ace) me. The hen anxiously 
guards the chickens which she has hatched and nursed. An im- 
mense war was raised (perf. of moveo) by Brutus and Cassius, the 
murderers of Caesar. I doubt not, that thou hast been greatly moved 
(commovere) by the news. History relates, that many generals of the 
Komans, offered (perf.) their heads for the wel&re of their country. 
Livy relates, that in the same year three temples were vowed and 
dedicated at the expense of the state. 

§ S9. V. Perfect — i; Supine — sum, 

(Comp. Prelim. Rem. to § 58. IV.) 

1. Pratideoy prandiy pransum^ />rawrfcre, to breakfast 

2. Sedeo, sedi, sessum, seder e, to sit 

So the compounds with dissyllabtc prepositions, as : circum- 
s£deo, 6di, essum, £re, to sit around, to beset ; but those with moruh 
syUabie propositions change the H of the stem-syllable into I, as: 
assideo ass^.di, assessum, assid6re, to sUhy, 

3. StrldeOy stridi, (Sup. wanting), 5^rWere, to whiz. 

4. VideOy vldij visum, videre, to see. 

Also the following, of which the Perf. takes the Re- 

5. MordeOj momordi, morsum, morrfere, to bite, af- 


6. Pendeoj pependi, ( Sup. uncertain), pendere, to hang. 

7. Spondeo, spopondi, sponsu w, spondere, to prom- 

ise, to become responsible for. 

8. TondeOy totondiy ton sum, tondere, to shear, cut 

The reduplication in these verbs, consists in a repetition of the 
first consonant; of the stem with the first vowel of the stem. 
Concerning spopondi, see § 55. Rem.^The compounds of these 
verbs follow the simples, but are without the reduplication, as : 
admordeo, admordi, admorsum, to bite into ; praependeo, pendi, 
to hang before, respondeo, respondi, responsum, to answer; de- 
tondeo, detondi, detonsum, to shave off, 

VL Perfect: — si; Supine :^^um, 
1. Augeo, auxi, auctum, avgere, to increase. 

166 IRBXOVLAa VERBS. [i 59. 

2. Indulgeoy indulsi^ {indultum rsie)^ mdti^ere^ to 

be indtdgent, to give one's self up to. 

3. L&geo, luxi (without Sup.) lug-ere^ to mourn, lament. 

4. Torqtteoj torsi, tor turn, torquere, to twisty torture. 

XCIIL Words to be learned and JExercises/or translation. 


Extorqu^re, to wrtd lacrima, ae,/. tear, occasus, us, m. setting, 

Jrom. sjca, ae,/. dagger, rabies, 6i,yi madness. 

pervidSre, to contem- sicarius, i, m. assassin, rabidsus, a, urn, mad. 

ptate^ examine. collum, i, n. neck. ext^rus, a, um, extemat^ 

re^ctere, to remain be- tonsor, oris, m. barber. foreign. 

kind. tonstricilla, ae ,f, a fe- ancillaris, e,ofa nudd, 

locUpl^to 1. / enrich. nude barber. servHe. 

barba, ae,yi beard. probitas, atis,^tepr^^- acQte, adv. sharply, 

epiet6\a^ a,e,f. letter. 'ness. acutely. 

Postquam prand^ro, ambulabo. Audistine, nos eras in horto pran- 
sQroB esse ? Quoa(^ ulla spes in animo meo res^dit, pro patriae liber- 
tate dimicavL Jam tres menses obsed^runt hostes nostram urbem. 
Nod ego sum ille ferrous, qui (s= ut ego) non mov^ar horum omnium 
lacrimis, a quibus me circumsessum vidStis. Multi putant, se bene- 
ffcos in suos amicos visum iri, si locupl^.tent eos quacunque ratione. 
Ne prius de re aliqua judica, quam eam diligenter pervid^ris. Epist6- 
lae tuae valde me raomord^nmt Si quis a cane rabioso morsus- est, 
rabies eum occupat Quoad tu locutus es, puer ab ore tuo pependit. 
Spopondistine pro amico? Spopondi. Multa a Laelio et in senatu et 
in foro vel provisa prudenter, vel acute responsa sunt Cicero narra- 
vit, Dionysium, ne tonsori collum committSret, tond^re filias suas 
docuisse : ita sordido ancillarique ofSfcio regias virgines ut tonstricdlas 
totondisse barbam et capillum patris. Tanta vis probitatis est, ut eam 
vel in iis, quos nunquam vidimus, vel, quod majus est, in hoste etiam 

Callisthdriem Alexander non tantum necavit, sed eiiam torsit. Ro- 
manae reipublicae magnitudo atque amplitudo bellis cum ext^ris gen- 
tibus ac nationibus gestis mirum in modum aucta est. Sicario sica de 
manibus est extorta. Quo magis induls^ris dolori, eo intolerabilior 
erit. Occasum atque interitum reipublicae Romanae optimi quique 
maxime lux^mnt 

Come to me to day, in order to breakfast (sup.). When we shall 
have breakfasted, we will take a walk. Our city has already been 
beset three months by the enemie& The enemies have beset the 
whole city. Hast thou already seen the friend ? no, but I hope that I 

f 60.] SBOOND ooNJiraATioif. 167 

shall see hi^i to-morrow. I grieve, that my lettm* has afflicted thee. 
I &ar that the dog will hite me. So long as thou hast bemi absent, 
we havefeli anxiety for thee (pend^w animis de te). My friend has not 
yet indeed become responsible for me, but I hope that he will become 
responsible for me. I have heard with great pleasure, that your friend 
has answered your letter quickly. The captives have cut (^ sheared) 
neither the beard nor the hair for (ex) three months. 

History relates, that Callistbenes was (perf.) not only killed by Alex- 
ander, but before also was tortured. The soldiers wrested (per£) a 
dagger from the hands of the assassin. Catiline emboldened (ae in- 
creased) [his] fierce mind and [his] consciousness of foul deecls by 
wicked arts. By the discourse of the generals, the courage of die 
soldiers was increased (perf). I rejoice, that thou hast not been in- 
dulgent towards (dat) the faults of thy son. Thou knowest, how very 
much we have lamented the death of our friend. 

§ 60. VII. Perfect : — si ; Supine : — sum. 

1. MtdceOf mulsi, mulsum, mulcere, to Btroke, 

2. Muigeo, mulsi, mulsum, mulgire, to ndlk. 

3. Tergeo. tersi, tersum, tergire, to wipe. 

4. ArdeOf arsi, arsum, ardere, to bum, take fire. 

5. Rideo, risij risum, rkiire, to laugh. 

6. Suddeo, sudsiy sudsum, suddere, to advise. 

7. Mdneo, mans% mansumf mdmrey to remain. 

8. Jiiheo, jussi, jussum, juberey to bid, command, order. 

9. HaereOy haesi, haesum^ hadrire, to hang, stick. 

The following also without a Supine : 

10. Algeo, alsi, cdgirey to suffer from cold, freeze. 

11. FutgeOy fulsiy fulgere, to glitter, lighten. 

12. TurgeOy tursi, turgere, Xo swell. 

13. JJrgeOy ursiy urgerCj to press, oppress. 

14. FngeOy {frixi rare )y>-i^^/c, to freeze. 

15. Laceo, luxi. Ulcere , to shine. 

VIII. Perfect with passive form {Neuter Passives); with- 
out a Supine. 

1. AudeOy ausus sum, atukre, to dare. 

2. Gcuideo, g avis us sum, gaudere, to repice. 

3. Sdleo, so lit us sum, sdlere, to be accusttonied (to do 


1 68 IBRE OTTLAK VEBB8. [f 60. 

XCiy., Wsrds to be learned and Exercises fir tramlatum, 

Absterg^re, to w^ off, rem&n^re, to remain be- scintilla, ae, f, a spark. 

dispdj remove,, kind, remain. exsilium, i, n. bamsh- 

deter^6re, to to^ off. oblecto 1. / ddight. ment. 

afililg^re, to shine upon, convivor i. I eat in cadQcus, a, um, destin- 

deridere 2. to deride. common. ed to fall, Jailing. 

dissuad^re, to dissuade, lateo, ui 2. / remain ^nfectio, bms^f, makr 

eluc^re, to skine forth. concealed. ing, composition. 

permulcere, to stroke, perpetior, pessus sum, 

charm, soothe. p^ti 3. to endure. 

Dux mitibus verbis excitos militum auimos permulsit Legendo 
l^rgilii carmina animus meus miriftce oblectatus et permulsus est 
Ita jucunda mihi hnjus libri confectio fuit, ut omnes absters^rit senec- 
tutis molestias. Non prius ad te veniam, quam luctum omnem abster- 
8£ro. Deters^e jam est tabCHa ? Quadraginta milia librorum Alex- 
andriae^ ars^runt. Non dublto, quin brevi tota Vrermania bello arsAra 
sit. Quis est, cui semper arris^rit fortuna ? Nescio, cur a te derisus 
sim. Sic mihi persuasi, sic sentio, non esse animos nostros mortales. 
Quis credat, cives pacem dissuasQros esse ? Quis conf idit, semper 
sibi illud stabile et firmum permansiirum esse, quod fra^le et cadQcum 
sit ? Romanorum glcMia usque ad nostram memoriam remansit Ly- 
curgus convivari omnes cives publice jussit Non qui jussus aliquid 
iacit, miser est, sed qui invitus tacit. Persuasum mibi est, memoriam 
bujus atrocissimi beUi non modo in hoc popiilo, sed etiam in omnium 
gentium sermonibus semper haesuram esse^ 

Milites in itineribus multos labores perpessi sunt, sudavSrunt et al- 
s^runt Superatis hostibus, nova spes salutis civitati afiulsit Pater 
litteris me ursit, ut prime quoque tempore litteras ad se darem. Quo- 
m5do in viro latebit scintilla ingenii, quae jam in puSro eluxit ! Tu 
me tantis beneficiis auxisti, quanta nunquam ausus sum optare. De 
amici tui comitate vald^/'gavisus sum. Ath^nis^ optimo cuique acci- 
d€re solitum est, ut in exsilium peller^tur. ^ 

The poems of Virgil have delighted and charmed my mind wonder- 
fiilly. The orator hoped, that he should soothe the excited minds of 
the citizens by mild words. Hast thou wiped off the table ? it has 
already been wiped off. I give (ago) thee very great thanks, that thou 
hast removed from me all pain by thy consolation. Under the reign 
{imperaref abl. abs.) of Napoleon (Napol^o, on is) nearly all Europe 
burned (perf ) with war. I hope, that all citizens, will bum with a 
desire, to fight (gen. of gerund) for the safety of [their] country. Who 

» at Alexandria. See Synt. § 92. « at Athens. See Syht. § 92. 


knows, whdher fortune will always smile upon Atjfir (sibbiey I know 
not, why you have derided me. I have not dissuaded the peace, and 
have been convinced, that neither will you dissuade it. We hope, that 
our souls will remain after death. Tell me, why thou hast persisted i» 
thy opinion. The general ordered the soldiers to attack the city. The ' 
soldiers, having been commanded (part perfl pass, of jvbeo) to assault 
the city, forthwith executed the command (= what had been com- 
manded). I fear, that this pain will ever stick in my mind. The re- 
membrance of (gen.) this Moody war, has remained («= stuck) in the 
minds of all. 

The hunters have sweated and frozen. Afi/er it has lightened, it 
thunders. The soldiers have pressed the enemies very much. From 
the countenance of the man, shone (per£) dignity and modera- 
tion. I have rejoiced, that (quod) thou hast 'dared to speak thy opin- 
ion freely. The Cartha^nians were accustomed (per£) formerly to 
use elephants in war. 

461. L Perfect .'^-^si ; Stqrine .'"-^^sum ; 

a) The stem ends Indort : 

1. CUmdOi clausiy clausunij ckmdire, to close. 

In the compounds au passes into u, as : inclodo, Clsi, Cisum, 
Qd^re, to tndude, 

2. Divido, (^ivlsi, divisum, difiAdSre, to ^ibnde, 

3. Laedo, laesi, laesum, laedire, to hurt 

In the compounds at passes into i, as: illido^isi, isum, Id^re, 
to strike againtU 

4. Luda, lusif lusum, ludire, to "plBY' 

5. Plaudo, plausif p lausum, pkmdi^re, to clap. 

So also aj^^vdo (I applaud) ; in the remaining compounds 
au passes into o, as : expl6do, 6si, dsum, 6d£re, to dap off^ drive off, 

6. JRddo, rdst, rdsum, rddire, to shave, shear. 

7. Rodo, rosif rdsum, rddere, to gnaw, slander. 

8. TVadOy triisiy tmsum, ^ru^re, to thrust 

9. Vddo, vddirCj to go ; without Berf. and Sup. 

But the compounds have both, as: evado, evasi, eva- 
s u m, evadfire, to come otii, escape. 

To these succeed the following : 

10. CidOj cessit cessum, cedire, to ^ye way. 
• IL Mitto, misi, missum, mittire, to sead. 


170 I&REOULAR VBBBS. [} 61. 

12. Qu&do, (Perf. wanting,) quassum, qu&t^re, to shake. 

The compounds change qwi into tu and form the Perf., as : 
deciitio, decussi, decussum, decilt^re, to thake doum, 

b) The stem ends in g, e, or ct : 

13. Mergo, mersi, me r sum, merger e, to plunge. 

14. Spargo, spar si, sparsum, ^>axg(re,io scatter (sow). 

In the compounds a of the stem passes into e, as : consper- 
go, ersi, ersum, erg^re, to hesprinkU. 

15. Tergo, tersi, tersum, terg^re, to wipe, (kindred form 
of tergtme i 60, VII 3). 

16. Figo, fi X i, fi xum, figure, to fix. 

17. Flecto, flexiyflexu ni, fiect^e, to bend. 

18. Necto, n e xu iyUexum, necUre, to unite, plait 

1 9. Pecto, pexi, pexum, pecUre, to comb. 

20. PlectOy {plexii) plexum, plecUre, to plait ^ 

c) Finally, the two following belong here. 

21. Tr^mo, pressi,pressum, primere, to press. , 

In the compounds i of the stem before m passes into t, as : 
comprimo, essi, essum, im^re, to press together, 

22. Fluo {for Jluvo), fluxi, fluxu m, fluire, to flow. 

XC V. Words to he learned and Exercises for translatioTU 

Committfire, to commit elid^re^fo-cfeu^ frredb. spectator, oris, m. fj^ec- 

conc^d^re, to concede^ imprim^re, to impress. tator, 

allow. copiilare, fojotn. cachinnatio, 6nis,yi on 

connect^re, to join tb- Yocare (in c. abl.), to unrestrained laugh. 

gether, conned. plaee, set. histrio, onis, m. odor. 

corrad^re, to scrape f^ libra, ,ae,/. a pound. perpetuitas, atis,yi sUL" 

gether. uMMlius, i, m. a bushel. bUHy^ perpduily. 

delud^re, to deceive. regnum, i, n. reign^ imprOdens, tis, tma- 
eludSre to mock. kingdom. wares. . 

disclad^re, to separate, praecordia, orum, n. viritim, adv. man by 

diaphragm. man. 

Templum Jani bis post Numae regnum clausum est Si rid€re con- 
cessum sit, vituperatur tamen cachinnatio. Si concess^ris, esse deum ; 
confitendum tibi est, ejus consilio mundum administrari. In omnium 
animis dei notionem impressit ipsa natura. Magna vis est conscien- 
tiae, et magna in utramque partem, ut neque timeant [ii], qui nihil ccfttk^ 
misprint, et poenam semper ante oculos versari putent [ii], qui pec- 
carint. Virtates ita copulatae connexaeque sunt, ut omnes omnium 
participes sint Caesar popalo praeter firumenti denos modios ac to» 

i 61.] THIBD C0NJT7OATI0N. 171 

tadem oUA libras treo^nos quoque numroos vinitiin divint Qui diffl- 
dit perpetuitati bonorum suorum, tlm^at Decease est, ne aliquando, 
amissis illis, sit miser. Plato duas partes amni, iram et cupiditatem, 
locis disclOstt: iram in pectdre, cupiditatem subter praecordia locavit 
Omnia Gallia in tres partes divisa est Si quia imprOdens te laesfirit, 
ne ei irascSre. Si vitae molli et effeminatae te deddris, brevi tempdre 
omnes nervi virtQtis elisi erunt. Cur me elusistis ! Nescisne, a perfido 
amico me delQsum esse ? Histrionibus, qui heri praeclare partes suas 
sustinu^nint, omnes spectatdres applausSrunt Epicari de ?ita beata 
sententia ab omnibus acutioribus philosdpbis expiosa est Sunt multi, 
qui in pecunia corrasa vitae felicitatem •collocatam esse putent 

XC VI Words to be learned cmd Exercises for translation, 

ConclQdfire, to indudt. emerg^.re, to emerge^ ezagitare, to disquUt 

confluSre, to Jlotv to- rise upj work ont^s exanimare to kUL 

gdher, assembU, self out, exsibilare, to hiss off, 

difflu^re, tojlow aswu detrad^re, to thrust fugAre,toputtoJlight, 

deTj run into, down, hasta, ae,/ spear, 

defig^re, to Jix, render extrQdftre, to thrust nebala, ae^f a misL 

firm, to turn upon from. [dispd. clypdus, i, m. a shield, 

somdhing, discilt^re, to drive awtpf, stimOlus, i, m. goad, 

transfigure, to trans/ii:. disperg^re, to disperse, caligo, rni8,yi darkness. 

deflect^re, to deviate. dispicio, spexi, spec- salvus, a, um, sqfe, 

demerg^re, to plunge turn 3. to open the mobilis, e, changealde. 

under, sink, suppress. eyes. quondam, ado formerly. 

Te in tantum luctum et laborem detrOsum esse, gravlter doleo. Cur 
aedibus istum extrusisti ? Spero, amicuro aegratum e morbo evasQrum 
esse. Si animus e corpdre evasdrit, tum demum vivet et vig^it Sole 
orto, caligo discussa est Omnia pericQla, quae nrbi impend^bant, 
ducis fortitude et consilium discussit Marius senile corpus paludibus 
demersum occultavit Animus coelestis ex altissiuK) domicilio depres- 
Bus et in terram quasi demersus est Leges, per longum tempus bos- 
tium vj demersae, tandem emersferunt Deus immortalis sparsit ani- 
mos in corpdra humana. Omnia, quae nunc artibus conclasa sunt, 
quondam dispersa et dissjpata fu^runt Epaminondas quum superas- 
set Lacedaemonios apud Mantin6am, atque ipse gravi vuln^re exani- 
m&ri se vid^ret, ut primum dispexit, interrogavit, salvusne esset clyp^ua 
Quum salvum esse a flentibus suis audisset, rogavit, essentne iiig&ti 
hostes. Quum id quoque audivisset, evelli jussit eam, qua erat trans- 
fixus, hastam. Alia omnia incerta sunt, cadac^ mobilia: virtus est 
una altissimis defixa radicibus. Cicero omnes suas curas cogitationes- 


que in reipuMiGae salate^defixit Qui Bemel a yeritate deflexit, ei ne 
Tenun quidem dicenti fides hateri solet, Non credo, te unqiiani de 
viitutis via deflexunim esse. Die, cai hanc cordoam nexueris. Ingeos 
homiauin multitude in urbeni confluxit, ludos publicos spectatooL • 

Hie Romans closed (perf.) the temple of Janus twice after the reign 
of Numa. If it is conceded to me by thee, that there is a God, 
thou must confess that the world is managed by his counsel. What thou 
hast promised, tliou must hold to (tenire, gerundive). The idea (±= no- 
tion) of God, is impressed upbn (abl.) the souls of all men by nature 
lierself. Men, by whom crimes have been committed, are disquieted 
by the goads of conscience, God has connected all parts of the world 
•together (inter se). Hast thoji heard, that grain has been distributed 
to (dat) the poor by the king .^ ^ A virtuous (=s partafi^ing of virtue) 
man will be happy, even when he shall have lost all the gifts of for- 
tune. Plato believes, that anger and passion are separated from 
the reason and understandinj^ The general has divided all the troops 
into four parts. It is not doubtful, that a soft and eftbmiuate life will, 
in a short time, enfeeble all the powers (=3 nerves^ of virtue. Know- 
est thou not, that the faithless friend has deceived me P^^^bdcHf^^s 

terday) evening, the actors were (perf) applauded by alL Hast thou 
heard, that lately all the actors have been hissed and clapped off? 
Many think, that, if they have scraped together (subj.) much gold, they 
may be happy. The heads of the captives were sheared (perf.) by the 
soldiers. What misery has brought thee (= thrust thee down) into so 
great grief? That (iste) man hast justly been thrust from the house. 

1 hope, that yre shall escape the danger. When onoe (quando) a 
:(aliquod) dream has turned out (evadere) true, many men believe, that 
this has not happened by chance. The sun has driven away the mists. 
All dangers which threatened the state, are dispelled by the wisdom 
and bravery of the general. 1 hq[)e, that thou wilt soon emerge frmn 
the misfortune into which fortune has plunged thee. Immortal souls 
have been placed («= sown) by God, in mortal bodies. Our soldiers 
attacked (perf) the enemies dispersed and put them to flight All the 
•cares and thoughts of Cicero were turned upon the wel&re of the re- 
public I know, that thou wilt never deviate from the path of virtue 
through wickedness. For (dat) whom is this crown plaited ? I be- 
lieve there is a great multitude of men assembled in the city, in order 
to behold (sup.) the public games* It is known, that the Romans c^< 
later (posterior) times, ran into (difflu^re) luxury. 

i 62.] TBIED OaNJTTOATlON. 173 

§62. II. Perfect:--^; Supine: — tum^^^tum^ — sum, 

1. Cdh, coluit cultum, c6Ure, to attend to, cultivate, 

2. OonsulOf consului, cdnsultutn, consulire, io deUher* 
ate ; c. ace., to consult, some one ; c dat, to consult for 
some one. 

3. Occulo, occuluiy occultum, occtiZ^re, to conceal. 

4. Itdpio, rapuij rcuptum, ripire, to snatch, plunder, carry ofi! 

CompouDds : — ripio, — ripui, — reptum, — ripSre, as : arripio, / 
Mcze, appntpriait to my9df, 

5. Siro, siruiy sertum, sir^re^ to join together. 

6. TeocOt tezuif teztum, texire, to weave. 

7. Ah, dbd, a I turn, dlire, to nourish. 

8. Cumbo^ cubui, cubit um, cumbirey to lie. 

The simple verb is not osedyJiNUilBOompoimdfl, as: discum- 
b£re, to Ue down. 

9. DepsOf d&psuii depstum, depsire, to knead. 

10. Fr^moy frimui, frimltum, frimire, to murmur, 

11. CrSmo, g^muif gimitum, gimihre, to groan, deplore. 

12. GignOf genui, genitum, gigrUre^ to beget, produce. 

13. Msh, mdluif mdlltum, md/<^e, to grind. 

14. IHnso, pinsui, pinsltum (sndpinsum, pistrnn^tpm' 
sire, to bray, pound. 

15. F6no, pdsui, pdsltum, p6nire (in c. abl. ), to place, lay. 

Pdno arises from pdAno, and p6sui from p6swu ^ 

16. V&mo, vlimuit vdmUum, vdmire, to vomit 

17. JPVendo,/renduiffresum or /re ssum, frendirey to 

18. Mito, messui, messum^nUti^re, to mow, reap* 

Remark. The following want the Sup. : sterto, stertui, stert^re, to 
tffiore, str^po, ui, ^re, to rustle, tound, resound; tr^mo, ui, €re, to treni' 
ble ; the compounds of pesco, as : compesco, comjpeseui, compesc^re, 
to restrain ; vdlo, ui, velle, to wuh ; and the compounds of 'cdh except 
percelUre : excello, antecello, praecello / excel, P£ cellui ; excdsus and 
praecelsus (lofly, distii^guished) are used acQectively. 

15» y 

17% ZfiJtE017tA& TEBSd. [i 6 2* 

XC VIL Wards to be learned and Eocerdsesfcr trimslcaian. 

Arrip^re, to seize upotu depugnare, to fight (for sepukrum, i, n* grove, 

diiip^re, to jdunder, life or death). hurioL 

cons^r^re, to join to- jurare, to sw^tH^ tegumentum, i, n. cover, 

gtAery to be hmd to 4MI0, 8iii, sQtdtn 3* to eevering. 

hand^ sew. commutatio, dnis, /• 

dem^tere, to cut down, progredior, gressus change, 

demitt^re, to let doum^ sum, gr^di 3. to step migratio, dmB,/. ndgra- 

ktfcdL Jforth. turn. 

diss^rgre, to discuss, Medtnonia, ae,/. sane- recordatio, dnis, f, re- 

speak, tkijfj religious eete- coUedion. 

ingign^re, to implant. mony. mntus, a, um, rfumft. 

prae^^D^re, to place ht- praetorium, i, n. gener- snprSmus, a, van,: lad. 

fort, oTs tent, matOre, adv, speedii^. 

In omnibus negotiis, priusquam aggrediare, consulto opus est^; 
ubi autem consuludris, matare rem ipsam aggr^d^re. Socr&tes supre- 
mo vitae die multa de immortaltlate animorum disseriiit Mambus 
consertis, milites nostri fbrtkudine excellu^ront Abihius modenatur 
et movet id corpas, «ui praeposltus est Zeno in una vhtute beatam 
vitam poBuit. Natura ingenCiit homini cupiditatem verum inveniendL 
Omnibus animalibus a natura ingenlta est consenrandi sui custodia. 
Alexander, Tictor tot regum atque populoruni, irae succubCiit Spero, 
te semper maximo studio^ in littSras incubitdrum esse^f^t^aerimonias 
sepulcrorum bonciines, /raudmis ingeniis praediti, non tant& cura coluis- 
sent, nisi liaeKret in eomm mentibiis, mortem non interitam esse om- 
nia delentem, sed quandam quasi migrationem commutationemque 
vitae, quae in claris virts et ien^nis dux in coehim sol^et esse. Si 
ingenium tuum artibus litterisque excultum eiit, et tibi et aliis utllis 
eris. Dux, ne mUites animum demitt^rent, Tuln^ra sibi inflicta occu- 
iCiit Ne crede, ullum peccatum deo occultum manere. Tegumenta 
corpdrum vel texta, rel suta sunt Quis pulcbram illam vestem texiiit ? 
Oratio tua totos nos ad se rapuit Quaerit Socrates, unde animum ar- 
ripuerimus, si nullus fu^rit in mundo. £xpugnata urbs ab bostiby^ 
dkepta est Scipio pugnavit cum Hanmbfile, prope nato in pra^torio 
patris, fortissimi ducis, alto atque educato inter arma. Cui non locus 
ille mutus, ubi ahns aut doctus #fitt, cum grata recordatione in mente 
versetur? Agricdlae frumentum non solum jam demessu^runt, sed 
edam demeasum in borr^ coogesserunt Ipse Hector toto pectdre tre* 
mdit, quum Ajax multa cum hflantttte progreder^tur depugnatnrus oum 


■ ■ ' ' ■ 

> there is need of one*s deliberating. 


Tne Romans sent (per£) aoibMsadora, in order I0 tamvU (part fut 
act) the oracle. I know, that thou hast cared for me and mine. The 
Boldiera were (perf.) hand to hand with the enemies. Tie soldiers 
swore, that they would not desert [their] general. God has placed 
the soul before the body. Nature has produced gold, silver, brass, iron, 
in short (denique) all metals for the use of men. The desire to find 
(gen. of the gerund) the truth (=s what is true), is implanted in the 
human race by nature. I rejoice, that thou hast applied thyself with 
60 great zeal to literature. I doubt not, that the wise [man] will never 
nnk under the pains of the body. If thou shalt have cultivated thy* 
genius by arts and literature, thou wilt be useful both to thyself and to 
[thy] native famd, I hope, that thou wilt always honor thy parents. 
Why hast thou concealed thy £iults from me ? didst thou Uiink, that 
thou wouldst always conceal them from me ? The enemies, after tiiey 
had taken the eUy, (abl. abs.), killed (perf.) the citizens and plundered 
their goods. The wise [man] will be happy, even when all the gifts 
of fortune may be snatched from him. Gratefully we remember the 
place (acc.)-where we were nourished and brought up. 

r §63. IIL Perfect:--'^; Supine: — turn. 

The stem of the Pres. is strenj^thened by n or r c 

1. Ll-n-o, levi, htum, /tn^r^, to besmear. 

2. Si'fi'O, sivif situm, ^in^re, to let, permit 

3. Si-r-Of sevi, sdtum, 9irire, to sow. 

In the compounds, a of the Sup. passes into I, as : cons^ro, 
cons^vi, con^tum, cons^rSre, to seed tloum, plant. 

The following have suffered a transpositioii of letters in the 
Perf. and Sup. : 

4. Cer-n-o, crevi, critum, cemere, to sifl, discern. 

The Perf. and Sup. occur only in the compounds. 

5. Sper-n-Oy spr ivi, spr itum, sperrUre^ to spurn. 

6. Ster-ft'O, strdvi, stratum, stemere, to spread. 

Finally there belong here the following in sco : 

7. Cre-sc-Oj crevi, c return, crescere, to grow. . 

So : accresc^re, to grow fo, increase^ excresc^re, to grow vp, 
decresc£re, to decrease, recresc^re, to grow again, concresc^re, to 
grow together ; the remaining compounds want the Sup. 

8. No'SC'O, ndvi, no turn, nosc^re, to be acquainted with. 

176 nguusoiTLA& vbrss. [i 63. 

So : internOscSre, to ditimguuh, ignoscSre, to pardon^ pernoeh 
c^re, to become ihoroughbf acquainUd wUh, praenosc^re, to become 
acquainted with before ; but, cognosc^re, to become acquainted mthj 
agDOsc^re, to perceive^ praecognosc^re, to become acquainted with 
previoudy, recognosc€re, to become acquainted with again, to re- 
view, form the Sup. in Uum, as : cognUum. 

9. Pa-sc'O, pdvi, pa stum, pasc^e, to pasture, feed. 

10. Qute-sC'Ot quiivit quiitum, quiescire, to rest 

11. Sci'SC'Of sclvi, sett unit «ctsc£re, to decide. 

12. Sue-sc'O^ suevi, sit i turn, ^zte^c^e, to be accustomed. 

XC VIIL Words to be learned (md Exercises for trcnslation, 

Decem^re, to deter- under, place under, to obtrectatio, duis, f, de- 
mine, to discern, subjecL traction, grudge. 

secemere, to sever, sep- importare, to imporL venustas, ati8,y. Uveli' 

ctrate. concionari, to bar- ness, 

ins^r^re, to sow in, un- rangue thepeopie, corpopgufl, a, um, cor- 

plant, invidia, ae, f, envy, poreaL 

obliD^re, to besmear, hatred. commOnis, e, commonj 

daub. vin^ ae,/. the vine. knoum Inf aJL 

prosternSre, to pros- butyrum, i, n. butter, ibi, adv. there, 

trate. comitia, onim, n. as- opportQue, adv. i^ppor- 

constemSre, to straw. sembly of the people. iundy. 

Bubsternere, to spread measis, is,/ crop. subito, adv. suddenly. 

Insita est nobis corpdris nostri caritas. Ibi messis non est, ubi 
satum non est Onme, quod erat concrfetum atque corpor^um, deus 
substravit animo. Vita tua malevolorum obtrectationes et invidias 
prostravisti. Probus, imperator, Aur^um noontem apud Moesiam su- 
periorem vinSis eons^vit. Proelio commisso, omnia longe lat^ue telis, 
armis, cadaveribus constrata erant Sceleratum hominem conscientia 
spretae virtutis exagitat Die, cur consilium meum sprevfiris. Audi, 
puer! Mater te rogat, cur panem butyro obUtum oHftus sis ed€re. 
Displtcet, qui se eztemis moribus obl^vit Rem dubiam decr^vit saepe 
vox opportune emissa. Venustas et pulchritudo corpdris secrdta non 
est a valetudine. Cato concionatus est, se comitia bab^ri non sitQrum 
(esse). Galli vinum ad se omnino importari non siv^runt. Cur desisti 
(desivisti) istum librum leg^re ? Thebanorum potentia, quoad iis 
Epaminondas et Pelopldas praefu^runtj niiruin in mpdum crevit. Ami- 
citia nostra cum aetate accr^vit Non dubitamus, •quin fluroen, quod 
subite accrftvit, etiatn suti[to decretunim sit 

i 63.] THIBB COKlXrOATIOH. 177 

XCIX. Words to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

AdsciscSre, lo adopt, deponSre, to lay aside, luxuries, ^\,f, exirava* 

assuescere, (c. dat)to sacra, drum, n. saered ganee. 

accustom ow^s seff, to rites, alienig^na, ae, fonign^ 

he accustomed (to auctor, oris, m. authoTj from another cowdryk 

something). adviser; meauctore, assidiius, a, um, unrt' 

consuesc^re, to accus- on my advice, mitHng, constant, 

torn one^s sdfy to be religio, dnis^/.reZ^ftbTt, dilucidus, a, um, dear, 

acciutomed, scrupulousness, quotidianus, a, um, 

appr6bare^to approve, superatttio, 6im^f, su- daily, 

levare(c»abl.)(ore(tet^, perstition, futilis, e,^vojotit. 

free, suavitas, atis,yi amia- paulQlum, ado, a Utile* 

privare (c abL), to de- Ueness, amiable dispo- 

prive, sition, 

Miilti homines, labori assid\io et quotidiano assu^ti, quum tempesta^ 
tis caussa prodire prohibentur, ludis delectantur. Demosthenes sum- 
ma voce versus muhos uno spiritu pronuntiare consu^vit Numam 
PorapiHum, regem alienigenam, patribus auctoribus, sibi ipse populus 
adscivit. Cer^ris sacra populus Romanus a Graecis adscita maxima 
religione coluit Ubl animus pauMlum e negotiis requievMt, ad te 
advolabo, in cujus amore et suavitate spero me conquietOrum omnes- 
que curas doloresque depositurum esse. Si amici mei mores pemo- 
yeris, spero, te ejus innocentiam agniturum eique ignottjurum esse. Si 
luxuriem oratlonis tuae depavSris, magni oratoris laudem tueb^re. 
Bestiae, fame dominante, plerumque ad eum locum, ubi pastae aliquan- 
do sunt, revertuntur. Cave, ne incognita pro cognitis habeas iisque 
temSre assentiare. Quid est tarn futile, quam quicquam approbare 
non cognitum ? Popdlus Romanus eo m'agnitudinis(=sad earn 
magnitudinem) crevit, ut viribus suis conficeretur. Quid est tarn 
jucundum cognltu atque auditu, quam sapientibus sententiis gravibus- 
que verbis omata oratio ? Quo brevior, eo dilucidior et cognltu fkcilior 
narratio est Cato, quoad vixit, virtutum laude crevit Onmium re- 
rum natura cognlta, levamur superstitione. j. 

Nature has implanted in us a love for (gen.) our body. Where thou 
hast not sown, there is not a crop. Believe not, that thou v^ih put an 
end to (ss prostrate) the detraction (plur.) and envy (plur.) of the wicked. 
We feared, that the soldiers had prostrated all [things]. If thou hast 
(iut perf.) spumed virtue, thou wilt not be happy. Tell me, why ray 
advice has been spurned by thee. Boy, hast thou eaten the bread 
spread with butter by thy mother? I thought (ss believed) that 
mother had not spread it It has been determined by the general, to 


attack the enemy. Before thou shalt have separated thyself from the 
wkked, thou wilt seek in vain the intercourse of the good. It is cer- 
tain, that tiie rivers which have decreased in winter, will increase in 
the spring. I am accustomed (perf. act. of con8tusco\ to read some- 
thing from (gen.) Homer daily. Numa Pitopilius was adopted (perf) 
by the Roman people [as] king. It is known, that the Roman people 
adopted (perf) the sacred riles of Ceres from the Greeks. Cicero, de- 
^prived of public offices, found satisfaction in the study of literature. 
When thou shalt have become intimately acquainted with my brother, * 
I doubt not, that thou wilt perceive his preeminence. JThe sheep 
have eaten down the herbs of the field. The shepherd drives (ag€re) 
the sheep to pasture (=x in order to pasture, 8up.), 

§64. IV, Perf.: — Ivi; Supine: — Hum (like the fourth 


1. Ciipio, cup ivi, cupttum, cvpirCy to desire, wish. 

2. Pito, pit ivi, pi tit urn, pitire, to seek, strive after 

something, jto attack something; ab ahquo, to request of 
some one. 

3. Quaero, quaesivi, quaesitum, ^^waef^rc, to seek. 

In the compounds, at passes into i, as: exquiro, iavi, isitum, 
ir£re, to examine^ trace out. 

4. RudOf riidivi and rMic?i, rudltuniy rudere, to to^lv. 

5. Tero, trivi (for terivi) , tritum (for terUum) , tirire, to 


The following also in esso : 

6. ArcessOf arcessivi, arc e ssitum, arcessire, to bring. 

7. CapessOj ivi, itum, ^re, to seize. 

8. Facesso, ivi, itum, ire, to moke {negotium/acessere, U> 

make trouble; t.o vex) ; to take one*s self off. 

9. IncessOy iviy (Sup. wanting,) ire, tp attack. 
10. Lacesso, ivi, itum, ere, to provoke. 

Saepe homines res, quas vehem]^r cupiverunt, adepti festidiunt. 
Audistine, ut leones rudivdrint ? Bellum ita suscipiatur, ut nihil aliVid, 
nisi pax quaeata videatur. Quum omnem antiquitatem memoria re- 
petiv^ris, tria vix amicorum paria invenies, qui alter pro alt^ro vitam 
depon^re parati erant Ne judica de re prius, quam eam accurate 
exquisiv^ris ! ErechthSi filiae cupide mortem expetiv^runt pro vita 
civium. Omnis Romanorum philosophla repetita est a Graecis. So- 


crfttes totam vitam atque aetatem cootrivit in emendandia altonim mo- 
ribus. Praecepta viitutis, quamvis contrita sint et communia, tamen a 
{laucis obsenraDtar. Constat, bello Punico secundo HannilMdem Italiae 
opes attrivisse. ImportOnus iste homo multa mihi fitcessivit negotia. 
Non dubito, quin nova lege eivibus negotium fiicessituni sit Nisi 
miUtes propSre ex urbe facessivissent ftigamque capessivissent, cives 
eos armis incessivissent Vix hostes milites nostras ad pugnam laces- 
sivdrant, qutim arma capessivdrunt eosque incessiv^runt. Leglmus, Ro- 
manos saepe consoles suos ab aratro arcessivisse. Multa sacra, ab ex- 
tfirisnatienibus adscita atque arcessita, Romani religiosissime colu^runt 

Scarcely bad the lion roared, when all the other (cet^rae omnes) 
beasts took (perf.) flight The soldiers, provoked by the enemies, 
wished (perf.) to flght, and asked (perf.) of the general, that he would 
lead them (se) forth from the camp against the enemies. We have 
sought peace, not war. Do not judge concerning a thing, beforo it 
^ball have been sufficiently examined by thee. History relates, that 
death was sought by the daughters of Erectheus for the life of 
the citizens. T^S^read, that the consuls were brought from the 
plough by the RomaBB.^ It is known that the Romans have brought 
many sacred rites ^fit>m foreign nations. As so6n as the enemies 
attacked. (perf) our soldiers, they -^ized their arms and fought I 
have taken myseir'so hastily from the city, because troublesome 
men vexed (perf ) me daily. .1 fear, that tbou hast 'provoked the 
friend by thy licentious jests. It is known, that the power (opes) of 
Italy was (perf) formerly wasted by Hannibal. 

§65. V. Perfect: — i; Supine: — turn. 

a) Th?8fem ends in bor p: 1 

h Otpio^ cepi, capt%*kinr cdp^re, to tak^, seize, reeeive. 

Compounds ^—cfpioytr- c^pi, — ceptum,— cipCre, as: perci- 
pio, IptrcewCy incipio, Il>€gin, 

2. Itumpo, rupi, r up turn, jrumpire, to break. 

Scahoy scdbi, scdbire, to a^tch, and lambo, Iambi, lamhere, 
to lick, want the Supii|e. ^ 

b) The stem ends in c, g or qu; 

3. AgOt €giy actum, dgere, to lead, drive, do, act, msike; 

of time : to spend. 

So : ciroum&g6ro, to drive round, perSlgSro, to carry through, 
sat&g^ro, to have eiumgh to do ; the other compounds on the con- 
trary, have : — igo, 6gi, actum, Ig^re, as : abigo, / drive atoay, exigo, 

180 IRBEOTTLAX TE&BS. [} 65* 

/ ca^ (of time) Ipan^ subigo^ ItubfvgaU ; odg^FO, io eompd (fiom 
coagirt), has eo€g%^ ooocHim. 

4. Fociot f^ciy factum^ ficire^ to make, do. 

Concemiiig the Pass. : fio, factus sum, fieri^ and its compounds 
see § 76. The eompounds with prepositioDS have in the Imper. 
— ^ice,asf perfice; the rest retain ^ocf from calfacere^ however, 
we have calface, 

5. Jbo, tci, ictum, ic^e, to strike; of a league: to con- 

6w Jdcio, j €ciy j actum, j&cire, to throw. 

Compounds:— jicio, — j^ci, — jectum, ^ jicCre, as: rejicio, / 
ihraw hack, rtjtct, subjicio, / throw undety auf^eeL 

7. Lego, Ugi, lee turn, legire^ to collect, readL 

So, allege, / tied (o, x>er]6go, / read thm^ prael^^ / read 
before, rel^go, / read again, subl^o, I gaiher from below ; the fol- 
lowing, on the contrary, have in the Pres.,-— llgo, as : colltgo, / 
collect, (coUSgi, coUectum, collig^re), deligo and eligo, / choose, re- 
colllgo, / coQed again, seligo, / aded ; but : diligo, Ilove, intelligo, / 
understand, negUgo, / negled, have in the Perf exi, as : diligo, 
dUexi, dilectum, diligSre.^ 

8. Frango, fregi, fr actum, frangere, to break. 

The compounds : — fringo, — fr^gi, — fractum, — fring^re, as : 
perfringOf perfr^gi, perfiractum, perfring^re, to break ihrovgh, 

9. lAnquOy It qui, lie turn, linquere, to leave. 

10. VincOt vtci, vie turn, riwc^re, to conquer, overcome. 

J^^i^igio, fi^gh /"^g^^^ to flee, has no Supine. 

c^ The Btem ends in m : 

1 1. Emo, imi, em turn, im^e, to buy. 

Ck)mpounds: — imo, 'im^re, as: eximo, exikmi, exemtum, exI* 
m^re, to except; but in cofya[io,Ibvy in quantities, the ^ remains. 

d) The stem ends in uorv: 

12. Aeik), deiii, acUtum, dcw^re, to sharpen. 

The compounds want the Supine. 

13. ArgHo, argtii, argutum, a/gilcre^ to accuse. 

14. ExiiOy ex Hi, exutum, exuerCj to put off. 

15. Jkduo, etc. I put on, clothe. 

16. InibuOy etc. I dip in ; c. abl. I imbue with. 

17. Liw, luiy lit turn, /were, to wash. 

18. Mimio, etc. I diminish. 


19. iMio, etc. I nod, in compounds, as : adnOo, I nod to. 

20. Ruo, r t« «, riktum, r&iret to rash (but Part. Fut ruttiuru$). 

21. 1^760, spui, sputum, ^7iS^«, to spit 

22. StatiiOf etc I place firmly. 

The compounds change the a of the stem into 1^ as : destituo, 

23. S&Oy etc I sew. 

24. TVibuo, etc I give. 

25. Solvo, solvit solutum, solvire, io looser 

26. Volvo, volviy volutum, vohire, to loU. 

MetQ^re (ui), to fear^ plii^re (plui), to rainy sternd^re (m\ to 
sneexe^ want the Supine. 

C. Words to be learned and Exercises /or translation. 

Affic^re, to affed ; af- transig^re, to spend foedus, Ms, n. kagus, 

fectus, affected, (time). potestas, atis,/ power, 

delinqu^re, (0 do «ome- excerp^re, (0 make ex- furiosus, a, um, mad^ 

Mng wnmgy to be tracts from, insane, 

delinquent, benefactam, i,n.yatwr. laodo, ado, onhf, juaL 

4ifli(c£fe, to throw or dominatio,dnis^ twoy. 

m/mder^ scatter, » 

Eodem modo erga amicos afiecti simus, quo erg[a nosmet ipsos. 
Pliusquam inciplas consulto et, ubi consulu^ns, matOre fac- 
to opus est* Acti labdres jucundi sunt Sola virtus in sua po- 
testate est ; omnia praeter eam subjecta sunt fortunae dominationL 
Unus dies, bene et ex praeceptis philosophlae actus, peccanti iromoi^ 
talitati anteponendus est Conscientia bene actae vitae multorumquo 
benefactorum recordatio jucundissima est > Appetitus rationi sunt sub- 
jeeti lege naturae. Victus est Xerxes magis consilio ThemiBt5c)is, 
quam armis Graeciae. Quid hominem octoginta anni juvant, per in- 
ertiam exacti ? Quos vic^ris, amicos tibi esse cave (ne) credlis. Pro- 
fecto beati eifmus, quum, corporibus relictis, cupiditatum erimus ex- 
pertes. Quid est tarn furiosum, quam verborum vel optimorum atque 
omatissimorum sonltus inanis, nulla subjecta sententia ? Pecuniam 
si cuipiam fortuna ademit, tamen, dum existimatio est intigra, &cils 
consolatur honestas egestatem. Milites, captis armis, imp^tum fec^ 
runt in hostes ; hi autem prepare fugam ceperunt Hostes, foedCre, 
quod modo icfirant, rupto, subito in castra nostra irrup^runt Si quid 
philosdphus in ratione vitae deliqu^rit, eo turpior est, quod artem vitas 

* There is need that yoa should consult, and act. 

182 IRREGULAR VERBS. [i 65. 

profit^tur. Plinius nullum librum legit, quem non exccrp^ret Gives, 
ab bostibus subacti, omui libertatis recuperandae spe adempta, mia^ram 
transeg^runt vitam. Milites bostium aciem perfreg^runt et disjec^runt 
Foedfira icta ab hostibus firacta sunt 

CL Words to be learned and Eixercisesfor transkuitm. . 

Destitu^re, Uy dtsert, gloriari, to glory. pallium, i, n. tioak, 

leave htMruL iDdulgeDtia,ae,/. tTufuI- disciimen, inis, n. dU- 

iDStitufire, to instruct, gence, tindion, 

efitigCre c. ace. to tscctpe. tunica, ae,y. under gar- prospeiitas, iXwJ'.pros^ 

exacufire, to sharpen, ment. parity, [posite. 

involv^re, to involve, annCilus, i, m. ring, contrarius, a, urn, op- 

envdope, soccus, i, m. sock, shoe, liberalis, e, liberal, 

redargCi^re, to disprove, obsequium, i, n. ohe- ingeniie, adv, noUy, re- 

respO^re, to reject, ditnce, spectdUy, 

Quis, bonesta in familia institutus et educatus ingeniie, non ipsa 
turpitudlne, etiamsi eum laesura non sit, ofTenditur ? Cartbago dirdta 
est, qiium stetisset annos sexcentos sexaginta septem. Pacis nomine 
bellum involatum reformido. Philosdpbi involutam multarum reriun 
naturam evolvSrunt Num tibi unquam plac^bit, qqod omnium mentes 
aspernatae sunt et respuSmnt? Milites in ipso diserimine pericuH 
cives inermes destituSrunt Quum animus, cognitis perceptisque virtu- 
tibus, a corpdris obsequio indulgentiaque discess^rit, voluptatemque op- 
press^rit, omnemque mortis dolorisque timorem effug^rit, cultumque 
dai et puram religionem suscep^rit, et exacuSrit ingenii aciem ad bona 
deligenda et rejicienda contraria : tum vita nobis erit beatissima. Num 
eredis, improborum prosperitates redarguisse dei bonitatem ? Dejai4- 
ra HercOli sanguine Centauri tinctam tunieam inddit Hippias sopbis- 
ta gleriatus est, se non solum omnes artes, quibus liberales doctrinae 
atque ingeniiae continerentur, scire, sed anndlum, quem habftret, pal- 
lium, quo vestitus, soccos, quibus indQtus esset, se sua manu confecisse. 

CIL Words to be learned and Exercises/or translatwn. 

DeficSre, to fail. dissolv6re,to relax, extenuare, toextenwde, 

praefic^re, to set over, persolv^re, to pay, lessen, 

deminufere, to diminish, eru^re, to dig up, severitas, atis,/. sever' 

dilu^re, to dilute, wea- obru^re, to cover up, ity, 

ken, designare, to designate. 

Homines metalla terra obrdta eru^runt Milites in expugnatae ur- 
bis cives ita saeviSrunt, ut omnem humanitatem exuisse viderentur. 
Divina lex non scripta est, sed nata : qua non institUti, sed imbCiti su- 


iiius. Nemo est tam immanis, cqjus mentem non imbuftrit deorum 
opinio. TuSfn animum tendrum virtutis praeceptis imbuimug. Gog- 
itatio, omnes res humanas fragiies et cadQcas esse, omnes meas moles- 
das extenuavit et diMiL Quae observata sunt in usu ac tractatione 
dicendi, haec ab hominibus doctis verbis designata et partibus distribo- 
ta sunt Divitiae, quae ad ext^ris nationibus Romam confluxdrunt, 
morum disciplinam severitatemque dissolv^runt Stipendiis, quae dux 
Biilitibus promis^rat, non persolQtis, seditio concitata est. 

Tbe passions ought to be subjected to the reason. If thou shalt 
have spent thy life according to (ex) the precepts of virtue, the en- 
trance to heaven will stand open to thee. It is hard to retain (tenure) 
fiiendship, when thou shalt have fallen from virtue. God has set the 
soul over the body. Some doubt, whether the world may be made by 
chance (ne tcheOierj attached to casu) or (an) by the divine reason. It was 
uncertun, whether the Romans had (subj.) conquered, or had been con- 
quered. Then (tum) first (demum) will the soul enjoy a happy life, when 
it shall have deserted the body. The enemies have broken (rump^re) 
the concluded league. When anything has been done wrong by a philo- 
sopher, it is so much the more base, because he teaches (ss professes) 
the art of life. If any one (quis) has taken (fut per£) from us liberty, 
the light of life will be taken from us. Caesar, after the line-of-battlo 
of the enemy was broken and scattered (abl. dbe.), led his soldiers back 
into the camp. Thou wilt not enjoy a peaceful life, before that thou 
shalt have subjected the passions to the reason. The defenceless cit- 
izens were (perf.) deserted by the soldiers, in the very (ipse) crisis of 
danger. It is known, that the Romans destroyed (perf.) Carthage. 

The soldiers fled because they feared (perf. of mduo), that they 
should be conquered by the enemies.' The metals, which nature has 
hid in (abl.) the earth, are dug up by man. Who is not imbued with 
the belief in (gen.) God ? Parents, who have imbued the minds of 
their children with the principles of virtue and have instructed them in 
literature^ deserve well, not only of (de) their children, but also of the 
state. We have weakened the wine by (abl.) water. I hope that this 
reflection will weaken all thy troubles. Already the powers of our 
soldiers were din^inished, when the enemies made (perf.) an attack. 
By the riches, which flowed together (perf.) to (ace.) Rome afler 
the destruction (abl.) of Corinth, the ancient discipUne and severity 
were relaxed (perf.). 

Since the general had not paid [their] wages to the soldiers for (per) 
two months, a sedition was excited (perf) in the camp. Hast thou 
heard, that the city has concluded a league with the enemies, but that 

164 lEEEGULAE VERBS. [f 66. 

they have broken (frangCre) it? After the troops were collected 
(.abL abs,), the general determined (perf.) to attack the camp of the 

enemies. I believe* that I have sufficiently disproved thy reasons. 


§ 66. VL Perfect : — i ; Supine ;— «««». 

a) The stem ends md or ti 

1. Cando in compounds, as: accendoj accendi, accent 
sum, accendire, to kindle, inflame. 

2. OudOy cudi, cusum, cvdtre, to forge. 

3. JEdOt €di, esunVy idire, to eat 

4. Fendo in compounds as: defendo, de/endi, de/en- 
sum, defendire, to defend. 

5. Fddio, fo d % fo ssum, fodire, to dig. 

6. Ftmdo, fu di, fu sum^ fundire, to pour. 

7. Mando, mandi, mansum, m^mdere, to chew. 

8. Paatdo, pandi, passum^ panders, to spread. 

9. Frehendo, prehendi, prehensum, prebendere^ to 

10. Scando, scandi, scansum, sc&ndire, to monat 

In the compounds : — scendo, — scendij-'-scensum, — scend^re, 
as : adscend^^re, to a$cend, §caU, descend^re, to deaeeneL 

11. Sido, sidif (Sup. wanting,) sidire, to sit 

In the compounds : — sido, — s^di, — sessum, — ad^re, as : con- 
ead^re, to sit doum, 

12. StridOy stridiy (Sup. wanting,) strldere, to hiss. 

13. VertOj vertiy versum^ vert^r€,\x>iwxix» 

Finally, there belongs here the neuter passi/ve : 

14. Fi do, flsus sum, fidlre^ to trust 

So : conf idSre^ to confidt in^ diffid^re, to distnaty despair. 

b) The stem ends in ( or r : 

15. Velio, vein, vulsum, vellire, to pluck. 

16. Fsallo, psalli, (Sup. wanting, )j95a^re, to play the lyre. 

17. Verro, verri, ( Sup. wanting,) verrire, to sweep. 

Remark. It is to be noticed, that the stem-vowel of these verfos^ 
when short in the other parts, is long in the perf. The two follow- 
ing verbs form an apparent exception : 

T'mAo^ JMi^ fissum, find^re, to splits (so also its compounds), 


Scindo, $ddi, scianiin, scinckhre, to evt (eo also its compoundi). 
But both these verbs originally took the redupltcation. The same it 
true of the compound : percello, pereuUj perculsum, percell€re, to ttnkt 
violtnJQy (from the obsolete cell^re, to ianpd). See § 62, IL Rem. 

CIIL Words to be learned and Exercises/or translation. 

Comprehendftre, toetn- ex^d^re, to consume^ liquefto^re, to nuAe 

hraee. corrode. UqukL 

confbdere, to stab, incend^re, to enkindUf proftc6re, to htn^ 

ei{bd£re, to dig out ir^/lame, perv£hi,(o bear through, 

diffiind^re, to diffuse^ procQd^re, toforgt ; (of convey. 

disperse. money) to coin. edonia, ae,/ colony. 

efiiind^re, (o j90ur/biiA ; lac£rare, to laeerate^tear. velum, i, n. saU. 

2)(Aratr^(therider). diger6re,to ditpose^dir furor, dris, m. madness. 
ofiundfire, to flow a- gesL vetustas, ati8,yi age. 

gainst^ diffuse^ spread inscrib£re (c dat) to conspectus, Os,m.«^A^. 

oner. inscribe^ write upon, antiquttus, ado. ancieni- 


Constat, Tyriorum colonias paene toto orbe terrarum diffOsas fuisse. 
In morte portum nobis par&tum [esse] et perfugium putfimus. Quo 
utfnam velis passis perv^hi liceat ! Hannibal patriam defensum ex 
Italia revocatus est Nihil proficiunt praecepta, quamdiu menti error 
ofTOsus est Beate vivendi cupiditate incensi omnes sumus. Ingens 
nummorum num^rus hoc anno procOsus est Aegritudo animum 
meum laceravit, ex^it plan^ue conf^it Epigramm&tis, monumento 
inscripti, litterae vetustate exSsae erant Milites urbem, ab hostibus 
oppugnatam, acerrime defend^runt Antiquttus magna auri argentique 
vis in Hispania est efibssa. Milites, furore capti, ducem conibdSrunt 
Equus repente corrQit consulemque lapsum super caput efit^dit Cibos 
mansos ac prope liquefactos demittimus, quo (ss ut eo) facilius digeran- 
tur. Quo magis virtutis vim animo et cogitatione comprehendeiimus, 
eo magis earn admirabimur. Proditores urbis deprehensi in conspectu 
omnium civium necati sunt Nonne vides omnium ora atque ocCdos 
in te conversos ? Multi fiicultatem dicendi ad hominum pemiciem 

CIV. Words to be learned and Exercises^ translation. 

Convellere,fo tear atoay^ rescindSre, to tear, to motus, Os, m. motion. 

convulse. break down. motus terrae, earihr 

desldSre, to Atil: cbim. transgr^di, to /mem over. quake. [ersoeoer. 

diffindSre, to spUL mora, ae,yi dekof. quocunque, ads. whUhr 

discind^re, to tear in nodus, i, m. a knot scilicet, adv. namdy, 

pieces* scmpalus, i. m. an^ddy* doubtless. 


106 IftBfiaUIJIiE VEXBS, [I &}. 

<dlliiociiiiqiM le vel oculls, vel aniiiio coovert^ris, dmnae bonitalu 
l^eiNL esse omnia,. intel)lge& Alexander, rex Maceddnum, €k>rd[i do- 
dtim ense diftdUj scilicet diffi$u8, eum a se solutum iri. Quum Ha»- 
hHmiI Alfies transgrederfetur, muha iDgentts magnitudlnis saxa d^ffissa 
sunt Quia 6bi yeatem discidit? Quid? disciss&De est? Pompeii 
terrae mettt desed^niot Quis nescit, apud RomaBos eloquentiain ad 
Bumrauni homNrem odscendisee ? Caesar, militum viftuti eoyflsus^ 
sine mora hostilem exercitum adortus est LittSrae tuae omnem 
Bcrupi&lum mihi ex animo eyelterunt Est boni regis officium, quum 
rempublicam labe&ctatem oonvulsamque videt, opitulari patriae. 

The goodness of God is difibsed tfirough (abL) the whole worid. 
The sails are spread. Superstition has spread (ofiundftre) darkness 
over (dat) the souls of men. The king has coined a great quantity of- 
money this year. My mind is torn and consumed by giief (aegritQ- 
do). When we shall have eaten, we will take a walk. The city, 
which was assaulted by the enemy, was (perf.) very bravely defended 
by the citizens. Anciently, the Spanish (Hispanus, i) dug up much 
gold and silver (=s much of gold and silver). By thy bravery, thou 
hast turned all eyes and minds upon (in) thee. Never has a wise [man] 
trusted to the stability of the gifls of fortune, but rather, has alwi^s 
distrusted them. It is known, that the knot of Gordius was not loosed 
by Alexander, but severed by the sword. The geiieral was stabbed by 
the soldiers, because he ventured to quiet their sedition. 

How oflen has the faculty of speaking (gen. of ger.) been turned to (ad) 
the destruction of men ! The enemies have broken down the bridges. 
Mountains and cities have been sunk down by earthquakes. We had 
already descended from the mountain, as we heard (perf.)^ that you 
were ascending (subj.) it All anxiety has been removed (evell^re) 
from my mind by thy letter. Who does not know, that the long war 
has shaken the state violently ? Caesar by a few words inflamed the 
soldiers for the battle. 

§ 67. VIIL Perfect with the Reduplication. 

Prelibonart Remark. The Reduplication consists here, in diose 
verbs of which the first vowel of the stem is », o, or u, in the repeti- 
tion of the first consonant of the stem with this vowel, but with the 
remaining verbs, in the repetition of the first stem-consonant with e. 

1. Codo, cecidi, cd^ww, c^t^re, to fall, to happen. 

Compounds^— cldo,— ddi,— caaum,— cidere; so: occidO) / 

{ 67.] THimo ooMJiKUTioir. 187 

go to rwn, incf doy IfiH vpon and racido^ IJkH Imdi ; .tibe otheiB 
want the Supine, as : conc&do, idi, id£re, to/aU iogeUur. 

2. Caedo, cecidit caesum, caec^re, to fell, kilL 

Compoands :— -cido,— cidi^ — cisum,— ^idfire, aa : ocddo, IkSL 

3. C&no, cecini, cantum, carUre, to sing. 

Compounds :— cino^-^-ctnui,— cin^re, as : con^tno, ui, £re. 

4. CwrrOy cucurri, cwsum, currire, to ran. 

Most <^ its compounds are Iboth with and without the rodufdi- 

6. Disco, didici, (Sup. wanting,) discire, to learn. 

So also its Qoniqiouiidi, as : perdiaco, p«rdidlciy perdiscire, to 
learn thoroughly, 

6. Failoy fefell% fahwn^faiUirey to deceive. 

Fallit me, U escapes me. — ^The Part falsua is commonly used 
as an adjective, ^/b^se. Compound: refello, refelli, (Sup. want- 
ing), refell6re, to rtfvie, 

7. JPango, peplgij pcuctmm, pangi^e, to fasten, to bargain, 

agree to on conditioa 

Compounds >—pingo,—^giy-^pactum, ping^^, as: comfmi- 
go, tofarien together, 

8. FdnrcOt peperci, jHirsum, parcire (c. dat), to spare. 

9. JPdrio, pep^ri, partum, pdr^e, to bear (ova par6re, to 

lay eggs), to acquire. Particip. Fntpariturus (fbrpartU' 

10. J^Ua, pepuli, pulsimty peUire, to drive, repel. 

Compounds :«—pello,—pCili,^pulsum,—peU6re, as: ezpello, 
expuli, expulsum, expell^re, to drive avxxy, 

11. Pendo, pependi, pens^um, pendire, to saapend, weighs to 

pay, compensate. 

The compounds have no reduplication, as : appendo, appendi, 
appensum, appendCre, to hang to, append. 

12. Ibsco, poppsci, (Sup. wanting,) /W5c^rc, to demand. 

So also its compounds, as : exposco, expoposci, exposc^re, to 
demand of, request of, 

13. FungOy pupugiy j9W»c^ww,jj>M«g'crc, to prick, harass. 

Compounds: — pungo, — punzi,^ — ^punctum,— pung^re, as: in- 
terpungo, (o distingvish. 

188 IIRSOITLAE VEBB8. [f 67. 

14. Tango, tetigi, tactum, tangire, to toncli, 

Coinpounds: — tiDgo,^— tigi, — factum, ting^re, as: attingo, at- 
tigi, attactum, atting^re, to totuh, nadu 

15. Tendo, tetendi, tentum and tensum, tendire, to stretch, 

spread, extend (tend^re insidias, to lay snares). 

The compounds are without the reduplication and generally 
with the Sup.: — tentum, as: contendo, contendi, contentum, 
contendere, to draw togeihar^ exert one^s se^^ atrwe, 

16. Tundo, tutudi, tunsum, tundire, to beat, stun. 

Compounds: — tundo,— tddi — ^tflsum — tundSre, as: contundOy> 
contddi, contusum, contundftre, to break in pieces^ crush. 

Rem. 1. The two foHowing verbs have the reduplication in the Pros, 
and retain it m the other tenses : 

bibo, bibi, bibitum, bibSre, to drink (so also its compounds), 
sisto, stlti, st&tum sist^re, to place, stop (so its compounds). 

Rem. 2. The compounds of dare with monosyllabic words (comp i 
55, II, 1.) also belong to this class, as : addo, addidi, addUtun, add^re, 
to add, 

C V. Words to be learned and Eocercisesfor tra/nshtion, 

Concin^re, to sing to- overture, to ovtrOiroWf proverbium, i, n. pro^ 
gether, sound to- demolish, verb, 

gether, inspic^re, to look upon, fides, is,/ string; fidi- 

ezcidSre, to cut off, des- view, bus, can^re, to play 

troy, rec^d^re, to go hack, with a stringed in- 

obtingere, to fall to retire, strumcnt 

one^s loL restitute, to restore, fiigus, dris, n, cold. 

confirmare, to render emollire, to soften, innoxius, a, um, tnno- 

permanent, epulae, arum, f, a cent, 

devdlare, tojly away, meal, feast, noctu, adv, by nighi, 

popiUari, to lay waste praesto, ado, present, 

£t discas oportet, et, quod didicisti, agendo confirmes. Male parta 
male dilabuntur. Ut hirundlnes aestivo tempdre fnraesto sunt, frigdre 
pulsae rec6dunt ; ita &lsi amici serfeno vitae tempore praesto sunt ; 
simulatque hi^mem fortunae vidftrint, devdlant omnes. Quid casOrum 
sit, incertum est Quod cuique obtigit, id quisque tenSat Clitum 
amicum senem et innoxium a se occisum esse, Alexander dolebat 
IngenOas didicisse fideliter artes, emollit mores, nee sinit esse feros 
(eos). Non tarn utilltas, parta per amicum, quam amici amor ipse 
delectat HannibSdem non fefellit, ferocius, quam consultius rem hos- 
tes gestures esse. Ex quo (sc. tempore) pecunia in honore fuit, verus 
rerum honor occidit SUva vetus cct^M, feno quam nemo cctAdiL 


Epaminondas fkUbuB praeclare ceciaiase didtur. Chto aeribit, pria* 
coa RomaiioB in epOlia cecinisse ad tibiam clarorum ?irorum kudea 
atque virtutes. Datur cohortibus aigoum cornuaque ac tubee coo** 
ciiui^runt Id pugna, ad Trasim^Dum anno OCXVII ante CbriaUim* 
natum commisaa, quind^cim milia Romanonim in acie caeea aunt; 
decern milia, sparaa fuga per omnem Etrurianv diYerua itineribia 
urbem peti^runt. 

CoDstat, Numantiam a Scipione exciaarn et eversam esae. Si id, 
quod dixi, &lsiim erat ; cur me oon refelliati ? Hoales paeem Dobi»> 
cum pepig^runt, ut miiites a nobis captoa readtueremua. deomSnea, 
Lacedaemoniua, quum triginta dierum esaeni cum hoste pactae indii- 
tiae, noctu popuiabatur agros, quod dierum esaent pactae, non noctium 
indutiae. Dux, quum urbem cepisaet, aedificiia omnibiia, publicia «t 
privatis, sacria at pro&BiB, aic pepercit, quaai ad ea defendeiida, naa 
expugnanda cum exercitu, urbei^ intrasset Urbe expugnata, nulitea, 
furore capti, juravSrunt se non aetate confectis, non mulierlbua, noB 
infantibus parsaros esse. Ovorura inter se similiiudo est in proverbio ; 
tamen Deli* fu^runt complurea, qui, permultas gallinaa alenties, quum 
ovum inspex^rant, quae id gallina peperisset, dic^re sotebant Mihi 
crede, te tua virtute maximam laudem tibi paniuntm esae. 

C VI Words to be learned and JSkerdses/or irandation, 

CompuDgfire, to pricks eoncldm&re, to cry (nU doliarium, 1, n. edhtr, 

mark, together, festiTitas, atis,^ agre^- 

oond^re, to found, pre^ stiroQlare, to goad, iMenutk 

serve, sustentare, to preserve, loquacitas, atia, y. 2o* 
distinguSre, to distin- sustain, [forth, quacity, 

gmsh, erump^re, to break potus, Qs, m. drink, 

pereurrfire, to run nota, ae, /. ^^g^i, mark, spurius, a^ um, spwi- 

through, adversarius, i, m. ad- eus, 
perddre, to destroy, ruin, %ersary» 

Catilina multaa insidias Ciceronis vitae tetendit, sed hie omnes illhia 
machinationes contiidit Admiramur praeclaros illos viros, qui sem* 
per summts laboribus et pericuUs ad summam laudem gloriamque 
contend^runt. Garrillus homo loquacitate sua aures meas plane tu- 
tiidit. Die, a quo haec grana tunsa sint Metelhis in Numidiam pro- 
ficiacitur magnd, spe civiura ; avariti& enim roagistratuum ante id tem- 
pus in Numidia Romanorum opes contOsae hostiumque (opes) auctae 
erant Verres, simulac tetigit prorinciam, maximae avaritiae totum 
ae tradidit Totum librum legendo percucurri Duae in Capitolio 

* at Delog. See Synt. § 92. 


190 IHRBOULAR VERBS. [1 67. 

aedes mult&que alia aedificia udo anno de coelo tacta sunt Agesil&us, 
quotiescunque ooDgressiis est cum hostibue, multo majores adversario- 
rum copias pepdlit Tu temeritatis tuae maximas poenas pependisti. 
CoDclamibaut omnes Carthaginienses, satissupplfciorumase pro te- 
meritate unius hominis, Hamiib&lis, pensum esse. Milites, urbem in- 
gress!, non cibum, aut potura poposc^runt, non araiorum onus depo- 
suSrunt Tu ex animo scrupillum evellisti) qui me dies noctesque sti- 
mulavit ac pupCkgit Philosopbia, si paupertas momordit^ si ignominia 
pupdgit, si quid tenebrarum oflTodit exsiJium, singularum rerum pro- 
prias consolationes adhlbet. Fesdvitatem habet narratio, distincta per- 
sdnis et interpuneta sermonibus. Aristarcbus, grammaticus, eos 
Hom^ri versus, qui spurii ei videbantur, notis quibusdam compunxit 
Omnes cives, belli calamitatibiM confecti, ptfcem expoposc^runt. Ro- 
mani in doliariis cotM^ babebantvina, pip^re et melle condHitu Grae- 
ciae civitates, dum imper&re singCdae cupiunt, imperium ,omnes perdi- 
dtrunt Perditis rebus omnibus, ipsa virtus se sustentat 

The Gauls (Gallus, i,) bave learned from the Greeks, to surround 
[their] cities with walls. If any one has acquired (fut perf) riches in 
a bad way (male), he will also lose them in a bad way. The thing 
has turned out otherwise than (atque) I had expected. Alexander, 
seized (capCre) by anger, killed (perf.) [his] friend Clitus, an old man. 
Thy friendship has always afibrded me the greatest pleasure. The 
&ithless friend has deceived me. Afler my sister had sung (per^) 
alone (solus), we all sang together (perf.). It is known, that Scipio. 
demolished (per£) Numantia. The old oak, which stood before (ante) 
oiu* house, was (perf.) felled yesterday. Since Cleomenes hfid agreed 
upon a truce of thirty days with the enemy, he laid waste the fields by 
nigbt, because he had agreed upon a. truce of days, not of nights. 
We have heard, that peace has been agreed upon (=> bargained) with 
the enemy. The ship having struck against a rock, made (perf. of 
fadre) shipwreck. 

The citizens of the city hoped, that Caesar, who had already spared 
other captured cities, would also spare theirs. It is not to be doubted, 
that our army, which under the conduct d/* a bad gmtral (duce malo im- 
peratore) has acquired for itself great praise by its braveiy, under the 
conduct of a good general, will acquire for itself still (etiam) greater 
praise. A victory gained by treachery, redounds (= is) to (dat) the 
conqueror not for praise but for disgrace. The rashness of CatHine 
was crushed by the prudence of Cicero. The dart will be discharged 
(emittfire) so much the more violently, the more (magis) the bow has 
been drawn together (contendere) and drawn up (adducere). As 


Caesar entered (iogredi, autj.) the captured city, tbe iDhabitants extend- 
ed (perf.) [their] hands to (ad) him, and entreated (orare^ perf.) him, 
that he would spare them. Why dost thou weep boy ? because I have 
been struck. Who has struck thee ? 

The finnness of the general and the bravery of the soldiers, have 
weakened the attack of the forth-breaking enemies. Scarcely had I 
reached the house, when it was (perf.) struck (= touched) by lightning 
(de coelo). Our soldiers repulsed the enemies at (abl.) the first attack. 
The whole book has been run through by me [in] reading (abL of ge- 
rund^ The traitor has paid just punishment for his ofience. As soon 
as the horns sounded (perf. of canirt\ all the soldiers ran (perf) to- 
gether. Virtue sustains hself^ even if (etiamsi) it may have lost all. 

§ 68. VIII. Inchoative Verbs. 

All mchoative verbs (in sco), i. e. verbs which express a he^ 
coming or beginning of the idea contained in the primitive, fol- 
low the third Conj. and coincide in the Perf. and Sup. with 
their primitives, as ; 

inveterasco (from inveUra/re), inveteravi, inveteratum, invete- 
rascSre, to grow old; 

exardesco (from ardtre), exarsi, exarsum, exardescfire, to be- 
come inflamed^ to be kindled ; 

indolesco (from dolire), indolui, indolltum, indolescSre, to/eel 
pain ; 

revivisco (from vivire), revixi, revictum, reviviscfire, to come 
to life again, revive ; 

concupisco (from cupSre), concupivi, concupitum, concupis- 
c6re, to desire (earnestly) ; 

obdormisco (from dormire), obdormivi, obdormitum, obdor- 
miscfire, to/all asleep. 

Remark. The inchoative verbs from the absolete ol^o, di, ol^re, to 
grow, (§ 58, in, 4.) vary in their formation in the following way : 
adolesco, adol^vi, adultum, adolesc^re, to grow up, 
ezolesco, exol6vi, exol^cum, exolescere, to become old, 
inolesco, inol6vi, (Sup. wanting), inolesc^re, to grew into. 
Also, obsolesco, obsol^vi, obsol^tum, obsolesc^re, to grow old, obaoUtCf 
varies from its primitive, soUre, Very many inchoative verbs want the 
Sup., as : incalesco, incalui, incalescere, to become warm (from caleo, ui, 
itum, 6re, to be warm). Some want both Perf. and Sup., as : iiLgesco, 
/ increase (from, augeo, xi, ctum, 6re). Here especially, belong the 
inchoatives which are derived- from substantives and adjectives, as : 

192 IRKBOITLAR VERBS. «[f 68. 

yepueraflcCre, to become a boy ogmn; only a small number of these 
form the Per£ which is in m, as: maturesco^ maturui, maturesei^ 
to become mahire. 

evil Words to he teamed and Exercises for translation, 

Coalesco, lui, litum 3. illucesco, Uud 3. to &e- advSrtfire, to (um (hith- 

to grow logetheTy coo- come lights dawn. er). 

lewe. recrudesco, dui 3. to auditor, oris, m. huxrer, 

eonsanesco, nui 3. to &e- break out afresh. vi^cus, ^ris, n. bowels. 

come weU. resciseo, ivi or ii, itum adolterlnus, a, um/ufcil- 

consenesco, nui 3. to 3. /// emoeriaia. tended^ eotrnterfeU. 

grow old. condemnare, to con- contra, adc. on (Ae con- 

convalesco, lui 3. to &e- demn ; capitis, to trary^ other side. 

come better^ recover. death. quando, adv. when. 

deferyesco, vi 3. to frtmt permanare, to Jlow 

outy stdtside. ihrough,Jlpw along. 

Crede, omnem diem tihi illuxisse supr^mum. Socr&tis responso 
sic judices ezars^runt, ut capitis hominem innocentissimum condem- 
narenL Ratio, quum adotevit atque perfecta est, norainatur rite sa- 
pientia. Quaeiitur, si sapiens adulterines nummoe aocepftrit impra- 
dens pro bonis, quum id resci^rit, soluturusne sit eos pro bonis. Incre- 
dibile memoratu est, quam fiicile Romnai et Aborigines coalu^rint 
Quum est concupita pecunia, nee adhiblta continue ratio, quae sanet 
eam cupiditatem : permanat in venas et inhaeret in yisceribus illud ma- 
lunL Endymio, nescio quando, in Latmo, Cariae monte, obdormiyit, nee- 
dum est ezperrectus. Oratori abstinendum est verbis, quae propter ve- 
tustatem obsolev^runt Convaluistiue tandem ex morbo, quo tamdiu la- 
borasti ? Illius oratoris ardor animi, qui prius omnium auditorum ani- 
mos ad se advertebat rapiebatque, jam plane defervit. Vulnus meum, 
quod jam consanuisse videbatur, nunc recrudQit 

Scarcely had the day dawned, when I conmaenced ( per/, of ag- 
grCdi) my journey. A bloody war broke out (:= was kindled) between 
(inter) the Romans and Carthaginians. Catiline addressed (perf.) his 
associates with these words: Our (= to us) age is vigorous (vig^re), 
the soul is strong (val^re) ; on the other side, all is grown old by years 
and riches. As soon as Caesar ascertained (perf), that the enemies 
were approaching, he led out (perf) the soldiers from the camp. In 
a short time, the minds of all had coalesced into (abl.) so great (tan- 
tus) friendship, that every distinction of rank (ordo et locus) was for- 
gotten. I have perceived with great pleasure from thy letter, that thou 
bast recovered from thy long continued sickness. The sedition of the 


floldiersy which had been quieted by the wisdom (coiudUuin) of the 
general, broke out afresh (per£) during his abaenee (eo absente.) 

§ 69. Fourth (Conjugation, 
L Perftct : — iw and — lit ; Supine : — turn. 

1. SepiUOf sepillviy sepultum, ^sepilire,tx} bury, 

2. SdUOf sdluiy sal turn, sdlire, to leap. 

The compounds have : — adio, — silui^— -scdtum, — silire, as r 
assilio, assilCii, assuUum, assilire, to leap upon. 

11 Perfect: — i; Supine: — turn. 

1. Compirio, compiri, compertum^ compir^e^ to as- 


2. Repirio, repiriy repertum, repinre, to find, dis- 


But : aperio, rut, rtum, rlre, to open^ uncover, opCrio, rm, rtum, 
rire, to cover. 

3. Venio, v€ni, ventum, venire, to come. 

IIL Perfect:--^; Supine: — turn. 

1. AnUciOf {amixi and amicu% both rare), amictum^ ami- 

care, to clothe. 

2. Farcio, far si, far turn, fartkre, to stuff 

The compounds have : — fercio, — fersi, — fertum, fercire, as : 
refercii-e, to aufffuU^JUl up. 

3. Fulcio, fu I si, fu I turn, fulcire, to support 

4. Haurio, hausi, haustum, haurtre, to draw. 

6. Sando, sanxi, sanc%tum (rare sanctum ; hut sanctus, 
a, um, as adjective, sacred), sanctre, to sanction. 

6. Sardo, sarsi, sartum, sardre, to patch, repair, re- 


7. Sgpio, sepsi, septum, sipire, to hedge around. 

8. Vmdo, vinxi, vinctum, vincire, to bind, confine. 

IV. Perfect: — si; Supine: — sum, 
Sentio, sensi, sen sum, sentire, to feel, think, suppose. 

C VIIL Words to be learned and Eocerdses for translation. 

Consentire, to egru dissentire, to disagree, deaiBre, to leap down. 
irdft. dissent. transllire,*^ ktqf over. 


194 IRREGULAR VERBS. [f 69. 

exhaurire, io tshaUst. dum^tum, i, n. Mdut. eoetus, Qs, m. iEM«ift%. 

iDdagare, to starek otd. ludibrium, i, n. sporL affluenter, adv. plenH- 

dispeWl^jto drive asun- parricidium, i, n,par' fidbh 

dor, disperse, ricide. immortaliter, adv. im- 

catena, ae,/. chain. ciiratio, onis,/. cure. moHaUy. 

munificentia, ae,/ mi^ explorator, dris, m. a rursus, adv, again. 

ni/icence. spy. [nor, undique, adv. from aU 

documentum,], n.|?roo/I rector, oris, m. gover- sides. 

Regis sepulcro haec verba inscripta suDt : Probe vixit, imprdbos vin- 
xU, hostes vieU. Hostes victi et cat^nis vincti in servitCitem abducti 
sunt Imperium justis Icgibus fbltum esse debet. Rex, pace compos- 
ita, rempublicam labefactatam sua virtute falsit. Virtus difficills inven- 
tu est : rectorem ducemque deSid^rat Artes innumerabiles repertae 
sunt, docente natura. Vita, si undlque referta bonis est, beata dicitur. 
Homines urbes moenibus seps^runt. Occultae inimicitiae magis timen- 
dae sunt, quam apertae. Quis est tam miser, ut non de» munificentiam 
sensSrit ? Dii, IndOti specie humana, fabulas poetis Gfuppeditav6runt, 
hominum autem vitam superstitione omni refers6runt Contindis be]- 
lis reipublicae opes exbanatae sunt. Quo quis affluentius voluptates 
undique baus^rit, eo gravius ardentiusque sitiet Spero, te mecum con- 
sensurum esse. Cicero Archim^dis sepulcram, septum undique et ves- 
titum vepribus et dum^tis, indagavit Fama est, ludrbrio fratris Re- 
mum novos urbis muros transiluisse. Lycurgus nihil lege uUa in alios 
sanxit, cujus non ipse primus in se documenta daret Hippias gloria- 
tus est, pallium, quo amictus esset, se manu sua confecisse. Spera- 
mus, pacem omnia belli damna brevi sarturam esse. Una victoria 
omnia prius accepta detrimenta sarsit Caesar, ubi per exploratores 
compirUy hostes adventare, prodnus milites e castris eduxit NebCila, 
hor& quarta sole dispulsa, aperuit diem. Plato Ath^nis* in Academta 
sepultus est Eodem loco nostra memoria sepultus est Cardlus Odo- 
fredus M iilterus, professor Gottingen^is, vir praestantissimus et de an- 
tiquitatis disciplina immortaKter meritus.' 

The state shaken by the war, has been supported by the virtue of 
the king. Trajan alone of (gen.) all the citizens is buried withr 
in (intra) the city [of] Rome. Men have invented innumerable arts, 
natvre teaching them (abl. abs.). Cicero^s writings upon (de) philoso- 
phy, are filled up with the most excellent principles of virtue. The 
just king has supported his government by just laws. O king, thou 
art to be pronounced (=* extolled) happy, who hast always lived up- 
rightly, hast bound the wicked, hast conquered the enemies. The 
cities are surrounded (=» hedged aroupd) with walls. Many philoBO- 

* at Athens. See Synt § 92. 




I^rs say, that the soul of man has been drawn fixmi (ab) the divine 
nature. The horsemen leaped down (perf.) from (ex) their horses and 
fought (perf.) on fbot {:= footmen). I know not, what thou hast thought 
(sentire) concerning my plan ; but I hope, that thou wilt not dissent 
from it What has been sanctJone<l by the laws» must be observed by 
mea, Solon (Solo, onis) ordained (sm sanctioned perf.) nothing con- 
cerning parricide, because it had not been committed before his time 
(asK him). Peace, in a short [time], has repaired all the losses of the 
war. All the former (superior) losses are repaired by one victory. 
Whence bast thou ascertained, that my brother will come to-day ? 
Just as physicians, tshen they have discovered ffte cause of the sukntss 
(abL abs.) believing that they have discovered the cure, so shall we, 
when the cause of sorrow is discovered, find the ability of curing {gen. 
of gerund) [it]. As the old man entered (subj.) the assembly, all un- 
covered (perf) [their] heads; but as he left (subj.) it, all covered (perf) 
[their] heads again.. God has enclosed («* hedged in) and covered the 
eyes with (abL) very delicate membranes. 


§ 70. 1) Possum^ pol'ui, poS'Se^ to be able (can). 

pRELiMiiTART Remark. Possum is composcd o€ pot-iSfC (able), and 
die verb jum. 





pos-«um, I am 

pos-^m, I may 

p6t-tii, I have 

pdt-ti^nm, I may 

able (can) 

be able 

been able 

have been able 






















Pluperfect, \ 

pdt-^rdm, I was,pos-«^m, I might 

pdt-ti^rom, 1 had 

p6t-uissStn, I 

able (could) 

be able 

been able 


pdt-erdt, etc. 

po8-«£9, etc 

pdt-ti^rof , etc 

p&t'uiss€Sy etc 


Future Perfed. 

pdt-ero, I shall be able 

pdt-K^ro, I shall have been able 

p5t-cm, etc 

p6t-M^ris, etc. 



Pres. pos-«e, to be able 

pdt-en« (only as adjective), able. 

Perf. pbt'Uisse, to have been able 

The remaining Part are wanting. 

Fut. wanting. 



196 PASTIOtTLAR IR&BOTTLAlt V£AB1!. [f 70. 

CIX. Words to be learned and Exercises /or translation. 

Celare (aliquem ali- coDstitu^re, to tstabUsh^ effector, oris, m. area" 

quid), to conceal constitute, tor, [sitiuxtion, 

(ifomethmg from desistCre, to desist, cease, situs, Qs, m. condition^ 

some one). [a(e. iodOe^re, (o Itad to, adto, a(fr. «o, so very, 

euuiD^nu^ to enumar- induce, iDJuste, adv, ut^utlOy, 

medftaii (c. ace), to mitescCre (without i^rimmn^ adv. firsL 

t&tiiik (of something). Perf or Sup.) to he- proiade quasi Jiij<cr«{^ 

pej€rare, to swear false' come mildy tamem 

Pergite, pueri,,atque in id studium, in quo estis, ineumbite, ut et vo- 
bis hondri, et amicis utilitati, et reipublicae eraolumeoto esse pos^ftiB! 
Nemo adeo ferus est, ut non miteac^re possiL Hoc quotidie meditane, 
ut possis aequo animo vitam relinqu^e. Quidam idcijco, deum esse, 
Bon putant, quia non app&ret, nee eemitur : proinde quasi nostram 
ipsam mentem vid^re possimus. Universum mundum quum oemiinus, 
possumusne dubitare, quin ei praesit aliquis efiector et moderat^M* ? 
Nihil tarn difficile est, quin (=» ut non) quaerendo investigari possit 
Sic eogitandum est, tanqiiam aliquis in pectus intlmum inspic^re pos- 
sit ; et potest Satis nobis persuasum esse debet, etiamsi deum horn- 
inesque celare posamus, nihil taipen iujuste esse fiiciendum. Potes- 
tisne dubitare, quin deus universum mundum gubemet ? Non possA- 
mus. Cur nobiscum anibulare non potes ? 

Alcibi&des Ath^nas Lacedaemoniis servire non potSmt patL Marcel- 
lus pedites primum, deinde equites, quanto maximo possent, impCtu 
in hostem erump^re jussit. Agesilaus non destitit, quibuseunque rebus 
imsset, patriam juvare. Caesar, quam potC^it maximis itineribus, ex^- 
citum contra hostes duxit Casus est, quum sic aliquid ev^nit, ut vel 
non evenire, vel aliter evenir^potu^rit Omnes mundi partes ita con- 
stitQtae sunt, ut neque ad ui^ra meliores potufirint esse, neque ad spe- 
ciem pulchriores. Ante occupatur animus ab iracundia, quam provi- 
d^re satis potdit, ne occupar^tur. Vix Caesar milites e castris edue^re 
potu^rat, quum hostes impCtum fec^runt. Quid enum^rem artium/^ 
multitudinem, sine quibus vita omnis nulla esse potuisset ? Quern, ut 
mentiatur, induc^re possOmus ; [euin,] ut pej^ret, exorare facile poter- 
amus. Dolorem, si non potSro frang^re, occultabo. Facde intelligitur, 
nee iiguram situmque membrorum nostrorum, nee ingenii mentisque 
vim effici potuisse fortuna. Hoc primum sentio, nisi in bonis^ amici- 
tiam esse non posse. 

If you earnestly apply (fut) yourselves to the study of literature, you 
will be able to be useful, as weir to yourselves as to [your] friends and 


the State. Socrates thought dally of this, that he might be able to die 
with equanimity. Canst thou tell me, why thy brother is npt able to 
come to me^o-day ? No. When you contemplate the whole world, you 
are not able to doubt, that it is ruled by a divine mind (mens). The 
wise can be happy, even when they are tortured. If we cultivate (oo- 
lere) virtue, we can always be happy. 

Wby cannot thy brotiieni oome to me to-day ? 1 4I0 not know, why 
they cannot. But why could they not oome yesterday ? They could 
not conle yesterday on account (per) of much business (phu*.). What 
could bave been (»= has been able to be) given to the human race, 
fairer and more noble than reason ? The enemies had not as yet been 
able to draw their troops together, as Caesar made (perf.) an attack 
upon (in) them. Who believes, that the world can have been (as may 
have been able to be) made by chance ? 

§ 71. 2) Edoi edi^ essum^ edere and esse^ to eat 

The whole irregularity of this verb, arises from its having forms like 
those beginning with es of the verb sumj which are used at the same 
time with the regular form ; but the form es from tdo is long, from turn 

Pr^. Ind. 

imperf. Subj. 

Sdo, Sdifl and is, Sdit and est, Sdlmus, fidltis and esiis, Sdunt. 

Sd^rem and essem, Sd^rea and esses^ SdSret and essety 
Sderemus and essimus, Meriiia and esgitis ^ISdireni and essetU 


Sing. 2. Sde and is Plur. 2. Sdite and este, 3. edunto. 
2. and 3. Sdlte and esto. Sditote and estote. 

Remark. So also its compounds, as : com^o, / eat, consume, comSdia 
and comiSy etc. The forms not given in the above table are regular. 

CX Words to be learned and Eixercisesfor traaisladon. 

Symbdla, ae, /, a con- argentum vivum, n. fiimiliaris, e, belonging 

tribution of money quicksilver. to ihefamQy ; res fa- 

or food ; de symbd- spatium, i, n, spctot. miliaria, tstaU, 

lis ed^re, lo eat at ourculio, onis, m. com^ perrump^re, lo' break 

common expense. toorm, through. 

adolescentalus, i, m. moles, is,/ mass. vae, inieij. alas! 
young manyyouffi. 

Esse oportet, ut vivamus ; non viv^re, ut edamus. Modice bibCte et 
este. Heri aliquot adolescentCkli conven^runt, ut de symbdlis essent 
Haec herba acerba esu esL Aegritado lac^rat, exest animum plan^ue 



coDfjfcit CvrcuUooeafrunieiituin exeaae inciptuiit Argentum vivum 
exest ae perrunapfU VBia. Mcjores nostri eav^re non potuSnuit, ne ve- 
tuBtas momimeDta exeflcet Quae unquam mcdea tam finaa ftiit, quam 
Bon exessent undae ? Vae vobie, qui omnem r^n familiarein luxun& 
comeetis ! SaHimus ex ae natoa eomesse fiogitur aolitue, quia concA- 
mit aetas teinp6ruin spatia. 

"Eat tbou and driok modenUely. Ye diould eat modeimt^y. Age 
eoDaumes all mODuments. Wbere dost tlMHi eat to-day ? I came, tirat 
(ut) 1 might eat with tbee. I know not, where you ate yesterday. My 
brother had caUed us in order to eat (mip.). Ad umipe grape is bitter 
to eat (sup. in «). I feared that the corrow (aegritodo) would cmi- 
sume thy mind. Alas to thee, who oonsumest thy whole eitate ! 

§ 72. 3) FerOj tulij latum^ferre^ to bear, bring. 

Prestnt Adivt. 
fiinmuB, fertia, ftrunt 

Preient Passive. 

Ind. &ror, /erriSfferiutf 

f^tlmur, f^rimihi, fermitur. 

Infinitive, firrt^ to bear. 

h^mtive. fefri, to be borne. 


S. ^.feryferto PL 2.ferte,fert6te S. ^ferre,fertor PL 2. ftrimini,-noi 
S.ferto. S. ferunto. Z.fartor. 3. feruntor. 

Imperf. SvbJ. Active. 

ferretny ferres, femtj 
ferrimus, ferretia, ferrent. 

hnperf. Subj. Passive. 

finer yfar€ris {e)ffirr€tury 
firremwj firremini, firrentur. 

Rem. 1. The remaining forms are derived regularly from ftro, tCdi, 
latum : Subj. Pres. f^ram, as, ftrar, aris (e) ; huL hnperf. f^r^bam, &rt- 
bar; Fut f^ram, es, f^rar, ^ris (ej ; Subj. Per/. tiU^im ; Pltigf. tdl^ram, 
taiissem ; ^. Ptrf. M'lsse ; b^f. IhL latOrus, a, um esse ; Part Ad. 
f^rens, ntis, latOrus, a, um ; Pass, latus, a, um, f^rendus, a, um ; Ger. 

Rem. 2. in ihe same manner the compounds, as: off^ro, obtClH, 
oUfttum, ofiet^ i^ qffer. Fropn the stem of the Perf. ttdi is derived : 
tolio, sus-titli, sub-latum, tpUi^ io raise, Udte away, carry off. 

The Perf. and Sup. are from suifero (i. e. sursum fero, I carry cAofl)^ 
from Which, sufE^ro (i e. mib. Bndfiro), sustdli, sufferre, to heoar, eniure, 
is to be <care&Hly •dietiuguisbed. 

CXI Words to be leeumed and Exercises for tremskoion. 

Affiiro, attdii, allatum S. to hear away, take turn S. to bring to- 

3. to bring to, bring. tnsay. gfither, compare. 

au&ro,abBtali,«J9laUua oonftro, oontAli, colla- defoo, detiH^ ddatum 


dL to hrittg dotm^ praeftra, ^lif laittn 3. gigma, mntis, tn. ^fumt 

c>^. to prtfer. aeCernitaa, ilis, / eCetv 

ef^ro, extiUi, elatum ref^ro, tali, kltum 3. nity, 

3. to bear forth, bury, to bring baek^ refer, fiinditus, adv> from the 

inf^ro, iDtCili, iilatum, dec^dere, to go forik, /oundaiion, uhoUy, 

to bring against; bel- die. qui (for quo), how, by 

liun inf^ alieui, / doctor, diis, m. teeKher. uhom, by whtd, etc 
nudce uar upon one. 

Ferte misSro atque indpi auxilium. Confer nostram loDgissimam 
aetatem cum aetemitate, et brevissiina videbitur. Quid quaeque noz, 
aut dies ferat, incertum est Incumbe in earn curam et cogitationem, 
quae tibi summam dignitatem et gloriam afi^rat Ferre laborem con- 
siietO^ docet. Pecuniam praeferre amicitiae sordidum est. Ut quis- 
que maxime ad suum commddum refert, quaecunque agit ; ita minime 
'est Tir bonus. Bonum civem reipublicae dignitatem suis omnibus 
conmi5dis praeferre oportet Hoc doctdris intelligentis est, vid^re, 
quo ferat natura sua quemque. Is denlque bonos mihi vid^tur, qui 
non propter spem futuri beneficii, sed propter magna merita claris 
viris defertur eC datur. ^ 

Ariistides in tanta paupertate decesMt, ut, qui efferr^tur, viz reliqu£- 
rit Po^'tae ferunt, gigantes bellum diis intulisse. Socrfttes eundetn 
vultum domum referfebat, quem domo extul^rat Quod auri, quod 
argenti, quod ornamentorum in urbibus Siciliae fuit, id Verres abstillit 
Muki etiam naturae vitium meditatione atque exercitatione sustul^runt 
Pietate adversus deum sublat^, fides etiam et soci^tas humani generis 
toUitur. Qui, deum esse, negant, nonne onmeni religionem fbnditus 
sustuterunt ? Oaritate benevolentiaque sublata, omnis est e vita sub- 
lata jucunditas. 

Bring thou aid to the wretched and the destitute! If we compare 
our longest age with eternity, it will be necessary that we acknowledge 
(subj.) that it is very short What can bring to us a &irer joy, than 
virtue. The noble (probus) youth bore (fere) and did all, he sweated 
and shivered (per/, in each case). Julius Caesar took away (perf.) from 
king Ptolemy, almost six thousand talents (gen.). What bringest thou, 
my boy ? I bring a present which my father presents to thee. Dost 
thou not know, that Epicurus has referred all [things] to (ad) plea- 
sure ? Pleasure is preferred by many to virtue. All (plur.) that we 
do, must be inferred to virtue. The giants are said (ferur) to have 
made war upon the gods. Cicero relates, that immense treasures 
were taken by Verres from the cities of Italy. A fault of nature has 
often been removed (=s taken away)4)y exercise. The enemies were 




00 cowardly, that they did not even bear an attack of our soldiers. I 
-did not doubt, that you would (imper£^ bear the injustice offered 
(af^ro) you with equanimity. Tlirough cruelty we are borne [on] to 
the foulest crimes. We feared, that war would be preferred by you 
to peace. Thou wilt be borne [away] by avarice to base gain. Soli- 
tude takes away tlie enj<^ment of all pleasures. Thou shouldst not 
be borne [away] by avarice to base gain. When tho news was 
brought (subj.) that the epemy approached, Caesar led out (perfyhis 
soldiers from the camp. The wretched [man] asked us, that we 
would bring aid to him (sibij. 

§ 73. 4) Voloj voluiy vellSj lo will, wish. 

nolo (from ne VQlo)y nolui nolle ^ to be unwilling; 
walo (from magis volo)y malui^ malie^ to choose 
(would) rather. 


SutjuncUve. I 





nolo malo 
fumvii fnaoia 
rum vidt mavuU 
nolumuf malumus 
rum vidtis nuwuUts 
nolunt malunt. 







noUm mdUm 
nalU malia 
ruilU tnatU 
ru)ltmu8 nudlmxts 
nolUis malUis 
nalint malini. 


nol^bam mal^ham veUem 
„ nol6bas,etc. mal6bas,etc. veUes, etc 

noUem maUem 
. rudUsy etc. nudles^etc 



vdlaui, es, etc. nolam, es, etc. malam, es, etc 

ImperaUve (ofvoh and nudo wanting^ 
2. ndl i, nol i t o ; 3. nol i 1 ; PL 2. nol i t e, nol i to t e ; SL nolunta 

vdlens, ntis; nolens, ntis ; of nudo it is wanting. 

Remark. The forms derived from the Perf. are regular : volui, nolui, 
malui ; voluerim, noluerim, maluerim ; /n/I voluisse, noluisse, maluisse ; 
Plupf, volueram, nohieram, malueram ; voluissem, noltiissem, maluis- 
sem ; JE\d* Perf, voluero, noluero, maluero. The remaining forms are 


•< / 

CXII. Wards to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

De&tigare, to totary^ nobilitare, to nwkt publtcare, to make pvh^ 
make weary ; pass, to fttiotm, renoumed. 
become weary. 



sectAri (c. ace), io fol- make binding, serius, a, um, ierima. 

low afUr^ pursut, necessitas, itis, f, ne- ejuemddi, of Uub smij 
adstring^re, to bindy to ctsiiJty, qfthia naturt* 

Qui virtutetn suam publicari vult, non vhtuti labdrat, sed gloriae. 
Nonne poetae post mortem tiobilitari rdunt ? Ego noo e&dera volo 
BCDeXy quae voKli, adoleacens. Si vis amari, ama. Bono mentia fira* 
eDdum eatf si beati esse volCkmus. Docilia est, qbi attente vult audire. 
Omnia bene&cta in luce se collocari volunt. Si acres ae diligentes 
esse vultis, magna aaepe intellig^.tis ex parvia. Quem doctlem velk 
iac^re, simul attentumr facias o))orteL Sic cum inferiore yivamm^ 
quemadmddum uobiscum superiorem relimua yiv^re. Praeclare So* 
cr&tes banc viam ad gloriam proximam dicebat esse, si quis id ag^ret, 
ut, qualis haberi vellet, talis esset. Si quis veram gloriam adipisci 
volet, yktutis officiis fungi deb^bit 

NolCkmus in eonservandis bonis viris de&tig&d. Homines nolunt, 
eundem pluribus rebus exceil£re. Si quid per jocum dixi, nolito in 
serium convert§re. Lib6ro sum judicio, nulla ejusmddi adstrictus ne* 
cessitate, ut mibi, veliro nolim, sit certa tuenda eententia. Socr&tes 
noluit ex carc^re edOci, quum facile posset Ego me Phidiam esse 
maliem, quam vel optimum fabrum lignarium. Utrum corpdris, an 
ingenii vires tibi aug^ri mavis ? Multl sibi malunt melius esse, quara 
alt€rL Virtute in alia alius mavidt excell^re. Quibus id persuaaum 
est, ut nihil malint se esse, quam bonoe viros ; iis reKqua ftieilis esl 
doctrina. Amicitiae est ea vis, ut, simulatque stbi aliquid, quam alt^ri, 
malu^rif^'tmUa-ait. Vae vobis, qui divitias, quam virtutem sectari ma- 
vultisT MalCimus cum virtute paucis contenti esse, quam sine virtute 
mul^ habere. Aristidea, Atfaeniensis, bonus esse malebat, quam 

If we wish to bear (fero) our virtue before (prae) ourselves, we do 
not labor for virtue but for glory. Men [when] old, do not wish the 
very same which they wished (perf.) [when] ypung. If you wish to 
be loved by others, you must also love others. If thou wishest to be 
happy, thou must cidtivate virtue. Why does not thy brother wish 
to take a walk with us? Thou askest why he does not wish ; he does 
wish indeed, but he cannot on account of (per) business. If you v?ish 
to undertake a great undertaking (negotium), you must make (adhib- 
ere) diligent preparation. Wilt thou come to us to-day, or (an) wilt 
thou not? we wish (Sub. prea.) to know. May you (sb you wUl aubj, 
pre$, ofvolo) also [when] absent, love us as you are accustomed to love. 
If it is not allowed to live as we wish, we live as we can. We know 
not, why you did not wish to come to us yesterday. 




Be thou unwilling to become weary in the preaervation (gerund) of 
good men. We are unwilling, that the very s^me [man] should ex- 
eel in several things. They, who are bound by a certain (certus) sen* 
timent, must defend k, [whether] they will [or] not Would&H thou 
Mre in the country, rather than in the city ? Many would (sk choose 
to) acquire riches, rather than virtue. Timoleon chose (perf.) to be 
esteemed, rather than to be feared (metuo). The wise choose to 
stand upon (abl.) their own judgment, rather than [upon that] of an«> 
other. Who would not rather be virtuous («» partaking of virtue, 
eonqtos), than rich? Would you rather live iti the city, than in. the 
country ? we would rather live in the country. 

§ 74. 5) Eo^wij ttum^ %re^ to go. 


^0, is. It, i-mus, itis, iymi 
x^m, i-ifiw, i-&a<, etc. 
i-&o, i-bisy Ubity etc. v-hufd 
i-vi, i-visti, i*vit, etc. 
r-v6ram, i-v^ras, i-v6rat, etc. 
i-v6ro, i-v6ris, i-v6rit, etc. 


iam, iaSf iaty idmua, idiis, iant 
i-rem, i-rw, i-rrf,-etc 
i-turus, a, um sim, etc. 
i-v6rim, i-vfiris, i-v6rit, etc. 
i-vissem, i-vis^s, i-visset, etc. 


S. 2. i, i-to, 3. i-to 
P. 2. i-te, i-tote, 
3. eunto. 




Pres. i-ens, 
Gen. euntis. 


eimdi - 
eundo etc. 

Rem. I. In the same manner the compounds are declined, as : ex6o, 
I go oulj go forihj ab€o, Tgo away, red^o, I return. So also: ven-^, 
ven-ii, (see Rem. 2.), ven-itum, ven-ire, to he joU(Imper. Part and Ger. 
wanting). Ambire, to go around somethings surround, forms an excep- 
tion, it being entirely regular according to the fourth Conj., as: Pres. 
ambio, ambioiii, Impf. ^ambi^iam, ambirem. Part ambiens, G. ambtenttf, 
Perf. ambivt, Sup. ambi^um, Part Hmhitus (but the substantive is : am- 
bitus, 08, a going around), Ger. amhiendum. 

Rem. 2. The compounds generally drop the v in the ending of the 
Per£ and the parts derived from it and vi if an « follows it, as : abii, 
abisti, abiit, abierim, abisse, abissem, etc, venii, venieram, veniero. 

Rem. 3. In the simple verb of this Class, only the third Pers. Sing, is 
used of the passive forms, as: itur, one goes, ib&tur, one went, Itum est, 
one has gone ; the Infin. Fut Pass, of all verbs is formed by the Infin. 
in joined to their Supines, as : aroatum iri. But the compounds with a 
transitive meaning, form a complete Pass, like other transitive verbs, as: 
praeterire, to pass by btfore, pass over, praetereor, I am passed 6y, prae* 


teriris, — itur, — imur, — ^iraini, — euntur; praeteribar, etc.; ambforiam- 
hiufUair, ^ambiibar) also in the Pass, is regular according to the fourth 

CXIIL Wards to be learned and Exercises for translation. 

Adire, to wmt lo, ' emdri, 3. to die, aliquando, adv. 

circumire, (ogM> around^ casa, ae,y. a Attf. time. 

surround. angustiae, arum, yi nor- foede, acfo. basefyjin a 
ititerire, to decay. row pass. base toay. 

obire, to die. silentium, i, n. silence, intempestive, adv. tm- 

perire, to go to rtdn, excessus, Qs, m. dtpar- tirnehf. 

parish. tare. ob?iani, adv. agamstjto 

transire, to pass over, praealtus, a, um, very meet, 

through, away. high, very deep. sero, adv. late, too late. 

Qui ad DOS intempestive ad^unt, molesti s^epe sunt Plerftque, ante 
ociilos^ posita, transimus. AbSunt hirundines hibernis mensibus. Cor- 
pus mortale afiquo tempdre interire necesse est Per^unt aliquando 
innocentes; quis neget? nocentes tamen saepius per6unt Oomes 
homines sununa ope niti decet, ne vitam silentio transput Quis du- 
bitet, quin ex casa vir magnus exire possit ? Potius sero, quam nun- 
quam, obviam eundum est audaciae temeritatique. Omnes cives mili- 
tibus, qui e bello domum redibant, laeti obviam ibant Si ita naturi 
paratum esset, ut ea dormientes ^itg&^nt, quae somniarent, alligandi 
omnes essent, qui cubitum iren^* Illud erat insitum priscis, esse in 
morte sensum, neque excessu vitae sic del^ri hominem, ut funditus 
interiret Augustias Themistdcles quaerebat, ^e multitudine hostium 
circumir^tur. Romulus ad deos transisse credltus est. Augustus obiit 
septuagesimo et sexto aetatis antio. Mibi nunquam persuad^ri potuit, 
animos, dum In corporibus essent mortalibus, viv£re ; quum exissent 
ex iis, emdrL Quicquid transiit tempdris, periit. Quum rure redi^ro, 
Btatim te adibo. Pomp^ius multique alii etari viri foede peri^runt. 1, 
quo te &ta.yocant Abiit ad deos Hercilles: nunquam abisset, nisi, 
quum inter homines esset, cam sibi viam munivisset Muroe turresque 
.urbis praealtum mare ambiebat. 

Be on thy guard, that thou dost not go to one untimely. Very 
much which is set before our eyes, is passed over by us. Our body 
will decay at some time ; but that our soul will decay, we cannot be- 
lieve. Go spiritedly against self-confidence and rashness. Who does 
not know, how often great men come (=s go) forth from huts! As 
the soldiers were returning (subj.) home from the war, all the citizens 
went (perf ) to meet them. In the spring the swallows return to us, 




liD the autumn they go aifrmy. Ab Caemr was eomiog out (sutj.) of 
the woods, be was (p^^) surrouDded by the enemies.- When the 
soul shall have left the body, it will be happy. We shall go out to 
meet our parents, who are returning from the country to the city. 
Hast thou not heard, that Pompey has perished in a base way ? The 
ofators pass oyer all (plur.) that appears base to speak (sup. mu). 
The men, who fOM (part of tramhrt) their lives in silence, die (obire) 
without fiune. 


§ 75. 6) Qweo, quiviy quitum, quire^ to be able (can) ; and ne* 
queo^ neqmvif neqmtum^ nequlre^ not to be able (cannot). 

Both these verbs are inflected throughout like 6o, ivi, itum, ire, to go. 
Many of their forms, however, occur but rarely and, indeed, in good 
prose, not at all. These forms are omitted in the following table. 











qu^ani - 




quefttis • 


■ ' ' ' --- -J-. - ■ ' 


nequSas' "'"' 









ne qui rem 











F. Perf. 








nequeuntis, etc. 

Supine *. quUam, quttu {of nequeo, it is ^ 
are wanting, or occur but rarely. 


The remaining forms 

♦ 76.] 



§ 76. 7) Flojf actus sum^fieri^ to become, to happen. 

PRSi^iMiiURV EsBCARK. This verb forms the Fmnl of /m(o. (£I«o 








fl-o, f 1-8, n-t, f I-unt 

fi-6bam, fi-^bas, etc. 

fl-am,^ f i-ee, fl-et, 
fi-emu8, fi-etiH, f i-ent 

factus, a, um sum 

fkotaa, a, iim eram 

factus, a, am ero ' 



Pres. fifiri ; 
Pf. factus, a, um esse ; 
Fut. factum iri, or fu 
torum esse, or fore. 

fl-am, f T-as, f I-at, 
f i-ftmos, f Mitis, f iant 

fI-<Jrem, fl-Cres, etc. 

Pres. wanting. 

Perf. IkcUM, t, iim 

Ful. faeiendus (a, um), 'sdba< #A«t(/d or mmat 
be done. 
futarus (a, urn), ibhat vjill come to pass. 
All the remaining foims are wanting or oc- 
cur but rareljr. 

Remark. The compounds of Jacio, which are formed from verbsy re- 
^\nfacio in did Act and Jh in the P^ms., as: calef&cio, caleffeci, cale- 
ftK^um, caleHb^^, to makse warm («al6re)^ calefk), calefaetus sum, cal- 
ft^ri, to became vform ; but the cohapounds with prepogUioru hate in the 
;^ct- — ^ficio^ — ^flci, — fectum, — ^ficdre, and in the Pass. — ficior, — ^fectus 
smn, — rfici, as : perficio, perf^ci, perfectum, perftc^re, to accompliBh, per- 
ficior, perfectus sum, perftci. Only a few compounds with prepositions 
form the Pass, with^ and these only in particular forms, as: confit 
(for conficittw)f it is accomplithtdy confieri ; defit, it is wafnJtmg^ d^id* 

CXIV. Words to he learned and Exercises for translation. 

ExulcSrare, to irrttofe, e\6qu\y to pronounce. crebro, adv. JrequenUy, 

make worse* adversus, a, um, oppo- fataliter, ado, conforma- 

gen^rare, to make, site. Uy to fate, [times. 

retio^re, to held back^ cogitate, ado, ttrith pre- interdum, adv, some' 

prevent, meditaUon. polite, adv, degantly, 

Intu^ri solem adversum nequimus. Dec^i vis ea est, ut ah honesto 
non queat separari. Risus interdum. ita repente erumpit, ut eum cu- 
pientes tenure nequeamus. Die, i^tritm queas, an nequ^as mecum ire. 
Quum hostes exercitum nostrum fund^re nequirent, in castra munita 
sese reeep^runt Quum dux preci^is retin^re militem neqitiret, vim 
adhibendam censuit Saepe imperiti medlci ea, quae sanare nequSunt, 
exulc^rant Quum Demosthenes " rho** dicere neqiiiret, exercitatione 
fecit, ut pianissimo dicSret 

Ex ininuco cogita posse fieri amicum. Nemo fit casu bonus. Si 



&to omnia fiunt ; oibil nos adnion^re potest, iit cautiores fiamus. Ne- 
mo ignavid immortalis factus est Permultiim interest, utruin pertur- 
betione aKqua animi, quae plerumqne brevis est, an.consuito et cogita- 
to fiat injuria. Homo, quod crebro videt, non miratur, etiamsi, cur 
fiat, nesciat Non ita gener&ti a natura sumus, ut ad ludum et jocum 
fiicti esse videamm', sed ad severitatem potius et ad quaedam studia 
graviora atque majora. Prudentior fis, accedente senectute. Nego 
esse fortunam, et omnia, quae fiunt, quaeque futura sunt, ex omni ae- 
temitate definita dico esse fetaliter. Qua de caussa dicebas, omnia, 
quae fi^rent futur&ve essent, fato contin^ri ? Fi£ri potest, ut recte 
quis sentiat, et id, quod sentit, polite eldqui nequfiat 

Men cannot look upon the opposite sun. The virtues are so (ita) 
connected and joined together (inter se), that they cannot be separated 
firom each other. Often we cannot prevent a laugh, although (quam- 
vis with Suhj.) we would. Say, whether you can go with us, or can- 
not There are many diseases which cannot (subj.) be cured. De- 
mosthenes could not (per£) at first pronounce ** rho,** but by exercise 
he efiected (== made)) that he pronounced [it] very plainly. 

If thou wish^st to be learned, learn early. From an enemy, [one] 
often becomes suddenly a fiiend. Men do not become good by chance. 
If all [things] happen (subj.) by chance, all (onmis) foresight is 
useless. Dost thou believe, that a man may ever become immortal by 
cowardice ? Men become wiser by age. Some philosophers were 
micertain, whether all (omni&ne) might happen by chance ; I am con- 
vinced, that nothing happens by chance. 

§ 77. Defective Verbsj i. e. verbs of which only a few forms 

a/re tised, 

1) Aio, I say, affirm, say yes, assent. 

Pres, Ind. aio, ftis, &it and aiunt Subj. aias, aiat and aiant 

Impf. Ind. &i6bam, bas, bat ; bamus, batis, bant (Subj. wholly wanting.) 

Part aiens, aientis (as adjective, affirming^ qffirmative), 

2) JBiguamy I say. 

Prts, inquam, inquis, inquit ; inquimus, inquiunt [Subj. inquiam]. 
Jmpf, inqui^bat or inquibat, inqui^bant (Subj. wanting). 
lii, inquies and inquiet Ptrf. inquisti and inquit 




Memlm, meminisse (c. gen. and ace), to remember. 
Odi, ddisse, to hate. 
Cdepi, coepisse, to have begun. 
^ N&vi, ndvisse (nosse), to be acquainted with, know. 




All four Peffects and the forms derived firom diem are entirely reg^ 

Pcrf, Ind. 


P(p/. Ind. 

FyX, Ind. 

Inf. Perf. 

merolni, / re- 

meminSram, / 

odi, / hatt coepi, / have n5vi, / hufw 

oddrim coepirim nov6rim (n5- 

odftram, /Ao/ed coepSram, / novSram (n5- 

hmd begwM n^m), / kiuw 

meminisaem odinem 

memin^ro, / 

shall renuM' 

memento, re- 

member thou 
meroentute, re- 

member ye 

coepiiaem noviatem (nos- 

odSro, / wiU coepiiroy I shmll nov6ro (ndro), / 
hate have began shall know 




odifse coepiate novisse (nosae) 

oaurua tarn eoepturof ease wanting, 
otus, exSsuf, coepturuf, one wanting. 

perSsaf, one who will begin 

who hatesy or coeptuf , 6e^Mik. 

has hated very 


Remark. Mfvi is notfaing else than the Perf. of nojoo (I am ac- 
quainted with). Inalead of eoepi^ eoe^Mram, etc, coeptus sum, coei>tus 
eram, etc, must be used, when the accompanying Inf. is in the Pass., 
as: urbs aedificari coepta est, the cUy has begun to he huUL The same 
is the case with desino. 

CXV. Words to be kamed and Exercises /or translation, 

comoedia, ae,/. comedy, crediilus, a, urn. crtdik- 

ihstitotum, i, n. on tnjfi- Unts. 

tiuiiim, invtdus, a, urn, eitmoftf. 

probrum, i. fi, reptMidk. dum, oonj. (with the 

haruspex, icis, m. soUk- 

bellus, a, um, heaviifxd. 
cx>n8entan£u8, a, um 


Sulij.) provided that. 
sive (seu), or; si?e 
(seu) — sive (seu), 
whether — or^ either 

Abominari, to execrate. 
commemdrare, to men- 

iMfi, call to mind. 
evanesco, nui 3. to dis- 

beb^Bco (without Perf 

and Sup.), laminr 

proferre 3. to produce. 
0apio, uiZ.tabe unse. 

Rule of Syntax. When the words of some one are quoted pre- 
cisely as he spoke them, inquam is used, and is introduced among the 
words quoted ; but if only the sense of what one has said is quoted, 
ede is used 

Contrana ea sunt, quorum alt£rum ait quid, alt£rum negat Cato 
mirari se aiftbat, quod non rid^ret haruspex, harusplcem quum vidisset 


Ut qainniB, aiont, qaando, ut volamiM, non licet Sus, u€ akint, docet 
Minervam. Tu ais, ego nego. Negat EpicQrus, quenquam, qui hon- 
este Don yivat, jacunde posse viv€re. Quasi ego id curem, quid ille 
aiat, aut neget ; illud quaero, quid ei, qui in voluptate sunuhum bonum 
putat, coDBeDtamdum sit dic^re. Sive tu hoc ais, sive negas ; ^go tu6- 
bor seutentiam meam. Negantia contrarid sunt aientibus. Ain' (for 
aimu) tu ? quum res occuitissimas aperuSris in lucemque protul^ris : 
negabis, esse rem ullam, quae cognosci possit ? Aisne ? Aio. Ne* 
gasne ? Nega Agricdla serit arbdres, quae alt^ri saeculo prosint, ut 
ait ilie in Menandri comoedia. Non credimus, inqultis, vera esse, quae 
dicimus. Tu vero, inquisti, mihi molestus nunquam eris. Amicus 
mens, inquies, nonne est bomo bellus ? Praeclare Plato : Beatum, in- 
quit, cui etiam in senectute contig^rit, ut sapientiam verasque opin- 
iones ass^qui possit 

I deny that, ^hich thou assertest If I say yes, he [also] says yes ; 
if I say, no (deny), he also says na It is said, that thou wilt leave the 
city. I know not, whether thou affirmist the thing, or deniest [it]. 
Affirmative (= affirming) opinions (sententia), are contrary to negative 
(= denying) [opinions]. They said, that thy father set out for (ad) 
Rome. It is delightful and becoming, says Horace, to die for one's 
country. Thou hast erred, thou wilt say perhaps. Never, says he« is 
a friend troublesome to me. 

Meminerimus, etiam adversus infimos justitiam esse servandam. 
Animus meminit praeteritorum, praesentia cemit, futura providet Be- 
neficia meminisse debet is, in quern coUata sunt, non commemorare, 
qui contiilit Illud semper memento : Qui ipse sibi sapiens prodesse 
nequit, nequicquam sapit Quod tu mihi dixisti, pulchre memin6ro. 
Qui patriae beneficia meminSrint, semper pro ejus salute arma capes- 
a6re parati erunt Memento mori. 

Oranes od^ront eum, qui imm^mor est beneficii. Libertatis inimi- 
cos, effici non potest, quin (= ut non) od^rini. Invidi virtutem et bo- 
num alienum od&runt Virtus necesse est res sibi contrarias aspem^tur 
atque od^rit Probos amamus, imprdbos odimus. Non dubito, quin 
roali me od^rint Vox dira et abominanda : Od^int, dum metdaut 
Cicero, penltus od^rat Clodium. Judicem neque stud^re cuiquam de- 
cet, neque odisse, neque irasci. Non ita amare deb^mus, ut si aliquan- 
do osOri simus. Romani regum nomen perosi sunt 

Dimidium facti, qui bene coepit, habet. Oracdla evanudrunt, po9t- 
quam homines minus credCQi esse coep^runt Postquam divitiae ho- 
nori esse coep^runt, et eas gloria, imperium, potentia sequebatur : he- 


bescSre virtus, paupertas probro esse coepit Turpe est, rem bene 
coeptam male fiolre. Undique in murum lapldea coiyici coepti sunt 
Urbs obsid^ri coepta est 

Deum colit, qui novit Nihil mibi stiiltius vid^tur, quam existimare 
eum studiosum tui, quern non noris. Qui se ipse norit, aliquid sen- 
tiet se habere divinum, tantoque mun^re dei semper dignum aliquid et 
fiiciet et sentiet Quam quisque norit artem, in bac se exeretet 

You should forget favors conferred, [but] remember those received. 
Yifi shall remember thee, even when thou art absent If vre remem- 
ber the &vors conferred upon us (in nos) by our parents, we shall nev- 
er be ungrateftil towards (adversus) thena. When we remember youth 
happily passed (agSre), we are delighted. As often as (quotiescunque) 
I remembered the good principles of my teachers, a desire after (gen.) 
those excellent men seized (occupare) me. 

We hate the men, who are unmindful of favors received. Who is 
there, who dots nol (quin) hate (subj.) the enemies of freedom ? We 
did not know, why he hated us. Men love the upright, [and] hate the 
wicked. I doubt not, that the wicked hate me. The (is) friend is not 
agreeable (gratus) to us, who loves us as one about to hate us. It is 
known, that the Romans hated (perf ) the name of kings very much. 
Him, who is unfortunate, all hate. 

Thou hast begun the thing well, but ended badly. Scarcely had 
the soldiers begun to fortify the camp, when the enemies were (perf ) 
discovered. Already had the enemies begun to assault the city, as 
suddenly our soldiers came (per£) for (dat) aid to the citizens. AfUr 
ihfi hanishmeni of the kinga^ (abL abs.), two consuls began to be chosen 

I know not, whether (nt attached to the verb) thou art acquainted 
with my friend, but if thou shalt become acquainted with him, diou 
wilt love him. Judge not concerning a man, before you know him. 
Do you know the way ? we do not know it When any one wishes 
to preside over the republic, he should (oporUt with SubfJ) be acquaint- 
ed with its laws and institutions. Art thou personally (»= from ap- 
pearance, de facie) acquainted with my friend? (»= I am not acquaint- 
ed with him), but I desire (opto) to know (=m that I may know) him. 

§ 78. Impersonal Verbs (46. Rem.) 

1) Verbs which indicate certain appearances of Nature* 

fulgdrat, it lightens, (U fblminat, U ligJdemy g^lat, itfreexei, 
Jkuhes). thunders. grandinat, U hctUt. 


1210 I3fPERSONAI« TBBM9. [f 78. 

illucescit, uxit, it he- ningit, xit, it snows. vesperascit, ravit, it he- 
comts lighty day. jmii, it rcdns. comes evening. 

Rem. I. These verbs may be inflected through all the modes and 
tenses, as : 

tdnat tdnet tdnuit tdnu^rit tdn&re 

t6n&bat tduai^t tdnu^rat tdnuisset tdnuisse. 

The other Impersonal Verbs here introduced of the first Conjugation, 
have (wit, 

2) decet, uit (c. ace.) licet, it is allowed. pertaesum est, it cUs- 

it is htcoming. mis^ret, uit it excites gusts, 

dedec^ uit (c«aoc.) it (one's) /^. pig^t, uit, «{ irks, 

is not becoming. mlser^ui, ritum est, H poei^tet, uit, it repent. 

libet or Idbet, uit, it exciiesjnty. [ftd, pudet, uit, t< #Aa?}ie«. 

pleases, . oportet, uit, it is need- taedet, uit, it disgusts, 

3) There are also nmny peisoaal verbs iised as impersonal 
in a particular meaning, as : 

accedit, essit (tU or contingit, tgit, it ftMs jiivat, jOvit, t^ deliglds. 

quod\ U is added to one*s UfL llqiiet, quit, it is dear* 

{that). eonv4k)it, ^it, it is fit. patet, uit, it is obw/ous* 

accidit, it happens, ev^nit, enit, ilL happens, placet, uit, it pleases. 

apparet, ViiX\ ii is em- exp^dit, it is usefvL praestat, itit, it is bet- 

dent, fiillit, fefeHit(me),i^ €*- ter, [capw (mc). 

attinet, uit, it pertains capes (me). praet^rit, lit (me), it es- 

to, filgit, jfugit, (me), t^ eff- refert,retulit,tto(mcerfi9 

oondOcit, xit, U is ser*- capes (me), it is un- restat, it remains. 

viceabU. known. sufficit, ecit, it is sivffir 

constat, stitit, U is interest, fuit, U con- dent. 

knoum, cems, superest, it remains. 

Rem. 2. These impersonals^ also, can be inflected in all the modes 
and tenses. 

4) Finally there belong here the third Pers. Sing. Pass, of 
all verbs, especially of intransitive verbs, through all the modes 
and tenses, as : 

Aratur, they plough, aretur, they may plough ; arabatur, they ploughed, 
ftraretur, they might pioi^h; aratum est, Ihey have ploughed, aratum.sit, 
they may have ploughed ; aratum erat, they had ploughed, aratum esset, 
ffuy might heme ploughed, aratum erit, they wUl have ploughed; Inf. in 
dependent discourse : arari, (that) they plough, aratum esse, (that) (hey 
have ploughed, aratum iri, (that) they will plough, — ^Ridetur, they laugh; 
ludebatur, they played; dormietur, th^ will sUep ; itur, (hey go ; ventum 
est, they have come. 

44 79, 80.] PEEP6siTio«y nrc.-^FOSMATioN of wobds. Itll 


^79. PreposUion^-^Chfyunction.'^iUefjection. 

1. In addition to the parts of speech which have already 
been treated of, there remain the conjunction and interjection. 
Of these, the conjunction, as it is employed in connecting sen- 
tences, will be more properly treated of in the Syntax, and 
the interjection needs no special treatment beyond a mere defi- 
nition ; for which see } 6. Rem. 2. 

2. T\xe preposition, in addition to the table of prepositions 
given in ♦ 34, and the remarks upon its use in the Syntax (♦ 93.), 
requires some additional illustration* here. Most prepositions 
are used also as adverbs, as: ante, post, prope, juxt&, infra, su- 
pra, citra, ultra, intra, extri, contrtl, circ& (circum). Nearly all 
prepositions are used in composition^ as : tn/erxdgo, deck^o, com' 
pono {com, con, co=^cum in composition), etc. InseparcMe 
prepositions are those which occur only in composition, viz : 
amb {am, an) around, as : amb-ire, am-plector, an-fracttis ;— c& 
(di), asunder, from each other, as : dis-c^do, di-spergo ;— r^ (back, 
again), as : re-vertor, re-dodo ; — se (aside, apart)i as: se-p6no; 
— 'Sus {su), t4p, upon, as : sus-cipio, su-spicio; finally, the nega- 
tive ne, as : ne-scire. 


§ 80. FornuUion of Words. 
I. Verbs. 

1. FrequerUatkes, i. e. verbs which express- a repetition of the 
action, are formed from other verbs by adding Uare to the stem 
of the Pres., as : ago, I drive, ag-Uo, / drive hither and thither, 
clam-o, I cry, clam-ito, I cry continually. 

2. Intensives, i. e. verbs which express a permanence or con* 
tinuance in an action, are formed from the Sup. of other verbs, 
as : verto, verti, versum, vertere, to turn, verso, to turn hUker 
and thither; they follow the first Cotijngatiom 

212 FOEKATION OF W0BB8. [{ 60* 

3. Desideratives, I e. verbs which express a desire or striving 
afler the thing indicated by their primitives, have the ending 
urio, as : esu-rio, I desire to eat (from edo, edi, essum), coenat- 
urio, Ilang far supper (from coenOf cm, atum); they follow the 
fourth Conjugation. 

4. Inchoaiives^ L e. verbs which express a becoming or hegvii* 
fling of that which their primitives express, have the endings 
asco, escOf isco, as ; exhorr-esco, I shudder (from horreo), con- 
cup-isco, I desire (fjrom cupio)^ repuer-asco, I become a boy again 
(from puer) ; they follow the third Conjugation. 

5. DimirmUves, L e. verbs which express a diminution of 
the idea expressed by their primitives, have the ending, iSo, 
as : (canto) cantillo, 1 chant. 


1. Nouns in tor (fem. trie), are foraned from the supines of 
verbs and designate persons in active relations (actors), as : vic- 
tor, victrix, a conqueror (from vmco, vici, victum). 

2. Those in io, are formed from the supines of verbs, and 
like English substantives in ing, express the action of the verbs 
from which they are formed as taking place, as : laesio, an in- 
juring (from laedo, laesi, laesum), emendatio, an emending (from 
emendo, avi, atum). j 

3. Those in e>, dnis, are derived either from verbs or nouns, 
and designate persons with an idea of contempt, as : capito 
(from caput), blockhead 

4. Those in us (gen. us), are derived from supines, and sig- 
nify mostly a completed ax^tion, an eject, as : morsus, a bite 
(from mordeo, momordi, morsum). 

6. Those in ulus, ula, Hium; aius, dla, dhim; eUus, eUa, eUum; 
Utus, ilia, ilium, indicate an object as small {dimmutives), as : 
hortulus, a Utile garden, vocula, a slight voice (from vox) ; filio- 
lus, a little son, filiola, a little daughter, assellns, an ass colt. 

Remark. The gender of diminutives follows the gender of their 
primitives. ^ 

6. Those in etum, signify a place abounding in that expressed 
by their primitives, as : querc&tum, an oak-grove, dumfttum, a 
thorn-thicket (from dumus, a thorn bush). 

f 80.] vosMATioir or wobda S13 

7. Those in la («0kz), G. ioe;— &S«, G. ftttw; tks, G. eA^; tikft^, 
G. tudirnds ; — ido and ^, G. Ints, express an abttrad quaHfyy ts : 
audacia (frt>m cmdax^) boldness, sapientia (from sapiens), uns- 
dom; laetitia (from IastMs),jay, avaritia (from (wdtus), avarice; 
«— bonkas (from borms), goodness, celerhas (from cdtr), swift- 
ness; — senritus (fiom servus), servitude; — ^fertitndo {iiom,fortisy^ 
bravery, magnitudo (from magnus), greatness ^'^^^uloftdo (fiom 
duidg), sufeetness, coptdo (from cupidm), desire. 

8. CrentUe Nouns, i. e. names of peoples and countries. Names 
ef countries are mostly formed from the names of peoples, with 
the ending ia, as: (Macedd, dn4s) Macedoma; (Thrax, ao-is) 
Tkraeia, etc. On the contrary, names oi peoples having tbe 
adjective-endings : hi», dnusi wnis, inus, ensis {iensis), ds{G. diis), 
icus, ideas, aicus, aire formed either from names oi conntries or 
cities, as: (Cyprus) Cyprius; (Roma) Romdnus; (Venusia) 
Venusimis ; (Pergamus) Fergamenus; (Athenae) Atheniensis; 
(Arpinum) Arptiuis; (Colchis) Colchicus; (Aegyptus) A^gyp- 
tidcus; (Thebae) Thebdicus, 

9. PcUronymics, L e. personal appellations derived from one's 
descent. These have the endings : ides, G. idae, Fem. is (from 
primitives in us and or) ; ides, F. eis (from primitives in eus) ; 
ddes or iddes, F. as (ias) (from primitives in o^ or e« of the first 
Dec. or in ius),Bs: (Pri&mus) Priamides; (Ag^nor) Agendfl" 
des; (Tantalus) F TantdZw;— (Peleus) PeMes; (Theseus) F. 
Theseis; — {Aen'^iaA) AenfAdes ; (Thestius) ThestUides; F. 2%^- 

in. Adjectives. 

1. Those in His, a, um, are adjectives of material, as : ferreus, 
iron, ligneus, vjooden, marmoreus, ofniarble, 

2. Those in imis, a, vm, and rUus, a, um, are principally de- 
rived from the names qfplants and minerals, as : fagtnus, beech" 
en, of beech, quern^us, of oak, crystallinus, of crystal; abum^us, 
of ivory, 

3. Those in rms, a, um, errvus, a, um, and iums, a, um, relate 
to designations pf time and place, as: vemus, belonging to 
spring; exiemixs, external ; hodiemus, ^to-day, aetemus, c^- 
nal; diutinus, of long duration. 

4. Those in inus, a, um, relate, mostly, to the different kinds 

214 FORMATION OF WOBD8. [i 80. 

o/cmimalst as : lepoifnus (lepus, leporis, the hare), of the hare, 
caro anserina, goose^meoL 

6. Those in i&s and biHSf express a capabiUty ot fitness, as: 
utilis, useful, docilis, teachable ; atnabllis^ amiable, 

6. Those in Inmdus, express the idea of a present participU 
but with more intensity, as : populabundus, ravaging (stronger 
i}aBxi popukms), roirabundus,/!^ of wonder ; those in cundus ex- 
press ^ pemument q«aUty^<it habk, as : factindus, fiuent, iracnn- 
dxxs, passionate, verecundus, respectfvL 

7. Those in 6sus, tus, olentus or Olentus, idus express fulhess, 
abundance or excess, as : arendsus, sarufy (abounding in sand), 
auritus, long^ared, auratus, gilt (furnished with gold), onestus, 
loaded down, vetustus, ancient, violentus, impetuous, turbulen- 
ixiBfJull qfcommotion, herbidus, covered unth grass. 



§ 81. Sentence.'^ Subject. — Predicate. 

1. A thought expressed in words, is called a sentence^ as : 
the ro^e bloomsy rosa floret ; ihe rose is beautiful^ rosa pul- 
chra est 

2. The necessary parts of a sentence are: 

a) The subject, i. e. that of which something is as- 
serted, as : the rose, rosa ; 

b) The predicate, i. e. that which is asserted of the 
subject, as : bhomsy floret ; is beautiful^ pulchra est 

3. The subject is a substantive, as : rose, rosa, or some 
other word or clause used substantively, e. g. a pronoun, an 
adjeptive, an Infin., as : I, thou, he, tfiis, the wise. The sub- 
ject stands in the nominative. 

4. The predicate is a verb, or an adjective or substantive 
in connection with the verb esse, which in this case is call- 
ed the copula (bond). 

^osa^ref.— Rosa pulchra tri.^^Bjoa&Jlos est. 

Remark. Id the Latin language each form of the Jmite verb may 
fi>fm a sentence; for it signifies at the same time, a person of whom 
flometliing is said, and that which is said of him, as: amo, / hoe. 

§82. Limitation of the Subject and Predicate. 

!• The predicate may be limited in the following ways : 

a) By a case of the substantive which is then called 
the object, as: virtutem amo; 

b) By the preposition with a substantive, as : pro patria 

c) By the infinitive, as : scribere cupio ; 

d) By an adverb, as: bene scribis. 

216 AGREEMENT. [i 83. 

2. The subjecty or object may be limited in the following 

a) By an adjective {cUtribtUive adjective), as: rosa 

b) By the genitive of a substantive (attributive gen.)| 
as : hortus regis ; 

c) By a substantive which stands in the same case 
as the word which it limits, as: Alexander, rex 
Maceddnum, Magnus appellatur. A substantive of 
this kind is said to be in apposition. 

Remark. The attributive adjective agrees with the noun which it 
limits in gtndtr^ number and cast. This is so even in the adjectives : 
pnmuB^ uUimu8y extremuSy postremu8y intimu8y summus^ mediuSj in/kntu^ 
imui and reUquui, although they designate only particular parts of ob- 
jects and are rendered into English by partitive phrases (fird pati^ lad 
part, etc. of a thing). 

§ 83, Agreement. 

1. The verb agrees with its subject in person and number; 
the adjective in gender, number and case (nominative). 

Ego scribo ; tu scribis ; ille scribit Rosa floret Rosae florent 

Amicus fidus est Virtus pulchra est Corpus cadQcum est Pner 

magnus. Puella parva. Corpus cadOcum. Indus omnium flumi- 

num maximus est 

Rem. 1. Sometimes, however, the predicate does not agree with 

the grammatical form of the subject, but with a noun implied in it 

(Constructio ad intellecluro), which is particularly the case in coUective 

nouns, as : pan bestiis ohjecti sunt, — ^Magna muUtlu^o convenerant. 

2. The substantive, as predicate, screes with the subject 
only in case; it agrees with it in gertder, number and case^ 
only when it signifies a person, and hence, either has sepa- 
rate forms for the masculine and feminine, or is of the com- 
mon gender. The same is the case with the substantive 
in apjjosition. 

Rosa flos est Athenae fuerunt urbs. RomtlluB fuit rex. Tomyris 
fhit regina. Tomyris, regina Scytharum, Cyrum, r^em Persarum, 
devfcit Bactra, regionis caput, sita sunt sub monte Parapamiso. 

Rem. 2. When the neuters of adjectives, pronouns and numerals are 
used as nouns, and signify a number of single things, they do not, as is 

§ 83.] AGREEMENT. 217 

generally the case in English, stand in the singular, but in the pluraL 
Omnia humana sunt fragilia (everything human). Fuiura incerta sunt 
(the future). Haec sunt vera, ilia falsa (this — that). Multa, pauca, etc 

3. When there are two or more subjecla in one sentence, 
the verb stands in the plv/rah If the subjects have the same 
gender, the adjective as predicate, takes the same gender 
and stands in the ptural; but if they have different genders^ 
in designations of persons, the adjective agrees with the 
masculine subject in preference tolhe/emtmne, butinnames 
of things the adjective generally stands in the neuter plwraL 

Pompeitu, Setpio^ Afraniiu fbede perierani. Cae$ar et Pompeius fat' 
Hsrimifuarvmi. Terra et luna sunt glohosae. Pater et nuder mihi cart 
$unt. Inter se conJtrnrui mM htn^kium et injuria. 

Rem. 3. When, however, the subjects are connected by aviF—aut, d 
— ^ (as v?ell^-as also), nee — nee, or when it )is designed to make one 
subject more prominent than the others, tiie predicate agrees with the 
nearest subject, which, in the last case, is always the subject to be ren- 
dered prominent 

4. When subjects of different persons wee coimected, the 
first person predominates over the second and third persons, 
and the second over the third, and the predicate stands in 
the pluraL 

Ego et tu scribimus. Ego et frater scribimus. Ego, tu et frater 
scribimus. Tu et frater scribitis. Ego et fratres scribimus. Tu et 
firatres scribitis. Nos et fiatres scribimus. Vos et fratres scribitis. 

CXVL Exercises for translation. (H 81—83.) 
L Our body is mortal, our soul immortal. The forehead, the eyes, 
the expressions often lie. God is the creator and governor of the 
whole world. History is a good instructress. The Scythians were 
a very warlike people. Alexander, king of the Ufat^edonians, carried 
on (perf ) a war with Darius, king^ of the Persians. The divine is eter- 
nal, the human frail. We often Bold the unknown for (pro) known 
and assent to it inconsiderately. O boy, hear much [but] speak little ! 
Gold, silver, brass, iron, in short (denlque) all metals are produced 
(gign£re) for the use of men. The father, the mother and the sister 
of my friend, have all died within a year. Thy son ^nd thy daughter 
are very dear to me. Labor and pleasure, by a (quidam) natural alli- 
ance, are united together (inter se). Arrogance, hatred and envy are 


918 DOVBLB VOMItfATIVE. [i 84. 

iHneign to the mind of the wise. I Md tdy broth<er returned (per£) 
yesterday from the journey. I and my brother learn, thou and thy 
brother play. We and my ptarents rejoiee at (de) your return. 

n. Life is short, art is long. The lark and the nightingale sing de- 
lightfully. Experience is the best instructress. The Carthaginiam 
were a treacherous people. Wisdom is the governess of all things. 
Writers extol Solon, the law-giver of the Athenians, on account of 
his wisdom. Everything earthly is fleeting. The past we cannot 
change. The future is uncertain. Corinth and Charthage were (perfl) 
destroyed by the Romans. Dominion (plur.), posts of honor, riches, 
power (opes) are fortuitous. The walls and gates of the taken city 
were destroyed (perf) by the soldiers. The king and queen are veiy 
dear to all the citizens. The father and mother have set out on m 
journey. Thy brother and sister ar^ very $mxI. I rejoice, that (quod^ 
thou and thy brother are well. We and our parents shall set out on a 
journey to-morrow. Thou and thy sister remain in the cilj. 

§ 84. Double Nominatwe. 

As there are two nominatives with the copula esse, the 
nominative of the subject and the nominative of the predi- 
cate, so also the following verbs take two nominatives: 

a) The verbs of becoming': fio^ evado, existo, nascar; 

b) The verb maneo (I remain), and videor (I. seem, ap- 

c) The verbs which mean : / am called, as : appeUoTj 
vocOTydicory etc.; 

d) The verbs which signify, lam made, chosen, appointed 
something', as : creor, etigor, etc. ; 

e) The verbs which mean : I am considered, accounted 
something, I am recognized, found as something, and 
the like, as : putor^ exisUmor, judicor, habeor, cognos- 
cor, inventor, etc. 

Bruhts Bomanorum libertatis vindex exsHtit. Nemo dodua naacUtir^ 
Gloria Romanorum aetema numet, Cicero consul creaiua est* Cicero 
paUr patriae apptUaius est. Virtus summum ionumjudicanda est, 

CXVIL Exercises for tramlation. {k 84.) 

L No one has become ^nmortal by cowardice. Cicero, in tbft 
Catilinian (CatUinarius) war, appeared (exiat^e) [aslthovdefesder of 

14 85, 8G.] CLA8SBS OF VERBS.-^^fiNSES. ^H 

the state. Tbe rich often become (evadere) beggars. No one is 
bom rich. AHer Romulus, Nnma Pompilius was elected (per£) 
king by the Romans. Piety is justly considered the foundation of 
pi] the virtues. The renown of Roman bravery will remain forever 
(= eternal). Philosophy is called by Cicero, the guide (= leader) of 
life, the investigator (fern ) of virtue and the banisher (fern.) of vice, the 
inventress of laws, the instructress of customs and of discipline. Un- 
expected evils appear greater than [those] expected. Demosthenes is 
justly considered the most, distinguished orator of the Greeks. Cicero 
and Anthony were elected consuls. 

IL Quintiis Fabius was chosen (perf) ^neral by the Romans. 
Men become wiser by age. The orations of Demosthenes and Cicero 
are considered models of eloquence. A bad poet never becomes 
(evadere) a good [one]. Lycurgus came forward (perf. of exitt^re) as 
the law-giver of the Lacedemonians. Virtue is justly considered the 
Jaughest good. Aristides was called the just by the Athenians. The 
renovvn of some will remain eternal Cyrus was elected the first king 
of the Persians- The sun appears to us smaller than it is. Thou 
wast born good, but hast become bad. 

§ 85. Classes of Verbs. 

1. There are two kinds of verbs, active and passive. 
In an active verb, the subject appears as active^ as: ro- 
sa floret; — puer epistolam scribit. Those active verbs 
which take an accusoiive are called transitive^ as: puer 
epistolam scribit ; but the rest are called iaUransitive^ as : ro* 
»a^/tor6/;— sapiens meminit mortis: — ^pater ^hifavet; — ami- 
cus ^audet adventu amici; — eo in urbem. 

2. In the passive the subject appears as S'^ffering' (receiv- 
ing the action), as : bonus discipulus latidatur a preceptori- 
bus, malus vituperatmr, 

3. Deponent verbs are those which Yiose ^ passive {oxxn, 
but an active signification, as: dux hortatur milites;— 


I ' 

§86. Tenses of tke Verb. 

1. The tenses are divided into two classes : 

a) Frindpal Tensds : the Pres. Perf. wid Future ; 

820 MODES OF THB VEBB. f 87.] 

scribo, I write ^ scripsi, I have taritten, scribo, 1 shall 
write i scripsero, I shall have written; 
b) Historical Tenses : Imperf. Pluperf. and the nar^ 
rative Petf. : scnbehsxaj I taroleyiaas to ritinffy scnp' 
seram, I had written, scripsi, Ixorote. 

Rem. The narrative Pert^ is calleif the Perf. kUtonad and isr trans- 
lated into English by the Imperf. ; the proper PerC is called the Per£ 
jnreBenij and is translated into English by the Perf The Latin ktstonr- 
cat Perf 4ihvays ekpresses the action as past, and so also does the 
Latin Imperf biU ytt always as standing in rdaUon to analhar past aor 
Hon to wkUh it eomspimds in time, as: scnbebam, quum venieba^ (vene^ 
ras). Hence the Perf is used in relating prmdpal evento, the Imper£ 
in relating accompanying drcumstanccs. Caesar urbem intraicit ; omnes 
cives laetabantur victoriamque de hostibus reportatam ei gratulabantur, 


CXVIIL Exercises far transkuhn. (i 86.) 

L God has made the whole world. Romulus built Rome. Hannibal 
vanquished the Romans in (abl.) the second Punic war. The enemies 
assaulted the city, which lay upon a hill. The city wits captured by 
the enemies, but the citizens had already deserted it So long as thou 
shalt be fortunate, thou wilt number many friends. In a short [time] 
I shall have finished this business. If we shall have fulfilled our duties, 
we shall be happy (beatus). Even as we shall have treated others, 
will they treat us. 

IL The book, which you sent me, I have read through carefully. 
Carriage and Corinth were destroyed by the Romans. The Romans 
carried on many wars with the Germans, who were a very brave peo- 
fkle. An immense number of men had come together into (m with 
ace) the cky^ The remembrance of renowned men will be obscured 
by no oblivion. After a few days I shall have returned; As thou 
shalt have sown (sementem fac^re), [so] thou wilt reap (met^re). The 
more we shall have exercised our minds by the study of literature, so 
much the more we shall delight in it If thou shalt have adorned the 
soul with virtues, thou wilt be happy. 

§ 87. Mode$ of the Verb. 

1. The Indicative is the mode which expresses /ac^5, re- 

"BkXisaL floret. Pater epistolam MTt|Mtt. Andndabo* 

2. The Subjunctive is the mode which is employed in 
•expressing what is imagined or barely conceived ot 

t 87.) MODES OF THB VSRB. 221 

a) The Subjunctive of the principal tensesy especially 
of the Pres., is used in principal sentences to express 
a supposition or presumption^ a doubting question^ an 
encouragement^ exhortation^ a wish. "We may often 
translate this Subjunctive into Englisb, by the Subj. 
Imperf. or by the auxiliaries, oughty mighty couldf 
shauldy wouid with the Infin, 

Nemo samis de virtutis predo dubiUL Quis de animorum immorta- 
fitate duhttdf Eamiu! (let uJs ^o ! or : we would go !) Utliiam ami- 
cus convalueai ! 

b) The Subjunctive of the historical tenses ii used in 
prvncipai sentences to express a supposition the opposite 
of what really is^or is not^ as: errares, thou wouldst 
err; errasses, thou wouldst have erred; si hoc diceres, 
errares, if thou shouldst say this, thou wouldst err; 
sic hoc dixisses, errasses, if thou hadst said this^ 
thou wouMst have erred; sp : non errares^ non erraS" 
ses] hence crederes^ putaresy cemeres, videres (one 
might believe, might see) ; besides, the Subj. of these 
tenses is used to express a wish of which one knows 
thai it win not be realized (imperfect), or has not been 
realized (pluperfect), as: utinam amicus convalesce^ 
r^f utinam amicus convaluisset ! finally, the Subj. 
Imperf. is used in a doubting question in reference to 
past time, as: quid facerem? (what should I have 

3. The Imperative is used to express comm^andsy as i scri* 
be. The two forms of the second person of the imperative 
are thus distinguished : the shorter forms (ama, amate) have 
a milder^ the longer forms (amato, amatote) ^stronger mean- 
ing; hence these last should be translated by should or must 
and are used especially in directions and injunctions. 

FarU misfiro atque indpi auxilium. CotUo virtutem. Leges ohser' 
vmidor. DiscipuliM amato piaeoeptores. 

Remark. The ntgdwt with the Imper. and also with the Subj. of 
encowreg^ ^''^d ccftor&i^, is ezprened by ne (not by nan\ as : ne scribe ; 


828 osNimrs. [i8& 

fie eamua However, instead of nt with the Imp^r. noU^ notUe with the 
Infinitive are often used, as : noli scribere, do not trri'(e;.nolite garrire, 

CXIX. Exercises far translation. (} 87.) 

I. The view of Epicurus concerning the highest good, I could not 
approve. Why should we doubt concerning (de) the immortality of 
the soul (plur.) ? We should love our native country ! \ye would 
bear with equanimity, all which happens to us ! The principles of 
virtue we would not neglect ! The beginning (principium plur.) of all 
things should be taken (duc^re) fi*om the immortal gods ! What has 
falkn to (he lot (obting^re) of each one, this each one should hold fiist 
(tenure). O that all would strive after virtue ! Without thy aid, I 
kad been the most unhappy xnan. O that thou hadst been silent ! 
What should I have kqswered? Flatter ye not bad men. Thou 
■houldst obey [thy] parents and teachers. Scholars should respect 
(ver^ri) their teachers. O boys^ you should be present at school not 
only with (abl.) your bodies, but also with your minds. 

IL The betraying of his country no one should praise. Nobody 
should believe a lying man. Who should not admire the beauty of 
the world ! We would not without reason expose (of&rre) ourselves 
to dangers. We should rejoice at the prosperity of others ! We 
should be afiected in the very same way towards friends as (quo) 
towards ourselves. O that all men would honor virtue ! Mayest thou 
always live happily (beate) ! The sedition of the soldiers, a word of 
the general would have quieted. O that thou hadst been present soon- 
er! I should not now be so unhappy. Whither should we have fled ! 
Do not .chatter, boys ! Wft should always contemplate the heavenly 
and despise the humaiL E^il desires should always be restrained by 
the reason. We should contemplate xkA Illustrious (illustris, e) ex- 
amples of virtue whkfa ^ pointed out.^.hislpry. 




> , - ' 

§ 88. A. The Genitive. 

The genitive steuids in auswer to the (fttisstion f^o/iose ? 
of whom 7 of what ? and indeed, with the foIlow^$^ i^ords 
and expressions : ;>: . 

1. With misereoTy I pity^ and the impersonals me p^4et^ 

f68.] asuiTiTB. ftS$ 

pigetj potnUety taedet and miseret^ I am ashamed of^ disgust 
ed aty repent of^ loathe^ pity (something). 

b^didum hmxnvm mmreor. Me misini tuL Nunquam prind enmr 
Ki deiim poenlUt. Me vUat taedet. 

2. With egere and indigere^ to needj wantj (which also 
sometimes take the ablative)^ and the adjectives : cppidus^ 
avidns^ stvdidsus. 

Aegrotqs maHdnae egeL Virtas pUarimae exareUaHonii indiget Vlr 
flupieiui vorUa^ est dudionia. 

3. With th6 verbs : memlni^ remimscorj obliviscor ; — admo- 
neo^commokeo^ comm'Onefacio aliquem ; — with the adjectives : 
memory immimor ; conscitiSj nesdvs^ inscius; gnarus, ignd- 
rus ; prudensy imprudens; peritU/Sj imperUus ; consuUuSy 

Pueri, memxnirint verecundiae, Qoni homines prcutaiti temporia cum 
voluptate rendni»emUur. Verus amicus atmci nunquam obUmaeUur. 
Veteris te amicUiat cammantfado. Cono prudena m mUikaris fuit Be- 
n^iciorum mtmibrts estote. 

Remark 1. Jfemtm, rtnwmgcor^ obimscor are often, and reoordor air 
most always connected with the aecusatwe, 

4. With many participles in am and efiSy when they have 
the meaning of adjectives^ and with many verbal adjectives 
in ax. 

Homo ghriae eppitem saepe a virtutis via deflectit Quis famdlus 
amanUor dondni est, quam canis ? Ciceronis aetas virtutiimferax fuit 
Vtr probus tenax est proposiiorum hanorum. 

5. With verbs of accusifigj criminating^ condemning, conr 
victing and acquitting, the charge or crime is put in the gen^ 
itiv^ (occasionally in AbL). 

Rebi. 2. The punishment when capital (caput) or when it is a Jine is 
Bometimes in the Gen. and sometimes in the Abl. Other punishments 
are generally put in the Ace. after ad, 

Milti&des proditionia est accusatus. Cicero Verrem avaritiae coarguU, 
Themistdcles absens prodUionis eit damnatua. Judex absolvit reum ai- 
ndnia. Athenien;3es Socr&tem copi^iff oofuiemnarunt Roscius jMxrncuIti 
accusatus est. 

6. With the adjectives : parttceps, expers, consors, exsors^ 

" / 

proprius; simUis^ disHmtliSy superstes (which are also found 
with the dative); peiensj impStenSj compos; pletms^ferfUiSy 
mops (which are also found with the ablative). 

Bestiae raUnM et oraHoni$ sunt experUs. Homo rationia est partuxps. 
Omoes virtuUi amqtdks beati sunt. Ira impdtmg sui est Viriprepna 
maxime fordtudo est , Terra variorum harbarwn plena est 

7. The genitive with esse signifies : a) the object (person 
or thing) in which something is inheretU^ or to which some- 
thing belongs (possessive genitive) ; b) the object to which 
something is peculiar j in wbich ca3e, thftt which is peculiar 
to the object is commonly expressed by the infinitive ; this 
last genitive may be translated by: It is thej^or^ manner^ 
custom^ characteristic^ duty^ sigri^ mark of some one; Uisin' 
cumbent on one^ and the like. 

Hie Uherfrabrii met e$t (belongs to my Inodier). Petukffitia est ado- 
luctndum (is inherent in). hBoikcUii <mmi tH superstitio (bekxng^s va), 
VirorumJMium tdy toleranter dolorem patL 

Rem. 3. Instead of: mei, tui, sui, nbstri, vestri est, we must use 
here, mtum^ twumf •tuim, n»dnuny vtdnmi eat, as: nodn/m e«f, pareates 

8. The genUive or^aMaiive of a substantive joined with 
an adjective stands with esse^ in order to express the nature 
or quality of the subject (genitive or ablative of quality) ; 
this Gen. or Abl. may also, without esscy be joined to a noun 
as an attributive. 

The Gen. denotes essential, the Abl. accidmUd qualities, hence, the 
the designations of measure by number^ time and space are always ex- 
pressed by the gmitive (never by the ablative), these being essential 
qualities of an object 

Vir bonus sununae pietatis (or summa pietate) erga deum esL Xends 
classis miUe et dwxniarum navium Umgarum fwJL Tarquinins fratram 
habuit Aruntem, mitia ingenii (or mUi ingenio) homineno. Aristot^les^ 
Yir summo ingenio (or summi ing^i,} prudentiam cum eloquentia junxit 

9. The Genitive stands as an expression of the valuey 
with verbs of vabiing and esteeming, of buying and settings 
as : puto, duco, aesttmo.^^pendo, facto, habeo, — emo, vendOj 

neo. Of this kind are the genitives: niagm^pluris,piuri- 


f 88.] OENITIVB* fiM, 

m% — parvtjflocci^ minimi, — ianti, qwmti^ nihtli (much, monB, 
vary much, little, etc.) ( Genitive of price). 

Si prata et areas quasdam magni aesUmamus, quanti est aestinumda 
virtus ! Divitias minoris aestirnare debemus, quam virtutedri. Divitiae 
a sapient! viro minimi putantw, QuanZt tmisti bunc librum ? Discipuli 
praeceptores /ifuniitt (or maximi)facirt debent 

10. With the irnpers6nal verb interest (it concerns), the 
person whom something concerns, stands in the genitive. 
Instead of the genitive 6f the personal pronouns: mei, tui, 
sui, nostri, vestri :'' mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, are always 
used, aiid in this case refert can be used instead of interest 
in the same sense. 

Hoia much or hoio little one is interested in a thing is 
expressed : . a) by adverbs, as : magnopere, muUum, magis, 
maxime, nihil, parum, minime ; — ^b) by the adverbial neu- 
ters : multum, plus, plurimum, minu^, minimum, tantum^ 
etc.- — c) by the genitives : magni, pluris, parvi, ta/nti^ 

The thiitg which interests or concerns one, is not ex- 
pressed by a substantive, but : a) by an infinitive ; b) by 
the accusative laith an infinitive ; c) by a subsidiary sen- 
tence with ut (that), ne (that not) and the Subjunctive ; 
d) by an indirect question (in the Subj.). — The general 
expressions : this, that, what one is interested in, are ex- 
pressed by the accusatives : id, illud, quod, quid. 

bdtrtit omnium, rectefacere. Quid nottra rtfai (inUresty) vidum eMe 
Antoniumf Praecejstoris mulivm interest^ disdlpuha sunimo studio in lit- 
teras incumbere, Magni mea interest (rtfert\ ut te videam. Omnium 
fiu^ tn/ere<< feliciter mt^. 

11. Finally, the genitive stands with a substantive as a 
nearer definition of it, as: hortus regis (= hortus regius). 
<:k)mp. § 82, 2, b.) 

Rem. 4. Hence the genitive witli the substantives: cauud, graUd^ 
ei;gt> which we render by on account of ^ for the sake of and with instar, 
JXke. Instead of the genitives : met, tui, sui, nostri, vestri : med ivd, 
Mid, nostrd^ vestra^ are used with catiMd and gratid, as : med, iud, sua, 
nostra, vetbrd caussd or gratid (on my account, thy account, etc.). 

0Bif imnu [i 88* 

12. This cMribuHve genitive signifies : 

a) the author or ccmse^ as: conjuratio (Jatilinae; de- 
. siderium patriae (longing after (excited by) one's 

country) ; 

b) ih& possessor^ as: hoftos regis; 

c) the tahok^ from which a part is taken (partitive 
genitive), as : partes corporis. 

The partitive Gen. stands also with other words besides 
nouns, when they signify apart of aiohole^ yfcs : with com- 
paratives and superlatives^ pronouns and numeralSj and the 
neviers: multum, plus, plurium; nihil, minus, minimum; 
tantum, quantum, and the like used substantively^ with ad- 
verbs of quantiti/j as : satis parum, and with adverbs of place 
in certain connections. 

Duorum fratrum nuyor natu. Cicero omnium Romanorum praaAomr 
Ussimus fuit orator. Romanorum unus. MuUwn pecuniae. Satis elo- 
quentiae. Ubi terrarum ? tchere in all the xoorld'i J^usquam terrarum, 
funofiere in the world. 

Rem. 5. The genitive in tbe^e cases must often be rendered into 
English by the prepositions : of^Jor^ qfter^ abttut, concerning, bejforty wOhf 
as: memoria praeteriti temporis (of), desiderium patriae (for), consueto- 
do amicorum (with). 

CXX Exercises far translation, (t 88.) 

L a. We pity those who repent (sb whom it repents) of their faults. 
A scholar, who loathes labor, will not make progress in literature. 
Who would not be ashamed of ignorance ? Many are dissatisfied with 
their fortune. I pity thee my boy ! We should pity those, who, by 
fortune not by wickedness, find themselves (esse) in adversity (miser- 
lae, arum). The truth needs not approbation. The rich are often 
greedy after greater riches. A good scholar occupies himseif zealou^ 
(studiosus sum) with literature. The ancient Germans were veiy 
eager for war. The people (gens) of the Gauls were very greedy fiw 

L b. Who repent of their sins, may hope [for] pardon (venia). No 
one will repent of a good deed (actio). The indolent [man] will some 
time repent his indolence. Just as God pities thee, so thou shouldst 
pity others. Pity thou the destitute. Bad men an often loeaned (ta»- 
det) of lilb. TlMtt wilt some time be ashamed of thy bad Mie. Tb« 

f86.] OBUHnvs* 9ff 

powers of the body and the ckmiI need exercise. Caessr and Ponspey 
were very eager for fame. The wise [man] tarmt^ 8uk$ (studiosHS 
sum) a quiet life. We hate the men who are greedy of gokL Cati- 
line was eager for a revohjtion (res novae). 

n. a. Vespasian, was uomindfld of injuries (ofibnsa, ae). Those 
men live happily who are conscious fiii no wickednesa The mind re- 
members the past, perceives (oem^re) the present [and] foresees the 
future. The Romans were very skilful in war. Deserters (perftiga^ 
ae) very famifiar («» acquainted) with the country, had spied out («[•* 
plorare) the march of the enemies. The spirit of man is ignorant of 
(nescius) [its] future fortune (fatum). Cinna forgot (perf.) the favors 
which he had received of Augustus. Remind not the wretched of his 
wretchedness (plur.). The soldiers, mindful of [their] former toavery, 
fought (perC) spiritedly. We should forget favors conferred (ccmferre)^ 
[but] remember [those] received. The people of the Samnites were 
yery skilflil in war. The Scythians were unskilfol ki literature and 
the arts. The Romans always longed (app£tens sumy after fiune and 
were eager for praise. We hate the man despising divine and human 
laws. Camels endure (patiens sum) hunger and thirst 

n. b. The mind conscious of crimes cannot be quiet A good man 
easily forgets an injury, [but] always remembers a ftvor. We hate 
those men who are unmindful of favors received. The ancient Ger- 
mans w^re rude in the arts and literature. Already the youth should 
be mindful of age. Dionysius, the older, tyrant of Syracuse, was brave 
and acquainted with war. The wise [man] is always mindful of 
human firailty. Caesar and Pompey were two generals very skilAil in 
war&re. Foolish men forget their faults, but see (cern^re) the jbults 
of others. Pursue those things diligendy in which thou ut skilful^ 
but abstain from those in which thou art unskilfbL The general re- 
minded (perf.) the soldiers of [their] former bravery. It is not neces- 
sary to remind an upright man of a &vor. Cicero was versed (consul- 
tus) in justice and eloquence. The fate (fatum) of many peoples re- 
minds us of human infirmity (infirmttas). • The ancient Germans dii 
not hve (amans sum) arts and literature, but endured (patiens sum) 
thirst, cold, heat and labors. Man, by (abl.) nature, seeks (app£tens 
sura) after propriety of conduct ■ We esteem a man loving virtue. 

m. a. Many men accuse (insimdlare) themselves of a sin, if they 
have spoken anything cheerful (= bright) in grief! Catiline was con- 
victed (perf) by Cicero of a conspiracy against [his] native country^ 
Akibiades, vMt abient (absens), was condemned to death. Brutus, 

228 osmrnrc. [f 88. 

the vindicator (rindex) of RomaD freedom, condemned even (etiam) his 
sons to death. Phocion was accused of treason, because he had con- 
sulted (consulere) badly fbr (dat) his country. The judge Coelius ab- 
solved him from injury, who had expressly (nominatim) injured (lae- 
dere) the poet Lucilius on the sta^^ (scena). The human soul is par- 
taking of reason. Alexander, not master of [his] anger, killed (per£) 
his friend Clitus. Germany is very fruitful of grain. It is incumbent 
upon an orator, to speak fitly, clearly (distiucte) and ornately. Wretch- 
ed is he, who is destitute of fHends. Fish are destitute of a voice. 
Greece, at the time of the Trojan war, was very productive of brave 
men. Human life is full of cares and troubles. 

IIL b. Pausanias, king of the Lacedemonians, was accused of trea- 
son. The Athenians charged (insimulare) Socrates with impiety (im- 
pi^tas adversus deos) and condenmed him to death. . Cicero charged 
(coargufire) Verres with the greatest avarice. Roscius was accused of 
parricide. Miltiades was accused of treachery and condemned to 
death, but afterwards was absolved from capital punishment (caput). 
Man alone of (ex) so many kinds of living beings is partaking of rea- 
son. The drunken [man] is not master of his understanding (mens). 
Alexander, king of the Macedonians, was not master of his anger. 
Beasts are destitute of reason and speech. Bravery is peculiar to man 
in the highest degree (maxime). The earth is full of various herbs, 
flowers and trees. The period of Augustus was productive of good 
poets, [but] destitute of good orators. Sicily is veiy productive of 

IV. a. Inconsiderateness is inherent in youth, providence in old age. 
To the Romans, in (abk) the time of Augustus, belonged almost the 
whole of the then known circle of the earth. What belongs to me, 
belongs also to my friends. Great bravery was inherent in the Ro- 
man soldiers. It is the duty of the wise to teach the ignorant It is 
a sign of inconstancy, now to trust and now to distrust the very same 
' men. It is our duty to defend our country. It is the duty of the 
scholar, to apply himself with all his powers, to. the study of the lib- 
eral arts and letters. It is not always a quality of the very same man, 
to iljink correctly and to express his thoughts elegantly in (abl.) dis- 
course. A man of elevated soul despises rii^bes. Caesar was not of 
large stature, but of a brave mind and a fierce spirit The fieet of 
the enemies consisted of 253 ships. Cato possesied (sa was of) a re- 
markable (singularis) wisdom In all things. 

IV. b. In boys and youths waywardness is inherent, in men and old 

♦ 88.] OBJflTIVB. 99f 

men seriousiMss. All Syii« belonged to dbye Macedonians, It Is the 
duty of ^e intelligent, to guide the unintelligent by GounseL In thf 
people of the Samnites, a great knowledge of war was iafa/erent J$ 
is the duty of parents to bring up [thek] childi^Q well. It is ineuQi<- 
bent on you, O boys, to obey the precepts of your teachers ! Eveif 
mask meof (by eaae) err, but no one, ^o^t (nisi) tlie unwise, is want (hj 
ease) to persist in error. It is incumbent on the chie& (princeps) vft 
(gen.) the state, to look out for the wel&re of the humble and poor. 
It is the du^ of the wealthy, to relieve the wfuit of Ae destitute* {t 
is inouiDbenC on young men, to honor old age. It Is xiot the past <cf 
the wise [man], now to trust and now to distrust the very same -vieiw; 
It is your du^, O Ix^s, to esteem your panents aad fmch^m. It i^ io- 
cun^nt on the principal men qf ike gt^U (optimdtes), to listen to the 
prayers of suppliants with benevolent heaHa Agesilaus was of hmqb- 
ble stature and small body. Boys of a qaick genius and happy mevp- 
<ny are adapted to (ad) the study of literature. The fleet of XeiT^ea 
consisted of 1300 ahi^s. The ancient Germans pbsMCued (as were of^ 
etc.) an immense size of body, incredible bravery and fajRwliarily 
(ss= exercise) with war. 

¥. a. In every (omnis) service, we should value ibe wili of the g^mr 
the highest Alexander valued Hephaestion very high. , For haw 
much has thy fether sold [his] garden ? forjuat $o m%uk (taiitumdeni)^ 
as (quantum) he gant for (=s bought) it We deepnse the men vilw 
esteem virtue [but] little. Pe/ioles valued Anaxagoras, liis teaohw, 
very much. For how much did you buy this book ? Parents are 
much interested, that [their] children be brought up w^ I am miidi 
interested, that you apply yourselves with all zeal to the study of lit- 
erature. All good men are much interested, to be loved by othen. 
We are much interested in this, what good men judge concerning Jia 

y. b. We should value that (is) victory much, which is gained 
(par6re) -not by arms but by words. We value those (is) men much^ 
who love virtue. The wise [man] esteems riches very little. Many 
esteem their own little, [but] desire another's. The traders sell [their] 
wares not«o dtarly (tantundem), as (quantum) they have bought themu 
How much has thy father bought the horse [for] ? All citizens are 
much interested, that peace be restored. We are much interested* 
that we be instructed by good teachers. I am much interested, that 
thou mayest soon return from (ex) the journey. The state is much in- 
terested, that literature flourish (sx bloom). All good citizens should 
be much interested, carefully to observe the laws. 


230 ACOUSATIVB* [i 89. 

VL a. Homer is the oldest (vetus) of all the Greek poets. Socra- 
tes was the wisest of all the Greeks. No one of the Romans swpass- 
ed Cicero in (abl.) eloquence. Tarquinius Superbus was the last of 
the Roman ^ings. Virtue has in itself sufScient assistance for a peace- 
fill life. The less honor there is to literature, so much the less studies 
Acre are. We draw much pleasure from literature. fFhat kkid 
(quid) of business are you pursuing? The scholar should be diligent 
in school, not so much (tarn) on account of his teadiers, as on his own 
account We do much on account of friends, which we should not 
do on our own account The Greeks built before Troy, a house like 
a mountain. Many Romans had houses like mountains. Misfortune 
is an occasion for virtue. We should strive to obtain intercourse widi 
(gen.) good men. Not the fear of punishment but the love of virtue 
should keep us from wrong. The memory of renowned men vnll be 
obscured by no oblivion. The passion for honor is a hard mistress. 

VL b. The city Syracuse was the greatest and fairest of all the 
Greek cities. Anciently the Spaniards dug up much gold and edlver. 
Who lives in prosperity, has sufficient joy. From the reading of a 
good book, we draw very mudt (plurimum) pleasure. Hannibal was the 
most renowned general of the Carthaginians. Crassus had sufficient 
money, but too little (parum) prudence. More disadvantage lies (est) 
in the wrong itself, than advantage in the (is) things acquired by the 
wrong. Those were called sophists by the Athenians, who pursued 
philosophy on account of gain ot ^0Q)fcenta^n. The Egyptians built 
pyramids like mountains. Flaio miiSi^^'esHnuitid^ (= was to 

Cicero) equal to (instar) all philosophers. He is beneficent who acts 
(facere) kindly (benigne), not on his own, but on our account True 
virtue desires (desiderare) no recompense for labors and dangers. In- 
tercourse with true friends is agreeable. The remembrance of time 
happily spent (ezig^re) is agreeable. Hannibal burned (ard^re) with 
(abL) great hatred against the Romans. 

§ 89. B. Accusative. 

1. The accusative stands in answer to the question, 
, whom ? or tvhat ? It signifies a passive object^ as : rex civi' 

t&tem regit, or that tahich is produced by a/n action (effect), 
as : scribo epistolam. Hence it stands with all transitive 

2. The following verbs take the accusative^ although they 
might seem from their meaning to require a different case. 

♦ 89.] ACCUSATIVE. 231 

and some of them are in fact occasionally constructed with 
prepositions in English : juvo and adjuvo ; deficio and fugio ; 
aeqito and aequiparo; decet and dedecet; sequor^ sector^ ae- 
muhr and imttor. 

Atticus adoUacenUm Marium juvii opibus suis. Fortes fbrtuna odjiwaL 
Tempus me deficU, Mains fugit bonum (flees before the good = flees 
the good.) So also : defugw, effugio^ subUrfugio. Pedltes eqtdiem cur- 
su aequabant (kept up with). So also adaequo. Verecundia deeet put- 
rum. Gloria virttUein taDquam umbra Hquitur, So also : comiquor^ 
sybs^quor. "Equiies regem sedabanttar. So also conaecfor. Quis. iSy^om 
imiieturf Virtutes tim}orum aemidemur ! 

Rem. 1. Many strictly ijUransitive verbs, also, govern the Aco. in Latin, 
when compounded with prepositions which govern the Ace. ; or un- 
compounded when used transitively^ or when the noun is from tiie 
same stetn as the' verb, as : vivere vkam. 

3. The accusative stands in answer to the questions: 
hoio long'?^ how fat? hoio toide (broad) ? how high? how 
deep? hota thick? how many (much) 2 how great? etc.; a* 
to what 1 (Greek, Ace). 

Quaedam bestidlae unum diem vivunt Cato annos quinqve et octoginta 
natus (old) excessit e vita. Zama quinque dierum iter ab Carthagine 
abest Turris pedes ducentos aita est Vite caput tegitur. 

4. The accusative stands in an exclamation either with or 
without an interjection. 

Ms miserum ! OfaUacem hominum spemJ 

5. A double accusative stands in the following cases ^ 

a) With verbs which signify to call (name) ; to make^ 
choose^ appoint one something; to account, consider as 
something; to show one^s self as something; to give, 
take, have as something. 

Julius Caesar dictaiorem se fecit. Homines caecos reddii cupiditas et 
Avaritia. Romulus ur6effi ex nbmiiie suo Romam vocavO. CHceronem 
universus populus cons^dem dedaravii. Sapientem beatum habemus. An- 
tistius se praestUit acerrimum propugnatorem communis liberta<as. Athe- 
Bienses JGltiddem sibi tmperatorem sumpserunL Epaminondas prtuctp- 
tartm hab^it Lysim. Roman! dc^wum patrem patriae appellaverunL 

Rem. 2. The passive of these verbs has a double nominative (§ 84.), 
as : pavo superbus didiur. 

S89 ACCUSATIYS. [i 89, 

b) With the verbs : celo^ doceoj mterrogo 'y'^-orq^rogp^fld- 
gito; &nailyj poscOj postulo. 

Ckeranem Minerva <mnes arUs tdocuiL Ne quid turpt andcum roga ! 
Ego te senieniiam iuam rogo, Mdlam rem te cdo, 

Hem. 3. But pdo (properly: I strive after), I request, entreat, iff con- 
itructed with ab, and qwuro (properly : Isedc), I ask, with oft or ex, as : 
p^Mb a te librunif quaero a (ex) te sententiam. 

Rem. 4. With most of the abore verbs, in the passive construction, 
liike personal object becomes the nominative and the accusative qf the thing 
remauis. Ciosro a Minerva omnes cartes edodus est, Cato rogatus est sen- 
ientiam. Still with verbs of demanding, the axxusative of the thing be- 
comes the nominative, and the accusative of the person remains and id 
governed by a preposition, bs : pecunia a me poscitur, flagitatur. 



CXXL Exercises for translation, (fSQ.) 

L a. It is the duty of intelligent m^i to assist others with coupseL 
It is honorable (honestus) to emulate the good, [but] base to imitate the 
Imd. No people of antiquity equalled (aequiparare) the Romans in 
(abL) bravery. It becomes us to ^llow the example of good men. 
Time often fails the orator sooner (cilto):than words (= the discourse)* 
Fortune assists the bold, Th^ soul escapes the view of the eyes. 
The women and children were accustomed |0' follow the army of the 
Germans. The temple of ^e Ephesian' Diana was 400 feet long and 
200 broad. No one of the Grecian orators equalled Demosthenes in 
power of discourse. Want and contempt follow indolence. Mithri- 
dates reigned 60 years, lived 72, [and] carried on (perf) war 40 years 
with the Romans. Alcibiades died (perf ) about 40 years old (natus). 
Much becomes a boy, which does not become « man. Saguntum, the 
most powerful city of Spain, which Hannibal destroyed, was removed 
Something like 1000 paces from the sea. 

I b. We assist l;lim with delight who has assisted us. No one of 
the Thebans could equal Alcibiades in bodily powers. The enemies, 
whom the Romans Allowed svnflly, could not escape their hands. 
We should imitate those who love virtue. What becomes boys, often 
does not become men. It is our duty to assist the wretched. Flea 
the bad.' and emulate the good. The soldiers made ^ (» drew) a 
trench 600 feet long, 8 feet broad, 10^ feet deep. Death no one can 
escape. Not courage, but strength (plur.) failed our soldiers. Troj 
was besieged (perf.) 10 years % the Greeks. A long time the Lace- 
demonians held (perf) the supremacy of Greece^ Theophrastus died 

f 89.] ACCTTSATiyE. 233 

(perf.) 84 years old (natus). In hatred against the Romans, no one 
equalled HannibaL 

n. a. Nicomedes, king of Bitbynia, by his will, made the Roman 
people his heir. The Romans called the supreme (summus) council 
(=± counsel) senate. The people chose Ancus Martius king. Duty 
demands, that (ut with Subj.J we behave (praestare) ourselves religious- 
ly and uprightly not only in great but also in small matters. We 
should acknowledge virtue as the greatest good to men. Children 
should conceal nothing from [their] parents. Jugurt^ia, by ambassa- 
dors, entreated Metellus for peace. The ambassadors of Darius re- 
quested (petere) help of the Carthaginians against Greece. Give me 
the book, which I long since (jam pridem) requested (perf.) of thee. I 
ask of thee thy opinion. Grain was demanded by the citizens. Rea- 
son makes man lord of the earth. Recompense for labor we con- 
sider honorable. Ttie Parian marble the Greeks considered precious. 
p]liey] are ridiculous, who teach others what tbey have not them- 
selves learned (^ascertained). Eumenes concealed from all, the jour- 
ney, uhich he was designing to make (Subj, peripbrast). The greatest 
afiairs were concealed from me by thee. Cicero, informed (b= instruct- 
ed) by the ambassadors of all [things], commanded (imperare) the 
pretors, that they should take (deprehendere) the Allobroges by am- 
buscade. Th(; ambassadors demanded back of the enemies, all which 
had been ta^eii 'j^:t>m the citizens during (per) the truce. Socrates de- 
manded of those, who enjoyed his instruction (ejus consuetudine ute- 
bantur), no money for his instruction. Caesar demanded of the Edui, 
the grain which they had promised (poUiceri). Cicero was asked his 
opinion in the senate. 

n. hi. Friendship makes prosperity more splendid, ^nd adversity 
lighter (levis). The resounding echo, Horace calls ]Lhe iinage of the 
voice. Prosperity is not mer^lyj^elf blind, but also generally makes 
(efficere) [those] blind, whom it has embraced. The soldiers demand- 
ed all the arms of the citizens of the captured city. All arms were de- 
manded of the citizens. I ask thy opinion of this oligect The am- 
bassadors of the Gauls requested peace of Caesar. The Romans elect- 
ed Camillus dictator. Eloquence effects, that (ut with Subj.) we may be 
able to teach others what we know. The Tarentines demanded of 
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, aid against the Romans. The future has 
rightly been concealed from men, by the divine Providence. I have 
giv^n thy brother the book which he had requested of me. The 
Athenians requested (petere) a general of the Lacedemonians. He is a 


£34 DATIVE. [f 90. 

true friendy who conceals notliiDg from u& Many youths were taught 
wisdom by Socrates. My friend, asked by me [as to] his opinion, con- 
cealed nothing from me. We esteem those (is) men much, who con- 
aider viitue the highest good. Cicero showed himself tiie most spirit- 
ad defender (propugnator) of the conunon freedom. Catiline instructed 
(edocere) the70uth, whom he had led away (illicere), in all bad deeds. 
The Tarentines, involved in (abl.) a war with the Romans, requested 
aid of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. 

§ 90. a Dative. 

1. The dative stands in answer to the questions: to 
tohom ? to tahat 1 fot lahoml for takat 1 for tohose advanr 
tage 1 for tohose disadvantage 1 for tahat endl It general- 
ly stands with verbs and adjectives where, in English, the 
l^epositions to otfor are used to govern the case, or where 
the relation involved is similar to that expressed by these 
prepositions, as : do, placeo, prosuMy noceo etc., utilisy inuttUs^ 
aptus, idotfttiSy grattts, simttis, par, aequalis, eommunisj etc. 

R£>L 1. Hence all h'ansitive verbs may take together with the Ace, 
the Dat of the person (or (hing) who ikcarts in the action (Dat of the 
remote object). 

Do iihi donum. Epistolam iibi scribo. Non scholaey sed vitae dis- 
cimus. Litterarum studium hominibus utUlissitnum est Canis lupo 
timUis est Ratio omnibus homnibus communis est 

Rem. 2. Similis and dissvmSLis are often also connected with the gwr 

2. The following verbs take the dative in Latin, while in 
English they take the accusative : nw6o, parco^ benedicOy^^ 
maledlcoj supplicoj-'^obtrectoy stvdeo^ — arrxdeo^ invtdeo per* 
suadeo, — medeor and patroctnor. 

Venus nupsit Vtdcano, Parce' mthi, T!^e infantibtis quideui parcebo' 
iw (not even children were spared). Benedicimus (praise) honis^ mate- 
dicimus (censure) malis. Donum tuum valde mihi arrisit.. Probus in- 
tfidet nemlni Mhi invvddur (I am envied). Omnibus amicis pro te 
libentissime supplicabo (entreat). Mali bonis ohtredart (disparage) solent 
Nunquam tihi persuadebo, Miki persuaddur (I am persuaded). Pueri 
liUtris stud^re (^ebent (study). Omnes homines libertati student (strive 
after). Philosophia medetiir ianimis. Bonus bono patrodnettur (protects). 

f90.] BATIVB. 23d 

Rem. 3. Also, many verb0 by compontion with prepontions, espe^ 
cially with the following : a6, ad, anU^cum (c(m\ de, ex^ tn, tnter, oi, pod^ 
praty proy suh and auper^ acquire a meaning which makes them take the 

3. The dative stands with est and stmt to express the per* 
son or thing who has or possesses something. The thing 
possessed stands in the nominative as subject 

Suus mique mos est. Semper in civitate [ii], quibus opes nuUao 
sunty bonis invident Multi ndki sunt librL 

Rebl 4. In nomen mihi est (I have the name, am called), the name 
Stands either in the dtdive or nomirudwe, as : nomen mihi est Cardlo 
{CcaiHus). < 

4. The dative of the end (in answer to the question: 
for what end ?), to which besides, a dative of the person 
is commonly added, stands : 

a) With sum^ which, in thi3 case, is to be rendered con- 
duce tOy serve for ; 

b) With do, accipioy relinquo^ deligo^ mitto, venio^ habeoy 
etc ; also with do, duco^ tribuo^ verto in the meaning : 
to impute to. 

Bonum non potest esse cuiquam mdUf, Virtutes homlnibus decdri 
ghriaeque sunt Virtus sola neque datur dono, Deque accipittur, Pau- 
santas venit Atticis auxUto. VUio mihi dant, quod mortem hominis 
necessarii graviter fero. 

CXXIL Exercises for translation, ({ 90.) 

L a. Nobody errs for himself alone, but spreads (sparg^re) fblly (de- 
mentia) [also] among (in) those next [to him]. Pleasure . flatters our 
senses. A good man labors for virtue, not for &rae. Sleep is very 
much like death. Socrates, conscious of no wickedness to himself 
did not supplicate the judges. Julia, daughter of Augustus Caesar, 
flrst married Marcellus, then Marcus Agrippa, finally (postremum) Ti- 
berius. Time cures grief best The more fortune smiles upon one 
(quis), so many the more friends he has. It is base, to disparage (ob- 
triectare) the fame of a great man. The Germans yrom childhood (ab 
parvCdis) earnestly pursued labcM* and hardness (duritia). No physi- 
cian can cure all diseases. The sister of Atticus married (perf ) Cicera 
Death spares no mortal. Bad men reproach the good. Neither of 
the two should we praise (benedicere), neither the impious nor the 

236 DATIVE. [J90. 

flatterer. The orator convinced the citizens of the advantage of his 
counsel The wise [man] envies no one. 

L h. We live not merely for ourselves, but also for our country and 
other men. The dog is like the wolf. A good citizen obeys the laws 
with delight. Whoever reviles others, reviles himself [also]. It is 
easy to convince a good man of the value of virtue. It is base to dis- 
parage others (alter). It is « mark of an ill-disposed man, never to 
praise a good man. They have many fHends, upon whpm fortune 
smiles. Philosophy cures sick (aeger, gra, ^um) souls. We are attach- 
ed (studere) to those, who preserve (conservare) [their] fidelity. The 
upright [man] envies nolxxly, [but] is envied by many. Save time, O 
boys! Scarcely any one (ullus) of mortals, does fortune always 
smile upon. A is better (praestat), by the capital punishment of one 
wicked man, to restrain the wickedness of many, than on account 
of (propter) many wicked [men] to spare one. To the, priestesses 
(saceKlos, otis) of Vesta, it was not pern^itted to marry a man. 

n. a. Cicero possessed a remarkable eloquence. Man has many 
Acuities of body and souL In Sicily there is a volcanic mountain, 
called Aetna. Riclies conduce to the destruction of (=^ are for de- 
struction to, etc.) many men. Bad customs conduce to the destruction 
of a state. Just laws serve for safety to a state. Attaliis, a king of 
Asia, gave his kingdom to the Romans for a present Caesar left be- 
hind 500 soldiers for protection to the camp. Bravery is imputed to 
the Romans for praise. Cnesar came to the city, besieged by the 
enemies, for aid. Poverty should be imputed to no man for % reproach. 
From whom hast thou received this book as a present? /^H^e father 
has given me the book for a present .Xerxes, king of the Persians, 
gave to Themistocles Myus (Myus, imtis), a city of Asia, for a pres- 
ent Industry is imputed for praise to the scholar. 

n. b. Where caprice reigns (dominari), innocence has [but] little 
(levis) protection (praesidiutn). Man has a mortal body, [but] an im- 
mortal soul. My friend is called Charles. The struggle (a= effort) 
after truth serves all men for ornament. God is not accustomed to 
aid (auxilio esse) those who thrust (immitt^re) themselves inconsiderate- 
ly into danger. A victory won (parfire) by treachery, does not con- 
duce to the praise of the conqueror, but to [his] reproach. It is Our 
duty to come for aid to the wretched. Caesar chose a fit place for the 
camp. Two thousand footmen and a thousand horsemen were left 
behind for protection to the city. The desire after dominion is im- 
puted to Caesar for a fault Modesty is imputed to a boy for praise. 

i 91.] ABLATIVE. 237 

immodesty for censure. Contempt of money is imputed to men for 
praise. Caesar sent 3000 soldiers as aid to the besieged city. 

§ 91. D. Ablative. 

The ablative expresses : 

1. The place in which something takes place (where ?)j 
as : terra marique, hoc loco, also in connection with tott^ 
and ,omniSy as : totis camjdSy tota v/rbe^ and so in many other 
similar expressions ; but otherwise in generally stands with 
ablatives of this kind. 

2. The time in or within which something happens (wh€n f 

and at or tvithin what time ?) 

Qua node natus Alexander est, tddem Dianae Ephesiae templum de- 
flagravit Agamenmo cum universa Gr^aecia vix decern anni8 unam 
eepit urbem. Epaminondas die una Graeciam liberavit 

3. The ground or cause {tohereby ? on what accotmt ? 
whence ?) ; hence it stands with : gavdeo^ laetor^ gloriorf^ 
laborOf valeo^floreof-^-excellojpraestOySuperOi^ichyConfldOj 
nitor; — laetus^fretus^ contentus^ natus ^ ortus, genitus, etc 

In culpa sunt, qui ofiicia desdnmt fiwUiUd animi (fi^m). Gutema- 
toris ars utUUaU, non arte laudatur (on account of). Concordia res par- 
Tae crescunt, (2t9cor(fui maximae dilabuntur. Delicto doUre^ correctione 
gaudere oportet Salus hominum non veritate solum, sed etiam fama 
mtiiur, Nenio potest aut corporis,/Srm»tote, aut fortunae stabUitate eon' 
fideare. [¥^ and co7{/yb are quite as often, and d^ydo dimOst Uways 
joined wl^ the Dat) Cordt:ni% estote 9orte vestra. 

4. The mean^ and instrument^ also the material (where^ 
with? wkerefrom? ivhence?). 

Ocvlia vidimus, miribuB audimua Britanni lade et coame yirunt 

Rem. 1. When a person is employed as a meaTts or insfrumtnJt^ the cu>- 
eusative is generally used with per^ as: per twan patrem miseri& liben^ 
tus sum. With passive or intransitive verbs, the agent or doer is ex- 
pressed by the aMative with the preposition a, as : mundus a deo area' 
tus esL The accbm^^yvng person is expressed by the ablative with cunij 
as: cumfratre ambulavi. 

5. Hence the ablative of the instrument or material stands 
more particularly: 

t38 ABLATIVC. [i 91. 

a) With verbs o{fwmishingy formings instructing j be* 
ing accustomed. 

Nature oculos teMMsmis rMnJnwm vuUvit et npsiL So also with 
qffao, I affect (fill). Litterae tuae miimimo gaudio me cff^cerunt Pater 
filiiim UUiris erudhU (or irulituit^ imbuitf instruxU), Milites continuo 
laiwre agaudi {assutfadi) erant 

b) With expressions of fulness, plenty and want, as : 
abundoy offluo, and scateo, — compleo, satio, and car 
reo, — egto and indigto ; refertus, inops, praeditus. 

GermaDia abundatflumiwIhuB* Quid afierre consilii potest [is], qui 
ipse egd coniHio f Miserum est carert consuetudine amicorum. Insula 
Delos rtfaia erat divUHi. 

Rem. 2, Egert and indigere are oftener found with the genUwe, See 

c) With the impersonal opits est (there is need of), the 
thing stands in the ablative, the person in the dative. 

• But when opus est is used personally, the thing 
stands as subject in the nominative. 

Multis non duee tantiim opta ed, sed adjuUrt et coadon. Dux nobis 
opus ed. Ihuxa nobis opuB 9unL 

Rem. d. When the thing tcAftcA i$ needed is a verb, it is^ generally the 
infinitive or the ace, unth the infimiivt. Nihil opus tdj rem pluribus ver- 
bis commemorare. Si quid erit, quod te $cire opus sU, scribam. 

d) With, u>tor,fruor,fungor, potior Qiid vescor. 

Multi heneficio dei perverse utuntur. Augustus Alexandria brevi poH- 
lilt esL Vesdmur besHis. Cicero consuldtu benejundaa ed. 

Rem. 4 Potiri rerum means, to appropriate to one^a self (obtain) supreme 

6. The ablative expresses that according to which some- 
thing is measured ox judged of (Recording to what ?) 

Magnos homines viduie mdmur, non fortund. Quod rectum est, nee 
magnUudine aeatitnatur, nee numero, nee tempore. 

7. Hence with the comparative, the object with which 
another is compared is put in the ablative instead of quam 
with the Nom. or Ace. 

V&ter JUio doctior est, than the ton, or pater doctior est, quam filius 
Patrem^io modestiorem cognovL 

i 91.] ABLATIVS. 239 

8. Especially is the ablative used to express a respect or 
nearer definition {wherein ? in what respect ?). 

EpaminoDdae nemo Thebanus par fbit doqueniid. Multi sunt corp<h 
re vaKdi, merUe infirmi. MagDUS, major, maximus naht. ^aUone Mo- 
dus fliit 

9. The ablative expresses the measure^ and indeed : 

a) In answer to the question : bp hoia much {many) 1 
particularly with comparatives and superlatives. 

Sol mvHUia partibua vmqot atque ampUor est, quam terra. Here belong 
the ablatives : muUOf by much, much, parvOf pauUOf by little, little, quo 
and quatUo, the, eo and tonto, so much the. 

b) In answer to the question: hota long" before or 
after 1 before the prepositions ante and post, 

Numa Pompilius annis permuUia ante fuit, quam Pythagdras. Lae- 
lius sermouem de amicitia habuit paucia diehus post mortem AfricanL 

Rem. 5. But in the question : how long before or after (he present Hme f 
the accusdtwe is used with either ante, abhinc or post, as : ante ires an- 
nas te vidi. Post paucos dies te videbo. Tres abhinc dies amicum vidL 

c) With expressions of buying' and seUingy costing, 
hiring^ exchanging^ the price^ and with digmis and 
indignus, the thing of which something is worthy or 
uniaorthy, worth or not worth stands in the ablative. 

Hunc librum parvo pretio emL Multorum sanguine et vulnerihus ea 
Poenis stetit victoria. Exoellentium hominum virtus imitationey non 
imndia digna est Veritas auro dtgna est 

Rem. 6. Here belong also the ablatives : magno (for much, dear)^ 
parvo (for little, cheap), plvrimo, minimoytavdo^ quanio and the Kke, with 
verbs of buying and selling. Instead of the Abl. the GrCn. is also used, 
as : magniy parvi, etc. (} 88, 9). 

10. The ablative signifies the way and manner in which 
something taltes place. 

Vir sapiens aequo animo injuriam fert i 

11. Finally, the ablative stands with expressi^ins of remoV' 
ing and separating, o( freeing and depriving, ^ 

Caesar castra loco movit, Hospitem arcire tecto nefas est Cognitio 
naturae nos levat suptrstxtione^ Uberat mortis nvttu, Robustus animus et 
excelsus omni est liber cvra et angore. 

240 ABLATIVS. [{ 9L 

CXXIII Exercises for trandation, (§ 91.) 

L a. Xerzef brought (perf.) war upon Greece by land and by sea 
(mare). The eaemieB were discovered upon all the plains. lo the 
second Punic war Hannibal wasted (perf.) the power (opes) of Italy. 
Socrates, on the last (supr^mus) day of his life, spoke (disserere, perf.) 
much concerning the immortality of the soul(plur.). Xerxes was con- 
quered (perf.) more by the wisdom of Themistocles than by the arms 
of Greece. The minds of men are often tormented by distressuig 
(•eerbus, a, um) cares. We ought to griere at faults, to rejoice at 
[their] correction (correctio). It is the part of a bad man to glory in 
his faults. Greece formerly flourished {«;» bloomed) in power (opes), 
dominion [and] glory. Crassus suffered from an immoderate desire 
for riche& Caesar, by his arrival, humbled (frangwe, perf.) the Gauls 
trusting to (fretus) their bravery. The wise [man] does not trust to the 
stability of fortune. Upon the goods of the soul alone (solus, a, um) 
can we depend (niti). Nature is satisfied with little attention. 

L b. l%e Romans by sea (mare) and by land have carried on many 
wars. The colonies of the Syrians were spread (difRmdere) over al- 
most the whole circle of the world. The Romans awaited in a suita- 
ble place the attack of the enemiea In the spring the swallows re- 
turn to us, in the autunm they go away. Li the moiiths October and 
November the firuits are collected from (ex) the tree& Not from fear 
but from choice the upri^^t man avoids (xs flees) wicked deeds. 
Navigation is praised on account of the advantage. Who would glory 
in his ignorance ? Parents rejoice at the welfare of [their] children 
and grieve at their adversity. At nothing are we accustomed to re- 
joice 80 muck (tam) as at the consciousness of our duties. The Roman 
state suffered fi'om two vices, avarice and luxury. Aristides was dis- 
tinguished (floreo) by the fame of [his] justice. Happy is he who 
trusts to virtue, unhappy [he] who rests upon riches or any other 
goods of fortune. The enemies, trusting to (fretus) the nuniber of 
their troops, desired to fight If we are contented with our lot, we 
shall be happy (beatus). 

n. a. The sim illummates the whole earth with its light The ox 
d^ends himself with the horns, the horse with the feet, the boar with 
the teeth. Cicero, by his eloquence, had acquired for himself immor- 
tal fame. Cicero was expelled from Rome by Clodius. Parents, who 
have imbued the minds of their children with the principles of virtue, 
and instructed them in literature, deserve well (=te deserve) not onlj 
of their children but also of the state. The earth, in the spring, is 

f 91.] ABLATIVE. 241 

clothed with herbs and flowers. Crassus, king of Syria, abounded in 
gold and silver. Spain anciently abounded in lead, iron, silver [and] 
gold. God has filled the world with all good [things]. The sea u 
fvM q/'(8catere) fishes. It is a misfortune (ipiserum), to be deprived of 
(carere) the intercourse of fHends. We all need (egere) the aid of 
others. The earth abounds in all things which men need (egere )v 
Man is endowed with reason and speech. There is n6ed of a wise 
general to even the bravest armyi There i^ need of repose after 
labors, to ida» body and the sduL There was need of ready aid to the 
ca]Hured city. The Carthaginians were accustomed (peril) formerly 
to use elephants in war. Pronounce (ss extol) him happy who en- 
joys good health. Use the powers which Grod has given thee. Wbo^ 
ever (b3 who) wishes to obtain true renown, must perform the duties 
of virtue. The Numidians generally fid upon ( vesci ) milk and venison. 
Cimon, the son of Miltiades, had (uti) a very hard beginning of youth 
(adolescentia, ae). Alexander, king of the Macedonians, possessed 
himself of the whole Persian kingdom. 

n. b. We see with the eyes, hear with the ears, «»ell with the nose 
(nares, ium), taste with the palate, feel with the nerves. Very high 
mountains are covered with perpetual (perennis) snow and ice. We 
often attain more by goodness than, by force. The Roman state was 
delivered fiom destruction by Cicero. God has enclosed (sepire) and 
covered (v^stire) the eyes with very delicate membranea We ought 
to aid those most, who need (indigere) our aid most They are all 
rich who are etidowed with virtue. The fortunate abound widi friends, 
the unfortunate can destUuk (carere) of friends. The sun fills all 
{things] with its light The ^I^oman consul, Aemilius, enriched (di- 
tare) his soldiers with great booty. Our mind is filled (affic^re) with 
joy when we have done something good. Greece abounded in great 
poets. The body has need of food and drink (potio). When we act 
rightly, we have need of neither dissimulation (simulat^o) nor de- 
ception (&llacia). Any one you please of the sailors can govern 
the ship in (abl.) a quiet aea, [but] when (ubi) a violent (saevus) 
storm has arisen, then they have, need of a pilot The Helots 
(Heldta, ae) with the Lacedemoni^s, performed the ofiSce of slaves. 
That (is) ship performs (confic^re) the course best, which has (uti) 
the most skiUbt pilot Many men abuse reason. . Discharge scrupu- 
lously ihe ofiBM^e committed to thee. The covetous [man] does not en- 
joy the riches which he has. The Greeks anciently ate acoma Alex- 
ander possessed himself of the kingdom of Darius. 

10. a. Scholars in school, are judged of and estimated not accord- 


242 ABLATIVE. [j 91. 

ing to rank (« genus), bat good mannen, a teachaUe epirit and ac- 
tive (aoer) indostiy. The wise man nieaaurea men not according to 
fortune but according to character. Tliere is nothing more amiable 
than nrtue. Ireland is smaller by a half than BHtain. Carthage was 
founded eighty-two years before Rome. Cimon, ftve years after he had 
been expeUed, was recalled to [his] native country. In the sixty-sec* ' 
ond year tjfier ihtfinrnding ^f^eity Borne (post vabem ctrndStan), the 
diird war against the Carthaginians was undertaken. The fiiend, 
whose arrival I had expected three days befoi<e, has come to day, and 
wiU depart agafai after ten days. Chiysogdnus bought (peif£) a Corin- 
thian vase fbr an innnense price. Fw how much has thy ftdier soM 
his horse? he has sold it fbr so miK^ (tantum), as '(qaantam) bt 
bou^t it fbr. Tlie war has oost (stwe) us tamah Uood. An un* 
grateftil mind is unworthy of favors. Virtue and wisdom are worthy 
of man. Receive those imo friendship whom thon shi^ condder 
worthy of thy love. Hie wise man endures the hardships of fife wkh 
equanimity. Cicero, deprived of public offices, found satKs&ction in 
the study of philosophy. The winds purify the air fWim noxious vi^rs. 
Timoleon, with incredible success (fbrtnna), expelled Dionyi^us from 
all Sicily. 

m. b. Not according to greatness of stature, bat kifm a br^e and 
^rce mind we judge of a soldier. According to character, not accord* 
ing to property (facnhates) we should estimate men. Nodiing is 
more excellent than truth. No (nemo) Theban was e^foal to Epami- 
nondas in eloquence. Pompy was only tvfo yean (btennium) older 
than Cicero. Carthage was founded eigfaty-^wo years after Borne and 
destroyed in the TOOdth year aflerwards. Agrioola died in the ftfty- 
sixdi year of his age, the tenth day b^brt U^ Calmds of Sq4e$niber (ante 
Kalendas Septembres). My brother, who departed six days ago, will 
return after two years. The trader s^Us the wares for a greater price 
than he has bought ^em for from others. Thou canst bay neither 
virtue nor vrisdom for gold. They are unwordiy of fkvors who are un- 
mindftil of them. The victoi^ over the Romans cost Pyrrfius, king of 
Epirus, much. The deeds of Caesar are worthy of eternal renown. 
They deserve praise who honor virtue. Folly is nnword^ of man. 
Pausanias, king of the Lacedemonians, lived, after the custom of the 
Persians^ more luxuriously than was proper (par). Jugurtha expelled 
(perfl) Adherbal, an aUy and friend of foe Roman people, 6*001 his 
kingdom and all [his] pbssessions (fortunae). Themistocles, a genend 
of the Athenians, delivered Greece fhml servitude. 


§ 92. Construction of the Names of CUies. 

1. The names of cities (toivns, villages and small islands) 
of the first and second Dec. Sing', stand, in answer to the 
question where ? in the genitive; but the names of cities of 
the third Dec. and of the Plur.^o( ihefij'st and second Dec^ 
in the ablative^ without in. In ans\^^er to the question, 
whither t ^ey all stand in the a^cttsative^ and in answer to 
the question, whence ? in the abloHve^ in each case without 
a preposition. 

Ut Momae consules^ sic CariKagine quotanDis bini reges creabantun 
Talis Romae Fabricius, qualis Aristides Mtenia fuit Pompeius hie- 
mare Dyrrhachii et ^poUoniae constituerat. Ddphis ApoUinig oraculum 
iuit Cono plurimum Cypri ^ixit, Iphicr^tes in Thracia, Timotb€us 
LesbL Curius primus Umam elephantos quattuor duicit Pontius 
Lwxnd proficiscitur Cdnusium atque inde Bmniisium. Lycurgus Crt- 
tarn profectus est ibique perpetuum exsilium egit Aeachines oessit 
Mvtrds et Be B3iodmn contulit Consul Bamd •^ihertas profectus est 

BsM. Domuf and no: have the same cdnstroction aa the names of 
cities: dom (at home^, domi meae^ tuae^ tuaty noitraty vestrae^ alimai^ 
(at my house, etc.), aomum (to the house), domo (from the house, 
home) ; — ruri (not rure)^ in the country, rus (into, to, the country), 
rure (from the country). Besides, hvMi (on the ground), domi militi' 
eeqm or dond beOique (at home and abroad, in peace and in war). 

2. The words in apposition with the n^imes of cities, as : 
urbs, oppidum, caput (chief city), in answer to the question, 
where? stand in the a6/a<ft;e generally without m; in an- 
swer to the question} '^hither ? in the accusative without in; 
in answer to tiie question,, whence ? in the ablative without 

Archtas poeta Anttochiae natus est, cdehri quondam urhe et copioaa. 
Cicero profectus est •^j^ieruis, urhem cekherrimam, Demaratus CorirUho, 
urbt amplissima, Tarquinios fugit 

CXXIV. Exercises for translation. (} 92.) 

L As long as Cicero was at Athens, he earnestly pursued philoso- 
pbj. At £phesii0, a city of Asia, was a very renowned (celeber) tem- 
ple of Diana. At Sparta was the most bonoralde (honestus) abode of 


old age. The arts and literature flourished (= hloome^) at Athens. 
Demaratus fled fl-om Corinth, a city of Qreece, to Tarquinii, a city 
of Etruria., Timoiheus, compelled by the hatred of the ungrateful 
state, betook (perf) himself to Chalcis. Marius was boi*n'and brought 
up (perf.) at Arpinum, a city of Latium. At Alexandria, a city of 
Egypt, was a renowned (eximius) library. Brutus proceeded to Ar- 
dea to the camp. Hannibal proceeded flrom Carthage to Spain. Dio- 
nysius, the tyrant, sent for (arcessere, perf.) Plato from Athens. Au- 
gustus died at Nola, a city of lower Italy (Italia inferior). I have 
lived three years at Rome, one year at Corinth, two years at Athens, 
Jtwo at Philippi, three at Sparta. My father will return home to- 
morrow from the country, and, after three days, will go again from 
home into the country and will pass the whole summer in the country. 
When I am in my house, I do not trouble myself (curare) about (ace.) 
v^hat is toUhotU (ali^nus, plur.). When a friend is in the house of a 
friend, he is (versari) as it were, in his own house, not in anothers. 
The Egyptians embalmed (condire) the dead and laid them away (con- 
d^re) at home. The Athenians were very renowned in peace (domus) 
and in war (militia). Many men would rather (malo) live in the 
country than in the city. By good counsels, the welfare of the state 
will be secured (constitu^) at home and abroad. I shall remain at 
home, [but] my brother will go into the country. 

n. In Sparta, the boys were scourged (caedSre) with thongs (lorum) 
at the altar of Diana. Cicero, in Rhodes, attached himself (se applica- 
re) to Molon. Artemisia, the wife of a king of Caria, built at Haliear* 
nassus a frimous (nobilis) sepulchre. In the times of Pericles, many 
renowned men lived at Athens. Hannibal was born at Carthage. 
Themistocles, presented with great presents by Artaxerxes, returned 
(perf.) to Asia and established (constituSre) his abode ^t Magnesia. 
The corpse of Alexander was removed (transferre, perf) fix>m Baby- 
lon, the chief city of Assyria, to Alexandria, a city of Egypt Dionysius, 
the tyrant, fled (perf.) fi^m Syracuse, the most powerful city of Sicily, 
to Corinth, a very renowned (celeber) city of Greece. Cato took away 
(perf.) his life at Utica, a city of Africa. Hannibal was recalled from 
Italy to Carthage. Scipio often hurried away (evolare) from the city 
into the country, [and] then returned to business from the country into 
the city. Alexander died (pfcrf.) at Babylon, the chief city of Assyria. 
The soldiers returned (perf) home joyful at the victory. The soul in 
the body is, as it were, in a foreign house. In the time of Pyrrhus, 
the first elephants came to Rome. Nowhere does one line (vivltur) so 
conveniently (comuodde) as at home. Archimedes was kiUed (per£) 


at Syracuse, a chy of Sicily, by a Romaa soldiar. Marios died at his 
iMNMe ao old man. La^ius hatUned forA (evolare) into die country 
from the city, as if (tanquam) fit>in abains. The superiority (rirtus) 
of Caesar had been acknowledged at home and abroad. Socrates 
brought hack to the house the very same ejq)ressioB which he had 
carried forth from it Cicero' often lived in the country. The pool 
Ovid lived a long time (aliquaificbu) at Tomi, a city of Moesia, in e^e, 

§ 93. Remarks on the use of the Prepositions. 

1. Ab and de (from, by, of) differ thus : a) of place, ab 
means, away from ^ place, de, down from, or away from* — 
b) ab is used with an active object, and hence stands with 
the agent or doer after passive verbs, de on the contrary, is 
used with a passive object 

Milites ab %wht profecti sunt Lucretius dt muro se dejecit Dtjoro 
cives discesserunt (away from the forum). Multae fabillae de HprcOle a 
poCHs fictae sunt (many fables have been invented concerning Hercu- 
les by the poets). Multa dttea frdtrt iwi eiudivi (I have heard much 
of thee from thy brother). 

9. Obrcum is used only of place (not of tiv/ie), as : terra 
se c^cwm axem convertit 

3. The verbs : pono, loco, colloco, constitUo, deflgo and 
some others take m with the ablative where the accusative 
seems to be required, since they express motion. — Super 
and subter are very rarely used with the ablative. 

CXXV. JEbi^ercisesfor translation. (} 93.) 

I. The Gauls were conquered (perf.) by Caesar. Caesar has related 
much of the Gauls. Cornelius Nepos wrote (perf) a book concerning 
the life and customs of Cato. The life and customs of Cato were 
written by Cornelius Nepos. The citizens, besieged by the enemies, 
placed all hope in the vrisdom and firmnesii of the general. From 
whom hast thou heard this news concerning the arrival of my &ther ? 
from thy brother. We would place the highest good in virtue ! The 
wise man fixes (defigere) his thoughts not upon pleasure, but upon virtue. 

n. Cicero wrote (perf) three books concerning duties. Three books 
concerning duties wer^ written by Cicero. Excellent precepts have 
been left (tradere) us by Plutarch concerning the instruction of children 



(puer). Plato placed the reason in the head, anger in the breast 
Cicero, in the first book of the Tusculan Disputations, speaks (disputa- 
re) of the immortality of the soul. Much has been related to us by 
our teacher of the bravery of the Romans. Cicero fixed (defigere) all 
his cares and thoughts upon the wel&re of his country. Let us place 
a peacefiil life in virtue ! 

§ 94. Of the use of the Pronov/ns. 

1. The personal pronouns in the Nom. : egOy tu, nos^ vos 
are expressed with the verb, only when a particular stress 
rest upon them, hence, especially in contrasts. The pos- 
sessive pronouns also : meus^ tuus, etc. are used only in this 
case, or for the sake of perspicuity. 

Ego fieo, tu rides. Mtua fi*ater diligens est, tuus plger. But : Pra- 
ter me amat (not : frater mens me amat). 

2. The genitives nostri and vestri^ like meiy tuiy sui are 
objective (not possessive), but nostrum ^Sidivestrum ajre used 

Memoria nogbri (of us), Memor sum vtstri. Memini vetbri. Quis 
nostrum haec dixit? Nemo vtstrumy sua ofQcia explevit Besides, we 
should distinguish : pars noitriy vtstri (a part of us, you, s^ of our, your 
being), e. g. animus est pars nostri, firom : pars nostrumy veslrutn, a part 
or some of us. 

3. The pronouns : sui, sibi, se ; suus, a, um, are used when 
an object (person or thing), is opposed to itself. 

Omnia animalia se diligunt Haec oratio s&n repugnat Mexander^ 
quum interemisset Clitum, familiarem sutmiy vix a ^ manus abstinuit 
Hannibalem sui cives e civitate ejecerunt. Dux cum militibus suis 
fiigit Oravi amicum, ut 9tfrt consul&ret 

4. When these reflexive pronouns stand as the subject of 
an Infin., or with a Part, or in dependent clauses and refer 
to the subject of the leading clause, they may generally be 
translated into English by, he, she, it, to him, to her, to it^ 
him, her, it, they, them, to them. 

Animus sentit, se sua vi moveri (the soul is conscious, that it is moved 
by its own power). Caesar exercitu per se comparato rempublicam 



liberavit (vriih an army collected by km), Caesar milites adhortatus 
est, ut se sequerentur (that they should fbUow him), 

5. The oblique cases of w, ea^ idy on the contrary, are 
used, when an object is not opposed to itself^ but to (mother 
object; ejus, eqnmiy snd earum in this case, are translated 
into English by his, her, their. 

Pater ei Ignovit (him, e. g. his son, or hoTy e. g. his dau)^hter ; but: 
pater sibi ignovit, kmsdf). Pater semper ^ua memor erit (Msy e. g. 
friends). Pater eum valde diligit Mater earn valde amat Dux et 
milites ^U8 fugerunt (and Ma soldiers ; but : dux cum militibus suis 
fligit). Caesar fortissirous fuit : gus &cta admiramur (Ma deeds). Hos- 
tes multas urbes exciderunt, earumque incdlas in servitutem abduxe- 
runt (and their inhabitants). 

6. The pronoun ipse, a, wm often stands with the person- 
al pronouns, either in the same case with the subject, when 
the subject is contrasted with other subjects, or in the same 
as the object, when the object t5 contrasted with other objects. 

Ego me ipse vitup^ro (/ and not another). Ego me xpawn vitupero 
(mg9e^fKa^L not another). Saepe ii homines, qui n&t ipais maxime pla- 
cent, aliis maxime displicent De me ipat loquor. De me ipao loquor. 

7. The genitives: ipsius, ipsorum and ipsarum, which 
often stand in connection with the possessive pronouns, are 
to be translated into English by, own. 

Mbu8 ipdtis pater {my own fiither). Mea ipaitu mater (my oum moth- 
er). Meum ipsiua consilium (my oum counsel). Tuva ipaiua firater. 
Dux avd ipaiua culpa victus est A/bder ipaorum pater. Veatra ipao- 
rum mater. Duces aud ipaorum culpa victi sunt Sorores mea aud 
ipaorum volimtate domi manent 

8. Besides what was said of the difference in usage be- 
tween the interrogatives quis ? quid? and qui? qua^l 
quod ? in Retn. 3. § 30 ; it should be here stated, that, when 
quis has a noun mth it, the noun is to be regarded as in 
apposition with it ; that quis inquires barely after the name of 
the person or thing (what), qui after its nature (what sort of), 
as: quis philosophus? (what philosopher?), qui philoso- 
phus ? (what sort of a philosopher ?)• 

248 or THE USE or the pronouh. [{ 94. 

Rem. L For tbe distiiiction between the doable forms of the inde- 
finite pronouns quiiy qya^ qM, qid^ quae quod, etc See i 31. 

9. The indeflnite pronoiia qtds {qui)j qM (quae)^ quid 
{qtiod}^ some oncj one^ is less emphatic than aliquiSj etc., and 
stands most commonly after si^ nisij ne^ numy qutmy guiy 
quaej quod^ quo or quanto {the^ with, the comparative). 

Si quisle imoportalilate animwum dubitat, kisanus est Yide^ne 
fuen laedikB. JSTum qw dubitat haode re? Q^m (quanto) qm$ sapien- 
tk>r est, eo (tanle) ni^dfMBtior est. 

10. "When quisqiie is connected with the prononns 5m*, 
sibij se, swus^ it stands immediately after them. 

Trahit »ua quemque voluptas. Minime aibi quiaqae notus est 

11. When quisque stands after superlatives^ it maybe 
translated by precisely the^ the very^ and when it stands after 
ordinal numbers by eacA, every. 

Sapi(niimnm$ quisque virtutem maxime amat (precisely the wisest). 
Quarto quoque anno (every fourth year). 

12. Uterque (each of two, both) in connection with a 
wmn takes the same gander ^ number and case as the noun ; 
but when uterque is connected with a pronoun^ this pro- 
noun stands in the genitive. In both cases the predicate i^ 
in the singular. 

Uttrqut dux dams fiiit (both leaders were renowned). Vkrqut 
aoruffi dams fuit (both these were renowned). Vkrqut tufsbrum, m»- 
irum (we both, you both). Quertim uterque (both of whom). 

Rem. 2. The plural of uterque is used when ttvo parties are spoken 
of, to hoik or at least, one of which, several hdongy or when it stands in 
connection with nouns used only in the plural, as : utrique duces (the 
generals, of which there are several on both sides). Ubrtque, Caesar et 
hostes. Uirdque castra (both camps). 

13. Uter, alter, neuter are used when the discourse is of 
only ttoo ; qim^ alius, rvutttCfTf on the contrary, when the dis- 
C9urse is of several. 

/ UUr fratrum ad te venit (which of the two brothers) ? IJler vestrum 

4ioc dixit (which of you two) ? Duo sunt fi-atres : aiier (the one) litteris 

operam dat ; aUer (the other) miles est. Nkuier nostrum (neither of 


US two). When a comparison occurs with uUtj aUer, neuUr^ the com- 
panuiye is used where we sometimes use the superlative, as: uter 
fcnrtior est ? wMch of the two is (he bravest f 

14. The phrases, alius aliud^ alius aUieTy etc., are trans- 
lated : the one this^ the other that; the one in this way, the 
other in that 

•^n diud probaut .^u atUer vivunt 

Rem. 3. The indefinite pronouns, (me, fhey^.we are expressed in 

a) By the third Pers. Plur. Act as : dtcurUfferuntj tradtmt ; 

b) By the third Pers. Sing. Pass., as: narratur ; bene vivUia'; 

c) By the personal Pass., as : amor, one loves f?ie, amaris, one loves 
ihee, sapientes beati existimantur, toe cuicount (he wise happy ; 

d) By the &rst Pens. Plur. Act (in this case the speaker must be in- 
. eluded under the one)^ as : viro sapienti libenter paremus ; 

e) By the second Pera Sing. Act,.^rticularly of the Subj., as : cre- 
dos (one may believe). 

CXXVl JExercisesfor translation, {i 94.) 

L a. Parents love theu** children. Manlius punished (multare) the 
bravery of his son with death. The remembrance of you wUl always 
be agreeable to u& To each of us the love of life is inborn. The 
soul is the governor of us. The hand is a part of u& A part of us, 
to-morrow, will betake ourselves into the country. Pity thou me. 
Wretched. Few of us have fulfilled their duties. A good king cares 
less for himself than for the welfare of the citizens. The wise man 
zealously corrects the &ults inborn in him. So long as Hannibal was 
in Italy, nobody resisted him in battle (acies). After the general had 
&llen (perf ) in battle, the soldiers fled. My friend and his son have 
set out for Rome. The Allobroges entreated (orare) Umbrenus, that 
{ut with Subj,) he would pity them. Cicero had effected by Fulvia, 
that (u2 withiStu^;.) Curius might disclose (aperire) to him the plans of 
Catiline. The Germans occupied themselves (studSre) with agriculture, 
and the greatest part of their food (victus, Qs) consisted of {consisUre 
with abl.) milk, cheese and flesh. I have ofi»n reflected (cogitare) 
widi myself concerning the immortality of the soul (plur.). We see 
(cemfire) iaults (delictum) in others more than in ourselves. The 
soul itself moves itself. Our soldiers have conquered the enemies, not 
by the wisdom (consilium) of their general, but by their own bravery. 
We ought to care (inservire, c. dat) not only for our ovni advantage, 
but also Ibr [that] of others. 

260 OV THB VSI 07 THE P&ONOUNS. [i 94t. 

L b. ChikhrMi knre tbeir parents. It is tbe duty of the kiDg to look 
out lor the wel&re of has subjects. Lysander, kiDg of the Laeede- 
moniaDS, left behind (per£) a great report of himself. With delight 
we pity thee. Each of us will always recollect thee and thine. I 
shall always preserve a recollection of you. The best part of us is 
imniortaL A part of us had remained at home. Many of us have de- 
served [well] of (de) our country. The general and his soldiers have 
distinguished themselves in battle by foraveiy. Men use beasts for 
tlwir advantage. [His] firiends exhorted Darius, that (ul with SiAj.) 
he should subject Greece to himself The king Eurystheus command- 
ed (imperare) Hercules, that (u2 with Subj.) he should bring (afienre) 
to him the arms of the queen of the Amazons. Cleopatra admitted 
(admittere) a viper (aspis, idis) to herself and was killed (eztingu^re, 
ptrf.) by its poison. After the encounter at Issus, the mother of Da- 
rius, his wife and his daughter, were taken captives. We ourselves 
ought to gevem (imperare) ourselves. Virtue itself protects itself 
Blany are wise for themselves ihdeed, but not for others. The (is) 
general cannot restrain (oontin^re) [his] army, who does not restrain 
himself (se ipsfum). The companions of Ulysses perished (perf.) by 
Iheir own' folly. Mapy evils happen to us 6y our own feult (culpa). 

n. a. Each one is the architect (feber) 0f his fortune. Assign to 
each his own. With the greatest difficult (== most difficulty) does 
each one judge correctly of himself. E^ji one ou^t to protect his 
own. Precisely the best [man] undertakes most easily dangers and 
labors for his country. Money has always been despised by the very 
best [men]. Every ]^fth year, all Sicily was rated (perf) Demosthe- 
nes mid Cicero were the most renowned orators of antiquity; to 
which dost thou give .th^ preeminence (palma) ? Virgil, Ovid and 
Horace were very djl^nguished poets of Rome ; which dost thou con- 
sider tbe best ? Each is a fault, both to believe each and [to believe] 
neither. I believe .neitlier, ;peither thee nor thy brother. Both, Ho- 
mer and Virgil, were "^istinguisfied poets ; the one of them was a 
Greek and the other a Roman. Both, the Romans and the enemies, 
fought bravely. One excels in this, another in that One occupies 
himself with this, another with that 

IL b* ;Each virtue deserves (deberi) its particular (prDprius) praise. 
Each has (by t$ae) his way. Each is accustomed to nuBasure d«n|;«r8 
according to his fear. Fortone win form each one by bis character. 
The very best, we ought always to place befiure (jfiropoo^re) others 
for imitation. The olive (ol£a) does not bear every year, b^t general- 

{ 95.] OF THS NUMXRAL8. 251 

ly ev^ two (alter) years. Who of yoti has heaid tlus news ? Wh* 
is the greatest orator of antiquity? Scipio and Hannibal were vmy 
renowned generals, the one Was the general of the Romans, the other 
of the Carthaginians ; which dost thou prefer ? The veiy most learn- 
ed men are the most modest. Both, Caesar and Pompey were great 
men ; which dost thou consider the greatest ? Both the Romans and 
the Germans were tery brave; which considerest thou the bravest? 
Neither of us all is free trcm fladts. Neither, neither the wicked 
[man] nor the flatterer, ought we to praise. Dangers threaten on^ 
from hare (= hence), another from then (= thence). This pleases 
onfe, that another. 

HL a. Justly one censures those who act rightly from (prae) fear. 
All is uncertain, when one departs (discedere) from ri^t One 
lau^s. They praise me. One has praised me. The earth is sur- 
rounded (circiimfundi) by that sea^ which we (=3 one) call ocean. 
We prepare the mind for (ad) all. He who fears what one can avoid, 
can in no manner live with a quiet mind. In prosperity, let us flee 
pride and arrogance. Without virtue we cannot be happy. What is 
i^weeter, than to have [a fliend] with whom one may dare to speak 
as with himself? It is becoming, to do religiously what one does. 

HL b. They called those philosophers sophists, who pursued philo- 
sophy for gain or ostentation. They run. Honorable conduct (= the 
honorable) excites (movere) the approbation of those with whom one 
lives. They will censure me. We deride fools. The perversities 
(pravitas) of the soul, one |Hroperly (= correctly) calls fkuhs. 7^ 
means oj Iwing (victiw) and care of the body, we refer to health and 
strength, not to property. Hdw short is the longest life of man, 
when one compares (subj.) it to eternity ! What one has promised, 
he must make good. By entreaties, one often effects (perficere) more 
than by force. It is becoming, not to ceii8tu*e that which one does not 
understand (intelligere, fi^;.). 

- . r" - ^96. 0/ the Numerals* . 

^ 1. Cohcefuing mille and milia, see § 33. Rem. 4. 

2. The distributives^ which answer the question, koto 
mavnj each 1 or how many at a time ? are used when one 
wishes to express, that a number is divided equally among 
several objects^ or a certain number of timers* 

Pater filiis $em8 lil^ros dat (SiX books a piece, i. e. the father gives 
each of his sons six books; hence, if we suppose three sons, the &ther 


divides ei^teen bool^ into three equal parts). Sex fossae, qmnas pe- 
des altae, ducebantur (each six feet deep), 

3. Besides, the distributives are used for the cardinal 
numbers with nouns which have only the plural, as : bina 
castra, two camps. For singulis ae, a, in this case, vm, ae, a 
is used, as : tma castra, one camp^ unae nuptiae, one toed- 
dinffj unae litterae, one letter, trina castra, three camps (but : 
tema* castra, three camps a-ptece). 

CXXVII Exercises for translation, ({ 95.) 

L A thousand soldiers have defended the city spiritedly against 
9000 enemies which assaulted it All (oronis) Gaul which is em- 
braced (contin^re) by the Pyrenees mountains, the Alps and the Se- 
venns (mons Gehenna) is 3,200,000 paces. The leader of our army 
has pursued the enemy with 1000 soldiers. As at Rome two consuls, 
so at Carthage two kings, were annually elected. The Roman legions 
consisted (esse) at certain times of 5000 footmen and 300 horsemen. 
The army of the enemies had pitched 2 camps, ours 3. , The father 
wrote a letter to each of his 4 sons. Very often by a truce, have the 
already enfeebled powers of an army been restored (reparare). Two 
acres of land a-piece were divided (perf ) to the people. The mother 
gave to each child 1 apple, 6 pears, 7 plums, 8 cherries^ The enemies 
pitched (per£) 3 camps, each of which 3 trenches surrounded. 

n. The army of the enemies consisted (esse) of 28,000 footmen 
and 13,500 horsemen. According to (ex) the ophiion of Posidonius, 
there are 20,000,000 stadia l&om the earth to the moon [andj 5,000,000 
stadia thence to the sun. The citizens with 1000 soldiers have de- 
fended the city against the enemy. The mother gave (perf) to each 
boy 2 apples, 3 pears, 4 plums and 12 cherries. Caesar divided (perf) 
among (dat) the people, man for man, 10 bushels of grain and just 
so many pounds of oil and 300 sesterces (nummus). The enemies 
drew (perf.) around the c^mp 3 trenches, 11 feet deep and 6 feet 
broad. Two walls surround the city, 18 feet high and 8 feet broad. 
The towers upon the walls of Babylon, were about 10 feet higher than 
the walls. In each camp of the enemies, there were 7000 footmen and 
4000 horsemen. Cicero received (perf) in one day, 3 letters from (ex) 
each of three different places. How many scholars are in a class in 
(gen.) your school ? about 30. The fingers of men have 3 joints, the 
thumb 2. A father divided (perf) equally among (dat) his 4 sons 

a 96, 97.] INFINITIVE. — SUPINE. 253 

4444 dollars, how many ddlars did each receive (per£) ? 1111. My 
brother has 3 writing-tablets. Yesterday I received (perf.) 2 letters. 
The city has 6 towers, each of which is 268 feet high. After a long 
time, at length (tandem) a lettw came, and this whole letter consisted 
(esse) of these 22 letters : Si vales, bene est ; ego valea 

§96. Infinitive. 

The Infinitive is used : 

a) As subject^ as : dulce et decorum est pro patria mori; 

b) As object ; this is especially the case with verbs sig- 
nifying to willy to be able, onghty should^ as : volo (cupioj 
sttideOy possum, debeo) discere. 

Rkm. 1. In animated description, the Latins often used the Infin. 
Pres. for the finite verb (kislorical infinite), as: multum ipse |mgttare^ 
saepe hostem ymrc. 

Rem. 2. For the Ace. with the Infin., see § 105. 

§97. Supine. 

1. The Supine in urn stands with verbs of going, com- 
ing, sending, calling, in order to express the end of these 
verbs. It takes the same case as its verb. 

In urbem migravi habitatum. Ingens hominmn multitudo in urbem 
conv^nit ludos publioos qfectattim. 

2. The Supine in u stands : a) with many adjectives as 
a nearer definition of them, as : dtUcis, jucimdus, molestus, 
digntis, indigmts,facilis, diffidlis; b) vnXYifasest (it is law- 
ful), nefas est (it is not lawful) and opus est. 

Pira dulcia sunt gtMto^. Fas est (licfii. Nefas est dtctu. Ddtber*- 
atu opus est 

CXXVIII Exercises fin- trcmslation, (H 96, 97.) 

L To a cultivated and learned man, to think is to live. They, whose 
Others or ancestors have distinguished (praestare) themselves by 
some renown, seek to excel in the very same kind of praise. Practice 
teaches to bear (ferre) labor. Without virtue nobody can be happy. 
The army hastens, in order to deliver the city from the siege. The 
Romans sent (perfl) ambassadors to Delphi, in order to consult the 
oracle. What is so pleasant (jucundus) to perceive and to hear, as a 


254 GERUND. [§ 98. 

discourse adorned with wise thoughts and weighty (gravis) words ? 
An unripe grape is bitter to taste. The fish is easy to catch in disturb- 
ed water. 

n. To prefer money to friendship is base. Poets wish both to de- 
light and to profit The soul cannot decay. It is- easier to see errors 
than to correct [theni]. All that comes to pass by our fault (culpa), 
we ought to bear patiently. A great multitude of men assembled 
(perf) in (in with ace.) the city, in order to see (spectare) the public 
games. The shorter a narrative is, the plainer (dilucidus) and easier 
it is to understand (cognosc^re). The orators pass over all which is 
base to speak. s 

§98. Gerund' 

1. The gerund in the Nom. in connection with est^ as : 
scribendum est^ is translated into English : it is to be (writ- 
ten) or : one mtist, one should (write). The person which 
mv^t or should do something is put in the dative. Hence 
we may translate it into English by : J, thou^ he, she, it mustj 
should (write), we must, should (write), etc. 

2. The gerund, like the infinitive, takes the same case as 
its verb. But instead of the gerund with an object in the 
accusative, the gerundive is used. See § 99. 1. 

Obtemperandum est virtutis praeceptis, Suo cuique judicio tUendum 
est (each one must use his own judgment). 

3. The remaining cases of the gerund supply the cases 
of the Infin. Still the Ace. of the gerund is used only in 
connection with a preposition. The use of the cases of the 
gerund is the same as the use of the cases of substantives. 

Nom. JVtatare est utile (swimming is useful). 

Gen. JVatandi ars utilis est (the art of swimming is useful )i JVatandi 
sum peritus (I am skilled in swimming). 

Dat JVatando homo aptus est (man is fitted for swimnning). 

Ace. Mitare disco (I learn to swim, or swimming) ; .but : ad natandum 
homo aptus est (is fitted for swimming, or: to swim). 
Inter natandum (wh'i\e swimming); oh natandum (on ac- 
count of swimming). 

AbL JVatando cor]>oris vires exercentur (by swimming). In natando 
(in swimming), a natando (by swimming), ex natando^ de 

i 99.] OBRUNDIVE. 2^5 

Remark. The GeruDd being of the nature of a noun, is governed 
in its different cases in the same manner as a noun. 

4. The gerund in the oblique cases also, like the^Infin., 
takes the same case as its verb. Still, instead of' the ge- 
rund in the Dat. and Ace. with an object in the accusative , 
the gerundive is used. See § 99. 1. 

Ars pueroa bene ediuxmdi difficilis est Pauci idoni sunt ad aliis im- 

CXXIX. Exercises for translation, (J 98.) 

I Man should always think that life is short The laws of Lycur- 
gus formed (erudirej tlie. youth by labors, by hunting, running, hun- 
gering, thirsting, freezing, sweating. The effort to relieve the misery 
of others, is very agreeable to good men. Avoid thou all enticements 
to (gen.) sinning (peccare). Not for (dat) the school, but for life we 
should learn. A good scholar is desirous of learning much. During 
(inter) the deliberation (consultare) one ought not to contend (decertare) 
with arms. One must not spare an enemy. Boys and youths should 
use exercise of body and mind. Who has not learned to obey, is not 
fit (idoneus) to command. Caesar and Pompey were inclined (propen- 
BUS ad) to spare the enemies. By nothing do men approach (accedere) 
nearer to God, than by giving safety to men. By teaching we learn. 

IL It is sufSciently known, that good men must contend with the 
bad. Socrates was accustomed, by inquiry (percontari) and question- 
ing (=s asking) to elicit the sentiments (opinio) of those with whom he 
discoursed (disserere). One must come for aid, not merely to the 
body, but much (multo) more to the understanding and the mind. 
We should forget injuries. Who does not know, that the hope of im- 
punity is a very great enticement to (gen.) sin (peccare). All the citi- 
zens burned (exardescere, per/,) with desire to fight for the safety of 
their country. One must use the occasion. Learn, O boys, early the 
art of using time wisely ! Few men are fitted (tdorj^eiis with dat.) to 
speak. Man is born to act The Persians were very skilful in (gen.) 
riding. The character (mos, plw,) is discovered (== uncovered) in, 
(inter) playing freely. From delaying (cunctari) Fabius was called the 
delayer. One must abstdn from ignoble pleasiu^s. 

§ 99. Gerwndive. 
1. When the gerund would take an object in the accmative. 

256 osRTrin>ivE. [} 99. 

the genmdive is commonly used instead of the gerund in the 
Gen. and Abl. dnd alioays instead of the gerund in the 
Nom., Dat. and Ace. The agent or doer^ as ^^ith the ge- 
rund, stands in the dative. 

2. The change of the construction of the gerund into 
that of the gerundive takes place in the following manner : 

a) The noun standing in the Ace. with the gerund, is 
put in the same case in tahick the gerund stands ; 

b) The gerund is changed into the gerundive. 

c) But the gerundive is put in the same case^ number and 
gender as the noun. 

£. g. If in the phrase : ars pwros eduoandi one would use the ge- 
rundive instead of the gerund, h,e must : a) put the Ace. pueros in the 
case of the gerund tchtcandi, hence in the Gen. : jmerorum (ars puer- 
ortan) ; b) he must then change the gerund edvcandi into the gerundive 
educandus, OyUm; c) finally, must put this gerundive in the same gen- 
der, number and case as puerorum, hence educandarum. 

Nolns b^ie educandum emt put'\Pueri nolAa bene edueandi sunt 
ro8, must be changed into : 


Ars dvitatis gubemandae eat dif- 

Asinus idoneus est oneribua por- 

Puer aptus est ad UtUras trot- 

lAtteria tradandis ingenium acui« 

Ars dviktUm gvbemandi est^if- 

ficillima; for which common- 

DaL Asinus idoneus est oneraportan- 

do, must be changed into : 
Ace. Puer aptus est ad litteras trac- 

tandvm^mue^ be changed into : 
AM. Liiteras tradando ingenium acui- 

tiu*, for which conmionly : | tur. 

Remark. But the gerund in the Gen., Dat and Abl. is not changed 
into the Gerundive when the object in the Ace. is the neuter of an ad" 
jedive or pronoun^ as : studium vera cogfioscendi (not verorum cognoscen- 
dorum), cupidus, sum hoc audiendi (not hujus avdiendi). 

3. The gerundive stands also with verbs signifying to 
take, to givCy care^ attend to^ give upy cause and the like, in 
order to express an intention or end. 

Urhs a duce militibus dvripienda dcAa est (for plundering). Urhem 
dux militibus dvripiendam dedii. Perjugam Fabricius reducendum ctim- 
vii (caused to be led back). 

{ 99.] OERTTNDIVE. 267 

CXXX Exerdses far translaticm, (J 99.) 

I. When wrath moves thee very much (maxime), thou must curb 
thy tongue very carefully. The art of governing (gubernare) a state 
well and wisely, is very difficult Many are more desirous of increas- 
ing [their] riches than of exercising [their] virtue. One must account 
wisdom the art of living well and peacefully. The camel is fitted 
(aptus, a, um> with dot.) for bearing great loads. Water is very useful 
for preserving our health. Gymnastic exercises avail very much (plu- 
rimum) for (ad) confirming the health. The Phenicians were very 
skilfiil in the art of governing ships. No possession is to be esteemed 
higher than virtue. The soldiers tried (experiri) all [things] in order to 
(ad) capture the city. The first book of Cicero's Tusculan Disputations 
treats (est) of the contempt of death ; the second of the enduring of 
pain ; the third of the relieving of sorrow. Socrates passed (perf ) 
[hid] whole life in improving the morals of others. To be drawn 
(abdaci) firom adive duties (res gerere) by the effort to investigate truth, 
is ineansisterU with duty (contra officium). The life of the wise man 
consists in the exercise of virtue. Good parents bestow (coUocare in 
with abl.) all care upon the proper (= good) bringing up of their chil- 
dren. Some (nonnulli) sports are not unprofitable for (dat) sharpening 
(acuere) the wits (ingenium) of boys. The contempt of death avails 
very much in delivering the soul from fear. Nature has given (tradere) 
to woman, the attending to (procurare) and managing (administrare) the 
domestic affairs (res). Caesar gave up (concedSre) the taken city to 
the soldiers, for plundering (dirip^re). Good parents take care (curare) 
to instruct their children well. 

IL He (is) is to be accounted (existimare) free, who serves no vice 
(turpitude). The desire (cura) to preserve itself, is inborn by nature 
in every living being. In joking (jocari), we must preserve (adhibfire) 
temperance. The faculty of curbing the tongue is very useful Many, 
on account of a desire for fame, are desirous to carry on war. We 
should pronounce nobody happy before death. Virtue has the greatest 
power of fireeing minds firom the passions. Soldiers should know 
how (= be acquainted with) to endure hunger and thirst. Innumera- 
ble things have been created by God in order (dat) to delight men. 
Many plants are usefiil for (dat) healing wounds. How many things 
are necessary for the preservation of life ! Thou must try all [things] 
in order to obtain the praise of the good. The winds are very usefiil 
fi>r (ad) dispersing the injurious dust By the pursuit (tractare) of 
literature, we should become (evad^re) not merely more learned, but 


256 PAETIOIPLE. [i 100, 

better a]so. The book of Plutarch coDceming the briDging up of 
children (puer) contaiDS many useful precepts. In the performance 
(persSqui) of all duties, one must bestow an effort (contentio) of the 
souL Be unwilling to receive an office to the management (adminis- 
trare) of which thou art not competent (= hast not grown). In the se- 
lection (eligere) of friends, we should bestow the greatest foresight. 
Conon caused (curare) the walls of Athens, destroyed by Lysander, 
to be repaired (reficCre). We give the boys good books to read. 
Mithridates took means (curare) to kill all Roman citizens in (abl.) the 
whole of Asia in one day. 

§ 100. Participle, 

1. The participle, like the Infin., governs the same case as 
its verb, as : epistolam scribens, hostibus parcerts, and like an 
adjective, agrees in gender, number and case with its noun, 
as : puer laudatus^ puella laudata. 

2. The participle is used as follows : 

a) Wholly as an adjective^ as : rosa florens pulchra est 
(the blooming rose). Rosa e&i florens (the rose is 
blooming) ; 

b) Instead of the relative who, which with some form of 
the flniie verb, as: cives acriter cum hostibus dimicar 
bant urbem oppvgnantibus (who were assaulting the 

city) ; 

c) Instead of the conjunctions, tohile, as, after, when, if 
because, since, alihovgh with the finite verb, as : cog- 
itantes coelestia, haec nostra ut exigua et minima con- 
temnimus (when we think upon heavenly things). 
Hostes, amnem transgressi, castra munivenmt (after 
they had passed over the river). 

3. The Part. Fut Act. is often lised in order to express a 
design or purpose, and in this case is to be rendered by thaty 
in order that with the finite verb, or by in order to with the 

Ingens hoDainum multitude in urbem convfenit ludos publicos speda- 

4. There are two kinds of participial construction in 

4 100.] rA&TlClPLl. 259 

Latiii : the one is called the conjwictive participial construe*' 
tiofiy the other the ablative absolute. Since we generally 
translate the participle into English by a subordinate clause, 
the difference between these two constractions may be ex- 
plained as follows : 

a) The conjunctive participial, construction is used, when 
the subordinate clause has no subject of its own, but 
has for its subject either the subject or object of the 
principal clause: In this case, the participle agrees in 
gender, number and case with this subject or object 

Sol miens pellit noetem (when the sun rises, it (L e. the sun) chases 
away the night). MstideSj patria pulsus, Lacedaem5nem fugit (as Aria- 
tides had been expelled from bis country, he (Aristides) fled to Lace- 
demon). Hostes, victoriam adqttif in castra se receperunt (after the 
enemy had obtained the victory, they (the enemy) returned to the 
camp). Caesar hostesfugatos persecutus est, after the enemy had been 
put to flight, Caesar pursued them (the enemy). 

b) The ahlaiive absolute is used, when the subordinate 
dause has its ovm subject, which is neither the subject 
nor the object of the principal clause. In this case 
the subject of the subordinate clause stands in jthe 
ablative and the participle is added in the same case. 

S6U mitnttf nox fugit (when the sun rises, the night flees). Rtcitpera- 
td pace, artes efflorescunt (as soon as peace is regained, the arts 

Rem. Very often both the conjundive pcaitdpU and the cibladvt 
absolute may be translated by a substantive with or without a pre- 
position, as : the rising of the sun dispels the night ; after obtaining 
the victory, the enemy returned to the camp ; with the setting of the 
sun night flees. 

Rem. 2. Substantives and adjectives also, are often used in the same 
way as participles, as : bellum Grallicum, Coesare imperatore, gestum 
est (under the conduct of Caesar). JVaturd duce, errare nuUo pacto 
potest (under the guidance of nature). Natus est Augustus, Ciceront 
et AntomeconsutUfUS (in the consulship of Cicero and Anthony). 

CXXXL Exercises for translation, {i 100.) 

L a. What is so itihuman, as to convert (convertSre) eloquence, 
which is given by nature for the safety and preservation of men, to the 

260 PABTIOIPLS. [i 100« 

destruction of the good? ChaDge of country does not always change 
the morale The enemies pitched a camp in a place which was sur- 
rounded by marshes (palus) and woods. When we wish to begin 
(exordior) a work, we must (gerundive) bestow a careful preparation. 
Tarquinius Superbus was deprived of [his] dominion, as he was besieg- 
ing Ardea. Since the Romans feared the snares of the Germans, they 
returned over the Rhine. After Dionysius the tyrant had been expell- 
ed from Syracuse, he instructed (doc^re) boys at Corinth. A laugh 
sometimes breaks forth so violently, that we cannot, even when we 
desire, restrain (tenere) [it]. Hephaestion, of all the friends of Alexan- 
der, was the most dear, because he had been brought up in like man- 
ner with himself. When the storks wish to migrate (abire) they as- 
semble at (in with ace.) one place. In the third Punic war, Scipio 
passed over to Africa in order to destroy Chathage. 

I. b. What do eighty years, which are spent (exigfire) in (per) in- 
activity (inertia), profit (juvare) a man ? Two friends are like one soul 
which dwells in two bodies, When Alexander had possessed himself 
of Egypt, he built Alexandria. Hipparchus, a son of Pisistratus, fell 
in the battle of Marathon (Marathonius, a, um), while he was bearing 
arms against his country. Sulla was sent to Asia, in order to carry 
on war with the king Mithridates. After the enemies had possessed 
themselves of the city, they plundered it. By day (interdiu) we do not 
see the stars, because they are obscured by the light of the sun. We 
have confidence in upright men, even if they are not sworn. The ene- 
mies dispersed (dilabi, per/,) into the city, in order to protect them- 
selves, by (abL) the walls (moenia). We cannot live happily (beate), 
if we fear death. 

n. a. When we strive against nature, the labor is vain. Men have 
invented innumerable arts, while nature taught [them]. What solici- 
tude would torment the wicked, if the fear of capital punishment were 
taken away ? Since God guides human afikirs, We should be destitute 
of all fear. When humanity is extirpated from the soul, the man 
ceases to be man. When Cato had read through (passive) the Phedo 
of Plato, he took bis life. Under the reign of Augustus, the Roman 
empire was rated (perf.). Afler the troops were drawn together, the 
general determined (perf.) to attack the camp of the enemies. After 
taking away piety and religion, disturbance of life and a great confu- 
sion follow. At the instigation (by attdor) of the magians, Xerxes was 
to have burned (inflamare) the temples of Greece. The wise man re- 
mains rich even after the loss (amittere) of all the goods of fortune. 
We hope, that our army, which has distinguished itself under the 600- 

i 101.] COOBDINATE SENTBirOB6. 261 

duct (regere) of a bad geDeral, wiU acquire for itself still (etiam) great- 
er glory under the conduct of a good general. 

IL b. When pleasure (voluptas) reigns (dominari), all great yirtues 
are in a low condition. The wise man will not be unhappy, after the 
loss of all his goods. After the rising of the sun, the mists were 
scattered (discClti, per/,). After a knowledge (cognosc^re) of the nature 
of all things, we are freed (levare) from (abl.) superstition. Caesar, 
after the liue-of-battle of the enemies was broken through and scatter- 
ed, led back his soldiers* into the camp. The sedition of the soldiers, 
which had been quieted by the wisdom (consilium) of the general, 
broke out again (recrudesc^re, per/,) in his absence. After the expul- 
sion of the kings, Junius Brutus and Tarquinius CollatiBus were made 
consuls. Under the reignl of Augustus, Christ was bom ; under the 
reign of Tiberius, he died. The Greeks took possession of Thermo- 
pylae as the Persians approached. Caesar, although he had conquered 
(passive) the Gauls, did not dismiss the army. The Greeks, under 
the conduct of Cimon, fought against the Persians at Marathon. Be- 
cause the night came on (ingru^re), Caesar led back his sddiera into 
the camp. 

§ 101. A. Coordinate Sentences. 

1. Coordinate sentences are those which have a common 
reference to each other, but otherwise are independent of 
each other, as : Demosthenes was a great orator, Cicero also 
was a great orator. 

2. The relation of coordinate sentences is : 

1) Copulative, "which is expressed: a) by: et, atque, 
ac (never before a vowel or A), que, and; b) by: 
etiam, quoque, also; c) neque or nee (and not, 
also not) ; d) et — et, both — and, as %oell~His also; 
e) non modo (solum, tantum)— sed etiam, not only 
{merely)''''bwt also; f) quum — ^tum, so taell — as 
especially; g) modo— modo, or nunc— nunc, or 
tum-— tum, now — note, then — then; h) neque (nee) 
— neque (nee), neither — nor ; 

2) Adversative, which is expressed by : sed, imt, but 


rather; autem, at, vero, veram, but; tamen, pet; 
attamen, verun tamen, but pet ; 

3) Disjunctive^ which is expressed by : a) aut, vel, ve, 
sive (seu), or; b) aut — aut, vel — vel, either — or ; 
sive — sive, ivhether^^-or^ either^^-or; 

4) CSxt^a/, which is expressed by nam and enim (for) ; 

5) Deductive^ which is expressed by: igitur, iiaque, 
ergo, hence^ therefore ; ideo, &n this account^ and 
the like. 

Rem. 1. Que and vt always stand attached to the word to which they 
belong, as : pater mater^ftie, pater materve; ati^em, vero, entm, quoqut^ 
igUwr do not stand at the beginning of the sentence, but afler the first 

Rem. 2. Sivt — wot are used with the indioativey as : mm id verum tsij 
nve falsum (whether it be true or false). Avi^—avi and vd — vd differ 
from each other iu this, that in avi—avi the one clause really and ne- 
cessarily excludes the other, so that one can be conceived of as hold- 
ing good only when the idea of the other is excluded ; but in vd — vd 
the exclusion is only aUotDobU or optionaL 

§ 102. B. Subordinate Sentences. 

1. Subordinate sentences are those which complete or rfa- 
Jine other sentences and hence are dependent 

2. The sentence to which another belongs as a dependent 
part, is called the principal sentence, the dependent sentences 
or clause, on the contrary, is caUed the stidordinate sentence. 
E. g. in the compound sentence : '' when the spring comes, 
the trees bloom," the last clause : " the trees bloom," is the 
principal sentence, and the first " when the spring comes," 
the subordinate sentence. 

3. Subordinate sentences are : 

a) Substantive sentences, i. e. such as are but the ex- 
panded idea of some case of 2LSubstantive, as : I re- 
joice, that thou art • in health (= I rejoice at thp 
health) ; 

b) Adjective sentences, i. e. such as are but the ex- 
panded idea of an adjective (or participle), as: the 


rose, which blooms^ is beautifnl (= the bloomings 
rose) ; 
c) Adverbial sentences^ i. e. such as are only an expan- 
sion of an adverb or an expression of the vudme of 
an adverb^ as: after the enemj/ was conquered, 
OUT soldiers returned (= after the conquering' of 
the enemy). 

§ 103. Of the use of the Modes in Subordinate Sentences, 

1. In the subordinate sentences which are introduced by 
the indefinite relative pronouns : quisquisj quicwnque, qualis^ 
ctmque, quoteunquCj ubicunque, quocttqntte, quoUescunque, 
utctmqtie, quotqttoty etc. the indicative is used in Latin, while 
we, in English, generally use the pronoun tvhoever^ etc. with 
the subjunctive. 

SapieDS, vhicunque est, beatus est (wherever he may be). Quoquo 
modo res sese habet, in sententia mea permanebo (however the thing 
may be). Q^icquid est, ego te non des^ram (whatever it may be). 

2. The use of the Subj. in subordinate sentencea will be 
more fully explained in treating of particular subordinate 
sentences. For the present the following may suffice : 

a) Ut, thatj in order that, ne, in order that not, that 
notj quin (after the phrases : it is not doubtful^ I do 
not doubt), that, always take the Subj. ; 

b) In questions depending upon another sentence {in^ 
direct questions) the. Subj. is always used, as : die 
mihi, cur ride as (tell me, why you laugh). Nes- 
cio> ubi fueris (I do not know, "vyhere you have 

§ 104. Succession of the Tenses in Subjuitctive Subordinate 


The following rules may be given for the succession of 
the tenses in subjunctive subordinate sentences : 

a) Upon a principal tense: Pres. Perfect-present and 

264 SUCOBSSKMI OF TSB TBN8B8. [i 104. 

Fut, there follows again a principal Tense : Pres. Perfect, 
present and the Future Periphrastic Present, according as 
the discourse in the subordinate sentence is of a like timed, 
completed or future action ; 

b) Upon an historical tense: Imperf. Perfect-historical 
and Plupf., there follows again an historical tense : Imperf. 
Plupf. and Future Periphrastic Imperf., according as the 
discourse in the subordinate sentence is of a like timed, 
completed or future action. 

Sdoy quid agas, 

Scioy quid egeris, 

Scio, quid adurus sis, 

Q^navi (I have learned), quid agat, 

Cognoviy quid ^ms. 

Cognovi, quid avdurus sis. 

Audiam, quid agas. 

Audiam, quid egeris. 

Audianiy quid adurus sis. 

Sdehcm, quid ageres. 
Sdebam, quid egisses. 
Seieham, quid adurus esses. 
Cognovi (I learned), quid ageres. 
Cognovi, quid egisses. 
Cognovi, quid adurus esses. 
Cognoveram, quid ageres. 
Cognovjawn^ quid egisses. 
Cogn^^eram^ quid adurus esses. 

OptOy ut ad me venias. Optabami ut ad me venires. Te rogOy ne 
mihi suceenseas. Te rogaham, ne mihi suecenseres. Non duhiie, quia 
rem tuam bene geras. Non dubUavi (I have not doubted), quin rem 
tuam bene geras. Non duhiiaho, quin rem tuam bene ^^esiurus sis. 
Non duhHabam ((fti^itom,. I doubted, duhitaveram), quin rem tuam bene 
gereres (g€fsS(sses, gesturus^tsses). 

; CXXXIL Etercisesfor translation, (i 10?, Ip^.) 

L in whatever way the thing has itself, it is not permitted t6 thee 
to desert (deserCre) the post con^itted to thee. Whoever that wretch- 
ed [man] ma^r be, we would l^d M to him ! The goods of the body 
and of fortune, however great they Aiay be, are uncertain and.:/fi^iL 
Wherever thou mayest be, thou, shouldst live uprightly. so 
powerftil, that he can dispense with (car6re) the aid of others. Tetf ^Qae, 
what thou doest now, did yesterday, and wilt do to-morrow. The 
friend related to me, wh^ he had been, where he was, and where he 
would be. ,Who doubts, that Hanmbal fought very bravely against 
the Romans? Nobody doubted, that Hannibal fought very bravely 
against the Romans. I do not doubt, that our soldiers will bear off 
the victory over the enemy. Nobody doubted, that we should bear off 
the victory over the enemy. 

n. Whatever the opinion of the philosophers may be concerning 


the highest good, virtue has in itself suf^cient protection for a peace- 
ful life. Whatever we may do, we should do it deliberately. I do not 
doubt, that you have benefited your country. However great thy 
wisdom may be, thou shouldst still always be modest Whithersoever 
thou mayest turn thy eyes, thou seest the traces of the divine wisdom. 
What man is so wise, that he can never be deceived ? I do not doubt 
that thou art now contented with thy lot. I did not doubt, that thou 
wast contented with thy lot Tell me where thou hast journied and 
whither thou art about to [journey]. It is not doubtful, that, when (ubi) 
[their] country may be in danger, the citizens will fight bravely. It 
was not doubtful, that, when [their] country was in danger, the citi- 
zens would fight bravely. 


PaELiBfnfA&T Remark. In the English language, suhsUttUive ttntenca 
are introduced by the conjunctions: thai, that noty in order that^ in order 
^uU not In Latin they are expressed by : a) the accusative with the 
Infin. ; b) by substantive sentences with tU, ne, qua, quomlnuSy quin, 

§ 105. A. Accusative tvith Infinitive. 

1. When a sentence, as : rosa floret, is the object of one 
of the verbs mentioned below (No. 2.), in Latin, the subjeel 
(rosa) is changed into the Ace. (rosam) and the finite verb 
into the Infin-) as: video rosam fforere (I see, that the rose 
blooms). vWhen the predicate is expressed by an adjective 
or substan^.ve with the verb sum^ fio^ etc. (§§ 84.), the adjec- 
tiye Qjc substantive is also put in the Ace, as: ^cpLO. frigida 
esiy sentio aquam frigida/m esse (I perceive, that the water 
is cold). Audimus, Cyrum regem Persarum fuisse (we 
hear, that Cyrus was king of the Persians). This construc- 
tion is called the Ace. with the Infinitive. 

Rem. 1. In English, this construction is generally expressed by ^ud 
with a Jinite verb and a noun, adjective or participle in the nominative, 

2. The Ace; with the Infin. is used in the following cases : 
a) Aft^,,yerb3 of believing, thinkings feeUng and per- 

ceiving; of so/ffingBud relating; 




b) After verbs of tinlling', desiring', letting; bidding and 
forbidding; voh, nolo, malo, ctipio, sttuieo ; sino 
arid patior ; jubeo and veto ; 

c) After the expressions : apparel^ (it is evident), con- 
stat, (it is known), and the like ; opus est, (it is 
necessary), licet, justum est, aequum est, mos est, and 
the like. 

Seniirrms calirt igntm, nivem esse albam, dulce meL Historia narrai, 

Rotncmi a Romiilo conditam esse. Volo te ex itinere mox redire. Virtus 

DOD patitur nos luxuria indulgire. Caesar mUUes castra muntre jussiL 

Caesar milttes poDtem rescindere vetuit. Constat inter omnes, Romanos 

fvisse fortissimoa. 

Rem. 2. When do agent is expressed afler juhere^ vetare^ sinere and 
poli in the Infin., the Infin. Pass, is used in Latin. Caesar castra 
tnumri jussit. Caesar pontem rescindi vduU, Caesar urbem diripi pas- 
sus est ^ 

Rem. 3. With licet (it is permitted) there is commonly found tlie 
Dat, (of the person) with the Infin., instead of the Aoc with the Infin. 
as : quieto esse tUn licet. 

Rem. 4. Oportet and necesse est are connected either with the Ace. 
unth the Infin, or with the Subjunctive without vi, as: oportei nos virtuti 
studere, or, virtuti studeamus oportet. JNecesse est sapientem semper hea- 
turn esse, or: sapiens semper beattis sit necesse est* 

*3. The Nom. with the Infin. standi with the passives : 
dicor, trador, feror (they say that I, ox I cm. said) ; putor, 
credor, existimor (they believe that I), videor (it seems that 
l),jid)ear, vetor (they bid me, forbid me). 

(Ego) bonus esse dicor (they say, that I am good, or : I am said, etc.) 

(Tu) bonus esse diceris (they say, that thou art good, or : thou art 
said, etc.) 

Romulus fortissimusfuisse dieitw (iraditur,Jhiur). 

(JVos) boni esse pvAamut (they believe, that we are good). 

(Vos) boni esifeputamini (crediminiy existimaminijjtuMcamini), ^ 

Romanifortissimifuisse dicuntur (traduntur, putantur). 

Romulus ad deoB transisse creditus est. 

(Ego) rem intelligere videor (I seem to understand the thing, or : it 
seems that I understand). (Tu) laetus esse videris. Ilk laetus 
esse videlvr. (Mui) laeti esse videmur. (Vbs) laeti esse videminL 
MU laeti esse vidmtur, {Ego) iaetus esse vidtb<j(r, etc. 


(Ego) juheor scribere (they bid me write). (To) vekais scribere 
(they forbid thee to write). MUUeB pontein facere jmn ttml (they 
commaDded the soldiers to build a bridge). 

C XXXIII Exercises /or translation, (i 105.) 


L I know that my body is mortal, [but] that my soul is immortal. 
Aristotle shows, that the poet Orpheus never existed. It is known, that 
the Romans destroyed Carth^ige. Some philosophers believed, that 
the world came inta exigence (nasci) by chance. Titus was unwilling, 
that any one (quisquam) should go away from him sad. We hope, 
that thou wilt soon return from (ex) the journey. Who can deny, that 
God governs the whole world ? It is known, that Hannibal fought 
very bravely against the Romans. History relates, that, in the Persian 
wars (l>ella Persica), innumerable tro^ops of the Persians were routed 
by the Greeks. Darius promised, that he would give 1000 talents to 
the murderer of Alexander. It is not permitted to many men, to be 
idlOi The Germans suffered no (non) wine to be imported (imporlare^ 
see Rem. 2.) to them. We should be willing (velle) to live with an 
inferior (inferior), as we wish a superior (superior) to live with us. 
There is no one, who should not wish, that his children should be 
happy* Demosthenes did not permit, that the Athenians should make 
peace with Philip, king of Macedon. It is related (tradi) that Aiistides, 
was the most just of all the Athenians. They relate thatrthe Milesian 
Thales fiist (primus) predicted an edipae of (he tun (defeetio soils). 
Who reigns well, must (necesse est) sometime (aliquando) have obey- 
ed. We should (oportet) serve philosophy, in order that true freedoin 
may fall to our lot A good citizen should (oportet) prefer the digni- 
ty of the state to all his own advantages. Caesar bade (perf.) his 
soldiers to assault the city. Caesar caused (jubere) the city to be as- 
saulted. The general forbade his soldiers, to plunder the taken city. 
The general forbade, to plunder the taken cit3\ They say, that Ceres 
first (prima) taught the use of grain to men. Alexander allowed the 
grave of Cyrus to be opened. It seems, as though the sun were small- 
er than the earth. It is said, that the war is finished. 

IL Who does not know, that the wise man is peaceful in every (om- 
nis) condition of life ? Who can deny, that he has ever done wrong ? 
It is known of all, that Athens was the inventress of most arts and 
literature. It is better (satius) that we benefit even the bad on ac- 
count of the good, than that we he tvanUng (deesse) to the good on 
account of the bad. The wise man frankly (ingenue) acknowledges, 

268 UT, NE, UT NE, UT NOK. [i 106. 

that he does not know much. Tbales said, that water is the beginning 
of all things. We know, that the course of life is short, [but] that [the 
course] of fame will be etemaL It is known, that the conspiracy of 
Catiline was detected by Cicero. Who does not know, that the health 
is strengthened by the exercise of the body ? The laws do not permit, 
that an injury should be done to the citizens. I would rather, that the 
•enemies should hate me, than that I them. Hadrian wished, that the 
Euphrates (Euphrates, is) might be the border of his kingdom. I 
hope, that by length of time, thy sorrow will be abated. AlciWades 
eould not endure (pati), that Athens should serve the Lacedemonians. 
Men are not willing, that the very same [man] should be distinguished 
in very many things. It was not permitted to the Romians, to depart 
uninjured from the country of the enemy. It is related (tradi), that 
Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, were brought Up by 
Faustulus, a royal shepherd. They relate (ferri), that the giants made 
war upon the gods. It is believed, that letters were invented by the 
Pheniciand.. It is necessary (necesse est), ihit the world be ruled by 
God. It i^ needfol (oportet), both that thou shouldst learn, and that 
thou shouldst establish (confirmare) what thou hast learned by deed 
(ag^re, gerUnd). Whom you (second pers. subj.) would make learned, 
you must (oportet) at the same time make attentive. It is necessary 
(opoitet), that virtue should despise (aspernari) and hate what is op- 
posed (= opposite) to it. Marcellus first bade (per£) the footmen, 
then the horsemen to break forth against the enemies. Reason forlnds 
us, to obey (obtemperare) the passions. The general caused (jubere) 
three camps to be fortified. Caesar forbade the soldiers, to desert the 
camp. It appears, as if thou hast not understood the thing. It ap- 
pears, that you liave read this book carefully. It is said, that the enemy 
have broken into our camp. 

§ 106. B. Utj ne, ut ne^ lU non with the Subjunctive. 

1. Ut, that (ne, ut ne, thnt nojty neve (neu), cmd that not^ 
nor)^ in the first place, is used to express the end or object 
{ut final) J and stands after expressions o( making oxid effect-^ 
ing ; caring and striving; askings demanding^ exhorting^ 
persuading^ advising^ exciting^ urging^ commanding (impe- 
ro), ordering; of wishing^ alloivivg or permitting (concedoy 
permitto) ; finally, after every sentence, in order to express 
an end or object {ut = in order that^ ne = in order t/iat not). 

i 106.] ITT, NE, UT NE, UT NON. 269 

Sol effidt, id omnigL Jloreant, Ante sefieetutem curaviy tit bene vive- 
rtm ; in senectote, ut bene moriar, Oro te, vt mihi tuccurras. Te 
rogo, ne defcdigere^ neu d^fkku, Caesar mitites horiatus esiy ut acriter 
dmicctnnt. Dux impframtf ut milites stationes suae servannt. Edimus, 
ut vwamus ; non vivimus, ut edamus. 

Rem. The verbs : tolo, nolo, mcdo, cupio are more frequently used 
with llie Ace. with the Infin., than with ut and the Subj. Comp. §§ 105, 
2. b). Impero is used with the Ace. with the Infin. only when the 
lafia is in the panwt, as : dux imperavit urbem ditipL Concerning 
juhto and veto see § 105, 2. b.) and Rem. 2. 

2. In the second place, ut (that), ut non, thai not, is used 
in order to express a result (ut consecutive), and stands es- 
pecially after: est, /It, accidit, evemt,contingit; reliquum est, 
restat and the like ; after ita, sic, adeo, tarn, tantus, talis, etc.; 
jBnally, after any sentence, in order to express a result (ut 
= 50 tluU). 

Persaepe evinit, ut uttlitas cum honestate oertet, Rtstai, ut de litter- 
unm utilitateTo^fiar. Ma vivere debemus, ut in omni re recti conscien- 
tiiam servemus. 

3. After expressions of fear and solicitude, ne is to be 
translated by that and ut and ne non hy that not. 

Omnes cives ifiettie&an^ ne urbs ab hostibus expttgnaretur, Timeo, 
iU hoa labores sudineas. Ftreor, ne non paficim% quod suscepi. 

CXXXIV. Exercises far translation. (♦ 106.) 

I. Cicero, infoi^med (edoc^re) of all [things] by the ambassadors, 
eomnEianded the pretors, that they should seize the Allobroges at the 
bridge. The laWs of the Lacedemonians lo(4ced (spectare) to this (id), 
that the yoatb should be formed by labors. Virtue alone effects, that 
we may please God and man. It o^en happens, that advantage contends 
with uprightness. The teacher exhorted the scholars, that they should 
net devote themselves to indolence. Reason demands, that we should 
restrain Che desires. The citizens of the captured city entreated 
Caesar, that he would spare their children. Love virtue, in order that 
thou mayest live happily (beate). Themistocles sought a narrow pass, 
in order that he might not be surrounded hy the multitude of the ene- 
mies. At Athens it was accustomed to happen to the very best, that 
he UYW banished (in exilium pelli). The wise man is excited (movfere) 
to act rightly by virtue itself, not by advantage. The power of upright- 


270 ^ QUO, QUOMINUS AND QUIM. [J.107. 

ness 18 80 great, that we eateem it, whetiber (vel) in tho8e whom we 
have never aeen, or (vel) even in an enemy. Aristidea died in ao 
great poverty, that he scarcely left behind wherewith (qui) he m^t 
be buried (efferre). It is possible, that one .(quis) may think (sentire) 
correctly, and [yet] that which he thinks may not be expressed (eloqiii) ~ 
elegantly (polite). I fear (vereor), that I may have renewed (refricare) 
thy pain by my letter. A great (ingens) fear had seisced the Roman 
senate, that a tribune of the people would be chosen from the plebeians 
(pleba). We feared, that our measures had displeased you; The ene- 
mies apprehended, tliat their allies could not bear the attack of the 

IL Before old age, we should look out, that we live well, in old age, 
that we die welL If all [things] happen (fieri) by fate, nothing can 
admonish us, that we should be more cautious. Nature incites us, to 
strive to obtain the agreeable, to flee the disagreeable. The sun effects, 
that all trees, plants and herbs bloom and reach maturity. It comes to 
pass by (abl.) nature, that children are loved by [their] parents. Pa- 
rents look out, that [their] children are not surrounded by bad men. 
Themistocles advised, that the Athenians should desert the walls and 
defend themselves with ships. The soldiers demanded, that the citi- 
zens should deliver up their arms. Many praise others, in order that 
they may be praised [in turn] by them. The Gauls, afler they had 
received the gold of the Romans (abl. abs.), returned, in order to 
besiege the capitol. Caesar commanded, the soldiers, not to go out 
from the camp. He is happy (beatus), to whom it happens, to obtain 
(assdqui) wisdom. The composing of the book concerning old age, 
was so delightful to Cicero, that it took firom (absterg§re) him all the 
burdens (onus) of age. In a short time, the minds coalesced mto 
(abl.) so great friendship, that every distinction of rank (ordo et lociis) 
was forgotten. So great is the multitude of stars, that they cannot be 
counted. It happened, that the very same ni^t in which Alexander 
the great was bom, the temple o^ the Ephesian Diana was burned 
(conflagrare). There was very great fear at Rome, that the Gauls 
would return the second time (it^rum) to Rome. The Romans fear- 
ed^ that the victory would cost them much blood. AH the citizeiM 
feared, that the peace would not be of longer continuance. 

§ 107. C. QuOj quominus and quin with the Subjunctive. 

1. Quo is used for ut eo, and indeed : a) in the meaning, 

t» order that thereby; b) in the meaning, that {in order that^ 
so that) so mtich the^ when a comparative fpllows. 

i 107.] QUO, QUOMINU8 AMD QVIN. 271 

Haec lex data est, quo malefici deUrrereniur. Caesar milites m^kht-. 
tatus est, quo ammoJorUort e$aenL 

2. Quomtrms stands after expressions of hinderingj pre* 
venting', resisting-, refusinff and is to be translated into En- 
glish by that. 

Aetas non vmpedii, quondnua litteras irademus. Quid sapienti potest 
obHorty quominus beatus tU 7 Non repugnabo, quominus hunc librum 

3. Quin is used : 

a) In the meaning that not, instead of ut non after a 
negative principal clause. 

Facere non possum^ quin quotidie ad te mittam litteras (I cannot for- 
bear to write to you daily). Heri non potuitj quin urbs ab hostibus 
eaperetur. NihU abest, quin sim miserrimus. Abn muUum ahfuity quin 
hofites vinccreniur. Homines barbari sibi non temperabant^ quin in 
Italiam contenderent 

b) In the meaning that, after non dubito, nemo dtAitat^ 
quis dubitat? dvbium non est. 

N6n dubito, quin verum dixeris. Qtit9 dubiUd, quin in Tirtute divi- 
tiae nnt posilae f Duhium non trot, quin victoriam de hostibus reporfo- 
turi essemtu. 

Rem. Besides, quin is used after a principal negative clause instead 
of qui non, quae non, quod non, as : nemo est, quin ojpMt, ut lib^ri sui 
virtutem ament 

CXXXV. Exercises fiyr transIaJHon. (f 107.) 

L Good scholars bestow all toil and care, that they may make the 
better progress in literature. Pride did not stand in the way to our 
ancestors, to imitate foreign institutions. Indolence prevents, that 
scholars should make progress in literature. Not even faults of nature 
could deter Demosthenes from studying eloquence. By the swiftness 
of our horsemen it was prevented, that the enemies should attack our 
troops. Caesar C9uld not forbear, to reprove the seditious soldiers. 
It is not possible, that we should npt consider (judicare) him foolish, 
who is (subj.) not master of himself. Nothii^g is so sacred, that rash- 
ness may not violate it It cannot be doubted, that already before 
Homer, poets lived (esse). Who can doubt, that the whole world is 
ruled by God ? It is not doubtful, that all which is considered eTil, 


seems severer (gravior, us) [when] unforeseen. There is nobody 
who may not wish, that his children may love virtue. Nothing is 
fiwrnd in nature, which is not very wisely constituted by God. 
. IL Good parents do not cease (intennittunt) to exhort [their] 
children to virtue, in order that they may grow better daily (in dies). 
All the soldiers believed, that nothing would stand iii the way of 
their gaining (adipisci) the victory. Superstition prevents attaining 
(s=a reaching) much true knowledge of things. No hindrance deterred 
Alexander from penetrating (penetrare) to the Ocean. Nothing keeps 
a wise man from pursuing (studere) virtue. Avarice prevents men 
from eiyoying the good [things] which they possess. Who [ever] 
contemplates (fut) the heavens, the earth and the order of the whole 
Vforld, will not doubt, that there is a God. We do not dQubt, that our 
souls are immortal. The soldiers did not doubt, that they should bear 
off a victory over the enemies. It is not possible, that they who are 
contented with their lot do not live happy. We cannot fbrbear des- 
pising those who prefer money to virtue. Nothing was so sacred to 
the enemies who had captured the city, that they might not violate it. 
There was then no one in the city^ who did not desire peace. There 
is almost nothing so difficult, that man, by the exertion of his powers, 
cannot do it 

§ 108. D. Quod (that) with the Indicative. 

1. Quod (that) introduces a substantive sentence, which 
gives the explanation or ground of the predicate or some 
other word of the principal clause. The subjimctive stands 
with quod^ only when the sentence is expressed as the sen- 
timent of another. The cases in which quod is used are 
the following : 

a) After certain expressions, as : bene^ male, prudenter 
facio ; bene, male evenit, acddU and the like ; 

b) In order to introduce the explanation of a svbstanr 
live or proriown in the principal sentence ; 

c) After verbs signifying aii affection of the mind, as : 
laetor, gaudeo, doleo, indignor, aegre fero, moleste 

fero, queror, miror,glorior ; also after verbs o{ prais- 
ing, censuring, accusing, tha/nkifig. 

Bene facia, quod me adjuvaa. Magnum beneficium est naturae, quod 


neeesse est mori. Craudto, quod vale$, Laudo te, quod rem tuam bene 
gessisti Laudat Africanum Panaetius, quodfuerit abstiDens. 

Rebiark. Verbs signifying an afiection of the mind are more fre- 
quently connected with an Ace. with the Infin., as: te vakre, gaudeo* 


CXXXVL Exercises far translation, (i 108.) 

L Thou hast done ine a great favor, that thou hast sent me (ad me) 
this book. The generals of the king of Persia sent ambassadors to 
Athens, in order (sup.) to complain (queri), that Chabrias was canying 
on war against the king orEgypt The Lacedemonians sent ambas- 
sadors to Athens, who should accuse Alcibiades, that he had made a 
league with the king of the Persians, for subjecting (opprimere) Greece. 
1 rejoice, that thou and thy brother are well. We wonder, that Greece, 
which excelled in fame, glory, learning (doctrina), the greatest number 
of arts, in dominion and warlike (bellicus) praise (laus), occupied (tene- 
re) so small a place in Europe. Nobody will censure thee, that thou 
hast aided thy friend. 

n. It IS very agreeable to me, that thou hast already returned from 
(ex) the journey. Thou doest well, that thou wishest to live in the 
country for the strengthening (gerundive) of thy health. We rejoice, 
that thou and thy brother are returned safe. It is a great kindness to 
boys, that they are instructed in literature in school. We grieve veiy 
much, that you are not able to come. Unjustly was Socrates accused 
by the Athenians, that he corrupted (corrump^re) the youth. Caesar 
praised the soldiers, that they had fought so spiritedly against the ene- 
mies. All citizens rejoiced, that the city was delivered from the siege. 
That Caesar was killed by Brutus, we complain (= censure). How 
great is the goodness of natiu^, that she produces so many, so various 
and so agreeable [things] ! 

§ 109. II. Adjective Sentences. 

1. The relative qui^ quae^ quod agrees in gender and num^ 
ber with the word to which it refers ; the case of the rela- 
tive, on the contrary, depends upon the construction of the 
clause to which it belongs. 

Beati sunt ii homines^ quorum vita virtutis praeceptis re^tur. Dtua 
est, qui omnem hunc mundum regit. 

2. The person of the verb in adjective sentences, is deter- 


mined by the person of the substantive or pronoun, to which 
the relative refers. 

Ego, qui scHbo ; til, qui scnbis ; pater, qtti scribif ; nos, qui Bcribimus ; 
vos, qui scribitis ; fratres, qui scnbunt. , 

3. The subjunctive stands in adjective sentences in the 
following cases : 

a) When the adjective sentence expresses an aim or 
resiUty and qui seems to stand for td ego, uttv^vt 
is ; especially after dignuSy indignusj aptus, idoneus ; 
after is (such), talis, ejusmodi, tarn, ta/ntu^; 

b) With the indefinite expressions: est, sunt, qui; re- 
periuntuT, inveniuntvr, qui; nemo est, nullus est, 
qui; nemo est, nullus est, qui; nihil est, quod; 

c) With the expressions, est, quod; non est, quod; 
nihil est (quid est?), quod; habeo, non habeo, nihil 
habeo, quod, there is reason {no reason), I have 
reason (no reason), that (with thq finite verb) or to 
(with the Infin.), etc. 

d) When the adjective sentence gives a reason, where 
qui can be translated by since I, since yov, since 

Hostes ad Caesare][n legates misemnt, qui pacem ab eo peterent (who 
were to ask). Vir probus dignus est, cut fidem habeamus (deserves, 
that we give him our confidence). Sunt, qui censeard, una anitnum et 
corpus occid^re. Mdlum est animal praeter hominem, quod habeat no- 
titiam aliquam dei. Non is eram, qui aliorum miseriam ad me non 
pertinere cens€rem, O fortunate adolescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum 
praeconem inveneris! 

CXXXVII. ^Exercises for translation, (i 109.) 

L Thou art worthy (dignus es) on account of thy uprightness, ihat 
we should have confidence in thee (=±= to whom). Who does not love 
his parents, is unworthy, that he sholild be loved by any one (ullus). 
God has given us reason, in order that by it we may govern the ap- 
petites (appetitus, tis) of the soul. There is no duty so sacred, that 
avarice is not accustomed to infi*inge (comminu^re) and violate it 
There are men, who think (censfere), that the soul is mortal. There is 


nothiDg 80 difficult, that it cannot be traced out (inveBtigare) by search- 
ing (ssseeking). Who does not honor virtue, i^ not fit, that we should 
receive him into our friendship. The Romans sent ambassadors to 
Antiochus, Who might remind him of the Roman alliance. Many 
have been fbund, who were ready to devote (profund^re) not only 
money but Life even to their country. What is sweeter, than to have 
[a friend] with whom thou canst share every thing (=s= all) as with thy- 
self? There is no living being, except man, which has any knowl- 
edge (notitia) of God. There is no reason, that one should envy those, 
whom the people (populus) call great and good. Innocence is such a 
state of the soul, as injures nobody. You have always been such, that 
you considered life without the pursuits of literature disagreeable (in- 
suavis). You are worthy, that we should obey your will in all things. 
O fortunate (fortunatus) youth, since you are eminent among all by so 
many noble deeds ! 

It Who obeys modestly, seems worthy sometime (aliquando) to 
conunand. Every upright man is undeserving (non dignus est), that 
the ungrateful citizens should deride him. Fabricius was such, that 
he could not be corrupted by the money of Pyrrhus. The husband- 
men cultivate the earth, in order that it may bear fruit Caesar sent 
horsemen, who might pursue the fleeing enemy. History is of that 
natvre (idoneus), that by it the mind of the boy may be cultivated. 
There are and have been philosophers, who think (censure), that God 
has no concern (procuratio) at all (omnino) about human affiurs. Thou 
art worthy, that we should have confidence in thee in all things. 
There is no grief of the soul, which may not be abated by length of 
time. There were philosophers, who said, that property is the high- 
est good. Nero was not worthy, to reign over the Romans. What 
(quis) so great advantange was there in prosperity, when thou hadst 
not a friend who would rejoice at it in like manner (aeque) as (ac) thy- 
self? There was nothing so sacred, that it was not violated by the 
insolence of the enemy. You are not such (ii), that we should obey 
you. There is nothing by which a boy can please others more, than 
by modesty. I pronounce myself happy, that I have [a friend], who 
rejoices At my prosperity even as (aeque atque) I myself There is no 
reason, that we should fear death. 



§ 110. a. Adverbial Sentences of Time. 

1 . Adverbial sentences of time are introduced by the con- 
junctions : quum^postquam^ ut, vbi^ simtdatqne, ex quo (since), 
priusqtmm and anteqtuimy dum, quoad^ donee. These con- 
junctions generally take the Indie, but sometimes the Subj. 

1) Quum is used either of time or cause. The temporal 
qmim (when, while, as) is used with the indicuihe of all the 
tenses, yet almost invariably with the subjunctive of the 
imperfect and pluperfect^ "vyheii \perfect stands tn "^e prin- 
pal clause. The causal quum (since), is ^Iways' i|[^!04i^ected 
vnX\iX\iQ subjunctive. , ? 

a) Quum coelum contemplamur^ dei i^aag^tudinem ad- 
miramur (tvhen). Ager^^quum mu^tfi^-^aay^nos quievit, 
uberiores fructus efFerre .sqlet {yfkentyafi^). B^pieDS 
non ejulabit, ^pmm doloribus tdr^$eiitur {when). 
Quum ad me litteras dederis, ad te profici^scar (le^fs), 

b) Quum milites de hostium adventu ed&cerentuTj con- 
tinuo surhmo pugnandi sidore flagraveruni (as). Al- 
exander, quum interemisset Clitum, farailiarem suum, 
vix a se manus abstinuit (a^). 

c) Quum philosophia animis medeatur, totos nos peni- 
tusque ei tradere debejuus (since). Qwum milites pe- 
ricula vererentur^ noa'audebant cum hostibus confli- 
gere (since). 

2) JPostquam (after that), ut (just as = as soon as), ubi 
(as), simulatque (simulac never before a vowel or A), as soon 
as^ are connected with the indicative^ and indeed, most fre- 
quently with the perfect which we corafmonly translate into 
English by the Plupf. 

Postquam Caesar aciem iris^^tioity omnes hoi^s in unum locum con- 
volaveruot Ut dies UluxU, pfbfectus sum. Hostes, ubi Dostros equi- 
tes conspexerurU, fugenmt Simviatque aliquid audiero, ad te scribam. 

3) Priu^quam and antequam (before that, ere, before), are 
'icted : 


a) ^ With the Subj. Pres., more rarely with the Indie. 

Pres. ; 

b) With the Indicative Perfect ; 

c) With the Indicative Fut Perf. ; 

d} With the Subj. Imperf. and Pluperfl 

a) Tempestas minatur, ant^quam twgai. 

b) AnUquam bellum urfoia Dostrae opes abBumpsU, potentissima ML 

c) Non dives eris, priumumm divltiHB cotvkmpains, 

d) HoBtes propulsati sunt, cm^e^tiaifi urbem obsidkme dngerent. Dies 
obrepflit bostibus, /irnu^iiaiii aggSrem exstruxisBeni, 

4) Dum in the meaning tohiley at the same time^ as long 
as, and quoad in the meaning as laagas are connected with 
the indicative. 

V Jhun base gtrunkar^ bostiufli eopiae conyeniuiit Laoedaemenionim 

^ns fortis Aut, dwn Lycurgi leges vigebanL Cato, qtwad vixU, virtch 

turn laode erevit 

RsMARK. Dum in the meaning at (he aamt time that is eommonly 
used with the Indie. Pres^ whatever tense stands in the pi^M»pal sen- 
tence, as : dtmt dux aciem instrtdt, hostis totam urbem cinzerat 

5) DuMy quoad and danec in the meaning tilly until, till 
Ikut are generally connected with the subjunctive of the 
Res., Imperf. and Pluperf., or with the indicative of the 
Perf. and Fut. Perf. 

Milites exspectant, dum dux se e castris contra hostes edueat Mill- 
tes exspectabant, dum dux se e castris contra hostes edueiret, Cicero 
omni quiete abstinuit, donee Catilinae conjurationem detexisset, MHkes 
tamdiu restiterunt, quoad hostes fugam cupesswerunt. Tamdiu manebo^ 
dum omnem rem cognovero. 

C XXXVIII Exercises far tramkudon. (HIO.) 

I. a. When we oontemplate the lives of abandoned men (maleftcus) 
we are deterred from vices. When a wise man is derided (Hit) by 
the foolish people, he will not be indignant As Caesar entered (in- 
gredi) the captured city, the inhabitants extended [their] hands to (ad) 
him, and intreated (orarey him, that he would spare them. Health we 
are th^ at length (turn demum) accustomed to estimate high (multum), 
when we have recovered from a severe sickness. As Tullus Hostilius 
had reigned 32 years, he was struck (ie^re, perf,) by lightning. As 



(ubi) Caesar had ascertained (perf.) by spies, that the enemies ap- 
proached, he led (perf.) forth his soldiers out of the camp. As 
(quum) the enemies could not rout the army of the Romans, they 
betook (perf.) themselves back to the fortified camp. As soon as the 
enemies were discovered (perf), the soldiers seized (capessSre, perf) 
their arms. Why should we fear death, since our souls will not de- 
cay at the same time vnth our bodies ? After Caesar had seen (perf) 
that the troops of the enemies approached, he liastened (maturare, 
perf.) to conduct (transducere) his army over (ace.) the river. 

L b. We shall be happy, when we shall be free from passion (plur.). 
He, who does not prevent (defend^re) injustice nor repel (propulsare) 
it when he can, acts (facere) unjusdy. A virtuous man will be happy 
(beatus), even when he shall have lost all the gifts of fortune. Since 
the weather is clear, we will take a walk. As Caesar came out of the 
wood, he was surrounded (perf) by the enemies. As Alexander had 
taken Thebes, he spared (perf) the &miiy of the poet Pindar. As 
soon as Verres had reached (perf) tlie province, he gave (tradere) 
himself wholly (totus) to avarice. After the general had &llen, the 
soldiers fled (perf). As (uM) the Romans heard, that the enemies 
approached, they went (perf.) spiritedly against them. 

IL a. The enemies did not cease (desistere) to flee, beifbre they 
came (perf) to the Rhine. When Epaminondas w^nt to a [social] 
circle, in which a conversation was (subj.) held (habere) either con- 
cerning the state or concerning philosophy, he never went away flrom 
there before the conversation had been brought to an end. Before 
thou reapest, thou must (oportet) sow. Mithridates thrust through 
(transfigere) Datamas with a sword, and before any one (quisquam) 
could come to his aasnHance (succurrere), killed [him]. As long as 
(quoad) the city was guarded by the citizens, the enemies did not dare 
(perf) to assault it. I shall wait until thou retumest Epaminondas 
held back the iron in [his] body, until (quoad) it was announced (re- 
nuntiare, perf) that the Boeotians had conquered. The Romans 
waited, until the enemies had approached the camp. The soldiers re- 
mained in the camp, tupcil the day dawned (illucesc^re). 

n. b. The storm threi^t^s before It arises; buildings creak before 
they fall (corruere). In all business (plur.), before thou enterest upon 
[it], thou shouldst make (adhib6re). careful preparation. The Gauls 
came into (transcendere) Italy 200 years before they took (imperf ) 
Rome. Ere Ariovistus had arranged the line of battle, Caesar at- 
tacked (perf.) the Germans. The Romans pursued the enemies until 
it teas evening (advesperascSre). Wait thou, till I come. As long as 

ii 1 1 1> 1 12.] ABVERBIAL SENTENCES. 279 

Hannibal lived, be burned (flagrare) with anger against the Romans. 
As long as (quoad) Epammondas and Pelopidas presided (per£) over the 
Thebans, their power increased (perf.) in a wonderfbl (unicus) manner. 
I remained at home yesterday, till my brother had returned. Until the 
citadel was surrendered (dedere perf ,\ slaughters took place (caedes fit) 
every where (passim) through (abl.) the whole City. We should (ge- 
rundive) remove (subtrahere) fi*om the enraged, those whom they are 
offended at, till [their] anger bums out (defervescfire). 

» § 111. b. Causal Adverbial Sentences. 

Adverbial sentences expressing the cause or ground^ are 
introduced by the conjunctions : quod, quia, quoniam. 
These conjunctions are properly used with the indicative ; 
the svbjimcttve is used with them, only when the cause is 
given as the sentiment or from the vieio of another. (Con- 
cerning the causal quum see § 110, 1). 

Cicero pater patriae appellatus est, quod ejus consilio et vigilantia 
Cadlinae conjuratio deteda est. Quia natura mutari non potest^ idcirco 
verae amiddae sempitemae sunt Quomam jam nox est, in vestra tec- 
ta discedlte. 

§ 112. c. Conditional Adverbial Sentences. 

1. Conditional adverbial sentences are introduced by : si 
(if), nisi and si turn (if not, unless). 

2. The indicative is used in sentences of this kind, when 
the condition is expressed as real and certain. In this case 
the Indie is generally used in the principal sentence also. 

Si hoc didsy erras. Si hoc dicebaSy errabas. 

3. The subjunctive is used, when the condition is spoken 
of as something barely imagined; and in the principal sen- 
tence, in this case, the subjunctive is used also. 

a) The Subj. Pres. and Perf. is used, when the condition 
is represented as a mere supposition ; 

b) The Subj. Imperf. and Pl^perf., when the condition 
is represented as a supj}Osition the contra/ry of tohat 
actudUyi is or is not. 


Si hoe dictiiy ems (if thou sheuldst say this, thou wouldst err.) . Si 

hoc dicereSy errarta (if thou saidst this, thou erredst ; but I know thou 

didst not say it ; hence thou didst not err). iS!i hoc diasBtSy trrattu (if 

thou hadist said thi% thou wouldst have erred ; but I know thou faait 

not said it; henoe thou bast not erred). 

Remark. JVtn makes a supposition ntgatiody but leaves the tiling 
supposed affirvfudive : " if it be no< supposed, that something is ;" but 
si non makes a supposition affirmatively while the thing supposed iQ 
negative : ^* if it be supposed, that something is notJ* Non potes ju- 
cunde vivere, nisi cum virtute viffis. Homo beatus est, si cupidatibus 
non Buccumbit v 

.4. Ihimy dummodoy modo in the lae^ctiiag provided that^ if 
onh/; dam ne^ dummodo ne^ modo ne (provided that not, if 
only not) alw^ays take the siiijmictive. 

Mttlti omnia recta ^ hpnesta negligunt, dummikh potenliam ooftae- 

§113. d. Concessive Adverbial Sentences. 

Concessive sentences are introduced by : 

a) etsi, tametsi (even i^ although), qtuimquam (although), 
commonly with the indicative ; 

b) etiamsi (even if, although), more frequently with the 
subjimctive than with the Indie ; -: 

c) qtmmvis (although, however), and licet (although) are 
always connected with the subjunctive of one of the 
principal tenses. 

Viri boui recte agunt, etsi nullum conBecutunim emdumentum vi- 
dtnt. Etiamsi secundissimis rebus viare^ tamen beatus non oris, si vir- 
tute cares. Sapiens dolorem patienter tolerat, qiuimvis acerbus sit, 

CXXXIX. Ezerds^for translation. (« 111, 112, 113.) 

L Themistocles said, diat he walked (ambulare) by night, because 
he could not sleep (somnum cap^re). If we shall always follow die 
way of virtue, the entrance to heaven ivill sometime stand open to us. 
If our friend had obeyed (obs^qui) the prescriptions (praeceptum) of 
the physician, he surely would not have died. If we shall not have 
removed (resecare) the passions, we shall strive in vain to be happy. 
Men desirous of iame ^dure all hardships, if they may only obtain 
what they wish (subj.). Although (etsi) the place was un&vorable, 


neveitlieless Caesar determined to tittaek the enemy. However tbou 
roayest have soared under misfbrtmie (mcommddum, plur.)y thou 
shouldst not be offended at fbrtune. Even if the body is bound, yet 
no chains are placed (injicere) upon the souL Who is not ofiended 
(offend^re) by a ibul deed itself, even if it does not hurt him ? 

n. >The kWs we obey, not from (propter) fear, but we fcdlow them, 
beoause we judge, that this is most salutary. As Xenocrates was ask- 
ed, why he was almost always silent (sil€re), he answered : Because it 
has often (aliquando) repented me to have spoken (dicere), but never to 
have been silent (tacere). If you hate those whom you should love, 
you act vnckedly. If Sve discharge our office religiously. We shall en- 
joy the good opinion (bona existimatio) of men. If we do not follow 
virtue, we cannot live peacefully (beate). If all [things] happened by 
fate, all (omnis) foresight would be useless. Fire becomes extinct, if 
it is not nourished, "^e are ready to endure toils and burdens, if we 
may oyly obtain (adipisci) the victory. Folly thinks (credere), that 
it has never obtained (consequi) enough, although (etsi) it has ob- 
tained (adipisci) what it desires (concupiscere). Nobody, however 
wealthy he may be, can be without the aid of others. We should cul- 
tivate virtue (hbnestas), even if no advantage may follow it The 
good [man] does not avenge himself on his enemies, even if he has 
obtained (naneisci) an opportunity. It is a terrible (dirus) and abom- 
inable (abominandus) saying (=b word): They may hate, if only they 

§ 114. e. Adverbial Sentences of Comparison. 

1. .The comparing of the subject of the principal sen- 
tence in respect to manner, or greatness and degree is ex- 
pressed : 

a) By: ut {utiysicvt, quemadmodum) with the indicative 
— ita {sic)y asy even as-^so; tarn {tantopere, tamtum) 
— qudm (quantojiere, quantum), so great — as; rum tarn 
— quam, not so much — as. 

Rem. 1. In a barely imc^nory comparison, the subordinate sentence 
is introduced by: quasi, tanquam and the like, with the svbjuncHve. 
The succession of the tenses in this case is according to the principles 
already stated (i 104.). 

b) By the comparative with qu^m (than). 

MbUot Miorqw est certa pax, quam sperata victoria. 



Bmm* d. iBittead of qumm mih th» Nom. or Aec^the aMaim wklHMit 
quam may be uied with the comparative of the first member. See 
101, 7. The English even, ttiU with the comparative, is expressed by 
etuim, as: diam major or major diam^ 

2. When two quakUes cht actiom qf one olgect are com- 
pared with e&ch otber^ both adjeotiTes or ndverbs are put in 
the comparative and the last is connected to the other by 

Pestilentia ndnador quam penddosior, cogitationes hominiim a cer- 
taminibus publicis avertit (a more thfeateniDg than destructive pesti* 
lence). Bellum a civibus nostris ybr^tta, quamfdicius ge^tum est (with 
more bravery dian success). 

Rem. 3. The comparative is very often used without the second 
member of the comparison, and may then be translated by too, too 
muchy vay, sotntwJuxt with tlie positive, as : senectus est loqiiacior (some- 
what loquacious ; properly : mart hquadotu i. e. more loquacious than 
is proper). 

Rem. 4 When the eoa^pariaon is limited defimtely to'too dbjects^ 
in Xiatin, the cowiparaii9t and not th6 superlative i^ used, as ; uter ves- 
trum est mqjor natu ? (which of you two is the older ?) 

3. Quo-^-^Of or quamio — tanio (the — so much 1k^ in con- 
nection with two comparatives, express a fmiform proportion 
between' two qi^alities or actions. 

Quo plvra habent homines, eo ampUora expetere solent 

4. When the discourse is of an ipdejimte subject, instead 
of the last mentioned mode of expressions we commonly 
find : vt quisqvje^—4ta with two superlatives. 

TJi quisque est sapientiasimus ita est modestissimus (the wiser a man 
is, the more modest he is). 

CXL. Exercises for transkaion. (H14.) 

L Many men, forgetting (perf. part) the precepts of virtue, com- 
pter of their Ipt, as if it had not been permitted (perf) them to en- 
ter (ingrftdi) the way of virtue. Many men live, as though they had 
been bom to pleasures. One should go think, as if (tanquam) some 
one (aliqins) could look into his inmost breast* A more threat- 
ening than destructive disease turned the minds of men fiom public 
duties (munus,£ris). Alexander pursued the enemies more cautiously 
(prudenter) than eogerty. When ploMure i& too groat iuhI too long, 


it «i[ti^;i]adies all (onmis) the Ught of the eouL Old men an too lo- 
quacious. The air (aer) ia 00 much the thicker^ the nearer it is to the 
earth (plur.). The ))etter any thing is, so much the rarer it is. We 
are aU influenced (trahere) by the struggle (=3: eflbrt) after praise; 
and the better one is, so much the more is he governed by fame. The 
more prudent one is, the more cautious he i& The more one refi»« 
whatever (quaecunque) he does (agere) to (ad) his own advantage, 
so much the less is be a good man. 

n. Most men strive eagerly to obtain riches and power, [and] neg- 
lect virtue, aa if true prosperity rested not upon virtue, but upon rich- 
es. Always act thus (sic), as though thou wast seen and heard by 
others. The words of the orator were more acute than true. It did 
not escape Hannibal (&II0, per/,), that the enemies would dispatch 
(gerere) affiiirs, tnik more spirit (feroeiter) than delibera^n (consuko). 
The wise man abstains from too violent emotions of the soul. This 
book is somewhat difficult to understand. The greater and more di- 
vine the excellence in minds, so much the greater care they need (hi- 
dlg^re). The more eminent («=« higher) men are, so mueh the m<Hre 
condescending they should be to the more humUe. The better one is, 
so much the more he serves his descendants. The better one is, so 
much the mpr^ his mind strives to obtain immortal &me. The belter 
one is, mlh so much &ie more djfficfuUy (difficile) he considers others 

§ 115. Of Interrogative Sentences. 

1. Questions are either independent (direct), as : Wast 
thoii at school yesterday ? or dependent upon another sen*- 
tence going before (indirect questions), as : I do not know, 
whether thou toast at school yesterday. 

2. In the direct question the indicative is used, when it is 
asked positively^ the svbjimctive when it is asked doubtingly. 
In the indirect question the subjunctive is always used. 

Quid agis'^ Quid agawMS ? (what can we do.^). Die, quid agaa. 

3. Both direct and indirect questions are introduced : 

a. By interrogative and relative pronouns, as: quis^ 
uter, qualisj quantus, ubi, unde, quo, qtumdo, quomo^ 
do, cur, etc. 

Quiahunc librum legit? UUr vestrum major natu est? Our ad 


me non venisd? IKc, quig hunc lihrum Iq^eriL Nescio, uUr vestnim 
lOBJor natu sit Narra, cwr ad me non veneris. 

b. By the interrogative words ne^ nonne, num, utrum. 

a) Ne, which is always attached to the accented 
word, leaves it undecided whether the interroga- 
tor expects an affirmative or negative answer ; 

b) Nonne (not ?) always implies that the interroga- 
tor expects an affirmative answer ; 

c) Nvm (is it possible that ?) always implies that 
the interrogator expects a negative answer ; 

d) Utrum is used only in double questions. 

Rxir. 1. JVe and utrttm^ in dired questions, can be translated into 
English by no particular word* In indirect questions, ne, utrum, nvm, 
may be translated by whether, and nonne by whether not 

fkuMine heri in schola? 'Dic,Jueri8ne heri in schola ? ^WMte sapi- 
ens beatus est ? Quaeris ex me, nonne putem sapientem beatum esse ? 
Man vita beata in divitiis posita est ? Dubito, num vita beata in- ^vitiis 
posita sit 

4. In disjunctive questions, in which one member ex- 
cludes the other, the first member is introduced by utrum or 
the enclitic ne, and the second by an (or), both in direct and 
indirect questions. 

IMrum unus, an plures sunt mundi? Quaeritur, utrum unus, an 
plures sint mundi. Mortalisne, an immortalis est animus humanus ? 
Quaeritur, mortalisne, an immortalis sit animus humanus. 

Rem. 2. Or not is expressed in Latin, by dnnon in direct, by necne 
in indirect questions 

5. The answer yes or no is expressed: 

a) Yes : by a repetition of the word upon which the 
stress of the question lies ; and no in the same way, 
but with non placed before it ; 

b) Yes : by, tto, ita est, sane, vero and the like ; no : 
by, non, non ita, minime and the like ; Yes {no) 
rather^ by, immo with the addition of a word ex- 
pressing the opposite of what is implied in the 


Fuifltiiie beri in schola? FuL Fuidtbie heii dotni? Vero. Ednt 
frater domi ? Mm eff. Venitne pater tuos ? JlfCitime. Egebat ami- 
cus tuus ? Immo locupUi erat 

CXLL jSz^ercise^./^ ^an5/!at»>9e. (I lid.) 

L What each night and each day may bring [with itself], is uncer- 
tain. On account of fear, I know not who I am. Who has said this ? 
I know not, who has said this. When (quum) we behold (cern^re) the 
whole earth, we caouot doubt, that a governor presides over it Is the 
sun greater, or smaller, than tiie earth ? Is it possible that thou be- 
lievest, that our souls decay after death ? I doubt, whether the news 
is true. Ere thou beginnest a thing, deliberate, whether it be good or 
bad. Has not God filled the earth with all good things ? Was the 
world made (efficere) by chance, or by a divine power ? Is thy brother 
at home ? Yes. Is it possible that the three-headed Cerberus in the 
lower regions frightens thee ? Wast thou yesterday at my house, or 
not ? Tell me, whether thou hast been at my house or not ? I know 
not, whether I can ceme to thee to-morrow* Wih thou go to walk to- 
day, or not? Tell me, whether tiiou wilt go to walk to-day, or not? 
Who knows, whether fortune will always smile upon him. There 
were philosophers, who doubted, whether tfaQ world was made by 
chance, or by the divine reason. Hast thou read the book, which I 
lately sent thee ? No. It is a question, whether wisdom makes men 
happy, or not Will thy father return to-n^orrow firom (ex) [his] 
journey ? Yes. Is the wise man alone to be accounted happy ? Ye& 
Wast thou at home yesterday ? no rather I was far from home. 

n. What will be to-morrow, we know not Is lead, or gold the 
heavier ? Did (perf.) Philip, or his son accomplish (efficere) the great- 
est deeds ? Is not virtue to be preferred to the greatest riches ? Is it 
possible that thou doubtest concerning the immortaliQr of the soul ? 
Who wrote (per£) this letter? Tell me, who wrote this letter, b it 
possible that thou believest, that I do not know where thou wast yes- 
terday ? We would first see, whether the world is governed by the 
providence of God; then, whether he [alsft)] cares (consul6re) for hu- 
man af&ird. Among the generals of the Athenians there was a great 
strife, whether they should defend themselves by (abl.) the walls, or 
should go against the enemies. Hast thou read Cicero's book concern- 
ing friendship ? Yes. It is a question, whether wisdom alone makes 
us happy (beatus), or not Hast thou read this book, or not ? I do 
not know, whether I shall approve thy view or reject it Dost thou 
approve my view, or not? I do not know, v^ether I shall apprbve 



thy view, or not It was uncertaiD, whether the Romans had con- 
quered, or been conquered. Anciently many doubted, whether, the 
earth was round. Wast thou in school yesterday ? Yes. Canst thou 
tell me, what the soul is? No. Hast thou received joyful news con- 
cerning the health of thy brother ? No rather, very sad [news]. 

§ 116. Of the Form of direct and Indirect Discourse. 

1. Oratio recta {direct discourse), is that kind of discourse, 
in which the words of a person are repeated precisely as 
they were pronounced by him, as : The messenger an- 
nounced : peace is concluded. 

2. Oratio obliqua (indirect discourse), is that land of dis- 
course, in which the words of a person are made dependent 
upon some verb of perceiving or communicating^ as : The 
messenger announced : that peace was concluded. 

Remark. Of the two verbs: mqumn and oib, the first is used in 
direct and the second in indired discourse. Inquam Is never placed 
before the words quoted, but is introduced among them. 

. 3. Principal sentences in indirect discourse, are express- 

a) By the Ace. with Infin., when they express a sim- 
ple statement, as : nuntius allatus est, pacem esse 
compositam {direct discourse : pax est composita) ; 

b) By the subjunctive, when they express a commcmd 
or wish, as : dux dixit, omnia esse perdita ; milites 
suae saluti consuterent (direct discourse: omnia 
sunt perdita; consulite, milites, vestrae saluti). 

4. Subordinate sentences in indirect discourse are express- 
ed by the subjunctive. 

Caesar dixit, se, postquam hostes jun eistnt, castra muniturum esse. 
Apud Hyplmim fluvium Aristotfiles ait bestidlas quasdam nasci, quae 
unum diem vivanl. 

CXLIL Exercises for tramkuion. {i IIG.) 

We should be sufficiently convinced, that, [even] if we could con- 
ceal [it] from God and men, still nothing should be done unjustly (in- 
juste). I can never be persuaded, that the soul (plur.), whUe it is in 

ni7.] PR080DT. 287 

the mortal body, lives, [but] when it has departed from it, dies. The 
LacedemoDiaDs wrote to Pausanias, that, if he did not return home, 
they would condemn him to death. Tanaquil said. The king still lives ; 
let the Romans be quiet and obey Servius Tullius. 

n. Nobly Socrates said, that the nearest way to renown is, when 
one txtrts hxm8ty(\d. ag6re) that he may be such as (qualie) he wishes 
to be considered. When ambassadors bad come from king Mithrida- 
tes requesting peace, Sulla answered, that he would not give it unless 
(nisi) he, after deserting the fields which he had taken, should return 
into his own kingdom (regnum). l*he ambassadors aimounced to the 
senate. That the Aeduans had pitched their tent in their territory and 
were laymg waste the country ; that the Romans should come and 
bring aid to them. 



^ 117. Quantity of Syllables. 

PRELiMiif ART Remark. The general rules of quantity have already 
been given [k 3.) and should be reviewed before proceeding to the fol- 
lowing special rules. 

1. The derived word generally follows the quantity of its 
primitive^ as : amor, amabilis, amicus, amator, redamo. 

Rem. 1. In dedensum are excepted; tor, par, sal, Gen. Iftris, p&ris, 
sMis ; — ^In the verb it is a general principal, that, the forms of the dii^ 
ferent tenses, have the same quantity as the tense-forms from which 
they are derived, i. e. either as the Pres. Perf. Sup. or Infin. accord- 
ing as they are derived from the one or the other ; e. g. (divido), divi- 
dam ; (divisi), diviseram ; (divisum), divisurus ; (dividere), divlderem. 

Rem. 2. Concerning the quantity of the Perf. and Sup. the following 
should be observed : 

1) All dissyUahic perfects and .supines lengthen the short syllable of 
the stem, as : video, vtdi viaum ; mdveo, movi mdtum, etc. (but, HH^ riiiy 
tut according to i 3, 3). 

Ten dissyllabic supines have the stem-syllable short: d&tum, stSltum, 
r&tum, sfttum, itum, qultum, citum, lltum, situm, nitum, from: do,8isto, 

888 FE080DT. [i 117. 

reor, aero, eo, queo, cieo, lino, sino, ruo. The compounds ofato have 
together with stdtum^ HUum also ; two compounds ofnoMo, tiShjtm also : 
cognosce and agnosco, have in the supine : cognitum, agnltusn. 

2) Redvplicated perfects, besides the short syllable of reduplicati<m, 
have also the stem-syllable following its short, as : cado, c$cid%, disco, 
didieij etc (but mdrndrdi^ cueurri from: mordeo, curro are long accord- 
ing to § 3, 4). 

To reduplicated perfects belong ako : dddi, st^ti, stifti ; HiK is con- 
tracted from t^tiUi; biM comes, apparently, fi-om an obsolete stem 
ho ; finaWy, fidi and scidi have rejected their syllable of reduplici^on. 

Rem. 3. In derivoHon and composition also, there are sonoe departures 
from the general rule (rule 1), as : sdpor and sopire, due (in diuc dCicis) 
and cteoo, rig (in rer, rftgis) and rigo, etc, 

2. For the quantity of the penult we have the following 
alphabetical list (The quantity of the penult in declension 
and conjugation is best learned from the paradigms). 

-dctM, -oetM, -uea, as : meracus, caddcus, lactuca ; £xc. : -&CU8 in : 

Aegyptiacus, Corinthiacus and others of the kind^ 
-ddeSy and -^ides in Patronymics, as : Priamides, Atlanti&des ; but tdes 

in Patronymics from primitive^ in eus and cies, as : Pelides, Atrides, 

HeracHdes, and in Bolides, Lycurgides, Amphiarides, Coronides ; 
"^gOi "^0, -^y -iigo in nouns, as: vorago, vertigo, lanOgo (but the 

Greek harpdgo has a short] ; 
-dis, -eiSf 'Uis, -otis, -dis, -tne, -one in Patronymics, as : Ptolemais, Chry- 

s6is, Memphitis, Icariotis, Minois, Nerine, Acnsione ; Exc. : Dan^ 

Thel>&is, Phoclds, NerCis ; 
-•dUs, '€lisj -iUij -idisj -vra, as : canalis, co^jugalis, fid^lis, querela, edu- 

lis, pictura ; 
^menf as: examen, flamen; 
-anus, -ana, -enus, -ina, -iniM, -ino, -onus, -6na, -imus, -una, as : monta- 

nus, membrana, eg^nus, hab^na, peregrinusy caninus, Gabinus, sagi- 

na, piscina (except pagina), patronus, annona, tribunus, lacuna; 

but inus is short in adjectives which express time or material, as : 

crastlnus, diuttnus, cedrinus, elepbantTnus, except in : vespertinus, 

matutinus, repentinus ; 
-drw, -oris, -orua, -osug, as ; avarus, Enngularis, canorus, pilosus ; Exc. : 

barb&rus, opip&rus, hil&ris ; 
-diim, -Uim, 'Utim, as : privatim, viritim, tribQtim (in aj&tim, st&tim the 

a belongs to the stem) ; 
-dvus, 'toua, -iro, as : octavus, aestivus, saliva ; 
-^cfo, ^irfo, -udo in substantives, as : albfedo, cupido, consQetOdo ; 
•4go, se6 ago; 
-^, see ais; 
-^w, -eUiy see alis ; 
-^mtitf, as : extr^mus ; 

♦ 117.] QUAHTITT. 289 

"ifd and -im in distributive adjectives, as : bini, vic^ni ; 

'inus^ -enoy see anus ; 

-^roj -%co (icor), Ago, -ino (tnoTj clnor), 4lOj -aHo (vIot\ •!(», verbal eediiiga, 
as: vitup^ro, claudico, rusticor, levlgo, fulmino, destfno^ criadnor, 
patrocluor, mutilo, pullQlo, grat^lor, veatito ; but the % n long when 
it belongs to the stem and is long there, as : comicor (from eontiK, 
leu), festino, sagino, opinor, propino, inclino, from : festinus, sagina, 
opinio, fitpoD, xXivm /-^besides, t in the ending ifo is long when the 
stem has an i immediately before it, as : dormito (for domd ^); 

-ituSf as : flatus ; 

-iruSj as: inf^ri, post^ri^ but €ru8 in: aust^.nis, sincfirus, sevftniSi pro- 

'itvm, 'itoj as : dum^tum, monSta ; 

-Ico, see 6ro ; 

"ieui, -ica, as : modlcus, &melicus, so also adverbs in teitf , as : modi- 
cus; Exc.: amicus, pudicus, apricus, anticus, posticus meodiciu, 
umbilicus ; formica, lectica, lorica, urtica vesica ; 

-IdeSj see &des ; 

-ido, see 6do ; 

Adus, as : cupidus ; 

-Igfo, see ago ; 

-Ago, see 6ro ; 

Alis, 4lu8 (a, um), -dlus (a, um), -ulua (a, um), as: humllis, parflis, simi- 
lis, utilis, and all in ilis which come from ijerhs, as: fac^is, ferlilis, 
sterilis ; rutllus, filidlus, filidla, catCilus, canicdla, bac(dum ; adjectives 
derived from personal appellations have the i long, as : servilis, poe- 
rilis ; also, exilis, subtilis, and the names of the mondis, as : Aprilis ; 

•4lo, see €ro ; 

-imen, as : specimen, regimen ; Exc. : those derived from verbs of die 
fourth Conj. have imen, as : lenimen, j&rcimen ; 

-imus in: bimus, trimus, quadrimus, of two, three, four years, and in : 
opimus, matrimus, patrimus, primus, imus (lowest) ; but -tmyts in 
superiative-endings, as : probissimus, and in finitimus and int^tnus ; 

-tne, see ais ; 

-vni, see eni; 

-^Ino (Inor), see 6ro ; 

Anus, ina, see anus ; 

-tftin, see atim ; 

AJtis, see ais ; 

-Ito, see 6ro ; 

-Hor and itus retain the quantity of the supine from which thisy are 
derived, as : monitor (fh)m movHUum) auditor (from aud^tum), ezltua 
(from eiiiium) ; 

•Uus, -Uer, adverbial endings, as: divinitus, acrfter; 

Axms, -Uni, see avus ; 

-dtf, see &is ; 

-due, see ais; 

-dniM, -duo, see Sous ; 


800 nottODT. [i 117. 

-^rttf, -dfttf, see ara; 
-MiSf see ais; 

-Mb, see tAo ; 

-ii2o (tijor), see «ro ; 

'umm in tegOmen (for <i|fisieii), but -wmen kii aoQmeii, caeOnieiiy fla- 

men (eoncraeted firon[i./liiHaMii); 
-tintit, -unoj see anus : 

-ulim, see atim ; 

3, For the qaantity of final syllables ending in a vowel, 
we ba^^ the following general rale : a, e^ ^, are short; if o^ 
u aire long'. To this rale there are the following exceptions : 

a is long : 1) the AbL of the first I>e(%, as: mensa ; 2) in the Voe. of 
Ghreek proper names in at, as : Aenea (from Aeneas, ae), Palla (fi:om 
Pallas, antis); tbe Voc. of those in es has partly d and partly d^aai 
Anchisa, Atrid& ; 3) in the Imper. of the first Conj., as : ama, except 
puid in the meaning namdy, to wil ; — 4) in adverbs^ prepositions and 
ceiijuBctions of two or more syllables, as : eirca, jnxta, intr&, infiu, 
supra, antea, ppstea, praeterea, fiiistra; Exc: it&, qui^ and tbe in- 
teijection tid; 5) in the indeclinaUe numerals, as : triginta ; 

e is long : I) in tbe AbL of the fifth Dec. as : r6, specif die (hence 
also, hodi^, postridi^, pridi6, quar^ ; also &m6) ;: — 2) in all Greek 
words of the first Dec, as : crambe, epitome, and those used in the 
plural only, as: Ten^^ mel^ cet6 }— -3) in the Imp^r. of the second 
Conj., as : doc6 ; but e is double-timed in : cave, hab^, tace, mane, 
vale, jubSy vide (hence wUnt fi>r: vide, si vis); — 4) in adverbs de- 
rived from adjectives of the second Dec., pulchr6, long^, acerb6, val- 
de (&om vcdidiu)} so also: fer6, fermS and the interjection ohe ; 
but e is short in : ben£, mal6, temer6, as well as in all adverbs de- 
rived fit>m adjectives of the third Dec, as : facile, irapun^ ; 

i is short: 1) in : mihi, tibi, sibi (in tbe arsis sometimes \pBg)f and aA 
when it is two syllables; but it is commonly one syllable and is loi^ 
so also its compounds : cuidam, cuilibet ; — 2) in the Voc, of Greek 
words, as : Alejdf, and in the Dat of Greek imparisyllabic words, as : 
ParicEf (from Paris, idis) ;-^) in : nisi and quasi (although si is long)^ 
sicubii necubi ; but ubi and ibi are double-timed^ in : ubinam, ubivi% 
ubicunque t is generally short, while in : ubique, ibique it is always 
lof*gi generally also in ibidem ; — 4) in : utique, utinam the % is short, 
although they come fi?om vii ; 

o is short : 1) in the adverbs : cit5, immd, illicd, cedd (give here, say)^ mi»^ 
dd with its compounds, as : dummodd, postmodd, quomodd (but sepa- 
rated, quo modo) ; — 2) in : eg6, du6, oct6 ; but commonly ambo ; — 3) ia 
verbal endings and in the Nom. and Yocative-endingsof HAtia wordu 

1 117.] QVARTirr. Ml 

of the third Dec the poets of die golden age genenlly oMde o long, 
«■ : amd, amaveid, amatd, icribo, acribitd, scHpseid ; origo, coneuetu- 
do ; m Greek words o is always long, as : echd, Argd ; 
u » always long and y always tiiort according to the rale, except in 
te eontraclad Dat, as: Ck)ty lor CotyL 

4. For the quantity of final syllables in words of two or 
more syllables ending in a consoncmty we have the following 
general rules : 

L c final makes the preceding vowel long^ as : al€c, illuc ; 
Exc: donee: 

II. dSy eSj OS are long'; tSj us, ys are short; to this gener- 
al rule, there are the following exceptions : 

a) 09 is ikori: 1) in the Nom. of Greek words of the third Dec. 
which have ddi$ in the Gen., as: lamp&s, ftdis, PallSs, idis; so 
ands, dtis ; — 2) in the Ace Plur. of Greek words of the third 
Dec as : hero&s, Arcad&s from haros^ Areas ; 

b)e9is ihtni: 1) in the Nom. and Voc. Sing, of imparisyllabic 
words of the third DedT whose genitive has the penvU short, as : 
mil^s, itis, seg^s, ^tis, praes^, idis, heb^s, fitis; 'Exc^i Cer^ 
abiSs, ariSs, paries and the compounds ofpes^ as : tripes, except 
praep^ £tis ; — 2) in the Voc. Sing, of Greek words in eff, where 
in Greek the termination is tg, as : Demosthen^ (but Demosthe- 
nte in tlie Nom. '= ^c) ; — 3) in the Nom. and Voc Plur. of 
Greek words, as : Arcades, Tfoad^ ; but in Latin words, or such 
as were naturalized in the language, es is long, as : patr^ matr6s ; 
I) in the compounds of is (thou art), as: ad^ ab£s, pot£s; 
>) in the preposition penis ; 

c) o« is short : 1) in : compds, impds (dtis), exds (fit>m of, ossis) ; — 3) 
in Greek words, when os corresponds to og in Greek, as : Del6s, 
chads, melds; Palladds, Gen. of Pallas (but: herds >« li^ttg, Minds 
sac Mivagt Nicocleds = NutonXsotg; 

d) if is 2oi^: 1) in the Dat and Abl. Plur., as: mensis, pueris, no- 
bis, vobis ; hence also, in the adverbs : gratis, foris ;---v2) in the 
Ace. of the third Dec. (for es), as : omnis ; — 3) in the Nona. Sing, 
of proper names of the third Dec which have the penult of the 
Gen. long, as : Samnis, itis, Salamis, inis, Simois, entis ;— 4) in 
the second person Sing. Pres. of those verbs which have Uis in 
the second person Plur., as: audis, posas (as well as: sis from 
sum), veils, noils, mails ; also in : mavis, quivis, quamvis, utervis, 
since vis (from volo) is long ; in the second person Sing, of the 
Fut Perf is of itself is short, but by the necessity of the verse is 
often made long, as : dixeris , so also is the { in the plural-end- 
ings tmttf, Uis of the Fut Perf often made long by the poets 
ft>r the same reason, as: scripserimus, scripseritis; ' ; 

e) ta is long: 1) in the Nom. Sing, of words of the Mand Dec. 

292 QUANTITT. [{ 118. 

which have u loog ia the pmvU of the Gen., as: virtQs, 
Otis, palus, tidis, tellQs, uris, (but : cerpus, dris, vetils, . ^ris, 
etc); — 2) in the Gen. Sing, and in the Nom. Ace. Voc. Phur. of 
the fourth Dec, as : fructus (contracted from Jrudw and frudiur 
ta) ; — 3) in Greek words, when us corresponds to ovc in Greek, 
as : tripCls, ddis (tginovg), Panthus ; in the Gen. : SapphCis from 
Sappho l2aJtq)ovg), Clius from Ceiio. etc; hut in: Oedipiis, i, 
polypCis, i, the Greek ovg becomes t», in L(itin ; 
f ) ^ is long: 1) in words which have an associate form in jftt, as: 
Phorcys and Phorcyn ; — ^) when ys stands by contraction for 
yea and yoSj as : Erinnys. 

III. Ij my ny r, dj t final, make the vowel of the final 
syllable shorty as : animal, tectum, circum-ago, carmen, cai> 
cer, amor, apud, viden (for videsm), nostin (for nostine), 
Thetin, Pyion,^ Hion, illud, caput, amat, monet, regit, audit 
To this general rule there arc the following exceptions, in 
which the vowel before these consonants is long : 

a) I: in Hebrew proper names in eZ, as : Daniel ; 

b) n: 1) in the Greek Ace of words in as, esj e, as: Aenean, An- 
chisftn, CaHiop^n, epitomen; — ^2) in the Nom. of mascuUne and 
fbminine nouns which come from the Greek, as : titan, hymen, 
Salamin, Pandion (except Lacedaemdn and some others), and ki 
the Latin lUn; 

c) r: in the compounds of par, as: dispar, and in Greek imparl- 
syllables in er, as: aer, aether,^ crater, Iber. 

5. Monosyllabic words are lonffy as: sal, s6l, mos, spes, 
par, h5c, etc 

ExcEPnoifs: 1) the substantives: m^l, f^\, ds (ossis), a hone, (but: 
08, oris, the face), c6r (rarely cor) ; — ^) the pronouns : quis, quid, qudd ; 
is, 7d ; qudt, t5t ; hie, this, is generally, and hie, here, always long ; — 3) 
the adverbs: bis, tfir, sSt; — 4) the verbal forms in t: fit, sit, scit, d&t, 
d£t, st^t, st^t, it ; the imperatives fir,Jac and ts thou art (but ^ tibu 
eflrfe»<) ;— 5) the particles : Sb, Sd, Sn, St, cis, 6t, In, n6c, db, p€r, p6l, 
sfid, sOb, tkt, vel, and the suffixes (enclitics) : qu€, v^ c€, n6 (but : n^ 
that not, in order that not), tStut^), pt£ (suopt^). 

§ 118. Hexameter Verse. 


1. A verse is a series of pontic feet forming, in general, 
a line of poetry. The particular feet or members of which 
it is composed are called metres. 

i lia] HEXAMSnm TERSS. 298 

3. When the last foot of a Terse is complete, the verse is 
called accUaleciu:; but when incomplete, cakUectic. 

3. Every foot or metre consists of an arsis and a thesis. 
The arsis is that part of the foot (in hexameter verse, the 
first syllable of the foot), oh which the stress or elevation of 
the voice is placed in pronouncing it The rest of the 
foot (whether one syllable or more) is called thesis, and is to 
be pr<»iounced in a falling tone of voice. The stress of 
voice laid on the arsis is called the ictus (beat) and may be 
regarded as the poetic accent ; hence it is often marked as 
such by the sign (<). A succession of feet pronounced 
with due regard to arsis and thesis constitutes rh^nu 

4. Hence it will be apparent, that a line of poetry, in a 
given kind of measiire, consists of a fixed number of feet 
^Mid a variable number of words, which, of course, must 
occasion a disagreement between the terminations of the 
feet and words. Besides, as rhythm was the leading ele- 
jnent in ajioient poetry, it was not, except tot a given pur^ 
pose, attempted to produce a coincidence between the feet 
and words, that it might be apparent that the rhythm was 
independent of the words as such. This division of the 
feet by the terminations of the words is called caesura^ as : 

InfaDdi&m | regina | jub^s | renoy^re | clo]6reii]. 

In feet of three syllables, as : — , the word may end either 
after Ae arsip (- h") or in the middle of the thesis (-' ^ | "). 
In the first case it is called the masculine, in the second the 
feminine caesura. The coincidence of the termination of a 
word with the termination of a foot is called diaeresis, as : 
Peraequar \ h raris faabitdta, map^lia, t^ctis. 

In certain kinds of verse, certain caesuras and diaereses are 
necessary, and are to be especially observed in reading the 
verse ; these are called principal caesuras and diaereses. 

5. Hexameter verse is measured by six feet which may 
be either spondees or dactyles, except the last fpot, which is 
a dissyllabic catalectus (No. 2). A spondee consists of 




[1 119. 

two long syllables, designated thus : 
long and two short, designated thus : - 

* ; a dactyle of one 
' . Hence we have : 

Sed fligit 

/ — 

/ — 

I . — 

intere a fligit irrepa rabile tempus. 
unt ocu lis Supe ri mor talia justis. 

Rem. 1. The,/^ foot is generally a dactyle, rarely a spondee, and 
only when the poet wishes to give the liiie a character of sloumess^ «e- 
riaunusa and solemnity ; such a verse is called a spondaic verse, a dac- 
tyle usually precedes the spondee and the verse generally closes with 
m word of three or four syllables, as : 

Cara deum suboies, magnum Jovis | incr6 | mentum. 

Reit. 2. Dadyles oflen express a rapid and brisk, as spondees do a 
slow and heavy motion, as : 

Quadrupedante putrem sonitu guatit ungulo campum 
nil inter sese magna vi brachia tollunt 

RxM. 3. The princqHd caesura in Hexameter verse, generally oe- 
curs qfter the arsis of the third foot and sometimes In the thesis of the 
same foot ; but occasionally also, after the arsis in the fourth foot, in 
which case another caesura generally precedes, after the arsis of the 
second foot Sometimes, also, several caesuras of this kind are found 
in the same verse ; in which case the sense must determine which is 
to be observed as the principal one. Besides the principal caesura, 
there may be other subordinate caesuras, e. g. 

Sed I fligit interea, || fugit irrepabile tempus. 
Dum vires | annique { sinunt, {| tolerate labores. 
Oderunt | peccare | boni, {| virtutis I amore. 

Nudus I ara, { sere [ nudus; |{ hiems ignava | colono. 
Inftndum | regina | jubes |{ renovare dolorem. 

Rem. 4. The commonest and most graceful close of an hexameter 
verse is made by a word of two or three syliablea 

§ 119. Scansion. 

Scansion is the division of a verse into the feet or mem- 
bers of which it is made up. In doing this, however, the 
proper terminations of the words must not be wholly over- 
looked, but should be observed by making a slight pause 
at each of the caesuras and a marked pause at the princi- 
pal; caesur^^ as far as this can be done without obscuring 
the proper division into feet In scanning, the following 
things are to be observed : 


a) ! A vowel at the end of a word before another vowd 
or an A in the following word i^ absorbed (elision), as: 

NiliUa D(e)'hab^s viti(a]? iiiim(o) ali(a), hadd fbrtasse miD6nu 

Rem. 1. Elision rarely takes place at the end of a line, as : 

O'mnia M6rcuri6 similis vocemque col6rem^ue 
E't crin^s flav6s et membra dec6ra juv^ntae. 

tn this case, the last syll&ble is to be joined to the first of the follow- 
ing line. Such a line is called versus hifpemUter. 

Rem. 2. When elision is neglected in the beginning or middle of a 
verse, there arises what is called the kiatus (gaping, difficulty of pro- 
nunciation). This the poets endeavor if possible to avoid ; yet it is 
allowable before monosyllables, before one of the stroi^ger punctuation 
marks, and in a long vowel followed by a short one ; also in the arsis, 
the hiatus occasions less difficulty of pronunciation, as : 

O' et d^ Latia, O 6t de g^nte Sabina. 
E't succi!is pecori et lac 8ubdi!icitur agris. 
Pbsthabita coluisse Sam6 : kic illius arms. 
Ni^bibus esse sol6t aut pdrpureo^ Aur6rae. 

Rem. 3. Occasionally a long vowel in the thesis before another vow- 
el is shorty as : 

I'nsulae I'onib in m4gno. 

b) Art m at the end of a word with a vowel before it and 
before a vowel in the following word long by nature or po- 
sition, is, together with the vowel before it, omitted in read- 
ing (ecthlipsis), as: 

Qu4d latet, ign6t (urn) ^st; ign6ti niilla cupido. 

Rem. 4. In monosyllabic words which stand in the arsis, principally 
before a strong punctuation mark or in the caesura, the ecthlipsis ui 
sometimes omitted. Before a short syllable the ecthlipsis is difficult. 

c) When the last syllable of a word ends with a conso- 
nant and the following word in the same line begins with 
a consonant, that final syllable is uniformly /ang-, as: 

N^mo ade6 ferus ^st, ut ndn mit^scere p6ssit 

d) The tV;^w5 often makes a short syllable long ; still this 

is generally the case only : a) when the short syllable ends 

in a co/i50/*a^, especially r,soTt; — ^b) when the. caesura 

follows it;— c) when upon a vowel in the close of a word, 

a word follows beginning with two consonants ; e. g. 

O^nnia vincit Amor, et nos redamus Am6ri. 
Tit can it dgricold, | magna quum v^nerii i!irbe. 
Nil opus ^t morii^ pro m^, sed am6re fid^ue. 


e) Two Towels in two successive syllables aie often con- 
tracted into one ( Sjtnaerisis or Symzesis)^ as : I^aetbon, 
Thesei, deerant, Tehemens (two syllables), particcdaiiy, huic, 
cui, ii, iidem; so also, dein, dehinc, deinceps, deinde, 
proinde, prout ; so also those vowels which are pronounced 
with more difficulty in one sound, as : quoad, postea, alveo 

f ) A short u or t is often rejected before / and m, as : pe^ 
ric/tfm for periculunij tegmen for tegimen.ox tegHmen. 

g) The letters t and k, having been originally both con- 
sonants and vowels, when they follow another consonant 
and are followed by a vowel, make the preceding vowel 
long by position^ as : fliivtorum (= fluyjorum) ; genua 
(s=: genva), etc 

h) From the necessity of the verse, a lot^ syllable is 
sometimes used as thort {Systole), and, on tbe contrary, a 
short syllable as lofiff (Diastole). The systole is very com- 
mon in the third person Plur. Indie. Perf. Act, and in ofte^ 
fius and in names j as : Aeneades ; — ^the diastole is used es- 
pecially in the Subj. Perf. Act and Fut Perf. Act, (audi- 
veiitis), also in names, in which three short syllables follow 
one another, of which the first is then made long by the 
ictus J as: 

(/bstUpui, stetir&ntqae coraa^, vox fitdcibus ha^sit 


§ 120. Of Abbreviations. 

1) Personal Names: A. Aulas. App. Appius. C. or 
G. Caius or Gains. Cn. or Gn. Onaeus (Gnaeus). D. 
Decimus. K. Kaeso. L. Ludus. M. Marcus. M'. Manius. 
N. Numerius. P. Publius. Q. Quintus. Ser. Servius. 
Sex. or S. Sextus. Qp.Spurius. T. TUus. Ti. Tiberius. 

2) Appellatives: P. Pater. F. Filius. Fr. Fratery etc 

3) Designations of honor and office : Aed. Aedilis. Cos. 
Cos. Coss. Comules. Cos. d. Consul designatus. D. 


DivV'S. Imp. Imperator* O. M. Oplimus tnaximus. P. C. 
Patres conscriptL P. R. Populus Romanus. Pr. Praetor. 
Praef. Praefecius. P. M. PotUifex Maximus. P. S. Plebis- 
citum. 8. P. Q. R. Senalas populusque Ronumus. S. C. 
Senatus consultum. Tr. PI. Tribwms plebis, 

4) Designations of money and weight : HS. or H-S. 
Sestertius (Sestertium). L. Libra. L. L. Dupondius. 

5) Designations of time : A. D. Ante diem. A. U. C. 
Ab mrbe condita. C. or EL Calendae (Kalendae). Id. Je^Ni. 
Non. Nonae. 

6) Abbreviations in letters : S. Salutem. S. D. Salutem 
dicit. S. P. D. Salutem plurimam dicit. S. V. B. E. E. V. 
Si vales^ bene est ; ego valeo. 

§ 121. Of the Roman Calendar. 

1 Kalendae means the^r^^ day of each month; Nonae 
the seventh day of March, May, July and October, but the 
fifth of the remaining eight months; Idus was the fifteenth 
of the four months named above, and the thirteenth of the 
other eight. ^ 

2. Since the names of the months are properly adjectives, 
they generally agree with Kalendae, Nonae and Idus in 
gender, number and case, and are rarely governed by them 
in the Gen. as: Calendis Juniis, on the first day of Ju/ne; 
Nonis Octobribus, on the seventh of October; Idibus Sep- 
tembribus, on the thirteenth of September. 

3. The days lying between the three fixed days just men- 
tioned, were reckoned backwards from each of these fixed 
days, as, the 1st, 2d, 3d etc., day before the Kalends, Nones, 
or Ides as the case might be, and dies and ante were gen- 
erally omitted. The day from which one began to reck- 
on was always included in the number mentioned, as : 
Claudius excessit III. Idus Octobres, i. e. tertio die ante 
Idus Octobres, on the thirteenth of October. Hence, in order 
to get the true day before one of the divisions, we must 
subtract one from the number mentioned. 



H 121. 

4. In determining what day of the previous month any 
day before the Calends of a given month is, we must know 
how many days the month has (see table) and reckon back 
from the Calends of the month mentioned (i. e. the month 
following), as: tertio Calendas Apriles, on the 30th of 
March; tertio Calendas Maias, on the 29th of April; tertio 
Calendas Martias, on the 37^ (28th) of February ; since 
March has 31, April 80 and February 2S (in leap year 29) 

of our 

If arcb. Bfay. 
July, and October 

January, August, 
and Decenber 

April, June, Sep- 

Febmanr (has SiS, 
and in Leap Fears 


(bave 31 days). 

(have also 31 days.) 

ber (have 30 dayt). 

29 days). 








IV >ante 
HI 5 Nonas. 

IV >ante 
III 5 Nonas. 

IV ^ante 




111 (Nonas 

' 4 


» Nonas. 

Pridie Nonas. 

Pridie Nonas 

Pridie Nonas. 








ie Nonas. 

VII n 

VII 1 










VI I ante 











VI I ante 












Pridie Idas. 

Pridie Idus. 

Pridie Idas. 


111 J 





Pridie Idus. 




XVI 1 













XVi ;^ 




















•' 1^ 








r ■ 













■ % 







^ s, 





' 2, 














































Prid. Ka 












Prid. Ka 



Prid. ^d 


Prid. Kalendas 

of the fol. 


of the fol. 




month. month. 

: J 1 



1. Lufpus et caprcL, 

Lupius capram consptcatus, quae in rupe pascebatur, quum ad earn 
accedere dob posset, earn, ut de rupe desoenderet, hortabatur, apud se 
mollia prata ac vanas herbas esse praedicans. Ei Tero capra re^Nm- 
dh: Mi amice, non me ad pascua vocas, sed ipse cibi indiges! 

2. Lupus et qpilumes. 

Opiliones aliquot, caesa atque aasata ore, convivium agebant Quod 
quum lupus, qui praedandi caussa forte stabula circumibat, videret, ad 
opiliones conversus : Quos clamores, inquit, et quantos tumultus vos 
C(mtra me excitaretis, si ego facerem, quod vos fiicitis ? Tum unus ex 
iis: Hoc interest, inquit: nos, quae nostra sunt, comedimus; tu vero 
aliena furaris. 

^ftL Vulpeset uva. 

Vulpes, extreme &me coacta, uvam appetebat ex alta vite dependdn- 
tern. Quam quuib, sumnus viribus saliens, attingere non posset, taii« 
dem disc^dens ; Nondum matura est, inquit ; nolo acerbam sumere. 
Sic saepe honiines, quae fiicere non possunt, verbis el^vant 

T ' ~~ 

2. OpiWOfOniB, m. shepherd. tiBBol. to roast, convivium,!, n./eo^f; conv. 
agdre, to have a feast, ■tabillaai, i, n. stable, tamultug, 00, m. ado. Airor 
1. steal. 

3. Vitis, is,/, vine, dependeo, di, 2. to hang down from. elSvo 1. to rmi»0 
up ; 2) to disparage. 

300 FABLES. 

4. Rusdcus et camsfdeUs, 

Rusticus in agros exiit ad opus suum. Filidlum, qui iu cunis jace- 
bat, reliquit custodieDdum caui fideli atque valido. Arrepsit anguis 
immanis, qui puerdlum exstincturus erat Sed custos fidelis confpit 
eum dentibus acutis, et, dum necare studet, cunas simul evertlc super 
exstinctum anguem. Mox ex arvq rediit agricola ; ut videt cunas ever- 
sas crueotumque cauis rictum, ire accenditur. Tem^re igitur custo- 
dem filioli interftcit Ugone, quern mauibus tenehat' Sed ubi cunas 
restituit, supra anguem occisum repSrit puerum vivum et incoldmem. 
Sera turn poenitentia fliit &cinoris temere patratL 

5. LeOt asinus et vnlpes. 

Yulpes, asinus et leo venatum iverant i Ampla praeda facta, leo asi- 
num illam partiri jubet Qui quum singulis singulas partes poneret 
aequales, leo eum correptum dilaniavit et vulpi negotium partiendi tri- 
buit nia astutjor leoni maximam partem apposuit, sibi vix minimam 
reservans particdlam. Tum leo subridens ejus prudentiam laudare, et, 
unde hoc didicerit, interrogare coepit. Et vnlpes: Hujus me, iuquit, 
calamitas docuit, quid minores potentioribus debeant 

6. Asinus peUe leonina indutiAS. 

Asinus fugitivus rep€rit forte in silva pellem leoninam, eaque ' indu- 
tus territare coepit homines et bestias. Veuit is, qui asinum perdide- 
rat, eumque quaerit Asinus, quum herum vidisset, horrendum in 
modum rugire coepit, ut ilium quoque falleret At herus, comprehen- 
sis auriculis, quae exstabant : Etiamsi alios, inquit, &llas, me tamen 
iK>n fidles. Ita probe verberat domumque abigit. 

7. Rusticus et^M. 

Inter filios rustici cujusdam grave dissidium ortum erat . Diu frustra 
operam impenderat pater, hortans, ut pacem atque concordiam cole- 
rent Tandem filiis : VirgCilas, inquit, mihi afierte quinquaginta et con- 

^„ J l_ ■Llin.l II n Mill I l„^ T- \ . L ■ ■ -^^ 1 - . ■- . ^ ^^ 

4. Arrgpo, psi, plum 3. to creep up. corripio, ripui, reptum 3. to. seize. 
cruentus, a, um, bloody » rictus, as, m. mouth, poenitentia, ae,/. repen- 

6. Pellis, is,/, skin; p. leonina, Iton's skin, fugitivas, a, um, run-atoay. 
terrlto 1. to frighten. auricCLla, ae,/. ear-lap. rugio 4. to roar, exsto, stlti 
1. project. 

7. Dissiditiin, i, n. disagreement, virgiila, ae, /. stick, fascictilus, i^ m. 
bundle, colligo 1. to collect, concors, rdis, uniled. 

FABIiBft^ 301 

sidite. Turn omnes virgdlas in uDum fitscictQum colligavit, eumque 
constrictum singulis filiis obtiUit^ hortans, ut Irangerent HH autem 
quanquam vim omnen) adhibebam, frustra lahorarunt, nee quicquam 
profecerunt. Turn pater nodum discidit singulasque illis ¥irgula» 
dedit, quas sine tillo labore confregerunt Quo fapto, rasticus filios ita 
allocutus est : Haec res vobis exempio sit Tuti erius ab inimicorum 
injuriis, quamdtu vos amabitis et eoncordeseritis; at, simulac facta erit 
dissensio atque discordia, inimici securiin vos irrumpent 

8, Luacimcf^ et cuouim. 

Luscinia vemo quodam die dulcissime canere coepit Pueri aliquot 
baud procul ^b^rant in valle ludentes. Hi quum lusiri essent intenti, 
hisciniae eantu nihil movebantur. Non multo post cuculus coepit cu- 
culare. Continuo pueri, lusu n^glecto, ei acclamabant vocemque cu- 
culi identldem imitabantur. Audisne, luscinia^ inquit cuculus, quanto- 
me isti plausu excipiant et quantop^re cantu meo delectentur ? Lus- 
cinia, quae nollet cum eo alteroari, nihil impe^iebat, qnomlnus ille 
8uam vocem miraretur. Inters pastor fistftk canens cum puella lento 
gradu praeteriit 

Cuculus it^rum vociferatur, novas laudes captana At pueUa pasto- 
rem allocuta : Male sit, inquit, huic cuculo, qui cantui tuo odiusam 
Tocem intermiscet Quo audito, quum cuculus in pudorem conjectus 
conticuisset, luscinia tam suaviter canere coepit, ut se ipsam superare 
velle videretur. Pastor, fistula deposita : Considamus hie, inquit, sub 
arbore et lusciniam audiamus. Tum pastor et puella cantum lusciniae 
certatim laudare coeperunt, et diu taciti intentis auribus sedent Ad 
postremum adeo capta est puella sonorum dulcedine, ut etiam lacrimae 
erumperent Tum luscinia ad cuculum conversa: Videsne, inquit, 
quantum ab imperitorum opinionibus prudentiorum judioia distent^ 
Una sane ex istis lacrimis, quamvis muta sit, locupletior tamen est 
artis meae testis, quam incondltus iste puerorum clamor, quern tanto- 
P^re jactabas. Monet fitbula, magnorum artificum opera non vulgi 
opinione, sed prndentium existimatione esse censenda* 

8. CucilluB, i, m. cuckoo, yallis, is, /. valley, cuctllo 1. to coo. ac^lamo 
1. to cry out to, altercor 1. to qitarrel. fisttila, ae, /. pipe. lentus, a, um, 
stow, grados, ils, m. step, vocil^ror 1. to screech, intermiffceo, mis<iui 
mixtum or mistum 2. to intermingle, eeri&tim, adv. tmulously. diato I 
without Peif. and Sup. to differ. 


302 FABLES. 

9. Auceps et vipira, 

Auceps ibat yenatum et mox vi<fit in altissima arbore palumbem ; 
approp^rat eum capturus, sed inter enndum premit fbrte ped^ altero 
riperam in h^rba latentem, qtiae ilium mordet Me mlserum, inquit, 
dum alteri inaidior, ipse dispereo. 

10. Mendax, 

Puer in prato oves pascebat atque per jocum clamitabat, ut sibi aiud- 
lium ferretur, qaasi lupus gregem esset adortua Agricolae uncfique 
succurrebant, neque lupum inveniebant Ita ter quaterque se elusos 
a puero viderunt Deinde, quum ipse lupus aggrederetur, et puer 
revere imploraret auxiliun ; nemo gregi subvtoit, et oves lupi praeda 
sunt &cta. Mendaci bomini non credimus, etiam vera quuro dicit. 

11. Formica et cohmiha, 

Formiea ntiens descenderaiad fontem \ sed undae earn abripuerunt, 
nee multum ab^rat, quin misere periret Quum vera columba sortem 
ejus videret, misericordia tacta ramCilum in aquam injecit Hunc as- 
secuta est formica in eoque natans efibgit mortem. PauHo post vena- 
tor, arcu instructus, illuc venit, columbamque telo suo trensfixurus fliit 
Periculum sentit fb^ica, et, ut piae columbae opem ferret, accuriit 
atque veinatoris talum momordit Dolore impeditus ille telum nOn 
recte nusit, et columba incoKlmis avolavit Juva et juvab^re; raro be- 
neficiiim pent 

12. VuJpes et cowus. 

Corvus, quum frustum camis repulsset, in arbore quadam consedit 
Quo eonspecto, vulpes, camem cupiens, accurrit eumque callidi^ verbis 
adoritur. O corve, inquit, quam pulchra es avis, quam speciosa ! . Te 
' decuit esse avium regem. Sane oranes aves regiis virtu tibus antece- 
deres, si vocem haberes. His corvus laudibus inflatus, ne mutus ha- 
beretur, clamorem edidit, sed simul, aperto rostro, camem amisit; 
quum vulpes statim rapuit, atque irridens dixit*. Heus, corve ! Nihil 
tibi deest preeter mentem. 

9. Auc^ps, tlpis, m.f<noUr, vipdra, ae,/. viper, appropSro 1. to approach, 
dispereo, ii, 4. to perish. 

10. Clamito 1. to cry out often, revfira, adv, in earnest. 

11. Formica, ae,/. ant, ramOlus, i, m, branch, talus, i, m. anJUe^, 



1. Bxcusaiio. 

Gdcu Quid c^ussae est, q^iod tarn diu nos non iovisSris? Quid im- 
pedimento fuit, quoimi^us jam diu feceris nobis tui videndi copiam ? 
Syrus. Volui quidem saepe te convenire, sed Don licuit mihi per mea 
negotia; non licuit per valetudinem; laborayi enim aliquamdiu febri; 
non licuit denique per tempestatem, quae saepe fiik pluvioea. O. 
Equidem accipio <tuam excusationem, sed bac lege, ne saepius utare. 
Excusatio tua justior est^ quam vellem, siquidem .vaietudo fliit in caus- 
sa, Ha#c lege mibi purgatus eris, si, quod cessatun^ est, me saepe in- 
visendo compenses. S. Tu nibil moraris istius modi officia nimium 
Yulgaria* Amicitia nostra firmior est, quam ut sit officiis istis vulgari- 
bus alenda. Satis crebro invisit, qui cOnstanter amat G, Male sit is- 
tis curis, quae te nobis adimunt Quid impr^cer istis negotiis, quae 
talem amicum nobis invldent ? Pessime sit isti fbbri, quae nos tarn 
gravi desiderio torsit tuL Male pereat ista febns, te quidem incolumi. 

2. OoUoqudum jocosum. 

Andreas. Salve, mi Mauriti. MmirUius. Gratias ago, mi Andrea. 
Quid afiers ? A, Me ipsum. M,, Sic rem baud magni pretii buc attulis- 
ti. A At magno constiti patri meo. M. Credo pluris, quam quisquam 
teaestimet A. Sed Rudolphiis esme domi? M, Nescio. Pulsa fores 
ejus et videbis. A. Heus, Rudolpbe! domine es? 12. Non sum. A, 
Impddens ! Non ego audio te Ibquentem ? R. Immo tu es impudens. 
Nuper ancillae vestrae credidi, te non esse domi, quum tamen esses, 
et tu npn credis mibi ipsi ? A, Aequum dicis ; par pari retulisti. IL 
Equidem ut non omnibus dormio, ita non omnibus -sum domi. Nunc 
vero adsum. A. Sed tu mihi vtderis cochleae vitam agere. IL Quid 
ita ? A, Quia perpetuo domi latitas,^ nee unquam pror^pis. 12. Fwis ni- 
hil est negotii. A. At serenum coelum nunc invitat ad deambulandum. 
Rf Ita est Si igitur deambulare libet, te comitabor^ nam per totum 
hunc mensem pedem porta non extuli. Vocabo Mauritsum, ut una 
nobiseum eat A, Placet Sic enim jucundior erit ambulatio. 

1. Gesso 1. to omit, compenso 1. to make up, impiScor 1. to imprecate. 

2. Aestimo 1. to estimate, pulso 1. to beaL latato 1. ta keep one's se^f con- 

304 l>IALOGTTE8. 

3. OoHoguium ejusdefn generis. 

Siprus, Opto tibi muhani felieitatem. Cleiou £t ego tibi diiplicatum 
opto, quicquid optas mihi. S, Quid agis rei? G, CoDfabdlor. S. 
Quid ? confabularis solus ? G, Ut vides. iS. Fortasse 1;ecum. Proin- 
•de tibi Tidendum est, ut cum bomine probo con&bu]£fe. G, Immo 
cum lepidisdimo eoDgerrone confabulor; lego enim librum joci plenum. 
^ Tu perpetuo litt^ris studes. G, Non est lilla studiorum satielas. 
^ Yerum; sed est tamen modus quidam. Non omittenda quidem 
«unt studia, sed tamen intermittenda nonnunquam. Nibil suave, quod 
perpetuum. Voluptates commendat i^or usus. Tu litt^ris studes 
noctes ac dies. O. Age, tuo more fkcls. Rides me, ut soles. Non 
me &llit tuus jocus. Ipst codices pulvere situqiie obducti loquuntur, 
quam sim immo^eus in studio. S. Emoriar, ni loquor ex animo. 

4. JOudus. 

CcaiAus. Veni, mi Ludovice! Ludovfcus. Quo tandem? C. In hor- 
turn ; satid jam legimus et scripsimus ; ludamus quoque. L, Ego pen- 
sum meum ante absolvam. C Nondum absolvisti? L. Nondum 
omnia. Tune jam onmia didicisti et scripsisti, quae praeceptor nos 
discere et scribere jussit? p. Non omnia. L. Ergo nondum licet la- 
dere. C. Cur non liceat ? Reliqua discani et scribam post ludum. L. 
Sed praestat, primum discere, deijide ludere. C Quam morosum so- 
dalem habeo ! L, Non sum morosus, sed facere volo, quae jussa sunt. 
C. Ergo una ediscamus. Ego tibi repitabo, tu mihL Deinde, quum 
omnia didicerimus, statim ad liidum properabimus. jL. Placet; nam 
peracti labores jucundi sunt 

5. De stirgendo, 

IHdericus, Heus^ heus^ Carole! expergisc^rej Tempus est surgere. 
Audisne? C. Non audio. F, Ubi ergo babes aures? C, In lecto. 
F. Hoc video. Sed quid iaeis adhuc in lecto? C ^id feciam? 
Dormio. F. D(n-miB ? et loqu^ris tamen mecum ? C Saltern vole 
dormire. F. Nunc autem ncm est tempus dormiendi, Sed surgendi. 
C, Quota est bora? F. Septima. C. Quando tu suirtdxisti e lecto? 
F. Jam ante duas horas. C. Num sorores meae jam snrrexerunt? 
JP. lam pridem. C. Sed frater mens certe adbuc jacet in lecto. F. 
Erras. Quum e^pergefacerem eum, statim reliquit nldum suum. C. 
Mox igitur surgam. 

r J . - . -. . . . ._ _ ■ ■ — .^^ 

3. Uuplico 1. to double. confabtLlor 1. to chat, congerro, onis, m. com- 
rade, play-fetloio, satiStas, atis,/. satiety, intermitto 3. to intermit. 


6. Amindatio, 

lyidenais. Age, mi frater, ambulemus ; tempestas serena est Au- 
gustus, Placet; sed ubi ambulabimus ? Num in pratis? Jl Minime; 
prata enin^ pluvia inundavit, et viae lutulentae sunt Placetne adscen- 
dere in montem, quem e fenestra prospicimus ? A. Pkcet; jam pri- 
dem enim in monte non fuimus. F, Hiems nos probibuit; bieme 
enim mons glacie et nive tectus erat. Quid stas autem ? A Duae 
viae ducunt ad montem : altera recta, altera flexuosa. Utram elige- 
mus? F, Flexuosam censeo; est enim umbrosior, et sol fervet Des- 
cend^ntes altera ibimus et ambulationem variabimus. Vesperi enun 
«oL minus fervet t^ Eamus igitur! 

7. Naufragium. 

J^ltaurUius. Redisti nobis obesior ac procerior. CSfprianus, At equi- 
de;n mallem prudentior, aut doctior. M. Imberbis abi^ras, redisti bar- 
batiUuS. At quid sibi vult hie pallor? quid firons corrugata? C. Ut 
est fi>rtuna, sic est corporis habitus. M. Num adversa? C Nunquam 
mihi quidem abas secunda ; sed nunquam^ quam nunc, reflavit odio- 
sius. M, Dolet mihi tua calamitas. Sed quid hoc mali est? C Uni- 
versae pebuniae naufi^um fecL M, In mari ? C. Non, sed in littore, 
nondum navem i^gressus. M Ubinam? C In littore Britannico. 
M, Bene habet, quod ipse nobis vivus enatasti. Praestat pecuniae jac- 
turam &cere, quam vitae. Levius est pecuniae damnum, quam &mae. 
C. Vita famaque incolumi, periit pecunifu M, Vita sarciri nullo pacto 
potest, &ma aegre potest, pecunia &cile alicunde sarcietur^ Qui ma- 
lum hoc accidit ? C. Nescio, nisi quod sic erat in fatis meis. Sic 
visum est supfiris. J)L Vides igitur, doctrinam ac virtutem tutissimas 
esse divitias, quae nee eripi possunt, nee onerant ciroumferentem. 
C Pulchre tu quidem philosopharis ; sed ^iterim ego ringor. 

8. Jussum herHe. 
RfMnus. Profer ocrSas ; nam equitandum est Stprus* En adsunt 

6. Pluvia, ae,/. ratn. inundo 1. to overjloto. lutulentus, a, um^ muddy. 
fenestra, ae,/. window, flezuosus, a, umywinding. umbrosus, a, um, shady, 
ferveo, vi 2. to bum (intrans.). vario 1. to vary. 

7. Obesus, a, VLXxiyfat. imberbiB, e, beardless, barbatillus, a, um, slightly 
bearded, pallor, oris,^jr. corrugatus, a, um, trrtnArZeot. reflo 1. to 
blow against, odiose, adv. odiously, firitannicus, a, um, British, eti&to, 1. 
to swim out, circumf^ro, ttili, latum 3. to carry around, philoaophor 1. to 
philosophize, ringor 3. to show the teeth; 2) to be fretful. 

8. Albeo 2. to be clean, rigeo 2. to be stiff, siccitas, atis,/. dryness, uvi- 


R. Probe quidem abs te ciiratae ; totae albent situ. Opinor nee de- 
tenafi, nee uoctas hoc anno, adeo rigent prae siccitate. Deterge uvi- 
diilo panno : mox unge ad ignem diligenter, ac mac^ra, donee mollian- 
tur. S. Curabitiir. R. Ubicakaria? S. Adsunt R. Venim; sed 
obducta rubigine. Ubl frenum et epbippia? S, Sunt in promptu. 
R, Vide, ne quid desit, aut ne quid ruptum, aut mox rumpendum, ne 
quid nobis sit in mora, quum erimiis in cursu. Propere hoc lorum 
sarciendum cura. Reversus inepice soleas equorum, num qui clavi de- 
sint, aut vaiilleDt Quam macri sunt equi, quamque strigosi ! Quoties 
absterges, aut pectis illos iii anno ? S. Immo quotidie. R, Nimirum 
res ipsa loquitur. Jejimia colunt, opinor, nonnumquam totum triduum. 
S. Minime. R, Negas, tu quidem, sed aliud dicturi sint equi, si loqui 
liceat: quanquam satis loquuntur ipsa macie. & Cure sedulo. R, 
Cur igitur tu habitior equis ? S, Quia non pascor foeno. R, Hoc 
igitur restat Adoi-na manticam celeriter. & Fiet. 

9. Mo9&ia paedagogk 

Patdagogus. Tu mihi videris non in aula natus, sed in caula: adeo 
moribus es agrestibus. Puerum ingenuum decent ingenui mores. 
Uuoties alloquitur te quispiam, cui debes bonorem, compone te in rec- 
tum corporis statum, ap€ri caput. Vultus sit nee tristis, nee torvua, 
nee impildeus, nee protervus, nee instabilis, sed hiUoi modestia tern- 
peratus: oculi verecundi, semper intenti in eiun, quocum loqueris: 
juncti pedes, quietae naanus. Nee vaeilles altemis tibiis, nee manus 
agant gestus, nee mordeto labrum, nee seablto caput, nee fbd{to aures. 
Yestis item ad decorum componatur, ut totus cultus, ?ultu8, gestus et 
habitus corporis ingenuam modestiam et verecundam indolem prae se 
feriat Pt/er. Quid, si mediter ? Poe. Fae. Pn. Siccine satis? Pat. 
Nondum. Pu, Quid, si sic P Pat. Propemodum. Pti. Quid, si sic ? 
Pcbt. Hem satis est; hoc tene, ne ms iuepte loquax, aut praeceps. 
Neve vagetur animus interim, sed sis attentus, quid alter dicat Si 

dtllus, a, um, slightly moist, pannus, i, m. rag, mao^ro 1. io toak. rublgo, 
Inis, /. rust, ephippium, i, n. horse-cloth^ (corresponding to our eaddles). 
clavus, i. m. nail, macer, era, cram^ lean, strigosus, a, um, tank, riimirum, 
adv. doubtless, jejunium, i, n. fast^Jej. colBre, to keep fast, triduum, i,n. 
the space of three days. ma.c\es, ^],f. leanness, habitus, a, um^^fi^Ay. foe- 
nlim, i, n. hay. mantKca, ae,/. portmanteau. 

9. Monitum, \.n. admonition, instruction, paedagogus, \.m. private ^tor. 
caula, ae, /. sheep-cote, agrestis, e^- rustic, rude, torvus, a, um, stent, pro- 
tervus, a, um, shameless, instabllts, e, unstable, trerecundus, a, um, re- 
spectful. alternus, a, um, alternate, gestus, tls, gesture ; gesttts agere, to 
make gestures, labrum, i. n. lip. scabo, 3. to ^6rateh. f5did, odi, ossum, 3. 

^uid erit respoDdendum, id fiicito paucia ac pradenter, mtordion prae*> 
fiitus honorem, nonnunquam etiam addito cognomioe, honoris gratia: 
atque identidem modice flectas alterum genu, praes^tkn ubi respon- 
wuii absohreris. Neve abeaa, nisi prae&tus vemam, aut ab ipso dimiB- 
sus. Nunc age, specimen aliquod hujus rei nolras praebe^i 

Quantum temporis abfuisti a maternis aedibus P Pu. Jam sex fer- 
ine menses. Pae. Addendum erat : domine. Piu Jam sex ferme 
menses, domine. Pae, Non tangeris desiderio matns? Pu. Non- 
nunquam sane. Pat. Gupis eam revisere ? Pu, Oupio, doniine, si 
id pace Hceat tua. Pae, Nunc/'lecteadum erat g6nu. Bene liabet 
Sic i>er^to ! Quum loqueris, cave, ne praecipites sermon^n, sxA haeai^ 
tes lingui, aut palato murmures, sed disdncte, dbre, artieiilatim oob- 
suescito proferre verba tua* Si quern praet^bis natu grandem, ma- 
gistratiim, sacerdotem, doctorem, aut alioqui virum gravem^ memento 
i^jerire caput In convivio sic te praebebis failc^em, ut semper me- 
rainSris, quid deceat aetatem tuam : postremus omnium admoveto maa- 
um patinae. Si quid datur lautius, recusato modeste : A instabitur, 
aedpe, et age gratias : mox, decerpta particCila, quod reliquum est, ilfi 
reddito, aut alicui proxime accubantu Si quis praetufbet, hilariter iili 
bene pr^cator, sed ipse bibito modice. Si non sitis, tamen admoveto 
ealicem labria Arride loquentibUs : ipse ne quid loqnare, nisi rogatua. 
Ne cut obtrectato, ne cui temet antepcmito, ne tua jactato, ne ali^ia 
despicito. Esto comis, etiam erga tennis fbrtunae sodales. Ita fiet, 
Qt sme invidia laudem inveiiias, et amicos pares. Si vid^ris, convivium 
extr&hi, precatus veniam, ac, salutatis convivis, subducito te a mensa. 
Vide, ut horum memineris. Pu. Dabitur opera, mi praeceptor ! Num- 
quid aliud vis ? Pae. Adito nunc UIh^s tuos. Pu. Fiet 

10. Venatip. 
PavUus. Trabit sua quemque voluptas ; mihi placet venatio. Thorn- 

to dig ; f. aures, to p^ck the ears, indoles, is,/, natural disposition^ nature, 
propemodum, adn. al,most. hem, interj. hem! ah! inepte, adv. foolishly. 
praefor 1. to premise ; praefatus honorem, premising : with your leave be it said ; 
praefari veniam, to first ask permission, cognomen, fnis, n. title, specimen, 
inis, n. specimen. j 

maternus, a, um, mother* s. revTso, visi, IsumS. to revisit, praeciplto 
hasten, htiesitol. to hesitate, palatum, i, n. fAroo^. TavLTmHirol. to mutter. 
distincte, adv. distinctly, articulatim, adv. articulately, alioqui, adv. other- 
wise, patina, ae,/. dish, lautus a, um, dainty, reotlso 1. to refuse, prae- 
blbo, i, 3. to drink)to. extrftho, traxi, tractnm 3. to protract, subdaco, zi, 
ctum 3. to withdraw. 

10. VenabtUum, i, n. hurUing-spear. cnnictLlus, i| m. rabbit. laquSus, i, 


at. Placet etiam mihi ; sed uU canesy ubi venabCOa, ubi casses ? P. 
Valeant apri, urai, oervi et vulpes ! nos iDsidiabimur cunicillis. Fm- 
wnUvM. Ax ego laqueos iDJiciam locustis. Laureniva», Ego ranas 
captabo. BmikSbm. Ege papiUonea yenabor* L. Difficile est sec- 
tari Tolantia. B. Difficile, aed pulchrum; nisi pukhrius esse ducis 
.aectari lumbrioos aut cocbl^as, quia careot alis. L. Equidem malo 
insidiari piscibus ; est mihi hamus elegans. B. Sed unde parabis es- 
cam ? L. Lumbriconim ubivis magna est copia. B, E^ si tibi ve- 
lint prorepere e terra. JU At ego moz efficiam, ut multa nulia prod- 
liant B, Quo pacto ? incantamentis ? L, Videbis^ artem. Lnple 
iianc sitiUam aqua. Hos juglandium summos cortices virentes oopr 
firactoe immittito. Hac aqua perfunde solum. Nunc observa pauUis- 
per. Yides emergentes? B, Rem prodigiosan^ video. Sic olim, 
opinor, exsiliebant armati ex satis serpenlis dentibus. Sed plerique 
pisces delicatioris et elegantioris sunt palati, quam -ui esca tarn vcdgari 
capkiBtur. L. Novi quoddam insecti g^ius, quo talibus insidiari so- 
leo. B. Tu vide, possisne imponere piscibus ^ ego ranis fiicessam 
negotium. L, Quomodo? red? B, Non; sed arcu. jL. Novum 
piscandi grains. B* At non injucundum. Videl|is et fateb^re. V, 
Quid, si oertemus nucibus? P, Nuces pueris relinquamus; nos 
grandiores sumus. V. Et tamen nihil aliud adhuc, quam pueri sum- 
us. P. Sed quibus decorum est ludrare nucibus, iisdem non indeco- 
rum est equitare aru^dine longa. F. Tu igitur praescribito lusus 
genus ; sequar, quocunque vocav^ris. P. Et ego Hiturus sum omnium 
horarum homo. 

11. RedUus patris, 

Petrus^ Quid ita laetus est, mi Sigismunde ? Sigismundus. Quia 
pater domum rediit P. Ubinam fuit ? S. Lipsiae. P. Cur eo fiierat 
profectus ? S, Nescisne, merc&tum ihi esse habitum, eumqtie frequen- 
tari a mercatoribus negotiandi caussa ? P. Utrum pedes, an eques 
rediit, an in rheda? ^ Equo vectus est. P. Quando adv^it ? & 

m. noose, locusta, ae, /. locust, lumbrlcus, i, m. eart/i-worm, ala, ae,/l 
toing. hamus, i, m. fishing-hook, esca, ae,/. bait, prosilio, lui 4. to leap 
forth* incantamentum, i, n. magic influence, sittila, ae, /. paU. juglans, 
ndis,/. walnut, immitto, misi, missum 3. to put in. perfuhdo, fudi, fasum 
3. to wet. ezsilio, lui 4. to spring forth, serpens, tis, serpent, delicatus, a, 
um, delicate, impouo, posui, positum 3. to impose upon ', c. dat. to deceive. 
piscoT 1. to fish, indecorus, a, um, unbecoming^ . arundo, inis,/. reed, praes- 
«rIbo, psi, plum 3. to prescribe. 

11. Lipsia, ae,/. Leipsic. mercatus, as, m. ufair, rheda, ae,/. wagon. 


Ante horaro. P. Quia tibi tarn cito nuntiaYit P S. FamCUus, qui eum 
jam e longinquo venientem viderat P. Jamne salutasti ? & Saluta- 
vi, quum vix ex equo desceDdisset P. Quid amplius ilUfecisti? S, 
Caioiria detraxi et ocreaSs. P. Bene fecisti ; sed minM*, te propter ad- 
TciBtum ejus non doxm mansisee. S» Id nee patmr permisiflset, nee ego 
ipse i^ellem, quum nunc tempus adsit in scholam eundL P. Id qui«- 
dem laude dignum est ; sed quomddo valet pater tuns ? & Optime 
dei beneficio. P. Ego gaudeo tecum^ quod salvus rediit & 3ed 
alias pluribus colloquemur. Nunc in scbolam eamus ! 

12. CoUoqumm scholasticum. 

Comeliug. Scite tu quidem scribis ; sed charta tua perflCkit Charta 
Sttbhumida est ac transmittit atramentum. Jindriag. Quaeso, ut ap- 
p&res mihi pennam banc. C. Deest mibi scalprum librarium. A, En 
tibi. C. Hui, quam obtusum ! A, Accipe cotem. C Utnim soles 
scribere cuspide duriore, an molliore ? A. Accomoidda ad manuna 
tuam. C Ego molliore solea A Quaeso, ut mihi desciibas ordine. 
figuras elementorum. C. Graecas, an Latinas ?> A. Li^as primum 
conabor imitarL C. Suppedita chartam* A. Accipe. CL Sed meum 
atramentum dilutiua est saepius infusa aqua. A* At meum atramenr 
tarium prorsus ejoaruit Rofiabo alicunde. C/Prftestat babere domi, 
quam rogare mutuum. A^ ^uid est discipukus skie calamo et atra- 
mento? C, Quod miles sine clipeo et gladio. A Utinam mihi sint 
digiti tarn celeres ! Equidem non possum dictantis vocem smbendo 
asa^uL C. Prima cura sit, ut bene scribas ; proxima, ut celertler. 
Sat cito, si sat bene. A Belle ; sed istam cantionem cane praeceptori, 
quum dictat : Sat cito, si sat bene. 

12. Scite, €uiv. skilfully, cbarta, ae, /. paper, perfliio, uxi, uzum 3. to 
fiow through. Bubhumidus, a, urn, somewhat moist, transmitto, Isi, issum 
3. tol^ through, atramentum, i, n. ink. qu&eaoy 1 ask. app&ro 1. to pre- 
pare ; app. penDam,'to mend a pen. scalprum librarium, i,it. pen-knife, hui, 
inUrj. Oh! obtasas, a, um, duU.-^uap'iB, id\n^ f. point, aocommodo 1. <# 
Jit, infundOf iUdi, f%lsum 3. to pour in. atr^mentahum, i, n. inkstand, 
ezaresco, arui 3. to become dry. inutiiuB, a, um, reciprocal ; mutuum rogare, 
to borrow, cal&mus, i, m. stalky quill, dicto 1, to dictate, belle, adv. finely. 
cantio, Cnis,/. song* 



L E Lacedaemoiius imiis, qaam Perses hostis ib colloquio dixisset 
l^orians : Sokm prae jacuhmim mnltitiidiiie et sagittanim ncm videbi- 
tifl : In umbra igUvr^ inquit, /m^fiiaUiituo— C TSue. 1, 42, lOL 

2l Lacaena quum filtam in proelium mislBset et interfectam audkh 
■et: IddreOf inquit, genuaram, ut ti$d^ quipnpabria msriem rum dubUa- 
rd oeewnbert. — Ibid, 102. 

3. Cyrenaeum Theoddrum, philosidphum non ignobilem, noime mi- 
n^nur ? cdi quum Ljrnmacbus, rex Thraciae et Macedoniae, crucem 
nuoaretur: Mm qwMi», inquit, ida honibiUa minSUare pwrpuraHs ims ! 
Theodori qmdem nihSL inUrtst^ hundne, an subUmtpuUscaL — Ibid 43, 102. 

4. Diogtoes, Cynicua, prqjici se post mortem jusnt inhumatum. 
Turn amiei: Volucribufloe et feris? Mknmt vero, inqoit; ded baaUwn 
prapUr me, quo abUgam, poniMe, Qui pot^ris ? illi (quaesiverunt) ; non 
enim sentiea Qtittf igUur mOd feramm laniaku MrU mhU 9eniitnHf 
— AMiL43,101 

5. Praeclare Anazagdras, quum Lamps&ci moreretur, quaerentibus 
amicis, velletne Clazom^nas in patriam, si quid aecidisset, auferri : JVl- 
kU necetse est, inquit ; undtque enim ad h^^hras tanUmdtin viae est. — Ibid. 

6. Anaxag6ram ferunt, nuntiata morte filii, dixisse : Sdebamj me ge- 
fwiue tnorkdenL — Ibid, 3. 14, 3Q. 

7. Noctu ambulabat in publico Themistdcles, quod somnum capere 
non posset: quaerentibusque reqpondebat, J^Sttiddis tropaeii se e s&nuM 
smeUan'—Ibid. 4. 19, 44 

8. Socrates, quum esset ex eo quaentum, Archelfium, Perdiccae 
filium, qui tum fortunatissimus liaberetur, nonne beatum putaret : Haud 
icioy inquit ; nunquam tmm cuin eo coUocviua nun, Ain' tu ? alitor id 
scire non potes? Mdlo modo. Tu igitur ne de Persarum quidem 
rege magno potes dicere, beatusne sit ? Jn tgo posnm^ quum ignorem, 
quam tit docku, quam vir bonus f Quid? tu in eo sitam vitam beatam 

1. Femes, ae, m. a Persian; adj. Persian, jacCLtuai, i, n. javelin, 

3. Cyrenaeofl, i, m, Cyreneanyfrom Cyrene^ chief city of Lybia. crux, acis, 
/. cross, purpuratos, i, m. a courtier, sublime, adv, in the air. putesco, 
tui 3. to rot. 


4. Cynlcus, i, m. the Cynic, projicio, j6ci, jectum 3. to cast fort/t. inhu- 
matus, a, am, unburied. bacillum, i, n, staff, laniatus, as, m. the tearing. 

5. Lamps&cas, i,/. Lampsacus^ciiy of Mysia. ClazomSnae, arum,/. CUi' 
tomenae^ city of Ionia, si quid aecidisset, if any thing should happen to Aim, 
i. e. if perchance he sftould die, tantundem viae, juv^ as long a way. 


potas? Ba pronw exisUmo: honos, btatoa; imprdhos, miseras. Miser 
ergo Arcbelaus ? CerU^ n injuduB. — C TWc 5. 12^ 34 35. 

9. Lacedaemonii, Philippe miDitante per litteras, se omnia, quae eo- 
nareDtufy prohibiturum, quaesivenmt, num. ae ea»d etiam mori proMbUu- 
ru8.^nnd. 14, 43. 

10, Xenocrfites, quum legati ab Alexandro quinqimginta ei talenta 
attulissent, quae erat pecunia temporibus lUid, Athenis praesertim, max* 
ima, abduxit legates ad coenam in Acadlemtam ; Ss apposuit tanmm, 
quod satis esset, nuUo apparatu. Quum postridijB rogarent eum, cui 
numerari(8C. pecnniam') juberet: ^idf vos heatemdy inquit, coemSd 
fum ifUdkxistUf me pecunia rum tgere ? Quos quum tristiores vidisset, 
triginta minas accepit, ne aspernari> regis liberalitatem videretur. — IbitL 
32, 9!. 

11. Laeedaemdne quum tyrannus coenavisset Dionysius, negavit, se 
jure illo nigroj quod coenae caput erat, delectatum. Tum is, qui ilia 
coxerat: JMSntme mthim; condmenta enim de/hierurU. Quae tandem? 
inquit ille. Lc^r in vmatu^, sudor, cursua ad Eurotam, fames, sitis ; 
Ms enm rtbuf Laoedaemonhrum qndae condiuntvr, — Ihid, 34, 98. 

12. Quum Athenis^ ludis, qnidam in theatrum grandia natu venisset, 
in magno consessu locus ei a^s civibus nusquam est datus. Quum 
autem ad Laeedaemonios accessisset, qui, legati quum essent, certo in 
loco consederant, consurrexerunt omnes et senem ilium sessum re- 
ceperunt Quibus quum a cuncto consessu plausus esset multiplex 
datus, dixit ex iis quidam : Mhtnienses sdwnJt, quae recta sunt ; sedfacere 
nolunt. — C. Sen. 18, 63. 

13. Bias, qui numeratur in septem sapieiitibus, quum ejus patriam 
Pri^nen cepisset hostis, ceterique ita fugerent, ut multa de suis rebus 
secum asportarent, quum esset admonitus a quodam, ut idem Ipse 
fiiceret : Ego wro, inquit, yocto ; nam omnia mecumporto mea.-^C. Parad, 

1. 2, a 

14. Quum tyrannus Hi^ro quaesivisset de Simonide, quid Deus esset, 
[hie] deliberandi sibi unum diem postulavit Quum idem ex eo pos- 

10. Appono, posui, posttum 3. to place before, apparatus, as, m. fitting out. 
hesternus, a, am, of yesterday, coentila, ae, /. a spare meal, mina, ae,/. 
mina (worth about 17J dollars). 

11. Jus, uris, n. broth, soup, venatus, as, m. hunting. Eurotas, ae, m. 
Eurotas, river in Sparta. 

12. LndiB, garnes. thefttrum, i, n. theatre, consessus, as. m. assembly. 
consurgo, surrexi, surrectum 3. to arise, senem sessum receperunt, received 
the old titan, in order to seat him, i. e. took him to their seat, multiplex, Icis, 


tridie quaereret, biduum petivit Quum saepius duplicaret num^nim 
dieruin, admiraimqiie Hiero reqiureret, cur ita fiieeret : Q^iMt, ^iianl^y 
inquit, diutius conndero, tanio mSu res videtur obseurior.-'^C. JV*. D. 1. c 

15. Quum HaDDibal, Cartbagine ezpulsua, EphSsum ad Antidchum 
yenisset exsul, proque eo, quod ejus oomen erat magna apud omnes 
gloria, invitatus esaet ab hospitibus auls, ut PhormJonem pfailoadphum 
audiret ; quumque is se non nolle dudsset : locutus esse dicitur bomo 
copiosus aliquot boras de imperatcHris officio et de omni re militarL 
Turn, quum ceteri, qui ilium audierant, vebementer essent delectati^ 
quaerebant ab Hannibale, quidnam ipse de illo pbilosopbo judicaret. 
Hie Poenus ncm optime Graece, sed tamen libere re^pondisse fertur, 
muUos 8e ddiros senes saepe vidisse ; sed qui magis, quam PhormiOi deUr 
rant, vidisse nemmem. Neque mehercCde injuria ! Quid enim aut ar- 
rogantius, aut loquacius fieri potuit, quam Hannibali, qui tot annos de 
imperio cum populo Romano, omnium gentium victore, certasset^ 
Graecum bominem, qui nunquam bostem, nunquam castra vidisset, 
nunquam denique rainimam partem^ ullius publici muneris attigisset, 
praecepta de re militari dare ? — C. De Or. 2, 18, 75. 

16. Quum, Tarento amisso, arcem tamen Livius Salinator retinuisset, 
multSque ex ea proelia praeclara fecisset, quum aliquot post annos 
Maximus id oppidum recepisset, rogaretque eum Salinator, ut mem- 
inisset, opera sua se Tarentum recepisse : Qutdnt, inquit, meftdnenm ? 
nunquam enim retxpissemy nisi tu perdidisses.'-^^, De. Or. 2l 67, 273. 

17. Nafflca quum ad poetam Ennium venisset, eique ab ostio quae- 
renti Ennium ancilla dixisset domi npn esse ; Nasica aensit illam domi- 
ni jussu, dixisse, et ilium intus esse. Paucis post diebus quum ad 
Nasicam venisset Ennius, et eum a janua quaereret, exclamat Nasica, 
se domi non essie. Tum Ennius : Quid ? ego non cognosce vocem, 
inquit, tuam? Hie Nasica: Homo [inquit] €8 impudenS, Ego quum te 
quaererenif anciUae tuae credidi, te domi non esse ; tu mihi *non credis ipsi ? 
—lb. 68,276. 

18. Orator quidam malus quum in epildgo misericordiam se movisse 
putaret, postquam ass^dit, rogavit CatCilum, yideretume misericordiam 
movisse : Ac magnam quidem, inquit ; neminerji enim puto esse tarn du- 
rum, cui non oratio tua miseranda visa sU. — C. De Or. 2. 69, 278. ^ 


15. Exsul, iilis, m. exile, proque eo, quod^and on account of this, that non. 
nolle, to will with pleasure, res milit&ris, warfare, hie, here. Poenus, 
i, m. Carthaginian. Graece, adv. in Greek, dellrus, a, urn, silly, deliro 1. 
to be silly, mehercfile, adv» by Hercules, indeed, arrogans, tis, arrogant. 



1* Xerxes. Leonldcts. Themistdcles. (Cf. Justin. 2, 10. 11.) 
Xerxes bellum a patre coeptum adversus Graeciam per quinquen-^ 
Hium instruxit Septingenta milia de regno armaverat et trecenta milia 
de auxiliis, ut non immerito proditum sit, flumina ab exercitu ejus sic- 
cata, Graeciamque omnem vix capere exercitum ejus potuisse. Naves 
qtioque milia ducentas numero habuisse dicitur. 

Ut introitus Xerxis in Graeciam terribilis fijit, ita tUrpis ac foedus 
discessus. Nam quum Leonidas, re^ Lacedaemoniorum, cum quat- 
tuor ml]ibus militum angustias Thermopylarum occupasset, Xerxes 
contemptu paucitatis eos pugnam capessere jubet, quorum cognati 
Harathonid pugna interfecti fuerant : qui, dum ulcisci suos cupiunt, 
principium cladis fbere : succedente deinde inutili turba, major caedes 
editur. iViduum ibi cum dolore et indignatione Persarum dimicatum r 
quarto die, quum nuntiatum esset Leonidae, a viginti milibus bostium 
summum cacumen teneri, tunc borti^tur socios, recedant, et se ad 
mellora patriae tempora reservent : sibi cum Lacedaemoniis fbrtunam 
experiendam : plura se patriae, quam vitae, debere : ceteros ad praesi- 
dia Graeciae servandos. Audito regis imperio, discessere ceteri, soli 
Lacedaemonii remanserunt Initio hujus belli sciscitantibus Delpbis 
oracula responsum fuerat, aut regi Lacedaemoniorum, aut urbi caden- 
dum esse. 

Et idcirco rex Leonidas, quum in bellum proficisceretur, ita suos 
firmaverat, ut ire se parato ad moriendam animo scirent Angustias 
propterea occupaverat, ut cum paucis aut majore gloria vinceret, aut 
minore damno reipublicae caderet. Dimissis igitur sociis, bortatur 
Lacedaemonios, meminerint, quocunque modo proeliaturi sint, caden- 
dum esse : caverent, ne fortius mansisse, quam dimicasse viderentur ; 
nee exspectandum, donee ab hoste circumvenirentur, sed, dum nox 
occasionem daret, 'securis et laetis superveniendum ; nusquam victores 
honestius, quam in castris bostium perituros. Nihil erat difficile per- 
suadere paratis mori : statim arma capiunt, et sexcenti viri castra quin- 
gentorum miliimi irrumpunt; statimque regis praetorium petunt, aut 

1. QuiDquenniom, i, n. the spcLce of four years, armo 1. to arm. immert- 
to, adv. not without justice. numSro, ahl.^ in number. Thermopylae^ arum^ 
/. Thermopylae^ a narrow pass in TfiesseUy. contemtus, tls, m. contempt. 
paucltas, atis,/. feloness, cognatus, i, m. relative. MarathonTus, a, um, of 
Marathon, tridtkam, i, n. spiice of three days, indignatio, onis,/. indignation. 
sciscYtor 1. to inquire, proelior 1. to fight. circumv6nio, v6ni, ventum 4. to 



cum illo, aut, si ipsi oppress! essent, in ipsius potissimum sede morita* 
ri. Tumultus totis castris oritur. Lacedaemonil posteaquam regem 
DOD inveniunt, per omnia castra vietores vagantur, caedunt sternuotque 
omnia, ut qui sciant se pugnare non spe victoriae, sed in mortis poe- 
nam. Proelium a principio noctis in majorern partem diei tractum. 
Ad postremum non victi, sed vincendo fittigati, inter ingentes strato- 
rum hostium catervas pcciderunt 

Xerxes, duobus vulneribus terrestri proelio acceptis, experiri maris 
fortunam statuit Ante navalis proelii congressionem miserat Xerxes 
quattuor milia armatorum Delphos ad templum A[)o11inis diripiendum : 
prorsus, quasi non cum Graecis tantum, sed etiam cum diis immortali* 
bus beUum gereret : quae manus tota imbribus et fulminibus deleta 
est, ut intelligeret, quam nullae essent hominu^ adversqs deos vires. 
Post haec Thespias, et Plataeas, et Athenas yacui^s hominibus incendit : 
et quoniam ferro in homines non poterat, in aedificia igne grassatur. 
Namque Athenienses post pugnam Marathoniam, praemonente Them- 
istocle, victoriam illara de Persis ^portatam, non finem, sed caussam 
majoris belli fore, ducentas naves fabricati erant Adventante igitur 
Xerxe, consulentibus Delphis oracukim responsum fuerat: Salutem 
muris ligneis tuerentur. >. 

Themistocles, navium praesidlum demonstratum ratus, persuadet 
omnibus, patriam municipes esse, non moenia ; civitatemque non in 
aedificiis, sed in civibus positam. Itaque melius salutem navibus, 
quam urbi commissuros. Hujus sententiae etiam Deum auctorem esse. 
Probate consilio, conjuges liberosque cum pretiosissimis rebus abditis 
insulis, relicta urbe, demandant ; ipsi naves armati conscendunt El?- 
emplum Atheniensium etiam aliae urbes imiiatae sunt. Itaque quum 
conjuncta omnis sociorum classis, et intenta in belluid navale esset, 
angustiasque Salaminii freti, ne circumveniri a multitudine posset, 
occupasset ; dissensio inter civitatium principes oritur. Qui quum, 
deserto bello, ad sua tuenda dilabi vellent, timens Themistocles, ne 
discessu sociorum vires minuerentur, per servum fidelem Xerxi nuntiat, 
uno in loco eum contractara Graeciam capere facilime posse. Quodsi 
civitates, quae jam abire vellent, dissiparentur, majore labore ei sin- 
gulas consectandas. Hoc dole impellit re^em, ut signum pugnae daret. 

. I 

go around^ surround, supervenlre, to surprise, sterno, stravi, stratum 3. 
to prostrate, ut qui, as those^ who. fatigo 1. to weary, cater va, ae,/. troop. 
stattio, tli, {Itum 3. to determine, quam nullae essent hominum vires, how 
insigni/icant. the power of man might be. congressio, onis, /. etigagement. 
Thespiae and Plataeae, arum, /. cities in fioeofia. vacUus, a, um (o. abL), 
empty, grasaoi i. to toalk ; in aliquid gr. to rage against. .praem6n6o, tii, 


Oraeci quoque, adventu hostium occupati, proelium collatis vlribus 

Interea rex, velut spectator pugnae, cum parte Davium in littore 
r^m^et ; Artemisia autem, regiua Halicamassi, quae in auxilium Xend 
venerat, inter primos duces bellum acerrime ciebat: quippe ut in viro 
muli^brem timorem, ita in muliere virilem audaciam cemeres. Quum 
anceps proelium esset, lones ex praecepto Themistoclis pugnae se 
paullatim subtrahere coeperunt : quorum defectio animos ceterorum 
fregit Itaque (Jircumspicientes fugam pelluntur Persae et mox, proelio 
victi, in fugam vertuntur. In qua trepidatione multae captae sunt na- 
ves, multae mersae ; plures tamen, non minus saeviciam regis, quam 
hostem, timentes, domum dilabuntur. 

2. IHso aratar et senms. 

Marcus Pise, orator ftomanus, servis praeceperati ut tantum ad inter- 
rogata responderent, neve quicquam praeterea dicerent. Evenit, ut 
Olodium ad coenam invitari juberet. Hora coenae instabat ; ad£rant 
ceteri convivae omnes, solus Clodius exspectabatur. Piso servum, qui 
solebat convivas vocare, aliquoties emisit, ut videret, veniretne. Quum 
tandem jam desperaretur ejus adventus, Piso servo : Die, inquit, num 
forte non invitasti Clodium ? Invitavi, respondit ille. Cur ergo non 
venit? Quia venturum se negavit. Tum Piso: Cur id non statim 
dixisti ? Respondit 6ervus : Quia non sum a te interrogatus. 

3. Cants fdeUs. 

Pyn^us rex in itinere incldit in canem, qui interfecti hominis cor- 
pus custodiebat Quum audisset, eum jam tres dies cibi expertem 
a^sid^re, nee a cadavere discedere, mortuum jussit humari, canem ve- 
ro deduci et curari diligenter. Paucis post diebus militum lustratio 
habetuf. Transeunt singuli, sedente rege. Aderat canis. Is quum 

Itum 2. pre-admonisk. fkbrloor 1. to make, municeps, Ipis, m. citizen of a 
free city ; 2) citizen, coojuxj <igis,/. wife, abdo, d!di, ditum 3. to conceal. 
^etnando 1. to commit. Salaminium fretum, i, n. bay of SaU^mis. Halioar- 
nassus, i.f city in Caria. muli^bris, e^cf a woman, cern^reg, one might 
see. lones, um, m. lonians. paull&tim, adv. gradually, subtr&ho, trazi, 
tractam 3. to witlidraw. defectio, oois^/. desertion, trepidatio, onis, /. trepi- 
dation, haste, mergo, mersi, mersum 3. to sink, saevitia, ae,/. cruelty. 

2. Praecipio, cSpi, ceptum 3. to direct. praeterSa, adv. besides, aliquo* 
ties, adv. several times, num forte non invitasti ? can it be possible that thou 
hast not invited. 


3. Assldeo, s€di 2. to sit by. humo bury, dedaco, xi, ctum 3. to 
lead away, lustratio, onis,/. reiTteti'. tacitus, a, um, ^iZen^. percussor, oris. 


antea quietus et tacitus fuisset, simulac vidit, domini sui percussores 
transire, procurrit furens eosque allatravit, saepius se ad Pyrrhum con- 
rertens, ita quidem, ut non modo rex, sed oranes, qui adei:ant, suspi- 
cionem de iis conciperent Ergo comprehensi et examiuati, leyibuB 
qiiibusdam signis aliunde accedentibus, iassi caedem poenas dederunt. 

4. Archinudis mors. 

Captis Syracusis, quas Archimedes macbinationibus suis mirificis diu 
<lefeDderat, Marcellus, Imperator Romanus, gravissime edixit, ne quis 
Archimedi vim faceret At i^, dum auimo et oculis in terra defixis, 
formas in pulvere describit, militi Romano, qui praedandi caussa in 
•doroum irniperat strictoque gladio, quisnam esset^ interrogabat, propter 
fiimium ardorem studii nihil respondet, nisi hoc : JMi tvbare drcidos 
me^s! A milite igitur, ignaro, qajg asset, interficitur. 

5. Amicus infiddis. 

Duo amici una iter faciunt atque, solitudinem peragrantes, ursum 
ingeutem vident adyenientem. Alter celeriter in arborem adscendit ; 
alter recordatus, illam bestiam (;adavera non attingere, nisi fame efifera- 
tam, humi se prostemit animamque continet, simulans se esse mortuum. 
Accedit ursus, contrectat jacentem, os suiun ad hominis os et aures 
admdvet et cadaver esse ratus disced! t Tunc ambo metu liberati in- 
septum iter persequuntur. Inter eundum autem interrogat is, qui in 
arborem adscenderat, alterum, quidnam ursus ei in aurem insusurrasset^ 
Multa, inquit ille, quae non recorder ; sed imprimis hoc praeceptum 
tledit, ne quern pro amico haberem, cujus fidem adverso tempore non 
«ssem expertus. 

6. Demosthenes, 

Demosthenes caussani orans quum judices parum attentos yideret : 
Paullisper, inquit, aures mihi praebete : rem vobis noyam et jucundam 
narrabo. Quum aures arrexissent : Juveniis, inquit, quispiam asinum 
conduxerat, quo Athenis MegSu*am profecturus uteretur. In itinere 
<|uum sol flagraret, neque esset umbraculum, deposuit clitellas et sub 

«. murderer, procurro, cacurri^ cursum 3. to rush forth, futo 3. to rage, 
allfitro 1. to bark at. suspicio^ onis,/. suspicion. 

4. £dfco, xi, ctum 3. to give out command, vim facere, to inflict violence, 
forma, ue^f. figure. 

5. Infidelis, e, unfaithful, ursus, i. m. bear, eff^ro. 1, to render fierce. 
anima, ae,/. breath, contrecto 1. to handle, ' iDsusurro, to whisper. 

6. Arrfgo, rexi, rectum 3. to prick up. condaco, xi, ctum 3. to take with ', 


a&ino cons^dit, cujus umbra tegeretur. Id vero agaso vetabat, damans, 
asinum locatum esse, non umbram asim. Alter quum contra conten- 
deret, tandem in jus ambulant Haec locutus Demosthenes, ubi hom- 
ines diligenter auscultantes vidit, abiit Tum revocatus a judicibus 
rogatusque, ut reliquam fiibulam enarraret : Quid ? inquit De asini 
umbra licet audire ? caussam hominis de vita periclitantis non audietis ? 

7. OyrimoTS. 

Postquam Asiam Cyrus subegit, Scythis bellum infert, quibus eo 
tempe Tomyris regina prae^rat Rex aliquantum in Scythia progres- 
sus, quasi relugiens, castra deseruit atque in iis vii^ aff^tim et quae 
epulis erant necessari^ reliquit, Tum regina filium adolescentem 
tertia parte copiarum ad bostes insequendos misit ; is vero, rei militaris 
ignarus, omisit hostes et milites in castris Cyri.vino se onerare patitur. 
Cyrus^autem nectu redit omnesque Scytfaas cum ipso reginae filio in 
castris interficit Sed Tomyris, poenam me<fitata, bostes, recenti vic- 
toria exsult^ntes, pari firaude decipit. duippe simulato timore refli- 
giens Cyrum ad angustias pertraxit ibique in insidiis^ regem cum innu- 
merabilibus Persarum copiis occidit Tum caput Cyri amputatum in 
iitrei](i, sanguine bumano repletum, conjecit, crudelitatem his verbis 
exprdbrans: Satia te sanguine, quern sitisti, et quo nunquam satiari 

a Andrddi ko, ( C£ Gell. N. A. 5, 14, 5—30.) 

Romae in circo maximo venationis amplissimae pugna populo daba- 
tur. Multae ibi satvientes ferae erant ; sed praeter alia omnia leonum 
immanitas admirationi fuit, praeterque ceteros omnes eminebat unus. 
Is leo corporis imp^tu et ingenti inagnitudine terribilique fremltu, toris 
comisque cervicum fluotuantibus, animos oculosque omnium in sese 
converterat Introductus erat inter complures ceteros ad pugnam bes« 
tiarum servus viri consularis. Ei servo Andrdclus nomen fuit Hunc 

2) to hire, umbractlluin, n. shade, clitellae, arum, /. pack-saddle, agaso, 
onis, i>i. hostler, loco 1. to Aire, enurro 1. to relate through, jiericlitor 1. 
to be in danger of. 

7. Aliquantum, to some extent, refugio, filgi 3. to flee back, afi^tim, a<2t7. 
abundantly; affl vini, abundance of wine. insSquor, secfltus sum 3. to jiur- 
sue, recens, tis, recent. decTpio, c6pi, ceptum 3. to deceive, pertr&ho, axi, 
actum 3. to draw, amptito 1. to cu^ off. uter, utris, m. leather bag. 

8. Circus mazimus, i, m. ^the Circus MaximuSy a great race-course, im- 
manitas, atjs, /. Au^ene^^. torus, i, m. protuberance ; 2) muscle, coma, ae, 
/. hair; 2) mane, cervix, Icis,/. neck, fluctuor 1. to wave, introdaco, xi, 



ille leo ubi vidit procul, repeDte, quasi admirans, stetit; ac deinde sen- 
sim atque placlde tanquam exploraturus ad hominem accedit; turn 
caudam more adulantium canum cleroenter et blande movet hominis- 
que fere corpori adjuDgit cruraque ejus et manus prope jam exanimati 
metu lingua leniter demulcet Homo Audroclus inter ilia tarn atrocis 
ferae blandimenta amissum animum receperat; pauUatim oculos ad 
contuendum leonem refert Turn, quasi mutua recognitione facta, lae- 
tos et gratulabundos videres hominem et leonem. £a re prorsus admi- 
rabili maximi a populo clamores excitantur, arcessiturque a Caesare 
Androclus, quaeriturque ex eo, cin* ille atrocissimus leonum uni peper- 

Hie Androclus rem mirificam narrat atque admirandam. Quum pro- 
vinciam, inquit, Africam proconsulari imperio mens dominus obtineret, 
ego ibi ipiquis ejus et quotidianis verberibus ad fugam sum coactus ; 
et, ut mihi a domino terrae illius praeside tutiores lat^brae essent, in 
camporum et arenarum solitudines concessi: ac, si defuisset cibus, 
consilium fuit mortem aliquo pacto quaerere. Turn, sole flagrante, 
specum quendam nactus remotum latebrosumque, in eum me recondo. 
Neque multo post ad eundem specum venit hie leo, debili uno et 
cruento pede, gemitus edens et murmura, dolorem cruciatumque vul- 
neris indicantia. Ac primum quidem conspectu advenientis leonis 
animus meus summo terrore impletur ; sed postquam leo, introgressus 
inlatibdlum illud suum, vidit me procul delitescentem, mitis et man- 
suetus accessit : ac sublatum pedem ostendere et porrigere, quasi opis 
petendae gratia, visus est Ibi, ego stirpem ingentem vestigio pedis 
ejus haerentem revelli conceptamque saniem vulnere intimo express! 
accuratiusque sine magna jam fbrmidine siccaii peiiitus atque detersi 
cruorem. Ille tunc mea opera et medicina levatus, pede in manibtis 
meis posito, recubuit et quievit Atque ex eo die triennium totum ego 
et leo in eodem specu eodemque victu viximus. Nam, quas venaba- 
tur feras, membra opimiora ad specum mihi suggerebat: quae ego, 

<ctum 3. to introduce, yir consulsiris, m. a man of consular rank, sensim, 
adv. by degrees, cauda, ae,/. tail, adjungo, xi, ctum 3. to join to. demul- 
ceo, mulsi, mulsuui 2. to soothe ; 2) to lick, blandimentlun, i, n. caressing. 
mutuils, a, urn, mutual, recognitio, onis, /. recognition, gratulabundos, a, 
urn, congratulating. Hie, here, proconsul&re impetium, n. proconsular poto- 
er, latgbrae, arum,/, lurking places, argna, ae,/. sand, latebrosus, a, um, 
full of lurking places, recondo, idi, Hum 3. to conceal. introgrSdior, gres- 
sus sum 3. to enter, latibillum, i, n. den. delitesco, tui 3. to conceal one's 
self mansuetus, a, um, tame, ostendo, di, sum 3. to show, porrigo, rezi, 
rectum 3. to extend, vestigium, i, n. sole, revello, elli, ulsum 3. to tear out, 
sanies, ei,/. bloody matter, formido, Tnis,/./car. sugg&rq, gess'r, gestum 3. 


igDiB copiam non habens, sole meridiano torrens edebam. Sed ubi 
me vitae illius femiae jam pertaesum est, leone in veDatum profecto, 
reliqui specum : et, yiam fere tridiii permensus, a mHitibus visus com- 
prehensusque sum et ad dominum ex Africa Romam deductus. Is me 
statim rei capitalis damnandum dandumque ad bestias curavit Intel- 
ligo autem hunc quoque leonem, me tunc separato, captum gratiam 
mihi nunc etiam beneficii et medicinae referre. Itaque, cunctis peten- 
tibus^ dimissus est Androclus et poena solutus, leoque et sufiragiis 
populi donatus. 

9. Soimiimn, rmrum, 

Quum duo quidam Arcades familiares iter una fiicerent et Meg&ram 
venissent, alter ad cauponem devertit ; ad bospitem alter. Qui ut 
coeoati quieverunt, concubia nocte visus est in somnis ei, qui erat in 
hospitio, ille alter orare, ut subveniret, quod sibi a caupone interitus 
pararetur: is primus perterritus somnio surrexit; dein, quum se col- 
legisset idque visum pro nihilo habendum esse duxisset, recubuit ; turn 
ei dormienti idem ille visus est rogare, ut, quoniam sibi vivo non sub- 
venisset, mortem suam ne inultam esse pateretur ; se interfectum in 
plaustrum a caupone esse conjectum, et. supra stercus injectum: pe- 
tere, ut mane ad portam adesset, priusquam pl&ustrum ex oppido ex- 
iret Hoc vero somnio is commotus mane bubulco praesto ad portam 
fbit ; quaesivit ex eo, quid esset in plaustro : ille perterritus fugit ; mor- 
tuus erdtus est: caupo, re patefacta, poenas dedit — ^C. Div. 1. 27, 57. 

10. Ciedbis et Bito, Tr&pJuyriXus et Agamides, 

Argiae sacerdotis^ Ciedbis et Bito, filii, praedicantur. Nota &bula 
est Quum enim illara ad soUenne et statum sacrificium cumi vehi 
jus esset satis longe ab oppido ad fanum, morarenturque jumenta ; 
tunc juvenes ii, quos modo nominavi, veste posita, corpora oleo perun- 
xerunt : ad jugum accesserunt Ita ^cerdos advecta in &num, quum 
currus esset ductus a filiis, precata a dea dicitur, ut illis praemium 
daret pro pietate, quod maxifnum homini dari posset a deo. Post, 

to bring, sol meridianuS; m. midday sun. ferinus, a, tim, toild, me per- 
taesum est alio uj as rei, I had become very tired of^ (from perlaedet). perme- 
tior, mensus sum 4. to pass over, rei capitalis damnare, to condemn for a 
capital offence, suffragiam, i, n. potsherd ; 'H) vote, voice. 

9. Caupo, onis, 7n. inn-keeper, devertor, ti^ 3. to put up. concubia nocte, 
dead of night, hospitium, i, n. hospitality, supra, adv. upon that, bubulcus, 
i, m. teamster. 

10. Arglus, a, um, Argive, solennis,e, customary, solemn, status, a, um, 


epulatos cum matre adolescentes somno se dedisse, mane inven- 
to8 esse mortuos. — Simili precatione Trophonius et Agam^des usi di- 
cimtur: qui, quum Apollini Delphis templum exaedificavisseut, ve- 
nerantes deum, petierunt mercedem non parvam quidem opens et la- 
boris sui, uihil certi, sed quod esset optimum homini. Quibus Apollo 
se id daturum ostendisse dicitur post ejus diei diem tertium : qui ut 
iUuzity mortui sunt reperd. — C. Tusc^ 1. 47, 113, 1 14. 

11. Dolus PythiL 

C. Canius, eques Romanus, quum se Syracusas otiandi (ut ipse di- 
cere solebat), non negotiandi paussa, contulisset, dictitabat, se hortQlos 
aliquos velle emere, quo invitare amicos, et ubi se oblectare sine inter- 
peliatoribus posset Quod quum percrebuisset, Pytbius ei quidam, 
qui argentariam faceret Syracusis, dixit yenales quidem se bortos non 
habere, sed licere uti Canfo, si vellet, ut suis : et simul ad coenam 
hominem in bortos invitavit in posterum diem. Quum ille promisis- 
set, turn Pytbius, qui esset ut argentarius apud omnes ordines gratio- 
sus, piscatores ad se convocavit et ab iis petivit, ut ante sues bortulos 
postridie piscarentur : dixitque, quid eos &cere vellet. Ad coenam 
tempore venit Canius : ppipSire a Pytbib apparatum convivium : cym- 
barum ante occulos multitudo : pro se quisque quod ceperat, atiferebat : 
ante pedes Pytbii pisces abjiciebantur. Turn Canius : Quaeso, inquit, 
quid est hoc, Pythi? tantumne piscium, tantumne cymbarum? £t 
ille : Quid mirum ? inquit Hoc loco est, Syracusis quicquid est pis- 
cium : hie aquatio : hac villa isti carere non possunt Incensus Canius 
cupiditate contendit a Pytbio, ut venderet Gravate ille primo. Quid 
multa ? impetrat Emit homo cupidus et locCiples tanti, quanti Pytbius 
voluit, et emit instructos : negotium conftcit Invitat Canius postridie 
farailiares sues ; venit ipse mature : scalmum nullum videt Quaerit 
ex proximo vicino, num feriae quaedam piscatorum essent, quod eos 
nullos videret ? Nullae, quod sciam, inquit ille, sed hie piseari nulli 

stated, sacrificium, i, n. sacrifice, jumentum, i. n. beast of burden, peiun- 
go, zi, ctum 3. to anoint, precatio, onis, f. prayer, exaedifico 1. to build. 
11. C^Caius. otior I. to be unoccupied, horttilus, i, m. a little garden ; 
2) small country house, interpellator, oris, m. disturber, percrebesco, cre- 
bui, to become known, argentaria, ae,/. banking ; argentariam face re, to fol- 
low banking. veniXia^ for sale, qui esset, since he urns, gratiosus, a, um, be- 
loved, opipllre, adv. splendidly, app&ro 1. to prepare, pro se quisque, each 
for himself, abjicio, 6ci, ectum 3. to cast down, tantumne piscium ? so many 
fish? aquatio, onis, /. watering place, villa, ae, country-seat, scalmus, i, 
TO. thowl ; 2) boat, quod sciam, as far as I know, stomachari, to be indignant. 
The Infin. here stands for stomachatur. formula, ae,/. legal form. 


solent Itaque heri mirabar, quid accidisset Stomachari Canius. 
Sed quid faceret ? nondum enim Aquillius protu]erat de dolo malo 
formulas.— C. Off 3. 14, 58—60. 

12. Ardtus, 

Aratus Sicyonius jure laudatur, qui, quum ejus civitas quinquaginta 
annos a tyrannis teneretur, profectus Argis Sicyonem, clandestiDo in- 
troitu urbe est potitus, quu^que tyrannum Nicdclem improvlso oppres- 
sisset, sexceutoa exsOles, qui fueraut ejus civitatis locupletissimi, res- 
tituit, remque publicam adventu suo liberavit Sed quum magnam 
animadverteret in bonis et possessionibus difficultatem, quod et eos, 
quos ipse restituerat, quorum bona alii possederant, eg^re iniquissimum 
arbitrabatur, et quinquaginta annohim possessiones moveri non nimis 
aequum putabat, propterea quod tam longo spatio multa hereditatibus, 
multa emptionibus, multa dotibus tenebantur sine injuria : judicavit, 
Deque illis admi, nee iis non satisfi^ri, quorum ilia fuerant, oportere. 
Quum igitur statuisset, opus esse ad eam rem constituendam pecunia, 
Alexandriam se proficisoi velle dixit, remquel intSgram ad reditum 
suum jussit esse : isque celeriter ad Ptolemaeum, suum hospitem, ve- 
nit, qui turn regnabat alter post Alexandriam conditam. Cui quum ex- 
posuisset, patriam se liberare velle, caussamque docuisset ; a rege op- 
ulento vir summus facile impetravit, ut grandi pecunia adjuvaretur. 
Quam quum Sicyonem attulisset, adbibuit sibi in consilium quindecim 
piincipes, cum quibus caussas cognovit et eorum, qui aliena tenebant, 
et eorum, qui sua amiserant : perfecitque aestimandis possessionibus, 
ut persuaderet k\ua, ut pecuniam accipere mallent, possessionibus ce- 
derent ; aliis, ut commodius putarent, numerari sibi, quod tanti esset, 
quam suum recujperare. Ita perfectum est, ut onmes, concordia con- 
stituta, sine querela discederent O virum magnum dignumque, qui 
in nostra republica natus esset! — C. Off 2. 23, 81, 82. 

12. Sicyonius, Sicyomatiy (from Sicyon, a city of Achaia). Argi, orum, 
n. Argosy chief city of Atgolis, clandestinus, a, um, secret, improvlso, adv. 
unexpectedly, possideo, s6di, sessum 2. to possess, bereditas, fttis,/. inheri* 
tance. satiaf^cio, f^ci, factum 3. to make satisfaction, expono, posdi, positum 
3. to explain. 


The nambera 1 , S^, 3, 4 written mfler the veVb«, denote the conjugation 
which they follow : the numerals, which are introduced in § 33, and the pre- 
positions which are introduced in § 34, are omitted. The adjectives of thi-ee 
endings in uSj a, urkj instead of their endings have the figure 3 after them. 

A. absaino, sumpsi, sump- accOso 1. to con^plam of, 

AbdOco, X], ctum 3. turn 3. to conmmt. accuse, 

to had away, draw abundoy 1. c. abL to acer, £ris, n. mapU4rtt, 
away, have an abundance of, acer, cris, ere, sharp, 

abto, ii, Itum 4, to go abound tn( something). xealous,Jlerce, 
away, depart, abator, Cksus, sum 3. c acerbus 3. bitter, pun- 

abhorrto, Ca 2. ab, c abL to use up; 2) getU. 
abl. to shun, to have abuse, AchiHes, is, m. MdtUs. 

a strong aversion (to ac, cor^. (never before acies, fei, /. edge ; '4) 
something). a vowel or A), and ; as. line-of-battte, 

^go, *gi, actum 3. to Academia, /. Academy, acriter, adv. spiritedly, 
drim away. acc6do, cessi, cessum actio, dnis,/ action. 

abominor 1. to execrate. - 3. (o approach. acilo,ili,Qtum3.<ojAar- 

abiipio, ripui, reptum accel^ro 1. to hasten. pen. 
3. to take away, carry accendo, di, sum, 3* to acus, i)ia,f. needle, 
off. enkindle, ir^tame. acQte, adv, sharply, ac- 

absens, tis, absent acceptus 3. received. uidy. 

absolvo, vi, utura 3. to accidit 3. it happens. acOtus 3: sharp^ pointed, 
compute, 2) to dt9- acclpio, c^pi, ceptum 3. acute, 
tharge. to take, receive. adaequo 1. to levd to. 

abstergeo, si, sum, 2. to accommodatus3.G.dat ad&mas, antis, m. dia- 
wipe off take away, fitted to, suited to. mond. 

remove. accreseo, 6vi, 6tum 3. addictus 3.cfet;o^to. 

abstinens, tis, temperate, to increase, to aug- addo, didi, ditum 3b to 

abstindo, tinai, tentum ment. join to, add. 

2. to keep off; 2) c accdbo, bOi, bitum 1, to addQco, xi, ctum 3. to 
abl. to abstain, (from redine by, to sit (at bring to, induce. 
something). table). ad£o, adv. so much, so 

absum, fiii, esse, to be accurate, adv. accurate- very, 
absent, to be removed; ly,JuUy. ad^o, ii, itum 4. to come 

nihil abest, (non accuratus 3. exoo^. to, approach. 

multum) abest, quin, accurro, cncurri, cur- adhib^o 2. to appiy, he- 
it wants nothing [not sum 3. to run up, to stow, give, 
much), ihat. hasten up. adhuc, adv. as yet, stUL 


aipcto, ili 3. c. dat io adsum, flii^ esse c. dat aequus 3. Jiuf, equal ; 

lie upoHf £y, near (a to be present at (aome- aequus animus, e^rua- 

thiDg). thing), to be present. nimiiy, 

adlmo, 6mi, emtum 3. &dulatio,6nui^. Jiattery, aemmna^sfi,/, hardship. 

to take, take away, adulor L c dat to fiat- aes, aeris, n. brass. 
adipiscor, adeptus sum tcr. Aescbines, is, m. JEschi' 

3. to obtafn. adulterinus 3. false, nes. 

aditus, us, m. approach, counterfeit. aestas, atis, f. summer. 

adjator, oris, m. assis^ aduro, ussi, ustum 3. aestimo 1. to value^ es- 

tant. to set onfite, b%um. teem. 

adjCivo, dvi, Otum 1. c. adv^nio, T6ni, ventum aestivus 3. pertoMwng to 

ace to aid, assist, sup- 4. to come^ to, arrisoe. swrnner ; aestivum 

port. [ble. advento 1. to approach, tempus, summer seci- 

admirabilis, e, admira- adventus, us, m. omvo^ son. 
admiratio, Oms,/. adm- adversarius, i, tn. oppo- aetas, atis,/. age, period. 

ration. nent. aetenutas, atis, /. eter^ 

admiror admire, adversus, 3. placed nity. 

admisc^o, iscui, istum against, contrary, op- aeternus 3. eternal. 

oif ixtum 2. to inter- posite ; res adversae, affabilitas, atis, /. qffa- 

mingle. adversity. bUity. 

Sidmbdum, adv. very. adverto, ti, sum 3. to afi^ro, attCili, aUatum3. 
admdn^o 2. to admon* t%am to. to beccr to, bring. 

iah. advdk) X to hasten to. afficio, 6oi, ectum 3. to 

adrndv^o, movi, m6tum aedes, is, /. temple ; pi. affect ; Part afifectus 

2. c. dat to bring up house. ^3. affected. 

to. aedificium, i, n« edifice, aifinitas, atis,/. reUdion- 

adnitor, nixus or uisus aedifico 1. to buHd. ship. 

sum 3. to endeavor, aedilis, is, m. lidile. afflicto 1. to afflict, 
adolescens,tis,m<'i/DU7ig' aeger, gra, grum, sick, affluenter, adv. abun- 

man, youth, young, aegritudo, inis, /. sick- danUy. 
adolescentCilus, i, m. ness, sorrow, affluentla, ae, /. abun- 

young man, youth. aegre, adv. reluctantly, dance. 
adolesco, adol6vi, adul- wUh difficulty ; aegre afOfiio, uxi, uxum 3. to 

turn 3. to grow up. fero, to be dissatisfied, flow to ; overflow, have 

ador, dris, n. wheat. aegrotus, 3. sick. an abundance. 

adorior, ortus sum 4. aemulor 1. c. ace. to afTulgeo, si 2. (o shine. 

to attack, undertake. emulate. Afrnnius, i. m. Afra- 

adomo 1. to put in or- Aeueas^ae, m. Mneas. nius. 

der, adorn. aeDigma,&tis,n. enigma. Africanus, i, m. Africa- 

adscendo, di, sum 3. aequalis, e, equal. nus. 

to ascend. aeque — atque (ac), in Agamemno, dnis, m. 

adscisco, ivi, itum 3. like manner^-as. Agamemnon. 

to adopt, receive. aequiplu*o equal, ager, gri, m.fidd, land. 

adspicio, exi, ectum 3. aquitas, atis,/. equity. Agesilaus, i, m. AgeM- 

to look upon, discover, aequo 1. to equal. laus. 

adstringo, iuxi, ictum 3. aequor, dris, n. surface, agger, €ris, m. rampart. 

to draw up tight ; 2^ espec. : surface of aggr^dior, gressus sum 

bind, to make binditig. the sea. 3. rem, to approach, 


begin Bomething; 2) alius— «lhi8, one, an- amplus S. broad Kber- 

aUadc other » al, magn^kent. 

agmeD, inis, n. bandj alKcio, exi, ectiun 3. amussis, is,/, a ncfe (of 

Jlock. to alhare, mechanics). 

agDOflCO, ndvi, nltum 3. alKgo 1. to fasten, tie an, (in questions) or, 

reoognbx, up, anas, &tis,/. a dude 

ago, 6gi, actum 3. to ^Uobrdges, um, m. ./I^ anceps, cipftis, tun^old, 

drwe, make, do, pass ; lobroges, double, doubtful. 

agere annum, to be in alldquor, cQtus sum 3. Anchises, ae, m. An- 

(he year ; age, come to addreu. ddses. 

on. alo, alOi, (alitum) 3. to apcilla, ae,/. a maid, 

agrio61a, ae, tn. ^«&afu^ noun$h, ancillaris, e, pertaining 

man, farmer, aide, es,/ the aloe, to a maid, gervile, 

Ajax, acis, m. Ajax, Alpes, ium,/ Alps. ango, xi, 3. to trouble, 
aio, I say, say yes, assert, alter, €ra, £rum, the one angor, dris, m, vexation, 

affirm, or other of two, angdlus, i,m, an angle, 

alftcer, cris, ere, «ptrvfec{, altertlter, (itra, Otrum, angustiae, arum,/ nor- 

Ivvely. one of the tw6, row pass. 

Albis, is, m, the Elbe, altitOdo, inis, / height, angustus 3. narrow. 
albus 3. white, depth, antmadverto, ti, sum 3. 

Alcibi&des, is, m, Alei- altus 3. high, deep. to observe, perceive. 

biades. alvus, i,/ bdly. animal, ilis, n. animaL 

Alexander, dri, m, JXUX" amaliilis, e, amicdiU. animus, i, m. soul, spirit, 

ander, . atnarus 3. biJtter, mind, heart, courage, 

Alexandria, ae, Alexan- ambio, ivi, itiun 4. to annCilus, i, m. a rtTig'. 

dria. go around (some- annus, i, m. a year, 

algeo, si 2. to feel cold, thing), surround. anser, ^ris, m. a goose, 

freeze. ambo, ae, o, both, ante, adv, before, 

alias, adv. at another ambulatio, dnis, / a aut^a, adv, before, 

time. wcdk, antec^do, cessi, cessum 

alicunde, adv.from some ambillo l,to goto walk, 3. c. dat. or ace. to go 

place or other, to stroU, before, be superior to 

alienig^na, ae, m. stran- amicitia, ae, / friend- (some one). 

ger from another coun- ship, antepdno, posdi, porf- 

try, amicus, i, m. friend, tum 3. to prefer. 

alienus 3. foreign, an- amitto, misi, missum3. antdquam, conj, before 

othei^s. . to lose, that, ere, before, 

aliquamdiu, adv, a long amnis, is, m, river. J^ut\ochiei, ae,f.Antio(h, 

time, amo 1. to hve, antiqultas, atis, / an- 

aliquando, adv, some amoenus 3. pleasant (of tiquity, 

time. countries), agreeable, antiquitus, adv, ancient- 

allquis, a, id or aliqui, a, amor, dris, m. love, ly, formerly. 

od, some one. amplexor 1. to embrace, Antistius, i,m. Antistius. 

ailquot (inded.), some, cherish, Antonlus, i, m, Aniomf. 

aliter, adv. otherwise. amplitQdo, Tnis, / au- anus, Os, / old woman, 
aliunde, adv, from an- thority, dignity, anxie, adv, anxioushf, 

other source, place. amplius, adv. more, fur- aper, pri, m. boar, uM 
alius, a, ud, anodwr ; ther, boar. 

a|)«rio, rAi^ rtom 4* fo aroos^ 00, m. a bow, afiskliius 3. tmn e w fl tft^, 

open, (caput) to wi- ardeoter, euh, glmdng- peneiftr i n f. 

outer; at>eitU8 d» la^^ ardenUy. asstttftcio, ftci^ ^etsiM 

open, ardeo, si, autn % t6 3. c. dat fo oeetiflbm 

aperte, ocft;* i>penZy. fturil, glttuf, U. 

BipeiBj icie, nk $umiiU. ardor, dris, m« Aecrf, de-^ assuesco, evi, fttum 3. 
apis, is,/ « iee. n^ c. dat or abL fo dt- 

Apolk), Inis, m. .^^wtto. ar^« ae,/ openiyttee. etufom one't #e^ io, 
Apdlonia, ae, / i^jd^ argeftt^us 3. ^sUikr, bt aaiiilemed fo 

20ma. [evufen^ argentum, i, n. «ilMr ; (somffthifig). 

appareo 2. (o appear^ &e arg. vivuM, fiiJdM' Assyifa, ae,/. .^bHi^ 
itppi^o 1. (o e<^ oer. astutia, ae,/ cwmt^. 

app^tOy ill, itum 3* to Atgo, Qs,/ IhtArgOi at, coi^. ^, ^. 

«iNoe fo o6fam. argumentam, i, a. mft* Ath6Dae,afiin]^.«^M»l«. 

appetens, ntis, e« gen. tents. ^ AthcMuefiisis, e, MiM*- 

eager Jhr M/mtMng. Aristides, is, nt. AtkH- torn ; tobst an Mt^ 
appetitQSy OS, in, dmre* de$. man. 

a^atidoy si, sum 3» e. Aristc^lei, is, tk^ Aiis- Atlas, antis, m. i^Au. 

dat to apfikmdL Me* atque, cmij. aM, at. 

ftppkco 1. to rest vpon; arma, drum, n. artM. atrox,dcis,/eroe,vi<»feh<, 

se applicare, to ajh arc 1. to plouf^ Jrtgktfid, Uood§. 

proadi^jmn ovi£b iAf Arpinas, atis, m. tfJto&- i^endo, di, turn 3. to 

to (aomB oDe)) tqfply Uimi of tArpinum. attend 1^, gtve aH^- 

ont^i Mff to (some-r airrideo, si, sum 2i c. tion. 

thing). dat to m3e upon. atteote, ado. aUentkdy. 

appano, posoi, poflTtum ars, tis,/ eirt. atCentus 3. titentiee. 

3. fo pbtee by^ htfore. artifex, ids, skUlJkA ; atlBh), trivi, tritttm 3. 
appr5bo 1. to eqtprove. subst arti$t* to impdilr, exhaust* 

appropinqoo 1. to (tp- artus, Qs, tn. joint, lhd>. Atticus 3. Mie, inhab- 

proadi. Arunii^ ntis, m. ,4runs. itant of Mka. 

Api^, is, nk 9^^^: arvum, i, n. a pitoughed Atticus, i, m. Mieus. 
aptus 3. e. dat or otf c. feld. attingo, t^, actual 3. 

KC^ fit, fitted* arx, cis,/ ciiadd. to touch. 

aqua^ ae,/ water. as, assise m. an a» (a auctor, dris, m. aiMor, 

aratrum, i, n. a pifiongh. Roman copper coin.) advtser ; me auctdre, 
arbitror 1. to Ikink, to- asi^endo, di, ^sum 3. to tq>on my adince. 

amount (one some- ascend, mount* auctorttas, atiis, / cm- 

thiDg). ascensns, tLB, m. ascent, thonly. 

arbor, dris,/ a tree. asinus, \,m. an ass. audacYa, ae, / sdfcxrt^ 
arcAnum, \*n*a secret, asper, ^ra, £rUm, rou^ fidence* [bold. 

Areas, ftdis, m* an Ar- aspemor 1. to spurn/ audax, acis, cof^idenl, 

cadian* asporto 1. to 6mry away, aud^, ausus sum 2. to 

arc^, i3& keep off* assentior, sensus sum dare, venture. 
arcesso, ivi, itum 3. to 4. c. dat to ai»etit to, audio 4. to heat. 

send for, bring* assSquor, secatus sum auditor, dris, m. hetireir. 

ArchliBfl, ae, m. Arekias. 3. to attain. auftro, absttili, abMtilM 

Archimedes, is, m. .^ assido, edi, essum 3. 3. to tdkt away, beat 

dnmedes* to sit doum* away* 



ai^^eo, zi, ctoin 2. to beate, aAf.peoD^iAf. bmiB, is, / a ftomgk- 

matoMty emridu beatU0 3.peae0i2, ft€^ iaSL 

augnriuiDf i, n. m^fwy, p^ buly nm^ i, n. Mfer. 

diomaliim. belhmit i, «. tfor. 

auguror ]. to dwtnt^frt- beDus 3. htomiyvl, neof. C. 

diet bene, adv. «i«0,fiJgM^. Gadiauiatio, onia, /. 

AugufltiMiy i, ». Auguo- bene^co 3. c. daL to loud, waratramtd 

aula, ae,yi oowrL beDeficeDfia, ofi, f, H- cacCunen, iois^ n. top. 

aureus 3. gMen, n^ktnet. cadaver, €ri8,n. eareoMi, 

Aui^ufl, 1, m. AwtuB benefieiuiii, i, n. iMid- corpou 

(mountain). nem, favour. cado, cedfdi, caanm 3. 

auris, is,/ fkt tar. beneHcus 3. hen^kanL to/aUy heq^en. 

aunim, i, n. gold, benevdle, ado, hindbf, caducus 3. rwdjf to fall, 

auscuho L to UdetL benevolentia, oe^f^ho- fedling, 
aus^cor 1. to commence, neoolenee. caeeus 3. Umd, 

aut, eonj. or ; aut—aut, benignus 3. kind, caedes, is,/ daughter. 

either— ^ir. bestia, ae,/ bead, caedb, oeddi, caesnm 

autem, eonf. but (ta^es besddla, ae, /. a UiOe 3. (o/eS, to kUL 

the second place in animal, cammonia, ae, / cere- 

its sentence). Inbliothtea, ae, f, li- momf, 

autumnus, i, m, autumn, hrary. Caesar, Ira, m. Caeoar ; 

auxiliuni, i, n, aid; pi. bibo, biln, bibitum 3. 2) an emperor, 

auxiliary troope, to. drink, \bodied, Caius MarlUs, Cakia 

avaritia, ae,/ avarice, bicorpor, dris, douhU- Marius, 
avarus 3. c. gen. avor biddum, i, n. the space calamitas, atls,/ca2am- 

ndous, covetous, gree- of two days. . Hy, loss, misfortune. 

dy. bills, \»,f.SiegalL calcar, aris, n, a spur, 

arersor I. to shun. blande, adv. genUy. calcillus, i, m. pelAle, 

arerto, ti, sum ,3. to blandior, itus sum 4. to cal^o 2. to he warm, 

turn away, to averL Jlatter, caligo, ftiis,/. darkness. 

avidus 3. c. gen. desir- bombyz, y cis, m. the calkc, icis, m. a cup, 

ous, greedy. sUkworm. callidus 3. cunntt^. 

avis, is,/, a bird. bonitas, atis, / good- Callisth^nes, is, m. Cal- 

av(^ I. to call off. ness. Halkenes. 

av61o \.tofiy away. bonus 3. good; bonum, calor, oris, m. heat, 
avus, j, m. a grandfa- i, it. ih' good, good, catyx, ycis, m. ihe bud, 

ther, Boreas, fte, m. Boreas, Campus, i, m. cameL 

axis, is, m. on aMe. north ufind. campus, i, m. apUein, 

bos, oyis, cox, cow*. can^lis, is, m. a canaL 
B. brevis, e, short ; brevi, canis, is, c a dog. 

Babylon, onis,/ Baby- (sc. tempore), in a cannabis, is,/ hen^. 

Ion. short time, soon. cano, cecini, cantum 3. 

Bactra, orum',fi. Bactra. Britannus, i, m. a Bri- to sing, 
barba, ae,/ beard. ton. canto 1. to sing. 

barb&rus 3. barbarian, Brundusliim, L. mBrun- cantus, Os, m, song, 
hasiB, IB, f, foundation, dusium. Canusium, i, n. Cami- 

pedestaL .^ Brutus, i, tn. JBrn^s. slum. 


capesso, ivi, itum 3. to to he on one's guardj circunklo, d^di, d&tutn, 

seize; proelium, to ab aliquo, &e/bre «of?ie dSire, to place around, 

commence battle, one ; 2) establish, pro- surround, (c dat of 

capillus, i,m,{he hair. vide. [to gite way, pers. and ace. of 

capio, c6pi, captum 3. c6do, cessi, cessum 3. thing,orc.acc.of pers. 

to take, seize, capture, cel^ber, bris, bre, Jre- and abl. of thing). 

capra, ae,/ sht-goai. quented, ' . circum^o (circu^o),' ii, 

oapto 1. to catch, strive celebritaSy atis, /. great itum 4. to go around. 

to catch, number, great mutti^ Cffcums^d^o, sedi, ses- 

caput, itis, nJiead,ch(qh tude, sum 2. (o. n^ around, 

ter, chief city. celSbro 1. to celebrate. besiege. 

carb&sus, i,f.Jlax. ceflei', ^ris, £re, svoift. circumspicio^ * e|>exi, 

career, ^ris, m. a pnmm. eelerftas, atis,/. ceUriJty, spectum 3^ (c. aec.) 

cardo, inis, m. Mnge. swijlness. f to look aroiind (after 

careo 2. e. abl. to unmt. celeriter adv. surifUy, something). 

Caila, he, J. Carta. celo 1. e. dupl. ace. to circnmsto, £ti 1. to 

caritas, atis,/. Une. conceal. stand around. 

carmen, inis,/ pcfcm. censeo, sdi, sum 2. to cito, adv. quickly, 

ctaro, caxms,/. flesh. valut, account, tkink. eivilis, e, civi^ ; bellum 

Cardlus, i, m, Charles. Centaurus, i,m. a Cen- civile, dvU war. 

oarpentariuB i, m. uhed- Umr, ciyis, is, c cvftzen, svib^ 

wright. cerium, i, n. cherry. ject. 

Carthago, inis, / Car- cer^Us, i,/ cherry-tree, civitas, atis, / dtizen- 

ihage. Ceres, ^tis,f. Ceres. ship, stcde; 2) right 

Carthaginiensis, is, m. eemo, cr6vi, cr^tum 3. of citizenship. 

a Carffiagiman, to see, judge. [test, clades, is,/ dtfcot. 
carus 3. beloved, dear, certamen, inis, n. con- clamo 1. to cry out. 

casa, ae,/ a hut. eette, adv. surely. clamor, oris, m. a cry, 

cassis, idis,/ hdrnd, certo, 1. to contend. claie, adv. dearly, m- 

cassis, is (commonly cdrto, adv. svrely. derUly. [ed. 
pL casses, ium), ?fi. certus 3. sure, certain, clarus 3. dear, renoum- 

hunter^sneL definite, po'sitive. clasaiB, is, f.Jled. 

Ca88iu8, 1, m. Cassius. cervus, i, m. «^. claudo, si, sum 3. to 

castigo 1. to reprove. cet^ri, ae, a, ike rest. dose. 

castra, drum, n. camp, chalybs, ybis, m. sted. clausus 3. dosed, 

casus, tis, m. faU, mis- chorda, ae,/ string. clavis, is,/ hey. 

fortune, chance. Christus, L m. Christ, clemens, tis, mUd. 

catena, ae,/ chain. cibus, i,, clementer,. adv,mil(Uyi 
Catilina, ae, m. CatUine. cicer, Ms, n. chtdc-pea^ CleomSnes, is, m. Cteo- 
caulis, is, m. cabbage. Cicero, onis, m. Cicero, menes. 

Cato, onis, m. Cato. ciconia, ae,/ stork. Clitus, i, m. Clitus. 

eaussa, ae, / ground, cicur, i&ris, tame, Clodius, L m. Clodius. 
came, dvU process ; ci6o, ivi, itum 2. to raise, clyp6us, i, m* shidd, 
(witb a gen. preced- cingo, xi, ctum 3. to coactor, oris, m. coUec- 

mg) on account of . gird, surround. ,tor. 

cautus 3. caviious, care' cinis, 6ris, m. ashies. <^oale8co, iCii, litum 3. 
fid. ciredlus, i, m. drde, dr- to grow togdher, to 

caveo, cavi, cautum 3. euit, coalesce. 


cfiaxo 1. to orotA. io otteiuf (o, iuftiioatey oompSfio, p6ri, pertom 

<^icib)6fi, ae,/ a Ma«E» revere, Aonor. 1. io a$ea4ain. 

cj^eXf ici9, m. AqoL colonim ae,/ co/of^. compeiB^ Mia,/. nfiHUf* 
q^dicUli, dnun, ^^ fsnt- color, ^is, ir|. color. coipplector, erm earn 

n^4ahkL cdmnba, ae,/. d<ave. 3. ii^ embrace. 

eoelestis, e, koQvenbf* colus, i,/ ilifitq^ Qomplto, ^vi, ^um % 

^qelmoj If n. Afoiwn. comburo, uesi, uatain <Q./iB. 
cf^fQA) ^^/* f^ mao^ 3l to 6tini vp^ him, oomplieo^ avi, atum 1. 

•coeno 1. to parU^ ^comedo, ^di, ^sum S, tofoldU^dher; com-' 

fo^ ; coeaatug 3. to eat, consume. pUeatus 3. imoohntd, 

having eaten. corafetes^ ae, m. comet complures, e im* ia, gen* 

coepi, pisse, to iove h0- coi»!cue 31 eomic ; poe- ium, very mctajf. 

Ifim. t^GGsaSLcuBfeoimcpQeL cmapono, sili, if turn 3. 

eoer^^o 3. (o reffrvas. coipis, e, cowcieous. to jput togeOierf Ap- 

cogitatio, doisy/. r^/kc- coinitas^ ati«, / kind- pote ; paoem, to e*- 

Hon. ne9$. tabUik peaoe ; so 

cogitato, ad», vfUk re- comitia, orun^ n. as- comp. in aliquid, to 

Jkction. temJb^f of ^ peopte. sti an^s ae^f right. 

cQgFto 1. to tkink, con- comltor 1. to accompa- compos, dtis, c gen. 

fuiSen m^ power/tdypos$e$9ed 4jf. 

cognitio, oois, f. knouh commemdro 1. to wun- compoaitu^ 3. o^mpotei. 

ledge. tion. comprehendo, t)i, (mm 

cf^tus 3. knofum. commendatio, Oiiia, /. 3. to seke. 

epgBoeco, no?!, nitum commendation. compungo, xi, Qdwfi 3. 

3. to becowm acqwmU- commendo 1. to reoom- to prick* 

ed withj perceive^ un- mend. conc^do^ essi, eaeum 3. 

deritand. committor misi, am- to aSow, oo9|/e«s, 2) te 

cogo, coeg], coaotum 3^ sum 3. to commit to ; surrender otie't §ey. 

to compeL 2) io.commil, concitio 1. to conc9ifd€y 

ce}]|aereo, si, sum % to commoditas, alis,/ eef%- unite- 

Jifild togethar. . venimce. coDCinOy iatd, entum 3. 

cohors, tie./ eo/k>r<. cobimOdiun, \, n. ad- tonngtogetkerysomid 
cohortor 1. to encovarog^ vantage^ use. togeUter. 

incite. commddus 3.eotit;ement» concioiKMr h to ith 

colKgo, €ig], octum 3^ commoaeflM^io, ffici; rangue (he pwpk. 

to ccUed. factum 3. to remi$kd. coocipio, c^pi, ceptom 

collis, is, m, a hiU. commdDeo2. ^ reniw^ 3. to eonoeiiotf reoetve ; 

colldco l.iac. alit^ ^ ctdmonish. suspioipQem, conceivo 

place in, bestouf vpon oommUveo 2. to move. a suapioion. 

aomeOdng. QommOois, e, coimnofi, coocito i. to exoUe^ redm. 

colloquium, i, n. con- knoum h^ aU. concBuno 1., <o edU ovL 

farenee. commutatio, oolsb / conclCldo, si, sum 3. !• 

coUdquor, locOtus sum change. indude. 

3. to conver$e. como, compsi, conap- coocordia, •».f.harmo- 

collum, i, n. flecl^ tiim^tocombjodmrn. m^ 

cpllusiarp I. to tUutni- comoedia, ae,/. eoniet^ ooacresco, ci^vi, crfr^ 

nate. oomp&ro L <o prepare^ tum 3. to grow to-* 

colo, colai, c.iiltum 3. acquire. gvAer* 


cmicufHSCO, jMvi, pitum congr^gol. to assemJl^. conservati[o,6ius,/jMie- 
3. to desire. conjicio j^ci^ jectum 3. aervation, 

c<mdeinno 1. to conr to throw; in pudo- conservator, dris, m; 
<2emn ; capiti%to(2ea^ rem conjici,(ofie<lil9- consenratriz, icis, / 

oondimentum,.L 911, M(E9^ ' graced. preserver, 

onmg,^ conjugo, 1. to umte^ cons<^o 1. to preserve. 

coodio 4. to season. conjungo, nxi^ nctum 3. eonsid^ro 1. to consider. 

condiscipQlus, i, n%./el- to join. consido, 6di, essum 3. 

UnD-shuknL conjianitio, onis,/ ooti- to sit down. 

conditio, onis,/. oondi- qtiroxy. consigno 1. to note, 

Hon. conjuratus 3. conspired^ point ovL 

eondb, !4i, itum 3. ia a conspirator. consilium, i, n. counsel^ 

preserve, amceaty connecto, exQi, exum 3. deliberation, purpose, 
found. to eonnecL plan, wisdom. 

confeotio^ onis, /. mak- Cono, dnis, m. Conon. consolatio, onis, /. oon- 
i/^i cofmpofUfng. conor 1. to undertake, soling, consciaiion. 

cpnf<6ro, contdli, colla- venture, thf, consolor L to console. 

turn 3.. to bring to- conquiesoo, ^vi, 6tum 3. consors, tis c gen. par- 
ge^ier, join, compare, in c abl. to find taking of. 
2} to confer (e. g. &- consolation in ^ftme- conspectus, as, m. sight. 
yam) ; ae conferre, ihing. conspergo, rsi, rsum 3. 

io bftakt' on£s self. consanesco, n£d 3. to to besprinkle^ strew. 

conficio, f&ci, i^etum ' become weU. consptcio, 6xi, ectum 3. 

3b to performi ^con- conscendo, di, «um, 3. to discover. 
, dude^ 2) to impair, to mount up,, to as- conspToor L to discover, 
consume. cend, see. [cuous. 

confido, isus sum 3, c« consbientia, ae, / con- conspicilus 3. conspi- 
dat or abl to truri to, sciousness, consaence. constanter, adv. wUh 
confide in^ conscius 3. c. gen. eon- constancy, constamtbf. 

confirmo 1. to cor^rm, seious of. constantia, ae, /. stead- 

confit^or, fessus sum consector 1. to pursue. fastness. 

2.toadcnoujledge,c(m- consenesco, nCii 3.,. to constemo, stravi, stra- 
yed, grow old. turn 3. to strew. 

confligo, 2d, ctum 3. to consensus, us, ni. agree- constitdo, lii, atum 3. 
fighL ment. to establish, determine, 

confldo, xi, xum 3. to consentan£us . 3. suited constitute, 
fiow together. to. consto, iti, atum 1. c. 

confodio, odi,,ossum 3. consentio, nsi, ni^m'4. abl. or eo? c al^L to 
to stab. to agree urith. consist of; to cost ; 

confihrmo 1. tofmn. cons^quor, secQtus sum constat it is hnown. 

confringo, fi^gi, frac- 3. ioyb^t/^, ^o o^n. constringo, inxi, ictum 
tum 3. to break in cons^ro, xiii, rtum 3. 3. to draw together, 
pieces, to join together ; ma- bind together, 

cong^ro, essi, estum 3. num cum aliquo, to consuesco, 6vi, 6tum 3. 
to collect together. be hand to hand wUh to accustom one^s s^f, 

congr6dior,gre3sus sum some one. be accustomed. 

3. to meet (with one), cons^ro, sSyi, situm 3. consuetado, inis,/ hab- 
fif^ to set with plants. H, intercourse. 



eoMidy iUk» «. cofifML coDtremisoo, tremui 3l •on4dO) tit iiim 3. l9 
consulatus, ijm, m. eon- (o irembU, eerape togiOiar. 

9uM^ eontu^Qfy tiiitiw wiiii 2. eorrectio, dnis, / egr* 

cpqaOk), KU, hum 9, to to consider. redion. 

deliberate;, c moc to contuodo, ddi, Osuni 3. eonigo, imd, rectum 3. 

conndt $ome om; c to eruak, britig ia to correct, imprmst. 

dat to eomuU fat naughL [camr. corrCto, ili3« to nuk to* 

jome one* coDvalesco, hUB. tore- ge&er. 

€ODBulto, ado, detigmd- coaw&io, exi, ectum 3. cortex, icis, m. rmd, 

k^ to bring togeffier, car- bariu 

coDBuItus 3. c. gen. ae- ly togdktr. corvus, i, m. a crow, 

quanded wUk convello, rellv Tulsum eos, eotia, f, uhMone^ 

ooiMAmo, mpsi, mptnm 3^ to rend, conmdse, grindstone, 

3. to e om tume , convSnio, vdiH, ventnm crambe, es,/ cabbage, 

e«Btamino htoconkm- 4 to come tegeOkrf eras, adn» tomorrow, 

inate, o. ace* to visit crebro, ado, Jrequenffy, 

contemuo, mpai, m^ converto, rti, mmi 3. evedo^ d(di, dUum ^ 

turn 3^ to despise, to him ot^miim^ turn to beUeve, to trust, 

comtemplor 1. to eon- to, twm, creddius 3. credidousA 

dder, oonllva^ ae^, tn, guest, eremo 1. to hwm, 

oOBtendo, di, turn 3. to convivlum, i, n, eiders ereo 1. to creattt dkoose. 

strelA, stretch orn^s UdnmenL crepo, HOf itxaa 1, to 

seif, strive aflxr soms^ convivor l,to etd uw^ enioiL 

Vdng ; in locum, to oenvi6co h to call togdk- evesco, cr6vi, crMum 3. 

march; to contend; eiv to mcreasey grow, 

ab aliquo, to demand, eonvdlo I. tojhf, hasten Creta, ae,/. Otte, 
coDteKitu0 3. c^ abL con* together, crimen, ini0^ n. crtmcv 

tented, cooiior, ortus eum^ 4 crinia, is, m. hair, 

contero, trivi, tritum 3. to arise, burst forih, crinitus 3. hainf, 

to break in pieces; copki, ae,/. abundance, Croto, onis, m. Crotom 

contritus 3l ihreshed, muUitude ; opportU' crueiatus, Qa, m. totiure* 
eonticesco, tioui 3. to wty; \A. troops, craeio 1. to ionnenl, lor- 

bt siknt copiosus 3. abundant ; ture, 

eontinto, iniU, entum 2) rich in expression, crud^lia, e, cm4» 

3. to hold together ; JluenL cnidelitas, atis,/ Grvet- 

animam, to stop the copQk) 1, to join, (y. 

breath ; abstain, coqua, ae,/ a cook, cruentua 3* Uoodjf. 

contingo, Hgi, tactum ^ooquo, ad, ctum 3. to oruor, diisy m, blood, 

3. to/aU to on^s lot ' cook, cms, uris, n, shin, leg, 

ooDtinilo, adfkforthmth. cor, cordii^ n. heart, cubo, HOf itum L to iv* 
oontiD0ua3. conttitMOitf. Cormthiua 3i Corin- cUne, 
contorquto, rai, rtum 2. tUan. cuctlmis, ^iri% m. cur 

to hurl, ihoot, Corintbim, i,/ Corinth. cumber, 

comra, ado. on the coh" oomfius 3. df horn, culina, ae,/ kikhsn, 

trary, comu, Os, n. hom^ culmen,'iiuiB^ n. top. 

coDtr&bo, an, actum 3. cordna, ae,/ garland, cidpa, ae,/ gmU,/asdL 

to draw together. oorporfius 3. corporeaL cultus, tm, m, attention 
contraiiua 3, opposite, corpus^ dns> n, bod^. to, dothing, toonn^p. 


csmtdo 1. to hec^ uf, deoctnoy Gi>6vi, oritum dcjidto, j^cit joctum 3. 

2oai. 3. jto ifetermmc^ i^ to cad down, 

ciiiiae,aniin,/a4raKflb cent. delecto 1. to dd^j^; 

eiinctor 1. to dday» decerpo, psi, puun 3. pass, c i^ tobe (h" 
cimctus 3. (^ uMe ; to jdudt off^ hnak.qffif Ughtedy to r^oiot, 

iphaUyttll toge&en takefrouL deldo, ^vi, dtuin % to 

cupiditaa, atis,/. dmrt^ decerto 1. to oonlemL dettroy^ ammihSUde, 

cupidus 3. c. gen. dt^ decet % c aeo. H t» delib^ro I. to ddSbtrak^ 

mrous, proper. consider* 

cupio, pivi, pitum 3^ to declaro 1. to dedart* delictum, i, n. f^j^mee* 

deeire^iML decdros 3. becomings deligo, 6gi, ectum 3. to 

cur, adv, u% f decorum, propriebf, sdeot, 

cura, ae,yi con ; civae decreaco, cr6vi, orfetum Delph^ drum, m. Dd- 

mihi est, 1 mm tmx- 3L to decrease^ ]^ 

ioua, decufl^ dris, n. honor, Delphicua 3* De^phie* 

curculio, dnis, m. fhe dedteet 2. c. ace it is delinquo, iqui, ictumS. 

com-worm, not proper. to do wrong. 

CuriuB, i, m. Cwrku. dedico 1. toydedicak. delQdo, si, sum 3. to 
cXttohtoaBre; c. ace to dedo, idi, rtuiB,3i to de- deceive. 

be consemedi to lo(d^ liver up. Deius (os), i. / DeUm 

ovifor somMbng; c defiitlgo L to ioean^ to (an island). 

fenwdivO) to came. make weary ; pasa. to Demaratus, i, m. Dt* 
CCNiiGillum, i, n. race become weary. maratuik 

cowrecj course. d^ndo, di, sum 3. to demergo, si, sum 3. to 

ecuTO, cucuiri,^ oursum defend. plunge under, sink. 

3. to rtm. d^f^ro, detCdi, delitum, demote, ssdi, SBum 3. 

currus, ua^ vu dumoL deferre 3. to qffhr, to cut down. 

•Hraus, Os^ m. « course, defenreseo, bCU, 3L to deraitto, misi, missum 
custodia, ae,/. watth, cease boUingj cease 3. to send down^ let 
OHflCodto 4. to guardi raging. faU. 

watek, ktep*, defetiscor, fessus sum demo, mpsi, mptum 3. 

custos,6djs,iii. A^^KT. 3. to become weary, be to take cmay. 

^mba, ae,/ frocrf. wearied. \tofaiL demolior, itus sum 4« 

Gyrus, i, m. Cyrus. deficio, Hbci^ fecUim 3. to demolisk. 

CJyprus, i,/ Cyprus. defigo xi, xum 3. m c demonstro L to poimi 

abL to fix fimdy^fix ovL 
D. upon something. Demosthenes, is, m. 

Damnp L to condemm. definio 4» to d^ine. Demosthenes. 

damnum, i, n. u^wry. deflagro 1. to Imm up. demum, ado. firsts ai 
d&i, ae,/ goddess. defleetd, xi, xum 3. to length. 

deambOlo 1. to go to turn from, deviate. denique, adv. at last, 

walk. . [mttft defiigio, agi, ugitum 3. finaUy. 

deb^o 2. to owe, ought, c. ace. to escc^ dens, tis, m. too^ 

debiUa, e, weaL deg^ner, ris, degemrabe. densus 3. thick. 

dec^o, cessi, eessum deguato 1. to taste. dentatus 3. toothed. go away, die. deinde, thereupon, then, denfio, adv. aneuK 
Beoember^ bris, m. De- Beianira, ae, / D^a^ depasco, pavi, pastum 

cemher. mra; 3^; ta/eed down. 


depdno, pdsCH, pdiltmn detsftho, azi, aetinn 3. dSigo, lezi, ledum 3.10 

S, to lay dotmif lay to drawfroa^ remove, eateeroy love. 

oiide. , detrimentuniy i, n. ui- dilucidus 3. dear. , 

deprehendo, di, sum 3. jvary. dililo, (IS, utum ^todi- 

to ieaey catch, detrado, si, sum 3.' to /ute, toeakm. 

deprlmo, pressi^ pres- ihruadown. dia&col. to JighL 

sum 3. to dqntsi. d^us, i, m. Ood. dimidium, i, n. half. 

depugno 1. tojigbl (for devasto 1. to lay waste, dimitto 3. to dismss. 

life or death). devinco 3. to conqiwr, Dionysius, i, m. Diony- 

deridSo, isi, isum 2. to deydco 1. to call doum. nus. 

deride. devdlo 1. to fly JMhy diphdiongus, I, /. diph- 

descendo, di, sum 3. haaUn away. thong. 

to descend. devdro 1. to devour. diripio, ipCd, eptum 3. 

describo, psi, ptum 3. dialectica, ae,/. ^o^ to plunder. 

to descrihej note. dialectus, i,/. diakcL dirdo, di, i&mm de- 

desfeco, cdi, ctom 1. Diana, ae,/. Diana. sbroy. 

tocutqf. dico, zi, ctum3. to «t^, dirus 3. horribk. 

des^ro, nii, rUim 3. to ctdL discSdo, eeasi, cessum 

destart. dictator, Oris, m. dicto- ^to go away^depart. 

deffldeifum, i, n. Umg- tor. . disce^sus, ds, m. dt- 

ing, earnest desire. dictito 1. to say often. parture. 
desid^ 1. to long for, dies, ^i, m. day. diseindo, cidi, dissum 

fed the unmt qfsome- difficilis, e, djfficuU. 3^ to tear in pieces, 

somdhxng. dificultas, atis, / d^ rend. 

deado, ^i 3. to fall cuUy. diseiplina, ae, f. disd- 

doum. diffido, isus sum 3. to pline. 

designo 1. to designate. distnut discipdUis, i, m. dise^. 

desLDO, sii, situm 3. to diffindo, fidi, fissum 3. ^isclado, si, sum 3. to 

cease. to splU. separate. 

desisto, stiti, stitum 3. difiundo, fudi, fii8um3. disco, didici 3. to ham. 

to desist, cease. to d^jfiise, disperse. discdlor, oris, party^cot- 

despero 1. to despair qf. dig^ro, essi, estum 3. to ored, variegated. 
despicio, spexi, spec-, separate, digest. discordia, ae,yi discord, 

turn 3. to despise. digitus, i, nuflnger, discordo 1. cum aliquo, 
destitdo, Cd, atum 3. to dignttas, atis,/. dignity. to disagree wi£h some 

desert, leave behind, dignus 3. c. abl. toorthy, one. 
destrCio, uxi, uctum 3. deserving. discrimen, luis, n. dis- 

to destroy. dijudico I. to distinr tindion, danger. 

desum, iui, esse, to be guish. discdtio, ussi, ussum 3. 

wanting ; c. dat rei, dilabor, lapsus sum 3. to elisperse, to dispd. 

to negled. to glide away, disap- disertus 3. doquent. 

det^go, 2d, ctum 3. ta pear. [pieces, diqtcio, j^i, jectum 3. 

ddecL diiac^ro 1. to tear in to scatter. 

deterg^o, rsi, rsum 2. dilanio 1. to lacerate. dispar, . firis, uneqwd, 

to wipe off, diligens, tis, dUigent, diverse. 

deterr^o 2. to frighten diligenter adouUHgenOy. dispello, pilli, pulsum 

from, dder. diligeutia, ae, /. dilir 3* to dryve asunder, 

dete8tabilis,e,(26^e9to62e. gmcc, exadness. to dispd. 


dkqpergo, rsi, raum 3. <9 documentum^, n-proof. DyrriMehhim, i, ii» 

disperse, scatter, dol6o 3. to grieot^fid IhpnrhaMmu 

dispid(o, exi, ectuoi 3. pcoMU 

ie €pen tht eyes, ddiaiium, i, n. ceUtar, E. 

dispKcdo 2. io dmpktae, dolor, dris, m. /lam, Ebfamdior itus som 4. 
diaseDsio, dais, f, dis- gri^. to gain h^ flattery 

sension, dolus, i, vuframd. eburnftus 3. «/* t80i3^ 

dissdro, rOi, itum 8. io domesticus 3. dbncific. tvory. 

ilitoiiw, discourse. domiciliiim, i, n. re«»- eeelesia, ae,/. ctodL 
dlssimnis, e, dMnUar* denee, eeho^ ^y* Mfto. 

dissipo 1. to scatter, domiDatlo, dnis, f. do' edisco, dkKei 3. to 
disBolvo, vi, Otum 3. to tmnion, mU to memory, 

dissolve, [dissmtde, domlnor 1. to reign, edo, di, sum 3. io 
dissuadfto, si, sum d. to domimis, i, m. lord, mas- 6do, idi, itum 3. to put 
distln^o, indi, entum 2, ter, fo^ proclaim^ per* 

to hold from each oSir domo, di, itum 1. to form, 

er, occupy, detain, svhdue, eddoSo, cili, ctum S. to 

distinguo, uxi, nctum 3. domus, as,/ house, pal" itutrud, vM/brm. 

to distinguUk, aoe ; /domi, at hmne ; oddlo I. to hewpropmbf, 

distrftho, iuci, actum 3. domo,yh>m home, to stjuare, 

to draw asunder, dis- donee, con^, «ifiti2, wM edAco 1. to hrmg vp. 

soUse, wade. that, even wM. edQco, xi, ctum ^ to 

distrib^, Oi, atum 3. doQO 1. to give, present leadfrndL 

c dat to distrihmte, douum, i, n. present, effector, dris, m, maker, 
diu, adv. a long time ; dormio 4 to sleep, efieraiB&tus 3. effemi- 

diutifus, tof^ivr. dos, ddtis,f,dowryipor' nite, 

diuturnrtas, atis,/ toN^ tion, atfdro, ext£di,elatiim3. 

continuance, duhlto L to dr^vbt,^ to carry Jbrtk, hury, 

diutumuB 3. tong-con- duhLua 3, douh/uL efftoio, ftei, fectumBL. 

tinued, duco, xi, ctupn 3. to to effect, nudas, 

^€trBua S, d\ffkrent, lead, draw, lead away ; efRoreaco, rdi 3. to 

dives, itis, ndL 2) to eonsideis regwrd flsuriaih, [digvp, 

divldo, isi, isum SL to as something, efiRkiio, odi, ossum 3. to 

dkfide, ' dulc^do, inis f, sweet- effilgto, fugi, fdgitnm 

cUwiBUs 3. divine. ness, fdeasanlness, 3. c. 

diiitiae, arum,/ ridies, dulcis, e, swett, lovdy, efilmdo, Odi, asum 3. 
do, d£di, dfttum, d2j*e, dsaim,oonj,whiU,solong to pour forth, tiarow 

to give, attribute; lit* as; with subj,'until, off. 

ttras dare, to write a ur^ that, so {as) long effasus 3. iinrestraintd. 

Utter, as ; provided ttioL ^ eg£o^ ui 2. to want^ be 

ioeSO, cai, ctum 2l to dum^tum, i, n. a ttncket, in want. 

teach, iiybrm, dummddo, coi^, with egestas, atis,/ tMmt 

docilis, e, teachable. std^, provided that, ego, pron. L 

doctor, oris, m. teacher, duplieo L to ctouUe. c^cio, 6ei, ectam 3. to 
doctrtoa, ae,/ doctrine, duro 1. to last, endure, cast forth, 

instruction, science, durus 3. hard. ejCllo 1. to complain, 

ductus 3. learned, versed dux, cis, c. leader, gen- ejusmddi, of ffds hind, 

in, eraL of Uke kind. 


elabor, lapsus sum 3. emolomentum, i, n, ad' erdo, di, iltmn 3. to dig 

to glide away. vantage, * up. 

ehihoro l.iobegtowpain8 emdiior, orti&us sum 3. esiirio 4. to he hungnf>. 

upon; in c aU. to to die, [chase, et, cor^. and; et-— et, 

occtqty on^a 9^ wUk emptio, onis, /. pur- bath •— and, 80 {ob) 

someUning. en, adv. behold ! iheU—as also* 

el^gans, tis, elegcmi, Endymlo, onis, m.'Enn etiam, amj. cdso. 
elegantia, ae,/. elegance, dymion, ■ > etiamsi, conj, even if, 

elementum, i, n. efe- en^co, cCd, ctum 1. to Etruria, ae, /. Eiriaia, 

ment, beginning, de- kiU by inches, vex to etsv cor^, even if, cd- 

menUoy principle, ki- death. though. 

ter (of the alphabet), emm, /or (i 101. R. 1). Europa, ae,/. Europe. 
elephantus, i, m. d^ enitor, isus or ixus suii^ evado^ asi, asum 3. to 

phant. 3. to exert one's seff, go ovi, become. 

elicio, tii, itum 8. to strive. evanesco, ndi 3. to dis- 

draw Old, dioL ensis, is, m. sword.. appear. 

efido, isi, isum 3. to enumSro 1. to enumer- evelio, velli, yulsum 3. 

dash, break, ufeahen. ate, to pluck out, 

ellgo, eg], ectum 3. to eo, ado.thiffier,sofar. evSnit 4 it happens. 

sekd oid, ded, dioose, eo, ivi, itum, ire,-^to go. eventus, Qs, m. event,re- 
eloquentia, ae, /. do- Epaminondas, ae, m. suU. 

quence. Epaminondas. everto, ti, sum 3. to 

eldquor, cCitus sum 3. £phe8ius3. Ephesian. overturn, pro^ndefde" 

to pronounce. Ephfisus, i,/. Ephesus, stray. 

elCkceo, xi 2. to sMne Epicarus, i, m. Epicu- ento 1. to avoid. 

forth. rus, [granL evdlo 1. to Jly forth. 

elado, tun, asum 3. to epigramma, &tid,n. qn- evolyo, Ivi, latum 3. ta 

dude, deride. epildgus, i, m. epilogue, unfold, bring ouL 

emendo 1. to improve, epi8tl5fil^ ae,/ UUtr, evdmo, di, Itum 3. to 
ementior, itus sum 4. to epiilae, airum,/ a meal, bdch forth, send forth. 

state fdsdy. feast. exacilo, di, utum 3. to 

emergo, rsi, raum 3. to eques, iti^ m. horseman ; sharpen. 

emerge, to work on£s cavalry, knight exagito 1. to harass. 

self out. equidem, adv. indeed, examen, inis, n. swarm. 

emetior, emensus sum equito L to ride, examino 1. to examUnie. 

4. to measure .off; equus, i, m. horse, steed, exaoimo 1. to deprive of 

iravd tkrpugh, Erechtheus, ^i, 9?i. Erec- life, to Jdtt, 

emico, ili, alum 1. to theus, exardesceo, arsi, arsum 

gudi forth. ergo, cory. thertfore, 3. to take fire. [ion. 

emlgro 1. to move out, eilpio, ipCii, eptum 3. to exascto 1. to heto, fash- 
en^D^o, iii 2. to be emi- srudchjrom. exaudio 4. toUdento. 

nent, erraticus 3. u>andering, exc^do, cessi, cessum 

emitto, misi, missum 3. erro 1. to wander, err, 3. c abL or ex c. M, 

to send forth, thrust error, oris,in. error; pL to go forth, depart 

out, wanderings. excello, di 3. to excd. 

emo, emi, emptum 3. erCidio 4. to instruct excelsus 3. devoted. 

to purdiase, erumpo, rQpi, ruptui^ excerpo, psi, ptum 3. 

emoUio 4. to soften, 3. to break forth, io take out, extract 


excesBUs, Qs, m. (fepai^ ex5ro 1. to entreat ear- exsul, (Uis, e. an exQe* 

ture. neitly, obtain by en- exsulto 1. to Uap vp^ 

excudo, idi, isum 3. to treaty. exult. 

dettroy. exp^o 4, to diiengage ; extemplo ado, imrnedi- 

exci^o, ivi, itum 2, or Be exp. to get rtady, atety. 

excio, vn^ itum 4. to expello, pCQi, pulsumS. extonClo 1. to lessen. 

excUt^ arouse, to expeL extermtno 1. to exter- 

exclpio, c^pi, ceptum expergef^cio, ftci, fac- tinnate, 

3. to receive. turn 3. to arouse externus 3. external, 

excito L to exdte, raise, (from sleep). extSrus B. foreign, 

exelamo 1, to try out, expergiscor, perrectus extimesc<^ mOi 3. c. 

exclfldo, am, Osum 3. sum 3. to wake up. ace. to be afraid of 

to shut out, hatdu experlor, pertus sum 4. something, 

excdlo, olCU, uhum 3. to ascertain, to try. extorqufio, rsi, rtum fL 

to cuUisate. expers, itis^c. gen. des- to wrest from, extort. 

excora, rdis, sensdess. Htute of, extrtmus 3. outermost, 

excrucio ]. (otonnen/. exp§to, ivi, itum 3. to last. 

excusatlo, dnis, / ear- strive to obtain. extrinsScus, adv. from 

.cuSe, expingo, nxi, ctum 3. without. 

ex^do, 6di, fsum 3. to to paint out. extrOdo, si, sum 3. ^o 

consume, corrode. expl^o, £vi, 6tum 2. to thrust from, out. 

exemplar, aris, n. mod- fU up,fidfl. exulcSro 1. to make sore, 

d, pattern, explTco 1. to explain. render worse. 

exemplum, i, n. exam- expUklo, si, sum 3. to extio, Cd, Otum 3. to 

pie, instance. dap off, drive off. draw off, take off. 
exto, ii, l^um, ire, to go explocator, oris, m. spy. 

^^9 go forth, exploro 1. to search out, F. 

exerc^o 2. to exercise. explore, . Faber, bri, m, artisan 

exercitatio,o^]s,yiexer- exposco, poposci 3. to (of each art); &ber 

cise, practice. demand, request. lignarius, carpenter. 

exercitus, tis, m. army, exprimo, pressi, pres- fabric&tor, oris, m, mak- 

exhaurio, si, stum 4. sum 3. to express. cr,framer, 

to exhausL exprdbro 1. to reproach, Fabriclus, i, m. Fabri' 

exhUdro 1. to exhilarate, expugno 1. to take. cius. 

exigo, £gi, actum 3. to exquirp, iavi, isitum 3. fBbiAa,tie,f.Jable. 

pass (time). to examine. fticesso, ssiTi, ssitum 3. 

exigOus 3. lUtle, paUry. exsilTum, i, n. banish- to make ; negotium, 

eximius 3. distinguish- ment. [become, be. to make trouble, vex ; 

ed, excellent. exsisto, sttti 3. to arise, 2) to take on^s sdf 

existimaHo, onis, /. es- exsors, rtis, c. gen. des- off 

timaiion, opinion, tituteaf fhC^UisS. ddicate,witty. 

judgment. exspecto 1. to expect, facile, adv. easily. 

existDno esteem, con- await, wait. facilis, e, easy. 

sider one something, exstinguo, nxi, nctum faclnus, dris, n. deed, 

exordior, orsus sum 4. 3. to extinguish, ob- foul deed. 

to begin. literate, JdU. facio, ^ci, factum 3. to 

exorior, ortus sum 4 to extrdo, uxi, uctum 3. make, to esteem. 

appear, arise. 'to erect, construct. &ctum, i, n. deed. 


AenilaMf h^f.fcmifyt femiai i^ n. trof^Mosni flsfro I, to hum* 

power. fertilk»e^ ageikyer^. flamma, ae,/.jIaM6. 

fiicundia, ae, /. JUtency ferus 3. wild; ferae, ftivUs ^ydlo^fait, 

^ spttdL vnxm^f, wUd beattt. fleo, evi, etum 3. /o 

fiigus^ L/ 6eedk freei fessua dw uPtoiM, /a- t^ecp^ 
fiOlax, acia^ d^ceptivti tigiiled4 io I. io hlow^ wtne^ 

&i^ fefelli, fidstun 31 festivitas, atis, /. pUat- flocci fao6re, to oonM- 

to deceive. anim$8, er of n» aasofstnU, 

fiilsua a/iZae. featiipus S.Jm^spnghtly. (i 88. 9.) 

fimoa, ae^ / fcmtt^ r&- ficus, i oncf (to, /« ^- florto, Qi 9l <d hiomiL, 

noum, rumor. tret, floSyflociSym. ajlower. 

fiubes, iis,/ ^nf^^ fi<klisy ^fMfuL flUBaen, !nifl,>n. met*, 

fiuqailia, zi^f.fiamijfs. fideliter, aduh fm^rfkiSy* duviusji, m. nW. 
iuniliaris, e, hdotkging fides, ^, / ftddiiy ; fir fbede^ adv. basely f m a 

to a fsanaJty^ res fa- dem halikv c dat hose tnanher^ 

milfuris, jToperly ; fit* to trusty have coi^ foedtis 3. ha$e^fovL 

iniliaris,«u&«^g9tefu2. dmoe m wmt oti/e. foedtiSj dris, n. Itagmo^ 
fiuniilus, i, m. Mrwni^. fides, i%/ ilrm^; fidi^ foMutn, i,,ff. Uttf. 
fanum, i, n. ttmfk. bus canfire, to play follis, is, m. hdUnao^ 

fiiscis, 18, m. MmcSe. on a Hringed indtru- fbns, Dtis, m./minttdn. 

fastidfa 4 e. aec. to mtnt. fbris, is,/ in pkur.ytflo^ 

2oa^ xpum. fido, fisus sum 3. to ing doors* 

fataliter, euh, acoording truai. foris, adv. tvithaut 

to fate. fidus 3.failYvii truei^ imiix, icis, nu vaults 

&t£or, fiissum sum 2. figOra, ae, / fg^re, arch. 

to acknowledge^ allow, form. fortasse, advi perdiMiot, 

fittum, i, n.fate. filia, ae,/. dAi^ht&. forte,, acfi^ % ^ chmwe^ 

fiiux, cis,/ throat. filidlus, i,.]?i. little mm. perhaps^ 
fitreo, avi, autum 2. c. filiusl, i, m. son. foitis, e, strong, boUL 

dat ^0 5e favarable fingo, fiiuci, fictom 3.^ to fortiter, oc^. ^rarefy. 

tOf favor some one. form, feign. fortitudo, inis,/ ftroMry. 

febris, is,/yever. finio 4 <a/msA. fbrtittto, oilr. fortui' 

fecunduB3./*tii(/i<2» finis, is, m. end. tously. 

felicitas, atis, / happi- finitimus 3. neigWKiur' Amona, oi^yf.faiejfitr' 

ness. ing. tune. 

fbliz, icis, he^py. fio, factus sum, fidri to fortunatus 3. fortumfte. 

feraz, acis. c. gen. pro- be made, become, heqfh forum, i, n. market ^ mar- 

ductiveof. pen; fi€i:i non po- hot place, 

fbre, adv. almost. test, qmn, it is not fossa, ae,/ dituh. 

feriae, arum, / holi- poss&le, but that. fi>v£o, ovi, o^m 2. <9 

dayS' [strike, firmita?, atis,/./nnne89. tsarm, cheri^ attend 

ferio, ire, to thrust^ firmlter, adv.fmdy, to. 

ferme, adv. almost. firmo 1. to render firm, fingilis, e,fraiL 
&ro, tuli, latum, ferre, strengthen, to har- frango, 6gi, actum 3. to 

to bear, bring, relate. den. break, breakin pieces; 

hroclter, ado. fiercely. firmus 3. /rm. molis fi*aogei:«, to 

ferox, ocis, fierce. fiagitium, i, n.fml deed, grind. 

feireus a qf iron. fiagito 1. to demand. firater, tris, m. brother. 


firauB, dASff.Jhmd. furor, oris, m. rage. Gordius, i, m. Gordha. 

fremitus, Cis, m. noise, fustis, is, m. a cudgel, Gottingeusis, e, of GiU- 
frenum, i, n. {plur, fre- futilis, e. useless, tingen, 

m and frena) bitf rein, ^tXauaS, future, Graecla, ae,/. Orccce. 

fr^quento 1, to frequent, Graecus, i. m. a Gredi. 

fretus 3. e. abl. relying G, Graecus 3. Greek. 

upon something, Gallia, ae,/. Gmd, grammatfcus 3. gram- 

fKgidus 3. cold, Crallus, i, m. a Gaul, nudiccd ; grammati- 

frigus, dris, n. co{(f. gallina, ae, /. a hen, cus,i^m, grammarian. 
froodosuB 3. lectfy, fowl, grandis, e, grtat ; natu 

frons, utiBjf. forehead, garrio 4. to Matter, grandis, aged, 

fructus, CIS, m. advan- garrCilus 3. loquacious, granum^ L m. a grain, 

tage, gaud^o, gavisus sum, grate, adv, grattfulfy, 

fruges, utn, / fruit (of gaudfere c. abl. or de gratia, ae, f favour, 

field a|id trees.) * c. abl. to rejoice, thcmk; gntlhs ag^, 

frugifer, Sra, €rum, gaudium, i, n. joy, to thank, give (hanks ; 

frmtful. gelldus 3. ice-cold, ecUd, gratiam referre, to re- 

frumentum, i, n. grain, gemttus, Os, m. groOn, turn a favour ; gra- 
fruor, fructus or frultus gener, 6ri, m. son-in- tia (with a foregoing 

sum 3. c. abl. to en- law, g^n.), on account of. 

joy, genfiro 1. to produce, gratQlor 1. to congrat- 

frustra, adv, in vain, gens, ntis,yi a people, uiate, 
frutex, icis, m, shrub ; genu, Os, n, knee, , gratus 3. agreeable ; 2) 

^\. hushes, shrubbery, genua, ^'ia,n,race,kind, gratefuL [ly. 

fUga, t.e,f, fight, geometiicus 3. geomet- gravate, adv, unwHUng' 

fugio, gi, gltum 3. c. rical, gravis, e, heavy, diffictdt; 

^cc, to flee. Xxermanfa, ae, /. Ocr- serioiuf, 

fugo I. to put to flight. many, gravitas, atis,/ serious- 

fulcio, Isi, Itum 4. to geio, gessi, gestum 3. ness, dignity, 

support, to carry, carry on. graviter, ado. heavily, 

flilgur, tins, n. a flash of gestio 4. to make ges- violently, forcibly ; 

lightning. tures, be transported, graviter ferre, to he 

fulmen, Inis, n. l^ht- gesto 1. to bear. displeased. 

ning. gig&s, antis, m. gicmt. grex, gis, m. herd,flodc 

funambiilus, i, m. rope- gigno, genCli, genitum gubemator, oris, m. pi- 
dancer. 3. to beget, bring Jorth, lot, 
fundamentum, i, n. to bear, gubemo 1. to govern, 

foundation, glades, ei,f, ice, rule, 

fundltus, adv. from the gladiator, oris, m. fen- gusto 1. to taste, relish. 

foundation, wholly, cer, gladiator. 

ftmdo 1. to found. gladlus, i, m. sword, H. 

fundo, ^di, fusum 3. glis, iris, m. a dormouse, Hab^ 2. to have, hoid ; 

(of an army), to rout, globosus 3. globular. consider ; sese ha- 

fuugor, Dctus sum 3. c. gloria, ae,/. glory. b^re, to be ; bene ha- 

abl. to cRsduirge. gloiior 1. to glory. bet, it is well. 

funis, is, m. a rope. gnarus 3. c. gen. ac- habito 1. to dweU. 
f^irfbr, (iris, h. bran. quainted with. babitus, Qs, m. habit, 

furioBUS 3. raving, gnaviter, adv. zecAously. bearing, condition. 



haerSo, haesi, baesum Hispania, ae,/ Spain. ideDtldem, ado. repeal' 

2. to adhere^ to stidc, historia, ae,/. history, tdly, 
Hannibal, filis, m. Han- histrto, onis, m. actor, idondits 3, JU, fitted. 

nibal. bodie, adv. to-day. igiitur, conj. ihtrtforty 

barp&go, onis, m. hookj Hom^.rus, i, m. Hsmur. hence. 

grappting-iron. bomo, inis, m. man. ignarus 3. c. gen. tmoc- 

haruspx, icis, m. aooihr bonestaSyads^.tnt^Tii^. quainted ttiith. 

sayer, honeste, adu), decenUyj ignavia, ae,/.indolencef 

haata^aej/, spear. honorably, virtuously, cowardice. , 

baud, adv. not. honestus 3. honest, up- ignavus 3. indolent, «n- 

hauifo, hausi, haugtum right, honorable, vir- active, duggish, cow- 

4. to draw. « tuous. ardly. 

hebddmas, ftdis, / a honoro 1. to honor. ignSus S. fiery. 

week, honosy oris, m. honor, ignis, ib, m. fire. 

bebes, ^tis, blunt, duU, pod of honor, mark of igilbbrlis, e, unknown. 

obtuse. « honor. ignominia, ae, f. dis- 

bebesco 3. to become bora, ae,/ hour. grace. 

dull, torpid. Horatius, i, m. Horace, ignoro 1. not to know; 

beb^to 1. to stupify, bordSum, i, n. barley. non ignorare, to know 

weaken. borno, adv. of this year, jperfectly welt. 

Hector, dris, m. Hector, horrendus 3. dreadful, ignosco, novi, notum 3. 
berba, ae,/ herb. borr^um, i, n. granary, to pardon. 

Hercilles, is, m, Hercu- borribilis, e, horrible, ille, a, ud, thoL 

Us. bortor 1. to exhort. illuc, adv. thither. 

beri, adv. yesterday, bortus, i, m. garden. illucesco, hixi . 3. to &e- 
herilis, e, of, pertaining bospe^, itis, m, a guest, come light, dawn. 

to a master. hostilis, e, hoslUe. imago, inis, f image, 

Heroddtus, i, m. Hero- hostis, is, m. enemy, imbecillus 3. weak. 

dotus, buc, adv. hither,. imber, bris, m. shower, 

herus, i, m. master, bumanitas, atis, / hu- rain. 
beus, adv. ho there ! numity. ^ . imbCio, lii, atum 3. to 

bibemus 3. heUn^ng buikianus 3. human. immerse ; c. abl. to 

to winter. bum€nis, i, m. shoulder, fill wUh, imbue. 

bic, haec, hoc, this ; Jiic, humidus, moist. imitatio, onis, /. imita- 

adv. here ; upon this humilis e, low. Hon. 

occasion. bumus, i, f. grou)id, imitator, oris. m. ttnt^- 

bi^mo 1. to pass the earth. tor. 

winter. imitor 1. c ace. to im- 

biems, 6mis, /; winter, L itate. 

fail^Lris, e, cheerfd. Ibi, adv. at that, place, immapis, e, vast, cruel, 

hilaritas, atis, / hUari- there. immatOrus 3. unripe^ 

ty, ico, ici, ictum 3. to immature, untimely. 

bilariter, adv. cheerfully, strike ; (of a league), inun^mor, dris, c. gen. 

joyfully. to conclude. [count, unmivuffuL 

binnio 4. to neigK idcirco, tuiv. on that ac- imminSo 2. to threaten, 

HippTas, ae, m. Hippias. idem, e&dem, idem, immo, adv, yes rather^ 
birundo, inis, /. swal- pron. the very same, nay rather, on the con- 
low, same, trary. 


iniinoderatus 3. intern- ing ; c. gen. unae- indulgentta, ae, f. ui- 

perate. quaintedwUh, dulgence, 

itnmodestus SAmmodest impabes, ^ris, yotdhful^ indulg^o, Isi, Itum 3. c 
immodlcus 3. excessive, immature. dat to give ont^s sdf 

immort&lis, e, immortal. impQdens, Dtis, impu- to, be indulgenL 
immortalitas, atis, / dent, shamdess. inddo, di, Citum 3. to 

immortaUtjf, impOnis 3. impure, put on, dothe, 

immortaliter, adv, in- iDtmis, e, empty, vain. Indus^ i,m. an huKan ; 

Jmitely, idc^o, . cessi, cessum 2) (^ Indus (a riverV 

impedimentum, i, n. S. to walk upon. . iDdustrla, ae, / indus- 

hindranoe. iDcendium, i, n. cof|/Za- try, 

imp^dio 4. to hinder. gration. iDdustrius 3. active, in- 

impello, pdli, puli^m 3. incendo, di, sum 3. to dustrious, 

to impeL enkindle, inflame, iodutiae, arum^.a truee. 

impend^o 2. to impend, incertus 3. uncertain, iDermis, e, unarmed, de- 
impendo, pendi, pen- incesso, ivi, itum 3. to fenceless. 

sum 3. to bestow, attack, iners, rtis, unskilled, in- 

imperator, oris, m, gen- incido, idi 3. to fall tqt- active, 

eral, emperor, on, inetHa, ae,/ inactivity, 

imperitus 3. ineiperien- incipto, c6pi, ceptum 3. infans, ntis, c a child, 

ced, to begin, minor. 

imperfum, i. n. com- incito 1. to spur on, in- inf^ro, intdli, illatum, 

mand, reign. cite. inferre, to bring ; he\- 

imp^ro I. cdat to reign, incognttus 3. unknown, lum inferre alicui, to 

re^ over, command, incdla, ae, m. inhabitant, make war upon one, 
impdtro 1. to obtain. incoKlmis, e, unhurt, inj^rus 3. being below, 
impetus, Qs, m. attack ; inconditus 3. unarrang- low, it^erior ; inf^ri, 

2) vast extenL ed. [He. the dead in the lower 

imj^us 3. impious. increditilis, e, ineredi- world, 

impl^d, 6yi, £tum 2. to incr£po, di, itum 1. c. infidus 3. unfaxtl^ul, 

flL ace. to berate, re- infimus 3. the loudest, 

implico, avi, atum 1. to proach, meanest, 

involve. incumbo, cubiii, cubi- infirmitas, atis, / ir^- 

imploro 1. to implore, turn 3. in aliquid, to mity, 

importo I. to import. lay on£s seyupon, at- infirinus 3. weak, 

importOnuB 3. trouble- tend to something, infligo, xi, ctum 3. c. 

some. indago ]. to trace out. dat to strike upon, in- 

impdtens, ntis, c. gen. inde, adv. thence. ftict. 

not master of. India, ae,/ India, infio 1. to inflate, 

imprimis, adv.especially. indico 1. to indicate. informo 1. to instruct. 
imprimo, pressi, pres- indig^o, Qi 2. c. gen. et ingenium, i, n. genius, 

sum 3. to press into, abl. to be in want spirit. 

impress, indignor 1. to be indig- ingens, ntis, immense, 

improbitas, atis,/ urtdi:- nant. very great. 

edness. indignus 3. c. abl. un- ingende, adv. nobly, re- 

iraprdbus 3. wicked, worthy. spedably. 

imprQdens, . ntis, not indaco, xi, ctum 3. to ingendus 3. fiee-bom, 

foreseeing, not know- bring vi, induce, noble: 


iogigno, gen(&i, geni- insectum, i, ru insect, interto, li, ttum, ire, to 

turn 3. to im^^atU. ins^ro, sevi, situm 3. c. decay , come to naught. 
ingratus 3. ungrateful; dat to sow in, in- imerfector^dris,fikmtir- 

2) duagreeabU, graft, derer. 

iDgr^dlor, gressus sum insidiae, arum, f. am- iDterficio, 6ci, ectum 3. 

3. c. ace. to go into, buscade, snares. to fciU, 

enter upon. insidior I, to lie in wait, interim, adv* in the mean 

jnbaer^o, haesi, hac- insignis, e, distinguish- timt, 

sum 2. ui c. abl to ed ; svbst, insigpe, is, interimo, £ini, emptum 

ivhffce, n, hadge, 3. to kUL 

inhumanu83. inhuman. iusipieDs, ntis, unwise, interltus, us, m, desAruc- 
JQunicitta, ae, /. hostil- iDsitus 3. impUmied, in- turn, 

ity. born, interpr^tor 1. to inter- 

ioUmcus 3. hostile ; ini- insp^rans, tis, not ex- pretj explain, 

micus, i, m. enemy, peding, contrary to interpungo, nxi, lu^tum 
ioiquus 3. unjust, . expectation, to distinguish, 

ioiHtHn, i, n. beginning, insplcio, exi, ectum 3. interr5go 1. to ask, 
iDJicio, jeci, jectum 3. to look into, inspect, intersum, itii, esse c. 

to throw into ; la- iustitOo, iXi, Qtum 3. to dat to be in, to he 

quSos, to lay snares, instruct, presented at; interest, 

idjucundus 3. wnpteas- institutlo, onis, /. in- there is a difference ; 

otU, disagreeable, strucHon ; 'met, scho- c. gen. it concerns, 

ij)juria, ae,/ injustice, lastica, scholastic in- ^ one (i 88, 10). 

ir^ury, strudion, intimus 3. inmost, 

injuste, adv. uryttstly. iosto, stlti 1. to threat- intolerabilis, e, intoUra" 
imiascor, uatus sum 3. en, press upon^ cofii- bU, 

to be implanted, pd (some ooe)» intro 1. c. ace. to go 

imidcens, ntis, innocent, instrQo, xi, ctum 3. to into, to enter, 
innocentia, ae, /. inno- furnish ; acTem in- introitus, Cis, m. en- 

cence, stru^re, to arrange trance, 

innoxiua S, hiarmless, thelineqfhattle;he\- intu^or, mitus sum Q, 

innumerabilis, e, innu- lum instr. to prepare * to look upon, consider, 

meraUe, for war, intus, adv. within^ in 

inopia, ae, /. hdpless- insCila, ae,/. island, the house, 

ness, need, want, in- integer, gra, grum, inultus 3. unrevenged, 

digence. sound, inutilis, e, usdess, 

inops, d^iajkdfilesSipoor, intelligo, exi, ectum 2. invSnlo, v^ni, ventmn 

destitute, needy. to understand, 4. to find, find out, 

inquam, / say, intempestive, ado, un- investigo 1. to trace out, 

insanus 3. insane, timdy, investigate, 

inscius 3. c. gen. not intentus 3. stretched ; invictus 3. invindlite, 

knomng,not acquaint- c. dat or in c. ace. invldSo, vidi, visum 2. 

ed unth, attentive, fixed upon c. dat. to envy, 

inscribe, psi, ptum 3. somttking, invidla, ae,/. envy, Aa- 

c. dat to write in or interdum, adv, some- tred, 

upon something, in- times, invldus S, envious, 

scribe, [to engrave, inter^ adv, in the mean inviso, isi, isum 3. to 
insculpo, psi, ptum 3. tim/e. * visit. 


invito L fo irmU. juba, ae,/ m. tnane. lac, ctis, n. tniik. 

invitus 3. unwiUing, jub^o, jussi, jussum 2. Lacaena, ae, f, Lact' 
involvo, vi, Qtum 3. to tobidy order. demonian woman. 

involve ; iDvolQtus 3. jucunde, culv. pUawni-^ Lacedaemon, dnis, f. 

dificuU to ulukntand. ly, agreeably. Lacedemon^ Sparta. 

Iphicr&tes, is, m. ^U- jucunditas, atis,/j92ea9- Lacedaemonius, i, m. 

crates. antness, agreeaUeness. a Jjacedenumian. 

ipse, a, uiDypron. self, jucundus 3. pkasant^ lac^ro 1. to lacerate, tear 
ira, ae,yi anger. agreeable. in pieces. 

iracundia, ae, /. anger, judex, icis, tn. judge. lacesso, ivi, Itum S. to 

trasdbiUty, judicium, i, n. judg-^ provoke. 

irascor, iratus sum 3. ment. lacifma, ae,/. tear. 

c^ dat to be enraged* judico 1. to j^dge ; c lacus, Qs, m. lake, pomd. 
iratus 3. enragedj an- dupl. ace ^o coiuider laedo, si, sura 3. ^ Atof. 

gry, on something. Laelius, m. Ladias. 

irrid^o, si, sum 2. to jugum, i, n. yoke, top, laetitia, b.e, 

m/odc, deride. m(g« (of a mountain), laetor 1. c. abl. to rt- 

irrumpo, rQpi, ruptum Julius (i) Caesar (firis) joice. 

3. to hurst in. m. J%d%us Caesar. laetus 3. joyful, ddight- 

is, ea^ id, pron. he, ske, jungo, nxi, nctupi 3. to ed. 

U; that one; (he same, join, unite* lapid^us 3. of stone. 

Isocr^s, is, m. Jsocra- Junius, i, m. June. lapis, idis, m. a stone. 

tes. Juno, dnis,/ Juno. largior, itus sum 4. to 

iste, a, ud, pron. that Juppiter, Jovis, m. Ju- bestow largely. 
ita, adv. so, thus. piter. late, adv. widely. 

ItaJia, ae,/. Italy* juro \. to swear. lateo, iXi 2. to be con- 

it&que, conj. thtrefore. jus, juris, n. right. cecded. 

item, adv, likewise. jussum^ i, n. command. Latinus 3. Latin. 

iter, itin^ris, n. course, jussus, as, m. command. Latmus, i, m. Latmus 

way, journey, mareh. }UBnUa,Sie,f. justice. (mountain in Caria). 

it£rum, adv. again, the Justus 3. just. latus 3. broad. 

second time. Juvenalis, is, m. Juve- laudabilis, e, praise- 

nal. worthy. 

J. juvenilis, e, youthfuL laudo 1. to praise. 

Jac£o 2. to lie low. juv^nis, is, m. a youth, laurus, i or us, / the 

jacto 1. to throw hither young man. laureL 

and thither, extol. juventus, Otis, / youth, laus, dis,/ praise. 
jactura, ae,/ loss ; jac- jiivo, juvi, JQtum 1. c. lavo, lavi, lavdtum 1. 

turam facere, to suf- ace. to assist. to wajih. 

fer loss. lectus, i, m. bed. 

jam, adv. now, already. L. legatus, i, m. ambassa- 

jam pridem, long since. Labe&cto 1. to cause to dor, 
janiia, ae,/ gate. totter, shake. lector, oris m. reader. 

jecur, jecindris, n. /%e .labor, lapsus sum 3. legio, dnis,/ 2e^n. 

liver. to Jail. lego, gi, ctum 3. to read. 

jocor, 1. to jest. labor, oris, m. labor, toil, lento 4. to soothe. 

jocdBUsS. sportive. laboro 1. to labor; c. leniter, adv. niUdly. 

jocus, \, m. a jed. ahl. to suffer from. leo, dnis, m. 2um. 




lepidus 3. eieganti neaL 
lepor, oris, m, agreea- 

bUnesiy jtsi, 
lepus, oris, m. a hare* 
Lesbus, i,/, Ltsboa. 
levir, iri, m. hmtkar-vik- 

lovis, e, light. 
levftas, atis,/. Uvity., 
levo L to lighUnf re- 
lieve; c. abL ioyree 
^ /ram, [(urn. 

Ie4'gis, yi Zau^, condir 
libens, ntis, willing. 
libenter, adv. wHUngly^ 

with delight, 
lil^r, bri, m. hook. 
liber, 6ra, ^rum, Jree, 
liberalis, e^free, 
liberulitas, atis,y! liber- 

liberaliter, adv. liberatty. 
libCre, adv. freely, 
lib£ri, orum, m. childrtn 

(in relation to their 

libCro 1. to liberate. 
libertas, atis,/. liberty, 
lU>et, uit 2. it pleases. 
libido, inis, /. desire, 

passion, lust. 
HlH'a, ae,/. a pound. 
licet, uit 2. t^ is ailowed. 
lign^us 3. wooden, of 

liguuni, i, n. wood. 
limpidus 3. limpidy dear. 
Imgua, ae, /. tongue, 

linter, tris,/. boat, sk^. 
liquetaclo, ieci, factum 

3. to melt. 
lis, litis, /. civUprocesSf 

riU6ra, ae, f. letter (of 

alphabet); litttoie, 

arum,/, letter, litera- 


littus^ dris, n. seoHihore. 

loco 1. to place, set. 

locilples, 6tis, wealthy, 

locupl^to 1. to enrich^ 

locus, i, m. place, sittta- 
tion, ro<nn ; pL loca. 

longe, adv. far, widely. 

longinquitas, atis, / 
length, extent 

longinquus 3. rtmiate, 
distant ; e longinquo, 
from afar. 

longus 3. long, 

loquacitas, atis^ loqua- 

loquax, acis, hquadous. 

loquor, locutiis 3. to 

Luceria, ae, /. Luceria, 

Lucretius, i, m. Lucre- 

lucrum, i, n. gain, ad- 

luctus, Qs, m. gritf. 

ludibrium i, n. sport. 

ludo, si, sum 3. to pUxy. 

ludus, i, m. jUay. 

lugto, xi 2. to grieve, la- 

luna, ae,/. moon. 

lupus, i, m. wolf, 

luscinia, ae, / nightin- 

lusus, us, m. sport. 

lux, lucis,/ light. 

luxurla, ae,/. luxury. 

Lycurgus, i, m. Lycur- 

Lysis, is, m. Lysis. 


Mac^do, dnis, tik a 

Macedonia, ae, / Ma- 

machinatio, onis,/. ma- 
chine ; device, artifice. 

magis, adv. mere. 
magister, tri, m. teacher, 
magistratus, Os, m. ma- 

gistracy, authority ; 

magnificus 3. magni^ 

magnitQdo, Inis,/. mag' 

magnopSre, adv. great- 

magnus Sgreat ; comp* 

major, us^ greater, 

majores, um, m. aneeS" 

male, adv. hadiy. 
maledico 3 c dat to 

maledicus 3. slanderou9, 
maleficus 3. doing evU, 

evU, wuked ; subsL 

malevdlus 3. iS dupo*- 

ed, malicious. 
malitia, ae, / malkt, 

malo, maliii, malle, to 

wish rather, prtfer. 
malum, i, n. cqtple. 
m&lum, i, n. m2, iiti9- 

malus, i,/ appHe-iree^ 
mldus 3. evil, bad. 
nlando, di, sum 3. to 

mane, adv. in the morn- 
man^, nsi, nsum 2. 

to remain ; c. aco, to 

Mantin^ ae, /. Man- 
manus, Qs,/ hand; 2) 

a company, 
MarceUus, i, m. Marod- 

mare, is, n. sea. 

margOi Tnis, m. marghu m^ntior 4. to lie. mis^, ad», tartidudly. 

MariuB, i, m. Marius. mercator, oris, im iixh miser^or, miseitus or 
marmor, 6ris, n. marhle. der. miseritus sum 2. c. 

marittor^iis 3. ^mar&2e, merces, 6dis,yi rtoom- geu.topiiy. 

marble. pense. misSret me alicOjus rei, 

Martius, i, m. Mart. mer^or, meritus sura 2. U excites m^ fityfot 
mater, tris,^! moiher. to deserve; de aliqua something. 

mathematicus, i, m. re mer^ri, to deserve miseria, ae, f. misery^ 

mathematician. of something, ufont 

mature, a4v. speedily, in meiltum, i. n. desert. misericordia, ^e^f.pihf. 

season. inerx,rc\8,f. wares, miiesco^ to render sqfl, 

matiirus 3. ripe, ^ messis, iB^f. crop, tame, 

med6or 2. c. dat to cure. Metellus, i. m. Meteilus. mitigo 1. to sojlen^ 
mediciu^ ae, /. medi' metior, mensus sum 4. mitigaie. 

cmCj remedy, to measure. mitis, e, sojl, m/Hd. 

unedicuatf if m. physician, metdo, ui 3. to fear, mitto, misi, missum 3* 
medideris, e, middling, metus, us, m. apprehen- to send. 
meditatio, 6uis,/..m€(ii- sion^fear, mobilisf e, movo^^e. 

tation, m^us, 3. mtne. moderator, oris,>v- 

medltor 1. to reflect mico, ui 1. to gUtter. emor. 

•upoUf study into, migratio, onis,^ migra- moderatus 3. temperate. 

Medus, i, m, a^Mtde. tion, modSror 1. c. ace to 

M^g^ua, ae,yi Megara, migro 1. to migrate ; c* govern, rule, 
mel, mellis, n. honey, ace. to tran^ess. modestia, ae,/. modesty. 

membrana, ae,/. mem- miles, itis, m. warrior, modestus 3. modesL 

brane, sotdier, modice, adv. temper* 

membrum, i, n. lipih, Milti&des, is, m, MUticp- atdy. 
memini, isse, c. gen. or des, modius, i, m, husheL 

slcc, to remember. minax, acis, <Areafent9ig. modo, cuifv. only, now; 
mSmor, oris, c. gen. Minerva, Sie,f Minerva. conj. c. Subj. if only. 

mindful of, minime, adv. least, not modo — modo, funi>— 

memoria,ae,/ ffKitu^ry, at aU, now, 

remembrance, time ; miniVor 1, to ihreaien, modus, i, m. manner, 

memoria tenure, to minor 1. to threaten, way, 

hold in remembrance, minCio, ui, utum 3. to moenia, lum, n. toalls 
memoriter, adv, from lessen, dimmish. (as defence). 

memory, by heart. minus, adv. less. moeror, oris, m. grief, 

memdro 1. to mention, mirificus 3. wonderful, sorrow, 

relate, miror 1. to wonder ; 2) Moesia, Ae^fMoesicL 

Menander, dri, m. Me- to admire, moles, is,/, mass. 

nander. minis 3. wonderful, ear- moleste, adv. grievous^ 

mendajs, acis, lying ; traordinary, ly ; mol. fero, take it 

suhst. liar, . misc^o, scui, stum or tU. 

mens, tis, /. sense, mind, xtum 2. to mix, to dis- molestta, ae, / annoy* 

understanding, spirit, turb, ance, 

state of mind. miser, 6ra, ^rum, trreto^ molestus 3. trouble-' 

mensa, ae, /. tabic ed. some, 

mensis, is, m. monUi. miserandus 3. pitiable, mollor, itus sum 4. to 


prepare, gei reatbf. munio 4 tofartyy. lum navale, navai^ 

mollio 4. to soften, make muDus, ^ris, n. gervice ; toar. 

soft, aUeviaU, 2) present navigo 1. to navigaie. 

mollis, e, sojl, murex, icis, m. a pwr^ Davis, is,/ ship ; navis 

mollhia, ae,/ «o/lneM. pie jish, purple, lougSL^tDar-Mp. 

Molo, ODis, m. Molon. murmur, Cirls, n. mur- do, adv, not (with Im- 
momentum, i, n. or- mfir. perat, and Subj. of 

cumstance, murus, i, m. tvaU (as a exhorting), 

mon^o 2 fo admonish, structure). ne, eonj, {hat not ; thai 

moDs, Dtis, m. moun- mus, muris, m. mouse, (i 106, 1 and 3.) 

tain, muecajBe,/, ajhf, neyinierrogativeparUde, 

moDumentum, i, n. musicus, \,m, musician, (i 115. 3. b. a.) 

monument, muto 1. to change, ex- ne— quidem not even, 

mora, ae,/. delay, change, not also, (has the 

morbus, i, m. disease, mutus 3. dumb, word on which the 

mordax, acis, biting, emphasis rests be- 

mord^o, momordi, mor- N. tween its parts). 

sum 2. tolnte,tohadi' Nam, namque, cor^.for nebQla, ae,/. misL 

hUe, nanciscor, nactus sum nee (n^que), and not^ 

mdrior, mortdus sum, 3. to obtain, also not ; nee (ne- 

motUtodie, narratio, onis,/ norra- que) — nee (neque), 

moror 1. to delay, re- tion, narrative, netther-'^^nor, 

main ; c ace. to narro 1. to rekfte, necdum, and not yet, 

make nothing of, nascor, natus sum 3. to necessaiius 3. necet- 
morosus 3. morose, be bom, to spring, 9ary; rdated; homo 

morsjtis,/. deaih, natalis, is, m. birUi-day, necessarius, /tetul 

mortalis, e, tw/rtal, natio, onis, / nation, necesse est, it is neces- 
mos, oris, m, custom, fri&e. Mry.(§ 105. R. 4) 

manner ; plur. charac- nato 1. to swim. necessitas, atis,/ fiecet- 

ier, natura, ae,/ nature, sity, 

motus, £is, m. move- naturalis, e, natural, neco 1. to kUL 

ment ; niotus terrae, natus, us, m. birth ; ma- nectar, &ris, n. nedar, 

earthquake, jor natu, oldo", minoj* necto, ziii, xum 3. to 

mov^o, vi, turn 2. to natu, younger, join together, weave. 

move, natus 3. bom ; post nefarius 3. ir^amous, 

mox, adv. thereupon, Christum natum, af- nefas, {indecL) n. wrong, 

qfterxjoards. ter the birth of Christ ; negligo, lexi, lectum 3. 

mulier, ^ris, / woman, old (when the year to ntglecL 

wife, has been specified, nego 1. to deny, say no, 

Miillerus, i, m. Mulier, which in this case negotior 1. to pursue 
multitudo, inis, /. mvl- stands in the ace.) business, trade, 

titude. naufragium, i, n. ship- negotium, i, n. husi- 

multo 1. to fine, punish, wreck; naufr. facere, ness. 
multus 3. mtuJi, many. to suffer shipwreck, nemo (Inis) e, nobody, 
mundus, i, m. world nauta, ae, m. sailor, no one, (gen. andabL 

munificentla, ae,/ mu- navalis, e, noiMiZ^periatn- not used). 

nifi^xnre. ing to a ship ; pugna neptis, is, / grand- 

munificus 3. munificenL navalis, seafight; bel- daughter. 


NeptOnag, i. m, JV^ do) — sed etiaoa, tui hk ihcd amf ont f any 

tune. only — but alB9. thing? 

nequ^o, ivi, Uum, ire, nondum, ado, not yd. nunc, ad». now. 

not to he aMfi. nonne ? notf not i$^ nundlnae, arum, f» 

nequicquam, adv. in deed^ whether noL market. 

vain, to no effect. nonnunqvuunajodv.aotne-' nunquam, adv, never. 
ner}fUByi,m.nervej sinew. times. nwatio 1. to announce* 

nescio 4. not to know, nosco, novi, notum 3. nuntius, i, m* message^ 
neBciu8 3.notknomng; to become acquainted news ; messenger. 

non sum nescius, / wUh. nuper, lately. 

knowfvdl weU. noster, tra, trum, Mir. nurus, Cis, f. daughter' 

Di (nisi), conj. if not, nostras, &tis, m* o/* our in-law. 

unless. country, feUow^ounr nusquam, ocfv. lUMn^^. 

nidiftco 1. to buHd a tryman. nutrio 4 to nourish. 

nest. nota, ae,/. mark, sign, nutrix, icis,/. nurse, 

nidus, i, m, nest. notio, onis,/. notion. nutus, us, m. nod, com^ 

niger, gra, grum, Made notitia, a«, /. knotd- mand. 
nihil (inded,) n. nothing, edge. nux, nucis,/ a nuL 

niMum, i, n. nothing, noto 1. to mark, brand. 
nimis, adv. too much, notus 3. knoum, O. 

nlmium, adv. too mudi, November, bris, m, Obdormisco, miTi, mi- 

too very. JS/bvember. tum S. tofaU adeep. 

ningo, xi, 3. to snow. novi, isse, to know. obdOco, xi, ctum 3. to 
nisi, cory, tf not ; ex- novus 3. new, over^read, cover. 

cept. nox, noctis,yi night. ob^dio 4. to obey. 

nitidus 3. shining, nubes, is, /. doud. ob€o, li, itum, ire, to 

splendid, nubo, psi, ptum 3. c. die, 

nitor, nisus or nixus dat to marry (of the obitus, Qs, m. departuref 

sum 3. c. abl. to rdy woman). death, 

upon something ; ad nullns 3. no one, no ; oblecto 1. to ddight. 

aliquid, to drive c^Ur nullus non, every one. oblino, £vi, itum 3. to 

somdhing ; in aliquid num,interrogative word besmear^ contaminate. 

to strive againd some- [§ 115, 3, b, c,]. oblivio, onis, /. Min- 

thing, Numa, ae, m, JVuma. ion. 

nix, nivis,yi snow, Numantia, ae, f, JVur obliviscor, oblitus sum 

nobllis, e, k$ioum, re- maniia, 3. c. gen. or aca to 

nowned. num^ro 1. to mmher, forgd. 

nobili to 1. to ma^A:nou^ redum. obr^po, repsi, reptum 

renowned, num^rus, i, m. nundttr,'^ 3. c dat. to creep 

nocto 2. to injure. multitude, rhythm, upon, steal upon, sur- 

noctu, adv. by night. Numida, ae, m. a JW- prise some one. 
nocturnus 3. nodumaL midian. obnio, (ii, (itum 3b to 

nodus, i, m. knot. Numidia, ae, /. AU- cover over, overuMm. 

nomen, jfnis, n. name, midia. obscOro 1. to obscure, 

nomino I. to name. nummus, i, m. money, a obscQrus 3. obscure, 
non, adv. not (stands sesterce. obsequium, i, n. sub' 

before its verb) ; non numquis, numqua^ mission, obedience. 

solum (tantum, mo- numquid, is it possi- obs^qaor, secQtus sum 


S, c dat to obeyy occdpo 1. to take pas- opinor 1. to think. 

comply tnth, session of, faU upon, opitdlor 1. to lend aid. 

observo 1. to observe. to surprise. oportet2. U is necessary , 

obeessio, dnis,/. hlodcr Octdber, bris, m. Oc- (§ 105. R.4.) 

eufe, siege, tober. oppeif or, pertus sum 4. 

obsid^o, sessi, sesBum ocAlus, i, m. eye. to await, 

2. to besiege. odi, isse, to hate. oppldum, i, n. town. 

obsidiOyODis,/ siege. odidsus 3. hatefidy hated, opplSo, ^vi, 6tum 2. to 
obsolesco, 16 vi 3. to odium, i, n. JUl upffU. 

pass away, become an- Odofr^dus, i, m. Ott- oppono 3. to oppose. 

tiquated. fiied, opportune, ado. oppoT" 

obdto, stiti, statum 1. c. offendo, di, sum 3. to tundy. 

to stand against, in offend. opprimo, press!, pres- 

to %Day of , to be a ofi^ro, obtCQi, oblatum, sum 3. to oppress. 

hindrance^ hinder, 3. to offer. oppugno 1. to attack. 

obeum, fiU, essec. dat officio, ^ci, fectum 3. ops (not used), gen. 

to be against, injure. to hinder, prevent. opis,/. aid 

obtemp^ro 1. to obey. officium, i, n. duty, ser- optabilis, e, desirable. 
obtin^o, 2. to maintain. vice, optimas, atis, m. ckitf 

obtingo, igi 3. to fall to ofiundo, ftidi, ftlsum 3. man. 

on£s lot, c. dat to flow against; opto 1. to wish. 

obtrectatio, dnis, / de- pass, to spread one^s opulentus 3. powerful, 

traction. sdf upon, surround rich. 

obtrecto 1. c d. io dis- something ; c. ace. to opus, 6ris, n. %oork. 

parage. cover, opus est, ii is necessary, 

obviam, adv. against, to ol^um, i, n. otL [4 91. 5, c] 

mjcet. oYim, adv. form^y* oracidum, i, n. oftzc^. 

occac£o, onis, /. oppor- omitto, misi, mi6sum3. oratio,6nis,/. speech. 

tunity. to let go, pass over, orator, oris; m. orator. 

occasus. Us, m. setting, postpone. orbis, is, m. cMe. 

dowrfaU. omnino, adv. wholly, al^ ordior, orsus sum 4 to 

Occidens, ntis, m. set- together. begin. 

ting sun, western re- omnis, e, each, whole ; ordo, Inis, m. order, sue- 

gions, west. plur. aU. cession, rank. 

occldo, cidi, casum 3. onfiro 1. to load, burdcTU Orestes, ae, m. Orestes. 

to f all onus, £ris, n. load. Oriens, ntis, m. sun- 

occido, cidi, cisum 3. to onyx, y cbis, m. onyx. rising, east, eastern 

km, op^ra, ae,/. service ren- regions. 

occo 1. to harrow. dered, labour; op6- origo, inis,/. origin. 

occillo, uliii, ultum 3. ram^ 4are, navare c orior, ortus sum 4. to 

to conceal . dat to occupy ont^s rise, sprif^fiom. 

occulto 1. to conceal. self with. omamentum, i, n. oma" 

occukus 3. concealed. opes, um, /. power, metU, jeweL 
occumbo, cubai, cubi- property, goods, trea- omo 1. to adorn. 

tum 3. to fall, die. sures. ore 1. to speak; caus- 

ocrfia, ae,f,greave (cor- opimus 2, fat, rich. sam orare, to plead; 

responding to our opinio, onis,/. opinion, 2) to entreaL 
boot). belief. oryx, ygis,^ gazdle. 


ds, dris, fL/ace, paries, ^tiir, /. waU (of pauper ^ris, poor, 

ds, ossis, n. bone ; pi, a house). paupertas, atis, f, pov- 

ossa, bones. pario, pepSri, partum 3. eriy, 

ostium, 1, n. (loor, to bear, produce ; ova Pausanias, ae, Pau- 

otlum, i, n. leiaiare, parSre, to lay ^ga, aanias. 

ovis, is,/ aheep^ paro 1. to prepare. pavidus Z. fearful. 

ovum, i, n. egg. parricidium, i, n. parri- pavo, ouis, m. peacock. 

cidcy tffidked deed. pavor, oris, m, fear, 
P. pars, rtis, f. pari, aide, fright. 

Paciscor, pactus sum 3. plur. ihe charactera in pax, pacis,/. peace ; 2) 

to make a bargain. a play. permiaaion. 

pactum, i, n. bargain ; parsimouia, ae, f. fiu- peccatum, i, n. ain, 

nullo pacto, in no gality. fault. 

toay. particeps, clpi^, par- pecco 1. to ain, do 

paene, add), nearly, al- tidpating in. wrong. 

nwat. particdla, ae, f. a par- pecten, Inis, m. comb. 

pallidus 3. pak, livid. tide. pecto, xi, xum 3. to 

pallium, i, n. doak. partior 4. to divide. comb. 

palumbes, is, m. toood- parum, adv. too little. pectus, dris, n. breast. 

pigeon. parvus, 3. amaU. pecuoia, ae,/. money. 

palus, udis. / marah, pasco, pavi, pastum 3. pedes, itis, m. footman, 

pool. to pasture (of herds- foot-aoldier. 

pando, audi, assum, 3. men), to feed; pascor, pejSro 1. to awearfalady. 

to open. pastus sum, pasci, to pello, pepQli, pulsum 3. 

pango, peplgi, pactum be fed, pastured, (of / to drive. 

S. to fix in, to f oaten, herds). Pelopidas, ae, m. PeUh 

bargain, agree to on pascdum, i, it. pasture, pidas. 

condition. passim, /ar and wide, pelvis, is,/ basin, bovJL 

panis, is, m. bread. pastor, oris, m. herds- penates, lum, m. pena- 

papaver, £ris, n. pop- man. tes, household gods. 

py. patefacio, feci, &ctum pend^o, pependi (sup. 

papilio, onis, f^^. a butter^ 3. to make knoum. wantiug) 2. to hang. 

fly. pat^o, Cii 2. to stand pendo, pependi, pen- 

par, aris, equal ; par open. sum 3. to pay for, 

sum c. dat 1 am a pater, tris, m. father. value. 

match for some one, patienter, adv. patiently, penftus, adv. u^Uy. 
par, aris, n. a patr. patior, passus sum 3. penna, ae,//eaMer. 

Parapamisus, i. m. to suffer, allow, pensum, i, n, thread. 

Parapamisus. patria, ae, / native peracerbus 3. very bU- 

paLrsitaaS. prepared, rea- country. ter, severe. 

dy. patrocinor 1. c. dat. to per&go, 6gi, actum 3. to 

parco, peperci, parsum prated. accomplish. 

3. c. d&t. to spare, pauci, ae, vufew. per^o 1. to pass 

forbear. pauUisper, adv. a little through. 

parens, ntis, c, father or whUe. perclpio, cSpi, ceptum 

mother ; plur. pa- paulliilum, adv. a little. 3. to perceive. 

renta. paullus 3. little ; paulo percr^po, iXl, Itum 1. to 

parSo 2. to obey. post, a little after, resound. 


percurro, eueurri or perp^or,pe8BUMuiii3. penrersTtas^&tis,^ per- 

eurri, cunum 3, to to endure, versihf, 

run through, j^rpiktro I, to perform, pervid^o, idi, isum 2. 

perdo, didi, ditum 8. perpetultas, atis,/. per- to oomidery examine, 

to ruiny destroy, lose, peiuiiify duration, pes^.p^dis, m,JboL 
perddrao, Cii, Ituin 1, to peq^etdo^ ^uh, confm- pestileDtifa, ae,/ pesti- 

tame, subdue, uaUy, lence, 

per€gre, adv, abroad, perpetuus 3. continued, pestis, is,/, pest, destrue- 
perto, li, Itum, ire, to constant turn, 

go to rwn, perish, penodo, si, sum 3. to peto, ivi, itum 3. c. ace. 
perfectus 3, perfect, eat through, to strive to obtain, 

perfiiclo, feci, feetumSL perrumpo, rOiM, rap- strive <rfUr, attack, 

to finish, effect turn 3. to break fetch, 

perflfdus 3,faiOdess, thw^h, petOlans, tis, unmUm, 

perfriiigo,fii6gi,firactum Persa, ae, m. a Per- petulantia, ae,/ ufon- 

3. to break through. sum, tonness,licentiousn€ss, 

perfi&ga, ae, m. deserter, penMtepe, adv, very of Phidias, ae, m, Phidias. 
peffliglum, i. It. rtfuge, ten, philosophia, ae,/. phi- 

pergo, perrezi, perrec- persanoLtocuretMoSy. losophy, 

turn 3. to go, proceed, pers^uor, secatus sum philosdphus, i, m. phi- 
perictilum, i, n, danger. 3. to JbUow up, pur- losopher, 
periddus, i,/. period, sue, pie, adv. tenderly, pious- 

peritus 3. c. gen. ect- peraev^rol, to holdout ty, 

perienced, skilled in, persolvo, vi, Qtum 3. pittas, atis, / pittyt 
perm&nSo, mansi, man- to pay, JUial love, 

sum 2. to continue, persona, ae,/. person, piger, gra, grum, Mh- 

hold out, persto, Iti, atum 1. to Jul, duU, 

permano 1. to JUno persist, pigritla, ae, /. iniutivity, 

through, perstringo, inxi, ictum pilosus 3. hairy, covered 

permitto, isi, issum 3. 3. to draw through, wUh hair, 

to permit, censure, piugo, injd, ictum 3. 

permdvSo, movi, mo- persuade, si, sum 2. c. to paini ; acu pin- 

tum 2. to move, stir dat to persuade, con- g6re, to embroider, 

up, vince, pinus, Os,/ pine, 

permulc^o, Isi, Isum 2. perterrCo 2. to frighten, piper, £ris, n, pepper, 

to stroke, please, put in fear, pirum, i, n. pear, 

charm, soothe, pertlnaz, acis, oft«^in- pirus, i,/. pear-<ree. 

permultus 3. very many, ate, piacator, oriB, m, fisher- 

pernicies, 6i,/. destruo- pertln^a, 2. to extend; man, 

Hon. ad aliquem, to per- piscis, is, m,fith, 

pemiciosus 3. pemi- tain to some one, piscor Ltofish, 

cious, destructive. pertuibatio, onis,/. dis- plus 3. piotis, gratefuL 
pemosco, novi, notum turbance, plac^o 2. to please, 

3. to become thorough- perturlx) 1. to disturb, placide, adv. gently, 

hf acquainted with, perv^lior, vectus sum 3. placidus 3. gentle, 
per6sus3. hating great- tobe conveyed off, place 1. to appease, 

ly> perverse, adv, perverse- plane, adv, uMbf; 

ly- J^ainfy. ^ 


)p1aD6te8, ae, m. phnd, popAlor l.tola^ waste, praeceptor, dris, m. 
planities, ^lyf, a plain, pdpiilus, i, m. people. ieatker. 

jAantSiy die, f. plant. Yi6pQ\u8, i^f. poplar. praeceptuni,],n.precflpf, 

Plato, 6fM8, m. Plato, porro, adv. moreover. . prwixpU, 
plaustrum, i, n. draught- porta, ae,/ gate. ' praeelare, adv. noUy^ 

wagon. porticuB^ ae,/. portico, praeel&rus 3. nohU. 

"plBMSMSytk^m. applatae, poito J. to hear. praeclQdo 3. to t^vt 

Plautus, i, m. Ptotciti^. portus, Cis^ m. Aave?i. praeco, onis, m. eneo- 
pl€!nos 3. c gen. jM^. poseo, poposci 3. t» de- niiatt. 
plerU|ue, aeque, fique, mand. praeeordia, drum, it. 

very many, mod. po^^sslo, dnisy /. poi- diaphragm. 

plenjmque, ado. com- session, possessimg. prae^x, cd^^is, preco- 

monly, possum, potdi, posse, fo cious. . 

Plinius, i, m. Pjn^. be (Ale (can). praeda, ae,/ &oofy. 

plorfitoa^ to, m. com- postfia, adv. afterwards, praedico 1. to extoL 

pkdnt [many, posteaquam, eon;, qfter praedico 3. to predict. 

plures, a, Giium. marey ihat. praeditus 3. c. abl. en- 

plurfmus 3. most. p08t€ro die, on thefol- dowed with. 

plqs. Oris, n. more, lowing day ; in po- praedium, i, 

pluTidsus 3. mifijf. stei'um diem, iUlIhe make booty. 

poema, &tis, n. poem. foUouring day. praefero, tdlt, latum, 

poexuL^ne^f.pwiMhment ; postis, iB, ferre 3. to prefer. 

poenas dare, to be postquam, conj. f^ler praeldquor,locutus sum 

punished ; 2) revenge, that. 3. to speak before. 

poenitetmealieujusrei, postr^mus 3. lad; ad praemium, i, n. reward. 

it repents me of some- postremum, ladty. praeparatio, oniBif.pre- 

thing. postQlo h to demand. pcarttion. 

Poenus, i, m. a Cartha- potens, lis, c. gen. pow- praepflro 1. to prepare. 

ginian, erfiil, master of. praep6no, dsAi, dsitum 

poeta, ae, m. poet. potentla, ae,/ power, 3. to prefer. [Hly. 

polite, adv. eleganUy. potestas, atis, / poiver. praeprop^re, adv. has- 
pollex, icis, m. thumb. potio, 6nis, / drinking, praesens, tis, present. 
pollicgor, citus sum 2. drink, praesertim, adv. espee- 

to promise. potior, titus sum 4. c. uUly. [dent. 

Pompeii, drum, m.jP(m»- abl. to possess one^s praeses, idis, m, presi- 

peii (a ci^). seff" of. ]>raesidium, i, n. aid, 

Pcmipeius^ i, m. Pom- poUssimum, ado. es- protection, support. 

pey. : pedaUy, prindpatty. praestabllis, e, exeeUent^ 

Pon>pilius, i, m. Pom- potlus, ad/o. much more, superior. 

pilius. rather. praestans, tis, excellent.. 

pomum, i, n. plur. eoto- potus, as, m. drink. praesto, iti, atum 1. to 

Uejhdt, praealtus 3. very deep. be distinguished ; ali> 

pond^ro 1. to ponder, praeb^ 2. to ajford, cCU, to surpass ; to he 
pono, sOi, Gfitum 3. to ^emf ; se praeb^re, to better; to bestow; to 

lay, place ; ponfire in prow, show one^s sdf. pay ; se praest&re, to 

aliqua re, to set, place praecepe, clpltis, indin- show on^s sdf. 

upon something. ing, rugged, steep ; praesto, adv. present, at 

pons, tis, m. bridge. precipitous. hand^ 



praesiira, ftU, esse, to probari aliedi, to profalbSo, bdi, bitiim S. 

be placed before^ pre- pUase same one, to prtvetd, keep off* 

side over, probruin, i, n. di^raee, prouJide, cuiv. therefore ; 

praeter6o, li, itum, ire, probu» 3. nprigld, ex- proinde qvmstfjfui as 

to pass hy before. ceUent, ^» 

praeterttus 3. past. Probus, i, m. Prohus. promitto, misi, niisBum 
praetor, dris, m. praetor, procella, ae,/. stornL 3. to promise.- 
prwetorium, i, n. gener- procih'eB, um, m. the no- protnptu, in promptu 

oTs tent, btes. esse, to be rea^. 

prandeo, di, sum 2. to procerus 3. slim^ taU. promptus 3. reatl^. 

breakfasL proc&do, di, sum 3. (of pronttutio 1. to pro- 

pratum, i, n. meadow. money) to coin. notmee, 

pra vitas, atis,/. deprav- procu\yadv.faroffyjroin prope, adv. near : 2) 

%. a distamx. naahf^ abnoet 

preces, um,/. entreaties procumbo, cubiii, eubl- prepare, cuts, hast&if. 
precor 1. to entreat ; tum 3. tofaU doum. fnropitlus 3. prapUiouSj 

bene pr. alkdi, to procilro 1. to toi(:e eore o/t Jbvorable. 

un^ wett to one. prodto, li, ftum, ire, to propositum, i, n* pwr- 

premo, pressi, pressum go forth, depart. pose, design. 

3. to press. prodigiosus 3. toonder- proprius 3* own, peeu- 

pretidsus 3. precious. ful. Uar. 

pretium, i, n. price, proditio, onis,/. treaihr propler^a, adv. on this 

value. fry, account. 

pridem, adv. long ago ; proditor, oris, m. traUor. propugnator, oris, m. 

jam pridem, long prodo, didi, ditum, 3. to dtampion, dtfender. 

since. deliver up, betray. propiilao 1. to drive 

Pri^ne, es, /. Priene (a proetium, i, ii. enooun- back. 

city of Ionia). tor. pr^ creep forth. 

primo, tub. in the first profanus 3. profane, prorsus adv, entunekf. 

place. profecto, adv. indeed, prospecto 1. to look 

primum, (uto. in the first tndy. forth. 

place. prof^ro, ti&li, latum, fer- prosperitas, atis,/ j»t<«w- 

princeps, ipis, m. first ; re, 3. to bring for- perity. 

the first, ward. [fessor. prosf^cio, ^pexi, ^lec- 

principium, i, n. be- professor, oris, m. pro' tum 3. to see b^re 

ginning ; principio, proficio, f^ct, fectum 3, one^s self. 

in the beginning.^ to profit, accomplish, prosterno, stravi, stra- 

priscus 3. old. proficiscor, fectus sum, turn 3. to prostrate. 

pristinus 3. former. Si to set out (on a prosum, fi^i, desse c. 

prius, ado. sooner. journey), march, de- dat. to be useful, ben- 

priusquam, conj. before part. f^. 

that, ere, before. profit£or, fessus sum 2. protinus,ac{r;.«mme8liiEto- 

priv&tus 3. private. to acknowledge fredy, ly. 

probe, adv. excdkntty, promise, offer finely, proverbium, i, n. prov- 

suitably, uprightiy. ptofusvtnS. unrestramed, erb. . 
pr6bita3,atiB,f. upright' progr6dfor,gres8us8um providentla, ae, f.fore- 

ness. 3. to step forth, ad- e^ight, providence. 

probo 1. to approve; vance. provid6o, vidi,vi8um 3. 


• U^fortstt; c. dat to otum 3. to stingy (q que, oav^. amf (always 

primdefor 8omBtkmg\ harass. ^attached to its word). 

2) tg bt on w^b Punicusd. Punic quemadm^um, ode, §» 

gmard, look out* pumo 4 to pwnsk, tor- tchaJt tnomier, as, 

provincia^ ae,' / pro- red, qued ivi, Itora, ire, to 

vincu puppis, is,/ iht stem of he abU (can). 

proxinie, ikA?. neitf. , a skip, ^ quercus, Os,/ oaJL 

proxlmus 3. tuxk pargo 1. to purify^ juiti- querela, ae^ eompUdittf 

prudens, ti%. tutiie, !»*¥- Jy^ pktintweay, 

dmtf skUfuL purus 3. pure, ' queror, questus sum 3. 

prudeBter, ofh, ms$ly, puto 1. to tkinky Mieve, to eompkdn, 

prudM%, consider, qui, quae, quod, uko, 

pjrudencm, ae,/ wiadomj Pyllldes, ae, m, Pjfiadts, qui, how^uihgwit^whatby* 

prtuknet, Pythagoras, ae^ m. Py- quia, conj, because 

ptuoufm, i, fu a pium^ thagorm, quicunque, quaecun- 

prunus, \,f.plumtre(i, que, quodcunque, 

pnbes, iUris, grown ^, Q. whosoever, 

publice, ado, pMidy, Quaero, sivi, situm 3. quiclam,quaedam, quid- 

enbehaff nfVtie State, to se^ ab or ex ali- dam and quoddam. 

(d the cost f^the Stak, quo, to ask of one. [§ 31, 6)]. 

publico 1. to wutke pvb- quaeso, / pray, beseech, quidem, indeed (is 

lie quaeatlo, dpis, /. ques- placed after its word). 

publicMS 3w pubUc ; in Han. quidni, u% no/. 

publiico, in a ptddic qualis, e» of what sort, quies, 6tis,/ quiei. 

street - dmrader ; as, ^uiesco, 6vi, etum 3. 

pudor, oris, m, tkame, qiiaiiscunque, of whtd- to resL 
puella, ae,/. nwddi ever sort, character, quietus 3. quiet, 

puer, 6ri, m, boy ; pu^ri, qiiam, adv, how, as ; quiu, [i 107, 3. b)]. 

children, amj, (with the com- quinam ? who (hen ? 

pneriHs, e, Mdigk paratiye) than. <iuippe, adv* indeed,, 

pueritla, ae, /. thild- quamdiu, Aoir long, so namely, 

hoodi long as, quis ? quid ? who f what $ 

paerdlUs, i, m. little boy, quamvis, eoay. with the quis, qua, quid andqu\, 
pugna, ae, /.^A^ to- sidtj, how much soever, quae, quod [31,1)] 

th. aUhough, any one, 

pugno L iofghL, quando, adv, tdhtn, quisnam) quaenam, 

polcher^ chra, chrumi quaoquam, conj, with quidnam, who, what 

beaMt\fid,fair, iwUc, though, cd- thtnf 

pulchre, adv, beauttfyi- though, quispiam, quaepiam, 

ly, quanto, (with comp.) quidpiam and quod- 

pulchritudo,iai^6eati' the, piam [§ 31, 3)]. 

ty, (^mtopire, how greatly, quisquam, quicquam 

pulex^ tcis, m. ajea. quantus 3. how great ; and quodquam, 
pull us, I, m, the ytfung quantum, how much, (scarcely) as^ one, 

(of animals),. c^^icfcen. quantuscunque, how [§31,4)]. 
pulvis, (&ris, m, sand, great $oever, quisque, quaeque, quid- 

d^,.' quasi, as it toere^ as if, que and quodque [§ 

putigOf pupQgif p«ia- as though, 31, 7)]. 


quisquis, qaicquid,t0fto- r«cip(o, c^pi, ceptum refrico, cdi, c&tum 1. to 

ever, (4 90. R. 2). 3. to take batk, re- rvb agam^ renew, 

qmiyodo. tokkher; quo^ cdve ; se recip^re, regtna, ae,/ queeiL 

eo, (in coDip.) ike-— to heUdct om/it uif regCo, onis,/. re;gfum. 

«o mucA ftyt, back, regius 3, m^, 

quoad, so Umg aa, nntUf recito I. to read io, regno 1. to re^gTi. 

tm/tl ihaty even untU, recordatio, dnis, /. re- regnum, i, n. re^gti, 
qnociinque, adv. uM^ eoUeetum, kingdom, 

ereoever. recorder 1. c. ace, to rego, xi, ctum 3. to 

quod, coTi;. (hat, because, rememher, caUio mind, govern^ guide, rule, 
'quodm, tf nowj but if, recr6o L to renew, re- rdjicio, j6ci, jectum 3. 
quoaiinu8,Mai(4 107,2). Jreeh, to throw awey,r^ecL 

quomddo, adv, how, recrudesco, ddi 3. to religfo, dnis,/. reUgum^ 
quoDdam, adv, once, break open qfreeh, comcientiouineia, 

formerly, recte, adv, rtghthf, ear- religi6se, adv. earupur 

qaoQian], conj. because, redly, lously. 

quoque, adv, also, rector, oris, m. governor, relinquo, Kqui, lietuiii3. 

quot ? haw many^ rectus 3. straight, dired, to leave bekind^deserL 

quotaDriis, adv. yearly. right ; recta consci- rellqnus 3. remaining, 
quotcunque, however entfa, a good con- rena&n^o, nsi, nsum 2. 

many. science, to remain behind, re" 

quotidiaDUB 3. daily. reoimbo, eubdi, eu^- main, 
quotidie, acfc?. <to%. turn 3. to lie <tou;n remiDiscor (without the 

quoties, adv. how often. again, P^) ^ <^* fS^^ or 

qootiesouoque, adv, recup^ro 1. to recover, ace. to remtmiber. 

however often. redimo 1. to tove in re- reradv^o, ovi, dtum 3. 

quotquot, Ami^ever many. tvopn. to remove. 

quotas 3. whai one in redargCio, Hi, atum 3. Remus, i» m. Remus. 

order, to rrfute. ren, (commonly plur, 

qHum, conj, when; as, reddo, !di, itum 3. to renes, um, m.) kid', 

since. give back again, give, neys. 

make, [turn, reor, ratus sum, reri, 1L 

R. red£o, !i, itum 4. to re- to be persuaded, think, 

RahieB,^i,f, madness, reditus, Os, m. return, repente, a<to. suddenhf, 
rabidsus 3. mad, redQco, xi, ctum 3. to rep^rio, p^ri, pertum 4. 

radix, icis, /.r(N^ lead bade to find, find oui, 

rana, ^e,f,frog. redundo 1. to redound, rep6to, ivi, itum 3. to 

rapldus 3. tearing away, refeUo, elli 3. to reftde, call back, retrace. 

rapid. refercio, rsi, rtum 3. to repl^o, 6vi, 6tum 2. to 

rapio, pai, ptum 3.. to st^,fiU up, fiU up. 

snatch, carry off. re^ro, tiili, latum, ferre replico 1. to-repeat 

raro, adv. rardy, 3. to bring bade, re- reporto ]. to bear off, 

rarus 3. sddom, turn again ; requite ; repugno 1, to contend 

raftio, dnis, f. reason ; refer to, against, 

manner. r6fert 3. c gen. tf esn- repdto 1. to weigh, eon- 

rafvis, is,/ hoarseness. cents. (§ 88, 10). sider. 

ree^do, cessi, cessum reformido 1. c. ace. to requles, 6tis, (occ. requi- 

S. to go bade, retire. fear something, em)Jirest,nta!'Datum,, 


ve^ievco, £vi, Stum 3. Rhodus, If. Bkodu, saevio 4. to rage, 

(ex) c. abl. to r^potfe. rid^o, riBi, risum 3. to saevus 3, fierce, 
requiro, quisivi, quiet- Umgk ; c. aoo. to eagitta, ae,/. arrow, 

turn 3. to seardi c^taty lavgh aty deride, sal, salis^ m. salt ; toU, 

inquire for, rkUcOiua 3. ridiauUma, salio, Idi, Itum 4. to leap, 

wmt r^iff affaxTy thing, lipa, ae,/. ktniL saiteoi, adv. at kaei, 

Hisekido^ idi, iaaum 3. risus, as, m. lau^ aalto 1. to dance, 

to tear off, bretdt aff, rite, adn, «n a proper salus, Qtis,yi j9rafpei*iiy, 
f^neiseo, iYi or ii, itum manner, ioi^crtt at^ety, 

3, to ascertain, rivdkM, i, ifi. stream, salutaris, e, sakUary, 

rasfeo, cdi, otuni % to robur, dris, n. t<rer^f<^ salato 1. to sahUe, 

€ut off. robu8tii0 3. tflrof^. salve, \a{k I (Imper. of 

reservo 1. to reserve. rogo 1. to entreaty etfft. salveo 2, to be weU). 
resid^ ^, essuBi 2l Rx>muius 3. Bmnan ; salvus 3. sqfe^ weU, 

to remain- MuuL Rotnanua, i, m. a Samnis, itis, m. a Sam- 

resifto, «t&ti> stlttimS. Roman, nite, 

to resisL Romulus, i, m, Bomvr sancio, nxi, ncitum 4. 

resdno I, to resmmd. Ins, to sanction, 

n^nMs 3, reso*mduigy rQBa,aejf, rose. sancte, adv, sacrediyy 

echoing, Roecius^ i, m. Rosdus, eonseientiouaiy, 

respiro 1. to hreaihek rostrunit i, n. beedi. sanctus 3. sacred, 
repfKHid^ di, sam d. rotundus 3. round, sane, ado, trubf, 

,to answr^ reply, ruber, bra, brum, red, sangOis, inis, m. Hood, 

responsio, onis, /• an- rudens, lis, m, rope^ sand 1. to heal, cure, 

swer, t stc^ sapidus 3. palatable, 

rmespimmuu h *^* ^'"'^ mdls, e, e. gen. crtKJe, sapiens, tis, xoise ; subst 

swer, unacquainted with. wise man, 

Vfa|>MbD[c%.Cif, rei pulb- rudo, ivi (i)^ itum 3. to sapientla, ae,/. wisdom, 

licae,/. State, roar, sapTo, Cii 3. to &e wise, 

respuo, iXi, utum 3. to mmpo, rupi, ruptum 3. sarcTo, rsi, rtum 4. to 

r^fsct, to breakjjear. make good again, re- 

reatingOo, nxi, actum, rCio, rdi, rutuni 3. to pair, [frivrndL 

3, to smother, ,to ex- rash, sarmentum, i, n. shoot, 

Uinguish. rupes, ia,/ rock, diff, sat, adv, sttffidenUy, 

restis, is,/, rope, rua, ruris, n. country, satio ]. to satiate, 

jre^tOo, ili, Otum 3. to ru8ticus3.ru9<tc,* subst satira, ae,f, satire, 

restore, cou^nJtryman, boor, satis, adv, sufficienUy, 

resto, stiti 1, to be 10; ruttlus 3, fiery red, Saturnus, i, m. Saturn. 

2) resisL saxum, i, n. rock, 

rete, is, n. net, toil. B. seat^o, ere, c. abl to h$ 

retin^o, indi, entum 2. Sacer^ era, onim, so- ftdl of something, 

to hold ba^Jcy retain, crtd ; sacra, drum, n. scaturigo, Inis^ spring, 
j^us, i, m, defendant. sacred rites. sceleratus 3. widied. 

levertor, Perf, : revorti sacerdos, otis, c priest, scelus, Sris, n. crime, 

3, to rdum. priestess. transgression, 

revdeo 1. to recott. saeciilum, i, n. a han- schola, ae,/ school, 

lex, gts^ m. king, dred years. scbolasticus 3. q/* or /)cr- 

Rhenufl) i, m. Bhmt, saepe, ad». often. taining to a school, 



scilicet, ado. (rti^, to sententia, ae, /. iemti- sirailitOdo^ Inis, /. lAe- 

itU. ment^ opinion, ness. 

scintilla, ae,/ $p€tHt. aeDtio, nsi, nsum 4. to simplex, leis, simple, 

acio 4. to know, fed^ thinks judge, aimu\j adv. at Ae same 

scipio, onis, m. stqffi sentis, is, m. (common- time. 

Scipto, dnis, m. Scipio. ly plur. sentes), thorn' simulac, eonj, (neyer 

scribo, pei, ptum 3, to luth,^ before a vowel or h) 

write, sep&ro 1. to separate^ as soon as. 

scriptor, 6ri8, m. writer, disjoin. simulatiio, dnis, f, pre- 

scrobis, is, tit. Ao^, <K(eA. sepSllo, pelivi, puhum tenet, 

scrupdlus, i, m. scruple. 4. to inter, bury. simulatque «s simulac. 

Scytba, ae, m, a Sof- sepio, sepsi, septum 4. simiilo 1. to liken ow^s 

ihian. to hedge in, indooe, sdf to; to feign. 

secemo, crftvi, crfetom sepdno, pdsili, pdsitum sin, conj. htd if. 

3. to sunder, s^^arate. S, to lay aside. sinapis, is,/, mustard. 

seco, cOi, ctum 1. to September, bris,fii.Ssp- nngiili, ae, a, ttngffe. 

euL iemher. sino, sivi, situm S, to 

sector ]. c. ace. to pur- sepulcrum, i, n. grave, permit, allow, 

^ue, strive after. burial. siqitfdem, cofy. if m* 

secundus 3. favorable, sequor, secQtus sum 3. deed. 

fortunate ; res secun- c. ace. to f (Mow. siser, eris, n. carrot, 

dae, prosperity. ser^nus 3. dear, bright, sitio 4. to thirst ; c. .ace« 

secQris, is, /.axe, hatch- serTus 3. grove. to thirH afkr some- 

d. sermo, dnis, m. conver- thing. 

secQrus 3. secure, safe, saium, discourse. sitis, is,/ thirsL 

sed, conj. but. sero, sevi, satum 3. to situs, Qs, m. situation ; 

sfiddo, B^di, sessum 2. sow, plant, 2)mould,fUh, 

to sit. acruB S. too late. situs, 3. placed; situm 

sedes, is,/ seat. servio 4. to serve, esse, to be placed, bu- 

seditro, dnis,/ sedition, senrftus, Qtis, / servi- ried. 

sedo 1. to qiJAd. tude. sive — sive, conj. whetkr 

seddlo, adv. busily. servo 1. to preserve. er^-^-or, dther.-^-or, 

seges, dtis,/ crop, servus, i, m. slave. soccus, i, m. siKk, shoe. 

semen, inis, n. seed. seu, ooty . see sive, socer, eri, m. JhUier-in- 

semper, adv. always. seveiftas, atis,/ sever* taw. 

sempitemus3.eper-i/i4r- Hy. isoci^tas, atis, / Mfitbfi, 

ing, eternal. si, conj. if, ifcdso, league, ailiance, as- 

senator, oris, m. senator, sic, adv. so, thus. sociaJtion. 

senatus, 08, m. Mnerfe. sica, ae,/ (2fl^l^ger. socius, i, m. a%. 

senectus, Otis, / age, sicarius, i, m. assassin, Socrfites, is, m. Socra- 

old age. siccine, adv. is it so? tes, 

seneXfSenis, oM;subst sicco 1. to dry, socrus, Qs,/ mother-in- 

old $nan. Sicilia, ae,/ Sicily, law. [ton. 

senilis, e, bdonging to signum, i, n. sign. sod&lis, is, m. compan- 

old age ; aetas seni- silentiDm, i, n, silence, sol, solis, m. sun. 

lis,/ old age, siler, i^ris, n. wUlow, solatium, i, fi. solaoe, 

sensus, Os, m. sense, silva, ae,/ a wood. sol^ ae, / sole ; so- 

J^dimg, simllis, e, Uke, 16a equi, horseshoe. 


■q16<v solittts sum 3. spiiitus, Qs, m. hreaih, stultus 3,fooiuh, m%. . 

to be wont splen, enis, m. Me ^/i^een. suavis, e, lovely, agreeO' 

■olitadOjinis,/. Jo2thuJe. splend^, 01.2. (o «^ne., Ue. 
■dlers, tis, dexirouSy splendidus 3. spUruUcL soavitas, atis, /. stoeet" 

MtfvL splendor, oris, m. raag- nes$, lovdmeis of 

BoUicito 1. io di$qmel^ mfieenot, splendor, ekaroder. 

soUicitQdo, inis, f $olir spolio 1. to deprive^ rob, suaviter, adv. sufettbff 

aiudty anxiehf, spoodeo, spopondi, agreeMy, 

Bo]licitu3 3. anxioui, sponsum 2. to 6e re- suber, 6ris, ti. cork iree. 

solum, i, n. growuL spofMU for, sublgo, ^, actum S, io 

solus 3. alone, spurius 3. spurumt. tDoHi: ; svl^ngaie, 

solQtus 3. unkotmd, stabijis, e, stable, firm, subitus 3. suddenly. 
solvo, vi, atum 3. to stabilltas, atis,/ eto^il- subjicio, j6ci, jectum 3. 

loose Jree, Uy, to subjecL 

somuio L to dream, statim, adv, immediately, subrid^o, risi, lisum 2. 
somuium,' i, n. dream, statio, 6nis, station, to smile, 

somuiis, u m, sleep. statCta, ae,/. staiue. subeCquor, secatus sum 
sonitus, 08, m* sound, status, Os, m. posture,. 3. to follow. 
soDo, ui, itum . 1. to Stella, ae,/. star. substerno, stravi, stra- 

«otmd Btercus, 6ris, n, dung. turn 3. <o spread tm- 

sonuB, i, m. tone. stimdlo 1. to goad. der, 

sopblsta, ae, m. sophist, stipendlum, i, n. pay, subterfiigio, Qgi, Ogl- 
Sopbdcles, is, ui* So^^uh- stirps, pis, /. stem, ori- turn 3. to escape, 

des. gin, subv^nio, vtoi, veutum 

sordidus 3. mitan. eto, st^ti, statum L to 4. to eome to help. 

sorex, icis, m. a /ek^ «<and, 6e gained by, succ^do, essi, essum 3. 

mouse. cost. to succeed. 

sorix, icis, m. an owL streoile, adv. vigorously, succens^, di, 2. to 6e 
soror, oris,/ sister. strid^o di, 2. to whistle, enraged. 
Bors, tis,/ lot. stringo, inxi, ictum 3. succumbo, cubdi, cubl- 

sospes, itis, safe, sound, to graze^raw {sword), turn 3^ to sink under, 
spargo, rsi, rsum 3. to strix, igiB,/Aome(ioti;^ succurro, cursi, cursum 

strow, scatter, spread, studto, Oi 2. to strive, 3. c. dat to aid, as^ 
spattum, i, n. space, exert one*s stif, en- sist. 

length of time, deavor ; c. dat to oc- sudo I. to sweaL 

species, €\,f,form. cupy one's self lea- sudor, oris, m. sweat 

speciosiis 3. striking, loudy uM, favour sugo, xi, ctum, 3. to 

beautiful. [tator. some one. swk, 

spectator, oris, m* spec- studiose, adv. zealously, sui, pron. of him, (her, 
specto 1. c. ace. to look studiosus 3, c. gen. de- it) self, 

at, behold, have some- voted to ; stud, esse Sulla, ae, m. SuUa. 

thing in view. c geu. to occupy one^s sum, fbi, esse, to be, be 

speeus, Qs, m. cave, sdf zealously with, peculiar, belong, pet- 

sperno, spr^vi, spreium to apply one^s self to tain to; c. gen. or 

3. to spurn, somithing. dat to possess ; cum 

spero 1. to J^ope. studlum i, n. effort, zetd, dupl. dat to tend to, 

•pes, 6i,/ hope. [Id. study. strve fir something, 

spinther, 6ris, n. brace- stuliitia, a,e,f. folly. some one. 


summa, ae,/ mm, SyraeCuEMie, anmk/. ;^ tego, zi, cCom 3. te 
foaiiiMis 3. gnaUst^ rmeme. cover. [^''Mgr* 

highest, Syrus, i, m. a jS^um. tegumeDtuni) i, n. ooo- 

tmnma aqua, aurfket of teluna, i, n. orrow^ doH. 

Ike w&Ur. T. tem^re, adv. rcM^ 

sumo, mpsiy mptooi 3. Tabilla, ae, /• bomrd, without reason. 

to take. [sew. taUe, temerltafly atis, /. rotfc- 

silo, sai, satum 3. to tac^, 3i <& (e «t2eii<. ncM, hastiness. 

Mipellex, eetilis, /•Jwr- tacitm 3. silent. teinperantia, ae,/ ism- 

nUvrej utensUs. taedet roe alicojiis lei, peranee. 

Biiperbus 3. jmmd,mfi^- it excUes disgust in tempore 1. to moderciU; 

nifieenL me ai somdhing. qob temp, mibi quin, 

wperlor, oe, higher ; talentiim, i, ti. takni 1 cannot re/roin firom^ 

Bubet conquerer. (sum of money )i tempestas, atis,/. iune ; 

8up6ro 1. to overaome, talis, e, qf $udi sort, 2) tueotiher, «torm. 

surpass. charetcttr ; sutk. templum, i, n. tsmpAe. 

saperstes, itis, c dat tam, so; tam^^uam, tempus, dna, n. Urns; 

survitfing. so a s. tempdr^ ai ihe right 

niperstitio, onia, /. tu- tamdiu, adv, so long. time. 

ptrsUiion. tamen, cofij. yet, stilL tenax, acts, c. gen. per- 

8up£ru8 3. above; au- Tamfiaia, is, m. TAoniM. severing^ tenacious. 

p6ri, the gods. tandem, adv. Jinalhf, tendo, tetendi, tenaum 

suppedlto 1. to furnish, then. and tentum 3. to <tsw 

eupplez, lois, supplianL tango, tetigi, tactum 3. tend, distend ; ad all- 
Bupplicium, i, n. pun- to teudi ; tangi de quid, to drive efiet 

i^unsnt. coeio, to be strutk by something. 

supplico 1. e. dat to lightning. ten^brae, arum,/, dorifc- 

entreai. tanquam, jitf< ff#, of, <w ness. 

supra, adv. above. . if as though, as it ten^o, ndi, ntum 2. to 

supr^mus 3. last. were. hold, holdfast, occupy 

surgo, surrexi, surrec- Tant&lus i, m. Tanta- restrain. 

tum 3. to ortfc lus. tener, £ra,^rum,lefidcr. 

SUB, suis,/. 80W, swint. tanto, (in comp.) so tento 1. to try. 
suscipio, cepi, ceptum much the* tenuis, e, sUaider, smedi, 

3. to undertake, re* tantopSre, adv. so great' slighL 

ceive. ly. tergum, i, n. back. 

auscito I. to arouse. tantum, only. terra, ae,/ earth,^ land. 

suspicor 1. to suspect, tantus 3. so great terrSo 2. tofriglden. 

imagine. t^urditas, atis, / dow" terrestria, e, earOify; 

sustento 1. to support. ness. proellum terreadre, 

sustin^o, intii, entum 2. tardus 3. slow. UmdfghL 

to sustain ; sust par- Tareutum, i, n. Taren- terribilis, e, terrHic. 

tes, to act a part. turn (a city)i terror, oris,, m. terror. 

Alius 3. hie (her, Us), his Tarquinlus, i, nw Tar- testaiYientum, i, n. ka- 

oum. quinius. lament, wiU. 

iigrmbolis, de symbdlis Tarquinii, orum, m. testis, is, c witness* 

ed^re, to eat at com- Tarquinii (a city)* teter, tra, trum, foulf 

mon expense. tectum, i, n. house, roof, hideous. 


texo, zdi, xtum S, to totus 3. the uhole. tundo, tutQdi, tunsum 

weavt, braid, tractatio, odis, f. hand' 3. to htaty stun, 

Thebanus, i, hl a Hie- ling, jmnuU, tunica, ae, /. wndtar' 

han, tracto 1. to handle^ put' garment, 

Themistdcles, is, m. me, perform. turba, ae,/. crowd, 

Themetodes, trado, didi, ditum 3. to turbo 1. to eauee ooii/i*- 

Theophrastus, i, tn. deliver over, give, suT' sum, disturb, 

TheophraHua, render, rdate. turgldua 3. swollen, 

Thracia, ae,/. Thrace, tradux, dcis, m. a vine turpis, e, disgraeefuty 
Tib^rLs, is, m. TSber^ hrarn^ vine4ajfer. hose, 

tibia, ae, / Mn'bone, tragoedia, ae,/. tragedy, turpitQdo, lois,/ bote- 

pipe,Jlutt, traho, traxi, tracturo 3. ness, 

Tigris, is,/ Tigris. to draw. turns, is,/ totser, 

tiiii^. Hi 2. to fear. trans^o, li, Itum, ire, to turtur, Oris, m, turUe 
timidltas, atis,/ ititiu^- pass by, pass over. dove. 

(y, transfigo, xi, xum 3. to tussis, is,/ cough, 

timidus 3 timid, transfix, stab. tutus 3. safe. 

tiinor, oris, m.fear, transgr^dior, gressus tCius 3. thy, thine, 
Timoth^us, i, m, TKmo- sum 3. to pass over, tyrannus i, m. tyranL 

theus, transigo, ^i, actum 3. Ty>'I*^<s> h *». TSprian, 

tingo, nxi, Dctum to bring cibout, tran- 

dolor. sad. V, 

tderanter, adv, paiir transilio, sildi, sultum Uber, ub^ris, abound- 

enUy. 4. to leap over. ing in, rich, 

totero 1. to endure. Trasimfinus, i, m. Tra- uber, ^ris, n. udder, 

tollo, sustdli, sublatum, simenus (a lake). ubertas, atis,/ ncftnett, 

3. to raise up, ^bear tremo, ui 3. to tremble, copiousness. 

away, tribao, iii, Qtum 3. to \xh\, adv. where ; 2)cot^*. 

tond^o, totondi, tonsum distribute, give, im- as soon as, u^ien, 

2, to shear, putt, [pany. ubicunque, wherever; 

umitru, u, n. thunder, tribus, us,/ <ri6e, com- ubicunque gentium 
tono, Oi 1. to thunder, tridens, tis, m. trident where in all the world, 
tonsor, oris, m. barber, triennlum, i, n, the space ubinam, adv. where then. 
tonstricOla, ae, /, afe- of three years. Ubius, i, n. a Ubian, 

male barber. tristis, e, sady lowering, ubivis, adv. where you 

tormentum, i, n. torture, tritic^us 3. of wheat. wiU. 

torp^o, Oi, 2. to be tor- tropaeum, i, n, trophy, ulciscor, ultus sum 3. c. 

pid, inactive, tu, pron, thou. ace to take revenge 

torquto, torsi, tortum tuber, eris, n, hump, upon some one, 

2. to torment, torture, tutor, tuitus sum 2. to ullus 3. any one, 
torquis, is, m. neek- behold, keep, proted^ ulmus, i,/ dm. 

dittin, defend. umbia, ae,/ shade, 

torrens, tis, m. torrent, tuhi, adv. thereupon, una, adv. at the same 
torrCo, torrOi, tostum 2. then ; at thai time, time, together, 

todry,roasL tum^o, Hi, 2, to swdL unda,ae,/ trove, 

tortus 3. twisted, tumultus, Os, m. tumuU, unde, adv, u^tence, 

tot, so many. tunc, adv. at that time, undlque, adv. from aU 

totidem, just so many, then, there, sides. 


unge, (uniH^o), nxi, valetQdo, Inis, / heaWk. verb^ro I. to heat 

DCtum 3. to tmainL validus 3. strong. verbum, i, n. word., m. noil, etour. Tannus, i,/. effrn-fon* verecundia, ae, /. rts^ 
universus 3. vohok. vmtus 3. vadrioiu. ptd, 

unquam, adv. eoer. varix, icis, m. Mtosikn ver^or, veritus sum 2. 

UBimd. one ; onfyj aiofu. vein, Ut reverenetj have res^ 

unusquisque, unaquae- wa, vtois, it.(plur. Vaaa, pedfor^ to fear. 

que, unumquidque drum, n.) veeael, vase, veritus, §Uia,/. trtUh. 

end UDumquodque, vaato I. to kaf toasU. vermis, is, m. tvorm. 

eachone(iS\y7), v&te% m; prophi. verotis 3. vernal; Ter* 

iwiianus 3. belonging to vectifal, aUs, n* toC, nus dies, a spring^ 

(he eityy eUy4ike. /or, incomt, day. 

urbs, bis,/, city, vectis, is, m. lever, bolt, vero, conj. but; 2) adv. 

urgdOy rsi, 2. to press, veh^meas, tis, vehement (as an answer) yes. 

oppress. vehementer, adv. vehe- Yerres, is, m. Verres, 

ursus, i, M. a boar, menily, vudently, versor 1. tnc. abl. to be 

UBUS, Os, m. use. greatly. occupied in a (king. 

ut, adv. as, even as, vebo, vexi, vectum 3. versus, As, m, a verse. 

ut, eQ»j, that, in order to carry, Mng, equo verto, rti, rsum 3. to 

ibai, that not, (§ 106); Vehi, to ride, be borne turn ; v. in iiigamy 

as[inO, 1. 2)];ut of, toputtaflight 

primum, as soon as. vel, co^j. or ; even ; vel verus 3 true, 
uler, tra, trum, which of — ^vel, either — or, vervex, fecis, m. a tcdA- 

the two, velox, ocis, sujift* er. 

uterque, utr&que, u- vellunrx, i, n. sail. vescor (wkhout per£) 

trumque, eath (of the velut, adv, even as, as, 3. c. abL to eat. 

two), both. ' vena, ae,/ vein, vesper, &ri and 6ris, m. 

utilia, e, useful. venatio, onis,/ a hunt, evening ; vespfiri, at 

utilitas, atis, / use, ad- venatus, us, m. a hunt, evening. 

vantage. venator, oris, m. hunter, vester, ira, tnun, your. 

utinam, co9^*. with subj, vendo, didi, ditum 3. vestio 4. to dothe,atiire. 

Othat, [to ii»e. toseU, vestis, is,/, a garment^ 

utor, U8U8 sum 3. c abl. ven^o, li, ire, to be for elM. 
utrura, interrogative sale. Vesuvius, i, m. Vesu* 

word f]]5, 3. b, d)]. ven^ror 1. to revere, vius. 

uva, ae,/ grape, v6n]o, v^ni, ventum 4 veto, di, itunr 1. to Jf%r- 

tocome, bid, 

V. venor 1. to hunL veius, €ris, old. 

Vacca, ae,/ cow, ventus, i, m. wind. vetustas, atis,/ age, 

vacillo 1. to rock, waver, Venus, ^ris,/ Venus, vetustus 3. old. 
vae, alas! vennstas, atis,/ grace- vexo 1. to vex, anaoy. 

vagor 1. to wander. fulness, via, ae,/ way. 

vMe, adv. very much, vepres, -is, m, thomr viAtor, oris, m. tretvdler. 
val€o 2. to be weU ; be busk, bramble, viclnus, i, m. neighbor, 

sound, strong, able ; ver, veris, n. spring. victor, oris, victorious ; 

valval, val^nt, adieu verber, 6ris, n. (com- subst conqueror. 

to something ; 2) to ' monly plur. vtrb^a,) victoria, ae,/ victory, 

avaiL blows, victus, Qs, 


vidSo, vidi, Tisuin 2. virus, i, n. poimm. yoluptas, atis, / fka»- 

to see ; pass, seem, viB^igen, and dtU, want- ure, «eiiiiuz2%. 

appear, in^ ; plur. vires^ium), volvo, vi, atum dw to 

vig^o, di 2. fo &e v^r- /. power, forte, fMd- roU, 

tms, tUude. tov^o, vovi, votum 2. to 

vigil, ilis, iTl. watchman, vidcus, ^ris, it. (com- tfow, 
vigilantia, ae, /. watth- nxmly p\var,)inward8, vox, vocis,/. voice, 

JkUmess. ^ visum, i, n. appearance, Vulcanus,!, m, Vtdean, 

vigilia, ae, /. watch, Visux^s, is, m, the We- vulgaris, e, common, 

night-wcddk mr, vulgus, i. n. peopk, the 

vigilu 1. to weUch, vita, ae,/. l\fe. common peopie, 

vigor^ oris, m. power, vitio^tas, atis, /. vice, vuln^ro 1. to wound. 
viBcTo, nxi, nctum 4. to vieiouoness, vulnus, 6ris, n. wound, 

hind, re0traxn, vitiosus 3. defective, vulpes, \a,f, fox, 

vince, vici, victum 3. vitTum, i, n. fault, vice, viiltur, Oris, m, vtdtwre, 

to conquer, vanqui^ vito 1. to avoid, vultus, Qs, m. espres- 

overcome, Titulinus 3. of ctdf, sum, feature, counte- 

vincOlum, i, ». bond, vitOlus, i, m, cedf, nance, 

chain, vitup^ro 1. to censure 

vin^, a vine, vivo, viii, victum B. to X. 

tvtnum, i. n. imne, live, Xendplion, ontis, m. 

vidlo ]. to violate* vivus 3. living, Xenophon. 

vir, viri, m, man, vix, adiv scarcdy, Xerxes, is, m, Xerxes, 

vir€o, ui 2. to flourish, voco 1. to call, invite, 
Virgillus, i, m, Virgil, volito 1. to fly, flutter, 7a, 

virgo, mis,/ vir^^n, volo 1. tofl^, , Zama, ae,/ Zama. 

virldis, e, green, volo, volQi, velle, to Zeno, onis, m, Zeno, 

viritim, man by mem, wish (would). zingiber, ^ris, n, ginger, 

virtus, Otis, / virtue, voliicris, is,/ bird, 

bravery, voluntas, atis,/ will. 


A. Abroad, per^gre. Accounted (to be), exis- 

Abate, mollire. Absent, absens, tis. timari, babSri. 

Ability, facultas, atis,/ Absent (to be), abesse. Accustomed (to be), so- 
Mle (to be), posse, qui- Absolve, absolvfire. lere, consuesc^re. 

re, valere ; not able. Abstain, abstinere. Acknowledge, confit^ri, 

nequire. Abundance, abuudantfa, fat^ri ; — ^- fi^^j 

Abode, domicilium, i, n. ae,/ copia, ae,/; to profitiri. 
Abound, abundare. have — — abundare Acorn, glans, dis,/ 

Abounding in, locuples, c. abl. Acquainted with, peritus 

£tis. Accompany, comitari. 3. consultus 3. gna- 

About, circiter. •^ccom^i9W,eruditus3. rus 3. c. gen. 

Above, sup^rus. Acquainted with (to be), 


Dovisse [§ 77, 3)] ; ^^igrte to (on condition), Aneu$ MoarliuSn Ancijs 

— ^- ihx^oughhfj per- pang^re. Maitius, i. m. 

noso^re. ^^gruable, gratus 3. ju- And, et, ac, atque, que. 

Acquire, parare, compft- cundua 3. suavis, e. And not, neque (nee). 

rare (aibi). Agricola, Agric6la, ae, Anger, ira, ae,yi iracun- 

Acre, jugerum, i, n. m. dia, ae,yi 

•^, ag^re. Agriculture, agricultOra, Angry, iratus^ 3. 

Ador, histifo, onis, i^i. ae,/. .^Tumnce, annuntiLa]<e. 

•/Jcuie, acatUB 3. subti- w9u2,auxilium,i,n.fHrae- Annoy, vexare. 

Its, e. * sidium, i, n. Announcement, • dracil- 

Adapted, aceommoda- Aid, adjilvare c. ace. lum, i, fi. 

tii8 3. c. dat or ad c. . auccurSre c. dat. ; to Another (of seyeral), a- 

ace. ^nd aid, opitularL Uus, a, ud. 

w^cU, add^re. wS^iv/ vae! .^no^^, alifenus 3. 

Address, alldquL JMdbiades, Alcibi^des, Answer, respond^re. 

Adhcrbcd,AdheT\)Q\,il\8, is, tn. Antiodms, Antiocbus, 

m, Alexander, Alexander, i, m. 

•^J?mra&/e,admirabilis,e. drl, m. AtUiquity ( =» ancient- 

Admiration, admiratio, .^UeittTUi&ta, Alexandria, ness),vetusta8,at]s,/. 

onis,/. «©»/ w^vi?, incus, udis, / 

Admire, admirari. AH, omnes, ia. Anxious (am), curae, 

Admonish, m5n6re, ad- Alliance, soci^tas, atis, mibi est 

mdnere. / foedus, ^ris, n* Anxiously, anxT^. 

Admonition, admonitlo, AUobroges, Allobrdges, Any, uUus 3. 

onis,/. um, m. Ape, simia, ae,/ 

Adopt, adscisc^re. Allow, jub^re. Apollo, Apollo, inis, tn. 

•^e2orfi,omare,adornare. Ally, socius, i, m. Appear, appar^re, vi- 

comare. Almost, iere, ferme, pe- d6rL 

Adva'&age, lucrum, i, ne, prope. Appease, plac&re. 

n. commddum, i, n. Aloe, alo6, es,/ Applaud, applaud^re, c. 

emolumentum, i, n. Alone, solus 3. unus 3. dat 

fructus, iXa, m, Alps, Alpes, ium,/ Apple, malum, i, n. 

Adversity, res adversae. Already, jsun, Apple4ree, malus, i,/ 

Advise, suad^re. Also, etiam, quoque. Apply one^s self to some- 

Mduan, JSdQus, i, m. AWiough, quamvis. thing, incumb^re tn 

JEmUius, iEmilius, i, m. Always, semper. or ad aliquid. 

JEneas, iEn^as, ae, m. •^mazon,Amazon,dnis^ Apprehend, ver^ri, me- 
Affair, res, rfii,/. •^m^oModor, }egatus,i,m. tufire. 

Affected, afiectus 3. Ambuscade, insidiae, a- Apprehension, meius,us, 
Affirm, aio. rum,/. nu . 

Afford, praeb^re. Amiable, amabtlis, e. Appnmch, appropin- 

Africa, Africa,/ Ample, amplus 3. quare, adventare,^ 

After that, postquam, c. Anaxagoras, Anaxag&- Approach, aditus, Os,fii. 

ind, per/, ras, ae, tn. Approbation, approba- 

Against (prep.), adver- Ancestors, majores, um. tio, onis,/ 

BUS. Ancient, antiquus 3. ve- Appr&te, appr5bare, 

Age, aetas, atis,/ [m. tus, feris, priscus 3. probare. 
Agesilaus, Agesilaus, i. Anciently, antiquitus. Arch, fornix, Icis, m. 


Jlrchimedes, Archimfi- aliquo), interrogare, Avmt, opperiri. 

des, is, m. rogare (aliquem). .^e, secQris, is,^*. 

^deaf Ardea, ae,/. Ass^ asinus, i,m. Axk, axis, is, m.' 

Ardor^ ardor, oris, m. Assassin^ sicarlas, i, m, 
ArumsiuSy Ariovistus,i, Assatdt, oppugDare. B. 

m. Assemble^ convdc&re, JBa&t^Zon, Babylon, dnis, 

Arise, surgfire, cooriri, congr^gare, conflu- f. [31 

exoriri. €re. Bahylonian^Bahyloulua 

AristideSy Aristides, is, Assembly, coetus, Qs, m. Bad, mains 3. 

m. Assent to, assentiri. Badge, insigne, is, n. 

Aristotle, AristotSles, is, Assiduously, assidde. Bake, torrftre. 

m. f Assign, trihu€re. Band, agmen, inis, n. 

•^^TTitf, arma, orimi, n. •/^bm^, juvare, adjuvare manus, Qs,/*. 
Army, exercitus, Qs, m. c. ace. succurr^ri, Banisher, expuhrix, 
Arpinum, Arpinum, i, auxiliari c. dat icis,/i [ag? jT* 

n. > wl»«yria, Assyria, ae,y. jBdnA(ofa river)iripa, 

Arpinum (of), ^&9f. Ar- Athenian (a. and s.) Bargain (to make), pa- 

pinas, atis, m. Atheniensis, is, m. cisci. 

Artist, artlfex, icis, m. .^/tocA one'^ self to some Bargain, pang^re. 

iff. one, se applicare ad Base, foedus 3. turpis, 

Arrange (line of battle), aliquem. e, sordTdus, a, um. 

aciem instru^re. Attack, impetus, Os, m. Basely, foede. 

Arrival, adventus, Qs. w^^^oc^ aggr^di, adoriri. Battle, pugna, ae /. 

m. Attacking, oppngnatio, proelTum, i, n. 
Arrogance, arrogantia, 6nis,y. -Be, esse; in some- 

ae, /, Attain, ass^qui. tkir^, versari in ali- 

Arrow, sagitta, ae,/ Attalus, Attains, i, m. qua re ; present, 

Art, ars, tis, f. Attempt, conari, mofiri, adesse, inter^se ; 
Artaxerxes, Artaxerxes, suscip^re. wanting, desse, 

is, m. Attend to, attendfire. deficfere. 

Artificer, artifex, icis, m. Attention to, cultus, us, Bear, portare, gestare, 

andf, m, ferre; off,repoT- 

As, ut, quum, velut. Attentive, attentus 3. tare. 

quomddo, quemad- Attentively, attente. Beard, barba, ae,y! 

mddum, ac (atque). Atticus, AttTcus, i, m. Beast, bestia, ae,^'. 
As if, quasi, ac si, tan- Attic, Atticus 3. Beat, ferire. 

quam. Augustus, Augustus, i, JBe(Zti^i/t(/,pulcher,chra, 

As often as, quoties. m. clirum. 

As soon as, ubi, atque. Autumn, autumnus, i. Beauty, pulchritQdo, 

[§110,2)] m. Inis,/. 

As wdi — as (also), et — AvaU, val^re. Beautifully, pulchre. 

et Avarice, avaritia, ae,/". Because, quia, quod, 

Ascend, ascend^re. Avaricious, avarus 3, c. quoniam. 
Ascertain, experiri, res- gen. Become, fi€ri, evadfire ; 

ciscfire, comp6rire. Avenge (one's self on it becomes, de- 
Ashes, cinis, 6ris, wi. one), ulcisci. cet ; it does not 

Asia, Asia, ae,/ Avert, avertdre. become, dedScet. (J 

Ask, quaerere (ex, ab, Avoid, vitare, evitare. 89, 2). 

• 31 


Becoming, decdrus 3. BitUr, amarus, 3. acer- irrumpSre ; — -~- 
Before^ ante, prius, an- bus 3. break out qfreshj den- 
tea, antequam, prius- Blacky niger, gra, grum. lio erurap^re ; -^— 

quam ; — thai, an- Blind, coecus 3. through, perrumpCre. 

tequam, priusquam. Blockade, obsTd^o, onis, Breakfast, prandere. 

Beget, gign^re. f. Breast, pectus, dris, n. 

Begin, iucip^re, ordiri) Blood, sangiiis, inis, m. Bridge, pons, tis, m. 

exordin. Bloody, atrox, ocis. Bright (= clear), serfe- 

Begun (to have), cepis- Bloom, flor^re. nus 3, 

se. Blooming, florens, tis. Bring, ferre, arcess^re ; 

Beginning, initlum, Blows, verbera, n. — about, efSic^re ; 

principium^ i, fk Boor, aper,pri,wi; forward, hffer- 

Beggar, mendicus, i, m. wild, aper, pri, m. re ; — r- tip, edu- 

B^ld, adspLc^re, tuf^ri, Boat, liuier, tn8,f, care. 

spectare. Body, corpus, Oris, n. Bring war upon some 

Belief, opinio, onisj^. Bodily powers, corporis one, bellum inferre, 

Believe, credere, putare. vires. alicuL 

Bellows, follis, is, m* Boeotian (s.), Boeotus, i, Britain, Britania, ae,/. 

Belly, alvus, \,f m. Broad, latus 3. 

Belong to some one, es- Bold, audax, acis. Brother, frater, tris, m. 

se alicujus (§ 88, 7). Boldness, audacia, ae,/. Brutus, Brutus, i, m. 

Bend, flect^re. Bolt, vectis, is, m. BuHd, aedificare. 

Ben^, utilitas, atis, f. Bone, os, ossis, n. Building, aedeficium, 

Benefit, prodesse. Book, liber, bri, m., co- i, n. 

Beset, circums^dere. dex, icis, m. Bundle, fescis, is, m. 

Besides, porro. Booty, praeda, ae,/. Bum, ardSre, flagrare ; 

Besiege, obsid^re, cir- Border, finis, is, nu up, deflagrare, 

cumsidere. Bom (to be), nasci. combui^re. 

Besmear, oblinSre. Bom, natus 3. Bushd, modius, i, m. 

Bestow, largiri, adhibe- Both- — and, et — et Busily, seddlo. 

re, praestare ; ^ow, arcus, Qs, m. Business, negotlum, i, n. 

upon, collocare in c. Boy, puer, €ri, m» Business, it is the bum- 

abl. Bracelet, spinther, ^ris, ness of some one, est, 

Betake on/is sdf, se con- n. alicujus. 

ferre ; boj^, se Bramble, sentis, is, m. Busy, sedCilus 3. 

recip^re. vepres, is, tn. But, autem, sed, at (i 

Betraying, proditio. Brand, notare. 101. R.). 

6nis,y. Brass, aes, aeris, n. Bui if, sin. 

Bid, jubfere. Brave, fortis, e. Bvjtter, butyrum, i, w. 

Bind, vincire. Bravdy, fortiter. Butterfly, papillo, onis, 

Binding (to make), ad- Bravery, fortitado, tnis, m. 

strjng^re. f, virtus, utis,/. 

Birrf,avis, is,/! Bread, pania, is, m, * C. • 
Birds of passage, void- Break down (= over- Cabbage, crambe, es,/. 

cres adventitiae. come), Ihmg^re. caulis, is, yti. 

Birthday, natalis, is, m. Break down,re8cmd!^re; Caesar, Caesar, Siris, m. 

Bite, mord^re. forth, erump6- Call, appellare, vocare, 

Biihynia, Bithynia,aej/. re, cooriri ; in, nominare, dic^ ; 


— tomiW, recor- thing), curare witb Choice, voluntas, atis,/. 
dari c. ace. and gen. ; gerundive. , Choose, eligSre, creare ; 

— together, con- Cavtious, cautus 3. rather, malle. 

voc&re. Cease, desln€re, desis- Christ, Cbristus, i, m. 

Called (to be), vocari, tfire. Churth, ecclesia, ae, /. 

nominari, appellari. Celebrate, celebrare. Chrysogonus, Chryso- 

[♦ 84. c)]. Censure^ vituperatio, g6nus, i, m, 

CaUisthBnes, Oallisth^- dnis,^! Cicero, CicSro, onis, tn. 

nes, is, m. Censure, vitup6rare. Cimon, Cimo, onis, m. 

Camd, cam^Jus, i, m. Cerberus, Cerb6ru8,i, m. Cinrux, Cinna, ae, m. 

CarmUus, Caniillus,i,m. Ceres, Ceres, firis,/. Circe, Circe, es,/. 

Camp, castra, pi. Certain, certus 3. Chrde, orbis, is, m. 

Can, posse, quire. Chabrias, Chabrias, ae, Circle of the earth, orbis 

Cannot, nequire. m. * terrarum. 

Canal, canalis, is, m. Chain, vinculum, i,n. Circuit, circuitus, i!ts,m. 

Capital punishmentfSU]^ Chain, vincire. Citadel, arx, cis,/. 

plicium, i, n. Chalets, Chalcis, idis,/. Citizen, civis, is, c. 

Capitol, Capitolium, i,n. Chance, casus, us, m ; Citizenship, civitas, atis. 

Caprice, libido, Inis,/. by chance, fbrtuito. /, 

arbitrium, i, n. Change, vicis, is,/. City, urbs, bis,/. 

Captive{to take),cap6re. Change, mutare. Ciiil, civiiis, e. 

Capture, expugnare. Character, mores, um, CivU war, beilum civile. 

Care, cura, ae,/ m. Class, classis, is,/ 

Care, take care, curare, Charge one wkh some' Claw, unguis, is, m. 

cav^fe. thing, insimOlareali- Clear, limpidus, 3. 

Careful, diligens, tis. quern alicujus rei. Clear (not cloudy), se- 

CarefuUy, diligenter. Charles, Cardlus, i, m. r6nus, 3. 

Carefulness, diiigentla, Chatter, garrire. Cleomenes, CleomSnes, 

ae,/ Check, compesci. is, m. 

Caria, Oaria, ae,/ Cheer, exhilSrare, del- Cleopatra, Cleopatra, 

Carpenter, faber ligna- ectare. ae,/ 

rius. CAccj/i^/y, hilariter, se- Cliff, rupe8,iB,f. 

Carrot, siser, 6ris, n. rene. Clitus, Clitus, i, m. 

Carry, portare, ferre ; Cheese, cas^Qs, i, m. Clodius, Clodius, i, m. 

on, gerfere ; — Cherish, fovfere. Close, clauddre. 

over, trajicSre ; Cherry, cerSsum, i, n. Clothe, vestlre. 

forth, efferre. Cherry-tree, cerfksu8,i,f Clotui,nuhea,ie,f. 

Carthage, Carthago, Chicken, pullus, i, m. Clvh, fustis, is, m. 

in is,/ Chidc-pea, cicer, feris, Coalesce, coalesc€re. 

Carthaginian, Cartha- n. Codius, Coelius, i, m. 

giniensis, is, m. Chiefdty, caput, Itis, n. Coin, procud€re. 

Cassius, Cassius, i, m. Childish, puerilis, e. Coldiis, Colchis, idis,/*. 

Catch, capfire, depren- Children (in reference Cold, frigid us, 3. 

d6re. to their parents), li- Cold (s.), frigus 6ris, n. 

Catiline, Catilina, ae, m. b6ri, drum, m. ; Cotlect, colligSre. 

Cato, Cato, onis, w. (without such ref- Colony, colonia, ae, f. 

Cause, causa, tfe,/ erence), pu6ri. Color, color, 6ris, m. 

Cause (to do some- m. Comb, pecten, inis, m. 


Come, y^Dire ; desire to Confidence (to have), ^^ Coniraded, angustus 3. 

come, acclre ; — dem habere. Contrary (on the), con- 

out, evad6re, fug^re, ConfidenUy, audacter. tra. 

effugCre ; to, ad- Confirm, confirnjare. Coiwersation, sermo, 

venire 'f—^ together, Conftagraiion, incendl- onia, m. 

con venire ; to um, i. n. Convict, convincere. 

pass, fi^ri, incid^re. Confused, dissdnus 8. Convince, persuadere c 

Command, imperare c. Confusion, confusio, dat 

dat 6ni8,yi jCorinth, Corinthus, i,J. 

Commence, aggr^di, aus- Cori/imbn (to throw in- Cortnthian, Corinthiua 

picari. to), pertubare. 3. 

Commit, committ^re ; Connect, connect^re. Cork-tru, suber, ^lis, n. 

to, committdre. Conqueror, victor, oris. Com (a), granum, i, n. 

Common, communis, e. m. * Cornelius JSTepos, Cor- 

Companion, socTus, L m. Conscience, conscientia, nelius (i) Nepos (dtis). 

Compare, compSrare, ae, f,", a good con" m. 

conferre. science, conscientia Corn-fan, vannus, i,f. 

Compel, cog6re. recta. Corpse, cadaver, Cris, n, 

Comvlain, queri ; Conscious, consclus 3. Coned, corrTg^re. 

of, accusare. Consciousness, consci- Correctly, recte. 

Complain (= weep), entia, ae,y. Corrode, ex6d6re. 

ejulare. Consider, intu^ri, pervl- Corrupt, corrumpfere. 

Comply unth, ohs^qui. d6re, reputare. Cost, stare, constare. 

Composed, compositua, Consider as, existimare. Costly, pretiosus 3. 

3» habere, judlcare, ar- Cover, teg6re ;— up, 

Composition, confectio, bitrari, duc^re c. obruSre. 

6nis,yi dupl. ace. [§ 89.5. Cove/ou«, avarus 3. 

Conceal, occultare, oc- a)]. Cough, tussis, is, /. 

culare, celare c. Consolation,^ solatium, Coi^n^ consilium, i, n. 

dupL ace. [§ 91. 5.6)]. i, n. consolatlo, onis. Countenance, cm, oris, n. 

Concealed, occultus 3. Jl vultus, Cis, m. 

Cimcede, concfedfire. Consort, uxor, oris,/ Country, terra, ae,/. re^ 

Concern, cura, ae,/ Conspiracy, conjuratio, gio, onis, / rus, ni- 

Condude (of a league), onis,/ [i, m. ris, n. ager, gri, m. 

ic6re. Cotuptro/or, conjuratus. Countryman, rusticus, 

Condemn, damnare. Constitute, constitil€re. i, m. 

condemnare ; to Consul, consul, lilis, m. Courage, animus, i, m* 

death, capitis. Consult, consultare. Courageously, aequo 

Condescending, submis- Consume, absiim^re, ex- animo. 

sus 3. ^d^re, com^d^re. Course, cursus, Cis, m. 

Condition, conditio. Contempt, contemptto, Cow, vacca, ae,/. bos, 

onis, /. onis,/. bovis,c. 

Conduce to something. Contend, certare, de- Coti'an^icejignavia, ae,/ 

for somt one, esse c. certare. Cowardly, ignavus 3. 

dupl. dat [§ 90. 4. Contented, contentus 3. Crassus, Crassus, i, m. 

a)]. Continue, perg6re. Creak, crepare. 

Confer, conferre. Citntinuous, contindus Create, creare. 

Confess, confit^rL 3. Creator, creator, Oris, m. 

eKglish-latin vooabulart. 36*5 

CVime, scelqs, €ris, n. Day^dies, 6i, m. ; by day, Btprivt, privare, spo- 
Croak, coaxare. interdiu. Kdre c abL 

Croesus, Croesus, i. Im Dead body, cadaver, Deride, derid^re, irri- 
Crop, messis, is, / se- ^ris, n. dftre. 

ges, 6tts,/. Dear, carus 3. ; to hold Descend, descend^re. 

Croton, Croto, onis, m. dear, carum habere. Descendant, proles, is,/. 
Crow, corvus, i, m. Death, mors, lis,/. Desert, desfirCre, relin- 

CVtte^, saevus 3. imma- Decay, interire, occi- qu^re. 

nis, e. dfire. Desert, meritum, i, n. 

Crudty, crudelitas, itis, Deceive, failure, delu- Deserve, mer^ri, dig- 

/. d6re. num esse ; of 

Crush, contund^re. December, December, something, mer^ri de 

CVy, ciamare. bris, m. aliqua re. 

Cry (plaintive), quet^la. Decrease, decresd^re. Designedly, consulto. 

ae,/. Dedicate, de^ckre. Desire, cupido, inis,/, 

Cucumber, cucilmis^ Deed, factum, i, n. cupiditas, atis,/., ap- 

£ris, m. Deep, altus 3. petitus, us, m., ardor, 
Cultivate, colore, exco- Defend, defendfire. oris, m. ; unrC" 

tere. Delay, cunctdrL ^atnec^ libido, luis,/ 

Ctdtimtion, euUure, Deliberate, deliberare. Desire, concupisc^re, 

coitus, Qs, m. consultitre. cup^re. [pCdus 3. 

Cunnif^, astutfa, ae, / Ddiberately, consulto. Desirous, avidus 3. cu- 
Cup, cblix, Icis, m. D&icate, tenuis, e. Despair, desperare. 

Curb, contin^re, com- Ddighty oblectamen-' Despise, contemn^re. 

pesc^re, perd5mare. turn, i, n. Destitute, inops, dpis ; 

Cure, curatTo, ohis,/ Delight, delectare, ob- o/^ expers, rtis, 

CtirCj sandre c. ace; lectare, permulcfire. exsors, rtis, c. gen. 

med^ri c. dat Ddigid (with), libenter. Destroy, delere, destru- 

Curias, Curius, i, m. Delightful, jucundus 3. €re, dirCiSre, evertSre, 
Custom, mos, oris, m. suavis, e. excid^re. 

Customary, usitatus 3. i>cZ^^ti%, suaviter. Destruction, exitium, i. 
Cut offi resficare, des6- Ddiver from something, n. pemicies, 6i,/ 

care. libCrare aliqua re, le- Destructive, pemiciosus 

Cyrus, Cyrus, i, m. vare c. abl ; up, 3. 

iradfire. Detect, detegSre. 

D. Delphi, Delphi, orum, Deter, deterrere, abste- 

Daggtr, sica, ae,/ m. rere. 

Z>a%, quotidle. Dcmaruf, postiilare, pos- jOeiermnc, constitd^re. 

Dance, saltare. c6re, deposcfere ; decernfire. 

Z^awg'cr, periculum, i,n. ftacfe, reposc€re. Detraction, obtrectatio. 

Dare, aud^re. Demaratus, Demaratus, onis,/ 

Darius, Darius, i, m. i, m. Deviate, deflectSre. 

Darkness, caligo, inis,/ Demolish, evert€re. Devote on^s self, se de- 
Dart, telum, i, n. Demosthenes, Demos- d6re. 

Datamas, Dat&mas, aii- thanes, is, m. Devour, devdrare. 

tis, m. Dense, densus 3. Dialect, dialectus, i,/ 

Daughter, filia, ae,/ Deny, negare. Diamond, adSimas, an- 

Daum, illucesc^iie. Deplore, deplorare. tis, m, 



i>tana, Diana, ae,yi Dismiss, dAimtt&re, haurire; — : — f(nih, 
Dictator, dictator, oris. Disparage, obtrectare elic6re ; iogetheTf 

tn. c. dat contrah^re. 

Die, mori, obire. ' Dispd, discCitfire, ab- Dream, somnium, i, n. 
Dionysius, DionysTus i, sterg^re. Dress, vestire. 

fit. Disperse, disperg^e. Drink, potus, Qs, f»» 

Different, diversus 3. Displease, displic^re. Drink, bibfire. 
DifficvU, difficilis, e. Disprove, redargd^re. Drive hack, propulsare* 

gravis, e. arduus 3. Disputation, disputatio. Drive off, explod^re. 
Difficulty, difficultas, oois,/. Drunken, ebrius 3. 

atis,/. Disqiiid, exagitare. Duck, anas, ^tjs,f. 

D^kvUy, toith difficulty, Dissatisjkd (to be) unih Duty, offieium, i, n. mu» 

difficiiiter. something, indignari nus €risj n. ; it is the 

Diffuse, diffund^re. c. ace. ; / am dissat- duty of some one, ali- 

Dig, defod6re ; out isfied with something, cujus est. 

or up, effod^re, enl- poenitet me alicujus DwdL, bal^tare. 

€re. rel 

Dignity, dignitas, atis, Dissent, dissentire. E. 

/. amplitude, inis,/.. Dissolve, dissolv^re, JEJac^omnis,e,quisque. 

gra vitas, atis,/. Dissuade, dissuadere. Each of two, uteique, 

Diligence, diligentla. Distaff, coius, \,f utraque, utrumque. 

ae,yi Distinction, discrimeD, Eager, avidus 3. 

Diligent, dillgeos, tis, inis, n. Eagerly, avide, cupide. 

industrius 3. Distinguish, dijudicare, Eagle, aquila, ae,yi 

Diligently, diligenter. distingu^re. Ear, auris, is,/. 

Diminish, deminMre, Distribute, distribiiSre, Early, matarus 3 ; too 

comminil^re, minu- dispertire, divid^re ear/i^, praeniaturus 3. 

6re. c. dat Early (adv.), mature. 

DiphtJwng, diphthon- Distrust^ diflid^re. Earth, terra, ae,/ tel- 

gus, i./. i>i»^itr6, turbare, solli- lus, Oris,/, humus, i,/! 

Disadvardage, incom- citare. Earthly, terrestris, e. 

modum, i, n. dam- Disturbance, perturba- Earthquake,V^TrbA mo- 

num, i, n. tio, onis,/. tus. 

Disagreeable, injucun- Divine, divinus 3. Easily, facile. 

dus 3. ingratus 3. in- Do, ag^re, %Q^* ^f^^y^ facllis, e. 

suavis, e. Dog,, canis, is, c. ' East, orlens, ntis, m. 

Disclvarge, fungi. Dollar, thalems, i, m. Eat, edfire, vesci; — — 

Discipline, disciplina, Dom£Stic, domesticusS. doum, depascere. 

ae, / Dominion, dominatio, JEc^, echo,. us,/I 

Discord, discordia, ae, onis, /. imperium. Edifice, aedificium, i, n. 

/. i, n. Effect, efficSre, creare. 

Discover, prospic6re. Door, fores, pi./. Effectual, efficax, acis. 

Discourse, loqui. Doubt, dubitare. Effeminate, ' efiemina- 

Discourse, oratio, onis. Doubtful, dubius 3. an- tus 3. 

/. ceps, cipitis. Effort, studium, i, n. 

Disease, morbus, i, m. Dowry, dos, dotis,/. Either — or, aut>-»aut, 
Dishonorable, inhones- Draught, potus, us, m. vel — vel. 

tus 3. Draw, trah^re, duc6re, Elbe, Albis, is, m* 


Eledy eligere, deligere. Enter upon, iugr^di. Ever, unquam. 
Elegant, elTgans, tis. Enticement, iUec^bra, Every, omnis, e, [i9i. 
Elegantly, elegonter. ae, /. 11). 

Elephant, elephantus. Entreat, rogare, preca- Evidently, plane. 

i, m. ri, pet^re (ab aliquo). Evil, m^us 3. 

Elicit, ellc^re. Entreaty (to obtain Evil (a), m^um. 

Elm, ulmus, \,f, by), exorare. Evil-doer, maleflcus, i, 

Eloquence, eloquentia, Envy, invidla, ae,^ m. 

ae,/. Epaminondas, Epami- Examine, exquirSre. 

Eloquent, disertus 3. nondaei, ae, m. Example, exemplum, i, 

Embrace, amplecti, Ephesian, Epheatus, 3. n. 

coraplecti. Ephesus, Eph^sus, i,/. Excel, excell^re. _ 

Embroider^cu pingSre. Epicurus, Epicurus, i, Excellence, praestantia, 
Eminent (to be), emi- m. *^®»j/* 

n^re. Epirus, Epirus, i,/. Excellent, praestabilis, 

Emit, evdm^re. Equal, aequalis, e, par, e, eximlus 3. prae- 

Emotion, perturbatio pans. stans, tis. 

onis,/. Equally, aeque. Excite, excitare, exci^ 

Emperor, imperator, 6- Equanimity,tLeqvLue an- re and excire. 

vis, m. inius. Exercise, exercitatio, 6- 

Emulate, aemdlari. Ere, antequam, prius- nia,yi 
Encompass, cing^re. quam. Exercise, exercere. 

Encounter, proelium, i, Erectheus, Erectheus, Exert one^s self, con- 

n. 6i, m. tend^re, intendSre. 

Encourage, hortari, ad- Erect, aedificare, stru- Exertion, contentio, 6- 

hortari, cohortarL €re, T^^f* labor, oris, m. 

End, finis, is, m. Err, errare. , Exhaust, exhaurire ; 

End, finire. Error, error, dris, m. ; ' entirely, enftca" 

Endeavor, studere. Escape, effug^re c, &cc, re. 
Endowed, praeditus 3. Establish, ca7<&re. , ExkUarate, exhil^rare. 
Endure, ferre, tol^rare, E^ate, res familiaris. Exhort, hortari, adhor- 

sustlnere, perferre ; Esteem,eie8tiinB,re (mag- tarL 

(= last), du- ni etc.), dilig^re. Exist, esse. 

rare. Estimate, aestimare. Expect, expectare. 

Enemy, hostis, is, m, censere. ^x/>eZ, exterminare, ab- 

inimicus, i, m. Eternal, aeternus 3. igSre. 

Enfeeble, hebitare, di- sempiturnus 3. Experience, e:q>erien- 

lu^re, elid^re. Eternity, aetemitas, a- tia, ae,y. 

Enigma, aenigma, &tis, tis,/! Explain, expllcare, in- 

n. Elruria, Etrurla, ae,jf. terprfitari. 

Enjoy, frui, perfiiii c. Eumenes, Eum^nes, is. Explore, explorare. 

abl. m. Expression, vultus, us, 

Enjoym£nt, fructus, Os, Eurystheus, Erystheus, m. 

m. €i, m. Extend, tend^re. 

Enough, sat, satis. Europe, Europa, ae, /. Extirpate, exstirpare. 

Enraged, irritatus 3. Evening, vesper, 6ri, Extinct (to become), 
Enrich, augere. and €ris, m» extingui. 

Enter, intrare. Even if, etiam si. Extinguish,exim^^vQ, 


Extol, praedieare. Futr exceedinghf, exti- Mar, carbAsus, \,f. 

Esdracts (to make ' tnesc^re. Flaxen, flavus 3. 

irom), excerpfire. Fear (to put m\ per- Flee, fbg€re c ace. 
JSxttZ^laetiti&exult^bre, tertre. lUet, classic, ia,/. 

Eye, oci&ltM, i, m. F^el, sentire. Fleeting, fluxus 3. 

Feeling, sensus, Os, m. Flesh, caro, canlis,yi 
F. Fell, caed6re. Flight, fuga, ae,/. 

Fcibius, Fabius, i, m. Fencer, gladiator, dris, Hrg*^ (to put to), fu- 
Jli&^, fabdla, ae,/. m. gare. 

Fa&rtctti»,FabricIu8,i,m. Fetter, comped, Idis, /. Hfocfe, grex, gis, m. ag- 
J^acu%, facultas, atis,/. J^Vver, febris, is,/ men, Inis, n. 

fM, deflcCre. Few, pauci, ae, a, pL Flourish, virtre. 

/btr, pulcber, chra, Fidelity, fides, fii,/ JVbuf together, confld- 

chrum. Field, ager, gri, m. 6re. 

Faiihfvl, fidus 3. Field-mouse, sorex, tcis. Flower, flos, florii^ m. 

Fcttihkss, perfidus 3. m. Fluency of speech, fii- 

Fofl, labi ; (in war), Fierce, saevus 3. cuncUa, ae,/ 

ocdfdfire ; — -^doum. Fiery, ign^us 3. Fly, musca, ae,/ 

procumbSre ; — = — Fight, pugna, ae,/ Fly, volare. 

to ow^s lot, contin- Fight, pugnare, dimi- Follow, sequi, cobse- 

g^re, obting^re ali- care, conflig^re, con- qui c. ace. 

cuL grSdL Folly, stultitfa, ae./ 

Fdse, falsus 3. FiU, iinptere, compl^re, Food, cibus, i, m. 

Far, longe. refercire ; up, Fool, stultus, i, m. 

Fate, fatium, i, n. for- explore, opptere. FooUsh, stultus 3. in- 

tuna, ae,/ Finally, denique. sipTens, ntis. 

FaXher, pater, tris, m. Find, invCnire, repCrire. Foot, pes, p^dis, m. 
Fhtha-'in-law, socer, Find satisfaction in, Footman, soldier, ^pedes, 

M, m. acquie§c€ce c. abl. or itis, m. 

Fault, Titium, i, n. pec- in c. abl. conquies- Fhrhear (can not), fii- 

catum, i, n. c^re c. aU. c€re non possequin. 

FatiZ^ (to commit), pec- Finger, digitus, i, m. Forbid, vetare. 

care. Finish, finire. Fierce, vis, vim,/ 

Fcmstulus, FaustQlus, i, Fire, ignis, is, m. Forehead, frons, ntis,/ 

m. JVrm (to make), confir- For how much i (with 

Favor, beneficium, i, n. m4re. verbs of buying and 

benefactum, i, n. Firmness, constantia, selling), quantL 
Favor (to do), gratiam ae,/ ^ore^, alienig^na, ae, 

fac^re. First, at first, primum. m. alitous 3. 

Favor, favere. Fish, piscis, is, m. Foresee, provid^re. 

Favorable (to be), fevfe- I\t, aptus 3. idonSus 3. Foresight, providenHa, 

re. Fitted, aptus 3. ido- " ae,/ 

-Pear, metus, tls, w. ti- nfius 3. Forget, oblivisci c. gen. 

mor, oris, m. pavor, Mtly, apte. or ace. [g^re. 

oris, m. Flame, fiamma, ae,/ -Form, conformare, fin- 

Fear, timfere, verferi. Flatter, adulari, blan- Former, pristlnus 3 ; in 

metCi^re, reformida- dirl [oris, m. former times, anti- 

re. Flatterer, assentator, quitus. 



Formerfyj quondam. 
Fortkwithy contiiiiio. 
Fortify^ munire. 
Fortuitous, fortuitus 3. 
Fortunaiey beatus 3. fe- 

lix, icis, prosper, eia, 

Fortunately, feliclter. 
Fortune, fortuna, ae,/ 
Fortune (gifis of), for- 

Foul, foedus 3. teter, 

tra, trum ; (=« 

filthy), sordidus 3. 
Ihul deedf fiagitium, i, 

Found, cond^re. 
FoundcUion, fundamen- 

turn, i, n. [m. 

Founder, condltor, oris, 
Fountain, fons, Dtis, m. 
Frail, fragllis, e. 
Frailty, fiBgilitas,atis JI 
Freedom, Iiberta8,atis,/I 
Freely, libfire. 
Freeze, frig^re, alg^re. 
Frenchman, Francogai- 

ius, i, fit. 
Frequent, frequentare. 
Frequented, cel^ber, 

bris, bre. 
Friend, amicus, i, m. 
Friendship, amicitia, ae, 


Frighten, terr6re, per- 

Frightful, horibilis, e. 

atroz, ocis. 
Frog, rana, ae,y. 
Fruit, fructus, Qs, m. 
Fruitful, ferax, acis c. 

FulJU, explore, 
/lu/^ planus 3. 
Full (to be), scat^re. • 
Fulvia, Fulvia, ae,/ 
Furniture, suppellex, 



Gain, lucrum, i, n. 

quaestus, us, m. 
Garden, hortus, i, m. 
Garland, corona, ae,/ 
Garment, vestis, is,/. 
Gat^, porta, ae,/ 
Gaul, Gallus, i, m. 
Gazelle, oryx, ygis, nu 
General, imperator, 

oris, fTf., dux, cis, c. 
Generally, plerumque. 
Genius, genius, ii, m. 

ingenium, i, n. 
Gentle, plactdus 3. 
German, Germanus, i, 

Germany, Germania, 

Get one^s self ready, 

Giant, gigas, antis, m. 
Ginger, zingiber, 6ris,n. 
Give, dare, tribCl^re ; 

attention, at- 

tendSre ; — one^s 
self up to, indulg^re 

c. dat ; way, 


Glide away, dilabi, ela- 

Glory, gloriarL 

Go, ire, pergfire ; — 
around, circumire 

hack, reo^6re 

forth, exire 

out, exc^dSre 

— to, acc€d6re 
away, abire. 

Goad, stimulus, i, m. 
God, deus, i, m. 
Gold, aurum, i, it. 
Golden, aureus 3. 
Good, bonus 3. 
Good (s.), bonum, i, n. 
Goodness, bonitas, atis. 

Goose, anser, gris, m. 

Gordius, Gordius, i, m. 
Gorgias, Gorgias, ae, 

Govern, gubemare, mo- 

Governess, moderatrix, 

Government, imperium, 

i, n. 
Governor, moderator, 

dris,m. rector, oris, 

Grain, frumentum, i,n. 
Grammar, grammatica, 

Grand-son, nepos, otis, 

Granddaughter, nep- 

tis, isj: 
Grandfather, avus, i, 

Grape, uva, ae,/ 
Grappling-iron, harp&- 

go, onis, m. 
Gravity, gravitas, atis,/ 
Great, magnus 3 ; 

very, ingens, ntis. 
Greatly, valde, vehe- 

menter, admddum. 
Greatness, magnitCido, 

Greece, Graecfa, ae,/ 
Greedy, avidus 3. 
Greedily, avide. 
Greek (s.), Graecus, i,m. 
Greek, Graecus 3. 
Green, viridis, e. 
Green (to be), vir^re. 
Grief, moeror, oris, m. 

luctus, As, m. 
Grieve, dolere. 
Grotto, specus, Qs, m. 
Ground, solum, i, it. 
Grow, crescCre; — 

old, consenescSre. 
Guard, custodire ; he 

on one^a guard, ca- 



ihtide, regSre. He^ she, it, is, ea, id. Homer, Hom^nis, i, m. 

Ouik, culpa, ae,yi Headj caput, Itis, n. Honor, honos, oris, m. 
€i^mna5^tc,g3rmDicu8 3. Health, yalitQdo, iniB,f, decus, dris, n. 

jHorr, audi^e. Honor, hooorare, co- 

H. Htart, cor, cordis, n^ I6re. 

ttidrian, Hadri&iius, i, animus, i, m. Honorable, honestus 3. 

m. Heat, calor, dris, m. honoriftcus 3. 

Hair, crinis, is, m. ca- Heaven, coehim, i, n. Hope, spes, €i,yi 

pillus, i, m. Heavenly, coelestis, e. Hope, sperare. 

Hairy, pilosus 3. Heavy, gravis, e. Horace, Horatius, i, m. 

Half, dimidium, i, n. Hedge around, sepire. Horn, coruu, as, n. 
jra/u:amaf5U5,Halicar- Height, altitudo, inis, j^ Horse, equus, i, m. 

nassus, \,f. Heir, haeres, 6dis, c. Horseman, eques, itis. 

Hand, manus, 08,^1 Helmet, cassis, idis,/*. m. 
Hand in hand, manum Helplessness, inopla, ae. Hostile, faostilis, e. 

coDS^r^re cum all- /. Hour, hora, ae,y. 

quo. Hen, gallina, ae, f. House, domus, Qs, /, 

HannU^l, Hanulbal, Hence, hinc. aedes, is,/! 

&lis, m. Hephaeston, Hephaes- How, qut 

Happen, accIdCre, even- tlo, dnis, m. How long, quamdiu. 

ire, cad^re ; U hap- Herb, herba, ae, f. How many f quot ? 

pens, accldit, contin- Hercules, Hercdtes, is. How much ? quantum ? 

git w. How often f quoiles ? 

Happily, feltclter. Herd, grex, gis, m^ However much, quam- 

Happy, feiix^ lci8,he§i' Hesitate, duhitkrB^Anf, vis. 

tus 3. Hew, exasciare. Human, humanus 3. 

jHord^ dunis3. High, altiis 3.; very Humanity, humaifitas, 

Hardship, aenimna, ae, high, praealtus 3. atis,/*. 

f. Highest, summus 3. HumUe, humlfis, e. 

Hare, lepus, dris, m. Hill, collis, is, m. Hump, tuber, firis, n. 

Harrow, occare. Himself, of himself, sui. Hunger, fames, is,yi 

Hasten, accelKrare ; etc. • Hunger, esOrire. 

up, advdlare. J^ndrance, impedi- Hunt, venari. 

Hastily, propere, prae- raentum, i, n. Hunter, venator, oris, m. 

prop^re. Hindrance (to be), ob- Hunter^s-net, cassis, is 

jHi:^^ exclQd^re. stare, impedtmento (commonly p/^r.^ m. 

Hate, odisse, (§ 77. 3). esse. Hurt, laedere. 

Hated greatly, perosns Wpparchus, Hippar- Husbandman, agric6la, 

3. chus, i, fn. ae, m., rustlcus, i, nu 

Hating greatly, pero- IRs, her, Us, suus, ejus. Hut, c^sa, ae,/*. 

sus 3. (} 94. 3—5). 

Hatred, odium, i, n. Hiss off, exsibllare. L 

Have, habere, esse (§ History, historta, ae,/! I, ego. 

90. 3), in, te- Hoarseness, ravis, is,/! Ice, glaci^s, fei,/! 

nfire; in use. Hold, ten^fere, obtinfere; Ides, Id us, ium,/! 

uti c. abl. ; oiieU bade, retinftre. Idle, otiosus 3. 

sdf, sese habere. Home (at), domi. (^ 92. If, si. 
Haven, portus, Os, m. R.). I^no^ nisi. 


If als0f etsi, tametsi, Increase^ aug^re, ac- BUeUigenij prudens, tia. 

etiarasL cresc^re. bitercowrst^ coDsuetu- 

J^g7io&/e,iUiberalls,e,m- ihcr6(/i&^,iDcredibilis,e. do, inis,^! 

hoDestus 3. Incumbent on some one Interest, one is interest 

Ignominy, ignominia, (to be), esse alicujus. ed in, interest, refi^rt. 

ae,/I • • • * Indeed, quidem (stands (§ 88. 10). 
Ignorance, ignorantia, after the word to Intermix, admisc^re. 

ae,/. which it refers). Invent, in venire, 

Ignorcmi, ignanis 3. Indicate, indicare. perire. 

J^gnorant (to be), igno- Indignant (to be), in- Inventress, invenj 

rare, nescire. dignari. icis,/". 

m (adv.), male. Ltdolence, ignavia, ae. Investigator, indagat 

III disposed, malevolus f. pigritia, ae,^*. in- icis,/! 

3. ertia, ae, f. aegnir Invincible, invictus 3. 

Illuminate, collustrare. ties, ^i,f. Invite, invitare. 

Image, imago, Tni8,y« Indolent, piger, gra, lo, lo, Os,/. 
Imitate, imltari c. ace. grum, tardus 3. ig- Irascible, iracimdus 3. 

(§ 89. 2). ' [f, navus 3. Irascibility, iracundia, 

Bnitation, imitaiio,6n\a, Indulgent to (to he), inr ae,/. 
Immature, immaturus 3. dulg6re c. dat [f, Ireland, Hibemia, ae,/. 
Immediately, extemplo, Industry, industna, ae, Iron, ferrum, i, n. 

statim, protlnus. hf^flame, accend^re, in- Iron, <qf iron, ferrous 3. 
Immense, ingens, ntis. cend^re. Irruption (to make), ir- 

Immodesty, immodestia, Inform, eddcere. rumpSre. 

ae,/. Inhabitant, incdla, ae,oi. Is it possible thai 7 num 

j&imorf o^ immortalis, e. Injure, nocere, obesse. [§ 115. 3. b. (c)]. 
Immortality, immortal- Injurious, noxius 3. Isocrates, Isocr&tes, ia^ 

itas, atis,/ pemiciosus 3. dam- m. 

Impious, impius 3. nosus 3. Issys, Issus, \,f. 

Implant, igignfire. Injury, injuria, ae, /. It is the part of some 

Lnport, importare. offensio, onis,/. one, est alicujus. 

Impress, impr^mera Inmost, intimus 3. Italy, Italia, ae,/. 

Improve, emendare. Innocence, innocentia, hory, of ivory, ebur- 
Impunity, impunltas, ae,/. s^i|$.3. 

atis,/. Insolence, temeritas. 

Impute, dare, duc€re, atis,/. J. 

ventre c, dupl. dat Innumerable, innumer- Jk$t, lepor, oris, m. 
In like manner — as, ae- abilis, e. Join tog^er, conjun- 

que — atque (ac). Inquiry, quaestilo, onis, gfire. ^'*^« 
Inborn, insltus 3. / disputatio,6nis,/. Joint, articiilus, i, m7 

Incite, incitare. Instruct, enidire, infor- Journey, iter, itinfiris, n. 

Include, contTn^re. mare, edocere. Journey, proficisci. 

Income, vectigal, alis,n. Instruction, institutio, Joy, laetitia, ae,/. 
Ihconsiderateness, te* onis,/ /o3(/teZorjo2^ii«,laetus3. 

metitas, atis,/. • Instructress, magistra. Judge, judex, Icis, m. 
Inconsiderately, tem^. ae,/. Judge, judicare, existi- 

Inconstancv, inconstan- Intellect, mens, tis, /. mare, sentire. 

tia, ae,/ ingenium. /M(;^mcn//judicium,i,n. 



Jnguiiha, Jugurtha, ae, navare alicui rei, o- Ler^k (of time), lon^ 

m. peram collicare ' in gioquitas, atis, f. 

JuUa^ Julia, ae,yi aliqua re. Ltss (adv.), minus. 

Julius Caesar, Julius, i, Labor, labdrare, elabo- Zicfter (epistle), epip*/»l% 

Caesar, &ris, m. rare. ae,^. irti6rae,arum,/, 

«^ne, Junius, i, m. Lacedemon, Lacedae- lAUer ^6f * the alpha- 

Junius, Junius, i, m. mon, 6nis,yi bet), littSra, ae,^. 

JupiUr, Juppiter, Jovis, LcLcedemonian, Lace- Levd, adaequare. 

«t. daemonlus, i, m. lAaar, mendax, acis. 

Just, Justus 3. Lake, lacus, Qs, f?u Liberal, ingenuus 3. 

Just as, ut, sicut Lament, lugere. Licentioics, petiilans,tis. 

Just so many, totifdem. Land, by land and by Licentiousness^ petulan- 
Just so muchf adv. (with sea, terra marique. tia, ae,y. 

verbs of valuing, es- Langiuxge, lingua, ae. Lie, situm esse ; 

teeming, buying, sell- f, oratio, dnis,yi 
ing)^ tantidem. iMrk, alauda, ae,/. 


JTeep, servare. 
Keep from, arcfere. 
Key, clavis, is,/*. 

Last, extr€mus 3. 
Lasting, diuturnus 3. 
Jjoter, posterior. 
Latin, Latinus 3. 

by, adj&c^re. 
Lie (to state a &lse- 

hood), mentlri. 
Lije, vita, ae,/. 
lAght, lux, lucis,/*. 
Lightning, fiilgur, Qris, 

n, fulmen, inis, n. 

Latium, Latium, i, n. 

Kill, occidere, exani- Laudable, laudabilis, e. Like, simllis, e. 

Laugh, ridere. Liwh, membrum, i, n. 

Laugh, risus, Qs, m. artus, Os, m. 

Law, lex, gis,/! Line (of battle), acies, 

Lawgiver, legislator, 6- 6i,/! ; to arrange in d 

ris, m. line, aciem instruSre. 

mare, necare ; — 
outright, enecare. 

Kind, genus, ^ris, n. 

Kind, benignus 3. 

Kindly, benevdle. 

Kindness, beneficlum, i, Lay before, proponiSre ; Lion, leo, onis, m. 

n. benefactum, i, n. 
King, rex, regis, m. 
Kingdom, regnum, i, n. 
Knee, genu, us, n. 
Knot, nodus, i, m. 
Know, scire ; per- 

open, apeiire, Listen to, exaudire. 
waste, devasta- lii^eraf tire, literae,arum, 

re, popQlari. 
Lead, plumbum, i, n. 
Lead, ducSre ;— - 

back, reducSre ; 

out, edtic^re. 


Little, exigiius 3; very 
litUe, perexiguus 3. 

LitUe (adv.), pauMlum. 

Little (to esteem]^ par- 
vi aestlmare. 


lAve, vivfire, verifari. 

fecUy well, non ig- 

nare, non esse nes- Leader, dux, cis, m, 

cius ; not to know, ig- Leafy, frondosus 3. 

n6rare,j)yMicire. League, foedus, €ris, n. Lively, al^cer, cris; ere. 

f^, peritia, ae. Leap, salire;* dovm irtW6r,jecur,jecin6ris,n. 

/ cognitio, onis,/. desilire ^^-r over. Living being, animans, 

Knotcn, cognltus 3 ; — transilire. antis. 

— it is known, con- Learn, disc6re. I^'^i LivTus, i, m. 


Learned, doctus 3. Load, otius, 6ris,:Br 

Leave behind, destitiifi- Loathe, I loathe some- 

L. re, relinqu6re. ^hing, me taedet ali- 

Labof, labor, oris, m. Leg, crus, uri^n. cujus rei. 

Labor (to bestow on Legion, legio, onis,/! Lofty, excelsus 3. [m. 

something"), operam Leisure, otium, i, n. Loiterer, cunctator, oris, 


JLongy longus 3 ; of Magnesia^ Magnesia,ae, Maturity^ Maturitas, 

Zong" con^mwance, diu- f, atis,yi 

turn us 3. Magnificent, ihagnifi- Means, opes, um, /, 

Longing, desiderlum, i, cus 3., superbiis3. facultates, um,f, 

n. ^ M ake, fac6re, reddfire ; Measure, consilium, i,n. 
Look ovTjorsmtellimgf^ good, prae^- Measure, metiri. 

curare c. ace. curam re ; — ^ — war upon. Meet (adv.), obviam. 

habere, c. gen. pros- inferre helium ali- Membrane, membrana, 

pic6re, provldere, cui. ^^yf* 

consul^re, c. dat. , Malice, malitia, ae,yi Memory, memorfa, ae,yi 
IjOoIc upon intueri ; Malicious, malevdlus 3. Metal, metallum, i, n. 

into, inspicSre. Man, homo, inis, m. MeteUujt, Metellus, i, m. 

iiocwe, solvere. vir, viri, m. Mid-day, mendies, ^i,m. 

Loquacious, loquax, Man by man, viritim. Migrate, migrare. 

acis, garriilus 3. JIfanag'e, administrare. Mild,' mitia, e ; to 

Loquacity, giEirrulItas, Mane, juba, ae,/, become, mitescCre. 

atis,y. Manlius, M^nlius, i, m. Milesian, Mileslus, i,m. 

Lose, perdfire, emittSre. Manner, modus, i, m. ; Milk, lac, ctis, n. 

Loss, damnum, i, n. (with a moral Milo, Milo, onis, m. 

Lot, sors, tis,yi reference), majoris, Miltiades, Miltiades, is. 

Love, atnor, oris, m. m. m. 

caritas, atis,y! Many, multi, orum; Mind, animus, i, m.; 
Love, amare, dilig€re ; very many, coihplu- (state of ), mens, 

in return, red&- res, a and ia, plures, tis,y! 

mare. a, gen. ium. Minc^id, m^mor, dris. 

Low, humilis, e., inftrr Mapk-tree, acer, firis, n, Minerva, Minerva, ae,/. 

Us 3. Marble, marmor, dris, n. Mitfortune, calamltas, 

Low state (to be in), ja- Marathon, ^ Maratho, atis,yi mSJum, i, n. 

cere. onis, m. Mist, nebCila, ae,y^ 

Lowtr regions, inferi, Marble, of marble, mar- Mistress, domina, Be,f 

drum, m. morbus 3. MSsuse, abuti c. abl. 

Lowery, tristis, e. Marceltus, Marcellus, i, MUhridates, Mithrida- 

Jjudtius, Lucillus, i, m. m. tes, is, m. 

Lvjniriously, luxuriose. March, iter, itinfiris. Mix, miscere. 
Zmohiry, luxuria, Sie,f JMarcft, proficiscijiter fa- Moderately, modlce. 
Lycurgus, Lycur^us, i, c6re. Moderation, moderatio, 

wi. Marcus JIgrippa, Mar- onis,/. without 

Z/ydin, Lydia, ae,/. cus, i, Agrippa, ae, m. 7wocfera/Mm,intemper- 

Zofing, mendax, acis. Margin, margo, Inis, m, anter. 

I^ander, Lysander, JMar^^palus, udis,/ Modest, modestus 3., 

dri, m. Marry (of the woman), pudicus 3. 

nub€re c. dat Modestly, modeste. 

M. Massagete, Massagetes, Modesty, mode8ti€i,ae,f 

Macedonia, Macedonia, ae, m. Molon, Molo, onis, mr^ 

ae,/ Master, not of, im- Money, pecunia, ae,/. 

Macedonianf^ Macedo, pos, otis, impdtens. Month, mensis, is, m. 

finis, m. ntis. [/. Monument, monumen- 

Magidnf magus, i, f?u Matter (ql&irs), res, r^i, tum, i, n. 



Moarij luna, ae,/. Mek-chainj torquis, is, JVb< even, ne-quidem. 

More, plures, a, gen. m. J^otonb^ — hut aUOyTioii 

ium. Needy indig^re c. abl. ; modo(tantuin)^-sed 

Mortal, mortalis, e. ihare is need of, opus etiam. 

Most, plurimus 3. est Not yd, nondum. 

Most (adv.), plurime. Needy, iDops, dpis. g^^MMigifMhift^^ 
Mother, mater, tris,/. Neglect, negllg^re. Notion, notio, oxna,/. 

Move, mdvere, commd- Neigh, hinnire. Nourish, nutrire, al6re. 

v6re ; — — out, emi- Neig1J)or, proximus, i, November, November, 

grare. m. bris, vu 

Mound, ager, gri, m. Neither (of two), neu- Abu;, nunc, jam. 
Mountain, moos, ntis, ter, tra, trum. Now — now, modo — 

m. Neither — nor, nee (ne- modo. 

Mouse, mus, muris, m. que) — nee (neque). Noxious, noidus, a, 
Mow, met^re. Nero, Nero, ouis, m. um. 

Much, multus 3 ; for Nerve, nervus, i, m. Numa PompUius, Nu- 

much, (with verbs of Never, nunquam. ma (ae) Pomilius (i), 

buying and selling), Nevertheless, tamen. m. 

' magni (§ 88, 9). News, nuntius, i, m. Numantia, Numantia, 

Mu^ (with verbs of Next, proximus 3. ae,/. 

valueing and es- Nicomedes^ Nicomedes, Number, numfirare. 

teeming), magni. is, m. Nurse, fovere. 

Multitude, multitudo. Nighty nox, noctis, /; 

inis,/. copla, ae,/. hy night, noctu. O. 

^un^ce7i^,munificus 3. Nightingale, luscinia, O, O that! utinam c. 
Murderer, interfector, ae,/ Suhj, 

oris, m. No (a.) nullus 3. nemo Obey, ob6dire, obs^qui. 

Must, debSre. (inis) c. obtemp^rare parere. 

No, see § 115, 5 ; no. Object, res, €i,/. 
N. nay, rather, (in opp.), Oblivion, oblivio, onis, 

Name, nominare. immo (§ 1 15, 5). /. 

Napoleon, Napol^o, Nohk, praeclarus 3. Obscure, obscurus 3. 

onis, w. Noble (= noble born) Observe, observare. 

Narrative, narrati[o,6nis, ingenuus 3. Obtain, adipisci. 

/ Nobly, praeclare. Occasion, occasio, onis, 

JV*arrot<'^6»«, angustiae. Nobody, nemo (gen. / 

arum,/ and abL not used). Occupy one^s self zeat- 

JVo^ton, natio, onis,/ JVbcfumoZ, nocturnus 3. ously u/ith something. 
Natural, naturalis, e. Noise, fremitus us, m. studiosus esse alicu- 
Acrfurc, natura, ae,/ JVbto, Nola, ae,/ jus rei, stud^re ali- 

Navigate, navigare. No one, nullus 3. ne- cui rei, operam na- 
Namgatipn, navigatio, mo (inis) c. vare alicui rei. 

onis,/ Not, non ; (with Imper. Ocean, oc^&nus, i, m. 

Near, prope. and Subj. of encour- Offended (to be), suc- 

Nearly, prope, paene. aging), ne. censure, irasci c. dat 

Neat, lepidus 3. Not merely — but also, Offer, deferre. 

Necessary (it is), opor- non solum — sed eti- Qffice, munus, €ris, n. 

tet, opus est res or re. am. Offspring, proles, is,/. 


OJlenerf saepius ; very Ought, deb^re. Peac{to make), pacenv 

often, saepissime. Our, ours, noster, tra, coipdn^re. 
OU, ol6um, i, n. trum. Peac^, beatus 3. 

Old man, senex, senis, Outliving, susperstes, PeacejiUy, beate. 

m. itis, c. dat Peacok, pavo, onis, m. 

Old age, senectus, iitis, Overcome, supfirare. Pear, yrum, L n. 

/. Ovid, Ovidlus, i, m. Pear-tte, pyrus, i,f. 

Older, major, major na- Owe, debfere. Pecvlia, proprius 3. 

tu. Oum, proprius ^. ip- Peculiaily, it is a pecu- 

On account of, causa sius, ipsorum, ipsa- liariti of some one, 

(§ 88, R. 3). rum, (§ 94. 7). alicujis est 

* One, unus 3. Ox, bos, ovis, c Pedestal^hasiB, is,/. 

One of the two, alterii- Pelopida, Pelopidas, 

ter, litra, utrum. P. ae, m. 

One, the one — the other, Pcdn, dolor, dris, m. People, ppdlus, i, m. 

alter — alter. Paint, ping^re ; gens, itis, /. ; com- 

Onyx, onyx, ychis, m. out, exping^re. mon people, vulgus, 

Open, ap€rire ; to stand Palace, domus, Os,/. i, n. 

open, patfere. Palate, palatum, i, n. Pepper, pi>er, feris, n. 

Opinion, opinio, onis, /. Pale, pallldus 3. Perceive., a|nosc€re. 

sententia, ae,/ exis- Pardon, venia, ae,/ Perform, ftngi, perpe- 

timatlo, onis,/ Parents, parentes, ium, trare. 

Opposite, adversus 3. c. Perhaps, fortasse. 

contrarius 3. Parian, Partus 3. Pericles, Pericles, is, m. 

Oppress, urgere. Parricide, (a.), parrici- Period, period us, i,/ 

Or, aut ; (in a double da, ae, c. Perish, perere. 

question), an ; or not. Parricide, parricidium. Permit, single, 

nee ne, annon. i, n. Permitted (it is), licet 

Oracle, oracCilum, i, n. Part, pars, rtis,/ Pernicious, perniciosus 

Orator, orator, oris, til Partaking of particeps, 3. 
Order, ordo, inis, m. ; cipis. Perseven, perman^re, 

of hattk, acies, Partner, soclus, i, m. perstare. 

6i,/ Pass over, tranare, Persia, Persia, ae,/ 

Order, jubfere. praeterere. Persian (s), Persa, ae. 

Order, in order that, ut; Pass (time), ag6re, ex- m. 

in order that not, ne. igSre. Persian, Perslcus 3. 

Orestes, Orestes, ae, m. Passion, cupiditas, Persian war, bellum 
Or^n, origo, in is,/ atis,/ appetitus, us, Persicum. 

Ornamenf, ornatus, us, m. libido, in is,/ Pc5/, pestis, is,/ 

m. Past, praeteritus 3. Phaedo, Phaedo, onis, 

Ornately, ornate. Pasture, pasci. m, 

Orpheus, Orpheus, 6i, Pathy callis, is, c, Philip, Philippus, i, m. 

m. Patiently, patienter. PhUippi, Philippi, 

Ostentation, ostentatio, Pausanias, , Pausanlas, orum, m. ^ 

onis,/ ae, m. Philosopher, ^philosd- 

Other, the other of two, Pay^ pend6re, praes? pfius, i, m, 

alter, 6ra, 6rura. tare. Philosophise, philosft- 

Otherwise, aliter. Peace y pax, pacis,/ phari. 


PkSosophyjphiloBOhlBiy Poet, poeta, ae, m. Precept, preceptum, i,ii. 

ae,yi Point out, consignare, Precious^ pretiosus 3. 

Phocwn, Phoclo^onis, describ^.re. Predpiiattly, praepr5- 

m. Poisfm, venenum, i, n. pere. 

Phoenician, Phjbnix, virus, i, n. Predict, praedic€re. 

icis, m. [m. Pompey, Pompeius, i,m. Preeminence, virtus, 

Physician, me^^us, i, Pond, lacus, us, m. uiis,/. 

Pidy, pittas, 2X\,f» Poo^ pal us, udis,yi Prefer, praeferre, an- 
Pt^ gubernatr, oris. Poor, ;?auper,6ris,iiiopf, teponSre. 

m. dpis. Prepare, parare. 

Pindar, Pindaps, i, m. Poplar, popiijus, \,f. Present, praesens, lis ; 

Pine, pious, i,/*. Poppy, papaver, 6ris, n. to he, adesse. 

Pisistratus, PWstrStus, Portico, portTcus, us,/. Present, donum, i, n, 

1, m. Posidoniiis, PosidoDius, munus, 6ris, n. 

Pitch (of a cfup)^ po- i, m, [esse c. gen. Present wUh, donare. 

nfire. Pomm*, tcDere, habere ^ Preserve, servare ; (= 

P%, misericffdiajae,/. Possess om^s self of, po- protect), conservare. 
Pity (it excitfs my), me tin c. abl. Preside over, pnuv^tjire, 

mis^ret (alicujus). Possessed of, compos, praeesse c. dat. 
Pity, misercri c. gen. ; 6tis c. gen. [onis,/ Press, prem6re. 
to have lity, mise- Possession, possesslo. Pretence, simulatio, 
reri. Possible (it is), fieri po- onis, f. 

Place, locu^ i, m. test ; it is not possi- Pretor, praetor, oris, m. 

Place, pon^re, — in c. ble but tliat, fieri non Prevail upon by entrea- 

abl. potest quin. ty, exorare. 

Place sometdnjg around Post, postis, is, m. Prevent, irnpSdire, pro- 

somdhin^^ ^ «tr- Po5< (of honor), honos, hibere; obstare c, 
r^und sqnteOdtig npith oris, m. dat. 

something, eii^cumda- Pound, libra, ae,/ Previously, prius. 

re aliquid alicui, or Pour forth, eflfundfere. Prick, pung6re. 
aliquem aliqua re. Poverty, inopia, ae, /. Pride, superbia, ae,/ 
PZain, campus, i, m. paupertas, atis, / Principle, preceptum, 

P/an, consilium, i, n. Pot^^cr, vis, (nom. and i, n. doctrina,ae,/ 
Plant, planta, »e,/ dat. plur. vires, ium). Proceed, proficisci. 

Plato, Plato, onis, m. vigor, oris, m. poten- Produce, gignere. 

Play, lud^re. tia, ae,/ opes, um,/ Productive, fecundus 3. 

Pleasant, amoenus 3. Powerful, potens c gen. frugifer, 6ra, 6rum, 
Please, placere, probare opulentus 3. fertilis, e. [fic€re. 

alicui. [tik Practice, exercitatio, Progrc*5 (to make), pro- 

P/eo^wre, voluptas, atis, onis, / ( = habit), Ptaromise, promitt^re, 
Plough, arare. consuetudo, inis,/ polliceri profiteri. 

P/ucife, evell6re. Prawe, laus, dis,/ Pronouwce, pronuntiare, 

Plumtree, prunus, i,/ Praise, laudare, collau- eloqui ; — one hap- 
Plunder, dirlp^re. dare ; bene dic6re c py, fortunatum prae- 

Plutarch, Plutarchus, i, dat. dicare aliquem. 

m. Prayers, preces,um,/ Proper, it is proper for 

Poem, carmen, Inis, n. Precede some one, prae- me, decet c. ace. it is 

poema, atis, n. ced^re alicuL not proper, ded^ceU 


Properhf, rite, probe. Pythagoras, Pythagd- BtcenUy, nuper. 
Prophet, vateB, is, m. ras, ae, m. BecoUtxt, record&rL 

PropUious, propitlus 3. Recompense, merces, 

ProporUoncddy, aeqaa- Q. edis,/ 

l]dl|ter. ^^antity, num^nm, i, Recover, con?alesc^^. 

Propose, propoB^^. m. vis (gen. and dat Red, ruber, bra, bnim. 

Propriehf (of conduct)^ wanting, plur. vires, Redound, redundare. 

honestas, atis,/. ium),f. Refir, re^rre. 

Pwsperiiy, res s^din- Queen, regina, ae,/. Reflect upon, cogitlU*e. 

dae, fortOna, ae,/. Question, quaestio, 6* R^ection, oogitat!o, 6- 
Prosperous, prosper, iin, nis,/. nis,/. 

^rum. Quickly, cito. Refresh, recreare. 

Prostrate, prostem^re. Quteif (a), quies, €ti8,/ i^e/Vg'e, receptus, Qs, m. 
Protect, custodire. Quid (a.), quietus 3. Region, re^o, onis,/ 

Protection, tu^la^ ae,/. tranquillus 3. Reject, rejlc^re, respQ^ 

praesidium, i, n. Quie<, sedare. re. 

Proud, superbus 3. QuieOy, quiftte, tran- Reign, regnmn, i, n. 
Provided that, modo, quille. Reign, regnare, dom!- 

dummddo. t^e,/ nare, imperare. 

Providence, providentia, R. R^oice, delectare, gau- 

Provident, cautus 3. Race, genus, 6ris, n. d€re. 

Province, provincia, ae. Rage, saevire. Relate, narrare, memo- 

/ Rain, imber, bris, m. rare. 

Provoke, lacess^re. [/. Rcdse, percifere, or per- Rdieoe, lev&re. 
PrtM2snce,prudent7aae, cire. Religion, re\\^o,dBim,f, 

Prudent, prudens, tis. Rofnk, ordo, inis, m. Rdigiously, religiose. 
Ptolemy, Ptolemaeus, i. Rapid, rapidus 3. Remain, manure, re- 

in. R(m, rarus 3. [tis,/ mfinere. 

Pungent, acerbus 3b Rashness, temeritas, Sr Remarkable, insignis, e. 
Punic, Punicus 3. Rather, potius. Remedy, renfiedium, i, n. 

Punish, punlre, multa- Reach, pervenire. Remedy, medSri. 

re. Read, legftre j Remember, reminisci, 

Pumshment, poena, ae, through, perleg^re ; memini, recordari c. 

/ suppHcium, i^ n. to, reciiare. gen. or ace. 

Purplefish, murex, Xcie, Reading, lectio, onis,/. i2emem&rance, memoria, 

m. [n. Ready, |ftt>mptus 3., ae,/. 

Purpose, proposttum, i, paratus 3. [us, m. Remind, commonere, 
Pursue, persequi, con- Readiness, promptus, commonefacCre. 

•sectari ; some- Reap, metfire. Remme, resScare. 

ihing eamesUy, studt- Reason, ratio, onis,/. Removed (to be), abesse. 

osum esse alicujus Reason, there is no reas- Remus, Remus, i, m. 

rei ; literatws, on that, non est quod, Renew, refrieare. 

literas traotare. nihil est quod ; with- Renown, fama, ae, /., 

Pursuit, tractatio, 6nis, out reason, tem€re. gloria, ae,/ 

/ studium, i, n. Recall, revocare. Renoumed, clarus 3., no- 

Pylades, PylSdes, ae^ m. Receive^ accip6re, susci- bilis, e. 
JVenean, Pyrenaeus 3. p€re. ifepaiV, sarcire. [re. 

Pyrrhus, Pyrrhus, i, m. Received, exeeptus 3. Rqtel, peU^re, repellfi- 




Repent, poenit^re ; I Bipcj matCinis S, Sailorj nauta, ae, m. 

repent of something, i2t«e, oriri. SaUy sal, salis, m. 

poenitet noe alicujus Rising^ ortus 3. Salutary, salutaris, e. 

rei. River, fluvlus, i, m. am- saluber or bris, bre. 

Report, &ma, ae,yi nis, is, m. flumen, Same, is, ea, id ; very 

Repast, reqiiies, 6tis,yi inis, n. same, idem, e&dem. 

Reproach, probrum, i. Roar, rud^re. idem ; at tiie same 

n. opprobrium, i, n. Rode, rupes, is,yi, sax- time, simul, una. 

turpitudo, inis,yi um, i, n. Samnite (s.), Samnis, 

Reproajch, maledicSre. Rome, Roma, ae,/. itis, m. 

Reprove, castigare. Roman (s.), Romanus, Sanction, sancire. 

Repulabk, bonestus 3. i, m. Sc^ind, sapidus 3. 

Request, pet^re, rogare Ramofi (a.), Romanus 3. Sappho, Sappho, Cks,/ 

(ab aliquo). Romulus, Romulus, i,m. Satirize, perstring^re. 

Resist, resist^re. Roof, tectum, i, n. Save, parc^re c. dat 

Resound, resdnare. Rope, restis, is,/. Save from somethings 

Resounding, resdnus. i2(mg'^a8per,6ra,£rum. servare ex or ab al- 
Resource, opes, um. Round, rotundus 3. iqua re. 

Responsible, to become Rout, fund^re. Say, dic^re, inquam (§ 

responsible, spond^re. Royal, regius 3. 77. Rule). 

Rest, quies, 6tis,/. Rub off, deterg^re. Scarcely, vix. 

Rest upon something. Rub thoroughly, perfii- Scatter, disjic^re. 

niti c abl. care. Scholar, discipiilus, i, m. 

Restore, repSlrare, re- Rude ( = unskilful)^ Scholastic instruction, 

cup^rare, rudis e, c gen. institiltio scholastica. 

Restrain, coerc^re. Ruin, to go to, dilabL School, schola, ae,/ 

Retain, retin^re. Rule (a carpenter's), Scipio, Scipio, onis, m. 

Retire, recfedSre, discfe- amussis, is,/ Scrape together, conra- 

dSre. Rule, regfire, gubema- dSre. 
Return, reditus, Cis, m, re. [dat Scruple, scrupiilus, i, m. 
iie^iim, redire, reverts- Rule over, imperare c. iSbtipz<2ot<^^,sancte, re- 
re, rem^are. Run, curr6re ; in- ligiose. [m. 

Reverence, v^reru to, difflCi^re; — — iS!c^ian(s.),Scytha,ae, 

Revile, maledic^re, c. through, percurrfire. Sea, mare, is, n. 

dat. Rush in, irru^re. Season, in season, ma- 

Reward, praemlum, i,n. /""^^ ^"^* 

Rhine, Rhenus, i, m. f J§m Seasoning, condimen- 

Rhodes, Rhodus, i,/ Sacred rues,8eicrvLfirum, turn, i, n. 
Rich, dives, itis, locd- n. Seat, sedes, is,/ [nt. 

pies, etis. Sacredly, sancte. Sedition, seditio, onis. 

Riches, divitiae, arum,/ Sacredness, sanctitas, Seditious, seditiosus 3. 
Ride, equitare. atis,/ See, vid6re, consplcari. 

Ridge (of mountains), Sad, tristia, e. [itis. carn^re. 

jugum, i, n. Safe, tutus 3. sospes, Seek, quaer^re. 

Ridiculous, ridiculus 3. Safety, salus, utis,/ Seize, deprehendCre, 
Right, jus, juris, n. jSt^n^um, Saguntum, comprehend^re, ca- 

Right (a.), rectus 3. i, n. p^re, occQpare, ca- 

Righily, recte. iSioi^ velum, i, n. pess^re. 



Sdfj ipse (k d4. 6). Should^ debere. Snares^ iDsidiae,arum J*. 

Self confidence^ audacia, Sh)ut^ clamor, oris, m. Snow^ nix, TiW\B,f, 
ae,y. Show ont^s sdf^ se prae- Soy ita ; so — so as, tarn- 

SdLy vend^re. b^.re, se praestare. 

Senate, senatus, us, m. Shun somethingy aver- 
Send, mitt6re ; for, » sari. 

accire. Shut, claud^re. 

Setise, sensus, xXb, m. Sick, aeger, gra, grum. 

mens, tis, /. Side (on the other), con- 

SensihU, prudens, tis. tra. 

Sentiment, sententia, ae. Siege, obisdio, onis, /• 

yi • obsessio, 6nis,y*. 

quam; - 
tantus 3 ; 


as, dum, quatndiu, 
quoad [§ 110, 4)]; 

many, tot, tn- 

ded. ; soon as, 

ubi, simulac (atque) 
Separate, seplu-are, dis- Sigid, conspectus, us,m. Socrates, Socr&tes, is,tyi. 

clud^re, secem^re. Sign, signum, i, n, ; it Soldier, miles, itis, m. 
Sepulchre, sepulcrum, i, is the sign of some Solicitude, sollicitudo, 

n. one, est alicujus. ^f^^^f^ 

Serious, gravis, e. Silence, silentla, ae,/*. Solid, solldus 3. 

Serve, servire. Silent (to be), tac^re. Solon, Solo, onis, m. 

Service, officium, i, n. Silkworm^ bombyx,ycis. Some, nonnuUi. 
Servitude, servitus, utis, m. Some one, aliquis, a, id. 

f. Silver, argentum, i, n. Sometime, aliquando. 

Set out on a journey. Simple, simplex, icis. Sometimes, interdum. 

proficisci. Sin, peccatum, i, n. 

Several, plures, a, com- Sin, peccare. 
plures, a and ia. Since^ quum. 

Severe, gravis, e. [f. Sing, cantare, canSre. 

Severity, severitas, atis. Sink, demerg6re ; 

Shake, convellfire, labe- doum, desid€re ;^ — 
&ictare. under, succumb^re. 

Son, filius. i, m. 
Son-irirlaw, gener, €ri, 
m. [pore). 

Soon, mox, brevi (tem- 
Sooner, prior. 
Soothe, lenire. 
Sophist, sophista, ae, m. 
Shame, lam ashamed oj Sister, soror, oris,/*. Sorrow, aegritudo, inis, 

something, me pudet SU, sedere ; at f, 

alicujus rei (§ 88. 1). table, accubare. Soul, animus, i, m. 

Share unlh som/e one. Situation, locus, i, m. Sound, integer, gra, 
communicare cum Size, magnitudo, in\a,f. grum. 
aliquo. Skilful, peritus 3., pru- Sow, ser6re. 

Sharing in, particeps, dens, tis c. gen. Spain, Hispania, ae,/*. 

ipis, censors, tis. Sky, coelum, i, n. Spaniard, Hispanus, i, 

Shear, tondere, rad€re. Slave, servus, i, m, m* 

Shepherd, pastor, oris, Slay, occidere, interfi- Spare, parcfire c. dat 

Sparta, Sparta, ae,/i 
Speak, dic6re, loqui. 
Spectator, spectator, 

oris, m. 
Speech, sermo, onis, m. 

oratiO, dnis,y. 
Spirit, animus, i. m, 
mens, tis,/. ingen- 
ium, i, n. 



Shin, crus, uris, n. Sleep, somnus, i, m. 

Shine forth, elucere. Sleep, dormire. 

Ship, navis, is,/*, [i, n. Slender, gracilis, e. 

Shipwreck, naufragtum, Slim, procerus 3. 

Short, brevis, e ; in Small, parvus, 3. 

short time, brevi SmaU, olf^c^re. 

(sc. tempore). Smile upon, arridere. 

Short time, paulisper. Smiih, faber, bri, m. 


SpiriU^ acrlter* tend^pe ; -— agmut^ Swed^ diidds, e. 

Splendid, KphatMxm 3^ rehidari; — agaaut Swift, celer, Mb, £re, 

nkidus Sk [m, mfm§ffiing, nki, in all- velox, ocis. 

Sjpkndor, splendor, dris, qaid ; ■ to obkdn. Swiftly, ceteiiter, eito. 
Sfiii, d^ed^re. pet£re,ezpetiere, sec- Swiftm$$, celeiftas^dtis, 

Sport, Ittdtts, i, m. tari. j. 

Spread, pandfire ; — (as Strong, veMdua 3. SwoUen, turgidns SL 

cover), obliD^re. Sluthf, stadium, i, it. Sword, ^bAub, i, m. en- 
Spring, onn, nasci, ex- Sttkdue, doiD&re,perd6- sis, is, m. femim, 1,11. 

orirL mkte, SyracMe, Syracusae, 

i^ptim, spem^re, asper- Svijed, cms, is, c. amm, yi 

n^re, &s6dire. Subj^ate, subigCre. ^^p^ Sytfa, s.e,f. 

Spy, expk>rator,dris, m. Succeed, succ^dl^re. 
iS^, eonfod^re. Swh, talis, e ; is, ea, ki T. 

StabUity, stabilitas, atis, Sudden, subitos a TdbU, tabdla, ae,/. 

yi perpetiiitas, ads,^! Suddenly, subito. 7Vi&(e (to sit at), accu- 

Stadium, stadium, i, ». Suffer, pati, p^p§ti ; bare. 

iSlfa^ scipio, dnis, m, 'from, laborare Take, cap^re, adtm^re ; 

i^and, stare. e. abl. ■ away, tollfire, 
Star, Stella, ae,/! SvffidenUy, satis. auferre, dem^^, ad- 
iSltofe, respoblica, rei- iS!ut<a62e^idoD6uB,a,aiii, im^re; Jlre,ex' 

publicae, ft cifltas, SuUa, Sullae, ae, m. tfdescdre; — from, 

SLti8,f; at the cost Summer, aestas, fttis, f erip^re ; ■ one^a 

of the State, pubfefce. Sun, sol, sc^is^ m, ae^ off, ftcessfire ; 

Nation, statio, dnis, f. Super 8tUion,B\sperBi!i&o, possession of. 

Statue, Bt&tdsi, aB,f dnis,/. occQpare; up. 

Stay (= large rope)) iS^rp/iem^, SQpplex,ici8. toll^; upon 

rudens, tis, m. SappUcaU, 8uppl!e&re. ofieV self, suscip^. 

Sled, chalybs, ybis, m. Supply, suppeditare. Talent (sum of money), 
Steep, praeceps, cipttis. Support, fuleire. talentinn, i, n. 

arduus 3. Supremacy, principatus. Tame, cicur, liris. 

Step, passus, Os, m. tis, m. summum im- Tame, domare. 

Stem, pttppis, 'i8,f perium. Tanaqml, Tanftquil, 

iSXtc^ haerere. iSure^j^, certe, sane. [iKs,/! 

StiU, adhuc, porro. Surface, aequor, dris, n. Tarentum, Tarentuin, 
Stone, lapis, idis, m. Surpass, praestare, c. i, m. [m. 

Stone, of stone, lapi- dat Tarquin, Tarquinlus, i, 

deus 3. iSuT^me, obr^p^recdat Tarquinius Superbus, 

Stork, cicoiiisi, eLe,f Surrender, trad^re. Tarquinlus Supe»- 

Storm, procella, ae, f Surround, circumdare, bus, m, 

tempestas, atis,y! cing6re, amlnre; of- Tarquinius, CoUatinus, 

Strengthen, firmare. fundi alicui rei. Tarquinius, Collati- 

Stretch, tend^re. Surviving, snperstes, nus, m, [tare. 

Strife, lis, litis,/. itis c. dat Taste, gustare, degus- 

Strike, ferire. Sustain, sustentdre. [/. Teach, doc6re c. dupl. 

Strive, studere e. dat. Swallow, hirundo, lais, ace. [i 89, 5. b)]. 

petfire c. ace, niti ad Swear, jurare. Teachable, docilis 3. 

aliquid,^end6re, con- Sweat, sud&re. Teacher, praec^tor, 


6ri8, m. ipagister, tri, Jliombut^ sentes, iuio, TVoce, vestigium, i, n. 

m. m. JVackj vesdgiuiii, i, n. 

Tear in pieces^ lacdr&re, Tliou^ tu. Trader, mercator, oris, 

dilacSriire. ThougldUss, levis, e. m. [m. 

Tctt, dic6re. Threaterij minari ; — («« Traitor, proditor, oris, 

TempUj templum, 1, n. impend), impend^re, Trajan, Trajanus, i, m. 

aedes, is,/. immin^re. TVansgreas, migrare, c. 

Tender, tener, km, Utreatming, minaz, a- ace. [gestire. 

ftrum. CIS. Transported (to be), 

Teiwier/y, pie. Three-headed, triceps, Travel through, exm^aTu 

Terrible, terribilis, e. cIpTtis. Treachery, proditto, 0- 

Territory, finia, ia, m. Thrust doum, detrudi^ nis,/. [J, 

Tholes, Thales, is, m. re ; — out, extra- Treason, proditio,^ onis, 
Hiames, Tam^sis, is, d^re. Treat, tractAre. 

m. Thumb, pollez, icis, m. Tree, arbor, dris,yi 

Than, quam. Thunda-, tonitru, u, n. 7Hm&/e,contremiscdre. 

Thanks (to give), gra- Thunder, tonare. Trench, fossa, ae,^'. 

tias agere. Thus, ita. [um. 2Vifttifie of the people, 

That, ille, a, ud ; is, ea. Thy or thine, tuus, a, tribOous plebi& 

id ; iste, a, ud. Tiberius, Tiberius, i, m. Trojan, Trojanus 3. 

That, (hat not, see § 7%me, tempus, dris, n. TVoop, agmen, luis, n. 

105 — 108. Time, long time, diu. Troops, copCae, arum,yi 

The — so much the (with Timid, timidus 3. Trouble, molestia, ae,yi 

the comparative), quo TVmo^eon, Timol6on, aerumua, ae,/. 

— eo, quauto— tanto. ntis, m. Trouble, angfere ; -^— 

Theban Thebauus, i, w. Timotheus, TimothSus, one^s self about sonu- 
71iebes,Thehsie^aum,f i, m. thing, curare alTquid, 

TViemistodes, Themisto- Tire out, defatigare, de- op6ram dare. 

cles, is, m, fetisci. TVouUesome, molestus 

7%en, turn, deiorde. Titus, Titus, i, m. 3., importQnus 3. 

Thence, illinc, inde. Together, una. Troy, Troja, Sie,f 

Theophrastus, Tbeo- Toil, labor, oris, m. TYuce, iudutlae, arum, 

phrastus, i, m. op€ra, a,/. f 

There, ibi. Tomi, Tomi, orum, m. True, verus 3. 

TMere are, sunt ; — is. Tomorrow, craa TYunk (of a tree), cau- 

4«t Tongue, lingua, ae, /. dex, icis, m, 

Tkfurmopylae, Thermo- Too much, nimiura. Trust in, fidCre c. abl. 

pylae, arum,/. Toothy dens, tis, m. Trust one, cred6re, ^•' 

23/^ crassus 3. Torment, cruciare, vex- d6re, fidem habere, 

/Thicket, frutex, icis, m. are, torquere. alicuL 

Tiling, res, r^i,f Torrent, torrens, tis, m. 7\vlh, Veritas, ktia,f. 

Think, putare, arbitra- Torture, cruciatus, Ha, Try, tentare, conari, 

ri, existiinare, cogi- m, tormentum, i, n. experiri. 

tare ; of, med- Torture, cruciare, tor- TuUus HostiMvs, Tul- 

itari. qu^re. lus Hostilius, m. 

Tliirst, sitis, ia,f. Touch, tang^re attin- Ttirn out, evad^re ; ^ 

Thirst, sitire. g^i'c, conting£re. out xcell, contingSre ; 

This, hie, haec, hoc. Tower, turris, is, /I ' ^ towards, conver- 


t€re ; — upon some- Untxmdy (adv.), intern- facessfere ; vex 

iking, defigfire in c. pestive. to death, eu^csre. 

abl. l//iurisc, insiplens, tis. Vexation, angor, 6n8,m, 

Twisted, tortus S. Unworthy, indignus 3. Vice (= viciousness)^ 

Tyrant, Tyrannus i, m. c. abl. vitiositas, atis,/. 

Tprian (s.^ Tyrius, i, m. Upright, probus 3. hon- Vice, vitium, i, m, 

estus 3. V%cissitude,vic\s, vicis,/. 

U. Uprightly, probe. Victory, victoria, ae,yi 

Z7(Wcr, uber, firis, n. Uprightness, probitas, Ftcw, conspectus, U8,m. . 

Ulysses, Ulixes, is, m, ati8,/honestas,ati8,/. View (= sentiment), 
Umhrenus, Umbrenus, Use, usus, Cis, m. sententla, ae,/, 

I, m. Use, uti c. abl. Vigorously, strende. 

Unacquainted with, ig- Useful, utTlis, e. Vine-branch, tradux, xX- 

narus 3. imprOdens, Useless, inutilis, e. cis, m. 

ntis. Utica, Utlca, ae,/. Violate, violare. 

Unarmed, inermis, e. Violant, violentus 3^ 
Uncertain, incertus 3., V. vehcmens, tis, atrox, 

anceps, cipitis. Vain, irritus 3. ocis. 

Uncover, detSgfire. Vain, in vain, nequic- Violently, graviter. 

Understand, intellig6re, quam. Virgil, Virgilius, i, m. 

tenfere. Valuable, carus 3. Virgin, virgo, Inis,yi 

Understanding, mens. Value, preiium, i, n. Virtue, virtus, utis,yi 

tis,/. Value, aestlmare, cen- Virtuous, honestus 3. 

Undertake, snscipCre, s6re niagni etc. Fbicc, vox, vocis,/ 

moliri. Vanish, avolare. Volcanic, ignivomus 3. 

Unfavorable, iniqilus 3. Vanquish, vinc6re, de- Vow, yovere. 

r7n/brc«ecn,imprdvisus3. vincfire. Vulture, vultur, liris, m. 
Unfortunate, calamito- Vapor, vapor, oris, m, 

sua 3., miser 3. Variance (to be at), dis- W. 

Ungrateful, mgrktuB ^, cordare. ffog-c^, stipendium,^^. 

Uninjured, integer, gra, Variegated, discdlor. Wait, expectare. 

grum. oris. Walk (to take), amfyfl- 

Unintelligent, imprO- Various, varius 3. lare ; — go to wa9t, 

dens, tis. Vein (swollen), varix, ambQiare. 

Unite, conjungCre, con- Icis, m. Walk upon, incedSrOl 

ciliare. Venison, caro ferina. Wall (of a house), ""^a- 

Unjustly, injuste. carnis ferinae. ries, 6tis,y. — (<te a 

Unknown, incognitus. Verres, Verres, is, m. protection), moenTa, 

Unless, nisi. Versed in, peritus 3., ium, n. — (a! J. J 

Unlike, dissimilis, e. consultus 3. structure), munus, ^ 

Unmindful of, imm6- Very, admSdum, valde. Sris, n. 

mor c. gen. Very often, persaepe. Wonder, errare. 

Unprofitable, inutilis, e. Vespasian, Vespasia- Wandering, error, oris, 
Unrestrained, effusus 3. nus, i, m, m. 

Unripe, immaturus 3. Vessel, vas, vasis, n. Want, egestas, atis, /., 
Unskilful, im peritus 3. Vesta, vesta, ae,/ inopia, ae,/! 

Until, donee, quoad, FcswviW, Vesuvius, i, m. fTtfn^, car6re c. abl. 

duna. Vex, ang6re, negotium War, bellum, i, n. 


Warfarty res militaris. Who, qui, quae, quod. fVord, verbum, i, n. 

Wares, merx, rcis,/. Who ? inter, quis, quae, Work, opus, 6ris, n. 
Warlike, bellicosus 3. quid ? World, mundus, i, m. 

Warm, callidus 3. Whoever you please, Worm, vermis, is, m. 
Wash, lavare. quilibet Worthy, digDUS 3. c 

Waste, atterfere, confi- Whole, universus 3., abl. 

c6re. omnis, e. Wrest from, extorquf re. 

Watch, vigilare ; keep Wholly, omnlno. Wretched, miser, 6ra, 

watch, excilbare. Why, cur. 6nim. 

Water, aqua, ae,yi Wicked, impius 3., see- Wretchedness, miseria, 
Waver, vacillare. leratus 3.,. imprdbus ae,/. aerumna, ae,yi 

^fay, Via, ae,/. iter, iti- 3., malef Icus 3. Write, Bcr'ihkre. 

D^ris, n. Wickedly, imprdbe. Writer, scriptor, oris, m. 

Way (= manner), mo- Wickedness, pravitas, Writing, scriptum, i, n. 

dus, i, m, atis,/. Writing4abUt, codicil- 

Way (to stand in), ob- Wide, amplus 3. li, orum, m. 

stare, ofFicfire c, dat Widely, late. Wrong, injuria, ae,y. 

f^eo^ infirmus 3., im- Wife, uxor, oris, f, /fVoii^(do), delinqu^re. 

pdtens, tis. Wild, fenls 3. 

Weaken, dilu^re. Will, testamentum, i, n. X. 

Weakness, intirmitas, a- voluntas, atis,^! Xenocrates, XenocriL- 

tis,/. Will, velle; not to will, tes, is, m. 
WeaUhy, locdples, 6tis. nolle. Xenophon, Xenophon, 

Wearied, fessus, 3. WiUow, siler, 6ris, n, ontis, m. 

Weary (to be), defetisci. Wind, ventus, i, m. Xerxes, Xerxes, is, m. 

defatigari. Wine, vinum, i, n. 

Weather, tempestas,atis, Winter, hiems, 6mis,/. Y. 

jf> Wisdom, consilium, i, n. Year, annus, i, w. this 

neq^ fl^re. Wise, sapiens, tis, pru- year, (adv.), homa 
We^hre, salus, Otis,/! dens, tis. Yes, see k 115. 5. 

Wdf (to be), valfere. Wisely, sapienter, pru- Yes, (to say), aio, [§ 77. 
J^eaer, Visurgis, is, m. denter. 1)]. 

Wed, occidens, ntis. Wise man, sapiens, tis, Yesterday, heri, hodie. 
Wether, vervex, ecis, m. m. Yet, at, tamen. 

What (in number or fTwA, optare, velle, cu- Young man, juvenis, is, 

ordar) ? quotus ? 3. p6re. m. [inis,y; 

WheOy quum. ffiV, sal, salis, m. FouMg" unman, virgo. 

Whence, unde. WiihotU (to be), carfere. Younger, natu minor. 

fP**jj^ ubi. Wd(/; lupus, i, m. FoKr, vester, tra, trum. 

frhl.hoith, quL Woman, mulfer, firis,/. Fot/^A, juventus, Qtis,y. 
Whether (in indirect femina ae,/. adolescentia, ae,yi 

questions), num, Wonder, mirari. Youth (a), adolescens, 

ne, utrum. Wood, lignum, i, n. tis, m. adolescentd- 

Whetstone, cos, cotis,/. Wood (a.), silva, ae, f, lus,],i». juvenis, is,m. 

Which of the two, uter, Wooden, of uxtod, lig- 

tra, trum. n^us 3. Z. 

While, dum. Wood'pigeon,^\MD\i^s, Zeal, studium, i, n. 
Whither, quo. is, m. Zealously, naviter. 



Page 13, line 7, read proavus for proavu. p. 17, 1. 18, deb«o for dob6d. 
23, 34, consonants for vowels. 25, 24, bond for bond. 29, 25, n//me (m.) for 
name (n.). 32, 9, neuter for feminUie. 33, 39, antecfidet for antecSdet. 34, 
20, venAtor, oris for vena tor, oris. 35, 33, adversis for adveris. 39, 1, iM 
for mild. 42, 33, object for objective. 43, 36, cantus, as, m. for cantus. Oo 
n. 47, 25, vitupgro for vitup€ro. 51, 5, quoddam for quodam. 60, 1<K Kn 
mam for Roman. 61. 1 , (ob) for (ab). 62, 26, Aenea for Aenft. G8, 25, " 
for were. 69,5, fraterfor fater. 71, 7, premature for primature, 83, ~*. 
porticus for portions. 83, 31, old woman for old man. 90, 8, amaius To* 
amamatus. 105, 5, compftro for comparo. 109, 37. potio for portio. 132, lf| 
coena for coeno. 146, 24, flagitia for flagita. 152, 9, heat for heart. 1 57, 10| 
spondeo for spandeo. 210, 2, pldit for puit. 253, 23, molestus for molcstus. 
255y 7, idonei for idoni. 263, Qd^sentence for sentences. 291, 'bottom, tiird 
for second. 303, 10, Hac for Haec. 307, 10, flectendum for lectendum. J07, 
note, pick for prick, 310, 8, philos^phum for philospophum. 320, 14, Cuiio 
or Canto. 



\ •