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printed by gilbert and rivington, limited, 
st. John's house, clerkenwell road. 

7/2- tl 







When this book was published in 1873, the object 
was twofold. The first was to protest against an 
idea entertained by some of my countrymen that the 
Japanese language is very imperfect, and therefore it 
must be exterminated. This idea, however, appears 
to have been given up as altogether preposterous and 
extravagant. The second was to give a general idea 
of the Japanese language as it is spoken. Maturer 
thought suggests to me some alterations, but I found 
that no material change is necessary. I have added 
several new Exercises which I deemed advisable, and 
trusting that in its new form it will prove acceptable, 
I have the pleasure of submitting a second edition of 
the work. 

The Author. 

New York, 

January, 1888. 




The Iroha. 

The letters used in Japanese are forty-seven. They have 
two different forms, one of which is called Katakana, and 
the other Hir alcana. We give the Katakana, as under : — 

j a a - # -v h f o X )v 7 7 

S" 7 -V ? 3- 7 ^x^T^^i 
* S >- 2 b. ^ fc * 

These letters are called in Japanese : — 

i ro ha ni ho he to ti ri nu ru o wa ha yo ta 

re so tu ne na ra mu u i no o leu ya ma he fit 

ho ye te a sa hi yn me mi si ye hi mo se zu. 

The whole system of the letters is called Iroha, from 
"f H? /\ , the names of these first three letters. 



2. The Vowels. 

Of the above forty-seven, five ( X ^f V 2 7) 
are vowels; the sounds of these five letters are as 

.'follows : — 

a ) has the sound of a in master, or mama. 

i ^ „ ,, i in inland. 

u 5? ,, >> u i n queen. 

e JL » „ e in echo, 

o 5^ M „ ' o in month. 

The rest of the letters are arranged according to these 
five vowels, as follows : — 

a r 



u ^ 

e 2 

ka # 



ku p 

ke Zr 

sa Tj" 



su X 

se "fe 

ta f& 



tu 7 

te 5 s 

na *J- 


nu y> 

ne ^f 

ha )\ 



fu 7 

he *\ 

ma sT 



mu *4 

me y( 

ya -Y 



yu O. 

ye O; 

ra y 



m ;iy 

re 1/ 

wa y 



wu $7 

we 2 





no J 

ho ^1 

mo -£ 

yo ^ 

ro 13 

wo 5^ 

Etymology. 3 

When the sign ° or * is marked on the head of a 
letter, as ~}f or /\, it changes its sound; J] (ha) be- 
comes *Jf (goj, and /\ (ha), /\ (pa). These changes 
will be seen in the following table : — 


ba /V 
pa /\° 


g 1 ^ 

g» T 

ge >? 

zi -^ 

zu X 

ze t* 

di & 

du 7* 

de 7 1 * 

bi \? 

bu y 

be •** 

pi tr. 

P u 7° 

pe *N 

bo $? 

po 7$? 


X and 2C, q and 9T * <1" and 5^ , are distinguished 
by ancient usage, but at the present time the distinction 
is no longer observed. 

In most parts of Japan, "J* di and $/ zi, / du 

and % zu > are distinguished from one another in their 
pronunciation, although they are pronounced alike in 
some parts of the country. 


Words are divided into eight classes, that is, parts of 
speech — Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, 
Postpositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections. 

Note — There is nothing in Japanese to answer to 
the English Articles, definite or indefinite. 


4 Of Number and Gender. 

Of Nouns. 

A Noun is the name of any person, place, or thing • 
as, niwi) garden ; Nippon, Japan. 

Nouns are either Proper or Common : — 

1. A Proper Noun is the name of any particular per- 
son, place, or thing, as Yokohama, Kosi. 

2. A Common Noun is a name given in common to 
everything of the same kind, as tuhuye, table. 

Nouns are varied by number and gender. 

Of Number. 

There are two numbers, the Singular and the Plural. 

In Japanese, nouns change their forms in a few cases; 
generally they have the same forms, both in the plural 
and singular. But when they change their forms the 
plural is rendered by adding domo, gata, or ra to the 
singular ; as ko, child; danna, gentleman ; shosei, stu- 
dent, in the singular; and Tcodomo, dannagata, shoseira, 
in the plural. 

The number of nouns generally are distinguished by 
numeral adjectives ; as, hito hitori, one person ; hito 
futari, two persons. 

Of Gender. 

Nouns have three genders — the Masculine, Feminine, 
and Neuter. 

Of Gender. 


The masculine denotes the male sex; as, otoko, man. 
The feminine denotes the female sex; as onna, woman. 
The neuter denotes whatever is without sex; as, yama, 

There are two different ways of distinguishing the 
sex : — 

1. By different words ; as — 

otolcOy man. 
teishu, husband. 
so, monk. 

segare, son. 

titi, father. 

oji, uncle. 

oi, nephew. 

Ifiana muko, bridegroom. 

danna, gentleman. 


onna, woman. 
niyobo, wife. 
ama, nun. 
ycimomoj ,, wide war* 
musume, daughter. 
haha, mother. 
oh a, aunt. 
mei, niece. 
hana yome y bride. 
fuzin, lady. 

2. By prefixing another word ; as- 

otoko no Ico, male child. 
ontori, male bird. 
K+U'ei, Emperor. 
0, King. 

onna no Jco, female child. 
mentori, female bird. 
Niyotei, Empress. 
Niyo-o, Queen. 

6 Of Adjectives. 

Of Case. 
There are three cases ; namely, the Nominative, Pos- 
sessive, and Objective. 

The nominative is rendered by placing the sign wa, ga, 
or mo after nouns; as, otoho ga or wa, mo, ikimasu, 
man goes. 

The possessive is formed by putting the sign no after 
nouns; as, otoho no 'kimono, man's dress. 

The objective is rendered by the sign wo, ni, or ga — 
Otoho ga onna wo utimasita, A man has beaten a 
woman. In the potential mood, ga is used as a sign 
of the objective case. 

Note — The signs of the nominative, wa and mo are 
used in opposition to each other. When two 
things or persons do the same actions, mo is 
used; as, Onna mo otoho mo iHmasu, Both man 
and woman go. But when they do some diffe- 
rent actions, wa is used ; as, Onna wa hayeri- 
masu ga (but) otoho wa orimasu, Woman goes 
away, but man stays. 
Ga is sometimes used in an emphatic sentence ; 

as, Watahusi ga simasita, I have done it. 
Ni, the sign of the objective case, answers to the 
dative in Latin ; and in English it may be 
translated into 'to/ or ' for / as Kane wo otoho 
ni yare, Give money to the man. 
y^ Op Adjectives. 

An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun. 

Of Pronouns. 7 

Adjectives have three degrees of comparison — the 
Positive, Comparative, and. Superlative. 

The comparative is formed by placing yori or yorimo 
(more than) before the positive ; as, yori yoi, better ; 
and the superlative by putting the words ichi ban, or 
nwttomo, before the positive; as, itti ban, or mottomo 
yoi, best. 

There are three kinds of adjectives, namely, qualifi- 
cative, quantitative, and demonstrative : — 

1. Qualificative adjectives express the quality ; as, 
hireina shomotu, fine books. 

2. Quantitative adjectives express the quantity; as, 
takusanna shomotu, many books. 

3. Demonstrative adjectives serve to point out ; as, 
hono shomotu, this book; sono shomotu, that booh. 

Of Pkonouns. ^ 

A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun. There 
are three kinds of pronouns — Personal, Interrogative, 
and Demonstrative. 

Note — Relative Pronouns are not used in conver- 

1. Personal Pronouns are used to represent the 
three persons, namely, first, second, and third person. 
They have numbers and cases, but they are applied both 
to feminine and masculine without distinction. 

8 Of Interrogative Pronouns. 

The whole of the personal pronouns in their simple 
forms may be represented thus : — 

First Person. Second Person. Third Person. 
Singular . watahusi, anata, are, or kare. 

Plural . . watahusi domo, anatay-ata, arera, or harera. 

The cases are rendered by placing ni, no, and the 
other particles after pronouns, as in cases of watahusi ga, 
or wa, I ; watahusi ni, me. 

Are and arera are seldom used in conversation. Gene- 
rally the names of persons are repeated, or else demon- 
strative adjectives and hito or oJcata (person) are used ; 
as, Kono okata ga ihimasu, This person goes. 

2. Interrogative Pronouns are used to ask questions. 
There are three kinds of interrogative pronouns — 

dare, which is applied to persons ; nani, which is applied 
to things, or inferior animals ; and dore, which is used 
when a choice is expressed. 

The cases are rendered by the particles no, ni, wa, 
and the others as in case of a noun. Examples: — 
Sohoni dare ga imasu ha ? Who is there ? Sohoni nani 
ga imasu ha? What is there? Dore wo anata wa tori- 
masu ha ? Which do you take ? 

Note — When any question is asked, the sign ha is 
always put at the end of the sentence. 

3. Demonstrative Pronouns serve to point out the 
object spoken of. 

Of Verbs. 9 

There are two kinds of demonstrative pronouns, 
namely, kore and sore, which correspond to 'this* and 
'that' in English. They have cases, which are rendered 
like cases of a noun : they have the same forms both 
in the plural and singular. Examples : — Kore wo 
d-torinasare, Take this ; Watalfusi ni sore wo kudasare, 
Give me that. 


A Verb is a word used to express existence or action. 
Verbs are of three kinds — Active, Passive, and Neuter. 

1. An Active Verb expresses action passing from an 
actor to some object ; as, Watakusi wa shomotu wo mi- 
masu, I see or read a book. 

2. A Passive Verb expresses the suffering of an 
action performed by another; as, Watakusi wa hito m* 
miraremasu, I am seen by people. 

3. A Neuter Verb is neither active nor passive ; it ex- 
presses existence, condition of being, and action limited 
to the actor ; as, Watakusi wa nemurimasu, I sleep. 

Inflection of Verbs. 

Verbs are inflected to express voices, moods, and 
tenses. There are three kinds of Japanese verbs — first, 

# Here ni means * by • in English. 

10 Inflection of Verbs. 

utu, to strike ; second, nageru, to throw; third, suru, to 
do, or make. 

1. Active Voice. 

When the verbs are used in conversation, u of the 
verbs of the first kind is substituted by i, and masu in 
an affirmative sentence, or masen in a negative sentence 
is added, as utimasu or utirnasen; ruoi that of the second 
is taken away, and masu or masen is put, as yiagemasu or 
nagemasen ; utu of that of the third is substituted by 
i, and masu or masen is added, as simasu or simasen. 

2. Passive Voice. 

In the case of passive voices, u of the verb of the firsjjp 
kind is substituted by are, and masu or masen; as, 
Utare masu, Are or is beaten. This rule applies to the 
verbs of the second kind; as, Nageraremasu, Is or are 
thrown down. Vru of that of the third kind is substi- 
tuted by erare, and masu or masen is added ; as, Kerai 
ni serare masu, He is, or they are, made a servant or 

Of Moods. 
Verbs have five moods — the Indicative, Potential, 
Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive. 

1. The Indicative Mood is the simple affirmation of a 
fact ; as, Watahusi ga mimasu, I see (it). 

2. The Potential Mood expresses the power of doing 

Conjugation of Verbs. 11 

an action ; as, Watakusi wa sore ga miyemusu, or Wata- 
kusi wa sore wo miru koto ga dekimasu, I can see it or 

3. The Subjunctive Mood represents a thing under a 
condition, and is preceded by a conjunction (mosi), and 
followed by another conjunction (nara or naraba) ; as, 
Moshi anata ga ihimasu nara, If you go. Sometimes 
the word mosi is omitted ; as, Anata ga ikimasu nara, 
If you go. 

4. The Imperative Mood commands or entreats, as, 
Miyo or Mite-kudasare, See, or Pray see. 

5. The Infinitive Mood expresses an action without 
regard to persons or numbers ; as, Miru koto, To see. 

Of Tenses. 
Verbs have three tenses — the Present, the Past, and 
the Future. 

1. The Present Tense expresses what is going on at 
present; as, Watakusi ga yomimasu, I read, or am reading. 

2. The Past Tense represents an action as finished ; 
as, Watakusi wa kono shomotu wo yomimasita, I have 
read, or I read this book. 

3. The Future Tense represents an action which is 
yet to be done; as, Watakusi wa yomimasho, I shall read. 

Conjugation or Verbs. 
Verbs are divided into three classes. These are distin- 

12 Conjugation of Regular Verbs. 

guished by the termination of the present infinitive. 
The first ends in u, as suku, to like ; the second ends in 
ru, as Jcangayeru, to think ; the third ends in uru, as 
suru, to make. 

Conjugation of Regular Verbs. 

First Conjugation ending in U — Iku, To go. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 

Watakusfi wa ik-imasu, I go. 
Anata wa ilc-imasu, you go. 
Are wa ik-imasu, he or she 

WataJcusi domo wa ik-imasu, 

we go. 
Anata g at a wa ik-imasu, 

you go. 
Arera wa ik-imasu, they go. 

Past Tense. 

Watakusi wa ik-imasita, I 
went or have gone. 

Anata wa ik-imasita, you 
went or have gone. 

Are wa ik-imasita, he went, 
or has gone. 

Watakusi domo wa ik-ima- 
sita, we went. 

Anatagata wa ik-imasita, 
you went. 

Arera to a ik-imasita, they 

Future Tense. 

Watakusi wa ik-imasho, I 

shall go. 
Anata wa ik-imasho, you 

will go. 
Are wa ik-imasho, he or she 

will go. 

Watakusi domo wa ik-ima- 
sho, we shall go. 

Anatagata wa ik-imasho, you 
will go. 

Arera wa ik^imaslw, they 
will go. 

Conjugation of Regular Verbs. 


Potential Mood, 
Present Tense. 

Watakusi wa ik-emasu, I 

can go. 
Anata wa ik-emasu, you 

can go. 
Are wa ik-emasu, he can go. 

Watakusi domo wa ik-emasu, 

we can go. 
Anatagata wa ik-emasu, you 

can go. 
Arera wa ik-emasu, they 

can go. 

Past Tense. 

Watakui wa ik-emasita, I 

could go. 
Anata wa ik-emasita, you 

could go. 
Are wa ik-emasita, he could 


Watakusi domo wa ik-ema- 
sita, we could go. 

Anatagata wa ik-emasita, you 
could go. 

Arera wa ik-emasita, they 
could go. 

Future Tense. 

Watakusi wa ik-emasho, I 
shall be able to go. 

Anata wa ik-emasho, you will 
be able to go. 

Are wa ik-emasho, he will be 
able to go. 

Watakusi domo wa ik-ema- 
sho, we shall be able to go. 

Anatagata wa ik-emasho, you 
will be able to go. 

Arera wa ik-emasho, they will 
be able to go. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 

Mosi watakusi ga ik-imasu 

nara, if I go. 
Mosi anata gaik-imasu nara, 

if you go. 
Mosi are ga ik-imasu nara, 

if he or she go. 

Mosi watakusi domo ga ik- 
imasu nara, if we go. 

Mosi anatagata ga ik-imasu 
nara, if you go. 

Mosi arera ga ik-imasu nara, 
if they go. 

14 Conjugation of Regular Verbs. 

Past Tense. 

Mosi watakusi ga ik-imasita 
nara, if I went, or have 

Mosi anata ga ik-imasita na- 
ra, if you went, or have 

Mosi are ga ik-imasita nara, 
if he went, or has gone. 

Mosi watakusi domo ga ik- 
imasita nara, if we went, 
or have gone. 

Mosi anatagata ga ik-imasita 
nara, if you went, or have 

Mosi arera ga ik-imasita 
nara, if they went, or have 




Imperative Mood. 
Command .... Ike, \ 

I-tte-okure, ; Go. 
-tte-kudasare, ) 

Infinitive Mood. 

Iku koto , To go. 

The same form of verbs is used for all the persons, singular 

or plural ; so, hereafter, the verbs for the first persons only will be 


Second Conjugation ending in RU — Miru, to see. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Watakusi wa mi-masu, I 


Watakusi domo wa mi- 
masu, we see. 


Past Tense. 

Watakusi wa mi-masita, I 
saw, or have seen. 


1 . Watakusi domo wa mi-ma- 
sita, we saw, or have seen. 




Conjugation of Regular Verbs. 15 

Future Tense. 


WataJcusi wa mi-masJw, I 

1. WaJcusi domo wa mi-ma- 

shall see. 

slw, we shall see. 






Potential Mood. 

Present Tense. 


WataJcusi wa miru koto 

1. WataJcusi domo wa miru 

ga dekimasu, I can see. 

koto ga dekimasu, we 
can see. 






Past Tense. 


1. Watakusi domo tva miru 

ga dekimasita, I could 

koto ga dekimasita f we 


could see. 





Futnre Tense. 


WataJcusi wa miru Moto 

1. Watakusi domo to a miru 

ga dekimasho, I shall 

koto ga dekimasJiOy we 

be able to see. 

shall be able to see. 



2. ..... 



Subjunctive Mood, 

Present Tense. 


Mosi wataJcusi ga mimasu 

1. Mosi watakusi domo ga 


mimasu nara, if we see. 






Conjugation of Regular Verbs. 

Past Tense. 


Mo 8t watahusi ga mima- 

1. Mosi watahusi domo 


sita nara, if I saw, or 

mimasita nara, if 


have seen. 

saw, or have seen. 


2. .... 




Imperative Mood, 

1 . . . . Mii/o, "| 

( Mi-te-oJcure, > 

(. Mi-te-hudasare, J 

Infinitive Mood. 
Miru koto, to see. 


Conjugation of Third Verb — Kuru, to come. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

1. Watahusi wa himasu, I 



1. Watahusi domo wa hi- 
masu, we come. 



Past Tense. 

1. Watahusi wa himasita, I 


3. ..... 

1. Watahusi domo wa hima- 
sita, we came. 

Future Tense. 

1. Watahusi wa himasho, I 

shall come. 

2. ..... 

1. Watahusi domo wa hima- 
sho, we shall come. 

Conjugation of Regular Verbs. 


Potential Mood. 

Present Tense. 


Watahusi wa huru koto 

1. Watahusi domo wa hum 

ga dehimasu, I can 

hoto ga dehimasu, we 


can come. 








Watahusi wa Jcuru koto 

1. Watahusi domo iva huru 

ga dehimasita, I could 

hoto ga dehimasita, we 


could come. 








Watahusi wa huru hoto 


Watahusi domo wa huru 

ga dehimasho, I shall be 

hoto ga dehimasho, we 

able to come. 

shall be able to come. 





Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 

1. Most watahusi ga himasu 

nara, if I come. 

2. . . • . 

1. Most watahusi domoga hi- 
masu nara, if we come. 



Past Tense. 

1. Mosi watahusi ga hima- 
sita nara, if I came. 



Mosi watahusi domo ga hi- 
masita nara, if we came. 


Conjugation of Regular Verbs. 

ve Mood, 

Imperative Mood, 
Ki-te-okure, ") p 


Infinitive Mood. 
Kuru koto, to come. 

The Verb used Negatively. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

1. Watakusi wa ikimasen, I 

do not go. 

2. . . . . . 

3. ..... 

1. Watalcusi domo tea iki- 
masen, we do not go. 



Past Tense. 

1. Watalcusi wa ikimasen- 
anda, I did not go. 



1. Watalcusi domo wa ikima- 
senanda, we did not go. 



Future Tense. 


Watalcusi wa ifcimasumai, 

1. Watalcusi domo wa ikima- 

I shall not go. 

sumai, we shall not go. 





1. Watakusi wa i 

I cannot go, 

2. . . 

Potential Mood. 
Present Tense. 

1. Watakusi domo wa ikema- 

sen, we cannot go. 

3 3, 

* There is another form of potential mood — iku koto ga dekimasen. 

Conjugation of "Regular Verbs. 19 

Past Tense. 

1. Watahusi wa ihemasen- 
anda, I could not go. 



1. Watahusi domo wa iJcema' 
senanda,we could not go. 



Future Tense. 

1. Watahusi wa ihemasumai, 
I shall not be able to go. 

1. Watahusi domo wa ihema- 
sumai, we shall not be 
able to go. 


3. . . . . 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 

1. Mosi watahusi ga ihima- 
sen nara, if I do not 



1. Mosi watahusi domo ga 

ikimasen nara, if we do 
not go. 

2. ... 

3. .... 

Past Tense. 

1. Mosi watahusi ga ihima- 
senanda nara, if I did 
not go. 



1 . Mosi watahusi ga ihimase- 
nanda nara, if we did 
not go. 



Imperative Mood. 


Do not go. 


20 Of Adverbs and Postpositions. 

Of Adveebs. 

An Adverb is a word which qualifies a verb, an adjec- 
tive, or other adverb ; as, kono kodomo wa shomotu wo 
yoku yomimasu, These children read books well. 

Adverbs may be divided into the following six 
classes : — 

1. Adverbs of time — ima, now ; hayaJcu, quickly ; 

sudeni, already ; konniti, to-day ; miyo-niti, 
to-morrow ; and others. 

2. Adverbs of place — solconi, there; kokoni, here; 

tikaku, nearly, &c. 

3. Adverbs of quality ; as, yoku, well ; kireini, beau- 

tifully ; kitaini, wonderfully, &c. 

4. Adverbs of quantity — sukosi y little ; takusan, 


5. Adverbs of sequence or order — dai-ittini, firstly; 

dai-nini, secondly. 

6. Adverbs of mood — sayo, just so ; hei, yes ; zituni, 

truly; iye } no, &c. 

Or Postpositions. 

A Postposition is a word put, in Japanese, after nouns 
and pronouns, to show the relation between them ; as, 
Watakusi wa Niyon kara France ni ikimasu, I go from 
Japan to France. 

Of Conjunctions. 21 

A List of Postpositions. 

Tameni, for; wuyeni, above; atoni, after; utini, 
within, or in; mayeni or m ay ewo, before; aidani, between; 
sitani, below ; hokani, out of, or without ; tikani, 
near ; honi, toward. (These are used with the article 
no; as, iye no uchini, in the house ; kuni no tameni, 
for the country, or for the sake of the country.) — 
Made, into, or to; mukatte, against; oite, in. (These 
are used with ni ; as, London ni made, to London.) — 
Koyete, beyond ; hanarete } off; nukete or tosite, through. 
(With wo; as, mado wo nukete, through the window,) — 
Kara, from ; ni or ye, to ; made, into ; to, with ; nasiyvi, 
without ; — without any additionl word ; as, London 
kara, from London ; kono tokoro ni, in this place. 

Of Conjunctions. 

A Conjunction is a word which joins words and sen- 
tences together ; as, Watakusi to kono ko ga Asakusa 
ye ikimasu, I and this child go to Asakusa. 

There are two kinds of conjunctions, namely, copu- 
lative and disjunctive, 

1. Copulative conjunctions are — momata, also ; to, 
and ; kara, since ; naraba or nara, if ; dakara, there- 
fore, &c. ^ 

2. Disjunctive conjunctions are — keredomo, although ; 
ga, but ; sikasi, yet ; aruiwa or matawa, or ; yorimo, 
than, &c. 

22 Rules. 

Of Interjections. 

An Interjection expresses some sudden wish or emo- 
tion of the mind ; as, A do itashimasho, Ah ! what shall 
I do? 

The principal interjections are — 6, A, Ha-ha, Ho-i, 
Nasakenai, Oya-oya, Are, Naruhodo, &c. 


There are two kinds of sentences — simple and com- 

1. A simple sentence ; as, Kono hito wa kasiko goza- 
rimasu, He is clever. 

2. A compound sentence; as, Kono hito wa kasiko 
gozarimasu keredomo hatarakimasen, He is clever, but 
he does not work. 


I. A verb must be put after its object ; as, Watakusi. 
we hana wo konomimasu, I like flowers. 

In this sentence the object hana is placed before 
the predicate konomimasu. 

II. Prepositions are placed after nouns which they 
govern, and which are said to be in the objective case ; 
as, Watakusi wa Yedo ye mairimasu, I go to Yedo. 

Rules. 23 

III When two or more nouns or pronouns are 
coupled with to (and), the signs of cases are put after 
the last nominative ; as, Watahusi to anata ga ihimasu, 
I and you go. 

IV. When two or more nouns or pronouns are con- 
nected by matawa (or), the particle ha is put immediately 
after the nouns or pronouns ; as, Watahusi ka matawa 
anata ka ga mairimasu, I or you go. 

V. Conjunctions couple the same tenses of verbs ; as, 
Watahusi wa sore wo sukimasu heredomo hore wo kirai- 
masu, I like that, but (I) do not like or dislike this. 

Conjunctions couple the same cases of nouns and 
pronouns ; as, Watahusi to anata ga ihimasu, I 
and you go. 

- VI. One verb governs another in the infinitive mood ; 
as, Watahusi wa sahe wo nomu koto wo honomimasen, I 
do not like to drink sahe, or spirit of rice. 

When the verbs in the infinitive mood are governed 
by an active verb, or used as nouns, the signs 
of cases, ga, wa, or wo, are added to the simple 
forms of the verbs in the infinitive mood ; as, 
nomu hoto wa, or nomu hoto wo, to drink. But 
when the verbs in the infinitive mood are go- 
verned by a neuter verb, u of the verb of the 
first kind, and uru of that of the third kind are 

24 Rules. 

taken away, and i and ni are added ; in the case 
of the verbs of the second kind, ru is substituted 
by ni ; as, Watakusi wa mini, or asobini iki- 
masu, I go to see (something), or to amuse 
myself. Here u of asobu and ru of miru are 
taken away, and i and ni, or ni, is put. 

VII. When two nouns, or one pronoun and a noun 
come together, one signifying a possessor, and the other 
a thing possessed, the former is put in the possessive 
case ; as, Yamasiroya no shomotu, Yamasiroya's book; 
or, Anato no shomotu, Your book. 

VIII. When the verb gozarimasu or arimasu ('is' or 
'are') is used, a noun or pronoun which comes imme- 
diately before the verbs requires the word de after it ; 
as, Watakusi wa Yamatoya de gozarimasu, I am (Mr.) 

IX. Sentences which imply contingency and futurity 
require the subjunctive mood; as, Mosi watakusi g a 
mairimasu nara, or Mosi watakusi ga mairimasho nara, 
Watakusi ga sore wo mimasho, If I go (there), I shall 
see that. 

X. Some conjunctions have their correspondent con- 
junctions ; thus, to (and) is sometimes repeated after 
each noun or pronoun ; as, Watakusi to anata to ga 
ikimasu, I and you go. 

Rales. 25 

Mosi . . . . nara or naraba, if. 

Tatoye . . . . nisiro or sitemo, though. 

Nazenareba . . . . &anz, because. 

/? -"" XL When the verbs in the infinitive mood are used 

as nouns, they require the signs of the case ; as, Niti ya 
watakusi no suwatte-iru koto ga yamai no moto de goza- 
rimasu, My sitting day and night is the cause of my 

XII. Relative pronouns are generally omitted in con- 
versation ; as, Sore w.a^watakusi gakosir ay emasita hako 
de gozarimasu, or Watahusi ga kosirayemasita hako wa 
sore de gozarimasu, That is a box which I have made. 
Here the relative pronoun tokorono ( * which ' or ' that ' ) 
ought to be put between the verb kosiraye-masita and 
the object hako ; but in conversation tokorono is not 

XIII. Adverbs are placed before adjectives and verbs; 
as ; Sore wa hanahada yd gozarimasu, That is very good; 
and Watahusi wa hayaku mairimasho, I shall go quickly. 

XIV. When nouns or pronouns are compared with 
each other, a noun or pronoun which comes directly 
before the word yori or yorimo ('than') does not require 
the sign of case ; as, Anata wa watakusi yori tako goza- 
rimasu, You are taller than I. 

XV. After the names of places, ye corresponds in 
English to ' to ' ; as, Watakusi wa Yedo ye ikimasu, I 

26 Rules. 

go to Yedo. Ni corresponds to ' in ' or c at ' ; as, Wata- 
husi wa Asalcusa ni or Yedo ni orimasu, I live at Asa- 
kusa or in Yedo. 

XVI. Adjectives for the most part are placed before 
nouns, but numeral adjectives maybe placed after nouns 
as well as before them ; as, hito san nin or san nin no hito, 
three persons. When numeral adjectives are applied to 
persons, nin must de added ; and when they are placed 
before nouns, no must be put after nin ; as, san nin no 
hito. There are other words applied to point out the 
numbers of beasts, birds, trees, &c. 

HiM, pikif or MM is used for quadrupeds : — 
r itt-pihiy one horse. 
TJma < ni-hiki, two horses. 

C san-biki, three horses. 

Generally, Jiiki is used for all the numbers except 10, 20, 30, 
up to 100, for which piJci is used merely for the sake of 
pronunciation. Bihi for three, and thousands; as, zitt piki 
no uma, 10 horses ; ni sen biki no uma, 2000 horses. 

Pa, wahj or ba, is used for birds : — 

s iti wah, one bird. 
Tori ) ni wall, two birds. 
(. san ba, three birds. 

Wah is used generally ; pa is for 10, 20, 30, &c. ; up to 100, 
ba for 3, and 1000, 2000, &c. 

Rules. 27 

Pon, hon, or bon is used for a number of trees or plants :— 

r itt-pon, one tree. 
Ki < Ni-hon, two trees. 
v. san bon, three trees. 

Hon is of general use ; pon for 10, 20, 30, &c. ; bon for 3, 
and 1000 ; as, Watakusi wa Jconnichi tori san ba, or (san 
ba no tori) to san nin no hito, or hito san nin, to uma san 
biJci, or san biki no uma, to sanbon no ki, or ki sanbon, wo 
mimasita, I have seen to-day three birds and three per- 
sons, and three horses, and three trees. 

XVII. Are or arera, the personal pronouns of the 
third person, are seldom used; generally the demonstra- 
tive adjectives hono (this), or sono (that), and the nouns 
hito or ohata (person), are used instead ; as, Watalcusi 
wa Tiono okata wo sakuzitu mimasita, I have seen him 
(or this person) yesterday. 

XVIII. When any adjective qualifies a noun which is 
understood, the adjective changes its termination, as 
follows : — 

Adjectives ending na, such as kireina, okina, &c, change their 

terminations into ni: 
Kore wa kireina niiva de gozarimasu, It is a beautiful 

Kono niwa wa kireini gozarimasu, That garden is a beautiful 

Kireina, kireini, beautiful, fine. 
Akirakana, akirakani, clear, bright. 
Attakana, attakani, warm. 

28 Rules. 

Wazuhana, wazukani, or wazukade, little, few. 
Takusana, takusani, much, many. 
Okina, oJcini, okiwu, large, tall. 

Adjectives ending in ai or oi change their terminations into long J: 
Kore wa hatai isi de gozarimasu, This is a hard stone. 
Kono isi wa Jcato gozarimasu, This stone is a hard (one). 
Katai, Jcato, hard. 
Takai, tako, dear in price, or tail. 
Hayai, hay 5, quick. 
Yowai, yowd, weak. 

Kono ho wa hasiho gozarimasu, This child is a wise (one). 
Kasihoi, Jiasiho, wise, clever. 
Tattoi, tatto, precious, worthy. 
Tuwoi, tuwo, strong. 
Towoi, towo, far. 

Those ending in si change their terminations into shu ; 

Kono samusa wa hibishu gozarimasu, This winter, or cold, is 

a severe (one). 
Kibisi, hibishu, severe. 
At ar a st j atarashu, new. 
Tadasi, tadashu, right. 
Osorosi, OsorosJiu, fearful, horrible. 
Otohorasi, otohorashu, manly. 

There are a few exceptions : — Numerical adjectives do not change 
their terminations, but de must be put after them ; as> Watakusi 
domo tva sannin de gozarimasu, We are three. 


Watakusi no, my. 
Anata no, your. 
Kiodai, brother. 

Segare, son. 
Tomodati, friend. 
Musume, daughter, girl. 

Toy and. 

1. Watakusi no kiodai. 2. Anata no tomodati. 
3. Watakusi no kiodai to anata no tomodati. 


1. My daughter. 2. Your friend. 3. Your son, and 
my brother. 


K ireina* kireini, beautiful. Gozarimasu, is, or are. 
Sinsetuna,sinsetuni, kind. 

1. Sinsetuna tomodati. 2. Kireinamusume. 3. Wata- 
kusi no tomodati iva sinsetuni gozarimasu. 4. Anata no 
musume wa kireini gozarimasu. 5. Anata no kiodai wa 
watakusi no tomodati de gozarimasu* 

* See Rule XVIII. 

30 Japanese and English Exercises. 


1. A beautiful girl. 2. Your son is kind. 3. Your 
daughter is beautiful. 4. My friend is kind. 5. A 
kind friend. 


Watdkusi domo no, our. Anata gata no, your. 

1. Watahusi domo no tomodati. 2. Anatagata no Mo- 
dal. 3. Watakusi domo no tomodati wa sinsetuni gozari- 
masu. 4. Anatagata no musume wa kireini gozarimasu. 

5. Watakusi domo no kiodai wa sinsetuni gozarimasu. 


1. Our friend. 2. Your daughter. 3. Your daughter 
is beautiful. 4. Our friend is kind. 5. Your brother 
is kind. 


Kono, this, these. Sono, that, those. 

1. Kono musume. 2. Sono tomodati. 3. Sono musume 
wa kireini gozarimasu. 4. Kono tomodati wa sinsetuni 
gozarimasu. 5. Kono segare wa sinsetuni gozarimasu. 

6. Sono sinsetuna tomodati. 7. Kono kireina musume. 


1. That son. 2. This friend. 3. This girl is beauti- 
ful. s 4. That brother is kind. 5. This friend is kind. 
6. That beautiful girl. 7. This kind friend. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 31 


Watakusi wa, I. 
Anata wa, you. 

Motteimasiiy has, or have. 

1. Iffatakusi wa Modal wo motteimasu. 2. Watakusi 
wa musume wo mottiemasu. 3. Anata wa sinsetuna 
tomodati wo motteimasu. 4. Watakusi no tomodati wa 
kireina musume wo motteimasu. 5. Anata no kiodai wa 
kireina musume wo motteimasu. 6. Kono musume wa 
sinsetuna tomodati wo motteimasu. 7. Sono tomodati wa 
sinsetuna kiodai wo motteimasu. 


1. My brother has a beautiful daughter. 2. Your 
friend has a kind brother. 3. That girl has a kind 
brother. 4. I have a beautiful daughter. 5. You have 
kind brothers. 6. I have kind friends. 7. That beauti- 
ful girl has a kind brother. 


Okina, okiwu, large 

Tisai, tisana, tisou,* 
small, or little. 
Shomotu, book. 

1. Watakusi no shomotu wa okiwu gozarimasu. 2. Anata 
no shomotu wa tieso gozarimasu. 3. Watakusi no kiodai 
wa okina shomotu wo motteimasu. 4. Anata no tomodati 

* See Rule XVIII. 

32 Japanese and English Exercises. 

wa tisana shomotu wo motteimasu. 5. Watakusi no tomo- 
dati no shomotu wa dkiwu gozarimasu. 6. Anata no 
Iciodai wa okina shomotu wo motteimasu, 7. Watakusi 
no tisana segari ga sono okina shomotu wo motteimasu. 
8. Anata no okina kiodai wa sono shomotu wo motteimasu. 


1. My book is small. 2. Your book is large. 3. Your 
brotlier has a small book. 4. My friend has a large 
book. 5. Your father has a small book. 6. My 
brother's son has that large book. 7. That book is 
large. 8. This book is small. 


Watakusi wa, or ga, mot- 
teimasu, I have. 

Anata wa, or ga, mottei- 
masu, you have. 

Watakusi ga motteimasu 

ka ? Have I ? 
Anata ga motteimasu ka? 

Have you ? 

Ka is always put at the end of an interrogative 

1. Watakusi ga sono shomotu wo motteimasu ha. 
2. Anata wa kono shomotu wo motteimasu ka. S. Anata 
no tomodati wa shomotu wo motteimasu ka. 4. Watakusi 
tiesana segare wa sono okina shomotu wo motteimasu ka. 
5. Anata no kiodai iva segare wo motteimasu ka. 6. Wata- 
kusi no musume wa kono tiesana shomotu wo motteimasu 

Japanese and English Exercises. 33 

lea. 7. Anata wa sono shomotu wo motteimasu ha. 
8. Watahusi wa sono shomotu wo motteimasu. 

1. Have you brothers? 2. I have a brother. 3. Have 
I that book ? 4. Have you that small book ? 5. Has 
your son this book ? 6. Has my daughter that book ? 
7. Have your brothers these large books? 8. My 
brothers have those small books. 


Watahusi domo wa, or 
ga, we. 

Anatagata wa, or ga, you. 
Niwa, garden. 

1. Watahusi domo wa ohina niwa wo motteimasu. 
2. Anatagata wa sono shomotu wo motteimasu Jca. 3. Wa- 
tahusi domo wa sono shomotu wo motteimasu. 4. Wata- 
husi domo wa sono tiesai shomotu wo motteimasu 5. Ana- 
tagata wa hiodai wo motteimasu ha. 6. Anatagata wa 
musume wo motteimasu ha. 7 Watahusi domo wa tiesai 
niwa wo motteimasu. 8. Anatagata wa niwa wo mottei- 
masu ha. 9. Watahusi domo wa niwa wo motteimasu. 


1. We have a garden. 2. You have a small 
garden. 3. Have you brothers ? 4. We have brothers. 
5. We have daughters. 6. We have large books, 
7. You have small books. 8. Have you a son ? 9. 1 
have a son. 

34 Japanese and English Exercises. 


Watakusi domo no, our. Anatagata no, your. 

Motteimasita, had. 

1. Watakusi domo no segare ga sono shomotu wo motte- 
imasita. 2. Anatagata no tomodati wa kiodai wo 
motteimasita. 3. Watakusi wa segare wo motteimasn. 
4. Anatagata no musume iva kono shomotu wo motte- 
imasita ka. 5. Watakusi domo no kiodai ga sono dkina 
shomotu wo motteimasita. 6. Anatagata no niwa wa 
okiwu gozarimasu ka. 7. Watakusi domo no niwa wa 
okiwu gozarimasu. 8. Anata no niwa wa tieso gozari- 


1. Tour garden is large. 2. Your garden is small. 
3. Our garden is small. 4. Have your brothers a gar- 
den ? 5. My brothers have a garden. 6. Have our 
sons a large book ? 7. Our daughter has a small book. 


Kono \ 

or > okata or hito, this or that person. 
Sono ) 
Either of these words is used instead of are or kare. 

* Be is put after nouns which are placed immediately 
before Gozarimasu. 

1. Kono hito ga sono shomotu wo motteimasn. 2. Sono 
V okata wa tiesai shomotu wo motteimasu. 3. Sono hito wa 

* See Rule VIII. 

Japanese and English Exercises, 35 

watakusi no kiodai de gozarimasu. 4. Kono okata wa 
anatano tomodati de gozarimasu ha. 5. Sono hito wa 
watakusi no segare de gozarimasu: 6. Sono hito wa kio- 
dai wo motteimasu. 7. Watakusi no musume wa sono 
shomotu wo motteimasu. 8. Anata no shomotu wa tiesb 


1. That person has a book. 2. This person is my 
brother. 3. Has that person brothers ? 4. That person 
is your friend. 5. Is this person your son ? 6. That 
person is my brother. 7. Have you sons ? 8. I 
have a son. 9. Have you daughters ? 10. I have a 


Tokei, watch. 
Uma, horse. 

a Kewa, hat. Bo-sfct 
* Hoclw, knife. — 


Usinaimasita, lost, or has or have lost, 
+ Midasimasita, found, or has or have found. 

1. Watakusi wa tokei wo usinaimasita. 2. Anata wa 
anata no tokei wo midasimasita ka. 3. Watakusi wa 
hochd wo usinaimasita. 4. Watakusi no segare wa 
kasa wo motteimasu. 5. Anatagata no uma wa okiwu 
gozarimasu. 6. Watakusi no musume wa kasa wo usi- 
naimasita. 7. Anatagata wa kasa wo motteimasu ka. 
8. Watakusi domo wa uma wo motteimasu. 9. Watakusi 
no kasa wa okiwu gozarimasu. 10. Anata no kaso "wa 


36 Japanese and English Exercises, 

tieso gozarimasu ha. 11. Watahusi no hasa wa ohiwu 

1. Have you lost your hat ? 2. I have lost a hat. 
3. Has your son a hat ? 4. He {are wa) has a hat. 
5. Your daughter' s hat is large. 6. Our hats are small. 
7. We have lost a knife. 8. We have found a watch. 
9. Has your brother lost a watch? 10. I have- found 
the watch. 


Tegamij letter. 
Ye, to. 

Ikimasu, go or goes. 
Dohoye, where? 

t Uhetorimasita, received, 
or has or have received. 
Mimasita, saw, or has or 
have seen. 

1. Watahusi wa tegami wo uhetorimasita. 2. Wata- 
husi wa Yedo ye ihimasu. 3. Anata wa Yedo ye ikimasu 
ha. 4. Anata wa tegami wo uhetorimasita ha. 5. Wata- 
husi no segare ga tegami wo uhetorimasita. 6. Anatagata 
wa dohoye ihimasu ha. 7. Watahusi domo wa Kanagawa 
ye ihimasu. 8. Watahusi wa anata no hiodai wo mima- 
sita. 9. Watahusi no musume wa Asahusa ye ihimasita. 

10. Anata no hiodai wa tegami wo uhetorimasita ha. 

11. Watahusi no hiodai ga tegami wo uhetorimasita. 


1. I have received a letter. 2. You have seen my 
daughter. 3. I have lost my watch. 4. You go to 


Japanese and English Exercises. 37 

Yedo. 5. Where are you going ? 6. We am going to 
Asakusa. 7. My son went (ikimasita) to Kanagawa. 
8. We have sons. 9. We went to Yokohama. 10. Your 
brother went to Yedo. 11. I have beautiful girls. 
12. We have found beautiful books. 13. Our daughters 
are beautiful. 


Kara, from; Watakusi no kiodai kara, from my 
brother; Watakusi no haha kara, from my mother. 

Konniti, to-day. 
Koncho, this morning. 
Sakuzitu, yesterday. 

Yoi, good. 
Warwi, bad. 
Mainiti, every day. 

1. Watahusi wa "konniti watahusi no kiodai kara tegami 
wo uketorimasita. 2. Anata wa sakuzitu watakusi no 
haha kara tegami wo uketorimasita. 3. Wakusi domo wa 
mainiti kono hito wo mimasu. 4< Anatagataw a konniti 
tegaimi wo uketorimasita ka. 5. Watakusi domo wa kon- 
niti watakusi domo no haha kara tegami wo uketorima- 
sita. 6. Anata wa yoi tokei wo motteimasu. 7. Wata- 
kusi wa konniti tokei wo usinaimasita. 8. Watakusi 
domo no segare ga sono tokei wo midasimasita. 9. Saku- 
zitu watakusi wa kono okata wo mimasita. 10. Kon- 
niti watakusi w a Yedo ye ikimasu. 11. Watakusi domo 
wa sakuzitu Asakusa ye ikimasita. 12. Watakusi wa 
anata no to mo dati wo koncho mimasita. 

38 Japanese and English Exercises. 


1. I have received a letter from your brother. 2. "We 
have received a letter from our father. 3. Have you 
received a letter from my brother ? 4. We have re- 
ceived a letter from your brother to-day. 5. We are 
going to Asakusa to-day. 6. We went to Kanagawa 
yesterday. 7. I have seen your friend this morning. 
8. Have you seen your mother to-day ? 9. We have 
lost our watches. 10. We have found your watches. 
11. That person has seen your daughter. 12. This per- 
son has found your watch. 13. I go to Kanagawa 
every day. 


Ye, to. 
Ni, to, for.* 

Watakusi no haha ni, to 

my mother. 
Watakusi no titi ni, to 

my father. 

Bondon ye, to London. 
Okurimasitaj sent, or has 

or have sent. 
Okurimasu,seji& or sends. 

1. Watakusi wa kono tokei ivo haha ni okurimasu. 
2. Anatagata wa sono tokei wo anata no tomodati ni oku- 
rimasu ka. 3. Watakusi domo wa kono tokei wo watakusi 
domo no msume ni okurimasu. 4. Watakusi wa tegami 
wo watakusi no haha ni okurimasu. 5. Sakuzitu wata- 
kusi wa tegami wo watakusi no haha kara uketorimasita. 
6. Anata wa mainiti tegami wo anata no tomodati ni 

# See Note, page 6. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 39 

ohurimasu ha. 7. Watahusi wa tegami wo watdkusi no 
haha ni mainiti okurimasu. 8. Watahusi no segare ga 
watahusi ni honniti tegami wo ohurimasita. 9. Anata 
wa sahuzitu Asahusa ye ihimasita ha. 10. Watahusi 
wa sahuzitu Kanagawa ye ihimasita. 1 1. Anata wa 
Kanagawa ye mainiti ihimasu ha. 12. Watahusi wa 
Tohohama ye mainiti ihimasu. 

1. I have sent a letter to my father. 2. Do you send 
a letter to your brother every day ? 3. We send a 
letter to our mother every day. 4. Our daughter sent a 
letter to us (Watakusi domo ye) yesterday. 5. We have 
received a letter from our friends this morning. 6. Do 
you receive a letter from your brother every day ? 

7. I receive a letter from my friends every day. 

8. I received a letter from my brother yesterday. 

9. We have lost a watch. 10. That person has a 
good watch. 11. This person has a small (tiesana) watch. 


Kore ga, wa, ivo, &c, this 

or these. 
Sore ga, wa, &g., that or 

Oji, uncle. 
Tomodati, friend. 
Ko, child. 

Hito, person. 
Wahai, Wahb, young. 
lye, house. 
Ki, tree. 
Hana, flower. 
Binbona* Binbovi or 
Binbode, poor. 

* See Rule XVIII. 

40 Japanese and English Exercises. 

1. Watakusi no oji wa wakd gozarimasu. 2. Anata wa 
I'ore wo motteimasu ka. 3. Watakusi wa sore wo mot- 
teimasu. 4. Watakusi wa okina ki wo mimasita. 

5. Anata wa sakuzitu kireina hana wo mimasita ka. 

6. Watakusi wa konniti sore wo mimasita. 7. Anatagata 
wa kono hana wo motteimasita ka. 8. Watakusi wa sore 
wo motteimasita. 9. Kono ko wa tokei wo usinaimasita* 
10. Watakusi wa binboni gozarimasu. 11. Anata wa 
konniti binbona hito wo mimasita ka. 


1. I have seen my uncle. 2. Have you seen beau- 
tiful flowers ? 3. We have seen large trees. 4. That 
person is poor. 5. My uncle is young. 6. We have 
lost a watch. 7. We have seen your friends. 8. We 
went to your house. 9. Have you a garden ? 10. We 
have gardens. 11. I sent a letter to my brother to-day. 
12. You received a letter from your father this morning. 


Yorimo or yori, more than. 

Yorimo oHwu, or okina,* 

larger than. 
Yorimo tisana, or tisd, 

smaller than. 

Watakusi no, mine 
Anata no, yours. 
Watakusi domo no, ours. 
Anatagata no, yours. 

Watakusi no niwa wa anata no yori mo okiwu gozari- 
masu, my garden is larger than yours. 

* See Rule XVIII. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 41 

1. Watakusi no shomotuiva anata no yori mo tieso 
gozarimasu. 2. Anata no uma wa watakusi no yori 
okiwu gozarimasu. 3. Anata no shomotu wa watakusi no 
yorimo yd gozarimasu. 4. Anatagata no uma w a wata- 
kusi no yorimo kireini gozarimasu. 5. Anatagata no 
hochd wa watakusi domo no yori okiwu gozarimasu. 

6. Kono hito wa watakusi yorimo binboni gozarimasu. 

7. Kono liana wa sono liana yori kireini gozarimasu. 

8. Anata wakono niwa yoriokina niwa wo motteimasu 
ka. 9. Watakusi wakono niwa yori dkina no* wo mot- 
teimasu. 10. Kono hito wa sono hito yorimo wako goza- 
rimasu. 1 1 . Kono ki wa sore yorimo okiwu gozarimasu. 
12. Watakusi no iye wa anata no yorimo tieso gozari- 
masu. 13. Anata wa kore yorimo tiesana hochd wo 
motteimasu ka. 14. Watakusi wa sore yorimo tiesana 
hochd wo motteimasu. 

1. My house is larger than yours. 2. Tour garden is 
larger than mine. 3. Your flowers are more beautiful 
than ours. 4. Our house is larger than yours. 5. That 
person is poorer than this person. 6. Your father is 
younger than mine. 7. My friend is younger than 
yours. 8. Our house is smaller than yours. 9. Have 
you a smaller garden than this ? 10. I have a smaller 
garden than this, 11. Your brother is taller (okiwu) 
than mine. 12. We have a larger house than this. 

* Here no may be translated into * * one." 

42 Japanese and English Exercises. 


Neko, cat. 

• Matti, town or city. 

• Tuki, moon. 
- Hosi, star. 

• Hi, sun. 

MutukasM, Mutukashu, 

Yasu% Yasuwu, easy, 

Inu, dog. 

1. Anata wa neko wo motteimasu ka. 2. Wataftusiwa 
inu wo motteimasu. 3. Anata wa kono shomotu wo mima- 
sita ka. 4. Sono shomotu wa mutukasu gozarimasu. 
5. Watakusi no shomotu wa Anata no yorimo yasuwu go- 
zarimasu. 6. Hi wa tuki yorimo oklwu gozarimasu. 
7. Yedo wa okina matti de gozarimasu. 8. Watakusi no 
tomodati wa Yedo ye ikimasita. 9. Anata wa konniti 
Asakusa ye ikimasu ka. 10. Watakusi wa konniti yoko- 
hama ye ikimasu. 11. Anata no neko wa watakusi no 
yori dkiwu gozarimasu. 12. Anata no kiodai wa niwa 
wo motteimasu ka. 13. Watakusi no titiga okina niwa 
wo motteimasu. 


1. My dog is larger than yours. 2. Have you a cat ? 
3. I have a cat. 4. My house is smaller than yours. 
5. Yedo is a large city. 6. The sun is larger than the 
moon. 7. This book is easier than that. 8. Your book 
is larger than mine. 9. My book is more difficult than 
yours. 10. Do you go to Yedo to-day ? 11. I go to 
Yokohama to-day. 

Japanese mid English Exercises. 43 


Ni, in, or at. 
Niwa niy in the garden. 
TJti ni, in the house, or 
at home. 

Orimasu, live, lives, is, 
. are. 

Orimasita, lived, was, 

1. Watakusi wa Yokohama ni orimasu. 2. Anatawa 
Yokohama ni orimasu Tea. 3. Watakusi wa Kanagawa 
ni orimasu. 4. Watakusi wa Yedo ni orimasita. 5. Kon- 
niti watakusi wa uti ni orimasu. 6. Anatagata wa 
sakuzitu uti ni orimasita. 7. Kireina hana ga niwa ni 
gozarimasu. 8. Anata no niwa ni kireina hana ga 
gozarimasu ka. 9. Watakusi no niwa ni okina ki 
ga gozarimasu. 10. Anata wa Asakusa ni orimasita ka. 
11. Watakusi wa Yokohama ni orimasita. 12. Anata 
no niwa ni neko ga orimasu. 


1. Do you live in Yedo ? 2.1 live in Yokohama. 
3. Beautiful flowers are in your garden. 4. Large trees 
are in my garden. 5. Are (there) beautiful flowers in 
your garden ? 6. Did you live in Yedo ? 7. I lived in 
Kanagawa. 8. Your cat is in my garden. 9. Have 
you a dog ? 10. I have a large dog. 11. Your garden 
is larger than mine. 

44 Japanese and English Exercises. 


liana, flower. 
Ringo, apple. 
Nashi, pear. 
Itudemo, always. 
Tabitabij often. 

Sukimasu, like, likes. 

Suhimasita, liked, or has 
or have liked. 

Watakusi wa hana wo su- 
kimasu, I like flowers. 

1. Anata no niwa ni hana ga gozarimasu ha. 2. Wa- 
takusi no niwa ni hana ga goza "imasu. 3. Anata wa 
Asakusa ye tabitabi Ikimasu ka. 4. Watakusi wa Yoko- 
hama ye tabitabi ikimasu. 5. Anatagata wa ringo wo 
sukimasu ka. 6. Watakusi dpmo wa nashi wo sukimasu. 

7. Watakusi domo no niwa kireina hana ga gozarimasu. 

8. Kono hana wa sono hana yori kireini gozarimasu. 

9. Watakusi wa itudemo uti ni orimasu. 10. Anata no 
tomodati wa tabitabi Yedo ye ikimasu ka. 11. Wata- 
kusi no tomodati wa tabitabi Kanagawa ye ikimasu. 


1. Do you like flowers ? 2. I like flowers. 3. Do 
you go to Yedo often ? 4. I go to Yedo often. 5. We 
like pears. 6. You like apples. 7. Have you flowers ? 
8. I have an apple. 9. Beautiful flowers are in your 
garden. 10. I live in Yedo. 11. We often go to 
Yedo. 12. I have seen beautiful flowers iu your 

Japanese and English Exercises. 45 


Iti, one. 
Ni, two. 
San, three. 
Si, four. 
Go, five. 
Roku, six. 
Sitti, seven. 
Hatti, eight. 
Ku, nine. 
jiffl, ten. 
J3w t&, eleven. 
2Tw ni, twelve. 
Zu san, thirteen. 
Zu si, fourteen. 
Zu go, fifteen. 
Zu roku, sixteen. 

Zu siti, seventeen. 
Zu hati, eighteen. 
Zu ku, nineteen. 
Ni zu, twenty. 
Ni zu iti, twenty-one. 
Ni zu ni, twenty -two. 
San zu, thirty. 
Si zu, forty. 
Go zu, fifty. 
Roku zu, sixty. 
Sitti zu, seventy. 
Hatti zu, eighty. 
Ku zu, ninety. 
Wyaku, hundred. 
Sen, thousand. 
Man, ten thousand.* 

Hitotu, one. 
Futatu, two. 
Mittu, three. 
Yottu, four. 
Itutu, five. 

Muttu, six. 
Nanatu, seven. 
Yattu, eight. 
- Kokonotu, nine. 
To, ten.f 

* This number is used for weight, measure, &c. 

t This is for couuting ordinary articles, such as chairs, tables, &c. 

46 Japanese and English Exercises. 

Shogatu, January. 
Nigatu, February. 
Sahgatu, March. 
Sigatu, April. 
Gogatu, May. 
Rokugatu, June. 

Reya, room. 
Tukuye, table. 
Kosikake, chair. 
Neriy year. 
Tuki, month. 
Takusan, many. 
Hikui, or hikuwu, low. 

Sitigatu, July. 
Hatigatu, August. 
Kugatu, September. 
Zugatu, October. 
Zuittigatu, November. 
ZunigatUy December. 

Hiroi, or hird, wide. 
sfo KaimasUy buy, or buys. 
Kaimasita, bought, or has 

or have bought. 
Wurimasu, sell, sells. 
Wurimasitdy sold, or has 

or have sold. 

1. Anata wa kiodai wo takusan motteimasu ka. 
2. Watakusi wa kiodai wo takusan motteimasu. 3. Anata 
wa tukuye ivo motteimasu ka. 4. Watakusi wa hitotu 
tukuye wo motteimasu. 5. Anata no niwa ni ki ga 
futatu gozarimasu. 6. Watakusi no iye ni heya ga mittu 
gozarimasu* 7. Zu ni tuki ga itti nen di gozarimasu. 
8. Anata iva kosikake wo motteimasu ka. 9. Watakusi 
wa kosikake wo futatu motteimasu. 10. Kono kosi 
kake wa hikuwu gozarimasu. 11. Anata wa sono kosi- 
kake wo wurimasu ka. 12. Watakusi wa kono kosikake 
wo wurimasu* 13. Anata wa kono iye wo kaimasu ka. 
14. Watakusi wa lono iye wo kaimasu. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 47 


1. Do you sell this chair ? 2.1 sell that chair. 
3. Do you buy that flower ? 4. I bay this table. 
5. We have three tables. 6. We have two rooms in 
(my) house. 7. I sold this flower. 8. Did you live 
in Yedo ? 9. I lived in Yedo three fmi) months. 

10. Twelve months make (gozarimasu) one year. 

11. We have many chairs. 12. You have many houses. 
13. We have three (mittu) houses. 


Itij one. Siti, seven. 

Ni, two. Hati, eight. 

San, three. Ku, nine. y 

Si, four. Zu, ten. ^ 

Go, five. Zu iti, eleven. 
Roku, six. &c. 

These are used for measure, weight, hours, or money. 

Ni, or san toki, two or 

three hours. 
Ni, or san bu, two or 

three shillings. 

Ni sun, two inches. 

Ni, or san, go, two or 

three go, the go being 

a measure for liquids 

and grains. 

Ni means 'by' when it is put before the words 'buy' 
and 'sell/ as the words for or with is used in English. 

Watakusi via sono kosihake wa san bu ni kaimasita, or 
wurimasita, I sold or bought that chair for three shillings. 

48 Japanese and English Exercises. 

Bu, one shilling. 
RiyOy four shillings. 
Tohi, hour. 

Go, a measure for liquids 

and grain. 
Simasu cost, present. 
Simasita cost, past. 

Ihura, or ihurani, how much ? 

1. Anata no shomotu wa ihura simasita ha. 2. Wata- 
husi no shomotu wa san bu simasita. 3. Anata no iye wa 
ihura simasita ha. 4. Watahusi no iye wa h'yahu rigo 
simasita. 5. Anata wa hono tuhuye wo ihurani haimasita 
ha. 6. Watahusi wa hono tuhuye wo san riyo ni haima- 
s-ita. 7. Anata wa hono tuhuye wo ihurani wurimasu ha. 

8. Watahusi wa hono tuhuye wo ni riyo ni wurimasu, 

9. Kono matti (street) wa hiro gozarim,asu. 10. Nizu is 
tohi ga itti nitti (day) de gozarimasu. 11. Anata wa 
hono hana wo haimasu ha. 12. Watahusi wa sono 
hi wo haimasu. 13. Anata wa Yedo ni orimasita ha. 
14. Watahusi wa Yedo ni iti nen orimasita. 


1. How much did your book cost ? 2. My book cost 
three bu. 3. How much did you pay for (buy) that 
table ? 4. I bought that table for two ht. 5. We sold 
that chair for two riyo. 6. Twenty-fonr hours are 
one day. 7. Twelve months are one year. 8. How 
much does that table cost ? 9. That table costs three 
riyo. 10. How much did your house cost (you) ? 
11. My house cost (me) a hundred riyo. 12. I have 

Japanese and English Exercises. 49 

a garden. 13. Are there flowers in your garden? 
14. In my garden (there) are three trees. 


Ni, or san nin, for numbers of persons. Hiki, piki, or 
biki, for number of quadrupeds ; as, TJma san biki, 
three horses ; wa, or ba, pa, for birds. 

Tori san ba, or zit pa, three or ten birds. Biki or 
hiki, wa, ba, or pa, are placed after as well as before 
nouns which they qualify. 

Anata no niwa ni tori ga san ba orimasu. There are 
three birds in your garden. 

Niwatori, cock or hen. 
Suzume, sparrow. 
Inn, dog. 
Neko, cat. 
Sakana, fish. 

Yamagara, bullfinch. 
Kamo, wild duck. 
Ike, pond. 
Kawa, river. 

1. Anata no niwa ni tori ga orimasu ka. 2. Watakusi 
no niwa ni tori ga san ba orimasu. 3. Ike ni kamo ga 
san ba orimasu. 4. Anata no iye ni neko ga orimasu ka, 
5. Watakusi no iye ni neko ga si hiki orimasu. 6. Wa- 
takusi wa suzume wo go wa mimasita. 7. Anatagata wa 
watakusi no inu wo mimasita ka. 8. Watakusi domo 
wa anato no neko wo mimasita. 9. Anata no ike ni kamo 
ga san ba orimasita. 10. Kono kawa ni sakana ga ori- 


50 Japanese and English Exercises. 

masu. 1 1. Anata no nina ni yamagara ga si iva orimasu. 
12. Koncho watakusi wa suzume wo zu niwa mimasita. 


1. In your garden there are three sparrows. 2. In 
your pond there is a fish. 3. Have you seen my dog ? 
4. We have seen your cat. 5. Have you three brothers ? 
6. I have three daughters. 7. We have three horses. 
8. Have you many (takusan) houses ? 9. We have three 
houses. 10. My brother has a wild duck. 11. In your 
garden there are mauy birds. 12. We have seen three 
bullfinches this morning. 13. You have seen my garden. 
14, In your pond there are three fishes. 


Be means c in * when it is placed before aimasu or 
rnimasu, meet, or see. Watakusi wa kono okata ni 
matti de aimasita ) I met with this person in the street. 

Doko, what place or where ? 

When ' to see/ or 'meet/ is used, de must be put after 
doko ; thus, Doko de anata wa kono hito ni aimasita 
ha ? Where have you met with him ? 

When c to live/ or ' to be/ is used, ni must be put 
after doko ; thus, anata wa doko ni orimasu ka, Where 
do you live? 

Japanese and English Exercises. 51 

Kami, God. 
Sekai, world. 
Umi } sea, or ocean. 
Kosirayemasu, makes, or 

Kosirayemasita, made, or 

has or have made. 

Oka, land. 

Aimasu, meets, or meet. 

Aimasita, met ; or has or 

have met. 
Konniti, to-day. 
Mainiti, every day. 


1. Kami ga sekai wo kosirayemasita. 2. Anata wa 
mainiti kono hito ni aimasu ka. 3. Watakusi wa sono 
hito ni mainiti aimasu. 4. Anata wa doko de sono hito 
ni aimasu ka. 5. Watakusi wa kono hito ni Yokohama 
de aimasu. 6. Anatagata wa doko ni orimasu ka. 

7. Watakusi do mo wa Yedo ni orimasu. 8. Watakusi 
no inu wo anata wa doko de mimasita ka. 9. Anata 
no inu wo watakusi wa matti de mimasita. 10. Wata- 
kusi wa anata no tomodati ni konniti aimasita. 1 1. Wata- 
kusi wa tori wo san ha anata no niwa de mimasita. 
12. Anata no neko ga watakusi no niwa ni orimasu. 


1. Where do you live? 2. I live at Yokohama. 

3. Where have you seen that person ? 4. I have seen 

(him) in Yedo. 5. Do you see my friends every day ? 

6. I see your friends every day. 7. I go to Kanagawa. 

8. We met with your brother to-day. 9. Where have 
you met with my brother ? 10. I met with your brother 
in the street. 11. God created the world. 12. In your 
garden I saw two cats. 

e 2 

52 Japanese and English Exercises. 


Itu, when, used interro- 

Nan doki ni, at what time 
or hour ? 

Nan riyo, how many 
riyo ? 

Nan ri* how many miles? 

Nan nin, how many per- 
sons ? 

Kane, money or metal. 

Koko> here. 

Made, into. 

Kara, from. 
i Suguto, immediately. 

Zinmin, people. 

Niti-niti, every day. 
7 Minato, seaport. 

1. Koko kara minato made nan ri gozarimasu ha. 
2. San ri gozarimasu. 3. Anata wa Yokohama ye itu 
ikimasu ka. 4. Watahusi wa Yokohama ye konniti 
ikimasu. 5. Anata wa Jcono iye wo kaimasita ha. 6. Wa- 
takusi wa Jcono iye wo Jcaimasita. 7. Anata no iye 
wa nan riyo simasita ha. 8. Watahusi no iye iva h'yahu 
riyo simasita. 9. Anata wa nan doki ni Yokohama ye 
ikimasu ka. 10. Watahusi wa Yohohama ye zu ni zi ni 
(12 o'clock) ihimasu. 1 1. Anata no iye ni hito ga nan nin 
orimasu ha. 12. Watahusi no iye ni hito ga roJcu nin 
orimasu. 13. Ihura anata wa hane wo motteimasu ha. 
14. Watahusi wa hane wo zu riyo motteimasu. 


1. How much' money have you ? 2. I have three 
riyo. 3. At what- time do you go to Ye do ? I go to 

* After the words nan ri, the sign of case is not put. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 53 

Yedo at 12 o'clock. 5. How many miles are there from 
here to Kanagawa ? 6. (There) are three miles from 
here to Kanagawa. 7. How many persons are there in 
your house ? 8. There are ten persons in my house. 
9. When are you going to your friend's house ? 10. I 
go to my friend's house to-day. 11. I go to my house 


Takusan, much, or many. Watakudwa sake wo taku- 
san nomimasita, I have drunk much rice-spirits. 

Watdkusi wa takusan shomotu wo motteimasu, I 
have many books. 

Wazuka, a little or few. 

Watdkusi wa wazuka kane wo motteimasu, I have a 
little money. 

Watakusi wa wazuka shomotu wo motteimasu, I have 
a few books. 

Pan, bread. 
Niku, meat. 
Sake, rice- spirit. 
Midu, water. 
Tabemasu, eats, or eat. 

Nomimasu, drinks, or drink. 
Tabemasita, ate, or has or 

have eaten. 
Nomimasita, drank, or has 

or have drunk. 

1. Kono okata wa niku wo tabemasu ka. 2. Kono okata 
ivapan wo tobemasu. 3. Anata wa niku wo takusan motte- 
imasu ka. 4. Watakusi wa wazuka niku wo motteimasu. 
5. Anata no tomodati wa sake wo nomimasu ka. 6. Wata- 
kusi no tomodati wa midu wo nomimasu. 7. Watakusi 

54 Japanese and English Exercises. 

domo wa niku wo takusan tabemasita. 8. Watakusi no 
kiodai wa sake wo wazuka nomimasu. 9. Anata iva kane 
wo takusan mottemasu ka. 10. Watakusi wa wazuka kane 
wo motteimasu. 1 1. Ikura anata wa kane wo motteimasu 
ka. 12. Watakusi wa kane wo san riyo motteimasu. 

13. Anata no niwa ni takusan hana ga gozarimasu ka. 

14. Watakusi no niwa ni wazuka hana ga gozarimasu. 


1. Have you many books ? 2. I have a few books. 
3. Are there many trees in your garden ? 4. There are 
a few trees in my garden. 5. We have much rice-spirit. 
6. Do you eat meat ? 7. I eat bread. 8. Do you drink 
water? 9. I drink rice-spirit. 10. I have drunk a 
little rice-spirit. 11. We have eaten much meat. 
12. You have drunk much water. 13. We have many 
houses. 14. You have many friends. 


7 Amari, too. 
Anata wa amari takusan kane wo motteimasu. You 
have too much money. 

To, . ... to , and. 
Watakusi to anata to ga ikimasu. I and you go. 
Watakusi wa konniti inu to neko to wo mimasita* I 
have seen a dog and cat to-day. 

* See Rule III. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 55 

Sato, sugar. 

Konniti, to-day. 

Sumi, ink. 

Kurd, kuroi, black. 

Sukimasu, like, or likes. 

7 Kiraimasu, dislike, or 

1 Hiru maye, before noon. 
Urimasita, sold, or has or 
have sold. 

1. Anatawa satowo sukimasu ka. 2. Watakusi wa 
sato wo kiraimasu. 3. Kono sumi wa amari kuro gozari- 
masu. 4. Konniti hirumaye ni watakusi domo wa Yedo 
ye ikimasu. 5. Anata wa itu Yokohama ye ikimasu ha. 

6. Watakusi wa Yokohama ye konniti ikimasu. 7. Wata- 
kusi wa watakusi no kiodai to anata no tomodati wo 
mimasita. 8. Niti-niti watakusi wa anata no kiodai to 
tomodati wo mimasu. 9. Watakusi wa sake to midu wo 
sukimasu. 10. Anata no iye wa ikura simasita ka. 
11. Watakusi no iye wa h'yaku riyo simasita. 12. Anata 
wa, anata no neko wo urimasita ka. 13. Watakusi wa 
watakusi no inu wa urimasita. 


1. You have too much money. 2. You and I go to 
Yokohama. 3. We have too many trees in our garden, 
or, There are too many trees in our garden. 4. I saw 
my brother and your friend. 5. When are you going to 
Yokohama ? 6. We are going to Yokohama to-day. 

7. Do you see your friend every day? 8. I see my 
friend every day. 9. My mother and father go to Yedo 
to-day. 10. How much did your brother's house cost ? 

56 Japanese and English Exercises. 

11. Your brother's house cost 200 riyo. 12. You have 
too many horses. 13. We saw a cat and dog in your 
garden to day. 


Bare ga, no, or wo, who, whose, or whom ? in the 
interrogative sense. 

Bare ga himasita ha, who came (here) ? 

Bare wo anata wa mimasita ha, whom have you seen ? 

Nani ga, wo, or no, what ? 

Anata wanani wo mimasita ha, what have you seen ? 

Anata no niwa ni nani ga orimasu ha, what is there 
in your garden ? 

-j Haho, box. 

n Kutu, boot, or shoe. 

Sehihitu, pencil. 

Cha, tea. 
Tebuhuro, glove. 

1. Bare ga watahusi no haho wo motteimasu ha. 

2. Anata no tomodati ga anata no haho wo motteimasu. 

3. Anata wa dare wo mimasita ha. 4. Watahusi wa 
anata no hiodai wo mimasita. 5. Anata no niwa ni nani 
ga orimasu ha. 6. Watahusi no niwa ni tori ga orimasu. 
7. Anata wa nani wo motteimasu ha. 8. Watahusi wa 
hane wo motteimasu. 9. Anata wa honniti nani wo mima- 
sita ha. 10. Konniti watahusi wa uma wo mimasita. 
11. Anata wa dare no shomotu wo motteimasu ha. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 57 

12. Watakusi no tomodati no shornotu wo motteimasu. 

13. Anata wa nani wo sukimasu ka. 14. Watakusi wa 
cha wo sukimasu. 15. Anata no tebukuro wa ikura sima- 
sita ka. 16. Watakusi no tebukuro wa son busimasita. 


1. What have you? 2. I have gloves. 3. Whom 
have you seen ? 4. I have seen your brother. 5. Who 
has my books? 6. My friend has your books. 
7. What have you seen in (de) my garden? 8. I have 
seen a cat in your garden. 9. Do you drink tea ? 
10. I drink water. 11. Do you like sugar ? 12. I like 
sugar. 13. Whose book have you ? 14. I have my 
book. 15. How much did your pencil cost ? 16. My 
pencil cost (IFyaku mon) a penny. 


Okina, ^ I Yorimo, | okiwu, or okina, 

Okiwu, ) ar & e > or £ rea * I or Yori, ) larger, or greater. 

c okiwu, ) 
Itiban | - Una j largest, or greatest. 

i, ~\ c y°h ^ r v°h "> 

. ( good. Yori ] - [ better.* Milan V . i best. 


* See Rule XVIII. 

58 Japanese and English Exercises. 

Chonin, merchant. 
Yama, mountain. 
Tori, bird. 

Tiesai, tieso, small. 
John, jobuni, strong. 

1. Watakusi no iye wa anata no (yours) yori okiwu 
gozarimasu. 2. Anata no niwawa watakusi no yori tieso 
gozarimasu. 3. Kono toriwa sono tori yori okiwu goza- 
rimasu. 4. Anata wa kore (that) yori okina iye wo motte- 
imasu ka. 5. Kono iye ga watakusi no ittiban okina iye 
de gozarimasu. 6. Watakusi no iye wa jobuni gozari- 
masu. 7. Anata no niwa wa watakusi no yori yd gozari- 
masu. 8. Anata no shomotu ga ittiban yd gozarimasu. 
9. Anata no niwa ni tori ga orimasu ka. 10. Tori wa 
yama ni takusan orimasu. 1 1 . Anata wa chonin de goza- 
rimasu ka. 12. Watakusi wa chonin de gozarimasu. 

13. Anata wa kore yori okina kutu wo motteimasu ka. 

14. Kore ga ittiban okina kutu de gozarimasu. 


1. Your book is better than mine. 2. Have you a 
larger house than this ? 3. This is my largest house. 
4. My house is smaller than yours. 5 Have you larger 
boots than these ? 6. These are my largest boots. 
7. Are there many birds in the mountains ? 8. There 
are many birds in the mountaius. 9. Are you a 
merchant. 10. lam a merchant. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 59 


Dare kara, from whom ? Dare ni, or ye, to whom ? 

Dare no de, whose one ? 

Itiban, first. 
Niban, second. 
Sanban, third. 
Siban, fourth. 
Goban, fifth. 

Bokuban, sixth. 
Sitiban, seventh. 
Hattiban, eighth. 
Kuban, ninth. 
Zuban, tenth. 

Nitiyoniti, Sunday. 
Getuyoniti, Monday. 
K'wayoniti, Tuesday. 
Suiyoniti, Wednesday. 

Mokuyoniti, Thursday. 
Kinyonitij Friday. 
Doyoniti, Saturday. 

Orimasita, lived, or has 

or have lived. 
Uketorimasu, receives, or 

Uketorimasita, received, 
or has or have received. 


Keraij servant. 
Gejo, maidservant. 
Kokoni, here. [day. 

Konniti, to-day, or this 
Sokoni, there. 
Orimasu, lives, or live. 

1. Kono shomotu wa dare noVe gozarimasu ka. 2. Sono 
shomotu wa watakusi no de gozarimasu. 3. Konniti dare 
ka,ra tegami ivo uket orimasita ka. 4. Konniti vmtakusi 
wa tegami wo watakusi no tomodati kara uket orimasita. 
5. Konniti wa nitiyoniti de gozarimasu ka. 6. Kon- 
niti wa getuyoniti de gozarimasu. 7. Anata no kerai 
wa kokoni oriwasu. 8. Anata no gejo wa sokoni orimasu. 
9. Koho tegami wo anata wa dare ye okurimasu ka (send) . 

60 Japanese and English Exercises. 

10. Watakusi wa kono tegami wo Modal ye okurimasu. 

11. Anata wa sono tegami wa anata no tomodati ye 
okurimasu ka. 12. Watakusi wa kore wo watahusi no 
haha ni okurimasu. 


1. To whom do yon send this letter ? 2. I send that 
to my friend. 3. Where is my servant? 4. Your 
servant is here. 5. Is my maidservant there ? 6. Here 
is your maidservant. 7. From whom have you received 
that letter ? 8.1 have received this letter from my 
brother. 9. Whose is this book ? 10. That is mine. 
11. Is this day Monday ? 12. This day is Tuesday. 


Indicative Mood. Present 
Motteiru, to have. 
Watakusi ga> or wa motteimasu, I have. 

Anata ga, or wa motteimasu . you have. 

or > hito or okata . . . . she or he had. 
Sono J 

Watakusi domo .... we have. 
Anatagata ..... you have. 

or > hito } or okata . . they have. 


* As we have the same form of the verb in all persons, singular or 
plural, we do not repeat them all here. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 61 

Kane, money. 
Hey a, room. 

Tanmono, cloth. 
Haori, coat. 
Kushi, comb. 

1. Anata wa kane wo motteimasu ka. 2. Watakusi 
wa kane wo tahusan motteimasu. 3. Anatagata wa kasa 
wo motteimasu ka. 4. Watakusi domo wa kasa wo motte- 
imasu. 5. Kono okata wa heya wo motteimasu ka. 
6. Kono okata wa heya wo motteimasu. 7. Anata no 
tomodati wa okina niwa wo motteimasu ka. 8. Wata- 
kusi no tomodati wa okina iye wo motteimasu. 9. Anata 
no kiodai wa tanmono wo motteimasu ka. 10. Watakusi 
no tomodati wa haori wo motteimasu. 


1. Have you a comb ? 2.1 have a comb. 3. Have 
you hats ? 4. We have hats. 5. He has a coat. 
6. Has she cloth ? 7. She has cloth. 8. Has your 
brother a room. 9. My brother has a room. 10. Have 
your friends much money ? 11, My brothers have 
much money. 


Indicative Mood. Past. 
Watakusi ga, or wa motteimasita . . I had. 
Anata ga . . ... . you had. 


or \ okata he had. 


62 Japanese and English Exercises. 

Watakusi domo wa motteimasita . . we had. 

Anatagata . 

you had 

Kono \ 

or > okata 

he .had. 

Sono ) 

Izen, formerly. 

Imani, presently. 

Ima, now, this time. 

Suguto, directly. 

1. Anata wa kono shomotu wo ina motteimasu ka. 

2. Watakusi wa kono shomotu wo izen motteimasita. 

3. Anatagata wa hey a wo motteimasu ka. 4. Watakusi 
domo wa heya wo motteimasu. 5. Anata wa kane wo 
motteimasita ka. 6. Watakusi wa kane wo motteima- 
sita. 7. Anata no tomodati wa iye wo motteimasu ka. 

8. Watakusi no tomodati wa izenniye wo motteimasita. 

9. Watakusi no kiodai wa takusan kane wo mottei- 
masu ka. 10. Sono chonin wo tanmono wo mottei- 
masita. 11. Kono chonin wa tanmono wo motteimasu. 


1. Had you a house ? 2. We had a house. 3. Had 
yoa this book ? 4. I had that book formerly. 5. We 
had a horse. 6. Had your brother a room. 7. My 
brother had a room. 8. Have you many friends now ? 
9. I had many friends. 10. We had many books. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 63 


Indicative Mood, Present, negatively. 
Masen, have not, or has not. 
Watakusi wa or ga motteimasen I have not. 

Anata wa 

Kono 1 . 
or !> okata wa . 


Watakusi domo wa 

Anata gata wa 

or > okata wa 

Toki ni or niwa, when, or 

at the time. 
Kara, because. 
Nip on, Japan. 
Ni, in, or at. [speaks. 
Hanasimasu, speak or 

you have not. 

she or he has not. 

we have not. 
you have not. 

they have not. 

Orimasu, live. 
Orimasita, lived. 
Sakuzitu, yesterday. 
Ye, to. 

Kotoba, word, or lan- 

Anata wa Nipon ni orimasita tokini, {*anata wa) 
tdkusan kane wo motteimasita ka, or Nipon ni orimasita 
tokini, anata wa takusan kane wo motteimasita ka. 
Had you much money when you were in Japan ? 

Nipon ni orimasita kara, wutakusi wa Nipon kotoba wo 
hanasimasu. I speak Japanese because I lived in Japan. 
1. Anata wa kane wo motteimasu ka. 2. Watakusi wa 
kane wo motteimasen. 3. Anatagata wa hey a wo motte- 
imasu ka. 4. Watakusi domo wa heya wo motteimasen. 

* Here anata wa (you) is generally understood. 

64 Japanese and English Exercises. 

5. Anata wa takusan tomodati wo motteimasu ka. 6. Wa- 
takusi wa takusan tomodati wo motteimasen. 7. Anata no 
tomodati wa urna wo motteimasu lea. 8. Watakusi no 
tomodati wa uma wo motteimasen. 9. Nipon ni orima- 
sita tokini anata wa Tcane wo takusan motteimasita Jca. 

10. Watakusi wa, Nipon ni orimasita tohini, takusan 
kane ivo motteimasita. 11. Watakusi wa Nipon ni ori- 
masita kara, Nipon kotoba too hanasimasu. 12. Anata 
wa izen Yokohama ni orimasita ka. 13. Watakusi wa 
izen Yedo ni orimasita. 14. Ima anata wa doko ni ori- 
masu ka. 15. Ima watakusi w a Yokohama ni orimasu. 


1. Have you much money ? 2. I had much money 
when I was in Japan. 3. Have you a horse ? 4. I 
have no (have not) horse. 5. Had you many houses 
when you were in England (Igilisu). 6. We had three 
houses when we were in England. 7. Has your brother 
a room ? 8. He has no room. 9. Did you live in 
Yedo formerly ? 10. I lived formerly in Yokohama. 

11. Where do you live now ? 12. I live in Yedo now. 


Indicatve Mood. Past tense, negatively. 
Watakusi wa motteimasenanda I had not. 
Anata wa . . . you had not. 

Kono 1 

or > okata . . . she or he had not. 

Sono J 

Japanese and English Exercises. G5 

Watahusi do mo wa motteimasenanda, we had not. 
Anata gata .... you had not. 

Kono \ 

or > ohata .... she or he had not. 
Sono ) 

Mi tuhi izen ni, three months ago. 

Rohu nen izen ni, six years ago. 

Kimasita, came, or has 

or have come. 
Ikutu,h.ow old, how many 
Ikura, how much. 

Kaimasu, buy, or buy 8. 
Haori, coat. 
Kimono, dress. 

1. Anata wa mi tuki izen ni Nipon ye kimasita ha* 

2. Watahusi wa itti nen izen ni Nipon ye kimasita. 

3. Anata no Modal wa ikutu de gozarimasu ka. 4. Wa- 
tahusi no kiodai wa zu ni de gozarimasu. 5. Kono 
okata wa Yokohama kara kimasita ka. 6. Sono ohata 
wa Yedo kara kimasita. 7. Anata wa Yokohama ni 
orimasita tokiniwa, takusan tomodati wo motteimase- 
nanda ka. 8. Watakusi wa Yokohama ni orimasita 
tokiniwa tomodati wo motteimasenanda. 9. Kono haori 
wa ikura simasita ka. 10. Kono haori wa san riyo 
simasita. 11. Anata wa sono kimono wo kalmasu ha. 
12. Watahusi wa sono himono wo kaimasen. 


* 1. When you were in Japan, had you many friends? 
V 2. When I was in Japan, I had many friends. 3. How 


66 Japanese and English Exercises. 

much does this coat cost ? 4. This coat cost three 
riyo. 5. We have many houses in Yedo. 6. Did 
you come to Japan three days (mittka izen) ago ? 
7. I came to Japan three months ago. 8. How old 
are you? 9. lam twelve (years old). 10. Do you 
buy this dress ? 11. I do not buy this dress. 


Indicative Mood. Future. 
Watakusi wa or ga motteimasho I shall have. 

Anata . 
Kono okata . 
Watakusi domo 
Anata gata . 
Kono okata . 

you will have. 

she or he will have 
we shall have, 
you will have, 
they will have. 

Miyo nitty to-morrow. 

Miyo ban, to-morrow evening. 

Miyo asa ; to-morrow morning. 

Ikimasho, will or shall go. 
Uketorimasho, will or shall receive. 
Mimasho, will or shall see. 

1 . Watakusi ga sono hako wo motteimasho (shall hold) . 
2. Anata no tomodati wa Asakusa ye miyo niti iJqimasu 
ka. 3. Watakusi no tomodati wa miyo asa Asakusa ye 
ikimasho. 4. Watakusi wa sono shomotu wo miyo ban 
mimasho. 5. Itu anata no tomodati ga kono teg ami wo 

Japanese and English Exercises. 67 

uketorimasho ka. 6 Watakusi no tomodati gasono te- 
gamiwo miyo ban uketorimasho. 7. Watahusi domo 
wa miyo niti Anala no iye wo mimasho. 8. Watahusi 
wa sono kane wo miyo niti uketorimasho. 9. Itu kono 
okata wa Yedo ye ikimasho ka. 10. Sono okata wa Yedo 
ye miyo niti ikimasho. 11. Ituanatawa kono tegamiivo 
uketorimasita ka. 12. Watakusi wa kono tegami ivo 
sakuzitu uketorimasita. 


v 1. When will you go to Yedo ? 2. I shall go to 
Yedo to-morrow. 3. Shall I hold this box ? 4. I shall 
hold that book. ^'5. When do you receive your money ? 
6. I shall receive my money to-morrow morning. 7. You 
will go to Asakusa to-morrow evening. 8. Shall we 
see that book to-day ? 9. We shall see this book to- 
morrow. 10/ When hav.e you seen (did you see) my 
friend? 11. I have seen (saw) your friend yesterday. 


Indicative Mood. Future, negatively. 
Watakusi wa motteimasumai . I shall not have. 
Anata wa motteimasumai . you will not have. 

Kono okata wa ... he will not have. 

Watakusi domo ... we shall not have. 
Anata gata .... you will not have. 
Kono okata .... they will not have. 


G8 Japanese and English Exercises. 

Ikimasumai f shall or will not go. 
Mimasumai, shall or will not see. 
Kimasumai, shall or will not come. 
Made, till. 

1. Anatano tomodati wa konniti Yedo ye ikimasu ha. 
2. Watakusi no tomodati wa konniti Yedo ye ikimasen. 
o. Anatawa miyo niti Asakusa ye ikimasho ka. 4. Wa- 
takusi wa miyo niti Asakusa ye ikimasumai. 5. Anata 
no kiodaiwamiyo banKanagawa ye ikimasho ka. 6. Wa- 
takusi no kiodai iva miyo ban Ka?iagawa ye ikimasu- 
mai. 7. Anata no tomodati wa, miyo niti anata no iye 
ni kimas\%o ka. 8. Watakusi no tomodati wa niyo niti- 
watakusi no iyeni kimasumai. 9. Kono hito wa sono 
kane wo miyo ban made motteimasho ka (will keep) ? 
10. Sono hito wa kono kane wo miyo ban made motteima- 
sumai. 11. Anata wa kono okata wo miyo niti mimasho 
ka. 12. Watakusi wa kono hito wo miyo niti mimasumai. 


1. I shall not go to Yedo to-morrow. 2. Shall we 
go to Yokohama ? 3. We shall not go to Yokohoma 
to-morrow. 4. Will yonr friends come to my house ? 
5. My friends will not come to your house. 6. You 
will see my friend to-day. 7. I shall not see your 
brother to-morrow, because I shall go to Yedo. 
8. Where will you go to-morrow ? 9. I shall go to 
Kanagawa to-morrow. 10. I shall wait (matteimasho) 

Japanese and English Exercises. 69 

till you come. 11. How much did this coat cost ? 
12. This coat cost three riyo. 


Iku, to go. 
Kiku, to hear. 
Suku, to like. 

Hasiru, to run. 
Sosiru, to sneer at. 

Indicative. Present. 

Ikimasu, go, or goes. 

Kikimasu, hear, or hears. 

Sukimasu, like, or likes, 

Ikimasen, do not go, or does not go. 

Kikimasen, do not hear, or does not hear. 

Sukimasen, do not like, or does not like. 

1. Nam wo anata wa sukimasuka. 2. Watakusiwa 
sake wo sukimasu. 3. Konniti anata wa dokoye ikimasu 
ka. 4. Watakusiwa konniti Yedo ye ikimasu. 5. Anata no 
tomodati wa sono shomotu wo sukimasen ka. 6. Watakusi 
no tomodati wa sono shomotu wo sukimasen. 7. Anata 
wa konniti Asakusa ye ikimasen ka. 8. Watakusi wa 
konniti ikimasen. 9. Anata no kiodai wa hana wo suki- 
masu ka. 10. Watakusi no kiodai wa hana wo suki- 
masen. 11. Anata no musume wa konniti TLanagawa 
ye ikimasu ka. 12. Watakusi no musume wa konniti 
Kanagawa ye ikimasen. 

70 Japanese and English Exercises. 


1, Do you like flowers ? 2. I do not like flowers. 
3. Where do you go ? 4. I go to Tedo. 5. When 
do you go to Asakusa ? 6. I go to Asakusa to-day. 
7. Does your brother like sake ? 8. My brother does not 
like sak£. 9. Does your son like meat (niku) ? 10. My 
son likes meat. 11. Where does your friend go? 12. My 
friend goes to his room (heya). 


Indicative. Past. 

Sukimasita, liked, or has or have liked. 
IMmasita, went, or has or have gone. 
Kihimasita, heard, or has or have heard. 
Hasirimasita, ran, or has or have run. 
Sosirimasita, sneered at, or has or have sneered at. 

Sukimasenanda, has or have not liked. 
Ikimasenanda, has or have not gone. 
Kikimasenanda, has or have not heard. 
Hasirimasenanda, has or have not run. 
Sosirimasenanda, has or have not sneered. 

Hanasi, story. 
Sinbun, news. 

Hayahu, quickly. 
Hito, person, or others. 

1. Sdkimtu anatawa Yedo ye ihimasita Tea. 2. Wata- 

Japanese and English Exercises. 71 

kusi wa sahuzitu Yedo ye ikimasenanda. 3.Doko ye anata 
no kiodai wa ikimasita ka. 4. Watakusi no kiodai iva 
Kanagawa ye ikimasita. 5. Itu anata wa sono sinbun wo 
kikimasita ka. 6. Watahusi wa sono sinbun wo sakuzitu 
kikimasita. 7. Anata wa kono hanasi wo kikimasita ka. 
8. Watakusi wa sono hanasi wo kikimasenanda. 9. Anata 
no segare wa hayaku hasirimasu ka. 10. Watakusi no 
segare wa hayaku hasirimasen. 11. Anata wa izen kono 
hana wo sukimasita ka. 12. Watakusi wa izen sono hana 
wo sukimasita. 


1. Did you like my house ? 2. I liked your house. 
3. Did you hear that news ? 4. I heard that news 
yesterday. 5. Did you run quickly ? 6. I did not run 
quickly. 7. Does my friend sneer at others ? 8. Your 
friend sneered at others yesterday. 9. Did you go to 
your brother's house ? 10. I went to my brother's 


Indicative Mood. Future. 

Sukimasho y will or shall like. 
Ikimasho, will or shall go. 
Kikimasho, will or shall hear. 
Hasirimasho, will or shall run. 
Sosirimasho, will or shall sneer at. 

72 Japanese and English Exercises. 

Sukimasumai, will or shall not like. 
Ikimasumai, will or shall not go. 
Xikimasumai, will or shall not hear. 

I. Anata no kiodaiwasono shomotu wo sukimasho ha. 

2. Watakusi no Modal wa sono shomotu wo sukimasho. 

3. Anata wa miyo niti Yedo ye ikimasho Jca. 4. Wata- 
kusi wa miyo niti Yedo ye ihimasumai. 5. Watakusi 
domo wa sono hanasi wo miyo niti hikimasho. 6. Anata 
no musume wa hono hanawo stihimasho ha. 7. Watakusi 
no musume wa sono hana wo sukimasumai. 8. Anata wa 
doko ye ikimasu ha. 9. Watakusi Kanagawa ye ihimasu. 

10. Itu anata no tomodati wa Asakusa ye ikimasita ha. 

1 1. Watakusi no tomodati wa sakuzitu Asakusa ye ikima- 
xita. 1 2. Watakusi no kiodai wa miyo niti Yedo ye iki- 


1. Will you go to Yedo to-morrow ? 2. I shall not 
go to Yedo to-morrow. 3. Where will your brother 
go ? 4. My brother will go to Asakusa. 5. Will your 
daughter like that flower ? 6. My daughter will not 
like that flower. 7. We shall hear that story to-morrow 
evening. 8. Does your brother run quickly ? 9. My 
brother runs quickly. 10. Where did your friend go ? 
11. My friend went to Kanagawa. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 73 

Tokeru, to melt. 
Kangayeru, to think. 
Taduneru, to seek. 

Okiru, to get up. 
Miru, to see. 
Otiru, to fall. 

Indicative. Present. 
Tokemasu, melt or melts. 
Kangayemasu, think or thinks. 
Tadunemasu, look for or looks for. 
OhimasUy get up or gets up. 
Mimasu, see or sees. 
Otimasu, fall or falls. 
Tokemasen, has or have not melted. 
Kangayemasen, has or have not thought. 

Iti zi, one o'clock. 
Ni zi, two o'clock. 
Hati zi, eight o'clock. 
Tenki, weather. 

Ame, rain. 

Yuki, snow. 

Maiasa, every morning. 

Mainiti, every day. 

Attdkani, warm. 

1. Nan doki ni anata wa maiasa okimasu ka. 2. Wa- 
takusi wa maiasa hatti zi ni okimasu. 3. Nani wo anata 
wa rnainiti mimasu ka. 4. Watakusi wa mainiti sho- 
motu wo mimasu. 5. TenJci ga attakani gozarimasu kara 
yuki ga tokemasu. 6. Anata no tomodati wa mainiti 
anata no kiodai wo mimasu. 7. Konniti wa attakani go- 
zarimasu kara yuki ga tokemasu. 8. Anata wa nani wo 
kangayemasu ka. 9. Watakusi wa shomotu wo kongaye- 
masu. 10. Anata no musume wa nani wo tadunemasu ka. 

74 Japanese and English Exercises. 

1 1. Watakusi no musume wa shomotu wo tadunemasu. 

1 2. Anata no tomodati wa mainiti nan dolci ni okimasu 
ka. 13. Watakusi no tomodati wa maiasa hati zi ni 
okimasu. 14. Yuki ga tokemasen. 15. Watakusi wa 
konniti tomodati wo mimasen. 


1. At what time do your friends get up ? 2. They 
get up at eight o'clock. 3. What does your brother 
look for ? 4. My brother looks for (his) books. 5. What 
do you think of ? 6. Do you see your friends every 
day ? 7. I see my friends every morning. 8. I 
think about (my) books. 9. Do you get up every morn- 
ing at eight ? 10. I get up at eight every morning. 
11. Do your daughters see books ? 12. My daughters 
see books. 13. I do not see your friends. 14. I do not 
look for books. 

Indicative Mood. Past. 

Tokemasita, melt, or has or have melted. 

Kangayemasita, thought, or has or have thought. 

Tadunemasita, looked for, or has or have looked for. 

Okimasitaj got up, or has or have got up. 

Mimasita, saw, or has or have seen. 

Okimasita, fell, or has or have fallen. 

Tokemasenanda, has or have not melted. 

Kangayemasenanda, has or have not thought. 

Tadunemasenanda, has or have not looked for. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 75 

Konchd, this morning. 
Naze, why. 
Koto } matter. 

Dosite, how. 
Kimono, dress. 

1. Yuhi ga konchd tokemasita. 2. Anata wa konchd 
nan doki ni ohimasita ha. 3. Watakusi wa konchd hatti 
zi ni ohimasita. 4. Konniti wa attakani gozarimasen 
kara yuki ga takemasen. 5 . Anata wa kono koto wa kan- 
gayemasita ka. 6. Watakusi wa sono koto wo kongaye- 
masenanda. 7. Anata wa sakuzitu nani wo Asakusa de 
mimasita ka. 8. Watakusi wa sakuzitu Asakusa de tori 
wo mimasita. 9. Anata wa nani wo tadunemasu ka. 
10. Watakusi wa kimono wo tadunemasu. 11. Anata wa 
naze kono shomotu wo sukimasen ka. 12. Sono shomotu 
wa omosiroku (amusing) gozarimasen kara watakusi wa 
sukimasen. 13. Anata wa konniti watakusi no segare 
wo mimasita ka. 14. Watakusi wa anata no tomodati wo 


1. Have you thought about that matter ? 2.1 did 
not think about that matter. 3. What are you looking 
for ? 4. I look for your brother's book. 5. What time 
did you get up this morning ? 6. I got up this morn- 
ing at eight o'clock. 7. Why have you not seen my 
friend yesterday ? 8. I have not seen your friend yes- 
terday, because I did not go to Yokohama. 9. Where 
did you go yesterday ? 10. I went to Asakusa yester- 

76 Japanese and English Exercises. 

day. 11. What does your brother look for? 12. My 
brother looks for (his) book. 


Indicative Mood. Future. 

Tokemasho, will or shall melt. 
Kangayemasho, will or shall think. 
Tadunemasho, will or shall look for. 
Okimasho, will or shall get up. 
Mimasho, will or shall see. 
Tokemasumai, will or shall not melt. 
Kangayemasumai, will or shall not think. 
Okimasumaiy will or shall not get up. 

Miyo niti, to-morrow. Hayaku, early. 

Miyo asa, to-morrow morning. 

1. Miyo niti yuki ga tokemasho ka. 2. Miyo niti 
yuki wa tokemasumai. 3. Anata no tomodati wa miyo asa 
nan doki ni okimasho ka. 4. Watakusi no tomodati wa 
miyo niti hatti zi ni okimasho ka. 5. Anata wa miyo asa 
hayaku okimasho ka. 6. Watakusi wa miyo asa hayaku 
okimasumai. 7. Anata wa nani wo usinaimasita ka. 
8. Watakusi wa kane wo usinaimasita. 9. Anata wa 
sore wo tadunemasita ka. 10. Watakusi wa sore wo 
tadunemasenanda. 11. Anata no kiodai wa miyo niti 
watakusi no tomodati wo nimasho ka. 12. Watakusi no 
kiodai wa miyo niti Yedo ye ikimasen hara> 4iiata no 

Japanese and English Exercises. 77 

tomodati wo mimasumai. 13. Naze anata no kicdai vja 
miyo niti Yedo ye ihimasumai ka. 14. Watakusi no 
kiodai wa biyokide (ill) gozarimasu kara ikimasumai. 


1. What time will you get up to-morrow morning? 

2. I shall get up to-morrow morning at eight o'clock. 

3. Will you see me to-morrow in Yedo ? 4. I shall not 
see you to-morrow. 5. Does your daughter get up 
early every morning ? 6. She gets up every morning 
at six o'clock (rokuzi). 7. Why do your friends go to 
Yedo to-day ? 8. My friends go to Yedo because (they) 
have (their) houses (there). 9. What do you look for ? 
10. I look for my books. 11. Have you lost (your) 
money ? 12. I have lost my knife (hdcho). 


Indicative. Present. 

Kuril, to come. 

Sum, to do. 

Kioiku sure, to educate. 

Zonzuru, to know. 
Kuril, to be wild. 
Kanzuru, to admire. 

Kimasu, come or comes. 
Simasu, do or does. 
Kioiku simasu, educate or educates. 
fKanzimasu, admire or admires, j 

78 Japanese and English Exercises. 

Ki, mind. 
Zinmin, people. 
Do or Dosite, how. 

Saihu, workmanship. 
Ye. picture. 

1. Anata wa mainiti nani wo simasu ha. 2. Wata- 
husi wa mainiti shomotu yomimasu (read). 3. Anata 
no tomodati wa mainiti nani wo simasu ha. 4. Wata- 
husi no tomodati wa mainiti ye wo hahimasu (paints). 

5. Anata no hiodai wa honniti koho ye himasu ha. 

6. Watahusi no hiodai wa honniti hoho ye himasu. 

7. Anata wa hono saihu wo mimasita ha. 8. Watahusi 
wa mada (yet) hono saihu wo mimasenanda. 9. Anata wa 
hore wo do omoimasu (think of) ha. 10. Watahusi wa 
sore ni hanzimasu. 11. Zinmin wo hioiku suru ga yd 
gozarimasu. 12. Anata wa hono saihu ni hanzimasu ha. 
13. Watahusi wa sono saihu ni hanzimasu. 14. Anata 
wa honniti watahusi no iye ye himasu ha. 15. Wata- 
husi wa honniti anata no iye ye ihimasen. 


1. Who comes here ? 2. Your brother comes here. 
3. Do you not know my name ? 4. I do not know 
your name. 5. Do you admire this workmanship ? 
6. I admire this workmanship. 7. What do you do to- 
day ? 8. I read my books to-day. 9. Where do you 
go ? 10. I go to Asakusa. 11. Do you like pictures ? 
12.1 like pictures. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 79 


Indicative Mood. Past. 

Kimasita, came, or has or have come. 

Simasita, did, or has or have done. 

Kioiku simasita, educated, or has or have educated. 

Kimasenanda, has or have not come. 

Simasenanda y has or have not done. 

Sibai or Sibaya, theatre. Sitateya, tailor. 
Tera, church. Kutuya, shoemaker. 

1. Anata wakoko yeitu kimasita ka. 2. WataJcusiwa 
koko ye sakuzitu Mmasita. 3. SaJcuzitu anata wa nani wo 
simasita ha. 4. Sahuzitu watakusi wa shomotu wa yomi- 
masita. 5. Anata wa konniti sibai ye ikimasu lea. 
6. Watakusi wa konniti tera ye ikimasu. 7. Dare ga 
kimamasita ka. 8. Sitateya ga kimasita. 9. Anata wa 
kimono wo kosirayemasu (make) ka. 10. Watakusi wa 
haori wo kosirayemasu. 11. Anata wa koncho nani wo 
simasita ka. 12. Watakusi wa koncho sinbunsi (news- 
paper) mo yomimasita. 13. Anata wa kono saiku ni kan- 
zimasita ka. 14. Watakusi wa kono saiku ni kanzimasita. 


1. Where did you go yesterday ? 2. I went to Asa- 
kusa. 3. Did you read the newspaper yesterday ? 4. I 
read the newspaper yesterday. 5. Did you come to my 

80 Japanese and English Exercises. 

liouse last night (saku ya) ? 6. I came to your house 
last night, but you were not at home. 7. Did you go 
to church this morning ? 8. Who came here yesterday? 
9. A shoemaker came here yesterday. 10. Yesterday 
a tailor came here. 11. Do you make a coat ? 12. I 
make a cloak (tonbi). 13. Do you come here every 
morning? 14. I come here every morning. 


Indicative Mood. Future. 

Kimasho, shall or will come. 
Simasho, shall or will do or make. 
Kanzimasho, will or shall admire. 
Kimasumai, will or shall not come. 
Simasumai, will or shall not do or make. 

1. Itu anata no tomodati wa koko ye kimasho ka. 
2. Watakusi no tomodati wa koko ye kimasumai. 3. Do- 
koye anata wa ikimasu ka. 4. Watakusi wa konniti 
Yokohama ya ikimasu. 5. Nani wo watakusi wa miyo 
niti simasho ka. 6. Anata wa miyo niti tera ye iki- 
masho. 7. Konniti anata no kiodai wa watafyusi no iye 
ye kimasumai ka. 8. Watakusi no kiodai wa konniti 
anata no iye ye kimasumai. 9. Anata wa mainiti nani 
wo simasu ka. 10. Watakusi wa mainiti shomotu wo 
yomimasu. 11. Anata no tomodati wa mainiti gakkd 
(school) ye ikimasu ka. 12. Watakusi no tomodati iva 

Japanese and English Exercises. 81 

mainiti gakkd ye ihimasen. 13. Sono okata wa kono 
saiku ni kanzimasho ka. 14. Kono okata wasonosaiku 
ni kanzimasho. 15. Anatawawatakusinotomodati wo 
itu mimasita ha. 16. WataJcusi wa anata no tomodati wo 
sakusitu mimasita. 17. Tenki ga yd gozarimasu. 


1. What did you do yesterday ? 2. I went to Yoko- 
hama. 3. What does your brother do every day ? 
4. My brother goes to school every day. 5. Where are 
you going? 6. I am going to Asakusa. 7. When will 
your friend come to my house? 8. My friend will 
come to your house to-morrow evening. 9. Do you go 
to church often (tabitabi) ? 10. T go to church some- 
times (toki-doki). 11. Will your brother admire this 
workmanship if (he) sees (it)* ? 12. My brother will 
admire this workmanship. 13. Shall we go to Yoko- 
hama to-night. 14. My brother will go to Yokohama 
to-morrow evening. 15. Do you like tea ? 16. I like 
tea. 17. Do you drink sake ? 18. I drink sake. 


Mattu, to wait. 
Utau, to sing. 
Konomu, to like. 
Hanasu, speak. 

Usinaiiy to lose. 

Kaku, to write, or to paint. 

Uru, to sell. 

# Here nominative and objective are understood in the Japanese sen- 


82 Japanese and English Exercises. 

In conversation,* relative pronouns are always under- 
stood; thus, Sore wa watahusi g a mimasita hito de 
gozarimasu, He is the man whom I have seen ; Sore 
wa watahusi no iye ni himasita hito de gozarimasu, 
He is the man who came to my house. 

Igilisu hotoba, English 

Furansu hotoba, French 


Nasi, pear. 

Kudamono, fruit. 

Mihan, orange. 

Uta, song. 

Tegami, letter. 
1. Anata wa tegami wo hahimasita lea. 2. Watahusi 
wa tegami wo hahimasita. 3. Kore wa anata g a mimasita 
shomotu de gozarimasu ha. 4. Kore wa watahusi ga 
mimasita shomotu de gozarimasu. 5. Anata wa dohoye 
ihimasu ha. 6. Watahusi wa anata ga sahuzitu ihimasita 
tohoro (the place) ye ihimasu. 7. Anata wa uta wo utai- 
masu ha. 8. Watahusi wa uta wo utaimasen ga (but) 
watahusi no musume ga utaimasu. 9. Anata no tomodati 
wa nashiwohonomimasuha. 10. Watahusi no tomodati 
wa mihan wo honomimasu. 11. Sono ohata wa Igilisu 
hotoba wo hanasimasu ha. 12. Kono ohata wa Furansu 
hotoba wo hanasimasu. 13. Anata wa hohode dare wo 
mattimasu ha. 14. Watahusi wa hohode watahusi no 
tomodati wo mattimasu. 15. Anata wa hudamono wo ho- 
nomimasu ha. 16. Watahusi wa hudamono wo honomi- 
masen ga watahusi no musume ga honomimasu. 17. Bare 

* See Eule XII. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 83 

ga kono shomotuwo urimasu ka. 18. Shomotuya (book- 
seller) ga kono shomotu wo urimasu. 

1. Does your brother speak the French language ? 
2. My brother speaks the English language. 3. Did you 
write your letters 1 last night ? 4. I did not write my 
letters last night, but my brother wrote (them) . 5. Is 
that the man whom you saw yesterday ? 6. That is the 
man whom I saw yesterday. 7. Does your friend like 
oranges ? 8. My friend likes oranges. 9. Is this the 
man who sells cloth ? 10. This is the man who sells 
cloth. 11. Do you wait here for your brother ? 12. I 
wait here for my daughter. 13. How much does this 
book cost (simasu) ? 14. This book costs three shillings 
(san bu). 15. Does your friend sing a song ? 16. My 
friend does not sing a song. 


To .... to, and. 
Keredomo , but. 
Watakusi no, mine. 
Atai, price. 

Iro } colour. 

Kireina, kireini, beautiful 
HanaJiada, very. 
MairimasUy go, or goes. 

1. Watakusi to watakusi no kiodai to ga konniti 
Asakusa ye mairimasu (go). 2. Watakusi w a Ig His u 
kotoba wo hanasimasen keredomo watakusi no Modai ga 


84 Japanese and English Exercises. 

hanasimasu. 3. Anata wa ima doho ni orimasu ka. 
4. Watakusi wa ima Yokohama ni orimasu. 5. Kono 
shomotu wa anata no de gozarimasu ha. 6. Kono shomotu 
wa watakusi no kiodai no de gozarimasu. 7. Kono shomo- 
tu wa watakusi no de gozarimasen. 8. Kono tanmono no 
atai vja ikura de gozarimasu ka. 9. Kono tanmono no atai 
wa go rigo de gozarimasu. 1 0. Anata no kimono no iro wa 
kireini gozarimasu. 11. Anata no niwa ni arimasu hana 
wa hanahada kireini gozarimasu. 1 2. Anata no tomodati 
wa watakusi no niwa wo mimasita ka. 13. Watakusi no 
tomodati wa mada (yet) anata no niwa wo mimasenanda. 
14. Sakuzitu anata wa nani wo simasita ka. 15. Saku- 
zitu watakusi wa tomodati no iye ye ikimasita. 16. Anata 
7io tomodati wa dokoni orimasu ka. 1 7. Watakusi no 
tomodati wa Yedo ni orimasu. 18. Anata wa konniti 
tegami wo anata no tomodati ye okurimasu (send) ka. 
19. Watakusi wa konniti tegami wo watakusi no haha ni 
okurimasu. 20. Koncho anata wa sinbunsi (newspaper) 
wo mimasita ka. 21. Watakusi wa koncho mada sinbunsi 
wo mimasenanda. 


1. The flowers (which) are in your garden are very 
beautiful. 2. Do you like flowers ? 3. I like flowers. 
4. Where do you go to ? 5. I go to my friend's house. 
6. What do you do every day ? 7. I read books every 
day. 8. Did you receive my letter yesterday ? 9.1 

Japanese and English Exercises. 85 

received jour letter this morning. 10. I do not like 
those pictures, but my friends like (them). 11. This 
is the workmanship (which) I saw three years ago. 
12. Who came here to day ? 13. The tailor and draper 
(tanmonoya) came here to-day. 14. How much does 
this cloth cost ? 15. That cloth costs three riyo. 

16. Will your friends come to your house this evening ? 

17. My friends will come to my house this evening. 


Mosi .... nara, if. 

Tatoye .... nisiro or si- 
temo, although. 

Mosi watakasi ga sono okata wo mimasita nara kono 
tegami wo watasimasho. If I see him, (I) shall deliver 
letter (to him). 

Tatoye konniti wa yoi tenki de gozarimasu nisiro, 
miyoniti wa uten de gozarimasho. Although it may be 
fine to-day, yet to-morrow it will rain. 

Onasi or Onazi, koto or 
mono, the same thing. 
Kinu, silk. 
Sazi, spoon. 
Sayonara, good-bye. 

Konniti wa* good day. 
Sayo or hei, yes. 
lye or lya, no. 
JFasuremasitayhsbS or ha ve 
forgotten or forgot. 

* Konniti wa yoi tenhi de gozarimasu, " This day is a fine day," is 
contracted into Konniti wa. 

86 Japanese and English Exercises. 

1. Mosi watakusi ga Iconniti anata no tomodati wo 
mimasita nara> kono kinu wo watasimasho. 2. Anata no 
shomotu to watakusi no wa onazi koto de gozarimasu 
ka. 3. lye watakusi no shomotu to anata no wa onasi 
koto de gozarimasen. 4. Anata wa konniti gakkd ye 
ikimasenanda ka. 5. Hei watakusi wa konniti gakko ye 
ikimasenanda* 6. Naze (why) anata no tomodati wa 
konniti watakusi no iye ye kimasen ka. 7. Watakusi no 
tomodati wa konncho Yedo ye ikimasita kara anata no 
tokoro ye kimasen. 8. Anata wa kono kinu wo ikura ni 
kaimesita ka. /9. Watakusi wa sono kinu wo itt shaku 
(one foot) ni riyo ni kaimasita. 10. Anata wa London 
ni orimasita ka. 11. Hei watakusi wa London ni san 
nen orimasita. 12. Anata wa Igilisu no kikd (English 
climate) wo konomimasen ka. 13. Hei watakusi wa 
Igilisu no kiko wo konomimasen. 14. Itu mata (again) 
anata wa Yedo ye ikimasu ka. 15. Miyoniti watakusi wa 
Yedo ye ikimasu. 16. Watakusi wa konniti tegami wo 
watakusi no haha kara uketorimasita. 17. Mai tuki 
(every month) anata wa tegami wo anata no tomodati ni 
okurimasu ka. 18. Hei watakusi wa mai tuki tegami 
wo watakusi no tomodati ni okurimasu. 


1. Although it is fine now, it will rain presently 
(imani). 2. Have you forgotten me ? 3. No, I have 

* Here is the difference between yes and hei. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 87 

not forgotten you. 4. Where are you living now ? 
5. I am living in Yedo. 6. When are you coming to my 
house ? 7. I am going to your house to-day. 8. Have 
you bought this silk ? 9. Yes, I bought that silk. 
10. How much did that cost ? 11. This cost three riyo 
a foot (itt shaku) . 12. If I see your friend to-day, what 
shall I say (to him) ? 13. If you see my friend to-day, 
deliver (watasite kudasare) this letter (to him). 14 Did 
you live in England a long time (nagaku) ? 15. I lived 
in England three years. 16. I have lost my book. 


Yakusoku sum, To promise, to make an agreement. 

The word to (with) must be put after the names of 
persons to whom we make a promise. 

Watdkusi wa kono okata to miyo niti Tedo ye iku 
yakusoku simasita. I promised you to go to Yedo to- 

Watasu, to deliver. 
Ton j to ask. 

Shabon, soap. 
Tenuguiy towel. 

1. Anata wa koncho anata no tomodati ni tegami wo 
okurimasita ka. 2. Watakusi wa tegami wo sakuzitu 
okurimasita. 3. Anata wa kono kane wo dare ni watasi- 
masu ka. 4. Watakusi wa kono kane wo watakusi no 
tomodati ni okurimasu. 5. Itu anata wa sono kane wo 
kono okata ni watasimasita ka. 6. Sakuzitu watakusi wa 

88 Japanese and English Exercises. 

sono Jeane wo hono okata ni watasimasita. 7. Anata wa 
sono hoto wo anata no tomodati ni toimasita ha. 8. lye 
watahusi wa sono Iwtowomada toimasenanda. 9. Anata 
wa watahusi no segare to miyo niti Yedo ye ihu yahusohu 
simasita ha. 10. lye watakusi wa anata no tomodati to 
Yohohamaye ihu yahusohu simasita. 11. Sahuya anata- 
gata wa sibai ye ihimasita ha. 12. lye watahusi domo wa 
sahuzitu Asa,husa ye ihimasita. 13. Anata wa honniti 
tegami wo anata no huni (country) hara uJcetorimasita 
ha. 14. Sayo, watahusi wa tegami wo watahusi no haha 
hara uhetorimasita* 


1. From whom did you receive this letter ? 2. I 
received that letter from my father. 3. How much 
did your horse cost ? 4. My horse cost 100 riyo, 
5. Where are you going to-day ? 6. We are going to 
Yokohama. 7. What do you do every day 1 S.I read 
books every day ? 9. Where do you live now ? 10. I 
live in Yedo. 11. To whom do you send that letter ? 
12. I send that letter to my father. 13. Did you pro- 
mise that person to go to Yedo to-day ? 14. No, I did 
not promise that person to go to Yedo to-day. 15. Did 
you ask your brother (about) this matter? 16. No, I 
have not asked my brother (about) this matter yet 

Japanese and English Exercises. 89 


In the Japanese, when we apply ko (son), leaned 
(wife), and kiodai (brother) to those of others, we 
prefix o or go before these words merely to express our 
respect to others. 

Watakusi no ho, my son. 

Anata no o ho [special courtesy], your son. 

Watakusi no hmai, my wife. 

Anata no go kanai [special courtesy], your wife. 

Noru, to ride. 
Kayeru, to return. 

Jokisen, steamer. 
Jokisha, railway train. 

1. Watakusi wa konniti anata no go kanai wo mima- 
sita. 2. Anata wa doko de watakusi no kanai wo mima- 
sita ka. 3. Watakusi wa anata no go kanai wo jokisha 
de mimasita. 4. Anata wa konniti Yokohama kara jo- 
kisha de Mmasita ka mata (or) jokisen de kimasita ka. 
5. Watakusi wa Jokisha de kimasita. 6. Anata no o ko 
wa ikutu de gozarimasu ka. 7. Watakusi no ko wa zu ni 
de gozarimasu. 8. Anata wa jokisha ni noru koto wo 
konomimasu ka. 9. lye, watakusi wa jokisha ni noru 
koto wo konomimasen. 10. Anata no go kiodai wa, kon- v 
niti doko ye ikimasita ka. 11. Watakusi no kiodai wa 
konniti Yedo ye ikimasita. 12. Kono okata wa anata no 
otomodati de gozarimasu ka. 13. Sayo, kono okata wa 
watakusi no tomodati de gozarimasu. 14. Anata no Jcuni 
ni jokisha ga gozarimasu ka. 15. Hei, watakusi no 
kuni ni jokisha ga gozarimasu. 

90 Japanese and English Exercises. 


1. Did you come here by a train or steamer ? 2.1 
came by a steamer. 3. Are there railways in your 
country ? 4. There is a railway in my country. 5. Is 
your wife in your house ? 6. No, my wife went to 
Yokohama. 7. Is that your brother ? 8. No, that is 
my friend. 9. I have seen your daughter in Asakusa. 
10. When did you see my daughter in Asakusa f 11. I 
saw your daughter three days ago. 12. When will 
your brother return from Kanagawa ? 13. My brother 
will return to-day. u4. Did you ride in the train often 
(tabitabi). 15. No, I rode in the train three times 
(san do). 


When we apply haha (mother) and titi (father) to 
those of others, we add the word sama, or sometimes 
we use altogether different words : — Okkasan for 
mother, and ottossan for father. 

Anata no titisama or ottossan, your father. 
Watdkusi no haha or titi, my mother, or father. 

Oji, uncle. 
Asa-mesi, breakfast. 
Hiru-mesi, dinner. 
Ban-mesij supper. 

Oba, aunt. 
Taberu, to eat. 
N.omu, to drink. 
Sakana, fish. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 91 

1. Watakusi wa sakuzitu anata no hahasama wo 
mimasita. 2. Anata wa doko de watakusi no haha wo 
mimasita ha. 3. Watakusi wa anata no okkasan wo 
AsaJcusade mimasita. 4. Anata wa Jconcho asa-meshi wo 
tabemasita ka. 5. Hei watakusi wa koncho asa-meshi wo 
tabemasita. 6. Anata wa ban-meshi ni itudemo (always) 
sake wo nomimasu ka. 7. lye, watakusi wa ban-meshi ni 
cha wo nomimasu. 8. Anata wa hiru-meshi ni nani wo 
tabemasu ka. 9. Watakusi wa hiru-meshi ni sakana to 
niku wo tabemasu. 10. Konniti anata no titisama or 
ottossan wa doko ye ikimasita ka. 11. Watakusi no titi 
wa Yedo ye ikimasita. 12. Anata no haliasama wa itu 
Yedo kara kayerimasu ka. 13. Miyo niti watakusi no 
haha wa kayerimasu. 14. Kore wa anata no ojisama de 
gozarimasu ka. 15. Hei kore wa watakusi no oji de 
gozarimasu. 16. Sono okata wa anata no obasama de 
gozarimasu ka. 17. Hei kono okata wa watakusi no oba 
de gozarimasu. 18. Anata wa konniti Yedo ye ikimasen 
ka. 19. Hei watakusi wa ikmasen* 


1. Where is your brother ? 2. My brother is in the 
house. 3. I have seen your mother in the garden. 
4. Did you finish (sumimasita) your breakfast ? 5. Yes, 
I finished my breakfast. 6. At what time does your 

* In some cases Hei and lye do not correspond to the English ' yes ■ 
and ' no ■ ; or, as the examples above show, there is a difference in the 
idiomatic use of these words in the two languages. 

92 Japanese and English Exercises. 

father get up ? 7. My father gets up at seven o'clock. 
8. What do you eat at dinner ? 9. I eat meat and fish. 
10. Does your mother like meat ? 11. My mother likes 
meat. 12. At what time do you eat supper? .13. I 
eat supper at six o'clock. 14. Do you write a letter to 
your father every day ? 15. Yes, I write a letter to my 
father every day. 16. Will your brother return here 
to-day ? 17. I do not know (zouzimasen). 18. Have 
you seen the railway trains ? 19. Yes, I rode in the 
train often (tabitabi). 


Sosiraremasu, is, or are sneered at. 

Sosiraremasita, was, or were sneered at. 

Wutaremasu, is, or are beaten. 

Wutaremasita, was, or were beaten. 

Miraremasu, is, or are seen or looked at. 

Miraremasita, was, or were seen or looked at. 

Hand, mi ni, to see the 

Fune, ship, or boat. 
Inu, dog. 

Sono hito, that person. 
Kawa, river. 

Sakura, cherry-tree, or 

Sakuzitu, yesterday. 
Mati, street, 
Kisi, bank. 
Fuzin, lady. 

1. Kono inu wa hito ni wutyremasu ha. 2. lye, hio 
inn wa hito ni wutaremasen, 3. Sono inuwa sakuzitu 
hito ni wutaremasita. 4. Sono fuzin wa hito ni mi* 

Japanese and English Exercises. 93 

raremasu ha. 5. Kono fuzin wa sahuzitu hito ni mi- 
raremasita. 6. Do~kode sono fuzin wa hito ni mirare- 
masita ha. 7. Mali de miraremasita. 8. Itudemo 
hireina fuzin wa hito ni miraremasu. 9. Anata wa 
hana mini ihimasita ha. 10. Watakusi wa fune de 
hana mini ihimasita. 11. Sahura wa doho ni gozari- 
masu ha, 12. Sahura wa hawa no hisi ni gozarimasu. 
13. Sahura wa fune hara miraremasu ha. 14. Hei 
fane hara miraremasu. 15. Sahura wa hireina hana 
de gozarimasu ha. 16. Sahura wa hanada hireini 
gozarimasu. 17. Sono fuzin wa hito ni sosiraremasu 
ha. 18. lye, hono fuzin wa hito ni homeraremasu (is 
praised). 19. Sono hito wa hito ni homeraremasu ha 
matawa sosiraremasu ha. 20. Kono hito wa hito ni 
homeraremasu. 21. Mainiti tenhi ga yd gozarimasu 
hara, sahura no hana ga hireini gozarimasho. 22. Dare 
ga hana. mini ihimasu ha. 23. Watakusi no tomodati 
to watahusi ga hana mini ihimasu. 24. Hana wa doho 
ni takusan arimasu ha. 25. Muho zima ni arimasu. 


1. Was this lady seen by the people yesterday ? 
2. Yes, this lady was seen by the people. 3. Where 
was that lady seen by the people ? 3. This beautiful 
lady was seen by the people everywhere (dohodemo). 
5. Where did you go yesterday ? 6. I went to see the 
flower. 7. Where is the flower ? 8. (It) is on the 
bank of a river. 9. When did you go to the theatre ? 

94 Japanese and English Exercises. 

10. I went to the theatre yesterday. 11. Was that 
person sneered at by the people ? 12. No, that person 
was not sneered at by the people. 13. How did yon 
go to see the flower ? 14. I went in a boat. 15. Who 
was beaten yesterday ? 16. This dog was beaten 
yesterday. 17. Do yon write a letter to-morrow? 
18. I write a letter to-morrow. 19. Are (there) cherry- 
trees in the street ? 20. Yes, there are cherry-trees in 
the street. 21. The flower of a cherry-tree is beautiful. 
22. I do not go to see the flower, but my friend goes. 


Miyemasu, ") 

Miru koto ga dekimasu, ) 

Ikemasu, } 

Iku koto ga dekimasu, ) 

Yomemasu, ) -, 

' t I can read. 

Yomu koto ga dekimasu, ) 
Kakemasu, 1 

Kaku koto ga dekimasu, ) 
Mono, thing. 

T5hu > } distance. 
Yenjpo, ) 

Musi, insect. 

can see. 

can go. 

can paint, or write. 

Tada ima, just now. 
Yozi, business. 
Megane, spectacle. 
Saka duki, sake cup. 

1. Konniti sibai ye anata wa ikemasu ha. 2. Hei, 
watakusi wa konniti sibai ye iku koto ga dekimasu. 
3. Anata wa kono tisana musi wo miru koto ga deki- 

Japanese and English Exercises. 95 

masu ka. 4. lye, sonomusiwamiyemasen. 5. Anata 
wa yenpo ga miyemasu ka. 6. Watdkusi wa meg arte 
nasini yenpo ga miyemasen. 7. Anata wa tada ima 
Yokohama ye iku koto ga dekimasu ka. 8. Watakusi 
wa ihidemo ikemasu. 9. Konniti anata wa hana mini 
iku koto ga dekimasu ka. 10. Watakusi wa konniti 
hana mini iku koto ga dekimasu, 11. Anata wa kono 
tisai mono wo megane nasini miru koto gadekimasuka. 
^12. lye, watakusi wa megane nasini sore wo miru koto 
ga dekimasen. 13. Izen anata wa dokoni orimasita. 
ka. 14. Watakusi wa izen Nagasaki ni orimasita. 
15. Mata anata wa Nagasaki ye ikimasu ka. 16. Hei, 
watakusi wa,yozi ga arimasu kara, Nagasaki ye ikimasu. 
17. Anata w a Nagasaki karaieayaku kayeru koto ga 
dekimasu. 18. lye, watakusi wa hayaku kayeru koto 
ga dekimasen. 19. Sokoni sakaduki ga arimasu ka. 
20. lye, kokoni sakaduki wa aHmasen. 21. Anata w a 
kono shomotu wo yomu koto ga dekimasu ka. 22. lye, 
watakusi wa sono shomotu wo yomu koto g a dekimasen. 
23. Anata wa ye ga kakemasu ka. 24. Watakusi wa 
ye ga kakemasu. 


1. Have you any buisness to-day ? 2. No, I have 

not any business. 3. Can you go to Asakusa this 

morning? 4. 1 can go (there) just now. 5. Can you read 

this book ? I can read that book. 7. Can you write 

96 Japanese and English Exercises. 

a letter to-day ? 8. Yes, I can write a letter to-day. 

9. Can yon see this small insect without spectacles ? 

10. Yes, I can see (it). 11. Where do yon go every 
day ? 12. I go to see the flower every day. 13. Can 
you go to see the flower every morning ? 14. I can go 
to see the flower every morning. 15. Was this dog 
beaten by the people last night? 16. Yes, this dog 
was beaten last night. 17. Can you paint a picture ? 
18. Yes, I can paint a picture. 1 9. Can you go to 
Nagasaki in a ship ? 20. Yes, I can go to Nagasaki in 
a ship. 21. Can you see that ? 22. I can see that. 
23. Can you read this English word ? 24 Yes, I can 
read (it). 



Iku koto ga dekimasita, 


Iku koto ga dekimasen, 


Miru koto ga dekimasen, 

could go. 
cannot go. 
cannot see. 

Kumo, spider. 
Inaka, country. 
Turi, fishing. 
Kenbikiyo, microscope. 

Tdmegane, telescope. 
Hai, fly. 
Hane, wing. 
Asi, foot, or feet. 

1. Anata wa konniti sibai ye ikemasu ka. 2. lye, 
watakusi wa konniti ikemasen. 3. Anata wa sakuzitu 

Japanese and English Exercises. 97 

Asahusa ye ihu koto ga dehimasita ha. 4, Hei, dehima- 
sita. I 5. Anata wa bono hai ivo henbi hiyo de mimasita 
ha. 6. Watahusi wa sono hai no hane wo henbihiyo de 
mimasita. 7. Anata wa sono hane wo yohu mint hoto 
ga dehimasita ha. 8. Hei, watahusi wa sore wo yohu 
miru hoto ga dehimasita. 9. Watahusi wa humo no 
asi wo henbihiyo nasini yohu miru hoto ga dehimasen. 

10. Anata wo honcho inaha ye ihu koto ga dehimasu ha. 

11. lye, honcho watahusi wa ihu hoto ga dehimasen. 

12. Anata wa mainiti turi ni ihu hoto ga dehimasu ho. 

13. lye, watahusi wa mainiti turini ihu hoto wa 
dehimasen. 14. Itu anata wa inaha ye ihu hoto ga 
dehimasu ha. 15. Koncho watahusi wa ihimasu. 
16. Anata wa nani wo tomegane de mimasu ha. 17. Wa- 
tahusi wa tomegane dehosi wo mimasu. 18. Anata wa 
sore wo tomegane nasi ni miru hoto ga dehimasu ha. 
19. Watahusi wa tomegane nasi ni miru hoto ga dehi- 
masu. 20. Anata wa sahuzitu hana mini ihu hoto ga 
dehimasita. 21. Sahuzitu hana mini ihu hoto ga dehi- 
masita. 22. Anata wa hono must no asi ivo henbihiyo 
de miru hoto ga dehimasita ha. 23. Hei, miru hoto ga 
dehimasita. 24. Anata wa hono shomotu wo yomu 
hoto ga dehimasita ha. 25. Hei, sono shomotu wo yomu 
hoto ga dehimasita. 


1. Could you go to a tailor yesterday ? 2. Yes, I 
could go to a tailor yesterday. 3. When did you go 

98 Japanese and English Exercises. 

to a shoemaker ? 4. I went to a shoemaker yesterday. 

5. Could you see this small wing with a microscope ? 

6. Yes, I saw it with a microscope. 7. Why could you 
not go to see the flower yesterday ? 8. I could not 
go to see the flower yesterday, because I had business 
(or there was business). 9. How did you go to Naga- 
saki? 10. I went in a ship. 11. At what time can 
you go to Yokohama to-day ? 12. I can go to Yoko- 
hama directly. 13. Can you see this small work 
without a microscope ? 14. No, I cannot see this 
small work without a microscope. 15. Have you seen 
the wing of a fly with a microscope? 16. Yes, I have 
seen (it). 17. Can you see the foot of a spider well 
without a microscope? 18, No, I cannot see (it) well. 

19. When you were in Japan, did you go to Asakusa? 

20. Yes, when I was in Japan, I went to Asakusa. 

21. When you were in Japan, were you able to go 
to see the flower ? 22. When I was ' in Tokio, I 
went in a boat to see the flower. 23. Was this small 
dog beaten by the people yesterday ? 24. No, this 
small dog was not beaten. 


Miyemasho, "} Will, or shall be able 


Miru koto ga dekimasho, ) to see. 
Miyemasumai, ") Will, or shal 

Miru koto ga dekimasumai t ) able to see. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 99 


| Will ; or shall be able 

Iku koto ga dekimasho, 

) to go. 


| Will, or shall not be 
, ) able to go. 

Iku koto ga dekimasumai 

Kaze, wind. 

Koye, sound, or voice. 

Kiku, chrysanthemum. 

Tori, bird. 

Yuri, lily. 

Wuguisu, nightingale. 

Ayame, sweet flag. 

Wataru, to cross. 

Kakitubata, iris. 

Sewashu, busy. 

1. Miyoniti watakusi wa yuri no hana wo miru koto 
ga dekimasho ka. 2. Hei, Anata wa miyoniti yuri no 
hana wo miru koto ga dekimasho. 3. Nitiyoniti ni 
watakusi wa sono ye vio miru koto ga dekimasho ka. 
4. lye, nitiyoniti ni wa miru koto ga dekimasen ga 
getuyoniti .ni dekimasho. 5. Asakusa ye watakusi 
wa miyoniti fune de iku koto ga dekimasho ka. 6. Hei, 
dekimasho. • 7. Wumi wo fune de wataru koto ga deki- 
masu ka. 8. Konniti anata wafune de wataru koto ga 
dekimasen. 9. Miyoniti fune de wumi wo wataru koto 
ga dekimasho ka. 10. Hei, Miyoniti anata wafune de 
wataru koto ga dekimasho. 11. Naze konniti wataru 
koto ga dekimasen. 12. Konniti wa kaze ga tuyo gozari- 
masu kara, dekimasen. 13. Anata wa tokei wo kosira- 
yeru koto ga dekimasu ka. 14. Hei, watakusi wa tokei 
wo kosirayeru koto ga dekimasu. 15. Anata wa Nipon 
no kotoba ivo hanasu koto ga dekimasu ka. 16. Wata- 
kusi wa Nip 071 no kotoba wo sukosi hamasu koto ga 

h £ 

100 Japanese and English Exercises. 

dekimasu. 17. Miyoniti watakusi domo wa kiku no 
hana wo miru koto ga dekimasho ka. 18. Anata gata 
iva miyoniti kiku no hana wo miru koto ga dekimasnmai. 
19. Anata wa konnen (this year) wuguisu no koye wo 
kikimasita ka. 20. Haru (Spring) ga kimasen 
kara } mada iv at akusi wa wuguisu no koye wo kikimascn. 
21. Anata wa ayame no hana wo mimasita ka. 22. lye, 
mada watakusi wa ayame wo mimasen ga kakitubata 
wo mimasita. 


1. Will you be able to go to the theatre to-morrow ? 

2. Yes, I shall be able to go to the theatre to-morrow. 

3. Will your friend be able to go to Sinagawa to- 
morrow morniDg (miyocho) ? 4. Yes, my friend will be 
able to go to Sinagawa to-morrow morning. 5. Will 
you be able to see that bird to-morrow ? 6. Yes, I 
shall be able to see that bird to-morrow. 7. Will you 
be able to see that lily to-morrow evening ? 8. Yes, I 
shall be able to see that lily. 9. Shall we be able to 
hear the voice of a nightingale in this place (koko de) ? 
10. You will not be able to hear the voice of a 
nightingale here. 11. Shall we be able to cross the 
sea to-day ? 12. You will be able to cross the sea if 
there is no wind. 13. Will you be able to read this 
book to-morrow ? 14. No, I shall not be able to read 
that book, because I am busy. 15. Will you be able 

Japanese and English Exercises, 101 

to see this wing of a fly with, a microscope to-morrow ? 
16. I shall be able to do so (Dekimasho). 17. Shall 
we be able to go to Mukozima in a boat to-morrow ? 
18. We shall be able to go to Mnkozima in a boat to- 
morrow. 19. Have you seen that beautiful bird? 
20. I have seen that beautiful bird. 21. Will you be 
able to go to Sikoku next year ? 22. We shall not be 
able to go to Sikoku next year. 

Iku koto, to go. 

Miru koto, } , 

1 } to see. 
Mini,* J 

Yomu hotoS tQ read> 

Yomini.* J 

Kiku koto, ~) , 1 

' S. to hear. 



Mosi . . . nara, if. 
Miyo, see (command). 
Mite kudasare, pray see 

Ike, go (command). 
Ite kudasare, pray go 


1. Sore ivo miyo. 2. Sore wo mite kudasare. 
3. Soko ye ike. 4. Soko ye ite kudasare. 5. Anatawa 
Yokohama ye ikimasu nara, watakusi no tomodati no 
iye ye ite kudasare. 6. Anata iva konniti yozi ga 
gozarimasen nara, watakusi no shomotu wo mite kuda- 
sare. 7. Anata wa hanasi wo kiku koto wo sukimasu 
ka. 8. Hei, watakusi wa hanasi wo kiku koto ivo 
sukimasu. 9. Anata wa itu hanasi wo kikini ikimasu 

* This form of the infinitive mood is used when it is governed by an 
intransitive verb. 

102 Japanese and English Exercises. 

ka. 10. Watakusi wa hanasi wo maiban kikini ikimasu. 

11. Anata wa sibai ye iku koto wo sukimasu ka, 

12. Hei, watakusi wa sibai ye iku koto wo sukimasu. 

13. Nipon no fuzin wa sibai ye iku koto wo sukimasu 
ka. 14. Hei, Nijpon no fuzin wa sibai ye iku koto wo 
suki masu. 15. Hanasi wo kiku koto wa hanahada 
yd gozarimasu. 16. Sibai wo miru koto wa hanahada 
omosiro gamrimasu. 17. Shomotu wo yomu koto wa 
hanahada taisetu de gozarimasu (important) . 1 8. Ana- 
ta wa doko ye shomotu wo yomini ikimasu ka. 

19. Watakusi wa shomotu wo yomini gakko ye ikimasu. 

20. Anata- wa gakko ye iku koto wo sukimasu ka. 

21. Hei, watakusi wa gakko ye iku koto wo sukimasu. 

22. Anata wa wuguisu no koye wo kiku koto suki- 
masu ka. 23. Watakusi wa wuguisu no koye wo kiku 
koto wo sukimasu. 24. Anata wa kenbikiyo de tisai 
mono wo miru koto wo sukimasu ka. 25. Kenbikiyo de 
tisai rnusi wo miru koto wa omosiro gozarimasu. 


1. Do you like to read books ? 2. Yes, I like to 
read books. 3. What book do yon like to read? 
4. I like to read a novel (kusazosi). 5. To read a 
novel is amusing, but to read a history (rekisi) is im- 
portant. 6. Go to the left. 7. See that man. 8. Do 
you often go to (see) a theatre ? 9. I do not go to 
(see) the theatre often. But I like to go to the 

Japanese and English Exercises. 103 

theatre. 10. Does your friend like to hear an amusing 
story? 11. Yes, my friend likes to hear an amusing 
story. 12. Will you be able to go to bear a story to- 
day ? 13. No, I shall not be able to do so. 14. "Will 
you be able to go to see the flower to-morrow morning? 
15. I shall not be able to do so. 16. Why can you 
not go to the theatre this evening ? 17 1 cannot go to 
the theatre to-day, because I have business (there is 
business). 18. If you go to Asakusa, pray go to the 
house of my brother. 19. If you come to my house, 
pray see my picture. 20. Pray see that book. 
21. Where do you go to read books? 22. I go to 
read books in the school. 23. Do you like to go to 
the school every day. 24. Yes, 1 like to do so. 


Oide nasare, go. 

Oide nasareta, went. 

Oide nasaren, does, or do not go. 

Oide nasarenanda, did not go. 

These forms of the verb are employed to address the 
second person when respect is expressed. For instance, 
Dohoye anata wa oide nasaru ka instead of Doko ye 
anata wa ilcimasu ka. Where do you go ? The latter 
way of expression is quite intelligible, but the former 
is preferable as a mere polite expression. 


104 Japanese and English Exercises. 

Goran nasaru, 
Goran nasaren, 
Okiki nasaru, 
Okiki nasaren, 
Oyomi nasaru, 
Oyomi nasaren, 
Owuketori nasaru, 
Owuketori nasaren, 
Okomomi nasaru, 
OJconomi nasaren, 
Olwsiraye nasaru, 
Okosiraye nasaren, 
Onomi nasaru, 
Onomi nasaren, 
Okirai nasaru, 
Okirai nasaren, 
Otadune nasaru, 
Otadune nasaren, 
Okangaye nasaru, 
Okangaye nasaren, 


does, or do not see. 


does, or do not hear. 


does, or do not read. 


does, or do not receive. 


does, or do not like. 


does, or do not make, 


does, or do not drink, 


does, or do not like, 

seek, or look for. 

does, or do not seek. 


does, or do not think. 

1. Anata wa Jconcho dolco ye oide nasaru ha, 2. Wa- 
takusi wa Yokohama ye ikimasu. 3. Anata wa konniti 
Asakusa ye oide nasaru ka. 4. lye, konniti watakusi 
wa ikimasen. 5. Anata wa sakuzitu Sinagawa ye oide 
nasareta hi. 6. lye, watakusi wa sakutzitu Sinagawa 
ye ikimasenanda. 7. Anata wa konban Kanagaiva ye 
oide nasaru ka. 8. lye, watakusi wa konban Kanagawa 

Japanese and English Exercises. i05 

ye ikimasen. 9. Anata wa nani wo saJcuzitu goran na- 
sareta ka. 10. Watakusi wa sakuzitu hana wo mima- 
sita. 11. Anata wa sakuzitu omosiroi hanasi wo okiki 
nasareta ka. 12. Hei, sakuzitu watakusi wa omosiroi 
hanasi wo kikimasita. 13. Konniti anata wa shomotu 
wo oyomi nasaru ka. 14. Hei, watakusi wa shomotu 
wo yomimasu. 15. Konncho anata wa watakusi no 
tegami wo owuketori nasareta ka. 16. Hei, watakusi 
wa anata no otegami wo koncho wuketorimasita. 

17. Anata wa sibai ye iku koto wo okonomina saru ka. 

18. Watakusi wa sibai ye iku koto wo konomimasu. 

19. Anata ga kono kireina hako wo okosiraye nasareta 
ka. 20. Hei, watakusi ga kosirayemasita. 21. Anata wa 
sake wo onominasaru ka. 22. lye, ivatakusi wa sake 
wo nomimasen. 23. Anata wa. kono tisai inu wo oki- 
rai nasaru ka. 24. lye, watakusi wa sono inu wo suki- 
masu. 25. Soko de anata wa nani wo otadune nasaru 
ka. 26. Watakusi wa watakusi no tomodati no shomotu 
wo tadune masu* 


1. What do you think (about) every day? 2. I 
think of something about the books [shomotu no koto 
wo). 3. Do you go to see a picture to-day? 4. No, 
I go to see the flower. 5. Did you receive my letter 
yesterday ? 6. I did not receive your letter yesterday. 
7. Did you hear an amusing story last night ? 8. Yes, 
I heard an amusing story last night. 9. What did you 

106 Japanese and English Exercises. 

read yesterday morning ? 10. I read an amusing book 
yesterday morning. 11. Did you not see the beautiful 
flowers in Asakusa ? 12. I saw the beautiful flowers 
in Okuyama. 13. What do you drink every day? 
14. I drink tea every day. 15. Did you not drink 
sake last night ? 16. I drank sake last night. 17. Did 
you dislike the garden of Asakusa ? 18. I did not 
dislike it. 19. Did you make that beautiful cabinet 
(tedansu) ? 20. Yes, I made that cabinet. Do you 
like (it) ? 21. Yes, I like (it). 22. Have you not seen 
this picture yet (mada) ? 23. ~No, I have not seen (it) 
yet. 24. What {do) do you think of that ? 25. I 
think that good (yoi to). 


Oide nasaru koto ga dekimasu, can go. 

Oide nasaru koto ga dekimasen, cannot go. 

Oide nasaru koto ga dekimasita, could go. 

Oide nasaru koto ga dekimasenanda, could not go. 

Teduma, conjuring. 
Tedumasi, conjurer. 
Odori, dancing. 
Wuta, song. 

Katana, sword. 
Karuwaza, acrobatic feats. 
Karuwazasi, acrobat. 
Hebitukai, snake tamer. 

In conversation, the relative pronoun is not used. 
For instance, Kore wa watakusi ga yomimasita shomotu 
de gozarimasu. This is the book I read. 

. ... to yuwu .... called. For example, Sumi- 

w — 

Japanese and English Exercises. 107 

da to yuwu kawa, a river called Sumida, Tokio to yuwu 
mati, city called Tokio, &c» 

Tokoro, scene or place. 
Yakusha, actor. 
Hanasika, storyteller. 
Koshakusi, lecturer* 
Kadi, blacksmith. 
Kenbutunin, spectator. 
Nadakai, famous* 

Get, acting, or art. 
Gedai, the title of a 

Yekaki, painter. 
Awarena, sorrowful or 

Sansui, landscape. 

1 1. Miyoniti anata wa sibai ye oide nasaru "koto ga 
dekimasu ha. 2. Hei, watakusi wa iku koto ga deki- 
masu ga doko no sibai ye anata wa oide nasaru ka. 

3. Watakusi wa miyoniti Asakusa no sibai ye ikimasho. 

4. Nan to yuwu sibai no gedai de gozarimasu ka. 

5. Tiwusingura to yuwu gedai de gozarimasu. 6. Sono 
sibai ni wa awarena tokoro ga takusan gozarimasu ka. 
7. Tiwusingura ni wa takusan awarena tokoro ga goza- 
rimasu. 8. Nan to yuwu yakusha ga Asakusa no sibai 
ni orimasu ka. 9. Danzuro to yuwu yakusha ga ori- 
masu. 10. Danzuro wa watakusi ga mayeni mimasita 
yakusha de gozarimasu. 11. Konniti anata wa Meguro 
to yu tokoro ye oide nasaru koto wa dekimasen ka. 
12. Konniti watakusi wa dekimasen. 13. Sakuzitu, anata 
wa karuwaza wo goran nasaru koto ga dekimasita ka. 
14. Hei, dekimasita. 15. Kenbutunin ga takusan ori- 
masita ka. 16. Kenbutunin ga takusan orimatita. 
17. Sono atode (after that) nani wo goran nasareta ka. 

108 Japanese and English Exercises. 

18. Sono atode hebitukai to tedumasi wo miinasitd. 

19. Sono atode oyado ye (to your house) okayerl nasareta 
ka. 20. lye, sore kara mata hanasika to koshakusi wo kiki 
ni ikimasita. 21. Bare ga kono katana wo kosiraye- 
masita ka. 22. Sore wa Masamune to yuwu katana 
kadi ga kosirayemasita katana de gozarimasita. 23. Sa- 
kuzitu odori wo goran nasaru koto ga dekimasita ka. 
24. lye, odori wo miru koto wa dekimasenanda ga wuta 
wo kiki ni iku koto ga dekimasita. 25. Nan to yuwu 
wuta wo okiki nasareta ka. 26. Yugure* to yuwu 
wuta wo kikimasita. 


1. Could you go to see dancing yesterday ? 2. No, 
I could not go to see dancing yesterday, but I saw a 
snake-tamer. 3. Did you come home after that ? 
4. No, I went to (see) a theatre after that. 5. What 
(Doko no) theatre did you go to ? 6.1 went to a theatre 
in Asakusa. 7. What is the name of the play ? 8. It 
is a piece called Awanonaruto. 9. Is it amusing? 
10. No, it is touching. 11. Could you go to the place 
called Ozi yesterday? 12. Yes, I could go (there)- 

13. Could you not go to see conjuring yesterday ? 

14. No, I could not go to see conjuring, but I went 
to see (some) pictures. 15. What pictures did you 
see yesterday ? 16. I saw landscapes. 17. Who painted 

* "Twilight." 

Japanese and English Exercises. 109 

them ? 18. A famous painter called Hokusai painted 
them. 19. Where do yon go to-day? 20. I go to 
hear a story-teller. 21. What story [Nan to yuwu 
hanasi) are you going to hear? 22. I am going to 
hear the story of Tiwusingura. 23. Who is the story- 
teller? 24. I do not know (his) name. 25. Tiwu- 
singura is the story I heard before. 


Where two or more verbs are connected by the 
conjunction " and " in an English sentence, the verbs 
in a Japanese sentence change their termination 
except a final one, in order to avoid the repetition, 
of masu, masen, &c. For instance, Watakusi wa Asa- 
kusa ye ite, hana wo mite, sore kara kayerimasho. I 
shall go to Asakusa, see the flower and then return. 
Here the words ihu " to go," and miru " to see," are 
respectively changed into ite and mite. These forms 
of the verbs remain the same whether the tense is 
present, past, or future. 

Where a verb is governed by a relative pronoun 
in an English sentence, the verb in a Japanese sentence 
often changes its termination. For instance, Sore wa 
watakusi ga mita shomotu de gozarimasu, That is the 
book (which) I have seen. Here the verb miru " to 
see," is changed into mita. The following is the 
declension of the verb ending in ku. 

110 Japanese and English Exercises. 

Iku, to go, 
Hataraku, to work, 
Nabiku, to incline, 
Taku, to burn, 
Kiku, to hear. 
Aruku, to walk, 
Tataku, to beat, 
Nageku, to mourn. 
Eaku, to write or paint, 
Maneku, to beckon, 
Toku, to solve, or dissolve, 
Taku, to toast, or burn, 
Hiku, to draw, or pull, 
Naku, to cry, or weep, 

( Ite. 

\ Ita. 

Ilatarite. Vitkkij 
Hatarita. H4r/iJ?4» 

( Nabite. 

\ Nablta. 

( Taite. 

\ Taita. 

C Kite. 

I KUa. 

( Amite. 

\ Aruita. 

( Tataite. 

\ Tataita. 

( Nageite. 

( Nageita. 

C Kaite. 

( Kaita. 

( Maneite. 

\ Maneita. 

( Toite. 

{ Toita. 

j Yaite. 

\ Yaita. 

( mte. 
C mta. 



Japanese and English Exercises. Ill 

Tuku, to stab, 1 Tuita 

( Sirizoite. 
Sirizoku, to retire, [ Sirizoita. 

v 1. jS"ore wa Kanaoka ga kaita ye de gozarimasu 
ka/ 2. lye, sore wa Hokusai to yuwu yekaki ga kaita 
ye de gazarimasu. 3. Watakusi wa kono tegami wo kaite 
okurimasu. 4. Watahusi wa sore wo ite mimasho. 

5. Sore wa watahusi ga hlta hanasi de gozarimasu. 

6. Watahusi wa sono koto wo kite kanasimimasita 
(lamented). 7. Watakusi wa mainiti hataraite hi wo 
okurimasu. 8. Kore wa watakusi ga sakuzitu aruita miti 

de gozarimasu. 9. Anata wa konniti Asakusa made ^ 
aruite oide nasaru ka. - 10. Hei, Watakusi wa konniti 
Asakusa made aruite ikimasu. 11. Sono hito ga kono 
inu wo tataite korosimasita (killed). 12. Sore wa kono 
hito ga tataita hito de gazarimasu. 13. Watakusi wa 
kore wo midu ni toite ye wo kakimasu. 14. Kono hito ga 
sono neko wo yari (spear) de tuite korosimasita. 15. Wa- 
takusi wa miyoniti soko ye ite sono Irnna ivo mimaslio. 
16. Watakusi wa sakuzitu Asakusa ye ite sono tori wo 
mimasita. 17. Watakusi wa hataraite kane wo moke- 
masu (earn money). T.8. Watakusi ga Yokohama ye 
ikimasita tokini minato ni takusan fune ga orimasita. 
19. Kono hito ga sono ami (net) wo hite sakana wo 
torimasu. 20. Anata wa Mukozima ye oide nasareta 
tokini sakura wo goran nasareta ka. 21. lye, watakusi 

112 Japanese and English Exercises. 

ga Mukozima ye ita tokini sakura wa mada gozarima- 


\y 1. I heard the story and returned. 2. I went there, 
heard that story, and returned. 3. I shall go there 
to-morrow, hear that story, and return. 4. When I 
went to Sinagawa, I saw a large dog in the street. 
v 5. That is the story I heard last night. 6. I went to 
Mukozima, and saw the flower of the cherry-tree. 
7. This man has beaten this dog, and killed it. 8. 1 shall 
paint a picture and send it to my friend. 9. I shall 
burn this stone (isi) and make it (or reduce it to) 
powder (ko). 10. This child heard that news and 

i wept. 11. I shall work and earn money. 12. That 
is the letter I wrote yesterday. 13. That is the book 
I wrote. 14. I shall write a letter to-morrow and send 
it to that person. 15. Is this the dog which barked 
last night. 1 6.\ No, that is not the dog which barked 
last night. lT.'Who painted this picture ? 18. That 
is the picture Kanaoka painted. 19. Who sent that 
picture ? 20. My friend painted and sent it to me. 


The verbs ending in au. 
Au, to meet, 

t, \ ote - 

\ Ota. 

Japanese and English Exercises. 113 

Tatakau, to fight, 
Mau, to dance, 
Hau, to creep, 
Nerau, to aim, 

War an , to laugh. 

Kau, to buy. 
TJsinau, to lose. 


( Hota. 

Sitagau, to obey. 
Utagau, to doubt. 

The verbs ending in mu and imu. 

( Kononde. 
{ Kononda. 
f Nonde. 
\ Nonda. 
Tutusimu, to revere, or to bef Tutusinde. 

KonomUy to like, 
Nomu, to drink, 

Kanasimu, to lament. 

Yomu, to read. 

Tanornu, to trust. 

Tanosimu, to enjoy. 

[ Tutusinda. 

( Yonde. 
\ Yonda. 

j Tanosinde. 
[ Tanosinda. 

114 Japanese and English Exercises. 


Kobe, wall. 

Tut a, ivy. 

Meirei, command. 

Mise, shop. 

Tobu, to fly or jump. 

Katdna, sword. 

Wdkareru, to part. 
Sina, article or thing. 
Osiye 3 instruction. 
Teppo, gun. 
Tuye, stick. 

1. Watakusi wa miti de sono hito ni ote hanasi wo 
kikimasita. 2. Kono hito wa watakusi ga sakuzitu 
Asakusa de ota hito de gozarimasu. 3. Kireina tuta 
ga kabe ni hote orimasu. 4. Sakuzitu watakusi ga 
kdta tokei wo konniti usinaimaslta. 5. Kore wa wa- 
takusi ga sakuzitu kdta sina de gozarimasa. 6. Wa- 
takusi ga teppo de nerota tori wa tobimasita. 7. Wa- 
takusi wa anata no osiye ni sitagbte kono koto wo 
simosho. 8. Kono hito wa anata no meirei ni sitagbte 
konniti kono tokoro ye kimasita. 9. Kono hito ga 
sono hito wo wardte soirimasita. 10. Kore wa wata- 
kusi ga sakuzitu usinota sina de gozarimasu. 11. Sono 
hito wa hito wo utagote sono tegami wo watasimasen. 

12. Anata wa kono sake wo kononde onomi nasaru ka. 

13. Watakusi wa kononde nomimasu. 14. Kono hito 
iv a mainiti kono tokoro ye kite sake wo nonde tanosi- 
mimasu. 15. Kore wa watakusi ga nonda sake de 
gozarimasu. 16. Sono hanasi wo kite kinasinda hito 
aw kono hito de gozarimasu. 17. Watakusi wa sono 

Japanese and English Exercises. 115 

sinawo kote, Jcono hito ni tanonde, watakusi no tomodati 
ni okurimasho. 18. Watakusi wa sakuya hanasika no 
seki ye ite, omosiroi hanasi ivo kite, tanosinde kayeri- 
masita. 19. Kono shomotu wo yonde kurusinda okata 
wa dare de gozarimasu. 20. Sore wa watakusi de 
gozarimasu. 21. Sore wa watakusi ga kono mise 
de kota sina de gozarimasu. 22. Watakusi wa sono 
koto wo kite, tegami ni kaite okurimasita 23. Sakuya 
kono ko wa awarena hanasi wo kite, nasite, kanasimi- 



1. This is the person I met in the street yesterday. 

2. This is the article I bought in the shop yesterday. 

3. I shall obey your command and do this matter. 

4. Does this person like sake, and drink much? 

5. Yes, this person likes sake and drinks much. 6. I 
bought that article in this shop and sent it to you just 
now. 7. I went to a story-teller, heard an amusing 
story, and then returned. 8. This child heard a 
touching story and cried. 9. What did you see 
when you went to Asakusa ? 10. I saw birds when I 
went to Asakusa. 11. I wrote a letter and sent it to 
my friend. 12. What did you write in the letter which 
you sent to your friend ? 13. I wrote (an amusing 
story in my letter, which I heard last night. 14. I 
suffered, worked, and earned money. 1 5. That man 

116 Japanese and English Exercises. 

has beaten this dog with a stick, stabbed it with a sword, 
and then killed it. 16. That person met me in the 
street and (we) parted jnst now. 17. This is the thing I 
bonght yesterday at Sinagawa. 18. This is the place 
where I came yesterday. 19. That child heard that 
story and cried. 20. I went to my friend's house just 
now and returned. 21. I shall go to this story-teller 
and return. 


A , ,, C Atumete. 

Atumeru, to collect, ] 

( Atumeta. 

( Oboyete. 
Oboyeru, to remember, J Qboyeta. 

TokerUy to melt. 
JMiru, to see. 
Homeru, to praise. 
Kangayeru, to think. 

Nigeru, to run away. 
Ta&uneru, to look for. 
Okiru, to get up. 
Nagameru, to gaze. 

The verbs ending in aru. 

A , t , ( Atumatte. 

Atumaru, to assemble, \ 

[ Atumatta. 

. L ■* f Suwatte. 

buwaruy to sit down, < 

L buwatta. 

Hasiru,* to run, 



* This verb changes its termination in the same way as those 
ending in aru. 

Japanese and English Exercises* 117 

Kiru* to cut, 

| Eitta. 

IkarUy to become angry, 

( Ikatte. 
\ Ihatta. 

Tomaruj to stop, 

f Tomatte. 
\ Tomatta. 

Uketoru* to receive. 

( Uketotte. 
\ Uketotta. 

Uru,* to sell, 

| TJtte. 
[ Vita. 

The Verbs ending in urU 
Kuru, to come, 4 

Bassuru, to punish, 
fiWw, to do, or to make, 
Hassuru, to start, 

Tassuru, to reach, 

Hossuru, to wish, or to 














* These verbs change their termination in the same way as those 
ending in aru. 

118 Japanese and English Exercises. 

Hei, army. 

Noti, future, or after. 

Na, name. 

Yo, generation. 

Ko, Lord, or a term of 

Seifu, government. 
Wasureru, to forget. 

Yubin kiyoku, post-office. 
Yuhhiy mail, or post. 
Tuini, finally. 
Minato, harbour. 
Mukasi, ancient times. 
Tkusa, battle. 
Makeru, to be defeated. 

1. Kono tokoro wa mukasi Hideyosi ko ga hei wo 
atumeta tokoro de gozarimasu. 2. Yubin wa itu kono 
minato wo hassite itu Osaka ye tassimasu ka. 3. Kono 
yubin wa konniti kono tokoro wo hassite miyoniti 
Ossaka ye tassimasu. 4. Sono zainin wo bassita hito 
wa dare de gozarimasu ka. 5. Sono zainin wo bassita 
hito wa seifu de gozarimasu. 67^Watakusi wa tadaima 
tegami wo kaite yubin kiyoku ye okurimasita. 7. Saku- 
zitu anata wo hometa hito wa kono hito de gozarimasu. 
8. Mituhide wa Yamasaki ni hei wo atumete Hideyosi to 
tatakote tuini makemasita. 9. Masasige ko wa Mina- 
togawa no ikusa ni utizini wo site noti no yo ni na wo 
nokosimasita. 10. Watakusi wa sono hanasi wo kite, 
oboyete, hitonihanasimasho. 11. Yuki ga tokete,kawa 
no midu ga masimasita (increased). 12. Kore wa 
watakusi ga sakuzitu uketotta tegami de gozarimasu. 
13. Kono inu iva naite orimasu. 14. Watakusi wa 
kosikake ni suwatte, shomotu wo yonde, tanosimimasu. 
] 5. Watakusi wa kono tokoro ni tomatte miyo asa ka- 

Japanese and English Exercises. 119 

yerimasho. 16. Watakusi wa miyoasa hayaku okite, 
sitaku wo site, kayerimasho. 17. Sono hito wa ~kono 
tuye wo katana de kirimasita. 18. Shomotu wo yokit 
yonde kangayeta hito wa yonda koto wo wasuremasen. 
19. Watakusi ga taduneta hito wa sono hito de gozari- 
masu. 20. Kono hito wa kokoni atumatte sore kara 
dokoye ite, nani wo simasu ka. 21. Kono hito wa ko- 
koni atumatte, hanasi wo kite tanosimimasu. 22. Mai- 
ban watakusi wa kono tokoro ye kite, kireina liana wo 
mite tanosimimasu. 23. Kono hito wa shomotu wo 
yonde, sore wo oboyete, sosite hito ni hanasimasu. 
24. Kono tegami ga tassite, sono henzi (reply) wa itu 
kimasho ka. 25. Sore wa miyoniti kimasho. 


1. Who punished that criminal ? 2. The govern- 
ment punished that criminal. 3. Is this the place where 
Hideyosi collected his army ? 4. No, this is the place 
where Yosimoto collected his army and fought against 
Nobunaga. 5. What is this place called ? 6. This is 
the place called Okehazama of Narumi. 7. Do you stay 
here and amuse (yourself) ? 8. Yes, I shall stay here, 
see this place, and then return. 9. Why do these people 
assemble together here, and where do these people 
go ? 10. These people go to a story-teller's house 
and hear the story. 11. I shall consider this matter 
(koto) and do it. 12. When does this mail start from 

120 Japanese and English Exercises. 

this harbour and reach Yokohama? 13. The mail 
will start from this harbour to-day and reach Yoko- 
homa to-morrow evening. 14. I ^et that person in 
the street and told that story. 15. I bought that 
article in this shop and sent it to my friend. 16. Is 
this the place (where) 1 have lost a knife, and looked 
for it yesterday. 17. Yes, this is the place where you 
have lost your knife. 18. Is this the name of a person 
who came here yesterday ? 19. Does this child read 
that book and remember (it) well. 20. Yes, that child 
reads that book, remembers it well and tells the other 
people what he has read (yonda koto). 21. Did you 
receive this letter and read it yesterday? 22. I 
received this letter yesterday and read it this morning. 
23. Did you hear an amusing story yesterday, write 
it in a letter, and send it to your friend ? 24. Yes, I 
wrote in a letter an amusing story which I heard last 
night, and sent it to my friend. 




NESE LANGUAGE, with easy progressive 


THE ENGLISH IN JAPAN: What a Japanese 

thought and thinks about them. 













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