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grammar of 
Colloquial French 




Professeur au Gymnase de Lausanne 




Fc 2111 




IT is satisfactory to find that the strictly phonetic method of 
teaching French is becoming more and more general in 
England. By the strictly phonetic method is meant the method 
in which the language is written in initial stages by means of 
phonetic transcription exclusively, the pupil not being introduced 
to the conventional spelling until he has mastered, at any rate, 
the elements of the spoken language. 

This method has the approval of the Board of Education \ 
and it is used in many of the best English schools^ A teacher 
of long experience writes as follows : ' One is so often asked by 
those who are not yet converted to the exclusive use of phonetic 
script in the early stages of language learning, if it has not a 
tendency to make the acquirement later on of correct spelling 

The following passage from the Board of Education Circular 797 
(Memorandum on the Teaching of Modern Languages), issued in 1912, may 
be quoted (p. 19) : " The explanation of the principles of sound-production 
and the comparison of the sounds used in different languages are greatly 
facilitated by the adoption of a scheme of special symbols each of which 
represents one and only one sound. Many teachers go further than this, 
and use whole texts and books written in a phonetic script. It might seem 
superfluous to point out that the proper use of a phonetic script is to give 
training in audition and systematic practice in the reproduction of the new 
sounds and their combinations, while postponing for a while the further 
difficulty of a new inconsistent orthography, . . . The script, if used, should 
be introduced at the very earliest stage, and it should then be used ex- 
clusively until correct habits of pronunciation have been acquired by the 
class as a whole." 

^.g. the Perse School (Cambridge), Sydenham County Secondary 
School for Grirls, Holloway County Secondary School, Whitgift Grammar 
School (Croydon). Full particulars of the work at the fii-st three of these 
schools are given in the appendix to the above-mentioned Circular of the 
Board of Education. 


in the ordinary script a difficult achievement. To this question 
experience has l)ut one reply, and it is this : If the transition 
from the phonetic script to the ordinary spelling is carefully 
woiked out, the children who have been trained on phonetic 
lines from the beginning invariably make better spellers in the 
end than those who have been so unfortunate as to have had no 
phonetic training at all. ^ " Professor Jespersen says : " The use 
of phonetics and phonetical transcription in the teaching of 
modern languages must be considered as one of the most im- 
portant advances in modern pedagogy But these means 

must be employed immediately from the very beginning. ^" 

The strictly phonetic method being therefore well on its 
way to becoming general, a need has arisen for a French 
Grammar suitable for those learning the language on these 
lines. The present work is intended to supply this deficiency, 
and it appears to me to answer the purpose admirably. 

When one deals with the grammar of spoken French quite 
independently of the conventional written form of the language, 
new rules are brought to light, and many of the rules found in 
ordinary grammars appear in altered forms. Teachers and 
students should have no difficulty in accustoming themselves 
to the, in some respects, novel grouping of grammatical facts 
thus rendered necessary in this book. A short trial cannot fail 
to convince even the most sceptical that grammatical classifica- 
tions and rules based exclusively on the spoken language will be 
found by far the most satisfactory for the initial stages of 
practical teaching ; anything beyond this should more properly 
be treated not as grammar but as part of the subseciuent work 
of transition from phonetic to conventional spelling. 

This grammar is particularly well suited for adult beginners, 
especially for those who from some cause or another are obliged 
to begin their studies of French without a teacher. Such 
students (and there are many of them) are commonly in a 

V. Partington, " The Transition from Phonetic to Onliaary 
Spelling," p. 3. . 

O. Jespersen, "How to Teach a Foreign Language," p. 176. 


sorry plight. The only ;^uiflo they have to th(; pronunciation 
is the conventional spelling; they accordingly fall into such 
monstrous errors as the use of loin for Iws {loin), and d5Uis 
for .^ y (feus), diksjuit (with English short Z's) for dizgit 
(dix-huit), and their speech is consequently unintelligible to 
any French person. However, by the use of this gTammar 
(together with a book explaining the formation of the sounds 
and some easy phonetic reiders), such students may be certain of 
learning to speak the language at any rate intelligil)ly. 

This grammar should also be found useful in class work in 
secondary schools. It will help, as no other grammar will, both 
teacher and pupil to bear in mind continually during grammar 
lessons the all-importance of the spoken language and the com- 
parative unimportance (at any rate, for pui)ils who are not yet 
far advanced) of the conventional written language. 

It will be observed that the pronunciation indicated in this 
book differs in some details from that shown in other books 
dealing with French phonetics \ The student must remember 
that no two French speakers pronounce exactly in the same way, 
and a comparison of the transcripts of different authors is in- 
structive as showing how far divergences from any one definite 

form are permissible. 

D. J. 


In order that this book may be suitable for use in secondary 
schools as well as for individuals, a number of words and phrases 
commonly found in grammars have been avoided here as being 
not easily comprehensible to boys and girls of secondary school 
age. I have moreover endeavoured to select the examples (as 
far as possible) so as to offer suggestions for others to be con- 
structed in class by the teacher or by the impils. 

I take this opportunity of acknowledging my indebtedness 
to the masterly works of Brunot in France and West in England, 

E.g. in the matter of vowel length, the use of a, the distribution of 
a and a, e and e. 


from which I have derived much help in the preparation of this 
book ; also to the work of the Joint Committee of Grammatical 
Terminology, the terminology of which has been followed in this 
book as far as possible. 

My best thanks are also due to Mr. Daniel Jones for 
many useful suggestions and much help in connexion with the 
revision of the proofs. 





Summary - 

The Sounds of French 





Articles. Summary 

The Definite Article 
The Indefinite ,, 
The Partitive „ 


Nouns. Summary 10 

Gender 10 

Number 12 


Adjectives. Summary 14 

Qualitative Adjectives 15 

Quantitative ,, - 26 

Distinctive ,, - - - - . - 34 


Pronouns. Summftry 39 

Personal Pronouns 39 

& Reflexive/ 







Verbs. Summary 54 

Forms : Simple Tenses 56 

First Class 58 

Second Class 64 

Third Class - 71 

Compound Tenses 84 

Passive Voice - - - - - - - 90 

Negative and Interrogative Conjugation - 90 

Paradigms : Auxiliaries : avwair - - - 93 

s:tr - - - 102 

tnive - - - 111 

8:tro truve - - 120 

refieSi:r - - 129 

S9 nietr - - 1.39 

Use of Forms: Moods 148 

Tenses 152 

Persons 154 


Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions 155 

Vocabulary io9 


'age 3, 

line 5 

: instead 


8s twa, 

read s s twa 

„ 3, 







„ 4, 







„ 5, 



9: „ 




„ 5, 






S 8...S S 

„ 8, 







„ 8, 






otrij dgri 

» 8, 







» 8, 





mobla, moroiz, „ 

mo bla, mo roiz 

„ 9, 





etsz afu, 


Qtsz afa 

„ 9, 





si vu pie, 


s i vu pie 

„ 9, 





SIS la, 


6 s la 

» 10, 





ki e:s, 


ki 6 s 

„ 11, 








„ 11, 








„ 11, 







mo bid 

„ 13, 







gra peir 

„ 15, 



qq- ; „ 





„ 15, 



4: „ 





„ 16, 








„ 19, 





Satij om. 



„ 21, 





sa m et. 


sa m et 

„ 21, 








„ 21, 





h ta 6, 


h taz e 

„ 21, 








„ 22, 





ssl la, 



„ 22, 





s^lqi la. 



„ 23, 





S8 3a, 


s e 3a 

„ 24, 








„ 24, 








„ 28, 





demijoor de 


de mijo 

„ 30, 








„ 30, 








„ 31, 








„ 32, 




[bje d9 1] 


bje d9 la [bje dd l] 

„ 32, 



: instead 

of ptit, 

read p^tit 

„ 32, 





si VII pis, 


S i vu ])l6 

„ 32, 





letr a, 


letr^2 a 



age 00, li 
,, 36, , 

ne {5 : 
, 6: 

„ 36, , 

, 7: 

„ 36, , 

, 7: 

„ 36, , 

, 15: 

„ 36, , 

, 16: 

„ 37, , 

, 14: 

» 37, , 

, 15: 

„ 37, , 

, 16: 

„ 38, , 

, 16: 

„ 46, , 

, 19: 

„ 46, , 


» 47, , 

, 4: 

„ 47, , 

, 28: 

» 49, , 

, 9: 

„ 51, , 

, 27: 

„ 58, , 

, 17: 

„ 74, , 

, 29: 

„ 79, , 

, 10: 

instead of sst a, 

,, ,, se S9, 

„ ,, SIS la, 

,, ,, S6 St^ia, 

„ „ ariivra, 

„ „ sgzams, 

„ „ S6 kelky, 

„ ki ma, 

„ lira, 

„ „ fet yn fo:t, 

„ „ apraidr b, 

„ „ msrtr ki, 

,, „ meitr d agls, 

read s et a 

,, s e sst...s s S3 

,, e s la 

„ s s S3la 

„ arivra 

,, egzams 

„ s s kslk^ 

„ ki m a 

„ ss 

„ lira 

. „ fs^ yn fo:t 

» syr 

„ apmidr^ b 

„ ms:tr9 ki 

„ msztr^ d agle 

„ paz de(n), paz yn „ paz oe(n), pas yn 
after ending, add except in the interrogative 

form, where the ending is -e 
instead of syrsis; — akrwair, read syrsis 
after psrdr, add desaidr 




I. The Sounds of French 
IL Liaison - 




The following diagram and table show approximately the 
manner of formation of the French speech-sounds. 

Diagram of Organs of Speech.^ 

B. Back of Tongue. 
Bl. Blade of Tongue. 

E. Epiglottis. 

F. Front of Tongue. 

FP. Food Passage. 

H. Hard Palate. 

LL. Lips. 

P. Pharyngal 

(Pharynx) . 

S. Soft Palate. 

TT. Teeth. 

TR. Teeth Ridge. 

U. Uvula. 

V. Position of 

Vocal Chords. 

W. Windpipe. 


This diagram is reproduced, by permission, from the forthcoming 
Outline of English Phonetics," by D. Jones. 














b3 i 


























3 3 3 

3 3 3 



. ^ 






Half Open 

1 sxxvxosxoo 

si^AiOA 1 







isi, diir, p.?ti 

e, gema, kaje 

si s 

o o 

es twa, msim, 5 ets 


a:r, papa 

1 ra 

am, pase, pa 

orb: 3, kom, tro 

ote, ro:n, bo 

ubli, ru:3, 3U 

yniir, yzyir, ty 

^|l0 0staS, pj0:z, mj0 


oeir, soeir, ploere 
ratniir, la 

8 sdefini, msis, tjs 

a afa:s, bid 

o ot0, epoi3, ro 

oe den Dm, komde 

Vowels may be short, as in 

papa, 3 ets, isi, dfd, ubli, 
or long, as in 

a:r, msim, ms:s, diir, rom. 





bo, abi, o:b 


pase, aprs, tap 


dadd, vid 


tciit, ete, bsit 


gro, agoni, bag 


kd, okde, bark 


i YU '^S 


msim, amne 
no, anqi, a:n 


ism, kataplasm] 

ratniir, pn0] 


jicipa, motaji 


lo, ale, bal 


plo, bukl] 


^ riiT, arive 


trs, katr] 


wi, avvvair 


twa, pwa] 


i{it, dnqi 


pqi, sqi] 

It is to be understood that uvular R may be used throughout 
a substitute for dental r. 


Voiced Breathed 

Consonants. Consonants. 

V vu, avs, braiv f fsir, afa, noef 

z zsd, p9ze, biiz s sy:r, pase, mas 

5 3oen, ase, pais S Sa, aSte, aj 

J J0, m, pay [j tjsir, pje] 

The breathed consonants placed in [ ] occur frequently 
instead of the corresponding voiced consonants when preceded 
or followed by a breathed consonant.^ 

For further details regarding the formation of the sounds 
and for an account of the differences between similar English 
and French sounds, and the difficulties of English people in 
acquiring French pronunciation, the student is referred to the 
books on Phonetic Theory mentioned in Appendix II. 


Many words ending with a vowel have two forms : 

1. A usual form of regular occurrence at the end of breath- 

groups and before an immediately following word 
beginning with a consonant ; 

2. a second form, which is used, or at any rate may be 

used, when an immediately following word (in the 
same breath-group) begins with a vowel, or, in the 
case of some words, with a j or a q or a w. 

This second form ends with a consonant. This consonant 
forms a connecting link between the two words. In dividing 
two words thus connected into syllables, this final consonant of 
the first word would be heard as the first sound of the second 

The symbols [m, nj, etc., will not be employed in the course of the 
book, it being understood throughout that m, n, etc., may always be 
devocalized when they occur next to breathed consonants. 

' Breath-groups ' are groups of sounds which are pronounced without 
pause of any kind. 


This union of two words is called liaison. It is not 
possible to give any rules for finding the liaison-form when 
only the usual form of a word is known. Liaison-forms have 
to be learnt for every word individually. 

The younger generation do not, as a rule, use liaison by 
insertion of a consonant as frequently as older people. 

Liaisons are only necessary in certain well-defined cases, of 
which the following are the principal : 

L Between article and adjective or noun : 1 om, 1 afa, 
1 d:kr, 1 epo:3, lez om, lez afa, lez epo:3, den om, den afa, 
dez om, dez afa, lez smahhz ^ afa k^ vwala ; 

2. between adjective and noun : de bel abi, da boz abi, 

se saz om, plyzjoeirz ami, mon akrije, ksZk^z afa, 
sez arbr; 

3. between personal pronoun and verb : 3 eim, il e:m, 

nuz emo, vuz ^me, iz s:m — cf. 3^ deziir, i deziir, 
nu deziro, vu dezire, i deziir ; 

4. between verb and personal pronoun : vjet i, at i, vjst o 

— cf . i vjs, il a, i s a vjs ; 

5. between a monosyllabic preposition and the noun it 

governs : noz akrije so saz dikr. — 3^ ve Jez alfred. — 
mo kaje s suz de liivr. — la krs s ddz yn bwait. 
— cf. e:tr sa 1 su, ale Je swa, etc. ; 

6. between ka^ and the following word : kdt i fo, kdt 

a mwa. 

In certain other cases, liaisons are optional ; but, as a 
matter of fact, they are generally dispensed with in conversa- 
tion : dez omz et8li3d or dez om etslisd — de 3urz oer0 or de 
3ur oer0 — le nasjoz etrdssir or le nasjo etrd3s:r — de sdk 
ilystr or de sd ilystr — se trop cer0 or ss tro cer0 — 30 sqiz 
arive or 30 si{i arive — nu somz isi or nu som isi. 

Sounds printed in italics are those which may or may not be pro- 
nounced. is often dropped in colloquial speech. However it is kept 
where its dropping would lead to a difficult group of consonants. 

Strictly speaking tlie liaison is necessary only with kd preposition : 
kdt a mwa, kdt a sa, and kd relative conjunction : 3,? soir kdt i fs 
bo. With kd interrogative conjunction, the liaison does not seem to be 
usually made : kdt ariivt i 1 is not so frequently heard as kd ariivt i ? 
except in dependent questions : 30 n se kdt i vjsdra. 


There are some words with which, although they begin with 
a vowel, no liaison can be made. Most of them are words 
which formerly began with an aspiration. The following are 
the most important of these words : 

1. Nouns : 

a. Masculine : amo, anto, azair, ariko, ard, arns, sir, 

ero, ibu, aijo, omair, olade, ublo, cigair. 

b. Feminine: aj, al, alt, araig, arp, ard, £:, s:n, srs, cut, 

ot, oladsiz, uis, u:j, ulst, yt, a:p, aiS- 


Adjectives : agair, ardi, erise, idti, o, oiz, ozjeim. 

3. Verbs: air, ape, aje, alte, sni:r\ ise, oniir, a?rte, ye, yme, 
yrle, etc. 


Id amo, de anto, de azair, d.> bo ariko, de poivra sir, ci aijo, 
la aj, yn bsla ardigl — sez abi so de ard. — 50 s, ty e, il ^s, nu 
aiso. — ave vu oerte 1 — n9 yrle du pa kom sa! 

N.B. — In the course of this book, whenever an isolated 
word possessing a liaison-form is given as an example, its liaison- 
form is indicated in the following way : 

1. Where the liaison-form is obtained by the addition of one 

consonant to the usual form, this additional consonant 
will be placed in round brackets after the usual form: 
le(z), nu(z), oer0(z), sy38(t), ava(t), etc. 

2. Where the liaison-form is obtained either by the omission 
of the last vowel^ or by some change in the body of the 
word accompanying the addition of a final consonant, the 
complete liaison-form will be given between square 
brackets : mo [mon], 39 | 3], ka [k], bo [bsl], vj0 [vjej]. 

^ Or aniir. ^ Or bsl -Pardig. 

The liaison form obtained by dropping final is called by many 
writers "elision." The term " elision " is, however, xised by them to denote 
not only the dropping of 9 before a vowel, but also the dropping of 9 
before a consonant (p. 5, footnote 1). It has been thought desirable here to 
keep the two kinds of elision apart. Thus the 3 in 3 s:m will be re- 
garded as the liaison-form of 39, while the 3 in 3 1 Sim (alternative 
form of 39 1 Sim) will be regarded as a case of elision of 9. 



The Definite Article : 


Use - 

The Indefinite Article : 


Use ■ 

The Partitive Article: 





h [1] for the masculine singular : h garso, h kaje, 1» 
liivr; — 1 om, 1 cikrije, 1 iveir. 

la [1] for the feminine singular : la plym, la tabl, la 3cen 
fi:j : — 1 a:kr, 1 ep6:3, 1 ardwaiz. 

le(z) for both the masculine and the feminine plural : le 
garso, le liivr, le fiij, le tabl ; — lez om, lez ivsrr, lez epo:3, lez 

When the prepositions d.> [d] and a immediately precede 
h or le(z), contracted forms are used : 

dy instead of da la 

de(z) ,, „ da le(z) 

o „ „ a la 

o(z) „ „ a le(z) 

b kaje dy meitr ; — la pa:3 dy liivr ; — la klais de garso ; — 
1 armwair dez cikrije ; — la klais de fiij : — ksl s la kuloerr de 
tabl? — v^nez o pypitr. — i vu fot aler o li. — se kaje sot o garso^ 
i n so paz o fiij. — nuz smo grsper oz arbr. 


No contraction takes place when dd [d] and a precede 
1 (liaison-form of h) and la : le mwa d? 1 ivsir ; — h karne 
d9 la mstrsis ; — le sszo d^ 1 ane ; — 53 vu diz o r^vwair a 1 ete 
proje. — 33 pari a la klais citjsir. — a 1 ane proSsin. 


1. la pares et de defo. — la proprate s nssessir — 1 or s ply 

presj0 k9 b^ kqiivr. — la botanik, la zoolosi, la 5eometri e 1 
alssibr so de sjais. — k^ prefere vu, h prsta u 1 oton 1 — 
la ru3ol, la skarlatin e la difteri so de maladi d afa. — 
le fi:j so ply babijard kd le garso. — h bl0 e la kulceir dy 
sjel e h vsir ssl dez arbr. 

The Defininite Article is used before nouns taken in a 
general sense. 

2. 1 aprceir gijoim ; — h pap leo trsiz ; — lo tsair nikola ; — h 

sylta moamsd ; — 1 arjidyk fsrdina ; — la du:s virsini ; — 
la vjer3 mari. 

It is used before proper names preceded by a title or an 

3. la frais, 1 agbtsr, 1 almaji, la rysi, 1 otrijogri e 1 itali so le 

si graid pqisais 0rope6n^. — h portygal st de p^ti pei. — h 
mobla e h moroiz so le d0 sea dez alp. — le floeiv d^ fra:s 
so la ss:n, la Iwair, la garon e h roin. 

It is used before many geographical names. 

Notice, however : 33 yez a frais. — nuz iroz a sqis. — nu 
r^turn^ro bjsto^ an aglotsir. — ka^ ire vuz an ekos 1 — 3 ariiv d9 
bslsik. — i j a de rwa d agloteir ms i n j a ply d9 rwa d? frais 
d^pqi bje lota. 

No article is used before names of countries in the singular 
after the preposition a(n) and, in many cases, after the 
preposition d9[d] . 

4. pari, kapital d<? la frais, st yn vil syperb. — napoleo, aproeir 

de frass. — sst dikte, morso d^) votr liivr d^ lektyir, 8 trs 
fasil. — 3a, eleiv atatif, fs mj0 k9 pol, elsiv bje dwe me 
distre. — Japitra promje, napoleo promje. 

The Definite Article is not used (a) before an apposition, 
{b) before promje(r) when promje(r) follows the noun. 

Or kob. ^ Or pqisaisz 0ropeen. 




od{n)^ for the masculine singular: de garso, de 5u:r, de 
mwa; — den om, den egzersis, den ami. 

yn^ for the feminine singular : yn plym, yn tabl, yn ekol, 
yn epo:3. 

de(z) for both the masculine and the feminine plural : 
de 5u:r, de mwa, de plym, de tabl ; — dez sgzsrsis, dez ami, dez 


11 8 solda ; — 3a si[i kretjs ; — ka 3 etsz afa... 

The Indefinite Article is not always used in French where 
it would be used in English. 



dy [d^ 1] for the masculine singular : vule vu dy pe 1 — 
done mwa dy papje, si vu pis. — vwasi d^ 1 o:r e vwala d^ 1 arsa. 

d^ la [d^ 1] for the feminine singular : ave \uz y d3 la 
psin a fsir s^ travaj ? — prone d^ la kol e kole se gravyir da votr 
kaje. — i at i d^ 1 a:kr da voz akrije? — ale vu lave le ms avsk 
do 1 o e dy savo. 

Notice, however : s s dc^ bjs move papje. — s:s la d? bon 
a:kr 1 — vwasi d^ bon o. — ^c^ n e pa d<? ps. — i n a pa d^ vjard. 

The preposition d^ [d] is alone used (a) before adjectives, 
(b) after a negation. 

yn is sometimes heard instead of den : yn om, yn ami, yn affi. 
It sounds, however, rather old-fashioned. 

Before words of the no-liaisoh list (see page 6), either yno or yn'? 
is usually heard: yno Sin ferois or yn '?s:n ferois ; yno aij or yn '^aij. 




Gender - - - - - - 10 

Number 12 


A neuter gender being practically' unknown in French, all 
nouns are either masculine or feminine. 

In many, though not in the majority of cases, the gender of 
a noun may be inferred either from its meaning or from its 

(A) Cases in which the gender may he inferred from 
the meaning : 

I. The following are masculine : 

1. Nouns denoting male persons and animals: den om, de 

garso, de msitr, de Jval, de Jjs. 

A few. nouns which denote or may denote male persons or 
animals are feminine : la scitinel, la r.vkry ; — sa massste h rwci; 
— la person ki ets^ avsk vu, ki sis'? s ets mo frsir.— jai 
konssais, yn pratik ; — yn balsin, yn furmi, yn muj.... 

2. The names of days, months and seasons : h Idedi sqivd, 

an ut proje, ksl bo prstci ! 

3! The names of the cardinal points : h syd e h noir. 

4. The names of metals : 1 oir e presj0. — 1 alyminjom s trs 
le5e. — h plo s trs luir. 

It occurs in pronouns. 


5. The names of trees : h Ss:n de 5Uir dit o rozo.... — h ps e 

h saps, l9 lorje e b bi[i so tusuir vsir. — la svrizje, h 
pomje, h pwaije so dez arbr<> frqitje. 

6. Adjectives used substantivally : L^ vrs seel st emabl. — h 

bJ8 e h bo s5 siivd kofody. 

7. The names of weights and measures in the decimal system : 

h kilo, h kilomsitr, h satimsitr — but la lizvr, la ton. 

II. The following are feminine : 

1. Nouns denoting female persons and animals : yn fam, ma 

sdeir, ma ms:r, yn Jat, yn symci, yn Ijon. 

2. Most names of fruits : la s.yriiz, la peij, la pom, la pwair, 

la pryn, la banan, la dat, yn amaid, yn nwci. — but. h maru, 
h rezs, h pryno, den abriko, den ananas. 

3. Nouns denoting good or bad qualities: la bote, la parsis, 

la dusoeir, la pasjciis, la frajiiz, la Iwajote. 

(B) Cases in which the gender may he inferred from 
the ending : 

I. The following are masculine : Nouns ending in 

1. -a or <i : h mwa d.> sqe ; — h rwa, de P'>ti pwa, de two, 

de ka ;— me bci so brde. Exceptions : la fwa, la krwci, 
la Iwa, la parwci, la vwci, la swa. 

2. ;Q : b ra, h pajct, den afa ; — sst fam vo so pozci d o:r. — 

kel ta fet il b tci st o bo. Exceptions : la dci ; d/ 
bon 3d. 

3. -£ : b ve e L> ps ; — ale:2 kws. — ^ de pws, de Sjs.... 

Exceptions : 3 e yn fs d<> lu. — done mwa la ms. 

4. ^ : 3 e mal o pje, mo suje ma blsse. Exceptions : la 

pitje ; yn bon amitje ; don m d la mwatje. 

5. -i : lo li, h kri, den abi, den ubli, den avi ; h pli d<> vo 

pdtalo st ireprojabl. Exceptions : la brobi, la furmi, la 
nqi, la suri, and all the nouns that may be pronounced 
with a long i: : la plqi(:), la vi(:), etc, 

6. ^ : h mobld, h po d avipo, de rci. Exceptions : See 

below: 11. 1, 2, 3. 


7. ^ : de Sapo, de mo, de po ; — vuz sitz ce so ! Exceptions : 
i n a ky la po syr lez o. — d^ bsl o frsij ; — la Jo; — la fo; — 
la moir s tii5u:r roprezcite avek yii fo. 

8. ^: de Su, de lu ; — avwair h ku ny ; — don mwa de su. 

Exceptions : kel vilsin tu vuz ave ! — and all the nouns 
that may be pronounced with a long u: : la bu(:), la 
5u(:), la ru(i), etc. 

9. -asm, -azm, -ism, -izm, -o:m, -aitr . No exceptions. 

10. -Sim : de tsim, de batsim, h karsim, b ss kreim. 
Exceptions : 6.9 la krsim, yn trirsim atik. 

II. The following are feminine : Nouns ending in 

1. -sjo, -zjo. No exceptions. 

2. -stjo. Exception : h bast jo. 

3. -so, -zo : la bso, la mszo, la rszo, la sszo.... Ex- 
. ceptions : h pwaso, h blazo, h pwazo, b tizo. 

4. ^ : la bote, la katite, la bote. Exceptions : de pate, 

de komite, de kote, and a few others. 

5. -a:d, -art, -ad, -yd . Two exceptions : b grad, b prelyd. 

6. -in, -sin, -yn. No exceptions. 

7. -as, -ais, -ais, -iiz : la ras, la lais, la biiz. Exceptions : 

den sspais imais, b sildis s d oir. 

The genders of French nouns are, however, best mastered, 
not by learning rules, but by making a point of never learning a 
new noun without connecting it with an article or declinable 


Most nouns have in the plural the same form as in the 
singular. In most cases the context alone can help to deter- 
mine whether the plural or the singular is meant : b msitr, le 
msitr ; — 1 afa, lez afa ; — la plym, le plym ; — 1 ardwaiz, lez 
ardwaiz : — uivr to liivr ; — uvre vo liivr. 

However, a few masculine nouns have a special form in the 
plural : 


1. Nouns ending in -al (bal, festival, regal, karnaval ex- 

cepted) in the singular, end in -o in the plural : de Jval, 
de Jvo ; — de metal, de meto ; — de 3urnal, de 3urno ; — den 
arsenal, dez ars^no ; — den amiral, dez amiro. 

2. A few nouns ending in -aj in the singular, end in -o in 
the plural : de travaj, de travo ; — de vitraj, de vitro. 

3. A few nouns are quite irregular : dy betaj, de bestjo ; — 

h sjel, le sj0^ ; — de boef, de b0 ; — &n cef, dez 0^ ; — den cej, 
dez J0^ ; — den ajcel, dez aj0 * ; — den os, dez o ''. 

Foreign nouns, proper names, and compounds follow the 
general rule. Two important exceptions may be mentioned : 
de bonom, de bozom ; — de satijom, de scitizom. 

Nouns in the plural have, besides their usual form, a liaison- 
form ending in z, which it seems in no case absolutely necessary 
to use, but which is very frequently heard (particularly in the 
south of France and in French Switzerland), when, for instance, 
a qualitative adjective or a verb follows : 5a e pol so dez eisivz 
aplike. — lez ekojes; abim loeir liivr. — le pypitr^sj e le ba so le 
seel moebl d9 la klars. 

In many cases the use of the liaison-form sounds rather 
pedantic. It seems to be so whenever the liaison-form requires 
the introduction of an 9 before the z. This is the case when 
the addition of the z would lead to a difficult group of 
consonants (see above, page 5, Note l). 

The liaison-form of nouns ending in s, z, J, 5 is rather 
unusual : le ras ymsm ; — de roiz d tioeir ; — de vizais avna ; — de 
aS egize... rather than le rasz ymsin ;— de roizz a floeir ; — de 
viza:3Z avnd ; — de ajz egize. 

The plural sjsl is heard in a few expressions of a technical order: 
de sjel d^^ li ; dd le tablo d^ renold le sjel so kovdsjonel. 

Such expressions as yn duzein d oef, de sd d oef are sometimes 
heard ; they may be considered as unusual. 

Except in dez oej d^ boef. 

ajoel is sometimes heard for the plural : VOZ ajoel SO VO d0 
grdpeir e voz aj0 voz dseitr. 

dez o:s, dez os may also be heard. 



Qualitative Adjectives : 
I. Inflexion 

II. Syntax 




(a) Masculine and Feminine - 15 

(6) Masculine Liaison-form - 19 

(c) Singular and Plural - - 21 

(d) Plural Liaison-form - - 21 

(e) Degrees of Comparison - 21 
ia) Place of Qua). Adjectives - 24 
(6) Agreement - - - 25 

Quantitative Adjectives: 
I. Definite: 

II. Indefinite 


(a) Cardinal Numerals 
(6) Ordinal Numerals 
(c) Multiplicative Numerals 
{d) Zero Expressions 



Distinctive Adjectives : I. Possessive 

II. Demonstrative 

III. Emphasizing 

IV. Relative - 
V. Interrogative 

VI. Indefinite - 

VII. Comparative 

VIII. Distributive 




{a) Masculine and Feminine. 

Adjectives ending in a consonant in the masculine : 

Adjectives ending in a consonant in the masculine have, as 
a rule, only one form for both masculine and feminine : de liivr^ 
ru:3, dr? 1 akr.^ ru:5 ; — de 5oen om, yn 3oen fi:j ; — de sol rij, yn vil 
rij ; — de monymci grcidjoiz, yn vy grcidjoiz ; etc. 

Some important exceptions must be noticed : 

1. ssk, ssij. 

ssk has the form seiS in the feminine : dy bwa ssk, dj 1 
srb ssij. 

2. vif, viiv. 

Almost all adjectives ending in -f in the masculine, end in 
-V in the feminine, -v being preceded by a lengthened vowel : 
de Sval vif, yn syma viiv : — &n dfci naif, yn fam naiiv ; — de 
diskuir brsf, yn letr brsiv ; — den abi noef, yn kravat noeiv. 

Exceptions : yn depsij apokrif, yn letr apokrif, yn kotre 

3. trsitr, trstreis. 

trsitr has the form tretrsis and meitr, metrsis in the 
feminine : de msitr uvrije, yn oervr mstrsis, yn putr metrsis ; — 
ce scitima trsitr, yn pose trstrsis. 

4. foir, fort. 

kair, skspsir, vsir, dezsir, dizsir. foir, kuir form their 

feminine by shortening the last vowel and adding -t : de pel 

dezsir, yn vil dezsrt ; — il s foir, si s.fort ; — dy gazo kuir e vsir, 
d.; 1 srb kurt e vsrt. 

5. luir, lurd. 

luir, suir, guir and many adjectives ending in -air^ form 

rair, ijiair, barbair, bizair, avair and all adjectives ending in 
-wair like uAvair, kotradiktwair are uninflected ; for kair, epair see 
under 4 & 6. 


their feminine by shortening the last vowel and adding -d : de 
lu:r fardo, yn lurd Jars ; — il e suir, el 8 surd ; — de 5u:r blafair, 
yn lymjeir blafard ; — 1 oij aga:r, la mina agard\ 

6. divsir, divers. 

epazr, diveir, tjeir form their feminine by shortening the 
last vowel and adding s : dez arbr d espes divers e d aspe 
diveir ; — de ramoz epair, de foeijz epars. 

7. direktoeir, direktris. 

Adjectives ending in -t«:r in the masculine, end in -tris 
in the feminine : de presip direktoeir, yn ide direktris ; — de sol 
prodyktoeir, yn teir prodyktris ; 

except (a) matoeir, mat0iz ; fiatceir, flat0iz : den af a matoeir, 
yn ptit fiij mat0iz ; — de diskyir flatoeir, de parol flat0iz ; and 
(/3) aSatoeir, ajat^res : de peizai5 ajatoeir, yn vy ajat^res. 

8. vasoeir, vas^rss. 

vasoeir has the form vas^res and pejoeir, pej^res in the 
feminine : den akt vasoeir, yn aksjo vas^^res ; — no kceirz a tuis 
so de ko3ir pejoeir e noz aim, dez aim pej^res. 

9. tropoeir, trop0iz. 

All other adjectives ending in -oeir in the masculine, end 
in -0IZ in the feminine : den eir tropceir, yn aparais tr6p0iz ; — 
de r^gair Jarmoeir, yn vwa Sarm0iz ; 

except (a) a few adjectives of learned formation, such as 
mejoeir, eferjceir, syperjoeir, and (jS) a few adjectives like 
doktoeir, profesceir, denoting professions to which women were 
not admitted till lately, which have only one form for both 
genders : de karakteir eferjceir, yn pozisjo eferjoeir ; — b mejoeir 
frqi, la mejoeir pom ;— den eskajer eterjoeir, yn kuir eterjoeir ; — 
s^ mosj0^ e doktoeir, set fam e doktoeir. 

10. nasjonal, nasjonail. 

Adjectives ending in- al in the masculine may be con- 
sidered as having only one form for both genders, although in 
some parts of France, and in French Switzerland, the final a 
is lengthened in the feminine : de monyma nasjonal, yn rut 
nasjona(i)l ; — de liivr eparsjal, yn kritik 6parsja(i)l ; — de vizai3 
orisinal, yn figyir ori5ina(i)l. 

^ Or la min '^agard. ^ Or so m^sj0. 



Adjectives ending in a vowel in the masculine : 

The formation of the feminine of adjectives ending in a 
vowel in the masculine cannot be reduced to any rule or rules. 
Some have only one form for both genders. Most of them have 
a feminine form ending in some consonant or other, the final 
vowel being often lengthened before the final consonant. The 
following table will show not only the great variety of feminine 
formations, but also which formations are limited to one or only 
a few adjectives, and which are common to many adjectives. 
The mark f applied to an adjective denotes that there are no 
other adjectives forming their feminine in a similar way; the 
mark + means that there are only a few other adjectives forming 
their feminine in a similar way. 

1. Adjectives ending in one of the oral vowels in the 
masculine : 






-i or -i:^ 

soli, solid) ; poli, poli(:) ; etc. 


p3ti, p^tit; etc. 


meti, metis, t 


gri, gri:z; etc. 


Sati, scitiij.f 


-e or -e:^ 

ge, ge(:); sase, sase(:); etc. 



lese, lessir; promje, promjeir; etc. 


-s or -s:^ 

vrs, vr8(i) ; etc. 


kople, koplet; parfe, parfst; etc. 


le, led.f 

-SIS, 8S 

eps, eps:s; profs, profss; sksprs, skspres.! 


agls, aglsiz; movs, movsiz; etc. 


fre, frsij.f 



pla, plat: drwa, drwat; etc. 


frwa, frwad.f 


kurtwa, kurtwaiz ; ra, ra:z ; etc. 



la, lais; ba, bais.t 

The lengthening of the final vowel is not heard in normal Northern 
French. It is very noticeable in tlie French spoken in French Switzerland 
(F. S.). 

^ These adjectives are often pronounced -a, -a:z. 







kurtwa, kurtwaiz ; ra, raiz ; etc. 



vjejo, vjsjot. f^ 





bo, bsl; symo, symsl; nuvo, nuvsl.f 


0, o:t.f 


So, Soid; ru30, ru30id.:|: 


fo, fois; gro, grois.t 


so, sot; idjo, idjot.| 



tu, tutf. 

-u:s, us 

du, du:s; ru, rus. t 


3alu, saluiz.f 


su, suit 


mu, mol; fu, fol.f 


-0 or -0: ^ 

bl0, bl0(:); f0, f0(i).f 


VJ0, vjsij.f 


oer0, cer0:z; afr0, afr0:z; etc. 


-y or yi^ 

egy, egy(:) ; kotiny, kotiny(:) ; etc. 


kofy, kofyiz; kamy, kamyiz; dify, difyis; 
opty, optyrz.f 


There are no adjectives ending in -oe 
^ or -0. 



Adjectives ending in one of the nasal vowels in the 

masculine : 






arda, ardait; kota, kotait; etc. 


gra, graid; gurmci, gurma:d.| 


fra, fraik.t 


fra, fraij; bla, blaij.f 


roma, roman; galika, galikan.t 



pro, proitf 


bio, blord ; ro, roid; prof 6, profoid.I 


lo, loig; oblo, obloig.t 


bo, bon; fripo, fripon; poltro, poltron.l 

^ Or vjejo, vjsjot. ' F. S. 


Masculine. Feminine. 

-s -8:t ss, seit.t 

-sn tisje, asjen; dilyvjs, dilyvjsn; etc. 

-s:n vs, vsin; pie, plsin ; Iwste, Iwstsiri; etc. 

-in fe, fin; divs, divin; lats, latin; etc. 

-iji benf, beniji; mals, maliji.f 

-s:kt dists, distsikt.i 

-de -ceit defde, defdeit. I 

-yn brde, bryn ; komde, komyn ; etc. 

(b) Masculine Singular Liaison-form. 

Most adjectives ending in a vowel in the masculine singular 
liave a special masculine singular liaison-form \ which is generally 
similar to the feminine form '^ : de p^ti garso, de p^tit om ; de sati 
m^sj0, de 5atij om; den oratoeir parfe, de parfet oratoeir; de bo liivr, 
de bel arbr. 

There are, however, some peculiarities to notice: 

1. The last vowel of the liaison-form is generally short, 
even when it is long in the feminine form : yn movsiz pom, de 
movez abriko ; den advsrseir kurtwaz e poli, yn letr^ kurtwaiz ; 
den cer0z epu, yn oer0(:)z epuiz ; de vjsj om^, yn vje(:)j fi:j ; & set 
om, yn se(:)t fam^. 

2. When the last consonant of the feminine form is -s, 
the liaison -form ends in -z : d^ ge:r la:s, laz e abaty ; yn 
giors taj, groz e gra ; yn du(:)s eproerv, de duz atajma. 

3. When the last consonant of the feminine form is -d 
or -g, the liaison- form ends in -t or -k respectively : yn 
graid dam, de grat ekrive ; yn o profoid, de profot oratoeir ; yn 
l6:g ane, de lok etc. 

4. Liaison -forms of some of the adjectives ending in a 
nasal vowel in the masculine : 

i. The liaison-form of adjectives ending in -o in the 

For the plural liaison-form, see below, (d) page 21. 

Adjectives which have the same form for both genders, such as 
30ii, vre, etc., have no liaison-form. 

de VJ0Z om is gometimes heard. 

The feminine form is often shortened when not final. The masculine 
liaison-form is generally short because it never is final. 



masculine and in -on in the feminine, ends in -on 
or -on indifferently : de bon avoka, de bon avoka. 

ii. The liaison-form of adjectives ending in -e in the 
masculine and in -en or -s:n in the feminine, ends 
in -en or -en indifferently ; -en is, however, much 
more frequently heard, especially in the case of adjectives 
ending in -e:n in the feminine : 1 cisjen alma, 1 asjen 
agle ; — de Iweten orizo rather than de Iweten orizo. 

iii. The liaison -form of adjectives ending in -e in the 
masculine and in -in or -iji in the feminine, always 
ends in -en : de diven afa ; de mesken aturais. 

iv. The liaison-form of adjectives ending in -de in the 
masculine and in -yn in the feminine, ends in -den 
or -oen : de komoen ipokrit ; okden om. 

5. The liaison-form of adjectives ending in -e in the 
masculine and in -e:r in the feminine, generally ends, not in 
-er, but in -er : b promjer om ; h dernjer istorje ; de leser 

6. The liaison-form of fra is frak ; that of fre, frez. 

The following table sums up the exceptions to the general 
rule regarding the formation of the liaison-forms of adjectives : 

When the Mas- 
culine ends in 

and the Feminine in 

the Liaison-form ends in 

a vowel 

lengthened vowel + cons. 

short vowel + cons, of Fern. 

>5 J5 

„ + s 

„ + z 

)) 5J 

„ + d 

„ + t . . 

>) JJ 

» + g 

„ + k 


on or on 



en or en 



en (en) 


in, iji 




den or oen 











(c) Singular and Plural. 

Most adjectives have in the plural the same form as in the 
singular. As with nouns, the context alone in most cases helps 
to determine whether the plural or the singular is meant : oen 
om etelisa, dez omz etslisa ; — den afa ijiora, dez aiaz ijiora ; — 
de bo krsjo, trwa bo krejo ; — tq az yn movsiz plym, vuz ave dd 
moveiz plym. 

However, adjectives ending in -al in the masculine singular, 
end in -o in the masculine plural, except fatal, final, naval, 
and a few other less common adjectives : de posit nasjonal, de 
poeit nasjono ; — de suriir amikal, de surirs; amiko ; — sa m st egal, 
nu som2; ego d^va la Iwa. But : de koba naval, de koba naval ; 
de ku fatal, de ku fatal. 

(d) Plural Liaison-form. 

Adjectives in the plural have, besides their usual form, a 
liaison- form ending in z, which it is necessary to use whenever 
the adjective immediately precedes the noun it qualifies, and 
which may be used in other cases : d^ bravz afa, d^ bonz arm, 
d^ graz ekrive, d<? loigz istwair, d air^izz evasjo\ kslz etraigz 
ide\ de myr v}0z e delabre. 

(e) Degrees of Comparison. 

I. Comparative. 

1. The comparative of inferiority is formed by using the 
adverb mws(z) before the adjective and introducing the second 
term of the comparison by kd [k] : 39 sqi mws gra kd twa. — 
vuz s:t mws sa:3 k 0. — h ta s mws move k^ jsir. — S9 krsjo s 
mws lo k^ sst plym. — si s mwsz emabl k9 39 n^ krwajs. 

2. The comparative of equality is formed by using the 
adverb osi before the adjective, and introducing the second 
term of the comparison by ks [k] : 58 sqiz osi gra k^ twa. — 
vuz 8:tz osi sa:3 k 0. — b taz st osi movs k^ jsir. —sd krsjo st osi 
16 ks sst plym. 

3. The comparative of superiority is formed by using the 
adverb ply(z) before the adjective, and introducing the second 
term of the comparison by k^ [k] : 30 sqi ply grd k^ twa. — vuz 

^ Cf. page 13. 


6:t ply sa:3 k 0. — h taz s ply move k^? jeir. — rjs n s plyz ani{ij0 
k^ la pli|i. 

Two adjectives, bo, bon and move, movsiz, have special 
forms for the comparative of superiority : bo, bon ; comparative : 
msjoeir. — move, moveiz ; comparative : ply move, ply moveiz 
or pi:r : set aikr e bon, me sel la e mejoeir. — Sr? papje et ase 
bo, s^lqi la e mejceir. — 05urdi{i b taz e bje move, il e piir k^ jeir. 
— votr ekrityrr e tre moveiz, 5^ krwa k el e tasuir piir. 

p^ti, p^tit has, besides its regular comparative, ply p^ti, 
another comparative, mweidr : ma plym e ply p^tit k<) la tjen. 
— yn foit dc) pronosjasjo n e pa d.> mweidr eportdis k yn foit d^ 

Remarks : 

1. Comparatives of equality in negative sentences are 
equivalent to comparatives of inferiority : 50 n.^ sqi paz osi 
gra b? twa. — h krejo n e paz osi lo k^ la plym. 

In such sentences pa> [k] may always be used instead 
of paz osi . . . k^ [k]. This shorter form is more commonly 
adopted in colloquial speech : 39 n^ sqi pa si gra k? twa. — 
h krejo n e pa si gra k.> la plym. 

2. Comparatives of superiority or inferiority in negative 
sentences are equivalent to comparatives of equality : b ta n e 
pa mwe move k<) jeir. — vu n eit pa mwe sais k 0. — h td n e pa 
ply move k^ jeir. — vu n eit pa ply sai5 k 0. 

3. However, it is important to feel that there are slight 
differences of meaning between : ^9 sqiz osi grd k? vu, 30 n9 sqi 
pa mwe gra k^ vu, 30 n^ sqi pa ply gra k.7 vu ;— or between : 3^ 
sqi mwe grd kr> vu, 30 n.v sqi pas; osi grd k.> vu. 

4. The comparative of equality may also be formed by 
using the preposition kom between the adjective and the 
second term of comparison : il e grd kom vu. — il e gro kom 
de tono. — se me so frwad kom d9 la glais. 

5. otd(t) . . .k.7 [k] is sometimes heard instead of osi. . .kj [k], 
especially with past participles : s^ livr n e paz otdt apresje 
k il lo merit. 



11. Superlative. 

The superlative is formed by using the definite article 
before the comparative of superiority or inferiority : 3a e ply 
gra k^ pjsir, e pjsir e ply gra k atwam ; doik se 3a ki s h ply 
gra de trwa e atwam h ply p^ti. — h bek da plym s ply ku:r 
k? la plym, e la plym ply kurt k^ la rsigl ; bksl d^ se trwaz 
ob38 s h ply ku:r ? bkel s b ply lo ? — d^ tut le verty la Jarite 
s la ply bsl. — le pi:r defo so 1 ipokrizi e la vanite. — rD3e e 1 
els:v h mwsz atatif da tut la kla:s\ — votr ekrityir s la mws 
ban da tut. 

The following table sums up the different ways of forming 
the degrees of comparison : 





h, la, le ply(z) 


osi.-.fe [k] 
pa ply(z)...k9 [k] 
pa mw8(z)...k^ [k] 
ota(t)...k^ [k] 


mw6(z)...k^ [k] 
paz osi...k^ [k] 
pa si...k^ [k] 
paz ota(t)...k9 [k] 

b, la, le mw8(z) 


1. le bars kla:s. — le p^ti teaitr so suvci plyz agreabl k? le 


In many cases where in English the comparative would be 
naturally used, because some kind of comparison is implied in 
the sentence, the positive is used in French. 

2. bksl 8 \c> ply gra d.> pal e d.^ pJ8:r1 — pal s b ply gra. — 

bk8l 8 L> ply p^zci, b pypitr u b pwa:l? — b pwail s b ply 

Or kla:s. 


When only two objects or persons are compared, the super- 
lative is used in French, whereas in English the comparative is 
considered the more correct form. 

{a) Place of Qualitative Adjectives. 

1. de li:vr3 frase. — yn gramsir frassiz. — h tsnis st de 30 agls. 

— on s:m a parle d9 la profodoeir d^ 1 sspri alma e d^ la 
vivasite dd 1 espri italjs. — la skyltyir grek e la ply parfet. 

de meitr^ respekte. — de 1J0 Jeri. — de krsjo kase. — de 
kaje sali. — a ki apartje sst plym gate^? — i at i dez imais 
pert syr h myirl 

Adjectives of nationality and past participles are always 
placed after the nouns they qualify. 

2. 5a st de bo garso ; — mo Jsir ami ; — h ply kuir Jsme (or b 

S^me h ply kuir) ; — yn gra:d mezo ; — de o batima ; — de 
bo tablo ; — yn bsl vy. 

Adjectives which are shorter than the nouns they qualify 
are generally, though not always necessarily, placed before the 

3. le krsjo faibr so de krsjoz sksslci or d skssla krsjo ; — 

dy papje ordinsir; — de liivr anqij0 : — de no femins. 

dy papje bla ; — 6.9 1 aikr^ ru:5 ; — de krsjo nwair ; — yn 
kravat vjolst ; — de ba brde fose ; — yn tabla roid ; — den 
aigb drwa ; — de pla ovail ; — de S^ms kr0 ; — yn pom durs ; 
— dy rszs asid ; — de S9ri:z myir ; — d9 1 o sale ; — dy vs 
sgri ; — h va d sst st de va frs e h vd dy syd s plyto Jo e 

yn 5U1 ne oribbma Joid ; — votr dikte st yn dikte 
afr0:zma movsiz. 

^ Or gate. 


Adjectives which are longer than the nouns they qualify, 
adjectives denoting distinctive moral or physical qualities such as 
colour, shape, taste, temperature, etc., and adjectives modified by 
a long adverb are generally, but not in every case necessarily, 
placed after the nouns they qualify. 

4. pol et de bon elsiv ; set den eleiv travajoeir e etslisa. — 

vwasi de liivr amyza e sistryktif. — 1 elektrisite don yn 
lymjeir du:s e egail. — pur h ski, i fo d^ la nsi^ ferm e p0 

When several adjectives qualify the same noun they are 
generally all placed after it. 

5. mo freir et den om gra, msz elais il e Iwe d e:tr de grat om. 
— i n syfi pa d e:tr de braiv om pur dovniir den om bra:v. 
— S9 mujwair propr e mo propr.? mujwair. — vu m ave 
parle d yn sertein nuvel ki n ets rje mwe k yn nuvel 

Many adjectives have different meanings according to 
whether they are placed before or after the noun they qualify. 

(b) Agreement. 

1. den om oer0 ra sa fam oer0:z. — yn bon ekrityir merit de bo 

pwe. — i portet de Japo gri e yn kravat gri:z. — an aprona 
h frase, nu nu servo pada le promje mwa d yn traiskripsjo 
fonetik. — padd le promjeirz ane, nu n fc^ro pa d? te:m. — 
lez evasil so d9 seitz istwair. 

Qualitative adjectives agree with the nouns they qualify in 
gender and number. 

2. mon 6:kl e mo peir so Iwajo. — soreis e klemaso so gra2; e 

pqisa kom oratoeir. 

Qualitative adjectives qualifying several singular nouns are 
in the plural. 

3. le pom sot abodait set ane ; lez abriko sot egalma^ aboda ; 

le pom e lez abriko so dok aboda. — 1 opail e presj0:z ; h 
rybi e presj0 ; 1 opal e h rybi so presj0. 

Qualitative adjectives qualifying several nouns of different 
genders are always in the masculine. 




(a) Cardinal Numerals. 

1. de(n) before masculines, 
yn ,, feminines^ 

2. d0(z). 

3. trwa(z). 

4. katr^* [katr]. 

5. seCk) — S6:k. 

6. si(z) — sis. 

7. ss(t) — set. 

8. iii(t) — i^it. 

9. noe(f)' — nwf 

10. di(z) — dis. 

11. o:z. 

12. du:z. 

13. treiz. 

14. katorz. 

15. ke:z. 

16. ssiz. 

17. diss(t) — disst. 

18. dizqi(t) — dizqit. 

19. diznoe(f)' — diznoef. 

20. vs(t) — veit, vs. 

Cf. page 9, note 1. What is said there of the indefinite article holds 
good for the numeral. 

Cf. page 9, note 2. 

Strictly speaking, numerals are either nouns, vwasi d0 d9 me 
kaje ! a vwasi trwa ! or adjectives. Used as nouns, de(n) refers to 
masculine, and yn to feminine nouns or objects. 

Often reduced to kat in conversational speech. 

noev is used as liaison-form in a few phrases : il S ncev oe:r, 
il a noev a e d^^mi, 5 e dizncev a. 



Note. — Numerals from 5 to 10 and from 17 to 20 have, 
besides their usual form and their liaison-form, a third form, 
which is used at the end of breath -groups \ that is, whenever 
any pause, even the slightest, is made in the emission of breath : 
3 e vy jeir ss solda e ssk ofisje. — kobjs d^ solda ave vu vy, ss:k u 
sis'? — 3 an e vy ssik. — an sit vu syirl — a vrs diir, no, ms 3 cm 
e bjs vy ssk u sis. — sst mszo a qi f^msitr d de kote e dis dfl 1 
oitr ; — kote d^ ssk a dis ! vu nj koprane pa? vwajo, ekute bjs, 
kote d^ ssik a dis ; — 3.? koit, de, d0, trwa, katr, ssik, sis, sst, qit, 
noef, dis, o:z, du:z, trsiz, katorz, ksiz, ss:z, disst, dizqit, dizno^f, 
vs^;— ksl a:3 ave vu? — 3 e disst a. — e vu, ave yuz osi disst a1 — 
no, 3 an e diznoif. — vrsma ! vuz ave diznoev a ! — wi, m9sJ0. 

21. vstede(n)^ for masculines — vst e yn^ for feminines. 

22. vs:td0(z)'. 

23. vs:ttrwa(z). 

24. vst katr/ [vst katr]. 

25. vst S6(k) — vst ssik. 

26. vst si(z) — vst fcis. 

27. vst ss(t) — vst sst. 

28. vst qi(t) — vst qit. 

29. vst nce(f)' — vst noef. 

The numbers from 31 : trat e de to 39, from 41 : karat e de 
to 49, from 51 : sskdt e de to 59, from 61 : swascit e de to 69, 
from 81 : katra vs de to 89 are formed in the same way as 
numbers from 21 to 29. 

30. trait. 
40. karait. 
50. sskait. 
60. swasciit. 

70. swasait di(z) — swasait dis. 

71. swasdit e oiz. 

72. swasait duiz. 

73. swasait trsiz... 

sst and noef are, however, often heard instead of SS and noe. 

Or vsit. 



note 1. vst de is sometimes heard. 

Of. page 26, note 2. 

Or VSn d0 as a result of an inevitable assimilation — id. vsn drwa. 

Cf. page 26, note 4. 

Cf. page 26, note 5. 


80. katra V6(z). 

90. katra vs di(z), katra vs dis*. 

91. katra vs o:z. 

92. katra vs du:z. 

93. katra vs trsiz... 

100. sa(t). 

101. sa ce(n), sa yn. 

102. sad0(z)... 

1 20. sa vs(t) — sa vsit, sa vs. . . 

169. sa swasait noef... 

200. d0sa(z)... 

300. trwasa(z)... 

400. katr^ sa(z)... 

500. sssa(z)... 

1100. 6:zsa(z). 

1200. du:z sa(z). 

1900. diznoe sa(z). 

The liaison-forms sat, 6.0 saz, trwa saz, etc., are never 

used before de and o:z^ : de batajo ko:t aviro kat saz am. — 
kat sa de ; — S9 vila:3 koit ss saz abita, 1 a pase il a kote ss sa o:z. 




mil *?de'. 


mil d0... 


rail ?o:z... 


mil qi sa o:z... 


d0 mil... 


trwa mil. 


ss sa katra vs o:z mil ss sa swasait katr. 


de mijo or de miljo. 


de mi j air. 

In some parts of France, and in F. 8., the old forms for 70, 80, 90 
may still be heard : 70 SSptQit, 80 oktQlt (now almost obsolete), 
qitait, 90 nanait, 71 ssptait e de, 91 nanait e de, 73 ssptait 
trwa(z), etc. 

For oiz, cf. page 6. 

mil e de is used in a few expressions : mil e de kilamstr, mil e 
yn Joiz, etc. 


Remark. — The use of the conjunction e is limited to the 
following numbers: 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, and 71, and to longer 
numbers ending with one of these : 121, 561, etc. 


o sezjem sjskl rejisirf a frais Iwi duiz, fraswa promje, ari 
d0, fraswa d0, Jarl noef, ari trwa, e dri katr. — napoleo promje 
fyt aproeir 6.9 mil qi sa katr a mil \\i sa katorz, napoleo d0 n a 
same rejie, napoleo trwa okypa h troin dd frais pada dizqit a. 

mon aniverseir s h se:z avril. — h mje e h trat e den oktobr. — 
59 sqi ne h vst qi fevrije diznoe sa. — h treiz avril ksiz sa 
katro vs dizqit e la dat d? 1 edi dd na:t. — la bastiij fy priiz lo 
katorz 5qije diss sa katro ve noef ; h katr ut le nobl r^nossir^ a 
loeir privileis ; h d0z oktobr le drwa d9 1 om fy:r proklame ; h 
vet e de savje diss sd katro ve treiz, h rwa Iwi se:z fy gijotine. 

uvre vo liivr o Japitr promje, pais promje:r\ — nuz d somz 
o Japitr katr, a la pais vet seik. — avo nu ly la pais kardt e de^. 

Cardinal Numerals are used (except in the case of the 
number l) with names of sovereigns, in dates, and in counting 
the chapters or the pages of a book. In the case of the 
number 1, the ordinal promje(r), promjeir is employed. 

(b) Ordinal Numerals. 

1. promje(r) for masculines, promjeir for feminines, singular. 

promjeir(z)„ ,, plural ^ 

Si^goid for feminines \ 

promje(z) „ „ 


s^g6(t) for masculines, 















S^pitro de, pas '^yn may be frequently heard. 

Or pais kardit e yn. 

For singular and plural of adjectives, cf. page 2L — What is said there 
about the singular and plural of qualitative adjectives holds good also for 
quantitative adjectives. 

Sf>go becomes zgu by assimilation, when preceded by a vowel. 













vet e ynjem. 




trat e ynjsm. 


sa ynjsm. 


da satJ8ni\ 

Ordinal Numerals are obtained by adding the ending -jsm 
to the singular liaison-form of the Cardinal Numerals ; in case 
of a compound number, the last one only receives the ending : 
sci mil, sa miljsm; — sekait, sskatjem ; — si sa, si sat j em ; — duiz 
sa, duz satjem. Notice : vst e ynjsm, karat e ynjsm, trwa 
satjsm, miljonjsm. 


For the use of pramje cf. page 29. 

3or3, 3a e Iwi so le trwa pramjez elsiv d^ la klais. — le sa 
pramjsir pa:3 do s^ liivr so kaptivait, le sa dsrnjsir so boku 
mwsz sterssait. — ksl so le d0z oitr^ kaje k^ vuz ave da votr 

Cardinal numbers are placed before ordinal numbers, as well 
as before dsrnje(r) and oitr. 

yn fwa, d0 fwa, trwa fwa, katr^ fwa, ss fwa, si fwa, etc. 

Th« following simple words may also be used (there are no 
others) : ssipl, dubl, tripl, kwadrypl^, kstypl, sskstypl, dekypl, 
scitypl. — d0 fwa d0 fo katr, trwa fwa ssik fo ks:z, kat fwa dis fo 
karait. — ma fors e dubl d^ la tjen. — sa s dekypl da dis. — sa s di 
fwa dis. 

Ordinal Numerals are used for denominators in fractions, bub 
d0zjem is replaced by d^mi, trwazjsm by tjsir and katrijsm by 
ka:r : f = d0 tjeir; — f = trwa kair; — i = oe d^mi, yn d^mi. 

Or kadrypl. 


(d) Zero-expressions. 

The following expressions : okoe(n) for masculines, okyn 
for feminines ; nyl ; pas; de(n), ipaz yn, pa d^ [-d] ; pws d9 [-d] 
all require a negative adverb before the verb. zero, which is 
sometimes familiarly used as an adjective, does not require such 
an adverb. 3a n e vy okde solda osurdqi; — 33 n e pa vy d 
areoplan d<?pqi lota; — 3 e vy zero solda 03urdqi; — i n j a pwe d 
a:kr da noz akrije; — vu n fst nyl efoir pur ratrape vo kamarad. 


The following are the most usual indefinite quantitative 
adjectives and adjectival expressions : 

(a) Expressing an indefinite number : pt^ d^ [-d] ; kslk9(z) ; 
rae(z) for masculines, m6:t(z) for feminines ; bokud3[-d]; 
bje de(z) ; yn dizsin d^ [-d], yn vetsin d^ [-d] ; etc. 

\}6 d^ [-d] : vuz ave p0 da d^vwar pur d^me. — nu som p0 d 
eleiv da set klais. — nuz avo ly p0 d^ pa:3 da s^ liivr. — 
i j a p0 d arbr da S9 3ard6. — i j a p0 d^ Joiz plyz anqij0:z 
ka dd make so tre. 

kelk^fz) ^ : nu som kelkoz elsiv d.> ply k<5» 1 a pase. — nuz avo 
ly kslk<? pa:3 da s^ li:vr. — i j a kslkc^z ane o n^ sa serve 
pa d^ la fonetik. — nuz aprano h frase d^pqi kelk^ mwa. — 
akoir kelkoz efoir e vuz arivre a bje pronose. 

me(z), me:t(z) : rather unusual except in the everyday ex- 
pressions meit fwa, meit e meit fwa ; 3^ vuz e di meit c 
mert fwa d^ vu t^niir mj0. — i fo repete le Joiz meit e 
meit fwa ava d^ le savwair. — nu nu som vy meit fwa ka 
nuz etjoz a 1 ekol. 

boku d^ [-d] : i fo boku d egzaipl pur kopraidr yn reigl. — 
1 almaji e la frais o boku d^^ solda.— balzak a ekri boku 
d^ roma. — mopasa a ekri boku d<? nuvel e p0 d<? roma. — 
ave vu boku dd Joiz a diiv'^1 

Often pronounced kek(z) : i j a kekz ane...; — ...d^pqi kek 
mwa ; — akoir kekz efoir.... 
Or Joizz a diir. 


bjs de(z) ^ : fst li[i bjs dez amitje 6.9 ma pair. — dit Iqi bjs 
de Joiz d^ ma pair. — 53 vuz e atady fsir set plszat^ri bjs 
de fwa. — nu pasaim bjs de 5uir d agwais pada sa 

yn dizsin 6.9 [-d], yn vstsin d9 [-d\ yn satsin d.? [-d1, etc. : da 
notr ekol i j a yn satsin d^ garso e yn satsin 69 fi:j ; 
parmi le garso i j an a yn tratsin d stsrn e yn swasatsin 
d skstsrn. 

(6) Expressing an indefinite quantity : p0 d^ [-d]; de p0 d^ [-d]: 
ks/k9 [ke/k] ; boku d^ [-d] ; bjs dy [bjs 69 1] ; yn (ptit, graid) 
katite 69 [-d], etc. 

P0 d^ [-d] : done mwa p0 d^ sup. — lez agls mai5 p0 69 ps. — 
i S9 don p0 69 pein. — i j a p0 d aikr da mon akrije. — i nu 
rsst p0 d^ ta pur finiir notr liivr. 

de p0 69 [-d] : de p0 d o, si vu pis. — done vu de p0 69 psin e 
vu paisre voz egzams. — i j at il de p0 d a:kr da votr 
akrije 1 — i j avst de p0 d9 va e de p0 69 plqi S9 mats. 

kslkg [kslk] : si vu vu donje kslk^ psin, vu reysirje. — fst do 
kslk efoir. — il a bjs kslk? bon volote, ms p0 69 

boku 69 [-d] : le frass mai3 boku 69 pe. — i n j a pa boku d 
aikr da votr akrije. — i S9 don boku 69 psin. — il a boku 
69 kurais- 

bjs dy [bjs d^ l], bjs 69 la [bjs 69 l] : si a bjs d^ la psin a pronose 
h frass. — il a bjs dy kurai3 d i ale soel. — il a bjs d^ 1 

yn katite d^ [-d], etc. : il s tobe graivma malad pur 
avwair by yn katite d o kat il avs trs Jo. — on skstrs Jak 
ane yn graid katite d oir. — 3 e yn katite d^ Istr a ekriir. 
— 3 e yn mas 69 loizz a fsir. — 3 e yn ful d okypasjo 

bjs 69 [-d] is sometimes heard: fst Iqi bjs d amitje 69 ma 



(c) Expressing a definite proportion, but an indefinite number 
or quantity : tu h [-1], tut la [-1], tu le(z), tut le(z)^ ; tro 
dd^ [-d] ; ase 6.9 [-d] ; ota d? [-d]; la mwatje d? [-d]. 

tu h [-1], tut la [-11 tu le(z), tut le(z) , etc. : 39 travaij tu h 
3u:r, tut 1 aprsmidi, tut la 3urne, tu le 3u:r. — 5 e ly tu b 
liivr. — aprane tut la fabl pur d^ms. — i repst tut lez orceir 
k il ata. — tu mo ta sd pais a travaje. — fst tu voz efoir e 
vu reysire. 

tro 6.9 [-d] : vu H9 vu done pa tro 69 psin. — ave vu tro do 
d^vwair pur d^me^ o wi, nuz an avo tu3u:r tro. — i j a 
tro 69 foit da vo dikte. — n3 fst pa tro d^ brqi, s i vu pis. 

ase 69 [-6] : ave vu2; ase 69 psi — i j at il ase d arkr dd voz 
akrije ? — i nu rsst ase 69 ta pur finiir s^ Japitr. — mo kaje 
s prssk9 fini, 39 n e ply 2; ase 69 plas pur ekriir sst 

ota do [-d] : nuz avoz ota 69 laso 03urdqi k? doms. — 39 
pras ota d o ko d^ vs. — 3a a otd do difikylte a bjs 
pronose h frass k? mwa^. 

la mwatje 69 [6] or dy [d^ l], 69 la [d^ l] : done mwa la 
mwatje d^ so morso 69 ps. — vu reysirjes; akoir d prana 
la mwatje d^ la psin k^ vu prone. 

h... may be replaced by another distinctive adjective. 

Also very frequently tro 69 [-d]. 

Several of these indefinite quantitative adjectives are used as 
indefinite distinctive adjectives and pronouns. 






The following table gives all the forms of the possessive 
adjectives : 


One possessor 

of the 

Possessed Object. 

One possessed obj. 
of the Masculine. of the Feminine. 

2 or more poss. obj. 
of the Masc. or Fem. 

1st person 
2nd „ 
3rd „ 

m6(n) [mon] ma [mon, mon] 
to(n) [ton] ta [ton, ton] 
so(n) [son] sa [son, son] 




2 or more 
possessors of the 

One possessed object 
of the Masculine or Feminine. 

2 or more poss. obj. 
of the Masc. or Fem. 

1st person 
2nd „ 
3rd „ 

notr^ [notr] 
votr<? [votr] 


The masculine and feminine liaison-forms mon and mon 
are indifferently used, mon being perhaps more usual in 
colloquial speech. 

Use and Agreement. 

1. 5 6 mo krejo, mon esqiplym, ma plym, mon ardwaiz, tut 

mez afsir e tu me liivr da mo sak. — 
ty a to krejo, ton esqiplym, ta plym, ton ardwaiz, tut tez 

afsir e tu te liivr da to sak. — 
il a so krsjo, son esqiplym, sa plym, son ardwaiz, tut sez 

afeir e tu se liivr da so sak. — 
si a so krsjo, son esqiplym, sa plym, son ardwaiz, tut sez 

afsir e tu se liivr da so sak. — 
nuz smo v^^niir a notr ekol ms nu n smo pa tut no bso. — 


vuz erne v^^niir a votr ekol me vu n eme pa tut vo bso — 
iz e:m v^niir a loe:r ekol mez i n eim pa tut loeir bso. — 

Possessive Adjectives agree in gender and number with the 
possessed object. 

2 n atre pa h Japo syr la teit ! — n^ vu krwaze do pa le bra ! 
— m3SJ0, 50 n9 p0 pas ekriir, 53 ma sqi fe mal o dwa...e a 
la 3a:b osi ! — vu puve tre bjsn ekriir, votr mal a la 3a:b 
n9 vuz an ape: J sert pa e kat a votr mal o dwa, set a de 
dwa d9 la me go: J. 

Possessive Adjectives are not used when the context 
indicates the relation between possessor and possessed object 
quite clearly. 







s^ [set'] 






s<? [set]... si 
set... si 


se(z)... si 



S3 [set]... la 
set... la 


se(z)... la 


uvre S9 li:vr. — prone set akrije. — ramase se morso d^ papje. — 

korise se fo:t. — done mwa set gravy:r. — 
vule vu set plym si u set plym la 1 — motre mwa set imsitvQ si, 
. set f3ne:tro la! — se krejo si so ply dy:r k^ se krejo la. — 

a ki e S3 Sai)0 la ? e set kasket si 1 — kopare S3 tablo si e S3 

tablo la ! 

When a distinction has to be made between objects or 
persons which are near, and others which are far or farther 
from the person who is speaking, the (b) form may be used 
for the former, and the (c) form for the latter. 

In rapid colloquial speech set is weakened into S3t : ave VU 
vy S3t om t 



ms:m for the singular, ras:m(z) for the plural. 


sst^ a set adrwa msim k9 nu nu somz arste da notr Isktyir. — 
«s sst om meim k? 5 e vy S9 mats. — ss sd liivr msim k^ 5 
avs psrdy. — s:s la sd ka vu vule? ss ssla msim. 

msim used as an emphasizing adjective is always placed 
immediately after the noun or pronoun it emphasizes. 



kslk? [kslk'^]... kd [k] for the singular. 
kslk3(z)... k9 [k] „ „ plural. 


kslk^ fo:t k^ vu fasje, vu d^ve tut le korise. — i n ariivra paz 
a pase sez sgzams, kslk? ps:n k i prsn. — kslk anqi k il s, 
i n a pari sams. — kslk^z anqi k il s, i n.> nuz a pari 5ams. 

Notice the use of the Subjunctive Mood in the clauses 
beginning with kslk9... ka. 



ksl for the singular, ksl(z) for the plural. 

ksl liivr ave vu da votr sak? — ksl elsiv a fs sa ? — ksl foit i 
at i la 1 — kslz sroeir at i komiiz 1 

' Or St. 

Frequently weakened into ksk. 



Several distinctive adjectives belong to this category : 
S6rts(n) for the masculine singular, ssrtsm for the feminine 
singular, s6rte(z) for the masculine plural, ssrts:n(z) for the 
feminine plural ; kslk^ [kslk] for the singular, kslk3(z) for the 
plural ; kslkoik. 

serts(n) . . . : i j avet yn fwa de serts rwa. — vu raple vu set 
ssrtem fwa ka 39 vuz e vy. — ssrtemz istwair sirkyl syr so 
ko:t. — ssrtsm verite n9 so pa honz a diir. — ssrtsz ssts d? 
1 om so bsstjo. 

ssrts... used as an indefinite distinctive adjective is always 
placed before the noun it accompanies. 

kslkg... : 3 e kslk ide ka 33 vuz e vy kslk? pair. — wi, 39 
vuz ore probabbma rakotre a kslk? vwaja:3. — ss kslk? 
maladrwa ki ma ravsrse mon akrije. — 3 e ly sst nuvsl da 
kslk? 3urnal, 3a n? se ply l?ksl. 

kslk?... used as an indefinite distinctive adjective is always 
used in the singular. 

kslkoik : 3? pqi mstna liir ce liivr? kslkoik sa diksjonsrr. — 
done mwa de floeir kslkoik, 3? lez sim tut* — vuz ore^ a 
tradqiir a 1 egzams yn pai3 kslkoik d? votr? liivr. 

kslkoik is always placed after the noun it accompanies. 


Comparative distinctive adjectives are : tsl for the singular,' 
tsl(z) for the plural ; parsi j for the singular, parsi j (z) for the 
plural ; msim for the singular, msim(z) for the plural ; 
oitr? [oitr] for the singular, oitr?(z) for the plural. 

tsl... : yn tsl kodqit s otciiz. — yn kodqit tsl s ot0iz. — de tsl 
tsim s bjs difisil. — s? n s paz yn tsl afsir. — da tsl foit n? 
so ply psrmiiz. — vu n? d?ve ply komstr da tslz sroeir. 

Properly speaking, the so-called indefinite article de(n), yn ought 
to come under this head. It is nothing but an indefinite distinctive adjective. 
In the same way the so-called definite article 1? [l], la [l], le(z) is a 
definite distinctive adjective. 


pars:] . . . : ave vu 5am ez atady parle d yn parsij sotiiz. — 

38 n^ sufrire paz yn parsij ssylt, de parsij trstma. — 

39 n e 3ains vy dp parsij z elsiv. 

msim... : vuz ave tuis fs la msim foit. — lez om n o ni le 
msim defo, iii le msim kalite. — nu n9 vulo plyz ataidr le 
msimz istwair. — sa so se msim psrson ki so vmy jsir. 

oitrp... : prgne votr oitr^ plym. — bve la ms drwat! no, pa 
sslsi, 1 oitn^ ms. — nuz etydjo h frass, lez oitr<>z elsiv 
etydi 1 alma. 


Distributive distinctive adjectives are tu le(z), Jak. 

tu le : tu le 3Uir. — vuz sits apsa tut le fwa ka 39 vjs. — 
nuz avo de Isso d.^ frass tu le mardi. — tu lez elsiv liro s.> 

Sak : vuz sits apsa Jak fwa ka 39 vjs. — nuz avos yn bso d^ 
frass Sak mardi. — Jak elsiv lira S9 Japitr. 

tu le(z), tut le(z) are used in the plural ; Jak is used in 
the singular. 






Personal Pronouns 

- 39 


Possessive - - - . 

- 45 



- - 46 


Emphasizing and Reflexive - 

- 48 


Relative . . . . 

- 48 



- 50 


Indefinite . . - . 

- 51 



- 53 


{a) Light Forms. 




Dative,! 1 

1st person 

3^ [3] 



2nd „ 



3rd ,. masc. 


h [\V 


Srd „ fern. 






1st person 

2nd „ 




Srd „ masc. 




Srd „ fem. 




Nominative = Subject. Accusative = Direct Object. Dative = Indirect 

la when final is never 1. It often receives a slight accent and then 
becomes loe. 


Eemarks : 

1. 53 \ md, t9, h become respectively 3 ( S before voiceless 
consonants : k s s ka S t e dil — S ss pa ), m, t, 1 in ordinary collo- 
quial speech, except in cases referred to on p. 5, note 1 : 3a t di 
or S to di. — S to 1 don or 30 t lo don. — 30 m tjs bjs or 3 mo 
tjs bjs. 

2. il becomes i before consonants and at the end of 
breath-groups in Paris and the North pretty generally : i vjs. — 
n vjgt i pa ] — vjedrat i 1 — vjsdrot i 1 

3. ilz becomes iz very generally : iz o fe sa msrm. — 
sot iz arive 1 ^ 

4. si often becomes s before n in careless speech : 
6 n vjs do pal 

5. ty often becomes t in uneducated or vulgar speech : 
t a rjsn a di:r. — k s s -t a a reklame ? t s pa kota '? 

6. In Paris it is not uncommon to hear 11 instead of 1 : 
50 11 e vy js:r. 

(b) Heavy Forms. 


1st person 


2nd „ 


3rd „ masc. 


3rd „ fern. 



1st person 

2nd „ 


3rd „ masc. 


3rd „ fem. 


39 always becomes 3 after tlie verb : arive 3 d^ms ; k^ f S 3 
^ s5t il arive 1 is often heard. 



39 vjs. — ty par. — n9 par ty pa?— u va ty? — u s a vat si? — 
59 113 la vwa pa\ — regard la do! — m^ tjs ty bjs? wi, 3a t9 tjs bje . 
— u lez ave vu rakotre ? — k? Iqi a ty di ? — 3^ h loer e d^made ^. 

twa, ty ariiv, e mwa, 39 m a ve. — mo peir e mwa, nu partirS 
bjeto. — s et a twa. — s st a d^ komdse. — s s avsk si u avsk Iqi k? 
ty ira ? 

Light forms are used in close connection with the verb. 

Heavy forms are used when there is no close connection 
with the verb. 


Light forms are used when the chief stress of the sentence 
falls on the verb. 

Heavy forms are used when the chief stress of the sentence 
falls on the pronoun. 

That is the general rule. Hence the following particular 
rules : 

L 39 mj h di^ — h li{i di ty ? — si nu 1 a di. — i vu 1 ors bjs 
di. — ka lez ave vu vy 1 — loer ave vu parle 1 — si nd vuz 
o pa vy. — 19 desid ty ? — la vwa ty ? — lize h ! — r^garde la! 

Light forms are used whenever the subject or the object 
(direct or indirect) are closely connected with the verb, and 
stand either immediately after or immediately before it, not 
being separated from it except by one of their kind. 

Ibis. s:d mwa do! — sqive mwa. — so:v twa. — va t a. — don 
m a. — JsrJ m i ! — truve mwa d^ nuvoz sgzapl. — Ssrje m 
a e truve m a da b liivr d^ Isktyir. 

Heavy forms are used for pronouns of the 1st and 2nd 
persons following an Imperative and themselves not followed 
by a or i. 

2 mo frs:r e twa partire do d9ms^ — si e sa soeir iro vu 

Or 7^9 na la vwa pa. ^ Or J to tjs bjs. 

Or 30 1 loer e d^made. '' Or 39 ma h di. 

In this sentence twa is placed immediately before the verb, but 
does not stand in close connection with it. 


vwair. — 3 e yy to ps:r e twa o kossir. — mo freir e 
mwa, nu partiro bjsto. — elz iro vu vwair twa e te para. — 
39 vu 1 e de3a di a twa e a ta soeir. 

Heavy forms are used whenever the subject or the object 
are compound. In this case it is usual, though not always 
essential, to insert a personal pronoun (of the 1st person if 
one of the subjects or objects is of the 1st person, of the 2nd 
person if none of the subjects or objects is of the 1st person and 
one is of the 2nd person, of the 3rd person if all the subjects or 
objects are of the third person) summing up the compound 
subject or object ; the personal pronoun thus inserted is placed 
close to the verb, and is therefore of a light form. 

3. 3a, Iqi, pari bje ; twa, ty pari mal. — to frsir p0 kuriir vit, 

Iqi ; twa, ty n9 p0 pa. — 0, iz abit^ a pari ; nu, nuz abitoz 
a l6:dr. — u irot i, 0I — ^9 ta 1 e di a twa, ms 3a n9 h Iqi 
e pa di, a Iqi. 

Heavy forms are used to bring out a contrast or to draw a 
comparison between the persons represented by the pronouns 
and other persons, whether mentioned or not. These heavy 
forms stand in a kind of apposition to the subjects or objects 
(which may be other personal pronouns of a light form). 

4. koma, twa isi ? — ki s s ki pari 1 mwa, m9sj0. 

Heavy forms are used whenever the pronoun stands by 
itself, whether a verb might easily be understood after it or not. 

5. 3^ t e:m, twa. — 3.? p0 kuriir vit, mwa. — i n.> ss rjs, Iqi. 

Heavy forms are used whenever pronouns are repeated for 
the sake of emphasis. 

6. 33 travaij avsk Iqi. — 5 ariiv ava twa. — il st arive apres; 

0. — 39 n9 p0 paz apraidr pur Iqi, n s s pa 1 — fet kom mwa. 
— n ekute k^ mwa. — 3.9 n sim k^ Iqi. 

Heavy forms are used whenever personal pronouns are pre- 
ceded by prepositions or adverbs. 

7. s s mwa.— s st si. — s s nu. — sa sot 0. — s st 0. — s s 1 
Heavy forms are used as predicative pronouns. 

8. scelma p0:v^ i arive. — 3.? 1 e di a si tut. 

Heavy forms are used for personal pronouns accompanied by 
adjectives or adverbs used as adjectives. 


9. i nil la prezdtra d^ms. — s e js:r k i vuz a prezate a nu. — 
i vu 1 a dezijie. — i m a dezijie a vu. — i vuz a dezijie a 

Heavy forms must be used for personal pronouns in tlic 
Dative whenever they would, if light, be placed next to other 
personal pronouns of the 1st or 2nd person in the Accusative. 
Such sentences, however, are unusual. 

Relative places of personal pronouns in the light fonns. 

1. ty m^ don sd krsjo? ma h don ty"?^ — 50 m9 sqi fs mal. ^ — 
i nuz o vy. — nu lez avo vy. — 39 ve td di:r. — ty va md di:r. 

When the subject, as in affirmative, negative, and excep- 
tionally in interrogative sentences, precedes the verb, Pronouns 
in the Dative or in the Accusative are placed before the verb, 
but after the subject (Nominative). 

2. don lo do. — kaj la bjs. — vwasi vo liivr, uvre le. — vule vu 

dd 1 aikvl wi, done m a, s i vu pis. — ty vwa ss* my:r, is t i. 
— no h don pa. 

Accusative and Dative Pronouns of the 3rd person, and of 
the 1st and 2nd persons when followed by the pronouns d(n) 
or i (see pp. 44-45), are placed immediately after the verb in the 
affirmative Imperative. 

3. When two pronouns, one in the Accusative and one in 

the Dative, are to be placed together before the verb, 
two cases only arise : 

1°. Both pronouns are in the 3rd person : 

i lo Iqi moitr. — i lo loeir di. — i la Iqi a prezate. — i lo Iqi a 
prezate. — i le loer 6 prezate. 

The Accusative is placed first and the Dative second. 

2°. The pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons are in the 
Dative : 

i m^ lo mo:tr. — i m^ 1 a di. — i m^ 1 a prezate. — i nu 1 o di. — 
i nu 1 ot afirme. — 30 m^ lo d^maid. — vu 1 ot i di. — i vu 
la prezatra. — vu vu 1 sit di, sa dut. 

The pronouns of the 1st or 2nd person are placed first, 
those of the 3rd person, second. 

Or m3 lo don ty. ^ Or 39 mo sqi fe mal. 


In other words, the first place is given to the first two 
persons, and the second place to the third person, and, failing- 
distinction in persons, the first place is given to the Accusative 
and the second place to the Dative. 

Note. It is interesting to notice that as a result of the 
impossibility in French of having before the verb two pronouns, 
one of the 1st or 2nd person in the Accusative and one of the 3rd 
in the Dative, such a sentence as " My father gave me to him in 
marriage," must be translated either mo pe:r m^ dona a marja:5 
a Iqi with accent on Iqi, or s st a Iqi k^ mo psir m? dona a 
marja:3, or rather mo pe:r Iqi dona ma ms. 

Indefinite and other personal pronouns. 

o(n) is an indefinite personal pronoun of the 3rd person ; 
it only occurs as a subject: o nd fs pa tu s^ k 6 v0. — o nd dwa pa 
di:r tu Si? k 6 pars. — k? truivt o da s<? liivr. — o vjs, kajo nu. — ko 
m.^ V0t 5. 

o may be used to replace any other personal pronoun, 
especially the personal pronoun of the first person plural : 
ksskofs? 8sko raitr u s s k o soir ? 

Adjectives qualifying it may be used in the feminine : o n s pa 
tu3u:r2 oeroiz. — kat on et osi bsl k^ vu, 5 p0 s sstime oer0:z. 

Instead of o(n), 1 o(n) may be used in the course of a 
sentence, provided no other 1 is near : si 1 o m9 di ; but si 6 
Tdj lo di. 

s^ [s] and swa, when they are indefinite personal pronouns 
of the 3rd person, are only used as objects, s? [s] is a light 
form, always in close connection with the verb : 6 S9 fe dy mal 
a masa tro. — o s imasin a toir k o p0 &? pase d otrqi. — swa is a 
heavy form, used after prepositions, for instance: Jakde pur 
swa. — i n^ fo pa i\d pase k a swa. Those indefinite personal 
pronoun objects can only be used when the subject itself is 
indefinite, s^ [s], however, is used as reflexive pronoun of the 
3rd person (see below under Eeflexive Pronouns, p. 48). 

a(n)^ is used as a personal pronoun instead of the pre- 
position d^ [d] followed by one of the other personal pronouns: 
pari ty boku d^ twa? wi, 5 a pari boku {= do mwa). — pari ty d^ 
mwa? 3 a pari de p0 ( = do twa). — komci vat i ? 30 n9 se pa, 3 als 

a(n) is also used as an indefinite pronoun and as a preposition. 



vuz a d^made de nuvsl (= d9 Iqi). — ave vu boku d elsiv? 5 an 
e tro (= d o). 

i' is used as a personal pronoun of the 3rd person, instead 
of the preposition a followed by one of the other personal 
pronouns : pase viiz a votr ami? wi, 3 i pais ( = 3^ pas a Iqi, a 
si). — h konese vul wi, ms 39 n^ m i fi pa (=39 n^ m9 fi pas a 
Iqi). The use of this pronoun with reference to persons is now 
rare ; it is commonly used for things only : krwaje vnz a sst 
istwair] wi, 3 i krwa. — no, 39 n i krwa pa. 

Kemark. Whenever a and i have to be placed next 
to personal pronouns of the light form, they are always placed 
second: vu plejie vu d^ Iqil no 39 ns m d pis pa. — vwaje sd 
lizvr, 39 vuz i ravwa. 


The following table gives all the forms of the possessive 
pronouns : 


One possessor 

of the 

Possessed Object. 

One possessed obj. 

Two or more possessed objs. 

of the Masc. of the Fern. 

of the Masc. of the Fem. 

1st person 
2nd „ 
3rd „ 

b mjs(n) la mjsn 
b tjs(n) la tjsn 
b sjs(n) la sjsn 

le mjs(z) le mjsn(z) 
le tjs(z) le tjsn(z) 
le sjs(z) le sjsn(z) 

Two or more 


of the 

1 st person 
2nd „ 
3rd „ 

One possessed obj. 

Two or more possessed objs. 
of the Masc. or Fem. 

of the Masc. of the Fem. 

b noitr la noitr 
b voitr la voitr 
I9 loeir la loeir 

le noitr(9z) 
le voitr(9z) 
le loeir(z) 

The contracted forms dy mjs, de mjs, o mjs, o noitr, etc., 
are used instead of d9 I9 mjs, etc. (cf. pp. 7-8). 

S9 liivr st a twa, s s h tjs. — sst plym st a sl, s s la sjsn. — se 
krsjo sot a nu, S9 so le noitr ; etc. 

i is also used as an adverb of place. 
















s^ [s] 


























sa or 



Remarks. In ordinary colloquial speech sa is more usual 
than s^la. 

s^lqi generally becomes sqi, s^lqisi sqisi, s.?lqila sqila in 
rapid colloquial speech. 


1. eme vu mj0 s^ Japo si u s^Zqila? 3 eim bje s^/qisi, msz a 

vrs diir, 5^ prefeir akoir s^/qi k^ vu t^ne. — kori5e s3/qi ki 
fet yn fo:t. — ssl d ciitra vu ki n^ kopradro pa d^vro bve 
la ms. — S0 ki voe:l pceiv^ partiir. — bksl d^ se d0z akrije 
vule vu ? s^/qi sy:r la tabl u s^lqi da 1 armwair ? — done 
mwa s^Zqisi ! no, pa s^/qisi, Se?Zqila. 

s^/qi, ssl ; S0(z), ssl(z) are only used when followed by 
some kind of determining complement. 

Sc^/qisi, sslsi ; sosi, sslsi and s^Zqila, sslla ; s0la, sslla are 
not, as a rule \ followed by a defining complement. The former 
refer to what is near, and the latter to what is farther. 

2. don mwa sa. — sa ud vo rjs. — sa nv) fs dy bjs. — sa m anqi. — 
k e s ^^ s s k sa? — sa n^ fs rjs. — Isse sa trakil. — ^kat a sa 
3^ n i pqi rjs. — sa s sb de po fo:r ! — u vwa ty sa ? 

Or V0:1 p0:v. 

Such sentences as s^/qila ki 1 a di st den idjo I^s^^/qisi k^^ vu 
vwaje S mo frsrr rather belong to uneducated speech. 


sa refers to objects and ideas, not as a rule^ to human 
beings and animals. It has come to replace sasi as well as 
s^la ^ 

3. s s difisil d apraidr la frdse. — s et amyza d aprSidr a bjs 

pronose. — s s domais k i swa^ apsa. — s e r^grstabl k? vu 
n9 vu donje pa ply d^* pe:n. — s st ani[ij0 d^ make so trs. 

s^ [s] is often used as grammatical subject to an impersonal 
expression, instead of iZ [i]. 

4. essje d^ mj00 ekriir, s st edispdsabl. — s s kopri, n s s pa ? 

— v^^ne vit, s e nesessir.— wi, s e tu ! — wi, s st citddy. 

s.^ [s] often refers to what has just been said. 

5. s s mwa, s s twa, s s Iqi, s st si, s s nu, s s vu, s st 0, s st 
si. — s ets mwa, S3 fy Iqi, S9 fyt si. — s s nul s s 0? ets s 
0? — s s h mjs, s s le noitr, s s le vo:tr. — s s s^/qisi, s s 
s0la. — s s mwa e frdswa ki 1 o fs. — s s 5a:n e mari ki 1 o fs. 

S9 [s] is also used as subject of the verb s:tr, followed by 
a predicative noun or pronoun. With personal pronouns of the 
3rd person plural, and with other pronouns in the plural, the 
verb is often made to agree, not with the subject, but, by 
attraction, with the predicate : S9 sot 0, sd sot si, sa so le noitr, 
so so le tjs, S9 so S0la. 

6. dit S3 k^' vu save ! — dit mwa s<^ k^ vuz ave vy. — fst S9 k? 

vu vule. — prane s.^ do vuz ave b^^zws. — vwasi sa a kwa 5 
e pdse. 

S3, determined by a relative clause, is used as object 
of a verb. 

7. s s Iqi ki 1 a di. — s st si ki 1 a fs. — s s nu ki vjsdro. — s s 
h msitr ki s s trope. — s s mwa ki e fs la fo:t. 

s s(t)... ki, s s(t)... k^ [k] are frequently used for the sake 
of emphasis. 

Remark. s3 [s] is only used when followed either by the 
verb s:tr, or by a relative clause. 

When used with reference to human beings or even animals, it has a 
distinctly pejorative force. 

sa, however, is not used before a word beginning with a vowel. Use 
s or sasi, s^la : s st dni[iJ0, s^la st dni|ijo, sasi st dnqiJ0. 




mwa ms:m, twa ms:m, Iqi meim, si msim, nu ms:m(z), 
vu m6:m(z), m6:m(z), si ms:m(z), swa ms:m, b mjs ms:m, h 
sjs.msim, s3/qi msim, s0 ms:m, s^/qila msim, etc., are em- 
phasizing pronouns. In the formation of such we may consider 
ms:m as an emphasizing adjective defining the pronoun. 
(Cf. p. 36.) 


3? m amy:z, ty t amyiz, i s amyiz, nu nuz amyzo, vu vuz 
amyze, i s amyiz ; — 39 md pyni mwa ms:m, ty t9 pyni twa msim, 
i S9 pyni \\\i msim, si s^ pyni^ si msim, nu nu pyniso nu msim, vu 
vu pynise vu msim, i s^ pynist msim, si s^ pynist si msim ; — s 
anqije, s^ blsse, s^ fsir mal. 

Emphasizing pronouns are not necessarily used to conjugate 
reflexive verbs. They are never really indispensable. In the 
conjugation of reflexive verbs, personal pronouns of the light 
form are used, viz. m^ [m], t? [t], sd [s], nu(z), yu(z), sd [s] ; see 
pp. 39 and 44. (Cf. p. 88.) 



(a) The relative pronoun has different forms according to its 
function in the clause it introduces : 

Subject: - - - - ki. 
Direct object : - - - k^ [k]. 
After a preposition : for persons ki, bksl. 
for things kwa, bksl. 

(b) bksl has different forms according to the number and 
gender of its antecedent : 

With a masculine antecedent in the singular : l:?ksl. 
„ „ feminine „ „ „ ,, : laksl. 

With an antecedent in the plural : - - leksl(z). 

(c) The following contracted forms are used : 

oksl instead of a bksl. dyksl instead of da bksl. 

oksl(z) „ „ aleksl(z). deksl(z) „ „ do leksl. 


(d) do(t) is generally used instead of dyksl, d^ki; dyksl is 
permissible, but sounds rather stiff. — u is generally used 
instead of da bksl, etc. : la klais u nu som. — la pais 
u nu lizo. — le sirkostais u nu nu truvo. — 1 eta d sspri u 
nu som ; and instead of a bkel, etc. : la pa:3 u nu 
nu somz arete la dsrnjsir fwa. — la vil u 59 ve. 


1. vwasi b m8sj0 a ki 5 e parle jsir. — u s h garso avsk ki vu 

vuz e:t baty 1 — h meitr d agls e s^/qi pur bksl nu travajo 
b mj0. — so ps:r malgre ki il s parti e fyrj0. — le trup 
koitr lekel nu nu som baty ete de trup frsij. 

Generally speaking, ki and bkel may be used indifferently 
after prepositions. But usage prefers ki after some and bksl 
after other prepositions. 

2. la mezo syr b twa d? laksL... — b pypitr syr b kwe 

dyksl.... — lo liivr syr la kuvsrtyir dyksl.... — 1 om da le 
ms ds ki 3 e rsmi S9 liivr.... 

do(t) cannot be used when the possessed object is preceded 
by a preposition. 

3. Compare such English sentences as: The man I saw... ; 

the boy I spoke to... ; the book I told you of... ; with 
their French equivalents : 1 om k3 3 e vy... ; 1 afa a ki 
3 e parle... ; la liivr do 39 vuz e parle.... 

Relative pronouns are never omitted in French. 

4. lez elsiv do le kaje so mal t^ny s^ro pyni; — 1 elsiv do le 

liivr so dejire s p0 swaji0 ; — 3a do la pronosjasjo s movsiz 
dwa S9 done d^ la psin ; — ksl s 1 elsiv dot yn de moveizz 
abityd s dd takine se kamarad ? 

After do, the possessed object is preceded by an article. 

Places of do and dyksl. 

lez elsiv do le no sqiiv ot ete promy; — le kopozisjo lez 
otoeir deksl so prije dd so t^niir trakil... ; — a ki s la liivr do 
la kuvsrtyir s vsrt 1 — a ki s la plym b bsk dd laksl e kase 1 

The possessed object is placed after do, but before dyksl. 



The following table gives all the forms of Interrogative 
Pronouns : 

1°. Subject for persons : Id ; ki s s ki. 

for things : ki; k s s ki. 
Direct object for persons : ki ; ki e s k^ [k]. 

for things : k? [k] ; k s s ki? [k] ; kwa. 
After prepositions for persons : ki ; ki e s k? [k]. 

for things : kwa ; kwa e s k^ [k]. 

2°. bksl, laksl, lekel(z) ;— dykel, d^ laksl, deksl(z) ;— oksl, 
a laksl, okeKz) ; — apre bksl, aprs laksl, aprs leksl(z) ; etc. 

Remark: ki s s ki, ki s s k^ are often reduced to kj s s ki, 
kj s s k^. 


1. k s s ka ty v0^'?^syr kwa s s ka ty ekri^? — ki s:t vu ? — nu 

som 5a e pjsir marts. — a, trs bjs, bksl s 3a e bkel s 
pjsirl — dyksl d^ se d0 krsjo prefere vu vu ssrviir] 
bksl, ... is used when there is a choice to be made. ki, . . . 

is used when the question does not require a choice to be made 

in the answer. 

2. ki vjs avsk mwal — ki s s ki vjs^ avsk mwa? — k3 v0 ty? — 
k s s k9 ty v0 ^? — ki apsl ty "? — ki s s ko ty apsl''? — dd ki 
pari tyl — dd ki s s ka ty parl^? — pur kwa fst vu sa ? — 
pur kwa s s ka vu fst sal 

The compound forms ki s s ki, . . . have exactly the same 
meaning as the simple ones. Their use is colloquial, but is 
not essential even in the most colloquial style of speech. 
Notice that the verb is conjugated affirmatively after the 
compound object forms, and interrogatively after the simple 
object forms. 

3. k s s ki fs Se? brqi? — k s s ki vuz a fs mail — k s s ki ariiv? 

— k s s ki s<? pais 1— ka s^ paist i ? — kd vuz ariivt i 1 — 
k s s dbl — k ariivt i ? — ka d<?vane vu? — k s s hj voz ami 
so d^vany ? 

^ Or k s s ty v0 1 ^ Or syr kwa s ty ekri 1 

^ Or k s s ty V0] 'Or ki s s tq apsl? ^ Or d ki s s ty pari? 


The interrogative pronoun subject for things is generally 
the compound form k e s ki, owing to the simple form being 
identical for persons and things. — k^ [k], k e s k^ [k] are used 
before £:tr, dav^niir and impersonal verbs as predicates rather 
than objects. 

4. 3 e ks/k9 Joiz a vu diir? — kwa doM — kwa dd nuvo 8d 
mate ? — vule vu f sir ke/k;? So-z ; — wi, sa dut, ms kwa? 
kwa is used as object or predicate in elliptical sentences in 
which the verb is missing. 



Under this head we group both indefinite quantitative and 
strictly indefinite pronouns : 

1. Used in all kinds of sentences : 

(a) For persons and things : ssrt6(n), ssrtein, S6rte(z), S6rts:n(z). 

kslkde, kelkyn, ksZk9zde(z),iksZk3zyn(z). 


tu(t), tut, tu:s, tut(z). 

den o:tr, yn o:tr, dez o:tr(8z). 

(b) For persons only : 6(n). 

ki, kikoik, ki kd sa swa(t) ki. 
o:tr, otrqi. 

(c) For things only : ks/k? Joiz. 

kwa k? [k], kwa k^ sa swa(t) ka [k]. 

2. Used in negative and negative-interrogative sentences 
only ^ : 

(a) For persons and things : paz de(n), paz yn. 

okde(n), okyn. 

(6) For persons only : person, 

(c) For things only : rje(n). 

' Or- kwa do:k? 


The definite article, as well as possessive, demonstrative and interro- 
gative adjectives may take the place of den before o:tr. 

Such sentences as konese VU person d osi bjel — 3a dut ka 
person reysiis.— ave vu same rje vy d osi soli? are equivalent to 
1 negative sentences. 


ssrtsin 6.9 vo kopozisjo so trs movsiz, ksZk,/z yn sot ase bon 
e plyzjoerr sot sksslait. i fo k^ tut Iq d^vjsn. — vwasi vo dikte. 
paz yn n s sa fo:t ; i n i an a okyn do tutafs satisfgzait. — ki 
vjs^ s s kslk de ? — no, S3 n s person. — ave vu kslkd Soiz a di:r? — 
no, 33 n e rjen a di:r. — kikoik ora ist yn fort Isivra la ms. — 
kwa k9 vu dizje, dit lo a o:t vwa. — ki vivra vsra. 

Remarks on some of the Indefinite Pronouns. 

1. o. (Cf. p. 44.) 

2. otrqi. 

n9 fst pa d9 mal a otrqi ! — n? prane pa h bje d otrqi ! 

otrqi is generally preceded by a preposition, and rarely 
occurs except in proverbs and maxims. 

3. tu.... 

(a) tu:s so v^ny. — yn fwa pur tut. — il ave d^ la fortyn, 
mez il a tu perdy. — Jakde pur swa e dj0 pur tuis. — de 
pur tu:s, tu:s pur de. — 33 lez e tu:s vy. — 39 n^ lez e pa 
tut rakony. — nu lez avo tu:s ly. — nu 1 avo tu mase. — 
nu la bwaro tut. 

tu, . . . as a pronoun is used as subject and after prepositions. 
As direct object it must stand in apposition to another pro- 
noun, as a rule a personal pronoun, or it may be used as a kind 
of neuter singular. 

(b) i p0 tu fsir. — il a py tu fe:r. — i f^ra tu. — il a vuly tu 
fsir Iqi ms:m. — vula tu. — il a tu gaspije. 

tu, used as direct object of a verb, is placed after the verb 
if the verb is in a simple tense of a personal mood or in the 
present participle, but before it if it is in the infinitive ; it is 
placed between the auxiliary and the past participle if the verb 
is in a compound tense. 

4. kwa k^ vu fasje, n ublije pa d9 m an avsrtiir. — ki k? sa 

swa ki vjen dit ka 3^' n i sqi pa. 

In the sentences which these indefinite pronouns introduce 
the subjunctive is necessary. 




Jakde, Jakyn. 

1 ce... 1 o:tr, 1 yn... 1 o:tr, lez deCz)... lez o:tr(az), lez yn(z)... 
lez oitrCaz). 


1. Jakde at i fe se d^vwair 1 — k^ Jakyn sj leiv a 1 apel d^ so 
no ! — Jakde a so tu:r pozra yn kestjo. 

Jakde is always singular. 

2. pol e 3a so boz ami, S9 k<? 1 den eim, 1 oitrd 1 s:m osi ; 1 

den e 1 o:tr s:m^ a 5ue ; ni 1 de ni 1 oitiv n simt a travaje. 

3. nu dc^vo nuz sime lez de lez o:tr. — ede vu lez de lez o:tr. — 

i &<) tyeir 1 de 1 oitr. 

1 de 1 oitr is used as a reciprocal pronoun. 

4. i s^ di:z de sotiiz 1 den a 1 o:tr, lez obz oz o:tr. — le ssrbz e 

le bylgair 6 lyte lez de koitry lez o:tr apre s eitr^ baty lez 
dez avsk lez oitr kotr<? le tyrk. 

Notice the place of the preposition. 




A. Forms. 


I. Simple Tenses - - . - 

- . 




{a) First Class .... 





1. Regular Verbs without Stem- 

modifications : 





2. Regular Verbs with Stem- 







r^msrsj - 




-6j- J 



•A- ' 







-9m- ; 








3. Irregular Verbs 





(b) Second Class 




1. Regular 





2. Irregular : ai:r, li:r 





modiir, di:r - 





kodqiir, sortiir 





uvriir, asajiir 





fqi:r, kuriir - 





kokeriir, muriir 





V9ni:r - 





(c) Third Class 





1. -a:r, -sir, -o:r, -y:r. 1°. 























2. -pr, -tr, -dr, -kr, -vr. P. -pr, -tr, -dr - 78 

2°. -tr - - 79 

3°. -dr - - 80 

4°. -kr - - 82 

5°. -vr - - 83 

II. Compound Tenses 

Auxiliaries. 1°. s:tr 84 

2°. avwair 84 

Formation of Compound Tenses - - - 85 
with avwair : 

(a) of both auxiliaries - - - - 86 

(b) of all transitive verbs in the active voice 87 

(c) of many intransitive verbs - - - 87 

(d) of all impersonal verbs - - - 87 
with e:tr : 

(a) of reflexive verbs . ... 88 

(b) of some intransitive verbs - - - 88 
Past Participle in Compound Tenses - - - 89 

III. Passive Voice ------- 90 

IV. Negative and Interrogative Conjugation - - 90 

V. Paradigms. (a) Auxiliaries 

1°. avwair 

- 93 

2°. sitr - 

- 102 

(6) truiv- 

1°. Active voice 

- Ill 

2°. Passive voice 

* - 120 

(c) reflejis- 

- 129 

(d) sd mstr 

- 139 

B. Use of Forms. 

I. Moods 

(a) Infinitive 

. - - - - 

- 148 

(6) Participle 


- 150 

(c) Indicative, Conditional, Imperative 

- 151 

(d) Subjunctive 

- 151 

II. Tenses 

(a) Indicative 


- 152 

(b) Subjunctive - - - . - 

- 154 

TIT. Persons - 

- 154 




French verbs may be conveniently classified according to 
the endings of the Present Infinitive. 

Classifying on this basis, we find that 

(a) by far the greater number of verbs (several thousands) 

end in -e\ 

(b) a few hundreds end in -i:r, 

(c) a small number end either in a consonant followed by 

-r, or in a vowel other than i: followed by r, in 
the Present Infinitive. 

French verbs, therefore, may be considered as belonging to 
one or the other of three classes : 

(a) A 1st class containing all verbs ending in -e in the 

Present Infinitive ; 

(b) a 2nd class containing all verbs ending in -i:r ; 

(c) a 3rd class containing all the remaining verbs. 

The great majority of the verbs of the 1st class are conjugated 
in the same way: they are called regular verbs of the 1st class. 
There are some verbs of the 1st class in the conjugation of 
which certain divergences (some great and some slight) occur : 
they are called irregular verbs of the 1st class. The 2nd class 
contains also regular and irregular verbs. As for the verbs of 
the 3rd class, they are conjugated in so many difterent ways that 
€ach of them will have to be considered separately. 

It should be observed that whenever a new verb is coined, 
it is conjugated on the model of the regular verbs of the 1st 
class, or, if it is an inchoative verb, on the model of the regular 
verbs of the 2nd class. Irregular verbs of the first two classes, 
together with all the verbs of the 3rd class, constitute a sort of 
dead conjugation as opposed to the living conjugation of the 
regular verbs of the 1st and 2nd class. 

Present Infinitives ending in -e have a liaison -form -er, which, 
hovrever, does not seem to be generally used in conversation anywhere in 
France. Its use is chiefly confined to formal speech or the stage. 


In order to find any form of a French verb it is necessary to 
know the stem of the verb, the ending which is to be added to 
the stem, and the modifications which the stem may have to 
undergo before the ending. Suppose, for instance, we want 
to find the 1st person plural of the Future of the verb s:me ; 
we must know that the stem of eime is e:m-, that the 
ending to be added is -r6(z), and that the stem does not 
undergo any modification, and so we arrive at the form s:mro(z). 
Again, suppose we wish to find the same form of the verb finiir; 
we must know that the stem finis- drops its final consonant 
before the ending -ro(z), which here again is the required 
ending. And thus we arrive at the form finiro(z). 

As regards both the stem and its modification, no general 
rule applying to all verbs can be given. They will be duly 
considered in each particular class. On the other hand, many 
of the endings are common to all verbs. Thus : 

the Participle Present always ends in -a(t) 
the Indicative Present, PI. 1st 
„ 2nd 
„ 3rd 
the Indicative Imperfect, 
Sing. 1st always ends in -e(z) PL 1st 

„ 2nd „ „ ,, -s{z) „ 2nd 

„ 3rd „ „ „ -6(t) „ 3rd 

the Indicative Future, 
8ing. 1st „ „ ,, -re PI. 1st 

» 2nd „ „ „ -ra(z) „ 2nd 

J, 3rd „ „ „ -ra „ 3rd 

the Future in the Past and Conditional, 
Sing. 1st „ „ „ -re(z) PI. 1st 

» 2nd „ „ „ -rs(z) „ 2nd 

» 3rd „ „ „ -r8(t) „ 3rd 

the Subjunctive Present, 
Sing. 2nd „ „ „ -(z) PI. 1st 

„ 2nd 

„ 3rd 

the Imperative, PI. 1st 

„ 2nd 

Endings which are not included in the above table are 
subject to variations depending on the class of the verb; and, in 
the case of some verbs, individual peculiarities occur. 






































































(a) First Class. 

This class contains, as has been said above, all verbs of 
which the Present Infinitive ends in -e. All but a few verbs 
of this class are regular. In order to find the stem of a regular 
verb of this class, supposing the Present Infinitive to be known, 
take away the ending -e of the Present Infinitive. In some 
cases, which will be discussed further on, that stem undergoes 
certain more or less important modifications. Thus we shall 
consider successively (l) regular verbs, the stem of which remains 
unchanged^ throughout the conjugation; (2) regular verbs, the 
stem of which undergoes some modification or other; and (3) 
irregular verbs, of the first class. 

Besides the endings given on p. 57, common to all French 
verbs, the following are the endings proper to regular verbs of 
the first class : 

the Past Participle always ends in e 
the Present Indicative, Sing. 1st has no ending 

„ 2nd always ends in -(z) 
„ 3rd has no ending 

the Past Indicative, 
Sing. 1st always ends in e 
2nd „ „ „ a(z) 
,, orclk ,, ,, .. a 

Plur. 1st always ends in a:m(z) 
„ 2nd „ „ „ a:t(z) 
„ 3rd „ „ „ 6:r(t) 

1. Regular Verbs without Stem-modifications. 

Infinitive Present 
Participle Present 






masc. l7^- "'?5''^ . fem.l^^- ™?5V ., 
(plur. maseU) iplur. mase^z) . 

53 ma:3, ty ma:3(z), i mars, nu ma3o(z), vu 
ma3e(z), i ma:3(t). 
Imperfect 39 ma3e(z), ty ma3e(z), i ma3s(t), nu 
ma3Jo(z), vu ma3Je(z), i ma3s(t). 

The final vowel of a stem which we here consider as remaining un- 
changed throughout the conjugation of the verb, may be either short or long, 
according to the rules of the length of vowels in French. Cf . P. Passy, Les 
Sons du Fran^ais, 7e ed., pp. 63-67. 

mase:, ma3e:(z) inF.S. 



Conditional and \ 
Future in the Past ) 

Past* 59 mase, ty ma3a(z), i masa, nu ma5a:in(z), 

vu ma5a:t(z), i ma5e:r(t). 
Future 39 masre, ty ma3ra(z), i masra, nu 
ma3ro(z), vu ma3re(z), i ma3ro(t). 
39 ma3rs(z), ty ma3re(z), i nia3re(t), nu 
nia3arjo(z), vu ma3orje(z)^, i ma3re(t). 
Subjunctive Present 39 mars, ty ma:3(z), i nia:3, nu ma3J6(z), 
vu ma3Je(z), i ma:3(t). 
Past^ 39 ma3as, ty masas, i ma3a(t), nu masas- 
jo(z), vu md3asje(z), i md3as(t). 
Imperative* — , ma:5, — , ma3o(z), ma3e(z), — . 

Conjugate on this model : pari-, truiv-, JerJ-, ariiv-, pais-, 
pais-, efais-, frot-, travaij-, etc. 

Regular Verbs with Stem-modifications, 










ublij e. 
ublij a (t). 

masc. ^■"S- tl-^'r ^ fem.|78- ""l^/ « 
iplur. ublije(z;, Iplur. ubhjevz; . 

3 ubli^, ty ubli(z)^^, il ubli^, nuz ublijo(z)^ 
vuz ublije(z), iz ubli(t). 

This Tense has practically disappeared from colloquial French. To 
a certain extent it is still preserved in the 3rd persons singular and plural 
(cf. p. 154). The endings -aim, -ait are often reduced to -am, -at. 

An between the stem and the ending in the 1st and 2nd persons 
plural of the Conditional generally appears where the stem ends in a 

This Tense has practically disappeared from colloquial Northern 
French. To a limited extent it is still preserved in the 3rd person singular. 

This order of the Tenses will be kept throughout the pages on 
" Simple Tenses." 

ublijei, ublijei(z) in F. S. 

' ublii inF.S. 

ty often becomes tq before a following vowel with which a liaison 
is possible : tq ubli .... 


Imperfect 3 ublije(z), ty ublijs(z), il ublije(t), nuz 

ublijo(z)\ vuz ublije(z)\ iz ublijs(t). 

Past 5 ublije, ty ublija(z), il ublija, nuz 

ublija:m(z), vuz ublija:t(z), iz ublijs:r(t). 

Future 3 ublire, ty ublira(z), il ublira, nuz 

ublir6(z), vuz ublire(z), iz ubliro(t). 

Conditional and ] 3 ublirs(z), ty ublire (z), il ublir£(t), nuz 

Future in the Past j ublirjo(z), vuz ublirje(z), iz ublire(t). 

Subjunctive Present 3 ubli^, ty ubli(z)^, il ubli^, nuz ublijo(z)*, 
vuz ublije (z)\ iz ubli(t). 
Past — , — , il ublija(t), — , — , — . 

Imperative — , ubli, — , ublijo(z), ublije(z), — . 

Conjugate on this model : plij-, krij-, syplij-, apqij-, prij-, 
etc., that is to say, many verbs whose stem ends in -ij. 

Remarks : 

(a) When no ending is to be added to the stem, or when 
the ending begins with a consonant, the final -j of the stem is 
dropped*. The stem of this class of verbs might therefore be 
considered as ending in an i, which develops a j before ter- 
minations beginning with a vowel. 

(b) Consequently, in the 1st and 2nd persons plural of the 
Present Indicative, the j must be considered as belonging to 
the stem, whilst in the same persons of both the Imperfect In- 
dicative and the Present Subjunctive (when those forms are not 
pronounced with a special emphasis — Cf. note l) it must be 
considered as belonging to the ending. 

(c) There are other verbs, the stems of which end in -ij, 
which are quite regular. In these verbs the -ij is the result of 
a sound-change from iA* (and iA is still heard in F. S. and some 
parts of France, especially with old people). Ex. : brij-, setij-, 
egqij-, abij-, vasij-, grezij-, uspij-. 

ublijjo, ublijje when the speaker wishes to make it quite clear that 
he uses the Imperfect or the Subjunctive Present and not the Indieatire 

' ubli: in F. S. 

However, the final -j of the stem is preserved, especially when no 
ending is added, in many parts of France and in F. S. : 3 ublij — 

* A is the " palatal lateral " consonant (see Passy, Petite Fhonetique, 



Infinitive Present 
Participle Present 

Indicative Present 




Conditional and ) 
Future in the Past ) 

Subjunctive Present 




r^msrsje, etc.^ 

38 r^msrsi, ty r.?msrsi(z), i r^msrsi, nu 
r^msrsjoCz), vu r9msrsje(z), i r9m6rsi(t). 

39 r3msrsJ6(z), ty r^msrsjsCz), i r^mersjelt), 
nu r3m6rsjo(z), vu r9m6rsje(z), i r^msrs- 

39 r^mersje, ty r^msrsjaCz), i r^mersja, nu 

r.'msrsjarmCz), vu r9msrsja:t(z), i r^msrs- 

30 r^msrsire, ty r9m8rsira(z), i r^msrsira, 

nu r3msrsiro(z), vu r3msrsire(z), i 

39 r^msrsireCz), ty r9msrsire(z), i r^msr- 

sirs(t), nu r9m8rsirjo(z), vu r9mersirje(z), 

i r9mersirs(t). 
39 r^mersi, ty r^mersi, i r^msrsi, nu r^msr- 

sj6(z), vu r3m6rsje(z), i r9msrsi(t). 
— , — , i r9msrsja(t), — , — , — . 
— , r^msrsi, — , r^msrsjo(z), r3m6rsje(z), 

Conjugate on this model: etydj-, madj-, modifj-, skspedj-, 
balbysj-, parj-, avj-, asosj-, fortifj-, etc., that is, all verbs whose 
stem ends in a consonant followed by a j. 

Remarks : 

(a) When no ending is to be added to the stem, or when 
the ending begins with a consonant, the final -j of the stem is 
changed into an i. The stem of this class of verbs might 
therefore be considered as ending in an i which changes into 
a j before endings beginning with a vowel. 

We shall henceforth only give the masc. sing, form. The other 
forms may be easily deduced. (Cf. p. 58.) 


(b) Consequently, the 1st and 2nd persons plural of the 
Imperfect Indicative and Present Subjunctive ought to be re- 
spectively : nu r.>mersijo(z), vu r^msrsije(z). Such forms might 
still be heard occasionally, though the natural contractions given 
in the paradigm are practically universal. 


Verbs whose stem ends in -waj and verbs whose stem 
ends in -ej are conjugated on the model of ublij-, that is to 
say, the j is dropped when no ending is to be added to the 
stem or when the ending begins with a consonant, and is pre- 
served only when the ending begins with a vowel : netwaje, 
netwaja(t), 53 netwa, ^j netwajs(z), 33 netware, 33 netwars(z), 
nu netwajo(z), etc. peje, psja(t), i pe, i p8Je(t), i psra, i psr£(t), 

Conjugate like this : brwaj-, abwaj-, foswaj-, nwaj-, rydwaj-, 
efrsj-, essj-, delsj-. etc. 

However, this class of verbs is still conjugated without any 
stem -modification by many people in many parts of France : 33 
netwaj, ty netwaj, i netwaj,...3c> netwajre, ^9 netwajrs(z), nu 
netwajro(z), nu netwaj t?rjo(z), etc. 

There are many verbs of the first class whose stem ends in 
'A, -dt, -dv, -dn, -3S, -^m. 

When no ending is to be added to the stem, or when the 
ending begins with a consonant, the stem is changed into -si, 
-et, -e:v, -e:n, -eis, -eim, the long vowels being generally 
shortened in non-final position. 

ap^l-, aple, apla(t), 3 apsl, nuz aplo(z), 3 apls(z), 3 apelre, 

3 apslre(z), . . . 
aj^t-, ajte, aSta(t), 3 aSst, nuz aJtoCz), 3 aJteCz), 3 ajstre, 3 

krav-, krgve, krava(t), 33 krsiv, nu kr9vo(z), 33 kr8vs(z), 33 

krevre, 3^ krsvre(z),... 
am^n-, amne, amna(t), 3 amein, nuz amno(z), 3 amns(z), 3 

amenre, 3 am8nrs(z),... 
dep^s-, depse, depsa(t), 33 depeis, nu depso(z), 3.; depss(z), 39 

depssre, ^? dep6srs(z),... 
S9m-, sme, sma(t), 33 S8:m, nu smd(z), 3^ sms(z), 33 ssmre, 

33 ssmrs(z).... 


Conjugate similarly : kaj^t-, epus^t-, foej^t-, 39t-, suflat- ; 
ati?l-, Sfis^l-, 3^1-, ep^l-, fis^l-, ars^l-, r^nuv^l-, rqis^l- ; S3 dem^n-, 
gagran- ; aj^v-, abv-, ebv-, etc. 

• 5°. 
There are a good many verbs whose stem ends in -w, and 
a good many others whose stem ends in -q. 

When no ending is to be added to the stem, or when the 
ending begins with a consonant, -w and -q are respectively 
changed into the corresponding vowels -u and -y. 
avw-, avwe, avwa(t), 3 avu, nuz avwo(z), 3 avws(z), 3 avure, 

3 avureCz), . . . 
salq-, salqe, salqa(t), 39 saly, nu salq6(z), 39 salqe(z), 39 salyre, 
3i/ salyrs(z).... 
Conjugate similarly : kotinq-, diminq-, eternq-, atribq-, 
distribq-, s abitq- ; ejw-, S9 devw-, 3W-, nw-, etc. 


Where the regular formation of the future^ would bring 
about either of these two combinations of consonants : con- 
sonant + r + r or consonant + 1 + r (impossible combinations 
in French), the future is formed by adding the endings -are, 
-ara(z), -ara, -8r6(z), -are(z), -or6(t) : 39 koblare, 3 afybbre, 39 
kotaplare, 3 aj^vstrare ; 3 administrare, 39 siflare, 39 goflare, 39 
livrare, 3 epeglare, etc. 

Other combinations of consonants are possible : 39 bobardre, 
39 diktre, 3 a3urnre, 3 alternre, 3 oskyltre, 39 dekalkre, 39 
deSar3re, etc. 


In the Future and Conditional of verbs whose stem ends in 
a vowel followed by r, a double r is distinctly pronounced : 
3 admirre, 3 akaparre, or an a is inserted between the stem 
and the ending : . 3 admirare, 3 akaparare. 

3. Irregular Verbs. 


Stem al-. 

Infinitive Present ale. 

Participle Present ala(t). 

Past ale. 

This is also true of the Conditional or Future in the Past. 


Indicative Present ^9 ve{z)^, ty va(z), i va, nuz alo(z), vuz 
ale(z), i vo(t). 
Imperfect 5 al8(z), ty ale(z), il als(t), nuz aljo(z), vuz 
alje(z), iz als(t). 
Past 3 ale, ty ala(z), il ala, nuz ala:m(z), vuz 

ala:t(z), iz als:r(t). 
Future 3 ire, ty ira(z), il ira, nuz iro(z), vuz 
ire(zX iz iro(t). 
Conditional and ] 3 ire(z), ty ireCz), il ir6(t), nuz irjo(z), vuz 

Future in the Past) irje(z), iz irsCt). 

Subjunctive Present 5 a:j, ty a:j(z), il a:j, nuzaj6(z), vuzaje(z)^ 
iz a:j(t). 
Past 3 alas, ty alas, il ala(t), nuz alasjo(z), vuz 

alasje(z), iz alas(t). 
Imperative — , va(z), — , alo(z), ale(z), — . 

Conjugate according to the above paradigm : s an ale ; 39 
m a ve(z), ty t a va(z), i s a va, nu nuz an alo(z), vu vuz an 
ale(z), i s a vo(t) ; 3^ m an als(z) ; 39 m an ire ; 39 m an a:j ; 
va t a, alo nuz a, ale vuz a. 

Stem avwaj-. 
avwaje is conjugated like netwaje (cf. p. 62) in all tenses, 

except in the Future and the Conditional. 
Indicative Future : 3 avsre, ty av8ra(z), il avsra, nuz 

av8ro(z), vuz avsre(z), iz avsro(t). 
Conditional and Future in the Past : 3 avsreCz), ty avers(z), 

il avers(t), nuz avsrjo(z), vuz avsrje(z), iz avsrs(t). 

Conjugate in the same way ravwaj-. 

(b) Second Class. 

The second class contains all verbs whose Present Infinitive 
ends in -i:r. Over 350 verbs of this class are conjugated in 
the same way : we call them regular verbs of the second class. 
About 50 other verbs of this class offer various divergences from 
the regular verbs : we call them irregular verbs of the second 
class. So we shall consider successively regular and irregular 
verbs of this class. 

^ Or 39 ve(z). ^ Or nuz aljr)(z), vuz alje(z). 



1. Regular Verbs. 

I. If the Present Infinitive of a regular verb of the 2nd 
class is known, the stem is found by replacing the ending -i:r 
by the ending -is : finiir, finis- ; avsrtiir, avertis- ; batiir, 
batis- ; seziir, sszis- ; Jwaziir, Jwazis- ; etc. For the following 
verbs the ending -i:r must be replaced, not by -is, but by 
-iz : syfiir, syfiz- ; lqi:r, Iqiz- ; nqiir, nqiz-. 

II. This stem undergoes the following modifications : s is 
dropped when no ending is to be added (except in the Present 
Subjunctive and the first two persons of the singular of the Past 
Subjunctive) or when the ending begins with a consonant : 
39 fini(z), nu finiro(z). 

III. Besides the endings given on pp. 57-58, common to all 
French verbs, the following are the endings proper to regular 
verbs of the second class : 

the Past Participle has no ending 

the Present Indicative bing. 

1 2 


ends ] 

n -iz) 




,5 -(z) 




5 -(t) 

the Past Indicative Sing. 



„ -M 




55 -(z) 




5 -(t) 




„ -m(z) 




,5 -t(z) 




5 -r(t) 

the Imperative Sing. 



5 -(z) 


Stem finis-. 

litive Present finiir. 

iciple Present finisa(t). 


r (sing. fini\ 
* \plur. fini(z)l 

jsing. fini, 
masc. 1 1 M ./ \ 
tplur. nHi(zj, 

Indicative Present 39 fini(z), ty fini(z), i fini(t), nu finiso(z), 

vu finise(z), i finis(t). 

Imperfect 33 finiss(z), ty finiss(z), i finiss(t), nu 

finis,jo(z), vu finisje(z), i finiss(t). 

Past 39 fiiii(z), ty fini(z), i fini(t), nu fim:m(z), 

vu fini:t(z), i fini:r(t). 

finii, finiij in F. S. 

fini:(z) in F. S. 


Future 33 finire, ty finira(z), i finira, nu finiro(z), 
vu finire(z), i finiro(t). 
Conditional and ] 33 finir6(z), ty finire (z), i finirs(t), nu 

Future in the Past j finirio(z), vu finirje(z), i finire(t). 

Subjunctive Present 33 finis, ty finis(z), i finis, nu finisjo(z), 
vu finisje(z), i finis(t). 
Past 39 finis, ty finis(z), i fini(t), nu finisj6(z), 

vu finisje(z), i finis(t). 
Imperative — , fini(z), — , finiso(z), finise(z), — . 

Conjugate on this model : obeis-, pynis-, raplis-, reysis-. 
reflejis-, ateris-, aplanis-, trais-, syfiz-, Iqiz-, nqiz-, etc. 

2. Irregular Verbs. 

Under this heading are included all verbs whose ending in 
the Present Infinitive is -i:r, and which depart (even if only 
very slightly) from the above model. 



+39 s, ty 8, il '^e, nu aiso(z), vu aise(z), il ^^aislt) 
39 ais6(z)... 
30 ai(z)... 
59 aire... 
39 air8(z)... 
39 ais... 
39 ais... 
ai(z) or e(z), aise(z)... 



^ Henceforth, for brevity's sake, we shall not repeat every time the 
names of the Tenses. We keep to the same order of Tenses as before. 
Moreover, we shall only give the first person of regular Tenses. From 
1° to 5° inclusive irregular forms are marked f. The use of tliis mark 
has not seemed necessary for the classes 6^ onwards, as the verbs of these 
classes are entirely irregular. 

'^ Where we do not give the plural and feminine forms of the Past 
Participle, it is understood that they are to be formed on the finis- model. 



39 li(z)... 

33 lizeCz)... 
i^9 ly(z), ty ly(z), i ly(t), nu ly:m(z), vu ly:t(z), i ly:r(t) 

33 lire... 

3^ lire(z)... 

39 li:z... 
+33 lys, ty lys, i ly(t), nu lysjo(z), vu lysje(z), i lys(t) 


Like Hz-, conjugate r^liz-, eliz-, reeliz-. 



fmodi(t) masc. \'f«- """^l^*!' fem. {'f^' "^"f,, . 

iplur. moaivz;, Iplur. moditUJ 

3^ modi(z)... 
7,j modise(z).., 
3.9 modi(z)... 
3^ modire... 
3^ raodirs(z)... 
33 modis... 
3<? modis... 

Like modis-, conjugate mediz-, kotradiz-, dediz-, eterdiz-, 
prediz-, kofiz-, dekofiz-. 


idi(t) masc. |7«- ^!|*|' fem. \'^"«- ^1* , 

iplur. di(z;, (plur. dit(z) 

33 di(z), ty di(z), i di(t), nu diz6(z), fvu dit(z), i diz(t) 

39 dize(z)... 

39 di(z)... 

33 dire... 

39 dire(z)... 

33 di:z... 

33 dis... 


Like diz-, conjugate r^diz-. 




39 kodqi(z)... 

3a kodqizs(z)... 
139 kodqizi(z), ty kodqizi(z), i k6dqizi(t), nu kodqizi:m(z), 
vu kodqizi:t(z), i kodqizi:r(t) 

39 kodqire... 

39 kodqirelz)... 

39 kddqiiz... 
139 kodqizis, ty kodqizis(z), i kodqizi(t),...i kodqizis(t) 


Like kodqiz-, conjugate S9 kodqiz-, ekodqiz-, rakodqiz-, 
kostrqiz-, kqiz-, dedqiz-, sstrqiz-, strodqiz-, prodqiz-, sedqiz-, 
tradqiz-, ekriv- (ekriir, ekriva(t), ekri(t), 3 ekri(z), 3 ekriveCz), 
3 ekrivi(z), 3 ekrire, 3 ekriiv,...), rekriv-, dekriv-, traskriv-, etc. 




sorta (t) 


39 so:r(z), ty so:r(z), i so:r(t), nu sorto(z), vu sorte(z), i sort(.?t) 

39 sorts(z)... 

39 sorti (z)... 

39 sortire... 

39 sortirs(z) . . . 

39 sort, ty sort(z), i sort, nu sortjo(z), vu sortje(z), i sort(9t) 

39 sortis.-. 

soir, sorto(z), sorte(z) 

Like sort-, conjugate part- (39 pair, nu parte (z)... ) ; — 
mat-, s<) ropat-, sat- (39 ma(z), nu mato(z)...) ; — vst- and com- 
pounds r9vst-, devet-,... (39 vs, nu v8to(z),... except Past 
Participle vsty) ; — dorm- and compounds adorm-, r9dorm-, . . . 
(39 do:r, nu dormo(z)...) ; — ssrv- (39 ssir, nu ssrvo(z)...) ; — buj- 
(39 bu(z), nu bujo(z)....). 



(sing. uvs:r, ^ (sing, uvert 
uveir masc. i i / \ lem. i , , / \ 

Iplur. uverr^zj, Iplur. uvertvzj 

3 uvr, ty uvr(8z), il uvr, niiz uvr6(z), vuz uvre(z), iz iivr(9t) 

3 uvreCz)... 

3 uvri(z)... 

3 uvrire... 

3 uvrire (z)... 

3 uvr... 

3 uvris... 

uvr. . . 

Like uvr-, conjugate kuvr-, ofr-, sufr-, r^kuvr-, dekuvr-. 


3 asaj, ty asaj(z), il asaj, nuz asajo(z), vuz asaje, iz asaj(t)* 
3 asajs(z)\.. 
3 asaji(z)... 

5 asaj re or 5 asaj ire... 
3 asajre(z) or 3 asajirs(z)... 
3 asaj... 
3 asajis... 
asaj . . . 

Like asaj-, conjugate tresaj-, koej-, akoej-, r6>ko3J-. 





59 fi[i(z), ty fqi(z), i fi{i(t), nu fqijo(z), vu fi{ije(z), i fiii(t) 
7,^ fqijs(z)... 
39 fqi(z)... 

^ Cf. p. 62, 3". 


39 fqire... 

39 i\{irs{z)... 

39 fqi, ty fqi(z), i fqi, nu fqijo(z), vu fqije(z), i fqi(t) 

i fiji(t) — 


Like fqij-, conjugate s afqij-, rij- \ 




3^ ku:r, ty ku:r(z), i ku:r(t), nu kuro(z), vu kure(z), i ku:r(t) 

39 kurs(z)... 

39 kury(z)... 

39 kurre... 

39 kurrs(z)... 

39 ku:r... 

39 kurys... 

kur. . . 

Like kur-, conjugate akur-, kokur-, diskur-, parkur-, s^kur-. 


k5ki(z) masc. j^^' l^^'\ fem. I^^' }^'\ 

iplur. koki(z), (plur. kokiiz 

39 kokjsir, ty kokjsir, i kokjsir, nu kokero(z), vu k6kere(z), 

i kokjs:r(t) 

39 kr)kers(z)... 

39 koki(z)... 

39 kokerre... 

39 kokerrs(z)... 

39 kokjsir,... nu kokerj6(z),... i kokJ6:r(t) 

39 kokis... 

kokjsir, kokero(z)... 

Like koker-, conjugate aker-, s aker-. 

' Cf. p. 59, r. ' Or kokiz(z). 






J sing. mo:r, . _ (sing, mort 

moir masc. i ■, / \ lem. i i , / \ 

iplur. mo:r(z), iplur. mort(z; 

39 moeir, ty moeir, i moeir, nu mur6(z), vu mure(z), i moe:r(t) 

39 mure(z)... 

33 mury(z)... 

39 murre... 

33 murrs(z)... 

39 moeir,... nu murj6(z), . . . i moe:r(t) 

39 murys... 

moeir, muro(z).... 






39 vjs(z), ty vj6(z), i vjs(t), nu v9no(z), vu V9ne(z), i vjsn(t) 

39 Vc)ns{z)... 

39 V8(z), ty ve(z), i vs(t), nu vsim(z), vu veit(z), i V6ir(t) 

39 vjsdre, ty \^"sdra(z)... 

39 vjsdrs(z)... 

39 vjen, ty \ien(z), i vjsn, nu V9nj6(z), vu V9nje(z), i vJ6n(t) 

39 V6IS, ty vsis(z), i vs(t), nu vssj6(z), vu vssje(z), i vsis(t) 

vJ6(z), v9no(z)... 

Like V9n-, conjugate kov9n-, dav9n-, sa suv9n-, t9n-, apart9n-, 
etc. (all compounds in fact of V9n- and t9n-). 

(c) Third Class. 

The third class contains all verbs whose Present Infinitive 
ends either in a consonant followed by r or in a vowel other 
than ii followed by r. There are about 100 such verbs. ^ In 
the following pages they will be classified on a strictly phonetic 
basis. As above, the names of the tenses will not be repeated, 

avwair and sitr belong to this class. But on account of their 
importance as auxiliary verbs, they will be dealt with separately (cf. pp. 84-85). 


the same order as before being adhered to/ The stem will not 
be given, as it undergoes many changes in the course of the 
conjugation of practically every verb of this class. 

As regards the personal endings : 

(a) In the case of the Imperfect Indicative, the Future and 
the Conditional, the first person singular being known, all 
the other persons may be deduced according to the table 
on p. 57 ; 

(b) in the case of the Indicative and Subjunctive Present 
Plural, the first person plural being known, the second 
and, in many cases, the third persons plural may be 
deduced according to the same table ; 

(c) in the case of the Indicative Past and the Indicative 
Present Singular, the first person singular being known, 
the other persons may be deduced according to the table 
of endings given for the second class on p. 65 ; 

(d) in the case of the Subjunctive Past, the first person 
• singular being known, it will be easy to deduce the other 

persons according to the following scheme : Sing. 1st, -s ; 
2nd, -s(z) ; 3rd, (-t)> Plur- 1st, -sjo(z); 2nd, -sje(z); 
3rd, -s(t). 

1. Verbs whose Present Infinitive ends in -a:r, -sir, -air, -yir. 

r. -a:r. 

di^vwair -s^vwair muvwair ploevwair 

d9va(t) -s^va(t) muva(t) ploeva(t) 

dy^ -sy my ply 

33 dwa(z), nu d^- -swa(z), -s^v6(z), m0(z), muvo(z), i pl0(t) 

vo(z), i dwa:v(t) -swa:v(t) m0:v(t) 

39 d9vs(z)... -Si^ve(z)... muve(z)... i pla-veW 

33 dy(z) . . . -sy (z) . . . my(z) ... i ply(t) 

3r? dQvre^... -s^vre... muvre... i ploevra 

7fi davre (z)^ . . -s^vr e (z) . . . muvrs (z) . . . i ploevr8( t) 

^ Cf. pp. 65-66. 

^ In the 3rd class again, the feminine and plural forms of the Past 
P«rticiple will not be given except when they differ from the ma3- or 
finis- models. 

^ Or 39 d^vre. ^ Or 39 d^vrsCz). 


3^ dwaiv, nu dj- -swaiv, -S9vj6(z), m0:v, inuvj0(z) i ploeiv 

vjo(z), i dwa:v(t) swa:v(t) ni0:v(t) 

3^dys... -sys... mys... i ply{t) 

dwa(z), d<?v6(z)... -swa(z), -si>vo(z)... m0(z),muvo(z)... — 

Remarks : 

1. In muvwair in final closed syllables oe is often 
heard instead of : i moe:v(t), i s emoeiv fasilma. 

2. pl0vwa:r is an impersonal verb ; it is only used in the 
3rd person singular with the neuter pronoun i. 

Conjugate as above : ros^vwair, kos<?vwa:r, apers3vwair," 
emuvwair, etc. 



3i? p0(z) or y piti(z), ty p0(z), i p0(t), nu puvo(z),...i p0:v(t) 

or i pce:v(t) 
3^ puvs(z)... 

33 py(z)... . 

3^ pure... 
3^ pure(z)... 
3i? poeiv or 3.* pqis, ty poe:v(z) or ty pqis(z), i poeiv or 

i pqis, nu puvjo(z) or nu piiisjo(z), vu puvje(z) or 

vu pqisje(z), i poe:v(t) or i pi[is(t) 
7,9 pys.... 

Remarks : 

. 1. The second form of the first person singular of the 
Present Indicative is rarely used except in the interrogative 
form : pqi 3 vu di:r oe mo 1 — k^ pqi 3 f s:r 1 and in the ex- 
pression 38 iw pi{i. 

2. The second form of the Present Subjunctive is much 
more frequent than the first one. 

3. On account of its meaning, puvwair is not used in the 




59 ssizY, — nil sayo(z), i sa:v(t) 

39 savs(z)... 


59 sore... or 39 sore... 

33sors(z)... or 3^sors(z)... 



ss(z)^, saSo(z)... 




39 vwa(z), nu vwaj6(z), i vwa(t) 

39 vwaj8(z)... 

39 vi(z)... 

39 vera... 

33 vers(z)... 

39 vwa, nu vwajo(z), i vwa(t) 

39 vis... 

vwa(z), vwajo(z)... 



kry [krwa'^t) 

33 krwa(z), nu krwajo(z), i 

39 krwajs(z)... 

33 kry(z) . . . 

33 krware... 

39 krwars(z)... 

39 krwa, nu krwajo(z), i krwa(t) 

39 krys... 

krwa(z), krwajo(z)... 

Like vwa:r, conjugate de^wair, ^ except in the Past In- 
dicative : deSy(z), and the Past Subjunctive : dejys ; — prevwair 
except in the Future : prevware, and the Conditional or Future 
in the Past : prevwars(z) : — purvwair except in the Past Indica- 
tive: purvy(z), and the Past Subjunctive : purvys, in the Future 
and Conditional : purvware, purvwars(z) ; — rovwair, atravwair. 

Like krwair, conjugate syrswair, except in the Past 
Participle: syrsi(z), in the Past Indicative: syrsi(z), and in the 
Past Subjunctive : syrsis ; — akrwair. 

Or 39 se(z). "^ Or se(z) 

e^warr is only used in the third person singular and plural of 

few tenses 

Present Participle 


Present Indicative 





il eSwa(t), iz eSvva(t) 

il eSy(t), iz eSy:r(t) 

il ejera, iz eSero(t). 


s aswair 
s assja(t) 

./ \ fsing. asi(z), . (sing, asiiz 

asHzj masc. i i •/ \ lem. t , • i 

(.plur. asHz;, iplur. asi:z 

59 m asjs,... nu nuz assjo(z),... i s asje(t) 

39 m as6Js(z)... 

59 m asi(z)... 

39 m asjsre... 

39 m asjers(z)... 

53 m assj, ... nu nuz assjo(z),... i s assj(t) 

33 m asis... 

asje twa, assjo nu(z).... 

Remarks : 

1. The simple verb swair is only used in the 3rd person 
singular and plural of some tenses : sjs(t), ssjs(t), sjsra, sjsro(t), 
sjsrs(t), sj£ : s^ Japo vu sjst a mervsij ; — 3a nd krwa pa k? se 
kuloeir m^ sjers ; — i vu fo Jwaziir de form ki vu sjs. 

2. The verb aswair, though it may be used transitively, 
is generally used reflexively. 

3. The conjugation of this verb is far from being fixed : ^<f 
m aswa(z),... nu nuz aswajr)(z),... i s aswa(t) for the Present 
Indicative may be frequently heard. 

3^ m assj,... i s as£j(t) for the same tense are also some- 
times heard. 

For the Future and the Conditional 39 m assj re, 39 m 
as6Jre(z) and 39 m asware, 39 m aswarslz) are l)oth as 
common for all persons as 39 m asjere, 39 m asjsrs(z). For 
the same Tenses 39 m aswaj^re, 39 m aswaj^rsCz) may occasionally 
be heard. 

For the Present Subjunctive 39 m asjs, ty t asJ8(z), i s asjeCt) 
and 39 m aswa, ty t aswa(z), nu nuz aswajo(z), etc., are both 

In the Imperative aswaje vu is also very common. 

valwarr vulwair falwair 

vala(t) vula(t) — 

Or asi:z(z). 


valy vuly faly 

5i^ vo(z), nil valo(z) ... 39 v0(z), nu vulo(z), i voel(t) i fo(t) 

5<? vals(z)... 53 vuleCz)... i fal8(t) 

3^ valy(z) ... 39 vuly(z) ... i faly(t) 

33 vodre. . . 39 vudre. . . i fodra 

36? vodrs(z)... 39 viidrs(z)... i fodrs(t) 

33 va:j, nil vajo(z) ... 39 vceij, nu vujo(z), i voeij (t) i f a:j 

3i>valys... • 33 vuly s... i faly(t) 

vo(z), valo(z)... v0(z) or voeij, vulo(z), — 

vule(z) or voeje(z) 

Eemarks : 

1. The third person plural in the Present Indicative of 
•vulwair is sometimes i v0:l(t). (Cf. p. 73, E. 1, re muvwair.) 

2. The Imperative of vulwair is rarely heard, on account 
of the meaning of the verb. v0, vulo, vule are peremptory, 
vce:j and voeje polite forms : v0 s^ ka ty v0 ! — voeje fsrme la 

Like valwarr, conjugate r6>valwa:r, ekivalwair, prevalwair 
except in the Present Subjunctive : 7^3 prevail. 




39 bwa(z),... nu byvo(z),... i bwaiv(t) 

39 byvs(z)... 

39 by(z)... 

3i? bware... 

33 bwars(z)... 

y bwaiv,... nu byvjo(z),... i bwaiv(t) 

33 bys... 

bwa(z), byvo(z).... 

2°. -sir. 

pleir Si? teir 

pl8za(t) S3 teza(t) 

ply ty 

39 pls(z),... nu plszo(z)... 39 m? te(z)V-- ii^i nu tszo(z)... 

Or 33 m9 ts(z).... 


39 plsze(z)... 30 m9 tsze(z)... 

3a ply(z)... 39 m9 ty(z)... 

33 plsre... 39 1119 tsre... 

3^ plsrs(z)... 33 ni3 t8rs(z)... 

39 plsiz... 39 m9 tsiz... 

33 plys... 39 m? tys... 

pl6(z), pl8zo(z)... ts twa, tezo nu(z)... 

Like plsir, conjugate deplsir, S9 pleir a, S3 koplsir a.... 


fs(t) IfS- f^(t), fem. j^ing- if 

' iplur. fs(z), iplur. fst(z) 

39 f£(z),... nu f9zo(z), vu fst, i fo(t) 

33 f9zs(z) ... 

39 fi(z)... 

39 f<?re... 

39 f9rs(z)... 

33 fas... ■ 

3a fis... 

fe(z), f(?zo(z), fst(z). 

Like feir, conjugate r^feir, defsir, satisfsir and other 



, (,\ 2 (sing, trs(t), . (sing, trst 

trelt) masc. 1 , . ) \ fern. 1 i . . / \ 

iplur. trs(z), iplur. trst(z) 

39trs(z),... nu trsjo(z),... i trs(t) 

39 tr8Js(z), . . . nu trsjo(z) . . . 

39 trere... 
39 trere(z) ... 
39 trs... 

tr6(z), trsjo(z)... 

Like trsir, conjugate apstrsir, distrsir, skstrszr, sustrsir 
and breir. 

These verbs are defective verbs. 

Or 39 f9zs(z). Only used in compounds 


3°. -o:r. 

klou; masc. ^pj^^ ^^j^^^^^ *^^^- (plur. kloiz ^ 

5i? klo(z) no plural 

33 klore... 

53 klors(z)... 

53 klo:z,... nu klozjo(z)... 


Like kloir, conjugate akloir, ekloir. 
These verbs are defective verbs. 

4° -y:r. 

53 kdkly(z), ... nu koklyo(z) . . . 
33 koklye(z), ... nu k6klyjo(z) . . . 
33 kokly(z) . . . 
33 koklyre... 
33 kuklyrs(z)... 
33 kokly, ... nu koklyjo(z) . . . 
kokly(z), koklyo(z)... 

Like koklyir, conjugate sksklyir, sklyrr. 

2. Verbs whose Present Infinitive ends in -pr, -tr, -dr, -kr, -vr, 

1°. ~pr, -tr, -dr. 

' Or klo:z(z). 


5^ ro(z),... i rovt), nu ropo(z),... i ro:p(t) 

5i? rop8(z)... 

33 ropi(z)... 


33 roprs(z)... 


3^ ropis... 

rd(z), ropo(z)... 

Like roipr, conjugate koroipr, stsroipr ; batr and com- 
pounds kobatr, abatr, debatr, etc. ; psrdr. 

2°. -tr. 

3^^ krwa(z), ... nu krwaso(z) . . . 
3^ krwas6(z)... 
3^ kiy(z)... 
3^ krwatre . . . 
3^ krwatrs(z)... 
3^ krwars... 
krwa(z), krwaso(z)... 

Like krwaitr, conjugate akrwaitr, dekrwaitr. 


(sing. mi(z), ^^^ (sing. mi:z 
iplur. miizj, (plur. miiz 

nii(z) masc. ] ,j„^* ^;f„\ ^^^- i -V. "_ _..7 _i 

3^ ms(z),... nu m6to(z) 

39 mete(z)... 

39 mi(z)... 

^9 metre... 

3^ metrs(z)... 

y met... 

3^' mis... 

m6(z), msto(z)... 

Or mi:z(z). 


Like metr, conjugate manj'' compounds like admetr, 
kometr, ometr, psrmstr, promstr, etc. 




59 kons(z), . . . nu konsso(z) . . . 

59 kon8S8(z)... 

59 kony(z)... 

59 konetre... 

59 konstre(z) . . . 

59 konsis... 

59 konys... 

kons(z), kon8so(z).... 

Like koneitr, conjugate pareitr, p8:tr (the following 
tenses of peitr are never used : Past Participle, Past Indica- 
tive, Past Subjunctive), n8:tr (which differs, however, in the 
Past Participle ne, the Past Lidicative 39 naki(z), and the 
Past Subjunctive 39 nakis), and many compounds like r9kon8:tr, 
mekoneitr, apareitr, disparsitr, kopareitr. 

3°. -dr. 


/ N fsing. apsu(z), r fsing. apsut 

ap3u(z) mase. j^,^; ^^^^^(^^^ fem. j^^,^,^ ^^^^^^^^ 

3 apsu(z),... nuz apsolvo(z)... 
3 apsolv8(z) . . . 

3 apsudre... 
3 apsudr 8 (z)... 
3 apsolv... 

apsu(z), apsolvo(z) .... 

Like apsudr, conjugate disudr, rezudr (rezudr has a Past 
Participle rezoly, a Past Lidicative 39 rezoly(z)..., and a Past 
Subjunctive 39 rezolys . . . ). 






39 mu(z),... nu inulo(z)... 

53 niule(z)... 

33 muly(z)... 

39 mudre... 

33 mudrs(z)... 

33 mu:l... 

39 mulys... 

mu(z), inulo(z).... 




33 ku(z), ... nu kuzo(z) . . . 

33 kuzs(z).,. 

33 kuzi(z).,. 

33 kudre... 

33 kudre (z)... 


33 kuzis... 

ku(z), kuz6(z)... 

Like kudr, conjugate r3kudr, dekudr. 





\ plur. 

33pra(z),... nu pr8n6(z),. 
33 prans(z) . . . 
33 pri(z)... 
33 pradre... 
33 pradrs(z)... 
33 pren, ... nu pr9njo(z), . . . 
33 pris... 
pra(z), pr9no(z)... 

. i prsn(t) 


fem. f •"«• 
( plur. 


^ Or pri:z(z). 


Like praidr, conjugate apraidr, kopraidr, atropraidr, 
syrpraidr and other compounds. 


kr.(t) ra^.{^ ^^ 

r /sing, kreit 
Iplur. kr6:t(z) 
39 krs(z), ... nu krsjio(z) . . . 
39 krejie(z)\.. 
3^ krsjii(z) . . . 
3^ kredre... 
33 kredrelz)... 
39 krejiis... 
krs(z), kre]io(z)... 







39 3we(z),... nu 3wajio(z 
38 3wajis(z)\.. 
38 3wajii(z)... 
38 3wsdre... 
38 3W8drs(z)... 
38 3waji\.. 
38 3wajiis... 
3ws(z), 3waji6(z)... 


Like kreidr, conjugate all verbs ending in -eidr in the 
Present Infinitive, except those ending in -ws:dr : astrsidr, 
atsidr, afrsidr, eteidr, etreidr, .psidr, pleidr, teidr, kotrsidr, 
feidr, serdr, rsstrsidr. 

Like 3wl:dr, conjugate all verbs ending in 
pweidr, wsidr, r^swsidr. 


surdr is only used in the Present Infinitive and in the 
third person singular and plural of the Present Indicative : si 
su:r, si surd(t). 

vsky . 

4°. -kr. 

nu krsjijo(z), nu 3wajijo(z) are generally reduced to 
nu krsjio(z), nu 3wajio(z). 


39 vl,... i V8(k),... iiu vsk6(z)... 

T^d vsk8(z) . . . 

5^ V6ki(z)... 

53 vskre... 

3^ vekrsCz)... 

3^ vs:k... 

3^ vekis... 

ve, vsko(z)... 

Like ve:kr, conjugate kovsikr. 

5°. -vr. 




7yd vi(z), . . . im vivo(z) . . . 

3i? viveCz)... 

39 veky(z) . . . 

39 vivre . . . 

33 vivrs(z)... 

39 vi:v... 

3;? vekys... 

vi(z), viv6(z)... 

Like viivr, conjugate r<^vi:vr, syrviivr. 




39 sqi(z),... nu si{ivo(z)... 

7yd sqive(z)... 

39 sqivi(z)... 

39 sqivre . . , 

33 si[ivr£(z)... 

39 sqiiv... 

39 sqivis... 

sqi(z), si[ivo(z)... 

Like sqiivr, conjugate pursi{i:vr. 



In most French as in most English verbs, besides the simple 
tenses which have so far been alone considered, there are 
numerous compound tenses. These are formed by combining 
the simple tenses of an auxiliary with the Past Participle of the 
principal verb. 


There are two auxiliaries : 1° s:tr and 2° avwair, the 
simple tenses of which are as follows : 

1^. (Cf. p. 71, n. 1.) 

Infinitive Present sitr. 
Participle Present eta(t) \ 

Past ete\ 

Indicative Present 59 sqi(z)^ ty s(z)^, il s(t), nu som(z), vuz 
s:t(z), i so(t). 
Imperfect 3 ets(z) \ ty et8(z) '', il ets(t), nuz etj6(z), 
vuz etje(z), iz et£(t). 
Past 39 fy(z), ty fy(z), i fy(t), nu fy:m(z), vu 

fy:t(z), i fyir(t). 
Future 39 s^re^ ty S9ra(z), i s^ra, nu sar6(z), vu 
S9re(z), i s9ro(t). 
Conditional and \ 39 s^reCz)^, ty S3rs(z), i S9rs(t), nu s8rjo(z), 
Future in the Past/ vu S9rje(z), i S9rs(t). 
Subjunctive Present 33 swa(z)^, ty swa(z), i swa(t), nu swajo(z), 
vu swaje(z), i swa(t). 
Past 39 fys, ty fys(z), i fy(t), nu fysjo(z), vu 

fysje(z), i fys{t) 
Imperative — , swa(z), — , swajo(z), swaje(z), — . 

2°. (Cf. p. 71, n. 1.) 

Infinitive Present avwair. 
Participle Present sja(t). 
Past y. 

^ Or sta(t), ste, sts.... ^ Or J sqi, \ S3re, J S9rs(z), \ swa. 

^ Or tq s(z), tq ets(z). 


Indicative Present 3 e, ty a(z)\ il a, nuz avo(z), vuz ave(z), 
iz o(t). 
Imperfect 3 avs(z), tyavs(z)\ il avs(t), nuz avjo(z), 
vuz avje(z), iz ave(t). 
Past 3 y(z), ty y(z), il y(t), nuz y:m(z), vuz 

y:t(z), iz y:r(t). 
Future 3 ore^ ty ora(z)\ il ora, nuz oro(z), vuz 
ore(z), iz oro(t). 
Conditional and \ 3 ors(z)^ ty ors(z)\ il ore(t), nuz orjo(z), 

Future in the Past/ vuz orje(z), iz ors(t). 

Subjunctive Present 3 e, ty £(z)\ il 5(t), nuz sj6(z), vuz sje(z), 
iz e{t). 
Past 3 ys, ty ys(z), il y(t), nuz ysjo(z), vuz 

ysje(z), iz ys(t). 
Imperative — , e, — , ejo(z), sje(z), — . 

Formation of Comi)ound Tenses. 

The Past Infinitive of verbs is formed by combining the 
Present Infinitive of one of the auxiliaries with the Past 
Participle of the principal verb : s:tr ale, avwair mase, s sitr? 
blese, avwair perdy. 

The Perfect Participle is formed by combining the Present 
Participle of one of the auxiliaries with the Past Participle of the 
principal verb : etat ale, eja mase, s eta blsse, eja psrdy. 

The Perfect Indicative is formed by combining the Present 
Indicative of one of the auxiliaries with the Past Participle of the 
principal verb : 39 sqiz ale, 3 e md3e, 30 m.d sqi blsse, 3 e psrdy. 

The Past Perfect (or Pluperfect) Indicative is formed by 
combining the Imperfect Indicative of one of the auxiliaries 
with the Past Participle of the principal verb : 3 etsz ale, 3 
avs maje, 39 m ets blsse, 3 avs psrdy. 

The Second Past Perfect Indicative, which is but rarely used, 
is formed by combining the Past Indicative of one of the aux- 
iliaries with the Past Participle of the principal verl) : ^3 ijz ale, 
3 y ma3e, 30 m^ fy blsse, 3 y psrdy. 

The Future Perfect Indicative is formed by combining the 
Future Indicative of one of the auxiliaries with the Past Par- 
ticiple of the principal verb : 39 save ale, 3 ore ma3e, 39 m^ s^re 
blsse, 3 ore psrdy. 

Or tq a(z), tq avs(z), t\\ ora(z), tq ors(z), tq s(z). 
Or 3 ore, ty ora(z)...; — 3 ors(z).... 


The Future Perfect in the Past Indicative and the Perfect 
Conditional are formed by combining the Future in the Past or 
Conditional of one of the auxiliaries with the Past Participle of 
the principal verb : 5a ssrsz ale, 5 ors mase, 59 m? S9rs blsse, 5 
ore psrdy. 

The Perfect Subjunctive is formed by coml)ining the Present 
Subjunctive of one of the auxiliaries with the Past Participle of 
the principal verb : 59 swaz ale, 5 8 mdse, 58 m9 swa blsse, 5 e 

The Past Perfect (or Pluperfect) Subjunctive, which is but 
rarely used, is formed by combining the Past Subjunctive with 
the Past Participle of the principal verb : 59 fys ale, 5 ys mdse, 
39 m3 fys blsse, 3 ys psrdy. 

Use of Auxiliaries. 

From the examples given above it will be seen that some 
verbs form their compound tenses with s:tr, and others form 
them with avwair. The following are the rules for the use of 
these auxiliaries : 

avAva:r is used to form the compound tenses of 

ia) both auxiliaries, 
avwair y^ 
ejaf y 

3 e y, ty az y, il a y, nuz avo2; y, vuz Sbvez y, iz bt y 
3 avsz y, ty Sivez y, il avs^ y, nuz avjoz y, vuz avjes y, iz avs^ y 
5 yz y, ty yz y, il y^ y, nuz yimz y, vuz yitz y, iz yir^ y 
3 ore y, ty oraz y, il ora y, nuz oroz y, vuz orez y, iz oro^ y 
3 OYSz y, ty orsz y, il orsf y, nuz orjo2; y, vuz orjez y, iz ors^ y 
3 s y, ty sz y, il st y, nuz sjoz y, vuz sjez y, iz st y 
5 ys y» ty ys2; y, il y^ y, nuz ysjoz y, vuz ysiez y, iz ys^ y 

avwair ete 

sjdf ete 

3 e ete, ty az ete, il a ete, nuz avoz ete, vuz avez ete, iz o^ ete 

3 HYSz ete, ty avsz ete, il avs^ ete, nuz avjoz ete, vuz avjes ete, 

iz avs^ ete 
3 yz ete, ty yz ete, il yt ete, nuz yimz ete, vuz yitz ete, iz 

yirf ete 

The order according to whick compound Tenses are given ia that of 
pp. 85-86. 



5 ore ete, ty oraz ete, il ora ete, nuz orbz ete, vuz ores; ete, 

iz oro^ ete 
3 ors2; ete, ty orsz ete, il ors^ ete, nuz orjojz ete, vuz orjes ete, 

iz ors^ ete 
5 8 ete, ty sz ete, il st ete, nuz ejbz ete, vuz sjez ete, iz s^ ete 
5 ys ete, ty jsz ete, il y^ ete, nuz ysjoz ete, vuz ysjez ete, 

iz ys^ ete 

(b) all transitive verbs in the active voice. 

avwair mase 
eja mase 
3 e ma3e... 
3 avs mase... 
3y mase... 
3 ore ma3e... 
3 ors mase... 
3 s ma3e... 
3 ys ma3e... 

avwair truve 
sjd truve 
3 e truve... 
3 avs truve.. 
3 y truve... 
3 ore truve... 
3 ors truve... 
3 s truve... 
3 ys truve... 

(c) many intransitive verbs. 

avwair marje 
sjd marje 
3 e marje... 
3 avs marSe... 
3 y marje... 
3 ore marje... 
3 ors marje... 
3 s marje... 
3 ys marje... 

(ti) all impersonal verbs. 

avwair grddi 
sjd grddi 
3 e grddi... 
3 avs grddi 
3 y grddi... 
3 ore grddi... 
3 ors grddi... 
3 s grddi... 
3 ys grddi... 

avwair ply 
sjd ply 
il a ply 
il avs ply 

il y ply 

il ora ply 
il ors ply 
il s ply 

11 y ply 

avwair psrdy 
sjd psrdy 
5 e psrdy... 
3 avs psrdy... 
3 y psrdy... 
3 ore psrdy... 
3 ors psrdy... 
3 s psrdy... 
3ys psrdy... 

avwair travaje 
sjd travaje 
3 e travaje... 
3 avs travaje... 
3 y travaje... 
3 ore travaje 
3 ors travaje... 
3 s travaje... 
3 ys travaje... 

avwair ns3e 
sjd nsse 
il a ns3e 
il avs ns3e 
il y ns3e 
11 ora ns3e 
11 ors ns3e 
11 s ns3e 
11 y ns3e 


e:tr is used to form the compound tenses of 

(a) reflexive verbs. 

s 8:tr anqije 
s eta^ anqije 
38 m9 ST{iz anqije, ty t sz anqije, i s s^ anqije, nu nu somz 

ani{ije(z), vu vuz sits anqije(z), i S9 sot anqije(z) 
33 m etsz anqije, ty t etsz anqije, i s ete^ anqije, nu nuz etjoz 

anqije(z), vu vuz etjes; anqije(z), i s ete^ anqije(z) 
38 m9 iyz anqije, ty id ijz anqije, i s^ fy^ anqije, nu nu fyimz 

anqije(z), vu vu fyrtz anqije(z), i S9 fyir^ anqije(z) 
38 md s^re anqije, ty id S9raz anqije, i S8 s^ra anqije, nu nu S9rbz 

anqije(z), vu vu s^rez anqije(z) i S8 sdrot anqije(z) 
38 m9 sdrez anqije, ty id S9rsz anqije, i S8 s^rs^ anqije, nu nu 

s8rjo2j anqije(z), vu vu sdrjez anqije(z), i S8 s^re^ 

38 m9 swaz anqije, ty id swaz anqije, i S9 swat anqije, nu nu 

swajos anqije(z), vu vu swajez anqije(z), i S8 swa^ 

anqije (z) 

38 m9 fys anqije, ty t9 iysz anqije, i S9 ijt anqije, nu nu fysjoz 

anqije (z), vu vu fysjes anqije (z), i sd fjst anqije (z). 

(b) the following intransitive verbs : ale, v^niir, arive, sortiir, 

partiir, atre, r^turne, neitr, muriir, desede, ekloir 
and their compounds : r8V3niir, d8V3ni:r, parv^niir, 
syrvmiir, stsrv^niir, provmiir, ratre, s an ale, r^sortiir, 

eitr ale 

eta^ ale 

3? sqis ale... nu somz ale(z)... 

3 ets0 ale... nuz etjos ale(z)... 

39 fy2; ale... nu fyims ale(z)... 
38 s^re ale. . . nu sdrbz ale(z) . . . 
38 s^rsz ale... nu sarjos ale(z)... 
38 swaz ale... nu swajo^; ale(z)... 
33 fys ale... nu fysjos? ale(z)... 

e:tr? moir 

eta moir 

il 8 moir... i so moir(z) — el s mort... si so mort(z) 

il ets moir... 

i fy moir... 

i s^ra moir... 


i s^rs mo:r... 
i swa moir... 
i fy moir... 

Remark : 

When a verb, which is generally used intransitively, 
happens to be used transitively, it is conjugated with avwair : 
ave vu sorti vo \ii\T9z e vo kaje dd vo servjsti — nu n avo paz 
akoir desady se ksisz a la ka:v. 

Past Participle in Compound Tenses. 

In some cases the Past Participle agrees in gender and number 
with the subject or object of the verb ; in other cases it is of in- 
variable form (namely the masculine singular form). 

1. nu som r^turnez a pari. — 8:t vu ratrez asaibl 1 — si e mort 
a vet a. — se flceir sot ekloiz. 

With intransitive verbs conjugated with the auxiliary eitr, 
the Past Participle agrees with the subject of the verb. 

2. slz o gradi e travaje asabl. — me frsirz o marje a qi mwa. 

— tut lez avers k il a ply je:r 6 rafreji 1 e:r. — kel ma:s dd 
ne:5 il e tobe jsir ! 

With intransitive verbs conjugated with the auxiliary avwair 
and with impersonal verbs, the Past Participle is of invariable 

3. el s e fe mal. — la bos k i s e f et o fro st enorm. — la rob k el 

s e fet e soli. — se foit so so fet tut soeil, p0t eitr? — el so 
sot asiiz. — i so so vcdz o fre. — el so so r^sweit sa pe:n. — 
si s e mi:z a m9 grode. — voz afa so sot i ply o boir dd la 

With reflexive verbs two cases arise, (l) If there is a 
direct object which precedes the verb the Past Participle agrees 
with that object, (2) otherwise the Participle is invariable. 

4. la rob \d vuz ave miiz vu va mal. — repete nu la poezi k^ 
vu nuz ave dit jsir. — 50 nd vuz an e pws di, 50 nd vuz e 
pws di d^ poezi js:r. — vu m^ lez avez uvsrt, me letr? — 39 
n an e pwst uvsrr. — le provsis k^ napoleo a kokiiz, la 
frais wd lez a pa garde. — sezazr a koki le goil e napoleo a 
prssk,? koki 1 oerop. 

With transitive verbs two cases arise. (l) If there is a 
direct object which precedes the verb the Past Participle agrees 


with that object. (However, in the exceptional case where the 
object is the indefinite pronoun a(n), the Participle is invariable). 
(2) If the object follows the verl) the Participle is invariable. 


Any transitive verb and two intransitive verbs, obeiir and 
pardone, may be conjugated in the passive voice. The passive 
conjugation of a verb is obtained by combining its Past Participle 
with the auxiliary eitr. Thus 

the Present Indicative of pyniir in the passive voice is 
obtained by combining the Past Participle pyni with 
the Present Indicative of s:tr : 59 sqi pyni, ty e pyni, etc. ; 
the Future Indicative of ras^vwarr in the passive voice is 
obtained l)y combining the Past Participle r^sy with the 
Future Indicative of sitr : 3a s^re r^sy, ty s^ra r3sy, i 
s^ra r^sy, etc. ; 
and so on. 

S9 d^vwair n a paz ete fs par vu. — vo ms so kuvsrt d d:kr. — 
votr^ dikte s rapli^ dd fo:t. — vu s^re pyniz asaibl. — votr^ 
pronosjasjo n a pas ete amejore^ par vo vakais. 

In the passive voice the Past Participle agrees with the 
subject of the verb. 


To conjugate a verb negatively or interrogatively no auxiliary 
is needed. 

The negative adverb n9 [n] combined with the 
verb gives it a negative meaning : 

1. 39 n9 se pa(z). — nu n? savo pa(z). — -vu n sit pa sa:3. — i n3 
pl0 pa(z). — 39 vudrs k i n9 vjsn pa(z). — 39 n e paz ublije 
ma plym. — 39 n ave pa ma3e. — 3a nd 1 ore pa fs. — 3a nd S3re 

^ raipli: in F. S. ^ amejore: in F. S. 


pa pyni. — nu n? sarjo pa pyni si nuz etjo ply sa:3. — n? pa 
mase s siji d? moveiz sate. — n sitr pa pyni eh ist^ d de 
bon ele:v. — vu pretade n^ paz avwair atady^ n avwair 
pa kopri? — i vu fo 119 pa dormiir tro p0. — vu d^ve n? 
pa parle. 

In simple tenses n? [n] is placed before and pa(z) after 
the verb. In the Present Infinitive of the active voice, however, 
119 pa(z) are generally placed together before the verb. 

In compound tenses of the active and in all tenses of the 
passive voice n9 [n] is placed before the auxiliary and pa(z) 
between the ^auxiliary and the Past Participle. In the Past 
Infinitive of the active, and in the Present Infinitive of the 
passive voice, however, n^ pa(z) may also be placed together 
before the auxiliary. 

2. nu n^ nu koneso pa. — ty n^ t anqi paz isi ? — 39 nd la Iqi e 

pa di. — nu nd loeir parbro pa. — 33 n a krwa rjs. — 39 n i 
kopra pa gra Joiz. 

n9 [n] is placed before Accusative and Dative Personal 
Pronouns of the light form, as well as before i and a. 

3. sst elsrv n9 ss rjs. — i n3 sa don okyn ps:n. — vu n oze 3ams 

pronose klsirma. — nu n9 vero person. — i n s pwe bsit. — 
vu n i ave rje kopri. 

n3 [n] may be combined with other words than pa(z) : 
pwe, ply, geir, rje, 3ams(z), okoe, nyl, nylma, person, etc. 


To give a verb an interrogative meaning, an inversion is 
made, that is to say, the subject is placed after the verb : k ave 
vu vy? — k 6t i di? If, however, the subject itself is an inter- 
rogative pronoun or is accompanied by an interrogative adjective, 
no inversion is necessary to give the sentence an interrogative 
force : ki vu 1 a di 1 — bkel d? vu a parle 1 — kel eleiv s e trope 1 
In many cases, the simple raising of the pitch of the voice at the 
end of an affirmative sentence, suffices to give it an interrogative 
force : 39 vuz e di sa ? vrema ? This form of interrogation is 
especially used when the question is accompanied by a feeling 
of surprise. 

' Or fe. 


1. k9 fst vu? — k avo nu ly la dernjeir fwa? — u an st o1 — 

ki s s ? — k at i di 1 — at si fini se taij 1 — k s:mt i liir 1 — 
ave \uz ete pyni 1 — k at o di ? 

When there is inversion, the subject, if a personal pronoun, 
is placed after the verb in simple tenses and after the auxiliary^ in 
compound tenses and in the passive voice. The sound t is 
always introduced before il, si, o when the verb itself or its 
liaison-form do not end in t. 

2. votr9 frsir st i v^ny osurdqi^ — votr ps:r st i parti jsir? — 

sa vuz at i ete ytiU — S9 liivr st il sterssal — ki pjsir at i 
vy 1 — purkwa vo kamarad nd sot i paz isi 1 — kd fs votr 
kamarad 1 — k o f s voz ami 1 

When the subject is not a personal pronoun, one of two 
constructions is used. 

(a) The subject is placed before the verb, but is repeated after 
it (or, in compound tenses, and in the passive voice, after 
the auxiliary^) in the form of a personal pronoun. This 
construction is used more especially when the interrogative 
sentence begins with ki or with purkwa. It is also 
usual after ka : ka 3a:n 1 at si apri 1 — ka voz ami sot 
iz arive 1 — ; and after koma : komci sst avjatoerr at i 
f s pur iw pa sd tqe ? — komd sd naviir at i sobre "? 

(6) The subject is placed after the verb in simple and com- 
pound tenses and in the passive voice. This construction 
is used more especially after k^ [k] : k3 f s votr psir 1 — 
k o fs^ alo:r vo kamarad 1 

Either of these two constructions may be used after a 
preposition : a ki lez ekoje dwaivt iz obeiir ? or a ki dwaivt 
obeiir lez ekoje 1 

3. s s k^ nuz avo fs ks/k^ Joiz Idedi dsrnje? — s s ka vu h 
vwaje 1 — purkwa s s k^ vu n s:t pa v^ny 1 — s s k9 voz 
amis so v<?ny 1 — koma s s k^ S9 naviir a sobre 1 — s s k9 
s s Iqi 1 

Any question may be asked by means of the interrogative ex- 
pression s s k^ [k] ; no inversion takes place in this case. This 
is in conversation the form of interrogation most usually adopted. 

When the auxiliary itself is in a compound tense, the subject is 
placed after the personal part of it : ave \uz ete vy 1 



For the sake of reference we here give the complete 
paradigms of 

(a) both auxiliaries : avwair and s:tr ; 

(b) a transitive regular verb of the 1st class in the active 

and passive voices : truiv- ; 

(c) an intransitive regular verb of the 2nd class : reflejis- ; 

(d) a reflexive verb of the 3rd class : sd mstr. 

Each tense is given in its affirmative, negative, interrogative, 
and interrogative-negative forms, and in all its persons. ^ 

(a) Auxiliaries. 
1°. avwair. 



n avwair pa(z) 
nd paz avwair 

avwair y 


n avwair pas; y "I 
n9 paz avwair y J 


eja^ y 



n 8ja pa(z) 


n sja paz y 

Of course, the tenses of tlie Infinitive, Participle, Imperative, and 
Subjunctive have neither interrogative nor interrogative-negative forms. 





il a, el a 

nuz av6(z) 

vuz ave(z) 

iz o(t), elz o(t) 


39 n e pa(z) 

ty 11 a pa(z) 

i n a pa(z), si n a pa(z) 

nu n avo pa(z) 

vu n ave pa(z) 

i n o pa(z), sZ 11 o pa(z) 


a ty 

at i/, at el 

avo iiu(z) 

ave vu(z) 

ot i/(z), ot 6l(z) 

11 e 5 pa(z) 
n a ty pa(z) 
11 at i pa(z) \ 
n at si pa(z) / 
n avo nu pa(z) 
n ave vu pa(z) 
n ot i pa(z) 1 
n ot el pa(z) / 

esko 3 e 

eskg ty a(z)* 

esk il a, esk el a 

6sk3 nuz avo(z) 

esk^ vuz ave(z) 

esk iz 6(t), esk elz o(t) 

eskg 3<? n e pa(z) 
eska ty n a pa(z)'' 
esk i n a pa(z) \ 
esk si n a pa(z) j 
esk^ nu n avo pa(z) 
esk^ vu n ave pa(z) 
esk i n o pa(z) \ 
esk si n o pa(z) j 


3 ave(z) 

ty ave(z)^ 

il ave(t), el ave(t) 

nuz avjo(z) 

vuz avje(z) 

iz ave(t), elz ave(t) 

39 n ave pa(z) 

ty n ave pa(z) 

i n ave pa(z), si n aA^e pa(z) 

nu n avjo pa(z) 

vu n avje pa(z) 

i n ave pa(z), si n ave pa(z) 

Or tq a(z). 

Or es ty n a pa(zj 

Or es tq a(z). 
Or tq ave(z). 


ave 9^ 11 avs 3 pa(z) 

avs ty n ave ty pa(z) 

avet i/, avet el n avet i pa(z) \ 

avjo nu(z) n avet el pa(z) J 

avje vu(z) n avjo nu pa(z) 

avet iZ(z), avet el(z) n avje vu pa(z) 

n avet i pa(z) \ 
n avet el pa(z) j 

eska 5 ave(z) eska 33 n ave pa(z) 

eska ty ave(z)^ eska ty n ave pa(z)'' 

esk il ave(t), esk el ave(t) esk i 11 ave pa(z) ^ 

esk? iiuz avjo(z) £sk el 11 ave pa(z) ) 

esk^ vuz avje(z) £sk^ nu n avjo pa(z) 

esk iz ave(t), esk elz ave(t) £sl^<^ vu 11 avje pa(z) 

esk i n ave pa(z) | 
esk si u ave pa(z) ) 



3<^ n y pa(z) 

ty y(z) 

ty 11 y pa(z) 

il y(t), el y(t) 

i n y pa(z), el n y pa(z) 

nuz y:m(z) 

nu n y:m pa(z) 

vuz y:t(z) 

vu n y:t pa(z) 

iz y:r(t), elz y: 


i n y:r pa(z), si n y:r pa(z) 

y 5 

^ n y 3 pa(z) 

y ty 

n y ty pa(z) 

yt il, yt el 

n yt i pa(z), n yt el pa(z) 

yim nu(z)^ 

n y:m nu pa(z)^ 

y:t vu(z) 

n y:t vu pa(z) 

yirt iZ(z), yirt , 


n y:rt i pa(z), n y:rt el pa(z) 

eska 3 y(z) 

eska 3? n y pa(z) 

eska ty y(z)^ 


eska ty n y pa(z)^ 

esk il y(t), esk el y{t) 

esk i n y pa(z), esk si n y pa(z) 

esk^ nuz y:m{z 


esk? nu n y:m pa(z) 

esk? vuz y:t(z) 

esk? vu n y:t pa(z) 

esk iz y:r(t), esk elz y:r(t) 

esk i n y:r pa(z) | 
esk eZ n y:r pa(z) ) 

Or es tq ave(z). ^ Or es ty 11 ave pa(z). 

Unusual. * Or es ty y(z). ^ Or es ty n y pa(z). 


Future, t 

3 ore^ 33 n ore pa(z)^ 

ty ora(z) ^ ty n ora pa(z) 

il ora, el ora i n ora pa(z), el n ora pa(z) 

nuz or6(z) nu n oro pa(z) 

vuz ore(z) vu n ore pa(z) 

iz oro(t), slz or6(t) i n oro pa(z), el n oro pa(z) 

ore 3* n ore 3 pa(z)^ 

ora ty n ora ty pa(z) 

orat il, orat el n orat i pa(z) 

oro nu(z) n orat el pa(z) 

ore vu(z) n oro nu pa(z) 

orot il(z), orot el(z) n ore vu pa(z) 

n orot i pa(z) 
n orot el pa(z) 

eska 3 ore eska 39 n ore pa(z) 

8sko ty ora(z) ® eska ty n ora pa(z) ^ 

esk il ora, esk el ora esk i n ora pa(z) \ 

6sk3 nuz oro(z) esk si n ora pa(z) J 

6sk3 vuz ore(z) esk? nu n oro pa(z) 

esk iz oro(t), esk elz oro(t) esk? vu n ore pa(z) 

esk i n oro pa(z) \ 
esk si n oro pa(z) j 


3 e y 39 n e paz y 

ty az y ^ ty n a paz y 

il a y, el a y i n a paz y, si n a paz y 

nuz avoz y nu n avo pas y 

vuz avez y vu n ave pas y 

iz o^ y, elz o^ y i n 6 pas y, si n o pas y 

t For the Future in the Past, see Conditional (Present). 

* Or 3 ore, ty ora(z), etc. ^ Or ti{ ora(z). 

^ Or 39 n ore pa(z), etc. ^ Or ore 3, etc. 

^ Or n ore 3 pa, etc ^ Or es tq ora(z). 

' Or es ty n ora pa(z), ^ Or tq as y. 



s 3 y 

a ty y 

at il y, at si y 
avo nuz y 
ave vuz y 

ot iz y, ot s\z y 

11 s 3 paz y 
11 a ty pas y 
n at i pas y 
n at si pas y 
n avo nu pas y 
n ave vu pas y 
n ot i pas y [ 
n ot si pas y ) 

ssko 3 e y 

sska ty as y^ 

ssk il a y, ssk si a y 

ssk^ nuz avoi^ y 

ssk9 vuz aves y 

ssk iz o^ y, ssk slz 5/ y 

sska 39 n e pas y 
ssko ty n a pas y^ 
ssk i n a pas y 
ssk sZ n a pas y 
ssk? nu n avo pas y 
ssk? vu n ave pas y 
ssk i n o pas y ) 
ssk eI n o pas y / 

Past Perfect or Pluperfect. 

3 avss y 

ty avss y^ 

il avs^ y, si avs^ y 

nuz avjos y 

vuz avjes y 

iz avsf y, slz avsf y 

39 n avs pas y 

ty n avs pas y 

i n avs pas y, si n avs pas y 

nu n avjo pas y 

vu n avje pas y 

i n avs pas y, si n avs pas y 

avs 3 y 

avs ty y 

avst il y, avst si y 

avjo nus y 

avje vus y 

avst is y, avst sis y 

n avs 3 pas y 
n avs ty pas y 
n avst i pas y 
n avst si pas y 
n avjo nu pas y 
n avje vu pas y 
n avst i pas y 
n avst si pas y 

Or ss tq as y. 
Or tq avss y. 

Or ss ty 11 a pas y. 


eska 5 aves y eska 5^ 11 ave pas y 

sska ty avsz y^ eska ty n avs paz y^ 

ssk il ave^ y, ssk el ave^ y esk i 11 ave pas y 

esk^ iiuz avjos y esk si 11 ave pas y 

esk^ vuz avjes y esk? nu n avjo pas y 

esk iz ave^ y, esk elz ave^ y £sk.> vu 11 avje pas y 

esk i 11 ave pas y ) 
ssk si 11 ave pas y ) 

Second Past Perfect. 

3 y^^ y 3<? n y pas y 

ty y2 y ty n y pas y 

il y^ y, el y/ y i 11 y pas y, sZ n y pas y 

imz y:mz y"^ im n y:m pas y ^ 

vuz y:tz y vu n y:t pas y 

iz y:rt y, elz y:rt y i 11 y:r pas y, si n y:r pas y 

y 3 y 11 y 3 pas y 

y ty y n y ty pas y 

yt il y, yt el y 11 yt i pas y 

y:m nus y^ n yt el pas y 

y:t vus y n y:m nu pas y ' 

y:rt is y, y:rt els y n y:t vu pas y 

n y:rt i pas y ) 
n y:rt el pas y I 

8ska 3 y y eska 33 n y pas y 

€ska ty yz y * esko ty n y pas y '' 

esk il y^ y, esk el yt y esk i n y pas y \ 

esk^ nuz y:mz y^ esk si n y pas y / 

eskc? vuz y:tz y esk<? nu n y:m pas y 

esk iz yirt y esk^ vu n y:t pas y 

esk i n y:r pas y \ 
esk si n y:r pas y j 

Or es tq aves y. ^ Or es ty n ave pas y. 

Unusual. The whole tense, of course, is rather unusual, especially in its 
interrogative and interrogative-negative forms. 

Or es ty yz y. " Or es ty n y pas y. 

5 ore y ^ 

ty OY'dz y ^ 

il ora y, si ora y 

iiuz oro2; y 

viiz ore^ y 

iz oro^ y, slz orot y 

ors 5 y' 

ora ty y 

orat iZ y, orat si y 

oro nuz y 

ore Yuz y 

orot iz y, orot slz y 


Future Perfect, t 

3e> n ore paz y^ 

ty n ora pas y 

i n ora paz y, sZ n ora pas y 

nu 11 oro pas y 

vu 11 ore pas y 

i 11 oro pas y, el n oro pas y 

11 ors 5 pas y ' 
11 ora ty pas y 
11 orat i pas y ) 
n orat si pas y. f 
11 oro nu pas y 
11 ore vu pas y 
11 orot i pas y ) 
11 orot si pas y ) 

sska 5 ore y sska 39 n ore pas y 

sska ty oras y^ sska ty 11 ora pas y' 

ssk il ora y, ssk si ora y ssk i n ora pas y ) 

ssk^ nuz oros y esk si 11 ora pas y I 

ssk9 vuz ores y ssk^ nu n oro pas y 

ssk iz OTot y, ssk slz orot y esk^ vu n ore pas y 

ssk i n oro pas y \ 
ssk eI 11 oro pas y j 


3 ors(z)" 3^ n ors pa(z)^° 

ty ors(z)'' . ty 11 ors pa(z) 

il ors(t), si ors(t) i n ors pa(z), sZ n ors pa(z) 

nuz orjd(z) nu 11 orjo pa(z) 

vuz orje(z) vu 11 orje pa(z) 

iz ors(t), slz ors(t) i 11 ors pa(z), sZ 11 ors pa(z) 

t For the Future Perfect in the Past, see Conditional (Past). 
Or 3 ore y, ty oras y, etc. ^ Or tq oras y. 

Or 3^ n ore pas y, etc. ^ Or ors 3 y, etc. 

Or 11 ors 3 pas y, etc. ^ Or ss tq oras y. 

Or ss ty 11 ora pas y. ® Or 3 ors(z), etc. 

Or tq ors(z). ^" Or 5^ n ors pa(z), etc. 



ors 3 

ors ty 

orst i/, orst si 

orjo nu(z) 

orje vu(z) 

orst i/(z), orst sl(z) 

ssk9 5 ors(z) 

sskg ty ors(z)^ 

ssk il ors(t), ssk si ors(t) 

ssk9 nuz orjo(z) 

ssk9 vuz orje(z) 

ssk iz ors(t), ssk slz ors(t) 

n ors 3 pa(z)^ 
n ors ty pa(z) 
n orst i pa(z) \ 
n orst si pa(z) / 
n orjo nu pa(z) 
n orje vii pa(z) 
n orst i pa(z) \ 
n orst si pa(z) / 

sska 39 n ors pa(z) 
sska ty n ors pa(z)* 
ssk i n ors pa(z) \ 
ssk sZ n ors pa(z) j 
ssk? nu n orjo pa(z) 
ssk? vu n orje pa(z) 
ssk i n ors pa(z) \ 
ssk si n ors pa(z) j 


3 orsz y 

ty orsz y^ 

il ors^ y, si orst y 

nuz orjo2; y 

vuz orjez y 

iz ors^ y, slz orst y 

39 n ors paz y 

ty n ors paz y 

i n ors paz y, si n ors pas? y 

nu n orjo paz y 

vu n orje pas y 

i n ors pas y, si n ors pas y 

ors 3 y^ 

ors ty y 

orst il y, orst si y 

orjo nus y 

orje vus y 

orst is y, orst sis y 

n ors 3 pas y 
n ors ty pas y 
n orst i pas y \ 
n orst si pas y j 
n orjo nu pas y 
n orje vu pas y 
n orst i pas y \ 
n orst si pas yj 

^ Or ors 3, etc. 

^ Or ss tq ors(z). 

" Or 3 orss y, etc. 

' Or 39 n ors pas y, etc. 

^ Or n ors 3 pas y, etc. 

^ Or n ors 3 pa(z), etc. 

^ Or ss ty n ors pa(z). 

^ Or tq orss y. 

^ Or ors 3 y, etc. 



sska 3 orsz y 

sska ty orsz y ^ 

ssk il ors^ y, ssk el ore^ y 

esk^ nuz orioz y 

ssk(? vuz orjez y 

ssk iz ors^ y, esk slz ors^ y 

ssko 3<? 11 ors pas; y 
esko ty n ore pas y 
esk i 11 ore -paz y \ 
esk eZ n ore pas y / 
esk^ nu n orjo pas y 
esk^ vu 11 orje pas y 
esk i n ore pas y \ 
esk si n ore pas y / 



n e pa(z) 
11 ejo pa(z) 
11 eje pa(z) 

k^ 3 e 

k^ ty e(z) ^ 

k il e(t), k el e(t) 

ke? nuz ej6(z) 

k? vuz eje(z) 

k iz e(t), k elz 6(t) 


kc? 38 11 e pa(z)* 

k<? ty n e pa(z) 

k i n e pa(z), k e/ n e pa(z) 

k^ nu n ejo pa(z) 

k? vu n eje pa(z) 

k i n e pa(z), k e/ n e pa(z) 



kd ty ys(z) 

k il y(t), k el y(t) 

k^ nuz ysj6(z) 

k^ vuz ysje(z) 

k iz ys(t), k elz ys(t) 

kt? 38 n ys pa(z)^ 

kd ty n ys pa(z) 

k i n y pa(z), k e/ n y pa(z) 

k^ nu n ysjo pa(z) 

k3 vu n ysje pa(z) 

k i n ys pa(z), k si n ys pa(z) 

Or es tq ores y. 

Or k^ tq e(z). 

Or ka 3<? 11 ys pa(z) 

Or es ty 11 ore pas y. 
Or k8 33 n e pa(z). 



k^ 5 s y k^ 50 11 s paz y^ 

kd ty sz y* k^ ty n s pas y 

k il s^ y, k si s^ y kins paz y, k el n s paz y 

kd nuz sjoz y " k9 nu n sjo paz y 

k9 vuz sje:2 y kd vu n sje paz y 

k iz st y, k slz s^ y kins pas; y, k s/ n s pas; y 


k3 3 ys y kd 5a 11 ys paz y^ 

k9 ty yss; y k^ ty n ys paz y 

k il y^ y, k si y^ y k i n y pas; y, k sZ n y paz y 

kd nuz ysjoz y ka nu n ysjo pas; y 

k9 vuz ysjes; y kd vu n ysje paz y 

k iz ys^ y, k slz ys^ y kin ys pas; y, k s/ n ys pas; y 

2°. s:tr. 



s:tr^ [s:tr] 

n? pas; s:tr \ 
n sitra pa(z) / 


avwair ete n avwair pas; ete \ 

n3 pas; avwair ete j 

eta(t) n eta pa(z) 

sjaf ete n sja pas; ete 

^ Or kd tq ss; y. ^ Or kd ^d n s pas; y. 

^ Or ka 59 n ys pas; y. 

VEKBS 103 



39 sqi(z) 30 119 sqi pa(z) ^ 

ty s(z)^ ty n 6 pa(z) 

il 8(t), si s(t) i n s pa(z), zl n s pa(z) 

nu sDm(z) nu 119 som pa(z) 

vuz s:t(z) vu n eit pa(z) 

i so(t), si so(t) i 119 so pa(z), zl nd so pa(z) 

sqi 3 119 sqi 3 pa(z) 

s ty n 8 ty pa(z) 

st il, st si n st i pa(z), n st si pa(z) 

som nu(z) n9 som nu pa(z) 

s:t vu(z) n sit vu pa(z) 

sot i/(z), sot sl(z) n9 sot i pa(z), n9 sot si pa(z) 

ssko 30 sqi(z) ssko 30 iw sqi pa(z) 

sskg ty s(z) ^ ssko ty 11 s pa(z) ^ 

ssk il s(t), ssk sl"s(t) ssk ins pa(z), ssk sZ n s pa(z) 

ssk9 nu som(z) ssk9 nu n9 som pa(z) 

ssk? vuz s:t ssk9 vu n sit pa(z) [pci(z) 

ssk i so(t), ssk si so(t) ssk i n? so pa(z), ssk si n? so 


3 ets(z) 39 n ets pa(z) 

ty ets(z) ^ ty n ets pa(z) 

il ets(t), si ets(t) i n ets pa(z), el n ets pa(z) 

nuz etjo(z) nu n etjo pa(z) 

vuz etje(z) vu n etje pa(z) 

iz ets(t), slz ets(t) i n ets pa(z), si n ets pa(z) 

ets 3 n ets 3 pa(z) 

ets ty n ets ty pa(z) 

etst iZ, etst si n etst i pa(z) \ 

etjo nu(z) n etst si pa(z) / 

etje vu(z) n etjo nu pa(z) 

etst iZ(z), etst sl{z) n etje vu pa(z) 

n etst i pa(z) ^ 
n etst si pa(z) / 

Or tq s(z). ^ Or 39 no sqi pa(z). 

Or ss tq s(z). * Or ss ty n s pa(z). ^ Or tq ets(z). 


eska 5 ets(z) eska 5^ 11 ete pa(z) 

eska ty ets(z)^ eska ty n ets pa{zf 

esk il ets(t), esk si ets(t) esk i n ete pa(z) \ 

ssk3 nuz etjo(z) ssk si u ete pa(z) j 

6sk9 vuz etje(z) esk^ nu n etjo pa(z) 

esk iz et6(t), ssk slz ete(t) esk^ vu n etje pa(z) 

esk i n ete pa(z) \ 
esk el n ete pa(z) J 


33 fy(z) 39 113 fy v^(zf 

ty fy(z) ty 119 fy pa(z) 

i fy(t), el fy(t) i nd fy pa(z), el iw fy pa(z) 

nu fy:m(z) nu na fyim pa(z) 

vu fy:t(z) vu n9 fy:t pa(z) 

i fy:r(t), el fy:r(t) i n9 fyir pa(z), el n? fyir pa(z) 

fy 3' n9 fy 3 pa(z) 

fy ty m fy ty pa(z) 

fyt il, fyt el n^ fyt i pa(z) \ 

fyim nu(z) n9 fyt el pa(z) / 

fy:t vu(z) ni? fy:m nu pa(z) 

fyirt i/(z), fyirt 6l(z) rid fyit vu pa(z) 

n9 fyirt i pa(z) 
n^ fyirt el pa(z) 

eska 39 fy(z) eska 3a n^ fy pa(z)® 

sska ty fy(z)^ eska ty n^ fy pa(z)' 

esk i fy(t), esk el fy(t) esk i n9 fy pa(z) \ 

ssk9 nu fy:m(z) esk el m fy pa(z) j 

ssk^ vu fyit(z) ssk9 nu n^ fy:m pa(z) 

ssk i fy:r(t), ssk si fy:r(t) ssk^ vu m fyit pa(z) 

ssk i 119 fyir pa(z) \ 
ssk el 119 fyir pa(z) / 

Or es tq ets(z). '^ Or ss ty n ets pa(z). 

Or 39 na fy pa(z). * Unusual. 

Or ss ty fy(z). ^ Or sska ^9 na fy pa(z). 

' Or ss ty n^ fy pa(z). 




59 Si?re 
ty s.^ra(z) 
i St^ra, el s^ra 
nu S9Td{z) 
vu s^re(z) 
i Sc^ro(t), 5I s^ro 


39 n^ Sc^re pa(z)'' 

ty n<) s<?ra pa(z) 

i n<^ s^ra pa(z), el 11^ s^ra pa(z) 

nu 113 s^ro pa(z) 

vu 113 s^re pa(z) 

i 113 s3ro pa(z), el 113 s3ro pa(z) 

S3rs 5 

S3ra ty 

S3rat iZ, s^rat el 

S3r6 im(z) 

S3re vu(z) 

s3rot iZ(z), s3rot el(z) 

113 S3r6 5 pa(z)^ 
113 S3ra ty pa(z) 
113 S3rat i pa(z) 
n3 S3rat el pa(z) 
113 S3ro nu pa(z) 
n3 S3re vu pa(z) 
n9 s3rot i pa(z) 
n3 s3rot el pa(z) 

eskg 59 S3re^ 

6sk9 ty S3ra(z)'' 

esk i S3ra, esk el S3ra 

esk3 nu S3r6(z) 

esk3 vu S3re(z) 

esk i S3ro(t), esk el S3r6(t) 

6sk9 59 113 S3re pa(z) 
esk9 ty 113 S3ra pa(z) ^ 
esk i 113 S3ra pa(z) \ 
esk eZ 113 S3ra pa(z) / 
esk3 nu 113 s3ro pa(z) 
esk3 vu n3 S3re pa(z) 
esk i n3 S3r6 pa(z) \ 
esk el n3 S3r6 pa(z) J 


5 e ete 

ty az ete® 

il a ete, el a ete 

nuz av62; ete 

vuz avez ete 

iz 6^ ete, elz 6^ ete 

33 n e pas ete 

ty 11 a pa:z ete 

i 11 a pas ete, eZ n a pas ete 

nu n avo pas ete 

vu 11 ave pas ete 

i 11 o pas ete, el n o pas ete 

t For Future in tlie Past, see Conditional (Present). 

Or 33 S9re. ^ Or 33 119 S3re pa(z). 

Or 113 S9re 3 pa(z), etc., 119 S3r6 3 pa(z), etc. 

Or esk9 33 S9re. ^ Or es ty S3ra(z). 

Or 6sk9 33 n9 S3re pa(z). ' Or es ty n S3ra pa(z). 

Or tq as ete. 


e 3 ete 11 e 3 pa^ ete 

a ty ete^ n a ty paz ete 

at i/ ete, at el ete n at i paz ete \ 

avo nuz ete n at si paz ete j 

ave \u.z ete n avo nu paz ete 

ot iz ete, ot slz ete n ave vu paz ete 

n ot i paz ete ) 
n ot 8l paz ete j 

esko 3 e ete sska 59 n e paz ete 

eska ty as; ete" eska ty n a pa^ ete ^ 

ssk il a ete, ssk si a ete esk i n a pasj ete \ 

ssks nuz avoz ete ssk sZ n a paz ete j 

ssk^ vuz ave0 ete ssk^ nu n avo paz ete 

ssk iz o^ ete, ssk slz o^ ete esk.? vu n ave pa^ ete 

ssk i n o i>az ete 
ssk si 11 6 paz ete 


Past Perfect or Pluperfect. 

3 &\sz ete 39 n avs ipaz ete 

ty avss ete"* ty n avs paz ete 

il avs^ ete, si avsf ete i n avs paz ete, si n avs pas ete 

nuz avjos ete nu n avjo paz ete 

vuz avjes ete vu n avje paz ete 

iz avs^ ete, slz avsf ete i n avs pas ete, si n avs pas ete 

avs 3 ete n avs 5 pas ete 

avs ty ete^ n avs ty pas ete 

avst il ete, avst si ete n avst i pas ete \ 

avjo nus ete n avst si pas ete / 

avje vus ete n avjo nu pas ete 

avst is ete, avst sis ete n avje vu pas ete 

n avst i pas ete \ 
n avst si pas ete j 

Or a ti{ ete. ^ Or ss tq as ete. 

Or ss ty n a pas ete. "* Or tq avss ete. 

Or avs tq ete. 

VERBS 107 

sska 3 avsz ete sska 33 11 aA'S paz ete 

eska ty avss ete^ sskg ty n avs pas ete^ 

esk il SLYst ete, ssk si avsf ete ssk i 11 avs paz ete \ 

ssk9 nuz avjos; ete esk si n avs paz ete j 

6sk9 vuz avjez ete ssk^ nu n avjo paz ete 

ssk iz avsf ete, ssk slz avsf ete esk^ vu n avje pas ete 

ssk i n avs pas ete \ 
ssk el n avs pas ete / 

Second Past Perfect. 

3 ys ete 39 n y pas ete 

ty ys ete ty n y pas ete 

il yt ete, si jt ete i n y pas ete, si n y pas ete 

nuz y:mz ete nu n y:m pas ete 

vuz yitz ete vu n y:t pas ete 

iz y:rt ete, slz yirt ete i n y:r pas ete, si n y:r pas ete 

y 3 ete n y 3 pas ete 

y ty ete^ n y ty pas ete 

yt iz ete, yt si ete n yt i pas ete \ 

yimnusete' n yt si pas ete J 

y:t vus ete n y:m nu pas ete^ 

y:rt is ete, y:rt sis ete n y:t vu pas ete 

n y:rt i pas ete \ 
n y:rt si pas etej 

ssk9 3 ys ete sska 33 n y pas ete 

sska ty ys ete'^ ssko ty n y pas ete^ 

ssk il yt ete, ssk si y^ ete ssk i n y pas ete \ 

ssk9 nuz y:mz ete^ esk si n y pas ete / 

ssk^ vuz yitz ete esk^ nu n yini pas ete^ 

ssk iz yirt ete esk^ vu n y:t pas ete 

ssk i n y:r pas ete \ 
ssk si n y:r pas ete j 

Or ss tq avss ete. Or ss ty n avs pas ete. 

Or y tq ete. ^ Unusual. (Cf. p. 98, n. 3.) 

Or ss ty ys ete. • ^ Or ss ty n y pas ete. 


Future Perfect, t 

3 ore ete 39 n ore paz ete 

ty OY'dz ete ty n ora pas ete 

il ora ete, si ora ete i n ora paz ete, si n ora pas ete 

iiuz OYoz ete nu n oro pas ete 

vuz ores ete vu n ore pas ete 

iz oro^ ete, elz orot ete i n oro pas ete, si 11 oro pas ete 

ore 3 ete^ n ore 3 pas ete^ 

ora ty ete n ora ty pas ete 

orat il ete, orat el ete n orat i pas ete \ 

oro nus ete 11 orat el pas ete j 

ore vus ete 11 oro nu pas ete 

orot is ete, orot els ete n ore vu pas ete 

n orot i pas ete \ 
n orot el pas ete J 

eska 3 ore ete eska 3^ n ore pas ete 

eska ty oras ete^ esko ty n ora pas ete® 

esk il ora ete, esk el ora ete esk i n ora pas ete \ 

eskc? nuz oros ete £sk si n ora pas ete J 

esk^ vuz ores ete esk^ nu n oro pas ete 

esk iz oro^ ete, esk elz oro^ ete £sk^ vu n ore pas ete 

esk i n oro pas ete \ 
esk si n oro pas ete j 



39 S6>re(z) ^ 39 uj s^re pa(z) ^° 

ty S9r6(z) ty n^ s^re pa(z) 

i Sc?re(t), el Sb^re(t) i n^ Si?re pa(z), si iw s^re pa(z) 

nu sarjo(z) nu lu sarjo pa(z) 

vu S8rje(z) vu n^^ sarje pa(z) 

i s^re(t), el s^re(t) i iw s<^re pa(z), si iw s.>re pa(z) 

t For the Future Perfect in the Past, see Conditional (Past). 
^ Or 3 ore ete, ty oras ete, etc. ^ Or tq oras ete. 
■^ Or 39 n ore pas ete, etc. ^ Or ore 3 ete, etc. 

■^ Or ora tq ete. ^ Or n ore 3 pas ete, ete. 

' Or es tq oras ete. ® Or es ty n ora pas ete. 

° Or ^d sore(z). ^° Or ^j no s<?re pa(z). 



s^rs 5 

S9re ty 

s^rst iZ, Sr>rst si 

sorjo nu(z) 

sarje vu(z) 

s^ret il{z), s^rst sl(z) 

iii* Sc^re 3 pa(z) ^ 
n9 s^re ty pa(z) 
nd s9Tst i pa(z) \ 
nd s9TSt si pa(z) j 
n^ sarjo nu pa(z) 
119 sorje vu pa(z) 
113 s^rst i pa(z) \ 
119 S9rst si pa(z) J 

sska 59 s<^r6(z) ^ 

sska ty Sc)rs{z) ^ 

ssk i s^rs(t), ssk si S9rs(t) 

ssk9 nu sarjo(z) 

ssk^ vu sarje(z) 

ssk i S5rs(t), ssk si S9rs(t) 

sska 39 n3 s^rs pa(z) ^ 
sska ty n? ssrs pa(z) ^ 
ssk i 119 S9rs pa(z) \ 
ssk el 119 S9rs pa(z) / 
6sk9 nu 119 sarjo pa(z) 
ssk3 vu n9 sorje pa(z) 
ssk i 119 S9rs pa(z) \ 
ssk sZ n9 syrs pa(z) / 


3 ors2; ete 

ty orsz ete ^ 

il ors^ ete, si oret ete 

nuz orjo2 ete 

vuz orjez ete 

iz ors^ ete, slz oret ete 

3^* n ors pas ete 

ty n ors paz ete 

i n ors pas; ete, s/ n ors pas ete 

nu n or jo pas ete 

vu n orje pas ete 

i n ors pas ete, si n ors pas ete 

ors 3 ete 

ors ty ete ^° 

orst il ete, orst si ete 

orjo nus ete 

orje vus ete 

orst is ete, orst sis ete 

n ors 3 pas ete 
n ors ty pas ete 
n orst i pas ete \ 
n orst si pas ete j 
n orjo nu pas ete 
n orje vu pas ete 
n orst i pas ete \ 
n orst si pas ete j 

Or n<> sars 3 pa(z), etc., na s.?rs 3 pa(z), etc. 

Or sska 3.; sars(z). 

Or sska 3^ U9 S9TS pa(z). 

^ Or 3 orss ete, ty orss ete, etc. 

Or 3.? n ors pas ete, etc. 

Or ors tq ete. 

Or ss ty S9rs(z). 

Or ss ty n S3rs pa(z). 

^ Or tq orss ete. 

Or ors 3 ete, etc. 

Or n ors 3 pas ete, etc. 



esko 3 OYSz ete 

8sk8 ty OYSZ ete^ 

esk il ors^ ete, esk si ors^ ete 

8sk(? nuz or] 02 ete 

sskc? vuz orjez ete 

esk iz ors^ ete, ssk slz orsf ete 

eska 5^ n ors paz ete 
eskg ty ii ors paz ete^ 
ssk i 11 ors paz ete \ 
ssk el 11 ors pas ete j 
ssk<? nu 11 orjo pas ete 
esk J vii 11 orje pas ete 
ssk i 11 ors pas ete \ 
ssk el n ors pas ete j 





\\d swa pa(z) 
11^ swajo pa(z) 
11,? swaje pa(z) 

k? 30 swa(z)' 

k^ ty swa(z) 

k i swa(t), k si swa(t) 

\d nu swajo(z) 

ki? vu swaje(z) 

k i swa(t), k si s\va(t) 


k? 39 n^ swa pa(z)^ 

k<? ty n^ swa pa(z) [pa(z) 

k i 115 swa pa(z), k el iw swa 

k3 nu n^ swajo pa(z) 

k^ vu n9 swaje pa(z) [pa(z) 

k i 113 swa pa(z), k el nd swa 


k^ 38 fys^ 

k^ ty fys(z) 

k i fy(t), k si fy(t) 

k^ nu fysj6(z) 

k? vu fysje(z) 

k i fys(t), k si fys(t) 

k^ 39 iie^ fys pa(z)^ 

k? ty n^ fys pa(z) 

k i n^ fy pa(z), k sZ n^ fy pa(z) 

kc? nu i\9 fysjo pa(z) 

kc? vu 119 fysje pa(z) 

k i iio? fys pa(z), k el il> fys pa(z) 

Or ss ti{ orss ete. 
Or k9 5^ swa(z). 
^ Or k9 3^ fys. 

Or ss ty 11 ors pas ete. 
Or ka ^') 119 SM^a pa(z). 
Or k9 3^ n9 fys pa(z). 



k^ 5 s ete 

k^ ty ez ete 

k il £t ete, k si st ete 

k? nuz ejoz ete 

kd vuz s^ez ete 

k iz 6^ ete, k slz st ete 


k^ 38 n e paz ete^ 

k? ty 11 s paz ete 

k i n e paz ete, k s/ ii e pas; ete 

k9 iiu 11 sjo pas ete 

k^ vu n 6Je pas ete 

kins pas ete, k s/ n s pas ete 

k? 3 ys ete 

k^ ty yss ete 

k il y^ ete, k si yt ete 

k^ nuz ysjos ete 

k? vuz ysjes ete 

k iz ys^ ete, k slz yst ete 


k? 30 n ys pas ete'* 

ki? ty n ys pas ete 

k i n y pas ete, k s/ n y pas ete 

k^ nu n ysjo pas ete 

k^ vu n ysje pas ete 

k i 11 ys pas ete, k sZ n ys pas ete 

(6) tru:v-. 
1°. Active Voice. 


avwair truve 


n9 pa truve 
nd truve pa(z) 


n^ pas avwair truve 1 
11 avwair pa truve / 


sja truve 



11^ truva pa(z) 


n sja pa truve 

Or k^ tq ss ete. 

Or ka 3^ 11 ys pas ete. 

Or kg 3<? n s pas ete. 




39 truiv 

ty tru:v(z) 

i truiv, el truiv 

nu truvo(z) 

vu truve(z) 

i tru:v(t), si tru:v(t) 

truvs 3 

truv ty 

truvt i/, truvt el 

truvo nu(z) 

truve vu(z) 

truvt iZ(z), truvt el(z) 

eska 39 truiv 

sska ty tru:v(z)^ 

esk i truiv, esk el truiv 

esk9 nu truvo(z) 

esk? vu truve(z) 

esk i truiv(t), esk el truiv(t) 

39 n9 truv pa(z)^ 

ty n? truv pa(z) 

i n9 truv pa(z), zl x\d truv pa(z) 

nu Tid truvo pa(z) 

vu wd truve pa(z) 

i nd truv pa(z), e/ m truv pa(z) 

wd truve 3 pa(z) 
n9 truv ty pa(z) 
lid truvt i pa(z) \ 
n9 truvt el pa(z) / 
\\d truvo nu pa(z) 
i\9 truve vu pa(z) 
lid truvt i pa(z) \ 
n9 truvt el pa(z) / 

esko 39 n9 truv pa(z)'' 
esko ty n9 truv pa(z)^ 
esk i wd truv pa(z) \ 
esk si iw truv pa(z) j 
esk? nu n? truvo pa(z) 
esk? vu n? truve pa(z) 
esk i n? truv pa(z) \ 
esk si n? truv pa(z) J 


3? truve(z) 

ty truve(z) 

i truve(t), el truve(t) 

nu truvjo(z) 

vu truvje(z) 

i truve(t), el truv6(t) 

39 n? truve pa(z)'^ 

ty n? truve pa(z) [pa(z) 

i n? truve pa(z), si n? truve 

nu n? truvjo pa(z) 

vu n? truvje pa(z) [pa(z) 

i n? truve pa(z), si nr> truvs 

^ Or 3? n9 truv pa(z). 

■^ Or eskg 39 n9 truv pa(z). 

^ Or 39 na truvs pa(z). 

Or es ty truiv(z). 
* Or es ty n? truv pa(z). 



truvs 3 

truvs ty 

truvet il, truvst si 

truvjo nu(z) 

truvje vu(z) 

truvst il{z), truvst sl(z). 

n9 truvs 3 pa(z) 
nd truvs ty pa(z) 
113 truvst i pa(z) \ 
n9 truvst si pa(z) J 
na truvjo nu pa(z) 
119 truvje vu pa(z) 
119 truvst i pa(z) \ 
n9 truvst si pa(z) j 

ssko 39 truvs(z) 

ssko ty truvs(z) 

ssk i truvs(t), ssk si truvs(t) 

ssk9 nu truvjo(z) 

6sk9 vu truvje(z) 

ssk i truvs(t), ssk si truvs(t) 

sska 38 n9 truvs pa(z)^ 
sska ty 119 truvs pa(z)^ 
ssk i n9 truvs pa(z) \ 
ssk si n9 truvs pa(z) j 
ssk9 nu n9 truvjo pa(z) 
ssk9 vu n9 truvje pa(z) 
ssk i n9 truvs pa(z) \ 
ssk si n9 truvs pa(z) j 


39 truve 

ty truva(z) 

i truva, si truva 

nu truvaim(z) 

vu truva:t(z) 

i truvs:r(t), si truvs:r(t) 

38 n9 truve pa(z)* 

ty n9 truva pa(z) [pci(z) 

i n9 truva pa(z), si n9 truva 

nu n9 truvaim pa(z) 

vu n9 truvait pa(z) [pci(z) 

i n9 truvsir pa(z), d n9 truvsir 

truvs 3 

truva ty 

tru^^at il, truvat si 

truvaim nu(z)*' 

truvait vu(z)^ 

truvsirt iZ(z), truvsirt sl(z) 

n9 truvs 3 pa(z) 
n9 truva ty pa(z) 
n9 truvat i pa(z) \ 
n9 truvat si pa(z) J 
n9 truvaim nu pa(z)^ 
n9 truvait vu pa(z)^ 
n9 truvsirt i pa(z) \ 
n9 truvsirt si pa(z)j 

Or ss ty truvs(z). 

Or ss ty n9 truvs pa(z). 


Or sska 39 na tru^•s pa(z). 
Or 39 na truve pa(z). 



eska 33 truve 

esko ty truva(z)^ 

esk i truva, esk si truva 

esk? nu truva:in(z) 

ssk9 vu truva:t(z) 

esk i truve:r(t), ssk si truvsir(t) 

sska 59 119 truve pa(z)^ 
sska ty 113 truva pa(z)^ 
ssk i 113 truva pa(z) \ 
ssk si 119 truva pa(z) j 
ssk^ nu n9 truvaim pa(z) 
ssk3 vu 119 truvart pa(z) 
ssk i 113 truvsir pa(z) \ 
ssk si iw truvsir pa(z) J 


53 truvre 

ty truvra(z) 

i truvra, si truvra 

nu truvr6(z) 

vu truvre(z) 

i truvro(t), si truvr6(t) 

30 113 truvre pa(z)^ 

ty n3 truvra pa(z) [pci(z) 

i iw truvra pa(z), si 119 truvra 

nu 113 truvro pa(z) 

vu 119 truvre pa(z) [pa(z) 

i 113 truvro pa(z), si n? truvro 

truvre 3 

truvra ty 

truvrat il, truvrat si 

truvro nu(z) 

truvre vu(z) 

truvrot i/(z), truvrot sl(z) 

n3 truvre 3 pa(z) 
n3 truvra ty pa(z) 
113 truvrat i pa(z) \ 
n3 truvrat si pa(z) j 
n3 truvro nu pa(z) 
113 truvre vu pa(z) 
n3 truvrot i pa(z) \ 
113 truvrot si pa(z) j 

eska 33 truvre 

eska ty truvra(z)* 

esk i truvra, esk el truvra 

esk3 nu truvro(z) 

esk3 vu truvre(z) 

ssk i truvro(t), ssk si truvro(t) 

eska 3a n3 truvre pa(z)^ 
sska ty n3 truvra pa(z)^ 
ssk i 113 truvra pa(z) \ 
ssk el 113 truvra pa(z) J 
ssk3 nu n3 truvro pa(z) 
ssk3 vu n3 truvre pa(z) 
ssk i n3 truvro pa(z) \ 
ssk si 113 truvro pa(z) j 

t For the Future in the Past, see Conditional (Present). 
^ Or ss ty truva(z). ^ Or sska 33 na truve pa(z). 

^ Or ss ty n truva pa(z). '' Or 33 na truvre pa(z). 

^ Or ss ty truvra(z). ^ Or sska 33 na truvre pa(z). 

"^ Or ss ty n3 truvra pa(z). 




5 e truve 

ty a truve 

il a truve, el a truve 

nuz avo truve 

vuz ave truve 

iz o truve, elz o truve 

3^ n e pa truve 

ty n a pa truve 

i n a pa truve, si n a pa truve 

uu n avo pa truve 

vu n ave pa truve 

i n o pa truve, si n o pa truve 

s 3 truve 

a ty truve 

at i truve, at si truve 

avo nu truve 

ave vu truve 

ot i truve, ot el truve 

n 6 5 pa truve 
11 a ty pa truve 
n at i pa truve \ 
11 at el pa truve j 
11 avo nu pa truve 
11 ave vu pa truve 
11 ot i pa truve \ 
11 ot el pa truve / 

esko 3 e truve 

esk8 ty a truve^ 

esk il a truve, esk el a truve 

esk^ nuz avo truve 

esk9 vuz ave truve 

esk iz o truve, esk elz o truve 

eskg 3^ n e pa truve 
esko ty n a pa truve'^ 
esk i n a pa truve \ 
esk si 11 a pa truve / 
esk^ nu n avo pa truve 
esk? vu n ave pa truve 
esk i n o pa truve \ 
esk si n o pa truve / 

Past Perfect or Pluperfect. 

3 ave truve 

ty ave truve^ 

il ave truve, el ave truve 

nuz avjo truve 

vuz avje truve 

iz ave truve, elz ave truve 

3? 11 ave pa truve 
ty n ave pa truve 
i 11 ave pa truve \ 
si n ave pa truve / 
nu 11 avjo pa truve 
vu 11 avje pa truve 
i n ave pa truve \ 
si n ave pa truve / 

Or tq a truve. 

Or es ty 11 a pa truve. 

Or es tq a truve. 
Or tq ave truve. 



avs 5 truve 
ave ty truve 
avet i truve \ 
avst si truve / 
avjo nu truve 
avje vu truve 
avet i truve \ 
avst si truve j 

n avs 3 pa truve 
n avs ty pa tru^e 
n avst i pa truve \ 
n avst si pa truve J 
11 avjo nu pa truve 
n avje vu pa truve 
n avst i pa truve \ 
n avst si pa truve j 

ssko 3 avs truve 
sskg ty avs truve ^ 
ssk il ave truve \ 
ssk si avs truve j 
ssk^ uuz avjo truve 
ssk? vuz avje truve 
ssk iz avs truve \ 
ssk slz avs truve J 

sska 3? n avs pa truve 
eska ty n ave pa truve ^ 
esk i n ave pa truve \ 
esk eZ n ave pa truve j 
esk9 nu n avjo pa truve 
esk3 vu n avje pa truve 
esk i n ave pa truve \ 
esk si n ave pa truve j 

Second Past Perfect. 

3 y tru^ e 

ty y truve 

il y truve, el y tru^ e 

nuz y:m truve 

vuz y:t truve 

iz y:r truve, elz yir truve 

39 n y pa truve 

ty n y pa truve 

i n y pa truve, eZ n y pa truve 

nu n y:m pa truve 

vu n y:t pa truve [truve 

i n y:r pa truve, si n y:r pa 

y 3 truve 

y ty truve 

yt i truve, yt si truve 

y:m nu truve'' 

y:t vu truve 

y:rt i truve, y:rt si truve 

n y 3 pa truve 
n y ty pa truve 
n yt i pa truve \ 
n yt si pa truve j 
n y:m nu pa truve'' 
n y:t vu pa truve 
n yirt i pa truve \ 
n y:rt si pa truve J 

Or ss tq SLVS truA'e. 
Unusual. (Cf. p. 98, n. 3.) 

Or ss ty n a^'S i)a truve 



esko 5 y truve 
5sk8 ty y truve ^ 
ssk il y truve \ 
esk el y truve / 
eski? nuz y:m truve^ 
sskd vuz y:t truve 
esk iz y:r truve \ 
esk elz y:r truve/ 

eska 3^ n y pa truve 
eska ty u y pa truve '^ 
esk i n y pa truve \ 
esk el n y pa truve / 
esk^ nu n y:m pa truve 
6sk9 vu n y:t pa truve 
esk i u y:r pa truve \ 
esk el n y:r pa truve/ 

Future Perfect, t 

5 ore truve ^ 

ty ora truve ^ 

il ora truve, el ora truve 

nuz oro truve 

vuz ore truve 

iz oro truve, elz oro truve 

3i? n ore pa truve 
ty n ora pa truve 
i n ora pa truve \ 
el n ora pa truve / 
nu n oro pa truve 
vu n ore pa truve 
i n oro pa truve \ 
si n oro pa truve / 

ore 3 truve 
ora ty truve 
orat i truve \ 
orat el truve / 
oro nu truve 
ore vu truve 
orot i truve ) 
orot el truve / 

esk9 3 ore truve 
eska ty ora truve ^ 
esk il ora truve \ 
esk el ora truve / 
esk^ nuz oro truve 
esk^ vuz ore trvive 
esk iz oro truve \ 
esk elzforf) truve / 

n ore 3 pa truve 
n ora ty pa truve 
n orat i pa truve \ 
n orat el pa truve / 
n oro nu pa truve 
n ore vu pa truve 
n orot i pa truve \ 
n orot el pa truve / 

eska 3^ n ore pa truve 
eska ty n ora pa truve ^° 
esk i n ora pa truve \ 
esk el n ora pa truve / 
esk^ nu n oro pa truve 
eskt? vu n ore pa truve 
esk i n oro pa truve \ 
esk el n oro pa truve / 

t For Future Perfect in the Past, see Conditional (Past). 

Or es ty y truve. 

Or es ty n y pa truve. 

Or tq ora ti'uve. 

Or ore 3 truve, etc. 

Or es t^ ora truve. 


Or 3 ore truve, etc. 

Or 3^ n ore pa truve, etc. 

Or n ore 3 pa truve. 

Or es ty n ora pa truve. 



3i> truvrs(z) 

ty truvr8(z) 

i truvrs(t), si triivrs(t) 

nu truv8rjo(z) 

vu truv8rje(z) 

i truvrs(t), si truvrs(t) 



50 11^ truvrs pa(z)^ 

ty n9 truvrs pa(z) [pa(z) 

i 119 truvrs pa(z), el n? truvrs 

nu nd truvarjo pa(z) 

vu n9 truvorje pa(z) [pa(z) 

i n9 truvrs pa(z), el ns truvrs 

truvrs 3 
truvrs ty 
truvrst iZ \ 
truvrst si j 
truvarjo nu(z) 
truvarje vu(z) 
truvrst i/(z) \ 
truvrst sl(z) j 

n9 truv 
n3 truv 
n9 truv 
nd truv 
iw truv 
n? truv 
n9 truA 
119 tru\ 

rs 3 pa(z) 
rs ty pa(z) 
rst i pa(z) \ 
rst si pa(z) J 
arjo nu pa(z) 
9rje vu pa(z) 
rst i pa(z) \ 
rst si pa(z) J 

ssko 3^ truvrs(z) 
ssk9 ty truvrs(z)^ 
ssk i truvrs(t) \ 
ssk si truvrs(t) j 
ssk? nu truvarj6(z) 
ssk? vu truvarje(z) 
ssk i truvrs(t) \ 
ssk si truvrs(t) j 

sskg 39 119 truvrs pa(z)'^ 
ssk9 ty n9 truvrs pa(z)^ 
ssk i n? truvrs pa(z) \ 
ssk s/ n? truvrs pa(z) j 
ssk? nu 119 truvarjo pa(z) 
ssk? vu n? truv9rje pa(z) 
ssk i n? truvrs pa(z) \ 
ssk el n? truvrs pa(z) J 


3 ors truve"* 

ty ors truve^ 

il ors truve, si ors truve 

nuz orjo truve 

vuz orje truve 

iz ors truve, slz ors truve 

3? n ors pa truve^ 

ty n ors pci truve [truve 

i n ors pa truve, el n ors pa 

nu n orjo pa truve 

vu n orje pa truve 1^ truve 

i n ors pa truve, el n ors pa 

^ Or 3? ng truvrs pa(z). 

^ Or sska 3? no truvrs pa(z). 

'^ Or 3 ors truve, etc. 

' Or 3? n ors pa truve, etc. 

^ Or ss ty truvrs(z). 

" Or ss ty n? truvrs pa(z). 

^ Or tq ors truve. 



ors 3 truve ^ 
ore ty truve 
oret i truve ^ 
orst el truve j 
orjo nu truve 
orje vu truve 
oret i truve \ 
oret el truve j 

n ore 3 pa truve 
n ore ty pa truve 
n oret i pa truve \ 
n oret el pa truve j 
n orjo nu pa truve 
n orje vu pa truve 
n oret i pa truve \ 
n.oret el pa truve J 

eska 3 ore truve 
sskd ty ore truve ^ 
esk il ore truve \ 
esk el ore truve j 
esks nuz orjo truve 
esk? vuz orje truve 
esk iz ore truve \ 
esk elz ore truve j 

eska 3a n ore pa truve 
eska ty n ore pa truve^ 
esk i n ore pa truve \ 
esk si n ore pa truve J 
esk9 nu n orjo pa truve 
esk? vu n orje pa truve 
esk i n ore pa truve \ 
esk el n ore pa truve J 





nd truv pa(z) 
n9 truvo pa(z) 
n? truve pa(z) 



k? 30 truiv" 

k? ty truiv(z) 

k i truiv, k el truiv 

k? nu truvjo(z) 

k? vu truvje(z) 

k i tru:v(t), k el tru:v(t) 

k? 39 n? truv pa(z)^ 
k? ty n9 truv pa(z) 
kin? truv pa(z) \ 
k eZ n? truv pa(z) j 
k? nu n? truvjo pa(z) 
k? vu n? truvje pa(z) 
kin? truv pa(z) \ 
k si n? truv pa(z) j 

Or ore 3 truve, etc. 
Or es tq ore truve. 
Or ka 3? truiv. 

Or n ore 3 pa truve, etc. 
Or es ty n ore pa truve. 
Or ko 3.7 no truv pa(z). 



kt? 39 truvas^ 

k^ ty truvas(z) 

k i truva(t), k si truva(t) 

k9 nu truvasjo(z)^ 

k3 vu truvasje(z) ^ 

k i truvas(t), k si truvas(t) 

k^ 3 s truve 

k? ty 6 truve "* 

k il 8 truve, k si s truve 

k9 nuz sjo truve 

ks vuz sje truve 

k iz s truve, k slz s truve 

k9 3 ys truve 

k? ty ys truve 

k il y truve, k si y truve 

k^ nuz ysjo truve 

k3 vuz ysje truve 


k? 30 119 truvas pa(z)^ 
'kd ty 119 truvas pa(z) 
k i 119 truva pa(z) \ 
k si 119 truva pa(z) j 
kc^ nu 119 truvasjo pa(z)^ 
k9 vu 119 truvasje pa(z)^ 
k i 119 truvas pa(z) \^ 
k si 119 truvas pa(z) j 


k? 38 n s pa truve ^ 

k^ ty n s pa truve [truve 

k i n s pa truve, k sZ n s pa 

k3 nu n sjo pa truve 

k? vu n sje pa truve [truve 

k i n s pa truve, k sZ n s pa 


k9 39 n ys pa truve ^ 

k3 ty n ys pa truve [truve 

k i n y pa truve, k sZ n y pa 

k9 nu n ysjo pa truve 

k9 vu n ysje pa truve [truve 

k iz ys truve, k slz ys truve k i n ys pa truve, k sZ n ys pa 

2°. Passive Voice. 


sitra truve 

n sitra pa truve 1 
119 pajs sitro truve / 

avwair ete truve 

Or ka 33 truvas. 
Or ka 39 na truvas pa(z). 
^ Or ka 7^9 n s pa truve. 


\i9 paj2 avwair ete truve 
n avwair \)az ete truve 


Or \i9 tq s truve. 

Or ka 39 n ys pa truve. 

eta truve 

sjci^ ete truve 




n eta pa truve 


n 8Ja pa2J ete truve 



39 sqi truve 

ty 8 truve ^ 

il 8 truve, el 8 truve 

nu som truve(z) 

vuz 8:t truve(z) 

i so truve(z), 8l so truve(z)^ 

30 \\d si[i pa truve 

ty n 8 pa truve 

i n 6 pa truve, 8/ n 8 pa truve 

nu n^ som pa truve(z) 

vu n 8:t pa truve(z) [truve(z) 

i \\d so pa truve(z), d nd so pa 

s\\i 5 truve 
6 ty truve 
8t i truve 1 
et 8l truve / 
som nu truve(z) 
sit vu truve(z) 
sot i truve(z) \ 
sot el truve(z) / 

n9 sqi 3 pa truve 
n 8 ty pa truve 
n 8t i pa truve \ 
n et el pa truve / 
He) som nu pa truve(z) 
n eit vu pa truve(z) 
n9 sot i pa truve(z) \ 
n,^ sot el pa truve(z) J 

esko 30 sqi truve 
esko ty e truve* 
esk il e truve \ 
esk el e truve / 
esk? nu som truve(z) 
esk? vuz e:t truve(z) 
esk i so truve(z) \ 
esk el so truve(z) / 

esko 50 n? sqi pa truve ^ 
esko ty n e pa truve ^ 
esk in e pa truve \ 
esk el n e pa truve j 
esk? nu n? som pa truve(z) 
esk? vu n e:t pa truve(z) 
esk i n? so pa truve(z) \ 
esk si n? so pa truve(z) / 

Or tq e truve. 

Or el e truve:, el so truvei(z) in F.S. (cf. p. &0). 

Or 3? no sqi pa truve. ^ Or es tq e truve. 

Or esko 3? no sqi pa truve. ^ Or es ty n e pa truve. 



5 ets truve 39 n ets pa truve 

ty ets truve ^ ty n ets pa truve [truve 

il ets truve, si ets truve i n ets pa truve, si n ets pa 

nuz etjo truve (z) nu 11 etjo pa truve (z) 

vuz etje truve (z) vu n etje pa truve (z) [truve(z) 

iz ets truve(z), slz ets truve(z) i n ets pa truve(z), d n ets pa 

ets 5 truve n ets 5 pa truve 

ets ty truve n ets ty pa truve 

etst i truve \ n etst i pa truve 1 

etst si truve j n etst si pa truve j 

etjo nu truve (z) n etjo nu pa truve (z) 

etje vu truve(z) n etje vu pa truve(z) 

etst i truve (z) \ n etst i pa truve (z) ) 

etst si truve (z) j n etst si pa truve (z) j 

sska 5 ets truve sska t^c) n ets pa truve 

sska ty ets truve ^ ssko ty n ets pa truve ^ 

ssk il ets truve \ ssk i n ets pa truve ) 

ssk si ets truve j ssk si n ets pa truve ) 

ssk? nuz etjo truve (z) ssk^* nu n etjo pa truve (z) 

ssk? vuz etje truve(z) ssk? vu n etje pa truve (z) 

ssk iz ets truve(z) \ ssk i n ets pa truve(z) ] 

ssk slz ets truve (z) j ssk si n ets pa truve (z) ) 


39 fy truve 39 n? fy pa truve ^ 

ty fy truve ty n? fy pa truve [truve 

i fy truve, si fy truve i n? fy pa truve, si n? fy pa 

nu fy:m truve (z) nu n? fy:m pa truve (z) 

vu fy:t truve (z) vu n?fy:t pa truve (z) [truve (z) 

i fyir truve(z), si fy:r truve(z) in?fy:rpatruve(z),s/n?fy:rpa 

fy 3 truve n? fy 3 pa truve 

fy ty truve n? fy ty pa truve 

fyt i truve \ n? fyt i pa truve 

fyt si truve j n? fyt si pa truve 

fyim nu truve (z) n? fyim nu pa truve (z) 

fy:t vu truve (z) n? fyit vu pa truve(z) 

fyirt i truve(z) \ n? fyirt i pa truve (z) [ 

fyirt si truve(z) J n? fyirt si pa truve (z) ) 

Or tq ets tru^'e. ^ Or ss tq ets truve. 

Or ss ty n ets pa truve. ^ Or 3? na fy pa truve. 



sska 7^<) fy truve 
eska ty fy truve 
6sk i fy truve ) 
ssk si fy truve J 
ssk^ nu fy:m truve (z) 
ssk? vu fyit truve(z) 
ssk i fyir truve (z) | 
ssk si fy:r truve (z) ] 

ssko 3a na fy pa truve ^ 
ssk9 ty n9 fy pa truve ^ 
ssk i n? fy pa truve ) 
ssk sZ \\^ fy pa truve f 
ssk3 nu \\d fyim pa truve 
ssk? vu T\d fy:t pa truve 
ssk i lid fy:r pa truve 
ssk zl i\d fyir pa truve 

Future t 

50 s?re truve 

ty S3ra truve 

i S9ra truve, si s?ra truve 

nu s?ro truve (z) 

vu S3re triive(z) 

i s?ro truve (z), si s?ro truve (z) 

39 n? s?re pa tru^'e 

ty lid S3ra pa truve [truve 

i n? S3ra pa truve, sZ n? s?ra pa 

nu n? s?ro pa truve (z) 

vu \\d S9re pa truve(z) [truve(z) 

i \\d s9ro pa truve (z), zlw? s.?ropa 

s^rs 3 truve 
S3ra ty truve 
s<?rat i truve ) 
s^rat si truve f 
s^ro nu truve(z) 
S3re vu truve )z) 
s^rot i truve (z) 
s^rot si truve (z) 

lid ssrs 5 pa truve 
n? S9ra ty pa tru^^e 
nd s^rat i pa truve \ 
n3 s^rat si pa truve ) 
nd S9ro nu pa truve (z) 
n9 S3re vu pa truve(z) 
nd S3rot i pa truve (z) 
lid s^rot si pa truve (z) 

sska 30 s.>re truve ^ 
ssk9 ty Sf>ra truve ^ 
ssk i s^ra truve 
ssk si S9ra truve 
ssk? nu s?ro truve (z) 
ssk? vu s?re truve (z) 
ssk i s?r6 truve (z) | 
ssk si Sc>ro truve (z) ) 

sskg 39 n? s?re pa truve "^ 
ssk9 ty n? s?ra pa truve ^° 
ssk i n? s?ra pa truve \ 
ssk sZ n? s?ra pa truve j 
ssk? nu n? s?ro pa truve (z) 
ssk? vu n? s?re pa truve(z) 
ssk i n? s?ro pa truve (z) 
ssk sZ n? s?ro pa truve (z) 

I For Future in the Past, see Conditional (Present). 

* Or ss ty fy truve. ^ Or ssk9 3? n9 fy pa truve. 

Or ss ty n? fy pa tru^■e. ^ Or 3? S9re truve. 

Or 7^c> n9 s?re pa truve. 

^ Or n? S9rs 3 pa truve, etc., n9 s?rs 3 pa truve, etc. 

' Or ssk9 3? S9re truve. ^ Or ss ty s?ra truve. 

Or sskg 3? n9 s?re pa truve. ^° Or ss ty n? s?ra pa truve. 




5 e ete truve 

ty az ete truve ^ 

il'a ete truve, si a ete truve 

nuz avbz ete truve(z) 

vuz aves; ete truve(z) [truve(z) 

iz o^ ete truve(z), slz o^ ete 

5^ n e paz ete truve 
ty 11 a paz ete truve [truve 
i n a ])az ete truve, el ii a paz ete 
nu 11 avo paz ete truve(z) 
vu n ave pas ete truve(z) 
i 11 o paz ete truve(z), si n 5 
[paz ete truve(z) 

6 5 ete truve 
a ty ete truve ^ 
Sbtjl ete truve \ 
at^sl ete truve / 
avo nuz ete truve(z) 
ave vuz ete truve(z) 
ot iz ete truve(z) \ 
ot e\z ete truve(z) j 

11 s 3 pas ete truve 
11 a ty pas ete truve 
11 at i pas ete truve \ 
n at el pas ete truve j 
11 avo nu pas ete truve(z) 
11 ave vu pas ete truve(z) 
11 ot i pas ete truve(z) \ 
11 ot si pas ete truve(z) j 

sska 5 e ete truve 
sska ty as ete truve '^ 
ssk il a ete truve \ 
ssk si a ete truve j 
ssk^ nuz avos ete truve(z) 
ssk3 vuz aves ete truve(z) 
ssk iz bt ete truve(z) I 
ssk slz bt ete truve(z) / 

eska ^9 11 e pas ete truve 
esko ty n a pas ete truve* 
ssk i 11 a pas ete truve \ 
ssk si n a pas ete tru^'e j 
ssk? nu 11 avo pas ete truve(z) 
ssk9 vu 11 ave pas ete truve(z) 
ssk i 11 o pas ete truA'e(z) ) 
ssk si n 6 pas ete truve(z) / 

Past Perfect or Pluperfect. 

3 avss ete truve 
ty avss ete truve "^ [truve 

il avs^ ete truve, si avs^ ete 
nuz avjos ete truve(z) 
vuz avjes ete truve(z) 
iz avs^ ete truve(z), slz avsf 
[ete truve(z) 

3? 11 avs pas ete tru^e 
ty 11 avs pas ete truve 
i n avs pas ete truve \ 
si 11 avs pas ete truve j 
nu 11 avjo pas ete tru^'e(z) 
vu 11 avje pas ete truve(z) 
i 11 avs pas ete truve(z) \ 
si n avs pas ete truve(z) J 

Or tq as ete truve. 
Or ss tq as ete truve. 
Or tq avss ete truve. 

Or a tq ete truve. 

Or ss ty n a pas ete truve. 

VERBS 125 

avs 3 ete truve n avs 3 paz ete truve 

ave ty ete truve ^ n avs ty paz ete truve 

avet i/ ete truve \ n avet i paz ete truve 1 

avst el ete truve / n avet el paz ete truve / 

avjo imz ete truve(z) n avjo nu paz ete truve(z) 

avje vuz ete truve(z) n avje vu paz ete truve(z) 

avet iz ete truve(z) \ n avet i pas ete truve(z) \ 

avet els ete truve(z) / n avet el pas ete truve(z) j 

eskg 3 aves ete truve eska 33 n ave pas ete truve 

eska ty aves ete truve ^ eska ty n ave pas ete truve'* 

esk il ave^ ete truve \ esk i n ave pas ete truve \ 

esk el ave^ ete truve j esk si n ave pas ete truve J 

esk? nuz avjos ete truve(z) esk? nu n avjo pas ete truve(z) 

esk? vuz avjes ete truve(z) esk? vu n avje pas ete truve(z) 

esk iz ave^ ete truve(z) \ esk i n ave pas ete truve(z) \ 

esk elz ave^ ete truve(z) / esk e/ n ave pas ete truve(z)/ 

Second Past Perfect. 

3 ys ete truve 39 n y pas ete truve 

ty ys ete truve ty n y pas ete truve 

il y^ ete truve, el yt ete truve i n y pas ete truve \ 

nuz y:mz ete truve(z) e/ n y pas ete truve J 


vuz y:tz ete truve(z) nu n y:m pas ete truve(z) 

iz y:rt ete truve(z) \ vu n y:t pas ete truve (z) 

elz yirt ete truve(z) J i n y:r pas ete truve(z) 

d n y:r pas ete truve (z) 

y 3 ete truve n y 3 pas ete truve 

y ty ete truve ^ n y ty pas ete truve 

yt il ete truve \ n yt i pas ete tru^^e \ 

yt el ete truve J n yt el pas ete truve j 

y:m nus ete truve(z)^ n yim nu pas ete truve(z)' 

y:t vus ete truve(z) n y:t vu pas ete tru^'e(z) 

y:rt is ete truve (z) \ n yirt i pas ete truve (z) 

yirt els ete truve(z) / n y:rt el pas ete truve(z) 

^ Or ave tq ete tru^■e. Or es tq aves ete truve. 

Or es ty n ave pas ete truve. ^ Or y tq ete truve. 
'' Unusual. (Cf. p. 98, n. 3.) 



eska 3 yz ete truve 
esk9 tyy.2; ete truve ^ 
ssk il y^ ete truve \ 
esk el y^ ete truve / 
esk^ nuz y:mz ete truve (z)^ 
esk^ vuz y:tz ete truve (z) 
ssk iz y:rt ete Druve(z) \ 
esk elz y:rt ete truve (z) / 

eska 53 n y paz ete truve 
eskg ty n y paz ete truve ^^ 
esk i 11 y paz ete truve \ 
esk el n y pas ete truve j 
sskcf nu n y:m ipaz ete truve (z)"^ 
6skc> vu n y:t paz ete truve (z) 
esk i n y:r paz ete truve (z) \ 
esk si n y:r pas ete truve (z) j 

Future Perfect, t 

3 ore ete truve 
ty oraz ete truve^ 
il ora ete truve \ 
el ora ete truve / 
nuz oroz ete truve (z) 
vuz orez ete truve (z) 
iz orot ete truve (z) \ 
elz orot ete truve (z) / 

ore 3 ete truve ^ 
ora ty ete truve^ 
orat il ete truve \ 
orat el ete truve / 
oro nu2; ete truve (z) 
ore \uz ete truve (z) 
orot iz ete truve (z) \ 
orot s\z ete truve (z) / 

eska 3 ore ete truve 
esko ty oraz ete truve ^° 
esk il ora ete truve \ 
esk el ora ete truve / 
Bskc} nuz oroz ete truve(z) 
esk<? vuz ores ete truve (z) 
esk iz oro^ ete truve (z) 1 
esk elz orot ete truve (z) j 

3^ n ore pas ete truve 
ty n ora pas ete tru^e 
i n ora pas ete truve \ 
si n ora pas ete truve J 
nu 11 oro pas ete truve(z) 
vu n ore pas ete truve (z) 
i n oro pas ete truve (z) \ 
si n oro pas ete truve (z) j 

n ore 3 pas ete truve'^ 
D ora ty pas ete truve 
u orat i pas ete truve \ 
n orat el pas ete truve J 
n oro nu pas ete truA"e(z) 
n ore vu pas ete truve (z) 
n orot i pas ete truve (z) \ 
n orot el pas ete truve (z) j 

eska 3r> u ore pas ete truve 
esko ty n ora pas ete truve 
esk i n ora pas ete truve \ 
esk si n ora pas ete truve j 
esk^ nu n oro pas ete truve (z) 
esk^ vu n ore pas ete truve (z) 
esk i n oro pas ete truve (z) \ 
esk si n oro pas ete truve(z) j 

t For the Future Perfect in the Past, see Conditional (Past). 

Or es ty ys ete truve. 

Or es ty n y pas ete truve. 

Or tq oras ete truve. 

Or ore 3 ete truve, etc. 

Or n ore 3 pas ete truve, etc. 

Or es ty n ora pas ete truve. 


Or 3 ore ete truve, etc. 
^ Or 3c? n ore pas ete truve, etc. 
" Or ora tq ete truve. 
^° Or es tq oras ete truve. ■ 





39 s^rs truve^ 

ty S9re truve 

i s^re truve, el s^re truve 

nu sorjo truve (z) 

vu sarje truve (z) 

i S3re truve(z), si s^rs truve(z) 

s^re 3 truve 
S9r8 ty truve 
s^ret i truve \ 
s^ret el truve / 
sarjo nu truve (z) 
sarje vu truve (z) 
si^ret i truve (z) \ 

Si?ret el truve (z) 

esko 38 S3re truve ^ 
eskg ty s^re truve '^ 
esk i s^re truve \ 
ssk el s^re truve / 
esk^ nu sarjo truve (z) 
esky vu S9rje truve(z) 
esk i ssre truve(z) \ 
ssk el s^re truve(z) j 

59 n<? Si^re pa truve 
ty nd S3rs pa truve 
i n^ s^rs pa truve 1 
sZ n^ s^rs pa truve / 
nu n^ sarjo pa truve (z) 
vu n^ S9rje pa truve (z) 
i wd s<?rs pa truve{z) \ 
sZ \\d s^rs pa truve(z) / 

\\9 s^rs 3 pa truve'' 
n^ S9rs ty pa truve 
lid s^ret i pa truve \ 
\\d s^ret el pa truve j 
wd sarjo nu pa truve(z) 
n^ sarje vu pa truve (z) 
i\9 s,?ret i pa truve (z) \ 
Wd s^ret el pa truve (z) / 

esko 39 n^ s^re pa truve ^ 
esk9 ty \\9 S3re pa truve ^ 
esk i Wd Si?re pa truve \ 
esk zl Wd s^re pa truve / 
eski? nu n<? s9rjo pa truve (z) 
esk? vu r\9 S9rje pa truve(z) 
esk i Wd s^re pa truve (z) \ 
esk eZ ud s^re pa truve (z) / 


3 ores ete truve 
ty orss ete truve ^ 
il ore^ ete truve \ 
el ore^ ete truve / 
nuz orjos ete truve (z) 
vuz orjes ete truve (z) 
iz ore^ ete truve (z) 1 
elz ore^ ete truve(z) J 

3c? n ore pas ete truve 
ty n ors pas ete truve 
i n ors pas ete truve \ 
sZ n ore pas ete truve j 
nu n orjo pas ete truve (z) 
vu n orje pas ete truve (z) 
i n ore pas ete truve (z) ) 
eZ n ore pas ete truve (z) / 

Or 3? s9re truve. ^ Or 3,? n9 s^re pa truve. 

Or n^ S9re 3 pa truve, etc., or n9 s^re 3 pa truve, etc. 

Or esk9 3^? S9re truve. "^ Or es ty s^re truve. 

Or esk9 3<^ n9 S3rs pa truve. ^ Or ss ty \\9 sprs pa truve. 

*^ Or 3 orss ete truve, etc. ° Or tq orss ete truve. 
Or 33 n ors pas ete truve, etc. 



ors 3 ete truve 
ore ty ete truve ^ 
oret iZ ete truve \ 
oret si ete truve J 
orjo nuz ete truve (z) 
orje VU2; ete truve (z) 
oret iz ete truve (z) 
oret s\z ete truve(z) 

11 ore 3 paz ete truve '' 
n ore ty pa^ ete truve 
n oret i paz ete tru^e 1 
11 oret el pa^ ete truve J 
11 orjo nu paz ete truve (z) 
n orje vu paz ete truve (z) 
n oret i pa^ ete truve (z) \ 
n oret el paz ete truve (z) J 

6sk9 3 orsz ete tru^e 
eska ty orsz ete truve ^ 
esk il ore^ ete truve \ 
esk el ore^ ete truve / 
esk^ nuz orjoz ete truve (z) 
esk? vuz orjez ete truve(z) 
esk iz ore^ ete truve (z) \ 
esk elz ore^ ete truve(z)/ 

esko 33 n ore pas ete truve 
eska ty n ore paz ete truve ^ 
esk i n ore paz ete truve \ 
esk si n ore pas ete truve / 
esk? nu n orjo pas ete truve(z) 
esk? vu n orje pas ete truve(z) 
esk i n ore pas ete truve (z) 1 
esk eZ n ore pas ete truve(z)/ 

swa truve 
swajo truve (z) 
swaje truve (z) 


n? swa pa truve 
n? swajo pa truve (z) 
n? swaje pa truve (z) 


k? 30 swa truve ^ 

k? ty swa truve 

k i swa truve, k el swa truve 

k? nu swajo truve (z) 

k? vu swaje truve (z) 

k i swa truve (z), k el swa 

[truve (z) 

k? 7fi 11? swa pa truve ^ 
k? ty n? swa pa tru^'e 
k i n? swa pa truve \ 
k si n? swa pa truve j 
k? nu n? swajo pa truve (z) 
k? vu n? swaje pa truve(z) 
k i n? swa pa truve (z) \ 
k si 11? swa pa truve (z) j 

Or ore 3 ete tru^'e, etc. 
Or n ore 3 pas ete truve, etc. 
Or ss ty 11 ore pas ete truve. 
' Or ko 3? 118 swa pa truve. 

Or ore tq ete tru^'e. 
Or es tq ores ete truve. 
Or ko 3? swa tru^'e. 




k? 30 fys truve^ 

k? ty fys truve 

k i f y truve, k si fy truve 

ks nu fysjo truve (z) 

k9 vu fysje truve (z) • 

k i fys truve (z) \ 

k el fys truve (z) / 

k9 39 n3 fys pa truve ^ 
k9 ty 119 fys pa truve 
k i n? fy pa truve \ 
k eI nd fy pa truve / 
k? nu nd fysjo pa truve (z) 
k3 vu 113 fysje pa truve (z) 
k i 119 fys pa truve (z) \ 
k eZ n9 fys pa truve (z) / 


k? 3 e ete truve 
k9 ty sz ete truve ^ [truve 

k il Bt ete truve, k el Bt ete 
k9 nuz ejo2; ete truve (z) ■ 
\d vuz ejez ete truve (z) [truve 
k iz Bt ete truve, k elz st ete 

k^ 39 n e pas; ete truVe* 
k? ty n s paz ete truve 
k i n e pa^ ete truve \ 
k eZ n e ^az ete truve / 
k9 nu n ejo pas; ete truve (z) 
k9 vu n eje paz ete truve (z) 
kins pas; ete truve (z) \ 
k eZ n e paz ete truve(z) j 

k^ 3 ys ete truve 
k? ty yss; ete truve 
k il jt ete truve ) 
k el y^ ete truve / 
k? nuz ysjo:2 ete truve (z) 
k9 vuz ysjes; ete truve(z) 
k iz ysf ete truve (z) \ 
k elz ysf ete truve (z) / 


k9 39 n ys pas; ete truve ^ 
k? ty 11 ys pas; ete truve 
k i n y pas; ete truve \ 
k eZ n y pas; ete truve / 
k? nu n ysjo pas; ete truve (z) 
k? vu n ysje pas; ete truve (z) 
k i n ys pas; ete truve (z) \ 
k eZ n ys pas; ete truve (z) / 


(c) reflejis-. 

1 Present. 

n9 pa reflejiir \ 

lid reflejiir pa(z) j 

Or ka 59 fys truve. 
* Or k9 t\{ Bz ete truve. 
^ Or ka 39 n ys pas; ete truve. 

Or ka 39 na fys pa truve. 
Or ka 39 n s pas; ete truve. 



avwair refleji " n<? paz avwair refleSi \ 

11 avwair pa refleSi J 

refleSisa(t) ii^^ refleSisa pa(z) 

sja refleji ii sja pci refleji 


55 refleSi(z) 50 119 refleji pa(z)^ 

ty reflejifz) ty \\d refleji pa(z) 

i refleSi(t), el refleSi(t) i wd refleji pa(z) \ 

iiu refleSiso(z) ^ n9 refleSi pa(z) j 

vu refleSise(z) nu m refleSiso pa(z] 

i refleSis(t), si refleSis(t) vu m reflejise pa(z) 

i Y\j reflejis pa(z) 
sZ n^ reflejis pa(z) 


refleji ty 

i\9 refleSi ty pa 

reflejit i/ \ 
reflejit si / 

\\d refleSit i pa(z) \ 

lid refiejit el pa(z) j 

reflejiso nu(z) 

n9 reflejiso nu pa(z) 

refleSise vu(z) 

Y\d reflejise vu pa(z) 

reflejist \l{z) \ 

Y\d refleSist i pa(z) \ 
119 reflejist si pa(z) / 

reflejist sl(z) j 

ssko 59 refleSi(z) 

sska 50 113 refleSi pa(z)^ 

sska ty refleSi(z)^ 

ssko ty \\d refleji pa(z)^ 

ssk i refleSi(t) \ 

ssk i Wd refleSi pa(z) \ 

ssk si refleSi(t) j 

ssk eZ \\9 refleji pa(z) j 

ssk^ nu refleSiso(z) 

ssk^ nu Wd reflejiso pa(z) 

ssk9 vu refleSise(z) 

ssk^ vu Wd reflejise pa(z) 

ssk i refleSis(t) \ 

ssk i W9 refleSis pa(z) \ 

ssk si refleSis(t) j 

esk eZ n^ refle^is pa(z) J 

Or 39 na refleSi pa(z). ^ Or es ty refleSi(z). 

Or ssko 59 no refleSi pa(z). ^ Or ss ty W9 refleSi pa(z). 




3^ refleSissCz) 

ty refleSise(z) 

i refleSiss(t), si refieJiseCt) 

nil refleSisjo(z) 

vii refleSisje(z) 

i refleSiss(t), el refleSiss(t) 

50 119 refleSise pa(z)^ 
ty 119 refleSiss pa(z) 
i 119 reflejiss pa(z) \ 
el 119 refleSise pa(z) j 
iiu 119 reflejisjo pa(z) 
vii 119 refiejisje pa(z) 
i 119 refleSiss pa(z) \ 
sZ 119 reflejiss pa(z) j 

reflejise 3 
reflejise ty 
refleSiset il \ 
refiejisst si j 
refiejisjo iiu(z) 
refiejisje vu(z) 
refleSisst i/(z) 
reflejisst sZ(z) 

119 refleSise 3 pa(z) 
119 refiejiss ty pa(z) 
119 reflejisst i pa(z) 
119 refleSisst si pa{z) 
119 reflejisjo nu pa(z) 
119 refleSisje vu pa(z) 
119 reflejisst i pa(z) 
119 reflejisst si pa(z) 

ssko 39 refieSiss(z) 
sska ty refleSiss(z)^ 
ssk i refleSiss(t) \ 
ssk si refleSiss(t) j 
ssk9 nu refleSisjo(z) 
ssk9 vu refleSisje(z) 
ssk i refieSiss(t) \ 
ssk si refleSiss(t) J 

sska 30 n9 reflejiss pa(z)'^ 
sska ty 119 reflejiss pa(z)^ 
ssk i 119 reflejiss pa(z) \ 
ssk el 119 reflejiss pa(z) / 
ssk9 nu 119 reflejisjo pa(z) 
ssk9 vu 119 reflejisje pa(z) 
ssk i 119 reflejiss pa(z) \ 
ssk el n9 reflejiss pa(z) / 


39 refleSi(z) 

ty refleSi(z) 

i refleSi(t), si reflejilt) 

nu refleSi:ni(z) 

vu refleSi:t(z) 

i refleSi:r(t), si refleSi:r(t) 

39 119 refleji pa(z)" 

ty 119 retteji pa(z) [pci(z) 

i 119 refieji pa(z), el 119 refleji 

nu n9 reflejiim pa(z) 

vu 119 reflejiit pa(z) 

i 119 reflejiir pa(z) \ 

el 119 reflejiir pa(z) j 

Or 39 na reflejiss p(:i(z). 

Or sska 39 118 refleSiss pa(z). 

Or 39 118 refleji pa(z). 

Or ss ty refleSiss(z). 

Or ss ty 119 reflejiss pa(z). 


refleji ty n9 refleSi ty pa(z) 

reflejit iZ \ n? refleSit i pa(z) \ 

refleSit si J nd reflejit si pa(z) J 

refleSiim nu(z) ^ n9 refleSiim nu pa(z)^ 

reflejiit vu(z)^ 113 reflejiit tu pa(z)^ 

reflejiirt i/(z) \ 119 reflejiirt i pa(z) \ 

reflejiirt sl(z) j ns reflejiirt si pa(z) J 

sska 33 refleSi(z) sska 50 113 refleji pa(z) ^ 

sska ty refleSi(z)^ sska ty 119 refleji pa(z)* 

ssk i refleSi(t) \ ssk i n? refleSi pa(z) \ 

ssk si refleSi(t) j ssk si iw refleSi pa(z) J 

ssk? nu refleSi:m(z) ssk? nu n? refleSiim pa(z) 

ssk? vu refleSi:t(z) ssk? vu n? refleSi:t pa(z) 

ssk i refleSi:r(t) \ ssk i n? reflejiir pa(z) \ 

ssk si refleSi:r(t) j ssk el n? refleSiir pa(z) j 


3? reflejire 39 n? refleSire pa(z) ^ 

ty refleSira(z) * ty 11? reflejira pa(z) 

i reflejira, si reflejira i n? reflejira pa(z) \ 

nu refleSiro(z) s^ n? reflejira pa(z) j 

vu refleSire(z) nu n? reflejiro pa(z) 

i refleSiro(t) \ vu n? refleSire pa(z) 

si refleSiro(t) j i n? reflejiro pa(z) \ 

si n? reflejiro pa(z) j 

refleSirs 3 n? reflejirs 3 pa(z) 

reflejira ty n? reflejira ty pa(z) 

reflejirat il \ n? refleSirat i pa(z) \ 

reflejirat si j n? reflejirat si pa(z) j 

refleSiro nu(z) n? refleSiro nu pa(z) 

reflejire vu(z) n? reflejire vu pa(z) 

refleSirot iZ(z) \ n? reflejirot i pa(z) \ 

reflejirot sl(z) j n? reflejirot si pa(z) j 

t For the Future in the Past, see Conditional (Present). 

^ Or ss ty refleSi(z). 
Or sska 3? na refleSi pa(z). ^ Or ss ty n? refleji pa(z). 

Or 3? na reflejire pa(z). 



eskg 3^ reflejire 
sska ty refleSira(z)^ 
£sk i reflejira \ 
ssk el reflejira / 
ssk9 nu refleSir6(z) 
esk? vu refleSire(z) 
esk i refleSiro(t) \ 
esk el refleSiro(t) j 

eska 58 119 reflejire pa(z)^ 
eska ty 119 reflejira pa(z)^ 
esk i lid reflejira pa(z) \ 
esk si 113 refleSira pa(z) j 
esk^ nu 113 reflejiro pa(z) 
esk9 vu n<? reflejire pa(z) 
esk i na reflejiro pa(z) \ 
esk si nd reflejiro pa(z) / 


3 e refleji 

ty a refleji^ 

il a refleji, el a refleji 

nuz avo refleSi 

vuz ave refleji 

iz o refleji, elz o refleSi 

5c? n e pa refleji 

ty n a pa refleji 

i 11 a pa refleji, si n a pa refleji 

nu n avo. pa refleji 

vu n ave pa refleji 

i 11 o pa refleji, si 11 o pa refleji 

e 5 refleji 
a ty refleji 
at i refleji \ 
at el refleji / 
avo nu refleji 
ave vu refleSi 
ot i refleji \ 
ot el refleji / 

11 e 5 pa refleji 
11 a ty pa refleji 
n at i pa refleji \ 
11 at el pa refleji J 
11 avo nu pa refleji 
n ave vu pa refleji 
n ot i pa refleSi \ 
n ot el pa refleji J 

eska 5 e refleSi 
eska ty a refleji^ 
esk il a refleji \ 
esk el a refleji / 
esk^ nuz avo refleSi 
esk^ vuz ave refleji 
esk iz 6 refieji \ 
esk elz o refleji / 

eska 7^d 11 e pa refleji 
eska ty n a pa refleji^ 
esk i 11 a pa refleji 
esk e/ n a pa refleSi 
esk? nu 11 avo pa refleji 
esk^? vu n ave pa refleji 
esk i 11 o pa refleji 
esk si n 6 pa refleji 

Or es ty refleSira(z). 

Or es ty x\d refleSira pa(z). 

Or es tq a refleji. 

Or eska 59 11a reflejire pa(z). 

Or tq a refleji. 

Or es ty 11 a pa refleji. 


Past Perfect or Pluperfect. 

3 ave refleji 39 11 ave pa refieji 

ty ave refleji^ ty 11 avs pa refleSi 

il ave refleji, el ave refieji i n ave pa refleSi 1 

nuz avjo refleji £/ n ave pa refleji J 

vuz avje refleji nu 11 avjo pa refleji 

iz ave refieji, elz ave refleji vu n avje pa refleji 

i n ave pa refleji \^ 
si n ave pa refleji j 

ave 3 refleji n ave 3 pa refleSi 

ave ty refleji 11 ave ty pa refleji 

avet i refleji \ n avet i pa refieji \ 

avet el refleji J 11 avet el pa refleji J 

avjo nu refleji n avjo 1111 pa refleSi 

avje vu refleji n avje vu pa refleji 

avet i refleji \ n avet i pa refleji \ 

avet el refleji j n avet el pa refleji J 

eska 3 ave refleji * eska 3.? n ave pa refieji 

eska ty ave refieji ^ eska ty n ave pa refleji '^ 

esk il ave refleSi \ ssk i n ave pa refleji 1 

esk el ave refleji j esk d n ave pa refleji / 

eskc> nuz avjo refleji esk^ nu n avjo pa refleSi 

6sk9 vuz avje refleSi esk.> vu n avje pa refleSi 

esk iz ave refleSi \ esk i n ave pa refleSi 1 

esk elz a^se refleSi ) esk si n ave pa refleSi / 

Second Past Perfect. 

3 y refleSi 5^ n y pa refleSi 

ty y refleSi ty n y pa refleSi 

il y refleSi, el y refleSi i n y pa refleSi, e/ n y pa refleSi 

nuz y:m refleSi nu n y:m pa refleSi 

vuz y:t refleSi vu n y:t pa refleSi [refleSi 

iz y:r refleSi, elz yir refleSi i n y:r pa refleSi, el n y:r pa 

Or tq ave refleSi. '^ Or es ti{ ave refleSi. 

Or es ty n ave pa refleSi. 

VERBS 135 

y 5 refleSi n y 3 pa refleji 

y ty refleji n y ty pa refleji 

yt i refleji \ n yt i pa refleji \ 

yt el refleji j n yt el pa refleji j 

y:m nu refleji ^ n y:m nu pa refleji ^ 

y:t vu refleji n y:t vu pa refleji 

y:rt i refleji \ n yirt i pa refleji \ 

yirt el refleji J n yirt el pa refleji / 

eska 5 y refleji esko 39 n y pa refleji 

eska ty y refleji ^ eska ty n y pa refleji^ 

esk il y refleji \ esk i n y pa refleSi \ 

esk el y refleji j esk e/ n y pa refleSi j 

esk9 nuz y:m refleji esk* nu n y:m pa refleji 

esk? vuz y:t refleji esk? vu n yit pa refleji 

esk iz yir refleji \ esk i n yir pa refleji \ 

esk slz y:r refleji j esk sZ n y:r pa refleji j 

Future Perfect, t 

3 ore refleji^ 

39 n ore pa refleji^ 

ty ora refleSi' 

ty n ora pa refieji [refleji 

il ora refleji, el ora refleji 

i n ora pa refleji, d n ora pa 

nuz oro refleji 

nu n oro pa refleji 

vuz ore refleSi 

vu n ore pa refleji [refleji 

iz oro refleji, slz oro refieji 

i n oro pa refleji, d n oro pa 

ore 3 refleji ^ 

n ore 3 pg refleji^ 

ora ty refleji 

n ora ty pa refleji 

orat i refleji \ 
orat el refleji / 

n orat i pa refleji \ 
n orat el pa refleji / 

oro nu refleji 

n oro nu pa refleji 

ore vu refleji 

n ore vu pa refleji 

orot i refleji \ 

n orot i pa refleji \ 

orot el refleSi J 

n orot el pa refleji j 

t For the Future Perfect in the Past, see Conditional (Past). 

^ Unusual. (Cf. p. 98, n. 3.) 

Or es ty y refleSi. 

Or ss ty n y pa refleji. ^ Or 3 ore refle^i, etc. 

Or tq ora refleSi. ^ Or 39 n ore pa refleji, etc. 

Or ore 3 refleSi, etc. ^ Or n ore 3 pa refleji, etc. 


eska 5^ n ore pa refleji 

£ska 3 ore refleji 
£sk8 ty ora refleji ^ 
ask il ora refleSi V 
6sk si ora refleji j 
8sk9 nuz oro refleji 
sskd vuz ore refleSi 
8sk iz oro refleji \ 
£sk elz oro refleji / 

ssko ty n ora pa refleji^ 
esk i n ora pa refleSi \ 
esk sZ 11 ora pa refleSi J 
ssk^ nu n oro pa refleSi 
ssk^ vu n ore pa refleji 
ssk i n oro pa refleSi \ 
ssk si n oro pa refleji J 



39 refleSir8(z) 

ty refleSirs(z) 

i refleSire(t), si refleSir£(t) 

nu refleSirjo(z) 

vu refleSirje(z) 

i refleSirs(t), si refleSirs(t) 

reflejirs 3 
reflejirs ty 
reflejirst il \ 
reflejirst si / 
reflejirjo nu(z) 
reflejirje vu(z) 
reflejirst iZ(z) \ 
reflejirst sl(z) / 

£sk9 39 refleSirs(z) 
sska ty refleSirs(z) * 
ssk i refleSirs(t) \ 
ssk si refleSirs(t) / 
ssk^ nu refleSirjo(z) 
ssk9 vu refleSirje(z) 
ssk i refleSirs(t) \ 
ssk si refleSirs(t) / 

30 119 reflejirs pa(z) ^ 
ty 119 reflejirs pa(z) 
i 119 reflejirs pa(z) \ 
si 119 reflejirs pa(z) j 
nu 119 reflejirjo pa(z) 
vu n^ reflejirje pa(z) 
i 119 reflejirs pa(z) \ 
si 119 reflejirs pa(z) J 

119 reflejirs 3 pa(z) 
119 reflejirs ty pa(z) 
119 reflejirst i pa(z) \ 
119 reflejirst si pa(z) j 
119 reflejirjo nu pa(z) 
119 reflejirje vu pa(z) 
119 reflejirst i pa(z) \ 
119 reflejirst si pa(z) j 

sska 39 n^ reflejirs pa(z)*' 
£sk9 ty 119 refleSirs pa(z)^ 
ssk i 119 reflejirs pa(z) \ 
ssk si 119 reflejirs pa(z) J 
ssk^ nu 119 reflejirjo pa(z) 
ssk^ vu 119 reflejirje pa(z) 
ssk i 119 reflejirs pa(z) 1 
ssk si 119 reflejirs pa(z) j 

Or ss tq ora refleSi. 
* Or 39 ne reflejirs pa(z). 
Or ssko 39 na reflejirs pa(z). 

Or ss ty n ora pa refleji. 

Or ss ty refleSirs(z). 

Or ss ty 119 reflejirs pa(z). 

VEKBS 187 


5 ors refleji^ ' 3^ n ore pa refleji'' 

ty ors refleji ^ ty 11 ors pa refleji 

il ors refleji, si ors refleji i n ors pa refleji \ 

nuz orjo refleji si n ors pa refleji j 

vuz orje refleji nu n orjo pa refleji 

iz ors refleji, slz ors refleji vu n orje pa refleji 

i 11 ors pa refleji \ 
si n ors pa refleji j 

ors 3 refleSi * n ors 3 pa refleSi ^ 

ors ty refleji n ors ty pa refleji 

orst i refleji \ n orst i pa refleji \ 

orst si refleji j n orst si pa refleji / 

orjo nu refleji n orjo nu pa refleji 

orje vu refleji n orje vu pa refleji 

orst i refleji 1 n orst i pa refleji \ 

orst si refleji / n orst si pa refleji / 

sskd 3 ors refleji ssko 3^ n ors pa refleji 

sska ty ors refleji ° sska ty n ors pa refleji ^ 

ssk il ors refleji 1 ssk i n ors pa refleji \ 

ssk si ors refleji / ssk si n ors pa refleji / 

ssk? nuz orjo refleji ssk? nu n orjo pa refleSi 

ssk? vuz orje refleji ssk? vu n orje pa refleji 

ssk iz ors refleji \ ssk i n ors pa refleji \ 

ssk slz ors refleji / • ssk si n ors pa refleji j 


refleSi(z) n? refleji pa(z) 

refleSiso(z) n? reflejiso pa(z) 

refleSise(z) n? reflejise pa(z) 

Or 3 ors refleji, etc. ^ Or tq ors refleji. 

Or 3? n ors pa refleji, etc. ^ Or ors 3 refle^i, etc. 

Or n ors 3 pa refleji, etc. ^ Or ss tq ors refleji. 
Or ss ty n ors pa refleji. 





kd 39 reflejis ^ 

k? ty refleSis(z) 

k i reflejis, k el reflejis 

k9 nu refleSisjo(z) 

k^ vii refleSisje(z) 

k i refleSis(t), k si refleSis(t) 

k^ 50 n^ reflejis pa(z) ^ 
ha ty nd reflejis pa(z) 
k i 113 reflejis pa(z) \ 
k si 119 refleSis pa(z) j 
kr> nu 113 refleSisjo pa(z) 
k3 vu 113 reflejisje pa(z) 
k i n9 reflejis pa(z) \ 
k sZ n3 refleSis pa(z) J 


k3 50 reflejis ^ 

k3 ty refleSis(z) 

k i refleSi(t), k si refieSi(t) 

k3 nu refleSisjo(z) 

k3 vu refleSisje(z) 

k i refleSis(t), k si refleSis(t) 

k3 59 n3 reflejis pa(z) * 
k3 ty 113 reflejis pa(z) 
k i n3 refieji pa(z) \ 
k sZ n3 refleji pa(z) J 
k3 nu 113 reflejisjo pa(z) 
k3 vu 113 reflejisje pa(z) 
k i 113 reflejis pa(z) \ 
k el n3 reflejis pa(z) J 


k3 3 s refleji 

k3 ty s refleji ^ 

k il s refleSi, k si s refleji 

k3 nuz sjo refleji 

k3 vuz sje refleSi 

k iz s refleji, k slz s refleSi 

k3 30 n s pa refieSi ^ 
k3 ty 11 s pa refleSi 
k i n s pa refieji \ 
k sZ n s pa refleSi J 
k3 nu 11 sjo pa refleSi 
k3 vu n sje pa refleji 
k i n s pa refleji \ 
k sZ 11 s pa refleji J 

Or ko 33 reflejis. 
Or ko 33 refleSis. 
Or k3 ti[ s refleSi. 


^ Or k9 33 119 refleSis pa(.-,. 
" Or k9 33 n9 refleSis pa(z). 
^ Or k9 33 n s pa refleSi. 



k9 3 ys refleji 

k^ ty ys refleji 

k il y refleji, k el y i 

k.> nuz ysju refleji 

k9 vuz ysje refleji 

k iz ys refleji, k slz ys 


k? 39 n ys pa refleji 
k9 ty n ys pa refleji 
•efleSi k i n y pa refleSi \ 

k s/ n y pa refleSi J 
k9 nu n ysjo pa refleji 
refleji k^ vu n ysje pa refleSi 

k i n ys pa refleji • \ 
k 8/ n ys pa refleji j 

{d) s.> mstr. 



s^ mstr 

n^ pa s^ mstr \ 
n^ sa mstr? pa(z)^ j 


s 8:tr<? mi(z) 

no pa s s:tr3 mi(z) \ 
n9 s s:tr3 pa mi(z) J 



s^ mstd(t) 

n? S8 msta pa(z) '^ 


s eta mi(z) 

n? s eta pa mi(z) 



7,,} m9 ms(z)^ 

ty t9 ms(z) 

i S5 m8(t), si Sc? ms(t) 

nu nu msto(z) 

vu vu m8te(z) 

i S.7 m8t(t) 

si s^ mst(t) 

30 n? ma ms pa(z) ^ 

ty n? tf7 ms pa(z) 

i 119 S9 ms pa, sZ iw S9 ms pa(z) 

nu 119 nu msto pa(z) 

vu 119 vu mete pa(z) 

i 119 89 mst pa(z) \ 

s/ n9 S9 mst pa(z) / 

Or ka 33 n ys pa refleji. 
Or na 89 msta pa(z) 
Or 39 na m9 ms pa(z). 

Or na S3 mstr? pa(z). 
Or 53 m? ms(z). 



t9 ms ty 
S9 mst iZ 
S9 mst si 
nu.msto mi 
vu mste vu 
S9 mstt il{z) 
S9 mstt sl(z) 

6sk» 39 mo ms(z) 
sska ty t9 ms(z) ^ 
ssk i S9 ms(t) \ 
ssk si S9 ms(t) / 
ssk? nu nil msto(z) 
ssk? vu vu mste(z) 
ssk i S9 mst(t) \ 
ssk si S9 mst(t) j 

n9 to ms ty pa(z)^ 
i\9 so mst i pa(z) \ 
119 so mst si pa(z) j 
no nu msto nu pa(z) 
119 vu mste vu pa(z) 
119 so mstt i pa(z) \ 
119 so mstt si pa(z) j 

ssko 30 119 mo ms pa(z) 
ssko ty iw t? ms pa(z) "^ 
ssk i 119 S9 ms pa(z) \ 
ssk si 119 S9 ms pa(z) j 
ssk? nu n? nu msto pa(z) 
ssk? vu n? vu mste pa(z) 
ssk i n? s? mst pa(z) \ 
ssk el 119 s? mst pa(z) j 


3? mo msts(z) ^ 

ty t? msts(z) 

i s? msts(t), si s? msts(t) 

nu nu mstjo(z) 

vu vu mstje(z) 

i s? msts(t), si s? msts(t) 

30 n? mo msts pa(z) ^ 
ty n? t? msts pa(z) 
i n? s? msts pa(z) \ 
si 119 s? msts pa(z) j 
nu n? nu mstjo pa(z) 
vu n? vu mstje pa(z) 
i 119 s? msts pa(z) \ 
si 119 s? msts pa(z) J 

m? msts 3 
t? msts ty 
s? mstst U \ 
s? mstst si / 
nu mstjo nu(z) 
vu mstje vu(z) 
s? mstst i/(z) 
s? mstst sl(z) 

n? mo msts 3 pa(z) ^ 
n? to msts ty pa(z) 
n? so mstst i pa(z) \ 
n? so mstst si pa(z) J 
no nu mstjo nu pa(z) 
n? vu mstje vu pa(z) 
n? so mstst i pa(z) 1 
n? so mstst si pa(z) j 

Or no t? ms ty pa(z), no s? mst i pa(z), etc. 
^ Or ss ty t? ms. ^ Or ss ty n? t? ms pa(z). 

" Or 30 m? msts(z). "^ Or 3? no m? msts pa(z). 

^ Or no m? msts 3 pa(z), no t? msts ty pa(z), etc. 



eska 33 mo mete(z) 
sska ty t^ m6te(z) ^ 
esk i s<? mste(t) \ 
ssk si S(^ msts(t) J 
ssk? nu nu mstjo(z) 
ssk9 vii vu mstje(z) 
ssk i s^ msts(t) \ 
ssk si s^ msts(t) j 

sskg 39 119 m9 msts pa(z) 
sska ty 119 U msts pa(z) ^ 
ssk i n9 S9 msts pa(z) ) 
esk el 119 S9 msts pa(z) / 
ssk9 nu n9 nu mstjo pa(z) 
ssk9 vu n9 vu mstje pa(z) 
ssk i n9 S9 msts pa(z) \ 
ssk sZ n9 sd msts pa(z) / 


39 ma mi(z) ' 

ty t9 mi(z) 

i S9 mi(t), si S9 mi(t) 

nu nu miim(z) 

39 n9 ma mi pa(z) * 
ty n9 t9 mi pa(z) 
i n9 S9 mi pa(z) \ 
si nd S9 mi pa(z) j 

vu vu mi:t(z) 

nu n9 nu mi:m pa(z) 

i S9 mi:r(t), si S9 mi:r(t) 

vu n9 vu milt pa(z) 
i n9 S9 mi:r pa(z) \ 
si nd Sd mi:r pa(z) / 

m9 mi 3 

t9 mi ty 

S9 mit i/ 
S9 mit si 


nu mi:m nu(z) 


vu mi:t ^ 


S9 miirt 
S9 miirt 



sska 39 ma mi(z) 
sska ty t9 mi(z) ^ 
ssk i S9 mi(t) \ 
ssk si S9 mi(t) j 
ssk9 nu nu miim(z) 
ssk9 vu vu miit(z) 
ssk i S9 miir(t) \ 
ssk si S9 miir(t) J 

n9 ma mi 3 pa(z) ^ 
n9 ta mi ty pa(z) 
n9 sa mit i pa(z) \ 
n9 sa mit si pa(z) / 
na nu miim nu pa(z) ^ 
n9 vu milt vu pa(z)^ 
n9 sa miirt i pa(z) 1 
nd sa miirt si pa(z) / 

sska 3a n9 ma mi pa(z) 
sska ty n9 t9 mi pa(z) ^ 
ssk i n9 S9 mi pa(z) ) 
ssk el n9 S9 mi pa(z) j 
ssk9 nu n9 nu miim pa(z) 
ssk9 vu n9 vu milt pa(z) 
esk i n9 S9 miir pa(z) 1 
ssk si n? S9 miir pa(z) J 

Or ss ty t9 msts(z). ^ Or ss ty n9 t9 msts pa(z). 

Or 3a m9 mi(z). ^ Or 39 na m9 mi pa(z). 

Unusual. ^ Or na m9 mi 3 pa(z), na t9 mi ty pa(z), etc. 

Or ss ty t9 mi(z). Or ss ty n9 t9 mi pa(z). 




3^ m9 metre ^ 

ty t<? mstra 

i S9 metra, si s<^ mstra 

nu nu mstro(z) 

vu vu mstre(z) 

i sj m6tro(t), si s^ mstro(t) 

m9 mstrs 3 
U mstra ty 
s.> mstrat iZ \ 
sj mstrat si j 
nu mstro nu(z) 
vu mstre vu(z) 
s<} mstrot i/(z) \ 
Sc> mstrot sl(z) j 

sska ^'J md mstre 
sska ty id mstra(z) * 
ssk i s^ mstra \ 
ssk si s^ mstra j 
ssk'> nu uu mstro (z) 
ssk<> vu vu mstre (z) 
ssk i s^ mstro(t) 1 
ssk si S9 mstro (t) / 

59 \\9 ma mstre pa(z) ^ 
ty Wc) t<) mstra pa(z) 
i n9 BJ mstra pa(z) 1 
si U9 S9 mstra pa(z) j 
nu n^ nu mstro pa(z) 
vu n^ vu mstre pa(z) 
i \h) Sc) mstro pa(z) \ 
si n<? Sr) mstro pa(z) j 

n^ mo mstrs 3 pa(z) ** 
\h) to mstra ty pa(z) 
nj S8 mstrat i pa(z) 
119 so mstrat si pa(z) 
na nu mstro nu pa(z) 
n9 vu mstre vu pa(z) 
n^ S9 mstrot i pa(z 
ih) sa mstrot si pa(z) 

) 1 

sska 30 n^ ma mstre pa(z) 
sska ty ud td mstra pa(z) " 
ssk i \\d S6> mstra pa(z) \ 
ssk si n<^ s^ mstra pa(z) j 
ssk.> nu \\d nu mstro pa(z) 
sskc> vu n^ vu mstre. pa (z) 
ssk i \\9 s^ mstro pa(z) ) 
ssk si W9 Se> mstro pa(z) j 


3,> ma sqi mi(z) ^ 

ty t s mi(z) 

i s s mi(z), si s s miiz 

nu nu som mi(z) 

vu vuz sit mi(z) 

i ^9 so mi(z), si sa so mi:z 

3a \\9 ma si{i pa mi(z) ^ 
ty \\9 t s pa mi(z) 
i n^ s s pa mi(z) \ 
si \\9 s s pa miiz j 
nu \\9 nu som pa mi(z) 
vu n^ vuz sit pa mi(z) 
i n^ sa so pa mi(z) \ 
sZ \\9 sa so pa miiz J 

t For Future in the Past, see Conditional (Present). 
^ Or 3a m^ mstre. "" Or 3,^ na m9 mstre pa(z). 

'^ Or na mf> mstrs 3 pa(z), etc. ^ Or ss ty td mstra(z). 

'' Or ss ty \\9 t9 mstra pa(z). ^ Or 3a m^ sqi mi(z). 

^ Or 3^ na m^* sqi pa mi(z). 



m^ sqi 3 mi(z) 
t 6 ty ini(z) 
s et i mi(z) \ 
s et el mi:z J 
nil som nil mi(z) 
A'liz e:t vii mi(z) 
sa sot i mi(z) \ 
S9 sot el miiz / 

lYj m9 sqi 3 pa mi(z) ^ 
n^ t e ty pa mi(z) 
nj s et i pa mi(z) \ 
119 s et el pa miiz j 
na nil som nu pa mi(z) 
n^ viiz e:t vu pa mi(z) 
11^ S9 sot i pa mi(z) ^ \ 
nj S9 sot el pa miiz ^ j 

eska 5^ ma sqi mi(z) 
eska ty t 6 miCz)'"* 
esk i s e mi(z) \ 
esk el s e miiz / 
eskc? nil nil som mi(z) 
esk^ vu vuz eit mi(z) 
esk i s,) so mi(z) \ 
esk el so so miiz j 

esko 30 119 mo sqi pa mi(z) 
eska ty n;? t e pa mi(z) * 
esk i n^ s 6 pa mi(z) 1 
esk el U9 s e pa miiz / 
eske? nil n<? nu som pa mi(z) 
eskr^ vu n^ vuz eit pa mi(z) 
esk i \w so so pa mi(z) ) 
esk si Ur} so so pa miiz / 

5,? m ete mi(z) 
ty t ete mi(z) 
i s ete mi(z) 1 
el s ete miiz / 
nu niiz etjo mi(z) 
vu vuz etje mi(z) 
i s ete mi(z) \ 
el s ete miiz j 

Past Perfect or Pluperfect. 

30 n.> m ete pa mi(z) " 
ty nj t ete pa mi(z) 
i nd s ete pa mi(z) \ 
e/ n^ s ete pa miiz / 
nu n^ nuz etjo pa mi(z) 
vu n^ vuz etje pa mi(z) 
i n^ s ete pa mi(z) \ 
el nj s ete pa miiz / 

m ete 3 mi(z) 
t ete ty mi(z) 
s etet i mi(z) 1 
s etet el miiz / 
nuz etjo nil mi(z) 
vuz etje vu mi(z) 
s etet i mi(z) \ 
s etet el miiz j 

\hj m ete 3 pa mi(z) 
n.^ t ete ty pa mi(z) 
n^ s etet i pa mi(z) \ 
Uc) s etet el pa miiz / 
no nuz etjo nu pa mi(z) 
nj vuz etje vu pa mi(z) 
119 s etet i pa mi(z) \ 
iL> s etet el pa miiz j 

Or no nv) sqi pa mi(z). 

Or es ty t e mi(z). 

Or 3^ no m ete pa mi(z). 

Or no S9 sot i pa mi(z), etc. 
Or es ty n^ t e pa mi(z). 



8ska 39 m ets mi(z) 
eska ty t ets mi(z) * 
ssk i s ets ini(z) \ 
ssk si s ets miiz j 
ssk9 nu niiz etjo mi(z) 
ssk? vu vuz etje ini(z) 
ssk i s ets mi(z) \ 
ssk si s ets mi:z j 

sska 39 n9 m ets pa mi(z) 
sska ty n? t ets pa ini(z) ^ 
ssk i n9 s ets pa mi(z) \ 
ssk sZ 119 s ets pa miiz j 
ssk? nil 119 iiiiz etjo pa ini(z) 
ssk9 vu 119 vuz etje pa mi(z) 
ssk i 119 s ets pa ini(z) \ 
ssk d n9 s ets pa mi:z j 

Second Past Perfect. 

39 ma fy mi(z) ^ 
ty t9 fy mi(z) 
i S9 fy mi(z) \ 
si S9 fy miiz j 
nu nu fy:m mi(z) 
vu vu fyit mi(z) 
i S9 fyir mi(z) \ 
si S9 fyrr miiz J 

38 n9 ma fy pa nii{z) * 
ty n? t9 fy pa mi(z) 
i n9 S9 fy pa mi(z) \ 
s/ n9 S9 fy pa miiz / 
nu n9 nu fyim pa mi(z) 
vu n9 vu fyit pa mi(z) 
i n9 S9 fyir pa mi(z) \ 
sZ n9 S9 fyir pa miiz j 

39 ma S9re mi(z) ^ 
ty t9 S9ra mi(z) 
i S9 S9ra mi(z) \ 
si sa S9ra miiz j 
nu nil s9ro mi(z) 
vu vu S9re mi(z) 
i S9 S9ro mi(z) \ 
si sa S9r6 miiz J 

m9 S9rs 3 mi(z) 
t9 S9ra ty mi(z) 
sa S9rat i mi(z) \ 
sa S9rat si miiz ' J 
nu s9ro nil mi(z) 
vu S9re vu mi(z) 
sa s9rot i mi(z) ) 
sa s9rot si miiz j 

Future Perfect. 

3a n9 ma S9re pa mi(z) ^ 
ty n9 t9 S9ra pa mi(z) 
i n9 sa S9ra pa mi(z) \ 
sZ n9 sa S9ra pa miiz j 
nu 119 nu s9ro pa mi(z) 
vu n9 A u S9re pa mi(z) 
i n9 sa s9ro pa mi(z) \ 
s/ n9 sa s9ro pa miiz / 

n9 ma S9rs 3 pa mi(z) ^ 
n9 ta S9ra ty pa mi(z) 
n9 sa S9rat i pa mi(z) \ 
n9 sa S9rat si pa miiz j 
na nil S9ro nu pa mi(z) 
n9 vu S9re vu pa mi(z) 
n9 sa s9rot i pa mi(z) \ 
n9 sa s9rot si pa miiz j 

^ Or ss ty t ets mi(z). ^ Or ss ty n9 t ets pa mi(z). 

■^ Or 3a m9 fy mi(z). ^ Or 39 na m9 fy pa nii(z). 

^ Or 3a m9 S9re mi(z). ^ Or 39 na m9 S9re pa mi(z). 

"' Or na m9 S9rs 3 pa mi(z), na t9 S9ra ty pa nii(z), etc. 



eska 33 m9 s.?re mi(z) 
8sk9 ty t9 s^ra ini(z) 
8sk i S9 S3ra mi(z) \ 
ssk si sa S6>ra miiz J 
ssk9 nu nu s^ro ini(z) 
ssk9 vu vu S9re mi(z) 
8sk i S9 S9t6 ini(z) \ 
ssk si sa s^ro mi:z j 

ssko 59 119 ma s^re pa mi(z) 
ssk^ ty 119 t9 S9ra pa mi(z) 
ssk i 119 sa S9ra pa ini(z) \ 
ssk si 119 sa S9ra pa mi:z / 
ssk9 nu 119 nu S9r6 pa ini(z) 
ssk9 vu n9 vu S9re pa mi(z) 
ssk i 119 sa s9ro pa mi(z) \ 
ssk si 119 sa s9ro pa mi:z j 



59 ma mstrs(z) '' 

ty t9 mstrs(z) 

i S9 mstrs(t), si S9 mstrs(t) 

nu nu mstrjo(z) 

vu vu mstrje(z) 

i S9 mstrs(t), si S9 mstrs(t) 

m9 mstrs 5 
t9 mstrs ty 
S9 mstrst i/ \ 
S9 mstrst si J 
nu mstrjo nu(z) 
vu mstrje vu(z) 
S9 mstrst iliz) ) 
S9 mstrst sl(z) / 

sska 39 ma mstrs (z) 
sska ty t9 mstrs(z) ^ 
ssk i S9 mstrs(t) \ 
ssk si S9 mstrs (t) j 
ssk9 nu nu mstrjo(z) 
ssk9 vu vu mstrje (z) 
ssk i S9 mstrs (t) \ 
ssk si S9 mstrs(t) J 

3a n9 ma mstrs pa(z) * 
ty 119 t9 mstrs pa(z) 
i n9 S9 mstrs pa(z) \ 
s/ n9 S9 mstrs pa(z) / 
nu n9 nu mstrjo pa(z) 
vu 119 vu mstrje pa(z) 
i n9 S9 mstrs pa(z) \ 
el n9 S9 mstrs pa(z) / 

n9 ma mstrs 3 pa(z) ^ 
119 ta mstrs ty pa(z)^ 
n9 sa mstrst i pa(z) \ 
n9 sa mstrst si pa(z) j 
na nu mstrjo nu pa(z) 
119 vu mstrje vu pa(z) 
n9 sa mstrst i pa(z) \ 
119 sa mstrst si pa(z) j 

sska 3a 119 ma mstrs pa(z) 
sska ty n9 t9 mstrs pa(z) ^ 
ssk i 119 S9 mstrs pa(z) \ 
ssk si 119 S9 mstrs pa(z) / 
ssk9 nu n9 nu mstrjo pa(z) 
ssk9 vu n9 vu mstrje pa(z) 
ssk i 119 S9 mstrs pa(z) \ 
ssk si n,) S9 mstrs pa(z) ) 

Or ss ty t9 S9ra mi(z). 

Or 3a m9 mstrs(z). 

Or na m9 mstrs 3 pa(z). 

Or ss ty t9 mstrs(z). 

Or ss ty 119 t9 S9ra pa mi(z). 
Or 39 na m9 mstrs pa(z). 
^ Or na t9 mstrs ty pa(z). 
Or ss ty 119 t9 mstrs pa(z). 




59 mo S9rs mi(z) ^ 
ty id S9rs ini(z) 
i S3 s^re ini(z) \ 
€l S9 S9rs mi:z / 
nu nu sorjo nii(z) 
vu vu sarje mi(z) 
i S3 S9rs mi(z) \ 
€l S8 s^re mi:z / 

39 119 ma S9rs pa mi(z) 
ty 119 t9 S9rs pa mi(z) 
i 119 so S9rs pa mi(z) 
si 119 SO S9rs pa miiz 
nu 119 nu sorjo pa mi(z) 
vu 119 vu sorje pa mi(z) 
i n9 so S9rs pa mi(z) ) 
si 119 so S9r6 pa mi:z I 

m9 S9r8 3 mi(z) 
t9 S9re ty mi(z) 
so S9ret i mi(z) \ 
so S9ret el miiz / 
nu sorjo nu mi(z) 
vu sorje vu mi(z) 
so S9rst i mi{z) 1 
so S9rst si miiz / 

n9 mo S9rs 3 pa mi(z) * 
n9 to S9rs ty pa mi(z) 
n9 so S9r8t i pa mi(z) \ 
nd so S9rst si pa miiz / 
no nu sorjo nu pa mi(z) 
n9 vu serje vu pa mi(z) 
n9 so S9rst i pa mi(z) \ 
n9 so S9rst el pa miiz / 

€sko 39 mo S9rs mi(z) 
esko ty t9 S9rs mi(z) * 
esk i S9 S9rs mi(z) \ 
ssk si so S9rs miiz / 
€sk9 nu nu sorjo mi(z) 
esk9 vu vu sorje nii(z) 
esk i S9 S9re mi(z) \ 
€sk el so S9re miiz j 

ssko 30 n9 mo S9re pa mi(z) 
esko ty n9 t9 S9re pa mi(z) ^ 
esk i n9 SO syre pa mi(z) \ 
esk si 119 so S9re pa miiz j 
esk9 nu 119 nu sorjo pa mi(z) 
esk9 vu 119 vu sorje pa mi(z) 
esk i n9 so S9r6 pa mi(z) 1 
esk si n9 so S9re pa miiz j 

me twa 
meto nu(z) 
mete vu(z) 


119 to me pa(z) ^ 
no nu meto pa(z) 
n9 vu mete pa(z) 

^ Or 30 m9 S9re mi(z). ^ Or 39 no m9 S9re pa mi(z). 

"^ Or no m9 S9re 3 pa mi(z), no t9 S9re ty pa mi(z), etc. 
^ Or ss ty t9 S9re mi(z). "" Or es ty n9 t9 S9re pa mi(z) 

* Or no t9 me pa(z). 

VERBS 147 


k,^ 50 m^ met ^ k^ 5a \\j ma met pa(z) 

Vd ty td mst(z) ks ty 113 td met pa(z) 

k i Sc? mst, k si Sr> met k i 119 nd met pa(z) \ 

k9 nu nil metjo(z) k e/ n^ s^ met pa(z) / 

k«? vu vu metjeCz) k^ nu n? nu metjo pa(z) 

k i S3 mst, k el S9 met k^ vu n^ vu metje pa(z) 

k i \\d S9 met pa(z) 
k e/ n^ s.> met pa(z) 


k^ 3a m9 mis '^ k? 39 iw ma mis pa(z) ^ 

k^ ty t9 mis(z) h^ ty n^ t^ mis pa(z) 

k i S9 mi(t), k el s^ mi(t) k i n9 S9 mi pa(z) \ 

k,? nu nu misjo(z) k eZ n^ S9 mi pa(z) / 

k^ vu vu misje(z) k? nu n^ nu misjo pa(z) 

k i S9 mis(t), k el s.9 mis(t) k? vu n9 vu misje pa(z) 

k i n9 S9 mis pa(z) \ 
k si n9 S9 mis pa(z) } 


h) 59 m? swa mi(z) ^ k<? 3a \\9 ma swa pa mi(z) ^ 

k^ ty t3 swa mi(z) k^ ty n^ t9 swa pa mi(z) 

k i S9 swa mi(z) \ k i n^ sa swa pa mi(z) ) 

k el sa swa miiz J k si n9 sa swa pa mi:z / 

k^ nu nu swaju mi(z*) k^ nu n9 nu swajo pa mi(z) 

k.> vu vu swaje mi(z) k9 vu n? vu swaje pa mi(z) 

k i S9 swa mi(z) \ kin? sa swa pa mi(z) \ 

k el sa swa mi:z j k si U9 sa swa pa mi:z j 

Or ka 53 ma mst. ^ Or ka 3? na m9 met i)a(z). 

Or ka 39 ma mis. ^ Or ka 3? na m? mis pa(z). 

Or ka ^9 ma swa nn(z). *' Or ka 33 na m? swa pa mi(z) 



'kd 39 m9 fys mi(z) ^ k^ 30 119 mo fys pa mi(z) ^ 

k9 ty t9 fys mi(z) k^ ty n9 t9 fys pa mi(z) 

k i S9 fy mi(z) \ k i n? S9 fy pa mi(z) \ 

k el s^ fy mi:z j k si iw S9 fy pa miiz j 

k9 nu nu fysjo mi(z) fe> nu 119 1111 fysjo pa mi(z) 

k9 vu vu fysje ini(z) k^ vu 113 vu fysje pa ini(z) 

k i S3 fys Tni(z) \ k i 119 S9 fys pa mi(z) 1 

k si S9 fys mi:z j k e/ iw S9 fys pa mi:z / 


(a) Infinitive. 

1. li:r 8 mo paista favori. — fs:r dy ski s h ply delisj0 de 
spoir. — n9 3ams matiir e h promje dpvwazr d9 tut ekoje. 
— r9kons:tr9 sez sroeir s la kodisjo nesessir d^ tu progre. — 

sst mszo st si a vaidr'? no, mez si st a lue. — vwala de foit ki 
so^ a 119 ply fsir! — i fo Ssrje tu3u:r2; a fsir mj0. — 

yii mszo a vaidr. — ce liivr a garde avsk swe. — oe travaij a 
finirr. — de ioitz a r\9 ply fs:r. — 

sszise tut lez okazjo 6.9 parle frass e bjsto vu n orez okyn 
difikylte a h parle.— vuz ave la psrmisjo d9 vuz an ale. — 
39 vuz e done 1 ordro d9 sortiir. — vu fst suva la fozt d 
aplwaje de partisip o lj0 d den sfinitif. — prone do la ps:n 
do distsge h partisip ki st den adssktif dy serodif ki st 
de no, an agls, e vu 119 tobre ply dci 1 sroeir ds mstr de 
partisip a la plas d den sfinitif a frass. — 

39 vu krwaz; skapabl d? mdtiir. — h msitr s tu3u:r2; oer0 d? 
mstro 6.9 bon not a sez elsiv. — ^sit vu sy:r d? reysiir? — 
o m a di k? vuz etje ssrts d ejwe votr egzams. — sst s 
bon a bwair. — se frqi so bo2; a ma3e. — 

^ Or ko 39 mo fys mi(z). ^ Or ko 39 no mo fys pa mi(z). 

VERBS 149 

vu d^ve puvwair ekriir set dikte sa foit. — save vu kosyge 
"t^niir"? — Isse tobe votra krsjo !— pase vu reysirr sa 
travaij 1 — vu figure vu, vuz imasine vu arive a bje parle, 
si vu n oze samez essje? — 53 deziir sortiir. — prefeir ty 
3we u travaje ? — si pretd iw same S9 trope. — 3 sspsir 
gajie set parti. — 3a Ta9 rapel 1 avwair vy i j a ksZk? ta. — 
sme VU2; a li:r dy frass? — Jsrjesj a parle osi suva k^ 
posibl.— komases; a ekriir. — ale Jsrje vo liivr !- — V9ne 
vwair Si) ka vuz ave fs. — kure 1 avsrtiir. — on a ete h 
trave. — ava dd sortiir, note vo d^vwair pur d^ms. — n? 
vu mste pas a tabl sa vuz sitro lave le ms. 

The Infinitive may be used as a noun. As such, it may be 
used as subject, attribute, adjective- equivalent, complement of a 
noun, an adjective or a verb. It sometimes is, and sometimes is 
not, preceded by a preposition. 

2. 3<? vu fs pronose swaji0izma. — Isse lo truve sa foit I — Isse 

mwa liir. — il 1 a fs so l^^ve. — 39 1 atci v.^niir. — sate vu 
votro koeir batr^ — vwaje vu kuriir se solda? — 39 lez e 
fe^ titre.^ — 3 e fs^ dtre so m9sj0. 

Several verbs maybe followed by an Infinitive, the subject of 
which is the object of the principal verb. It is the Accusative 
and Infinitive construction which is well known to students of 
Latin. This construction is used after such verbs as fsir, Isse, 
vwair, dtdidr, sdtiir, etc. AVhen the object-subject is a noun, 
it may in most cases be placed before or after the Infinitive ; 
with fsir it must l)e placed after. 

3. 39 krwa m sitro trope. — 39 krwa bjs 1 avwair apsrsy jsir. — 

3 afirm puvwair b ratrape. — 39 mo sqi sciti pcdiir — i dsji 
rykonsitr s sitro trope. — 39 krs d9 vu fsir mal. — il a 
tu3uir poeir d9 sa fsir mal. — 39 deziir apraidro I9 frase. 

39 krwa k9 30 m9 sqi trope. — 39 krwa bjs ko 39 1 e apsrsy 
jsir. — 3 afirm ko 39 p0 I9 ratrape. — 3 e sciti ko 59 
paliss. — i dsji r9konsitr kiss trope. — 39 krs k9 30 n9 
vu fas mal. — il a tu3uir poeir k i n9 fas mal. 

After such verbs as krwair, afirme, sdtiir, dezire, swste, 
krsidr, avwair poeir, etc., when the subject of the principal 
verb is the same as the subject of the subordinate sentence, two 
constructions are possible. The construction with the Infinitive 
is the more usual. 


4. komci fsir?— koma korise set fo:t, vwala S9 kg 59 vu 
d^mdid. — il a truve a ki parle. — vuz ave da kwa travaje 
pada bJ8 dez oe:r. — mwa, fsir sa I 3a n.? pure 5ams. — pur 
ddms : apraidr^ la ko5ygszo da " S9 msitr a," repete sei 
da ' truve," ekriir la koreksjo d? la vsrsjo e r^kopje. 

The Infinitive is sometimes used instead of a verb in a 
personal mood, in interrogations addressed to oneself, in relative 
clauses with an indefinite antecedent, in exclamations, in orders, 

(b) Participle. 

1. la krs s salisart. — L; noibr? d^ vo foit s gradisa d? laso d 

bso. — i ist 03urdqi yn Jaloeir akaT)ld:t. — d9 ban laso so 
tu3u:r ply fatigait ka d? maveiz laso. — ksl so le plyz 
amyzdit d? vo bso? — truve vu se liivr^s steresd? — e 
sez istwair^; sterssdit? — se kuloeir so tro vwajdit. 

The Present Participle may be used as a qualitative 
adjective. it then denotes a lasting or permanent quality of 
the object it qualifies. It is variable in form, its feminine being 
formed by lengthening the final A^owel of the masculine (which 
is always d) and adding t, and its plural being formed ac- 
cording to the rule given on p. 21. 

2. 3 e vy oen dfd ploerd dd la ry. — n? travajd pa, vu nd reysire 

pa. — ^arivd i le truva tuis Iws. — sst elsiv sjd trije S3ra 
pyni. — la sigal sjd Jdte tu 1 etc S9 truva fair depurvy kd 
1 ivsir fy V3ny. 

Used as a verb, the Present Participle denotes an action or 
a transient state. This construction is avoided whenever possible 
in colloquial speech. It is generally replaced by an adverbial 
clause introduced by a conjunction, or by a relative adjectival 
clause : 3 e vy dd la ry obn dfd ki plcere. — pqiski? vu n9 travaje 
pa, vu n^ reysire pa. — kdt il ariva, i le truva tuis Iwe. — sst elsiv 
S9ra pyni parsk il a trije. — la sigal ki avs Jdte tu 1 ete, S9 truva 
fair depurvy kd 1 ivsir fy vmy. AVhen the Present Participle is 
used as a verb it is of invariable form. 

3. i s s kupe h dwa d tajd so krsjo. — ^s st d s sgzsrsd tu le 

3u:r k on ariiv a bjs pranose. — i s e fule h pje d patina. — 
dn ekrivd il a kuvsir sa pai5 da taS d d:kr. — s st d far3d 
k o d^vjs far39ro. — il s sarti d klakd la part. 

VERBS 151 

Preceded by the preposition a(n), the Present Participle 
is used as a real Gerund. This construction is used to explain by 
what means or in what way an action is performed or at what 
particular time it took place. The Participle is of invariable 

4. As regards the Past Participle, see pp. 89-90. 

(c) Indicative, Conditional, Imperative. 

The Indicative Mood is used whenever the relation between 
the sul ject and the predicate is giA^en as certain. 

The Conditional Mood is used whenever the same relation 
is given as depending on some condition. 

The Imperative is used to convey commands or prohibitions. 

The use of these Moods does not call for any special remark. 

(d) Subjunctive. 

1, 39 dut k i vjsn 05urdqi. — 3a nd pais pa k i pqis v^niir. — 
krwaje vu k i n9 vjen pa. — pase vu k i vjen akoir. — 39 
deziir k i vjsn. — 33 swst k i n? vjsn pa. — 39 psrms k i 
sort. — 39 v0 k9 vu sajje mj0 vo bso. — 3 ata k? vu vu 
desidje. — 3 ata k^ vu parlje ply distskti>ma. — 3 sgzi:3 
k9 vo kaje swa propr. — prd gard k? ty n? fas de taj syr 
te liivr. — 33 ma re3wi k? la bso swa fini.— -r^grste vu k^ 
set istwair swa fini. — i fo k? vo dikte swa sa fo:t. — i 
fodrs k si fys sa foit. — sa dut il s difisil k il a swat 
esi. — il st oer0 k? vuz sje kopri sa. — il st sdispasabb k? vu 
vu tonje mj0. — 

ekrive d yn manjsir ki swa lizibl. — s^ez yn skrityir k9 Jakde 
pijis li:r. — i n j a pws d9 grams :r ki swa parfst. — s^rst 1 
posibl:> d a fs:r yn ki h fy"? — 3 a dut. — n j at i vrsma 
okyn f^nsitr ki swat uvsrt % — ave vuz den akrije ki s d? 1 
a:kr 1 no, da tut la kla:s i n j an a paz oe ki an e. — 30 
n9 kons pa d elsiv ki fas mws swaji0:zma se d^vwair. — 
la mstrss n? v0 pa d^ kaje ki swa mal t^ny. — 

pur kd 39 saS ma poezi, 33 dwa la repete bjs de fwa. — i S9 
pasra ks/k^ tci avd k? vu parlje frdss kurama, a mws k^ 
vu n aljez d frd:s; ms, purvy k? vu travaje bjs, vuz 
aprddre boku sd kd vuz sjez a kite 1 dglatsir. 


All the above sentences contain a principal and a subordi- 
nate clause. The Subjunctive only occurs in the subordinate 
clauses. The verbs of the principal clauses all imply that there 
is some uncertainty as to the relations between the subjects of 
the subordinate clauses and their predicates being facts. The 
Subjunctive is used to express that uncertainty. The Subjunc- 
tive is accordingly necessary after many verbs the meanings of 
which imply some feeling of doubt or uncertainty, after relative 
pronouns introducing the idea of an intention, or a consequence, 
and after many conjunctions denoting intention, such as afs k? [k] ; 
expectation, such as sysk ask? [k] ; fear, such as dd poe:r 
k9 [k] ; concession, such as kwak? [kwak] ; supposition, such 
as si, a sypoze k? [k] ; etc. 

2. dys8 3 a muriir, 3 ire 3ysk o bu. — msim si 39 ddvsz a 
muriir 3 ire 3ysk bu. 

Notice this use of the Past Subjunctive. 

(a) Indicative. 

1. k9 fs ty ? 39 kopi S3 k i j a o tablo nwair. — ksl ta fst i? i 

pl0, kom i pl0 d^pqia; yn s^^mern. — 3 ekri Icitma parska 3 e 
mal a la ms. — dy rsst vuz ekrive tu3u:r latma. — pasjais 
e logce:r do ta fo ply k? fors ni k? ra:3. — 1 om s mortsl. 

The Present is used to speak (a) of facts (actions and states) 
which are actually present, 

(b) of facts which are con- 
sidered as being true for all times. 

2. nu f^zjo dy brqi o momci u h ms:tr et atre. — k etje vuz 

a trs d? fe:r ka 39 sqis arivel — nu repetjo no bso. — u alje 
vu ka 33 vuz e rakotre jsir? — 39 ratre Je mwa. 

u etje vu i j a qi 3uir 1 — nuz etjoz a vakais a la kapaji. — kd 
lizje vu 1 ane pase da vo bso d? frase 1 — nu lizjo h rwa 
de motaji. — rasin, tu 309: n garso, lize h grek kurama ; se 
msitra h grods suva parsk i paise ply dd ta a li:r de roma 
grsk k a fs:r S9 k o vule k i fi. — kci nuz etjo p^ti, nuz 
emjois a 3 we a tut sort do 30 ki n? nu plsrz ply. 

VERBS 153 

The Imperfect is used to speak (a) of facts which were in 
existence when another fact took place, and 

(b) of facts which were 
either lasting, or often repeated, or customary, in the past. 

3. Id pase ^9 vwajassz dn almaiji. de 3u:r, 3^ prd, ddz yn 
p^tit \\\, de tre rapid, h kopartimd ets bode, yn plas 
soelmd ete libr. msz yn grois valiiz dpsjs d^ s i aswair. 
59 v0 la metr syr h fils, kdt de m9SJ0 m arezt d dizd : 
"pardo, m9sj0, sst valiiz st a mon ami ki s desddy syr h 
ke e va remote." 39 m ekskyzs ; ms, kd 33 vi kg h trs 
S9 mstBt d marj e k^ 1 ami dy m^sj0 no remote pa, 39 n? 
fi ni yn ni d0, ms pri la valiz, la 3i/te par la portjerr syr h 
ke, e m asiz a la plas libr. 

The Past is used to speak of some fact as happening at one 
particular time. In colloquial French its use is practically 
limited to story-telling. 

4 nuz avo komdse a aprdidra h frdse i j a d0z u trwaz d. — 
jeir 3 e boku travaje. — k a ty is jsir? — 33 n e pa fs 
grd Joiz. — kd s:t vuz arive? — nu somz arive sd mats, 
mstnd 3 e fini mon uvra:3. — 3 e dfs ekri sst Istr. — ave vu ly 
yn trasedi 6.9 rasin e yn komedi dj maljsir ? — i n o pas 
dkoir boku ly d** frdss. 

The Perfect is used to speak of some fact as having happened 
at a particular time (except in story-telling, where the Past would 
be used). It is also used to speak of a past fact as keeping an 
influence over the present. 

5. i n3 m y pa ply to frape k i s.^ sova. — osito k i m y vy, i 

5d3a d9 Joms pur m evite. 

The Second Past Perfect may be used to speak of some fact 
as taking place immediately before another. It is rather unusual 
in colloquial language. 

6. 39 savs k i partirs osurdqi. — 3^ savs k i s.7rs parti avd mon 

arive. — 3.7 pdss k i finirs ply to. — 119 i^dsje vu pa k? vuz 
orje fini avd midi ] 
39 ss k i partira d.^ms. — 39 ss k i s^ra parti avd mon arive. — 
33 pd:s k i finira d? bon oe:r. — n9 pdse vu pa k9 vuz ore 
fini avd midi ? 

Neither the Future, nor the Future Perfect can be used in 
subordinate sentences depending on a principal verb in a past 


tense. Instead of the Future, the Future in the Past, and 
instead of the Future Perfect, the Future Perfect in the Past, 
have to be used. 

7. The other tenses of the Indicative do not call for any 
special remarks 

{b) Subjunctive. 

3<? dut k i vjsn osurdqi ; 59 dut k i vjsn d^me ; ms 39 119 duts 
pa k i vs js:r. — 33 pais ki> vu b isrez osurdqi. — 39 n9 
pass pa k^ vu h fasjez 03urdi|i. — 39 pais ka vu h idve 
dame. — 39 na pais pa ka vu h fasje dams. — 3a pass ka vu 
la fgrje jeir. — 39 na pass pa ka vu la fisjs jsir or . . .ka vu 
la fasjs jsir. — ekrive d yn manjsir ki swa lizibl. — i Iqi 
damads d ekriir d yn manjsir ki fy lizibl. — 3a n e pws 
truve da grams ir ki fy parfst. 

The use of the various tenses in the Subjunctive is best 
realised by comparing them with the .tenses that would have 
been used had the verb been in the Indicative. 

Pres. Subj. corresponds to Present ) r ■,- ^' 

y . f Indicative 

Past Subj. ,, ,, Imperfect 

Future in the Past . 

Perfect Subj. ,. „ Perfect ) 

Future Perfect ) " 

Pluperfect Subj. ,, ,, Future Perfect in ] 

the Past I " 

The Past Subjunctive is very generally replaced by the 
Present Subjunctive. 


The only point which calls for notice is the use of the 
second person singular. 

The second person singular is used by near relatives and 
intimate friends in addressing one another. Boys and girls at 
school generally use it, too, in speaking to one another. God is 
addressed in the second person plural, except by Protestants, 
who use the second person singular. 





Adverbs, (a) 

Forms - 


Place - 



- * - 








(a) Forms. 
There are adverbs of 

1. Affirmation, negation and doubt : wi, no, ssrtsnmd, parfst- 

ma, sd dut, p0t6:tr, probablama, etc. 

2. Degree: kobjs'?, boku, p0, ase, syfizamci, tslmd, tro\ 

enormsmd, sfinimci, etc. 

3. Time : ka? 03urdqi, js:r, d^me, sadi, otrafwa, bjsto, tut a 

1 oe:r, suvd — kobje d^ ta 1 tu5u:r, 3ame(z), lotd(z), rarmd 
— kobjs dd fwa? yn fwa, d9 tdz a ta, parfwa, ks/k^fwa, etc. 

4. Place: u1 isi, la, laba, prs, Iwe, ajoeir, ks/k?pa:r, dasy, 

d3su, a fas — d u? d isi, d^ laba, dd prs, dd Iws — d abo:r, 
aprs, asqit, pqi, cifs, etc. 

5. Manner: koma(t)? ssi, osi, asarbl, sksprs, tutafs(t), prssk, 

gratis, a ps:n, vit, a to:r e a travsir, etc. ; also all adverbs 
formed by adding -ma(t) to the feminine form of ad- 
jectives : ssSmd(t), vivma(t), fort9md(t), divsrs9ma(t), 
lurd3ma(t), trop0zmd(t), polima(t), koplstma(t), frwad- 
ma(t), etc. 

There are adjectives from which no adverb can be formed. 

^ Or tro. 



Such are vit, iioef, mejoeir, move ; the adverbial forms of these 
are vit, d yn manjsir noeiv, d yn manjeir mejoeir, etc. 

The adverb of brsf is bris:vma(t), of trsitr, trstr0z- 
ma(t), of 5ati, satima. 

In the case of adjectives ending in -a in the mascuh'ne, and 
-art in the feminine, the adverbs are formed by adding -ma(t) 
to the masculine and generally denasalizing the preceding a : 
ardama(t), kostama(t), galama(t), epatama(t). Notice, how- 
ever, latma(t). 

In the case of a few adjectives, the adverbs are formed by 
adding -sma(t), e.g. kDmod8md(t), enorm8ma(t), i mass ma (t), 
opskyrsma(t), komyn8ma(t), 8ksprss8ma(t), presiz8ma(t), profode- 

Adverbs of manner may be used comparatively and super- 
latively by combining them with ply(z), h ply(z), mwe(z), h 
mw8(z) : 3atimd(t), ply 5atima, mws sdtimd — Icitma, 1? ply 
Idtma, h mw8 latmci, etc. The comparative of bJ8(n) is 
mj0(z), its superlative h mj0. The comparative and super- 
lative of p0 are respectively mws(z) and h mws(z). The 
comparative of mal is pi ; its superlative h ply mal. 

(b) Place. 

1. 33 vu si{i tr8 r^konssd da S9 ka vuz ave f8 pur mwa. — il 8 

bjen oer0 k^? vu n? vu swaje fs^ okde mal. — 5a s^iz afrozmaf 
dnqije. — vo kaje kotiny a 8:tr deplorablama sal. — 39 n e 
kopri S9 pasa:3 k^ tr8 p0. 

Adverbs are placed, as a rule, before adjectives, participles, 
and other adverbs which they qualify. 

2. i n 8 pa bo d 8me tro h ve. — vje vit ! — 59 n? vu vwa pa 

Suva. — 39 fs tu3u:r2; esi. — 5; doir mal d^pqi kslkd nqi. — i 
travaij boku tro. 

Adverbs are generally placed aftei* the verbs to which they 
apply, when these are in simple tenses. 

3. il a boku suferr. — il avs tro md3e. — le tyi^k so so mal baty. 

— o s 8 baty laba. — iz ot ete vsky avd/J8:r e i S9ro sa dut 
veky do^me. • 

All adverbs, except those of place and definite time, may be 
placed between the auxiliary and the Past Participle when they 
apply to verbs in compound tenses. 



There are prepositions of 

1. Place: a(n), da(z), a(:)tr, su(z), sy(:)r, V8(:)r, pa(:)r, a, d?, 

Se(z), pre, sysk, etc. 

2. Time : dura(t), pada(t), ava(t), apre(z), loir d^, etc. 

3. Intention : pu(:)r. 

4. Cause : pa(:)r. 

5. Various meanings : avek, sa(z), sof, d aprs(z), salo, k5:tr, 

malgre, etc. 


There are co-ordinating conjunctions: e, ni, u, swa...swa, 
meCz), tutfwa(z), S9padd(t), purta(t), neamws(z), ka:r, do:k, o:r, 

and subordinating conjunctions : k^ [k], si, ka, lorsk, kom, 
sito kj [sito k], ds k? [de k], dyra k^ [dyra k], parsk^ [parsk], a 
ka k? [a ka k], kwak^ [kwak], afs k? [afe k], etc. 






= past participl( 





= partitive 





= plural 





= possessive 





= preposition 





= pronoun 





^ qualitative 





= quantitative 





= relative 





= verb 



[The order of phonetic symbols is as follows : a, a, a, b, d, e, s, 

% 0, f, g, i, j, k, 1, m, n, ji, o, o, o, 0, oe, «, p, r, s, S, 

t, u, w, V, y, i{, 


a, 1. (v.) as, a, from avwair ; 

2. (prep.) a, at, to 
abatr, abattre, to cut down 
abaty, abattUy dejected 
abi, habit, coat, clothes 
abije, habiller, to dress 
abime, abimer, to spoil 
abita, habitant, inhabitant 
abite, habiter, to dwell 
abityd, habitude, habit 
abitqe, s — , shabituer, to get 

used to 
aboir, d — , d'abord, at first 
aboda, abondant, plentiful 
abriko, abricot, apricot 
abwaje, aboyer, to bark 
admstr, admettre, to admit 
administre, administrer, to 

admire, admirer, to admire 
advsrssir, adversaire, adver- 
adssktif, adjectif, adjective 
aeroplam, aeroplane, aeroplane 
afsir, ajfaire, thing, matter 
afs k^, afin que, so that 
alirme, affirmer, to assert 
afr0, ajfreux, horrid 
afr0:zma, ajfreusement, hor- 
afyble, affubler, to dress up 
agair, hagard, haggard 
agoni, agonie, agony 
agreabl, agreable, agreeable 
aiir, hair, to hate 
aiso, haissons, from aiir 

aj0, a'ieux, ancestors 
ajoel, aieul, grandfather 
ajoeir, ailleurs, elsewhere 
akable, accafeZer, to overwhelm 
akapare, accaparer, to monop- 
akeriir, acquerir, to acquire 
akcejiir, accueillir, to receive 
akrwaitr, accroitre, to increase 
aksjo, action, action 
akt, acte, action 
akuriir, accourir, to run up 
al, halle, market-place 
ale, 1. (n.) allee, alley ; 2. (v.) 
alter, to go, to fit ; 3. (p.p.) 
alle, gone ; 4. s an — , s'en 
alter, to go away 
alfrsd, Alfred, Alfred 
almaji, Allemagne, Germany 
alma, allemand, German 
aloir, alors, then 
alp, Alpes, Alps 
alt, halte, halt 
alte, haleter, to pant 
alterne, alterner, to alternate 
alyminjom, aluminium, alu- 
alssibr, algebre, algebra, 
amaid, amande, almond 
amejore, ameliorer, to improve 
am^ne, aniener, to bring 
ami, ami, friend 
amikal, amical, friendly 
amiral, amiral, admiral 
amitje, amitie, friendship ; fs:r 
dez— ..., faire des amities..., 
give kind regards .. 




amo, hameau, hamlet 

amyza, amusant, entertain- 

amyze, s— , s'amuser, to enjoy 

ananas, ananas, pine-apple 

ane, annee, year 

anivsrssir, anniversaire, an- 
niversary, birthday 

anto, hanneton, cockchafer 

aparais, apparence, appear- 

apareitr, apparaitrCy to ap- 

apart^niir, appartenir, to 

apart] s, appartient, from apar- 

ape, happer, to snap off 

apel, 1. (n.) appel, caW; 2. (v.) 
appelleSy from ap^le 

apsrsyvwarr, apercevotr, to see 

ap^le, appeler, to call 

aplaniir, aplanir, to level, to 

aplike, applique, attentive 

apokrif, apocryphe, apocryphal 

apraidr, apprendre, to learn 

apresje, apprecier, to appre- 

aprs, apres, after ; d — , 
d'apres, according to 

aprsmidi, apres-midi, after- 

apran-, appren-, from apraidr 

apsa, absent, absent 

apstreir, ahstraire, to abstract 

apsudr, absoudre, to absolve 

apqije, appuyer, to lean 

air, art, art 

ara, hareng, herring 

arciig, harangue, harangue 

arbr, arbre, tree 

ard, hardes, rags 

arda, ardent, fiery, eager 

ardi, hardi, bold 

ardwaiz, ardoise, slate 

arete, arreter, to stop 

ariko, haricot, bean 
arive, 1. (n.) arrivee, arrival ; 
2. (v.) arriver, to arrive, to 
armwair, armoire, cupboard 
arns, harnais, harness 
arp, harpe, harp 
ars^le, harceler, to harass 
arsenal, arsenal, arsenal 
arjidyk, archiduc, archduke 
ar3a, argent, silver, money 
asajiir, assaillir, to assault 
ase, assez, enough, rather 
asid, acide, acid 
asosje, associer, to associate 
asps, aspect, aspect 
astrsidr, astreindre, to compel 
aswair, s— , s'asseoir, to sit 

aj, hache, axe 
aj^te, acheter, to buy 
aj^ve, achever, to end 
at, a-t-, from avwair 
atajmd, attachement, affec- 
atatif, attentif, attentive 
atsriir, atterrir^ to land 
ateidr, atteindre, to reach 
at^le, atteler, to put to 
atribqe, attribuer, to at- 
avair, avare, miserly 
ava, avant, before 
av-, av-, from avwair 
avsk, avec, with 
avers, averse, shower 
avsrtiir, avertir, to warn 
avna, avenant, prepossessing 
avi, avis, advice 
avijio, Avignon, Avignon 
avjatoeir, aviateur, aviator 
avoka, avocat, barrister 
avril, avril, April 
avwe, avouer, to confess 
avwair, avoir, to have 
azair, hasard, chance 
ai3, age, age 
a3urne, ajourner, to put oft' 



a:jo, haillonsj rags 
aim, dmey soul 
a:n, dne^ donkey 
aje, hacher, to chop 
a:t, hate, haste 
ase, age, aged 

a, 1. (n.) an, yesiv ; 1 — pass, 
Van passe, last year ; 2. 
(pron.) en, of me, of you, of 
it, etc. ; 3. (prep.) en, in, to 
cidrwa, endroit, spot, place 
afa, enfant, child 
dfais, enfance, childhood 
afs, enfin, at last 
dfrsidr, enfreindre, to infringe 
dfqiir, s — , s'enftiir, to flee 
dgair, hangar, shed 
aigl, angle, angle 
dgle, anglais, English 
aglatsir, Angleterre, England 
dgwais, angoisse, anguish 
dkeriir, s — , s'enquerir, to in- 
dkloir, enclore, to enclose 
dkoir, encore, still, yet, again 
dikr, encre, ink 
dkrije, encrier, inkstand 
dbve, enlever, to take away 
dnqi, ennui, bother 
dnqije, ennuyer, to trouble 
dnT{iJ0, ennuyeux, tiresome 
dip, hafnpe, flag-staff 
dpsSe, empecher, to prevent 
dplwaje, employer, to employ 
dproeir, empereur, emperor 
dri, Henri, Henry 
dsdibl, ensemble, together 
dseitr, ancetre, ancestor 
dsjs, ancien, ancient 
dsqit, ensuite, afterwards 
dij, hanche, hip 
dSdtoeir, enchanteur, enchant- 

aj^vstre, enchevetrer, entangle 
dtd, entend, from dtdidr 
dtdidr, entendre, to hear 
dtddy, entendu, from dtdidr ; 

s st— , cest entendu, it's 

dtik, antique, antique 
dtjeir, entiere, fem. of dtje^ 

entier, whole 
d:tr, entre, among 
dtre, entrer, to enter 
dtraprdidr, entreprendre, to 

dtrQvwair, entrevoir, to have 

a glimpse of 
dturai5, entourage, that which 

dtwain, Antoine, Antony 
dviro, environ, about 
dvje, envier, to envy 
dvwaje, envoy er, to send 

babijair, babillard, talkative 
bag, bague, finger-ring 
bal, bal, ball 

balbusje, balbutier, to lisp 
1)alsin, baleine, whale 
balzak, Balzac, Balzac 
Imnan, banane, banana 
barbair, barbare, barbarous 
bark, barque, boat, barge 
bastiij. Bastille, Bastille 
bastjo, bastion, bastion 
batajo, bataillon, battalion 
batsim, bapteme, baptism 
batr, battre^ to beat ; s^ — , se 

battre, to fight 
Imty, battu, from batr 
ba, 1. (n.) bas, stocking ; 2. 

(adj.) bas, low 
batimd, bdtiment, building 
batiir, bdtir, to build 
bd, banc, bench 
l)ens, benin, benign 
l^etaj, bet ail, cattle 
bek, bee, nib 



bel, 1. belf masc. liaison-form of 
bo ; 2. belle, fem. of bo 

bel.^^ik, Belgique, Belgium 

bsstjal, bestial, bestial 

beit, bete, 1. (u.) animal, 2. 
(adj.) silly 

bazwe, besoin, need, want ; 
avwair — d^, avoir besoin 
de, to need, to want 

bi:z, bise, north wind 

bizair, bizarre, strange, queer 

bjs, bien,\. (n.) goods, property; 
2. (adv.) very, all right! , at 
least, certainly; 3. (adj.) — 
dy, — de, bien du, bien des, 
much, many 

bjsto, bientot, soon 

blafair, blafard, wan 

blazo, blason, heraldry, coat- 

bla, blanc, white 

blsse blesser, tohnvt, to wound 

blu, blond, fair 

bl0, bleu, blue 

bo, beau, beautiful 

boku, beaucoup, L (adj.) — dd, 
beaucoup de, much, many ; 
2. (adv.) much 

bote, beaute, beauty 

bon, bonne, fem. of bo 

bonom, bonhomme, good-man 

bo:r d^ la ms:r, bord de la 
mer, seaside 

bos, bosse, bump 

botanik, botanique, botany 

bo, bon, good 

bobarde, bombarder, to bom- 

bode, bonde, full 

bote, bonte, goodness 

beef, boetif, ox, beef 

bra, bras, arm 

braiv, brave, brave, honest 

brsf, bref, brief, short 

breir, braire, to bray 

brabi, brebis, ewe 

brije, briller, to shine 

brde, brun, brown 

brwaje, broyer, to crush 

brqi, bruit, noise 

bu, 1. bout, end; 2. boue, 

bukl, boucle, buckle 
bwa, bois, wood 
bwa:r, boire, to drink 
bwart, boite, box 
by, bu, from bwair 
bylgair, Bulgare, Bulgarian 
bqi, buis, box-tree 

dam, dame, lady 

dat, 1. date, date; 2. datte, 

date (fruit) 
da, 1. (n.) dent, tooth ; 2. 

(prep.) dans, in 
de, des, indef. art. plur. 
debatr, debattre, to debate 
dediir, dedire, to recant 
defeir, defaire, to undo 
defo, defaut, defect, fault 
defde, defunt, defunct 
dekalke, decalquer, to trace 
dekofiir, deconfire, to discomfit 
dekrwaitr, decroitre, to de- 
dekudr, decoudre, to unstitch 
dekuvriir, decouvrir, to dis- 
delabre, delabre, decayed 
deleje, delayer, to dilute 
delisj0, delicieux, delicious 
demane, S3 — , se deniener, to 

depsij, depeche, telegram 
depose, depecer, to cut up 
deplsir, deplaire, to displease 
deplorabl, deplorable, deplor- 
depurvy, depourvu, destitute) 
desaidr, descendre, to go 

desede, decider, to die 
deside, decider, to decide; S9— , 
se decider, to take a decision 



dejarse, decharger, to unload 

dejire, dechirer, to tear 

dejwair, dechoir, to decline 

devwe, devouer, to devote 

dezeir, desert, desert 

dezijie, designer, to point out 

dezire, desirer, to desire 

desa, deja, already 

de ka, des que, as soon as 

dejie, daigner, to deign 

dsrnje, dernier, last 

do c/<3, 1. part, art.; 2. (prep.) of, 

dada, dedans, within 
d-made, demander, to ask 
d^iYis, demain, tomorrow 
d^rai, demi, half 
d^pqi, depuis, since 
di?su, dessoiis, under 
d9sy, dessus, on it, on the top 
dt^vd, devant, before 
d^ve, devez, from davwair 2. 
d3V9n-, deven-, from d^vaniir 
d^vaniir, devenir, to become 
d^vjen, devienne, from d^vaniir 
d^vio, devrons, from d^vwair 
dr?vwa:r, devoir, 1 (n.) duty, 
task ; 2. (v.) must, to be 
obliged, to owe 
di, dis, dit, from di:r 
difera, different, different 
difikylte, difficulte, difficulty 
difisil, difficile, difficult 
difteri, diphterie, diphtheria 
dify, diffus, diffuse, wordy 
diksjoneu*, dictionnaire, dic- 
dikte, 1. (n.) dictee, dictation ; 

2. (v.) dieter, to dictate 
dilyvjs, diluvien, diluvial 
diminqe, diminuer, todiminish 
di:r, dire, to say, to tell 
direktoizr, directeur, leading 
diskuir, discours, speech 
diskuriir, disco urir, to discourse 
disparsitr, disparaitre, to dis- 
diste, distinct, distinct 

distsge, distinguer, to distin- 

distekt^mci, distinctement, 

distre, distrait, ab-ent-minded 

distrsir, distraire, to divert, 
to entertain 

distribqe, distrihuer, to dis- 

disudr, dissoudre, to dissolve 

dit, dites, from di:r 

divsir, divers, various 

dive, divin, divine 

diz-, dis-, from di:r 

dizsin, dizaine, about ten 

dizeir, disert, fluent 

di^i, Dieu, God 

ddktceir, docteur, doctor 

doma:5, dotntnage, damage ; 
s 8 — , c'est dommage, it's a 

done, donner, to give 

dormiir, dormir, to sleep 

do^, done, then, therefore 

d0, deux, two 

drwa, droit, right 

du, doux, sweet 

du:s, douce, fem. of du 

dusceir, douceur, sweetness 

dut, doute, doubt 

dute, douter, to doubt 

duzein, douzaine, dozen 

dwa, 1. (n.) doigt, finger; 2. 
(v.) doit J from d^vwarr 

dwe, bJ8— , hien doue, clever 

dy:r, dur, hard 

dyra, dur ant, during ; — ko, 
durant que, while 

e, 1. (v.) ai, from avwair ; 2. 

(conj.) et, and 
edi, edit, edict 
efozr, eifort, effort 
efrsje, effrayer, to frighten 
egal, egal, equal, steady; sa m et 

—,gam'estegal,ldon't mind 



egalma, egalement, equally 

egize, aiguiser, to sharpen 

^gj, ciigu, sharp 

egqije, aiguiller, to switch 

egzams, examen, examination 

ekivalwair, eqtiivaloir, to be 
equivalent to 

ekloir, eclore, to hatch (egg), 
to bloom (flower) 

ekol, ecole, school 

ekoje, ecolier, school-boy 

ekos, Ecosse, Scotland 

tkri, ecris, ecrit, from ekriir 

ekriir, ecrire, to write 

ekiityzr, ecr/fwre, hand-writing 

ekrivs, ecrivain, writer, author 

ekute, ecouter, to listen 

elais, helas, alas 

elsiv, eleve, pupil 

ebve, elever, to raise 

eliir, elire, to elect 

emabl = smabl 

emuvwair, emouvoir, to move 

enorm, enorme, enormous 

epair, epars, scattered 

epata, epatant, astonishing, 

eps, epais, thick 

epsgle, epinglery to pin 

ep^le, epeler, to spell 

epoi3, eponge, sponge 

eproeiv, epreuve, trial, ordeal 

epu, epoiix, husband 

epus9te, epousseter, to dust 

epuiz, epouse, wife 

erise, herisse, bristling 

eriso, herisson, hedgehog 

ero, heros, hero 

essje, essayer, to tiy 

esqiplym, essuie-plume, pen- 

ejwair, echoir, to expire, to 
fall due 

ejwe, echouer, to fail 

eta, etat, state 

ete, ete, 1. (n.) summer; 2. 

(v.) from Sitr 

ete, etatt, from s:tr 
etsrnqe, eternuer, to sneeze 
etsidr, eteindre, to put out (fire) 
etjo, etions, from sitr 
etra:3, etrange, strange 
etrassir, etrangere^ foreign 
etrsidr, etreindre, to embrace 
etydje, etudter, to study 
evasil, Evangile, gospel 
evite, eviter, to shun 

s, 1. est^ from e:tr ; 2 haity 

from aiir 
SI, haie, hedge 
sid, aide, help 
ede, aider, to help 
sgri, aigri, sour 
sgzaipl, exemple, example 
sgzsrse, s — , s'exercer, to 

egzsrsis, exercice, exercise 
egzise, exiger, to exact 
sja, ayant, from avwair 
ekssla, excellent, excellent 
sksklyir, exchire, to exclude 
skskyze, s— , s'excuser, to 

skspedje, expedier, to send 
skspsir, expert, expert 
skspre, expres, 1. (adj.) express; 

2. (adv.) on purpose 
skstsrn, externe, day-pupil 
skstrsir, extraire, to extract 
si, elle, she 

emabl, aimahle, amiable 
s:me, aimer, to like, to love 
em, haiiie, hatred 
sniir, hennir, to lieigh 
eir, 1. air, air ; 2. here, tramp 
erb, herbe, grass 
srceir, erreiir, error 
srs, herse, harrow 
s s k, est-ce que (cf. p. 92, 3.) 
eskaje, escalier, stairs 
sspais, espace, space 
ssi)ere, esperer, to hope 



espeis, espece, kind, sort 

espri; esprit^ mind 

est, estj east 

estime, estimer^ to estimate, 

to deem 
8t, est J liaison-form of S 1. 
sitr, etrcy to be 
Bitz, etes, from s:tr 

Mefini, indefint, indefinite 
edispasabl, indispensablet in- 
eferjoeir, inferieur, inferior, 

efinima, infinUnent, infinitely 
efinitif, infinitifi infinitive 
skapabl, incapable, incapable 
sklyir, inclure, to include 
sparsjal, impartial, impartial 
sportais, importance, import- 
ssi, ainsi, thus 
ests, instinct, instinct 
eistryktif, instruct if, instruc- 
ssylt, insult, insult 
eterssa, interessant, interest- 
sterja-ir, interietir, interior 
etelisa, intelligent, clever 
stsrdiir, inter dire, to forbid 
stern, interne, boarder 
eteroipr, interrompre, to in- 

eterv^^niir, intervenir, to in- 


fabl, fable, fable 
fa:br, Faber, Faber 
falwair, falloir, to be obliged 
fam, fetnme, woman, wife 
fardo, fardeau, burden 
fas, a — , en face, opposite 
fasil, facile, easy 

fasilma, facilement, easily 
fasje, fassiez, from fe:r 
fatal, fatal, fatal 
fatige, fatiguer, to tire 
favori, favori, favourite 
femine, feminin, feminine 
ferois, feroce, fierce 
fe, fait, from fe:r 
fe:r, faire, to do, to make ; 

n.^ — ni yn ni d0, ne faire ni 

une ni deux, not to hesitate 
isrdina, Ferdinand, Ferdinand 
ferm, ferme, firm 
festival, festival, festivity 
fet, 1. (n.) fait, fact ; 2. (v.) 

faites, from fe:r 
fe, 1. (n.) faim, hunger ; 2 (adj.) 

fin, fine 
feidr, feindre, to feign 
f^neitr, fenetre, window 
far-, fer-, from fe:r 
fje, S3 — , se fier, to trust 
figyir, figure, face 
figyi^e, s,? — , sefigurer, to fancy 
fi:j, fllle, girl, daughter 
file, filet, rack 
final, final, final 
finiir, finir, to end 
fis^le, ficeler, to tie up 
flatoeir, flatteur, flattering 
floeir, fleur, flower 
floeiv, fleuve, river 
fo, 1. (n.)faux, scythe; 2. (adj.) 

faux, false ; 3. (v.) faut, 

from falwair 
fot, faut, liaison-form of fo 3. 
foit, faute, mistake 
fo:r, fort, 1. (adj.) strong ; 2. 

(adv.) very ; s et de p0 — , 

c'est un peu fort, it's going 

a bit too far 
form, forme, shape 
fors, force, strength 
fortifje, fortifier, to fortify 
fortyn, fortune, wealth 
forse, forger, to forge 
i'dVT^dvo, forgeron, blacksmith 



foswaje, fossoyer, to dig a 

ditch round 
fose, fonce, dark 
f0, feu, fire 
foeij, feuille, leaf 
foejste, feuilleter, to turn over 

the leaves of (book) 
frape, frapper, to hit 
fra, 1 franc, frank ; 2. franc, 

frark, franque, fem. of fra 2. 
frais, France, France 
frass, frangais, French 
fraswa, Frangois, Francis 
frazj, franche, fem. of fra 1. 
frajiiz, franchise, frankness 
fre, frais, fresh, cool 
frsir, frere, brother 
frsij, fraiche, fem. of fre 
fripo, fripon, roguish 
fro, front, forehead 
frwa, froid, cold 
frqi, fruit, fruit 
frqitje, arbra— , arbre fruitier, 

fu, fou, mad 
fuil, foule, crowd 
fule, fouler, to sprain 
furmi, fourmi, ant 
fwa, 1. foi, faith ; 2. fois, 

times ; yn — , une fois, once ; 

kobjs dd — , cotnbien defois, 

how many times 
fy, fut, from e:tr 
fy:r, furent, from sitr 
f3^J0j furieux, angry 
fqiir, fuir, to flee 

gala, galant, courteous 
galika, gallican, Gallican 
gajie, gagner, to win 
gard, garde, guard ; prciidr — , 
prendre garde, to take care 
garde, garder, to keep 
garon, Garonne, Garonne 
garso, gargon, boy 

gaspije, gaspiller, to squander 

gate, gate, spoilt 

gazo, gazon, grass 

gagrane, gangrener, to gan- 

ge, gai, gay 

gema, gaiement, merrily 

gsrr, 1. (n.) guerre, war; 2. 
(adv.) nd... -, ne... gueres, 

gijorm, Guillaume, William 

gijotine, guillotine, beheaded 

glais, glace, ice 

glisa, glissant, slippery 

go:l, Gaule, Gaul 

goiS, gauche, left 

gofle, gonfler, to swell 

grad, grade, degree 

gramsir, grammaire, grammar 

gratis, gratis, gratis 

graivma, gravement, seriously 

gravyrr, gravure, picture, en- 

gra, gras, fat 

gra, grand, tall, large, great 

graid, grande, fem. of gra 

gi^adiir, grandir, to grow 

gradjoiz, grandiose, stately 

grapeir, grahd-pere, grand- 

grezije, gresiller, to sleet, to 
shrivel up 

grsk, grec, Greek 

grspe, grimper, to climb 

gri, gris, grey 

gro, gros, big, stout 

grode, gronder, to scold 

gurr, gourd, benumbed 

i, 1. (pron.) il, he ; 2. (adv.) y, 
there; — at— ..., 3;^-/-//..., 
is there . . . 

ibu, hibou, owl 

ide, idee, idea 

idjo, idiot, idiotic 

id0, hideux, hideous 



i j a, il y <z, there is, there are 
il, il, he 

ilystr, tUustrei illustrious 
ima:3, image, image, picture 
iraa5ine, s — , s'imagtner, to 

iraais, immense, immense 
ijiair, ignare, ignorant 
ijiora, ignorant, ignorant 
ipokrit, hypocrite, hypocrite 
ipokrizi, hypocrisie, hypocrisy 
ir-, ir-, from ale 
ireprojabl, irreprochable, irre- 
ise, hisser, to hoist 
isi, ici, here; d— , d'ici, hence 
ism? isthme, isthmus 
istorjs, historien, historian 
istwair, histoire, story, history 
itajs, it alien, Italian 
itali, Italie, Italy 
iveir, hiver, winter 

j, i — a, il y a, there is, there are 
J6:r, hier, yesterday 
J0, yeux, eyes 

k, qil , liaisoa-form of \id 
kaje, cahier, copy-book 
kalite, qualite, quality 
kamarad, camarade, comrade 
kamy, camiis, flat (nose) 
kapital, capitate, capital (town) 
kapo, capot, foolish 
kaptiva, captivant, thrilling 

(book, story) 
ka:r, 1. (adj.) quart, quartan 

(fever) ; 2. (conj.) car, for 
karaktsir, caractere, character 
karsim, careme. Lent 
karnaval, carnaval, carnival 
karns, carnet, note-book 
kasket, casquette, cap 
kaJe, cacher, to hide 

kaS^te, cacheter, to seal 
kataplasm, cataplasme, poul- 
katr, quatre, four 
ka:v, cave, cellar 
ka, cas, case, circumstance 
kase, casser, to break 
ka, quand, when 
kapaji, campagne, country 
kat a, quant a, as for, as to 
katite, quantite, quantity 
ke, quai, platform (railway- 
kel, quel, what 

ke/k?, quelque, some, a little ; 
quelques, some, afew ; — fwa, 
quelquefois, sometimes; 
— pair, quelque part, some- 
where ; — Jorz, quelque 
chose, something 
kelkoik, quelconque, any 
kslkde, quelquun, someone 
keis, caisse, box, cash-box 
kesk?, qu'est-ce que, what 
k e s t a, qu'est-ce fas, familiar 

contraction of k 8 S k9 tq a 
ksstjo, question, question 
kd, que, 1. (pron.) that, whom, 
which, what ; 2. (conj.) that, 
as, than; n^...— , ne... que, 
ki, qui, who, whom (inter., rel.) 
ki 8 s ki, qui est-ce qui, who 

ki k9 S9 swa ki, qui que ce 

soit qui, whoever 
kikoik, quiconque, whoever 
kilo, kilo, kilogramme 
kilom8tr, kilometre, kilometre 
kite, quitter, to leave 
klake, claquer, to slam (door) 
klais or klais, classe, class 
klemaso, Clemenceau, Cle- 

klsirma, clairement, clearly 
kloir, clore, to close 
kote, cote, side 
kol, colle, glue 



kole, coller, to stick 
kom, comme, as, when, like 
koma, comment, how 
komase, com^mencer, to begin 
komedi, comedie, comedy 
komstr, comm^ettre, to commit 
komite, eomite, committee 
komiiz, comm-ise, from komsti- 
komod, comm^odej convenient 
komoe, commuttj vulgar, com- 
kones-, connaiss-, from konsztr 
konesais, connaissance, ac- 
koneitr, connaitre, to know 
koreksjo, correction, correc- 
korise, corriger, to correct 
korOipr, corrompre, to corrupt 
koba, combat, comlmt 
kobatr, comhattre, to fight 
kobje, comhien, how much, 
how many; — dd ta, comhien 
de temps, how long 
koble, comhler, to fill up 
kodisjo, condition, condition 
kodqit, conduite, behaviour 
kofiir, confire, to preserve 

kofody, confondu, blended, 

kof y, confus, confused, 

kokeriir, conquerir, to conquer 
koklyir, conclure, to conclude 
kokuriir, concourir, to com- 
kopare, comparer, to compare 
koparsitr, comparaitre, to ap- 
pear (lawsuit) 
kopartima, com^partiment, 

kopls, complet, complete 
koplsir, complaire, to humour 
kopozisjo, composition, com- 
position, essay 
koprardr, comprendre, to 

kopran-, compren-, from ko- 

kopri, compris, from kopraidr 
koseir, concert, concert 
kos^vwair, concevoir, to con- 
kosta, constant, constant 
koit, compte, account 
kota, content, contented 
kotaple, contempler, to look at 
kote, compter, to count 
kotiny, continu, continuous 
kotinqe, continuer, to continue 
koitr, contre, against 
kotradiktwair, contradictoire, 

kotre, contree, region 
kotrerdr, contreindre, to force 
kotrodiir, contredire, to con- 
kovdsjonsl, conventionnel, 

kovsikr, convaincre, to con- 
kov^niir, convenir, to agree 
ko3yge, conjuguer, to con- 
ko5ygszo, conjugaison, conju- 
koejiir, ctieillir, to pluck, to 

koeir, cosur, heart 
kravat, cravate, tie 
kretje, chretien. Christian 
krs, craie, chalk 
krsjo, crayon, pencil 
kreim, 1 chreme, chrism ; 2. 

crime, cream 
kreidr, craindre, to fear 
krave, crever, to l)urst 
kri, cri, cry 
krije, crier, to cry 
kritik, critique, criticism 
kr0, creux, hollow 
krwa, crois, from krwair 
krwaj-, croy-, from krwair 
krwair, croire, to believe 
krwa, croix, cross 


krwaitr, croitre, to grow 
krwaze, croiser, to fold (arms) 
ku, 1. coUy neck ; 2. coup, 

blow, hit 
kudr, coudre, to sew 
kuloeir, couleur, colour 
kupe, couper, to cut 
ku:r, 1. (d.) coiir, court-yard ; 

2. (adj.) court, short 
^nvauia, con ramment, fluently 
kura:5, courage, courage 
kuriir, courir, to run 
kurtwa, courtois, courteous 
kuvsrtyir, couverture, cover 
kuvriir, couvrir, to cover 
kwak^, 1. (pron.) quoi que, 

whatever ; — sa swa, quoi 

que ce soit, whatever ; 2. 

(conj.) quoique, although 
kwSj coin, corner 
kqiivr, cuivre, copper 

1, /', liaison -form of h, la 

la, 1. (art.) la, the ; 2. (adv.) 

la, there 
laba, la-has, over there ; d?— , 

de la-bas, thence 
lats, latin, Latin 
lave, laver, to wash 
la, las, weary 
la:s, lasse, fem. of la ; d^ gsir — , 

de guerre lasse, weary of 

la, lent, slow 
la:s, lance, lance 
iStma, lentement, slowly 
lese, leger, light 
leo, Leon, Leo 
lez, les, the 
Is, laid, ugly 
Isktyir, lecture, reading 
Isse, laisser, to leave 
letr, lettre, letter 
ls:v-, lev-, from bve 
h, le, the 
bkd, lequel, which 

bso, legon, lesson 

bve, lever, to lift up ; S8 — , se 
lever, to get up, to rise 

li, lit, bed 

libr, litre, free 

limitrof , limitrophe, neighbour- 
ing (country, field) 

li:r, lire, to read 

li:vr, livre, 1. book ; 2. pound 

livre, livrer, to deliver (goods) 

liz-, lis-, from li:r 

lizibl, lisihle, legible 

Ijon, lionne, lioness 

lj0, lieu, place ; o — d<?, au lieu 
de, instead of 

l.oir dp, lors de, at the time of 

brje, laurier, laurel 

lorskp, lorsque, when 

lo, long, long (adj.) 

l6:dr, Londres, London 

logoeir, longueur, length 

lota, longtemps, long (adv.) 

lce:r, leur, their 

Idedi, lundi, Monday 

lu, loup, wolf 

lue, louer, to let 

luir, lourd, heavy 

Iwajal, loyal, truthful 

Iwajote, loyaute, loyalty 

Iwair, Loire, Loire 

Iwa, loi, law 

Iws, loin, far 

Iwsts, lointain, distant 

Iwi, Louis, Lewis 

ly, lu, from li:r 

lymjeir, lumiere, light 

lyte, lutter, to fight 

liji, lui, he, him 

Iqiir, luire, to gleam 


m, in\ liaison-form of m.j, me, 

mal, 1. (n.) avwair — a, avoir 

mal a, to have a pain in ; 

S3 feir — a, se /aire mal a, 

to hurt ; 2. (adv.) mal, badly 



malad, malade, ill, sick 
maladi, maladte, illness 
maladrwa, maladroit, clumsy 
male, maltn, malignant 
malgre, tnalgre, in spite of 
manjsrr, maniere, manner 
mardi, mardi, Tuesday 
mari, Marie, Mary 
marja:5, mariage, marriage 
maro, marron, chestnut 
marj, marche, walking ; S9 mstr 

a—,se niettre en marche, 

to start 
marje, marcher, to walk 
marts, Martin, Martin 
mas, masse, heap 
mate, matin, morning 
maseste, Majeste, Majesty 
madje, mendier, to beg (beggar) 
make, manquer, to miss 
matiir, mentir, to lie (to tell a lie) 
mdtoeir, menteur, lying 
mase, manger, to eat 
mediir, medire, to slander 
mekoneitr, meconnaitre, to 

merite, meriter, to deserve 
meta!, metal, metal 
meti, metis, half-breed 
me, mais, but 

meja3:r, meilleur, better (adj.) 
me:m, meme, 1. (adj.) same, 

very ; 2. (adv.) even 
meir, l.mere, mother ; 2. mer, 

merveij, merveille, wonder ; 

a — , £7 m^erveille, wonder- 


mesks, mesquin, mean 

meitr, tnaitre, 1. (n.) teacher, 
master ; 2. (adj.) excellent, 

metr, mettre, to put ; s«> — a, 
se mettre a, to begin ; S9 — 
a tabl, se mettre a table, 
to sit down to table 

metres, maitresse, lady- 
teacher, mistress 

mezo, maison, house 
me, 1. (n.) main, hand ; 2. 
(adj.) maint, many, many a 
meis, m^ince, thin, slender 
metna, maintenant, now 
m9SJ0, monsieur, gentleman, 

sir, Mr. 
min, mine, mien 
mj0, m,ieux, better (adv.) 
mo, mo/, word 
modiir, maudire, to curse " 
mopasa, Maupassant, Mau- 
moamed, Mohammed, M.oh.3.m- 

modifje, modifier, to modify 
moljeir, Moliere, Molifere 
moma, moment, time, while 
mon, m,on, liaison-form of mo 
monymS, monument, monu- 
moir, mort, death 
morso, morceau, piece 
mortel, mort el, mortal 
move, mauvais, bad 
mo, mon, my 
mo bla, Mont-blanc, Mont 

mo ro:z, Mont-rose, Monte 

motap, montagne, mountain 
motre, montrer, to show 
raoebl, meuble, piece of furni- 
mu, mou, soft, sluggish 
mudr, moudre, to grind 
muriir, mourir, to die 
muS, mouche, fly (insect) 
mujwair, mouchoir, handker- 
muvwair, mouvoir, to move 
mwa, moi, I, me 
mwatje, moitie, half 
mwa, mois, month 
mwe, moinSf less (adv.) 
mweidr, moindre, less (adj.) 
myir, 1. (n.) m,ur, wall ; 2. 
(adj.) mur, ripe 



naif, naif, naive 

napoleo, Napoleon, Napoleon 

nasjonal, national, national 

naval, naval, naval 

naviir, n-avire, ship 

nasjo, nation, nation 

na:t, iVaw^es, Nantes 

ne, ne, from nsitr ; 50 sqi — , 
je suis ne, I was born 

neamws, neanmoins, notwith- 

neseseir, necessaire, necessary 

netwaje, net t oyer, to clean 

nsitr, naitre, to be bom 

ne:3, neige, snow 

ne3e, neiger, to snow 

\\d...\id, ne...que, only 

n^, ne...pas, not,, neither... nor 

nikola, Nicholas, Nicholas 

no, nos, our 

nobl, noble, noble 

no:r, nord, north 

not, note, note, mark 

note, noter, to note down 

no, 1. (n.) noni, name, noun : 
2. (adv.) non, no 

noibr, nomhre, number 

noef, neuf, new, fresh 

nu, nous, we 

nuvel, nouvelle, news, short 

nuvo, nouveaii, new, novel 

nwaje, noyer, to drown 

nwa:r, noire, black 

nwa, noix, nut 

nwe, noiier, to tie 

ny, nu, naked 

nyl, nul, none 

nylma, nullement, not at all 

nqi, nuit, night 

nqiir, nuire, to harm 


jiajia, gnangnan, slacker 

o, 1. (n.) eau, water ; 2. (adj.) 
haut, high 

o:b, aube, dawn 

okde, aucun, no, none 

or-, aur-, from avwair 

osi, aussi, 1. (conj.) as ; 2. 
(adv.) also, too 

osito...k9, aussit6t...que, as 
soon... as 

oskylte, ausculter, to auscul- 

ota, autant, as much, as many 

ote, oter, to take off 

oton, automne, autumn 

otoeir, auteur, author 

o:tr, autre, other 

otrofwa, autrefois, formerly 

otrij, Autriche, Austria 

otrqi, autrui, others 

oze, osery to dare 

05urdqi, aujourd'hui, today 

obeiir, obeir, to obey 
oblo, oblong, oblong 
ob56, object, object 
ofisje, ojficier, officer 
ofriir, ojfrir, to offer 
okazjo, occasion, occasion 
oktobr, octobre, October 
okype, occuper, to occupy 
okypasjo, occupation, occupa- 
oldde, hollandais, Dutch 
om, homme, man 
omair, honiard, lobster 
omstr, omettre, to omit 
oniir, honnir, to scoff at 
opail, opale, opal 
opskyir, obscur, obscure 
opty, obtus, obtuse 
o:r, or, 1. (n.) gold ; 2. (conj.) 

oratoeir, orateur, orator 
ordineir, ordinaire, ordinary 



ordr, ordre, order 
orgoej, orgueil, pride 
oribloma, horrihlement, hor- 

orizo, horizon, horizon 
orisinal, original, original 
orlo:5, horloge, clock 
oroeir, horreur, horror 
OS, OS, bone 
ot, hotte, basket (carried on the 

ovail, ovale, oval 


o, 1. (v.) ont, from avwair : 

(pron.) on, one 
ogri, Hongrie, Hungary 
oikl, oncle, uncle 
on, on, liaison-form of o 2. 
ot0, honteux, shameful 
o:z, onze, eleven 
ozjeim, onzieme, eleventh 

0, eux, they 

meim, eux-memes, them- 
0rope8, europeen, European 
0staS, Eustache, Eustache 

oef, oeuf, egg 

oej, oeil, eye ; — dj b*Bf, ceil- 

de-bceuf, bull's eye 
oe:r, heure, hour 
oerop, Europe, Europe 
oer0, heureux, happy 
oerte, heurter, to knock 


oe, un, a, an 

paliir, pdlir, to grow pale 

pap, Pape, Pope 
papa, papa, daddy 
papje, papier, jmper 
pair, 1. (n.) part, part ; d^; ma 
— , de ma part, from me ; 

2. (v.) pars, from - i)arti:r ; 

3. (prep.) Par, by 

para, parent, parent, relative 
pardone, pardonner, to forgive 
parsj, pareil, such, like 
pares, par esse, laziness 
pareitr, paraitre, to appear 
parfe, par fait, perfect 
parfetma, parfaitement, per- 
fectly, quite so 
parfwa, parfois, now and then 
pari, Paris, Paris 
parje, parier, to bet 
parkuriir, parcourir, to travel 

parle, parier, to speak 
parol, parole, word 
parsk3, parce que, l)ecause 
parti, partie, game, match, set 
partiir, partir, to start 
partisip, participe, participle 
parwa, paroi, wall 
parvi?ni:r, parvenir, to reach 
pasa:5, passage, passage 
pasjais, patience, patience 
patine, patiner, to skate 
pa:5, page, page 
pa, ^(7S, step ; n^^. . .pa, ne.. .pas, 

paij, paille, straw 
l)ase, passer, to pass ; s; — d^, 
se passer de, to do without 
pasta, passe-temps, pastime 
pate, pate, pie 
paz de, pas tin, no, none 
pada, pendant, during 
pase, 1. (n.) pensee, thought ; 

2. (v.) penser, to think 
pajci, penchant, inclination 
patalo, pantalon, trousers 
pei = psi 

peiza:5, paysage, landscape 
pejoeir, pecheur, sinful 



pei, paySf country 

peje, payer, to pay 

pe:n, peine, pain, difficulty ; s^ 
done d.> la — , se donner de 
la peine, to take pains ; a — , 
a peine, hardly, scarcely 

pe:r, pere, father 

psrdr, perdre, to lose 

psrmstr, pennettre, to permit 

psrmisjo, permission, permis- 

perseverciis, perseverance, per- 

person, personue, person 

psij, peche, peach 

peitr, paitre, to pasture 

pe, 1. pain, bread ; 2. pin, 

peidr, peindre, to paint 

pe:t, peinte, from peidr 

p<?ti, petit, small, little 

p3za, pesant, 1. (n,) weight; 
2. (adj.) heavy 

pdze, peser, to weigh 

pi:r, pire, worse 

pitje, pitie, pity 

pje, pied, foot 

pjeir, Pierre, Peter 

pj0, pieux, pious 

pla, plat, 1. (n.) dish ; 2. (adj.) 

plas, place, room, space, seat ; 
a la — did, a la place de, 
instead of 

pie, plait, from pleir ; s i vu — , 
s'il vous plait, if you please 

pleji-, plaign-, from pleidr 

pleir, plaire, to please 

pl6zatt>ri, plaisanterie, joke 

pie, 1. {^d\.) plein, full; 2. (v.) 
plains, from pleidr 

pleidr, plaindre, to he sorry 

pli, pli, crease, fold 

plije, plier, to fold 

plo, plomb, lead (metal) 

pl0, pleut, from phevwair 

plo^re, pleurer, to weep 

ploevwair, pleuvoir, to rain 
ply, ^/ws, more ; n.>...— , «e... 

pins, no longer 
plym, plume, pen 
plyto, plutot, rather 
plyzjoeir, plnsieurs, several 
plqi, pluie, rain 
pn0, pneu, pneumatic tyre 
po, 1. peau, skin ; 2. pot, pot 
poze, poser, to put down 
pozisjo, position, position 
poezi, poesie, poem, poetry 
poeit, poete, poet 
pol, Paul, Paul 
poll, poli, polite 
poltro, poltron, cowardly 
pom, pomme, apple 
pomje, pommier, apple-tree 
port, porte, door 
porte, porter, to carry, to wear 
portjeir, portiere, door, window 
portygal, Portugal, Portugal 
posibl, possible, possible 
po, pont, bridge 
p0, 1. (adj.) — d^, pen de, little, 
few ; (B — d?, un pen de, a 
little ; 2. (v.) peux, pent, 
from puvwair ; 3. (adv.) pen, 
p0teitr, peut-etre, perhaps 
poeir, peur, fright; avwair— , 
avoir peur, to fear ; dd — k?, 
de peur que, lest 
poeiv, peuvent, from puvwair 
pratik, pratique, customer 
praidr, prendre, to take 
prediir, predire. to foretell 
prefere, preferer, to prefer 
prelyd, prelude, prelude 
presi, precis, precise 
presjt^, precieux, precious 
pretaidr, pretendre, to pretend 
prevalwair, prevaloir, to pre- 
prevwair, prevoir, to foresee 
prezate, presenter, to present 
pre, pres, near 
pren, prenne, from prciidr 



presk, presque, almost, nearly 
pramje, premier, first 
pron-, pren-, from praidr 
presip, principe, principle 
prstd, prtntemps, spring-time 
prije, prier, to ask, to pray 
privilsis, privilege, privilege 
priiz, prise, from praidr 
probablama, prohahlement, 

prodyktoe:r,^rotf i/cf ewr, fertile 
profs, profes, professed 
profssoeir, professeur, pro- 
profo, profond, deep 
profodoeir, profondeur, depth 
progrs, progres, progress 
proklame, proclamer, to pro- 
prometi', promettre, to promise 
promy, promu, promoted 
pronose, prononcer, to pro- 
pronosjasjo, prononciation, 

propr, propre, clean 
proprote, proprete, cleanliness 
projs, prochain, next 
provsis, province, province 
prov3niir, provenir, to come 

pro, prompt, swift 
pryn, prune, plum 
pryno, pruneau, prune, French 

purr, pour, for, in order to 
purkwa, pourquoi, why 
pursqiivr, poiirsuivre, to pur- 
purta, pourtant, however 
purvwair, pourvoir, to provide 
purvy k9, pourvu que, pro- 
puvwair, pouvoir, to be able, 

to be allowed 
pwa, poids, weight 
pwail, poele, stove 
pwair, poire, pear 

pwarje, poirier, pear-tree 

pwaso, poisson, fish 

pwa, pois, pea 

pwazo, poison, poison 

pws, point, 1. (n.) point, dot, 

full-stop, mark ; 2. (adj.) — d^, 

point de, no 
pweidr, poindre, to break (day) 
py, pu, from puvwair 
pyniir, punir, to punish 
pypitr, pupitre, desk 
^\{i, puis, 1. (v.) from puvwair ; 

53 n i — rjs, je n'y puis rien, 

I can't help it ; 2. (adv.) then 
pqisa, puissant, powerful 
pqisais, puissance, power 
pqisk, puisque, since 

ra = ra 

rafrejiir, rafratchir, to refresh 

ramase, ramasser, to pick up 

ramo, rameau, twig 

rap^le, rappeler, to call back ; 
S3 — , se rappeler, to re- 

rapid, rapide, quick 

rair, rare, rare 

ras, race, race 

rasin, Racine, Racine 

I'atrape, rattraper, to catch up 

rai5, rage, rage 

ra, ras, short 

ra, 1. (n.) rang, rank ; 2. (v.) 
rend, from raidr 

raidr, rendre, to give back 

rakotre, rencontrer, to meet 

rapliir, remplir, to fill 

rdtre, rentrer, to go in again 

raverse, renverser, to upset 

ravwaje, renvoyer, to send 
back, to refer 

reeliir, reelire, to re-elect 

refiejiir, reflechir, to think 

regal, regal, treat 

reklame, reclamer, to grumble 

rejie, regner, to reign 



repete, repeter, to repeat 
reysiir, retissir, to succeed 
reziidr, resoudre, to resolve 
reswirr, S9 —, se rejouir, to 

look forward to 
re:gl, regie, rule, ruler 
renold, Reynolds, Reynolds 
rsjie = rejie 

respekte, respecter, to respect 
reste, rester, to remain 
restreidr, restreindre, to re- 
rezs, raisin, grapes 
rezo, raison, reason 
radiir, redire, to say again 
rafsir, refaire, to do again 
r^gair, regard, look 
r^garde, regarder, to look at 
ragrstabl, regrettable, to be 

ragrete, regretter, to regret 
r^konesa, reconnaissant, 

r^koneitr, reconnaitre, to 

know, to recognize 
r^kony, reconnu, from rdkonsitr 
r^kopje, recopier, to copy out 
r^koejiir, recueillir, to gather, 

to receive 
rakry, recrue, recruit 
r^kudr, recoudre, to sew up 
r^kuvriir, recouvrir, to recover 
ryliir, relire, to read again 
r^msrsje, remercier, to thank 
r^mstr, remettre, to put again, 

to give 
r9mi, remis, from r^mstr 
remote, remonter, to come (go) 

up again 
rg»nose, renoncer, to give up 
rsnuv^le, renouveler, to renew 
raprezate, representer, to re- 
ros9vwa:r, recevoir, to receive 
r^sortiir, ressortir, to come (go) 

out again 
rat^niir, retenir, to detain 
r^turne, retourner, to return 

r^valwair, revaloir, to l)e even 

rav3ni:r, revenir, to come back 
r^viivr, revivre, to live again 
r^vwair, revoir, to see again ; 

o —, au revoir, good-bye 
rasweidr, rejoindre, to rejoin 
ri:r, rire, to laugh 
riS, riche, rich 
rJ6, rien, nothing 
ro:n, Rhone, Rhone 
ro:z, rose, 1. (n.) rose ; 2. (adj.) 

rozo, roseau, reed 
rob, robe, dress 
roma, roman, 1. (n.) novel ; 2. 

(adj.) Roman 
rose, Roger, Roger 
ro, rond, 1- (n ) circle ; 2. (adj.) 

roipr, rompre, to break 
ru, 1. (n.) roue, wheel ; 2. (adj.) 

roux, reddish 
rut, route, road 
rui3, rouge, red 
ru30, rougeaud, ruddy 
ru3ol, rougeole, measles 
rwa, roi, king 
ry, rue, street 
rybi, rubis, rubis 
rydwaje, rudoyer, to handle 

rysi, Russie, Russia 
rqis^le, ruisseler, to stream 


sa, 1. (po88. adj.) sa, his, her, its ; 
2. (dem. pron.) ga^ this, that 

sak, sac, satchel 

sale, sale, salt (adj.) 

saliir, salir, to soil 

salqe, saluer, to greet 

saps, sapin, fir-tree 

satisfeir, satisfaire, to satisfy 

satisfoza, satisfaisant, satis- 



savo, savon, soap 

savwair, s avoir, to know 

sa:3, sage, good, wise 

sa, L (n.) sang, blood ; 2. 
(prep.) sans, without 

sase, sense, sensible 

sate, saute, health 

sdtsin, centaine, about a 

satima, sentiment, feeling 

satimsitr, centimetre, centi- 

satin el, sentinelle, sentry 

satiir, sentir, to feel 

se, 1. (po83. adj.) ses, his, her, 
its; 2. (dem. adj.) ces, these, 
those ; 3. (r.) sais = ss 

sezair, Cesar, Caesar 

se, sais, from savwair 

s e, c'est, it is 

sek, sec, dry 

sel, celle, that ; — la, celle-la, 
that one 

se:n, Seine, Seine 

Serb, serbe, Serbian 

sert, certes, certainly 

sertem, certaine, fem. of serte 

sertenma, certainement, cer- 

serte, certain, certain 

serviir, servir, to serve ; sa — d^, 
se servir de, to use 

servjet, serviette, portfolio 

set, cette, this, that 

seziir, saisir, to seize 

sezjem, seizieme, sixteenth 

sezo, saison, season 

se, 1. (qual. adj.) saint, holy: 
2. (quant, adj.) cinq, five 

seidr, ceindre, to gird 

setije, scintiller, to twinkle 

sa, ce, this, it 

S3kuri:r, secourir, to succour 

s^lo, selon, according to 

Sc?me, semer, to sow 

s^mein, semaine, week 

s^pddci, cependant, however 

sar-, ser-, from e:tr 

s^riiz, cerise, cherry 

s^rizje, cerisier, cherry-tree 

si, si, if 

sifie, sijfter, to whistle, 

sigal, cigale, grasshopper 

sildis, silence, silence 

siji, signe, sign 

sirkostais, circonstance, cir- 

sirkyle, circuler, to circulate 

sito \id, sitot que, as soon as 

sjais, science, science 

sjekl, siecle, century 

sjel, del, sky, heaven 

skarlatin, scarlatine, scarlet 

ski, ski, ski 

skyltyir, sculpture, sculpture 

so, sot, naughty 

sof, sauf, save, excepting 

sove, sauver, to save 

sol, sol, soil 

solda, soldat, soldier 

som, sommes, from eitr 

sorr, sort, from sortiir 

sortiir, sortir, to go out 

sotiiz, sottise, naughty thing 

so, 1. (poss. adj.) son, his, her, 
its ; 2. (v.) sont, from eitr 

sobre, somhrer, to sink 

seel, seul, alone 

scelma, seidement, only 

soeir, soeur, sister 

spdda = s^pdda 

spoir, sport, sport 

su, 1. (n.) sou, halfpenny; 2. 
(adj.) saoul, drunken ; 3. 
(prep.) sous, under, below 

sufiate, souffieter, to box (a 
person's) ears 

sufriir, souffrir, to suffer 

suje, Soulier, shoe 

sup, soupe, soup 

suzr, sourd, deaf 

surdr, sourdre, to gush out 

suri, sour is, mouse 

suriir, sourire, smile 

sustreir, soustraire, subtract 



suvd, souvent, often 

suv^niir, sa — , se souvenir, to 

swa, 1. (pron.) sot J oneself; 2. 
(v.) soit, from s:tr; 3. (conj.) 
— ...—, soit ... soitf either 
... or 

swaji0, soigneuXj careful 

swaji0:zma, soigneusetnent, 

swarr, seoir, to suit 

swasatsrn, soixantaine, about 

swat, soit, liaison-form of swa 
2. and 3. 

swa, soie, silk 

swste, souhaiter, to wish 

sws, soin, care 

syd, sud, south 

syfiir, suffir, to suffice 

syfizamd, suffisamment, suf- 

syltd. Sultan, Sultan 

syperjueir, superieur^ superior, 

syperb, superbe, superb 

syplije, supplier, to beseech 

sy:r, 1. (adj.) stir, sure; 2. (prep.) 
sur, on 

syrpraidr, surprendre, to sur- 

syrswair, sur seoir, to suspend, 
to put off 

syrv^nirr, survenir, to happen 

syrviivr, survivre, to outlive 

sy38, sujet, subject 

sqi, suiSi from extr and sqiivr 

sqis, Suisse, Switzerland 

sqiivr, suivre, to follow 


Sa, chat, cat 
Jak, chaque, each (adj.) 
Jakde, chacun, each (pron.) 
Jaloeir, chaleur, heat 
Sapitr, chapitre, chapter 
Japo, chapeau, hat 

Jarite, charite, charity 

jarl, Charles, Charles 

Jarmoeir, charmeur, charming 

Jars, charge, load 

Sat, chatte, fem. of Ja 

Jas^le, chanceler, to stagger 

Sate, chanter, to sing 

Sdse, changer, to change 

Se, c/ie^, at ; — mwa, chez moi, 
at home 

Seri, cheri, dear 

Ssin, chene, oak 

Ssir, c/^er, dear 

SsrSe, chercher, to look for 

S^ms, chemin, way 

S^val, cheval, horse 

SJ8, chien, dog 

So, 1. (n.) chaux, lime, white- 
wash; 2. (adj.) chaud, warm, 

So:z, chose, thing; pa gra — , 
pas grand' chose, not much 

Su, chou, cabbage 

Sval = S^val 

Swaziir, choisir, to choose 

ta,bl, table, table 

tablo, tableau, picture ; — 
nwair, tableau noir, black- 

takine, taquiner, to tease 

tap, tape, slap 

taS, tache, stain 

taje, tailler, to lop, to prune 
(tree) ; — de krsjo, tailler un 
crayon, to sharpen a pencil 

td, temps, time, weather ; da 
—za—,de temps en temps, 
from time to time 

tdit, tante, aunt 

teaitr, theatre, theatre 

tsl, tel, such 

tslmd, tellement, so much 

tsim, theme, translation exer- 

tenis, 'tennis, tennis 




tsir, 1. (n.) terre, land; 2. (v.) 

s? — , se t aire J to keep silent 
teit, tete, head 
teidr, teindre, to dye 
t^niir, tenir, to hold ; mal t^ny, 

mat tenu, untidy 
tizo, tison, fire-brand 
tjsn, tienne, fem. of tje 1. 
tJ8:r, tiers, third 
tje, 1. (pron.) tieii, yours ; 2. 

(v.) tiens, tient, from tmiir 
to, tot J soon 
ton, tonne, ton 
tono, tonneau, cask 
to:r, tort, wrong; a — , ^ ^or^, 

wrongly ; a — e a travsir, a 

tort et a travers, at random 
to, ton, your 
tobe, tomber, to fall 
tradyksjo, traduction, trans- 
tradqiir, traduire, to translate 
trail r, trahir, to betray 
travaj, travail, work 
travaje, travailler, to work 
travajoeir, travailleur, labori- 
* ous 

trasedi, tragedie, tragedy 
trakil, tranquille, quiet ; Isse 

sa — , laissez ga tranquille, 

leave it alone 
traiskripsjo, transcription, 

tratsin, trentaine, shout thirty 
tresajirr, tressaillir, to start 
trs, tres, very 
treir, traire, to milk 
tretma, traitement, treatment 
trsitr, trait re, traitor, 

trsiz, treize, thirteen 
tre, train, train ; s:tr a — d^ 

fs:r, etre en train de faire, 

to be doing 
trirsim, trireme, trireme 
trije, t richer, to cheat 
tro, trop, 1. (adj.) too much ; 

2. (adv.) too 

troin, trone, throne 

tro = tro 

trope, S9 — , se t romper j to 
make a mistake 

tropoeir, trompeur, deceitful 

trup, troupe, troop 

truve, trouver, to find 

trwa, trois, three 

tsarr, tzar, Tsar 

tu, 1. (n.) fo//,r, cough ; 2. (adj.) 
tout, tous, all, whole ; — le, 
tous les, every ; 3. (adv.) 
tout, quite 

tu:r, tour, turn 

tu:s, tous, plur. of tu 2. 

tut, toute(s), fem. of tu 2. 

tutafe, tout-a-fait, quite 

tutaloeir, tout-a-Vheure, pre- 

tutfwa, toutefois, however 

tu3u:r, toujours, always 

twa, toi, you ; s st a — , c'est 
a toi, it's yours, it's your 

twa, toit, roof 

ty, tu, you 

tye = tqe 

tyrk, Turc, Turk 

ti{e, tuer, to kill 

u, I. (adv.) oil, where ; d — , 
d'oii, whence ; 2. (conj.) ou, 

ubli, oubli, forgetfulness, over- 

ublije, oublier, to forget 

ublo, houblon, hop 

u:j, houille, coal 

ulst, houlette, shepherd's crook 

u:s, housse, saddle-cloth 

uspije, houspiller, to tease 

ut, aoiit, August 

uvra:3, ouvrage, work 

uvriir, ouvrir, to open 



Aysidr, oindrcy to anoint 
wi, oui, yes 

va, va, from ale 2. 

vakciis, vacaiices, holiday 

valiiz, valise, bag, port- 

valwan-, valoir, to be worth 

vanite, vanite, vanity 

vasij«, vaciller, to vacillate 

va, vent, wind 

va:dr, vendre, to sell 

vasoeir, vengeur, avenging 

ve, vats, from ale 2. 

verite, verite, truth 

ve:r, 1. (adj.) vert, green ; 2. 
(prep.) vers, towards 

vsr-, verr-, from vwair 

vsrsjo, version, version 

vsrty, vertu, virtue 

V8, 1. (n.) vin, wine; 2. (adj.) 
vain, vain 

vsikr, vaincre, to vanquish 

vetsm, vingtaine, about 

V9ni:r, venir, to come ; s ci — , 
s'en venir, to come away 

vi, vie, life 

vid, vide, empty 

vif, vif, lively 

vil, ville, town 

vilars, village, village 

vilsin, vilaine, fem. of vile 

vils, vilain, ugly 

virsini, Virginie, Virginia 

vit, vite, quickly 

vitraij, vit rail, stained glass 

vivasite, vivacite, vivacity 

viivr, vivre, to live 

viza:3, visage, face 

vja:d, viande, meat 

vjejo, vieillot, elderly, old- 

vj8r3, vierge, virgni 
vje, viens, from v^niir 
vjsd-, viend-, from V9ui:r 
vjols, violet, violet 
vj0, vieux, old 

vo, 1. (adj.) vos, your ; 2. (v.) 
. vaut, from valwair 
volote, volonte, will 
votr, votre, your 
v0, veut, veux, from vulwair 
voeil, vetdent, from vulwair 
vrs, vrai, true 
vrsma, vraiment, truly 
vu, vous, you 
vulwair, vouloir, to want, to 

vwa, 1. (n.) = vwa ; 2. (v.) 

vois, from vwair 
vwaj-, voy-, from vwair 
vwajai5, voyage,voyasG, travel, 

vwajase, voyager, to travel 
vwala, viola, there is, there are 
vwair, voir, to see 
A wasi, void, here is, here are 
vwa, voix, voice 
vy, vue, view 

y, eu, from avwair 

ye, huer, to hoot 

ymsin, humaine, fem. of yms 

yme, humain, human 

yme, hunter, to scent, to inhale 

ymid, humide, wet 

yn, tine, fem. of oe 

yniir, ttnir, to unite 

yrle, hurler, to howl 

yt, hutte, hut 

ytil, «^//e, useful 

yzyir, tisure, wear and tear 

qit, huit, eight 



zsd, zedj zed 

zoolosi, zoologie^ zoology 

3adi, jadis, formerly, of old 

Salii, jaloux, jealous 

3am s, jamais, ever 

Saiii, Jeanne, Jean 

sards, jardin, garden 

3d, 1. gens, people, folks ; 2. 
Jean, John 

3a:b, jambe, leg 

3ati, gentil, nice 

Satijom, gentilhomme, gentle- 

3avje, Janvier, January 

3ea, geant, giant 

3eometri, geometrie, geometry 

3er6dif, gerondif, gerund 

39le, geler, to freeze 

3^te, Jeter, to throw 

3oli, joli, pretty 

3ore:s, Jatires, Jaurfes 

3or3, Georges, George 

30, jeu, game 

3oe:n, jeune, young 

3U, joue, cheek 

3ue ^ 3we 

3u:r, jour, day 

3urnal, journal, paper 

3urne, journee, day 

3we, jouer, to play 

3ws:dr, joindre, to join 

3yma, jument, mare 

3ymo, junieau, twin 

3ysk, jusque, till ; — a s^ k^, 

jusqu'a ce que, until 
3qs, juin, June 




1. French Phonetic Theory. 

P. Passy. Les Sons die Francais, Paris (Didier), 7th ed., 1912. 
Is. 3d. 

,, The Sounds of the French Language, Oxford University 

Press, 1907. 2s. 6d. 

K. Nyrop. Manuel die Francais Parle, Paris (Picard), 1912. 3s. 4d. 

G. Nicholson. Ele^nentary French Phonetics, London (Macmillan), 

1909. 3s. 6d. 

A. Saillens & E. Holme. French Pronunciation, London (Blackie), 

1910. 2s. 6d. 

B. DuMViLLE. French Pronunciation and Diction, London (Dent), 

1904. 2s. 6d. 

2. French Phonetic Texts. 

P. Passy. a French Phonetic Reader, London University Press, 
1914. 2s. 

,, Choix de Lectures, Cothen (Schulze), 1914. 9d. 

,, Lectures Varices, Paris (Societe des Traites, 33 rue des 

Sts. Peres), 2nd ed. Is. 3d. 

,, Le Francais Parle, Leipzig (Reisland), 5th ed., 1897. 

Is. 9d.' 

C. MOTTE. Lectures Phonetiques, Paris (Didier), 1912. 2s. 

J. Passy & A. Rambeau. Chrestomathie Francaise, Leipzig (Teubner), 
3rd ed., 1908. 4s. lOd. 

Th. Rosset. Exercices Pratiques d' Articulation et de Diction {brown 
cover edition), Grenoble, 1912. 

G. Thudichum. Manuel de Diction, Geneva (Ktindig), 4th ed., 1912. 

3. Dictionaries. 

H. MiCHAELis & P. Passy. Dictionnaire Phonetique Francais, 
Hanover (Meyer). 4s. 

R. M. Pierce. French and Fjuglish Dictionary, London (Jack). 
7s. 6d. 

Printed by 

W Heffer & Sons Ltd. 

104. HiM,s Road 

Cambridge, England. 

YC 52321